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Full text of "American edition of the British encyclopedia, or Dictionary of arts and sciences : comprising an accurate and popular view of the present improved state of human knowledge"

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B 3 DD7 575 




Received October, 1894. 
Accessions No. S- Class No. 


illiiwlra^dLr upwarils of 180 deg 














Author and Proprietor of the Philosophical Journal, and various other Chemical, Philosophical, and 
Mathematical Works. 





William Brown, Printer. 

^R-A^p- 1821. 

-Of THH 

f fn m v ^ 







IRON-FOUNDERY, the ail of casting 
iron, and forming moulds, into which 
it is poured when in a fluid state. 

The moulds are commonly made in 
sand, held in wooden frames, (fig. 3 and 
4, Plate Iron-foundery.) Two of these 
frames, A B, (fig. 4.) are called a pair of 
flasks, and fit together by pins, a a, in one 
flask, entering eyes, b b, in the other. A 
wooden pattern of whatever is to be cast 
must first be made, exactly of the same 
dimensions as the article required. For 
an example, we have chosen to describe 
the manner of casting a roller, such as is 
used for the wheels of small waggons, 
the rolls of windmill heads, &c. The pat- 
tern is shown in fig. 5, 6, and 7 : fig. 5 is a 
plan, fig. 6 a section, and in fig. 7 it is 
shewn edgeways. This pattern is exact- 
ly similar to the wheel which is to be cast, 
except that, in place of the hole through 
the centre of the wheel, a pin, m y is stuck 
on, projecting from each side in the same 
place that the holes will be : the use of 
these pins will be shown hereafter. The 
lower flask, A, (fig. 4.) is placed on a 
board laid on the ground; it is then filled 
with sand, and rammed down, first with 
the rammer, (fig. 9) and afterwards with 
fig. 10, which is broader, and smooths the 
work. The workman then with the trow- 
el, (fig. 8) digs out a hole in the sand, 
and presses the pattern into it, the fiat 
surface horizontal, and fills the sand in 
round the pattern, until it is exactly half 
buried ; he then takes out the pattern, 
and if there are any holes in the under 
part, where the sand is not filled round 

close to the pattern, he puts in a small 
quantity of sand, and presses the pattern 
down again, until a perfect impression of 
it is left in the sand, as in fig. 1. He now 
returns the pattern, and sprinkles some 
dry sand, which has been burnt in the 
furnace, over the pattern and flask, and 
then places the upper flask, B, (fig. 4) 
upon it : two small sticks are placed upon, 
the pattern, and the sand filled in round 
them ; the sand is rammed down by the 
rammers (fig. 9 and 10), and the two 
sticks drawn out, leaving holes, / /, (fig. 
2) through the sand in the upper flask. 
The workman now takes off the upper 
flask, B, by its two handles, leaving the 
pattern in the lower flask; the burnt sand 
causes the two flasks to separate exactly 
at the joining of the flasks : the upper 
flask is now completely finished, the 
holes, / 1, made by drawing out the sticks, 
being left to pour in the metal, and the 
pattern leaving a perfect print of its upper 
half in the flask. The next operation is 
lifting the pattern out of the lower flask, 
before which the workman wets the sand 
around the pattern, that it may adhere to- 
gether, and not be broken by lifting the 
pattern. The two pins projecting from 
the wheel where the hole is to be, leave 
their impressions in the sand, forming 
two holes, e f (fig. 2) one in each flask. 
These holes receive the ends of a core, 
which is exactly the shape and size of the 
hole required in the wheel : the core is 
formt-d of a mixture of plaster of Paris 
and brick dust, and is made just the length 
and size of the pins in the pattern, that it 



may be truly in the centre of the wheel. 
Fig 1 . 2. is a section of the two flasks when 
put together ; but the core is not put in : 
1 1 are the holes for the metal, and g hik 
the hollow cavity to receive it. 

The iron is melted in a furnace, and 
brought from it in a ladle (fig-. 11) which 
has three handles, and is carried by two 
men, the forked handle, M, giving a pur- 
chase to the man holding it, to turn over 
the ladle to deliver its contents. If the 
work is very small, the metal is conveyed 
to the flasks in common ladles. 

The more intricate cases of iron-found' 
ery, as the casting of cylinders for steam 
engines, crooked pipes with various pas- 
sages, &c. are cast in moulds formed of 
loam or clay, and are done nearly in the 
same manner as the moulding of plaster 
casts from busts, &c. but our limits will not 
allow us to describe these curious branch- 
es of the founder's art. 

1ROXY, in rhetoric, is when a person 
speaks contrary to his thoughts, in order 
to add force to his discourse. 

IRRATIONAL, an appellation given to 
surd numbers and quantities. See SURD. 

IRREDUCIBLE case, in algebra, is 
used for that case of cubic equations, 
where the root, according to Cardan's 
rule, appears under an impossible or 
imaginary form, and yet is real. Thus, 
in the equation, ,r3 90 x 100 = 0, 
the root, according to Cardan's rule, 

will be a- = \/ 50 -j- </ 24oOU -f- 

\/ 50 ^/ 24500, which is an impos- 
sible expression, and yet one root is equal 
to 10 ; and the other two roots of the 
equation are also real. Algebraists, for 
two centuries, have in vain endeavoured 
to resolve this case, and bring it under a 
real form ; and the question is not less fa- 
mous among them than the squaring 1 of 
the circle is among geometers. See 

It is to be observed, that as, in some 
other cases of cubic equations, the value 
of the root, though rational, is found under 
an irrational or surd form ; because the 
root in this case is compounded of two 
equal surds with contrary signs, which 
destroy eacli other ; as if "r =5 + ^/5 
+ 5 v' 5 J tllen x = 10 ; in like man- 
aier, in the irreducible case, when the root 
is rational, there are two equal imaginary 
quantities, with contrary signs, joined 
to real ^quantities ; so that the imaginary 
quantities destroy each other. Thus the 
expression : _ 

V 50 -f \/~= 

5 ; and 
3/ 50 -</-- 24500 = 5 -^-5. But 

5 + v/ 5 + 5 Y/ 5 = 10 = x, the 
root of the proposed equation. 

Dr. Wallis seems to have intended to 
show, that there is no case of cubic equa- 
tions irreducible, or impracticable, as he 
calls it, notwithstanding the common opi- 
nion to the contrary. 

Thus in the equation r3 63 r = 162, 
where the value of the root, according to 
Cardan's rule, is, r =*/ 81 -f Y/ 2700 
+ ^/8l ^/ 2700, the doctor says, 
that the cubic root of 81 -f v/ 2700, 
may be extracted by another impossible 
binomial, viz. by ~ -f- ^ \/ ; ^"d in the 
same manner, that the cubic root of 81 
Y/ 2700 may be extracted, and is equal 
to -| 3 \/ 5 ; from whence he infers, 
that + is ^/ 3 -f | 1 Y/ 3 = 9, 
is one of the roots of the equation pro- 
posed. And this is true : but those who 
will consult his algebra, p. 190, 191, will 
find that the rule he gives is nothing but 
a trial, both in determining that part of 
the root which is without a radical sign, 
and that part which is within : and if the 
original equation had been such as to have 
its roots irrational, his trial would never 
have succeeded. Besides, it is certain, 
that the extracting the cube root of 81 
-f- Y/ 2700 is of the same degree of 
difficulty, as the extracting the root of the 
original equation r3 63 r = 162 ; and 
that both require the tri-section of an an- 
gle for a perfect solution. 

IRREGULAR, in grammar, such in- 
flections of words as vary from the origi- 
nal rules : thus we say, irregular nouns, 
irregular verbs, &c. 

IRRIGATION is the art of conducting 
water at pleasure over levels or inclined 
planes, in such manner that the whole 
may receive the benefit of partial immer- 
sion ; whereby the surface may be duly 
supplied with moisture, and the vegetable 
production^ intended to be encouraged, 
should be enabled to put forth abun- 
dantly, and to yield a good crop. Irriga- 
tion is with us rather a novel practice, 
but was well understood by the ancients, 
and has been in use among the Chinese 
up to the earliest da\es of their records. 
In Hindostan, the whole of the rubbee, or 
small-grain crop, is artificially watered ; 
the grain being deposited in October, 
while the ground remains moist, after the 
heavy rains which had fallen for months 
previously to the operations of tillage; so 
that the seed speedily germinates. But 
the perfect drought atte'ndant on the five 
successive months, would infallibly destroy 
the promising verdure, were it not tlia^ 
the peasants divide their lands into small 


squares, about four or five feet each way, 
between each pair of which a small chan- 
nel, made by banking the so\],protempore, 
in a very simple manner, conducts the lit- 
tle stream supplied from numerous wells 
made expressly for the occasion. When 
the ear, or blossom, has shot forth, wa- 
tering is discontinued. The Chinese pro- 
ceed on the grand scale ; they not only 
divide their fields by numerous channels, 
but even warp whole tracts of low land ; 
whereby they insure immense returns. 
The Africans, in some parts, follow the 
Hindostanee plan ; but raise their water 
chiefly from the rivers, or obtain their 
supplies of that invaluable element from 
natural reservoirs, formed by the hollows 
among hills. In every part of Asia, but 
especially in the Mysore country, former- 
ly under the dominion of the late Sultan 
Tippoo, the retention of water, for the 
purposes of irrigation, is a matter of such 
importance as to be entirely under the 
auspices and controul of the government. 
Tippoo caused banks, or, as they are 
called in India, bunds, to be made be- 
tween the bases of hills, so as to intercept 
the copious streams, which, during the 
rainy seasons, flow from the hilly coun- 
try. An example worthy of imitation ! 
Thus immense bodies of water might be 
collected in many parts of the United 
Kingdoms, whence mills and various 
machinery might be worked, without 
causing any waste of valuable land ; the 
soil, in situations appropriate to such 
purposes, being for the most part poor, 
and unfit for tillage. 

The Milanese territory exhibits the 
greatest expanse of irrigation known in 
Europe. In that country are to be seen 
noble canals running in every direction, 
totally exempted from local prejudice, 
private pique, or self-interest. All are 
under the authority and protection of go- 
vernment, which lets out the water to the 
various occupiers of meadows, at a fixed 
rate, according to the quantity supplied. 
Sometimes these canals are farmed out, 
by putting up the several sluices to auc- 
tion ; in other instances the canals go with 
the lands. 

Whatever may be the manner in which 
their water is dispersed, its due preserva- 
tion is an object of general solicitude, 
on account of the benefits which indivi- 
duals derive from its use ; while the go- 
vernment, both from that motive, and 
the support of the revenue produced by 
farming of the canals, do not allow the 
smallest despoliation to pass unpunished. 
We assured, by the best authorities, 

that the whole of the pasture lands in 
the Milanese exhibit uncommon fertility ; 
and that the canals are so very extensive, 
and the branches from them so nume- 
rous, that few need complain of a want 
of water for irrigation. These works are 
known to be of no modern date : some 
have existed for centuries, chiefly apper- 
taining to monasteries ; their waters be- 
ing let out by measure to fertilize their 
adjacent lands. The great canal, known 
by the designation of Vecchiabbia, was 
in a flourishing state early in the eleventh 
century, beyond which we do not know 
what might have been its age. In 1220, 
the great canal of Adda, which waters 
the plains of Lodi, was finished; in 1305, 
the canal of Trereglio, which communi- 
cated with four others of very ancient 
workmanship, was completed ; and in 
1460, the canal of Martesano, extending 
thirty-two English miles: in this aque- 
duct, besides the main branch, of thirty- 
five feet in width, there were made nine- 
teen scaricatori, or lesser canals, which 
served, when the waters rose very high, 
to draw off the surplus, so as to prevent 
injury to the main line, and to prevent 
inundation along its course : when the 
latter returned to a more tranquil state, 
the scaricatori, which were not so deep 
as the main line, served to supply it with 
what remained of their contents. 

It is worthy our notice, that although 
the Italian aqueducts have, to our cer- 
tain knowledge, been duly supported 
for upwards of eight centuries, by a race 
of people far beneath us in the more 
noble sciences, in wealth, in population, 
and in many other circumstances in 
which we pride ourselves ; yet that Bri- 
tain cannot boast of one aqueduct, made 
exclusively with the important view to 
improve her agriculture ; though it would 
be as easy to shew a thousand situa- 
tions where such canals would double 
the value of the lands adjoining, as it 
would be to prove that such value would 
be doubled. 

It is, indeed, only in a few counties, 
that irrigation is carried on to any ex- 
tent ; though we may in various places 
see partial adoptions of this most benefi- 
cial practice : yet we daily observe situa- 
tions naturally offering this advantage, 
without the smallest attempt being made 
to retain streams which, from elevated 
situations, glide with some velocity 
through deep vullies, whose very borders, 
perhaps, are verdant, but whose more 
retired parts would be doubled or trebled 
ia value, by the influence of that element, 


which is allowed to pass by unheeded, 
to be lost in some marsh, or eventually 
in the ocean ! It is true, that, in some 
parts, irrigation is not understood ; and, 
that it is not always practicable to ob- 
tain proper assistance ; whence many, 
who would willingly water their mea- 
dows, are prevented from taking- advan- 
tage of streams capable of effecting the 
intention. For the benefit of such per- 
sons, in particular, as well as of our rea- 
ders in general, we shall endeavour to 
simplify, even this simple process, in such 
a manner as may prove perfectly intelli- 
gible ; and, by showing with what ease 
irrigation may be carried on, induce a 
portion of our landholders to attempt, 
even without professional aid, or the tui- 
tion of experienced persons, that reten- 
tion and gradual distribution of waters, 
whose sources are sufficiently elevated, 
which may favour such a slight and 
temporary inundation, as may give vigour 
and freshness both to the soil and to its 

We shall divide this subject into two 
distinct heads, viz. simple and compound 
irrigation ; observing that the former may 
be practical in various modes separately, 
as will be shown, and that they may be 
blended so as to come under the second 
term. We shall also, by way of prepara- 
tion, give the reader an insight into some 
modes of cutting off, or of supplying wa- 
ter, from sources of different heights, 
and under different circumstances : by 
this means, with a moderate portion of 
judgment, the novice in this art may 
speedily acquire sufficient of the princi- 
ples to answer his own purposes, at least, 
if not to form a correct opinion of most of 
the cases which may come under his ob- 

The greatest difficulty we generally ex- 
perience is, from the water lying below 
the level of the lands over which it is to 
be conducted. In many instances, the 
springs whence streams are fed, lie wry 
deep ; and, though copious, for want of a 
sufficient inclination of their beds, move 
very slowly. In other parts, jealousy of 
improvement, personal enmity, the owner 
being a minor, or insane, and the pro- 
perty in the hands of trustees, or the es- 
tate being in Chancery, mortgaged, &c 
perhaps debars the possibility of taking 
advantage of some peculiarly favourable 
fall, from which the water might be 
conducted with perfect facility and ef- 
fect, over inclined planes, which, by their 
sterility, seem to reproach the owner with 
neglect ! 

In treating this subject, we must sup- 
pose the speculator to be a free agent, 
not shackled by such an unhappy neigh- 
bourhood ; and content ourselves with 
cautioning him not to injure the property 
of others, such as mills, bleaching grounds 
below the lands, &c. &c., by drawing off 
that water on which their very existence 
depends : a want of attention to this par- 
ticular, has ruined many a deserving and 
enterprising individual, and converted a 
blessing into a serious mischief! 

Where the stream is rapid, the bed has 
usually a very marked declivity, such as 
admits of throwing the water over the 
lands, and of withdrawing them when 
they have flowed, in every part, to a suf- 
ficient height. The first step towards 
this, is to hold it up by means of a dam 
or weir, laid across the stream, (if its 
breadth admit, and that it be not naviga- 
ble), so that, in the first place, the level 
may be raised as circumstances may ad- 
mit. In this, it will be necessary to 
guard against injury to the property of 
other persons above the dam; for the 
raising a head of water, by means of a 
dam, might subject lands, which before 
were perfectly dry, to be inundated ; and, 
even though such should actually prove 
beneficial thereto, the owners might re- 
cover in a court of law, under various 
pleas of damage. ^ 

The water should, if practicable, be 
raised to one foot, at least, above the 
level of the highest land to be irrigated ; 
because that depth may be then kept as 
a surplus, in case of long-continued 
ell-ought; being let in upon the first drain 
by a very small penstock, made only to 
the depth of the first level. The water, 
when abundant, may flow both into the 
upper level, and over the weir, so as to 
make a fall. When the water is not 
wanted over the land, the penstock may 
be shut up altogether. It is to be re- 
marked, that authors of eminence in this 
brunch differ in opinion, though some 
suppose water to be more richly impreg- 
nated with vegetable sustenance, in pro- 
portion as it is taken nearer to the spring; 
provided the water be clear. The lands 
over which it is made to flow, will be 
benefited in exact proportion as they may 
be near to the first level, which w'ill al- 
ways receive the most obvious benefit. 
In foul streams, the result is usually found 
to be in an inverse ratio ; the water 
being richer, in proportion as it is more 
remote from its source, but the first level 
will still receive the greatest portion of 
the benefit. Where rivers are very mud- 


dy, and of any magnitude, it is common 
to allow their flowing, to the depth of 
many feet, over low lands ; so that, when 
kept stationary fora few hours, the fecula 
and sediment may be deposited; as is 
often the case, to the depth of many 
inches during a single tide ; and give a 
new stratum of the iinest soil. See 

These points must be well understood, 
because they form a very prominent fea- 
ture in the practice of irrigation, and 
will be found highly worthy the notice of 
all who lay their lands down with that in- 
tention. But we must observe, that many 
soils laying contiguous to streams, and 
well situated for irrigation, are naturally 
so rich, as not to depend on any deposit 
from the waters for their annual produce : 
such require but moderate watering, and, 
in some instances, more to be sheltered 
during the winter by complete inundation, 
than by refreshing flows. Where such 
prevail, the water ought to be admitted 
only when clear, and then from the very 
surface ; in centra-distinction to poor, or 
dry soils, which want heart as well as 
moisture. The fact is, that, by means of 
an artificial supply of water, the grass 
will shoot out far more early, which is an 
object of the utmost importance to most 
farmers and graziers; and the crop will 
be much heavier than on lands not so 
watered. But the hay from watered 
meadows is frequently coarse, and not 
much relished by the more delicate clas- 
ses of cattle. However, store cattle, 
which indeed scarcely ever refuse what- 
ever is offered, will consume it with 
avidity. Another objection to hy from 
watered meadows is, that, being some- 
times gritty, in consequence of the sedi- 
ment deposited by muddy water, it is in 
a measure injurious to the teeth of those 
animals by which it is eaten. But the 
great importance of an early bite, for at 
least a month, in general, before other 
pastures are sufficiently forward to re- 
ceive cattle, is of itself such a considera- 
tion as outweighs every objection, and 
causes watered meadows to yield double 
the rent given before they were subjected 
to irrigation. In many places the grass 
of watered meadows, from the fifteenth 
of March to the fifteenth of May, lets 
from twenty to twenty-five shillings per 
acre. The crop is usually two tons, in 
all seasons : in dry ones it is not subject 
to the ordinary risk of being burnt up ; 
and, not only proves highly serviceable 
to the farmer himself, but to his neigh- 
bours ; who thus obtain a supply of hay, 
when their own meadows have failed. 

When land has been long watered, its 
qualities are meliorated considerably ; 
but this is not the work of a day ; and 
when the adjoining lands abound with 
coarse herbage, with water grasses espe- 
cially, the crops will too frequently suf- 
fer by such vicinity. It will, at first view, 
appear strange, but it is nevertheless 
true, that swampy lands become firmer 
when regularly watered. In their natural 
state the water oozes upwards, and 
loosens the soil ; but after the proper 
levels are found, and the catch drains 
are laid, so as to draw off the surplus 
water, the moisture is drawn downwards, 
and the finer parts get into the interstices, 
so as to compact the whole, and give a 
firm footing, where before even a sheep 
would have been bogged. We must, 
however, state, that though some watered 
meadows will bear cattle, it is by no 
means adviseable to let any thing heavier 
than a sheep feed upon them : the latter 
do little injury to the ridges, and by their 
close bite, as well as by their excellent 
manure, cause the grass to tiller forth, 
so as to form a close mat upon the soil. 
Whereas when large animals are allowed 
to tramp on the ridges, the borders of 
the drains are in general injured; and 
whenever, as will happen, the prints of 
their feet are left, the soil will become 
quaggy, and retain little pools, which in- 
fallably sour the grass, and negative the 
intention of watering. Herfce clay soils 
are extremely difficult to improve by 
this operation ; nor can such be reclaimed 
but by a very expensive course of drain- 
ing, manuring, and breaking into a crum- 
bly state : certainly clay soils may be 
formed into ridges, and grass may be 
made to grow upon them ; but they will 
not produce sweet herbage ; their sur- 
faces will crack, their crops will be pre- 
carious, and their seasons for feeding 
must depend entirely on the dryness of 
the weather. Hence we may, in general 
terms, consider clay soils to be unfit for 
irrigation ; the expense being great, and 
the money being more likely to yield a 
greater profit by other means; while 
their crops and pasturage are, in various 
points, of an inferior value. 

But to proceed : the secondary drain, 
which supplies the whole of a field 
through which it passes, should be inter- 
rupted at every fall of four inches at 
farthest, by small sluices, or penstocks, 
and have small branch -drains cut to the 
right and left, in such manner as may 
cause the water to branch out into the 
whole expanse of its level. The turf cut 
from the surface of each drain, ought to 


be placed, face downwards, between it 
and the land it is to overflow; being 
made firm and level, by beating with 
the flat of a spade. As the penstocks are 
situated just below the lines of the branch- 
drains above described, they keep up the 
water, so as to fill, and to cause their 
overflowing into the next inferior talus 
or slope, as shown m fig. 1 and 2, where 
A is the mam dram, taken from the water- 
head or river, B ; the drain C, C, C, C, 
shows the secondary dram, which, being 
on a declivity,, would carry off all the 
water, were it not kept up at the places 
where the catch-drains or branches, D, 
D, D, D, proceed laterally from it, by the 
sluices E, E, E E By this means, any 

others; the water being kept on by the 
sluice above, and can-fed away by the 
sluice appertaining to each level re- 
spectivelv. Or, if other meads at some 
distance are to be watered, the secondary 
channel, having all its sluices open, will 
convey it to them without interruption, 
when all its sluices are opened. 

It is evident, that in this manner the 
whole of the water is carried down to 
the lowest level: hence it becomes a 
matter of no small importance to ascer- 
tain, that the whole shall either be ab- 
sorbed or be carried off ; so as not to in- 
jure the last level, which might otherwise 
be subjected to very considerable injury, 
were the inundation to be too lono- sup- 
ported. The judicious computer will be 
cautious not to allow so much to remain 
as may rot his grass ; in lieu of causing it 
to vegetate vigorously. This, in some 
situations, presents a'veiy serious diffi- 
culty ; for if the water is debarred free 
access to the lowest levels, they will be 
less fruitful than the others, which, ex- 
elusive of the great fecundity derived 
from first receiving the fluid, receive ab- 
solutely a larger portion of moisture. The 
greatest care is therefore requisite, to in- 
sure that the tail, or spent-water, shall be 
carried off. Where the declivity is con- 
siderable, and that the stream, or any 
other water-course, offers itself to receive 
such tail-water, at a due level beneath, 
there is no difficulty ; but where the 
stream takes another course, and the 
descent is trifling, some artificial means 
must be resorted to. Perhaps no more 
simple or efficacious plan can be hit upon, 
than that of forming a fish-pond, of a suit- 
able extent and depth, to receive the 
tail-water ; whereby the apprehended 
damage may be avoided, and a useful 
store be created. 

We shall show what we may term a 
truly ingenious device, whereby water 
may be laid upon lands that are above the 
level of the stream : it consists merely of 
an air-vessel, A, fig. 3, into which the 
water descends forcibly from the stream, 
B, and by compressing the air in the up- 
per part, C, is itself forced to ascend 
through the conducting pipe, D, with such 
force as to rise to a level, E, far above 
that at which it formerly stood. This is 
the principle of the common fire-engine, 
w hj c h we are all sensible, can, when exert- 
e d, throw water to a great height. By 
such mea ns, the tail-water may also be 
forced up to such a level as may cause it 
to return into the stream. 
, Where the stream runs through the 
lan ds tbat al ? watered, and that its de- 
chvity is moderate, it will sometimes be 
found difficult to restore the tail-water to 
lts level> To ***** this with as little ex- 
pence as possible, wooden pipes should 
be ****** pelowe* level of the land 
lon S the bank of the stream, but earned 
horizontally on a bank, to such extent as 
"W s ^ ce * convey the tail-water to 
the ce of the surface. This, how- 
ever, is not applicable to all situations ; 
for . where tbe , stream is very slow, its de- 
chvit y would be . ver y trifling. Where 
that happens, the air vessel will be found 
a S ood P lan Prided the height to which 
the water 1S to be returned, be not con- 
siderable. In many situations, a water- 
wheel mi S ht answer wel1 ' observing, that 
m dee P slow waters, that are broad, and 
under the speculator's own management, 
' A will be best to throw a weir across, and 
then to let the whole body of the stream 
rusb through a narrow slip, so as to turn 
* wheel placed immediately in the line of 
the water's run. By this device, the cur- 
rent may be made to pass that particular 
spot with sufficient velocity to turn a 
wheel; whereby water might either be 
raised out of the river, to supply a main 
dra i" or the tail-water might be restor- 
ed to the stream : in either case, one or 
more pumps would be necessary. (See 
fig- 4.) 

The second mode of laying water over 
the land is by means of ridges, whose 
centres are occupied by small horizontal 
drains, out of which the water, furnished 
by the main drain, is allowed to flow to 
the depth of about an inch down each 
side of the pitch. These ridges should 
be from four to six feet measurement for 
each face ; the drain being about a 
foot broad, and four inches deep ; thus 
the whole breadth of a pitch, declining 


each way equally, might occupy a base 
of about ten feet at the utmost. The de- 
clivities ought not to exceed an inch to 
the foot ; in loose soils, not more than 
half an inch ; else the finer parts will be 
washed away, and the drains, formed by 
the junctions of the ridges, will be filled 
up, whereby the water will be detained, 
and pi-evented from passing into the next 
level. Fig. 5, bhows due profile, or section 
of a range of ridges on the same level, 
and fig. 6, displays an inclined plane, 
whereon ridges are formed in regular 
succession, the catch-drains being a little 
higlver than the branch drains of the next 
lower level, so that the latter may be fill- 
ed from the former : the water thus gra- 
dually descending, until the whole is gra- 
dually absorbed by the successive ridges ; 
or the surplus is carried off' by a large 
catch-drain, made to direct it into some 
other succession of ridges, as seen in the 
ground-plan, fig. 7. 

The reader will perceive, that the levels 
may lay in any direction, according to the 
cast of the land ; and, that where water 
can be had at a due height, all the land 
below it may be watered. It matters not 
if a deep valley lay between two declivi- 
ties, to be watered by the same spring. A 
pipe, of suitable diameter, being made to 
descend one face, and to rise up the other, 
will convey the stream with facility to 
any part ; so as to re assume the level on 
the opposite side. For further insight 
into that circumstance, see FLUIDS, 

It often happens, that small rivers have 
a very winding course among little hills, 
banks, rocky masses, &c., and that they 
suddenly lose many feet of their altitude, 
owing to a fall, or steep declivity ; while 
the lower parts of the stream, being more 
expanded, and the water being kept up 
by another impediment, perhaps a Tew 
hundred yards lower, offer a seemingly 
invincible impediment to the conducting 
it over the finely-formed planes, which 
present themselves on either bank. Here 
the difficulty is far less than at first sight 
is supposed ; since, by making an outlet 
from the superior level of the stream, 
through the bank which separates it from 
the planes to be watered, an abundant 
and certain supply may be obtained. 
Thus in fig. 8, the upper level, A, and fall, 
B, are shown, and the place pointed out 
where a cut, C, should be made, whereby 
the whole of the inclined plane, D, might 
be irrigated to the greatest advantage ; 
the surplus-water, draining off into the 
lower level of still water, Ji, from which 


it would not be possible to raise the watei- 
to the superior parts of the inclined plane, 
C, D, without the aid of expensive machi- 
nery. This section vvill,we trust, prove com- 
pletely satisfactory, by showing how ne- 
cessary it is to look back to superior 
levels, often within reach. 

Under the head of compound irrigation, 
we consider the various changes of direc- 
tion, attended with an intermixture of the 
several modes laid down for simple irri- 
gation. In the former, we occasionally 
find the water caught several times by the 
same stream, which, being obstructed at 
its several turns by weirs, sluices, &c., 
enables us to abbreviate the succession ot' 
ridges. This is a matter of great import- 
ance, because it renders a less body of wa- 
ter, in the branch-drains of the first level, 
equal to every purpose, and obviates the 
mischief that sometimes attends upon a 
numerous succession of levels, when the 
quantity of water required for the whole 
is forced through the first, in which, by 
its weight and volume, the roots of the 
grass are denudated, and the finer parts of 
the soil completely washed away. It is 
far better to give the stream a second,, 
or even a third, turn through the land, 
than to allow all the water, necessary to 
moisten six or seven successive levels, to 

r through the first. A reference to 
9, will give some idea of this mode ; 
by the courses of the dotted liaes, and 
arrows, the various descents may be un- 

With respect to the season for watering 
land, so many varieties prevail, in con- 
sequence of soil, and of locality, that we 
can only observe, in general terms, that 
where lands are to be inundated com- 
pletely, by letting the water assume an 
unlimited range, and to expand over all 
parts which come under its level, such 
places require, during the winter season, 
to be kept well covered, that the frost 
may not attack the plants while saturat- 
ed with moisture : if that were to happen, 
the whole would be destroyed ; whereas, 
by a periodical inundation, the grass is 
sheltered from frost ; and, by drawing off 
the water as the spring advances, and at 
intervals of about ten days, when the 
weather is fair, such grass will shoot out 
vigorously, and afford a very early bite 
for cattle, at that season when green food 
is both valuable and scarce. The same 
principle may be followed, though th 
practice is different, in places watered by 
drains. In such, the greatest care ought 
to be taken to avoid throwing on the wa- 
ter while the air is frost y ; but so oon a* 



the weather opens, the ground ought to 
be moderately moistened. The sun's 
power should guide us to the frequency 
and quantity ofwater; nor should its quali- 
ty be overlooked : water from warm soils 
will produce effects widely different from 
the streams flowing out of clay lands, or 
such as are impregnated with iron, &c. 
the best water usually rises out of gravel- 
ly or chalky lands It is better to throw 
the water on early in the day, during cold 
weather, in order that the grass may dry 
well, and the danger apprehended from 
frosty nights be obviated ; but in summer, 
the watering should take place late in the 
evening, whereby the ground will be cold, 
without danger of scorching the plants. 

We have dwelt thus long on the sub- 
ject of irrigation, under the conviction of 
its extreme importance : the reader may, 
under the head of AGRICULTURE, find 
a few additional remarks, which were 
given with the view to bringing all matters 
relating to farming under one general 
head, while we reserved this mechanical 
part to be separately treated, under its 
proper designation. 

IRRITABILITY, in physiology, is the 
property peculiar to the muscles, by 
which they contract upon the applica- 
tion of certain stimuli, without a consci- 
ousness of action. Haller and other phy- 
siologists denominate that part of the hu- 
man body irritable, which becomes short- 
er by being touched : very irritable, if it 
contracts upon a slight touch. They call 
that a sensible part of the human body, 
which, upon being touched, transmits the 
impression of it to the mind : on the con- 
trary, they call that insensible, which, be- 
ing burnt, torn, cut, &c. occasions no sign 
of pain or convulsion, nor any sort of 
change in the situation of the body. It is 
inferred that the epidermis is insensible ; 
that the true skin is the most sensible part 
of the body ; that the fat and cellular 
membranes are insensible ; and the mus- 
cular flesh sensible, the sensibility of 
which he ascribes rather to the nerves 
than the flesh itself. The tendons, hav- 
ing no nerves distributed among them, 
are deemed insensible. Irritability then 
is the distinguishing characteristic be- 
tween the muscular and cellular fi- 
bres. Irritability differs from sensibility, 
and is not proportioned to it: the intestines 
are less sensible than the stomach, but 
more irritable ; the heart is very irritable, 
though it has but a small degree of sen- 
sation. The laws of irritability, accord- 
ing to Dr. Crichton, are : 1. After every 
action in an irritable part, a state of rest* 

or cessation from motion, must take place, 
before the irritable part can be again in- 
cited to action. If by an act of volition 
we throw any of our muscles into action, 
that action can only be continued for a 
certain space of time ; the muscle be- 
comes relaxed, notwithstanding all our 
endeavours to the contrary, and remains 
a certain time in that relaxed state, before 
it can be again thrown into action. 2. 
Each irritable part has a certain portion 
or quantity of the principle of irritability 
which is natural to it, part of which it 
loses during action, or from the applica- 
tion of stimuli. 3. By a process, wholly 
unknown to us, it regains this lost quantity 
during its repose or state of rest. In or- 
der to express the different quantities of 
irritability in any part, we say that it is 
either more or less redundant, or more 
or less defective. It becomes redundant 
in a part, when the stimuli which 
are calculated to act on that part 
are withdrawn, or withheld for a certain 
length of time, because then no action 
can take place ; while, on the other hand, 
the application of stimuli causes it to be 
exhausted, or to be deficient, not only by 
exciting action, but by some secret in- 
fluence, the nature of which has not yet 
been detected ; for it is a circumstance 
-extremely deserving of attention, that an 
irritable part or body may be suddenly de- 
prived of its irritability by powerful sti- 
muli, and yet no apparent cause of mus- 
cular or vascular action takes place at the 
time. Thus a certain quantity of spirits 
taken at once into the stomach kills al- 
most as instantaneously as lightning does : 
the same thing may be observed of some 
poisons, as opium, laurel-water, the juice 
of some poisonous vegetables, &c. 4. 
Each irritable part has stimuli which are 
peculiar to it ; and which are intended to 
support its natural action : thus blood., 
which is the stimulus proper to the heart 
and arteries, if by any accident it gets 
into the stomach, produces sickness or 
vomiting. 5. Each irritable part differs 
from the rest in regard to the quantity of 
irritability which it possesses. This law 
explains to us the reason of the great di- 
versity which we observe in the action of 
various irritable parts : thus the mus- 
cles of voluntary motion can remain a long 
time in a state of action, and if it be con- 
tinued as long as possible, another consi- 
derable portion of time is required before 
they regain the irritability they lost ; 
but the heart and arteries have a more 
short and sudden action, and their state 
of rest is equally so. The circular mus 
cles of the intestines have also a quick ac- 



tion and short rest. 6. All stimuli pro- 
duce action in proportion to their 
irritating powers. Ajs a person approaches 
his hand to the fire, the action of all the 
vessels in the skin is increased, and it 
glows with heat ; if the hand be approach- 
ed still nearer, the action is increased to 
such an unusual degree as to occasion 
redness and pain ; and if it be continued 
too long 1 , real inflammation takes place ; 
but if this heat be continued, the part at 
least loses its irritability, and a sphacelus 
or gangrene ensues. 7. The action of 
every stimulus is in an inverse ratio to the 
frequency of its application. A small 
quantity of spirits taken into the stomach, 
increases the action of its muscular coat, 
and also of its various vessels, so that di- 
gestion is thereby facilitated. If the same 
quantity, however, be taken frequently, 
it loses its effect. In order to produce 
the same effect as at first, a larger quan- 
tity is necessary; and hence the origin 
of dram-drinking. 8. The more the irri- 
tability of a part is accumulated, the 
more that part is disposed to be acted 
upon. It is on this account that the ac- 
tivity of all animals, while in perfect 
health, is much livelier in the morning 
than at any other time of the day ; for 
during the night the irritability of the 
whole frame, and especially that of the 
muscles destined for labour, viz. the mus- 
cles of voluntary action, is re-accumulated. 
The same law explains why digestion 
goes on more rapidly the first hour after 
food is swallowed than at any other time ; 
and it also accounts for the great danger 
that accrues to a famished person upon 
first taking in food. 9. If the stimuli 
which keep up the action of any irritable 
body be withdrawn tor too great a length 
of time, that process on which the forma- 
tion of the principle depends is gradually 
diminished, and at last entirely destroy- 
ed. When the irritability of the system is 
too quickly exhausted by heat, as is the 
case in certain warm climates, the appli- 
cation of cold invigorates the frame, be- 
cause cold is a mere diminution of the 
overplus of that stimulus which was caus- 
ing the rapid consumption of the princi- 
ple. Under such, or similar circumstances, 
therefore, cold is a tonic remedy ; but if 
in a climate naturally cold, a person were 
to go into a cold bath, and not soon re- 
turn into a warmer atmosphere, it would 
destroy life just in the same manner as 
many poor people, who have no comforta- 
ble dwellings, are often destroyed from 
being too long exposed to the cold in 
winter. Upon the first application of 
cold the irritability is accumulated, and 
the vascular system therefore is disposed 

to great action ; but after a certain time 
all action is so much diminished, that the 
process, whatever it be, on which the 
formation of the irritable principle de- 
pends, is entirely lost. See Dr. Crichton 
on Mental Derangement for more on this 

ISATIS, in botany, a genus of the Te- 
tradynamia Siliculosa class and order. 
Natural order of Siliquosae or Cruciformes 
Cruciferae, Jussieu. Essential character ; 
silicle lanceolate, one-celled, one-seeded, 
deciduous, bivalve ; valves nivicular. 
There are five species, of which I. tincto- 
ria, dyer's woad, is a biennial plant, 
with a fusiform, fibrous root; stem up- 
right, round and smooth, woody at 
bottom, branched at top ; stem leaves 
from two to three inches long, and scarce- 
ly half an inch in breadth ; flowers 
small, terminating the stem and branches 
in a close raceme; both corolla and 
calyx yellow ; petals notched at the end ; 
seed vessels on slender peduncles, hang- 
ing down, chesnut coloured or dark 
brown, shining when ripe, of an oblong 
elliptic form, compressed at top and on 
the sides into a sharp edge, swelling like 
a convex lens in the middle ; cotyledons 
ovate, fleshy, piano convex ; radicle sub- 
cylindrical, bent in upwards. It is a na- 
tive of most parts of Europe. Woad is 
much used by dyers for its blue colour : 
it is the basis of black and many other 

ISCHJEMUM, in botany, a genus of the 
Polygamia Monoecia class and order. 
Natural order of Gramina, or Grasses. 
Gramineae, Jussieu. Essential character : 
hermaphrodite calyx ; glume two-flower- 
ed ; corolla two-valved ; stamens three ; 
styles three ; seed one: male, calyx and 
corolla as in the other ; stamens three. 
There are eight species. 

ISERINE, in mineralogy, a species ot 
the Menachine genus : it is of an iron- 
black, inclining a little to the brownish- 
black ; it occurs in small, obtuse, angular 
grains, and in rolled pieces, with a rough 
glimmering surface. Internally it is glis- 
tering, and its lustre is semi-metallic, 
Specific gravity 4.5. Before the blow- 
pipe, it melts into a blackish-brown 
coloured glass, which is slightly attracted 
by the magnet. It is composed of 
Oxide of menachine . . 59.1 

iron 30.1 

uran. .... 10.2 

Loss. . . . 





It beat's a great resemblance to iron 
sand in colour, but in specific gravity it 
differs, as also in its being 1 very slightly 
attractable by a powerful magnet. It is 
found on high mountains in Germany. 

1SERT1A, in botany, a genus of the 
Hexandria Monogynia class and order. 
Essential character : calyx coloured, four 
or six-toothed ; corolla six-cleft, funnel 
form ; pome sub -globular, six celled, many 
seeded. There is but one species, viz. I. 
coccinea, a tree with a trunk ten ortwelve 
feet in height, and about eight inches in 
diameter ; the bark is wrinkled, and of a 
russet colour ; the wood light, and of a 
loose texture ; branches quadrangular, 
straight, with opposite branchlets, chan- 
nelled and covered with a russet down ; 
each branchlet has three flowers, of which 
that in the middle is sessile ; calyx pur- 
plish ; tube of the corolla two inches long 
of a bright red; border yellow, covered 
on the inside with hairs of the same 
colour; fruit a succulent red berry or 
pome, the size of a cherry, sweet and good 
to eat. The wood is bitter ; a decoction 
of leaves is used by the Creoles in fomen- 
tations. It is common in the island of 
Cayenne, and on the continent of Guia- 
na, flowering and bearing fruit a great 
part of the year. 

ISINGLASS, used in medicine and do- 
mestic economy, is a preparation formerly 
made only from a fish named huso, a spe- 
cies of the Accipenser genus. We have, in 
the sixty-third volume of the transactions 
of the Royal Society, a full account of the 
mode of preparing this substance, of 
which we shall give an extract. 

The sounds, or air-bladders, of fresh 
water fish in general, are preferred for 
this purpose, as being the most transpa- 
rent, flexible, delicate substances. These 
constitute the finest sorts of isinglass ; 
those called book and ordinary staple are 
made of the intestines, and probably of 
the peritoneum of the fish. The belluga 
yields the greatest quantity, as being the 
largest and most plentiful fish in the Mus- 
covy rivers ; but the sounds of all fresh 
water fish yield, more or less, fine isin- 
glass, particularly the smaller sorts, found 
in prodigious quantities in the Caspian 
sea, and several hundred miles beyond 
Astracan, in the Wolga, Yaik, Don, and 
even ar far as Siberia, where it is called 
kle or kla by the natives, which implies a 
glutinous matter; it is the basis of the 
Russian glue, which is preferred to all 
other kinds for its strength The sounds, 
which yield the finer isinglass, consist of 
parallel fibres, and are easily re^ longitu- 
dinally ; but the ordinary sorts are found 

composed of double membranes, whose 
fibres cross each other obliquely, resem- 
bling the coats of a bladder ; hence the 
former are more readily pervaded and 
divided with subacid liquors ; but the 
latter, through a peculiar kind of inter- 
woven texture, are with great difficulty 
torn asunder, and long resist the power 
of the same menstruum ; yet, when duly 
resolved, are found to act with equal 
energy in clarifying liquors. 

Isinglass receives its differentshapes in 
the following manner. The parts of whick 
it is composed, particularly the sounds, 
are taken from the fish while sweet and 
fresh, slit open, washed from their slimy 
sordes, divested of every thin membrane 
which envelops the sound, and then ex- 
posed to stifte'n a little in the air. In this 
state, they are formed into rolls about 
the thickness of a finger, and in length 
according to the intended size of the 
staple : a thin membrane is generally se- 
lected for the centre of the roll, round 
which the rest are folded alternately, and 
about half an inch of each extremity of 
the roll is turned inwards. The due di- 
mensions being thus obtained, the two 
ends of what is called short staple are 
pinned together with a small wooden 
peg ; the middle of the roll is then press- 
ed a little downwards, which gives it the 
resemblance of a heart-shape, and thus it 
is laid on boards, or hung up in the air to 

The sounds, which compose the long- 
staple, are longer than the former ; but 
the operator lengthens this sort at plea- 
sure, by interfolding the ends of one or 
more pieces of the sound with each other. 
The extremities are fastened with a peg 1 , 
like the former ; but the middle part of 
the roll is bent more considerably down- 
wards, and, in order to preserve the shape 
of the three obtuse angles thus formed, a 
piece of round stick, about a quarter of 
an inch diameter, is fastened in each an- 
gle with small wooden pegs, in the same 
manner as the ends. In this state, it is 
permitted to dry long enough to retain its 
form, when the pegs and sticks are taken 
out, and the drying- completed ; lastly, the 
pieces of isinglass are colligated in rows, 
by running pack-thread through the peg- 
holes, for convenience of package and 
exportation. That called cake-isinglass, 
is formed ^fthe bits and fragments of the 
staple-sorts, put into a flat metalline pan, 
with a very little water, and heated just 
enough to make the parts cohere like a 
pancake when it is dried ; but frequently 
it is overheated, and such pieces, as be- 
fore observed, are useless in the business 



of fining. Experience has taught the con- 
sumers to reject them. 

Isinglass is best made in the summer, 
as frost gives it a. disagreeable colour, de- 
prives it of weight, and impairs its gela- 
tinous principles; its fashionable forms 
are unnecessary, and frequently injurious 
to its native qualities. It is common to 
find oily putrid matter, and exuviae of in- 
sects, between the implicatedmembranes, 
which, through the inattention of the cel- 
larman, often contaminate wines and malt 
liquors in the act of clarification. 

These peculiar shapes might probably 
be introduced originally with a view to 
conceal and disguise the real substance of 
isinglass, and preserve the monopoly ; 
but, as the mask is now taken off, it can- 
iiot be doubted to answer every purpose 
more effectually in its native state, with- 
out any subsequent manufacture what- 
ever, especially to the principal consum- 
ers, who hence will be enabled to procure 
sufficient supply from the British colonies. 
Until this laudable end can be fully ac- 
complished, and as a species of isinglass, 
more easily produceable from the marine 
fisheries, may probably be more imme- 
diately encouraged, it may be manufac- 
tured as follows. The sounds of cod and 
ling bear great analogy with those of the 
accipenser genus of Linnaeus and Artedi ; 
and are in general so well known as to 
require no particular description. The 
Newfoundland and Iceland fishermen split 
open the fish as soon as taken, and throw 
the back bones, with the sounds annexed, 
in a heap; but previously to incipient 
putrefaction, the sounds are cut out, 
washed from their slimes, and salted for 
use. In cutting out the sounds, the inter- 
costal parts are left behind, which are 
much the best ; the Iceland fishermen are 
so sensible of this, that they beat the bone 
upon a block with a thick stick, till the 
pockets, as they term them, come out 
easily, and thus preserve the sound en- 
tire. If the sounds have been cured with 
salt, that must be dissolved by steeping 
them in water before they are prepared 
for isinglass ; the fresh sound must then 
be laid upon a block of wood, whose sur- 
face is a little elliptical, to the end of 
which a small hair-brush is nailed, and 
with a saw knife the membranes on each 
side of the sound must be scraped oft'. 
The knife is nibbed upon the brush oc- 
casionally, to clear its teeth ; the pockets 
ai'e cut open with scissars, and perfectly 
cleansed of the mucous matter with a 
course cloth ; the sounds are afterwards 
washed a few minutes in lime-water, in 
!<<>! to absorb their oiiy principle, and 

lastly in clear water. They are then laid 
upon nets to dry, but if intended to re- 
semble the foreign isinglass, the sound of 
the cod will only admit of that called 
book, but those of ling both shapes. The 
thicker the sounds are the better the 

ISIS, coral, in natural history, a genus 
of the Vermes Zoophyta class and order. 
Animal growing in the form of a plant ; 
stem stony, jointed, the joints longitudi- 
nally striate, united by spongy or horny 
junctures, and covered by a soft porous 
cellular flesh or bark ; mouth beset with 
oviparous polypes. There are six species. 
I. hippuris ; with white striate joints and 
black junctures ; it is found chiefly in the 
Indian seas, growing to rocks, and is from 
two inches to two feet long. I. entrocha ; 
stem testaceous, round, with orbicular 
perforated joints and verticillate dichoto- 
mous branches. Inhabits the ocean. The 
stem is about the thickness of a finger, 
with crowded flat orbicular joints perfo- 
rated in the centre, the perforation is pen- 
tangular, with the disk substriate from the 
centre ; outer bark or flesh unequal, and 
surrounded with a row of tubercles ; 
branches thin, dichotomous, continued, 
not jointed. 

ISLAND, or ICELAND, crystal, a body 
famous among the writers of optics, for 
its property of a double refraction ; but 
improperly called by that name, as it has 
none of the distinguishing characters of 
crystal, and is plainly a body of another 
class. Dr. Hill has reduced it to its pro- 
per class, and determined it to be of a 
genus of spars, which he has called, from 
their figure, parallelopipedia, and of 
which he has described several species, 
all of which, as well as some other bodies 
of a different genus, have the same pro- 
perties-. Bartholine, Huygens, and Sir 
Isaac Newton, have described the body at 
large, but have accounted it either a crys- 
tal or a talc ; errors which could not have 
happened, had the criterions of fossils 
been at that time fixed ; since Sir Isaac 
Newton has recorded its property of mak- 
ing an ebullition with aquafortis, which 
alone must prove, that it is neither talc 
nor crystal, both those bodies being- 
wholly unaffected by that menstruum. 

It is always found in form of an oblique 
parallelepiped, with six sides, and is found 
of various sizes, from a quarter of an inch 
to three inches or more in diameter. It 
is pellucid, and not much less bright than 
the purest crystal, and its planes are ajl 
tolerably smooth, though, when nicely 
viewed, they are found to be waved with 



crooked lines, made by the edges of im- 
perfect plates. 

What appears very singular in the 
structure of this body is, that all the sur- 
faces are placed in the same manner, and 
consequently it will split off into thin 
plates, either horizontally or perpendicu- 
larly ; but this is found, on a miscroscopic 
examination, to be owing to the regularity 
of figure, smoothness of surface, and nice 
joining of the several small parallelepiped 
concretions, of which the whole is com- 
posed ; and to the same cause is probably 
owing its remarkable property in refrac- 
tion. See OPTICS, and REFRACTION. 

It is very soft, and easily scratched with 
the point of a pin ; it will not give fire on 
being struck against steel, and ferments, 
and is perfectly dissolved in aquafortis. 
It is found in Iceland, from whence it has 
its name ; and in France, Germany, and 
many other places. In England, fragments 
of other spars are very often mistaken for 
it, many of them having in some degree 
the same property. 

ISNARDIA, in botany, so named in 
memory of Mons. Antoine Danti d'Isnard, 
member of the Academy of Sciences, a 
genus of the Tetrandria Monogynia class 
and order. Natural order of Calycan- 
themx. Salicariae, Jussieu. Essential 
character : calyx four-cleft ; corolla none ; 
capsule four-celled, covered by the calyx. 
There is but one species, viz. I. palustris, 
which bears a great resemblance to pep- 
lis portulaca ; it is creeping and floating ; 
the flowers are axillary, opposite, sessile, 
and green. It is a native of Italy, France, 
Alsace, Russia, Jamaica, and Virginia, in 

CHRONOUS, is applied to such vibrations of 
a pendulum as are performed in the same 
space of time as all the vibrations or 
swings of the same pendulum are, whe- 
ther the arches it describes be longer or 
shorter : for when it describes a shorter 
arch, it moves so much the slower, and 
when a long one, proportionably faster. 

ISOCHRONAL line, that in which a heavy 
body is supposed to descend without any 

M. Leibnitz shows, that an heavy body, 
with a degree of velocity acquired by the 
descent from any height, may descend 
from the same point by an infinite num- 
ber of isochronal curves, all which are of 
the same species, differing from one 
another only in the magnitude of their 
perimeters; such are all the quadi*ato- 
cubical paroboloids, and consequently 
similar to one another. He shows also 
there, how to find a line in which a heavy 

body descending shall recede uniformlj 
from a given point, or approach uniformly 
to it. 

ISOETES, in botany, a genus of the 
Cryptogamia Filices class and order. Na 
tural orde* of Filices, or Ferns. Essentia 
character : male, anther within the base 
of the frond : female, capsule two-celled 
within the base of the frond. There arc 
two species, viz. I. lacustris, common 
quillwort, and I. coromandelina, Coroman 
del quillwort, both natives of mountair 
lakes, and in wet places that are inun- 
dated in the rainy season. 

ISOPERIMETRICAL figures, in geo 
metry, are such as have equal perimeters 
or circumferences. 

Isoperimetrical lines and figures have 
greatly engaged the attention of mathe- 
maticians at all times. The fifth book oi 
Pappus's Collections is chiefly upon this 
subject ; where a great variety of curious 
and important properties are demon, 
strated, both of planes and solids, some ol 
which were then old in his time, and 
many new ones of his own. Indeed, it 
seems, he has here brought together into 
this book all the properties relating to 
isoperimetrical figures then known, and 
their different degrees of capacity. The 
analysis of the general problem concern- 
ing figures, that, among all those of the 
same perimeter, produce maxima and 
minima, was given by Mr. James Ber- 
noulli, from computations that involve the 
second and third fluxions. And several 
enquiries of this nature have been since 
prosecuted in like manner, but not al- 
ways with equal success. Mr. Maclaurin, 
to vindicate the doctrines of fluxions 
from the imputation of uncertainty or 
obscurity, has illustrated this subject, 
which is considered as one of the most 
abstruse parts of this doctrine, by giving 
the resolution and composition of these 
problems by first fluxions only ; and in a 
manner that suggests a synthetic demon- 
stration, serving to verify the solution. 
See Maclaurin's Fluxions. Mr. Crane 
also, in the Berlin Memoirs for 1752, has 
given a paper, in which he proposes to 
demonstrate, in general, what can be de- 
monstrated only of regular figures in the 
elements of geometry, viz. that the circle 
is the greatest of all isoperimetrical 
figures, regular or irregular. We shall 
now mention a few of the properties of 
isoperimetrical figures. 

1. Of isoperimetricul figures, that is 
the greatest that contains the greatest 
number of sides, or the most angles, and 
consequently a circle, is the greatest of all 
figures that have the same ambit as it has 



2. Of two isoperimetrical triangles, 
having the same base, whereof two sides 
of one are equal, and of the other une- 
qual, that is the greater whose two sides 
are equal. 

3. Of isoperimetrical figures, whose 
sides are equal in number, that is the 
greatest which is equilateral and equian- 
gular. From hence follows that common 
problem of making the hedging or walling 
that will wall in one acre, or even any 
determinate number of acres, a ; fence 
or wall in any greater number of acres 
whatever, b. In order to the solution of 
this problem, let the greater number, b, 
be supposed a square ; let x be one side 
of an oblong, whose area is a : then will 

- be the other side ; and 2 - -f 2 x will 
x x^ 

be the ambit of the oblong, which must 
be equal to four times the square root of 

5 ; that is, 2 - + 2 x = 4 </ b. Whence 

the value of x may be easily had, and you 
may make infinite numbers of squares and 
oblongs that have the same ambit, and 
yet shall have different given areas. 
Let v/ b 

xx dx = 


Thus if one side of the square be 10, 
and one side of an oblong be 19, and the 
other 1 ; then will the ambits of that 
square and oblong be equal, viz. each 40, 
and yet the area of the square will be 100, 
and of the oblong but 19. 

ISOPYRUM, in botany, a genus of the 
Polyandria Polygynia class and order. 
Natural order of Multisilique. Ranuncu- 
laceae, Jussieu. Essential character: calyx 
none ; petals five ; nectary trifid, tubular ; 
capsule recurved, many-seeded. There 
are three species. 

ISOSCELES triangle, in geometry, one 
that has two equal sides. See GEOMETRY. 

ISSUE, in law, has many significations, 
sometimes being used for the children be- 
gotten between a man and his wife ; 
sometimes for profit growingfrom amerce- 
ments or fines ; and sometimes for profits 
of lands or tenements ; sometimes for 
that point of matter depending in a suit, 
when, in the course of pleading, the par- 

ties in the case affirm a thing on one side, 
and deny it on the other, they are then 
said to be at issue ; all their debates being 
at last contracted into a single point, 
which may be determined either in favour 
of the plaintiff or defendant. 

ISSUES, in surgery, are little ulcers made 
designedly by the surgeon in various 
parts of the body, and kept open by the 
patient for the preservation or recovery 
of his health. 

ITCH, a cutaneous disease, supposed 
to be caused by an insect, a species of 
the genus Acarus, viz. A. scabiei, which, 
when viewed by a good microscope, is 
white with reddish legs ; the four hind 
ones having a long bristle. It is found in 
the small pellucid vesicles with which 
the hands and joints of persons infected 
with the itch are covered. It appears to 
be not only the cause of the disorder, but 
the reason why it is so highly infectious. 

ITCHING, an uneasy sensation, which 
occasions a desire of scratching the place 
affected. It is frequently a troublesome 
sensation, but more nearly allied to plea- 
sure than pain. As pain is supposed to 
proceed from too great an irritation, so 
does itching proceed from a slight one. 
Certain species of itching excites people 
to many necessary actions, as the excre- 
tion of the feces and urine ; coughing, 
sneezing, &c. 

ITEA, in botany, a genus of the Pen- 
tandria Monogynia class and order. Natu- 
ral order of Rhododendra, Jussieu. Es- 
sential character : capsule two-celled, 
two-valved, many-seeded ; stigma emar- 
ginate. There are two species, viz. I. 
virginica. Virginian itea ; and I. cyrilla, 
entire -leaved itea. These are both shrubs. 
Linnxus remarks, that the itea virginica 
has the appearance of the Padus ; that 
the leaves are petioled and the flowers in 
terminating racemes. The stigma is head- 
ed in this species, whereas in the other 
it is bifid or double ; the former is a native 
of North America ; the latter of Carolina 
and Jamaica. 

ITTRIA. This earth was discovered 
by Gadolin, a Swedish chemist, in a fossil, 
found at Ytterby, in Sweden, which has 
since received the name of gadolinite, 
and in which it is combined with silex 
and lime. The discovery was confirmed 
by Ekeberg, Klaproth, and Vauquelin ; 
and the same earth has been discovered 
in some other fossils, particularly com- 
bined with lantalium. In several of its 
properties ittria resembles glucine, par- 
ticularly in forming salts of a sweet taste, 
and in being soluble in carbonate of am- 
mania ; but it differs entirely in others. 



The process followed by Vauquelin to 
obtain this earth from the gadolinite was, to 
dissolve it, with the assistance of heat, in 
diluted nitric acid, pouring 1 off the solu- 
tion from the undissolved silex. The 
liquor is then evaporated to dryness, by 
which any remaining' silex and any oxide 
of iron is separated from combination 
with the acid. By redissolving the resi- 
duum in water, the compound of nitric 
acid and ittria is obtained : if there are 
any traces of iron, the liquor is either 
aga'ui evaporated to dryness, or a little 
ammonia is added ; and after the separa- 
tion of the oxide of iron by yellow flakes, 
the solution is decomposed by ammonia, 
which precipitates the new earth. (Philo- 
sophical Magazine, vol. viii. p. 369.^ The 
process employed by Klaproth is similar, 
nitro-nnmatic acid being employed ; the 
iron being removed by the action of suc- 
cinate of soda ; and the ittria being pre- 
cipitated by carbonate of soda. (Analyti- 
cal Essays, vol. ii. p. 47.) 

Ittria is obtained in the form of a white 
powder, and is heaver than any other 
earth ; its specific gravity according to 
Ekeberg being 4 842. It is not fusible 
alone, but with borax it forms a white 
glass. It is not soluble in water, but it 
retains that fluid with considerable force. 

Ittria combines with the acids; its salts, 
as has beeu remarked, having generally a 
sweetish taste. Several of them, too, are 
coloured, a property iu which it differs 
from all the other earths. 

The sulphate of ittria crystallizes in 
small brilliant grains, according to Klap- 
voth, of a rhomboidalform, and of a colour 
inclining to an amethyst red. Their taste 
is sweet, becoming also astringent. They 
require from twenty-five to thirty parts 
of water, and are not more soluble in hot 
water. Their specific gravity is 2.79. 
The sulphuric acid is expelled by a red 
heat. Nitrate of ittria can scarcely be 
crystallized ; it assumes a gelatinous con- 
sistence by evaporation, and becomes 
brittle when this jelly cools. Its taste is 
similar to that of the sulphate. The mu- 
riate is obtained nearly in the same form. 
The phosphate, formed by complex affi- 
nity, is insoluble. The acetite is a crys- 
tallizable salt of a pale red colour. 

The salts of ittria are decomposed by 
the three alkalies, and by lime, astronti- 
tes, and barytes. 

Ittria is not dissolved by the liquid alka- 
lies, nor do they redissolve it when added 
in excess, after having precipitated it from 
its solutions. This affords a distinguish- 
ing character between it and giucine. 

It is soluble in the alkaline carbonates, 
particularly in the carbonate of ammonia. 

Prussiate of potash throws down from 
its solution a granular precipitate, of a 
white or pearl-grey colour. It is also pre- 
cipitated in grey flocculi by the watery 
or spirituous infusion of galls ; but very 
slightly by the pure gallic acid. It is not 
affected by sulphuretted hydrogen, or 
hydro-sulphuret of ammonia, added to its 

The great specific gravity of this earth, 
its forming coloured salts, and being pre- 
cipitated by the alkaline prussiates, and 
by tannin, from its solutions, in some 
measure connect it with the metals, and 
lead to the suspicion that it may be a me- 
tallic oxide. 

The gadolinite is the only fossil that 
can be considered as belonging to the ge- 
nus of wliich this earth is the base, for the 
yttrotantalite contains it in small quantity 
only, and is properly a metallic fossil be. 
longing to the genus Tantalium. The 
gadolinite occurs massive, and dissemi- 
nated ; its colour is a deep greenish black. 
Its internal lustre is resplendent ; it is 
opaque ; its fracture is conchoidal ; its 
hardness is such, that it is not scratched 
by th.e knife ; its specific gravity is 4.2. 
It intumesces before the blow-pipe, but 
is not fused. With nitric acid it forms a 
gelatinous solution. According to Klap- 
roth, it consists of ittria 59.75, silex 21.25, 
oxide of iron 17.5, argil 0.5, water 0.5. 
The analysis of it by Ekeberg and Vau- 
quelin, give the proportion of ittria rather 
less, and of silex and iron somewhat more. 

IVA, in botany, a genus of the Monoe- 
cia Pentandria class and order. Natural 
order of Composite Nucamentacese. Co- 
rymbiferse, Jussieu. Essential character : 
male, calyx common, three-leaved; co- 
rolla of the disk, one-petalled, five -cleft; 
receptacle with hairs or linear chaffs fe- 
male, in the ray, five, or fewer ; corolla 
none; styles two, long; seeds naked, 
blunt. There are two species, viz. 1. an- 
nua, annual iva, and I. frutescens, shrubby 
iva, or bastard Jesuits' bark tree. 

JUBILEE, a time of public and solemn 
festivity among the ancient Hebrews. 
This was kept every fiftieth year : it be- 
gan about the autumnal equinox, and was 
proclaimed by sound of trumpet through- 
out all the country. At this time all slaves 
were released, all debts annihilated, and 
all lands, houses, wives, and children, 
however alienated, were restored to their 
first owners. During this whole year, all 
kind of agriculture was forbidden, and 
the poor had the benefit of the harvest. 



vintage, and other productions of the 
earth, in the same manner as in the sab- 
batic, or seventh year. As this was de- 
signed to put the Israelites in mind of 
their Egyptian servitude, and to prevent 
their imposing the like upon their bre- 
thren, it was not observed by the Gentile 

The Christians, in imitation of the Jews, 
have likewise established jubilees, which 
began in the time of Pope Boniface VIII. 
in the year 1300, and are now practised 
every twenty-five years ; but these relate 
only to the pretended forgiveness of sins, 
and the indulgences granted by the 
church of Rome. 

J UDGE. The judges are the chief ma- 
gistrates in the law, to try civil and cri- 
minal causes. Of these there are twelve 
in England, viz. the Lords Chief Justices 
of the Courts of King's Bench and Com- 
mon Pleas ; the Lord Chief Baron of the 
Exchequer; the three puisne or inferior 
judges of the two former courts, and the 
three puisne barons of the latter. By 
statute 1 Geo. III. c. 23, the judges are to 
continue in their offices during their good 
behaviour, notwithstanding any demise of 
the crown, (which was formerly held im- 
mediately to vacate their seats) and their 
full salaries are absolutely secured to them 
during the continuance of their commis- 
sions, by which means the judges are ren- 
dered completely independent of the 
king, his ministers, or his successors. A 
judge, at his creation, takes an oath that 
he will serve the king, and indifferently 
administer justice to all men, without re- 
spect of persons, take no bribe, give no 
counsel where he is a party, nor deny 
right to any, though the king or any other, 
by letters, or by expressed words, com- 
mand the contrary, &c. and in default of 
duty, to be answerable to the king in 
body, laud, and goods. Where a judge 
has an interest, neither he nor his deputy 
can determine a cause, or sit in court, and 
if he do, a prohibition lies. 

Judges are punishable for wilful of- 
fences against the duty of their situations ; 
instances of which happily live only in re- 

A judge is not answerable to the king, 
or the party, for mistakes or errors in his 
judgment, in a matter of which he has 

JUDGMENT, among logicians, a facul- 
ty, or rather act, of the human soul, where- 
by it compares its ideas, and perceives 
their agreement or disagreement. 

JUDGMENT. The opinion of the judges 
is so called, and is the very voice and final 
doom of the law; and, therefore, is always 


taken for unquestionable truth ; or it is 
the sentence of the law pronounced by 
the court upon the matter contained in 
the record. Judgments are of four sorts, 
viz. 1. Where the facts are confessed by 
the parties, and the law determined by 
the court, which is termed judgment by 
demurrer. 2. Where the law is admitted 
by the parties, and the facts only are dis- 
puted, as in judgment upon a demurrer. 
3. Where both the fact and the law aris- 
ing thereon, are admitted by the defen- 
dant, as in case of judgment by confession 
or default. 4. Where the plaintiff is con- 
vinced that fact or law, or both, are in- 
sufficient to support his action, and there- 
fore abandons or withdraws his prosecu- 
tion, as in case of judgment upon a non- 
suit or retraxit. See WARRANT of AT- 

Judgments are either interlocutory or 
final. Interlocutory judgments are such 
as are given in the middle of a cause, 
upon some plea, proceeding, or default, 
which is only intermediate, and doth not 
finally determine or complete the suit ; 
as upon dilatory pleas, when the judg- 
ment in many cases is, that the defendant 
shall answer over, that is, put in a more 
substantial plea. Final judgments are 
such as at once put an end to the action, 
by declaring that the plaintiff hath either 
entitled himself, or hath not, to recover 
the remedy he sues for. 

JUGLANS, in botany, -walnut tree, a ge- 
nus of the Monoecia Polyandria class and 
order. Natural order of Amentacex. 
Terebintaceae, Jussieu. Essential cha- 
racter: male, calyx one-leafed, scale- 
form ; corolla six-parted ; filaments eigh- 
teen ; female, calyx four-cleft, superior ; 
corolla four-parted; styles two; drupe 
with a grooved nucleus. There are eight 
species, of which J. regia, common wal- 
nut, is a very large and lofty tree, with 
strong spreading boughs. There are se- 
veral varieties, but they all vary again 
when raised from the seed, and nuts from 
the same tree will produce different fruit : 
persons, therefore, who plant the walnut 
for its fruit, should make choice of the 
trees in the nurseries when they have 
their fruit upon them. In France, Swit- 
zerland, &c. the wood is in great request 
for furniture, as it was formerly in Eng- 
land, till the use of mahogany superseded 
it ; it is in great repute with the joiner, 
for the best grained and coloured wains- 
cot; with the gun-smith, for stocks ; with 
the coach-maker, for wheels and the bo- 
dies of coaches ; with the cabinet-maker, 
for inlayings, especially the firm and close 
timber about the root, which is admirable 



for flecked and cambleted works, To 
render this wood the better coloured, 
joiners put the boards into an oven, after 
the batch is out, or lay them in a warm 
stable ; and when they work it, polish it 
over with its awn oil very hot, which 
makes it look black and sleek, and the ol- 
der it is the more estimable. The husks 
and leaves being 1 macerated in warm wa- 
ter, and the liquor poured on grass walks 
and bowling-greens, will infallibly kill the 
worms, without endangering the grass. 
Not that there is any thing peculiai-ly 
noxious in this decoction ; but worms can- 
not bear the application of any thing- bit- 
ter to their bodies, which is the reason 
that bitters, such as gentian, are the best 
destroyers of worms lodged in the bodies 
of animals. 

JUGULAR, in anatomy, an appellation 
given to two veins of the neck, which 
arise from the subclavians. See AJTA- 

JUGULARES, in natural history, an 
order of fishes, according to the Linnaean 
system. The fishes of this order have 
their ventral fins situated before the pec- 
toralfins, and, as it were, under the throat. 
They are mostly inhabitants of the sea. 
Their body is sometimes covered with 
scales, and sometimes not. With a very 
few exceptions, they have spines in the 
dorsal and anal fins, and their gills have 
bony rays. Of this order there are the 
following genera : 







JULIAN period, in chronology, a sys- 
tem or period of 7980 years, found by 
multiplying the three cycles of the sun, 
moon, and indiction, into one another. 

This period was called the Julian, not 
because invented by Julius Caesar ; since 
the Julian epocha w T as not received till 
the year 4669, but because the system 
consists of Julian years. This epocha is 
not historical, but artificial, being invented 
only for the use of true epochas ; for 
Scaliger, considering that the calculation 
was very intricate in using the years of 
the creation, the years before Christ, or 
any other epocha whatever, in regard that 
another person could not understand 
what year this or that writer meant ; to 
remove such doubts in the computation 
of time, he thought of this period : which 
commencing 710 years before the begin- 
ning of the world, the various opinions 

concerning other epochas may commodi- 

ously be referred to it. See EPOCHA. 

The most remarkable uses of the Ju- 
lian period are as follow : 1. That we can 
explain our mind to one another, for eve- 
ry year in this period has its peculiar cy- 
cles, which no other year in the whole 
period has ; whereas, on the contrary, if 
we reckon by the years of the world, we 
must first enquire how many veurs any 
other reckons From the creation to the year 
of Christ, which multiple-inquisition is 
troublesome and fuU of difficulties, accord- 
ing to the method of other periods. 2. 
That the three cycles of the sun, moon 
and indiction, are easily found in this pe- 
riod. 3. That if it be known how the 
chronological characters are to be found 
in this period, and how the years of any 
other epocha are to be connected with 
the years of it, the same characters also 
may* with little labour, be applied to the 
years of ull other epochas. 

JULUS, in natural history, a genus of 
insects of the order Aptera. Lip cre- 
nate, emarginate ; antennae moniliform ; 
two feelers, filiform ; body long, semi- 
cylindrical, consisting of numerous trans- 
verse segments; legs numerous, twice as 
many on each side as there are segments 
of the body. There are fourteen species, 
of which we shall notice the J. Indus, or 
great Indian julus, which is six or seven 
inches long ; found in the warmer parts 
of Asia and America, inhabiting woods 
and other retired places. It has 115 legs 
on each side ; the body is ferruginous ; 
legs yellow ; the last segment of the body 
is pointed. The most common species is 
the J. sabulosus, about an inch and a 
quarter long 1 ; the colour brownish black, 
except the legs, which are pale or whit- 
ish ; it is an oviparous animal ; and the 
young when first hatched are small and 
white, and furnished with only three pair 
of legs, situated near the head ; the re- 
maining pairs, in all 120, do not make 
their appearance till some time after. 
This species inhabits Europe, and is 
found in damp places and in nuts. The 
juli tribe are nearly allied to the scolo- 
pendrse, or centipedes, but their body, 
instead of being flattened, as in those in- 
sects, is nearly cylindrical, and every 
joint or segment is furnished with two 
pair of feet, the number on each side 
doubling that of the segments, but in the 
scolopendrae the number of joints and of 
feet is equal on each side. The eyes of 
the juli are composed of hexagonal con- 
vexities, as in most of the insect tribe, 
and the mouth is furnished with a pair of 
denticulated jaws. When disturbed, the 



juli roll lliemselves up into a flat spiral; 
their general motion is rather slow and 

JUNCUS, in botany, rush, a genus of 
theHexandria Monogynia class and order. 
Natural order of Tripetaloidex. Junci, 
Jussieu. Essential character : calyx six- 
leaved ; corolla none ; capsule one-celled. 
There are twenty-nine species. The 
rushes have a simple grassy stem, with- 
out leaves or knots, or else knotty, with 
a sheathing leaf at each knot ; flowers 
terminating or lateral, corymbed or pani- 
clcd, with the branchlets spathaceous at 
the base. 

These plants agree with the grasses in 
the glumes of their flowers, and the 
sheaths of their leaves ; they differ in 
having the stems filled with pith, whereas 
in grasses it is hollow. The rushes form 
an intermediate link between the grasses 
and some of the liliaceous plants, as an- 
thericum, &c. 

They form naturally two divisions, one 
without leaves allied to scirpus, &c. and 
the other with leafy stems. But all clas- 
sical botanical writers, says Dr. Smith, 
have judiciously preserved this very na- 
tural genus entire, notwithstanding the 
capsule is in some species one celled, 
in others three celled. The sea rushes 
are planted on the sea-banks in Hol- 
land ; the roots running deep into the 
sand, and matting very much, so as to 
hokl it together. In the summer, when 
they are full grown, they cut them, and 
when dry, work them into baskets. 

JUNGERMANNIA, in botany, so nam- 
ed from Louis Jungermannus of Leipsic, 
Professor of Botany at Atorffi a genus of 
the Cryptogamia Algae, Linnseus, class 
and order. Natural order of Hepaticae, 
Jussieu. Thirty species of these mosses 
are arranged in five subdivisions, in the 
fourteenth edition of " Systema Vegeta- 
bilUim." Dr. Withering has forty-eight 
species in the third edition of his *' Ar- 
rangement of British Plants ;" he says 
many of them are beautiful microscopic 

JUNGIA, in botany, so named from 
Joachim Jungius, M. D. a genus of the 
Syngenesia Polygamia Segregata class 
and order. Natural order of Composite 
Oppositifolize. Cinarocephalse, Jussieu. 
Essential character: calyx common, 
three flowered; receptacle chaffy ; flo- 
^ rets tubular, two-lipped ; outer lip ligu- 
' late ; inner two-parted. There is but 
one species, viz. J. ferruginea, the stems 
of which are woody, covered with a fer- 
ruginous down ; leaves alternate, five- 
lobed, cordate at the base ; lobes rounded, 
blunt ; they are hirsute, and underneath 

hoary; panicle terminating, large, de- 
compounded ; heads of flowers small, 
heaped. It is a native of South America. 

JUN1PERUS, in botany, juniper-tree, a 
genus of the Dioecia Monadelphia class 
and order. Natural order of Conifers. Es- 
sential character ; male, calyx of the ament 
a scale ; corolla none ; stamina three : fe- 
male, calyx three-parted ; petals three ; 
styles three ; berry three-seeded, irregu- 
lar with the three tubercles of the calyx. 
There are twelve species ; some of these 
are lofty handsome trees; but the J. com- 
munis, common juniper, is a low shrub, 
seldom more than three feet in height, 
sending out many spreading tough bran- 
ches, inclining on every side, covered with 
a brown or reddish bark, with a tinge of 
purple. The male flowers are sometimes 
on the same plant with the females, but at 
a distance from them ; they are commonly 
on distinct plants. The female flowers are 
succeeded by roundish berries, which are 
at first green, and when ripe are of a dark 
purple colour. They continue on the 
bush two years, and are sessile in the axil 
of the leaves. Juniper is common in all 
the northern parts of Europe, in fertile or 
barren soils, on hills or in valleys, in open 
sandy plains, or in moist and close woods. 
In England it is found chiefly on open 
downs, in a chalky or sandy soil. 

IVORY, a hard, solid, and firm sub- 
stance, of a white colour, and capable of 
a very good polish. It is the tusk of the 
elephant, and is hollow from the base to 
a certain height. It is brought to us from 
the East Indies, and from the coast of 
Guinea. Tusks are valuable in proportion, 
to their size ; and it is observed, that the 
Ceylon ivory, and that from the island of 
Achem, do not become yellow by wear, 
as all other ivory does : hence the teeth of 
these places bear a larger price than those 
of the coast of Guinea, 

IVORY black, is prepared from ivory, or 
bones burnt in a close vessel. This, 
when finely ground, forms a more beauti- 
ful and deeper colour than lamp-black ; 
but, in the common methods of manufac- 
turing, it is apt to be adulterated with 
charcoal dust, so as to be almost, or alto- 
gether, unfit for use. 

JUPITER, }/ , in astronomy, one of the 
superior planets, remarkable for its great 
brightness. See ASTRONOMY. 

Jupiter is the brightest of all the planets, 
except Venus. He moves from west to 
east in a period of 4332 days, exhibiting 
irregularities similar to those of Mars. 
Before he comes into opposition, and when 
distant from the sun about 115, his mo- 
tion becomes retrograde, and increases in 


swiftness till he comes in opposition. The 
motion then becomes gradually slower, 
and becomes direct when the planet ad- 
vances within 115 of the sun. The du- 
ration of the retrograde motion is about 
121 days, and the arch of retrogradation 
described is about 10. But there is a 
considerable difference both in the amount 
and in the duration of this retrograde 

Jupiter has the same general appear- 
ance with Mars, only that the belts on his 
surface are much larger and more perma- 
nent They are said to have been first 
discovered by Fontana and two other 
Italians ; but Cassini was the first who 
gave a good account of them. Their 
number is very variable, as sometimes 
only one, and at others no fewer than 
eight, may be perceived. They are gene- 
rally parallel to one another, but not al- 
ways so ; and their breadth is likewise 
variable, one belt having been observed 
to grow narrow, while another in its neigh- 
bourhood has increased in breadth, as if 
the one had flowed into the other, and in 
this case Dr. Long observes, that a part 
of an oblique belt lay between them, as if 
to form a communication for this pur- 
pose. The time of their continuance is 
very uncertain, sometimes remaining un- 
changed for three months ; at others, 
new belts have been formed in an hour or 
two. In some of these belts large black 
spots have appeared, which moved swift- 
ly over the disk from east to west, and 
returned in a short time to the same place ; 
from whence the rotation of this planet 
about its axis has been determined. 

The figure ot Jupiter is evidently an 
oblate spheroid, the longest diameter of 
his disk being to the shortest as 1-3 to 12. 
His rotation is from west to east, like that 
ot the sun, and the plane of his equator is 
very nearly coincident with that of his 
orbit ; so that there can scarcely be any 
difference of seasons in that planet. His 
rotation has been observed to be some- 
what quicker in his aphelion than his pe- 
rihelion. The axis of rotation is nearly 
perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic, 
and the planet makes one revolution in 
about 9 h . 55' and 37". The changes in 
the appearances of these spots, and the 
difference in the time of their rotation, 
make it probable that they do not adhere 
to Jupiter, but are clouds transported by 
the wind, with different velocities, in 
an atmosphere subject to violent agita- 

Four little stars are observed around 
Jupiter, which constantly accompany him. 

Their relative situation is continually 
chunging. They oscillate on both sides 
of the planet, and their relative rank is 
determined by the length of these oscilla- 
tions. That one in which he oscillation 
is shortest is called the firs satellite, and 
so on. These satellites are analogous to 
our moon. See ASTRONOMY. They are 
all supposed to move in ellipses ; though 
the eccentricities of all of them are too 
small to be measured, excepting that of 
the fourth ; and even this amounts to no 
more than 0.007 of its mean distance from 
the primary. 

The orbits of these planets were thought 
by Galileo to be in the same plane with 
that of their primary : but M. Cassini has 
found that their orbits make a small angle 
with it ; and as he did not find any differ- 
ence in the place of their nodes, he con- 
cluded that they were all in the same 
place, and that their ascending nodes 
were in the middle of Aquarius. After 
observing them for more than thirty-six 
years, he found their greatest latitude, or 
deviation from the plane of Jupiter's orbit, 
to be 2 55'. The first ot these satellites 
revolves at the distance of 5.697 of Ju- 
piter's semi-diameters, or 1' 51", as mea- 
sured by proper instruments ; its periodi- 
cal time is K 18^. 27' 34". The next 
satellite revolves at the distance of 9.017 
semi-diameters, or 2' 56", in 3*. 13 h . 13 ; 
43" ; the third at the distance of 14.384 
semi-diameters, or 4' 42", in 7 d . 3 h . 42' 
36" ; and the fourth at the distance of 
25.266, or 8' 16", in 16. 16> 32' 09". 
Since the time of Cassini it has been found 
that the nodes of Jupiter's satellites are 
not in the same place ; and from the dif- 
ferent points of view in which we have an 
opportunity of observing them from the 
earth, we see them sometimes apparently 
moving in straight lines, and at other 
times in elliptic curves. A.H of them, by 
reason of their immense distance, seem to 
keep near their primary, and their appa- 
rent motion is a kind of oscillation, like that 
of a pendulum; going alternately from 
their greatest distance on one side to the 
greatest distance on the other, sometimes 
in a straight line, and sometimes in an 
elliptic curve. 

When a satellite is in its superior semi- 
circle, or that half of its orbit which is 
more distant from the earth than Jupiter 
is, its motion appears to us direct, accord- 
ing to the order of the signs ; but in its 
interior semi-circle, when it is nearer to 
us than Jupiter, its motion appears retro- 
grade ; and both these motions seem 
quicker the nearer the satellites are to 



the centre of the primary, slower the 
more distant they are, and at the greatest 
distance of all they appear for a short time 
to be stationary. 

From this account of the system of Ju- 
piter and his satellites, it is evident that 
occultations of them must frequently hap- 
pen by their going 1 behind their primary, 
or by coming in betwixt us and it. The 
former takes place when they proceed to- 
wards the middle of their upper semi- 
circle ; the latter, when they pass through 
the same part of their inferior semi-circle. 
Occultations of the former kind hap- 
pen to the first and second satellites ; at 
every revolution, the third very rarely 
escapes an occultation ; but the fourth 
more frequently, by reason of its greater 

It is seldom that a satellite can be dis- 
covered upon the disk of Jupiter, even by 
the best telescopes, excepting at its 
first entrance, when, by reason of its be- 
ing more directly illuminated by the rays 
of the sun than the planet itself, it appears 
like a lucid spot upon it. Sometimes, 
however, a satellite in passing over the 
disk appears like a dark spot, and is easi- 
ly to be distinguished. This is supposed to 
be owing to spots on the body of these se- 
condary planets ; and it is remarkable, that 
the same satellite has been known to pass 
over the disk at one time as a dark spot, 
and at another so luminous that it could 
not be distinguished from Jupiter himself, 
except at its coming on and going oft'. 
When the satellites pass through their in- 
ferior semi-circles, they may cast a sha- 
dow upon their primary, and thus cause an 
eclipse of the sun to his inhabitants, if 
there are any ; and in some situations this 
shadow may be observed going before or 
following the satellite. On the other hand, 
in passing through their superior semi- 
circles, the satellites may be eclipsed in 
the same manner as our moon, by pass- 
ing through the shadow of Jupiter; and 
this is actually the case with the first, se- 
cond, and third of these bodies : but the 
fourth, by reason of the largeness of 
its orbit, passes sometimes above or be- 
low the shadow, as is the case with our 

The beginnings and endings of these 
eclipses are easily seen by a telescope, 
when the earth is in a proper situation 
with regard to Jupiter and the sun ; but 
when this or any other planet is in con- 
junction with the sun, the superior bright- 
ness of that luminary renders both it and 
the satellites invisible. From the time of 
its first appearing after a conjunction, 

until near the opposition, only the immer^ 
sions of the satellites into his shadow, or 
the beginnings of the eclipses, are visible ; 
at the opposition, only the occultations of 
the satellites, by going behind or coming 
before their primary, are observable : 
and from the opposition to the conjunc- 
tion, only the immersions, or end of the 
eclipses, are to be seen. This is ex- 
actly true in the first satellite, of which 
we can never see an immersion with its 
immediately subsequent emersion : and 
it is but rarely that they can be both 
seen in the second ; as, in order to their 
being so, that satellite must be near one 
of its limits, at the same time that the 
planet is near his perihelion and qua- 
drature with the, sun. With regard to 
the third, when Jupiter is more than 
forty -six degrees from conjunction with, 
or opposition to the sun, both its im- 
mersions and immediately subsequent 
emersions are visible; as they likewise 
are in the fourth, when the distance of 
Jupiter from conjunction or opposition is 
twenty-four degrees. 

JURATS, magistrates in the nature 
of Aldermen, for the government of 
several corporations. Thus we meet with 
the Mayor and Jurats of Maidstone, Rye, 

JURY, a certain number of persons 
sworn to inquire of and try some mat- 
ter of fact, and to declare the truth upon 
such evidence as shall be laid before 
them. The jury are sworn judges up- 
on all evidence in any matter of fact. 
Juries may be divided into two kinds, 
common and speciaf. A common jury 
is such as is returned by the sheriff; 
according to the directions of the statute 
3 George II. cap. 25, which appoints 
that the sheriff's officer shall not return 
a separate pannel for every separate 
cause, but one and the same pannel for 
every cause to be tried at the same as- 
sizes, containing not less than forty-eight, 
nor more than seventy-two jurors ; and 
their names being written on tickets shall 
be put into a box or glass, and when each 
cause is called, twelve of those persons, 
whose names shall be first drawn out of 
the box, shall be sworn upon a jury, un- 
less absent, challenged, or excused. 
When a sufficient number of persons 
are impannelled, they are then separate- 
ly sworn well and truly to try the issue 
between the parties, and a true verdict 
give according to the evidence. 

Special juries were originally introduc- 
ed in trials at bar, when the causes were 
of too great nicety for the discussion of 



ordinary freeholders. To obtain a special 
jury, a motion is made in court, and a 
rule is granted thereupon, for the sheriff 
to attend the master, prothonotary, or 
other proper officer, with his freeholder's 
book, and the officer is to take indiffer- 
ently forty-eight of the principal free- 
holders, in the presence of the attornies 
on both sides, who are each of them 
to strike off twelve, and the remaining 
twenty-four are returned upon the pan- 

Jurors are punishable for sending for, 
or receiving instructions from, either of 
the parlies concerning the matter in ques- 

In causes of nisi prius, every person 
whose name shall be drawn, and who 
shall not appear after being openly called 
three times, shall, on oath made of his 
having been lawfully summoned, forfeit a 
sum not exceeding 51. nor less than 405., 
unless some reasonable cause of absence 
be proved, by oath or affidavit, to the sa- 
tisfaction of the judge. If any juror shall 
take of either party to give his verdict, 
he shall, on conviction, by bill or plaint, 
before the court where the verdict shall 
pass, forfeit ten times as much as he has 
taken ; half to the King, and half to him 
who shall sue. A man who shall assault 
or threaten a juror for giving a verdict 
against him, is highly punishable by fine 
and imprisonment; and if he strike him 
in the court, in the presence of the 
judge of assize, he shall lose his hand 
and his goods, and the profits of his 
lands during life, and suffer perpetual 

JURY mast, whatever is set up in room 
of a mast that has been lost in a storm or 
in an engagement, and to which a lesser 
yard, ropes, and sails, are fixed. 

JUSSUEA, in botany, so named from 
Antoine de Jussieu, a genus of the De- 
candria Monogynia class and order. Na- 
tural order of Calycanthemx. Onagrx, 
Jussieu. Essential character : calyx four 
or five parted, superior ; petals four or 
five ; capsules four or five ceiled, oblong, 
gaping at the corners ; seeds numerous, 
minute. There are eleven species. These 
are mostly herbaceous plants, natives of 
North and South America, also of the 
East and West Indies. 

JUSTICE signifies he who is deputed 
by the King to do right by way of judg- 

JUSTICES in eyre, in ancient times, 
were sent with commission into several 
counties, to hear such causes especially as 
were termed pleas of the crown. And this 

was done for the ease of the people, who 
must otherwise have been hurried to the 
King's Bench, if the case were too high 
for the county court : they differed from 
the justices of over and terminer, because 
they were sent upon one or for special 
causes, and to one place ; whereas the 
justices in eyre were sent through the pro- 
vince and counties of the land, with more 
indefinite and general commissions. 

JUSTICES of gaol delivery, such as are 
sent with commission to hear and deter- 
mine all causes appertaining to such as 
for any offence are cast into the gaol. 

JUSTICES of nisi prius, are the same 
with justices of assize, for it is a com- 
mon adjournment of a cause, to put it off 
to such a day, nisi prins justiciarii venerint 
ad eas partes ad capiendas assisas , and 
upon this clause of adjournment, they are 
called justices of nisi prius, as well as jus- 
tices of assize, by reason of the writ or 
action they have to deal in. 

JUSTICES ofoyer and terminer. As the 
justices of assize and nisi priiis are ap- 
pointed to try civil cases, so are the jus- 
tices ofoyer and terminer, and gaol deli- 
very, to try indictments for all crimes all 
over the kingdom, at what are generally 
denominated the circuits or assiz,es ; and 
the towns where they come to exe- 
cute their commission are called the as- 
size towns, and are generally the county 

JUSTICES of the peace, are persons ap- 
pointed by the King's commission, to at- 
tend to the peace of the county where 
they dwell. They were called guardians 
of the peace till the thirty-sixth year of 
Edw. III. c. 12, where they are called jus- 
tices. A justice of the peace must, be- 
fore he acts, take the oath of office, which 
is usually done before some persons in the 
county, by virtue of a dedimiis potestatem 
out of chancery. Sheriffs, coroners, at- 
torneys, and proctors^ may not act as jus- 
tices of the peace. 

The power, office, and duty of this ma- 
gistrate extends to an almost infinite num- 
ber of instances, specified in some hun- 
dreds of acts of parliament, and every 
year accumulating. The commission of 
of the peace does not determine by the 
demise of the King, nor until six months 
after, unless sooner determined by the 
successor .- but before his demise, the 
King may determine it, or may put out 
any particular person, which is most com- 
monly done by a new commission, leaving 
out such person's name. 

Justices of the peace can only be ap- 
pointed by the king's special commission, 


and such commission must be in his 
name ; but it is not requisite that there 
should be a special suit or application to, 
or warrant from the King for the granting 
it, which is only requisite for such as are 
of a particular nature, as constituting the 
mayor of such a town and his successors 
perpetual justices of the peace within 
their liberties, &c. which commissions are 
neither revocable by the King, nor deter- 
minable by his demise, as the common 
commission of the peace is, which is made 
of course by the Lord Chancellor accord- 
ing- to his discretion. 

The form of the commission of the 
peace, as it is at this day, was, according 
to Hawkins, settled by the judges about 
23 Elizabeth. 

Justices of the peace have no power to 
hear and determine felonies, unless they 
are authorised so to do by the ex- 
press words of their commissions ; and 
that their jurisdictions to hear and deter- 
mine murder, man-slaughter, and other 
felonies and trespasses is by force of the 
express words in their commission. 

But though justices of the peace, by 
force of their commission, have authority 
to hear and determine murder and man- 
slaughter, yet they seldom exercise a ju- 
risdiction herein, or in any other offences 
in which clergy is taken away, for two 
reasons : 1. By reason of the monition 
and clause in their commission, viz. in 
cases of difficulty to expect the presence 
of the justices of assize. 2. By reason of 
the direction of the statute of 1 and 2 
Philip and Mary, c. 13, which directs 
justices of the peace, incase of manslaugh- 
ter and other felonies, to take the exami- 
nation of the prisoner, and the information 
of the fact, and put the same in writing, 
and then to bail the prisoner if there be 
cause, and to certify the same with the 
bail, at the next general gaol delivery ; 
and therefore in cases of great moment 
they bind over the prosecutors, and bail 
the party, if bailable, to the next general 
gaol delivery ; but in smaller matters, as 
petty larceny, and in some other cases, 
they bind over to the sessions ; but this is 
only in point of discretion and convenience, 
not because they have not jurisdiction of 
the crime. 

As to inferior offences, the jurisdiction 
herein given to justices of the peace, by 
particular statutes, is so various, and ex- 
tends to such a multiplicity of cases, that 
it would be endless to endeavour to enu- 
merate them ; also they have as justices 
vf the peace a very ample jurisdiction in 

all matters concerning 1 the pence. Ana 
therefore not only assaults and batteries, 
but libels, barratry, and common nighi- 
walking, and haunting bawdy. houses, ami 
such like offences, which have a duvet 
tendency to cause breaches of the peace, 
are cognizable by justices of the peace, 
as trespasses within the proper and natu- 
ral meaning' of the word. 

On renewing the commission of the 
peace (which generally happens when 
any person is newly brought into it) a 
writ of dedimns potestatem is issued out of 
chancery, to take the oath of him who is 
newly inserted, which is usually in a sche- 
dule annexed, and to certify the same 
into that court at such a day as the writ 
commands. Unto which oath are usually 
annexed the oaths of allegiance and su- 

Justices of the peace are to hold their 
sessions four times in the year, viz the 
first week after Michaelmas, the Epipha- 
ny, Easter, and St. Thomas. They are 
justices of record, for none but justices 
of record can take a recognizance of 
the peace. Every justice of the peace 
has a separate power, and may do all 
acts concerning his office apart and by 
himself; and even may commit a fellow 
justice upon treason, felony, or breach of 
the peace. By several statutes, justices 
may act in many cases where their com- 
mission does not reach ; the statutes 
themselves being a sufficient commission. 

Justices of the peace are authorized to 
do all things appertaining to their office, 
so far as they relate to the laws for the 
relief, maintenance, and settlement of the 
poor; for passing and punishing va- 
grants ; for repair of the highways, or to 
any other laus concerning parochial 
taxes, levies, or rates : notwithstanding 
they are rated or chargeable with the 
rates, within any place aflTected by such 
their acts. Provided that this shall not 
empower any justice for any county at 
large, to act in the determination of any 
appeal to the quarter sessions of such 
county, from any order, matter, or thing', 
relating to any such parish, township, or 
place, where such justice is so charged or 
chargeable, 16 Geo. II. c. 18 The power 
of justices is ministerial, when they are 
commanded to do any thing by a supe- 
rior authority, as the court of Banco He- 
gis, &c. In all other cases they act as 
judges; but they must proceed accord- 
ing to their commission, &c. Where a 
statute requires an act to be done by two 
justices, it is an established rule, that if 



the act be of a judicial nature, or the re- 
sult of discretion, the two justices must 
be present, to concur and join in it, other- 
wise it wi be void : as in the orders of 
removal and filiation, the appointment of 
overseers, and the allowance of the in- 
denture of a parish apprentice; but 
\vhere the act is merely ministerial, they 
may act separately, as in the allowance of 
a poor-rate. This is the only act of two 
justices which has been construed to be 
ministerial ; and the propriety of this con- 
struction has been justly questioned. 

Where a justice shall exceed his au- 
thority in granting a warrant, the officer 
must execute it, and he is indemnified for 
so doing ; but if it be in a case wherein 
he has no jurisdiction, or in a matter 
whereof he has no cognizance, the officer 
ought not to execute such warrant ; for 
the officer is bound to take notice of the 
authority and jurisdiction of the justice. 
If a justice of the peace will not, on com- 
plaint to him made, execute his office, or 
if he shall misbehave in his office, the 
party grieved may move the Court of 
King's Bench for an information, and af- 
terwards may apply to the Court of Chan- 
eery to put him out of the commission. 
But the most usual way of compelling 
justices to execute their office, in any 
case, is by writ of mandamus out of the 
Court of King's Bench. 

^Where the plaintiff in an action against 
a justice, shall obtain a verdict, and the 
judge shall in open court certify on the 
back of the record, that the injury for 
which such action was brought was wil- 
fully and maliciously committed, the plain- 
tiff shall have double costs. And if a jus- 
tice of peace act improperly, knowingly, 
information shall be granted. No justice 
shall be liable to be punished both ways, 
that is, criminally and civilly ; but before 
the court will grant an information, they 
will require the party to relinquish his 
civil action, if any such be commenced. 
And even in the case of an indictment, 
and though the indictment be actually 
found, the Attorney-General, on applica- 
tion made to him, will grant a noli prosetjui 
upon such indictment, if it appear to him 
that the prosecutor is determined to carry 
on a civil action at the same time. 

If any action shall be brought against a 
justice for any thing done by virtue of his 
office, he may plead the general issue, 
and give the special matter in evidence ; 
and if he recover, he shall have double 
costs. Such action shall not be laid but 
in the county where the fact was com- 
mitted. And no suit shall be commenced 

against a justice of the peace till after one 
month's notice. And unless it is proved 
upon the trial that such notice was given, 
the justice shall have a verdict and costs. 
And no action shall be brought against 
any constable or other officer, or any per- 
son acting by his order and in his aid, for 
any thing done in obedience to the war- 
rant of a justice, till demand hath been 
made, or left at the usual place of his 
abode, by the party or by his attorney, in 
writing, signed by the party demanding 
the same, of the perusal and copy of such 
warrant, and the same has been' refused 
or neglected for six days after such de- 
mand. And no action shall be brought 
against any justice, for any thing done in 
the execution of his office, unless com- 
menced within six months after the act 

JUSTICIA, in botany, so named from 
James Justice, a genus of the Dianclria 
Monogynia class and order. Natural or- 
der of Personate. Acanthi, Jussieu. Es- 
sential character : corolla ringent ; cap- 
sule two-celled, opening with an elastic 
claw; stamina with a single anther. There 
are eighty species, mostly natives of the 
Cape of Good Hope and the East Indies. 
There are only two commonly known in 
our English gardens, viz. J. adhatodar, 
Malabar nut; and J. hyssopifolia, snap 

JUSTICIES is a writ directed to the 
sheriff to do justice in a plea of trespass 
t'i et armis, or of any sum above 40s. in the 
county court, of which he hath no cogni- 
zance by ordinary power. It is in the 
nature of a commission to the sheriff, and 
is not returnable. 

IXIA, in botany, a genus of the Trian- 
driu Monogynia class and order. Natural 
order of Ensatse. Irides, Jussieu. Essen- 
tial character : corolla one-petalled, tubu- 
lar ; tube straight, filiform ; border six- 
parted, bell-shaped, regular; stigmas 
three or six, simple. There are fifty -four 
species. Ixia differs from antholyza in 
having the segments of the corolla nearly 
equal ; from gladiolus, in the situation of 
the segments of the corolla, and in having 
the tube straight. Almost all the species 
are natives of the Cape of Good Hope. 

IXOltA, in botany, a genus of the Te- 
trandria Monogynia class and order. Na- 
tural order of Stellatae. Rubiaceae, Jus- 
sieu. Essential character : corolla one- 
petalled, funnel-form, long, superior; 
stamina above the mouth ; berry four- 
seeded. There are nine species, of which 
I. Americana, American ixora, has a 
shrubby stalk, four or five feet high, send- 



Ing out slender opposite branches ; leaves scei 
nearly six inches long 1 , on short foot stalks, and other 
Flowers at the ends of the branches in a 
loose spike, they are white, and have a 

scent like jasmine, whence in Jamaica, 
and other islands of the West Indies, 
where it is a native, it is called wild jas- 

KOr k, the lentil letter, and seventh 
? consonant of our alphabet; being 
formed by the voice, by a guttural expres- 
sion of the breath through the mouth, to- 
gether with a depression of the lower jaw, 
and opening of the teeth. 

Its sound is much the same with that of 
the hard c, or gu , and it is used, for the 
most part, only before e, i, and n, in the 
beginning of words ; as, ken, kill, know, 
&c. It used formerly to be always joined 
with c at the end of words, but is at pre- 
sent very properly omitted : thus, for 
publick, musick, &c. we say, public, music, 
&c. However, in monosyllables it is still 
retained, as jack, block, mock, &c. 

The letter k is derived from the Greek 
kappa, K or * ; it being unknown to the 
Romans, though we sometimes meet with 
kalendae instead of calends. 

As a numeral, K denotes 250 ; and with 
a line over it, K 250,000. 

KJEMPFERIA, in botany, so named 
from Engelbert Ksempfer, a celebrated 
traveller, a genus of the MonandriaMono- 
gynia class and order. Natural order of 
Scitamineee. Cannx, Jussieu. Essential 
character: corolla six-parted, three of the 
parts larger, spreading, one two-parted ; 
stigma two-plated. There are two spe- 
cies, viz. K. galanga, galangale ; and K. 
rotunda. As these are both natives of the 
East Indies, they require a warm stove to 
preserve them through our \yintei-. 
KALMIA, in botany, a genus of the De- 
randria Monogynia class and order. Na- 
tural order of Bicornes. Rhododendra, 
Jussieu. Essential character : calyx five- 
parted ; corolla salver-form, with the bor- 
der five-horned beneath ; capsule five- 
celled. There are four species ; of the K. 
latifolia, broad-leaved kalmia, we shall 
give some little account, taken from the 
fifth volume of the American Philosophi- 
cal Transactions. The leaves of this shrub 
are feasted upon by the deer and the 
ixmnd horned elk,butare mortally poison- 

ous to sheep, to horned cattle, to horses, 
and to man. The bee extracts honey, 
without injury, from its nectary, but the 
man who partakes of that honey, after it 
is deposited in the hive cells, falls a victim 
to his repast. 

Some very singular cases, in proof of 
this assertion, occurred at Philadelphia no 
longer ago than the year 1790, in the au- 
tumn and winter of which an extensive 
mortality was produced amongst those 
who had partaken of the honey that had 
been collected in the neighbourhood of 
Philadelphia, or had feasted on the com- 
mon American pheasant. The attention 
of the American government was excited 
by the general distress, a minute exami- 
nation into the cause of the mortality en- 
sued, and it was satisfactorily ascertained, 
that the honey had been chiefly extracted 
from the flowers of kalmia latifolia, and 
that the pheasants, which had proved thus 
poisonous, had fed harmlessly on its 
leaves : in consequence of which, a pub- 
lic proclamation was issued, ^ prohibiting 
the use of the pheasant, as a food, for that 
season. See Good's Oration before the 
Medical Society. 

KAM SIN, the name of a hot southerly 
wind, common in Egypt. The wind is 
said to prevail more or less for fifty days, 
hence it is called " the wind of fifty days." 
Travellers, who have experienced the ef- 
fect of it, have described it as a poison- 
ous wind. When it begins to blow, the 
atmosphere assumes an alarming appear- 
ance. The sky, at other times so clear in 
this climate, becomes dark and heavy ; 
the sun loses its splendour, and appears 
of a violet colour ; the air is not cloudy, 
but grey and thick, and is filled with a 
dust so subtile, that it penetrates every 

This wind, always light and rapid, is 
not at first remarkably hot, but it increases 
in heat in proportion as it continues. All 
animated bodies soon discover it by the 
change it produces in them. The lungs, 
which a. too rarefied air no longer expands, 




are contracted, and become painful. Re- 
spiration is short and difficult, the skin 
parched and dry, and the body consumed 
by an internal heat. In vain is recourse 
had to large draughts of water ; nothing 
can restore perspiration. In vain is cool- 
ness sought for ; all bodies, in which it is 
usual to find it, deceive the hand that 
touches them. Marble, iron, water, not- 
withstanding the sun no longer appears, 
are hot. The streets are deserted, and 
the dead silence of night reigns every 
where. The inhabitants of towns and 
villages shut themselves up in their 
houses, and those of the desert in their 
tents, or in wells dug in the earth, where 
they wait the termination of this destruc- 
tive heat. It usually lasts three days, but 
if it exceeds that time it becomes insup- 
portable. The danger is most imminent 
when it blows in squalls ; for then the 
rapidity of the wind increases the heat to 
such a degree as to cause sudden death. 
This death is a real suffocation. The 
lungs being empty are convulsed, the 
circulation is disordered, and the whole 
mass of blood driven by the heat towards 
the head and breast; whence the haemorr- 
hage at the nose and mouth, which hap- 
pens after death. This wind is especially 
destructive to persons of a plethoric habit, 
and those in whom fatigue has destroyed 
the tone of the muscles and the vessels. 
The corpse remains a long time warm, 
swells, turns blue, and soon becomes 
putrid. These accidents are to be avoided 
by stopping the nose and mouth with 
handkerchiefs. An efficacious method, 
likewise, is that practised by the camels. 
On this occasion these animals bury their 
noses in the sand, and keep them there 
till the squall is over. Another quality 
of this wind is its extreme aridity ; which 
is such, that water sprinkled on the floor 
evaporates in a few minutes. By the ex- 
treme dryness it withers and strips all 
the plants ; and by exhaling too suddenly 
the emanations from animal bodies, crisps 
the skin, closes the pores, and causes 
that feverish heat which is the constant 
effect of suppressed perspiration. 

KAOLIN, in the arts, the name of an 
earth used in the manufacture of oriental 
porcelain china. A specimen of this earth 
was brought from China, and examined 
by Reaumur, who found it to be infusible 
by fire. He thought it was a talcy earth ; 
but Mr. Macquer says it is more proba- 
bly of an argillaceous nature, from its 
forming a tenacious paste, with the other 
ingredient called petunse, which has no 
tenacity. A French chemist, M. Bomaire, 
analyzed it, and found it was a compound 

earth, consisting of clay, to which it owed 
its tenacity ; of calcareous earth, which 
gave it a mealy appearance ; of sparkling 
crystals of mica ; and of small gravel, or 
particles of quartz-crystals. He found a 
similar earth upon a stratum of granite, 
and conjectures it may be a decomposed 

KEDGING, in the sea-language, is 
when a ship is brought up or down a 
narrow river by means of the tide, the 
wind being contrary. To do this, they 
use to set their fore-course, or fore-top- 
sail and mizen, that so they may flat her 
about; and if she happen to come too 
near the shore, they let fall a kedge-an- 
chor, with a hawser fastened to it from 
the ship, in order to turn her head about ; 
which work is called kedging. 

KEEL, the lowest piece of timber in a 
ship, running her whole length, from the 
lower part of her stem to the lower part 
of her stern-post. Into it are all the 
lower futtocks fastened ; and under part, 
of it a false keel is often used. 

By comparing the carcass of a ship to 
the skeleton of a human body, the keel 
appears as the back bone, and the tim- 
bers as the ribs. Accordingly, the keel 
supports and unites the whole fabric, 
since the stem and stern-posts, which are 
elevated on its ends, are, in some measure, 
a continuation of the keel, and serve to 
connect and inclose the extremities of the 
sides by transoms, as the keel forms and 
unites the bottom by timbers. 

The keel is generally composed of 
several thick pieces placed lengthways, 
which, after being scarfed together, arc 
bolted and clinched upon the upper side. 

KEEL hauling, a punishment inflicted 
for various offences in the Dutch navy. It 
is performed by suspending the culprit 
by a rope from one yard arm, with a 
weight of lead or iron upon his legs, and 
having another rope fastened to him, lead- 
ing under the ship's bottom, and through 
a block at its opposite yard-arm ; he is 
then repeatedly and suddenly let fall 
from the one yard- arm into the sea, where, 
passing under the ship's bottom, he is 
hoisted upon the opposite side of the 
vessel to the other. 

KEELERS, among seamen, are sma]-! 
tubs, which hold stuff for the caulking oi 

KEELSON, a principal timber in :>. 
ship, fayed within-side cross all the floor- 
timbers; and being adjusted to the keel 
with suitable scarfs, it serves to strengthen 
the bottom of the ship. 

KEEP, in ancient military history, a 
kind of strong tower, which was built in 


the centre of a castle or fort, to which 
the besieged retreated, and made their 
last efforts of defence. 

Of this description is the keep of Wind- 
sor Castle. 

KEEPER of the great seal, is a lord by 
virtue of his office, and styled the Lord 
Keeper of the Great Seal of England. He 
is one of the King's Privy Council, through 
whose hands pass all charters, commis- 
sions, and grants of the King under the 
great seal ; without which, all such in- 
struments by law are of no force, the 
King in this being a corporation, whose 
acts are evidenced by his seal. This Lord 
Keeper, by tiie statue of 5 Elizabeth, cap. 
18, has the same place, authority, pre- 
eminence, 8cc. as the Lord Chancellor of 
England for the time being. He is con- 
stituted by the delivery of the great seal 
to him, taking his oath. 

KEEPEII of tlie privy seal, is a lord by 
virtue of his office, through whose hands 
pass all charters signed by the King be- 
fore they come to the great seal. He is 
of the King's Privy Council, and was an- 
ciently called Clerk of the Privy Seal. 

KEEPING, in painting, signifies the 
representation of objects in the same man- 
ner that they appear to the eye at dif- 
ferent distances from it, which is only to 
be done with accuracy by attending to 
the rules of perspective. 

KELP, an impure alkali, obtained in the 
north of Scotland, from different kinds of 
fuci, or sea-weed. The sea-weeds being- 
dried, are put in pits dug in the sand, or 
on the surface, surrounded with loose 
stone, forming what is called a kiln, fresh 
quantities being added, and the whole 
being frequently stirred until it become 
semi-fluid, which, when cold, forms hard 

KELP, a fixed salt, or particular species 
of a potash, procured by burning the 
weed called kali. 

KERMES, in natural history, a species 
of the Coccus, which see. 

KERMES imneral, in chemistry, an anti- 
monial compound of great celebrity as a 
medicine about the beginning of the 
seventeenth century ; in the new chemi- 
cal, arrangement it is denominated hydro- 
sulphuret of antimony. 

The substance is prepared in the fol- 
lowing manner: sixteen parts of sul- 
phuret of antimony, eight parts of potash, 
and one of sulphur, are triturated to- 
gether in a mortar, melted in a crucible, 
and the mass poured into an iron vessel. 
When cold it is pounded, and boiled in a 
sufficient quantity of water, and the solu- 
tion is filtered while Jjwt. On cooljng, it 

deposits the kermes abundantly in the. 
state of a yellow powder, which is edul- 
corated with a sufficient quantity of water, 
and dried. The true kermes consists of 
Sulphuretted hydrogen . . . 20.30 

Sulphur 415 

Protoxide of antimony . . . 72.76 
Water, and loss 2.79 


KETCH, a vessel equipped with two 
masts, viz. the main-mast and the mizen- 
mast, and usually from 100 to 250 tons 
burthen. Ketches are principally used 
as yachts for conveying princes of the 
blood, ambassadors, or other great per- 
sonages, from one place to another. 
Ketches are likewise used as bomb-ves- 
sels, and are therefore furnished with all 
the apparatus necessary for a vigorous 

KETCHES, bomb, are built remarkably 
strong, as being fitted with a greateV 
number of riders than any other vessel of 
war ; and indeed this reinforcement is 
absolutely necessary to sustain the violent 
shock produced by the discharge of their 
mortars, which would otherwise in a very 
short time shatter them to pieces. 

KEY, a well known instrument for 
opening and shutting the locks of doors, 
chests, &c. See LOCK. 

KEY, or key uote t in music, a certain 
fundamental note or tone, to which the 
whole of a movement has a certain rela- 
tion or bearing, to which all its modula^ 
tions are referred and accommodated, 
and in which it both begins and ends. 
There are but two species of keys : one 
of the major, and one of the minor mode : 
all the keys in which we employ sharps 
or flats being deduced from the natural 
keys of C major and A minor; of which 
they are mere transpositions. 

KEYSC/CMI organ, those moveable, pro- 
jecting levers in the front of an organ, so 
placed as to conveniently receive the fin- 
gers of the performer, and which, by a 
connected movement with the valves or 
pallets, admit or exclude the wind from 
the pipes. When a single key of an or- 
gan is pressed down, as many sounds are 
heard as all the stops which are then out 
furnish to that key ; in other words, all 
those pipes are heard which are permitted 
by those stops and that key to receive 
the wind. 

KEY stone of an arch or vault, that 
placed at the top or vertex of an arch, to 
bind the two sweeps together. Tliis, in 
the Tuscan and Doric orders, is only a 
plain stone, projecting a little; in ths 



Ionic it is cut and waved somewhat like 
consoles ; and in the Corinthian and Com- 
posite orders it is a console, enriched 
with sculpture. Keystones, made in the 
manner of consoles, and placed projecting 
in the middle of arches and porticos, are 
particularly designed to sustain the weight 
and pressure of the entablature, where it 
happens to be very great between the 
columns ; for which reason, they should 
be made so as to be a real support, and 
not stand for mere ornaments, as they 
too frequently do. 

KIDNAPPING, is the forcibly taking 
and carrying away a man, woman or child, 
from their own country, and sending them 
to another. This is an offence at com- 
mon law, and punishable by fine, impri- 
sonment, and pillory. By statute 11 and 
12 William III. c. 7, if any captain of a 
merchant vessel shall, during his being 
abroad, force any person on shore, and 
wilfully leave him behind, or refuse to 
bring home all such men as he carried 
out, if able and desirous to return, he 
shall suffer three months imprisonment. 
Exclusive of the above punishment for 
this, as a criminal offence, the party may 
recove't' upon an action for compensation 
in damages for the civil injury. 

KTGG.ELAKTA, in botany, so named 
from .Francis Kiggelar of Holland, a genus 
of the Dioecia Decandria class and order. 
Natural order of Columniferx. Euphor- 
bia;, Jussieu. Essential character: male, 
ralyx five-parted ; corolla five-petall- 
ed; glands five, three-lobed; anthers 
perforated at the tip : female, calyx 
and corolla as in the male ; styles five ; 
capsule one-celled, five valved, many- 
seeded, There is but one species, viz. 
K. afric.sTi:i. This plant grows natural- 
ly at the Cape of Good Hope, where it 
rises to a tree of middling stature; the 
branches have a smooth bark, which is 
at first green, afterwards it changes to a 
purplish colour: the leaves are about three 
inches long and one broad, sawed on 
their edges, standing upon short foot- 
stalks alternately. The Hewers come out 
in clusters from the side of the branches, 
hanging downwards; they are of an her- 
baceous white colour, appearing in May, 
at which time the plants are thinly gar- 
nished with leaves, most of the old ones 
dropping off just before the new leaves 
appear. The male flowers fall away soon 
after their farina is shed ; but the herma- 
phrodite, or female flowers,are succeeded 
by globular fruit, the si/e of common red 
cherries ; the cover of these is very rough, 
and of a thick consistence, opening in five 

valves at the top, having one cell filled 
with small angular seeds. These fruits 
have grown to their full size in the Chel- 
sea garden ; but the seeds have rarely 
come to maturity. 

KILDERKIN, a liquid measure, con- 
taining two firkins, or eighteen gallons. 

KING of England. The executive 
power in England is vested in a single 
person by immemorial usage, to whom 
the care of the people is entrusted, and 
to whom, therefore, allegiance is due. 
Formerly, the succession being interrupt- 
ed, there was occasionally a distinction 
between a rightful king, or king dejure, 
and a king rn possession of the throne, 
or king de facto ; and in cases of trea- 
son, and also with respect to many acts 
done by kings de facto, which were ne- 
cessary to be recognised by kings de 
jure afterwards, this distinction was of 
great importance : but it seems now on- 
ly necessary to consider the rightful 
power and authority of the King, law- 
fully and peaceably in possession of the 
throne. And in this country the crown 
is by common law hereditary in a pe- 
culiar manner, but not de jure divi-uo ,- 
and it may be changed in the limitation 
of its descent by the authority of the 
King, Lords, and Commons, in parlia- 
ment assembled, but it is not elective. 
As to the mode of inheritance, it is ge- 
nerally the same as other feodal descents, 
but it differs in one. or two particulars ; 
for it descends regularly to lineal descen- 
dants by right of primogeniture : but in 
case of no male heir, it descends to the 
eldest daughter only, and to her issue, 
and not in coparcenary to all the 
daughters. In failure of lineal heirs it 
goes to collateral descendants, but there 
is no failure on account of half blood. 
Lands also purchased by the King de- 
scend with the crown. The inheritance 
is not indefeasible, but may be altered 
as above, and therefore the statutes have 
expressed " his Majesty, his heirs, and 
successors." But, however limited or 
transferred, it still retains its heredita- 
ble quality to the wearer of it ; and 
hence the King never dies, but his right 
vests ea instanti in his heir ; so that Hall 
says, there can be no interregnum, and 
the death of the King is called the de- 
mise of the crown, which ordinarily 
means only a transfer from one to an- 
other. If the throne becomes vacant, 
whether by abdication, as in the time 
of James II., or by failure of all heirs, 
the two houses of parliament may, it U 
said by Blackstone, dispose of it. 


The preamble to the bill of rights ex- 
pressly declares, that the lords spiritual 
and temporal, and commons, assembled 
at Westminster, lawfully, fully, and freely 
represent all the estates of the people of 
the English realm. The lords are not 
less the trustees and guardians of their 
country than the members of the House 
of Commons. It was justly said, when 
the royal prerogatives were suspended, 
during his Majesty's illness in 1788, that 
the two houses of Parliament were the 
organs by which the people expressed 
their will : and in the House of Com- 
mons, on the 16th of December, in that 
year, two declaratory resolutions were 
accordingly passed, importing, 1. The 
interruption of the royal authority ; 2- 
That it was the duty of the two Houses 
of Parliament to provide the means of 
supplying that defect. On the 23d of 
the same month a third resolution pass- 
ed, empowering the Lord Chancellor of 
Great Britain to affix the great seal to 
such bill of limitations as might be ne- 
cessary to restrict the power of the fu- 
ture regent to be named by Parliament. 
This bill was accordingly brought tor- 
ward, not without considerable opposi- 
tion to its provisions, as well from pri- 
vate motives, as on forcible political 
grounds ; and at length, happily for the 
public, arrested in its progress, by the 
providential recovery of his Majesty, in 
March 1789. It is observable, how- 
ever, that no bill was ever afterwards in- 
troduced to guard against a future emer- 
gency of a similar nature : on the grounds, 
undoubtedly, of delicacy to a monarch 
Universally beloved ; in the hope of the 
improbability that such a circumstance 
should recur in future ; and in the con- 
fidence of the omnipotence of Parliament, 
if necessarily called upon again. See Bel- 
sham's " Memoirs of George III.," sub. 
an. 1788-9: and the "Journals of the 
Lords and Commons." 

Towards the end of King William's 
reign, the King and Parliament thought it 
necessary to exert their power of limiting 
and appointing the succession, in order to 
prevent the vacancy of the throne ; which 
must have ensued upon their deaths, as 
no further provision was made at the re- 
volution, than for the issue of Queen Ma- 
ry, Queen Anne, and King William. It 
had been previously, by the statute 1 
William and Mary, stat. 2, c. 2, enact- 
ed, that every person who should be 
reconciled to, or hold communion with, 
the see of Rome, who should profess the 
jPopish religion, or who should marry a 

Papist, should be excluded, and fop 
ever incapable to inherit, possess, or en- 
joy the crown ; and that in such case the 
people should be absolved from their alle- 
giance (to such person), and the crown 
should desend to such persons, being 
protestants, as would have inherited the 
same, in case the person so reconciled, 
holding communion, professing, or mar- 
rying, were naturally dead. To act, 
therefore, consistently with themselves, 
and, at the same time, pay as much re- 
gard to the old hereditary line as their 
former resolutions would admit, they 
turned their eyes on the princess Sophia, 
Electress and Dutchess Uowager of Han- 
over: for, upon the impending extinc- 
tion of the Protestant posterity of Charles 
I., the old law of legal descent directed 
them to recur to the descendants of James 
I. ; and the Princess Sophia, being th 
youngest daughter of Elizabeth, Queen 
of Bohemia, who was the daughter of 
James I,, was the nearest of the ancient 
blood-royal, who was not incapacitated 
by professing the Popish religion. On 
her, therefore, and the heirs of her body, 
being protestants, the remainder of the 
crown, expectant on the death of King 
William and Queen Anne, without issue, 
was settled by stat. 12 and 13 William 
III. c. 2. And at the same time it was 
enacted, that whosoever should hereafter 
come to the possession of the crown, 
should join in the communion of the 
Church of England, as by law establish- 

This is the last limitation of the crown 
that has been made by Parliament; and 
all the several actual limitations, from the 
time of Henry YI. to the present, (stated 
at large in 1 Cornm. c. 3.) do clearly prove 
the power of the King and Parliament to 
new-model or alter the succession. And 
indeed it is now again made highly penal 
to dispute it ; for by stat. 6 Anne, c. 7, it 
is enacted, that if any person maliciously, 
advisedly, and directly, shall maintain, by 
writing or printing, that the kings of this 
realm, with the authority of Parliament, 
are not able to make laws to bind the 
crown and the descent thereof, he shall be 
guilty of high treason ; or if he maintains 
the same only by preaching, teaching, or 
advised speaking, he shall incur the penal- 
ties of a prsemuniTe. The Princess Sophia 
dying before Queen Anne, the inheritance, 
thus limited, descended on her son King 
George I. ; and having taken effect in his 
person, from him it descended to his late 
Majesty King George II., and from him 
to his grandson and heir, our present gra- 


cious sovereign King George III. Former. 
ly the common stock,from which the heirs 
to the crown were derived, was King Eg-- 
bert, then William the Conqueror. In the 
time of James I., both stocks were unit- 
ed ; and, by the abdication of James II., 
the common stock is the Princess Sophia, 
and the heirs of her body, being Protes- 
tant members of the Church of England, 
and married to such as are Protestants. 
This is therefore an hereditary monarchy, 
duly constituted between the extremes 
of divine hereditary, indefeasible right, 
and elective succession. 

With respect to the royal family, the 
first branch considered in the law is the 
Queen, as to whom, see title QUEEN. 

The Prince of Wales, or heir-apparent 
to the crown, and also hi.s royal consort ; 
and the Princess lloyal, or eldest daugh- 
ter of the King-, are likewise peculiarly 
regarded by the laws. For, by statute 25 
Edw. III. to compass or conspire the death 
of the former, or to violate the chastity 
of the latter, is as much high treason as 
to conspire the death of the king, or vio- 
late the chastity of the queen. See 

The heir-apparent to the crown is usu- 
ally made Prince of Wales and Earl of 
Chester, by special creation and investi- 
ture ; but being the king's eldest son, he 
is, by inheritance, Duke of Cornwall, with- 
out any new creation. 

The observations in Coke's Reports, 
however, as well as the words of the sta- 
tute, it has been remarked, limit the 
dukedom of Cornwall to the first begotten 
(rather first born) son of a king of Eng- 
land, and to him only. But although from 
this it is manifest that a Duke of Cornwall 
must be the first begotten son of a king, 
yet it is not necessary that he should be 
born after his father's accession to the 
throne. The younger sons and daughters 
of the king, and other branches of the 
royal family, were little regarded by the 
ancient law, except with regard to their 
state and precedence, which was direct- 
ed by statute 31 Henry VIII. c. 10 ; and 
it was agreed by all the judges, in 1718, 
that the care and approbation of the 
marriages of the king's grand-children, 
as well as of the presumptive heir to the 
crown, belonged to the king, their grand- 
father. And now, by statute George III. 
c. 11, no descendant of the body of king 
George II. (other than the issue of prin- 
cesses married into foreign countries) is 
capable of contracting matrimony, with- 
out the previous consent of the king, sig- 
nified under the Great Seal ; and any 

marriage contracted without sucb. con- 
sent, is void, (a marriage accordingly, 
which had, in fact, taken place abroad, 
against the provisions of this act, between 
one of the sons of George III. and an Eng- 
lish lady, was dissolved in 1794, by sen- 
tence of the Ecclesiastical Court here) ; 
but it is provided by the act, that such of 
the said descendants as are above the age 
of twenty-five, may, after atwelve month's 
notice given to the King's Privy Council, 
contract and solemnize marriage without 
the consent of the crown, unless both 
Houses of Parliament shall, before the 
expiration of the said year, expressly de- 
clare their disapprobation of such intend- 
ed marriage. All persons solemnizing, 
assisting, or being present at any such 
prohibited marriage, shall incur the pe- 
nalties of praemumre. 

To assist the king in the discharge of 
his duties and maintenance of his dignity, 
and exercise of his prerogative, he has se- 
veral councils, as the PARLIAMENT, his 
P.EEIIS, and his Pmvr COUNCIX, which 

For law matter the judges are his coun- 
cil, as appears by statute 14 Edward III. 
c. 5, and elsewhere ; and therefore, when 
the King's Council is mentioned, it must 
be understood secundum subjectam mate- 
riam, as where a statute enacts a fine at 
the king's pleasure, it means the discre- 
tion of his judges. 

It is in consideration of the duties in- 
cumbent on the king by the constitution, 
that his dignity and prerogative are esta- 
blished by the laws of the land ; it being 
a maxim in the law, that protection and 
subjection are reciprocal. And these re- 
ciprocal duties are most probably what 
was meant by the convention parliament 
in 1688, when they declared that king 
James II. had broken the original contract 
between king and people. But, however, 
as the terms of that original contract were 
in some measure disputed, being alleged 
to exist principally in theory, and to be 
only deducible by reason and the rules 
of natural law ; in which deduction, dif- 
ferent understandings might very consi- 
derably differ ; it was, after the revolu- 
tion, judged proper to declare these du- 
ties expressly, and to reduce that contract 
to a plain certainty. So that whatever 
doubts might be formerly raised about the 
existence of such an original contract,, 
they must now entirely cease ; espeially 
with regard to every* prince who hath 
reigned since the year 1688. 

The principal duty of the king is, to go- 
yern bjs, people according to law. And 


tliis is not only consonant to the principles promise to do. After this, the king or 
of nature, reason, liberty, tind society, but queen, laying his or her hand npon the 
has always been esteemed an express part Holy Gospels, shall say, The tilings which 
of the common law of England, even I have here before promised, I will per- 
when prerogative was at the highest, form and keep, so help me God. And 
But to obviate all doubts and difficulties then shall kiss the book. It is also requir- 
concerning this matter, it is expressly de- ed, both by the Bill of Rights, 1 William 
clared, by statute 12 and 13 William III. and Mary, 'statute 2, c. 2, and the act of 
c. 2, That the laws of England are the settlement, 12 and 13 William III. c. 2, 
birth-right of the people thereof; and all that every king and queen, of the age of 
the kings and queens who shall ascend twelve years, either at their coronation, 
the throne of this realm, ought to admi- or on the first day of the first parliament, 
nister the government of the same accord- upon the throne in the House of Peers, 
ing to the said laws ; and all their officers (which shall first happen) shall repeat and 
and ministers ought to serve them respec- subscribe the declaration against Pope- 
tively, according to the same ; and, there- ry, According to 30 Charles*!!, statute 2, 
fore, all the laws and statutes of this realm c. 1. 

for securing the established religion, and The above is the form of the coronation 
the rights and liberties of the people oath, as it is now prescribed by our laws ; 
thereof, and all other laws and statutes of the principal articles of which appear to 
the same, now in force, are ratified and be at least as ancient as the mirror of jus-. 
Confirmed accordingly. See LIBERTIES, tices, (c. 1. sect. 2.) ; and even as the time 

1. 3. tr. 1. 

As to the terms of the original contract 
between king and people, these it seems 
are now couched in the coronation oath, 
which, by statute 1 William and Mary, 
c. 6, is to be administered to every king 
and queen, who shall succeed to the im- 

of Bracton. See 1. 3. tr. 1. c. 9, the act 
of union, statute 5 Ann, c. 8, recites and 
confirms two preceding statutes ; the one 
of the parliament of Scotland, the other 
of the parliament of England; which en- 
act, the former, that every king, at his ac 

perial crown of these realms, by one of cession, shall take and subscribe an oath, 
the archbishops or bishops in the presence to preserve the Protestant religion, and 
of all the people ; who, on their parts, do Presbyterian church government in Scot- 
reciprocally take the oath of allegiance to land ; the latter, that at liis coronation he 
the crown. shall take and subscribe a similar oath to 

As to the king's prerogatives, revenues, 
civil list, and authority, see the title PRE- 

This coronation oath is conceived in the 
following terms : 

preserve the settlement of the church of 
England, within England, Ireland, Wales, 
and Berwick, and the territories there- 
unto belonging. 

KIXG at arms, or of arms, an officer who 

The archbishop or bishop shall say, will directs the heralds, presides at their chap- 
you solemnly promise and swear to go- ters, and has the jurisdiction of armory. 
vern the people of this kingdom of Eng- There are three kings of arms in England, 
land, (qucre Great Britain. See statute 5 namely, Garter, Clarencieux, and Norroy. 
Ann. c. 8, sect. 1. and this dictionary, title KING, Garter principal, at arms. He, 
Scotland ;) and the dominions thereto be- among other privileges, marshals the so- 
longing, according to the statutes in par- lemnities at the funerals of the prime no- 
liament agreed on ; and the laws and cus- bility, and carries the garter to kings and 
toms of the same ? The king or queen princes beyond sea, being joined in com-. 
.shall say, I solemnly promise so to do. mission with some peer of the kingdom, 
Archbishop or bishop, Will you to your See GARTER. 

power cause law and justice, in mercy, KING, Clarencieux, at arms. This king 
to be executed in all your judgments? (who is next to Garter) is called CJaren- 
King or queen, I will. Archbishop or cieux, from the Duke of Clarence, to 
bishop, Will you to the utmost of your whom he first belonged; for Lionel, third 
power maintain the laws of God, the true son of king Edward III. marrying the 
profession of the gospel, and the Protes- daughter and heir to the Earl of Ulster in 
tant reformed religion established by the Ireland, with her had the honour of Clare 
law ? and will you preserve unto the in the county of Thomond, whereupon. 
bishops and the clergy of this realm, and he was afterwards created Duke of Cla- 
to the churches committed to their rence, or the territory about Clare; which 
charge, all such rights and privileges as dukedom escheating to Edward IV. 6y 
by law do or shall appertain unto them or the death of his brother George Duke of 
any of them J King or queen* All this I Clarence, (who v/as secretly murdered 



irt the Tower of London) he made the 
herald, who properly belonged to that 
duke, a king- of arms, and named him 

His office is to marshal and dispose of 
the funerals of all the lesser nobility, as 
Baronets, Knights of the Bath, Knights 
Batchelors, Esquires, and Gentlemen, on 
the south side of the river Trent, and 
therefore is sometimes called Surroy, or 

KivG,Norroy t atartnt. The office of 
this King, (who is called Norroy or North- 
Roy) is to do the like on all the north 
side of Trent, as Clarencieux on the south; 
and these being both provincial Kings of 
Arms have the whole kingdom of England 
divided between them ; and are crea- 
ted by letters patents, a book, a sword, 
&c. as Garter, and with almost the same 

Note. That in the sixth of Edward VI. 
Bartholomew Butler, York Herald, was 
created Ulster King of Arms in Ireland, 
at which time Philip Butler was made 
Athlone Pursuivant of Arms there; and 
upon their creation, a warrant was issued 
to Sir Ralph Sadler, Knight of the King's 
Wardrobe, to deliver to the said Bartholo- 
"mew Butler, alias Ulster King of Arms 
of Ireland, one coat of blue and crimson 
velvet, embroidered with gold and silver 
upon the same with the King's Arms ; 
and to the said Philip Butler, Athlone 
Pursuivant, one coat of sarsnet of the 
King's colours, with the arms laid on with 
gold and purple. 

KING at arms, Lyon, for Scotland, is 
the second king at arms for Great Bri- 
tain ; he is invested and solemnly crown- 
ed. He publishes the king's proclamations, 
marshals funerals, reverses arms, ap- 
appoints messengers at arms, &c. See 
COLLEGE of heralds. 

KING'S Bench. The King's Bench is 
the supreme court of common law in the 
kingdom ; and is so called because the 
King used to sit there in person : it con- 
sists of a chief justice, and three puisne 
justices, who are by their office the sove- 
reign conservators of the peace, and su- 
preme coroners of the land. This court 
has a peculiar jurisdiction, not only over 
all capital offences, but also over all other 
misdemeanors of a public nature, tending 
either to a breach of the peace, or to op. 
pression, or faction, or any manner of 
misgovernment. It has a discretionary 
power of inflicting exemplary punish- 
ment on offenders, either by fine, imprison- 
ment, or other infamous punishment, as 

the nature of the crime, considered in all 
its circumstances, shall require. 

The jurisdiction of this court is so 
transcendant, that it keeps all inferior ju- 
risdictions within the bounds of their au- 
thority ; arid it may either remove their 
proceedings, to be determined here, or 
prohibit their progress below : it super- 
intends all civil corporations in the king- 
dom ; commands magistrates and others 
to do what their duty requires by manda- 
mus, in every case where there is no spe- 
cific remedy ; protects the liberty of the 
subject, by speedy and summary interpo- 
sition ; and takes cognizance both of cri- 
minal and civil causes, the former in what 
is called the crown side, or crown office - r 
the latter in the plea side of the court. 
This court has cognizance, on the plea 
side, of all actions of trespass, or other 
injury alleged to be committed vz et 
Minis ; of actions for forgery of deeds, 
maintenance, conspiracy, deceit ; and ac- 
tions on the case which allege any falsity 
or fraud. In proceedings in this court 
the defendant is arrested for a supposed 
trespass, which in reality he has never 
committed, and being thus in the custody 
of the marshal of this court, the plaintiff 
is at liberty to proceed against him for 
any other personal injury, which surmise 
of being in the custody of the marshal the 
defendant is not at liberty to dispute. 
This court is likewise a court of appeal, 
into which may be removed, by writ of 
error, all determinations of the court of 
Common Pleas, and of all inferior courts 
of record in England. It is now usually- 
held at Westminster ; but was formerly 
attendant upon the King's person, and 
original writs are returnable " wheresoe- 
ver we (the King) shall then be in En- 

KNAPSACK, a rough leather or can- 
vass bag, which is strapped to an infantry 
soldier's back when he marches, ancl 
which contains his necessaries. Square 
knapsacks are supposed to be most con- 
venient. They should be made with a 
division to hold the shoes, blacking-balls ? 
and brushes, separate from the linen 
White goat-skins are sometimes used ; but 
we do not conceive them to be equal to 
the painted canvas ones. Soldiers in the 
British service are put under stoppages 
for the payment of their knapsacks, which 
after six years become their property. 
Knapsack is said to have been originally 
so called from the circumstance of a sol- 
dier making use of a sack which had been 
full of corn, &c. In those days there were 
no roads, and every thing was carried on 



packhorses. When the soldiers reposed, 
they hung up the empty sacks, and slept 
in them. The word should be napsack, 
from napping, &c. to slumber. The army 
was supplied by packhorses, and all 
things were in sacks, so that every 
soldier had his sack. Such is the ac- 
count given by a very worthy and re- 
spectable friend ; but we are inclined to 
to think that knapsack comes from the 
Saxon word snapsack, a bag to carry 
food. See James's Dictionary. 

KNAUTIA, in botany, so named from 
Christopher Knaut, a genus of the Tetran- 
dria Monogynia class and order. Natu- 
ral order of Aggregate. Dipsaceae, Jus- 
sieu. Essential character ; calyx common 
oblong, simple, five to ten flowered ; 
corollets irregular; receptacle naked. 
There are four species, mostly natives of 
the Levant. 


KN EE, a crooked piece of timber, having 
two branches or arms, and generally used 
to connect the beams of a ship with her 
sides or timbers. The branches of the 
knees form an angle of greater or smaller 
extent, according to the mutual situation 
of the pieces which they are designed to 
unite. One branch is securely bolted to 
one of the deck-beams, and the other in 
the same manner strongly attached to a 
corresponding timber in the ship's side. 
Besides the great utility of knees in 
connecting the beams and timbers into 
one compact frame, they contribute 
greatly to the strength and solidity of the 
ship, in the different parts of her frame to 
which they are bolted, and thereby ena- 
ble her with great firmness to resist the 
effects of a turbulent sea. 

KNIGHT, in military concerns. This 
word is an anglicism of the German word 
knecht, signifying a person possessing the 
talents and bravery of a soldier, and re- 
warded for some particular acts of cou- 
rage and address by the sovereign. 

Knights, or Equites, in the Roman art 
of war, were originally instituted by Ro- 
mulus, who selected three hundred ath- 
letic young men from the best families of 
the class of patricians, and had them 
trained to serve their country on horse- 
back. This politic mode of securing the 
services of the most important part of the 
community to the existing government, 
was improved upon by Servius Tullus, 
after the introduction of the census, who 
admitted all persons worth four hundred 
sestertia into the noble order of the 
Equites, whose conduct and morals were 
irreproachable, a precaution hie-Illy ho- 


s performed by the government, calcu- 
jd to impress the members with the 

nourable to the Roman character, and 
acted upon rigidly by monarchs, consuls, 
and censors. Having ascertained this 
point, by regular scrutiny, the name of 
the individual approved was enrolled with, 
those of the order, a ring was presented 
to him as a pledge ot his acceptance into 
it, and he received a horse provided at the 
public expense : thus instituted a knight, 
he was required and expected to appear 
at a moment's notice, ready to execute to 
the utmost of his ability those services 
which the state demanded. 

There were three distinct and solemn 

necessity of adhering to their compact 
with their country ; those were termed 
the Probatio, the Transvectio, and the 
Recensio. The first may be considered 
an annual examination as to the moral 
conduct of the Equites, the state of their 
arms, their horses, and their own health ; 
the second, an universal assemblage of 
the knights in the forum, is thus describ- 
ed by Dyonisius : " The sacrifices being 
finished, all those who are allowed horses 
at the expense of the state, ride along in 
order, as if returning from a battle, being 
habited in the Togx Palmatse, or the Trabae, 
and crowned with wreaths of olive. The 
procession begins at the temple of Mars, 
without the walls, and is carried on 
through all the eminent parts of the city, 
particularly the Forum, and the temple of 
Castor and Pollux. The number some- 
times reaches to five thousand ; every 
man bearing the gifts and ornaments re- 
ceived as a reward of his valour from the 
general. A most glorious sight, and wor- 
thy of the Roman grandeur." According 
to Plutarch, this honourable body of sol- 
diers, and the rest of the army engaged 
in battle with the Latins, about the two 
hundred and fifty-seventh year of the city, 
were personally assisted by Castor and 
Pollux, who after wards appeared in Rome 
mounted on horses foaming with exertion, 
near the fountain where their temple was 
subsequently erected; grateful for their 
supernatural aid, the Romans established 
the Transvectio in honour of the deified 

The Recensio resembled the Probatio 
in some degree, except that more import- 
ance was attached to the former, as it was 
an universal mtiater of the whole people, 
including the Equites, to answer the use- 
ful military purposes of ascertaining the 
then state of discipline of men bearing- 
arms, enrolling of new names, and ex- 
punging others. The ceremony occuri cd 



every lustrum, under the superintendance 
of the censors. 

When the Equites had accomplished 
the term for which their services were 
required, it was the established custom to 
lead their horses to the place where the 
two censors were seated in the Forum, to 
whom they related the circumstances at- 
tending" their various campaigns, and 
under whom they served ; they were 
theu discharged either with honour or 
disgrace, as their conduct was approved 
or considered disgraceful. 

It is generally admitted, that it is by no 
means correct to suppose that all the Ro- 
man soldiers mounted on horses were 
knights. Sigonius, and others, made a 
distinction in the cavalry between those 
who served equo publico, and those who 
served equo private ; " the former," says 
Kennet, " they allow to have been of the 
order of knights, the latter not. They 
demonstrate from the course of history, 
that from the beginning of the Roman 
state till the time of Marius, no other 
horse entered the legions but the true 
and proper knights, except in the midst 
of public confusion, when order and dis- 
* cipline were neglected." 

Like all other institutions, this order 
began to degenerate, the life and soul of 
honour which supported it died and faded 
away, leaving a mere shadow of its pristine 
importance, indolence and avarice tempt- 
ed individuals from the pursuit of mili- 
tary fame to the more innocent, and, per- 
haps, more laudable occupations of agri- 
culture, and to partake of the emoluments 
<o be derived from places of trust under 
the government; those who retained suf- 
ficient vigour of mind to consider them- 
selves as still belonging to the order, 
obtained commands, and the mass of the 
cavalry was at length composed of foreign 
mercenaries. Fully sensible of the de- 
graded state of the Equites, who wished 
to receive the honours due to them when 
deserving of honour, and a horse from 
their country, when that country no longer 
was remunerated by their services, sub- 
sequent princes deprived them of the 
horse, but suffered them to retain the 
golden ring. 

KNIGHTS' service, this species of servi- 
tude was the consequence of the weak- 
ness and decay of the feodal system 
throughout Europe, and was invented as 
a remedy. Fiefs, which had previously 
been held for long terms of years, were 
made hereditary, and the holder was com- 
pelled to afford, without exception or a 
possibility of denial, as many soldiers to 
be maintained by the produce of the lands, 

as the lord proprietor was disposed to 
think proper; this became the tenure of 
knights' service ; but a single soldier de- 
rived, as the service of a certain portion 
of land was termed, a knight's fee, and an 
estate furnishing a number of men trained 
for the field was said to contain an equal 
number of knights' fees ; this system, ex- 
tending in every direction, rendered each 
nation acting under it formidable and dan- 
gerous to the adjoining, as numerous 
armies might be assembled at a very short 
notice, and much blood spilt before reason 
had time to subdue sudden resentment, 
besides the means of oppression it afford- 
ed to men of large possessions. The armies 
thus assembled were commanded by the 
monarch, the nobles acted as officers, and 
all the varieties of vassals were considered 
and sorted as private soldiers. Exclusive 
of the tyranny of exacting personal ser- 
vice, the holders of knights' tenures were 
subject to all the ancient hardships of the 
old system, under the name of incidents, 
for chief aid, escheat, wardship and mar- 
riage, and they were compelled to bind 
themselves to their oppressor by oaths of 
homage and fealty. 

It is supposed that knights' service had 
been universally established in Europe 
by the year 987 ; if so, there cannot be 
the least doubt that it was introduced into 
England by William of Normandy obtain- 
ing the absolute right of disposing of the 
territory of the conquered chiefs of this 
country ; the obvious policy of the 
monarch was the distribution of it to 
those persons who had adopted his for- 
tunes ; and in what way could he more 
firmly bind them to his future support 
than by compelling them to furnish men 
by the prevailing tenure ? 

Pursuing this policy, the old tenants 
received fresh grants, and were thus se- 
cured by the subtle king from attempting 
to wrest his conquests from him ; indeed 
it has been asserted, that the system was 
generally approved, as but few of the 
Anglo-Saxon fiefs were hereditary. The 
knights were bound to appear completely 
armed, with a lance, sword, shield and 
helmet, and well mounted, at the shortest 
notice from their superiors, and to re- 
main in the field forty days at the expense 
of the chiefs of their fees. At length 
similar causes to those which have been 
mentioned to have actuated the Roman 
equites, induced the English knights to 
commute their personal services for fines, 
and hence arose the system of taxation. 

An act of parliament was passed in the 
reign of Edward II. which required all 
persons possessed of 201, per annjim to 


appear and receive the honour of knight- 
hood from the king. This cause and 
others operated to produce such numbers 
of knights throughout Europe, that it be- 
came necessary to invent different orders 
of knighthood, to render some of the 
members at least of importance in the 
estimation of the community. 

Charles I. strangely infatuated and mis- 
taken in his conduct, adopted the obso- 
lete practice of his ancient predecessors, 
and issued " a warrant to the sheriffs in 
1626, to summons all persons that had for 
three years past held 40l. per annum, or 
more, of lands or revenues in their own 
hands, or the hands of feoffees, and are 
not yet knights, to come before his majes- 
ty by the thirty-first of January, to re- 
ceive the order of knighthood." 

January 28, 1630, the king issued a 
commission to the Lord Keeper, Lord 
High Treasurer, &c. to compound with 
those who had made themselves liable 
to forfeiture, by neglecting to receive 
knightood according to act of parliament; 
alluding to the act of Edward II. This 
commission, absurd and oppressive be- 
yond modern conception or endurance, 
produced above one hundred thousand 
pounds to the royal treasury, but did the 
king infinite injury in the opinion of his 
subjects, wlu) had long considered the 
statutum de JWilitibus a nullity, and which 
was afterwards repealed by parliament. 
Charles, rather alarmed at the general 
expression of abhorrence excited by his 
conduct, published " a proclamation for 
the ease of his subjects, in making their 
compositions for not receiving the order 
of knighthood according to law, dated in 
the preceding July ;" this however was 
nothing more than an attempt to soften 
the displeasure of the public, and failed 
of its effect. The ancient ceremony of 
making a knight consisted of giving the 
party a blow on the ear, and striking him 
on the shoulder with a naked sword, after 
which he had a sword girded round him, 
and spurs attached to his heels, and being 
otherwise completely armed as a knight, 
he was conducted in solemn procession 
to hear the offices of religion. 

Since the above period knighthood has 
been considered a proper method of re- 
warding persons who have rendered slight 
services to the state, but the very fre- 
quent opportunities afforded of confer- 
ring the honour, has operated in produ- 
cing the little estimation in which it is 
held, and from which there is no present 
prospect of its recovering. The observa- 
tions just made must not at the same time 
foe supposed to apply to the more honoui 

able orders which have already been 
noticed under the article of Knights of 
the Bath, and Knights of the Garter, ex- 
clusive of the numerous foreign orders 
which have existed, and do still exist, in 
different parts of Europe. 

KxiGHTs' templars. This order has been 
suppressed for many centuries, but as 
they were once considered a very pow- 
erful body, and had large possessions in 
England, of which the extensive and 
valuable domain, still known by the 
name of the Temple, in London, was a 
part, a slight sketch of their history ap- 
pears to be necessary. 

The order was instituted in the year 
1118, for the actual defence of the places 
rendered saci-ed by the residence and 
acts of Jesus Christ, in the city of Jeru- 
salem and its neighbourhood ; and the 
house which they occupied, being pur- 
posely situated near the temple there, 
they acquired the name of Templars ; 
and, from the same cause, their principal 
mansions throughout Europe were called 
temples. The Council of Troyes con- 
firmed and established them in the rule 
of St. Bernard, in the year 1127, and the 
brethren were divided into two classes,'- 
knights, and servitors. Saladine having 
invaded and conquered the territories 
they had bound themselves to protect^ 
they were compelled to leave the Holy 
Land, and to establish the order where 
they found a kind reception, which was 
almost in every part of the world then 
under the influence of the Christian re- 
ligion, as they had double claims on the 
pious, proceeding from their peculiar 
profession and sufferings for the cause of 
the Saviour. During the period they de- 
pended upon the alms and bounty of the 
public, they were distinguished for their 
meek and meritorious conduct, which 
operated so greatly in their favour, that 
gifts flowed into their treasuries from the 
sovereign to the peasant, in every coun- 
try where a house of knights' templars 
existed. Matthew Paris asserts, the or- 
der possessed 9,000 rich convents ; and 
other writers add, that they had 16,000 
lordships, with subordinate governors 
distributed in every part of Europe. 

Under these prosperous circumstances, 
they became inflated by pride, and inso- 
lence usurped the place of meekness : re- 
lying upon their presumed consequence, 
they did not attempt to conciliate where 
they had offended ; nor did they seem 
to suspect the hatred they had generated, 
till it was too late to resist or retract ; 
such is the general tenor of the accounts 
given of the conduct of the knights temp- 


lars by historians ; but although those 
may be founded in fact, it is not to be sup- 
posed that pride alone caused the disso- 
lution of the order : avarice, on the part 
of their oppressors, was the grand agent, 
and the riches of the knights the tempta- 
tion to plunder them. Some of the mem- 
bers, resident in Paris, were indiscreet 
or wicked enough to cause a riot in the 
streets of that city. Philip the Fair, then 
on the throne of France, seizing on this 
opportunity, determined to make use of 
it to accomplish the total ruin of the or- 
der ; he therefore procured the evidence 
of many infamous brethren, either by 
bribery or other means, who charged the 
knights generally with the most shocking 
enormities. Acting upon this base testi- 
mony, the king ordered the arrest of 
every templar in his dominions, abolish- 
ed the order, and even caused fifty-seven 
of them to be burned to death : the Pope, 
influenced by the same spirit of in- 
justice, and probably invited to partake 
of the plunder, called a general council 
at Vienna, by which the order was laid 
under an interdict. 

Philip immediately communicated his 
proceedings to our monarch, Edward II. 
who returned an answer, dated October 
30, 1307, in which he expressed great 
"astonishment at the accounts received of 
the abominable heresy of the templars, 
and declared his intention of obtaining 
further information through the Seneschal 
of Agen. Clement directed a brief to 
Edward, dated the 30th of November 
following, explaining the conduct of 
Philip, and asserting, that the Grand 
Master had confessed, that the knights, 
at their admission into the order, denied 
the divinity of Jesus Christ, spit upon the 
crucifix, and worshipped an idol in their 
chapters; adding other charges, which 
appear equally wicked and incredible, 
but calculated to exculpate Philip, whose 
example the holy father recommended 
Edward to imitate in his own dominions. 
Edward seems to have acted, on this de- 
licate occasion, with some degree of wis- 
dom and resolution ; but he was deficient 
in that firm spirit which governed Henry 
VIII. This is proved by a circular letter 
from him, directed to the Kings of Cas- 
tile, Arragon, Portugal, and Sicily, dated 
December 4th, 1307 ; and another to the 
Pope, in each of which he expressed his 
disbelief of the accusations against the 
templars, and mentioned a priest who had 
endeavoured to confirm them to him, but 
ineffectually, as he was convinced the 
public agreed with himself in approving 
their manners and conduct ; and yet, such 

is the weakness and instability of human 
nature, this very king was prevailed up- 
on to issue an order, addressed to the 
sheriffs, for the apprehending of every 
templar in the kingdom, upon the feast of 
the Epiphany, 1308. 

The Pope, fearful of the wavering dis- 
position of the Monarch, sent another 
brief into England, repeating all the old 
charges, and producing others, which he 
addressed to the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, and his suffragans, at the same time 
informing them he had appointed three 
cardinals, four English bishops, and seve- 
ral of the French clergy, to manage the 
process to be instituted here against the 
unfortunate, order. After the arrival of 
the commissioners alluded to, Edward had 
the good sense and precaution to com- 
mand the invariable attendance of the 
British part of it on every day the business 
was prosecuted, by a letter directedtothe 
Bishop of Lincoln, dated September 13th, 
1309 ; thus shewing, that had he dared 
to save the templars, he would have done 
so without hesitation ; but the king and 
the nation were equally alarmed at the 
consequences of anathemas and interdicts, 
and were compelled to acquiesce in the 
dictates of the commissioners, who sen- 
tenced the knights to eternal separation, 
and the loss of all their territories in 
Great Britain. To the everlasting honour 
of Edward, he rejected the cruel example 
of the King of France, and, instead of 
burning the knights, he merely confined 
them in different monasteries, where they 
resided, secure and comfortable, till their 
deaths. The estates of the Knights Tem- 
plars having been confiscated, the king 
very naturally concluded that he was en- 
titled to them, and consequently proceed- 
ed to sell and give them away ; the Papal 
see, however, thought otherwise, and a 
fresh bull arrived, demanding them for 
the knights of the order of St. John of 
Jerusalem in England; as the same causes 
existed for compliance with this new man- 
date, which induced the suppression, the 
property in question was conveyed to the 

KNIGHTS of St. John of Jerusalem. The 
order of St. John originated from the es- 
tablishment of an hospital at Jerusalem, 
in the year 1048, by certain Italian mer- 
chants, for the reception of pilgrims and 
travellers, which they dedicated to the 
Baptist. The subsequent conquest of 
Jerusalem, by Godfrey of Boulogne, who 
wrested it from the Turks, was of infinite 
service to the hospital, which flourished 
in the same proportion with the facility 
thus afforded for visiting 1 the holy 
city. Raymond, rector of the brethren 


in its then slate, being of an active and 
military turn, formed the plan of convert- 
ing 1 them into knights, captains, and ser- 
vants; he marshalled them into bands, 
invented banners, and led them on against 
the Turks, as knights of the order of St. 
John of Jerusalem ; they fought with 
great bravery ; but the inferiority of their 
numbers occasioned frequent defeats, and 
they were at length compelled to give up 
their possessions to the conqueror Sala- 
dine : after a continued series of toils and 
misfortunes, and a constancy in the cause 
of religion which did them great honour, 
they were finally expelled from the Holy 
Land, in the year 1292. 

The master and brethren fled to the 
island of Cyprus, where they employed 
their leisure in framing statutes for the 
government of the order ; but recurring 
to their former military pursuits, they at- 
tacked Rhodes in 1308, which, with seven 
other islands, soon fell into their posses- 
sion ; they then assumed the addition of 
Rhodes to their previous titles; there 
they flourished for a very considerable 
length of time, and resisted the Turks 
with equal bravery and skill ; but Sultan 
Soliman, having determined at all events 
to dislodge them, he assembled an army 
of 300,000 men, with which he invaded 
the island, and, after six months incessant 
fatigue and excessive loss, he succeeded 
in expelling them. The Emperor Charles 
V. gave them Malta at this critical sera, to 
which island the knights retired in 1523. 
There they underwent repeated invasions 
from the Turks, and obtained the admi- 
ration of all nations, for their invincible 
courage and address in repelling their 
attacks. The Knights of Malta, as they 
were now called, might have remained 
for centuries to come in quiet possession 
of their island, had they not been disturb- 
ed by a power they had little reason to 
dread till very lately r their surrender of 
it to the arms of France has been the 
means of placing it in the possession of 
England, and the order may be consider- 
ed as almost extinct. 

Jordan Brisset introduced the order in- 
to England, by founding the Priory of St. 
John, at Clerkenwell, where it flourished 
till the general dissolution of religious 
houses by Henry VIII. It will be suffi- 
cient to add, from Malcolm's " Londini- 
um," " Camden says, that the priors were 
held equal in rank to the first barons of 
the realm ; and their riches certainly en- 
abled them to support their splendour of 
living. Such was their power and influ- 

ence, that Edward III. thought it neces- 
sary, in the fortieth year of his reign, to 
appoint Richard de Everton visitor of the 
hospitals of this order in England and 
Ireland, to repress their insolence, and to 
enforce propriety of conduct ; which ap- 
pointment was repeated five years after 
by the same king." 

KXIGHT originally signified a servant ; 
but there is now but one instance where 
it is taken in that sense, and that is knight 
of a shire, who properly serves in parlia- 
ment for such a county ; but in all other 
instances, it signifies one who bears arms ; 
who for his virtue and martial prowess is 
by the king or one having his authority, 
exalted above the rank of gentleman to 
an higher step of dignity. They were 
called milites, because they formed a part 
of the royal army, by virtue of their feudal 
tenures ; one condition of which was, 
that every one who held a knight's fee 
immediately under the crown, (which, in 
the reign of Edward II. amounted to 20/. 
per annum) was obliged to be knighted. 
He was also to attend the king in his wars, 
or fined for his non-compliance. The exe- 
cution of this prerogative, as an expedi- 
ent to raise money, in the reign of Charles^ 
I. gave great offence, though then war-' 
ranted by law, and the recent example of 
Queen Elizabeth : it was, therefore, abo- 
lished by 16 Charles I. c. 20. Consider- 
able fees accrued to the king on the per- 
formance of the ceremony. King Edward 
VI. and Queen Elizabeth had appointed 
commissioners to compound with the per- 
sons who had lands to the amount of 40Z. 
a year, and who declined the honour and 
expence of knighthood. 

KNIGHTS banneret. These knights are 
only made in the time of war. They are 
ranked next after the barons ; and their 
precedence before the younger sons of 
viscounts was confirmed by James I. in 
the tenth year of his reign. But, to enti- 
tle them to this rank, they must be creat- 
ed by the king in person in the field, un- 
der the royal banners, in time of open 
war ; otherwise they rank after baronets. 

KNIGHT service, a tenure where several 
lands were held of the King, which draws 
after it homage and service in war, escu- 
age, ward, marriage, &c. but is taken 
away by statute 12 Charles II. c. 24. 

KNOT, means the divisions of the log- 
line used at sea. These are usually se- 
ven fathoms, or forty-two feet ; they ought 
to be fifty feet, and then as many knots as 
the log-line runs out in half a minute, so 
many miles does the ship sail in an hour, 



supposing- her to keep going at an equal 

KNOTS o/ ro/>e, among seamen, are 
distinguished i .to three kinds, viz. whole- 
knot, that made so with the lays of a rope 
that it cannot slip, serving- for sheets, 
tacks, and stoppers : bow-link knot, that 
so firmly made and fastened to the crin- 
gles of the sails, that they must break or 
the sail split before it slips ; and sheep- 
shank-knot, that made by shortening a 
rope without cutting it, which may be 
presently loosened, and the rope not the 
wors,: for it. 

KNOWLEDGE, is defined, by Mr. 
Locke, to be the perception of the con- 
nection and agreement, or disagreement 
and repugnancy of our ideas. 

KNOXIA, in botany, so called from 
Robert Knox, a genus of the Tetrandria 
Monogynia class and order. Natural or- 
der of Stellatae. Itubiaceae, Jussieu. Es- 
sential character : corolla one-petalled, 
funnel-form ; seeds two, grooved ; calyx 
one, leaflet larger. There is only one 
species, viz. K. zeylanica, a native of 

KOELREUTERIA, in botany, so nam- 
ed in honour of Joseph Gottlieb Koel ren- 
ter, a genus of the Polygamia Monoecia 
class artd- order. Natural order of Tri- 
hilatx. Sapindi, Jussieu. Essential cha- 
racter: calyx five-leaved; petals four; 
nectary double, four scalelets, and three 
glands ; stamens eight, fixed to a column ; 
germ three-sided, fixed to the same co- 
lumn ; capsule three-celled, with two cells 
in each cell. There is but one species, 
viz. K. paullinoides ; this is a tree, with 
an arboreous, upright, trunk, about six 
feet in height ; branches scattered, spread- 
ing, when young having dotted glands 
scattered over them ; buds from the axils 
of the leaves, resinous, cone-shaped with 
imbricate scales ; peduncles, terminating, 
scattered, spreading, branched into many 
pedicles ; flowers panicled, three or more 
on each pedicle- According to LMIeritier 
it is a polygamous tree, and a native of 

KOENIGIA, in botany, BO named in 
honour of John Gerard Koenig, M. D. of 
Courland, who first found this plant in 
Iceland. It is a genus of the Triandria 
Trigynia class and order. Natural order 
of Holoraceae. Polygoneae, Jussieu. Es- 
sential character : calyx three-leaved ; 
corolla none ; seed one, ovate, naked. 
There is but one species, viz. K. islan- 

KOS, in Jewish antiquity, a measure of 

capacity, containing about four cubic 
inches : this was the cup of blessing, out 
of which they drank when they gave thanks 
after solemn meals, like that of the pass- 

KRAMERIA, in botany, so named in 
memory of John George, Henry, and Wil- 
liam Henry Kramer, botanists, a genus of 
the Tetrandria Monogynia class and or- 
der. Essential character : calyx none ; 
corolla four-petal led ; nectary upper three- 
parted, lower two-leaved ; berry dry, 
echinated, one-seeded. There is bat one 
species, viz. K. ixina, this is a shrub with 
lanceolate leaves : flowers alternate, in 
terminating racemes. It was found in 
South America by Loefling. 

KUHNIA, in botany, so called from 
Adam Kuhnius, a genus of the Syngenesia 
Polygamia ./Equalis class and order. Na- 
tural order of Composite Discoideae. Co- 
rymbiferse, Jussieu. Essential character : 
flowers floscular ; calyx imbricate, ob- 
long, cylindrical ; down plumose ; recep- 
tacle naked ; style deeply bifid ; stigmas 
club-shaped ; anthers distinct. There is 
but one species, viz. K. eupatorioides, a 
native of Pennsylvania. 

KURTUS, in natural history, a genus of 
fishes of the order Jugularies. Generic 
character : body carinated above and be- 
low, and broad ; back highly elevated ; 
gill membrane, with two rays. This con- 
sists, as far as it is known, of only a sin- 
gle species. It inhabits the seas of India, 
and is supposed to live on insects, shell 
fish, and particularly young crabs. Its 
length is about ten inches, and its breadth 
four. Its colour, on the whole bod}-, is 
that of silver foil, and its back is tinged 
with gold, and marked on its ridge with 
several black spots. For a representa- 
tion of the kurtus, see Pisces, Plate V. 
fig 1. 

KYANITE, or CYANITE, in mineralo- 
gy, a species of the talc genus : its princi- 
pal colour blue, though it occurs also 
white and grey ; some specimens are en- 
tirely blue, others are only spotted, strip- 
ed, or flamed with it, Externally 
and internally its lustre is shining and 
splendent, and completely pearly. It oc- 
curs in wedge-shaped concretions, which 
are often very promiscuous, and then 
pass into large and coarse grained dis- 
tinct concretions. It fee Is greasy -, 
ly frangible, and the specific gravity is 
from 3.5 to 3.6. It is infusible before 
the blow-pipe, and is found to consist 



Silica 29. 2 

Alumina 55. 

Lime 2.25 

Magnesia 2. 

Oxide of iron 6.65 

Water and loss 4. 9 


It is peculiar to the primitive moun- 
tains, where it occurs imbedded in talc 
slate, and mica slate, accompanied with 

grenatite. It is found in many parts ot 
Europe. It is reckoned the link which 
connects talc with actynolite and treno. 

KYLLINGIA, in botany, a genus of 
the Triandriu Monogynia class and order. 
Natural order of Gramma. Cyperoidex, 
Jussieu. Essential character : ament 
ovate or oblong, imbricate ; flowers with 
a bivalve calyx and corolla. There are 
seven species, natives of the East and 
West Indies. 


LOr 1, the eleventh letter and eighth 
' consonant of our alphabet. It is a 
semi-vowel, formed in the voice by inter- 
cepting the breath between the tip of the 
tongue and the fore-part of the palate, 
with the mouth open. 

There is something of aspiration in its 
sound, and therefore the Welsh usually 
double it, or add an h to it ; as in //an, or 
Ihan, a temple. 

In English words of one syllable, it is 
usually doubled at the end ; as in all, ivull, 
mill, &c. but in words of more syllables 
than one, it is only single at the end; as 
in foretel, proportional, &.c. It may be 
placed after most of the consonants, as 
in blue, clear, fame, &c. but before none 
of them. As a numeral letter, L denotes 
50 ; and with a dash over it, thus, L, 

LA, in music, the syllable by which 
Guido denotes the last sound of each 
hexachord : if it begins in C, it answers 
to our A ; if in G, to E ; and if in F, to 

LAUDANUM, or LADANUM, is a resin 
obtained from the surface of the crystus 
creticus, a shrub which grows in Syria 
and the Grecian islands. It is collected 
while moist by drawing over it a kind of 
cake, with thongs fixed to it, from which 
it is afterwards scraped. When it is very 
good it is black, soft, and has a fragrant 
odour and a bitterish taste. Water dis- 
solves about a twelfth part of it, and the 
matter taken up possesses gummy pro- 
perties. When distilled with water, a 
small quantity of volatile oil arises. Al- 

cohol may also be impregnated with a 
taste and odour of labdanum. 

LABATIA, in botany, a genus of the 
Tetrandria Monogynia class and order. 
Natural order of Guajacanse, Jussieiu Es- 
sential character : calyx tour-leaved, in- 
ferior ; corolla subcampanulate, four-cleff, 
with two minute segments in the .division 
of the corolla ; capsule four celled ; seeds 
solitary. There are two species, rtz. L. 
sessilifiora, which is a native of Ilispa- 
niola ; anil L. guianensis is a tree exceed- 
ing forty feet in height, and three in dia- 
meter; the baik is of a russet colour ; 
the wood is hard and white ; the largest 
leaves are eight inches in length, and 
three in width ; flowers axillary, or on 
the branches in pairs or threes ; each 
on its pedicle ; corolla greenish. It is 
called by the natives of Guiana, pourama 

LABEL, in heraldry, a fillet usually 
placed in the middle along the chief of 
the coat, without touching its extremities. 
Its breadth ought to be a ninth part of the 
chief. It is adorned with pendants ; and 
when there are above three of these, the 
number must be specified in blazoning. 
This is a kind of addition to the arms of a 
second brother, to distinguish him from 
the first, and is esteemed the most honour- 
able of all differences. 

LABEL, in law, a narrow slip of parch- 
ment hanging from a deed, writ, or other 
writing, in order to hold the appending 

LABEL of a rircwnferKntor, a long thin 
brass ruler, with a sight at one end, and 



a centre hole at the other; chiefly used 
with a tangent line, to take altitudes. 

LABIAL letters, those pronounced 
chiefly by means of the lips. See LET- 

LABIATED^owers, monopetalous flow- 
ers, consisting of a narrow tube, with a 
wide mouth, divided into two or more 
lips. See BOTANY. 

LABORATORY. A laboratory, pro- 
perly fitted up with apparatus, is essen- 
tially necessary to a chemist whose ob- 
jects lead him to make researches, expe- 
riments, and processes, upon all the 
different scales of operation. That great 
interest which the important science of 
chemistry has excited in all ranks of men, 
within the last thirty years, has rendered 
it easy to procure very complete sets of 
apparatus ; which, at least in the metro- 
polis, may be collected in a short time, by who, like Boyle, Cavendish, Levoi- 
sier, and other great men, are in posses- 
sion of ample means. But on the other 
hand, it is proper to remark, that many of 
our greatest discoverers, such as Scheele, 
Priestley, Berthollet, Wollaston, Dalton, 
Crawford, and a numerous set of emi- 
nent men, have from choice, or from mo- 
tives of prudence, made use of very sim- 
ple, cheap, and small sized apparatus. It 
is undoubtedly true, that many operations 
can only be performed upon a scale of 
considerable magnitude, and that many 
facts of great value display themselves 
upon the extensive theatre of nature or in 
large manufactories, which are either not 
seen, or require uncommon discernment 
to perceive them in the contracted space, 
and during the short time employed in 
the performance of a philosophical expe- 
riment. But it is no less true, that expe- 
riments upon a small scale do likewise 
possess their exclusive advantages. Dur- 
ing the fusion and combination of sub- 
stances, in the whole no larger than a 
pepper-corn, before the blow-pipe, the 
effects take place with rapidity, and many 
of them, such as the escape of gas by ef- 
fervescence, the changes of colour, and 
transparency by differences in the heat 
applied, the manner of acquiring the solid 
state, &c. which cannot be seen in the 
furnace, are in the course of a few se- 
conds remarked and ascertained. The 
saving of time is also an object ot'leading 
importance. The same considerations 
are likewise applicable to processes of 
fusion, or other applications of heat in a 
small vessel, such as a tobacco-pipe, pla- 
ced in a common fire, urged by the bel- 
lows if necessary. Humid operations may 

alsolbe very advantageously conducted by 
single drops of liquid, and small particles 
of solid bodies laid upon a glass plate, or 
in the metallic spoon, and the lamp for 
distillations, and other works even upon 
a scale of some magnitude, has long been 
a favourite instrument with chemists. 
These will come under our notice as we 

Under our article CHEMISTRY we have 
given a concise sketch or enumeration of 
the practical treatment of bodies, which 
leads us to point out the instruments in. 
this place. 

For the mechanical division of bodies 
it is requisite the chemist should have the 
usual instruments for cutting, breaking, 
rasping, filing, or shaving. One or more 
mortars for pounding ; the best are made 
of hard pottery. A stone and muller for 
levigating. A pair of rollers for lamin- 
ating metals. A forge for many or most 
of the purposes in which the blast heat of 
a small fire is required ; and various other 
tools and implements, not peculiar to che- 

Messrs. Aikin, in their Chemical Dic- 
tionary, give the following list of imple- 
ments and materials ; which, upon deli- 
berate examination, we highly approve : 

A gazometer, with the connecting tubes, 
blow-pipe, &c. 

A bladder, or silk bag, with stop cock, 
fitting the above. 

A pneumatic water trough. 

A copper still with worm tuo, the still 
fitting into the top of the Black's furnace. 

A blow-pipe, with spoon, &c. 

Lamps an Argand, and others of com- 
mon construction, for oil and alcohol. 

An apparatus for drying precipitates by 

Scales and weights. 

Large and small iron stands for re- 
torts, &c. 

Mortars one of hard steel, one of bell- 
metal, and one or two of Wedgwood ware. 

A silver crucible and spatula. 

A platina crucible and spatula. 

A jointed iron tube for conveying gases. 

The folio-wing articles in glass .- 

Retorts of different sizes, plain and 
stoppered, and long necked for guses. 

Receivers to fit the above, plain and 
stoppered, with or without an adopter. 

Plain jars for gases, different sizes. 

Lipped jars for mixtures, precipitates, 

A graduated eudiometer jar. 

Bell receivers, two or three sizes. 


Proof bottles. 

Capsules, or small evaporating caps. 

Water glasses (such as are used at ta- 
ble) which are very convenient for gentle 

Florence flasks. 

Matrasses two or three very small, 
and others of common size, round and 
flat bottomed. 

Funnels ribbed, and one plain, with a 
very long neck for charging retorts. 

Wine glasses common or lipped. 

Watch glasses, for evaporating minute 
quantities at a very gentle heat. 

Common decanters. 

A bottle for specific gravity of fluids. 

Phials of all sizes, plain and with 
ground stoppers. 

Plain glass tubes of various thickness 
and bore, out of which may easily be 

Syphon tubes, 

Bent tubes for gases, 

Capillary tubes, for dropping liquids, 
and various other useful articles. 

A gas saturating apparatus. 

A Woulfe's apparatus. 

A tube of safety, separate. 

A barometer. 

Thermometers common, and with the 
bulb naked, to dip into liquors. 

The follotving in earthen ware: 

Crucibles Hessian, common and black- 
lead, of different sizes and shapes, with 
stands and covers. 


Retort stands. 


Wedgwood evaporating dishes a set. 

White basins, with lips, different sizes. 

Common white cups and saucers. 

Tubes straight and bent. 

Porcelain spoons. 

Ditto rods, for stirring corrosive fluids. 

Several stone-ware jars, with tin covers, 
for holding salts, &c. 

Jllso the folio-wing sundries : 

Wire different sizes and kinds, viz. 
iron, copper, brass, silver, and platina. 

Gold, silver, and brass leaf tinfoil. 

Wooden tripod stands for receivers, &c. 

Fire tongs various shapes. 

Steel spatula and pallet knives. 

Iron ladles. 

Diamond for scratching glass. 

Files flat, three-cornered, and rat-tail- 



A vice and anvil. 

Shears and scissars. 

A magnet. 


Filtering paper. 


Bladders spirit varnish sponge tow 
linen flannel. 

Windsor and common bricks tiles 

Lutes of various kinds. 

For more extensive and delicate re- 
searches it is also necessary to have 

A mercurial pneumatic trough. 

A mercurial gazometer. 

A burning lens of considerable power. 

An electrical apparatus. 

A Galvanic apparatus. 

A detonating jar. 

A glass or silver alembic. 

The fuel to be employed has been al- 
ready mentioned under that article, and a 
supply should be kept near at hand, 
broken down ready for use. 

With regard to the diflerent substances 
or re-agents to be kept, the chemist will, 
of course, wish to have a specimen of all 
the simple or individual substances; such 
as the acids, earths, metals, &c. but 
the simple and compound substances 
which are of general use, ought also to 
stand on the shelves. 

For many purposes the ordinary degree 
of purity in which these substances are 
obtained by the common processes are 
sufficient; so, for example, the small 
quantity of potash in common sulphuric 
acid, and of iron in common muriatic 
acid, seldom interferes with any of the 
uses to which those re-agents are applied ; 
but it is also necessary frequently to have 
them in the utmost purity when employed 
as tests for delicate purposes. The che- 
mist will therefore find it of advantage to 
reserve a separate set of a few of the most 
necessary re-agents in their utmost puri- 
ty, and if only employed when absolutely 
required, a very moderate quantity will 
suffice. In the subjoined list we have 
distinguished by the word pure those sub- 
stances which require particular pains to 
be obtained absolutely pure. Mixtures 
of each of the stronger acids and water 
in two or three different and known pro- 
portions should also be kept. 

N. B. The letter D implies, that the dry- 
substance should be kept, and S, that it, 
should be in solution, 



Sulphuric acid, pure. 


Nitric acid, pure and boiled. 

common and boiled. 

fuming 1 . 

Muriatic acid, pure. 


Ovy muriatic acid. This should be kept 
in the dark. 

Phosphoric acid, pure, from phospho- 
rus S. 

Acetic acid. 

Distilled vinegar. 

constrated by frost. 

Oxalic acid. S 

Tartareous acid. S. 

Sulphate of Potash. D. and S. 

Soda D. and S. 

Barytes. D. 

Alumina. S. 

Strontian. D. 

Alum. D and S. 

Nitrate of Potash. D. and S. 

Ammonia. D. 

Barytes. S. 

Strontian. S. 

Muriau- of Soda. D. andS. 

Ammonia. D. and S. 

Strontian. S. 

Barytes. S. 

s Lame. D. and S. 

Alumina. S. 

Oxymuriate of Potash. D. 

Phosphate of Soda. D. and S. 

Ammonia. D. 

Acetite of Barytes. S. 

Alumina. S. 

Oxalate of Ammonia. S. 
Cream of Tartar. D. 
Crude Tartar. D. 
Tincture of Galls. 
Borax. D. and S. 


Fluate of Ammonia. S. 
Succinate of Ammonia. S. 
Prussiate of Potash, pure and dry. This 
should be kept in the dark. 
Prussiate of Lime. S. 
Plaster of Paris. 
White marble. 
Fluor Spar. 
Potash, pure. S. 

- common caustic. S. 
Pearl-ash. D. and S. 

Salt of Tartar. D. and S. 
Super-carbonate of Potash. D. 
Carbonate of Soda. D. and S. 

. fully dried. 

Ammonia, pure. 

Carbonate of Ammonia. D. and S. 

Super-carbonate of ditto. D. 





Carbonate of Magnesia. 

Hydro-sulphuretted water. 

Hydro-sulphuret of Soda. S. 

Ammonia. S, 

Sulphuret of Potash. D. 
White Arsenic. D. and S. 
Manganese, black oxide of. 

red oxide of. 

Nitrate of Mercury. S. 
Corrosive muriate of ditto. D. and S, 
Zinc, in sticks and granulated. 

Muriate of Tin. 

Minium and Litharge. 
Nitrate of Lead. S. 
Acetite of ditto. S. 
Iron, filings, turnings, wire. 
Sulphuret of Iron for sulphuretted hy- 
drogen gas. 

Sulphate of Iron. D. and S. 

saturated with nitrous 


Muriate of Iron. 
Copper, sheet, wire. 
Nitrate of Copper. D. and S, 

Silver, leaf and wire. 
Nitrate of Silver. S. 

Sulphate of ditto. S. 

Acetite of ditto. S. 


Nitro-muriate of Gold. 




Alcohol, concentrated and common. 

Sulphuric ether. 

Litmus Tincture. 


Brazil wood. 





Linseed-oil, drying. 

Oil of Turpentine. 

Black flux. 

Distilled water, in great plenty. 

The most convenient arrangement for 
a laboratory, where space is not wanted, 
seems to be that of two rooms, and a shed 
or apartment which can be thrown open 
to communicate with the air. The first 
may contain the books of register, of prac- 
tical reference, together with the more 
delicate philosophical and chemical in- 
struments, products, and preparations 


The second ma)' be provided with the 
work-bench, hammers, anvil, vice, and 
other tools, and the different furnaces ; 
and the shed may be devoted to expe- 
riments of danger, such as arise from 
explosions, noxious vapours, and the 
breaking- of vessels. It will be most 
convenient that these should be upon the 
ground floor, to secure the advantage of 
a ready supply of water or fuel, and other 
articles of heavy consumption. The first 
of which articles may be largely wanted, 
in case of accidental combustion, as well 
as on common occasions. But it is likewise 
necessary that the place should be dry, 
in order that labels may be preserved, 
and other inconveniences avoided. This is 
the principal general argument in favour 
of a laboratory above the ground floor. 

It would carry us too far beyond the 
limits of our work, if we were to give 
drawings and descriptions of the great 
variety of vessels, furnaces, and appara- 
tus, which have been contrived for gene- 
ral and particular purposes of chemis- 
try ; and many of the culinary and do- 
mestic vessels may also be applied in 
experimental chemistry. We shall there- 
fore confine ourselves to a few of the most 
simple and useful. 

In Plate Laboratory, fig. 1, represents 
a retort, a, and receiver,* b. These ves- 
sels are used for distillation. The sub- 
ject is put into the belly of the retort, a, 
and exposed to heat, and the volatile pro- 
ducts pass over into the receiver, b, which 
may be kept cool by the application of 
wet cloths, or by immersion in cold 
water, or otherwise, if needful. The 
place of junction is secured either by 
fitting the necks together, by grinding, 
or by means of a lute, which see far- 
ther on. At c, in the receiver, is a neck 
closed by a stopper. Receivers or retorts, 
With this additional neck, are said to be 
tubulated. Fig. 2, is an alembic, of which 
a is the body, b the head, and c the neck. 
Generally speaking, this is not a very use- 
ful instrument, In large distillations an 
alembic or still is used, but the condensa- 
tion is effected by a spiral pipe, called the 
worm, which passes through a tub of 
cold water ; in the use of the alembic, fig. 
2, the beak is inserted into a receiver. 
When the volatile product of a body ex- 
posed to be dried, or to undergo evapo- 
ration by heat, is not required to be pre- 
served, the process is performed in an 
open vessel. 

The application of heat to vessels is 
made either by naked fire, or by the inter- 
vention of some heated substance, which 

is then called a bath. Chemical baths are 
made of sand, or of melted lead, or the 
fusible metal, or of brine, and very fre- 
quently of water. The evaporable liquids 
form a bath which cannot be heated be- 
yond their respective boiling points ; and 
the other buths, the most common of 
which is that of sand, are chiefly valua- 
ble for giving a regular heat without sud- 
den changes. 

This last purpose is effected likewise 
with glass vessels, by coating them with a 

A very great number of furnaces have 
been constructed for chemical and manu- 
facturing puposes, for which we must ne- 
cessarily refer to the extensive works ap- 
propriated to these objects. The opera- 
tive chemist may have occasion for them 
of different sizes and figures. A great 
deal may be done with the common Ger- 
man stove, and witli small furnaces made 
out of black-lead pots. But, in general, 
the philosophical chemist will be well 
accommodated with one good furnace, 
convertible to different uses ; and out of 
many such we select that of Dr. Black, for 
its simplicity and efficacy, as described in 
his lectures. 

PI ate -iron is by far the best material 
for the outside of an experimental fur- 
nace, but, as its metal communicates 
heat very fast, this must be cut off by 
a proper lute lining. The Doctor so far 
succeeded in this respect, that his fur- 
nace though only two inches thick in 
the middle, will not scorch paper ap- 
plied to its outside, when it is melting 
iron within. He adopted the simplest 
rectilineal shapes, because workmen find 
great difficulty in executing curved and 
uncommon forms ; and not one of a score 
of them will do it with accuracy. In- 
deed, those highly praised forms seemed 
to him of very little importance in most 

The body, or fire-place, is the only part 
of this furnace that requires description ; 
the ash-pit, with its door and registers 
and grate, being constructed as in any 
other furnace. It will be easily under- 
stood by considering the section repre- 
sented in fig. 3. 

The base, represented by the dotted 
line A B C, and the top, K L M, are oval 
plates of iron, the longer diameter, A C, 
being to the shorter as three to two 
nearly. The base and top are equal, so 
that the sides, K A, M C, are upright, the 
whole body forming an oval cylinder. 
D E F, is half of the hole in the bottom, 
which is occupied by the grate fixed on 


the lop of the ash-pit. G H I is half of 
the mouth of the furnace, which receives 
a still, or a sand-pot, for distillation, with 
a retort. This is a little nearer to the 
front, K, of the top, than the grate-hole 
is to the front, A, of the bottom, so that 
the luting 1 is thicker below than above. 
Near me back, M, of the furnace is a 
smaller Hole P, for the vent. The luting 
at Q and It is so formed that the cavity of 
the furnace does not greatly differ from 
a cylinder, except in so far as the vent, 
PO, does not communicate with it abrupt- 
ly, but is gradually curved downwards, 
as represented in the figure, making the 
middle of the cavity more roomy back- 
wards, by which means it contains a 
greater quantity of fuel. S is the section 
of the luting, which forms a sort of an 
arch, or bridge, contracting the entry of 
the vent. An iron pipe is set on at P to 
increase the draught of the chimney. 
The fuel is put into the furnace by the 
aperture P, and the sloping form of the 
cavity causes it to distribute itself pretty 

When the furnace is used for smelting, 
the crucible is set on a pedestal standing 
on the grate, and the fuel is placed round 
it with great case, the mouth of the fur- 
nace being open. This is then shut up 
by a stopper made on purpose, or by a 
fiat fire-tile simply laid on it. 

When we would distil with a naked fire, 
the retort has its bulb resting on a ring 
which hangs on the mouth of the furnace 
by three hooks, and the neck of the re- 
tort lies over the front of the furnace. 
The space round the retort, at the mouth 
of the furnace, is closed, as much as is 
necessary, by two or three pieces of tile, 
shaped so as nearly to fie the bulb of the 
retort when they are laid on the mouth of 
the furnace. A quantity of light ashes 
are now to be laid on these tiles, and 
heaped up so as to cover the bulb and 
part of the neck of the retort. Dr. Black 
found that this produced a very gradual 
diminution of the heat, as it recedes from 
the fuel, and is less liable to crack the 
retort, by inequality of heat, than any 
other contrivance. Scarcely any proces's 
occurs which thisfurnace does not answer 
with great ease. 

In using the furnaces most convenient 
for experimental chemistry, (namely, 
those made of plate iron) it is necessary 
that the iron be defended from the heat 
by lining or lute, as we call it, on the in- 
side ; and such lutes are necessary in 
other occasions in chemistry ; as when we 
have occasion to close the joining of the 
vessels with one another, or to give a 

coating to retorts, or even to crucibles, 
which is sometimes done. The materials 
employed for these purposes have their 
general denomination from clay, of which 
some of the most useful are partly com- 
posed, though there are some that do not 
contain any of it. They may be divided 
into such as contain animal or vegetable 
matter, of the glutinous or adhesive 
kind, and such as are composed only 
of earthy substances. The first are 
used for closing the joining of vessels, 
when the heat we mean to apply is not 
to be strong, nor the vapours to be pro- 
duced corrosive. The second serve for 
the lining of furnaces, or for closing the 
joinings of vessels, in operations in which 
the vapours are very corrosive, or in 
which a strong heat must be employed, 
which would scorch, or burn and destroy, 
any animal or vegetable glutinous matter. 

The joinings of vessels with one another, 
which we have the most frequent occa- 
sion to close up by means of lutes, are 
those of retorts with receivers. And we 
may remark, in the first place, with re- 
gard to these, that there are not many 
operations in which it is necessary to 
make the joining perfectly close, except 
when the receiver is provided with an 
air-pipe. On the contrary, it is dangerous, 
on account of the air which must be al- 
lowed to escape in some manner. There- 
fore we are not anxious to contrive the 
most close and compact. They are suf- 
ficient and better if they be moderately 
so, and in some cases, when we think the 
lute too close, we even obviate it by a pin- 
hole. The animal and vegetable lutes, 
employed in this way, are glue and chalk 
mixed in thin paste, and spread on slips of 
paper ; or gum arabic and chalk, used in 
the same manner; or flour and water ; or 
a bladder ; or linseed meal ; or fat lute. 
M. Lavoisier recommends, for joinings 
which we desire to be air-tight, but which 
are not to be exposed to heat, the follow- 
ing: to sixteen ounces of bees-wax add 
one and a half or two of turpentine, and 
keep it for use. When used, soften and 
make it tough, by warming and working 
between the fingers ; then put it on the 
joint in little rolls, and make it close; and, 
lastly, cover it with slips of wet bladder 
laced with pack-thread. But, if the joint 
is liable to be warmed, or heated, during 
the operation, you must take fat lute. 
This is made of raw pipe-clay and linseed 
oil, beaten together very hard, to the 
consistence of a stiff adhesive paste. 

Of the second kind of lutes, called the 
fire-lutes, a great variety have been pro- 
posed, and some of them compositions of 


many ingredients, but none are equal, or 
superior, to clay and sand ; viz. sand 3, 
or 4, or 5, or 6, to clay 1. These are 
for luting vessels together, and for coat- 
ings. But in lining furnaces, Dr. Black 
used a double lining; first, a charcoal- 
lute ; secondly, a fire-lute. 

He found that a layer of powdered char- 
coal, beaten up, or kneaded, with as little 
water as will give its particles adhesion 
enough to attach itself to the metal sides 
of the furnace, by means of cautious beat- 
ing, forms a firm stratum, which is the 
most imperfect conductor of heat of all 
that he had tried. When this layer of 
charcoal is defended from the action of 
the air by a layer of fire-lute, composed 
of one part of fine clay, and three or four 
parts of sand, carefully put on, and con- 
solidated by gently beating it from day to 
day, till it no longer receives an impres- 
sion from the mallet, it will last as long 
as any part of the furnace. Its durability 
will be greatly improved, without much 
change in its conducting power, by using, 
instead of pure water, water made mud- 
dy by about one-twentieth of pipe-clay. 
If finely powdered charcoal be kneaded 
with one-fifth of pipe-clay, it may be 
kneaded and formed into any shape, and 
will be so impervious to heat, that a bit of 
it may be held in the fingers within an 
inch of where it is red hot. Such a com- 
position is, therefore, very proper for the 
doors of furnaces, and for stopples for such 
apertures as must be frequently opened 
and shut. 

Fig. 4, represents an Argand's lamp ca- 

Eable of being adjusted at different 
eights, by a sliding socket, on a stem or 
rod. Another similar socket is seen above, 
into which a ring of wire is inserted for 
supporting the retort, a, at any required 
distance above the flame. A third socket 
may be added, still higher upon the stem, 
for supporting another wire, which will 
afford the means of steadying an alembic, 
or any other apparatus, by a string or 
small flexible wire answering the same 
purpose. This is a very convenient 
method of disposing vessels for the lamp 
heat, upon a small or moderate scale, for 
distillations, sublimation, evaporation, 
drying, and the like. A small sand-bath 
may be placed, when needful, in the 
wire above the flame : b is an interme- 
diate condensing vessel, called a quilled 
receiver, which conveys the condensed 
product into a bottle, c. The rod which 
supports b shows how useful these instru- 
ments are in their various applications. 

The condensation of vapours after dis- 
tillation, and the transmission of gases, 

which may arise along with them to their 
receptacles, has been very well and scien- 
tifically effected by the late Mr. Woulfe, 
in an apparatus of bottles which is dis- 
tinguished by his name. The original 
contrivance will be easily understood by 
description, and instead of a drawing of 
that arrangement of vessels, we shall give 
one of the most simple, safe, and conve- 
nient, of all the improvements which have 
since been made in it ; namely, that con- 
trived by Dr. Hamilton, and figured at 
the end of his " Translation of Bertholiet 
on Dyeing." Suppose the retort and re- 
ceiver, (fig. 1.) or any other distillatory 
apparatus, to have a communication from 
the upper parts of the receiver, a, at c, by 
a tube leading into a bottle having three 
necks, and partly filled with water, be- 
neath the surface of which the said tube, 
after passing this, an air-tight cork was 
plunged. Another of the necks of the 
bottle is provided with an upright open 
tube, also passing a cork, and plunged in 
the water, in order that air may enter in 
case of absorption, or the liquid may rise 
a little in it, in case of pressure from with- 
in. The third neck of the bottle affords 
a communication by means of a tube with 
another two necked bottle, fitted up in 
all respects in the same manner as the 
bottle communicating with e. And in 
this manner we may conceive a series of 
three or more bottles, the last of which 
may communicate with a pneumatic ap- 
paratus which is to receive the incondens- 
able gas. This system of bottles and 
tubes is sometimes fitted together by 
grinding, and sometimes made secure by 
lutes; but in most constructions, though 
the advantages are very considerable, the 
apparatus is difficult to be put together, 
and easily deranged or injured. 

Pig. 5, represents Dr. Hamilton's appa- 
ratus. A is the retort fitted by grinding 
into a plug or piece, B, represented at 
b, which last is also fitted by grinding into 
the neck of a globular receiver, C. 

The use of the additional piece, b t is 
to afford a due inclination to the retort by 
an obliquity of its perforation or hole, in- 
stead of allowing it to remain horizontal, 
as it would, if fitted to the hole in C, and 
also to facilitate the grinding in of a new 
retort, in the case of breakage. The piece, 
1), has a stopper, a, which can be put 
whenever the retort is taken out, whether 
for weighing at, or for any other purpose. 
The first receiver, C, has a smaller neck 
opposite to B, which is ground into a cor- 
responding neck of D, the second receiver, 
which last is tubulated, and has a tube, 
H, open at both ends, ground into its ver- 


tical neck, for the purpose of permitting 
absorption, and re-acting, by its contents, 
against the force required to protrude any 
gas through the bended tube I K L. 
Every one of the range of the receiver, E 
F G, has also two necks, by which they 
are successively fitted to each other, and 
each interior neck has a tube of about a 
quarter of an inch fitted into it, which, by 
its curvate, reaches nearly to the bottom 
of the liquid (usually water) placed in 
each. By this disposition, the usual first 
product of condensation is received in C, 
and the purer vapours, proceeding to D, 
are in part condensed by the water placed 
therein, and are partly urged through the 
tube I, into contact with the water in E : 
and whatever may escape condensation in 
E, will be urged through the tube, K, into 
the liquid in F ; and in this manner the 
operation may proceed through the whole 
set of vessels, till the gasiform remaining 
product, if any, shall pass out then beneath 
the mouth of one or the other of the three 
inverted bottles at P, which ' are filled 
with water, and have their mouths im- 
mersed below the surface of the water, in 
a dish at the end of the series. S and s 
are a pair of pieces of wood which serve 
to support one of the globes, and very 
conveniently afford an adjustment, by 
pressing them more or less near together. 
This apparatus is drawn upon a scale of 
about half an inch to a foot, which is a pro- 
per size to be worked by an Argand's 
lamp ; if it were made larger, the retort 
would of course require to be supported, 
as usual, by the parts of the furnace, or 

The dish and bottles at the extremity of 
this apparatus show how the gases or 
permanently elastic fluids are received and 
managed. For such gases as are not ab- 
sorbed by water, a wooden tub may be 
used, having a shelf therein, at such a 
depth as to stand a little below the in- 
tended surface of the water ; or, instead 
of a shelf, a short-legged stool, loaded 
with lead, may be used, and in that case 
any tub or vessel may be used. Jars, or 
vessels of any convenient figure, being 
filled with water by immersion, and turn- 
ing them bottom upwards, may be placed 
on the shelf, which should have holes in 
it for the convenience of pouring up any 
gas, whether from another jar, bottle or 
vessel, or from the neck or tube of a re- 
tort, or other apparatus. Jars, &c. thus 
filled may be conveyed away, either by 
corking the bottle, or by putting a sau- 
cer, or other shallow vessel, beneath the 

mouth of the jar, and taking both out to- 
gether, with water in the saucer. 

Gases which are absorbed by water are 
usually received over mercury, in which 
case, on account of the weight, as well as 
the expence of the fluid, the vessels are 
made smaller, and the trough has a deep 
cavity sufficient for immersion, but no 
larger, and a broad shallow part of the 
trough supplies the place of a shelf for 
the jars to stand upon ; and there is 
an actual shelf at one part only over the 
end of the deep cavity. Fig. 6, represents 
a trough for mercury, which may be 
made of wood or of stone. The space, V, 
admits the jar, A, to be immersed, and 
when full it is raised and placed bottom 
downwards upon the shallow bottom. 
G is a retort, containing some materials, 
from which gas, being extricated, rises 
beneath A, and displaces the mercury. X 
and Y are grooves, into which one or more 
wooden shelves may be slided, as occa- 
sion may require, in which application 
they are first introduced at the wider 
part, T, in the plan, fig. 7. 

An apparatus, almost indispensable in 
experiments on the gases, is a gaxometer, 
which enables the operator to receive and 
preserve large quantities of gas with the 
aid of only a few pounds of water. These 
vessels are made of various forms, but 
one of the most simple is shown in fig. 8. 
It consists of an outer fixed vessel, d, and 
an inner moveable one, c, both of japan- 
ned iron. The latter slides easily up and 
down within the other, and is suspended 
by cords passing pullies, to which are at- 
tached the counterpoises, &c To avoid 
the incumbrance of a great weight of wa- 
ter, the outer vessel, d, is made double, or 
is composed of two cylinders, the inner of 
which is closed at the top and at the bot- 
tom. The space only of about half an 
inch is left between the two cylinders, as 
shown by the dotted lines. In this space 
the vessel, c, may move freely up and 
down. The interval is filled with water 
as high as the top of the inner cylinder. 
The cup or rim on the top of the outer 
vessel, is to prevent the water from over- 
flowing when the vessel, c, is forcibly press- 
ed down, in which situation it is placed 
whenever gas is about to be collected. 
The gas enters from the vessel in which 
it is produced, by the communicating 
opening, b, and passes along the perpen- 
dicular pipe, marked by dotted lines in the 
centre, into the cavity of the vessel, c, 
which continues rising till it is full. 

To transfer the gas, or to apply it to 
any purpose, the cock, b t is to be shut, 


and an empty bladder, or bottle of elas- 
tic gum, furnished with a stop cock, is to 
be screwed on a. When the vessel, c, is 
pressed down by the hand, the gas passes 
down the centnil pipe, which it had be- 
fore ascended, and its escape at b being 
prevented, it finds its way up a pipe 
which is fixed on the outer surface of the 
vessel, and which is terminated by the 
cock, a. liy means of an ivory mouth-piece 
screwed on this cock, the gas included in 
the instrument may be respired ; the 
nostrils being closed by the fingers. 
When it is required to transfer the gas 
into glass jars standing in water, a crook- 
ed tube may be employed, one end of 
which is screwed upon the cock, b, while 
the other aperture is brought under the 
inverted funnel, fixed into the shelf of the 
pneumatic trough. 

Several alterations have been made in 
the form of this apparatus, but they are 
principally such as add merely to its neat- 
ness and beauty, and not to its utility ; 
and they render it less easy of explana- 
tion. The counterpoises, e e, are now 
generally concealed in the framing, and 
the vessel c is frequently made of glass. 

When large quantities of gas are re- 
quired (as at a public lecture) the gas 
holder, fig. 9, will be found extremely 
useful. It is made of tinned iron plate, 
japanned both within and without. Two 
short pipes, a and c, terminated by cocks, 
proceed from its sides, and another, 6, 
passes through the middle of the top or 
cover, to which it is soldered, and reaches 
within half an inch of the bottom. 

It will be found convenient also to have 
an air cock with a very wide bore fixed to 
the funnel at b. When gas is to be trans- 
ferred into this vessel from the gazometer, 
the vessel is first completely filled with 
water through the funnel, the cock a be- 
ing left open and c shut. By means of an 
horizontal pipe, the aperture a is connect- 
ed with a of the gazometer. The cock b 
being shut, a and c are opened, and the 
Vessel c of the gazometer, fig. 8, gently 
pressed downwards with the hand. The 
gas then descends from the gazometer 
till the air-holder is full, which may be 
known by the water ceasing to escape 
through the cock c. All the cocks are 
then to be shut, and the vessels disunited. 
To apply this gas to any purpose, an 
mpty bladder may be screwed on a; 
and water being poured through the fun- 
nel b, a corresponding quantity of gas is 
forced into the bladder. By lengthening 
the pipe, b, the pressure of a column of 
Water may be added ; and the gas being 

forced through a t with considerable velo- 
city, may be applied to the purpose of 
a blow-pipe, &c. 8cc. 

The gazometer, already described, is 
fitted only for the reception'of gases that are 
confinable by water, because quicksilver 
would act on the tinning and solder of 
the vessel, and would not only be spoiled 
itself, but would destroy the apparatus. 
Yet an instrument of this kind, in which 
mercury can be employed, is peculiarly 
desirable, on account of the great weight 
of that fluid ; and two varieties of the mer- 
curial gazometer have therefore been in- 
vented. The one of glass is the contri- 
vance of Mr. Clayfield, and may be seen 
represented in the plate prefixed to Mr. 
Davy's researches. In the other, invent- 
ed by Mr. Pepys, the cistern for the mer- 
cury is of cast iron. The drawing and 
representation of it may be found in the 
fifth volume of the Philosophical Maga- 
zine; but as neither of these instruments 
are essential to the chemical student, and 
as they are required only in experiments 
of research, we refer to the minute de- 
scriptions of their respective inventors. 

Very complete sketches of chemical 
instruments and furnaces may be seen in 
Henry's chemistry. 

After the general description we have 
here given of the arrangement and appara- 
tus for chemical experiments, we shall 
conclude with a short account of the 

It is a tube which terminates in a per- 
foration not exceeding the hole which 
might be made by a small pin. There is no 
difficulty, in case of emergency, in making 
one out of a tube of glass, and the com- 
mon blow-pipes sold at the ironmongers 
for a few pence, and in universal use with 
workmen, are very good. Others more 
costly and elegant, which have a small 
space for the condensation of the vapour 
of the breath, are sold by the makers of 
chemical apparatus. It requires some 
address to produce a constant stream of 
air by blowing through this pipe ; but the 
principal artifice consists in keeping the 
tongue to the roof of the mouth, and 
using the breath by the pressure of the 
muscles of the face instead of the chest. 
Some workmen in glass contrive to hold 
the pipe steady between the teeth, and by 
that means have both hands at liberty tor 
use ; but as this requires uncommon 
steadiness in the head, the philosophical 
chemist will probably prefer fixing his 
pipe to one of his stands Some blow- 
pipes have been made, through which a 
a stream of vapour from boiling alcohol is 


urged ; but these instruments seem to be 
rather toys than of use to the actual che- 
mical investigator. It appears preiera- 
ble to use bellows, as the enamellers do, 
where an extensive application of this im- 
plement is required ; though in this case 
the desirable requisite of portability is 
lost sight of. 

The bodies intended to be heated by 
the blow-pipe must not, in general, ex- 
ceed the size of a pepper-corn, unless 
bellows and a very large flame be used. 
The proper supports are, either a piece 
of smooth, close-grained charcoal, for 
such bodies as are not subject to an al- 
teration of their properties, from the in- 
flammability of the coal, as might be con- 
trary to the nature of the investigation. 
This support is therefore most frequent- 
ly used ; as it is properly adapted for sa- 
line, earthy, and many metallic bodies. 
The other support consists of a spoon, 
somewhat less than a quarter of an inch 
in diameter, made of a metal not sub- 
ject to oxydation ; that is to say, pure 
gold, silver, or platina, or such a mix- 
ture of these metals as might be found 
to be least deficient in the requisite de- 
gree of hardness, which gold or silver 
alone does not possess. Bergman advis- 
ed to add one-tenth of platina to a given 
mass of silver. There is, however, no 
very considerable inconvenience resulting 
from the use of a small spoon, either of 
gold or of silver ; and platina possesses 
every quality which can be wished for. The 
small metallic spoon must of course be 
properly fixed in a socket of metal, pro- 
vided with a wooden handle. 

Very small or pulverulent substances 
are apt to be carried away by the current 
of flame. These may be secured by 
making a small hole in the charcoal, in- 
to which the powder is to be put, and 
covered with another small piece of char- 
coal, which partly protects them from the 
flame. Some experiments of reduction 
are made by binding two small pieces 
of charcoal together, cutting a channel 
along the piece intended to be the un- 
dermost, and making a cavity in the 
middle ot this channel to contain the sub- 
ject matter of examination. With this 
apparatus the flame is urged through the 
channel between the two pieces of coal, 
and violently heats the substance in the 
cavity, which may be considered as a clos- 
ed vessel. 

A great number of mineral bodies are 
not fusible by mere flame, urged by com- 
mon air through the blow-pipe ; though 

oxygen gas subdues most bodies. See 
GAS ojcygen. 

Whenever, therefore, the fusion of any 
refractory substance is to be attempted, 
some other substance must be added 
which is more fusible, and capable of 
dissolving the former. These solvents in 
the dry way, are distinguished by the 
name of fluxes, and, like the solvents 
used in the humid way, are mostly sa- 
line. It may easily be imagined, that 
the nature of the products will greatly 
vary, according to that of the flux, which 
enters into combination with them ; and 
accordingly they are varied in experi- 
ments, as well as in operations, in the 
large way. The blow-pipe experiments, 
though conducted upon the same prin- 
ciples as those upon a larger scale, dif- 
fer nevertheless from them in two par- 
ticulars ; namely, that the whole of the 
phenomena are visible throughout, and 
that the residues are of no value, other- 
wise than as they serve to indicate facts. 
For these reasons, every flux, without 
exception, might be used with the blow- 
pipe, provided it were not of such a 
nature as to sink into the charcoal. We 
may therefore select a certain small 
number of the most convenient fluxes, 
and note the effects which they respec- 
tively produce upon the various mineral 
bodies ; and these will serve as indica- 
tions to enable the chemical enquirer 
to distinguish them again with a great 
degree of accuracy, not to mention, that 
he may also derive much advantage, 
with regard to the more extensive ope- 
rations he might be disposed to under- 
take. A considerable part of this pre- 
liminary labour has already been per- 
formed by Engestrom, Bergman, Mon- 
gez,, and others ; and it is now become 
usual for chemists, among their other 
experiments on minerals, to mention their 
habitudes with the blow-pipe. 

The fluxes which have obtained the ge- 
neral sanction of chemists, on account 
of the extensive use they have been ap- 
plied to by Bergman, are phosphoric 
acid in the dry or glassy state, soda, 
and borax, or the native borate of soda. 

LABOUR, in general, denotes a close 
application to work or business. Among 
seamen a ship is said to be in labour when 
she rolls and tumbles very much, either a 
hull under sail, or at anchor. It is also 
spoke of a woman in travail, or child-birth. 

LABRADOR stone, in mineralogy, is of 
a grey colour, passing into a dark ash. 



It exhibits, however, under certain cir- 
cumstances, a great variety of colours, as 
blue, green, yellow, red, and brown, in 
their different shades. It shows, like- 
wise, spotted and striped delineations. 
Sometimes the same spot if held in differ- 
ent directions changes its colour from blue 
to green, &c. The beautiful colours seldom 
extend over a whole piece ; in general, 
they show themselves only in large and 
smaller spots and patches. Different co- 
lours are presented, according as the piece 
is held between the light and the eye, or 
the eye and the light ' It occurs massive, 
in blunt edged and rolled pieces. Its 
principal fracture is shining, passing into 
splendent. Specific gravity is about 2.7. 
It runs into a white enamel, with addition 
before the blow-pipe. The constituent 
parts are 

Silica 69.5 

Alumina 13 6 

Sulphate of lime 12.0 

Oxide of copper 0.7 

Oxide of iron 0.3 


It makes a part of certain kinds of 
green stone, and is accompanied with 
mica and shorl, though seldom with iron 
pyrites. It was originally discovered by 
the Moravians, in the isla'nd of St. Paul, 
on the coast of Labrador, where it is still 
to be met with in plenty, also in some 
parts of Denmark and Norway, and near 
the romantic Lake of Baikel in Siberia. 
It is used for many ornamental pur- 

LABRUS, in natural history, a genus 
of fishes of the order Thoracici. Generic 
character: teeth strong and sharp; the 
grinders sometimes convex and crowded ; 
lips thick and doubled ; rays of the dor- 
sal fin in several species prolonged into soft 
processes ; gill-covers unarmed and scaly: 
There are ninety-eight species enumerat- 
ed by Shaw, of which we shall notice 
merely the following : L. scarus, is about 
the length of twelve inches, and is found 
in the Mediterranean in immense shoals. 
It was well known to the ancients, and 
highly admired by them, being consider- 
ed as one of the most luxurious dainties. 
For a representation of the blue-finned 
Labrus, see Plate V. fig. 2. 

LABYRINTH, in anatomy, the internal 
cavity of the ear, so called from sinuosi- 
ties and windings. See EAR, 


LABYRINTH, in gardening, a winding 
mazy walk between hedges, through a 
wood or wilderness. The chief aim is to 
make the walks so perplexed and intri- 
cate that a person may lose himself in 
them, and meet with as great a number of 
disappointments as possible. They are 
rarely to be met with, except in great 
and noble gardens, as Versailles, Hamp- 
ton court, &c. There are* two ways of 
making them ; the first is with single 
hedges : this method has been practised 
in England ; and these may, indeed, be 
best, where there is but a small spot 
of ground allowed for making them ; 
but where there is ground enough the 
double is most eligible. Those made 
with double hedges, with a considera- 
ble thickness of wood between them, 
are approved as much better than sin- 
gle ones : this is the manner of making 
them in France and other places ; of 
all which that of Versailles is allowed 
to be the noblest of its kind in the 
world. It is an error to make them too 
narrow ; for that makes it necessary to 
keep the hedges close clipped : but if, ac- 
cording to the foreign practice, they are 
made wide, they will not stand in need 
of it. The walks are made with gravel 
usually set with horn -beam : the palli- 
sades ought to be ten, twelve, or four- 
teen feet high ; the horn-beam should be 
kept cut, and the walks rolled. 

LAC, gum, in chemistry, is a very sin- 
gular compound, prepared by the female 
of a very minute insect, the coccus lacca, 
found on some trees in the East Indies, 
particularly the banyan fig The insect 
is nourished by the tree, fixing itself upon 
the twigs and extremities of the succu- 
lent branches, where it deposits its eggs, 
which it glues to the branch by a red 
liquid, the outside of which hardens by 
the air, and serves as a cell for the parent 
insect. This increases in size, and the 
young insects at first feed upon the en- 
closed liquid, and after this is expended, 
they eat through the coat, leaving a hol- 
low red resinous bag,which is " stick-lac." 
The best lac is procured from the pro- 
vince of Acham, but it is obtained in great 
plenty on the uncultivated mountains on 
each side of the Ganges. There are four 
kinds of lac, viz. " stick-lac," which is 
lac in its natural state, without any pre- 
paration ; " seed-lac," which is stick-lac 
broken into small lumps, awd granulated ; 
" lump lac," which is seed-lac liquified by 
fire ; " shell-lac," which is a preparation 
of the stick-lac. By a number of very ac- 



curate experiments made by Mr Hatchett, 
it is found that lac consists of a colouring 
extract of resin, gluten, and wax ; all of 
them in intimate combinations : the pro- 
portions of the stick-lac are as follow : 

Kesin 68.0 

Wax 6.0 

Gluten 6.5 

Colouring 1 extract . . . 10.0 
Extraneous substances . 6.5 


Lac is employed for a variety of pur- 
poses in the arts : the finer specimens are 
cut into beads for necklaces. It enters 
largely into the composition of sealing- 
wax, and hard japans or varnishes : and 
it is much used in dying. 

LAC sulphuris, in medicine, a sulphur 
separated by acid from its alkaline solu- 
tion. In this state it is thought to be 
milder and a more efficacious medicine 
than in its crude state, and is certainly 
less nauseous to the taste. See SULPHUR. 

LACCIC add, in chemistry, a white or 
yellowish production of insects, called 
white-lac. Some of this substance, brought 
from Madras, was analyzed by Dr. Pear- 
son, who found that it bore a considerable 
analogy to bees -wax. A full account of 
Dr. p'earson's experiments may be seen 
in the eighty-fourth volume of Philos. 
Trans. The component parts of this acid 
are supposed to be carbon, hydrogen, and 

LACE, in commerce, a work composed 
of many threads of gold, silver, or silk, in- 
terwoven the one with the other, and 
worked upon a pillow with spindles, ac- 
cording to the pattern designed. The 
open-work being formed with pins, which 
are placed and displaced as the spindles 
are moved. 

LACK, bone, a lace made of fine linen, 
thread, or silk, much in the same manner 
as that of gold and silver. The pattern of 
the lace is fixed upon a large round pil- 
low, and pins being stuck into the holes 
or openings in the pattern, th ; threads 
are interwoven by means of a lumber of 
bobbins made of bone or ivory, each of 
which contains a small quantity of fine 
thread, in such a manner as to make the 
lace exactly resemble the pattern. There 
are several towns in England, and particu- 
larly in Buckinghamshire, that carry on 
this manufacture ; but vast quantities of 
the finest laces have been imported from 

LACERTA, the lizard, in natural his- 
tory, a genus of Amphibia, of the order 
Reptiles. Generic character : body four- 

footed, tailed, naked and long, having TIO 
secondary integument; legs equal. There 
are, according to Gmelin, eighty-one spe- 
cies, of which the following- are princi- 
pally deserving of attention. L. crocodi- 
lus or the crocodile, is a native both of 
Africa and Asia, but is most frequently 
found in the former, inhabiting its vast 
rivers, and particularly the Niger and the 
Nile. It has occasionally been seen of 
the length of even thirty feet, and in- 
stances of its attaining that of twenty are 
by no means uncommon. It principally 
subsists on fish, but such is its voracity, 
that it seizes almost every thing within 
its reach. The upper part of its body is 
covered with a species of armour, so 
thick and firm, as to be scarcely penetra- 
ble by a musket ball, and the whole body 
exhibits the appearance of an elaborate 
covering of carved work. It is an ovipa- 
rous animal, and its eggs scarcely exceed 
in size those of a goose. These eggs are 
regarded as luxuries by the natives of 
some countries of Africa, who will also 
with great relish partake of the flesh of 
the crocodile itself. When young, the 
small size and weak state of the crocodile 
prevent its being injurious to any animal 
of considerable bulk or strength, as those 
which have been taken living to England 
have by no means indicated that ferocious 
and devouring character which they have 
been generally described to possess, a cir- 
cumstance, probably, owing to the change 
of climate, and the reducing effect of 
confinement. In its native climate its 
po\ver and propensity for destruction are 
unquestionably great, and excites in the 
inhabitants of the territories near its 
haunts a high degree of terror. It lies 
in wait near the banks of rivers, and with 
a sudden spring, seizes any animal that 
approaches within its reach, swallowing it 
by an instantaneous effort, and then rush- 
ing back into its watery recesses, till re- 
newed appetite stimulates the renewal of 
its insidious exertions. These animals 
were occasionally exhibited by the Ro- 
mans among their collections of the natu- 
ral wonders of the provinces, and Scaurus 
and Augustus are both recorded to have 
entertained the people with the sight of 
these new and formidable objects. It is 
reported by some travellers, that croco- 
diles are capable of being tamed, and are 
actually kept in a condition of harmless 
domestication at the grounds and artificial 
lakes of some African princes, chiefly as 
appendages of royal splendour and mag- 
nificence. A single negro will often at- 
tack a crocodile, and by spearing it be- 
tween the scales of the belly, where it is 


easily penetrable, "secure its destruction. 
In some regions these animals are hunted 
by dogs, which, however, are carefully 
disciplined to the exercise, and are armed 
with collars of iron spikes. Aristotle ap- 
pears to have been the first who asserted 
that the under jaw of the crocodile was 
immovable, and from him the idea was 
transmitted and believed for a long suc- 
cession of ages. But the motion of the 
jaw in this animal is similar to that of all 
other quadrupeds. The ancients also 
thought it destitute of a tongue, an idea 
equally false. The tongue, however, is 
moi'e fixed in this than in most animals to 
the sides of the mouth, and less capable 
therefore of being protruded. The eggs 
of the crocodile are deposited on the 
mud or sand of the banks of rivers, and, 
immediately on being hatched, the young 
move towards the water, in their passage 
to which, however, vast numbers are in- 
tercepted by ichneumons andbirds, which 
watch their progress. See Amphibia, 
Plate I fig. 4. 

L. alligator, the alligator, differs from 
the former species principally in being 
more smooth on the upper part of the 
head, and on the snout being much wider 
and flatter, and rounder at the end. It 
grows to the length of eighteen feet, and 
abounds particularly in the torrid zone, 
but it is found so far north as the river 
Neus in North Carolina. It is met with 
both in the fresh and salt parts of rivers, 
and amidst the reeds along the banks, 
lurks in ambush for its prey, seizing upon 
dogs and cattle which approach within 
the reach of its fatal bound. Alligators 
are equally formidable in their appear- 
ance, and ferocious in their dispositions, 
seizing both man and beast with almost 
indiscriminating voracity, and pulling 
them to the bottom to lessen their means 
of resistance, and devour them with less 
interruption. By the close union of the 
vertebrae, this animal can proceed with 
celerity only in a straight forward 
direction, so that the intended victims 
pursued by them, are enabled to elude 
this destination by lateral and cross move- 
ments. But though the alligator is defi- 
cient in flexibility, it supplies this defect 
in a great degree by sagacity or cunning, 
and appearing on the surface of the water 
like the stock of a tree, he thus attracts 
various animals within its grasp. Fowls, 
fishes, and turtle, all are drawn, whether 
by curiosity or for convenience, towards 
this object, supposed completely harm- 
less, but from which the jaws of destruc- 
tion are instantly opened to devour them. 
Alligators are said to swallow stones and 

various other substances incapable of af- 
fording nourishment, merely to prevent 
the contraction of their intestines, and 
thus allay their hunger; and Catesby ob- 
serves, that, on opening a great number, 
he has seen nothing but clumps of light 
wood and pieces cf pine tree coal (in 
one instance a piece of the weight of 
eight pounds) worn by attrition to a sur- 
face perfectly smooth, implying that the}' 
had long remained in their bodies. Their 
eggs are deposited on the banks of rivers, 
and sometimes in a nest composed of 
vegetables with considerable care, and are 
hatched by the sun, and the young ones 
are not only devoured by fishes and birds, 
but become the victims often of their own 
voracious species. In Carolina they sel- 
dom attack men or large cattle, but are 
formidable enemies to hogs. From Oc- 
tober to March they continue in the se- 
questered caverns of the river banks in a 
state of torpor, re-appearing in the spring 
with the most violent and terrific noises. 
Some parts of them are used by the In- 
dians for food, and the flesh is of an at- 
tractive whiteness, but has a very strong 
flavour of musk. The growth of this ani- 
mal, and of the crocodile, is extremely 
slow, and both are imagined to be long 
lived. The alligator of North America is 
without doubt specifically distinct from 
that of South America, and the West 
India Islands. See Amphibia, Plate I. 

L. iguana, or the great American guana, 
is found in various parts of America and 
the West Indies. Its colour is generally 
green. Its back exhibits the appearance 
of a saw, and it is distinguished by a pouch 
under the throat, which it is able to ex- 
tend or contract at pleasure, and which 
gives it occasionally an appearance truly 
formidable. It is formidable, however, 
only in appearance, being in fact per- 
fectly inoffensive. Its general length is 
from three to five feet ; it inhabits rocks 
and woods, and subsists on vegetable food 
and .certain species of insects. The 
guanas deposit their eggs (which have 
no testaceous covering, and are much 
valued for food) in the earth, where they 
may be warmed by the beams of the sun, 
and leave them to be matured solely by 
its influence. The natives of the Bahamas 
train dogs to the pursuit of these animals, 
and a well disciplined dog will take them 
alive, in which case they are carried for 
sale to the markets of Carolina in the 
holds of vessels ; those which are des- 
troyed or lacerated by the dogs, arc 
salted and barrelled, and kept for the 
home consumption. Their flesh is re 


ported to be easily digestible, delicate, 
and well flavoured. They will keep un- 
der water for nearly an hour ; when they 
swim, their feet are kept close to their 
bodies, and they appear to produce and 
regulate their motions merely by their 
tails. Whatever they eat they swallow 
whole. They have been kept without 
food a very considerable time. Their 
colour is much affected by the state of 
the weather, or the dampness or dryness 
of their habitation. They may be easily 
tamed if taken young 1 . 

L basiliscus, or the basilisk, is particu- 
larly distinguished by a broad wing-like 
process, elevated along the whole length 
of its back, somewhat similar to the fins 
of fishes, and which is capable, at the 
pleasure of the animal, of being extended 
or contracted It lives almost solely in 
trees, feeding upon insects, and though 
somewhat terrific in appearance, is as 
harmless as any of the lizard tribe. It is 
found most frequently in South America, 
generally about a foot and a half long, 
swims with g; eat ease, and moving among 
the branches of the trees wiih extreme 
agility, sometimes apparently with a short 
flight, which is aided by the remarkable 
process above mentioned, on its back. 
The basilisk of antiquity, whose bite was 
supposed to be moie speedily mortal than 
that of any other creature, and whose 
look even carried destruction with it, is 
to be ranked with the Sabulous monsters, 
which, in the- prevailing ignorance of na- 
ture that attended those times, were am- 
ply supplied by a poetic imagination, 
bee Amphibia, Plate I fig 3. 

L. monitor, or the black lifcard, mea- 
sures frequently four and sometimes five 
feet, being one of the largest as well as 
the most elegant of the tribe. It is found 
principally in woody and moist situations 
in South America, and is reported to give 
indications of attachment and gratitude 
to those by whom it has been fed, and fa- 
nViliarUed to be as mild in its manners and 
temper as it is elegant in its form. 

L. agilis, or the green lizard, is abun- 
dant in all the warmer latitudes of Europe, 
sometimes attaining the length of more 
than two feet, but in general not exceed- 
ing one. Its colouring is more be. autifr.l 
than that of any of its tribe in this quarter 
of the world. About the southern walls 
of gardens, it is particularly seen pursu- 
ing insects wiih great alertness and Dex- 
terity, anil both in attack and escape its 
agility is truly admirable. It may to a 
certain degree be tamed and familiarised, 
and in this state is by many considered 

not only as a perfectly harmless, but as a 
favourite animal. 

L. chameleon, the chameleon, is gene- 
rally of the length of ten inches without 
the tail, which is equally long. Its food 
consists of insects, which it procures by 
protruding the tip of its tubular and 
lengthened tongue with inconceivable ce- 
lerity, and never failing to retract with it 
the prey at which it was darted. In In- 
dia and Africa, and various other parts of 
the world, these animals are found in 
great abundance. They are perfectly in- 
offensive, and can endure a long absti- 
nence, from which latter circumstance the 
idea of their living upon air alone, may 
not unnaturally have been derived They 
occasionally retain the air in their lung's 
for a very considerable time, and thus as- 
sume an appearance of fulness and rlesiii- 
ness, which is in perfect contrast to that 
which they will suddenly exhibit, in con- 
sequence of the total expulsion of the air 
from the lungs, during which they are 
collapsed and seemingly emaciated. A. 
change of colour is sometimes observed 
in many of the lizard tribe, but particu- 
larly so in the chameleon ; but the long 
prevailing idea of the adaptation of its 
colour to that of any substance with which 
it is surrounded is totally groundless. Its 
varieties in this respect appear to extend 
(in consequence, principally, of varied 
health or temperature) from its natural 
green-gray into very pale yellow, with ir- 
regular patches of red. When exposed 
to the sun, considerable changes in the 
shading and patching of its colours are 
observable ; and when, after being wrap- 
ped in white linen by some members of 
the French Academy, it reappeared within 
two or three minutes, it partook some- 
what, but very far from completely, of the 
colour of it. On being folded up in sub- 
stances of various other different colours, 
it borrowed neither of them, and exhibit- 
ed no interesting change. The move- 
ments of the chameleon are extremely 
slow, and in passing from branch to 
branch its tail is coiled for security round 
one till its feet have been extended to the 

L. salamandra, or the salamander, is of 
a deep brilliant black colour, varied wiih 
irregular patches of bright yellow. It is 
found in various parts of France, Germa- 
ny, and Italy, abounding particularly in 
moist and woody situations, and making 
its appearance chiefly during rain. In 
winter it secludes itself in clefts, or hollow 
trees. It is about seven inches long, 
lives principally upon insects and snails, 



can subsist by water as well as land, is 
slow in its movements, and lethargic in 
its habits. The idea of its being 1 capable 
of enduring fire without injury, can be 
accounted for merely from its possessing a 
power of exuding, in any state of irritation, 
a white and glutinous substance, which 
must of course tend to render the appli- 
cation of fire less immediately destructive 
to it than to some other animals; and con- 
sidering what trifling causes have led, in 
innumerable cases, to important inferen- 
ces, this fact may probably have given 
rise to the notion of the salamander being 
insusceptible of destruction, and even of 
injury, in the midst of fUmes. The idea 
of its poisoning any large animal by its 
bite is equally exploded. The common 
lizard, however, is stated to have been 
poisoned in consequence of the bite of 
the salamander, from sorne particular 
fluid contained in the skin of the latter. 
The salamander produces its young living, 
hatched from internal eggs, and frequent- 
ly upwards of thirty in number. 

L. aquatica, or the common water newt, 
is generally about three inches and a half 
in length, and is found in Great Britain 
in almost all its stagnant waters. Newts 
frequently cast their skins with the most 
complete wholeness, even to the exqui- 
sitely delicate and filmy coverings of the 
eye. In the power of reproduction they 
resemble the cancer genus. The loss of 
a leg is reported by Dr. Blumenbach to 
be easily repaired by renovation, and it 
is added that the same circumstance oc- 
curs with respect to the eyes. The tena- 
ciousness of life exhibited by these ani- 
mals is remarkable. They have often 
been found inclosed in large masses of 
ice, in which they must have been con- 
fined for days, weeks, or even, in some in- 
stances, for months ; and, on being freed 
from their prison, have soon displayed all 
the alertness and vigour of perfect health. 

LACHENALIA, in botany, a genus of 
the HexandriaMonogynia class and order. 
Natural order of Coronarije. Asphodeli, 
Jussieu. Essential character : corolla six- 
parted ; the three outer petals diftbrm ; 
capsule three-winged ; cells many-seed- 
ed ; seeds globular, affixed to the recep- 
tacle. There are twelve species, all bul- 
bous rooted plants, and natives of the Cape 
of Good Hope. 

LACHES, in law, signifies slackness or 
.negligence; as when we say, "there is 
a laches of entry," it means the same as 
to say, there is lack or neglect of entry. 

LACHNJEA, in botany, a genus of the 
Octandria Monogynia class and order. 

Natural order of Vepreculae. Thymelear* 
Jussieu. Essential character : calyx none ; 
corolla four-cleft, with an unequal bor- 
der ; seed one, like a berry. There arc 
two species, viz. L. eriocephala, woolly- 
headed Iachn?ea; and L. conglomerate 
cluster-headed lachnsea ; these are both 
shrubs, and natives of the Cape of Good 

LACHRYMAL, in anatomy, an appel- 
lation given to several parts of the eye,, 
from their serving to secrete the tears. 
The lachrymal gland is situated in the 
orbit above the smaller angle, and its ex- 
cretory duds under the upper eye-lid: 
these are much more easily demonstrated 
in the eye of an ox than in a human one. 

LAC1S, in botany, a genus of the t'oly- 
andria Digynia class and order. Essential 
character : calyx none ; corolla none ; 
filaments winged on both sides below ; 
receptacle girt, with twelve spines ; cap- 
sule ovate, eight-streaked, one-celled, 
two-valved, many-seeded. There is but 
one species, viz. L. fluviatilis ; this plant is 
called by the natives mourerou ; it is a 
native of Guiana, and has been found only 
on the rocks of the great cascade of the 
river Sinernari ; it is always under water, 
except the flowering branches ; it is at- 
tached to the rocks by packets of small 

LACISTEMA, in botany, a genus of 
the Monandria Digynia class and order. 
Essential character": calyx scale of the 
ament; corolla four-parted; filaments 
bifid; berry pedicelled, one-seeded. 
There is but one species, viz. L. myri- 
coides, found in Surinam and Jamaica. 

LACTATES, combinations of earths 
and alkalies, &c. with the LACTIC acid, 
which see. 

LACTEAL vessels, in anatomy, fine sub- 
tle canals situated in the intestines and. 
mesentry, and serving to convey the 
chyle to its destined place. See CHYLE. 

LACTESCENT, in botany, a term ap- 
plied to the juices of plants, of whatever 
colour, which flow out of plants, when 
any injury is done them. The colour is 
either white, as in the campanula, maple, 
dandelion, &c.; or yellow, as in the celan- 
dine, &c. ; or red, *as in the bloody dock. 
Most latescent plants are poisonous, ex- 
cepting those with compound flowers, 
which are generally of an innocent quality. 

LACTIC acid, in chemistry, is contained 
in milk, and was discovered by Scheele, 
to whom modern chemistry is indebted 
for much important knowledge. The for- 
mation of this acid depends on the change 
of the saccharine mucous matter; for 



after the acid is once well formed, when 
the serous part of the milk reddens vege- 
table blues, no more is obtained by evapo- 
ration and crystallization. Scheele ob- 
tained this acid by the following process : 
he evaporated sour whey to one-eighth 
of its bulk, and then filtered it to separate 
the coagulated cheesy matter. He then 
added lime water to precipitate the phos- 
phate of lime, and diluted the liquid with 
pure water. He next precipitated the 
excess of lime by means of the oxalic acid, 
and then evaporated the solution to the 
consistence of honey, poured on a quan- 
tity of alcohol, which separates the portion 
of sugar, of milk, and other extraneous 
matter, and dissolves the lactic acid, and 
distilled the clear filtered liquor till the 
whole of the alcohol employed be driven 
off: what remains is the lactic acid. This 
acid is never crystallized, but always ap- 
pears in the form of a viscid mucilaginous 
substance ; it has a sharp taste ; it red- 
dens tincture of turnsole ; and gives a 
reddish shade to the syrup of violets. It 
combines with alkalies, earths, and metal- 
lic oxides ; and forms with them lactates. 

LACTUCA, in botany, lettuce, a genus 
of the Syngenesia Polygamia JEqualis 
class and order. Natural order of Com- 
positse Semiflosculosx. Cichoraceae, Jus- 
sieu. Essential character : calyx imbri- 
cate, cylindrical, with a membranaceous 
margin ; receptacle naked ; seeds even, 
with a simple stipitate down. There are 
eleven species, of which L. sativa, the 
common garden lettuce, with its several 
varieties, are too well known to need a 
particular description. 

LACUNAR, in architecture, an arched 
roof or ceiling, more especially the plank- 
ing or flooring above porticos and piazzas. 

LADDERS, seating, in the military art, 
are used in scaling when a place is to be 
taken by surprise. They are made several 
ways ; sometimes of fiat staves, so as to 
move about their pins and shut like a 
parallel ruler, for conveniently carrying 
them : the French make them of several 
pieces, so as to be joined together, and to 
be capable of any necessary length: some- 
times they are made of single ropes knot- 
ted at proper distances, with iron hooks 
at each end, one to fasten them upon the 
wall above, and the other in the ground; 
and sometimes they are made with two 
ropes, and staves between them to keep 
the ropes at a proper distance, and to 
tread upon. When they are used in the 
action of scaling walls, "they ought to be 
rather too long than too short, :;nd to be 
given in charge only to the stoutest of 
the detachment. 

The soldiers should carry these ladders 
with the left awn passed through the se- 
cond step, taking care to hold them upright 
close to their sides, and very short below, 
to prevent any accident in leaping into 
the ditch. The first rank of each division, 
provided with ladders, should set out 
with the rest at the signal, marching re- 
solutely with their firelocks slung, to 
jump into the ditch ; when they are ar- 
rived, they should apply their ladders 
against the parapet, observing to place 
them towards the saliant angle rather than 
the middle of the curtain, because the 
enemy has less force there. Care must 
be taken to place the ladders within a 
foot of each other, and not to give them 
too much nor too little slope, so that they 
may not be over-turned, or broken with 
the weight of the soldiers mounting upon 
them. The ladders being applied, they 
who have carried them, and they who 
come after, should mount up and rush 
upon the enemy sword in hand ; if he 
who goes first happens to be overturned, 
the next should take care not to be thrown 
down by his comrade ; but on the con- 
trary, immediately mount himself, so as 
not to give the enemy time to load his 
piece. The success of an attack by 
scaling is infallible, if they mount the 
four sides at once, and take care to shower 
a number of grenades among the enemy, 
especially when supported by some gre- 
nadiers and picquets, who divide the at- 
tention and share the fire of the enemy. 

LADEN ; the state of a ship when she 
is charged with a weight or quantity of 
materials equal to her tonnage or burthen. 
If the goods with which she is laden be 
extremely heavy, her burthen is deter- 
mined by the weight thereof; but if light, 
she carries as much as she can stow for 
the purposes of navigation. As a ton in 
measure is generally estimated at 2000 
pounds in weight, a vessel of 200 tons 
ought accordingly to carry a weight equal 
to 400,000 pound's ; therefore, when the 
matter of which the cargo is composed is 
specifically heavier than the water in 
which she floats ; or, in other words, 
when the cargo is so heavy that she can- 
not float high enough with so great a 
quantity of it as her hold will contain, a 
diminution thereof becomes absolutely 

LAET1 A, in botany, so namedfrom John 
de Laet of Antwerp ; a genus of the Poly- 
andria Monogynia class and order. Natural 
order of Tiliaceze, Jussieu. Essential cha- 
racter ; calyx five-leaved ; corolla five-pe- 
talled, or none ; fruit one-celled, three 
cornered ; seeds with a pulpy aril. There 



are four species, of which L. guidoniftis a 

tree which grows to a considerable size in 
Jamaica, and is esteemed highly for its fine 
timber, which is much used in all sorts of 
building ; in the fruit of this tree, the lines 
between the valves are of a beautiful red 
colour, as well as the placentae ; the fila- 
ments of the flower are very numerous. 

LAGBHSTROEMIA, in botany, so 
named from Magnus Lagerstroem, of Got- 
tenburgh ; a genus of the Icosandria Mo- 
nogynia class and order. Natural order 
of Salicariae, Jussieu. Essential charac- 
ter : calyx six-cleft, bell-shaped ; petals 
six, curled; stamina very many, the six 
outer thicker than the rest, and longer 
than the petals. There are four species, 
of which L. indica, according to Linnaeus, 
is a tree the size of a pomegranate, with 
opposite leaves, sub-sessile, oblong, quite 
entire, smooth ; the floral leaves roundish; 
flowers flesh-coloured, in a loose termi- 
nating thyrse, on trifid or three-flowered 
pedicles ; the petals, on long claws, six 
in number, curled and waved. Native of 
the East Indies, China, Cochin China, and 

LAGOECIA, in botany, a genus of the 
Pentandria Monogynia class and order. 
Natural order of Umbellatae, or Umbelli- 
ferae. Essential character : involucre uni- 
versal, and partial: petals bifid; seeds 
solitary, inferior. There is but one 
species, viz. L. cuminoides, wild or bas- 
tard cumin : this is an annual plant, about 
a, foot high ; the leaves resemble those of 
honeywort : the flowers are collected into 
spherical heads, at the extremity of the 
stalks, and are of a greenish yellow colour. 
Native of the Levant. 

LAGUNGEA, in botany, so called from 
Andreas Laguna, a Spanish physician and 
botanist; a genus of the Monadelphia 
Polyandria class and order. Natural or- 
der of Columnifene. Malvaceae, Jussieu. 
Essential character; calyx simple, five- 
cusped ; style simple ; stigma peltated ; 
capsule five-celled, five-valved. There 
are three species, of which L. aculeata, 
prickly laguncea, has a round tomentose 
stem, armed with small upright prickles, 
a little branched, and is about a foot and 
a half in height ; leaves alternate, shorter 
than the petioles, deeply divided into 
three serrate-toothed segments, the mid- 
dle one longer than the others ; flowers 
on short peduncles; calyx tomentose, 
terminating in five short awl-shaped 
points, bursting on one side to the mid- 
dle, when the corolla expands, which is 
yellow, and twice as long as the calyx ; 
filaments short, scattered over the whole 
surface of the tube ; stigma red, peltate, 

scarcely standing out ; capsule oblong, 
acuminate, five-cornered, tomentose ; 
seeds kidney-form, black. It is a native 
of Coromandel, near Pondicherry, where 
it is called by the inhabitants, Cattaca- 

LAGURUS, in botany, a genus of the 
Triandria Digynia class and order. Natu- 
ral order of Gramina, Gramineae, or Gras- 
ses. Essential character: calyx two- 
valved, with a villose awn ; corolla having, 
on the outer petal, two terminating awns, 
and a third dorsal one, twisted back. 
There is but one species, viz. L. ovatus, 
an annual grass, eighteen inches or more 
in height ; very soft and hoary, as are also 
the leaves and spikes. Native of the 
South of Europe. 

LAKE, in the arts, is a combination of 
colouring extract, with an earth, or me- 
tallic oxide, formed by precipitation from 
the solution of the colouring matter. If 
a solution of alum is added to an infusion 
of madder, a mutual decomposition takes 
place, and part of the alumine falls united 
with the colouring matter of the madder. 
Precipitates, of different shades of colour, 
are obtained with alum, nitre, chalk, ace- 
tate of lead, and muriate of tin. The 
lakes form some of the beautiful pigments, 
and are highly esteemed in water-colour 
painting, and other purposes : and they 
are almost invariably composed, either of 
alum, or sometimes the solutions of tin, 
and some other watery solution of a 
colouring matter. See COLOUR. 

LAMA, the sovereign pontiff', or rather 
god of the Asiatic Tartars, inhabiting the 
country of Barantola. The Lama is not 
only adored by the inhabitants of the coun- 
try, but also by the kings of Tartary, who 
send him rich presents, and go in pilgrim- 
age to pay him adoration, calling him La- 
ma congiu, i. e. god, the everlasting father 
of heaven. He is never to be seen but 
in a secret place of his palace, amidst a 
great number of lamps, sitting cross- 
legged upon a cushion, and adorned all 
over with gold and precious stones; 
where, at a distance, they prostrate them- 
selves before him, it not being lawful for 
any to kiss even his feet. He is called the 
Great Lama, or Lama of Lamas, that is, 
priest of priests : and, to persuade the 
people that he is immortal, the inferior 
priests, when he dies, substitute another 
in his stead, and so continue the cheat 
from generation to generation. These 
priests persuade the people, that the 
Lama was raised from death many hun- 
dred years ago, that he has lived ever 
since, and will continue to live for ever. 

LAMB. See Ovis. 



LAMINAE, the thin plates of which 
any thing consists : hence the epithet 
laminated, which is applied to those 
bodies whose texture discovers such a 
disposition as that of plates lying over 
one another. 

LAAIIUM, in botany, archangel, a ge- 
nus of the Didynumia Gymnospermia 
class and order. Natural order of Ver- 
ticiiiatx. Labiate, Jussieu. Essential 
character : corolla upper lip entire, vault- 
ed ; lower, two-lobed ; throat with a re- 
flex toothlet on each side. There are 
thirteen species, several of which are 
considered as weeds, ratiier than garden 
plants. The L. album, white archangel, 
or dead nettle, is common in hedges, on 
banks, and byroad-sides; flowering in 
April and May, when it is much resorted 
to by bees, for the honey secreted in the 
bottom of the tube, by the gland that 
surrounds the 'base of the germ. Tin's 
plant has a disagreeable smell when 
bruised. I'haljena Chrysitis, or bnrnish- 
ed-brass moth, feeds on it : Linn<eus says, 
the leaves are eaten in Sweden as a pot- 
herb, in the spring; no cattle, however, 
seen 1 , to touciiit; and, having a strong, 
creeping, perennial root, it should be ex- 
tirpated, which is not difficult. 

LA M P, * li-gantrs. This is a very inge- 
nious contrivance, and the greatest im- 
provement in lamps that has yet been 
made. It is the invention of a citizen of 
Geneva ; and the principle on which the 
superiority of the lamp depends is, the 
admission of a larger quantity of air to the 
flame than can be done in the common 
way. This is accomplished by making 
the wick of a circular form, by which 
means a current of air rushes through 
the cylinder on which it is placed wilh 
great force ; and, along with that which 
has access to the outside, excites the 
flame to such a degree, that the smoke 
is entirely consumed. Thus both the 
light and heat are prodigiously increased, 
at the same time that there is very con- 
siderable saving in the expense of oil, 
the combustion being exceedingly aug- 
mented by the quantity of air admitted 
to the flame ; and that what in common 
lamps is dissipated in smoke is here con- 
verted into a brilliant flame. This lamp 
is now very much in use ; and is applied 
not only to the ordinary purposes of illu- 
mination, but also to that of a lamp fur- 
nace for chemical operations, in which it 
is found to exceed every other contriv- 
ance yet invented. It consists of two 
parts ; viz. a reservoir for the oil, and the 
lamp itself. The reservoir is usually in 

the form of a vase, and has the lamp pro- 
ceeding from its side. The latter con- 
sists of an upright metallic tube, about 
one inch and six-tenths in diameter, 
three inches in length, and open at both 
ends. Within this is another tube, about 
an inch in diameter, and nearly of an 
equal length; the space betwixt the two 
being left clear for the passage of the air. 
The internal tube is closed at the bot- 
tom, and contains another similar tube, 
about half an inch in diameter, which is 
soldered to the bottom of the second. It 
is perforated throughout, so as to admit 
a current of air to pass through it ; and 
the oil is contained in the space betwixt 
the tube and that which surrounds it. A 
particular kind of cotton cloth is used 
for the wick, the longitudinal threads of 
which are much thicker than the others, 
and which nearly fills the space into 
which the oil flows ; and the mechanism 
of the lamp is such, that the wick may 
be raised or depressed at pleasure. 
When the lamp is lighted, the flame is 
in the form of a hollow cylinder; and 
by reason of the strong influx of air 
through the heated metallic tube be- 
comes extremely bright, the smoke be- 
ing entirely consumed, for the reasons 
already mentioned. The heat and light 
are still farther increased, by putting 
over the whole a glass cylinder, nearly 
of the size of the exterior tube. By di- 
minishing the central aperture, the heat 
and light are proporiiuuably diminished, 
and the lamp begins to smoke. The ac- 
cess of air both to the external and inter- 
nal surfaces of the flame is indeed so very 
necessary, that a sensible difference is 
perceived when the hand is held even at 
the distance of an inch bejovv the lower 
aperture of the cylinder ; and there is 
also a certain length of wick at which 
the effect of the lamp is strongest. If the 
wick be very short, the flame, though 
white and brilliant, emits a disagreeable 
and pale kind of light ; and if very long, 
the upper part becomes brown, and 
smoke is emitted. The saving of ex- 
pense in the use of this instrument for 
common purposes is very considerable. 
By some experiments it appears, that the 
lamp will continue to burn three hours 
for the value of one penny ; and the fol- 
lowing was the result of the comparison 
between the light emitted by it and that 
of a candle. The latter having been suf- 
fered to burn so long without snuffing, 
that large lumps of coaly matter were 
formed upon the wick, gave a light at 24 
inches distance equal to the lamp at 129 


inches : whence It appeared, that the 
light of the lamp was equal to 28 can- 
dles in this state. On snuffing 1 the can- 
dle, however, its light was so much aug- 
mented, that it became necessary to re- 
move it to the distance of 67 inches, be- 
fore its light became equal to that of the 
lamp at 129 inches : whence it was con- 
cluded, that the light of the lamp was some- 
what less than that of four candles fresh 
snuffed. At another trial, in which the 
lamp was placed at the distance of 13 1^- 
inches, and a candle at the distance of 55 
inches, the lights were equal. In these 
experiments the candles made use of 
were 10 inches long, and 2^ inches in 
diameter. When the candle was newly 
snuiTed it appeared to have the advan- 
tage; but the lamp soon got the supe- 
riority; and on the whole it was conclud- 
ed, that the lamp is at least equivalent to 
half a dozen of tallow candles, of six in 
the pound; the expense of the one be- 
ing only 2 \d. and the other 8d. in seven 

We shall now give a more particular 
description of Argand's lamp, with re- 
ference to figures. Fig-. 1, Plate Argand's 
Lamp, is an upright elevation ; fig. 2, a 
section ; and figs. 3, 4, and 5, parts of this 
useful instrument. A A (fig. 1 and 2) 
is a reservoir containing oil, whose shape 
3s immaterial ; in the present instance it 
is that of an urn : B is a tube to convey 
the oil to the lamp, where it is con- 
sumed. The lamp is composed of seve- 
ral tubes, one within the other : the ex- 
ternal, a a t is only a case to defend the 
others within it, having a small cup, b b, 
screwed to it at bottom, to receive the 
dropping of oil : at the tube is enlarged 
by a projection soldered to it, and into 
which the tube B delivers the oil it 
brings from the urn A A : e e (fig. 2) is 
the second tube, supported concentrical 
with the other by the enlargement d, 
which it is open to all down * one side; 
the oil, therefore, has free passage into 
this tube ; but as it is closed at bottom, 
and the cavity, d, tight, it cannot get in 
the external tube, a a :ffh the internal 
tube, supported by being soldered to the 
bottom of the second, e e\ another move- 
able tube is placed between the tube e e 
and//, as seen in the section (fig. 2), but 
belter explained in a separate figure (fig. 
4), where g h is the tube ; it is divided by 
a slit from top to bottom on the side ,f; 
on each side of this slit a small piece of 
brass plate, /, is soldered to support a 
frame, A?, in which a small pinion works 
(as shewn in fief. 2> ; this -pinion crive-s 


motion to a rack, /, (fig. 5) bent at right 
angles at the lower end, and holding a 
short tube, or rather ring, m, on which 
the wick, n, is held ; this ring and the 
wick slide within the tubes g h, and out- 
side of the internal tube,//, its arm con- 
necting it witli the rack, /, goes, first 
through the slit down the side, g; of the 
tube (fig. 4), and next through the open- 
ing in the side of the tube, e e, where it 
communicates with the cavity d. At the 
top of the lamp a glass chimney, o o, is 
fixed, (as shewn in fig. 3), where o o is 
the glass tube, with a small enlargement 
or ring at the bottom : pp is a brass ring 
going over the glass, and catching the 
rim at the bottom ; it is cut into a female 
screw withinsidc, and screwed upon 
another ring, r . this presses against the 
bottom edge of the glass tube, and thus 
holds it f:ist between them : the ring r 
fits tight by friction upon the top of the 
tube, a a ; but so as to be easily removed 
when the glass is to be cleaned or taken 
away. The great advantage of this lamp 
is, that the wick is hollow, and the air 
brought to it, both on the inside by the 
tubes// and outside between the tubes 
c e and a a, and by the rarefaction of the 
air in the glass chimney, a considerable 
draught is created, and the air forming, 
which is forced to pass through the 
flame. In the urn, A, is a contrivance to 
regulate the quantity of oil coming from 
it, that the lamp may not be overflowed . 
it unscrews at t t (fig. 2) and terminates 
below the screw in a small pipe, v } closed 
at bottom : a hole is made in the side of 
this pipe, through Which the oil flows : it. 
is closed occasionally by a small tube 
sliding upon the other, v, and moved by 
a small handle, t, corning through the 
screw, t : a small hole should be. drilled 
tlrrough the screw in the same direction 
as the wire of the handle, t, to supply air 
to this part. When the urn is to be fill- 
ed with oil, it is unscrewed at t, and the 
oil poured in at the hole in tube v: the 
hole must then be closed, by pushing 
down the handle, t: the oil cannot now 
get out, and the urn is screwed into its 
place ; when the handle, f, is pushed 
down, the hole is opened by removing 
the tube, u, from before the hole in the 
pipe, v ; the oil now runs out, the air .en- 
tering at the same hole, until it rises in 
the cistern at the end of the pipe, 13, 
above the level of the hole; the air can- 
not now enter, and consequently the oil 
will not come out, until by the burning of 
the lamp the oil is drawn down below the 
hole ; a bubble of air then gets into the 



urn, and an equivalent drop of oil runs 
down : by this means, though the lamp is 
always plentifully supplied, yet it never 
runs over. 

LAMPA/acfr. See COLOUR. 

LAMPYUIS, in natural history, /re /y, 
a genus of insects of the order Coleoptera. 
Antennae filiform ; four feelers ; shells 
flexile; thorax flat, semi-orbicular, sur- 
rounding and concealing the head ; seg- 
ments of the abdomen terminating in 
folded papillae: female usually apterous. 
There are nearly sixty species, in four 
divisions, viz. A. feelers subclavate : B. 
fore-feelers hatchet-shaped : C. feelers 
sub-filiform : D. first joint of the feelers 
thicker and truncate. The first of these 
divisions is subdivided into those which 
have entire horny lips ; and into those 
with an emarginate membranaceous lip. 
The body of the insect in this genus is 
oblong, \\iili the sides formed into a kind 
of soft papillx, lapping over each other. 
L. noctiluca, or glow-worm, is seen during 
the summer months, in England, on dry 
banks, about woods, pastures, and hedge- 
ways, exhibiting, as soon as it is dusk, 
vivid and phosphoric splendour, in form 
of a round spot of considerable sixe. 
The animal itself, which is the female 
insect, measures about three quarters of 
an inch in length, and is of a dull, earthy- 
brown colour on the upper parts, and 
beneath more or less tinged with rose 
colour, with the two or three last joints 
of the body of a pale or whitish sulphur 
colour. It is from these parts that the 
phosphoric light proceeds. The body, 
exclusive of the thorax, consists of ten 
joints. The larva arid pupa do not great- 
ly differ from the complete insect, but 
the phosphoric light is strongest in the 
complete animal. The male is smaller 
than the female, and is provided with 
wings and wing-sheaths : it is very un- 
common ; and it is not determined whether 
it be luminous or not Naturalists have 
commonly supposed, that the splendour 
of the female is designed for the purpose 
of attracting the male. In Italy, the fly- 
ing glow-worm is extremely common ; 
and it is said that, on grand occasions, 
ladies use them as ornaments for their 
head-dresses in evening parties. 

LAX A, in botany, -u-vol, a species of 
pubescence, down, or velvet, which serves 
to screen the leaves covered with it from 
the heat: this appearance is very conspi- 
cuous in the horehound, woolly thistle, Sec. 

T,\XA /j/iilosop/iicUf flowers of zinc. 
Set- /.INC. 

LAXAHIA, in botany, a genus of the 

Hexandria Monogynia class and order, 
Natural order of Ensatae. Irides, Jussieu. 
Essential character : corolla superior, 
woolly, longer than the filaments ; border 
six-parted, somewhat spreading; capsule 
three-celled. There is but one species, 
viz. L. plumosa, woolly lanaria, a native 
of the Cape of Good Hope. 

LANCET, a chirurgical instrument, 
sharp-pointed, and two-edged, chiefly 
used for opening veins in the operation of 
phlebotomy, or bleeding; also for laying 
open abscesses, tumours, &c. 

LANGUAGE. 1. Man, it has frequent- 
ly been said, is the only animal possessed 
of speech, and if we use this term as im- 
plying the expression of a train of ideas 
by articulate sounds, it may perhaps be 
esteemed the best criterion of distinction 
between man and the inferior animals. 
It is not easy to fix upon one which shall 
be universally applicable ; but the same 
difficulty frequently occurs in the attempt 
to ascertain the exact boundary between 
the characteristics of one class of being 
and those of another : for instance, the 
naturalist finds it a puzzling problem to 
ascertain the characteristic difference be- 
tween the animal and the vegetable king- 
dom. Some of the most intelligent of the 
brute creation often astonish us by actions, 
which can proceed only from powers of 
intellect similar to those which we pos- 
sess. All the mental powers, except 
sensation, are probably the modifications 
of the principle of association: it is ac- 
knowledged that brutes possess this in a^ 
considerable degree, and it is probable, 
that to the difference in the extent of this 
principle of its activity and direction we 
are to attribute the mental difference be- 
tween one animal and another. There 
is, perhaps, less difference between the 
most uninformed mind of the human 
species and the most sagacious of the 
brutes, than between the brightest orna- 
ments of our race and whose minds 
have received the least culture from na- 
tural or artificial education. We gain 
greater exactness by making the capacity 
of speech the criterion of distinction be- 
tween man and the brute creation. .Many 
animals are capable of acquainting others 
of the same, and even of a (different 
species, with the feelings of their minds ; 
but man alone has the power of express- 
ing a train of ideas, and of stating the 
causes of those feelings. 

2. Articulation furnishes the most con- 
venient and extensive method of com- 
munication. It would be possible to form 
a language of signs, and in many instances 


i.his is done; but human thought would 
never have acquired any high degree of 
accuracy and extent, it" there had been no 
other language. The most perfect lan- 
guage of signs is merely a representative 
of the language of speech. What are 
called the natural signs of feeling are 
very simitar to the language of brutes, 
u:.d not more extensive. To give speech 
all the energy of thought, the language 
of tone and gesture must be joined to it; 
but it will generally be found that those 
who have words for all their ideas, sel- 
dom have recourse to gesticulation, ex- 
cept when the warmth of feeling calls it 
forth. Where speech is defective in 
energy, it is usually enforced by looks, 
gestures, and tones : these powerfully ap- 
peal to the feelings, because they are 
considered as an indication that certain 
feelings exist in the mind of the speaker, 
and feeling is contagious; but our limits 
will not allow us to enter into the consi- 
deration of this species of language, and 
we shall confine ourselves to that of 
speech, at the same time begging our 
readers to refer to the article VOICE for 
an account of the mechanism by which 
speech is effected, and to WRITING, 
origin of, alphabetical, for the methods 
which men have adopted for a permanent 
visible denotement of speech, which lat- 
ter we wish to be considered as forming 
one with the present article. 

3. Whatever be our opinion respecting 
the progressive melioration of brutes, if 
the capacity of language were communi- 
cated to them, there can be no hesitation 
in admitting that there would be a pro- 
gressive deterioration of the human spe- 
cies, if they were deprived of it. Had 
not man possessed this, or some other 
extensive power of communication, that 
astonishing system which we call the 
human mind, would have remained in in- 
activity, its faculties torpid, its energies 
unexcited, and that capacity of progres- 
sive improvement which forms so im- 
portant a part in the mental constitution, 
would have been unknown and given in 
vain. But in every part of the creation 
we discern an unity of design, which 
equally proves the wisdom and benevo- 
lence of the great First Cause. The 
means of bringing his powers into activity 
are bestowed upon man, as well as the 
powers themselves ; and it is a position 
which will bear a rigorous examination, 
that the accuracy of human thought, and 
the extent of human intellect, generally 
proceed in equal steps with the accuracy 
and extent of language. When we consi- 

der the influence of language upon intel- 
lect, it will not appear too much to affirm, 
that if those, whose genius has dazzled 
the world with its splendour and extent, 
had been from the first destitute of the 
power of communication, they would not 
have risen above the level of the least 
cultivated of their fellow mortals. "Con- 
ceive such a one (to use the ideas of 
Condillac) bereft of the use of visible 
signs, how much knowledge would be 
concealed from him, attainable even by 
an ordinary capacity. Take away from 
him the use of speech, the lot of the 
dumb teaches you fn what narrow bounds 
you enclose him. Finally, deprive him 
of the use of all kinds of signs, let him 
not know how to make with propriety 
any gesture, you would have in him a 
mere idiot." 

4. We are far, however, from believ- 
ing, with Lord Monboddo, that the hu- 
man race have actually risen from the 
very lowest stage that of mere brutality. 
His lordship supposes, on the authority 
of several travellers whom he quotes, 
(and of whose passion for the marvellous 
his quotations leave no room to doubt), 
that there have been nations without laws 
or any of the arts of civilized fife, without 
even language; and that some of them 
(to complete their resemblance to the 
monkey tribe) had actually tails. This, 
with other opinions which display rather 
the credulity of the man of system, than 
the sober and cc*>l judgment of the philo- 
sopher, has exposed his lordship to the 
lively ridicule of Mr. Home Tooke ; and 
though ricJicule is no test of truth, we 
must ad-nit that this is one of those dog- 
mata which it is below the dignity of rea- 
son to refute. 

5. We see in language a complicated 
whole, which we are usually accustomed 
to consider as it is, without attempting to 
ascertain what it has been. We see all 
regularity and beauty, and we do not 
often ask ourselves ihe question, lias 
language always been thus regular and 
beautiful t When we look back into the 
earlier periods of human nature, we find 
that this, which now wears so much the 
appearance of art, was originally the in- 
vention of necessity, gradually perfected 
and brought into a systematic form by 
causes which have operated generally, 
but have received modification from the 
influence of local or temporary circum- 
stances. A complete history of the origin' 
and progress of language, would be a 
history of the human mind. Our direct 
evidence is not very extensive, and indeed 


we are too much obliged to have recourse 
to hypothesis in tracing the progress of 
improvement in any department ot'science. 
We are unable always to ascertain (as 
Mr. Stewart observes) how men have 
actually conducted themselves on parti- 
cular occasions, and we are then ltd to 
inquire in what manner they are likely 
to have proceeded, from the principle of 
their nature, and the circumstances of 
their external situation. In such inquiries 
the detached facts which the remains of 
antiquity, or the narrations of travellers, 
or the actual appearances of language at 
present, afford us, serve as landmarks 
lor our speculations. " In examining the 
history of mankind, as well as in examin- 
ing the phenomena of the material world, 
when we cannot trace the process by 
which an event has been produced, it is 
often of importance to be able to show 
how it may have been produced by natural 
causes. The steps in the formation of 
language cannot probably be determined 
with certainty; yet .f we can show, from 
the known principles of human nature, 
how all its various parts might gradually 
have aj'isen, the mind is not only to a cer- 
tain degree satisfied, but a check is given 
to that indolent philosophy, which refers 
a miracle whatever appearances both 
in the natural and moral worlds it is un- 
able to explain." 

6. Diodorus Siculus and Vitravius sup- 
posed, that the first men lived for some 
time in the woods and caves, like the 
beasts, uttering only confused and inar- 
ticulate sounds ; till, associating for mu- 
tual assistance, they came by degrees to 
JLISC articulate sounds, mutually agreed 
upon, for arbitrary signs or nur'ks of 
those ideas in the mind of the speaker, 
which he wanted to communicate to the 
hearer. By what degrees they proceeded 
from inarticulate to articulate sounds, 
these writers do not attempt to point out, 
and unless we admit that those articulate 
sounds were connected with certain feel- 
ings, in the same manner as what are 
called the natural signs, or, that they 
were easily produced, (which will not be 
allowed by any who have attended to the 
structure of the organs of speech) the 
account we have received from a better 
informed historian will not lose its ground. 
Moses leads us to understand that the ru- 
diments of language were given to man 
by his Maker. Here was the first step, 
and here it is reasonable to believe the 
divine communication ceased, and that 
man was left to complete what he had 
been taught to begin. Let us then sup- 

pose the u^e of articulation given, and its 
application in some instances pointed out, 
in the invention of the names of animals ; 
which, we may observe, is in fact the first 
step which would probably have been 
taken, presupposingthe use of articulation, 
if no divine interposition had taken place. 

7. Words would originally be simply 
the signs of things, and further, of indi- 
viduals. New objects, for which necessity 
required a name, would receive different 
names from those already given ; but if 
there were a striking similarity between a 
new object, and one which had already- 
received a name, the old name would be 
transferred. One of the principles of as- 
sociation is similarity, and the new im- 
pression would recal the ; deu of a former 
object which it resembled, and conse- 
quently the word with which that object 
was connected; and thus, what originally 
was a name for an individual only, would 
gradually become the name of a multi- 
tude. Thus Lee Boo, who had beeii 
taught by his fellow voyagers to call a 
great Newfoundland dog by the name of 
Sajlor, used to call every dog he saw 
Sailor. There is little or no difficulty at- 
tending the appellation and classification 
of sensible objects : it is an operation sim- 
ple and easy, if some articulate sounds 
were known. 

8. When several objects had received 
the same name, it would sometimes be 
necessary to distinguish them. Our pro- 
cedure in such cases is, to connect with 
the name of the object the name of a dis- 
tinguishing quality, or some word of a 
restrictive force, or to specify some rela- 
tion which it has with other objects ; but 
this supposes that to be already done, 
which we must suppose is to be done. 
Now we must bear in mind that similarity 
(sensible, external similarity) and local 
connection, are those principles of asso- 
ciation which are known to be most active 
in the minds of the illiterate and unculti- 
vated, and that they must also have been 
the most active in the minds of all men in 
the rude states of society. A peculiar 
colour (which would furnish one criterion 
of distinction) would, therefore, suggest 
the idea of .some object remarkable for 
that colour ; and the name of this second 
object, joined with the name which the 
first had in common with others, would 
confine this general term to the particu- 
lar object which it was intended to spe- 
cify. This is a procedure so simple, that 
we may expect to find some traces of it 
still remaining to us ; and accordingly, 
among others, we have the expression, 


j.'i orange ribbon, which will exemplify 
what has been said: if we wish to dis- 
tinguish a ribbon by its colour, we are in 
this case able, agreeably to the custom of 
our language, to connect with the word 
ribbon, the name of an object remarkable 
for that colour. It must however be ob- 
served, when tracing 1 out other examples 
of this contrivance, and the application of 
it to other qualities^ that sensible qualities 
were those, and those only, which would 
be first noticed, and most requisite to 
be noticed. Local situation, or vicinity 
to some object, would furnish another 
ground for distinction ; the fountain near 
the cave, for instance. Now to express 
this, the procedure would be simple and 
intelligible, if, immediately preceding or 
following- the term denoting 1 fountain, the 
term denoting cave were added ; in like 
manner as we at present use the expres- 
sions, barn-yard, &c. This juxtaposition 
of the signs, to signify the contiguity or 
similarity of the objects which they* de- 
note, is natural, and, in a language little 
extended, sufficiently adequate for all the 
purposes of common life : but it is obvious 
that it would allow of great latitude of in- 
terpretation ; and hence, as languages be- 
came more copious, contrivances were 
used to denote the nature of the connec- 
tion which existed between objects de- 
noted by the signs employed. The chief 
of these is the employment of preposi- 
tions ; and these, in the outset, furnish 
additional proof that the procedures we 
have spoken of were in reality those of 
the early framers of language, (see GH.VM- 
MAR, 41, particularly respecting J'ranJ ; 
but these were contrivances of a later 
date than those of which we here speak. 
By degrees it was by some tribes found 
convenient to designate those names 
which were employed in connection with 
other names to point out some quality or 
restricting circumstance of the thing* sig- 
nified, by some note that they were so 
employed. They might without any dis- 
advantage have left the inference to sim- 
ple juxtaposition ; but this appears to 
have been done in few languages after im- 
provements began to take place: and to 
effect such designation, words (h 
cases denoting tuld, join, Sec.) were sub- 
joined to the particularizing names, and 
they then became adjective. (See GUAM- 
MAR, _22.) The Chinese, however, make 
no distinction between words when em- 
ployed as nouns and as adnouns; the same 
word when placed first being an adjec- 
tive, and when placed last, a substantive. 
We do the same in many instances ; but 
a large proportion of our simple adjec- 

tives are formed as above, and are i.ever 
employed as substantives; the Chinese, 
on the other hand, when a substantive is 
not to be used adjectively, add a desig- 
nating syllable to it. 

9. As far as respects sensible objects 
and their connections, all seems very plain: 
in order to express objects which were 
not sensible, so as to convey to others the 
feelings which existed in the mind of the 
speaker, words were used which had pre- 
viously been appropriated to objects, to 
which those objects of the mind's eye ap- 
peared to have some resemblance or 
other connection. This resemblance or 
connection was frequency forced, and to 
those whose situation was different would 
not be at all striking; in other cases it 
was correct, and the justness of the ap- 
plication is proved by a similar procedure 
of unconnected inventors. We may de- 
rive great light here from the hiero- 
glyphics : for there cannot be a doubt, 
that where the visible sign, which origi- 
nally represented only a, sensible object, 
was applied to denote some quality dis- 
covered by reasoning and observation, 
that the audible sign or word was applied 
in like manner. Several instances will 
be adduced when we come to consider 
the hieroglyphical mode of communica- 
tion: at present we shall adduce one or 
two examples as illustrations of the prin- 
ciples here slated. The term used to 
denote the mouth would also denote speech,- 
this connected with the word dog, would 
signify the dog's voice,- and this com- 
pound the Egyptians employed to signify- 
itiMMiiati'jn, and the sorrow which pro- 
duced it. In the uncultivated periods a." 
society, grief is loud and clamorous; and. 
we need not be surprised to find the 
term fio-i'l employed lo denote the ex- 
clamations of pain, and even of sorrow 
.Hy a similar, but more obvious procedure, 
the words dog, field, placed together, de- 
noted hunting. Our readers will be able., 
even in the present refined period of our 
language, to trace numerous instances in 
which the names of intellectual thing* 
have been obviously transferred from 
sensible things; and to those who have 
attended to the subject it will not appeu. 
too much to affirm, that in every instance; 
where a word is not the name of a sens;' 
ble object, it has acquired its preseni 
force by a gradual transition from it;.-, 
primary application to sensible objects. 
In every known language the transition 
has been begun -, but it is only amo;u r 
the more refined that it lias been com- 
plete: in our own, we find abundance oi 
23 in almost ever inte 


stage of the progress, as \vell as in its 

10. Language would proceed but awk- 
wardly without those wheels which have 
been gradually made for it : but all which 
can be thought necessary for communica- 
tion, are the noun and the verb; and even 
of the latter the necessity may be justly 
doubted. We think it next to certain, 
that the whole of what is now (by asso- 
ciation) implied or denoted by the verb, 
beyond what is denoted by the acknow- 
ledged noun, was originally mere infer- 
ence from the juxtaposition of the verb- 
noun with another noun. J\fen fight, are 
names, and are still acknowledged as 
such ; placed together, especially if ac- 
companied by distinguishing tones of 
voice, it would be naturally inferred that 
the speaker intended to raise in his hear- 
er's mind that belief which exists in his 
own ; in other words, to direct his hearer 
to make a connection which circumstan- 
ces has formed in his own mind. By de- 
grees, at least in some nations, some of 
those names which were frequently thus 
employed with the inference of affirma- 
tion, became somewhat appropriated to 
convey this inference, and the inference 
would then be made whenever such a 
word was employed ; but in the earliest 
stages of language, the great body of 
*~<"rbs must have been merely nouns, and 
iu the more simple languages many of 
those words which are employed as verbs 
(i. e. conveying the inference of affirma- 
tion) are still immediately recognised as 
nouns. In the Chinese very few names 
are appropriated as verbs, but are used 
indiscriminately, and without any change 
of form either as nouns or as verbs : in the 
Hebrew, the root (which docs not, like 
every part of the indicative in the Greek 
and Latin verbs, include a pronoun) is a 
simple name, and is in many cases used as 
a noun ; and in our own language many 
names are used either as nouns or as 
verbs. When we have advanced to the 
frequent use and gradual appropriation 
of some names to convey the inference 
of affirmation, the rest is easy and almost 
certain. With respect to the simple af- 
firmation, the subject of it would, in the 
case of the first and second persons, al- 
ways be a pronoun, and, in the same dis- 
trict, the same pronoun. This, where 
spoken language made material progress, 
would gradually coalesce with the verb ; 
and the word so formed would be com- 
pletely invested with the verbal charac- 
ter, and never be employed but with the 
inference of affirmation. The same might 
also be the case respecting the third per- 

son; but the coalescence would in this 
instance be more slowly formed, and in 
some languages, where the coalescence 
took place in the other persons, it did not 
in this: it must however be admitted, that 
in others the contrary is the fact. But 
we have already enlarged on these points 
as much as our limits will permit; and we 
therefore beg our readers to refer to 
C-iHAMMAR, 29,33, for some additional 
remarks respecting those changes which 
the verb has undergone in order to make 
it more expressive. 

11. We do not think it necessary to 
enter any farther into the subject of the 
origin of oral language. It can scarcely 
be doubted by those who have studied 
the nature of the other parts of speech, 
by means of the light which the re- 
searches of Mr. Tooke have afforded, 
that all have been derived from the noun 
and the verb ; and admitting this, all that 
is incumbent upon those who profess to 
show the original causes of languag-e is, 
to present a probable origin of those 
classes of words. In those procedures 
which have been here stated, there is 
nothing which supposes metaphysical 
research or much observation ; and to 
render any procedure probable, it must 
wear the marks of simplicity. In the 
present period of the language, we see 
the grammarian pointing out the analo- 
gies which are found to exist in language, 
and thence proceeding to the formation 
of new words upon those analogies: this 
is art ; but the early formers of language, 
in their inventions, followed only the dic- 
tates of circumstances, and whatever re- 
gularity we may perceive in their inven- 
tions, must be attributed to the similarity 
of those circumstances. We see the phi- 
losopher inventing a new term, agreea- 
bly to prevailing analogies, to express 
some power of the mind, or some emo- 
tion which had not received any denomi- 
nation ; but those who originally gave 
names to mental feelings derived them 
simply from some analogy, fancied or 
real, between the internal and an exter- 
nal object : and those names which now 
suggest to us ideas the most subtle and 
refined, were originally only the names 
of objects obvious to the senses. The 
reasoner, when he uses a word whose 
meaning has not been accurately ascer- 
tained, defines the ideas which he in- 
tends to attach to it, and uses it accord- 
ingly : in the early, and even in the 
more refined periods of language, the 
ideas connected with words have been 
the result of casual associations, produced 
by local circumstances, by the customs of 


the age, or the appearances of nature in 
particular situations. 

12. In languages, in which the coales- 
cence between the verb and its adjuncts 
has taken place, and also the coalescence 
between nouns and its connective words, 
(GRAMMAR, 19), much greater liberty 
of inversion is practicable than in those 
in which such coalescence has not at all 
occurred, or but incompletely. In other 
words, where the noun, adnoun, and 
verb, admit of flexion, there the arrange- 
ment depends in many instances more 
upon the sound than upon the sense; 
and nearly in all cases may be made sub- 
servient to the former. This gives such 
languages considerable advantage over 
those which admit of but few changes, so 
far as respects their modulation; and 
further, the coalescence renders them 
much more forcible, where emphasis on 
any of the fractional parts is not required. 
\Vhenever flexion increases perspicuity, 
the advantage is decisive and obvious : 
with respect to modulation, though an 
object of some consequence, (since we 
may sometimes find the way to the head 
and heart by pleasing the ear) yet all cul- 
tivated languages will be found to pos- 
sess sufficient power of pleasing the na- 
tive ear ; and among those who made 
sound so much an object, sense was often 
sacrificed to it : with respect to force, it 
may fairly be doubted whether the ad- 
vantage of greater precision, by means of 
more accurate emphasis, does not coun- ' 
terbaiance it. We are willing to admit on 
the whole, that the advantage is some- 
what in favour of those languages in 
which flexion is extensively adopted ; 
but we can by no means admit the opi- 
nion of those who think it necessary to a 
perfect language. That language is not 
the most perfect, which enables us to ex- 
press one thought in a great variety of 
ways, but that which enables us to ex- 
press any thought with precision and 
perspicuity: and contemptible as our 
own uninflected language may appear to 
those who can think nothing good but 
what accords witli the objects of their 
early taste, we are disposed to believe 
that in its real powers it rises beyond all 
the ancient languages, and beyond most 
ot tiie modern. 

1 -. Hetbre we leave the subject of oral 
language, we shall pay some attention to 
the three following inquiries; whether 
words were originally imitative ; whether 
they were long ; and of what kind of ar- 
ticulations they were composed. The 
iilter of these are of importance in trac- 
i. it ion JVoni hieroghyphjcalto 

alphabetical writing. Words, in their 
present state, are simply arbitrary marks. 
The sound of some appears to be " an 
echo of the sense ;" but in the greater 
number of instances in which there is 
supposed to be this resemblance, very 
much may be attributed to the fancy of 
the observer. It is obvious, however, 
that some words are truly imitative, such 
e. g. as denote the various sounds of ani- 
mals. When we carry our inquiries far- 
ther back, we are led to suppose that the 
original words would be formed upon 
some resemblance, real or supposed, be- 
tween their sound and the thing signi- 
fied. What else, at first, could induce 
men to fix upon one sound rather than 
another ? Sensible objects were the first 
which obtained names; and of these the 
number is considerable, which either emit 
some imitable sound, or perform such 
motions as are generally accompanied 
with sound. These would probably be 
denoted by words imitative of the sound, 
in the same manner as the Otaheitans 
gave to the gun the appellation of tick- 
tick-boo, evidently imitating the cocking 
and report of the gun, and as we give 
the cuckoio its name from its note. With 
respect to qualities totally unconnected 
with sound, particularly mental qualities, 
this principle of imitation is not directly 
applicable: we immediately see the in- 
congruity of sound and colour, for in- 
stance, when we call to mind the idea of 
the blind man, that a scarlet colour was 
very much like the sound of a trumpet. 
Yet there can scarcely be a doubt that 
funded resemblances would, as much as 
real ones, direct the application of 
names. Some ingenious writers on this 
subject have observed certain letters ap- 
plied to denote a certain class of ideas, 
which have some common features of re- 
semblance, and have inferred that those 
letters were significant of that common 
feature ; e. g. that c denotes hollowiess, 
This particular coincidence arises proba- 
bly from the circumstance, that the ori- 
ginal word denoting hollowness, which 
has entered variously modified into the 
words in question, was c with some vocal 
sound, This appears to be the extent of 
the inference which may be justly 
drawn; that it was so applied, but no't 
that the sound was significant of the 
idea. We are accustomed to rise sounds 
in particular connections with such regu- 
larity and constancy, that they appear to 
have a signification" of themselves consi- 
dered ; but this inference arises from i, t 
attention to the matter of fact. Frequen 
ly, from our acquaintance wi< ': 


we read a combination of words as the 
sense dictates, and suppose the imitation 
in the words, which really exists only in 
our mode of enunciation ; but these in- 
stances, however just, afford no ground 
tor argument in the present discussion, 
which refers only to single words : and 
with respect to them, we cannot but con- 
fine the resemblance of their sound to 
their sense, to cases in which they de- 
note sound or motion usually acconnpa- 
nied with sound. 

14. The chief importance of the inquiry, 
whether the original words of language 
were long, is principally confined to that 
language, in which the transition took 
place from hieroglyphics to letters. This 
is usually supposed to have been the 
Egyptian; but as of this language only a 
lew words are preserved in the Coptic, (of 
which however a large proportion are mo- 
nosyllables) we may make tiie inquiry 
more general. Lord Monboddo supposes, 
that the first articulate sounds were imita- 
tions of the cries of animals, and that con- 
sequently they were of great length, "for 
such cries of' almost all animals have a 
certain tract or extension : and that we 
may not think man an exception to this 
rule, we need only attend to the dumb 
persons among us, who utter inarticulate 
cries, sometimes very loud, but always of 
considerable length." Leaving the latter 
argument, which surely is nothing to the 
purpose, we may observe, that if the cries 
of animals were imitated to denote those 
animals, great length of words was unne- 
cessary and improbable : unnecessary, 
because one or two distinct articulations 
would usually answer every purpose ; im- 
probable, because articulation is difficult. 
If we extend the principle of imitation far- 
ther, and suppose the cries of animals 
imitated by man, in order to express feel- 
ing merely, his cries would surely be un- 
deserving the name of words, and at any 
rate would throw no light on our inquiries. 
The theory of long words appears to de- 
rive confirmation from the vocabularies of 
the North American Indians. For in- 
stance, of three which are given by Mac- 
kenzie, two appear to be composed of 
words of from two to seven syllables, with 
scarcely any words of one syllable. The 
third, however, is composed principally of 
\vords of one or two syllables. With re- 
spect to the former, even where the words 
actually denote sensible objects, our in- 
ference, that they are uncompounded, 
should be cautiously drawn. The moon 
is expressed by two words, tibiscapesim, 
night-sun ; and several others appear to 

be circumlocutions. The catholic savage? 
on the river St. Lawrence call the priest, 
the master of life's man ; and it is very pro- 
bable that, in uncultivated nations, names 
of new objects would, where possible, be 
formed rather by significant combinations 
of words in use, thati by the formation of 
new words. Thus we learn from Mr. 
Parke, that the Mandingo nation use the 
following (among many) circumlocutions "- 
fruit is eree-ding, child of the tree; finger, 
boullakon ding, child <>f the hand or arm ; 
noon teeleekoniata, the o?w overhead', bro- 
ther, ba ding kea, mother's male child; 
proud, telingabalid, straight- bodied ; angry. 
jusu bota, the heart comes out .- we think it 
almost unnecessary to remark, how much 
the last two instances countenance the po- 
sitions before laid down, respecting the 
transference of names from external to 
internal things. 

15. The words which Lord Monboddo 
adduces in proof of his opinion are, won- 
naweucktuckluit, much, and mikkeuawk- 
rook, little, from the Esquimaux ; and 
poellarrarorincourac, three > among some. 
South American Indians. The above ex- 
amples lead us to class the two former 
among the descriptive circumlocutions 
with which all languages are filled. With 
respect to the last, we may observe, that 
the names of numbers were probably ori- 
ginally significant in all languages ; and 
that the length of those names would de- 
pend upon' the length of the original 
words, and the manner of combining them: 
thus, six is among the Kamschatkans ex- 
pressed by innen-milchin, that is, five and 
one. Numbers are so familiar to us, and 
so distinctly arranged in groups, that per- 
haps in no case are our ideas more clear ; 
but this clearness entirely depends upon 
the distinctness of the signs, and of the 
manner of using them. We speak of ten 
and twenty, &,c. and all seems very clear ; 
but it is evident, if we attempt to form a 
conception often or twenty things, we 
must pass over every one singly, and en- 
deavour to combine them by processes 
which will be varied by the habits of the 
individual. If we give a fresh name to 
every group of objects, and then consider 
those groups as units, and so on, we arc 
capable of extending our ideas of number 
indefinitely, and of speaking and thinking 
of them with accuracy: but if the small 
extent of intellect, or the circumstances 
of situation, prevents this grouping, and 
our attention be confined to individuals, 
our arithmetic must be very confined. 
Those nations which reckon only by com 
pat-ison with their fingers, without group- 


ing numbers, carry their ideas of number 
no farther than ten ; those who take in the 
toes, go as far as twenty. The Kamschat- 
kans can count no farther; and when they 
have advanced to this limit, they say, 
" where shall we go now ?" It is difficult 
to conceive what circumstances coaid 
bound the arithmetic of Lord Monboddo's 
Indians to three, or rather what should 
induce them to choose so troublesome a 
mode of procedure; but it appears high- 
ly probable, that they joined together the 
names of three different men or other ani- 
mals, and if they had proceeded further 
(which however Condamme informs us 
they did not) they would have joined four 
together, ike. Perhaps their tribe origi- 
nally consisted of three only; and then, 
in order to speak of three, they might use 
thethree names combined together, which 
combination, losing its primary applica- 
tion, would become a general denotement 
of three. 

16. If Lord Monboddo had looked into 
the vocabulary of the Mexicans, he would 
have thought that his theory derived 
great confirmation from their words. Cla- 
v'r/,ego informs us, that they had words of 
fifteen or sixteen syllables : but he ex- 
pressly says they are compounds. He 
gives one as a specimen of their combina- 
tions, viz. not^omahuitzteopixcatalzin ; 
this signifies my very -u-orthii father, or re- 
vtred priest, and is compounded of seven 
words. The language of the Mexicans is 
very copious ; and one cause of the length 
of their words is probably the deficiency 
of consonants, which renders a combina- 
tion of sounds necessary for distinctness. 
After all, we may admit that the languages 
of the American Indians favour the hypo- 
thesis of long words without any injury, 
for among them alphabetical writing never 
existed ; and we should have enlarged 
less on this point, if it had not led us to 
notice some curious procedures of lan- 
guage : but it seems reasonable to admit, 
as an inference, that the original or rather 
the secondary words in language might 
be Iqng, though not to the degree that 
Monboddo supposes. When, however, 
we advance further, and inquire of what 
kind the original words of man really 
were, we see sufficient reason to conclude 
them to be short. Language was first 
used in the east, and there too writing 
was invented. Besides the evidence to be 
derived from the ancient Egyptian ( 13), 
we may cite the following. The Chinese, 
Which as far as oral language is concern- 
ed, uppears to have undergone very little 
alteration, and to be wear I v an original 


language, is composed entirely of what 
are at present monosyllables. The origi- 
nal words of the Hebrew, Greek, &c. (that 
is, those which have not been varied by 
the addition of other words) are short, 
frequently only of one syllable, seldom of 
more than two. And to conclude, of the 
various vocabularies which we have had 
an opportunity of consulting, of the un. 
civilized nations of the east, the words are 
generally monosyllabic or dissyllabic. 

17. Our last object is to consider the 
position, that, in the early languages, con- 
sonant sounds were at least generally ac- 
companied by vowel sounds : but though 
this is a material point in tracing the tran- 
sition from hieroglyphics to alphabetical 
writing, it will not be necessary to en- 
large much upon it. We think this posi- 
tion proved by the following, in some 
measure unconnected, considerations. 1. 
Vowel sounds are by far the most easy ; 
and consequently they constitute the 
earliest vocal sounds of children, and a 
large proportion of the vocal sounds 
of uncivilized nations. Several words 
among the South Sea islanders are com- 
posed entirely of vowel sounds ; and so 
great is the difficulty which these people 
find in pronouncing consonants together, 
that they called Sir Joseph Banks Opa- 
no. From this consideration we may 
fairly infer, that vowel sounds would be 
frequent in the original words of the early 
languages, which were formed before ar- 
ticulation was become easy. Yet, 2. as 
the shades of distinction between them, 
when employed alone or together, are 
too nice to furnish, at least to the un- 
practised ear, many obviously different 
words ; and as man was not at first in that 
low state of intellect in which he has 
sometimes appeared, a vocabulary form- 
ed of such sounds would be very inade- 
quate to his wants; and therefore we 
must suppose that in the early languages 
there would be very few words without 
consonant sounds. 3. Some of the first 
articulations of man were, without doubt, 
employed in naming those of the inferior 
animals with which he was. concerned. 
Now their names would almost certainly 
be given from their distinguishing cries ; 
and the cries of such animals consist of 
consonant sounds, each followed by a 
vowel sound. 4. As ai'ticulation would 
at first be nearly as difficult as we now 
perceive it to be in children, the first 
words would be composed of simple arti- 
culations, that is, of consonant sounds 
following each by a vowel ; and new 
words would be formed by the combiua- 




tion of such words : so that in the early 
languages all compounds would be form- 
ed by the combination of simple articula- 
tions. 5. The greater part of consonant 
sounds cannot be sounded singly without 
vowels, nor together, without vowels in- 
tervening. In many cases this is evident 
to the ear ; and where it is not perceived, 
it often is the fact, though the acquired 
rapidity of utterance may render it very 
little perceptible. 6. Some languages do 
not admit of an}- two consonant sounds 
tog-ether. The Tartar language always 
requires a vowel between two conso- 
nants The Russian, we believe, does 
the same. The Chinese never join two 
consonants, unless we must except tig ; 
but this appears to be only a simple 
sound, though represented by two of our 
letters. VA ith respect to the Chinese 
the point is of consequence ; because 
there is great reason to believe that they 
came from the stock of the Egyptians, 
before there had been any considerable 
addition to their vocabulary by combina- 
tions of sounds, and before the transition 
had been made from hieroglyphical to al- 
phabetical writing. It is true, many of 
the Chinese words end in consonants, 
which seems to render improbable the 
position advanced: but it is to be observ- 
ed, that in such cases the words should be 
considered as of two syllables ; for it is 
impossible, in continued speaking, to 
utter a complete consonant sound at the 
end of a word, without emitting a vowel 
sound. /.That the Hebrew, which is to 
be considered as a representative of all 
the cognate eastern languages, never 
sounded a consonant without a vowel, 
may be inferred from this circumstance, 
that those who invented denotements of 
vowel sounds, while at least the leading 
features of the pronunciation remained, 
thought it necessary to add, or suppose 
understood, a vowel sound afier every 

Respecting the Chinese language, our 
readers will find many particulars in the 
article before referred to, viz. WB.ITIXG, 
origin of, alphabetical. 

LANIARD, a short piece of rope or 
line fastened to several machines in a 
ship, and serving to secure them in a par- 
ticular place, or to manage them more 
conveniently; such are the laniards of the 
gun-ports, the laniard of the buoy, the 
laniard of the cat-hook, &c. 

The principal laniards used in a ship 
are those employed to extend the shrouds 
and -stays of the rnasts by their communi- 
cation with the dead-eyes and hearts, so 

as to form a sort of mechanical power, re- 
sembling that of a tackle. 

LANUJS, the shrike, in natural histo- 
ry, a genus of birds of the order Pico?. 
Generic character: bill straight! sh, with 
a tooth or notch near the end of the upper 
mandible ; the tongue jagged at the end ; 
outer toe connected with the middle one 
so far as the first joint. These birds are 
ranked by Gmelin with the Accipitres, 
and have been by others placed in the or- 
der Passeres ; according to Kramer, Sco- 
poli, and Pennant, however, they most 
appropriately attach to the Picae. There 
are, according to Gmelin, fifty-six spe- 
cies. Latham enumerates forty-nine, of 
which it will be sufficient to notice the 
following : L. excubitor, the great shrike, 
is about the length of ten inches, and 
found in France in great numbers, but 
rare in England. It subsists on insects 
and small birds, seizing the last by the 
throat and strangling them, and then fix- 
ing them (as some naturalists have re- 
ported) on a thorn, from which it tears 
them piece-meal and devours them. To 
decoy them within its reach, it imitates 
the songs of many birds, which approach, 
delighted by the sounds, and unsuspi- 
cious of the danger. It is a favourite 
bird with husbandmen, as it is consider- 
ed by them a mortal enemy to rats, mice, 
and other species of vermin. It, how- 
ever, prefers mountainous and secluded 
situations to the neighbourhood of man- 
kind. It appears contented in confine- 
ment, but is completely silent in it with 
respect to any song. It may often be 
perceived to hang its food, before de- 
vouring it, on the wires of its cage. See 
Aves, Plate VIII. fig. 4. 

L. colluris, or the reel-backed shrike, is 
much more frequently to be met with in 
England than the last species. It is par- 
ticularly fond of grass hoppers and bee- 
tles, which, as indeed various other arti- 
cles of its food, it will stick upon a thorn. 
The manners of this species and the last 
are, in fact, extremely similar. It imi- 
tates the sounds of other birds, to decoy 
them to destruction. During incubation, 
the female discovers herself to any per- 
son approaching her nest by violent cla- 
mours of alarm. In St. Domingo there is 
a species of these birds daring in, the ex- 
treme, particularly in the breeding sea- 
son, in which they will attack every bin! 
that approaches, without hesitation or 
distinction. In Carolina there is another 
species equally intrepid and ferocious. 
They will assail the crow, and even the 
eagle, if it attempts to intrude upon thtir 



premises, collecting in considerable num- 
bers against the aggressor, and seldom 
failing- to make him repent of his temeri- 
ty. These are denominated the tyrants 
of Carolina ; L. tyrunnus, Lin. 

LAN TANA, in botany, a genus of the 
Didynamia Angiospermia class and order. 
Natural order of Personate. Vitices, Jus- 
sleii. character: calyx obscure- 
ly, Four-toothed ; stigma hook, refracted ; 
drupe with a two-celled nucleus. There 
are nineteen species. These are mostly 
shrubs, very few being herbaceous. The 
branches are quadrangular ; the leaves 
opposite, in pairs, except in a few cases, 
where there are three or four together, 
ovate and wrinkled; flowers aggregate, 
in axillary and peduncled heads, eacli 
flower bract eel. 

L ANTERLOO, or Loo, a game at cards, 
played several ways, whereof we shall 
only mention two. 

The first way is this : lift for dealing, 
and the best put carries it : as many may 
play as the cards will permit ; five being 
dealt to each, and then turning up trump. 
Now, if three, four, five, or six play, they 
may lay out the threes, fours, fives, sixes, 
and sevens, to the intent they may not be 
quickly loocd ; or if they would have the 
loos come fast about, then they are to play 
with the whole pack. 

Having dealt, set up five scores, or 
chalks. Then ask every one, beginning 
with the eldest in hand, whether they 
will play, or pass from the benefit of the 
game : and here it is to be observed, that 
the cards have the same values as in ho- 
nours. You may play upon every curd 
what sum you please, from a penny to a 
pound; and if looed, that is, win never a 
trick, you must lay down to the stock so 
much for your five cards, as } on played 
upon every one of them. Every deal rub off' 
a score, and for every trick you win set 
up a score, till the first scores are out; 
then counting your scores, or the num- 
bers of the tricks you have won, you are 
to take from the stock in proportion to 
the value. A flush, or five cards of a 
suit, loos all the other hands, and 
sweeps the boards; and if there be two 
Hushes, the eldest in hand hath the ad- 
vantage: the knave of clubs, called paam, 
has this privilege, that he makes a suit 
with any other cards, and saves the per- 
son who has him from being looed. 

The other way is this : the dealer lays 
down so much for every card as the com- 
pany please to play for and the cards be- 
ing dealt, all must play; if any be looed, 
they must each lay down so much as the 
cards are valued at, for their loo ; and if 

the person next dealing be looed, he 
must lay down double the said sum, viz. 
one for dealing, and the other for his 
loo. In case of a loo, the gamesters are 
asked whether they will play or not, be- 
ginning at the eldest hand ; but if there 
is no loo, they must all play as at first ; 
and this necessity they justly call free. 

If there be never a loo, the money may 
be divided by the gamesters, according 
to the number of their tricks, or left till 
one be looed, as they shirtl judge proper. 

LANTERN, mug-ic, an optic machine, 
whereby little painted images are repre- 
sented so much magnified as to be ac- 
counted the effect of magic by the ig- 
norant. See OPTICS. 

The contrivance is briefly this: A B C 
D (Plate VIII. Miscel. fig. 1.) is a tin lan- 
tern, from whose side there proceeds a 
square tube bn k I m c, consisting of two 
parts; the outermost of which, nklni, 
slides over the other, so as that the whole 
tube may be lengthened or shortened by 
that means. In the end of the arm, n k lm, 
is fixed a convex glass, k /; about d e there 
is a contrivance for admitting and placing 
an object, de, painted in dilute and trans- 
parent colours, on a plane thin glass ; 
which object is there to be placed inverted. 
This is usually some ludicrous or fright- 
ful representation, the more to divert the 
spectators; b he is a deep convex glass, 
placed in the other end of the prominent 
tube, the only use of which is to cast the 
light of the flame, a, strongly on the pic- 
ture, d e, painted on the plane thin glass. 
Hence, if the object, d e, be placed fur- 
ther from the glass, k I, than its focus, it is 
manifest that the distinct image of the 
object will be pi-ojected by the glass, 
k /, on the opposite white wall, F 11, at 
fg ; and that in an erect posture : 30 
that, in effect, this appearance of the 
magic lantern is the same with that of the 
camera obscura, or darkened room; since 
here the chamber, E F G II, is supposed 
quite dark, excepting the light in the lan- 
tern A IJ C D. And here we may ob~ 
serve, that if the tube, bnklm c, be con- 
tracted, and thereby the glass, & I, brought 
nearer the object, d e, the representa- 
tion, fg, will be projected so much the 
larger, and so much the more distant 
from the glass k I ; so that the smallest 
picture at'rf e may be projected at fg in 
any greater proportion required, within 
due limits : whence it is, that this lantern 
got the name of lant-erna -megalographica. 
On the other hand, protracting the tube 
will diminish the object. 

Instead of the convex glass to heighten 
the light, some prefer a concave specu- 



lum, its tbcus being nearer than that of a 
lens; and in this focus they place the 

LAPIDARY style, denotes the style pro- 
per for monumental or other inscrip- 
tions ; being a sort of medium between 
prose and verse. The jejune and bril- 
liant ate here equally to be avoided. Ci- 
cero has prescribed the rules of this style. 
" Accedat, oportet oratio varia, vehemens, 
plena spiritus. Ominum sententiarum 
gravitate, omnium verborum ponderibus, 
estutendum." The lapidary style, which 
was lost with the ancient monuments, is 
now used in various ways, at the begin- 
ning of books ; and even epistles dedica- 
tory are composed in it, whereof we have 
no example among the ancients. 


LAPIS inf emails. See LUNAR caustic. 

LAPLISlA, in natural history, sea-hare, 
a genus of the Vermes Mollusca class and 
order. Body creeping, covered with re- 
flected membranes, with a membranace- 
ous shield on the back, covering the 
lungs ; aperture placed on the right side, 
vent above the extremity of the back ; 
four feelers, resembling ears. There are 
two species, viz. L. depilans ; body pale- 
lead-colour, immaculate, it inhabits the 
European seas ; from two to live inches 
long; is extremely nauseous and fetid, 
and is said to cause the hair to fall off 
from the hands of those who touch it. 

L. fasciata, black ; the edges of the 
membranaceous coverings, and of the feel- 
ers scarlet ; it inhabits the shores of Bar- 
bary, among rocks ; when touched it dis- 
charges a black and red sanies, which, 
however, is neither fetid nor depilatory 
like the last. It is frequently to be met 
with ofFAnglesea. 

LAPP AGO, in botany, a genus of the 
Triandria Digynia class and order. Na- 
tural order of Gramina. There is but one 

LAPSANA, in botany, a genus of the 
Syngenesia Polygamia JEqualis class and 
order. Natural order of Composite, Se- 
miflosculosi. Cichoracese, Jussieu. Es- 
sential character : calyx calycled ; each 
of the inner scales channelled ; recepta- 
cle naked. There are five species, of 
which L. communis, common nipple- 
wort, is very abundant all over Europe 
in hedges, shady, and waste places, and 
cultivated ground ; flowering in the sum- 
mer months. Nature has amply sup- 
plied the want of that down to the seed 
with which most of this class are furnish- 
ed, by the great abundance which every 
plant produces. 

LAPSED legacy, is, where the legatee 
dies before the testator, or where a lega- 
cy is given upon a future contingency, 
and the legatee dies before the contingen- 
cy happens. As it' a legacy is given to a 
person when he attains the age of twenty- 
one years, and the legatee dies before 
that "age ; in this case, the legacy is a 
lost or lapsed legacy, and shall sink into 
the residuum of the personal estate. 

LARCENY is the felonious and fraudu- 
lent taking away of the personal goods of 
another, against his will, with intent to 
steal them. If the goods are above the 
value of 12>'/., it is called grand larceny ; 
if of that value, or under, it is petit lar- 
ceny ; which two species are distinguish- 
ed "in their punishment, but not other- 
wise. The rnind, or intention, of the act 
alone makes the taking of another's goods 
felony, or a bare trespass only ; but as 
the variety of circumstances is so great, 
and the complications thereof are so sin- 
gled, it is impossible to prescribe all ti.e 
circumstances evidencing a felonious in- 
tent, or the contrary. 

As all felony includes trespass, every 
indictment must have the words feloni- 
ously took, as well as carried away ; 
whence it follows, that if the party be 
guilty of no trespass in taking the goods, 
he cannot be guilty of felony in carrying 
them away. With respect to what shall 
be considered a sufficient carrying away, 
to constitute the offence of larceny, it 
seems that any, the least removing of the 
thing taken, from tire place where it was 
before, is sufficient for this purpose, 
though it be not quite carried off; but 
there must be a removal from the place, 
though it is put back again : and where 
a pack in a waggon was not actually 
moved away, but only turned up an end, 
in order to be carried off, it was held no 

As grand larceny is a felonious and 
fraudulent taking of the mere personal 
goods of another above the value of i2</., 
so it is petit larceny, where the thing stolen 
is but of the value of I2d., or under. In 
the several other particulars above men- 
tioned, petit larceny agrees with grand 
larceny ; but in a petit larceny there 
can be no accessaries either before or 

Larceny from the person. If larceny 
from the person be done privily without 
one's knowledge, by picking of pockets 
or otherwise, it is excluded from the 
benefit of clergy, by 8 Elizabeth, c. 4. 
provided the thing stolen be above the 
values of 12^-, but if done openly and 


avowedly before one's face, it is within 
the benefit of clergy. 

Larceny from the house. By the com- 
mon law this was not punished other- 
wise than as a simple larceny, except in 
the case of burglary, which is a break- 
ing into a house in the nigtyt-time, with 
intent to steal, and punished capitally ; 
but now, by several statutes, stealing in 
a house is deprived of the benefit ot cler- 
gy in almost every instance. As, first, in 
larceny above 12c/., in a church or chapel, 
without violence or breaking the same. 
Secondly, in a booth or tent, in a fair or 
market, by day or night, by violence or 
breaking the same, the owner or some 
person of his family being therein. Third- 
ly, by robbing, which implies breaking in- 
to, a dwelling-house in the day time, no 
person being therein. Fourthly, in the 
same, by day or night, without breaking, 
any person being therein, and put in fear. 
Secondly, in larcenies to the value of 5s., 
committed, first, by breaking any dwell- 
ing-house, or out-house, shop, or ware- 
house, no person being therein in the day 
lime. Secondly, by privately stealing in 
a shop, warehouse, coach-house, or stable, 
by day or night, though the same be not 
broken open, and no person being therein. 
Lastly, in larcenies to the value of 40s., 
from a dwelling-house or its out-houses, 
although the same be not broken, and 
whether any person be therein or not, un- 
less by apprentices under fifteen against 
their masters. 

Every person who shall be convicted of 
the feloniously taking away in the day- 
time any money or goods of the value 
of 5*., in any dwelling-house or out-house 
thereunto belonging, and used to and 
with the same, though no person be 
therein, shall be guilty of felony, with- 
out benefit of clergy. 39 Elizabeth, c. 

.Receiving stolen goods. Any person 
who shall buy or receive any stolen goods, 
knowing them to be stolen ; or shall re- 
ceive, harbour, or conceal any felons or 
thieves, knowing them to be so, shall be 
deemed accessary to the felony; and be- 
ing convicted, on the testimony of one 
witness, shall suffer death as a felon con- 
vict; but he shall be entitled to his clergy. 
5 Anne, c. 31. Any person convicted of 
receiving or buying stolen goods, know- 
ing them to be stolen, may be transport- 
ed for fourteen years. 4 George 1. c. 11. 
Where the principal felon is found guilty 
to the value of 1(H, that is, of petit larce- 
ny only, the receiver, knowing the goods 
to have been stolen, cannot be transport- 

ed for fourteen years, and ought not to 
be put upon his trial. For the acts which 
make receivers of stolen goods, knowing- 
ingly, accessaries to the felony, must be 
understood to make them accessaries in 
such cases only, where, by law, an acces- 
sary may be ; and there can be no acces- 
sary to petit larceny. 

Every person who shall apprehend any 
one guilty of breaking open houses in a 
felonious manner, or of privately and fe- 
loniously stealing goods, wares, or mer- 
chandizes, of the value of 5s., in any shop., 
warehouse, coach-house, or stable, though 
it be not broken open, and though no per- 
son be therein to be put in fear, and shall 
prosecute him to conviction, shall have a 
certificate without fee, under the hand of 
the judge, certifying such conviction, and 
within what parish and place the felony 
was committed, and also that such felon 
was discovered and taken, by the person 
so discovering or apprehending him ; and 
if any dispute arise between several per- 
sons so discovering or apprehending, the 
judge shall appoint the certificate into so 
many shares, to be divided among the 
persons concerned, as to him shall seem 
just and reasonable. This certificate is 
commonly called a Tyburn ticket, and ex- 
empts the person from all parish and 
ward offices in the parish where the rob- 
bery was committed. 

With respect to the offence of larceny, 
it is difficult in so short a compass to de- 
fine the particular distinctions which have 
been made; but it may be useful to men- 
tion some general particulars. 

To constitute a larceny, there must be 
a taking the goods without the consent 
of the owner ; so that a fair loan, borrow- 
ing, or receipt of goods upon trust, which 
are afterwards converted, with intention 
to steal, to the use of the borrower, does 
not constitute a larceny or theft ; but 
there are cases in which servants who 
have goods delivered to them, also ap- 
prentices, bankers' clerks, and others, 
may be guilty of larceny; and there are 
others, where the delivery of goods hav- 
ing been obtained by fraud, for the pur- 
pose of stealing them, a theft is held to 
be committed. A man may also be guilty 
of this offence, though the goods are his 
own, as where he steals goods from a 
pawnbroker, or other person who has a 
property in them for a particular purpose 
and limited time, with intent to charge 
him with the loss. 

The felonious taking must also be from 
the possession of the owner; that is, 
either constructively or actually hi* piw- 



session ; which may be where the thief 
has the actual possession, as a \valch de- 
livered for the purpose of being pawned. 
And the goods must be personal chattels, 
not such as savour of the reality, such as 
standing corn ; but corn cut, or trees 
felled, are personal chattels, and may be 
the subject of larceny; and there are 
many, statutes which make stealing cer- 
tain articles, as lead, iron, and other 
things specified, affixed to the house or 
freehold, larceny. Bonds and bills were 
not such property as could be said to be 
stolen at common law, but they are made 
so by the statute law. And though it 
cannot be committed of vile animals 
which are wild by nature, yet the steal- 
ing of domesticated and tame animals is 
larceny, such as dogs, horses, fowls, and 
even hawks. 

LAHIX, in botany, the larch-tree, a 
species of Pinus. See the article PINUS. 


LARVA, in natural history. The larva 
state of insects, in general, denotes cater- 
pillars of all kinds. The caterpillar state 
is that through which every butterfly 
must pass before it arrives at its perfec- 
tion and beauty. 

The change from caterpillar to butter- 
fly was long esteemed a sort of meta- 
morphosis, or real change of one animal 
into another; but this is by no means the 
case The insects of the genus ichneu- 
mon contributed much to establish and 
perpetuate such absurd notions, in former 
naturalists. These insects are parasites, 
and deposit their eggs in the bodies of 
the larvae of butterflies, moths, &c. The 
young proceeding from those eggs nourish 
themselves at the expense of the cater- 
pillar, by feeding upon those parts which 
are not immediately vital. The caterpil- 
lar is at length killed, and the perfect 
ichneumon comes forth, much to the sur- 
prise of the observer, who, anticipating a 
different result, viewed it as an instance 
of equivocal generation. But the more ac- 
curate observations of modern naturalists 
have shown, that the egg of a butterfly 
produces a butterfly, with all the linea- 
ments of its parent ; only these are not 
disclosed at first, but for the greater part 
of the animal's life they are covered with 
a sort of case or muscular coat, in which 
are legs for walking: these only suit it in 
this state, but its mouth takes in nourish- 
ment, which is conveyed to the included 
animal ; and after a proper time this 
covering is thrown off', and the butterfly, 
which all the while might be discovered 
in it by an accurate observer, with the 

help of a microscope, appears in its pro- 
per form. The care of all the butterfly 
tribe to lodge their eggs in safety is sur- 
prising. Those whose eggs are to be 
hatched in a few weeks, and who are to 
live in the caterpillar stale during part of 
the remaining summer, always lay them 
on the leaves of such plants as will afford 
a proper nourishment; but, on the con- 
trary, those whose eggs are to remain un- 
hatched till the following spring, always 
lay them on the branches of trees and 
shrubs, and usually are careful to select 
such places as are least exposed to ihe 
rigour of the ensuing season, and fre- 
quently cover them from it in an artful 
manner. Some make a general coat ot a 
hairy matter over them, taking the hairs 
from their own bodies for that purpose ; 
others hide themselves in hollow places, 
in trees, and in other sheltered cells, and 
there live in a kind of torpid state during 
the whole winter, that they may deposit 
their eggs in the succeeding springs at a 
time when there will be no severities of 
weather for them to combat. The day- 
butterflies only do this, and of these but 
a very few species : bu l . the night ones, 
or phalens, all, without exception, lay 
their eggs as soon as they have been in 
copulation with the male, and die imme- 
diately afterwards. 

Nothing is more surprising in insects 
than their industry; and in this the cater- 
pillars yield to no kind, not to mention 
their silk, the spinning of which is one 
great proof of it The sheaths and cases 
which some of these insects build for 
passing their transformations in, are by 
some made with their own hair, mixed 
with pieces of bark, leaves, and other 
parts of trees, with paper, and other ma- 
terials ; and the structure of these is well 
worthy our attention. Yet there are 
others, whose workmanship in this article 
far exceeds these. There is one which 
builds in wood, and is able to give its 
case a hardness greater than that of the 
wood itself in its natural .state. This is 
the strange horned caterpillar of the wil- 
low, which is one of those that eat their 
exuviae, This creature has extremely 
sharp teeth, and with these it cuts tiie 
wood into a number of small fragments ; 
these fragments it afterwards unites to- 
gether into a case, of what shape it 
pleases, by means of a peculiar silk, 
which is no other than a tough and viscous 
juice, which hardens as it dries, and is a 
strong and firm cement. The solidity of 
the case being thus provided for, we are 
to consider, that the caterpillar inclosed 



in it is to become a butterfly ; and the 
wonder is, in what manner a creature of 
this helpless kind, which lias neither legs 
to dig-, nor teeth to gnaw with, is to make 
its way out of so firm and strong 1 a lodg- 
ment as this in which it is hatched. The 
butterfly, as soon as hatched, discharges 
a liquor which softens the viscous matter 
that holds the case together ; and so its 
.several fragments falling to pieces, the 
way lies open. Reaumur judged, from 
the effects, that this liquor must be of a 
singular nature, and very different from 
the generality of animal fluids; and in 
dissecting- this creature in the caterpillar 
state, there will always be found near the 
mouth, and under the oesophagus, a blad- 
der of the sifce of a small pea, full of a 
limpid liquor, of a very quick and pene- 
trating smell, and which, upon trial, 
proves to be a very powerful acid; and 
among other properties, which it has in 
common with other acids, it sensibly 
softens the glue of the case, on a common 
application. It is evident that this liquor, 
besides its use to the caterpillar, remains 
with it in the chrysalis state, and is what 
gives it a power of dissolving the struc- 
ture of the case, and making its way 
through in a proper manner at the neces- 
sary time. 

Boerhaave adopted the opinion that 
there are no true acids in animals, except 
in the stomach or intestines ; but this 
familiar instance proves the contrary. 
Another very curious and mysterious arti- 
fice is that by which some species of 
caterpillars, when the time of their chang- 
ing into the chrysalis state is coming on, 
make themselves lodgments in the leaves 
of the trees, by rolling them up in such a 
manner as to make themselves a sort of 
hollow cylindric case, proportioned to the 
thickness of their body, well defended 
against the injuries of the air, and care- 
fully secured for their state of tran- 
quillity. Besides these caterpillars, which 
in this manner roll up the leaves of plants, 
there are other species which only bend 
them once, and others, which, by means 
of thin threads, connect many leaves to- 
g-ether to make them a case. " Ail this is 
a very surprising work, but much inferior 
to this method of rolling-. 

The different species of caterpillars 
have different inclinations, not only in 
their spinning- and their choice of food, 
but even in iheir manners and behaviour 
one to another. Some never part com- 
pany from the time of their being hatched 
to their last change, but live' and feed 
tog-ether, and undergo together their 

change into the chrysalis state. Others 
separate one from another as soon as able 
to crawl about, and each seeks its tor- 
tune single; and there are others which 
regularly live to a certain time of their 
lives in community, and then separate, 
each to shift for itself, and never to meet 
again in that state. See ENTOMOLOGY, 
INSECTS, &.c. 

LARUS, the gull, in natural history, a 
genus of birds of the order Anseres. Ge- 
neric character: bill strong, straight, 
sharp edged, bending down somewhat at 
the tip; lower mandible exhibiting an an- 
gular prominence ; nostrils in the middle 
of the bill; body light ; wings long; legs 
small, and naked above the knee ; back 
toe small. They inhabit principally the 
northern climates, subsisting on carrion, 
and on fishes. They are reported, when 
greatly alarmed, almost universally to 
throw up from their stomach the food 
they have recently swallowed. Gmelin 
reckons fifteen species, and Latham nine- 
teen. L, marinus, is twenty-nine inches 
in length, and of the weight of five 
pounds. It is found in various parts ot" 
England, and on most of the northern* 
coasts of Europe. It breeds in the most 
elevated cliff's, laying its eggs on heaps 
of dung deposited by various birds. It 
feeds principally on fishes, but sometimes 
attacks birds, and is said to bear a parti- 
cular enmity to the eider-duck. See 
Aves, Plate IX. fig. 2. 

L. fuscus, or the herring gull, is some- 
what less than the former, frequents the 
same situations, and subsists, like that,, 
chiefly upon fish. In the herring season 
it is seen watching the nets of the fisher- 
men, and is daring enough frequently to 
seize its prey from the boats and nets. 

L. canus, is sixteen inches long, and 
about a pound in weight. It breeds on 
the rocks and cliffs on the British coasts ; 
and on the banks of the Thames, near its 
union with the sea, may be seen in im- 
mense numbers, picking up the worms 
and small fishes deposited by the tide- 
It will also follow the course of the 
plough ever the fields, and delights in 
the insects and worms which are thrown 
up by it. The cockchafer, in its larva 
state, is a particular favourite with this 
bird. See Aves, Plate IX. fig. 1. 

L. ridibundus, the black-cap, or pewit 
gull, breeds in the fens of Lincolnshire 
and Cambridgeshire, England; and, after 
the season of breeding is over, returns to 
the coasts. In some parts of Syria these 
birds are so familiar as to approach on 
being called, Knd to catch pieces of bread 


in the air as they are thrown up from the 
hands of the women. The old birds of 
this species are both rank and tough, but 
the young are eaten by many persons, 
and were' formerly much admired for the 
table, taken so young as to be unable to 
fly. The particular islets in the fenny 
wastes of Lincolnshire, which used to be 
preferred by these birds for breeding, 
were every year in winter cleared of 
weeds, rushes, and other impediments, in 
preparation for their return in large flocks 
to breed in the spring, and when the 
voung had attained the precise growth, 
several men were employed with long 
staves to hurry them into nets spread for 
their reception. This process constituted 
a favourite diversion, and the rich and 
fashionable assembled to be spectators of 
it from a considerable distance. The 
birds were sold at the rate of five shil- 
lin^s per dozen, and in the details of 
royal and noble feasts, will be found to 
have constituted an article of high and 
almost indispensable importance. 

L. catarractus, or the brown gull, 
weighs about three pounds. It is more 
frequent in the cold than in the warmer 
latitudes, and is perhaps the most daring 
and fierce of all the species. In the Faro 
islands, lambs are stated to be often torn 
to pieces by it, and carried to its nest. 
On the island of Foula, however, it is said 
to be highly valued on account of its en- 
mity to the eagle, which it attacks, and 
follows with the most animated hostility, 
in this instance becoming the means of 
security to flocks. It frequently makes 
prey of the smaller gulls and of other 
birds, and is often observed to watch the 
movements of birds on the water, and as 
thev are bearing oft' their prey in triumph 
and imagined security, to pounce upon 
them with amazing rapidity, obliging 
them to drop their victims, which in the 
same instant are intercepted by this rapa- 
cious intruder. Even the albatross, when 
on the wing, though so much larger than 
this bird, is by no means a match for it 
in strength and courage, and finds its 
effectual resource only in alighting upon 
the water, which it does with all possible 
rapidity, when the skua immediately 
ceases to annoy it. During the season of 
incubation, the skua gull will attack every 
creature approaching its habitation, not 
excepting tbe human species, several of 
whom have been assailed by it in com- 
pany, with an energy and fury truly for- 
midable. Its feathers are in high estima- 
tion, and thought by many equal to llirose 


of the goose. It is in many places killed 
merely for these. 

L. tridactylus, or the tarrock, breeds 
in Scotland, and is found so far north as 
Spi^bergen. It is an attendant on the 
progress of whales and other large fishes, 
which drive the smaller 'inhabitants of 
the ocean into creeks and shallows, 
where the tarrocks suddenly dart on 
them, ensuring always an easy and full 
repast. They are very clamorous, swim 
and fly well, are often seen on d tached 
pieces of ice, are used by the inhabitants 
of Greenland for food, their eggs being 
highly valued for the same purpose, 
while their skins are converted into 
materials for caps and garments. For 
the black-toed gull, see Aves, Plate IX. 
fig. 3. 

LARYNX, the thick upper part of the 
aspera arteria, or wind-pipe. See ANA- 

LASERPITIUM, in botany, kisenvort, 
a genus of the Hentandria Digynia class 
and order. Natural order of Umbellate 
or Umbelliferae. Essential character : pe- 
tals bent in, emarginate, spreading; fruit 
oblong, with eight membranaceous angles. 
There are fifteen species, natives of the 
South of Europe. 

LASIOSTOMA, in botany, a genus of 
the Tetrandria Monogynia class and or- 
der. Natural order of Apocinex, Jus- 
sieu. Essential character : calyx very 
short, five petalled, with two acute 
scales ; corolla funnel form, four-cleft ; 
capsule orbiculate, one-celled, two-seed- 
ed. There is only one species, viz. L. 
rouhamon; this is a shrub, seven or 
eight feet in height, with a greyish irregu- 
lar bark, and a whitish wood ; branches 
and branchlets opposite, covered with a 
russet down, spreading over the neigh* 
bouring trees. The branch lets are knob- 
bed, and at each joint have a pair of 
leaves, ending in a point ; they are of a 
pale green colour, on short petioles ; 
flowers in small axillary corymbs, on a 
small peduncle, which has two scales 
at the base ; corolla white ; capsule yel- 
low ; this shrub is called by \he Caribs 
rouhahamon; it is in flower and fruit 
during the months of October and No- 
vember-, it is found on the banks of the 
river Sinemari, in Guiana, forty leagues 
from its mouth. 

LAST, in general, signifies the bur- 
den or load of a ship. 

It signifies, also, a certain number of 
fish, corn, wool, leather, &c. A last of 
cod-fish, white herrings, meal, and askes 



for soap, is twelve barrels ; of corn or 
rape-seed, ten quarters ; of gun-powder, 
twenty-four barrels ; of red herrings, 
twenty cades ; of hides, twelve dozen ; 
of leather, twenty dickers; of pitch and 
tar, fourteen barrels ; of wool, twelve 
sacks; of stock-fish, one thousand; of 
flax or feathers, 1700$. 

LATH, in building, a long, thin, and 
narrow slip of wood, nailed to the rafters 
of a roof or ceiling, in order to sustain the 
covering. These are distinguished into 
three kinds, according to the different 
kinds of wood of which they are made, 
viz. heart of oak, sap-laths, and deal- 
laths ; of which the two last are used for 
ceilings and partitions, and the first for 
tiling only. Laths are also distinguished, 
according to their length, into five feet, 
four feet, and three feet laths, though the 
statute allows but of two lengths, those 
of five, and those of three feet, each of 
which ought to be an inch and a half in 
breadth, and half an inch in thickness, 
but they are commonly less. 

LATHS, of cleaving. The lath-cleavers 
having cut their timbers into lengths, 
they cleave each piece with wedges, into 
eight, twelve, or sixteen, according to the 
size of their timber ; these pieces are call- 
ed bolts ; this is done by the felt-grain, 
which is that grain which is seen to run 
round in rings at the end of a piece of 
a tree. Thus they are cut out for the 
breadth of the laths, and this work is call- 
ed felting. Afterwards they cleave the 
laths into their proper thicknesses with 
their chit, by the quarter-grain, which is 
that which runs in a straight line towards 
the pith. See GRAIX. 

LATHE, in turning, is an engine used 
in turning wood, ivory, and other mate- 

The lathe we are about to describe is 
made of iron, in the best manner. See 
Plate LATHE. Fig. 1, is an elevation of 
the whole machine frontwise; fig. 2, an 
elevation sideways ; fig. 3, an elevation of 
the lathe only on a larger scale ; in fig. 4, 
are two elevations of an apparatus to 
be attached to the lathe for drilling 
holes ; fig. 5, is an elevation of the rest ; 
and fig. 6, a face elevation of one of the 

The frame of the lathe is of wood, and 
consists of two ground cells, a b, two up- 
rights, dd t morticed into them, and cross 
pieces, cj\ at top, connecting them toge- 
ther ; upon the uppermost of these pieces 
the bench sustaining the lathe is fixed ; g 
is another bench, supported by iron 


brackets, to receive a vice or other tools., 
at the option of the workmen ; between 
the two uprights, d d, the axis of the 
great foot wheel turns ; it is pointed at the 
ends and turns in small conical holes in 
pieces of hard steel let into the uprights, 
d d ; one of these holes is in the end of a 
screw, by turning which, the axis can be 
tightened up so as to turn very freely 
without any shake ; the axis is made of 
wrought iron, and the points at the end 
are of hard steel welded together ; it is 
bent in the middle to form a crank; and 
h is the connecting rod, by which it is 
moved from a treadle, *'; the treadle is a 
piece of board, i, seen endways, in fig. 2, 
screwed to an axle, k t at one end, on which 
it turns, and at the other end is broader, 
to receive the workman's foot; in the 
middle a staple is fixed, and the connect- 
ing rod, h, hooked to it; A is the great 
wheel of cast iron, and of considerable 
weight in the rim, wedged fast on the 
axis, and turns round with it; it is by the 
momentum of this wheel that it continues 
to turn, while the crank and treadle are 
rising, and consequently when the work, 
man exerts no power upon them. When 
the crank has passed the vertical posi- 
tion, and begins to descend, he presses 
his foot upon the treadle, to give the 
wheel a sufficient impetus, to continue its 
motion until it arrives at the same position 

We now come to describe the upper 
part of the machine, or lathe, the wheel 
and treadle being only the first mover, it 
is shewn on a larger scale in fig. 3, and it 
is to this figure we shall refer in describ- 
ing it; B B is a strong triangular iron 
bar, firmly supported by its ends, on two 
short pillars screwed at their lower ends 
to the bench; this bar is perfectly straight 
and the sides flat ; D B are two iron 
standards, called puppets, fitted upon the 
triangular bar, D, and fixed at any place 
by screws; they are both alike, and 
one of them is shewn endways in fig. 6; 
it has an opening made in it at the bot- 
tom, the inside of which is filed extreme- 
ly true, to fit upon the upper angle of 
the bar B B, through each of the branch- 
es, formed by the opening in the bottom 
mortices, are cut, as is well seen in fig. 3 ; 
these receive the end of a short piece of 
iron, m, having a screw tapped into it ; 
it is by screwing this screw tight up 
against the underside of the bar, that the 
puppet is fastened upon it; a small piece 
of iron plate is put between the end of 
the screw and the underside of the bar. 



to defend it from bruises by the latter ; 
the upper end of the puppets are per- 
forated with cylindrical holes, to receive 
truly turned pins, mi, and which are fix- 
ed at any place by screws, o o ; these 
holes must be exactly in a line with each 
other, when the puppets are set at any 
place upon the bar, and it is to accom- 
plish this, that too much care, cannot be 
taken in forming- the bar perfectly 
straight and true in the first instance, 
arid of sufficient strength to preserve its 
figure. F is another puppet, fixed on 
the bar, in the same manner as 13 and E : 
it has a conical hole through its upper 
end, whose centre is exactly in the same 
line with the holes through the other two 
puppets D and E ; this conical hole is the 
socket for the mandrill, G, to turn in, be- 
ing- conical at that part, and fitting the 
socket with the greatest accuracy ; the 
other end is pointed, and turns in a hole 
made in the pin, n, of the puppet, D, and 
which, besides the screw, o, has another 
at its end tapped into a cock, screwed to 
the puppet, to keep it up to its work ; 
the mandrill has a pulley fixed on it, 
with three grooves of different sizes, to 
receive a band of catgut which goes over 
it, and round the great iron wheel, A A ; 
it is by this that he' mandrill is turned. I 
is the rest, composed of three principal 
pieces, shown separate in fig. 5, one of 
these pieces, r, is filed to an angle with- 
inside, and furnished with a screw similar 
to the puppets, whereby it can be fasten- 
ed to the bar ; on each side of this, 
pieces of iron, s s, are laid on the bar, 
and are fastened tog-ether by two short 
bars, 1 1, to which they are both screwed, 
the main piece, r, being cut away to make 
room for them. L is the bottom part of 
the rest, supported on the two pieces, 
s s, it has a dove-tailed groove along the 
underside ; a button, with a head like a 
screw, is fastened to the top of the main 
piece, r, and is received into the groove ; 
when the screw of the piece, r, is turned, 
it draws the button down towards the 
bar, and as its head takes its bearing on 
the inside of the groove, it must hold the 
piece L fast down upon the pieces, s s ; 
when the screw is loosened, the whole 
rest can be moved along the bar B, the 
piece L can be slid backwards and for- 
wards upon the pieces, s s, or it can be 
turned round upon the button of the 
piece, r, as a centre, at the convenience 
of the workmen ; and all these motions 
are firmly clamped by the screw be- 
neath the bar. The piece L has at one 
end a short iron tube fixed to it, in this 
an iron pin is fitted, to hold at its upper 

end the crossbar, V, on which the tool is 
Inid, a screw is fixed in the tube, and a 
nut upon it presses a piece of iron, w, 
upon the ends of two short pins going- 
through the tube, the other ends lake 
against the large iron pin of the rest, V ; 
when the nut is unscrewed, the rest can 
be set higher or lower, or turned round 
obliquely, and fixed by turning the nut ; 
the bar, v, of the rest, is fixed on by a 
screw, so that it can be easily changed 
for another when worn, or for different 
work there should be two or three of dif- 
ferent sixes with the lathe. The mandrill, 
G, of the lathe should be of iron, 
and at the part where it turns in the 
collar, F, it should have a piece of good 
steel welded round it, and turned very 
true in a lathe, and also the point at the 
end should be of steel; a small hole is 
drilled down from the top of the puppet, 
F, into the collar, to supply it occasional- 
ly with oil. The end of the mandrill, be- 
yond the collar, is formed into a male 
screw, whereon to fix the work to be 
turned. The manner of holding the 
work varies in almost every instance, 
and is explained under the article TCRX- 
IXG ; in general, it is held in pieces of 
wood called cheeks, screwed to the man- 
drill, they are turned hollow like a dish, 
and the work is driven into the cavity, as 
shown in fig. 1. 

LATHRJEA, in botany, a genus of the 
Didynamia Angiospermia class and order. 
Natural order of Personatae. Pedicu- 
lares, Jussieu. Essential character : ca- 
lyx four-cleft; gland depressed at the. 
base of the suture of the germ ; capsule 
one-celled. There are four species, of 
which L. squamaria, great tooth-wort, 
has a headed root, branched and sur- 
rounded with white succulent scales ; it 
is parasitical, and generally attached to 
the roots of elms, hasels, or some other 
trees, in a shady situation ; or, it has 
usually a naked stem ; flowers in a spike 
from one side of the stem in a double, 
row ; calyx hairy ; segments equal ; co- 
rolla pale purple, or flesh-coloured, ex- 
cept the lower lips, which is white. Na- 
tive of most parts of Europe. 

LATHYRUS, in botany, a genus of 
the Diadelphia Decandria class and or- 
der. Natural order of Papilionaceae or 
Leguminosae. Essential character: ca- 
lyx two, upper segments shorter ; style 
flat, villose above, broader at the end. 
There are twenty-three species, among 
which is the L. odoratus, sweet lathyrus, 
or sweet pea, as it is commonly called, is 
an annual plant, about three feet in 
height, attaching itself to the nearest 



plant, by means of its long- claspers or 
tendrils, the flower stalks come out at 
the joints, which are about six inches 
long-, sustaining- two large flowers, pos- 
sessing 1 a strong odour ; these are suc- 
ceeded by oblong hairy pods, having 
four or five roundish seeds in each. 
There are many varieties, according" to 
Linnaeus ; the common dark sort is a na- 
tive of Sicily, and the painted lady of 

LATITAT, in law, a writ, which in 
personal actions is the commencement 
of a suit in the King's Bench, where the 
party is to be arrested in any other coun- 
ty than Middlesex. 

LATITUDE, the distance of a place 
from the equator, or an arc of the meri- 
dian intercepted between the zenith of 
the place and the equator. Hence lati- 
tude is either northern or southern, ac- 
cording as the place, whose latitude is 
spoken of, is on this or that side of the 
equator. Thus London is said to be in 
fifty-one degrees thirty-two minutes north 
latitude. Circles parallel to the equator, 
are called parallels of latitude, because 
they shew the latitudes of places by their 
intersection with the meridian. If through 
the poles of the world we conceive innu- 
merable great circles drawn, these are 
called secondaries of the equator, and by 
their help, the position of every point, 
either on earth or in the heavens, with 
regard to the equinoctial; that is, the 
latitude of any point is determined. One 
of the secondaries, passing through any 
place on the earth's surface, is called the 
meridian of that place, and on it the lati- 
tude of that place is measured. The lati- 
tude of a place, and the elevation of the 
pole of that place above the horizon, are 
terms used indifferently for each other, 
because the latitude and elevation of the 
pole are always equal. The knowledge 
of the latitude of a place is of the utmost 
consequence in navigation ; and the me- 
thods of determining it, both at sea and 
land, are generally the same. As the 
altitude of the pole is always equal to the 
latitude, the latitude is consequently 
best found by observing 1 the pole's 
height ; but as the pole is only a mathe- 
matical point, and no ways to be observ- 
ed by our senses, its height cannot be de- 
termined in the same manner as that of 
the sun and stars, &c. ; for which reason 
another manner has been contrived. A 
meridian line is first drawn, on which is 
placed a quadrant, so that its plane may 
be in the plane of the meridian ; then 
some star near the pole is taken ; for ex- 
ample, the pole star, (which never sets) 

and observation is made of both its great- 
est and least altitude. The latitude may 
also be found by having the sun or a star's 
declination and meridian altitude, taken 
with a quadrant or astrolabe. The me- 
thod is this : observe the meridian and 
distance of the sun from the vertex or 
zenith, which is always the complement 
of his meridian altitude ; correct for the 
dip of the horizon, refraction, and add to 
this the sun's declination, when the sun 
and the place are on the same side of the 
equator; and subtract the declination 
when they are of different sides; the 
sum, in the former case, and the differ- 
ence, in the latter, will be the latitude re- 
quired. But when the declination of the 
sun is greater than the latitude of the 
place, which is known from the sun's be- 
ing 1 nearer to the elevated pole than the 
vertex of the place is, as it frequently 
happens in the torrid zone, then the dif- 
ference between the sun's declination 
and his zenith distance, is the latitude of 
the place. If the sun or star have no 
declination, but move in the equinoctial 
that day, then the elevation of the equa- 
tor will be equal to his meridian alti- 
tude, and consequently his meridian alti- 
tude is the complement of the latitude 
to ninety. 

LATITUDE, in astronomy, the distance 
of a star or planet from the ecliptic, in 
degrees, minutes, and seconds, measured 
on a circle of latitude drawn through that 
star or planet, being either north or south, 
as the object is situated either on the 
north or south side of the ecliptic. The 
ecliptic being drawn on the common ce- 
lestial globes, we may see what constella- 
tions it passes through : there are usually 
six circles of latitude, which, by their 
mutual intersections, show the poles of 
the ecliptic, as well as divide it into twelve 
equal parts, answerable to the number of 
months in a year. 

LATTEN, denotes iron plates tinned 
over, of which tea-canisters are made. 
Plates of iron being prepared of a proper 
thinness, are smoothed by rusting them 
in an acid liquor, as common water made 
eager with rye : with this liquor they fill 
certain troughs, and then put in the 
plates, which they turn once or twice a 
day, that th-y may be equally rusted 
over ; after this they are taken out, and 
well scowered with sand, and, to prevent 
their rusting again, are immediately 
plunged into pure water, in which they 
are to be left till the instant they are to 
be tinned or blanched, the manner of 
doing 1 which is this : they flux the tin in a 
large iron crucible, which has the figure 



of arr oblong pyramid with four faces, of 
which two opposite ones are less than 
the two others. The crucible is heated 
only from below, its upper part being 1 
luted with the furnace all round. The 
crucible is always deeper than the plates, 
which are to be tinned, are long ; they 
always put them in downright, and the 
tin ought to swim over them ; to this pur- 
pose artificers of different trades prepare 
plates of different shapes ; though M. 
Reaumur thinks them all exceptionable. 
But the Germans use no sort of prepara- 
tion of the iron, to make it receive the tin, 
more than the keeping it always steeped 
in water till the time; only when the tin 
is melted in the crucible, they cover it 
with a layer of a sort of suet, which is 
usually two inches thick, and the plate 
must pass through this before it can 
come to the melted tin. The first use 
of tltis covering is to keep the tin from 
burning; for if any part should take fire, 
the suet would soon moisten it, and re- 
duce it to its primitive state again. The 
blanchers say, this suet is a compounded 
matter ; it is indeed of a black colour, but 
M. Reaumur supposed that to be only an 
artifice, to make it a secret, and that it is 
only coloured with soot or the smoke of 
a chimney ; but he found it true so far, 
that the common unprepared suet was 
not sufficient ; for after several attempts, 
there was always something wanting to 
render the success of the operation cer- 
tain. This whole secret of blanching, 
therefore, was found to lie in the prepa- 
ration of this suet; and this, at k-ngth, he 
discovered to consist only in the first fry- 
ing and burning it. This simple opera- 
tion not only gives it the colour, but puts 
it into a condition to give the iron a dis- 
position to be tinned, which it does sur- 
prisingly. The melted tin must also 
have a certain degree of heat, for if it is 
not hot enough, it will not stick to the 
iron ; and if it is too hot, it will cover it 
with too thin a coat, and the plates will 
have several colours, as red, blue, and 
purple, and upon the whole will have a 
cast of yellow. To prevent this, by 
knowing when the fire has a proper de- 
gree of heat, they might try with small 
pieces of iron -, but in general, use teach- 
es them to know the degrve, and they 
put in the iron when th tin is at a differ- 
ent standard of heat, according us they 
would give it a thicker or a thinner coat. 
Sometimes also they give the plates a 
double layer, as they would have them 
very thickly covered. This they do by 
dipping them into the tin, when very 
hot, the first time ; and when less hot, 

the second. The tin which is to give 
the second coat must be fresh covered 
with suet, and that with the common 
suet, not the prepared. 

LATUS rectum, in conic sections, the 
same with parameter. See PAUAMKTKR. 

LATUS transversum, in the hyperbola, 
that part of the transverse diameter, in- 
tercepted between the vertices of the two 
opposite sections. See HYPERBOLA. 

LAVA, the production of ./Etna, Vesu- 
vius, Hecl-i, and other volcanos, is of a 
greyish colour passing to green: it is 
spotted externally, and occurs porous, 
carious, or vesicular. Its lustre is vitreous, 
more or less glistering. It is moderately 
hard, brittle, easily frangible, and light. 
It generally attracts strongly the magnetic 
needle. It is easily fusible into a black, 
compact glass. It frequently encloses 
other fossils, especially crystals of felspar, 
augite, hornblende, and leucite. See VOL- 
CANIC formations, 

LAVANDULA, in botany, la-vender, a 
genus of the Didynamia Gymnospermia 
class and order. Natural order of Verti- 
cillatz. Labiatae, Jussieu. Essential cha- 
racter : calyx ovate, obscurely toothed, 
supported by a bracte ; corolla re-supine ; 
stamina within the tube. There are seven 
species, of which L. spica, common laven- 
der, has a shrubby stem much branched, 
frequently five or six feet high, with nu- 
merous hoary leaves, the upper ones ses- 
sile, the lower petioled ; the flowers are 
produced in terminating spikes from the 
young shoots, on long peduncles ; the 
spikes are composed of interrupted 
whorls, in which the flowers are from six 
to ten, the lower whorls more remote ; 
each flower upright, on a short pedicle ; 
the usual colour of the corolla is blue, 
sometimes varying with white flowers ; 
the whole plant is covered with a down, 
composed of forked hairs. It is a native 
of the south of Europe, and has long been 
celebrated for its virtues in nervous dis- 
orders ; the officinal preparations of lav- 
ender, are the essential oil, a simple 
spirit, and a compound tincture. 

LAVATERA, in botany, so named from 
Lavater, a physician at Zurich ; a genus 
of the Monadelphia Polyandria class and 
order. Natural order 'of Columniferae. 
Malvaceae, Jussieu. Essential character ; 
calyx double, outer tiifid; arils very many, 
one-seeded, There are nine species, of 
which L. arborea lavatera, or mallow -tree, 
rises in gardens, with a strong, thick 
stalk, frequently to the height of eight or 
ten feet ; in its wild state, not more than 
four or five ; leaves alternate, cordate, 
roundish, seven-angled, the angles blunt, 



but soft as velvet, shorter than the pe- 
tioles ; flowers mostly in pairs, sometimes 
three together, on upright peduncles, an 
inch and half in length ; corolla purplish 
red, spreading, bell-shaped, like that of 
the common mallow, an inch or more in 
diameter ; petals broader at top than at 
the base, so that the calyx appears be- 
tween the claws. The ring or whorl of 
fruits is seven or eight-capsuled ; com- 
mon receptacle awl-shaped, with a conoid 
globule at top, and small crescent-shaped 
lamellae at the base, and the interstices of 
the capsules. Native of Italy, the Levant, 
and Britain. 

LAVENIA, in botany, a genus of the 
Syngenesia Polygamia JSqualis class and 
order. Natural order of Composite Dis- 
coideae. Essential character : calyx nearly 
regular, style bifid; down three-awnecl, 
glandular at the tip. There are two spe- 
cies, viz. L. decumbens, and L. erecta, 
the former is a native of Jamaica, and the 
latter of the East-Indies and the Society 

LAUGERIA, in botany, so called from 
Robert Laugier, professor of chemistry 
and botany at Vienna; a genus of the 
Pentandria Monogynia class and order. 
Natural order of Rubiaceae, Jussieu. Es- 
sential character; corolla five-cleft; drupe 
with a five-celled nut. There are three 
species, natives of America, West Indies, 
and Santa Cruz. 

LAURUS, in botany, bay-tree, a genus 
of the Enneandria Monogynia class and 
order. Natural order of lioloracex. Lauri, 
Jussieu. Essential character : calyx none; 
corolla calycine, six-parted ; nectary of 
three two-bristled glands, surrounding 
the germ; filaments inner, glanduliferous; 
drupe one-seeded. There are thirty-two 
species. This genus consists of trees or 
shrubs ; leaves mostly entire, in a few" 
nearly opposite, commonly perennial, 
as in most trees of the torrid zone. 
L. nobilis, common sweet-bay, has been 
celebrated in all ages ; with us it appears 
as a shrub ; but in the southern parts of 
Europe, it grows from twenty to thirty 
feet in height ; it has large evergreen 
leaves, of a firm texture, with an agreeable 
smell, and an aromatic, bitterish taste ; 
flowers dioecious, or male and female on 
different trees, in racemes shorter than 
the leaves, of an herbaceous colour : co- 
rollas four-petalled in the male flowers ; 
stamens from eight to twelve; berry supe- 
rior, of a dark purple colour, almost black, 
It is a native of the southern parts of Eu- 
rope and Asia. L. persea, alligator, or 
avocado pear, of the West Indies, is about 

thirty feet in height ; the bark is smooth, 
and of an ash colour ; the branches have- 
large, smooth leaves, like those of laurel ; 
the flowers are mostly produced towards 
the extremities of the branches; the 
fruit is the size of one of our biggest 
pears, inclosing a large seed with two 
lobes. This fruit is held in great esteem 
in the West Indies; the pulp is of a 
pretty firm consistence, and has a delicate, 
rich flavour ; it gains upon the palate of 
most persons, and soon becomes agreea- 
ble even to those who cannot like it at 
first; it is very rich and mild, so that 
most people make use of some spice or 
pungent substance to give it a poignancy. 

LAW, (&cuc. lag. Lat. lex, from Lego, or 
legendo, choosing, or rather a ligando, 
from binding), the rule and bond of men's 
actions : or it is a rule for the well govern- 
ing of civil society, to give to every man 
that which doth belong to him. 

Law, in its most general and compre- 
hensive sense, is defined by Blackstone, 
in the Commentaries, * a rule of action/ 
and is applied indiscriminately to all 
kinds of action, whether animate or in- 
animate, rational or irrational. And it is 
that rule of action which is prescribed by 
some superior, and which the inferior is 
bound to obey. 

Laws, in their more confined sense, and 
in which it is the business of works of 
this nature to consider them, denote the 
rules, not of action in general, but of 
human action or conduct. And this per- 
haps (it has been acutely observed) is 
the only sense in which the word law can 
be strictly used ; for in ah 1 cases where it 
is not applied to human conduct, it may 
be considered as a metaphor, and in every 
instance a more appropriate term (as 
quality or property) may be found. When 
law is applied to any other object than 
man, it ceases to contain two of its essen- 
tial ingredients, disobedience and punish- 

Municipal law, is by the same great 
commentator defined to be "a rule of 
civil conduct, prescribed by the supreme 
power in a state ; commanding what is 
right, and prohibiting what is wrong." 
The latter clause of this sentence seems 
to Mr. Christian to be either superfluous 
or defective. If we attend to the learned 
judge's exposition, perhaps we may be 
'inclined to use the words " establishing 
and ascertaining what is right or wrong;" 
and all cavil or difficulty will vanish. 

Every law may be said to consist of 
several parts ; declaratory, whereby the 
rights to be observed, and the wrong *o 
be eschewed, are clearly defined and laid 


down ; directory, whereby the subject of 
a state is instructed and enjoined to ob- 
serve those rights, and to abstain from the 
commission of those wrongs ; remedial, 
whereby a method is pointed out to re- 
cover a man's private rights or redress 
his private wrongs ; vindicatory, which 
imposes the sanction, whereby it is signi. 
fied what evil or penalty shall be incurred 
by such as commit any public wrongs, 
and transgress or neglect any duty. 

Laws are arbitrary or positive, and na- 
tural ; the last of which are essentially 
just and good, and bind every where and 
in all places where they are observed ; 
arbitrary laws are either concerning such 
matter as is in itself morally indifferent, in 
which case both the law and the matter, 
and subject of it, are likewise indifferent, 
or concerning the natural law itself, and 
the regulating thereof; and all arbitrary 
laws are founded in convenience, and de- 
pend upon the authority of the legislative 
power which appoints and makes them, 
and are for maintaining public order ; 
those which are natural laws are from 
God ; but those which are arbitrary, 
are properly human and positive institu- 

The laws of any country began, when 
there first began to be a state in the 
land ; and we may consider the world as 
one universal society, and then that law 
by which nations were governed, is called 
jus gentium; if we consider the world as 
made up of particular nations, the law 
which regulates the public order and 
right of them, is termed jus publicum; and 
that law which determines the private 
rights of men, is called jus civile. 

No law can oblige a people without 
their consent; this consent is either verbis 
orfactzs, i. e. it is expressed by writing, or 
implied by deeds and actions ; and where 
a law is grounded on an implied assent, 
rebus etfactis, it is either common law or 
custom ; if it is universal, it is common 
law; and if particular to this or that place, 
then it is custom. 

The law in this land hath been varia- 
ble ; the Roman laws were in use ancient- 
ly in Britain, when the Romans had seve- 
ral colonies here, eacli of which was go- 
verned by the Roman laws : afterwards 
we had the laws called Merchenlage, Saxonlage, and Danelage ; all re- 
duced into a body, and made one by King 
Edward the Confessor. 

At present the laws of England are di- 
vided into three parts : 1. The common 
law, which is the most ancient and gene- 
ral law of the realm, and common to the 

whole kingdom; being appropriate there- 
to, and having no dependence upon any 
foreign law whatsoever. 

2 Statutes, or acts of parliament, made 
and passed by the King, Lords, and 
Commons, in Parliament; being a reserve 
for the government to provide against 
new mischiefs arising through the cor- 
ruption of the times. And by this the 
common law is amended where defective, 
for the suppression of public evils ; 
though where the common law and sta- 
tute law concur or interfere, the common 
law shall be preferred. 

3. Particular customs. These must be 
particular, for a general custom is part of 
the common law of the land. 

Blackstone divides the municipal law of 
England into two kinds, lex non scripta, 
the unwritten or common law; and the 
lex scripta, the written, that is, the statute 

The lex non scripta, or unwritten law, 
includes not only general customs, or 
the common law, properly so called ; 
but also the particular customs of certain 
parts of the kingdom ; and likewise 
those particular laws, that are by custom 
observed only in certain courts and juris- 

There is another division of our laws, 
more large and particular; as into the 
prerogative or crown law, the law and 
custom of parliament, the common law, 
the statute law, reasonable customs, the 
law of arms, war, and chivalry, ecclesias- 
tical or canon law, civil law, in certain 
courts and cases, forest law, the law of 
marque and reprisal, the law of mer- 
chants, the law and privilege of the stan- 
naries, &c. But this large division may 
be reduced to the common division ; and 
all is founded on the law of nature and 
reason, and the revealed law of God, as 
all other laws ought to be. 

The law of nature is that which God, 
at man's creation, infused into him, for his 
preservation and direction ; and this is lex 
sterna, and may not be changed ; and no 
laws shall be made or kept, that are ex- 
pressly against the law of God, written in 
his scripture ; as to forbid what he com- 

All laws derive their force a lege nature; 
and those which do not, are accounted as 
no laws. No law will make a construc- 
tion to do wrong ; and there are some 
things which the law favours, and some 
it dislikes ; it favoureth those things 
that come from the order of nature. Also 
our law hath much more respect to life, 
liberty, freehold, inheritance, matters of 



record, and of substance ; than to chat- 
tels, things in the personalty, matters not 
of record, on circumstances. 

LAW of nations, is a system of rules de- 
ducible, by natural reason, from the im- 
mutable principles of natural justice, and 
established by universal consent amongst 
the civilized inhabitants of the world, in 
order to decide all disputes, and to insure 
the observance of justice and good faith, 
in that intercourse which must frequently 
occur between them and the individuals 
belonging to each ; or they may depend 
upon mutual compacts, treaties, leagues, 
and agreements between the separate, 
free, and independent communities. In 
the construction of these principles, there 
is no judge to resort to, but the general 
law of nature and of reason, being the 
only law with which the contracting par- 
ties are all equally conversant, and to 
which they are all equally amenable. 
Laws have properly their effect only in 
the country where and for which they 
have been enacted. However, 1. Those 
which relate to the state, and to the 
personal condition of the subjects, are 
acknowledged in foreign countries. 2. A 
foreigner, who is plaintiff against a sub- 
ject, must abide by the decisions of the 
law of the country in which he pleads. 
3. When the validity of an act done in a 
foreign country is in question, it ought to 
be decided by the laws of that foreign 
country. 4. Sometimes the parties agree 
to the question being determined by par- 
ticular laws of a foreign country. 5. A 
foreign law may have been received as a 
subsidiary law. 6. Foreigners sometimes 
obtain the privilege of having their dis- 
putes with each other settled by the laws 
of their own country. 

LAWSONIA, in botany, so named 
from Isaac Lawson, M. D. a genus of the 
Octandria Monogynia class and order. 
Natural order of Salicarise, Jussieu. Es- 
sential character : calyx tour-cleft ; pe- 
tals four ; stamens in four pairs ; cap- 
sule four-celled, many-seeded. There 
are four species ; natives of warm coun- 

LAXMANNIA, in botany, so called 
from Ericus Laxman, a Swede, a genus 
of the Hexandria Monogynia class and 
order. Essential character : calyx one- 
leafed, four-toothed, inferior ; corolla 
ibur-petalled ; berry four-celled ; seeds 

LAYERS, in gardening, are tender 
shoots, or twigs of trees, laid or buried in 
the ground ; till, having struck root, they 

are separated from the parent tree, and 
become distinct plants. 

LAZULITE, in mineralogy, is of a 
deep smalt blue : it occurs disseminated 
in fine grains, or masses of the size of a 
hazel nut. The latter often present the 
appearance of short tetrahedral prisms. 
Its fracture is uneven, with a glimmering 1 
lustre. It is brittle, and easily frangible : 
at a red heat it loses its colour, and be- 
comes grey. Without addition it is in- 
fusible before the blow-pipe, but with bo- 
rax it runs into a clear yellow glass. It 
has been analyzed by Klaproth, and is 
found to contain silex, alumina, and oxide 
of iron. 

LAZURSTEIN, in mineralogy, called 
also azure-stone, a species of the flint 
genus, is of a perfect azure blue colour, 
in some varieties it passes into sky blue : 
it is found massive, disseminated, and in 
rolled pieces : hard, brittle, and not heavy : 
specific gravity is from 2.7 to 2.95. It 
melts into a white enamel before the blow- 
pipe. When previously calcined and 
powdered, it forms a jelly with acids : it 
is composed of 

Silica 46.0 

Alumina 14 5 

Carbonate of lime .... 28.0 

Sulphate of lime 6.5 

Oxide of iron 30 

Water 2.0 


It has been found in Persia, Bucharia, 
China, Great Tartary, and Siberia : it is 
also obtained in considerable quantities in 
the island of Hainan, in the Chinese sea, 
from whence it is sent to Canton, where 
it is employed in painting. It has like- 
wise been met with in South America ; 
and in Europe among the ruins at Rome. 
It is used in various articles of ornamen- 
tal dress, and in Mosaic and Florentine 
work, and is highly valued on account of 
the fine blue colour which it yields. 

LEAD, is a white metal, of a consider- 
ably blue tinge, very soft and flexible, not 
very tenacious, and consequently incapa- 
ble of being drawn into fine wire, though 
it is easily extended into thin plates un- 
der the hammer. Its weight is very con- 
siderable, being rather greater than that 
of silver. Long before ignition, namely, 
at about the 540th degree of Fahrenheit's 
thermometer, it melts ; and then begins 


to be oxyded, it' respirable air be present. 
In a strong- heat it boils, and emits fumes ; 
during which time, if exposed to the air, 
its oxydation proceeds with considerable 
rapidity. If melted lead be poured into 
a box previously rubbed with chalk, to 
prevent its action on the wood, and be 
continually agitated, it will concrete into 
separate grains, of considerable use in 
various mechanical operations, particu- 
larly that of weighing. Lead is brittle at 
the time of congelation. In this slate it 
may be broken to pieces with a hammer, 
and the crystallization of its internal parts 
will exhibit an arrangement in parallel 

This metal, during the progress of heat, 
first becomes converted into a dusky pow- 
der, which by a continuation of the heat 
becomes white, yellow, and afterwards of 
a bright red, inclining to orange colour, 
called minium, or red lead. The process 
requires considerable management with 
regard to the heat and access of air, in 
the making of red lend. Many days are 
required for this purpose. If the heat be 
too great or rapid, the lead becomes con- 
verted into a flaky substance, called 
litharge ; and a still greater heat converts 
it into a clear, transparent, yellow glass, 
which powerfully dissolves and corrodes 
metallic oxides or earths ; and on this ac- 
count it usually finds its way through the 
crucibles in a short time. It acts more 
difficultly on argillaceous than on siliceous 
earths ; w r hence it is found that vessels 
made of clay mixed with broken pottery 
are preferable to those that are composed 
of clay and sand. The oxide of lead is a 
principal ingredient in most of the modern 
fine white glasses. It is more particularly 
calculated to form the dense glass, vised to 
correct the aberration arising from colour 
in those telescopes which are known by 
the name of achromatic, because it com- 
municates the property of separating the 
coloured rays from each other in greater 
angles than obtain in alkaline glasses at 
equal angles of mean refraction. The 
imperfection which most considerably af- 
fects this kind of glass is, that its density 
is seldom uniform throughout. The ir- 
regularities show themselves in the forms 
of veins, which greatly disturb the regu- 
lar refraction. 

Lead is not much altered by exposure 
to air or water, though the brightness of 
its surface, when cut or scraped, very soon 
goes off. It is probable that a thin stratum 
of oxide is formed on the surface, which 
defends the rest of the metal from corro- 

All the oxides of lead are veiy easily re- 

duced. Minium, when exposed to a strong 
heat, gives out part of the oxygen it ab- 
sorbed during its oxidation ; but, like the 
other oxides of this metal, it requires the 
addition of some combustible substance 
for its complete revival : a familiar in- 
stance of this revival is seen by exposing' 
the common wafers to the flame of a can- 
dle. The wafers are coloured with 
minium, which is revived by the heat and 
inflammable substance of the wafer, so 
that it falls down in metallic globules. 

Lead is found native, though seldom ; 
and also in the form of an oxide, called 
native ceruse, or lead ochre, or lead spar, 
of various colours, red, brown, yellow, 
green, bluish, and black. These ores, 
when freed as much as possible from 
earthy matter, may be dissolved in diluted 
nitrous acid. Oxide of iron is usually 
thrown down from the solution by boiling. 
If the lead be then precipitated by the 
carbonate of soda, and weighed, 132 grains 
of the dry precipitate will correspond 
with 100 grains of lead in the metallic 
state. If the precipitate be suspected to 
contain copper, it may be separated by 
digesting in ammonia. If it be supposed 
to contain silver and copper, the precipi- 
tate may again be dissolved in nitric acid, 
and separated by the addition of muriatic 
acid ; which, combining 1 with the metal, 
produces the muriates of silver and of 
lead ; the latter of which, being soluble in 
thirty times its weight of boiling water, 
may be washed off, while the silver re- 
mains undissolved ; or the silver, if alone 
in the precipitate, may be taken up by 
ammonia, which will leave the oxide of 
lead of the same value, with regard to 
weight, as the foregoing. 

Lead is also found mineralized by the 
sulphuric and the phosphoric acids; this 
last is of a greenish colour, arising from a 
mixture of iron. The sulphate of lead is 
soluble in about eighteen times its weight 
of water. One hundred and forty-three 
grains of the dried salt represent 100 
grains of lead. The phosphate of lead 
ore may be dissolved in nitric acid by 
means of heat, except a few particles of 
iron, which remain at the bottom. By 
the addition of sulphuric acid, the lead is 
thrown down in the form of white flakes 
of sulphate ; which, when washed and 
dried, discover the quantity of lead they 
contain, by the same allowance of 143 
grains of the salt to 100 grains of metallic 
lead. The remaining solution being 
evaporated to dry ness, affords phosphoric 
acid. Lead is abundantly found in com- 
bination with sulphur, in the form of 
heavy, shining, black, or bluish, lead- 


toloured cubical masses, whose corners 
are usually truncated ; its texture is lami- 
nated, and its hardness variable. This is 
called galena, or potter's lead ore. Most 
lead ores contain more or less of silver. 
When antimony enters into its composi- 
tion, the texture is radiated or filamen- 
tous. There are also lead pyrites, which 
contain a considerable proportion of iron 
and sulphur ; and red lead spar, which 
consists of lead mineralized by sulphur 
and arsenic : this is very scarce. 

If sulphuretted lead be boiled in nitric 
or muriatic acid of a moderate strength, 
the sulphur may be obtained pure, and 
collected on a filter. When iron or stony 
particles are contained among the undis- 
solved part, the sulphur may be separated 
by digestion in a solution of pure fixed 
alkali, which converts it into sulphuret, 
and leaves the other insoluble matters 
behind. If the first solution be made 
with nitric acid, it may contain silver and 
lead, which, after precipitation by carbo- 
nate of soda, may be separated by ammo- 
nia, as mentioned in the humid anal} sis 
of the calci form ores ; when the muriatic 
acid is used for the solution of the ore, a 
large quantity of muriate of lead sepa- 
rates, for want of a sufficient quantity of 
water to dissolve it. This requisite quan- 
tity of water must be added to dissolve the 
salt, before the precipitate is made by the 
fixed alkali. 

All the ores of lead, except the phos- 
phoric, are reducible to the metallic state, 
by dissipating their volatile contents by 
the blow-pipe on a piece of charcoal. In 
the large way, they are reduced by fusion 
with charcoal. 

The ores of this metal are Abundantly 
found in the mine counties-*of England, 
and in various other parts of the globe. 
Its uses are numerous, and scarcely need 
be mentioned. Its oxides are of great 
use as a pigment, and in the manufacture 
of glass. Lead is cast into thin sheets for 
covering buildings, making- water-pipes, 
and various other uses ; and this is rolled 
.between two cylinders of iron, to give it 
the requisite uniformity and thinness. 
Lead is thought, and with some reason, 
to be not perfectly innocent, even for 
water pipes, and much less so for any 
other kind of vessels. The workmen in 
any of the preparations of lead are gene- 
rally subject to a peculiar colic, and para- 
lytic disorders, which most probably arise 
from the internal use of the metal ;" for it 
is a fact, that_the,se workmen are not suf- 
ficiently cautious in washing their hands, 
or removing such particles 'of lead, or its 
preparations, as may c usually intermix 
with their food. 


Most of the acids attack lead. The si 1 1- 
phuric acid scarcely acts upon it, unless 
it be concentrated and boiling. Sul- 
phurous acid escapes during the process, 
the acid being decomposed. When the 
distillation is carried on to dry ness, a 
saline white mass remains, a small portion 
of which is soluble in water, and is the 
sulphate of lead : it affords crystals. The 
residue of the white mass is an oxide of 

Nitric acid acts strongly 011 lead, and 
converts it into a white oxide, if the acid 
be concentrated; but if it be more di- 
luted, the oxide is dissolved, and forms 
nitrate of lead, which is crystallizable, and 
does not afford a precipitate by cooling. 
It detonates on ignited coals. Lime and 
alkalies decompose the nitrous solution of 
lead. The sulphuric acid added to this 
solution combines with the metallic oxide, 
and falls down. The muriatic acid in t!ie 
same manner carries down the lead, and 
forms a combination, which is more 
soluble in water tluui the muriate of 

Muriatic acid acts directly, but sparing- 
ly, on lead by heat, which it oxides, and 
dissolves in part. The muriate of lead is 

The acetic acid dissolves lead and its 
oxides ; though the access of air or oxy- 
gen seems necessary for the solution of 
the metal itself in this acid. White lead, 
or ceruse, is made by rolling leaden plates 
spirally up, so as to leave the space of 
about an inch between each coil, a:;d 
placing them vertically in earthen pots, 
at the bottom of which is some good vine- 
gar. The pots are to be covered, and 
exposed for a length of time to a gvntle 
heat in a sand bath, or by bedding' them 
in dung. The vapour of the vinegar, as- 
sisted by the tendency of the lead to 
combine with the oxygen of the air which 
is present, corrodes the lead, and con- 
verts the external portion into a white 
oxide, which comes off in flakes when the 
lead is uncoiled. The plates are thus 
treated repeatedly, until thev are cor- 
roded through. Ceruse, is the only white 
substance used in oil paintings. It may 
be dissolved without difficult}-, in the 
acetous acid, and affords a ciystaliizablc 
salt, called sugar of lead, from its sweet 
taste. This, like all the preparations <;f 
lead, is poisonous. 

The sulphurets preclpit^-v )<-:*(! from 
its solutions, the BitlplYUf fall:! 1 .; cl 
combination with the lead. Pure ail; a- 
line solutions dissolve a small portion of 
lead, and corrode a considerable quanti- 
ty : the solution is said to give a black co- 
lour to the hair. 



Oils dissolve the oxides of lead, and be- 
come thick and consistent ; in which 
slate they are used as the basis of 
plasters, cements for water-works, paints, 

In the dry way, lead alone is oxided 
and vitrified. When fused with fixed 
alkaline salts, it is converted into a dark 
coloured scoria, partly soluble in water. 
The neutral salts in general are not act- 
ed upon by lead. Nitre oxides this me- 
tal when heated with it, though scarcely 
any commotion or apparent flame is pro- 
duced by its action. Sulphur readily 
dissolves it in the dry way, and pro- 
duces a brittle compound, of a deep grey 
colour and brilliant appearance, which 
is much less fusible than lead itself; a 
property which is common to all the 
combinations of sulphur with the more 
fusible metals. 

The phosphoric acid, exposed to heat 
together with charcoal and lead, be- 
comes converted into phosphorus, which 
combines with the metal. This combina- 
tion does not greatly differ in appearance 
from ordinary lead : it is malleable, and 
easily cut with a knife ; but it loses its 
brilliancy more speedily than pure lead ; 
and, when fused upon charcoal with the 
blow-pipe, the phosphorus burns, and 
leaves the lead behind. 

Lead decomposes sal ammoniac, or mu- 
riate of ammonia, by the assistance of 
heat : its oxides unite with the muriatic 
acid of that salt in the cold, and disen- 
gage its volatile alkali. When the vola- 
tile alkali is obtained by distilling sal am- 
moniac with the oxides of lead, the resi- 
due consists of the muriate of lead. 

Litharge fused with common salt de- 
composes it ; the lead unites with mu- 
riatic acid, and forms a yellow compound, 
at present used in this country as a pig- 
ment. The alkali either floats at top, or 
is volatilized by the heat, if strongly urg- 
ed. The same decomposition takes place 
in the humid way, if common salt be ma- 
cerated with litharge, and the solution 
will contain the p'ure alkali. 

Lead unites with most of the metals. 
Gold and silver are dissolved by it in a 
slight red heat. Both these metals are 
said to be rendered brittle by a small ad- 
mixture of lead, though lead itself is ren- 
dered more ductile by a small quantity of 
them. Platina forms a brittle compound 
with lead ; mercury amalgamates with it ; 
but the lead is separated from the mercu- 
ry by agitation, in the form of an impalpa- 
ble black powder, if oxygen be present, 
which is at the same time absorbed. 
Copper and lead do not unite but with a 

strong heat. If lead be heated so as to 
boil and smoke, it soon dissolves pieces 
of copper thrown into it : the mixture 
when cold is brittle. The union 
two metals is remarkably slight; for, 
upon exposing the mass to a heat no 
greater than that in which lead melts, 
the lead almost entirely runs off by it- 
self. This process, which is peculiar to 
lead with copper, is called eliquation. 
The coarser sorts of lead, which owe 
their brittleness and granulated texture 
to an admixture of copper, throw it up 
to the surface on being melted to a small 
heat. Iron does not unite with lead, as. 
long as both substances retain their me- 
tallic form. Tin unites very easily with 
this metal, and forms a compound which 
is much more fusible than lead by itself, 
and is for that reason used as a solder for 
lead. Two parts of lead and one of tin, 
form an alloy more fusible than either 
metal alone; this is the solder of the 
plumbers. Bismuth combines readily 
with lead, and affords a metal of a fine 
close grain, but very brittle. A mixture 
of eight parts bismuth, five lead, and 
three tin, will melt in a heat which is not 
sufficient to cause water to boil. Antimo- 
ny forms a brittle alloy with lead. Nickel, 
cobalt, manganese, and zinc, do not unite 
with lead by fusion. 

It will appear, from the foregoing ob- 
servations, that the uses of lead are very- 
extensive. It is easily reduced to thin 
sheets, adapted to the covering of build- 
ings ; to be formed into pipes of all 
sizes, and fitted for divers purposes. Its 
oxides are used as paints ; in the manu- 
facture of glass; and in the glazing of 
earthen- ware, &c. 

LEAD, black. See the article luox. 

LEAD, sugar of. A salt, denominated 
from its composition, by modern che- 
mists, acetite of lead, is much used in 
calico-printing, and other manufactures. 

LEAGUE, a measure of length, con- 
taining more or less geometrical paces, 
according to the different usages and 
customs of countries. A leagnie at sea, 
where it is chiefly used by us, being a 
land measure mostly peculiar to the 
French and Germans, contains 3,000 geo- 
metrical paces, or three English miles. 
The French league sometimes contains 
the same measure, and in some parts of 
France it consists of 3,500 paces .- the 
mean or common league consists of 
2,400 paces, and the little league of 
2,000. The Spanish leagues are larger 
than the French, seventeen Spanish 
leagues making a degree, or twenty 
French leagues, or sixty -nine and an half 



English statute miles. The Dutch and 
German leagues contain each four geo- 
graphical miles. The Persian leagues 
are pretty nearly of the same extent with 
the Spanish; that is, they are equal to 
four Italian miles ; which is nearly what 
Herodotus calls the length of the Persian 
parasang, that contained thirty stadia, 
eight whereof, according to Strabo, make 
a mile. 

LEAK, among seamen, is a hole in the 
ship through which the water comes in. 
To spring a leak, is said of a ship that be- 
gins to leak. To stop a leak, is to fill it 
with a plug wrapt in oakum and well tar- 
red ; or putting in a tarpaulin clout, to 
keep the water out ; or nailing a piece of 
sheet-lead upon the place. 

LEAKAGE, the state of a vessel that 
leaks, or lets water, or other liquid, ooze 
in or out. See the preceding article. 
Leakage, in commerce, is an allowance 
of 12 per cent, in the customs, allowed 
to importers of wines for the waste 
and damage it is supposed to have re- 
ceived in the passage: an allowance of 
two barrels in twenty-two is also made 
to the brewers of ale and beer by the ex- 

LEAP year, the same with bissextile. 
See BISSEXTILE. Every centesimal, or 
hundredth year, is a leap year, according 
to the Julian account, but according to 
the Gregorian, it is always a common 
year, except when the number of centu- 
ries can be divided by four without a re- 
mainder, for then it is a leap year ; but 
the intermediate centesimal years are 
common ones : hence, to know if it be 
leap year, the rule is, If the year consists 
of complete centuries, and can be divided 
by 4, it is leap year ; as it is also when 
the intermediate years can be divided by 
4 : thus the year 1808 is a leap year ; for 
8 may be divided by 4 without a remain- 
der. If the intermediate years cannot be 
divided by 4, the remainder shows the 
number of years over leap year. 

LEASE, a conveyance of lands, or tene- 
ments, for a term of years, or during the 

continuance of a life or lives, in consider- 
ation of a stipulated rent or other recom- 

The purchaser of a lease may be con- 
sidered as the purchaser of an annuity 
equal to the rack-rent, for whether he 
possesses the estate himself, or lets it out 
to another, he has an interest in the same 
equal to the annual rent thereof; there- 
fore, from the principles on which the 
present value of annuities is ascertained, 
the value of leases is likewise found. 
When a certain sum is paid down for the 
grant of a lease, it may be considered as 
so much money paid in advance for the 
annual rents as they may become due ; 
therefore, in order to ascertain what the 
sum ought to be, it would be necessary to 
find, separately, the present value of each 
annual rent, or the sum which, put out to 
interest at the given rate, would amount 
to the rent at the time it became due ; 
and these separate values of each year's 
rent added together would give the sum 
to be paid down as the present value of 
the lease. The rate of interest at which 
money is supposed to be improveable, 
affects the value of leases very materially, 
as the higher the current rate of interest 
is, the less will any one be disposed to 
give for payments to be received atfuture 
periods : thus if 6 per cent interest can 
be readily obtained for money, no one 
will give the same sum for a certain year- 
ly rent, as if he could only make 4 per 
cent, interest of his money. Having then 
determined on the rate of interest at 
which money is to be improved, it is only 
necessary to find, at that rate of interest, 
the present value of an annuity equal to 
the net yearly rent of the estate, in order 
to ascertain the value of the lease. This 
is given, at 5 per cent, interest, in Table 
II. article ANNUITIES : but as most per- 
sons in the purchase of leases, particular- 
ly of houses, expect to make rather more 
than the current interest for money, the 
following table is better adapted for an- 
swering all practical questions relating to 
this subject. 



Shewing the Number of Years Purchase to be given for a Lease, of any Number of 
Years not exceeding 100 years, at 6, 7, and 8 per Cent. Compound Interest. 


5 per Cent. J7 per cent. 

8 percent. 


6 per cent. 

7 per cent. 

3 per cent. 










< o -~> o -"> 





































































































































































































16 4677 





















12 2776 





















12 4754 


14.0840 12.6465 












































































14 2554 




























































13 7667 








13 8007 






In order to find the value of a lease first ascertained ; otherwise it will be im- 

for any term, the true rack rent of the possible to determine, with any degree of 

estate, or the annual value that it may be accuracy, the real sum which ought to be 

justly estimated to be worth, must be given for the purchase of the same ; for 


as the values in the Table denote merely 
the number of years purchase, it is evi- 
dent thai the sum deduced therefrom 
will vary according as the annual rent 
of the e'state varies. On this point, aif- 
ficuliies will sometimes arise ; for the 
value of an estate, depending very often 
on some real or supposed advantages, 
or on some local or personal recommen- 
dations, will, in many instances, occa- 
sion .1 difference of opinion ; and, in most 
cases, be a matter of some uncertainty. 
Some annual rent must, however, be fix- 
ed upon as the full sum for which the 
estate would let, and this rent being 
multiplied by the sum in the Table, cor- 
responding with the term of years, gives 
the present value of the lease. Thus, 
if a house lets for 50/. per ann to find 
the value of a lease thereof for 21 years, 
reckoning interest at 6 per cent, multi- 
ply 50 by 11,764 (the sum in the ta- 
ble corresponding with 21 years) which 
gives the answer 588/. 4s. It frequently 
happens that the rent of an estate is 
charged with some annual expense, such 
as a reserved or quitrent, the payment 
of an annuity, taxes, and the like ; in 
sucli cases, the various charges must be 
first deducted from the rent received, 
and the remainder, or nett-rent, only be 
multiplied by the number of years pur- 
chase in the table. 

Example. A person holds a lease, for 
35 years, of premises which let for 120/. 
per annum, out of which he pays 17/. 
10s. for ground-rent, and 4/. 106-. for 
land-tax ; what should he require for 
the lease, allowing the purchaser lo make 
7 per cent, interest of his money ? The 
payments to which the rent is subject be- 
ing deducted, leave a nett-rent of 98/. which 
multiplied by 12,948 (the sum in the ta- 
ble corresponding with 35 years) gives 
1268/. 185. 

To find the annual rent corresponding 
to any given sum paid for a lease, divide 
the sum by the number of years pur- 
chase in the table against the term of the 
lease, and under the rate of interest in- 
tended to be made of the purchase money; 
the quotient will be the annual rent re- 

Example. A person is asked 1250/. for 
a lease of 30 years, what annual rent is 
equivalent thereto, allowing the purchaser 
to make 6 per cent, interest of his money ? 
Divide 1250/. by 13,765, the years pur- 
chase in the table, under 6 per cent, in- 
terest, and the answer is 901. 16s. 2d. 

It frequently happens that a tenant is 
desirous of having the term of his lease 

renewed before the old lease expires ; and 
if the estate has increased in value since 
it has been in his possession, it is com- 
mon, in such cases, for the landlord to de- 
mand either an increase of the rent, or a 
gross sum called a fine, to be paid down 
in one immediate payment for such re- 
newal. In many leases, particularly those 
held of colleges and other public bodies, 
it is covenanted, that renewals shall be 
granted at the end of a certain number of 
years, on payment of a fine to be then 
agreed upon between the parties; the an- 
nual rent of the estate continuing the 
same. This fine is often a subject of dis- 
pute, arising principally from a difference 
of opinion respecting the improved annual 
value of the estate, or respecting the rate 
of interest, which each party is endea- 
vouring to make of his money. The for- 
mer, in some cases, is liable to uncertain- 
ty ; but, if the latter is once agreed upon, 
the value of the fine, which ought to be giv- 
en for renewing a lease of any yearly rent, 
can, in all cases, be exactly determined. 

It is well known, that when a lease is 
intended to be renewed, such lease is sur- 
rendered or delivered up, and anew lease 
of the estate is granted for a term of years, 
which includes both the unexpired term 
of the old lease, and the additional tern, 
proposed to be renewed. Now the value 
which ought to be given for the grant oi 
such additional term, will evidently be 
be equal to the difference between the 
value of the lease for the whole term, ami. 
the value of the unexpired part thereof, 
of which the tenant is in actual possession . 
thus, if a person holds an unexpired term 
of twenty years in a lease, and is desirous 
of having ten years more added to it, or 
of having a new lease granted for the 
term of thirty years ; the fine, or gross 
sum, which he ought to pay for such re- 
newal, will be equal to the difference be- 
tween the value of a lease for the whole 
term of thirty years, and the value of a. 
lease for the unexpired twenty years ; this 
will be easily found from the preceding 

Example. What fine ought to be given 
to the landlord for adding seven years 
more to a lease, of which 14 years are un- 
expired. ; allowing the tenant 6 per cent, 
interest for his money ? The whole term 
for which the new lease is to be granted 
is 21 years, and the value of a lease for 
this term, is by the table under 6 per 
cent, interest 11,764; the value of a lease 
for fourteen years is found in the same co- 
lumn to be 9,29, and this subtracted 
from the former sum leaves 2,469 for the 


number of years purchase which ought to 
be given for the fine required. If, there- 
fore, the improved rent of the estate, or 
the present value beyond the rent paya- 
ble under the lease, is 50/. per annum, 
this improved rent, multiplied by 2,469, 
will give 12.^. 9* 1 . for the amount of the 
fine required. 

Leases are sometimes granted for a 
term of years certain, but subject to de- 
termine before that period, if a particular 
life or lives should fail within the term ; 
and the term of such leases being usually 
greater than the probable duration of the 
lives, the estate may be considered as 
wholly depending on the continuance of 
the life or lives nominated. 

Life estates are of various kinds ; some 
depend on a single life, of which kind 
may be considered church-livings, tenan- 
cies by courtesy, in dower, &c. ; others 
are granted for two lives, such as joint- 
tenancies, and joint- tenancies with bene- 
Ut of survivorship, the former signifying 
such estates as terminate on the death of 
either of the parties, and the latter signi- 
fying such as terminate on the death of 
both the parties ; other estates are grant- 
ed for three lives, which, like the last, 
may be divided into such as depend on 
the joint continuance of all the lives, and 
such as depend on the longest of all the 
lives ; the former signifying such as ter- 
minate on the death of any one of the par- 
ties, and the latter such as terminate on 

the death of the longest liver of the three 
lives. When estates are held on two or 
three lives, and one of the lives, nominat- 
ed in the lease, happens to drop, or be- 
come extinct, the tenant is often desirous 
of replacing such life, or of putting in a 
new life, in orderthat the estate may con- 
tinue to be held on the same number of 
lives in being, and thereby his interest in 
the same be prolonged. In such cases it 
is customary, if the estate has improved 
in value since the original grant of the 
lease, for the landlord to demand a fine, 
or sum of money, proportionate to such 
improved value, and to the age of the 
person intended to be put to it, or added 
to those already in possession ; the annual 
rent of the estate continuing the same. 
It is evidently the interest of the tenant, 
in this case, to add one of the best lives 
he can find, that is, a life which has the 
greatest expectation of living, according 
to the best tables of mortality, and such a 
life will be about the age of eight or ten 
years. However, it will sometimes hap- 
pen that he may wish to put in a life not 
exactly of this age, but as it is his interest 
to put in as good a life as possible, few 
persons will be disposed to put in one 
above the age of twenty. The following 
table will, therefore, comprehend the 
cases of this kind which most commonly 
occur, from which the sums to be paid 
for renewing with a life of any other age 
may be nearly determined. 

TABLE, for renewing, with One Life, the Lease of an Estate held on Three Lives. 
Interest at 6 per Cent. 

put in. 

lives in 

Years Pur- 

put in. 

Lives in 


Years Pur- 

put in. 

Lives in. 

Years Pur- 























































































































The years purchase in the table, multi- 
plied by the improved annual value of 
the estate beyond the rent payable under 
the lease, gives the fine to be paid for 
putting 1 in the new life. 

LEASE, in law, otherwise called a DE- 
MISE, is a conveyance or letting- of lands 
or tenements, in consideration of rent, or 
other annual recompense made for life, 
for years, or at will; but always for a less 
time than the interest of the lessor in the 
premises; for if it were of the whole in- 
terest, it would be more properly an as- 
signment. He that demises or lets, is the 
lessor; and he to whom it is demised or 
let, is the lessee. 

A lease may either be made by writ- 
ing or word of mouth, called in law, a 
lease by parol. The former is most usual ; 
but by the statute of frauds, 29 Charles 
II. c. 3, all leases of lands, except leases 
not exceeding three years, must be made 
in writing, and signed by the parties 
themselves, or their agents duly authoriz- 
ed, otherwise the}' will operate only as 
leases at will. If a lease is but for half a 
year, or a quarter, or less time, the lessee 
is respected as a tenant for years ; a year 
being the shortest term of which* the 
law, in this case, takes notice ; that is, 
lie is entitled to the general privileges of 
a tenant for years, and is classed as such, 
though his term lasts only for the time 

To constitute a good lease, there must 
be a lessor not restrained from making 
the lease to the extent for which it is 
granted ; a lessee capable of receiving it; 
and the interest demised must be a de- 
misable interest, and be sufficiently and 
properly described. If it is for years, it 
must have a certain commencement send 
determination; it is to have all the usual 
ceremonies, as sealing, delivery, &c. ; and 
there must be an acceptance of the thing 

Leases were formerly only to a sort of 
bailiffs, who tilled the* land, and paid a 
part of the profits to the landlord; they 
v/ere for very short terms, and the te- 
nant's estate was little respected in 
the law. They are now granted for 
long terms, and arc very beneficial in- 

The following points may be necessary 
to be specified here concerning leases. 
First, they must have a certain commence- 
ment and end. Leases for life must not 
be made to commence at a future day, 
and there must be a livery of seisin. 
They must now be stamped as a lease, to 
l>e valid; and any form of writing v, ill 
'ortstiUite u lease, nrovided i', i < 

words of present demise, or actual let- 
ting: but if it be only an agreement to 
let, it conveys no immediate title in law, 
but only an equitable right to have a 
lease, or to sue at law for not making one. 
If a lease is made to one for years, and at 
the same time to another for a longer 
time, the last lease is not void, but shall 
take effect after the first expires. A te- 
nant for life can, in general, only grant a 
lease to enure during his life ; but some- 
times a power is annexed to such an es- 
tate, to grant leases for a specified time, 
and under particular limitations, all which, 
must be strictly complied with, or the 
lease is void; and instances have hap- 
pened, where building-leases have been 
set aside, and persons ruined by having 
granted under-leases. An infant may 
make a lease ; but may set it aside when 
he comes of age ; and the Court of 
Chancery is empowered to grant leases 
for idiots, lunatics, infants, and married 

The rent must be reserved to the exe- 
cutor or the heir of the lessor, accoi'ding 
as his estate is real or personal. Lessees 
are bound to repair, unless the contrary is 
specified; and although, if the house is 
burnt by accident, they are not bound to 
rebuild, yet they must if the fire be by 
negligence; and if there is a covenant to 
pay rent, and a covenant to repair, ex- 
cept in case of fire, yet rent is payable, 
although the house is not rebuilt by the 
landlord. If there is a covenant not to as- 
sign, lease, or under-let, without licence 
of the landlord, the tenant cannot even 
grant an under-lease. 

Upon a lease at will, six months' no- 
tice to quit must generally be given by 
either party, to determine on the same 
day in the year when the lease commenc- 
ed. Leases made by spiritual persons of 
their church-lands, must be strictly con- 
formable to certain statutes, called the en- 
abling and disabling statutes. The te- 
nant may, at the trial of an ejectment, in- 
sist upon his notice to quit being insuffi- 
cient, although he made no objection 
when it was served. See further Jacob's 
" Law Dictionary," title Leases. 

LEASE and RELEASE, a conveyance of 
the fee simple, right, or interest, in lands 
or tenements, under the statute of uses, 
27 Henry VIII. c. 10, giving first the pos~ 
session, " and afterwards the interest, 
which in law is equivalent to a teoffment. 
It was invented to supply the place of 
livery of seisin, and is thus contrived ; a 
lease, or rsuiu-r bargain and sule, upon 
some pecuniary consideration, for one. 
is made bv I'IK: tenant ni' the free- 



hold to the lessee or purchaser, which 
vests in him the use of the term for a 
year ; and then the statute of uses, 27 
Henry VIII. c. 10, immediately transfers 
the use into possession. He therefore, 
being 1 thus in possession, is capable of re- 
ceiving 1 a release of the freehold and re- 
version ; and, accordingly, the next day a 
release is granted to him. 

This conveyance was invented by Ser- 
jeant Moore, soon after the statute of 
uses, and the principle upon which it is 
founded has been properly questioned, 
there being no actual entry in general 
under the lease, before the release 
is made. When a corporation conveys, 
either a feoffment or actual entry is 
still necessary. But this mode of con- 
veyance having been long- adopted, and in 
constant practice, its validity cannot now 
be questioned. This conveyance does 
not properly operate, unless there is 
either an actual entry, or a lease with a 
valuable consideration, as a bargain and 
sale for a year. 

LEATHER, the skin of several sorts of 
beasts dressed and prepared for the use 
of the various manufacturers, whose bu- 
siness it is to make them up. The 
butcher and others, who flay off their 
hides or skin, dispose of them raw or 
salted to the tanner and lawyer, and they 
to the shamoy, morocco, and other kind 
of leather-dressers, who prepare them 
according to their respective arts, in order 
to dispose of them among the curriers, 
glovers, harness-makers, coach-makers, 
saddlers, breeches-makers, gilt leather- 
makers, chair-makers, shoe-makers, book- 
binders, and all in any way concerned in 
the article of leather. * 

The three principal assortments of 
leather are, tanned or tawed, and oil and 
alum-leather; and it may be affirmed, 
with great truth, that the skins of our 
own production, and those imported 
from our colonies, when dressed in this 
kingdom, make the best leather in the 
world, and that therefore this is an article 
of great importance to the trade of the 

Though there is no little difference be- 
tween the dressing of shumoy-leather, 
alum-leather, Hungary leather, Morocco 
leather, parchment, and tanning; yet the 
skins which pass through the' hands of 
these several workmen, ought to have 
been for the most part, at least, washed 
clean from blood and impurities in a. run- 
ning water; set to drain, worked with the 
hands, or pounded with wooden pestles 
in a vat ; put into the pit (which is a hole 

lined either with wood, or with stone and 
mortar) filled with water in which quick- 
lime is dissolved, in order to lor* 
hair, that it may be easily rubbed off with- 
out injuring the skin ; drawn out, and set 
to drain on the edge of the pit; stretched 
on the leg or horse, in order to have the 
hair scraped off with a blunt iron knife, 
or wooden cylinder: the membranes on 
the fleshy side, and the scab- or rough- 
ness on the grain side paved off with a 
sharp knife, and the skins rubbed \vith a 
whetstone, to take off anv particles of the 
lime, or any thing else that may occasion 
hardness ; thickened by different sorts of 
powder, whereby they become greater in 
bulk, and so much lighter, as gradually to 
rise to the surface of the water ; stretched 
out green or half dried, and piled one 
over another; or put up separate after 
they are dried, and hung out to air upon 
poles, lines, or any other way ; which 
must be repeatedly done in the dressing 
of small skins. This alternate transition 
from the liquid of the air into that of 
water, and from water into the air, with 
the assistance of lime, salts, and oils, 
opens the inmost fibres of the skin so 
effectually, as greatly to facilitate the in- 
troduction of substances proper for mak- 
ing them pliant without rendering them 

The alum-leather dresser dresses all 
sorts of white leather, from the ox-hide 
to the lamb-skin ; for dressing the sad- 
dler's leather, he uses bran, sea-sait, and 
alum ; and tor that which the glover uses, 
after the common preparatives, he first 
employs bran, and then with salt, alum, 
fine flour, and yolks of eggs mixed in hot 
water, he makes a sort of pap, with which 
the skins are smeared in a trough. The 
shamoy leather-dresser soaks in oil, not 
only the skins of the true shamoy, which 
is a wild goat, but likewise those of all 
other goats. The tanner uses the bark 
of young oaks ground in a tanning mill, 
in which he soaks the skins more or less, 
according to the different services ex- 
pected from them, their chief use being 
to remain firm and keep out water, la 
certain cases, instead of tan, he uses 
redon, which is chiefly used for tanning- 
ram sheep-skins, and dressing Russia 
leather. Uut for the different methods 
in which the tanner, currier, Russia, and 
Morocco leather-dressers, proceed in 
finishing their skins, see CURRYING, 
TAN N TNG, &c. 


LECHEA, in botany, .so named from 
John Leche, professor at Aboa, in Sweden, 



a genus of the Triandria Trigynia class 
and order. Natural order of Caryopbyllei. 
Essential character : calyx three-leaved ; 
petals three, linear; capsule three-celled, 
three-valved, with as many internal ones ; 
seeds solitary. There are three species, 
natives of North America, and of China 
near Canton. 

LECYTH1S, in botany, a genus of the 
Polyandria Monogynia class and order,, 
Natural order of Myrti, Jussieu. Essen- 
tial character : calyx six-leaved ; corolla 
six-petalled ; nectary ligulate, stamini- 
ferous ; pericarpium circumcised, many- 
seeded. There are six species. These 
are trees or shrubs, with alternate leaves ; 
flowers in terminating spikes from the 
axils of the shoots. It is peculiar to this 
genus to have a pitcher-shaped body in 
the centre of the flower, which Linnxus 
calls the nectarium, inserted into the 
calyx below the petals, perforated in the 
middle for the passage of the style, 
shaped like a petal, coriaceous entire at 
the edge, but covered on the inside with 
numerous subsessile stamens. Native of 
the forests of Guiana. 

LEDUM, in botany, a genus of the De- 
candria Monogynia class and order. Na- 
tural order of Bicornes. Rhododendra, 
Jussieu. Essential character ; calyx five- 
cleft; corolla flat, five-parted; capsule 
five-celled, gaping at the base. There 
are three species, all natives of the North 
of Europe. These shrubs growing on 
mosses or bogs, where the roots spread 
freely, cannot be preserved in gardens, 
as least so as to thrive, but in a proper 
soil and a shady situation. 

LEE, an epithet to distinguish that half 
of the horizon to which the wind is direct- 
ed from the other part whence it arises, 
which latter is accordingly called to wind- 
ward. This expression is chiefly used 
when the wind crosses the line of a ship's 
course, so that all on one side of her is 
called to windward, and all on the oppo- 
site side to leeward; and hence " Lee 
side," all that part of a ship or boat which 
lies between the mast and the side 
farthest from the direction of the wind ; 
or that half of a ship which is pressed 
down towards the water by the effort of 
the sails, as separated from the other half 
by a line drawn through the middle of 
her length : that part of the ship which 
lies to the windward of this line is accord- 
ingly called the weather-side. Tims, if a 
ship sail southward with the wind at east, 
then is her starboard, or right side, the 
lee-side ; and the larboard, or left, the 

LEE wrtz/, or LEEWARD "way t is the la- 
teral movement of a ship to the leeward 
of her course, or the angle which the line 
of her way makes with her keel when she 
is close hauled. This movement is pro- 
duced by the mutual effort of the wind 
and sea upon her side, forcing her to lee- 
ward of the line upon which she appears 
to sail, and in this situation her course is 
necessarily a compound of the two mo- 
tions by which she is impelled. All ships 
are apt to make some lee-way ; so that in 
casting up the log-book something must 
be allowed for lee-way. But the lee-way 
made by different ships, under the same 
circumstances, will be different : and even 
the same ship, with different lading, and 
having more or less sail on board, will 
make more or less lee-way. 

However, the common allowances made 
for lee-way, are these : 1. If the ship be 
close hauled, has all her sails set, the 
water smooth, and a moderate gale of 
wind, she is supposed to make little or no 
lee-way. 2. If it blow so fresh, as to 
cause the small sails to be handed, it is 
usual to allow one point. 3. If it blow so 
hard, that the tops must be close reefed, 
the ship then makes about two points lee- 
way. 4. If one topsail must be handed, 
it is common to allow two and three 
quarters, or three points lee-way. 5. 
When both topsails must be handed, 
they allow about four points lee-way. 
6. When it blows so hard, as to occasion 
the fore-course to be handed, the allow- 
ance is between five and a half and six 
points. 7- When both main and fore- 
courses must be handed, then six, or six 
and a half points must be allowed for her 
lee-way. 8. \Vhen the miien is handed, 
and the ship is trying a hull, she then 
makes her way good about one point be- 
fore the beam," that is, about seven points 

Though these rules are such as are 
generally used, yet as the lee-way depends 
much upon the mould and trim of the 
ship, we shall here give the method of 
ascertaining it by observation. Thus, let 
the ship's wake be set by a compass in 
the poop, and the opposite rhumb is the 
true course made good by the ship ; then 
the difference between this, and the 
course given by the compass in the bit- 
tacle, is the lee-way required. If the 
ship be within sight of land, the lee-way 
may be exactly found by observing a 
point on the land which continues to bear 
the same way ; for the distance between 
the point of the compass it lies on, and the 
point the ship capes at, will be the lee-way. 




LEEA, in botany, so called from James tor, which cannot be collected in, it wiM 
Lee, a genus of the Pentandria Monogynia carry interest only from the end of the 
class and order. Natural order of Trilii- year after the death of the testator. A 
lat?e. Sapotze, Jussieu. Essential charac- legacy to an infant ought not to be paid 
ter: corolla one-petalled; nectary on the to his father; a legacy to a married wo- 
tube of the corolla, upright, five-cleft ; man can only be paid to her husband ; 
berry five-seeded. There are three spe- and executors are not bound to pay a le- 
cies, natives of the East Indies, Africa, gacy without security to refund, 
and New South Wales. When all the debts and particular le- 

LEEC1I. See UIRUJIO. gacies are discharged, the residue or sur- 

LEEK. See ALLIUM. plus must be paid to the residuary lega- 

LEERS1A, in botany, so named from tee, if any be so appointed in the will ; 
John Daniel Leers, a genus of the Trian- hut if there be none appointed or in- 
dria Digynia class and order. Natural tended, it will go to the executor or nqxt 
order of Gramma or Grasses. Essential of kin. When this residue does not go 

to the executor, it is to be distributed 
among the intestate's next of kin, accord- 
ing to the statute of distributions, except 
it is otherwise disposable by particular 
customs, as those of London, York, &c. 

LEGNOT1S, in botany, a genus of the 
Polyandria Monogynia 'class and order. 

character: calyx none ; glume two-valved, 
closed. There are three species. 

LEGACY, ib a bequest of a sum of mo- 
ney, or any personal effects of a testator, 
and these are to be paid by his represen- 
tative, after all the debts of the deceased 
are discharged, as far as the assets, or pro- 
perty liable to payment of debts and le- 
gacies, will extend. All the goods and 
chattels of the deceased are by law vested 
in the representative, who is bound to 
see whether there be left a sufficient 
fund to pay the debts of the testator, 
which, if it should prove inadequate, the 
pecuniary legacies must proportionably 
abate ; a specific legacy, however, is not 
to abate, unless there be insufficient with- 

Essential character: calyx five-cleft ; pe- 
tals five, jagged, inserted into the recep- 
tacle; capsule three-celled There are 
two species, viz. L. elliptica and L. cassi- 

LEGUMEN, in botany, that species of 
seed-vessel termed a pod, in which the 
seeds are fastened along one suture only. 
In this the seed-vessel in question differs 

out it to pay debts; that is, the general from the other kind of pod, termed by 
legacies must all be exhausted first. If botanists siliqua, in which the enclosed 

seeds are fastened alternately to both the 
sutures or joinings of the valves. The 
seed-vessel of all the pea-bloom or but- 
terfly-shaped flowers, the Diadelphia of 
Lirtnseus, is of the leguminous kind ; such 
is the seed-vessel of the pea, vetch, lu- 
pine, &c* See PAPILIONACEOUS. 

the legatee die before the testator, it 
will in general be a lapsed legacy, and 
fall into the general fund, as it will also 
where it is $iven upon a contingency, as 
to A B, if he shall attain twenty-one. 
Where, however, from the general im- 
port of the will, it can be collected that 
the testator intended it a vested legacy, 


it will go to the representative of the de- eminent mathematician and philosopher, 
ceased legatee. Thus, if a legacy is made was born at Leipsic, in Saxonv, in 1646. 

rest in him ; but it is otherwise, if it is ge- Individuationis. The year followin- he 

nerally to him at or when he attains such was admitted Master of Arts. He read 

age. If the legacy is to bear interest, it with great attention the Greek philoso- 

is vested, though the words payable are phers, and endeavoured to reconcile Pla- 

omitted So, i ht is to A for life, and af- to with Aristotle, as he afterwards did 

ter the death of A to B, the legacy to B Aristotle with Des Cartes. But the study 

is vested in B upon the death of the tes- of the law was his principal view; in 

tator, and will not lapse by the death of which faculty he was admitted Bachelor 

B in the of A. ; lfifi * T 4 year following he would 


in the funds, which yield an' immediate too youn^.v^ough^reaUty, because he 

If many enemies, by re- 
iples of Aristotle and the 

T f, ill t . w>s. f. *n- > wo.1 tulllSUJIItf JJC YVUUlll 

Incase of a vested legacy due imme- have taken the degree of Doctor, but 

lately, and charged on land, or money was refused it on pretence that he was 

in the funds, winch yield an immediate too youne-- though 

profit, interest shall be payable from the had raised 'himself 

death of the testator ; but if it be charged jecting the princip 

on tac personal estate onlv of t.h t^cta. OK fL 

personal estate only of the testa- schoolmen. 


Upon this lie repaired to Altorf, where 
he maintained a thesis de Casibus Pcr- 
plexis with such applause, that he had 
the degree of Doctor conferred on him. 

In 1672 he went to Paris, to manage 
some affairs at the French court for the 
Huron Boinebourg. Here he became 
acquainted with all the literati, and made 
further and considerable progress in the 
study of mathematics and philosophy ; 
chiefly, as he says, by the works of Pas- 
cal, Gregory, St. Vincent, and Huygens. 
In this course, having observed the im- 
perfections of Pascal's arithmetical ma- 
chine, he invented a new one, as he call- 
ed it, which was approved by the mi- 
nister Colbert and the Academy of 
Sciences, in which he was offered a 
seat as a member, but refused the offers 
inade to him, as it would have been ne- 
cessary to have embraced the Catholic 

In 1673 he went over to England, 
where he became acquainted with Mr. 
Oldenbnrgh, Secretary to the Royal So- 
ciety, and Mr. John Collins, a distin- 
guished member of that society ; from 
whom, it seems, he received some hints 
of the method of fluxions, which had 
been invented in 1664, or 1665, by the 
then Mr. Isaac Newton. 

The same year he returned to France, 
where lie resided till 1676, when he again 
passed through England and Holland, in 
his journey to Hanover, where he pro- 
posed to settle. On his arrival there, he 
applied himself to enrich the Duke's li- 
brary with the best books of all kinds. 
The Duke dying in 1679, his successor, 
Ernest Augustus, then bishop of Osna- 
burg, shewed M. Leibnitz the same fa- 
vour as his predecessor had done, and 
engaged him to write the history of the 
House of Brunswick. To execute this 
task, he travelled over Germany and 
Italy to collect materials. While he was 
in Italy he met with a pleasant adven- 
ture, that might have proved a more se- 
rious affair. Passing in a small bark from 
Venice to Messola, a storm arose; during 
which; the pilot, imagining he was not 
understood by a German, whom, being a 
heretic, he looked on as the cause of the 
tempest, proposed to strip him of his 
clothes and money, and to throw him 
overboard. Leibnitz, hearing this, with- 
out discovering the least emotion, drew a 
set of beads from his pocket, and began 
turning them over with great seeming 
devotion. The artifice succeeded ; one 
of the sailors observing to the pilot, that 

since the man was no heretic, lie ought 
not to be drowned. 

In 1700 he was admitted a member of 
the Royal Academy of Sciences at Paris. 
The same year the Elector of Branden- 
burg, afterwards King of Prussia, found- 
ed an academy at Berlin by his advice ; 
and he was appointed perpetual Presi- 
dent, though his affairs would not permit 
him to reside constantly at that place. 
He projected an academy of the same 
kind at Dresden : and this design would 
have been executed, if it had not been 
prevented by the confusions in Poland. 
He was engaged likewise in a scheme for 
an universal language, and other literary 
projects. Indeed his writings had made 
him long before famous all over Europe, 
and he had many honours and rewards 
conferred on him. Beside the office of 
Privy Counsellor of Justice, which the 
Elector of Hanover had given him, the 
Emperor appointed him, in 1711, Aulic 
Counsellor; and the Czar made him Privy 
Counsellor of Justice, with a pension of 
1,000 ducats. Leibnitz undertook, at the 
same time, to establish an academy of 
sciences at Vienna ; but the plague pre- 
vented the execution of it. However, the 
Emperor, as a mark of his favour, settled 
a pension on him of 2.000 florins, and 
promised him one of 4,000, if he would 
come and reside at Vienna; an offer he 
was inclined to comply with, but was pre- 
vented by the death of that prince. 

Meanwhile, the History of Brunswick 
being interrupted by other works, which 
he wrote occasionally, he found, at his 
return to Hanover in 1714, that the Elec- 
tor had appointed Mr. .Eccard for his col- 
league in writing that history. The Elec- 
tor was then raised to the throne of Great 
Britain, which place Leibnitz visited the 
latter end of that year, when he received 
particular marks of friendship from the 
King, and was frequently at court. He 
now was engaged in a dispute with Dr. 
Samuel Clarke, upon the subjects of free- 
will, the reality of space, and other philo- 
sophical subjects. This was conducted 
with great candour and learning, and the 
papers which were published by Clarke 
will ever be esteemed by men. of genius 
and learning. The controversy ended 
only with the death of Leibnitz, Novem- 
ber 14, 1716, which was occasioned by 
the gout and stone, in the 70th year of his 

As to his character and person : he was 
of a middle stature and a thin habit 01 
body. He had a studious air, and a sweet 



aspect, though near-sighted. He was in- 
defatigably industrious to the end of his 
life. He eat and drank little. Hunger 
alone marked the time of his meals, and 
his diet was plain and strong 1 . He had a 
very good memory, and it is said, could 
repeat the JEneid from beginning" to end. 
'What he wanted to remember he wrote 
down, and never read it afterwards. He 
always professed the Lutheran religion ; 
but he never went to sermons; and when 
in his last sickness his favourite servant 
desired to send for a minister, he would 
not permit it, saying he had no occa- 
sion for one. He was never married, 
nor ever attempted it but once, when 
he was about fifty years old ; and the 
lady desiring time to consider of it, gave 
him time to do the same : he used to 
say, " that marriage was a good thing ; 
but a wise man ought to consider of it all 
his life." 

Leibnitz was author of a great multi- 
tude of writings, several of which were 
published separately, and many others in 
the memoirs of different academies. He 
invented a binary arithmetic, and many 
other ingenious matters. His claim to 
the invention of fluxions was the sub- 
ject of much controversy, for which 
the authors of the time may be consult- 

Hanschius collected with great care 
every thing which Leibnitz had said in 
different passages of his works on the 
principles of philosophy ; and formed of 
them a complete system, under the ti- 
tle of " G. G. Leibnitzii Principia Phi- 
losophise more geometrico demonstrata, 
&c." 1728, in 4to. There came out u 
collection of our Author's letters in 1734 
and 1735, entitled " Epistolje ad diversos 
theologici, juridici, medici, philosophici, 
mathematici, historici, et philologici aug- 
mentile MSS. auctores : cum annotation- 
ibus suis primum divulgavit Christian 
Cortholtus." But all his works were 
collected and distributed into classes by 
M. Dutens, and published at Geneva in 
six large volumes, 4to., in 1768, entitled 
" Gothofredi Gulielmi Leibnitzii Opera 
Omnia, &c." 

LEMMA, in mathematics, denotes a 
previous proposition, laid down in order to 
clear the way for some following demon- 
stration ; and prefixed either to theorems, 
in order to render their demonstration 
less perplexed and intricate, or to pro- 
blems, to make their resolution more 
easy and short. Thus, to prove a py- 
ramid one-third of a prism, or parellelo- 
piped, of the same base and height with 

it, the demonstration whereof, in the 
ordinary way, is difficult and trouble- 
some, tin's lemma may be premised, 
which is proved in the rules of progres- 
sion, that the sum of the series of the 
squares, in numbers in arithmetical pro- 
gression, beginning from 0, and going 
on 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, &.G., is always 
subtriple of the sum of as many terms, 
each equal to the greatest ; or is al- 
ways one-third of the greatest term mul- 
tiplied by the number of terms. Thus, 
to find the inflection of a curve line, this 
lemma is first premised, that a tangent 
may be drawn to the given curve in a giv- 
en point. 

LEMNA, in botany, a genus of the 
Monoecia Diandria class and order. Na- 
tural order of Miscellanea. Naiades, 
Jussieu. Essential character : male, calyx 
one-leafed ; corolla none : female, calyx 
one-leafed; corolla none; style one; cap- 
sule one-celled. There are 'six species. 
These plants are well known by the name 
of*' duck's meat," or "duck weed." They 
are all annuals, and are found floating on 
stagnant water. They are natives of most 
parts of Europe, in ditches, ponds, &c. 
LEMN1SCIA, in botany, a genus of the 
Polyandria Monogynia class and order. 
Essential character : calyx five-toothed ; 
corolla five-petalled, recurved; nectary 
cup-shaped, girding the germ ; pericar- 
pium five-celled ; seeds solitary. There 
is but one species, viz. L. guianensis. 
The trunk of this tree is about twenty feet 
in height, and one foot in diameter ; the 
bark is brown and smooth ; the wood is 
white and compact ; abundance of twist- 
ed branches spread in every direction ; 
leaves alternate, firm, and smooth ; flow- 
ers at the ends of the shoot, very nume- 
rous, in large corymbs, on a woody pe- 
duncle : corolla ot a fine coral red. Na- 
tive of Guiana. 

LEMONS, salt of, used to remove 
ink-stains from linen, is the native salt 
of sorrel, the super-oxalate of potash. 
The effect is produced by the oxalic 
acid dissolving with facility the oxide of 
iron in the ink, on the combination of 
which with the tannin and gallic acid the 
colour depends ; while, at the same 
time, it can be used without any risk 
of injury to the cloth, on which it has 
no effect. See Ox A LATE. 

LEMONADE, a liquor prepared of wa- 
ter, sugar, and lemon or citron juice. It 
is very cooling and grateful. 

LEMUR, the nwcaitco, in natural histo- 
ry, a genus of Mammalia, of the order 



Primates. Generic character : in the up- 
per jaw four front teeth, the intermediate 
ones remote; in the lower jaw, six long- 
er, extended forwards, compressed, paral- 
lel, and approximated ; tusks solitary and 
approximated ; grinders several, and 
sometimes many, sublobated, the fore- 
most somewhat longer and sharper. 
This genus of animals is very similar to 
that of monkeys in the structure of the 
feet. Some are destitute of a tail, and 
others have extraordinary long ones. 
Their manners are very different from 
those of monkeys, and display nothing 
of the active mischief and intrusive im- 
pertinence of that animal. There are 
thirteen species, of which we shall notice 
the following: 

L. tardigradus, or the loris. This is 
of a light brown colour, and of the usual 
size of a cat. It walks and climbs with 
great slowness, and is supposed incapable 
of leaping. Its manners are gentle and 
interesting, it is extremely susceptible of 
cold, and when exposed to a strong de- 
gree of it is agitated with extreme uneasi- 
ness, and with considerable exasperation. 
It sleeps from sun -rise to sun-set without 
intermission, rolled up in the manner of 
the hedge -hog; it is extremely attentive to 
cleanliness, licking its full and rich fur 
with the same assiduity as a cat. Its food 
consists of plantains, mangoes, and other 
fruits, and it is scarcely capable of satis- 
fying itself with grasshoppers when it lias 
access to them. Many species of insects, 
indeed, form a repast particularly gratify- 
ing to it, and the sight of them excites in 
its look the most glowing animation, and 
summons to exertion all the energies of 
its frame. Several of the above particu- 
lars are taken from an account given of 
one kept in a state of confinement by the 
late Sir William Jones. It is a native of 
various parts of India. 

L. indri, is a native of Madagascar, is 
the largest of the genus, has a face of a 
dog-like form, and a fur thick and soft. 
It has no appearance of a tail : it is very 
docile, and sometimes trained by the na- 
tives to hunt various animals. It is three 
feet and a half in height. 

L. macauco, or the ruffed macauco, is 
found in some of the Indian islands, and is 
particularly numerous at Madagascar. 
It is full of energy and fierceness, and its 
voice is so strong as to fill the woods with 
its cries. It will endure captivity, notwith- 
standing the violent passions it exhibits 
in a natural state, without discontent or 
depression, and is stated to be extremely 
inoffensive, and even sociable in it, with 

those by whom it is surrounded. It pos- 
sesses neither craft nor malice in it. 

L. catta, or the ring-tailed macauco. In 
their state of nature these animals are seen 
in companies of twenty or thirty. They 
feed on almost every species of fruits, 
and in a state of confinement, like several 
others of this genus, will take animal food 
without any hesitation. They are the 
most elegant and beautiful species of the 
whole genus, are lively and gentle, and 
so agile and elegant in their movements, 
as to be highly interesting. They delight 
much in sunshine, and will sit before a 
fire, like the squirrel, extending towards 
it their out-spread hands. It inhabits 
Madagascar, is of the site of a small cat, 
and resembles that animal in purring. 
See Mammalia, Plate XV. fig. 1. and 2. 

LENS, dioptrics, properly signifies a 
small roundish glass, of the figure of a len- 
til, but is extended to any optic glass, 
not very thick, which either collects the 
rays of light into a point, in their pas- 
sage through it, or disperses them further 
apart, according to the laws of refrac- 

Lenses have various figures, that is, 
are terminated by various surfaces, from 
which they acquire various names. Some 
are plane on one side, and convex on 
the other ; others convex on both sides ; 
both which are ordinarily called convex 
lenses : though, where we speak accu- 
rately, the former is called plano-con- 
vex. Again, some are plane on one 
side, and concave on the other; and 
others are concave on both sides ; which 
are both usually ranked among the con- 
cave lenses ; though, when distinguish- 
ed, the former is called a plano-con- 
cave. Others, again, are concave on 
one side, and convex on the other, which 
are called convexo-concave, or concavo- 
convex lenses, according as the one OP 
the other surface is more concave, or 
a portion of a less sphere. It is here 
to be observed, that in every lens ter- 
minated in any of the forementioned 
manners, a right line, perpendicular to 
the two surfaces, is called the axis of 
the lens ; which axis, when both sur- 
faces are spherical, passes through both 
their centres; but if one of them be 
plane, it falls perpendicularly upon that, 
and goes through the centre of the other. 

LEO, in astronomy, one of the twelve 
signs of the zodiac, the fifth in order. See 

LEONTICE, in botany, a genus of the 
Hexandria Monogynia class and order. 



Natural order of Coryclales. Bcrbcrkle?, which "gave the old English naturalists tire 
Jussieu. Essential character : calyx six- idea of a bird. They ascribed the origin 
leaved, deciduous ; corolla six-petulied ; of the barnacle-goose to these shells, 
nectary six leaved, placed on the claws of LEPIDIUM, in botany, pepper-wort, a 

of the Tetradynamia Siliculosa 

the corolla, spreading There are three 

LEONTODOX, in botany, dandelion, a 
genus of the Syngenesiu Polygamia JEqua- 
lis class and order. Natural order of 
Composite Semifiosculosi. Cichoraceac, 
Jussieu. Essential character : calyx im- 
bricate, with loosish scales ; down capil- 
lary ; receptacle naked, dotted. There 
are four species, of which L. taraxacum, 
dandelion, is common all over Europe, in 
meadows, on walls, dry banks, Sec.; it 
flowers from ^pril to September ; the 
flowers expand about five or six in the 
morning-, closing- early in the afternoon ; 
as the flower advances, the calyx is gra- 
duaflv pressed out at top, and when the 


class and order. Natural order of Sili- 
quosx, or Cruciformcs. Cruciferzc, Jus- 
sieu. Essential character: silicle emar- 
g-inate, cordate, many-seeded; valves 
keeled, contrary. There are twenty- 
three species, of which L. perfoliatum, 
various-leaved pepper-wort, is an annual 
plant, about a foot in height ; the stem is 
round, upright, and smooth, tinged with 
purple, dividing into many slender 
branches; flowers in corymbs, or long, 
loose spikes, from the ends of the 
branches; silicles orbiculate, scarcely 
emarginate, and the terminating style so 
short as to be hardly visible. It is" a na- 
tive of Austria and the Levant. 

LEPIDOPTERA, or scaly-winged, the 

^ is past, it contracts again into a 

conical, form, and finally when the seeds third order of insects, according" to the 

are mature, the calvx is again pushed Linnaean system. The general character 

11 1,1 ". r* i -~r ^.K:~ - / 1-1 

tongue involute, 

spiral ; body hairy. It consists of the in- 

back, and the aggregate of down assumes of this order is four wings, covered with 
a spherical form, till the whole is loosen- fine imbricate scales ; ' 
ed and dissipated by the wind. 

LEON ORUS, in botany, lion's tail, a ge- 
nus of the Didynamia (jymnospermia 
class and order. Natural order of Verti- 
cillata:. Labiatx, Jussieu. Essential cha- 
racter: anthers having shining dots sprin 


termed butterflies and 
There are three genera, viz. 

Papilio Sphinx 


kled over them. There are live species. The powder on the wings of these in- 
LEPAS, in natural history, acorn-shell, sects has been generally described by mi- 
a genus of the VermesTestacea class and croscopical writers as consisting of small 
order. Animal a triton ; shell affixed at feathers ; but they are more in the form 
the base, and consisting of many unequal, of minute scales, of various shapes and 
erect valves. There are upwards of thir- sizes, on the different species, and even 
ty species. L. balanus, shell conic, on the different parts of the same animal, 
grooved ; operculum or lid, sharp-point- Their usual appearance is more or less 
ed : it inhabits the European and Medi- fan-shaped, and they are disposed in the 
terranean seas, adhering in the greatest manner of tiles on a roof, lapping over 
abundance to rocks, shells, &.c. ; general- each other. See PAPILIO, &c. 
ly whitish; with about six outer valves, LEPISMA, in natural history, a genus 
three of which are elevated and striate, of insects of the order Aptera ;* lip mem- 
and three excavated and smoother ; the branaceous, rounded, emarginate ; four 
pieces composing the lid, are finely ere- feelers, of which two are setaceous, 
iiate \vilh transverse wrinkles, two lesser and two capitate; antennae setaceous; bo- 
and two larger, and pointed. L. anatife- dy imbricate, with scales ; tail ending 
ra, duck-barnacle, shell compressed, five- in setaceous bristles ; six legs, formed for 
valved, smooth, seated on a peduncle : of running. There are seven species enu- 
this there are several varieties, which in- me rated, of these the principal is L. sac- 
habit most seas ; they are generally charina ; scaly, silvery, lead-colour, with 
found fixed in clusters to the bottoms of a triple tail. " It inhabits America, among 
vessels and old pieces of floating timber ; sugar, but is naturalized in Europe, and 
whitish, with a blue cast, the margins of found among old books and furniture ; it 
the valves yellow, sometimes marked runs exceedingly swift, and is difficult to 
with a ray or two dotted with black ; pe- catch. In their various stages of exist - 
cluncle long, coriaceous, black, and very cnce these insects prey upon sugar, de- 
much wrinkled towards the shell, and cayed wood, and rotten substances ; the 
growing paler and pellucid towards the larva and pupa are six-footed, active, and 
base, extensile; sometimes, though not swift, 
often, red. The tentacula are feathered, LEPROSO amovendo, an ancient writ to 



remove a leper, who came to church or 
to public meetings, to annoy his neigh- 
bours; but it could only lie when the 
party appeared outwardly unwholesome 
by his sores and smell ; and if he kept at 
home, it could not be enforced. It seems 
to have been a wise provision for the 
health of the public. 

LEPTOCEPHALUS, the morris, in na- 
tural history, a genus of fishes of the or- 
der Apodes. Generic character : head 
small and narrow, body exceedingly thin, 
compressed ; no pectoral fins. This fish 
was first discovered near the isle of An- 
glesea, by a gentleman of the name of 
Morris. It is four inches long, with an 
exceedingly small head, and a body so 
thin as to be nearly transparent; on a 
slight view, it might almost be consider- 
ed as a tape-worm. 

LEPTOSPERMUM, in botany, a ge- 
nus of the Icosaiidria Monogynia class 
and order. Natural order of Myrti. Es- 
sential character : calyx five-cleft, half 
superior; petals five, with claws, longer 
than the stamens ; stigma capitate ; cap- 
sule four or five-celled ; seeds angular. 
There are eleven species, of which JL. sco- 
parium is a small tree or shrub, growing 
to a moderate height, generally bare on 
the lower part, with a number of small 
branches growing close together towards 
the top ; the younger ones are silky : it 
grows commonly in dry places near the 
shores in New Zealand ; the underwood 
in Adventure-bay, Van Diemen's land, 
chiefly consists of this shrub ; the leaves 
were used by Captain Cook's ships' 
crews as tea, whence they named it the 
tea-plant ; the leaves have a very agree- 
able flavour, and a pleasant smell when 
fresh ; if the infusion was made strong, it 
proved an emetic to some, in the same 
manner as green tea; it was also used 
with spruce leaves, in equal quantities, to 
correct their astringency in brewing beer 
for them, which rendered it exceedingly 

LEPTURA, in natural history, a genus 
of insects of the order Coleoptera. An- 
tennse setaceous ; four feelers filiform ; 
shells tapering towards the tip ; thorax 
slender, rounded. There are nearly one 
hundred and fifty species, in two divi- 
sions,^ viz. A. lip entire ; B. lip bifid. Ma- 
ny of the species of this genus are very 
beautiful; among these maybe mention- 
ed L. arcuata, of a black colour, with 
wing-sheaths marked by transverse yel- 
low ; lunated bands pointing backwards. 
It is a native of Europe, and is found in 
the woods during the summer months, 
and generally measures about three,-quur- 

ters of an inch in length. L. aquatica, is 
so named from its being particularly 
found in the neighbourhood of waters, 
frequently on the plants which grow near 
the water's edge. It is only half an inch 
in length, and of a g'olden green colour, 
sometimes varying into copper- colour, 
purple, or blue, and is distinguished by 
having a tooth or process on the thighs of 
the legs. 

LEPUS, the hare, in natural history, a 
genus of Mammalia, of the order Gliros. 
Generic character : two fore -teeth above 
and below ; the upper pair double, two 
small ones standing within the exterior. 
These animals exhibit several considera- 
ble differences from those of the order 
Glires in general, to which, however, up- 
on the whole, they are with more propri- 
ety attached than to any other. By an ap- 
pearance of rumination, they appear 
somewhat connected with the Pecora. 
There are fifteen species, of which the 
following chiefly deserve notice. 

L. timidus, or the English hare. This 
animal is a native of almost every coun- 
try of the old continent, and is generally 
of the length of two feet. Its upper lip 
is divided, and its eyes are extremely pro- 
jected, and, it is said, kept open by it 
during sleep. It subsists on a great va- 
riety of vegetables, particularly those 
which possess milky qualities ; the bark 
of young trees, and their tender shoots, 
are likewise often taken by them for 
food. It produces generally three young 
ones at a time, and breeds at least three 
times in a year. The hare seldom quits 
its seat, or form, as it is called, during the 
day, unless compelled by the approach of 
enemies ; but takes its range for food and 
excursion by night, always returning, it is 
said, to her habitation by the same track 
by which it was left. In* this form it will 
sometimes suffer itself to be approached 
so nearly, as to be nearly trodden upon 
before it starts for escape ; the first ad- 
vances of the enemy having probably not 
attracted its attention, and those which 
immediately followed, being attended by 
a species of fascination, or prostration of 
energy, the frequent effect of terror, til}, 
at length, the imminence of its danger 
rouses every nerve and muscle, to exer- 
tions which enable it to leave its enemies 
at a considerable distance. Its fleetness 
is such, as to give it the advantage over 
many of its numerous adversaries. Its 
quickness of hearing, and comprehen- 
sion of sight, by which last it receives 
the impressions of objects on almost 
every side, are also important means of 
its protection. The similarity of its co 


lour, likewise, to that of the ground, is an- 
other circumstance considerably in its fa- 
vour. In the more northern regions, dur- 
ing 1 the rigours of winter, its coat be- 
comes of a perfect whiteness. By the 
particular structure of the hind-feet of 
this animal, it is qualified to run with ra- 
pidity up a considerable ascent, and seems 
to be conscious of this advantage, by fre- 
quently taking such a direction as gives 
it the full benefit of this peculiarity. 

The average duration of the hare is 
about seven years ; but so numerous are 
its enemies, that, notwithstanding the ad- 
vantages above-mentioned, it very fre- 
quently fails to attain its natural term. 
It is pursued by dogs and foxes with mor- 
tal and unrelenting antipathy. Weasels, 
wild-cats, and wolves, seize and devour it 
whenever it is within their reach ; and 
eagles, hawks, and other birds of prey, 
are also destructive enemies ; but the 
most formidable of all is man, who finds 
one of the most interesting of his diver- 
sions in its persecution, and one of the 
highest luxuries of his table in its flesh. 
Indeed, so prolific is the hare, that with- 
out experiencing very considerable hos- 
tility, it would multiply to a most injurious 
degree ; and in some districts of France, 
where the game was particularly and as- 
siduously secured by the proprietors, no 
fewer than five hundred hares have been 
killed within a small compass in a single 

The hare, if taken young, maybe tamed 
and domestciated. It has occasionally 
been suckled and nursed by a cat. The 
celebrated Sonnini,the traveller and natu- 
ralist, had a hare in a complete state of 
domestication; and Cowper, the poet, 
was in possession of three, whose com- 
forts he attended to with the most hu- 
mane assiduity, and whose manners he 
has described with much interest and dis- 
crimination. The fur of the hare is of 
eminent, and almost indispensable utility, 
in the hat manufactory, and innumerable 
skins are annually brought to this country 
for that purpose from the north of Eu- 

This animal was regarded by Moses as 
unclean, and unfit for food ; it is consider- 
ed in the same light also by the Mahome- 
tans. The Romans used to value it highly 
for the table. By the undent Britons it 
was considered as partaking somewhat of 
a sacred character, which forbade their 
application of it to so ordinary a purpose. 
Hares have been seen in (his country 
perfectly white, as in more northern re- 
gions, and accounts of horned hares have 
been given to the public upon unques- 

tionable authority, though such animals 
are of extremely rare occurrence. For 
the Common Hare, see Mammalia, Plate 
XV. fig. 3. 

L. variabilis, or the varying hare, is an 
inhabitant of the loftiest territories of the 
north, both of Europe and America. Its 
colour in summer is a tawny grey, and in 
winter it is changed to a perfect white. 
It never associates with the common hare, 
and rarely descends from its elevated 
haunts into the vallies ; though occasion- 
ally, in a rigorous winter, numbers of 
these animals are seen to quit the frozen 
elevations of Siberia, and migrate for 
subsistence to the woody and sheltered 

L. cuniculus, or the rabbit, is found in 
most temperate climates, but not far to 
the north. Its fecundity is extreme, and 
in some countries has occasioned it to be 
considered as one of the greatest annoy- 
ances. It will breed, in favourable circum- 
stances, seven times in a year, and pro- 
duces about eight young ones at a time. 
It is most strikingly similar to the hare in 
general appearance ; but while the hare 
prefers the uncovered field, the rabbit 
burrows in the ground. It has sharp and 
long claws for this purpose, and chooses 
dry and chalky soils, in which it can with 
the greatest ease construct its mansion, 
It lives to the age of about eight years. 
The female prepares a bed for its young 
before their birth, from its own coat, of 
the finest and warmest materials, nurses 
them with incessant assiduity, and is 
obliged often to secrete them from the 
malignant attempts of the male, which 
have been known, in many instances, to 
be fatal to them. In England, particularly 
in Cambridgeshire and Norfolk, rabbits 
are abundant, and their fur is of nearly 
equal value with their flesh. 

The hare and rabbit never intermix, 
and appear to contemplate each other 
without the slightest sympathy. The 
principal difference between these two 
animals consists in the proportional length 
of the hind legs to that of the back. For 
the Rabbit, see Mammalia, Plate XV. 
fig. 4. 

JL. alpinus, or the Alpine hare, is about 
the size of a Guinea pig, is a native of the 
Altaic mountains, and burrows in the: 
clefts of the rocks, or resides in the hol- 
lows of trees. These animals avoid the 
glare of day, and appear only by night, or 
in obscure and dull weather. They col- 
lect in summer a preparation of herbage, 
the most delicate and fragrant, and having 
dried it with the utmost care, set it aside 
in compact heaps for their subsistence 


during winter. These heaps are occa- 
sionally of the height and depth of seve- 
ral feet, and are sometimes of extreme 
service to the horses of the sable hunters 
in those dreadful regions, preserving 
them from absolutely starving- ; a fate, 
however, to which the little labourers are 
exposed in consequence of these depre- 

L. pusillus, inhabits the south-east of 
Russia, is solitary, and rarely to be ob- 
served, even where most abundant. It 
is only about six inches in length. It 
generally indicates its residence by its 
sounds, resembling- those of a quail. Its 
pace consists of a succession of leaps, 
rather than steps. It sleeps with its eyes 
open, is particularly g-entle, passes but 
little of its time in sleep, and is perfectly 
familiarized in the course of two or three 
days after it is taken. 

LKPUS, in astronomy, a constellation of 
the southern hemisphere. See ASTRO- 

LERCHEA, in botany, so named in 
honour of John Lerche ; a genus of the 
Monadelphia Pentandria class and order. 
Essential character : calyx five-toothed ; 
corolla funnel-form, five-cleft; anthers 
five, placed on the tube of the germ ; 
style one ; capsule three-celled, many- 
seeded. There is but one species, viz. 
L. longicauda, native of the East Indies. 

LERNEA, in natural history, a g-enus 
of the Vei-mes Mollusca class and order. 
Body oblong-, somewhat cylindrical, na- 
ked ; two or three tentacula each side 
and round, by which it affixes itself; two 
ovaries, projecting like tails from the 
lower extremity. These insects are with- 
out eyes, and are said to be very trouble- 
some to fish, adhering very firmly princi- 
pally to the gills and fins. There are fif- 
teen species. L. meridiana is one of the 
largest European species, often measur- 
ing an inch in length, and is a very com- 
mon insect during the decline of sum- 
mer, generally appearing in the hottest 
part of the day. It is brown above : bril- 
liant tawny beneath; shining like satin. 

LESKIA, in botany, so named from 
Nathaniel Godofr. Leske, Professor of 
Natural History and Oeconomy, in the 
University of Leipsic ; a genus of the 
Cryptogamia Musci class and order. 
Natural order of Mosses. Generic cha- 
racter : capsule oblong ; peristome dou- 
ble ; the exterior with sixteen teeth, 
which are acute; the interior niembrana- 
ceous, divided into equal segments. 
Males, gemmaceous in different indivi- 

LETHARGY, in medicine, a disease 



wherein such a profound drowsiness or 
sleepiness attends the patient, that he 
can be scarce awaked, and if awaked, he 
remains stupid, without sense or memory, 
and presently sinks again into his former 

LETTER, a character used to express 
one of the simple sounds of the voice; 
and as the different simple sounds are 
expressed by different letters, these by 
being differently compounded, become 
the visible signs or characters of all the mo- 
dulations and mixtures of sounds used to 
express our ideas in a regular language. 
Thus, as by the help of speech we ren- 
der our ideas audible, by the assistance of 
letters we render them visible, and by 
their help we can wrap up our thoughts, 
and send them to the most distant parts 
of the earth, and read the transactions of 
different ages. As to the first letters, 
what they were, who first invented them, 
and among what people they were first 
in use, there is still room to doubt : 
Pliilo attributes this great and noble in- 
vention to Abraham ; Josephus, St. Ire- 
naeus, and others, to Enoch ; Bibliander, 
to Adam ; Eusebius, Clemens Alexandri- 
nus, Cornelius Agrippa, and others, to 
Moses ; Pomponius Mela, Herodian, Ru- 
fus Festus, Pliny, Lucan, 8cc. to the Phoe- 
nicians ; St. Cyprian, to Saturn ; Tacitus, 
to the Egyptians ; some, to the Ethio- 
pians ; and others, to the Chinese : but, 
with respect to these last, they can never 
be entitled to this honour, since all their 
characters are the signs of words formed 
without the use of letters, which ren- 
ders it impossible to read and write their 
language without a vast expense of time 
and trouble ; and absolutely impossible 
to print it by the help of types, or any 
other manner but by the engraving, or 
cutting in wood. See PRINTING. 

There have also been various conjec- 
tures about the different kinds of letters 
used in different languages ; thus, ac- 
cording to Crinitus, Moses invented the 
Hebrew letters; Abraham, the Syrinc and 
Chaldee ; the Phoenicians, those of At- 
tica, brought into Greece by Cadmus, and 
from thence into Italy by the Pelasgians; 
Nicostrata, the Roman ; Isis, the Egyp- 
tian ; and Vulfilas, those of the Goths. 

It is probable that the Egyptian hiero- 
glyphics were the first manner of writing: 
but whether Cadmus and the Phoenicians 
learned the use of letters from the Egyp- 
tians, or from their neighbours of Judea 
or Samaria, is a question ; for since some 
of the books of the Old Testament were 
then written, they are more likely to 
have given them the hint than the hiero- 

N " 


glyphics of Egypt. But wheresoever the 
Phoenicians learned this art, it is gene- 
rally agreed, that Cadmus, the son of 
Agenor, first brought letters into Greece; 
whence, in the following ages, they 
spread over the rest of Europe. 

Letters make the first part or elements 
of grammar ; an assemblage of these com- 
pose syllables and words, and these com- 
pose sentences. The alphabet of every 
language consists of a number of letters, 
which ought each to have a different 
sound, figure, and use. As the difference 
of articulate sounds was intended to ex- 
press the different ideas of the mind, so 
one letter was originally intended to sig- 
nify only one sound, and not, as at pre- 
sent, to express sometimes one sound and 
sometimes another; which practice has 
brought a great deal of confusion into the 
languages, and rendered the learning of 
the modern tongues much more difficult 
than it would otherwise have been. This 
consideration, together with the deficien- 
cy of all the known alphabets, from their 
wanting some letters to express certain 
sounds, has occasioned several attempts 
towards an universal alphabet, to con- 
tain an enumeration of all such single 
sounds or letters as are used in any lan- 
guage. See ALPHABET, and WRITING, 
origin of. 

Grammarians distinguish letters into 
vowels, consonants, mutes, liquids, diph- 
thongs, and characteristics. They are 
also divided into labial, dental, guttural, 
and palatal, and into capital and small let- 
ters. They are also denominated from 
the shape and turn of the letters ; and in 
writing are distinguished into different 
hands, as round-text, German-text, round 
hand, Italian, &c. and in printing, into 
roman, italic, and black letter. The term 
letter, or type, among printers, not only 
includes the capitals, small capitals, and 
small letters, but all the points, figures, 
and other marks, cast and used in print- 
ing; and also the large ornamental letters, 
cut in wood or metal, which take place 
of the illumined letters used in manu- 
scripts. The letters used in printing 
are cast at the ends of small pieces of 
metal, about three quarters of an inch 
in length ; and the letters being not in- 
dented, but raised, easily give the im- 
pression, when, after being blacked with 
a glutinous ink, paper is closely pressed 
upon it. 

A fount of letters includes small letters, 
capitals, small capitals, points, figures, 
spaces, &c. but besides these, they have 
different kinds of two-lined letters, only 


used for titles, and the beginnwi^ of 
books, chapters, &c. See FOUNT. 

LETTER of attorney, a writing authoris- 
ing another to do any lawful act instead 
of the party himself, such as to su .* and 
recover debts, to receive rents, seamen's 
wages, to execute leases, to give livery of 
seisin, &c. In all these cases the authori- 
ty must be strictly pursued, and it is lia- 
ble to be revoked by granting a new let- 
ter of attorney, or by death of either par- 
ty. In cases of seamen, there are certain 
statute regulations for protecting them 
from imposition. 

LETTKHS of marque, are extraordinary 
commissions, granted to captains or mer- 
chants for reprisals, in order to make a re- 
paration for those damages they have 
sustained, or the goods they have been 
deprived of by strangers at sea. These 
appear to be always joined to those of re- 
prise for the reparation of a private inju- 
ry ; but under a declared war the former 
only are granted. 

LEVATOR, in anatomy, a name given 
to several muscles. See AXATOMY. 

LEUCOIUM, in botany, mo-u^drop, a 
genus of the Hexandria Monogynia class 
and order. Natural order of Spathacex. 
Narcissi, Jussieu. Essential character :. 
corolla bell-shaped, six-parted, thicken- 
ed at the tips ; stigma simple. There are 
four species : these are all bulbous root- 
ed plants ; the flowers, which at first 
sight resemble those of the common 
snow-drop, are easily distinguished by 
the absence of the three-leaved nectary, 
and they do not appear so soon by a 
month. These plants being of a differ- 
ent genus from the true snow-drop, ought 
certainly to have another English name : 
some botanists call it spring snow flake ; 
others many-flowered bulbous violet. In 
the gardens it is known by the name of 
great summer snow-drop, and late or tall 
snow-drop. They are natives of the south 
of Europe. 

LEUCOPHRA, in natural history, a 
genus of the Vermes Infusoria class and 
order : worm invisible to the naked eye^, 
every where ciliate. There are eight 
species. L. cornuta : inversely conic, 
green, opaque. This is found in marshy 
grounds. Body broad, truncate on the 
fore part, with a small spine on each side ; 
the hind part pellucid and pointed, some- 
times it appears oval or kidney-shaped, 
and when the water which contains it 
evaporates, it breaks into molecular vesi- 
cles. L. nodulata ; ovate-oblong, de- 
pressed, with a double row of tubercles. 
This species is found in the intestines of 



lumbricus terristris, and nais littoralis : it 
is very pellucid, shining like silver, and 
is propagated by a transverse division ; 
oval when young, and growing more ob- 
long with age ; truncate at the tip. 

LEUCOPSIS, in natural history, a ge- 
nus of insects of the order Hymenoptera : 
mouth horny, with short jaws, the mandi- 
ble thick, and three toothed at the tip ; 
Jip longer than the jaw, membranaceous 
and emarginate at the tip; four feelers ; 
short, equal, filiform ; antennae short, cla- 
vate ; thorax with a long lanceolate scale 
beneath ; wings folded ; sting reflected, 
and concealed in a groove of the abdo- 
men. There are four species. 

LEVEL, an instrument constructed for 
the purpose of ascertaining the exact 
level of any fluid, building, &c. Of these 
there are two distinct kinds, viz. the hori- 
zontal and the perpendicular : the first 
sort, which comprises spirit and air levels, 
is chiefly in use among surveyors; the 
latter is ordinarily employed by artifi- 
cers, and depends for exactness on a 
plumb line. 

The instruments used by persons tak- 
ing the levels of lands, waters, &c. where- 
by to ascertain the comparative heights 
of different spots, or tracts, are simple in 
the extreme, being generally made with 
a telescope of about fifteen inches long, 
fixed above a circular opening in a brass 
plate, so as to show a compass that tra- 
verses immediately below its centre, and 
gives not only the number of points, i. e. 
thirty-two, according to the mariner's di- 
vision, but by means of a neat brass rim, 
graduated with three hundred and sixty 
degrees, divided into thirty-six portions 
of ten degrees each, and numbered, 
shows the exact angle made between any 
two sights taken by the telescope, which 
traverses on two legs, supported in 
grooves on the outer edge of the brass 
plate, and allowing it to move round in a 
direction perfectly parallel thereto. The 
plane thus described by the circular mo- 
tion of the telescope is made to corres- 
pond with that of the horizon by the aid 
of a small brass tube, about six or eight 
inches in length, fixed exactly parallel 
with the line of sight through the teles- 
cope, and screwed to its cylinder in such 
manner as to remain firm. This little 
tube has on its upper side, or surface, an 
opening, into which a piece of clear glass, 
corresponding with the cylindrical curve 
of the tube, is fitted and properly ce- 
mented. This piece of glass being per- 
fectly centrical, serves to show how the 
fluid, generally alcohol (or pure spirit), 

with which the tube is filled, with the ex- 
ception of a very minute portion, stand in 
respect of inclination with, or from the 
horizon. When the bubble of air left in 
the tube floats- exactly centrical in that 
portion which is covered with glass, the 
tube itself must be level ; and as it is af- 
fixed at an exact parallel with the line of 
sight, which passes through the axis, or 
centre of the telescope, from the eye to 
the crossing of two hairs, at right angles, 
within the telescope, the instrument itself 
must then be level, and that part of any 
object, however distinct, which is cut or 
indicated by the line of sight, is ascertain- 
ed by the centre of the cross made by the 
hairs being on a rectilinear level with the 
line of sight. But in consequence of the 
curvature of the earth's surface, the hori- 
zontal level will be different from the rec- 
tilinear level, and will describe an arc 
parallel with the surface of the earth. 
This curvature amounts to about eight 
inches in every mile ; or, in more minute 
parts, may be taken at four and a half lines 
for every hundred yards. 

The usual mode of taking a level is by 
means of a painted board, about a foot 
square, having a broad white stripe 
drawn horizontally across its centre. 
This board slides up and down a long 

instrument is brought to the exact direc- 
tion in which the pole is situated; so that 
the latter may coincide, or as it is techni- 
cally called, *' be in one" with that basis 
which is vertical within the tube. The 
legs on which the level is supported, (ge- 
nerally the same as in theodolites, &c.) 
are spread so as to be firm ; after bringing 
the compass as nearly as may be practi- 
cable to a level : by means of four screws, 
which serve to raise the different sides of 
the plate at pleasure, the utmost preci- 
sion is attainable. The board is then 
moved up or down on the pole, which is 
marked all the way up in feet, inches, 
halves, and quarters, until the centre 
painted line " is in one" with the horizon- 
tal hair within the telescope. The height 
of the telescope above the surface on 
which it stands must be deducted from 
the number of feet and inches, at which 
the line on the board stands above the 
spot where the pole is fixed : the residue 
shows how much that is below the place 
where the instrument stands. But if the 
height of the line on the board be less 
than that at which the line of sight in the 
level stands from the ground, then the 


difference between those two heights 
will exhibit how much the former is above 
the latter. 

By this simple mode the level of any 
intended land, Sec. may be correctly taken, 
observing to limit the sight as much as 
possible : indeed, it is always best to con- 
fine them to distances not exceeding 
three hundred yards ; because the differ- 
ence between the rectilinear and the 
horizontal levels are then greatly dimin- 
ished, and the whole survey will prove 
far more correct. This will be easily 
seen from the following sketch. (Plate 
VIII. Miscellanies, fig. 2). Let A B re- 
present a sight taken at 2100 yards, and 
let A C be an equal distance measured on 
the surface of the segment A D, but brok- 
en off at every three hundred yards, i. e. 
into seven portions : it must be obvious 
that the line B C will give a greater length 
than would result from the proportion al- 
ready stated, the perpendicular falling so 
much beyond D ; and that such differ- 
ence would increase in its disproportions 
according as the range of sight might be 
enlarged. To prove this still more clear- 
ly, let us state that the quadrant O P 
(tig 3), of the earth's surface stands on a 
radius P S of four thousand miles. Now 
the first taken from the summit O of that 
quadrant would be a parallel to that hori- 
zontal radius, and a tangent to the arc at 
its summit, as from O to X. It is evident 
that if a sight of four thousand and one 
miles could be taken in the direction O 
X, a perpendicular falling from X would 
not even touch the point P, from which it 
would be a mile distant. It is true, that 
our sights are not to be compared with 
the foregoing extents; but it is equally 
true, that we verge towards the error 
ibove shown when we take too long 

Perhaps nothing can be more decep- 
tive than the common mode of estimating 
levels : more than once we have witness- 
ed the opinions of smatterers in this, 
branch of surveying, who have levelled 
the instrument with great exactness, and 
directed the telescope to a very distant 
hill, on seeing the point of intersection 
cut near its summit, have concluded the 
spot so indicated to be on a level with that 
where the instrument stood. This mis- 
conception arises purely from a long rec- 
tilinear sight, without considering that 
the base of a remote hill is a plane, whose 
surface stands at a very great angle from 
that on which the level is placed; as 
shown by the dotted lines representing 
a hill R intercepted by the line of sight 

A very good kind of level is made on a 
portable plan, by several mechanics in 
this branch. It consists of a small tube of 
glass let into a plate with which it is ex- 
actly parallel. This is the surface, shew- 
ing the bubble in the tube, as before de- 
scribed: the under part of the box, 
which may be about eight inches long, 
two broad, and two deep, has a spring 
and screw that cause the box to change 
its direction from either above or below 
the horizon, to an exact rectilinear level, 
as indicated by the air left in the glass 
tube. At the centre of the bottom of the 
box is a brass stud, serving to fix into a 
hole made in the top of a walking-stick, 
Stc. This kind of level, in the hands of 
a skilful surveyor, may be used to great 
advantage, where very great precision is 
not required ; but as the sight is taken 
only from the upper edges of the box's 
ends, it does not admit of that great nicety 
which is indispensable in many opera- 
tions, and where the smallest deviation 
from a true level might occasion immense 
expense and inconvenience. 

The level represented in Plate Level, 
was made by the justly celebrated Jesse 
Ramsden, F. R. S. and considered by him 
as the most complete. It stands on three 
legs, which fold up into the size and ap- 
pearance of a moderately thick round 
staff; three sliding rings, or leather bands, 
suffice to keep them compact and firm. 
The upper parts of the legs fit into a 
brass plate, as in theodolites, on the sur- 
face of which is a strong male screw, 
serving to fasten the working part of the 
instrument at pleasure, to its centre. The 
female screw is cut withinside a projec- 
tion b b of a brass plate a a -. this projec- 
tion has a hole through its top, and con- 
tains a brass ball (f, screwed into an- 
other similar plate e e ; by which means 
the two plates are connected together, 
and the upper one can be turned about in 
any direction, while the lower one re- 
mains fixed. Four screws n passing 
through the lower plate, being worked in 
until they touch the bottom of the upper 
plate, serve either to fix the latter firmly ; 
or, by unthreading one or two, and work- 
ing in the opposite ones, to change the 
inclination of the upper plate, and to 
bring it to an exact level. These are 
called the parallel plates, though they 
often stand at an angle, the one with the 
other, when the direction of the upper 
one requires changing as above shown. 

The ball d is perforated with a conical 
hole, to receive an axis /, that is screwed 
to the bottom of the compass box, /, on 
which are two square brass arms FC, pro- 


j/ecting from it diametrically opposite to fast, but admits of a slight movement, 
each other. H is a small brass angle, or either way, when acted upon by the mill- 
frame, called a Y, screwed to the end of headed screw m. 

the arm C : it supports in its forked ter- Our readers will readily perceive the 
ruination one end of the telescope K, of simplicity of this level, beyond any others 
which the other end rests in a Y, (letter- in use ; and will lament the demise of a 
ed N), similar to II, but which can be gentleman, who,, to profound theory, 
raised or lowered, by means of a screw .added the -most ingenious and skilful prac- 
having a milled head ; as seen at ?/. The tice. 

spirit level L is fixed to the telescope by Where a very long and continued 
two screws at its ends, whereby it can be range of brickwork is to be raised, it is 
brought into exact adjustment with the often advisable to use a water level, made 
culmination of the telescope. by laying a ridge of mortar along the 

The level, which is the essential part centre of the wall, and opening a very 
of the instrument, has been already de- narrow channel throughout its centre 
scribed; but it is proper to add, that the longitudinally, so as to form a kind of 
ends of the tube containing the alcohol, trough; let the ends be stopped, and the 
when made of glass, should be hermeti- trough be filled with water, as far as it 
cally sealed at its ends, which should then will flow. The surface of the water will 
be cased in brass. Mr. Ram sden prefer- give a true horizontal level; which, if 
red a very slight convexity in the tube ; continued for miles, would conform ex- 
considering it best adapted for shewing actly to the curvature of our globe. To 
the most trifling deviation from a perfect continue the level along the rest of the 
level, and causing the bubble to become trough, stop it at the place where the wa- 
more accurately centrical. With respect ter reached, and raising the adjacent part 
to the telescope, it is similar to those ge- with more mortar, let the trough of the su- 
nerally fitted to theodolites, &c. and has perior level be filled, and thus in succes- 
been described in the preceding part of sion. The difference between the end 
this article. It is laid on in the two Y of one trough, and the beginning of an- 
pieces, and kept in by two curved pieces other, will shew the respective levels; 
of brass. In figure "h is the achromatic from which parallels may be set off at any 
object glass, fixed within the end of a height above by plumb lines of equal 
tube, sliding within the external cylinder length. This mode is often practised in 
of the telescope, and moved very gra- large works, such as fortifications, and 
dually by a rack and pinion on the mill- when strata of masonry are to be regu- 
headed nut i : the distance of the glass h larly disposed ; also to prevent those ir- 
from the eye-piece, is thereby adjusted regular breaks, and partial connexions, 
to a suitable focus. that are almost inevitable where small sal- 

The eye-piece K contains two lenses, lows, or triangular levels, with plumb 
sliding in a tube fixed to the telescope, weights, are in use. 

for adjusting them to a distinct vision of When no instrument can be obtained, 
the cross wires, or hairs, which are held and where it is not easy to draw an exact 
in a proper state of tension in the frame level by the foregoing means, take the 
/, and regulated to the axis, or line of hose of an engine, and having fixed one 
sight, by four minute screws passing endat the spot whose level is to be sought, 
through the outside of the telescope. (on any opposite bank, for instance,) car- 

We have before shown how the four ry the other end to the place where the 
screws act upon the two parallel plates, corresponding height is to be established, 
a a and e e, while the axis b can be set Fill the hose with water until it ceases to 
very nearly perpendicular; then by the require raising at the further end. When 
screw y the telescope can be set very both ends show full to the brim, and that 
nearly level. To turn the telescope about the water is retained at both, then they 
horizontally upon its axis /, a screw m are on the same level : for it is a maxim 
works in a fixed collar i> ; its nut p is in HYDROSTATICS (which see), that water, 
lastened upon an arm which projects or, indeed, any fluid heavier than atmos- 
from a clamp g, embracing a collar upon pheric air, will, when at liberty, always 
the axis /, and is tightened by a screw r ; find its own level. 

which being unscrewed, the clamp Where a succession of contiguous le~ 
springs open, and the telescope, together vels are wanted, it will often be found 
with the level, moves round with freedom convenient to use a small leaden pipe, of 
upon the axis I, according to the pleasure about half an inch bore, which should be 
of the operator. When the screw 7* is applied as above described ; or even a 
tightened, the clamp holds the telescope common gutter, made of two pieces of 



planks, like those under the eaves of 
houses, may be made to answer the pur- 
pose, by supporting 1 either end, until the 
water may come to a level in every part. 
Where works of moderate extent are 
carried on, and where the perfect level 
of each stratum of materials is not an ob- 
ject of importance, the common brick- 
layer's level, made in the form of an in- 
verted T, thus j,, having a plumb sus- 
pended from the top, and received in an 
opening- at the junction of the perpendi- 
cular with the horizontal piece, will an- 
swer well enough. The principle on 
which this acts, is, that as all weights 
have a tendency to gravitate towards the 
centre of the earth, so as the plumb 
line is a true perpendicular, any line, 
cutting that at right angles, must be a 
horizontal line at the point of intersec- 

LEVEL, artillery foot, is in form of a 
square, having its two legs or branches 
of an equal length, at a juncture whereof 
is a little hole, whence hangs a thread 
and plummet, playing on a perpendicular 
line in the middle of a quadrant. It is di- 
vided into twice forty-five degrees from 
the middle. 

This instrument may be used on other 
occasions, by placing the ends of its two 
branches on a plane ; for when the 
thread plays perpendicularly over the 
middle division of the quadrant, that plane 
is assuredly level. To use it in gunnery, 
place the two ends on the piece of ar- 
tillery, which you may raise to any pro- 
posed height, by means of the plummet, 
whose thread will give the degree above 
the levei. 

LEVEL, cfl?'/'e?iter*s and patioitr^s, consists 
of a long ruler, in the middle whereof is 
fitted, at right angles, another somewhat 
bigger, at the top of which is fastened 
a line, which, when it hangs over a 
fiducial line at right angles with the 
base, shows that the said base is horizon- 
tal. Sometimes this level is all of one 

LEVEL, gunner's, for levelling 1 cannons 
and mortars, consists of a triangular brass 
plate, about four inches high, at the bot- 
tom of which is a portion of a circle, di- 
vided into forty-five degrees, which num- 
ber is sufficient for the highest elevation 
of cannons and mortars, and for giving 
shot the greatest range : on the centre of 
this segment of a circle is screwed a piece 
of brass, by means of which it may be 
fixed or screwed at pleasure ; the end of 
this piece of brass is made so as to serve 
for a plummet and index, in order to 

fallow the different degrees of elevation 
of pieces of artillery. This instrument 
has also a brass foot, to set upon cannons 
or mortars, so as when those pieces are 
horizontal, the instrument will be perpen- 
dicular. The foot of this instrument is 
to be placed on the piece to be elevated, 
in such a manner as that the point of the 
plummet may fall on the proper de- 
gree : this is what they call levelling the 

LEVEL, mason's, is composed of three 
rules, so joined as to form an isosceles- 
triangle, somewhat like a Roman A, at 
the vertex whereof is fastened a thread, 
from which hangs a plummet, that passes 
over a fiducial line, marked in the mid- 
dle of the base, when the thing, to 
which the level is applied, is horizontal ; 
but declines from the mark, when the 
thing is lower on one side than on the 

LEVEL, plumb or pendulum, that which 
shews the horizontal line by means of 
another line perpendicular to that de- 
scribed by a plummet or pendulum. 
This instrument consists of two legs or 
branches, joined together at right angles, 
whereof that which carries the thread 
and plummet is about a foot and a half 
long ; the thread is hung towards the top 
of the branch. The middle of the branch 
where the thread passes is hollow, so 
that it may hang free every where : but 
towards the bottom, where there is a lit- 
tle blade of silver, whereon is drawn a 
line perpendicular to the telescope, the 
said cavity is covered by two pieces of 
brass, making as it were a kind of case, 
lest the wind should agitate the thread ; 
for which reason the silver blade is co- 
vered with a glass to the end, that it may 
be seen when the thread and plummet 
play upon the perpendicular. The tele- 
scope is fastened to the other branch of 
the instrument, and is about two feet 
long ; having an hair placed horizontally 
across the focus of the object-glass, which 
determines the point of the level. The 
telescope must be fitted at right angles 
to the perpendicular. It has a ball and 
socket, by which it is fastened to the 


LEVELLING staves, instruments used in 
levelling, serving to carry the marks to 
be observed, <?.nd at Lhe same time to mea- 
sure the heights of those marks from the 
ground. They usually consist each of 
two long wooden rollers, made to slide 
over one another, and divide into feet, 
inches, &.c. 



LEVER, in mechanics, an inflexible 
right line, rod, or beam, supported in a 
single point on a fulcrum or prop, and 
used for the raising of weights ; being 
either void of weight itself, or at least 
having such a weight as may be commo- 
diously counterbalanced. 

The lever is the first of those called 
mechanical powers, or simple machines, 
as being of all others the most simple; 
and is chiefly applied for raising weights 
to small heights. See MECHANICS. 

LEVISANUS, in botany, so called from 
the Rev. Mr. Lewis, a genus of the Pen- 
tandria Monogynia class and order. Es- 
sential character : flowers aggregate ; ca- 
lyx one-leafed, superior, five-cleft; corolla 
five petalled, superior ; filaments inserted 
into the base of the perianth ; styles two, 
conjoined ; berry two celled ; seeds five 
or six, compressed. There are five spe- 
cies, which are all shrubs, and natives of 
the Cape of Good Hope. 

LEYSERA, in botany, a genus of the 
Syngenesia Polygamia Superflua class and 
order. Natural order of Composite Dis- 
coideae. Corymbiferze, Jussieu. Essen- 
tial character : calyx scariose ; down chaf- 
fy ; in the disk feathery also ; receptacle 
subpaleaceous. There are three spe- 

LEY, or lees, a term usually applied to 
any alkaline solution, made by levigating 
any ashes that contain an alkali. Soap- 
lees is an alkali used by soap-boilers, or 
potash or soda in solution, and made caus- 
tic by lime. Lees of wine are the refuse, 
or sediment, that deposits from wine by 
standing quiet. 

LEYDEN phial, in electricity, is a glass 
phial or jar, coated both within and with- 
out with tinfoil, or other conducting sub- 
stance, that it may be charged, and em- 
ployed in a variety of experiments. Flat 
glass, or glass of any shape, may be used 
in the same way. 

LIATRIS, in botany, a genus of the 
Syngenesia Polygamia JBqualis class and 
order. Natural order of Compositae Ca- 
pitatse. Cinarocephalae, Jussieu. Essen- 
tial character: calyx oblong, imbricate, 
awnless, coloured ; down feathered, co- 
loured ; receptacle naked, hollow, dotted. 
There are eight species. 

LIBELLULA, in natural history, dra- 
gon-fly, a genus of insects of the order 
Neuroptera. Mouth armed with jaws, 
more than two in number ; lip trifid ; an- 
tennae very thin, filiform, and shorter 
than the thorax ; wings expanded ; tail of 
the male insect furnished with a forked 
process. There are about sixty species, 

divided into two families. A. wings ex- 
panded when at rest. B. wings erect 
when at rest ; eyes distinct ; outer divi- 
sions of the lip bifid. The whole tribe of 
the libellula are remarkable for being ra- 
venous : they are usually to be seen ho- 
vering over stagnant waters, and may, in 
the middle of the day, be observed fly- 
ing with great rapidity in pursuit of the 
smaller insects. These brilliant and beau- 
tiful animals were once, and for a consi- 
derable time, inhabitants of the water: in 
that state, as larva, they are six-footed,, 
active, and furnished with an articulate 
forcipated mouth. They prey upon aqua- 
tic insects, and the larva of others : the 
pupa resembles the larva, but has the ru- 
diments of wings. The most remarkable 
of the English species is the L. varia, or 
great variegated libellula, which makes its 
appearance towards the decline of sum- 
mer, and is an animal of singular beauty. 
Its length is about three inches ; and the 
wings, when expanded, measure nearly 
four inches from tip to tip. The female 
libellula drops her eggs in the water, 
which, on account of their specific gra- 
vity, sink to the bottom : after a certain 
period they are hatched into larvae, hav- 
ing a singular and disagreeable aspect : 
they cast their skins several times before 
they arrive at their full size, and are of a 
dusky brown colour : the rudiments of 
the future wings appear on the back of 
such as are advanced to the pupa state in 
the form of oblong scales, and the head 
is armed with a singular organ for seizing 
its prey. They continue in the larva 
and pupa state two years ; when, having 
attained to their full size, they prepare 
for their ultimate change, and creeping 
up the stem of some water plant, and 
grasping it with their feet, they make an 
effort, by which the skin of the back and 
head is forced open, and the enclosed 
libellula gradually emerges. This process 
takes place in a morning, and during a 
bright sunshine. The remainder of the 
animal's life is short, the frosts of autumn 
destroying them all. " It is impossible," 
says Dr. Shaw, " not to be struck with 
admiration on contemplating the changes 
of the libellula, which, while an inhabi- 
tant of the water, would perish by any 
long exposure to the air, while the com- 
plete animal, once escaped from the pu~ 
pa, would as effectually be destroyed by 
submersion under water, of which not an 
hour before it was the legitimate inhabi- 
tant." In this, and other species of the 
libellula tribe, the structure of the eye is 
deserving 1 of notice A common magni- 


fier, of an inch focus, shows, that the cor- 
jiea is marked by u prodigious number of 
minute decussating 1 lines, giving a kind 
of granular appearance to the whole con- 
vexity ; but with a microscope it exhi- 
bits a continued surface of convex hexa- 
gons. According to Lewenhoek there are 
12,544 lenses in each eye of this animal. 
See Shaw's Zoology, vol. vi. 

LIBELLUS famdsus. A contumely or 
reproach, published to the defamation of 
the government, of a magistrate, or of a 
private person. It is also defined to be a 
malicious defamation, expressed either in 
printing- or writing, or by signs, pictures, 
&c. tending either to blacken the memo- 
ry of one who is dead, or the reputation 
of one who is alive, and thereby expos- 
ing him to public hatred, contempt, and 

Libels, says Blackstone, taken in their 
largest and most extensive sense, signify 
any writings, pictures, or the like, of an 
immoral or illegal tendency. This spe- 
cies of defamation is usually termed writ- 
ten scandal, and thereby receives an ag- 
gravation, in that it is presumed to have 
been entered upon with coolness and de- 
liberation ; and to continue longer, and 
propagate wider and further than any 
other scandal. 

The important distinction between li- 
bels and words spoken, was fully esta- 
blished in the case of Villers v. Mousley, 
(2 Wils. 403.) viz. that whatever renders 
u man ridiculous, or lowers him in the es- 
teem and opinion of the world, amounts 
to a libel ; though the same expressions, 
if spoken, would not have been defama- 
tion : as, to call a person, in writing, an 
itchy old toad, was held in that case to be 
a libel; although, as words spoken, they 
would not have been actionable. And on 
this ground, a young lady of quality, in 
the year 1793, recov ered 4,000/. damages 
for reflections upon her chastity, publish- 
ed in a newspaper, although she could 
have brought no action for the grossest 
verbal aspersions that could have been 
uttered against her honour. An action 
for a libel also differs from an action for 
words in this particular ; that the former 
may be brought at any time within six 
years, and any damages will entitle the 
plaintiff to full costs. To print of any 
person that he is a swindler, is a libel, 
and actionable. 

All libels are made against private men, 
or magistrates, and public persons; and 
those against magistrates deserve the 
greatest punishment : if a libel be made 
against a private man, it may excite the 
person libelled, or his friends, to revenge 

and to break the peace ; and if against a 
magistrate, it is not only a breach of the 
peace, but a scandal to government, and 
stirs up sedition. 

Where a writing- inveighs against man- 
kind in general, or against a particular 
order of men, this is no libel ; it must de- 
scend to particulars and individuals, to 
make it a libel. But a general reflection 
on the government is a libel, though no 
particular person is reflected on : and the 
writing against a known law is held to be 

Though a private person or magistrate 
be dead at the time of making the libel, 
yet it is punishable, as it tends to a breach 
of the peace. But an indictment for pub- 
lishing libellous matter reflecting on the 
the memory of a dead person, not alleg- 
ing that it was done with a design to bring 
contempt on the family of the deceased, 
and to stir up the hatred of the King's 
subjects against them, and to excite his 
relations to a breach of the peace, cannot 
be supported; and judgment was in this 
case accordingly arrested. 

Scandalous matter, in legal proceed- 
ings, by bill, petition, &c. in a court of 
justice, amounts not to a libel, if the court 
hath jurisdiction of the cause. But he 
who delivers a paper full of reflections 
on any person, in nature of a petition to a 
committee,to any other persons except the 
members of parliament who have to do 
with it, may be punished as the publisher 
of a libel. And by the better opinion, a 
person cannot justify the printing any 
papers which import a crime in another, 
to instruct counsel, See. but it will be a 
libel. 2. The communication of a libel to 
any one person, is a publication in the 
eye of the law ; therefore the sending 1 
an abusive private letter to a man, is 
as much a libel as if it were openly print- 
ed ; for it equally tends to a breach of the 

In the making of libels, if one man dic- 
tates, and another writes a libel, both are 
guilty : for the writing after another 
shows his approbation of what is contain- 
ed in the libel ; and the first reducing a 
libel into writing may be said to be the 
making it, but not the composing. If one 
repeats, another writes, and a third ap- 
proves what is written, they are all mak- 
ers of the libel; because all persons who 
concur to an unlawful act are guilty. 

If one writes a copy of a libel and does 
not deliver it to others, the writing is no 
publication: but it has been adjudged 
that the copying of a libel, without au- 
thority, is writing a libel, and he that thus 
writes it is a contriver ; and that he who 


bath a written copy of a known libel, if 
it is found upon him, this shall be evi- 
dence of the publication ; but if such libel 
be not publicly known, then the mere 
having 1 a copy is not a publication. 

When any man finds a libel, if it be 
against a private person, he ought to burn 
it, or deliver it to a magistrate ; and where 
it concerns a magistrate, he should deliver 
it presently to a magistrate. 

The sale of the libel by a servant in a 
shop, is prima facie evidence of publica- 
tion, in a prosecution against the master ; 
and is sufficient for conviction, unless 
contradicted by contrary evidence, shew- 
ing that he was not privy, nor in any way 
assenting to it. 

It is immaterial, on a criminal prose- 
cution with respect to the essence of a 
libel, whether the matter of it be true or 
false ; because it equally tends to a breach 
of the peace ; and the provocation, not 
the falsity, is the thing to be punished 
criminally; though, doubtless, the false- 
hood of it may aggravate its guilt and en- 
hance its punishment. In a civil action, 
a libel must appear to be false as well as 
scandalous : for if the charge be true, the 
plaintiff has received no private injury, 
and has no ground to demand for a com- 
pensation himself, whatever offence it 
may be against the public peace ; and, 
therefore, upon a civil action, the truth 
of the accusation may be pleaded in bar 
of the suit. But in a criminal prosecu- 
tion, the tendency which all libels have 
to create animosities, and to disturb the 
public peace, is the whole that the law 
considers. And, therefore, in such pro- 
secutions, the only points to be enquired 
into are, first, the making or publishing 
of a book or writing ; and, secondly, 
whether the matter be criminal ; and if 
both these points are against the defend- 
ant, the offence against the public is com- 

It is not competent to a defendant 
charged with having published a libel, to 
prove that a paper, similar to that for the 
publication of which he is prosecuted, was 
published on a former occasion by other 
persons who have never been prosecuted 
for it. 

The punishment of libellers for either 
making, repeating, printing, or publish- 
ing the libel, is fine, and such corporal 
punishment (as imprisonment, pillory, 
&c.^) as the court in its discretion shall 
inflict; regarding the quantity of the of- 
fence, and the quality of the offender. 
Also, if booksellers, &.c. publish or sell 
libels, though they know not the contents 
of them, they are punishable. 
VOL. IV." 

It has been held that writing a sedi- 
tious libel is not an actual breach of 
the peace: and that a member of par- 
liament writing such a libel is entitled to 
his privilege from being arrested for the 

In informations, the libel must be set 
out correctly, according to the words or 
the material sense. 

It has been frequently determined, 
that in the trial of an indictment for a 
libel, the only questions for the consider- 
ation of the jury are, the fact of publish- 
ing, and the truth of the innuendoes ; that 
is, the truth of the meaning, and sense of 
the passages of the libel, as stated and 
averred in the record; whether the mat- 
ter be or be not a libel, is a question of 
law for the consideration of the court. 
But the statute 32 Geo. III. c. 60, after 
reciting that "doubts had arisen whether 
on the trial of an indictment or informa- 
tion for the making or publishing any li- 
bel, where an issue or issues are joined 
between the King and the defendant on 
the plea of not guilty pleaded, it be com- 
petent to the jury, impannelled to try 
the same, to give their verdict upon the 
whole matter in issue," enacts, that " on 
every such trial, the jury, sworn to try 
the issue, may give a general verdict of 
guilty or not guilty, upon the whole mat- 
ter put in issue, upon such indictment 
or information ; and shall not be requir- 
ed or directed by the court or judge, 
before whom the indictment, &c. shall 
be tried, to find the defendant guilty, 
merely on the proof of the publication 
by such defendant, of the paper charg- 
ed to be a libel, and of the sense ascribed 
to the same in such indictment." But it 
is provided by the said statute, that the 
court or judge shall, according to their 
discretion, give their opinion and direc- 
tions to the jury on the matter in issue, 
as in other criminal cases, that the jury 
may also find a special verdict ; and that, 
in case the jury shall find the defendant 
guilty, he may move in arrest of judg- 
ment, as by law he might have done be- 
fore the passing of the act. 

It has, in the case of the King v. Lord 
George Gordon ; and the King v. Peltier, 
been held, that a writing tending to de- 
fame the Sovereign of a foreign country, 
is a libel punishable in England. The law 
was not questioned in the first case; in 
the second the punishment was not en- 
forced. We think there are many serious 
arguments against the doctrine. 

In the case of Gilbert Wakefield, and 
of Hart and White, recently, although 
fho offences wove committed, and the 



trials hud in Westminster and London, 
the defendants were committed to Dor- 
chesier and Gloucester gaols, to render 
their confinement the more irksome and 

\\ c have thus briefly endeavoured to 
select the principal authorities under the 
law of England, with respect, to libels, 
and we are free to confess, that unless ju- 
ries boldly assert the right of judging ac- 
cording to the general intention and ho- 
nest view of the writer, rather than upon 
casual expressions, and the subtle innuen- 
does of an information, there will be 
found little actual liberty of the press, ex- 
cepting what is allowed by the lenity of 
an attorney general. 

For the law is strictly, that any thing 
which affects the character of an indivi- 
dual, or reflects on the government, is a 
libel ; and with such a restraint we hold 
the right of free discussion upon a frail 
tenure. The absolute freedom of the 
press can, we think, never be fully ob- 
tained while truth continues to be a libel; 
and it is remarkable, that in former times, 
libels were charged as false, scandalous, 
and malicious writings ; in the time of 
Lord Coke, the doctrine was laid down, 
that the falsehood of a libel was immate- 
rial ; and very recently, the word " false," 
has been omitted in the informations filed 
by the present Attorney General, Sir Vi- 
cary Gibbs. 

We admit that the point, how far the 
press shall be uncontrolled, is a nice 
question in politics ; but it should be re- 
membered that the press, that is, the 
right of public complaint, and of expos- 
ing public delinquents to public odium, is 
the people's cheapest and best defence, 
and the oppressors' greatest awe. Were 
that right uncontrolled, no wicked go- 
vernment could last long; and as the 
press is open to all, perhaps no just and 
good government could long continue to 
be misrepresented before an enlightened 
and just thinking people. In England, it 
must be acknowledged, that the practical 
liberty of the press has been greater 
than in any country in the world ; but we 
attribute this more to the character of 
the government and the people, than to 
the law, which, if rigidly exercised, would 
be severe. We have, it is true, not had 
very frequently informations for libels at 
the suit of government, butwe have never 
known them fail to convict, except in the 
case of Mr. Reeves, for a libel on the 
House of Commons, which was prosecut- 
ed by the popular party. 

We shall observe, that the law of libels 
is plainly derived to us from the imperial 

constitutions of Rome under the Con- 
stantines, not from the laws of republican 
Rome, and that it came recommended to 
us from the Star Chamber by Lord Coke. 
We have not here sufficient space to in- 
vestigate, as a political question, what 
ought to be the law of Jibels ; and we 
must acknowledge, that many objections 
may occur to admitting truth to be a jus- 
tification of a writing, when it is aimed 
at government, and there is great diffi- 
culty in verifying charges of misconduct, 
even when they are confined to particular 
instances. It is only by long reflection, 
and an ardent desire for the utmost liber- 
ty that is consistent with good govern- 
ment, that we are led to wish that the 
press should be uncontrolled. 

Libel, in the spiritual court, the origi- 
nal declaration of any action in the civil 
law. See statute 2 Edward VI. c. 13. 

The libel used in ecclesiastical pro- 
ceedings consists of three parts : 1. The 
major proposition, which shows a just 
cause of the petition. 2. The narration, 
or minor proposition. 3. The conclusion, 
or conclusive petition, which conjoins 
both propositions, &c. 

LIBERTY, in its most general signifi- 
cation, is said to be a power to do as one 
thinks fit ; unless restrained by the law 
of the land : and it is well observed, that 
human nature is ever an advocate for this 
liberty ; it being the gift of God to man 
in his creation. It is upon that account 
the laws of England in all cases favour li- 
berty. According to Montesquieu, liber- 
ty consists principally in not being com- 
pelled to do any thing which the lavr 
does not require ; because we are go- 
verned by civil laws, and therefore we 
are free, living under those laws. 

The absolute rights of man, considered 
as a free agent, endowed with discern- 
ment to know good from evil, and with 
power of choosing those measures which 
appear to him to be most desirable, are 
usually summed up in one general ap- 
pellation, and denominated the natural li- 
berty of mankind. This natural liberty 
consists properly in a power of acting as 
one thinks fit, without any restraint or 
control, unless by the law of nature ; be- 
ing a right inherent in us by birth, and 
one of the gifts of God to man at his cre- 
ation, when he endowed him with the fa- 
culty of free will. 

But every man, when he enters into so- 
ciety, gives up a part of his natural liber- 
ty, as the price of so valuable a purchase; 
and in consideration of receiving the ad- 
vantages of mutual commerce, obliges 
himself to conform to those laws which 


the community has thought proper to 
establish. This species of legal obedience 
is infinitely more desirable than that wild 
and savage liberty, which is sacrificed to 
obtain it. For no man, who considers a 
moment, would wish to retain the abso- 
lute and uncontrolled power of doing 
whatever he pleases ; the consequence of 
which is, that every other man would also 
have the same power; and then there 
would be no security to individuals in any 
of the enjoyments of life. 

Political or civil liberty, therefore, 
which is that of a member of society, is 
no other than natural liberty, so far re- 
strained by human laws, and no further, 
as is necessary and expedient for the ge- 
neral advantage of the public. 

Hence we may collect that the law, 
which restrains a man from doing mis- 
chief to his fellow-citizens, though it di- 
minishes the natural, increases the civil 
liberty of mankind : but that every wan- 
ton and causeless restraint of the will of 
the subject, whether practised by a mo- 
narch, by nobility, or a popular assembly, 
is a degree of tyranny ; nay, that even 
laws themselves, whether made with or 
without our consent, if they regulate and 
constrain our conduct in matters of mere 
indifference, without any good end in 
view, are regulations destructive of liber- 
ty ; whereas, if any public advantage can 
arise from observing such precepts, the 
control of our private inclinations, in one 
or two particular points, will conduce to 
preserve our general freedom in others 
of more importance, by supporting that 
state of society which alone can secure 
our independence. So that laws, when 
prudently framed, are by no means sub- 
versive, but rather introductive of liber- 
ty ; for where there is no law, there is no 

But then, on the other hand, that con- 
stitution, or form of government, is alone 
calculated to maintain civil liberty, which 
leaves the subject entire master of his 
own conduct, except in those points 
wherein the public good requires some 
direction or restraint. 

The above definition of the learned 
commentator is admitted by his last editor 
to be clear, distinct, and rational, as far 
as relates to civil liberty ; in the defini- 
tion of which, however, he adds, it ought 
to be understood, or rather expressed, 
that the restraints introduced by the law 
should be equal to all ; in as much so as 
the nature of things will admit. 

Political liberty is distinguished by Mr. 
Christian from civil liberty, and he defines 
it to be the security with which, from the 

constitution, form, and nature of the esta- 
blished government, the subjects enjoy 
civil liberty. No ideas, continues he, are 
more distinct than those of civil and po- 
litical liberty; yet they are generally 
confounded ; and the latter cannot yet 
claim an appropriate name. The learned 
judge (Blackstone) uses political and ci- 
vil liberty indiscriminately ; but it would 
perhaps be convenient uniformly to use 
those terms in the respective senses here 
suggested, or to have some fixed speciiic 
denominations for ideas, which, in their 
natures, are so widely different. The last 
species of liberty has most engaged the. 
attention of mankind, and particularly of 
the people of England. 

The people of England have a firm re- 
liance that this civil liberty is secured to 
them under the constitution of the go- 

First. By the great charter of liberties, 
which was obtained, sword in hand, from 
King John ; and afterwards, with some al- 
terations, confirmed in parliament by 
King Henry III. his son ; which charter 
contained very few new grants ; but, as 
Sir Edward Coke observes, was for the 
most part declaratory of the principal 
grounds of the fundamental laws of Eng- 
land. Afterwards, by the statute called 
Conjirmatio Cartarum, 25 Edward T. 
whereby the great charter is directed to 
be allowed as the common law : all judg- 
ments contrary to it are declared Void ; 
copies of it are ordered to be sent to all 
the cathedral churches, and read twice a 
year to the people ; and sentence of ex- 
communication is directed to be as con- 
stantly denounced against all those who, 
by word, deed, or counsel, act contrary 
thereto, or in any degree infringe it. 
Next, by a multitude of subsequent cor- 
roborating statutes from Edward I. to 
Henry IV. ; of which the following are 
the most forcible. 

Statute 25 Edward III. statute 5, c. 4. 
None shall be taken by petition or sug- 
gestion made to the King or his council, 
unless it be by indictment of lawful peo- 
ple of the neighbourhood, or by process 
made by writ original at the common law. 
And none shall be put out of his fran- 
chises or freehold, unless he be duly 
brought to answer, and fore-judged by 
course of law ; and if any thing be done 
to the contrary, it shall be redressed and 
holden for none. 

Statute 42 Edward III. c. 3. No man 
shall be put to answer without present- 
ment before justices, or matter of record 
of due process, or writ original, accord- 
ing to the ancient law of the land. And 


if any thing be done to the contrary, it 
shall be void in law, and held for error. 
After a long interval these liberties were 
still further confirmed by the petition of 
right ; which was a parliamentary de- 
clara ion of the liberties of the people, 
assented to by King- Charles I. in the be- 
ginning 1 of his reign. This was closely 
followed by the still more ample conces- 
sions made by that unhappy Prince to his 
parliament; (particularly the dissolution 
of the Star Chamber, by statute 16 Charles 
I. c. 10) ; before the fatal rupture between 
them; and by the many salutary laws, 
particularly the Habeas Corpus Act, pass- 
ed under King Charles II. 

To tlu-se succeeded the Bill of Rights, 
or declaration delivered by the Lords and 
Commons to the Prince and Princess of 
Orange, February 13, 1688; and after- 
wards i Carted in parliament, when they 
became King and Queen ; which, as 
peculiarly interesting, is here inserted at 

Statute 1 William and Mary, statute 2, 
c. 2, $ 1. Whereas the Lords Spiritual 
and Temporal, and Commons, assembled 
at We-stminster, representing all the 
estates of the people of this realm, did, 
upon the 13th of February 1683, present 
unto their Majesties, then Prince and 
Princess of Orange, a declaration, con- 
taining, that the said Lords Spiritual and 
Temporal, and Commons, being assem- 
bled in 2 full and free representative of this 
nation, for the vindicating their ancient 
rights and liberties, declare, that- the 
pretended power of suspending of laws, 
or the execution of laws, by legal au- 
thority, without consent of parliament, 
is illegal ; that the pretended power of 
dispensing with laws, or the execution of 
laws, by rc-gal authority, as it hath been 
assumed and eNtrcised of late, is illegal ; 
that the commission for erecting the^late 
court of commissioners lor ecclesiastical 
causes, and all other commissions and 
coiii-'s of like nature, are illegal and per- 

That levying money for, or to the use 
of the crown, by pretence of prerogative, 
without grant of parliament, for 'longer 
time, or in other manner than the same is 
or shall be granted, is illegal ; that it is 
the right of the subjects to petition the 
Kin;;, and all commitments and prosecu- 
r such petitioning, are illegal ; that 
the raising or keeping a standing army 
within the kingdom in '.ime of peace, un- 
less it be with consent of parliament, 'is 
against law ; that the subjects which are 
protestunts may have arm's for their de- 

fence, suitable to their conditions, and as 
allowed bylaw; that election of members 
of parliament ought to be free; that the 
freedom of speech, and debates or pro- 
ceedings in parliament ought not to be 
impeached or questioned in any court or 
place out of parliament; that excessive 
bail ought not to be required, nor exces- 
sive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual 
punishments inflicted; that jurors ought 
to be duly impaimelled and returned, and 
jurors which pass upon men in trials for 
high treason, ought to be freeholders; 
that all grants and promises of fines and 
forfeitures of particular persons before 
conviction, are illegal and void ; and for 
redress of all grievances, and lor the 
amending, strengthening, and preserving 1 
of the laws, parliaments ought to be held 
frequently ; and they do claim, demand, 
and insist upon all and singular the 
premises, as their undoubted rights and 
liberties ; and that no declarations, judg- 
ments, doings, or proceedings, to the 
prejudice of the people in any of the said 
premises, ought in anywise to be drawn 
hereafter into consequence or example ; 
Sect. 6. All and singular the rights and 
liberties asserted and claimed in the said 
declaration are the true, ancient, and in- 
dubitable rights and liberties of the peo- 
ple of this kingdom, and so shall bees- 
teemed, allowed, adjudged, and taken to 
be ; and all the particulars aforesaid shall 
be firmly holden as they are expressed in 
the said declaration ; and all officers shall 
serve their majesties according to the 
same in all times to come. Sect. 12. No 
dispensation by non obstante of any statute 
shall be allowed, except a dispensation be 
allowed of in such statute ; and except in 
such cases as shall be especially provided 
for during session of parliament. Sect. 
13. No charter granted before the 23d of 
October 1689, shall be invalidated by this 
act, but shall remain of the same force as 
if this act had never been made. Lastly, 
these liberties were again asserted at the 
commencement of the present century, in 
the Act of Settlement, statute 12 and 13 
William III. c. 2, whereby the crown was 
limited to his present Majesty's illustrious 
house ; and some new provisions were 
added at the same fortunate asra, for bet- 
ter securing our religion, laws, and liber- 
ties, which the statute declares to be 
"the birthright of the people of England;" 
according to the ancient doctrine of the 
common law. 

Thus much for the declaration of our 
rights and liberties. The rights themselves, 
thus defined by these several statutes, 


consist in a number of private immuni- 
ties, which will appear, from what has 
been premised, to be indeed no other 
than either that residuum of natural liber- 
ty, which is not required by the laws of 
society to be sacrificed to public conve- 
nience, or else those civil privileges, 
which society hath engaged to provide in 
lieu of the natural liberties so given up 
by individuals. These, therefore, were 
formerly, either by inheritance or pur- 
chase, the rights of all mankind ; but in 
most other countries of the world, being 
now more or less debased or destroyed, 
they at present may be said to remain, in 
a peculiar and emphatical manner, the 
rights of the people of England. 

These rights may be reduced to three 
principal or primary articles : 

The right of personal security. The 
right of personal liberty. The right of 
private property. 

The right of personal security consists 
in a person's legal and uninterrupted en- 
joyment of his life, his limbs, his body, 
his health, and his reputation. The en- 
joyment of this right is secured to every 
subject by the various laws made for the 
punishment of those injuries, by which it 
is any way violated ; for a particular de- 
tail of which, see ASSAULT, HOMICIDE, 

The words of the Great Charter, c. 29, 
are, " Nullus liber homo capialur, impn- 
sonetur, vel aliquo modo destruatur, nisi 
per legale judicium parium suorum aut 
per legem terra;." No freeman shall be 
taken, imprisoned, or any way destroyed, 
unless by the lawful judgment of his 
peers, or by the law of the land ; which 
words, " aliquo modo destruatur," ac- 
cording to Coke, include a prohibition, not 
only of killing or maiming, but also of tor- 
turing, (to which our laws are strangers), 
and of every oppression by colour of an 
illegal authority. And it is enacted by 
stat. 5 Edward III. c. 9, that no man shall 
be attached by any accusation, nor fore- 
judged of lite or limb, nor shall his lands 
or goods be seized into the King's hands 
contrary to the Great Charter, and the 
law of the land. And again, by statute 
28 Edward 111 c. 3, that no man shall be 
put to death without being brought to an- 
swer by due process of law. 

The right of personal liberty consists 
in the power of loco-motion, of changing 
situation, or moving one's person to what- 
soever place one's own inclination may 
direct, without imprisonment or restraint, 
unless by due course of law. This right 
there is at present no occasion to enlarge 

upon. For the provisions made by thr 
laws of England to secure it, see HA- 
BEAS corpus, FALSE imprit<mment,1$\-ii t9 

The absolute right of property, inherent 
in every Englishman, consists in the free 
use, enjoyment, and disposal of all his ac- 
quisitions, without any controul or dimi- 
nution, save only by the laws of the land. 

Another effect of this right of private 
property is, that no subject of England 
can be constrained to pay any aids or 
taxes, even for the defence of the realm, 
or the support of the government, but 
such as are imposed by his own consent, 
or that of his representatives in parlia- 
ment. By statute 25 Edward I. c. 5, 6, it 
is provided, that the King shall not take 
any aids, or tasks, but by the common 
assent of the realm. And what that com- 
mon assent is, is more fully explained by 
statute 34 Edward I. statute 4, c. 1 ; 
which enacts, that no talliage or aid shall 
be taken, without the assent of the Arch- 
bishops, Bishops, Earls, Barons, Knights, 
Burgesses, and other freemen of the land: 
and again, by statute 14 Edw. III. statute 
2, c. 1, the Prelates, Earls, Barons, and 
Commons, Citizens, Burgesses, and Mer- 
chants, shall not be charged to make any 
aid, if it be not by the common assent of 
the great men and commons in parlia- 
ment And as this fundamental law had 
been shamefully evaded, under many pre- 
ceding princes, by compulsive loans and 
benevolences, extorted without a real and 
voluntary consent, it was made an article 
in the petition of right, 3 Charles I. that 
no man shall be compelled to yield any 
gift, loan, or benevolence, tax, or such 
like charge, without common consent by 
act of parliament. And, lastly, by the 
Bill of Rights, statute 1 William and 
Mary, statute 2, c. 2, it is declared, that 
levying money for or to the use of the 
crown, by pretence of prerogative, with- 
out grant of parliament, or for longer 
time, or in other manner than the same 
is or shall be granted, is illegal. 

The above is a short view of the prin- 
cipal absolute rights which appertain to 
every Englishman : and the constitution 
has provided for the security of their ac- 
tual enjoyment, by establishing certain 
other auxiliary, subordinate rights, which 
serve principally as out-works or barriers 
to protect and maintain those principal 
rights inviolate. These are, 

The constitution, powers, and privi- 
leges of parliament. The limitation of 
the King's prerogative. The right of ap- 
plying to courts of justice for redress of 


injuries. The right of petitioning- the 
King or parliament. The right of having 
arms for defence. 

This last auxiliary right of the subjects 
of having arms for their defence, suitable 
to their condition and degree, and such 
as are allowed by law, is declared by tiie 
Hill of Rights ; and it is, indeed, a public 
allowance, under due restrictions of the 
natural right of resistance and self-preser- 
vation, when the sanctions of society and 
laws are found insufficient to restrain the 
violence of oppression. 

As to the first and second of the subor- 
dinate rights above-mentioned, see PAR- 

With respect to the third and fourth, 
some short information is here subjoined. 

Since the law is, in England, the su- 
preme arbiter of every man's life, liberty, 
and property, courts of justice must at 
all times be open to the subject, and the 
Jaw be duly administered therein. The 
emphatical words of Magna Charta, c. 29, 
spoken in the person of the King, who, 
in judgment of law (says Sir Edward 
Coke) is ever present, and repeating 
them in all his courts, are these, " Nulli 
vendemus, nulli negabimus, aut differe- 
mus, rectum vel justitiam." To none 
will we sell, to none will we deny, or de- 
lay, right or justice. 

It is also ordained by Magna Charta, 
c. 29, that no freeman shall be outlawed, 
that is, put out of the protection and bene- 
fit of the law, but according to the laws 
of the land. By statutes 2 Edward III. c. 
8. 11 Richard II. c. 10, it is enacted, that 
no commands or letters shall be sent tin- 
der the Great Seal, or the Little Seal, the 
Signet or Privy Seal, in disturbance of 
the law ; or to disturb or delay common 
right, and though such commandments 
should come, the judges shall not cease 
to do right. This 'is also made a part of 
their oath, by statute 11 Edward III. stat. 
4. And by the Bill of Rights it is de- 
clared, that the pretended power of sus- 
pending or dispensing with laws, or the 
execution of laws, by regal authority, 
without consent of parliament, is illegal. 
Not. only the substantial part, or judicial 
decisions of the law, but also the formal 
part, or method of proceeding, cannot be 
altered but by parliament ; for, if once 
those outworks were demolished, there 
would be an inlet to all manner of inno- 
vation in the body of the law itself. The 
King, it is true, may erect new courts of 
justice ; but then they must proceed ac- 
cording to the old established forms of 
the common law. For which reason it is 
declared in the statute, 16 Charles I, c. 

10, upon the dissolution of the court of 
star-chamber, that neither his Majesty nor 
his Privy Council have any jurisdiction, 
power, or authority, by English bill, pe- 
tition, articles, or libel, (which were the 
course of proceeding in the Star-Cham- 
ber borrowed from the civil lavv), or by 
any other arbitrary way whatsoever, to 
examine or drasv into question, deter- 
mine or dispose of the lands or goods of 
any subjects of this kingdom ; but that 
the same ought to be tried and deter- 
mined in the ordinary courts of justice, 
and by course of law. 

The right of petitioning the King, or 
either house of parliament, for the re- 
dress of grievances appertains to every in- 
dividual in cases of any uncommon injury, 
or infringement of the rights already par- 
ticularized, which the ordinary course of 
law is too defective to reach. The re- 
strictions, for some there are, wliich are 
laid upon tliis right of petitioning in Eng- 
land, while they promote the spirit of 
peace, are no check upon that of liberty ; 
care only must be taken, lest, under the 
pretence of petitioning, the subject be 
guilty of any riot or tumult ; as happened 
in the opening of the memorable parlia- 
ment in 1640. And to prevent this, it is 
provided by statute, 13 Charles II. stat. 1. 
c. 5, that no petition to the King, or 
either house of parliament, for any altera- 
tion in church or state, shall be signed by 
above twenty persons, unless the matter 
thereof be approved by three justices of 
the peace, or the major part of the grand 
jury in the county ; and in London, by 
the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Common 
Council ; nor shall any petition be pre- 
sented by more than ten persons at a 
time. But under these regulations, it is 
declared by the Bill of Rights, that the 
subject hath a right to petition ; and that 
all commitments and prosecutions for 
such petitioning are illegaj. The sanction 
of the grand jury may be given either at 
the assizes or quarter sessions; the pun- 
ishment for offending against the stat. 13 
Charles II. not to exceed a fine of 1001. 
and three months imprisonment. Upon 
the trial of Lord George Gordon, the 
Court of King's Bench declared, that they 
were clearly of opinion, that this statute 
was not in any degree affected by the 
Bill of Rights. 

In the several articles above enume- 
rated, consist the rights, or as they are 
more frequently termed, the liberties, of 
Englishmen. Liberties more generally 
talked of than thoroughly understood ; 
and yet highly necessary to be perfectly 
known and considered by every man of 



rank or property, lest his ignorance of 
the points whereon they are founded, 
should hurry him into faction and licen- 
tiousness on the one hand, or a pusillani- 
mous indifference, and criminal submis- 
sion, on the other. And all these rights 
and liberties it is our birthright to enjoy 
entire, unless where the laws of our 
country have laid them under neces- 
sary restraints. So that this review of 
our situation may fully justify the obser- 
vation of a learned French author (of 
former times), who has professed that the 
English is the only nation in the world 
where political or civil liberty is the direct 
end of its constitution. 

LIBRA, the balance, in astronomy, one 
of the twelve signs of the zodiac, the 
sixth in order ; so called, because when 
the sun enters it, the days and nights are 
equal, as if weighed in a balance. See 


LIBRA, in Roman antiquity, a pound 
weight ; also a coin, equal in value to 
twenty denarii. 

LIBRARY, an edifice or apartment des- 
tined for holding a considerable number 
of books placed regularly on shelves ; or, 
the books themselves lodged in it. 

The first who erected a library at 
Athens was the tyrant Pisistratus, which 
was transported by Xerxes into Persia, 
and afterwards brought back by Seleucus 
Nicanor to Athens. Plutarch says, that 
under Eumenes there was a library at 
Pergamus that contained 200,000 books. 
That of Ptolemy Philadelphus, according 
to A. Gellius, contained 700,000, which 
were all burnt by Caesar's soldiers. Con- 
stantine and his successors erected a mag- 
nificent one at Constantinople, which in 
the eighth century contained 300,000 
volumes, and among the rest one in which 
the Iliad and Odyssey were written in 
letters of gold, on the guts of a serpent ; 
but this library was burnt by order of 
Leo Isaums. The most celebrated libra- 
ries of ancient Rome were the Ulpian and 
the Palatine, and in modern Rome, that 
of the Vatican ; the foundation of the 
Vatican library was laid by Pope Nicholas, 
in the year 1450 ; it was afterwards de- 
stroyed in the sacking of Rome, by the 
constable of Bourbon, and restored by 
.Pope Sixtus V. and has been considera- 
bly enriched with the ruins of that of 
Heidelberg, plundered by Count Tilly in 
1682. One of the most complete libraries 
in Europe, is that erected by Cosmo de 
Medicis ; though it is now exceeded by 
that of the French King-, which was be- 
gun by Francis I. augmented by Cardinal 
Richelieu, and completed by M, Colbert, 

The Emperor's library at Vienna, accord- 
ing to Lambecius, consists of 80,000 
volumes, and 15,940 curious medals The 
Bodleian library at Oxford exceeds that 
of any university in Europe, and even 
those of any of the sovereigns of Europe, 
except those of the Emperors of France 
and Germany, which are each of them 
older by a hundred years. It Avas first 
opened in 1602, and has since been in- 
creased by a great number of benefactors: 
indeed the Medicean library, that of Bes- 
sarion at Venice, and those just men- 
tioned, exceed it in Greek manuscripts, 
but it outdoes them all in oriental manu- 
scripts ; and as to printed books, the Am- 
brosian at Milan, and that of Wolfenbut- 
tle, are two of the most famous, and yet 
both are inferior to the Bodleian. The 
Cotton library consists wholly of manu- 
scripts, particularly of such as relate to 
the history and antiquities of England ; 
which, as they are now bound, make 
about 1000 volumes. 

In Edinburgh there is a good library 
belonging to the university, well fur- 
nished with books, which are kept in 
good order, and cloistered up with wire 
doors, that none but the keeper can open; 
a method much more commodious than 
the multitude of chains used in other li- 
braries. There is also a noble library of 
books and manuscripts belonging to the 
gentlemen of the law. 

LTBRATION, in astronomy, an appa- 
rent irregularity of the moon's motion, 
whereby she seems to librate about her 
axis, sometimes from the east to the west, 
and now and then from the west to the 
east ; so that the parts in the western 
limb or margin of the moon sometimes 
recede from the centre of the disc, and 
sometimes move towards it, by which 
means they become alternately visible 
and invisible to the inhabitants of the 
earth. See Moov. 

LIBRATION of the earth, is sometimes 
used to denote the parallelism of the 
earth's axis, in every part of its orbit round 
the sun. 

LICHEN, in botany, a genus of the 
Cryptogarnia Algae class and order. Na- 
tural order of Alg.-e. Generic character: 
male flowers; vesicles conglomerated, 
extremely small, crowded or scattered 
on the disc, margin, or tips of the'tronds: 
female flowers on the same, or on a dis- 
tinct plant; receptacle roundish, flattish, 
convex, concave, subrevolute affixed to 
the margin, often differing from the 
frond in colour, within containing- the 
seeds disposed in rows. This is a very 
numerous genus ; many of the species 




. on 

wool of a brown reddish colour, or a dull 
but durable crimson, paler and more 
lusting than that of orchall. L. islandi- 
cus is used by the Icelanders in their 
broth ; they also dry it, and make it into 

bread, Sec. 

LICHEX, in medicine, 

tetter or ring- 

of considerable use, particularly in ligence, and the like ; but by no means 
_ art of dyeing. L. rocella, or orchall, in treaties, truces, signals of capitulation, 
us an article of commerce, is of great or surrender : and the difference is, that 
importance, being extremely valuable the former suppose hostilitiesto continue, 
for dyeing wool or silk any shade of pur- the latter are calculated to terminate or 
pie or crimson. L. onphalodes will dye suspend them. Many people indulge in 

1 serious discourse a habit of fiction and 
exaggeration, in the accounts they give 
of themselves, of their acquaintance, or 
of the extraordinary things which they 
have seen or heard ; and so long as the 
facts they relate are indifferent, and their 
narratives, though false, are inoffensive, it 

, a cutaneous disease, defined by Dr. may seem a superstitious regard to truth 
Willan, " an extensive eruption of papillae to censure them merely for truth's sake 
affecting adults, connected with internal Yet the practice ought to be checked: 
disorder, usually terminating in scurf, re- for, in the first place, it is almost impossi- 
current, not contagious." The Doctor has ble to pronounce beforehand with cer- 
mentionedfive varieties. tainty concerning any lie, that it is inof- 

LICULA, in botany, a genus of the fensive, or to say what ill conseque 
Appendix Palm<e. Natural order of may result from a lie apparently moff 
Palms. Essential character : flowers all sive : and, in the next place, the habit, 
hermaphrodite ; calyx and corolla three- when once formed, is easily extended to 
parted ; nectary sertiform ; drupe. There serve the designs of malice or interest; 
is but one species, vis. L. spinosa, a like all habits, it spreads indeed of itscif. 
native of Macassar and Celebes, where Pious frauds, as they are improperly 
the inhabitants make much use of the enough called, pretended inspirations, 
narrow leaves for tobacco pipes, and forged books, counterfeit miracles, are 
broad ones for wrapping up fruit, &c. ; impositions of a more serious nature, 
the wood is of little use, not being dura- is possible that they may sometimes, 
bl e> though seldom, have been set up and en- 

LIS, in morals, denotes a criminal couraged with a design to do good ; but 
breach of veracity. Dr. Paley, in treat- the good they aim at requires that the 
ing of this subject, observes, that there belief of them should be perpetual, which 
are falsehoods which are not lies ; that is, is hardly possible ; and the detection of 
- i --J -LI the fraud is sure to disparage the credit 

which are not criminal : and there are lies 
which are not literally and directly false. 
I. Cases of the first class are those : 
1. Where no one is deceived ; as, for in- 
stance, in parables, fables, novels, jests, put^ together, 
tales to create mirth, or ludicrous em- 

of all pretensions of the same nature. 
Christianity has suffered more injury 
from this cause than from all other causes 

II. As there may be falsehoods which 
lies without 
An opening 

beliishments of a story, in which the de- are not lies, so there may be lies without 

clared design of the speaker is not to literal or direct falsehood. An openin- 

inform, but to divert ; compliments in the is always left for this species of prevari 

subscription of a letter ; a prisoner's cation, when the literal and grammatical 

pleading not guilty ; an advocate assert- signification of a sentence is different 

ing the justice, or 'his belief of the justice from the popular and customary mean- 

of his client's cause. In such instances ing. It is the wilful deceit that makes 

no confidence is destroyed, because none the lie ; and we wilfully deceive when 

was reposed ; no promise to speak the our expressions are not true in the sense 

truth is violated, because none was given 
or understood to be given. 2. Where the 
person you speak to has no right to know 

in whicli we believe the hearer appre- 
hends them. Besides, it is absurd to 
contend for any sense of words in oppo- 

the truth, or, more properly, where little sition to usage ; for all senses of all words 

or no inconveniency results from the want arc founded upon usage, and upon no- 

of confidence in such cases; as where thing else. Or a man may, act a He; as by 

you tell a falsehood to a madman for his pointing his finger in a wrong direction 

own advantage ; to a robber, to conceal when a traveller inquires of him his road, 

your property ; to an assassin, to defeat or when a tradesman shuts up his win- 

or to divert him from his purpose. It is dows to induce his creditors to believe 

upon this principle, that, by the laws of that he is abroad; for to all moral purposes 

war, it is allowed to deceive an enemy and therefore as to veracity, speech and 

by feints, fajse colours, spies, false intel- action are the same ; speech being only 



mode of action. See Paley's Moral Phi- 

LIEUTENANT, an officer who sup- 
plies the place, and discharges the office 
of a superior in his absence. Of these, 
some are civil, as the lords-lieutenants of 
kingdoms, and the lords-lieutenants of 
counties; and others are military, as the 
lieutenant-general, lieutenant-general of 
the artillery, lieutenant-colonel, lieuten- 
ant of artillery of the Tower, lieutenants 
of horse, foot, ships of war, &c. 

LIEUTENANT, lord, of Ireland, is proper- 
ly a viceroy, and has all the state and 
grandeur of a king of England, except 
being served upon the knee, lie has 
the power of making war and peace, of 
bestowing all the offices under the go- 
vernment, of dubbing knight, and of par- 
doning all crimes except high treason ; 
he also calls and prorogues the parlia- 
ment, but no bill can pass without the 
royal assent. He is assisted in his go- 
vernment by a privy-council ; and, on his 
leaving the* kingdom, he appoints the 
lords of the regency, who govern in his 

LIEUTENANTS, lords, of counties, are of- 
ficers, who, upon any invasion or rebel- 
lion, have power to raise the militia, and 
to give commissions to colonels and other 
officers, to arm and form them into regi- 
ments, troops, and companies. Under 
the lords-lieutenants, are deputy-lieuten- 
ants, who have the same power; these 
are chosen by the lords- lieutenants out 
of the principal gentlemen of each coun- 
ty, and presented to the King for his ap- 

LIEUTENANT general, is an officer next 
In rank to the general; in battle, he com- 
mands one of the wings ; in a march, a 
detachment, or a flying-camp ; also a 
quarter, at a siege, or one of the attacks, 
when it is his day of duty. 

LIEUTENANT of a ship of war, the offi- 
cer next in rank and power to the cap- 
tain; of these there are several in a large 
ship, who take precedence according to 
the dates of their first commissions. The 
oldest lieutenant, during the absence of 
the captain, is charged with the command 
of the ship, as also the execution of what- 
ever orders he may have received from 
the commander, relating to the King's 
service. The lieutenant who commands 
the watch at sea, keeps a list of all the offi- 
cers and men thereto belonging, in order 
to muster them when he judges it expe- 
dient, and report to the captain the 
names of those who are absent from their 
duty. During the night-watch he occa- 


sjonally visits the lower decks, or sends 
thither a careful officers to see that the 
proper centinels are at their duty, and 
that there is no disorder amongst the 
men ; no tobacco smoked between decks, 
nor any fire or caudles burning there, 
except the lights which are in lan- 
terns, under the care of a proper watch, 
for particular purposes. He is expected 
to be always on deck in his watch, as well 
to give the necessary orders with regard 
to trimming the sails, and superintending 
the navigation, as to prevent any noise 
and confusion ; but he is never to change 
the ship's course without the captain's 
directions, unless to avoid an immediate 
danger. In time of battle, the lieutenant 
is particularly to see that all the men are 
present at their quarters, where they 
have been previously stationed, accord- 
ing to the regulations made by the cap- 
tain. He orders and exhorts them every 
where to perform their duty, and ac- 
quaints the captain at all other times of 
the misbehaviour of any persons in the 
ship, and of whatever else concerns the 
service or discipline. 

LIFE, duration of. The uncertainty of 
the continuance of human life, has been a 
fruitful source of serious reflections not 
only to divines and moralists of all ages, 
but occasionally to every individual of the 
human race. Independent of the host of 
fatal diseases which are continually aug- 
menting the list of their victims, the fre- 
quently occurring instances of persons 
apparently in full possession of all the 1 
requisites to the continuance of life, be- 
ing unexpectedly consigned to the grave, 
would cause men to think life more un- 
certain than they generally appear to 
consider it, did not the experience of liv- 
ing from one day to another, confirmed 
by the whole of their past lives, impress 
them with the expectation of continuing- 
so to do, while they do not feel ar,}- 
known impediment to it; and it is neces- 
sary to the well being of society that this 
idea should in general preponderate. 
But as the property or income from 
which many persons derive their subsist- 
ence depends on the continuance of 
their life, or that of others, cases will fre- 
quently occur in the adjustment of pecu- 
niary concerns, in which it is desirable to 
be able to form an estimate of the dura- 
tion of life, and as it is evidently a subject 
on which certainty cannot be attained, 
we must be content with that species of 
knowledge which rests on probability, 
This degree of knowledge, which is the 
limit of our acquaintance, with many 



other important facts, is, in a comprehen- 
sive view of this subject, infinitely more 
useful and proper than more positive 
knowledge would be. 

At whatever period the world was first 
inhabited, there is undoubted evidence 
that for at least 3000 years past the ge- 
neral duration of human life has been 
much the same as it now is ; nor has any 
great difference been observed between 
the inhabitant? of different climates, the 
negro of Africa (in some instances at 
least) attaining to as great age as the Eu- 
ropean. The human frame appears to 
adapt itself with little difficulty to the at- 
mosphere and local peculiarities of the 
country in which it is born, or even into 
which "it is afterwards removed. Tims 
not only the children of persons who have 
removed from Great Britain to different 
parts of the continent of North America, 
but also the emigrants themselves, have 
been found to live as long as in the for- 
mer country. Men can live equally well 
under very different circumstances ; it is 
sudden changes that are injurious to the 
human frame ; and temperate climates 
being less liable to such changes are 
found to be most favourable to the dura- 
tion of life. There are however, in almost 

every country, particular districts in 
which the inhabitants are found to live 
longer than in other situations, which 
proceeds chiefly from a free circulation of 
air, uncontaminated by the noxious va- 
pours and exhalations which destroy its 
purity in other parts ; thus hilly districts 
are almost universally found to furnish 
more instances of long life, than low and 
marshy situations. 

The knowledge of the duration of hu- 
man life in general, and of its probable 
continuance at all ages, has been ascer- 
tained with sufficient correctness for al ! 
practical purposes, from the observations 
which have been made on the bills of 
mortality of different places. Dr. Hulley 
formed a table of the probabilities of life 
frcrfli the registers of the births and bu- 
rials of the inhabitants of the city of Bres- 
law, the capital of the duchy of Silesia in 
Germany, from the year 1687 to 1691. A 
similar table was formed by Mr. Thomas 
Simpson from the London bills of morta- 
lity, from 1728 to 1737; and other tables 
of the same kind have been since pub- 
lished by M. Dupre de St. Maur, M. 
Kerseboom, M. de Parcieux, Dr. Price, 
and others, from which the following are 

TABLE I. Shewing the Probabilities of the Duration of Human Life at all Ages, 
formed from the Register of Mortality at Northampton, for 46 Years from 
1735 to 1780. 



of Life. 













































































































































































































































































































The probability that a life of any pre- 
sent age shall continue a certain number 
of years, or shall attain to any other given 
age, is the fraction whose numerator is the 
number of the living in the table opposite 
to the given age, and the denominator the 
number opposite to the present age of 
the given life. Thus the probability that 
:i life of 25 shall attain to the age of 45, 

or live 20 years, is , ... The difference 


between this fraction and unity gives the 
probability that the event will not happen; 
the probability that a life of 25 will not 

live 20 years, is therefore - , conse- 
quently the odds of living to dying in this 
period are more than 2 to 1. The pro- 
bability that a person of 32 years of age 
.shall attain to 59 years, appears by the ta- 
ble to be ~. or nearly an even chance. 

In order to find the expectation of 
life at any age, from a table, like the 
above, which shows the number that die 
annually at all ages, divide the sum of 
all the living in the table, at the age 
whose expectation is required and at 
all greater ages, by the sum of all that 
die annually at that age and above it ; 
or, which is the same, by the number 
of the living at that age ; and half unity 
subtracted from the quotient will give 
the expectation required. Thus, at the 
age of 65, the sum of all the living at 
that and all greater ages, is 18,580 ; 
the number living at that age is 1,632; 
and the former number divided by the 
latter, and half unity subtracted from the 
quotient, gives 10.88 for the expectation 
of the ag'e of 65. In this manner the fol- 
lowing table is formed. 


Shewing the Expectations of Human Life at every Age, deduced from the Nor- 
thampton Table of Observations. 
















































: 3 




























































































































































: 16 


These tables suggest an easy method 
of finding the number of inhabitants of a 
place from the bills of mortality ; for, sup- 
posing the yearly births and deaths equal, 
it is only necessary to find, in the way 
above described, the expectation of an 
infant just born, and this multiplied by 
the number of yearly births will be the 
number of inhabitants. 

From all the observations which have 
been made on the bills of mortality of 

different places, the faet is fully ascer- 
tained, that the duration of human life is 
greater in all its stages in country parishes 
and moderate sized towns, than in large 
and crowded cities. According to Simp- 
son's correction of Smart's Table for Lon- 
don, only one in 44 of the inhabitants at- 
tain to the age of 80 years; Dr. Pi*5ce 
gives the proportion somewhat greater, 
or about 1 in 40, but observes that of those 
who are natives of London, a much less 



proportion arrive to that age. The pro- 
portion of the inhabitants of other places 
that live to the age of 80i has been found 
as follows : 

At Edinburgh .... 





Northampton . . . 
Pais de Vaud . 

in 42 
in 41 
in 41 
in 37 
in 27 
in 24 
in 21 

Among any considerable number of 
lives selected from the common mass, 
-men as the nominees to a tontine, or the 
members of an assurance or annuity so- 
ciety, the duration of life will always be 
found greater than it is represented by 
tables formed from general bills of mor- 
tality. Thus, M. Kersseboom found that 
among the state annuitants in Holland, 1 
in 14 lived to upwards of 80 years of age, 
and the nominees to the life annuities 
granted by the governments of France 
and Great Britain, have been found to 
live longer than the duration given by 
any table formed from bills of mortality. 
In some few country situations, where the 
injurious habits and artificial mode of liv- 
ing which prevail in large cities have 
made little progress, the duration of life 
has been found unusually great ; thus, at 
Ack worth, in Yorkshire, 1 in 14 died turn- 
ed of 80 years of age ; and, according to 
an account of the parish of Kingham in 
New England, in the first volume of" Me- 
mpirs of the American Academy," the 
number of deaths in 54 years had been 
1113, of which 1 in 13 had survived 80 

LIFE anmdties. See ACUITIES. Life 
annuities secured by land, differ from 
those already described only in this, that 
ihe annuity is to be paid up to the very 
Jay of the death of the age in question, 
or of the person upon whose life the an- 
nuity is granted. To obtain the more exact 
value, therefore, of such an annuity, a 
small sum must be added to the same, as 
computed by the rules in the article Aic- 
>'UITM;S, which will be different accord- 
ing as the payments are yearly, half-year- 
ly, or quarterly. Dr. Price has entered 
u' large on the subject ; and, according to 
him, t!e addition is, 

2^ for annual payments. 
^ for half-yearly payments, 
for quarterly payments. 

Here n is the complement of the give-} 
age, or what it wants of 86 years ; and y, 
h, q, are the respective values of an an- 
nuity certain of n years, payable yearly, 
half-yearly, or quarterly. It is found, as 
the result of many investigations, that 
the first of these additional quantities is 

ith of one year's purchase 
The second JLth. 
The third J^tli." 

LIFE boat. See BOAT. 

LIFE estates, or estates for life> are of 
two kinds ; either such as are created by 
the act of the parties, or such as are cre- 
ated by the operation of law, as estates by 
the curtesy or dower. Estates for life, 
created by deed or grant, are, where a 
lease is made of lands or tenements to a 
man, to hold for the term of his own life, 
or for that of another person, or for more 
lives than one ; in any of which cases he 
is called tenant for life, only, when he 
holds the estate by the life of another, he 
is usually termed tenant pur outer vie, for 
another's life. Estates for life may be 
created not only by the express terms be- 
fore mentioned, but also by a general 
grant, without defining or limiting any 
specific estate. Where estates are grant- 
ed for the lives of others, and they absent 
themselves seven years, and no proof is 
made of their being in existence ; in any 
action commenced for the recovery of 
such tenements by the lessors or rever- 
sioners, they shall be accounted as dead, 
and the jury shall give their verdict ac- 
cordingly ; (19 Charles II. c. (>.) and, on 
application to the Chancellor, the party- 
holding such estates may be compelled 
to produce the persons on whose livei' 
such estates depend. 

LIGAMENT, in anatomy, a strong 
compact substance, serving to join two 
bones together. 

A ligament is more flexible than a car- 
tilage, not easily ruptured or torn, and 
does not yield, or at least very little, 
when pulled. 

LIGHT, is that principle or thing by 
which objects are made perceptible to 
our sense of seeing; or the sensation oc- 
casioned in the mind by the view of lu~ 
mi nous objects. The nature of light has 
been a subject of speculation from the 
first dawnings of philosophy. Some of 
the earliest philosophers doubted whe- 
ther objects became visible by means of 
any thing proceeding from them, or frc 
the eye of the spectator ; but this opini 
was qualified by Empedoclcs and Plat 
wh,o maintained, that vision wus occasloc. 


cd by particles continually flying; off from 
the surfaces of bodies, which met with 
others proceeding from the eye ; while 
the effect was ascribed by Pythagoras 
solely to the particles proceeding from 
the external objects, and entering the pu- 
pil of the eye. But Aristotle -defines 
tight to be the act of a transparent body, 
considered as such ; and he observes, that 
light is not fire, nor yet any matter ra- 
diating from the luminous body, and 
transmitted through the transparent one. 

The Cartesians have refined considera- 
bly on this notion ; and hold that light, as 
it exists in the luminous body, is only a 
power or faculty of exciting in us a very 
clear and vivid sensation ; or that it is an 
invisible fluid present at all times and in 
all places, but requiring to be set in mo- 
tion by a body ignited, or otherwise pro- 
perly qualified to make objects visible to 

Father Malbranche explains the nature 
of light from a supposed analogy between 
it and sound. Thus, he supposes all the 
parts of a luminous body are in a rapid 
motion, which, by very quick pulses, is 
constantly compressing the subtle matter 
between the luminous body and the eye, 
and excites vibrations of pression : as 
these vibrations are greater, the body ap- 
pears more luminous; and as they are 
quicker or slower, the body is of this or 
That colour. The Newtonians maintain, 
that light is not a fluid, hut consists of a 
great number of very small particles, 
thrown off from the luminous body by a 
repulsive power, with an immense velo- 
city, and in all directions. And these par- 
ticles, it is also held, are emitted in right 
lines : whicli rectilinear motion they pre- 
^erve till they are turned out of their 
path by some of the following causes, 
viz. by the attraction of some other body 
near which they pass, which is called in- 
flection, or by passing obliquely through 
a medium of different density, which is 
called refraction ; or by being turned 
aside by the opposition of some interven- 
ing body, which is called reflection ; or, 
lastly, by being totally stopped by some 
substance into which 'they penetrate, and 
which is called their extinction. A suc- 
cession of these particles following one 
another, in an exact straight line, is called 
a ray of light ; and this ray, in whatever 
manner its direction may be changed, 
whether by refraction, reflection, or in- 
flection, always preserves a rectilinear 
course, till it be again changed ; neither 
is it possible to make it move in the arch 
of a circle, ellipsis, or other curve. For 
lire above properties of the rays of light, 

see the several words REFRACTION, RE- 

The velocity of the rays of light is truly 
astonishing, amounting to nearly two hun- 
dred thousand miles in a second of time, 
which is about a million times greater 
than the velocity of a cannon ball. And 
this amazing motion of light has been ma- 
nifested in various ways, and first from 
the eclipses of Jupiter's satellites. It 
was first observed by Roemcr, that the 
eclipses of those satellites happen some- 
times sooner, and sometimes later, thau 
the times given by the tables of them ; 
and that the observation was before or ut- 
ter the computed time, according as the 
earth was nearer to, or further from Ju- 
piter, than the mean distance. Hence 
Roemer and Cassini both concluded, that. 
this circumstance depended on the dis- 
tance of Jupiter from the earth ; and 
that, to account for it, they must suppose 
that the light was abotit fourteen minutes 
in crossing the earth's orbit. This con- 
clusion, however, was afterwards aban- 
doned, and attacked by Cassini himself: 
but Roemer's opinion found an able advo- 
cate in Dr. Halley, who removed Cassini':; 
difficulty., and left Roemer's conclusion in 
its full force. 

It has since been found, by repeated 
experiments, that when the earth is ex- 
actly between Jupiter and the sun, his 
satellites are seen eclipsed eight minutes 
and a quarter sooner than they could bo 
according to the tables ; but when tho 
earth is nearly in the opposite point of its 
orbit, these eclipses happen about eight 
minutes and a quarter later than the ta- 
bles predict them. Hence, then, it is cer- 
tain that the motion of light is not instaii : 
taneous, but that it takes up about six- 
teen minutes and a half of time to pass 
over a space equal to the diameter of the 
earth's orbit, which is at least one hun- 
dred and ninety millions of miles in 
length, or at the rate of near two hun- 
dred thousand miles per second, as above- 

^ Hence, therefore, light takes up about 
eight minutes and a quarter in passing 
from the sun to the earth ; so that, if he 
should be annihilated, AVC should see him 
for eight minutes and a quarter after that 
event should happen ; and if he were 
again created, we should not see him tiii 
eight minutes and a quarter afterwards. 
Hence also, it is easy to know the time in 
which light travels to the earth, from the 
moon, or any of the other planets, or 
even from the fixed stars, when their di* 
tances shall be known ; th;se distances 
are, hovrev-r, ?> imtnen^V tv:i<. that 


from the nearest of them, supposed to be 
Sirius, the dog-star, light takes up many 
years to travel to the earth : and it is even 
suspected, that there are many stars 
whose light has not yet arrived at us since 
their creation. And this, by-the-bye, may 
perhaps sometimes account for the ap- 
pearance of new stars in the heavens. 
Our excellent astronomer, Dr. Bradley, 
afterwards found nearly the same velocity 
of light as Hoemer, from his accurate ob- 
servations, and most ingenious theory, to 
account for some apparent motions in the 
fixed stars ; for an account of which, see 
ABERRATION of light. By a long series 
of these observations, he found the dif- 
ference between the true and apparent 
place of several fixed stars, for different 
times of the year; which difference 
could no otherwise be accounted for, than 
for the progressive rays of light. From 
the mean quantity of this difference, he 
ingeniously found, that the ratio of the 
velocity of light to the velocity of the 
earth in its orbit, was as 10,313 to 1, or 
that light moves 10,313 times faster than 
the earth moves in its orbit about the 
sun ; and as this latter motion is at the 
rate of 18.J.1. miles per second nearly, it 
follows that the former, or the velocitv of 
light, is at the rate of about 195,000 miles 
in a second; a motion, according to which 
it will require just 8' 7" to move from the 
sun to the earth, or about 95,000,000 of 

It was also inferred, from the foregoing 
principles, that light proceeds with the 
same velocity from all the stars. And 
hence it follows, if we suppose that all 
the stars are not equally distant from us, 
as many arguments prove, that the motion 
of light, all the way it passes through the 
immense space above our atmosphere, is 
equable or uniform. And since the differ- 
ent methods of determining the velocity 
of light thus agree in the result, it is rea- 
sonable to conclude, that in the same 
medium, light is propagated with the 
same velocity after it has been reflected 
as before. For an account of Mr. Mel- 
ville's hypothesis of the different velo- 
cities of differently coloured rays, see 

To the doctrine concerning the mate- 
riality of light, and its amazing velocity, 
several objections have been made, of 
which the most considerable is ; that as 
rays of light are continually passing in 
different directions from every visible 
point, they must necessarily interfere 
Y/ith each other in such a manner as en- 
tirely to confound all distinct perception 

of objects, if not quite to destroy the 
whole sense of seeing ; not to mention 
the continual waste of substance, which 
a constant emission of particles must oc- 
casion in the luminous body, and there- 
by, since the creation must have greatly 
diminished the matter in the sun and 
stars, as well as increased the bulk of the 
earth and planets, by the vast quantity of 
particles of light absorbed by them in so 
long a period of time. But it has been 
replied, that if light were not a body, but 
consisted in mere pression or pulsion, 
it could never be propagated in right 
lines, but would be continually inflected 
ad umbram. Thus, Sir Isaac Newton: 
" A pressure on a fluid medium, i. e. a 
motion propagated by such a medium, 
beyond any obstacle, which impedes any 
part of its motion, cannot be propagated 
in right lines, but will be always inflect- 
ing and diffusing itself every way, to the 
quiescent medium beyond that obsta- 

The power of gravity tends down- 
wards; but the pressure of water arising 
from it tends every way with an equable 
force, and is propagated, with equal ease 
and equal strength, in curves as in straight 
lines. Waves, on the surface of the wa- 
ter, gliding by the extremes of any ver\ 
large obstacle, inflate and dilate them- 
selves, still diffusing gradually into the 
quiescent water beyond that obstacle. 
The waves, pulses, or vibrations of the 
air, wherein sound consists, are manifest- 
ly inflected, though not so considerably 
as the waves of water ; and sounds art 
propagated with equal ease through, 
crooked tubes and through straight lines , 
but light was never known to move iu 
any curve, nor to inflect itself ad urn- 
dram. 1 ' 

It must be acknowledged, however, 
that many philosophers, both English and 
foreigners, have recurred to the opinion, 
that light consists of vibrations propagat- 
ed from the luminous body, through a 
subtle ethereal medium. 

Dr. Franklin, in a letter dated April 
23, 1752, expresses his dissatisfaction with 
the doctrine, that light consists of parti- 
cles of matter continually driven off' from 
the sun's surface, with so enormous a 
swiftness. "Must not,'* says he, "the 
smallest portion conceivable have, with 
sdch a motion, a force exceeding that of 
a twenty-four pounder discharged from a 
cannon ? Must not the sun diminish ex- 
ceedingly by such a waste of matter ; and 
the planets, instead of drawing nearer to 
him, as some have feared, recede to great- 


sr distances, through the lessened attrac- 
tion ? yet these particles, with this amaz- 
ing 1 motion, will not drive before them, 
or remove, the least and slightest dust 
they meet with, and the sun appears to 
continue of his ancient dimensions, and 
his attendants move in their ancient or- 
bits." He therefore conjectures, that all 
the phenomena of light may be more 
properly solved, by supposing" all space 
filled with a subtle elastic fluid, which is 
not visible when at rest, but which, by 
its vibrations, affects the fine sense in the 
eye, as those of the air affect the grosser 
organs of the ear ; and even that different 
degrees of the vibration of this medium 
may cause the appearances of different 
colours. Franklin's Exper. and Observ. 
1769, p. 264. 

The celebrated Euler has also main- 
tained the same hypothesis, in his "Theo- 
ria Lucis et Colorum." In the summary 
of his arguments against the common 
opinion, recited in Acad. Berl. 1752, p. 
271, besides the objections above-men- 
tioned, he doubts the possibility, that par- 
ticles of matter, moving with the amaz- 
ing velocity of light, should penetrate 
transparent substances with so much 
ease. In whatever manner they are 
transmitted, those bodies must have 
pores, disposed in right lines, and in all 
possible directions, to serve as canals for 
the passage of the rays; but such a struc- 
ture must take away all solid matter from 
those bodies, and all coherence among 
their parts, if they do contain any solid 

Among modern philosophers who 
have supported this doctrine, Dr. Young- 
has shown much ability in his experi- 
mental and theoretical researches, in 
his memoirs in the "Philosophical Trans- 
actions," which have been republished 
in his " Lectures," and in " Nicholson's 

The expansion or extension of any por- 
tion of light is inconceivable. Dr. Hook 
shows, that it is as unlimited as the uni- 
verse, which he proves from the im- 
mense distance of many of the fixed stars, 
which only become visible to the eye by 
the best telescopes. " Nor," add's he, 
" are they only the great bodies of the 
sun or stars that are thus liable to dis- 
perse their light through the vast expanse 
of the universe, but the smallest spark of 
a lucid body must do the same, even the 
smallest globule struck from u steel by a 

The intensity of different lights, or of 
the same light in different circumstances, 
affords a curious subject of speculation. 

M. Bouguer, Trait e de Optique, found, 
that when one light is from sixty to 
eighty times less than another, its pre- 
sence or absence will not be perceived 
by an ordinary eye ; that the moon's 
light, -when she is 19 16' high above the 
horizon, is about one-third of her light, 
at 66 11' high ; and when one limb just 
touched the horizon, her light was but 
the 2,000th part of her light at 66 11' 
high ; and that hence light is diminished 
in the proportion of three to one, by tra- 
versing 7.469 toises of dense air. He 
found also, that the centre of the sun's 
disc is considerably more luminous than 
the edges of it; whereas both the prima- 
ry and secondary planets are more lumi- 
nous at their edges than near their cen- 
tres : that, further, the light of the sun is 
about 300,000 times greater than that of 
the moon ; and therefore it is no wonder 
that philosophers have had so little suc- 
cess in their attempts to collect the 
light of the moon with burning glasses ; 
for, should one of the largest of them 
even increase the light 1,000 times, it 
will still leave the light of the moon in 
the focus of the glass, 300 times less 
than the intensity of the common light of 
the sun. 

Dr. Smith, in his optics, vol. i. p. 29, 
thought he had proved that the light of 
the full moon would be only the 90,900th 
part of the full day-light, if no rays were 
lost at the moon. But Mr. Robins, in his 
Tracts, vol. ii. p. 225, shows that this is 
too great by one half. And Mr. Mitchell, 
by a more easy and accurate mode of 
Computation, found that the density of 
the sun's light on the surface of the 
moon, is but the 45,000th part of the den- 
sity at the sun ; and that, therefore, as 
the moon is nearly of the same apparent 
magnitude as the sun, if she reflected to 
us all the light received on her surface, 
it would be only the 45,000th part of our 
day-light, or that which we receive from 
the sun. Admitting, therefore,'with M. 
Bouguer, that the moon's light is only 
the 300,000th part of the day, or sun's 
light, Mr. Mitchell concludes that the 
moon reflects no more than between 
the 6th and 7th part of what she re- 

Sir I. Newton long ago observed, that 
bodies and light act mutually on one an- 
other; bodies on light, in emitting, re- 
flecting, refracting, and inflecting it; and 
light on bodies, by heating them, and put- 
ting their parts into a vibrating motion, 
in which heat principally consists. For 
all fixed bodies, he observes, when ht-ut- 


ed beyond a certain degree, do emit 
light, and shine. 

This action of bodies on light is {bund 
to exert itself at a sensible distance, 
though it always increases as the distance 
is diminished, as appears very sensibly 
in the passage of a ray between the 
edges of two very thin planes, at differ- 
ent apertures; which is attended with 
this peculiar circumstance, that the at- 
traction of one edge is increased as the 
other is brought nearer it. 

The rays of light, in their passage out 
of glass into a vacuum, are not only in- 
flected towards the glass, but if they fall 
too obliquely, they will revert back again 
to the glass, and be totally reflected. 
Now the cause of this reflection cannot 
he attributed to any resistance of the va- 
cuum, but must be entirely owing to some 
force or power in the glass, which at- 
tracts or draws back the rays as they 
were passing into the vacuum. And this 
appears further from hence, that if you 
wet the back surface of the glass with 
water, oil, honey, or a solution of quick- 
silver, then the rays, which would other- 
wise have been reflected, will pervade 
and pass through that liquor; which 
shows that the rays are not reflected till 
they come to that back surface of the 
glass, nor even till they begin to go out 
of it ; for if at their going out they fall 
into any of the aforesaid mediums, they 
will not then be reflected, but will persist 
in their former course, the attraction of 
the glass being in this case counter- 
balanced by that of the liquor. 

M. Maraldi prosecuted experiments 
similar to those of Sir I. Newton, on in- 
flected light. And his observations chieily 
respect the inflection of light towards 
other bodies, by which their shadows are 
partially illuminated. Acad. Paris, 1723, 
Mem. p. 159. See also Priestley's Hist. 
p. 521, &c. 

From the mutual attraction between 
the particles of light and other bodies, 
arise two other grand phenomena, besides 
the inflection of light, which are called 
the reflection and refraction of light. It 
is well known that the determination of 
bodies in motion, especially elastic ones, 
is changed by the interposition of other 
bodies in their way; thus also light, im- 
pinging on the surfaces of bodies, should 
be 'turned out of its course, and beaten 
back or reflected, so as, like other strik- 
ing bodies, to make the angle of its re- 
flection equal to the angle of incidence. 
This, it is found by experience, light does; 
and yet the cause of the effect is different 

from that just now assigned, for the rays 
of light are not reflected by striking on 
the very parts of the reflecting bodies, 
but by some power equally diffused over 
the whole surface of the body, by which 
it acts or, the light, either attracting or 
repelling it, without contact : by which 
same power, in other circumstances, the 
rays are refracted ; and by which also the 
rays are first emitted from the luminous 
body ; as Newton abundantly proves by a 
great variety of arguments. See REFLEC- 

That great author put it past doubt, 
that all those rays which are reflected 
do not really touch the body, though they 
approach it infinitely near ; and that those 
which strike on the parts of solid bodies 
adhere to them, and are, as it were, ex- 
tinguished and lost. Since the reflection 
of the rays is ascribed to the action of 
the whole surface of the body without 
contact, if it be asked how it happens 
that all the rays are not reflected from 
every surface, but that, while some are. 
reflected, others pass through and are 
refracted ? the answer given by Newton 
is as follows : Every ray of light, in its 
passage through any refracting surface, 
is put into a certain transient constitution 
or state, which in the progress of the ray 
returns at equal intervals, and disposes 
the ray at every return to be easily trans- 
mitted through the next refracting sur- 
face, and between the returns to be easily 
reflected by it : which alteration of reflec- 
tion and transmission, it appears, is pro- 
pagated from every surface, and to all 
distances. What kind of action or dis- 
position this is, and whether it consist in a 
circulating or vibrating motion of the ray, 
or the medium, or something else, he 
does not inquire ; but allows those who 
are fond of hypothesis to suppose that the 
rays of light, by impinging on any re- 
flecting or refracting surface, excite vi- 
brations in the reflecting or refracting 
medium, and by that means agitate the 
solid parts of the body. These vibrations, 
thus produced in the medium, move fast- 
er than the rays, so as to overtake them ; 
and when any ray is in that part of the 
vibration which conspires with its motion, 
its velocity is increased, and so it easily 
breaks through a refracting surface ; but 
when it is in a contrary part of the vibra- 
tion, which impedes its motion, it is easily 
reflected ; and thus every ray is succes- 
sively disposed to be easily reflected or 
transmitted by every vibration which 
meets it. These returns in the disposi- 
tion of any ray to be reflected, he calls 


fits of easy reflection ; and the returns in 
the disposition to be transmitted, he calls 
fits of easy transmission ; also the space 
between the returns, the interval of the 
fits. Hence then the reason why the sur- 
faces of all thick transparent bodies re- 
flect part of the light incident upon them, 
and refract the rest, is, that some rays, at 
their incidence, are in fits of easy reflec- 
tion, and others of easy transmission. For 
the properties of reflected light, see MIR- 

Again, a ray of light passing out of one 
medium into another of different density, 
and in its passage making an oblique 
angle with the surface that separates the 
mediums, will be refracted, or turned out 
of its direction ; because the rays are 
more strongly attracted by a denser, than 
by a rarer medium- That these rays are 
not refracted by striking on the solid parts 
of bodies, but that this is effected without 
a real contact, and by the same force by 
which they are emitted and reflected, 
only exerting itself differently in different 
circumstances, is proved, in a great mea- 
sure, by the same arguments by which it 
is demonstrated that reflection is per- 
formed without contact. 

When light is refracted by a prism, or 
other transparent body, it is divided into 
rays, exciting the sensation of different 
colours ; namely, red, orange, yellow, 
green, blue, indigo, and violet. This is 
the enumeration followed by Newton and 
others, which supposes seven rays re- 
frangible in the above order, the red be- 
ing least refrangible, and the violet most 
so, and that the" other tints are produced 
by mixture. The image formed by the 
different rays, thus separated, forms the 
solar spectrum. Dr. Wollaston has shown, 
by looking through the prism at a narrow 
line of light, that the primitive colours 
are only red, green, blue, and violet. 

Heat and light are not present in cor- 
responding degrees, in different parts of 
the solar spectrum ; for, generally speak- 
ing, those rays illuminate most that have 
the least heating power. The rays in the 
centre of the spectrum have the greatest 
illuminating power, as may be ascertain- 
ed by viewing, successively in each, a 
small body, such as the head of a com- 
mon nail. It will be seen most distinctly 
in the light green, or deep yellow rays, 
and less plainly towards either extremity 
.)f the spectrum. 

The heating power of the rays follows 
a different order. If the bulb of a sensi- 
ble thermometer be moved, in succession, 
through the differently coloured rays, it 


will be found to indicate the greatest heat 
in the red rays, next in the green, and so 
on, in a diminishing progression, to the 
violet. When the thermometer is re- 
moved entirely out of the confines of the 
red rays, but with its ball still in the line 
of the spectrum, it rises even higher than 
in the red rays ; and continues to rise, till 
removed half an inch beyond the ex. 
tremity of the red ray. The ball of the 
thermometer employed for this purpose 
should be extremely small, and should 
be blackened with Indian ink An air 
thermometer is better adapted than a 
mercurial one, to exhibit the minute 
change of temperature that ensues. These 
invisible heat-making rays may be reflect- 
ed by the mirror, and refracted by the 
lens, exactly in the same manner as the 
rays of light. 

Beyond the confines of the spectrum on 
the other side, viz. a little beyond the vio- 
let ray, the thermometer is not affected ; 
but in this place it is remarkable, that 
there are also invisible rays of a different 
kind, which exert all the chemical effects 
of the rays of light, and even with greater 
energy. One of the chemical properties 
of light is, that it speedily changes from 
white to black the fresh precipitated 
muriate of silver. This effect is pro- 
duced most rapidly by the direct light ot 
the sun ; and the rays, as separated by 
the prism, have this property in various 
degrees. The blue rays, for example, 
effect a change of the muriate of silver in 
fifteen seconds, which the red require 
twenty minutes to accomplish ; and, ge- 
nerally speaking, the power diminishes as 
we recede from the violet extremity. But 
entirely out of the spectrum, and beyond 
the violet rays, the effect is still pro- 
duced. Hence it appears that the solar 
beams consist of three distinct kinds of 
rays; of those that excite heat, and pro- 
mote oxydation ; of illuminating rays ; 
and of de-oxydizing rays. A striking 
illustration of the different power of these 
various rays, is furnished by their effect 
on phosphorus. In the rays beyond the 
red extremity, phosphorus is heated, 
smokes, and emits white fumes ; but 
these are presently suppressed on expos- 
ing it to the de-oxydizing rays which lie 
beyond the violet extremity. 

There i.s an exception, however, as 
stated by Dr. Wollaston, to the c!e-oxydiz- 
ing power of the rays above-mentioned. 
The substance, termed gum-guiacum, has 
the property, when exposed to the light, 
of changing from a yellowish colour to 
green; and this cfTeot. he has ascertained 



to be connected with the absorption of silex they contain : and two pieces of borax 
oxygen. Now, in the most refrangible have the same property much more re- 
rays, which would fall beyond the riolet markably. 

extremity, he found thai this substance Light is disengaged in various cases of 
became green, and was again changed to chemical combination. Whenever com- 
yellow by the least refrangible. This is bustion is a part of the phenomena, this is 
precisely the reverse of what happens to well known to happen ; but light is evolv- 
muriate of silver, which is blackened, or ed also, in other instances, where nothing 
de-oxydized, by the most refrangible ; and like combustion goes forwards. Thus, 
has its colour restored, or is again oxy- fresh -prepared pure magnesia, added sud- 
geniz.ed, in the least refrangible rays. denly to highly concentrated sulphuric 

Certain bodies have the property of ab- acid, exhibits a red heat, 
sorbing the rays of light in their totality, Whence comes the light afforded by 
of retaining them for some time, and of ignited bodies ? whether it have been pre- 
aga'm evolving them unchanged, and viously imbibed by them ? whether the 
unaccompanied by sensible heat. Thus, commencement of ignition be distinctive 
in an experiment of Du Fay, a diamond of the same temperature in all bodies ? 
exposed to the sun, and immediately co- whether the great planetary sources of 
vered with black wax, shone in the dark, fight be bodies in a state of combustion, 
on removing the wax, at the expiration or merely luminous upon principles very 
of several months. Bodies possessing different from any which our experiments 
this property, are called solar pkosphori : can point out ? whether the momentum 
such are the Canton's, Baldwin's, Horn- of the particles of light, or their disposi- 
berge's, and the Bolognian phosphori. tion for chemical combination, be the 
To the same class belong several natural most effectual in the changes produced 
bodies which retain light, and give it out by its agency ? these, and numerous 
unchanged. Thus, snow is a natural so- other interesting questions, must be left 
lar phosphorus. So also is, occasionally, for future research and investigation. See 
the sea when agitated; putrid fish have COMBUSTION. 

a similar property ; and the glow-worm The production of light by inflammation 
belongs to the same class. These pheno- is an object of great importance to socie- 
mena are independant of every thing like ty at large, as well as to the chemist. It 
combustion ; for artificial phosphori, after appears to arise immediately from the 
exposure to the sun's rays, shine in the strong ignition of a body while rapidly 
dark when placed in the vacuum of an decomposing. Most solid bodies in corn- 
air-pump, or under water, &c. where no bustion are kept, partly from a want of 
air is present to effect combustion. the access of air, and partly from the vi- 

From solar phosphori, the extrication of cinity of conducting bodies, at a low de- 
light is facilitated by the application of an gree of ignition. But when vapours ra- 
elevated temperature ; and, after having pidly escape into the air, it may, and does 
ceased to shine at the ordinary tempera- frequently happen, that the combustion, 
ture, they again emit light when exposed instead of being carried on merely at the 
to an increase of heat. Several bodies, surface of the mass, penetrates to a consi- 
xvhich do not otherwise give out light, derable depth within, and from this, as 
evolve it, or become phosphorescent when well as from the imperfect conducting 
heated. Thus powdered fluate of lime power of the surrounding air, a white 
becomes luminous when thrown on an heat, or very strong ignition, is produced, 
iron plate, raised to a temperature rather The effect of lamp's and candles depends 
above that of boiling water. The yolk of upon these considerations. A combusti- 
an egg, when dried, becomes luminous ble fluid, most commonly of the nature of 
on being heated ; and so also does tallow fat oil, is put in a situation to be absorb- 
during liquefaction. To exhibit the ed between the filaments of cotton, linen, 
last mentioned fact, it is merely necessa- fine wire, or asbestos. The extremity of 
ry to place a lump of tallow on a coal, this fibrous substance, called the wick, is 
heated below ignition, making the experi- then considerably heated. The oil evapo- 
rnent in a dark room. Attrition also rates, and its vapour takes fire. In this 
evolves light, in many instances, by the situation the wick, being enveloped with 
part rubbed becoming ignited. Thus, flame, is kept at such a temperature, that 
rock crystal, and other hard stones, shine the oil continually boils, is evaporated, 
when rubbed against each other; and two burns, and by these means keeps up a 
pieces of common bonnet cane, rubbed constant flame. Much of the perfection 
strongly against each other in the dark, of this experiment depends on the nature, 
emit a taint light; most probably from the quantities, and figure of the materials 


made use of. If the wick be too large, it 
will supply a greater quantity of the fluid 
than can be well decomposed. Its evapo- 
ration will therefore diminish the tempe- 
rature, and consequently the light, and 
afford a fuliginous column, which will 
pass through the centre of the flame, and 
fly off in the form of smoke. The mag- 
nitude of the wick may, from time to 
time, in candles, be reduced, as to length, 
by snuffing ; but this operation will not 
remedy the evils which arise from too 
great a diameter. If the oil be not suf- 
ficiently combustible, the ignition will be 
but moderate, and the flame yellow ; and 
the same effect will be produced, if the 
air be not sufficiently pure and abundant. 
An experiment to this effect may be made 
by including the flame of a small candle 
or lamp in a glass tube of about one inch 
in diameter, standing on the surface of a 
table. The air which passes between 
the glass and the table, will be sufficient 
to maintain a very bright flame ; but if a 
metallic covering, perforated with a hole 
of about a quarter of an inch in diameter, 
be laid upon the upper orifice of the tube, 
the combustion will be so far impeded, 
that the flame will be perceptibly yellow- 
er. The hole may then be more or less 
closed at pleasure by sliding a small piece 
of metal, for example a shilling, over it. 
The consequence will be, that the flame 
will become more and more yellow, will 
at length emit smoke, and if the whole be 
entirely closed, extinction will follow. 

The smell arising from the volatile 
parts which pass oft' not well consumed 
from a lamp or candle, must be differ- 
ent according to the nature of those 
parts. This depends chiefly on the oil, 
but in some measure upon the wick. 
When a candle with a cotton wick is 
blown out, the smell is considerably 
more offensive, than if the wick be of 
linen, or of rush ; but less offensive than 
if the supply of the combustion had 
been oil. Whenever a candle or lamp 
is removed, the combustion is in some 
measure impeded by the stream of cold 
air, against which it strikes. Smoke is 
accordingly emitted from its anterior 
side, and the peculiar smell is perceiv- 
ed. From this imperfection, lamps are 
much less adapted to be carried from 
place to place than candles. 

From the necessity of the access of 
air, there will be mare light produced 
from a lamp with a number of small 
wicks, than with one large one, or from 
a number of small candles, than the 
same quantity of tatfow used to make 

a single large one. In the lamp of Ar- 
gand, the wick consists of a web of 
cloth in the form of a pipe or tube, the 
longitudinal fibres of which are thicker 
than the circular ones. This is passed 
by a suitable contrivance into a cylin- 
drical cavity, which contains the oil; 
and there are other precautions in the con- 
struction of the apparatus, by which the 
oil is regularly supplied, the access of 
air is duly permitted, as well within as 
without the circle formed by the upper 
edge of this cylindrical wick, and ihis 
edge can be raised or lowered at plea- 
sure. Hence the possessor has it in his 
power to regulate the surface of the 
wick, so that the greatest flame consist- 
ent with perfect combustion may be 
produced ; and the steadiness of the 
flame is secured by a glass shade or 
tube, which surrounds it, and in a cer- 
tain degree accelerates the current of air. 

In the illumination by candles, where 
the fused matter is contained in a cup or 
cavity of the matter not yet fused, it is of 
some consequence, whether the substance 
be fusible at a high or low temperature. 
The difference between wax and tallow 
candles arises from this property. Wax 
being less fusible, will admit of a thinner 
wick, and needs no snuffing ; but in a tal- 
low candle it is absolutely necessary to 
have a large wick, capable of taking up 
the tallow as it melts. 

The difference of effect in illumination 
between a thick and a thin wick cannot 
be better shown, than by remarking the 
appearances produced by both. When a 
candle with a thick wick is first lighted, 
and the wick snuffed short, the flame is 
perfect and luminous, unless its diameter 
be very great ; in which last case, there 
is an opaque part in the middle, where 
the combustion is impeded for want of 
air. As the wick becomes longer, the 
space between its upper extremity and 
the apex of the flame is diminished ; and, 
consequently, the oil, which issues from 
that extremity, having a less space of 
ignition to pass through, is less complete- 
ly burned, and passes offpartly in smoke. 
This evil continues to increase, until at 
length the upper extremity of the wick 
projects beyond the flame, and forms a 
support for an accumulation of soot, which 
is afforded by the imperfect combustion. 
A candle in this situation affords scarcely 
one-tenth of the light, which the due com- 
bustion of its materials would produce ; 
and tallow candles, on this account, re- 
quire continual snuffing. But, OH the 
contrary, if we consider the wax candle. 



we find, that as its wick lengthens, the 
light indeed becomes less, and the cup be- 
comes filled with melted wax. The wick, 
however, being thin and flexible, does 
not long occupy its place in the centre of 
the flame ; neither does it, when there, 
enlarge the diameter of the flame, so as 
to prevent the access of air to its internal 
part. When its length is too great for 
the vertical position, it bends on one side ; 
and its extremity, coming into contact 
with the air, is burned to ashes, except- 
ing such a portion as is defended by the 
continual afflux of melted wax, which is 
volatilized and completely burned by the 
surrounding flame. We see, therefore, 
that the difficult fusibility of wax renders 
it practicable to burn a large quantity of 
fluid by means of a small wick ; and that 
this small wick, by turning on one side 
in consequence of its flexibility, performs 
the operation of snuffing upon itself, in 
a much more accurate manner than it 
can ever be performed mechanically. 

Mr. Henry made some experiments on 
the light afforded by the combustion of 
different gases, and found, that it was ap- 
parently in the ratio of the oxygen that 
entered into combination with the hydro- 
gen they contained. Thus, 100 parts of 
pure hydrogen gas required from 50 to 
54 of oxygen ; 100 of gas from oak, 42 ; 
from moist charcoal and from dried peat, 
each 50 ; from lamp oil 136 ; from coal 
140; from wax 166; pure olifiant gas 
210. Tallow is nearly on a par with oil. 
The production of light from the first 
four was so trifling, that they did not 
seem applicable to (economical purposes. 

LIGHT from plants. In Sweden a very 
curious phenomena has been observed on 
certain flowers by M. Haggern, lecturer 
in natural history. One evening lie per- 
ceived a faint flash of light repeatedly 
dart from a marigold. Surprised at such 
an uncommon appearance, he resolved to 
examine it with attention ; and, to be 
assured it was no deception of the eye, 
he placed a man near him, with orders to 
make a signal at. the moment when he 
observed the light. They both saw it 
constantly at the same moment. The 
light was most brilliant on marigolds of 
an orange or flame colour; but scarcely 
visible on pale ones. The flash was fre- 
quently seen on the same flower two or 
three times in quick succession, but more 
commonly at intervals of several minutes: 
and when several flowers in the same 
place emitted their light together, it 
could be observed at a considerable dis- 
tance. This phenomenon was remarked 

in the months of July and August at sun- 
set, and for half an hour when the at- 
mosphere was clear ; but after a rainy 
day, or when the air was loaded with va- 
pours, nothing of it was seen. The follow- 
ing flowers emitted flashes, more or less 
vivid, in this order : 1. The marigold, ca- 
lendula officinalis. 2. Monk's-hood, tro- 
pseolum majus. 3. The orange lily, lilium 
bulbiferum. 4. The Indian pink, tagetes 
patula et erecta. 

To discover whether some little insects 
or phosphoric worms might not be the 
cause of it, the flowers were carefully ex- 
amined, even with a microscope, without 
any such thing being found. From the 
rapidity of the flash, and other circum- 
stances, it may be conjectured that there 
is something of electricity in this pheno- 
menon. It is well known, that when the 
pistil of a flower is impregnated, the pol- 
len bursts away by its elasticity, with 
which electricity may be combined. But 
M. Haggern, after having observed the 
flash from the orange lily, the antherx of 
which are a considerable space distant 
from the petals, found that the light pro- 
ceeded from the petals only ; whence he 
concludes, that this electric light is caused 
by the pollen, which, in flying off, is 
scattered oil the petals. Whatever be 
the cause, the effect is singular and highly 

LIGHT house, a building erected upon a 
cape or promontory on the sea coast, or 
upon some rock in the sea, and having on 
its top in the night time a great fire, or 
light formed by candles, which is con- 
stantly attended by some careful person, 
so as to be seen at a great distance from 
the hind. It is used to direct the shipping 
on the coast, that might otherwise run 
ashore, or steer an improper course, 
when the darkness of the night and the 
uncertainty of currents, &c. might render 
their situation with regard to the shore 
extremely doubtful. Lamp-lights are, on 
many accounts, preferable to coal fires or 
candles ; and the effect of these may be 
increased by placing them either behind 
glass hemispheres, or before properly dis- 
posed glass or metal reflectors, which last 
method is now very generally adopted. 

LIGHTFOOTIA, in botany, so named 
in honour of John Lightfoot, a genus of 
the Polygamia Dioecia class and order. 
Essential character: calyx four-leaved; 
corolla none : female and hermaphrodite, 
stigma sessile ; berry umbilicated, one- 
celled, with from three to six seeds. 
There are three species, all shrubs. 
LIGHTNING. It is now universally 


allowed, that lightning- is really an elec- 
trical explosion or phenomenon. Philoso- 
phers had not proceeded far in their ex- 
periments and inquiries on this subject, 
before they perceivedthe obvious analogy 
between lightning and electricity, and 
they produced many arguments to evince 
their similarity. Hut the method of prov- 
ing this hypothesis, beyond a doubt, was 
first proposed by Dr. Franklin, who, 
about the close of the year 1749, con- 
ceived the practicability of drawing light- 
ning down from the clouds. Various cir- 
cumstances of resemblance between light- 
ning and electricity were remarked by 
this philosopher, and have been abun- 
dantly confirmed by later discoveries, 
such as the following : Flashes of light- 
ning are usually seen crooked and waving 
in the air; so the electric spark drawn 
from an irregular body at some distance, 
and when it is drawn by an irregular body, 
or through a space in which the best con- 
ductors are disposed in an irregular man- 
ner, always exhibits the same appearance. 
Lightning strikes the highest and most 
pointed objects in its course, in prefe- 
rence to others, as hills, trees, spires, 
masts of ships, &.c. so all pointed conduc- 
tors receive and throw off the electric 
fluid more readily than those that are 
terminated by flat surfaces. Lightning is 
observed to take and follow the readiest 
and best conductor ; and the same is the 
case with electricity in the discharge of 
the Leyden phial : from whence the Doc- 
tor infers, that in a thunder-storm it 
would be safer to have one's clothes wet 
than dry. Lightning burns, dissolves 
metals, rends some bodies, sometimes 
strikes persons blind, destroys animal 
life, deprives magnets of their virtue, or 
reverses their poles; and all these are 
well-known properties of electricity. 

To demonstrate, however, by actual 
experiment, the identity of the electric 
fluid with the matter of lightning, Dr. 
Franklin contrived to bring lightning 
from the heavens by means of a paper 
kite, properly fitted up for the purpose, 
with a long fine wire string, and called an 
electrical kite, which he raised when a 
thunder storm was perceived to be com- 
ing on : and with the electricity thus ob- 
tained, he charged phials, kindled spirits, 
and performed all other such electrical 
experiments as are usually exhibited by 
an excited glass globe or cylinder. This 
happened in June, 1752, a month after 
the electricians in France, in pursuance 
of the method which he had before pro- 
posed, had verified the same theory, but 
without any knowledge of what they had 

done. The most active of these were 
Messrs. Dalibard and Delor, followed by 
M. Maze;\s, and M. Monnier. 

Nor had the English philosophers been 
inattentive to this subject. Mr. Canton, 
however, succeeded in July, 1752 ; and 
in the following month Dr. Bevis and Mr. 
Wilson observed nearly the same appear- 
ances as Mr. Canton had done before. By 
a number of experiments Mr. Canton also 
soon after observed, that some clouds 
were in a positive, while some were in a 
negative state of electricity : and that the 
electricity of his conductor would some- 
times change from one state to the other 
five or six times in less than half an hour. 

How it happens that particular parts of 
the earth, or the clouds, come into the op- 
posite states of positive and negative elec- 
tricity, is a question not absolutely deter- 
mined : though it is easy to conceive that 
when particular clouds, or different parts 
of the earth, possess opposite electricities, 
a discharge will take place within a cer- 
tain distance ; or the one will strike into 
the other, and in the discharge a flash of 
lightning will be seen. Mr. Canton 
queries whether the clouds do not be- 
come possessed of electricity by the 
gradual heating and cooling of the air ; 
and whether air suddenly rarefied may 
not give electric fire to clouds, and va- 
pours passing through it, and air suddenly 
condensed receive electric fire from them. 
Mr. Wilcke supposes, that the air con- 
tracts its electricity in the same manner 
that sulphur and other substances do, 
when they are heated and cooled in con- 
tact with various bodies. Thus, the air 
being heated or cooled near the earth, 
gives electricity to the earth, or receives 
it from it ; and the electrified air being 
conveyed upwards by various means, 
communicates its electricity to the clouds. 
Others have queried, whether, since 
thunder commonly happens in a sultry 
state of the air, when it seems charged 
with sulphureous vapours, the electric 
matter then in the clouds may not be 
generated by the fermentation of sul- 
phureous vapours with mineral or acid 
vapours in the air. With regard to places 
of safety in times of thunder and light- 
ning, Dr. Franklin's advice is, to sit in the 
middle of a room, provided it be not un- 
der a metal lustre suspended by a chain, 
sitting on one chair, and laying the feet 
on another. It is still better, he says, to 
bring two or three mattresses, or beds, 
into the middle of the room, and folding 
them double, to place the chairs upon 
them ; for as they are not so good con- 
ductors as the walls, the lightning will 



not be so likely to pass through them. 
But the safest place of all is in a hammock 
hung by silken cords, at an equal dis- 
tance from all the sides of the room. Dr. 
Priestley observes, that the place of most 
perfect safety must be the cellar, and es- 
pecially the middle of it ; for when a per- 
son is lower than the surface of the earth, 
the lightning must strike it before it can 
possibly reach him. In the fields, the 
place of safety is within a few yards of a 
tree, but not quite near it. Beccaria 
cautions persons not always to trust too 
much to the neighbourhood of a higher 
or better conductor than their own body, 
since he has repeatedly found that the 
lightning by no means descends in one 
undivided track, but that bodies of various 
kinds conduct their share of it at the 
same time, in proportion to their quantity 
and conducting power. See Franklin's 
Letters, Beccaria's Lettre dell' Ellettri- 
cessimo, Priestley's History of Electricity, 
and Lord Mahon's Principles of Electri- 

Lord Mahon observes, that damage 
may be done by lightning, not only by 
the main stroke and lateral explosion, but 
also by what he calls the returning stroke, 
by which is meant the sudden and violent 
return of that part of the natural share of 
electricity which had been gradually ex- 
pelled from some body or bodies, by the 
superinduced elastic, electrical pressure 
of the electrical atmosphere of a thunder- 

The ancient notion of a thunderbolt, or 
stony mass, falling at the stroke of light- 
ning, seems to have obtained no small de- 
gree of force from the modern observa- 
tions and researches concerning stones 
which have fallen from the atmosphere. 
See STONES, meteoric. From which it ap- 
pears, that other substances as well as wa- 
ter are not unfrequently condensed and 
precipitated from the air, and exhibit the 
most astonishing degrees of heat and 
electricity during their condensation. 

LIGNUM vitte. The lignum vitse tree 
is a native of the West Indies, and the 
A\ armer parts of America : there is also a 
species, a native of the Cape of Good 
Hope. It is a large tree, rising at its full 
growth to the height of forty feet, and 
measuring from fifteen to eighteen inches 
in diameter ; having a hard, brittle, 
brownish bark, not very thick. The wood 
is firm, solid, ponderous, very resinous, 
of a blackish yellow colour in the middle, 
and a hot aromatic taste. It is so hard as 
to break the tools which are employed in 
felling it ; and is, therefore, seldom used 
as firewood, but is of great use to the su- 

gar-planters for making wheels and cogs 
to the sugar-mills. It is also frequently 
wrought in bowls, mortars, and other 
utensils. It is imported into England, in 
large pieces of four or five hundred 
weight each, and from its hardness and 
beauty, is in great demand for various ar- 
ticles in the turnery ware, and for trucks 
of ship blocks. The wood, gum, bark, 
fruit, and even the flowers of this plant, 
have been found to possess medicinal 

LIGULA, in natural history, a genus of 
the Verities Intestina. Body linear, equal, 
long ; the fore -part obtuse ; the hind-part 
acute, with an impressed dorsal suture. 
There are two species, viz. L. intestinalis, 
L. abdominalis; the former is found in 
the intestines of the merganser and guil- 
lemot : about a foot long, and exactly re- 
sembling a piece of tape : of the latter 
there are, at least, eight varieties de- 
scribed as inhabiting the intestines of 
fish : they are found principally in the 
mesentery, emaciating the fish they in- 
fest, and causing them to grow deformed. 
When they escape from the body, they 
penetrate through the skin : they are 
sometimes solitary, and sometimes gre- 
garious, about half a line thick, and from 
six inches to five feet long. 

LIGUSTICUM, in botany, tovage, a ge- 
nus of the Pentandria Digynia class and 
order. Natural order of Umbellate, or 
Umbelliferse. Essential character: fruit 
oblong, five-grooved on both sides ; co- 
rolla equal, with involute entire petals. 
There are eight species, of which L. le- 
visticum, common lovage, has a strong, 
fleshy, perennial root, striking deep into 
the ground, composed of many strong 
fleshy fibres, covered with a brown skin, 
possessing a hot aromatic smell and taste. 
The leaves are large, composed of many 
leaflets, shaped like those of Smallage, 
but larger and of a deeper green ; stems 
six or seven feet high, large and chan- 
nelled, dividing into several branches, 
each terminated by a large umbel of yel- 
low flowers. It is a native of the Alps, 
of Italy, the South of France, Silesia, &c. 
LIGUSTRUM, in botany, privet, a ge- 
nus of the Diandria Monogynia class and 
order. Natural order of Sepiarize. Jas- 
minex, Jussieu. Essential character : co- 
rolla four-cleft; berry four-seeded. There 
are three species, of which L. vulgare, 
common privet, is a shrub about six feet 
in height, branched, the bark of a green- 
ish-ash colour, irregularly sprinkled, with 
numerous prominent points; branches 
opposite, the young ones flexible and 
purplish; leaves opposite, on short pe- 



smooth on both sides ; panicle the bent of his inclinations, which led 
about two inches in length, somewhat py- him to follow the puritanical preachers, 
ramidal ; corolla white, but soon changes 
to a reddish-brown. Privet is found wild 
in most parts of Europe, and in Japan, in 
woods and hedges ; it flourishes best in 

a moist soil. 

LIKE quantities, or SIMILAR quantities, 

Afterwards turning 1 his mind to judicial 
astronomy, in 1632 he became pupil, in 
that art, to one Evans, a profligate Welsh 
parson ; and the next year gave the pub- 
lic a specimen of his skill, by an intima- 
tion that the King had chosen an unlucky 

in algebra, are such as are expressed by horoscope for the coronation in Scotland, 
the same letters, to the same power, or In 1634, getting a manuscript copy of the 
equally repeated in each quantity; though " Ars Noticia" of Cornelius Agrippa, 
the numeral co-efficient may be differ- with alterations, he drank in the doctrine 
ent : thus, 4 a and 5 a are like quantities; of the magic circle, and the invocation of 
so also are oz 1 and 9s 1 ; and likewise spirits, with great eagerness, and prac- 
Sbdy* 10 b dy-. But 4 a and 8 6 are not tised it for some time; after which he 
like quantities ; nor are 4 a and 4 iC-. treated the mystery of recovering stolen 

LIKE figures, the same as SIMILAR goods, &c. with great contempt, claiming 
figures. All like figures have their homo- a supernatural sight, and the gift of pro- 
logous lines in the same ratio. Like phetical predictions ; all which he well 
plane figures are in the duplicate ratio, knew how to turn to good advantage, 
or as the squares of their homologous Meanwhile he had buried his first wife, 
lines or sides; and like solid figures are purchased a moiety of thirteen houses in 
in the triplicate ratio, or as the cubes of the Strand, and married a second wife, 
their homologous sides. who, joining to an extravagant temper a 

LILIUM, in botany, lily, a genus of the termagant spirit, which he could not lay, 
Hexandria Monogynia class and order, made him unhappy, and greatly reduced 

Natural order of Coronarkc. Lilia, Jus- 
sieu. Essential character : corolla six-pe- 
talled, bell-shaped, with a longitudinal 
nectareous line ; capsule, the valves con- 
nected by cancellated hairs. There are 
eleven species, with many varieties, L. 
candidum, common white lily, has a large 
bulb, from which proceed several succu- 
lent fibres ; it has a stout, round, upright 

his circumstances. 

With this uncomfortable yoke-mate he 
removed, in 1636, to Hersham, in Surrey, 
where he staid till 1641 ; when, seeing a 
prospect of fishing in troubled waters, he 
returned to London. Here, having pur- 
chased several curious books in this art, 
which were found on pulling down the 
house of another astrologer, he studied 

stem, usually three feet in height ; leaves them incessantly, finding out secrets con- 

long and numerous, smooth and sessile ; tained in them, which were written in an 

flowers white, terminating the stern in a imperfect Greek character ; and, in 1644, 

cluster, on short peduncles ; petals with- he published his " Merlinus Anglicus," 

/ i , / i i * . jl_ 1 1_ 1*11 , 1 1 

in of a beautiful shining 1 white, on the 
outside ridged, and less luminous. Na- 
tive of the Levant. 

LILLY (WILLIAM), in biography, a 
noted English astrologer, born in Leices- 
tershire in 1602. His father was not able 
to give him further education than com- 
mon reading and writing ; but young 
Lilly being of a forward temper, and en- 
dued with shrewd wit, he resolved to 
push his fortune in London, where he ar- 

an almanack, which he continued annual- 
ly till his death, and several other astro- 
logical works, devoting his pen, and 
otherlabours, sometimes to King Charles's 
party, and at others to that of the parlia- 
ment, but mostly to the latter, raising his 
fortune by favourable predictions to both, 
parties, at one time by presents, and at 
others by pensions. Thus, in 1648, the 
council of state gave him in money fifty 
pounds, and a pension of one hundred 

rived in 1620, and, for a present support, pounds per annum, which he received for 

articled himself as a servant to a mantua- 
maker in St Clement Danes. But in 
1624, he moved a step higher, by enter- 
ing into the service of Mr. Wright, in 
the Strand, master of the Salters* Com- 
pany, who not being able to write, Lilly, 
among other offices, kept his books. On 
the death of his master, in 1627, Lilly 
paid his addresses to the widow, whom 
lie married, with a fortune of one thou- 
sand pounds. 

two years, and then resigned it on some 

By his advice and contrivance, the 
King attempted several times to make his 
escape from confinement; he procured 
and sent the aqua fortis, and files to cut 
the iron bars of his prison windows at Ca- 
risbrook Castle ; but still advising and 
writing for the other party at the same 
time. Meanwhile he read public lectures 
on astrology in 1648 and 1649, for the im- 
provement of voung students in that art ; 



and, in short, plied his business so well, 
that, in 1651 and 1652, he laid out two 
thousand pounds for lands and a house at 

During- the siege of Colchester, he and 
Booker were sent for thither to encour- 
age the soldiers; which they did by as- 
suring them that the town would soon be 
taken ; which proved true in the event. 

Having, in 1650, written publicly that 
the parliament should not continue, but a 
new government arise ; agreeably to 
which, in his almanack for 1653, he as- 
serted that the parliament stood upon a 
ticklish foundation, and that the common- 
alty and soldiery would join together 
against them. Upon which he was sum- 
moned before the committee of plunder- 
ed ministers; but receiving notice of it 
before the arrival of the messenger, he 
applied to his friend Lenthal, the Speak- 
er, who pointed out the offensive pas- 
sages. He immediately altered them, at- 
tended the committee next morning, with 
six copies printed, which six alone he ac- 
knowledged to be his, and by that means 
came off with only thirteen days custody 
by the Serjeant at arms. This year he was 
engaged in a dispute with Mr. Thomas 

In 1665, he was indicted at Hicks's 
Hall for giving judgment upon stolen 
goods, but was acquitted. In 1659, he 
received from the King of Sweden a pre- 
sent of a gold chain and medal, worth 
about fifty pounds, on account of his 
having mentioned that monarch with 
great respect in his almanacks of 1657 
and 1658. 

After the Restoration in 1660, being 
taken into custody, and examined by a 
committee of the House of Commons, 
touching the execution of Charles I., he 
declared that Robert Spavin, then secre- 
tary to Cromwell, dining with him soon 
after the fact, assured him it was done by 
Cornet Joyce. The same year he sued 
out his pardon, under the broad seal of 
England, and afterwards continued in 
London till 1665, when, upon the raging 
of the plague there, he retired to his es- 
tate at Hersham. Here he applied him- 
self to the study of physic, having, by 
means of his friend Elias Ashmole, pro- 
cured from Archbishop Sheldon a licence 
to practise it, which he did, as well as 
astrology, from thence till the time of his 
death. In October, 1666, he was examin- 
ed before a committee of the House of 
Commons, concerning the fire of London, 
which happened in September that year. 
A little before his death he adopted for 
his son, by the name of Merlin Junior, 

one Henry Coley, a tailor by trade ; and 
at the same time gave him the impres- 
sion of his almanack, which had been 
printed for thirty-six years successively. 
This Coley became afterwards a cele- 
brated astrologer, publishing in his own 
name almanacks and books of astrology, 
particularly one entitled " A Key to As- 

Lilly died of the palsy in 1681, at se- 
venty-nine years of age; and his friend 
Mr. Ashmole placed a monument over 
his grave in the church of Walton upon 

Lilly was the author of many works. 
His " Observations on the Life and Death 
of Charles, late King of England," if we 
overlook the astrological nonsense, may 
be read with as much satisfaction as more 
celebrated histories, Lilly being not only 
very well informed, but strictly impar- 
tial. This work, with the lives of Lilly 
and Ashmole, written by themselves, were 
published in one volume 8vo. in 1774, by 
Mr. Burman. His other works were prin- 
cipally as follow : 

1. Merlinus Anglicus, junior. 2. Super- 
natural Sight. 3. The White King's Pro- 
phecy. 4. England's prophetical Merlin : 
all printed in 1644. 5. The starry Mes- 
senger, 1645. 6. Collection of Prophe- 
cies, 1646. 7. A Comment on the White 
King's Prophecy, 1646. 8. The Nativi- 
ties of Archbishop Laud and Thomas 
Earl of Stafford, 1646. 9. Christian As- 
trology, 1647 : upon this piece he read 
his lectures in 1648, mentioned above. 

10. The third Book of Nativities, 1647. 

11. The World's Catastrophe, 1647. 12. 
The Prophecies of Ambrose Merlin, with 
a Key, 1647. 13. Trithemius, or the Go- 
vernment of the World by presiding An- 
gels, 1647. 14. A Treatise of the Three 
Suns seen in the Winter of 1647, printed 
in 1648. 15. Monarchy or no Monarchy, 
1651. 16. Observations on the Life and 
Death of Charles, late King of England, 
1651 ; and again in 1657, with the title of 
Mr. William Lilly's true History of King 
James and King Charles I., &c. 17. Annus 
Tenebrosus, or the Black Year. This 
drew him into the dispute with Gataker, 
which Lilly carried on in his Almanack in 

LIMAX, in natural history, the slug. 
Body oblong, creeping, with a fleshy 
kind of shield above, and a longitudinal 
flat dish beneatli ; aperture placed on the 
right side, within the shield ; four feelers, 
situate above the mouth, with an eye at 
the tip of each of the larger ones. There 
are sixteen species; L. Izevis : body black, 
and almost without wrinkles, found r.nionjr 


the moss late in the autumn, five lines 
long ; body glossy, with undulate, trans- 
verse striae on the shield; narrower and 
not so much wrinkled as the next. L. 
ater; body black and furrowed with deep 
wrinkles ; of this species there are five or 
six varieties, differing' in colour and size ; 
the dusky -brown with a yellowish mouth, 
a streak on each side ; is found in woods, 
meadows, fields, and gardens ; is from one 
and a half to five inches long; crawls 
slowly, and leaves a slime upon whatever 
it passes over. L. alba, is white, and is 
found in woods and groves; from three 
to five inches long. L. hyalinus ; body 
hyaline ; feelers obsolete, with a brown 
line reaching from the feelers to the 
shield ; inhabits mossy places, and is very 
destructive to the young shoots of kid- 
ney-beans ; belly with numerous inter- 
rupted wrinkles. L. agrestes ; body 
whitish, with black feelers: five varie- 
ties, of which some have the power of 
secreting a large quantity of mucous from 
the under surface, and forming it into a 
thread like a spider's web ; by this means 
it often suspends itself, and descends 
from the branches of trees, or any height 
it had crawled up to. It is found in Eng- 
land, in gardens, pastures, and groves, 
from May till December. One of the va- 
rieties of this species is that which has 
been recommended to be swallowed by 
consumptive persons ; it is half an inch 
long, and when touched it sticks as if dead 
to the fingers. 

LIME, or calcareous earth, predomi- 
nates in most stones which are soft 
enough to be scratched with a knife. 
These are chalk, lime-stone, marble, 
spars, gypsum, or plaster-stone, and va- 
rious others. As the lime is most fre- 
quently combined with carbonic acid, it 
is usuul for mineralogists to drop a small 
quantity of nitric acid upon the stones 
they are desirous of classing; and if they 
froth by the escape of the acid, they con- 
clude that lime enters into the composi- 
tion. To obtain pure calcareous earth, 
powdered chalk must be repeatedly boil- 
ed in water, which will deprive it of the 
saline impurities it frequently contains. 
It must then be dissolved in distilled vine- 
gar, and precipitated by the addition of 
concrete volatile alkali. The precipi- 
tate, when _ well washed and dried, will 
consist of lime united to carbonic acid ; 
the latter of which may be driven off' by 
heat, if necessary. 

If chalk, marble, lime-stone, spar, or 
any other specimens of this earth, con- 
taining carbonic acid, be exposed to con- 


tinned ignition, they give out carbonic 
acid and water, to the amount of nearly 
half their weight. The remainder, con- 
sisting chiefly of lime, has a strong ten- 
dency to combination, and attracts water 
very powerfully. The addition of water 
to lime produces a very considerable 
heat, attended with noise, and agitation 
of the parts, which break asunder ; a con- 
siderable vapour arises, which carries up 
with it part of the lime; and a phosphoric 
light is seen, if the experiment be made 
in the dark. Lime thus saturated with 
water is said to be slaked. Water dis- 
solves about one five-hundredth part cf 
its weight of lime, and is then called 
lime-water. This solution has an acrid 
taste, and turns syrup of violets to a green 
colour. If lime-water be exposed to the 
open air, the lime attracts carbonic acid, 
and is by this means converted into 
chalk ; which, not being soluble in water, 
forms a crust on the surface, formerly 
called cream of lime, which, when of a 
certain thickness, breaks, and falls to the- 
bottom : and in this way the whole of the 
lime will in time be separated. If the 
fire have been too violent in the burning 
of lime, the stones become hard, sono- 
rous, and incapable of absorbing water 
with the requisite degree of avidity. This 
effect seems to arise from part of the cal- 
careous earth having entered into fusion, 
with the clay, flint, or other contaminat- 
ing; earths, with which it forms a glass 
that covers and defends the rest. 

The paste of lirne and water, called 
mortar, has a degree of adhesion and duc- 
tility, though much less than clay. When 
dry, it is more or less friable, like chalk. 
A mixture of sand, or broken earthen 
vessels, greatly increases its firmness, 
which it seems to effect by rendering it 
more difficult for the parts to be remov- 
ed with respect to each other. When 
mortar is left to dry by the gradual eva- 
poration of its superfluous water, it is 
very long- before it obtains its utmost de- 
gree of firmness. But if dry quick- lime 
be mixed with mortar, it gradually ab- 
sorbs the superfluous water, and the mass 
becomes solid in a very short time. See 

Lime has an affinity for tannin, whence 
it is probable that a portion of it is retain- 
ed in tanned leather, perhaps not to the. 
improvement of its quality. It has an 
edulcorative power with respect to ani- 
mal oils, by combining with the putrid 
gelatine in them ; but its action on them 
in forming a soap is too strong to nclmit 
of its being used for this purpose with ad- 




vantage, unless in small quantities. Fea- 
thers, however, may be very convenient- 
ly cleaned, by steeping three or four 
days in strong lime-water, and afterward 
washing and drying them. 

Though infusible in the strongest heats 
of our furnaces, it is nevertheless a very 
powerful flux with regard to mixtures of 
the other earths. These are all fusible by 
a proper addition of lime. Compounds 
are still more fusible ; for any three of 
the five well-known earths may be fused 
into perfect glass, if they be mixed to- 
gether in equal portions, provided the cal- 
careous be one of them. 

The earthy part of animals is chiefly, if 
not altogether, calcareous : in most cases 
it is united with phosphoric acid, but fre- 
quently with the carbonic. 

LiME-tfone. The native indurated car- 
bonate of lime. It is usually more or less 
bluish from iron, and of a granulated frac- 
ture ; and it is connected with lime by ig- 
nition in lime-kilns, for the purpose of 
making mortar. See LIME ; also MOR- 

LIMEUM, in botany, a genus of the 
He ptandria Digynia class and order. Na- 
tural order of Holoracex. Portulacex, 
Jussieu. Essential character : calyx five- 
leaved ; petals five, equal ; capsule globu- 
lar, two-celled There are three species, 
all natives of the Cape of Good Hope. 

LIMIT, in a restrained sense, is used 
by mathematicians for a determinate quan- 
tity to which a variable one continually ap- 
proaches ; in which sense the circle may 
"be said to be the limit of its circumscrib- 
ed and inscribed polygons. In algebra, 
the term limit is applied to two quanti- 
ties, one of which is greater, and the other 
less, than another quantity ; and in this 
sense it is used in speaking of the limits 
of equations, whereby their solution is 
much facilitated. 

Let any equation, as x3 p x 3 X 9 
r = o be proposed ; and transform it into 
the following equation : 

""' -r- 3 e y z -}- 3 e 1 y -f- 


-\-qy-\-qe f ws 

Where the values of y are less than the 
respective values of x, by the difference e. 
If you suppose e to be taken such as to 
make all the coefficients of the equation 
of y positive, viz. el p e 3 - -f- q e r, 3 e 1 
2p e -f- q, 3 e, p ; then, there being no 
variation of the signs in the equation, all 
the values of y must be negative ; and 
consequently the quantity e, by which the 
values of x are diminished, must be great- 

er than the greatest positive value of x ; 
and, consequently, must be the limit of the 
roots of the equation xi p x 1 -f- Q x 
r = o. 

It is sufficient, therefore, in order to 
find the limit, to inquire what quantity 
substituted for x, in each of these expres- 
sions .r3 p x 1 + q x r, 3 x* 2 p x 
-f- <?, 3 x p, will give them all positive ; 
for the quantity will be the limit required. 

Having found the limit that surpasses 
the greatest positive root, call it m. And 
if you assume y = m x, and for x sub- 
stitute m y, the equation that will arise 
will have all its roots positive ; because 
m is supposed to surpass all the values of 
x, and consequently m x (= y") must 
always be affirmative. And, by this means, 
any equation may be changed into one 
that shall have all its roots affirmative. 

Or, if n represent the limit of the ne- 
gative roots, then by assuming y = x + 
n the proposed equation shall be trans- 
formed into one that shall have all its 
roots affirmative ; for -f- n being greater 
than any negative value of x t it follows 
that y = x-\- n must be always positive. 

What is here said of the above cubic 
equation, may be easily applied to others ; 
and of all such equations, two limits are 
easily discovered, viz. o, which is less than 
the least ; and e, found as above, which 
surpasses the greatest root of the equa- 
tion. But besides these, other limits still 
nearer the roots may be found ; for the 
method of doing which, the reader may 
consult Maclaurin's Algebra. 

LIMITATION, a certain time prescrib- 
ed by statute, within which an action must 
be brought, which is generally twofold ; 
first in writs, by several acts of parlia- 
ment, and, secondly, to make a title to 
any inheritance, and that is by the com- 
mon law. 

On penal statutes, all actions, suits, 
bills, indictments, or informations, for any 
forfeiture limited to the king, his heirs or 
successors only, shall be brought within 
two years after the offence committed, 
and not after. All such actions, &c. ex- 
cept the statutes of tillage, which give 
the penalty to the king and a common in- 
former, are limited to one year next after 
the offence committed ; and if not sued 
for by the informer, they may be sued for 
by the king, any time within the two years, 
after that year is ended : and where a 
shorter time is limited by any penal sta- 
tute, the prosecution must be within that 
time 31 Eliz. c. 5. 

All actions of trespass, of assault, bat- 
tery, wounding, imprisonment, or any of 



them, are to be commenced within four 
years next after the cause of such actions 
or suits, and not after : 21 James I. c. 16. 
All actions of trespass, quare clattswnfre- 
git , all actions of trespass, detinue, tro- 
ver, and replevin ; ail actions of account, 
and upon the case, (other than such ac- 
counts as concern the trade of merchan- 
dise between merchant and merchant) ; 
all actions of debt, grounded upon any 
lending-, or contract without specialty 
(that is, not being by deed or under seal) ; 
all actions of debt for arrearages of rent ; 
and all actions of assault, menace, bat- 
tery, wounding, and imprisonment, shall 
be commenced within the time and limi- 
tation as followeth, and not after : that is 
to say, the said actions upon the case 
(other than for slander), and the said ac- 
tions for account, and the said actions for 
trespass, debt, detinue, and replevin, and 
the said action for trespass quare clausi/m 
fregit, within six years after the cause of 
such action : 21 James I. c. 16. In all 
these statutes there is an exception in re- 
lation to infants, lunatics, and femes co- 
verts, allowing them a further time after 
they are in a situation which enables them 
to sue. As to the exception with respect 
to merchants' accounts, it extends to ac- 
tions on accounts current only, in which 
the giving credit on one side is an ac- 
knowledgment of the debt on the other ; 
but when the account is settled between 
merchant and merchant, it must be sued 
for like any other debt ; and if all the ar- 
ticles are on one side, the account is not 
taken out of the statute. An acknowledg- 
ment of the debt prevents the operation 
of the statute of limitations, and also a 
payment upon account ; but as it is con- 
venient that suits should not be delayed 
so long that vouchers cannot be produced, 
settlements should regularly be enforced. 
A writ also may be sued out to save the 
statute of limitation, as it is called, and 
though never sued, yet, if it is regularly 
entered, and continued upon the record, 
the suit may be effectually prosecuted 
long after, and being commenced within 
time, the action may be maintained out. 
This is in conscience rather a mode 
of evading the statute. It is generally 
considered as an' unfair defence to rely 
upon the statute, when the party has the 
actual means of knowing whether the 
debt is due, and therefore a very slight 
acknowledgment removes the objection 
to the suit. 

LIMNING, the art of painting in water 
colours, in contradistinction to painiing 

which is done in oil colours. See PAINT- 

LIMODORUM, in botany, a genus of 
the Gynaiulria Diandria class and order. 
Natural order of Orchideae. Essei.tial 
character : nectary one-leafed, concave, 
pedicelied, within the lowest petal. There 
are thirteen species. 

LIMONIA, in botany, a genus of the 
Decandria Monogynia class and order. 
Essential character: calyx five-parted; 
petals five ; berry three-celled ; seeds so- 
litary. There are seven species, of which 
L. pentaphylla, five-leaved limonia, is an 
elegant fragrant shrub, very common in 
most uncultivated lands in Coromandel, 
but chiefly under large trees, where birds 
have dropped the seeds. It flowers all the 
year. The whole plant, when drying in 
the shade, diffuses a pleasant permanent 
scent ; the flowers are exquisitely fra- 
grant ; birds eat the berries greedily. 

L1MOSELLA, in botany, a genus of the 
Didynamia Angiospermia class and order. 
Natural order of Precis. Lysimachix, 
Jussieu. Essential character : calyx five- 
cleft ; corolla five-cleft, equal ; stamina 
approximating by pairs ; capsule one- 
celled, two-valved, many-seeded. There 
are two species, viz. L. aquatica, common 
mud-wort, or bastard plantain ; and L. 

LINCONIA, in botany, a genus of the 
Pentandria Digynia class and order. Es- 
tial character ; petals five, with a nerta- 
reous excavation at the base; capsule 
two-celled There is but one species, 
viz. L. alopecuroidea, a native of the Cape 
of Good Hope, in watery places among 
the mountains. 

L1NDERA, in botany, so named from 
J. Linder, a Swede, a genus of the Hex- 
andria Monogynia class and order. Es- 
sential character : corolla six-petalled ; 
capsule. There is only one species, viz. 
L. umbellata, a native of Japan. 

LINDERNIA, in botany, a genus of the 
Didynamia Angiospermia class and order. 
Natural order of Personate. Scrophu- 
lanae, Jussieu. Essential character : ca- 
lyx five-parted ; corolla ringent, with the 
upper lip very short ; stamina the two 
lower with a terminating tooth, and a sub- 
lateral anther ; capsule one-celled. There 
are three species. 

LINE, in geometry, a quantity extend- 
ed in length only, without any breadth or 
thickness. It is formed by the flux or 
motion of a point. See FLUXIOK. 

LINES in perspective, are, 1. Geome- 
trical line, which is a right line drawn in 


any manner on the geometrical plane. 2. 
Terrestrial line, or fundamental line, is a 
rig-lit line, wherein the geometrical plane, 
and that of the picture or draught, inter- 
sect one another, formed by the intersec- 
tion of the geometrical plane, and the 
perspective plane. 3. Line of the front, 
is any right line parallel to the terrestrial 
line. 4. Vertical line, the common sec- 
tion of the vertical and of the draught. 
5. Visual line, the line or ray imagined 
to pass from the object to the eye. 6. 
Line of station, according to some wri- 
ters, is the common section of the verti- 
cal and geometrical planes. 7. Objective 
line, the line of an object from whence 
the appearance is sought for in the 
draught or picture. 

LINES, in dialling, are, 1. Horizontal 
line, the common section of the horizon 
and the dial plane. See DIALLING. 2. 
Horary lines, or hour-lines, the common 
intersections of the hour-circles of the 
sphere, with the plane of the dial. See 
HORARY. 3. Substylar line, that line on 
which the style or cock of a dial is duly 
erected, and the representation of such 
an hour circle as is perpendicular to the 
plane of that dial. 4. Equinoctial line, 
the common intersection of the equinoc- 
tiat and plane of the dial. 

LINK of measures, is used by Oughtred, 
to denote the diameter of the primitive 
circle in the projection of the sphere in 
piano, or that line in which the diameter 
of any circle to be projected falls. In 
the stereographic projection of the sphere 
in piano, the line of measures is that line 
in which the plane of a great circle per- 
pendicular to the plane of the projection, 
and that oblique circle which is to be 
projected, intersects the plane of the 
projection ; or it is the common section 
of a plane passing through the eye point 
and the centre of the primitive at right 
angles to any oblique circle which is to 
be projected, and in which the centre 
and pole of such circle will be found. 

LINE of direction on the earth's axis, in 
the Pythagorean system of astronomy, the 
line connecting the two poles of the eclip- 
tic and of the equator, when they are pro- 
jected on the plane of the former. 

LINE of direction, in mechanics, that 
wherein a body actually moves, or would 
move, if it were not hindered. It also de- 
notes the line that passes through the 
centre of gravity of the heavy body to 
the centre of the earth, which must also 
pass through the fulcrum, or support of 
the heavy body, without which it would 

LINE of gravitation, of any heavy body, 

a line drawn through its centre of gravi- 
ty, and according- to which it tends down- 

LINE of the sitnflest descent, of a heavy 
body, is the cycloid. See CYCLOID, 

LINES on the plane scale, are the line of 
chords, line of sines, line of tangents, line 
of secants, line of semitangents, line of 
leagues; the construction and application 
of which, see under MATHESIATICAL IN- 

LINES on Gunter^s scale, are the line of 
numbers, line of artificial sines, line of ar- 
tificial tangents, line of artificial versed 
sines, line of artificial sines of rhumbs, 
line of artificial tangents of the meridian 
line, and line of equal parts ; for the con- 
struction and application whereof, see 
GUNTER'S scale. 

LINES of the sector, are the line of equal 
parts, or line of lines, line of chords, line 
of sines, line of tangents, line of secants, 
line of polygons, line of numbers, line of 
hours, line of latitudes, line of meridians, 
line of metals, line of solids, line of 
planes ; for the construction and use 
whereof, see SECTOR. 

LINES, in fortification, are those of ap- 
proach, capital, defence, circumvallation, 
contravallation, of the base, &,c. See AP- 
PROACH, &c. 

To LINE a ~vcrk, signifies to strengthen 
a rampart with a firm wall ; or to encom- 
pass a parapet or moat with good turf, 

LINE, in the art of war, is understood 
of the disposition of an army, ranged in 
order of battle, with the front extended 
as far as may be, that it may not be flank- 
ed. See AIOIY. 

LINE of battle, is also understood of the 
disposition of a fleet on the day of en- 
gagement, on which occasion the vessels 
are usually drawn up as much as possible 
in a straight line, as well to gain and keep 
the advantage of the wind, as to run the 
same board. 

LINE, ship of the, a vessel large enough 
to be drawn up in the line, and to have a 
place in a sea-fight. See SHIP. 

LINE, in fencing, that part of the body 
opposite to the enemy, wherein the shoul- 
ders, the right arm, and the sword, ought 
always to be found ; and wherein are also 
to be placed the two feet, at the distance 
of eighteen inches from each other. In 
which sense a man is said to be in his 
line, or to go out of his line, &c. 

LINE of the synodical, in reference to 
some theories of the moon, is a right line 
supposed to be drawn through the cen- 
tres of the earth and sun ; and, if it be 
produced quite through the orbits, it js 



called the line of the true syzygies : but a 
right line imagined to pass through the 
earth's centre, and the mean place of the 
sun, is called the line of the mean syzy- 

LINK, in genealogy, a series or succes- 
sion of relations in various degrees, all de- 
scending from the same common father. 
Direct line, is that which goes from father 
to son ; being the order of ascendants 
and descendants. Collateral line, is the 
order of those who descend from some 
common father related to the former, but 
out of the line of ascendants and descend- 
ants : in this are placed uncles, aunts, 
cousins, nephews, &c. 

LINE was also formerly a French mea- 
sure, containing the twelfth part of an 
inch, or the hundred and forty-fourth part 
of a foot. Geometricians conceive the 
line, notwithstanding its smallness, to be 
subdivided into six points. 

LINES, in music, the name of those 
strokes drawn horizontally on a piece of 
paper, on and between which the cha- 
racters and notes of music are disposed : 
their number is commonly five ; when 
another is added, for one, two, or more 
notes, it is called a ledger-line. 

LINES, in heraldry, the figures used in 
armories, to divide 'the shield into differ- 
ent parts, and to compose different 
figures. These lines, according to their 
different forms and names, give denomi- 
nation to the pieces or figures which they 
form, except the straight or plain lines. 

LINE All members, in mathematics, such 
as have relation to length only ; such is a 
number which represents one side of a 
plane figure. If the plane figure be a 
square, the linear number is called a 

LINEAR problem, that which may be 
solved geometrically, by the intersection 
of two right lines. This is called a sim- 
ple problem, and is capable but of one 

LINEN, in commerce. The linen ma- 
nufacture was probably introduced in- 
to Britain with the first settlements of 
the Romans. The flax was certainly first 
planted by that nation in the British soil. 
The plant itself indeed appears to have 
been originally a native of the east. The 
woollen-drapery would naturally be prior 
in its origin to the linen, and the fibrous 
plants from which the threads of the lat- 
ter are produced, seem to have been first 
noticed and worked by the inhabitants of 
Egypt. In Egypt, indeed, the linen ma- 
nufacture appears to have been very ear- 
ly ; for even in Joseph's time it had risen 
to a considerable height. From the 

Egyptians live knowledge of it proceed- 
ed probably to tiie Greeks, and from 
them to the ] tomans. Even at this day 
the flax is imported among us from the 
eastern nations; the western kind being" 
merely a degenerate species of it. In 
order to succeed in the linen manufac- 
ture, one set of people should be confin- 
ed to the ploughing and preparing 1 the 
soil, sowing and covering the seed, to the 
weeding, pulling, rippling, and taking- 
care of the new seed, and watering and 
dressing the flax till it is lodged at home : 
others should be concerned in the dry- 
ing, breaking, scutching, and heckling 
the flax, to fit it for the spinners ; and 
others in spinning and reeling it, to fit it 
for the weaver: others should be con- 
cerned in taking due care of the weaving, 
bleaching, beetling, and finishing the 
cloth for the market. It is reasonable to 
believe, that if these several branches of 
the manufacture were carried on by dis- 
tinct dealers in Scotland and Ireland, 
where our home-made linens are manu- 
factured, the several parts would be bet- 
ter executed, and the whole would be af- 
forded cheaper, and with greater profit. 

LING, in ichthyology, the cirrated ga- 
dus with two black fins, and with the up- 
per jaw longest ; a fish called by authors 
asellus longus. See GADUS. 

LINGUATALA, in natural history, a 
genus of the Vermes Intestina class and 
order. Body depressed, oblong ; mouth 
placed before, surrounded with four pas- 
sages. There is but a single species, i'i-. 
L. serrata, inhabiting the lungs of tho 

LINGUIFORM, in Nat. Hist, tongue- 
shaped ; linear, with the extremity ob - 
tusely rounded. 

LINNJEA, in botany, so named in ho- 
nour of the celebrated Linnxus, a genus 
of the Didjmamia Angiospermia class and 
order. Natural order of Aggregate. Ca- 
prifolise, Jussieu. Essential character : 
calyx double, of the fruit two-leaved, of 
the flower five-parted, superior ; corolla 
bell-shaped berry dry, three-celled. 
There is but one species, viz. L. borealis, 
two-flowered linnxa, a native of the north 
of Europe. 

LINNJSUS, CHAHLES, (Carl von Linne) 
the most eminent naturalist of this age, 
and the founder of modern botany, was 
born in 1707, at Rashult, in the province 
of Smaland, in Sweden, where his father 
resided as assistant minister to the parish 
of Stenbrohult. The father, Nils, who 
was the son of a peasant named Bengtson, 
had, on going into orders, assumed the 
name of Linnseus, which was therefore the. 


proper name of young Charles. Nils 
was attached to the culture of his garden, 
which he had stocked with some of the 
rarer planis in that climate, and it is to the 
delight with which this spot inspired 
Charles, from his earliest childhood, that 
he himself ascribes his botanical passion. 
A remarkable quickness of sight, a hardy 
constitution, and a retentive memory, 
gave him the corporeal and mental requi- 
sites for indulging his disposition, and 
thus he was marked out for a naturalist 
almost from his cradle. His father in- 
tending him for his own profession, sent 
him to the grammar school at \Vexio at 
the age of ten, whence he was removed 
at the age of seventeen years to the higher 
seminary, called the gymnasium. In nei- 
ther of "these situations was he distin- 
guished for his proficiency in the ordina- 
ry studies of a literary education ; but he 
made a rapid progress in the knowledge 
of plants, which he ardently pursued, 
both by frequent excursions in the fields, 
and by the unwearied perusal of such 
books on the subject as he was able to 
procure. When 'his father, in 1726, 
came to VVexio for the purpose of in- 
quiring into his improvement, he was 
much mortified to find his son declared 
utterly unfit for a learned profession by 
tutors, who advised that he should be put 
to some handicraft trade. In this per- 
plexity he applied to the physician, Roth- 
man, who was also lecturer in natural 
philosophy, the only branch of academic 
study for which young Linnaeus had shewn 
any inclination. This person discovered 
in him talents, which, though not fitted to 
make him a theologian, were not ill 
adapted for another profession, and he 
proposed that of physic. As the father's 
circumstances were very narrow, Roth- 
man offered to take the youth gratui- 
tously into his own house during the year 
that remained for him to finish his course 
in the gymnasium ; he also gave him pri- 
vate instructions in physiology, and put 
him into a systematic method of studying 
botany, according to Tournefort's arrange- 
ment, which was then looked upon as the 
most scientific. 

In 1727, Linnaeus was entered at the 
University of Lund ; lie lodged in the 
house of Stobceus, a physician, who pos- 
sessed a good library and museum of na- 
tural history. He appears here to have 
paid for his entertainment by various lit- 
tie services, such as that of forming a 
hortus siccus, and acting as an amanuen- 
sis. It was, however, only by accident 
that his host came to know the extent of 

his studious ardour. The mother of Sto. 
boeus having observed that the candle in 
his chamber was burning at unseasona' 
ble hours, was induced, through fear of 
fire, to complain of it to her son. Sto- 
bceus thereupon entered his chamber at 
a late hour, and found him diligently oc- 
cupied with reading. Struck with this 
proof of his thirst after improvement, he 
gave Linnaeus the free use of his library, 
and admission to his table. The advice 
of Rothvnan, however, caused the young 
student, in 1728, to quit Lund, and to re- 
move to Upsal, for the sake of the supe- 
rior advantages it afforded. His father 
advanced him the sum of about eight 
pounds sterling, which he was informed 
was all the paternal assistance he was to 
expect. Thus he was turned out upon 
the world while yet but a learner in the 
profession by which he was to get his 
bread. His little patrimony was soon ex- 
hausted, and he was reduced to depend 
upon chance for a meal. Unable to pay 
even for the mending of his shoes, he was 
obliged to patch them himself with folded 
paper, and notwithstanding his sanguine 
temper, he could not forbear repenting 
that he had left his comfortable situation 
at Lund. 

At length, in the autumn of 1729, as 
he was intently examining some plants 
in the university garden, he was accosted 
by Dr. Olof Celsius, professor of divinity, 
and an eminent naturalist, who was then 
engaged in preparing a work on the 
plants mentioned in the scripture. A 
little conversation soon apprised him of 
the extraordinary botanical acquisitions 
of the student, and perceiving his neces- 
sitous circumstances, he took him to live 
in his own house. It was in this year 
that an account in the Leipsic Commen- 
taries of Vaillant's Treatise on the Sexes 
of Plants, engaged him in an accurate ex- 
amination of the stamina and pistils of 
flowers, and finding a great variety of 
structure, he conceived the idea of a 
new systematic arrangement, founded on 
the sexual parts. He drew up a trea- 
tise on this principle, which was shewn 
to Celsius, and by him to the botanical 
professor, Rudbeck, who had the libe- 
rality to bestow on it his warmest appro- 
bation. As the professor's advanced age 
made him desirous of a deputy in the of- 
fice of lecturing, Linnaeus, in 1730, was 
appointed to this office, and was also ta- 
ken by Rudbeck into his own house as 
tutor to his sons. 

The court of Sweden having issued an 
order that the academy at Upsal should 


send a proper person to travel through 
Lapland, Linnaeus, who had a strong incli- 
nation to visit that country, was chosen 
for the office. He set out in May, 1732, 
very slenderly provided as a scientific 
traveller, all 'his bag-gage with himself 
being carried on a single horse. This 
tour would have been much more inter- 
esting to science had it been taken when 
he was further advanced in his studies, 
and better equipped for making observa- 
tions. Its chief fruits were a "flora lap- 
ponica," and some curious medical and 
economical facts. 

Having learnt the art of assaying metals 
at the mines of Calix, he gave lectures on 
that subject, and mineralogy in general, 
after his return. He improved himself in 
this br .nch of knowledge by a visit to the 
mining country round Fahlun, at the end 
of 1733. He found, however, that a doc- 
tor's degree would be necessary to his 
further advancement, and in order to ob- 
tain this, money was necessary. For this 
purpose he was advised by a friend to 
turn his thoughts towards a matrimonial 
connection with some lady of fortune, 
and having an introduction to the family 
of Moraeus, the town physician of Fah- 
lun, he ventured to make his addresses to 
his eldest daughter Elizabeth, and was 
favourably received. His indigent cir- 
cumstances gave him little hopes of ob- 
taining the father's consent ; but, to his 
surprise, he only required a delay until 
his exertions should open a path to a 
comfortable settlement. Linnaeus there- 
fore resolved to travel in quest of for- 
tune and a degree, and having accu- 
mulated his little savings, to which were 
added those of his faithful Elizabeth, 
he set out for Holland in the spring of 

At Harderwyck, as the cheapest uni- 
versity, he took the degree of doctor of 
physic, maintaining for his thesis, " Nova 
Hypothesis Febrium Intermittentium." 
He visited Leyden and Amsterdam, and 
was particularly noticed by Dr. John 
Frederic Gronovius, who, upon being 
shewn in manuscript the first sketch of 
the " Systema Naturae," requested it 
might be printed at his own expense. 
This was accordingly done at Leyden, in 
1735, in a tabular form, occupying twelve 
folio pages. By the advice of Gronovius 
he waited on Boerhaave, who, on con- 
versing with him, became sensible of his 
singular attainments in botany, and ad- 
vised him to remain in Holland. Munifi- 
cence was not among that great man's 
excellencies, and a verbal message, by 

way of introduction .to Burmann at Am- 
sterdam, was the principal favour that 
Linnaeus received from him. That emi- 
nent botanist, who was there engaged on 
his work on the plants of Ceylon, took 
the Swede into his house, and treated him 
with great liberality. His library and 
collections were of much use to Linnaeus, 
who there published his excellent work, 
the " Fundamenta Botanica," the basis 
of his system. While he was in this si- 
tuation, Mr. Clifford, an opulent merchant 
of Amsterdam, who had a fine garden of 
exotics, having heard of the merit of 
Linnaeus from Boerhaave, prevailed upon 
Burmann to part with him, and took him 
to his country house at Hartecamp, near 

In 1736 Linnaeus, at Mr. Clifford's ex- 
pence, paid a visit to England. There 
were at that time few distinguished bo- 
tanists in this country, and Dillenius was 
the person whom he was most desirous 
of seeing; Linnaeus went to him at Ox- 
ford, and at first met with a cool recep- 
tion, the old botanist having been offend- 
ed with some of his innovations : after a 
little conversation, however, he liked 
him so well, that he detained him a 
month, and strongly urged him to take up 
his abode at Oxford, and share his salary as 
professor. Dr. Shaw, the traveller, Mar- 
tyn, Miller, and Collinson, also showed 
him much civility; but Sir Hans Sloane 
did not pay the attention to him which 
might have been expected from such a 
votary of natural history. Linnaeus re- 
turned to Holland, enriched with many 
new plants for Clifford's garden, the de- 
scription of which, under the title of 
" Hortus Cliffortianus," appeared in a 
splendid publication in 1737, drawn up by 
him, and arranged according to his new 
system. He had already, in the same 
year, presented to the botanical world 
the essence of that system in the first edi- 
tion of his " Genera Plantarum." 

In the year 1738, having received in- 
telligence that he was in danger of being 
rivalled in his pretensions to his mistress, 
by the influence another had obtained 
with her father, he thought it necessary 
no longer to delay his return. As soon, 
therefore, as he was able, after his reco- 
very from a severe illness, he took his 
way through the Low Countries to Paris. 
At that capital he had recommendations 
to the Jussieus, who received him with 
great kindness, and made him known to 
Reaumur and other eminent naturalists, 
and showed him all the curiosities of the 
place. At a visit to the Academy of Set- 


ences, it Was announced to him that lie 
was elected a corresponding member. 
The attachment of the French to the me- 
thod of their eminent countryman, Tour- 
nefort, was unfavourable to the reception 
of the Linnxan system among them, but 
lie had reason to be satisfied with the 
personal attention which he experienced. 
At Rouen he embarked for Sweden, 
where, on his arrival, he immediately pro- 
ceeded to Fahlun, and was formally be- 
trothed to the object of his affections. In 
the month of September he went to Stock- 
holm, in order to try his fortune as a phy- 
sician ; but he found that his fame as a 
botanist had either not reached thither, 
or was of no service to him as a practi- 
tioner. At length, however, he obtained 
the confidence of some young men of 
rank, who gave him considerable employ- 
ment. A private meeting of men of sci- 
ence being formed in the capital, Linnaeus 
was made an associate, and had the pre- 
cedency for the first three months : this 
institution was the parent of the Royal 
Academy of Stockholm. His reputation 
made him known to Count Tessin, Mar- 
shal of the Diet, by whose influence a 
salary was conferred upon him, with the 
condition of his giving public lectures on 
botany in the summer, and on mineralo- 
gy in the winter. That nobleman 
also procured for him the post of Phy- 
sician to the Navy, and gave him a gene- 
ral invitation to his table. His affairs now 
wore so prosperous an aspect, that he 
would no longer delay his union with his 
betrothed Anna-Elizabeth Morsea, and 
they married in June, 1739. 

The death of Rudbeck, professor of bo- 
tany at Upsal, in 1740, opened to Linnaeus 
a prospect of the literary situation which 
had always been the object of his wishes, 
in which he might devote himself entire- 
ly to the improvement of natural history, 
uninterrupted by the cares of medical 
practice. He had, however, a competi- 
tor, Rousen, his ancient rival and antago- 
nist, whose superior academical claims 
obtained the preference. But the resig- 
nation of Rouberg, the medical professor, 
having made another vacancy, that chair 
was given to Linnaeus, with the condition 
that he and Rousen should divide the 
business of the two professorships between 
them ; and to the former were allotted 
the departments of the botanic garden, 
materia medica, simiology, diaetetics, and 
natural history in general. Before his re- 
moval to Upsal, he was engaged by the 
States to travel through the Southern pro- 
vinces of Sweden, for the purpose of col- 

lecting such information as might tend to 
the improvement of agriculture and manu- 
factures. In this tour'he was accompanied 
by six pupils, and he performed the task 
to the satisfaction of the States : its re- 
sult was printed. He entered on his pro- 
fessorship in the autumn of 1741, on 
which occasion he pronounced a Latin, 
oration " On the necessity of travelling 
one's own country." His own past exer- 
tions in this respect rendered it a very 
entertaining and interesting composition. 
In the same year he made the tour of the 
islands of Oeland and Gothland, by order 
of the States ; and in subsequent years 
he travelled, by the same requisition, 
through West Gothland and Scania. Ex- 
clusive of these exertions his abode was 
henceforth fixed at Upsal, and the re- 
maining history of his life is only that of 
his literary and scientific labours, and of 
the honours and distinctions which were 
accumulated upon him. 

One of his first cares was to improve 
and new model the academic garden. 
He procured the erection of several new 
buildings, arranged the plants according 
to his own system, and founded a mu- 
seum of natural history in part of the 
green-house. In 1745 he published the 
first edition of his '* Flora Succica," an 
admirable specimen of a local catalogue, 
and the pattern of all those which have 
since been made upon the Linn?ean sys- 
tem. In the next year appeared his 
" Fauna Succica," or Catalogue of the 
Animal Kingdom in Sweden, arranged 
also according to his own method. In the 
numerous and difficult class of insects he 
adopted an entirely new method of ar- 
rangement, which has been adopted by 
most later entomologists. His merits, 
indeed, with respect to this class of na- 
tural productions, stands next to those 
with respect to the vegetable produc- 
tions. The same accurate inspection 
was requisite in both, and from the 
immense number of subjects in each, 
it was equally necessary in both to 
search out for minute diversities, where- 
on to found an artificial classification. 
The credit he was now acquiring in his 
own country appeared in his election 
to the post of Secretary to the Acade- 
my of Sciences at Upsal, in a medal of 
him struck at the expence of some noble- 
men in 1746, and in his nomination by the 
king to the rank and title of archiater, in 
1747. He now also began to exert his in- 
fluence in procuring the mission of his 
young disciples to different parts ol the 
globe, in order to make discoveries in na- 


tural history arid occonomy ; a circum- 
stance by which he is distinguished above 
all other naturalists, and which has re- 
dounded equally to his own glory, and to 
the public advantage. The travels of 
Kalm, of Osbeck, of Hasselquist, of Lo- 
tting, were the fruits of his zeal in this 
point. To Linnaeus may also be ascribed 
tiiat curious collection of treatises, which, 
under the name of ' Amaenitates Aca- 
demics," began to be published in the 
year 1749, and were continued to a num- 
ber of volumes. They are academical 
theses, held under Linnaeus in his profes- 
sional capacity, and may be regarded as 
containing his own doctrines and opinions 
on most of the points discussed. 

The work of Linnaeus, which Halter 
terms his " Maximus Opus et jEternum," 
appeared in 1753. It was the " Species 
Fluntarum," in two volumes, 8vo. con- 
taining a description of every known plant, 
arranged according to his sexual system. 
The description, however, is independent 
of any system, as being founded on the 
essential character of each species, with 
a further reference to the generic descrip- 
tion given in the " Genera Plantarum." 
In this publication Linnaeus first intmduc- 
ed his admirable invention of trivial names, 
or epithets taken from the most prominent 
specific mark of the subject, or from 
some other characteristic circumstance. 
The specific descriptions are given in the 
precise form of a definition, with a great 
variety of terms of his own invention, 
simple and compound, forming, as it were, 
a new botanical language. It' in these 
terms he has not aimed at a classical pu- 
rity, he has in general formed them upon 
correct analogy ; and it cannot be denied 
that they are excellently adapted for their 
purpose. In the same year he was creat- 
ed by the king a Knight of the Polar Star, 
an honour which had never before been 
conferred on a literary character. His 
elevation to the rank of nobility, by the 
king's sign manual, took place eight 
years after, in 1761, but antedated 1757, 
and from that time he wrote his name C. 
Von Linne. In the mean time honours of 
a literary kind had been accumulating 
upon him from foreign countries. Besides 
many learned societies of inferior rank, he 
was aggregated to the Imperial Acade- 
my, to the Societies of Berlin, London, 
and to the Academy, and finally was no- 
minated one of the eight foreign members 
of the Academy of Sciences of Paris, being 
the first Swede that had obtained that 
distinction. The remote city of TJpsal 


was visited by many strangers, attract- 
ed by his reputation, which extended 
throughout Europe, and the number of 
students in its university was doubled. 
His correspondence included almost all 
the eminent cultivators of natural history ; 
and he was continually receiving from all 
parts tributes of books, plants, and spe- 
cimens, which enabled him to complete 
his vast plan of carrying a new systema- 
tic arrangement through every depart- 
ment of nature. This he effected by the 
completion of his great work, " Systema 
Naturae," which had grown in successive 
editions from a few tables to two, and 
finally, to three volumes, and received his 
finishing hand in 1768. In this perform- 
ance Linnaeus is the methodiser, and the 
nomenclator of all the known productions 
of the three kingdoms of nature. His 
classifications are all so far artificial, that 
he constitutes divisions and subdivisions 
from minute qualities in the subject, which 
serve very well as external marks, but 
frequently have little relation to its essen- 
tial character,and therefore bring together 
tilings in their nature very dissimilar. 
They are framed, however, with wonder- 
ful ingenuity, and have undoubtedly pro- 
duced a more accurate indentification in 
all the branches of natural history than 
before prevailed. This is the first step 
to an exact history of any subject, and it 
is ignorance that treats it with contempt 
as a mere nomenclature. Although ar- 
rangement was the point at which Lin- 
naeus peculiarly laboured, yet many of 
his smaller works prove his great atten- 
tion to matters of use and curiosity ; and 
no school has contributed so much to a 
thorough knowledge of the productions 
of nature as the Linnaean. With regard 
to the particular parts of his system, the 
botanical was the most generally receiv- 
ed, and bids the fairest for duration. The 
entomological, though possessing great 
excellence, has in some measure been 
abrogated by the more comprehensive 
but more difficult method of Fabricius. 
Those in the other branches of zoology 
are generally in use, but have been im- 
proved or rivalled. The mineralogical 
has been entirely set aside by the great 
advances made in chemical knowledge. 
Linnaeus also carried his methodising 
plants into the science of medicine, and 
published a classified " Materia Medica," 
and a system of nosology, under the title 
of " Genera Morborum." Neither of 
these, however, are considered as happy 
efforts, and he can scarcely rank among 



the improvers of his proper profession, 
except as having 1 brought into notice 
some popular remedies, and recorded 
some curious dietetical observations. 

A moderate degree of opulence (consi- 
derable indeed relatively to the country 
in which he lived) attended the honour 
and reputation which Linnjeus enjoyed. 
He was enabled to purchase an estate and 
villa at Hammerby, near Up sal, which 
was his chief summer residence during 
the last fifteen years of his life. Here he 
had a museum of natural history, on 
which he gave lectures; and here he oc- 
casionally entertained his friends, but with 
that (economy which had become a habit 
with him, and which the possession of 
wealth, as is frequently the case, rather 
straightened than relaxed. His vigour 
and activity continued to an advanced 
period, though his memory ovcrbui thened 
with such an immense load of names, be- 
gan to fail after his sixtieth year. An at- 
tack of apoplexy, in May 1774, obliged 
him to relinquish the most laborious parts 
of his professional duties, and to close his 
literary toils In 1776 a second seizure 
rendered him paralytic on the right side, 
and reduced him to a deplorable state of 
mental and bodily debility. An ulcera- 
tion of the bladder was the concluding 
symptom which earned him oft', on Jan- 
uary 10, 1778, in the seventy-first year 
of his age. A general mourning took place 
at Upsal, at his death, and his body was 
attended to the grave with every token 
of respect. His memory received dis- 
tinguished honours, not "only in his own 
country, but from the friends of science 
in various foreign nations. 

Linnaeus was below the middle stature, 
but strong and muscular. His features 
were agreeable, and his eyes were un- 
commonly animated. His temper was 
lively, ardent, irritable ; his indignation 
warm, and his industry indefatigable. He 
had a large share of natural eloquence, 
and a good command of language, though 
his perpetual study of things did not per- 
mit him to pay much attention to the or- 
naments of words. In society he was 
easy and pleasant; in his domestic rela- 
tions kind and afFectionate ; and in the or- 
dinary commmerce of life upright and 
honourable. His views of nature im- 
pressed him with the most devout senti- 
ments towards its author, and a glow of 
unaffected piety is continually breaking 
forth throughout his writings. If it be 
generally true, that men of real merit are 
modest estimators of themselves, he was 
an exception to the rule ; for vanity was 
His greatest foible, and no panegyrist 

could surpass what he has written to his 
own praise in his diary. lie was, how- 
ever, totally free from envv, and bestowed 
applause liberally where it was deserved ; 
nor did his love of fame cause him to 
descend to personal controversies with 
antagonists. He left a son and four 
daughters. The former was joint pro- 
fessor of botany with his father, and suc- 
ceeded to his medical chair : he was well 
acquainted with botanical science, but 
had none of his father's genius. The 
eldest daughter, Elizabeth-Christiana, had 
a turn for observation, and became known 
by her discovery of the luminous quality 
of the flower tropoeolum, communicated 
to the academy at Stockholm. 

Of the numerous works of Linnaeus, and 
their different editions, particular cata- 
logues are given in the works from which 
this article is composed. Stover's Life of 
Linnnxus. Pulteney's General View of 
the Writings of Linnzeus, second edition, 
by Dr. Maton, with the Diary of Linn <e us, 
bv himself. 

LINOCIERA, in botany, so named from 
Geofroy Linocier, Physician at Tournon, 
in the Vivarais, a genus of the Diandria 
Monogynia class and order. Essential 
character; calyx four-toothed; corolla 
four-petalled; anthers connecting two 
opposite petals at the base ; berry two- 

LINSEED, the seed of the plant linum. 

LI NS FINS, in the military art, small 
pins of iron which keep the wheel of a 
cannon, or waggon, on the axletree ; for 
when the end of the axletree is put 
through the nave, the linspin is put in, to 
keep the wheel from falling off. 

LINSTOCK, in the military art, a 
wooden staff, about three feet long, upon 
one end of which is a piece of iron which 
divides in two, turning from one another, 
having each a place to receive a match, 
and a screw to keep it fast : the other end 
is pointed, and shod with iron, to stick in 
the ground. It is used by gunners to 
fire the guns. 

LINT, linum, from the flax of which 
linen is made. 

In surgery, the term lint denotes the 
scrapings of linen which is used in dress- 
ing wounds, and is made up in various 
forms, as tents, dossils, pledgets, Sec. 

LINUM, in botany, fax, a genus of the 
Pentandria Pentagvnia class and order 
Natural order of Gruinales. Caryophyl- 
lesc, Jussieu. Gerania, Smith. Essential 
character : calyx five-leaved ; petals five; 
capsule ten-valved, ten-celled ; seeds soli- 


tavy. There are twenty-five species. The 
several species of flax are mostly herba- 
ceous, some are fniticose, or woody at 
bottom ; two are shrubby, and one arbo- 
reous ; leaves generally alternate ; flow- 
ers solitary and axillary ; corolla com- 
monly blue, sometimes fading 1 to white, 
and in some yellow. Flax is found wild 
in many parts of Europe, in corn fields ; 
in Eng'land it is, perhaps, doubtful whe- 
ther it be aboriginal. It is common in 
the western counties, not only in corn- 
fields, but in pastures and on downs. 


LIONCELLES, in heraldry, a term used 
for several lions borne in the same coat 
of arms. 

LIP, liare> a disorder in which the up- 
per lip is in a manner slit or divided, so 
as to resemble the upper lip of a hare, 
whence the name. 

L1PARIA, in botany, a genus of the 
Diadelphia Decandria class and order. 
Natural order of Papilionacex, or Legu- 
minosce. Essential character : calyx five- 
cleft, with the lowest segment elongated ; 
corolla wings two-lobed below ; stamina 
the larger, with three shorter teeth ; 
legume ovate. There are five species, 
natives of the Cape of Good Hope. 

LIPPIA, in botany, so named from Au- 
gustine Lippi, a genus of the Didynamia 
Gymnospermia class and order. Natural 
order of Stellatae. Vitices, Jussieu. Es- 
sential character : calyx four-toothed, 
voundish, upright, compressed, membra- 
riaceous ; capsule one-celled, two-valved, 
two-seeded, straight ; seed one, two- 
celled. There are five species. 

LIQUID. Fluids have been divided 
into two classes ; viz. those which are 
elastic, and the non-elastic, or those which 
do not sensibly diminish in bulk when 
subjected to pressure. The first class are 
airs or gases, the second liquids : hence 
we may define a liquid to be a fluid not 
sensibly elastic, the parts of which yield 
to the smallest impression, and move on 
each other. When liquid bodies are 
mixed together, they act in various ways, 
according to the nature of the substances 
employed. Some dissolve each other in 
any proportion, as in the case with most 
gases when mixed ; some unite in deter- 
minate proportion ; some do not act sen- 
sibly upon each other, separating again, 
though mixed ever so carefully ; *" and 
some decompose each other. 

LIQUIUAMBER, in botany, a genus of 
the Monoecia Polyandria class and order. 
Natural order of Conifene. Amentacese, 
Jussieu. Essential character : male, calyx 
common, four-leaved ; corolla none ; fila- 

ments numerous : female : calyx in a, 
globe, four-leaved ; corolla none ; styler. 
two: capsules many in a globe, two- 
vulvecl, many-seeded. There are two 
species, viz. L. styraciflua, maple-leaved 
hquidamber, or sweet gum; and L. im- 
Lerbe, oriental liqujdamber; the trunk 
of the former is usually two feet in diame- 
ter, straight, and free from branches, to 
the height of fifteen feet ; whence the 
branches spread and rise in a conic form 
forty feet from the ground. The leaves 
are shaped like those of the lesser maple, 
of a dark green colour, their upper sur- 
faces shining; a sweet glutinous substance 
exudes through their pores in warm 
weather, which renders them clammy to 
the touch ; in February, before the leaver. 
are formed, the blossoms break forth from 
the tops of the branches into spikes of 
yellowish red pappose globular flowers, 
which swell gradually, retaining their 
round form to the full maturity of their 
seed vessels, which are thick set with 
pointed hollow protuberances, and split- 
ting open discharge their seeds. The 
wood of this tree is good timber, and is 
used in wainscotting, &c. ; the grain is 
fine, some of it is beautifully variegated. 
When wrought too green it is apt to 
shrink. From between the wood and the 
bark issues a fragrant gum, which trickles 
from the wounded trees, and by the heat 
of the sun congeals into transparent drops, 
which the Indians chew as a preservative 
to their teeth ; it smells very much like 
Balsam of Tola, so that it is difficult to 
distinguish them. The bark is of singular 
use to the Indians for covering their huts, 
Native of North America. 

LIQUOR of Jlints. Alkalies have a 
powerful action on silica : they combine 
in different proportions ; two or three 
parts of potash, with one of silica, give a 
compound, which is deliquescent in the 
air, and soluble in water : this was for- 
merly distinguished by the name of liquor 
of flints, but it is now denominated sili- 
cated alkali. 

LIQUORICE. The glycirrhiza, or 
common liquorice shrub, has a long, 
thick, creeping root, striking several feet 
deep into the ground ; an upright, firm, 
herbaceous, annual stalk, three or four 
feet high, garnished with winged leaves, 
of four or five pair of oval lobes, termi- 
nated by an odd one : and from the axil- 
las, erect spikes of pale blue flowers in 
July, succeeded by short smooth pods. The 
root of this plant is the useful part, being 
replete with a sweet, balsamic, pectoral 
juice, which is either extracted, or the 
wood sold in substance. It is much used 



n all compositions for coughs, afxl disor- 
ders of the stomach; but by far the great- 
est quantity is used by brewers. The 
common liquorice is cultivated in most 
countries of Europe, for the sake of its 
root ; but in Spain and Italy, and particu- 
larly in Sicily and Calabria, it makes a 
considerable article of commerce with 
this country. In Calabria, liquorice is 
chiefly manufactured, and exported from 
Corigliano, Rossano, Cassano, and Paler- 
mo. The Calabrian liquorice, upon the 
whole, is preferable to that coming from 
Sicily, and the Italian paste to that com- 
ing "from Spain. Liquorice also grows 
in great abundance in the Levant ; and 
vast quantities of it are consumed there, 
in making a decoction, which is drank 
cold in the summer, in the manner of 

To prepare liquorice, the roots are 
boiled a long time in water, till the 
fluid has got a deep yellow tincture ; 
and the water at length evaporated till 
the remains acquire a consistency, when 
they are formed into sticks, which are 
packed up with bay leaves, in the 
same order as we receive them. The 
boiling requires the utmost care and pre- 
caution, as the juice takes an unpleasant 
smell and flavour, if burnt in the least 

LIR10DENDRUM, in botany, a genus 
of the Polyandria Polygynia class and 
order. Natural order of Coadunatx. 
Magnolia:, Jussieu. Essential character: 
calyx three-leaved; petals six ; seeds im- 
bricated into a strobile. There are two 
species, viz. L. tulipifera, common tulip 
tree ; and L. lillifera ; the former is a na- 
tive of North America, where it is a tree 
of the first magnitude, and is generally 
known in all the English settlements by 
the name of poplar. The young shoots 
of this tree are covered with a smooth 
purplish bark; they are garnished with 
targe leaves, whose foot-stalks are four 
inches long; the leaves are of a singular 
form, being divided into three lobes ; the 
middle lobe is blunt and hollowed at the 
point, appearing us if it had been cut with 
scissars ; the upper surface of the leaves 
is smooth, and of a lucid green, the un- 
der of a pale green ; the flowers are pro- 
duced at the end of the branches, com- 
posed of six petals, three without and 
three within, forming a sort of bell-shap- 
ed flower, whence the inhabitants of 
North America gave it the name of tulip ; 
the petals are marked with green, yel- 
low, and red spots, making a beautiful 
appearance when the trees ?.re charged 
-,,:lh flowers ; \vhcn the flowers fall off; 

the germ swells, and forms a kind 
of cone, which does not ripen in Eng- 
land ; the handsomest tree of this kind, 
near London, is in a garden at \Valtluun 

The wood is used for canoes, bowls, 
dishes, spoons, and all sorts of joiners' 

Kalm speaks of having seen a barn of 
considerable size, the sides and roof of 
which were made of a single tulip-tree 
split into boards ; there is no wood that 
contracts and expands so much as this, 
which is a great inconvenience attending 
it ; the bark is divisible into thin laminae, 
which are tough like bast. 

LISIANTHUS, in botany, a genus of 
the Pentanclria Monogynia class and 
order. Natural order of Rotaceae. Gen- 
tian DC, Jussieu. Essential character : ca- 
lyx keeled ; corolla with a 
tube, and recurved divisions; stigma 
two-plated ; capsule two-celled, two- 
valved; the margins of the valves intort- 
ed. There are nine species, natives of 

LISTING. Persons listed are to be 
carried within four days, but not sooner 
than twenty-four hours, after they have 
enlisted, before the next justice of peace 
of any county, riding', city, or place, or 
chief magistrate of any city or town cor- 
porate (not being an officer in the army) ; 
and if, before such justice or magistrate 
they dissent from such listing, and return 
the listing money, and also twenty shil- 
ling's, in lieu of all charges expended on 
them, they are to be discharged. But 
such persons refusing or neglecting to re- 
turn and pay such money within twenty- 
four hours, shall be deemed as duly listed 
as if they had assented thereto before the 
proper magistrate ; and they will, in that 
case, be obliged to take the oath, or upon 
refusal they shall be confined by the offi- 
cer who listed them till they do take it. 
Persons owning before the proper magis- 
trate, that they voluntarily listed them- 
selves, arc obliged to take the oath, or 
suffer confinement by the officer who 
listed them till they do take it. The 
magistrate is obliged, in both cases, to 
certify that such persons are duly listed ; 
setting forth their birth, age, and calling, 
if known ; and that the second and sixth 
sections of the articles of war, against 
mutiny and desertion, were read to them, 
and til at they had taken the oath. Offi- 
cers offending herein are to be cashiered, 
and displaced from their office; to be dis- 
abled from holding any post, civil or mili- 
tary ; and to forfeit 100/. Persons receiv- 
ing inlisting money from any officer, 



knowing him to be such, and afterwards 
absconding 1 , and refusing 1 to go before a 
magistrate to declare their assent or 
dissent, are deemed to be inlisted to 
all intents and purposes, and may be 
proceeded against as if they had taken the 

LIT A, in botany, a genus of the Pen- 
tandria Monogynia class and order. Na- 
tural order of Rotacese. Gentianae, Jus- 
sieu. Essential character : calyx five- 
cleft, with two or three scales at the 
base; corolla salver-shaped, with a long 
tube, dilated at the base and throat; bor- 
der five-cleft"; anthers twin, inserted in 
the throat ; capsule one -celled, two-valv- 
ed ; seeds numerous. There are two 
species, viz. L. rosea, and L. caerulea ; na- 
tives of Guiana. 

LITANY, a solemn form of supplica- 
tion to God, in which the priest utters 
some things fit to be prayed for, and the 
people join in their intercession, saying, 
" We beseech Thee to hear us, "good 
Lord," &c. 

At first, the use of litanies was not fix- 
ed to any stated time, but were only em- 
ployed as exigencies required. They 
were observed, in imitation of theNine- 
vites, with ardent supplications and fast- 
ings, to avert the threatening 1 judgments 
of fire, earthquakes, inundations, or hos- 
tile invasions. About the year 400, lita- 
nies began to be used in processions, the 
people walking barefoot, and repeating 
them with great devotion ; and it is pre- 
tended, that by this means, several coun- 
tries were delivered from great calamities. 
The days on which these were used, were 
called rogation days : these were appoint- 
ed by the canons of different councils, 
till it was decreed by the council of Tole- 
do, that they should be used every month 
throughout the year; and thus by de- 
grees they came to be used weekly on 
Wednesdays and Fridays, the ancient sta- 
tionary days for fasting. To these days 
the rubric of our church has added Sun- 
days, as being the greatest days for as- 
sembling at divine service. Before the 
last review of the " Common Prayer," the 
litany was a distinct service by itself, and 
used some time after the morning prayer 
was over; at present it is made one office 
with the morning service, being ordered 
to be read after the third collect for 
grace, instead of the intercessional pray- 
ers in the daily service. 

LITERARY property. Authors, it 
should seem, had, by the common law, 
the sole and exclusive copy-right remain- 
ing in themselves or their assigns in per- 
petuity, after having printed and pub- 

lished their compositions. This, as a. cqm- 
mon law right, was strangely questioned 
by some of our judges, who studied spe- 
cial pleading more than common sense. 
But by statute 8 Anne, c. 19, it is secured 
to them for fourteen years, from the day 
of publishing ; and after the end of four- 
teen years, the sole right of printing or 
disposing of copies, shall return to the 
authors, if then living, for other fourteen 
years. This statute, it has been held, re- 
strains the right of the author and his 
assigns to the fourteen or the twen- 
ty-eight years, whatever it might have 
been at the common law. A penalty on 
each sheet found in the possession of a 
party pirating a work, is inflicted by the 
statute, 9 Anne, c. 19 ; and, in order to 
entitle the plaintiff to recover this penal- 
ty, the book must have been entered at 
Stationers' Hall. But an author whose 
work has been pirated, may maintain an 
action for damages merely, without hav- 
ing so entered his book. When an author 
transfers all his right or interest in a pub- 
lication to another, and happens to sur- 
vive the first fourteen years, the second 
term will result to his assignee, and not 
to himself. By statute 12 Geo. II. c. 36. 
34 Geo. III. c. 20, s. 57, books printed in 
England originally, may not be reprinted 
abroad, and imported within twenty years. 
A last act extends also to Ireland, where 
English books were frequently pirated. 
By statute 8 Geo. II. c. 13 ; 7 Geo. III. c. 
28 ; 17 Geo. III. c. 57. Engravers have a 
property in their prints and engravings 
for twenty-eight years absolutely. A fair 
abridgment is equally protected with an 
original work. Acting a play on a stage is 
not a publishing within the statute, 8 
Anne, c. 19 ; but one cannot take a piece 
in short hand and print it before the au- 
thor has published it. 

LITERATE, in natural history, orna- 
mented with characters like letters. 

LITHARGE, in the arts. Lead is easily 
oxydable. When first fused its surface is 
perfectly bright, but by the contact of the 
air it is quickly covered with a thick film, 
called the dross of lead. If this be taken 
off, the same circumstences again take 
place, and thus the whole of the lead may- 
be converted into a kind of grey powder, 
which is the oxide of lead. By exposing 
it to a higher degree of heat, it acquires 
a y ellow colour, forming a pigment nam- 
ed " massicot :" and by a still greater 
heat, and causing the flame to play upon 
the surface, while the powder is constant- 
ly stirred, the yellow colour becomes 
red, and the substance is then called mi- 
nium, or red lead, which is a metal in & 



high degree of oxydizement. By a par- 
ticular management of the heat, during 1 
the oxydizement of lead, supplying it 
quickly with a current of air blown over 
the surface of the metal, the oxide is 
semi-vitrified, forming the soft flaky sub- 
stance named litharge. By a stronger 
heat, the lead may be vitrified, when it 
forms the glass of lead. 

LITHOMAIIGE, in mineralogy, is a 
species of the clay genus, and divided by 
Werner and others into two sub-speci f -s, 
viz. the friable and the indurated. Friable 
lithomarge, or rock-marrow, is white and 
massive ; it occurs likewise as a crust, 
and disseminated. Its lustre is feebly 
glimmering, is generally coherent, feels 
greasy, and adheres to the tongue. It is 
found in large quantities in the Saxon tin 
veins. Indurated lithomarge is common- 
ly white, but with many varieties of colour. 
The white and red are uniform, but the 
other colours are usually disposed in 
clouded and spotted delineations. It is 
found in many parts of Germany, and 
occurs in veins of porphyry, gneiss and 
serpentine; in drusy cavities of topaz 
rock, or nidulur in basalt, amygdaloid and 
serpentine; and in beds over coal. Ac- 
cording to Jameson, the terra-miraculosa, 
which is remarkable for the beauty of its 
coloured delineations, is a variety of the 
indurated lithomarge. 

LITHOPHILA, in botany, a genus of 
the Diandria Monogynia class and order. 
Essential character : calyx three-leaved ; 
corolla three-petalled; nectary two-leaved. 
There is only one species, a native of 

LITHOSPERMUM, in botany, gram- 
-n'ell, a genus of the Pentandria Alonogy- 
nia class and order Natural order of 
Asperifo'iix. Borragineae, Jussieu. Es- 
sential character : calyx five-parted ; 
corolla funnel form, perforated at the 
throat. There are twelve species, na- 
tives of most parts of Europe, particular- 
ly in corn-fields and waste places, flower- 
ing from May 10 July. 

LITHOTOMY, in surgery, the opera- 
tion by which a calculus is removed from 
the bladder. 

LITMUS, in chemistry, a substance, 
the tincture of which is extremely useful, 
as a test of the presence of an acid or 
alkali. All acids, and salts, with an ex- 
cess of acid, change the natural violet 
purple of litmus to red ; when reddened 
by an acid, the blue is restored by an 

L1TTORELIA, in botany, pLiintain 

shore-veed, a genus of the Monoecia Te- 
trandna class and order. Natural order 
of Piantagines, Jussieu. Essential charac- 
ter : male, calyx four-leaved ; corolla four- 
cleft ; stamina long : female, calyx none ; 
corolla slightly, four-cleft; styles long; 
seed, a nut 

LITURGY, a name given to those set 
forms of prayer which have been general- 
ly used in the Christian church. Of these 
there are not a few ascribed to the apos- 
tles und fathers, but they are almost uni- 
versally allowed to be spurious. 

LIVER, in anatomy, a very large viscus, 
of a red colour, situated in the right hypo- 
chondrium, and serving for the seer? tion 
of the bile or gall. See ANATOMY; PHY- 

LIVER, a name formerly given to dif- 
ferent chemical combinations, because 
they were supposed to resemble the ani- 
mal liver in colour only. Thus we had 
liver of sulphur, liver of antimony, 8tc. &c. 

LIVERY of seisin, a delivery of posses- 
sion of lands, tenements, or other cor- 
poreal thing (for of things incorporeal 
there can be no seisin) to one that has 

Livery of seisin must be on the land, in 
the presence of two witnesses, and was 
anciently used to give publicity to gifts or 
transfers of land. It is now necessary, in 
order to complete a feoffment, and to 
make good a lease for life or grant of the 
freehold to commence at a future day. 
See ESTATE, LEASE. Where there is 
land and a hou^e, it must be made in the 
house, that being the principal. 

LIVERYMEN, of London, are a num- 
ber of men chosen from among the free- 
men of each company. Out of this body 
the common council, sheriff, and other 
superior officers for the government of 
the city, are elected, and they alone have 
the privilege of giving their votes for 
members of parliament ; from which the 
rest of the citizens are excluded. 


LOAM, in mineralogy, is a sub-species 
of the clay genus, and of a yellowish gray 
colour, frequently spotted yellow and 
brown. It occurs massive, is dull, and 
sometimes weakly glimmering. It ad- 
heres pretty strongly to the tongue, feels 
greasy, and is not very heavy : it is ge- 
nerally mixed with sand and gravel, and 
also iron ochre. According to Mr. Jame- 
son, it may be considered as sandy pot- 
ter's clay, mixed with mica and iron ochre. 
See CLAY. 



LOAN, in finance, money borrowed 
by government for defraying the extra- 
ordinary expenses of the state. 

The 'comparative advantage or disad- 
vantage of the terms, on which the public 
loans have been obtained at different pe- 
riods, has frequently been misrepresented, 
either from misconception or for party 
purposes, though it is evidently a subject 
on which the truth is very easily ascer- 
tained. The economy or extravagance of 
every transaction of this kind depends on 
its correspondence or disagreement with 
the price of the public funds, and the cur- 
rent rate of interest at which money could 
be obtained on good security at the time 
the bargain was concluded ; and, conse- 
quently, a loan, on which the highest in- 
terest is paid, may have been obtained on 
the best terms that could be made at the 
time it was negotiated. The interest 
paid, however, forms the real burden of 
each loan to the country ; for, since the 
mode of buying up stock at the market 
price has been adopted in the redemp- 
tion of the debt, the nominal capital that 
is created has become but of little im- 
portance, though certainly not to be 
wholly disregarded. 

The first loans differed materially from 
those of subsequent periods, in being 
raised wholly on terminable annuities; 
and in having a particular fund assigned 
for each loan, by the supposed adequate- 
ness or insufficiency of which the interest 
required by the lenders was frequently 
influenced, as well as by other causes, 
which have since ceased to exist. 

During the reign of Queen Anne, loans 
were chiefly raised on annuities for 99 
years, till 1711 ; when, by the establish- 
ment of the South Sea Company, a variety 
of debts were consolidated and made a 
permanent capital, bearing 6 per cent, 
interest. About this period lotteries were 
also frequently adopted for raising money 
for the public service, under which form 
a considerable premium was given, in ad- 
dition to a high rate of interest. This 
mode of raising money was followed in 
1712, 1713, and 1714. In the latter year, 
though the interest paid was equal to 
only 5i. 7s. 2J. per cent, on the sum bor- 
rowed, the premium allowed was up- 
wards of 34/ per cent. ; but, as peace was 
restored, and the legal rate of interest 
had been reduced to 5 per cent, it seems 
that a larger premium was allowed, for 
the sake of appearing to borrow at a mo- 
derate rate of interest. 

In the reign of George I. the interest on 
a considerable part of the public debts 

was reduced to 5 per cent, and the few- 
loans that were raised were, comparative- 
ly, of small amount; that of the year 1720, 
was obtained at little more than 4 per 
cent, interest. 

About 1730 the current rate of interest 
was 3 per cent. and, in 1736, govern- 
ment was enabled to borrow at 3 per cent, 
per annum. The extraordinary sums ne- 
cessary for defraying the expenses of the 
war, which began in 1739, were at first 
obtained from the sinking fund and the 
salt-duties ; a payment from the Bank, in 
1742, rendered only a small loan neces- 
sary in that year, which was obtained at 
little more than 3 per cent, interest, ^i 
the succeeding years the following sum's 
were raised by loans. 

Sum borrowed. Interest. 

L. L. s. d. 

1743 1,800,000 384 

1744 , 1,800,000 3 6 10 

1745 2,000,000 407 

1746 2,500,000 551 

1747 4,000,000 480 

1748 6,300,000 4 8 Q 

Loans of the seveti years' war. 

1756 2,000,000 3 12 

1757 3,000,000 3 14 S 

1758 5,000,000 365 

1759 6,600,000 3 10 9 

1760 8,000,000 3 13 7 

1761 12,000,000 4 1 11 

1762 12,000,000 4 10 9 

1763 3,000,000 442 

Loans of the American war. 

1776 2,000,000 398 

1777 5,000,000 452 

1778 6,000,000 4 18 7 

1779 7,000,000 5 18 10 

1780 12,000,000 5 16 & 

1781 12,000,000 5 11 1 

1782 13,500,000 5 18 1 

1783 .12,000,000 4 13 9 

1784 ......... 6,000,000 5 6 11 

Loans of the war with the 

1793 4,500,000 

1794 11,000,000 

1795 18.000,000 

1796 18,000,000 

1796 7,500,000 

1797 18,000,000 , 

1797 14,500,000 

1798 17,000,000 

1799 3,000,000 

1799 -.15,500,000 

1800 ....20,500,000 

1801 28,000,000 

French Re- 

4 3 


4 10 


4 15 


4 14 


4 12 


5 14 


6 6 


6 4 


5 12 


5 5 

4 14 


5 5 




The sums borrowed since the com- 
melicement of the war, which began in 
1803, hive hitherto been of somewhat 
less extent, as it has been deemed neces- 
sary to endeavour to raise a considerable 
part of the extraordinary sums wanted 
within the year. 

LOASA, in botany, a genus of the Po- 
lyandria Monogynia class and order. Es- 
sential character: calyx five-leaved, su- 
perior; corolla five-petalled; petals hood- 
ed; nectary five-leaved, converging; cap- 
sule turbinate, one celled, three valved, 
many seeded. There is only one spe- 
cies, viz. L. hispida, a native of South 

LOB ART A, in natural history, a genus 
of the Vermes Mollusca class and order. 
Body above convex, beneath flat lobate. 
There is but a single species, viz. L. qua- 
driloba, which inhabits the northern seas. 
It has a tail with four lobes. 

LOBE, in anatomy, any fleshy protube- 
rant part, as the lobes of the lungs, lobes 
of the ears, &c. 

LOBELLA, in botany, so named from 
Matthias de Lobel, a Flemish botanist, a 
genus of the Syngenesia Monogamia class 
and order. Natural order of Campana- 
ceze. Campanulacex, Jussieu. Essential 
character : calyx five-cleft ; corolla one 
petalled, irregular ; capsule inferior, two 
or three-celled. There are forty -two spe- 
cies ; these are mostly herbaceous plants, 
some annual, more perennial, and a few 
suffrutieose, or woody at the bottom of 
the stems, which in some are prostrate, 
in others upright ; leaves alternate ; flow- 
ers either solitary and axittary with two 
small bractes, or in loose terminating 
spikes with three little bractes. The pre- 
dominant colour of the corollas is blue ; 
they are chiefly natives of the Cape of 
Good Hope. 

LOCAL action, is an action restrained 
to the proper county, in opposition to a 
transitory action, which may be laid in 
any county, at the plaintiff's discretion. 
In local actions, where possession of land 
is to be recovered, or damages for an ac- 
tual trespass, or for waste, or the like, af- 
fecting land, the plaintiff must lay his de- 
claration, or declare his injury to have 
happened in the very county and place 
that it really did happen in ; but in transi- 
tory actions, for injuries that may happen 
any where, as debt, detinue, slander, and 
the like, the plaintiff may declare in what 
county he pleases, and then the trial must 
be in that county in which the declara- 
tion is laid ; though if the defendant will 
make affidavit that the cause of action, if 
any, arose not in that, but in another 

county, the court will oblige the plaintiff 
to declare in the proper county. 

LOCAL problem, among mathemati- 
cians, such a one as is capable of an infi- 
nite number of different solutions, by 
reason that the point which is to resolve 
the problem may be indifferently taken 
within a certain extent, as, suppose any 
where, within such a line, within such a 
plane, figure, &c. which is called a geo- 
metric locus, and the problem is sai'd to 
be a local or indetermined one. See Lo- 

A local problem may be either simple, 
when the point sought is in a right line ; 
plane, when the point sought is in the cir- 
cumference of a circle ; solid, when the 
point required is in the circumference of 
a conic section ; or, lastly, sursolid, when 
the point is in the perimeter of a line of 
the second gender, or of an higher kind, 
as geometers call it. 

LOCK, an instrument used for fasten- 
ing doors, chests, &c. generally opened 
by a key. The lock is esteemed the mas- 
ter-piece in smithery ; much art and de- 
licacy being required in contriving and 
varying the wards, bolts, and springs. 
From the different structure of locks, ac- 
commodated to their different use, they 
acquire different names; thus, those 
placed on outer doors are called stock- 
locks ; those on inner doors, spring- 
locks ; those on trunks, trunk-locks, pad- 
locks, &c. Of these the spring-lock is 
the most curious : its principal parts are, 
the main-plate, the cover-plate, and the 
pin hole : to the main-plate belong the 
key-hole, top-hook, cross- wards, bolt-toe, 
or bolt-nab, drawback-spring, tumbler, 
pin of the tumbler, and the staples ; to 
the cover-plate belong the pin, main- 
ward, cross-ward, step-ward, or dapper- 
ward ; to the pin-hole belong the hook- 
ward, main cross-ward, shank, the pot or 
bread, bit, and bow-ward. The importa- 
tion of locks is prohibited. 

LOCK, or WEIR, in inland navigations, 
the general name for all those works of 
wood or stone, made to confine and raise 
the water of a river ; the banks, also, 
which are made to divert the course of a 
river, are called by these names in some 
places. But the term lock is more par- 
ticularly appropriated to express a kind of 
canal inclosed between two gates ; the 
upper called by workmen the sluice-gate, 
and the lower called the flood-gate. These 
serve in artificial navigations to confine 
the water, and render the passage of 
boats easy in passing up and down the 
stream. See CATTAL. 

LQCUS ereometriciix, denotes a line, by 


which a local or indeterminate problem is 
solved. See LOCAL PHOHLEM. 

A locus is a line, any point of which 
may equally solve an indeterminate pro- 
blem. Thus, if a I'ight line suffice for 
the construction of the equation, it is call- 
ed focus ad rectum; if a circle, locus cud 
circulum ; if a parabola, locus ad parabo. 
lam ; if an ellipsis, locus ad ellipsin , and 
so of the rest of the conic sections. 

The loci of such equations as are right 
lines, or circles, the ancients called plain 
loci,- and of those that are parabolas, hy- 
perbolas, &c. solid loci. But VVolfius, and 
others, among the moderns, divide the 
loci more commodiously into orders, ac- 
cording 1 to the numbers of dimensions to 
which the indeterminate quantities rise. 
Thus, it will be a locus of the first order, 

if the equation is x = ; a locus of the 

second or quadratic order, if y i =ax, or 
y-=a* a? a ; a locus of the third or cu- 
bic order, if y3 ==i a 1 x ) or* x?, 

The better to conceive the nature of 
the locus, suppose two unknown and va- 
riable right lines A P, P M (Plate VIII. 
Mi seel. tig. 4 and 5) making any given 
angle A P M with each other; the one 
whereof, as A P, we call x, having a fixed 
origin in ihe point A, and extending it- 
self indefinitely along a right line given 
in position ; the other P M, which we call 
y, continually changing its position, but 
always parallel to itself. An equation on- 
ly containing these two unknown quanti- 
ties, x and y, mixed with known ones, 
which expresses the relation of every va- 
riable quantity A P, (x}, to its correspon- 
dent variable quantity P M, (y) : the line 
passing through the extremities of all the 
values of y, i. e. through all the points M, 
is called a geometrical locus, in general, 
and the locus of that equation in particu- 

All equations, whose loci are of the 
first order, may be reduced to some one 
of the four following formulas : 1. y = 
bx bx , b x 

7T- 2 ^=T+ C ' 3.2 = --c. 4. 

y = c . Where the unknown quan- 
tity, z/, is supposed always to be freed 
from fractions, and the fraction that mul- 
tiplies the other unknown quantity, x, to 

be reduced to this expression -, and all 
the known terms to c. 

The locus of the first formula being al- 
ready determined : to find that of the se- 


cond, y = -- \-c ; in the line A P, fig. 6, 

take A B = a, and draw B E = b, A D= 
c, and parallel to P M. On the same side 
A P, draw the line AE of an indefinite 
length towards E, and the indefinite 
straight line D M parallel to A E. Then 
the line I) M is the locus of the aforesaid 
equation, or formula ; for if the line M P 
be drawn from any point M thereof paral- 
lel to A Q, the triangles A B E, and A PF, 
will be similar : and therefore A B (a) : 

B E (b) :: A P O) P F =1 ; and con- 

sequently PM (y) = P 
F M (c). 

To find the locus of the third form, #== 
b x 
-- c, proceed thus : assume A B =. a 

(fig. 7) ; and draw the right lines B E = 
b, A I) = c and parallel to P M, the one 
on one side A P, and the other on the 
other side : and through the points A E, 
draw the line AE of an indefinite length 
towards E, and through the point D, the 
line D M parallel to A E : then the inde- 
finite right line GM shall be the locus 
sought ; for we shall have always P M = 

Lastly, to find the locus of the fourth 
formula, y = c -- - ; inAP (fig. 8) : 

take A B = , and draw B E = b, A D= 
c, and parallel to P M, the one on one side 
A P, and the other on the other side ; and 
through the points A and E, draw the 
line A E indefinitely towards E, and 
through the point D draw the line D M 
parallel to A E. Then D G shall be the 
locus sought; for if the line M P be 
drawn from any point M thereof parallel 
to A Q, then we shall always have P M 

FM PF, thatis, y = c 

Hence it appears, that all the loci of the 
first degree are straight lines ; which may 
be easily found, because all their equa- 
tions may be reduced to some one of the 
foregoing formulas. 

All loci of the second degree are conic 
sections, liz. either the parabola, the 
circle, ellipsis, or hyperbola : n an equa- 
tion therefore be given, whose locus is of 
the second degree, audit be required to 
draw the conic section, which is the locus 
thereof; first draw a parabola, ellipsis, or 
hyperbola ; so as that the equations ex- 
pressing the natures thereof may be as 


compound as possible. In order to get 
general equations, or formulas, by exam- 
ining- the peculiar properties whereof we 
may know which of these formulas the 
given equation ought to have regard to ; 
that is, which of the conic sections will 
be the locus of the proposed equation. 
Tills known, compare all the terms of the 
proposed equation with the terms of 
the general formula of that conic sec- 
tion, which you have found will be the 
locus of the given equation ; by which 
means you will find how to draw the sec- 
tion, which is the locus of the equation 

For example ; let A P = x, P M = y, 
be unknown, and variable straight lines 
(fig. 9); and let m, n, p, r, s, be given 
right lines : in the line A P take A 13 = 
m, and draw B E = n, A 1) = r and paral- 
lel to P VI ; and through the point A 
draw A E = e, and ihrough tiie point 1) 
the indefinite right line D G parallel to 
A E. In D G take D C = s, and with 
C G, as a diameter, having its ordinates 
parallel to P AI, and the line C H =/>, as 
the parameter, describe a parabola C M : 
then (he portion thereof, included in the 
angle P A D, will be the locus of the fol- 
lowing general formula : 

2 nx y . n n xx n 2 ' 


m ' " 

For if from any point M of that por- 
tion there be drawn the right line M P, 
making any angle A P M with M P ; the 
triangles A B E, A P F, shall be similar ; 

A B : A E :: A P : A F or D G ; that is, 

m : e : : x : . And A B : B E :: A P : 


P F ; that is, m : n :: x : . And cdnse- 

quently, G M or P M P F F G = y 

_!L?_ r . And C GorDG DC = 


s. But from the nature of the para- 
bola G M* = C G X C H ; which equa- 
tion will become that of the general for- 
mula, by putting the literal values of 
those lines. 

Again, if through the fixed point A you 
draw the indefinite right line A Q (fig. 
10), parallel to P M, and you take A B 
= m, and draw B E = n parallel to 
A P, and through the determinate points 
A E, the line A E = e; and if in A P you 
take A D = r : and draw the indefinite 
straight line D G parallel to A E, and take 

DC s: this being done, if with the 
diameter C G, whose ordinates are paral- 
lel to A P, and parameter the line C H 
= p, you describe a parabola C M ; the 
portion of this parabola contained in the 
angle BAP shall be the locus of this se- 

cond equation, or formula : 

xx- nyx --\ nn y 

m r m m 

o r x 4- 


For, if the line M Q be drawn from 
any point M, therein, parallel to A P ; 
then will A B : A E :: A Q or P M : A F 

or D G ; that is, m : e ::#:; and A B 

: B E :: A Q : Q F ; that is, m : n :: y : 

And therefore G M or Q M Q F 
F G == x ^ r; andC G or D G 

And so by the common property of the 
parabola, you will have the foregoing se- 
cond equation, or formula. So likewise 
may be found general equations for the 
other conic sections. 

Now if it be required to draw the para- 
bola, which we find to be the locus of 
this proposed equation yy 2 a y bx 
-j- e c = o ; compare every term of the 
first formula with the terms of the equa- 
tion, because y y in both is without frac- 
tions: and then will = o, because the 

rectangle xyuot being in the proposed 
equation, the said rectangle may be es- 
teemed as multiplied by o ; whence n = o, 
and m = e,- because the line A E falling 
in A B, that is, in A P in the construc- 
tion of the formula, the points B E do 
coincide. Therefore destroying all the 

terms adfected with - in the formula, 

and substituting m for e, we shall get y y 

2ry p x -j- r r -j- p s = o. Again, 
by comparing the correspondent terms 

2 r y and 2 a y, as also p x and 

b x, we have r = a, and p = b; and 
comparing the terms wherein are neither 
of the unknown quantities x y, we get 
7- r -j- ps = c c ; and substituting a and 

b for r and p, then will s = 

which is a negative expression when a is 
greater than c, as is here supposed. 
There is no need of comparing the first 
terms y y and yy, because they are the 
same. Now thp values of n } r, p t s, be 



ing thus found, the sought locus may be 
constructed by means of the construction 
of the formula, and after the following 

Because B E = n = o (fig. 9), the 
points B E do coincide, and the line A 
E falls in A P; therefore through the fix- 
ed point A draw the line A D = r = a 
parallel to P M, and draw DG parallel to 
A P, in which take D C = afl ~ cc _ 

s , then with D C, as a diameter, whose 
ordinates are right lines parallel to P M, 
and parameter the line C H = p = b, 
describe a parabola: then the two por- 
tions O M M, R M S, contained in the 
angle P A O, formed by the line A P, and 
the line A O drawn parallel to P M, will 
be the locus of the given equation, as is 
easily proved. 

If in a given equation whose locus is 
a parabola, a: a: is without a fraction ; 
then the term of the second formula must 
be compared with those of the given 

Thus much for the method of construct- 
ing the loci of the equations which are 
conic sections. If, now, an equation, 
whose locus is a conic section, be giv- 
en, and the particular section whereof 
it is the locus be required, all the terms 
of the given equation being brought over 
to one side, so that the other be equal to 
nothing, there will be two cases. 

Case I. When the rectangle x y is not 
in the given equation. 1. If either yy or 
xx be in the same equation, the locus 
will be a parabola. 2. If both x x and y y 
are in the equation with the same signs, 
the locus will be an ellipsis, or a circle. 
3. If x x and y y have different signs, the 
locus will be an hyperbola, or the oppo- 
site sections regarding their diameters. 

Case II. When the rectangle xy is in 
the given equation. 1. If neither of the 
squares x x or y y, or only one of them, 
be in the same, the locus of it will be an 
hyperbola between the asymptotes. 2. If 
y y and x x be therein, having different 
signs, the locus will be an hyperbola re- 
garding its diameters. 3. If both the 
squares x x and y y are in the equation, 
having the same signs, you must free 
the square y y from fractions; and then 
the locus will be an hyperbola, when the 
square of 5 the fraction multiplying x y, 
is equal to the fraction multiplying x x ; 
an ellipsis, or circle, when the same is 
less ; and an hyperbola, or the opposite 
sections, regarding their diameters, when 


LODGMENT, in military affairs, is a 
work raised with earth, gabions, fascines, 
wool-packs, or mantelets, to cover the 
besiegers from the enemy's fire, and to 
prevent their losing a place which they 
have gained, and are resolved, if possible, 
to keep. For this purpose, when a lodg- 
ment is to be made on the glacis, covert- 
way, or in a breach, there must be great 
provision made of fascines, sand-bags, &c. 
in the trenches; and during the action, 
the pioneers with fascines, sand-bags, 
&c. should be making the lodgment, 
in order to form a covering in as advanta- 
geous a manner as possible from the op- 
posite bastion, or the place most to be 

LOEFLINGIA, in botany, so called 
from Peter Loefling; a genus of the 
Triandria Monogynia class and order. 
Natural order of Caryophyliei. Essen- 
tial character : calyx five-leaved ; co- 
rolla five-petalled, very small; capsule 
one-celled, three valved. There is but 
one species, viz. L. hispanica, a native of 

LOESELIA, in botany, from Joseph 
Loesel, a genus of the Didynamia An- 
giospermia class and order. Natural or- 
der of Convolvuli, Jussieu. Essential 
character ; calyx four-cleft ; corolla with 
all the segments directed one way ; sta- 
mina opposite to the petal; capsule three- 
celled. There is but one species, viz. L. 
ciliata, found at La Vera Cruz in South 

LOG, in naval affairs, a machine used 
to measure the rate of a ship's velocity- 
through the water. For this purpose, 
there are several various inventions, but 
the one most generally used is the fol- 
lowing, called the common log. It is a 
piece of thin board, forming the quadrant 
of a cii'cle of about six inches radius, and 
balanced by a small plate of lead nailed 
on the circular part, so as to swim per- 
pendicular in the water, with the greater 
part immersed. The log-line is fastened 
to the log, by means of two legs, one of 
which is knotted through a hole at one 
corner, while the other is attached to a 
pin fixed in a hole at the other corner, so 
as to draw out occasionally. The log- 
line being divided into certain spaces 
(which are in proportion to an equal 
number of geographical miles, as a half, 
or quarter' minute, is to an hour of 
time), is wound about a reel. The whole 
is employed to measure the ship's head- 
way in the following manner: the^reel 
being held by one man, and the half mi- 
nute-glass by another, the mate of the 



watch fixes the pin, and throws the log 
over the sLcrn, which, .swimming 1 perpen- 
dicularly, feels an immediate resistance, 
and is considered as fixed, the line being 
slackened over the stern to prevent the 
pin coming out. The knots are mea- 
sured from a mark on the line, at the dis- 
tance of twelve or fifteen fathoms from 
the log; the glass is therefore turned at 
the instant that the mark passes over the 
stern ; and. as soon as the sand in the 
glass has run out, the line is stopped; the 
water then being on the log dislodges the 
pin, so that the board now presenting 
only its edge to the water is easily drawn 
aboard. The number of knots and fathoms 
which had run off at the expiration of the 
glass determines the ship's velocity. The 
half minute glass and divisions on the 
line should be frequently measured, to 
determine any variation in either of 
them, and to make allowance according- 
ly. If the glass runs thirty seconds, the 
distance between the knots should be 
fifty feet. When it runs more or less, it 
should, therefore, be corrected by the 
following analogy. As thirty is to fifty, 
so is the number of seconds of the glass 
to the distance between the knots upon 
the line. As the heat or moisture of the 
weather has often a considerable effect 
on the glass, so as to make it run slower 
or faster, it should be frequently tried by 
the vibrations of a pendulum. As many 
accidents attend a ship during a day's 
sailing, such as the variableness of wind, 
the different quantity of sail carried, &c. 
it will be necessary to heave the log at 
every alteration; but if none of these al- 
terations be perceptible, yet it ought to 
be constantly heaved. In ships of war 
and East ludiamen, it is usaal to heave 
the log once every hour, and in all other 
vessels once in two hours; and if at any 
time of the watch the wind has increased 
or abated in the intervals, so as to affect 
the ship's velocity, the officer generally 
makes a suitable allowance for it at the 
close of the watch. 

LOG board, a table generally divided into 
five columns, in the first of which is en- 
tered the hour of the day; in the second, 
the course steered ; in the third, the num- 
ber of knots run off the reel each time of 
heaving the log; in the fourth, from what 
point the wind blows ; and in the fifth, 
observations on the weather, variation of 
the compass, 8cc. 

Lo'; botjk a book ruled in columns like 
the log-board, into which the account on 
the log-board is transcribed every day at 

noon ; from whence, after it is corrected, 
&c. it is entered into the journal. 

LOR tvood, in the arts, is derived from 
a low prickly tree, Avhich is found in great 
plenty at Campeachy, in the bay of Hon- 
duras, and is denominated " hsematoxy- 
lon campechianum." It comes to Europe 
in large logs, cleared from the bark, and 
is very hard, compact, heavy, and of a red 
colour. It is in high request among 
dyers, especially in dyeing black. It gives 
out the colour both to water and alcohol ; 
the liquor at first assumes a fine red co- 
lour with a shade of purple. The infu- 
sion becomes gradually deeper, and at 
last almost black. To cloth previously 
boiled in alum and tartar, it gives a beau- 
tiful violet colour, which, however, will 
not stand. Alkalies render the colour 
darker, acids change it to yellow. From 
a variety of experiments it is found, that 
the colouring matter of log-\vood bears 
in many respects a strong analogy to tan- 
nin, but in others it differs from it, 

LOGARITHMIC, in general, some- 
thing belonging to logarithms. See LO- 

LO&.IBITKHIC curve. If on the line A N 
(Plate VIII. Miscel. fig. 12) both ways in- 
definitely extended, be taken A C, C E, 
E G, G I, I L, on the right hand. And 
also A 5-, g P, &c. on the left, all equal to 
one another. And, if at the points P, _-. 
A, C, E, G, I, L, be erected to the right 
line, A N, the perpendiculars P S, g d, 
A B, C 1), E F, G H, I K, L M, which let 
be continually proportional, and repre- 
sent numbers, viz. A B, 1, C 1), 10, E F, 
100, 8cc. then shall we have two progres- 
sions of lines, arithmetical and geometri-- 
cal .- for the lines A C, A E, A G, &c. are 
in arithmetical progression, or as 1, 2, 3, 
4, 5, Sec. and so represent the logarithms 
to which the geometrical lines A B, CD, 
E F, Sec. do correspond. For since A G 
is triple of the right line A C, the number 
G II shall be in the third place from unity, 
if C D be in the first : so, likewise, shall 
L M be in the fifth place, since A L = 
5 A C. If the extremities of the propor- 
tionals S d, B, D, F, &c. be joined by 
right lines, the figure S B ML will become 
a polygon, consisting of more or less sides, 
according as there is more or less terms in. 
the progression. 

If the parts A C, C E, E G, &c. be 
bisected in the points c, e, g> i, /, and there 
be again raised the perpendiculars c d, ef, 
gh, ik, lm, which are mean proportion- 
als between A B, C D; C D, E F, &c. then 
there will arise a new series of proper- 


tkmals, whose terms beginning from that 
which immediately follows unity, are dou- 
ble of those in the first series, and the 
difference of the terms are become less, 
and approach nearer to a ratio of equality 
than before. Likewise, in this new se- 
ries, the right lines A L, A c, express the 
distances of the terms L At, c d, from uni- 
ty ; viz. since A L is ten times greater 
than A c, L M shall be the tenth term of 
the series from unity ; and because A e 
is three times greater than A c, e/ will be 
the third term of the series [fed be the 
first, and there shall be two mean pro- 
portionals between A B and ef\ and be- 
tween A B and L AI there will be nine 
mean proportionals. And if the extre- 
mities of the lines B rf, D/, F h, &c. be 
joined by right lines, there will be a new 
polygon made, consisting of more but 
shorter sides than the last. 

If, in this manner, mean proportionals 
be continually placed between every two 
terms, the number of terms at last will 
be made -so great, as also the number of 
the sides of the polygon, as to be greater 
than any given number, or to be infinite; 
and every side of the polygon so lessened, 
as to become less than any given right 
line ; and consequently the polygon will 
be changed into a curve lined figure ; for 
any curve-lined figure may be conceived 
as a polygon, whose sides are infinitely 
small and infinite in number. A curve 
described after this manner, is called lo- 

It is manifest from this description of 
the logarithmic curve, that all numbers at 
equal 'distances are continually propor- 
tional. It is also plain, that if there be 
four numbers, A B, C D, I K, L M> such 
that the distance between the first and 
second be equal to the distance between 
the third a;,d the fourth ; let the distance 
from the second to the third be what it 
will, these numbers will be proporti6nal. 
For because the distances A C, I L, are 
equal, A B shall be to the increment D s, 
as I K is to the increment M T. Where- 
fore, by composition, A B : D C : : IK : 
M L. And, contrarywise, if four num- 
bers be proportional, the distance be- 
tween the first and second shall be equal 
to the distance between the third and 

The distance between any two num- 
bers is called the logarithm of the ratio 
of those numbers; and, indeed, doth not 
measure the ratio itself, but the number 
of terms in a given series of geometrical 
proportionals, proceeding from one num- 
ber to another, and defines the number 

of equal ratios by the composition where- 
of the ratio of numbers are known. 

LOGARITHMS, are the indexes or ex- 
ponents (mostly whole numbers and de- 
cimal fractions, consisting of seven places 
of figures at least) of the powers or roots 
(chiefly broken) of a given number ; yet 
such indexes or exponents, that the seve- 
ral powers or roots they express, are the 
natural numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5> &c. to 10 
or 100000, &c. (as if the given number be 
10, and its index be assumed 1.0000000, 
then the 0.0000000 root of 10, which is 1, 
will be the logarithm of 1; the 0.301036 root 
of 10, which is 2, will be the logarithm of 
2 ; the 0.477121 root of 10, which is 3, will 
be the logarithm of 3; the 0.612060 root 
of 10, the logarithm of 4; the 1.041393 
power of 10, the logarithm of 11 ; the 
1 079181 power of 10, the logarithm of 
12, &c.) being chiefly contrived for ease 
and expedition in performing of arithme- 
tical operations in large numbers, and in 
trigonometrical calculations; but they have 
likewise been found of extensive service 
in the higher geometry, particularly in 
the method of fluxions. They are gene- 
rally founded on this consideration, that 
if there be any row of geometrical pro- 
portional numbers, as 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 
64, 128, 256, &c. or 1, 10, 100, 1000, 
10000, &c. And as many arithmetical 
progressional numbers adapted to them, 
or set over them, beginning with 0. 

. 5 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, &c. 
tnus l 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, &c. 
1, 2, 3, 4, &c. 
10, 100, 1000, 10000, &c 

Then will the sum of any two of these 
arithmetical progressionals, added toge- 
ther, be that arithmetical progressional 
which answers to, or stands over the ge- 
ometrical progressional, which is the pro- 
duct of the two geometrical progression- 
als, over which the two assumed arithme- 
tical progressionals stand : again, if those 
arithmetical progressionals be subtracted 
from each other, the remainder will be 
the arithmetical progressional standing 
over that geometrical progressional, 
which is the quotient of the division of the 
two geometrical progressionals belong, 
ing to the two first assumed arithmetical 
progressionals ; and the double, triple, 
&c. of any one of the arithmetical pro- 
gressionals will be the arithmetical pro. 
gressional standing over the square, cube, 
&c. of that geometrical progression which 
the assumed arithmetical progressional 
stands over, as well as the one-half, one- 
third, &c. of that arithmetical progres- 


sional, will be the geometrical progres- 
sional answering to the square root, cube 
root, &c. of the arithmetical progres- 
sional over it ; and from hence arises the 
following common, though imperfect de- 
finition of logarithms ; viz. 

That they are so many arithmetical pro- 
gressionals, answering to the same num- 
ber of geometrical ones. Whereas, if 
anyone looks into the tables of logarithms, 
he will find, that these do not all run 
on in an arithmetical progression, nor 
the numbers they ajiswer to in a geome- 
trical one ; these last being themselves 
arithmetical progressionals. Dr. Wallis, 
in his history of algebra, calls loga- 
rithms the indexes of the ratios of num- 
bers to one another. Dr. Halley, in the 
Philosophical Transactions, Number 216, 
says, they are the exponents of the ratios 
of unity to numbers. So, also, Mr. Cotes, 
in his " Hannonia Mensurarum," says, 
they are the numerical measures of ratios: 
but all these definitions convey but a 
very confused notion of logarithms. Mr. 
Maclaurin, in his "Treatise of Fluxions," 
has explained the natural and genesis of 
logarithms, agreeably to the notion of 
their first inventor, Lord Neper. Loga- 
rithms then, and the quantities to which 
they correspond, may be supposed to be 
generated by the motion of a point : and 
if this point moves over equal spaces in 
equal times, the line described by it in- 
creases equally. 

Again, a line decreases proportionably, 
when the point that moves over it des- 
cribes such parts in equal times as are 
always in the same constant ratio to the 
lines from which they are subducted, or 
to the distances of that point, at the be- 
ginning of those lines, from a given term 
in that lhie. In like manner, a line may 
increase proportionably, if in equal times 
the (moving point describes spaces pro- 
portional to its distances from a certain 
term at the beginning of each time. 
Thus, in the first case, let a c (Plate IX. 
Miscel. fig. 1 and 2.) be to a o, c d to c o, 
d e to (I o, e f to e o,fg to/o, always in 
the same ratio of Q R to Q S : and sup- 
pose the point P sets out from fl, describ- 
ing c, c d, d c, e /, fg, in equal parts 
of the time ; and let the space described 
by P in any given time, be always in the 
same ratio to the distance of P from o at 
the beginning of that time, then will the 
right line a o decrease proportionally. 

In like manner, the line o a (fig. 3.) in- 
creases proportionally, if the point p, in 
equal times, describes spaces a c, c d, de, 
e J> f ff> &-C. so that a c is to a o, c d to 
c o, d e to d o, &.c. in a constant ratio. If 

we now suppose a point P describing the 
line A G (fig. 4.) with an uniform motion, 
while the pointy describes a line increas- 
ing or decreasing proportionally, the line 
A P, described by P, with this uniform 
motion, in the same time that o a, by in- 
creasing or decreasing proportionally, be- 
comes equal to o p, is the logarithm of 
op. Thus A C, A D, A E, &c. are the 
logarithms of o c, o d, o e t &c. respectively; 
and o a is the quantity whose logarithm is 
supposed equal to nothing. 

We have here abstractedfrom numbers, 
that the doctrine may be the more gene- 
ral ; but it is plain, that if A C, A D, A E, 
See. be supposed, 1, 2, 3, 8cc. in arithmetic 
progression ; o c, o d, o e, &c. will be in 
geometric progression ; and that the loga- 
rithm of o a, which may be taken for 
unity, is nothing. 

Lord Neper, in his first scheme of loga- 
rithms, supposes, that while o p increases 
or decreases proportionally, the uniform 
motion of the point P, by which the loga- 
rithm of o p is generated, is equal to the 
velocity of p at a ; that is, at the term of 
time when the logarithms begin to be 
generated. Hence logarithms, formed 
after this model, are called Neper's Loga- 
rithms, and sometimes Natural Loga- 

When a ratio is given, the point p de- 
scribes the difference of the terms of the 
ratio in the same time. When a ratio is 
duplicate of another ratio, the point p de- 
scribes the difference of the terms in a 
double time. When a ratio is triplicate 
of another, it describes the difference of 
the terms in a triple time ; and so on. 
Also, when a ratio is compounded of two 
or more ratios, the point p describes the 
difference of the terms of that ratio in a 
time equal to the sum of the times, in 
which it describes the difference of the 
terms of the simple ratios of which it is 
compounded. And what is here said of 
the times of the motion of p when o p in- 
creases proportionallv, is to be applied to 
the spaces described'by P, in those times, 
with its uniform motion. 

Hence the chief properties of loga- 
rithms are deduced They are the mea- 
sures of ratios. The excess of the loga- 
rithm of the antecedent, above the loga- 
rithm of the consequent, measures the 
ratio of those terms. The measure of 
the ratio of a greater quantity to a lesser 
is positive ; as this ratio, compounded 
with any other ratio, increases it. The 
ratio of equality, compounded with any 
other ratio, neither increases nor dimin- 
ishes it ; and its measure is nothing. The 
measure of the ratio of a lesser quantity" 


to a greater is negative ; as this ratio, 
compounded with any other ratio, dimin- 
ishes it. The ratio of any quantity A to 
unity, compounded with the ratio of unity 
to A, produces the ratio of A to A, or the 
ratio of equality ; and the measures of 
those two ratios destroy each other when 
added together ; so that when the one is 
considered as positive the other is to be 
coiibi.lered as negative. By supposing 
tlic logarithms of quantities greater than 
o a (which & supposed to represent unity) 
to be positive, and the logarithms of quan- 
tities less than it to be negative, the same 
rules serve for the operations by loga- 
rithms, whether tne^uantities be greater 
or less than o a. When o p increases 
proportionally, the motion of p is per- 
petually accelerated ; for the spaces a c, 
c f/, d e, &c. that are described by it in 
any equal times that continually succeed 
after each other, perpetually increase in 
the same proportion as the lines o a, o c, 
o d y &c. When the point p moves from a 
towards o, and o p decreases proportion- 
ally, the motion of p is perpetually re- 
tarded ; for the spaces described by it in 
any equal times that continually succeed 
after each other, decrease in this case in 
the same proportion as o p decreases. 

If the velocity of the point/? be always 
as the distance o p, then will this line in- 
crease or decrease in the manner sup- 
posed by Lord Neper ; and the velocity 
of the point p being the fluxion of the line 
/, will always vary in the same ratio as 
this quantity itself. This, we presume, 
will give a clear idea of the genesis, or 
nature of logarithms ; but for more of 
this doctrine, see Maclaurin's Fluxions. 

LOGARITHMS, construction of. The first 
makers of logarithms, had in this a very 
laborious and difficult task to perform ; 
they first made choice of their scale or 
system of logarithms, that is, what set of 
arithmetical progressionals should answer 
to such a set of geometrical ones, for this 
is entirely arbitrary ; and they chose the 
decuple geometrical progressionals, 1, 10, 
100, 1000, 10000, &c. and the arithmetical 
one, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, &c. or, 0.000000; 
1.000000; 2.000000; 3.000000; 4.000000, 
&c. as the most convenient. After this 
they were to get the logarithms of all the 
intermediate numbers between 1 and 10, 
10 and 100,^100 and 1000, 1000 and 10000, 
&c. But first of all they were to get the 
logarithms of the prime numbers 3, 5, 7, 
11, 13, 17, 19, 23, &c. and when these 
were once had, it was easy to get those 
of the compound numbers made up of the 
prime ones, by the addition or subtraction 
of their logarithm's. 

In order to this, they found a mean 
proportion between 1 and 10, and its 
logarithm will be one half that of 10 ; and 
so given, then they found a mean pro- 
portional between the number first found 
and unity, which mean will be nearer to 
1 than that before, and its logarithm will 
be one half of the former logarithm, of 
one-fourth of that of 10 ; and having in 
this manner continually found a mean 
proportional between 1 and the last mean, 
and bisected the logarithms, they at 
length, after finding 54 such means, came 
to a number 

so near to 1 as not to differ from it so 

much as Too^Tnrff^<JDTFoiTo?nKr part, and 
found its logarithm to be 

00000000000000012781914932003235 to 
be the difference whereby 1 exceeds the 
number of roots or mean proportionals 
found by extraction ; and then, by means 
of these numbers, they found the loga- 
rithms of any other numbers whatsoever; 
and that after the following manner: be- 
tween a given number, whose logarithm 
is wanted, and 1, they found a mean pro- 
portional, as above, until at length a num- 
ber (mixed) be found, such a small mat- 
ter above 1, as to have 1 and 15 cyphers 
after it, which are followed by the same 
number of significant figures ; then they 
said, as the last number mentioned above, 
is to the mean proportional thus found, 
so is the logarithm above, viz. 
to the logarithm of the mean proportional 
number, such a small matter exceeding 1, 
as but now mentioned; and this logarithm 
being as often doubled as the number of 
mean proportionals, (formed to get that 
number) willbe the logarithm of the given 
number. And thi was the method Mr. 
Briggs took to make the logarithms. But 
if they are to be made to only seven 
places of figures, which are enough for 
common use, they had only occasion to 
find 25 mean proportionals, or, which is the 

same thing, to extract the ' th 

root of 10. Now having the logarithms 
of 3, 5, 7, they easily got those of 2, 4, 

6, 8, and 9; for since V= 2 the lo g a - 
rithm of 2 will be the difference of the 
logarithms of 10, and 5 the logarithm of 4 
will be two times the logarithm of 2 ; the 
logarithm of 6 will be the sum of the loga- 
rithm of 2 and 3 ; and the logarithm of 9 
double the logarithm of 3. So, also, hav- 
ing found the logarithms of 13, 17, and 
19, and alse of 23 and 29, they did easily 


g<et those of all the numbers between 10 
and 30, by addition and substraction only; 
and so having found the logarithms of 
other prime numbers, they got those of 
other numbers compounded of them. 

But since the way above hinted at, for 
finding the logarithms of the prime num- 
bers is so intolerably laborious and trou- 
blesome, the more skilful mathematicians 
that came after the first inventors, em- 
ploying their thoughts about abbreviating 
this method, had a vastly more easy and 
short way offered to them from the con- 
templation and mensuration of hyperbo- 
lic spaces contained between the por- 
tions of an asymptote, right lines per- 
pendicular to it, and the curve of the hy- 
perbola : for if E C N (Plate IX. fig. 5.) 
be an hyperbola, and AD, A Q, the 
asymptotes, and A B, A P, A Q, &.c. taken 
upon one of them, be represented by 
numbers, and the ordinates B C, P M, 
QN, See. be drawn from the several 
points B, P, Q, 8cc. to the curve, thea 
will the quadrilinear spaces B C M P, 
P M N Q, &c. viz. their numerical mea- 
sures, be the logarithms of the quotients 
of the division of A B by A P, A P by 
A Q, &c. since when A B, A P, A Q, &c. 
are continual proportionals, the said 
spaces are equal, as is demonstrated by 
several writers concerning conic sec- 
tions. See HYPERBOLA. 

Having said that these hyperbolic 
spaces, numerically expressed, may be 
taken for logarithms, we shall next give 
a specimen, from the said great Sir Isaac 
Newton, of the method how to measure 
these spaces, and consequently of the 
construction of logarithms. 

Let C A (fig. 6.) = A F be == 1, and 

A B = A b = x ; then will - be = 

B D, and 


b d; and putting these 

expressons nto seres 

= 1 x + x~ xi -j- x* 

it will be 

&c. and 

&c. and 

I + x 


X XX -\- X 1 X Xl X 

-f- x* x -f- xTi x -f- x* x -f- x< > , &,c. and 
taking the fluents, we shall have the area 

AFDB=*_^+?-?-t4 S , fce. 

and the area A F db, = x -f ^-f--f 

OC^" .2?5 

~T"\T &c - an d the sum bdJ) B = 2 x 
H ~ -j- | xl -f- |. & _j_ i X9) & c . ]S T OW 

if A B, or a b, be J_ =* x, C b being = 
0.9, and C B = 1.1, by putting this value 
of or in the equations above, we shall have 
the area bdDB = 0.2006706954621511 
for the terms of the series will stand as 
you see in this table. 

Term of the series. 
0.20000000000000 M = urst 

6666666666666 = second 
40UOUOOUUUO = third 
285714286 = fourth 
2222222 = fifth 
18152 = sixth 
154 = seventh 
1 = eighth 


If the parts A d and A D of this area be 
added separately, and the lesser D A be 
taken from the greater d A, we shall have 

= 0.0100503358535014, for the terms re 
duced to decimals will stand thus : 

Term of the series. 


500000000000 = second 
3333333333 = third 
25000000 = fourth 
200000 = fifth 
1667 = sixth 
14 = seventh 


Now if this difference of the areas be 
added to, and subtracted from, their sum 
before found, half the aggregate, viz 
0.1053605156578263, will be the greater 
area A d, and half the remainder, viz 
0.0953101798043249, will be the lesser 
area A D. 

By the same tables, these areas, A D 
and A d, will be obtained also when A B 
-j- A d are supposed to be _ -> _ or C B = 
1.01, and C b = 0.99, if the numbers are 
but duly transferred to lower places, as 


Term of the series. 
0200000000000000 = tirst 

6666666666 = second 
400000 = third 
28 = fourth 

Sum = 0.02u0006667066694 = area b D. 

Term of the series. 
0.0001000000000000 = rirst 

50000000 = second 
3333 = third 

0.0001000050003333 = area Ad AD. 

Half the aggregate 0.0100503358535014 
= Ad, and half the remainder, viz. 
0.0099503308531681 == A D. 

And so putting A B = A b = y-i-- or 

C B = 1.001, and Ct> =* 0.999, there will 
be obtained A (/ = 0.00100050003335835, 
and A D = 0.00099950013330835. 

After the same manner, if A B = A 6, 
be = 0.2, or 0.02, or 0.002, these areas 
will arise. 

A d = 0.2231435513142097, and 
AD == 0.1823215576939546, or 
A d = 0.0202027073175194, and 
AD = 0.1098026272961797, or 
A d ; = 0.002002, and A D = 0.001. 
From these areas, thus found, others 
may be easily had from addition and sub- 

12 12 
traction only. For since --{ ^ = 2, 

the sum of the arcs belonging to the ra- 

1.2 1.2 
tios ~ and ^ (that is, insisting upon 

the parts of the absciss 1.2, 0.2 ; and 1.8, 
0.9), vis. 

added thus, 

Sum = 0.28768, &c. 

Total = 69314, &c. == the area 
of A F H G, when C G is 2. Also since 

H + 2 = 3, the sum 1.0986122, &c. of 

1 2 
the areas belonging to and 2, will be 


the area of A F G H, when C G = 3. 

Again, since ^- = 5, and 2 X 5 = 

10 ; by adding A d 0.2231, &c. A D = 
0.1823, &c. and A d == 0.1053, &c. toge- 
ther, their sum is 0.5108, &c. and this 
added to 1.0986, &c. the a^ea of A F G H, 

when CG = 3. You will have 
1.6093379124341004 = A F G H, when 
C G is 5 ; and adding that of 2 to this, 
gives 2.302585092994J457 = A F G 11, 
when C G is equal to 10 : and since 10 X 
10 = 1Q ; and 10 x 100 = lOGu ; and 
V5x 10 X 0.9J~=- 7, and 10 x 1.1 = 
1000 X 1.091 

11, and 
1000 X 0.998 

7 X 11 

13, and 

499 ; it is plain that the 

area A F G H may be found by the com- 
position of the areas found before, when 
C G = 100, 1000, or any other of the 
numbers above-mentioned ; and all these 
areas are the hyperbolic logarithms of 
those several numbers. 

Having thus obtained the hyperbolic 
logarithms of the numbers 10, 0.98, 0.99, 
1.01, 1.02; if the logarithms of the four 
last of them be divided by the hyperbo- 
lic logarithm 2.3025850, &c. of 10, and 
the index 2 be added ; or, which is the 
same thing, if it be multiplied by its re- 
ciprocal 0.4342944819032518, the value of 
the subtangent of the logarithmic curve, 
to which Brigg's logarithms are adapted, 
we shall have the true tabular logarithms 
of 98, 99, 100, 101, 102. These are to 
be interpolated by ten intervals, and then 
we shall have the logarithms of all the 
numbers between 980 and 1020 ; and all 
between 980 and 1000, being again inter- 
polated by ten intervals, the table will be 
as it were constructed. Then from these 
we are to get the logarithms of all the 
prime numbers, and their multiples less 
than 100, which may be done by addition 

and subtraction only : for 

V8 X 9963 



= 5; 


Tl X~l 
= 61; 

= 73; 
= 89; 


r = -^ 6 - 

29;^ = 



102 __ 
6 = 

= 23; 



T ' 13 X 13 

9949 ' _ 994 



6 X17 


1 W 

= 59; 

= 47; 


_.^L 8 3.^i 

' 12 ~ '7X16 
97 ; and thus hav- 

ing the logarithms of all the numbers less 


than 100, you have nothing to do but in- 
terpoiate the several times through ten 

Now the void places may be filled up 
by the following theorem. Let ?i be a 
number, whose logarithm is wanted ; let 
x i>e the difference between that and the 
two nearest numbers, equally distant on 
each side, whose logarithms are already 
found: and let d be halt' the difference of 
their logarithms : then the required loga- 
rithm of the number n will be had by add- 

d x dx3 
ing d -f -f- , &c. to the logarithm 

of the lesser number: for if the numbers 
are represented by C p, C G, C P (fig. 
16.) and the ordinates/s, P Q, be raised ; 
if n be wrote for C G, and x for G P, or 

G p, the area p s Q P, or -f- j-J--~. 

&c. will be to the area p s H G, as the 
difference between the logarithms of the 
extreme numbers, or 2 d, is to the differ- 
ence between the logarithms of the lesser, 
and of the middle one ; which, therefore, 
dx_ dx* dxj 

n "*" 2*1 3n 

will be 

The two first terms d -f - of this se- 

sufficient for the construction 

greater; and this although the numbers 
should not be in arithmetical progression. 
Also by pursuing the steps of this me- 
thod, rules may be easily discovered for 
the construction of artificial sines and 
tangents, without the help of the natural 
tables. Thus far the great Newton, who 
says, in one of his letters to M. Leibnitz, 
that he was so much delighted with the 
construction of logarithms, at his first 
setting out in those studies, that he was 
ashamed to tell to how many places of 
figures he had carried them at that time : 
and this was before the year 1666 ; 
because, he says, the plague made him 
lay aside those studies, and think of other 

Dr. Keil, in his Treatise of Logarithms, 
at the end of his Commandine's Euclid, 
gives a series, by means of which may be 
found easily and expeditiously the loga- 
rithms of large numbers. Thus, let z be 
an odd number, whose logarithm is 
sought : then shall the numbers z 1 and 
S -f- 1 be even, and accordingly their 
logarithms, and the difference of the lo- 
garithms will be had, which let be called 
y. Therefore, also the logarithm of a 
number, which is a geometi-ical mean be- 
tween z 1 and z -}- 1, will be given, 
viz. equal to half the sum of the loga- 
rithms. Now the series y X 7 K"> 

181 . li o -U 11 V 

;c. shall be 

;, because x is either 1 or 2: yet it is 
not necessary to interpolate all the places 
by lielp of this rule, since the logarithms 
of numbers, which are produced by the 
multiplication or division of the number 
lasv found, may be obtained by the num- 
bers whose logarithms were had before, 
by the addition or subtraction of their 
logarithms. Moreover, by the difference 
of their logarithms, and by their second 
and third differences, if necessary, the 
void places may be supplied more expe- 
ditiously, the rule beforegoing being to 
be applied only where the continuation of 
some full places is wanted, in order to ob- 
tain these differences. 

By the same method rules may be found 
for the intercalation of logarithms, when 
of three numbers the logarithm of the 
lesser and of the middle number are giv- 
en, or of the middle number and the 

1000, the first term of the 
se ries, viz. , is sufficient for producing 

the logarithm to 13 or 14 places of figures, 
and the second term will give the loga- 
"thm to 20 places of figures. But if z be 
greater than 10000, the first term will ex- 
hibiUhe logarithm to 18 places of figures : 
and so this series is of great use in filling 
"P the chiliads omitted by Mr. Bri 
For example, it is required to find 
logarithm of 20001 : the logarithm of 
20000 is the same as the logarithm of 2, 
w th the index 4 prefixed to it; and the 
difference of the logarithms of 20000 and 
20001, is the same as the difference of 
the logarithms of the numbers 10000 and 
10001, viz. 0.0000434272, &c. And if this 
difference be divided by 4 z, or 80004, 

,, auot : ent JL shall be 
tlie ( l uotient 4z shali bc 


0,000000000542813 ; and if the logarithm of the geometrical mean, viz, 
4.301051/09302416 be added to the quotient, the sum will be 

4.301051709845230 = the logarithm of 20001. 

Wherefore it is manifest, that to have the 
logarithm to 14 places of figures, there is 
no necessity of continuing out the quoti- 
ent beyond 6 places of figures. But if 
you have a mind to have the logarithm to 
10 places of figures only, the two first fi- 
gures are enough. And if the logarithms 
of the numbers above 20000 are to be 
found by this way, the labour of doing 
them will mostly consist in setting down 
the numbers. This series is easily de- 
duced from the consideration of the hy- 
perbolic spaces aforesaid. The first figure 
of every logarithm towards the left hand, 
which is separated from the rest by a 
point, is called the index of that loga- 
rithm ; because it points out the highest 
or remotest place of that number from 
the place of unity in the infinite scale of 
proportionals towards the left hand : thus, 
if the index of the logarithm be 1, it 
shows that its highest place towards the 
left hand is the tenth place from unity ; 
and therefore all logarithms which have 
1 for their index, will be found between 
the tenth and hundredth place in the 
order of numbers. And for the same 
reason all logarithms which have 2 for 
their index, will be found between the 
hundredth and thousandth place in the 
order of numbers, Sec. Whence univer- 
sally the index or characteristic of any 
logarithm is always less by one than the 
number of figures in whole numbers, 
which answer to the given logarithm ; 
and, in decimals, the index is negative. 

As all systems of logarithms whatever 
are composed of similar quantities, it will 
be easy to form, from any system of loga- 
rithms, another system in any given ra- 
tio ; and consequently to reduce one table 
of logarithms into another of any given 
form. For as any one logarithm in the given 
form is to its correspondent logarithm in 
another form, so is any other logarithm in 
the given form to its correspondent loga- 
rithm in the required form ; and hence 
we may reduce the logarithms of Lord 
Neper into the form of Briggs's, and 
contrarywise. For as 2.302585092, &c. 
Lord Neper's logarithm of 10, is to 
1.0000000000, Mr. Briggs's logarithm of 
10 ; so is any other logarithm in Lord 
Neper's form to the correspondent tabu- 
lar logarithm in Mr. Briggs's form : and 
because the two first numbers constantly 
remain the sEune^ if Lord Neper's loga- 

rithm of any one number be divided by 
2.302585, &c. or multiplied by .4342944, 
&c. the ratio of 1.0000, &c. to 2.30258, 
&c. as is found by dividing 1.0000 j, &c. 
by 2.30258, &c. the quotient in the for- 
mer, and the product in the latter, will 
give the correspondent logarithm in 
Briggs's form, and the contrary. And, 
after the same manner, the ratio of natu- 
ral logarithms to that of Briggs's will be 
found = 868588963806. 

The use and application of LOGARITHMS. 
It is evident, from what has been said of 
the construction of logarithms, that addi- 
tion of logarithms must be the same thing 
as multiplication in common arithmetic ; 
and subtraction in logarithms the same as 
division : therefore, in multiplication by 
logarithms, add the logarithms of the mul- 
tiplicand and multiplier together, their 
sum is the logarithm of the product. 

num. logarithms, 

Example. Multiplicand.. 8.5 0.9294189 
Multiplier 10 1.0000000 

Product 85 1.9294189 


And in division, subtract the logarithm of 
the divisor from the logarithm of the divi- 
dend, the remainder is the logarithm of 
the quotient. 

num. logarithms. 

Example. Dividend... 9712.8 3.9873444 
Divisor 456 2.6589648 

Quotient... 21.3 1.3283796 

LOGARITHM, to fold the complement of a. 
Begin at the left hand, and write down 
what each figure wants of 9, only what 
the last significant figure wants of 10 ; so 
the complement of the logarithm of 456, 
viz. 2.6589648, is 7.3410352. 

In the rule of three. Add the loga- 
rithms of the second and third terms 
together, and from the sum subtract the 
logarithm of the first, the remainder is 
the logarithm of the fourth. Or, in- 
stead of subtracting a logarithm, add its 
complement, and the result will be the 

LOGARITHMS, to raise powers by. Mul- 
tiply the logarithm of the number given 
by the index of the power required, the 



product wrll be the logarithm of the 
power sought. 

Example. Let the cube of 32 be re- 
quired bv logarithms. The logarithm 
of 32 = 1.5051500, which, multiplied by 
3, is 4.51 5-1-500, the logarithm of 32768, 
the cube of 32. But in raising powers, 
viz, squaring, cubing, &c. of any decimal 
fraction by logarithms, it must be observ- 
ed, that the first significant figure of the 
power be put so many places below the 
place of units, as the index of its loga- 
rithm wants of 10, 100, &c. multiplied by 
the index of the power. 

LOGARITHMS, in extract the roots of 
powers by. Divide the logarithm of the 

number by the index of the power, the 
quotient is the logarithm of the root 

To fold mean proportionals between any 
two numbers. Subtract the logarithm of 
the least term from the logarithm of the 
greatest, and divide the remainder by a 
number more by one than the number 
of means desired"; then add the quotient 
to the logarithm of the least term (or 
subtract it from the logarithm of the great- 
est) continually, and it will give the 
logarithms of all the mean proportionals 

Example. Let three mean proportionals 
be sought, between 106 and 100. 

Logarithm of 106 = 2.0253059 
Logarithm of 100 = 2 0000000 

Divide by 4)0.0253059(0.0063264.75 

Logarithm of the least term 100 added 

Logarithm of the first mean . . . 101.4673846 2.0063264.75 

Logarithm of the second mean . 102 9563014 2 OU'6529.5 

Logarithm of the third mean . . 1U4467U483 2.0189794.25 

Logarithm of the greatest term . 106 2.0253059 

LOGIC, the art of reasoning 1 . As the 
necessities of our existence oblige us to 
think, and to arrange eur thoughts in 
such a manner as m^iy enable us to com- 
municate with each other, we are habitu- 
ally impelled towards a conclusion, that it 
is unnecessary to teach reasoning as an art. 
It is hardly needful to combat this notion by 
arguments which will easily occur to most 
men of reflection ; and indeed the contrary 
persuasion was so prevalent in the middle 
ages, that men seem to have been more 
occupied with the art, than with the pro- 
per use of it. 

In order to reason well, it is necessary 
that the nature of our perceptions and 
ideas, and the notions or conclusions we 
draw from them, should be well under- 
stood. Logic, therefore, is a science of 
extensive occupation ; which has its be- 
ginning in the constitution of things, and 
the processes of the human intellect, and 
its practical termination in the structure, 
use, and application of language. Its 
objects are no less than the universal 
acquisition of knowledge, and that mu- 
tual communication which constitutes 
a large part of the employment, and 
is the most distinguishing character of 

The impressions made by external ob- 
jects upon the senses, are called sensa- 
tions or ideas of sensation. See IDEOLO- 

GY. The recollection or remembrance 
of those sensations are simply called ideas. 
The general notions which are produced 
in the mind by reflecting upon ideas have 
been called ideas of reflection ; but as 
they all grow out of the comparison of 
the first-mentioned ideas, and do univer- 
sally in the last result imply propositions, 
it appears much preferable to call them 

Logical writers divide ideas into simple 
and complex ; but as we have no simple 
sensations, and can therefore have no sim- 
ple ideas but by the artificial process of 
abstraction, the division seems useless. 
The word complex here signifies com- 
pounded, and the compounded nature of 
our ideas will practically depend, in a 
great measure, upon our choice or deter- 
mination in the subject of our reasoning. 
Thus, a lemon is soft, fragrant, yellow, 
and acid. If I throw a lemon at another, 
the attention will be chiefly directed to 
the organ of touch, and its "fragrance, its 
tint, and its acidity, will be abstracted or 
left out. But the perfumer, the designer, 
and the chemist, would separately attend 
to those parts of the idea which were sug- 
gested by the organs of smell, of vision, 
and of taste. And in this manner it is 
that we may separate the simple ideas of 
yellowness, acidity, and fragrance; though, 
in nature, their causes never appear insw- 


Jatecl and apart from those of all the other 

Abstraction, or the leaving out parts of 
ideas or notions ; generalization, or class- 
ing things together, as possessing the re. 
inaining distinctive characters ; composi- 
tion, or the re-assumption of some of the 
abstracted or rejected ideas, are the vo- 
luntary acts of the mind, adopted in order 
to facilitate the useful process of com- 
parison. Thus we may abstract from bo- 
dies all ideas but those of structure, and 
divide them into organized and unorganiz- 
ed ; or we may take the organized bodies, 
and call them animals and vegetables ; or 
we may attend to their place of existence, 
and call them terrestrial, aquatic, volatile, 
and the like ; and many of our most use- 
ful propositions wil' thus, in all our men- 
tal operations, continue equally general 
and abstracted. 

In the scientific arrangement of natural 
objects, philosophers have pursued the 
course of abstraction, until, by rejecting 
all the ideas capable of affording the dis- 
tinctive characters of individuals, they ar- 
rived at an hypothetical being called sub- 
stance. Much has been written concern- 
ing it ; but it will perhaps be attended 
with the least obscurity to say, that it is 
supposed to be an independent existence, 
which serves as the basis or support to 
those properties which are perceived 
by our senses ; or, in the words of lo- 
gicians, it is the subject of modes and ac- 

The modes of substance are those dis- 
tinguishable objects of sense which might, 
if separate, produce simple ideas. Thus, 
softness, fragrance, yellowness, and acidi- 
ty, are among the modes which co-exist 
in the subject or substance, lemon. Many 
distinctions are made in modes. They 
arc called essential or accidental, abso- 
lute or relative, &c. The moderns ap- 
pear to use the words properties of bo- 
dies, and powers and laws of nature, 
wilh much more distinctness than the 
earlier logicians did their modes and ac- 

Words are intended to be the signs of 
things, but are very far from being so. If 
our ideaa were adequate representations 
of the things which cause them, which 
they are not ; if they were not of necessity 
mutilated by abstraction, and there were 
not a continual exertion in language to 
emulate the rapidity of thought, then 
might words obiain the supposed resem- 
blance. But the boasted extent and per- 
spicuity of the intellect of man proceeds 
hut a little beyond the signs and tones of 

those inferior animals who are supposed 
to have no power of conversing. And 
even if we could vanquish the insupera- 
ble difficulties which impede our clear 
mutual communication, what are the 
grounds of our knowledge ? they are very 
limited, and often fallacious. 

Knowledge consists in the determina- 
tion of those modes of surrounding be- 
ings which are taken to be permanent, 
and of those which are observed to vary. 
The former are chiefly of the nature of 
quantity and position, and the latter seem 
resolvable into motion. Mathematical 
science appears to comprehend the whole 
of the first ; and the latter, which em- 
braces by far the greater part of what 
concerns our existence and well-being, is 
included in those histories of events upon 
which we establish our principles of cause 
and effect Abstraction, or analysis, can 
give us very clear notions of the subjects 
of mathematics ; and in these alone it is 
that we find absolute proof or demonstra- 
tion. But in all the rest of our knowledge 
the facts are complex, obscure, and of 
uncertain evidence ; and the principal, 
nay the only, ground of our reliance upon 
our doctrines respecting them is, that out 
predictions are in many.instances verified. 

Words being constructed and establish- 
ed by mere usage, are not only inadequate 
and contracted in their use, but equivo- 
cal and synonimous ; that is to say, one 
word may be used to denote several dis- 
tinct and different things ; as when we 
speak of a beam of light, a beam of tim- 
ber, or the beam of a pair of scales ; or, 
on the contrary, as when we speak of an 
house, an habitation, or a residence. It 
must be admitted, however, that there 
are few synonymes in the practice of 
those who are masters of a language ; be- 
cause few words are consecrated by usage 
to precisely the same meaning. 

Many acute and useful disquisitions 
have been written upon language and uni- 
versal grammar. See LANGUAGE. 

Since our idea of a thing must be com- 
posed or made up of all the simple ideas 
which that thing can produce by our per- 
ceptions, and this will for the most part 
be inadequate, the word, denomination, 
or name of a thing, must be the sign of 
that idea, liable to such additional error 
as may arise from any improper use that 
may be made of it. And as by abstrac- 
tion we generalize our ideas and notions, 
and afterwards comprehend and compare 
them at our pleasure ; so in the construc- 
tion of language a like order is followed 
in words. Thus we may arrange thiifgs, 


from their similitude, under classes more 
or less abstracted as to their modes, cull- 
ing- these classes by the names of genera 
and species. And in the names of things, 
we shall have not only to regard this ar- 
rangement, but likewise the appropria- 
tion and correct use of the denomination 
itself. If we had terms for all simple 
ideas, and were to enumerate in due or- 
der all the simple ideas subsisting in a 
thing, that enumeration would constitute 
what is called a definition of the thing ; 
and simple ideas would be, as in strictness 
they are, undefinable. But since all our 
sensations are complex, the relations of 
simple ideas with regard to each other, as 
residing 1 in the same subject, will afford 
the means of indicating them. Thus, 
light is that by which the organ of vision 
is acted upon, and the word is therefore 
defined or indicated from that organ Co- 
lour is a mode of light perhaps too sim- 
ple to be defined, but clearly indicable 
from any natural subject in which it may 
subsist ; as, for example, green is the co- 
lour of grass, red is the colour of a rose, 
and yt-llow the colour of an orange. 

Thus, the.n, the nature of terms, or 
words, is fixed by definition ; a thing for 
the most part of extreme difficulty, as, 
from our ignorance of things, and the 
complexity of the objects comprehended 
by usoge under any term, it can in few 
cases be done. The arrangement of 
things is by genera, where the same class 
of beings agree in a few attributes only; 
and by species, where they agree in more ; 
and these genera and species may be sub- 
ordinate to each other in numerous pairs, 
the genus immediately above each species 
being called the proximate genus. And 
from this ordinary arrangement logicians 
obtain a ready method of defining from 
the specific difference, which, though cer- 
tainly much less adequate than those of 
the mathematicians, is nevertheless very 
useful. That is to say, the genus and the 
specific difference is held to constitute 
the definition of the species. Tims, if 
the words. 1. animal ; 2. four-tooted ; 
3. graminivorous ; and, 4. fleece-bearing ; 
be the arrangement of certain beings pos- 
sessing life, we should define the first 
genus from the only character left by the 
abstraction, namely, that it is a being pos- 
sessing life ; and the first species would 
be admitted to be well defined by the 
wo v ds four-footed animal (named qua- 
druped) ; the second, by the words gra 
nv'nivorous quadruped (named cattle) ; 
and Hie. third by the words fleece-bearing 
cattle (named sheep) : or we might less 

conveniently go through the whole series,, 
and call the sheep a fleece-bearing, gra- 
minivorous, four-footed, animal. 

Logicians also avail themselves in de- 
fining, where practicable, of some strik- 
ing attribute called the essence of a thing. 
Thus, under the genus, measure, the 
species, bushel, peck, quartern, &c. are 
essentially distinguished by the respective 
magnitudes which are capable of being 
numerically expressed. 

All our knowledge is contained in pro. 
positions, and every proposition consists 
of three parts. Thus in the proposition, 
*< Snow is white," there are three parts or 
terms, moiv, which is called the subjt-ct ; 
is which is called the copula; and w/#, 
which is called the predicate. If the pro- 
position agree with the nature of things, 
it is true, if not, it is false. All proposi- 
tions are reducible to this form, though 
both the subject and predicate may be 
expressed by many words ; but the copula 
will always be some inflexion of the verb 
to be, with the word not if the proposition 
be negative. 

Propositions which contain either a plu- 
rality of predicates or of subjects, or 
which manifest a compounded nature in. 
either, have been called compound pro- 
positions. In the first, however, the pro- 
position seems merely to be a number of 
propositions conjoined, &c. ; in the latter, 
the form of words may be considered as 
forming a definition of the words or terms. 
Thus, "John and Thomas departed.'* in- 
cludes the propositions, ' John was de- 
parting, and Thomas was departing." 
And again the proposition, " Water frozen 
in flakes as it falls from the atmosphere 
is coloured like the powder of pure dry 
salt," is evidently the same proposition as 
was first given, excepting that it contains 
a definition of the word snoiv, taken from 
its formation, and of the word whiteness, 
from a substance of which it is one of the 

Our limits will not permit us to enter 
into the form of propositions, from which 
they are denominated copulative, casual, 
relative, or disjunctive or modal; as 
where a proposition itself becomes the 
subject, or positive, or negative, and so 
forth. These distinctions are in few cases 
useful, and in many tedious, trifling, and 

Truth is determined either intuitively ; 
as when the relation between the predi- 
cate and its subject is immediately seen 
and admitted. So " the whole is equal 
to all its parts :" and these simple truths 
are called axioms : 


Or else it is determined demonstrative- 
ly ; so the proposition, " the opposite 
angles made by right lines crossing each 
other are equal," is not intuitive, but re- 
quires to be demonstrated by a succes- 
sion of axioms connected together : 

Or lastly, it is determined analogically, 
upon the probability that what has,, hap- 
pened will, in like circumstances, happen 
again. Thus, upon the probability that 
bodies will continue to fall to the ground ; 
that violent motion will be followed by 
heat ; that similar inducements or motives 
will be followed by similar acts in men ; 
we found the doctrine of cause and effect, 
and establish our knowledge of physical 
and moral history, so as to give credit to 
the past, and confidence in many respects 
to the future. 

It is evident that analogical propositions 
have much less certainty than those of in- 
tuition or demonstration. 

Though in our investigations of truth 
we must necessarily have recourse to ob- 
servations of individual objects and events, 
as the ground work of all; yet, in our in- 
ductions, reasonings, proofs, and pro- 
cesses of instruction, we proceed from 
generals to individuals. And as, in strict 
demonstration, the subject and predicate 
of a proposition are connected by a train 
of axioms, so, in every other argumenta- 
tion, it will be the endeavour of a wise 
man to follow the same course as nearly 
as may be possible. But, from the con- 
fusion arising from the relations of the 
complicated objects of social intercourse, 
and from the rapidity of language with its 
abridgments and transpositions, so many 
things are left to be understood that it 
is not often an easy task to show, whether 
the reasoner does really pursue the course 
of pure argumentation, or whether he de- 
ceives himself or others. Logicians have 
therefore adopted a formal arrangement 
for each of the steps of comparison, which 
they call a syllogism; not calculated in- 
deed tor the discovery of remote truths 
from the use and application of the more 
immediate or intuitive, but well calculated 
to give regularity to the mind by scien- 
tific discipline, and to shorten controversy, 
by a clear detection of the component 
parts of false reasoning. And here, by 
the way, it may be remarked, that the 
inexplicable disorder of the logical rea- 
sonings of the middle ages is less to be 
attributed to the nature of their science of 
reasoning, loaded as it was with needless 
distinctions, than to their theological and 
psychological dogmas, and the delusions 
into which they wandered with regard to 

the objects called transcendental ; delu- 
sions, vvliich a sound and bold application 
of their own science, it" it could have been 
dared, would not have confirmed, but 

But to return ; the syllogism consists 
of three propositions. In the first, called 
the major proposition, something is pre- 
dicated of a general subject : in the se- 
cond, called the minor, the subject of the 
major becomes the predicate of a spe- 
cific subject : and in the third, called the 
conclusion, the predicate of the general 
subject is applied to the specific. Thus, 

Major. All men are fallible. 

Minor. The Pope is a man ; 

Conclusion. Therefore the Pope is fal- 

The major and minor terms are often 
called the premises, and the minor is 
sometimes called the argument. The 
premises are supposed to be intuitive, or 
at least incontestable, and the conclusion 
is established upon the axiom, that what- 
ever can be predicated or affirmed of a 
genus, may also be predicated of every 
species comprehended under it ; and the 
like of species, and the individuals com- 
prehended under them. 

It is usual to denominate the two sub- 
jects, and the predicate, terms of the syl- 
logism The generic word or sentence 
is called the middle term ; its predicate is 
the major term ; and the specific word or 
sentence is called the minor term. Thus, 
in the preceding syllogism tUe three 
terms are 

Major term. Fallible. 

Middle term. All men. 

Minor term. The Pope. 

Here it is not pretended, that all men 
should upon every occasion reason ac- 
cording to the rules of logic, any more 
than that a writer should upon all occa- 
sions insert each individual member of a 
sentence, and leave nothing to be sup- 
plied or understood But as the man 
who is a sound grammarian can analyse 
and parse every member of a sentence, 
and will write with order, precision, and 
correctness ; so will the logician, who is 
able to arrange the parts of an argument 
in mood and figure, be quick in discern- 
ing the imperfect, defective, or inadmissi- 
ble assertions, and will so dispose his 
own notions and principles, that his proofs 
shall be conclusive and clear The works 
even of mathematical writers would, in 
many instances, be benefitted by this 
severity of conduct ; and there are fevr 
indeed which might not be rendered more 



perfect by strict logical examination and 

Mood and figure are words applied by 
logical writers to denote the arrange- 
nitiit uf the terms of a syllogism. It is 
done by the use of the letters A, E, I, O, of 
which A denotes universal affirmative ; E, 
universal negative ; I, particular affirma- 
tive ; and O, particular negative. But as 
it would be difficult to retain in the me- 
mory the various changes in the order of 

LOGISTIC curve, the same with that 
otherwise called logarithmic. See LOGA- 

and SPIRAL. 

LOGISTIC A numeralis, the same with 
algorithm. See ALGORITHM 

LOGISTICAL arithmetict the doctrine 
of sexagesimal fractions. See SEXAGE- 

LOGOGRAPHY, a method of printing, 

these letters, if prefixed to the three parts in which the types, instead of answering 

of a s) 'llogism, fourteen artificial words 
have been formed, of three syllables each, 

only to a single letter, are made to corre- 
spond to whole words. The properties 

containing the vowels so to be prefixed of the logographic art are, 1. That the 
in the order of the mood to be denoted compositor shall have les* charged upon 

his memory, than in the common way. 
2. It is much less liable to error. 3. The 
type of each word is as easily laid hold 
of as that of a single letter. 4. The de- 
composition is much more readily per- 
formed. 5. No extraordinary expense, 

by each word. The fourteen moods are 
classed under these different figures, by 
which terms logicians mean to denote 
the particular situation of the middle 
term, with respect to the major and 
minor. The first figure is distinguished 

by the middle term being the subject of nor greater number of types, is required 

the major, and predicate of the minor in the logographic, than in the common 

proposition, and its four moods are de- method of printing. 

noted by the words Barbara, Celarent, LOLIUM, in botany, ray grass, a genus 
Dam, Fm'o. The second figure admits of of the Triandria Digynia class and or- 
negative conclusions only, the major being der. Natural order of Gramineae, or 
always universal, and one of the premises grasses. Essential character : calyx one- 
negative. Its moods are Cesare, Games- leafed, fixed, many-flowered. There arc 
tirs, FesUno, Baroco. And in the third five species. 

figure the middle term is the subject of LOMENTACE.K, in botany, the name 
both premises, the minor affirmative, and 
the conclusion particular. Its moods are 

DarapU', Fdflpton, D//m/s, Datisz, Bo. 

of the thirty-third order in Linnseus's 
Fragments of a Natural Method, consist- 
ing of plants, many of which furnish 

cardo, Fm'son. We shall not extend our beautiful dyes, and the pericarpium of 

which, universally a leguminous pod, 
contains seeds that are farinaceous or 
meally like those of the bean. The cas- 
sia, wild senna ; haematoxylon, logwood ; 
mimosa, sensitive plant, &c. are of this 

LOMONITE, in mineralogy, is of a 
snow white colour, vyith a slight tendency 
to reddish white. It occurs massive ; the 
fracture is foliated, and the surface of the 
folia are streaked, which gives a peculiar 
glimmering aspect to the surface of the 
fossil ; it is ei 

article to exemplify these moods, nor 
shall we proceed to give instances of the 
form and complexities of syllogisms, 
which systematic writers have been more 
solicitous to enumerate and name, than 
to analyze and develope. In like manner 
we shall pass over the consideration of 
the various sophisms treated of by them, 
because these objects would lead us too 
far, and their detection follows imme- 
diately upon a statement of the premises 
and conclusions according to rule. And 
upon the whole, we shall conclude by 
observing, that though the old logic was 
burdensome, from the manner in which 

it is easily frangible, and not heavy : 
when preserved from the air it has a 
slight degree of coherence ; but it it is 

it had been suffered to enlarge itself, yet, exposed to the action of that fluid, the 
since much of our present modes ofrea- folia spontaneously separate from each 
soning, and of the expressions made use other, and it is soon reduced to a heap of 
of at the bar, in the senate, an J among unconnected parts. It forms a kind of 
our best writers, are derived from its jelly with acids, and is found r.\ the lead 
rules, and since the moderns, when they mines of Huelgoet in Lower Brittany. 

.1 j i ._...._... _i :.. i ,11. i . 

decried and rejected it, have not been 
solicitous to establish any determinate 
or correct system, we deem it entitled to 
more attention than has usually been paid 
to it. 

It received its name from Gillet Lau- 
mont, who discovered it about twenty 
years ago. 

LONCHITES, in botany, a genus of the 
Cryptogaima Filices class and order,. Na- 



tural order of Filices, or ferns. Generic 
character : capsule disposed in lunulated 
lines, lying under the sinuses of the frond. 
There are five species, all natives of very 
hot climates. 

LONCHURUS, in natural history, a 
genus of fishes of the order Thoracici. 
Generic character : the head scaly ; ven- 
tral fins separate ; the tail lanceolated. 
The bearded lonchurus is a native of 
Surinam, about twelve inches in length, 
has a slightly lengthened nose, two beards 
at the lower jaw, and the first ray of the 
ventral fins elongated into a bristle. Its 
colour is a ferruginous brown. 

LONG (ROGER,) D. D. Master of Pem- 
broke-hall in Cambridge, Lowndes's pro- 
fessor of astronomy in that university, &c. 
was author of a well known and much 
approved treatise of astronomy, and the 
inventor of a remarkably curious astro- 
nomical machine. This was a hollow 
sphere of eighteen feet diameter, in which 
more than thirty persons might sit conve- 
niently. Withinside the surface, which 
represented the heavens, was painted the 
stars and constellations, with the zodiac, 
meridians, and axis parallel to the axis 
of the world, upon which it was easily 
turned round by a winch. He died 
December 16, 1770. at ninety-one years of 

A few years before his death, Mr. Jones 
gave some anecdotes of Dr Long, as fol- 
lows : " He is now in the 88th year of his 
age, and for his years vigorous and ac- 
tive. He was lately put in nomination 
for the office of vice-chancellor : he exe- 
cuted that trust once before, I think in 
the year 1737. He is a very ingenious 
person, and sometimes very facetious. 
At the public commencement, in the year 
1713, Dr Greene (master of Bennet Col- 
lege, and afterwards Bishop of Ely) being 
then vice-chancellor, Mr. Long was pitch- 
ed upon for the tripos performance : it was 
witty and humorous, and has passed 
through divers editions. Some that re- 
membered the delivery of it, told me, 
that, in addressing the vice-chancellor, 
(whom the university wags usually styled 
Miss Greene) the tripos orator, being a 
native of Norfolk, and assuming the Nor- 
folk dialect, instead of saying, ' Domine 
vice-cancellarie,' archly pronounced the 
words thus, * Domina vice-cancellaria ;' 
which occasioned a general smile in that 
great auditory. His friend, the late Mr. 
Boufoy, of Ripton, told me this little inci- 
dent: 'That he and Dr. Long, walking 
together in Cambridge, in a dusky even- 
ing, and coming to a short post fixed in 


the pavement, which Mr. Boufoy, in the 
midst of chat and inattention, took to be 
a boy standing in his way, he said, in a 
hurry, Get out of my way, boy.' 'That 
boy, sir,' said the Doctor, very calmly 
and slyly, 'is a post-boy, who turns out 
of his way for nobody.' 1 could recollect 
several other ingenious repartees, if there 
were occasion. One thing is remarkable, 
he never was a hale and hearty man, al- 
ways of a tender and delicate constitution, 
yet took great care of it ; his common 
drink water ; he always dines with the 
fellows in the hall. Of late years he has 
left off eating flesh-meats ; in the room 
thereof puddings, &c. sometimes a glass 
or two of wine," 

LONGEVITY, the continuance of life 
beyond its ordinary period of duration. 
The term of human life does not in gene- 
ral much exceed 80 years, but it is well 
known that instances occasionally occur 
of persons living to the age of 100 years 
and upwards. ' Such instances, however, 
have not excited that general attention, 
which from the nature of the subject 
might be expected, and it is only of late 
years that any extensive collection of 
them has been formed, or attempts made 
to ascertain the circumstances and situa- 
tions in which the different individuals 
preserved their lives to an age so much 
beyond the usual lot of man. The most 
extensive catalogue of this kind, is that 
published by J. Easton, which, though 
very defective, contains the names and 
some particulars of 1712 persons, who had 
attained to a century and upwards, hav- 
ing died at the following ages : 

From 100 to 110 years .... 1310 

110 to 120 277 

120 to 130 84 

130 to 140 26 

140 to 150 
150 to 160 
160 to 170 
170 to 185 


The circumstances which chiefly tend 
to promote longevity may be reduced to 
the following heads : 

1. Climate. A large majority of the re- 
corded instances of great age were inha- 
bitants of Great Britain or Ireland, of 
France, Germany, or the north of Europe, 
from which it appears, that moderate or 
even cold climates are the most favoura- 


ble to long life. Heat relaxes and enfee- 
bles, while cold consolidates and strength- 
ens the human frame. The diet also of 
hot countries is less nourishing than that 
of cold ones ; and there is generally a 
greater disposition, and greater oppor- 
tunities to indulge in various excesses in 
the former, than in the latter. There are 
however a few instances of natives of very 
hot climates having attained to great age, 
but they have been chiefly negroes in the 
West Indies and America, whose ages 
were probably not very correctly ascer- 

2. Parentage. Being born of healthy 
parents, and exempted from hereditary 
disease, are circumstances evidently fa- 
vourable to the duration of life ; and nu- 
merous instances warrant the opinion, 
that longevity prevails in some families 
more than in others, or that descent from 
long-lived ancestors is one of the circum- 
stances which give the greatest probabili- 
ty of attaining to extreme old age. 

3. Pom and size of the individual. It is 
generally admitted, that persons of a 
compact shape, and of a moderate stature, 
are the most likely to live long. Tall 
persons frequently acquire a habit of 
stooping, which contracts the chest, and 
is a great impediment to free respiration ; 
whereas the short sized find little diffi- 
culty in keeping themselves erect, and 
are naturally much more active, by which 
the animal functions are retained in a 
state of greater perfection ; the only dis- 
advantage attending a short stature is, 
that it is frequently accompanied with 
corpulence, which is rather unfavourable 
to long 1 life. 

4. Disposition of JWind. Nothing is 
more conducive to longevity than to pre- 
serve equanimity and good spirits, and 
not to sink under the disappointments of 
life, to which all, but particularly the old, 
are necessarily subjected. This is a point 
which cannot be too much inculcated, as 
experience continually shows that many 
perish from despondency, who, if they 
had preserved their spirits and vigour of 
mind, might have survived many years 
longer. Neither the irritable, who are 
agitated by trifles, nor the melancholy, 
who magnify the evils of life, can expect 
to live long. Even those who suflTer their 
strength and spirits to be exhausted by 
severe study, or other mental exertions, 
seldom reach great age. In the list be- 
fore referred to, of 1712 persons who 
Jived about a century, Fontenelle (who 
did not quite reach 100 years) is the only 
author of any note ; and his great age is 
nscribed to the tranquil ease of his tem- 

per, and that liveliness of spirits for 
which he was much distinguished. Among 
those who have devoted themselves to 
the study or practice of music, a profes- 
sion which encourages cheerfulness of 
mind, instances of great age have been 
very frequent. 

5. Occupation. No person that leads 
an idle life will ever attain to great age ; 
but health and long life must depend 
much on the manner in which the indivi- 
dual is employed. Those occupations 
are certainly the most conducive to the 
duration of life, which are carried on in 
the open air, and require activity or la- 
bour; thus farmers, gardeners, and la- 
bourers in the country, are in general 
the longest lived. Foot soldiers, also, 
who have survived the dangers of war, 
are remarkable for long life : they are 
generally stout and vigorous men, and 
the regularity to which surviving soldiers 
must have accustomed themselves, whilst 
their careless and disorderly companions 
have dropped off, the erect "posture to 
which they have been trained, and being 
of course men well formed by nature, and 
habituated to walk well (by which they 
enjoy the most natural exercise in per- 
fection) all combine in their favour. 
Sailors also would furnish many instances 
of longevity, if comfortably provided for 
in their old age ; of this a striking proof 
is given in the accounts drawn up by Dr. 
Robertson of the pensioners in Green- 
wich Hospital. In the year 1801, the 
complement of in-pensioners was 2410, 
of whom there were 96 of the age of 80 
years and upwards ; of this number 13 
were above 90 years of age, and one man 
102 years old. The number of out-pen- 
sioners was about 2500, of whom it ap- 
peared there were only 23 from 80 years 
of age and upwards. Of the former there- 
fore about 4 in 100 survived 80 years of 
age, but of the latter not 1 in 100 attained 
that age, a sufficient evidence of the bene- 
fits of regularity and ease in the advanced 
period of life, and of the attention paid 
to the health of the in-pensioners at that 
excellent institution. 

6. Mode of Living^. If persons were to 
live with the simplicity of ancient times, 
it is probable that they would attain long 
life, without experiencing any material 
illness, merely by a proper attention to 
air, exercise, clothing, and diet. But in 
the present state of society, the great bulk 
of the community follow, not a natural, 
but an artificial, mode of life, and thence 
are perpetually exposed to various temp- 
tations, wjiich they find it difficult always 
to resist, and to dangers which they can- 



liot always avoid. Most persons however 
have it in their power in some degree to 
regulate their manner of living by their 
own choice : and by a little attention to 
their food, clothing, employment, rest, 
and temper of mind, might not only con- 
tribute materially to the prolongation of 
their lives, but preserve themselves from 
many diseases, and greatly increase their 
relish for all the enjoyments of life. 

The importance of wholesome food, for 
the preservation of health and promoting 
long life, and the avoiding of excess, 
whether in eating or drinking, is suffi- 
ciently obvious. Some instances, indeed, 
are recorded of persons who have con- 
tinued to commit excesses, and have 
lived long ; but these are to be consider- 
ed in no other light than as exceptions to 
a general rule ; and it may reasonably be 
contended, that if such persons lived to 
a great age, notwithstanding their intem- 
perance, they would have lived much 
longer had they followed a different 
course. Experience will point out those 
articles of food which are best adapted to 
the constitution of each individual, and 
there cannot be a better rule than to ad- 
here to them as far as circumstances will 
permit. It may be observed, however, 
that people in "general, especially those 
who do not labour, eat much more than 
nature requires ; that a little abstinence 
or self-denial may often be of use, either 
to prevent or to cure disease ; and at any 
rate, that none but hard working people, 
the young who are growing fast, or per- 
sons who are travelling about, should eat 
more than one full meal each day. 

As to clothing, much must depend on 
situation and climate ; but it is generally 
found a useful practice to wear woollens 
next the skin. It is remarked in many 
parts of Scotland, that since the use of 
flannel shirts has been given up by the 
lower orders, the rheumatism, and other 
diseases formerly unknown, have become 
very frequent, and are daily increasing. 
In the West India islands, if care be taken 
to make the troops wear flannel shirts, 
they are generally exempt from various 
disorders, which otherwise would pro- 
bably have attacked them. Even the 
negroes themselves are said to prefer 
flannel to cotton or linen, and find it a 
much more comfortable and useful dress. 

Exercise cannot be too much recom- 
mended ; and as the inhabitants of large 
towns, and persons engaged in sedentary 
occupations, cannot take all the exercise 
abroad that may be necessary for their 
health, they ought as much as possible to 
accustom themselves to be walking about 

even in their own house, for though this 
practice does not make up for the want 
of exercise abroad, it is certainly the best 
substitute for it. Exercise is attended 
with the advantage of creating an inclina- 
tion to retire early to rest, and of induc- 
ing sound|sleep. Every one should take 
all the repose that nature requires, but 
should never continue long in bed with- 
out sleeping. Early rising, even if car- 
ried to an extreme, is far more conducive 
to health and long life, than late hours 
at night and slumbering in bed in the 

There is nothing that can tend more to 
long life than for a person to obtain a 
complete command of his passions, and 
in particular to preserve his mind from 
being ruffled by the occurrences of life. 
Perhaps there is no maxim more likely 
to promote good health, and consequently 
the duration of life, than that of paying a 
proper attention to temper, temperance, 
and sleep. By good temper the mind 
is preserved from disease ; and by tem- 
perance, the body ; and both the mind 
and the body, when exhausted, are again 
recruited and restored to their former 
strength, by a sufficient quantity of re- 

LONGIMETRY, the art of measuring 
lengths, both accessible, as roads, &.c, 
and inaccessible, as arms of the sea, Stc. 

LONGITUDE of a star, in astronomy, 
an arch of the ecliptic, intercepted be- 
tween the beginning of Aries aiffl the 
point of the ecliptic cut by the star's cir- 
cle of longitude. See CIUCLK, &c. 

LONGITUDK of a place, in geography, 
is an arch of the equator intercepted be- 
tween the first meridian, and the meri- 
dian passing through the proposed place; 
which is always equal to the angle at the 
pole, formed by the first meridian and the 
meridian of the place. 

The first meridian may be placed at 
pleasure, passing through any place, as 
London, Paris, Teneriffe, &c. but among 1 
us it is generally fixed at London, or 
rather Greenwich, and the loiigitudes 
counted from it will be either east or 
west, according as they lie on the east 
or west side of that meridian. The dif- 
ference of longitude between two places 
upon the earth is an arch of the equator, 
comprehended between the two meris 
dians of these places ; and the greatest 
possible is 180 degrees, when the two 
places lie on opposite meridians. 

Since the parallels of latitude always 
decrease, the nearer they approach the 
pole, it is plain a degree upon any of 


them must be less than a degree upon the 
equator, in the ratio of the co-sine of the 
latitude to the radius. Hence, as the 
radius is to the co-sine of any latitude ; 
so is the minutes of difference of longi- 
tude between two meridians, or their 
difference in miles upon the equator, to 
the distance of these two meridians on 
the parallel of that latitude, in miles. 
And, by this theorem, is the following- 
table constructed. 


Shewing how many miles answer to a 
Degree of Longitude, at every Degree 
of Latitude. 






















































































































































































42.43 68 








LONGITUDE, in navigation, the distance 
of a ship or place, east or west, from an- 
other, reckoned in degrees of the equa- 
tor. As the discovery of a method to 
find the longitude would render voyages 
safe and expeditious, and also preserve 
ships and the lives of men, the following 
rewards have been offered by act of par- 
liament, as an encouragement to any per- 
son who shall discover a proper method 
for finding it out : the author or authors 
of any such method shall be entitled to 
the sum of 10,0001. if it determines the 
longitude to one degree of a great cir- 
cle ; to 15,0001. 5 f it determines the same 
to two-thirds of that distance; and to 

20,000^. if it determines the same to one- 
half of the same distance ; and that half 
of the reward shall be due and paid when 
the commissioners of the navy, or the 
major part of them, agree that any such 
method extends to the security of ships 
within 80 geographical miles of the 
shores, which are places of the greatest 
danger ; and the other half, when a ship, 
by the appointment of the said commis- 
sioners, or the major part of them, shall 
thereby actually sail over the ocean, from 
Great Britain to any such port in the West 
Indies as those commissioners, or the ma- 
jor part of them, shall choose for the ex- 
periment, without losing their longitude 
beyond the limits before-mentioned. The 
French, Dutch, Spaniards, and other na- 
tions, have likewise offered rewards for 
the same purpose. 

Since, by the motion of the earth round 
its axis, every point upon its surface de- 
scribes the circumference of a circle, or 
360, in twenty-four hours time, it is plain 
it must describe 15 in one hour, because 
3^ 15. Hence the difference of lon- 
gitude may be converted into time, by al- 
lowing one hour for every 15 degrees, 
and proportionally for minutes ; also dif- 
ference of time may be converted into 
difference of longitude by allowing 15 
for every hour, and proportionally for a 
greater or less time. Consequently, by 
knowing the one, we can easily find the 

Whatever contrivance, therefore, shows 
the hours of the day, at the same absolute 
point of time, in two different places, 
likewise serves to find the difference of 
longitude between those places. Now, 
since an eclipse of the moon proceeds 
from nothing else but an interposition of 
the earth between her and the sun, by 
which means she is prevented from re- 
flecting the light she would otherwise re- 
ceive from the sun, the moment that any 
part of her body begins to be deprived of 
the solar rays, it is visible to all those peo- 
ple who can see her at the same time ; 
whence, if two or more different people, 
at two or more different places, observe 
the times when it first began or ended, 
or note the time when any number of di- 
gits was eclipsed, or when the shadow 
begins to cover or quit any remarkable 

r, the difference of those times (if 
e be any), when compared together, 
will give the difference of longitude be- 
tween the places of observation. 

The longitudes of places may also be 
determined from the observations of so- 
lar eclipses ; but these being encumber- 


ed with the considerations of parallaxes, 
are not near so proper as those of the 
moon ; and each of these happening but 
rarely, another excellent expedient has 
been thought of, and that is the eclipses 
of Jupiter's satellites. 

Now as neither Jupiter nor any of his 
attendants have any native light of their 
own, but shine with a borrowed light 
from the sun, it happens that each of 
these, in every revolution about J upiter, 
suffers two eclipses, one at their entrance 
into the shadow, the other at the en- 
trance of their passage behind his body ; 
whence in each revolution of the satellite 
there are four remarkable appearances, 
by the observation of any one of which 
the business may be done, viz. one at the 
entrance into the shadow, and one at the 
emersion out of it ; one at the entrance 
behind the body, and another at the com- 
ing out ; but the latter of these, viz. the 
ingress and egress of the satellite, into 
and from tinder the body, is not so much 
regarded by astronomers as the immer- 
sion into and out of the shadow, because, 
in the former, the difficulty of pronounc- 
ing the exact time is very great, it re- 
quiring, in each observer, eyes equally 
good and strong, and telescopes equally 
large ; but the observation of the former 
of these, viz. the emersion into, and 
emersion out of the shadow, is easy and 
practicable, because the quick motions of 
the satellites plunge them so quickly into 
the shadow of Jupiter, that it is no diffi- 
cult matter to pronounce, by any tele- 
scope by which they may be seen, the 
exact time of their immersion and emer- 
sion, as any one may soon be satisfied, if 
he will but try the experiment. 

And as each of these happens at the 
same moment of absolute time, if two or 
more persons, in different places, note 
the time of observation, these, when com- 
pared together, will give the difference 
of longitude between the two places of 
observation. And when we consider the 
great number of these eclipses that hap- 
pen eveiy year, there being more visible 
in one year than there are days in it, and 
consequently, but few nights when Jupi- 
ter may be seen, (and which is near ele- 
ven months of the year,) but that an 
eclipse of one or other happens, and 
sometimes two or three in a night ; the 
ease with which they may be made, re- 
quiring only a telescope of eight or ten 
feet in length, which may be almost ma- 
naged with the hand ; and the little like- 
lihood there is of missing the times of in- 
gress or egress, they being in a manner 
momentaneous ; and, lastly, the great ex- 

actness to wliich they would give the dit' 
ference of longitude, it being certainly as 
exact as the latitude can at present be ta- 
ken ; it is much to be wondered at, that 
the more skilful pai-t of our seamen have 
so long neglected them, and especially in 
the several ports into which they sail. 
The eclipses of Jupiter's satellites, and 
their configurations, are given in the nau- 
tical ephemeris. 

Besides these, there is another method 
equally useful, expeditious, and certain ; 
and that is, the appulses of the moon to 
certain fixed stars, and their occultations 
by the interposition of her body ; for, the 
moon finishing her revolution in the 
space of twenty-seven days, seven hours, 
forty-three minutes, there are but few- 
clear nights when the moon does not 
pass over or so near to some fixed star, 
that her distance from it, or the time of 
her visible conjunction with it, may be 
easily observed by the telescope, and mi- 
crometer only ; and these, when com- 
pared together, or with the visible time 
computed to the meridian of some place, 
will show the difference of longitude of 
those places. 

It is a great objection to the methods 
here described, that the agitation of a 
ship at sea prevents their being useful. 
But the invention of Hadley's quadrant 
and its modern improvements, with the 
degree of perfection to which the moon's 
place can now be had, by computation, 
added to the great facilities afforded by 
the nautical almanack and requisite ta- 
bles, published by the commissioners of 
longitude, and other works, particularly 
Mendoza's extensive Tables, patronized 
by them, have rendered the determina- 
tion of the longitude at sea a thing of 
easy and general practice, by observations 
of the angular distance of the moon from 
a fixed star. This was first proposed by 
John Warner, in his Notes to Ptolemy's 
Geography, in 1514, and since by others, 
particularly our Sir Jonas Moor, Flam- 
stead, Halley, Bradley ; and in later times, 
with great diligence, zeal, and ability, by 
the present Astronomer Royal, Dr. Mas- 
kelyne. For the processes and computa- 
tions, the reader will have recourse to 
the works just mentioned. The princi- 
ple is simple and easy. An observer at 
sea measures the angle between the moon 
and the sun, or a fixed star, while two 
other observers take their altitudes, in or- 
der to determine the quantities of refrac- 
tion and parallax. The two zenith dis- 
tances, and the oblique distance, consti- 
tute a spherical triangle ; of which -the 
angle of the zenith may be determined, 



and then by correcting the altitudes for 
parallax and refraction, two other zenith 
distances may be had, which are correct, 
and with these and the angle at the ze- 
nith, a new triangle is constituted, of 
which the oblique side is the correct dis- 
tance. _ By comparing this distance with 
those in the nautical almanack, the time 
at Greenwich is obtained, and the differ- 
ence between this and the time (observed 
by an altitude or otherwise) at the ship, 
gives the difference of longitude. Though 
this computation with tables, which give 
every tenth second, is not operose, it is 
much abridged by the formulae given in 
the said works. 

Time-pieces are likewise rendered so 
perfect at present, that they afford the 
most inestimable assistance to mariners. 
John Harrison, between the years 1726 
and 1762, first vanquished the great diffi- 
culty, and was rewarded with 20,0001. 
from the English government. Very libe- 
ral encouragement has since been given 
to other artists, such as Arnold, Earn- 
shaw, and others. 

LONGITUDE of motion, according to 
some philosophers, is the distance which 
the centre of any moving body runs 
through, as it moves on in a right line. 

LONGITUDINAL, in general, denotes 
something placed lengthwise : thus some 
of the fibres of the vessels in the human 
body are placed logitudinally, others trans- 
versely, or across. 

learned astronomer, born in Denmark in 
1562, in the village of Longomontam, 
whence he took his name. Vossius, by 
mistake, calls him Christopher. Being 
the son of a poor man, a ploughman, he 
was obliged to suffer, during his studies, 
all the hardships to which he could be 
exposed, dividing his time, like the phi- 
losopher Cleanthes, between the cultiva- 
tion of the earth, and the lessons he re- 
ceived from the minister of the place. At 
length, at fifteen years old, he stole away 
from his family, and went to Wiburg, 
where there was a college, in which he 
spent eleven years; and though he was 
obliged to earn his livelihood as he could, 
his close application to study enabled 
him to make a great progress in learn- 
ing, particularly in the mathematical 

From hence he went to Copenhagen ; 
where the professors of that University 
soon conceived a very high opinion of 
him, and recommended him to the cele- 
brated Tycho Brahe ; with whom Longo- 
montanus lived eight years, and was of 

great service to him in his observations 
and calculations. At length, being very 
desirous of obtaining a professor's chair 
in Denmark, Tycho Brahe consented with 
some difficulty to his leaving him; giving 
him a discharge filled with the highest 
testimonies of his esteem, and furnishing 
him with money for the expense of his 
long journey from Germany, whither 
Tycho had retired. 

He accordingly obtained a professor- 
ship of mathematics in the University of 
Copenhagen, in 1605 ; the duty of which 
he discharged very worthily till his death, 
which happened in 1647, at eighty-five 
years of age. 

Longomontanus was author of several 
works, which show great talents in mathe- 
matics and astronomy. The most distin- 
guished of them is his " Astronomica Da- 
nica," first printed in quarto, 1621, and 
afterwards in folio, in 1640, with augmen- 
tations. He amused himself with endea- 
vouring to square the circle, and pre- 
tended that he had made the discovery 
of it ; but our countryman, Dr. John Pell, 
attacked him warmly on the subject, and 
proved that he was mistaken. It is re- 
markable, that, obscure as his village and 
father were, he contrived to dignify and 
eternize them both ; for he took his name 
from his village, and in the title-page 
to some of his works, he wrote himself 
Christianus Longomontanus Severini fi- 
lius;;his father's name being Severin or 

LONICERA, in botany, honeysuckle^ 
named from A. Lonicer, a genus of the 
Pentandria Monogynia class and order. 
Natural order of Aggregate. Caprifolia, 
Jussieu. Essential character : corolla one- 
petalled, irregular; berry many-seeded, 
two-celled, inferior. There are nineteen 
species, of which L. grata, ever-green 
honeysuckle, is the most beautiful : it 
grows naturally in North America : it has 
strong branches, covered with a purple 
bark, which are ornamented with lucid 
green leaves, embracing the stalks, and 
continuing their verdure all the year ; 
the flowers are produced in whorled 
bunches at tke end of the branches ; 
there are frequently two, and sometimes 
three, of these bunches rising one out 
of the other ; they are of a bright red on 
their outside, and yellow within, of a 
strong aromatic flavour; it begins to 
flower in June, and there is a constant 
succession of flowers till the frost puts an 
end to them. 

LOO, or lanter-loo, a game at cards. 
LOOP, in the sea-language, is a term 



used in various senses ; thus the loof of a 
ship is that part of her aloft which lies 
just before the chest-tree ; hence the 
guns which lie there are called loof- 
picces: keep your loof, signifies keep 
the ship near to the wind; to loof into a 
harbour, is to sail into it close by the 
wind; loof up, is to keep nearer the 
wind ; to spring the loof, is when a ship 
that was going large before the wind is 
brought close by the wind. 

LOOKING-g-fcmes, are nothing but 
plane mirrors of glass ; which being im- 
pervious to the light, reflect the images 
of things placed before them. See OP- 

LOOM, a frame composed of a variety 
of parts, used in all the branches of weav- 
ing; for a particular description of which 

LOOM, in the sea-language: when a ship 
appears big, when seen at a distance, they 
say she looms. 

Loont gale, a gentle easy gale of 
wind, in which a ship can carry her top- 
sails a-trip. 

LOOP, in the iron works, denotes a part 
of a sow, or block of cast iron, broken or 
melted off from the rest. 

LOOP holes, in a ship, are holes made in 
the coamings of the hatches of a ship, and 
in their bulk-heads, to fire muskets 
through, in a close fight. 

LOPHIUS, the angler, in natural histo- 
ry, a genus of fishes of the order Cartila- 
ginei. Generic character : head depress- 
ed ; teeth numerous and sharp ; mouth 
armed with teeth ; pectoral fins brachiat- 
ed. There are eight species, of which 
we shall notice the following. L. euro- 
paeus, or the European angler, is a native 
of the European seas, and measures some- 
times seven feet in length, but is general- 
ly about three, in shape similar to a tad- 
pole. It frequents the shallow parts of 
the sea, and imbedding itself almost com- 
pletely in sand 'or gravel, moves its ten- 
tacula, or the long processes on its head, 
in various directions. The small fishes, 
mistaking these for worms, catch at them 
with avidity, and in the moment of ex- 
pected happiness find certain destruction. 
L. histrio, or the harlequin angler, is a 
native of the Indian and American seas, 
and is one of the most curious and remark- 
able of fishes; but we have not here room 
for the detail of its form and appendages. 
Its general length is about a foot. Its 
ventral fins resemble short arms, and 
Shaw mentions Renard's stating, that he 
knew an instance of some of these fishes 
living without water for three days, and 

walking about the house in the manner of 
a dog ! For a representation of this fish, 
see Pisces, Plate V. fig. 3. 

LOPPING, among gardeners, the cut- 
ting off the side-branches of trees. 

LORANTHUS, in botany, a genus of 
the Hexandria Monogynia class and or- 
der. Natural order of Aggregate. Ca- 
prifolia, Jussieu. Essential character : 
germ inferior ; calyx none ; corolla six- 
cleft, revolute; stamens at the tips of 
the petals; berry one-seeded. There 
are eighteen species ; these are mostly 
parasitical shrubs, having thick opposite 
leaves, and axillary flowers: natives of 
warm climates. 

LORD's day. All persons not having 
a reasonable excuse, shall resort to their 
parish church or chapel (or some con- 
gregation of religious worship allowed 
by the toleration act) on every Sunday, 
on pain of punishment by the censures of 
the church, and of forfeiting one shilling 
to the poor for every offence. To be le- 
vied by the church- wardens by distress, 
by warrant of one justice. The hundred 
shall not be answerable for any robbery 
committed on the Lord's day. No per- 
son upon the Lord's day shall serve or ex- 
ecute any writ, process, warrant, order, 
judgment, or decree (except in cases of 
treason, felony, or breach of the peace), 
but the service thereof shall be void. Pub- 
lic houses are shut during the usual hours 
of divine service. 

LORICAR1A, in natural history, a ge- 
nus of fishes of the order Abdominales. 
Generic character : head smooth ; mouth 
without teeth ; gill membrane six-rayed ; 
body mailed. Of this genus there are, ac- 
cording to Gmelin, two species. Shaw 
enumerates seven. The L. costata is 
found both in the seas of India and Ame- 
rica, and is a fish highly daring, and, by 
the strength and acuteness of its spines, 
capable of wounding and lacerating those 
who attempt to take it with great severi- 
ty. By the fishermen in those seas they 
are regarded as formidable enemies. Se.e 
Pisces, Plate V. fig. 4. L. callicthys, which 
alone we shall add to the former, is about 
twelve inches in length, and by the inhabi- 
tants of Surinam is regarded as a delica- 
cy. It is stated by a writer of most ludi- 
crous or contemptible credulity, that this 
fish being harassed occasionally by the 
shallowness of the stream which it has in- 
habited, makes an excursion by land 
in search of another that it may find 
deeper, or even perforates the land for 
the same purpose. 

LOTION, in medicine and pharmacy, 
is such washing- as concerns beautify- 



mg the skin, by cleansing it of those 
deformities which a distempered blood 
sometimes throws upon it, or rather 
are made by a preternatural secretion. 
There is reason to believe, that almost 
till the lotions advertised for sale as 
quack medicines, contain much delete- 
rious matter, such as muriated mercury, 
and therefore ought never to be had re- 
course to. 

LOTTERY, a game of hazard, in which 
small sums are adventured for the chance 
of obtaining a larger value, either in mo- 
]\ey or other articles. Lotteries are form- 
ed on various plans ; but in general they 
consist of a certain number of tickets, 
which are drawn at the same time, with a 
corresponding number of blanks and 
prizes mixed together, and by which the 
fate of the tickets is determined. This 
species of gaming has been sanctioned by 
the governments of France, Holland, 
Great Britain, and other countries, as a 
means of raising money for public pur- 
poses ; as, from the contributions being 
voluntary, it is always easier to obtain mo- 
ney in this way than by new taxes : it is, 
however, liable to the serious objection, 
that it tempts many persons to lose more 
than they can conveniently spare, par- 
ticularly among the lower classes of socie- 
ty, who are led to neglect the gains of 
honest industry for the chance of acquir- 
ing sudden riches by a prize in the lot- 

The proposals for the first public lotte- 
ry in England were published in 1567 and 
1568, and it was drawn in 1569, at the 
west door of St. Paul's cathedral. The 
tickets were sold at ten shillings each, 
and there were no blanks. The prizes 
consisted chiefly of plate; and the profits 
of it were intended for the repair of the 
havens of the kingdom, and other public 
works. In 1612, King James granted per- 
mission for a lottery, to be held at the 
west end of St. Paul's, of which the high- 
est prize was of the value of four thousand 
crowns, in plate : this was for the assist- 
ance of the Virginia company, who were 
licensed to open lotteries in any part of 
England, by which means they raised 
29,000/. At length these lotteries came 
to be considered a public evil ; they at- 
tracted the attention of parliament, were 
represented by the commons as a griev- 
ance, and in 1620 were suspended by an 
order of council. In 1630, however, 
Charles I. granted a special licence for a 
lottery, or lotteries, " according to the 
course of other lotteries heretofore used 
or practised," for defraying the expenses 

of a project for conveying water to Lon- 

Soon after the revolution lotteries were 
resorted to, among other expedients, for 
raising part of the extraordinary sums ne- 
cessary for the public service, by which 
the disposition for this species of gambling 
was greatly encouraged and extended ; 
and private lotteries, formed on the most 
delusive and fraudulent principles, be- 
came so general, not only in London, but 
in all the other principal towns of En- 
gland, that parliament found it neceseary, 
in 1698, to pass an act for suppressing 
them ; by which a penalty of 500/. was 
laid on the proprietors of any such lotte- 
ries, and of 20/. on every adventurer in 
them ; notwithstanding which, the dispo- 
sition to fraud on the one hand, and for 
adventure on the other, continued to pre- 
vail, and small lotteries were carried on 
under the denomination of sales of gloves, 
fans, cards, plate, and other articles. This 
was attempted to be checked by a clause 
of an act passed in 1712, which only gave 
rise to a new mode of carrying on this 
kind of gaming. The adventure was now 
made to depend on the drawing of the 
government lottery ; and the selling and 
buying of chances and parts of chances of 
tickets in the state lotteries became a ge- 
neral practice, till it was prohibited by ah 
act passed in 1718, by which all undertak- 
ings resembling lotteries, or being depen- 
dent on the state lottery, were strictly 
prohibited, under the penalty of 100Z. over 
and above all penalties enjoined by former 
acts of parliament against private lotte- 

During the reign of Queen Anne, the 
lotteries were generally for terminable 
annuities, to which both blanks and prizes 
were entitled, at different rates : thus, in 
1710, the lottery consisted of 150,000 
tickets, valued at 10/. each ; every ticket 
being entitled to an annuity for thirty -two 
years, the blanks at 14s. per annum, 
and the prizes to greater annuities, from 
51. to 1,OOOJ. per annum. This was the 
first lottery for which the Bank of En- 
gland received the subscriptions for go- 
vernment. In the following year, the 
whole of the money advanced for the 
tickets was to be repaid, both in blanks 
and prizes, in thirty-two years, with in- 
terest at 6 per cent, and an additional 
sum of nearly half a million to be divided 
in order to form the prizes; which addi- 
tional capital was to be paid, with the like 
interest, within the same period as the 
original sum. In this manner, which was 
continued in several of the subsequent 


years, a very considerable premium was 
given for the money advanced, in addition 
to a high rate of interest. 

According to the lottery plans which 
prevailed from Sir Robert Walpole's ad- 
ministration to that of the Duke of Graf- 
ton, the tickets were issued at 101. each ; 
and occasionally the subscription was open 
to the public at large. The highest prize 
was generally 10,000/, and the lowest 20/. 
There were from four to six blanks to one 
prize, and the blanks entitled the bearers 
to five or six pounds stock in 3 or 4 pel- 
cent, bank annuities, the value of the 
blanks arid prizes being generally funded. 
The office-keepers divided the tickets in- 
to shares and chances ; the former en- 
titling the holders to the proportion they 
had purchased of blanks and prizes ; the 
chances to prizes only; that is, they had 
no return if the ticket was drawn a blank. 
The tickets, according to the advantage 
or disadvantage of the scheme, in respect 
to the number of blanks to a prize, and 
the number of high prizes, generally sold 
at from 111. to 121. before the drawing. 
When the ticket sold for 111. and the 
blank was entitled to 61. in the 3 per cent, 
annuities, as the blank might be sold for 
51. 8s. ready money, when the 3 per cents. 
were at 90, the adventurer only gambled 
at the risk of 51. 12s. ; and at the 1 ugliest 
calculation, when tickets were worth 131. 
he never staked more than 71 12*. for a 
ticket before the drawing. 

In 1759, the scheme of the lottery in- 
cluded two prizes of 20,OOG/. each, which 
had not been the case in any lottery since 
the reign of Queen Anne. The scheme 
for the year 1767 contained one prize of 
20,000/. and this was for many years after 
the usual amount of the highest prize. A- 
bout this time a material alteration was 
made in the plan of the lotteries ; the al 
lowance to blanks was discontinued, * le 
whole sum being divided into prizes the 
number of which was of course cp*sicler- 
ably increased, particularly as the propor- 
tion of small prizes was much grater than 
it has since been, and in several of the 
follow ing years was less lh> n two blanks 
to a prize.' All the lottc-'ies during the 
time Lord North was chancellor of the 
Exchequer were forrvedon this principle, 
with some variations in the schemes, 
which favoured tie holders of tickets and 
the lottery-ofnre keepers, and greatly ex- 
panded the spirit of gaming: such as pay- 
ing the prizes in money instead of stock, 
and making the first drawn ticket for se- 
veral successive days a capital prize of 
1000J. or more, which enhanced the price 
of tickets, and encouraged persons who 


had blanks drawn to buy in again. Some 
judicious regulations were, however, a- 
dopted, for the security of persons pur- 
chasing shares of tickets, by confining the 
shares into which tickets may be divided 
into halves, quarters, eighths, and six- 
teenths, and obliging' all lottery -office 
keepers to deposit the tickets they divide 
into shares in the bank, and to "have the 
said shares examined and stamped. The 
practice of insuring tickets and shares 
was likewise restrained, by enacting that 
"No person shall sell the chance or 
chances of any ticket, or any share, for 
any time less than the whole time ot 
drawing from the day of sale r nor shall 
receive any sum of money whatsoever, in 
consideration for the repayment of any 
sum, in case any ticket shall prove fortu- 
nate, or in aiiy case of any chance ftr 
event relating to the drawing, either as to 
time, or its being fortunate ; nor shall 
publish proposals for the same; under 
the penalty of 500/. one half to be paid 
to the person suing for the same, and the 
other moiety to bis Majesty." 

During MY. Pitt's administration, the 
lotteries were contracted for entirely dis- 
tinct from the loans of tl*J respective 
years ; and as it became yecessaiy to en- 
deavour to augment e'ry source of re- 
venue as much aspo^ble, various altera- 
tions were made in the lottery schemes, 
chiefly with the ' iew of raising the price 
of tickets, and of keeping up the price 
during the tiv e of drawing. The number 
and amount of tSie highest prizes were in- 
creased, ome of the schemes containing 1 


c /iirse of the year, the lottery was divided 
into two or three smaller ones, drawn at 
different times. The amount of the princi- 
pal prizes was afterwards still further aug- 
mented ; the lottery drawn in October, 
1807, containing a prize of40,000/. and that 
drawn in June 1803, six prizes of 20,000/. 
Notwithstanding the temptations which 
these schemes held out to the inconsider- 
ate, the contractors found, either from 
the greater frequency of lotteries, or the 
increased number of tickets, that it be- 
came impossible to get the tickets oft' 
their hands, without resorting to a variety 
of expedients for attracting the public at- 
tention, which were carried so far as to 
become a public nuisance and disgrace. 
In 1808, a Committee of the House of 
Commons was appointed, to inquire how 
far the evils attending lotteries have been 
remedied by the laws passed respecting 
the same ; who in their report were of 


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LUMBAGO, in medicine, a rheuma- 
tic affection of the muscles about the 

LUMBRICUS, in natural history, the 
earth-worm, a genus of the Verrnes Intes- 
tina : body round, annulate, with general- 
ly an elevated fleshy belt near the head, 
mostly rough, with minute concealed 
prickles, placed longitudinally, and fur- 
nished with a lateral aperture. Gmelin 
has enumerated sixteen species, of which 
we shall notice the following : L. terristris, 
dew-worm ; body red, with eight rows 
of prickles ; there are two varieties, one 
being as long again as the other. It in- 
habits decayed wood, and the common 
soil, which, by perforating, it renders tit to 
receive rain ; devours the cotyledons of 
young plants, and wanders about in the 
night ; is the food of rnoles, and various 
birds. It is said to have about one hun- 
dred and forty rings ; head taper ; n^uth 
at the end, round ; fore-part of the worm 
cylindric, the rest depressed; at about 
one third of its length is a prominent an- 
milated belt ; on each side of the belly a 
row of minute spines, distinguishable 
only by the touch, but which are of aid 
to their motion. L. marinus, the lug; 
back with two rows of bristly tubercles. 
This species inhabits the shores of the 
sea, where it buries itself deep in the 
sand, leaving a little rising with an aper- 
ture on the surface, and is used as a bait 
for fish. Body pale red, round and an- 
nulate, with greater and lesser rings ; the 
first prominent, with two opposite tufts of 
short bristles on each; the lower part 
smooth. L. vermicularis, body white, with 
two rows of prickles ; inhabits the wet 
and decayed trunks of trees, and among 
moist leaves, moving very expeditiously 
in humid places, but twisting itself up in 
dry ones : body polished, glabrous. L, 
edulis, bod}' whitish flesh-coloured ; sub- 
clavate behind, dilated and papillous be- 
fore ; mouth terminal, and surrounded 
with a very viliose rim or wrinkle. It in- 
habits the sandy shores of the islands in 
the Indian ocean ; nearly a foot long, and 
about as thick as a goose quill ; buries it- 
self about a foot or more deep in the sand, 
and is eaten by the Chinese : the rings 
between the villous part and the hinder 
end 278, and separated by an annular 
stria ; the hind part bulbous, with a dou- 
ble papilla; the fore-part beset with nu- 
merous flesh-coloured ones, disposed in 
transverse rows. 

LUNA, in astronomy, the moon. See 

LUNA, among chemists, signifies silver, 

LUNAR, something belonging to the 
moon -, thus we say lunar month, lunar 
year, lunar dial, lunar eclipse, &c. 

LUNAR caustic^ is the old name for 
nitrate of silver, a very powerful caustic, 
much used in medicine. It is also called 
" Lapis Infernalis," by surgeons. 

LUNARIA, in botany, honesty, a genus 
of the Tetradynamia Siliculosa class and 
order. Natural order of Siliquosx or 
Oucifbrmes. Essential character : sili- 
cic entire, elliptic, compressed, flat, pe- 
dicelled ; valves equal, and parallel to the 
partition, flat ; calyx with bugged leaflets. 
There are three species, viz. the perenni- 
al, annual, and Egyptian honesty. 
LUNATION, the period or time be- 
tween one new moon and another : it is 
also called the synodical month, consist- 
ing of 29<i 12'' 44' 3" Hods; exceeding 
the periodical month by 2 d 5 h 0' 55". 

LUNE, in mathematics, is a geometri- 
cal figure, in form of a crescent, termi- 
nj<ted by the arcs of two circles that in- 
lers^ct each other within. Though the 
quudtature of the whole circle has never 
been ejected, yet many of its parts have 
been squared. The first of these partial 
quadratures was that of the lunula, given 
by Hippocrates, of Scio, or Chios ; who, 
from being . shipwrecked merchant, 
commerced geometrician. But although 
the quadrature of the lune be generally 
ascribed to Hippocrates, yet Proclus ex- 
pressly says, * was found" out by Oenopi- 
das of the same place. The lune of Hip- 
pocrates is this : let A B C, Plate IX. 
Miscel. fig. 7, be a hmi-circle, having its 
centre E; and A D C * quadrant, having 
its centre F ; then the figure AB C D A, 
contained between the arcs of the semi- 
circle and quadrant, is his lune ; and it is 
equal to the right-angled triangle A C F, 
as is thus easily proved. Since A F 2 = 
2 A E% that is, the square of the radius 
of the quadrant equal to (iouble the 
square of the radius of the senu- c ircle ; 
therefore the quadrant-area, AbCFA, 
is s= the semi-circle of A B C E A ; from 
each of these take away the common 
space ADCEA, and there remains the 
triangle A C F = the lune A B C D A. 
Another property of this lune, which is 
the more general one of the former, is, 
that if F G be any. line drawn from the 
point F, and A H perpendicular to it ; 
then is the intercepted part of the lune 
A G I A = the triangle A G H, cut off by 


the chord line A G; or, in general, that 
the small segment, A K G A, is equal to 
the tri-lineal A I H A. For, the angle 
A F G being at the centre of the one cir- 
cle, and at the circumference of the other, 
the arcs cut off A G, A I are similar to 
the wholes ABC, ADC, therefore the 
small segment A K G A is to the semi- 
segment A I H, as the whole semi-circle 
A B C A to the semi-segment or quadrant 
A D C F, that is, in a ratio of equality. 
Again, if A B C (fig. 8) be a triangle, 
right-angled at C, and it semi-circles be 
described on the three sides as diameters ; 
then the triangle T (ABC) is equal to 
the sum ot "the two limes L 1, L 2. For 
the greatest semi-circle is equal to the 
sum of both the other two ; from the 
greatest semi-circle take away the seg- 
ments S 1, and S 2, and there remains the 
triangle T ; also from the two less semi- 
circles take away the same two segments 
S 1 and S 2, and there remains the two 
lunesLl, and L2; therefore the trian- 
gle T = L I -f- L 2, the two lunes. 

LUNETTE, in fortification, an enve- 
loped counter-guard, or mound of earth, 
made beyond the second ditch, opposite to 
the place of arms; differing from the ra- 
velines only in their situation. Lunettes 
are usually made in wet ditches, and serve 
to defend the passage of the ditch. 

LUNGS, a part of the human body, 
which is the cause or instrument of respi- 

LUP1NUS, in botany, lupine, a genus of 
the Diadelphia DecandYia class and order- 
Natural order of Papilionacese or Legu- 
minosce. Essential character : calyx two 
lipped ; anthers five oblong, five round- 
ish; legume coriaceous. There are ten 
species, the most common is the L. luteus, 
yellow lupine, which is about one foot in 
height, having digitate leaves, composed 
of seven, eight, or nine hairy leaflets, 
nearly two inches long : the flowers are 
odorous in loose spikes at the end of the 
branches, composed of several whorls, 
terminated by three or four flowers, sit- 
ting close at the top ; these are succeed- 
ed by ovate flattish hairy pods, about two 
inches long, standing erect, inclosing four 
or five seeds, compressed, of a yellowish 
white colour, variegated with dark spots : 
it is a native of Sicily. 

LUPULUS, the hop, in botany, &c. 
See HOP andHuwuLus. 
LUPUS, in ornithology, the same with 
the monedula, or jackdaw- See 

LUPUS marinus, the sen-wo//, in ichthv 
ology, formerly constituted a genus of ma - 
lacopterygious fishes, with a compressed 
body, and six or more ossicles in the 
membrane of the gills. On the back 
there is only one fin, which extends al- 
most from the head to the tail. It is a 
very singular fish, growing to four or five 
feet long. This fish is now called AN- 
ARRHICH AS, by the generality of authors ; 
which see. 

LUPUS, in astronomy, a southern con- 
stellation, consisting of nineteen, or, ac- 
cording to Fiamstead, of twenty.four 

LURIDJE, in botany, the name of the 
twenty -eighth order in Linnaeus's "Frag- 
ments of a Natural Method," consisting of 
plants whose pale and ominous appearance 
seems to indicate something noxious in 
their nature and quality : theatropa, dead- 
ly night-shade ; capsicum, guinea-pepper ; 
digitalis, fox-glove ; nicotiania, tobacco, 
&c. are of this order. Most of the plants 
contained in the order are herbaceous 
and perennial ; the roots are generally 
branched, sometimes tuberous ; the stems 
and branches are cylindric : the leaves 
are simple, and placed alternate ; the 
flowers are hermaphrodite ; the calyx is 
one piece deeply divided into five parts ; 
the corolla consists of one petal, which 
is either bell, funnel, or wheel-shaped ; 
the stamina are four or five ; the seed- 
bud is placed above the receptacle of 
the flower; the seed vessel is some- 
times a berry, sometimes a capsule; the 
seeds are numerous, and frequently kid- 
ney-shaped. These plants have an insi- 
pid taste, and a nauseous disagreeable 
smell ; the greater part, taken internally, 
if in considerable quantity, prove mor- 
tal, unless prevented operating by eme- 
tics, &c. 

LUST, in the sea-language. When a 
ship heels more one way than another, 
she is said to have a lust that way. 

LUSTRE, in mineralogy, is a term 
much used in modern works of chemis- 
try. The lusire of minerals in respect of 
intensity is of five kinds; 1. Splendent, 
when in full daylight the lustre can be 
seen at a great distance : 2. Shining, 
when at a distance the reflected light is 
weak : 3 Glistening, when the lustre is 
only observable at no greater distance 
than an arm's length : 4. Glimmering-, 
when the surface held near the eye in 
full daylight presents a number of shin- 
ing points : 5. Dull, when the surface 
hfts no lustre- There are two kinds of 



lustre, the metallic and common. See 
Thompson's Chemistry. 

LUTE, a musical instrument with 
strings. The lute consists of four parts, 
viz. the table ; the body or belly, which 
has nine or ten sides ; the neck, which 
has nine or ten stops or divisions, 
marked with strings ; and the head, or 
cross, where the screw for raising and 
lowering the strings to a proper ' pitch 
of tone are fixed. In the middle of the 
table there is a rose or passage for the 
sound ; there is also a bridge that the 
strings are fastened to, and a piece of 
ivory, between the head and the neck, 
to which the other extremities of the 
strings are fitted. In playing, the strings 
are struck with the right hand, and with 
the left the stops are pressed. The lutes 
of Bologna are esteemed the best, on ac- 
count of the wood, which is said to have 
an uncommon disposition for producing a 
sweet sound. 


LUTHERANS, so called from their 
founder, Martin Luther, an Augustine 
friar, and one of the earliest of the re- 
formers. Some of the doctrines of 
the Lutherans, as they were originally 
taught by their founder, seem to have dif- 
fered in but a very slight degree from 
those of the church of Rome, from whom 
Luther dissented. For that reformer held 
sacred, or at least connived at, many 
things which Calvin, Zuinglius, and the 
rest of the reformers, abhorred as so ma- 
ny of the gaudy vestments and abomina- 
tions of the Whore of Babylon. Con- 
cerning transubstantiation, Luther seems 
to have differed more in word than in sub- 
stance from the Church of Rome. He 
held that the body and blood of Christ 
were materially present in the Eucharist, 
though he professed his ignorance of the 
manner in which that presence was ac- 
complished. It is true, he laid aside the 
offensive term transubstantiation, and sub- 
stituted that of consubstantiation in the 
room of it ; but whether the bread and 
wine are, as the Catholics declare, tran- 
substantiated into the real body and blood 
of Christ, or whether, as Luther asserted, 
the material elements are mystically con- 
substantiated with the body and blood of 
the Saviour, by the consecration of the 
priest, it is clear the Catholics and the 
Lutherans both held the doctrine of the 
real presence. 

Luther also tolerated the use of images, 
altars, wax tapers, the form of exorcism, 
and private confession. But the grand 
and leading doctrine of Lutheranism, and 

that on which the permanent foundation 
of the reformation was laid, is the right of 
private judgment in matters of religion. 
" To the defence of this proposition," 
says Mr. Roscoe, the candid and elegant 
biographer of Leo the Tenth, " Luther 
was at all times ready to devote his learn- 
ing, his talents, his repose, his character, 
and his life ; and the great and imperish- 
able merit of this reformer consists in his 
having demonstrated it by such argu- 
ments, as neither the efforts of his adver- 
saries, nor his own subsequent conduct, 
have been able either to confute or inva- 

No sooner, however, had Luther suc- 
ceeded in effecting a separation from the 
Church of Rome, than he set himself to 
establish another system of religious go- 
vernment ; in which he manifested, that, 
however he might abominate many of the 
doctrines and practices of the Papal go- 
vernment, he still retained no small por- 
tion of that spirit of domination by which 
the old church had so long been charac- 
terized. The odium theologicwn threaten- 
ed to receive new strength with the re- 
formation, and, under the auspices of Cal- 
vin and Luther, the religious world seem- 
ed likely to derive no other benefit from 
the reformation than that of a change of 
masters. It was more easy to change the 
head than the heart ; and the language of 
liberty afforded a ready but a miserable 
substitute for liberty itself. Nor, indeed, 
did Luther at all times even make use of 
such language as might have been ex- 
pected from one who had so ably main- 
tained that great and leading truth*, which 
inculcates tl>e unfettered rights of pri- 
vate judgment. The man who could stig- 
matize the learned and mild Erasmus, 
who had defended the freedom of the hu- 
man will, as "an exasperated viper;" 
" a vain-glorious animal," seemed but ill 
qualified to emancipate the religious 
world from the fetters of spiritual tyran- 
ny. Nor was it very flattering to the re- 
formation, that one of its ablest defenders 
and founders could, in his zeal for the om- 
nipotence of faith, declare that the Epis- 
tle of James, in which the necessity of 
good works is stated and enforced, is, in 
comparison with the writings of Peter 
and Paul, a mere book of straw ! These 
were but ill omens of the success of the 
reformation. Whilst Luther was engaged 
in his opposition to the Church of Rome, 
he asserted the right of private judgment 
in matters of faith, with the confidence 
and courage of a martyr ; but no sooner 
had he freed himself and his followers 
from the ecclesiastical tyranny of the 



Pope, than he attempted to establish an- 
other tyranny equally intolerable ; " and 
it was the employment of his latter years 
to counteract the effects produced by his 
former labours. The great example of 
freedom," continues Mr. Koscoe, " which 
he had exhibited, could not, however, be 
so soon forgotten ; and many who had 
thrown off the authority of the Romish 
see, refused to submit their consciences 
to the control of a monk, who had arro- 
gated to himself the sole right of ex- 
pounding those scriptures which he had 
contended were open to all." The re- 
formation consequently gained ground, 
in spite of the opposition of both the 
Church of Rome, and the example of the 
Lutherans. Aided by the invention of 
printing, the genuine principles of rea- 
son, philosophy, and revelation, began to 
make rapid progress. The doctrines of 
justification by faith alone, and of abso- 
lute unconditional election and reproba- 
tion, could no more prevent the spread 
of knowledge than the worship of images, 
or the invocation of saints. Luther had 
taught the religious world, that the mind 
of man cannot be subjected to the im- 
perious decrees of fallible councils and 
human power, and the result was glo- 
rious. The human mind, delivered from 
the external constraint imposed upon it 
by hierarchical despotisms, and from the 
internal constraint of the apathy in which 
it was kept by a blind superstition, soon 
found itself emancipated from guardian- 
ship, and began to make a free, energe- 
tic, and proper use of its faculties. The 
documents of religion were subjected to 
a profound criticism ; and, as the study of 
the fathers and of councils were connect- 
ed with the decretals of antiquity, histo- 
ry, and languages, the great objects of 
classical learning began to assume a new 
aspect, and to be illuminated by a new 
light. The scholastic philosophy found in 
the Lutherans most formidable adversa- 
ries, who unveiled its vices, and attacked 
its weak sides. The torch of reason, 
which had too long smothered in the re- 
cesses of the cloister, and glimmered in 
the cells of the monks, was no sooner ad- 
mitted to the re-animating atmosphere of 
freedom and philosophy, than it began to 
shine forth in its native lustre. The empty 
science of the casuists vanished before the 
morality of the gospel. In short, the hu- 
man mind, thus liberated from the fetters 
of priestcraft and tyranny, shook off the 
corruptions which it had gathered during 
the middle ages, and without fear of the 
inquisition here, or the terrors of eternal 
damnation hereafter, began to display its 

native activity, to probe the foundation?, 
of tottering societies, the rights of man- 
kind, the laws of empires, and the go- 
vernments of churches. May the happy 
influence of the reformation, thus brought 
into action by the fearless, though priest- 
ly Luther, continue to spread itself till 
the whole world is freed from the shac- 
kles of superstition, and the glorious em- 
pire of truth, reason, and religion, shall 
be established in every country, and its 
mild laws be written on every heart ! 

LUTRA, the otter, in natural history, a 
genus of mammalia of the order Ferae, 
Generic character : six cutting teeth ra- 
ther sharp ; canine teeth longer ; feet 
webbed. There are eight species, of 
which we shall notice only the following. 
L. vulgaries, is met with in almost all 
the countries of Europe, and throughout 
the north of Asia. It is not considered as 
completely amphibious, but can subsist a 
long while under water, lives principally 
upon fish, and takes its prey with grea't 
facility in rivers and lakes, in the banks of 
which it generally fixes its habitation, 
forming it with extreme elaborateness 
and precaution with respect to danger. 
When unable to procure fishes, it de- 
stroys and devours the smaller quadru- 
peds. It is highly fierce, and, when pur- 
sued by dogs, will defend itself with un- 
common vigour and perseverance, utter- 
ing no sounds of pain or fear, though al- 
most torn to pieces by its assailants, but 
employing its last efforts of existence in 
inflicting upon them in return the most, 
dreadful wounds and lacerations. The fe- 
male produces four or five young in the 
spring. Otters have been so successfully 
tamed, notwithstanding all their fierce- 
ness, as to accompany their owners like 
dogs, and obey calls and signals with the 
same promptitude. Mr. Bewick relates, 
that Mr. James Campbell possessed a 
young otter of this description, and 
which had been trained by him with such 
success to catch fish, that in a single da\ 
it would sometimes take ten salmon. 
When wearied with its hunt, it would de- 
cline further exertion, and receive its re- 
ward in an ample repast on the fish it had 
taken, and fall almost instantaneously to 
sleep, being generally conveyed home in 
that state. It would fish in the sea as 
well as in rivers. Otters are sometimes 
seen in Guinea in large companies, and of 
immense sijse, weighing not less than one 
hundred pounds, and so savage as to be 
highly dangerous. Otters are remarked for 
eating only the head and upper parts of the 
fishes which they take, unless particular- 
ly pressed by hunger, and appear to have 



a propensity to destruction itself, like the 
pole-cat, always killing many more ani- 
mals than it can devour. See Mammalia, 
Plate XVI. fig. 6. 

L. Marina, or the sea-otter, is about 
four feet and a quarter in its whole length, 
und is found almost solely between the 
forty-fourth and sixtieth degree of N. la- 
titude, and the one hundred und twen- 
tieth and one hundred and fiftieth degree 
of E. longitude. Its skin is an important 
article of commerce between the Rus- 
sians and the Chinese, and a single fur of 
this animal is not uufrequently sold for 
the amazing price of twenty-five pounds. 
Sea-otters are perfectly inoffensive, and 
the female manifests the most affection- 
ate attachment to her young, fondling it 
with endless caresses, and often throwing 
it in the air and catching it with the ut- 
most caution and tenderness. These ani- 
mals feed on crabs, lobsters, and other 
shell-fish, and frequent the which 
are most thickly covered with sea weeds. 
The flesh of the young is thought parti- 
cularly like lamb, and is highly valued. 
The American species are, the Canaden- 
sis, Lutris, Lutra, Lutreola, and Minx. 

LUXATION, in surgery, is when any 
bone is moved out of its place or articu- 
lation, so as to impede or destroy its pro- 
per motion or office : hence it appears, 
that luxations are peculiar to such bones 
as have moveable joints. 

LYCHNIS, in botany, a genus of the 
Decandria Pentagynia class and order. 
Natural order of Caryophyllei. Essential 
character: calyx one-leafed, oblong, even; 
petals live, with claws, and a sub-bifid 
border ; capsule five-celled. There are 
twelve species. 

LYCIUM, in botany, box-thorn, a genus 
of the Pentandria Monogynia class and 
order. Natural order of Luridae. Sola- 
neae, Jussieu. Essential character : corol- 
la tubular, closed at the throat by the 
beard of the filaments; berry two-celled, 
many-seeded. There are thirteen spe- 
cies. Several of these shrubs, from China 
and the Cape of Good Hope, will bear the 
open air in a warm situation and dry soil, 
when they have once acquired strength, 
except in very severe winters, especially 
if the roots are covered with litter, and 
the branches with mats. 

LYCOPERDON, in botany, a genus of 
the Cryptogamia Fungi class and order. 
Natural order of Fungi, or Mushrooms. 
Generic character: fungus roundish, 
fleshy, firm, becoming powdery, and 
opening at the top ; seeds fixed to fila- 
ments connected with the inner coat of 

the plant. These singular fungi are de- 
scribed by Dr. Withering ; there is also an 
elaborate dissertation on the British stel- 
lated lycoperdons, by Mr. Woodward, in 
the second volume of the Transactions of 
the Linnean Society of London. 

LYCOPODIUM, in botany, wolf 's foot, 
or wolfs claw moss, a genus of the Crypto- 
gamia Miscellanea: class and order. Na- 
tural order of Musci, or Mosses. Generic 
character : fructifications in the axils of 
the scales digested into oblong imbricate 
spikes, or the leaves themselves, ses- 
sile ; capsule kidney-shaped, two-valved, 
elastic, many-seeded; veil none. There 
are several species; six of these are na- 
tives of Britain, figured by IJUlenius and 

LYCOPSIS, in botany, wild bugloss, a 
genus of the Pentandria Monogynia class 
and order. Natural order of Asperifolise. 
Borragineze, Jussieu. Essential character : 
corolla with the tube bent in. Natives of 
the South of Europe. 

LYCOPUS, in botany, water hore- 
hnu.nd, a genus of the Diandria Monogy- 
nia class and order. Natural order of 
Verticellatx. Labiatx, Jussieu. Essen- 
tial character : corolla four-cleft ; with 
one division emarginate ; stamina dis- 
tant ; seeds four, retuse. There are three 

LYDIAN stone, in mineralogy, is of a 
greyish black colour, which passes into 
velvet black ; it occurs massive, and is 
likewise found in trapezoidal-shaped roll- 
ed pieces, with rounded angles ; it is 
hard, but not very heavy. This mineral 
is found near Prague and Carlsbad, in 
Bohemia ; in other parts of Germany ; and 
in Scotland. When polished, it is used 
as a test stone for determining the puri- 
ty of gold and silver ; owing, however, 
to its great hardness, it is less suited for 
this purpose than basalt. Ic takes its 
name from the circumstance of its being 
first found in the province of Lydia in 
Lesser Asia. 

LYGEUM, in botany, a genus of the 
Triandria Monogynia class and order. 
Natural order of Graminese, or Grasses. 
Essential character: spathe one-leafed; 
corolla two on the same germ; nut two- 
celled. There is only one species, vis. L. 
spartum, rush-leaved lygeum, or hooded 
matweed, which is a native of Spain, 
where it is useful for making baskets and 
ropes, also for filling their paillasses or 
lower mattresses. 

LYING to, in naval affairs, the situa- 
tion of a ship when she is retarded in 
her course, by arranging the sails in such 



a manner as to counteract each other 
with nearly equal effort, and render the 
ship almost stationary with respect to 
her head-way ; a ship is usually brought 
to by laying either her main-top-sail 
aback, the helm being put close down to 
leeward. This is particularly practised 
in a general engagement, when the hos- 
tile fleets are drawn up in two lines of 
battle opposite each other. It is also used 
to wait for some other ship, either ap- 
proaching or expected ; or to avoid pur- 
suing a dangerous course, especially in 
foggy weather, &,c. 

LYMPH, a fine fluid, separated in the 
body from the mass of blood, and con- 
tained in peculiar vessels. It is distin- 
guished into watery and coagulable 
lymph ; the former, as tears, for an exam- 
ple, is little else than water holding in so- 
lution a small portion of salt, and still less 
of animal matter. Coagulable lymph, 
which is found in the dropsy, contains a 
very considerable portion of albumen, so 
as to be viscid to the touch; and when 
heated to coagulate firmly, like the white 
of an egg. 

anatomy. See preceding article. 

LYONS (ISHAKL), a good mathemati- 
cian and botanist, was the son of a Polish 
Jew, silversmith, and teacher of Hebrew 
at Cambridge, in England, where he was 
come to scitle, and where young Lyons 
was born, 1739. He was a very extraor- 
dinary young man for parts and ingenui- 
ty ; and showed very early in life a 'great 
inclination to learning, particularly in ma- 
thematics, on which account he was much 
patronised by Dr. Smith, master of Trini- 
ty College. About 1755 he began to 
study botany, which he continued occa- 
sionally till his death ; in which he made 
a considerable progress, and could re- 
member not only the Linn scan names of 
almost all the English plants, but even 
the synonyrna of the old botanists ; and 
he had prepared large materials for a 
Flora Cantabrigiensis, describing fully 
every part of each plant from the speci- 
men, without being obliged to consuL, or 
being liable to be misled, by former au- 

In 1758, he obtained much celebrity, 
by publishing " A Treatise on Fluxions," 
dedicated to his patron Dr. SmitJi : and in 
1763, " Fasciculus Plantarum circa Can- 
tabrigiam," &c. In the same year, or the 
year before, he read lectures on botany 
at Oxford with great applause, to at least 
sixty pupils ; but he could not be prevail- 
ed on to make a long absence from Cam- 

Mr. Lyons was some time employed as 
one o*' the computers of the nautical al- 
manac; and besides he received frequent 
other presents from the Board of Longi- 
tude for his own inventions. He had 
studied the English history, and could 
quote whole passages from the monkish 
writers verbatim. He could read Latin 
and French with ease, but wrote the for- 
mer ill. He was appointed by the Board 
of Longitude to sail with Captain Phipps, 
in his voyage towards the north pole, 
in 1773, as astronomical observator; and 
he discharged that office to the satis- 
faction of his employers. After his return 
from this voyage he married, and settled 
in London, where he died of the measles 
in about two years. 

At the time of his death he was en- 
gaged in preparing for the press a com- 
plete edition of all the works of the late 
learned Dr. Halley, a work very much 
wanted. His calculations in " Spherical 
Trigonometry abridged," w r ere printed 
in the Philos. Trans, vol. Ixv. for the year 
1775, page 470. After his death, his 
name appeared in the title-page of a Geo- 
graphical Dictionary, the astronomical 
parts of which were said to be " taken 
from the papers of the late Mr. Israel 
Lyons of Cambridge, author of several 
valuable mathematical productions, and 
astronomer in Lord Mulgrave's voyage to 
the northern hemisphere." The astrono- 
mical and other mathematical calcula- 
tions, printed in the account of Captain 
Phipps's voyage towards the north pole, 
mentioned above, were made by Mr. 
Lyons. This appeared afterwards, by 
the acknowledgment of Captain Phipps, 
when Dr. Horsley detected a material er- 
ror, in some part of them, in his " Re- 
marks on the Observations made in the 
late Voyage, &c." 1774. 

" The Scholar's Instructor, or Hebrew 
Gra '.mar, by Israel Lyons, teacher of the 
Hebrew tongue in the university of 
Cambridge," the 2d edition, &c. 1757, 
8vo. ; was the production of his father, 
as was also another treatise, printed 
at the Cambridge press, under the title 
of *' Observations and Inquiries relating 
to various parts of Scripture History, 

LYRE, a musical instrument of the 
string kind, much used by the ancients. 
From the lyre, which all agree to have 
been the first instrument of the string 
kind in Greece, arose an infinite number 
of others, diiutring in shape and number 
of strings, ai the psafterion, trigon, sam- 
bucus,' pectis, magadis, burbiton, testudo, 
(the two last are used promiscuously by 



Horace with cythara and lyra) epigo- 
nium, simmicium, and pandoron ; which 
were all struck with the hand, a plectrum 
or a little iron-rod. We have no satisfac- 
tory account of their shape, structure, or 
number of strings ; their bare names only 
have been transmitted to us by the an- 
cients. We see, indeed, numbers of in- 
struments on old medals ; but whether 
they are any of these, we cannot find out. 
The modern lyre, or Welsh harp, con- 
sisting- of forty strings, is sufficiently 
known. The lyre among poets, painters, 
statuaries, carvers, &c. is attributed to 
Apollo and the Muses. 

LYKE, in astronomy, a constellation of 
the northern hemisphere. See ASTRO- 

LYRIC, in general, signifies something 
sung or played on the lyre ; but it is more 
particularly applied to the ancient odes 
and stanzas, answering to our airs and 
songs, and may be played on instruments. 
This species of poetry was originally em- 
ployed in celebrating the praises of gods 
and heroes, though it was afterwards in- 
troduced into feasts and public diversions. 
Mr. Barnes shows how unjust it is to ex- 
clude heroic subjects from this kind of 
verse, which is capable of all the eleva- 
tion such matters require. The charac- 
teristic of this kind of poetry is, accord- 
ing to Trap, the sweetness and variety 
of the verse, the delicacy of the words 
and thoughts, the agreeableness of the 
numbers, and the description of things 
most pleasing in their own natures. At 
first the lyric verse was only of one kind, 
but afterwards they so continued to vary 
the feet and numbers, that the variety of 
them now are almost innumerable, 

This kind of poem is distinguished 
from all other odes, by the happy transi- 
tions and digressions which it beautifully 
admits, and the surprising and natural 
easy returns to the subject, which is not 
to be obtained without great judgment 
and genius. 

The lyric is, of all kinds of poetry, the 
most poetical, and is as distinct, both in 
style and thought, from the rest, as poe- 
try is in general from prose : it is the 

boldest of all other kinds, full of rapture, 
and elevated from common languu 
most that is possible : some odes there 
are likewise, in the free and loose manner, 
which seem to avoid all method, and yet 
are conducted by a very clear one, which 
affects transitions seemingly without art, 
but for that reason have tiie more of \t ; 
which are above connection, and delrght 
in exclamations and frequent invocations 
of the muses, which begin and end 
abruptly, and are carried on through a 
variety of matter with a sort of divine 
pathos, above rules and laws, and without 
regard to the common forms of grammar. 
Pindar has set his successors the example 
of digressions and excursions. To write 
a lyric poem are required, not only a 
flowing imagination, brightness, life, sub- 
limity, and elegance, but the nicest art 
and finest judgment, so as to seem luxu- 
riant, and not be so ; and under the show 
of transgressing all laws, to preserve 

LYSIMACHIA, in botany, loosestrife, 
a genus of the Pentandria Monogynia 
class and order. Natural order of Rota- 
cex. Lysimachiae, Jussieu. Essential 
character: corolla wheel-shaped; cap- 
sule globular, mucronate, ten-valved. 
There are twelve species; most of these 
have perennial roots, herbaceous stems, 
and the leaves opposite ; flowers axillary, 
or terminating solitary, or else in spike* 
or corymbs. 

LYTHRUM, in botany, ivilloiv-herb, a 
genus of the Dodecandria Monogynia class 
and order. Natural order of Caly can the- 
mae. Salicariae, Jussieu. Essential cha- 
racter : calyx twelve-toothed ; petals six, 
inserted into the calyx : capsule two- 
celled, many-seeded. There are eighteen 

LYTTA, in natural history, a genus of 
insects of the order Coleoptera. Antennae 
filiform ; four feelers, unequal, the hind 
ones clavate ; thorax roundish ; head in- 
flected, gibbous ; shells soft, flexile, as 
long as the abdomen. There are upwards 
of thirty species, many of which are equal 
in virtue to the L. vesicatoria or blistering 
fly, (Cantharides of the shops.) 




MOr m, the twelfth letter and ninth 
9 consonant of our alphabet : it is a 
liquid and labial consonant, pronounced 
by striking or moving the under lip 
against the upper one : its sound is al- 
ways the same in English, and it admits 
no consonant after it in the beginning of 
words and syllables, except in some Greek 
words, nor does it come after any in that 
case. It suffers not the sound of n, com- 
ing after it, to be heard, as in autumn, 
solemn, &c. 

As a numeral, M stands for mille, a 
thousand ; and with a dash over it thus, 
M~, for a thousand times a thousand, or, 
1,000,000. M. A. magister artium ; M. D. 
medicinz doctor ; MS. manuscript ; and 
MSS. manuscripts, in the plural. In the 
prescription of physicians, M. stands for 
manipulus, a handful ; and sometimes for 
misce, or mixtura : thus M. F. Jupalium, 
signifies mix and make into a julap. In 
astronomy, &c. M is used for meridian or 

MAB A, in botany, a genus of the Dioe- 
cia Triandria class and order. Essential 
character : calyx trifid ; male, corolla 
trifid ; female, drupe superior, two-celled. 
There is but one species, viz. M. elliptica. 
This is a smooth tree, with the twigs and 
young leaves hairy ; leaves alternate, on 
short petioles, elliptic, and veined; pe- 
duncles axillary, short, often three-flow- 
ered ; flowers small, and remarkable for 
having the outside of the calyx and corolla 
more villose than the rest of the plant. 
There is another species, or variety, 
which Foster calls maba major ; for this 
reason, the drupe, or fruit, is three times 
the size of the other, having three-sided 
kernels in the cells, which are tough and 
insipid ; they art,, however, eaten by the 
inhabitants : in all the Friendly Islands 
they plant this tree about their houses. 

MABEA, in botany, a genus of the Mo- 
noecia Polyandria class and order. Natu- 
ral order of Tricoccse. Euphorbias, Jus- 
sieu. Essential character : calyx one- 
leafed, five-toothed ; corolla none : male, 
filaments nine to twelve, inserted into the 
bottom of the calyx : female, germ and 
style one ; stigma three, revolute ; cap- 
sule covered with a thick bark, three- 
celled, three-seeded. There are two 
species, viz. M. piriri, and M. tarquari, 
both shrubs, yielding a milky juice ; the 

Negroes use the smaller branches for 
pipes, for which reason the trees are 
called pipe wood, or bois a calumet. 

MACAO, or MACAW, in ornithology, a 
name given to the larger species of par- 
rots with very long tails. See PTISSACUS. 

pellation given to a burlesque kind of 
poetry, made up of a jumble of words of 
different languages, and words of the vul- 
gar tongue latinized. 

The Italians are said to have been the 
inventors of it. The Germans, French, 
Spaniards, See. have also had their maca- 
ronic poets ; nor is Great Britain outdone 
in this respect, witness Drummond of 
Hauthornden's poem called Polemo Mid- 
dinia, which begins thus : 

Nymphs, qux colitis highissima monta 

Seu vos Pittemveema tenet, seu Crella 
crofta, &c. 

MACE, the second coat or covering of 
the kernel of the nutmeg, is a thin and 
membranaceous substance, of an oleagi- 
nous nature, and a yellowish colour; 
being met with in flakes of an inch and 
more in length, which are divided into a 
multitude of ramifications. It is of an ex- 
tremely fragrant, aromatic, and agreeable 
flavour, and of a pleasant, but acrid and 
oleaginous taste. See NUTMEG. 

MACERATION, in pharmacy, is an in- 
fusion of or soaking ingredients in water, 
or any other fluid, in order either to 
soften them, or draw out their virtues. 

MACHINE, in general, whatever hath 
force sufficient to raise or stop the motion 
of a heavy body. 

Machines are either simple or com- 
pound: the simple ones are the seven 
mechanical powers, viz. lever, balance, 
pully, axis and wheel, wedge, screw, and 
inclined plane. 

From these the compound ones are 
formed by various combinations, and serve 
for different purposes ; in all which, the 
same general laws take place, viz. that 
the power and weight sustain each other, 
when they are in the inverse proportion 
of the velocities they would have in the 
directions wherein they act, if they were 
put in motion. Now, to apply this law to 
any compound machine, there are four 
things to be considered : 1. The moving 
power, or the force that puts the machine 
m motion ; which may be eitiker men or 




other animals, weights, springs, the wind, 
a stream of water, &c. 2. The velocity 
of this power, or the space it moves over 
in a given time. 3. The resistance, or 
quantity of the weight to be moved. 4. 
The velocity of this weight, or the space 
it moves over in the same given time. 

The two first of these quantities are al- 
ways in the reciprocal proportion of the 
two last : that is, the product of the first 
two must always be equal to that of the 
last : hence, three of these quantities 
being given, it is easy to find the fourth ; 
for example, if the quantity of the power 
be 4, its velocity 15, and the velocity of 
the weight 2, then the resistance, or quan- 
tity of the weight, will be equal to 
4 X 15 60 
~T~ ~~2 ~ 

Compound machines are extremely nu- 
merous, as mills, pumps, wheel-carriages, 
clocks, fire-engines, &c. See ENGINE, 
MILL, Pu^rp, WATER worfrs, &c. 

Machine denotes any thing that serves 
to augment or regulate moving powers, 
or it is a body designed to produce mo- 
tion, so as to save either time or force. 
Machines are either simple or compound. 
The simple machines ave the mechanical 
powers, viz. the lever, the wheel and 
axis, the pulley, the inclined plane, the 
wedge, and the screw. See MECHANICS' 

These simple machines serve for dif- 
ferent purposes, and it is the business of 
the skilful mechanician *o select and com- 
bine them in such a manner, as may be 
best adapted to produce the effect of 
which he stands in need. Compound 
machines are formed from these simple 
ones. These may be indefinitely varied, 
and they belong to all the branches of 
science. Descriptions of many of the 
most useful, and which serve to exhibit 
the principles of machinery, will be 
found in various parts of our work. See 
&c &c. 

The modes of applying mechanical 
forces are almost as various as the ma- 
chines that are constructed, and the pur- 
poses for which they are employed. In 
general the human strength is applied by 
means of levers, or winches, or by walk- 
ing wheels, which slide beneath them as 
they attempt to ascend. The force of 
other animals is applied by a horizontal 
arm projecting from a vertical axis, to 
which they are harnessed. When mo- 
tion is simply communicated to a sub- 
stance placed before the moving body, 
such materials are used as are capable of 
exerting a repulsive force ; but when the 

body to be moved is behind the moving 
power, and is pulled along with it, chains 
or ropes are sometimes more convenient. 
When the direction of motion communi- 
cated is also to be changed, levers or 
cranks may be employed, united by joints 
or hinges of various kinds. Sometimes a 
long series of connected rods is suspend- 
ed by other rods or chains, so as to con- 
vey the effect of the force to a considera- 
ble distance ; in this case the motion is 
generally alternate, as when pumps are 
worked by means of a water wheel at a 
distance from the shafts in which the 
pumps are placed. For the communica- 
tion of a rotatory motion, Dr Hooke's 
universal joint, formed by a cross, mak- 
ing the diameters of two semicircles, one 
of which is fixed at the end of tach axis, 
is frequently used. The best mode of 
connecting a rotatory motion with an al- 
ternate one is, in all common cases, to 
employ a crank, acting on one end of a 
long rod which has a joint at the other. 
If the rotatory motion of the crank be 
equable, the progressive motion of the 
rod will be gradually accelerated and re- 
tarded, and for a considerable part of the 
revolution the force exerted will be near- 
ly uniform. The force applied to a ma- 
chine may, in general, be divided into two 
portions, the one employed in opposing 
another force, so as to produce equili- 
brium only, the other in generating 1 mo- 
mentum. With respect to tlu- first por- 
tion, a single crank has the inconvenience 
of changing continually the mechanical 
advantage of the machinery ; with regard 
to the second, its motion in the second 
quarter of its revolution is accelerated, 
instead of being retarded, by the inertias 
which this portion of the force is intended 
to overcome ; hence the motion is irregu- 
lar. This difficulty may be remedied by 
employing cranks in pairs, one of which 
being fixed so as to make a right angle 
with the other, which is moreover the best 
position for two winches to be turned by 
two labourers; since the point of the 
circle, in which a man can exert his 
greatest strength, is nearly at the dis- 
tance of a right angle, or a little more, 
from the point at which his force is 
smallest. But of all the modes of com- 
municating motion, the most extensively 
useful is employment of wheel-work, 
which is capable of varying its direction 
and its velocity without any limit. See 

1VJ ACHINE, electric. The electric ma- 
chine consists of three parts, the electric 
body, which is rubbed ; the rubber, which 


is a compounded conductor ; and the 
prime conductor, which is destined to re- 
ceive and convey the electricity, in mak- 
ing- experiments. The first electrical ap- 
paratus consisted of a tube of glass, or a 
stick of sealing-wax, rubbed by the hand. 
Glass globes, whirled quickly on an axis, 
Were substituted as an improvement, and 
the rubber was still the hand : but subse- 
quently a round concave cushion These 
were succeeded by glass cylinders, which 
are cheap, sate, and considerably power- 
ful; but the present fashion determines 
in favour of flat glass plates, on account 
of the advantage of a large surface, rub- 
bed by two or more pairs of cushions, 
and the equality of pressure, which causes 
the supply of electricity to be steady and 
without undulation, as to its quantity. 
Machines of very great power (see " Ni- 
cholson's Journal," quarto), have been 
mude by M. Walckiers, consisting of an 
endless web or jack-towel of silk, passing 
between two pair of cylindrical rubbers, 
faced with cat skin ; the electricity being 
communicated to a prime conductor, ly- 
ing between the parallel pieces of the 

The rubber is usually a piece of wood 
fitted to the surface intended to be sub- 
jected to friction, and covered first with 
two or three thicknesses of elastic cloth, 
then with smooth leather, and lastly with 
a flap of silk, pasted upon the edge at 
which the glass in its rotation arrives, and 
passing loose over the face of the cushion, 
and thence upon the surface of the glass, 
as far as the commencement of the prime 
conductor. Its use has been explained 
under the article EXCITATION. 

In fig 1, Plate Machine Electric, \ re- 
presents the glass cylinder of a machine, 
turned by, B, the handle. Its surface 
rubs against, C, the cushion, which pro- 
ce d, I), the sill flap, and the electricity 
is conveyed to E, the prime conductor. 
The supports of the cylinder, the cushion, 
and (indispensably) f>f the prime con- 
ductor, are made of glass or baked wood, 
in order that the electricity may not be 
conveyed to the earth, unless when the 
operator chooses to make the communi- 
cation by some conducting body. A prime 
conductor is sometimes applied to the 

Though we have produced as strong 
an excitation as we have ever heard of, 
by the amalgam of mercury and zinc, 
with a little tallow, as mentioned under 
the article EXCITATION, yet as many 
electricians, particularly the experienced 
Mr. Cuthbertson, prefers tin and zinc, 

and it is probable that this mixture may 
afford a speedier oxydation, we shall 
give his receipt. 

Melt two parts of tin and zAnc in a cru- 
cible, and pour them on two parts of mer- 
cury in a wooden box made for that pur- 
pose, which close and agitate till the 
metals are cold. Then pulverize the 
granulated muss very finely, and make it 
into a paste with hog's lard 

Fig. 2, shows the plate machine, with 
Nicholson's cylinder improvements for 
changing the two states at pleasure, as 
adapted by Dr. Von Marum, of Haerlem. 

The glass plate, G G, is fastened to the 
axis, B B, by means of a screw on the 
axis passing through a hole in the centre 
of the plate, and secured by a nut, C, on 
the opposite side. The axis is supported 
by a .single pillar, A, which for this pur- 
pose is provided with a bearing piece, 
K, on which are two brass collar pieces, 
that carry the axis; and on the end of the 
axis, opposite the glass, is a counterpoise, 
O, of leaii, to prevent too great a friction 
in the collar nearest the handle. The 
arc of the conductor, E E, which carries 
the two small receiving conductors, F F, 
is fixed to an axis turning in the ball, H. 
On the other side of the plate is the other 
arc, 1, of brass wire, fixed in the bearing 
piece, K, but so as to admit of being 
turned round like the arc EE. P is a 
copper tube, moving like a radius on the 
stem of the ball, S, which, being screwed 
into the conductor, H, serves to confine 
the arm, P, in any position that may be 
required. The dissipation of electricity 
along the glass supports is prevented by 
a kind of cap, T, of mahogany, which 
affords an electrical well or cavity under- 
neath, and likewise effectually covers the 
metallic cap into which the glass is ce- 
mented. The lower extremity of the pil- 
lar is guarded in the same manner by a 
hollow piece or ring of mahogany, V. 
The three glass pillars are set in sliding 
pieces, WWW, adjustable by screws; at 
each extremity of the horizontal diame- 
ter of the plate are two rubbers, X, one 
on each side, pressed regularly and uni- 
formly against the plate by means of a 
spring, Y, the force of pressure of which 
is regulated by means of a screw. To 
these rubbers are attached silk flaps, ZZ, 
those of one pair of rubbers descending, 
and those of the other pair ascending, in 
the direction in which the plate is work- 
ed. A piece of fine dry writing paper, at, 
long as the rubber, and half an inch 
broader, so as to cover the seam that fas- 
tens the silk to the leather, allows greater 



pressure to be employed, by diminishing 
the friction, and prevents both the glass 
and silk from being soiled by the amal- 
gam, so that the excitement is more 
powerful, and the amalgam requires to 
be renewed less frequently. As the semi- 
circular branch of the prime conductor 
is moveable, it may be made to exhibit 
the electricity of the rubber at any time, 
by placing the cylindrical ends in contact 
with the cushions, the semicircular wire, 
I, being at the same time turned so as to 
cross it at right angles, which insulates 
the cushions. When the conductor is re- 
quired to give electricity from the glass, 
the arc I must be in contact with the 
cushions, and the arc EE perpendicular 
to the horizon. 

If the insulated prime conductor of a 
machine be well polished, and without 
corners or angles, it will retain its electric 
state very well, and will emit strong 
sparks upon the approach of any uninsu- 
lated conductor. If the uninsulated con- 
ductor be broad, round, and polished at 
the end, the sparks will be short and 
dense, and will produce a considerable 
sound ; if less broad, the spark will be 
long, crooked, and less sounding ; if the 
breadth be still more diminished, the con- 
ductor begins to come under the deno- 
mination of a pointed body, the electric 
matter passes to it from the prime con- 
ductor, through a great space of air, with 
a hissing or rustling noise, and in a con- 
tinual stream : a still greater sharpness 
enables the electricity to pass over a 
greater space, but silently, and nothing is 
seen but a small light upon the point. If 
a similar point issue from the prime con- 
ductor, and the uninsulated conductor be 
round and polished, the same effects hap- 
pen in like situations; but if both be 
pointed, the electricity is more readily 
discharged: and in all these cases the ap- 
pearance of the electric matter at the 
point of the prime conductor will be that 
which is peculiar to its electricity, a large 
divergent cone, if positive, or a small 
globular light or cone, if negative, and 
the light at the point presented to the 
prime conductor will be distinctive of the 
contrary electricity. Whether a pointed 
conductor be electrified positively or ne- 
gatively, if the nose be brought near the 
point during the electrixation, a wind will 
be felt blowing from the point, and the 
sense will be affected with a sulphureous 
or phosphoreal smell. 

The reaction of the force by which the 
air is put into motion, is exerted on the 
pointed body. This is shewn by a pleas- 

ing experiment with an electrified wire ; 
thus, to the middle of the wire, or rather 
between two wires that lie in the same 
line, is affixed a centre-cap like those 
used in sea-compasses, so that the wire 
may easily be moved on a point in a hori- 
zontal direction, as magnetical needles 
are : and the ends of the wire are pointed 
and bent contrary ways, to point in the 
direction of the tangent to the circle de- 
scribed by them. Now if this wire, thus 
suspended on a point, be insulated and 
electrified, its sharp ends will become lu- 
minous, and it will revolve in a direction 
contrary to that in which its ends are bent ; 
or if it be suspended on an uninsulated 
point, and brought near the electrified 
prime conductor, the same effect will fol- 

It may be thought strange that the air 
should issue from an electrified point, 
whether its electricity be positive or ne- 
gative. It is easy to conceive that the is. 
suing out of the electric matter may cause 
the air to move in the same direction ; but 
it appears odd, that the electric matter 
rushing towards a point should cause the 
air to move directly contrary, that is to 
say, likewise from the point. If, however, 
the circumstance be examined more nar- 
rowly, the difficulty will vanish. For it 
is highly probable that the electric mat- 
ter passes too swiftly to excite any mo- 
tion in the air, but that undulation where- 
in sound consists ; to which may be add- 
ed, that if the electric matter do act on 
the air to put it in motion, the air must 
react with an equal force ; and, therefore, 
that a current of air blown against the 
course of the electric matter must affect 
its appearance, by retarding the rays and 
deflecting those against which it struck 
obliquely : the contrary to which is, by 
experience, known to obtain ; for the lu- 
minous cones are not sensibly affected by 
such treatment. The air being thus in- 
different as to the motion of the electric 
matter, its motion may be shewn to depend 
on the established principles of electrici- 
ty. The point is electrified either posi- 
tively or negatively, and the air imme- 
diately opposite and contiguous to the 
point, must, by the emission or exhaus- 
tion of the electric matter, become strong- 
ly possessed of an electric state of the 
same kind with that of the point : it 
is therefore, repelled and replaced by 
other air which is also electrified and 
repelled, by which means a constant 
stream is produced blowing from the 
point, and that equally, whether the elec- 
trization be positive or negative. And the 


point repelling the air must itself also be 
equally repelled in the contrary direc- 
tion ; whence the horizontal wire above 
described is turned, and that always 
one way, namely, contrary to that in 
which the air is moved, or to the direc- 
tion of its bent points. 

If an insulated conductor, free from 
points, be brought within a certain dis- 
tance of the prime conductor or cylin- 
der in an electric state, it will also ex- 
hibit signs of electricity of the same 
kind; but if those signs be removed, 
by taking the spark, and the conductor 
taken from the prime conductor, it will 
exhibit signs of the contrary electricity- 
This is a very remarkable appearance, 
but may be accounted for, if two suppo- 
sitions be admitted, viz. first, that the 
electric matter is attracted by conducting 
bodies ; and secondly, that "the parts of 
the electric matter mutually repel each 
other, the forces of each power being 
in a certain inverted ratio of the dis- 

For the electric matter, in an insulated 
and uniform conductor, will then be equal- 
ly diffused through its whole mass, and 
the attraction which that conductor will 
exert on any mass of electric matter pre- 
sented from without, must be the excess 
of the attractive force of the body over 
the repulsive force of the electricity it 
contains. Whence a given conductor will 
attract the electric matter the most pow- 
erfully, when the quantity it already pos- 
sesses is the least possible, and its attrac- 
tive force will decrease as it becomes 
more saturated with electricity. Let two 
equal conductors, composed of like mat- 
ter, be brought within a small distance of 
each other, then if the quantities of elec- 
tricity they contain be equal, the attrac- 
tions they mutually exert on those quan- 
tities will be equal, and it will remain un- 
disturbed in each body. But if one con- 
ductor, A, contain more electricity than 
the other, B, the attractive power of B 
will be greatest, and will draw the elec- 
tric matter from A, till an equilibrium is 
obtained. It follows, also, that in a num- 
ber of conducting bodies, communicating 
with each other, the electric matter will 
be every where of the same density, if the 
greatest attractive force of the bodies be 
supposed equal; but if different bodies 
be supposed to attract the electric matter 
with different forces, as is most probable, 
the densities must vary with the forces. 
This may be called the natural state. 

To apply this to the particular instance 
above recited, suppose the end of an in- 

sulated conductor to be brought near the 
prime conductor in a positive state, the 
attractive power of the first mentioned 
conductor is greater than that of the 
prime conductor, yet, not being sufficient 
to draw sparks, at the given distance, the 
only effect it can produce is to make the 
electric matter accumulate, and become 
more dense in that part of the prime con- 
ductor, near which it is presented ; by 
which accumulation the rest of the prime 
conductor becomes less electrified, as ex- 
perience testifies. This accumulated bo- 
dy of electricity repels, and consequently 
rarifies the electric matter naturally con- 
tained in that end of the conductor, which 
is presented to the prime conductor ; the 
rest of the fluid becomes more dense, and 
the other parts of the conductor which is 
presented, exhibit signs of electricity ; 
yet, as this conductor in the whole con- 
tains no more than its natural quantity, if 
the electric state be taken off" by drawing 
the spark, and it be afterwards removed 
from the vicinity of the prime conductor, 
it becomes negative throughout, by rea- 
son of the loss of the spark. If a con- 
ductor be presented to the prime con- 
ductor in a negative state, the effects are 
reversed, the attraction being strongest 
at the prime conductor, and the accumu- 
lation being in the conductor which is 
presented, it exhibits a negative state, 
which, being destroyed, upon removal it 
becomes positive, by reason of the spark 
which was given to it when apparently 

These effects are more considerable 
the less the distance is between the two 
conductors ; and the intercedent electric 
body is peculiarly affected : the manner of 
which may be better understood by ob- 
serving the phenomena of non-electrics, 
separa ed by electrics which are less lia- 
ble to allow the passing of the spark than 
the air is. 

Upon an insulated horizontal plate of 
metal, lay a plate of glass, considerably 
larger, so that there may be a rim of three 
or four inches projecting beyond the me- 
tal on every side. Upon the glass lay 
another plate of metal, of the same size 
as the former, so as precisely to cover it. 
Electrify the upper plate, and the lower 
will exhibit signs of electricity. Conti- 
nue the electrization, and the lower plate 
will emit sparks to an uninsulated body 
for a time, and afterwards cease Sepa- 
rate the plates from the glass without un- 
insulating them, and the glass will appear 
to be possessed of the contrary electrici- 
ties on the opposite sides. That side 



which communicated with the prime con- 
ductor, during the electrization, will have 
a like electricity, and the other the con- 
trary. Take off the electricity of the 
plates of metal, and carefully replace the 
glass on the lower, without destroying 
the insulation, and also replace the upper 
plate with ti.e same precaution. Then, 
with one end of an insulated wire, not 
pointed, but knobbed ai the ends, touch 
one of the plates, and bring the other end 
near the other plate: the consequence 
will be, that a strong and loud spark will 
pass between it and the wire, the electri- 
ty ot" the giuss will be discharged, and 
the plates and the wire will exhibit tew 
or no signs of electricity. 

An electric body, the surfaces of which 
are thus possessed of the contrary elec- 
tricities, is said to be charged. The insu- 
lation of the lower metallic plate, and of 
the dischaiging wire is not necessary, ex- 
cept for ihe purpose of drawing inferen- 
ces, respecting the manner of charging 
the electric plate. If the electricity of the 
prime conductor be strong, and the glass 
thick, the discharge wilt often be made by 
a spark from the one metallic plate to the 
other, over the surface of the glass winch 
projects on every side ; but if the glass 
plate be thin, in which case, at an equal 
intensity, it admits of a much greater 
charge, the discharge will be made 
through its substance. Glass, as thick 
as one eighth of an inch, may be pene- 
trated by this means, one or more holes 
being made where the electric matter 
lias passed, in which holes the glass is 
pulverised, and may be picked out with 
a pin. 

It is not possible to charge an electric 
plate by inducing an electric state on one 
of its surfaces, unless the other be at the 
same time sufficiently near to a non-elec- 
tric to assume the contrary state, by emit- 
ting or receiving the electric matter. 

If a plate of glass be laid upon an un- 
insulated plate of metal, the upper sur- 
face may be rendered electric by friction, 
or by applying an electrified body succes- 
sively to its parts. This electricity may 
be taken off by touching the upper sur- 
face with an uninsulated metallic plate of 
the same dimensions as that upon which 
the glass is placed, but will not be entire- 
ly taken off, because the communication 
between the two surfaces in this method 
is not perfect, and because the metal can- 
not by ordinary means be brought into 
actual contact with the glass. The small 
quantity which remains, produces an ef- 
fect which has been mistaken for a per- 

petual electricity. For if a plate of me. 
tal, to which a glass handle is affixed, be 
laid upon the glass, this small quantity of 
electricity will influence the melal, and, 
without actually communicating the elec- 
tric matter, will cause it to exhibit a simi- 
lar state. If this be taken off, by drawing 
the spark, and the metal then removed, 
by means of the glass handle, it will be 
found possessed of the contrary state of 
electricity, and another spark may be ob- 
tained. The metallic plate may be then 
again applied to the surface of the glass, 
and the process again repeated, and so on 
for a prodigious number of thncs, with- 
out any sensible difference in the event. 
For the electricity at the surface of the 
glass being almost in the natural state, as 
to condensation, docs not disappear for a 
very long time, and the very near ap- 
proach of the metal enables it to produce 
the same effect as would be obtained at a 
greater distance from a stronger electri- 
city. This is made obvious, by bringing 
the metallic plate near the surface of the 
glass before its first strong electricity is 
taken off, for the same event is then per- 
ceived at the distance of four, five, or six 
inches, as in the former case is produced 
by contact. 

The vapours of the atmosphere are con- 
tinually attaching themselves to the sur- 
face of cold glass, and by that means de- 
stroy the electricity. Sulphur, wax, or 
resin, being less subject to this, retain 
their electric state much longer. A plate 
of glass or wood, coated over with any 
substance of this nature, may be excited 
by friction, and will produce electricity 
in a metallic plate, in the manner above 
described, for a very great length of 
time. Such a plate, together with its me- 
tal, has been named the electropho- 
phorus, fig. 3. 

If the discharge of an electrified plate 
be made by the parts of a living animal, a 
considerable pain will be felt, chiefly at 
the extremities of the muscles. For ex- 
ample, if the lower mt.JJic plate be 
touched with one hand, and the other 
brought to the upper plate, at the instant 
of the emission, a pain will be felt at the 
wrist and elbows, which as instantly va- 
nishes. If a larger glass plate be used, 
the pain will be felt on the breast ; if yet 
larger, the sensation will be that of a uni- 
versal blow. This sensation has obtained 
the name of the shock, and will deprive 
animals of life, if sufficiently strong. The 
shock from thirty square inches of glass, 
well charged, will instantly kill mice, 
sparrows, or other small animals. Six 


square feet of glass will deprive a man of 
sensation for a time, if the head be made 
a part of the circuit through which the 
electricity moves. No inconvenience has 
been found from the electric shock by 
men of strong 1 habits ; but women of de- 
licate constitutions have had convulsions 
from a violent shock. It may be observed, 
that the electric shock is a proof that the 
electric matter can pass through the sub- 
stance of non-electrics, and is not uni- 
versally conducted along the surfaces 
alone, as some have supposed. 

The object of the philosopher being, 
in general, to collect a large quantity of 
electricity, by means of the surfaces of 
electrics, it is more usual to employ jars, 
and not plates. These are made of va- 
rious shapes and magnitudes ; but the 
most useful are thin cylindrical glass ves- 
sels, about four inches in diameter, and 
fourteen in height, coated within and 
without with tin-foil, which is stuck on 
with gum-water, paste, or wax, excepting 
two inches of the i-im or edge, which is* 
left bare, to prevent the communication 
between the coatings. About four inches 
from the bottom, within, is a large cork, 
that receives a thick wire, ending in seve- 
ral ramifications, which touch the inside 
coating ; the upper end of the wire ter- 
minating with a knob, considerably above 
the mouth of the jar, fig. 4. When it is 
required to be charged, it may be held in 
the hand, or placed on an uninsulated ta- 
ble, and the knob of the wire applied to 
the conductor ; the inside coated surface 
becomes possessed of the electricity of 
the conductor, and the external surface 
acquires the contrary electricity, by 
means of its uninsulated coating. When 
a jar of this kind is highly charged, it will 
discharge spontaneously over the uncoat- 
ed surface, and seldom through the glass; 
whereas, when the uncoated surface is 
krge, it is more apt to break by that 
means, and become useless. Yet there 
is no certainty that a jar, which has dis- 
charged itself over its surface, will not at 
another time break by a discharge through 
the glass, as the contrary often happens. 
If paper covered with tin-foil be used for 
the coating, with the paper next the 
glass, the jar will be less liable to break. 

A jar of considerable thickness, with a 
neck like a bottle, in which is cemented 
a thick tube to receive the wire, will sus- 
tain a very high charge, and produce 
much greater effects than one of the last 
description. The charging wire being 
inserted loosely into the tube, will fall out 
on inverting the jar, and the charge will 
remain for several weeks without much 

VOL. iv. 

loss. A jar thus charged, may be put in- 
to the pocket, and applied to many pur- 
poses that the common jar cannot be used 

If the inside of the jar be considerably 
damped, by blowing into it, through a 
tube reaching to the bottom, it will take 
a charge nearly one-third greater than in 
the ordinary state. 

When a greater degree of electric force 
is required, larger jars must be used, in 
which the form is of no consequence, ex- 
cept as far as relates to convenience. But 
it is less expensive, and nearby as effec- 
tual, to use a number of smaller jars, hav- 
ing; the same quantity of coated surface 
as the large jars. In this case, a commu- 
nication must be formed between all the 
outside coaurjg-s, which may be done by 
placing them on a stand of metal ; and 
also between all the inner coalings, wliicti 
is best done by means of wires. Such a 
collection is called a battery, and may be 
charged and discharged like a single jar, 
fig- 5. 

In discharging electrical jars, the elec- 
tricity goes in the greatest quantity 
through the best conductors, and by the 
shortest course. Thus, if a chain and a 
wire, communicating with the outer coat- 
ing, be presented to the knob of a jar, 
the greater part of the charge will pass 
by the wire, and very little by the chain, 
which is a worse conductor, by reason of 
its discontinuation at every link. When 
the discharge is made by the chain only, 
sparks are seen at every link, which is a 
proof that they are not in contact ; and 
as the chain must be stretched by a con- 
siderable force before the sparks cease to 
appear on the discharge, it follows, that 
there is a repulsive power in bodies, by 
which they are prevented from coming- 
into contact, unless by means of a certain 

By accurate experiments, it appears, 
that the force of the electric shock is 
weakened, that is, its effects are diminish- 
ed, by using a conductor of great length 
in making the discharge. Dr. Watson, 
and other gentlemen of eminence in the 
philosophical world, were at the pains of 
making experiments of the same kind, 
but much more accurate. They found, 
by means of wire insulated on baked 
wood, that the electric shock was trans- 
mitted instantaneously through the length 
of 12,276 feet. 

When any animator substance is to be 
subjected to the shock, it is done by 
means of two chains, one of which con- 
nects one extremity of the animal or sub- 
stance with the outer coating, and the 
A a 



other being made to touch the other ex- 
tremity, is applied to the knob of the in- 
ner coating, to make the discharge. The 
animal or substance thus forming a part 
of the circuit, receives the whole shock. 
The strong shock of a battery will melt 
wire of the seventieth of an inch in dia- 
meter, and wires of less diameters are 
frequently blown away and dispersed; 
and the eflect is the same with equal 
quantities of electricity, whether the in- 
tensity be greater or less, within certain 
extended limits. Gunpowder may be 
fired by a charge of three square feet : 
the method is, t^o put it into a quill, and 
thrust a wire into each end, so as not to 
meet, and then make these wires a part 
of the circuit. A less charge will serve, 
if iron filings be mixed with the gunpow- 
der. Alcohol, ether, or a mixture of com- 
mon air and hydrogen, may also be fired 
by the same means, or even by the spark 
from the conductor. 

If the ball of a thermometer be placed 
in a strong current of electricity, the 
mercury or spirit will rise many de- 

If a thin bottle be exhausted of air by 
means of the air-pump, it will receive a 
considerable charge by applying its bot- 
tom to the electrified prime conductor, 
during which time the electric matter 
will pass through the vacuum between 
the hand and the inner surface of that 
part of the glass which is nearest the 
prime conductor. This appearance is ex- 
ceedingly beautiful in the dark, especially 
if the bottle be of a considerable length. 
It exactly resembles those lights which 
appear in the northern sky, and are call- 
ed streamers, or the aurora borealis. If 
one hand be applied to the part of the 
bottle which was applied to the conduc- 
tor, while the other remains at the neck, 
the shock will be felt, at which instant 
the natural state of the inner surface is 
restored by a flash, which is seen per- 
vading the vacuum between the two 

MACHINERY, in epic and dramatic 
poetry, is when the poet introduces the 
use of machines, or brings some super- 
natural being upon the stage, in order to 
solve some difficulty, or to perform some 
exploit out of the reach of human power. 
The ancient dramatic poets never made 
use of machines, unless where the re was 
an absolute necessity for so doing; whence 
the precept of Horace, 

" Ncc Deus intersit, nisi dignus vindice 
noJas incident. 

It is quite otherwise with epic poets, 
who introduce machines in every part ot 
their poem ; so that nothing is done with- 
out th? intervention of the gods. In Mil- 
ton's Paradise Lost, by far the greater 
part of the actors are supernatural per- 
sonages : Homer and Virgil do nothing 
without them ; and in Voltaire's Henri- 
ade, the poet has made excellent use of 
Saint Louis. 

MACKREL, in ichthyology. See ICOM- 

MACLAURIN (COLIN,) in biography, 
a most eminent mathematician and phi- 
losopher, was the son of a clergyman, and 
born at Kilmoddan in Scotland, in the 
)ear 1698. He was sent to the university 
of Glasgow in 17^9 ; where he continued 
five years, and applied to his studies in a 
very intense manner, and particularly to 
the mathematics. His great genius for 
mathematical learning discovered itself 
so early as twelve years of age ; when, 
having accidentally met with a copy of 
* Euclid's Elements" in a friend's cham- 
ber, he became in a few days master ot" 
the first six books without any assistance; 
and, it is certain, that in liis sixteenth 
year he had invented many of the propo- 
sitions which were afterwards published 
as part of his work, entitled, " Geome- 
trix Organica." In his fifteenth year he 
took the degree of Master of Arts ; on 
which occasion he composed, and pub- 
licly defended, a thesis on the power of 
gravity, with great applause. After this 
he quitted the university, and retired to 
a country seat of his uncle, who had the 
care of his education ; his parents being- 
dead some time. Here he spent two or 
three years in pursuing his favourite stu- 
dies ; but in 1717, at nineteen years of age 
only, he offered himself a candidate for 
the professorship of mathematics in the 
Marischal College of Aberdeen, and ob- 
tained it after a ten day's trial, against a 
very able competitor. 

In 1719, Mr. Maclaurin visited London, 
where he left his " Geometria Organica' 3 
to print, and where he became acquainted 
with Dr. Hoadley, then bishop of Banker, 
Dr. Clarke, Sir Isaac Newton, and olhci 
eminent men . at which time also he was 
admitted a member of the Royal Society ; 
and in another journey in 1721, he con- 
tracted an intimacy with Martin Folkes, 
Esq. the president of it, which continued 
during his whole life. 

In 1722, Lord Polwortli, plenipoten- 
tiary of the King of Great Britain at the 
congress of Cambray, engaged Maclaurin 
to go as a tutor and companion to his 


eldest son, who was then to set out on his 
travels. After a short stay at Paris, and 
visiting- oilier towns in France, they fixed 
in Lo train, where he wrote his piece on 
the percussion of bodies, which gained 
him the prize of the Koyal Academy of 
Sciences for the year 1724 But his pupil 
dying soon after at Montpelier, he re- 
turned immediately to his profession at 
Aberdeen. He was hardly settled here 
when he received an invitation to Edin- 
burgh ; the curators of lhat university 
being desirous that he should supply the 
place of Mr. James Gregory, whose great 
age and infirmities had rendered him in- 
capable of teaching. He had here some 
difficulties to encounter, arising from 
competitors, who had good interest with 
the patrons of tiie university, and also 
from the want of an additional fund for 
the new professor ; which, however, at 
length were all surmounted, principally 
by the means of Sir Isaac Newton. Ac- 
cordingly, in November 1725, he was in- 
troduced into the university, as was at 
the same time his learned colleague and 
intimate friend, Dr. Alexander Munro, 
professor of anatomy. After this, the 
mathematical classes soon became very 
numerous, there being generally upwards 
of one hundred students attending his 
lectures every year ; who being of differ- 
ent standings and proficiency, he was 
obliged to divide them into four or five 
classes, in each of which he employed a 
full hour every day, from the first of No- 
vember to the first of June. In the junior 
class he taught the first six books of " Eu- 
clid's Elements," plane trigonometry, 
practical geometry, the elements of forti- 
fication, and an introduction to algebra. 
The second class studied algebra, with 
the eleventh and twelfth books of Euclid, 
spherical trigonometry, conic sections, 
and the general principles of astronomy. 
The third went on in astronomy and per- 
spective, read a part of " Newton's Prin- 
cipia," and had performed a course of 
experiments for illustrating them ; he af- 
terwards read and demonstrated the ele- 
ments of fluxions. Those in the fourth 
class read a system of fluxions, the doc- 
trine of chances, and the remainder of 
" Newton's Principia " 

In 1734, Dr. Berkley, Bishop of Cloy ne, 
published a piece called the " Analyst," 
in which he took occasion, from some dis- 
putes that had arisen concerning the 
grounds of the fiuxionary method, to ex- 
plode the method itself ; and also to 
charge mathematicians in general with 
htfidelity in religion, Maclaurin thought 

himself included in this charge, and be- 
gan an answer to Berkley's book; but 
other answers coming out, and as he 
proceeded, so many discoveries, so many 
new theories and problems occurred to 
him, that instead of a vindicatory pam- 
phlet, he produced a complete system of 
fluxions, with their application to the 
most considerable problems in geometry 
and natural philosophy. This work was 
published at Edinburgh in 1742, 2 vols. 
4to. ; and as it cost him infinite pains, so 
it is the most considerable of all his 
works, and will do him immortal ho- 
nour, being indeed the most complete 
treatise on that science that has yet ap- 

In the mean time, lie was continually 
obliging the public with some observa- 
tion or performance of his own, several 
of which were published in the fifth and 
sixth volumes of the Medical Essays at 
Edinburgh. Many of them were like- 
wise published in the Philos. Trans, as 
the following : 1. On the construction and 
measure of curves, vol. 30. 2. A new 
method of describing all kinds of curves, 
vol. 30. 3. On equations with impossible 
roots, vol. 34 4 On the roots of equa- 
tions, &c. vol. 34. 5. On the description 
of curve lines, vol. 39. 6. Continuation 
of the same, vol. 39 7. Observations 
on a solar eclipse, vol. 40. 8 A rule 
for finding the meridional parts of a sphe- 
roid, with the same exactness as in a 
sphere, vol. 41. 9. An account of the 
treatise of fluxions, vol. 42. 10. On the 
basis of the cells, where the bees deposit 
their honey, vol. 42. 

In the midst of these studies, lie was 
always ready to lend his assistance in 
contriving and promoting any scheme 
which might contribute to the public 
service. When the Earl of Morton went, 
in 1739, to visit his estates in Orkney and 
Shetland, he requested Mr. Maclaurin to 
assist him in settling the geography of 
those countries, which is very erroneous 
in all our maps ; to examine their natural 
history, to survey the coasts, and to take 
the measure of a degree of the meridian. 
Maclaurin's family affairs would not. per- 
mit him to comply wit!) this request ; he 
drew up however a memorial of what he 
thought necessary to be observed, and 
furnished proper instruments for the 
work, recommending Mr. Short, the 
noted optician, as a fit operator for the 
management of them. 

Mr. Maclaurin had still another scheme 
for the improvement of geography and 
navigation, of a more- extensive nature ; 


which was, the opening a passage from 
Greenland to the South Sea by the north 
pole- That such a passage might be 
found, he was so fully persuaded, that he 
used to say, if his situation could admit 
of such adventures, he would undertake 
the voyage, even at his own charge. But 
when schemes for finding it were laid be- 
fore the parliament in 1741, and he was 
consulted by several persons of high rank 
concerning them, and before he could 
finish the memorial he proposed to send, 
the premium was limited to the discovery 
of a north-west passage ; and he used to 
regret that the word west was inserted, 
because he thought that passage, if at all 
to be found, must lie not far from the 

In 1745, having been very active in for- 
tifying the city of Edinburgh against the 
rebel army, he was obliged to fly from 
thence into England,, where he was in- 
vited by Dr. Herring, Archbishop of 
York, to reside with him during his stay 
in this country. In this expedition, how- 
ever, being exposed to cold and hard- 
ships, and naturally of a weak and ten- 
dcr constitution, which had been much 
more enfeebled by close application to 
study, he laid the foundation of an ill- 
ness which put an end to his life, in 
June 1746, at forty -eight years of age, 
leaving his widow with two sons and three 

Mr. Maclaurin was a very good, as 
well as a very great man, and worthy of 
love as well as admiration. His peculiar 
merit as a philosopher was, that all his 
studies were accommodated to general 
utility ; and we find, in many places of 
his works, an application, even of the 
most abstruse theories, to the perfecting 
of mechanical arts. For the same pur- 
pose he had resolved to compose a course 
of practical mathematics, and to rescue 
several useful branches of the science 
from the ill treatment they often met with 
in less skilful hands. These intentions 
however were prevented by his death ; 
unless we may reckon, as a part of his in- 
tended work, the translation of Dr. David 
Gregory's Practical Geometry, which he 
revised, and published with additions, in 

In his life-time, however, he had fre- 
quent opportunities of serving his friends 
and his country by his great skill. What- 
ever difficulty 'occurred concerning the 
constructing or perfecting of machines, 
the working of mines, the improving of 
manufactures, the conveying of water, or 
the execution of any public work, he was 

always ready to resolve it. He \vu* em- 
ployed to terminate some disputes of con- 
sequence that had arisen at Glasgow, con- 
cerning the gauging of vessels ; and for 
that purpose presented to the commis- 
sioners of the excise two elaborate me- 
morials, with their demonstrations, con- 
taining rules by which the officers now 
act. He made also calculations relating 
to the provision, now established by law, 
for the children and widows of the Scotch 
clergy, and of the professors in the uni- 
versities, entitling them to certain annui- 
ties and sums, upon the voluntary an- 
nual payment of a certain sum by the in- 
cumbent. In contriving and adjusting 
this Avise and useful scheme, he be- 
stowed a great deal of labour, and con- 
tributed not a little towards bringing it to 

Of his works, we have mentioned his 
" Geometrica Organica," in which he 
treats of the description of curve lines by 
continued motion; as also of his piece 
which gained the prize of the Royal Ac- 
ademy of Sciences in 1724. In 1740, he 
likewise shared the prize of the same aca- 
demy with the celebrated D.Bernoulli and 
Euler, for resolving the problem relating 
to the motion of the tides from the theory 
of gravity, a question which had been 
given out the former year without receiv- 
ing any solution. He had only ten days 
to draw this paper up in, and could not 
find leisure to transcribe a fair copy ; so 
that the Paris edition of it is incorrect. 
He afterwards revised the whole, and in- 
serted it in his treatise of fluxions ; as 
he did also the substance of the former 
piece. These, with the treatise of flux- 
ions, and the pieces printed in the Medi- 
cal Essays, and the Philos. Trans, a list of 
which is given above, are all the writings 
which our author lived to publish. 

Since his death, however, two more 
volumes have appeared ; his algebra, and 
his account of Sir Isaac Xewton's philoso- 
phical discoveries. The algebra, though 
not finished by himself, is yet allowed to 
be excellent in its kind; containing, within 
a moderate compass, a complete elementa- 
ry treatise of that science, as far as it has 
hitherto been carried ; besides some neat 
analytical papers on curve lines. His ac- 
count of Xewton's philosophy was occa- 
sioned in the following manner. Sir 
Isaac dying in the beginning of 1728, his 
nephew, Mr. Conduitt, proposed to pub- 
lish an account of >his life, and desired Mr. 
Maclaurin's assistance. The latter, out 
of gratitude to his great benefactor, cheer- 
fully undertook, and soon finished, the 



history of the progress which philosophy 
had made before Newton's time ; and 
this was the first draught of the work in 
hand ; which not going forward, on ac- 
count of Mr. Conduitt's death, was re- 
turned to Mr. Maclaurin. To this he af- 
erwards made great additions, and left it 
in the state in which it now appears. His 
main design seems to have been, to ex- 
plain only those parts of Newton's philo- 
sophy which have been controverted ; 
and this is supposed to be the reason why 
liis grand discoveries concerning light and 
colours are but transiently and generally 
touched upon ; for it is known, that when- 
ever the experiments on which his doc- 
trine of light and colours is founded had 
been repeated with clue care, this doc- 
trine hud not been contested; while 
his accounting for the celestial mo- 
tions, and the other great appearances 
sf nature, from gravity, had been mis- 
understood, and even attempted to be 

MACQUER (JOSEPH), in biography, an 
eminent chemist, was born at Paris in 
1710. He was brought up to physic, and 
became a doctor of the faculty of medi- 
cine, in the university of Paris, professor 
of pharmacy, and censor royal. He was 
also a member of the academies of scien- 
ces of Turin, Stockholm, and Paris, and 
he held the medical and chemical depart- 
ments in the Journal des Savans. M. 
Macqvier made himself well known by 
several useful and popular works on che- 
mistry, of which science he was one of 
the most successful cultivators on the 
modern rational plan, before the new mo- 
delling which it lias received of late 
years. His publications were, " Elemens 
de Chymie Pratique," two vols. 12mo. 
1751-1756. " Plan d'un Cours de Chymie 
experimentale etraisonnee," l!Jrno. 1757. 
This was drawn up in conjunction with 
M. Baum, who lectured on chemistry 
in partnership with him ; " Dictionnaire 
de Chymie," two vols. 8vo. 1766. These 
works have been translated into English 
and German : the dictionary, particularly, 
by Mr. Keir, with great additions and 
improvements. He wrote likewise " For- 
mulae Medicament or um Magistralium," 
1763 ; and " L'Art de la Teinture de 
Soie," 1763 ; and he had a share in the 
" Pharmacopeia Parisiensis," of 1758. 
This meritorious writer died in 1784. 
Diet. Hist, de la Med. par Eioy. Nouv. 
Diet. Hist. 

MACROCEPHALUS, in natural his- 
tory, a genus of insects of the order He- 
miptcra: snout inflected; the sheath 

onc-valved, three jointed, and furnished 
with three bristles ; antennae projecting, 
very short, submoniliform, clavate ; head 
oblong, cylindrical above ; scutel as long 
as the abdomen, depressed, membranace- 
ous. There is only one species, viz. M. 
cimicoides, found in North America ; the 
body is a ferruginous grey; scutel pale 
ash with a yellow rigid spot ; under- 
wings purplish violet ; fore-shanks thick- 

MACROCNEMUM, in botany, a genus 
of the Pentandria Monogynia class and 
order. Natural order of Contorts. Ru- 
biacese, Jussieu. Essential character : co- 
rolla bell-shaped; capsule two-celled, two 
valved, with the valves gaping outwardly 
at the sides ; seeds imbricate. There are 
three species. 

MACROLOBIUM, in botany, a genus 
of the Triandria Monogynia class and or- 
der. Natural order of Lomentacece. Le- 
guminosse, Jussieu. Essential character -. 
calyx double, outer two-leaved, inner 
one-leaved ; petals five, upper one very 
large, the rest small, equal; germ pedi 
celled, legume. There are three species, 
all of them tall trees, from sixty to eighty 
feet in height; they are natives of the 
large forests of Guiana. 

MACROPUS, the kanguroo, in natural 
history, a genus of mammalia of the order 
Ferae. Generic character : six front teeth 
in the upper jaw, emarginated ; two in 
the lower, and very long, sharp, large, 
and pointing forwards; five grinders on 
each side of the upper and under jaw, 
distant from the other teeth ; fore legs 
very short ; hind ones very long ; the fe- 
male with an abdominal pouch. This is 
one of the most curious of all the animals 
discovered on the continent of New 
South Wales, where it was observed by 
some of the sailors of Captain Cook in 
the year 1770. When lull grown, it 
weighs about 150 pounds. Its head 
somewhat resembles that of a deer, but. 
is destitute of horns; its countenance is 
gentle and complacent; its colour is of a 
pale brown ; its length from the nose to 
the tail is between tour and live feet, and 
the length of the tail is about three feet. 
Its general position, when resting, is that, 
of standing on its hind feet, on their 
whole extent to the knees, and its fore 
feet are frequently employed, like those 
of the squirrel, as hands. The}' are often, 
however, laid on the ground, and the 
kanguroo is often seen in this posture, 
feeding. Vegetables, and particularly 
grass, constitute its only nourishment. 
In its rapid motions, however, the fore 



feet are wholly useless, and it proceeds 
by leaping on its hind feet, which it will 
do to the distance of fourteen or sixteen 
ieet, and with bounds so rapid in succes- 
sion, that it exceeds in swiftness a com- 
mon dog 1 . Kangaroos possess the faculty 
of separating- at pleasure the two front 
teeth of their lower jaw ; and the female 
is furnished vvitl^ a pouch in the abdo- 
men, of extraordinary depth, in which are 
placed two teats. But one young one 
is produced at a time, which, when first 
observed in the pouch, after its birth, is 
scarcely more than an inch in length, but 
grows to a considerable size in this na- 
tural receptacle before it quits it, and 
frequently recurs to it for warmth and 
security after its first dislodgment from 
it. This animal is in this striking 1 cir- 
cumstance allied to the opossum genus, 
::uder which Gmelin ranks it, but it dif- 
fers from the opossum materially iu re- 
spect to the structure of the teeth. Inks 
general appearance it strongly resembles 
(be jerboa. It was the only quadruped 
which Australasia supplied to the English 
colonists for food. It has been not only 
imported into England, but has repeated- 
ly bred in that country, and may be con- 
sidered as now naturalized ; and though 
not apparently convertible to any impor- 
tant service, exhibits a very interesting- 
variety to the observer of nature. Many 
of these animals are kept in the royal 
premises at l\ew, where those unacquaint- 
ed with their form and habits may be ea- 
sily gratified by a sight of them in various 
stages of growth, and bounding 1 before 
him with a vivacity and elasticity highly 
entertaining. See Mammalia, Plate IX. 

fig. 3. 

MACTRA, in natural history, a genus 
of the Yermes Testacea class and order. 
Animal a tethys ; shell bivalve, unequal 
sided, equivafvc; middle tooth of the 
hinge complicated, with a small hollow- 
on each side ; lateral ones remote and in- 
serted into each other. There are twenty- 
seven species. 

MACULJE, in astronomy, dark spots 
appearing' on the luminous faces of the 
sun, moon, and even some of the planets ; 
in which sense they stand contradistin- 
guished from faculse. See FACUL.T;. 

These spots are most numerous and 
ou.sily observed in the sun. It is not un- 
common to see them in various forms, 
magnitudes, and numbers, moving over 
the sun's disc. They were first of all 
discovered by astronomer Galileo, in the 
year 1610, soon after he had finished his 
new-invented telescope. It has been 
supposed that these spots adhere to, or 

float upon, the surface of the sun, for the 
following reasons. 1. Many of them are 
observed to break out near the middle 
of the sun's disc; others to decay and 
vanish there, or at some distance from his 
limb. 2. Their apparent velocities are 
always greatest over the middle of the 
disc, and gradually slower from thence 
on each si4e towards the limb. 3. The 
shape of the spots varies according to 
their position on the several parts of the 
disc : those which are round and broad 
in the middle, grow oblong and slender 
as they approach the limb, according as 
they ought to appear by the rules of op- 

By comparing many observations of the 
intervals of time in which the spots made 
their revolution, by Galileo, Cassini, 
Scheiner, Hevelius, Dr. Halley, Dr. Der- 
ham, and others, it is found that 27 days, 
12 hours, 20 minutes, is the measure of 
one of them at a mean ; but in this time 
the earth describes the angular motion 
of 26 22', about the sun's centre : there- 
fore say, as the angular motion of 360 -j- 
26 22 V , is to 360 ; so is 27 days, 12 
hours, 20 minutes, to 25 days, 15 hours, 
16 minutes ; which, therefore, is the time 
of the sun's revolution about its axis. 

As to the magnitude of the spots, they 
are very considerable, as will appear if we 
observe that some of them are so large as 
to be plainly visible to the naked eye : 
thus Galileo saw one of them in the year 
1612 ; and Mr. Martin assures us, tha't he 
knew two gentlemen that thus viewed 
them several years ago ; whence he con- 
cludes, that these spots must therefore 
subtend, at least, an angle of one minute. 
Xow the diameter of the earth, if removed 
to the sun, would subtend an angie of 
but 20" ; so that the diameter of a spot, 
just visible to the naked eye, is, to the 
diameter of the earth, as 60 to 20, or as 
3 to 1 ; and, therefore, the surface of the 
spot, if circular, to a great circle of the 
earth, is as 9 to 1 ; but 4 great circles 
are equal to the earth's superficies ; 
whence the surface of the spot is, to the 
surface of the earth, as 9 to 4 ; or as 2 
to 1. Gassenclus says, he saw a spot 
whose diameter was equal to % of that 
of the sun, and therefore subtended an 
angle at the eye of If 30" ; its surface 
must have been five times larger than the 
surface of the whole earth. What these 
spots are, it is presumed, nobody can tell ; 
but they seem to be rather thin sub- 
stances than solid bodies, because they 
lose the appearance of solidity in going 
off the disc of the sun: they resemble 
something of the nature of scum or scoria. 


swimming on the surface, which are gene- 
ral ed and dissolved by causes little known 
to us : but whatever these solar spots 
are, it is certain they are produced from 
causes very inconstant and irregular ; for 
Scheiner says he frequently su\v fifty at 
once, but for twenty years after scarce 
any appeared. And in the last century 
the spots were very frequent and nume- 
rous till the year 1741, when, for three 
years successively, very few appeared; 
and now, since the year 1744, they have 
again appeared as usual. 

These macula are not peculiar to the 
sun, they have been observed in all the 
planets. Thus Venus was observed to 
have several by Signior Blanchini, in the 
year 1726. As in Venus, so in Mars, 
both dark and bright spots have been ob- 
served, first by Galileo, and afterwards by 
Cassini, &c. Jupiter has had his spots 
observable ever since the invention and 
use of large telescopes. Saturn, by reason 
of his great distance on one hand, and 
Mercury, by reason of his smallness and 
vicinity to the sun on the other, have not 
as yet had any spots discovered on their 
surfaces, and consequently nothing in re- 
lation to their diurnal motions and incli- 
nations of their axis to the planes of their 
orbits can be known, which circumstances 
are determined in all the other planets, 
as well as in the sun, by means of these 

The spots, or macube, observable on the 
moon's surface, seem to be only cavities 
or large caverns, on which the sun shin- 
ing very obliquely, and touching only 
their upper edge with his light, the 
deeper places remain without light ; but 
as the sun rises higher upon them, they 
receive more light, and the shadow, or 
dark parts, grow smaller and shorter, till 
the sun comes at last to shine directly 
upon them, and then the whole cavity 
will be illustrated : but the dark dusky 
spots, which continue always the same, 
are supposed to proceed from a kind of 
matter or soil which reflects less light 
than that of the other regions. See 

MADDER is a plant, with rough nar- 
row leaves, set in form of a star, at the 
joints of the stalk. The root, which is 
the only part made use of, is long, slender, 
of a red colour, both on the outside and 
within, excepting a whitish pith which 
runs along the middle. For cultivating 
this plant, the ground is ploughed deep 
in autumn, and again in March ; and then 
laid up in ridges, eighteen inches asunder, 
and about a foot high. About the begin- 
ning of April, they open the ground 

where old roots are planted, and take off 
all the side shoots which extend them- 
selves horizontally ; these they transplant 
immediately upon the new ridges, at 
about a foot distance, where they remain 
two seasons: and at Michaelmas, when 
the tops of the plants are decayed, they 
take up the roots. It is to be observed, 
that this method of planting in ridges is 
only necessary in wet land, and that the 
rows are sometimes planted three feet, 
and the plants in the rows eighteen 
inches asunder. If all the horizontal 
roots are destroyed from time to time, it 
will cause the large, downright roots, to 
be much bigger, in which the goodness 
of this commodity chiefly consists. Mad- 
der gives out its colour, both to water and 
rectified spirit : the watery tincture is of 
a dark dull red ; the spirituous of a deep 
bright one. It imparts to woollen cloth, 
prepared with alum and tartar, a very 
durable, though not a very beautiful red 
dye. As it is the cheapest of all the red 
drugs that give a durable colour, it is the 
principal one commonly made use of for 
ordinary stuffs. Sometimes its dye is 
heightened by the addition of Brazil- 
wood, and sometimes it is employed in 
conjunction with the dearer reds, as 
cochineal; for demi-scarlets, and demi- 

MADREPORA, in natural history, a 
genus of the Vermes Zoophyta class and 
order. Animal resembling a medusa; 
coral with lamellate star-shaped cavities. 
This is a very numerous genus, compre- 
hending about 120 species, separated into 
distinct divisions. A. composed of a sin- 
gle star. B. with numerous separate 
stars, and continued gills. C. with nume- 
rous united stars. D. aggregate, undivid- 
ed, with distinct stars and porulous tuber- 
culous prominent undulations. E. branch- 
ed, with distinct stars and tuberculous 
porulous undulations. M. verrucaria, 
star orbicular, flattish, sessile, with a con- 
vex disc full of tubular pores and radiate 
border : it inhabits the European, Medi- 
terranean, and Red Seas, adhering to ma- 
rine vegetables and the softer zoophytes; 
size of a split-pea, and appears an inter- 
mediate species between the madrepore, 
tubipore r and millepore ; white or yel- 
lowish, with aggregate tubes on the disc 
like the florets of a composite flower, and 
a flattened striate border like the rays of 
these flowers. A. ananas, with angular 
convex stars, which are concave on the 
disc, inhabits the Mediterranean and 
South American Sea, and is frequently 
found fossile ; gibbous, and when dis- 
sected transversely, resembling a white 



net with hexangular spots, including a 
white ring 1 , and striate between the net 
and ring. See ZOOPHYTA. 

MADREPORITE, a mineral found in 
the valley of Russback, in Salzburg 1 , and 
so called from its external resemblance 
to madrepore. It is found in large mas- 
ses, is brittle and moderately heavy. Its 
component parts are, 

Carbonate of lime . . . 93.00 
Carbonate of magnesia . 0.50 
Carbonate of iron . . . 2.25 

Charcoal 0.50 

Silica 4.50 


. 25 


MADRIER, in the military art, a long 
and broad plank of wood, used for sup- 
porting the earth in mining and carrying 
on a sap, and in making cotters, caponiers, 
galleries, and for many other uses at a 
siege. Madriers are also used to cover 
the mouths of petards, after they are 
loaded, and are fixed with the petards to 
the gates or other places designed to be 
forced open. 

MADRIGAL, in the Italian, Spanish, 
and French poetry, is a short amorous 
poem, composed of a number of free and 
unequal verses, neither confined to the 
regularity of a sonnet, nor to the point of 
an epigram, but only consisting of some 
tender and delicate thought, expressed 
with a beautiful, noble, and elegant sim- 
plicity The madrigal is usually consid- 
ered as the shortest of all the lesser kinds 
of poetry, except the epigram : it will ad- 
mit of fewer verses than either the sonnet 
or the roundelay ; no other rule is regard- 
ed in mingling the rhymes, and the dif- 
ferent kinds of verse, but the fancy and 
convenience of the author: however, this 
poem allows of less licence than many 
others, both with respect to rhyme, mea- 
sure, and delicacy of expression. 

MAGAZINE, a place in which stores 
are kept, of arms, ammunition, provisions, 
&c. Every fortified town ought to be 
furnished with a large magazine, which 
should contain stores of all kinds, suffici- 
ent to enable the garrison and inhabitants 
to hold out a long siege, and in which 
smiths, carpenters, wUeelrights, &c. may 
be employed, in making every thing be- 
longing to the artillery, as carriages, wag- 
gons, &.c. 

MAGAZINE, powder, a place in which 

powder is kept in large quantities, and 
which, on account of the nature of the sub. 
stance preserved, should be arched and 
bomb-proof. According to the plan of 
Vauban, they are sixty feet long and twen- 
ty-five broad in the inside. The founda- 
tions are eight or nine feet thick, and 
about as many feet high from the founda- 
tion to the spring of the arch. As some 
inconveniencies have arisen from this 
structure, Dr. Huttou proposes to find 
an arch of equilibration, which he would 
have constructed to a span of twenty 
feet, the pitch being ten feet; the ex- 
terior walls at top forming an angle of 
113, and the height of the angular point 
above the top of the arch to be seven 


MAGI, OI-MAGIANS, an ancient reli- 
gious sect in Persia, and other eastern 
countries, who maintained, that there 
were two principles, the one the cause 
of all good, the other the cause of all 
evil ; and abominating the adoration of 
imagesjworsinpped God only by fi re,which 
they looked upon as the brightest and 
most glorious symbol ot Oromasdes, or 
the good God ; as darkness is the truest 
symbol of Arimamus, or the evil god. 
This religion was reformed by Zoroaster, 
who maintained that there was one su- 
preme independent being ; and under 
him two principles or angels, one the 
angel of goodness and light, and the 
other of evil and darkness : that there is a 
perpetual struggle between them, which 
shall last to the end of the world ; 
that then the angel of darkness and his 
disciples shall go into a world of their 
own, where they shall be punished in 
everlasting darkness ; and the angel of 
light and his di.sciples shall also go into 
a world of their own, where they shall be 
rewarded in everlasting light. The 
priests of the magi were the most skil- 
ful mathematicians and philosophers of 
the ages in which they lived, insomuch 
that a learned man and a magian became 
equivalent terms. The vulgar looked on 
their knowledge as more than natural, 
and imagined them inspired by some su- 
pernatural power; and hence those who 
practised wicked and mischievous arts, 
taking upon themselves the name of ma- 
gians, drew on it that ill signification 
which the word magician now bears 
among us. This sect still subsists in 
Persia, under the denomination of gaurs, 
where they watch the sacred fire with 
the greatest cure, and never suffer it to 
be extinguished. See GAURS, 


MAGIC, originally signified only the 
knowledge of the more sublime parts 
of philosophy ; but as the magi like- 
wise professed astrology, divination, and 
sorcery, the term magi became odious, 
being used to signify an unlawful dia- 
bolical kind of science, acquired by 
the assistance of the devil and departed 

Natural magic is only the application 
of natural philosophy to the production of 
surprising but yet natural effects. The 
common natural magic, found in books, 
gives us merely some childish and super- 
stitious traditions of the sympathies and 
antipathies of things, or of their occult 
and peculiar properties ; which are usu- 
ally intermixed with many trifling experi- 
ments, admired rather for their disguise 
than for themselves. 

MAGIC lantern. See LANTERN. 

MAGIC square t in arithmetic, a square 
figure made up of numbers in arithme- 
tical proportion, so disposed in parallel 
and equal ranks, that the sums of each 
row, taken either perpendicularly, hori- 
zontally, or diagonally, are equal : thus, 

Natural square. 

Magic square. 


















Magic squares seem to have been so 
called, from their being used in the con- 
struction of talismans. 

Take another instance : 

Natural square. 

Magic square. 































where every row and diagonal in the 
magic square makes just the sum 65, be- 
ing the same as the two diagonals of the 
;i square. 

It is probable that these magic squares 
were so called, both because of this pro- 
perty in them, viz- that the ranks in every 
direction make the same sum, appeared 
extremely surprising, especially in the 
more ignorant ages, when mathematics 
passed for magic, and because also of the 
superstitious operations they were em- 
ployed in, as the construction of talismans, 
&.C.; for, according to the childish philo- 
sophy of those clays, which ascribed vir- 
tues to numbers, what might not be ex- 
pected from numbers so seemingly wonder- 
ful ? The magic square was held in great 
veneration among the Egyptians, and 
the Pythagoreans, their disciples, who, to 
add more efficacy and virtue to this square, 
dedicated it to the then known seven 
planets divers ways, and engraved it upon 
a plate of the metal that was esteemed in 
sympathy with the planet. The square, 
thus dedicated, was inclosed by a regular 
polygon, inscribed in a circle, which was 
divided into as many equal parts as there 
were units in the side of the square ; with 
the names of the angles of the planet, and 
the signs of the zodiac, written upon the 
void spaces between the polygon and the 
circumference of the circumscribed circle. 
Such a talisman or metal they vainly ima- 
gined would, upon occasion, befriend the 
person who carried it about him. To Sa- 
turn they attributed the square of 9 places 
or cells, the side being 3, and the sum of 
the numbers in every row 15 : to Jupiter 
the square of 16 places, the side being 4, 
and the amount of each row 34 : to Mars 
the square of 25 places, the side being 5, 
and the amount of each row 65: to the 
sun the square with 36 places, the side 
being 6, and the sum of each row 111 : 
to \ r enus the square of 49 places, the 
side being 7, and the amount of each row 
175: to Mercury the square with 64 
places, the side being 8, and the sum of 
each row 260 : and to the moon the square 
of 81 places, the side being 9, and the 
amount of each row 369. Finally, they 
attributed to imperfect matter, the square 
with 4 divisions, having 2 for its side; 
and to God, the square of only one cell, 
the side of which is also an unit, which 
multiplied by itself undergoes no change. 
To form a magic square of an odd num- 
ber of terms in the arithmetic progression 
1, 2, 3, 4, Sec. place the least term 1 in 
the ceil immediately under the middle or 
central one ; and the rest of the terms, 
in their natural order, in a descending 
diagonal direction, till they run off either 
at the bottom, or on the side : when the 



number runs off' at the bottom, carry it to 
the uppermost cell, that is not occupied, 
of the same column that it would have full- 
en in below, and then proceed descending 
diagonalwise again as far as you can, 
or till Uie numbers either run oft'at bottom 
or side, or are interrupted by coming at a 
cell already filled : now when any number 
runs off at the right-hand side, then bring 
it to the furthest ceil on the left-hand of 
the same row or line it would have fallen 
in towards the right-hand: and when 
the progress diagonalwise is interrupted 
by meeting with a cell already occupied 
by some other number, then descend di- 
agonally to the left from this cell till an 
empty one is met with, where enter it ; 
and thence proceed as before. Thus, 

To make a magic square of the 49 num. 
bers 1, 2, 3, 4, &c. 


















































First place the 1 next below the cen- 
tre cell, and thence descend to the right 
till the 4 runs off at the bottom, which 
therefore carry to the top corner on the 
same column as it would have fallen in ; 
but as that runs off at the side, bring it to 
the beginning of the second line, and 
thence descend to the right till they ar- 
rive at the cell occupied by 1 ; carry the 
8 therefore to the next diagonal cell to 
the left, and so proceed till 10 runs off at 
the bottom, which carry therefore to the 
top of its column, and so proceed till 13 
runs off at the side, which therefore 
bring to the beginning- of the same line, 
and thence proceed till 15 arrives at the 
cell occupied by 8 ; from this therefore 
descend diagonally to the left; but as 16 
runs off at the bottom, carry it to the top 
of its proper column, and thence descend 
till 21 runs off at the side, which is there- 
fore brought to the beginning of its pro- 
per line ; but as 22 arrives at the cell oc- 

cupied by 15, descend diagonally to the 
left, which brings it into the first column, 
but off at the bottom, and therefore it is 
carried to the top of that column ; thence 
descending till 29 runs off both at bottom 
and side, which therefore carry to the 
highest unoccupied cell in the last co- 
lumn ; and here, as 30 runs off at the 
side, bring it to the beginning of its pro- 
per column, and thence descend till 35 
runs off at the bottom, which therefore 
carry to the beginning or top of its own 
column ; and here, as 36 meets with the 
cell occupied by 29, it is brought from 
thence diagonally to the left ; thence de- 
scending, 38 runs oft' at the side, and 
therefore it is brought to the beginning 
of its proper line ; thence descending, 41 
runs oft' at the bottom, which therefore is 
carried to the beginning or top of its co- 
lumn ; from whence descending, 43 ar- 
rives at the cell occupied by 36, and 
therefore it is brought down from thence 
to the left; thence descending, 46 runs 
off at the side, which therefore is brought 
to the beginning of its line ; but here, as 
47 runs off at the bottom, it is carried to 
the beginning or top of its column, from 
whence descending with 48 and 49, the 
square is completed, the sum of every 
row and column and diagonal making 
just 175. Dr. Franklin carried this cu- 
rious speculation further than any of his 
predecessors in the same way. He con- 
structed both a magic square of squares, 
and a magic circle of circles, the descrip- 
tion of which is as follows. The magic 
square of squares is formed by dividing 
the great square into 256 little squares, in 
which all the numbers from 1 to 256, or 
the square of 16, are placed, in 16 co- 
lumns, which may be taken either hori- 
zontally or vertically. Their chief pro- 
perties are as follow. 1. The sum of the 
16 numbers in each column or row, ver- 
tical or horizontal, is 2056. 2. Every 
half column, vertical and horizontal, 
makes 1028, or just one half of the same 
sum 2056. 3. Haifa diagonal ascending, 
added to half a diagonal descending, 
makes also the same sum 2056 ; taking 
these half diagonals from the ends of any- 
side of the square to the middle of it ; and 
so reckoning them either upward or 
downward, or sideways from right to left, 
or from left to right. 4. The same with 
all the parallels to the half diagonals, as 
many as can be drawn in the great 
square : for any two of them being di- 
rected upward and downward, from the 
place where they begin, to that where 
they end, their sums still make the same 



2056. Also the same holds true down- 
ward and upward ; as well as if taken 
sideways to the middle, and back to the 
same side again. Only one set of these 
halfcliag-onals and their parallels, is drawn 
in the same square upward and down- 
ward; but another set may be drawn 
from any of the other three sides. 5. The 
four corner numbers in the great square, 
added to the four central numbers in it, 
make 1028, the half sum of any vertical 
or horizontal column, which contains 16 
numbers ; and also equal to half a dia- 
gonal or its parallel. 6. If a square hole, 
equal in breadth to four of the little 
squares or cells, be cut in a paper, through 
which any of the 16 little cells in the 
great square may be seen, and the paper 
be laid upon the great square ; the sum 
of all the 16 numbers, seen through the 
hole, is always equal to 2056, the sum of 
the 16 numbers in any horizontal or ver- 
tical column. 

MAGISTERY, an old chemical term, 
very nearly synonymous with precipitate, 
but is now rarely used, except in the 
following combinations : magistery of 
bismuth, which is the white oxide of 
this metal precipitated from the nitrous 
solution by the addition of water; ma- 
gistery of sulphur, which is sulphur pre- 
cipitated from its alkaline solution by an 

MAGNA charta. See LIBERTY. 

MAGNESIA, in chemistry, an earth, 
the properties of which were not fully 
known till Dr. Black, about the middle 
of the last century, investigated its na- 
ture. In the pursuit, the Doctor was led 
to the important discovery of the carbo- 
nic acid gas. Magnesia had, before his 
time, been frequently confounded with 
lime ; he, however, by the most accurate 
experiments shewed that it possessed 
properties different from all the other 
earths. Although magnesia exists in 
great abundance in combination with 
other substances, it has never been found 
perfectly pure in nature. It is an ingre- 
dient in many fossils ; and several of the 
salts, which it forms by combination with 
the acids, are found in mineral springs, 
and in the water of the ocean. Prom 
these combinations magnesia is obtained 
by different artificial processes. Mr. 
Murray mentions the sulphate of magne- 
sia, or Epsom salt, as well adapted to this 
purpose. One part of this salt is to be 
dissolved in twenty of water, and the so- 
lution filtered ; to this is added, while 
hot, a solution of pure potash or soda, as 
kmg as precipitation is produced. The 

alkali combines with the sulphuric acid,and 
the magnesia is separated : being insolu- 
ble in water, \i falls down in white pow- 
der : it is then washed in water till the 
fluid comes off taste less. This earth ex- 
ists under the form of a white spongy 
powder, soft to the touch, without smell, 
ami having a slightly bitter taste. Its spe- 
cific gravity is 2.3. It slight!)' changes 
vegetable colours to a green. Magnesia, 
when quite pure, is infusible, though ex- 
posed to the most intense heat : even in 
the focus of the very powerful burning 
mirror, or in the heat excited by oxygen 
gas, it cannot be melted. When made 
into a paste with water it contracts like 
alumina, if exposed to a sudden heat. 
It is almost insoluble in water. There is 
no action between magnesia and hydro- 
gen, or carbon, and very little between 
it and phosphorus. It combines readily 
with the acids, and with them forms neu- 
tral salts. Of these the greater number 
are soluble or crystallizible, and have a 
bitter taste. It*does not enter into com- 
bination with the fixed alkalies, but in 
combination with some of the other 
earths, it is fusible by means of a very 
strong heat. With lime, in certain pro- 
portions, it forms a greenish yellow glass. 
It is much used in medicine as a gentle 
laxative, and as an absorbent to destroy 
acidity in the stomach. It is also employ- 
ed to aid the solution of resinous and 
gummy substances, as camphor and opium 
in water. We shall notice only a few of 
its combinations. 

Magnesia combines with sulphur either 
in the dry or humid way, forming there- 
by a sulphuret of magnesia. The solid 
sulphuret of magnesia decomposes rapid- 
ly when exposed to the air. 

Sulphate of magnesia is a compound of 
sulphuric acid and magnesia, and is found 
in sea water, and in many mineral 
springs. Those at Epsom once afforded 
a large part of what was used in com- 
merce ; hence the name of Epsom salt. 
Now indeed it is commonly obtained 
from sea-water. The bittern water, or, 
as it is usually called, the mother water of 
common salt, that is, the water which 
remains after the crystallization, con- 
sists chiefly of sulphate of magnesia. 
The constituent parts are, according to 

Sulphuric acid 33 

Magnesia 19 

Water 48 




But Mr. Kir wan gives a different 

In crystals. 1>y. 

Sulphuric acid . . 29.35 63.32 

Magnesia 17.00 36.68 

Water 53.65 

100 100 

Sulphate of magnesia is formed by pass- 
ing sulphurous acid through water, in 
which magnesia is diffused. At first it is 
in a state of powder, which is gradually 
dissolved, and by exposure to the air, it 
deposits crystals, and passes into sulphate 
of magnesia. It consists of 

Sulphurous acid 39 

Magnesia 16 

Water 45 


Carbonate of magnesia, or the magnesia 
alba, of the physicians, is a very import- 
ant compound. The manufacture of 
this on the large scale is thus conducted. 
Instead of the pure sulphate of magnesia, 
the bittern, or liquor remaining after the 
crystallization of sea salt is used, and the 
magnesia is precipitated by carbonate of 
potash. When properly prepared it 
is perfectly white, nearly or vvholh/ 
tasteless, and very sparingly soluble in 
water. The magnesia of commerce is 
composed of 

Fourcroy. Kirwan. 
Carbonic acid .... 48 34 

Magnesia 40 45 

Water 12 21 

100 100 

When common carbonate of magnesia 
is exposed to a moderate heat, it is de- 
composed : its carbonic acid disengaged. 
It loses about half its weight, and the 
magnesia remains nearly pure. 

Under the magnesian genus of fossils 
are comprehended, not only those in 
which magnesia is the ingredient which is 
present in largest proportion, but those 
also in which, though in a smaller propor- 
tion, there exist the characters in some 
measure peculiar to this genus. These 
are softness, unctuosity, and being in ge- 
neral destitute of hardness, lustre, and 

transparency, which are conspicuous in 
many of those which belong to the sili- 
cious and argillaceous genera. Magne- 
sian fossils have usually a green colour, 
more or less deep. 


MAGNETISM, is supposed to have 
been first rendered useful about the end 
of the twelfth, <>r at least very early in the 
thirteenth century, by John de Gioja, a 
handicraft of Naples, who noticed the pe- 
culiar attraction of metals, iron in parti- 
cular, towards certain masses of rude 
ore ; the touch of which communicated 
to other substances of a ferruginous na- 
ture, especially iron or steel bars, the 
same property of attraction : these touch- 
ed bars he observed to have a peculiar 
and similar tendency towards one parti- 
cular point ; that when suspended in 
equilibrio, by means of threads around 
their centres, they invariably indicated 
the same point ; and that, when placed in 
a row, however adversely directed, they 
soon disposed themselves in perfectly 
parallel order. In this instance, he im- 
proved upon the property long known to, 
but not comprehended or applied to use 
by the ancients, who considered the load- 
stone simply as a rude species of iron ore, 
and curious only so far as it might serve 
to amuse. Gioja being possessed of a 
quick understanding, and of a strong 
mind, was not long in further ascertain- 
ing the more sensible purposes to which 
the magnet might be appropriated. He 
accordingly fixed various magnets upon 
pivots, supporting their centres in such 
manner as allowed the bars to traverse 
freely. Finding that, however situated 
within the reach of observation and com- 
parison, they all had the same tendency, 
he naturally concluded them to be go- 
verned by some attraction, which might 
be ultimately ascertained and acted up- 
on. He therefore removed into various 
parts of Italy, to satisfy himself whether 
or not the extraordinary impulse which 
agitated these bars that had been mag- 
netised by friction, existed only in the vi- 
cinity of Naples, or was general. The 
result of his researches appears to be, 
that the influence was general, but that 
the magnets were rendered extremely 
variable, and fluctuated much, when near 
large masses of iron. The experiments 
of Gioja gave birth to many others, and 
at length to a trial of the magnetic in- 
fluence on the surface of the water. To 
establish this, a vessel was moored out at 
sea, in a direction corresponding with 
that of the magnet ; and a boat, having a 
magnet equipoised on a pivot at its ceu- 


tre, was sent out at night in the exact 
line indicated thereby ; which, being du- 
ly followed, carried them close to the 
vessel that was at anchor. Thus the ac- 
tive power of attraction appeared to be 
established on both elements, and in the 
course of time the magnet was fixed to 
a card, marked with thirty-two points, 
whereby the mariner's compass was pre- 
sented to us. The points to which the 
magnet always turned itself, being gene- 
rally in correspondence with the meri- 
dian of the place where it acted, occa- 
sioned the extremities of the bars to be 
called poles. Succeeding experiments 
proved, that the magnetic bar never re- 
tained an exactly horizontal position ; but 
that one of its poles invariably formed an 
angle with any perfect level, over which 
it was placed : this was not so very mea- 
surable in a short bar, but in one of a 
yard in length was found to give several 
degrees of inclination. This, which is 
called " The Dip of the Needle," (or 
magnet) seems to indicate that the at- 
tracting power is placed within the earth. 
What that attracting power is we cannot 
determine ; some consider it to be a fluid, 
while others conjecture it to be an im- 
mense mass of load-stone situated some- 
where about the north pole. The diffi- 
culty is, however, considerably increased 
by the known fact of the needles of com- 
passes not always pointing due north ; 
but in many places varying greatly from 
the meridional lines respectively ; and 
from each other at different times and 
places. The facility with which a meri- 
dional line may be drawn by solar obser- 
vation, and especially by taking an azi- 
muth, fortunately enables navigators to 
establish the variation between the true 
northern direction, and that indicated by 
the magnet attached to the card of the 
compass. Nevertheless, we have great 
reason to believe, that, for want either of 
accurate knowledge of the prevalent va- 
riations, or from inattention thereto, ma- 
ny vessels, of which no tidings were ever 
heard, have been cast away ; it being ob- 
vious that a false indication of the north- 
ern point, in many places amounting 
to nearly the extent of twenty-five de- 
grees, must produce so important an er- 
ror in a vessel's course, as to subject her 
to destruction on those very shoals, 
rocks, &c. which the navigator unhappily 
thinks he steers wide of. To obviate 
such danger, as far as possible, all modern 
sea-charts have the variations of the com- 
pass in their several parts duly noted 
down ; and in reckoning upon the course 
steered by compass, an allowance is 

usually made for the difference between 
the apparent course, by the compass, and 
the real course, as ascertained by celes- 
tial observation. Under circumstances so 
completely contradictory, the principle 
of magnetism must remain unknown : we 
know not of any hypothesis which strikes 
conviction on our minds, or which seems 
to convey any adequate idea of the ori- 
gin, or modus operaudi, of this wondrous 
influence. All we can treat of is the ef- 
fect; also of the appearances which 
guide our practice, and of the manner in 
which the attractive power may be gene- 
rated and increased. 

In regard to the latter point, namely, 
the generation and increase of the mag- 
netic attraction, we shall endeavour to 
give a brief but distinct view of what re- 
lates thereto ; observing, that where vol- 
canic eruptions are frequent, and in those 
latitudes where the aurora borealis is dis- 
tinctly seen, the needle or magnet is sen' 
sibly affected. Previously to earthquakes, 
as well as during their action, and while 
the northern lights are in full display, no 
reliance can be placed on the compass ; 
of which the card will appear much agi- 
tated. This has given rise to the opinion 
held by some, that the power is a fluid : 
to this, however, there appear so many 
objections, that we are more disposed to 
reject than to favour it, although under 
the necessity of confessing that we are 
not able to offer one that may account sa- 
tisfactorily for the various phenomena at- 
tendant upon magnetism. 

We have already stated, that every 
magnet has two poles ; that is, one end 
is called the north, the other the south, 
pole : the former being considered as ca- 
pable of attraction ; the other, as we 
shall infer from the subjoined explana- 
tions, being far more inert, if at all pos- 
sessed of an attractive power. When 
two magnets are brought together with 
their north poles in contact, they will, in- 
stead of cohering, be obviously repelled 
to a distance corresponding with their re- 
spective powers of attraction, when ap- 
plied individually to unmagnetised nee- 
dles. The south poles will, in like man- 
ner, repel each other ; but the north pole 
of one, and the south pole of the other, 
will, when approximated, be evidently at- 
tracted, and will cohere so as to sustain 
considerable weights. Iron is the only 
metal, hitherto known, which is capable 
of receiving and communicating the mag- 
netic power; but quiet, and the absence 
of contact, in some respects, are indis- 
pensably necessary towards its perfect re- 
tention. Thus, when a bar has been Ira- 


pregnatcd, however abundantly, with the 
magnetic principle, if it be heated or 
hammered, the power of attraction will 
be dissipated ; or if a tube filled with 
iron filings have their surface magnetised, 
by shaking the tube the magnetic influ- 
ence will likewise be lost. In some re- 
spects, the magnetic influence resembles 
caloric ; for it very rapidly communicates 
to iron, devoid of magnetism, a certain 
portion of its own powers ; which, how- 
ever, appear to be reproduced instanta- 
neously. As various small fires under 
one large vessel will thereby heat it, and 
cause the water it contains to boil, though 
either of them individually would not 
produce that effect ; so many weak mag- 
nets may, by causing each to communi- 
cate a power equal to its own, be made 
to create an accumulated power, larger 
than that contained by either of them in- 
dividually : there is, however, a seeming 
contradiction to be found in some au- 
thors, who recommend that the weakest 
magnets should be first applied, and those 
more forcible in succession, according to 
the power they may possess ; the reason 
assigned being, that the weaker magnets 
would else, in all probability, draw off 
some of the accumulated power from the 
new magnet. Of this there appears no 
danger, since experience proves that 
magnets rather gain than lose efficiency 
by contact, not only with each other, but 
even with common iron. In fact, the 
magnetic power mav at any time be cre- 
ated by various means : the friction of 
two pieces of flat and polished bars of 
iron will cause them for a short while to 
attract, and to suspend, light weights. 
Soft iron is more easily influenced, but 
steel will retain the influence longer. 
Lightning, electricity, and galvanism, be- 
ing all of the same nature, equally render 
iron magnetic. It is also peculiar, that 
when two or more magnets are left for 
any time with their several north poles in 
contact, the whole will be thereby weak- 
ened ; whereas, by leaving a piece of 
common iron attached to a magnet, the 
latter will acquire strength. It is also 
well known, that some pieces of steel 
quickly receive the magnetic influence, 
while others require considerable labour, 
and after all are scarcely impregnated. 
The oxide of iron cannot be impregnated, 
and those bars that have been so, when 
they become partially oxydized, lose their 
power. Hence we see "the necessity of 
preserving the needles of compasses 
from rust. 

Magnets have the power to act, not- 
withstanding the intervention of substan- 

ces in any degree porous between them, 
and the body to be acted upon : thus, if a 
needle be put on a sheet of paper, and a 
magnet be drawn under it, the needle 
will follow the course of the magnet. 
The peculiar affinity of the load-stone for 
iron is employed, with great success, by 
those who work in precious metals, for 
the separation of filings, &c. of iron from 
the smaller particles of gold, 8cc. A mag- 
net being dipped into the vessel, in which 
the whole are blended, will attract all fer- 
ruginous particles. 

To communicate the magnetic power 
to a needle, let it be placed horizontally, 
and with a magnet in each hand, let the 
north pole of one, and the south pole of 
the other be brought, obliquely, in contact 
over the centre of the needle ; draw them 
asunder, taking care to press firmly, and 
preserving the same angle or inclination 
to the very ends of the needles, which 
should be supported by two magnets, 
whose ends ought to correspond in pola- 
rity with those of the needle. Observe to 
carry the magnets you press with clear 
away from the ends of the needle, at least 
a foot therefrom ; repeat the friction in the 
same manner several times, perhaps six, 
eight, or ten times, and the needle will be 
permanently magnetized. As we have 
already stated, by using other magnets in 
succession, the powers of the needle will 
be proportionably increased. But no ef- 
fect will result from the friction if the 
bars are rusty, or, indeed, not highly 
polished; their angles must be perfect, 
and their several sides and ends com- 
pletely flat. 

It is, perhaps, one of the most curious 
of the phenomena attendant upon this 
occult property, that the centre of every 
magnet is devoid of attraction ; yet, that 
when a needle is placed in a line with a 
magnet, and within the influence of its 
pole, that needle also becomes magnetic ; 
or, rather, a conductor, possessing a cer- 
tain portion of attractive power : and it is 
no less extraordinary, that the magnet 
retains its power even in the exhausted 
receiver of an air-pump: this seems to be 
a formidable objection to its being influ- 
enced by any fluid. Perhaps the opinion 
entertained by many of our most popular 
lecturers on this subject, viz. that the 
earth itself is the great attractor, may be 
nearest the truth. We are the more sup- 
posed to incline towards such an hvpo- 
thesis, knowing that, at the true magne- 
tic equator, the needle does not dip ; and 
from the well ascertained fact, that bars 
oi iron, placed for a length of time exactly 



perpendicular, receive a strong magnetic 
power, their lower ends repelling the 
south, but attracting the north poles of 
magnets applied to them respectively. 
The direction of the dipping net-die was 
ascertained hy one Robert Norman, about 
two hundred and fifty years ago. He 
suspended a small magnetic needle, by 
means of a fine thread around ks centre, 
so as to balance perfectly, over a large 
magnet : the south pole of the former 
was instantly attracted by the north pole 
of the latter. He found that so long as 
the needle was held exactly centrical, at 
about two inches above the magnet, it re- 
mained horizontal : but so soon as with- 
drawn a little more towards one end than 
the other of the magnet, the equilibrium 
was destroyed, and that pole of the nee- 
dle which was nearest to either pole of 
the magnet was instantly attracted, and 
pointed downwards thereto. By the mag- 
netic equator, we mean a circle passing 
round the earth at right angles with the 
magnetic poles, which do not correspond 
with the geographical poles, as may be 
fully understood by the indications of all 
compasses to points differing from the 
latter;, and as the indications of com- 
passes vary so much, both at different 
times and places, we may reasonably 
conclude, that the magnetic poles are 
not fixed. The variation of the dipping 
needle has not, in our latitude at least, 
varied more than half a degree since 
its depressive tendency was first disco- 
vered by Norman. 

The suspension of Mahomet's body, in 
the temple where it was deposited, is 
supposed to have resulted entirely from 
magnetism, with which the Arabians 
were completely unacquainted. 

MAGNETISM, animal. About thirty 
years ago, Father Hehl, of Vienna, im- 
posed on his countrymen, and indeed on 
the greater part of the civilized world, 
a pretended mode of curing all kinds 
of disease, by means of a sympathetic 
affection between the sick person and 
the operator. The remedy was supposed 
to depend upon the motions of the fin- 
gers, and the features of the latter, he 
placing himself immediately before the 
invalid, whose eyes were to be fixed on 
his, and performing a number of antic 
and unmeaning changes, accompanied by 
various grimaces, or inflections of the 
principal muscles of the visage. This 
rarely failed to excite a certain degree 
of apprehension in the mind of the sick; 
which, by creating a new action of the 
system, often frightened them into con- 

valescence. That such effects may have 
been produced among the credulous and 
timid, we shall not controvert ; but, on 
the other hand, it is asserted, that num- 
bers have been so far overcome with 
terror and fatigue, (for, like Dr. Sangra- 
do, the operator was never satisfied 
while any strength to undergo the pro- 
cess remained) that consequences highly 
dangerous, and in some instances tatal, 
were induced. Notwithstanding the ob- 
vious folly of the pursuit, there were found 
many gentlemen of great respectability 
and talents among its followers ; hence 
a certain degree of credit was establish- 
ed, and there were not wanting persons 
foolish enough to certify many cases, 
and to give a celebrity, which was in a 
very short time found to be misapplied. 
It is a lamentable case, that, through- 
out the world, impositions of this nature 
are always tolerated lung enough to an- 
swer the purposes of the fabricator, and 
to encourage others in similar deceptions. 
Our readers may recollect many instances 
of notorious character, among which the 
metallic-tractors, which were at one time 
asserted to be allied to metallic-magne- 
tism, may, perhaps, serve as a proper illus- 
tration and proof. 

MAGNIFYING, in philosophy, the 
making of objects appear larger than 
they would otherwise do ; whence con- 
vex lenses, which have the power of 
doing this, are called magnifying glasses; 
and of such glasses are microscopes con- 

MAGNITUDE, whatever is made up 
of parts locally extended, or that hath se- 
veral dimensions ; as a line, surface, solid. 
The apparent magnitude of a body is that 
measured by the visual angle, formed by 
rays drawn from its extremes to the cen- 
tre of the eye ; so that whatever things 
are seen under the same or equal angles, 
appear equal ; and vice versa. Mr. Mac- 
laurin observes, that geometrical magni- 
tudes may be usefully considered as ge- 
nerated or produced by motion. Thus, 
lines may be conceived as generated by 
the motion of points ; surfaces, by the 
motion of lines ; solids, by the motion of 
surfaces ; angles may be supposed to be 
generated by the rotation of their sides. 
Geometrical magnitude is always under- 
stood to consist of parts ; and to have no 
parts, or to have no magnitude, are consi- 
dered as equivalent in this science. There 
is, however, no necessity for considering 
magnitude as made up of an infinite num- 
ber of small parts ; it is sufficient that no 
quantity can be supposed to be so small, 



but it may be conceived to be farther di- 
minished: and it is obvious, that we are 
not to estimate the number of parts that 
may be conceived in a given magnitude, 
by those which, in particular determinate 
circumstances, may be actually perceived 
in it by sense, since a greater number of 
parts become sensible, by varying the 
circumstances in which it is perceived. 

MAGNOLIA, in botany, so named in 
honour of Pierre Magnol, professor of 
medicine, and prefect of the botanic 
garden at Montpelier, a genus of the 
Polyandria Polygynia class and order. Na- 
tural order of Coadunatx. Magnolize, 
Jussieu. Essential character: calyx three- 
leaved ; petals nine : capsule one-celled, 
two-valved ; seeds berried, pendulous, 
There are seven species ; of which M. 
grandiflora, great laurel-leaved magno- 
lia, or tulip tree, in the southern provin- 
ces of North America, grows to the 
height of eighty feet : the trunk is more 
than two feet in diameter ; the leaves 
are nine or ten inches long, and three 
broad in the middle, of a thick consist- 
ence, resembling those of the common 
laurel, but much larger ; of a lucid 
green, sessile, and placed without order 
on every side of the branches ; continuing 
green all the year, falling off only as the 
branches extend, and the new leaves are 
produced. The flowers come out at the 
ends of the branches : they are large, 
and composed of eight or ten petals, 
which are narrow at the base, broad, 
rounded, and a little waved at their ex- 
tremities ; they are of a pure white co- 
lour, possessing an agreeable scent. The 
summers in England are not warm enough 
to bring the fruit to perfection. This fine 
tree is a native of Florida and Carolina, 
and, in common with many of the trees 
and plants of that country, is impatient of 
cold here, and difficult to keep in perfec- 
tion, either abroad or housed. 

MAHERNIA, in botany, a genus of the 
Pentandria Pentagynia class and order. 
Natural order of Columniferae. Tiliacese, 
Jussieu. Essential character : calyx five- 
toothed ; petals five ; nectaries five, obcor- 
date, placed under the filaments ; capsule 
five-celled. There are three species, na- 
tives of the Cape of Good Hope. 

MAHOGANY. The swietenia maha- 
goni, or mahogany tree, is a native of the 
warmest parts of America, and grows 
also in the island of Cuba, Jamaica, His- 
paniola, and the Bahama islands. It 
abounded formerly in the low lands of 
Jamaica ; but it is now found only on hills, 
and places difficult of access. This tree 

grows tall and straight, rising often sixty 
feet from the spur to the limbs ; and is 
about four feet in diameter. The foliage 
is a beautiful deep green, and the appear- 
ance made by the whole tree very ele- 
gant. The flowers are of a reddish or 
saffron colour, and the fruit of an oval 
form, about the size of a turkey's egg. 
Some ot' them have reached to a mon- 
strous size, exceeding one hundred feet in 
height. In felling these trees, the most 
beautiful part is commonly left behind. 
The negro workmen raise a scaffolding of 
four or five feet elevation from the 
ground, and hack up the trunk, which 
they cut into balks. The part below, 
extending to the root, is not only of larger 
diameter, but of a closer texture than the 
other parts, most elegantly diversified 
with shades or clouds, or dotted like er- 
mine with spots : it takes the highest 
polish, with a singular lustre. This part 
is only to be come at by digging below 
the spur, to the depth of two or three 
feet, and cutting it through ; which is so 
laborious an operation, that few attempt 
it, except they are curious in the choice 
of their wood; or to serve a particular. 
purpose. The mahogany tree thrives in 
most soils ; but varies in texture and 
grain, according to the nature of the soil. 
On rocks it is of a smaller size ; but very 
hard and weighty, and of a close grain, 
and beautifully shaded ; while the pro- 
duce of the low and richer lands is ob- 
served to be more light and porous, of a 
paler colour, and open grain ; and that of 
mixed soils to hold a medium between 
both. This constitutes the difference be- 
tween the Jamaica wood and that which 
is collected from the coast of Cuba and 
the Spanish Main ; the former is mostly 
found on rocky eminences ; the latter is 
cut in swampy soils, near the sea coast. 
The superior value of the Jamaica wood, 
for beauty of colouring, firmness, and 
durability, may therefore be easily ac- 
counted for ; and a large quantity of balks 
and planks is brought from the Spanish 
American coasts to Jamaica, to be ship- 
ped from thence to Great Britain. This 
wood is generally hard, takes a fine polish, 
and is found to answer better than any 
other sort in all kinds of cabinet ware. It 
is a very strong timber, and was fre- 
quently used as such in Jamaica in former 
times. It is said to be used sometimes in 
ship-building; a purpose for which it 
would be remarkably adapted, if not too 
costly; being very durable, capable of 
resisting gun-shots, and burying the shots 
without splintering. 


MAHOMETANS, believers Jn the doc- 
trines and divine mission of Mahomet, the 
celebrated warrior and pseudo-prophet of 
Arabia, who was born at Mecca in the 
year 571. The father of Mahomet was Ab- 
tlollech, descended from the Korashites, 
tribes who had long enjoyed the regal 
dignity in Arabia. Notwithstanding the 
royal descent of the prophet, it appears 
that a variety of adverse circumstances 
concurred to render him, in the early part 
of his life, indigent and obscure. His 
father died before he was two years of 
age, and his mother when he was about 
eight; so that he was left in a manner 
destitute of subsistence, and his educa- 
tion, in a great measure, if not altogether, 
neglected. After the death of his mother, 
he was committed to the care of his 
grandfather, who dying within a year af- 
terwards, he was taken under the pro- 
tection ot" his uncle Taleb, a merchant of 
some respectability. There are various 
accounts relative to the manner in which 
Mahomet first began to invent and pro- 
pagate his new system of faith and wor- 
ship. It appears, according to the Ma- 
hometan historians, that his pretended 
mission was revealed to him in a dream, 
in the fortieth year of his age. From 
that time, say his biographers, Mahomet, 
under the influence of a holy terror, de- 
voted himself to a solitary life. He re- 
tired to a grotto in the mountain of Hira, 
which overlooks Mecca. He there pass- 
ed his days and nights in fasting, prayer, 
and meditation. In the midst of one of 
these profound ecstasies, the angel Ga- 
briel appeared to him, with the first chap- 
ter of the Koran, and commanded him to 
read. Mahomet replied, he was unable ; 
upon which the angel repeatedly em. 
braced him, and commanded him to read, 
in the name of his Creator. A few days 
after, praying upon the same mountain of 
Hira, Mahomet again saw the angel of the 
Lord, seated in the midst ot the clouds 
on a glittering throne, with the second 
chapter of the Koran ; and was addressed 
by him in the following words : ' O thou 
who art covered with a celestial mantle, 
arise and preach 1" Thus the angel Ga- 
briel communicated, by command of the 
Eternal, to his prophet, in the twenty- 
three last years of his life, the whole book 
of the Koran, leaf by leaf, chapter by 
chapter. There are, however, different 
accounts respecting the portions or par- 
cels in which the Koran was given to 
Mahomet. See ATXORA.N. 

During the first thirteen years of the 
nrophet's mission, he appears to have 


made very slow progress; but the last 
ten were employed with greater success. 
Finding that visions, ecstasies, revela- 
tions, and arguments, did not succeed so 
rapidly as be could have wished in mak- 
ing proselytes, he determined to try the 
more powerful and adventurous induce- 
ments of coercion. After his flight from 
Mecca to Medina, which took place A. D. 
622, and from which his followers com- 
pute their time, the prophet made rapid 
progress. Thousands flocked to his stand- 
ard, and he soon convinced his enemies, 
that if they refused to admit the divinity 
of his mission, they should feel the weight 
of his arm. He declared, that God sent 
him into the world, not only to teach his 
will, but to compel mankind to embrace 
it. " The word," said he, " is the key of 
heaven and hell ; a drop of blood shed 
in the cause of God, or a night spent in 
arms, is of more avail than two months 
of fasting and prayer. Whosoever falls 
in battle, his sins are forgiven at the day 
of judgment ; his wounds shall be re- 
splendent as vermilion, and odoriferous 
as musk, the loss of his limbs shall be 
supplied by the wings of angels and 
cherubim." Who would not die to be 
acquitted at the bar of heaven ? Who 
would not prefer a night in arms to a fast 
of two months ? And what mortal but 
would prefer the odours of musk to 
the stench of plasters or foetid ointments ; 
the wings of angels to the cumbrous ap- 
pendages of human limbs ? These repre- 
sentations were attended with the desired 
effect on the minds and conduct of the 
prophet's admirers. They assembled in 
numbers to fight for God and his prophet. 
Headed by a chieftain of invincible 
courage, attractive eloquence, and as- 
tonishing genius, guarded by angels (as 
they supposed), and enflamed by the 
holy fire of fanaticism, success attended 
almost all their engagements. Mahomet, 
thus elevated, formed the stupendous 
design of creating a new empire. Here 
again success crowned his efforts. His 
plan was executed with such intrepidity, 
that he died, A. D. 632, master of a'll 
Arabia, besides several adjacent pro- 
vinces. It is not our business, nor will 
our limits admit of it, to account for the 
rapid progress of the Mahometan faith. 
We may, however, summarily state, as 
causes of the eastern prophet's success : 
the terror of his arms ; the artful nature 
of his law, which offered such rewards 
to the faithful, and such punishments to 
the infidels, as were best suited to the 
luxuriant fancies of the Arabians; the 
C r 



plainness and simplicity of some of his 
doctrines ; the adaptation of the duties 
which his law enjoined to the passions 
and appetites of mankind ; the profound 
ignorance under which the Arabians, 
Syrians, Persians, and the greatest part 
of the eastern nations, then laboured ; 
and, lastly, the dissensions and animosi- 
ties that then ravage d the peace, and de- 
stroyed the union of the Christian sects, 
particularly the Greeks, Nestorians, Euty- 
chians, and Monophysites, and which 
rendered the very name of Christianity 
odious to many. These are some of the 
causes which gave life and strength to 
the Mahometan religion in the east. 

The religion of Mahomet is divided 
into two general parts : faith and practice. 
The fundamental article of the Mahome- 
tan creed is contained in this confession : 

HOMET IS H I S PRO PHET. Under these 
two propositions are comprehended six 
distinct branches : viz. belief in God ; in 
his angels ; in his scriptures; in his pro- 
phets ; in the resurrection and judgment ; 
and in God's absolute decrees, or pre- 
destination. They reckon five points re- 
lating to practice : viz. prayer with wash- 
ings, &c. ; alms ; fasting ; pilgrimage to 
Mecca ; and circumcision. Mahomet ad 
mitted the divine mission of both Moses 
and of Jesus Christ. Dr. Jortin says, that 
Mahometism is a borrowed system, made 
up for the most part of Judaism and 
Christianity; and if it be considered, the 
the same writer observes, in the most 
favourable point of view, might possibly 
be accounted a sort of Christian heresy. 
Achmet Benabdalla, in his letter to Mau- 
rice, Prince of Orange, says, " The Lord 
Jesus Christ is held by us (Mahometans) 
to be a prophet, and the messenger of 
God, and our lady, the virgin Mary, his 
mother, to be blessed of God, holy, who 
brought him forth, and conceived him 
miraculously by the almighty power of 

The Mahometans are a superstitious 
people, and hence in their religion we 
find a prodigious number of rites, ceremo- 
nies, and observances; the principal of 
which are : circumcision, ablutions, fast- 
ings, pilgrimage, polygamy, marriage 
rites, mourning for the dead, funeral rites, 
and the observance of Friday as a Sabbath. 
In all these observances, &c. there is a 
mixture of Heathenism, Judaism, and 
Christianity. After the death of their 
prophet, the Mahometans were divided, 
like the Christians, into an incredible 
number of sects and parties, all of them, 

however, professing to adhere to the 
Koran as the rule and guide of their faith 
and practice, yet differing widely from 
each other in particular points of belief, 
relative to doctrine, practice, and eccle- 
siastical discipline. Those who wish to 
see the history and character of this ex- 
tensive sect more particularly detailed, 
will do well to consult the following au- 
thors : Fabricius's "Delectus et Syllabus 
argument, pro veritate relig. Christian*;" 
Boulainvillier's, Gagnier's and Prideaux's 
Lives of Mahomet ; Sale's English Trans- 
lation of the Koran; to which may be added, 
Professor White's Sermons at the Bamp- 
ton Lectures, and Millar's account of 
Mahomet in his *' Propagation of Chris- 
tianity," vol. i. c. 1. 

MAIDEN, in ancient English customs, 
an instrument for beheading criminals. 
Of the use and form of this instrument 
Mr. Pennant gives the following account: 
" It seems to have been confined to the 
limits of the forest of Hardwick, or the 
eighteen towns and hamlets within its 
precincts. The time when this custom 
took place is unknown ; whether Earl 
Warren, lord of this forest, might have 
established it among the sanguinary laws 
then in use against the invaders of the 
hunting rights, or whether it might not 
take place after the woollen manufactu- 
rers at Halifax began to gain strength, is 
uncertain. The lust is very probable ; 
for the wild country around the town 
was inhabited by a lawless set, whose de- 
preciations on the cloth-tenters might 
soon stifle the efforts of infant industry. 
For the protection of trade, and for the 
greater terror of offenders by speedy ex- 
ecution, this custom seems to have been 
established, so as at last to receive the 
force of law, which was, That if a felon 
be taken within the liberty of the forest 
of Hardwick, with goods* stolen out, or 
within the said precincts, either hand- 
habend, back-berand, or confession'd, to 
the value of thirteen pence half-penny, 
he shall, after three market days, or 
meeting clays, within the town of Halifax, 
next after such his apprehension, and 
being condemned, be taken to the gib- 
bet, and there have his head cut from his 
body.' The offender had always a fair 
trial : for as soon as he was taken, he was' 
brought to the lord's bailiff at Halifax: 
he was then exposed on the three mar- 
kets (which here were held thrice in a 
week), placed in the stocks, with the 
goods stolen on his back, or, if the theft 
was of the cattle kind, they were placed 
by him ; and this was done both to strike 



terror into others, and to produce new 
informations against him. The bailiff 
then summoned four freeholders of each 
town within the forest to form a jury. 
The felon and prosecutors were brought 
face to face ; and the goods, the cow or 
horse, or whatsoever was stolen, produced. 
If he was found guilty he was remanded 
to prison, had a week's time allowed for 
preparation, and then was conveyed to 
this spot, where his head was struck off 
by this machine. I should have premised, 
tliat if the criminal, either after apprehen- 
sion, or in the way to execution, should 
escape out of the limits of the forest (part 
being close to the town,), the bailiff had 
no further power over him ; but if he 
should be caught within the precincts at 
any time after, he was immediately exe- 
cuted on his former sentence. 

" This privilege was very freely used 
during the reigu of Elizabeth : the re- 
cords before that time were lost. Twen- 
ty-five suffered in her reign, and at least 
twelve from 1623 to 1650 ; after which, 
I believe, the privilege was no more ex- 

" This machine of death is now destroy- 
ed; but I saw one of the same kind in a 
room under the parliament house at 
Edinburgh, where it was introduced by 
the regent Morton, who took a model o*f 
it as he passed through Halifax, and at 
length suffered by it himself. It is in 
form of a painter's easel, .and about ten 
feet high : at four feet from the bottom is 
a cross bar, on which the felon lays his 
head, which is kept down by another 
placed above. In the inner edges of the 
frame are grooves ; in these is placed a 
sharp axe, with a vast weight of lead, sup- 
ported at the very summit with a peg : 
to that peg is fastened a cord, which the 
executioner cutting, the axe falls, and 
does the affair effectually, without suffer- 
ing the unhappy criminal to undergo a 
repetition of strokes, as has been the case 
in the common method. I must add, that 
if the sufferer is condemned for stealing 
a horse or a cow, the string is tied to the 
beast, which, on being whipped, pulls out 
the peg, and becomes the executioner." 
This apparatus is now in possession of the 
Scottish Antiquarian Society^ 

MAJESTY, a title given to kings, 
which frequently serves as a term of dis- 

MAI11EM, or MAIM, signifies a corpo- 
ral wound or hurt by which u man loseth 
the use of any member. 

By the old common law, castration was 
punished with death, and other members 
with the loss of member for member : 

but of latter days, maihem was punisha* 
ble only by fine" and imprisonment. If a 
man attack another with an intent to mur- 
der him, and he does not murder the 
man, but only maim him, the offence is 
nevertheless a capital felony within the 
statute 22 and 23 Charles II. c. 1, usually 
culled the Coventry Act. 

And by a late statute, 44 Geo. III. c. 58, 
if any person shall, either in England or 
Ireland, wilfully, maliciously, and unlaw- 
fully, shoot at any of his Majesty's sub- 
jects, or wilfully, maliciously, and' unlaw- 
fully present any kind of loaded fire-arms 
at any one, and attempt to discharge the 
same at him, or wilfully, maliciously, and 
unlawfully stab or cut any of his Majesty's 
subjects, with intent in so doin^ 1 , or by 
means thereof to murder or rob, or to 
maim, disfigure, or disable him, or with 
intent to do some other grievous bodily 
harm to liiin^ or to obstruct, resist, o'r 
prevent the lawful apprehension and de- 
tainer of the person so stabbing or cutting, 
or of any of his accomplices, for any of- 
fence for which the}- may be liable to be 
detained, or shall wilfully, &c. administer 
poison with intent to murder, or to pro- 
cure the miscarriage of any woman quick 
with child, he shall be guilty of felony, 
and suffer death. But in case of level- 
ling fire-arms, or cutting and maiming as 
aforesaid, if it shall appear that if death 
had ensued, the party would not have 
been guilty of murder, then the defen- 
dant shall be acquitted. 

A person who maims himself that he 
may have the more colour to beg, or that 
he may not be impressed, may be indicted 
and fined. 

MA1NPRIZE, a delivering a person to 
his friends, to be answerable for his ap- 
pearance. It differs from bail, as the 
rnainpernors cannot keep the party in 
custody, but must let him be at liberty 
till the day of his appearance. 

MAINTENANCE, the unlawful taking 
in hand or upholding a cause of any per- 
son. It was formerly unlawful to assist 
any person in litigation, except as an at- 
torney, advocate, kinsman, servant, or 
near relation, out of charity. The late 
Judge Buller expressed serious doubts 
whether the law against maintenance was 
not obsolete. 

MAJOR, in the art of war, the name of 
several officers of very different ranks and 
functions ; as, 1. Major-general, the next 
officer to the lieutenant-general : his 
chief business is to receive the orders 
from the general, or in his absence from 
the lieutenant-general of the day; which 
he is to distribute to the brigade-majors. 



with whom he is to regulate the guards, 
convoys, and detachments. When there 
are two attacks at a siege, he commands 
that on the left. He ought to be well ac- 
quainted with the strength ofeach brigade, 
of each regiment in particular, and to 
have a list of all the field officers. In 
short, he is in the army, what a major is 
in a regiment. He is allowed an aid-de- 
camp, and has a serjeant and fifteen men 
for his guard. 2. Major of a brigade, the 
officer who receives the orders from the 
major-general, and afterwards delivers 
them to the adjutants of the regiments at 
the head of the brigade ; where he takes 
and marches the detachments, &c. to the 
general rendezvous. He ought to be an 
expert captain, to know the state and 
condition of the brigade, and keep a roll 
of the colonels, lieutenant-colonels, ma- 
jors, and adjutants. 3. Major of a regi- 
ment, the next officer to the lieutenant- 
colonel, generally promoted from the old- 
est captain. He is to take care that the 
regiment be well exercised, to see it 
march in good order, and to rally it in 
case of its being broke. He is the only 
officer among the foot that is allowed to 
be on horseback in time of action, that he 
may the more readily execute the colo- 
nel's orders, either in advancing or draw- 
ing off' the regiment. 4. Major of a regi- 
ment of horse, is the first captain, who 
commands in the absence of the colonel. 
5. Town-major, the third officer in a gar- 
rison, being next to the deputy-governor. 
He ought to understand fortification, and 
hath charge of the guards, rounds, patroles, 
&c. His business is also to take care that 
the soldiers' arms are in good order : he 
likewise orders the gates to be opened 
and shut, and gives the governor an ac- 
count of all that passes within the place. 

There are also drum-majors, &.c. so 
called from their pre-eminence above 
others of the same denomination. 

MAKING up, among distillers, the re- 
ducing spirits to a certain standard of 
strength, usually called proof, by the ad- 
mixture of water ; which should be either 
soft and clear river water, or spring wa- 
ter rendered soft by distillation. 

MALACHITE, a mineral, the green 
carbonate of copper, found frequently 
crystallized in long slender needles ; 
colour green, and the specific gravity 
about 3.6. It effervesces with nitric acid, 
and gives a blue colour to ammonia. It 
decrepitates and blackens before the 
blow-pipe. There are two varieties, the 
fibrous and the compact : the constituent 
parts are, 

Copper ........... 58.0 

Carbonic acid ...... . 18.0 

Oxygen ........... 12.5 



MALACHRA, in botany, a genus of 
the Monadelphia Polyandria class and 
order. Natural order of Coiumniferx. 
Malvacese, Jussieu. Essential charac- 
ter : calyx common three-leaved, many- 
flowered, larger ; arils five, one-seed- 
ed. There are five species, natives of 

MALACHODENDRUM, in botany, a 
genus of the Monadelphia Polyandria 
class and order. Natural order of Colum- 
niferae. Malvaceae, Jussieu. Essential 
character: calyx simple; germ pear- 
shaped, pentagonal; styles five; cap- 
sule five, one-seeded. There are two 
species, viz. M. ovatum, and M. corcho- 

M ALACOLITE, a mineral found in the 
silver mines in Sweden, and also in Nor- 
way. It is obtained massive and crystalliz- 
ed in six-sided prisms. Specific gravity 
about 3.25. It consists of 

Silica 53 

Lime 20 

Magnesia 19 

Alumina 3 

Oxide of iron, &.c 4 

Loss .... 1 


MALATES, in chemistry, salts formed 
by the union of the malic acid with differ- 
ent bases. These salts have not been 
fully investigated ; but it has been ascer- 
tained that the malates of lime, barytes, 
and magnesia, are very insoluble. The ma- 
lates of potash, soda, and ammonia, are 
deliquescent. The malates of potash, 
soda, ammonia, lime, and barytes, may 
be formed by dissolving these alkalies 
in malic acid, and evaporating the solu- 

MAL AXIS, in botany, a genus of the 
Gynandria Diandria class and order. Na- 
tural order of Orchidex. Essential cha- 
racter : nectary one-leafed, concave, cor- 
date, acuminate backwards, bifid in front, 
cherishing the gentials in the middle. 
There are two species, viz. M. spicata, 



and M. umbelliflora, both natives of Ja- 

MALE, among zoologists, that sex of 
aniimls which has the parts of generation 
without the body. 

The term male has also, from some 
similitude to that sex in animals, been 
applied to several inanimate things : 
thus we say, a male-flower, a male-screw, 

MALIC add, in chemistry, was disco- 
vered by Scheele about the year 1785. 
It is found in the juices of a great many 
fruits, and it derives its name from the 
circumstance of its being obtained in 
great abundance from the juice of apples, 
in which it exists ready formed. It is thus 
obtained : saturate the juice of apples 
with potash, and add to the solution ace- 
tate of lead till no more precipitation en- 
sues. Wash the precipitate carefully 
with a sufficient quantity of water; then 
pour upon it diluted sulphuric acid till 
the mixture has a perfectly acid taste, 
without any of that sweetness which is 
perceptible as long as any lead remains 
dissolved in it ; then separate the sulphate 
of lead, which has precipitated, by filtra- 
tion, and there remains behind pure malic 
acid. The French chemists have ascer- 
tained that it may be obtained in the 
largest quantities from the juice of the 
sempervivum tectorum, where it exists 
abundantly combined with lime. Malic 
acid is very soluble, in water, and decom- 
poses spontaneously, by undergoing a 
kind of fermentation. It is composed of 
oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon. It com- 
bines with alkalies, earths, and metallic 
oxides, and forms MALATES, which see 

Dr. Thomson has shewn in what the 
citric and malic acids agree, and in what 
they differ. The citric acid shoots into 
crystals; but the malic will not crystal- 
lize. The citrate of lime is almost inso- 
luble in boiling water, but the malate of 
lime is easily soluble in that liquid. Malic 
acid precipitates mercury, lead, and sil- 
ver, from the nitrous acid, and likewise 
the solution of gold when diluted with 
water ; whereas the citric acid does not 
alter any of these solutions. 

MALICE, a formed design of doing 
mischief to another. Malice is of two 
kinds ; express or implied. Malice ex- 
press, in cases of homicide, is, where one 
with a deliberate intention, evidenced by 
external circumstances, kills another. 
This intention may appear by lying in 
wait, antecedent menaces, former grudg- 
es, and concerted schemes to do one 

some bodily harm. Malice implied is va- 
rious ; as where one voluntarily kills ano- 
ther without any provocation, or where 
one wilfully poisons another ; in such 
cases, the law implies malice, though no 
particular enmity can be proved. See 


In this latter case, the act, if it is in it- 
self necessarily injurious to another, im- 
plies malice. As to stab one is the best 
evidence of a design to injure him, be- 
cause the ai* necessarily must injure him, 
and malice is but a design to injure ; and 
if it really were an accidental injury, that 
must be shown from other circumstances 
which are generally to be proved on the 
part of the defendant. Malice being a de- 
sign to injure, any injurious act implies 
malice, but in common speech it is more 
frequently applied to the continued work- 
ings of a long preconceived hatred and 

MALLEABLE, a property of metals, 
whereby they are capable of being ex- 
tended under the hammer. See DUCTILI- 
TY and METAL. 

MALLET, a kind of large wooden 
hammer, used by artificers who work 
with a chissel, as sculptors, masons, 
and stone-cutters, whose mallets are 
commonly round; and by joiners, car- 
penters, &c. who work with square-head- 
ed mallets. 

MALLEUS, in anatomy, a bone of 
the ear, so called from its resemblance 
to a mallet, and in which is observed 
the head, the neck and handle, which 
is joined to the membrane of the tym- 

MALOPE, in botany, a genus of the 
Monadelphia Polyandria class and order. 
Natural order of Columniferae. Malva- 
ceae, Jussieu. Essential character: calyx 
double, outer three-leaved ; arils glome- 
rate, one seeded. There are two species, 
viz. M. malacoides, and M. parviflora, the 
former has greatly the appearance of 
mallow, but differs from it in having the 
cells collected into a button, somewhat 
like a blackberry ? the bunches spread, 
and lie almost flat upon the ground, ex- 
tending a foot or more each way. The 
flowers are produced singly upon long 
axillary peduncles, they are in shape and 
colour like those of mallow. It is a na- 
tive of the meadows of Tuscany and of 

MALPIGHIA, in botany, so named in 
honour of Marcello Malpighi, professor 
of medicine at Bologna, a genus of the 
Decandria Trigynia class and order. Na- 
tural order of Trihilatse. Malpighiae, Jus- 



sieu. Essential character : calyx five- 
\.d, with melliferous pores on the 
outside At the base; petals five, round- 
ish, with claws ; berry one-celled, three- 
seeded. There are eighteen species, of 
which M. glabra, smooth-leaved Barba- 
does cherry, usually grows to the height 
of sixteen or eighteen feet; leaves oppo- 
site, subsessile, acute, continuing all the 
year ; flowers in axillary and terminating 
bunches ; the pedicles have a single 
joint : calyx incurved witii glands ; pe- 
tals subcordate; stigmas simple, with a 
little drop ; fruit red, round, the size of 
a cherry. This tree grows plentifully in 
most of the islands in the West Indies ; 
whether it is natural there or not is diffi- 
cult to determine, for birds being fond of 
the fruit, they disperse the seeds every 
where in great abundance. 

MALT, a term applied to grain which 
has been made to germinate artificially to 
a certain extent, after which the process 
is stopped by the application of heat. 
The barley is steeped in cold water for a 
period not less than forty hours, by which 
it increases in bulk and imbibes moisture, 
while at the same time a quantity of car- 
bonic acid gas is emitted, and a part of 
the substance of the husk is dissolved. 
The weight of the barley is increased in 
the proportion of 147 to 100, and the 
bulk is increased about one-fifth. When 
it is sufficiently steeped, the water is 
drained off, and the barley thrown out of 
the cistern upon the malt floor, where it 
is formed into a rectangular heap, called 
the couch, sixteen inches deep. In this 
state it remains about twenty-six hours. 
It is then turned by means of wooden 
shovels, and diminished a little in depth : 
this operation is repeated twice or thrice 
a day, and the grain is spread thinner and 
thinner, till at last its depth does "not ex- 
ceed a few inches. On the couch it ab- 
sorbs oxygen from the atmosphere, which 
it converts into carbonic acid ; the tempe- 
rature gradually increases, and in about 
four days the grain is ten degrees hotter 
than the surrounding atmosphere. The 
grain now becomes moist, and exhales an 
agreeable odour ; this is called the sweat- 
ing. A small portion of ah-ohol appears 
to' be volatilized at this period of the 
process. The chief business of the malt- 
ster is to keep the temperature from be- 
coming excessive, which is done by turn- 
ing. The temperature may vary from 
fifty-five' to sixty-two degrees. At the 
period of sweating, the roots of the grains 
begin to appear, which increase in length 
till checked by turning the malt. In one 
day after the sprouting of the roots, the 

rudiments of the future stem, called aero/- 
spire by the maltster, may be seen to 
lengthen, and it is now time to stop the 
process. As the acrospire shoots along the 
grain, the appearance of tne kernel, or 
mealy pan of the corn, undergoes a con- 
siderable change. The glutinous and 
mucilaginous matter is taken up and re- 
moved, the colour becomes white, and 
the texture is so loose that it crumbles to 
powder between the fingers. The ob- 
ject of malting is to produce this change: 
when it is accomplished, which takes 
place as soon as the acrospire has come 
nearly to the end of the seed, the pro- 
cess is stopped by drying the malt upon 
the kiln. The malt is then cleaned to 
separate the small roots, which are con- 
sidered as injurious. Barley by malting 
generally increases two or three per 
cent, in bulk, and loses about one-fifth of 
its weight. 

MALTA, knights of. See KNIGHT. 

MALTHA, in chemistry, called also 
sea-wax, is a solid substance found on the 
Lake Baikal in Siberia. It is white, melts 
when heated, and on cooling assumes the 
consistence of white cerate. It readily 
dissolves in alcohol, and in other respects 
it possesses the characters of a solid vo- 
latile oil. 

MALVA, in botany, mallo-w, a genus of 
the Monadelphia Polyandria class and or- 
der. Natural order of Columniferae. Mal- 
vacex, Jussieu. Essential character : ca- 
lyx double, outer three-leaved ; capsules 
many, united in a depressed whorl, one- 
celled, one-seeded. There are thirty- 
four species, chiefly perennial herbace- 
ous plants. 

MAMALUKES, the name of a dynasty 
that reigned in Egypt. The Mamalukes 
were originally Turkish and Circassian 
slaves, bought of the Tartars by Melicsa- 
leh, to the number of a thousand, whom 
he bred up to arms, and raised some to 
the principal offices of the empire. They 
killed Sultan Moadam, whom they suc- 

Others say, that the Mamalukes were 
ordinarily chosen from among the Chris, 
tian slaves, and that they were the same 
thing in a great measure with the Janissa- 
ries among the Turks. They never mar- 
ried; they first are said to have been 
brought from Circassia, and some have 
supposed that they began to reign about 
the year 869. 

MAMMAE, the breasts, in anatomy. 
See MAMMARY gland. 

MAMMALIA, in natural history, the 
first class of animals in the Linnsean sys- 
tem : the animals in this class have lungs 



that respire alternately ; jaws incumbent, 
covered ; teetli visually within ; teats lac- 
tiferous ; organs of sense, tongue, nos- 
trils, eyes, ears, and papillre of the skin ; 
covering, hair, which is scanty in warm 
climates, and scarcely any on aquatics ; 
supporters, four feet, except in aquatics ; 
and in most a tail ; walk on the earth and 
speak. Such is the Linnxan account. 
They suckle their young by means of lac- 
tiferous teats, and hence the name mam- 
malia. In structure they resemble man ; 
most of them are quadrupeds, and with 
man inhabit the surface of the . earth : a 
few of them exist in the ocean. There 
are seven orders, the characters of which 
are taken from the number, situation, 
and structure of the teeth. The names 
of the orders are, 




Brut a, 


which see. 

MAMMARY gland, in anatomy, is a 
glandular substance situated in the breast, 
and secreting the milk. 

This gland, surrounded by cellular and 
adipous substance, and covered by the 
common integuments, constitutes the 
breast. It lies on the anterior surface of 
the pectoralis major muscle. 

In men, and in young girls, these bo- 
dies are small ; they en-large in the female 
subject very considerably at the time of 
puberty, assuming an hemispherical shape, 
and pretty firm consistence, which, how- 
ever, is lost as the subject advances in 
years, particularly in women who have 
suckled many children. 

The skin of the breasts is white, and 
soft to the touch, except in the middle, 
where there is a portion of a reddish 
brown colour, called the areola. From 
the centre of this the nipple projects, in 
the form of a cylindrical prominence, 
with a rounded end, similar in colour to 
the ai-eola, and covered, like that part, 
by a more delicate continuation of the 
skin, which is somewhat wrinkled and ir- 
regular on its surface. Both the areola 
arid nipple are furnished with numerous 
sebaceous glands, which may be clearly 
seen through the integuments. The mat- 
ter which these secrete, preserves the 
parts from the excoriation which they 
would otherwise suffer from suckling. 
The mammary gland is composed of a 
vast congeries of" small tubes, convoluted 
and accumulated on each other, and 
known by the technical iiuine* of tubttli 

lactiferi. These unite together, gradually 
forming larger and larger trunks, which 
approach from all sides towards the nip* 
pie. The trunks become very much con- 
tracted at the areola, and in this state pass 
through the nipple, to terminate on its 
surface by open orifices, about fifteen in 
number, whose size is about sufficient to 
admit a hog's bristle. This structure can 
only be shewn during the period of suck- 

The use of thf milk secreted in these 
glands, as a nutriment for the young ani- 
mal, is known to every body. It is singu- 
lar that they should exist in the male, 
where they never perform any office 
whatever ; at least, except in very rare 
instances, where a fluid of a milky na- 
ture has been poured out from them. 

MAMMEA, in botany, a genus of the 
Polygamia Monoecia, or Dioecia class and 
order. Natural order of Guttiferse, Jus- 
sieu. Essential character : calyx one- 
leafed, two-parted ; corolla four-petalled ; 
berry very large, four-seeded. There is 
but one species, viz. M. Americana, Ame- 
rican mammee, which is a lofty, upright, 
handsome tree, with a thick spreading 
elegant head ; it has a long tap root, 
which renders it difficult to transplant ; 
the leaves are oval, quite entire, extreme- 
ly shining, leathery, fir