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Full text of "American engineer and railroad journal"



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PRESENTED BY 



(ESTASUISMED 1S32.) 



-- AMERICAN-^ 

Engineer 

AND RAILROAD JOURNAU 

IC. M. VAIS ARSnAI.E, Proprietor. O. jn, basFORD, Kditor. E. £• SILK, AMSoclate Kditor 

Published niontlily at 140 IVasi>au Street, iv^w Vpirk. 



INDBX TO VOLUME LXXlV. 1QOO. 



Issue. I'ages. 

January 1 to 32 

February 33 to 64 

March 65 to 96 

April 97 to 12s 

May 129 to 160 

June 161 to 2111 



Issue. Pages. 

July .'.'.. ......205 10 236 

August I ; '.•... .237 to 2SX 

September • "269 to 3U(i 

October .',!.. 3CI to 332 

November T.raS ao 364 

December :'G5 to 396 



(The asterisk indicates that the article is illustrated. J 



Aucidenls in Coupling Cars 84 

Acetylene tor Railroad Lighting 2!j6 

Adhesion and Tractive Force, Cole 307» 

Air Brake Con\'ention Report 151 

Air Brakes on Driving Wheels 46* 

Air Brake Hose Specifications 381 

A-ir Brake Slack Adjusters Needed 3S4 

Air Brake Train Pipes, Tight 3S4 

Air Brake and Signal Cock 221* 

.Vir Compressor, Riedler, C. & N. W. Ry.l42* 
Air Drill, Columbus Pneumatic-Tool Co. .393* 

Air Lift Pump, St. P. & D. R. R 27* 

Ajax Plastic Bronze 3S7 

American Bahmce Piston Valve 216* 

American Balanced Valve, P. R. R 16S* 

American Society of Mechanical Engi- 
neers 25, 214 

American Steel Foundry Co. Bolster 24* 

Apprentice Schedule, C. & N. W. Ry 327* 

Ash Elevator C. & N. W. Ry 27S* 

Ash Pan, Class El Locomotive, P. R. R..163* 

Aspinall's Superheater and Jackets 352* 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, Corru- 
gated Firebox on 79* 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry. Tan- 
dem Compound 53* 

Atkinson, R.. on Staybolts 121 

Atlantic Type Locomotive. C. & N. W. 

Ry 237*. 301*, 333* 

Atlantic Type Locomotives, Table of 304 

Atlantic TA'pe I-.ocomotive for France — 15U* 

Atlantic Type, P. R. R., Class El 22*, 161 

Atlantic Type Locomotive, Performance. 333* 
Atlantic Type Locomotive, B., C. R. & 

N. R. R 375* 

Automatic Stokers on Shipboard 113 

Axles and Crank Pins, Strength of .57 

Axles Bvu'nishing Rollers 67* 

Axle. Cranked, Webb's 131* 

Axles, Driving, Class El, P. R. R 167* 

Balanced Valve, Class El, P. R. R 168* 

Baldwin Locomotive Works, Cranes 58* 

Baldwin Locomotive AVorks, Motors in — 74 
Baldwin Loconiotive Works Locomotive, 

150*, 202*, 251, 276*, 319* 
Baldwin Locomotive Works, Electric 

Driving 251 

Barnes, J. B., Improved Staybolt 365* 

Bauroth Gas Engine 361 

Bearings and Lubrication, M. M. Assn... 2(iil 
Bearings and Lubrication, Report on. 264', 313* 

Bearing, Central, for Crank Axles 132* 

Bearing Metals. .-Vjax 387 

Bearing Metals, Robert Job 38* 

Bearing Metal. Phosphor-Bronze 265 

Bearing Metal, Lumen 220 

Bell, J. Snowden, Flexible Staybolts .353 

Bell, J. Snowden, on the Wide Firebox 14S 

Bement, A., Locomotive Combustion .346* 

Berg's Plan for Education 341 

Bettendorfs New Bolsters 156* 

Bollera. Best Kind for Shops 234 

Boilers, Circulation in 123 

Boiler, Class El Locomotive, P, R. R 162* 

Boiler, Corrugated Firebox 79* 

••flcrs. CrowB Stays for, Cola 33* 



Boiler Explosion, Locomotive 384 

Boiler Fire Tube, Promised Development. 107 

Boiler for Prairie Type Locomotive 1U4* 

Boiler Flues, Cleaning by Heating 238 

Boilers and Frames, 12- Wheel Locomo- 
tives 242* 

Boiler, Locomotive, Consol, I. C. R. R... 13* 

Boilers, Locomotive, Washing Out 107 

Boiler, "Northwestern" Type Locomo- 
tive 301* 

Boiler Pads and Links 76* 

Boiler Room, C. & N. W. Ry 140* 

Boiler Scale Prevention by (Ml 138* 

Boiler Seams, Longitudinal 295 

Boiler Sheets, Thickness of 323 

Boiler Shops, Arrangement of. Whyte 188 

Boiler Shop, C. <Si N. W., Chicago 109* 

Boilers, Stationary, for Shops 137 

Boilers, Supporting Rear Ends of 76* 

Boiler Tubes, Limit of Length of 209 

Boiler Tubes, Long, tor Locomotives 285 

Boiler, Wide Firebox 342* 

Bolles, F. G., Electric Motors 24!1 

Bolsters, A Severe Test of 69 

Bolsters. Bettendorfs New 156* 

Bolsters Bettendorfs 370* 

Bolster, Cast Steel Body, N. 1". Ry 24* 

Bolster, Cast Steel Body 291* 

Bolsters, Simplex. Hocking Valley Ry 6* 

Bolster Specifications and Tests 36 

Bolt Cutter, Schlenker 391* 

Boston »fe Alban\' R. R. S-A\'heel Locomo- 
tive 120* 

Boston South Union Station Plant 25 

Box, 5Vz by 10. M. C. B. Journal 275*, 284 

Brakes, Air, Statistics in 1'. S 258 

Brake Beam Pressures 287* 

Brakes, Driver and Truck. P. R. R 170* 

Brakebeam Suit 84 

Brakes, Improvement in Driver 6* 

Brakes, Improved Driver, D. S. & M. S. 

Ry 46* 

Brake Jaw, Malleable Iron 292* 

Brakemen's Convention Report 151 

Brake Shoe Tests. M. C. B 274 

Brake Shoes, Paris Exposition 25S* 

Brake Shoes, Temperature and Friction., 311 

Brake Shoe Tests, M. C. B. Assn 206 

Brake Tests. Triple Valves. M. C, B 206 

Brass Foundry Practice. Furnaces 348, 357* 

Brill, J. G., Co., Litigation 296 

Brill, J. G., Co.. Novel Electric Crane.... 151 

Brill, J. G.. Co.. Truck 59* 

Bronze, Lumen Metal 220 

Brooks Locomotive Works, Locomotive. 

37*, 55*, 272*, 32S*. 342*, 375* 
Brooks Locomotive Works. Eccentrics — 72* 
Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh Locomo- 
tive 342* 

Buffalo. R. & P. R. R. Coal Cars 129* 

Buffalo. R. «- P. R. R. Editorial Letter.. 99 
Buffer. Westinghoiise Friction 

88*, 148*, 295*. 350 

Buildings, Rule for Weight of Steel 29« 

Bulldozer. C. M. & St. P. Ry 329* 

Bullock Electric Mfg. Co. Motor 61* 

Bullock "Teaser" Patent Sustained 231 

Bumpers, for Station Tracks 3<S 



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o* 



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Burlington, C. R. & N. E. R. Locomotive. 375* 
Burnisher for Axies^^-. 57* 

Cabs— Steel vs. Wood 250 

Cars, 80,000 and 85,000 lbs., B., R. & P. 
R,. 129* 

Car,' 80,000 Ite. side Dump, C., L. & W. 

Ry 270* 

Car. sO,(HKi lbs. Steel Frame, Coal, N. & 

\V. Ry lOO* 

Cars, 80.000 lbs., C. B. & Q. R. R 369* 

Car, 36 ft., 80,000 Ibl., Coal, H. V. Ry 5* 

Cars, 100.000 Steel Flats, N. Y. C 339* 

Cars, Advantages of Large 297 

Cars of Large Capacity, Advantages of..2Sl* 
Cars of Large Capacity, Loree's Paper... 284 
Cars and Locomotives, Statistics for U. S. 258 

Car Body Bolster, Cast Steel 291* 

Car Bolsters Bettendorf 370* 

Car Bolster, Hickey's Cast Steel 24* 

Car Bolsters, Severe Test of 69 

Car Bolster, Specification and Tests 36 

Car Center Plates, M. C. B. Report.... 206, 228 

Car Center Plates, Lubricated S6» 

Cars, Cleaning of Passenger 2C6 

Cars, Cost of Maintenance 32S 

Car Development of the Steel 11 

Cars, Doors in Ends of Passenger 247 

Car Draft Gear. M. C. B. Report 206 

Car Draft Gear (see Westinghouse). 

Car, Dynamometer, C, & N. "W. Ry 172* 

Car, Dynamometer, I. C. R. R 239* 

Car, Hopper for, C. R. R. of N. J 355* 

Car for Horses, N. Y. C 310* 

Car Lighting by Acetylene 286 

Car Lighting, Increase of Pintsch 235 

Car Lighting. Electric 204 

Cars. Corrosion of Steel 383 

Cars, Repair Facilities for Steel 194* 

Cars. Reweighing After Drying 205 

Car Side Bearings, M. C. B. Report.... 206, 228 

Car Side Bearings. Tests of 227* 

Car Side Bearings. Suseraihl 296* 

Cars, Steel. Corrosion of 383 

Car. Steel, N. & W. Ry 100» 

Cars. Steel. Advantages of Large 297 

Cars. Steel, Large Order 35« 

Car Truck. 80,000 lbs. Capacity 271* 

Car Truck, 4-Wheel Passenger 306* 

Car Trucks, Four-Wheel vs. Six-Wheel... 290* 

Car Truck Frame, Test of..'. 102 

Car, Typical Dimensions of Standard 53 

Car Ventilator, Dudley 191 

Car Wheels, Flange Wear of 24» 

Cast Iron vs. Steel Tired Wheels 26J 

Cast Steel Bodv Bolster 291* 

Cast Steel Bodv Bolster. N. P. Ry 24* 

Cast Steel Driving Wheels 42«, 90* 

Caswell, F. K., Boiler Sheets 32t 

Caswell on Center of Gravity of Locomo- 
tives 153* 

Center of Gravity of Locomotive 58, 15»* 

Center Plate for Cars, Lubricated 91. 25»* 

Center Plates. M. C. B. Report 20«, 22S" 

Central R. R. of N. J. Locomotive 32t* 

Chambers Improved Throttle 3W 

Chautauqua Typa Locomotiva 311^ 



.') 



Chicago & Alton, S- Wheel Locomotive... 55' 

Chicago & Alton Tender ISl* 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, Tender 183* 

C, B. & y. R. K. SU.imi lbs. Coal Cars 36»« 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, Prairie 

Type Ijocomotive 103*, 217* 

Chicago, B. & Q. R. R. Editorial Letter.. 99 
Chicago & Eastern Illinois, 12-Wheel Loco. S4* 
Chicago & Eastern Illinois R. R. Locomo- 
tive 3So* 

Chicago Great Western Ry. Oelwein Shops 251 
Chicago & Northwestern Ry. New Shops, 

S2*, lu-j*, HO* 
Chicago & Northwestern Ash Elevator — 278* 

Chicago & N. W. Ry. Chicago Shops 109* 

Chicago & Northwestern Ry. Dyna- ^ 

mometer Car 172* 

Chicago & Northwestern, Editorial Cor- 
respondence S5', 

Chicago & Northwestern Ry. Locomotive,/, 

237*, 301*. tS3*'. 
Chicago & N. W. Ry. Portable Steam, '. 

Heat Plants :...\XM' 

Chicago. M. & St. P. Ry. •■Bulldo^e^^ .'...■329* 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co 368, 359"', 3»ii 

Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Botstef .■-.291* 
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific IvogCjmo- ; 

tive ■..,.■■•.,. 27fi«. 

Chilled Iron Defense Turrets..'...'.; 2b3 

Christianson's Coal Car Hooper...'. .355* 

Circulation in Boilers .' i.'^2S 

Cleveland Cylinders tor LoaomoUves.l4t>*,, 21'i>' 

Cleveland Locomotives .,!,.'.\./. 14<l*i 217* 

Cleveland, Lorain & Wheeliqfe S0,00» 'liili. ■ 

Cai- ■'..,.•..•. ■.>■.;,: .270* 

Cloud Truck Co., New 'Borsters. .....';,.';. ..156* 

Coal Cars, Large Caijaci'iy, B., •R;,^ P. 

Ry •....■ .■...,•-., 129* 

Coal Car Steel Fratnle, 'N. & W. F.y 100* 

Coal Consumption, 'of "Past Trai'rs, Hen- 
Coal Cars, SO,O00.H|6., V^., B. & Q.'R. R....369* 

derson .'.• -'-v • ■ ■ l^*"* 

Cock for Whistle and Air B'rake 221* 

Coke Burning, Grates for 40* 

Cole, F. J., Equalization 97* 

Cole, F. J., Firebox Crown Stays 33* 

Cole, F. J., Horse Power of Locomotives.176* 

Cole, P. J., Tractive Force 307 

Cole F. J., Locomotive Equalizers 70* 

Colei F. J., Mean Effective Pressure. .v.. .176* 

Color Blindness Tests 4S 

Columbus Pneumatic Tool Co. Drill 393* 

Compound Locomotives, Builder's Opinion 246 
Compound Locomotive, Double Ported 

Valves 247 

Compound Locomotives, F. W. Dean on.. 88 
Compound Locomotive, Consolidation, 

"Soo Line" 3S9* 

Compound Locomotive and F. W. Webb. 16 

Compound Locomotives, M. M. Assn 208 

• Compound Locomotive, Player's Tandem 53* 

Compound Locomotives. Progress 81 

Compound Locomotive. Stitrting Power of 252 

Compound Locomotive, Status of 265 

Compound Locomotives. Tractive Power. 152* 
Compound Locomotive. 12-Wheel. C. & E. 

I R. R 84* 

Compound Locomotive. C. & E. I. R. R..3S5* 
Compound Locomotive. Webb's 4-Cylin- 

der 1* 

Compound Locomotives. Webb's 4-Cylin- 

der 131* 

Compound Passenger Locomotives. C. R. 

I. & P. Ry 276* 

Compressed Air Locomotive. Performance 347 
Compressed Air Traction. Advantages of. 377 

Compressed Air Traction 360 

Consolidation Locomotive. Carnegie 214* 

Consolidation Locomotive. Heavy, I. C. 

R. R 12* 

Consolidation Locomotive, L. S. & M. S. 

Ry 37* 

Consolidation Locomotive. R. G. W. Ry..283» 
Consolidation Locomotive. "Soo Line". ..389* 

Consulting Engineer and Shop Plans 238 

Contraction ot Area 360 

Corrugated Firebox Locomotive Boiler... 79* 

Coster. E. L.. On Equalizers 353 

Cost of Maintaining Cars and Locomo- 
tives 328 

Cost of Running Fast Trains. Henderson.186* 
Couplers. Defects in, for Pilots and Tend- 
ers 309 

Coupler Drop Testing Machines, M. C. B..296* 
Couplers, M. C. B. Committee on Tests.. 262 

Couplers. M. C. B. Tests 206 

Couplers. Slots in Knuckles 58 

Coupler Statistics in U. S.^. 258 

Coupling Cars, Accidents m 84 

Coupler Yoke, Terk's 75* 

Crane, Electric. B. L. W 58* 

Cranes In R. R. Shops U2 

Crane. Novel Electric. Brill Co 151 

Crank Axles Webb's 131* 

Crank Pins and Axles. Strength of C 

Crewe Shops. London & North Western.. 1- 

Crosshead. Class El. P. R. R 166* 

Crown Sheet. Effect of Overheating 282* 

Crown Stays. Firebox, by Cole 33* 

Crown Stays. Johnstone's 2* 

Gushing, G. W.. Decapods and Com- 
pounds 387 

Cylinder Bushings. Seley 316. 324* 

Cylinders. Class El Locomotive. P. R. R..164* 

Cylinder Cocks for Large Cylinders 288* 

Cylinders. Cleveland 146* 

Cylinder and Frame Fastenings, Wight- 
man's 280* 

C^'linder with Piston Valve 105* 



Dayton Draft Rigging, Test of 74 

Dayton Draft Gear, C, B. & Q. Cars 370* 

Dayton Lubricated Center Plates 256* 

Dean. F. \V., on Compound Locomotives. 88 

Dean, F. W., on Lap Boiler Seams 295 

Dean, F. \V., on Locomotive Design 74 

Decapod Lucomotive. Soo Line 319* 

Deem's Feed Water Heater Regulator... 154* 
Deflector Plates in Front Ends. Vaughan 197 
Delaware. Lackawanna & Western Loco- 
motive 272* 

Delays to Trains for Signals and at Sta- 
tions 48 

"Deutschland. " New Steamship 257 

Dials. Graduated for Lathes 257* 

.■;Diamond S" Brake Shoes at Paris 258* 

Dvors. End vs. Side, in Passenger Cars.. 247 
Draft and Exhaust Appliances. Locomo- 

,'• lives 55 

.Draft Gear. Dayton. C. B. & Q. Cars.... 370* 
•Draft Gear for Tenders. L. & N. R. R....293* 

■Draft Gear, Report of Committee on 262 

'Drp.ft Gear, Edw. Grafstrom 186 

'D'rait Gear, Improvements in 36.S 

Drart Gear, Promising Improvements 374 

Draft Gear. M. C. B. Report 206 

'.Draft Gear. Westlnghouse Friction 148* 

Draft Gear, Westlnghouse, Tests of 350 

■ Draft Gear, Westlnghouse 88* 

Draft Gear. Capacity of Westlnghouse. 

295*, 388 

Draft Rigging, A Strong 74 

Drawbar Yokes, C, C, F. & I. Co 87* 

Drawings. Printing Titles on 26 

Driving Box, I. C. R. K. Consol. Locomo- 
tive 15* 

Driver Brakes, Improved. L. S. & M. S. 

Ry 46* 

Driver Brakes. Class El. P. R. R 170* 

Driving Axles. Class El, P. R. R 167* 

Driving Boxes, Lubrication of 264* 

Driving Wheel Brakes, Improvement.; b* 

Driving Wheels, Cast Steel 42*, 90*, 248 

Driving Wheel Flanges. Wear of 133* 

Driving Wheels Flanges on 367 

Driving Wheel Tires, Flanged 208, 233* 

Driving Wheels, Webb's 4-Cylinder Com- 
pounds 131* 

Drop Testing Machine, M. C. B 296* 

Dudley, Passenger Car Ventilation 191 

Duplex Locomotive, McC. R. R. R 202* 

Dust Guard, Inexpensive 253 

Dynamometer Car, C. & N. W. Ry 172* 

Dynamometer Car, I. C. R. R 239* 

Eaton, J. Shirley, Lectures by 374 

Eccentrics, Class El, P. R. R 167* 

Eccentrics, Improvement in 72* 

Eccentrics, Improved Lubrication 293* 

Economies of the Locomotive, Forney... 269 

Editorial Correspondence 85, 99, 337 

Education in Regard to Locomotives 21 

Education of Machinists and Foremen... 19 

Education. Plan for. Berg's 341 

Efflciences of Electric Street Cars 295* 

Eight-Wheel Locomotive. See Locomo- 
tive. 

Electric Car Lighting 204 

Electric Conduit System. "K. A. K." 157* 

Electric Motors, Advantages of Direct 

Current 249 

Electric Motors in Shops 27 

Electric Motors in Westlnghouse Air 

Brake Works 114 

Electric Motors, "Triumph" 361* 

Electric Power Distribution in Shops 114* 

Electric Power Transmission. Gibbs. .210, 230 

Electric R. R., Plan for High Speed 107 

Electric Shop Driving. Good Examples... 251 

Electric Shop Motors. Capacities of 74 

Electric Third Rail System 158 

Electricity at Duquesne Works 122* 

Electrolysis. Brooklyn Bridge 293 

Elevator for Ashes, C. & N. W. Ry 278* 

Emancipation of Grates 348 

Employees. Encouragement of 252 

Employees, Railroad, Number of 288 

Engineers in the Navy 48 

Equalizers at High Speeds 353 

Equalizers for Locomotives 97* 

Equalizers for Locomotives, F. J. Cole... 70* 

Equalization of Locomotive Weights 97* 

Erie R. R.. Talmage System on 138* 

Exhaust and Draft of Locomotives 55 

Exhaust Arrangements, Vaughan 197 

Exhaust. Dual, on Cleveland Locomotive. 146* 

Experimental Stage— Misused Term 316 

Express Car for Horses. N. Y. C 310* 

Fast Run on "Lake Shore" 10 

Fast Run on Soo Line 91 

Fast Runs. P. R. R.. Atlantic City 23* 

Fast Train. Burlington 53 

Fast Trains, Comparison 245 

Fast Trains, Cost of Running, by ' Hen- 
derson 186* 

Fast Train in France 357 

Fast Trains in Llnited States 35S 

Fast Trains. Lehigh Valley R. R 380 

Peed Water Heater Regulator. Deems... 154* 

Ferrell Wood Fireproofing Process 249 

Fiber Stress Due to Impact 17* 

Finland. Locomotives for 250* 

Fire Kindlers Pneumatic 317 

Fireboxes. A Study in. F. F. Gaines 371* 

Firebox. Advantages of Wide 144 

Firebox, Central Water Leg. Mcintosh.. 190* 



Firebox, Class El Locomotive, P. R. R...162* 
Firebox, Corrugated. A.. T. & S. F. Ry.. 79*- 

Firebox. Movements of Sheets 48,50* 

Fireboxes, Necessity for Expansion of — 8- 

Firebox, Problem Solved by Wide 244 

J'iz-eboxes, Tendency Toward Wider 81,112 

Firebox, Wide. B., R. & P. Ry 342* 

Fireboxes, Wide, and Combustion 346* 

Firebox. Wide, C. & E. 1. R. R 385* 

Fireboxes, Wide, Depth of 3S3 

Firebox, Wide, and Large Wheels 312* 

Firebox, Wide, on D., L. & W. R. R 272* 

Firebox, Wide. L. V. R. R 312* 

Firebox. Wide, on 8- Wheel Locomotive.. 136* 

Firebox. Wide, for Mogul Type 322* 

Firebox. Wide, on C. & N. W. Ry.. 

237*. 301*, 333* 
Firebox. The Wide, as Standard, Bell.... 198- 

Firebox. Wide, for Soft Coal 103* 

Fire in New York Harbor 252 

Fireman. The 81 

Fitchburg 8-Wheel Locomotive 200* 

Flanged Tires for Locomotives 208, 233* 

Flange Wear of Driving Wheels 133* 

Flange Wear of Wheels. Cause of 124 

Flange Wear of Wheels 326 

Plat Cars, Steel, New York Central 339* 

Foot Plates, Better Needed 238 

Forging Machine, C, M. & 'St. P. Ry 329* 

Forging Machine, Pneumatic, 1. C. R. R..289* 
Forney, Excursion to American Trosachs 317 

Forney on Locomotive Economies 269 

Forney, M. N., on M. M. Association 212 

Forney, M. N., Locomotives in 1900 180 

Forsyth, Wm., Locomotive Tenders 45* 

Four-Cylinder Tandem Compound Loco- 
motive, A., T. & S. F. Ry 63* 

Fox Pressed Steel Truck 339* 

Frames and Boiler, 12-Wheel Locomotive. 242* 
Frames, Class El Locomotive, P. R. R....166* 

Frame Fastenings. Wightman's 280* 

Frames. Northwestern Type 301* 

Frame. Webb's Central, for Crank Axles. 131* 

Framing for N. & W. Ry. Steel Car 100* 

Freight Houses, Two-Story 381 

French State Railways. Locomotive 150* 

Friction Draft Gear (see Westlnghouse). 

Fulton. J. S. S.. on Wide Fireboxes 244 

Furnaces for Brass Foundries 348,357* 

Gage for 5 by 9 Journal Box 390* 

Gaines, Atlantic Type Advocated 312* 

Gaines F. F., Staybolts 9* 

Gaines! Heavy vs. Light Locomotives — 196* 

Gaines, A Study in Fireboxes 371* 

Gauges and Siphons 124 

Gas Engines and the Future 96- 

Gas Engine, Heating by Exhaust from.. 219* 

Gas Engine, Test of 600 H. P 252 

Gas Engine, H. K. Porter Co. Shops 60* 

Gas Engine, The Bauroth 361 

Gas Engine Tests at Different Loads 294 

Gas Engine, Westlnghouse, in Boston 219 

Gas Filling Valve, Pintsch 325* 

Gas from Producers 137 

General Electric Co. Shops. Motors in 251 

GraduaJBd Dials on Lathe Screws 257* 

Goss. Frof.. on the Crewe Works 1* 

Grafstrom. S-Wheel Locomotive, Wide 

Firebox 136* 

Grafstrom, Fiber Stress Due to Impact., li* 

Grafstrom. Freight Draft Gear 185- 

Grafstrom. Spring Chart 86* 

Graphite for Locomotive Lubrication 210 

Grates, Advantages of Large 144, 253 

Grates. Air Openings in. F. R. R 40* 

Grates, B. & O. and Fitchburg R. R.'s.... 40* 
Grates, Class El Locomotive. P. R. R....163* 

Grates. Emancipation of 348 

Grates for Coke Burning 40* 

Grates, Y'ingling by Mcintosh 190* 

Great Northern Ry., Acetylene Lighting.. 286 
Guides, Class El, P. R. R IST* 

Henderson. Cost of Fast Trains 186* 

Henderson. G. R.. Locomotive Loading... 20^ 

Heating Shops by Hot Water 291 

Hickey John. Cast Steel Bolster 24* 

Higglns on Education. Technical 19 

Hocking Vallev Rv. 36-ft. 80.000 lbs. Car.. 5* 

Hollow Valve Stem and Guide 247* 

Hopper for Coal Car 355* 

Horse. Express Car. N. Y. C 310* 

Horse Power of Locomotives. Cole 176* 

Hose Specifications. Air Brake 381 

Hot Boxes and Causes, Job 38* 

Hot Boxes. Prevention of. on N. Y. C 60 

Hot Journals and Oil Pressures 313*, 316 

Hot Water Heating for Shops 291 

Howard Iron Works, Bolt Cutter 391* 

Ideal Fuel Feeder Co.'s System 378* 

Illinois Central, Large Tenders 340* 

Illinois Central. Large Locomotive Boiler. 242* 

Illinois Central Passenger Truck 306* 

Illinois Central R. R.. Pneumatic Forging 

Machine 289* 

Illinois Central R. R. Consol. Locomotive 12* 

Illinois Central R. R. Test Car 239* 

Impact Tests 32& 

Injector. Lunkenhelmer "99" Model 392* 

Intercolonial Ry., Cleveland Locomotive. 146* 

Indicator Cards, C. & N. W. Ry 304*. 333* 

Indicator, Ripper's Mean Pressure 102 

Ja-ws, Relative Strengths of 255* 



Job. on Hi'aiin^ AJutals , 

Johnson Hopi"*''^. *^".. H. & Q. Ca 
.InhnKtmic's St :i\' bolts , 







i 



Keroscnt' Kngine. Mietz & VVflss 3!i:i* 

Knuckli's of M. L'. B. Couplers, Slots in.. r,s 
Krupp Steel Works, Kxteiit ol 3211 

Lake Shore & M. S. Ry. Consol. Lot'omo- 

tive 37* 

Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, Edi- 
torial Correspondence ^o 

Lake Shore & Miehlgan Southern Ry., 

fast Runs W 

Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Tender.lSl* 
Lake Shore & Michigan Soulliern, Tender 

Scoop 344* 

Lancashire & Yorkshire, Locomotive Su- 
perheater and Jackets 352* 

Lap vs. Butt Boiler Seams 295 

Large Capacity Cars, Advantages of 2S1* 

Lehigh \'alley R. R. Fast Trains 380 

Lehigh Valley R. R. Heavy Locomotives. 196* 

Lehigh Valley R. R. Tender Truck 123* 

l.,ighting Cars and Buildings by Acetylene 286 

Lighting, Electric, for Cars 204 

Lighting of Cars, Increase of Pintsch 235 

Locomotive. See Compound Locomotive. 
Locomoti\'es and Cars, Statistics for, 

U. S 258 

Locomotive. Atlantic Type, C. & N. W. 

Ry 237* 

Locomotive, Atlantic Type, French 150* 

Locomotive, Atlantic Type, B., C. R. & N. 

R. R 375* 

Locomotive, Atlantic Type. P. R. R 161* 

Locomotive, Chautauqua Type 375* 

Locomotive, S-Wheel, C. & A. R. R 56* 

Locomotive, 8-Wheel, B. & A. R. R 120* 

Locomotive, 8-\Vheel, F. R. R 200* 

Locomotive, 8- Wheel, with AVide Firebox, 136* 
Locomotive, "Nortiiwestern" Type. ..237*, 301* 
Locomotive, "Northwestern" Type, Per- 
formance 333* 

Locomotive, Mogul, New York Central. .108* 
Locomotive "Prairie" Type, C, B. & Q. 

R. R 103*, 217* 

Locomotive, 10-Wheel Passenger, C, R. I. 

& P. Ry 276* 

Locomotive, 10-Wheel Passenger, D., L. 

& W. Ry 272* 

Locomotive, 10-W'heel, for Finland 250* 

Locomotive. lU-Wheel, C. R. R. of N. J..328* 

Locomotive, lU-Wheel, for Sweden 203* 

Locomotive, Consolidation, Carnegie 214* 

Locomotive, Consolidation Compound, 

"Soo Line" 389* 

Locomotive, Consolidation, R. G. W. Ry..2S3* 
Locomotive Consolidation, L. S. & M. S.. 37* 
Locomotive, Consol., Heavy, I. C. R. R... 12* 

Locomotive. 12-Wheel, B., R. & P 342* 

Locomotive, 12-Wheel. C. & E. I. R-. R....3S5* 
Locomotive, 12-Wheel Compound, C. & 

E. I. Ry 84 

Locomotives, Decapods and Compounds.. 387 

Locomotive, Decapod. "Soo" Line 319* 

Locomotive, Balanced, Webb's 1* 

Locomotive Boiler, C. & N. W. Ry 301* 

Locomotive Boiler Explosion 384 

Locomotive Boiler, Corrugated Firebox.. 79* 

Locomotive Boiler, Highest Built 242* 

Locomotive Boilers, Methods of Support- 
ing 76* 

Locomotive Boilers on Testing Plants 20 

Locomotive Boilers. Scale Prevention.... 138* 
Locomotive Boiler Seams, Butt Joints... 295 

Locomotive Boilers, Staying for, Cole 33* 

Locomotive Boiler Tubes, Long 285 

Locomotive Boiler, Very Large, I. C. 

R. R 242* 

Locomotive Brakes, Improved 6* 

Locomotive Cabs, Steel vs. Wood 250 

Locomotive, Class El, Pennsylvania R. R.161* 

Locom'itive. Center of Gravity of 56, 153* 

Loconiutixe Classification. A New 374 

Locomotive, Cleveland, Performance 146* 

Locomotive, C, B. & Q.. Prairie Type... 103* 
Locomotive Combustion and Wide Fire- 
boxes 346* 

Locomotive, Compound 4-Cylinder 1* 

Locomotives, Compound, M. M. Assn 208 

Locomotive, Compound, Status of 265 

-Locomotives, Compound, Tractive Power. 152* 

Locomotives, Cost of Repairs 328 

Locomotive Cylinder Cocl^ Large 288* 

Locomotive Design, F. J. Vole, 

33. 70*, 97*, 176, 307 

Locomotive Design, F. W. Dean 74 

Locomotive Design. Beauty in 382 

Locomotive Driving Box, Cast Steel 15* 

Locomotive Driver Brakes, Improved 46* 

Locomotive Driving Wheels. Cast Steel.. 42* 

Locomotive. Duplex, McC. R. R. R 202* 

Locomotive Eccentrics, Brooks Locomo- 
tive Works 72* 

Locomotive Economies, Forney 269 

Locomotive Education 21 

Locomotive Equalizers and High Speeds. 353 



Locomotive K(|uallzerH, !•'. J. Cole TO* 

Locomotive Exhaust and Draft Appli- 
ances 55, 11»7 

l.,ocomotlve Failures 81 

Locomotive Fireboxes (.see Firebox). 
Locomotive Fireboxes, Wide, Advantages 

of 244 

Locomotive Fireboxes, Width and Depth. .183 

Locomotive Fireboxes, Wider 112 

Locomot.ve Fireboxes — A Study by 

Gaines 371* 

Locomotive Foot Plates 238 

Locomotive Frames, C. & N. W. Ry 301* 

Locomotive Frame Fastenings, Wight- 
man's 280* 

Locomotive Frames, 12-Wheel Locomo- 
tive 242* 

Locomotive Frames, Offset In "Prairie" 

Type 105* 

Locomotive "Front End," Turner's 200* 

Locomotive Grates, Advantages of Large 253 
Locomotive Heating Surface and Weights 50 

Locomotive, Heaviest Ever Built 214* 

Locomotives, Heavy 81 

Locomotive Horse Power, High 333* 

Locomotives, Increased Power of 285 

Ijocomotives, Increasing Weight of 49, 62- 

Locomotives in 190U, Forney ISO 

Locomotives, "Lake Shore," Fast Runs... 10 
Locomotives, Light vs. Heavy, L. V. 

R. R !%• 

Locomotive Lubrication 337 

Locomotive Lubricator, Powell's 125* 

Locomotive Loading and Fuel Economy. 20 

Locomotive Mileage, Remarkable 347 

Locomotive Parts, Standardization of 16 

Locomotive. P. R. R., Class El 22* 

Locomotive' Performance 333* 

Locomotive Performance, Heavy vs. 

Light 196* 

Locomotive, Player's Tandem Compound 53* 

Locomotive Pooling 57,210 

Locomotive, Prairie Type, C, B. & Q.103*, 217* 
Locomotive, Saving of Weight in Design- 
ing 174 

Locomotive Statistics, Ton-Mile Basis — 267 
Locomotive Staybolts (see Staybolts). 

Locomotive Staybolt Problem, The 382 

LocomotiviJ Staybolts. by J. B. Barnes 365* 

Locomotive, Steam Jackets, L. & Y. Ry..352* 

Locomotive Study, by Graf Strom 136* 

Locomotive Superheater, L. & Y. Ry 352* 

Locomotive, Table of Dimensions 304 

Locomotive Tenders, Wm. Forsyth. 

45*, 181*. 211* 

Locomotive Tender, I. C. R. R 340* 

Locomotive Tires, Flanged 208, 233* 

Locomotives. Trials on Otiier Roads 316 

Locomotive Truck, Class El, P. R. R 168* 

Locomotive Trucks, Repairs to 316 

Locomotive Truck Hangers 134* 

Locomotive Tubes, Long 285 

Locomotive Tubes, Steel 354 

Locomotive Types, Confusion in 374 

Locomotives, 2-Cylinder Compounds, 

Opinion 246 

Locomotive Valve Gear, Consolidation 14* 

Locomotive Valves, Report on Piston 266 

Locomotive Valve Stem. Hollow 247* 

Locomotive Valve, Piston 54* 

Locomotives, Webb's 4-Cylinder Com- 
pounds 131* 

Locomotive Weights Increasing 49, 62 

Locomotive? What Is the Ideal Passenger 292 
Locomotive, Wide Firebox, L. V. R. R...312* 

Locomotive, Wide Firebox, Mogul 322* 

Locomotive (See Wide Firebox). 

London & North Western Locomotive, 

4-Cylinder 1* 

London & North Western, Webb's Loco- 
motive 131* 

Long Boiler Tubes for Locomotives 285 

Long Material, Loading of 206 

Loree, on Cars of Large Capacity 284 

Louisville & Nashville R. R. Draft Gear. 293* 
Lubrication and Bearings, M. M. Assn... 209 

Lubrication and Oil Pressure 313*. 316 

Lubrication of Eccentrics 293* 

Lubrication Methods 367 

Lubricator, Powell's, for Locomotives 125* 

Lucol Oil and Paints 93 

Lumen Bearing Metal 220 

Lunkenheimer Injector 392* 

Main Rod. Class EI, P. R. R 167* 

Mandrel for Facing Piston Rings ....392* 

Marshall, W. H., Weight Saving In Loco- 
motive Design 174 

Malleable Iron Brake Jaw 292* 

Malleable Iron Oil Cup 323* 

Malleable Iron Sold as Cast Steel 252 

Malleable vs. Wrought Iron Jaws 255* 

Manhole Punching Machine, Large 343 

Master Car Builders' Association Conven- 
tion 205, 222, 227 

M. C. B. Coupler Tests, Committee Re- 
port 262 

M. C. B. Association Drop Testing Ma- 
chine 296* 

M. C. B. 5V> by 10 Journal Box 275* 

M. C. B. Reports 262 

Master Car Builders' and M. M. Conven- 
tions 222 

Master Mechanics' and M. C. B. Conven- 
tions 222 

Master Mechanics' Association Conven- 
tion Report 207, 222, 230 

iii 



Master Mechanics' Association Future 

Usefulness, Forney 212 

Master MechanlcB' Assn. on Compound 

Locomotives 204 

Master Mechanics' Assn. Recommenda- 
tions 263 

Master Mechanics' Association Scholar- 
ships aj4 

Master Mechanics' ReiJorts 263 

Master Mechanics Wanted 16. 48, 50 

Mcintosh, Firebox, Central Water Leg.. 19"* 
Mean Effective Pressure In Locomotives. 176* 

Mechanical Stokers, Principles of 124 

Mellin, Tractive Power of Compound Lo- 
comotives 152* 

Melville. Admiral, Address by 7 

Men The Necessity for Training of &2 

Merrill Brothers' Steel Vise 361* 

Metals, Protection by Palms 137 

Mexican Central Ry. Staybolts 2» 

Mietz & Weiss Kerosene Engine 393* 

Mileage, Remarkable, for l.,ocomotlve... 347 

Milling Cutter, A Remarkable 295 

Minneapolis, St. P. & S. Ste. M. Ry. Lo- 

cimiot 1 ve 313* 

Mogul Locomotive, New York Central... 108* 

Mogul Locomotive, Wide Firebox :...322* 

"Monarch" Piston Air Drill 93. 

Mortenson Nut Lock 179*, 221* 

Motive Power Offlcers' Salaries 80 

Motive Power Officers, What They Are 

Thinking About 81,337 

Motive Power Questions 31,337 

Motive Power Statistics, Ton-Mile 208 

Motors, Arrangement of, in Shops 49 

Motors, Direct vs. Alternating for 'Varia- 
ble Speeds 249 

Motors in Shops, Power Required 74 

■ Motor Systems for Shops 210,230 

Muchnich's Piston Valve 54* 

Murray, J. D., Journal Box Gage 390* 

Navy, Engineering in 1 7 

New Industrial Situation 96 

New York Central. Car for Horses 310* 

New York Central, Mogul Locomotive 108* 

New York Central, Steel Flat Cars 339* 

New Y'ork Central Tender 184* 

Nickel Steel Journals 207 

Norfolk & Western Ry. Cylinder Cocks.. 288* 

Norfolk & Western Ry. Steel Car 100* 

Northwestern Type Locomotive.. 237*, 301*. 3.3:5* 
Nut Lock, Mortenson 179, 221* 

Oil Cans for Locomotives 368 

Oil Engine. Mietz & Weiss 393* 

Oil Engines, Progress in 255 

Oil Engines, Records of 28 

Oil Fuel for Locomotives 345 

Overheating, Effect on Ductility 282* 

on Cup, Malleable, C. R. R. of N. J 323* 

Painters' Association, Program 294 

Paint for Metal Protection 157 

Paris Exposition, Pneumatic Tools 359* 

Passenger Cars. Cleaning of 206 

Passengers Cars, End vs. Side Doors 247 

Passenger Car Trucks, 5 by 9 Journals... 306* 

Passenger Car Trucks. Lighter 349 

Passenger Car Truck. Four- Wheel.... 321, 290* 

Passenger Car Ventilation, Dudley 191 

Passenger Locomotive? What Is the Ideal 292 

Pennsylvania R. R. Car Ventilation 191 

Pennsylvania R. R. Class El Locomo- 
tive 22*. 161* 

Pennsylvania R. R. Tender, Class El 2U* 

Pension System, P. R. R 386 

Per-DIem Plan, Slow Progress 253 

Pere Marquette R. R. Brake Jaw 292* 

Petticoat Pipes on Locomotives, Vaughan 197 

Phosphor Bronze, Composition of 265 

Piece Work vs. Premium Plan 325 

Piece Work Systems IT 

Pintsch New Filling Valve 325* 

Pintsch Systems of Car Lighting 235 

Pipe, a Method of Bending 125 

Piston Air Drill 393* 

Piston of Cleveland Locomotive 146* 

Piston Valve, Allen Ports 54* 

Piston Valve, C. & N. W. Ry 304* 

Piston Valves, M. M. Assn 210 

Piston Valve, New "American" 216* 

Piston Valves, C, B. & Q. R. R 105* 

Piston Valves, The Coming Valves SI 

Piston Valves on Cleveland Locomotive.. 146* 

Piston Valves. Packing for 274 

Piston Valve Packing Rings 277* 

Piston Valves. Port Openings 92 

Piston Valves, Report on 266 

Pittsburgh, Bessemer & L. E. Locomo- 
tive 214* 

Pittsburgh Loco. Works, 12-W"heel Com- 
pound 84* 

Pittsburgh Locomotive Works, Locomo- 

Uve 214*, 3So* 

Plates, Effect of Overheating 282* 

Player's Corrugated Firebox Boiler 79* 

Player's 'Tandem Compound Locomotive. 53* 
Pneumatic Forging Machine, I. C. R. R..2S9* 

Pneumatic Riveting on Fireboxes S8 

Pneumatic Tools In England 147 

Pneumatic Tool Litigation 204 

Pooling of Locomotives, Rhodes 210 

Pooling of Locomotives ...< 5* 

Poor's Manual for 1900 362 

Port Openings and Piston Valves 92 



O^ 



Porter, H. K., & Co., Gas Engine tor 

Powdered Coal 

Powell's LiOComotive LiUbrlcator 

Power House, C. & N. \V. Rv 109», 

Power Station, a lUO.UOO Horse Power 

Power of Locomotives 333*, 

Power of Ltoconiotives. Cole 

Power Required for' Machine Tools, 

Table 

Power Transmission, Electric, Gibbs..210, 
Prairie Type Locomotive, C, B. & Q..103*, 

Premium System, The 

President Pritchett, Inauguration of 

Pressed Steel Cars, Large Order 

Pressed Steel Cars, New York Central... 

Pressed Steel Trucks, Fox 

Pritchett, President, Inauguration of 

Prizes to Shop Men 

Producer Gas for Boilers 

Printing Titles on Drawings 

Profiling Machine, Motor Driven 

Pullman Trucks, Weight of 

Pulverized Fuel 

Purchasing Agent and Specitications 

Purdue Locomoti\'e Plant. New Plan 



. 60* 
37S* 
,125* 
140* 

, ss 

, 331) 
176' 

'. 231 

, 23U 

217' 

17 

350 

36G 

33!)* 

33a» 

350 

3S2 

137 

2ti 

61* 

349 

378* 

255 

155 



Quayle, Robert. Staybolts S 

Quereau, Exhaust Draft Appliances 55 

Rails, Effect of Large Sections 336 

Rails, Hard, Tough Steel, Best 339 

Rail Production in United States 377 

Railroad Mileage in the United States... 21S5 

Rail Washer Tests, Burlington 21 

Rand, Jasper R., Obituary 254 

Refrigeration of Cars, I. C. R. R 151 

Regulator of Temperature of Feed Water. 154* 

Remington Billing Attachment 29* 

Repairs. Cost of. Locomotives and Cars.. 32S 

Repair Shop for Steel Cars, Seley 194* 

Richmond Locomotive Works, Locomo- 
tive 203*, 250*, 2S3* 

Richmond Locomotive Works. Valve 

Stem 247* 

Riedler Air Compressor, C. & N. W. Ry..l42* 

Riveting. Hand vs. Pneumatic 3!« 

Rivets, Air Driven, in Fireboxes 35S 

Rogers Locomotive Works, Closing of 306 

Rogers Locomotive Works, Locomotive... 12* 

Roller Attachment for Axle Lathes 57* 

Roller Side Bearings, Susemihl 296* 

Roundhouses vs. Rectangular Engine 

Houses 390* 

Roundhouse, The Modern 245 

Roundhouse. What It Ought to Be 320 

Saddles, Class El Locomotive, P. R. R....164* 

Safety Appliance Law, Extended 29 

Sand, Advantages of Washing from Rails 21 

Sand Blast for Cleaning Iron 124 

Sanderson. R. P. C. Staybolts S 

Scale Prevention in Locomotive Boilers. .13S* 
Schenectady Loco. Works Locomotive, 

108*. 120*. 200*, 237*, 301*, 3Si)* 

Schlenker Bolt Cutter 391* 

Scholarships, Master Mechanics' Asso- 
ciation 284 

Schwartzkopft, Powdered Coal System 378* 

Scoop for Water, L. S. & M. S. Ry 344* 

Scrap Material, Methods of Handling 144 

Seley. Repair Shop for Steel Cars 194* 

Sellers &• Co. Crane at B. L. W 58* 

Shelby Steel Tubes for I,ocomotives 354 

Ships, Bids for 36S 

Shops, Arrangement of Tracks in 80 

Shops at Crewe, L. & N. W. Ry 1* 

Shops, Baldwin Locomotive Works, Mo- 
tors in 251 

Shop Boilers, Best Type 234 

Shop Boilers, Water Tube 137 

Shops C. & W. Ry. Improvements, Chi- 
cago' 109*. 140*. 274* 

Shop Driving by Electricity, Three Good 

Examples 251 

Shops, Electric Power in Westinghouse 

Air Brake Works 114* 

Shop Extensions, C. & N. W. Ry 82* 

Shop for Repairing Steel Cars, Seley 194* 

Shops, Motor Equipment of 74 

Shops, Oelwein. Motors in 251 

Shop Power Distribution. C. & N. W. Ry..l40* 
Shop Power Transmission. Electric. ..210, 230 

Shops, Systems of Motor Driving 49 

Shops, Test of Electric vs. Steam Driv- 
ing 114* 

Shops, Track Arrangements in 113,121 

Shops, 'Wlivte Arrangement of Boiler... 188 

Side Bearings. Car. Test of 227* 

Side Bearings, M. C. B. Report 206, 227 

Side Bearing. The Susemihl 296* 

Signal and Air Brake Cock 221* 

Signal Lights. Tellow. "Big Four" 257 

Simplex Bolsters, H. V. Ry 5* 

Slack, J. R.. On Fast Trains 358 

Slocomb, J. T. & Co.. Lathe Screw Dials.. 257* 

Smoke Box Arrangements. Vaughan 19i 

Smoke Box, Class El Locomotive, P. (£. 

R 163» 

Smoke Box. Turner's, F. R. R 200* 

Smoke Prevention 145 

Soo Line. 12-Wheel Locomotive 319* 

"Soo Line" Consolidation Locomotive 389* 



Speeds of Freight Trains 321 

Spring Rigging, Class El, P. R. K IB6* 

Springs, Graphical Chart of 86* 

Statistics, Misleading, Motive Power 144 

Statistics, Ton-Mile Basis for 267 

Steam Piping, Simplicity Needed ziM 

Steam Turbine and Superheated Steam.. 353 

Steel Cars, Large Order 356 

Steel Cars, Repair Shop, Seley 194* 

Steel, Taylor- White Process 277 

Steel-Tired vs. Cast-iron Wheels 268 

Squire on Movements of Firebox Sheets, 

48, 50* 

Station, Mechanical Plant, Boston 25 

Stationary Sliop Boilers 137 

Statistics, Ton-Mile Basis 208 

Stavbolts i 2«, 8*, 9*. 16, 353. 365* 

Stavbolts, Breakage of 113, 121 

Staybolts, Flexible 2*, 3o3, 365* 

Staybolts, Flexible, in India 320* 

Stavbolts, Barnes Improvement in 365* 

Staybult Problem, The 382 

Staybolts and Fireboxes, Gaines 371* 

Staybolt Material, Piling of 9« 

Staybolts, Measurement of Flexure 50 

Stavbolt Practice, Good i 327 

Stays for Crown Sheets, Cole 33* 

Steam Gauges and Siphons 124 

Steam Heating Plants, Portable, C. & N. 

W. Ry 386* 

Steam Turbine, Westinghouse-Parsons.. . . 65* 

Steamship "Deutschland" 75 

Steel Bar Vise, Merrill Brothers 301* 

Steel Body Bolster 291* 

Steel Cars 112 

Steel Cars, Development of 11 

Steel Cars, Corrosion of 383 

Steel Flat Cars, New York Central 339* 

Steel Frame Car, N. & W. Ry WO* 

Steel, Nickel, for Journals 207 

Steel Rail History and Statistics 377 

Steel Trucks. Repairs to 205 

Steel Tubes for Locomotives 354 

Stokers, Mechanical, Why Fail 124 

Storehouse, Some Suggestions 254 

Street Cars, Electric, Low Efficiency 295* 

Subordinates, Advancement of 252 

Swedish Locomotive, Richmond, L. W....203* 

Sweney, D. R., Wide Firebox 322* 

Switch Engine, Wide Firebox, C. B. & Q..107* 

Table of Locomotive Dimensions 304 

Table of Tractive Force 308 

Talmage System of Scale Prevention 138* 

Tank Shop, C. & N. W., Chicago 109* 

Tender Coal Gate, of Chains 341* 

Tenders, Draft Gear, for L. & N. R. R....293* 

Tenders. General Discussion 45' 

Tenders. Large, on 1. C. R. R 151 

Tenders^ Large, on Illinois Central 340* 

Tenders, Recent Improvements in 181*211* 

Tenders, 6-Wheel vs. S-Wheel 45* 

Tenders, Tendency Toward Large 336 

Tender Tanks, Attachment to Frames 144 

Tender Tank Scoop, L. S. & M. S. Ry....344» 
Tender Truck, Cast Steel, L. & N. R. R.. 73* 

Tender Truck, Standard, L. V. R. R 123* 

'lender Water Scoop Tests 212*344* 

Ton-Mile Motive Power Statistics 2oS 

Ton-Mile Statistics for Locomotives 267 

Ten-Wheel Locomotive. C. R. R. of N. J..32,S* 

Ten-Wheel Locomotive for Finland 250* 

I'en-Wheel Passenger Locomotive, C. R. 

I. & P. Ry 276* 

Ten-W^heel Passenger Locomotive, D. L. 

& W. R. R 272* 

Ten-Wheel Swedish Locomotive 203* 

Ten-Wheel Tandem Compound, Player's.. 53* 

Test Car. University of Illinois 239* 

'resting. Contraction of Area 360 

Test of Arch-Bar Truck Frame 102 

Tests of Cleveland Locomotive 146* 

Thickness of Boiler Sheets 323 

Third-Rail System, the K. A. K 221 

Throttle, Chambers Improved 391* 

Throttle, Class El, P. R. R 170* 

Throttle, Vogt's 301* 

Tires, Flanged, for Locomotives 208, 233* 

Tool Steel, Remarkable, Taylor- AVhite. .. . 277 

Track Arrangements in Shops 80, 113. 121 

Track Tank Scoop, L. S. it M. S. Ry....344* 
Track Tank Tests, P. R. R. & Lake Shore, 

212*, 344* 

Tractive Force and Adhesion. Cole 307 

Tractive Power, Two-cylinder Compounds. 152* 
Trains, Cost of Running Fast. Henderson. 186* 

Trains, Fast, Lehigh Valley R. R 380 

■ Train, Fast, in France 357 

Trains, Fast, in United States 358 

Trains Fast, on A. T. & S. F. Ry 139 

Trains. High-Speed, Comparison..' 245 

Train Lighting from the Axle 248 

Train Pipes, Leaky 384 

Trains. Speed of Freight 32] 

Transportation at Low Cost 297 

Traveling Engineers' Association 318 

Triple Valve Tests, M. C. B. Association.. 206 

"Triumph" Electric Motors 361* 

Truck Brakes. Class El. P. R. R 170* 

Truck. Cast Steel for Tenders. L. & N. 

R. R 73* 

Truck Class El. P. R. R 168* 

Truck' .80.000 Pounds Capacity 271* 



Truck for N. & W. Ry., Steel Car 102* 

Trucks, Four-Wheel vs. Six-\\'heel..290*, 306* 
Trucks, Four-Wheel for Passenger Cars.. 290* 

Truck, Fox Pressed Steel 339* 

Truck Frame, Test of Arch Bars 102 

Truck Hangei's for Locomotives 134* 

Truck, by Brill Company 59* 

Trucks. Lighter, for Passenger Cars 349 

Trucks. Passenger, Four-Wheel 321 

Trucks, Repairs of Pressed Steel 205 

Truck Scales. Deck vs. Housed 360 

Truck. Standard Tender L. V. R. R 123* 

Trucks. Swing-Beam vs. Rigid 341. 373 

Tubes. Galvanizing of 270 

Tubes. Limit of Length of 209 

Tubes, Long, for Locomotive Boilers 285 

Tubes. Steel, for Locomotives 354 

Turbines, Economy of, at Westinghouse 

Air Brake Shops 114* 

Turbine, Westinghouse-Parsons 65* 

Turner's "Front End" 200* 

Twelve- Wheel Locomotive, C. & E. I. 

R. R 385* 

Twelve-Wheel Compound, C. & E. I. R. R. 84* 

Twelve-Wheel Locomotive 342* 

Twelve-Wheel Locomotive, "Soo" Line... 319* 

Two-Cylinder Compoimds, Opinion of 246 

Types of Locomotives. New Classilication 374 
Typewriter, Billing Attachment 29* 

University of Illinois, Test Car 239* 

Valve. Allen Ported. Piston 54* 

Valvei "American," Piston 216* 

Valve, Balanced, Class El, P. R. R 168* 

Valve, Double Ported, on Compounds 247 

Valve Gear, I. C. R. R. Consolidation Lo- 
comotive 14* 

Valve Motion, Class El, P. R. R 168* 

Valve, New Pintsch Pilling 325* 

Valves, Piston, C. B. & Q. R. R 105* 

Valves, Piston. Cleveland Locomotive 146* 

Valves, Piston, M. M. Association 210 

Valvesj Piston, Packing for 274 

Valve, Piston, Packing Rings 277* 

Valves, Piston, Port Openings 93 

Valves, Piston, Report on 266 

Valves, Piston, the Coming Valves SI 

Valve Stem and Guide, Hollow 247* 

Vauclain, on Long Locomotive Tubes — 209 

Vaughan, Rail Washer Tests 21* 

Vaughan, DeHector in Front Ends 197 

Ventilation of Passenger Cars, Dudley — 191 

Vise, Steel. Merrill Brothers 361* 

Voltage for Motor Circuits 210 

Vogt's Throttle, Guide, etc.. Class El Lo- 
comotive, P. R. R 161* 

W.anted, • A Good Railroad 248 

Water Raised by Tender Scoop, P. R. R..212* 

Water Scoop, L. S. & M. S. Ry 344* 

Water Scoop Tests 212*, 344* 

Water Service for Locomotives 337 

Water-Tube Boiler and Heating Surfaces 253 

Wat^-Tube Boilers in Navy 23 

WatdP-Tube Boilers, Value of Different 

Tiers of Tubes 253 

Water Tubes in Locomotive Fireboxes 73 

Water-Tube Shop Boilers 137 

Webb's Crank Axles 131* 

Webb's Four-Cylinder Compound Locomo- 
tives 1*, 131* 

Wegener Process of Powdered Fuel 378* 

Weights of Locomotives, Increasing 49, 62 

Weight. Saving of, in Locomotive Design 174 

Wheels, Flange Wear of 249, 326 

Wheels, Relative Merits of Steel and Iron 207 

Whyte. Arrangement of Boiler Shops 188 

Whyte, F. M., on 5',i by 10-in. Journal 

Box 275*, 284 

Wh.\-te's Locomotive Classification 374 

Wide Fireboxes (see Firebox). 

Wide Fireboxes, Advantages of 337,348 

Wide "Fireboxes and Combustion 346* 

Wide Fireboxes, Emancipation of Grates 34S 
Wightman's Cylinder and Frame Fast- 
ening 280* 

Wilson's New Piston Valve 216* 

Wood Fireproofing, Ferrell Process 249 

Westinghouse Air Brake Works, Electric 

Power in 114* 

Westinghouse Air Reservoirs, Change in. 374 

Westinghouse Draft Gear. Capacity of 295* 

Westingffouse Draft Gear, Tests of 350 

Westinghouse Friction Draft Gear, 

88*, 148*. 350 
Westinghouse Friction Buffers in a Wreck 388 

Westinghouse Gas Engine 60* 

Westinghouse Gas Engine in Boston 219* 

Westinghouse, New Office Building 150 

Westinghouse-Parsons Steam Turbine 65* 

Wheels Cast-iron vs. Steel-Tired 2Sg 

Wheel. Circumference Measure WS 

Wheels. Driving. Cast-Steel 42« 

Wheel Flanges, Driving, Wear of 13S« 

W'heel Flange Wear, Cause of 124 

Yerkes, Sliding Coupler Yoke 7J! 

Yoke for Couplers, Yerks •», 

Y. M. C. A. Conference aW 



janoary, 1900. AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



—.AMERICAN—. 

LNcmEER 

RAILROAD^JOURNAL 



JANUARY, 1900. 



CSOJSTTEJMTS. 



iLI.ttSTEATTCD ARTICLES: PaKO 

The Crewe Works, L. & N.W.Ky. 1 

Flexible .Staybolls 2 

SO.WW Pound Car. H. V. Ky h 

Iiiiproveinent in Driver Brakes.. U 

•Staybolt i*roKrc.s8 1» 

Consolidation Locomotive, I. C. 

H. K 12 

Fiber Stress Due to Impact 17 

V. K. R. Class El Locomotive. . . 22 

Cast Steel Kody Bolster 24 

An Air Lift Pump 27 

Remington Billing Attachment. 28 

MiSCKLLANKOl'S ArTICLKS : 

Engineering in the Navy 7 

Ktaybolt Progress 8 

High .Speeds on the " Lake 

Shore" 10 

Development of the Steel Car.. . . 11 



Paying (or Work Done. 



17 



Page 
Education of Machinists, Fore- 
men and Mechanical Engi- 
neers . . ly 

Heavy Trains and Locomotive 

Economy 2(1 

Locomotive Boilers on Testing 

Plants 20 

Hail Washer Tests 21 

Locomotive Education 21 

Water Tube Boilers in the 

Navy 23 

American Society of Mechanical 

Engineers 2.5 

Mechanical Plant of Boston 

Union Station 25 

Printing Titles on Drawings 26 

Oil Engine Performance 28 

Editorials: 

Master Mechanics Wanted 16 

Compound Locomotives, by 

Webb 16 

The Staybolt Question 16 

Laboratory Tests of Locomotive 

Boilers 16 



AN AMERICAN OBSERVER ABROAD.* 



IV. 



THE CREWE WORKS. 



London & Northwestern Railway. 



By W. F. M. Goss, 



Professor of Experimental Engineering, 
Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 



The works of the London & Northwestern Railway at Crewe 
extend over an area of one hundred and sixteen acres, of 
which thirty-six are under roof. Within the works six thou- 



tirely a new creation, while the latter has been gradually 
brought to its present state from the small beginnings of 
af;arly sixty years ago. Horwioh, therefore, has the advantage 
of a more orderly arrangement, but Crewe Is .still the more 
extensive, and conducts a greater diversity of operations. Its 
forty or more shops include, besides those especially devoted 
to the construction and repair of locomotives and cars, others 
which serve in the production of various supplies and materials 
for the several departments of the road. 

A rail-mill produces all rails needed for the tracks, work at 
I he time of my visit being upon a lO.o-pound section rolled in 
lengths of Hfl feet. The spring-steel used at Crewe, of which 
large quantities are required for the long flat springs of 
I3ng]ish cars, is all manufactured within the works. A fine 
shop, presenting a large unobstructed floor, and having a 
machine equipment near at hand, is employed upon switch, 
crossing, and special track work, while a neighboring depart- 
ment turns out great quantities of interchangeable equipment 
for switch and signal towers. 

A general machine-shop bu Ids machinery for water-stations, 
new shop-tools of up-to-date design, cranes of various types 
for freight stations, baggage-lifts for passenger stations, high- 
.speed steam engines for driving dynamos direct-connected, 
and makes repairs on the machinery of the company's tug- 
boats and steamers. I found this shop well filled with new 
work in great variety. 

The massive steel castings of a powerful hydraulic press 
designed for steel forging occupied the heavier machines, and 
the parts of a large lathe were being assembled on the erecting 
floor. All castings, whether of iron or steel, are products of 
the works. 

Another department makes dynamos and the smaller elec- 
trical fixtures and supplies needed for crane work, and for 
station lighting. Out of doors an extensive brick yard is oper- 
ated, the product of which is entirely consumed along the 
line, and in a corner of the pattern-shop, which is railed 
off from the rest of the room, most excellent wooden arms 
and legs are made for employees of the road who have suf- 
fered mutilation in its service. 

It was impossible in a single afternoon for one to see even 
the external form of so large an establishment, but my under- 



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Four-Cylinder Compound Locomotive— London St Northwestern Rv. 
Cviinders, High Pressure. 15 Inches; Low Pressure, IQ^i Inches by 24 Inches Stroke. 
Balanced on the Strong System. 



sand men find employment, and behind all and iu all is the standing is that so far as is practicable, all manufactured 



vigorous personality of the well-known Chief of Motive Power, 
Mr. F. W. Webi). 

My trip to Horwich, concerning which I have already writ- 
ten, had prepared me for Crewe, for a similar business con- 
ception underlies both establishments. But the former Is en- 

•For previous article see Vol. 73, page 375. 



articles needed by the various departments of the road are 
made at Crewe under the direction of the locomotive depart- 
ment, the value of materials supplied by this department to 
other departments of road amounting in round numbers to 
$4,000,000 a year. 

An intei-esting feature of Crewe is its immense banks of 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



coal. The explanation is that the road uses somewhat more 
than a million tons of coal a year, that the possibility of 
strikes at the mines makes delivery at a constant rate so 
uncertain that a large supply must always be carried. The 
piles are formed within retaining walls constructed of the 
larger blocks of coal, with sufficient care to give a regular 
outline and a smooth exterior surface. They rise to a height 
of eight or ten feet only, and extend along the lines of track 
from which the coal was delivered. All are without covering. 
Similar but smaller piles are to be seen at intervals along 
the road, and when near stations the exterior walls are not 
infrequently decorated with a coat of whitewash. 

Mr. Webb has 2,800 locomotives, the heavy repairs upon 
which are made at Crewe. Many very old engines are still in 
service, and consequently there is a large number of different 
types to be cared for. Seven hundred engines, however, have 
similar cylinders and similar boilers. The boiler shop contains 
long rows of repaired boilers, ready to go out on any engine 
of the class for which it is standard. Other details have in 
some cases been standardized to cover a still greater number 
of engines; for example, it is said that, "there are but two 
eccentrics on the whole road." 

The new work in progress includes an installment of heavy 
simple engines, and an installment of four-cylinder compounds, 
the two classes being quite similar except as to cylinder ar- 
rangement and the details depending thereon. 

These locomotives in common with the new engines of the 
Lancashire and Yorkshire, to which I referred in a previous 
letter, have a "center frame" which in its present form at least, 
constitutes a new element in locomotive design. The center- 
frame is a deep cast-steel member, extending longitudinally 
from the cylinders to a cross-brace back of the main axle. 
Its purpose is to provide support for a third bearing on the 
crank-axles, for which the straight portion between the cranks 
serves as the journal. With the addition of this bearing, the 
full length of the crank axle, except that portion which is 
taken by the wheels and the webs of the cranks, is utilized 
as journal surface, a condition made possible by the use of 
the Joy valve-gear and the consequent absence of eccentrics. 
The center-bearing is not allowed to carry any considerable 
portion of the weight of the engine, but is designed chiefly 
to resist the thrust of the cranks. 

Nothing which I saw at Crewe interested me more than 
the new compounds, which are referred to by Mr. Webb as 
locomotives of the "Black Prince" class. I was especially 
fortunate in seeing a half-dozen of them coupled together, 
which had been pulled out fresh from the shops for the inspec- 
tion of the directors, and a very fine and business-like pro- 
cession they made. They are not large engines, as Americans 
measure size, but they are more powerful than any previously 
existing type on the London &. Northwestern Road. The wheel 
arrangement is that of the "American type," the four coupled- 
wheels having a diameter of 85 inches, and the four truck- 
wheels a diameter of about 50 inches. There are two 15-inch 
high-pressure cylinders outside of the frame and two 20i/i-inch 
low-pressure cylinders inside of frame, all of 24-inch stroke. 
The cranks on the axles are opposite those in the wheels, thus 
making possible a perfect balance of the reciprocating parts, 
the whole arrangement, so far as cylinders, cranks, and recip- 
rocating parts are concerned, being similar to that of the 
Strong, balanced, compound locomotive which was tested at 
Purdue two years ago, and with which the readers of the Amer- 
ican Engineer are familiar. 

The Joy valve-gear of the engines of the "Black Prince" class 
takes its motion from the low-pressure connecting rod and 
communicates directly with the low-pressure valve-spindle, 
all as in simple engines. But the low-pressure valve-spindle 
is extended through the front of the valve-box where it con- 
nects with a rocker which serves to transmit motion to the 
high-pressure valve-spindle. Thus the valves of the outside 
cylinders are driven from the motions of the inside cylinders. 

Comparing the new compound with the highest development 



of the Webb three-cylinder compound, which is represented 
by the class to which belongs the "Empress Queen," exhibited 
at Chicago in 1893, one finds that the engines are quite similar 
in several important respects. They have the same diameter 
of drivers and practically the same cylinder volume. The new 
engine is, however, designed for a pressure of 200 pounds, 
which is 25 pounds more than is carried by the "Empress 
Queen," and It is probable that its boiler has a greater area 
of heating surface, though judging from appearances alone 
the increase is not great. Since the new engine with dimen- 
sions but little increased as compared with those of an older 
type is regarded as much more powerful than any of the 
previously existing types of the road, it is evident that the 
designer attaches no small significance to those features of the 
four-cylinder compound which are new to his practice. 

The English, generally speaking, are not now interested in 
the compound problem, but the vigor with which Mr. Webb 
has labored in its development has been uninfluenced by any 
lack of sympathy which he may have encountered. He began 
his experiments twenty-one years ago, and three years later 
built at Crewe his flrst three-cylinder compound, a type now 
generally known by his name. The number of compounds was 
soon after increased to thirty. Following this flrst lot there 
appeared at various intervals between 1882 and 1899 five other 
lots of from ten to eighty engines each, making the total num- 
ber of compounds now in service one hundred and eighty, dif- 
ferences in the engines of the several lots representing progress 
in design, or being in response to the requirements of different 
classes of service. The twenty, four-cylinder engines now in 
process of erection will increase the number in service to two 
hundred. In a paper before the June meeting of the Institution 
of Civil Engineers, Mr. Webb describes his various types and 
testifies as to their satisfactory performance in service. 



FLEXIBLE STAYBOLTS. 



By F. W. Johnstone. 



Superintendent Motive Power and Machinery. 
Mexican Central Railroad. 



I have for a long time been working on the staybolt prob- 
lem and consider it very important. 

The small blue print under date of Sept. 7th, 1899 (Figs. 1 
to 4) represents the flexible staybolts as we are now applying 
them to locomotives on this road. We use very bad water on 
some sections of this road and the number of broken staybolts 
discovered each month is simply enormous. In one lot of 
nine engines running in a hard-water district we renewed 1,114 
broken staybolts during the three months of August. Septem- 
ber and October, 1899. All of our engines are inspected every 
thirty days, and broken staybolts are renewed immediately 
after the inspection has been made. These nine engines are 
all comparatively new, having been built since the spring of 
1897. They were built by one of the best locomotive works 
in the United States and the best known grade of staybolt iron 
was used. The staybolts are % Inch in diameter except the 
four upper rows on the side sheets, which are 1 inch in diam- 
eter, and all staybolts are spaced 4 inches centers. These 
engines carry 180 pounds of steam. 

I estimate that we will have to replace more than 20,000 
staybolts during the year 1900. Some of these bolts, which 
are easy of access, can be put in at a cost not to exceed $1.00, 
while others will cost $10.00 apiece, due to the labor of taking 
down and replacing such parts as the reverse lever quadrant, 
springs and spring rigging, etc. This matter of broken stay- 
bolts has become so serious that we were obliged to devise 
some method of reducing the cost of renewals and avoid throw- 
ing the engines out of service every thirty days to make these 
renewals, and we have settled upon these flexible staybolts as 
the remedy for the evil. Not one staybolt out of five thou- 
sand is fotind broken next to the firebox sheet; they are invari- 



jANCARr, 1900. AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL 




P'g- ' _ Fig. 2 1:! Tliro»J. U, r 



D 



OuwMo shell or boltor.. 



Fig. 4 




Cup A I 



Btmj or HAllMbU 
Dn«orM«ll»bl«L i»y J Iron 



I XolB 




Fig. 8 



Fig. 9 



Fig. JO 




1 Staj boll Iiuld« of pipe 



1 SinU 3!< 



FlK. 7 



Fig. 5 








chipped to raoint.itc t:ippliig hole stniighl. 



Fig. n 



al)l.v found broken jnst at the inner edge of the outside sheet, 
and if we can make this portion of the staybolts flexible so 
that the bolt can adjust itself to the expansion and contraction 
of the firebox sheet, we shall overcome the difficulty of broken 
staybolts, and I believe we have accomplished this end. We 
have put a number of these staybolts in service and are put- 
ting them in every day, especially when renewing staybolts 
in the upper rows, as we find the largest number of them 
broken in the upper front and back corners in the side sheets, 
although we find broken staybolts distributed all over the 
firebox, even in comparatively new engines. Our present 
method of manufacturing these staybolts is as follows: 
We use mild steel in bars 1% inch diameter, a piece 1% inch 



long is cut off of this bar and one end roughly hammered 
into a square. Fig. 1. These plugs are then put into a jig and a 
hole 1% inch in diameter by "s inch deep, drilled in the end. 
A number of the plugs are then heated together in a fur- 
nace, and as we have no drop hammer we use one of our 
steam hammers for forming the plug. The die, Fig. 5, in 
which the plug is formed, is placed upon the anvil of the steam 
hammer. The heated plug is dropped into the top of the die 
and a punch. Fig. 6, which is already inserted in the guide 
or holder, Fig. 7, is placed over the die, and one blow of the 
hammer finishes the plug in the form shown in Fig. 2. We 
find it necessary to put two handles on the punch guide, as it 
was too heavy for one man to handle. 

The staybolt proper has a ball formed on the end in an 
ordinary bolt-heading machine: the thread on the other end 
of the staybolt is cut in an ordinary bolt cutter: as the stay- 
bolt is free to revolve in the plug, there is no necessity of 
the thread on the staybolts being cut in unison with the 
thread on the plug. The staybolt is then put into a chuck 
fitted to a small lathe, the tool rest of which is so arranged 
as to revolve around a pin immediately under the center of 
the ball. The tool post is fed up against a stop, and then 
the tool is moved around in a semi-circle by a hand lever. This 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



turns the bail on the end of the staybolt perfectly true and 
does the work very rapidly. The next process is to heat the 
plugs, as shown in Figure 2, and crimp or close them down 
around the ball on the end of the staybolt. At present we 
are crimping the plugs by hand, using a light flatter and light 
sledge, but we have designed a machine for doing this crimp- 
ing by power, and when this is perfected the closing will 
be done by cheap labor. The last process is to cut the thread 
on the plug. This is done in a lathe, the thread being finished 
by running a solid die over the plug. The whole process of 
manufacturing these staybolts is done by cheap labor, and the 
cost of labor for manufacturing a complete staybolt does not 
exceed nine cents in gold. 

I have made several tests of these staybolts and find that 
when the plug is screwed through the plate until the inside 
edge of the plate is opposite the center of the ball so that 
the plate offers no re-enforcement to the plug, it requires more 
than 20,000 pounds to pull the ball out of the plug. Where 
the plug is screwed into the plate, as shown in Fig. 3, the 
plate re-enforces the plug to such an extent that the bolt breaks 
under a strain of from 28,000 to 30,000 pounds without even 
loosening the ball in the plug. As these staybolts have to re- 
sist a strain of only about 3,000 pounds in service, we find that 
the staybolt has a factor of safety of from six to ten, and is 
therefore perfectly safe. 

In tapping out the holes in applying these staybolts we 
use a hollow tap for me outside hole, inserting a rod to guide 
the tap. In tapping the hole in the firebox sheet, where we 
find it necessary, we use a bushing on the outer end of the 
tap simply to guide the tap, and as there is no necessity for 
having the holes tapped in unison with each other, they can 
be tapped separately and there is no danger of stripping the 
thread on either end of the staybolt. 

In applying the staybolts, one man screws in the plug from 
the outside, while another man on the inside of the firebox 
turns the staybolt. The plug and staybolt are free to adjust 
themselves to the threaded holes in the two sheets, and are 
readily screwed into place. After the end of the staybolt is cut 
off on the inside of the firebox it is hammered over in the 
usual way, a holding-on bar being placed against the back 
of the plug on the outside of the firebox. 

In Fig. 9 is shown our standard crown stay. This consists 
of a through bolt with a button head under the crown sheet, 
a spacing piece formed of 1-inch gas pipe between the crown 
sheet and the shell of the boiler, and a cap nut screwed on 
the upper end of the stay with a copper washer under the 
nut. We have a number of Belpaire fireboxes, which have 
been running for several years, equipped entirely with these 
crown stays, and we find them by far the most satisfactory 
arrangement of crown stays we have ever tried. When it 
becomes necessary to remove one or more of these stays for 
the purpose of straightening the sheet, we take them out in 
a few minutes, make the necessary repairs and replace the 
saoae bolts. Heretofore we have used sling stays in the four 
front rows, allowing some flexibility to accommodate the ex- 
pansion of the flue sheet, but as these sling stays occupied 
so much of the space, we found it impossible to get at the 
crown sheet from the barrel of the boiler for the purpose 
of scraping off mud and scale which accumulates on the top 
of the sheet. To overcome this difficulty we have devised a 
flexible crown stay, as shown in Fig. 8. These flexible stays 
take the place of the four rows of sling stays, and we are 
now getting some locomotives built by the Baldwin Locomo- 
tive Works in which the four front rows, two back rows and 
two rows on either edge of the crown sheet are equipped 
with these flexible stays. Fig. 8. all the rest of the stays 
being of the rigid form, as shown in Fig. 9. 

Referring to Fig. 8, it will be seen that we use a spacer 
formed of 1-inch gas pipe, a washer resting on the top of this 
spacer and a nut screwed down firmly on the top of the 
washer. This insures a proper fit between the button head of 
the crown stay and the under side of the crown sheet, but 



it will be seen by the construction of this crown stay that 
the sheet is free to expand upward, cai-rying the crown stays 
with it, as in the case of the sling stays, and when the boiler 
lias uecome warmed up and the steam pressure has accumu- 
lated, the outer sheet expands and the washer seats itself 
on the shoulder provided in the bushing. This crown stay 
is also readily removed and renewed without having access 
to the inside of the boiler. 

Figure 10 shows the radial stay which we propose to use 
in the construction of wide fireboxes. The principle is ex- 
actly the same as in Fig. 9, but we introduce the bushing, E, 
and form a steam joint with the copper washer between the 
cap nut, D, and the bushing, E. Figure 11 shows the style 
of cross stay that we have adopted. In trying to design a 
cross stay which could be readily removed and replaced with- 
out destroying the ends of the stay or the threads in the 
boiler plates when it becomes necessary to clean the crown 
sheet, we designed a number of different styles of these cross 
stays and submitted them to Mr. Vauclain of the Baldwin Loco- 
motive Works, as we. wished them introduced into the engines 
now being built by these works for this company, and upon 
the last suggestion by IVtr. Vauclain we have now got it down 
to its present form and feel satisfied that it will answer all 
of the requirements. It will be seen that this cross stay 
can be taken out and replaced without removing the crown 
stays, or having access to the interior of the boiler. 

Ihe process of introducing this stay is as follows: First, 
sciew in the bushing, F; second, screw the cross stay iuto 
the bushing, F; third, screw in the bushing, G; fourth, back 
on tiie cross stay until the collar is against the bushing, G; 
imh. screw on the cap nuts, DD. 

I wo fireboxes, one a Belpaire, and the other wide, were 
designed so that a comparison could be made on the same 
class of engine and the cost obtained, with the view of in- 
liouucing some of the wide fireboxes for trial on this road. 
Ihese boilers give examples of the application of the crown 
stays above described. By referring to the wide firebox. Fig. 
12, it will be seen that the four center rows of crown stays 
are exactly like Fig. 9, tapering copper washers being used 
under the cap nuts, and the other ten rows on either side 
of these four rows affe provided with crown stays as shown 
in Fig. 10. With this arrangement we have a firebox practically 
equipped with flexible stays, and we may feel reasonably 
assured of having no reports of broken staybolts in boilers 
of this construction. The only rows of ordinary screw stay- 
bolts in the side sheets are down close to the mud ring. There 
is little probability of these giving trouble, due to the re- 
duced amount of expansion in so short a distance, but should 
these staybolts and those in the throat sheet and back head 
give anyirouble in service we would renew them with the 
flexible staybolts first described, and we would have a boiler 
with the firebox perfectly stayed and yet flexible in all direc- 
tions. Such a firebox should not develop cracks as readily 
as with the ordinary system of staying; certainly we should 
feel no uneasiness as to the safety of this boiler, and in these 
days of high boiler pressure that is a very important consid- 
eration. 



Mr. Edwin M. Herr has been appointed General Manager 
of the Westinghouse Air Brake Company. He has been Assist- 
ant General Manager since he left the Northern Pacific as Su- 
perintendent of Motive Power. He has instituted a number of 
extensive improvements in the manufacture of the air brake 
equipment and is engaged upon the application to the air 
brake business of the principles which made his success in 
railroad work. This is a pleasing recognition of his value, and 
the result will doubtless be to relieve Mr. H. H. Westinghouse, 
Vice-President, of many of the details of the affairs of the 
company. Mr. John F. Miller has been appointed Assistant 
Secretary. 



JANDA.RY, 1900. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. B 



--J6H}' 



■ *• <otil hox 



r 







:36-Foot 80,000-Pound Coal Car with Siding 

iHockinglValley 

36-FOOT 80,000-POUND COAL CARS. 



Hocking Valley Railway. 
S. S. Stiffey, Master Mechanic. 



These cars are of wood, and are arranged to give large cubical 
capacity by placing the sideboards outside of the stakes. Their 
weight is 29,000 pounds. 

In designing large capacity cars it is a problem to obtain 
sufficient cubical capacity without increasing the length more 
than is desirable or increasing the height of the sides to such 
an extent as to he inconvenient in loading and unloading. 
Therefore the construction here described undoubtedly offers 
several advantages. 

In this design Mr. Stiftey was confined to a certain height 
and to the length of sills of the cars of 60,000 pounds capacity 
which were in use previously. To meet these conditions the 
number of longitudinal sills was increased from six to eight 
and large stakes were used, with sufficient width to extend a 
toe down against the inside face of the side sill. To prevent 
the side sills from rolling o>it under the strain which tends 



Outside of the Stakes and Simplex Bolsters. 
Railway. 

to bulge the sides of the car. two yg-inch tie rods are intro- 
duced nearly over the needle beams and across the car near 
the floor line, the effect of which is to tie the side sills together 

at the top. 

The principal reason for introducing two additional sills was 
to prevent the floor from crushing down when hydraulic press- 
ure is applied to the sides of the cars to clamp them to the rails 
during the operation of dumping on the Brown Hoisting and 
Conveying Machine Company's machine at the docks where the 
cars are placed in cradles and turned over bodily in unloading^ 
The length of the car over end sills is 36 feet, the width 
inside the box is 9 feet 4 inches, and the height of the sides 
is 3 feet 7 inches. By means of the arrangement illustrated 
the original capacity of the 60.000-pound cars, which was 87U 
cubic feet 1,242 cubic inches, has been increased to 1.191 cubic 
feet 792 cubic inches, these measurements being taken with 
the assumption that the cars are level full. 

The truck which was designed for this car is also illustrated 
in the engravings. There are now 2.500 of these cars in service 
and Mr. Stiffey states that they have brought out many favor- 
able communications from people interested in increasing the 



6 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



capacity of coal cars. These cars are equipped with steel bol- 
sters. The Simplex bolsters were applied to 2,000 of them, as 
shown in the engravings, and the remainder have bolsters 
made by the Pressed Steel Car Company. The cars have the 
M. C. B. 5 by 9-lnch axles and M. C. B. springs. The malleable 
castings were made by the Dayton Malleable Iron Company, 
including the Dayton malleable iron brake lever, Dayton brake 
wheel and the Hoey draft rigging. It should be stated that 
the bolsters were designed to carry the cars free of the side 
bearings. 



A GREAT IMPROVEMENT IN DRIVER BRAKES. 



The clumsiness and unnecessary weight of the usual driving 
brake attachments to locomotives is shown in an almost 
startling way by a glance at a well designed arrangement, 
and it seems strange that the improvement was delayed so 
long. It surely was needed badly enough. In this case, the 
air brake has been considered, as it ought to be, as an integral 
part of the locomotive, which is to be provided for in the 
design of the details instead of putting it on as an attachment. 




An Example of Good Design in Driver Brakes. 




-nzL 



XjIZ~ 



■f 



An Example of Common But Bad Design in Driver Brakes. 



T 




Objectionable Practice in the Use of Castings. 



Mr. R. H. Soule has resigned as Western representative of 
the Baldwin Locomotive Works at Chicago, to re-enter railway 
service. Mr. Soule was formerly Superintendent of Motive 
Power of the Norfolk & Western, and has been with the Bald- 
win Company since August, 1897. Mr. Soule is an ideal mo- 
tive power officer and we shall congratulate the road which 
is fortunate enough to secure his services. 



Mr. S. P. Bush has resigned as Superintendent of Motive 
Power of the Pennsylvania Lines. Southwest System, effective 
January 1, to accept the position of Superintendent of Motive 
Power of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul, which position 
was made vacant by the resignation of Mr. J. N. Barr, who 
went to the B. & O. Mr. Bush is but thirty-six years of age 
and is a graduate of Stevens Institute. He entered the ser- 
vice of the Pennsylvania in 1884 as special apprentice, and has 
worked his way up to the very important place he holds with 
the foremost motive power men of the country. 



Mr. William Wright, General Foreman of the Vandalia at 
Tefre Haute, has been appointed General Superintendent of 
the McKees Rocks plant of the Pressed Steel Car Co. 



as if an afterthought upon the completion of the construction 
in other respects. 

These engravings show two examples of very common prac- 
tice contrasted with a new arrangement which does not involve 
any new principle except a complete provision for the attach- 
ment of the brake in the construction of the frames. The new 
plan was worked out by the American Brake Co., for new ten- 
wheel engines for the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific. The 
old arrangement makes use of various castings and forgings 
of different shapes, and is attached by means of a large number 
of bolts with double nuts. 

The hanger support between the middle and rear pairs of 
driving wheels is of special construction necessitated by the 
construction of the frame when a hanger link is required 
for the spring equalizer. It will be observed that in order to 
apply these plates to the frames, without requiring too large 
and objectionable bolts through the frames, hanger links are 
required throughout and the work is thereby greatly compli- 
cated and the number of bolts materially increased. Cross 
section views are shown which, together with the plan view, 
give a good idea of the complications which arise from the 
necessity of applying driver brakes to such frames. 



JANITAIIV, l'.10l>. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 7 



This adds an appreciable weigiit and places most of It very 
unfavorably, at the back ends of the frames. Now that so 
much study is given to the removal of unnecessary weight, 
the possibility of saving about 900 pounds, which is done by 
the new plan, should recommend it to locomotive men gener- 
ally. This represents the weight which may be saved when 
the heavy fulcrum eastings and cast frame braces are dis- 
placed by the light parts forged to the frames. The drawing 
of the old plan does not include the heaviest castings that are 
often used between the horizontal and inclined members of the 
frames. Furthermore, the new arrangement has the appearance 
of being designed instead of the apparatus being "thrown at 
the engine," as one motive power officer put it. on glancing 
at these drawings. 

The Rock Island method employs fulcrums in bosses forged 
upon the frames, and it is clear that a great reduction in the 
number of parts is effected and at the same time there is a 
material gain in strength, and probably no Increase in cost. 
The use of auxiliary bolts is avoided and the strength of the 
frames is not sacrificed by drilling large holes through them. 
The design is one which will recommend itself to all mechani- 
cal engineers entirely aside from the important consideration 
of weight. The advantages of these bosses are specially clear 
in connection with cast steel frames. 

The fulcrum of the cylinder lever is made a part of the frame 
and is provided with a stiffening brace vertically over it be- 
tween the two bars of the frame. This takes the place of the 
usual spacing casting which also supplies a bearing. It is not 
more difficult to make than the struts which are welded into 
the frames of heavy engines at the equalizers and once made in 
the frame it is permanent. This Rock Island engine has 110,000 
pounds on the driving wheels and a braking force of 82.500 
pounds, with 12xl0-inch cylinders. The cylinders are placed 
with their axes vertical, which is one of the minor advantages 
gained. The merits of the improvement are so clearly seen 
in the drawing as to lead to the conclusion that it. or some- 
thing similar, will become common practice. The engravings 
illustrating the usual practice represent the best of common 
practice, and it is safe to place the saving of weight, usually 
possible, at 1.000 pounds. The saving, however, is not in 
weight alone but in maintenance. This new plan is recom- 
mended by the American Brake Co. and is illustrated through 
the courtesy of the Westinghouse Air Brake Co. It is not 
entirely original, as the later engines of the Pennsylvania have 
excellent designs of driver brakes involving the principles here 
described. 



ENGINEERING IN THE NAVY. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS BY ADMIRAL GEORGE W. 
MELVILLE. 



American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 



The position and life work of Admiral Melville. Engineer-in- 
C'hief of the United States Navy, promised an instructive and 
valuable address, and it was forceful, inspiring and satis- 
factory as showing the influence of the engineer in the high 
development and efficiency of our naval protection. 

Every American was naturally proud of the fact that the 
first successful steam vessel was the work of an American 
engineer, but it was not so generally known that the same 
American, Fulton, designed the first steam war vessel of any 
navy. He referred to the "Demologos." intended for use in the 
War of 1812. but not completed until 1814. after the close of 
that conflict. The real beginning of naval engineering, how- 
ever, was when the steamer ■'Fulton" was built in 1836 and in 
that year Mr. Charles H. Haswell, the "Nestor of engineering 
in this country," became the first chief engineer in our navy. 
The wonderful rapidity of naval engineering development was 
strikingly shown by reference to the fact that the first chief 



engineer was still alive, in full possession of his faculties and 

in the active practice of his profession to-day. 

High tril)Ute was paid to Isherwood, who had demonstrated 
the then unknown fact that under the conditions obtaining 
in the case of the U. S. S. "Michigan," with a slow-moving 
engine and low steam pressure, a ratio of expansion was soon 
reached, beyond which any increase would cause an absolute 
diminution of economy, instead of an increase, as would have 
been predicted from a strict adherence to Mariotte's law. 

Among the other engineer contributors to naval progress was 
George Westinghouse. The wonderful achievements of Mr. 
Westinghouse, both as an inventor and as the creator of great 
industrial works, entitle him to be called the "Napoleon of 
industrial engineering." The high efficiency of the navy was 
due in a large degree to the competent engineers and to their 
excellent training at the Naval Academy, testimony to the 
high character of which was seen in the fact that the Gov- 
ernment had been unable to retain the services of a large 
number of graduates who were called to take positions of 
responsibility in other fields of work. Many of these men 
were prominent members of this society. Not all the talent 
had departed, however, and the speaker made graceful acknowl- 
edgment of the support of his subordinates. 

The most important steps in the improvement of marine 
machinery were reviewed, one of the most noteworthy of 
which was the decision to employ water-tube boilers exclu- 
sively for all classes of vessels. This conclusion was reached 
very recently, and the reasons are given elsewhere in this issue. 
They have an important bearing upon the future of naval 
construction. Steam pressures were gradually rising and 
present plans included the use of 250 pounds at the engines 
and some 25 or 50 pounds more than that at the boilers. While 
it was not believed that finality had been reached in the devel- 
opment of marine machinery, it was thought that the designer 
had little room in which to work with present types of engines 
except in the details. Rather guarded reference was made to 
the steam turbine. The performance of the "Turbinia" justi- 
fied most careful study and further experiment, and it was 
encouraging to know that the steam turbine in this country 
was in the hands of so competent an experimenter as Mr. 
George Westinghouse. who is now engaged upon the con- 
struction of a unit of 2,000 horse power on a single shaft. 

The war with Spain had shown the very great value of the 
repair ship, "Vulcan," and the distilling ships, as adjuncts of a 
fleet The "Vulcan" carried the first cupola ever set up for 
operation on board ship, and this ship was the equal of any- 
thing, except a very large repair yard. She was an example 
on a large scale of taking the tool to the work instead of 
bringing the work to the tool. The distilling ship "Ins" actu- 
ally furnished over 100.000 gallons of fresh water per diem. 
Her bunker capacity of 3.000 tons of coal gave her a potential 
capacity of distilled water of 60,000 tons, or as much as 11 
of the largest "tankers." In the battle of Santiago the engi- 
neer stood out, a most prominent figure. The brilliancy of the 
victorv was largely due to the skill and foresight of Chief 
Engineer Milligal of the "Oregon" in insisting that all of the 
boilers of that ship should be ready for action all the time 
although others had steam on but half the boilers, and whe e 
it could be done halt the engine power was laid off. Th's case 
was direct proof that, however admirable as a great fighting 
mlch ne the battleship is useless except in the hands of 
trained engineers. This led to reference to the recent change 

n the i^gilations whereby every future officer on our war 
vessels s to be trained as an engineer. If the new law was 
to be administered with regard to its plain intent ours would 
be the n^st efficient navy in the world, but disastrous results 
would follow any indifference to the purpose of the law on the 
Dart of those in authority. ^ • • ^aa; 

The whole tenor of the address was such as to inspire addi- 
tional confidence in those who are responsible for th s part of 
the nation's defences. It was particularly appropriate as the 
sneaker said, that one of the engineers of the old schoo should 
afthe close of this chaper in the history of naval engineering 
g ve a review of some of its more important facts, and the 
manner in which it was done added to the high esteem in 
which Admiral Melville is held. 



8 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



STAYBOLTS. 



Editor American Engineer and Railroad Journal: 

The whole secret, I believe, of the staybolt question is the 
larger water space. We have proved beyond any doubt that, 
by increasing the width of the water space, and consequently 
the length of staybolts, we have increased their peiiod of use- 
fulness about thirteen times without the slightest change in 
the material. 

We are still drilling tell-tale holes in the ends of staybolts, 
and even on old boilers we drill them and afterwa:rd test 
them. In this way a great many partially broken staybolts 
are discovered. 

We are not now putting in corrugated or cupped side sheets 
in our fireboxes, because we found that the cupped sheets had 
a life of but 18 to 20 months' service, and, while these sheets 
have lasted fully as long as straight sheets, we met with 
difficulty in patching them and found that this could not be 
done successfully, while with a straight sheet a portion may 
be cut out and replaced with a patch which is. of course. 
greatly in favor of the straight sheet. 

Tn riveting up our mud rings we used to put the head of 
the rivet on the inside of the firebox. We now put the head on 
the outside of fireboxes, countersinking the sheet inside and 
driving the rivets up flush. There are several points in favor 
of this. The first is, that by .getting rid of the head there 
is no obstruction whatever to putting up side grates. We 
used to have to chop out the side grates for the head. Another 
advantage is that the corrosive matter does not now stick 
nn top of the heads and cause the sheets to rust out; also, 
by this method we have quicker work, as the rivet is ham- 
mered down flush. The riveting is done on the most im- 
portant sheet in the firebox inside, where it is likely to give 
us less trouble from corrosion than if it were on the outside. 
Chicago, 111., ROBERT QUATLE, 

Nov. 27. 1S99. Superintendent Motive Power 

Chicago & Northwestern Ry. 



STATBOLT PROGRESS. 



Editor American Engineer and Railroad Journal: 

The article in the American Engineer and Railroad Journal 
of December, under the above caption, was peculiarly inter- 
esting to the writer on account of some tolerably thorough in- 
vestigations concerning staybolt practice made in the winter 
of 1S92-93, the results of which were published in the proceed- 
ings of the Southern and Southwestern Railway Club for April, 
1893. At that time these results, judging from subsequent cor- 
respondence and references, attracted considerable attention, 
but in seven years' time the report referred to has become an- 
cient history and for,gotten, the subject matter investigated all 
over again by others produces the same results and recommen- 
dations; to be again forgotten. That the same thing has been 
going on for generations is plain from the fact that staybolts 
of the form recommended in the article referred to last month, 
and in the report of April, 1893, have been found in ancient 
locomotive boilers that were being cut up years ago. Some 
thoughtful men had investigated and reached the same results 
years before, the results to be lost and buried. Our text-books 
and treatises, our technical teachers, etc., are largely responsible 
for this. — ^ - . 

The writer, being familiar with the rules and formulae, 
tests, government and Lloyd's rules, etc., was rather taken 
aback at one time when some staybolts were found broken 
in three pieces. The boilers in which these were observed were 
fitted with circulation sheets, and the stays referred to were 
found broken off at the outside sheet and again at the circu- 
lating sheet, through which they had been tapped. Here was 
an object lesson — the steam pressure and its strains had had 
nothing to do with the second fracture, as all strain on the 
stay was relieved when the first fracture occurred. 

The next thing that came to the writer's attention in follow- 
ing up staybolt breakages was that bolts broken at the same 
places in boilers of the same classes and designs, when exam- 
ined In place, or by marking their position before removal, 
pliowed that they had been broken oft in the same way, For 



instance, the staybolts at the reverse bends in the sides of 
radial stay fireboxes near the middle always showed that verti- 
cal bending had broken them, because the line of final fracture, 
or "let go," was always horizontal. Similarly, in certain long 
fireboxes the end stays showtd a vertical line of fracture, prov- 
ing that horizontal bending had been their ruin. Different writ- 
ers, who have touched on the subject of expansion of locomo- 
tive fireboxes, have considered the vertical movement of the 
box or lifting of the crown sheet, but I have yet to see the 
first mention of the longitudinal expansion as a factor in the 
staybolt breakages. In a deep, short firebox of the old style, 
between frames, the differences of longitudinal and lateral ex- 
pansion are so small that no trouble to speak of comes from 
them, while the difterences in vertical expansion are consider- 
able. With modern shallow fireboxes, ten and eleven feet long, 
the opposite is the case, and it is the longitudinal expansion 
which does the most damage in many designs of boilers. 

The writer well remembers the pride with which a prominent 
master mechanic some years ago pointed to a large boiler in the 
shop wherein all the portions of the firebox where broken stays 
were troublesome were strengthened by doubling the number 
of stays — placing them 2>.4 inches centers — with the firm convic- 
tion that "now, by joining, we won't be worried any more with 
broken staybolts." The boilermaker and designer places stays, 
bolts, braces, etc., to make the boiler as rigid as possible, and 
ignores the destructive effect of the expansion and contraction: 
or, if he does anything to meet it, it is as above illustrated, 
to try and master it instead of providing for it intelligently. 
To attempt to overcome or master the expansion of a boiler 
due to heating is absurd, and, when indulged in, is really due 
to lack of appreciation of the irresistible power to be con- 
tended with. 

Experiments made in England with cylindrical. corru.gated 
fireboxes, showed that, to shorten a "Fox" corrugated firebox 
.30 inches diameter, one thirty-second of an inch required a pres- 
sure of over 300 tons. What would be the power exerted by 
a flat firebox sheet 10 feet long, well held to its place, and 
prevented from buckling by numerous staybolts, when due to. 
say. 1/16 inch of scale, it must expand, say, 1/32 inch in length 
more than the outer shell? The power is there and is inevi- 
tably absorbed by crushing the sheet or breaking the stays: 
then, when the cooling off process comes, the sheet having been 
previously shortened, is stretched again. Leaky seams and 
cracked and pocketed side sheets are the inevitable result. 

Inquiry made in 1892 from 22 prominent and progressive rail- 
roads brought out the fact that on some roads staybolts had 
to be tested every week, the renewals being a heavy source 
of expense and delay to the engines: while on other roads broken 
staybolts were rare, it being found suflicient to test them once 
a year. Why the difference? The trouble from broken stays 
was found to be directly proportionate to the amount of scale 
forming matter in the water. Where the firebox sheets became 
rapidly incrusted, so that the inner sheet would be many de- 
grees hotter than the outer shell, there the broken stay and 
cracked sheet and leaky flue were household words. Where 
the water was soft and good, so that little or no deposit ever 
formed on the sheets, both sheets could heat up and ccol down 
together, broken stays and cracked sheets were rarities, and 
staybolts only had to be tested once a year. It is the repeated 
bending that breaks the staybolts. assisted of course, by the 
strain. 

A wire rope, if the ends could be secured steam -tight in the 
sheets, would make an ideal staybolt. 

But flexibility in the staybolts is only half the battle. The 
fii-ebox sheets must expand and contract in all directions more 
rapidly than the shell sheets: this expansion and contraction 
should be considered in the design of the boiler at every br.ace 
and stay rod. at every seam and corner of the firebox, giving 
easy curves and bends at all the corners with room for the 
boiler to breathe vertically, horizontally and laterally. The re- 
cently illustrated boiler with a single large corrugated, cylin- 
drical firebox, seems to offer a remedy for all these ills, if it 
does not introduce other evils of perhaps a worse nature. A 
few years' hard service for such boilers in districts where the 
water bears scale and boilers have to be worked to their ut- 
most will bring the answer. 

Roanoke, Va., R. P. C. SANDERSON, 

Peeember 16, 1899. Master Mechanic, 

Norfolk Western Ry. 



JANUARV, 1900. AMERICAN ENGINEEH AND RAILROAD JOURNAL 



9 



STAYBOLT PROGRESS. 



Kiiilor American Knginecr and RmjIjo^hI JoiijumI: 

I liHvr read with great intPi-csl Ihc artiilc cm Sdiyli'ili 
HiogiV'SR in the DecenibiT issue of yiiur iiajjcr, as 1 liave 
been investigating' this matter for some time. While, in a 
general way, my results eoineide with those given, my obser- 
vations lead mr to somewhat different eoni-lusions in some 
instances. Service tests are undoubtedly the most satisfactory 
for determining the values of different iron, but they re(|ulre 
a long time, in fact, years, to obtain results. In the meantime, 
the particular brands tested may go out of the market, one 
instance of this kind happening recently. Vibration, or other 
tests that will give uniform results under conditions approxi- 
mating service conditions, offei- the Ijest mean.s of solving the 
many mooted (juestions arising from the u,se of staybolts. 
As stated in the concluding paragraph of the article referred 
to, the present form of vibration test is not satisfactory, as 
the results vary too widely: on the other hand, with even the 
extremes of variation, they point conclusively to certain de- 
ductions, which are of great 
value, and the improvement 
of apparatus and methods will 
soon evolve something more 
satisfactory now that the 
value of such tests is becom- 
ing widely recognized. 

The length of staybolt is a 
decided factor, and, where 
possible, the water spaces 
should be made large. There 
are limits, however, to this in- 
crease. On most large roads, 
nowadays, there is a demand 
for heavy engines capable of 
pulling a given tonnage on 
certain runs. The strengthen- 
ing of bridges has not kept 
pace with the demand for the 
heavier engines, so that in de- 
signing such engines every su- 
perfluous pound of weight 
must be dispensed with. The 
increasing of water spaces 
runs up weight very rapidly, 
especially on wide firebox en- 
gines. Another limiting fac- 
tor is due to the steaming 
properties. Of two engines 
otherwise similar, that having 
the less water space can fur- 
nish the most steam when 
forced. Under no considera- 
tion should they be less than 
3% inches, and as much wider 
as above limits allow. 

The form of boiler is almost as important as the length, as 
regards the life of staybolts. All reverse curves, curves ot 
short radii, and variations in contour between the outer and 
inner sheets should be avoided. Among the many advantages 
of the wide firebox extending over the wheels is the entire 
elimination of these factors. The outline illustrated in a 



account for. Six different shapes of staybolt were tested, with 
the following results as regards ultimate life, the order Indi- 
lating the relative standing: 

I. I'. B. & Q. form, with drilled tell-tale hole. 

:!. iiolt threaded entire length; drilled tell-tale hole. 

:'.. < '. 13. & Q. form, punched tell-tale hole. 

4. ('. B. & Q. form, no tell-tale hole. 

.'■>. Threads stripped between sheets; no hole. 

I). ITpset head from % inch to 1 Inch; no hole. 
The special form of bolt as used by C. B. & Q., when having 
a drilled tell-tale hole, was undoubtedly the best. Whether 
the additional cost covers the occasional removal of broken 
bolts is problematical. While the tests were not altogether 
satisfactory, on account of variations, they Indicate pretty 
clearly that drilling adds life, punching is better than no 
hole, and upsetting is bad. It is questionable if the all-threaded 
bolt is any better than Ihe one stripped between sheets. How- 
ever, it is equally as good and there is reason to justify such 
a belief. When preparing bolts in large quantities, it is Im- 
possible to strip the threads right up to the sheets, as It 





Wide Firebox with Semi-Circular Outside Shell. 



would require an almost infinite number of lengths. As al- 
most all bolts break close to the outside sheet, and even a 
thread inside sometimes, the stripping of thread in the center 
leaves the bolt no more flexible or no weaker at the stripped 
portion than elsewhere, consequently there seems little to be 
gained by this practice. 




former article shows the first step toward doing away with 
short bends and dissimilar contours, the outline being com- 
posed of a series of tangent curves. The enclosed drawing 
shows the next step. Above line X— X, the outer shell is a 
true semi-circle, and is an improvement, in that it is self- 
contained. The inner sheet opens the water leg gradually, 
and follows the contour of the outer sheet closely. Our ex- 
perience has proved this design to be a saver of staybolts. 
The records of vibration tests show some results hard to 



Riveting of heads, in my estimation, is the largest factor. 
Two similar bolts headed by the same man vary in the testing 
machine in proportion to the amount of abuse they received 
in being headed. The reason assigned for the United States 
Government method giving superior results, seems to be the 
reverse of the statement you make. In testing the hand- 
headed bolts, those that were driven hardest broke first. The 
riveting crystallizing the harder irons and making it more 
dense and a ti.srhter fit in the sheets, the result being that, 



10 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



when firmly held by the entire thickness of the sheet, the 
stress was concentrated at the inner side of the sheet. When 
loosely driven, so as to allow movement in the plate, it was 
found almost impossible to break them. The United States 
Government method of heading confines the injury to the 
metal, to that part outside of the sheet, or at least prevents 
it from extending through the sheet, as in hand riveting. Not 
being held so rigidly in the sheet, the stress due to vibration 
is distributed somewhat, and this, with the greater flexibility 
from the same source, greatly prolongs the life of the bolts. 

The strains on a staybolt that are most destructive are those 
due to the difference in expansion and contraction of the inner 
and outer sheets. From the nature of these strains, a staybolt 
is similar to a cantilever, having a concentrated load applied 
repeatedly at the end, removed, and the direction of applica- 
tion reversed. On staybolts of uniform section the maximum 
stress is located, therefore, at the outer edge of support— in 
this case the outer shell. Consequently, the less rigid the 
support, due either to thin sheets, heading as above, or both, 
the greater the life, as these conditions may allow the entire 
movement to take place without inducing a fibre stress equal 
to the elastic limit of the material in the staybolt. Theoreti- 
cally, it would seem that the use of thin outer sheets is justi- 
fied. Practical considerations, however, indicate the question- 
ability of this. With thin outer sheets, which may have plenty 
of strength, there is, on the other hand, very little margin 
left for corrosion and kindred evils that determine the life 
of the boiler. For this reason it seems preferable to renew 
a few bolts occasionally and add to the life of the sheet by 
making it a little heavier than considerations affecting the 
staybolts only demand. Unless it is necessary to sacrifice 
strength and life to weight, % inch would appear to be the 
minimum thickness for the outer sheet, and, on the other 
hand, it is not advisable to increase this very much, as. start- 
ing with V2 inch as a minimum, we may, along with the life 
of the sheet, consider the effect of increased thickness on 
the staybolts. As regards the fire sheet, the average practice 
seems to be to make the side sheets 5/16 inch thick and the 
crown sheet % inch thick, up to and including 180 pounds 
pressure. Above ISO pounds the side sheets are also made 
% inch thick. 

Further results of investigation are confirmed by the article 
in question, as regards piling. The enclosed tracing shows 
the piling of several irons tested. A, B, C and E showed little 
variation as the result of changing direction of vibration; 
while D, F, G and H were very strong with the piling and 
weak against it. As they are no stronger than in the weakest 
direction, they are inferior to the former sections. 

That the best iron should be used regardless of first cost 
is indisputable, but that the best iron does cost the most is 
another story. 

Extremely hard refined irons do not appear to give as good 
results as softer irons. When removing bolts of hard, fine 
iron, I have seen one blow cause the head to fly off and strike 
the wall. The fracture had the fine crystalline appearance 
of tool steel. The hard irons — and the amount of hardness 
depends on the amount of refinement, largely — seem to crys- 
tallize in heading, and the results of this injury extend much 
farther than with softer irons. The effect of heading, as 
regards the fit in the sheet, seems to show that in soft irons 
it is local and does not extend through the sheet, leaving them 
more flexible. It appears, then, that the ideal iron is one 
which, from the method of piling, stands an equal number of 
vibrations in all directions, and is soft enough to prevent crys- 
tallization and rigid fit in the slieets due to the heading. 
South Easton, Pa., F, F. GAINES, 

Dec. 9. 1899. Mechanical Engineer, 

Lehigh Valley R. R. 



HIGH SPEEDS OF THE NEW LAKE SHORE PASSENGER 
LOCOMOTIVES. 



Satisfactory running is reported by the Brooks Locomotive 
Works for the 10-wheel passenger locomotives for the Lake 
Shore & Michigan Southern, illustrated in our November is- 
sue.' These engines were designed for hauling heavy trains 
at high speeds, the chief object being not so much for exces- 
sively fast running as for reserve power to handle unusually 



heavy trains at the highest schedule speeds. The beginning 
has been made, as is shown by the record of the fast mail train 
between Buffalo and Cleveland, November 22, 1899. 

This train. No. 3, was made up of engine 601, one of the 
class illustrated in our November issue, four postal cars, two 
sleepers, one combination car and one coach, or eight cars 
in all, the weight of which Is estimated at 300 tons, exclusive 
of the engine. The table gives the stations, the time and 
the distances. It should be noted that the time between sta- 
tions does not give the seconds. This, in short distances, would 
influence the speeds in miles per hour materially, and the fig- 
ures of significance are the times for the long distances. The 
times between West Seneca tower and Colliuwood, taken with 
the arrivals and departures at Dunkirk, Erie and Ashtabula, 
give a fair idea of the run. The time from West Seneca to 
Collinwood is mentioned specially because the runs from Buf- 
falo to West Seneca and from Collinwood to Cleveland are 
slow on account of the yards between these points. The speed 
between West Seneca and Collinwood, deducting stops, is 
61.17 miles per hour, and this tells the whole story. The 
speed, including stops, was 56.13 miles per hour, and the aver- 
are speed for the entire run of 181.92 miles was 52.98 miles 
per hour. The distance from Dunkirk to Cleveland, 143 miles, 
was made in 144 minutes. There are three stops for water 
in this run, also two crossing stops, making five stops in all, 
which occupied an aggregate of 16 minutes. 

This train is scheduled to leave Buffalo at 6.25 P. M. (central 
time) and to reach Cleveland at 10.50 P. M. On this occasion 
it was 59 minutes late in leaving Buffalo and yet arrived in 
Cleveland on the schedule. It would be interesting to know 
the boiler pressures during this remarkable run, but we are 
informed that the limit of power was not reached, which is 
equivalent to saying that the boiler capacity was not severely 
taxed. During the entire run a strong side wind was blow- 
ing, making the work more difiBcult. 

The Brooks Locomotive Works furnished eleven of these 
magnificent engines, and our readers have already been in- 
formed as to their details. The record of the run is ap- 
pended. 



Stationi 



J 



Time Time Dis- 
Depart. Arrive, tance. 
P. M. 

Buffalo 7.24 

Buffalo Creek 7.31 

West Seneca Tower 7.35 .... 4.36 

Athol Springs 7.39 .... 4.87 

Lake View 7.44 .... 5.1S 

Angola 7.51 .... 7.05 

Farnham 7.55 4.11 

Silver Creek 7.59 .... 5.82 

Dunkirk 8.15 8.10 8.84 

VanBuren 8.21 4.00 

Brocton Junction S.26 4.79 

Westfield 8.34 .... 8.05 

Riplev 8.42 .... 7.88 

North Bast 8.50 .... 7.66 

Harbor Creek 8.56 .... 6.51 

Erie 9.07 9.03 7.45 

Dock. Junction 9.13 

Swanville 9.19 .... 8.24 

Girard 9.25 .... 7.08 

Springfield 9.29 .... 4.63 

Conneaut 9..15 .... 7.64 

Tower No. 2 9.40 

Kiiigsville 9.43 7.41 

Ashtabula 9.53 9.48 5.82 

Coal Chutes 9.57 

Geneva 10.03 9.34 

Madison 10.08 .... 5.42 

Perry 10.13 .... 4.99 

Painesville 10.18 5.73 

Mentor 10.23 6.16 

Willoushby 10.27 .... 4.34 

Wickliffe 10.31 .... 4.33 

Nottingham 10.35 .... 4.57 

Collinwood 10.37 2.04 

Glenville 10.39 .... 1.95 

Cleveland 10.50 .... 5.33 

Miles 
per hour. 

West Seneca to Collinwood, including stops 56.13 

West Seneca to Collinwood. not including stops 61.17 

Erie to Collinwood. not including stops 61.95 

Erie to Collinwood, including stops 58.51 

Erie to Cleveland, including stops 55.37 

Erie to Cleveland, not including stops 58.19 

Speed, including stop at Dunkirk 53.18 

Speed, West Seneca to Erie, including stop at Dunkirk 56.14 

Speed, West Seneca to Brie, not including stop at Erie 59.64 

Average speed to Erie, not including stop at Dunkirk 56.04 

Average speed in 181.92 miles 52.98 



oAuv, 1900. AMERIuAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL 



11 



THE DEVELOPMENT OP THE STEEL CAR. 



The large uumber of steel cars uow in service and Llie 
crowded condition of the plant of the Pressed Steel Oar Com- 
pany are evidences of a sudden and remarkable revolution 
in car construction which may be profitably reviewed. 

There are now in service in this country nearly 20,000 steel 
cars, and the capacity of the works of the Pressed Steel Car 
Company is now 7.5 cars of 40 to 50 tons capacity per day, and 
this will soon be increased to 100 cars per day. With the 
orders now on hand, and with continued prosperity for the 
railroads, it is probable that during the year 1900 30,000 steel 
cars will be built, and at the end of that year there will be 
50,000 steel cars of large capacity in service on American 
railroads. 

It is instructive to notice how a question which has occupied 
the serious attention of the Master Car Builders' Association 
for a number of years and finally given up as a hopeless task 
will settle itself by commercial and economic pressure and 
by the effort of individual genius outside the Association. In 
June, 1896, a committee of that Association made a report 
.on steel cars which dealt with the necessity for standard 
sizes for steel cars, not only in general dimensions, but in the 
size of the rolled sections, it being taken for granted that the 
future car would be made of rolle'd beams, channels and 
angles. The economical side of the question was also discussed 
and the important fact that steel cars would have a larger 
ratio of carrying capacity to light weight than wooden ones 
was pointed out. It was shown that 50 per cent, of the 
cost of freight car repairs was for wheels, axles, bearings, 
brake shoes and other similar parts which will wear out as 
rapidly under the most perfect steel car as under the present 
design of wooden car, and that the steel car body must pro- 
duce increased earnings and cost enough less for repairs to 
pay for the interest and depreciation of its extra first cost. 

The 1S96 Master Car Builders' Association report included 
a design for a steel hopper car made for the Carnegie Steel 
Company. The capacity being 100.000 pounds and light weight 
39,950 pounds, a sample car of this kind was exhibited at the 
1896 convention, and this was, doubtless, the real beginning of 
the 50-ton hopper car industry, and the prototype of the 
pressed steel hopper car which was designed by the Schoen 
Company, and appeared at the convention in 1897. The action 
of the association on the 1896 report was the appointment of a 
committee of five to present individual designs. The report 
of this committee in June, 1S97, again emphasized the import- 
ance of standard general dimensions, and stated that the 
great majority of motive power officers were not prepared to 
consider a car of greater capacity than 30 tons for general 
interchange service. Three members of the committee pre- 
sented plans for steel box and fiat cars, and exhibited three 
sample cars, with steel under-frames. The Schoen Pressed 
Steel Company exhibited two pressed steel 50-ton hopper cars. 
The committee was discharged and a new one appointed to 
criticise the plans already submitted, and here the work of the 
Master Car Builders' Association on this subject virtually 
closed. In 1898 the new committee reported that it did not! 
have sufficient information in detail to make exact and com- 
plete calculations of the strength of the cars, designed by 
members of the previous committee. Acting under the im- 
pression that its principal business was to recommend a 
standard steel car, the 1898 committee reported that it was 
impossible to design a car which would meet with universal 
favor and the limited experience with steel cars was a suffi- 
cient reason for not selecting a design at that time. The report 
was accompanied by plans of the Schoen 50-ton hopper car. 
The committee was discharged and at the convention of 1899 
no report on steel cars was made and no committee ap- 
pointed. 

In 1897 the Schoen Company received their first large order 
for steel cars, and built 600 pressed steel cars of the double- 



hopper gondola type, 50-tons capacity, for the Pittsburg, Besse- 
mei- & Lake Erie R. R. In that year they also built several 
Inindred .somewhat similar cars for the Penna. R. R. In 1898 
the Sclioen Company and the I"'ox Company were combined, 
forming the Pressed Steel Car Company. The business has 
rai)idly grown to its present enormous proportions, which 
will soon have a capacity of 100 large steel cars per day. 

The cars for eastern roads have been largely 50-ton coal 
cars with inclined self-dumping floors, the anthracite coal trade 
liaving develojied coal wharves suitable for hopper cars. In 
the west, however, the i)reference seems to be for a gondola 
car with a horizontal floor, flat drop bottom doors, and a 
capacity of 40 tons. Quite a number of these fine-looking cars 
are now running on western roads. Several years ago the 
Kox Company built a few coal cars with steel under-frames 
and a wooden box, and this idea is again coming to the front, 
and a large order has been given for cars of this type. In 
the Master Car Builders' Association reports on the subject 
(1896 and 1897) illustrations were given of box cars with a 
steel under-frame and a wooden box, the capacity being 60,000 
pounds. A number of roads now find it desirable to build box 
cars having a capacity of 40 tons, and this large capacity 
immediately suggests the advantage of a steel under-frame. 
We understand that the construction of a large number of 
40-ton box cars with steel under-frames and wooden super- 
structure is now under consideration. The necessity for cars 
of large capacity for general interchange service, in which 
box cars make their largest mileage, has not been felt here- 
tofore, and they are not likely to show such superior economy 
as the large capacity coal cars in local and special service. 
But the mixture of heavily loaded steel cars with wooden 
box cars in through freight trains is causing such frequent 
failures of wooden cars, that a new and strong argument 
for steel under-frames for box cars is rapidly making itself 
felt. Large numbers of wooden cars are being sent to the 
shops for repairs, and numerous wrecks are caused by the 
failure of old wooden cars, when forming parts of trains of 
big steel cars. The weak cars are either pulled apart or 
crushed by the application of the air brake. It may be fortu- 
nate that the life of the old cars is thus shortened, and it is 
an advantage to have them out of the way. The draft-rigging 
on old wooden cars is so poor that H'ains are broken in two, 
and it is not possible with such weak links in the chain to 
utilize the full tractive power of large locomotives. This evil 
exists to such an extent that it has been necessary to issue 
general orders on several large roads to reduce the train loads, 
and the Old wooden car is therefore at present the regulating 
element in determining the maximum train-load. Strange to 
say, it is not the power of the engine or the car capacity nor 
the car lading (all of which have been pushed almost to the 
extreme limit) which are to be principally considered in ton- 
nage rating, but the very uncertain and troublesome feature of 
a poor draft-rigging on an old wooden car. This also, we 
believe, will in the future be one of the principal reasons for 
building steel under-frames for all classes of freight cars. 

The steel car in service is not entirely free from troublesome 
features. Car inspectors say that when the couplers fail on these 
cars they are difficult to replace without sending them to the 
shops, and it is frequently necessary to chain steel cars to- 
gether, and this is always a dangerous expedient. Another 
trouble with steel cars arises from the drop door fastening 
working loose and permitting the load to dump out on the 
track. Recently several steel hopper cars dropped their doors 
and lading while in motion, and after the train was stopped 
hydraulic jacks were necessary to force the doors, with their 
load, back into position. 

The shop repairs of steel cars will soon require a new kind 
of a car shop, more like a boiler or bridge shop, with metal 
working tools, such as punches, shears and riveters. It will 
also require a new kind of repair man. who instead of being 
a carpenter must be a metal worker. The shops, tools, and 
men will soon adjust themselves to the new order of things 
and provision for steel car repairs must be made a prominent 
feature of new car shops. 



12 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL 




Consolidation Freight Locomotive— Illinois Central R. R. 



Wm. Renshaw, Siipenntendcnf of Motive Power. 



Rogers Locomotive Works, Builders. 



HEAVY CONSOLIDATION LOCOMOTIVE. 



Illinois Central Railroad. 



. Built by the Rogers Locomotive Company. 



Another heavy locomotive has been added to the remarkable 
list for the past year. This one is for regular road service on 
the Illinois Central. It was completed last month and is re- 
ported to be doing satisfactory work. This engine is lighter 
than that of the 12-wheel type recently furnished the same 
road by the Brooks Locomotive Works, and illustrated in our 
issue of October, 1899, page 316. That only one of each of these 
heavy types was built seems to indicate hesitation to go too 
fast into heavy engines. 

The design illustrated is among the heaviest of the consoli- 
dation type. There are two heavier, however, viz., the Pitts- 
burg. Union Railway Consolidation (issue of November, 1898, 
page 365), and the Baldwin Vauclain Compounds for the Lehigh 
Valley (issue of December, 1898, page 395). 

This engine will run on one of the divisions south of the Ohio 
River and was intended to be powerful enough to haul trains 
of 2,000 tons over 38-ft. grades. The tractive power at 85 per 
cent, of boiler pressure is very nearly 50,000 pounds. The heat- 
ing surface is not large for such a total weight, in fact, the 
heating surface is but 286 square feet more than that of the new 
10-wheel passenger locomotives of the "Lake Shore." and it is 
146 square feet less than that of the new Delaware & Hudson 
consolidation engines described in our December, 1S99, issue. It 
is perhaps not perfectly fair to compare locomotives on a basis 
of power by stating their relative heating surfaces and weights 
on driving wheels, but as the hauling power is determined by 
the weight upon drivers and as the sustained boiler power 
depends very largely upon the heating surface, the following 
figures will be interesting, and they are fair when comparing 
the consolidation engines with each other. 



Weiglit on drivers in ibs. 

Total heating surface 

Lbs. on drivers per sq. ft. ( 
divided by heating sur--! 





60 




• 'C 


o "' 












=5E 




«£ o 




L. V. Con 
Baldwin 

L, S, & M 

10-wheel 

Passenge 

Bronks. 


208,000 


19S.OO0 


193,200 


157,500 


202,232 133.000 


3,322 


3,203 


3.500 


3,349 


4,103 2,917 



face 



61.2 



49 



The Lehigh Valley and the Delaware & Hudson engines have 



wide fireboxes and are out of the narrow firebox class, but they 
are included in order to show the results of efforts to make the 
weights count in the boiler capacity. It is exceedingly interest- 
ing to see the standing of the new Brooks fast passenger loco- 
motives for the Lake Shore in this respect. The question here 
indicated is, what is the value of the ratio between boiler power 
and the limiting weight? Different designers certainly have 
very different ideas and this seems to be a most excellent 
argument for an elaborate test to show whether it is worth 
while to get this ratio down on heavy engines. 

The boiler is very large, the diameter being SO inches at the 
front course. The firebox is unusually large, the grate being 
11 feet long and the grate area 38.5 square feet. This is believed 
to be the largest grate ever used for a narrow firebox engine. 
The firebox is above tip frames, and the mud ring is wider 
than the frames, giving width of 42 inches to the grate. The 
boiler is of the Belpaire type with two rows of sling-stays in 
front. The steam pressure is 210 pounds per square inch. 
The center of the boiler is 9 feet 2 inches above the rails, the 
top of the stack isl5 feet and the crown sheet is 10 feet 6 inches 
above the top of the rail at the flue sheet. With such a large 
and heavy boiler we should expect the center of gravity of the 
locomotive to be very high, but Mr. Reuben Wells, Superin- 
tendent of the building company, states that it was located by 
experiment at a point .50% inches above the rails. We shall 
print an account of how this was found. 

We illustrate a few of the details of this engine, but there 
are interesting features in those that are omitted. The cylin- 
ders are 23 by 30 inches. The pistons are of cast steel and only 
7 16 inch thick in the plates. The piston rods are extended, the 
forward portion passing through a sleeve 8 inches long, but 
without a stuffing box. The crosshead looks small for such sur- 
roundings, but it has a bearing of 8 by 24 inches and is amply 
strong. The top and bottom slippers are removable, each in 
one piece. The cast-steel driving boxes, shown in Fig. 7, are 
also strong and li.ght, the driving journals are 9 by 12 inches, 
which would necessitate an exceedingly heavy box if made of 
iron. It has dove-tailed grooves for babbitt strips to bear 
against the hubs of the driving wheels, which are also of cast 
steel. In an engine of this size it is possible to obtain a thrust 
of as much as 42 tons alternating from one side to the other 
of the engine and changing in direction at every stroke. That 
is what a 23-inch cylinder gives with a steam pressure of 200 
pounds per square inch, which will probably be imposed upon 
these pistons at slow speeds. This has been provided for by a 
steel plate casting bolted to the back of the cylinder saddle and 
very securely bolted to the frames. This casting is nearly five 



Januaky. 190C. AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 13 



(eet long and is intended to aid in holding tlie enormous 
stresses referred to and to talte some of tlie twisting strains. 

Figure 2 siiows the general arrangement of the engine, the 
draft appliances and the driving spring rigging. Figure 4 
shows the arrangement of the valve connection to enable it to 
pass the second driving axle. The yoke is of cast steel and its 
weight is carried by the link, D. of Figure 5, which is supported 
to a cross-brace of the frame by the bracket, F. In Figure 4 



the back end of the yoke Is seen to be double. The pin, H, 
passes through both portions and also through the link block. 
The link is provided for in tne space, O, of this engraving. 
This permits it to come very close to the axle. The yoke Is 
closed at the bottom of the thimble. G, through which a bolt 
passes as indicated. 

The link and hanger are shown in Figure G. The hanger is 
double with a connection across the parts, the link has a face 





4Ur 



14 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 




Fig, 3.— Half Sections and End Elevations. 




Fig. 4.— Valve Connection Around Drivini" Axle. 



January, 1900. AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 15 



Li 



iiyt A 






:? 



Jr. 4' 

i 



i\^yi^~fH 




-, 8- 



/''I 
— */j« 



f^^l^^Sf) 



f 



T" 









*3 



z 
'"bolts 






V—H 



Fig. 5.— Support for Valve Connection, 



Taper 




Fig. 6,— Linl< and Llnl< Hanger. 

of 3% inches. The saddle is in two parts and is secured to 

the back of the linlt. The linlt is stiffened by the rib, A, which 

is a good plan for worliing valves as large as these. 

The following table gives the chief characteristics of the 

engine: 

Cylinders 23 by 30 In. 

Total weight in working order 216,000 lbs. 

Weight on drivers 196.000 lbs. 

Weight on truck 20.000 lbs 

Driving wheels, diameter 57-in. 

Driving wheel centers 50-in. 

Driving journals 9 by 12 in. 

Driving wheel base 16 ft. 3 in. 

Total wheel base 24 ft. 5 In. 

Boiler type Belpaire 

Boiler pressure 210 lbs. 

Boiler diameter in front SO in. 

Boiler, height of center above rail 9 ft. 2 in. 



s 



i'-l 






HV.. 



O. iei 



_a 






i 



I.- -ni- — -1 

r^-T; — /?*•' T^ 



.^ 







-ts^- 

Fig. 7.— Cast Steel Driving Box. 

Heating surface, firebox 252 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, tubes 2,951 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, total 3,203 sq. ft. 

Grate area 38.5 sq. (t. 

Firebox, inside 132 by 42 In. 

Firebox, height front 78 in. 

Firebox, height back 75 in. 

Tubes, number 417 

Tubes, diameter 2 In. 

Tubes, length 13 ft. 8 In. 

Thickness of sheets in boiler % and % in. 

Thiek!iess of crown sheet 7/16 In. 

Thickness of firebox, sides and back % in. 

Thickness of firebox tube sheet % in. 

Slide valves Allen- American 

Slide valves, travel of 6 In. 

Steam ports 15/16 by 23 in. 

Exhaust ports 3?i by 23 in. 

Bridges, width of 5^ in. 

Piston rods Extended 

Piston rods, material Nickel steel 

Crank pins, material Coffin process 

Pistons Cast steel 

Guides, width 914 In. 

Guides, material Wrought iron 

Smoke stacks Cast iron 

Cab Steel 

Truck wheels McKee-Fuller 

Truck wheels, diameter 33 in. 

Truck axles .' Iron 

Truck axle journals 6 by 10 in. 

Tender capacity, water 5,000 gals. 

Tender capacity, coal 10 tons 

render trucks Fox 

Tender wheels McKee-Fuller 

Tender wheels, diameter 36 in. 

Tires Krupp 

Boiler covering Franklin Mfg. Co. 

Brake Westinghoiise 

The size of the electric motors in a system of electric sub- 
division of power has an important effect upon the ultimate 
economy of the plant; this has been shown by Mr. George 
Gibbs in this country and by Mr. John S. Ra worth in England, 
before the Manchester Association of Engineers. Mr. Raworth 
says that the whole question is bound up in the cost and effi- 
ciencies of the various sizes of motors. For instance, it may be 
perfectly easy to show that 40 horse power may be economi- 
cally transmitted to a distance and reproduced by a motor of 90 
per cent, efficiency. But if the same power is required to be 
much subdivided and reproduced by motors having an aggre- 
gate cost of three times as much as that of the single motor 
and having an efficiency of no more than 75 per cent., then the 
balance may be on the wrong side. For instance, if a motor 
of 20 horsepower costs $750, 20 motors of one horsepower each 
would cost $2,400. to which extra switches and fittings should 
be added. 

A new use for the stereopticon method of instructing and 
examining railroad employees has been found. Mr. W. J. 
Murphy, originator of this idea, has sent us a copy of a letter 
received from Prof. F. P. Anderson of the mechanical engi- 
neering department of the State College of Kentucky, at Lex- 
ington, stating that this method will be used in instructing the 
students of that college in the meaning of railroad signals. 



16 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



(Established 1832I 

— AMERICAN-^ 

LNcmEEK 

railroadIjournal 



PUBLISHKD MONTHLY 

R. M. VAN ARSDALE, 

J. S. BONSALL, Business Manager. 

MORSE BUILDING NEW YORK 

C I»I. BASFORD, Kditor. 
E. E. SILK, Assftciate Editor 



JANUARY, 1900. 



SubBcrtptlon.— $2.00 a year tor the Ignited States and Canada ; 42.50 a 
Uear to Foreipn Countries embraced in the Universal Postat Union'. 

Remit by Express Money Order, Draft or Post-Office Order. 

Sutiscriptions for thi<! paper icifl be received and copies kept for .^iale bp 
the Post Office \e>cs Co., 217 Dearborn Street, Chicago, lit. 



EDITORIAL ANNOUNCEMENTS. 



\Avertiseinents.— Nothing trill be inserted in this journal lor 
pay, EXCEPT IN THE ADVERTISING PAGES. The rearling pages will 
contain only buch matter as ue consider of interest to our 
readers. 



Special Notice.— 4s the American Engineer and Railroad 
Journal is printed and ready for mailing on the last day of 
the month, correspondence, advertisements, etc., intended for 
insertion mvst be received not later than the 2f)f}i day of each 
month. 



Contributions. — Articles relating to railway rolling stock con- 
struction and management and Mndred topics, by those who 
are practically acquainted with these subjects, are specially 
desired. Also early notices of official changes, and additions of 
new equipment for the road or the shop, by purchase or construc- 
tion. 



To Subscribers.— 2'Ae American Engineek and Railroad 
Journal is mailed regularly to eveiy subscriber each 
month. Any subscriber who fails to receive his paper ought 
at once to notify the postmaster at the office of delivery, and in 
case the paper is not then obtained this office should be notifi^'d., 
so that the missing paper may be sapplied. When a >nb» 
scriber changes his address he ought to notify this office at 
once, so that the paper may be sent to the proper destination. 




St. Dunstan's Bouse, Fetter Lane, E. C. 



MASTER MECHANICS WANTED. 



Why Is It that four important railroads, and perhaps more, 
are having difficulty in securing satisfactory Master Mechan- 
ics? We have at the present time four such applications on 
iile in this office, one of the positions having been vacant for 
several months. The salaries offered are good, the openings 
are excellent and the prospects for advancement encouraging. 
In one of these cases '$3,000 a year will he paid to the right 
man. 

Is the fault with the roads, in neglecting to educate young 
men for promotion? Is it with the technical schools in any 
way? Is it with the young men themselves? It is clear that 
something is wrong, perhaps with one and perhaps with aJl 
of these. The questions are offered to those whose success and 
usefulness are closely concerned in answering them. 



The compound locomotive has had no more earnest and 
competent supporter than Mr. F. W. Webh. of the London and 
Northwestern. Prof. Goss, in his letter from the Crewe works, 
in this issue, reminds us that Mr. Webh began his experiments 



twenty-one years ago and has labored in developing the com- 
pound locomotive entirely uninfluenced by any lack of sym- 
pathy which he has encountered. It is possible that time will 
show him to have been far in the lead of English practice in 
this particular, because, now that the limits of clearances are 
becoming serious in that country, it will probably be necessary 
to turn to the conuiound for the desired increase in power. 



In the standardization of locomotive parts Prof. Goss shows 
Mr. Webh to have been very far-sighted. Seven hundred en- 
gines with the same cylinders and boilers represent what he 
has done in this direction in the matter of general design. 
He goes even beyond this in the smaller details: for example, 
there are but two eccentrics on the whole road having 2,800 
locomotives. To many this will seem like overdoing the idea. 
It is not overdone, however, until the standardizing begins to 
obstruct progress. Probably under Mr. Webb's conditions this 
has not occurred. There is more danger of too little than 
too mtich standardizing in this country. 



That the staybolt question is one of the most important of 
the day in locomotive practice is proved by the statements 
made in this issue by Mr. F. W. Johnstone. Superintendent 
of Motive Power of the Mexican Central Railroad. Safety is, 
of course, first in importance, but the expense of renewal is 
of itself sufficient to enlist the attention of everyone interested 
in locomotive maintenance. Frequent inspection is necessary 
to safety, and when engines must be held at least once in 
30 days for this purpose the cost of this item is considerable. 
The expense of renewing broken bolts is not in Itself a very 
large item, but when it becomes necessary to take down parts 
to get at the firebox the cost becomes enormous and is prob- 
ably much greater than is generally believed. Mr. Johnstone's 
statement that it sometimes costs $10 to renew a single staybolt 
is alarming and is a satisfactory reason for taking advantage 
of every opportunity to reduce and overcome the trouble. If 
Mr. Johnstone's new form of staybolt will accomplish this, 
and it seems promising, the additional cost of the application 
should be and probablv will be cheerfullv borne. 

s 

The correspondence from railroad men called out by our dis- 
cussion of Staybolt Progress in the 'December issue indicates 
that the staybolt difficulty is causing no little concern and 
the contemplation of the effects of the increased steam pres- 
sures of recent years does not tend to afford relief to the 
anxiety. Staybolt material has been sent us by prominent 
motive power men who desired to know whether it is "the best 
that is to be had." and whether it is "safe material." This 
may be taken as a satisfactory indication that slightly increas- 
ing expense will be gladly assumed for the protection that is 
so greatly desired. 



Mr. F. F. Gaines, Mechanical Engineer of the Lehigh Valley, 
has valuable suggestions to offer on this subject, and while 
his comments may seem somewhat radical to those who have 
seen only what may be termed average practice, we believe 
that he is correct and we are glad to print his views on points 
raised in the article referred to. The burden of proof is on 
the other side of this question, at least for the present. 



Laboratory tests of locomotive boilers do not reproduce 
road conditions in regard to vibration and oscillation of the 
engine, and by some this is considered as a serious disadvan- 
tage because of its influence in reducing the power of the 
boiler when on the testing plant. The communication by Prof. 
Smart, in another column of this issue, is based upon experi- 
ence at Purdue, and it is interesting to know his opinion that 
this influence is overestimated. What our correspondent says 
about the maximum power of boilers is important in its bear- 
ing upon boiler design as well as being appropriate in this 
connection. The real power of a boiler is not that which it 
may develop for a short time, but for sustained service. It is 



jANUARv.iMO. AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL 17 



not that which may be developed in the first few hours of a 
run, but the response which may be counted upon at any time 
when needed, that determines the power of a boiler and the 
capacity of the locomotive, 'i'he grates and firebox are closely 
concerned in this question. 



PAYING FOR WORK DONE. 



Is the Piece-WorI{ System Ilefective? 



Piece-worlt has made considerable headway in this country, 
and it has accomplished a great deal in the development of 
indu.strial enterprises. It is an economic advance which pays 
men according to their worth and encourages them by bringing 
immediate results for increased efforts. It tends to increase 
wages, under certain conditions to promote contentment, to 
increase output and to save in many ways by making the life 
of the workmen more promising, and he, instead of counting 
the hours, reckons the amount of work accomplished. He 
urges the foreaian to keep up with the shop and the foremen 
does not need to urge the shop. The system does all this and 
all goes well until a certain point is reached, when a defect 
appears which those who know most about the subject con- 
sider a fatal one. The defect of the day system is that im- 
provements favor the employer only, in piece-work they favor 
the workman except as the increased output is an advantage to 
the employer. The defect of the piece-work system with a 
fixed rate per piece is that it makes no provision for the effects 
of the inevitable decrease in cost of production brought about 
by the various improvements which are from time to time intro- 
duced. The workman obtains the entire advantage except the 
one mentioned. The result is one of two things: Either prog- 
ress in improvement will stop at the point where the men begin 
to fear a cut in their prices, or the employer, who can never 
be happy when men are getting the advantage over him, will 
make a cut in the schedules and sacrifice the confidence of 
the men. If prices have been carefully fixed at the start this 
may require a long time, but if there is progress the time 
will come when the issue must be faced. The employer needs 
to have a direct interest in the further exertions of the work- 
men just as much as the men need to have an interest in pro- 
ducing short cuts and suggesting improvements. A piece-work 
system cannot be considered satisfactory unless it is clearly 
to the interests of the employer to have the men earn as much 
as they can. 

In a paper by Mr. R. T. Shea, read in November, 1899. before 
the Western Railway Club, the generally understood advan- 
tages of piece-work were outlined and in the discussion Mr, G. 
R. Henderson, Assistant Superintendent of Motive Power of the 
Chicago & Northwestern, touched upon what is now being 
urged as the remedy for this defect in piece-work systems when 
he suggested that any increase in the product of a day's work 
Ton the day-pay basis') should be divided between the employer 
and the workman. Mr. P. A. Halsey's plan (American Machin- 
ist, March 9, 1899, page 180), is as follows: 

"Taking round numbers for convenience, suppose a work- 
man to be paid $3.00 per day of 10 hours and to produce one 
piece of a certain kind per day. The wages cost of the product 
per piece is obviously, $3.00. Now, under the premium system 
the proprietor says to the workman. 'If you will reduce the 
time on that piece, I will pay you a premium of ten cents for 
each hour, by which you reduce it.' If a reduction of one hour 
is made the first result to the employer is to save the wages of 
30 cents for the hour which has been saved, but against 
this is to be placed the ten cents earned as a premium, leaving 
a net gain of 20 cents to the employer, and a net increase of 
earnings of ten cents to the workman. Had the premium of- 
fered been 1.5 cents, the result of an hour's reduction of time 
would have been to save 15 cents to the employer and to in- 
crease the workman's earnings by the same amount." 

The premium plan fixes a time for a certain piece of work 
and pays a premium for every hour saved. In practice it has 



been found safe to count upon cutting down the time o( ma- 
chine work operations by one-half. The standard time and the 
premium need to be fixed with great care. The standard time 
must not be too short or the premium too great. Mr. Halsey's 
experience has shown it to be satisfactory to the workman If 
he receives one-third of the amount he saves. This plan has 
the effect of keeping the foremen up to their best work, and 
it is found to be a greater test of the management than of the 
men. This plan means that the larger the workmen's wages 
in a given time the less is the cost of production and the 
greater the advantage to the employer. The premium plan is 
apparently applicable to any processes to which piece-work 
may be applied. 

Men have objected to this system because it was considered 
as piecework under another name, which shows their opinion 
of piecework. Some such plan as this administered with fair- 
ness seems likely to prove to be what the industrial situation 
needs. Summed up, this may be stated as follows: Work in- 
evitably cheapens and some sort of a premium plan is the only 
way to reduce the cost of production without cutting prices. 



FIBRE STRESS DUE TO IMPACT. 



By Edward Grafstrom. 



If a piece of irou is inserted in a testing machine, and the 
pressure which stretches it is gradually increased, the ratio 
between the elongation and the force causing it may be repre- 
sented graphically by a curve, the ordinates of which refer 
to the elongations and the abscissas to the corresponding 
forces. Many testing machines are provided with recording 
apparatus automatically drawing this curve, which is charac- 
teristic of the material. If the gradually increased pressure 
in the machine were substituted by a falling weight impinging 
upon the lower, free end of a vertically suspended bar. a sim- 
ilar diagram would be obtained. According to the law of 
kinetic energy the falling weight would not come to a state 
of rest until the work done by the impact had been absorbed. 
or, in other words, when the work of the external force bal- 
ances the internal strains, the velocity of the lower end of the 
bar becomes equal to zero. When the internal strains equal a 
static load of the same weight, the lower end of the bar 
reaches its maximum velocity. From this point the work as 
well as the velocity decreases, until the latter quantity finally 
reaches its zero-value, when the bar remains at rest for an 
instant, after which it begins to contract. It would continue 
to oscillate in a vertical direction, were not the energy con- 
sumed in producing heat, structural changes, etc. 

By assuming that the elastic impulse is transplanted with 
an infinite velocity, so that the deformation of the body Is 
instantaneous throughout its structure, and all parts of the 
body are set in motion and again come to rest simultaneously, 
the dynamic principles above referred to may be used for 
determining the fibre stress in a body under impact, provid- 
ing that the proportional limit is not exceeded. One of the 
most convenient formulas for this purpose, which has come 
under the writer's observation, is the one by Mr. ,Tohn David- 
son, presented in a recent number of the "Technical Journal" 
of Stockholm, Sweden. The results of this formula have been 
verified by the testing machine, ^s-ithin the limits prescribed, 
which puts it beyond speculation, and. as it may be new to 
many, its development will here be explained. 

If a body is acted upon by a static force, and this is increased 
in a certain proportion. N. the deformation as well as the fiber 
stress will also be increased in the same proportion. If now 
a dynamic force producing N times as large deformation is 
substituted for the static force, the fiber stress it produces is 
obtained by simply multiplying the static fiber stress by N. 
In order to determine the dynamic co-efficient. N. the work of 
the external forces is put equal to the work of resistance of 
the internal strains, for, as already stated, it is under these 
conditions that the body attains its greatest deformation. 

Returning to the example of the vertical bar with a falling 



18 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



weight impinging upon its lower, free end, and by plotting the 
strain curve referred to, as in Fig. 1, with P representing the 
weight, h the height, and y the elongation, the rectangle, 
A B C = Ph, gives the kinetic energy, L, of the weight at 
the moment of impact. The static deformation work, W, 
caused by P is equal to the triangle, F E = V^Py. The sum 
of the work by the external forces at the maximum deforma- 
tion is then, ABDG = ABCO-fOCDG. The internal 
stresses are represented by the triangle, G H. Consequently, 
ABDG = OGH. According to the definition of N, O G = Ny, 
and GH = NP. OCDGis therefore the same as N Py, and 
O G H the same as %N=Py, also A B D G = Ph + N Py. By 
insertion the equation Ph -)- N Py = %N^Py is obtained, from 
which the value of N is found thus: 



N = l + 



|/ 



1 + W 



If the external forces are suddenly applied, but without at- 
taining any velocity, L becomes = O, and consequently N = 2, 





* /= >( 


1 
1 

A 

I 
1 

1 

if 


f u9 




\ 



Fig. 1. 

or, in other words, the fiber stress becomes twice as large as 
under the same static load. 

The practical application of Mr. Davidson's formula is of 
wide range, and as it may enable the designer to determine 
the detail dimensions of machines or structures exposed to 
dynamic influences more accurately than by experience or from 
similar analogical conditions, it may be interesting to illus- 
trate its usefulness in the following examples: 

Example 1. A vertically suspended iron bar of a length, 
1 = 100 inches, and with a sectional area. A ^ 1 square inch, 
is struck at its lower, free end by weight, P = 450 pounds, 
falling from a height, h = l inch. The support as well as 
the weight are considered inelastic. Find the maximum fiber 
stress, S. 

Here, W=:%Py, if y represents the maximum elongation; 
y is also equal to PI divided by AE, where E stands for the 
modulus of elasticity. W is therefore =P^1. divided by 2A E. 
If this and the value of L = Ph are inserted in the formula. It 
will appear thus: 



N = 1 + y^i + 
Assuming E as 27,000,000, we get: 



3 AEh 
PI 



N : 



l+i/l+^l^iZ:55M!l^= 8.5.66. 



450 .1110 

The static fiber stress being 450 pounds per square inch, 450 
multiplied by 35,66 gives the dynamic fiber stress. S = 16,047 
pounds. 

Example 2. A beam fixed at one end is acted upon by a 
weight, P, falling from a height, h (see Fig. 2). 

The work of deformation for a strip of the length, x. and the 
area, q. at the distance, z, from the neutral axis (see Fig. 3), 
is, as before, and using the same letters: 



W = 



(qS)' 
2qE 



the uppermost element, then S' : S" = z : e. Now, S" := M : I, 
M and I relating to the distances x and z, respectively, and 



■ = / 



z'q. From this the value of W is obtained: 



W: 



1 rW 

2eJ I 



and when the cross section of the beam is constant: 

From this equation the value of N is obtained, according 
to Mr. Davidson's formula: 



N = 1 + 



2EIL 



Inserting the values 

j M« X =j P- X Q= ---- i P= 1= 



we get 



N = 1 + I' 



/ 6 Elh 



I 



I 



f 



my/f'/m. 



z 

_«_ 

a 



Fig. 2. 



Fig. 3. 



Example 3. From what height may the tup in a drop-test- 
ing machine fall upon a standard M. C. B. 4i4x8-inch steel 
axle, without straining the axle beyond the proportionate limit 
(Fig. 4)? - 

Inserting the numerical values in the formula, we get 

N = 1 -h ^1 + 
which gives 



6E. 16 O. 0491 . m)* .h 
1640 . 36' 






^=^a 



LBS 

w 




FiiT. 4. 

The fiber stress under a static load of 1,640 pounds is 
1640 . 4f ■ 36 



F 



1 530 lbs. 



4.2.0. 0491 . (4t)« 
According to Prof. W. K. Hatt's paper at the Pittsburg 
meeting of the Association for Testing Materials, the propor- 
tionate limit of steel bars under the conditions at hand may 
be taken as 33,900 pounds, and the modulus of elasticity as 
29,386,000. Using these figures, we would have 33,900 = F N, or 



If S' is the stress zX the distance z, and S", the stress in 



33,900 = 1,520 (l + 4/, + ?M«M0Oh| 
which gives h =: 0, 54 Inches. 



januaky, 1900. AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 19 



EDUCATION OF MACHINISTS, FORIOMP^N AND MECHANI- 
CAL ENOINKKRS. 



The paper on this subject read before the American Society 
of Mechanical Engineers in December, by M. P. Higgins, was 
characterized by Captain Robert W. Hunt of Chicago as the 
most important paper ever brought before the society. 

It is a severe arraignment of the existing order in education 
for technical mechanical pvirsuits and is worthy of most at- 
tentive consideration from those whose needs this journal is 
intended to reach. 

Many excellent schools are preparing young men to be me- 
(•hanical engineers, but few are educating machinists and 
foremen. The need is for these men. One hundred of them 
are wanted for every one mechanical engineer, and the au- 
thor's object was to describe a well-considered plan to pro- 
vide for this vital necessity. His fundamental idea is to base 
the education on the machinist's trade and without any in- 
tention of interfering with the high-grade technical institu- 
tions he would make it possible for a boy to become a com- 
petent mechanic and at the same time obtain a good school 
education. Everyone knows the situation with regard to ap- 
prenticeship. Mr. Higgins seeks to answer the question: 
"How can we give our boys a chance to learn a trade without 
being deprived of a good common school education and at the 
same time secure a foundation upon which to build a higher 
education if capacity and circumstances permit?" 

He does not propose a new plan to educate the mechanical 
engineer. He desires to give the machinist's trade and the 
common education to those who need it, and to do this in a 
commercially conducted shop which is manufacturing for the 
open market and is combined with a good school system. 

This is a good start for all of the three grades mentioned in 
the title of the paper. The man who is first a good machinist, 
trained in a shop which is obliged to frame its conduct on com- 
mercial principles, and is qualified to be a foreman, has the 
best sort of foundation for success as a superintendent and as 
a mechanical engineer. It is insisted by all that the mechani- 
cal engineer requires shop experience and more than he can 
get in the usual technical school. In view of this we are 
of the opinion that the high grade technical schools can profit- 
ably consider an application of this idea to themselves. There 
is no doubt that those who start with Mr. Higgins' plan and 
afterward qualify for mechanical engineering work will be in 
far greater demand than those who start with the education 
first and attempt to get the shop experience afterward. To 
attempt to give even a synopsis of the paper Is out of the 
question here, but we shall try to state its underlying princi- 
ples.. 

Mr. Higgins gives the chief features of what he terms the 
"Half Time School." as follows: 

First. — A school which shall include a first class commer- 
cially successful and productive machine shop, which is a 
department co-ordinate in importance, influence and educa- 
tional value with the academic department. 

Second. — A school in which the pupils are to have instruc- 
tion and practice in this shop during half the working hours 
in five days of each week for a period of four years. 

Third. — Instruction in the public schools during a portion 
of the other half of the time, equivalent to a high school 
course, restricted, abridged and improved to meet the needs 
of these pupils. 

Fourth. — Special care and method of selection of pupils who 
have finished the grammar school course and who have special 
aptness for mechanical work. 

Fifth. — Management under a corporation whose trustees 
shall be practical business men. 

The idea will be new to many, but it is shown to be practi- 
cable by the entire success of the Washburn Shops of the 
Polytechnic Institute of Worcester, Mass., of which the au- 
thor of the paper has been Superintendent for 27 years. These 
shops have carried out the idea fully and successfully. This 



result is in a large measure due to the ability and earnest- 
ness of the Superintendent, and it will be difficult to secure 
such men. They are to be had, however, and it Is difficult 
to understand why the work of teaching should be Intrusted 
to any but those who are best able to do it. This plan means 
a higher grade of instructors, because they must he men who 
can hold their own in the competition of commercial affairs. 
'I'he present college jirofessor has the highest ideals, but it is 
most difficult for him to keep in touch with commercial con- 
ditions unless, as in such a scheme as this, he must do so 
or fail. 

The author says that at a recent meeting of managers it 
was stated that 200 young men suitable for foremen for foun- 
dries could be placed at once. Nothing is more difficult than 
to find good men for these positions. If, however, a president, 
a treasurer, salesman or mechanical engineer is wanted, there 
is no difficulty. The man who is able to manage the practical 
details of the shop and not only do good work but also do it 
cheaper than his competitor, is relatively very rare. 

The proportion of boys completing courses in the public 
schools is small, and it is believed that if a good living was 
assured upon the completion of a four years' course, more 
would endeavor to take It. The technical schools do not reach 
this class; first, because the requirements are high and are 
tending even higher, and second, because these schools are for 
the scientist rather than the mechanic. This type of school is 
beyond the reach of boys who are to become workmen and 
also beyond the reach of many who would make engineers. 
Mr. Higgins says: 

"This school is aimed to fit each boy for the successive 
grades of mechanics from the machinist up, so that at any 
time he will be fitted to take up his work outside as a well- 
trained mechanic in the grade which he has completed, and 
be prepared to enter the training of the next grade. In other 
words, the object of the school is to produce many well- 
trained and educated machinists, and from these machinists 
some foremen, from the foremen a few superintendents, and 
finally an occasional engineer. 

" 'Many are called, but few are chosen." We need not 
grieve at the very few chosen, because but few are required. 
But few professional engineers can be employed, provided 
the great body of working mechanics are effectively educated 
to think clearly, keenly and quickly. 

"We may hope for much from a thousand educated, think- 
ing, expert American machinists who have the skill, educa- 
tion and an exact knowledge of the shops. Is not the pro- 
duction of one hundred well-educated workmen a more cer- 
tain undertaking than the production of one genius? 

"The hindrance to the best results in engineering schools, 
which has come from the imperfect and unfair method of se- 
lection in making up or enlisting its classes, has already been 
mentioned. Under the present system it is a boy's business 
to spend several years of cramming for examinations after he 
decides upon going to a polytechnic school or college. His 
whole aim and the aim of his teacher is to prepare for the 
examinations. The fitting school develops an astonishing abil- 
ity to pass exarjinations which are not a true or adequate test 
of a boy's fitness to make a mechanic or a mechanical engi- 
neer. Therefore the entering class of the polytechnic insti- 
tute consists of a body of experts at examinations, while the 
boys all through the country who ought to be trained for 
manufacturing and mechanical industry are overlooked and 
passed by." 

The idea about the shop is to secure as far as possible the 
conditions which will permit of competing with the best 
equipped commercial shops in the country, and the organiza- 
tion may be almost the same as if the school element were 
entirely left out. The Worcester success shows that there 
are no insurmountable difficulties in the selection of the kind 
of machines to build or in the manufacture and sale, provided 
that the management is what it should be. The capacity of 
the shop should be such that, if desirable, at any time, one- 
third or one-half as many hired men may be employed as 
the total number of students. This is one of the fundamental 
ideas whereby the instruction is surrounded with the real shop 
atmosphere. 

In the light of the long experience of the originator in this 
field, we are inclined to give weight to the following state- 



20 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



ment: "We can confidently assure a more thorough expert 
knowledge of the machinist's trade and a more practical skill 
in its various departments than is generally secured by any 
apprenticeship in this country or Europe." The same applies 
to this also: "These pupils will receive as a part of their 
shop practice a much larger amount of time in lectures and 
instruction upon the technical part of the machinist's busi- 
ness than is given in the technical school." 

This is a period of transition in educational matters and 
methods in all lines. It takes time to bring radical changes 
about, but with the wide and deep interest manifested in this 
subject in many directions, the necessary improvements can 
not fail to begin at once to make advances. For a well-con- 
sidered presentation of a plan drawn up by a man with lofty 
and sensible views of technical education, this paper is com- 
mended to our readers, who are becoming more and more de- 
pendent upon properly trained assistants. They should at 
once take steps to sectire copies of the paper from the Secre- 
tary of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. We 
have, in our editorial rooms, a limited number of copies which 
will be placed at the disposal of those who ask for them. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

THE EFFECT OF THE LOADING OF LOCOMOTIVES ON 
FUEL ECONOMY. 



Editor American Engineer and Railroad Journal: 

I have been much interested in the description of locomo- 
tive tests on the Norfolk & Western In the December number 
of the "American Engineer." and greatly pleased to find that 
the theoretical solution (referred to on page 392, and which 
was worked up by the undersigned, when connected with the 
Norfolk & Western) has been confirmed by the practical tests. 
It was here found that an increase of 20 per cent, in coal 
burned per ton-mile was caused by an increase in the load 
hauled of 10 per cent, (page 394). By referring now to page 
20S of the June. 1899, issue of the "American Engineer," a load 
of 700 tons at 10 miles an hour on a 1 per cent, grade should 
require 47 pounds coal per 100 ton-miles, and a train of 770 
tons, or 10 per cent, increase. 53 pounds, or 13 per cent, increase, 
in fuel consumption. The test was made on a grade of about 
1.2 per cent., and this increase in consumption is probably 
quite logical for these conditions. On a level, an increase 
from 2,000 to 2.400 tons did not show an increased consumption 
of coal per 100 ton-miles, and this also corresponds with the 
diagram on page 206. It must be borne in mind that too great 
a reduction in the weight of the train will also be accompanied 
by an increase in the consumption of fuel, as we should pass 
the economical point of cut-off. In a combination of grades 
and levels the latter will often be so great a proportion of 
the total haul that an uneconomical loading for the grade will 
give an economical train on the level; for instance, a grade 
10 miles long, requiring a cut-off of 90 per cent, for a train-l9ad 
that required only 25 or 30 per cent, cut-oft on a level 100 or 
more miles in length, would evidently not be sufficient to 
overcome the economical effect of the level haul. The whole 
subject is one of great interest to motive power officers at 
this time, and any reports which throw light upon It are 
heartily welcome. O. R. HENDERSON. 

Chicago. 111., Assistant Superintendent Motive Power. 

Dec. 11, 1899. Chicago & Northwestern Ry. 



THE POWER OF LOCOMOTIVE BOILERS ON STATION- 
ARY TESTING- PLANTS. 



Editor American Engineer and Railroad Journal: 

I have read with interest the paper on "Road Tests of Loco- 
motives" presented at the September meeting of the New York 
Railway Club, by R. P. C. Sanderson, together with the dis- 
cussion which followed. I find both paper and discussion full 
of suggestion and information. 

There were some statements, however. In the discussion 
which, it seems to me, call for further remark. The gist of 
these statements was that, owing to the peculiar conditions 



under which locomotive boilers operate on the road, it was 
possible to secure nearly one horse-power per square foot of 
heating .surface; that this condition was probably due to the 
motion of the boiler, which had a tendency to keep the water 
solid upon the tubes and thereby prevent priming. Reference 
w-as made to laboratory tests of locomotive boilers in which 
a boiler capable of developing 1,500 horse-power could only 
be made to show 750 horse-power when tested on a stationary 
plant. The conclusion drawn from this was that it was im- 
possible on a stationary plant to get as much out of a loco- 
motive boiler as could be obtained on the road. 

To those familiar with the operation of stationary testing 
plants. It is constantly shown that a locomotive boiler may 
at times and for considerable periods supply steam sufficient 
to generate at the engine, horse-powers approaching in fig- 
ures the number of square feet of heating surface contained 
in the boiler. This, however; does not represent the capacity 
of the boiler, but is an abnormal condition which cannot be 
maintained continuously. The true measure of the capacity 
of the boiler is what it will do for several hours on a stretch, 
ending in practically the same condition as it started. For 
this reason, any deductions as to the maximum capacity which 
may be maintained by a boiler on the road are apt to be very 
misleading. If the boiler output is figured from indicator 
cards, those cards may not have represented the average 
horse-power developed at the cylinder; if it is figured from 
draw-bar pull, the draw-bar pull may have been an unusual 
one and not representing average conditions. The very nature 
of road service, as it affects the boiler, the fact that for cer- 
tain periods large powers are developed and then time is given 
to recover and recharge, so to speak, gives opportunity to 
greatly overestimate the maximum output which a given 
boiler continuously delivers. For these reasons, the state- 
ment made, that it was possible to obtain nearly one horse- 
power per square foot of heating surface is. it seems to me, 
open to serious question. 

Referring now to the second statement, namely, that loco- 
motive boilers in stationary service or on the testing plant, 
could not be made to develop the same capacity of which they 
were capable in road service, I would say, first, that if what 
has just been said be true, there may have been an error in 
determining the maximum capacity of which the boiler was 
capable on the road, and^which was said to have been greater 
than the performance orthe same boiler on the testing plant. 
Second, that it is possible that the stationary test w'as not de- 
signed to force the boiler to its utmost capacity, and. third, 
that tests have been made on a stationary plant which would 
seem to show that the capacity of the boiler was not affected 
by the running of the engine, but was merely a function of 
the draft. 

The movements of a boiler on the road may be classified 
under three general heads: First, the forward motion along 
the rails: second, the more or less irregular swaying of the 
boiler up and down and from side to side; and. third, the con- 
tinuous and severe vibration of comparatively high frequency 
and «imall amplitude. On the testing plant the first of these 
movements is. of course, absent: the second one is only present 
occasionally and in a small degree: the third class is. however, 
present and in about the same degree as in ordinarv road 
service. This has been proven in many ways. It would seem 
to the writer that if the motions of a boiler have any effect 
to increase the production of dry steam, that the third, or 
vibratory movements, would be the most important, in that 
they would have a tendency to jar the particles of steam away 
from the heating surface as fast as formed. As has been said, 
this vibratory condition is to a very large extent present on 
the testing plant. Tests have been made in which the valves 
were blocked aw-ay from the seat and the steam allowed to 
blow through the exhaust, which have shown that with a given 
draft the evaporation of water per square foot of heating sur- 
face was practically the same as if the engine were running 
and the same amount of draft had been produced in the usual 
way. This would seem to point to the conclusion that the 
motions of the boiler in service do not have the effect of in- 
creasing its output to the extent that would be inferred from 
the discussion quoted. 

Purdue tTniversity. R. A. SMART. 

Lafayette. Ind., Associate Professor of Ex- 

Nov. 25, 1899. perlmental Engineering. 



January, 1900. AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAI LROAD JO U RNAL. 21 



RAIL WASHER TESTS ON THE BURLINGTON. 



Kditor American Engineer anrl Railroad Journal; 

The article on page 380 ot thp December Issue, on the valm- 
of the rail washer to remove the sand from the rails as carried 
out on the Chicago, Burlington & Qulncy, is a most interesting 
one. but 1 believe the diagrams and tables do not bring out 
all of the advantages of the device, because the coniparisons 
were made in such a way as to Include the grade resistance 
in the train lesistance. On a grade of ^:.', per cent, the 
grade resistance is 26 pounds per ton. and grade resistance 
is like death — it is sure. Furthermore, the tonnage must be 
wrong in the article: the figures evidently should be 31)6.7 and 
302.8 tons instead of 3,967 and 3,028 tons, the decimals having 
been apparently misplaced. These figures attracted my at- 
tention at once beeau.se. of eouise, an engine with n drawbar 
effort of 12.000 pounds rouhl iKil pull a 3,!167-ton train on a 
1.3 per cent, grade. 

What I want to call your attenticm to particularly is that 
you do not properly bring out the results of the tests by plot- 
ting the total resistance. The grade resistance being 26 pounds 
per ton, is 10,314 pounds in the case of the full train. Then, 
why not simply plot the train resistance alone? This would 
show what an enormous effect the sand has. This can easily be 
done by drawing a horizontal line on the diagram of the full 
train record at the point of 10.314 pounds drawbar pull. This 



?: 



Stf^fi/jj dt ifX'Yehf 



Sahd ahne 



5tjrkiHfOS/Vr 



^ 6 7 8 9 ' 'O // /? .1^ I.. 

Diagram of Resistances. 

introduces .somewhat of a difficulty, however. Subtracting 

10,314 from the average drawbar pulls given in the table gives 

results for train resistance as follows: 

Pull in lbs. Lbs. per ton. Rating. 

Sand alone 3,122 7.S5 100 percent. 

Sand and washer 2,554 6.42 S2 percent. 

Dry rail 2,107 5.53 70.5 per cent. 

\\'asher alone ].51i! :'.S2 4S. 7 per cent. 

I consider that the figures for the washer alone look rather 
small, and you will notice that all of the figures at section 9 
on the diagram are low, but they vary together. I should 
suppose that the train accelerated between sections 8 and 9, 
thus reducing the drawbar pull; but it is equally fair to all 
to deduct the grade resistance. The mere fact that the quan- 
tities are larger and that the discrepancies appear more no- 
ticeably in the total amounts is of no more value than adding 
an arbitrary 50,000 pounds would be. Put upon the basis of 
train resistance only, it shows what a valuable appliance the 
rail washer is. 

In confirmation of this, I had a little experience with a 
very large freight engine on a Western road in testing it on 
a grade of 1.55 per cent. It was found necessary to use a 
great deal of sand, which increased the train resistance con- 
siderably. I have not the figures at hand, but, if I am not 
mistaken, the load was increased from 31 to 34 cars by the 
use of the washer. In this case the water was taken from 
the tender tank and I do not see why it should be taken 
from the boiler. The additional heat in this hot water will 
surely not be enough to avoid freezing in winter, because it 
is not great as compared with that given out in freezing, and 
the tank water washed the rails effectively, at least, we 
thought so. 
f'hicago, 111., H. H. VAUGHAN. 

Dec. 12, 1899. 

[We have reproduced the diagram of the tests with the new- 
base line, as suggested by our correspondent, because the 



point raised as to the effect of the washer on a level track 
appears to be a good one. It is understood that in the case of 
tlir- Builington th^; washer Is used only on grades, but, to get 
Ml the maximum effect of the device, the grade resiBtano- 
slinold I"' ■liminated.— Editor.] 



LOCOMOTIVE EDUCATION. 



Editor American Engineer and Railroad .Journal : 

Mr. E. L. Coster's communication on locomotive instruction 
in technical schoosi, page 379 of the December issue, was of 
special interest to me. This revival of interest in technical 
schools affects all engineering courses as well as that per- 
taining to the locomotive, and if there is need for such a 
revision in locomotive engineering courses, it is even more 
nece.ssary that improvement take place first in the mechanical 
engineering course, which forms the basis of locomotive en- 
gineering. 

Our technical schools are beginning to realize the necessity 
of up-to-date ideas and commercial methods of conducting the 
work of the shops and laboratories. During the i)ast ten 
years they have not kept abreast with commercial improve- 
ments. It is for this reason more than any other that such 
interest is being taken in improving these conditions. We 
must bear in mind that it is not an easy matter for the pro- 
fessors and instructors of the ordinary technical school to 
keep up with the best and most modern work and do it by the 
most improved methods. And probably the only way to bring 
about such results would be to put the work as made in the 
shops and laboratories out on the open market. This privilege 
should be allowed the colleges of the country as well as the 
penitentiaries. And when tnis can be done the trouble which 
railroads experience in getting the right kind of machinists 
and foremen will be overcome. 

I have at hand a letter from one of the most wideawake 
technical institutions in the country. And in view of the 
fact that the school has met in the past with such success in 
the courses taught, the head of the school is engaged in further 
revising the courses so as to fit the graduates to meet more 
nearly the demands of the engineering world. Blanks are 
being sent to the graduates of the college who are in positions 
to give, from their three to four years of practical experience, 
the information desired. These blanks contain six questions 
which are to be answered and returned with any additional 
suggestions which may be offered. The questions asked are 
as follows. 

1. Name the course and class in which you graduated. 

2. Name the subjects in your course which you think have 
proved of most practical benefit to you. 

3. To which studies do you think we should give more time 
than we now allow? Name in order of importance — most im- 
portant first. 

4. Name the subjects of least value to you, in order of im- 
portance — least valuable first. 

5. Which subjects in the course would you retain, but give 
less time to them? 

6. What subjects would you omit altogether from the course? 

These questions may prove suggestive to other technical in- 
stitutions. CHIEF DRAFTSMAN. 
Chicago, 111.. 

Dec. 15, 1899. 



A bright idea in piece-work was devised some time ago by 
Mr. E. E. Davis, Assistant Superintendent of Motive Power 
of the New York Central, while he held a similar position on 
the Philadelphia & Reading. The men who used material were 
put on piece-work and those who prepared the material were 
working on the day-rate system. The result was that the 
piece-workers kept hurrying the day-workers to keep up the 
supply of material so that their wages would not be made 
to suffer for lack of work. This is an excellent illustration of 
the operation of the piece-rate system and it was also a bit of 
good management. 



22 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 




Fast Passenger Locomotive— Pennsylvania Railroad— Class El. 



ATLANTIC TYPE FAST PASSENGER LOCOMOTIVES. 



Pennsylvania Railroad. 



Class E 1. 



The magnificent new Cla.ss E 1 Atlantic type engines of the 
Pennsylvania which were completed last summer have been 
making excellent records in the development of great power 
at high speeds. Mr. Theo. N. Ely, Chief of Motive Power, has 
kindly supplied us with a photograph and diagram of one of 
them and particulars concerning the fast runs made on the 
West Jersey & Seashore Division. These engines were built 
at the Juniata shops and are of the best possible workmanship. 
They are handsome in appearance and the design in every 
particular reflects the characteristic and broad-minded intelli- 
gence of the oflicers of the mechanical department. 

The principal dimensions of the engines are as follows: 

Number of pairs of driving wheels 2 

Diameter of driving wheels 80 in. 

Size of driving axle journals 9^ in. and 8^ in. by 13 In. 

Length of driving wheel base 7 ft. 5 in. 

Total wheel base of engine 26 ft. SVz in. 

Total wheel base of engine and tender 50 ft. 5 in. 

Number of wheels in engine truck -. 4 

Diameter of wheels in engine truck 36 in. 

Size of engine truck axle journals 5V2 by 10 in. 

Spread of cylinders 85% in. 

Size of cylinders 20^/2 in. by 26 in. 

Steam ports ly^ in. by 20 in. 

Exhaust ports 3 in. by 20 in. 

Travel of valve 7 in. 

Lap of valve li^ in. 

Type of boiler Belpaire wide firebox 

Minimum internal diameter of boiler 65% In. 

Number of tubes 353 

Outside diameter of tubes 1% in. 

Length of tubes between tube sheets 156 in. 

Fire area through tubes, square feet 4.33 

Size of firebox, inside 104 in. by 96 in. 

Fire grate area, square feet 69.23 

External heating surface of tubes, square feet 2,102.4 

Heating surface of firebox, square feet 218.0 

Total heating surface of boiler, square feet 2,320.4 

Steam pressure per square inch, pounds 185 

Number of wheels under tender 6 

Diameter of wheels under tender 42 in. 

Size of tender truck axle journals 5 in. by 9 in. 

Weight on truck in working order 38,125 lbs. 

Weight on first pair of drivers 50,250 lbs. 

Weight on second pair of drivers 51,300 lbs. 

Weight on trailing wheels 33,775 lbs. 

Weight on engine in working order 173,450 lbs. 

Tractive power per pound of m. e. p 149.0 

Tractive power with m. e. p. equal to 4/5 boiler pressure..!! !. 22,052 

The boiler has a 42-inch combustion chamber, a wide fire- 
box in which the Belpaire form of staying is retained, a total 
heating surface of 2,320 square feet, of which 2,102 are in the 
flues and 218 in the firebox. The boiler is said to weigh, empty, 
37,494 pounds. The grate area is 69 square feet and unusually 
large for this road. The fuel is anthracite coal. The smoke- 
stack is short, but it has an extension down into the smoke- 



box to a point about 17 inches from the top of the exhaust 
nozzle. It has been found advantageous to use this arrange- 
ment of the exhaust appliances on this road instead of the plan 
recommended by the Master Mechanics' Association. The ash 
pan and dampers have had careful attention; the ash pan is 
made tight and the dampers are of cast-iron and close fitting. 
The location of the sandbox within the dome casing, in front 
of the steam dome, is novel. The casing is elongated for this 
purpose and it looks well. The dome appears to be large, but 
not too large for such a boiler. 

In many respects as regards details, this design resembles 
the Class H 5 and H 6 freight engines illustrated in our issue 
of June, 1899. The front sections of the frames are of slab 
form, with the same excellent arrangement of cylinders cast 
separate from the saddle and with the same carefully planned 
fastenings between the cylinders and saddle and the frames. 
The frames are of cast-steel and are very strong. The rear 
portions are 4 inches thick and are reinforced by more mate- 
rial at the jaws. There is but one steam pipe and that malces 
an S-bend in its upper portion and becomes straight before 
passing through the diaphragm. It enters the center of the 
saddle casting in the rear of the exhaust pipe, and at the 
cylinders on each side, where there is too little space for a 
single pipe of sufficient size, it branches into two pipes for a 
short distance. The exhaust connections from the cylinders 
pass through the frames. This arrangement of steam and ex- 
haust passages is remarkably direct and it should be easy to 
maintain in good order. 

The 80-ineh driving wheels are handsome and light steel 
castings, the truck wheels are 36 inches in diameter, and the 
trailing wheels 56 inches; yet they do not look large because 
of the good proportions of the engine. A central cab never 
looked so well before. These engines have very light pistons, 
light cross-heads, and the Vogt guide, which has a bearing 
surface 10 inches wide for the top of the cross-head, and it is 
enclosed for protection against cinders and dust. The washer 
of the cross-head pin is in one piece with an oil cup. The 
main rods are unusually long, and, like the side rods, of fluted 
section. The back end of the main rod is solid with a block 
held in place by a half round gib and key, the latter being 
secured by a clamp and two set screws. The valve rod is sup- 
ported at the back end and the valve motion is similar to that 
of the freight engines referred to. The setting of the valves 
has been studied most carefully and this accounts for the 
power at high speeds. The lead is made 3/16 inch in the tenth 
notch, and at that point gives a cut-off of 12 inches. The 
greatest lead is % inch, in the fourteenth notch, which gives 
a cut-off of a little less than 5 inches. The valves have a 



JA1.UAEY, 1900. AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL.. 23 




, :^-- /•- 1^ . 

Fast Passenger Locomotive— Pennsylvania Railroad- Class EI. 



^--i'-3k' --* -jt'j^'-- >". c'-e^' — .- 



travel of 7 inches, 1% inches outside laj) and 5/32 inch inside 
clearance on each side. This is unusually large and is doubt- 
less very useful in getting rid of the exhaust steam. Among 
the minor details of the running gear the hanging of the 
brake shoes at the rear of the driving wheels should be men- 
tioned. The brake cylinders are placed in front of the forward 
pedestal jaws of the front driving wheels. The truck wheels 
are also braked. 

The truck has a new, and, we believe, a very important 
feature. The piVot is 914 inches back of the center of the 
wheel base and yet the load is carried centrally between the 
axles and is equally distributed between them. The purpose 
of this is to lengthen the lever arm of the forward wheels 
and to reduce the impact of the loading and the consequent 
wear of the leading wheel flanges. The wheel base of the 
trucks is 6 feet 7 inches. The truck has a steel center casting 
to which side frames are bolted. These are spaced 27 inches 
apart, and to their outside faces the pedestals, in the form 
of brackets, are bolted. The load is transmitted to the boxes 
by double equalizers, whose ends are united so that they bear 
directly upon the centers of the boxes. 

The tender has a capacity of 4,000 gallons and is carried on 
three axles, the rear two being equalized. The tender journals 
are 5 by 9 inches. The six-wheel type was decided upon be- 
cause it gives a good distribution of the load and does not shake 
itself to pieces. The coal is carried on a sloping deck ex- 
tending entirely across the tender, the front portion of which 
is level and elevated about IS inches above the deck of the 
tender. The tank is very strongly braced to hold the coal 
when the water is low. The photograph shows the rivet 
heads whereby the position of this coal deck may be seen. 
Water scoops are fitted to these engines and they are very 
satisfactory. The scoop is balanced against the thrust of 
the water, no portion of it is allowed to touch the sides of 
the trough, and with it 3,500 gallons have been taken in 10 
seconds at a speed of 68 miles per hour. 

Mr. Ely states that these engines have done very satisfac- 
tory work on the seashore line during the past season with 
fast and heavy trains. These are scheduled at 60 minutes 
from the Philadelphia side of the Delaware River and 55 
minutes from Camden to Atlantic City, or at the rate of 63.6 
miles per hour for the distance of 58.3 miles. As 5 minutes is 
a rather short time for the ferry trip and the transfer of pas- 
sengers, the actual running time has frequently been less than 
that. Mr. Ely sends a statement of some of the fast runs and the 
weights of the trains. These speeds are remarkable, but they 
are vouched for, and it is evident that these locomotives take 
place among the fastest in the world. It is probable that they 
have not been driven to their limit during the first season. 



The record is printed below exactly as received from Mr. 

Ely: 

Some Exceptional Runs of Regular Trains Hauled by Class E 1 

I^ocomotives from Camden to Atlantic City, Distance, 58.3 

Miles, Pennsylvania Railroad Line (W. J. & S. R. R.). 

July 16. July 20. July 31. Sept. 22 

Train No 

Number of cars 

Weight of train empty, lbs. 

Number of passengers 

Running time, minutes 

Rate of speed for whole 
distance 



269 


269 


269 


269 


7 


S 


8 


5 


466,100 


538,850 


526,640 


348,950 


317 


306 


369 


152 


51 


53 


50y2 


52 



OS. 6 



66. 



67.2 



Portions of Above Runs that Were Made at Unusually High Speeds. 

Miles per 

Distance 
Date. Between. Miles. 

July 18 Winslow Junction to Absecon 24.9 

Winslow Junction to Drawbridge. 30.6 
July 20 Winslow Junction to Drawbridge. 30.6 
July 31 Winslow Junction to Drawbridge. 30.6 

Winslow Junction to Absecon 24.9 

Sept. 22 Berlin to East Hammonton 16.8 

East Hammonton to Absecon 18.7 

Berlin to Pomona 30. 

Waterford to Pomona 23.7 

Hammonton to Pomona 16.2 

Elwood to Pomona 10.1 

Office of the Chief of Motive Power, Broad Street Station, 
delphia, September 30, 1899. 





hour. 


Tim?. 


Rate of 


Min. 


speed. 


IS 


S3. 


23 


79.8 


24 


76.5 


22i4 


81.6 


IS 


S3. 


14 


72. 


12 


93.5 


22>^ 


83.1 


16^4 


86. 


10% 


92. 


6V4 


93. 


Station 


, Phila- 



WHY THE U. 



S. NAVY ADOPTED WATER-'C'IIBE 
BOILERS. 



The reasons for adopting the water-tube boiler in the U. S. 
Navy are very admirably set forth in a paper by Admiral Geo. 
W. Melville before the Society of Naval Architects and Marine 
Engineers, in which the speaker first expressed his opinion that 
water-tube boilers are bad in principle, as a failure in a tube 
is followed by the opening of a fault, while in a fire-tubular 
boiler the pressure would continue to close a split tube; but on 
the other hand he considers that the value of their advantages 
has been sufficiently developed in the last two years to neces- 
sitate their use, if we do not wish to be left behind in naval 
design. 

In the fitting out of two ships of identical qualities, one with 
cylindrical boilers and the other with water-tube boilers, the 
latter will be somewhat the smaller and handier— will have 
less draft, and will cost less, and the facility with which 
water-tube boilers can be removed or completely renewed 
without disturbing the decks of protected vessels is of itself 
enough to justify the adoption of water-tube boilers. 

The heating surface has gradually been reduced from 3 sq. 
ft. per horse-power against 2 sq. ft., which is necessary with 
cylindrical boilers, to 2.4 sq. ft. of heating surface per horse- 
power. The speaker dwells to some extent on the failures of 



24 AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAIL.ROAD JOURNAL 



the water-tube boiler instead of showing only their good points, 
for in so doing .he gets most information from them. 

He also states that so far as he knows, there is not one 
failure that can properly be said to have occurred purely as 
a result of being a water-tube boiler. Admiral Melville heart- 
ily believes in water-tube boilers as compared with cylindrical 
boilers for navy use, and gives the following list of advanta- 
ges: Less weight of water; quicker steamers; quicker response 
to change in ainount of steam required: greater freedom of 
expansion; higher cruising speed; more perfect circulation: 
adaptability to high pressures; smaller steam pipes and fit- 
tings; greater ease of repair; less danger from explosion; and 
it is evident that he considers the Babcock & Wilcox type as' 
being specially favorable. He states the disadvantages as 
follows: 

Greater danger from failure of tubes; better feed arrange- 
ments necessary: greater skill required in management: units 
too small; greater grate surface and heating surface required: 
less reserve in form of water in boiler; large number of parts: 
tubes difficult of access; large number of joints: more danger 
of iiriniing. 



The opening lecture for the current year in the course of 
special railway lectures at Purdue University was given on 
Noveml)er 28th by President George B. Leighton of the Los 
Angeles Terminal Railway. President Leighton's subject was 
"The Work Ahead," and his talk was a brief outline of the 
opportunities in prospect for those entering railway work. 
After a short review of the notable events and inventions 
in railroading in the past. President Leighton discussed the 
lines along which the coming engineer must work and in 
which the chances to distinguish himself will be the greatest. 
The subject is an interesting one and was ably presented. 



CAST STEEL BODY BOLSTER. 



With Sepaiate Tension Member. 



American Steel Foundry Company. 



The body bolster illustrated in this engraving was designed 
by Mr. John Hickey, Superintendent of Motive Power. Rio 
Grande Western Ry., and is made in soft, open-hearth basic 
steel by the American Steel Foundry Company of Granite City, 
■111. These bolsters are relatively light and very strong. Dur- 
ing three years of service they have given satisfaction, and 
no replacements have been necessary, even on account of 
wrecks. They are now being applied to several different roads. 

We have received drawings of two similar designs, one for 
cars of 80,000 pounds capacity for coal service on the Rio 
Grande Western, and the other for 41-foot flat cars of 70.000 
pounds capacity for the Northern Pacific. The latter drawing 
was selected as being well suited to engraving. 

This form of bolster may be adapted to various arrange- 
ments of sills, and the construction permits of takfng the 
bolster down without removing it from the ends of the sflls 
and taking off the end sill for this purpose. The central portion 
of the tension member is removable, and by taking out pins 
at the ends and center the bolster may be lowered and replaced 
whenever this becomes necessary. The center and interme- 
diate sills rest upon a substantial center casting of box form, 
upon the ends of which triangular extensions carry the end 
sills and form the upper side bearings. The truss rod bearings 




ri-6i'- 



-^ 
^^^^^ 






Cast Steel Body Bolster with Separate Tension Member, 
American Steel Foundry Co. 



An attachment to the nozzles of water cranes for supplying 
locomotive tenders, to prevent the water from splashing over 
the tender, has been devised by Mr. Edward Grafstrom, Chief 
Draughtsman of the Pennsylvania Lines at Columbus, Ohio. 
As described recently in the "Railroad Gazette," the end of 
the pipe for a depth of about 5 inches is divided into hexagonal 
cells by sheet metal partitions. These are sufficient to insure 
a solid stream from the end of the spout and no canvas or 
loose funnel appears to be necessary. 



The Baldwin Locomotive Works built 104 locomotives in the 
month of October, 1899, in 26 working days. In November 92 
were completed in 25 working days. In 1890 these works built 
94G locomotives, on an average of 78 per month, and they 
were light engines compared with those most commonly or- 
dered now. There are at present 7,250 men employed in this 
establishment. 



are cast with the bolster and extend up between the center 
and intermediate sills, with those for the outside near the 
inner faces of the side sills, A saddle which straddles the 
center pin forms a connection with the tension member at 
its center. The form of the chief portion of the bolster needs 
no special explanation, but it seems desirable to indicate that 
the number of parts is very small; there are but eight pieces 
in the entire bolster when the pins and collars are included. 
The upper center plate is Integral with the bolster. 

The removable tension piece is in the form of a flat ribbed 
bar six inches wide, with lugs for pin connections at the 
center and ends. The end lugs are shouldered by an accurate 
fit to a distance of 3 feet 11% inches apart to correspond to 
the shoulders of the pockets in the main casting in which they 



January, t9uo. AMERICAN E N GI N EE R AND RAILROAD J O U RNAU 2S 



rest. The pin holes are drilled and reamed to match closely 
when the bar is in position and the pins are turned to an easy 
driving fit. The enlarged sectional view of one of the end 
lugs of this bar shows its construction and method of bearing. 



AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 



Annual Convention. 



Papers and Discussions. 



The final reiiort of the Committee on the Revision of the 
Society Code of 1S85, relative to a Standard Method of Con- 
ducting Steam Boiler Trials, was presented and recommended 
to the society for use in future investigations. It is a valuable 
document, worthy of the organization. It is probably the best 
work of the kind ever done. 

Professor Thurston presented an elaborate paper, The Steam 
Engine at the End of the Nineteenth Century, which contained 
a record of tests on the Nordberg pumping engine. The paper 
and discussion made clear the fact that the present tendency 
was in the direction of improving the steam engine in its use 
of heat, rather than in the improvements of details and con- 
struction. Its present development was in the direction of 
reducing the wastes, with particular reference to the losses 
of heat which might be turned to account in heating the feed 
water. 

There was nothing worthy of record from this point until 
the paper by M. P. Higgins, Education of Machinists, Fore- 
men and Mechanical Engineers, was reached. There were six 
consecutive papers w-hich were practically set aside by the 
society as not worth discussing, at least nothing of any im- 
portance was offered. Mr. Higgins, however, had the honor 
of presenting not only the really Important paper of the con- 
vention, but of introducing one of the most vital subjects eve. 
brought before this organization. The paper is given attention 
elsewhere in this issue. It was clear in an instant that the 
subject took a strong hold on the meeting and the readiness 
to accept and thoughtfully consider the difficult problem is 
encouraging. The education of the machinists and the foremen 
of the future was the topic, and that the methods of the present 
do not reach their cases was very plainly indicated. A synopsis 
of the paper, which is printed in another column, is com- 
mended to those who cannot read it in full. 

No discussion was offered to the paper on Experiments of 
Using Gasoline Gas for Boiler Heating, by Herman Poole. 
The paper on Colors of Heated Steel Corresponding to Differ- 
ent Degrees of Temperatures, by M. White and F. W. Taylor, 
was discussed to the point that the temperature corresponding 
to the colors used to represent different heats are so widely 
different as given by different authorities that conclusions 
drawn therefrom are not to be depended upon. The apparatus 
used for determining these high temperatures seems to have 
been a cause of this trouble, and the eye of the operator must 
be largely depended upon until this demand for more accurate 
measurement shall lead to the use of more accurate pyrometric 
instruments. The paper on a Broken Fly Wheel and How 
It Was Repaired, by Jas. McBride, also the paper on Fly Wheel 
Design, by A. .7. Frith, were discussed simultaneously. Valu- 
able suggestions were offered to proportioning part of the rim 
so that the arms will have the proper tension thrown upon 
them to make the strains equal to those in the rim section. 
The method of reinforcing the rims of band fly wheels would 
obviate such cracking in the arm pads and rims of wheels, 
as was mentioned in the paper. The Efficiency Test of a 125 
Horse Power Gas Engine, was the title of an exceedingly good 
paper by C. H. Robertson, and while the engine tested, which 
was a Westinghouse. did not show a remarkably economical 
performance, the tests as conducted were admirable. The three 
following important conclusions were reached: 

First, That the proportion of gas to air is a very important 
factor in fuel economy. 
Second, That one test at a light and one test at a heav>- 



load would serve to locate the line from which an approximate 
prediction could be made of the gas consumption under inter 
mediate loads. 

Thli-d, That these considerations hold for the fuel consump- 
tion per brake horse power and per electrical horse power. 

The most Interesting, but probably not the most valuable dis- 
cussion of the session, was that on Strength of Steel Balls. 
The best methods for testing steel balls were considered. The 
hearing quality of balls was placed second in importance of 
testing, the quality of elasticity being first. It Is not neces- 
sary that we know more about the crushing strength than we 
already know, for if the balls are picked out according to 
their elastic qualities there will be no danger of the harder 
balls doing all the work and in consequence, wearing out the 
bearing. A simple test for sorting balls as to their elastic 
qualities is to suspend a bar over a steel plate and drop the 
balls on the plate. Those jumping above the bar at a certain 
height are used for one bearing and those getting over the 
bar at another height are used for another bearing. 

The paper by F. C. Wagner, entitled Friction Tests of a Loco- 
motive Slide Valve, did not add anything of value to the infor- 
mation already recorded on the subject and the question waf 
raised in the discussion as to whether the tests represented the 
conditions of practice. 

The Friction of Steam Packings, by C. H. Benjamin, brought 
out interesting tests, but it was indicated in the discussion 
that as yet no one had succeeded in making tests in which 
conditions of practice were sufficiently provided for. 

The closing session began with the consideration of the sub- 
ject of impact tests, introduced by a paper by Mr. W. .T. Keep. 
of Detroit. It was an admirable treatment, but apparently too 
deep for most of the members, as there was no discussion. 

Mr. Francis H. Stillman, of the Arm of Watson & Stillman. 
the well-known manufacturers of hydraulic machinery and 
apparatus, presented a paper entitled "High Hydrostatic Pres- 
sures and Their Application to Compressing Liquids: also, a 
New Form of Pressure Gauge." This paper contained 
records of experiments on the enormously high hydraulic pres- 
sures of 450.000 pounds per square inch which were conducted 
at the West Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station by Mr. 
B. H. Hite. They present the startling but apparently con- 
clusive evidence that liquids are compressible, and. under such 
pressures as this, to quite a considerable extent. Mr. Stillman 
says that, under a pressure of G.5.000 pounds per square inch. 
water is compressed over 10 per cent, and alcohol over 15 
per cent. The question of the compressibility being due to 
air in the water was raised in the discussion, but it is doubtful 
if such a precaution as the removal of the air would be over- 
looked by a careful experimental expert. To experiment with 
these high pressures it was necessary to enclose the liquids 
in closed vessels, on account of the deformation which always 
takes place in a cylinder under heavy pressures. The sug- 
gestion with regard to a new high-pressure gauge was the use 
of the compressibility of liquids to measure the extremely high 
pressures. Mr. Stillman's paper will doubtless cause a great 
deal of comment among physicists as well as engineers. 



THE MECHANICAL PLANT OF THE BOSTON SOUTH 
UNION STATION. 



The most valuable engineering paper presented in the recent 
meeting of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, held 
in New York City, was that on "The Mechanical Equipment of 
the New South Union Station. Boston." by Walter C. Kerr, of 
the firm of Westinghouse, Church, Kerr & Co. This paper covers 
115 pages, with the addition of numerous engraved plates, and 
thoroughly describes the mechanical plant of the new terminal 
in Boston, to which we have repeatedly referred. The most 
interesting feature of this work was the fact that It was in- 
trusted to Mr. Kerr's firm, both in plan and execution. The 



26 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



work covered was the following: Complete system of electro- 
pneumatic switches and signals. 2. Comprehensive power- 
house equipment. 3. Electric wiring and lighting system. 
4. Heating and ventilating system for the head house. 5. Pas- 
senger and freight elevators in large numbers. 6. Ice manu- 
facturing plant. 7. Refrigeration for restaurant, kitchen and 
storage. S. Water filtering and cooling. 9. Car heating equip- 
ment for train shed, storage and express yards. 10. Compressed 
air supply for charging and testing train brakes. 11. Fire 
protection for buildings and train-shed roof. 12. Disposal of 
storm water and drainage, all of which is pumped. 13. Frost 
protection for roof conductors. 14. Steam and hot water 
supply for head house. 

The whole of this extensive work was planned and the 
drawings prepared in 90 days. This and the satisfactory exe- 
cution of such a contract could have been handled only in this 
way, without conflict and trouble as well as additional expense. 
The very substantial amount of $100,000 was saved to the ter- 
minal company by the union of interests in the hands of the 
Westinghouse concern, and the fact that this company was in 
position to handle this entire contract and supply nearly all 
of the equipment is a commentary upon the magnificent pro- 
portions of the industries instituted by Mr. George Westing- 
house. There was no divided responsibility in this case, and 
the complication of a blizzard, the worst known in Boston for 
years, which came upon the very opening of the terminal, did 
not develop a single failure or weakness in any part of the 
system. The same firm has a somewhat similar work under 
way at the Pittsburg & Lake Erie terminal in Pittsburg. 

This work was not a power house, or elevators, or electric 
light plant, or ice-making equipment, but a railroad terminal, 
and everything had been designed specially with this in view. 
Everything was on a large scale, but the switch and signal 
plant was the most extensive work of all. It is stated to be 
the means of saving $30,600 per year in wages alone over the 
cost of a mechanically operated plant. A conception of the 
amount of electrical service rendered is had by noting the fact 
that there are but three cities in Massachusetts, outside of 
Boston, in which there are a greater number of municipal 
arc lights than those used by this terminal. The lamps are 
on 110-volt circuits, while the motors operate on 220-volt 
circuits. An ingenious three-wire system was devised whereby 
the two voltages are secured from the generators at the same 
time. The lighting was divided into IS sections each, with 
its separate switchboard. If the attendant at one of these 
switchboards desired current, he first communicated by signal 
wires with the power station, and, when the necessary steam 
and electric units were ready, he was notified from the power 
house to throw in his switches. This precaution was taken 
to prevent throwing long loads upon the power house machin- 
ery without preparation. 

The drainage conductors from the 14 acres of roofs over 
the buildings were provided with jackets within which small 
steam pipes were run to prevent them from freezing. The ice 
plant, with a capacity of 20 tons daily, and 800 tons of storage 
was the means of saving about $8,000 per year. It was de- 
signed to take care of 750 trains per day. 

This is the first of what we hope will become a most valuable 
line of papers for record in the proceedings of this society. 
In the discusion the prominent feature was the concentration 
of the entire mechanical work in the hands of one firm. The 
idea was not pleasing to the consulting engineer, but Mr. Kerr, 
in a most admirable extemporaneous argument, proved con- 
clusively the advantages in such an undertaking as this. There 
was room for every man who had talent. It was not advisable 
to use this method everywhere, but in such a case as this 
it saved endless confusion, and the economy here was $100,000 
in $750,000. 



by the railroads, and especially because of the interchange 
of freight equipment upon which so much piping is employed. 
The condition disclosed by the committee, of which Mr. C. H. 
Quereau of the Denver ■& Rio Grande was chairman, was most 
unsatisfactory, and knowing what the standard is there is 
every reason why all the roads should adopt it. The Chicago, 
Burlington & Quincy have adopted it. 



PRINTING TITLES ON DRAWINGS. 



The adoption of the Briggs standard dimensions and screw 
threads for welded tubes of wrought iron by the Master Me- 
chanics' Association, at the convention last summer, was an 
important step in view of the amount of this material used 



Labor-saving methods in drawing-rooms are now attracting 
appropriate attention, and one of the ways of saving valu- 
able time is in the mechanical printing of the titles on tracings. 
In our August, 1899. issue we described a method used oy Mr. 
F. M. Whyte, then mechanical engineer of the Chicago & North- 
western, and now holding a similar position with the New York 
Central. Mr. Whyte uses a printing press, and the work is done 
very acceptably by the cheap (office boy) labor. We reproduce 
Mr. Whyte's letter on this subject as follows; 

"In regard to the use of a printing press for printing titles 
on tracings, we are using a small handpress for this purpose, 
the frame of which measures 4 by 6 inches. When it was first 
proposed to purchase a printing press the one we have was 
considered sufficiently large; but it has been remarked sev- 
eral times since that it would have been better had we pur- 
chased a larger once. The length of the frame given above 
limits the length of the title, but we find it large enough for 
the purpose, as we try to make the title as short and expres- 
sive as possible. We have three fonts of type, and you can 
judge of their size by the attached print. We find these sizes 
of type convenient and quite satisfactory. I might tell you 
our experience which practically drove us to the adoption of 
a hand press. First, of course, it costs considerable to put 
titles on drawings whether the work is done with the usual 
drawing instruments or freehand. To reduce this cost, we 
tried first to use a rubber stamp, but the ink which we found 
would work satisfactorily with the rubber stamp would not 
give a print, so that, after putting the title on with the 
stamp, we would have to turn the tracing over and ink it on 
the back with black drawing ink. This, of course, was no 
great improvement on putting the titles on by hand. We 
found we could not use black ink on the rubber stamp, be- 
cause the gasoline used for removal of the ink from the stamp 
after using it would destroy the rubber type. It was also diffi- 
cult to get a perfect impression with the rubber* stamp. The 
first difficulty experienced with the hand press was that the ink 
would not dry fast enough after the title had been put on the 
tracing, but this trouble was overcome by using a light, fine 
powder to absorb the ink, so that we now take a print from the 
tracing immediately after titling it. Fine powder should be 
used, because, otherwise, the large flakes of coarse powder will 
overhang the edge of the letter and produce ragged edges. We 
use the ordinary quick-drying printer's ink for our press. The 
first cost for us was $22.50 for the complete outfit, and it is 
believed that the first month or two's saving would cover the 
entire expense." 

It is necessary to scrape the surface of the tracing cloth for 
the reception of the printed titles if the drawings are made 
on the glossy side. Mr. Whyte has sent us the following list 
for requisitions of printing equipment as used by him, all of 
which may be obtained from the concern mentioned below: 

1 No. 2 Official press 4 by 6 inches. 

3 Hemple (luoins and one key. 

1 lot assorted wood furniture. 

5 lbs. 2-point L. S. slugs. 

5 lbs. 2-point L. S. leads. 

1 8-inch composing stick. 

1 S by 12 inch ink stone. 

1 font 6 point combination Gothic type No. 1532. 

1 font 18 point combination Gothic type No. 1.524. 

1 font 12 point combination Gothic type No. 1526. 

2 fonts 2 point brass rule. 

3 small cases two-third, size (for type). 
1 lb. can quick-drying printer's ink. 

For the benefit of a number of correspondents who have in- 
quired about this method we would state that the press referred 
to, which is efficient and strong and specially well adapted to 
such work, was furnished by The Crescent Type Foundry, 346 
Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. 



jAN.AKy. ir,0(). AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 27 



AN AIU-MI'T PUMP. 



St. Paul & niilulh Rnilmad. 



Gmuna LirK 





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fa/re 
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liPipe 




Mr. G. D. Hiooko, General 
Master Mechanic of the St. 
Paul & Duluth Railroad, some 
time ago devised an application 
of compressed air to the pump- 
ing of water at the Gladstone 
shops of that road, which is 
worthy of note. It is an adapt- 
ation of the well-linown air lift 
to conditions, under which a 
deep well pump had not given 
satisfaction. 

The engravings illustrate the 
plan. The well has an eight- 
inch casing, driven to a depth 
of 750 feet, but now partly filled 
up with silt, mailing the depth 
640 feet. Formerly a deep well 
pump with a 36-foot pitman 
was used. This caused consid- 
erable annoyance by requiring 
constant attention, repairs and 
in replacing this arrangement 
the location of the well near 
the stationary boiler plant and 
in the midst of the shop build- 
ings was found unfortunate, be- 
cause it necessitated forcing the 
water underground horizontally 
to a distance of more than 500 
feet to the road water tanks. It 
would have been better to erect 
a tank directly over the well, 
making a vertical lift and then 
allow the water to flow to the 
road tanks by gravity. This plan, however, was not followed, 
for the reason that a fire in the vicinity of the tank over the 
well would render the water service inoperative. 

The arrangement, as installed, places all the apparatus un- 
derground, except where there is no liability of fire. The air 
supply is furnished by a Rand Duplex compressor, and in case 
of fire in the stationary engine plant supply connections pro- 
vided for the purpose may be attached for the temporary use of 
air pumps on locomotives in the round house. 

When the air-lift was first started it was the intention to al- 
low all of the air to escape at the over-flow in the water tank, 
but it was found that the pulsations were so uniform and rhyiu- 
mical as to cause the tanks to vibrate so severely as to threaten 
the collapse of the supports if it was allowed to continue. An 
eight-inch pipe was then added, as shown in the print at the 
top of the well, and it was fitted with a balance escape valve, 
which allows the escape of a large portion of the air and re- 
tains only enough pressure to force the water horizontally to 
the tanks and raise it through the remainder of the lift. This 
arrangement also insures a more solid body of water through 
the horizontal pipe. Since this change was made, about two 
years ago, the apparatus has not been changed or even exam- 
ined in any part, so perfectly has it operated. Mr. Brooke writes 
that he uses from 80,000 to 100.000 gallons of water per day, 
the cost of pumping being between five and six cents per thou- 
sand gallons. The use of a gravity flow for this horizontal dis- 
tance would have cheapened the cost, but as it stands, it is not 
excessive for a lift of 73 feet. The air pressure in the shop pip- 
ing is 125 pounds per square inch, which is throttled down 
through a one-inch globe valve to a pressure of 60 pounds for 
the pumping. A small fraction of a turn of this globe valve 



Well Piping. 



supplies enough air from the pressure of 125 pounds to keep 

a constant stream of water flowing into the tank. 

In the drawing it will be noticed that the top of the eight- 
inch well casing has a tight flange connection with the four- 
inch pipe; this was not necessary for the perfect working of the 
device, but it was done to prevent water or dirt from the open 
well from passing down into the casing, as the water is used 
for drinking purposes. 

As the four-inch pipe and the one-inch air pipes are sus- 




Piping to the Tanks. 

pended in the well casing from the top end, double thick gal- 
vanized iron pipe was used for this portion to insure against 
rusting and breaking off and dropping down into the well. The 
resistance due to 100 feet of water is sufficient to prevent un- 
due vibration of the pipes, which might be caused by the escap- 
ing of the compressed air. 



The number and size of motors to use in equipping a shop 
with electrical machinery is always an interesting problem. 
An account of the plan worked out for the new Porifirio Diaz 
shops of the Mexican International Railway, described in the 
"Railway and Engineering Review," states that in this case 
the shafting and machinery of the shops are divided into 10- 
horse-power units, each unit being driven by a separate motor, 
while larger or smaller motore will drive individual machines 
wherever circumstances require. There is an advantage in us- 
ing a number of motors of uniform size on account of replace- 
ments, and it would seem to be possible to group machines 
favorably for lO-horse-power units. This should be done in 
such a way as to necessitate using only a few of the motors for 
ordinary occasions requiring overtime working. The selection 
of the size of motors is important because the cost per horse- 
power of the motor increases as the power decreases. 



The Hummel system of picture telegraphy is described by 
Mr. Pierce D. Schenk in a recent number of "The Yale Scien- 
tific Monthly." The pictures are drawn with insulating ink 
on tin-foil and the transmitting and receiving instruments 
pass in horizontal lines over these plates in synchronous move- 
ments. The transmitting current is interrupted at the lines 
of insulating ink, and the reproduction is made to follow the 
original. The greatest difficulty was found in synchronizing 
the two machines. Mr. Schenk illustrates the circuits and in- 
struments with a diagram. 



28 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



THE OIL ENGINE. 



It is about ten years since the first English internal combus- 
tion engine, using heavy oil. was brought to the point of suc- 
cess. It was a Priestman engine tested by Prof. Unwin in 1890. 
burgh, whereby the progress made in this field may be seen, 
are printed in recent issues of "The Engineer." The Priest- 
man engine referred to made several records, but there Is no 
doubt but that it produced a brake-horse-power for a con- 
sumption of one pound of oil. The oils used in the tests were 
"Daylight" and "Russolene." 

At the recent Edinburgh trials 10 engines were tested and 
satisfactory tests were obtained with nine. There were seven 
distinct makes. I'he results are given in the accompanying 
table, which is of special interest because of the scarcity of 
data pertaining to oil engines. These tests were made at the 
Edinburgh exhibition of the Highland Agricultural Society 
of Scotland. The power was measured by the Prony brake 
and the indicator, and the oil consumption was measured. The 
engines were run four hours at the full brake load and two 
hours at half load. They were afterward run one hour at light 
load and finally for a short time at the maximum load which 



The standardization of the threads of small screws was dis- 
cussed at the recent meeting of the British Association, and 
among the interesting facts brought out was the difliculty of 
making accurate gages for small screws having rounded por- 
tions at the top and bottom of the threads. The Sellers stand- 
ard differs from the threads usually cut on small screws, and 
also with the Whitworth standard, in this particular. The 
Sellers standard appears to be gaining friends. It has been 
adopted by the French navj', and also by several railroads of 
that country. This system, using flat ended threads, is admir- 
ably adapted to accuracy in making gages, and it Is possible 
that further action of the British Association may favor Its 
adoption. It is evident that this organization considers its 
previous selection of round ended threads as unsatisfactory, 
and the subject is to receive further attention by the commit- 
tee having it In charge. The report contains the statement 
that: "As far as easy production of the correct form Is con- 
cerned, arguments which apply to large screws apply with 
greater force to smaller screws, while a form which is suitable 
for all screws above 6 millimeters diameter, the maximum 
diameter in the British Association list, cannot be unsuitable 
for screws below that diameter." 



Summary of Trials of English Oil Engines. 
Camp- 
Crosslev Camp, bell sras R. Ste- Black- Black- 
Brothers bell Gas Ene'ine phenson stone & stone & 
Engines Limited. Engrlne Co. Co. & Co. Co. Co. 

Diameter of cvlinder. Inches 10 12>4 SV- 7 6 7 

Stroke, inches.' IS 21 IS 12 12 14 

Fiill-power trial: 

Revolutions per min., mean 2n4 ISS 210 252 256 21S 

Mean effective pressure, lb. per sq. In I!4.52 49.5 ,. 39. 

Explosions per mIn., mean S7.25 7B IIS.R 

Tndicntea horse-power 20.09 24.4S 5.39 

Mechanical efficiency 771 .773 .. .5S2 

Brake horse-power 15.5 1S.93 13.87 3.14 5.21 8.13 

Oil per B. H. P. per hour, lb 793 1.20 1.06 1.63 .833 .836 

Half-power trial: 

Brake horse-power 7.71 10 59 6.73 1.31 2.84 4.84 

Oil per B. H. P. per hour. lb 1.037 1.466 1.186 2.88 1.099 1.03 

T.iKht trial: „ „ 

Total oil used per hour, lb 4.03 8.23 3.8 4.43 1.69 2.75 

Maximum-power trial: . __ .» „ 

Brake horse-power 18.01 25.55 14.89 3.14 6.68 10.66 



Black- Pollack. R. Cun- 

stone & Tansies Whvte ft rtall & 

Co. Limited. Waddel. Son. 

9V, 11 10 m 

18 " 16 IS 15 



190.3 
56 
81.4 
14. 6S 

.858 
12.6 

.746 

6.59 
1.024 

3.4 

19.7 



200.1 
62.2 
S9.75 
21.43 

.842 
18.06 

.806 

9.95 
,939 

3.375 

20.66 



220.5 



10.64 
1.15 



4.69 
2.23 



5.375 
19.85 



227,7 



8,77 
.962 



4.35 
1.57 



4.24 
10.54 



could be depended on in an emergency. The Crossley, Stephen- 
son, Pollock and Cundall engines used "Royal Daylight" oil 
of 0.796 specific, while the others used "Russolene" oil of 0.825 
specific gravity. 

The average consumption of six of the engines is 0.958 pound 
per brake-horse-power per hour, which is a small improve- 
ment over the earlier results. Pour of the engines gave 15.5. 
18.93. 12. G and 18.06 brake-horse-power, respectively, and their 
mechanical eflSciencies were 0.771. 0.773. 0.858 and 0.842, which 
appears to indicate that these variations in power were not suf- 
ficient to affect the efficiencies materially. In other words, 
the size of the engines, within these limits, does not aifect the 
efliciency. 

The half power trials are specially interesting. There were 
six types of engines represented and the average oil consump- 
tion at half power was 1.36 pounds per hrake-horse-power 
hour. One engine used 2.23 pounds. Omitting that, the average 
would be 1.18 pounds for half power as compared with an aver- 
age of 0.96 pound for the full load consumption. In overloading 
it was found that nearly all of the engines developed 25 per 
cent, overload. No generally satisfactory figures of speeds 
and pressures were obtained. The generally accepted opinion 
that high speeds were favorable to high efficiencies because 
of the short time in which a charge remained in contact with 
the cylinder was not borne out by the tests. It was found 
that the best results were given by an engine which ran rela- 
tively slowly, while the worst results came with the highest 
speed. This is not considered by any means conclusive evi- 
dence in favor of slow running, however. The tests indicate 
an improvement in the oil engine, though not very marked 
or rapid. The wide differences in the opinions as to elemen- 
tary- proportions indicate that the best practice has probably 
not yet been reached. Ten years is much too short a time 
to expect to achieve the crystallization of practice which has 
taken place In marine and other fleldfi of steam en.glneerlng. 



THE NEW REMINOTON BILLING AND TABTTLATTNG 
TTACHMENT. 



J^l 



An ingenious and exceedingly valuable improvement has 
been applied to the Remin.gton Standard Typewriter, which 
will be an important labor saver In offices where statistical 
?nd tabulated work is done. For railroad offires it will be in- 
valuable in preparing reports, records and specifications, one 
nnerator working with the attachment can do the work of 
about five without it. and the arrangement is designed through- 
out to avoid interfering with the regular operation of the 
machine. The purnose of the device is to enable operators 
to arrange tables in columns without the necessity of setting 
the carriage of the machine by hand. Stops are applied in 
such a way as to bring the carriage to the desired point by 
a single movement of a key. 

As illustrated in the engraving, the attachment is applied 
to the machine bv small castln.gs fastened to the frame, one 
under the front of the base below the kevboard and the other 
in the form of a bracket at the rear of the machine. An 
additional .sraduated bar is supported upon the hack of the 
carriage by light brackets, the graduations in this bar being 
made to correspond with the other graduated scales. TTpon 
this graduated bar small stons mav be secured in any desired 
position for fixing the location of the columns of figures, and 
these mav be changed at any time. Supported in a case in 
the rear of this bar are a number of plungers, anv one of 
which mav be drawn forward horizontallv bv means of the 
corresponding push button at the front of the machine below 
the keyboard. ITnon pressing one of the push buttons the 
pinion which holds the carriage In the ordinary working of 
the machine is disengaged and the carriage moves along under 
the impulse of the main carriage spring, which constantly 



January, 1900. AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 29 



urges it toward the left. The push button at the same time proper distance away for the first figure of the desired number. 

projects its plunger forward into the path of the stops, and If it is 100, the carriage stops three spaces away, and four 

ihe motion of the carriage Is arrested by the stop at the point spaces if it is 1,000. 
determined by the push button, which has been operated. For It will be noted that no hand setting of the machine is re- 





The Remington Billing and Tabulating Attachment. 




The Remington Billing and Tabulating Attachment. 

example, if 100 is to be written, the 100 button is pushed and the 
carriage moves at once and is arrested at the space deter- 
mined by the location of the stop on the baclv of the machine 
necessary to bring the first figure in its proper place in the 
column. If three columns of figures are to be arranged across 
the page the stops are placed at the proper places in the 
rack and the operator starts with the carriage at its extreme 
right-hand position. The push-button corresponding to the 
first figure in the first column is pushed and the carriage im- 
mediately takes the position desired. The proper numerals 
are then written from the keyboard, and, upon pressing the 
push button to locate the first figure in the next column, the 
carriage at once moves over the intervening spaces and stops 
at the correct position for the first figure desired for that col- 
umn, the same process being repeated for the third column. 
The basis for the columns is a fixed point, which in the stand- 
ard arrangement is the decimal. The decimal plunger stops 
the carriage at that space and tbe other plungers stop it at the 



quired, that the number of columns is limited only by the 
width of the paper and the size of the machine, and that the 
stops will insure the determining spaces for each line of figures 
falling directly under each other. For decimal fractions the 
decimal push button is used, the period is struck, and the 
proper figures inserted. There are eight push buttons in the 
standard arrangement, and their operation will be readily un- 
derstood from the engravings. 

By making slight changes in the marking of the push but- 
tons, provision may be made for placing the number characters 
consecutively, for spacing them for commas to divide large 
numbers into hundreds, for using the monetary sign, or for 
dividing the figures for pounds, shillings, and pence sterling. 
It is evident that a large variety in the arrangement may be 
used without changing the number of the plungers, and more 
plungers may be added if necessary. For cer- 
tain kinds of work requiring several different 
settings of the stops a graduated bar may be 
used, which is arranged to be revolved into any 
one of tour positions, bringing into play in each 
position a separate set of stops fixed for the 
special requirements. For ordinary use the re- 
movable stops are preferred, because they may 
be placed in any notch in the graduated bar. 
When put in position these stops lock them- 
selves, so that they cannot be jarred out of 
place and yet they may be easily removed by 
the thumb and finger. The improvement was brought out 
about a year ago and has been brought to a satisfactory work- 
ing condition. Mechanically, the device is well designed. It 
does not interfere with any operation that could be done be- 
fore, and it may be very quickly applied to any of the recent 
models of these machines. 



EXTENSION OF SEVEN MONTHS FOR SAFETY 

ANCES. 



APPLl- 



The extension of the time for equipping cars with automatic 
couplers and air brakes, petitioned for by the railroads, has 
been granted by the Interstate Commerce Commission, and the 
date thus fixed is August 1. 1900, an extension of seven months. 
Expected progress has not been made by a number of roads 
because of the difficulty of procuring the necessary material 
and also because of the enormous trafiSc of recent months, 
which made it impossible to get the cars into the shops for 
making the attachments. 



30 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL 



PERSONALS. 



Mr. S. B. Mason has been appointed Assistant to the Mechani- 
cal Superintendent of the Baltimore & Ohio, with office at Mt. 
Clare, Baltimore, Md. 



Mr. W. S. Haines has been appointed Division Master Me- 
chanic of the Baltimore & Ohio, at Newark, Ohio, to succeed 
Mr. W. H. Harrison. 



Mr. H. E. Yarnall, Purchasing Agent of the Choctaw, Okla- 
homa & Gulf, has removed his office from South McAIester, 
I. T., to Little Rock. Ark. 



Mr. H. V. Mudge, General Superintendent of the Atchison, 
Topeka & Santa Fe, has been appointed General Manager of 
that road, with headquarters at Topeka, Kan. 



Mr. F. S. Chandler, formerly Purchasing Agent of the Ann 
Arbor, has accepted a position in the office of General Super- 
intendent Stout of the Wheeling & Lake Erie. 



Mr. C. E. Fuller has resigned as Superintendent of Motive 
Power of the Central Vermont, and has been succeeded by 
W. D. Robb, hitherto Master Mechanic of the Grand Trunk at 
Toronto. 



Mr. James H. Maddy, who has done such valuable work as 
Press Agent for the Baltimore & Ohio, has been rewarded by 
appointment to the position of assistant to General Manager 
Underwood. 



The office of Master Mechanic of the Lake Shore & Michi- 
gan Southern, at Buffalo, N. Y., has been abolished, and the 
jurisdiction of Master Mechanic A. A. Bradeen is extended to 
include the entire Eastern and Franklin Divisions. 



Mr. F. H. Clark, Chief Draughtsman of the Chicago, Bur- 
lington & Quincy, has been appointed Mechanical Engineer 
of that road, with headquarters at Aurora, 111., and will be 
succeeded as chief draughtsman by Mr. C. B. Young. 



Mr. Malcolm H. Wallace, Chief Clerk of the Motive Power 
Department of the Northern Pacific, has resigned to accept the 
position of Chief Clerk to Mr. E. M. Herr, General Manager 
of the Westiughouse Air Brake Company, at Pittsburg. 



Mr. G. J. Fisher has resigned as Purchasing Agent of the 
Fitchburg, to take effect on January 1. He has held this po- 
sition for the past 12 years and was formerly Purchasing 
Agent of the Eastern Railroad and the Boston & Maine. 



Mr. William F. Merrill, Second Vice-President of the Erie, 
has been chosen First Vice-President of the New York, New 
Haven & Hartford, to succeed Mr. William D. Bishop, Sr., who 
has been filling the position temporarily since November 11. 
Mr. Merrill will have direct charge of the line and its opera- 
tion. 



Mr. S. S. Voorhees, who has been chemist of the Southern 
Railway for the past five years, has been appointed to a simi- 
lar position on the New York Central at West Albany. His 
experience before entering the service of the Southern Rail- 
way was with Dr. C. B. Dudley, with the Pennsylvania, at 
Altoona. He is a graduate of Lehigh University. 



J. Charles Cox, the news of whose death, in November,, 
reached us after the publication of our December issue, was 
72 years of age. He died in Pittsburgh, where for many years 
he was employed by the Pittsburgh and Connellsville Rail- 
road. He was subsequently connected with the Baltimore & 
Ohio 'when that road absorbed the Pittsburgh & Connells- 
ville. 



Recent changes in the operating department of the Chicago 
& Northwestern are as follows: Mr. J. M. Whitman, for many 
years General Manager, has been made Fourth Vice-President; 
Mr. W. H. Gardner, Assistant General Superintendent, has 
been appointed General Manager; Mr. Sherburn Sanborn, Gen- 
eral Superintendent, has been appointed Assistant General 
Manager, and Mr. R. H. Aishton, Superintendent of the Iowa 
Division, has been appointed General Superintendent. 



John I. Blair, the veteran railway builder and owner, died 
at his home in Blairstown, N. J., December 2, at the age of 
97 years. He began his career as a railroad builder in 1839 
in a connecting link between Oswego and Ithaca, N. Y. 
This line, with others which he aided in building, was finally 
merged into the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western, in which 
ne was a director at the time of his death. He was promi- 
nently connected with the construction of many of the im- 
portant roads in the West. 



Colonel Julius Walker Adams died at his home in Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., on Dec. 14. He was one of the most brilliant and 
enterprising men In the field of civil engineering. He was 
instrumental in establishing civil engineering on this conti- 
nent as a profession and was one of the fathers of the Ameri- 
can Society of Civil Engineers. In 1846 he was Superintending 
Engineer of the New York & Brie Railroad, for several years 
Consulting Engineer of the City of New York, and prior to 
this time was Chief Engineer of many other Eastern roads. 
Colonel Adams was born In Boston, Oct. 18, 1812, and has lived 
a life of such usefulness that one cannot but feel the great 
inspiration his life and work has been to the engineering 
world. 

BOOKS AND PAMPHLETS. 



Masonry Construction. By Ira O. Baker. C. E., Professor of 
Civil Engineering, University of Illinois. Ninth edition, re- 
vised and partially re- written; first thousand. Published by 
John Wiley & Sons, New York. 1899. 

This book has long been a standard work, and an acknowl- 
edged authority on foundations. The present edition is a re- 
vision for the purpose or bringing the text on cements, mor- 
tars, concrete, etc., up to the present state of knowledge on 
those subjects. The treatment of cement tests and cement 
specifications is as complete as one could wish; the same can- 
not be said ot the discussion of concrete, but the indefinite 
state of knowledge on this latter subject makes it very diffi- 
cult to secure reliable data. It is noticeable that no informa- 
tion is given regarding the expansion and contraction of con- 
crete with changes of temperature. 

The importance of allowing for the expansive force of con- 
crete is shown by the experience of some cities where concrete 
walks have been laid abutting against the street curbs at 
crossings, and have by their expansion broken the curbs. Ex- 
amples of this action may be seen in Indianapolis, and also in 
Grand Rapids, Mich. At Ann Arbor, Mich., the expansion in a 
concrete walk one-quarter mile in length was sufficient to 
cause buckling at one joint, the joint being forced upwards 
six or eight inches, leaving the two adjacent blocks of con- 
crete inclining against each other. The importance of this 
element in concrete is also emphasized by the growing use of 
Melan and Thacher arches of steel and concrete combined, in 
which the stability of the structure deoenda to some extent 
upon the assumption that the coefficient of steel and concrete 
is practically the same, a very doubtful assumption. Spaulding 
says that the coefficient of expansion of neat cement is the 
same as steel. It would seem, then, as though it would be 
considerably less for concrete, with its large proportion of 
stone with low coefficients of expansion. 

The book may be criticised for neglecting in a discussion of 
arches, which in other respects is quite broad, any mention 
of Melan and Thacher bridges, or arches of concrete, when 
everything seems to point to the rapid development ot these 
structures for highway bridges. 
.Some important data are given regarding the relative 



January, 1900. AM E R IC A N E N G 1 N E E R AN D R AILRO AD J OU R N A L. 3 



strength of Portland and natural cements which does not up- 
hold the doubtful theory held by some, that natural cement 
concrete becomes stronger in time than Portland cement con- 
crete; but the proof is not conclusive. Out.«i(ie of these few 
points the text is most satisfactory and complete. 

The absorjition of watei' by cements and concrete, with means 
of prevention, and the effect of freezing on concrete, are dis- 
cussed at some length. A chapter has been added on sand, 
gravel and broken stone, with methods of determining the 
voids foi" a pi'opcr iirojiortioning of ceniriit in ihe making of 
concrete. 

Although the present edition is a revision with reference to 
moitar and concrete, it may not be amiss to notice one con- 
clusion that the author has drawn ta' his discussion of arch 
culverts, and which might with advantage have been omitted 
from the revised edition. The conclusion is that because semi- 
circular arch culverts have usually been built with heavier 
abutments than would be required to resist the thrust of the 
arch, that therefore it may be concluded that the pressure of 
the earth-fill against the abutments is far greater than the 
thrust of the arch; and therefore segmental arch culverts, on 
account of the greater thrust of the arch to balance this pres- 
.sure, may be built with lighter abutments than semi-circular 
ones. It may be true that such is the case, but some more 
substantial proof is needed to be convincing. And such a con- 
clusion drawn from inspection of existing structures is not 
only unwarranted but is dangerous. 

The Stereopticon Method of Examining and Instructii'g Rail- 
way Employees. By W. J. Murphy, Superintendent C, N. O. 
& T. P. Ky., Lexington, Ky., 189S. 54 pages, 4y2 x 6 inches. 
This little book contains questions and answers, engravings 
and descriptions of the stereopticon method of training and ex- 
amining railroad employees in regard to the rules governing 
railroad operation and the management and use of railroad 
equipment. The author devised this method some time ago, 
and put it into use on the Cincinnati, New Orleans & Texas 
Pacific Ry., where it has been very successful. The underlying 
idea is to instruct and examine the men under conditions as 
nearly as possible like those of actual visits to the various 
points protected by signals, and by aid of photographs thrown 
upon the screen the instructor and examiner is enabled to place 
actual conditions before the men in a way that could not pos- 
sibly be attained by diagrams or, in fact, by any method except 
by actually taking them out on the road to the places where 
the complications in signals and dangers are to be found. This 
is manifestly impossible on a large road, but by means of the 
screen these places are practically brought into the room and 
placed before the men. Mr. Murphy does not confine his at- 
tention to signal and train rules, but reaches out into the sub- 
ject of breakdowns to locomotives and the handling of wrecks. 
These matters are not presented in detail or in large variety in 
this little book, but the treatment is sufficient to indicate the 
possibilities of the plan. Mr. Murphy's method of examining 
men as to color blindness and strength of vision by aid of the 
stereopticon is also shown. This idea of the use of the screen 
a d lantern is believed to be a thoroughly good one, and every 
railroad officer having to do with the operation of trains should 
obtain a copy of the book. The idea of the plan is to instruct 
new men intelligently as to their duties and periodically ex- 
amine those in service as to their knowledge and understand- 
ing of the rules. 

Halls Tables of Squares. Containing the True Square of Every 
Foot and Fraction Thereof, from to 100 Feet, Advancing by 
One-sixteenth of an Inch, By John L. Hall. The Engineer- 
ing News Publishing Company, 220 Broadway, New York- 
200 pp., leather, size 3V2 by 5% inches. 1S99. Price, $2.00. 
This is a most convenient table of squares. It is a durable 
and attractive book, well suited for the use of engineers, and 
possesses several important improvements over other tables 
of squares. This table is stated to be correct to the sixth deci- 
mal place instead of merely to the second or third place, which 
is the limit of other tables with which we are familiar. The 
compass of this work is heartily commended. It gives the 
squares up to 100 feet, whereas 50 feet is the limit of previous 
tables. An admirable feature of its arrangement which will 
be appreciated at once is the paging. The page numbers cor- 
respond with the number to be squared and the squares of any 
particular foot and its fraction are exposed to view on two 
facing pages. This is accomplished by numbering only the left- 
Imnd pages. A c(miparatlvely small matter of this kind makes 



all the difference between convenience and Inconvenience, and 
this has a great deal to do with the success of such a work. 
The arrangement of the columns Is also good. Each Inch has a 
column by itself, separated into quarter Inches by blank spaces, 
with the roots printed in heavy-faced type. The clearness pro- 
duced by this arrangement Is unusual. These are an Improve- 
ment over Buchanan's In that In the present work the fraction 
is squared first and then reduced to decimal form, whereas Bu- 
chanan took for the basis of his tables the approximate 4-place 
decimal equivalent of each fraction of a foot. Mr. Hall points 
out that the resulting squares. If absolutely accurate to the 
eighth decimal place, yet, by reason of the Inexactness of the 
roots emi)loyed, differ from the true squares In eleven cases out 
of every twelve and frequently at the second or third decimal 
place. 

Fowler's Mechanical Engineer's Pocket Book for 1900. Edited 
by ■William H. Fowler. Price, $1.00. Published by D. Van 
Nostrand Co., 23 Murray St., New York. 

The success of this book last year has resulted in an increase 
of matter covering 200 pages, 80 of which are added to the 
treatment of electrical subjects. The book contains a gre.al 
deal of valuable information which, even with the present large 
number of "pocket books," we have not seen in any other pub- 
lication. Its strong points seem to be such information as 
would be expected with such assistance as that of the former 
Chief Shipwright of the Board of Trade and Professor Pullen. 
The tables of properties of saturated steam are unusually com- 
plete in range, for the purpose of providing for the recent great 
advances in steam pressures. The tables in this volume range 
from 1 to 300 lbs. per square inch with intervals of one pound, 
and all the quantities involving the mechanical equivalent of 
heat are based on 778 foot-pounds, the most recently accepted 
value. This work was done by Professor Pullen. The other 
most important additions concern steam boilers, machine tools 
and textile machinery. The index is satisfactory, covering 
nearly 50 pages. The price is exceedingly low, and for this 
reason the presence of a large number of advertisements may 
be excused. We must criticise the omission of the name of the 
book upon the binding where it may be seen on the shelf. 
Doubtless this will be attended to in future editions. 

The Building and Ornamental Stones of Wisconsin. By E. R. 
Buckley, Ph. D., Assistant Geologist M isconsin Geological and 
Natural History Survey. Published by the State of Wis- 
consin, Madison, 1898. 

This volume, which has been received through the courtesy 
of Mr. E. A. Birge, Director of the Wisconsin Geological and 
Natural History Survey, will be invaluable to those interested 
in the geology of Wisconsin. It treats of the demand, uses and 
properties of ornamental stones; the geological history of Wis- 
consin, and description of the areas and quarries. The ap- 
pendix contains a study of the composition and kinds of stones 
and rock structures. The volume presents results of a large 
number of tests and by aid of handsome engravings and colored 
plates shows not only the character of the Wisconsin building 
stone, but its effect in architecture and the methods of quarry- 
ing and preparing for use. 

Interstate Commerce Commission. Eleventh Annual Report on 
the Statistics of Railways In the United States for the Year 
Ending June 30, 1S98. Prepared by Mr. Henry C. Adams, the 
Statistician to the Commission. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D. C. 1899. 

This report covers the ground of railroad statistics in ac- 
cordance with the plan adopted by the commission and brings 
the record up to a little over a year ago. It appears to have 
no new features, but is undoubtedly improved in accuracy by 
the efforts to secure data in a uniform manner from the 
various combinations of roads which naturally tend to obscure 
the identity of some of the individual lines. It contains the 
report of the statistician, statistical tables; a summary of rail- 
roads in the hands of receivers, with the capital involved; de- 
cisions of the commission upon questions raised under the 
classification of operating expenses, and two indexes, one to 
the railroads and the other a general index to the volume. 

Report of the 18th Annual Meeting of the American Street 
Railway Association Held in Chicago, October, 1899. Mr. T. C. 
Pennington, Secretary, 2020 State Street, Chicago, 11(1. 
This pamphlet of 220 pages contains the minutes and pro- 
ceedings of the recent meeting of the association, with com- 
plete information concerning the membership, and includes the 
papers and discussions of the meeting. 



82 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



Locomotive Sanders are illustrated and described in a pam- 
plilet of 30 pages received from the American Locomotive Sander 
Co., 13th and Willow streets, Philadelphia. The devices de- 
scribed are the Leach, Houston, Dean, "She" and Curtis. These 
well-known sanders are all described in detail by the aid of 
line drawings showing sections of the apparatus. 



by increasing volume of business coming from all parts of the 
world. 



The Rand Drill Co., 100 Broadway, New Torlt, have issued 
two very handsomely illustrated pamphlet catalogues, one 
entitled "Rock Drills and Drill Mountings," and the other, "Air 
and Gas Compressors." The first is devoted to the rock drill 
in its various forms for mines, quarries and tunnels. It con- 
tains a histoi'y of the rock drill, descriptions of the machines 
manufactured by this firm, illustrations of diiferent kinds of 
works, and valuable information for use in connection with this 
work. The compressor catalogue illustrates the Rand Air Com- 
pressor in its many forms and applications, the descriptions 
of r;hich include tables of information concerning sizes and ca- 
pacities. The accesories to compressors, reheaters, air engines 
and governing appliances are included, and also a number of 
tables of information concerning the compression and use of 
compressed air. The engravings are unusually fine; nearly all 
are half-tones. 



Westinghouse Pneumatic Control, New Motor Trucks and 
Rotary Air Compressor. — The Westinghouse Air Brake Co. have 
issued a most handsomely illustrated pamphlet on these sub- 
jects. The pneumatic control system for elevated railroads is 
described in detail and by aid of the engravings the operation 
of this ingenious system is made clear. The object is to use 
motors under any desired number of cars in the train which 
may all be controlled from the motorman's compartment of any 
of the cars. The controllers are operated by pneumatic power 
acting in small cylinders, the operating valves of which are 
controlled by currents from primary electric batteries. The 
system uses the principles of the Westinghouse electro-pneu- 
matic interlocking apparatus and in a really simple system per- 
mits of obtaining the advantages of multiple unit control of an 
electrically driven train. The pamphlet also describes the air 
brake system applied to such service, which is a modification of 
the standard apparatus used in heavy railroad service and the 
new rotary air compressor which is driven directly by a motor 
placed with its armature horizontal. Heretofore the indepen- 
dent compressors for elevated car service have been of the 
reciprocating piston type and driven by gears or other noisy 
mechanisms. This is a rotary air pump and the motor is made 
specially for use in connection with it. We also find an illus- 
trated description of the new BaldwLn-Westinghouse motor 
truck (See American Engineer, November, 1899, page 356) and 
several engravings of the large Westinghouse railway motors 
used in recent practice. The pamphlet is the handsomest that 
we have seen in such literature, and is in excellent taste 
throughout. 



EaUIPMENT AND MANUFACTURING NOTES. 

The Chemins de fer de I'Etats Neerlandais, at Utrecht on 
the Rhine, has adopted Nels' yellow semaphore signal lights 
and has ordered the glass from Mr. John C. Baird of Boston. 



The Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. announces the dismissal of 
patent litigation entered into between that company and Joseph 
Boyer with the Standard Pneumatic Tool Co. and the Chouteau 
Manufacturing Co. The announcement states that the parties 
concerned have purchased licenses from each other covering 
their present styles of hammers, a step which was considered 
necessary for the protection of users of their products. This 
action will prevent the annoyance from infringement claims. 



Mr. Wallace W. Johnson, who has been associated with the 
Keasbey & Mattison Company for a number of years, has re- 
signed to become connected with the Franklin Manufacturing 
Company of Franklin, Pa. 



'The Bullock Electric Manufacturing Co. have begun the ex- 
tension of their main shop building by the addition of 200 feet 
to its length. This will make the main shop 500 feet long by 
101 feet wide. The increase in facilities has been necessitated 



The electric car lighting system of the Columbian Electric 
Car Lighting and Brake Co. of 11 Broadway, New York, of 
which Mr. J. L. Watson is secretary, is now in operation on 
the following roads: The New York Central, Pennsylvania, Bal- 
timore & Ohio, Boston & Albany, Union Pacific, Rutland, Illi- 
nois Central, Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, Canadian Pa- 
cific, Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis, and also by 
the Pullman and Wagner companies. The system was de- 
scribed in our December, 1899, issue. 



The Q & C Co. sent us the following statement in regard to 
patent litigation concerning pneumatic tools: "Referring to the 
articles now appearing in the mechanical papers pertaining 
to litigation on pneumatic tools, and in order to make clear 
the position of the Q & C Co., we wish to distinctly state 
that we are not in any way involved in this controversy. 
The line of tools manufactured by us are protected by our own 
patents, unique and bi-oad in themselves and absolutely clear 
from any infringement. Full protection will be given to any 
purcliaser of our tools from any liability on account of their 
use." 



The Cling-Surface Manufacturing Company, of Buffalo, N. Y., 
report a recent letter from the Peoples' Electric Light, Heat 
and Power Company, of Greenville, Pa., which says that Cling- 
Surface gives the best of satisfaction. "One of our 16-inch belts 
is running with a 21-inch sag. Another 16-inch belt, 8 feet 
shorter, is running with a 19-inch sag. One of our 12-inch dy- 
namo belts has been run ten years and is a 'dead belt'; we had 
to cover the pulley or run it very tight. We have been using 
Cling-Surface on it and no pulley covering, and now it with 
S-inch sag and think we can get it down further. Two other 
12-inch 'dead belts' are also running very slack." 



Having noticed printed references to a circular issued jointly 
by two manufacturers of pneumatic tools, stating that the 
patents controlled by them cover the fundamental principles 
of pneumatic hammers, without which no successful ones can 
be made, the Q & C Company desires not to express any opinion 
as to the accuracy of the statement when applied to valved 
hammers, but to state that it is misleading when valveless 
hammers are included. They also desire to state that the valve- 
less hammers manufactured by them are not in any way 
an infringement of the patents referred to. 



An index for the M. C. B. book of rules has been prepared 
by the Sargent Company, 675 Old Colony Building, Chicago, 
and will be distributed to railroads for tlie use of those having 
occasion to refer to the rules. This index is arranged to fold 
into the book of rules and is provided with a gummed strip for 
attachment to the page. On the reverse side of the slip is 
a copy of the Sargent Company's knuckle chart illustrating 
59 of the M. C. B. coupler knuckles, which this concern is 
prepared to furnish. The idea is a good one, and the indexes 
will undoubtedly be thoroughly appreciated among the rail- 
roads. Copies will be fuinished upon application to the Sargent 
Company. 



Tlie Bullock Electric Manufacturing Co. report for Novem- 
ber, 1899, the largest amount of business in a single month in 
the history of the company. Fifty-one machines were sold, 
several of which were "repeat" orders. The more important 
sales are noted as follows: Willson Aluminum Co., Holcombs 
Rock, Va., three 600 k.w. alternating generators; Manchester 
Sporting Chronicle, of Manchester, England, two 150 k.w. di- 
rect current generators (second order) ; L. L. Summers, Flor- 
ence, Colorado, six direct current generators aggregating 260 
k.w.; John Wanamaker, Philadelphia, Pa., one 100 k.w. direct 
current generator, and three 50 horse power "Teaser" print- 
ing press equipments; Arthur Pearson, Pearson's Magazine, 
London, England, three 50 horse power "Teaser" printing press 
equipments; Oakland Transit Co., Oakland, Cal., four 15 horse 
power direct current motors (third order) ; American Type 
Foundry Co., Cincinnati. O., one 30 k.w. generator (second or- 
der), and Pacific Coast Borax Co., Bayonne, N. J., one 12Vi 
horse power direct current motor (fifth order). 



February, 1900. AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAI LRO A D JO U R N AU S3 



_, AMERICAN—. 

Engineer 

RAILROAD Journal 



FEBRUARY, UMIO. 



0O3SrT£}2SrTri. 



Illustrated Articles: Page 

Firebox Crown Stays, by F. J. 

Cole 33 

Consolidation Freiglit Locomo- 

tivea. L. S. & M. S, Itailway... ,37 
Some Causes of Excessive Heat- -^nal 

ing in BeariDSj Metals, by 

Kobert Job 38 

Grates for Colic liurnintj 40 

Cast Steel Driving Wheels 53 

Locomotive Tenders, by William 

Forsytb . *5 

Iniprovements in Locomotive 

Driver liraltes ; 46 

Piston Valves with Allen Ports. 1 154 
Eight-Wheel Passenger Locomo- 

motive, Chicago and Alton 

Railroad 55 

Roller Atlachment for Axle 

Lathes 57 

A Valuable Crane 58 

A New Truck by the J. G. Brill 

Co :.... 59 

A Successful Gas Engine Power 

Plant 60 

Direct Motor Driver Profiler 61 

MlSCKLLANKOl'S ARTICLES : 

Boiler Specifications and Tests 36 
Master Mechanics' and Master 
Car Builders Convention for 

mou 47 

Master Mechanics Wanted 50 



Page 
HeatinB Surface and Weight on 

Drivers 50 

Staybolt Progress 50 

Four Cylinder Tamdem Com- 
pound Loc-oniotive 53 

Improved Engine Frame Con- 
struction 54 

Exhaust and Draft Arrange- 
ments in Locomotives. .. . 1^55 
Good American i'ractice in 
(Jenler of Gravity of a 108-Ton 

Locomotive : ^56 

Cranti Pins and Axles 57 

Kconomicai Operation of Loco- 

motivod 57 

The i^lot in the M. C. B. Knuckle. 58 
InairucLion in t^are of .Journal 
Boxes.N. Y. O. & H. R. Railway 
The Increasing Weiglits of Loco- 

tives 

Editorials; 

Movement of Sheets In Fireboxes 
Advisability of Improving Sig- 
nals 

The Engineer in the Navy 18 

The .Skein Test for Color Blind- 
ness 48 

The Increasing Weights of Loco- 
motives 49 

Systems of Electric Driving in 
Shops 49 



60 



48 
48 



LOCOMOTIVE DESIGN.* 



By F. J. Cole, Mechanical Engineer, Rogers Locomotive Works. 



Firebox Crown Stays. 



In this article various forms of the supporting stays or brac- 
ing for firebox crown sheets will be considered. The possibility 
of a crown sheet becoming over-heated by the temporary ab- 
sence of the usual covering of water requires the supporting 
bolts or stays to be designed with a larger factor of safety 
than the water space stays, which are wholly below the level 
of the crown sheet, and for that reason always entirely sub- 
merged. 

It is not meant by this that the bolts should be made so 
large and strong that no amount of over-heating would cause 
the ci'own sheet to be blown down. A few moments' consid- 
eration would show the fallacy of this. It is good practice, 
however, to provide a very large margin against any temporary 
absences of water or over-heating either wholly or in part, 
caused by: (a) foaming; (b) the application of brakes to a 
swiftly moving locomotive in momentarily exposing or nearly 
exposing the crown sheet; (c) by improperly or insufficiently 
admitting feed water to the boiler, which allows the water 
level to be so lowered that the intense heat generated in the 
firebox is not absorbed fast enough to keep the sheet at the 
usual comparatively low temperature; (d) overheating caused 
by deposit of scale or mud. The action of the brakes in reduc- 
ing the water level at the back end is more noticeable in 
straight topped radial stay or Belpaire boilers than in those 
having wagon tops. Boilers with straight tops have more steam 
room in the front and therefore greater space for the water to 
rush ahead when the motion of the boiler is suddenly retarded. 

Experience indicates that certain sizes of crown stays give 
satisfactory results for a given spacing and steam pressure. 
Also that the upper ends of the bolts or stays may be safely 
made smaller than the lower ends or parts exposed directly to 
the heat of the fire. For radial stay and Belpaire boilers 3,500 
pounds as an average with a range from 3,000 to 4,000 pounds 
per square inch of net section will be found a perfectly safe 
and satisfactory stress for the lower ends, which pass through 
the crown sheet and are exposed to the action of flame and 
beat and 5,000 pounds as an average with a range from 4,500 

For prevoius article, see Vol. LXXIII., p. 376. 



to 5,500 pounds for the upper enclH not exposed to Maine and 
heat. For crown bar staying, the fiber stress for the bolts 
securing the crown sheet to the bars may be safely increased 
to 4,500 pounds for the lower end, which is exposed to the 
direct action of flame and heat; and the upper end not ex- 
posed to flame and heat to 7,000 pounds of net area. 

In Fig. 1 is shown an excellent form of solid button head 
bolt suitable for radial stay or Belpaire boilers. This form 
is largely used and makes a first class stay when properly 
fitted. The lower threaded end is tapered slightly and en- 
larged aliout 5/32 of an inch, or just enough to allow the upper 
end to pass through the lower hole after it is tapped out. The 
under side of the head is turned true and grooved so that the 
bearing is on the outside, and the crown sheet spot faced with a 
cutter, which is provided with a long shank to pass through 
the inner and outer holes. The diameter of the cutter is not 
much larger than the bolt head and is arranged to face off 
the sheet exactly at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the 
bolts. If this is properly done, the bolt may be screwed in 
and a steam-tight joint made without bending it under the 
head, which would otherwise occur, if the holes were not true 
with the surface of the sheet. See Fig. 2. During the opera- 
tion of screwing in such a bolt, the head of which touches the 
sheet at only one point, the neck is alternately bent back- 
wards and forwards at each half revolution until the head is 
in contact all around. Many instances have been observed 
in bolts removed from boilers where this repeated bending 
had caused dangerous cracks just under the head. This is 
especially the case where the necks had been grooved to 
facilitate cutting the threads. See tests, numbers 7 to 10 in 
the table of Record of Tests. 

A number of experiments were made by the writer a lew 
years ago to determine the holding power of various forms 
of firebox crown stays, both hot and cold, with a view to 
reduce the number of dropped or "bagged" crown sheets. These 
tests and the conclusions deduced therefrom were published 
at length in the transactions of 
Mechanical Engineers. May. 1897. 
below: 

The object in view was to test them as nearly as possible 
under the same conditions as in actual service, when used in 
staying the firebox crown sheet of a locomotive, and particu- 
larly to note the relative decrease of the holding power at high 
temperatures. In all these tests, it is assumed that the bolts 
are spaced 4 by 4 inches, center to center, supporting an area 
of 16 square inches. 

The pocketing, or bagging down, which is characteristic of 
an overheated crown sheet caused by low water, was imitated 
by using a bearing plate of i/o-inch steel, 8 by 8 inches square, 
with a hole 41/2 inches in diameter bored through its center. The 
area of this hole is 15,9 square inches. The specimens were 
screwed or driven into pieces of %-inch steel plate, 12 by 12 
inches square. 

A 100,000-pound Riehle screw-testing machine was used, the 
specimen plate and bolt being inverted with the bearing plate 
between it and the head of the machine, the staybolt hanging 
down through the middle. 

The specimens were heated in a small portable forge, along- 
side the testing machine. The plates, with the bolts projecting 
upward, were placed on the fire, and the heat localized in the 
center over a diameter of about 6 inches, by keeping a small, 
bright fire, and dampening the outside with fine wet coal, to 
keep it from spreading. 

The characteristic failure of the bolts when screwed through 
and riveted over, was by the sheet bagging down, stretching 
out the threads to a bell-mouth shape, and shearing off a small 
annular ring representing the thickness of the riveting. It will 
be observed, when referring to specimens 1 to 4 and 15, that 
the edges of the head are very shallow where they are sheared 
off in line with the edge of the hole, and that the holes are 
stretched to such an extent that the threads lost their holding 
power. Generally speaking, the use of a nut increases the 
holding power of the staybolt over the plain riveting, when 
tested cold, about 100 per cent, and 50 per cent, when heated 
to a bright red. 

One of the most noticeable features shown in these tests Is 
the comparatively slight decrease in holding power of any of 
the forms of crown stays until a temperature exceeding a black 
or dull red has been reached. 



the American Society of 
A few extracts are given 



84 AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 




v 


'^ ^^ 


^ 


'^■T 


L 


\ 


J— ''l 




,2^ SLOTTED 7 


^ 


, 


'' 


( 








-2 A— - 






L. ,, 2I- _ . . . 



DIA. 
A 


UPSET 

at"b 

TO 


1 ■ 


1 % 


^V 


1%; 


1 '■'/ 


1 '/;;' 



TAPER 1 IN 96 
^ \2 THREADS 



Firebox Crown Stavs-F. J. Cole. 



februaky, 1900. AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 35 






— =*..< 


•Jj 




:^= 


STEEL PLATE 

12' X 12' 





12 THREAD 




N.-.s§*l 


-,,.... 




.*l 











* 2 






1 ' 






8TEEL PLATE 
12'x 12* 






'/ 


-• 


r 


I ' 


1^ 


-f*-" 


—J 



MCAdX TO^'b'aBOVE sheet and riveted OVEfl 



SQUARE -U 

NO. 1. BUTTON MEAD ,' ^ 0100VE UNDER HEAQ 
NO. B. ■' ■■ /^1« 

N0.9- " " ^8. " 

NO. 10- ■' " %» 



NO. u. outtOn head with beamed MOcE 



I 




^SZ 






SPECIMEN 
No. 1 



BRIGHT 
RED HEAT 



SPECIMEN 
No. 13 



BRIGHT 
RED HEAT 



Diagrams Showine Results of Tests. 



)the nut will not pull off when over- 
heated until the ultimate strength of the 
stay is nearly reached. It does not, how- 
ever, offer so much resistance on the lower 
end against overheating as a button-head 
stay with enlarged end. and consequently is 
not in this respect as, good or economical a 
design. 

The sling stay shown in Fig. 4 is used for 
lliH Hist two or three rows. The upper hole 
is slotted to allow upward movf-nipnt of the 
crown sheet to talte place. This movement is 
caused hy the expansion of the tube sheet. 

The sling stay shown in Fig. 5 represents a 
neat and simple design with provision for ex- 
pansion. It consists of only three pieces and 
allows ample freedom for the upward expan- 
sion of the fireljox. It is in satisfactory use 
on the Chesapeake & Ohio and several other 
roads. 

Another form of flexible sling stays for two 
or three rows in front is illustrated in Fig. 6. 
This bolt is easily applied and is one in which 
the adjustment does not depend upon the ac- 



RECORD OF TESTS 
The average of all the tests, excepting those of lower temperature and of doubtful results, is as follows: 



Specimen 
No. 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
II 
12 
IS 
14 
18 
16 



Tensile Strength. 



Cold. 



Lbs. 

16 350 

16,700 

17.600 

20,733 

4l,95'i 

42,100 

38,12J 



39.800 
39,800 
42,580 
43,100 
39,720 
24.0"0 
40,300 



Hot. 



Remarks. 



Lbs. 
3,470 
3,173 
4,040 
4 000 



6.0(10 
7.095 
6,933 
7,5UO 
7,483 
8,766 
9,333 
UM50 
7.816 
4 613 
9,730 



Head % inch above sheet, riveted just enough to make steamtiebf, head not to exceed 1% inches diameter. 

Head Mt inch above sheet, riveted over. 

Head i'e inch above sheet, riveted over 

Head U inch above sheet, riveted over. , . , j ■ » v, , , • i, ■„ i/ :„„i. 

%-inch std. uut, tapped out to 1 inch, 12 threads, and nveled ov r, projects about ,,; inch to % inch. 

1-inch std nut, 12 threads, riveted over; pro.iects about A inch to hi inch. 

Button head. i>4 inch groove. 

Button head. {;■ ioch groove. 

Button head, ?'k inch groove 

Button head. \l inch groove. 

Button head, no groove, countersunk 

Button head, no aroove, A inch copper washer. 

Button head, with 1,'n inch reamed hole. , ,, j 

1-inch std. nut. 12 threads, nut countersunk ' I inch and well riveted over. . u j .,• i. . k f„ , < 

Screwed in sheet, 2 threads, rivet head *§ inch high and lu; inches diamt-ter largest head which can b : form 1. 

Button bead, with lU inches tapered reamed hole, 3 inches thimble and nut. 



Sizes of Crown Stays in Actual Use on Different Railroads and the Stresses per Square Inch of net Area. 



Type of Boiler. 


Uia, of Stay. 


Area of Stay at Root of 
Thread . 


Steam Pres- 
sure. 


Spacing and 
Area Sup- 
ported . 


Pounds Sup- 
ported by 
Each Stay. 


Stress per Square Inch. 


Remark:.. 




Bottom. 


Top. 


Bottom . 


Top. 


Bottom. 


Top. 




Belpaire 

Wootten 

Belpaire 

Radial stay 

Crown bar 

Radial stay .... 
Belpaire 


113 
1,', 

la*= 
13*2 
1% 

u\ 

lA 

% 

1 
lA 

lA 

H 
1% 


m 
m 

1 

iH 

1 

m 

1 

1 

% 

% 

1 

1 

1 

% 
1 


1,08 

1.08 

1.32 

1.08 
.863 

1.08 

1.18 
.99 

1 08 
.863 
.89 
.42 

.716 
.625 
.863 
.916 
.119 
.99 


.812 
.812 
1 021 
.812 
.625 
.812 
.812 
.55 
.812 
.625 
.55 
.6'! 

.419 
625 
625 
.6:i5 
.690 
.55 


190 

200 

210 

2^0 

180 

180 

200 

ISO 

180 

180 

165 • 

140 

160 
165 

200 
200 
200 
200 


4 25x 4.54 

. 4x4.21 

4.625 X 4 

4x407 

4x4.06 

4 X 4.31 

4.125 X4.15 

4x4 

4 X 4.31 

4.5 X 4.23 

4 5 X 5.25 

4.5 X 5 325 

4.375x4.274 

4.375 X 1.3 

4.25 X 4 

4x4 

4x4 

4x3-^ 


3,660 
3.360 
3,880 
3,250 
2,910 
3,100 
3,42') 
2,850 
3,100 
3,425 
3,898 
3,386 

2,992 
3,102 
3,400 
3,200 
3,200 
3,100 


3,390 
3,110 
2,935 
3,010 
3,330 
2,870 
3,170 
2,920 
2,863 
3,968 
4,380 
8,060 

4,173 
4,963 
3,940 
3,490 
4,637 
3,130 


1,500 
4,120 
.",830 
4,000 

4 700 
3,820 
4.200 
5,230 
3,820 

5 4S0 
7,087 
5,640 

7.110 
1,863 
5,140 
5,120 
7,637 
5,^36 




C'rown bar 

Radial stay 

Crown bar 


(Changed, not 
I in use 



The screw crown stay shown in Fig. 3 represents one of 
the simplest forms In use. When properly riveted over in a 
countersunk nut it makes a secure stay and one in which 



curacy of marking off and drilling the pin holes as in Fig. 4. 
It is used by the Pennsylvania, the Chicago. Burlington & 
Quincy and other roads. 



SB 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



An improper and weak design of crown-bar bolt is shown 
in Fig. 7. It is inserted tlirougli the bar and screwed into the 
crown sheet from the top. A nut and copper washer on the 
under side provide means to render it steam tight. This form 
was used extensively some j'ears ago, but is now superseded 
by bolts driven up from below (Fig. 8), with enlarged ends, 
fitted in reamed taper holes. 

The form of crown bolt shown in Fig. S represents one of 
the best methods used in the construction of boilers, when 
the crown sheet is supported by bars. The lower end of the 
bolt is made about % inch larger than the body and turned 
with a taper of % inch' in 12 inches. The washers between 
the sheet and lower edge of the bars are usually made from 
IY2 to 3 inches in height. Each crown bar should be supported 
ijy two or four sling stays, according to the steam pressure to 
be carried and the size of the boiler. 

Fig. 9 shows an arrangement of crown bars made in the form 
of rolled tees. In this construction the sling stays must be 
proportioned to carry the entire load, as the ends of the bars 
are not supported on the firebox side sheets. 

Several years ago a large number of crown-bar boilers were 
built, for consolidation engines, in which the crown sheets 
were supported by %-inch diameter bolts, screwed through 
the sheets and provided with nuts and copper washers in the 
firebox, the heads of the bolts being on top of the crown bars, 
arranged as shown in Fig. 7. They were spaced 5% by 4% 
inches, each bolt supporting an area of 24.18 square inches, the 
steam pressure was 140 pounds. Each bolt therefore sustained 
24.18 X 140 = 3,3S5 pounds. Diameter at root of threads 
10V = 0.731; area = 0.42. Stress per square inch = 8,060 
pounds. When it is observed that the weakest part of these 

Area of Crown Bolts at Bottom of Thread (12 per inch) for Diameters from 
1 to 1 32 Inches and Suggested Working Loads at the Upper and liOwer 
Ends of Same for Kadlal Stay or Belpaire Boilerij. 



BOLSTER SPECIFICATIONS AND TESTS. 



Diameter. 


At Bottom of Thread. 


Lower End. 


Upper End. 


1 fiecimal. 


Diameter. 


Area. 


3,600ibs.persq.in. 


5,00Olbs.persq. in. 


1 


1.0 


.892 


.625 


2,187 


3,125 


U\ 


1.031 


.923 


.669 


2,341 


.3,345 


lA 


1.063 


.955 


.716 


2,506 


3,580 


U\ 


1.091 


,986 


.763 


2,670 


3,815 


IH 


1.125 


1 017 


.812 


2,842 


4,060 


In'i, 


1.156 


1.048 


.863 


3,U20 


4,315 


!,'« 


1.187 


1.080 


.916 


3,206 


4,580 


1,', 


1.219 


1.111 


.969 


3,391 


4,843 


m 


1.25 


1.112 


1.024 


3,684 


.5,120 


u. 


1.281 


1-173 


1.080 


3,780 


5,4(ID 


l-l'lT 


1.312 


1.204 


1 137 


3,980 


5,685 


m 


1.311 


1.236 


1 199 


4,196 


5,995 


m 


1.376 


1.267 


1.261 


4,413 


6,305 


m 


1.406 


1.298 


1.323 


■ 4,630 


6 615 



bolts was directly exposed to the fire, and to the chance of 
overheating— should the water be low— from any temporary 
cause, the very high stress will be more noticeable. 

These engines were in service for a number of years before 
any change was made in the crown staying. However, when 
these boilers were thoroughly repaired, the form of bolt shown 
in Fig. 8 was applied. This example may be regarded as the 
maximum stress which, perhaps, could be carried by bolts 
in connection with crown bars, rather than any form of 
through staying such as radial or straight Belpaire stays. It 
may be added that this style of staying and its very high 
stress, should be viewed as an interesting example of past 
practice rather than an instance of good design. 

The decrease in the construction of crown-bar boilers in the 
last eight or ten years has been very marked. At the present 
time over 90 per cent, are built with some form of direct screw 
stays for the crown sheets. For high pressures of 200 pounds 
and over there is a distinct advantage in the use of screw 
stays, from the fact that the safety of the boiler does not 
depend upon the proper adjustment of the sling stays between 
the bars and the shell, without which, crown bars for large 
boilers are insufficient to carry the entire load. 



Among the improvements of recent years in the construction 
of wooden cars none is more important and far reaching than 
the introduction of steel bolsters. The advantages of what 
may be termed "modern bolsters" were so great when com- 
pared with former practice as to justify at their advent a 
certain amount of carelessness in selection of the type of 
bolster as long as the new one would greatly increase the 
capacity of the cars. This, however, is not now advisable. 

The tendency has been to consider price as the determining 
element in selecting bolsters, but the differences in design are 
so great as to render this a relatively unimportant factor. It 
has in many cases been considered unnecessary to bother about 
the strength as long as the bolster manufacturers guaranteed 
the purchaser against failure. Since the first of the modern 
bolsters appeared the subject has received attention from those 
who understand and appreciate the stresses involved and also 
the importance of proper distribution of material with a view 
of making every pound of material count in terms of strength. 
It is evidently now necessary to take this fact, as well as price, 
into consideration in selecting bolsters and it would be better 
business policy to buy on a basis of strength, durability and 
price. 

Admitting that several designs of bolsters may be depended 
upon to give good service, why not include in the specifications 
the limiting stresses per square inch in the tension and com- 
pression members and ask for bids on this basis? The design 
which keeps within the limits of the required stresses and has 
the minimum total weight could then be selected. These con- 
siderations coupled with the advantages in simplicity, durabil- 
ity, ability to go through wrecks without injury and price, 
would give the necessary information for intelligent compari- 
son and all the bolster makers would be put upon the same 
basis. The question of the best distribution of metal could be 
answered and those bolsters which are systematically designed 
to carry the cars free from the side bearings would stand out 
prominently. This feature of bolsters does not appear to have 
been fully appreciated, and it is evident that if a bolster is 
designed with a view of separating the side bearings it must 
be very much heavier and cftisequently much more expensive 
to construct than one in which this feature is not provided. 

The question of strength and allowable fiber stress in bol- 
sters is an important one because of its bearing upon the weight 
'of the structures, which must be hauled in trains. The stress 
should be as high as practicable because the higher it is the 
less material is required to make the bolsters, and yet the limit 
of safe strength for indefinite service must not be passed. The 
elaborate report on the design of axles before the Master Car 
Builders' Association in 1896 provides for 98.4 per cent, of the 
static load (in addition to the static load) as the maximum 
result of vertical and horizontal oscillations. This means that 
for an axle, double the static load should be provided for, but 
bolsters are not subjected to the rapidly alternating stresses of 
the axle and bolsters are also cushioned by the springs, which 
facts should be considered as effectively reducing the propor- 
tion of load due to shocks to perhaps 50 per cent, of the quiet 
load. This figure is merely estimated, but it serves to show 
that the subject of the strength of bolsters requires study in 
order to obtain all of the advantages offered by the use of metal 
in their construction. 

A feature of bolster design about which very little is heard 
is transverse strength. This is exceedingly important in con- 
nection with the stopping of fully loaded cars of large capacity 
and that the stresses in this direction are great is not ques- 
tioned. In fact, we believe that most of the bolsters which 
have failed have failed transversely. We are told that modern 
bolsters which have developed this weakness show a trans- 
verse strength of only from one-third to one-fifth of that of 
old wooden bolsters. There is plenty of room in the car 
structure to provide for these stresses, and the limit of trans- 
verse strength is that determined by the weight of the bolster. 



Flbroakv, luoo. AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 37 



From a brief conxideration of these factors it seems clear 
tliat a great deal of thought may be profitably put into the 
(ieaign of bolsters. 

Drop tests have been suggested and arc now seriously con- 
sidered as offering means for comparing bolsters. With this 
method it is possible to submit different specimens to the 
same conditions of test, but the abjection raised is that this 
is not a service test under working conditions, and that a 
loading test from which fibre stresses could be ascertained 
would be a fairer method, which would give the kind of infor- 
mation desired. No one would consider submitting a draw 
span of a bridge to an impact test. It would be advantageous 
to submit a bolster to a heavy static load and then note the 
effect of a sudden increase of load of perhaps 50 or 60 per cent, 
of the static load, but if this cannot be done the method of 
gradually applied load and measurement of deflection seems 
to offer the best study of a bolster. 



Brooks works for the same road. The following table sum- 
marix.es the chief dimensions and particulars of the design: 
• 'onsollilatlon Freight Liocomotive, Ij. S. & M. S. Railway. 

Khiil of fuel to be used Bituminous coal 

WclK'lit on drivers 149,000 lbs. 

VV.lKht on trucks 19,000 lbs. 

W. iKh t, total 168,000 lbs. 

VV.-lKht, lunder, loaded 118,000 lbs. 

WMiil buHi-, total, of engine 25 ft. 6 In. 

Whci-I baso. rlrivlns 17 ft. 4 In. 

Wheel banc, total, engine and tender 55 ft. 4% In. 

Length over all, imjflnc 41 ft. 5V4 In. 

I. eiiKth over all. total, engine and tender 65 ft. 3 In. 

llelKht. cciitir of boiler above rails 9 ft. 2 In. 

lli-lKht of slack above rails 14 ft. 10 In. 

FleatiiiK surface, llrebox and arch tubes 230 sq. ft. 

lleatluK surface, tube.s 2,452 aq. ft. 

Healing surface, total 2,682 sq. ft. 

('■rale area 33.5 sq. ft. 

I)i"i\-ers, diameter 62 In. 

I >rivers, material of centers Cast steel 

Truck wheels, diameter 36 In. 

Journals, driving axle, main 9% In. by 12 In. 

Journals, driving axle, main wheel flt 9^ In. 

Journals, driving axle, others H%' in. by 12 In. 

Joui'nals. driving axle, others, wheel fit 9 In. 




Consolidation Locomotive— Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway. 
W. H. Marshall, Superintendent Motive Power. Brooks Locomotive Works, Builders. 



CONSOLIDATION FREIGHT LOCOMOTIVES. 



Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway. 



One of 25 consolidation freight locomotives just completed 
by the Brooks Locomotive Works for the Lake Shore & Michi- 
gan Southern is illustrated by the accompanying engrav- 
ing. 

These locomotives are much more powerful than any prev- 
iously built for this road, but they do not approach the weight 
and power of some of the designs for other roads which are 
not as favorably situated as to grades as the Lake Shore. 
They will haul as long trains as it is desirable to handle on this 
road, where extremely heavy freight locomotives are not needed. 
The cylinders are 21 by 30 inches, the driving wheels are 62 
inches in diameter, and the weight on drivers is 149,000 pounds. 
At 85 per cent, of boiler pressure in the cylinders the tractive 
power is 36,000 pounds. The boiler is of the extended wagon 
top type, with the firebox above the frames. The heating 
surface is 2,686 square feet and the grate area 33.5 square 
feet. 

The most interesting feature of the design is the care given 
to the details with the object of reducing the number of break- 
downs on the road. The piston rods have enlarged ends, the 
axles throughout, including the truck axles, and the crank pins, 
have enlarged wheel fits, and the journals are large for an 
engine of this weight. All of the driving wheels are of cast 
steel. The driving wheel brakes are arranged in accordance 
with the plan illustrated on page 46 of this issue, the advan- 
tages of which are stated in connection with the description 
of the brake rigging of the fast passenger locomotives by the 



Journals, truck axle 6 in. by 12 In. 

Journals, truck axle, wheel fit 6% In. 

Main crank pin, size 6% In. by 6% In. 

Main coupling pin, size 7V4 in. by 4% In. 

Main pin, diameter wheel fit 7% In. 

Cylinders, diameter 21 In. 

Piston, stroke 30 In. 

Piston rod, diameter 3% in. 

Main rod, length center to center 142% In. 

Steam ports, length 19 In. 

Steam ports, width 1% in. 

Exhaust ports, length 19 in. 

Exhaust ports, width 2% In. 

Bridge, width 1% In. 

Valves, kind of '. Allen, Richardson 

Valves, greatest travel 5% In. 

Valves, outside lap 1 in. 

Valves, inside lap None 

Lead in full gear, forward 3/32 negaUve 

Boiler, type of Brooks Improved extended wagon top 

Boiler, working steam pressure 200 lbs. 

Boiler, thickness of material in shell 

% in., 11/16 in., % In.. 9/16 In. % In. 

Boiler, thickness of tube sheet % in. 

Boiler, diameter of barrel, front 64V4 in. 

Boiler, diameter of barrel at throat 76 in. 

Boiler, diameter at back head 66 In. 

Seams, kind of horizontal Sextuple butt 

Seams, kind of circumferential Double and triple 

Crown sheet, stayed with Radial stays, with button heads 

Dome diameter, inside .•■ 30 in. 

Firebox, type Over frames 

Firebox, length 121 In. 

Firebox, width « "». 

Firebox, depth, front ^ . . .80 In. 

Firebox, depth, back ■■ 67 in. 

Firebox, thickness of sheets. .Tube. % in.: sides, back and top, % In. 

Firebox, brick arch On water tubes 

Firebox, mud ring, width Back, 3ii In.: sides, 4 in.; front, 4% In. 

Firebox, water space at top Sides, 5 in.; front and back, 414 In. 

Grates, kind of Cast-iron rocking 

Tubes, number of ■ • ■ ■ • • ••312 

Tubes, material Charcoal iron 

Tubes, outside diameter »;•■;;• v.'V.V 7?' 

Tubes, thickness No. 11 B. W. G. 

Tubes, length over tube sheets 15 ft. ^ In. 

Smoke box. diameter outside 67 in. 

Smoke box. length from flue sheet a- *?' 

p:xhaust nozzle ■■■■,■.■■: ;■ ; ■ ■ ?'"?'® 

Exhaust nozzle, diameter 47s m., 5 in., ais m. 

Exhaust nozzle, distance of tip below center of boiler 24 in. 



88 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



Netting, wire or plate Plate 

Netting, size of mesh or perforation 3/16 by 1% by % centers 

Stacl<. straight or taper Steel, taper 

Stacli, least diameter 15 in. 

Stack, greatest diameter 16% in. 

Stack, height above .smoke box 34% in. 

Tender. 

Eight-wheel, steel frame 

"1"' shape, with gravity slides 

6,000 gal. 

12 tons 

_ Brooks 10-in. steel channel 

T.vpe of truck Brooks 100,000 lbs. 

Type of springs Triplicate elliptic 

Diameter of wheels 36 in. 

Diameter and length of journals 5'A in. by 111 in. 

Distance between centers of journals 5 ft. 6 in. 

Diameter of wheel fit on axle 6% in. 

Diameter of center of axle 5% In. 

Length of tender over bumper beams 21 ft. lOVi in. 

Length of tank, inside 20 ft. 4 in. 

Width of tank, inside 9 ft. 10 m. 

Height of tank, not including collar 5 ft. in. 

Type of draw gear Brooks M. C. B. freight 

Tender titterl with water scoop. 



SOME CAUSES OF EXCESSIVE HEATING IN BEARING 
?IETALS. 



Importance of the Microscope. 



By Robert Job. 



Type 

Tank, type 

Tank, capacity for water 
Tank, capacity for coal.. 
Type of under frame 



Chemist, Philadelpliia & Reading Railway. 




Fig. 1. 



Fig. 2. 




Fig. 9. 



Fie. 10. 



It is a fact well linown to those who have made a study of 
beai ing metals that physical condition and structure exert a 
marlved influence upon the efficiency of the metal in service. 
Formerly great stress was laid upon the chemical composition 
of the alloy, and comparatively little attention was paid to the 
effects of the different conditions of foundry practice, or to the 
relation between structure and efficiency. The natural results 
followed, and "hot-boxes" became prevalent in railway prac- 
tice, especially so when weights 
and speeds became materially in- 
creased. Attention was thus di- 
rected to the production of cool- 
tunning and durable bearings. 

As a result of carefully con- 
ducted service tests, the old cop- 
per-tin alloy of seven to one was 
found to be inferior as a bearing 
metai, and the copper-tin-lead 
composition was gradually intro- 
duced, at first combined with 
phospliorus. and later with this 
element present in very small 
amount, if at all. and then used 
only as a deoxidizing agent. The 
efficiency of a copper-tin-lead 
composition, other things being 
equal, was shown by Dr. Dudley 
to Increase with the proportion 
of lead which was present, the 
amount being limited owing to 
inability to combine more than 
9 about fifteen per cent, with cop- 
per to form a homogeneous com- 
position. A large excess of lead 
was also avoided owing to the 
necessity of maintaining a 
strength sufficient to support the 
load, and also a fairly high melt- 
ing point in order to prevent fu- 
sion and running from the box 
if heating resulted. 

During the past few years 
greatly increased attention has 
been paid to the microscopic 
study of the metals, and the im- 
portance of this method of inves- 
tigation is becoming clearly rec- 
ognized in view of the results 
which are being obtained through 
its use. In the course of an in- 
vestigation to determine the al- 
loy most efficient for general 
railroad use, we found it desir- 
able to follow up this structure of 
bearing metals in order to note 
the influence of this as well as 
that of the chemical composition 
upon durability in service. 

In order to secure information, 
a large number of bearings which 
had run hot and had been re- 
moved from cars of different rail- 
roads while passing over the 

Philadelphia & Reading Rail- 
Fio'. 11. 



febuuarv, I'jou. AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 39 



way were taken for test. Fractures were made to show the 
general physical character of the comi)osition, sections for 
microscopic examination were removed, polished, etched, mag- 
nified as far as necessary to show the structure to best ad- 
vantage, and photographed. Analyses were also carried on at 
the same time, especially in cases where mai'ked segregation of 
the metal was found to exist, in order to determine whether 
this result was due simply to an attempt at the foundry to form 
an alloy in proportions which were physically impracticable, 
or whether it was merely an effect of improper toun<lry manip- 
ulation. The marked crystalli;iation which was often found 
in these bearings was also investigated in a similar manner. 
Also, in the majority of cases test sections were cut from 
the bearings, and the tensile strength and elongation deter- 
mined, in order to find out whether in a given composition 
pro|)er foundry practice would not be .insured by placing a 
minimum limit upon the strength and ductility of the alloy. 

Side by side with these tests a consideraljle number of alloys 
have been prepared in the foundry to check the accuracy of the 
deductions, and to secure information as to the conditions of 
foundry practice necessary to give the greatest stren.gth and 
ductility to the given composition. 

By means of this study it has been possible to determine 
the causes of excessive heating in the large majority of the 
bearings examined, and we may summarize them as follows: 
P^irst. Segregation of the metals. 
Second, Coarse crystalline structure. 

Third, Dross or oxidation products, and an excessive amount 
of enclosed gas in the metal. 

In addition to these, the lack of proper lubrication might 
be mentioned, though our investigation seems to show that 
a relatively small percentage of the bearings examined had 
been discarded owing solely to this cause. 

Segregation has been found to be due in many ca-es to an 
attempt to alloy the metals in improper proportion;, this being 
notably the case in some of the copper-tin-lead compositions 
in which an excessive proportion of lead had been introduced, 
resulting in the liquation not merely of a portion of the lead, 
but often also that of a part of the copper into "copper-spots," 
thereby producing surfaces of relatively high heating capacity, 
and ultimately causing "hot-boxes," Figure 3 represents a 
photomicrograph of a copper-tin-lead composition which had 
segregated owing to pouring too rapidly when at too high a 
temperature. In this case a portion of the lead had separated 
out, and also a slight crystallization is seen owing to the pres- 
ence of a slight excess of silicon in the metal. Figure 1 is a 
photograph showing upon one side the fracture of a badly 
segregated bearing with "copper spots," and upon the other 
that of a well-mixed and homogeneous composition — the segre- 
gation in the one case being due partly to the presence of an 
excessive amount of lead in the brass, and partly to improper 
foundry practice. 

To a certain extent, these segregations may be prevented in 
a wrongly proportioned composition simply by a rapid chilling 
of the metal immediately after pouring, as for instance by the 
use of a cold iron mould. Such practice, however, is at the 
expense of the ductility of the metal, and causes a marked 
increase in brittleness with consequent rapid wear in service. 
High heating combined with rapid pouring and feeding is also 
a frequent cause of segregation, since under such conditions 
the metal in the mould remains for a considerable time in a 
molten condition, and by chilling gradually is given the great- 
est possible chance to solidify in definite natural alloys, throw- 
ing out whatever excess of metal may be present beyond these 
proportions, and thus resulting in segregation. 

In actual service the effect of these segregations is readily 
understood, for it is evident that instead of an alloy of uniform 
hardness and heating capacity, there is a mixture, some por- 
tions of which are relatively very hard and others very soft, 
and this difference combined with that occasioned by the 
varying heating capacity of the different portions naturally 
localizes friction, and ultimately results in excessive heating. 



In a homogeneous alloy or composition no such conditions 
exist, and although, as is true of some compositions, some of 
the metals may be present, at least In part, In mere mechanical 
mixture and not as a definite alloy, yet the particles may be 
made so small by proper foundry practice that the friction 
thioughout the bearing is practically uniform, and undue local 
heating is not liable to occur excepting through some outside 
agency. 

The coarsely crystalline structure which was often seen :n 
these rlefective bearings was in some cases found to be due 
to the composition of the alloy, antimony especially tending 
in this direction. In many cases, however, it has been traced 
to the foundry practice, often being due to rapid pouring at 
high temperature. Crystallization was also caused in some 
cases by the presence of an excess of various materials which 
were originally added as deoxidizing agents. Phosphorus and 
silicon are goo<l examples. These, if a<l<led in suitable propor- 
tions, depending upon the condition of the metals, effect cleans- 
ing and free the metal from a large proportion of its enclosed 
gas, adding greatly to the fiuidity. and thus rendering the 
casting less porous, and at the same time increasing strength 
and ductility often to a marked extent, correspondingly In- 
creasing the capacity for wear. Excess of these materials be- 
yond the amount required for deoxidation appears not to be 
thrown off from the metal in the form of oxides very appre- 
ciably, but causes a crystallization which in a number of the 
bearings examined was eo marked that it not only occasioned 
serious weakness and lack of ductility, but also such an in- 
crease in frictional qualities that cool running under the ordi- 
nary conditions of service was evidently an impossibility since 
the brasses had run hot and had been discarded from service 
shortly after the lead lining had been worn away. Figures 4 
and 5 represent photomicrographs of two of these metals, and 
the structures show clearly the source of the heating. 

One great advantage in the use of the microscope in con- 
nection with the deoxidation of these compositions lies in the 
fact that it becomes possible to tell quickly and with certainty 
the exact amount of the deoxidizer which is needed to combine 
with the oxygen present, without leaving more than a trace of 
the material behind in the finished casting to act as a weak- 
ener. 

The effects of this coarse crystallization upon the durability 
of the bearing are two-fold. In the first place, increased local 
heating results in the same manner as in the case of segregated 
bearings, owing to the varying degrees of hardness and heating 
capacity of the constituents, and secondly, the ductility of the 
metal and the tensile strength are materially decreased. As 
the rapidity of wear with a given strength has been proved 
repeatedly by different experimenters to Increase with 
the brittleness, it thus becomes evident that the dura- 
bility of one of these crystallized bearings In service 
is bound to be defective owing to an excessive rate 
of wear, even though the heating which would naturally result 
should not occur. 

Figure 10 represents a segregated copper-tin alloy containing 
about eighty per cent, of copper and about 0.1 per cent, of 
phosphorus, showing the crystalline structure of such compo- 
sition, and it may be mentioned in passing that the old copper- 
tin alloy of seven to one. having a somewhat similar structure, 
and formerly much used for bearing metal, is a notoriously 
rapidly heating composition, and is not often found to-day in 
railway practice. Figure 2 is a photograph of the fracture of 
one of these badly cr.vstallized brasses together with one show- 
ing a homogeneous and fine-grained structure. 

Another very common source of difiiculty found in defective 
bearings was the presence of particles of dross or oxidized 
metal mechanically enclosed, and also of large amounts of 
occluded gas in the metal. In the former case a hard cutting 
surface was presented to the journal, causing increased fric- 
tion and hence heating. The presence of occluded gas in excess 
also tended in the same direction by reducing the actual bear- 
ing surface of the brass, and thus materially increasing the 



40 AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAIJ^ROAD JOURNAL. 



pressure. Such metal was naturally found to be very brittle, 
and to have worn rapidly in service. In the foundry practice, 
the presence of this enclosed matter is as injurious as in the 
bearings themselves, tending to cause sluggish pouring, unless 
the metal is heated to a very high temperature, in which case 
crystallization and segregation— as shown above— are liable 
to result unless the speed of pouring is very carefully regu- 
lated. 

Figures 6 and 7 represent dross mechanically enclosed in a 
copper-tin-lead composition, and Figures 8 and 9 show the 
appearance of the metal when containing an excess of occluded 
gas. and show clearly the loss of bearing surface which may 
result from such porous condition. 

The presence of dross enclosed in a bearing is simply a proof 
of carelessness in the foundry and is due either to defective 
skimming or to pouring from the bottom of the pot. In either 
case proper oversight will prevent the difficulty. An excess 
of enclosed gas, on the other hand, is ordinarily due to lack 
of proper deoxidation of the metals, though at times It Is also 
caused by pouring at too low a temperature. Thus it indicates 
not necessarily carelessness, but rather a lack of knowledge 
upon the part of the foundryman, of efficient foundry methods. 
Figure 11 represents the structure of a copper-tin-lead com- 
position, close-grained and homogeneous, showing only a slight 
crystallization, the brass having been deoxidized with a slight 
excess of phosphorus. 

Turning now to the influence of the above-mentioned defects 
upon the tensile strength and elongation of the bearings exam- 
ined, in every instance we have found the result which would 
be expected. The presence of dross or any foreign matter in 
the metal introduces an element of weakness, and thus reduces 
both the tensile strength and the elongation. Coarse crystalli- 
zation produces the same result, the faces of the crystals form- 
ing the surface of least resistance, and thus facilitating frac- 
ture, and diminishing ductility. A test section taken from the 
bearing represented by Figure 5 showed a tensile strength of 
only 10,500 pounds per square inch with an elongation of only 
four per cent, in a 2-inch section. A bearing of the same 
composition if properly prepared in the foundry and free from 
crystallization would have a tensile strength of about 25,000 
pounds per square inch and an elongation of about 13 per cent, 
when the test sections were taken from the bearing in a sim- 
ilar manner. 

In the porous brasses we naturally found the same lack of 
strength and ductility owing to the deficiency in the amount 
of the Dietal present in a given section. For example, the 
bearing represented by Figure 8 showed a tensile strength of 
15,000 pounds per square inch with an elongation of only six 
per cent. Figure 9 showed a tensile strength of 18.700 pounds 
per square inch, with seven per cent, elongation. Thus, we see 
that the influence of the various defects is clearly shown when 
metal of a known composition is subjected to the tensile tests, 
and it becomes possible to hold the foundry up to a high grade 
of excellence by means of these comparatively simple *eets, 
with analytical and microscopic work as a basis. 

Objection may perhaps be made that it appears rather arbi- 
trary to place limits upon tensile strength and elongation in 
bearings, and that after all in practical service it is merely 
necessary to have, with a proper composition, a fairly strong 
homogeneous material, to obtain good results. In reply we 
will merely state that as a result of very carefully conducted 
service tests made by placing bearings of practically the same 
composition but differing widely in both tensile strength and 
elongation upon opposite ends of the same axles, we have in- 
variably found that an increase of strength and ductility meant 
an increased life to the bearing in service and a lessening of 
wear, our results in this respect being in accordance with the 
deductions given by Dr. Dudley in 1892 before the Franklin 
Institute. As an instance of difference in efficiency due to these 
causes, we may cite a service test in which eight bearings 
each, of two copper-tin-lead compositions, were placed under 
tenders of fast passenger locomotives, one bearing of each 



kind being placed upon an end of each axle. All of the bearings 
were of practically the same composition, but the one set 
showed a tensile strength of about 16,500 pounds per square 
inch with an elongation of about six per cent., while the other 
had a strength of about 24,000 pounds per square inch with 
an elongation of about 13 per cent. This marked difference 
was due simply to the fact that in the one case the metal 
was porous, about as shown in Figure 8, while the other was 
thoroughly deoxidized, and was close grained and homogene- 
ous, somewhat similar in structure to Figure 11. From time to 
time these bearings were removed and weighed, and the end- 
wear measured. As a final average result it was found that the 
more brittle set had worn thirty-five per cent, more rapidly 
than the other set. The results of similar tests also have been 
in line with these results. Therefore it becomes evident that 
increased ductility and strength in the bearing of given com- 
position means, as slated, an increased life for the bearings in 
service, and as this increased ductility necessitates also free- 
dom from the defects which we have mentioned above, it is 
evident that the chances of cool-running are proportionately 
increased. These qualities are therefore not merely of theo- 
retical interest, but have also an intensely practical value, and 
have a marked influence upon the success and economy of rail- 
way service. 

Regarding the preparation of the sections for microscopic 
study, we have found it desirable to cut them from the center 
of the bearing, filing and polishing after the usual methods, 
and finally etching with an approximately deci-normal solution 
of iodin in potassium iodide — the time of etching being usually 
about one minute. This etching gives very satisfactory results 
in many cases, although in some cases etching with dilute 
nitric or with dilute chromic acid has shown the structure to 
better advantage. In this much depends upon the information 
desired. In ordinary work we have found that magnification 
to about thirty diameters is sufficient to show the general 
structure to good advantage. 

In connection with our work it is clearly indicated that too 
much stress can hardly be laid upon the importance of the 
microscopic study of these alloys owing to the definite knowl- 
edge which is given regarding not only the composition of the 
alloy, but the general physical structure, the presence or ab- 
sence of friction producing agencies, and owing also to the 
check which is given over routine foundry practice. 



GRATES rfbR COKE BURNING. 



In pursuing the subject of coke burning on locomotives to 
supplement the facts taken from the Boston & Maine practice 
(October issue), the most satisfactory information comes from. 
Mr. J. S. Turner, Superintendent of Motive Power of the 
Fitchburg Railroad, who has been quietly working on this 
line for some months, and now uses coke in regular service 
without mixing it with soft coal, without using a steam jet 
under the grates and by making no changes except to get 
up a new cast-iron grate with a rather unusually large pro- 
portion of air openings. With this grate he has no difficulty 
in using all the coke that he can get, and whenever the coke 
supply gives out he uses coal on the same grates with equal 
facility. The Increased air space appears to be beneficial also 
with coal. 

The engraving of Mr. Turner's new grate shows no novel 
features. It is a box pattern which many will know as the 
Reagan pattern, although it is not the Reagan grate. The 
old finger grate is illustrated also, for convenient compari- 
son. This grate will burn coke, but there was insufficient air 
space for good steaming. The grates have been very care- 
fully calculated and the comparison is given here in full be- 
cause of the general interest in the subject. 

The comparison is based upon a 66 by 35-lnch firebox on 
the Fitchburg locomotive No. 42, with a total area of 2.310 
square inches. The areas in detail are as follows: 

THE NEW BOX GRATE. 

Total area ot one grate 238.13 sq. in. 

Open area 102.18 sq. in. 

Closed area 135.95 sq. in. 

Number of grates used 8. 

Covered area of 8 grates : 1,087.56 sq. in. 

Covered area of side bars 198.00 sq. in. 

Total covered area 1.285.56 sq. in. 

Total open area 1,024.44 sq. in. 



Febriart, 1800. AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 41 



THE FINGER GRATE. 

Number of end grales 2. 

Number of Intermediate grates 5 

Knd bars, 2 In number 2'/4 in. 

End bars, 2 in number 1% in. 

Area of end bars 175.00 sq. In. 

Area of side bars 231.00 sq. in. 

Total area of end grates 310.00 sq. in. 

Open area of end grates 151.24 sq. in. 

Covered area of end grates 317.52 sq. in. 

Total area intermediate grate 372.00 sq. In. 

Open area intermediate grate 213.24 sq. in. 

Total covered area intermediate grates 793.80 sq. In. 

.Total covered area In firebox 1,517.32 sq. In. 

Total open area in firebox 792.68 sq. In. 

COMPARISON. 

Box Grate. Finger Grate. 

Total area 2,310.00 sq. in. 2,310.00 sq. In. 

Covered area 1,285.56 sq. in. 1,517.32 sq. in. 

Open area 1,024.44 sq. in. 792.68 sq. in. 

Per cent, open 44.35 34.32 

Per cent covered 55.65 65.38 

This exhibits an advantage of 10 per cent, of open area In 
favor of the box grate, the construction and support of which 
appears to be more favorable than that of the finger type. 
The open area is even then not nearly up to the practice in 
other branches of engineering, and it is perhaps possible to 
exceed these figures without reaching the practical limit. This 
example raises the question of the most advantageous propor- 
tions of air openings, which is a subject which is worth con- 
siderable study, but only on a stationary testing plant can 
figures be obtained that would be of value in guiding de- 
sign. 

Mr. Turner does not find it necessary to use water grates, 
and, as previously stated, they are not now fitted to Boston 
& Maine engines for this fuel. It should be stated here that 
the water grate illustrated in our October issue was an adap- 
tation of a form the patent for which is held by the Hancock 
Inspirator Co. 

Coke burning on the Baltimore & Ohio was taken up on 
account of the smoke problem, and it has been used with 
entire satisfaction for a number of years on that road, but 
the expense is greater than with coal. The grate arrange- 
ment is shown in the engraving. 

The coke used is the 24-hour lump coke from the Cumber- 
land and Pittsburgh districts. At first considerable trouble 
was experienced from the formation of clinkers on the tube 
sheet, which gradually spread until the tube ends were nearly 
closed. A remedy was found in the use of bituminous coal 
mixed with the coke in the following proportions: 

Length of run. Coal. Coke. 

25 miles 8 per cent. 92 per cent. 

50 miles 10 per cent. 90 per cent. 

75 miles I214 per cent. S7V^ per cent. 

100 miles 15 per cent. 85 per cent. 

125 miles 17^ per cent. 82^4 per cent. 

150 miles 20 per cent. 80 per cent. 

175 miles 22»4 per cent. 73% per cent. 

200 miles 25 per cent. 75 per cent. 

On this road it is customary to start the fires with coal, be- 
cause coke does not kindle readily. After the coal fire has 
thoroughly ignited, the coke is introduced and a heavy fire 
is usually carried because the coke does not pack closely and 
cold air is passed up through the fire, which reduces the fire- 
box temperature. A heavy fire prevents this. 

It has sometimes been found advantageous to locate four 
or five air holes in the sides of the fireboxes, about 15 Inches 
above the grates, in case the length of the firebox is greater 
than 10 feet. The brick arch is not used in coke burning 
engines on the B. & O. It interferes with getting the proper 
depth of fire. As a result of an extended experience, it has 
been found that coke is more injurious to steel fireboxes than 
was the case with coal. 

While on the subject of grates for coke burning, it may be 
interesting to know that on the Alley Elevated, in Chicago, 
the engines at first burned coke exclusively, and for several 
months a number of engines were kept at work for 24 hours 
a day. They were of the ordinary finger type and of cast-iron. 
A hard coating formed on the tube sheet, but it was easily 
brushed off, and it was not serious enough to necessitate the 
admixture of soft coal. 




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42 AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 




Fio-. 1. 




Sect/on B 
Fig. 3.-Fast Passenger, C. & N. W. Ry. 




Fig. 2. 




Fig. 4.— Same as Fig. 3. 





Fig. 5.— Lal(e Shore Passenger, Main Wtieel. 



Pis'. 6.— Lal<e Shore Passeno-er Front and Rear Wheels. 



februahy, 1900. AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 43 



CAST STEEL DRIVING WHEELS. 



This collection of infonnation concerning various designs 
of loconiotive driving wlieels resulted from a consultation witli 
a motive power officer who sought information with reference 




Fig. 7.-Fast Mail, C. B. «. Q. R. R. 




Fig. 8,— French State Railway. 

to the lightest structures which it is advisable to use for both 
passenger and freight service. An inquiry developed differences 
of opinion as shown by the drawings, and it was discovered 
that some people have actually ordered cast steel wheels 
made from patterns which had previously been used for cast 



Iron wheels. Comment on this practice Is unnecessary. There 
is no locomotive detail In which so much weight Is to be saved 
by the use of cast steel as in driving wheels. It is specially 
important to save the weight of these parts because they are 
not cushioned by the springs and are more destructive to the 



K-^^r'-x 




Sect^-B 
Fig. 9.— Recent Heavv Consolidation. 




Fig, 10.— Atlantic Type Fast Passenger. 

traclj than the parts which are carried above the springs. The 

possibilities of light construction selected from successful and 

accepted practice are indicated in these examples. 

The design of a 66-lnch wheel, shown in Fig. 1, which was 

made about 4 years ago, effected a saving of nearly 21 per 

cent, over the weight of cast iron wheels of the same size. The 

comparison is as follows: 

Cast 

Cast Steel. 

Iron. Fig. L 

2 66-inch centers. Lbs. Lbs. 

Front o.OSO 3,156 

Back 4.7S0 3.124 

.\dd lead for counter balance 1,320 

Total alio im 

Saving In weight 20.9 per cent. 

These cast iron wheels had the counterweights cast solid. 



44 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



In freight wheels with smaller diameters, the advantage is less 
if the counterweights are of lead. The following table gives 
comparisons of 56-inch wheels, representing 10-wheel engines 
with the counterbalance weights cast solid, and another design 
with lead balance weights. In the case of the lead weights the 
advantage is less than 1 per cent., but these cast steel wheels 
are probably much heavier than safety requires. 



Wheel Centers With Counterweights Cast In. 



Cast iron. 

Two 56-lnch centers, front 3,300 lbs. 

Two 56-incn centers, main 3,700 lbs. 

Two 56-inoh centers, back 3,300 lbs. 




Total weight 10,300 lbs. 



8,620 lbs. 



Saving in 
Weight % 



17.28% 



Wheel Centers with Lead Counterweights. 



Two 56-inch centers, front 3,260 lbs. 

Two 56-inch centers, main 3,568 lbs. 

Two 56-inch centers, back 3,260 lbs. 



Total weight 10,088 lbs. 

Add lead for balance weights 



Total weight. 



2,773 lbs. 
2,956 lbs. 
2,798 lbs. 

8,527 lbs. 
1,475 lbs 

10,002 lbs. 



.00852% 



A 50-inch freight wheel is shown in Fig. 2. This is the last 
wheel in the list of seven given in the table below, and it rep- 
resents a saving of 28 per cent. The section of the spokes is 
elliptical in this case. This design also was made about four 
years ago. 



Finished Weights of Driving Wheel Centers. 



Size. Cast steel. 

56-inch 1,834 lbs. 

i2-inch 1,646 lbs. 

52-inch 1,637 lbs. 

iO-inch 1,617 lbs. 

J6-inch 1,510 lbs. 

;6-inch 1,312 lbs. 

iO-inch 1,288 lbs. 



Cast iron. Difference. 

2.360 lbs. 526 lbs. 

2,139 lbs. 493 lbs. 

2,150 lbs. 513 lbs. 

2,126 lbs. 509 lbs. 

2,020 lbs. 510 lbs. 

1,902 lbs. 590 lbs. 

1,797 lbs. 509 lbs. 



Saving. 

22.3 per cent. 
23.1 per cent. 
24 per cent. 
24 per cent. 
25.S per cent. 
31.1 per cent. 

28.4 per cent. 



The wheel shown in Figs. 3 and 4 was designed by the 
Schenectady Locomotive Works for the Chicago & North- 
western fast mall engines, illustrated in this journal in June, 
1899, page 189. The center is 74 inches in diameter and the 
wheel is 80 inches, over the tire. The weights of the center 
castings in the rough were 2,461 pounds for the main wheel, and 
2,350 pounds for the rear wheel, the finished weights are prob- 
ably about 8 per cent, less, or 2,264 and 2,162 pounds, respec- 
tively. This is a very light wheel; it has 19 spokes of elliptical 
section. Another design of the same diameter, but with spokes 
of different shape, is shown in Fig. 5. This drawing repre- 
sents the main wheel of the Brooks Lake Shore 10-wheel pas- 
senger engines, shown on page 344 of the November, 1899, 
issue of this journal. The weights of these castings in the 
rough were 2.850 pounds for the main and 2,346 pounds each 
for the front and rear wheels. The finished weights are 2,670 
for each main wheel and 2,175 pounds for each of the others. 
The front and rear wheels are illustrated in Fig. 6. 

Fig. 7 shows the 84-mch wheels with 78-inch centers for 
the Baldwin compound Atlantic type fast passenger engines 
for the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, illustrated on page 141 
of the issue of May, 1899. These wheels were made by the 
Standard Steel Works. A similar wheel for simple and com- 
pound engines by the same builders for the French State Rail- 
ways is shown in Fig. 8. The weights of the centers for the 
Burlington wheels which are the same for Columbia and At- 
lantic type engines on that road are 2,882 pounds for the for- 
ward wheels and 2,990 pounds for the rear or main wheels, 
these are finished weights. The spokes of these wheels are 
21^ by 61/2 inches at the hub and 1% by 4 inches at the rim. 
The rim is 3 inches thick and lightened between spokes. The 
wheels for the French engines have the same sections of spokes 
but are different in weight, the hubs of the French wheels be- 
ing lighter. Some of the French engines are compound and 
some are single expansion. The drawing, Fig. 8, shows one 
of the' drivers of the compounds. The weights for the com- 
pounds are 2,705 pounds for the main and 2,682 pounds for the 
rear wheel; for the single expansion engine they are 2,705 
for the main and 2,995 for the rear wheel. The hubs of these 



wheels and the crank pin bosses are cored out for the purpose 
of lightening them. 

An example of recent practice in 50-inch cast steel wheel 
centers for heavy consolidation engines is shown in Fig. 9. 
This is a main wheel, the center of which weighs 1,501 pounds 
in the rough, the front and rear wheel centers weigh 1,335 
pounds, and the intermediate, 1,348 pounds. The finished 
weights are probably about 125 pounds less than these figures. 

Fig. 10 illustrates the wheel center of a well-known Atlantic 
type passenger locomotive which has made a reputation for 
fast running. The main center, shown in the engraving, weighs 
1,993 pounds, while the front center weighs 1,888 pounds. An 
allowance of about 150 pounds per center should be made for 
finishing. In Figs. 9 and 10 the hubs are lined with phosphor- 
bronze, cast in place, for which purpose two dove-tailed 
grooves are turned in the faces of the hubs. This proves satis- 
factory for new wheels, but to facilitate repairs it is found 
to be better to place the bronze liner on the box, which is 
easier to handle in the shop in making repairs than are the 
driving wheels. 

Cast steel driving wheels made by the Sargent Company 4n 
1897 for the Illinois Central R. R., with 72-inch centers, 
weighed 2,391 pounds each, and the physical characteristics 
were; 

Tensile strength per square inch 63,400 lbs. 

Elongation in 2 inches 38%% 

Reduction in area 47 % 

The wheels shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5 and 6 were made by the 
Pratt & Letchworth Co. of Buffalo. Those for the Chicago & 
Northwestern were required to have not less than 60,000 pounds 
tensile strength and an elongation of not less than 15 per cent, 
in 8 inches. The writer has had the privilege of examining 
the records of forty reports of tests on cast steel driving wheels 
made by this firm for the Chicago & Northwestern to these 
specifications, and the tensile strength runs from 60,480 pounds 
with an elongation of 25 per cent, in 8 inches to 78,900 pounds 
and 17 per cent, elongation. The opinion of this firm, based on 
extensive experience, is that the best wheels are those in which 
the tensile strength is not high and the elongation is good. 
The presence of too much carbon has a tendency to increase the 
tensile strength and reduce the elongation. Steel of 60,000 
pounds tensile strength and 15 per cent, elongation as specified 
by this road is strongly advocated. 

The writer recently saw a cast steel driving wheel at one 
of the leading locomotive works which had been rejected by 
the inspector on suspicion because of some surface imperfec- 
tions. The wheel had been "tested" under the drop until it 
was bent and twisted into unrecognizable shape, but without 
a sign of breakage. It was of the best of material, and "better 
than it looked." This brings up the question of testing cast 
steel for wheels, and it is a difficult one. It is evident that 
allowance should be made for the fact that the coupon, on 
account of its size, does not correctly represent the true char- 
acter of the metal contained in the wheel. Being smaller than 
the wheels, there is of course a possibility of shrinkage in these 
castings and they cool more rapidly than the body of the 
wheel, which gives the coupon a structure different from that 
of the wheel, and It is believed, a somewhat inferior one. It 
has been learned from experience that test bars frequently 
represent a much lower standard than is shown by a similar 
sized piece cut from a spoke or the rim of a wheel. 

A driving wheel is a difficult casting because of the danger 
of shrinkage stresses between the large and small masses of 
metal. The castings may never be entirely free from shrinkage 
stresses, but the fact that driving wheels of this material are so 
satisfactory reflects great care and skill in the furnace and 
foundry. The time is at hand for the use of cast steel exclu- 
sively for driving wheels. 



Page XVI of this issue will interest competent and ambitious 
young men who are in the motive power department. 



FEBRUARY, I'joo. AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOU RNAU 48 



I^OCOMOTIVE TENDERS. 



By William Forsyth. 



The contnisl between the tenders on Engli.sh and American 
locomotives in the past has been marked, and decidedly to the 
disadvantage of the latter. The English tender, built entirely 
of steel with large wheels, substantial draft gear with good 
workmanship and fine finish all over, is an object lesson which 
locomotive builders in this country have but recently observer!. 
The average American tender is a crude affair, being really a 
tank car consisting of what is essentially a freight car with 
a water tank and coal box on top. Recently itie tendency has 
been to follow the English practice, particularly with passen- 
ger engines, by making the tender a handsome and substan- 
tial structure, and in a few instances the English practice of 
using three pairs of wheels instead of two trucks, has been 
introduced with satisfactory results. 

The large size of cylinders and boilers of modern locomo- 
tives makes it necessary to use a tender of large capacity 
both for coal and water. While the use of water scoops for 
tenders renders large water space unnecessary, this appliance 
is only used where there is a dense traflSc, and the capacity 
of modern tenders may now be said to be 5,000 to 6,000 gallons 
of water and 8 to 10 tons of coal. The large consolidation 
engines now being built when cutting off at half stroke con- 
sume 4,000 gallons of water every 13 miles, and 5,000 gallons 
every 16 miles. When cutting off at three-quarter stroke a 
4,000-gallon tank will furnish a supply for a run of only 8 
miles; 5,000 gallons, 10 miles; 6,000 gallons, 12 miles, showing 
the necessity of tanks of large capacity if very frequent stops 
are to be avoided. Large tanks are also used to carry the 
train past a station where the water supply is poor, and to 
enable the engine to make sufficient mileage to reach a point 
where a better water supply can be obtained. 

The advantages of si.x-wheel tenders for passenger engines 
are, the use of large wheels and the simplicity attending few- 
parts making the construction under the tank frame easy of 
access for inspection. The reduction in the number of parts 
connected with an axle and pair of wheels is considerable, as it 
means two journal boxes with the bearings, lids and attach- 
ments, a brake beam with its shoes, lever and connections. 
The six-wheel tender also virtually disposes of all those parts 
which are essential to the truck frame. With six-wheel tend- 
ers the journals are much larger, 5 by 9 inches, and bearings 
and other fixtures more substantia', and the rate of wear much 
less, requiring less attention for ' .'pairs. 

The six-wheel tender is espe ally adapted to high-speed 
engines and has been used In th ; country without equalizers, 
and in the fastest service on roads where the track was not up 
to the best standard. The English tenders are not equalized 
as a rule and the only object of equalizers is to prevent derail- 
ment due to poor track. It is probable that the average condi- 
tion of American main line track Is equal to or better than 
the English track, and it is certainly better than the English 
track on which six-wheel tenders, without equalizers, ran for 
years with safety. On the fast runs where six-wheel tenders 
are most likely to be used, it is necessary for other reasons 
to have the quality of the track above the average. Equalizers 
introduce an additional set of details and for the reasons given 
above they are not considered necessary. With so few parts 
and such simple and substantial construction the cost of repairs 
must be much less than when trucks are used. When a water 
scoop is used there is more room for its mechanism than is 
the case with trucks. These are some of the principal advan- 
tages in favor of six-wheel tenders. 

The high tractive power of modern locomotives renders it 
necessary to have a substantial draft gear on tenders, and 
where wooden underframes have not given way to Iron or 
steel, the center sills at least should be steel, so as to secure 
a solid attachment for the- draft gear. With the best practice 
<he whole underframe is now made of steel channels — thus 



securing a stronger structure and requiring much less ex- 
penditure for repairs than a wooden frame. The fear of deteri- 
oration by corrosion for a long time prevented the more general 
use of steel underframes for tenders, but the general use of 
steel cars at present points to the fact that if steel can be 
used for freight-car underframes without fear of rapid corro- 
sion it can certainly be used for tenders where the superior 
strength of steel Is especially necessary. 

With the demand for more coal space the shape of the flaring 
coal side above the water space has been changed, and in the 
large tenders the outside sheets are carried up vertically, mak- 
ing a plainer outline. The extreme width of lendert is now 
so great that the clearance limits are almost reaches by the 
vertical side sheets and the inclined coal side is no longer possi- 
ble or desirable. It Is, of course, not necessary to carry this coal 
side around the back part of the tender, occupied by the man- 
hole, and this part may be stopped off by a back board and left 
entirely clear, without any side beyond the water space, and 
this form of construction has appeared on recent tenders. It is 
necessary to place a guard rail of some kind about the manhole 
to prevent firemen from slipping off, but this is .secured In a 
much simpler and cheaper way by the use of round iron rails 
than by the use of the sheet skirt at the sides and ends. The 
use of the latter only results in the accumulation of trash 
on the back of the tender, which soon gets mixed up with coal 
and water, and often becomes frozen; It is always a useless dead 
load, which, to say the least, Is untidy. When this space about 
the manhole is clear and exposed to sight It can be kept neat 
and clean. 

The use of oblong manholes for tenders Is becoming general, 

IS their use renders it unnecessary to make a water tank stop 

'n exact spot, but some margin is allowed in each direction. 




Fig. 2. 



It was at first thought by some that this advantage could be 
best secured by placing the long axis of the manhole parallel 
with the track, and some tenders were built in this way, but 
it toon became evident that a larger range could be obtained 
by placing the long axis crosswise of the track, and this loca- 
tion is now always used where the oblong fixture is intro- 
duced (see Fig. 1). 

The old method of bracing tanks was crude and flimsy, re- 
quiring frequent renewals and repairs. It consisted of cross- 
bracing about the center of the height of the water leg — using 
round bars or flat strips with pin connections and crow-feet 
or angles on the sides. The small section of the parts made 
them deteriorate rapidly by corrosion and wear, due to con- 
stant rattling of loose joints. With large tanks and high sides 
a much better and simpler form of bracing is now used. One 
of the best Is the use of vertical pieces of heavy tee iron about 
3 by 3% inches thick, spaced about every 2 feet and bearing 
at the ends on the angle irons at the corners (see Fig, 2). 

Tender trucks have been developed and improved to a re- 
markable degree, diamond freight trucks being no longer con- 
sidered the proper thing for such an important service. The 
Fox truck, of ordinary freight types, has been used to some 
extent, but that company has designed a pressed steel truck 



46 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



with elliptic springs and swing bolster which is more suitable 
for the purpose. As it is often necessary for the fireman to 
stand on the tender while firing, the springs should have an 
easy motion. It is doubtless true that such heavy loads are 
carried on elliptic springs with less injury to the track and less 
wear to the truck and tender frame. The old practice was to 
have side bearings on the rear trucks and none on the front 
trucks, leaving the whole load on the front truck to balance 
on the center plate; but with larger and heavier tenders it has 
been found necessary to steady the load, and it is now the 
usual practice to place side bearings on both front and rear 
trucks. 

The adjustment of the height of the rear drawbar and front 
platform on tenders to different heights of driving wheels was 
formerly accomplished in a crude and troublesome manner. 
When new tires or larger drivers were put in, the tender frame 
was blocked up on the truck in order to get the fireman's plat- 
form to the proper height. It was then necessary to let down 
the rear draft iron or put on a new one of a different pattern, 
but the use of M. C. B. couplers on tenders has rendered this 
method undesirable and the tender frame is now maintained at 
a standard height from the rail and the front platform is 
changed to suit the height of the drivers. The usual design, for 
connection between engine and tender, does not admit of ad- 
justment to suit changes in the thickness of tires or diameter 
of drivers, and there is an opportunity here for an improve- 
ment in the front tender di'aft iron which will so arrange It 
that it will admit of adjustment of the height of the front 
draw-bar. 

Tender steps and grab handles have also been rather crude 
In the past, but the use of cast iron steps, with a wide one at 
the bottom somewhat offset, is now growing more general. 
This form of tender step was recommended by a Master Me- 
chanics' Association committee, and is illustrated in the pro- 
ceedings for 1896, page 311, and it is there recommended that 
to insure safety the form and location of tender steps should 
be nearly uniform, so that one could in the dark readily locate 
with his feet and hands the steps and hand hold of any loco- 
motive. 

The use of large figures 2 or 3 feet high on the sides and ends 
of tenders was never justified by any considerations of utility 
or beauty, and they are gradually disappearing. It is seldom 
necessary to read the number of a locomotive at a distance 
of more than a hundred feet and figures 6 or 8 inches high can 
he easily read at that distance. The numbers on the cabs or 
sand boxes are also suflBcient for most purposes, and the num- 
ber on the side of a tender is almost if not entirely useless. 
Figures on the end of a tender 8 or 10 inches high should be 
sufficient to locate an engine in the round-house when the 
engine is placed head in — but it is proposed by some roads to 
leave the numbers off of tenders altogether, and by others to 
paint the numbers on removable tablets so that any tender 
of proper type can be attached to any locomotive. On the Lon- 
don & North Western a locomotive illustrated in the January 
number, page 1, it will be noticed that the only letters on the 
side of the whole locomotive is the engine number on cab, and 
there is no figure on tender. An example of a handsome six- 
wheel American tender is shown on page 22 of the January issue 
of this journal. This is the Pennsylvania fast passenger engine, 
Class E 1. The admirably designed location of the steps on 
each end of the tender and on the back of the engine will en- 
tirely satisfy the Master Mechanics' Association requirements 
already referred to. The coal space on this tender is arranged 
like that used on German engines, where the sloping coal deck 
extends clear across the tender, the front portion being level 
and about 18 Inches above the top of the front sill. By this 
arrangement the coal is constantly delivered by sliding down 
the incline, to a point most convenient for the fireman. 

Another tender of exceedingly attractive appearance and 
good design is that on the new Brooks passenger engine for the 
Chicago and Alton road, which is illustrated in this issue. In 
this case the gangway is so narrow that one step casting at 
front of the tender is sufficient for the engine and tender. This 
tender is painted a maroon color to. match the cars on the 
Alton day train from Chicago to St. Louis. The lettering and 
striping are especially neat and in striking contrast with the 
large ugly figures so often seen in Western tenders. 

General plans and details of several modern American tend- 
ers will be illustrated in a future article as this portion of the 
locomotive is usually shown in outline or by photograph and 
it has not received the attention which its present importance 
and interest demands. 



IMPROVEMENTS IN LOCOMOTIVE DRIVER BRAKES. 



The publication of the improved design of locomotive driver 
brakes in the January issue of this journal has brought out 
correspondence which indicates that there is to be an im- 
provement in the status of locomotive brakes as a factor to be 
considered in the original designs of locomotives, and it is 
beginning to be appreciated that the stopping of fast and 
heavy trains is one of the most Important considerations in 
their operation. 

It was natural that the driver brake should be a rather 
crude affair during its early life, and that it should be con- 
sidered as an attachment rather than an integral part of the 
locomotive because at first it was applied to locomotives which 
were in service, bat there is no reason for perpetuating the 
positively bad practice now prevalent. The driver brake has 
not held a prominent place in the minds of locomotive men 
during the drawing room stages of construction, but this is 
now rapidly being changed. Only recently has it become 
necessary to seriously consider the saving of weight in other 
parts in order to favor the boiler, but this influence is now 
very powerful, and is likely to effect the greatest improve- 
ments in locomotive development. This problem necessitates 
the most skillful work in connection with details, and one of 




Transverse Sections. 

the most promising sources of weight saving and weight ad- 
justment is in the driver brakes. 

The adjustment of weight whereby the center of gravity 
is carried as far forward as possible to the relief of the driving 
wheels is desirable, and this is carried out in designs by the 
Lake Shore & Michigan Southern for 10-wheel passenger en- 
gines, the Pennsylvania on Class H 6 consolidation and E 1, 
Atlantic type engines, and on the Baltimore & Ohio in 10- 
wheelers. In our December, 1899, issue the advantages of 
designing the frames for the direct connection of the brake 
rigging were clearly indicated. It is evident that if the brake 
cylinders are carried forward to a convenient location under 
the front end of the barrel of the boiler, still further ad- 
vantages will be gained, and these are important enough to 
command the attention of those who are working on the lines 
mentioned. 

If the brake cylinders are placed near the front of the en- 
gine a large proportion of their weight is carried upon the 
truck instead of being thrown entirely upon the driving 
wheels, as is the case with the usual location, near the rear 
ends of the frames. Unusual efforts are now being made to 
reduce the weight at the rear end of boilers by tapering the 
sheets and inclining the 'back heads. There is a further ad- 
vantage in the forward location of the cylinders because it 
permits of placing the brake shoes against the rear instead 
of the front of the driving wheels. Furthermore, the cylinders 
should be kept away from the firebox in order to avoid the 
troublesome burning out of the piston packing. All of these 
recommendations and the retention of the push principle 
with the absence of stuffing boxes on the brake cylinders are 
offered by the forward location. It may also be urged that 



t'EBROAKT, 1900. AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL 47 



the cylinders are not liable to injury in derailments or oilier 
accidents if they are placed under the front end of the boiler, 
or, as in the case of the new J^ake Shore 10-wheol passenger 
engines. 

In the present light on the subject, the practice of placing 
the brake shoes back of the wheels seems to be a great im- 
provement. This plan causes the brakes to press the driving 
boxes against the shoes, instead of against the wedges, and it 
gives an upward thrust instead of a downward pull of the 
shoes upon the hangers. This relieves the springs, and spring 
bangers form a serious additional load, and these parts may 
be materially lightened if they are not subjected to it. Spring 
hangers are subjected to particularly severe service, and Mr. 
F. J. Cole (issue of May, 1899, page 145) states that even for 
exceptionally good iron the fiber stress of these parts should 
never exceed 4,500 pounds per square inch if failures and 
breakdowns are to be prevented. The stresses due to the ap- 
plication of the brakes undoubtedly play an important part 
in the life of these hangers, and it seems probable that this 
influence, in the case of designs with the shoes in front of 
the wheels, accounts for the very low allowable working 
stresses. 

The accompanying engraving illustrates the brake rigging on 
the 10-wheel passenger locomotives built by the Brooks Loco- 



is probably not fully appreciated. If it were, greater efforts 
would be made to give the projjcr amount of room for the 
shoes. The chief trouble comes from the vertical motion of the 
engine on the springs whi('h causes the shoes to rise and tall 
in relation to the wheels. This changes the piston travel and 
seriously interferes with the efficiency of the brakes, and Its 
effect is of course greater, as the position of the shoes is made 
lower because the horizontal movements of the shoes are greater 
than when placed opposite the centers of the wheels where 
they ought to be. The stroke of the cylinder piston should 
be kept as short as possible for the sake of economy in the use 
of air, especially because of the increasing demand for air for 
purposes other than the operation of brakes. "Air brake para- 
sites" is an apt term for a number of uses of air in trains 
with which the air brakes have nothing whatever to do, and 
the question now is how to get enough air for the brakes. Air 
power is used for bell ringers, sanders, raising water in sleep- 
ers, making gas for car lighting (Frost system), running venti- 
lating fans, shaking grates, operating blow-off cocks, pilot 
couplers and flangers. and opening firebox doors, not to men- 
tion all the applications now in use. This is severe on the 
air brake, especially if it is not safe-guarded against the waste- 
fulness of long piston travel. 
An illustration showing the importance of putting the brake 




A Good Example of Di-lving Wheel Brake Rigging. 
New Ten-Wheel Passenger Locomotives— L. S. i M. S. Railway. 



motive Works for the Lake Shore, already referred to. It will 
be noted that the frames, frame braces and boiler supports are 
used as far as possible for connecting the brake fixtures, neces- 
sitating very few additional parts for the attachment of this 
rigging. This design is an example of excellent practice, but 
it is evident that it can be improved by a further applica- 
tion of the Higham method of attachment to parts forged upon 
the frames for the purpose. 

It is difficult to locate a push cylinder applied to a 10-wheel 
locomotive properly unless placed toward the front of 
the engine without using a long connection between the 
piston rod and the brake lever, and the parts must be made 
very heavy to avoid buckling. In a locomotive of this type with 
large driving wheels, say 78 inches in diameter, it is very 
difficult to find a place of attachment in the rear of the drivers 
in the usual manner, so that it may be said that the construc- 
tion of large 10-wheel locomotives makes the new plan very 
desirable also from a constructive point of view. 

It is exceedingly important to locate the brake shoes as high 
upon the wheels as possible, and if practicable it would be 
very desirable to place them opposite the horizontal centers 
of the wheels. This applies to cars as well as to locomotives. 
The lack of room between driving wheels renders it necessary 
to drop the shoes too low in many cases, and the effect of this 



shoes high up on the wheels was seen some time ago when 
a stock train came into a terminal and discharged its load. 
The engine which had hauled it over the division when loaded 
could not start the empty train out of the yard. This was 
because the adjustment of the shoes was close and the 
shoes were low on the wheels. The relief of the load raised 
the cars on their springs enough to bring the brake shoes 
against the wheels and hold them as if they were under press- 
ure from the cylinders. This requires attention in the design 
of cars and locomotives. It cannot be remedied after construc- 
tion. 



THE MASTER MECHANICS' AND MASTER CAR BUILDERS' 
CONVENTIONS FOR 1900. 



The annual convention of the Master Car Builders' Associa- 
tion will be held at Saratoga, N. Y.. commencing Monday, 
June IS. and the Master Mechanics' Convention will open 
Thursday, June 21. lasting through the week. The dates have 
been changed in order to bring the two conventions within one 
week. The Grand Union Hotel will be headquarters, the usual 
rates having been made for members of the Associations and 
their friends. The United States Hotel will be open and those 
desiring dignified comfort and quiet will be glad to avail them- 
selves of the opportunity of stopping there. 



48 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL 



(Establlslied 1832) 

— AMERICAN — 

Engineer 

RAILROAD ^JOURNAL ^ 

PQBLISHKD MONTHLY 

BT 

R. M. VAN ARSDAT.E, 

J. S. BONSALIj, Business Manager. 

MORSE BUILDING NEW YORK 

G. '!>1. BASFORD, Editor. 

E;. E. SIL,K, Associate Editor. 

FEBRUARY, 19(0. 



SabBcriptlon.— $2.00 a year for the United States and Canada; S2.50 a 
year to Foreign Countries embracedin the Universal Postal Union. 

Remit by Express Money Order, Draft or Post-Office Order. 

^bscripfions for this paper xdll be received and copies kept for sale by 
the Post Office Neres Co., 217 Dearborn Street, Chicago, III. 



EDITORIAL ANNOUNCEMENTS. 



Advertisemeuti.— Nothing will be inserted in this journal for 
pay, EXCEPT IN THE ADVERTISING PAGES. The reading pages icill 
contain only such matter as ut consider of interest to our 
readers. 



Special Notice.— yls the American Engineer and Railroad 
JouRNAi, is printed and ready tor mailing on the last day of 
the month, correspondence, advertisements, etc., intended for 
insertion must be received, not later than the 20fh day of each 
month. 



Contributions. — Articles relating to railway rolling stock con- 
struction and management and kindred topics, by those who 
are practically acquainted unth these .subjects, are specially 
desired. Also early notices of official changes, and additions of 
new equipm,ent for the road or the shop, by purchase or construc- 
tion. 

To Subscribers.— y/ic American Enoineer and Railroad 
Journal is mailed regularly to every subscriber each 
month. Any subscriber who fails to receii'e his paper ought 
at once to notify the postmaster at the office of delivery, and in 
case the paper is not then obtained this office should be tiotifij>d, 
so that the missing paper may be supplied. When a sub- 
scriber changes his address he ought to notify this office at 
once, so that the paper may be sent to the proper destination. 



The paper may be obtained and subscriptions for it sent to the 
following agencies: Chicago, Post Office Xeu-s Co., 217 Dearborn 
Street. London, Eng., Sampson Low, Marston & Co., Limited 
St. Uunstan''s Bouse. Fetter Lane. £. C. 



The brief note entitled Master Mechanics Wanted, on page 
16 of our January issue, resulted in filling the positions re- 
ferred to, and in bringing out a number of promising men 
whose names are on file in our editorial rooms for the benefit 
of inquirers who need assistants. 



A number of railroads are seeking good men for responsible 
motive power positions, and we have been repeatedly solicited 
for names for these positions. There are many capable young 
men who are not well known and we cheerfully accept the task 
of bringing competent and reliable men before the higher offi- 
cers who inquire. See page XVI, this issue. 



In another column Mr. Squire suggests a practical study of 
the movements of the sheets of a locomotive firebox for the 
benefit of knowing how the stresses due to expansion and con- 
traction act. Actual measurement of the movements of the 
sheets would throw light on a very obscure subject, and It is 
to be hoped that the suggestion will be carried out. Our corre- 
spondent presents the subject in a most satisfactory way, which 
includes a sketch from which the recording device may be 
made. It ought to be applied to fireboxes of various forms, to 



those which are long and deep, those which are shallow and 
short, and, in fact, to all kinds of stayed fireboxes. The form 
used on the Lehigh Valley and recommended by Mr. P. F. 
Gaines, on page 9 of our January issue, may be expected to 
give favorable results. This is now largely a matter of opin- 
ion, but a few simple experiments will show which is the best 
form. This subject is important enough for a thorough inves- 
tigation by the Master Mechanics' Association. 



The increasing weights of passenger trains and the increas- 
ing severity of service are becoming burdensome to those who 
are responsible for the designs of locomotives to handle them. 
While there may be, and probably are, economical advantages 
in the use of the most powerful locomotives, it is a question 
whether some of the present pressure should not be applied 
to other questions such as the provision of interlocking plants 
at all crossings covered by fast runs and in the improvement 
of locomotive water stations. In a remarkably fast run re- 
cently recorded in these pages, two crossing stops are noticed. 
The effect of these stops on fast trains is easy to comprehend 
and it seems equally clear that the expense of stopping all 
trains at such points should be appreciated. The engineering 
department is often behind in the strength of bridges to carry 
the engines which are now required and it seems appropriate 
to direct attention also to the non-interlocked crossings as one 
factor in the present necessity for heavy engines. 



The struggle tor a proper solution of the trouble over the 
status of the engineer in the navy is far from being ended. 
The line officers have won their case and the engines are now — 
if we understand the situation — placed in the hands of enlisted 
men. The real purpose of the personnel law was to solve the 
difficulty by insuring that all line officers in future shall be 
engineers. This appears to have been very satisfactorily set- 
tled, but owing to a recent order issued by the Assistant Sec- 
retary of the Navy, the commissioned officers are relieved 
from engine room watch duty. The navy and the nation can- 
not but suffer for this, and yet it may require another war to 
right it. The lesson, learned at Santiago, by both Spain and 
the United States, that the success of a fleet of modern war 
vessels depends more upon the engineer than any other human 
factor, is lost if this law is not carried into effect, and we 
may expect to see Admiral Melville's ominous words on this 
point before the American Society of Mechanical Engineers 
come true. When the country awakens to the fact that the 
present status of the real engineer in our navy is exactly that 
of the Spanish in the late war something will be done. 



The skein test for color blindness is known to be defective, 
yet it is probably used more than any other, and presumably 
through ignorance. Prof. Scripture and Dr. C. H. Williams 
gave most valuable information on this subject before the 
New York Railroad Club last November, and the complete 
discussion has now become available in the proceedings of 
that organization. Next to normal color vision, at least, if not 
first in importance, is the standardization of the colors, par- 
ticularly of red and green. It is generally the custom to accept 
signal discs from glass manufacturers without tests of any 
kind, and in this discussion it was proved that many reds 
are used which are dangerous because they let the green 
through as well as the red. Every signal engineer or officer 
in charge of signals should use the spectroscope to guard 
against this dangerous glass. These instruments are inexpen- 
sive and are made in sizes convenient for the pocket. When 
one of these so-called red glasses is held before the instru- 
ment the green rays and part of the blue will appear always 
with the red. The correct red glass shuts off all rays except 
the red and these are seen distinctly. The good and dangerous 
reds are very similar in appearance, but one is red while the 
other is a mixture of red and green. A similar, but less dan- 
gerous, trouble occurs with green glass, some of the greens 
being distinctly blue. 



FEBRUARY, 1900. AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 49 



The increasing weight of locomotives is striltingly shown 
in this issue by the table of comparison of the weights of lo- 
comotives built by the Brooks Locomotive Works in the years 
1891 to 1899. These figures are from one building firm only, 
but it is believed that they fairly represent the practice of 
the eight years. The most striking figures given are for the 
average weight of engines and tenders in working order and 
the average weight of the engines alone. The former figure 
showed an increase of 85,783 pounds per locomotive and the 
latter an increase of 53,135 pounds. These figures are unex- 
pectedly large and very significant, because they indicate cor- 
responding advancement in power and improvement in oper- 
ation. These statistics would astonish those who consid- 
ered the limits of weight to have been reached years ago. 
There is no ground for prediction as to the weights of the fut- 
ure, but this increase carries the impression of the very great 
importance of making the weight count to the utmost in pow- 
er capacity. Unless the increased weight is productive in this 
way it is of no value. What is now most needed is improve- 
ment in the making and the use of steam also in counter- 
balancing, so as to permit of using greater weights on driving 
wheels without increasing the destruction of rails. 



SYSTEMS OF ELECTRIC DRIVING IN SHOPS. 



The present indications are that during the next few years 
all new shops and many remodeled old ones will have some, if 
not all, of the machines driven by electric power. Long lines 
of shafting often require from 60 to 75 per cent, of the total 
power to overcome friction, and it is safe to count upon enough 
saving in power by the introduction of electric motors to 
furnish light for the same shops. The question of fuel econ- 
omy, however, is not the most important one, because with 
wasteful systems the cost of power is usually about 2 per cent, 
of the cost of labor. The important question is to get the 
most out of the plant. The Baldwin Locomotive Works sev- 
eral years ago expended about $65,000 in electrical machines 
and the cost is saved every year in the saving of labor. The 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway installed an electric 
motor to operate a turn-table. The cost was $550, and it saves 
$1,600 per year in wages. 

Electric motors are accepted as offering valuable means for 
increased shop output; they are reliable, efficient and worthy 
of confidence; they are ready to respond instantly to a demand 
greatly in excess of their rated capacity, and they have the 
further advantage of accurate and easy adjustment of speed. 
It is not easy, however, to learn the best method of obtaining 
these advantages in practice. Each individual plant has its 
characteristics to be considered, and one of the limiting fac- 
tors in the adoption of a plan of electric driving is the relative 
cost and efficiency of large and small motors. Seventy-five dol- 
lars per horse power for one-horse power motors and $20 
per horse power for 50-horse power motors may be taken as 
an approximately correct proportion. 

It is desirable to use as few different sizes of motors as pos- 
sible because of the repairs. These considerations lead to the 
comparison of four systems of motor arrangement: 

1. Individual motors. 

2. The group system. 

3. Comparatively long lines of shafting, each driven by its 
motor. 

4. A combination of the individual and group systems. 

Individual Motors. 
Where the tools are relatively large this plan reduces the 
losses of transmission to a minimum and it also permits of 
any desired use of cranes and machinery for handling parts 
and finished work to and from the machines. It avoids all 
the troubles caused by belts, but the cost is high and the mo- 
tors will seldom be of greater capacity than 5 horse power. 
The power of the motor must, of course, be sufficient for the 
greatest load ever put on the machine and for a large part of 
the time much less power Is required, which means rather 



inefllcicnt operation of the motors. This plan also requires a 
large number of different sizes of motors, for which extra re- 
pair parts must be kept, and with small motors the repairs 
are much greater in amount than with larger ones. This 
system, however, uses no power except when the machines are 
running, which is not true of any other system. 

There is no system which permits of getting so much out 
of the machines as that of individual motors, and in some 
cases this will outweigh all other considerations. With a 
direct-connected motor it is possible to obtain more perfect 
speed control than can be had in any other way. The full 
capacity of the tool is always available at a movement of the 
hand and the machine may be started, stopped or rever.sed 
by the attendant without changing his position. Belt shifting 
is not difficult, but it is one of the little things that men will 
not do unless it is necessary, and a little hand switch to control 
the speed will be used when a belt would not be shifted. 

Most tools are limited in capacity by the system of driving 
with which they were originally fitted, and the usual range of 
speeds is very small. This is the only system which offers 
this very desirable speed and power control tor each machine, 
and it counts powerfully in the output of a shop where it can 

be used. 

The Group System. 

This plan recommends itself where the individual machines 
are not large enough for independent motors and where im- 
proved transmission without too large a capital outlay is sought. 
Shops and factories with no large tools and with large num- 
bers of small-powered machines must necessarily come under 
this system. It does not do away with shafting, but it permits 
of cutting the shafting into convenient lengths and avoids what 
is probably the greatest difficulty with shafting, the friction 
of long lengths on account of their liability of getting out 
of line. The motor driving a group of machines does not need 
to have a capacity equal to the sum of the maximum possible 
demands of all of the machines, because it is safe to count upon 
some of them as being idle or requiring only a small amount of 
power. The electrical installation of the Baldwin Locomotive 
Works has the proportion of 1,300 horse power in the genera- 
tors to 3,500 in the motors, and it seems to be sufficient, as 
the average horse power at the switchboard is but 1,000. 

The groups may be arranged with a view of running certain 
of them overtime in order to keep up with the rest of the 
plant, and all of the machines required for certain overtime 
work would be put into that group. This system renders the 
selection of motors comparatively easy and has the advantage 
of requiring the minimum number of different sizes: two sizes, 
15 and 25-horse-power motors will suffice for many large shops. 
The groups may be arranged to have a surplus of power in each 
at the start in order to provide for expansion. If the load 
eventually becomes too great for the smaller size, one of the 
larger ones can be substituted. 

Motors on Long Line Shafts. 

While a number of cases of this arrangement are in success- 
ful use, the objection to it is that there is little diminution in 
the belting, and. in fact, no advantage over the usual steam 
drive, except that the steam plant may be concentrated in one 
place for several buildings or departments. It is a great ad- 
vance over the distribution of steam engines all over a plant, 
but it does not bring out the best possibilities of distribution 
of power by electric motors. Two motors may run a shop 
or department, one being at the center of each side of the 
building and connected each way by clutches to the shafting. 
This permits of running one-quarter of the shop alone, but it 
involves running long shafting and many idle belts in order 
to reach a few machines for overtime work. The cost of the 
motors is less, but their efficiency is not sure to be higher be- 
cause of the lack of flexibility of the system. This plan does 
not accommodate good crane service. 

Combined Individual and Group System. 

By running the heaviest and largest machines by direct- 
connected motors, stopping at those requiring less than about 



80 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



5 horse power, and grouping the smaller machines to motors of 
from 5 horse power np, a very satisfactory system may be 
devised. This is the one followed at the Baldwin Locomotive 
Works and in a number of large establishments. It is flexible 
enough for adaptation to all except extraordinary conditions. 
Determination of Power Required. 
The indicator affords the readiest and most reliable infor- 
mation concerning the amount of power required. In applying 
motors to an old shop the full load of the shop may be ascer- 
tained at the engine by indicating, and the sizes of the sections 
or groups may be determined by cutting off portions of the 
shop successively at the shaft couplings. This will probably 
be necessary for each individual case, particularly where the 
groups involve much belting and shafting. For electric drives 
in new shops there are few reliable data available to the reader 
and the best plan is to entrust such a problem to the informa- 
tion and judgment of a reliable electric machinery concern. 
We expect to have more to say on the determination of the 
power required for installing motors in old shops in a future 
issue. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



MASTER MECHANICS WANTED. 



Editor American Engineer and Railroad Journal: 

The edttorial entitled "Master Mechanics Wanted," in the 
January issue of your paper, induces me to ask the question: 
How can a man in a subordinate position on a railroad find 
out that there are positions unfilled on other roads ? 

A man in such a position usually does not have the oppor- 
tunity to become known to the officials of other roads who 
may have vacancies to fill, and his immediate superiors may 
often consider it to their interest not to recommend a good 
man for a position elsewhere, so as not to lose his services 
on their own road and have to seek new help themselves. 
Jan. 4, 1900, O. A, 



HEATING SURFACE AND WEIGHT ON DRIVERS, 



Editor American Engineer and Railroad Journal: 

I think there is an error in the table at the foot of the first 
column of page 12 in your January issue. In the third line 
at the left the words "per square foot" should have been 
omitted. If I understand your purpose, the table should read 
as follows: 











.; >i 




a:ZM 






"■5 2 


5|l 


-■it 


.H'O 


^^1 




B^i 


^s& 


Q u 


^"1 


»|8 

CO 


Weight on drivers in lbs . . . 


208,00(1 


198.000 


193,200 


157,500 


202,232 


133,000 


Total healing surface ..... 


3,322 


3,2(i3 


3,500 


, :<,349 


4,103 


2,917 


Weight on drivers divided 














by heating surface 


63 


61,2 


55 


47 


49 


43.5 



Without having given this subject much attention, I had 
always thought that the relation between the boiler power 
and total weight was the important one, as this would be 
likely to show the excess in the amount of dead weight of 
10-wheel and 12-wheeI engines over moguls and consolidations. 
My sympathies were with the moguls and consolidations, 
but of late I have concluded that extra dead weight occasioned 
by the additional wheels for a 4-wheel instead of a pony truck 
is not the most important consideration in this case. If the 
extra pair of wheels means more heating surface, and con- 
sequently more power to put steam into the cylinder at critical 
point on the road, it is folly to object to their weight. The 
meat of this question is how much boiler power is to be had 
for a certain weight on drivers, and I believe your basis t-j be 
correct. 

The chief engineer fixes the limits of the weight on drivers, 
and this fact often determines whether an engine shall be a 



12-wheeler or consolidation, a 10-wheeler on an 8-wheeler; be- 
cause, if the boiler needed is part on the smaller number of 
wheels, the weight would exceed the limits given, 

I have made quite a number of comparisons on the basis of 
weight on drivers divided by the total heating surface, and 
the results are surprising. They indicate that there is no idea 
of uniformity in the practice of the railroads or the locomotive 
builders in what I believe to be the vital factor in locomotive 
power, viz., heating surface. The calculations for passenger 
and freight engines are enclosed. 

January 9, 1900. F. D. C. 

[The passenger engines only are given in the table which 
we reproduce. These have been worked up with considerable 
pains, and, as the engines are nearly all well-known designs, 
the comparison is valuable. — Editor.! 



Heating Surface Comparison of Passenger Locomotives. 


Road, 


Type of 
Locomotive. 


Road Class 

and 

Number. 


Weight on 

Drivers, 
Divided by 
Total Heat- 
ing Surface, 


P.R.R 

N. Y C 


8-wheel 

Columbia. .. 

Atlantic 


n-16a 

1-928 

201 

1101 

961 

A-908 

M-550 

N-1590 


48 6 
45,7 


Big Four 


39.3 


C. R I. &P 


41 7 


111. Central 


44.3 


C. & N. W 


41.7 


C, B, & Q 


46.9 


U„ B. & Q 


52.2 


A. C. Line 


36.0 




Mogul 

1' -wheel .. . 


G- 
661 

H 

1.50 
999 

227 


38.8 


L.Valley 


39 4 


C, B. & Q '. 


. 63.2 


Gt. Northern 

G. T.Ry 

Southern 

%A^isconsiu Central 

B, & 


48.7 
67 4 
50.3 
50,5 
52.5 


N.P 


'.'.'.'. '.'.'.'. 


P 

376 
433 

1 7 


45.0 


111. Central 

M. C 


58.8 
58.1 


L. S. & M. S 


47,2 







STATBOLT PROGRESS. 



Editor American Engineer and Railroad Journal: 

Tour article on staybolt progress in the December issue and 
the communications published in the January issue, have cov- 
ered all points except one in the study of the life of staybolts. 
This point is the actual movement of the side sheets and fire- 
box sheets relative to one another, due to the differences in 
temperatures of the two sets of sheets and the enormous 
fluctuations of temperature in the firebox itself. The only 
published record that I have any knowledge of, referring to 
this subject, is that found on page 27 of the twenty-seventh 
annual proceedings of the American Railway Master Mechan- 
ics' Association for 1894. The committee report on "Cracking 
of Back Tube Sheets" quotes from a paper jead before the In- 
stitution of Naval Architects by Mr. Yarrow. This paper dis- 
cusses the movement of the tube and crown sheets under heavy 
firing and the method adopted to relieve the stresses of these 
.sheets due to expansion. The relative movement of the crown 
stays through the top casing sheet is given as being equal to 
the thickness of a penny (English) which would about 3/32 inch. 
This is the only experiment, I believe, which has been made 
to determine the actual movement of sheets relative to each 
other. No definite data being given, we can only base our de- 
ductions on this test in a general way. They show, however, 
that the crown sheet for some 8 or 10 inches from the front end 
was supported entirely by the tube sheet, as the stays were 
free at the point referred to, having moved outwardly through 
the casing top sheet. From the information contained in this 
article we cannot determine definitely whether the next suc- 
ceeding rows of roof stays back of the second row were in ten- 
sion or compression. Following this line of reasoning, it would 
seem that the first few rows of radial stays or crown bars with 
sling stays were in compression and not in tension for which 
purpose they were designed. This, then, must be true of any 
type of boiler with stayed crowns. 

In this connection I would quote some recent history. It was 
recently proposed to the writer by a locomotive builder to alter 
the details of the first two rows of sling stays on a crown bar 
boiler, to allow for expansion, by elongating the holes in the 



febrdart. 1900. AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 81 







CD. 



-7^ 



CO. 




Fig. 1. 



Fig. 3. 



/C,lasi C(nenirinfi'fif.e(l point 




Fig. 2. 



lower ends of the stays % inch. Here we have an unconscious 
approval of the proposition that the first two rows of crown 
sheet stays do not stay, and that in view of the fact that the 
steam pressure carried is 180 lbs. per square inch. The ques- 
tion that now presents itself is: Of what use are the stays on 
the crown near the tube sheets and door sheets? 

Mr. Sanderson's communication of last month covers the 
question of expansion of firebox sheets pretty thoroughly and 
presents various points of interest in the nature and location 
of the line of fracture of staybolts. He refers also to the fact 
of excessive local heating causing unusual and unlocked for 
strains in' sheets and staybolts, and among offer things cites 
the irresistible forces at woi'k due to expansion. Prof. Goss in 
a recent article before one of the Eastern railroad clubs also 
quotes some stupendous figures on this same subject. 

■We have arrived at the point where the concensus of opinion 
is that in the sheets of the firebox of an internally fired 
boiler numerous unknown stresses and movements of sheets 
exist, yet there is no record of these having been studied logi- 
cally nor are these conditions allowed for in new designs. 

The nearest approach we have made to this subject is the 
vibratory test of staybolts. It is shown that these investiga- 
tions have developed better practice and lengthened the life 
of stay bolts. These tests are assumed to give the material 



an arbitrary deflection of % 
Inch vertically or In one direc- 
tion only. The test proved 
certain facts, and, a» shown In 
the December Issue, the num- 
ber of vibrations any stay' bolt 
material would stand varied 
with the relative position of 
the Internal structure and the 
direction of the bend or vibra- 
tion. The logical result of 
these tests points to the revolv- 
ing tests as being the most ra- 
tional, as Is suggested by your 
article. 

We now have two important 
points forcibly brought to our 
notice: First, that the firebox 
sheets "do more" to a very ap- 
preciable extent, and, second, that stay bolt material of a 
certain form of structure gives excellent results, shown by 
service and vibratory tests. It appears to the writer, second, 
that the conclusions to be reached from the information at 
hand is to assume that the movements of expansion due to 
temperature fluctuations are not in any given direction at any 
certain point, but that this movement may be in any direction 
radiating from this point, and that the proper way to test 
stay bolts would be by the revolving method. The other points 
at issue, such as riveting and heading stay bolts, loose and tight 
fits in sheets and the thickness of the sheets themselves, are 
vital and should be considered carefully in design and building. 
Assuming, then, that there is unequal expansion in the various 
parts of the firebox sheets and that these expansions and 
stresses are cumulative, would it not be well to inaugurate 
a study of these movements as being in line with "stay bolt 
progress" and progress of boiler design? To advance this sub- 
ject a step further, I hand you a few sketches of a device 
designed to record the relative movements of the sheets of the 
boiler in regard to one another. In this design it is proposed 
to place in the crown and side sheets of the firebox at the 
points A B an C D marked in Fig. 3 a fixed steel stud, de- 
signed as a beam of uniform strength for the given or required 
length. The stud is to pass through the casing side or top 
sheets in a stuffing box provided with metallic packing in 
such a manner that it will be free to move in any direction 
due to the movement of the sheet to which the stud is attached. 
A recording mechanism of pantagraph construction is shown 
to multiply the motion definitely, say 10 times, in order that 
the direction and extent of movement can be readily studied. 
As shown, the device is intended for recording movements 
in a horizontal or vertical plane, according to the position of 
the stud on the side or crown sheet. For studying the com- 
plex motions of the crown sheet at the junction with the tube 
or door sheet as at A B, Fig. 3, a second pantagraph could be 
attached to give the record in a plant parallel with the axis 
of the stud. A careful design of details and as careful calibra- 
tion should make a device of this nature an exceedingly valu- 
able piece of apparatus in the study of boiler design. 

The sketches presented are given as a suggestion for a line 
of investigation. If anyone has already investigated on this 
line and withheld the information, he should at once discover 
himself so that the work can be prosecuted from the point 
where he left off. 

The writer would hazard the opinion that an investigation 
on the line suggested will upset a large number of preconceived 
notions on boiler design and will go a long way toward starting 
us on the right track to successfully design a boiler that is 
theoretically and practically correct. 
January 17, 1900. WILLIS C. SQUIRE. AI. E., 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway. 



We learn that Manning, Maxwell & Moore, whose principal 
ofHces are at 85 Liberty Street. New York, are compiling a new 
catalogue devoted exclusively to the illustration of iron-work- 
ing machine tools. Those who have new tools that they would 
desire to have illustrated in this catalogue should immediately 
communicate with Manning. Maxv.ell & Moore at their New 
York office, marking their communication "Catalogue Depart- 
ment," which will insure its receiving prompt attention. 



52 AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 




Four-Cvlinder Tandem Compound Locomotive— A. T. & S- F. Railway 




LOH Pressure 



Fifr. 2.— Arrangement of Saddle and Cylinders. 



FEBEUARy. 1900. AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 88 



FOUR-CYLINDER TANDEM C(J.\II'(jl ND LOCOMOTIVE. 




.0. 

E 
(0 

H- 

o 

C 

a> 

E 
o 
tm 

c 
a 







« 

I. 
bio 



Atchison. 'I'opcka & Santa Fe Railway. 

Tlie principles of tlic tandem type of four-cylinder com- 
pound locomotive as worked out and patented by Mr. .John 
Player. Superintendent of Motive Power of the Atchison, To- 
peka & Santa Fe Railway, were de.scribed on page 211 of our 
issue of June, 1S99. At that time the application had Ijeen 
made only to freight locomotives, but it has now been applied 
to ten-wheel locomotives in passenger service, one of which 
is shown in the accompanying engraving from a photograph. 
The chief features of this design are the tandem arrangement 
of the cylinders, piston valves without packing rings and an 
arrangement of the attachment of the valve stem for the high- 
pressure cylinder to its rocker arm in such a way as to permit 
of adjustment of the cut-oft in the high-pressure cylinders to 
change the ratios of expansion. 

The saddle casting has a narrow portion at the center be- 
tween the frames, and enlarges at the frame to a length of 98 
inches on each side, and the cylinders are bolted to the frames 
and the saddle casting independently with a space of 20 inches 
between the ends of the cylinders. The arrangement ofthesteam 
and exhaust passages is indicated in Fig. 2. Fig. 3 shows half 
sections through one of the low and one of the high-pressure 
cylinders, respectively. Fig. 3 shows the arrangement of the 
steam piping in the front end, including the small pipe for ad- 
mission of high-pressure steam to the low-pressure cylinders 
in starting. The valve gear back as far as the rocking shaft 
is seen in Fig. 5. This illustration shows the method of work- 
ing the high-pressure valve by a stem which passes through the 
hollow stem of the low-pressure valve. The high-pressure 
valve stem connects to a rod attached to its upper rocker arm 
with an adjustable attachment clearly indicated in the draw- 
ing. The valves are in the form of hollow shells without pack- 
ing of any kind and the admission of steam is from the ends. 

The cylinders are 14 and 24 by 28 inches; the driving wheels. 
77 inches in diameter; the heating surface, 1,923 square feet; 
grate area, 26% square feet, and the boiler pressure, 200 pounds. 
The weight of the engine is 169.000 pounds, of which 123,000 
pounds are on the driving wheels. 

This design appears to be very successful on this road. It 
has demonstrated the possibility of omitting the packing rings 
from piston valves and has shown the possibility of adjust- 
ing the ratio of expansion by varying the travel of the high- 
pressure valve Independently of the low-pressure valve. 

We are indebted to the "Railway Master Mechanic" for these 
engravings. 



The typical dimensions for standard box cars has occupied 
the attention of the American Railway Association with the 
result of proposing the following: Length inside, 36 feet; 
width Inside, 8 feet 6 inches; height inside between the top 
of the floor and the under side of the earlines, 8 feet. A 
committee of the Central Railroad Club reported at the Janu- 
ary meeting approving all of these dimensions providing cer- 
tain roads would increase their clearances, and suggesting a 
reduction of height to 7 feet 9 inches if they should remain as 
at present. This looks rather promising, and it is to be hoped 
that the Association's recommendation will have the weight 
it deserves in the final decision. 



Another record-breaking run of the "fast mail" train of the 
Burlington road was made a short time ago. The train, pulled 
by engine 1592, left Burlington, Iowa. 36 minutes late, and 
arrived in Chicago on time. The distance is 206 miles, and was 
covered in 209 minutes, including all stops. The run of S3 
miles from Mendota to Chicago was made in 76 minutes — the 
best time ever made between those points. The 46 miles be- 
tween Mendota and Aurora was covered In 39 minutes. Nearly 
all the way there was a heavy head wind and the train was 
unusually heavy. 



6 4 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



PISTON VALVES WITH ALLEN PORTS. 



Objection has been made against piston valves because 
of the difficulties in applying to them the principle of the 
Allen poi't. The design illustrated was prepared by Mr. Chas. 
M. Muchnick, of the Compagnie de Fives-Lille, France, to suit 
the dimensions of locomotives of the Pei.in-Hankow line in 
China, to meet this objection. Mr. Muchnick, believing that 
it is not at all improbable that the same objection has been 



piston valves are used, are made considerably larger than 
with slide valves, it may be supposed that the greater back 
pressure due to insufficient exhaust opening in the latter to 
exhaust the greater amount of steam admitted into the cylin- 
der on account of the double port opening cannot occur when 
the Allen principle is applied to the piston valve. 

The plan shown takes live steam at the center of the valve 
like the piston valves in use on the Norfolk & Western Ry. 

The increase of power of the engine due to the improved 



r^'-:7^/77:'W" 




V/\'//mM^///^/MW//////, 




■ YW''^MWm M^'''y^yM/MMZ' 



UVL STL^M 



Muchnick's Piston Valve with Allen Ports. 





balancing of the piston valve is 
one of the strong points, and if 
this design should add to this 
the advantages of the Alien port 
for improving the admission of 
steam and also reduce the back 
pressure and the weight of the 
valve, it certainly has much to 
recommend it, especially for 
fast passenger service. 



SLCY /I-B 



Sections of Piston Valve with Allen Ports. 



made by aavocates of the Allen valve in this country, sends 
us the drawings to illustrate the valve as a suggestion. 

The construction of the valve is clearly indicated in the 
drawings and requires no detailed description. It differs very 
little in form from the valves of the Brooks Locomotive Works, 
with the exception that instead of the hollow open-ended cyl- 
inder of the Brooks designs this one is closed, except for the 
valve ports at each end and the openings for the valve rod 
which are cored out. There is a marked difference in the 
packing, however. In the French valve the packing is in the 
form of spring rings of small cross sectional area to make 
them flexible in order to reduce the friction against the valve 
bushings as much as possible, and yet insure steam-tight joints. 
Apparently no effort is made, except in accurate fitting, to 
prevent steam from getting inside the rings to set them out 
against the bushings. 

Mr. Muchnick, commenting upon the design, notes that, while 
this valve embodies all of the virtues of the slide valve of the 
Allen type, it also overcomes some of the defects of that valve; 
for example, the breakage of valves due to imperfect placing 
of the cores, increase of weight and of total size and area 
of the plain valve. Also, since the exhaust passages, when 



A gift of $300,000 recently 
made by Andrew Carnegie, to 
which $200,000 will be added by 
the Trustees of Cooper Union, 
in New York City, wijl enable 
that institution to complete the 



original plan of the founder. Peter Cooper, and open a day 
school of mechanic arts. The night school has been doing 
excellent work for years. 



IMPROVED ENGINE FRAME CONSTRUCTION. 



In an article published in the January issue of this journal, 
on the subject of Improved Engine Frame Construction and 
Its Relation to the Proper Application of Driver Brakes, we 
inadvertently gave a wrong impression as to the position of 
The American Brake Co. in connection with this subject. Our 
article might lead one to believe that others had anticipated 
The American Brake Co. in improvements and inventions of 
this character. We are, therefore, pleased to state that as far 
back as May, 1892, The American Brake Co. designed and pat- 
ented improvements in engine frame construction with the 
special view of facilitating the application of the best form of 
driver brakes. 

It is gratifying to note that following the publication of our 
article in the .lanuary number a great deal of interest seems 
to be manifested in the importance of this question, and we 
only trust that those who have not already read and consid- 
ered the article will give early attention to the subject. 



February, 1900. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAIL.ROAD JOURNAL. 66 




Passenger Locomotive- Chicago & Alton Railroad. 
Capacity of Tender 6,000 Gallons Water and 12 Tons Coal- 
H. MoNKnousK, Superintendent of Machinery. Brooks Locomotive Works, Builders. 



EIGHT-WHEEL PAJaoENGER LOCOMOTIVES, 
ALTON R. R. 



CHICAGO & 



The new day trains on the Chicago & Alton between Chicago 
and St. Louis, are new throughout and are haulfd by eiglit- 
wheel simple engines with pistor valves, recently built by the 
Brooks Locomotive Works. Those locomotives are handsome, 
and where it was possible the outline of the cab roof and cab 
windows were made to appear in keeping with the new cars, 
for which this train is famous. The engines are painted the 
standard Pullman color, like the cars. 

There are no unusual features in the engine design, the en- 
gine is not large or exceptionally powerful, but the provisions 
for long continuous running in the size and capacity of the 
tender is noteworthy. The capacity is 6,000 gallons of water 
and 12 tons of coal, which is believed to be the largest ever 
used in passenger service. A small turbine driven dynamo is 
moimted upon the boiler for electric lights placed along the 
running board and under the boiler as well as for the head- 
light. The chief dimensions and characteristics of the engines 

appear in the following table: 

Fuel Soft coal 

Total weight in working order 139,000 lbs. 

Weight on drivers 90,500 lbs. 

Cylinders 19 x 26 in. 

Heating surface tubes 2,000 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, firebox 177 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, total 2,177 sq. ft. 

Grate area 31.S sq. ft. 

Driving wheels, diameter 73 in. 

Wheel base, total, of engine 24 ft. 10 in. 

■Wheel base, driving S ft. 9 in. 

Wheel base, total, engine and tender 53 ft. 2'/2 in. 

Length over all, engine 3S ft. 7% in. 

I^ength over all, total, engine and tender 64 ft. 3% in. 

Height, center of boiler above rails 8 ft. 11V4 in. 

Height of stack above rails 15 ft. 1 in. 

Truck wheels, diameter 36 in. 

Journals, driving axle, size 9 by 12 in., with enlarged wheel fits 

Journals, truck axle 6 by 12 in. 

Main crank pin. size 6 by 6 in. 

Main coupling pin, size 4% by 4 In. 

Main pin, diameter wheel fit 6% in. 

Piston rod, diameter 3V4 in., with enlarged ends 

Main rod, length center to center 105 in. 

Steam ports, length 21V. in. 

Steam ports, width 2 In. 

Exhaust ports, least area 50 sq. in. 

Bridge, width 3>4 in. 

Valves, kind of 10-in. Improved piston 

Valves, greatest travel 6^1 in. 

Valves, steam lap (inside) Itj in. 

Valves, exhaust lap or clearance (outside) Line and line 

Lead in full gear None 

Boiler, working steam pressure 210 lbs. 

Boiler, material in barrel Steel 

Boiler, thickness of materi.al in shell 11/16, %, % and 9/16 in. 

Boiler, thickness of tube sheet .% In. 

Boiler, diameter of barrel, front 66tJ In. 

Boiler, diameter of barrel at throat 75%; In. 

Boiler, diameter at haclt head 66H In, 

Seams, kind of horizontal Sextuple 

Seams, kind of circumferential Double 

Crown sheet, stayed with Radial stavs 

Dome, diameter 30 in. 

Firebox, length 114 jn. 



Firebox, width ii in. 

Firebox, depth, front 7'J in. 

Firebox, depth, back 05 in. 

Firebox, material Steel 

Firebox, thickness of sheets- Crown, % in ; tube, % in.; side and 

back, 78 iu- 

Firebox, brick arch Self-supporting 

Firebox, mud ring, width Back, 3Vi in.; sides, 4 in.; front, 4 in. 

Firebox, water space at top. .Back, 4Vi in.; sides, 5 in.; front, 4 in. 

Grates, kind of Cast iron rockuig 

Tubes, number -WtJ 

Tubes, material Charcoal iron 

Tubes, outside diameter 3 in. 

Tubes, thickness No. 12 B. W. G. 

Tubes, length over tube sheets 12 ft. 7% in. 

Smokebox, diameter outside 69 in. 

Smokebox, length from flue sheet 60 Ie. 

Exhaust nozzle Single 

Exhaust nozzle Permanent 

Exhaust nozzle, diameter 4%, 5 and 5% in. 

Exhaust nozzle, distance of tip above center of boiler 1 in 

Netting Wire 

Netting, size of mesh 2^ by 2% i=. 

Stack Steel taper 

Stack, least diameter 13 li.. 

Stack, greatest diameter 14% !n. 

Stack, height above smokebox 39 In. 

Tender. 

Type Eight- wheel, steel frame 

Weight, loaded 120.000 I'cs. 

Capacity, water 6,000 gals. 

Capacity, coal 12 tons 

Tank, type Slope top 

Tank, material Steel 

Tank, thickness of sheets % in. 

Type of under frame 13-In. steel char.nel 

Type of truck B. L. W. 100,000 !bs. 

Type springs Triple elliptic 

Diameter of wheels So in 

Diameter and length of journals 5 by 9 in. 

Distance between centers of journals 66 In. 

Diameter of wheel fit on axle 6% in. 

Diameter of center of axle 5% in. 

Length of tender over bumper beams 23 ft. SM in. 

Length of tank 22 ft. % in. 

Width of tank 9 ft. S in. 

Height of tank, not including collar 63 in. 

Type of draw gear M. C. B. Janney 



EXHAUST AND DRAFT 



ARRANGEMENTS 
TIVES. 



IN LOCOMO- 



A Review Covering Ten Years. 



Mr. C. H. Quereau, Assistant Superintendent of Motive 
Power, Denver & Rio Grande Railroad, who was selected as 
Reporter to the International Railway Congress upon the sub- 
ject of Exhaust and Draft Appliances in Locomotives, has 
made an admirable review of the progress of the past 10 years 
and also presents suggestions and conclusions. The complete 
report is to be found in the Bulletin of the International Rail- 
way Congress for December, 1S99. A brief synopsis is at- 
tempted here. 

The conclusions cover American practice and were derived 
from that of roads having 15.000 of the 36.000 locomotives in 
use in this country. 

In exhaust pipes the tendency is decidedly toward the sin 



66 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL 



gle nozzles, this having been adopted upon two-thirds of the 
equipment, and is displacing the double pipe. There is a ten- 
dency toward reducing the length of the pipe notwithstanding 
a large average increase in the diameter of smokeboxes in the 
10 years. Twenty out of 33 roads in the record have short- 
ened their exhaust pipes in this time. The general adoption 
of this change would Indicate that It was beneficial. The 
exhaust tip recommended by the Master Mechanics' Association 
had been adopted by 60 per cent, of the roads, which is pre- 
sumptive evidence that it is the most efficient form. The re- 
porter made special efforts to ascertain the opinion in regard 
to the use of bridges or bars in the exhaust tip and found the 
practice universally condemned, except as a temporary ex- 
pedient. 

Smoke stacks have been reduced in diameter on one-quarter 
of the roads, the size of the cylinders remaining the same. 
The cast-iron smoke stack is the favorite with 80 per cent, 
of the roads and is growing in favor. The diamond stack is 
standard on but one railroad system, and it is significant that 
two roads formerly part of that system have discarded the 
diamond stack upon separating from that system. From 
these facts it seems reasonable to infer that the diamond stack 
is inferior in efficiency to the straight or taper form. Mr. 
Quereau finds that there are no definite rules for varying the 
stack dimensions for different sizes of cylinders. He believes 
that the rule given by the Master Mechanics' Association Com- 
mittee concerning the relation between the stack and the ex- 
haust tip has had considerable influence. Seventeen roads 
have used variable exhaust tips, and with unfavorable re- 
sults. The principle is good but they require too much care 
to keep them in good working order. 

The use of draft pipes with extension front ends has in- 
creased considerably during the past few years. They in- 
crease the draft effect and increase the efficiency of the ex- 
haust by permitting an increase in the size of the tip, which 
reduces the back pressure. Draft pipes have been at a disad- 
vantage on account of defective fastenings, which have, in 
many cases, worked loose and caused delay on the road. This, 
however, is not the fault of the device, but of its attach- 
ment. 

The original purpose for which the extenued front end was 
designed was to serve as a receptacle for the cinders, but it 
is a failure in this respect. The fact that 16 out of 25 roads 
reporting have shortened their extension an average of 17 
inches in the past 10 years shows quite conclusively that ex- 
perience has demonstrated that it does not accomplish the end 
for which it was designed, or that the gain iu draft by shorten- 
ing is more important than the original purpose. The re- 
porter believes it to be probable that with the extended front 
end a design may be developed which will leave out the baffle 
plates and depend entirely on draft pipes for the distribution 
of the draft, and that such a design would be more efficient 
than those which depend on the baffle plate. 

Mr. Quereau made a study of the von Borries-Troske tests 
at Hanover, in connection with his paper. (These tests were 
translated in full in our volume LXX of 1S96.) Giving due 
consideration to the eminence of the experimenters, he ob- 
serves that as they did not use an actual locomotive, but an 
improvised piece of apparatus to represent the conditions of 
the front end of a locomotive, without having even a repre- 
sentation of a stack, their results cannot be considered as rep- 
resenting the conditions of practice. The stack has an impor- 
tant influence on the draft effect and so also does the back 
pressure, which, in the German tests, was assumed to be con- 
stant. Furthermore, the German tests considered only the 
vacuum produced without taking into consideration the fact 
that it is produced by back pressure. Mr. Quereau shows clear- 
ly that the efficiency and not the vacuum is the important fac- 
tor. The Master Mechanics' Association tests of 1896 were giv- 
en the preference in the opinion of the reporter because they 
were carried out on a locomotive with a stack in place and with 



means for recording the back pressure and of obtaining the 
measure of efficiency of the exhaust. This gi'ound is appar- 
ently well taken, the preference for the Master Mechanics' 
findings will no doubt be assailed, but the defence appears to 
be strong. Mr. Quereau recommends that where the conclu- 
sions of the Master Mechanics' Committee and those drawn 
from the Hanover tests do not agree, the Master Mechanics' 
conclusions should prevail. The chief differences are with 
reference to the shape of the exhaust tips, the effect of a 
bridge in the exhaust tip, the shape of the exhaust jet and 
the height of the tip with reference to the stack. It is clear 
that in all of these the actual locomotive conditions are abso- 
lutely required for intelligent opinion. No one, however, has 
assailed the German tests before, and the result, we should 
say, will be to advance the locomotive testing plant as a piece 
of test apparatus. 



CENTER OF GRAVITY OF A 108-TON LOCOMOTIVE. 



A method of ascertaining the height above the rail of the 
center of gravity of a locomotive devised by Mr. G. R. Hender- 
son was illustrated and described in a recent issue of this 
journal. Through the courtesy of Mr. Reuben Wells, Superin- 
tendent of the Rogers Locomotive Company, we have received 
a description of another method which was applied to the 
very heavy consolidation locomotive built by that company for 
the Illinois Central and illustrated elsewhere in this issue. 

This operation was carried out on this engine as a whole 
and in working order by suspending it on the upper surfaces 
of two 3-inch steel pins or pivots; the one at the front being 
located 6 inches in front of the cylinder saddle, and the back 
one 6 inches back of the back end of the boiler, and both the 
same distance above the rails and on the vertical center line 
of the engine. The engine when suspended was complete with 
all its parts in place and boiler filled with cold water to the 
second gauge, the drivers and truck wheels all clearing the 
rails about 2 inches. The engine was as near as practicable in 
the same condition and of the same weight as it would be in 
working order. The steel suspension pins were supported at 
both ends and the bearing surface resting on them was hori- 
zontal so as to reduce friction at the bearing point to a mini- 
mum. On trial, the bearing points as first located proved to 
be considerably too high. They were lowered and tested again 
several times until the engine balanced on the pivots. Screws 
were used at the ends of the bumper for testing, and to keep the 
"roll" to either side within limits when the pivots had been 
lowered to the point of the center of gravity. At that point a 
lift of about 300 pounds under the end of the bumper was suffi- 
cient to cause the engine to turn in the opposite direction to 
the extent that the bumper at that end was about 8 inches 
higher than the opposite end. On removing the lifting force the 
engine would not, of itself, return more than half way back 
to the vertical position but required a lift of about 100 pounds 
at the low side to bring it vertical enough to overcome the 
pivot friction, but when vertical and free, it would remain so. 
It required about 100 pounds, however, to start it to turn in 
either direction. 

The tests show that the point of suspension was probably 
as near the actual center of gravity of the engine as it was 
practicable to locate it. After the adjustments were all made 
and the center of gravity point found measurements showed 
the bearing point on top of the steel pin at each end of the 
engine on which it rested to be bOVz inches above the top of 
the rails when the drivers are resting on the track. That 
point is 3%, inches above the top of the main frames and is 
indicated in Figure 3 of the description of the engine in this 
issue. 

Assuming the bearing points of the drivers on the rails to be 
56 inches apart, then the base on which the engine runs is 
1.10 times as wide as the distance its center of gravity is in 
height above them. Without positive knowledge to the con- 
trary, most persons judging from appearances only would con- 
clude that the center of gravity of a locomotive like this must 
be considerably above the point given, yet, the tests show con- 
clusively that it is not. 

If the center of gravity of a locomotive like this is 10 per 
cent, less in height than the width of the base on which it is 
carried, it is probable that the center of gravity could be 
carried still slightly higher without any detrimental results 
of consequence as regards the movement of the locomotive 
along the track. 



FEBRUARY. 1900. AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 67 



ECONOMICAL OPERATION OF LOCOMOTIVES. 



Pooling, or the "first in, first out" s.vsteni, is generally ac- 
cepted as a means for saving large suras in locoraotive opera- 
tion. The advantages are summed up in a recent paper by 
Mr. M. E. Wells before the Western Railway Club, in an argu- 
ment which may be summarized as follows: 

It enables men to rest while the engines are in use, they are 
not laid off while the engines are in the shop, the work is 
better divided up among the men, it makes it possible to do 
the work with 37 engines that formerly required 52 (in the case 
cited), which means a saving of $150,000 in the machinery in- 
vestment; the locomotives may be used almost continuously, 
the improved methods of inspection result in fewer engine fail- 
ures on the road, and the greatest possible mileage is made 
between shoppings. 

In the pooling system the question of inspection for defects 
and loose parts is a most important one. It is equally im- 
portant whatever system is used, but this discussion brings 
out the possibility of securing better inspection by providing 
special round house inspectors for the work. The engineers 
are not relieved from the duty of looking over their engines 
before and after runs, but the fact that the special inspectors 
are never overworked, as are the engineers, by extremely long 
hours and difficult runs is an important safeguard which has 
been found effective In preventing break-downs on the road. 

Pooling is no longer an experiment. Mr. G. W. Rhodes said 
that his attention was first drawn to it in 1877. Some objec- 
tions are made to it on account of difficulties in keeping coal 
and oil records and it has been criticised because men are sup- 
posed to be able to get better results when they always use 
the same engine. These were given due weight in the discus- 
sion and the fact that the details rather than the plan itself 
concerned the speakers most would seem to indicate that the 
idea of pooling had gained friends since the subject was before 
this club in 1896. 

Mr. Rhodes cited a case to show that the subject has not 
received the attention it deserves, as follows: 

'•This spring we had four engines on a certain division, two 
through passenger trains west and two through passengsr 
trains east. These four engines were worth $10,000 a piece 
—that is. $40,000. It was found that the run tor the 
round trip was 339 miles, and that the engines could be 
turned around and brought back to the starting point daily, and 
by doing so, we would cut the money invested in locomotives in 
half. Instead of having $40,000 invested in engines we had 
$20,000. Such economy is wonderful, where it is carried out 
to great extent. Those two engines now on that run make 
339 miles a day, or 10,170 miles a month. What is going to 
make this method of handling these trains successful? It de- 
pends entirely upon the capacity of the engines to make 339 
miles a day without a failure." 



ROLLER ATTACHMENT FOR AXLE LATHES. 



Allegheny Shops, Pennsylvania Company. 



The increasing extent of the use of burnishers in the form of 
rollers for finishing the surface of journals, crank pins and pis- 
ton rods was commented upon in our May issue of last year, 
page 156, and through the courtesy of Mr. W. F. Beardsley, 
Master Mechanic of the Pennsylvania Co.. at Allegheny, Pa., 
we are enabled to illustrate still another burnisher for work 
of thLs character. 

This device was designed at the Allegheny shops and refer- 
ence to the drawing shows that it consists of a yoke-shaped 
frame secured to the carriage of the lathe and supporting three 
rollers, two at the left and one at the right, which are operated 
by a right and left hand screw to force the rollers against the 
axle. The stresses are therefore self contained in the attach- 
ment and the thrust due to rolling is not transmitted to the 
centers, which support the axle. This fixture is hinged on the 
rear side of the carriage and may be turned out of the way 



lilrlitbna hp-rPin ^ ii'flM/ln/ ..f. 










s 


p 




.i 


'4 


i 


s 


-^1 




-^ 




i ■•? 


4 





Roller Attachment for Lathes. 

when not in use. It is usually left in position, as its size and 
form are such that it will clear the tail stock of the lathe. 

The rolling is done while the finishing cut is being taken 
over the wheel fit, whereby time is saved in completing the 
axle and no time is lost through the application of the bur- 
nisher. This arrangement effectually ^revents springing the 
work due to the pressure of the rollers and it entirely relieves 
the centers from additional stress. It is evident that this feat- 
ure of the design renders it specially well adapted to work on 
piston rods and valve stems, in which case the thrust of a single 
roller would be a serious matter. This attachment is now in 
use on an axle lathe in the Allegheny shops and is reported to 
be doing excellent work. 



GOOD AMERICAN PRACTICE IN CRANK PINS AND AXLES. 

An example of good practice in the design of locomotive 

details is the comparison, as shown in the "Railroad Gazette," 

of the axles and crank pins of the main driving wheels of a 

Lake Shore and Michigan Southern ten-wheeler and a North 

Eastern (English) ten-wheeler. Mr. L. R. Pomeroy in the 

June issue of the "American Engineer and Railroad Journal," 

for 1898, gives two excellent formulas, one for figuring the 

crank pins and the other for driving axles, from which the 

following results are derived: 

Lake Shore & Michigan North Eastern 

10-wheeler. 10-wheeIer. 

Cylinders, in. by in 20 by 28 20 by 26 

Boiler pressure, lbs 210 200 

Maximum fiber stress in main crank 

pins. lbs. per sq. in 13,225 20,170 

Maximum fiber stress in main driv- 
ing axle, lbs. per sq. in 21,700 23,740 

In the case of both drivers the crank pins and axles have 
enlarged wheel fits. The diameter of the Lake Shore axle 
is 9 inches, with a wheel fit of 9% inches, while that of the 
North Eastern is only 7% inches, with a wheel fit of 9 inches. 
The weight on the main drivers of the Lake Shore engine is 
44,000 pounds, making a difference of only 1.000 pounds in 
excess of the North Eastern and has 50 per cent, greater area 
of journals. The crank pin is also of a larger diameter than 
that of the North Eastern. Mr. Pomeroy has found fp )m his 
careful study of the breakages of crank pins and axles a max- 
imum safe fiber stress for iron and steel axles of ibout 18,000 
and 21.000 pounds respectively, and for Iron and steel crank 
pins, 12.000 and 15.000 pounds respectively. From the table it 
will be seen that the fiber stress in the Lake Shore axles and 
crank pin are very close to the best practice while those of 
the English engine are high. 

Mr. Thomas Tait. General Manager of the Canadian Pa- 
cific, has no misgivings concerning the recent adoption of 
yellow as a color for distant signal lights on that system. 
He recently wrote about this important step as follows: "We 
have adopted the Nels yellow (which I think should be called 
the Baird yellow) as our standard color for caution, and all 
of our interlocking plants are now equipped with it and 
it is giving great satisfaction." Mr. John C. Baird. who was 
the originator of this glass, informs us that the Canadian 
Pacific will use green for "all clear' or "proceed" signal, and 
that a new classification color for locomotive lamps will be 
adopted. 



68 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 




A Sueet Transformed into a Shop by an Electric Crane, Baldwin Locomotive Works. 
Crane Built by Wm. SeMers & Co. 



A VALUABLE CRANE.— BALDWIN LOCOMOTIVE WORKS, 



The devices and equipment for handling materials generally 
reflects the real prosperity of manufacturing establishments, 
and particularly those requiring the movement of heavy pieces. 
The electric traveling crane has had a revolutionary effect 
upon shop design and arrangement, and in the development 
of rapid work for which this country has become famous. A 
good example of what cranes will do may be seen at the 
Baldwin Locomotive Works in Philadelphia. Cranes, adapted 
for the special requirements of each department are contribut- 
ing in a very important way to the enormous productive 
capacity of this plant, the works as now equipped being an 
excellent place to study the problem of moving heavy weights 
and using space advantageously. 

The cranes are the product of Wm. Sellers & Co., and by 
means of the photograph a unique example is shown of how a 
crane will render an awkward and unused space available for 
shop purposes. This crane has a span of 37 feet, a lift of 26 feet 
and a lifting capacity of 25 tons. It is operated by three 
motors and is run out of doors, the cage being enclosed and 
the crane roofed over with corrugated iron. This crane spans 
the walls of the shop buildings on both sides of Buttonwood 
Street from Broad to Fifteenth Streets, a distance of about 350 
feet. The crane is a very efficient one and capable of handling 
all of -the work required. It renders this entire area available 
for wheel work and storage for wheels, boilers and other parts 
for which there is not room in the shops. It saves the erection 
of another building and the condition shown in the photograph 
would be entirely impossible without it. The picture incident- 



ally gives an idea of the present 
Baldwin works. 



[■rowded condition of the 



THE SLOT IN THE M. C. B. KNUCKLJ5, 



A Serious Weakness, 



The fact has long been known that the M. C. B, knuckle is 
weakened by the slot and pin hole provided for the purpose of 
coupling with links when necessary, but there are few who 
will not be surprised by the figures given by Mr. J. W. Luttrell, 
Master Mechanic of the Illinois Central, before the Western 
Railroad Club last month. 

Out of 200 broken knuckles taken at random from the scrap 
pile, 60 per cent, had broken through the pin hole and 11 per 
cent, through the link slot, making 71 per cent, due to these 
two weaknesses. 

Statistics showed that in the operation of 31,997 cars with M. 
C. B. couplers during 12 months, 4,096, or 6.4 per cent., failed 
from the cause in question. This proportion of the 2.600,000 
knuckles in use in the United States means the failure of 166,- 
400 knuckles annually, and at the average price of $1.65 the loss 
amounts to $274,560 per year. 

The advisability of closing the slot and the pin hole as soon 
as possible is fully realized, and it may be possible to do this 
at the expiration of the time set tor compliance with the safety 
appliance law. Wearing surface as well as strength is in- 
volved. Mr. Luttrell showed that the present wearing surface 



Pebbltarv, 1900. AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 89 




New Brill Truck. 




New Brill Truck Phowifg Swinging Jaws. 



was about 17V4 sqjaie iiu'he.s, and this wuuld be increased 28 
per cent., or to 22V4 square inches, by closing the slot. This 
will Increase the weight about 9l^ pounds and the cost about 
38 cents each, but the net saving to the roads in the United 
States would be $248,872 per year. 

The only objection raised to the closing of the slot after the 
safety appliance act has been complied with, is the frequent 
necessity for pulling cars cut of curved sidings and other 
curved pieces of track upon which the M. C. B. coupler will not 
couple. The McConway & Torley Company have put knuckles 
into service with the slot closed, and in order to permit of 
pulling cars out of such places a lug is cast upon the top of 
the knuckle. This serves for the attachment of a switch rope 
or chain, and an equally simple device is a strong ring placed 
permanently upon each corner of each car for the attachment 
of a chain or rope. 

The size of the slot has never been established as a standard 
and it varies, with different knuckles, from ITs to 2^4 inches. 
It is obvious that a material increase in strength might be had 
by reducing this width to 1% inches. This was done experi- 
mentally by the Burlington about a year ago. with very satis- 
factory results. The largest link is 11/4 inches thick and there 
appears to be no good reason for making the slot more than 
IVz inches wide. 



A NEW TRUCK BY THE J. G. BRILL CO. 



This truck is an improvement upon the type brought out 
by the J. G. Brill Co. several years ago, and illustrated on 
page 89 of our issue of March. 1898. It was designed with 
special reference to the equipment of electric motor cars for 
the attachment of motors, but is also well adapted to use 



i.nder passenger cars of any kind. It embodies a large amount 
of experience and is the result of consistent efforts toward im- 
piovement, a motive worthy of most hearty encouragement. 

The general practice in passenger truck construction is un- 
accountably crude. None are so severe as railroad men in their 
condemnation of complication in new devices, yet they have 
permitted the provisions for increased stresses in passenger 
trucks to take the form of adding to the number of parts until 
a "standard truck "—particularly when it has three axles— is 
an astonishing mixture of wood and iron with apparently no 
thought of the immense number of individual pieces, a prac- 
tice of which no parallel in railroad practice can at this time 
be recalled. 

A glance at this new truck brings the impression of sim- 
plicity. It is evident that easy riding and a low center of 
gravity have also been considered. The features of this design 
are the cast steel frames, the projection of the equalizers 
through the bottom portions of the boxes and the location of 
the equalizer springs close to the boxes. The truck is made 
very low by this arrangement of the equalizers and this loca- 
tion of the coil springs gives an unusually long spring base 
and consequent stability. The springs are brought close up to 
the faces of the inner pedestal jaws and the spring centers 
are about 10 inches from the centers of the axles, whereas in 
usual construction this dimension is from 20 to 22 inches. This 
construction also aims to prevent the tilt of the truck frames 
upon the application of the brakes, the equalizers being passed 
through the boxes and held by saddles around the pedestals. 
For convenience in removing the wheels the outer pedestal 
jaws are hinged so that it is not necessary to raise the truck. 

A number of these trucks are in service, most of them being 
in Kansas City. Mo. 



60 AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL 




125-H. p. Westinghouse Gas Engine, Direct Connected. 
In the Power House of the H. K. Porter Co.. Pittsburgh. 



A SUCCESSFUL GAS-ENGINE POWER PLANT. 



other mechanism being requirea. 
The starting of one of these 
engines is a simple and easy 
matter, which is accomplished 
Ijy the use of compressed air. 
The engine is given a couple of 
turns by the air cylinder, and 
when a charge of gas and air 
has been drawn in, compressed 
and exploded, the task is ac- 
complished. The air supply Is 
furnished by a small Westing- 
house compressor, the air being 
stored in iron tanks, tested un- 
der a pressure of 250 pounds per 
square inch. The tanks are sup- 
plied with a pressure gauge 
and a safety valve to guard 
against overcharging, and they 
are shipped charged to 160 
pounds pressure for starting the 
engine the first time. When 
the plant is once in operation 
I he compressor is run for a few 
minutes each day by a belt 
from a convenient pulley, either 
on the engine itself or on 
the line shaft, maintaining the 
supply in readiness for starting 
at any time. The entire opera- 
tion is strictly automatic, re- 
quiring no particular mechan- 
ical dexterity on the part of 
and consuming less time than it takes to de- 



the attendant, 
scribe it. 



By Burcham Harding. 



INSTRUCTION IN CARE OF JOURNAL BOXES. 



One of the most successful power plants is found at the loco- 
motive works of the H. K. Porter Company, Pittsburg, Pa. 
Sharing in the prosperity which has been general with the 
manufacturers of Pennsylvania the H. K. Porter Company 
found it necessary to make considerable additions to their 
works, and the problem presented itself how best to provide 
lighting and power. It was decided to abolish separate steam 
engines and to provide an electrical drive. At first this was 
done tentatively, by the installation of a 90-horse power West- 
inghouse three-cylinder gas engine, direct connected to a 60- 
kilowatt direct-current generator. The successful operation 
of this unit for more than a year led to the further installation 
of a 125-horse-power Westinghouse gas engine, direct connected 
to a larger generator. 

These two units are installed in a small extension of the 
engine room, occupying very little space. Electric current is 
supplied for 32 arc and 400 incandescent lamps, mainly in the 
old works, to which additions will be made for the newer ex- 
tensions, in the machine shop are two 25-ton overhead trav- 
elling cranes, operated electrically, and one crane of 15 tons 
in the foundry. Motors for driving blowers and overhead shaft- 
ing are now in course of erection, and it is intended that the 
whole of the works shall be operated electrically. The fuel 
used for the engines is natural gas. costing 20 cents per 1,000 
cubic feet. The gas bill amounts to so small an item as to be 
virtually a negligible sum. The engineer in charge reports 
that these gas engines have given the very highest satisfac- 
tion, not only from the point of economy in fuel consump- 
tion, but also from that of steadiness and regularity. Water 
for cooling the cylinder jackets Is obtained from the city 
mains, the consumption being about four gallons per brake 
horse power per hour. The circulation is accomplished auto- 
matically by the heat absorbed in the jackets, no pump or 



New York Central & Hudson River R. R. 



In the multitude of details requiring attention on large 
railroad systems, few are of greater importance than the proper 
care of journal boxes of cars and locomotives. Indifference 
as to the importance of this, or a slight lack of knowledge 
of the actual necessities of properly maintaining the packing, 
frequently result in numerous cases of hot journals. A good 
idea in connection with the prevention of hot journal boxes 
has been developed on the New York Central, from a sugges- 
tion made by Mr. H. C. McCarty of the Galena Oil Company. 

A full sized model of an M. C. B. journal box. made of galva- 
nized iron and provided with a sheet metal representation of a 
journal is furnished to the car inspectors at all points where 
cars are inspected and journal boxes are cared for. This model 
has lights of glass let into the side in such a way as to give 
a clear view of the interior of the box. which may be packed 
and oiled after the manner of the car journal boxes. The 
idea is to use this in instructing new men in their duties, and 
also in securing uniformity in the work of the men in all 
parts of the system. Instruction will be given in the proper 
method of placing the packing, in oiling it and in the use 
of the packing hook to keep it loosened up in good condition 
for properly lubricating the journal. Many inspectors do not 
give proper attention to the loosening of the packing with 
the hook, and this is probably as important as the frequent 
addition of oil to the box. It is customary to pack the boxes 
up to about the center of the journal, and by aid of the glass 
windows the exact condition of the waste may be seen at 
a glance and it may also be ascertained whether the methods 
in use insure the proper packing of the boxes at the back 
ends. One of the chief causes of trouble is failure to keep the 
packing in contact with the journals which results from the 



FEBRDARM900. AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL 61 



endwise motion. In this way the journal may become dry 
and an opening at the wheel end may be made which will admit 
dust from the outside, and at the same time the condition at 
the other end may be good. 

In using the model among men now in service the 
glass will be covered by slides while the box is packed, and 
the worli may then be inspected by uncovering the windows 
and the proper instructions given. Its purpose is to insure 
uniformly good work among the old hantis as well as the 
new. It is the intention of the Galena Oil Company to ex- 
tend the idea among other roads. Mr. Waitt, Superintendent 
of Motive Power of the New York Central, has given a great 
deal of attention to the prevention of hot boxes, and this is 
in line with other simple and effective remedies, the most 
important of which is the influence of a carefully kept record 
of delays which are cbargable to the care of journal boxes. 

Mr. Waitt appreciates the importance of instructing the men 
having charge of lubrication so that they will do their work 
uniformly. He recently issued an elaborate circular of instruc- 
tions for guidance all over the system and the idea should be 
taken up generally. The following is quoted from the portion 
relating to the method of packing and the preparation of the 
waste: 

In packing boxes, the first portion of waste applied is to be 
wrung moderately dry, and it to be packed moderately tight 
at the rear end of the box, so as to make a guard for the 
purpose of not only retaining the oil, but excluding the dust 
as well. Care is to be taken to keep the waste at the side 
of the box down below the bottom of the journal bearing about 
an inch, and also to have that portion of the vi'aste in the front 
end of the box separate and distinct from that which extends 
from the front end of the journal to the back of the box. This 
will avoid derangement of the packing in the rear of the box. 
The roll of packing which is placed in the front of the box is 
not to extend above the opening in the front. 

At terminals or yards where journal boxes require special 
attention to the packing, the following practice is to be 
adopted: 

A packing knife or spoon of standard style should be used. 
This packing knife or spoon is to be used to ascertain whether 
the packing is in the proper place at the back of the box, 
and to loosen up the waste at the rear and side of the journal. 
This particular treatment is given to prevent glazing of the 
packing (which occurs when it is too long in contact with 
the journal), and, at the same time, to put the packing in 
I he proper place at the rear of the box. It is desirable to give 
this treatment at intervals of 500 miles run for cars and ten- 
ders if possible. 

A small quantity of packing is to be removed from the sides 
of the journal when found not in a good condition, and this 
replaced by similar quantity of well-soaked packing. No box 
is ever to have oil applied before the packing is properly loos- 
ened up on the sides and back of the box with the packing 
iron. 

Before applying a bearing to a journal the surface of the 
bearing is to be examined to insure that it is free from Im- 
perfections of any kind that will cause heating. The surface 
of the bearing is then to be oiled or greased before it is placed 
on the journal. When applying wheels or axles the journals 
are to be examined to insure their being free from any im- 
perfections which would cause heating. When wheels or axles 
are carried in stock, the journals should be protected with 
a good material suited to protect the surface, without hard- 
ening, and one which is not difficult to remove. 

When the journal is found heated and there is a good supply 
.of packing in the box, it is evidence of some imperfection of 
the journal, journal bearing, box, or wedge, and the bearing 
is to be removed provided the box is heated to such an extent 
as to require repacking of the box. Boxes which have warmed 
up slightly will in most cases, by partially replacing with 
freshly soaked packing, give better results than by entire re- 
moval of the packing from the box. When it is necessary and 
permissible to oil boxes, it should be as short a time before 
li-aving time of the train as possible. 

When preparing packing, the dry waste is to be pulled apart 
in small bunches and any hard particles in it removed. Each 



liunih is to be loosely formed to facilitate soaking and pack- 
ing, as in this form boxes can be packed In a more satisfactory 
manner and with less waste of oil. This loose, dry packing 
Is to be put In soaking can.s or tanks provided for that pur- 
pose, pressed down moderately tight, then covered with oil 
and allowed to remain at least foity-elght hours. After being 
saturated for this length of time the surplus oil is to be 
drained off, leaving it then in proper condition for use In pack- 
ing boxes. Standard equipment for saturating and draining 
packing Is to be provided at all points where packing is to be 
kept for use. unless suitable equivalent equipment is already 
In use. 



DIRECT MOTOR-DRIVEN PROFILER. 



The accompanying engraving illustrates a profiling machine 
driven directly by means of a Bullock motor. This machine 
is rather a difficult one in which to directly apply an electric 
motor, as the length of shaft between the motor and spindle is 
of necessity a vaiying length, caused by the continuous move- 
ment of the carrier. To avoid the use of intermediate l)elting. 




Direct Motor Driven Profiler. 

which is generally necessary on machines having a vertical 
movement of the spindle, the Bullock Electric Manufacturing 
Company have placed the motor upon a base which is pivoted 
to the frame of the machine. This allows a vertical move- 
ment of the spindle and at the same time the shaft is kept at 
right angles with it by means of a joint in the spindle. A 
splined shaft and sleeve connects between motor and spindle, 
which adjusts itself to the variations in length by the sliding 
of the shaft within the sleeve. 

The motor is fully described in Bulletin No. 2,435, which 
may be obtained by addressing the Bullock Electric Manu- 
facturing Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. 



62 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



THE INCREASING WEIGHTS OF LOCOMOTIVES. 

The Brooks Locomotive Works have made an interesting 
comparison of the characteristics of locomotives which they 
built last year, and in earlier years. This shows the strong 
tendency toward the use of heavier and more powerful locomo- 
tives, and particularly in the comparison of the output of 
completed locomotives for the years 1891 and 1899, these two 
years representing the greatest output of these works. 

The equivalent weight of locomotives and tenders compl-eted 
in 1899, if based upon the average weight of those produced 
in 1891 would be 439 complete locomotives, as against 300 
which were actually completed in 1899. The lightest locomo- 
tive built during the year was a mogul which with its tender 
weighed 97.014 pounds, while the heaviest was a 12-wheeler 
and tender, weighing complete 364,900 pounds. The latter is 
the huge freight engine for the Illinois Central, with 23 by 30- 
inch cylinders. (American Engineer, October, 1899, page 315). 
The comparison referred to has been put into tabular form, as 
follows: 

Brooks Loeomoti\'e \\'<irks. Completed Locomotives. 

Average 
1S91. 1899. Increase. Increase. 

Number built 22S 300 74 

Weight engines and ten- 
ders in working order, 
lbs 41,726,350 81,123,600 94V2% 

Same expressed in net tons 20,S63 40,562 19,699 

Average weight in lbs 184,629 270,412 85,783 lbs. 

Weight, engines only, in 
working order, lbs 25,455,100 49,730,400 95 1/3% 

Same in tons 12,728 24,865 12,137 

Average weight, engines ,„ ,„^ ,^ 

only 112,633 165,768 53,135 lbs. 

Total weight engines and 
tenders empty, showing- 
amount of material used 
in lbs 24,778,410 57,681,300 93%% 

Same in tons 14,889 28,841 13,952 

The low cost of rail transportation, made possible by the 
large locomotive, as compared with the cost of movement by 
canal, which has always been popularly considered as the 
lowest standard, was clearly put by President Hill, of the 
Great Northern Ry. In an interview printed in the New York 
••Journal of Commerce," he said: ••Eliminating the terminal 
charges at New York, the rates by rail from Buffalo are already 
lower than any canal, small or large, could carry grain for, 
even if the Erie Canal was deepened to 50 feet." 



PERSONALS. 



Mr. F. B. Shepley has been appointed Purchasing Agent of 
the Fitchburg, with office at Boston, in place of Mr. G. J. Fisher. 
resigned. 



■^ Mf!"B. Haskell has been appointed Superintendent of Motive 
Power of the Pere Marquette Railroad Company, with head- 
quarters at Saginaw, Michigan. 

Mr. Brown Caldwell has resigned as Secretary of the Peer- 
less Rubber Company, to accept the position of General East- 
ern Representative of the Sargent Company, with offices at 
Pittsburg and New York. 

It is officially announced that Mr. S. M. Felton. President of 
the Chicago & Alton, will also assume the duties of Mr. C. H. 
Chappell, Vice-President and General Manager, who retired 
from this position on Jan. 1. 



Mr. F. H. Greene, Chief Clerk of the Motive Power Depart- 
ment of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, has been ap- 
pointed Purchasing Agent of that road, with headquarters at 
Cleveland. O.. vice Mr. C. B. Couch, resigned. 

Mr. F. W. Deibert has resigned as Master Mechanic of the 
Chicago .Milwaukee & St. Paul, at West Milwaukee and will go 
with the Baltimore & Ohio as Assistant Superintendent of Mo- 
tive Power, with headquarters at Newark, Ohio. 



Mr. J. 0. Pattee has resigned as Superintendent of Motive 
Power of the Great Northern. His position has been abol- 
ished and the position of General Master Mechanic has been 
created, to which Mr. G. H. Emerson, Master Mechanic at 
Larimore. N. D., has been appointed. 



Mr. W. G. Collins has resigned as General Manager of the 
Chicago. Milwaukee & St. Paul, to take effect February 1. Mr. 
Collins entered railway service in 1868 with the Chicago, Mil- 
waukee & St. Paul, but was later on the Northern Pacific and 
the Canada Southern. He returned to the Milwaukee road in 
1873, since which time he has held various responsible posi- 
tions. 



Mr. T. W. Demarest, Master Mechanic of the Pennsylvania 
shops at Logansport, Ind., has been appointed Superintendent 
of Motive Power of the Pennsylvania Lines West of Pittsburg, 
Southwest System, to fill the position made vacant by the 
resignation of Mr. S. P. Bush, who recently succeeded Mr. J. 
N. Barr on the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul. Mr. Demarest 
began his railroad work in the Pennsylvania shops at Indian- 
apolis, and after being appointed General Foreman, he was 
recently transferred to Logansport as Master Mechanic. 



Thomas B. Twombly, formerly General Master Mechanic of 
the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, died at his home in Chicago, 
October 31, aged seventy-six years. After serving his time as 
an apprentice in the machine shops of the Cocheco Cotton 
Mills, at Dover. N. H., he entered the service of the Connecticut 
River Railroad, as locomotive engineer. In 1859 he was Master 
Mechanic of the Newburyport & Georgetown, and foreman of 
the machine shops of the Mississippi & Missouri, in 1867, which 
position he left to enter the sei-vice of the Rock Island System 
as General Master Mechanic, and remained in this capacity for 
nearly 24 years. Among several interesting papers concerning 
Mr. Twombly received from Mr. Geo. F. Wilson, Superintendent 
of Motive Power of the Rock Island, is a letter of recommenda- 
tion given Mr. Twombly by President Poole of the Newbury- 
port Railroad in 1857. Mr. Poole stated that he was "a capable, 
faithful and industrious man." To these qualities he owed 
his success and advanceifient. 



The death of Charles P. Krauth, Secretary and Treasurer of 
the McConway & Torley Company, December 27, in Pitts- 
burg, is an unusual loss, for such men are needed and are 
very rare. He was a man of ability, possessing to an unusual 
degree the qualifications which make business success, and with 
his delightful personal attributes he gained a high place in 
the esteem of those with whom he came in contact, both in 
business matters and otherwise. He contributed an impor 
tant part of the success of the firm with which he was con- 
nected. Mr. Krauth was born in Winchester, Va., in 1849. Af- 
ter graduating from the University of Pennsylvania he studied 
mining engineering for eight years at Freiberg, Germany, and 
on his return to this country entered the service of the Pull- 
man Palace Car Company as District Superintendent. He 
afterward held a similar position with the Wagner Company, 
and in 1888 became Secretary of the McConway & Torley Com- 
pany, and was one of the leaders in building up the extensive 
interests of this concern. 



BOOKS AND PAMPHLETS. 



Railroad Curves and Earthwork. By C. Frank Allen, S.B., 
M. Am. See. C. E., Professor of Railroad Engineering in the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Spon & Chamber- 
lain. New York. Leather, 4 by GVo, pp. 194. Price $2. 

This is an admirable book on railroad curves and earthwork. 
In the variety and number of field problems and in the mathe- 
matical statement and solution of these problems, the work 
is very satisfactory. The frequent use of the convenient versed 
sine is to be commended. The treatment nf compound curves, 
vertical curves, turnouts, and crossings is good and is an im- 



Febru/lry, 1800. AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL, 63 



piovenient over that given in most field boolts. The cliayter 
on spiral easement curves desciibes the cubic parabola, a curve 
which is not very satisfactory lor easements of sufflclenl 
length to be of value for high speeds. It contains no applica- 
tion to curves in existing track. The chapters devoted to 
setting staltes for earthworlc, to the computation of earthwork 
and haul, to earthwork tables and diagrams, and to haul and 
mass diagrams are especially clear and discriminating and 
altogether form peihaps the best presentation of this subject 
yet published. The usefulness of this part of the woik is 
lessened by the limited number of tables and diagrams. It is 
to be hoped that the author will include in the next edition 
a w-ider variety of bases and slopes and thus make it a standard 
treatise on earthwork. The author has seen fit to retain the 
old definition of degree of cuive based always on a full choru 
of 100 feel. This is to be regretted, since engineers generally 
use shorter chords for the sharper curves, and the recognition 
of this use greatly simplifies calculations and tables. Some of 
the newer Held books have based their formulas and tables 
upon the modern definition. This is not a railroad engineers' 
field book in the usual sense, since it does not contain trig- 
onometric and other mathematical tables, but as a treatise for 
students and as a reference book for curve problems and earth- 
work it is a valuable work and is worthy of a place in the 
librai-y of the engineer. 

Kngineering i^ules and Instructions of the Northern Pacific 
Railway. By E. H. McHenry, Chief Engineer. Published by 
Engineering News Publishing Co, New York, 1899. Price .50 
cents. 

This little book of 75 pages contains a concise and up-to-date 
treatment of the subject of the engineering department of a 
railroad and rules for its government in organization and work, 
tinder "Location" a great deal of valuable matter in regard 
to traffic, curvature, grades and maintenance is given. The 
power of locomotives and the effect of grades upon their econ- 
omy of operation are discussed. Other chapters treat of surveys 
and construction, track and ballast, bridges and culverts, ac- 
cuunting and supplies. The great importance of the location 
and original construction of the road upon the cost of operation 
is better presented in this book than in any work since the 
appearance of Wellington's work on location. Mr. McHenry 
has put his ideas into department rules and many will be 
indebted to him and "Engineering News" for making them 
available in so convenient a form. 

Kinematics of Machinery. By John H. Barr, M.S., M.M.E., 
Professor of Machine Design, Cornell University. New York; 
John Wiley & Sons; pp. 247, 8vo, 200 illustrations. Price $2.50. 

In this book is presented in condensed form the leading 
principles and methods which are of most importance in a 
general course in kinematics. While it is not in any sense 
a complete treatise on the subject, yet it will be found to 
contain the essential principles of the science. In its general 
arrangement Professor Barr has closely followed Stahl & 
Woods' "Elementary Mechanism," but this has been greatly 
strengthened by the introduction of much additional matter 
and applications of such important conceptions as instanta- 
neous centi'es, velocity diagrams, centi'oids, axiods, and link- 
ages. The treatment of these subjects follows closely that 
given by Professor Kennedy in his admirable work on the 
"Mechanics of Machinery," which adds very much to the value 
of the book. The treatment of many topics has been neces- 
sarily somewhat abridged, but this is an advantage rather 
than otherwise. This is notably true of that portion relating 
to toothed gearing which frequently receives attention out of 
all proportion to its value. The subject of cams is presented 
in a practical manner, possibly somewhat too briefly, but the 
reader will have no difficulty in obtaining a good knowledge 
of this branch of kinematics, if he works out the interesting 
problems which accompany the text and are designed to illus- 
trate the principles treated. Professor Barr has shown good 
judgment in selecting his material for this book which can 
be recommended as a well-arranged, clear and concise treatise 
on the subject. 

The press-work and illustrations are of a high order of merit 
and add much to the value of the book. 

The ITs'^ of the Slide Rule. By F. A. Halsey, Associate Editor 
"American Machinist." Van Nostrand's Science Series. Pub- 



lished by D. Van Noalrand Co.. 2'.', Murray St., New York: 1899. 
Illustrated. Price, 50 lents. 

'riii.s is Mil excellent Instruction book on the use of the slide 
) ule. It is elementary and the author's purpose seems to be to 
( nable one who is entiiely ignorant of the theory of the instru- 
ment to use it intelligently. The explanations are accompanied 
by engravings showing the various settings, as they are actually 
made for solving various problems. The book ought to have 
a wide circulation, and Its effect will undoubtedly be to greatly 
increase the use of the slide rule as a labor saver to the engi- 
neer. .The work Is systematically arranged, and the student 
is led very gradually Into the more diOlcult problems. His 
diflicultles have been foreseen and provided for, but the work 
is not obscured by too much of the theory of the subject. The 
author's style is very clear, concise and satisfactory. The book 
closes with chapters on special forms of computers involving 
the piinci]ili-s of the slide rule. 

Notes on the Construction of Cranes and Lifting Machinery. 
By E. C. R. Marks. Asso. Member Inst. i'. IC Member I. M. 
E., etc. New and enlarged edition. D. Van Nostrand Co.. 28 
Murray St., New York: 1.SH9. Price, $1.50. 

This little book describes English practice in hand and power 
cranes, with their accessories for a variety of purposes. The 
chapters are; Pulley blocks, crabs and winches, double-pur- 
chase crabs, treble-purchase crabs; hand, pillar, whip, foun- 
dry, wharf and overhead traveling cranes; steam power hoists, 
cage and car lifts, locomotive cranes, rope driven cranes, jacks, 
etc. The closing chaptei s describe ship derricks and electric 
cranes, showing methods of attaching motors. It is not the 
best that may be d me with this subject, but it covers (|Uite 
a large portion of the field of hoisting appliances. Those 
who are infrequently called upon to design hoisting apparatus 
will find it useful, and more so than will expert crane designers. 
It is hardly up-to-date as a tieatise because it does not touch 
upon the important development of elevating and transporting 
machinery in the United States, which is unique and even 
revolutionary. The book is good, but it would be much more 
valuable if it gave a complete treatment of the subject. The 
engravings are not good. 

Problems in Machine Design. By Charles H. Innes, M.A., En- 
gineering Lecturer at the Rutherford College. Newcastle-on- 
Tyne, England. Second edition. D. Van Nostrand Co.. 2" 
Murray St., New^ York; 1899. Price. $2.00, 

This book was written to supply engineering students with 
a book on machine design which should carry them a step 
further than the mere formulae for application to their prob- 
lems. The author works out examples to explain the use of 
the formulae; he does not write for those who are content 
to copy the designs of others. The work is purposely incom- 
plete because the author intends to w'rite again on the subject 
of the design of complete machines; in this case he treats the 
elements only. There are many books on machine design. The 
reviewer believes that the best works on machine design are 
those which offer the theoretical treatinent with derivation of 
foimulae and also present the results of practice. There are 
many stresses in machinery that are misunderstood, and the 
best formulae are those which are made to fit the practice 
which is found to be successful. This work presents chapters 
on graphic and other methods of finding longitudinal stresses 
in framed structures, bending moments, tensile, shearing and 
compressive stresses, and then takes up the practice recom- 
mended by such bodies as the Board of Trade. The piston rod 
is treated as a column, and formulae obtained; then the practi- 
cal side is brought in by a table representing marine station- 
ary and locomotive practice. Shafting is treated in a similar 
manner, the evident tendency being toward marine practice, 
A chapter on expansion valve gears treats of several types 
and includes a few fly-wheel governors. A chapter gives the 
most recent methods of balancing multiple expansion marine 
engines, and the book closes with a study of the distribution 
of work in the compound engine. A large amount of attention 
is given to cranks, shafts, both hollow and solid, and riveted 
joints. We find a number of valuable tables which we have not 
seen in any other work on this subject. 

The "Blacksmith and Wheelwright " appears as a souvenir 
number in its January issue, this being the 20th anniversary 
of its first publication. It is the reliable paper for the black- 
smith and wheelwright trades and has always enjoyed a high 
position, won by reliability and merit. 



64 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



The Railroad Officials' Diary for 1900. Issued by the "Rail- 
road Car Journal," New York. This is an attractive and con- 
venient diary with a whole 6 by 9 inch page for each day of 
the year. It is bound in flexible leather. The fly leaves at the 
front and back give a list of railroad technical associations 
with the dates of meetings, statistics of railroads and a list of 
the names of leased roads. Copies will be sent to railroad 
officers on application. 

A brochure has just been issued by the W. Dewees Wood 
Co., McKeesport, Pa., which is one of the best productions of 
the kind that we have seen. It combines an account of the in- 
ception and growth of this concern, and the method of manu- 
facture of its product in such an artistic and tasteful way as 
to compel the attention of one into whose hands it falls. It 
is the work of an adept in plan and execution. The text and 
engravings trace the history of the enterprise of this success- 
ful concern and follow the process of manufacture from the 
prepai'ation of the charcoal and the selection of the iron, to the 
finished plates of patent, planished or color smooth black sheet 
iron, for which these works are famous. The pamphlet con- 
tains tables of the iron and steel plate and sheet gauges. 

From the literary point of view, the leading feature of the 
January magazine number of "The Outlook" is the first in- 
stallment of Mr. Hamilton W. Mabie's "William Shakespeare: 
Poet, Dramatist, and Man." In this series of articles, which 
will extend throughout the year in the monthly magazine num- 
bers, Mr. Mabie will offer, not a formal biography, but an 
attempt to realize the poet and dramatist as a great English- 
man, to approach him through the atmosphere of his own 
age, to set him distinctly in his own time, to bring about 
him his brilliant contemporaries, and to exhibit him as a typical 
man in a great epoch. The first installment deals with "The 
Forerunners of Shakespeare," and is illustrated with portraits, 
curious representations of the ancient street pageants, miracle 
plays, and dumb shows; for the entire series there has been 
gathered a great mass of illustrative material of value and 
beauty. 

Brooks Locomotive Works Catalogue. — This volume of 336 
pages is a very creditable publication in every respect. It 
brings together in a convenient and comprehensive form a large 
number of locomotives of different types built by them, giving 
the leading dimensions and capacities. These are illustrated 
by excellent full-page half-tone engravings and opposite each 
is the corresponding table of information. Each description 
has a code word. The book includes the Brooks standard speci- 
fications, a history and description of the works, a description 
of the Brooks design of piston valves, and of the Brooks system 
of construction of two and four-cylinder compound locomotives. 
The volume closes with convenient tables of tractive power, 
piston speed, mean available pressures, revolutions of driving 
wheels, train resistance and a cipher code. These tables are of 
wide range and they will cause a great demand for the book 
aside from its value as a record of construction and as a basis 
for ordering. The paper, printing and binding are excellent 
throughout. 

EQUIPMENT AND MANTJF AC TURING NOTES. 

The Magnolia Metal Co. have opened a branch office in room 
421 Austell Building, Atlanta, Ga. This step is made necessary 
by increasing business. They are also about to open offices 
in St. Louis, San Francisco and Philadelphia. 



slack after using "Cling-Surface," which, from the point of 
view of past tight belt teaching, is sensational. The demand 
for "Cling-Surface" is increasing among the railroads and a 
number of repeated orders have been placed. 



Simplex bolsters have been specified for the construction of 
200 box cars building for the Louisville, Evansville & St. Louis, 
at the works of the Barney & Smith Car Company, Day- 
ton, Ohio. 



The Powers Regulator Co. are entering the railroad field 
to provide apparatus for regulating the temperature of steam- 
heated passenger cars. They have secured the services of Mr. 
Charles F. Pierce, who is well known in connection with 
the Monarch Brake Beam Co. He will have offices in New 
York and Chicago and will take charge of the railroad de- 
partment. 



The Star Brass Manufacturing Co.'s new catalogue for 1900 
contains illustrated descriptions of a very large line of railroad 
and steam plant specialties which are far too numerous to be 
even mentioned in detail. The most important are non-corrosive 
pressure and vacuum gauges, revolution counters, engine regis- 
ters, locomotive and marine clocks, steam engine indicators, 
whistles, water gauges, gauge cocks, Siebert lubricators, oil 
cups, safety valves, water and cylinder relief valves and me- 
tallic specialties for cars and locomotives, including lamps and 
package racks for cars. The main office and works are at lOS 
East Dedham St., Boston, Mass. 



Mr. Charles A. Moore, of Manning, Maxwell & Moore, sailed 
on the steamship Columbia of the Hamburgh American line 
January 9, for Mediterranean ports and Egypt. Mr. Moore 
is accompanied by his family and the trip is said to be purely 
one of rest and recreation, and no business is to be connected 
with it. It is doubtful if a man of Mr. Moore's prominence and 
individuality could be deterred, while in some of the important 
continental countries, from visiting the many famous manu- 
factories, iron works and machine shops, and incidentally talk- 
ing business. We shall probably see some effects of this trip 
upon the large business interests directed by Mr. Moore. 



The New York Air Compressor Company's new shops at Ar- 
lington, N. J., commenced operation in all departments but 
the foundry on January 2, and the company expects to have 
its foundry at work on February 1. Although organized but 
a little over sixty days, the sales record of this company is 
remarkable, orders having been placed with it sufficient to tax 
its capacity for three months. Plans have been made to double 
the shop equipment at once, and the plant will be operated 
day and night until this is done. This company reports sales of 
over ten air compressors in ten days. These include a large 
duplex compressor for Japan and four compressors of twelve 
hundred cubic feet capacity for the Pennsylvania Railroad. 



The Cling-Surface Mfg. Co., Buffalo, N. Y., have established 
a New York City branch office at 205 Postal Building, 253 
Broadway, to facilitate handling their increasing business. 
They have also issued a booklet of pictures of belts running 



The annual meeting of the Pressed Steel Car Co. was held 
January 9. The president's report showed that the amount of 
business for the year 1S99 was $13,965,572. This consisted of 
9,264 cars, 127,656 bolsters and 50,926 truck frames. The money 
value of the orders on the books at the first of this year was 
$16,596,863, which is more than the total for 1899. The net earn- 
ings for 1899 were $2,237,104, out of which a 7 per cent, dividend 
amounting to $875,000 was paid on the preferred stock. A 6 per 
cent, dividend, amounting to $750,000, has been declared on the 
common stock; this is payable quarterly during the present 
year. In addition to these dividends, the sum of $612,103 has 
been added to the working capital of the company. The orders 
referred to are to be completed in June, and the present capac- 
ity of the works is 100 cars per day. The common stock has 
earned 11 per cent., in addition to the dividend of $875,000 on 
the preferred stock, and at this rate the common stock ought 
to earn over 20 per cent, after providing for dividends on the 
preferred stock for the year 1900. 

An exceedingly convenient gauge for wheels, axles and brake 
shoes is manufactured and sold by the Youngstown Specialty 
Mfg. Co. of Youngstown, Ohio. It is designed for the use of 
car inspectors, car repairers, foremen of engines and others 
concerned with car and engine trucks. The gauge combines 
calipers for journals, used without removing the oil boxes (an 
index finger gives the diameter at a glance), with a gauge for 
slid flat wheels, one for sharp flanges, one for broken flanges, 
for worn treads of wheels, for vertical wear of flanges, and 
for measurement of brake shoes to determine when they are 
worn to the limit. The gauge is of steel, 1/16 in. thick, and 
adapted to carrying in the vest pocket. It is made to M. C. B. 
standard dimensions throughout and is a practical and con- 
venient tool, valuable as a protection to the inspector and re- 
pairer as well as to the company employing them. The price 
is $1, by mail. The gauge was designed and patented by Walter 
Brainard, of the Lake Shore, Michigan Southern and the Pitts- 
burgh & Lake Erie railroads. 



March, 1900. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 66 



--AMERICAN-^ 

Engineer 

RAILROAD ^JOURNAL 



MARCH, 1900. 



OOISTTBITTS. 



l^^ge 

ILLUSTRATICD ARTICLES : 

Westinuhousc - Parsons Stoaui 
Turbine <i.i 

Equalization and Equalizers, by 
V. J.i;ole 70 

Improvement in Locomotive Ec- 
centrics, Broolts Locomotive 
Works 72 

Cast-Steel Tender Trucli witli 
Diamond Side Frames, Louis- 
ville it Nashville Hailroad 73 

York's Sliding Coupler Yoke 7,'> 

Supponing Hear Ends of Loco- 
motive Boilers 76 

A Corrugated Firebox, Heturn 
Tube Locomotive Boiler. A. T. 
& S. F. Railway 79 

Chicago & Northwestern Shops 
at Chicauo 82 

Twelve- Wheel. Two-Cylinder 
Compound Locomotive. Chicago 
& Eastern Illinois Hailroad 84 

Graphical Treatment of Helical 
Springs, by Kdward Grafstrom 86 

WeaJiDess of Draw-bar Yokes... 87 

Westinghouse Friction Draft; 
Gear 88 

Cast Steel Driving Wheels 90 



Page 
Monarch Piston Air Drill 93 

MlSUKLLANKOI'S ARTICLKS : 

Locomotive Practice, by F. W. 

Dean 71 

Helatlon of Capacities, Genera- 
tors and Motors 71 

The Dayton Draft Kigging 74 

New German S t e a m s h i p_ 

"Deutschland " 75 

Interstate Commerce Cora- 
mission Record of Accidents in 

Couplmg Cars — 84 

The Brakcbeam Suit 84 

Editorial Correspondence 85 

Compound Locomotives 88 

100,auoH. P Central Station 89 

Port Openings and Motion of 

Piston Valves 92 

Lucol Oil and Paints 93 

Editorials: 

Value of Papers Before Techni- 
cal Societies 80 

Salariesof Motive Power OfBcers 80 

Arrangements of Tracks in Erect- 
ing Shops 80 

What Motive Power Officers are 
, Thinking About 81 



THE WESTINGHOUSE-PARSONS STEAM TURBINE. 



Remarkable Steam Economy With Wide Range of Load. 



Power House of the Westinghouse Air Brake Co. 



The Westinghouse Machine Co., after a few years of experi- 
mental worli, have established the steam turbine in this coun- 
try upon a basis which will surprise those who have not been 
watching it. 

It has recently been installed in the power plant of the 
Westinghouse Air Brake Co. at Wilmerding, and in a short 
time it will be depended upon entirely for the motive power 
and lighting of these works. This installation is in Itself an 
expression of confidence in these machines, the effect of which 
will not be lost. 

In 1896 the patent rights in the Parsons Steam Turbine for 
the United States were acquired by the Westinghouse Machine 
Co., and this concern has been engaged upon a development 
which has resulted in marked improvements over the original 
machines in England. The assistance of Mr. Francis Hodg- 
kinson, an engineer who was identified with the development 
of the Parsons Turbine in England, was secured, and he is now 
in charge of the turbine department of this company at Pitts- 
burgh. Work is now well advanced on a 2,500 h. p. turbine. 
Fig. 7, for the United Light & Power Co., of New York. It 
will be the largest unit of this kind ever attempted, and will 
run at 1,200 revolutions per minute under a steam pressure o% 
150 lbs. The spindle of this machine, complete with its vanes, 
weighs 28,000 lbs. The largest diameter of the spindle is 6 ft. 
and while this is a colossal turbine, it is a small engine for 
such power capacity. The capacity of the direct connected 
generator will be 1,500 kw. and the ultimate capacity of the 
turbine about 3,000 h. p. 

The steam turbine is, in a sense, a return to the principles of 
the earliest steam engine, in which the energy of the steam 
was transformed into work by making use of the impact and 
reaction due to its velocity. There is no loss from condensa- 
tion and re-evaporation, or loss by reason of the same pass- 
ages being used alternately for live and exhaust steam, as is 
the case with reciprocating engines. The work is taken out of 
the steam progressively, and the temperature falls gradually 
and continuously from the admission to the condenser. In 



these features It has advantages over otter steam engines. 
The continuous action, absence of dead centers and the conse- 
quent mechanical complications, together with the avoidance 
of suddenly applied and instantly reversed stresses, are advant- 
ages the full purport of which is not yet fully appreciated. 
The economy of the turbine and its wide range of economical 
load will be mentioned later in connection with Fig. 6. 

At the Westinghouse Air Brake Co.'s shops, three 500 h. p. 
turbines are direct connected to 300 kw. generators and are 
furnishing power for driving and lighting the entire plant by 
means of a newly installed electrical distribution system, which 
we shall describe. The turbines are comfortably located on a 
floor space 20 x 25 ft, the bed plate of each machine measures 
16 ft. 7 in. X 4 ft. 3 in., and the whole plant producing 1,500 
h. p. and including' three turbo-generators, two 10 h. p. exciter 
engines and generators, two pairs of condensers and air pumps, 
and the switchboard occupies a space of 29 x 36 ft. The tur- 
bines are designed for condensing the exhaust and for this 
purpose a novel air pump design was developed. This consists 
of a combination of a pair of jet condensers and compound air 
pumps, in which the water and air are handled in separate 
cylinders. The condenser pumps are operated by a 50 h. p. 
belted motor, this being the cheapest and most convenient 
method in this case. The vacuum is often as high as 
28 ins., while the average barometer is 29.25 in Pitts- 
burg. The delivery water is only a fraction of a de- 
gree different in temperature from that of the steam in. 
the condenser. The operation of these engines, con- 
sidered thermally, is most impressive; for example, the 
temperature of the boiler steam entering the turbines is about 
350 degrees, and yet at a point about 4 ft. from where the steam 
enters the cylinder, the exhaust pipe is cool enough to hold 
ones hand upon very comfortably. This is a revelation to those 
who notice it for the first time. The exhaust temperature at 
the time of the writer's visit was 102 degrees, while the tem- 
perature of the discharge water from the condenser was 101 
degrees. This is a remarkable exhibition of the transformation 
of heat into work. There cannot be much condensation, or the 
close fitting parts would not operate so smoothly at these high 
speeds. 

The turbines are of the multiple expansion type, running at 
3,600 rev. per minute, with 125 lbs. boiler pressure. There is 
no gearing for reducing the speed, and this equipment is in 
marked contrast with the DeLaval system, which is charac- 
terized by some 13,000 revolutions in a turbine of about this 
capacity,- reduced by gearing to 1,050 rev. of the generator and 
working at 150 atmospheres steam pressure. The DeLaval 
system makes use of flexible shafts, which break, gearing 
which wears out and other unpractical conditions, which are 
out of the question outside of the laboratory of the inventor. 

In the turbines which we are describing a single bed plate 
carries a unit of one turbine and its generator. A cast iron 
base supports a cylinder of varying internal diameters, in the 
interior of which numerous rows of guide blades or curved 
vanes are secured. The exterior contour in the engraving gives 
an idea of the construction. A shaft carrying drums of cor- 
respondingly varying diameters, with similar rows of blades 
secured radially and spaced to fit between the stationary rows, 
constitutes the rotary part, which corresponds to the wheel of 
the turbine water wheel. The shape of these blades repre- 
sents a great deal of study and experiment. The stationary 
rows of blades serve to guide the steam in the proper direction 
for doing work upon the movable ones. The steam enters the 
small end of the cylinder and in expanding through the first 
set of guide blades, its energy is transformed into velocity, and 
in impinging against the next set, which are on the spindle, it 
gives up'nearly all of its velocity. In expanding through the 
moving blades the steam again attains a velocity which by 
reacting upon the blades gives up energy to become work. 
Each succeeding row of blades increases in size, corresponding 
to the increased volume of the steam. The cylinders are dl- 



66 



AMERICAN ENGINEER':AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 




Fig. 1.— Side View ot Turbine and Generator Showing Governor Connections to the Steam Valve. 




Fig. 2— Rear View of Three Turbine Units. 
Westinghouse-Parsons Steam Turbine at the Works of The Westinghouse Air Bral<e Co. 



vided into three steps, in each of which there are several grades 
of expansion. The total expansion ratio is about 1 to 96. 

The high speeds necessitate careful balancing and this ex- 
tends also to the armature of the generator. This has been 
accomplished so well that no foundation is required (even for 
the large machine shown in Fig. 7) except a brick pier to sup- 
port so much dead weight. There are no holding down bolts. 
Lubrication in this case is most important, an oil pump, shown 
in Fig. 5, driven by a worm mounted on the sleeve coupling be- 
tween the turbine and the generator, circulates oil into all the 



bearings under a light pressure and a cooling system is provided 
in order to cool the oil on account of the heat absorbed from the 
steam. The balancing is of course not absolutely perfect, and 
the bearings are made to provide for a slight motion of the 
shaft. The bearings are made with concentric tubes of brass 
surrounding the journal, and are put together with easy fits 
and spaces for oil between them. This forms a self-centering 
cushion, which has a tendency to reduce the vibrations of the 
shaft The tubes show no signs of wear, because of the films 
of oil between them, the oil forming the real bearing. The 



MARCH. 1900. AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL 




Fig.-S.-End-.ViewoflThree.'Units, Showing Comparison with 10 Horse Power Exciter Unit. 




Fig, 4-.-View in Power Station Showing G 
Westinghouse-Parsons Steam Turbine at the 

shaft is not rigidly confined, as in the ordinary tiglit-fltting 
bearing, and this slight latitude of motion of the shaft is an 
important element in the working of this machine. This mo- 
tion takes care of the gyration which the most perfect balanc- 
ing that is practicable does not eliminate. 

To counteract the end thrust on the spindle, due to the im- 
pact of the steam on the blades, the shaft is held in equili- 
brium by means of three balancing discs at the steam end of 
the spindle contained in the turbine casing and marked in Fig 
5. These are made steam tight with the cylinder, and the 



enerators, Exciter Units and Switchboard. 
Worl<s of The Westinghouse Air Bral<e Co. 

diameter of each disc is made equal to the mean diameter of 
the corresponding drum carrying the blades. These disc cham- 
bers are connected by cores through the cylinder casting, with 
the spaces occupied by the corresponding drums. In this way 
the shaft floats endwise as it may, but it has no thrust. The 
steam cylinder has a by-pass valve. Fig. 5, which admits steam 
from a cored passage leading from the entrance port to the 
second drum. This may be used to increase the power of the 
machine when a heavy overload is to be carried (even to 60% 
overload), or it may be used to increase the power in case the 



68 AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL 




Wfl,t(ir inlet of on Coolir.„. Syitcm ^'■V't"'' O.itlet of Oil Cooling System 

Fig. 5.-300 Kw. Unit as Erected at Westinghouse Air Bral<e Works. 




Fig. 7.— 1500 Kw. Unit now Building for United Liglit and Power Co., New Yorl< 



condenser is inoperative, for any reason. This increases power 
at the expense of efficiency, however. 

This is the first time that direct connected alternating cur- 
rent generators have been successfully driven by turbines for 
multiple connection. The speed regulation is beautiful, and it 
is accomplished without the least stress, jerk or strain upon 
anything connected with the machinery. The governor, which 
is of the fly-ball type, controls the duration of the intermittent 
admission of steam. Lever and shaft connections from an 
eccentric, driven by a worm on the main shaft (under the 
governor) already referred to, operate a little piston valve, 
which controls the larger main admission valve, which is also 
of the piston type and located as shown in Pig. 5. The central 



position of the governor gives continuous admission and this 
is the full load condition. The governor, by raising or lower- 
ing the fulcrum of the lever, but without changing the lever- 
age, changes the plane of motion without changing the stroke 
of the little piston valve and thereby determines the duration 
of the opening of the main valve. At full load the valve is 
open all the time, and at very light loads it Is closed most of 
the time. The intermitent admission is to Insure working 
with high pressure steam, whatever the load, and to prevent 
the losses of wire drawing. 

The governors are extremely sensitive, and may be adjusted 
to run within a small fraction of 1% variation between no load 
and full load. But in this particular case, on account of the 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 69 







■& tki 



ELECTRICIAL HO»SE POMEB 



-Test of 300 Kw. Unit, Showing Remarkable Steam Economy Over Wide; Range 

of Load. 



IS iKiviiis to run in multiple, it is desirable to have a 

..ln^ilily greater variation, in order that each generator 

(ake its proper share of the load. The speed of the tur- 

.111(1 the inertia of the rotating part are so great, while 

iriion is so small, that the turbine will continue running 

I nty minutes after steam is shut oft. Under these con- 

. change of speed during one revolution is absolutely 

. iile. There is an adjustment provided on the governor 

Mils of which the speed may l)e varied within wide limits, 

I lie turbines are running. This enables the gcn^jrators to 

iiisht into synchronism, and the loads divided with the 



' >i eas.e. 

s;cnerators, made by the Westlnghouse Electric & Mfg. 

n <ii the bi-polar type, giving a two-phase alternating cur- 

; llu volts with 7,200 alternations per minute, and having 

M ity of 300 kw. each. They appear absurdly small for 

ili.'icities until the high speed is considered. Very elab- 

'st? were made at the works of the builders, resulting in 

V remarkable curves of efficiency shown by the diagram, 

'I'lie long horizontal portion of the steam consumption 

wnuderful when one considers that this machine of only 

|. will work on any load from about one-quarter load up 

ase overload, with greater economy than most of the 

I grades of reciprocating engines of many times this 

•>. even when taken at their best. The following con- 

>iatement shows the economy: 

i'nll load. 18.1 lbs. steam per electrical li. p. per hour. 

■'a '■ n •• •' '• '• ■' 

M, " 1(>.2 •• 

'i •• -22 " 

liiiiiiiins lisfhl,7o01bs. steam per liour. 

. I perfectly safe in saying that these results have never 
iliKiached before. It is impossible to measure the indi- 
and probably also the brake h. p. of these turbines, but 
>timated that they are working, at full load, on 13.2 lbs. 
im per indicated h. p. per hour, using this term in its un- 
1(1 sense. The turbine has, therefore, scored a remark- 
iriiirnph in thi.s its first appearance in this country, in a 
if responsibility in driving an important plant. 
hotild be understood that these particular turbines have 
ed to give their best results when running con- 
ic:, hence the comparatively inferior results when running 
ndensing, which are shown in the economy curves. A 
me designed essentially for non-condensing would give 



1 j 1 ielatl\clyus good rnsullH as iIk'sc 

I turl)lnt'.s running condenHlng. The 

^ diagram also show.s the efTcct of 

■<^f - ■- ; ojienlng the by-pass valve. 

I I The halt-tone engravings, Kigs. 1 

to 4, inclusive, were made from 

photographs taken In the power sia- 

' tion. Kig. 1 shows a side view of 

; one of the turbine sets. One of the 

i I I I large exhaust openings is seen in 

I this view, covered by a plate. There 

are two such openings, one on each 

' _ side of the machine. This view al- 

so shows the governor connection 
- I I . — to the admission or governing valve 

I I I and the throttle valve appears at 
the extreme right. A rear view of 

the three turbines is given in Fig. 

2. The generators are at the right 

II II I and the switchboard appears over 
I ' ' ' ' - the turbine. A comparison between 

the size of the 10 h. p. exciter unit 
I ~ and the turbines may be made In 

Fig. 3. There are two of these ex- 

^f gil ^* Y' citer units driven by Westinghouse 

engines. A view of the generator 
lomy Over Wide; Range ends of the turbine units is given 

in Fig. 4, which also shows the 
switchboard. 
The shops of the air brake company are now equipped with 
a large number of two-phase induction motors, made by the 
Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co., and the entire installation 
has been made with commendable thoroughness, which in- 
cludes the arrangement and appointments of the power station. 
The wires and steam pipes are all under the floor level. This 
distribution syst(>m will be made the subject of another 
article. 

We are indebted to Mr. E. E. Keller, Vice-President and 
General Manager of the Westinghouse Machine Co., for the 
photographs and drawings accompanying this description. 

The White Pass & Yukon Railway, the interesting new line 
in Alaska, has 20 miles now in operation, 16 of which are on 
a grade of very nearly 4 per cent. In spite of the difficulties 
which this hill causes, the operation has been free from serious 
accidents since its opening a year ago last July. During the 
month of September last, nearly 1,000,000 pounds of freight 
were hauled, and the average number of cars available was 
but 50. 

A severe test of cast steel bolsters, made by the American 
Steel Foundry Co., of St. Louis, described in a recent issue 
of the "Railway Age," is noteworthy. In a rear-end collision 
on the Chicago & Alton the engine of the second train turned 
the caboose of the leading train aside, and in t-he mix-up this 
locomotive was carried up on top of a loaded coal car of 
80,000 pounds capacity and was towed to the shops on the car. 
The weight of the engine was about 50 tons, and the total 
load of the car including the coal was about 90 tons, this 
weight, of course, came upon the bolsters, and they met the 
severe test without breaking down or being damaged in any 
way. This accident substantiates the strong claims made for 
these bolsters in an unmistakable way. 

The three new battleship designs, the "Georgia," "New Jer- 
sey" and "Pennsylvania," which have been agreed upon by 
the Naval Board of Construction, will be superior in speed 
and fighting power to any warships yet built or planned" by 
any other nation. Their displacement will be about 14.000 
tons speed 19 knots or more, bunker capacity 2.000 tons, and 
steaming radius 7.000 miles, which is sufficient to cross the 
Atlantic and come back. There will be two 12-inch and two 
8-inch long guns for smokeless powder in each of two (fore 
and aft) superimposed turrets, and also twelve 6-inch rapid- 
fires. The armor is to be the "Krupp" and the cost will be 
about 17,000,000 each when fully equipped. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



LOCOMOTIVE DESIGN.- 



By F. J. Cole, Mechanical Engineer Rogers Locomotive Works. 



Equalization of Weight. 

It is very desirable that the weights borne by the driving 
wheels of a locomotive should be as nearly alike as possible, 
and that each wheel should bear its due proportion of the total 
load. If an engine with three pairs of coupled wheels has 
00.000 pounds on the drivers, the weight on each pair should be 
30,000 pounds, or one-third of the total load. Where the weight 
is thus uniformly distributed the destructive effect on the rails, 
bridges, etc., for any given class of engine may be considered as 
most favorable, and apart from the size and type, the best pos- 
sible distribution that could be made. If on the other hand 
the weight was 60,000 pounds on one pair and 15,000 pounds on 
each of the other pairs, the arrangement might very justly be 
considered the most unfavorable and probably the worst that 
could be made. 

The equal distribution of weight among the 2, 3, 4 or 5 pairs 
of drivers varying according to the type, has always been care- 
fully considered in locomotive design, and the numerous in- 
stances of overloads on some one pair of wheels, that can be 
seen in existing engines should be viewed as examples of faulty 
design and not as inherent defects in certain types which can- 
not be remedied. . 

If a beam (Fig. 1) be supported at both ends and unifr-mly 



, ^ 


^na 


JU 


xn 


XD 


1 lie , 1 


/V ' /v 



Fig. I 
loaded with a weight of 50,000 pounds, including the beam, 
it is evident that the supports A and B will each bear one-half 
the total weight or 25,000 pounds. If, however, die support A 
be moved toward the center, as in Fig 2, one-quarter of the 
original distance, so that the centers of support are 75 inches 
apart instead of 100 inches, the load on A is increased to 33,334 
pounds, and decreased on B to 16,666 pounds. To find out the 
weight on A or B for any position of A, , 

Let W = toUl load. 
Wj = load on support A. 
Wz := load on support B. 
C = distance between supports. 
D = distance from A to center of gravity. 
W>XC 

Then D = . 

W 
DX W 




•«- , 











00,000 Iba. 

-ii-] — 





Fig.3 

tributed among the three pairs of wheels or 20,000 pounds for 
each pair. Being located one foot back of the middle wheel 
the distribution of weight is materially altered. It is increased 
to 28,000 pounds on the rear wheel and decreased oh the front 
and middle pair to 16,000 pounds each. If the center of gravity 
be moved backward until it is directly over the rear wheels 
the entire weight of 60,000 pounds would then be carried on 
this pair and none on the front and middle wheels. In like 
manner if the center of gravity be moved forward until it is! 
directly over the front wheels, the entire weight will be borne 
by those wheels and none on the middle or back wheels, so 
that within the limits of the wheel base (which is ten feet in 
this case) the back or front wheels may be made "to bear the 
whole load according as the center of gravity is moved in rela- 
tion to the wheels. Therefore, to get an equal distribution of 
weight on the driving wheels of an engine in which the springs 
are not connected to one another by means of equalizing levers, 
it is necessary that the center of gravity of the supported 
structure be accurately located to suit the arrangement of 
wheels, otherwise the weight on each pair of wheels will be 
determined by a chance position of the center of gravity. 

This is best shown in its simplest form by a 4-wheeled 
switching engine. Fig. 4. The usual arrangement of the springs 




If an engine had no equalizers each .pair of wheels would 



w,^io;iico 



carry that proportion of the entire load which is due to the 
position of the longitudinal center of gravity of the structure 
carried by the driving springs. The individual wheel loads 
would also vary according to the spacing of the wheels and the 
amount the load overhung the front or back wheels. In Fig. 3 
is shown an engine without equalizers, the center of gravity 
of the boiler and attachment being at A. Had it been directly 
over the middle wheel the total weight would be equally dis- 

• For previous artlcif siie page 33. 



is to fasten the ends of the rear spring A by means of its 
hangers to the frames; the back end of the front spring B Is 
similarly fastened to the frame, while the front ends at C are 
connected transversely by means of a cross equalizer. This 
supports the engine at three points, namely: the rear axle or 
two back springs, and the front axle or a point midway be- 
tween the center of the cross equalizer and the rear hanger of 
the front spring. It is evident that If the center of gravity of 
the boiler and its attachments is not directly upon the vertical 
line D between the two pairs of wheels, the weight will not be 
equally distributed. 

In this type of engine, whether it carries its own fuel and 
water, or is provided with a separate tender, the center of 
gravity must be located midway between the wheels to obtain 
an equal load on both pairs of wheels. Longitudinal equalizing 
levers connecting the springs together sideways are not ordin- 
arily used in this class of engine, owing to the increased pitch- 
ing fore and aft which would result from their use and the 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



alauc'ing whiih would be rpqillretlj If their use were 
ililp the arms could, of course, be made of unequal 
Id partially corroct a faulty design. 

. all Illation of the center of gravity of a new engine, 
r- istiniatinK or knowing the weight of each part and 
,ine from. some asKiimcd center. To work this out coni- 
.(insumcs coiisidpral)le time, therefore frequently much 
nied from engines of similar buihl, the wheel weights 
:i are known. A case in point was a class of 4-wheelcd 
iii; engines with separate tenders, which were not only 
II lioiil l)iit also were vleficient in grate area. When 
; .mini's of the same class were required the balancing 
inoved by Increasing the length of the firebox until the 
1111(01 both pairs of wheels was equalized. The weight 
M I'lont pair was decreased owing to the overhang of the 
!i ici the firel>ox, with the center of the rear axle as a 

anil the weight on the rear pair increased to an 

I qiial to tlie decrease on the front axle and the actual 

lal weight. The amount of additional firebox required 

i mated and when they were built the result was not 

1 1, ctly balanced engines but the steaming qualities also 

M h improved. Another case was of a fi-wheel switcher. 

as several thousand pounds too heavy on the front pair 

I.-. One of tlipse engines was accurately weighed so 

I- actual weight on each pair of wheels was known. 

I Ills information, the amounts to add to the foot plate 

lake Irom the front end could be readily obtained. As 

K and main driving springs, Fig. 5, were connected by 

ii; levers, any additional weight at C exerted a force at 

W (A + B) 
in and diminished the weight at the front 



maintained, by the levers rocking uifon their centerK and pre- 
serving equal wheel loads. 

The arrangement of spring rigging for an American 8-wheel 
engine Is shown In Klg. G. In this type there Is a 4-whceled cen- 
ter bearing leading truck and two pairs of coupled driving 
wheels. The driving wheel springs are connected by means 
of side equalizing levers U attached to the frames by fulcrums 
at E. The engine is, therefore, supported at three points, 
namely, the truck center in front and the two equalizer lever 
fulcrums E, one on each side In the rear. If the fulcrums E are 
located centrally between the wheels (which Is the universal 
method) the weight supported by each driving wheel will be 
the .same. This applies only to the parts carried by the 
springs and not to the parts riding directly upon the axles or 
crank pins. For this reason the main wheels when weighed 



H— - B- 




, A 8 ft, 'i'- 



The extension front and front end of 



iiiis were made as short as practicable and the effect 
. changes calculated and plotted under each wheel until 
I leased weights taken from the front wheels and added 
My added to the rear wheel produced the desired effect. 
suit was. when other engines of similar class were built 
ii' ilistriliiition of weight was practically perfect. 
M. liran practice it is customary to use equaliziag levers, 
■ I lirai:tii able, to connect together the springs of the 




■ Ml pairs of driving wheels. The principal function of an 
i/.liig lever is to equalize the weight between two or more 

of wheels; also to allow a maximum amount of vertical 

'in in any one wheel In its relation to the frame of the 

• •. without too great a deflection of Its spring, or too great 

liation of the load borne by that wheel. If the track is 

Miieven and an engine is run over it without equalizers, 
-pring must in turn deflect enough to compensate for its 
laliiii's, and in doing so the load upon each spring is in- 
"1 iir decreased according to the amount the spring is de- 
il iir released, and the load upon the springs belonging to 
iilier pairs of wheels Increased or decreased according to 
milulation of the track. If, on the other hand, equalizing 
> iirc iiftroduced, the tension on the springs is uniformly 



will always be heavier than the back wheels, owing to the 
weight of the eccentrics and straps, part of the eccentric 
rods, the back ends of the main rods, and the additional 
counterbalance required. In this type of engine when the fire- 
box is between the two driving axles as In Fig. 6, the average 
weight on the truck is about 36 per cent, and 64 per cent, on 
the driving wheels and when the firebox extends over the rear 
axle, 32 per cent, on the truck and 68 per cent, on the 
driving wheels. Owing to the excessive weight on the truck, 
when the firebox is between the axles, a v€ry heavy footplate is 
often used to increase the weight on the driving wheels and 
decrease it on the truck wheels. The effect of a weight placed 
at G is to increase the weight on the drivers to an amount 
greater than the weight itself. This may be explained by ref- 
erence to Fig. G. Suppose 1,000 pounds is added to the foot 
plate at G, then the increase of weight on the drivers at E will 
1,000 X (B + H) 

15e equal to and the decrease on the truck to 

H 
1,000 X B 



Example: Let B = 6 feet, H = 15 feet. Then 

1,000 X (6 -f 15) 

= 1,400 pounds, 

15 

1,000 X 6 

the increase of weight on drivers, and ^ = 400 pounds, 

15 
the decrease of weight on the truck. 

The center of gravity of the weight carried by the springs is 
found by making a diagram of the engine like Fig. 6. Under 
each driving wheel and under the center of the truck, write the 
weight in pounds resting on the rail. From these amounts 
subtract in each case the weights of the wheels, axles, journal 
boxes, springs and saddles. For the back wheels subtract also 
the weights of half the parallel rods and two crank pins, and 
for the main wheels half the parallel rods, two crank pins and 
63 per cent, of the main rods, the eccenti-ics and straps, and half 
the eccentric rods. The remainder Is 28.000 pounds on each pair 
of drivers and 34,000 pounds on the truck, making a total of 90.- 
000 pounds exclusive of wheels, axles, etc. The center of gravity 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



of the weight on the drivers is evidently at the equalizer ful- 
crum, E. Write 56,000 pounds at this point and 34,000 pounds 
at the center of the truck. The common center of gravity of 
the two weights is found by multiplying the weight on the 
truck by the distance between the weights, and dividing by 
the sum of the two weights; the quotient is the distance from 
the rear weight, E, to the longitudinal center of gravity. 

34,000 X 15 

Example: Distance H = 15 feet. Then = 5.«6. 

90,000 

In this class of engines the weight on the truck is likely to 
be excessive; it is possible, however, to improve this some- 
what by making the foot plate unusually heavy, and the bum- 
per, smokebox extension, front and door as light as possible. 
Also by making the diameter of the boiler in front compara- 
tively small, and the back end large, with as much wagon top 
as the conditions will admit. 

(To be Continued.) 

AN IMPROVEMENT IN LOCOMOTIVE ECCENTRICS. 

The Brooks Locomotive Works. 

One of the interesting details of the new passenger and 
freight locomotives built by the Brooks Locomotive Works for 
the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway is an improve- 







SectifnC-r '^ I Section H-B^ 







SectwnC-D\, 



■-^— i--,7;-A 





Design of Improved Eccentric, Showing a Large Saving li 

Weight by Coring. 

Brooks Locomotive Works. 



\^, Section //irfUf/l^rB-''^/':^ 






? 

1 

1 


1 1 1 

' 1 1 
1 1 

f 


1 


1 
1 
< 1 
1 1 
1 ^' 
1 N 
*t *■" 
^.1* 1 
^ 1 
1 1 
1 1 

' I 
j 1 

1 i 

1 1 


1 




"/vyb' 


m^S^^' 


i 1 





Improvement In Locomotive Eccentrics Used on New Lake Shore Locomotives. 
Brooks Locomotive Works. 



raent in the construction of the eccentrics. Instead of putting 
in two bolts or studs to hold the halves of the eccentric to- 
gether, the hub is widened out sufHciently to admit of using 
four of them. The design is an excellent one, which has been 
used by these builders on several recent orders. The engraving 
shows the design as applied to the Lake Shore engines, in 
which the hub was shortened somewhat and in which studs are 
used instead of bolts. The usual length of the hub is one-half 
inch greater than shown in the drawing. The object of this 
design is to prevent the eccentrics from working loose and 
wahbling on the axle, which is a common fault with the usual 
forms of split eccentrics upon powerful locomotives. It will 
be noted that the two halves of the eccentric are separated by 
a shim (No. 34 Birmingham Wire Gauge in thickness) when 
they are bored, In order that when bolted together upon the 
axle they will clamp it firmly and prevent any side motion or 
wabbling and at the same time be more secure against ro- 
tary displacement. It will be observed that the length of the 
axle fit is 6 inches. The shims which are used only In boring 
are removed before the eccentric is turned up, so that the out- 
side when clamped on the axle is a true circle. This clamping 
device necessitates the use of four bolts or studs in order to 
insure perfectly true fitting of the two halves of the eccentric. 
The drawing shows the bearing portion of the eccentric and 



at once gives the impression of great strength in addition , 
the security of the fastening. \i 

Two forms of set screw and key attachment are shown. '*. 
one the set screws bears directly against the axle and the 
is 1 inch square in section and 6 inches in length. In A 
other arrangement there is a central key, a portion of wbt 
projects Into the slot in the axle and the upper portioni 
fitted by tapered surfaces, inclined one-half inch in 12 inc^ 
between two thin pieces, which are cut radially to fit the a! 
and against the tops of these the set screws bear. The tapej 
sides of these thin keys are cut to the exact size required a|i 
the valves are set. It is therefore possible to change the | 
sition of the ecentric upon the axle by changing the posttil 
of these keys, and by merely replacing the set screws. li 
movement may be % in. in either direction. Information is ; 
hand- to show that eccentrics of this type are giving excellin 
results in service. 

The smaller engraving illustrates a later design by il. 
Brooks Locomotive Works In which the long bearing of 6 ii 
on the axle is retained but with much thinner section of mct.i 
which was done to save weight. 

These are the greatest improvements in locomotive eccentn 
that we have seen. This style of split eccentric is standur 
with the Brooks Locomotive Works for all heavy engines. 



March, 1900. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER Al^D RAILROAD JOURNAL 78 






tl£JJ 




Safety castiro fcr ^prin/j 



CAST-STEEL 



Cast-Steel Truck for Heavy Tenders, Louisville & Nashville Railroad. 

Desiuned bji Pulaski Lekds, Superintendent 0/ Machineri/. 

TENDER TRUCK WITH DIAMOND SIDE 
FRAMES. 



Louisville & Nashville Railroad. 



The increasing weight of tenders for passenger locomotives 
making runs of 100 miles between stops has made it neces- 
sary for the Louisville & Nashville Railroad to provide a 
much stronger tender truck than has been heretofore used on 
that road, and the design shown by the accompanying illus- 
trations was made and put into service by Mr. Pulaski 
Leeds, Superintendent of Machinery, about eight months ago. 
The truck embodies several interesting features, particularly 
with reference to the spring hanging and the arrangement of 
the journal brasses. 

The fast passenger trains on this road are handled by 20 by 
26-inch 10-wheel engines with large tenders, which, with their 
full capacity of water and coal, weigh 108,000 pounds. The side 
frames have arch bars 5 by IVi inches in section, while the 
pedestal-tie bars are % by 5 inches. The bolsters are supported 
by two 31^^-inch semi-elliptic springs at each end, making four 
springs for each truck. The springs are slung in forged hang- 
ers, which are provided for in the frame casting, as shown in 
the sectional views. Under the springs on each side malleable 
safety castings are bolted, the bottoms of which are perfo- 
rated to save weight, and these castings are intended to catch 
the springs in case they break. We are informed by Mr. 
F. A. Beckert, Mechanical Engineer of the road, that this 
spring arrangement gives a very easy motion to the tenders. 
The center plates and side bearings are of the standard pat- 
tern used by this road and were provided in the design of the 
steel bolsters. The center plates have a large bearing sur- 
face. The journal boxes are provided with end stops and were 
designed specially for use under these tenders. The bearing 
of the journal brass in the top of the journal box is made 
crowning to a radius of IVi inches, the top of the brass being 
made to fit it. This is in accordance with the practice of 
Mr. Leeds in applying the load to the journal brass in such a 
way as to distribute the load uniformly over the entire length 
of the brass, instead of allowing it to come upon the ends, 
as is often the case with the ordinary brass and wedge. We 
are not told the weight of this truck, but judging from the 




Half Section Through Transom. 

sections of the castings it must be exceedingly strong, the 
metal being not less than % inch thick. 

Before placing these trucks in service the transom and bol- 
ster were marked with a prick punch, and the marks were 
referred to a very rigid three-point tram, which was done 
for the purpose of detecting any deflection or permanent set. 
No perceptible deflection was found in any of the parts when 
the tender was loaded, and none has been detected after eight 
months of hard service, in which the design has been found 
to be very satisfactory. 



Water tubes through the fireboxes of a number of locomotive 
boilers on the Southwestern Railway, (England), were illus- 
trated in this journal on page 79 in March, and page 223 in 
July of last year. "The Engineer" speaks of this experiment in 
the following glowing terms: "Mr. Drummond, of the South- 
western, has carried out a most successful experiment by put- 
ting in water tubes. These tubes, exposed to the full fury of 
the furnace gas, have been found to give no trouble whatever, 
while they greatly improve the steam making powers of the 
boiler." 



We desire to call the attention of every reader of this 
paper to pages XVI. and XVII. of this number. If you do not 
have a paper, send 20 cents to the publication office and one 
will be sent to you. 



7 4 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



F. W. DEAN ON LOCOMOTIVE PRACTICE. 



In a suggestive criticism of locomotive practice before tlie 
New England Railroad Club recently, Mr. F. W. Dean brought 
out a number of points whicli are of special interest. Mr. 
Dean's standpoint is that of a Mechanical Engineer experienced 
in both stationary and locomotive practice. He appreciates the 
necessity for improving the locomotive in its use of steam and 
sees the possibility of applying to it in some degree the means 
of which have brought about the advancement of stationary 
engines. 

Mr. Dean says that the desire of everybody to be through 
with a railroad journey will always make demands upon rail- 
road companies in advance of their performances. The mani- 
fest conditions of passenger service are the desire of the 
traveling public to move quickly between distant points and 
to be surrounded with luxury while doing so. Increasing 
density of population shows a tendency to require more num- 
erous short distance trains, which will probably be the field 
for the application of electricity to steam railroad service. Mr. 
Dean believes the use of electricity for main line service to be 
highly improbable. 

He makes a good point when he says that it as much en- 
couragement were given by the railroad companies to the im- 
provement of the economy of steam locomotives as has been 
given by some of them to the improvement of electrical plants, 
or in changing smoke stacks and many other trivial things, 
the locomotive would probably leave the electric traction well 
behind in economy. 

A desire to travel fast and to pull heavy trains leads to the 
building of larger engines and in a review of foreign practice 
Mr. Dean brings out the fact, without however commenting 
upon it, that the form taken in this direction abroad is to 
greatly extend the use of four cylinder compounds. 

Professor Goss remarked upon his return to this country 
recently that the four cylinder compound was the only type 
of compound now making progress in Continental Europe. 
Perhaps Mr. Dean's failure to comment upon this fact is due 
to his opinion, which is in favor in the two cylinder rather than 
the four cylinder type. 

The discovery that a stroke of 24 inches has no special 
virtue for the cylinders of locomotives, the use of higher steam 
pressures and the conspicuous increase of size of locomotives 
received the author's attention, and in boiler design the 
abandonment of crown bars is considered an important ad- 
vance. Many of our readers will agree with him in objecting 
to the retention of former small grates in spite of the large in- 
crease in heating surfaces of recent years. The author of the 
paper says "There is very little to be gained by increasing 
heating surfaces unless the grate service is increased also. 
What is wanted most of all in large locomotives is more grate 
surface, for this is the heat making part of the boiler. More 
heat is wanted, and nothing but grate area can give it without 
difficulty and with economy." 

In looking into the future the author warns against an "en- 
largement of defects" along with the increase of capacity. It 
is clear that he considers valves and valve motion as constitut- 
ing a field for improvement with particular reference to the 
wire drawing of admission and exhaust, both of which operate 
to reduce speed and power and tend toward the use of cylin- 
ders that are too large to be economical. The loss of economy 
in the large cylinders is due to increased cylinder condensation 
and the extra work required to overcome back pre-ssure. Mr. 
Dean does not deprecate efforts to reduce back pressure, but 
he strongly advocates more attention to the augmentation of 
the propelling pressure. The increase of propelling pressure 
has been ignored while the reduction of back pressure has re- 
ceived a great deal of attention with small results. 

A fact worthy of careful thought is presented in a reference 
to the application of four Corliss valves to some locomotives on 
the Paris & Orleans Railway. It was shown that to these 



valves alone a saving of from 9.2 to 16.25 per cent, of 
water was due when compared with a slide valve engine of the 
same size and carrying the same steam pressure. Another en- 
gine in one year saved 15.2 per cent, of coal when compared 
with the average of 18 slide valve engines. The ordinary en- 
gine did 14,343 foot lbs. of work with one lb. of steam and the 
four valve engine gave 15,727 foot lbs., the steam pressure in 
both cases being 142 lbs. Mr. Dean makes no comments as to 
the probable reason for this, but if he did he would probably 
say that the advantages of the four valve engine lie in the 
reduction of clearance and in the fact that the steam ports and 
passages are not used alternately for live and exhaust steam. 
The time may come when the advantages thus obtained will 
more than offset the difficulties due to the mechanical com- 
plications. 



RELATION OF CAPACITIES, GENERATORS AND MOTORS 



In Electrically Driven Shops. 



The proportion of generator and motor capacities in the elec- 
trical power plant of the Baldwin Locomotive Works, as stated 
on page 49 of our February issue, has attracted considerable at- 
tention, and it requires, perhaps, a little more explanation. 

The original installation consisted of 700 horse-power of 
generator capacity to operate a total motor capacity of 2,00U 
horse-power. This was sufficient at the time because the aver- 
age load at the switch-board was only 570 horse-power. The 
capacity has increased to 1,550 horse-power in the generators 
to operate 3,500 horse-power in the motors. Of this generator 
capacity one 250 horse-power unit is in reserve, leaving 1,300 
horse-power in use. About 400 horse-power of the motor equip- 
ment is idle and in repairs, which makes the proportion 1,300 
in the generator to 3,100 in the motors. 

This motor capacity is the sum of the rated full load capa- 
cities of all of the motors, and many of them are of larger size 
than the average work calls for. This surplus is provided in 
order to take care of very severe service conditions at times. 
For example, nine-tenths of the time the machines may be 
working at finishing cuts while one-tenth of the time they will 
be doing extremely heavy work, calling for the full capacity of 
the motors. Mr. George Gibbs says that about one-third of 
the rated motor capacity will usually be ample for the genera- 
tive capacity in large plants. In smaller plants, this rule would 
not always apply, especially when absolutely reliable service is 
required. In such cases a spare unit in the power-house is 
needed. 

It is interesting to note in this connection the statement made 
by Mr. Burcham Harding, concerning the Westinghouse motors 
at the Duquesne works of the Carnegie Steel Company where 
the intermittent operation of the motors is carried on from the 
central station by means of one-sixth of the horse-power pre- 
viously required when separate engines were used. 



A draft rigging, which will sustain a load of 163,000 lbs. with 
a deflection of but 0.204 inch and will hold a load of 132,500 lbs. 
for 13 days without breaking is a good one. We are Informed 
of a remarkable test of the Dayton Draft Rigging at the test 
room of the Robert W. Hunt Co. in Chicago, in which an initial 
load of 40,000 lbs. was increased by steps until It reached 163,- 
000 lbs. with the above mentioned deflection, whereupon a key 
in the testing machine broke. It was impossible to take the 
draft rigging out of the machine for 13 days, during which the 
load fell from 163,000 to 132,500 lbs. Nothing could prove more 
conclusively that the design of this draft rigging is sound, that 
the material is good and that it is disposed favorably for trans- 
mitting and resisting enormous stresses. The rigidity of the 
structure and the simplicity of construction are reflected in the 
very small deflection. 



maeoh,i900. AMERICAN engineer and railroad journal. 78 



YERK'S SLIDING COUPLER YOKE. 

The draw-bar wilding yoke shown in this engraving was 
designed and patented by IMr. (!. Yerk. who is in charge of the 
platform department of the Pullman Palaoe Car Company at 
Pullman. It is being applied to the sleeping cars of that com- 
pany, and several of the western roads are considering its 
adoption. The drawing was brought to our attention in the 
office of the Mechanical Engineer of the Burlington, Mr. F. H. 
Clark, and It is understood that a modification of the plan 
is likely to be adopted for all the passenger cars of that 
road. 

The ordinary carry irons provide only about V2 inch play on 
each side for the relief of the coupler in taking curves. This 
is not enough, and Mr. Yerk has allowed a total motion of 
about 5 inches. The coupler shank is held in a malleable-iron 
yoke resting upon a carry iron 1^4 by 4 inches in section. The 
yoke has flanges at the front and rear, and by means of a key 
through these flanges the yoke is secured to a block which is 
held centrally between two springs of %-inch steel. The 



to a dining car with an overhand of 11 feet, and was pulled 
around curves of 20 degrees. The blocks of lead were com- 
pressed by the side thrust of the coupler, and in order to meas- 
ure the amount of the pressure other blocks of tlie same origi- 
nal size as the first were compressed in a testing machine to 
the e.xact thickness of the ones which had been squeezed by 
the couplers. The pressure required to do this was .57,600 
pounds, which is approximately a reproduction of the condi- 
tions of service. This is clearly an important subject. 

We are indebted to Mr. H. M. Pflager, Mechanical Superin- 
tendent of the Pullman Company, for the drawing. 



NEW GERMAN STEAMSHIP "DEUTSCHLAND. 



The "Deutschland," launched .January 10, for the Hamburg- 
American Line, at the Vulcan Yards, Stettin, is expected to 
be a record breaker. She will cost $3,332,000 and is to enter 
service between New York and Hamburg during the coming 
summer. She is being built under the rules of the German 
Navy, with protected rudder and steering gear, and will ue 



H. ,A 



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IQr 



=^^2"■u*"'i■ri:-A' 



\ 11 ,1 ,' ii i';L !' r 'ijii V '^S, 'Vi i*«' '1.1 '■ ' f^ . i'» ' ! '■-«,. 



ji^^i- y 



© 




<---->^4" --* I '<-- 






5 ?J5 

Yerk's Sliding Yoke for Passenger Car Couplers. 



springs are mounted in a stirrup below the main carry iron 
and they allow the movement of 2i^ inches to each side of 
the normal position of the coupler. The side motion is lim- 
ited by the lengths of the pieces of pipe through which the 
rod passes. Two positions of the yoke with reference to the 
central-spring block are provided, one for the shank of a Miller 
hook and the other for that of an M. C. B. coupler. The key 
may be withdrawn, the yoke moved over, and the key placed 
in the other slot, when it is desired to change the coupler. 

The idea of this device is not new. It has been used on 
cars and on tenders, but its advantages are probably not fully 
appreciated. When the extent of the stresses due to lack of 
lateral play in couplers is understood, such devices will come 
into general use because of the relief from racking stresses 
which they give. The worst condition arises in connection 
with a car with a long overhang when coupled to a tender. 
On a sharp curve the car may derail the tender. Such acci- 
dents have occurred, and on the Chicago & Northwestern, sev- 
eral years ago, a test was made showing that the stresses im- 
posed upon the framing are enormous. A number of lead 
blocks were made, and carry irons for a tender were put in 
with such a width of opening as to take in one of these lead 
blocks on each side of the coupler shank and give the coupler 
the usual amount of side motion. The tender was then coupled 



used in naval service if required in time of war. Steam will 
be supplied from 12 double and 4 single boilers, with 112 fires, 
which drive two six-cylinder quadruple-expansion twin-screw 
engines of 33.000 horse power. The two propeller shafts are 
each 131.23 feet long and 24.8 inches in diameter; each of the 
Ijronze propellers being 22.96 feet in diameter. The ship has 
a double bottom extending its entire length, which is divided 
into 24 compartments: 15 exceptionally strong bulkheads ex- 
tending from keel to main deck, and one longitudinal bulk- 
head in the engine room, divide the steamer into 17 water- 
tight compartments. It is claimed that if two adjoining com- 
partments were to fill with water the ship would not sink. 
The "Deutschland" is expected to have accommodations for 
1,057 passengers and a crew of 525. There are 263 first-class 
cabins. 99 second-class cabins, and accommodations for 290 
steerage passengers. The first-cabin dining saloon is located 
amidship on main deck, and has a seating capacity of 362. 
The following table giving the dimensions of the largest steam- 
ers is interesting for comparisons of the dimensions of the 
new ship with others: 



Name of Ship. 

Great Eastern 

Paris 

Campania 

Kaiser Wilhelm der 

Grosse 

Oceanic 1S99 

Deutschland 1900 

•Over paddle box. jEstimated 



[>ength 








Displace- 


over all. 


Beam. 


Depth. 


Draft 


ment. Speed. 


late. Feet. 


Feet. 


Feet. 


Feet. 


Tons. Knots. 


1S5S 692 


•S3 


57^4 


25H 


27.000 14.5 


ISSS 560 


63 


42 • 


26Vi 


15,000 20.5 


1893 625 


65 


41% 


28 


19,000 21.8 


1897 S49 


66 


43 


29 


20.000 22.6 


1S99 704 


6S 


49 


32H 


28.300 20 


1900 6S4 


67 


4i 


t30 


23.200 t23 



76 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 




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Fig. 8. 
SUPPORTING REAR ENDS OF LOCOMOTIVE BOILERS. 




When 52-inch boilers, carrying 140 pounds steam pressure 
and weighing 21,000 pounds, were common, it was not difficult 
to support them with satisfactory and easily maintained de- 
vices, but with the advent of boilers weighing 60,000 to 70,000 
pounds, the problem is more troublesome.- 
Requirements. 

The support at the front end being rigid that at the back 
end must provide for the expansion and the devices used 
must be light and inexpensive to maintain. They must dis- 
tribute the load in such a way as to reduce to the minimum 
the vertical stresses in the frames, and they must provide for 
wear to be received upon parts which may be easily renewed 



and they should not only support the boiler, but hold it against 
surging stresses and provide for tensile stresses due to hand- 
ling the engine in a wreck. 

The best opinion seems to favor support from the mud ring 
and doing this with a view of keeping all attachments as 
close to the firebox as possible, making provisions for distrib- 
uting the stresses over large areas. It is impossible to lay 
down rules for this detail because of the variety of conditions 
met in the design of locomotives of different types and for 

different purposes. 

Support by Links. 
The link method which has held a prominent place for a 
number of years, is not now generally favored because of the 
difficulties in maintenance. This is the lightest arrangement 



March, 1900. AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 77 




used and it has an advantage in being equally effective in 
tension and compression, and in a wreck or derailment this 
feature is valuable. The link has fallen into disrepute in 
some cases because of faulty design, but even when well de- 
signed and with very strong pins the bearing surfaces to receive 
the wear are not as large as may be desired. The pins must 
be long if the links are wide, and this sets up severe bending 
stresses in the sheets on account of the overhang or leverage. 

Several designs are shown. The Schenectady Locomotive 
Works' link plan is shown in Fig. 1, and Pig. 1 A, the Richmond 
Locomotive Works in Fig. 2, and a design elaborate in detail, 
for the Austrian State Railways, in Fig. 3. The method of sup- 
porting the boiler direct to the equalizer by means of a strut 
between the bars of the frames is shown in the Schenectady 
design. The Austrian links have hardened pins and bushings 
and are provided with oil cups. This design may be criticised 
with many others because it is necessary to jack up the boiler 
in order to take the supporting devices down. The pads for 
the support of the upper pins are very large and even take 
in the mud ring. The oiling device for the Austrian links is 
a good idea which ought to be used on other arrangements 
such as pads. 

The link arrangement used on the moguls of the C, B. & Q. 
is shown in Fig. 4. This has worked very well for a number 
of yeai's. The links in this case are 2 by 4-inch rectangular 
bars with steel bushings, and the brackets are secured to the 
back of the firebox and to the ends of the frames. The side 
thrust is taken by plates secured to the firebox. 

There are many advocates of the link method, and the fact 
remains that in spite of theoretical disadvantages it has done 
very well in some cases. There is a tendency to distort the 
sheets to which the pads are applied, which appears to be a 
serious objection. This is improved by the use of large pads. 
Many roads have abandoned the link in favor of other methods, 
while others have a large number of heavy engines supported 
in this way. 

Pads Resting on Brackets. 
The use of cast-steel brackets is quite generally favored. 



Fig. 3. 

These are made in a variety of forms. The principles are about 
the same in all and the details vary according to circumstances. 
Those illustrated embody a support between the bars of the 
frame with supporting surfaces for the boiler, in which lateral 
and lifting stresses are provided for. In Fig. 5 the plan used 
in Schenectady engines for the New York, New Haven & Hart- 
ford is shown. Mr. Henney kindly furnished the drawing and 
stated that this arrangement has been satisfactory, giving no 
trouble whatever. The bearing between the upper and lower 
pads consists of a tongue and groove with a steel key to take 
the side thrust. 

The large pads and brackets used in the new Brooks 10- 
wheel passenger engines for the Lake Shore (November issue, 
1899, page 344) are shown in Fig. 6. These give good support 
and seems to work well in every way. They are, however, very 
heavy. The 10-wheel passenger engines built by the Richmond 
Works for the Southern Railway (our issue of March, 1898, 
page 83) have pads and brackets of the form shown in Fig. 7, 
by courtesy of Mr. W. H. Thomas. This plan gives a generous 
bearing for wear and large 1-inch plates lipped over the boiler 
pads take the lateral and lifting stresses. This is a strong 
design, but is not light in weight. Fig. 8 illustrates another 
form in cast steel which has been used by the Richmond Loco- 
motive Works. It does not have the advantage of easily sep- 
arating the boiler from the frames. The pads must be taken 
off in this case. This drawing represents a large class of 
boiler bearers made by several builders, but they are not the 
most convenient kind. 

Mud Ring Support. 

Two ways of supporting boilers by the mud rings are 
shown in Figs. 9 and 10. Fig. 9 is a design by the Richmond 
Locomotive Works as used with sloping frames. This plan 
has the advantage of removing the stresses due to the weight 
of the boiler from the pad studs to the mud ring, where they 
are received nearly centrally upon the frames without caus- 
ing twisting moments. The design becomes simpler for level 
frames. This plan is simple, neat and strong. It places the 
stresses where they may be best provided for and the space 



78 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 




Fig. t2. 
takeu up is not required for other parts. This construction, be- 
ing of wrought iron, is expensive, but we can not see any ob- 
jection to it. The additional cost Is believed to be amply com- 
pensated in the long life of the parts and relief of the firebox 
sheets from injury. The lip and shoulder in the bearing por- 
tions under the mud ring should not be overlooked. 

A somewhat similar design is used on the heavy freight loco- 
motives on the Pennsylvania, classes H5 and H6, as shown in 
Fig, 10, which is reproduced from the description of these 
engines in this journal (issue of June, 1899, page 181). In 
this case steel castings are fitted between the bars of the 
frames, terminating at the top in a long block, the top sur- 
face of which is flush with the top of the frame. Pads, secured 
to the boiler by studs, and provided with broad bearing 
flanges, receive the weight of the boiler and transmit it to 
the lower bearing surfaces, which are protected from wear 
by thin steel shims which are easily renewed, A %-inch rein- 
forcing plate is placed against the firebox sheet, inside the 
water leg, into which the studs are screwed. 

This design has the important advantage of removing all 
tearing stresses from the studs in the pad. The firebox tends 
to push against the studs. This plan seems to meet all the 
requirements admirably and no fault has yet been found with 
it. It is the standard practice of the Pennsylvania. 

The method of supporting by the mud ring shown in Figs. 
11, 12 and 13 was used on the new Brooks consolidation en- 
gines for the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern illustrated in 
our February number. Fig. 11 shows one of the pairs of 
shoes placed under the mud ring. There are two pairs of 
these on each side of the engine. Those in front are very shal- 
low, because they are fitted between the mud ring and the top 
bar of the frame where the space is not as great as shown in 



1 



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}:-^ 




^ 






*"^ 


^ 





Fig. 11. 




Fig. 13. 

Fig. 11. These shoes are of cast steel and very light. They 
give no support against lateral or rolling stresses and they 
do not assist in lifting the frames by the boiler in wrecking 
operations. These features are provided chiefly by the large 
%-inch plate of Fig. 13, which is secured to the back boiler 
head and to the front face of the cast steel foot plate. The 
boiler studs are "s inch in diameter and it will be noticed that 
the plate is drilled opposite each staybolt. This plate may assist 
in carrying the weight, but it is not expected to do so. It 
distributes the transverse stresses over a large area on the 
back head and it seems to be an excellent plan. Plates have 
been used in this way for a long time on wide firebox engines. 
A 34-in. plate. Fig. 12, is used to assist in furnishing attach- 
ment between the boiler and frames in a vertical direction. 
This plate covers the shallow mud ring shoes similar to Fig. 11. 
It also furnishes some lateral resistance. The chief object 
of this plan was to support the boiler safely with the minimum 
amount of added weight. 

The necessity for lubricating boiler supports of whatever 
kind is not properly appreciated. Oil cups should be provided 
for links, brackets or mud ring supports. In link suspension 
it is not uncommon to find the surfaces rusted so tight as to 
defy release, except by removing the plates from the firebox. 
The resistance to motion in these parts when thus fastened 
together must necessarily throw undue stresses on other parts, 
and it is possible that some cases of broken cylinders and 
saddles may be explained in this way. The new Schenectady 
engines for the New York Central have oil cups to lubricate 
the boiler bearers. All of these devices ought to have facili- 
ties for oiling. 

In using pads for vertical as well as lateral support, care 
should be taken to get them large enough to get in a sufficient 
number of studs. 

The foregoing discussion may be summed up as follows: 
The best plan, wherever it can be used, is to support the boiler 
by the mud ring, or by the mud ring and by lateral plate braces. 
Next in order of excellence is the pad and bracket with area 
enough to give a large number of studs, while the link sus- 
pension seems to lack the best features of the bracket and mud 
ring plans. 



M 



ARCH. 1900. AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 79 




Long;itudinal Section. 




Experimental Marine Type Boiler^forla^Locomotivet 
Atchison,'.Topeka!8< ISanta^Fe'Ry. 

A CORRUGATED PMREBOX, RETURN-TUBE LOCOMOTIVE 
BOILER. 



Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway. 



A novel experimental locomotive has just been completed at 
the Topeka shops of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway 
from drawings prepared under the direction of Mr. John Player, 
Superintendent of Motive Power of that road. The grates, 
which are of the rocking type, are placed in the rear end of a 
40-inch corrugated, marine furnace flue, 14 feet 3 inches long, 
which opens at the front end into a "back connection." and the 
products of combustion pass backward through about 130 tubes 
to a cross connection at the cab end and thence pass forward 
through a plate duct along the boiler to a very small smokebox 
or chamber, into which the exhaust nozzle opens, to throw the 
blast up the stack. Air is admitted at the back end under the 
grates and also from a duct which opens under the bridge wall 
and brings air from under the boiler, just in the rear of the 
cylinder saddle, A butterfly valve may be opened between the 



front end of this 
duct and the "back 
connection" if air Is 
needed at that point 
for perfect combus- 
tion. The ashes are 
raked out of the 
furnace at the back 
end, where they are 
received in a hopper 
which is slung under 
the deck of the cab. 
The bottom of the 
furnace is protected 
from the ashes, and 
the front of the com- 
bustion chamber 
from the heat of 
the flames. The ar- 
rangement of the 
steam and exhaust 
pipes and an idea of 
the exterior appear- 
ance of the engine 
are shown in the 
engravin g s. The 
idea of using a corrugated furnace in a locomotive in such 
a way as to secure a large amount of combustion space is new. 
This boiler is understood to be entirely experimental, but there 
seems to be no reason why it should not be successful. If it 
accomplishes nothing more than to do away with staybolts it 
will serve a most useful purpose. Attempts to improve the 
locomotive boiler are so rare that experiments of this kind 
ought to receive the heartiest encouragement. Locomotive men 
are so conservative about unusual designs that it requires a 
great deal of courage to bring out anything of this sort. 



The attention of every reader of this paper is directed to 
pages XVI. and XVII. of this number. A copy of the paper 
will be sent to your 
publication office. 



address if you will send 20 cents to our 



Recently, on the London & North Western, the Irish mail 
encountered a bale of cloth which threw several coaches over 
upon the freight track to be run into by a freight train. This 
seems like boys play rather than real railroading. 



80 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



(Establlslied X832) 

— AMERICAN — 

Engineer 

RAILROAD "journal 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY 

BT 

R. M. VAN ARSDAI.E, 

J. S. BONSALL, Business Manager. 

MORSE BUILDING NEW YORK 

G. I«. BASFORn, Editor. 

E. E. SII.K, Associate Editor 



MAECH, 19f0. 



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EDITORIAL ANNOUNCEMENTS. 



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pay. EXCEPT IN THE ADVERTISING PAGES. The reading pages will 
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Journal is printed and ready tor mailing on the last day of 
the month, correspondence, advertisements, etc., intended for 
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ConUi\>nt\on%.— Articles relating to railway rolling stock con- 
struction and management and kindred topics, by those who 
are practically acquainted- with these subjects, are specially 
desired. Also early notices of official changes, and additions of 
new equipment for the road or the shop, by purchase or construc- 
tion. 

To Subscribers.— TAe .American Engineer and Railroad 
.TonRVAL is mailed regularly to every subscriber each 
month. Any subscriber who fails to receive his paper ought 
at once to notify the postmaster at the office of deKvery, and in 
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It is surprising and gratifying to see the results of our efforts 
to bring out the bright and experienced young men in the 
motive power departments and place them in communication 
with officers who are in need of their services. A statement 
of unsolicited response is printed on page XVIL of this issue. 



A real reform is needed in the matter of salaries paid by 
American railroads to their motive power officers. In Eng- 
land the locomotive superintendent is paid a salary nearly as 
high as that of the general manager, and he is considered as 
one of the most important officials, although his duties cover 
no more, and generally not as much, ground as is the case in 
this country. No department of a railroad offers such oppor- 
tunities for administrative wisdom to produce real economy 
as that in charge of locomotives and cars. No private em- 
ployer -would think of expecting a superintendent of motive 
power, tor a salary of $3,000 to $5,000, to honestly and wisely 
administer expenditures amounting to several million dollars 
per annum. This is often done in railroad service. It is a 



difficulty which must correct itself In time. Those manage- 
ments which recognize the importance of this question and 
make it clear that mechanical ability is appreciated are 
wise. 



More than one successful man owes his beginning in ad- 
vancement to the special study of some one subject and to 
the fact that others are aware of his proficiency in it. In 
some cases this has resulted from a paper before a technical 
association or good work done in connection with a com- 
mittee report or as a part of an engineering investiga- 
tion. Such a course is advantageous also because the very 
process of preparing one's information to be made available 
for others involves the crystallization of ideas, and a man 
always understands himself better because of trying to place 
his information in form for record. The technical associa- 
tions offer means for advancement which ought to be more 
generally appreciated. Recently two papers which are worthy 
of remark were discussed before one of the railroad clubs. 
They were presented by men whose class is not often heard 
from in this way. One, on piece-work, was written by a shop 
machinist, and the other, on pooling locomotives, by an engi- 
neer of a freight locomotive. The papers are excellent, and 
that on pooling is the best so far produced on the subject. 
It is safe to say that these men possess qualifications which 
will lead to greater responsibilities. They have set an exam- 
ple which should be suggestive to many others who occupy 
much higher positions. Several able men who now occupy 
high positions while comparatively young have profited by 
this idea. Those we have in mind have a high professional 
principle in mind in this connection. They believe that when 
a man has secured professional information by study and ex- 
perience he ought to give the benefit to others because he de- 
sires to learn from others. This is a strong and unselfish rea- 
son for what we advocate. 



ARRANGEMENTS OF TRACKS IN ERECTING SHOPS. 



The question of the track arrangement in shops, whether 
longitudinal or lateral, is one of the first which Is considered 
in drawing up plans for new shops or in making improve- 
ments in old ones. There are differences of opinion, and some 
time ago we gave considerable space to this subject, rather 
favoring the longitudinal plan as a result of an examination 
of the shops of the Boston & Maine at Concord, N. H. Having 
been taken to task recently for this position by a Superinten- 
dent of Motive Power who has just completed plans for new 
shops, and being met with several good arguments, it seems 
advisable to present them. They come from one who has used 
both systems, and he strongly advocates the lateral plan from 
his experience. 

The question of cranes versus transfer tables is the first to 
come up. He directs attention to the fact that a great deal 
of lifting of locomotives as a whole is required with the longi- 
tudinal tracks. This requires a heavy crane at each end of the 
engine, whereas a single heavy crane is required for the other 
plan. A second and lighter one, or two lighter ones, may be 
used for the cross-track shop if desired. It is also argued that 
a transfer table costs less than the second heavy crane. 

One of the arguments against the long tracks is that the high 
lift required to carry locomotives over others standing on the 
same track necessitates a much higher, and consequently more 
expensive shop, because in this case the lift must be at least 
20 feet, whereas in the other case the lift need be only suffi- 
cient to take the driving wheels out from under the engines, 
or from 6 to 8 feet. The same total length of track will accom- 
modate the same number of engines in either case, but It is 
stated that the shop is much more cluttered up with the parts 
of engines in the long track plan, and an additional objection is 
that the pits of the long tracks must be covered with boards 



Makoh, 1900. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL 



81 



when not In use, and even then the pits make It difficult to 
carry heavy parts about. These ideas may or may not be new 
to our roadors, but the argument seems to be a good one. 
The oross-trark system has the practical endorsement of the 
locomotive builders. 



WHAT MOTIVK POWER OFFICERS ARE THINKINP. 

ABOUT. 



Recent conversations with eight representative motive power 
officers, at their headquarters, indicate, by the voluntary in- 
troduction of the subjects, that the following are the most 
imjiortant lines for development in the immediate future: 
Compounds. 

The compound locomotive has gained ground remarkably 
during the past year. It has now become so well established 
upon one road where careful comparisons have been made for 
four years, that it Is believed to be safe to say that nearly 
all future road engines for freight and passenger service 
there will be compounds. The records made by simple and com- 
pound locomotives, in the same service, on this road, show a 
saving by the compounds of 18 per cent, in fuel and between 
5 and 6 per cent, in repairs in four years. On another road 
which heretofore has been satisfied to allow others to do the 
experimenting, a good-sized investment in compounds has 
been decided upon in confidence of securing advantage not 
only in fuel economy but also in repairs and in mileage. Care- 
fully kept tonnage rating statistics have contributed to this 
result. With this turning toward the compound there is a no- 
ticeable tendency toward a proper consideration of satisfactory 
operation in the design of compoimds. The provision of am- 
ple power when running in compound working is the most im- 
portant factor to be kept in mind in ordering engines of this 
type. 

Heavy Locomotives. 

The heavy locomotive for both passenger and freight has a 
strong hold and the heavy engine is not at all a fad. but a 
recognized improvement in operation. Engineering depart- 
ments are more liberal in the limitation of driving-wheel 
weights and managers are more appreciative of the necessity 
of favoring the locomotives by bringing the bridges up to the 
reciuirements. A general breaking down of the individual de- 
partment idea is progressing. The engineering departments 
are less bitter in their denunciation of heavy engines because 
it is clear that they are needed. 

Wider Fireboxes. 

The coal situation throughout the west is such as to em- 
phasize the importance of providing in the design of fireboxes 
for a much wider variation in the quality of fuel than has 
been considered necessary.. Several of the important trunk 
lines have been seriously handicapped by the necessity of using 
coal that a short time ago was rejected. In one case 75 cars 
of coal actually refused and returned, four months ago. have 
since been cheerfully received and used for want of better 
fuel. This makes larger grates appear attractive not only be- 
cause they offer greater leeway to meet the accidental state 
of the coal market, but also because they make It possible to 
use lower grades of coal. The extremely large grates required 
for anthracite coal are not needed with most western coals, but 
a moderate increase of area, obtained by increasing the width 
of the firebox, may be expected on several roads In the near 
future. 

The Fireman. 
The demands upon heavy passenger locomotives in use on 
a number of roads involve an amount of work for the firemen 
which is nearer the limit of their physical endurance than 
is generally realized. When all goes well a heavy passenger 
run is not so hard, but in zero weather. In snow storms with 
everything frozen that can freeze, with from 60 to 100 lbs. steam 
pressure for heating a train of from 10 to 14 heavy cars, 
the firing of the engine is a hardship. A regular run of 180 



miles requires, say, 8 tons of coal In 4% hours, with 8 cars. 
Ihis is comparatively easy on the fireman in good weather, 
but when the train has an extra car, when the weather is bad 
and one-half hour is to be made up, ten tons of coal are handled 
by the fireman in 4 hours, or 2V4 tons per hour. Three tons 
per hour Is satisfactory work by a laborer in the coal chutes, 
where it is merely moved by the shovel, but the fireman must 
not only handle nearly as much as this, but he must place 
it skilfully on the grates, keep an eye on the steam gage, help 
the engineer with the water, and, what Is worse, he must 
average several steps after each scoopful of coal. Men do this 
rizht along every day and little is thought of it. A question 
of two firemen on a locomotive may be up for settlement some 
day. That time will be deferred by aiding the fireman as 
much as possible. When there is an opportunity to do so, it 
is worth while to have a laborer shovel the coal forward at 
some water station stop to save steps for the fireman during 
the latter part of the nm. The sloping tank is good, but it 
does not go far enough, and with coal containing much slack 
the shoveling is necessary, because it will not run of itself. 
The best way to relieve the fireman, which means also reliev- 
ing the engine, the track and all. is to reduce the lost time 
to the lowest possible amount. Better attention to the signal- 
ing and the modernizing of water stations are labor savers 
which are not appreciated. When these are as they ought 
to be, there will be no slackening of speed on account of un- 
certainty about signals, and water station stops will be reduced 
to seventy-five seconds. Both of these items become very im- 
portant in fast runs and especially when making up time. 

This is a subject which is spoken of rather guardedly. It is. 
however, a most Important factor, and will soon compel the 
consideration of improvements in the use of steam with a force 
that is not to be ignored. The tendency toward increasing the 
demands for steam was seen recently in a new way. It was 
on an engine hauling 14 cars in a passenger train. In order 
to heat the cars a special order was issued by the Division 
Superintendent to the engineer instructing him to carry a 
steam pressure of SO pounds per square inch on the train 
heating system. The combination of severe requirements for 
passenger service, particularly in winter weather, is a matter fit 
to worry about, particularly because the end is not yet in 
sight. 

Piston Valves. 

Piston valves make friends everywhere and we shall soon 
hear of roads which will order no other valves. The opinion 
that this is one of the greatest improvements in modern loco- 
motive designing is justified by the views of those who are 
best able to see its merits. The satisfaction with the princi- 
ples of the piston valve appears to be universal where it Is 
used, and the fact that it is being adopted in switch engines 
shows its present status. Central admission and hollow valves 
seem to call out the best and strongest endorsement. It is 
believed that this type of valve will soon be made to show 
greater improvements than have thus far been brought out. 
Experiments are now being made on an Important fundamen- 
tal and promising improvement in locomotive valve motion. 
In a short time it will be shown that locomotive cylinder clear- 
ances can be reduced to terms heretofore believed to be im- 
possible of achievement. We shall seen see designs for apply- 
ing piston valves to old engines to replace the flat valves upon 
the tops of ordinary cylinders. 

Engine Failures. 

Systematic watching of the failures of detail parts is practiced 
on a number of leading roads, and in consequence there is a 
remarkable reduction in the numben of failures in service 
which formerly caused delays to trains. This is not a new 
idea but it is coming into more general use. There is no bet- 
ter way to study design than to observe the effects of improve- 
ments in the form of slight changes in the shape and size 
of parts. In crank pins, axles, piston rods and parts of valve 
gear and spring rigging, the effect is most marked. One of 
the best ways to keep these records is by aid of printed sheets 



82 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



bearing, in copying inl?, outline sketches of ttie various parts, 
upon which local officials may indicate the location of frac- 
tures; and on the Rame sheet space for explanatory remarks 
is provided. These, when collected for a definite period, fur- 
nish a great deal of positive information as a basis for changes 
in design, and subsequent records bring out the effects of those 
changes. This involves very little time and labor, and the 
returns amply justify the trouble. In fact this is the only 
way to secure this important information. 
Car Construction. 
In car construction the greatest amount of thought is being 
put upon methods for increasing capacity without unduly in- 
creasing weight. The high prices of steel account for a ten- 
dency toward the development of large capacities in wooden 
cars with deep trusses and metal bolsters. Next in importance 
is the improvement in draft gear. For freight cars strong and 
simple rigging is sought. This applies specially to those roads 
having recently put very large locomotives into service, some 
of which give a draw-bar pull of between 45,000 and .50,000 
pounds, which is far beyond the capacities of the ordinary draft 
rigging. The result is that the front portion of trains hauled 
by these engines are running with the draft springs compressed 
solid. This is severe on the entire underframlng of the car 
as well as upon the draft rigging itself. In passenger equip- 
ment more attention is being given to the lateral play of coup- 
lers. Several roads are considering the adoption of spring 
devices providing about 5 inches of total side play of the 
coupler shanks instead of 1 inch, which is the prevailing 
amount. This is a great improvement, particularly in cars 
having long overhang from the truck centers to the plat- 
forms. 

Cost of Work. 

The most elusive and. at the same time, most valuable infor- 
mation to the motive power officer, is the cost of doing work. 
It is very easy to omit important items in securing statistics 
of ihis kind, particularly in repair work, but in order to effect 
improvements intelligently such information is necessary, and 
it is apparent that clerical expenses are being increased with 
this fact in view. This tendency is reflected in many plans 
for new shops in which better methods of handling material 
and economies in the distribution of power are promised. It 
is not in the actual saving of power that the great advantage 
of this idea lies so much as in the saving of labor in running 
the shops and in the transportation of material. Some of the 
shops which are now being overhauled or supplanted by new 
ones now employ nine and even more independent steam plants, 
with the corresponding number of attendants. The centraliza- 
tion of the power plant into a single power station is the rule, 
and in several of these steam, electric, hydraulic and pneu- 
matic machinery is so grouped as to permit of the minimum 
cost for attendance. In such a complex plant as a modern rail- 
road repair shop it is necessary to provide all of these power 
distributing systems, and once having the facilities, each system 
may be called upon for the service to which it is best adapted. 

Men. 

Almost universal is the demand for men to take the respon- 
sibilities which the present unusual conditions of activity have 
created. There is a crying need for more systematic methods 
of training young men for advancement. The great number 
of changes made during the past year in the motive power de- 
partments of many large roads is impressive. It points forci- 
bly to a serious weakness. Giving due weight to the occasional 
advantages of "new blood." these wholesale changes ought not 
to be necessary. Theoretically, every man should consider it 
a most important part of his work to educate and prepare 
his own successor. Subordinates should be selected with a 
view of the possibilities of advancement, and the most suc- 
cessful men of the future will be those who apply this broad 
and fundamental principle. It is easy to find roads in which 
the entire personnel of important departments are disheart- 
ened and discouraged by an utter disregard of this idea. An 
extreme case of this kind now exists in which seven men are 



wanted at once in the motive power department of one road. 
The necessity for this situation is doubted, and the attention 
of the presidents should be given to this question. It is one 
which is of vital importance to the stockholders. 

The new President of one of our most important roads re- 
cently told the writer of his experiences on assuming charge 
of the property. After he had looked over the situation he 
met the heads of departments and division officers and told 
them what he expected them to accomplish in the first year. 
Some said it could not be done. The reply was: "My expecta- 
tions are reasonable and you will be given every opportunity 
to carry them out. If you cannot secure the results others 
will be invited to try it, but I want you to do it," Very few 
changes have been necessary, and in three months several of 
the division superintendents had done that for which the 
President had allowed a year. This is far better than a "new 
blood" policy from the start. It has had an almost electrical 
eu-ect on this road. 

There is a strong tendency among railroad officers to follow 
details too closely. It is necessary to spend more time in per- 
fecting such an organization as will place the responsibilities 
for detail upon subordinates. 

What a difference it would make in great corporations if 
the heads of departments could get their work running so that 
they could sit down for 15 minutes every day and think! 



CHICAGO & NORTHWESTERN SHOPS AT CHICAGO. 



Extensive Improvements. 



General Scheme. 



When the Chicago shops of this road were built in 1872 they 
represented the best practice of the time. They have not 
been kept up to date and increased demands necessitated the 
extensive additions and improvements which are now being 
carried out to meet the delHands of that part of the road which 
is tributary to Chicago. The greatest need was in the boiler 
work and it was found that no part of the old boiler depart- 
ment could be utilized. This led to the consideration of these 
plans. 

These shops are the only ones of any extent on the Galena 
and Wisconsin divisions, where the heaviest work of the road 
is done. The general repairs tor these divisions and the 
heavy boiler work for the entire road and nearly all the new 
tank work is done here as well as nearly all of the making of 
new parts for locomotives and cars. As boiler making ma- 
chinery is very expensive, it was considered advisable to con- 
centrate all of this work here for 1,062 C. & N, W. engines, as 
well as that for general repairs of about 500 engines. When 
the firebox i-epairs of the Fremont, Elkhorn & Missouri Val- 
ley are included, boiler shop facilities for 1,185 locomotives 
were required, and this is provided in these plans. The com- 
plete scheme provided for other extensive additions, which, 
however, will not now be carried out. The car department 
will have two new buildings. The plan shown in the accom- 
panying engraving gives the locations of the new buildings, of 
which there are three for the machinery department, besides 
an addition to the tank shop, A new power station, a new 
boiler shop, an annex to the machine shop, and an addition 
to the tank shop of 144 feet are now under way. The descrip- 
tion in detail will be presented later. 

The new boiler shop is placed north of the locomotive ma- 
chine shop and has a floor 120 by 300 feet, with the main por- 
tion 67 feet wide. The riveting tower at the north end is 
56 feet high and the wing is 67 feet wide by 20 feet high. The 
old boiler shop becomes the paint shop under the new plan. It 
is 80 feet wide and will be rearranged inside. At its upper 
end is an annex for the sand-blast apparatus used to clean old 



March, liioo. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 83 




paint from tendoi- tanks. The tank shop Is extended north- 
ward and these buildings are arranged to be served by an 
extension of the present transfer table at the east side of the 
machine and boiler shops. This transfer table pit will be about 
900 feet long. 

At the northwest end of the locomotive shop is the machine 
shop annex, in which all of the work of making parts of loco- 
motives will be concentnitPd. This includes crank pins, piston 
rods, brass work and other details which are now scattered all 
over the large machine shop in such a way as to seriously in- 
terfere with the other work '.n the shop. This building is 
two stories high and it provides for a considerable extension 
of facilities beyond the present needs. It is 100 by 150 feet on 
the ground, the first story has 18 feet 6 inches head room and 
the second story 13 feet in the clear. There Is an opening 42 
by 132 feet through the second floor, with two foot bridges 
across the opening. 

The tank shop, besides being lengthened, will have Its walls 
raised to 24 feet 7 inches, which is the height of the walls 
of the new part. It will have a 30-ton traveling crane and ten 
tenders will be handled at once in this shop. It is admirably 
arranged, as will be seen in the detailed description. 

An extensive improvement of the main locomotive shop. 
which combines the machine and erecting shops, was consid- 
ered, with a view of providing adequate crane service, but the 
span of the roof, 120 feet, discouraged this for the present. It 
is now provided with a walking crane through the middle of 
the building and with small traveling cranes over the repair 
pits. At some future time this building will be raised or re- 
constructed in order to provide heavy electric traveling cranes 
capable of lifting locomotives. 

This plant is also the most extensive on the road for the 
repair of cars. The new building south of the west end of 
the wood machine shop is for the storage of lumber. It is to 
be 40 by 140 feet, and the large one between paint shop No. 
4 and car erecting shop No. 5 is to be 80 by 302 feet. This 
is to be divided into smaller shops, the quarter of the length 
at the north end being divided between pipe-fitting and bufling 
rooms. The upholstery shop is next, occupying about two- 
thirds of the length of the building, while the remainder is 
to be used for varnishing the sashes and blinds of cars. The 
entire upper story is for the storage of seats, cirshions and 
other car fittings. All of the parlor cars of the road have 
separate sets of seats for winter and summer use. which ne- 
cessitates considerable storage room. 

In considering the distribution of power it was decided to 
allow the car department plant to remain as it is owing to the 
fact that its steam power is produced by the burning of 
refuse material. There were ?even isolated steam plants, in- 
cluding that for the paint mill Vbuilding No. 261. which it 
seemed feasible to replace by a better system, as these all 
burned coal and involved separate attendance. The increase 
in the use of compressed air. in lighting and in power involved 
by the improvements led to the provision of an up-to-date 
power station in which all the steam, electric, pneumatic and 
hydraulic power systems will be concentrated. The boiler 
ulant will have three 500-horse-power Babcock & Wilcox boil- 
ers with feed-water heaters and mechanical stokers, the draft 
being provided by a brick chimney, as this was considered a 
cheaper arrangement than the induced-draft system. The coal 
storage provides for ISO tons in hoppers in the boiler room. 
The engines are by the Ball Engine Company, the air com- 
oressor by Fraser & Chalmers, with a capacity of 1.500 cubic 
feet of free air per minute. The generators and motors are by 
the General Electric Company, installed by the construction 
department of the Chicago Edison Company. 

Work has been started on all of the buildings, but it is now 
moving slowly on account of the difficultv in securing mate- 
rial. We are indebted to Mr. Robert Quayle, Superintendent of 
Motive Power of the road, for the plan and Mr. G. R. Hender- 
son, Assistant Superintendent of Motive Power, for the details 
used in the preparation of these articles. 



84 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 




Twelve-Wheel, Two-Cylinder Compound, Chicago & Eastern Illinois R. R. 
Built by the Pittsburgh Locomotive Wobks. 



TWELVE-WHEEL TWO-CYLINDER COMPOUND LOCOMO- 
TIVE. 



Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railroad. 



Built by the Pittsburg Locomotive Works. 



This large two-cylinder compound has just been delivered 
to the Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railroad by the Pittsburg 
Locomotive Works, and it is interesting as another example of 
the appreciation of the principle of increased locomotive power 
for the hauling of heavy trains. The Chicago & Eastern Illi- 
nois has an exceedingly heavy coal business, and this engine 
was brought out for this service. It may be taken as an illus- 
tration of the wide acceptance of the heavy locomotive as a 
factor in reducing the cost of transportation. 

The total weight is 182,200 pounds and the weight on driv- 
ing wheels 144,000 pounds. This engine is somewhat lighter 
than the two-cylinder compounds of the same type built in 
1897 for the Northern Pacific (see March. 1897, page 97), which 
is the design with which it compares most closely. With 
these weights in view, the heating surface of 2,273 square feet 
seems small. With but 3,800 pounds more total weight, the 
Northern Pacific engines have nearly 30 per cent, more total 
heating surface. The cylinders of the C. & E. I. engine are 
21 V^ and 33 by 30 inches, and the driving wheels 54 inches In 
diameter. The valves are the American balance type. The 
following table gives the chief characteristics of the de- 
sign: 

Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railroad.— Weights and General Dimen- 
sions of Twelve-Wheel Compound Locomotive. 

Fuel Bituminous coal 

Gauge of track 4 ft. SV. in. 

Total weight o" engine in working order 182.2fl0'lbs. 

Total weight of engine on drivers 144,000 lbs. 

Height from rail to top of stack 14 ft. 9% in. 

Driving-wheel base of engine 15 ft. 6 in. 

Total wheel base of engine 26 ft. 2 in. 

Total wheel base of engine and tender 54 ft. 6 in. 

Cylinders, high pressure, diameter and stroke 21% by 30 in. 

Cylinders, low pressure, diameter and stroke 33 by 30 in. 

Slide valves American balance 

Piston rod.5 Cambria steel, 4 in. diameter 

Type of boiler Extended wagon top 

Diameter of boiler at smallest ring B4 in. 

Diameter of boiler at back head 72 in. 

Crown sheet supported by radial stays, 1% in. diameter. 
Staybolts. 1 in. diameter, spaced about 4 in. centers. 

Number of tubes 288 

Diameter of tubes 2 in. 

Length of tubes over tube sheets 13 ft. 6 in. 

Length of tirel.ox, inside 126 in. 

^\'idth of firebox. Inside 41 in. 

Working pressure ; 200 lbs 

Kind of gratety Cast-iron rocking 

Grate area 36 sq. ft. 



Heating surface in tubes 2,081 sq. ft. 

Heating surface in firebox 192 sq. ft. 

Total heating surface 2,273 sq. ft. 

Diameter of driving wheels, outside of tire 54 in. 

Diameter and length of journals 8^ by 10 in. 

Diameter of truck wheels 28 in. 

Diameter and length of truck journals 6 by 10 in. 

Type of tank Level top 

Capacity of tank, water 4,500 U. S. gallons 

Capacitv of tank, fuel 320 cu. ft. 

Weight of tender with water and fuel .' 93,000 lbs. 

Type of brake Westinghouse American 

INTERSTATE COMMERCE COMMISSION RECORD OF 
ACCIDENTS IN COUPLING CARS. 



Previous to its last annual report the Commission had ex- 
pressed the opinion that until all cars were equipped, the 
advantages of automatic couplers as a means of protection to 
employees would not be demonstrated by the falling off in the 
number of killed and injured in coupling and uncoupling cars, 
and that view finds some support in the showing of casualties 
for the year ending June 30, 1898, when the number killed 
was 279 and the number injured was 4,988. While 1 em- 
ployee was killed out of every 349 employed in 1893, and in 
1897 the number was 1 killed to 647 employed, the figures were 
1 killed to 518 employed in 1898. The ratio of injured to those 
employed was 1 to 13 in 1893, 1 to 22 in 1897, and 1 to 21 in 1898. 
In 1899. for which year full returns have not yet been made, it 
is found that 199 were killed and 5,339 Injured upon 89 roads, 
while in 1898. on the same roads, 209 were killed and 5.484 were 
injured. 

The causes of the large number of deaths and injuries still 
resulting to employees v/hile engaged in railway operations are 
believed to be: (1) The increased percentage of inexperienced 
men employed since the decrease which resulted from the panic 
of 1893. (2) The greater number of tons carried per man em- 
ployed, owing to the use of cars having greater weight and 
greater weight-carrying capacity. (3) The use of old and in- 
ferior cars, owing to the unusually great demands for trans- 
portation facilities on all roads and in all sections of the coun- 
try. (4) The transition from the link-and-pin to the vertical- 
plane type of coupler. 



THE BRAKEBEAM SUIT. 



Editor American Engineer and Railroad Journal: 

Our attention has just been called to a circular issued by the 
Interchangeable Brake Beam Co. referring to the patent suits 
pending between this company and that, and we beg to call 
attention to a material omission in their circular, viz.: They 
omitted referring to the fact that the case, prior to the date of 
their circular, was appealed to the United States Court of Ap- 
peals and the decision of which court will determine whether 
"the railroads can use the Interchangeable Brake Beam freely" 
or not. We think it only proper that attention should be called 
to the fact that the question is yet to be finally determined, and 
is still "in the court." 

CHICAGO RAILWAY EQUIPMENT CO. 
Chicago, February IB, 1900. 



March, 1900. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILHOaD JOURNAL. 83 



EDITORIAL CORRESPONDENCE. 



Lake Shore & Miohigan Southern. 

The new 10-wheel passenger locomotives are eontinuing to 
do excellent work, and the freight engines, which we described 
last month, arrived in the nick of time. There were 25 of them 
and they came during a violent snow storm and went immedi- 
ately to work in the emergency without the customary few days 
or weeks of nursing and petting to break them in. It evidently 
was a relief to the situation that was greatly appreciated be- 
cause they gave no trouble whatevei- and they prevented a 
blockade of the road. 

These engines are remarkably handsome. Their drivers are 
62 inches in diameter which, with the exception of the engines 
built last year for the Lehigh Valley, are the largest ever used 
for the consolidation type. They are hauling trains of 2,800 
and 3.000 tons on the main line, where the maximum grade 
is not over 16 feet per mile. They have hauled trains of 85 cars 
which means a total length of over 3,000 feet. The object of 
the large wheels was to insure speeds as high as made by the 
ten-wheelers previously in use. while the loads hauled are very 
much greater. They have already shown the value of this fea- 
ture, for one was used in an emergency to haul "The Limited," 
which, we are told, was done in schedule time. Formerly the 
heaviest main-line freight engine was a 19i^ by 30 in. ten- 
wheeler with 62 in. drivers and a total weight of 156,000 lbs. 
and 117,000 lbs. on the drivers. The new consolidation en- 
gines have a total weight of 168.000 lbs. with 149.000 lbs. on 
the drivers and 21 by 30 inch cylinders, and the same sized 
drivers as the lighter engines. In order to provide for the 
stresses due to 21 inch cylinders the main driving axle journals 
are 9Vi by 12 in., which is one inch larger in diameter than the 
other journals. The total weight of these engines was limited 
to 172,000 lbs. The driving box brasses are relieved for about 
1*4 in. on the main journals and 1% in. on the others after 
the manner of truck brasses in order to reduce the area of con- 
tact between the brasses and the journals to that which really 
supports weight. The passenger and freight engines steam 
well and are very satisfactory. They exhibit the greatest sav- 
ing in weight by the use of cast steel and the reduction of sec- 
tions that is to be found, and they represent the maximum 
power that could be had with this weight. 



Chicago & Northwestern. 

This road, in common with a number of western lines, is 
having difficulty just now in securing the grade of coal which 
they have been using, and for which their fireboxes are 
adapted. The reason for this is not as important as the effect 
upon the cost of the fuel and its action in the engine. The 
coal now received, and it is the best obtainable under the cir- 
cumstances, though costing less than that formerly used, is 
really much more expensive because a great deal more is re- 
quired. This points forcibly to the very great importance of 
the adaptation of the grates to the fuel, and not only to one 
particular kind of fuel. It is necessary to have more leeway 
in the choice of fuel, so that a variation, within reasonable 
limits, may be provided for to meet the requirements of the 
coals that are available. Mr. Quayle is rather more interested 
in the width of the firebox as a result of having to get along 
with poor coal for a while. He spoke with considerable favor 
of a moderate increase in grate area through an increase in 
width. It is not necessary to go to the large grate areas used 
in the East for culm burning, but we may expect to see a 
rational treatment of the wider firebox in the West in the near 
future. 

Mr. Quayle and his assistant. Mr. Henderson, are very care- 
fully watching the failures of locomotives on the road by 
means of reports returned by the division master mechanics. 
These reports are tabulated, and every six months the break- 
ages are analyzed and discussed in a meeting of the officers 
of the department. This has resulted In a large reduction in 



engine failures, due to the Information obtained in regard to 

the weakness which service develops. 

The bulging of the side sheets of locomotive fireboxes has 
liien investigated by Mr. G. M. Davidson, Chemist and Engi- 
neer of Tests of this road. He believed that the bulging of 
the sheets between the staybolts was one effect of the water 
used to wash out the boilers while hot, and proved his point. 
Four 24-inch square sheets of %-inch boiler plate were cut, 
and one of them was secured to another, but thicker sheet, by 
staybolts as in the case of a firebox. The sheets were heated 
just below a cherry red and cooled by the application of a 
jet of cold water at the center. One of the sheets had two, 
one had six, and the third, twelve heatings and coolings. There 
was no application of exterior force, yet the sheets bulged 
under the stresses of contraction. The first bulged at the 
center to a height of about 2 inches, the second 5 inches, and 
the third 8 inches, showing the relative effects of two, six and 
twelve coolings. The sheet that was secured to another sheet, 
as in a firebox, was heated and cooled five times by the jet 
at the center, and afterward five times with jets in the four 
corners. The first treatment caused an outward bulge at the 
center, but this was drawn in by the other coolings until but 
a slight bulge remained. At the four corners, however, there 
were pronounced bulges, identical in appearance with those 
found in fireboxes which are worked hard in service. The 
staybolts were all loosened so that they would leak if put 
under pressure; but it should be clearly understood that the 
stresses in these experiments were entirely and solely those 
due to expansion and contraction. The conclusion drawn is 
that cold water injures firebox sheets and that the bulging 
so often found is probably due to this cause. It may be pre- 
vented, or at least improved, by furnishing enough engines 
so that the time for cooling off may be allowed before washing 
out. This, however, may be much more expensive than the 
frequent replacement of the side sheets. 

Two new methods of removing fireboxes are being devel- 
oped on this road. In both of these, pneumatic drills are em- 
ployed to drill into the staybolt through the outside sheet. 
Then in one of the methods a tool made somewhat like this 
sketch is placed in the drill hole and, driven by pneumatic 
power, it cuts off the staybolt at the bottom of the drilled 
hole. 

The other method is even simpler than this. The staybolts 
are drilled through the sheet as before, the hole being % inch, 
or larger, according to the size of the staybolt. A punch like 
those used by blacksmiths is then inserted in the hole, and 
when struck a blow with a sledge, the bolt breaks off. We 
have no record of the time required for this method, but for 
the first it is stated that when cut out in the old way, with 




-f .-.- 4^ ^^ 

Device for Cutting Staybolts. 

a chisel and sledge, 90 man-hours were required for a firebox 
containing 896 staybolts. This has been reduced to 15 man- 
hours by the use of the new tool illustrated. With smaller 
fireboxes the time is much shorter. One man now does the 
work alone, and any portion of a side sheet may be renoved 
without taking out the mud ring or the back head. 

Mr. Henderson has worked out an usually complete indiv5da<il 
record for locomotives, giving the characteristics of each class 
and the special equipment. It has 11 columns to record 
changes when repaired. He has also compiled a record of ma- 
chine tools in the possession of the road, giving the original 
cost, size, age and present value of each, the name of the 
maker, and shop in which it is used. He has made a simple 
improvement in ordinary shop air hoists for the purpose of 
cushioning the upward motion, in order to prevent the piston 
from striking the upper head hard enough to cause the load 



86 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



to jump off the hook. He merely drills a small hole in the top 
head to allow the air above the piston to escape slowly, and the 
cylinder thus acts as a dash pot to stop the motion gradu- 
ally. 



GRAPHICAL TREATMENT OF HELICAL SPRINGS. 



By Edward Grafstrom. 
Mechanical Engineer Illinois Central R. R. 



Columbu.s, Hocking Valley & Toledo. 
This company has just completed a large coach paint shop, 
adjacent to their repair shops, which is a great improvement 
over the previous arrangement, in which the painting was done 
at a distance of several miles from the main locomotive repair 
works. The freight equipment is being overhauled, a large 
number of large-capacity cars have been built, and many light 
engines with 16-inch cylinders are being increased in power 
by the building of larger boilers and the use of larger cylin- 
ders. This is essentially a coal road, and the passenger busi- 

Deflections 



In the "American Engineer and Railroad Journal" of Decem- 
ber, 1S98, page 396, and following, Mr. F. J. Cole had an inter- 
esting article on "Springs," in his series on "Locomotive De- 
sign," and many readers have probably found the diagram 
of working loads and deflections for semi-elliptical springs very 
convenient and useful in proportioning springs of this kind. 
The writer regretted at the time the paper was published that 
a similar diagram had not been furnished for helical springs, 
for which the mathematical formulas are perhaps still more 
unwieldy than for the elliptical ones. Since then there have 
appeared, in several European papers, diagrams for similar 

in Inches. 

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* JOOO '^ '^ 
Load in Pounds. 
Diagram of Working Loads and Deflections of Helical Springs, 



2000ZJ3S, 



ness is relatively light. Mr. Stiffey, Superintendent of Motive 
Power, has recently fitted up the entire plant with air pipes, 
and pneumatic power will be used for all work to which it is 
adapted. 

This road has been testing Lucol spraying paints with great 
satisfaction because of the rapid work which its use permits. 
This spraying paint "sets" more rapidly and it covers more 
area than other paints. Cars are not detained as long as be- 
fore because they are finished very quickly. In most cases 
one coat of the Lucol is sufflcient, and answers for two coats 
of some other paints, and thus the car is kept out of service for 
painting but 12 hours instead of 24. It is common practice 
to painf and letter a tar in 12 hours at these shops. The tests 
on this road were made out in the weather when the tempera- 
ture was 10 degrees below zero. Under such severe condi- 
tions there was no sign of crawling or crinkling of the paint 
on the iron work or on the galvanized-iron roofs, as would 
be seen with linseed-oil paints. 



formulas, and as such diagrams can be adopted to graphically 
illustrate the expressions of which Mr. Cole made use, the writer 
submits an example herewith, believing it to be original, at 
least as far as the deflection is concerned, and hoping that it 
will be found a useful adjunct to Mr. Cole's excellent article. 

In order to understand the development of the diagram, the 
following explanation will be necessary. The symbols are the 
same as used by Mr. Cole, viz.: 

P = working load. 

d = diameter of steel bar. 

R = radius to center of coil. 

D = deflection of spring under working load. 

G = modulus of shearing elasticity, 13,000,000. 

L =; length of bar before coiling. 

S = working shearing fibre strain, 45,000 pounds. 



March,900. AMERICAN engineer and railroad journal 87 



M^ number of coils. 

Considering now tiie first forniiil:i iisccl hy Mr. Cole; 

16R 

it can lip rc-wrilten tlius: 

Tt d 
P = - • — S ■ <1 •. 
i6 R 
By lalliMK tlie exprossion 

n d 

— • - • S =^ C, 
10 R 
we get.P = C . d-, wliich will be recognized as the equation for 
the parabola, whose curve can now easily be drawn by insert- 
ing the numerical values of it and S, and assuming a certain 
ratio for R : d. In the accompanying diagram this ratio has 
been taken as 1. 2, 3, 4 or 5, and five parabolic curves drawn 
accordingly, with the point O as vertex. P marked off along 
the abscissa, and d measured on the ordinate. 

For tlic deflection Mr. Cole uses the following foi'mula: 
3RSL 

D= , 

uG 
and for L the equation L= M:iit\{. 
By combination we then get: 

2K6 M.ttR 

da' 

which expresses the total deflection in the whole spring. 

In order to reduce it to deflection per coil, M will now be 

dropped: 

2RS • InVi 

D = . 

d G 
Dividing this by d. carrying out the raultiiilications, and re- 
writing the equation, we get: 

D /RX" 4*8 



(.-) 

al valu 



d Vd / G 

After inserting the numerical values of S, G and n, it appears 
thus: 

D /R\' 

043.J. 



It will now be seen that this is the equation for a straight 
line forming with the ordinate an angle, the tangent for which 
is equal to 0,o435 multiplied by the square of the ratio be- 
tween R and d. Assuming this ratio as before to be 1, 2, 3, 4 
or 5, five scraight lines have been drawn on the diagram, for 
convenience's sake with negative abscissa from the lower right 
hand corner, and the scale for measuring the deflection has 
been drawn above the diagram in decimals of inches in order 
to be comparable with Mr. Cole's table for the deflections of 
helical springs. By multiplying these deflections by the num- 
ber of coils the total deflections of springs can be obtained. 

As an illustration of the use of the table, we will select a 
spring for a load of 1,500 pounds, and suppose that space makes 
the ratio R : d =; 4 most suitable. By following the vertical 
line drawn through the 1,500-pound mark until it cuts the 
parabola marked 4. and then following a horizontal line through 
this point to the left margin, we come to the 13/16-inch mark, 
which is then the diameter of the bar. The same horizontal 
line cuts the angular line marked 4 at a distance from the 
right hand margin, which projected on the decimal scale at the 
top gives us 0.57 inch, which is thus the deflection per coil. 

For comparing the results obtained from the diagram and 
the table, we will take a spring of %-inch steel and 5^4 inches 
outside diameter. The diameter at the center of the coil is then 
5% — % ;= 4%. and R is consequently 21,4 inches, which, divided 
by %. gives a ratio of 3. By following the horizontal line 
through the %-inch mark, we find that it crosses the parabola 
marked 3 between the vertical lines drawn from the 1,600 and 
1.700-pound mark, nearer the latter. This gives then the capa- 
city of the spring. We also find that the same horizontal line 



intersects the angular line marked 3 In the Hame point. The 
distance from this point to the right hand margin, projected 
on the scale above, gives a deflection of very nearly 0.3 of an 
inch. Comparing these figures with those in Mr. Cole's table, 
we find that the corresponding values are given as 1,657 pounds 
and 0.293 inch. 

It should be said in conclusion, that the diagram is t<ased 
on an average fibre strain of 45.000 pounds, whereas in Mr. 
Cole's table the fibre strain varies from 40.000 to 50,000 pounds, 
which makes a small difference in comparing the values ob- 
tained from the diagram and from the table. 



WEAKNESS OF DRAWBAR YOKES. 



An important improvement in the construction of drawbar 
yokes was made several years ago by the Cleveland City Forge 
& Iron Company. It is now an absolute necessity in view of 
the present situation with regard to draft gear. The attention 
of a representative of this journal was directed to the differ- 
ence in the draw bar yokes as made by usual methods, and by 
the special method used by the firm referred to. This led to 
a personal examination of the manufacture at their works, 
which led to the conclusion that the process is not generally 
known. Those who know about it buy no other yokes though 
the price is higher. 

At a recent meeting of the Central Railroad Club. Mr. West 
of the New York, Ontario & Western stated that upon replacing 



o o; 



c e 



____; 



Full Corners. 



Weak Corners. 



Improvement in Drawbar Yokes. 
Cleveland City Forge & Iron Co. 

the original tail pins of the draft gear on that road with yokes, 
nearly as many breakages occurred as before, although the 
yokes were made of 1 by 4 inch iron. The back ends, which 
were presented to the followers, broke away from the two par- 
allel side portions. This was thought to be due in some cases 
to the iron being "red short" and when bent the temperature 
was such as to start cracks at the corners. The shocks and 
stresses of service soon finished the fractures. 

The fundamental trouble, however, is with the shape of the 
bends. If the M. C. B. lines are followed, it is necessary to 
make a short bend at the corners, and notwithstanding the 
recent increase in the radius from 14 to % in., the short bend 
as ordinarily made reduces the thickness of the iron at the 
angle, some, recently exaaiined. being reduced to % in. and less. 
Mr. West referred to the fact tiat the Cleveland City Forge & 
Iron Company was manufacturing yokes in which the difficulty 
was overcome, and Mr. Waitt imiiediately stated that purchas- 
ing yokes from these makers probably accounted for the fact 
that the Lake Shore had been entirely free from the trouble. 

The increased radius helps a little, but It remains impossible 
to avoid thinning the metal down unless it is specially provided 
for in the forging. The yokes referred to thus favorably are 
made in two operations. The first bends the yoke roughly to 
shape and the second presses it into final form over a mandrel. 
This is done in a specially powerful forging press, and the 
clearances aie made in such a way as to upset the metal so as 
to fill out the corners and it is upset only at the corners. By 
this method the section of the iron at the corners is increased 
over the original section, and this will be readily seen to be a 
decided advantage, as it furnishes the largest section where it 
is most needed. 



88 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



COMPOUND LOCOMOTIVES. 



WESTINGHOUSE FRICTION DRAFT GEAR. 



Disposition o£ Steam in tlie Two-Cylinder Type. 



Mr. F. W. Dean, in discussing locomotive practice, before 
the New England Railroad Club, stated that he regarded the 
compound principle as "the greatest improvement that has 
been introduced into the motive power departments of rail- 
roads." 

This is the greatest improvement in such engines that has 
been made since locomotives were first built, for two reasons; 
first, because it is the only improvement in principle that has 
been widely applied, and second, because it is the only funda- 
mental means of economy of fuel and water that can be ap- 
plied. That it is successful in realizing economy is no more a 
matter of doubt than that the sun shines. 

A type of engine that can save nearly one-quarter of the coal 
now used by simple locomotives; that reduces water consump- 
tion by 15 to 20 per cent.; that steams better than simple en- 
gines in hard places; that reduces smoke, cinders, and the fire 
risk; that diminishes boiler and slide-valve repairs, and that 
does not necessarily increase repairs of any kind, must be 
adopted as soon as it is intelligently designed and prejudices 
are relegated to the background. . . . 

The question as to the type of compound locomotive is like- 
ly to arise frequently, and it can be laid down as a safe be- 
lief that the two-cylinder compound is more economical than 
that having any greater number of cylinders, for the reason 
that it has the least surface for condensation per unit of piston 
displacement. In large sizes, however, except for freight ser- 
vice, it is difiicult to obtain sufiicient port area for the low- 
pressure cylinder unless a departure is made in the valves from 
the ordinary practice. In fast work I 
believe that such engines will not be 
as economical as we have a right to 
expect unless a departure is made. The 
loss of work between the cylinders 
will counteract the economy to a 
greater or less extent than is due to 
the compound principle. 

The effect of the compound principle 
is persistent, and its economical result 
cannot be prevented except by the in- 
troduction of phenomena that come 
from improper designing. The defect 
above all to be avoided is the loss be- 
tween cylinders is so insidious, so to speak, and so lit- 
tle comprehended, that it should be dwelt upon sufficiently 
to make its causes and nature clear. It cannot be done away 
with, even in slow-running pumping engines, for even there 
some work must be absorbed in transferring the steam from 
one cylinder to the other. In addition to this cause, the various 
resistances produced by obstructions and abrupt changes in 
direction of the steam passages are to be noted. The steam 
in passing out of the first cylinder through the intercepting 
valve, where this is used, and through the open port of the 
low-pressure cylinder, is considerably retarded, and a loss of 
pressure is produced. Engines having piston valves suffer from 
this loss because the steam has to pass through gratings 
which form the ports. Engines that have the intercepting 
valve on the low-pressure side are much subject to this loss, 
because the steam is rapidly drawn from the receiver by the 
low-pressure piston through this restricted opening. If this 
valve is on the high-pressure side, the steam passes through 
it only as rapidly as it escapes from the small cylinder, and 
this is only some one-half to one-third as rapidly as it is 
drawn into the large cylinder. This shows the importance of 
placing the intercepting valve as near the high-pressure cyl- 
inder as possible. 

Having considered this loss, we are in a position to appre- 
ciate the reason why certain compound locomotives are highly 
economical, when working slowly, or even moderately fast, 
with heavy trains. In these cases, in consequence of late cut- 
offs, yet with considerable expansion and somewhat slow 
movement of the steam, the losses described are small, and 
bear a small proportion to the total work done. The result is 
that the compound is enabled to bring out its valuable quali- 
ties undiminished. 

Most compound locomotives have a low-pressure port ri- 
diculously small, so small, in fact, that, while simple engines 
require an extravagant velocity of steam through ports, even 
as high as 1.500 feet per second, some compounds have it two 
or three times as great. In such locomotives the loss between 
the cylinders is enormous, and the engine becomes useless for 
high speeds. 




-Vi > ii ■ 
Section at A-B 



Applied to Tenders of the Union Railroad, Pittsburg. 



One effect of the use of cars of large capacity and the recent 
introduction of exceedingly powerful locomotives is to direct 
attention to the weakness of the draft gear on cars and also 
on locomotive tenders, which is becoming serious because of 
the expense of repairs. The relief most naturally sought by 
railroad men is the increase of spring capacity in the draft 
rigging; but this, while improving the strength of the gears, 
introduces what is believed to be a serious difficulty, that of 
an increased liability of breaking the trains in two on account 
of the reflex action of these heavy springs when the load, 
either in tension or compression, is suddenly removed. This 
occurs in hauling trains out of "sags," and it points toward the 
desirability of improving the draft-gear capacity in some other 
way. The ideal plan for very heavy stresses seems to be one 
which greatly increases the resistance in both pulling and 
buffing without subjecting the parts to the sudden shocks of 
greater spring power. This is done by the Westinghouse fric- 
tion draft gear, which we shall describe in detail in a future 
issue. This device provides that which has not been accom- 
plished in any other way. It furnishes enough spring power 
and incidentally takes care of the very heavy stresses which 
heavier springs do not appear to be well adapted to handle, 
and it does this without endangering the equipment by exces- 
sive recoil. 

The very large consolidation locomotives built in 1898 for 





'^'.^ Washers 54'Ujlu 3 



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'<^ m\ \m^ '^- ^^ J ! ga- aXT 




-a- m\ rg-^t 



Westinghouse Friction'IDraft Gear, 

Applied to Tender with Steel Sills. 

Union R. R., Pittsburgh. 

the Union Railroad by the Pittsburg Locomotive Works, and 
illustrated in our issue of November, 1S98, page 365, had ex- 
ceptionally strong tender draft gear, but after running a num- 
ber of months it was found necessary to substitute the West- 
inghouse draft gear, as shown in one of our engravings. This 
is an example of its attachment to steel center sills, which 
■were orginally placed 13% inches apart, and while not spe- 
cially designed for its reception, the equipment goes in very 
nicely. It is held by heavy castings bolted by a number of 
%-inch bolts to the lower flanges of the large steel channels. 
This is a very simple and strong arrangement, making use 
of 20 close-fitting bolts to take the stresses of the stops. The 



March, 1900. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 89 




'Mtz 



^ 04J'^ r.k.4<ix' 




HtiCUun ut A-B 



stops are 1% by 9% inches. The construction 
is so clearly shown in the engraving as to be fully 
understood without further description. These en- 
gines have 23 by 32-inch cylinders, and the weight 
on driving wheels is 208.000 pounds, from which a 
good idea may be had of what the draft rigging is 
called upon to do. This coupler has a specially 
strong shank for attachment to the draft rigging. 

The other drawing shows the application of the 
draft gear to the tenders of the switching engines 
on the Union Railway, Pittsburg, illustrating its 
attachment to wooden sill construction, and it is 
specially interesting because of showing how ex- 
isting wooden structures may be adapted to receive 
it. In this case the casting containing the friction 
gear is supported by a cast saddle, which is bolted 
to the lower flanges of the two 10-lnch channels, 
the webs of which are cut away to receive the barrel. 
These channels are bolted to the bottom faces of the 
wooden center sills, as shown in the sectional view. The front 
view illustrates the substantial carrier casting, which is also 
shown in the longitudinal section, where its attachment to the 
end sill is seen. The yoke attachment is of 4 by l^i-inch iron 
and the draw-bar stops are unusually large. In the end view 
the ends of four large through rods are shown. These were 
used in connection with the draft gear with which the ten- 
ders were originally fitted. The lower rods were raised a little 
over one inch to accommodate the Westinghouse attachment. 
Attention is directed to the very large keys let into the end 
sill and the center sills over the draft gear, and to the large 
bracket castings at the rear of the whole rigging; also to the 
5 by 12-inch oak blocks placed between these brackets and 
secured by bolts to the bottom faces of the center sills. The 
inner brackets butt against the center plates. The upper 
flanges of these castings are let into the bottom faces of the 
sills, and they act as keys 1V4 inches thick to assist in trans- 
mitting the stresses to those large timbers. This draft gear 
was applied to these tenders to obviate serious diflSculty in 
regard to the ordinary gear, which required a large amount of 
repairs, and since this change there has been no trouble of any 
kind. The coupler shank is changed somewhat from the usual 
form to make it stronger where it connects to the yoke. With 
ordinary devices the coupler is much stronger than the draft 
gear, while with this equipment the order appears to be re- 
versed. 

It is impossible to give at this time exact comparative state- 
ments of the cost of maintenance of the Westinghouse friction 
draft gear with other draft gears because, so far as we know, 
no record has been kept of the time the equipment has been 
held idle in the shop for the repairs of the ordinary draft 
gear to be made. A statement is at hand, however, from a 
rajlroad in Pennsylvania, from which it is learned that seven 
six-wheel connected engines, operating with rigid draft gear on 
the tenders, showed an actual cost for repairs of the draft 
gear and end sills of 81 cents per 1.000 miles run; while four 
engines of exactly the same class, equipped with the Westing- 
house friction draft gear, have made a record of 76,800 miles 




Westinghouse Friction Draft Gear. 

Applied to Tender with Wooden Sills. 

Union R. R., Pittsburgh, 



since being thus equipped, without costing anything for repairs 
of these parts. This is a saving of 81 cents per 1,000 miles, or 
a total of $62.20 in favor of the friction draft gear in this 
mileage, which was made in six months, and in very severe 
service. 

On this same road two exceptionally heavy locomotives, put 
into service some time ago, were lifted with specially strong 
tender draft gear, designed with reference to the service by 
the builders, and after running 35,856 miles without expense 
for repairs it was found necessary to replace the draft rigging 
with the friction device. These two engines have since made 
a combined mileage of 23,364 miles with the new gear without 
any repairs, and the parts now appear to be in as good condi- 
tion as when the change was made. Some idea of the service 
may be had when it is stated that these engines are capable 
of exerting a draw-bar pull of over 50,000 pounds. 



A 100,000 HORSE POWER CENTRAL STATION. 

The power station of the Third Avenue Railroad of New 
York is to have the greatest power producing capacity ever 
assembled in one place. It is now under construction, and ac- 
cording to "Power." the capacities, as far as they have been 
decided upon, will be as follows: 

Boilers, number • •• -■• • • -60 

Boilers, capacity, each, rated 520 H. P. 

Boilers, aggregate capacity, rated 31.200 H. P. 

Boilers, heating surface 312,000 sq. ft. 

Working pressure 200 lbs. 

Engines, number ,, "; 

Diameter high-pressure cylinder 46 in. 

Diameter low-pressure cylinder S6 in. 

Revolutions per minute • • • • i5 

Aggregate area high-pressure pistons 26.590 sq. in. 

Aggregate area low-pressure pistons 92.940 sq. in. 

Aggregate area both pistons 119,530 sq. in. 

Horse power, rated, each ™'5S!1 

Horse power, rated, total ''^'Saa 

Horse power, maximum, each I'9Sn 

Horse power, maximum, total 112,000 

Ratio, maximum to rated l-So 

The plant will have the capacity to carry a sustained load 
of 100,000 H. P. The consumption of coal will be about 75 
tons per hour when running at full capacity. An idea of the 
engine capacity is given by the statement that if all of the 
piston area was combined in a single cylinder it would have 
a diameter of 32% feet. The contract for the boilers has been 
closed with the Babcock & Wilcox Co. They will be placed in 
two stories of the building and provided with automatic coal 
and ash handling machinery and Roney stokers. 



90 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL 




Btc'iou ax C. C Soctlon •! B. B. 

Fig. 1.-D. C. R. & W. Ry. 




Fig. 3.-Texas & Pacific R. R. 

(The weight of the rear wheel is 1,600 lbs., not 1.000, as indicated 

in the cut.) 

CAST-STEEL DRIVING WHEELS. 



Last month we printed a number of drawings of cast-steel 
driving wheels to show the possibilities of weight saving. The 
drawings which are now presented bring out other features. 
They show six designs of cast-steel driving wheels made by 
the Sargent Company of Chicago for as many different rail- 
roads. These range in diameter from 44 to 60 inches, and the 
weights are given in most of the engravings. 

Attention should be directed to the location of the divisions 
in the rims of cast-steel wheels. These are for the purpose of 
disposing of the internal stresses in the castings due to the 
unevenness of section through various parts of the wheel. 
The rim should be cut on both sides of the spokes running 
into the crank hub and into the counterweight. The reason 
for this is clear, but it is not always remembered by the 
draftsman in designing driving wheels. Wheels have been 
made successfully without cutting the rims, but it is believed 
to be safer to cut them. 

There are differences of opinion with regard to the best 




wb«i 


'AT-?,'- 


* 


vtighi 


Ftoo( 


6«1« 


0" 


1U0« 


R«r 


sei* 


s" 


liJO* 



Fig. 2.-lllinois Central R. R. 




Wl,» 


i!li'.!r. 





D 


rr... 


lyiV 


»■■ 


t.a' 


»Ub 


Hiie 


• ■' 





^^ 


•»« 


• ■ 


- 



?=w 



Fig. 4.— Wisconsin Central. 

shape of spokes. Some of the locomotive builders, notably 
the Baldwin and Schenectady, appear to favor the elliptical 
section, while others, the Brooks, prefer a nearly rectangular 
form. Both are successfully cast, although the rectangular 
spoke appears to have been a little more difficult to manage 
in the foundry at first. The foundrymen now seem to have 
no preference. As a matter of taste, the rectangular form 
is more graceful in appearance and it has the important ad- 
vantage of rendering the parts covered by the driving wheels 
more accessible. Various forms of spokes are seen in the 
illustrations of last month, and in the present article, and the 
light, open appearance of those of rectangular form is very 
marked. 

There is a strong inclination on the part of steel makers to- 
ward solid hubs, both for the axle and the crank pin. The 
form of counterbalance weight shown in Fig. 2, the Illinois 
Central 57%-inch wheel, the Wisconsin Central 50-inch wheel. 
Fig. 4, and the Texas & Pacific 56-inch wheel. Fig. 3, is also 
strongly advocated. These wheels are made with the counter- 
balance weights open on one side. If the steel makers receive 



March,i90o. AMERICAN engineer and railroad journal. 91 



the proper information from the railroads, the metal In the 
counterweights may be calculated very closely, so that very 
Tittle or no additions need be made in the shops. Some wheel 
centers are made entirely without counterweights, as in Fig. 
5, the Union Pacific wheel. This requires the use of blocks. 
Other designs require box forms of the castings, in which 
large cores must be supported, and some require centers with 
large pockets for the counterweights, with very limited open- 
ings for the venting of the cores. These castings are difficult 
to make on account of the danger of blow holes. For insuring 
sound castings, the open design is preferred. If box-shaped 
counterbalances are required, the cores should be vented 
through large openings in the rim and inside plate. 

The question of the steel to be used may safely be left to 
reputable makers, and it is not wise to hamper them too much 
with special requirements, although it is a good plan for the 
purchaser to keep close track of what he is buying. Acid open- 
hearth steel, with a composition as follows, has been found to 
give satisfactory results for locomotive parts, including wheel 
centers: 

Carbon, 0.25 to 0.30 per cent. 

Manganese, 0.60 to 0.80 per cent. 

Silicon. 0.25 to 0.35 per cent. 

Sulphur and phosphorus, below 0.04 per cent. 

Some time ago the Sargent Company made a comparison 
between annealed and unannealed pieces cast from the same 
heat, with the following results: 

Tensile strength Elongation Reduction 

lbs. per sq. in. in 8 Inches. of area. 

Spec. Unann'l'd. Ann'l'd. Unann'l'd. Ann'l'd. Unann'l'd. Ann'l'd. 

4.530 G1.740 60,000 18.5% 25.75% 22.2 51.15 

4.531 68,500 67,500 22 % 30 % 26.3 46.25 

Chemical Composition. 

Specimen. 4,530 4,531 

Carbon 0.28% 0.27 

Manganese 0.78 0.74 

Silicon 0.26 0.29 

Sulphur 0.046 0.049 

Phosphorus 0.028 0.028 




Fig, 5.— Union Pacific Ry. 

The fracture of the unannealed specimens was crystalline, 
which, in the annealing, changed to a silky appearance. This 
steel, when unannealed, is up to the ordinary specifications, al- 
though the reduction of area is rather low. This material Is 
believed to be excellent for wheel centers. As a guide to those 
who are preparing specifications for cast steel, the following 
are recommended as having been found satisfactory for driv- 
ing-wheel centers and other cast-steel parts: 

Specifications for Steel Castings. 

1. Castings must be true to pattern, sound and solid, free 
from sand, slag, scale and shrinkage cracks, and all fins and 
risers must be trimmed off in a workmanlike manner, and the 
castings have a reasonably smooth surface. 




Whrtl 


w'J'7, 


A 


FroM 


«14 


W" 


U*lo 


uo 


o" 


B«k 


4M 


L*" 



Fig. 6.-C. I. & L. Rv. 



2. All castings must be annealed unless otherwise speci- 
fied. 

3. All important and very large castings should have a test 
coupon attached to them of sufficient size to furnish two pieces 
for test. For smaller castings, where it is not practicable to 
attach test coupons, test bars may be cast separately for each 
heat, and their record will be accepted as representing the 
metal in the castings, provided they have been annealed with 
the pieces they represent. 

4. A test bar cut from the coupons and turned up with a 
test section % inch in diameter and 2^. Inches long between 
the shoulders, must show a tensile strength not less than 
60,000 pounds per square inch, and an elongation not less than 
20 per cent, in two inches. 

5. All important castings should bear designating mark of 
the steelmaker. 



By far the most handsome calendar yet received at this office 
for the year 1900 is that of the J. G. Brill Company, the well- 
known car and truck builders, Philadelphia, Pa, 



A munificent gift of 150,000 was recently made to the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology by Mr. Augustus Lowell. This 
gift is to he used in establishing a retiring fund, the income 
of which Is to be given to the teaching staff of the Institute 
in case of illness, death or retirement 



A new lubricated center plate for cars has just been pat- 
ented by Mr. Clement F. Street. Manager of the Railway De- 
partment of the Dayton Malleable Iron Co. It involves no 
complications whatever, but by its form permits of oiling con- 
veniently and retains the oil indefinitely. When Its import- 
ance becomes appreciated this device will be in great demand. 



A remarkable record was recently made by one of the 
Schenectady compound locomotives of the Minneapolis, St. 
Paul & Sault Ste. Marie R. R. Co., on a run between Harvey 
and Camden Place, a distance of 627 miles. The train pulled 
by engine 520 consisted of 9 cars of about 39 tons each. The 
run was made in 12 hours and 5 minutes, including stops. The 
stops were 55 in number and an average of 7.14 miles per stop. 
The maximum speed was 67 miles per hour and the average 52 
miles per hour. This run is a continuous and regular one for 
these engines and It is reported that hot driving boxes are prac- 
tically unknown among them, 



92 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



PORT OPENINGS AND MOTION OP PISTON VALVES. 



Effect of Changes in Full Gear Lead. 



By C. A. Seley, 



Mechanical Engineer, Norfolk & Western Ry. 



The advent of the piston valve in locomotive design brings 
up the question as to whether there should be any change 
in the adjustments of the valve motion work from that of 
slide valves on engines, similar in other respects, but which 
are equipped with piston valves. It would seem to be a 
question in which the area of the port opening should be 
considered. 

Piston valves thus far noted have a circumference equal to 
about twice the length of the port as used with a slide valve, 
and when working at a short cut-off and partial port opening, 
give from 50 to 75 per cent, greater port area than is obtained 
with the slide valve. In making this statement bridges have 
been allowed for in the piston bushing. 

Properly constructed piston valves, being perfectly bal- 
anced, do not spring or wear the motion to the extent suffered 
by their older competitors and adjustments made can be 
counted upon to last for a much longer time. 

The last few years have seen a radical change in opinion 
regarding full gear lead, and competent authority only recog- 
nizes it as a measure by which to obtain proper lead in 
running positions. There is not so much difference of opinion 
on the latter point as to amount but more as to the best 
method of getting it. In Halsey's "Locomotive Link Motion" 
the methods of a number of leading roads to attain proper lead 
are given, from which it will be noted that % inch at one- 
fourth cut-off is recognized by the majority as a standard. 
With 14-inch liead and a 16-inch port the area of the opening 
would be 4 square inches, using a slide valve, while a 10-inch 
piston valve will give about 6 square inches. This opening 
begins when the crank is about 20 to 25 degrees from the dead 
center before the forward stroke of the piston and with a 
piston travel of, say, 30 inches, the piston has yet about 
% inch to travel. 

Experiments are necessary to determine the point but it 
is possible that the lead of engines with piston valves may 
be such as to give less than Vi inch at one-fourth cut-off with 
best results in wear of pins, boxes and life of frame bolts and 
connections. Although there is greater available port open- 
ing, yet it must be borne in mind that reduction of lead for a 
given cut-off reduces also the maximum port opening following. 
For this reason experiment rather than theory will give the 
desired information. 

Prior to the adjustment of some engines which are to be 
equipped with piston valves, it was thought desirable to thor- 
oughly investigate the valve motion which has been in use on 
other engines of the same class using slide valves. The 
principal dimensions are as follows: Cylinder, 21 by 30 inches; 
steam ports, 1% inches; steam lap, 1% inches; exhaust lap, 
line and line; diameter of piston valve, 10 inches; radius of 
link, 46 inches; offset of link saddle pin, 15/16 inch; link 
hanger, iSVz inches; eccentric throw, 2% Inches; rocker arms, 
top 13 inches, bottom 10 inches; main rod, 124 inches. 

A valve motion model was rigged, full size, by which all 
events in the stroke could be noted by crank angles which 
were subsequently reduced for convenience of reading to inches 
of stroke of the piston to the nearest % inch. It had been 
customary to set these engines, having slide valves, with 1/16- 
inch lead in full gear, forward and back, and the model was 
first set in that way. 

It was found that the lead at one-fourth cut-off (7% inches) 
averaged % inch, and the distribution was very good. The 
full gear lead was then changed to line and line with a result- 
ing 5'16-ineh lead at one-fourth cut-off and slightly better 
distribution. 

A third setting of 1/16-inch negative lead in full gear for- 





1*6 in. Lead in Full Gear Forward and Back. 






Gear. 


Lead. 


Maximum Port Opening. 


Port 
Closed. 


Re- 
lease. 


Slip. 


Full, forward. 


ft in. 


1% in. in 3W in. piston travel. 


26Hin. 


29 in. 




" 


TO 


1% ■' 3 " " . 


26 


28H 




back 


A 


1% " 3% •• •• . 


26}4 


29 


It's 


•' 


ft 


m '• m •• " , 


26+ 


2S% 


14 cut-off, Fd. 


% 


H " Wi " " . 


U« 


23M 


u 


% '• 


hh 


il •• 3 " 


lo^ 


21 


H •' 


li 


js ■■ H " " . 


^% 


19 




Vi " 


i_i 


i> ■' 1 •• •• . 


7% 


19^ 


32 



Lead Line and Line In Full Gear Forward and Back. 



VuU, forward. 
" back 



H cut-off, Fd. 
H " 

H •' 
H •■ 



1% in, in 3M in. piston travel, 

m •' 3« " ■• . 

1% " 3% " •■ . 

JS+ " 3M " " . 

JS " 3% •• " • 



26 in. 


29 in. 


26% 


29 


261^ 


29Jft 


28% 


29 


im 


34 


15J4 


21M 


7%- 


19« 


m+ • 


20 



art 

a <u 
to 

02 



ft in 


. Negative Lead in Full Gear, Forward and Back. 




Full, forward. 


-ft in. 


1% in. in 3Ji in. piston travel. 


26J4in. 


29)4 in. 




." 


-ft 


1% '• 3H " " . 


26K 


23% 





" back 


-ft 


1% " 4)4 " '• . 


2m 


29)4 





" •' 


-ft 


1% " 4 " •' . 


261^ 


■SVa, 


cs 


H cut-off, Fd. 


32 


A •• 3M " ■• . 


im 


24% 


a 


Vi •' 


A+ 


t\ •' 3H " " . 


15H 


24H 


a 

GO 

m 


Vi •• 


M-l- 


U-- H ■• " . 


'Vi 


20 


Va •■ 


M- 


,\4- •• Ji '• " . 


m 


20^^ 



Lead, Line and Line, Full Gear Forward, % in. Negative Full Back. 



Full, forward. 
" back 



)^ cut-off. Fd. 

h •• 





-J^in, 
-% 
'A 
Vi 

y4+ 



1% in. in 3)^ in piston travel 
m " 3H •' " . 

4^^ " " . 

4« '• " . 

3!^ " " . 

4 " " . 



m 
1% 

«- 



5i 



28 in. 


29 in. 


26% 


29 


26% 


29)4 


26H 


29M 


104 


24 


lbl4 


24H 


7 


19% 


8 


20ii 



ward and back gave an average of %-inch at one-fourth cut-off 
and absolutely equal cut-off at each end. This might be con- 
strued by some who desire to equalize cut-off so as to allow 
for less on one side due to the effect of the piston rod as 
incorrect, but the results certainly show a fine motion. 

A trial was then made of an unequal setting, giving line 
and line in full gear forward and %-inch negative lead in 
full back gear. This had the effect of almost equalizing the 
lead over the range of one-half to one-fourth cut-off, but seri- 
ously disturbed the equality of cut-off, and the maximum port 
opening was no greater than in the previous setting. 

The results of these tests are tabulated and presented here- 
with, the first line across in each setting being the forward 
stroke, the second the return, and so on, alternately. The 
offset of the link saddle pin was also tested and the results 
show that the fine equalization was largely due to this feature 
when the offset was 15/16 inch. A reduction of offset produced 
marked inequality with the only redeeming feature of a reduc- 
tion of slip of the link block. 

Analysis of link motion as above described is very inter- 
esting and the data secured will be found very valuable, par- 
ticularly on roads whose custom is to have one fixed full gear 
lead for all engines, regardless of the length of blades, offset 
and other details of the motion. The small importance of 
full gear lead of itself is shown by the fact that to give 1/16- 
inch movement to the valve in full gear required a crank move- 
ment of but 1% degrees, which is not perceptible in crank effect. 
Unless eccentric blades are long and full gear lead Is neces- 
sary to give proper lead in running position of the link, it is 
absolutely detrimental. 

As a matter of interest in connection with piston valves a 



March, 1900. AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOU RNAU 93 



Influence ot Change in OfT-sot, of Link Saddle Pin. 





Lead A in. 


Negatire in i''ull Gear, Forward and Bacl(. 




H Cut-off. 


J4 Cut-ofl'. 




Off-set. 


Port 


Release. 


Slip. 


Port 


Release. 


Slip. 




Closed. 






Closed. 
7i^in. 








U!>^in. 


-'•% in 




20 in. 




is in. 


15-« 


•iiVi 


n' in. 


7H 


20^ 


3-5 in. 




14^ 


U% 




7M 


\m 




H • 


15« 


2i% 


li 


79i 


WH 


14-1- 




14M 


21 




7 


19H 




\l 


15« 


21'M 


Si 


8 


21 


S! 




I3« 


23% 




6H 


19M 




A 


16Vi 


•n% 


i'j 


m 


21^ 


13 




13M; 


■23.% 




ervi 


19 


%- 


ifl 


ls^ 


n% 


15 


9 


21% 



Port Opening Areas. 



.Slide Valvo. 



Lead in Full Gear. 



A in. positive lead. . 

Line and line 

^0 in. negative lead . 



,■5 in. positive load. . 

Line and line 

I'o in. negative lead. 



Lead 
Opening. 



Ma.xiraum 
Opening. 



One half cut oil 



a^ sq. 

4H •• 
3W • 



in. 



10*^4 sq. in. 
9 



One fourth eut-off. 



7 sq. 
6 ' 



Piston Valve, 



Lead 
Opening. 



Maximum 
Opening. 



One-half cut off. 



8..37sq. 
6.5 
4.71 '■ 



15 58 sq. in. 
13.75 " 
13,08 ■' 



One-fourth cutofT. 



8.72 sq. in. 
7.26 •• 
5.81 " 



10.17 sq. in. 
8 72 " 
7.3 " 



Note.— The above areas are calculated from a 16 in. steam port with 
slide valve and from a 10 in. piston valve deducting 814 in. for bridges. 

table is presented giving the lead opening areas and the max- 
imum port areas at one-half and one-fourth cut-off for the 
three settings above described, calculated for both slide and 
piston valves used with these engines. The advantage of the 
piston valve Is readily seen, and when we consider that these 
openings will be maintained much longer by reason of less 
spring and wear of the piston valve motion, the argument 
would seem to be greatly in its favor. 



NEW MONARCH PISTON AIR DRILL. 



The accompanying engraving illustrates a pneumatic drill 
which is built with a solid tool-steel three-way crank, hard- 
ened at the various bearings and made ball-bearing through- 
out the drill. The pinions are made of tool steel. The piston- 
crank connections and end bearings of the crank are each pro- 
vided with two sets of ball races. The engine part is entirely 
separate from the spindle. The makers claim this as a great 
advantage over other drills, on the ground that any undue 
strain put on the spindle cannot in any way alfect the working 
part of the engine. The gears and pinions are also separate 
from the engine and are well protected against dust and dirt. 
The reversing throttle and starting throttle are all in one. In 
order to reverse the machine all that is necessary is to turn 
the throttle past the inlet ports and make connection with the 
ports that act as exhaust ports while the machine is running 
forward. This drill is also provided with a small lock, so that 
it can be made to run only in one direction when desired. 
This drill measures but 12 inches from the end of the spindle to 
the screw and it can be used within 2% inches of a corner. Its 
weight is only 18 pounds and it will drill any size hole up to- 
1% inches in diameter. It has a feed-screw length of 4 inches. 
One of the most desirable features about this drill is that it 
is specially adapted for boiler work. It is reversible and can 
be used for tapping staybolts, running them in or out, and, in 
fact, can be used for any purpose where a reversible drill is 
desired. It is provided with a handle and standard Vi-inch 
socket for machine bits, which will allow it to be readily con- 
verted into a wood-boring machine whenever desired. 

The Standard Railway Equipment Company, makers of this 




Monarch No. 4 Piston Air Drill, 

new drill, claim economy in the consumption of air and sim- 
plicity in the mechanical construction. This drill will bo fur- 
nished to any one desiring to give it a trial; also catalogues 
showing their Monarch tools may be had by addressing either 
the St. Louis, Chicago or New York offices. 



LUCOL OIL AND PAINTS. 



Lucol is an oil which has been used for painting purposes 
during the last ten years in various parts of the United Stales. 
It is prepared, like linseed oil, both boiled and raw, and it is 
especially suitable for painting and is held to be superior to 
linseed oil in many respects, but it has not yet been found 
adaptable to the manufacture of varnishes, for which large 
quantities of linseed oil are used. 

It is a manufactured oil, built upon a base entirely different 
from linseed oil. Animal fats and oils consist of olein, mar- 
garine and stearine. The olein is extracted, and after being 
carefully refined is used as a base for the manufacture of lucol, 
which, when completely matured, is a brilliant transparent oil. 
The manufacturers state that the oil owes its "life" to the 
gum, which oxidizes out of it when mixed with pigments and 
used as a paint. This corresponds to the linseed-oil gum, but 
offers greater resistance to the destructive agencies in the air 
and to gases which may be present in the air. This material 
was developed on the Pacific Coast, the first factory being at 
Stege, Cal. It was subjected to very varying climatic condi- 
tions, such as those of Alaska, California, Arizona and the 
Hawaiian Islands. It is now manufactured at Carteret, N. J., 
and the development of the business and the demands for lucol 
have been rapid, especially during the recent period ot depres- 
sion. 

The manufacture of lucol paint was commenced three years 
ago and it has already become necessary to enlarge the paint 
department a second time. While there is said to be no danger 
of spontaneous combustion with lucol, it has been deemed ad- 
visable to provide a fire-proof building of iron and concrete 
for the paint department, the object of this precaution being 
to insure against delays in supplying the demand. 

The American Lucol Company manufactures paints for many 
different purposes. These include carbon, graphite, iron oxide, 
red lead and lead-zinc paints in all tints. The advantages 
claimed for these paints are good covering qualities, ability to 
retain glo^ and original tints for a long time, good filling 
qualities for brick and wood, the absence of blistering, peeling 
and scaling, and elasticity, with high resistance to moisture, 
salt air and fumes of acids and chemicals. 

There has been a controversy over the question of the best 
paint for the protection of iron work, and with the constantly 
increasing number of important metallic structures an ade- 
quate protection for their surfaces is correspondingly impor- 
tant. These manufacturers mix pure red lead with lucol for 
this purpose, making a pure red-lead paint and red-lead paste. 
This cannot be done satisfactorily with linseed oil, and many 
engineers and architects have been obliged to give up the use 
of red lead as a protective coating for iron for this reason. 



04 AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



The lucol red-lead paint has been named the "Red Dragon 
Brand." , It is stated to be easily stirred up and made 
ready for use, to which is added the most important attribute 
of durability. Another paint, called "Telemet," is a carbon 
paint for structural iron, which is very elastic and durable. 
This concern manufactures the Lucol Spraying Paint, of which 
many railroad men speak in high terms. It is mentioned else- 
where in this issue in connection with the Columbus, Hocking 
Valley & Toledo Railroad. It is understood that but one coat 
of this spraying paint is required and that cars sprayed with 
it may be lettered on the same day, necessitating only about 
12 hours' delay. Attempts have been made to produce such 
results by the use of dryers, but this seriously affects the du- 
rability of the paint. 

In our August issue, 1898, page 259, we printed the test 
record of paints on the 155th Street steel viaduct in New York 
in which Mr. Henry B. Seaman places Lucol paint as second 
in a test of 17 paints for the most severe service imaginable. 

The company is bOsywith its home trade, but the demand 
has already extended abroad, and we are informed that more 
than a car load of lucol paint was recently shipped to British 
India. There are probably no more conservative men to deal 
with in regard to paints than architects and engineers and 
steamship owners. Many of these have adopted this mate- 
rial exclusively, and this has been done as a result of tests 
made with linseed-oil paints. The Chief Engineer of the 
Brooklyn Bridge adopted this paint after a six years' trial of 
thirty barrels of lucol, which was compared in severe expos- 
ures with linseed oil and the same pigments. The train sheds 
of the Boston Southern Terminal and three of the four bridges 
across the Niagara River are painted with it. On one railroad 
where the first trials were made ten years ago, 25 car loads 
have been used for stations, bridges and cars during the last 
two years. 

The American Lucol Company was organized ten years ago 
with a capital of $1,000,000, of which one-half is cash. The 
incorporators were those who fully understood the increased 
life of lucol over linseed oil, and the success of the company 
is due in a large measure to this fact. 



PERSONALS. 



Mr. C. N. Sanders has been appointed Chemist of the Norfolk 
& Western, vice Mr. W. W. Davis resigned. 



Mr. Berian Warren, Master Mechanic and Purchasing Agent 
of the Toledo, Peoria & Western, has resigned and will retire 
from active railway service after a continuous and successful 
service of 48 years. 



Mr. Charles Blackwell, who is well known to our readers, 
has been appointed Chief Engineer of the Wheeling & Lake 
Erie R. R. to succeed Mr. F. E. Bissell, who has resigned to 
accept service with another company. 



Mr. Joseph Billingham, Master Mechanic of the Wheeling 
division of the Baltimore & Ohio, has been appointed Master 
Mechanic of the second, third, fourth and fifth divisions also, 
with headquarters at Cumberland. 



Mr. Edward Grafstrom has resigned from his position with 
the Pennsylvania Lines at Columbus, Ohio, and has been ap- 
pointed Mechanical Engineer of the Illinois Central Railroad, 
to succeed Mr. W. H. V. Rosing, promoted. 



Mr. John T. Wheeler, formerly in the Purchasing Department 
of the Grand Rapids & Indiana, at Grand Rapids, Mich., has 
been appointed Purchasing Agent of the Sargent Company at 
Chicagb, with ofHce at 675 Old Colony Building. 

Mr. M. E. Ingalls retired from the Presidency of the Chesa- 
peake & Ohio on February 1, but continues as President of the 



Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis. He has been Presi- 
dent of the Chesapeake & Ohio since October 1, 1888. 



Mr. S. E. Dickerson has been appointed Master Mechanic of 
the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern at Norwalk, 0., vice Mr. 
J. O. Braden, transferred. Mr. Dickerson was formerly in 
the mechanical department of the Norfolk & Western. 



Mr. J. E. Battye has been appointed Division Master Me- 
chanic of the Eastern General Division of the Norfolk & 
Western, vice Mr. R. P. C. Sanderson, who recently resigned, to 
become Assistant Superintendent of Machinery of the Atchi- 
son, Topeka & Santa Fe. 



Mr. H. M. Pflager has been appointed Mechanical Superin- 
tendent of the Pullman Palace Car Co. He has been con- 
nected with this company for a number of years in various 
positions, of responsibility, and was promoted from that of 
Chief Mechanical Inspector. 



Mr. R. F. Hoffman has been appointed Mechanical Engineer 
of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe System, with headquart- 
ers at Topeka. He was connected with the editorial staff of 
the "Railway and Engineering Review" and two years ago 
he entered the services of the Santa Fe System. He has had 
a wide practical experience, having risen from apprenticeship. 



Mr. Charles E. Morrill, who has been elected President of 
Valentine & Co., has been connected with that concern for 
nearly 40 years. He has had a prominent part in the develop- 
ment of the success of the company, and now takes the place 
of Mr. H. C. Valentine, who has retired from the presidency 
to become chairman of the board. Mr. Morrill will divide his 
time between the New York and Chicago offices. 



Mr. Geo. W. Stevens, General Manager of the Chesapeake & 
Ohio, has been made President of that road, vice Mr. M. E. 
Ingalls, resigned. Mr. Stevens has been in railroad service 
since 1864, during which time he has been 6 years with the 
Baltimore & Ohio, 3 years with Pittsburg. Cincinnati & St. 
Louis, 17 years with the Wabash, working through several re- 
sponsible positions to that of Assistant General Superinten- 
dent. He went to the Chesapeake & Ohio on January 1. 1890, 
as General Superintendent, and since July, 1891, has been 
General Manager. 



Mr. E. D. Bronner, heretofore Assistant Superintendent of 
Motive Power arid Equipment of the Michigan Central, has 
been appointed Superintendent of Motive Power and Equip- 
ment of that road, to succeed Mr. Robert Miller, resigned. Mr. 
Bronner entered the service of the Canada Southern in 1880 as 
draftsman in the car department. From February, 1883, to 
April, 1886, he was draftsman in the car shops of the Michigan 
Central at Detroit, and was then General Foreman of the same 
shops until 1890, when he was appointed Master Car Builder, 
which position he filled until May 1, 1896, when he was made 
Assistant Superintendent of Motive Power. 



Mr. Robert Miller, Superintendent of Motive Power and 
Equipment of the Michigan Central and one of the best- 
known railroad men in the country, has tendered his resig- 
nation after a service of more than 35 years. Mr. Mil- 
ler's career dates from 1859, and is as follows: From 
1859 to 1862, journeyman In the car shops of the Chicago, Bur- 
lington & Quincy; 1862 to 1865, in the army; 1865 to 1876, 
Foreman erecting shops, Chicago, Burlington & Quincy; 1876 
to 1884, Master Car Builder, in charge of cars and buildings and 
water-works, Michigan Central; 1884 to 1890, Assistant Gen- 
eral Superintendent of the same road. In 1890 he was made 
General Superintendent, which position he held until 1896, 
when he was made Superintendent of Motive Power and Equip- 
ment. 

Mr. R. P. C. Sanderson, Master Mechanic of the Norfolk & 
Western, has been appointed Assistant Superintendent of Ma- 



MAficH, 1900. AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 96 



chinery of the Atchinson Topeka & Sante Fe, vice Mr. G. A. 
Hancock resigned. He will make liis headquarters at Topeka, 
and will have more extensive authority than that vested with 
Mr. Hancock. Mr. Sander.son hegan railway service in 1882 as 
draftsman on the Norfolk & Western, and has worked his 
way up through many rcsponsihle positions. In 1891 he was 
appointed Superintendent of Motive Power of the western gen- 
eral division of the same road. In February, 1895, he was 
placed in charge of maintenance of locomotives and cars for 
the entire line and later was made Master Mechanic at 
Roanoke, which position he has fillod up to the time of his new 
appointment. 



Dr. James H. Smart, President of Purdue University at 
Lafayette, Ind., died February 21. He had been President of 
the University since 1883. He was born at Center Harbor. 
N. H., June 30, 1841. He held a degree of A. M. from Dart- 
mouth and LL. D. from the University of Indiana. He attended 
the Vienna Exposition in 1872 as Assistant Commissioner from 
Indiana and was United States Commissioner to Paris Exposi- 
tion in 1878. At the Agricultural Congress at The Hague in 
1891 he represented the United States as a Commissioner from 
the Department of Agriculture. He was elected President of 
the Indiana Teachers' Association in 1871, and in 1880 held a 
similar office in the National Educational Association; was 
also President of the American Association of Agricultural 
Colleges and Experiment Stations in 1890. His life work was 
the development of Purdue University, which is a magnificent 
monument to his ability, energy and self-forgetfulness. 



Edwin N. Lewis, Manager of the Railway List Company of 
Chicago, died at his home in Chicago, February 16, of heart 
trouble after a brief illness. He was an unusually interesting 
man, a warm and valued friend to those who had the privilege 
of knowing him well and he will be missed also by a very large 
number who enjoyed his acquaintance. Those who met him 
occasionally found pleasure and profit in his company, be- 
cause he commanded a large amount of information and was 
always ready to contribute it in a delightful way. He was 
earnest, sincere and lionest. He had a very convincing way of 
presenting his arguments, he was a hard worker and stood in 
closer and more intimate friendly relations with business men 
than any other man in his line of work. Mr. Lewis was born 
in Madison County, New York. September 12, 1837. He 
was educated in Fowler Institute, Newark, Illinois; Knox Col- 
lege, Galesburg, Illinois; Beloit College, Beloit, Wis., and Chi- 
cago Theological Seminary, Chicago. After completing his 
education he was a Congregational pastor and afterward studied 
law in the ofiice of Cook & Glover. Mr. Cook, of this firm, 
was later general solicitor of the Chicago Northwestern Ry. 
and Mr. Lewis succeeded to his practice, which drifted into 
railroad litigation and especially right of way work. After 
this he took up newspaper writing on the staff of the "Railway 
Age," and was instrumental in the success of the Railway Ex- 
position of 1883. He became Manager of the "Railway Purchas- 
ing Agent" in 1885 and remained with this publication (which 
changed its name in 1886 to the "Railway Master Mechanic"), 
also Manager of the "Official Railway List" up to the time of 
his death. He read a great deal and was a clear and forcible 
writer. 

BOOKS AND PAMPHLETS. 



Master Car and Locomotive Painters' Association. Proceedings 
of the 30th Annual Convention. Held at Philadelphia Septem- 
ber, 1899. Published for the Association by the Railroad Car 
Journal, New York, 1899. 

This volume contains the official proceedings of the recent 
convention, the constitution, rules and names of members with 
their positions and addresses. It is well printed and bound. 

"The Contractor." The first number of this publication has 
appeared. It is a fortnightly review of work in the field of 
construction, dredging, bridge building and engineering opera- 
tions and contains information concerning proposed work of 



these kinds. It Is not confined to any special line of construc- 
tion, but railroad work predominates. In the railroad Items 
the length of the proposeti lines Is given first, which Is one of 
the minor features which helps the reader. It Is edited by 
Waller D. Crosman, and published by the Crandall & Bagnall 
Publishing Co., .l305 Manhattan Building, Chicago. 

"Round the World by Way of New York and Niagara Falls 
in Sixty to Eighty Days," is the title of a large and handsome 
folder and railroad map of the United States issued as No. 21 
of the Four Track Series by the New York Central & Hudson 
River R. R. It will be .sent on receipt of three cents in stamps 
by George H. Daniels, fleneral Passenger Agent, Grand Cen- 
tral Station, N. Y. 

A pamphlet illustiatiiig ami hi idly describing a new line of 
air compressors has just been issued by the New York Air Com- 
pressor Company, with works recently established at Arling- 
ton, N. J., for the manufacture of simple and duplex direct 
steam driven or belt driven compressors to meet all reQUlre- 
ments of users of pneumatic power. These compressors have 
been designed with special reference to simplicity, economical 
service and utmost durability in working parts and absolutely 
self controlling features. The pamphlet also gives a detailed 
description of their vertical belt air compressors and gas or 
gasoline actuated air compressors, which are specialties of these 
builders. 

Ten years ago a technically educated young man did not 
have the high standing among practical men that now enjoys. 
He is sought after to-day. The increased demand for men 
who can operate our mechanisms with less loss than before 
and elTect .savings in dollars and cents are the men the large 
manufacturing and engineering concerns are looking for, and 
these are the men with a technical foundation. This increas- 
ing demand is very interestingly shown by the new catalogue 
of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, which is a vol- 
ume of 360 pages, of which nearly one-third are occupied by 
the register of graduates and their professional occupations. 
Also the effect of the growth of the institute in numbers and 
the very rapid growth in the number of responsible positions 
in which each years graduates are found is exceedingly inter- 
esting. The catalogue also gives the character and quality 
of the work of the Institute, which is of a high character and 
worthy of commendation. 

Machine Tools. — A very neat catalogue of machine tools has 
just been issued by the Hilles & Jones Company, Wilmington, 
Del. This catalogue. No. 6, is 9 inches square, bound in cloth, 
with 135 pages of illustrations. Those who are familiar with 
the No. 5 catalogue of this company, which was issued in 1893, 
will note many changes in their standard patterns which were 
found necessary in order to meet the continued demand for 
heavier and more effective machinery. Among the tools of 
very large capacity which are illustrated and very briefly 
described in this catalogue are punches and shears, I beams 
and channel coping and notching machines, plate bending and 
flanging rolls, vertical milling machines and other standard 
machines and tools. The illustrations and press work are of a 
very high order. The descriptions are clear and concise. 

Automatic Machinery Catalogue. — The Spencer Automatic 
Machine Screw Co., of Hartford, Conn., have issued an excel- 
lent illustrated catalogue of their automatic machines and the 
work which may be done upon them. The machines are built 
in three sizes and in two styles, double and single turret. With 
these sizes and styles a great variety of work is provided for 
and the name of the concern, carrying with it the standing 
gained by twenty years of experience in the field, renders it 
entirely unnecessary to speak of the qualities of design and 
workmanship. With the double turret machines work may be 
done upon both ends of a piece at the same time, and the opera- 
tions may be carried on as quickly as one. Special provision 
has been made to secure the turrets rigidly for the sake of ac- 
curacy. Six very fine engravings of the machines are shown, 
and upon the pages facing them are the characteristics of each 
given in English and metric measures. In other engravings 
the tools employed and illustrations of the work done by the 
machines are shown, full size. The pamphlet contains direc- 
tions for arranging the machines upon the floor to the best 



96 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL, 



advantage and also the best method of belting to the counter 
shaft. This is commended as an excellent catalogue. It gives 
all necessary information about the machines in a few words, 
and the engravings are selected and executed with Jioteworthy 
skill of which the interesting and valuable machine is thor- 
oughly worthy. Our readers who have not investigated these 
machines should lose no time in doing so, particularly for the 
small iron and brass work of which the large railroads have a 
great deal. They are specially adapted to the manufacture of 
screws, set screws and studs. 

"The School of Mechanical Engineering." The International 
Correspondence Schools of Scranton, Pa., have issued a pam- 
phlet bearing this title. It contains information with regard 
to the courses of the school in mechanical engineering, mechan- 
ical drawing, gas engines, refrigeration and machinery, and will 
give the information concerning the schools which is desired 
by those who are considering taking up this form of education. 
A New Industrial Situation.— This is the title of a very at- 
tractive pamphlet received from the Westinghouse Companies, 
presenting what is truly a new situation brought about • by 
the introduction of the gas engine into the electric lighting 
and railway fields. It has an introduction by Mr. Geo. West- 
inghouse, calling attention to the present wide interest and 
recent improvements in the generation and distribution of 
power. He says that long familiarity with the electrical in- 
dustry, the pipe line transportation of natural gas in great 
quantities, and an active interest in the development of large 
gas engines, satisfy him that the economies which will result 
from the distribution of power by means of gas generated at 
central points, and conveyed in pipes along the lines of rail- 
way, for the operation of engines and electric generators, will 
be sufficient to justify the expenditure of the capital necessary 
for such installations in connection with the electrical equip- 
ment of railways, particularly metropolitan and suburban lines. 
The Westinghouse Companies have brought to a high state of 
perfection all the requisite machinery for the commercially 
successful operation of standard railways upon which trains 
are frequent. Mr. Westinghouse states that the advantages 
of the use of gas engines can be best appreciated when it is 
understood that if a gas company were to supplant the present 
gas illumination by an equal amount of electric light, obtained 
from gas driven dynamos, it would have left for sale, for other 
purposes, over 60 per cent, of its present gas output. The 
pamphlet gives the place of the gas engine in the new indus- 
trial situation, which in its present development, offers a reg- 
ulation of speed and smoothness of working equal to the best 
steam engine on the market. It has been demonstrated that 
engines of large power up to esO horse-power are entirely suc- 
cessful and at present two 1,500 horse-power engines are under 
construction. The pamphlet hints at methods for producing 
gas at an extraordinarily low cost, as being an expectation of 
the near future. This statement is made after long and care- 
fully conducted experiments, which the Westinghouse people 
consider justifies the belief that witjiin a short time gas will 
be produced commercially and sold at a cost far below the 
lowest price that now prevails in any part of the world. This 
expectation realized will constitute a new industrial situation, 
the full meaning of which cannot now be realized, and the 
accomplishments of the Westinghouse Companies have been 
such as to justify faith in the prediction as not being too san- 
guine. Given cheaper gas, the gas engine at once will take 
a foremost place. The pamphlet includes a number of en- 
gravings of Westinghouse gas engines, applied to lighting and 
power production and describes a number of successful exam- 
ples. On reading this pamphlet, the conclusion is forced that 
there is a great deal back of it, because, as stated in the open- 
ing paragraph, "Engineers the world over have long recog- 
nized the fact that gas, if supplied at a practical cost, conveyed 
economically over long distances, and utilized in a form of 
engine, which should, in speed regulation and smoothness of 
working, equal the best steam engine, would be the ideal fuel." 
When such a man as Mr. Westinghouse makes a promise of 
this kind, fulfilment may be expected. 



makes and is carried in the cabooses of freight trains. Its form 
permits of using it temporarily in place of the knuckle of al- 
most any of the couplers now in use. It is manufactured and 
sold by the Railway Appliance Co., Old Colony Building, Chi- 
cago. Five hundred have recently been supplied to the North- 
ern Pacific. 



The Cling-Surface Manufacturing Co., of Buffalo, N. T., has 
been incorporated under the laws of the State of New York, 
retaining its former name, with Albert B. Young as president 
and general manager and William D. Young, vice-president and 
secretary. The company states that the past year has been 
the most prosperous in its history, and that the demand for 
"Cling Surface" is steadily increasing. Branches have been 
established in Boston, New York and Chicago, while others 
will be opened soon in St. Louis and New Orleans. W. J. 
Moxham & Co. importers, Sidney, Australia, have placed a 
large order and will have the exclusive right to handle it in 
Australia. 



The American Machinery & Trading Co., with chief office 
in the Bowling Green Building, New York, is prepared to fur- 
nish at most favorable prices all lines of high-class factory, 
mill, electric and power plant machinery, and invites plans 
and specifications giving date of required delivery. This com- 
pany will accept agencies from manufacturers for the sale of 
first-class machinery in foreign countries. An idea of the scope 
of the concern is given by the following list of branch offices: 
Chicago, Boston, Philadelphia, Pittsburg, Atlanta, St. Louis, 
San Francisco, Montreal, London, Paris, Berlin, St. Petersburg 
and Sydney. 



A patent was recently granted JVIr. C. W. Sherburne, of the 
Automatic Track-Sanding Company of Boston, for a new port 
in tlie Westinghouse engineer's brake valve, which may be 
connected at a trifling expense to the air track sanding ap- 
paratus, of any manufacture, on the locomotive, thereby in- 
suring automatic flowing of the sand when emergency appli- 
cation is made. This is a specially desirable feature, as all 
brake experts testify that every part of the brake equipment 
should be applied by one motion only. This style of engine 
valve will be furnished by the Westinghouse Air Brake Com- 
pany when requested. 



The Rhode Island Lqcomotive Works have received orders 
for 5 consolidation and 3 ten-wheel passenger locomotives for 
the Colorado & Southern Ry. and for 5 ten-wheel passenger 
engines for the Fort Worth & Denver City Railroad. The 

5 consolidation engines will have cylinders 21 by 28 inches, 
driving wheels 56 inches in diameter, they will weigh 166,000 
pounds, with 148,000 pounds on the driving wheels. The boilers 
will be of the straight top type with radial stay flreboxes and 
will carry a working pressure of 190 pounds. The tubes will 
be 13 feet 6 inches long and 2 inches diameter; the firebox will 
be 114 by 41^4 inches. The capacity of the tank for water will 
be 5,500 gallons and the coal capacity 10 tons. These engines 
will have staybolts of Ulster special staybolt iron, main driv- 
ing boxes of cast steel, Latrobe tires. Monitor injectors, Nathan 
lubricators. Standard couplers, magnesia sectional lagging, the 
Leach sanding device and Sargent combination brakeshoes. 
The ten-wheel passenger engines for the Colorado & Southern 
will have cylinders 20 by 26 inches, driving wheels 63 inches 
in diameter; they will weigh 152,000 pounds, with 118,000 pounds 
on the drivers. The boiler will be of the extended wagon top 
type w^ith radial stays, carrying a working pressure of 200 
pounds. The tubes will be 13 feet 4 inches long and 2 inches 
diameter. The firebox 120 by 42 inches. The tank capacity for 
water will be 5,500 gallons and the coal capacity 10 tons. These 
engines will have Ulster special staybolts, cast steel driving 
wheel centers, cast steel main driving boxes, Latrobe tires, 
Monitor injectors, Nathan lubricators. Magnesia sectional lag- 
ging. Leach's sanders and Sargent combination brakeshoes. 
The 5 ten-wheel passenger locomotives for the Forth Worth 

6 Denver City will have 20 by 26-inch cylinders, 63-inch driving 
wheels, and will weigh the same as the engines of the same 
type for the Colorado & Southern. The special equipment and 
general features of the design of the ten-wheelers for both 
roads will be practically the same. 

CHIEF CLERK WANTED. 



EgUIPM EUT AND MANTJFACTtTBING NOTES. 

The Gilman-Brown emergency knuckle, which we illustrated 
last year, is making satisfactory progress. This device is used 
in emergency repairs to replace coupler knuckles of various 



Motive Power Department. 
A good chief clerk is wanted for the motive power department 
of a large road in the Middle West, salary $1,800 per year. Exe- 
cutive ability and familiarity with locomotive and car matters 
are required. Address the Editor of the American Engineer 
and Railroad Journal. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 97 



— AMERICAN-. 

Engineer 

RAILROAD ^JOURNAL 



APIUL, 1900. 



CJOlSrTEJSITS. 



I »Ki' Page 

JiTICI-KS : MlSCUbLANKOUS ARTICLES: 

1(1 Kiiualizers, by I Test of an Arch liar Truck 

il7 Fraibo lllL' 

iii-l-Krainc Coal Coiitinuoiis Moan I'roasurc in- 

V Western liy .. Am dicator 102 

111 Wide I'nvluix I I'rize for High Speed Electric 

t-.C. 11. ^:l^ U.U 103' Itailroad Plan 107 

l.cuuriiolive. New .Shiip Tracks, Longitudinal vs. 

111! (fiver It. I{ lOS Transverse 113 

11 Invesleru shops ArranKoment of Traeksin Krect- 

Kxtin^ive liu- me Shops 121 

lOil StiiybolL Process, by U. Atkin- 

r Distnhu.ion, son ' lai 

le Wcstiuiihouse !-lcani Gauges, Tests anl Method 

iipMiiy Ill of (Jonnecting 124 

i-si lu-er jjiicoino- Mechanical ritukers 121 

; Albany .It.U.... l-.'O Heiiding Pipj \ia 

r ltlU|UCSTlc -ilecl 

iihnn Harding. 122 
r Trut:K, l>ehigh Kiiitokials: 

J03 
iiiiveUihiica'.or. 123 Stcei Frame Coal Car— Norfolk ssl 

& Western Railway 112 

^ Aiiriii.Ks : Cranes 112 

An Important btep Toward 
ipondenee !U Wider Fireboxes 112 



csponrlence. 



LOCOMOTIVE DESIGN. 



'y ' Mi'ilianiinl Engiiuer Rogors Locomotive Works. 

ErnuiliziUion of WeiRlUs. 
(("oiuluded fiom page 70.) 

L 

'Tji iiiiiKiil typp of nigiiie has a two wheeled radial truck in 

I iliirc pairs of coupled driving wheeLs. The spring 

!• Ml is shown in Fig. 7. There are three pcints of 

IPi" .1. one at B. the fulcrum of the truck equalizer, and two 

A lime on each side) the fulcrums of the equalizing levers 

,1. -n the main and back wheels. The back end of the front 

iv ''i; spring is fastened to the frame, while the front end, 

'■ m-cted by means of a cross beam to the truck equalizer. * 

F I 7 the longitudinal center of gravity of the engine above 

»' lings is located (i3 inches ahead of the equalizing lever 

il' . Ill of the main and back wheels. This is determined as 

From the weights of each pair of wheels resting on 

- deducted the weight of the wheels and axles with 

• arrird directly by them, such as eccentrics, eccentric 

1 or the eccentric rods, driving bo.xes, back end of 

• ic. This leaves a net load of 24.000 pounds on each 

! \ing springs or 48.000 pounds for the two rear pairs 

I-. One-quarter of this or 12.000 pounds is carried by 

111- of from and back spring hangers of the back and 

ii. 'iriving sprin.gs, and one-half or 24.000 pounds is carried " 

cijiializer fulcrums at AA. The common center of 

1 ihe combined weights carried by the main and back 

ilso at A.\. midway between the wheels. It is evl- 

ilip weights on each of these wheels are the same 

I lie springs are connected by leYers with equal arms. 

in of 12.000 pounds is carried by the forward ends of the 

iiiviiig springs and 11,000 pounds by the truck. The 

iii'-aiion of the fulcrum, n. to give the respective weights 

i' I ends of the truck equalizer, may be found by multi- 

ilii- total length of the lever by the weight on the truck 

wiling this product by the sum of both the loads; fhe 

"t will be the length of the back portion. Thus 

11,000 X 78 

— ^ = 37. 

23,000 

nniinon center of gravity of the load on the truck 




Wheel Loads and Arrangement of Equalizers for Mogul Engines. 

The weights given are for both sides. For one wheel take one- 
half the load. 

equalizer at B and that on the back hanger of the front spring. 
23,000 and 12,000 pounds respectively, is found in a similar man- 
ner to be at C, 47 inches from the back hanger or 30 inches 
from the center of the front driver. The two centers, A and C, 
which are 150 inches apart, may now be combined. The rear 
one. A, equals a load of 48,000 pounds and the front one, C, 
35,000 pounds, making a total of 83,000 pounds. The com- 
mon center of gravity is found to be 63 Inches from the ful- 
crum A. To obtain equal weights upon each wheel with the 
wheel ba.se and weight on the truck as given in Fig. 7, the 
center of gravity must be located in the position shown. If 
this is not done no amount of subsequent adjustment of the 
equalizing levers will produce a uniform distribution of weight 
upon all the drivers and give the proper proportion upon the 
truck. Considerable variation of weight upon the truck may be 
effected by changing the position of the lever fulcrum, B. but 
this only serves to change the relation existing between the 
front wheel and the truck, which does not materially affect the 
other two pairs. It follows then, that if the sum of the loads 
on the truck and front wheels are not sufficient the deficiency 
can not be made up in any other way than by altering the 




E 

A 







30,000 30,000 _ 30,000 S1,000 

Wheel Loadsand Arrangement of Equalizers forlO-WheelEngines. 

The weights given are for both sides. For one wheel take one- 
half the load. 

position of the center of gravity of the entire superstructure, 
either by shifting its position bodily or by a readjustment of 
some of the heavy parts. It will be readily observed that 
within the limits of the ordinary designs of mogul engines the 
weights carried by the main and back wheels are equal, as the 
springs are connected by equalizing levers with similar arms. 
For a predetermined truck weight the weights carried by the 
front driving wheels will only equal those of the main and 
back, when the position of the boiler and its attachments, etc., 
is so located as to bring the center of gravity in the cqrrect 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILiROAD JOURNAL. 



po.sKioii. VVlu'ii tlie firebox is between the main and rear axle 
the average weiglit iw 17 per cent, on the tnu'k and 83 per 
eent. on the drivers, and with a long firebox extending over 
the i:ear axle, 14 per cent, on the trnilc and SG per cent, on the 
drivers. 

The spring rigging arrangement of a 10-wbeel engine i^ 
shown in Kig. 8. In this type there is a 4-wheel trnck in 
front and three pairs of coupled driving wheels. The thiee 
(hiving wheel springs on each side are connected together by 
two eqnalizing levers so that the weight supported by each 
pair of wheels is the same, irrespective of the overhang of the 
tirel)()x. ov excessive weight of the back end. In this type, as 
in the S-wheel type, there are three fixed points in the equalizer 












1 


^ 


\ / 


<' ^~"^ 


12 000 


JT isooo 




r)I- 


_i2,ooo, lii,im^ 


.-' ' 


I- SB-- J 


r''"7 ,f 


r J6| .| 




^ y "" V 


X ^J 


, *" V 1 .- 



aOlHXI 32,000 30,000 30,000 15,000 

11,'uOO 8,000 (1,000 0,000 g.ooo 

■iifiM aj.ooo ai,ooo 21,000 13,000 

Fig. 9 
Wheel Loads and Arrangement of Equalizers for Consolidation 

Engines. 

The we.ghts given are for both sides. For one wheel take one- 
half the load. 

system, the truck center C and two centers of equalizers, al- 
though the frames are supported at four points o.r fulcrums 
instead of two as in Fig. 7. 

When the firebox is between the main and rear axles the 
averat;;^ weight is 26 per cent, on the truck and 74 per cent, on 
the drivers When the firebox extends over the rear axle the 
average weight is about 22 per cent, on the truck and 78 per 
cent, on the driving wheels. The effect of changes in weight 
in the simplest form may be considered by supposing an in- 
crease of weight of 1.000 pounds at D. The increase on the 
1.000 X (E + G) 

drivei's will equal 

O + ( 1/2 I'' > 

1,000 X E 

The decrease on the truck will equal . 

G 



1,000 
B 

i CO 




-^ 


C 






IIIMiitiffilllHMnil 



Fig. n 

The center of the truck fulcrum is at D, 39 inches from th(> 
front spring^hanger or 56 inches from the center of the from 
wheel; the sum of the weight on the truck and that of th( 
front hanger of the front spring, 13.000 + 12,000 = 2.5,00(i 
pounds. IS carried at this point. The common center of gravity 
of the weights at D and F, 25,000 + 12,000 = 37,000 pounds, is 
located at E. 49 Inches from F. or 32 inches in front of tin 
forward wheel. 

The common center of gravity of the weights at (' and lO, 
72,000 + 37,000 = 109,000 pounds, is located at G, 51 inches 
ahead of the main axle. When this arrangement of equalizers 
is used, the extreme range is 51 inches from the position G. 
where the weight is equally distributed on all the drivers with 
a suitable ratio on the truck, to position C, where all the 
weight would be carried on the three rear pairs of wheels, and 
none on the front pair of drivers and on the truck. The range 
ahead from G to E is 101 inches. At position E all the weight 
would be carried on the front pair of driving wheels and on 
the truck and none on the three back pairs of driving wheels. 

The arrangement of equalizers shown in Fig. 10 is often 
used for consolidation engines which are too heavy behind. 
The springs on the main and rear driving wheels are con- 



r\„ a.5,000 13,000 



Fig. JO 

The consolidation type of locomotive has a 2-wheeled radial 
truck in frcnit and four pairs of driving wheels. The 
ordinary form of spring anangement is shown in Fig. 9. 
Tbrop pairs of di-iving wheels, the second, third and fourth, are 
equalized together, therefore, the loads carried by these wheels 
are the same. The equalizer lever fulcrums are at A and B. 
each of them carry 12,000 pounds or 24,000, pounds for both 
sides, as shown in the diagram. As these three pairs of driv- 
ing wheels are spaced an equal distance apart, the center of 
gravity of the sum of the weights on these drivers will be 
located midway or over the center of the main wheels at C. 



./i Fig. J2 w„ 

nected by equalizing levers. The fulcrum is at A and the 
center of gravity of the weight (48.000 pounds) carried by these 
two pairs of wheels is at the same point. The forward center 
of gravity of the weights on the truck and the two front pairs 
-of drivers (61.000 pounds) is at B, 60 inches back from the truck 
fulcrum, C. The common center of gravity of the combined 
weight at A and B is located at E, 81 inches ahead of A or 51 
inches ahead of the main wheel. This is the same position as 
shown in Fig. 9, therefore to get an exactly equal distribution 
of weight on all the driving wheels and the same ratio on the 
truck, the center of gravity must be the same, irrespective of 
the arrangement of equalizing levers, provided they have arms 
of the same length. 

The advantage of this arrangement in Fig. 10 consists in the 
fact that the range is SI inches backward before the entire 
load would be carried on the two rear pairs of driving wheels 
and none on the front pairs and on the truck, whereas in Fig. 
9 the range was only 51 inches. Therefore, for narrow gauge 
engines with fireboxes behind the rear axles and for other con- 
solidation engines of ordinary builds which are too heavy be- 
hind, there is some advantage in this plan. 

With one axle under the firebox the average weight is 11 per 
cent, on the truck and 89 per cent, on the driving wheels. With 
two axles under the firebox the average weight is 14 per cent.' 
on the truck and 86 per cent, on the driving wheels. 

Often the weight on one pair of wheels is the limiting fac- 
tor in the design of a new locomotive. The size and power of 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL 99 



in .siicti ciisc; 



!. tlie Iheoretic-al 
part and its ilis- 



liir aiiisi llii'ii lic.Miailc 1(1 coiil'dnu i<i siiiiic inaxlnium 
lail. Ill Drill'!' lo iililaiii Hic K'l'ali'sl "Mlriniry itonsis- 
ii iliis liiiiilaliim. llii' weights iiii all . .IriviiiK wliocls 

. laaili' as nearly aliUi' as possible. II Is. Ilicroforu, 
in siicti casi's \vlu'r<' all the ili'ivinK wliccl springs 
, nnnci'tcil by I'liualizinK levers lo loi-ate (lie eenler of 
.if the siiperrtlnu'tiire earrieil Ijy llie spi'iiins. so that 
!iiviiin wlieel loails will he tile same. 'I'lieii proceed to 
h,' lioiler and other heavy parts in sneh positions as 

line llie desired results: 

I'tain whether an engine halauees at (1. the theoretieal 
1 mavily. I'"ig. II. Ilie weight of eaeli |iart and its dis- 
..111 (i must he liiiown. The boiler should be divi led 
\i'iiient seel ions whose cenlei if gravily ean be easily 
I -.11' iiislaiice I he liai'U end. inelading I he firebo grates, 
iirally group themselves together at A. The cylindri- 

incliidiiig the Hues, maltes a..otlier group at Y, and the 

• N a third part at W. M: 'tiply the weight at each 

part by the distance of its center in inches from G, 

■ iown the results for eitlier riglit or left hand in sep- 
iiiiuns. If the totals are the same Ihe distribution is 

If the totals are unequal, lake Ihe dilTercnce between 

■ iHls and divide bv the total weight, the quotient will 
lisiauce in inches of the actual center of gravity to the' 

ii'ar of C. Example; 
Left. Right. 

400= (iOO.OOO \V=i:illX l'.000= 260,000 

l.M»00 = 1.800. (Mm V= 24X15.000= 360.000 

■•'000= 40.000 X = 125 X 12.000 = 1,500.000 

— Y= .jO X 150= 75.000 

I 1100 2.440.000 Z = 150X 1.000= 1!50,000 



400 = (i00,000 



I = 40.000 



2.440.000 



360.000 

,500,000 

75.000 

150,000 



31.500 2,345.000 
; i-ence between Ihe totals is 95.000. The total weight 
95.000 

::i,500 or .'i5.."i00 pounds = 1.71 inches. There- 

55.000 
ai lual center of gravity is 1.71 inches ahead of G the 
.al. In order to exactly equalize the weights, an 
niusi lie added or taken from either side whose weight 
;.'d by its distance in inches equals 95.000. or the posi- 
i weight of some of the parts must be readjusted. 
• lain tlie center of gravity of the weights for either 
, ide the total product by the sum of the weights for 
I' Thi'U for the weights and distance given in Fig. 11 



. !■ way to find the center of gravity of a number of 

is to measure the distance of each from some fixed 

niside the group las for example the vertical line. ST. 

Then multiply the weight of each part or group by 

nice rroin the line ST. .'Vdd the restills thus found for 

weights together and divide by Ihe total weight of all 

Is. the quotient is the distance of the common center 

IV from the line ST. 

.;. 12 

W.'C" _ w.c- 

^ \v w 

AW HW 

\V_ = W, = 

{• C 

■■•\f formulas will be found useful iu d'-lermining the 
iMisition of equalizing lever tulernnis. when the arms are 
.1 an unequal length in order to carry more weight on 
.1 than the other. Also lo locate the truck equalizer 
. iif mogul or consolidation engines. 



EDITORIAL CORRESPONDENCE. 

liiilTalo. Rochester & Pittsburgh Railroad. 

hops of this road at Rochester are not modern, and they 

'iin he leplaced by a suitable plant in which the best 

•> will be provided. The amount of work turned out 

creditable to Mr. C. E. Turner. Superintendent of Mo- 

'wer and his assistants. 

jiiston valve as applied to a number of engines by the 

liOi'omolive Works has earned a high place here, and 

iihtful vhelher Ihe slide valve will be used on future 

Mr. Turner is decidedly pleased with the central ad- 

liature and believes that the protection of the passage 



for the entering steam from riuUallon by being placed between 
Ihe e.vhaust steam passages is a very valuable inipiovement. 
lie niaih? a point of the faci that thiK arrangeinent ncccssi- 
lated crooked exhaust jiassages and i-onsequently larger ones 
than would be needed if they were as straight as in the case 
of slide valves. This is providijd for in the llrooks design by 
a alight extension of the ends of valve casings lo give room for 
largei' passages al the ends. There is no objection to this, and 
it . ms to overcome a little of the back pressure which, how- 
ever, has not been excessive with this form of valves. The 
crooked passage needs to be made larger than the straighter 
one. The location of those valves in Ihe saddles instead of 
upon the tops of the cylinders makes it easy to protect them 
from radiation, and in these engines the saddles are lagged to 
a higher jioint than has been accomplished before. 

Mr. Turner has given a great deal of attention to the design 
of cars of large capacity to adapt them to the special conditions 
of the coal, coke, and ore traffic of the road. On looking over 
the drawings, it was seen that the castings, which were all of 
malleable, iron are remarkably light, and where possible the 
fiber stresses were kept down to 4,000 lbs. per .square inch. This 
was determined upon after tests of the material showing it to 
be safe to count upon an elastic limit of 30,000 lbs. and ulti- 
mate strength of 40.000 lbs. In spite of the low allowable work- 
ing stress of but 4,000 lbs, the castings generally weighed so 
much less than cast iron that notwithstanding the advantage of 
43 per cent, difference in price in favor of cast iron at the time 
of the design the cost of the malleable was less than that of 
cast iron. The total weight of malleable castings in cars of 
80.000 lbs. capacity in spite of the additional castings required 
in the heavy bolsters of the large cars, is less than that of the 
cast iron formerly used in cars of 40,000 lbs. capacity. A char- 
acteristic of Mr. Turner's car designs is the use of deep trusses. 
In one case he has brought the truss rods to within 10 inches of 
the rail, the truss being 271/2 inches deep. 

Mr. Turner has for some years used a convenient form of 
jig for laying off car timbers of all kinds. These are cut to the 
desired shape and upon side they carry pointed plungers in 
tubes sniiported over holes in the jig. These plungers may 
be struck through the holes by hand to mark the centers of bolt 
hides and mortises. Each plunger is marked with the size of 
the hole. This greatly reduces the labor of marking out the 
timbers. A number of convenient air tools have been devel- 
oped here, among which is Mr. Turner's fine cutter and roller. 
which is now well known. It has recently been fitted with an 
ingenious governor which automatically reduces the speed of 
the motor, and saves air when it is not actually rolling or cut- 
ting. 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy. 

A good suggestion -was received during a call upon the Su- 
perintendent of Motive Power of this road. He prepares an 
annual report covering the important work of the year, to 
enable him to keep track of the work of the department, the 
condition of its equipment, and to afford a review of progress 
that has been made. This fixes dates of important changes 
and improvements, and it appears to be an excellent plan. 
The idea was a new one to our correspondent. Its chief rec- 
ommendation seems to be that it brings up the w^ork of a 
year in condensed form and is suggestive of the lines which 
have proven advantageous in the past and which will probably 
pay to follow in the future. It must necessarily take consider- 
able thought, and if a man analyzes his o-wn work in order 
to set forth that which has been most valuable he will probably 
see ways in which to improve it. 

The cost of doing work is considered as most important in- 
formation on this road. Recently the entire cost of building 
locomotives has been thoroughly investigated and the infor- 
mation tabulated with great care and thoroughness. The lack 
of exact knowledge as to the shop costs of work on railroads 
is noticeable, and very few foremen have the slightest idea 
of the cost of various shop operations. Under present condi- 
tions this information is invaluable, particularly in connection 
with Ihe introduction of new inachiner.v. A man who knows 
what his work now costs and how much he can save by a 
new machine, has a strong argument with the management 
when he asks for appropriations for new machines. 

The appointment of an inspector of oiling has proved a 
paying investment on this road. A reduction of the cost of 
oil for cars and locomotives amounting to over $2,000 in thr«' 
months was secured, and at the same time there was a large 
reduction in the number of hot boxes and in the amount of 
waste used. There was a small increase in the number of 
brasses used, but brasses have a scrap value to offset this. 
The use of more brasses is due to an attempt to lead the in- 
spectors to understand that a hot box needs attention, and 
usually something more than oil is require* to prevent it from 
heating again. The pursuit of the hot-box problem on this 
road is persistent and systematic. The results indicate that a 
large amount of the trouble may be easily overcome. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 







n 





ng. ,.-80.000 Pounds Capacity Stee, Frame Coal Car-NorfC. . Western "^ilwar-WitH^Te^ l^ad 



\ ,'. 1{ Lkwis, Su2)crintenaent Motive Power. 

SO.OOO-POrND STEEL-FKAME^COAL CARS WITH DROP ;;een^.--;ea .y^ 

10 inches from the out 

Norfolk & Western Railway. wiLh steel plates and m 

, , ^.^. a manner as to s. ur 

Frames of Structural Steel Witli- Wooden Floors and Siding. ^^^ ^^ ^j^^ material u 

» , i « the form of standard ri 

This road has in service the larger part of a lot of one ^^ ^ ^^. ^ 

thousand 100.000-pounds capacity copper-bottom coal cars with ^^^.^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ,,. 

steel under frames and wooden hoppers, the design of which ^ 

was illustrated and described in the June, 1899, issue of this ^ f ^^^^fj^'^^^.j^, „„„ 

journal. Through the courtesy of M. W. H. ^-is « ^'^ ™diatrafd cross s: 
tendent of Motive Power, and Mr. C. A. Seley, Mechanical En- 

gineer of the road, we have received drawings and intorma- J^^^^ "^;^,; f ,^ ,,^ ,,,, 

tion concerning a new design of a somewhat different type o 1 mUi '^^^Toftl^e « 

car. from which this description is prepared. The chief ^^^^^e hmng^of^t e^^^ 

(limension.s of the car are as follows: inches thic 



C. A. Seley, Mechanical Eiiflineer. 
been preserved by making all holes for connections thro 
the webs of the channels. The body bolsters are located 4 
10 inches from the outside ends of the sills and are desig 
wiLh steel plates and malleable-iron fittings, riveted up in s 
a manner as to s . ure the necessary rigidity. 

All of the material used in the construction of the car li 
the form of standard rolled sections or regular sizes of barj 
plates, no special or unusual sizes being employed. All; 
tachments. such as drop-door hinges, cross-sill supports.! 
brake fixtures, are riveted on. In order to provide door M 
ets and immediate floor support, a system of short woodei? 
termediate and cross sills, 5 by 8 inches, are used as showi 
the plan view of the car. Fig. 2. These sills are grooved- 



General Dimensions. 

T,.mkUi, over buffer blocks 

l.ciiKtli, over enil sills 

1,.iirUi, inside ofbox 

Wiiitli, over side sills 

AVidth. inside of box 

I liiglit, inside of box 



li ft. G'i. in. 
!.-. ft.- 1 in. 
:K ft. II in. 
.'.I ft. 1 in. 
: fl. !•'/■ in- 
.4 ft. (5 in. 



In the present design, as will be seen from Figs. 3 and 4, 
advantage has lieen taken of the opportunity afforded by the 
l)ox of the car having full sides of considerable height, to in- 
troduce a truss to support the sides, thereby using very light 
side siHs and dispensing with the stakes ordinarily used. The 
small light weight of the car is largely due to this feature of 
the design. 

The truss members are .i-inch channels of the necessary 
weight required by the loads at the various panels. The bot- 
tom chord or side sill is an 8-inch llVz-pound channel, the top 
chord is a heavy angle, and Vg-inch by 6-inch gusset plates 
nre also used for the upper connections. The angle also serves 
as a <oping for the wooden lining of the car. 

The center sills are 1.5-inch. 33-pound channels, secured to 
the end sill plates and body bolster members by angle irons, 
,nnd it will be noted that the full strength of the ilanges has 



The lining of the car is of 1%-inch pine, and the llo.ii 
which there is an area of 287 square feet, is of the sann 
terial, 1% inches thick by 6 inches wide, and ship lai ; 
Owing to the height of the sides of the box of the car and " 
lateral pressure of coal as lading, four IVo-inch top cross 
rods are used to prevent bulging. These, however, will ■ 
prevent using the car for lumber. Four drop doors. Is/ 
27% inches, are provided, which are handled by winding shi 
chains, ratchets and locks, similar to those generally use.!- 
such equipment. The c^ors are so located as to dump a 1: 
proportion of the contends of the car when dumping is desira^ 
The car is equipped with Westinghouse air brakes, the des^ 
of the underframing permitting a very simple direct br| 
system. The couplers are arranged with tandem springs #} 
the draft lugs are riveted direct to the center sills. | 

This car was designed to take a lading of 88,000 pounds iWV 
not to exceed 10.000 pounds fiber strain in its members. 'I| 
test load of the sample car was wet coal, and when well heat), 
up weighed 92.700 pounds. This was subsequently increa|- 
by heavy rains to 95.250 pounds. Under this load the deflectft. 
of the center sills was V* inch, and that of the sides was ft 

quite % inch. 1 

The car, as shown in Fig. 1. is mounted on a pair of diam« 



April, 1900. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 101 



I ' 



%--, - -■' *: — v-;*n'- 



m 



3^^ 



l.*l v.. ! . . 



^ 



r '<! /•/ — i; i V' ufj — i^-\ i-ii • >v — ■ — 

5 !'./ | ! i ^A^ Iri Vr- ^, ^T^T 



■-rjj- 



-JJ-O 



isii 



■ rtJ 






<-Y/ -»-■% 







-}5-4 "w^tMmm ""IK 



'u'V-^y ^^. 




80,000 Pounds Capacity Steel Frame Coal Car-N. & W. Railway. 
Fig. 2'— Plan and Longitudinal Section. 




Fig. 3.— Transverse Section Showing Bolster. 



type trucks, standard to the 50-ton cars. At the time the car 
was built the standard truck for 80,000-pound cars had not 
been designed. With these heavy trucks the weight of the 
car is 33,700 pounds, but with the new trucks thi.s weight will 
be reduced to 32,000 pounds or less. 

The new design of truck shown in Figs. 5 and 6 is similar 
in many respects to those under a large proportion of the 
N. & W. rolling stock. It is 6 inches shorter in wheel base 
than Is used in the trucks under the 50-ton cars, which admits 
of light top arch bars, 4% by 1% inches, while the inverted 
bars are 4% by 1% inches, and the tie bars 41,4 by % inches. 






j^rk^fp 








~dE 



K. 



1-t 



7k::. 



-33- ^^-isAgfTTSr OJa/nieG ~ 




7^ 





t-c 


- 


-—9-/-,- 


- 




S^ 


1 

1 






^ 


> 






1 

1 

1 
1 

t 


% 






\ 


^ 




V 


1— i -?. Mr ";: r^- 


^1 


1 


L — r -,-^ 


— 


-=j ^ 


— 


^ ■ 








80,000 Pounds Capacity Steel Frame Coal Car-N. & W, Railway. 
Fig. 4.— Plan and Elevation of Steel Framing. 



102 



AMERICAN ENGINEER ANU RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



The lightening process has also 
been applied to the bolsters, 
which are 10-inch 35-puund I 
beams, with iron spacing' blocks, 
to the spring plank, which is a 
IS-inch 30.5-pound channel, and 
to all other details where consis- 
tent with good design. 

The journals are SJ by 9 inches, 
the same as are in use under 
N. & W. 50-ton cars, which, al- 
though not M. C. B. standard 
for that weight, have, neverthe- 
less, given excellent and satis- 
factory service. As may be seen 
by the illustration. Fig. 1, the 
car has a very neat, trim ap- 
pearance, and although its ser- 
vice test has not yet been ex- 
tensive, the indications are that 
It will be very satisfictory. The 
Norfolk & Western are prepa ina 
t > build one thousand of these 
cars in the near future at Koa- 
noke. The use of wood tor 
lining and floor is justified by 
I he designers by ihe unfavor- 
able actioT of the acids and 
moisture in coal, and owing to 
the use of standard sections the 
repairs will be greatly facilitated. 




Fig. 5.- Side View of Truck. 

^- 1- -- -4-0"- S'i-^S^C^Jilletii./Mn^r^ J 



-■-'-■-»1- ■ 







FIgi 6 —End Elevation and Section of Truck. 



A CONTINUOUS MEAN PRESSURE INDICATOR. 



A method of obtaining a continuous record of the mean pres- 
sure in a steam engine cylinder by pressure gauges was brought 
before the Institution of Mechanical Engineers about two years 
ago by Prof. William Ripper and described in our issue of 
October, 1897. page 355. Prof. Ripper's plan is to use valves 
driven from the engine to keep a steam gauge in communica- 
tion with the steam side of the piston while another gauge is 
kept in communication with the back pressure side. The valves 
simply act to throw the gauge into communication with the 
ends of the cylinder alternately so that one gauge is always 
connected to the steam side and the other to the exhaust. For 
complete records of his work the paper may be consulted as 
reprinted in "Engineering," December 15, 1899, page 771. and 
the following issue. 

This method seems to give surprisingly accurate results. 
The mean pressures are read on the gauges and to obtain a 
steady reading two throttling cocks are used, one close to the 
valve, referred to above, and the other close to the gauge. 
Prof. Ripper says: "By the use of these regulating cocks the 
oscillations of the finger of the gauge may be reduced to any 
desired degree of steadiness without interfering with the ac- 
curacy of the reading of the mean pressure." Despite the fact 
that the author of the paper expects engineers to object to the 
method as inaccurate for the determination of such an im- 
portant factor as the mean effective pressure of an engine, he 
has come to the conclusion that "readings by a pressure gauge 
may be obtained which are as accurate, as consistent and as 
reliable as by any known instrument for the measurement of 
pressure, not excepting the best of indicators; also that throt- 
tling, when properly applied, does not endanger the accuracy of 
the reading, but. on the contrary, gives the true mean effect of 
the regular successions of momentary variations of pressure 
acting on the gauge." 

This idea will be accepted rather conservatively because it is 
radical, though it may prove to be absolutely correct. The 
throttling and gauge method would be a boom to those who test 
locomotives either on the road or on rollers, because of the ad- 



vantage of having a continuous record. This is equally appli- 
cable in the case of any form of high speed engine with fluc- 
tuating load. In case the power of any engine changes rapidly 
it is impossible to obtain a record with an indicator even if a 
large number of diagrams are taken on one card because of the 
difficulty of averaging their areas. In the discussion attention 
was called to the fact that ordinary indicator diagrams are 
often taken on so small a scale that it is almost impossible to 
read pressures accurately and the thickness of a line represent- 
ed one pound pressure. Prof. Ripper's instrument was con- 
sidered to be as accurate as that. 

This appears to be an important suggestion with reference 
to the measurement of power. 



TEST OF AN ARCH BAR TRUCK FRAME. 



An arch bar truck side frame was recently tested to destruc- 
tion by Prof. C. V. Kerr, of the Armour Institute of Tech- 
nology. Chicago, and the results were presented last month 
before the Western Railway Club. Three series of loads were 
applied by means of a 200,000 lbs. Riehle testing machine, the 
car journals were represented by a short piece of shafting and 
the loads were applied by means of short lengths of I beams. 
The first series begun at 4.900 lbs. and gradually increased 
to 45,000 lbs. Upon release the permanent set was about 1-5 
in. The several series carried the load up to 75,000 lbs. with a 
permanent set of a little less than 0.4 inch. The load was then 
increased to 99.500 lbs., at which one of the journal boxes broke. 
A further increase of load to 155,800 lbs. caused the bolts to 
shear and the boxes t'-' crumble. The boxes were not standard 
M. C. B, boxes but were cut away in such a manner as to 
weaken the structure considerably, and the frame failed sooner 
than it otherwise would. Prof. Kerr, as a result of this test, 
strongly advocates lipping the under arch bar over the ends of 
the upper bar in order to reinforce the bolts against shearing. 
The stresses imposed upon this truck frame are greater than 
any static load which would occur in actual service, but since 
it is clear that the frame tested was weakest in shearing 
strength the point made is a good one and it should be consid- 
ered more generally than is now the case in the construction of 
diamond trucks. 



APEiL,i900. AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL 108 



PRAIRIE TYPE AND WIDE FIREBOX SWITCH ENGINES. 



C. B. & Q. Railroad. 



Prairie Type. 



General Description. 



The locomotive tleslgu wlildi we illustrate herewith is one 
of unusual interest because it is a rather bold step in break- 
ing down the too thoroughly established custom of adhering 
to narrow fireboxes for soft coal burning engines. This de- 
sign was prepared and several of the engines are being built 
by the motive power department of the Burlington road. They 
are intended for service in which the capacity of the boiler gov- 
erns the load hauled. They are to be used on lines with low 
grades, and in heavy freight service, at low speed, or for stock 
and merchandise trains at high speeds. 

The name "Prairie Type" and designation "Class R" have 
been given to this engine, which is a mogul, with a pair 
of trailing wheels under the firebox. The novelty of the de- 
sign is the combination of a wide yet deep firebox, inside 
frames back to the firebox, and outside frames under the mud 
ring. The firebox is 7 feet long and 6 feet wide. This ap- 
pears to be very short, but it will certainly make the fireman's 
work relatively easy, and if made longer the weight on the 
trailers would be increased. The grate area is 42 square feet. 
and the question may be asked as to why it was not made 
larger. We are so accustomed to the extremely large grates 
used for anthracite coal that this grate area seems small. It 
is to be used for bituminous coal, and western coal at that. 
The experience of the Burlington with Wootten boilers some 
years ago has led the officers to believe that this grate area 
will be successful with their coal, and that it will serve to 
indicate the proper direction to take in future construction. 
It is a generous increase over usual practice, and yet it stops 
short of extremes. 

The elevation and half plan. Fig. 1, illustrate some of the 
difficulties of the frame construction. The grate was placed 
low in order to secure depth in the firebox, and the frames 
were dropped at the back of the rear driving boxes as low as 
practicable without interfering with the height of the draft 
connection to the tender. The boiler drawing. Fig. 2. shows 
the mud ring to be 18 inches below the throat. The main 
frames stop under the front end of the firebox, where they 
are attached by keys and bolts to a heavily ribbed cast-steel 
cross bar, shown in Fig. 5. 

Short sections of frames, with pedestals for the trailing 
wheels, are spliced to the cross bar, and these frames were 
made wider than the main frames in order to give a good 
arrangement of the ash pan, which is seen in Fig. 3. The 
journal boxes for the trailing wheels are outside of the wheels 
and the frames are under the mud ring. With such a low 
mud ring this widening of the frames seems to be neces- 
sary. The possibility for a hinge action of the frames at this 
cross bar is very naturally suggested by this construction. 
This has been considered in the design of the bar. which is 
strongly ribbed on both sides. The bar itself, and the frames, 
at the splices, are 16 inches deep, and the splices each have 
12 li/g-inch bolts. In the plan view of Fig. 1 and in Fig. 5, the 
form of the splice is shown. The parts are so fitted as to bring 
the keys in compression instead of shear. This is a very 
strong splice. Attention was directed to this method of key- 
ing on page 181 of our June issue, 1899. It has been in use 
on the Pennsylvania since 1892 and we hope it will come into 
general use for frame splices. The rear cross bar. also of 
cast steel, in which the draft iron is an integral part, is shown 
at the left in Fig. 5. This construction necessitated tubes 
16 feet 1 inch long, altho\igh they were favored as much 
as practicable by the location of the tube sheets. The equal- 
izer system and spring rigging are shown in Fig. 1. The front 
driving wheels are equalized with the truck, and the remaining 
wheels are equalized together. The trailer journal boxes have 




Fig. 2a.-Seotion of Firebox of Class P, " Prairie " Type 
Locomotive, C. B. & Q. R, R. 

slings carrying saddles, upon which a pair of equalizers rest. 
The back ends of these equalizers are connected to the frames 
by coil springs, while the front ends are connected across 
the engine by a long transverse equalizer to which the equal- 
izers which are fulcrumed under the cross bar are connected 
by links. This complicates the spring rigging, but it is nec- 
essary on account of the lateral offset in the frames. It is 
claimed, however, by the designers that the outside bearing 
on the trailing axle and this cross equalizer will both tend 
to increase the stability of the engine and diminish "rolling" 
or "lurching" even on soft or uneven track. 

The most important dimensions are given in the following 
table: 

Prairie Type Locomotive. 
C. B. & Q. R. R. 

Gauge of track i ft. SV> In. 

Cylinders 19 by 24 in. 

DriviniT wheel centers 56 in. 

Thickness of tires 4 in. 

Engine truck wheels 37 in. 

Trailing wheels 37 in. 

Driving wheel base .-il ft. 4 in. 

Firebox, inside 7 ft. by 6 ft. 

Boiler, diameter at front end 56 in. 

Boiler, diameter at throat sheet 66 in. 

Heatine snrf ace. tubes . 1.827 sq. ft. 

" firebox LSI sq. ft. 

total l.gsSsq.ft. 

Orate area 42 8q. 5t. 

Weight of engine in working order lestimaled) 138,(100 lbs. 

Weight on drivers (estimated) iM.OOn lbs. 

Weight of tender in working order (estima'ed) 96.000 lbs. 

Tender, water capacity 5,000 gals. 

Tender, coal capacity S tons 

Extreme width •. 10 ft. 

Extreme height above rail 14 ft. 9 in. 

The Boiler. 
The boiler pressure is 190 pounds. The firebox is of the Bel- 
paire type, with straight side sheets, unusually wide water 
spaces and relatively long staybolts. The water spaces are 4^4 
inches all around at the mud ring. The taper sheet of the 
boiler is in front and the rest of the shell is straight back to 
the firebox, the outside firebox sheet tapers toward the rear 
to save weight at the back and to give more room in the cab. 
(The firebox crown sheet is inclined so that it can not be en- 
tirely uncovered at any moment and the outer sheet is made 
parallel to it for obvious reasons). The tubes. 194 in num- 
ber, are 2V4 inches in diameter and 16 feet 1 inch long. 
They are long because it was necessary to get the driv- 
ing wheels between the cylinders and the front of the 
firebox. If the back tube sheet was of the usual form 
and the front tube sheet in its usual location, they would be 
about 1-5 inches longer. The front tube sheet is set back 
about 10 inches into the shell and the back tube sheet is 



104 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROADJ^URNAL_^__ 









APRiL,i900. AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 105 




Cross-Bar at Rear Ends of Frames. 



Fig. 5 



^?f A ^p/' . 

Cross-Bar in Front of Firebox, 




fflxeAe/mmCy/ ^ if Taper Tap 

irM /Vay/?ef/a /ap^f/7f. ~^ VT^^ 




SECTION A-B 



Fig. 6. 






i?* -- 4 



4 ^^ ;b/v?/r/7/ 
/in^j /WJ77 





Fig. 7. 
'Prairie" Tvpe Locomotive-C. B. & 0- R. R. 





Fig. 10. 



106 AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 




Wide Firebox Switching Locomotive. 
Class "G3" C. B. &Q. R. R. 



April, looo. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 107 



dished. This const-ruction of the back tube sheet renders it 
comparatively easy to put in a new one. It removes the tube 
ends slightly beyond the reach of the radiant heat of the fire 
and adds a trifle .to the length o£ the combustion space In the 
firebox. 

The sectional view of the boiler shows turnbuckles in the 
diagonal braces. These soon become incrusted with scale in 
service, so as to be fast and rigid, but they are used in order to 
provide a close adjustment in the braces when the boilers are 
new. The throat stays are put in on the staybolt principle, for 
the purpose of obtaining a uniform distribution of the loads 
upon them. The firebox is provided with a brick arch, with an 
improved system of air ducts, in order to improve the combus- 
tiou and reduce the smoke. Another feature of the firebox is 
the two fire doors. The clear opening into the water leg of 
the firebox at the throat sheet is worthy of note as being un- 
usual. 

Details of Construction. 

The cylinder is illustrated in Fig. 6, and the valve in Fig. 7. 
The valves are upon the tops of the cylinder and the frames 
are double at the cylinders. The valves have internal ad- 
mission and they are made solid. The packing is of the bull 
ring type, with small packing rings of angle section. The 
valve bushings have one bridge 2 inches wide which is placed 
at the bottom when in place. The joints in the packing bear 
upon this bridge, and there is no possibility of catching the 
ends in the ports. The other bridges are % inch wide. The 
Class R engines have 1 inch lap. 1/16 inch clearance and 6 inch 
valve travel, but the design of the valve makes any change in 
the lap or clearance a very simple matter. 

The cross-head is the Lair type, with cast-iron top guide and 
a steel bottom guide. The shoes are cast iron babbitted. The 
pistons are cast iron, with Dunbar packing. . The engine has 
phosphor-bronze bearings throughout. The driving axles have 
8V2 by 9%-inch journals, and wheel seats enlarged to 8% 
inches. The key ways are cut with a 5%-inch diameter milling 
cutter. 

The air-brake cylinders are located in front of the rear 
driving axle, and between the frames, as shown in Figs. 1 and 
i. The leading truck has a swing center and 37-inch wheels. 
The tender has a 5,000-gallon tank and capacity for eight tons 
of coal. It is carried on two four-wheel trucks. 
Wide Firebox Switch Engine. 

Another new design by the same road is that of the Class G 
3 six-coupled switch engine, with a wide firebox and piston 
valves. Four of these are now building at the Aurora shops. 
Their chief dimensions are as follows: 

Six-wheel Wide Firebox Switcher. 
C. B. & Q. R. R. 

Gauge of track 4 ft. S% in. 

Cylinders 20 by 24 in. 

Driving wheel centers 44 in. 

Tiiicicness of tires 4 in. 

Wheel base, engine and tender 38 ft. 9 in. 

Driving wheel base 10 ft. 10 in. 

Firebox, inside 57'/4 by 72 in. 

Boiler, front end of shell 60 in. 

Boiler at throat sheet 64 in. 

Weight in working order (estimated) 122,000 lbs. 

Weight of tender in working order (estimated) 72,000 lbs. 

Capacity of tank 3.900 gals. 

Capacity for coal 6 tons 

This boiler differs from the one previously described. It has 
radial stays and is straight on top. The form of the firebox 
resembles that of stationary boilers of the locomotive type. 
There are 204 tubes, 2% inches in diameter and 14 feet 6 inches 
long. The water legs are 4% inches wide at the bottom, and 
the staybolts begin to lengthen immediately above the mud 
ring. The turnbuckle adjustment for the braces is used in 
this boiler also. The method of supporting the boiler is 
shown in Fig. 10. This is in the form of a bracket reaching 
out from the frames and receiving the weight directly from 
the mud ring by a shoe. The side thrust is taken by a groove 
in the bracket, and the pad merely holds the boiler down when 
swayed. This appears to be an excellent boiler support. In 
this case a heavy bracket is necessary on account of the ex- 
cess of width of the firebox over the frames. 



Wide firebox switch engines have been In use for a number 
of years, but this Is believed to be the first built for soft coal. 
The principal merits in this type of boiler which the designers 
claim is simplicity of construction, a boiler which will prove 
inexpensive to maintain, and lastly a very large heating and 
grate surface for a 6-wheel switching engine. The principal 
object was to overcome the difficulty with smoke In the pe- 
culiarly trying service of switching. 



PHIZK FOR HIGH SPEED ELECTRIC RAILROAD PLAN. 



The German Society of Mechanical Engineers will this year 
award the Veltmeyer prize of 1,200 marks with gold medal tor 
the best plan and specifications for an electric railroad between 
two distant cities, designed exclusively for trains running at a 
speed of 200 kilometers (I2414 miles) per hour, and following 
each other In quick succession without Intermediate stopping 
points, each train to have a minimum capacity of 150 passen- 
gers. The stipulations are given in full In the January num- 
ber of Glaser's Annalen, and the contest will close on October 
6th this year. The prize will be awarded at the November 
meeting of the society. Concerning the subject selected, Mr. 
WIchert, one of the prize judges and a leading German Gov- 
ernment engineer, writes as follows: 

"The problem has a special interest at the present time, as 
the new century now dawning may see Its practical solution. 
The construction of railroads specially designed for light trains 
of high frequency and enormous speed has so far received 
only passing attention. Look at it as you will, It Is In line with 
the progress of the times, but whether a practical solution Is 
possible or not, time, study and experiments alone can demon- 
strate. The subject requires that careful consideration be given 
to the design of terminals with the necessary installation for 
handling trains of 200 kilometers' speed without risk or con- 
fusion. As such speeds have never yet been attained, the 
problem may bring out the impossibilities, if any, which stand 
in the way of solving it. No definite distances being laid down, 
the solution will not give absolute, but only relative quantities. 
Correct theories ought to be developed In regard to the re- 
sistance at high speeds, which in the United States have al- 
ready reached 150 kilometers per hour. The problem must 
therefore be based on an unprejudiced review of the literature 
and the material at hand relating to such matters as train and 
air resistance, brake action, etc., referred to high speeds, and 
the committee having the subject in charge thinks that there 
is still a wide field unexplored in that direction." 



Washing locomotive boilers with cold water has been con- 
sidered by many as injurious to the sheets because of the 
sudden contraction which it causes. Mr. Edward Grafstrom, 
writing in the "Railway Master Mechanic," defends the prac- 
tice as a result of experiments which he has made with pieces 
of steel cut from boiler plate. These showed no deterioration 
after a large number of repetitions of heating to a tempera- 
ture of 260 degrees and cooling with cold water. The advo- 
cates of the use of cold water hold that there are no initial 
stresses in the boiler when it is cold and that the effect 
of the cold water is to relieve the stresses which were caused 
by firing up. Mr. Grafstrom does not wish to be understood 
as saying that local cooling is not injurious, but advocates 
the uniform application of cold water to promote uniform 
contraction. 



A most interesting development of the fire tube boiler ri- 
valing water tube boiler capacity is promised by a paragraph 
in a recent editorial in "The Engineer" on the subject of 
marine boilers, quoted as follows: "It would be premature 
to say much, but experiments have been carried out recently 
under our own eyes, with a fire tube boiler, with the result 
that it very readily produced its own weight of dry steam 
per hour; that it made nearly eight pounds of steam per 
pound of coal burned and that every portion of the boiler is 
accessible for repair, almost without removing a nut" 



108 AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 




Mogul Freight Locomotive-New York Central R; R. 
A. M. Waitt, Superintendent Motive Power and Rolling Stock. Schenectady Locomotive Works, Builders. 



MOGUL FREIGHT LOCOMOTIVES. 



New York Central & Hudson River R. R. 



The Schenectady Locomotive Worlcs have just delivered to 
the New York Central a number of heavy mogul freight loco- 
motives, one of which is illustrated by the accompanying en- 
graving. In cylinder power, size of driving wheels, grate area 
ana in general appearance these engines strongly resemble 
those of the same type furnished in 1S98 by the same builders 
and illustrated on page 363 of our November number of that 
year. In boiler ijower and weight, however, the new design 
far surpasses the earlier one, and as the 1898 engines have 
done most satisfactory work the greater power of the present 
design may be expected to improve upon that proportionately. 
The comparison in weight and boiler capacity shows progress 
as follows: 

1S9S. 1900. 

Total weight, lbs 142,200 155,200 

Weight on drivers, lbs 123,000 135,500 

Heating surface, sq. ft 2,111 2,507 

Water capacity of tender, gals 4,500 5,000 

The design and specifications were furnished by the mechani- 
cal department of the road and were worked out under the 
direct supervision of Mr. A. M. Waitt, Superintendent of Mo- 
tive Power. The details of the engines are changed from the 
earlier design in the use of Fo.x pressed steel tender trucks, 
cast iron taper stacks, wooden pilots and the "H" erosshead 
instead of the Laird. This engine has an admirable arrange- 
ment of hand holds on the engine and tender, with steps at 
both ends of the tender. The brake shoes are back of the driv- 
ing wheels and the driver brake cylinder is under the boiler 
barrel instead of at the rear ends of the frames. The driving 
journals are 9 by 12 in. and the truck journals 6% by 10 in. 
Other characteristics of the design are Included in the follow- 
ing table: 

General Dimensions. , . 

Gauge i ft. SVi m. 

Fuel ' .' Bituminous coal 

Weight in working order 15i'?[!,'! If'®- 

Weight on drivers Jr V o • ^' 

Wheel base, driving 15 1 1. ^ in. 

Wheel base, rigid 16 it- ^ in- 

Wheel base, total H tt- i in. 

Cylinders. 

Diameter of cylinders 20 in. 

Stroke of piston 28 in. 

Horizontal thickness of piston 4% in. and 5 m. 

Diameter of piston rod 3% m. 

Kind of piston packing Cast-iron rings 

Kind of piston rod packing U. S. metallic 

Size of steam ports 18 in. by ly in. 

Size of exhaust ports IS in. by 2?4 m. 

Size of bridges 1% '"■ 



Valves. 

Kind of slide valves Richardson balanced 

Greatest travel of slide valves Wz in. 

Outside lap of slide valves % in. 

Inside lap of slide valves Clearance 1/12S in. 

Ije'ad of valves in full gear 1/32 in. negative lead full gear 

forward, 3/32 in. negative lead full gear back 

Wheels, Etc. 

Diameter of driving wheels outside of tire 57 in. 

Material of driving wheel centers Cast steel 

Driving box material Gun metal 

Diameter and length of driving journals 9 in. dia. by 12 in. 

Diameter and length of main crank pin journals (main side 6?i in. 

by oV4 in.) li in. dia. by 6 in. 

Diameter and length of side rod crank pin journals 

Back 5 in. by 394 in., front 5 in. dia. by 3% in. 

Engine truck, kind 2-wheel swing bolster 

Engine truck journals 6V4 in. dia. by 10 In. 

Diameter of engine truck wheels 30 in. 

toiler. 

Style ^f Extended wagon top 

Outside diameter of first ringT! 67 5/16 in. 

Working pressure ." 190 lbs. 

Material of barrel and outside of firebox Carbon steel 

Thickness of plates in barrel and outside of firebox 

21/32 in., % in., ^ in. and 11/16 in 

Firebox, length lOS 1/16 in. 

Firebox, width 40% in. 

Firebox, depth : F. 82 21/32 in., B. 70 21/32 in. 

Firebox, material Carbon steel 

Firebox plates, thickness Sides 5/16 in., back % in., 

crown % in., tube sheet 9/16 in. 

Firebox, water space Front 4 in., sides Zy^ in., back 31^ in. 

Firebox, crown staying Radial stays, V/s in. dia. 

Firebox, staybolts Taylor iron, 1 in. dia. 

Tubes, material Charcoal iron, No. 11 

Tubes, number of 366 

Tubes, diameter 2 in. 

Tubes, length over tube sheets 12 ft. 2i/4 in. 

Fire brick, supported on Studs 

Heating surface, tubes 2,321.6 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, firebox 1S5.6 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, total 2,507.2 sq. ft. 

Grate surface 30.3 sq. ft. 

Ash pan, style Sectional dampers F. and B. 

Exhaust pipes Single 

Exhaust nozzles 5 in., 5% in. and 5'/4 in. dia. 

Smoke stack, inside diameter 16 in. at choke, ISi/^ In. at top 

Smoke stack, top above rail 14 ft. 6V4 in. 

Boiler supplied by 2 Monitor injectors. No. 10 

Tender. 

Weight, empty 44,700 lbs. 

Wheels, number of 8 

Wheels, diameter 33 in. 

Journals, diameter and length 5 in. dia. by 9 in. 

Wheel base 16 ft. 6% in. 

Tender frame 10-in. channel iron 

Tender trucks Two 4-wheel Fox pressed steel floating bolster type 

Water capacity 5,000 U. S. gallons 

Coal capacity 10 tons 

Total wheel base of engine and tender 50 ft. 8 in. 

Brakes Westinghouse-American combined, on drivers, 

tender and for train 
The boiler covering is the Franklin sectional, the brakes are 
the Westinghouse. and the other special equipment includes 
Leach Sanders. National Hollow brake beams, Gould couplers, 
Nathan & Co.'s 1899 type lubricators, and the tenders are 
equipped with water scoops. 



Al'UiL, 1900. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 109 



CHICAGO & NORTHWESTERN SHOPS AT CHICAGO.* 



Extensive Improvements. 



II. 
Buildings. 
The new buildings for these extensions were designed by 
Messrs. Frost and Granger of Chicago, and while artistic effect 
is not expected in railroad shops, considerable attention has 
been paid to their appearance, without, however, involving 
extravagance. The power house is the best example of this, 
and it is entirely appropriate. The requirements were first 
decide<l upon by the motive power ofBcers. Then the detailed 
arrangements were settled, and the architects were called upon 
to do that which they are best able to do — design and erect 
the buildings. It is not unusual in cases of this kind, and 
especially in new shop plants, for the buildings to be designed 
and built by other departments, the arrangement of the inte- 
riors being left for the mechanical department to fix afterward. 
Such a method is never satisfactory. It results in good build- 
ings, but they are not always convenient for those who use 
them. 

The buildings are of brick, with steel frame roofs, that of 
the power house being covered with tile arches and concrete, 
while the others are slated. The foundations have concrete 
footings with stone caps. The steel work was done by the 
Kenwood Bridge Company, the mason work by C. W. Gindle, 
the cranes were furnished by Pawling & Harnishfeger of Mil- 
waukee. Special attention was given to light and ventilation. 
The water closets and wash rooms for the men have been 
well arranged. The wash rooms have clothes lockers for the 
men, and the urinals and closets are placed in separate rooms. 
It is not necessary to show these in detail in the various shops, 
but it is worthy of record that good facilities of this kind, in- 
cluding clothes lockers and shower baths, are now considered 
necessary. The improvements extend these in the old shops 
as well as in the new. 

The shops will be heated by exhaust steam from the power 
house, and when this is not sufficient, direct steam from the 
boilers will be used in addition. The intention is to concen- 
trate the steam plant in the power house, and only such steam 
as is needed for heating will be taken from that building. 
The heating pipes are run overhead and the waste returns un- 
derground. The lighting will be by electricity throughout. 
The Power House. 
This building. Fig. 1, is 100 by 112 feet, and 30 feet in the 
clear, under the roof trusses. The basement is 9 feet 8 inches 
deep under the machinery room. The main walls are 25 inches 
thick, the roof is supported on five modified Howe trusses, the 
construction of which may be seen in the drawing of this de- 
tail. Fig. 2. The purlins are 9-inch 21-pound I beams, and are 
bolted to the trusses. The arches are 6-inch segmental tiles, 
with concrete filling, and composition roof covering. The roof 
was designed for a permanent and snow load of 100 pounds 
per square foot. The boiler room is 46 feet wide and the ma- 
chinery room 54 feet, with a brick wall between. The roof 
trusses meet upon this dividing wall and on the machinery 
room side, it also carries an IS-inch 55-pound I beam girder for 
the crane support, the other s\ipport being built into the oppo- 
site main wall. The elevation of this building shows its sub- 
stantial appearance and the inclined buttresses at the corners. 
This building has a 5-inch concrete floor, laid upon 8, 9, 10 and 
12-inch I beams and brick arches. There are four 17 by 12-foot 
skylights in the roof, two over the boiler room, and two over 
the machinery room. Those over the boiler room have 30-inch 
and the others have 12-inch Globe ventilators. The chimney 
is of ^irick and 180 feet high. The boiler room provides for six 
250-horse-power Babcock & Wilcox water-tube boilers, ar- 
ranged in three bi.tteries of two in each setting, giving at pres- 
ent a total of 1,500 horse power, with space for increasing this 



•For the previous article on the general plan of these improve- 
ments see page 82. 



to 2,000 horse power when extended. We shall describe the 
boiler plant in detail in a future Issue. Its arrangement is 
excellent. The brick chimney was decided upon after a careful 
consideration of mechanical draft. The original plan con- 
templated using three 66-inch iron stacks 107 feet high, with 
fans and motors, but when the cost of operation and mainten- 
ance of this system was considered it was discarded In favor 
of a substantial brick chimney. The reasons for this will be 
given more completely in connection with the description of 
the power questions, which will require an article by them- 
selves. It is sufficient now to say that the chimney was found 
to be much cheaper than mechanical draft. There was practi- 
cally no difference in first cost, while the operation of mechan- 
ical draft would be a con.stant annual charge. The boilers 
are equipped with automatic stokers, and the coal is handled 
entirely by machinery. It is stored in elevated bins, from which 
it runs by gravity to the boiler fronts. This will undoubtedly 
be an exceedingly economical plant in operation and in main- 
tenance. Boilers of this type are remarkably economical in 
repairs. 

The Boiler Shop. 
This building. Figs. 3 to 6. is 120 by 300 feet, the width being 
the same as that of the main machine shop. The boiler shop 
has 14 transverse tracks connecting with the long transfer table, 
which also serves the locomotive shop, and over these tracks 
a 50-ton electric crane, with a 67-foot span, travels the entire 
length of the shop. At the north end of the building is the 
riveting tower, of which we show a section at the left of Fig. 4. 
The riveting and hoisting machinery for this riveting tower 
was described in our issue of June. 1897. page 195. It was 
in use in the old boiler shop. The riveter has a gap of 12 feet 
and works with hydraulic pressure of 1,500 pounds per square 
inch, so controlled as to give pressures of 25. 50 or 75 tons, as 
required on the work. The tower crane has a capacity of 
40,000 pounds and a lift of 49 feet 3 inches. The longitudinal 
traverse of the tower crane is 24 feet. 

This building consists of a main portion 67 feet wide by 
40 feet high, and a wing 49 feet wide and 22 feet high. The 
wing has a traveling crane of 5 tons capacity running over its 
entire length, and the machinery is arranged with this in view. 
The cranes in both portions of the buildings are supported 
upon independent columns, as indicated in Fig. 6. The main 
walls of this building are 25 inches thick, the lighter side walls 
being 17 inches thick. The main roof is supported on trusses 
of the Fink type, shown in Fig. 6. which also shows details of 
the foundations. The machinery in this building is shown 
in a general way in Fig. 4. The crane service in this shop is 
admirable. The track arrangements are also good. A stand- 
ard-gauge track runs through the shop lengthwise, and another 
across it at right angles, connecting to the transfer table. The 
wash room is entered from the wing of the building, and it 
contains 24 wash bowls, 150 lockers and two shower baths. 
Adjoining it are 12 closets and 14 urinals. 
The Tank Shop. 
The repair work on tenders has been more carefully consid- 
ered in this case than is usual. A length of 144 feet has been 
added to the old shop, making the total length 344 feet. This 
shop is shown in Fig. 7. Its clear width between pilasters is 
74 feet 8 inches, and it has a 30-ton traveling crane with a 
span of 72 feet 5 inches and a lift of 16 feet 10 inches. The 
walls of the new shop are 24 feet 7% inches in height, and the 
walls of the old building have been raised to that height. 
The highest tender tank on the road is 11 feet 14 inch over all 
when standing on the rails. The machinery in this shop is 
placed near the walls and out of the way of the cranes. 

There are tracks for receiving nine tenders at a time. When 
they enter the shop, the tanks are lifted off by the crane and 
the frames, with the trucks, are moved over to the other side 
of the building. The truck erecting shop, with space for 20 
trucks, is at the end of the building, opposite that containing 
the long tracks. The doors of the building are 10 feet wide by 



110 AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



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APRiL,i9oo. American engineer and railroad journal, in 



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Fig. 8.— Machine Shop-Annex Plan 'and Sections, 

CHICAGO AND NORTHWESTERN SHOPS AT CHICAGO. 

Extensive Improvements. 



16 feet high. On one side of the building is the transfer table, 
and on the other, running its full length, is a track depressed 
4 feet below the surrounding ground. This is for unloading 
wheels, and it is placed 50 feet from the shop, which gives a 
large amount of room lor storage. The walls of this building 
are 18 inches thick. It has five ventilators 12 feet long by 6 feet 
wide. Adjoining this shop is a 33 by 24-foot building contain- 
ing the wash room, with 20 wash bowls and 150 lockers, and, in 
a separate room, 10 closets and 9 urinals. 

The Machine Shop Annex. 
Such work as turning up crank pins, making new parts of 
engines, brass work, bolts and rods, usually interferes seri- 
ously with the heavier work of a shop, and by being scattered 
all about it is a source of expense and annoyance, which will 
be entirely done away with in these shops by concentrating it 
all in this machine shop annex, a building 100 liy 150 feet, as 



shown in Fig. S. This is a two-story building adjoining the 
machine shop. The upper floor is in the form of a gallery, 25 
feet wide on the side and 20 feet at the end. There are two 
3-foot bridges and an 8-foot passage across. The lower story 
is IS feet 6 inches high in the clear, and the upper one 13 feet. 
The opening in the floor is 42 by 132 feet. The walls for the 
lower story are 24 inches thick and those for the second story 
are 16 inches. A 10 by 10-foot elevator of 5,000 pounds capacity 
is provided in this shop. There are nine skylights, 10 feet high 
at the ends and 20 feet long on the ridges. The end door is 
16 by 12 feet, sufficient for taking a box car into the building. 
The floors are of 3-inch oak plank. All piers and foundations 
are built on concrete. 

We shall present the power plant, and Information concern- 
ing the electrical distribution, in our next article on this sub- 
ject. 



112 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



(Establislied 1832) 

--AMERICAN--^ 

E-ngineeR 

RAILROAD^JOURNAL 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY 

"* BY 

R. M. VAN ARSDALE, 

J. S. BONSALL, Business Manager. 

MORSE BUILDING NEW YORK 

G. IW. BASFORD, Kdltor. 
e. E. SILK, Associate Editor. 

APRIL, 1900. 

Subscription.— $2. OU a year for the United States and Canada; $2.50 11 

year to Foreign Countries embraced in the Universal Postal Union. 
Remit by Express Money Order, Draft or Post-Office Order, 
S-nbscriptions for this paper will be received and copies kept for sale by 
the Post Office News Co,, 217 Dearborn Street, Chicago, III, 

-EDITORIAL ANNOUNCEMENTS. 



Advertisements.— Nothing will be inserted in this journal for 
pay, EXCEPT IN THE ADVERTISING PAGES. The reading pages will 
contain only such matter as we consider of interest to our 
readers. 

Special Notice.— 4s the Aotsrican Engineer and Railroad 
JotJRNAi. is printed and ready tor mailing on the last day of 
the month, correspondence, advertisen\ents, etc., intended for 
insertion must be received not later than the Wth day of each 
month. 



Contributions. — Articles relating to railway rolling stock con- 
struction and management and /Hndred ionics, by those who 
are practically acquainted with these subjects, are specially 

, desired. Also early notice.i of official changes, and additions of 
new equipment for the road or the shop, by purchase or construc- 
tion. 



To Subscribers.— 2'Ae .\mebican Engineer and Railroad 
Journal is mailed regularly to every subscHber each 
month. Any subscriber who fails to receive /lis paper ought 
at once to notify the postmaster at tfie office of delivery, and in 
case the paper is not then obtained this office should be notified, 
so that the missing paper may be supplied. When a sub- 
scriber changes his address he ought to notify this office at 
once, so that the paper may be sent to the proper destination. 



The paper may be obtained and subscriptions tor it sent to the 
fellowing agencies: Chicago, Post Office Neics Co., ill Dearborn 
Street. London, Eng., Sampson Low, Marston & Co., Limited 
St. Vunstan's House, Fetter Lane. E. C. 



gusset plates at their upper ends. The upper row of rivets in 
these connections also take in the lower flanges of heavy an- 
gles which serve as compression members of the side trusses. 
The truss side frame is not a new idea in car construction, 
but it is a new application in this case, and it will be watched 
with considerable interest. This design shows the possibili- 
ty of combining wood and steel in simple construction with- 
out involving excessive weight. 



CRANES. 



The concentration of engines, boilers, air compressors and 
electric generators into one building, whereby six separate 
steam plants are eliminated, is a striking feature of the im- 
provements now being made at the Chicago shops of the Chi- 
cago & Northwestern. This will probably appear to many 
as the important accomplishment of this admirable work. 
Without the slightest intention of underrating the saving in 
fuel and in wages which this will accomplish, it is believed 
that the saving through the improved crane service in the new 
buildings will far outweigh that of the improvement in the pro- 
duction and distribution of power. Here is a plant in which the 
heavy boiler work for 1,185 locomotives is to be done. This 
boiler shop will be a busy place, and the economy of its opera- 
tion, as well as its real capacity, will depend upon the prompt- 
ness with which the heavy parts are handled and the men 
supplied with work. It will not do to make them wait. This 
shop was designed with a view of utilizing electric traveling 
cranes, and so als-o was the tank shop, which forms a part of 
the same plan, described in this issue. There is nothing at 
all remarkable in this fact except that it was not done at least 
five years ago. A sensible and substantial crane service is so 
seldom seen in a railroad shop as to make a case of this kind 
stand out boldly. It Is strange that this is so, because no one 
can fail to see that the cost of locomotive repairs depends very 
largely upon the use of labor-saving appliances and the em- 
ployment of every facility for keeping the men and machines 
constantly supplied with work and material. It is beyond be- 
lief that a mechanical officer of any large road in this country 
to-day does not appreciate crane service. It is entirely beyond 
comprehension why one of them put an elaborate drop pit In 
a new erecting shop and made no provision whatever for 
cranes even in the future, but this has just now been done. 
It was, moreover, pointed to with pride. The crane is un- 
doubtedly the most valuable machine in a modern engineering 
establishment because it increases the output of every indi- 
vidual machine tool in the plant and adds to the capacity of 
every department in which the actual work is handled. 



AN IMPORTANT STEP TOWARD WIDER FIREBOXES. 



At one time cars with frames of commercial sections were 
very prominent among the promising designs for large ca- 
pacity, but of late comparatively few have appeared. This 
seems strange in view of the strong inclination In several 
quarters to prefer wood to steel for flooring and siding, par- 
ticularly in cars which are to be used for coal traffic. In this 
issue we print a description of an interesting steel frame coal 
car, which is not only attractive in appearance but is worthy 
of study from a structural standpoint. This car was designed 
under the direction of Mr. W. H. Lewis, Superintendent of 
Motive Power of the Norfolk & Western, by Mr. C. A. Seley, 
Mechanical Engineer of that road, and it is illustrated fully in 
this number. This car is a high-sided coal gondola, with a 
nominal capacity of 80,000 pounds. It has a steel frame, with 
wooden floor and sides and drop doors. With two heavy trucks 
designed for cars of 100,000 pounds capacity, weighing 15,500 
pounds, this car weighs but 33,700 pounds, and with its own 
trucks, which will be much lighter, the weight will be reduced 
from that amount. The center sills are 15-inch channels and 
the side sills 8-inch channels. The stakes of the sides are 
arranged In the foi-m of trusses, riveted to the side sills and to 



There are unmistakable signs of a turning toward wider 
fireboxes for bituminous coal-burning locomotives. For sev- 
eral years it has been apparent that the necessity for more 
grate area has been forced upon the leaders in locomotive im- 
provement, and with this issue we are able to record an im- 
portant practical step in this direction in two designs of 
wide firebox engines on the Burlington. 

These fireboxes are not extremely wide, but that the 
mud ring has at last been deliberately spread beyond the 
limits of the frames of a soft coal-burning engine is cause for 
congratulation and commendation. The designs mentioned, 
and particularly the "Prairie type," are rather bold, and the 
arrangement of the frames will probably bring out some 
differences of opinion. This, however, is a mere detail which 
cannot adversely affect the general proposition that larger 
grates are necessary, and that they will be used. In this case 
the construction is strong and there is no reason to fear or 
expect other than satisfactory results. It is maintained that 
the firebox will be brought outside of the lines of the frames 
and various satisfactory ways will be found for accomplishing 



APRIL, 1900. AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 113 



it. It is not inconceivable that the frame construction at the 
firebox will be entirely revised. It it is necessary to keep the 
back ends of the frames out of the way of ash pans, on ac- 
count of the desirability of depth in the firebox, it is possible 
to secure a decided advantage in construction by such a meth- 
od as this of the Burlington Prairie type, with the addition 
of diagonal braces across the frames under the grates. The 
absence of the rigid bracing of the rear ends of the frames, 
formerly afforded by the heavy foot plates of earlier design, 
is making itself felt and the strong crossbar of the Prairie 
type, with some method of diagonal stiffening, should re- 
ceive considerable thought as a possible relief from the 
troubles caused by the flexure of frames. It is believed that 
this construction can be made satisfactory even if it is not so 
in this design. 

It is perhaps worth while to look into the supposed necessity 
for deep fireboxes. If they could be made shallow for bitumin- 
ous coal burning on wide grates the wheel and long tube 
problems would be very much simpler, because the mud ring 
could be placed high enough to get moderate sized drivers 
under it. 

In this connection it is well to consider the fact that bitu- 
minous coal is successfully burned in relatively small cylindri- 
cal furnaces in marine practice, which represent exceedingly 
shallow fireboxes. The rates of combustion are lower in ma- 
rine service, but that which corresponds to the crown sheet is 
almost in the fire, it is so low. It is desirable to have plenty 
of combustion space, but it may, and probably will, be sufii- 
cient to put in into the form of length rather than depth. 
There is no difficulty in disposing of the driving wheels of 
the Columbia type without using excessively long tubes, but 
with six or eight wheels connected the case is different, un- 
less the driving wheels are small. 

In the Atlantic type, if the wheels are as large as those of 
the Baldwin engines on the Burlington, the tubes must be at 
least 16 ft. long. There is no apparently good objection to this 
when the diameter is correct. This length Is necessary partly 
on account of large wheels and partly because of the four-wheel 
truck in front. 

The Prairie type engine is regarded as an epoch-making 
design. Too much should not be expected of this individual 
case, but that it will show the possibilities and that it indi- 
cates the appreciation of a moderate widening of grates there 
can be no doubt. 



SHOP TRACKS, LONGITUDINAL VS. TRANSVERSE. 



The arrangement of tracks in locomotive erecting shops is 
almost the first question to arise in the plans for new shops 
or enlargements of old ones. We have inclined to the opinion 
in connection with large shops that where possible the tracks 
should be arranged lengthwise of the building, for reasons 
with which our readers are familiar, but in order to avoid 
onesidedness some arguments in favor of the lateral track 
plan were outlined last month. This has brought a ready re- 
sponse, printed elsewhere in this issue, from a superintendent 
of motive power who strongly favors the long tracks, and the 
support is so strong that it is commended to our readers. 
This gentleman emphasizes the importance of having two 
cranes in a shop anyway, for the benefit of their services in a 
variety of work, and he finds that the actual lifting and mov- 
ing of locomotives occupies but about five per cent, of the 
working time of the cranes. When not used for this heavy 
work both cranes are available for other useful purposes which 
the single large crane, made necessary in the lateral plan, 
will not serve so well. The transfer table becomes a neces- 
sity with the lateral system, and it is considered as a serious 
obstacle to the handling of material to and from the erecting 
shop. Furthermore a transfer table cannot, like a crane, be 
used for assisting in the operations inside the shop. This ar- 



gument is a strong one and It gives emphasis to the conten- 
tion that the importance of satisfactory facilities for handling 
material and work in locomotive shops has been underesti- 
mated. Our correspondent points to the case of a large shop 
with the lateral arrangement requiring two transfer tables 
as an illustration of the inconvenience which they caiise, and 
states that a shop with a transfer table upon each side is 
practically Lsolated from the surrounding buildings. At this 
time no case of this kind comes to mind, but the objection 
to two transfer tables is perfectly clear when expressed in this 
form. The advantage of easy supervision certainly rests with 
the longitudinal plan. It is believed to be exceedingly im- 
portant to consider the comparative amount of general useful- 
ness of cranes and transfer tables, both of which are 
expensive, in the settlement of this question. The size of 
the shop, the spans of the cranes, the amount of room which 
must be given up to the transfer table pit, all count in this 
connection, and it seems plain that there is a certain minimum 
size of plant to which the longitudinal tracks will not apply, 
but as the size and capacity of the shop increases the useful- 
ness of the cranes increases, while for the same increase in size 
and capacity the disadvantages of the transfer table corre- 
spondingly increase. 



Automatic stokers, as noted in these columns some time ago, 
have been tried in marine service on the Great Lakes in con- 
nection with Babcock & Wilcox water tube boilers on the 
steamer "Pennsylvania." This is believed to be the first in- 
stallation of automatic stokers on shipboard, and the results 
of tests by Lieuts. B. C. Bryan and W. W. White, U. S. N., on 
the machinery of the ship, including the action of the stokers, 
are of great interest. They were published in the "Journal of 
the American Society of Naval Engineers" for August, 189S, 
and the record indicates that the stoker experiment was en- 
tirely successful. There was very little smoke, and practically 
none at all except when the fires were sliced and the clinkers 
removed. The saving in the wages of firemen and in improved 
combustion made possible by automatic stokers are import- 
ant, and it appears to be possible and convenient to use them 
in connection with boilers of this type on shipboard. As the 
water tube boiler is making marked progress in this service it 
is possible that the use of automatic stokers may become equally 
common. In these tests it seems that the auxiliary engines 
for operating the stokers required but 1.68 per cent, of the 
total amount of steam used. It was demonstrated that the 
stokers could be stopped and the firing done by hand without 
difficulty. These stokers were made by the American Stoker 
Co; of Brooklyn, N. Y. 



The most important facts concerning the breakage of 
staybolts brought to notice recently are the effects of the 
form of the firebox and the internal structure of the material 
of which staybolts are made. These were considered on page 
382 of our December issue of last year and page 8 of the Janu- 
ary issue of the current volume. In another column in the 
present issue Mr. R. Atkinson, of the Canadian Pacific, adds 
valuable support to the opinion previously referred to. In his 
experience it has proved advantageous to provide easy curves 
at the sides of the firebox and he has also found It nec£ssary 
to consider the manner in which the iron is piled. That manu- 
facturers will return to the box faggoting of 20 years ago is 
too much to expect. It is important that the effect of slab 
piling should be understood, however, and the makers should 
be urged to furnish iron that will be nearly equally strong In 
whatever direction it is bent. It Is clearly impossible to place 
staybolts in the firebox so that they will always be bent most 
favorably and the proper course seems to be to select the irons 
which are known to be best qualified to stand the bending in 
any direction in which it may happen to come. 



114 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



ELECTRIC POWER DISTRIBUTION. 



NUMBERS, SIZES AND LOCATIONS OF ENGINES. 



Works of the Westinghouse Air Brake Company. 



The electric distribution of power at the works of the West- 
inghouse Air Brake Co. at Wilmerding is an interesting instal- 
lation because of its extent, its thoroughness, the use of steam 
turbines to drive the generators and specially because tests 
made before and after the change permit of knowing the ad- 
vantages in economy of operation of the electric plant. 

This is a case in which the saving of fuel is the largest 
saving because the character of the work done does not admit 
of the general use of individual motors, the majority of the 
machines requiring too little power to render this advant- 
ageous. The shafting, however, was speeded up and, therefore, 
a very important improvement is made upon the output of the 
machines. This plant is typical of a large class employing a 
great number of machines, and requiring but a small amount 
of power and located in a number of separate departments cov- 
ering a large ground and floor area. 

The shops were originally equipped with, for the time, an 
excellent system with a central boiler plant furnishing steam 
through underground steam pipes to 30 Westinghouse steam 
engines varying from 5 to 22.5 horse power and located in the 
various buildings with a view of reducing the belting to a 
minimum. It involved a large amount of steam piping, how- 
ever. This plan was considered preferable to a smaller num- 
ber of larger engines. It has always operated satisfactorily 
but the huge increase in the output of the works had very 
nearly reached the limit of the capacity of the boiler plant and 
this offered the desired opportunity for making the radical 
change which has been recently carried out. The manner of 
making the change itself is notable because the motors and 
turbo-generators were installed while the plant was running 
and without a minute's delay in the regular work of the shops. 
It was necessary merely to take off the engine belts and put 
on those for the motors and the change was made. The pre- 
liminary work was so thorough that it was not necessary to 
make a single change in the motors, the wiring or accessories 
after the electric system was put into operation. This means 
that the measurement of the power of the engines and the sub- 
division of the shafting for motor driving was done so well as 
to require no revision. 

The plan shown in Fig. 1 serves to locate in a general way 
the factors in the system. For such a large establishment the 
arrangement is compact and of course if the buildings were 
separated by longer distances the saving in cost of operation 
would be greater. With about 4,000 linear feet of steam line 
the condensation to the engines amounted to 50 boiler horse- 
power, which was a constant loss. This is in spite of the fact 
that the piping was all well protected. This engraving shows 
the location of the engines by means of small circles made in 
black, and a glance shows what an amount of steam piping 
was involved. The new system places all the power and light- 
ing generators in the power house and when in complete work- 
ing order the single boiler plant and the three turbo-generators 
will furnish the light, heat and power for the entire establish- 
ment. 

The boiler plant consists of two sections of Babcock & Wil- 
cox boilers having 16 single boilers in all with a total capacity 
of 2.000 horse power. They are fed by Roney stokers and 
work under a pressure of 125 lbs. Run of mine coal is burned. 
The grate surface of each boiler is 25 square feet, the total for 
each half being 200 square feet, the heating surface of each 
boiler is 1,320 square feet or a total of 10,560 square feet. The 
ratio of grate area to heating surface is 52.8. No change is 
made in the boiler plant, which is arranged in two batteries of 
S single boilers each. 

There were 30 engines in the shops located as shown in Fig. 
1 and in the table below. The sizes and power of each are 
stated, the total nominal horse-power of the engines being 
1,375. They were all operated without condensing. 



Size. 


Locations. 


Purpose. 


HP. 


o 116 and 27x16" 
3 2 1 lland24xl«" 
61^8-; Sand 15x9" 
jS 1 9 and 15x9' 

^ U2and 15x9" 


iBt from entrance. 

2d 

3d •' 

llh •' 

Centre of floor. 


2,500 light machine. 
1,500 ■' 
500 •■ 
60 arc 
Generator. 


225 
ISO 
50 
50 
50 


Mi 


r 4^x4" 
4M.X4" 
4^x4" 
4Hx4" 
.5Hx5" 
9 and 15x9" 

^ 7Hx7" 


1st left from entrance. 

I'd 

3d 

4th 

1st right from entrance. 

2d 

Kear of boiler room. 


Roney stokers. 

Rotary water pump. 
Hot and cold air (an. 
Coal crusher. 


5 
5 
5 
S 
10 
50 
25 



9^x9" 
6>^x6" 



BoilJr shop. 

Rear of smith shop. 






7Hx7" 
7^x7" 
12x11" 
7Hx7" 
8^x8" 



Rear of smith shop. 
Lefi of entrance. 
Rear side. 
2d floor side. 



Boiler shop machinery. 
Buffer drop. 



45 
20 



Flask eon. and sand elev. 

Rot.airpunip and Hand C. 

Cleaninff barrels. 

Fan for blast. 

t^'lask and sand conve'rs. 



25 
25 
75 
25 
35 



Ex- 
per'l 
room. 

1 


Experimental Uept. Experimental machine. 


S 


Pat- 
tern 
shop. 





Pal tern shop. 


25 


i||{ 9^x9" 


Ist floor Cirpenter shop. 


Carpenters' machine. 45 



a 
3 o. 



('11 and 19x11' 
Hand 19x11' 
7Vv,x7" 
Hx7' 
id 19? 
i 11 and 19x11' 
I 9)^x9" 
V 4^x4" 



West side. 
Next to fan. 
Fan. 

Next to fan. 

East side. 

Rotary pump departm t 

Department B. 



% each A and C machine. 

Hot and cold air fan. 

\4 each B and H machine. 

H 

Testing rotary pumps. 
Night machinery. 



80 
SO 
25 
25 
80 
80 
45 
5 



The only steam engines which will remain permanently will 
be the two 10 h.p. exciter engines in the power station and those 
necessary to operate the stokers, air fan and rotary pump 
in the boiler house. 

In the power station, of which several interior views were 
shown last month, are the three turbo-generators, two exciter 
units, the air pumps and condensers for the turbines and two 
Class D IngersoU-Sergeant air compressors. These are ar- 
ranged to belt from 100 h.p. motors. They have 18% and 11%, 
by 14 inch cylinders with inter-coolers, and each has a capacity 
of 688 cubic feet of free air per minute. The arrangement of 
the machinery is indicated in Fig. 4. The generators are 
bipolar alternators running at 3,600 revolutions per minute. 
The armatures are designed especially for the high speed. The 
voltage from the large generators is 440 and that of the exciter 
units is 110 volts. The air pumps are driven by a 50 h.p. motor, 
belt connected. At the heaviest loads two of the turbine units 
are able to furnish all the power and also supply the lights; 
there is, therefore, a large margin in power under present 
conditions. 

The wiring system is entirely underground and it follows in 
a general way the locations shown on Fig. 1. The switch- 
board in the power station has 9 panels. This was shown in 
Fig. 4 on page 67 of our March issue. The first, at the left, is 
the exciter panel, next are the three turbine panels; the meter 
panel, with ground detector, is next, and at the right are the 
four feeder panels. The first of these is for lights entirely. 
The second has the power circuits for the coal and boiler 
house, the first floor and east side of the machine shop. The 
third has the second floor of the machine shop and the west 
side of the first floor. The fourth has the blacksmith shop 
and foundry circuits. There are two sets of bus bars arranged 
to permit of connecting the generators to either. The lights 
may be taken from either bus bar, but the power can be taken 
from the upper one only. 

The lighting system requires 2,500 incandescent and 60 arc 
lamps. The light circuits run In tunnels to transformers and 



April, 1900. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 115 




Electric Power Distribution.— Westinghouse Air Brake Works. 
Fig. I.-Plan of Buildings and Power System. 



thence to the lamp circuits. The arc lamps are the Manhattan 
enclosed 110 volt 100 hour lamps. As the incandescent cir- 
cuits carry 110 volts both kinds take current from the same 
circuits. 

The motors are the Westinghouse induction type with no 
electric connection between the armatures and the circuits; 
they have no brushes. They are placed against posts, upon 
overhead timbers or in any convenient place, and beyond oiling 
them once a week they require very little attention. 

Two independent 30 h.p. motors are used for running fans 
in the foundry and the others are mounted in different ways 
most suited to the requirements of each case. The motor drives 
in the machine shop are illustrated in Fig. 3. This is a two- 
story building, with line shafts running its entire length. In 
the lower story the motors are bracketed against the columns 
of the building where they do not occupy space that can pos- 
sibly be needed. They are belted to counter shafts and thence 
to the line shafts in order to secure the desired speed of 112 
revolutions per minute, which is an increase of 12 per cent, 
over the old arrangement. These motors run at a speed of 
1,120 revolutions. In the second story the main shafts run at 
speeds of 172, 175 and 112 revolutions, and the motors are put 
overhead where they are entirely out of the way. The brass 
room line shaft runs at 172 revolutions and is belted direct to 
the motor without a countershaft. In the machine shop 23 
sections of 3-inch shafting 15 ft. 6 in. long were dispensed with 
and in the blacksmith shop four sections. Four head shafts and 
8 main countershafts were also saved in the machine shop by 
the use of motors. 

The motors are started without the slightest difficulty. Near 
each motor is a controlling switch to which the four wires for 
each motor rvin. The smaller motors are started on the side 



circuits with 7, 10 of the full voltage and when they are up to 
speed the whole voltage is used. This method is employed for 
motors lip to 30 h.p. Autcp-starters are used for the 50 h.p. 
motors and larger ones. The motors are run in multiple on the 
main circuits as indicated in Fig. 1, which shows the wiring. 
For testing street car air compressor motors in the machine 
shop a rotary converter is used. The alternating current is at 
440 volts, and the direct current at 550 volts. The current for 
the rotary converter first passes through a two-phase regulator 
by means of which the direct current voltage can be varied at 
will from 440 to 625 volts. 

The determination of the capacities of the motors was an im- 
portant part of the work, which was particularly well done. 
In the machine shop the lines of shafting were 400 feet long and 
the engines drove them from the center of the shop. The 
measurement of power was done with indicators. First, cards 
were taken with one of the engines running all the machinery 
on one of the shafts complete. Shaft No. 1 in the machine shop 
required 5S indicated h.p.. which was just the amount for four 
15 h. p. motors. After averaging four indicator cards for the 
full load, the shaft was cut at the couplings (one section, esti- 
mated to require 15 h. p., at a time being cut off) and other 
cards taken as a check. In this way the proper location for 
each motor was found. Only one motor was changed after this 
careful work and that was on account of putting in addi- 
tional machinery. The machine shop required one 50 h. p., 
two 20 h. p. and 24 15 h. p. motors, of which the locations for 
both floors are given in Fig. 1. The wires for the first and 
second floors are marked in the engraving and the correspond- 
ing motors are easily found. This diagram is intended to show 
the general plan of the wiring and motors on each circuit, but 
not to indicate the exact location. In all there are 57 motors 



116 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



with an aggregate nominal capacity of 1,065 h. p. Of these two 
100 h. p. and one 50 h. p. motors are in the power station, leav- 
ing S15 h. p. as the aggregate for the works proper, as against 
1,375 nominal h. p. and 9-49 actual indicated h. p. under full 
load of the steam engines required to do the same work. The 
following table shows the number and capacity of each of the 
seven sizes of motors used: 

Schedule of Motors. 

Location. 6 ^. 6 ^. 6 iC 6 ^. 6 ^. 6 'h 

55SZ;KZ|f 5'. BS5BZB 

Machine shop 1 50 . . . . 2 20 24 15 

Iron foundry 1 30 .. .. 9 15 4 10 2 5 

Brass foundry and 

blacksmith shop 3 20 .. .. 1 10 1 5 

Coal room 1 20 .. .. 1 10 

Carpenter shop and 

leather room 1 20 .. .. 1 10 

Boiler house 

Pattern shop 1 10 

Experimental room 15 

Powersta'tn2-100h.p. 1 50 

Tests of Electrical and Steam Distribution. 
A material advantage in economy was expected from the 
electrical distribution system, and in order to measure it tests 
were made on eight of the boilers which were first used for driv- 
ing the engines and afterward for driving the turbo-generajors. 
Care was taken to eliminate the uncertain quantities, and while 
some steam was used from these boilers for other purposes 
during the tests, the consumption was believed to be uniform 
in the separate series of tests with steam and electric driving. 
The pumps and other steam machinery requiring variable 
amounts of steam were isolated as far as possible, and were 
connected to other boilers. (See tables 4 and 5 for statement 
of those not isolated.) The steam and electrical tests each 
covered several days, and each included a Sunday, in order to 
secure figures for light as well as heavy loads. In the steam 

TABLE 1. 
Comparison of Tests of Turbine Plant. 

Steam. Electric. Difference. Saved. Av. 

Lbs. Lbs. Lbs. Per cent. 

Combustible, day run 57,275 37.95S 19,317 33.7 

Combustible, night run.. 51.011 32,989 18,022 35.3 

Combustible, Sunday.... 22,726 14,691 8,035 35.3 

Combustible. Sun. P. M. 23.215 17,440 5,775 24 8 32 2 

Equiv. water, day run.. 492.697 332,489 160,208 32.5 

Equiv. water, night run. 476,388 279,756 196,632 41.2 

Equiv. water, Sunday... 183,683 96,124 87,559 47.6 

Equiv. water. Sun. P. M. 200.509 109,487 91,022 45.3 41 6 

Dry coal, day run 66,679 45,905 20,774 31.1 

Dry coal, night run 62,386 40,660 21,726 34.8 

Dry coal, Sunday 27,756 18,066 9,690 34.9 

Dry coal, Sunday P. M. 31,239 22,098 9,141 29.2 32.5 

Proportion of loop water of water pumped into boilers, day run. 
S. P., 4 per cent. 

Proportion of loop water of water pumped into boilers, day run, 
E. P., 1.6 per cent. 

Note.— S. P., steam power; E. P., electric power. 

tests all the engines shown in Fig. 1 were running except 
two of 50 h. p and one of 150 h. p tor dynamos. In the elec- 
trical tests the turbines furnished all of the power except that 
for lighting the general oflSce and running the arc lights in 
the foundry. 

The water referred to in the tables as "returned by the loops." 
was water of condensation from the steam supply mains to the 
engines in Fig. 1. About 4 per cent, of the water evaporated 
was returned from the pipes by the loops in the steam test, and 
this was reduced to 1.6 per cent, in the electrical tests, due to a 
material reduction in the length of steam mains. This will be 
reduced still more when the steam engines are all taken out. 
When the power of the engines was measured they were loaded 
very nearly to their capacity, indicating 949.12 horse power, 
whereas the total electrical horse power at the switchboard to 
replace this was about 600. The boilers were tested merely as 
a means of measuring the fuel consumed. The coal used was 
all slack in these tests. The moisture runs from 4 to 7 per 
cent., and the ash from 15 to 25 per cent. 

The tables contain the information obtained in the tests in 
compact form. Table 1 gives a summary of the holler tests, 
showing the saving in coal and water for the electric plant 
and also the saving in condensation returned by the steam 
loops. Table 2 is a statement of the indicated horse power of 



TABLE 2. 

Power Required for Machinery. 
Machine Shop. 

H. P. 

Line No. 1 58.10 

Line No, 2 41.09 

Line No. 3 52.90 

Line No. 4 37.08 

Line No. 5 16.26 

Line No. 6 73.41 

lAne No. 7 33.38 

Line No. S 45.49 357.71 

Iron Foin"idr\'. 

Blast fan 24.60 

Flask conveyor No. 1 14.58 

Flask conveyor No. 2 5.92 

Flask conveyor No. 3 10.53 

Sand conveyor No. 1 

Sand conveyor No. 2 8.81 

Sand conveyor No. 3 15.13 

Sand mixer 4.27 

Sand elevator No. 1, screen and conveyor 14.77 

Sand elevator No. 2. and screen 11.64 

Sand elevator No. 3. screen and conveyor 8.76 

Emery wheels 10.74 

Dust elevator and conveyor 9.85 

Cleaning barrels 9.25 

Lathe and drill press for foundry 5.00 153.85 

Blacksmith Shop and Brass Foundry. 

Blacksmith shop 14.21 

Blast fan 18.02 

Exhaust fan 4.60 

Emery wheels 15.00 

Cleaning barrels, sand elevator and conveyor... 

Carpenter Shop. 

Leather room 

Carpenter shop 

Pattern Shop. 
Pattern shop 

Experiinental Room. 
Experimental room 

Light Station. 

No. 707 incandescent light 44.85 

No. 243 for arc light 27.55 

No. 160 load of 50 amp. and eng. friction 121.61 

No. 717 load of 55 amp. and eng. friction 152.31 346.32 

Total indicated horse power 949.12 

the engines which have been replaced by motors. This shows 
the amount of power required by the machinery, and it is re- 
produced in detail in order to give an idea of how thoroughly 
the work was done in measuring the power for operating the 
various lines of shafting in the shops and the various other 
applications of power in the foundry and other parts of the 
works. It also includes that required for lighting, as the ma- 
chinery was arranged before the electrical application. All of 
this power has been replaced by motors receiving current from 
the turbo-generators, and all were included in the tests except 
those already mentioned. The exact number of lights used 
during the tests is uncertain. This factor varied considerably 
and no record was kept, but it is assumed that it varied uni- 
formly during the different tests. Table 2, of course, includes 



6.00 


57.83 


5.36 
19.63 


24.99 


3.42 


3.42 


5.00 


5.00 



SmK/! boim 



rurl)i[\e 



Turpiiie 



Pumps 



Turbine 



Uciter 



CT 



JZU 



-VOOHPY 



HIrcmfm 



^ n 

i\iookPV- 
-ymarj- 



^r^ UZL 

I 



D 



llincrmeKSt=: 



Fig. 4,— Location of Machinery in Power House. 

the power consumed in internal friction of the engines. This 
was an additional load, which was not represented in the elec- 
trical tests. It was a legitimate part of the steam-engine load, 
however. 

Table 3 contains a statement of the turbine tests, showing 
complete data obtained from the turbines, generators and ex- 



April, 1900. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 117 







mffpli 



.'ip^^' ^M-10^^ 



Mlpl 



■10-6 -- 



--7-6 - > 



>' 



Mom i/iofr for triple Mm Mtt for rriple mli 
yol)^tlooriWffPMilrii'en grmMgloormRPM 
mrougfimnrershon feiretiairecnomonr 



mo Re if} -:-/^i>*: 




\t.--IO-6 ^^■\^^^y^„-„ 

M/tins/iafT forfrass tlKrlTFRpMx'^Miiiii iMft lor rool 

tientililirecrromow niom/49/fPMi)mt 

mroufnamnrs/gri 




Fi"'. 3.-Arrangement of Motor Drives in Macliine Shop. 




I, 



^ 



s/fi/tWPljg ii"~i j; ;; 5 



i^'i^-4 t-^ii--;— t-4i— -j-iyb^j-- 





c 



a. 

■o 

c 
al 

lA 

E 



c 

$ 
o 
.c 
CO 

«» 

o 

« 

a 
c 
o 
O 
b 



_2 
w 



a 

a. 



oiters. These tests were run from 6.30 A. M. to 6 P. M., and 
from 6 P. M. to 6.30 A. M. In the night runs the power was 
very small as compared with the day runs, which was due to 
the fact that the shops are practically shut down at 9.20 P. M.. 
with the exception of the foundry, which is in continuous 
operation. A wattmeter gave the total number of watts, which, 



divided by the number of hours, gave the electrical horse-pow- 
er-hour, as shown in this statement, and indicated as "total 
electrical horse power." In this table the first line gives the 
date of the test, the turbines in use are noted, and the num- 
ber of hours which each one ran. All the readings in this test 
were figured on a time basis. For example, February 17 the 



118 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



TABLE ?.— TURBINE EECORD. 



Date of test 

Duration of test 

" " in hours. 
No. 1 Turbine in use 



3 



No. 1 turbine 

•■ -L " 

"3 " 

Condensing pump — 

Steam No. 1 turbine. 






ill 



p,a 



Exhaust No. 1 turbine 

" 3 " '■'•• 
Exhaust No. 1 con. pump. 



External air 

Engine room - - • 

Conrtcnsiug water intalie 

" discharge 

Output ot indicated watts, No. 1 Turbine . 

i! ■ •■ •' " 3 " ■ 

Voltaije 



Volt3 

Amperes ■ 

Barometer, inches. . ■•■■■. • • ■{■■■^^ 
Total Elec. H. P. neglecting lamps. 



1 ?.• r 






2-15-1900. 

6:30 A.M. 

-6 P.M. 

\\\k 

iiH 



3,560 

3,560 

70 



110.9 
110.9 

27.23 
27.33 
27.33 

37.3 
68.0 
40.0 
90.1 



"1 S 






206.5 

205.1 

140 

110 
29.3 
29.045 

678 
Thursday 



2-15 & 16. 

6 P.M.— 

6:30 A.M. 

12H 

IH 

11 

3 

3,600 

3,574 

3,546 

71 

114.8 
108.7 
106.8 

28.00 

27.87 

27.86 

27.86 

27.86 

27.8 
67.1 
38.8 
7.5 5 

46. 
102.4 
181.4 
440 

110 
2.3.0 
29.119 

219 



2-16-1900. 
6:30 A.M. 
-6 P.M. 

IIH 

im 

im 

3,548 

' 3,548 
70 

109.6 



109.6 
27.22 

27^22 
27.22 
27.22 

26.0 
69.3 
37.0 
95.3 

228.9 

■227.3 
440 



110 
31.0 
29.019 

KI9 



2-16 & 17. 

6 P.M.- 

6:30 A.M. 

12!~ 

2 

IIj!^ 
3 

3,579 

3,600 

3,.i38 

72 

108.7 
lU.O 
108.7 

27.28 

2S.10 

27.32 

27.38 

27.38 

26.0 
67.7 
37.0 
82.8 

117.9 

88.0 

181.7 

140 

110 
22.7 
29 l'50 

249 



2-17-1900. 

6:30 A.M. 

-1 P.M. 

6K. 



3,518 

3..556 

71 



110.5 
110.2 

■2T/22 
27.38 
27.46 
27.46 

21.0 
63.0 
32.0 



221.8 

188.8 

440 

110 
27.1 
29.050 

477 



Z-17 & 18. 2-18-1900. 

6P.M.— 6:30 A.M. 

6:30 A.M. -6 P.M. 

12K' im 



2-18 & 19 

6 P.M.- 

6:30 A.M. 

12H 



2-19-1900. 
6:30 A.M. 
-6 P.M. 

IIH 

IIH 

11J6 



3,545 
3,545 



70 



107.6 
107.6 



3 



3 



27.66 
27.66 

■27!66 

27.66 

20.7 
61.2 
30.6 
92.1 



2U. 



Thufs.P.M. Friday. Fri., P.M. Saturday ThU was to 

shut dovpn. in's was to 



.-.^.j^'^^^^^S^^^^:^^^^^^ 



440 

110 

30.0 

29.300 

606 

Monday. 

scertain the com- 



parS^^^lJlp-Si^atlon tS^ses fil^'^mplete engme piping syst 



Summary of Time Run and Nominal H. P 
1900. From Monday Morning at 6.iiU A 
ing at 6.30 A. M. 
Total. 
Machine Shop. H. P. 

3 SO-H.-P. engines iVi 

1 80-H.-P. engine SO 

1 5-H.-P. engine J 

1 25-H.-P. e-.!Z(.r.e 



TABLE 4. 

Thursday. February 5th 
M. to Tuesday Morn- 
bperated by Steam. 
Time run. 
Hrs. Min. 
14 7 

22 12 

92 30 

10 



ri 



25 350 



14 



Total 

. P. Hrs. 

3,388.00 

1,776.00 
112.50 
354.16 



TABLE 5. 

summary ot Time and Nommal H P Thui-sday Febr^^^^^^ 
1900. From Thursday^Mo^ning.^at OO A-^M.^to^^ .^.^^y 

Total 



ing, at 



5,630.66 



Leather Department. 
1 45-H.-P. engine 



15 45 



Boiler House. 

1 50-H.-P. arc engine 

2 50-H.-P. stoker engines. 

Light Station.. 

1 250-H.-P. engine 



Blacksmith Shop. 
1 50-H.-P. engine 

Iron Foundry. 
1 75-H.-P. engine 
1 35-H.-P. 
1 25-H.-P. 
1 25-H.-P. 
1 25-H.-P. 



50 
10 



60 



250 250 



50 50 



10 



17 
24 



23 



468.75 468.75 



850.00 
240.00 



1,090.00 



1,356.66 1,356.66 



1,150.00 1,150.00 



Machine Shop. 
3 15-H.-P. motors 

15-H.-P. 

15-H.-P. 

2II-H.-P. 

15-H.-P. 

15-H.-P. 

15-H.-P. 

15-H.-P. 

15-H.-P. 

15-H.-P. 

20-H.-P. 

15-H.-P. 

20-H.-P. 

15-H.-P. 

lO-H.-P. 
5-H.-P. 



motor., 
motors, 
motor., 
motor., 
motors, 
motor., 
motor., 
motor., 
motor., 
motor., 
motor., 
motor., 
motor., 
motor., 
motor.. 



Total 
H. P. 

.. 120 
.. 15 
.. 60 
,.. 20 
,.. 15 



Time run. 
Hrs. Min. 



15 
15 
15 
15 
20 
15 
20 
15 
10 
5 



435 



engine ^5 

25 
25 



engine 
engine 
engine 



25 185 



Warehouse. 

1 25-H.-P. engine ''\ 

1 5-H.-P. engine o 



30 



n 


55 


1.71S.75 


21 


37 


756.58 


22 


50 


570.83 


20 


40 


516.66 


23 


10 
58 


579.16 


1^ 


349.16 


10 


30 


52.50 



Boiler House. 

2 5-H.-P. stoker engines. 

1 50-H.-P. arc engine 



10 
50 



60 



4.141.98 



Brass Foundry. 
1 'O-H.-P. motor. 
1 lO-H.-P. motor. 
1 5-H.-P. motor. 



20 
10 
5 



35 



401.66 



14,239.71 



10 
15 



40 



rpojal ^™ 

Miscellaneous. (isTot included in above.) 
Valve open on heater %, 

turn, mach. shop ......... 

3 steam hammers, black- 

smith shop v;---,- 

1 steam hammer, black- 

smith shop v,-V 

1 hydraulic pump, black- ,j. 

smith shop : — 

1 hydraulic pump, iron 

foundry :••■• " 

1 hot water heater, iron 

foundry .- -;■;■ 

1 steam siphon, 1-in. outlet, 

iron foundry 

steam pressures seem to be different. This is because one tur- 
bine ran five hours while the other ran six hours, giving a 
different average, but the pressure at any instant was the 
same on both turbines. 

Tables 4 and 5 show the number and size of each motor and 
engine and the number of hours each was in operation during 
the tests These statements also show the total horse power 
hours based on the nominal ratings of the engines and mo- 
tors This is not important except to give the relative amount 
of horse power capacity employed during each test. The head- 
ing "Miscellaneous" includes various machines which were 
connected to the boilers during the tests, ot which the horse- 
power capacity could not be determined. The total consump- 



Blacksmith Shop. 
1 30-H.-P. motor.. 
1 20-H.-P. motor.. 



30 
20 



13 
10 
13 
13 
22 
14 
10 
21 
22 
13 
13 
11 
10 
22 
13 
9 



24 
14 



21 
21 
15 



14 

22 



50 
20 
55 
55 
15 

^ 

46 
5 
50 
50 
13 
25 
30 
50 
58 



30 



15 
15 



5 
40 



H. P. Hrs. 

1,600.00 
155.00 
835.00 
278.33 
333.75 
845.00 
158.25 
326.50 
331.25 
207.50 
276.66 
168.25 
208.33 
337.50 
138.33 
49.83 6,309.48 



240.00 
725.00 


965.00 


425.00 
212.50 
75.00 


712.50 


422.50 
453.33 


875.83 



Iron Foundry. 

1 15-H.-P. motor 

1 15-H.-P. 

1 15-H.-P. 

1 lO-H.-P. 

1 30-H.-P. 

1 15-H.-P. 

1 15-H.-P. 

1 15-H.-P. 

1 15-H.-P. 

1 5-H.-P. 

1 lO-H.-P. 

1 lO-H.-P. 

1 15-H.-P. 



motor., 
motor., 
motor., 
motor., 
motor., 
motor., 
motor, 
motor, 
motor, 
motor, 
motor, 
motor. 



I^eather Room. 
1 16-H.-P. motor. 
1 lO-H.-P. motor. 



15 
15 
15 
10 
30 
15 
15 
15 
15 
5 
10 
10 
15 



15 
10 



185 



25 



21 


3 


21 


3 


19 


4b 


21 


3 


?!f. 


lb 


18 


38 


19 


.58 


21 


30 


21 


30 


20 


53 


22 


b 


22 


5 


21 


13 



315.75 
315.75 
296.25 
210.50 
667.50 
278.50 
299.50 
322.50 
322.50 
104.41 
220.83 
220.83 
318.50 3,893.32 



22 
10- 



15 
25 



333.75 
104.16 



437.91 



790 



^"^«Ss'^«'^'"-tslo; electric 

from power circuits. 

3 =iteam hammers (black- ^ , 

smith shop) /,:,••■■,;■ 

1 steam hammer (black- ^ 

smith shop ... •■■■■■ 

1 Hydraulic pump (blacks- ^ 

mith shop ■■.■••• 

No. 1 hydraulic pump (iron ^^ 

foundry v- ' ^'.^ 

No. 2 hydraulic pump (iron ^ 

Ste"am s"iplion"(iron foundry) 24 

Hot-water heater (iron 
foundry) 



13,194.04 
working were fed 



45 



24 



apkil,i900. AMERICAN engineer and railroad journal 119 



TABI.l'J U. 
Test of Babcock-Wllcox Boilers. 

Date of test 2-5-1900 2-5^,^ 

Kind of fuel Slack Slack 

Duration of test ><.:VI A. M.-C P. M. C P. M.-fi.30 A. M. 

Diiralioii ot test in Imurs ll'/j J-:'/: 

Number of boilers In use— left 

battery 8 8 

Gauge pressure in boilers per 

square inch 113.2 1U7.4 

Force of drauBht in column of 

water betwcni damper and ex- 

tremc left boiler. In Inches .500 ■•>»■' 

Force of drauj^ht in column of 

water between damper and ex- 
treme right Poller, In Inches... I.IOH >■""' 
Force ot draught In column of 

water in main slack. In Inches l.i34 l.a«o 

Water in steam li«>p. I.'ahr Iffi.l lM^-7 

External air, Kahr JS.S «.5 

Fire room, Fahr 63.2 61.0 

Cold feed water, Fahr :B.3 3j>.U 

Hot teed water, Fahr h;.i-l> lMi-» 

Steam, Fahr 34.1.2 MS.b 

Moist coal consumed, In lbs 6S,0U(I ^5,Mfl 

Moisture in coal, per cent 3^30 c, iS 

Dry coal consumed. In lbs C5,i56 b3,b»u 

Total dry refuse (ashes, etc.). 

In lbs 8,912 x,i,6iu 

Total combustible. In lbs 56,844 B1,19S 

Average water returned to boil- 

ers by steam loop, lbs 20,016 Ji.3!)!> 

Average water pumped into .„„„„ .,„ roi 

boilers by pumps, lbs 425,203 419,521 

Total water pumped Into boilers 

per pump and steam loop, lbs. 445,219 440,879 

Proportions: 
Dry coal consumed per hour, in 

lbs 5,718 6,086 

Total dry refuse (proportion 

of dry coal), per cent 13.5 19.4 

Combustible consumed per hour, 

in lbs 4,943 4,096 

Total actual evaporation of wa- 
ter from pump and steam loop 

(assumed 9S per cent, dry 

steam), in lbs 436,314 432,061 

Net deduced from preceding: 
Total equivalent water from and 

at 212° Fahr.. in lbs 474.994 470,318 

Water actually evaporated per 

lb. ot dry coal, in lb... s 6.63 6.79 

Equivalent per lb. ot dry coal 

from and at 212° Fahr.. in lbs. 7.22 7.39 

Water actually evaporated per 

lb. of combustible, lbs 7.67 S.43 

Equivalent per lb. ot combusti- 
ble from and at 212' Fahr., lbs. S.35 9.18 
H. P. On basis of 34% lbs. water 

from and at 212° Fahr., per hr. 1.197 1,091 

Number of sq. ft. water-heating 

surface per horse power S.S2 9.b7 

H. P. per sq. ft. ot grate surface 5.98 5.45 

Moist coal consumed (right bat- ,, , ,, ^ „ ,, 

tery), in lbs Monday Monday P. M. 

tion of steam in these was believed to be approximately the 
same in both tests. 

Tables 6 and 7 are the logs of the boiler tests for the days 
for which the consumption of power is given. Table 6 applies 
to the steam driving and Table 7 to the motors. In Table S we 
have the amount of water evaporated per square foot of grate 
surface and per square foot of heating surface per hour dur- 
ing the day and night runs, with the differences indicated. 

While these tests will not satisfy the stickler for refinements, 
they show the difference in the two methods of power distri- 
bution under every-day working conditions, and that was the 
object sought. They show that the turbines and motors save 
40,000 pounds of coal in 24 hours, including one day and one 
night run. This is due to the superiority of the entire electrical 
installation. Part of the saving conies from the turbines, part 
in reduced lost work, part in the prevention of steam-pipe con- 
densation, and part in more favorable working of the boilers. 

We are indebted to Mr. E. M. Herr, General Manager of the 
Westinghouse Air Brake Co., for furnishing facilities, informa- 
tion and the results of the tests in the preparation of this 
description. The entire installation was designed and executed 
under his direction. 



The issue of March 16 of "The Railway Age" is a remarkable 
number. It is exceedingly valuable as a record of the pro- 
ceedings of the first convention ot the American Railway En- 
gineering and Maintenance of Way Association, and contains 
not only the committee reports but the discussions in full. 
Aside from these reports the number is valuable for the record 
of railroad building for 1899 and that in prospect for the cur- 
rent year. Altogether it is a notable and creditable publication. 



TABLE 7. 
Test of Babcock-Wllcox Boilers. 

Date of test 2-15-19(X( 2-15 & 16 

Kind of fuel Slack Slack 

Duration of test 6.30 A. M.-6 P. M. 6 P. M.-0.30 A. M. 

Duration of test In hours Il'/i 12'/4 

Number of boilers In use — left 

battery 8 8 

Gauge pressure in boilers per 

square inch 114.6 U4.0 

Force ot draught In column of 

water between damper and ex- 
treme left boiler. In Int'hes.... .437 .245 
Force of draught in column of 

water between damper an<I ex- 
treme right boiler, in Inches.. 1.031 1.072 
Force of draught in column of 

water In main stack. In inches 1.656 1.485 

Water In steam loop, Fahr 177.1 177.1 

External air. Fahr..... 3X.6 28.6 

Fire room, Fahr 65.7 60.0 

Cold feed water, Fahr 45.0 41.5 

Hot feed water, Fahr 159.5 171.6 

Steam, Fahr 343.6 343.3 

Moist coal consumed, In lbs 48,400 42,800 

Moisture In coal, per cent 5.75 5.27 

Dry coal consumed, in lbs 45,617 40,544 

Total dry refuse (ashes, etc.), 

in lbs 9,012 8,000 

Total combustible. In lbs 36,605 32,544 

Average water returned to boil- 
ers by steam loop, lbs 5,429 5,902 

Average water pumped Into boil- 
ers by pump, lbs 306,828 253,678 

Total water pumped into boil- 
ers per pump and steam loop, 

lbs 312,257 259,580 

Dimensions and proportions. 
Grate surface of each boiler, sq. 

ft ^ 

Grate surface, total, sq. ft 200 

Water-heating surface of each 

boiler, sq. ft 1,320 

Water-heating, total, sq. ft 10,560 

Ratio of water-heating surface 

to grate surface 52.8 

Dry coal consumed per hr., in 

lbs 3,967 3,244 

Total dry refuse (proportion of 

dry coal), per cent 19.75 19.79 

Combustible consumed per hour, 

in lbs 3,183 2,604 

Total actual evaporation of wa- 
ter from pump and steam loop 

(assumed 98 per cent, dry 

steam), in lbs 300,012 254,388 

Net deduced from preceding: 
Total equivalent water from and 

at 212° Fahr., in lbs 33.3,447 274,GS1 

Water actually evaporated per 

lb. of day coal, in lbs 6.70 6.27 

Equivalent per lb. of dry coal 

from and at 212° Fahr., in lbs. 7..30 6.77 

Water actually evaporated per 

lb. of combustible, lbs 8.35 7.81 

Equivalent per lb. of combusti- 
ble from and at 212° Fahr., lbs. 9.10 8.44 
H. P. on basis of 34% lbs. water 

from and at 212° Fahr., per hr. 8.40 6.37 

Number of sq. ft. water-heating 

surface per horse power 12.56 16.58 

H. P. per sq. ft. ot grate surface 4.20 3.18 

Developed electrical H. P., ne- 

glectmg lamps on switchboard 578 249 

Thursday Thursday P. M. 
TABLE 8. 
Statement of Amount of Water Evaporated. 

Steam. Electric. Difference. 

Total lbs. water evaporated per 

sq. ft. grate surface per day of 

llVo hours 2,463.4.5 1,662.44 801.04 

Total lbs. water evaporated per 

sq. ft. grate surface per night of 

11% hours 2.3S1.94 1,398.78 893.16 

Total lbs. water evaporated per 

sq. ft. grate surface per hour 

(day) 214.21 144.56 69.65 

Total lbs. water evaporated per 

sq. ft. grate surface per hour 

(night) 207.12 121.63 85.49 

Total lbs. water evaporated per 

sq. ft. water heating surface, 

per day of 11% hours 46.65 31.48 15.17 

Total lbs. water evaporated per 

sq. ft. water heating surface, 

per night of 11% hours 45.11 26.49 18.62 

Lbs. water evaporated per sq. ft. 

water heating surface per hour, 

day run 4.05 2.74 1.31 

Lbs. water evaporated per sq. ft. 

water heating surface per hour, 

night run 3.92 2.30 1.62 

Temperature, fire room, Fahr 63.2 61.0 



Large orders for locomotives have been placed since our 
previous issue. The Pennsylvania has ordered 40 of the Bald- 
win Locomotive Works for heavy freight service. The Lake 
Shore & Michigan Southern has ordered 25 consolidation 
freight and five ten-wheel passenger engines from the Brooks 
Locomotive Works, and among the smaller orders is one for 
six Baldwin compounds for the Rock Island. This is a new 
departure for this road. 



120 AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 




Eight-Wheel Passenger Locomotive.— Boston & Albany R, R. 
T. B. PURVES, Superintendent of Rolling Stock. Schenectady Locomotive Works, Builders. 



EIGHT-WHEEL PASSENGER LOCOMOTIVE. 



Boston & Albany Railroad. 



When the Schenectady Locomotiye Works built two eight- 
wheel passenger engines in 1894 for the Boston & Albany, 
with a total weight of 114,700 pounds, weight on drivers 74,000 
pounds, and a total heating surface of 1,844.7 square feet, they 
were considered wonderful in size and power. These engines 
may be considered as marking the beginning of the use 
of large heating surfaces in engines of this type. They 
were followed, two years later, by engines of the same type, 
and same builders, for the Big Pour. These had 2.175 square 
feet of heating surface, with a total weight of 126.000 pounds, 
and 83,000 pounds on drivers. The Chicago & North Western 
Class A engines, built in the same year, were similar to the 
Big Four engines, but not quite as powerful. Last year these 
works furnished two eight-wheel designs to the C. & N. W. 
(American Engineer. June, 1899, p. 189, and July, page 224). 
which sui'passed previous designs in heating surface per unit 
of weight on driving wheels. The heavier and more powerful 
of these weighed 137,000 pounds in working order, with 87,000 
pounds on driving wheels, and had 2,507.75 square feet of heat- 
ing surface. 

We now illustrate a new eight-wheel engine for the Boston 
& Albany, for use between Springfield and Boston, which, for 
its weight, has more heating surface than any brought out 
previously. This engine, with a total weight of 136,400 pounds, 
and 88,500 pounds on drivers, has a total heating surface of 
2,505.27 square feet. It has two more tubes than the C. & N. W. 
engine, but no arch tubes. If these tubes were used, about 
15 feet of heating surface would be added. 

A matter of a few feet of heating surface seems trivial. It 
is so when considered by itself, but as an indication of a ten- 
dency in locomotive design it is most important. We desire to 
direct particular attention to the comparison between engines 
of the same type in six years, as follows: 

Schenectady Eight-Wheel Locomotives. 

B. & A. Big Four. B. & A. 

189-1. 1896. 1900. 

Total weight 114.700 126,000 136,400 

Weight on drivers 74,000 83,000 88,500 

Total heating surface 1,844.7 2,175 2,505.3 

With an increase of 18 per cent, in total weight, the heating 
surface increased 35 per cent, in little more than five years. 

In general the design resembles those for the C. & N. W. al- 
ready referred to. It will be noticed that this is a very hand- 
some engine. The greatest credit due to the builder is, how- 
ever, the large heating surface for the weight. This was not 
obtained by using long tubes, for these are but 13 feet long. 
The chief dimensions are given in the following table: 



General Dimensions. 

Gauge 4 ft. 81A in. 

Fuel Bituminous coal 

Weight In working order 130,400 lbs. 

Weight on drivers 88,500 lbs. 

Wheel base, driving 8 ft. 6 in. 

Wheel base, rigid 8 ft. 6 in. 

Wheel base, total 24 ft. 8% in. 

Cylinders. 

Diameter of cylinders 20 in. 

Stroke of piston 26 in. 

Horizontal thickness of piston 5 ft. 4V4 in. 

Diameter of piston rod Z% in. 

Size of steam ports 18 in. by 1% in. 

Size of exhaust ports 18 in. by 3 in. 

Size of bridges ports 1% in. 

Valves. 

Kind of slide valves Allen-Richardson 

Greatest travel of slide valves Sin. 

Outside lap of slide valves 1% in. 

Inside lap of slide valves in. line and line 

Lead of valves in full gear 3/16 in. blind in full forward 

motion and shift backing ecc. to give % in. lead at 6-in. cut-off. 

Wheels, Etc. 

Diameter of driving wheels outside of tire 75 in. 

Material of driving wheel centers Cast steel 

Driving box material ^ Cast steel 

Diameter and length of drjang journals 9 in. dia. by 11^4 In. 

Diameter and length of mafn crank pin journals — 6 in. dia. by 6 in. 

Dis meter and length of side rod crank pin journals 

F. & B. iVs in. dia. by 4 in. 

Kind of truck 4-wheel rigid center 

Truck journals 6 by 12 in. 

Diameter of engine truck wheels 36 in. 

Kind of engine truck wheels Krupp No. 3 

Boiler. 

Style Extended wagon top 

Outside diameter of first ring 64 in. 

Working pressure 190 lbs. 

Material of barrel and outside of Hrebox Carbon steel 

Thickness of plates in barrel and outside of firebox 

7/16 in., Vs in., % in., 11/16 in. 

Firebox, length 108^4 in. 

Firebox, width : 40% in. 

Firebox, depth P. 79% in.. B. 66^4 in. 

Firebox, material Carbon steel 

Firebo-x plates, thickness Sides 5/16 in., back 5/16 in., 

crown % in., tube sheet % in. 

Firebox, water space Front 4% in., sides 4 in., back 4 in. 

Firebox, crown staying .Radial, 1 in. dia. 

Firebox, staybolts Taylor iron, 1 in. dia. 

Tubes, material Charcoal iron, No. 12 

Tubes, number of 344 

Tubes, diameter 2 in. 

Tubes. length over tube sheets 13 ft. 

Heating surface, tubes 2,326.53 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, firebox 178.74 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, total 2,505.27 sq. ft. 

Grate surface 30.33 sq. ft. 

Grate, style Rocking 

Ash pan, style .• Single hopper dampers F. & B. 

Exhaust pipes Single high 

Exhaust nozzles 4% in., 5 in., and 5% in. dia. 

Smoke stack, inside diameter.. 15 in. 

Smoke stack, top above rail 14 ft. 4 In. 

Boiler supplied by One twin inspirator, Hancock No. 90 

Tender. 

Weight, empty 44,400 lbs. 

Wheels, number of .- 8 

Wheels, diameter 36 in. 

Journals, diameter and length 5 in. dia. by 9 in. 

Wheel base 15 ft. 10 in. 

Tender frame Iron. B. & A. standard 

Tender truck.'; 2 4-wheel, side bearing, wood bolster and 

Tender frame Iron, B. & A. standard 

Water capacity 5,200 U. S. gallons 

Coal capacity 9 tons 



APRiL.iyoo. AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 121 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



ARRANGEMENT OF TRACKS IN ERECTING SHOPS. 



To the Editor: 

In the March issue of your paper, page 80, I notice an editorial 
on the question of arrangement of tracks in erecting shops, 
in which you state that some time ago you gave considerable 
space to the subject, rather favoring the longitudinal plan and 
appearing to invite support from that point of view. The criti- 
cisms which are offered and which are in favor of the trans- 
verse arrangement do not appear to have very much force, as 
the statements aie more general than particular. 

In the lateral or transverse shop arrangement only one crane 
can be used to lift an engine, and if the engine weighs lOO 
tons it requires a crane of 100 tons capacity to lift it — that is, 
a crane having two crabs or trolleys, each having a capacity 
of 50 tons. The engines are not lifted so often in the trans- 
verse' arrangement, as they are not lifted in order to place 
them, which has to be done by other means; but, on the other 
hand, if the engines are placed longitudinally and two cranes 
each of 50 tons capacity ai"e supplied, there are two cranes 
available for general purposes as against one in the other sys- 
tem, and as the lifting of engines does not occupy five per 
cent, of the time which the cranes are in service, it follows 
that nearly twice as much service in other work is to be had 
with two cranes as against one, which, as a matter of course, 
very much facilitates progress of work in the shop. 

If the lateral system is adopted and only one crane used, 
it has to be supplemented by an out-door traverser or transfer 
table. This traverser can only be used for the handling of 
engines and does not facilitate the work in the shop at all, 
but the cost, including pit, etc., if it is arranged for quick 
service, is a large proportion of that of the crane of equal 
capacity. This traverser, being in a pit, is a great obstacle 
to communication between shops, and the loss of time of em- 
ployees in passing around it and over the extra distance which 
it occupies is an unknown but important amount. The sup- 
position that, because longitudinal tracks are used, it is neces- 
sary to lift one engine over another, is entirely wrong. This is 
not at all necessary, and greater height of lift is not required 
in a longitudinal shop than in the lateral one. In cold climates 
also the lateral system, which necessitates a pair of doors for 
each pit, is a direct drawback. 

Suppose the shop was required to hold thirty engines. If 
these were put in one row side by side, then the shop becomes 
unmanageable from its length and the traverser pit is also 
unduly long. If they are put in two rows with engines on 
one side of the shop only, then one engine is in the way of 
the other. If they are put in two rows with the doors in 
opposite sides of the shop, then it requires two transfer tables 
and the erecting shop totally isolated from the rest of the build- 
ing, unless they are put in the end. which is an inconvenient 
arrangement. 

The most important argument of all, however, is that it is 
practically impossible to properly supervise a shop in which 
the engines are arranged laterally. If the shop is sufficiently 
large to fully occupy the foreman's time, it is impossible for 
him to give the same supervision that it is possible to exercise 
in a shop arranged longitudinally, where he can see the whole 
length of the shop when he walks across it. This is a practical 
observation from the writer's personal knowledge and is a 
serious detriment against a shop arranged laterally. The lat- 
eral system is good enough for a road which requires eight 
to ten engines under repair at one time, but it is not suitable 
for a road which has a large number of engines passing 
through the shops. 

SUPERINTENDENT OF MOTIVE POWER. 
March 5, 1900. 



STATBOLT PROGRESS. 



To the Editor: 

Staybolts are so important in locomotive repairs that I desire 
to offer a few remarks, if not too late, in connection with the 
article in your December number of last year, page 3S2, and the 
correspondence on page 8 of the January number of this year. 

In the first place, the form of the firebox is of importance 



as to the number and location of staybolts broken. We have 
always found that a sharp "ogee" connecting the fiat side of 
the firebox with the circular portion Is extremely destructive, 
and It is a common thing to find a whole row or two length- 
wise of the box broken off at that point, more especially with 
the deep class of firebox, and I presume everyone else has 
found the same thing. The next most troublesome part l.s the 
front upper corners and then the back upper corners and the 
top row across the back sheet. We have also found that an 
increase in the thic:kne8s of the outside plate materially In- 
creases the number of broken staybolts, and for a number of 
years we have never used anything thicker than 7/16 Inch 
outside sheets, and I am disposed to think that the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad will find an Improvement by the use of % 
inch outside side sheets. The diameter of the bolt does not 
appear to make much difference, and bolts 1% Inches or 1% 
inches diameter appear to fall Just as quickly as bolts % inch 
or 1 inch diameter. 

We tried turned down staybolts for a year or two without 
any benefit that could be seen, the staybolts being turned 
about 1/32 inch below the bottom of the thread and carefully 
rounded at the ends. We have had a considerable number of 
engines equipped with staybolts drilled at the outer end, but 
have had failures occurring earlier and more prevalent than 
with solid bolts, and we have never derived any benefit in the 
way of the supposed leakage indicating a broken bolt as they 
are always full of mud both in the crack and in the hole. 

All staybolts appear to fail by cracking across the upper and 
lower sides near the outside sheet, leaving a strip across the 
center to break off last. The upper crack usually is deeper 
than the lower one, and in the case of the upper corner of 
the side sheets the cracking is not quite horizontal but inclined 
a little downward toward the outer end of box. It staybolts 
could be made with a flat horizontal section to allow them 
to spring, it would appear likely to conduce to longer life. 

The conclusions at the termination of the article appear to be 
generally correct. I have not noticed any deflection of the 
side sheet due to reaming, mentioned by Mr. Gillis, which may 
be due to the fact that the taps which we use do not have 
the blunt-ended reamer, but have a long tapered end to form 
a guide and the reamer portion is cut some distance up the 
shank. I quite agree with Mr. Gillis that it is almost impos- 
sible to get two staybolt taps exactly alike. We overcame 
this to some extent by using a pair of taps alternately, keeping 
each to its own vertical row, and the bolts are screwed to suit 
the two taps and put in the holes to correspond. We make 
all our own staybolt taps and keep them as nearly as possible 
to a standard fixed a number of years ago. Staybolts which 
are made of iron piled in slabs, as mentioned in your article 
in the middle of the second column, page 384, distinctly show 
the marked difference between the durability of the bolts, if 
the staybolt is placed in with the seams horizontally and verti- 
cally, the former being much more durable. One brand of iron 
particularly shows this very plainly. 

R. ATKINSON, 
Mechanical Superintendent Canadian Pacific Ry. 

Montreal, March 9, 1900. 



The first example of the ten-wheel type locomotive ever built 
is illustrated in a recent issue of the "Railway Age." It was 
built by the Schenectady Locomotive Works in 1887 and went 
Into service on the Michigan Central R. R. in January, 1888. 
It is still in service. 



The new passenger engines for the Lake Shoi'e (November 
issue, page 344) are exceedingly handsome. The driving wheels 
are large, so is the boiler, which is also very long, and yet the 
proportions are so well balanced as to give a most pleasing ap- 
pearance. One minor detail which contributes its share is the 
location of the headlight in advance of the stack, and yet not 
overhanging the front end. 



New rails are being laid by the Ontario & Western, con- 
tracted for in 1898 at $18 per ton. while the same road is 
selling scrap rails at $33. The cost of laying the new ones 
is about $3 per ton. a very interesting situation for the road. 
The figures will change, however, when it is necessary to make 
new contracts, the price of new rails being now nearly $40 
per ton. 



122 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURMAL 



ELECTRICITY AT THE DU- 
QUESNE STEEL WORKS. 



By Buicham Harding. 



One of the best examples of 
modern direct-current "engine- 
type" generators is found at tlie 
Duquesne Works of the Carnegie 
Steel Company, twelve miles 
from Pittsburg. The central 
power station contains three 400- 
kilowatt Westinghouse direct- 
current generators, 250 volts, di- 
rect connected to horizontal 
tandem-compound steam engines, 
operating at 130 revolutions per 
minute. A view of the interior 
of the dynamo room is given in 
Fig. 1. In the background of 
the illustration are shown six 
direct constant-current 60-light 
arc dynamos, which supply cur- 
rent to arc lamps In the various 
buildings and yards. These ma- 
chines are direct connected by 
flexible insulated couplings to 
six 50-horse-power shunt motors, 
which are operated by power 
from tne generators. 

Power is conveyed to the sev- 
eral departments of the works, 
which cover an area of over 100 
acres. There are over 40 electric 
cranes in the plant, driven by 
220-volt direct-current Westing- 
house motors. Other motors are 
used to operate the metal break- 
er, and for conveying iron ore 
from railway cars to the ore 
stock yard, and thence by the 
traveling bridges to the furnaces. 
In fact, electric power enters in- 
to every operation in these 
works. 

The generators, one of which 
is shown in Fig. 2, represent the 
latest development in design and 
construction. They furnish cur- 
rent at 250 volts, and as the usual 
practice is to employ 220-volt mo- 
tors, this allows 30 volts drop of 
potential in the line. The use 
of 250-volt. generators also per- 
mits the operation of both arc 
and incandescent lamps from 
the motor circuits. The general 

design of these engine-type generators is similar to that for 
standard multipolar practice, consisting of a circular yoke 
carrying inwardly projecting pole pieces of laminated soft 
steel. The field castings are divided vertically and set upon 
a guide plate, the former affording excellent facility for in- 
spection or removal of the armature or field coils. 

These generators are compounded to compensate for the 
drop of potential in the line. The shunt and series coils are 
separately wound and are removable. The series coils are 
composed of forged copper conductors of rectangular section. 
The armature core consists of punched disks of carefully an- 
nealed steel, held together between end plates. This core is 
built upon an iron spider, which also carries the commutator. 
This spider is pressed and keyed upon the extended shaft 
and may be drawn off without in any way interfering with the 




Fig. 1,- Interior of Power House. 
Duquesne Works, Carnegie Steel Co. 




Fig. 2. One of the 400 Kw. Westinghouse Generators. 
Duquesne Worl<s, Carnegie Steel Co. 



permanent arrangement of the commutator and winding. Ven- 
tilating spaces through the spider and armature core are so 
arranged as to allow a constant circulation of air through the 
commutator and winding when the machine is running. 

The periphery of the armature is slotted. The armature 
winding is made of bars of drawn copper which, after being 
shaped, are thoroughly insulated and baked to remove all moist- 
ure. The coils are held in the slots by retaining wedges of 
hard fiber, driven into notches near the top of the slots, paral- 
lel with the shaft. These fiber wedges may be pressed out 
should it become necessary to remove any armature coil. The 
commutators are constructed from the best obtainable grade 
of hard-rolled copper, the segments being spaced by prepared 
mica of such corresponding hardness that an extremely even 
wearing surface is presented to the brushes. 



April, ISOO. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 123 



The brush-holder mechanism is carried by brackets pro- 
jecting from a ring concentric with and supported by the field. 
A hand-wheel rocl<er arrangement adjusts all the brushes sim- 
ultaneously. It will be noted Ihat the ring carrying the brush- 
holder brackets does not project over the commutator face, 
thus leaving the commutator face and brushes clear of ob- 
struction and easy of inspection at any point. Carbon brushes 
are used in connection with all of these machines. During 
construction all parts of these machines are submitted to a 
series of thorough tests and inspections. When assembled and 
completed, each machine is given a full-load running test of 
sufficient duration to bring it to the maximum temperature. 

The electric motors operated by the current from this gen- 
erating station has enabled the management to remove several 
separate steam engines which were very costly in the con- 
sumption of steam. It was found that many of these separate 
steam engines used 70 pounds of steam per horse-power hour, 
whereas the consumption of steam at the central power house 
does not exceed 16 pounds. The President of the company 
has stated that the intermittent operation of the motors is 
carried on from the central station by means of one-sixth of 
the horse power previously required when separate engines 
were used. 



STANDARD TENDER TRUCK. 



Lehigh Valley Railroad. 



The Lehigh Valley standard truck for tenders using the 4^/4 
by 8-inch axle is shown in the accompanying engravings.' The 
arrangement in general is not new. It is interesting, however, 
because of the arrangement of the details whereby the con- 
struction is simplified and cheapened and at the same time the 
benefits of equalization are secured. This design was brought 
out in 1S96 and it is used on all new engines except those hav- 
ing 7,000-gallon tanks. These large tanks are used in connec- 
tion with heavy mountain pushing locomotives and were illus- 
trated on page 10 of our January issue. The consolidation road 
locomotives described on page 250 of our August issue are also 
to be equipped with them. The journals under these large 
tenders are 5 by 9 inches and Fox pressed steel trucks are used 
under cars as well as tenders which require these large axles. 

The tender truck design was prepared with a view of re- 
quiring the minimum amount of machine work. Jigs are used 
to lay out and drill all the holes and the riveting is done in a 
pneumatic press. The side fraipes are made of merchant iron, 
unplaned, and the castings are made in such forms as to re- 
quire very little machine work. The transom angles are com- 
mercial shapes with the wheel and brake lever clearances 
punched out. The springs are standard driving springs, 
by which the necessity for carrying a special spring in stock is 
avoided. The whole truck is made by piecework and at the 
lowest cost that we have ever seen. Yet the cost of mainten- 
ance is also small, which indicates that durability and safety 
are not sacrificed. 

An examination of the drawings shows the frame rails to 
be of 2 by 4% inches bar iron, the tie rod being of % by 4-inch 
iron. The truck transom is a 15-inch channel with the flanges 
turned up. Outside of the flanges of this channel are IVi-inch 
bars and 4 by 6-inch angles riveted together. The bars are 6 
inches deep at the ends and 10 inches at the center. Clear- 
ances are cut in the angles for the wheels and the brake lev- 
ers. The equalizers are 1 inch thick and 6 inches deep at the 
center, tapering to a depth of 5 inches at the bearing points. 
The springs have 19 leaves % inch thick and 4 inches wide, and 
are 34 inches long between bearings when under load. The 
height of the springs under a load of 19.000 pounds is 9% 
inches: under 18,000 pounds, 9'4 inches: under 17,000 pounds, 
9% inches, and under 16,000 pounds, 9% inches. They are de- 




-f--J- 




Standard Tender Truck. 
Lehigh Valley R. R. 

signed to carry 19,500 pounds with a set of 1 inch. The axles 
have the M. C. B. iVi by 8-inch journals and journal boxes, and 
the wheels are 36 inches in diameter. 

F'or the drawings we are indebted to Mr. S. Higgins. Super- 
intendent of Motive Power, and to Mr. F. F. Gaines. Mechani- 
cal Engineer of the Lehigh Valley Railroad. 



The important facts regarding circulation in steam boilers, 
as viewed by "Engineering News," are summed up in a recent 
issue of that journal as follows: "Circulation in a boiler is of 
value, and should always be secured to a suflScient extent to 
keep the heating surface bathed in water and to prevent their 
undue heating and the injury of the boiler through unequal 
expansion. The more rapid the circulation, the better will this 
end be attained: and some gain is also to be secured through 
the reduced tendency of sediment to depo.sit on the heating sur- 
face. It is in these directions and not in any increased evapo- 
rative efficiency that the gain from good circulation is to be 
found. While in theory rapid circulation should very slightly 
improve the economy of a boiler, the gain is too slight to be 
discernible by any practical tests." 



124 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



STEAM GAUGES. 



MECHANICAL STOKERS. 



Tests and Method of Connecting. 



Why They Sometimes Fail. 



Wide and even dangerous variation in the readings of ordi- 
nary locomotive steam gauges have been found on a prominent 
railroad as a result of a series of tests or comparisons of gauges 
which have now been carried on systematically for over two 
years. The gauges are removed from the engines and readings 
are taken at intervals of 10 pounds ascending and descending 
the scale, the comparisons being made by weighted piston ap- 
paratus. The records of the tests are made on sheets of cross 
section paper and preserved until some of the charts now 
show eight or nine records of the same gauge taken at suffi- 
cient intervals to indicate the character and extent of varia- 
tions that are caused hy ordinary service conditions on the 
locomotives. Many of the lines are very crooked and some 
show errors of 15 pounds at the blowing off pressure, while 
others show an error of as much as 60 pounds at pressures 
below 100 pounds. The curves include all of the well known 
makes of gauges and as a rule they all vary least from the 
correct pressure at the blowing off point. The errors are suffi- 
cient in extent and alnindance to force the conclusion that 
gauges ought t© be followed up carefully entirely aside from 
the consideration of safety, because of the important influence 
of steam pressure upon the economical working of locomo- 
tives. These tests at once form a basis for comparison of. the 
merits of the work of the various makers and as the differences 
in reliability are marked a test of six gauges by different 
makers is now being conducted in a way that permits of 
securing uniform conditions for all. The gauges are mounted 
in a frame on a road locomotive and fixed to the cab wall, cut 
of the way of the men. They all receive steam from the pipe 
that supplies the engine gauge, and steam can not be shut off 
from them without shutting off his working gauge also. The 
faces of the six gauges are blanked by sheet iron discs, and 
after testing them they are to run until the comparisons are 
complete, frequent readings being recorded. 

One result cf this investigation is to show weak spots in 
arrangement and in construction used by certain of the manu- 
facturers, which have already been the means for improve- 
ment. It has been shown that the method of piping the steam 
to a gauge is more important than has been considered, and 
that it is necessary to use siphons of rather large capacity in 
order to guard against the entrance of steam into the gauge 
spring, an occurrence that seems to be possible owing to the 
expansion of the spring, if the siphon is too short. The gauges 
on the road referred to are now fitted with the usual siphons 
at the gauge connection, and instead of carrying the copper 
tube to the boiler direct it is given two turns around the back 
of the gauge. This long tube is filled with water, and besides 
adding to the volume of the contents of the siphon, it tends 
to keep the temperature of the gauge spring more uniform. Its 
effect appears to be to render the actions of a gauge more uni- 
form and reliable. 

Prof. Ripper says that the importance is admitted of main- 
taining a column of water in the syphon of the pressure gauge 
■to keep the gauge cool, .so that its readings may be consistent, 
and so as not to subject the gauge to high or variable tem- 
peratures. It is generally supposed that if the gauge has a 
syphon there is always water in it, and that when the syphon is 
once full of water the water is easily retained therein, but 
these assumptions are not warranted by the facts. The water 
will disappear from the syphon from various causes. If there 
is the smallest leak in the gauge end of the syphon, then the 
water is all gone in a minute or two by being blown out by 
the steam, though the leak may be almost imperceptible. If the 
pressure to which the gauge is subjected is a variable one, the 
water will disappear from the syphon as usually constructed in 
a few' minutes, especially on a sudden reduction of pressure in 
the same way that water in the engine cylinder disappears dur- 
ing expansion and exhaust." 



In a discussion of the subject of combustion in stationary 
boiler furnaces and mechanical devices for firing them, Mr. 
W. E. Snyder offered the following conclusions before the En- 
gineers Society of Western Pennsylvania: 

1st. The phenomena of combustion are governed by certain 
laws which must be obeyed if good results are to be ob- 
tained. 

2d. The test of the action of any boiler furnace is the char- 
acter of its products, solid and gaseous. 

3d. It is not possible to work the common grate as used 
in the ordinary manufacturing plant in accordance with the 
laws of combustion. 

4th. Devices which are used as auxiliaries to common grates 
may, under favorable conditions, be beneficial, but usually 
simply complicate matters without compensating for the dis- 
advantages of the common grate. 

5th. Mechanical stokers should effect a saving over com- 
mon grates, but in some cases this saving may be neutralized 
by certain losses co-existent with the operation of the stoker. 

6th. The failure of mechanical stokers to produce satis- 
factory results is probably due more frequently to inattention 
on the part of superintendents, carelessness on the part of 
the men who operate them, or a dense ignorance of the entire 
subject of combustion on the part of all concerned, than it is 
to actual defects in the principle or action of the machine it- 
self. 



A cause of increased flange wear on car wheels was given by 
a correspondent of the "Railroad Gazette," as arising from the 
shallowness of the chill in the throat of the wheels. According 
to this correspondent it is only in the last few years that this 
increase in the wear of flanges has been noticeable. The iron 
used in earlier days, which was soft gray iron, with coarse gran- 
ular fracture, was far more sensitive to chill and made an ideal 
car wheel metal. It was ach in carbon and poor in all other 
elements and would take^ chill almost as deep in the throat 
as on the tread. But such iron cannot be obtained now for 
making wheels. It is possible to obtain the same depth of 
chill with the iron used in making wheels at the present time, 
but it is done at the expense of the softness and ductility of 
the gray portion of the wheel. It, therefore, seems necessary 
with the irons used at present, to reduce the chilling qualities 
of the metal in order to meet the "thermal test." And while the 
depth of chill upon the tread of the wheel is sufficient to with- 
stand long wear, the chill in the throat is often deficient. 



The sand blast has been used with marked success in clean- 
ing the iron lock gates of the Muscle Shoals Canal on the 
Tennessee River. The report of Major Kingman, of the Corps 
of Engineers, U. S. A., describes the apparatus used. It was 
placed under a roof on a barge and consisted of a 12 by 14 
inch stationary engine and a pair of 9 by 9 inch Clayton direct 
coupled air compressors. The air was compressed into sev- 
eral receivers from the last of which three blast pipes were 
carried to the sand drums, the blast being controlled by 
valves. Each blast pipe terminates in a piece of hose about 25 
feet long with a %-inch tool steel nozzle at the end. There are 
two 18 inch sand drums 4 feet long for each blast pipe. These 
are in duplicate so that one may be filled while the other is 
in use and the work be carried on continuously. The drums 
are filled from a large hopper extending over all of them. Into 
this the sand is put after screening and drying. A %-inch 
pipe admits air pressure to the top of each drum. Records 
for the year ending June 30. 1898, showed that for a total of 
44.522 square feet of iron work cleaned and painted the cost 
was but 2.3 cents per square foot. 



Al'Kil., lOOU. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. I2B 



A METHOD OF BENDING PIPE. 

The bending of pipes of relatively large diameter without 
distoition or weakening i.s a nillier difficult process and with 
the large number of arch tubes in use in locomotive fireboxes 
this work is often necessary in locomotive shops. It pipes 
could be bent without difruuUy probably advantage would 
often be taken of easy bends, instead of using the abrupt. turns 
involved in standard fittings. Formers may be used for pipes 
of small diameters, but tor those requiring heating the follow- 
ing practical suggestions offered by Mr. R. H. Perry, in "Ma- 
chinery" will be found useful: 

The most practical method under such circumstances is to 
fill the pipe to be bent with perfectly dry sand and plug or cap 
the ends so that the filling will be retained under uuite severe 
handling. Care should be taken to have the pipe well filled with 
the sand and that there is nothing inflammable or damp in it, 
as the necessary heating of large pipes is very likely to cause a 
serious e.xplosion. The heating of the pipe may be done in an 
ordinary forge, and should be restricted to the part of the pipe 
that is required for the bend; also overheating should be 
avoided, as the loss from scaling has a very appreciable effect 
on the bursting strength. The best results will be obtained 
when the heat is not carried above a dull red, as the liability to 
kinking is less, and in any case it is usually necessary to heat 
two or three times before a sharp bend can be satisfactorily 
made, so that nothing is gained by heating to a high tempera- 
ture. A can of water should be provided, which should have a 
spout so that a small stream can be directed exactly where 
needed, as its proper use plays an important part in securing 
bends without kinks, a point which is highly desirable, as a 
kink is always an eyesore in the appearance of a pipe, besides 
seriously reducing its capacity at that point. 

After the pipe has been heated to the proper temperature, it 
is clamped in the vise as close to the location of the bend as 
possible without grasping the red hot part and the bend started, 
but first the outside of the curve should be cooled with water 
carefully applied from the can. The inside of the bend being 
hot and plastic is compressed as the bend is made with very 
little tendency towards fiattening, but if such a tendency devel- 
ops, It can be corrected by loosening the pipe and using the 
jaws of the vise to bring the flattened part back to an approxi- 
mately circular section. The reason for applying the water to 
the outside of the curve is that by forcing the bend to take 
place on the inside of the curve, the pipe walls are better sup- 
ported by the filling, for the reason that the cubic contents are 
slightly reduced by the compression; whereas if the exterior 
of the curve be allowed to stretch, the cubic contents are 
slightly increased, which allows a small amount of slackness in 
the filling at that point and a consequent lack of support to the 
interior of the pipe. The use of water also plays an important 
part in the proper formation of the curve, as by its use the 
pipe may be cooled at a point where the required curvature has 
been obtained and still leave the remainder in a condition to be 
bent as desired. When bending pipe without formers it is 
necessary to have a template, which may be made from a 
%-inch rod bent to the desired curve and which, being laid 
on the pipe while bending, gives a guide for the operator. The 
use of water for cooling the outside of the curve can usually be 
dispensed with when the radius equals or exceeds fifteen times 
the diameter of the pipe. 



Most expensive mistakes in the construction of the Siberian 
Railroad are reported by R. T. Greener, Commercial Agent of 
the United States at Vladivostok. He states that the rails on 
both the Siberian and the Trans-Baikal lines are too light and 
that many of the cheap wooden bridges are failing. The re- 
sult is that speeds are reduced to 20 miles an hour. From this 
report the location seems to have been faulty and the general 
condition of the road very bad. Apparently not less than 
.$7.72.5,000 will be required to put the Trans-Baikal line in run- 
ning order, and the whole Siberian road will require $25,750,000, 
so much of the work must be done over again. 




Powell's Locomotive Lubricator. 



POWELLS LOCOMOTIVE LUBRICATOR. 



The accompanying engraving illustrates a sight-feed lubri- 
cator for locomotives, known as Powell's "Star" duplex con- 
denser lubricator. It has a double up-feed and is a radical de- 
parture from former styles of single condenser cups, and over- 
comes the difficulty of "cross feeding" on syphoning the oil 
wastefully from the lubricator to one of the cylinders at the 
expense of the other cylinder. This results in too much lubri- 
cation in one cylinder and too little in the other, and It is 
specially likely to occur when the engine is drifting with steam 
shut off. In this lubricator each cylinder delivery pipe has 
a separate and independent condenser, also a separate steam 
pipe, which renders the lubricator action for the cylinders 
entirely independent. An advantage is also believed to be ob- 
tained by a special water and oil trap in connection with the 
customary water tube leading to the bottom of the oil cham- 
ber. Its effect is to insure a positive supply of water and a 
uniform feed of the oil. A convenient feature of this lubricator 
is the arrangement of the valves. The adjustment of the feed 
is secured by means of the lower feed valves. C C. and once 
adjusted for the desired rate of feeding they need not be dis- 
turbed, because the lubricator is put into and out of operation 
by means of the ejector valves. D D. The body and all arms 
projecting from it are cast in a single piece, and the fittings 
are not screwed into the main casting. In this way a num- 
ber of joints are avoided. Our engraving shows the location 
of the filling valve. B, the water valve. N. the oil index, and 
other parts. These lubricators are manufactured by the Wm 
Powell Company. 2525 Spring Grove Avenue. Cincinnati. Ohio. 
This company also makes triple-sight feed lubricators. 



126 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL 



PERSONALS. 



Mr. George H. Hancock has been appointed Superintendent 
of Machinery of the St. Louis & San Francisco, with head- 
quarters at Springfield. Mo., vice J. R. Groves, resigned. 



Mr. Charles P. Savage has been appointed Purchasing Agent 
of the Erie & Wyoming Railway, also for the Pennsylvania 
Coal Company and the Dunmore Iron and Steel Company, with 
headquarters at Dunmore, Pa. 



Mr. J. J. Thomas, Jr.. Master Mechanic of the Tuscaloosa 
shops of the Mobile & Ohio, has been made Assistant to the 
Superintendent of Motive Power and Car Equipment, with 
headquarters at Mobile, Ala. 



Mr. H. D. Norris has been appointed Acting Purchasing 
Agent of the Pere Marquette, with headquarters at Grand Rap- 
ids and Saginaw, Mich., in place of Mr. R. Wallace, resigned. 
In addition to his duties as Purchasing Agent he will have 
charge of the company's stores. 



Mr. H. M. Carson, formerly Assistant Engineer of Motive 
Power of the Pennsylvania Railroad at Altoona, Pa., has been 
appointed Master Mechanic, with headquarters at Pittsburg, 
vice Mr. D. O. Shaver. Mr. Carson is one of the ablest and 
most promising of the younger men of the mechanical depart- 
ment of the Pennsylvania. 



Mr. W. H. Marshall, Superintendent of Motive Power of the 
Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, has also been appointed 
Superintendent of Motive Power of the Lake Erie & Western, 
vice Mr. P. Reilly, resigned. Mr. Marshall will undoubtedly 
apply to this road the same methods of dealing with motive 
power questions that he has so successfully applied on the 
Lake Shore. 



It is reported that Mr. T. S. Lloyd, Master Mechanic of the 
Chesapeake & Ohio, will succeed Mr. J. W. Fitzgibbon as Su- 
perintendent of Motive Power of the Delaware, Lackawanna 
& Western. Mr. Lloyd is 47 years old, and has been Master 
Mechanic of the Clifton Forge shops of the Chesapeake & Ohio, 
also the shops at Richmond, Va., since 1890, previous to which 
he held a like position on the Cincinnati Division. He has also 
been identified with the Erie and Pennsylvania railroads. 

The following changes in the mechanical department of the 
Baltimore & Ohio are effective March 1st, 1900: The position 
of Master Mechanic at Grafton is abolished. Mr. P. Hayden 
is appointed General Foreman at Benwood, vice J. F. Prender- 
gast, transferred. Mr. J. F. Prendergast is appointed General 
Foreman at Grafton, W. Va., vice P. Hayden. Mr. P. J. Harri- 
gan is appointed General Foreman at Connellsville, Pa., vice 
D. Witherspoon, who has been appointed General Foreman at 
Cumberland, Md. 

Addison C. Rand, President of the Rand Drill Company, who 
died recently at his home in New York City, was born in West- 
field, Mass. Mr. Rand was a pioneer in the manufacture of 
steam drills and air-compressing plants, and had been one of 
the foremost in building up the great business of his house. 
He was one of the founders, and for some time Treasurer, of 
the Engineers' Club of New York City. He was also a mem- 
ber of the American Institute of Mining Engineers, and of the 
American Society of Civil Engineers. 

Mr. Fayette S. Curtis, for 12 years Chief Engineer of the 
New York. New Haven & Hartford, has been elected Fourth 
■Vice-President of that road. Mr. Curtis was born in Owego, 
N. Y., December 16, 1843, and was educated in the Owego 
Academy, taking a special course in civil engineering. After 
graduating in 1863 he was employed for eight years in the lo- 
cation and construction of various railroads. In 1871 he was 



employed by the Harlem River & Portchester Railroad in the 
location of a line between New Rochelle and the Harlem River. 
In 1874 he was appointed Chief Engineer of the New York & 
Harlem Railroad Company, continuing in this capacity until 
1883, when he was appointed Chief Engineer of the New York, 
New Haven & Hartford. 



John M. Holt, who has been tor a number of years General 
Foreman of Car Repairs of the Southern Railway, died sud- 
denly at Washington, D. C, February 25. Mr. Holt began his 
railroad career in 1865 as an apprentice in the car depart- 
ment of the Burlington shops of the old North Carolina Rail- 
road, and when this road was absorbed by the Richmond & 
Danville he was transferred to the Manchester shops as Pore- 
man of Car Repairs. Soon after the Richmond & Danville was 
incorporated in the Southern Railway he was appointed Gen- 
ei-al Foreman of Car Repairs at Washington. D. C. Mr. Holt 
was a very able and successful man in his particular line of 
business, and commanded a reputation for fairness which made 
him well liked by all who knew him. He was an active mem- 
ber of the Master Car Builders' Association. 



Charles H. Coster, whose recent death was so keenly felt, not 
only by the many prominent railroads of which he was a di- 
lector. but by the corporate interests of this country, was born 
at Newport, R. I., July 24, 1852. He began his business career 
with a firm of importers in 1867. In the course of his business 
career his work has always been concerned with the larger 
commercial interests of the City of New York. He became 
a partner in the banking house of Drexel, Morgan & Co. in 
1884 and was at the time of his death a partner in J. P. Mor- 
gan & Co., Drexel & Co., Morgan, Harjes & Co., and also a 
director of 46 of the most prominent railroads of this country. 
Several of the boards of directors of which he was a member, 
feeling the loss of so successful and upright a man, have placed 
on record their realization of the fact by appropriate resolu- 
tions. This is unusual, and is a high tribute to his memory. 

BOOKS AND PAMPHLETS, 



Interaction ot Wheel and Rail. Translated from the German 
of Boedecker by A. Bewley. Public Works Department, India. 
This work gives in three chapteis a theoretical discussion of 
the relations between the wheels of railroad trains and the 
rails. It is a difficult mathematical subject, and the translator 
has been careful and thorough. The first chapter deals with 
the motion of single axles, the pressure and surface of contact 
ot wheels and rails, and the friction of rolling. The second 
takes up the motion of four-wheel cars on curves and the third 
covers the same ground with locomotives having three pairs of 
wheels. 

Nickel-Steel: A Synopsis of Experiment and Opinion. By Da- 
vid H. Browne, Cleveland, C, Head Chemist tor the Canadian 
Copper Co. A paper presented to the American Institute of 
Mining Engineers at its California meeting, September, 1S99. 
This pamphlet of SO pages contains the paper by Mr. Browne 
in advance of its publication in the transactions of the Insti- 
tute. It is the most valuable treatment of the subject of nickel- 
steel that has ever appeared; in fact, it is a classic. Everyone 
who is interested in the design, construction or operation of 
machinery, and especially where strength, weight and ability 
to withstand repeated stresses are concerned, should procure 
a copy for study and reference. 

Handbook and Illustrated Catalogue of Engineers' and Sur- 
veyors' Instruments ot Precision. C. L. Berger & Sons, Bos- 
ton, Mass. 

This catalogue, 6 in. x 9 in., of 212 pages, including index, is 
bound in stiff boards and contains descriptions and illustra- 
tions of the latest styles and important improvements in the 
various instruments used by engineers and surveyors. Some 
nf the more recent improvements which are illustrated in this 
catalogue are: A bracket by means of which the transit may 
be set up in narrow places, as in shafts of mines, where it is 
impossible to use an extension tripod; a short focus lens at- 
tachment which will admit of objects being focused at dis- 
tances as close as three feet from the instrument, and many 
minor attachments and improvements for field instruments 



April, 1000. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROA D JOU RN AL. 127 



ust'd in astionomical obaervallons. There are also given In this 
volume sev.eral chapters of'. valuable Information concerning 
the tare and adjustment of- iHStrunients. 

Report of Teats Made by Prof. W. F. M. Gobs on a Vertical 
Triple Kxpan.sion (;r;inj< and Fly Wheel Pumpint; Engine, 
Having a Daily (.'aiiaiTty of 20.000,000 Gallons. 
A record of 167.8 million foot-pounds of work per 1,000 pounds 
of dry steam, as was shown by the Snow Pumping Engine at 
Indianapolis, Ind., in a duty test made by Prof. W. F. M. Goss, 
Purdue University, in 189S, has awakened the highest interest 
among engineers and users of pumjiing engines in this country 
as well as abroad. For those interested in pumping machinery 
the two complete tests made on this engine, one in July, 1898, 
and the second in December of the same year, have been printed 
and put in pamphlet form. "We are indebted to Prof. Goss for a 
copy of these valuable and interesting reports, which are the 
best specimens of pumping engine testing of which we have 
record. There is also given in this pamphlet, by Mr. G. H. 
Barrus, M. E.. Roston, Mass., a comparison of the performance 
of this engine with a number of other prominent engines which 
have been tested within the last six years. 

Handbook of Testing Materials for the Constructor. By Prof. 
Adolf Martens, Director of the Royal Testing Laboratories at 
Berlin and at Charlottenburg. Translated by Gus. C. Ken- 
ning, M. Am. Soc. M. B. 2 vols., cloth, 6 by 9 inches, 622 
pages; illustrated. New York. 1899: John Wiley & Sons. 
Price of two vols., $7.50. 

The author's preface states the object of the work as follows: 
My book on Testing Materials for the Constrwctor is de- 
signed to be a counsellor to the constructor in all questions re- 
lating to the properties of his materials of construction. There- 
fore the book is divided into two volumes, each independent and 
complete in itself. This first volume relates to the general 
properties of materials of construction, and especially to the 
art and science of testing materials as applied to machinery 
and superstructure. To the description of the customary meth- 
ods of testing I have added a presentation and discussion of the 
most important types of testing machines and auxiliary ap- 
paratus, dwelling mainly upon the underlying principles of 
design, sources of errors, and on their calibration. As this vol- 
ume contains the manifold experiences of the laboratories under 
my direction, and as I have availed myself of the liberal ar- 
rangements granted by the publishers to fully illustrate, by 
figures and plates, the most important machines and instru- 
ments of all countries. I hope to produce a lasting benefit, not 
alone to my students, but also to manufacturers of apparatus, 
by my frank and candid criticism. 

The translator states in his preface that he has faithfully fol- 
lowed the author and reproduced his thought in the hope of 
promoting greater uniformity in testing and more accurate 
knowledge of materials. He has done his work carefully and 
should be credited with giving readers of English a most ex- 
cellent treatise on this subject which was not available in the 
language before. The separation of the engravings from the 
text and binding them in a separate volume seems, at first, 
very awkward, but it is really not so, particularly in the use of 
descriptions covering several pages and referring to a single 
engraving or group of engravings. 

This work gives more information about testing, testing ma- 
chines and incidentally al30ut materials, than any book we have 
seen. We commend it to our readers who have to do with the 
testing of materials. 

Steam Engine Theory and Practice. By William Ripper, Uni- 
versity College, Sheffield, England. Published by Longmans. 
Green & Coinpany, New York. 1S99. 389 pages; illustrated. 
Price $2.50. 

This modest work of scarcely 400 pages essays to comprehend 
the whole field of steam engine theory and practice. The pur- 
pose is an ainbitious one, but the text is so very concise that 
the reader soon begins to wonder at the great degree of thor- 
oughness which is secured in so limited a space. Mathematical 
expressions are not prominent, though the development of the 
usual thermodynamic relations are all presented, but in such 
good form and so intermingled with the descriptive matter as 
to relieve the book of that formidable appearance which often 
characterizes works upon similar subjects. Graphical presenta- 
tions are numerous and interesting. The chapter on tempera- 
ture-entropy diagrams, with a large plate by Captain Sankey. 
is of especial interest, and another on superheated steam, deal- 
ing with a subject which just now is much alive in England 
and on the Continent, is full and altogether satisfactory. 

While the book is written by an Englishman and primarily 
for English students, it contains frequent references to Ameri- 



can practice. For example, both the Carpenter and Peabody 
calorimeters are described; the John Fritz fly wheel Is Illus- 
trated; the experiments on engine friction by Ur. Thurston are 
referred to, and the results of locomotive tests by Prof. GosB 
aie discussed. The authoi 's preface contains the following: 

Srieeial attention has been given to the subject of heat quanti- 
ties involved in the generation and use of steam. For this pur- 
pose the temperature-entropy diagram has been used, and Its 
applications in the solution of a number of ordinary every-day 
problems exemplified. The writer desires to express his per- 
sonal indebtedness to CaiJtain Sankey for his kindness in sup- 
plying him with copies of his temperature-entropy chart, 
which appears for the first time, as Plate I. of this book. This 
chart has gone through an interesting process of evolution since 
the occasion when Mr. J. Ma<farlane Gray read his paper at 
the Paris meeting of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers 
in July 1889, on the "Rationalization of Regnault's Steam Ex- 
periments," describing and explaining the use of the steam and 
water lines of the temperature-entropy chart. Since that time 
Capt. Sankey has added lines of constant pressure, and con- 
stant volume in 1892; and more recently also the scales of total 
heat and internal energy, as well as the chart for the super- 
heated steam field. All these additions now appear upon the 
chart as shown in this book. 

The Steam Engine and Gas and Oil Engines. A book for the 
use of students who have time to make experiments and cal- 
culations. By John Perry, D. Sc, F. R. S., Professor of Me- 
chanics and Mathematics, Royal College of Science. Pub- 
lished by The Macmillan Company, 66 Fifth Avenue, New 
York, 1899: Price, $3.25. 

The plan of this excellent book contemplates a large amount 
of verification of the author's presentation by the student. It 
aims to induce the reader to investigate and work out prob- 
lems for himself. The study by mere reading is discouraged 
and the student is urged to test the laws given by the philoso- 
phers. The portion devoted to the steam engine is one of the 
best treatments of the subject ever written, because it tends 
to stimulate thought and study rather than to assume an ac- 
ceptance of what one is told by others. It is essentially de- 
voted to the steam engine. The book is strong in its adherence 
to practical conditions of actual modern experience, and the 
considerations of questions which occur in the every day work 
of engineers. It is not a mathematical discussion. The author 
gives the first place in importance to the facts of experiment. 
He then brings mathematics to bear in accounting for and 
using them in study and design. The sensible use of simple 
mathematics is one of the striking features of the work. A 
large amount of space is given to the form instruction and 
arrangement of the detail of steam engines. The illustrations 
are better than those usually found in English works of this 
kind. The author, however, hesitated to describe "the old 
despised type of engine." It is not only the easiest to describe 
but the most important for the student to understand. The 
study of details and thermodynamics are combined as they 
have not been before. There is a good chapter on valve gears, 
one on balancing or governors, a satisfactory study of boilers 
and combustion. 

It is essentially a book for students, but as the practicing 
engineer never ceases to be a student, it will be of great value 
to him. It contains a new analysis of the performance of the 
Willans engine. Its only serious fault is the omission of 
credit for the. borrowings from the work of others. 

"Centrifugal Ventilators," is the title of a pamphlet by J. T. 
Beard, presenting a mathematical study of the centrifugal fan 
with particular reference to its use for the ventilation of mines. 
It is published by The Colliery Engineer Co. 

"Packin.gs " and "Garden Hose" are the titles of two little 
pamphlets received from the Boston Belting Co.. 256 Devonshire 
St.. Boston, Mass. These present illustrations and printed de- 
scriptions of the many varieties of these products as manu- 
factured by this well-known concern. They also contain the 
accessories, such as valves, wire rope sheave fillings, gage glass 
packings and tlie fittings for various kinds of rubber hose. 

Coal Washing Machinery. — The Jeffrey Manufacturing Co. 
of Columbus. O.. has issued a profusely illustrated pamphlet 
of 88 pages as a catalogue of coal washing and coal handling 
machinery. This company has developed a coal washing sys- 
tem with a view of placing before coal operators a compara- 
tively low cost plant which will enable them to market the low- 
grades of coal and greatly improve the quality of higher grades. 
The pamphlet presents a large number of engravings of plants 
in use giving photographs and line drawings. It also contains 
a reprint of a paper by J. J. Ormsbee. read before the Arherican 



128 AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL 



Institute of Mining Engineers, in which the coal washing plant 
at No. 2 Slope, Pratt Mines, Alabama, is described. The results 
of the washing are given in detail, one of which was to reduce 
the amount of ash in the coal from 9.98 to 5.78 per cent. This 
paper is an interesting report on the washing of coal and is 
very satisfactory and complete. In addition to coal washing 
machinery, attention is given to retarding conveyors, steam coal 
tipples and the coal elevating and conveying machinery, in 
connection with which this company has become so well known. 

"Our Railroads and Our Canals" is the title of an IS-page 
pamphlet containing a reprint of an address by Mr. George H. 
Daniels, General Passenger Agent of the New York Central 
Railroad, before the Chamber of Commerce of Utica, N. Y., Feb- 
ruary 19, 1900. It has been placed in the "Four Track Series" 
and presents a strong argument in favor of the railroads by 
showing that canal transportation has outlived its usefulness 
on account of the modern development of railroads. The clos- 
ing paragraph of the address expressed the speaker's position 
in the following words; 

The day of the canal packet and the stage coach has gone by, 
never to return, notwithstanding the fact that in their dav ind 
generation they were of great value to the country: but a newer 
and better means has been found, more in keeping with the ad- 
vancement of our people in all the arts and sciences; and if the 
American people will treat the railways with the same degree 
of justice that in the past they have treated their canals, our 
commerce will continue to expand, until we stand at the head 
of the commercial nations of the world. 

It is understood that Messrs. W. H. Patterson and A. C. and 
D. W. McCord have secured control of the Illinois Car & Equip- 
ment Co. The English capital is still retained, but American 
interests have been added and hereafter the company is to be 
managed solely in this country. Mr. Patterson and Mr. A. C. 
McCord have recently returned from England, where the ar- 
rangements were consummated. The report that McCord & 
Company were to assume charge of the car company is erro- 
neous and arose probably out of the fact that the officers of the 
two companies are practically identical. A working arrange- 
ment between the two companies has been effected whereby a 
part or all of the specialties of McCord & Company will be 
manufactured at the works of the car company. Various ex- 
tensions and improvements in the plant are being made. For 
the present the work is to be confined to the construction of 
wooden cars, forgings and castings. Mr. L. Oberauer is re- 
tained as superintendent and Mr. D. L. Markle as assistant 
manager. 

EftTJIPMENT AND MANXTFACTXTRING NOTES. 

The number of students now enrolled in the International 
Correspondence Schools is 160,000, and it is constantly in- 
creasing. 



The Navy Department has placed an order with the New 
York Air Compressor Company, 120 Liberty Street, New York, 
for two duplex compound air compressors of large capacity for 
the Charlestown Navy Yard. Boston, Mass. 



The Robert Altchison Perforated Metal Co., of Chicago, have 
moved their offices from 269 Dearborn Street to the Plymouth 
Building, 30.3 Dearborn Street, of that city. Their new quarters 
are much larger, more comfortable and more suitable than the 
former ones. 



The "Consolidated Railway Electric Lighting & Equipment 
Co." is the name of the organization under which the American 
Railway Electric Light Co.. the United Electric Co., the Colum- 
bian Electric Car Lighting and Brake Co., the Electric Axle 
Light and Power Co. and the European Railway Electric Light- 
ing Co. have been amalgamated. 

The Union Boiler Tube Cleaner Company of Pittsburg have 
issued circulars Illustrating their very effective devices for 
cleaning the tubes of water-tube boilers, and giving records 
of tests of boilers of the Standard Oil Company, showing a 
saving of 24.8 per cent, in fuel as a result of cleaning tubes 
at their works. The construction and operation of the clean- 
ing devices are described by aid of engravings made from 
photographs of actual work. The cleaning devices are adapted 
to curved as well as straight tubes. 



A continuous exhibition of machinery and manufactures in 
New York City has been provided for by the International Land 
and Exhibition Co. in the Bowling Green Office Building. The 
object is to extend to every manufacturer the privilege of an 
ofTice in New York, together with a show room for machinerj- 
in motion and in charge of experienced engineers and compe- 
tent salesmen. The moderate rate of $6 per square foot per 
year is charged for the space and a number of important in- 
dustries have already availed themselves of the opportunity. 
The plan is a large one. including representation in foreign 
countries. Mr. Albert Krimmert, President of the Interna- 
tional Land and Exhibition Co.. Bowling Green Offices, New 
York, should be addressed for further information. 



The Ajax Metal Company have been conducting elaborate lab- 
oratory tests of bearing metals as a result of a series of ex- 
periments made upon the wearing qualities of bearing metals 
by officers of the Pennsylvania Railroad. Among other things 
these tests brought out the desirability of reducing the propor- 
tion of tin and increasing that of lead in the bearings up to a 
point where homogeneity was sacrificed. The Ajax people have 
been successful in this direction to the extent of reducing the 
proportion of tin from 8 to 5 per cent., and increasing the pro- 
portion of lead from 15 to 30 per cent., without sacrificing 
homogeneity. When compared with phosphor-bronze these 
proportions of tin and lead gave less than one-third of the 
wear and 20 per cent less rise in temperature from friction. 



Mr. J. W. Lowell has been appointed manager of the railroad 
department of the Manhattan Rubber Manufacturing Co., of 18 
Vesey St.. New York. He has been connected with the mechani- 
cal department of the Pennsylvania Railroad for eight years, 
two years as draftsman and six years in the test department. 
This company has decided upon an increased activity in the 
manufacture and sal? of air brake hose and mechanical rubber 
specialties for the railroads. Mr. Lowell will be a valuable addi- 
tion to th'? staff because of his practical railroad experience and 
technical education. He learned the machinist's trade in the 
shops of the Baltimore & Ohio R. R. at Baltimore and after- 
ward served on the civil engineering staff of the Baltimore Belt 
line. Before entering the seiwice of the Pennsylvania he was 
connected v.-ith the engineering department of the Marylaiid 
Steel Co. at Sparrows Point. 



The product known aS 'U'arren's Liquid Pulley Cover has 
created considerable interest and we are asked what it is. It 
is not a belt dressing, but a pulley paint for which the claim 
is made that it will prevent belts from slipping and retain 
its effectiveness for years. It is made by the Warren Manu- 
facturing Co., 36 Jackson Street, Chicago. Its object is to 
furnish to a smooth wood or iron pulley a surface which has 
a natural affinity for the belt. It is accomplished by painting 
the face of the pulley with a liquid which may be applied with 
a brush and will become dry in about two hours. The manu- 
facturers have so much confidence in the qualities of this 
material as a preventive of the slipping of belts that they are 
willing to send it on trial. A pulley cover which will do away 
with the danger, expense and annoyance of slipping belts must 
prove advantageous in every establishment where belts are 
used. Attempts to prevent slipping usually take the form of 
excessive tightening and, assuming that sufficient adhesion is 
obtained in this way, the excessive strain on the belt must 
increase the friction on the bearings and the expense of lubri- 
cation. It not only adds to the loss of power, but tends to 
throw the shafting out of line and greatly decreases the life 
of the belts. If the adhesion, under the increased tension, is 
still insufficient to prevent slipping, heat is generated even 
with a very slight amount of slip, and the belt loses its natural 
oil and its life will be short. Cases of flre have been known 
to arise from this source, an instance having recently occurred 
at the works of the American Steel & Wire Co.. at Waukegan, 
111., in which the loss was heavy. Furthermore a belt which 
slips is a constant source of loss of power. The manufacturers 
are very careful to state that this is not a sticky preparation 
which requires work to be done to make the belt and pulley 
separate as the pulley revolves. If this liquid pulley cover is all 
that is claimed for it by users, it is an admirable substitute for 
the leather lagging which has been used extensively in a great 
many kinds of machinery. The Warren Manufacturing Co. will 
furnish complete information concerning this product, which 
is rapidly taking a place among the staple supplies of the im- 
portant manufacturing establishments throughout the countrj 



May, 1900. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 129 



B-. AMERICAN-^ 

LNcmEER 

RAILRQAD^JOURNAL 



MAY, 1900. 



C^OKJTElsrTS. 



iLI.USTRATRD AhTICI.KS : 

S(l,(}{in antl 85.0011 Foil nd Coal l^ars, 
Hiiffilo, Ilochester & Pitts- 
bui-Kli Hy 

Kour t*ylinder Compounds, Lon- 
don & Northwestern 

I'rovention of Wear of IJrivint;- 
Wheol Flanges 

A Ijocoojotive Study, by Kdward 
Gpaffltrom 

A Simple and Siiecessfui Scale 
Prevention Method. Erie R I!. 

Chicago & Northwestern Shop.s. 
at Cnicago 

Performance of the Cleveland 
Locomotive. Intercolonial Ry.. 

The Wcstinghoiise Friction 
Draft Gear 

Atlantic Type Pasaenyrcr Lo(*o- 
motive. French State Ry 

Tractive Power of Two Cylinder 
(-'onipounds. by C. J. Mellin 

Changini? the Center of Gravity 
of a Locomotive, bv F. K. Cas- 
well 

Deems' Temperature Regulator 
for Locomotive Tender Feed 
Water Heaters . 

The Betfendorf I Beam Bolster. 

The "K. A. K." Undcri^round 
Electric Conduit Applied to 
Cable Hallways '. 



P.iEO 



157 



MlSCKLLANEOUS ARTICLKS : 

station try Shop Boilers \f<1 

Lon{? Distance Heeord Breaking: 



Page 

MiSCKLLANKOCS AUTICI.KS: 

Kun. Atcliison, Topeku & 
Santa Fo Ely 13!l 

Good Firing is the Bust Smoke 
Preventer \\h 

Pneumatic Tools Before the 
Institute of Mechanical Engi- 
neers, England 117 

New Oltlce Buildingof the West- 
inghouse Electric & Manufact- 
urinertjo 150 

Illinois Central R. R^, Editorial 
Correspondence 1.51 

Convention of Air Brake Men... 1.51 

Proportions, Hcatinj< Surface, 
Tube Area, Air t)pcnint;8 and 
Stack Area . - 133 

A Nciv Plan Concerning the Pur- 
diic Locomotive testing plant 1.05 

The American Society of Me- 
chanical K igineers .,. 155 

A .Safe Third Rail Electric Sys- 
tem 157 

The Protection of Structural 
M tal from Corrosion 158 

Editorials; 

Mathematics Defined lit 

Scrap Material for Car and Loco- 
motive Shops lU 

Attachment of Tender Tanks to 

Frames 144 

Increasing Grate Areas ... 115 

Comparing Operating Statistics 
of Diflerent Railroads ... .111 



80,000 AND 85,000-POUND COAL CARS. 



Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh Railway. 
Several designs of wooden cars of large capacity for carry- 
ing coal and coke have been made by Mr. C. E. Turner, Su- 
perintendent of Motive Power of the Buffalo, Rochester & 
Pittsburg Railway, and we have received the drawings of two 
of the coal cars. These cars are for widely different pur- 
poses, the treatment being far different in the two cases. The 



necessary limits of height and length. The length is limited 
by sharp curves. The height from the top of the rail to the 
under faces of the sills at the ends is uniisually low. being biil 
.30 inches in the dock car and 30V4 inclifs in the shovel car, 
when measured at the ends. This height l.s usually more than 
.■}6 inches. The chief dimensions of the two designs are Indi- 
cated in the following table: 

(jcneral Dimenrlons. 

Hopper ear. Shovel cars 

Length over end aills 3i ft. 6 In. 41 ft. io. 

Length inside of box 3()ft. Oin. 39 ft. i^ln. 

Width over side Hills ilft.3in. 9 ft Oln. 

Width inside of bo.x »ft..lin. 8ft.5!^in. 

Height rail to top of box 9(t. IKi in. 8 ft. Bin. 

Height overall If ft. U in. 8 ft. ll!4in. 

Height to bottom of silla 30in. 3<JUj in. 

Height of box inside ■'> ft. iJin. S'/Tfiin. 

Door openings, length 3 ft. 4 ft. 4 in. 

Door openings, width ' 3ft. Hin. 17 in. 

The shovel cars were developed from gondolas, without the 
doors, these having been added afterward. There are tour 1%- 
inch truss rods with the ends upset to 2 inches. The trusses 
are 36Vi inches deep, measured from the center of the rod at 
its lowest point to the center at the highest point. The lower 
line of the truss rods is but 10 inches above the rail. The bol- 
sters are of plate construction, with malleable-iron filling 
pieces, and the depth of the truss is 19% inches. The side sills 
are 5 by 12 inches, and the four intermediate sills are 5 by 9 
inches. The draft timbers are reinforced by 4-inch sub-sills, 
which are continuous. The draft gear is the Butler type, and 
the draft timbers may be taken down without removing the 
bolsters. The siding stakes are tapered to save weight, and, 
as will be seen in the side elevation of this car, stake pockets 
are provided for use in loading lumber. The greatest variety 
of uses was kept in mind in this design, and it was intended 
to make the car convenient in the iron ore, lumber and bark 
trades as well as for hauling coal, and in the coal trade the 
cars are unloaded either through the doors or over the sides. 
This car has Fox pressed steel trucks. 

The dock car is of the gondola type, with a single shallow 
hopper extending 24 inches below the floor line. It has four 
1%-inch truss rods arranged in a truss that is 35 Inches deep, 
measured from the offset in the truss rods. This Is a short 
car for its capacity. The sides are high, however, and the 
body is low, which accounts for its large capacity within the 
limits imposed. This car is a development of a former design 
for 80,000 pounds capacity, which was 28 feet 6 inches long 




80,000-Lb. "Shovel Car"-BuffaIo, Rochester «e Pittsburgh Railway. 
Half Side Elevation. 



80,000-pound car is for use in transporting coal for unloading 
at station team tracks, and is designated a "shovel car" be- 
cause it is low sided for convenience in unloading by hand 
when the drop doors cannot be used. The S5,000-pound car is 
for use in dock and trestle service and is called a "dock car." 
Both were designed to fit the clearances of the road, which 
are limited by sheds and other obstructions, the problem be- 
ing to secure the necessary volume by keeping within the 



inside. The increased capacity was obtained by adding 2 feet 
to the length. About 1,000 of these cars are now running in 
the coal and ore trades. They haul coal in one direction and 
return loaded with ore. One of them has been loaded with 
132,000 pounds of iron without running hot on bringing the 
side bearings into contact. The arrangement of sills and 
other floor timbers is clearly indicated in the engravings. 
In these cars a great deal of attention has been paid to 



ISO AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 




80,000-Lb. "Shovel Car "-Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh Railway. 
Plan of Floor bystem. 




3S-6 



85,000-Lb. "nock Car"-Buffalo, Rochester 8e Pittsburgh Railway. 
Half Side Elevation and Half End Elevation, 




85,000-Lb. "Dock Car"-Buffalo, Rochester 8c Pittsburgh Railway. 
Half Plan of Floor System. 



May, IDUU. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 131 



mallenblo castinKs with a view of obtaining the complete 
bpnedtK from liglit weiglit which they offer. The elastic limit 
of malleable iron was taken at 30.000 pounds per square inch, 
and the ultimate strength at 40.000 pounds, the calculations 
being made with a view of keeping the fiber stresses down 
to 4,000 pounds per square inch. The malleable castings for 
these cars of 80.000 and 8.5,000 pounds capacity weigh less than 
the gray-iron castings formerly used in 40.000-pounds capacity 
cars, and a saving in weight of about 43 per cent, is effected 
by using malleables. 



FOUR-CYI.INDER COMPOUNDS. 



Prof. (!oss, after an extended European trip last year, when 
he made a careful sUidy of practice and tendencies in railroad 
work, in commenting on the compound locomotive, said that 
the four-cylinder type was the only one making progress 
either in England or on the Continent. It Is noticeable that 
there is a tendency in the United States to believe that the 
possibilities in power and capacity of present methods are 
very nearly exhausted and inasmuch as four-cylinder com- 




Webb's Four-;v'i"dt r Compound for the Paris ( xposition— London & Northwestern !Ryt 
4,000th Engine Built at the Crewe Works. 
Fig. 1. 



The Paris Exposition was formally opened April 14 by Presi- 
dent Loubert with appropriate ceremonies and the affair was 
a brilliant success. The American section is well advanced to- 
ward completion. It will require at least a month to bring 
the whole up to a state of completion, and the motive power 
will not be ready until June. Space occupying 329,052 square 
feet has been allotted to this country. 



pounds of a certain well-known type have given an excellent 
account of themselves here, there is reason to believe that 
the advantages of English and French four-cylinder com- 
pounds will be regarded with increasing interest in this coun- 
try. It is believed by several well-known motive power men 
that the four-cylinder, balanced compound offers a greater ulti- 
mate increase in power than any other type. The reluctance 




Fio-. 2. -Photograph of Main Driving Wheels and Cranl< Axle. 



Fig, 3. -Photograph of Rear Driving Wheels and Axle. 



132 AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



to Increase the complication and 
the number of working parts 
may defer a thorough trial of 
the type here for a time, but 
when a carefully designed en- 
gine of this kind is built and 
tried, this objection will prob- 
ably be found less serious than 
it now appears. We believe in 
utilizing present designs to the 
limits of their possibilities and 
in keeping in mind the fact 
that further progress must be 
provided for. 

Because of Mr. P. W. Webb's 
work in four-cylinder com- 
pounds and the success he has 
obtained with the principle on 
the London & Northwestern 
we asked him to permit us to 
illustrate the vital feature in 
their construction, the crank 
«xle, and he kindly furnished 
the accompanying photogi'aphs 
and drawing. Fig. 1 is from a 
<>hotograph of a new four-cylin- 
der compound express passen- 
^r engine, "La France," which 
«as been sent to the Paris Ex- 
position, and is the 4,000th en- 
gine built at the Crewe Works, 
nearly the whole number of 
which Mr. Webb has seen con- 
structed. This engine is identi- 
cal with others of the four- 
cylinder type designed by Mr. 
Webb. In reading the article 
on page 1 of our January issue 
of this year the impression 
may have been received that the 
central frame originated on 
the Lancashire & Yorkshire. 
This is not the case, however. 
Mr. Webb's drawing, from 

which Fig. 4 was made, bears the date of November 30, 18S6 
Since that time this idea has been used in every London & 
Northwestern engine to which it was applicable. A great deal 
of trouble was taken in working it out to render the central 
axle box easy of adjustment with the other two boxes and 
without unnecessary refinement. The central frame is a deep 
cast-steel girder reaching from the guide yoke to a cross brace 
at the rear of the main axle. It furnishes a third bearing for 
thf axle, which is in equilibrium between the springs. It 
is not expected to aid in carrying weight but to serve to aid 
in receiving the thrusts from the pistons. The wheel seats of 
this axle are SVa by 61/2 in., the main driving journals are 7 
by 9 in., the crank axle journals are 7% by 5V^ in. and the 
absence of eccentrics, due to the use of the Joy valve gear 
saves the space ordinarily occupied by these parts for other 
purposes. Fig. 4 shows the application of the central frame 
to .six coupled freight engines with 18 in. cylinders and 60 
in. wheels. The outer springs in this design are of % in. 
square steel with left-hand coiling, while the inner springs 
are coiled the other way and are made of 7/16 in. square steel. 
These springs are 9% in. long before compressing. 

Photographs of the main and rear driving wheels and axles 
are shown in Figs. 2 and 3. These show the driving journals, 
which are large for English practice and for which this con- 
struction provides. The method of balancing both pairs of 
driving wheels is shown in the photographs. Mr. Webb finds 
no difficulty in casting these 7 ft. 1 in. wheels, and does not 
find it necessary to cut the rims as is generally done in this 



^ Stads ; 




Fig. 4.— Webb's Central Frame fc Four-Cylinder Compounds. 

country to prevent the spokes from contracting away from 
the rim. It will be observed that the axle is built up. This 
permits of using qualities of steel for each part that are best 
adapted for its purpose. The crank arms are of nickel steel, 
while chrome steel is used for the bearings, and crank pins. 
With special tools for making them, these tools cost but lit- 
tle more than if forged solid and cut out in the usual way. 

These engines have two 15 in. high-pressure cylinders out- 
side of the frames and two 20% in. low pressure cylinders, all 
having 24 in. stroke. One pair of cylinders on each side, in- 
cluding one high and one low pressure cylinder is operated by 
a single valve gear, the motion for the low pressure valves 
being transmitted by a rocking lever from the front end of the 
high pressure valve stem. 



The House Naval Committee has reported an appropriation 
of over $61,000,000 for expenditure upon the navy this year. 
Last year the appropriation was $64,354,000, and these large 
sums indicate a new and liberal policy. In its report the 
committee directs attention to our naval advancements as fol- 
lows: "We have a navy to-day which includes a considerable 
number of vesjsels of every class, and ship for ship it will 
equal that of any navy in the world. Seventeen years ago 
we had practically no facilities for building ships, and what 
we had were discredited. We were obliged to buy our arma- 
ment and armor, and even in one case our plans, from foreign 
countries. To-day we are not only building ships in Ameri- 
can shipyards, of American material, by American labor, on 
American plans, for ourselves, but also for some of the lead- 
ing nations of the world. Such has been the advance which 
has been made in naval progress in our own country." 



May, 1900. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 133 



The Pullman Co. is introducing a patented cement flooring 
for cars, called "Monolith," which is controlled Ijy them and is 
used on their own cars and also on passenger cars belonging to 
railroads. The material consists of cement, plaster and saw- 
dust mi.xed with a liquid, the nature of which is Itept a secret. 
It is spreail uniformly to a thickness of about '^ in. and is 
reported to be hard, light and waterproof when dry; surface 
being smooth and easy to clean. It is being tried experiment- 
ally on the Union Pacific on a number of cars. 



PREVENTION OF WEAR OF nRIVING WHEEL FLANGES. 



An interesting fact in connection with the new overland 
train which the Burlington is about to put into service be- 
tween St. Louis and Puget Sound, by way of Billings, Mont., 
is that for nearly the entire distance of 2,500 miles it will run 
through country acquired by the United States at the time of 
the Louisiana purchase in 1804. When Napoleon Bonaparte, on 
behalf of France, sold the territory to us for about 2i/4 cents 
an acre, he little dreamed, in his endeavor to annoy England, 
what a magnificent empire he was practically giving away. 



Iron is said to have been melted in five seconds in a recent 
experiment carried out by Mr. Louis Dreyfus at Thomas A. 
Edison's laboratory, at Orange, N. J. Mr. Dryfus represented 
the Goldschmidt Chemical-Thermo Industrie of Essen, Ger- 
many. He covered an iron wrench in a crucible with a chemi- 
cal of secret composition and added a small quantity of pow- 
dered aluminum. The wrench, which was 6 in. long and % in. 
thick, was melted in five seconds after the chemical was set 
on fire, the temperature being estimated at 3,000 degrees C. 
The process is suggested as being applicable to the melting of 
rails and pipes. 



Tlie Master Car Builders' and Master Mechanics' Associa- 
tion's headquarters for the conventions to be held during the 
week of June 18 will be at the Grand Union Hotel, Saratoga. 
Liberal space for exhibits has been arranged for by the stand- 
ing committee and allotments may be made by addressing Mr. 
Hugh M. Wilson, 1660 Monadnock Building, Chicago. Appli- 
cants for space should state whether they desire it upon the 
verandas or in the open court. The heavy machinery must be 
placed in the court. Steam will be piped to a central point in 
the exhibit space, and exhibitors requiring steam will be at 
liberty to connect their pipiing to it and will furnish their own 
piping and fittings. Electric current may be had from the 
city wires upon application to the proprietors of the Grand 
Union Hotel. 



"Railway Bearings; A Study in Structure," was the subject 
of a paper read before the Franklin Institute at the April 
meeting, by Mr. Robert Job, Chemist, Philadelphia & Reading 
Railway, Reading, Pa., the author of the article upon the same 
subject in our issue of February, 1900, page 38. Results were 
given of an investigation of bearing metals to determine sources 
of excessive friction, and also to find out by experimentation 
the foundry practice by which such defects were produced, as 
well as the methods and manipulation necessary to ensure the 
most efficient results, in order to establish in the foundries of 
the Philadelphia & Reading Railway a thoroughly serviceable 
standard practice, as free as possible from observed defects. 
In order to gain information, a large number of bearings which 
had run hot and had been removed from cars of other roads 
while passing over the Philadelphia & Reading Railway, were 
examined physically, analytically and microscopically, and the 
detects observed were shown upon a number of lantern slides 
from photographs and photo-micrographs prepared in the course 
of the investigation. The principal defects found were: 1st, 
segregation of the metals; 2d, crystalline structure; and 3d, 
oxidation products and occluded gas in the metals. The causes 
by which each defect was produced were given in detail, and 
also the methods by which each might be avoided, giving also 
the standard practice which has been worked out by mean; 
of this investigation, and is in successful operation upon the 
Philadelphia & Reading Railway. Results of practical service 
tests of different metals were also shown, and a comparison 
between the physical tests and the practical efficiency found 
In service. 



The wearing of driving wheel flanges lia.-^ always been trouble- 
some and the fact that several roads have found it necessary 
to give special attention to it recently indicates that It is not 
entirely a question of the past. Roads differ in the extent of 
this trouble. Nearly all roads are very often obliged to turn 
oft tires on account of flange wear and whenever this is neces- 
sary a lot of steel from the treads of the tires must be cut out 
In order to secure a full flange again. It is safe enough to 
say that a sure method for preventing flange wear will be 
welcomed by every superintendent of motive power. 

The Atlantic Type fast passenger engines Class El of the 
Pennsylvania have a new feature which has a bearing upon this 
subject. We noted on page 23 of our January issue, in describing 
this engine, that the center pin of the leading truck was placed 
dVz in. back of the center of the wheel base of the truck, which 
was done in order to relieve the front truck wheel flanges of 
a portion of the impact which they ordinarily receive. This 
increases the leverage of the forward wheels in guiding and 
it probably also would have a marked effect upon the leading 
driving wheel flanges if the engines were provided with them. 
The advantages of the form of locomotive truck hanger re- 
cently adopted on the C. B. & Q. R. R. is well understood. 
There is nothing new about it, but the prevailing practice of 
using inclined links indicates that the three-point hanger is 
not appreciated. 

On this road the question of truck bangers for mogul engines 
was raised by worn flanges and by several derailments, not 
of the trucks, but of the forward driving wheels. These oc- 
curred on rough track and led to a careful series of experi- 
tnents upon the motion of the engines relative to the trucks 
in taking curves. The derailments appeared to be due to the 
peculiar action of the inclined link hangers and the insuffi- 
ciency of the truck in guiding the locomotive. The swing 
links were 21 inches between centers at their upper ends and 
23 inches at the lower ends, and about 8 inches long between 
centers. A rough sketch of the position of the links when the 
engine takes a curve, shows the disdvantages of this plan and 
its deficiency in guiding power. A side movement of one inch 
brings one of the links to a vertical position, while the angu- 
larity of the other is increased. The guidance of the engine 
then comes upon one link and the center casting frame is 
tilted. 

An arrangement which will act as a parallel motion and 
serve as a powerful guide to the front end is required. This is 
best secured by three point hangers, the principle of which 
was favorably reported upon by the Master Mechanics' Asso- 
ciation in 1896. 

The heart-shaped hanger shown in the accompanying en- 
graving, Fig. 1, resulted from the investigation on the Burling- 
ton. Its form is clearly indicated, and special attention is direct- 
ed to the distance between the centers of the upper pins. This 
was made 3 inches at first and was increased in order to in- 
crease the power of the truck to guide the engine and relieve 
the driving-wheel flanges. This distance on the consolidation 
engines of the Pennsylvania, Class H5 and H6 is 3% In., as 
shown on page 184 of our issue of June, 1899. 

Now that 6 by 12-inch truck journals are coming into use it 
will not always be easy to find room for such hangers, but their 
unquestioned value warrants efforts to use them and for four 
wheel as well as two-wheel trucks. 

The sharpening of flanges on the leading driving wheels of 
a locomotive indicates that the truck does too little guiding, 
and the sharpening of the flanges of the truck wheels indi- 
cates that they do too much guiding. Opinions differ as to 
how to adjust this effect and the discussion of the relative 
values of different methods of arranging hangers, as presented 
on page 321 of the Proceedings of the Master Mechanics' As- 
sociation for 1896 is appropriate here. Figs. 3 to 10 are 
reproduced from that record as showing the methods of ar- 
ranging swinging links which are in common use. In Fig. 



134 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 




Fig. 3, 



Fig 4 




Fig. l.-Three "oint Trucl< Hangers. -C, B. & O- R. R. 



3 the links are perpendicular, in Fig. 4 the upper ends are 
further apart than the lower ends, while the reverse arrange- 
ment is shown in Fig. 5. The three point hanger is shown in 
Fig. 6, this being similar in principle to the C, B. & Q. hangers 
of Fig. 1. The action of the various hangers appears in Figs. 
7 to 10. in which the center lines of the links only are repre- 
sented and the outside of the curve is supposed to be at the 
right side of the engraving. When an engine with swinging 
links strikes a curve the bolster B B' tends to move toward the 
outside rail, and this swings the lower ends of the links toward 
the right. Without going into the details these diagrams 




,4^ 






6 o 




o 


. 1. 1 ': 


A 




o 


o 


< J3i ' 


1 
1 


-> 


o 







^1 
■v. 




o 


n 


^ 




^i 




^ 


V 


Le. 



Fig. 2.-Truck Hangers.— C, B. 8c Q. f . R. 



clearly indicate the importance of keeping the links parallel. 
The three point hanger does this and its advantage in the 
tendency to return to its normal position is shown by the length 
of the line cb and c'b' in Fig. 10 as compared with the cor- 
responding lines of the other diagrams. If from the centers 
B B' in Fig. 7 perpendicular Bb and B'b' are erected, whose 
length will equal the weight resting on the lower ends of the 
hangers, the horizontal lines c b and c> b^ drawn from their 
upper end to the center lines of the hangers will represent 
the lateral pressure exerted by the weight resting on the 
bangers. In Figs. 8 and 9 the lateral forces exerted by the 



links actually oppose each other. This is a strong argument 
in favor of the three point hanger. 

On the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, which has a com- 
paratively straight track with maximum curves of 6 deg. on 
the main line, a very simple method was .applied to the new 
consolidation engines built by the Brooks Locomotive Works 
(see February, 1900. page 37), from a suggestion by Mr. John 
Player, Mechanical Engineer of the works. The pony truck is 
expected to do its share of the guiding, and the driving wheels, 



Standard Tire Section 
BackWhccI Pass. 



Front Wheel Pass. 

Dotted line shows tlangc rt-UucL-d to '^ia additional 
lateral play. 

Fig. J2 





Section of Worn Tire 
Dotted line shows how kitoral play is decreased - 
on worn tire. The opposite result to cut flianges 

Fig. 13 
Line Sections-D., L. & W. R. R. 




Fig. 16.— Wheel Arrangement of Locomotive of Fig. 3, 
14, and 15 

which are all flanged, are made to help. The tires of the first 
and last pairs of drivers are closed in toward each other to a 
distance of 53% in. between the backs of the flanges, this being 
Vs in. less than the standard distance between the tires. The 
second and third p^irs of tires are set out to 53^ in. between 



May, 1800. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 136 




Front Tire 
UitL-nil pliiy % ' 



Front Tire 

Lateral play on track at Ia«t tumlriK y^' 
" " " " I>t^'r diagram 'Vii* 

" " decrease Hinve laiA turning /,' 



Main Tire 
Lateral play '/la' 





Main Tire 

Originally a blind tire . 

Lateml play on tnu-k at la^-t turning i/,' 

' perdiiigrani ij^* 

'■ decrea.sc sin. -I' last turning i/^' 



Back Tire 
Lateral play J^* 




Back Tire 
Lateral play on track at last turning ^' 

" " '* " Twr diagram j^" 

No change in lateral play. 



TIRE SECTIONS FROM 10-WHEEL LOCOMOTIVE-D. L. & W. R, R. 



Fig. 14. 

When this engine was received from the builders the main tire 
was " blind." After two tire turnings the flauge " A " was formed. 

the backs of the flanges, which is % in. more than the stand- 
ard distance. With this arrangement the second and third 
pairs of flanges will do some of the guiding. The effect ap- 
pears to be to give the same result as far as the wheels are 
concerned as is obtained by the wear of the flanges in service. 
Mr. Marshall expects good results from this arrangement. 

Those who have not been aware of the practice of the Dela- 
ware, Lackawanna & Western R. R. will be interested to 
know that for 30 years this road has had no trouble with worn 
flanges and has used flanged tires on all wheels during this 
time. Readers may at first be incredulous when we say that 
on this road the driving wheel flanges grow thicker at the 
throat as the tires wear, but those who take the trouble to 
inspect the tires in use and on the scrap piles of this road 
will be convinced, as was our representative, that this is true. 
While the plan has been repeatedly mentioned before the 
Master Mechanics' Association, it, as far as we know, has never 
been described. We do not say that equally good, if not ex- 
actly the ?ame results can not be obtained in other ways, but 
that the method used on this road is successful in stopping 
flange wear appears to be certain. 

Mr. W. C. Conwell, who has been foreman of the Scranton 
machine shops of this road for 45 years, made a study of this 
subject long ago in connection with the reduction of the gage 
of tracks from six feet to the present standard. When this 
was done much trouble wss experienced because of very rapid 
wear of flanges and Mr. Conwell made a very thorough ana- 



Fig. 15. 

After 16 months, 8 days' service, during which the engine 
ran 71,930 miles, these sections of the tires were taken. 

lysis of the causes. He soon saw that the plain tire did not 
contribute to the guiding of the engine and that in conse- 
quence it threw heavy responsibilities upon the flanges of the 
other wheels. He then made up his mind that the problem 
could be solved by putting the tires, when new, into the con- 
dition as to lateral play into which they were brought by 
wearing. By "lateral play" we do not mean the longitudinal 
play of the driving journals in the boxes, but the play of the 
wheels with reference to the gauge of the track. The total 
lateral play at the driving boxes on this road is 3, 16 in. which 
Is 1/16 in. less than is usually provided. 

Through the courtesy of Mr. J. W. Fitz Gibbon, until re- 
cently Superintendent of Motive Power of the Lackawanna, we 
are permitted to describe this interesting practice, which con- 
sists of making the distance between the inside faces of all 
tires a standard of 53% in., the lateral play of the wheels upon 
the rails being different for the various axles, this play being 
provided for by the thickness of the flanges. The distance be- 
tween tires was made to suit the guard rails, and the questions 
concerning the inside and outside of the tires were considered 
separately. 

The simplicity of the plan appears in the diagrams. Fig. 11 
shows the original tire section for the rear wheel of a -i-wheel 
connected passenger engine in which the lateral play is % in. 
on each side, or a total of hi in. The dotted line in Fig. 12 
shows the form of the flange of the front wheel to secure the 
amount of lateral play required. This principle applies to all 



136 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 




fJ^1U4= 



'riij^r_hoj,'frmie^i'.j' A_ *_ _1 . _ !* - ^-^ W 



te---7^j" 



--;^5- ^ --//-9" --.--s-i ;>^-7-- >/1L 

A Locomotive Study,— A Suggestion in Wide Fireboxes 




classes of engines and for those wheels which are given a 
lateral play of % in. the tire section differs very little from 
the Master Mechanics' Association standard. The other 
flanges are pared down on the lathe to make them thinner. 
The usual method of wearing is indicated in Fig. 13. On a 
number of engines which have been in service from 15 to 20 
months the flanges were found to be thickened at the base, 
Fig. 13, which reduced the amount of lateral play and was 
exactly the opposite to cut flanges. In some of the cases of old 
tires, examined by the writer, the flanges were reduced very 
slightly in thickness below the original size, but there was 
not a single case of "cut flange." In the large majority of 
cases the flanges remain at the original thickness or are in- 
creased at the base as shown in Fig. 13. Engines with this 
tire treatment have made 150,000 miles between tire turnings. 

As shown in the table, the wheels of 4-wheel trucks are made 
with the smallest amount of play, % in. on each wheel, with 
a view of making the truck do a lot of guiding. In the case 
of pony trucks 3,16 In. play is given on each side. The pur- 
pose of the difference in play among the driving wheels Is by 
allowing considerable play to make the leading drivers do 
some of the guiding and by giving less play to the second, 
third and fourth pairs to make each pair do its share. The 
fear wheels of the four and six coupled engines are made with 
the least amount of play in order to "center" the rear end 
of the engine on the track, and in the S-coupled engines the 
front and rear wheels are given the same amount of play in 
order, as Mr. Fitz Gibbon puts it, to "make the engines fit 
the curves." 

The rule for the allowance of the flange play is as follows: 

Mogul type Front wheels, Ts in; main wheels, % in.; back 

wheels, '/bin. 

Eight-wheel type .. front wheels, %, in back wheels ^in. 

Consolidation.. Front and back wheels, % in.; second and third, % in. 

ESngine truck wheels (4-wheel truck) V4 in. 

Engine truck wheels (pony truck) % in. 

Total lateral play at driving box hubs 3/16 In. 

It has been argued that the same result may be obtained by 
giving the play or side motion in the axles by making these 
allowances in the play between the driving wheels and the 
driving boxes, instead of having it between the flanges and the 
rail. Whether this is true or not, it is evident that the effect 
of the D., L. & W. method makes the wheels fit the rails 
easily on curves, and it is apparently entirely satisfactory. 
The locomotive trucks on the main line of this road are all 
of the swing motion type. Mr. David Brown, Master Me- 
chanic at Scranton, informs us that the flanges of the driving 
boxes are tapered on the inside from the top and bottom to 
permit the boxes to tip with the axles as they take the eleva- 
tion of the outer rail on curves. The central portions for a 
length of 3 inches are parallel, while the top and bottom of 
the opening is % in. wider than the central portion. 

Some of the engines on this road make 11,000 miles per 
month in regular service which indicates that they are not 
petted. The plan is now on record and we shall be glad if the 
description calls out the comment of readers. 

Mr. G. W. West, Superintendent of Motive Power of the 
New York, Ontario & Western, has used for some years an 
adaptation of the D. L. & W. plan. He places the tires of the 
forward and rear wheels a little closer together than the mid- 
dle ones of ten-wheel and consolidation engines. The middle 
wheels are kept at the normal distance. 



A LOCOMOTIVE STUDY. 



By Edward Grafstrom. 



Mechanical Engineer Illinois Central Railroad. 



While it does not represent a new type of locomotive, the 
accompanying engraving may be of interest as showing a novel 
adaptation of the wide firebox to a fast passenger engine of 
the American type. This has not been attempted hereto- 
fore, at least not in this country, except to the extent of the 
Belpaire firebox, reaching over the frames, though not over 
the drivers. 

The Atlantic type of engine came into existence to meet the 
conditions essential to the modern high-duty express engine, 
which are summed up in the expression, sustained speed. Not 
the burst of speed which a little IS by 24-inch engine occa- 
sionally makes over a level stretch,- nor the rushing along of 
an "extra" with three or four cars, on a special schedule; but 
the speed that tells, the steady pull day after day, regardless of 
weather conditions or of extra cars, at a scheduled 50-mile gait, 
that can be forced 50 per cent, when there is lost time to make 
up. For such work steam is needed, and lots of it, but every 
pound of water evaporated requires a certain quantity of coal, 
and every pound of coal burnt needs a certain amount of grate 
area, and thus the problem has resolved itself into two con- 
trolling elements: grate area, and muscle wherewith to supply 
the same with coal. 

It is not the purpose here to expostulate on the merits of the 
Wootten .firebox or its modifications. Sufiice it to say that It 
has been resorted to when the Belpaire or radial stay type 
reached the limit of length at which a fireman's coal shoveling- 
ability ceases. The Atlantic type of engine is, as already stated, 
the outcome of this demand for grate area in combination 
with large drivers, and from an engineering point of view, 
purely, it answers the purpose well enough. "The principal 
objection to it is that the engineman has to be entirely sepa- 
rated from his fireman. Several instances are on record point- 
ing to the great risk of entrusting the lives of a number of 
passengers to the care of one mortal man, and he beyond 
the reach and observation of others perhaps for half an hour 
or more at a time. 

In October, 1898, an Atlantic type engine on an Erie night 
express ran ten miles with a corpse at the throttle, before the 
fireman became aware of the situation. Three years ago a simi- 
lar instance happened on the Philadelphia & Reading, and it is 
still in fresh memory of many New Yorkers how a pilot was 
found dead at the wheel of a ferry boat, since which it has 
been compulsory to carry a second man, usually a deck hand, 
in the pilot house of the ferry boats. If the writer is correctly 
informed, legislation has also been evoked in some western 
States, practically making engines with cabs in front of the 
firebox prohibitory, unless an extra man rides in the cab with 
the engineman. Admitting that such cases are rare, there still 
remains an element of security in knowing that two men can 
compare notes when indistinct signals and train orders are 
of doubtful meaning. 

The idea embodied in the design shown in this connection 



May, 1900. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 137 



is of foreign origin, but is equally applicable to the lO-wheel 
and the American type of engines in use in this country. With- 
out describing the design in detail, attention is called to the 
combustion chamber between the flue sheet and the bridge 
wall, which may be cleaned out through the drop door at the 
bottom. This door, it is thought, will also permit of the caulk- 
ing of flues and similar work without tearing down the brick 
arch or waiting for it to cool. The rear end of the cab has 
been left open, as the heat radiating from such wide fireboxes 
is, as a rule, considerable, regardless of how completely the 
boiler inside the cab is lagged. The raised floor in the coal 
space of the tender has already been found necessary on sev- 
eral recent 10-wheeI engines, and is not objectionable. 

In conclusion it sho\ild be said that the design is merely a 
study in a somewhat new line, open for criticism and possibly 
further developments, and it is offered as a suggestion and not 
as a finished product. 



STATIONARY SHOP BOILERS. 



A contrast of stationary boiler practice, showing the advance 
of twenty years, is to be seen in two adjacent boiler rooms 
of a certain railroad shop. One. just completed, is equipped with 
modern water-tube boilers, with automatic stokers, and ma- 
chinery for handling coal and ashes, and the other, which is 
soon to go, has a lot of old locomotive boilers. The first rep- 
resents the thought and care of the mechanical engineer, and 
the other is a type of practice for which no favorable argu- 
ment can be advanced. This plan, however, does not require 
requisition or correspondence, and this probably explains its 
existence. There is an awakening to the possibilities for im- 
provement which is shown by the recent installation of a num- 
ber of thoroughly up-to-date boiler plants in railroad shops, 
and by the appointment of a committee to consider the "Best 
Type of Stationary Boiler for Shop Purposes," for report at 
the approaching convention of the Master Mechanics' Asso- 
ciation. 

We do not wish to be understood to advocate the investment 
necessary for coal and ash-handling machinery, mechanical 
draft, or automatic stokers, in all cases. These are advan- 
tageous only under certain conditions, and these are deter- 
mined chiefly by the size of the plant. But what we do advo- 
cate is a thorough treatment of the subject of steam produc- 
tion in the plans for new shops and the rebuilding and exten- 
sion of old ones. 

In the circular of inquiry issued by this committee the first 
question is as follows: "From your experience, do you prefer 
locomotive type boilers with internal fireboxes, return tubular 
boilers bricked in, or water-tube boilers?" The selection of 
the type of boiler is most important, and the three most re- 
cent examples of improved shop practice testify to the ad- 
vantages of the water-tube type. In the matter of repairs. 
especially, it is to be hoped that the replies from members will 
show the relative costs of various types. In this connection 
it is interesting to know that water-tube boilers have been in 
constant use in large batteries for more than ten years without 
costing anything for repairs. 

Water-tube boilers are usually capable of being forced far 
beyond their rated capacity, but with this exception it is pos- 
sible to select a water-tube boiler which is really inferior to a 
return-tube boiler of the common form. The rapidity of steam- 
ing and of getting up steam pressure, together with the pos- 
sibilities of greatly increasing pressure while keeping within 
the limitations of weight, have brought the water-tube boiler 
into the naval practice of several governments. The rapidity 
of getting up steam pressure has been strikingly expressed by 
some one, who has said that if English naval vessels had tank 
Ijoilers and French vessels had the water-tube type, and fleets 
of both nations lay at anchor on their respective shores of 
the English channel, with the boilers all cold, the French fleet 
could reach the shores of England liefore the English ships 
could move from their anchorages. 



The matter of weight Is not Important In stationary work, 
but the rapidity of steaming, and the ready response to sud- 
den fluctuations in the demand for steam, have brought this 
boiler into electrical distribution practice, until we now see 
this type selected for the enormous aggregations In the power 
plants now under construction for the most extensive electric 
railroad systems in the world. The concentration of steam and 
electric power generating plants into one power house is now 
the rule in the construction of large shops, and this involves 
the use of power all over the plant for work that was for- 
merly done by independent steam plants or by hand. This 
will naturally be accompanied by considerable fluctuations of 
load, which will require corresponding flexibility in the pro- 
duction of steam, so that the water-tube boiler meets the same 
requirement in the shop as in the electric railway power 
house. 

The evaporation of water per pound of coal, of course, de- 
pends upon the coal, but in a well-designed water-tube boiler 
the ratio may be expected to be from 5 to 10 per cent, greater 
than in the return-tube boiler, with the same quality of coal 
in each. With Pocahontas coal, over 11 pounds of water per 
pound of dry coal, from and at 212 degrees, have been evapo- 
rated in a water-tube boiler. In forcing, these boilers have 
given satisfactory economy when burning as much as 35 pounds 
of coal per square foot of grate per hour. 

It is not enough to speak of water-tube boilers as a type 
because of the great differences in the representatives of the 
type and in the selection. Burtin, in his "Marine Boilers" 
(page 233), divides them into three distinct groups, (a) those 
with limited circulation, (b) those with free circulation, and 
(c) those with accelerated circulation, the question of circu- 
lation being considered by him as one of fundamental import- 
ance. It is a vital factor in a steam boiler that the water should 
circulate, and this is one of the ways in which the cylindrical 
and locomotive types are defective. It has not been given its 
place in boiler design, and the water-tube boiler has been an 
educator in this direction. 

Other considerations in the selection of boilers may be men- 
tioned as follows: (1) The division of the water space Into rel- 
atively small sections, with a view of confining a possible 
rupture to a small portion through which the pressure may 
find relief without danger of explosion. (2) Accessibility of 
all parts for cleaning and repairs. (3) Removal of the joints 
from the direct influence of the fire and provision for collecting 
mud in a drum that is removed from the fire. Of these proba- 
bly the most important are those concerning the division of the 
water space and the accessibility for repairs. There appears 
to be an advantage in straight over curved tubes, and of course 
stayed surfaces should be avoided. Straight tubes are easiei 
to clean than curved ones, as well as being easier to replace, 
and it is clear that a few tubes may be carried in stock for 
replacement in boilers in which all the tubes are straight and 
of the same length, whereas a much larger number must be 
available if they are of different lengths and curved differ- 
ently. Furthermore, it is important to be able to get at tubes 
from both ends for cleaning. 

Superheating is, perhaps, too great a refinement to expect 
for the present in shop practice, but when it has been reached 
another strong point of the water-tube boiler will be seen. 



"The radical defect of prohibition is that it does not pro- 
hibit, of protection that it does not protect, of the radial stay 
that it is not radial, and of the cinder retaining extended 
smokebox that it does not retain the cinders." This was said 
by Mr. J. Snowden Bell in discussing the subject of locomotive 
front ends before the Western Railway Club. It is not so 
much a pessimistic expression as a warning to the effect that 
a name is not alone sufficient to make a device successful, and 
that we should not be satisfied when a thing is named. 



Gas made in "Mond" producers capable of evaporating seven 
tons of water per ton of coal used was referred to by R. E. 
Crompton before the Institution of Electional Engineers (Eng- 
land) recently. This gas is equally applicable for use under 
boilers and in gas engines. 



138 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



A SIMPLE AND SUCCESSFUL SCALE PREVENTION 
METHOD. 



Erie Railroad. 



Locomotive men have sought for years to find a satisfactory 
way to avoid the serious difficulties connected with the use 
of bad waters. Mr. A. E. Mitchell, Superintendent of Motive 
Power of the Erie Railroad, has tried a great many so-called 
remedies, including a long list of "patent medicines," and as 
a result of continued unsatisfactory experience he was natu- 
rally skeptical when a new plan was suggested. His charac- 
teristic thoroughness as an investigator, and confidence that 
oil could be used, led him to the study and development of the 
possibilities of the Talmage system, which we describe, and 
which is pronounced to be an unqualified success when properly 
operated. 

Mr. J. G. Talmage, President of the Talmage Manufacturing 



steam, and raising the fire test to a point above the highest 
temperature of the water and steam immediately overcame 
the trouble. The system consists in feeding this oil into the 
boiler by means of a specially designed automatic feeder from 
which the oil is fed under control of the engineer. This feeder 
is generally placed on the left-hand side of the boiler head, 
within easy reach of the fireman. The system is completed by 
a number of blow-off valves used in connection with a system 
of perforated pipes. The arrangement of the system as ap- 
plied to a standard wide firebox engine on the Erie is shown 
in the accompanying engraving. 

The action of the oil is purely mechanical. It does not pre- 
vent the formation or precipitation of the incrusting solids, 
but when these are formed they seem to be at once enveloped 
in a film of the oil, which prevents them from sticking to the 
heating surfaces and throws them down in the form of mud, 
which may be blown out. The action of the oil is to surround 




The Talmage System of Caring for Locomotive Boilers. 
Applied to Standard Wide Firebox Engine, Erie R. R. 



Company of Cleveland, who had a long experience in the use 
of mineral oils in stationary boilers, was consulted by Mr. 
Mitchell in 1896 with reference to the application of oils in 
locomotive boilers. This led to some experiments which were 
not successful, but they indicated the desirability of using 
specially high test oils. This led to the preparation of what 
is known as "Rubra" oil, which is now regularly manufactured 
for this special purpose' by the Talmage Manufacturing Co. It 
is a specially distille4 hydro-carbon oil, entirely free from tarry 
and resinous matter. Its high fire test renders it safe in high- 
pressure boilers, and it does not decompose or form deleterious 
carbonaceous residues. The previous difficulty appeared to re- 
sult from the distillation of the low fire test oil over with the 



the particles of the precipitated matter and prevent their 
crystals from cementing together or sticking to the heating 
surfaces. Before the application of the system the heating sur- 
faces are coated with the oil. In this way the heating sur- 
faces, including the crown sheets and tubes, are kept al- 
most perfectly clean when the system is applied to a new 
engine. The oil prevents the corrosion and the pitting 
action of certain .waters. The high fire test prevents 
the oil from vaporizing and distilling over with the steam, 
but the effect of the oil in the water is very marked 
upon the gauge cocks and blow-off cocks and the packings of 
the throttle stem, valve stems and piston rod, and also upon 
the wear of the cylinders and piston packing. These seem to 



May, 1900. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 139 



be lubricated, and they are kept free from the precipitate. This 
Is the testimony of the boiler makers and the engineers. Most 
rarefvil examinations including chemical analyses of the scale 
from all parts of the boiler, show that the oil has no harmful 
effect whatever on the plates, and there is no corrosion of tubes 
or sheets. The heating surfaces in many of tlie waters ap- 
pear to be black, and upon analysis it was found that this was 
due to iron from the water. Exi)eriments to show the ten- 
dency to cause foaming developed the fact that even with the 
excessive feed of three gallons of oil in thirty minutes there 
was no foaming. Mr. Mitchell, fearing that some source of 
danger might be overlooked, even went to the extent of an 
examination of the oil with reference to the possibility of 
explosion in case a lighted lamp should be carried into the 
boiler. This is guarded against by the high hre test. The oil 
Is therefore spoken of as perfectly harmless. 

The Talmage system has become a part of the regular prac- 
tice oif the Brie Railroad, and is being introduced on other 
roads. It has just been applied to fifty new engines on the 
Erie, which are of the consolidation type with Wootten 
fireboxes. Its effect upon the operation of the mechani- 
cal department is to place the bad water districts upon 
very nearly the same basis with regard to boiler washing as 
those having the best water. It costs about |2.25 to wash 
out a boiler. This, however, does not compare in importance 
with the fact that each engine must be held from six to eight 
hours every time the boiler is washed. The saving of one 
boiler washing permits an engine to make a trip over a di- 
vision of 100 miles, and with 47 engines on one of the divisions 
this advantage amounts to the continuous use of five en- 
gines. On one division the boilers required washing out every 
500 miles before the oil was applied, and they are now kept 
in much better condition than before by washing out once 
in 3,000 miles, and, in some cases, 5,000 miles. In October of 
last year the system was in use on 49 locomotives, of which 25 
were on the Cincinnati Division and 24 on the Lima Division, 
The cost of application of the system to each engine was not 
more than $125 in any case, but the cost depends, of course, 
upon the construction of the boilers. Upon the application 
of the oil the mileage began at once to increase, the boiler work 
to decrease and the life of flues to increase. On the Lima Di- 
vision the engines make an increased mileage averaging 504 
miles per engine per month, due to the fact that the boilers 
are washed out but once in thirty days. The largest mileage 
between washings in these bad water districts, so far recorded, 
is 6,000 miles. On the Cincinnati Division the increased mileage 
between washings has been over ten fold, giving an ad- 
vantage of 432 miles per engine per month. This resulted in 
the additional saving in the boiler washing force of two men 
at Gallon and two men at Huntington, the saving at these two 
points amounting to $192 per month in wages. The average 
increased life of flues upon engines, of which close record has 
been kept, has been between 30 and 40 per cent., depending 
largely upon the service. Engine No. 770 has run for 
18 months with one set of flues. The life of flues was 
formerly 8 months. In the 18 months mileage has been 
77,498, and the flues were then taken out for safe end- 
ing. The former mileage of flues was between 41,000 
and 48,000. Engine No. 780, after making 61,527 miles, 
required the renewal of only 100 flues, and at the time 
of the report the rest of the flues had made 78,788 miles and 
were still in good condition. The increased mileage per engine 
per month on the Lima Division averaged 504 miles, and on 
the Cincinnati Division 432 miles. On these divisions the 
average mileage between washings is 3,500. 

The deterioration of the special apparatus of this system is 
practically negligible. While the average cost per hundred 
miles on these divisions has been about 30 cents, the increase 
in the life of flues has been 30 per cent, and of flreboxes 20 
per cent., with the engine mileage increased as stated. 

In January, 1900, Mr. Mitchell called a meeting of the shop- 
men, enginemen and motive power officers concerned, and dis- 



cussed the system thoroughly. The result was Its adoption. 
After an experience of several years, during which the 
system was in the care of the Talmage Manufacturing Com- 
pany, circulars of instruction were issued, and the entire opera- 
tion taken into the hands of the railroad. Because of the 
importance of the subject and of its development under the 
personal care of Mr. Mitchell, the circular drawn up by Mr. 
Talmage, with the assistance of Mr. Mitchell, is reproduced, 
and it will be seen that a great deal of care Is required in the 
use of the blow-off cocks and in the feeding of the oil. We are 
indebted to Mr. Mitchell and Mr. Talmage for the information 
and drawings. The results obtained are in no way sensa- 
tional, although they are exceedingly important. They testify 
of the value of following such a subject carefully for a number 
of years, and the experience of this road is now made available 
for others. The instructions follow: 

To properly carry out the principle of this system, the en- 
ginemen should feed the oil regularly and continuously Into the 
boiler when the engine i« in service. Specific directions will 
be furnished to meet the various conditions, as the quantity 
of oil to be used varies according to the condition of the water 
and the amount evaporated. 

The surface blow-off draws from the entire surface of the 
water, and will carry off all impurities from that portion of 
the boiler. It is designed to be used on the road as well as 
at terminals. Certain waters contain ingredients which, it al- 
lowed to accumulate in the boiler, will cause the water to 
foam. This action is effectually overcome by the use of the 
surface blow-off. In operating the surface blow-off, the en- 
ginemen should be governed by the amount and condition of the 
water in the boiler, care being taken to avoid the excessive 
loss of water during this operation. 

When the hostlers and engine preparers place the engine 
on the dump track for blowing, the boiler should have three 
gauges of water and full pressure of steam. The surface blow- 
off should be operated first, to reduce the water in the boiler 
to 2V^ gauges. Then each of the other blow-off valves should 
be operated a uniform length of time, care being taken not to 
reduce the water in the boiler below one gauge. 

Injectors should not be used while blowing off. The blower 
should not be used until the blowing off of boiler has been 
completed, and then used to bring steam up to pressure re- 
quired. 

When the boiler washers hlow the steam off there should 
be at least one gauge of water in the boiler, to avoid the heat 
from drying the flues and sheets. 

The crown sheet should be washed immediately after the 
water has been drawn off from that portion of the boiler, and 
while the water is being drawn from the lower portion of 
the boiler. 

When the washing is done with cold water the boiler should 
be properly cooled before drawing the water off. 

This system is the result of a patient and painstaking 
development of principles which have been applied before but 
always unsuccessfully. They represent a number of years of 
concentrated effort and study of the conditions of locomotive 
boiler operation. We understand that this system is protected 
thoroughly by patents. 



LONG DISTANCE RECORD BREAKING RUN. 



Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Hy. 



We have received from Mr. J. M. Barr, Third Vice-President 
of the Atchison road, an official report of the recent long dis- 
tance record breaking run of a special train conveying Mr. A. 
R. Peacock and party from Los Angeles to Chicago, a distance 
of 2,236 miles in 58 hours. Mr. Peacock, who is a director of 
the Carnegie Steel Co.. desired to reach Pittsburgh in time for 
a directors' meeting. The train left Los Angeles at 10 a. m. 
on Tuesday. March 27. and the contract provided for his ar- 
rival in Chicago on Friday morning in time to take the regu- 
lar Pennsylvania train for Pittsburgh. He arrived in Chicago 
at 10 p. m. Thursday night, making the run at a speed of 38.55 
miles per hour, including stops, and 41.71 miles per hour, ex- 
cluding stops. The total delays amounted to 4 hours 24 min- 
utes. The train consisted of the special car "Convoy," weigh- 
ing 105,300 lbs., and a combination car weighing 43,600 lbs., 
making a total of 148,900 lbs. Ten engines were required for 
the trip, and it was not until the train reached Albuquerque 
that any thought of fast running was entertained, and even 
then there was no attempt at record breaking, and the special 
train had to get along as it could between the regular traffic 
trains as no attempt was made to clear the way for It. The 



140 AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



terminals, distances and speeds are given in the following 



CHICAGO & NORTHWESTERN SHOPS AT CHICAGO. 



table: 



Terminals. 
Los Angeles to Barstow.. 

Barstow to Needles 

Needles to Seligman 

Sellgman to Winslow 

Winslow to Albuquerque. 
Albuquerque to La Junta. 

La Junta to Dodge 

Dodge to Emporia 

Emporia to Argentine — 

Argentine to Chicago 

Los Angeles to Chicago.. 



Average speed Average speed 





Including 


deductin 


Distance. 


stops. 


stops. 


Miles. 


Miles. 


Miles. 


141 


36.00 


37.60 


169 


37.55 


38.55 


149 


36.19 




143 


27.67 




286 


43.22 




347 


31.73 


34.67 


202 


55.85 


57.12 


227 


52.35 


55.80 


109 


35.41 


39.51 


463 


45.79 


49.98 


2.236 


38.55 


41.71 



Extensive Improvements. 



III. 



Power House and Power Distribution. 
The general plan of the improvements was given in the 
March issue, page 92, a description of the buildings in April, 




Improvements, Chicago Shops, C. & N> W, Rv. 
Fig. 1.— Boiler Room Arrangement. 




Concrete flm-^' 

Improvements, Chicago Shops, C. & N. W. Ry. 
Fig, 3,— Plan of Engine Room, Showing Piping. 



This is the fastest run for this distance of which we have 
reco rd, and it does not by any means indicate the limit for 
this road. The train made the distance in 12 hours less than 
the contract called for, and heat the time of the "California 
Limited" by about eight hours. No instructions were given to 
make exceptionally fast time, and it was not intended in any 
sense to be a record breaking train. It is interesting to note 
that in the 347 miles between Albuquerque and La Junta the 
train had to climb to a height of 7,492 feet. 



page 109, of this journal, and we now present information 
concerning the power house and power distribution. 
Boiler Plant. 
The boilers are placed in the north half of the power house. 
There are six Babcock & Wilcox water tube boilers of 2-50 h. p. 
each, arranged with two In each setting, and spare space is pro- 
vided for two more boilers. The plant now has 1,500 h. p. with 
room for 2,000. These boilers have vertical headers whereby a 



May, 1900. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 141 



material saving in space is effected. They are equipped with 
Roney stokers, furni.shod by Westlnghouse, Church, Kerr & 
Co., and "smolfcless" furnaces, which are guaranteed to burn 
bituminous coal and give full rated capacity with a draft of 
% inch air pressure. The ari'angement of the boiler room is 
shown in Fig. 1. On the north side of the building is the 
tracli for receiving the coal cars. The coal is unloaded into 
a hopper below the track from which it is raised by an eleva- 
tor and deposited into the elevated coal hoppers by means of 
a horizontal conveyor, the end of which is seen in Fig. 2. The 
ashes are removed from cars on a depressed track running 
' along the boiler fronts. The coal elevation and conveyor are 
oiierated by a 15 h. p. electric motor. There is a 12-in. spout 
leading from each coal pocket to the corresponding automatic 
stoker so that all shoveling qf coal is avoided after it leaves 
the car. The boilers carry a pressure of 150 lbs. The arrange- 
ment of the piping is seen in Fig. 1. The coal storage capacity 
is sufficient for 180 tons. 

The chimney, which was designed by Mr. G. R. Henderson, 
is of light colored brick 180 ft. high, including the cast-iron cap. 
It is lined with firebrick to a height of 75 ft. The core is 8 ft. 
G in. in diameter. The foundation is of concrete laid upon 64 



^%^ 




2,— Sections in Boiler Room Showing Boiler Foundations 
and Coal Elevator. 



piles. The stack was made large enough to provide for 2,000 
h. p., although it will serve at present for but 1,500. 

As stated in the preceding article on this subject, from infor- 
mation furnished by the Chicago & Northwestern road, the in- 
stallation of mechanical draft was taken up in connection with 
this plant. After carefully considering the design of me- 
chanical draft apparatus with regard to the arrangement of 
the plant and the necessary height- and size of stacks it was 
decided that three stacks would be required, one for each pair 
of boilers and that the height should be sufficient to avoid the 
possibility of sending smoke into the shops, drafting rooms 
and laboratories, and that the diameters of the stacks should 
be sufficient for natural draft even when the boilers are forced. 
This was considered necessary because of the reluctance of 
the officers of the road to run the risk of a shut-down of one 
or more boilers by a possible failure of the mechanical draft 
devices. The depreciation of the smoke fans and steel stacks 
was placed at about 10 per cent, and all things considered, it 
was believed that the cost of mechanical draft, if installed 
under these conditions, would be too close to that of a perm- 
anent chimney, which may be expected to last until outgrown 
without any extensive repairs, to offer any advantages, and at 
the same time the constant running expense of the fans count- 
ed against the mechanical draft. It was estimated that the 
cost of running the fans would be $340 per year, which capi- 
talized at 6 per cent., would represent $5,600. 
Engine Room. 

The engine room has two 250 h. p. compound non-condens- 



ing engines, driving a pair of 75-kw. generators to which 
they are direct connected, and a 65 h. p. simple engine direct 
connected to a pair of 20-kw. generators. The engines were 
furnished by the Hall Engine Co. They are vertical and ar- 
ranged with one generator on each side of each engine. This 
room also contains the RIedler air compressor, feed pumps, lire 
and service pumi)s, and a Cookson feed-water heater, which Is 
112 in. high and Gl in. in diameter, the rating being 1,500 h. p. 
The pumps are at the right hand end of the room, as seen In 
Fig. 3. The large engines have 12 and 22 by 14 in. cylinders 
and run at a speed of 275 revolutions per minute. The small 
engine has a 9% by 10 in. cylinder and runs at 360 revolutions. 
The larger engines are guarantotnl to work within 21 lbs. of 
steam per indicated horse power hour at 150 lbs. boiler pres- 
sure, and the small engine to fall below 22'/4 lbs., the variation' 
in speed to be not more than 2 per cent. 

The machinery room is excavated to a depth of nearly 10 
ft. and has a concrete floor. The machinery is mounted on 
foundations located as in Fig. 3, with the air compressor at 
the left. The plans of this room are exceedingly complete and 
careful provision has been made for extensions. Space enough 
remains for the addition of machinery to more than double 
the present capacity, the open floor space in Fig. 3 being pro- 
vided for this purpose. The plans cover the steam and ex- 
haust piping for the complete installation so that all possible 
contingencies have been considered. The exhaust main passes 
through the center of the building under the floor. It begins 
with 14 in. pipe and enlarges to 20 in. at the feed water 
heater. A by-pass is provided at the heater and the steam 
may be exhausted to the open air or through the steam heat- 
ing system for the shops. Three 12-in. steam pipes enter the 
engine room from the boiler room header. These lead to the 
engines, air compressor and pumps, and they have blank tees 
for extension to the additional machinery whenever it may be 
required. The plant may be extended without interfering in 
the least with the operation of the shops. The piping has 
swing joints, expansion and contraction being taken up by the 
threads. Each engine has a separator. 

The hydraulic pump In the power house supplies water at a 
pressure of 1,500 lbs. per square inch, which will be used 
chiefly for the boiler shop riveters, punches and shears. The 
accumulator for this pump is located in the boiler shop near 
the riveter and ingenious mechanism has been devised to start 
and stop the pump in accordance with the demands made upon 
the accumulator. This is accomplished by means of a separate 
pipe conveying pressure from the accumulator to the pump, 
operating a governing valve at the pump. The distance from 
the accumulator to the pump Is about 500 ft. Soapy water is 
used in the hydraulic system. The water discharges into an 
elevated tank, which insures its flow back to the pump for the 
prevention of pounding and the production of a vacuum in the 
piping. These pipes are carried overhead, and where they pass 
between the buildings they will be put Into the same casing as 
the steam pipes. 

The water system is served by two underwriters' fire pumps 
of 1,000 gallons per minute, furnished by Fairbanks, Morse & 
Co. One of these has a Fisher governor and is intended to 
maintain a constant pressure of 100 lbs. per square inch. The 
other pump will be reserved exclusively for fire purposes and 
will be kept slowly moving at all times. It will be ready to 
respond instantly upon the opening of the valve. In addition 
to these there is another pump for washing out locomotive 
boilers. It is controlled by a Fisher governor and keeps a 
constant pressure in the washout mains in the round house 
which will be available day and night. 

The air compressor, which is of the Riedler type, was built 
by Messrs. Fraser & Chalmers of Chicago. It has air cylin- 
ders 16 and 27 by 36 in. and steam cylinders 16 and 28 by 36 in. 
Its capacity is 1,500 cubic feet of free air per minute com- 
pressed to 90 lbs. per square inch, and the speed is 65 revolu- 
tions per minute, the steam pressure being 150 lbs. 

The air cylinders are equipped with Fraser & Chalmers' 



142 AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



V. 



J.. 



.• ,,/'/, 



Izrs: 




■ :■/■ , y,y^^/.-/,/^,,m..mumy////y„.- ,y,y^, /, - y^/--m/^A 



Fig. 4.— Riedler Air Compressor, Built by Praser & Chalmers, Chicago. 







Steam Cards. Air Cards. 

Fie 5.— Indicator Cards from Riedler Air Compressor. 



May, 1900. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 143 



improved form of Riedler positively controlled air valves, the 
valves being made of forged steel and so arranged as to be 
easily adjusted when the compressor is in operation. Uetween 
the high and low pressure air cylinders is placed an inter- 
cooler having 375 sq. ft. of tube cooling surface. The engines 
are of Fraser & Chalmers' standard Corliss type with steam 
jacketed cylinders. The speed of the compressor is regulated 
by a combined steam and air governor, this being so designed 
that the speed of the compressor is varied to meet the demands 
for air, the steam governor coming into action only in case 
the engine speed should increase beyond the maximum de- 
sired. To allow the compressor to run at slow speed when 
but little air is being used, an extra heavy flywheel is pro- 
vided on the crank shaft. The steam consumption of this com- 
pressor, when running at its normal speed, compound, non- 
condensing, with the steam pressure at the throttle of 150 
lbs. per sq. in., and delivering air under a pressure of 100 lbs. 
per sq. in., will not exceed 58 lbs. of dry steam per 1,000 cu. ft. 
of free air compressed. Actual air cards taken from a similar 
type of Riedler air compressors are reproduced in Fig. 5. These 
cards may be compared with those generally obtained from 
ordinary makes of air compressors, to show the effect of the 
Riedler positive valve mechanism. The lost work with the 
latter mechnism, as shown by the cards, is reduced to the very 
minimum. 

The cooling water for the compressor is returned to the feed- 
water heater for use in feeding the boilers. 

The generators, of which there are six, were all furnished by 
the General Electric Co., and they are all standard machines. 
The four larger ones are 6-pole, 75-kw. machines, furnishing 
600 amperes at 125 volts. The others, driven by the small 
engines are 25 kw., furnishing 160 amperes at 125 volts. The 
generators are connected with a marble switchboard of 8 pan- 
els. The light switches are on triple bus bars and the power 
switches on double bars with 220 volts difference in potential. 
The lights and motors are on separate circuits, but the switch- 
board is arranged so that one pair of generators may operate 
motors or lights or any number of the generators may be 
operated in parallel through bars and equalizer ties on the 
switchboard. 

The whole area of the engine room may be reached by a 
hand-power overhead traveling crane of 7 tons capacity, with 
a span of 49 ft. 3 in., and a travel of 22 ft. 9 in. of the hook. 
Power Distribution. 
The power required to drive the shops was estimated from 
indicator diagrams taken from the former steam engines, with 
proper allowances for the increase in the machinery. 

The machine shop, which was formerly driven by a steam 
engine of about 100 h. p., has four 35 h. p. motors located at 
different points. Each motor drives an independent section of 
the main shafting and operates the tools in its vicinity. The 
shafting in this shop has been in use for a number of years 
and the tools were grouped in accordance with convenience 
and economical operation of the shop. It was not considered 
advisable to disturb the arrangement. 

The machine shop annex (see plan. Fig. 8, page 111), has 
four 20 h. p. motors which were formerly used as generators. 
These run at 110 volts and each drives a section of shafting 
150 ft. long. Two of the motors are placed on the first and two 
on the second floor. There are 8 motors for running the ma- 
chine shop, including the annex, and a 10-h. p. motor operates 
a walking crane in the main machine shop, which runs the 
entire length of the building. The motors are placed on foun- 
dations in the floor and connect directly to the shafting by 
belts. The machine shop, as originally constructed, did not 
provide for overhead crane service over the locomotives, ex- 
cept for the lighter parts, and in the original construction of 
the shops the machinery was belted in such a way as to be out 
of the way of the light hand cranes over the engines. Eventu- 
ally this shop will probably be rebuilt and cranes of large capa- 
city win then be installed, but this is not contemplated in the 
present plans. 



The boiler shop has a 20 h. p. motor for the smaller machin- 
ery and a set of 14 ft. bending rolls is driven by a 25 h. p. in- 
dividual reversing motor which operates the rolls and the feed. 
There are two electric cranes in this shop. The larger one of 
50 tons has three motors of JO, IV2 and 5 h. p., while the small 
one of 5 tons capacity has three of 9V4. 5>/4 and l'/4 h. p. The 
transfer table, which serves the machine and boiler shop, has 
been operated by a 10 h. p. motor. When this table is length- 
ened and remodeled it will be operated by a 20 h. p. motor. 

The tank shop has one 25 h. p. motor for running the ma- 
chinery, including a wheel lathe, drill press and wheel boring 
machine. The completed tender work is provided for in this 
shop. In addition to these there are two 5 h. p. individual 
motors for a punch and shear. This shop has a 30-ton crane. 

Additional power is provided at the two round houses where 
the turn tables are operated by 10 h. p. motors acting with 
direct adhesion; at the paint mill, where grinding machinery 
is operated by a 95 h. p. motor and at the blacksmith shop 
where a 35 h. p. motor drives fans, bulldozers and bolt ma- 
chinery. 

All of the motors, except those in the machine shop ann«x, 
which were formerly used as generators, operate under 220 
volt direct currents and the lighting circuits carry 110 volts, 
including those for the 100-hour enclosed arc lamps. The cur- 
rent is taken to the motors through heavy weatheri«toof cables 
carried overhead. The lights are all on three wire circuits. 
The power circuits are arranged as follows: One three-wire 
circuit for the 110- volt motors in the machine shop annex; one 
two-wire circuit for the blacksmith, carpenter and tank shops; 
one two-wire circuit for the machine shop, one for the coal con- 
veyor in the boiler house; one for the paint shop motor; one 
for the cranes in the boiler and tank shops; one for the two 
car shop transfer tables; one for the round house turntables 
and one for the locomotive transfer table. 

This work involved a large number of difficulties. It is not 
offered as a model establishment, but as an excellent example 
of the application of electrical distribution in extending an old 
plant. One fact which stands out boldly in an examination of 
this problem is the necessity for providing for Improvements 
and extensions in the original construction of shops. Another 
is the great importance of crane service and providing for 
convenient handling of work and material. 

Mr. Robert Quayle, Superintendent of Motive Power of the 
road, has been exceptionally fortunate in having the assistance, 
first of Mr. W. H. Marshall, now Superintendent of Motive 
Power of the Lake Shore, and afterward that of Mr. G. R. 
Henderson, in the planning and execution of this work, and that 
of Mr. F. M. Whyte, now Mechanical Engineer of the New 
York Central, and his successor, Mr. E. B. Thompson. 



Mr. Sidney H. Wheelhouse, formerly Sales Agent for the 
Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co., has been appointed Second Vice- 
President of the Standard Railway Equipment Co., in charge 
of the pneumatic tools sales department, for the west, with 
offices at 412-414 Lincoln Trust Building, St. Lauis, effective 
May 1st, 1900. 

A remarkable trip of an ice breaking steamer on Lake Baikal, 
Siberia, is recorded by "Engineering News" as having been 
made February 10. The distance of 80 miles through ice 31 
inches thick was made in 12 hours. 



The Lehigh Valley Railroad has ordered three locomotives 
from the Baldwin Locomotive Works for its "Black Diamond 
Express." These will be somewhat larger than the engines 
which are now handling this train. They will have 20 by 26- 
inch cylinders, 80-inch drivers, 200 pounds boiler pressure, 108 
by 90-inch fireboxes, 326 2-inch tubes, 15 feet 6 inches long. 
4,500 gallons tank capacity, and they will weigh 157,000 pounds 
each, of which 90,000 pounds will be on the drivers. The wheel 
base' is increased by the large drivers, but otherwise the loco- 
motiveg will be the same as tbe present engines. 



144 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



(Bstablisbed 1832) 

p. AMERICAN — 

ENcmEEH 

RAILROAD ^JOURNAL 



the price being a possibility places this work upon a manufac- 
turing basis than which there is no more important element 
tending in the direction of businesslike management of shop 
matters. 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY 

BT 

R. M. VAN ARSDALE, 

J. S. BONSALL, Business Manager. 

MORSE BUILDING NEW YORK 

G. M. BASFORD, Kdltor. 
E. E. SILK, Associate Editor 

MAY, 1900. 

SnbBcrlptlon.— {2.00 a year tor the United States and Canada; J2.60 n 
If'ear to Foreign Countries embraced in the Universal Postal Union. 

Remit by Ex-press Money Order, Draft or Post-Office Order. 

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the Post Office Neics Co., 217 Dearborn Street, Chicapo, Til. 
Damrell c& U ham, 2SS Washington St., Boston, Mass. 

EDITORIAL ANNOUNCEMENTS. 



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pay, EXCEPT IN THE ADVERTISING PAGES. The reading pages will 
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Conlrlbntions. — Articles relating to railway rolling stock con- 
struction and management and kindred topics, Ijy those who 
are practically acquainted with these subjects, are specially 
desired. Also early notices of official changes, and additions of 
new equipment for the road or the shop, by purchase or construc- 
tion. 

To Subscribers.— iT/if American Engineer and Railroad 
Jocbnal is mailed regularly to ei^ery subscriber each 
month. Any subscriber who fails to receive his paper ought 
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St. Uunstan's Bouse. Fetter Lane. £. C. 



Sir William Preece recently defined mathematics as the 
shorthand of thought and the purest form of logic; experiment 
as the handmaid of observation; and measurement as the 
instigator of accuracy and precision. He is thus quoted in 
"Engineering" and in these few words has framed a pure ideal 
of technical education. 



The usual attachment of tender tanks to the frames by 
means of bolts at each of the four corners was never secure or 
satisfactory, and it is much less so with the great increase in 
capacity whereby from 6,000 to 7,000 gallons of water and 10 
to 12 tons of coal are carried. Something is needed to prevent 
the tank from sliding forward and crushing into the cab as a 
result of collisions. With the newer forms of tanks there is 
no difficulty in placing a substantial member of the frame in 
such a position as to hold the tank securely against such move- 
ments. 



Methods of handling scrap material from car and locomo- 
tive shops have been greatly improved during the past few 
years, and a great deal has been done to increase the value of 
reclaimed material. On many large roads there is room for 
further improvement, one suggestion being in the direction of 
managing the scrap on a wholesale or manufacturing basis. In 
large plants, including both car and locomotive shops,' the 
scrap is generally cut up and handled in several places. There 
seems to be a decided advantage in taking all the scrap ma- 
terial to one place which is provided with tools necessary for 
cutting it up and with facilities for storing the good material 
in usable form, the object being to concentrate this material 
to such an extent as to permit of issuing it in carload or half- 
car load lots, and placing prices upon it. The mere fact of 



Experiments recently made with a locomotive with a wide 
firebox have shown very nicely that the grate area which is 
suitable for one quality of coal may be entirely wrong for a 
different quality. An engine with a grate area of 70 square 
feet when used in fast passenger service was taxed so nearly 
up to the limit of its boiler capacity that the entire grate area 
was needed even with the best of coal, which was anthracite. 
When running in less exacting service the grate was blocked off 
at the front end so as to shorten it one and one-half feet, with 
excellent results with the same coal as before. When an in- 
ferior grade of coal was tried on the slower and lighter trains 
the whole grate was needed again. This shows, conclusively, 
the advantage of building grates which are larger than are 
required for the best coal and comfortable conditions in order 
to provide for more exacting trains and less effective fuel. 
Adjustability of grate area seems to be desirable for the same 
reason that recommends adjustable cut-off, to meet varying re- 
quirements of work to be done. 



That tne comparison of operating statistics of different roads 
working under widely different conditions is very misleading 
and unfair is generally understood by motive power officers. 
It is not so well understood by other officials, however, for 
presidents and general managers not infrequently cause their 
motive power superintendents a great deal of trouble in trying 
to show why they do not make as good records as their neigh- 
bors and others. Comparisons would be of the greatest value 
if they could be made with intelligence and fairness, but 
methods now in use are not satisfactory. The train-mile is 
not fair because it gives no idea of the work done. The ton- 
mile basis is better, but unless the grades and speeds are 
known even this cannot be used to compare different roads. 
Not only the speeds and grades, but also the character of the 
locomotives, the location of water stations, character of the 
water and general climatic conditions affect the results. Fur- 
thermore, the methods of different roads in computing train 
mileage are by no means the same. It may or may not include 
the mileage of double headers, light engines, switching, push- 
ing and work train engines. It may or may not include the 
weight of the engine in the tonnage. In spite of these diffi- 
culties the fact remains that comparisons will be made. It is 
therefore important that all roads should agree upon uniform 
methods of reporting statistics. The Western Railway Club 
did wisely to send a copy of the proceedings of its recent 
meeting, in which this question was the subject of discussion, 
to the Association of Railway Accounting Officers and the 
American Railway Association committee on statistical infor- 
mation. This is a much more serious question than it at first 
appears. We know of a case where the head of an impor- 
tant department and several of his assistants were changed 
chiefly iDecause locomotive repairs were not reduced from four 
to three cents per mile, as required by the new management. 
This arbitrary figure was fixed because it had been attained 
on the road from which the new management had come. It 
was developed afterward that the higher cost of repairs on this 
road was accompanied by correspondingly greater ton mile- 
age. Whatever else is accomplished, the train or engine mile 
basis for statistics in comparing the work of different roads 
will be discarded when its misleading character is understood. 



May, 1900. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 146 



GOOD FIRING IS THE BEST SMOKE PREVENTER. 



Satisfactory methods of burniiiK soft coal without smoke 
liavo been sought for for over a huuilred years. We say satis- 
factory because it has been repeatedly demonstrated that 
sniol<eless consumiition can be accomplished, but when special 
devices are employed there is likely to be some mechanical 
defect which is troublesome, if not fatal. 

A valuable contribution to the literature of the subject is 
the recent report of a committee of the Western Railway Club, 
Mr. G. R. Henderson, Chairman, which was appointed to con- 
sider what is being done toward improvement in this respect 
on locomotives in Chicago, and to indicate, from a careful study 
of- various methods, the probable best direction for future de- 
velopment. The various mechanical devices investigated by 
the committee were sometimes heartily endorsed, sometimes 
equally strongly condemned by those who have used them. 
It is clear that these are not considered promising in the ulti- 
mate solution of the problem. Wider fireboxes are looked 
upon with hopefulness, but "only certain types of engines per- 
mit of this arrangement, and its use is limited." 

The composition of coal has much to do with this question. 
Those high in fixed carbon and low in volatiles, like the Poca- 
hontas of Southwestern Virginia, produce very little smoke. 
This coal contains from 75 to 80 per cent, of volatile matter, 
but Illinois coals, with about half as much fixed carbon and 
twice as much volatile matter, represent the real problem. It 
is not made easier by the fact that many roads are obliged 
to use a large number of coals which require different treat- 
ment in accordance with their composition. One road run- 
ning into Chicago draws its supply from more than 100 mines, 
and at times it is necessary to get along with very inferior 
fuel. This indicates the necessity for flexibility in any system 
in order to adapt it to various conditions. 

This committee gives special prominence to the skill of the 
fireman and to co-operation between the engineer and fire- 
man. The best results in smokeless firing are obtained on a 
road which uses no devices whateVfer except the brick arch. 
While air compression above the fire is held by some to be 
effective, it is generally considered as a smoke diluter rather 
than a consumer. There is strong support for the practice 
of drawing the air needed for combustion through the fire 
instead of introducing some of the air over it and making use 
of the brick arch for mixing the gases and forming a combus- 
tion chamber. 

There is, apparently, nothing so effective in smoke prevention 
as skillful firing, and the general opinion seems to be that a 
good fireman can accomplish more without special devices of 
any kind than an indifferent fireman with them. It is neces- 
sary for the engineer and fireman to understand each other. 
The fireman should be informed in advance of every change 
which the engineer is to make, so that the fire may be kept 
in readiness for the changes. There is a good field for expert 
or "traveling firemen" in the education of the men. The prac- 
tice of firing five or six scoopfuls at a time and resting be- 
tween, should give place to light and frequent firing, the door 
being left open a little on the latch to admit air enough to 
l)urn the fresh distillates, and then closed, unless a damper 
is provided in the door. If a stop is to be made when green 
coal is on the fire, the blower should be applied before the 
steam is shut off, and as soon as the throttle is closed the door 
should be opened slightly on the latch and the blast of the 
l)lower reduced sufficiently to prevent black smoke and to 
keep the pops from blowing. 

This report states in effect that there is no panacea for 
smoke: that the necessary treatment varies with the quality 
and composition of the coal; that the matter is largely in the 
hands of the fireman and engineer, and that the firing should 
be done in such a way as to avoid chilling the surface of the 
fire by excessive increments of fuel, the method of adding 
fuel being to scatter it in thin layers and admit sufficient air 
to consume the hydrocarbons which are distilled off in large 
volume as soon as the fresh coal drops upon the hot fire. 



The superimposed turrets of the new battleship "Koarsarge" 
have been put through firing tests which are reported to have 
been satisfactorily met. The advantages of the ronstruction 
are a heavy concentration of fire, good protection for the am- 
munition hoists for the 8-inch guns of the upper turrets, and a 
great saving in weight. There Is al.so no interference In the 
gun fire. The trial tests showed that the mechanism worked 
well, but nothing but a trial in actual battle can show the 
effect of gun fire upon the turrets. A single successful shot 
may disable two 12-inch and two 8-lnch guns. 



The annual report of the Commissioner of Patents shows 
a surplus of $113,073 for the operations of the year 1899. The 
total balance to the credit of the Patent Office at the beginning 
of this year was $5,086,649. It is well known that the present 
quarters are too small and that a fireproof building for the 
records is greatly needed. The fact that the office is self-sup- 
porting is a good reason for supplying these deficiencies, en- 
tirely aside from the great value of the records. The total 
number of applications for 1899 was 41,443 and present indi- 
cations point to a breaking of the record for the current year. 
'lue commissioners appointed by Congress to revise the laws 
relative to patents have submitted a preliminary report and 
will soon present a complete report. At that time Congress 
should be urged to act for the improvement of the Patent 
Office and the revision of the statutes relating to trade marks. 



The idea of lectures delivered by the best non-resident engi- 
neers and men of authority that the country affords, to engi- 
neering students, is one of which many of our technical schools 
and colleges are availing themselves. The following schedule 
for the year 1899-1900 has been sent us by the University of 
Illinois, six lectures of which have already been delivered: Mr. 
Walter B. Snow of the B. F. Sturtevant Company, Boston, 
Mass., on "Mechanical Ventilation and Heating." Mr. H. G. 
Prout, editor of the "Railroad Gazette," on "Engineers and the 
Railroads." Mr. A. V. Abbott, Chief Engineer of the Chicago 
Telephone Company, on "Electrical Highways." Mr. F. W. 
Willcox of the General Electric Company, Harrison, N. J., on 
"The Evolution and Economic Use of Incandescent Lamps." 
Mr. F. H. Newell, Hydrographer, United States Geological Sur- 
vey, Washington, D. C, on "Hydrographic Work of the Unite<l 
States Geological Survey," and on "Reservoir Surveys Along 
the Gila River, Arizona." Mr. W. A. Layman of the Wagner 
Electric Manufacturing Company, St. Louis, Mo., on "Trans- 
formers in Modern Electric Power Transmission." Prof. R. 
B. Owens, McGill University, Montreal, Canada, on "Most Re- 
cent Developments in the Applications of Electricity." 



The Massachusetts Institute of Technology has at present 
two holders of traveling fellowships studying architecture in 
Europe. Mr. H. W. Gardner, an instructor in the department 
of architecture, is to pass a year mainly in Italy and Greece. 
In Italy he is giving much study to its landscape architecture, 
in preparation for the part he is to take on his return in the 
courses of Landscape Architecture already so well started at 
the Institute. Mr. G. P. Stevens, holder of the other fellow- 
ship, after traveling and working with Mr. Gardner, is now 
in Pascal's atelier in Paris, preparing to enter the Ecole des 
Beaux Arts at the next examination. Mr. Stevens' skill in 
draftsmanship at once brought him into notice, and he 
writes of his good fortune in being chosen by the strongest 
man in the atelier, and one of the strongest men in Paris, to 
help him in a Beaux Arts competition for which only five 
men w-ere invited. The competition is to use the grounds now 
occupied by the Exposition buildings after the fair is over, for 
a huge system of public baths. 



The United States will stand at the head of the coal produc- 
ing countries of the world at the end of the current year if 
the estimated output of this year is realized. In the past 30 
years Great Britain has not doubled her output, while that 
of the United States has increased almost seven fold in this 
time. 



146 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



PERFORMANCE OF THE CLEVELAND LOCOMOTIVE. 



Intercolonial Railway. 



A system of dual exhaust applied by Mr. L. J. Todd in Eng- 
land was illustrated and described in our issue of September, 
1897, page 311, because of its interest as a suggestion for over- 
coming some of the cylinder condensation in locomotives due to 
the use of the same passage for the entrance and exit of steam 
used in the cylinders. An experiment in the same direction 




I 



^r77j- 



-1 



Rings psr ted 
• n center sn {JoTWiv 

Piston Valve-Cleveland Cylinder, 
has been tried on the Intercolo- 
nial Railway of Canada with the 
Cleveland arrangement of cylin- 
ders which have been in use on 
that road for the past nine 
months and a record of which we 
now present, showing' the per- 
formance of the engine when 
compared with other engines on 
the same road running in simi- 
lar service. The record is not 
stated in ton miles, but we are 
assured that the service is com- 
parable. 

The Cleveland engine. No. 288, 
has cylinders 21 in. diam. x 28 in. 
stroke and 56 in. driving wheels, 
and is one of a lot of twenty con- 
solidation engines built by the 
Baldwin Locomotive Works for 
the I. C. R.; the other nineteen 
engines being fitted with Vau- 
clain compound cylinders, 15V^ 
and 26 by 28 in. and the same 
size driving wheels. The propor- 
tions of cylinder power of the 
Cleveland and Vauclain engines 
were computed by the builders to 
be equal. The steam pressure in 
50th types and the weight on he drivers is the same in all cases, 
viz., 147,000 lbs., but the Cleveland engine has 21,900 lbs. on the 
truck which is 4,600 lbs. more than the compounds. 

Comparative statement of the performance and consumption 
of coal, of the compound consolidation. Cleveland consolida- 
tior and 10-wheel freight locomotives, for the months of Oc- 
tober and November, 1899: 



October, 1899. ig Coi.jpounds. 

Tram miles 51 243 

Engine miles 59'oio 

Car miles 1,432!470 

Tons coal consumed 2,665 

Average cars per train 27.95 

Av'ge lbs. coal eng.-mlle... 101.16 

Av'ge lbs. coal car-mile 3 62 

November, 1899. 

Train miles 56,128 

Engine miles 64167 

Car miles 1,490,'370 

Tons coal consumed 3.119 

Average cars per train 26.55 

Av'ge lbs. coal eng.-mile... IOS.88 

Av'ge lbs. coal car-mile 4.10 

A tabulated statement sent us by Mr. Cleveland, given 
above, shows the totals and averages of the performance of 19 



Vauclain, 12 10-wheel freight engines with 18 x 24 cylinders 
and .57 in. drivers, and engine No. 228, consolidation fitted with 
the Cleveland cylinder, for the months of October and Novem- 
be-, 1399, during which time the several engines were hauling 
practically the same class of freight, under conditions not spe- 
cially favorable to the Cleveland. It will be noted that the coal 
consumption for the Vauclain and Cleveland engines is prac- 
tically the same, both being considerably below the ordinary 
simple engine and all of the engines were in good condition. A 
statement given in the accompanying table shows the results 
of a test made for speed with a full load, going up grades vary- 
ing from 0.89 per cent, to 1 per cent. From the sectional views 
of the cylinder piston and valve there will be no difliculty in 
understanding the main points of deviation from the ordinary 
simrlc locomotive cylinder. It will be noticed that there are 
two annular ports running round the barrel of cylinder, 6^4 in. 
apart, dividing at the central vertical line. 

The piston passes these ports alternately, releasing the steam 
after it has done its work, and exhausting between the two 
discs of the piston through an exhaust independent of the sup- 
plementary or ordinary valve exhaust. The admission, or or- 
dinary valve, is of the piston type, taking the live steam from 



-,---.- --^ci 



can:; "zrj 



?v^i^ 



^zm. 



\t^ 



X---V/-- 



^^^^^^^^^^^ 



r^zz- 



z^. 







t4 



The Cleveland Cylinder and Piston Valve Chamber. 





12, 10-Wheel 


Cleveland. 


Freight 


Locomotive. 


Locomotives. 


2,202 


22,406 


2,662 


29.405 


64,833 


424,269 


121 


1.138 


29.44 


18.94 


101.82 


86.69 


3.46 


4.58 


2.069 


• 26.742 


2,257 


33.249 


55,131 


488.592 


111 


1.440 


2-5.65 


18.28 


110.16 


97.01 


4.13 


5.31 



the intermediate space between the two valve discs. The valve 
serves for an entirely independent adjustment of admission of 
steam irrespective of the main exhaust, and regulates the com- 
pression of what steam may be left on the return stroke. 

The release of steam through each piston exhaust and valve 
exhaust is separate and independent until it gets to the upper 
part of the exhaust pipe; the piston exhausts combine, in the 
central chamber, and are supposed to act as a draw or 
induction on the valve exhaust, the valve exhaust issuing 
fi'om the annular space. The space between the two discs 
forming the cylinder piston is filled with steam at a tem- 
perature nearly equal to that of the initial exhaust, and this is 
believed to keep the walls of the cylinder in a more favorable 
condition than is the case in the ordinary cylinder. 

The Cleveland cylinders apparently enable the engine to 
work very smoothly and they avoid the excessive cush- 
ioning found in high-speed locomotives. That this is so has 
been proven in engine No. 228, which has been running an ex- 
press train, the "Maritime Express," on scheduled time for 
the last two months, making 156 miles on a double trip daily, 
and has at times made up in time as much as 25 minutes on 



May, 1!)00. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 147 




Piston of the Cleveland Cylinder, 

the single run of 78 miles, and tlii« witli everything working 
perfectly cool. This performance for a consolidation engine 
with 56-inch drivers is exacting, and spealts well for the free 
running ctualities of the engine. The schedule for the 78 miles 
is 2 hours 18 minutes. 

It is claimed for this system of single-expansion engine that 
there is a direct saving in quantity of steam used at a given 
pressure to do a given amount of work. This, of course, means 
less coal consumption and other advantages, owing principally 
to the rapid exhaust keeping the temperature above that of 
ordinary single-expansion engines, thus allowing a greater 
range of expansion, and at the same time this rapid exhaust 
very materially reduces the back pressure. This, of course, is 
a direct gain. The clearance is much less than in the or- 
dinary cylinder, and talcing into consideration that the greater 
the expansion the greater the loss by clearance, one can easily 
understand how this cylinder can compete with the compound 
system. Also as the great bulk of the exhaust steam passes 



Test for Running Time, Made November 2, 1899.— Weight o( Train, Cars 
only 1,234 Tons; Number of Cars, 38. Baldwin Compound, 



15^ in. 
26 in. 



X 28 in. Cleveland Simple, 21 in. X 28. 



Name of Place. 



Started from Monc 
ton 

1st mile post 

2d •• " 

3d •' '• 

4th " " 

5th '• " 

6th •• " 

7th •' " 

Stopped Berry's 
Mill 

Started from 
Ilcrry's Mill 

1st mile post 

2d •' " 

^ mile to top hill. . . 



Engflne No. 215. 






11:52! 

12:08! 

12:12W 

12:15jJ 

15 :18M 

12:23 

12:27H 

12:30 

12:31^ 

12:3i 
12:38 
12M 
12:50 



Total running time. 



as 



13 
i 
3 

m 

2H 



J 






34^ 



16 
50^ 






Engine No. 228. 



1.1'. 

00 ,cs 

0) o 



■^ . 


.5 o 


= ^- 




II 

Si 


1.2 


13:33K> 






13:39 


0^ 




13:42^ 


31* 




13:45 


2U 




13:48 


3 




13:52M 


im 
ii4^ 




13:57 




13:59M 


i'iH 


•25% 


14:00!^ 






14:30 






14:33 


3 




14:38^^ 


•5W 




14:41J4 


m^* 


IIH 


Total 1 


■un-\ 





s 

^ 



ning time / 



a a 
o c . 

CO so 



37 minutes. 



Note.— Waste of water due to using injectors not taken into account. 

through independent passages, the live steam entering through 
short passages has a good chance to do its initial work without 
being cooled on its way. 

The cylinder is designed to have a perfect drainage, and on 
referring to the section of the cylinder it will be found that 
there are no pockets for the accumulation of water. This is 
a point of importance lost sight of in most cylinder designs. 

In this record it must be considered that the Cleveland en- 
gine is compared with the average of 19 compounds. There 
seems to be good reason for believing this engine is superior 
to an ordinary simple engine and it deserves further trial. 



PNEUMATIC TOOLS BEFORE THE INSTITUTION OF ME- 
CHANICAL, ENGINEERS, ENGLAND. 



The meeting of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers just 
past was devfted to the discussion of Pneumatic Tools and 
Power Hammers. The speeches were made by the following 
gentlemen: 

Mr. Simpson, of Pimlico; Mr. Ivatt, Locomotive Superinten- 
dent of the Great Northern Ry at Doncaster; Mr. John Field- 
ing, of Gloucester; Mr. B. Martell, of Lloyd's Registry of Ship- 
ping; Mr. Marriner, Mr. Alfred Hanson, of Messrs, Shone & 
Ault, and Mr. J. W. Duntley, President of the New Taite- 
Hovvard Pneumatic Tool Company of London, and also Presi- 
dent of the Chicago Pneumatic Tool Company of Chicago. 

Mr. Duntley, in his remarks, said that he had been making 
pneumatic tools for five years past. Perhaps It would give the 
best idea of popularity in the United States if he stated their' 
output. During the first year they were In business they made 
100 machines, all told. Last year they averaged 800 per month. 
At the present time they were building new works, and ex- 
Iiected to double their production. By aid of these tools, 
Messrs. Cramp, of Philadelphia, had been able to overcome the 
results of a strike of 7,000 men, and In one ship they had just 
built all the rivets were closed by pneumatic machinery; as 
a consequence, Messrs. Cramp had given a duplicate order for 
the pneumatic machines. A proof of the superiority of pneu- 
matic riveting was given in the fact that the rivets themselves 
were % inch longer than for hand riveting, and this additional 
metal had to be closed Into the holes, thus showing that the 
latter were better filled by the use of the pneumatic riveter 
than by the hand hammer. Another proof was given in the 
cutting up of work. With ordinary hand riveting. If the heads 
of the rivets were cut off, the shank would fall out from the 
holes in the plates, but when the rivets had been closed by 
the pneumatic machine they had to be driven out. 

The speaker himself was not a skilled operator, but In a con- 
test in Germany he had beaten the hydraulic riveter; ninety- 
seven per cent, of the railroads In the United States were using 
these tools, and the speaker gave a large number of instances 
in which air machines were used for superseding h^ind work. 
In the United States Government shipyards they lised the 
pneumatic hammer for scaling ships, and it was fou-.sd to be 
a great improvement on the old method. Another use for 
pneumatic machinery was in breaking up iron or steel vessels. 
They had what was called a "biter" or "nibbler," which chewed 
off the heads of the rivets in place of cutting them by chisel 
and hammer. New uses were constantly being found for com- 
pressed air; in chipping stone work there had been found to 
be a saving of $9.00 a day, a rimer did the work of 22 men, 
and lately he had seen a freight car painted by compressed air 
in seven minutes. In this country we were in a position to 
appreciate what had already been done in America in the 
introduction of compressed air machinery. It was not always 
easy to get a new thing introduced, and it might be interesting 
to state that he had worked two years with Cramp's before 
he could persuade them to give him an order. 

Mr. Churchward, of Swindon, said he would like to ask Mr. 
Duntley a question as to the stay-bolt biter. They had had 
one at Swindon for some time, but could not get it to work; 
the claw would not take hold for some reason. Mr. Duntley, 
in his reply, said that the action of this machine depended 
on the shape of the claws, and this, again, depended on the 
nature of the work to be done. The claw must be so arranged 
as to bite in. Mr. Duntley further stated that he was about 
to proceed to Russia to arrange for a large Installation of 
pneumatic machinery in that country, and on his return he 
would be pleased to go down to Swindon and put the machine 
right. Mr. Churchward further remarked that he did not wish 
it to be understood that he made any complaint, as the pneu- 
matic machines did their work well, and whatever repairs 
might be needed were well paid for in the total result. 



It is officially announced that on Saturday, April 28, 1900, 
the office of Purchasing Agent of the Lehigh Valley will be 
moved to the Taylor Building. 39 Cortlandt Street, New York, 
also the office of Chief Engineer will be moved to the Have- 
meyer Building, 26 Cortlandt Street, New York. 



Mr. Charles E. Rettew. Master Mechanic of the Pennsylvania 
division of the Delaware & Hudson, has resigned, after 15 
years' service. 



148 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



THE WESTINGHOUSE FRICTION DRAFT GEAR. 



.The Construction and Operation in Detail. 



The yery rapid development of cars of large capacity and the 
great increase in power of locomotives have left the ordinary 
forms of draft gear far behind and heavy trains are frequently 
hauled with the draft gears on a large number of the cars 
stretched out so that the springs are solid, the spring capacity 
being entirely exhausted. The train then resembles a chain 
with practically no elasticity except that of the structures of 
the cars themselves. 

The strains that the couplerg, draft rigging and car framing 
are subjected to when this condition prevails cannot be meas- 
ured, and are only limited by the elasticity and yielding 
character of the structure of the car and its draft attach- 
ments. While cars were light and all built of wood (a very 
yielding material) the strains imposed were tolerable, and by 
good design, care in the selection of materials and good con- 
struction, durable cars were obtained. The advent of the 
heavy steel car has radically changed the amount of elasticity 
obtainable and, consequently, enormously increased the strains 
upon draft rigging, without considering the further increase 



Description. 
A view of the complete draft gear is shown in Fig. 1 and the 
relations of the parts to the underframe of the car were shown 
on pages 88 and 89, last month. The frictional device is placed 
within the yoke and between the followers, in the usual man- 
ner. To accommodate the increased diameter the yoke is 
widened, and when attached to the standard M. C. B. coupler, 
filling pieces are used, as shown in Fig. 15. Several of the 
roads have adopted a coupler with the back end built up as 
shown in Fig. 1, which makes a much simpler arrange- 
ment.. The inner follower plate, A, receives the pull- 
ing stresses from the yoke end, the outer follower 
transmits them to the draw-bar stops and to the car 
framing. In the common form of draft gear the spring resist- 
ance is interposed between the follower plates; that is, the 
pulling and buffing stresses tend to reduce the distance be- 
tween the follower plates and these are resisted by the springs 
which tend to hold them apart. This friction draft gear, in 
which springs play an important part, acts precisely on the 
same principle but the resistance of the springs is supplemented 
by vastly greater (about six times as great) frictional re- 
sistances which tend, both in pulling and in buffing, to pre- 
vent the follower plates from approaching each other. The 




due to larger and heavier locomotives. It is difficult to get 
room for sufficient spring capacity to overcome this difficulty, 
nor is it desirable to do so, for any increase in spring capacity 
alone is unavoidably accompanied by a corresponding increase 
in recoil, the effect of which is more severe upon the draft 
rigging than the direct stresses with the lighter springs would 
be. If the result upon the draft rigging, when a train with 
ordinary draft springs is forcibly bunched, as in passing 
through a sag, is considered, it will be seen that the amount 
of force put into such springs, in the compression produced by 
the cars running together or "bunching," is practically all 
given out again in recoil as the train is stretched; furthermore, 
the amount of such recoil is added to the strain imposed upon 
the draft rigging by the locomotive. It is well known that 
under exactly such and similar conditions are trains most 
often parted when fitted with the ordinary draft-spring ca- 
pacity and locomotive power. How disastrous will be the re- 
sults of largely increasing the ordinary draft-spring capacity 
in addition to the employment of more powerful locomotives, 
can only be conjectured, but that it will necessarily be great 
cannot be doubted. The purpose of the Westinghouse draft 
gear is to furnish a moderate spring capacity and a gradu- 
ally applied and automatically released resistance, capable of 
absorbing all of the stresses and shocks likely to be imposed 
upon it, in either pulling or buffing, and to apply this resist- 
ance without a damaging recoil, the recoil being only that 
due to a free spring capacity much less than that now in gen- 
ei-al use, while the resistance to pulling and buffing stresses 
of this form of draft gear is over six times as great as that 
ordinarily used. To make the operation of the device clear 
requires an exhaustive description, but the device itself and 
the great importance of Improved draft gear justify it. 



way in which the frictional resistances are called into action, 
by the motions of pulling and buffing, and the manner of their 
release will command the admiration of those who follow this 
description. 

Bearing against the follower plate. A, is a spring, C, the 
other end of which bears against a wedge, D, made in the form 
of a frustrum of an octagonal pyramid with hard brass facets, 
as shown in Fig. 1. 

Surrounding the wedge are four pairs of malleable-iron seg- 
mental carriers, B, having inclined bearing surfaces, N, of 
the same angle as the wedge, as shown in Figs. 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. 
These segmental carriers, E, have a central longitudinal rib 
cast upon them to strengthen and guide them. These ribs fit 
the grooves, P, in Fig. 9, loosely. 

The other grooves of the frictional cylinder. Fig. 9, are filled 
by the hardened wedge bars, G, Fig. 7. The shape of these 
wedge bars is seen in Figs. 7 and 8. They rest upon the seg- 
mental carriers, E, as shown in the sectional views of Figs. 
11 and 14, with the small inwardly projecting portions, marked 
H, in the lower view of Fig. 7, resting in cavities in the car- 
riers, E. It is clear that if the carriers, E, are moved longi- 
tudinally to the right or left, the wedge bars, G, must move 
wuh them. The function of the preliminary spring, C, Fig. 1, 
is to force the wedge against the inclined surfaces, N, of the 
segmental carriers, and also to absorb the ordinary pressures 
on the draw bar due to the movement of the train. When the 
apparatus is placed in the yoke this spring is under a slight 
compression, which insures the parts being held tightly in po- 
sition, thus preventing foreign substances from lodging be- 
tween the bearing surfaces. The auxiliary preliminary spring, 
0, Fig. 1, gives additional pressure on the wedge. The main 
release spring, K, is used for returning the segmental car- 



May, 1900. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 149 



f^ 



tc 



:p[ 



,/\ 



^ t7 ';^ 



Fig. i, '"■ "■' 



(=1 



Fig. 3 



N 
Fig. 5 




Fig. 6 



r 



> ff 



Fig. 7 

riers and wedge bars to their normal position after the force 
to close them has been removed, and it also gives additional 
capacity to the device. The function of the auxiliary release 
spring, L, is to provide a sure release of the wedge from the 
segmental carriers, and it also increases the capacity of the 
device. The function of the release pin, M, is to relieve the 
pressure of the auxiliary release spring, L, against the wedge, 
when the device is being closed. 

Operation. 
When, either in draft or in buffing, the stress upon the draw 
bar moves the follower plates, A and Z, Fig. 1, toward each 



S \ 



1 \ 


1 


1 


Fig.Tr~ — 




/ 


____ \ 


i ■''' 


. . . 


Fig. 72 ~J 


/ 


_ . 




Fig. t3~~ 1 



Fig. 10 



Fig. 14 



i 



exerted upon the wedge by the prelim- 
inary springs (about 20,000 pounds) 
remains constant, as their action Is 
limited by the follower, A, bearing on 
the segmental carriers; the increased 
trictional resistance being due to the 
taper of the cylinder. 

Upon the removal of the pulling 
stress at the coupler, the springs, C 
and O, are restored gradually to their 
normal size. The preliminary release 
spring, L, then pushes the wedge back 
and away from the segmental carriers, 
which it can do on account of the 
carefully studied angle of the facets, 
and in this condition the main release 
spring, K, bears upon the projections, N, of the segmental 
carriers and tends to press them to the left, which, when ac- 
complished, will withdraw all of the wedge bars from their 
locked positions in the grooves at the small end of the cylinder. 
This constitutes a complete release of the friction device. 

The carriers, E, are arranged in pairs with interlocking outer 
ends, as shown in Figs. 2 and 3, in order to prevent them from 
being put together in wrong order. Each carrier carries two 
of the loose wedge bars and the slots in the carriers in which 
the lugs of the wedge bars rest are of different lengths. In 
a set of two bars the first lug fits the slot, the second has 1/16 
inch play, the third % inch play and the fourth 3/lG inch play, 
as indicated in Figs. 2 and 3. This is also clearly shown in 
the four sectional sketches. Figs. 11 to 14. If this is understood 
it will be clear that under the influence of the spring, K, the 




other, the preliminary spring, C, is compressed, and if the 
pressure so applied is less than would be required to force 
the follower plate. A, against the release pin, M, the segmen- 
tal carriers and wedge bars remain at rest, which insures 
against wear upon the frictional surfaces during the ordinary 
movement of the train. When the stress is sufiJcient to force 
the follower. A, against the ends of the segmental carriers, 
it will have forced the release pin, M, which projects slightly 
above the segmental carriers, toward the closed end of the 
cylinder, thereby relieving the pressure of the auxiliary re- 
lease spring against the small end of the wedge. In this posi- 
tion the force necessary to compress the springs, C and O, 
is exerted against the large end of the wedge, and by the in- 
clined surfaces it is transmitted through the segmental car- 
riers to the wedge bars. A further increase of force against the 
follower plate. A, brings the segmental carriers and wedge 
bars into action, and in so doing the force exerted by the 
wedge upon the wedge bars pi-oduces friction between the 
wedge bars and the V-shaped grooves of the cylinder (which 
is tapered toward the closed end). The traverse of the wedge 
bars is completed when the follower. A, comes in contact with 
the cylinder, the release springs, K and L, having been com- 
pressed to about 80 per cent, of their capacity. During the 
movement of the wedge bars in the cylinder grooves the force 



top wedge bar. Fig. 11, will be released first and the others in 
succession as the space in the slots is taken up. Four bars 
are represented by Fig. 11, and when these are released the 
spring, K, releases four more represented by Fig. 12 and so on. 
Since there are eight carriers in all or four sets of two each, it 
is necessary for the spring. K, to release the wedge bars four at 
a time until all are free. 

The operation of buffing is exactly similar to that of pulling, 
in that the follower plates are moved toward each other, but 
of course the load comes first upon the outer follower in this 
case. The application of the spring and friction resistances 
and the manner of fractional release are the same for pulling 
and buffing. 

A large number of these draft gears are in use and the de- 
vice has for a long time been past the experimental stage. It 
is successful under the severest conditions of service as stated 
in our description of the application to the tender of the very 
heavy locomotives of the Union R. R. in March. Not the 
least of its advantages are the effec, of the absorption of 
shocks in collisions and the immunity from break-in-two ac- 
cidents. Experience shows it to be almost impossible to break 
a train apart when fitted with this device unless the couplers 
are defective. 



IBO 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 




Atlantic Type Passenger Locomotive— French State Railways. 

BriLT BY THE BjLDWIN LOOOMOTIVK WORKS. 



ATLANTIC TYPE PASSENGER LOCOMOTIVE. 



French State Railways. 



Built by the Baldwin Locomotive Works. 



By the courtesy of the Baldwin Locomotive Works the ac- 
companying photograph of one of a lot of 10 Atlantic type loco- 
motives recently built for the French State Railways is shown. 
These engines are for express passenger service. They are 
not large or powerful when compared with recent passenger 
locomotive development in this country, but they are inter- 
esting because of the acceptance of the piston valve and the 
Atlantic type in France. The firebox is narrow and the grate 
area but 35 square feet. The heating surface of 2,095 square 
feet seems small to us, but it is rather unusual in French prac- 
tice. The boiler is long, because of the 15-foot tubes. The 
firebox is of copper and the working pressure is 213 pounds. 
The boiler tapers toward the rear. This was done to save 
weight and to save room in the cab, but its effect is scarcely 
noticeable in the engraving. Among the other noticeable feat- 
ures are the Baldwin piston valves, driving and trailing wheel 
brake shoes at the rear of the wheels, and oil cups on the 
sides of the boiler above each axle, with tubes leading to the 
journals. The tender has two four-wheel trucks, a water 
scoop and a running board extending its full length. The lead- 
ing dimensions of the engines are as follows: 

General Dimensions. 

Gauge * " S% in. 

Diameter cylinders ^'^ ;"• 

Stroke *^' 

Valve ............!....!.."!...". Balanced piston 

Boiler. 

Diameter ii mc ll^' 

Thickness of sheets 5(q ii=' 

Working pressure ;, •;: , 

Fuel .... S°f t <'°^' 

Firebox. 

Material Copper 

Length 120 n. 

Width ^■^ '"• 

Depth Front, IWi in.; back, 67V«; m. 

Thickness of sheets Sides, % in.; back, % in.; crown, % in.; . 

tube, % m. and % in. 

Tubes. 

Number k'ft.^ 

Diameter 'iV f t ' i in 

Length 15 ft. 1 in. 

Heating Surface. 

Firebox ■•"«■« fq. ft. 

T,ihp<5 1.925.44 sq. ft. 

Total ..'.'.■.■.■.■•.•'■•••• ^•'^^■^'^ ®^- "• 

Grate area 35 sq. ft. 

Driving Wheels. 

Diameter outside S^i^ j"- 

Diameter of center V ,; in !,, 

Journals S s. w in. 

Engine Truck Wheels. 

Diameter ■■■f ]"■ 

Journ.ils 6x10 m. 

Trailing Wheels. 

Diameter y^f^ !"• 

Journals !> x 10 in. 



Wheel Base. 

Driving 7 ft. 3 In. 

Rigid 14 ft. 6 In. 

Total engine 26 ft. 8 in. 

Total engine and tender 55 ft. 2 in. 

Weight. 

On drivers 71,905 lbs. 

On truck 32,700 lbs. 

On trailing wheels ^ 34,450 lbs. 

Total engine : 139,055 lbs. 

Total engine and tender 219,000 lbs. 

Tender. 

Diameter of wheels 36 in. 

Journals 414 x 8 in. 

Tank capacity 3,600 gals. 



NEW OFFICE BUILDING OF THE WESTINGHOUSE ELEC- 
TRIC & MANUFACTURING CO. 



The Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co. has found 
it necessary to repeatedly add to its facilities for manufactur- 
ing, and with the present demand for large generators, even 
up to 5,000 and even 8,000 h. p., in capacity the plant at East 
Pittsburgh became so outgrown as to require the recent addi- 
tion of 11% acres in floor space. The space formerly occupied 
by the oflices became indispensable to the manufacturing de- 
partments. A large building has just been completed for the 
offices which are now provided for outside of the manufactur- 
ing building at East Pittsburgh. It is 250 by 50 feet and 7 
stories in height. It is fireproof and pleasing architecturally. 
Its appointments are noteworthy in completeness and char- 
acter. Fireproof vaults occupy 1,200 square feet of space on 
each floor, and they furnish safe storage for plans and valu- 
able records. The employment and store departments occupy 
the first floor. The rooms for the managing officers and the 
reception room, on the second floor, are specially conv€nient 
and attractive; they are well furnished and are in good taste 
throughout. The third floor is occupied by the Westinghouse 
Companies Publishing Department, the accounting offices and 
those of the auditing, paymaster's, treasuer's, legal and cost 
departments. The mechanical engineering department has the 
entire fourth floor, and the fifth is occupied by the electrical 
engineers. Two handsome dining rooms are located on the 
sixth floor, and this floor also provides for the telephone ex- 
change for the works. A third dining room here is provided 
for the lady stenographers. The heating is by direct steam 
and the lighting and ventilation have been given unusual 
attention. The temperatures throughout the building are regu- 
lated by automatic themostatic valves. The elevators are 
operated on the electro-hydraulic system from power furnished 
by two Westinghouse "Type C" motors, operating pumps 
which force water from the low pressure to the high pressure 
tank. These are regulated automatically. The offices and all 
of the departments of the works are connected by a pneumatic 
tube system with a central exchange station. This comprises 
12 sending and receiving tubes, furnishing service to all floors 
of the office building and connecting to important points In 
the works. The longest line is 3,500 feet and the circuit Is 
made through it at a speed of about 60 miles per hour. The 
system operates by a vacuum of about 24 ounces, which is suffi- 
cient for handling carriers weighing 8 lbs. The tubes are 2V^ 
inches diameter and of brass. This system is employed for the 
distribution of mail and the transmission usually performed 
by messengers. The entire installation has been planned and 
executed with a view of ultimate economy in the operation of 
this vast establishment. 



May, 1900. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 18l 



EDITORIAL CORRESPONDENCE. 



Illinois Central. 

Mr. Renshaw is entirely satisfied that the heavy locomotives 
recently built for this road, one by the Brooks and the other 
by the Rogers people, are doing vk-hat was expected of them, 
although they have not as yet been tested for coal and water 
consumption. The purpose of these engines was not, as first 
reported, to handle trains over Cairo bridge only, but to per- 
mit of hauling the same trains over the 95 miles between 
Carbondale and Fulton, Ky., that are hauled by the lighter 
engines over the rest of the road between Chicago and New 
Orleans. This short section contains the heaviest grades and 
is the only part of the road requiring very heavy locomotives. 
Engine No. 640 is handling trains of from 1,800 to 2,000 tons 
over 40-foot grades between Centralia and Cairo, with a steam 
pressure of 210 pounds. Last October this engine hauled a 
train of 83 cars, weighing 3,400 tons, from Kankakee to Chi- 
cago, 56 miles, at a rate of 12 miles per hour over grades of 
26 feet per mile. These engines are used on the road and not, 
like the Union Railway engines at Pittsburgh, for very short 
runs. The road service necessitates a large amount of fuel 
and water, and Mr. Renshaw is considering the design of a 
tender to carry 9,000 gallons of water and 18 tons of coal. 
With the present tenders, which were described in connection 
with these locomotives, Mr. Renshaw has found it necessary to 
furnish a coal passer to assist the fireman. This additional 
expense seems likely to be a necessary accompaniment of such 
heavy engines in regular road service, but the advantage of the 
heavier trains is believed to render this expense negligible. 

Artificial refrigeration is undergoing experiment on this road. 
The details of the system will be reserved until it has de- 
veloped further. The apparatus occupies the space formerly 
taken up by one of the end ice boxes, saving the space of the 
other box for the freight. About 1,000 Tinear feet of small 
copper pipe furnishes the cooling surface, and through this 
pipe a chemical is evaporated. The chemical requires but 35 
pounds per square inch to take the liquid form. It is passed 
into the coil as a liquid and evaporates, and while doing so 
absorbs heat after the manner of all systems of this general 
character. Power is taken by a belt from the axle to compress 
the refrigerating agent back to the liquid form and to circu- 
late the air in the car. It is stated that the temperature may 
be kept down to about 5 degrees F. by this system. A good 
mechanical refrigerating system which is not too complicated 
appears to have a wide field for fruit and meat transportation. 
There is no delay for icing cars, and this, on a through run on 
this road, amounts to seven hours. The cost of the apparatus 
is to be compared with that of providing ice, and its weight, 
including that of the water for cooling the refrigerating me- 
dium, is less than that of the ice. The cost of the ice is saved, 
probably entire, because the interest on the investment will 
be returned in the form of fuel saving on account of the diminu- 
tion of delays. The idea seems promising. 



CONVENTION OF AIR BRAKE MEN. 



The Air Brake Association held its seventh annual conven- 
tion in Jacksonville, Fla., opening April 3. The first subject 
for discussion was: "Recommended Practice for Successful 
Handling of Passenger and Long Freight Trains." The com- 
mittee report contained the following conclusions: 

1. The air brake work required for a stop increases much 
more rapidly than the speed. 

2. On a level grade the entire brake retardation is available 
for stopping. 

3. On a descending grade a certain portion of the brake 
retardation is required to prevent a gain in speed. 

4. On a descending grade the work required of each brake 
to prevent a gain in speed increases with the weight of the 
load per brake. 



5. The brake retardation available for stopping on a grade 
is that in excess of what is necessary to prevent a gain In 
speed. 

6. The brake retardation possible from a certain shoe pres- 
sure decreases as the speed increases. 

7. The longer the distance (and consequently time) required 
for a stop, the further will it be prolonged by brake cylinder 
leakage. 

The committee went carefully over the considerations of 
safety in letting trains down long steep grades, recommending 
frequent applications and great care, in entering the grades, to 
reduce speed to a point of safety. The use of hand brakes to 
hold trains making long stops on steep grades was recom- 
mended in order to guard against the starting of the train on 
account of leakage. Instructions for handling trains on heavy 
grades were given at length, and summed up by the committee. 

In the discussion a leaning in the direction of a desire for 
pressures higher than 70 pounds appeared. In ore trains, es- 
pecially, a higher pressure was needed for loaded cars, and 
70 pounds was only enough for empty cars. One speaker fav- 
ored an increase of 25 per cent. An increase in the size of 
reservoirs was recommended. The effect of doubling the ca- 
pacity of the main reservoir was to greatly improve the re- 
leasing of the brakes of 50 and 60-car trains, with 40,000 cubic 
inches capacity, and it was possible to release the brakes at the 
rear of such trains before the slack would run out. The fact that 
some roads were using the air brake on 65 cars in one train 
called out favorable comment, in view of the limitation of the 
number of air braked cars in trains to 20 on certain roads. 
The excellent method of handling the air brakes on the Nash- 
ville, Chattanooga & St. Louis Railway were noted, and com- 
mended, as a result of the attention given to the care and 
operation of the brakes by the management of the road, and the 
painstaking records of the parting of trains. 

In discussing the piping of cars, the effects of the very crooked 
train pipes on hopper cars was referred to. Recent cars of 
this type often had four elbows, and each of these was equiva- 
lent to 15 ft. of straight pipe in resisting the action of the 
brakes. 

In a report upon the lubrication of brake apparatus it w^as 
shown to be as important to avoid excessive as it was neces- 
sary to give sufficient lubrication. The committee on this 
subject suggested a rule for the use of the air-pump lubrica- 
tor. A feed of ten drops of Galena valve oil per minute for 
the first five minutes, after starting the pump, and one drop 
per minute during the remainder of the run was recom- 
mended as good practice. The quantity depended, however, 
upon the condition of the pump. 

Next to the handling of long trains, and trains of all kinds 
on mountain grades, the most important subject was regulation 
of the travel of brake cylinder pistons. The brake slack ad- 
juster was considered necessary as a measure for overcoming 
the sliding of wheels. Without automatic slack adjusters even 
low pressure could not he depended upon to prevent sliding 
of wheels, but with the McKee slack adjuster one speaker 
had been able to increase the braking power to 90 per cent, 
without having a single case of wheels sliding In two months. 



A novel electric locomotive crane, capable of lifting and 
transporting articles of the weight of heavy frogs and steel rails 
has been designed and built by the J. G. Brill Co., of Philadel- 
phia, and will be illustrated and described in a future issue. The 
power is taken from a trolley similar to that of a street car, 
and the motors for hoisting and locomotion are under the car. 
The idea is a new one, and the advantages suggested by it are 
many and important. Such a crane would be very valuable 
in railroad shops and yards because of its convenience and 
flexibility. Electric power is now available in nearly all plants, 
and by stringing a system of trolley wires the entire storehouse 
and storage yards would be served by this crane. The tracks 
may be extended into the machine shops and the crane used 
for handling wheels, axles and heavy castings. A large rail- 
road repair shop could probably keep several of them busy 
and the cost would soon be saved in the reduction of laboring 
gangs. The J. G. Brill Co. have one in their works and find it 
most satisfactory. 



162 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



TRACTIVE POWER OP TWO-CYLINDER COMPOUNDS. 



By C. J. Mellin. 



Chief Engineer Richmond Locomotive and Machine Worl£s. 



The theory of the tractive power of compound locomotives 
appears to be of more general interest among railroad men 
than ever before, and, upon requests from a number of people, 
the vfriter submits herewith a development of it. 

The conditions in starting a compound locomotive differ 
somewhat from those of the normal working of the engine, and, 
consequently, the tractive power is based on the latter condi- 
tion, but it may be of interest to follow up what takes place 
in the cylinder from the moment the throttle is opened until 
the engine assumes its normal state of compound working. 

On opening the throttle the steam enters the high-pressure 
cylinder direct, as in the case of a simple engine, and to the 
low-pressure cylinder, also from the throttle, through a pas- 
sage generally governed by an automatic stop and reducing 
valve, so proportioned that the pressure (p) admitted to the 
low-pressure cylinder steam chest bears the same relation to 
the pressure (P) in the high-pressure steam chest as the high- 
pressure piston area (a) bears to the low-pressure piston area 
(A) or p:P = a:A, which give the same power on both sides 
of a two-cylinder compound engine. 

The receiver in the meantime being closed from the low- 
pressure cylinder by the intercepting valve, there is only at- 
mospheric resistance to both pistons during the first stroke. 
After the second or third exhaust from the high-pressure cyl- 
inder this steam has accumulated in the receiver to the required 
initial pressure in the low-pressure cylinder, and the engine, 
if provided with an automatic intercepting valve, goes over 
into compound working without any manipulation on the part 
of the engineman; that is, the pressure in the receiver opens 
the intercepting valve, which valve, by its motion, closes the 
stop and reducing valve, whereby the admittance of live steam 
to the low-pressure cylinder is shut off and the high-pressure 
exhaust steam is admitted to the low-pressure cylinder. The 
engine is then working compound, and it is in this condition 
tnat its tractive power is to be calculated. 

The resultant work of a compound engine is based on the 
low-pressure cylinder, and the general average pressure of 
the steam that is let into and expanded throughout the engine. 
The high-pressure cylinder enters the formula as a measure- 
ment of the initial steam volume, and it subdivides the work 
of the engine with the low-pressure cylinder, the former work- 
ing in the upper stage and the latter in the lower stage of 
the range of pressure from the initial to the terminal. This 
subdivision also divides the range of temperatures in the 
same manner as that of the pressure, making the variation 
only one-half of Its entire range in each cylinder, and makes 
it possible to utilize a maximum amount of the expanding 
power of the steam with the least variation of temperature 
or loss by condensation in the cylinders. 

The initial volume of the steam used during one stroke of 
the engine is the volume of the high-pressure cylinder up 
to the point of cut-off plus the volume of the cylinder clear- 
ance. There has, however, been compression from a previous 
stroke that has made up part of the clearance, which will be 
subtracted from this volume to get the amount of steam sup- 
plied by the boiler to fill this space. Then we get the initial 
volume from which the work of the engine is obtained. 

We now designate this volume, with reference to the high- 
pressure cylinder, calling the high-pressure cylinder volume = 
a, cut-off = c, the cylinder clearance := b and the compression 
= f, when the volume used is = ac + a(b — f), a being the 
unit and c, b and f expressed in percentage of a. The final 
volume is that displaced by the low-pressure piston up to 
the point of release plus its cylinder clearance less the com- 
pression. 

In designating this in same manner ns that of the high- 





le— 


/?+a(b-f) 


--i 


f^ 






I 

1 


1 
1 
1 
\ 


s 


. 




d ^ 


\ 

D 


^r ^.J 


>^ 


^ 


1 


\ f!/-m. line 


f1.L 



Tractive Power of Two-Cylinder Compounds. 

pressure cylinder by using capitals for corresponding quanti- 
ties, calling the volume displaced by the piston to the point of 
release, E, we get the final volume A E + A(B — P), or calling 
the space from the points of release to the end of the stroke G, 
we can signify the final volume by A — (G A)-|- A{B — P). 

Again, by substituting the clearance, less the compression, 
A(B — F), in the low-pressure cylinder with the volume from 
the point of exhaust to the end of the stroke, G A, and the 
clearance, less compression, of the high-pressure cylinder 
a(b — f), which aggregate about the same amount, we elim- 
inate several terms from the formula that in most cases will 
have to be assumed anyway, and we get a simpler expression 
of the whole problem, which then will be A + a(b — f), and 
the number of expansions 

A + a(b— f) 

N = (1) 

ac -f a(b— f) 
as illustrated in the sketch. 

This being the foundation of the problem, we can proceed 
on known methods for its solution, where it will be noticed 
that the areas of the cylinders are substituted for volumes in 
the calculation, which may be done when the stroke of the pis- 
tons are the same. 

Since the number of expansions are known, we get the theo- 
retical average pressure 

P -I- hyp. log N 

P> = 15 (2) 

N 
where P is the absolute initial pressure or boiler pressure plus 
the atmospheric pressure. The hyperbolic log, N, is found in 
any hand-book that treats on the subject of steam. 

Pi = the theoretical average pressure. The actual average 
pressure, P=., is about 80 per cent, of Pi, due to wire drawing 
of the steam in ports and passages, and we have the tractive 
power 

d,' P. S 

T = (3) 

2 D 
in which di =: diameter of the low-pressure cylinder, S = stroke 
of piston, and D = diameter of drivers. 
This formula is derived from the fundamental formula 
0.7854 d= Ps 2 S 

T = 

3.1416 D 
which, after cancelling gives the above. 

Now let us apply these formulas to an engine with 21-inch 
and 33-inch by 26-inch cylinders, 56 inches in diameter of 
drivers and 200 pounds boiler pressure (P = 215 pounds.lC = 
85 per cent.; b = 8 per cent, and f = 2 per cent, of a. A being 
850 square inches, and a being 340 square inches, we have from 
formula (1): 

A -f a (b — f) 
N = 



850 4- 340 (0.08 — 0.02) 



ac -f- a (b — f) 
2.81 expansions. 

The hyperbolic logarithm for 2.81 
formula (2) : 



(340 X 0.85) -f- 340 (0.08 — 0.02) 

= 1.0332, hence we get from 
215 (1 ~ 1.0332) 



-15 = 140.5 



P (1 -I- hyp. log. N) 

Pi = 15 

N 2.81 

pounds, and the actual average pressure P= = 140.5 X 0.80 
112.4 pounds. 

By inserting the value of P: in the third formula, we get 
d= P.. S 33 X 33 X 112.4 X 26 
T = = = 28,411 lbs.. 



2 d 
tractive power. 



2 X 56 



May, 1900. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL 15 6 



A NEW PLAN CONCERNING THE PURDUE LOCOMOTIVE 
TESTING PLANT. 



Tlip lofoiiiotivo laboratory or Purdue University was estab- 
lished for the purpose of instructing stvidents, and during the 
eight years of its existence it has never failed to serve this 
purpose well. The opportunity which the plant offers for work 
of research has, however, never been lost from view, and in 
recent years small sums of money have from time to time 
been made available for such worlt. This has served to de- 
velop some facts for several committees of the Master Me- 
chanics' Association and to advance several important lines of 
work projected by Prof. W. F. M. Goss, whose name is so 
closely associated with this admirable institution. Various 
commercial tests for which money has been received have 
helped to swell the volume of the business done. Thus far, 
however, the business has not been sufficient to completely oc- 
cupy the plant. The instructional work, the research which 
can be paid for by the Purdue Trustees, and the commercial 
work, all combined, have not, in the past, been sufficient 
to warrant the maintenance of a permanent force of attendants 
about the plant, with the result that the work which has been 
accomplished has been done at a disadvantage and real progress 
has been slow. Moreover, tlie limitations arising from this 
course have prevented the acceptance of many opportunities foi 
commercial work which, under more favorable conditions, could 
have been accomplished with profit. 

It is the desire of the Trustees of Purdue that the locomotive 
testing laboratory shall be made to serve as large a sphere ol 
usefulness as practicable. While unable themselves to pro- 
vide funds for its continuous operation, they are ready to ex- 
tend every encouragement to others who may assist to such an 
end. To sustain a permanent organization at the plant, and 
to provide supplies of fuel, oil, etc., needed for its continuance 
will require the expenditure of from $6,000 to |8,000 a year. 
It would seem not unlikely that the business demands of the 
whole country would equal this amount, at least for a single 
year. It is proposed, therefore, to ask those who are likely 
to be interested in the subject to subscribe for work to be don 
at times which may be agreeable between September 1, 1900, and 
September 1. 1901. Thus, Messrs. X. & Co. may signify their 
willingness to invest in the laboratory to the extent of ?1,000; 
Messrs. Y. & Co. to the extent of J2,000, while individuals 
may come in for amounts as low as $100. In the event that 
a sufficient amount is subscribed to warrant an organization 
on the basis indicated, they may at any time within the 12 
months indicated arrange to have work done and reported upon 
by the regular laboratory authorities with the expectation 
of paying a fair amount for each test or each investigation, 
which amount will be credited against the amount they sub- 
scribed. 

The purpose of the charge and the basis upon which it will 
be fixed will be such as to cover labor and material accounts 
only. Nothing will be charged for the use of the plant, or for 
deterioration, or for repairs except such as may result from 
the progress of the individual work in hand. The laboratory au- 
thorities will hold themselves in readiness to quote in advance 
fixed prices for all work that may be proposed. An estimate 
of what may be accomplished for a given amount may be madt 
from the following statement. To run the plant the daily la 
bor costs will be about as follows: 

One fireman $2.50 

One coal pa-sser 1.50 

One oiler and attendant 2.50 

One man for mounting mechanism 1.50 

Two permanent observers at $2.50 5.00 

One foreman 3.00 

Total 16.00 

Olflfflce expense in summarizing data and f<)rmulating 

report, chargeable to one day's running 6.50 

Allowance to cover loss for periods of enforced idleness.. 2.00 

Total expense per day (engine not running) $24.00 

This expense would be expected to continue whether the 
engine was actually under steam or not. The observers and 
foreman at such times assisting in the oflSce work, while the 



leas expensive labor would be making needed preparations for 
the next run. To the above estimate covering fixed charges, 
there is to be added, for days when the engine would be under 
steam, an additional item of $1.5 to cover cost of fuel, oil and 
other supplies, making the total cost per day (engine run- 
ning) $:j9. 

It will be seen on the basis of the above estimate that one 
desiring a tQSt of a valve, or a valve mechanism, or of an 
exhaust nozzle, or any small thing which could be determined 
in a single day's running, could secure all the information de- 
sired for .something less than $100. This statement, while 
merely an indication of the basis upon which It is proposed tc 
make charges for work done, is offered for the guidance of 
proposed subscriljers. 

The character of the work which may be undertaken may 
be anything for which the plant is adapted. It may in''!'jde 
a determination of the value of different fuels used under con- 
ditions of locomotive service; tests of improvements in the 
parts of locomotives, as, for example, valve gears and othei 
portions of the mechanism, stacks, draft appliances, lubrica- 
tors, etc., or it may include tests of complete locomotives. Thus, 
any locomotive within the capacity of the plant could be re- 
ceived at the laboratory, mounted, subjected to a series of 
careful tests, and delivered from the laboratory ready for ship- 
ment. 

It is recognized that the fact that proposed patrons are asked 
to signify their intention some months before work can be un- 
dertaken, has a distinct disadvantage in the working out of 
the proposed scheme, but inasmuch as the University cannot 
venture money in a business operation, the condition leading 
to the objection is a necessary one. though in part, at least, 
compensated for by the tender on the part of the University 
of the free use of an expensive plant and the consequent low 
price at which it is proposed to do work. 



THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGI- 
NEERS. 



Semi-Annual Meeting. 



The forty-first meeting of the American Society of Mechani- 
cal Engineers will be held in the Grand Hotel, Cincinnati, May 
15 to IS. The address of welcome will be delivered by the 
Hon. Gustav Tafel, Mayor of Cincinnati, at 8.30 p. m.. May 
15, and the respoijse will be by Mr. Charles H. Morgan. Presi- 
dent of the society. The program of subjects is as follows: 

Rockwood, Geo. I.. "Qn the Value of a Horse Power"; Yar- 
yan, H. T., "Hot Water Heating from a Central Station"; 
Aldrich, W. S., "Systems of Efficiency of Electric Transmission 
in Factories and Mills"; Guest, J. J.. "Design of Speed Cones": 
Thurston, Robt. H., "Multiple Cylinder Engines": Magruder. 
Wm. T., "The Gas Engine Hot-Tube as an Ignition Timing 
Device": Goldsmith, N. O., 'TVater Softening Plant of the 
Lorain Steel Co."; Higgins, M. P.. "Education of Machinists. 
Foremen and Mechanical Engineers": Herschmann. Arthur, 
"The Automobile Wagon for Heavy Duty"; Cooley, M. E.. "A 
Test of a Fifteen Million High Duty Pumping Engine at Grand 
Rapids, Mich."; Goss, W^. F. M., "Tests of the Snow Pumping 
Engine at the Riverside Station of the Indianapolis Water 
Company": Ball. B. C, "Cylinder Proportions for Compound 
and Triple Expansion Engines." Topical discussions: "WTiat 
Does It Cost to Run Trains at High Speed?" "Protection of 
Pen-stocks from Corrosion." 



The shops of the Evansville & Terre Haute Railroad at Ev- 
ansville. Ind., are being greatly improved under the adminis- 
tration of Mr. A. C. Hone, the Superintendent of Motive Power 
and Rolling Stock. Mr. Hone is a young man and a techaica 
school graduate. He has put new life into the motive powe- 
department and has made important improvements. The build 
ings have been painted, new stationary engines and boilers 
put in. and the entire equipment has been brought up to a state 
of modernism in condition and appearance. Five or six en 
gines are in the shops at all times tor overhauling, as well as 
about the same number of coaches, ba?gage and other cars. 



166 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 




The Bettendorf IBeam Bolsters. 





CTiorv ON LINE A A 



I 



SECriOM ON LINE B E 



I 



SECTION ON UNE C C. 

The Bettendorf l-Beam Bolsters. 



THE BETTENDORF I-BEAM BOLSTER. 



New Method of Manufacture. 

These bolsters have been in use for several years and their 
record is good. The designer had chiefly in mind the advant- 
age of the I-beam section in the distribution of metal in the 
bolsters in order to secure the maximum of strength with a 
minimum of weight, together with the advisability of using 
the smallest number of parts and the selection of material 
which would permit of making repairs without great expense 
or difficulty. In the structure the importance of sufficient 
stiffness to keep the side hearings clear of each other under 
the loads and the wear and tear of service was considered of 
first importance, because of the well-known troubles and 
wastefulness resulting from bolsters being "down on their side 
bearings." 

These engravings show a pair of bolsters complete and a 
view of one of the I-beams of a body holster illustrating the 
new method of manufacture. The I-beams are of open hearth 
steel and the former practice of cutting out a portion of the 
web at each end and dovetailing the edges together has been 
abandoned as unnecessary. The present practice is to press 
foius into the web, deep at the outer ends and running out into 
the flat web near the center, and to do this in a powerful 
hydraulic press without heating the I-beam. The sectional 
views show the form of these folds and the complete view 
shows their neat appeai-ance in the finished bolster. An inci- 
dental advantage of this process Is the severe physical test 
which the material undergoes in this cold pressing process. 
Defective or poor qualities of steel will at once be revealed 
before the construction is completed. 

A variety of designs have been brought out tor adapting 
these bolsters to cars of various kinds, for example, those 
with low side sills, cars with the American Continuous Draft 



Gear and those with draft timber passing through the bolsters. 
These bolsters are also^asily adapted to any form of truck 
construction. A very atwactive design has been made for body 
and truck bolsters for 80,000-lb. capacity cars. In these large 
capacity body bolsters a plate is carried across the top and a 
short distance around the ends. In the truck bolsters the 
plate is carried across the lower face and around the ends. 
This construction provides increased capacity and adds to the 
resistance to longitudinal, lateral and vertical shocks. 

The Cloud Steel Truck Co., manufacturers of the Bettendorf 
bolsters, also make the Cloud pedestal and diamond frame 
trucks. The bolsters are now in use on more than 40 rail- 
roads. They are spoken of as "examples of good engineering 
in car construction." 



The following railroad officers have received appointment to 
the Paris Exposition: Mr. A. E. Mitchell, Superintendent of 
Motive Power of the Erie; Mr. Wm. Renshaw, Superintendent 
of Motive Power of the Illinois Central; and Mr. W. T. Reed, 
Superintendent of Motive Power and Machinery of the Seaboard 
Air Line, have recently accepted appointments as American 
jurors in Class 32, Group 6, Railway Appliances. Dr. C. B. 
Dudley, Chemist of the Pennsylvania Railroad, has been ap- 
pointed delegate to the Congress on Chemistry. Mr. J. F. Wal- 
lace, of the Illinois Central, and President of the American 
Society of Civil Engineers, has been appointed delegate to 
the Congress on Tests of Materials in June. Mr. L. F. Loree, 
General Manager of the Pennsylvania Lines West of Pitts- 
burg, has accepted the appointment as delegate to the Rail- 
way Congress in September. Mr. J. J. Ramsey, Vice-President 
and General Manager of the Wabash, has been appointed dele- 
gate representing the United States Government at the Con- 
gress, and also delegate to represent the American Railway 
Association. 



May, 1900. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 167 



THE 



"K. A. K." UNDERGROUND ELECTRIC 
APPLIED TO CABLE RAILWAYS. 



CONDUIT 



Wc have received from Mr. O. S. Kelly, of Springfield, Ohio, 
information concerning the "K. A. K." system as applied to 
cable railway conduits, also drawings from which the ac- 
companying engravings were made. 

A glance at the section of the conduit shows how the elec- 
tric feeders, insulators and conductors are arranged, to avoid 
interference with the regular operation of the cable system. 
In Figs. 1 and 3 the important details of the system are 
shown. The rails are supported on channel iron ties, which 
are secured to the yoke, which Is of cast iron. The steel 
pieces, C, are placed directly upon the top of the yoke with 
one side turned at right angles to form the drip into the con- 
duit. The insulators, D, support malleable pieces, B, on which 
lips are provided to close around the conduit feeder tubing, 
G, which is of iron pipe lined with treated wood shown in 
section at O. The feeder cables, H, pass through these con- 
duits. The tubes are air tight to avoid difficulties with atmos- 
pheric and other moisture. 

The conductor rails, I, are bolted to the malleable castings, 
E, as shown in Fig. 3. The conductors are bonded at the ends 
by heavy flexible copper strips. Provision is made for con- 
traction and expansion in the joints, and also for slight move- 
ments of the insulators. The trolley contacts are made by 
the two springs, K, K, of flat steel or spring brass. They 
carry cast iron shoes, J, on their lower ends for making con- 
tact with the conductor rails and as they are simple and in- 
expensive, renewals may be cheaply made. The springs, K, 
are carried in opposite directions at their lower ends; they 
pass through and are supported in insulating material shown 
at L, in Pig. 3, which is protected by the steel covering, M, 




FIG, 1 



this being fitted loosely in the base, N, which is permanently 
secured to the car truck. The springs, K, are fastened at the 
top by means of the insulating fiber strips, R, and pass loosely 
through the insulations, L, of the casing, M. The connection 
to the motors are made by means of the binding posts shown 
in Fig. 1. 

The trolley is raised from the slot by means of the handle 
on the top of the insulating strip of Pig. 1. This raises the 
springs, K, and draws the shoes away from the conductor rails 
and brings them together at the bottom of the casing as seen 
in Fig. 2. The casing, M, and the shoes are then drawn from 
the slot. In this system manholes are provided from 300 to 
500 feet apart. In these the fuse connections are placed and 
provisions are made for draining the slot into the sewer. The 




FIG. 3 



fuse connections are made with heavy copper wire on insulated 
screw handles which may be readily detached or replaced 
without danger. The conductor rails end at the manholes and 
at these points they are connected to the feeders through the 
fuses. This construction renders it easy to locate defective 
insulation, and also prevents disabling the whole line or large 
part of the line because a grounding of one of the conductors 
disables one section only. With the return feeder system elec- 
trolysis and its serious consequences are entirely prevented. 
It is obvious that this system may be used in connection with 
overhead trolleys, the overhead and underground trolleys be- 
ing connected with the same controlling devices. 



THE PROTECTION OF STRUCTURAL METALS FROM COR- 
ROSION. 



Prof. A. H. Sabin of New York recently delivered an address 
before the Engineers' Club of Philadelphia upon "The General 
Chemical Aspects of the Corrosion of Structural Metals, and 
the Principles Involved in their Protection," and illustrated 
his remarks by the exhibition of 235 steel and aluminum plates 
which were exposed for about two years to the action of fresh 
and salt water. There were originally prepared about 300 
plates, each 12 inches wide by IS inches long, and thick enough 
not to buckle, and these were divided into three sets, one be- 
ing placed in the fresh water in Lake Cochituate, near Bos- 
ton; another in the sea water at the New York Navy Yard, 
and the third in the sea water at the Norfolk Navy Yard. The 
plates, after being made perfectly clean under a wire brush, 
were coated with oil paints, varnishes or enamel paints, with 
a variety of pigments, so that a great number of different 
coatings were tested. The results seemed to show In general 
that in pigment paints the character of the pigment makes lit- 
tle difference in the permanency of the coating. Oil paint 
seemed to wear much worse than varnish paints, while of the 
latter, those containing a larger proportion of oil are the best. 
Baking is not generally beneficial, except in the case of enam- 
els. Fresh water, of course, proved to be much less severe 
than salt water upon the coatings. Prof. Sabin also briefly de- 
scribed the commercial process of making paints and var- 
nishes! 



188 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD J OURNAU 



A SAFE THIRD RAIL ELE3CTRIC SYSTEM. 



The Metropolitan Electric Third Rail & Traction Co., of Bos- 
ton, Mr. George W. Hills, manager, appreciating the tendency 
toward the use of a third rail for conducting power to 
moving trains, has developed a system for rendering the 
conducting rail harmless to those who may accidentally 
come into contact with it. The electric elevated roads in Chi- 
cago, the Brooklyn Bridge and the electric installation on the 
New York, New Haven & Hartford R. R. all use the third rail 
system, and it will be used also in the application of electric 
traction upon the Manhattan R. R. of New York and on the 
new elevated lines in Boston. This is a satisfactory indication 
that the third rail is to be used for the heavier electric railway 
work, and this led to the study of methods for rendering the 
rail safe by Mr. George F. Gale, the inventor of the system 
developed by the company referred to. 

The third rail is divided up into short sections insulated from 
each other, and these are brought into electrical contact and 
made "live" rails by connecting switches, operated automati- 
cally by the presence of the train in the sections in such a 
.•yay as to put current from the feeders into the conducting 
rail only for that part of the rail actually in use by the train. 
The switches open again immediately after the passage of the 
train, leaving the rail "dead" behind the cars. In this way 
there is no danger of injury to persons who may touch the 
I ail. Mr. Hills' address is 70 Milk St., Boston, Mass., and 
further information may be had from him. 



PERSONALS. 



Mr. R. H. Soule will open an office in New York May 1, as 
Consulting Mechanical Engineer. 



Mr. John M. Egan, Vice-President of the Central of Georgia, 
has been elected President, to succeed the late H. M. Comer. 



Mr. F. A. Cruger has been appointed Purchasing Agent for 
the Northern Steamship Company, with headquarters at Buf- 
falo. 



Mr. Chas. J. Canfleld has been elected President, General 
Manager and Purchasing Agent of the Manistee & Grand Rap- 
ids, vice ,Iohn Canfleld, deceased. 



J. E. Gould, General Foreman of the Columbia Shops of 
the Ohio Central, has been appointed Master Mechanic of the 
Cincinnati Southern at Chattanooga. 



Mr. David Brown has been reappointed to his old position as 
Master Mechanic of the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western, at 
Scran ton. Pa., which he resigned last December. 



Mr. William White, Master Mechanic of the Illinois Cen- 
tral at Memphis, Ter:n., has accepted an appointment to a like 
position on the Lake Erie & Western to succsed the late P. 
Reilly. 



Mr. Charles Steele of New York, a member of the firm of J. 
P. Morgan & Company, has been elected by the Directors of 
the Lehigh Valley and also by the Directors of Erie to fill the 
place of the late C. H. Coster. 



Mr. W. B. Gaskins has been appointed Superintendent of 
Motive Power and Machinery of the Pecos Valley & North- 
eastern, with headquarters at Roswell. N. M., in place of Mr. 
C. M. Stansburg, who has resigned. 



Mr. Colin M. Ingersoll, Jr., heretofore Assistant to the Presi- 
dent of the New York, New Haven & Hartford, has been ap- 
pointed Chief Engineer of that road, vice Mr. F. S. Curtis, re- 
cently elected Fourth Vice-President of the company. 



Mr, George A. Harden has been appointed Eastern agent 
of the Standard Pneumatic Tool Co., with offices at 619 Wash- 
ington Life Building, 141 Broadway, New York. He was for- 
merly Superintendent of the worlts of the company. 



Mr. Geo. M. Brown, Chief Engineer of the Saginaw district 
of the Pere Marquette, and who was Chief Engineer of the 
Flint & Pere Marquette for 30 years, has tendered his re- 
signation to devote his entire time to lumbering interests. 



Mr. Arthur Dufty, who has been connected with the Motive 
Power Department of the Central Railroad of New Jersey for 
some months past, has been promoted to the position of Fore- 
man of Machine Shops at Elizabethport, N. J. 



Mr. E. P. Bryan, Vice-President and General Manager of 
the Terminal Railroad Association of St. Louis, has resigned 
to accept the position of General, Manager of the New York 
Rapid Transit Subway Company, which is to build the under- 
ground railroad in New York. 



Mr. Joseph Lythgoe. Superintendent and General Manager 
of the Rhode Island Locomotive Works of the International 
Power Company, and Mr. John Howarth, Assistant Superin- 
tendent of the same company, have resigned. Mr. John R. 
McKay will succeed Mr. Howarth. 



Mr. George H. Kimball, who was formerly Superintendent 
and Chief Engineer of the Columbus, Sandusky & Hocking, 
has been appointed Chief Engineer of the Pere Marquette, suc- 
ceeding George M. Brown, resigned. Mr. Kimball's headquar- 
ters will be at Grand Rapids, Mich. 



Mr. J. 0. Pattee, who left the posuion of Superintendent of 
Motive Power of the Great Northern January 1, 1900, has been 
appointed Superintendent of Locomotive and Car Department 
of the Missouri Pacific and St. Louis, Iron Mountain & South- 
ern system, vice Mr. ^ank Rearden, resigned to engage in 
other business. 



Mr. Frank Rearden, who has been Superintendent of the 
Locomotive and Car Department of the Missouri Pacific since 
November, 1890, has resigned that position. Previous to De- 
cember, 1SS8, he was Master Mechanic of the Missouri, Kansas 
& Texas, at Denison, Tex., and was then Master Mechanic of 
the St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern at Little Rock until 
he received the appointment of Superintendent of Locomotive 
and Car Department of the Missouri Pacific. 



Mr. J. F. Deems, Master Mechanic of the Chicago, Bur- 
lington & Quincy, at West Burlington. Iowa, has received just 
recognition for his services to the company by a promotion to 
the position of Assistant Superintendent of Motive Power of 
that road. Mr. Deems began his railroad career as apprentice 
in the shops of the Baltimore & Ohio. He left that road in 
1S89 to enter the service of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy. 
He will continue to make his headquarters at West Burling- 
ton, Iowa. 



Mr. Dwight C. Morgan has been appointed Engineer Main- 
tenance of Way of the Chicago & Alton, with headquarters at 
Kansas City, Mo. Mr. Morgan began railroad work in 1890 as 
Assistant Engineer in locating and building the Northern Pa- 
cific in Montana and Idaho. Besides holding responsible posi- 
tions on the Southern Pacific and Illinois Central, he served 
for three years as Engineer of the Illinois Board of Railroad 
Commissioners. He entered the service of the Chicago & Alton 
in 1899 as Assistant Engineer. 



May, llKKi. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL 130 



Mr. A. Th. Ornhjelm, Mechanical Engineer of tlie State Rail- 
ways of Finland, recently favored us with a pleasant call. He 
has been in this country in connection with locomotives re- 
cently completed for those lines by the Baldwin Locomotive 
Works, and has also made a study of American railroad meth- 
ods. He considers our locomotives particularly interesting be- 
cause of their enormous power, but finds the finish and care 
in fitting rather disaiipciinting. In Finland much is made of 
grinding-in and accurate fitting of parts. In car construction 
he received many important suggestions from our practice 
which appeared to be directly applicable to the conditions In 
Finland, where, heretofore, English methods in car design had 
been almost exclusively followed. The Norfolk & Western 
steel frame coal oar of 80,000 pounds capacity, illustrated on 
liage 100 of our April issue, appealed to him particularly as an 
example of merit in our practice which was suggestive and ap- 
plicable in modified form for the use of the lines he repre- 
sented. In visiting the car building plants of this country 
he was permitted by the courtesy of Mr. S. P. Bush and Mr. 
.1. J. Hcnnessej to examine the car shop methods of the Chi- 
cago, Milwaukee & St. Paul at West Milwaukee. He was im- 
pressed with the system employed there, and considered it not 
inferior to those seen in the largest of the car building estab- 
lishments of this country which he visited. Among other in- 
teresting matters concerning practice in Finland, where civil 
service rules govern appointments and promotions, he men- 
tioned the fact that it was customary for young men to serve 
for a time as volunteers without pay before taking examina- 
tions for appointment to official positions. He himself had 
served two years in this way without compensation. Mr. 
Ornhjelm is a subscriber to the "American Engineer." His 
entire conversation indicated that foreign engineers are seek- 
ing more than ever before to inform themselves upon railroad 
progress in this country. 

BOOKS AND PAMPHLETS. 



The Boston Belting Co., 256 Devonshire St., Boston, have 
issued a little pamphlet entitled "Do You Know?" of 20 pages, 
containing a list of the mechanical rubber goods which they 
manufacture. It suggests the importance of this industry, 
which reaches into all lines of transportation and manufac- 
ture. 

Proceedings of the South African Association of Engineers. 

Vol. v., 1S98-1899. 

This volume contains a discussion on Tests of a King-Riedler 
Air Compressor, Notes on Electric Lighting Supply, Isolated 
Winding Plant at Ferreira Mine, Three-Phase Electrical Trans- 
mission of Power, Notes on the Manufacture of Calcium Car- 
liide, and the proceedings of the seventh annual meeting. 
Copies may be obtained from Eden Fisher & Co., 6 Clements 
Lane, Lombard St., London, E. C. 

The Wm. Powell Company, 2525 Spring Grove Avenue, Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, have issued a new catalogue and price-list "No. 7," 
giving information concerning their specialties used by engine 
builders, mills, furnaces, transportation companies and pipe 
fitters. It contains illustrations and information concerning a 
very large variety of valves, lubricators, oil feeders and grease 
cups. The importance of making valves with a view of re- 
grinding is emphasized. Among the lubricators we note the 
patent "Star" duplex condenser and double "up-feed" locomo- 
tive lubricator which was illustrated on page 125 of our April 
issue. The pamphlet has 253 pages and is convenient for the 
pocket. It has a number of colored pages scattered through 
the book, with useful information concerning the use of steam, 
horse power of boilers and engines and the use of belting. 
This catalogue should be kept at hand by all who use steam 
specialties because of its scope and convenience. 

"Colorado via the Burlington Route" is the title of a new 
pamphlet on Colorado just issued by Mr. P. S. Eustis, Genei-al 
Passenger Agent of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy. The 
past year has brought out an unusual number of noteworthy 
railroad advertising publications, but this one surpasses them 
all in attractiveness. The whole work is in excellent taste and 
the production is a book so handsome that it will find its place 
among the nice things one likes to preserve. It has another 



and greater value as a guide to the wonderful attraollona for 
which the tourist loves (_;olorado. The illustralionH are well 
executed half-tones from the copyrighted jihotographH of the 
Detroit Photographic (,'ompany; the text is by James Steele, 
and these are combined with good printing and tasteful ar- 
rangement. Copies may be had by sendljig a request accom- 
panied by six cents In stamps to Mr. P. S. Eustis, General 
Passenger Agent, 209 Adams Street, Chicago. 

The Ball Bearing Co., Watson St., Boston, manufacturers of 
ball and roller bearings for all kinds of machine construction, 
shafting and vehicles, have issued a "Twentieth Century Cata- 
logue" describing the forms of these bearings which are regu- 
larly manufactured and carried In stock. It is beyond the 
possibilities of a catalogue to show all of the forms they are 
prepared to make. With special machinery and a trained 
organization they are ready to take up any desired special 
work of this character. Among the Illustrations we notice one 
of thrust collar roller bearings for heavy pressures which ap- 
pears to be very desirable for cranes and turn-tables where 
heavy loads must be provided for in small spaces. The cata- 
logue presents a surprising variety of bearings, and In con- 
nection with each size and style the working loads are given. 
The pamphlet is well printed and bound In durable flexible 
covers. The present activity of the company indicates that 
Mr. W. S. Rogers, the General Manager, has used his railroad 
experience very effectively in the two years of his connection 
with this concern. The work is now far behind the orders, 
and machinery soon *~ >" installed will double the capacity 
of the plant. A rec iidition of 10,000 square feet of floor 

area has been made to the factory. A large field for ball bear- 
ings is represented by an engraving of an automobile on the 
back cover of the catalogue. 

Boston & Maine Publications. — In Its mission of promoting 
and bringing New England into prominence as a vacation and 
tourist resort, the Boston & Maine Railroad endeavors to place 
before the public descriptive matter that is interesting, in- 
structive and authentic. 

The illustrations used in the various publications are from 
pictures taken expressly for the Boston & Maine Railroad by 
one of the most noted landscape photographers in the country 
and are veritable works of art. 

Last year three portfolios were added to the list of illus- 
trated publications which bear the following titles: "New Eng- 
land Lakes," "New England Rivers" and "Mountains of New 
England." These portfolios contain half-tone reproductions 
4 by 6 inches in size. For the present season two additional 
portfolios have been prepared, namely: "Sea Shore of New 
England," and "Picturesque New England" (Historical-Mis- 
cellaneous). 

In the Sea Shore Portfolio, among the thirty odd views of the 
rugged New England shore Is a distant outline of Grover's 
Cliff, at Beachmont. In the vicinity of Marblehead are pict- 
ures of the surf and of the ancient wharves and of scenes in 
the harbor; then there is a picture of the "Singing Beach" 
at Manchester on the North Shore. Gloucester affords a va- 
riety of scenic display which depicts harbor and shore scenes. 
Further down the shore are vistas of picturesque surroundings 
at Ipswich Bluff, in the vicinity of Newburyport and at Salis- 
bury. Of Hampton Beach and the Isles of Shoals there are 
several views, as well as York Beach. Likewise of Kennebunk 
and Old Orchard there are several delightfully pleasing repre- 
sentations of familiar places. 

The Picturesque New England Portfolio is indeed one of the 
most interesting of the series, as it treats of a variety of 
subjects with which all are acquainted. Pictures are shown 
of the birthplaces of Whittier, Hawthorne, Rebecca Nourse, 
Horace Greeley, and President Pierce, while the Revolutionary 
reminders include illustrations of the Munroe Tavern; the 
Monument and Minute Man Statue at Concord, Mass.; the 
Governor Craddock House at Medford; and General Gage's 
Headquarters. The Colonial period is suggested in a collection 
embracing illustrations of the Frary House, the Governor 
Wentworth Mansion and the Hannah Duston Monument. The 
rural districts are attractively displayed in numerous views 
of inland scenes in the vicinity of Hadley, Lancaster and Gro- 
ton, Mass., and Charlestown, N. H. 

Either one or all of these five portfolios can be obtained 
by sending six cents in stamps for each book to the General 
Pass. Dept., B. & M. R. R., Boston, Mass. 



160 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL 



Les Moteurs a Kxplosion Btude a L' Usage des Constructeurs 
and Conducteurs d'Automobiles. Par George Moreau. Pub- 
lished by Llbrarie Polytechnique, Ch. Beranger, Editor, 15 
Rue des Saintes-Peres, Paris, 1900. 

This book Is an elaborate mathematical study of small ex- 
plosive motors, having particular reference to those for motor 
carriages. It is intended for mechanical engineers who are 
engaged in designing and constructing such motors. It con- 
tains a theoretical study of small internal combustion engines, 
a critical examination of their cycles, consideration of the 
power transmission from the pistons of the motors to the 
axles, the internal friction of these motors and machinery of 
motor carriages, a discussion of the operating parts of motors, 
including governors and transmission devices. A general chap- 
ter treats of the thermal values of gas and oil for motors and 
the quantities of air required for combustion. Another chap- 
ter deals with the power of motors, their heat losses, tests, road 
trials and races. The treatment of tests with conclusions upon 
which to base designs and the information for guidance in the 
design of these motors which the title of the book leads the 
reader to expect are not quite satisfying, but as a theoretical 
study with the deduction of formulas it is very successful. 



EaUIPMENT AND MANUFACTURING NOTES. 

McCord & Co. have moved their Chicago offices to 1475 Old 
Colony Building. 



The Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. have moved their New York 
offices from 122 Liberty Street, to No. 95 of the same street. 



There are S,000 regular employes on the rolls of the Baldwin 
Locomotive Works, and the present activity represents an 
output of 1,200 locomotives per year, or 4 for every working 
day. 



Mr. Samuel B. Hynes has been elected Secretary of the 
Safety Car Heating and Lighting Co., with office in Chicago. 
He succeeds Mr. C. H. Howard, who has resigned to accept 
a position with another company. 



The Detroit Graphite Mfg. Co., Detroit, Mich., have issued 
a cai'd directing attention to the time and corrosion resisting 
properties of their "Superior Graphite Paint," particularly 
for the protection of exposed metal and wood surfaces. 



The Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. have been Informed by 
Naval Constructor Belianskie of the Russian Navy that the 
new Boyer pneumatic drill has been very successful and sat- 
isfactory in submarine work upon the sunken battleship 
"Apraxin" of that navy. In an illustrated lecture by this offi- 
cer before the Marine Society of St. Petersburg, upon this 
drill, this officer demonstrated that it will bore through granite 
and other hard substances under water as well as in the air. 



In the article on "Rapid Transit in New York," which Will- 
iam Barclay Parsons, chief engineer of the Rapid Transit 
Commission, contributes to the May Scribner's, he says that, 
after the railway is built and the street surface restored, ex- 
cept at portions at the northern termini, where there are 
viaduct constructions, there will be scarcely any evidences of 
its existence. The only outward sign will be the glass-covered 
stairway approaches leading down from the sidewalks to the 
stations. Mr. Parsons makes the point that it should be 
called a subway, not a tunnel. 



Mr. A. C. Hone, Superintendent of Motive Power of the 
Evansville & Terre Haute R. R., has extended the compressed 
air system at the Evansville shops for the purpose of spraying 
freight cars. Recent tests on this road of Lucol paint have 
proven very satisfactory. One coat of this paint is held to 
be equal to two coats of linseed oil paint, and as it dries out 
in 8 to 10 hours, cars are painted and stenciled in one day, 
thus saving the labor of the second coat of linseed oil paint 
and the detention of the car till the next day to put it on. 
The Vandalia R. R. at Terre Haute are also testing this paint. 



About three years ago the Standard Steel Platform for pas- 
senger cars, designed by H. H. Sessions, was placed upon the 
market by the Standard Coupler Company. It is now in use 
on eighty railroads, besides being the adopted standard of the 
Pullman Company. The President of the Standard Coupler 
Co., Geo. A. Post, makes the interesting statement that, dur- 
ing the first three months of 1900, shipments of steel platforms 
have been made for application to equipment of railroads that, 
in the aggregate, operate in every state and territory of the 
United States, except Delaware, and as well in Canada and 
Mexico. 



The Ashcroft Manufacturing Co., 85 Liberty St., New York, 
have issued a new catalogue which they have endeavored to 
make complete in every detail in illustrating and describing 
their well-known products. The Ashcroft pressure gauges, 
Edson pressure recording and alarm gauge, the Ashcroft revo- 
lution counter, the Keyser automatic water gauge, the Mos- 
crop speed recorder and the Tabor steam engin e indicator are 
included, and it is evident from this catalogue that this firm 
aims to keep abreast of the times in meeting new demands 
for devices in these and similar lines. The book is bound in 
buckram and is well printed and clearly illustrated. It has 
an index. 



Railway Motor Engineering is a new course of instruction 
offered by the International Correspondence Schools, Scranton, 
Pa. The course was prepared and is being kept up to date 
by Eugene C. Parham, Superintendent of the Nassau Division 
of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit. It is intended for operators 
and those who wish to become operators of electrical ma- 
chinery and contains practical instruction on the operation 
and maintenance of electric cars and motors. As instruction 
is can-ied on by mail, it affords means for acquiring valuable 
information without obliging students to lose time from work. 
The International Correspondence Schools were established in 
1S91 and have nearly 100 courses and over 165,000 students and 
graduates. 



An impressive demonstration of the effect of "Cllng-Surface" 
in a recent emergency in an electric railway power house is 
described by the Editor of the Sibley College Journal of En- 
gineering, Cornell University. He, with others, was making 
electrical tests under the direction of Professor Carpenter of 
Cornell at the power house of the Buffalo (New York) Street 
Railway. While the tests were progressing it was snowing, 
according to the account, at the rate of six inches an hour. 
An ice jam had formed in the Niagara River, and the power 
from Niagara Falls was shut off, compelling the railway com- 
pany to do its storm work with power from their own engines 
alone. These were forced to the utmost. The belts strained 
and groaned, and ran with a great deal of slack in their non- 
driving sides. All the belts held except one. That one was 
dry and hard, with a shiny, glassy surface, while the others 
which did not slip had been treated with Cling-Surface. 



The Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co., manufacturers of the 
Boyer and other pneumatic tools, have issued a unique pam- 
phlet of 158 pages containing reproductions of testimonial let- 
ters from firms who are using these tools. Such an array of 
favorable testimonials has never before been brought to our 
attention. The appreciation of these tools, expressed in these 
letters, is convincing evidence of the high position they have 
taken because of their labor-saving possibilities. In some 
cases several letters from the same firm testify to continued 
use and satisfaction. The letters refer to different appliances 
and the high standing and prominence of the firms gives weight 
to their favorable opinions of which any manufacturers sup- 
plying them should be proud. This pamphlet contains nothing 
but these letters. It is a convincing argument in favor of 
the tools. They have brought about a revolution in methods 
of building and repairing boilers, ships, locomotives and work 
of similar character. Many of the letters mention this fact. 



An exhibition was recently made at the Art Museum, in 
Springfield, Mass., of the results of woi-k done by local stu- 
dents in the International Correspondence Schools of Scran- 
ton, Pa. This exhibition was of special interest as showing 
how far comparatively uneducated people may progress by 
improving spare moments in the study of lines of work In which 
they desire to perfect themselves. The Correspondence Schools 
interested in this exhibition have a remarkable following in 
that city, over 600 persons being enrolled there. The work 
covers almost every line in which working people are inter- 
ested. An ambitious young man who has been forced to slight 
his common-school education turns to the courses offered by 
these schools, and. selecting the one in which he is most inter- 
ested, begins the study. The plan of the courses pre-supposes 
only the ability to read and write. The first work is elemen- 
tary and the progress is gradual and possible only by becom- 
ing perfect in what has preceded. The student goes through 
the course and at such a time as he completes the work re- 
ceives a diploma, and the management of the schools Is also 
interested in securing for the graduate better employment in 
keeping with his proficiency. The exhibition was made In 
Springfield at the suggestion of the City Library Association. 



June, 1900. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL 161 



i_ AMERICAN--^ 

Engineer 

RAILROAD '"journal 



JUNE. 1900. 



OOlSTTEilvrTS. 



ILUISTRATKD ARTH LES ; 



I'ano 



AtlHiitic Type Fast Passenprer 

Locomotive, Pennsylvania K. 

!{.. Class Kl 161 

New Dvnamnnietor Car.Cliicago 

&Norlliwe^tern hy 17.3 

Mean Ktfeerive Presaurc and 

Horse Power, by F. J. Cole 17ti 
Locomotive Tenders, by William 

Forsyth ISl 

(^ost or HunninK Fast Trains, by 

G. R. Henderson 186 

Central Water Leg Applied to 

Wootten Fire Doxes, by W. 

Melntosh 190 

U^paiis to Steel Freight Cars, 

by C A, Seley 191 

Comparative Performance of 

Heavy and Medium Weight 

Locomotives, by F. F. Gaines.. 196 
Turner's New Short "Front End" 200 
Duplex (lompound Locomotive 

for Seven Per Cent. Grades 2ij2 

Ten-Wheel Locomotive for Swe- 
den, Ystad Eslof Ky 2f3 

Miscellaneous Akticles : 
Exhaust Arrangements. - 
Master Mechanics' Tests 171 



Page 

MiSCKl.LANKOUS ARTICLES: 

Consideration of Weight of 
Parts in Locomotive Design, 
by W. II. Marshall 174 

Morteiison's Nut Lock . 179 

l.ocomotiv.s in 1900, by M. N. 
Forney ... , „ . ' " 

Freight Car Draft Gears, by Ed- 
ward Giafatroni 185 

F.ro Hox Design 186 

The Arrangement of Boiler 
Shops, by F. M . Why to 188 

A Carefully Designed Locomo- 
tive 

■Ventilation of Passenger Cars, 
by C. B. Dudley and F. W. 
Pease 

Tie Need for Further Tosts on 
Locomotive Exhaust Arrang 
ments, by H. H. Vaughan.. 

The Wide Fire Box as a St in- 
dard, by J. Snowden Bell 

Twin Screw Steainship,"Grosser 
Kurfurst " 202 

Improvements in Locomotive 
Tenders 202 

Tractive Power of Two-Cylinder 
Compounds. — Corrections 204 

Electric Car Lighting '201 

Pneumatic Tool Litigation . . 204 



189 



191 



197 
198 



ATLANTIC TYPE FAST PASSENGER LOCOMOTIVE. 



PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD. 



Class E 1. 



(With an Inset.) 



The highest development in passenger locomotives on the 
Pennsylvania and probably the best example of painstaking 
design is the Class E 1. Atlantic type, of which three were 
built last year at the Juniata shops, Altoona, and put into the 
Atlantic City service last sutnmer. These engines won the 
admiration of one of our best-known locomotive builders, who 
recently referred to them as "the best workmanship ever put 
into locomotives in this country." They are more noteworthy, 
however, as representing a design the object of which was 
to secure the highest possible speeds in very fast passenger 
service of a special character and to develop the maximum 
capacity of the single-expansion engine in this work. It is 
not believed that the ultimate has been reached and, while 
the type in its present form may not become a generally adopt- 
ed standard, its success seems likely to exert a marked influ- 
ence on future design on this road and to have a tendency 
to bring about a change of opinion with reference to boiler 
construction and the design of details on other roads. 

The necessity for burning a large amount of fuel, whether 
' anthracite or bituminous, was recognized, and to do this with 
reasonably low rates of combustion, large grates were used. 
The grate area is nearly 70 square feet, which appears to be 
ample for the conditions to be met, and experiments are now 
being made by blocking off portions of the grates to show 
whether or not this may be reduced in future construction 
in order to secure a cab arrangement which will bring the 
engineer and fireman together. The large grates have already 
shown the advantage of flexibility in the selection of coal and 
the importance of large grate areas in obtaining great power 
for relatively long periods. We believe that locomotives have 
never been designed with greater care than these. This was 
due to the Pennsylvania way of working and to the special 
attention which was required by the radically new features 
in their practice in this case. The details of construction, 
the size and form of the steam passages and the study of the 
valve motion are specially interesting features, all of which. 



added to the boiler power, contribute to the satisfactory per- 
formance. 

The engines were Intended specially for the Atlantic City 
service from Camden to Atlantic City, and with trains of about 
300 tons the engineers state that they have not yet reached 
speeds at which the boilers failed or showed signs of failing 
in steaming capacity. March 29, last, engine No. 820. the one 
we illustrate, hauled 7 cars from We.st Haddonfield to the 
Atlantic City drawbridge, .5114 miles, in 47 minutes, an average 
speed of O.'j.T mile.s per hour. The distance from Hammonton 
to the drawbridge, 27.4 miles, was covered at the rate of 74.7 
miles per hour. The same run was made last July with 
engine No. 698 with a train of 8 cars and the dynamometer 
car, the combined weight of which was 308 tons, at the same 
average speed. The average drawbar pull was 4,130 pounds 
and the drawbar horse-power was 822, as measured from the 
dynamometer. The maximum speed with this train was 
79.9 miles per hour. These records were made in regular 
service and not with a view of showing the limits of speed; 
these have not been reached and are not required by the 
present schedules. It may therefore be said that the capacity 
for high speed is not yet known. The schedule for last year 
called for an average speed of 63.6 miles per hour from Cam- 
den to Atlantic City. 58.3 miles, and there was not the slight- 
est difficulty in making it. 

On page 22 of our January number of the current volume 
we printed a general description of these engines and now 
present the most interesting of the details. The principal 
dimeusions. are as follows: 

PENNSYLVANIA R. R. 
Class E 1, Atlantic Type. 

Weight on truck in working order 38,125 Ii*-. 

Weight on first pair of drivers 50.250 lbs. 

Weight on second pair of drivers 51,300 lbs. 

Weight on trailing wheels 33.775 lb:i. 

"Weight on engine in working order : 173.450 lbs. 

Tractive power per pound of m. e. p 136.6 

Tractive power with e. m. p. eijual to 4/5 boiler pressure 20,214 

Number of pairs of driving wheels 2 

Diameter of driving wheels SO In. 

Size of driving axle journals ;9V4 in. and 8^ In. by 13 in. 

Length of driving wlieel base 7 ft. 5 in. 

Total wheel base of engine 26 ft. 6^4 in. 

Total wheel base of engine and tender 50 ft. 5 in. 

Number of w'heels in engine truck \ 

Diameter of wheels in engine truck 36 In. 

Size of engine truck axle journals 5^4 by lO in. 

Spread of cylinders SS^^ In. 

Size of cylinders 20i» In. by 26 in. 

Steam ports IVi in. by 20 In. 

Exhaust ports 3 in. by 20 In. 

Travel of valve 7 in. 

Lap of valve 1^ In. 

Type of boiler Belpalre wide firebox 

Minimum internal diameter of boiler 65% in. 

Number of tubes 353 

Outside diameter of tubes l-U m. 

Length of tubes between tube sheets 156 in. 

Fire area through tubes. si.iuare feet 4.5 

Size of firebox, inside 102 in. by 96 in. 

Fire grate area, square feet 68 

External heating surface of tubes, square feet 2,102.4 

Heating surface of flrebo.x. square feet 218.0 

Total heating surface of boiler, square feet 2,320.4 

Steam pressure per square inch, pounds 185 

Number of wheels under tender 6 

Diameter of wheels under tender 42 In. 

Size of tender truck axle journals 5 in. by 9 In. 

Boiler. 
The boiler, which is 65% in. in diameter at the front end, 
is straight on top and combines a wide firebox and a com- 
bustion chamber with Belpaire staying. This method of stay- 
ing is a favorite on this road, although it has been departed 
from in later designs in order to save weight and space in 
the cab. The firebox is 8 ft. long by 8 ft. 6 In. wide, which 
is believed to be the widest grate ever used. There are two 
fire-doors: one would not permit of firing such a wide grate. 
The combustion chamber is 3 ft. 3 in. long and is flat on top 
and bottom. Large water spaces are provided around the com- 
bustion chamber and particularly under it, where the opening 
is about 8 in. deep. The combustion chamber outside sheet 
has cross stays bearing on bosses made by flanging the sheet 
outward as shown in Fig. 5. There are seven of these stays 
fitted with copper washers and cap nuts. The combustion 
chamber is separated from the firebox by a brick bridge wall. 



162 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



— l--a'6X- -I 



€..i 







i 7^6= V '■ 8^^^ -1 iAi- i- 5^ J 




The tubes, 353 in number, are 1% in. in diameter, 13 ft. 1 in. 

long, whicli is a ratio of 104 calibers inside, and 86 outside. 

About 90 calibers was desired. The heating surfaces, weights 

and thicknesses of sheets are as follows: 

External heating surface of tubes.. 2,102 sq. ft. 

Heating .surface, firebox and chamber 21S sq. it. 

Total heating surface ; 2,320 sq. ft. 

F.ire area through tubes 4.5 sq. ft. 

Total weight of boiler 37,494 lbs. 

Weight of tubes S,671 lbs. 

Thickness of shell sheets 9/16 in. 

Thickness of side sheets :. 5/16 in. 

Thickness of crown sheets % in. 

Thickness of outside roof sheet % in. 

Thickness of outside side sheets % in. 



The sheets are thin and they should therefore be expected 
to favor the durability of the staybolts. "Nixon" stays are 
used at the points marked with crosses in Fig. 2. The back 
head has outward flanging and is stayed with rods secured 
to the head by means of feet of steel plate made in box form. 
These act ae gussets and their flanges stiffen the sheet. Where 
the diagonal stays cross the laterals, the laterals are doubled 
to avoid interference. The mud ring is 4 in. wide at the front 
and sides, reduced to 31/2 in. at the back end. The crown sheet 
is continuous, extending in a single plate from the back end 
of the firebox to the front end of the combustion chamber, 
the roof sheet being made in the same way. The roof sheet 
is 12 ft. 3 in. long and the length of the crown sheet is 11 ft. 
5 in. The dome is cylindrical with a curved dome saddle. 

Grates and Ash Pan.— The grates are in four sections, each 
with a separate shaking bar at the back head. The grates 
are straight across the back end with a dip toward the center, 
increasing in depth toward the front. They are supported 
at the sides by castings bolted to the firebox sheets, as shown 
in Fig. 8. These castings also extend across the front and 
back ends and carry the longitudinal central bearing bars 



June, 1900. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 163 



— % MtUlln 




% Studa 



J«'8tudJ 



which are supported at the center of the firebox by the cross 
bearing bar. The grate bearing castings make tight Joints 
with the firebox sheets against asbestos rope and they extend 
below the grates to carry the ash pan. The ends of the grate 
bars have sockets fitting over projections on the bearers in 
such a way as to protect the bearings from accumulations of 
ashes. The cross bearer is lipped over a boss forged on the 
under side of the mud ring and acts as a lateral brace at the ' 
center of the firebox as seen in Fig. 11. This figure also shows ' 
the bonnet placed over the end of the cross bearer where it \ 
passes through the ash pan. The grates have about 50 per 
cent, of air space and are intended for both anthracite and 
bituminous coal. 

The ash pan is of 14-in. tank steel put together with % by 
2 by 2 in. angles and carefully fitted to be air tight. The 
joints with the firebox sheets are made with asbestos rope to 
prevent air from getting in at the sheets and creating "blow- 
pipe" flames against the sheets. The pan was made as deep ■ 
as possible in order to secure large volume and the ashes 
are dropped through a cast iron slide without the neces- 
sity of raking them down. This slide is locked in the closed 
position by pawls shown in Fig. 7. The air dampers of wide 
firebox engines are usually placed at the rear ends; in this 
case it is in front, and in the form of a cast iron plate which 
is counterbalanced and is dropped in a guiding frame in open- 
ing. Safety hangers are placed over the frames to hold the 
ash pan in case of breakage of the bearing castings. In many 
ways the ash pan, and particularly the air admission features, 
have had an unusual amount of attention. They deserve more 
than is usually given them. 

Smokebox.— The "front end" has a comparatively short ex- 
tension and does not follow the Master Mechanics' Association 




Kg. \2 



recommendations as to arrangement. The nozzle is \1% ins. 
high below the tip and the stack is extended down to within 
17 ins. of the top of the nozzle. It will be noticed in Fig. 12 
that the center of the saddle is back of the center of the stack 
and that there is but one steam pipe, which is placed in the 
"wake" of the exhaust pipe. The arrangement of the parts 
is clearly shown in this engraving. 

Cylinders and Saddle. 
The cylinders are separate from the saddle, the arrangement 
and the fastening being similar to that of the freight engines 



164 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 





fe 



__.^^L~_ _±i2^ 







o 



-DJS '■ 



Eg.J3 



illustrated last June. The saddle is illustrated in Fig. 13 and 
the cylinder in Fig. 14. A steam passage extends across the 
saddle. To this the single steam pipe connects, and between 
the saddle and each cylinder a short connecting piece, or "three- 
legged stool," Fig. 15, takes the steam into two 4%-in. open- 
ings into the cylinder. There is not room for one large con- 
nection, owing to the closeness of the steam chests to the sad- 
dles. The exhaust passes through a hole in each frame. In Fig. 
14 the method of blocking off the corner or pocket under the 
outer end of the exhaust port is shown. This engraving also 
shows a third cylinder cock to drain the steam passage. The 
steam opening has an area of 30 square ins. and that of the 
exhaust pipe is 38% square ins. The bridges have large 
fillets for protection against breakage, while their width is 
IVi in., which is rather less than usual. The steam passages 
are ample and are not restricted beyond the end of the dry 
pipe, as is often the case. The exhaust pipe is contracted so 
that the choke is 6 ins. below the top of the saddle cast- 
ing, as shown in Fig. 13. With a large boiler located high to 

.clear the driving wheels the outside stack has to be short so as 
not to exceed the clearance limits, consequently the stack had 
to be extended downward in the smoke box, which in turn 

shortens the exhaust pipe, and therefore, in order that the ex- 



haust jet shall have a chance to straighten up. the bridge was 
placed as far as possible below the nozzle. The area at the 
bridge is about 18 square ins. on each side, which is about 70 
per cent, of the opening of the 5%-in. tip. The exhaust pas- 
sages have easy curves and are free from pockets. The sad- 
dles have large chipping areas and the bolts are kept away 
from the corners. The location of the center pin bearing, SVz 
inches back of the center of the saddle, will be referred to in 
connection with the truck. 

Frames. 
One of the three engines had cast steel frames, the others 
being of wrought iron, except the front sections, which are 
of cast steel in all cases. The form, including the deep slab 
at the cylinders. Fig. 16, is similar to that of the freight 
engines illustrated last year, except that the upper rail is set 
down behind the driving boxes in order to make the firebox as 
deep as possible, and the frames of Class E 1 provide for the 
hanging of the brake apparatus without requiring castings for 
the bearings. The splices and cylinder joints are made tight by 
keys which are planed in pairs to insure accuracy of fitting, 
and they are arranged in such a way as to be in compression 
rather than in shear. The slab at the cylinders is 24% ins. 
deep and that at the foot plate is 13% ins. deep. The tear- 



JoNE,i900. AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 163 




ings at the lugs are cut away on the saddle sid« for a space on 
each side of the neutral axis in order to prevent rocking of the 
saddle at the joints in case they should be tightest at the cen- 
ter. This road has within the past two years equipped about 
175 engines with this arrangement of cylinders separate from 
the saddles without a single instance of loosening in service. 
Vertical stiffness and rigidity of connection to the cylinders and 
foot plate are noteworthy features. The equalizing system is 
5hown in Fig. 17, in which the equalizer between the rear driv- 
ers and the trailers is shown to be non-symmetrical. This was 
lone in order to reduce the weight carried on the trailers. 
Safety hangers are placed under the rear springs. To guard 
igainst the loosening of the connection between the rear ends 
)! the frames a foot plate, Fig. 18, in the form of a pressed steel 



Fig. J4 

box girder with three webs, was used. Usual construction 
employing bars with joints which are difRcult to make tight 
has been entirely abandoned on this road in favor of a stiffer 
and more easily fitted arrangement, which adds weight but 
gives the rigid connection, which is so important in powerful 
engines to resist the tendency for the frames to work loose 
at the rear, resulting in throwing >he stresses to the smokebox 
and cylinder connections. The coupling between the engine 
and tender is closed against a coiled spring, tending always to 
prevent the destructive jerks of couplings having even a small 
amount of lost motion. Immediately back of the rear driving 
boxes vertical ribs in the frames are finished to receive the 
ends of a 7-in. steel cross brace to which the front diaphragm 
plates are bolted to support the firebox at the front water leg. 
At the back end the boiler is supported by plate expansion 
braces. 

Running Gear. 
Pistons and Piston Rods. — With the exception of changing 
the sizes to suit the requirements, the pistons and piston rods 
are similar to those shown on page 182 of our June issue 
last year. The pistons are widened to 5 ins. over an angle 
of 120 degrees at the bottom, to increase the bearing area on 
the cylinders. This is considered as equivalent to the extended 
piston rod. Experience with the freight engines has shown 
the value of the precautions taken to permit of close fitting 



166 AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL 




!•■» 






J3\_l- 




Fig. J7 



Cd. and Plugged with |^^ ^Z J 



f 



'H rioDrtvea 




Kg. 19 



Jdnk. I'JOO. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 167 



v T — -^ Scciroii G-H 



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Tf'iE 




s V 2'-3'/5«"- 2«:-;2hV •;>''i*--f'i<i |. 



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Fig. 18 



Counter Borod 



5?«- 



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- Oil Cup 



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Fig. 25 



168 AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 




Fig. 23 




Note: Stuoa to have i 
I4' Hole Drilled 
tbrough them 



Fig. 24 




pig(.-26 



June, 1900. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 169 



of the piston rod at the crosshoad end, and in order to prevent 
the crossliead fit from lieing tightest at the center the bearing 
is confined to the ends of the fit by cutting away the central 
portion. This feature, together with the enlarged ends of the 
rods, has overcome brealtage of piston rods. 

CrosEhead and Guides. — The Vogt enclosed guide is used in 
connection with a very light cast steel crosshead. Fig. 19, made 
with the slipper and head integral. The slipper is tinned on 
top and bottom and sides. I'^roni tiie top face of the slipper 
to the center of the pin is but 8 ins. This design wears 
well and permits of reducing the weight of the reciprocating 
parts. An oil cup is cast as a part of the washer and tlic oil 
is delivered to the fiat or non-bearing portion on top of tin; 
wii.^t pin. No stiffening ribs are required on the guides, which 
are of cast iron and 10 ins. wide, because of the location of Uie 
guide yoke. The guides are shown in Fig. 20. 

Axles. — Very long journals, 13% ins., enlarged wheel fits 
and unusually large fillets are the principal features of the 
axles. Fig. 16, page 183 of our June issue, 1890. illustrates 
the cutting of the key ways, and Fig. 21, herewith, shows 
the dimensions of the axles of Class E 1 engines. The main 
journals are 9% by 1314 ins., and those of the front axle are 
SVz by 131/4 ins. 

Main and Side Rod. — The rods are of steel, milled out, the- 
side rods having solid ends and a 4 by 5% in. I-section with 
a %-in. web and %-in. flanges. This wheel arrangement 
required main rods 11 ft. 5% ins. long, the construction 
being shown in Fig. 22. .'\t the front end the brass is 
cut out at the top and bottom to correspond with the fiat 
portions of the crosshead pin. This was first used on class 
P engines in 1894 and has been satisfactory. At this end more 
metal is provided at the bottom of the rod' where the section 
is weakened by the set screw hole. The crank end is open 
at the back, and, instead of using a bolt through a block .it 
the back of the brass and a key in front of it, a U-shaped 
block is placed back of the brass with its flat portion bearing 
against the brass. The projecting ends of the rod take a 
semi-circular gib which, is threaded for a nut on its lower end 
to hold it tight. The key passes between the gib and the 
U-shaped block. The object of this arrangement was to pre- 
vent a difficulty sometimes occurring with the block and bolt of 
the older form caused by excessive setting up of the key, which 
led to the bolt being partly offset at the joint surfaces between 
the block and the rod, thus making it exceedingly difficult to 
remove the bolt and absolutely ruining it for further use. . 
IVIoreover, this arrangement reduces the change in length of 
rod to a minimum, since both keys in the rod are behind the 
brasses which they close. A keeper is held by the nut on the 
gib and it serves as a nut lock and holds a set screw for the 
key. This arrangement is favorable to accurate fitting, it is 
strong, and may be easily taken down. 

Valves and Valve Motion. 
Valves. — These are of the American balanced type. Fig. 24, 
with a modification of the usual arrangement of the pressure 
plate. The valve is recessed on top for a bearing surface for 
the balancing disc and is scraped for tight fitting. In accord- 
ance with a suggestion by Mr. J. T. Wilson of the American 
Balance Valve Co., the bolts are relieved from the duty of 
driving the plate, this being done by the valve itself. The 
pressure plate, which is practically a beam of uniform strength, 
is held to the chest cover by a single large nut, bearing against 
a gland, and vertical adjustment is provided by means of liners 
between four bosses on the plate and corresponding lugs on 
the cover against which the pressure plate is drawn by the 
nut. These liners also serve to prevent rocking. The balance 
plates are ISVg ins. outside diameter. Lubrication holes 
through the pressure plate discharge oil at each end of the 
valve. The valve yoke rests on shelves at the sides of the 
steam chest and its weight does not rest upon the valve. 

Valve Motion. — Except as to dimensions, the valve motion 
is similar to that of Class H 5 and H G engines. The top of the 



link is prolonged to give several extra notches in the quadrant 
to increase the starting power. This is clearly shown in Fig. 
23. When in their lowest position the links cut off at 83 per 
cent, of the stroke, and when the block is opposite the upper 
eccentric rod pin the cut-off is 75 per cent. This gives a better 
turning moment and greater power in starting, which is very 
desirable with 80-in. driving wheels. The back end of the 
valve stem has a well designed phosphor-bronze guide and 
the motion of the rocker pin is transmitted through a block 
and crosshead, shown in the photograph. The rocker shaft 
is like that of the freight engines, but is made hollow and the 
ends of the hole are closed with gas pipe plugs. The rocker 
shaft has two phosphor-bronze sleeves cast upon it. The eccen- 
trics are of cast iron, made with the rear halves and front 
halves of each pair cast in one piece. The bearing on the axle 
is 9V2 ins. long and at the center a groove is cut to fit over a 
collar on the axle. They are secured by keys and the bolts are in 
tension only; the bolts are on opposite sides of the cast- 
ing, as shown in the sectional view of Fig. 25. 

Valve Setting. — The eccentric throw is 6 ins., the maxi- 
mum valve travel is T'/g ins. in forward motion and 5% 
ins. in back motion. The lead is 3/32 in. negative in full 
forward gear and 1/32 in. negative full back gear. The bridle 
pin is offset 19/32 in. The valves have 1/16 in. inside clear- 
ance at the front ends and 14 in. at the back ends and IV^ 
in. outside lap at both ends. The cut-off readings taken 
from engine No. 698 are as follows: 





Cut Off. 


Reverse 
lever notch. 


Forward motion. 


Bswjkward motion. 


Right side. 


Left side. 


Right side. 


Left side. 




Front. 


Back. 


Front 


Back. 


Front, j Back. 


Front. 


Back 


1 

2 

3 

4 


in. 
2ItV 
21 

20J^ 
19% 
ISH 
17!? 

mi 

mi 
12% 

en 

m 


in. 

2m 
21A 
20.', 
19H 
18ia 
18i'. 
17 

15% 
14'4 
12% 
10% 
8« 
6% 


in. 

21% 
21,'c 
20^ 
19}3 
18% 
17!l 
16% 

ISA 

13}J 

12 

10 

m 

6% 

m 


in. 
21% 
21 

20J^ 
19% 
19 
ISii 

mi 

15H 

u% 

12% 
10% 
8ft 
6% 


in. 

isiS 

17% 
16H 
15,', 
13iJ 
IMS 
918 
7il 
6% 

3,\ 

2M 


in. 
19,', 
18.-. 
17 

15H 
UH 
12% 
10,', 

8il 

5 

3H 

2% 

li'. 

lA 


in. 
18!8 
1711 
16fJ 

ISA 

13i4 

lilf 

10,', 
8 

6% 
Hi 
3A 
2% 

1 


in. 

19% 

18,'. 

17 

1S% 

im 

12A 
10?i 

m 

6% 
5 

3H 
2,', 

IH 

1 


5 ., 

6 

8 

9 

10 

tl 

12 

13 


11 



The central position of the reverse lever is back of the center 
of the quadrant, because of the extension of the top of the 
link for the long cut-off at starting. This is the reason why 
the 14th notch in backward motion has a different cut-off 
from the same notch in the forward motion as shown in this 
table. The numbering of the notches begins at the end of the 
quadrant in each case. The 13th notch is the usual running 
position in forward motion, giving a perfectly equalized cut-off 
at 6% ins. The free and large steam passages and the 1% In. 
lap were used to secure good steam admission at the short cut- 
offs. Compression was reduced to a point which is just suf- 
ficient to overcome the inertia of the reciprocating parts at 
the end of the stroke. 

Engine Truck. 
Bar truck frames could not be used on account of the unusual 
depth of the engine frames at the cylinders and the form shown 
in Fig. 26 was adopted. A large center casting is bolted be- 
tween plate side frames with ends enlarged to receive the 
bolts from the journal box pedestals. The frames are 27 ins. 
apart to keep them out of the way and the box pedestals are 
made in the form of brackets extending out from the side 
frames. The equalizers are outside of the frames and their 



170 AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 




Fie-. 27 




ends are brought together to form ball and socket bearings on 
the boxes. The load is applied from the center plate to the 
equalizer springs by means of very strong brackets bolted 
to the outside faces of the side frames, the springs being 
placed between the bars of the equalizers. These brackets 
carry smaller brackets for the brake hangers. The ends of 
the truck frames are braced by combined tension and com- 
pression stays. The center casting is of iron and the brackets 
for the springs and pedestals are of cast steel. The center pin 
is foimed in a steel casting bolted to the top of the center cast- 
ing. The weight is received through liners held In a pocket 
in the center casting, which furnish an adjustment of the 
height of the front end of the engine to compensate for wear. 
While the load is received at the center of the wheel base 
of the truck and evenly distributed to the wheels, the pivot 



Fig. 28 

about which it turns is 91/2 ins. back of the real center. 
As explained last month, this is done to increase the leverage 
of the leading truck wheels in guiding the engine and to 
reduce the lateral impact and the consequent wear of the 
flanges of the leading wheels. The diameter of the truck wheel 
is 36 ins. 

Other Details. 
Brakes. — Both the driver and truck brakes are operated by 
the same cylinders, one on each side of the engine. loca,ted 
in front of the forward driving axle. The driver brake shoes 
are back of the wheels and the truck shoes between the wheels. 
The cylinder levers are carried by rollers as shown in Pig. 27. 
These are connected across the engine by a horizontal equal- 
izer, their lower ends connect with the truck floating lever, 
which is located with reference to the center of rotation of 



June, 1900. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 171 



the tniok. This is believed to be the first time such a com- 
liination of tnuk and driver brakes has been used. The brake 
cylinilGrs rest on a stiffenin;;; frame brace and the rollers and 
horizontal tracks serve to give a nearly rectilinear motion to 
the piston rod. There is a cross equalizer under the cylinders 
to permit of adjusting for the wear of the shoes on each side 
independently. The brake shoe center pins are above the cen- 
ters of the shoes. When the brakes are "oft" the spring adjust- 
ment between the stud on the lever and the eye on the shoe 
prevents the wear of the adjusting devices from causing rat- 
tling. 

Throttle.— In order to avoid the leakage of built-up dry 
pipes, they were made of cast iron. The back end has a 
straight joint only slightly larger than the pipe. This was 
done for easy removal of the dry pipe through the tube sheet. 
The stand pipe has a right angle bend at the bottom to meet 
the dry pipe. This construction saves one joint and gives a 
smooth passage for the steam. A strong joint is made by 
means of claw hooks. Steam is taken from the top of the 
dome only, where it is driest. This is accomplished by making 
the throttle itself hollow and by closing the usual opening 
in the lower part of the bonnet. The form of the throttle and 
the direct passage for the steam into the dry pipe is shown in 
Fig. 28. During the first part of the motion of the throttle 
lever the leverage of the bell crank is very much greater than 
during the latter part, the well-known arrangement adopted 
by this road several years ago being used in a form modified 
to suit the conditions in this engine. This is a most excellent 
throttle design which has a distinct advantage in the shallow 
valve. Its height is but 5% ins., about half the usual amount. 

Combined Sand Box and Dome. — A saddle-shaped, cast-iron 
sand box is combined with the steam dome in an elongated 
casing. The casing has a machine joint at the cover_ over 
the sand box, made to allow leaking steam to escape and yet 
prevent rain from entering. This reduces the number of ob- 
structions on the boiler. 

Piston and Valve Rod Packing. — A serious defect in many 
forms of rod packing is the failure to provide for sufficient 
lateral motion. The form now used on the Pennsylvania 
takes care of a total motion of 7/16 in. The packing is so 
made that it may be removed over the enlarged end of the rod. 
It is the most valuable improvement in metallic packing that 
we have seen. 

Cab Fittings. — With the small space left in the cab at the 
sides of the large boiler, the cab fittings required most careful 
arrangement and this part of the work was done with char- 
acteristic thoroughness, and the result is surprising in the 
convenience with which the engine is operated. The injectors, 
which are "Sellers" No. 11%, Class N, are on the sides of 
the boiler and both are operated from the right-hand side. 
The throttle rod rotates and enters a stuffing box at the end 
of the 3% in. pipe which supplies steam to the air pump, in- 
jectors and lubricators. In an angle of the end of this pipe 
the throttle motion is changed from rotating to reciprocating 
and the rod operates the valve by pushing. The air pump is 
on the left-hand side and is started by a rod within easy reach 
of the engineer. A Chapman valve, worked by a hand wheel, 
controis the steam to the cab fittings. The whole arrang.^- 
ment of piping is such as to keep them almost entirely out of 
sight. Cab fittings are generally considered as minor and 
unimportant details, but in this case they have received as 
careful consideration as any part of the engine. The result 
is a remarkably convenient arrangement for a cab with a wide 
firel)ox. Means of communication between the engineman hi 
the cab and the fireman on the foot plate is provided for by the 
ufie of a speaking tube fitted with the usual whistle mouth- 
piece. This is continually used by the fireman by means of a 
conventional code to check the engineman's interpretation 
of signals. 

Tender. — The tender is a unique feature of the engine and i? 
described elsewhere in this issue by Mr. Wm. Forsyth. 



Conclusion. 

This is a well-designed engine, which has been remarkably 
successful in fast running. It has shown the unquestionable 
advantage of large grate areas in capacity and economy. It 
has also shown the importance of large and direct steam pas- 
sages in which there Is no restriction of area at and beyond 
the point where the steam divides to pass to the cylinders. 
The details are interesting and they Impress one who exam- 
ines them carefully with the possibilities of improving com- 
mon i)ractice by the application of principles which render 
accurate fitting possible and convenient. The greatest influence 
of this engine on future designs will probable lie in the direc- 
tion of encouraging the construction of wider fireboxes, which 
not only give great boiler power, but permit of the use of 
cheap grades of fuel. If it were not for the separation of the 
engineer and fireman, the class would doubtless become a gen- 
erally used standard on this road, but the objections to the 
separation are so great that the principal advantages of this 
class will be sought in a design modified to make it possible 
to bring the men together. 

We do not know of a more worthy example of American 
locomotive practice and one containing so many evidences 
of thoughtful skill in design and thoroughly good workman- 
ship in construction. 



The general opinion of the tests made by the Master Me- 
chanics' Association on exhaust arrangements, in 1896. is that 
they represent the most complete and altogether admirable 
work ever brought before that organization. It is now clear, 
however, that something more is needed upon this subject. 
Important suggestions with regard to the relation between 
petticoat pipes, deflector plates and exhaust pipes are made 
on another page of this issue by Mr. H. H. Vaughan, who is 
a close observer and careful student of the locomotive. His 
discussion of the arrangements of front-end appliances confirms 
a wide-spread opinion that the investigation of the "front end" 
has only begun. Mr. Vaughan lays stress upon the endorse- 
ment of the petticoat pipe by the committee, and indicates the 
advisability of submitting it to a series of tests, which should 
include experiments upon low nozzles and petticoat pipes, with- 
out combining them with the deflector plate. We believe that 
it is possible to equalize the "draft through the tubes by an 
adjustment of the exhaust and petticoat pipes and omitting the 
deflector. If so, its effect as a retarder of the draft would be 
eliminated. But in addition to the arguments of Mr. Vaughan 
for further investigation is the fact that the length of stacks, 
which is influenced by the increased size of boilers, has a bear- 
ing on the question, the effect of which is seen in the exten- 
sion of the stack down into the smokebox in a number of en- 
gines having large boilers. This, and the well-known intermit- 
tent action of the exhaust of two-cylinder compounds when 
running at slow speeds, should be added to the reasons for 
urging a reopening of the question, which, because of its bear- 
ing upon the economical operation of locomotives, is clearly 
important enough to warrant attention by the committee on 
subjects to be presented to the Master Mechanics' Association 
for report next year. 



One hundred and eight patterns of car brasses make quite 
a formidable array. It is a silent commentary upon the mean- 
ing of the "M. C. B. standard." when such a lot of miscella- 
neous and grotesque metal shapes must be carried in stock 
on a single railroad to meet the combined requirements of home 
and foreign cais. Upon investigating a reason for carrying one 
of these patterns, we found that a certain prominent road is 
responsible for putting out brasses and wedges bearing the 
symbol "M. C. B.. ' of which the wedges are too narrow to 
work in standard M. C. B. journal boxes without allowing the 
brass to tilt over on its side and with side lips so deep that 
the lugs bear upon the lugs of the brass and prevent the 
top of the brass from touching the bottom of the body of the 
wedge. The brass will not work with an M. C. B. wedge and 
the wedge will not work with an M. C. B. brass. In justice 
to the railroads the name of this road ought to be made public. 



J 72 AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 




Fig. 1.— New Dynamometer Car— Chicago & Northwestern Ry. 



Fig. 2. -Rear View of Recording Machine. 



M v "'--:: .'■■■;-fy'»:mii^ 



n 



u 



■Baiter. »ei/ft - 



fOancrr'c 



-4'-0'- 



K',iWA'A'y//i^>;m' 



C/oset 



i/ppt 'r & Loner 






O'-^ g'-J'— ^ 



C/ose^ 



i/pp<r !• Loner 



— &^-0^- 



Tat/e 



4- 9-6^ 



7 ^oi// /fere fi^ 



y Dt/ni7/770mefer arr^^^ei7?e/rf 

A 



■yMmw////:: 



Fie 4.— Floor Plan of Car. 



'r. 


















looo 


le 


b 


*- 




zooo 


,0 


f 


B 




fsm 


>o 


i * 


y6 






Fig. 5. -Draft Cear, Connection to Pencil and Train of Driving Gearing, 



June, I'.KK). 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 173 




Fig. 3.— Front View of Recording Machine. 




-Fig. 6,-Dasli Pot an Pencil Motion. 



NEW DYNAMOMETER CAR. 



Chicago & Northwestern Railway. 



The new dynamometer car just completed by the Chicago & 
Northwestern Ry. has several novel features. The car is simi- 
lar in construction to the standard cabooses of the road, except 
that the center sills are 10 in. channels, placed 21 in. apart and 
to these the draft gear is fastened. An ordinary M. C. B. 
coupler is attached to one end, while the other carries a spe- 
cially designed link coupler attached to the follower by a ball 



joint. The illustrations present. In Fig. 1, an exterior view of 
the car; in Figs. 2 and .S. front and rear views of the recording 
machine; Fig. 4 is a floor plan; Figs. .5 and G show the draft 
springs, thoir connection with the machine, the machine itself, 
the pencil motion, including the dash pot, al.so the paper driv- 
ing mechanism. Fig. 7 gives sections through the receiving 
and driving drums and the steel band connection between the 
drawbar and the vertical shaft to the pencil motion, as show.i 
in Fig. 8. 

There are 16 springs in all, arranged in two sets with 
a follower between them. The casing gives these springs an 
initial compression of about 4,000 lbs. each. The free height of 
the springs is 10% in. Their height under a load of 4,000 lbs. 
is 9.45 in. and under <i..'J0O lbs. 8.0.5 in. The coupler being 
attached to the central follower, will, with its movements, con:- 
press one spring still more and reduce the compression of tho 
other correspondingly. The initial load is sufficient to be sun- 
that the maximum drawbar pull will never entirely unloau 
either spring. The object of this arrangement is to cause the 
errors of deflection of one set of springs to neutralize those of 
the other. It is well known that the deflections of spiral springs 
are different when ascending and descending when tested by 
gradually applied and gradually removed loads. This central 
follower takes care of the errors by causing one spring to be 
loaded while the opposite one is unloaded, the errors then 
counteract each other to an extent believed to give a degree 
of reliability which will render the machine fairly satisfac- 
tory and yet save the cost of an elaborate Emery dynaaiometer. 
The deflections of this arrangement are re- 
markably close to a straight line. The large 
number of springs were used in order to 
make the springs of small bars, which are 
more regular than large ones in their action. 
The capacity of the draft gear for recording 
is 50,000 lbs. This opposition of the springs 
also does away with lost motion and tends 
to produce a steadier pencil motion. 

The motion of the recording draft gear is 
transmitted to the car through a vertical 
shaft connected to the drawbar by thin steel 
bands wrapped around a sheave at the lower 
end of the shaft, the slack being taken up 
by means of a light spring. A spring steel 
blade bears against vertical rollers secured 
to the pencil arm. The pencil arm swivels 
around the vertical shaft, but is loose upon 
it, and its vibration is controlled and 
steadied by a dash pot with rotary vanes, 
the arm being connected to the vanes of the dash pot by 
thin steel bands. The pencil is carried by a frame and 
rollers upon guides and it is connected to the arm by steel 
bands. The dash pot restricts the vibrations of the pencil arm 
to a small amount each side of the mean position, while the 
steel blade permits of the rotation of the shaft, which is con- 
nected with the drawbar, without restriction, and in servic^- 
the blade is continually bending to the right and left while the 
pencil occupies a mean position with comparatively little vibra- 
tion. The extent of the oscillations may be regulated by a 
screw in the by-pass of the dash pot. 

The car has four wheel trucks and to one of the axles a uni- 
versal telescopic motion mechanism is geared and five speeds 
are provided for the paper, viz.. 25. 50. 100. 200 and 400 ft. of 
track per lineal inch of the paper travel. The scale changing 
gearing is similar to the screw-gears of a lathe. Five peus 
make the following records: A datum or zero line for the 
drawbar pull, the curve of the pull itself, an automatic time 
record marking ten-second intervals, a push button record for 
mile posts and stations and another push-button record from 
the engine to locate indicator diagrams and steam pressure. A 
Boyer speed recorder, gauges and clocks complete the appar- 
atus. The comfort of the attendants was considered and sleep- 
ing accommodations for four men provided. The car has a 
table, a closet, vise and bench and is heated by a Baker heater. 
The car is just finished and the preliminary tests indicate 
that it is likely to be satisfactory. The plan and details, in- 
cluding the opposition of the springs, were worked out by Mr. 
W. II. Marshall and Mr. F. M. Whyte. under the direction ot 
Mr. Quayle. The construction was completed under Mr. G. R 
Hendersop 



174 AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 




CONSIDERATION OP WEIGHT OF PARTS IN LOCOMOTIVE 
DESIGN. 



Fig, 7.— Sections Through Paper Drums. 





By W. H. Marshall, Superintendent ot Motive Power, Lake 
Shore & Michigan Southern Railroad. 



Fis;- 8,— Motion Transmission from the Drawbar to the 
Recording Mechanism. 



Ten or twelve years ago hut little attention was paid to the 
reduction of weight of details of- locomotives. Cast and 
wrought iron entered largely into the construction of those 
pa:t= and with no attempt to reduce their wei.eht the amount 
available for the boiler was much too small. But large boilers 
were not so well appreciated then, and the writer recalls cases 
where a correct distribution of weight was accomplished by 
making the footplates nearly one foot thick and when this 
was not sufficient to keep down the weight on the front trucks 
to the amount desired the cab brackets were .made three 
inches thick and the back running boards were made of cast- 
iron 1% inches thick. To day such methods of effecting a 
correct distribution of weight are not considered for a moment, 
but the wheels are so placed with reference to the boiler as 
to give the correct distribution. 

Notwithstanding that locomotives are much heavier to-day. 
there is a greater necessity than ever for getting the max- 
imum power within the imposed limit of weight. In pass- 
enger service the high speeds and great weights of trains call 
for large horse-powers, and large horse-powers mean large 
boilers. Even in freight service where speeds are supposed to 
be slow the increase