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ESTABLISHED 18 3 2 



— AMERICAN-. 

Engineer 



AND 



RAILROAD JOURNAL 



R. M. VAN AHSDALE, Proprietor. 
J. s. IJONSAI-L., Hnaliitss manager. 



I .In-.. - 



IE. A. A.VKIIIM. 



PublUlird Monthly at MO Naiaan Street, New Vork. 



INDEX TO VOLUME LXXXI1I 1909 



' indicates illustrated article. 
S indicates editorial comment. 



A 

Abrasion Cut-off Saw for Flues 351* 

Abrasion Cutoff Saws 377 \ 

Accidents, Publicity of Railroad 288T 

Accidents on Railroads, 1 >ecrease I ^ :; 

Vdams, T. E., How to Successfully Bum 

Coal in a Locomotive 351 

Air Drake Cylinders, Preparing Packing 

Leathers for .T 146* 

Air Brake Hose 295* 

Air Kraice Hose Connection 40* 

Air Brake Hose Coupling 2y5 l 

Air Brake Hose, Freezing of 2| 

Air Brake Hose Gaskets 295 

Air Brake Work in Loco. Shops, Machine 

Tools Required for 125 

Air, Compressed (see also Compressed Air). 

Air Compressors in Roundhouses 13| 

Air Operated Drop Doors on Summers Ore 

Car ■ 3G9* 

Air Pump Bracket, C. P. Ry 431* 

Air Pump Union, ivewanee 41* 

Air Pumps on a Locomotive, The Use of Two 393 

Alcohol, Denatured, from Natural Gas 39* 

Allowances, Standard 217 

Alloy Steels 6Sg 

Altoona Car Shops, Forging at 210* 

Altoona Freight Car Repair Yards 83* 

Altoona Freight Car Repair Yard, East 

Bound 99* 

Altoona Freight Car Repair Yard, West 

Bound : • - 92* 

Altoona Yards, Arrangement and Operation 

of 81* 

Aluminum a Commercial Metal 191f 

Ambitious Men, Good Opportunity for 392 

American Balanced Valve Co., Semi Plug 

Piston Valve 117* 

American Exposition in Berlin -lull 

American Locomotive Co., Design of Helical 

Springs 103 

American Locomotive Co., Electric Loco.... 362* 
American Locomotive Co. , Electric Locomo- 
tive With Connecting Rods . . , 307* 

American Locomotive Co.'s Semi-Elliptic 

Spring Table 59 

American Nut and Bolt Fastener Co. Nut 

and Bolt Fasteners 299f. 341 

American Railroad Employees' and Investors* 

Assn 145 

American Railway Association, Officers of... 252f 
American Soc. of Mech. Engrs., Annual 

Meeting 501t 

American Soc. of Mech. Engrs., November 

Meeting 453t 

American Sue of Mech. Engrs.. October 

Meeting 422 

American Soc. of Mech. Engrs., Spring 

Meeting 191 

American Specialty Co. "Use-Em-Up M Drill 

Socket 76" 

American Steam Gauge and Valve Mfg. Co., 

Hydraulagraph 452* 

American Steam Gauge & Valve Mfg. Co., 

"Positive" Water Glass Guard 382" 

American Swiss File & Tool Co.'s Files 117 

American Tool \\ orks Co., Power Required 

for Driving Pipe Taps 355 

American Tool \w orks Co.. Sensitive Radial 

Drill 210*. 45S* 

American Tool Works Co. Shaper 166* 

American Tool Works Co. Triple Geared 

Head Lathe with Turret 34* 

American Type Locomotives, Tabular Com- 
parison 277 

\merican Wood Working Machinery Co.'s 

New Outside Moulder 175* 

Anderson, R. V., Applying Flexible Staybolts 19* 



J indicat) oi i nmcation. 

t indicates a short n on -illustrated article i 



Antz, Oscar, Setting Valves with Walschaert 
Valve Gear 128* 

Apprentice Instructors' Conference, 
New Vork Central Linen. 

Apprentice Club Statistics. 388 

Apprentices Easier to Obtain 387 

Apprentice System, How to Improve.... 437 

Bastord, G. M., On Apprenticeship 385 

Beech Grove Shops Apprentice School 

Room 388 

Benefits, General 387 

Benefits from Drawing Room Work 387 

Blacksmith Apprentices, Difficulty in Ob- 
taining 443 

Boiler-Maker apprentices, Difficulty in 

Obtaining 443 

Boiler-Maker Apprentices, Drawing 

Course for 440 

Bronner, E. D., On Apprenticeship 386 

Brazier, F. W., On Apprenticeship 385 

Car Shop, Apprentice Drawing Course 

for 389 

Car Shop Apprentice, Freight 389 

Car Shop Apprentices, Should There Be 

a Separate Shop Instructor for 443 

Classroom, Discipline in 439 

Classroom Instructor, The Assistant 443 

Classroom Work, Penalties for Not Do- 
ing 438 

Classroom Work, Stimulating Interest in 438 
Co-operation. How Taught to Apprentices 437 

Cross, C. W„ Address 387 

Deems. J. F., On Apprenticeship 385 

Discipline in the Classroom 439 

Draftsmen, Should the Boys be Discour- 
aged from Becoming 443 

Drawing Course for Boiler-Maker Ap- 
prentices 440 

Drawing Course for Car Shop Appren- 
tices 389^ 

Drawing Exercise, An Interesting 439* 

Drawing Exercises, Number to Issue at 

One Time 442 

Drawing Room, Use of Stools in 443 

Drawing Room Work, Benefits from.... 387 
Drawing Room Work Done by Appren- 
tices, Important 388 

Editorial Note 405§ 

Education, How to Impress the Appren- 
tice With the Value of 437 

Extension of the Work 387 

Freight Car Shop Apprentice 389 

Gardner, Henry, On Results from Ap- 
prenticeship 387 

Garstang, Wm., On Apprenticeship. . . . 386 

Graduate Apprentices 387 

Home Work, Amount of 43s 

Home Work, Penalties for Not Doing.. 438 

Home Work, Stimulating 389 

Howard, John, On Apprenticeship 3S5 

Instructor. The Assistant Classroom.... 443 

Instructors, Names of 385 

Instructors, Observation Trips for 443 

Instructor, Shop, Duties of 442*- 

Instructor, Shop, for Car Shop Appren- 
tices 443 

Instructor, Shop, Results from 387 

Labor Unions 387 

Laboratory Work 439 

Letter Writing, Teaching of 439 

Lettering Course for Painter Apprentices 443 

Loyalty to the Company 387 

McCarthy, M. J., Address of Welcome.. 385 
Mathematics, Higher. How Much Instruc- 
tion Should be Given in 443 

Observation Trips for Instructors 443 

Painter Apprentices, Course in Letter- 
ing for 443 

Parish, Le Grand, On Apprenticeship... 386 



Penalties for Failure to Do Home or 

Class Work 438 

Piece Work - 387 

Promotions to Responsible Positions.... 388 
Rate, Should Shop Instructor Notify the 
Foreman of the Boy's Next Advance 

in 442 

Results for the Year 387 

School Room, Beech Grove Shops 388 

Shea, R. T., On Apprenticeship. .. ^ 386 

Shifting Apprentices 442 

Shop Crurse for Spring-Maker Appren- 
tices 442 

Shop 1. uctor for Car Shop Appren- 
tices 443 

Shop Instructor, Duties of 442 

Shop Instructor, Results from.......... 387 

Shop Practice, Classroom Instruction in 443 
Shop Work Done by Apprentices, Impor- 
tant 388 

Spelling, Teaching of 439 

Spring-Maker Apprentice, Shop Course 

for 442 

Square Root, Should it be Taught 443 

Statistics for the Year 387 

Stimulating Home Work 389 

Stools, Use of ill Drawing Room 443 

Strength of Materials, Testing Machine 

for Studying 441* 

Testing Machine for Studying the 

Strength of Materials 441* 

Turner, L. H., On Apprenticeship 386 

Walschaert Valve Gear, Class Room In- 
struction 440 

Apprentice. The Railroad Shop 138* 

Apprentices, Discipline 138 

Apprentices, Number on N. Y. C. Lines. . . . 18S 

Apprentices, Sketching for 138 

Apprenticeship 405| 

Apprenticeship, Extension of 387 

Apprenticeship, Home Study 138 

Arch Bars for 50-Ton Cars 336 # 

Arcs Equal to Straight Lines 11* 

Articulated Compound Locomotives (see Mallet). 
Articulated Connection, 2-8-8-2 Loco., So. 

Pac. Co 367* 

Asbestos Protected Metal 301 

Ash, Basing Fuel Contracts on Amount of. 

189, 347|, 403t 

Ash Pan. 

Editorial Comment 2405 

Hopper Type, Hintred Doors 244* 

Hopper Type, Sliding Doors 242* 

Hopper Type, Special Arrangements...- 245* 

Hopper Tvpe. Swinging Doors 244* 

Lancashire & Yorkshire Ry 409* 

Lignite Burning Locomotives 390, 392 

Self Clearing 242* 

Self-Clearing, C. P. Ry 427* 

Shallow. Blower Discharge 246* 

Shallow, Side Opening 246* 

'v .Shallow. Special Arrangements for 

*3 \ Dumping 246* 

Shallow, With Sliding Doors 246* 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry., < see Santa 
Fe). 

Atlantic Coast Line, Ash Pan With >wing- 
ing Gate ?i fi * 

Atlantic Coast Line. Road Tests of Briquet- 

Atlantic Tvpe Loco., 4-Cvlinder Simple With 

heater, C. R. I. & P. Ry 467* 

Atlantic Type Loco., Nor. Pac. Ry 195* 

Type Loco., Santa Fe 

Atlantic Type Locos., Tabular Comparison.. 277 

Atlantic Tvpe Loco., Three-Cylinder, Phila- 
delphia & Reading Ry 459* 



250310 



Atlantic Type Loco., Three-Cvl. Simple, Fast 

Run on the P. & R 473' 

Atlantic Type Loco., Vauclain Comp., C, M. 

& St. P. Ry 115* 

Automobiles and Road Maintenance 41 5t 

Axle Journals, Grinding 1518 

Axle Lathe. Heavy, Lodge & Shipley 36* 

Axles (see Crank Axles). 

Axles, I oc*)motive. Boring 173* 

Axles, loco.. Machine Tools Required for... 122 

B 

Babbitting Ci osshead Gibs 219 

Raboiti inj; Ci ^shead Shoes 145* 

Babbitting Hub Side of Driving Boxes 219 

Babbiting Shells of Driving Boxes 219 

Baker Bros.. High Dutv Drill 207* 

V.aker-Pilliod Valve Gear 32* 

Baker-Pilliod Valve Gear, 4-6-2 Loco., Chica- 
go *- Alton Ry 268* 

Balanced Compound 4-4-2 Loco.. Santa Fe....478* 
Balanced Compound 4-6-2 Loco., Western 

Ry. of France 26* 

Balanced Comp. Passenger Loco., 4-6-0. N. 

C. & St. L. Ry 52* 

Balance! Simple Atlantic Type Loco., C, R. 

I. & P. Ry 467* 

Balata Belting 416* 

Baldwin Superheater, Test of 241 

Baltimore & Ohio Ry.. Cast Iron Ash Pan 

Slide arid Frame with Heating Passages. . 244* 
Barne\ $ Smith Car Co., Buffet Library 

Car" 447* 

Barnum Mechanical Stoker 280 

Barrels, Device for Elevating 10* 

Bartley Nut and Bolt Fasteners 299t, 341 

Basford, G. M., On Apprenticeship 385 

Basford. G. M.. The Railwav Business Asso- 
ciation, An Inside View 105 

Baulch. J. L. Are Railroad Clubs Worth 

While? 64 

Bearings, Car Journal, Machine for Boring. 410* 

Bedee Knives for Woodworking 363f 

Beech Grove Shops. Big 4, General Arrange- 
ment of 133* 

Belts. 

Abuse of 299f 

Balata 416* 

Care of 267| 

Dressing for 421 

Editorial Comment 1 51 § 

Fasteners for 416* 

Friction, Explosion from 272f 

Good Grade, How to Secure 339 

High Duty 416* 

Lacing Textile 416* 

Leather 204* 

Leather, Proper Care of lS9f 

Leather, Specifications for 255 

Short Centers 197t 

Speed for Maximum Economy 378f 

Textile, Lacing of 416* 

Beltzer, Andre, Portable Oxy- Acetylene 

Welding and Cutting Machine 34* 

Bement- Miles Hieh Power Milling Machine 308* 
Bentel & Margedant Heavy Automatic Cut- 

Off Saw 421* 

Bentel & Margedant Co., Single Spindle Hor- 
izontal Car Boring Machine 501* 

Bentel & Margedant Co., Vertical Car Bor- 
ing Machines 167*, 213* 

Bentel & Mareedant Universal Woodworker 342* 
Bentley, H. T., Are Bv-Pass Valves Neces- 
sary With Piston Valves 322 

Berlin. American Exposition in 401t 

Big Four (see Clev. C. C. & St. L. Ry.) 

Black Mechanical Stoker 280 

Blacksmith Shop, Idaho & Washington Nor. 

Ry 157* 

Block Signals, Automatic in 1908 78t 

Blowers. Effect of on Smoke 74* 

Blow-off Valve, Locomotive 500* 

Boiler. 

2-8-0 Loco., C. P. Ry 427* 

2-8-0 Loco., Chicago & Alton Rv 270* 

2-8-0 Loco., Wabash Pittsburgh terminal 

Ry 256* 

2-8-2 Loco., Chicago, Milwaukee & Puget 

Sound Ry 306* 

2-8-2 Loco., Va. Rv 226* 

2-8-8-2 Loco., So. Pac. Co 183* 

4-6-2 Loco., Chicago & Alton Ry 269* 

4-6-2 Loco., C. B. & Q 376* 

4-6-2 Loco., Gt. Nor. Ry 413* 

Articulated — Proposed Design 16*, 22§ 

Barrel, Long 410 

Circulation in Water Leg 20, 23§ 

Clean. Necessity of Keeping SI 4 

Cleaning Out. Methods of.. 353 

Combustion Chamber, 4-6-2 Loco., Nor. 

Pac. Ry 195* 

Crown Bolts in 322 

European Design, Tendency of 375 

Firebox (see Firebox). 

Inspection Bill, Federal 288 

Lancashire & Yorkshire Ry., Develop- 
ment on 406 

Life of on the Lancashire & Yorkshire 

Ry 406 

Long Barrel 410 

Mallet Compound Locomotive, Santa Fe . -174* 
Performance. Saturated and Superheated 

Steam 282, 284 

Pressure and Superheated Steam, Rela- 
tion of 220* 



Repairs Reduced 444§ 

Shop, Machine Tools Required in Loco., 

121, 150§ 
Stays Above Crown Sheet to Clear Lon- 
gitudinal Stays 310* 

Tapping Holes in 433* 

Tube Joints, The Slipping Point of, 

364§, 370* 

Washing Hose and Tools, Truck for... 141* 

Washing Out, Methods of 353 

Water Changing and Washing Out 

Equipment, Miller 5 

Water Leg, Circulation in 20, 23§ 

Water Tube vs. Standard 253* 

Bolster, Reinforcing on Steel Cars 99* 

Bolt Cutter With Turret Head 8* 

Bolt Fasteners, Bartley _ 299t, 341 

Bolt for Drawing Up and Fitting 91 

Bonus Schedule for Firemen 234 

Bonus System, Results of 237* 

Books. 

Air Brake Instruction Book, Westing- 
house E-T 303 

Block Signal and Train Control, Report 
to Interstate Commerce Commission. . 179 

Church, A. Hamilton, The Proper Dis- 
tribution of Expense Burden 43 

Diary for 1909, Westinghouse 43 

Earth Slopes, Retaining Walls and Dams, 
Chas. Prelini 43 

Efficiency as a Basis for Operation and 
Wages, Harrington Emerson 423 

Electrical Engineering, General Lectures 
on, by Chas. P. Steinmetz 119 

Emerson, Harrington, Efficiency as a Ba- 
sis for Operation and Wages 423 

Engineering Index, Annual for 1908.... 215 

Estimates, Tables of Quantities for Pre- 
liminary, E. F. Haugh & R. D. Rice. 79 

Expense Burden, The Proper Distribution 
of, A. Hamilton Church 43 

Fowle, Frank F., Protection of Rail- 
roads from Overhead Transmission 
Line Crossings 422 

Going, Chas. B., Methods of the Santa 
Fe — Efficiency in the Manufacture of 
Transportation 501 

Goss, W. F. M., High Steam Pressure 
in Locomotive Service 119 

Haugh, E. F., Tables of Quantities for 
Preliminary Estimates 79 

Highway Bridges, Design of, Milo S. 
Ketchum 43 

Internal Combustion Engine, by H. E. 
Wimperis 119 

Ketchum, Milo S., Design of Highway 
Bridges 43 

Lighting Engineers* Hand-Book, by L. 
R. Pomeroy 463 

Locomotive, The Railway, by Vaughan 
Pendred . 178 

Locomotive Service, High Steam Pres- 
sure in, by W. F; M. Goss 119 

Master Blacksmiths' Assn., Internation- 
al R. R., Proceedings 79 

Master Car Builders' Assn., Proceedings 79 

Master Mechanics' Assn., Proceedings of 78 

Morrison, Egbert R., Spring Tables 78 

Patents as a Factor in Manufacturing, 
Edwin J. Prindle 43 

Pendred, Vaughan, The Railway Loco- 
motive 178 

Pomeroy, L. R., Lighting Engineers' 
Hand-Book 463 

Poor's Manual for 1909 344 

Prelini, Chas., Earth Slopes, Retaining 
Walls and Dams 43 

Prindle, Edwin J., Patents as a Factor 
in Manufacturing 43 

Protection of Railroads from Overhead 
Transmission Line Crossings, Frank F. 
Fowle 422 

Railroad Construction, Theory and Prac- 
tice, Walter Loring Webb 43 

Rice, R. D., Tables of Quantities for 
Preliminary Estimates 79 

Santa Fe, Methods of, Efficiency in the 
Manufacture of Transportation, by 
Chas. B. Going 501 

Spring Tables, Egbert R. Morrison 78 

Steinmetz. Chas. P., General Lectures on 
Electrical Engineering 119 

Traveling Engineers* Assn., Proceedings 79 

Webb, Walter Loring. Railroad Con- 
struction, Theory and Practice 43 

Westinghouse Diary for 1909 43 

Westinghouse E-T Air Brake Instruction 
Pocket Book 303 

Wimperis, H. E., The Internal Combus- 
tion Engine 119 

Wood, W. W., Westinghouse E-T Air 
Brake Instruction Pocket Book 303 

Boring, Drilling and Milling Machine, Hori- 
zontal 378* 

Boring Locomotive Axles 173* 

Boring Machine, Single Spindle Horizontal 

(Wood) 501* 

Boring Machines, Vertical, Car 167*. 213* 

Boring Mill, Vertical 380* 

Boring Square Holes 38* 

Boring, Turning and Facing Machine 171* 

Boston, Electrification of Steam Railways in 178 

Box Car Doors 296 

Box Cars, Device for Loading Coal in 72* 

Boxes (see Driving Boxes). 
Brake Beam Safety Hangers, Dies for Bend- 
ing 211* 



Brake Chain 297* 

Brake Cylinders, Cleaning of 336 

Brake Hanger Guides, Wing Dies for Form- 
ing 211* 

Brake Rod Jaws, Forging at the Collinwood 

Shops 482* 

Brake Shaft 297* 

Brake Shaft Brackets, Former for Bending.. 210* 

Brake Shoes, Tests of 295 

Brake and Spring Rigging, Loco., Machine 

Tools Required for 124 

Brake Wheel 297* 

Brakes, Power on Trains 258 

Brass Work in Loco. Shops, Machine Tools 

Required for 125 

Brasses (see Rod Brasses). 

Brasses, Car Journal, Machine for Boring... 410* 

Brazier, F. W., On Apprenticeship 385 

Brick Arch 322 

Brick Arch and Smoke 62§, 74* 

Brick Arch for Lignite Burning Engines.... 392 

Brick Arch, Lancashire & Yorkshire Ry 409 

Brill Truck for Electric Cars 499* 

Briquets. 

Advantages of 368 

Cinders from 68 

Disadvantages of 314 

Firing 3b3t 

Handling, Effect of 69 

On European Railroads 347 

Smoke and Cinders from 355| 

Smoke from 68 

Test of 62§, 67*, 354f 

Weathering 09 

Bronner, E. D., On Apprenticeship 386 

Brown & Sharpe Heavy Plain Milling Ma- 
chine 214* 

Bryan, Joseph, Obituary Notice 42 

Buck Superheater, Santa Fc Mallet Comp. 

Locos 482* 

Buckley, John, Good Mixture for Case Hard- 
ening 10 

Buffalo Heating Co., Roundhouse Heating 

System 5* 

Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh Ry., Ash 

Pan with Patented Radial Doors 245* 

Buffet Library Car, C. M. & St. P. Ry 447* 

Building Construction, Use of Wood in 2 

Bullard Vertical Turret Lathe, Work Done 

by 260* 

Bumper Beam, 2-8-0 Loco., C. P. Ry 430* 

Burner Using Hydro-Carbon as Fuel 457* 

Burns, Geo. J., Machining Driving Boxes... 185 

Burns, Geo. J., Machining Shoes and Wedges 134* 
Burns, Geo. J., Observations on Babbitting 

and Brasses 219 

Burns, Geo. J., Railroad Machine Shop 

Practice 134*. 150§, 185, 219 

Bushings, Hydraulic Press for Valve Cham- 
ber 483* 

Business Failures This Year 323T 

Business Notes, 

44, 80, 120, 180, 216, 264, 303, 344, 384, 

424, 464, 503 

Business Outlook Improving 151§ 

By-Pass Valve Arrangement, 2-8-0 Loco., C. 

P. Ry 429* 

By-Pass Valves, Are They Necessary With 

Piston Valves 322 



Caboose, Virginian Ry 402* 

Cabooses, Telephones on 453f 

Caldwell, John, Obituary Notice 503 

Canadian Pacific Ry. Consolidation Loco. 

With Superheater 425* 

Canadian Pacific Ry., Equipment of 1387 

Canadian Pacific Ry. Safety League 299 

Canadian Railway Club, 

25, 65, 113, 152, 209, 237, 422, 462, 486 

Car. 

Blown from Track 21f 

Boring Machines, Vertical 167*, 213* 

Box, Device for Loading Coal in 72* 

Box, Doors for 296 

Coke, Four Hopper, Steel, P. R. R 187* 

Door, Box Car 296 

Freight (see Freight Car). 

Freight, Steel (see Steel Freight Car). 

Glass, for Carrying Plate 231* 

Gondola, Steel, 50-Ton, Denver & Rio 

Grande Ry 250* 

Gondola, Steel, 50-Ton, Maine Central 

Ry 252* 

Gondola, Steel, 50-Ton, Norfolk & West- 
ern Ry 349* 

Gondola, Steel, 50-Ton, Nor. Pac. Ry. . 251* 

Gondola, Steel, 50-Ton, Virginian Ry. . . 395* 

Hoppei, for Coke, P. R. R 187* 

Hopper, for Ore, Summers 338* 

Hopper, Summers 49*. 338*, 369* 

Journal Bearings, Machine for Boring. . 410* 

Journals, Grinding 151§ 

Lighting Engineers', Assn. of 422 

Motor (see Motor Car). 

Number Built in 1908 47 

Passenger (see Passenger Car). 

Passenger, Steel (see Steel Passenger Car). 

Refrigerator (see Refrigerator Car). 

Repair Department, Organization of 86* 

Repair Yards, Altoona 83*, 92*, 99* 

Repairs (see Steel Freight Cars, Mainte- 
nance and Repair of at Altoona). 



Shops (see Shop, Car). 

Steel, Freight (sir Steel Freight Cars). 

Steel, Passengei (see Steel Passenger 

Summers Steel Hopper 49', 338*. 369* 

Tank rM 

\\ hei Is (see Wheels). 

Window (leaning Device 259 

Window Fixtures "4* 

Wooden, Freight, The Passing of 85" 



Carpenter, Ceo. M., On Testing Loco. Fuel. 
Canigan, J. E., Wilding Locomotive Frames 

Case Hardening, Good Mixture for 

Cast Iron Pipe Fittings, Effect of Superheat- 

cil Steam on 

Castings, To Find the Weight of 

Castle Nuts ; 

Castle Nuts, Dies and Former for Forging.. 
Catalogs, 

44 80, 120, ISO, 210, 203, 303, 344, 383, 

424, 181, 

Cement for Pipe Joints 

Center Plates 

Center Sills. Steel, Splicing of 90 , 

Centering Device, 2 S-S-2 Loco., So. Pac. Co. 
Central of Georgia Ry., Hopper Type Ash 

Pan ■•• 

Central of Georgia Ry., Tests of Locos. With 

Superheater and Feed Water Heater 

Central Railroad of New Jersey, Cast Iron 

Ash Pan 

Central Railroad of New Jersey, Steel Under- 

1 rame Coaches 

Central Railway Club, 

25, 05, 113, 152, 209, 237, 372, 422, 

Chain, Brake 

Chain Grates 

Chambersbnrg 1500-Ton Press 

"Change-in-Progress Cards" 

Check Valve, C. P. Ry ■•■■ 

Chesapeake & Ohio Ry., Cast Steel Ash Pan 

Slide and Frame 

Chesapeake & Ohio R. R., Road Tests of 

Briquets 

Chicago & Alton, Consolidation Loco 

Chicago & Alton Ry., Pacific Type Loco.... 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, Consolidation 

Loco. With Wood's Fire Box and Tube 

Plates •••• 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Pacific 1 ype 

Loco 

Chicago. Milwaukee & Puget Sound Ry., Mi- 
kado Type Loco 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Ry., 4-4-2 

Comp. Loco 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Ry., Ash Pan 

With Swinging Doors 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Ry., Buffet 

Library Cars 

Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Ry. (see Rock 
Island). 

Chisel Bar, Engineer's 

Christensen, Prof. G. L., The Slipping Point 

of Rolled Boiler Tube Joints 3048, 

Cincinnati-Bickford High Speed Upright Drill 

Cincinnati Continuation Schools 404§, 

Cincinnati Electrical Tool Company Electric 

Hammer 

Cincinnati Milling Machine Co. High Power 

Milling Machines 

Cincinnati Planer Co., 22-Inch Planer 

Cincinnati Planer Co. Two-Speed Planer 

Drive 

Cincinnati Planer for Cylinders 

Cincinnati, University of, Co-operative Engi- 
neering Courses 199, 

Cinders from Briquets 

Cinder Pits, East Buffalo Roundhouse 

Cinder Pits in Roundhouse 

Circuit Breakers, New Haven Electrification 

Circulation in Fire Box Water Legs 

(haver, F. C, On Superheaters 

Clev. C. C. & St. L. Ry., General Arrange- 
ment of the Beech Grove Shops 

Cleveland Machine Tool Works, Horizontal 

Boring, Drilling and Milling Machine 

Cleveland Twist Drill Co.. Flat Twisted Drill 

Coach and Paint Shop, Idaho & Washington 

Nor. Ry 

Coal. 



397 

453* 

10 

177t 
1291 
320" 
130' 



603 

75 

337 

97* 
308* 

243* 

241 

243* 

l.ss 



4C2 

297* 

440 

91* 
415* 
427* 

243* 

09 
209* 
208* 



305* 
115* 
845* 

447* 

55" 

370* 
418* 
451 

171t 

108* 
37* 

419* 
73* 

497t 
68 
9* 

154* 
28 
63§ 

288 



378* 
343* 



157 



Basing Contracts on Amount of Ash 

Buying on a Heat Value Basis. 189, 314, 

Conservation of 

Device for Loading in Box Cars 

Economy 

How to Burn Successfully in a Locomo 

tive 

Inspection of 

Lignite as Fuel for Locos 

Mines, Loss of Life in 

Testing Locomotive 

Weighing for Loco. Use 



403t 
347t 
379t 
72* 
314 

361 

393t 

390* 

176t 

396 

346 

Coaling Arrangements at Roundhouses 53 

Coaling Stations, Cost of Operating 403 

Coaling Station, East Buffalo Roundhouse... 9* 
Coates Clipper Flexible Shaft Applications.. 259* 

Coke Car, Four Hopper, Steel. P. R. R 187* 

Colburn Machine Tool Co. Vertical Boring 

Mill 380* 

Cold Saw Cutting-Off Machine 456* 

Cole, F. J., Low, Moderately and Highly 

Superheated Steam 220*, 241§, 339 

Cole, F. J.. Mallet Comp. Locos 15 

Coli Superheater on Atlantic Type Loco., C- 

R. I. & P. Ry 467* 

College Men in Railroad Service 176 



Collinwood Shops. Flue Plant 

Collinwood Shops. Forging at 131* 

Collinwood Shop , Forging Brake Rod Jaws 

H I 

Collinwood Shops, Machine i"i Boring Car 

Journal Bearings 410" 

Color, Instrument foi Measuring 181 

Combustion Chamber, 4-0-2 Loco., Nor. Pac. 

Ry Hi'.' 

Combustion Chambei in Boiler, Santa Fe 

Locos 475 

Combustion and Evaporation, Loco 231 

Combustion. Smokeless 205| 

Compound Loco, (see Balanced Comp. Loco.) 
Compound Loco, (see Mallet Comp. Locos.) 
Compound Loco., Vauclain, 4-1-2, C. M. Si St. 

P. Ry 116" 

Compressed Air Traction System 170 

Compression Testing Machine, 10,000,000 lb. 102 
Compressors (see Air Compressors). 

Condensation, Cylinder 223 

Conservation of Coal 379t 

Conservation of Natural Resources 207t 

Consolidation Loco., Chicago & Alton Ry... 269* 
Consolidation Locos., Tabular Comparison. . . 274. 
Consolidation Loco. With Fire Tube Super- 
heater, Wabash Pittsburgh Terminal Ry. . . 256* 
Consolidation Loco. With Superheater, C. P. 

Ry 425* 

Continuation Schools, Cincinnati 404g. 451 

Cooper-Hewitt Lamps, Lighting Railroad 

Shops With 298* 

Co-operation, How Taught to Apprentices... 437 
Co-operative Education, Lewis Institute..... 58 
Co-operative Engineering Courses, University 

of Cincinnati _ L99, W7t 

Coping Machine, Hydraulic 3&1* 

Copper Safe-Ends for Flues 1ST 

Correspondence lot, 104§ 

Corrosion of Steel Cars 86 

Cost of High Speed 411 

Costs, Importance of Knowing Promptly.... 2t 

Costs of Operation of Repair Shop 266 

Costs and Performances, Keeping Officials 

Posted 236* 

Costs, Standard 217 

Counterbalance, Incorrect, Hammer Blow 

from 45* 

Counterbalancing 398*, 405§ 

Coupler. 

Face Tests 329* 

Gauges for Attachment to Yoke 331* 

Heigh-, of 289 

Mating of 331 

Report, M. C. B. Assn 329* 

Side Clearance Tests 332* 

Yoke, Dies for Forming 211* 

Yoke Filler, Forging 130*, 229* 

Yoke, Method of Riveting to Coupler... 91 

Coupling, Air Brake Hose 295* 

Crane Design, Jib 11* 

Crane, Jib, in Roundhouse 1001 

Crane, Locomotive v . . . 99* 

Crank Axles, Development of on the Lan- 
cashire & Yorkshire Ry 406* 

Crank Axles, Increasing Life of 396* 

Crank Axle, Rock Island Balanced Simple 

Loco 469* 

Crank Pin Block 56* 

Crank Pin Lubricator 415* 

Crank Pin, Machine for Turning Off the 

Rivet Head on 171* 

Crank Pins, Machine Tools Required for.... 122 
Crawford, D. F.. On the Mechanical Stokers 281 

Crosby Mechanical Stoker 279 

Cross, C. W., On Apprenticeship 387 

Crosshead Gibs, Babbitting 219 

Crosshead, Machine Tools Required for 122 

Crosshead Shoes, Babbitting 145* 

Crown Bolts in Boiler 322 

Crude Oil Heater for Steel Car Repairs. 92*, 95* 

Cups, Individual Drinking 299t 

Cup for Measuring Oil 57* 

Curtis, T. II., Location of Side Bearings on 

Tender Trucks 232*, 299 

Cut-off Saw, Abrasion 37"t 

Cut-off Saw for Flues, Abrasion 351* 

Cut-off Saw, Heavy Automatic 421* 

Cutter Grinder, Universal 116* 

Cutting Metal by Oxy-Acetylene Methods... 62° 

Cutting Metals, Oxy-Acetylene Machine 34* 

Cylinder. 

2-8-0 Loco., C. P. Ry .429* 

2-8-2 Loco.. Va. Ry 226* 

2-8-8-2 Loco., So. Pac. Co 367* 

Balanced Simple Loco., C. R. I. & P. Ry. 409* 

Brake, Cleaning 336 

Condensation 223 

Heads. Machining on Vertical Turret 

Lathe • 260* 

Life of on the Lancashire & Yorkshire 

Ry 406 

Low Pressure for Virginian Mallet Loco. 358* 
Power and Heating Surface, Diagram 
for Determining the Relation Between, 

345*, 365S 

Machine Tools Required for 122 

Planer, Cincinnati 73* 

Saddle, High Pressure, 2-8-8-2 Loco., So. 
Pac. Co 367* 

D 

Damon, George A., Analysis of Cost of Loco- 
motive Repair Shops 19 

narling, Philip G.. Safety Valve Capacity 162* 

Decay of Lumber 379 

Deems, J. F.. On Apprenticeship 385 



Railroad, 

Ma< 1 i -motive Machine 

and Boiler Shop . ... .121, 1 ."»G| 

Delays to Train , New Vork Stab 
Denature ... 89* 

i >■ Pacific Ry-, M 

i oi 81* 

Denver & Rio Grai ■ 

260* 

Di P Planl 3 45t 

i ' 203 

D "t Locomotive and Car P 

pii ical Formula for 312$ 

i' nnel Co. Electric Loco.... 

Diamond ■■ I ' : i i Lii 391* 

Direct ' '■ i i catioi 

Dispatch Tube, Pni Round ■ 

D >n < Mm iblc Co Bell ■ 4~- 

Dodge Mechanical Stoker 280 

Door, Box ' ar 290 

l)u.)i. Drop, Air Operated for Summers Car. 

Door, I Ji op, St. : 1 ( 'oke < ai I ' 

Door, (liain 

i too G Ii tal 31* 

Door Knobs foi Baggagi ' 

Former for Forging 130* 

Door for Roundhouse, Folding 41* 

Doten, Prof. C, Causes of Derailment 1 - 203 

Drafl G ction 331 

Draft in Locomotives l 

Draft in Steam Boiler Practice 

Drafting Engines Pi operly 315 

Drafting Room, Data of Interest to 11*, 59 

Drafting Ro I i Device for 259 • 

Drawbai Between Engine and Tenucr, \ ir- 

ginian Mallet Loco 359* 

Drawbar (sec Coupler). 

Drill. 

Angular for Square Hole-* 38* 

Flat Twisted, "Paragon*' 343* 

High Duty, Baker Bros 207' 

High Duly, Foote-Burt 

High Speed 347T 

High Speed Upright 418* 

Multiple Spindle in Railroad Shop 100* 

Radial, Mueller 176* 

Radial, Sensitive 210*. 458* 

Sensitive, Radial 210*. 458* 

Shank, Stronger 

Socket, "Economy" 78* 

Socket, "Use-Em-Up" 76* 

Twist, "Highpower ' 419* 

Twist, High Speed 238, 3731 

Twist, "Paragon" 343* 

Drilling Apparatus, Portable 259* 

Drilling, Boring and Milling Machine, Hori- 
zontal 378* 

Drilling, Diagram for Finding Information.. 496* 

Drilling, High Speed, Data on 207* 

Dulling Machine, 3- Spindle, Horizontal 497* 

Drilling Machines Required in Loco. Boiler 

Shop 12ff 

Drilling Square Holes 38* 

Drinking Cups, Individual 299| 

Driving Box, Babbitting Hub Side of 219 

Driving Box, Babbitting Shells of 219 

Driving Box Brasses, Shimming 219 

Driving Box, Casting Shells and Hub Plate 

on 219 

Driving Box, Machine Tools Required for... 122 

Driving Box, Machining of 185 

Driving Box, Moulding Grease for 144* 

Driving Wheel Tires, Flange Wear on 248* 

Driving Wheels and Tires, Machine Tools 

Required for 122 

Drop Doors, Air Operated, Summers Ore Car 369* 

Drop Doors, Steel Coke Car 188* 

Drop Hammer, Steam 4G1* 

Drop Pits, East Buffalo Roundhouse 7 

Drop Tables. Cost of 131t 

Duff Mfg. Co., Hydraulic Tacks 177* 

Duluth & Iron Range R. R., Steel Hopper 

Car, Summers 50*. 338* 

Dupree, W. H-, Locomotive Crank Pin Lu- 
bricator 415* 

Dust Guards, Standard 335* 

Dvnamometer for Coupler Side Clearance 
Tests 324* 

E 

East Buffalo Roundhouse, N. V. C. & H. R. 

R. R 3* 

Economizers, Cost and Saving 411t 

"Economy" Drill Sockets : - . . 78* 

Education, Co-operative 58 

Education, Co-operative. Univ. of Cincinnati, 

199, 4977 

Education of Firemen 1988 

Education of Firemen, D. R. MacBain 316 

Education, How to Impress the Apprentice 

With the Value of 437 

Education, Industrial 3125 

Education, Industrial, Important Develop- 
ments in 4045 

Education of Railroad Men 63J 

Educational Bureau of Information, Union 

Pacific 392 

Educational Methods, The Need of Better... 288t 

Efficiency of an Engine, Theoretical 220 

Efficiency, The Gospel of 4S6§ 

EfTiciencv Notes 4445 

Efficiency of Power Plants 185f 

Efficiency Records. Individual 21S 

Efficiency of the Shop, Building Up 380t 

Efficiencv System. How to Perpetuate 486§ 

Efficiency System, What It Is 486§ 

Efficient Foremen 234* 



Efficient Organization 

Eight-Wheel Switching Loco., \ a. Ry 

Electric Hammer 

Electric Loco., Detroit River Tunnel 

Electric Loco., Freight, X. V. X. 11 & H. 
R. R 

Electric Loco.. New Haven, Results of....^. 

Electric Loco., Pennsylvania '.' ,ii; - 

Electric Loco. With Connecting Rods 

Electric Railway. 1200 Volt Direct Current. 

Electric Turntable Donkey 

Electrically Lighted Passenger Equipment . . . 

Electrification, Pennsylvania, Direct Current 

Electrification, Results of on N. Y. X. H. & 
II. R. R :•■• 

Electrification of Steam Railways in Boston. 

Elliott, J. B., On Superheaters 

Emerson. Harrington, Design of Oil Burn- 
ing Locomotives L 

Emerson, Harrington. Dinnei to 

Emerson, Harrington. Mallet Comp. Locos.. 

Emerson, R., On Testing Locomotive Fuei . . 

Empirical Formula for Designing Locomotive 
and Car Parts 

Employees, Insurance for 

Employment of Men 

Engine Equipments (see Locomotive Supplies 

Engine Failures ■ • • • • ■ 

Engine Failures and How They Are Over- 
come • • • ■ ; 

Engine Failures and Roundhouse Service 

lOnuine House. 

Air Compressors in y 

Cinder Pits 9 • 

Coaling Arrangements at 

Conditions 

Dispatch Tube, Pneumatic 

Doors • • • ■ • 

East Buffalo, N. Y. C. & H. R. R 

Facilities • 

Facilities. The Need of Good 

Folding Doors for 

Foreman, Troubles of 

Heating System 

Idaho & Washington Nor. Ry 

Inspection Pits 

Jib Crane in 

Labor and Time Saving Devices in 

Machine Shop, East Buffalo 

Pneumatic Dispatch Tube for 

Service and Effect on Engine Failures. . 

Stop Block for Engines 

Track "Skate" in 

Windows 

Engine, Theoretical Efficiency of ... 

Engineering Education. Co-operative 199, 

Enginemen as Passenger Agents 

Enginemen, Telephones for Calling 

Engineer's Hammer ••••;. 

Ensie, E. Fish, Handling Loco. Supplies.... 

Epk-r, J. E., Heat and Water Conserving 

Systems for Cleaning and Washing Out 

Boilers 

Equalizer Stand, Pivoted 

Equipment Industries and Railroad Prosperity 

Erasing Device for Drafting Room 

Erecting and Machine Shop, Beech (.rove... 
Erecting and Machine Shop, Idaho & Wash- 
ington Nor. R.y 

Erecting Shops, Lighting of 

Erie Foundry Co. Steam Drop Hammer 

European Locomotive Boiler Design, Tenden- 
cy of 

Europeon Railroads. Briquets on 

Evaporation and Combustion, Locomotive... 

Exhaust Nozzle, Virginian Mallet Loco 

Fxhaust Pipe. Virginian Mallet Loco 

Exhibition of Railways and Land Transport, 
Argentine Republic 



240§ 
359* 
lTlt 
362' 

498* 

490* 

307* 
159t 
,6* 
296 



27 
178 
287 



4S6§ 

15 
396 



4907 
27t 
). 

HIS 

414* 

,29t 



13t 

154* 

53 

23§ 

72 

41* 

3* 

31t 

64t 

41* 

29t 

5* 

154* 

217 

160t 

141* 

7* 

72 

29+ 

37 

161t 

58, 

220 

497T 

487t 

18t 

55* 

54* 



353 

497* 

471 

259* 

133* 

155* 
29S* 
461* 

375 

347 

231 

358* 

358* 

214T 



Facing, Boring and Turning Machine 

Failures 

Failures (see Engine Failures). 

Fairbanks, Morse & Co., Gasoline Motor Car 
for P. R. R ■,•■"•■■;■■ 

1-at.ilities en Railroads Show Marked De- 
crease 

Feed Water Heater, Loco., Tests of 

Feed Water Heater, Santa Fc Mallet Comp. 
Locos ■ ■ • ■ • ■ • ■ ■ 

Ferguson Furnaces for Heating Steel Car 
Parts ,: '• V V 

Files, Efficiency of 444§, 454*, 

Files of Precision 

Firebox, Locomotive. 

Brick Arches and Water Tubes in 

Improvement in 

Tacobs-Shupert, 

1 1 1 1 S . 106*, 147*t, 200t, 247;, 

Jacobs-Shupert, Mallet Compound Loco.. 
Santa Fe 

Oxy-Acetylene Welding of 

Repairing With Oxy-Acetylene 

Sheets. Failure of 

Sheets. Life of 20, 

Water Legs, Circulation in 

Wide. Failure of Side Sheets on 

Wide. Side Sheets of 20. 

Wood's 

Wood's, C. B. & Q. Ry 

Fire Losses in the United States 

Firemen, Best Men for 

Firemen, Education of 

Firemen, Education of, D. R. MacBain 



i71* 
3S0v 



460* 

483 

241 

465* 

174* 
487$ 
117 



322 
104§ 

271+ 

475* 

378 

432* 
70* 
23§ 
63s 
70* 
23S 

271} 

373* 

3477 
322 



Fireman. Limitations of 1 

Fireman's Output, Increasing 199§ 

Fires, Locomotives Equipped for Figluing... 470* 

l-i t . - mi P. R. R. Property 497t 

Firing, Bank vs. Level 318*^ 

Firing Briquets 3837 

Firing Lignite Burning Locomotives 391 

Fitt, E. W., Lignite Coal as F'uel for Loco- 
Motives 390* 

Flange Wear on Driving Tires 248 

F'langing Machines Required in Loco. Boiler 

Shop 127 

Flat Wheels, Effect of on Rails lilt, 149* 

Flexible Shaft Applications 259* 

Flexible Staybolts 322, 389 1 

Flexible Staybolts, Applying 19 

Flexible Staybolts, A New Departure in 190 

Flexible Stapbolts, A Criticism 494J 

Flues (see Tubes). 

Flue Plant, An Efficient, Collinwood 350^ 

Flue Welding F'urnace 460* 

Flux for Oxy-Acetylene Welding 3937 

Folding Doors for Roundhouses 41" 

Foote-Burt High Duty Drill 77* 

Foote-Burt Co., Multiple Spindle Drills 160* 

Forcing Press 209 

Foreman, Bonus Schedule for 235 

Foremen's Convention, Ry. General 11ST 

Foreman, Difficulty in Determining the Effi- 
ciency of •• ^i** # 

Foremen, Efficient 234 

Foreman, How to Gauge the Efficiency of... 234 

Foreman, How to Stimulate and Reward 234 

Foremen, Necessity of Training 234^ 

Foreman, Roundhouse, Troubles of 297 

Forest Products Laboratory 161 i 

Forest Resources, Condition of in the U. S. 114 
r'orest Service, Railroad Co-operates With.. 360| 

Forging at the Altoona Car Shops 210* 

Forging Brake Rod Taws at the Collinwood 

Shops '. »82« 

Forging at the Collinwood Shops 131^ 

Forging Coupler Yoke Fillers 229 

Forging Dies. Vanadium Steel for 497 

Formula for Designing Locomotive and Car 

Parts, Empirical • 312§ 

Four-Cylinder Simple Loco., 4-4-2. C. R. I. & 

P. Ry 4«7* 

Fowler, Geo. L., Effect of Flat Wheels on 

Rails l«t 

Frame, 2-8-0 Loco., C. P. Ry 430" 

Frame, 2-8-2 Loco.. Va. Ry 227 

Frame, 4-6-2 Loco., C. B. & Q 377* 

Frame, 4-6-2 Loco., Nor. Pac. Ry 196* 

Frame, 2-8-8-2 Loco., So. Pac. Co 368* 

Frame Brace, 2-8-2 Loco., Va. Ry 228* 

Frame Braces, 4-6-2 Loco., Nor. Pac. Ry... 196* 
Frame Cross Tie at Cylinders, 2-8-0 Loco., C. 

P. Ry : 429* 

Frame, Loco., Machine Tools Required for.. 122 
Frame, Welding Locomotive, Rutland Ry... 453* 
France. Western Ry. of, Bal. Comp. 4-6-2 

Loco 86* 

France. Western Ry. of, Increasing Life of 

Loco. Crank Axles 396* 

Franey, M. D., Engine Failures and How 

They Are Overcome 414" 

Franey, M. D., The Shop Surgeon 311^ 

Freezing of Air Brake Hose 2f 

Freight Car (see Steel Freight Cars). 

Freight Car Pool, General 2077 

Freight Car Pool, The Pennsylvania System 86 
Freight Car Trucks 335* 

Frets'ht Locomotive. 

0-6-6-0, D. N. W. & P. Ry 61* 

0-6-6-0. Tabular Comparison 275 

0-8-8-0, Data 275 

2-6-6-0, Data 275 

2-6-6-0, Virginian Ry 201*. 357* 

2-6-6-2, Ingenio Angelina 71* 

2-6-6-2, Tabular Comparison 275 

2-8-0, C. P. R 425* 

2-8-0. Chicago & Alton Ry 269* 

2-8-0, Tabular Comparison 274 

2-8-0. Wabash Pittsburgh Terminal Ry.. 256* 
2-8-2, Chicago. Milwaukee & Puget Sound 

Ry 305* 

2-8-2. Tabular Comparison 275 

2-8-2. Va. Ry 225* 

2-8-8-2, Data 27o 

2-S-8-2. Santa Fe 17', 22$, 477* 

2-8-8-2, So. Pac. Co. 16*. 22§, 181*. 199§, 367* 

2-10-2, Data 275 

4-6-0, Tabular Comparison 275 

4-6-2, Gt. Nor. Ry 413* 

4-8-0, Data 275 

Electric, N. Y. N. H. & H. R. R 49S* 

Friction Draft Gear 331- 

Friction Saw for Flues 351* 

Friction Saws for Metal 3777 

Front End Arrangement, 2-8-0 Loco., C. P. 

Ry 427* 

Front End for Lignite Burning Engines.... 391* 
Front Ends, Tests on the Lancashire & York- 
shire Ry 408" 

Front End. Virginian Mallet Loco 357* 

Fry, L. H., Combustion and Evaporation... 231 
Fry. I.awford H., Diagram for Determining 
the Relation Between Cylinder Power and 

Heating Surface 345", 365« 

Frv, I.awford H. The Heat Treatment of 

Spring Steel 492* 

Fry, I.awford H.. Train Resistance Formulas 472 

Fuel. 

Accounting ; • - 316 

Association, International Ry., Meeting 
of 153t, 233 



Buying on a Heat Value Basis, 

189, 314, 347t 
See "Coal." 

Contracts Based on Amount of Ash.... 403t 

Economy 314, 401t, 4448 

Editorial Comment 364§ 

Inspection of 393t 

Peat as a 2677 

Quality to Use in Locomotives 315 

Records, Individual 315 

Stations, Cost of Operating 403 

Testing Locomotive 396 

Fuel Association, International Ry 462t 

Fuller, C. E., Motor Cars 317 

Fuller, C. E., On Superheaters 287 

Fulton Bill Dangerous to Railroads 66 

Fulton Bill Reported Adversely 105t 

Furnace, Crude Oil, Kirkwood 341* 

Furnace, F"lue Welding 460* 

Furnace for Heating Rivets, Portable. . .97*, 174* 

Furnace for Heating Steel Car Parts 174* 

a 

Gaines, F. F., On Superheaters 288 

Gardner, Henry, On Results from Appren- 
ticeship 387 

Garstang, Wm., On Apprenticeship 386 

Gas-Electric Motor Cars, So. Ry 495 

Gas Producer Tests 2527 

Gas vs. Steam Engines 409f 

Gasket, Air Brake Hose 295* 

Gasket Cutter 143* 

Gasoline Motor Car, Fairbanks, Morse & Co. 460* 

Gasoline Tanks, How to Repair Leaky 350| 

Gate Shear, 125-Inch 88* 

Gauges, Calibrating Apparatus for High 

Pressure 495* 

Gauges for Car Wheels 320* 

Gauges for Mounting and Inspecting Wheels 327* 

Gauge of Tracks, Widening 288 

Gears, Noiseless 159 

General Electric Co. Electric Loco 362* 

General Electric Co. Electric Loco. With 

Connecting Rods 307* 

General Electric Co., Gas-Electric Motor Cars 495 
General Foremen's Convention. Railway.... HSf 
General Service Steel Gondola Car, Denver 

& Rio Grande Ry 250* 

General Service Steel Gondola Car, Maine 

Central Ry ...252* 

General Service Steel Gondola Car, Nor. 

Pac. Ry 251* 

Glass, Plate, Steel Car for Carrying 231* 

Gold Leaf for Signal Blades 10+ 

Gondola Car, 50-Ton Steel, Denver & Rio 

Grande 250* 

Gondola Car. 50-Ton Steel. Maine Central 

Ry 252* 

Gondola Car, 50-Ton Steel, Norfolk & West- 
ern Ry 349* 

Gondola Car, 50-Ton Steel, Nor. Pac. Ry. . . 251* 
Gondola Car, 50-Ton Steel, Virginian Ry... 395* 

Good Principles Wrongly Applied 312§ 

Goss, W. F. M.. Comparative Tests of Run- 

of-Mine and Briqueted Coal on Locos. 62§, 67* 
Goss, W. F. M., Locomotive Performance 
With Saturated and Superheated Steam, 

27S S . 282* 
GossettjiC. E., On the Mechanical Stokers. . 281 

Grain Doors 296 

Grain Door. Metal 31* 

Grand Trunk Ry. Good Planer Records 370" 

Graphic Recording W'attmeter 323* 

Graphical Records 236* 

Grate Area and Heating Surface, Relative 

Importance of 231 

Grates, Chain 446 

Grates for Lignite Burning Engines 392 

Grease Cup for Crank Pins 415* 

Grease for Driving Boxes, Moulding 144* 

Great Northern Ry., 4-6-2 Loco. With Super- 
heater 413* 

Great Northern R. R., Oxy-Acetylene Weld- 
ing of Fireboxes 378 

Great Northern Rv., Service Results of Mal- 
let Comp. Locos 17, 22§ 

Grinder, Link, Hammett 30* 

Grinder, Universal Cutter 116* 

grinding Car Axle Tournals 151 § 

Grinding Car Wheels 208* 

Grip Nut Co., Car Window Fixtures 114* 

Guide, Loco., Machine Tools Required for. . 122 
Guide Yoke, 2-8-0 Loco., C. P. Ry 430* 

H 

Haig, M. H., Jacobs-Shupert Fire Box 202*+. 

llallenbeck, Geo. E., Data on High Speed 

Drilling 207* 

Hamilton Heavy Automatic Railway Cut-off 

Saw 421* 

Hamilton Machine Tool Company. All-Geared 

Head Lathe . 502* 

Hamilton Single Spindle Horizontal Car Bor- 
ing Machine 501 

Hamilton LTniversal Woodworker 342* 

Hamilton Vertical Car Boring Machines, 

167*. 213* 
Hammer Blow from Incorrect Counterbal- 
ance 45^ 

Hammer, Electric 1717 

Hammer, Engineer's 55* 

Hammer, Steam Drop 461* 

Hammett, H. G., Link Grinders 30* 

Hancock. E. L.. Effect of Flat Wheels on 

Rails 111$ 

Handholds on Cars 294 



Handling Loco. Supplies (sec Loco. Supplies, 
Handling). 

Hardening of Su-am Hose 1"T 

Harlan S Hollingsworth Steel i ndi rframi 

Coaches 488 

Harriman, Edward II 404& 

Harriman Lines, Extent of 377t 

Harriman Lines, Inspection on 311 

Harriman Lines and Public Opinion... 255t 

Harriman Lines Unit System <>l Organization 445$ 

Hauck Mig. Co., Hydro-Carbon Burner 457* 

I Lulling Power of Locomotive. Effect of 

Superheated Steam <m 223 

Havana. Western Ry. of, Eight-Wheel 

Switching Loco 310* 

Hayden Mechanical Stoker. 280 

Heat Value Basis, Buying Coal on. 189, 814, 3471 

Heater, Portable Rivet 97*, IT4" 

Healer for Steel Car Repairs 92*, 98*, 174' 

Healing Surface and Cylinder Power, Dia- 
gram for Determining the Relation Be- 
tween 843*, 365§ 

Heating Surface and (irate Area, Relative 

Importance of 231 

Heating System, Roundhouse. Last Buffalo.. 5 
I I, I. llinger. Arthur E., Steel Passenger Car 

I ksign 434* 

Helical Springs. Design of 103 

Henderson, G. R., On Mechanical Stokers... 280 
Hennessey, J. J., Abuse of the M. C. B. Re- 
pair Card 39 

Herbert, Edward G., The Efficiency of Files 454* 

Hibbard. II. Wade, On Superheaters 288 

"Highpower" Drill, Pratt & Whitney 419* 

High Speed, Cost of 411^ 

High Speed Drilling, Data on 21).* 

High Speed Drills 347t 

High Speed Steel Cutters for Surfacing 78* 

High Speed Steel Cutters for Woodworking. 363t 
High Speed Steel Milling Cutters (see Mill- 
ing Cutters). 

High Speed Steel Tools, Tempering 3931 

High Speed Twist Drills 238. 3731 

Hilles & Jones 125-Inch Gate Shear 88* 

Hine System of Organization 445§ 

Hoist for Handling Large Compound Air 

Pumps 143* 

Holes, Boring Square 38* 

Honesty 18r 

Hood. Prof. O. P., The Slipping Point of 

Rolled Boiler Tube Joints 364§, 370* 

Hopper Car for Coke, P. R. R 187* 

Hopper Car for Ore, Summers 338* 

Hopper Car for Oie, Summers, Good Work 

of 4f.lt 

Hopper Car, Summers 49* 

Horizontal Milling Machines 168*, 214* 

Horse Power, Steam per I. H. P 283, 285 

Horwich Shops, Locos. Designed and Built 

at 406* 

Hose, Air Brake 295* 

Hose. Air Brake. Freezing of 2t 

Hose Connection, Air Brake and Signal, 

"NB" 40* 

Hose Coupling, Air Brake 295* 

Hose Gaskets, Air Brake 895* 

Hose, Steam, Hardening of 19f 

Howard, John, On Apprenticeship . 385 

Hughes, George, Locos. Designed and Built 

at the Horwich Shops 406* 

Hungarian Engineers and Architects, Am. 

Soc. of 145t 

Hydraulagraph 452* 

Hydraulic Coping Machine 381* 

Hydraulic Jacks 301* 

Hydraulic Jacks. Forged Steel 177* 

Hydraulic Press for Valve Chamber Bushings 483* 

Hvdro-Carbon Burner 457* 

Hydro-Pneumatic Pit Jack 459* 

Idaho & Washington Nor. Ry. New Loco. 

and Car Shops 154* 

Illinois Central R. R., Shallow Ash Pan 

With Blowers 246* 

Illinois Central Ry., Shallow Ash Pan With 

Sliding Doors 247* 

Illinois, LTniv. of, Mine Rescue Station at.. 149t 
Indicator Cards, Baker-Pilliod Valve Gear... 32* 
Indicator Cards, Walschaert Valve Gear.... 32* 

Individual Drinking Cups 2991 

Individual Efficiency Records 218 

Individual Effort System, Results of 237* 

Individual Fuel Records 315 

Industrial Education . .312§, 444§ 

Industrial Education, Cincinnati Continuation 

Schools 404§, 451 

Industrial Education, Co-operative 199 

Industrial Education, Important Develop- 
ment in 404§ 

Industrial Education, National Society for 

Promotion of 4577 

Ingenio Angelina Loco., 2-6-6-2 71* 

Ingenious Workman, The 198§ 

Inspection of Coal 393t 

Inspection on the Harriman Lines 311 

Inspection Pits at Engine House 21t 

Instructions for Each Empl >yee 218 

Instructions, Permanent 219 

Insulation of Line, New Haven Electrifica- 
tion 28 

Insurance for Employees 495i 

[nterheater, Santa Fe Mallet Comp. Locos. . . 469* 
Interheater, So. Pac. Mallet Comp. Locos. . . 181* 
Interstate Commerce Commission Needs Ex- 
aminers and Clerks 4621 

Iowa Railway Club 209. 422. 462. 4S6 

Iron, Weights of Round 361 



J 

Jack, Hydro-Pneumatic Pit ISA* 

Jacks, Forged Steel Hydraulic 177* 

Jacks, Pushing and Pulling foi eel Car 

' Repairs W*. » 6 * 

Jacobs-Shupeit Fire Box, 

1048, 106*. 147*1, 200J, 217}. 2711 

I... i b -lnii" rl I' irebox, Mallet < omp I 

Santa Ft '■ 

lar, ids' Smokebox Superheater, Santa Fe.. 181 

Jacobs, II W . "n supi 'ii' ati i 288^ 

Tib Crane Design n* 

Tib I rani in Roundhouse 1801 

Johns-Manville Co., "Phoenix" Smoke Jacks 5* 

Johns-Manville in. I"i|«- Joint Cement 75 

Johnston, W. E., Arcs E'iual to Straight 

Lines H* 

[ohnston, W. I-:.. Failure of Side Sheel on 

Wide Firebox Locos 70* 

Johnston, W. E., Process for Squaring Mi nl 

ally 11 

Journal Bearings, Machine for Boring 410 

Journals, Grinding Axle 1515 

joy Valve Gear on Locomotives 340*. 365Jt 

K 

Kansas City Sotthern Railroad Co-operates 

With Forest Service 3001 

Kewanee Air Pump Union 41* 

Kirkwood Down Manic Flue Welding Fur- 
nace *<!0* 

Kirkwood Oil Furnaces 341* 

Knapp. S. H., The Lighting of Shops 298* 

Knuckle Pins 331 

Kruttschnitt, J., Inspection on the Harriman 

Lines 311 

L 

Labor Organization, Functions of 486§ 

Labor Unions and Apprenticeship 387 

Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Ry., Cast 

Iron Ash Pan With Swinging Doors 245* 

Lake Shoie & Michigan Southern Ry., En- 
gine Failures and How They Are Over- 
come 414* 

Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Ry., Flue 
Plant. Collinwood 350* 

Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Ry.., Forg- 
ing at the Collinwood Shops 131* 

Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Ry.. Forg- 
ing Brake Rod Jaws 4sJ' 

Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Ry.. Hy- 
draulic Press for Valve Chamber Bushings 483* 

Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, Machine 
for Boring Car Journal Bearings 410* 

Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway, Joy Valve 
Gear 346* 

Lancashire & Yorkshire Ry., Locos. Designed 
and Built at the Horwich Shops 406* 

Lang Tool Holder 420* 

Lassiter Pneumatic Staybolt Nipper 178* 

Lathe. 

All-Geared Head i02 

Axle. Heavy 36* 

Car Wheel 340* 

Headstocks, Modern Heavv Duty 172* 

High Duty 374*. 420* 

High Speed, Motor Application to 177* 

Triple Geared 36-Inch With Turret 34- 

Turret for Pin Work 262* 

Turret, Vertical, in Railroad Shops 260* 

Leaky Gasoline Tanks. How to Repair 3501 

Leather Belting 151§, 204* 

Leather Belting, Proper Care of 1891 

Leather Belting, Specifications for 255 

LeBlond Machine Tool Co., High Duty En- 
gine Lathes 374*. 420* 

Lewis Institute. Plan for Joint Shop and 

School Work 58 

Lewis, Wilfred. High Speed Milling Cutters 

With Inserted Blades 308* 

Lighting. East Buffalo Roundhouse 5 

Life of Side Sheets 20, 23§ 

Life of Steel Freight Cars 86. 

Lightfoot. Cecil, Locomotive Firebox Repairs 432* 

Lighting Engineers. Assn. of Car..... 422 

Lighting Passenger Equipment, Electric 296 

Lighting. The Value of Good 3971 

Lignite Coal, Analysis of 390 

Lignite Coal as Fuel for Locomotives 390* 

Line Insulation, New Haven Electrification. 28 

Lining of Steel Passenger Cars, Inside 203 

Link Belt Coaling Station, East Buffalo 

Roundhouse 9* 

Link Grinders. Hammett 30* 

Loading Long Material 297 

Locomotive. 

0-6-0. Data 275 

0-8-0, Data 875 

0-8-0, Va. Ry 359* 

0-8-0. Western Ry. of Havana 310* 

0-10-0. Data 275 

2-6-2. Tabular Comparison 276 

2-8-0. C. P. Rv 425* 

2-8-0, Chicago & Alton Ry 260* 

2-8-0. Tabular Comparison 874 

2-8-0, Wabash Pittsburgh Terminal Ry. . 256* 
2-8-2, Chicago, Milwaukee & Puget Sound 

Ry 305* 

2-8-2, Tabular Comparison 275 

2-8-2, Va. Ry 225* 



2-10-2, Data 275 

4-4-0, Tabular Comparison 277 

4-4-2. CM 1 .....116* 

M :;, Four-( ylindi 1 Simpli , < .. K 1 & 

P. Rj 

I 1 I' Ky 

1 1 8, Sanl 1 1 

17\ 2211, 477* 

4-4-2, Three! ylindei Simple, Phila. 4 

Rl .id. ni< Ky 459* 

1 1 2, Thn ■ ! Run mi 

ih. R ,v K *■■■:' 

4-4-2, Tabular Comparison 277 

4-6-0, N. C. & St. L. Ky 52* 

4-6-0, Tabular Comparison 87S, 277 

4-6-2, Chicago & Alton Ky 



4 6-2, Electric 807* 

4-6-2, Gt. Nor. Ky 418" 

4-6-2, Nor. I'ac. Ry 

4-6-2, Tabular Comparison 6 

4-6-2. Western Ry. ■,( France 

4-8-0, Data 275 

0-0-6-0, D. N. W. & P. Ky 01* 

0-6-6-0, Tabular Comparison 275 

0-8-8-0, Data 27:", 

2-6-6-0, Data 275 

2-4-4 2. Electric, N Y. N. II .V II. K I: 198* 
2-6-6-0, Virginian Ky 

2 6-6 2, Ingenio Angelina 71" 

2-6-6-2, Tabular Comparison 275 

2-8-8-2, Data 275 

2-8-8-2. S.-ur., Fe 17", 82$, 177' 

2-8-8-8, So Pac. Co., 

16*, 22J, 181*, 199$, 307* 

4-4-4-4. Electric 

1 t 1; l Sanl l Fe. ... ..17 - , 28$. i::.' 

Asli Pans (see Ash Pans;. 

Axles, Boring 173* 

Balanced Comp., N. C. & St. L. Ky.... 52* 

Balanced Compound. Santa Fe 478* 

Balanced Comp., Western Ky. of Franc 

Blow-off Valve 500* 

Built in 1908 47 

Compound (see Bal. Comp.) 
Compound (see Mallet Compound). 
Compound. Yauclain, C. M. & St. P. Ry. 115* 

Counterbalancing 396' 

Crane 99* 

Data Tables 274, 275, 276, 277 

Efficient Handling of 315 

Electric Freight, N. Y. N. II. & II. R. R. 498* 

Electric, Detroit River Tunnel 362* 

Electric, New Haven. Results of 29 

Electric, Pennsylvania 

Electric. With Connecting Rods 307* 

Equipped for Fighting Fires 

Mallet, D. N. W. & P. Ry 61* 

Mallet Comp.. So. Pac. Co 181*. 1995 

Mallet Comp., Va. Ry 261* 

Mallet, Tabular Comparison 275 

Mallet, Weight Distribution of 51* 

Oil Burning, Design of 1. 22j, lilt 

Oil Burning. So. Pac. Ry 181*. 1995 

Oil Burning Through Adirondack Forest - 

Performance Records 236* 

Repair Shops, Cost of 19 

Superheater. Air and Steam 13 

Superheater (see Superheater). 

Locomotive Supplies, Huiifllinjcr. 

See also Articles January and March, 
1908. 

Checking List 57 

Chisel Bar, Engineer's Standard..' 55* 

Costs, Reliability of Comparative Ac- 
counts 57 

Crank Pin Block. Standard 56* 

Hammer. Engineer's Standard 55* 

Oil Measuring Cup, Standard 57* 

Standard Articles 54*, 56 

Standardization. Objects of 54 

Torch, Standard Engineer's 55* 

Valve Stem Clamp. Emergency 56* 

Locomotive Terminal (see Roundhouse). 

Lodge & Shipley Heavy Axle Lathe -36* 

Lodge &- Shipley Heavv Dutv Lathe Head- 
stocks 172* 

London & Southwestern Ry.. Joy Valve Gear 347* 
Long Island R. R.. Steel Suburban Cars.... 12* 

Long Material, Loading 297 

Lubrication, Progress in Economy of 321 

Lubricator for Loco. Crank Pins 415* 

Lumber, Decav of 379. 483 

Lumber, The Drying of 4231 

Lumber, The Handling of in Yards 352 

Lumber, Specifications of 279, 2?9 

Lunkenbeimer Locomotivi Blow-off Valve... 500* 



M 

McAuliffe, Eugene, On Testing Locomotive 

Fuel 397 

McCarthy, M. J., On Apprenticeship 3>5 

MacRain, D. R., On the Education of Fire- 
men 316 

MacRain. D. R.. On Firemen 322 

MacBain, D. R., On the Mechanical Stokers 251 
MacFarland. H. B., Experience With Jacobs- 

Shupert Fire Pox 247*. 

McKees Rocks Roundhouse, Labor and Time 

Saving Devices in 141* 

McKenna, R. F., President's Address, M. C. 

B. Association 289 

Machine and Erecting Shop. Beech Grove... 133* 
Machine and Erecting Shop, Idaho & Wash- 
ington Nor, Ry 155* 



Machine Shop, East Buffalo Roundhouse.... 7 . 

Machine Shops, Lighting of 2SB 

Machine Shop, Machine Tools Required in 

Locomotive ...... .181, 150§ 

Machine Shop Practice, George^. Bomr^ ^ 

Machine Tool Builders' Convention, National 462 

Machinery. Photographing 135T 

Maher, Peter, On the Mechanical Stokers... 2S1 
Maine Central 50-Ton Steel Gondola Car 252 

Machine Tools. 

Abrasion Cutoff Saw for Flues 351* 

Abrasion Saws for Metal ••• •*. m 

Air Brake Work in Loco. Shops, Ma- 

chine Tools Required for ■ 1-5 

American Tool Works Company, Power 

Required for Driving Pipe laps...... 305 

American Tool Works Co., Sensitive Ra- 

dial Drill 21u ' 4jii . 

American Tool Works Co., Shaper. . 166* 

American Tool Works Co., Triple Geared 

Head Lathe With Turret . . . ... ■•■•••• 34 

American Wood Working Machinery 

Co.'s New Outside Moulder 170 

Axle Lathe, Heavy, Lodge Sc Shipley 36 

Axles, Locomotive, Boring. ........... . 173 

Axles, Loco., Machine Tools Required for 13i 
Baker Bros., High Duty Drill.. ........ ■ 20' 

Bearings, Car Journal, Machine for Bor- 

Bement-MilesHigh' Power Milling Ma- 
chine • v 308 

Bentel & Margedant Heavy Automatic 
Cut-off Saw ••■•■;:• V ■ ■-■ v :y 421 

Bentel & Margedant Co., Single Spincile 
Horizontal Car Boring Machine...... 6U1 

Bentel & Margedant Co., \ ertical Car 
Boring Machines ....167, -.13 

Bentel & Margedant Universal Wood- 
worker .- • ■ ••■ • • • ■•■ ■ 6i ~ 

Boiler Shop, Loco., Machine Tools Re- 
quired in a Locomotive 121, l-'°9 

Bolt Cutter With Turret Head......... 8 

Boring, Drilling & Milling Machine, 
Horizontal ......... °i°. 

Boring Locomotive Axles . . 1 ' » 

Boring Machine, Single Spindle Horizon- 

Boring Machines, Vertical, Car 167", 213' 

Boring Mill, Vertical............-; 380 

Boring. Turning and Pacing Machine... lit 
Brake and Spring Rigging, Loco., Ma- 

chine Tools Required for ........ 1-4 

Brass Work in Loco. Shops, Machine 

Tools Required for ................. ■ 1»» 

Brasses, Car Journal, Machine for Boring 410 
Brown & Sharpe Heavy Plain Milling 

Machine V • V • • CiV V 

Bullard Vertical Turret Lathe, Work ^ # 

Car Boring Machines. Vertical 167*, 213* 

Car Journal Bearings, Machine for Bor- 

Chambersbi'irs'l.'sOO-Ton Press.......... 91* 

Cincinnati-Bkkford High Speed Upright 

Drill 418 

Cincinnati Electrical Tool Co. Electric 

Hammer •'•■;•. A" " ' Vi : 't ' 

Cincinnati Milling Machine Co. High 

Power Milling Machines 168 

Cincinnati Planer Co., 22-Inch Planer... 3, 
Cincinnati Planer Co. Two Speed Planer 

Drive • 4 ". 

Cincinnati Planer for Cylinders..... 3 

Cleveland Machine Tool Works, Horizon- 
tal Boring, Drilling and Milling Ma- 

chine ; • • : • y" • • 3|S 

Colburn Machine Tool Co., Vertical Bor- 

ing Mill 3S " 

Cold Saw Cutting-off Machine 456 

Coping Machine, Hydraulic... •;_■■•.• dS 

Crank Pin, Machine for Turning Off the 

Rivet Head on ................... 171 

.Crank Pins, Machine Tools Required for 122 
Crosshead, Machine Tools Required for. 122 

Cut-off Saw, Abrasion.. 37m 

Cut-off Saw for Flues. Abrasion 351 

Cut-off Saw, Heavy Automatic 421 

Cutter Grinder, Universal lbb 

Cylinders and Heads, Machine Tools Re- 

quired for -. %%* 

Cylinder Planer, Cincinnati id 

Drill, High Duty, Baker Bros 20i^ 

Drill, High Duty, Foote-Burt 77 

Drill, High Speed Upright............. 418 

Drills, Multiple Spindle in Railroad Shop 1(<0 

Drill, Radial, Mueller 1-6 

Drill, Radial, Sensitive 210 458 

Drill, Sensitive. Radial 210*, 458^ 

Drilling Apparatus, Portable ......... 2os 

Drilling, Boring and Milling Machine, 

Horizontal •„•:••.:•• VV -' " ' V i ' JoS* 

Drilling Machine, 3-Spmdle, Horizontal. 497 
Drilling Machines Required in Loco. 

Boiler Shop ■••••• ••■ •••.• ■ •. li6 

Driving Box, Machine Tools Required 

for 

Driving Wheels and Tires, Machine 

Tools Required for 122 

Drop Hammer, Steam " 

Electric Hammer ■ ■ • •• "IT 

Erie Foundry Co. Steam Drop Hammer. 461^ 
Facing, Boring and Turning Machine... 171 
Flanging Machines Required in Loco. 

Boiler Shop ■ ■ 127 ,. 

Foote-Burt High Duty Drill............ 77 

Foote-Burt Co. Multiple Spindle Drills.. 160 
Forcing Press 20a 



Frame. Loco., Machine Tools Required 

for J|j> 

Fricticn Metal Saws .-' '. 

Friction Saw for Flues 351 

Gate Shear, 125 Inch 88^ 

Grinder, Universal Cutter 116 

Grinding Car Wheels 20s 

Guide, Loco., Machine Tools Required 

for • ■ • 122 

Hamilton Heavy Automatic Railway Cut- 

off Saw •• 421 

Hamilton Machine Tool Co., All-Geared 

Head Lathe „■ • ■ 5 " 2 

Hamilton Single Spindle Horizontal Car 

Boring Machine S" 1 * 

Hamilton Universal Woodworker 342 

Hamilton Vertical Car Boring Machines, 

167*, 213* 

Hammer, Electric 171| 

llammett, H. G., Link Grinders 30 

Hilles & Jones 125-Inch Gate Shear 88^ 

Horizontal Milling Machines 168*, 214 

How One Railroad Selects Its 129^ 

Hydraulic Coping Machine 3S1 

Journal Bearings, Machine for Boring.. 410^ 

Lassiler Pneumatic Staybolt Nipper 178 

Lathe, All-Geared Head 002^ 

Lathe, Axle, Heavy 36 

Lathe, Car Wheel 340 

Lathe Headstoeks, Modern Heavy Duty. 172 

Lathe, High Duty 3T4*, 420 

Lathe, High Speed, Motor Application to 177 
Lathe, Triple Geared 36-Inch With Tur- 
ret 34 

Lathe, Turret for Pin Work 262* 

Lathe, Turret, Vertical, in Railroad 

Shops 260* 

LeBlond Machine Tool Co., High Duty 

Engine Lathes 374*, 420^ 

Link Grinders, Hammett 30 

Lodge & Shipley Heavy Axle Lathe 36 

Lodge & Shipley Heavy Duty Lathe ^ 

Headstoeks • 17 2 

Machine Shop, Machine Tools Required 

in a Locomotive 121. 150§ 

Milling, Boring and Drilling Machine, ^ 

Horizontal • 378 

Milling Machine, Extra Heavy Rod 161 

Milling Machine, Heavy Plain 214 

Milling Machine, High Power 30b^ 

Milling Machines, Horizontal 168 

Milling Machine Tests 309 

Milling Machine, Vertical 16b 

Milling Machine, Vertical, Worm Driven 212 
Motor Application to Geared Head High 

Speed Lathe l ~J 

Moulder, New Outside 1 . 

Mueller Machine Tool Co., Radial Drill. 116 
Multiple Spindle Drills in Railroad Shops 160 
National- Acme Mfg. Co., Automatic 

Screw Machine 300 

Newton Cold Saw Cutting-off Machine.. 456 
Newton 3-Spindle Horizontal Drilling 

Machine * 9 ~ 

Newton Vertical Milling Machine 212 

Niles-Bement-Pond Co., Extra Heavy 

Rod Milling Machine 161 

Niles-Bement-Pond High Power Milling ^ 

Machine 308 

Niles-Bement-Pond Planer, W ork Done 

by 370* 

Niles-Bement-Pond Turret Lathe for Pin 

Work 262* 

Norton Grinding Co., Car Wheel Grind- 
er 208* 

Oesterlein Machine Co., Universal Cutter 

Grinder 116 * 

Oliver Machinery Co., Universal Saw 

Bench 262" 

Pin Work, Locomotive, Machine Tools 

Required for 12;? 

Pin Work, Turret Lathe for 262 

Piston Rods, Machine Tools Required for 122 

Pistons, Machine Tools Required for 124 

Planer Drive, Two Speed 419* 

Planer for Loco. Cylinders, Cincinnati.. 73 

Planer, Plate, for Loco. Boiler Shop 126^ 

" Planer Records, Good 370^ 

Planer, 22-Inch, Cincinnati 37 

Planer Type Milling Machine 161* 

Planing Machine for Wood, Feed of.... 135t 

Pneumatic Staybolt Nipper 178* 

Pomerov, L. R., A Studv of the Number 
and Kind of Machine Tools Required 
in a Railway Locomotive Machine and 

Boiler Shop 121, 150 | 

Portable Drilling Apparatus 259 

Pratt & Whitney Turret Head Bolt Cut- ^ 

ter 8 

Prentice Bros. Co., High Speed Lathe, ^^ 

Motor Driven 1 ""« 

Press, 1,600-Ton 91* 

Press, Forcing 209 

Punch and Shear, Royersford 342 

Punching Machine Required in Loco. 

Boiler Shop • 127 

Queen City Machine Tool Co. Shaper 

Tests 171* 

Radial Drill •• 176* 

Radial Drill, Sensitive 210*, 4o8* 

Rod Brasses, Machine Tools Required for 125^ 

Rod Milling Machine 161 

Rods, Machine Tools Required for 122 

Rolls Required in Loco. Boiler Shop 126 

Royersford Motor Driven Punch and 

Shear 342* 

Saw Bench, Universal 262* 

Saw, Cut-off for Flues, Abrasion 351* 

Saw, Cut-off, Heavy Automatic 421* 



Saw, Cut-off, Metal 456* 

Saw, Friction, Metal 377 1 

Screw Machine, Multiple Spindle Auto- 
matic 300* 

Sellers Car Wheel Lathe 340" 

Sensitive Radial Drill 210*, 458* 

Shaper, Back Geared Crank 112*, 106* 

Shapers, Boring Jigs in the Manufacture 

of •• 118" 

Shaper Tests 166*, 171* 

Shear, Gate, 125-Inch 88* 

Shear and Punch 342* 

Shearing Machines Required in Loco. 

Boiler Shop 127 

Shoes and Wedges, Machine Tools Re- 
quired for 124 

Spring and Brake Rigging, Loco., Ma- 
chine Tools Required for 124 

Springiield Machine Tool Co., Machine 

for Boring Loco. Driving Axles 173* 

Staybolt Nipper, Pneumatic 178* 

Staybolts, Machine Tools Required for.. 125 
Steam Chests. Machine Tools Required 

for 123 

Steam Drop Hammer 461 

Steptoe Shaper Co., Back Geared Crank 

Shaper H2* 

Straightening Press, Steel Car Repairs.. 100* 
Throttle Rigging, Machine Tools Re- 
quired for 124 

Tires, Machine Tools Required for 122 

Tool Room, Loco. Shop. Machine Tools 

Required in 126 

Truck Work. Engine and Tender, Ma- 
chine Tools Required for 124 

Tube Work, Machine Tools Required for 126 

Tubes, Abrasion Cut-off Saw for 351* 

Tubes, Machine Tools Required for 126 

Turret Head Bolt Cutter 8* 

Turret Lathe for Pin Work 262" 

Turret Lathe, Vertical, in Railroad Shops 260 
Turret on 36-Inch Triple Geared Lathe.. 34* 
Underwood Universal Boring, Turning 

and Facing Machine 171* 

LTniversal Saw Bench 262* 

Valve Gear, Machine Tools Required for 123 
Valves. Machine Tools Required for.... 123 

Vertical Boring Mill. 30- loch 380* 

Vertical Car Boring Marlines 167', 213* 

Vertical Drill. High Speed 418* 

Vertical Milling Machine, Cincinnati 168 

Vertical Milling Machine. Newton 212* 

Vertical Turret Lathe in Railroad Shops 260* 

YY.-itson-Stillman Co., Forcing Press 209* 

Watson-Stillman Hydraulic Coping Ma- ^ 

chine 381 

Wheels, Driving, Machine Tools Re- 
quired for 122 

Wheel Lathe, Car 340* 

Woodworker, Hamilton Universal 342 

Mallet Compound Locomotive. 

0-6-6-0, D. N. & P. Ry • • 01* 

2-6-6-0, Va. Ry 261*, 357* 

2-C-6-2, Narrow Gauge, Ingenio Angelina il 

2-8-8-2, Santa Fe 17*. 22S, 477* 

2-8-8-2, So. Pac. Co 16*. 22S, 367* 

1-4-6-2, Santa Fe 17*, 22§, 47a 

Design of ■ ■ !J?99 

Editorial Comment 1* , 22 8 

m Front Truck on ]* 

' Service Results on the Gt. Nor. Ry...l7, 22* 

So. Pac. Co 181*. 199SI 

Tabular Comparison 275 

W r eight, Distribution of "1 

Manufacture, Should the Railroads 146 

Marshall, W. 11 . The Equipment Industries 

. n,l Railroad Prosperity •• 4 ~l 

M C. B. Association Convention, Report of. 

289*, 324* 

M C. B. Association, Officers of 2S9 

M. C. B. Association, President's Address... 289 
M. C. B. Association, Revision of Constitu- 
tion • • ■ ■ • • • • • 289 

M. C. B. Association, Revision of Standards 

and Recommended Practice 297 

M. C. B. Association, Subjects for 1910 Con- 
vention 296 

M C B Repair Card, Abuse of 39,229,336 

M. C. B. Repair Card, Standard 337* 

M. M. Association, Amendments to Constitu- 
tion 279 

M. M. Assn. Convention, Report of 279*. 314* 

M. M. Association, Officers of 279 

M. M. Association, Outline of Work of 265 

M. M. Association, President's Address 265 

M. M. Association, Revision of Standards... 281 
M. M. Association, Subjects for 1910 Con- 
vention : • • " 1 9 

M M and M. C. P. . Assn.. 1910 Convention 495 
M M. and M. C. B. Associations, Consolida- 
tion of 267, 278S, 289 

M. M. and M. C. B. Associations, Souvenirs 

at Conventions 22§ 

M. M. and M. C. B. Convention Exhibits... 304 

Master Mechanic. Bonus Schedule for 236^ 

Measuring Cup, Oil • 57 

Mechanical Deparlment Official as a Success- 
ful Operating Official 241§ 

Mechanical Department Official, Principles 

Underlying the Work of a Successful 217 

Mechanical Stokers .279, 304§ 

Mellin, C. J., Mallet Compound Locomotives, 

14*. 225 

Men, Employment of 27t 

Metal, Asbestos Protected 301 ^ 

Metal Grain Door 31 

Metric System, Pressures in 176T 

Michaels, S. Hunter, Weights of Round Iron 361 



Michigan Central Ry., Ash Pan for Six 

W neel Switcher 244* 

Mikado Type Loco., Chicago, Milwaukf- & 

Pugct Sound Ry 80 i« 

Mikado Type Loco., Tabular Comparison.... 275 

Mikado Type Loco., Va. Ry 225* 

Miller Heating Company's System of Chang- 
ing Boiler water and Washing Out 5 

Milling, Boring and Drilling Machine, Hori- 
zontal 378* 

Milling Cutters, Design of LS6* 

Milling Cutters, High Speed With Inserted 

Blades 308* 

Milling Machine, Extra Heavy Rod Mil* 

Milling Machine, Heavy Plain 214* 

Milling Machine, High Power 308* 

Milling Machines, Horizontal Hi 8* 

Milling Machine Tests 309* 

Milling Machine, Vertical 168* 

Milling Machine, Vertical, Worm Driven. . . 212* 

Mine Rescue Station, Universtiy of 111 149f 

Mineral Production in the U. S 129t 

Mines, Loss of Life in Coal 170t 

Mining, Wastes in 173J 

Morrison, C. L, Design of Milling Cutters.. 136* 

Morrison, C. J., Efficiency of Piles 487J 

Morrison, C. J., Tests of Staybolt Threads.. 433* 
Motive Power Official (see Mechanical De- 
partment Official). 
Motor Application to Geared Head High 

Speed Lathe 177* 

Motor Cars 317 

Motor Car, Gas-Electric, So. Ry 495 

Motor Car, Gasoline, Fairbanks, Morse & Co. 400* 

Motor Cars on the Rock Island 317 

Motor Cars, Santa Fe 483f 

Motor Cars on the Union Pacific 317 

Moulder, New Outside 175* 

Moulding Grease for Driving Boxes 114* 

Moulding Packing Rings 135* 

Mueller Machine Tool Co., Radial Drill 176* 

Multiple Spindle Drills in Railroad Shops... 160* 
Murray, W. S., Results of Electrification of 

the N. Y. N. H. & H. R. R 27 

Museum of Safety and Sanitation 203f 

Mussey, Wm. H., Semi-Elliptic Spring Data. 69 

N 

Narrow Gauge Mallet Locomotive, Ingenio 
Angelina 71* 

Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis Ry., Bal- 
anced Compound Passenger Loco 52* 

Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis Ry., Shal- 
low Ash Pan With Longitudinal Sliding 
Doors 247* 

National-Acme Mfg. Co., Automatic Screw 
Machine 300* 

National Tube Company, Tube Data 139, 192* 

Nelson, E. D., Bank vs. Level Firing 318 

New England Railroad Club, 

25, 65, 113, 152, 209, 237. 422, 462, 486 

Newhall Engng. Co., Air Brake and Signal 
Hose Connection 40* 

Newton Cold Saw Cutting-off Machine 456* 

Newton 3-Spindle Horizontal Drilling Ma- 
chine 497* 

Newton Vertical Milling Machine 212* 

New York Central Lines Apprentice Instruc- 
tors' Conference, Abstract of Proceedings, 

385*. 437* 

New York Central Lines Apprenticeship, 
Notes 138* 

New York Central Lines Electric Loco., De- 
troit River Tunnel 362* 

New York Central & Hudson River R. R., 
East Buffalo Roundhouse 3* 

New York Leather Belting Company, Belting 339 

New York Leather Belting Co., Victor-Balata 
Belting 416* 

N. Y. N. H. & H. R. R. Electric Locomotive, 
Results of 29 

New York, New Haven & Hartford R. R., 
Electric Freight Loco 498* 

New York, New Haven & Hartford R. R., 
Results of Electrification of 27 

New York Railroad Club, 

25, 65, 113, 153, 209, 353, 4P2, 462, 486 

New York, Pennsylvania Tunnels at 379| 

Niles-Bement-Pond Co., Extra Heavy Rod 
Milling Machine 161* 

Niles-Bement-Pond High Power Milling Ma- 
chine 308* 

Niles-Bement-Pond Planer, Work Done by.. 370* 

Niles-Bement-Pond Turret Lathe for Pin 

Work 262* 

Noiseless Gears 159 

Norfolk & Western Ry.. 50-Ton Steel Gon- 
dola Car 349* 

Norfolk & Western Ry., Shallow Ash Fan 

With Blowers 246* 

Northern Pacific Ry., 50-Ton Steel Gondola 
Car 251* 

Northern Pacific Ry., Hopper Tvpe Ash Pan 

With Sliding Doors 242* 

Northern Pacific Ry., Pacific and Atlantic 
Type Locos 194* 

Northern Railway Club. 

25, 65, 113, 153, 209. 237. 422, 462, 486 

Norton Grinding Co., Car Wheel Grinder... 208* 

Nut Locks, Bartley 299t. 341 

Nut Locks on Trucks 335 

Nuts (see Castle Nuts). 

O 

Oesterlein Machine Co., Universal Cutter 
Grinder 116* 



' mi i ■' i : ning the Vh h poinl oi an. . . . 392t 

Official, Principle Underlying the Work of a 

Stlrrr'-shll 217 

'til Barrels, Device for Elevating 10* 

Oil Burning Loco ,2-8-8-2, o Pa Co LSI*, ifiog 

Oil Burning I", imotivi Di ign of.. 1,221, lilt 

Oil Burning Loi i Santa Ft I 

' >il r.in ning I Jo Pac 181* 

Oil Bui ning 1 ocomot iv< ■ , Thn >ug h \dii on- 

da< !■ Forests 252t 

i»ii for Freight Cai journal Muxes 4 458 

Oil Furnaces for R. R Shops 174", 841* 

nil Houses 4l~t 

Oil Measuring Cup 57* 

Olivci Machinery < !o . Universal Saw Bench 262* 
Olsen & ( o., Tinins 10,000,000 lb. Testing 

Mm nine 102 

l I'N< il, J. B . Metal Grain Dooi 31* 

Operating Official, The Mechanical Official as 

a Successful 24 1§ 

Ore Car, Summers, Air Operated Drop Doors 869* 

Ore Cars, Summers, Good Work of 444$, 4Glt 

Ore Car, Summers*, Duluth & Iron Range 

R. R 338* 

Organization 22§, 375t 

Organization of Car Department, P. R. R... 86* 

Organization, Efficient 240§ 

Organization, Efficiency of 224| 

' ' ■ in i ni, A Successful 217 

Organization, Unit System of on Harriman 

Lines 445§ 

Oxy-Acetylene Welding 62§ 

Oxy- Acetylene Welding and Cutting Machine, 

Portable 34* 

Oxy- Acetylene Welding of Fireboxes 378 

Oxy-Acetylene Welding for Firebox Repairs. 432* 

Oxy-Acetylene Welding, Flux for 393f 

P 

Pacific Type Loco., Chicago & Alton Ry 268* 

Pacific Type Loco., C. B. & Q 376* 

Pacific Type Loco., Gt. Nor. Ry 413* 

Pacific Type Loco., Nor. Pac. Ry 194* 

Pacific Type Loco., Tabular Comparison 276 

Pacific Type Loco., Western Ry. of France.. 26* 
Packing Leathers for Air Brake Cylinders, 

Preparing 146* 

Packing, Piston Valve, Gt. Nor. Loco 413* 

Packing Rings, Machining on Vertical Turret 

Lathe 260* 

Packing Rings, Moulding 135* 

Paint Shop, Coach, Idaho & Washington Nor. 

Ry 157 

Paint Spraying Machine, P. R. R 102* 

Painting Steel Cars 293 

Painting Steel Cars, P. R. R 101* 

Painting Steel Passenger Cars 171f 

"Paragon" Flat Twisted Drills 343* 

Parish, Le Grand, On Apprenticeship 386 

Passenger Agents, Enginemen as 487f 

Passenger Car. 

Buffet Library, C. M. & St. P. Rv 447* 

Steel ". 131f 

Steel, Combination, P. R. P. 273* 

Steel, Common Standard 252t 

Steel, Cost of 189 

Steel, Design 198§, 434* 

Steel, Inside Lining of 203 

Steel, Painting 171 f 

Steel, Seat Arms and Window Sills on.. 273f 

Steel Suburban, Long Island R. R 12* 

Steel Underframe, C. R. R. of N. T 488* 

Suburban, Steel, Long Island R. R 12* 

Passenger Equipment, Electrically Lighted... 296 
Passenger Locomotive. 

2-6-2, Tabular Comparison 276 

4-4-0, Tabular Comparison 277 

4-4-2, Four-Cylinder Simple, C. R. I. & 

P. Ry 467* 

4-4-2, Nor. Pac. Ry 195* 

4-4-2, Santa Fe 478* 

4-4-2, Three-Cylinder Simple, Phila. & 

Reading Rv 459* 

4-4-2, Three-Cvl. Simple, Fast Run on 

the P. & R 473* 

4-4-2, Vauclain Comp., C. M. & St. P. 

Ry 115* 

4-6-0, N. C. & St. L. Ry 52* 

4-6-0, Tabular Comparison 277 

4-6-2, Chicago & Alton Ry 268* 

4-6-2, C. B. & 376* 

4-6-2, Gt Nor. Rv 413* 

4-6-2, Nor. Pac. Ry 194* 

4-6-2, Tabular Comparison 276. 277 

4-6-2, Western Ry. of France 26* 

4-4-6-2. Santa Fe 17*. 22§, 475* 

Electric, P. R. R 400* 

Passenger Travel. Safety of 263T 

Patent Office Statistics 411? 

Paxson, Levi B., Obituary Notice 215 

Peat as a Fuel 2671" 

Pedestal Binders. Device for Pulling Down.. 141* 

Pennsylvania Lines West, Locomotives for.. 495? 

Pennsylvania Railroad. 

Car Wheel Grinder 20S* 

Cleaning and Repairing Triple Valves... 15S* 

Electric Locomotives 261?, 490* 

Electrification, Direct Current 75? 

Fires on Property of 497? 

Forging at the Altoona Car Shops 210* 



Forging Coupler Yoke Fillers 229* 

How It S< ■ 129* 

Mam' of Steel Freight 

Cars at Altoona 81* 

Mechanical Stoker 280 

Motor Car. Gasoline 460* 

"Pennsylvania Spi 8 Cord of 370? 

I' Packing Leathers for Air 

Brake Cylinders L46 1 

Statistics 1 '>7 

Steel Car for Carrying Plate Glass 231* 

i Coke Car, lorn HopfX r 187* 

Steel Combination Pa Kngei and Bag- 
gage Car 273* 

Steel Freight Cars, Number and General 

Dimensions 83 

Stockholdi 337t 

Surpr i ■ 'I i i on. 443t 

Train Between New York and St. Louis 461? 

Tunnels at New York 379T 

Performance Records, Loco 236* 

Pi nnanent Instructions 219 

P) i finals, 

41, 42, 79, 119, 179, 215, 2f.3, 302. 343, 

Philadelphia & Reading Ry.. 3-CyIinder Sim- 
ple Loco 4-iO* 

Philadelphia & Reading Thro Cyl. Simple 
Loco., Fast Run on the New York Branch 473* 

"Phoenix" Smoke Jacks 5* 

Photographing Machinery 135? 

Piece Work and Apprenticeship 387 

Piece Work on Steel Car Repairs 92 

Pin Work, Locomotive, Machine Tools Re- 
quired for 125 

Pin Work, Turret Lathe for 262* 

Pipe Fittings, Cast Iron, Effect of Superheat- 
ed Steam on 177? 

Pipe Joint Cement 76 

Pipe Tans, Power Required to Drive 355 

Piston Rods, Machine Tools Required for... 122 

Piston Thrusts, Tabic of 103 

Piston Valve, Balanced Simple Loco., C. R. 

I. & P. Ry 

Piston Valve, 4-4-2 Locos., Bal. Comp., Santa 

Fe 479* 

Piston Valve Packing, (it. Nor. Loco 413* 

Piston Valves, Are By-Pass Valves Necessary 

With 322 

Pistons, Machine Tools Required for 124 

Pit Jack, Hydro-Pneumatic 459* 

Pittsburgh & Lake Erie R. R., Labor and 

Time Saving Devices in the Roundhouse... 141* 
Pittsburgh & Lake Erie R. R., Moulding 

Packing Rings 135* 

Pittsburg Plate Glass Co., Steel Car for Car- 
rying Plate Glass 231* 

Pittsburgh, Railway Club of, 

25. f.5, 113, 153. 209, 422, 462, 486 
Piston Heads, Machining on Vertical Turret 

Lathe 260* 

Piston Valve, American Semi-Plug 117* 

Planer Drive, Two Speed 419* 

Planer for Loco. Cylinders, Cincinnati 73* 

Planer, Plate, for Loco. Boiler Shop 126 

Planer Records, Good 370* 

Planer, 22-Inch. Cincinnati 37* 

Planer Type Milling Machine 161* 

Planing Machine for Wood. Feed of 135f 

Plate Glass, Steel Car for Carrying 231* 

Plymouth Cordage Co., Compressed Air Trac- 
tion System 170 

Pneumatic Dispatch Tube at Engine House.. 72 

Pneumatic Drill Testing Machine 355* 

Pneumatic Gasket Cutter 143* 

Pneumatic Staybolt Nipper 178* 

Pomeroy, L. R 1505 

Pomeroy, L. R., Mallet Comp. vs. Electric 

Locos '. - - ■ 15 

Pomeroy, L. R., A Study of the Number and 
Kind of Machine Tools Required in a Rail- 
way Locomotive Machine and Boiler Shop, 

121, 1505 

Pomeroy, L. R.. On Superheaters 288 

Pool, Freight Car. The Pennsylvania System 86 

Pool, General Freight Car 267t 

Pop Valves, Steam Wasted Through 315 

Portable Air Motor Testing Machine 355* 

Portable Drilling Apparatus 259* 

Portable Heaters 174* 

Portable Hoist for Handling Large Com- 
pound Air Pumps 143* 

Portable Oxy-Acetylene Welding and Cutting 

Machine 34* 

Portable Rivet Heater 97* 

Portable Rivet Heating Furnace 174* 

Portable Steel Tool Box 141* 

Portable Vise Bench 141* 

"Positive" Water Glass Guard 382* 

Powell. R. C, Portable Air Motor Testing 

Machine 355* 

Power Brakes on Trains. Peicentage of 258 

Power House for New Haven Electrification, 

Results of 57 

Power Plant, Depreciation of 145f 

Power Plant. East Buffalo Roundhouse 9* 

Power Plant Efficiency 1S5* 

Prairie Type Locos.. Tabular Comparison.... 276 

Pratt & Whitney "Highpower" Drill 419* 

Pratt & Whitney Turret Head Bolt Cutter... 
Prentice Bros. Cd., High Speed Lathe, Motor 

Driven 177* 

Press. 1500-Ton 91* 

Press. Forcing 209* 

Press for Straightening Steel Car Parts.. 94*. 100* 
Press for Valve Chamber Bushings, Hydraulic 4S3* 
Pressures in the Metric System 176t 



Principles Wrongly Applied, Good 312§ 

Process for Squaring Mentally. . 11 

Progress, Keep in Touch With 13t 

Protection of Railroad Men 135t 

Public Opinion and ITarriman Lines 255f 

Public and the Railroads, The 213t 

Public, The, and Railroad Employees 299t 

Publicity of Railroad Accidents" 2S8f 

Pumps (see Air Pumps). 

Punch and Shear, Royersford 342* 

Punching Machines Required in Loco. Boiler 

Shop 127 

Q 

Quayle, Robert, On Fuel Economy 316 

Quayle, Robert, On Superheaters 287 

Queen City Machine Tool Co., Boring Jigs in 

the Manufacture of Shapers 118* 

Queen City Machine Tool Co., Shaper Tests. 171* 

R 

Rack for Flues 351* 

Radial DHU 176* 

Radial Drill, Sensitive 210*. 458* 

Radical Angular Drill & Tool Co., Device for 

Boring Square Holes 38* 

Railroad Accidents, Publicity of 288f 

Railroad Clubs, Are They Worth While 5 64 

Railroad Clubs, Co-operation With the M. M. 

Association 266 

Railroad Club Notes, 

25, 65, 113, 152, 209, 237, 305$, 422, 402, 487 

Railroad Club Statistics 273t 

Railroad Club, The Value of 25f, 272f 

Railroads Doing Good Business 255f 

Railroad Employees' and Investors' Associa- 
tion, The American 145 

Railroad Employees and the Public 299t 

Railroad Fatalities Show Maiked Decrease... 483 

Railroads. Fulton Bill Dangerous to 66 

Railroad Machine Shop Practice, 

134*. 150§, 185, 219 

Railroad Men, Best Means of Training 63§ 

Railroad Outlook Improving 151 § 

Railroad Prosperity and the Equipment Inter- 
ests 471 

Railroad Regulation I93t 

Railroad Service, College Men in 170 

Railroad Y. M. C. A 352t, 373f, 403t 

Railroads, Good Times Ahead for 24 

Railroads and the Public 2137 

Railroads, Should They Manufacture 146 

Railroads Want Fair Treatment 47 

Rails, Effect of Flat Wheels on lilt, 149J 

Railway Appliances Exhibition, A. R. E. & 

M. of W. Assn 119 

Railway Business Association ... .23§, 24, 66, 461 

Railway Business Assn. Dinner 485§ 

Railway Business Association, Inside View.. 105 
Railway Business Assn., Mr. Marshall's Ad- 
dress at the Annual Dinner 471 

Railway Business Association Statement 151 

Railway Business Association, Work of 313 

Railway Club of Pittsburgh, 

25, 65, 113, 153. 209, 422, 462 
Railway and Engineering Review, A Good 

Convention Issue 302f 

Railway and Engineering Review, Daily at A. 

R. E. & M. W. Assn 178t 

Railway Fuel Association, International, 

Meeting of 153|, 233 

Railway Materials Co. Furnaces 174* 

Railway Storekeepers' Association 433t 

Railway Storekeepers' Convention 261 f 

Recording Wattmeter 323* 

Records, Graphical 236* 

Records, Individual Efficiency 217 

Refrigerator Cars, Salt Water Drippings from 292 

Regulation of Railroads 193t 

Reheater, Santa Fe Mallet Comp. Locos 469* 

Reheater, So. Pac. Mallet Comp. Locos 1S1* 

Reilly, T. S., Obiluarv Notice 120 

Repair Card, Abuse of the M. C. B..39 229, o36 

Repair Card, Freight Car, P. R. R 93* 

Repair Card, M. C. B. Standard 337* 

Renair Shops, Loco., Cost of 19 

Reversing Gear, 2-8-8-2 Loco, So. Pac. Co.. 368 
Richmond Railroad Club, 

25, 153. 209, 422, 452, 487 
Riegel, S. S., Comparative Tests of Water 

Tuhe and Standard Fireboxes 253* 

Riegel Water Tube Firebox 253* 

Ritter Folding Doors for Roundhouses 41* 

Rivet Heater, Portable 97* 

Rivet Heating Furnace, Portable 174* 

Road Foreman of Engines, A. Bonus Sched- 
ule for 235 

Road Maintenance and Automobiles 415| 

Rock Island 4-Cylinder Simple Loco. With 

Superheater 467* 

Rock Island System, Motor Cars on 317 

Rock Island System, Tests of Superheaters 

on 281 

Rocker Arm and Support, 4-6-2 Loco., C. B. 

& 377* 

Rod Brasses, Machine Tools Renuired for... 125 
Rod Brasses, Machining on Vertical Turret 

Lathe 260* 

Rod Milling Machine 161* 

Rods, Machine Tools Renuired for 122 

Rogers, R. TL. Flange Wear on Driving Tires 24S* 

Roller Bearings 19-j- 

Rolls Required in Loco. Boiler Shop 126 

Roundhouse (see Engine House). 

Round Iron, Weights of 361 

Royersford Motor Driven Punch and Shear.. 342* 



Running Board Brackets, Former for Forging 210* 
Rupert, J. W., Welding Boiler Tubes to the 

Tube Sheet 354$ 

Rutland Ry., Welding Locomotive Frames... 453* 

s 

Safety Appliances, Report of Committee on.. 294 

Safety League, Canadian Pacific Ry 299 

Safety, Museum of 203t 

Safety of Passenger Travel 263f, 443t, 446f 

Safety Valve Capacity 102* 

Safety Valves 322 

Safety Valves, Steam Wasted Through 315 

St. Louis Railway Club, 

25, 65, 113, 153, 200, -!A7, 422, 46,2, 487 
Salt Water Drippings from Refrigerator Cars 292 

Sand Boxes, Repairing in Roundhouse 141* 

Sand House, East Buffalo Roundhouse 9* 

Sanitation, Museum of 203t 

Santa Fe, Atlantic Type Locomotive 478* 

Santa Fe, Mallet Comp. Freight Loco. 

(2-S-S-2 ) 17*. 22$, 477* 

Santa Fe, Mallet Comp. Passenger Loco. 

(4-4-6-2) 17*. 22§, 475* 

Santa Fe Type Loco., Data 275 

Saturated Steam, What It Is 220 

Saw Bench, Universal 262* 

Saw, Cut-off for Flues, Abrasion .* 351* 

Saw, Cut-off, Heavy Automatic 421* 

Saw, Cut-off, Metal 456* 

Saw, Friction, Metal 377| 

Saw Mill, Large 13f 

Schmidt Superheater on 4-4-2 Loco., Nor. 

Pac Ry 197* 

Schmidt Superheaters, Number of Locos. 

Equipped With 10f 

Schneider, Prof. Herman 199$ 

Schneider, Prof. Herman, Industrial Educa- 

„ tion 312§ 

Scranton Shops, D. L. & W. Ry., Machine 
Tools for the Locomotive Machine and 

Boiler Shops 121, 150§ 

Screw Machine, Multiple Spindle, Automatic. 300* 

Seat Arms in Steel Pass. Cars 273t 

Seley, C. A., Side Sheets of Wire Fireboxes, 

20, 23§ 
Seley, C. A., Superheater Tests on the Rock 

Island 281 

Sellers Car Wheel Lathe 340* 

Semi-Elliptical Springs, Design of 59 

Sensitive Radial Drill 210*. 458* 

Setting Valves (see Valves, Setting). 

Shaper, Back Geared Crank 112*, 166* 

Shapers, Boring Jigs in the Manufacture of.. 118* 

Shaper Tests 16G*, 171* 

Shea, R. T., On Apprenticeship 386 

Shear, Gate, 125-Inch 88* 

Shear and Punch 342* 

Shearing Machines Required in Loco. Boiler 

Shop 127 

Sheiov Seamless Steel Tubing, Data Concern- 
ing 139, 192* 

Shiiner High Speed Steel Cutters for Surfac- 
ing 78* 

Shiiner & Sons, Samuel J., High Speed Steel 

Cutters for Woodworking 363f 

Ship, The Oldest Iron I91f 

Shoes and Wedges, Machine Tools Required 

for 124 

Shoes and Wedges, Machining 134* 

Shop. 

Blacksmith, Idaho & Washington Nor. 

Ry 157* 

Boiler, Machine Tools Required in.. 121, 150§ 

Car, Beech Grove 133* 

Car, Forging in 210* 

Car, Idaho & Washington Nor. Ry 154* 

Car, Steel Freight, Altoona 87* 

Coach and Paint, Idaho & Washington 

Nor. Ry 157 

Cost of Locomotive Repair 19 

Efficiency, Building Up 380? 

Erecting and Machine, Idaho & Washing- 
ton Nor. Ry 155* 

Erecting, Lighting of 298* 

Freight Car, P. R. R 100 

Instructor for Apprentices 387 

Lighting of 298* 

Locomotive and Car, Beech Grove 133* 

Locomotive, Idaho & Washington Nor. 

Ry 154* 

Machine, East Buffalo Roundhouse 7* 

Machine and Erecting, Beech Grove.... 133* 
Machine and Erecting, Idaho & Washing- 
ton Nor. Ry 155* 

Machine, Lighting of 298* 

Machine, Machine Tools Required in. 121, 150§ 

Operation, Comparative Cost of 266 

Surgeon 311 

Telephone System . . -. 379* 

Side Bearings 337 

Side Bearings on Tender Trucks, Location of. 

232* 299 

Side Sheets, Firebox, Life of 20," 23§ 

Side Sheets on Wide Fireboxes, Failure of... 70* 

Signal Blades, Gold Leaf for 10t 

Signals. Automatic Block in 1908 781 

Sills (see Center Sills). 

Sills, Splicing of Wooden 291* 

Sketching for Apprentices 138 

Slipping Point of Rolled Boiler Tube Joints, 

364$, 370* 
Sloat, H. M., Weight Distribution of Mallet 

Articulated Locos 51* 

Smoke Box Arrangement, 2-8-0 Loco., C. P. 
Ry 427* 



Smoke Box Doors, Lancashire & Yorkshire 

Ry 409 

Smoke Box for Lignite Burning Engines. . . 391* 
Smoke Box Temperatures With Superheated 

and Saturated Steam 221*. 283, 284 

Smoke Box, Tests of on the Lancashire & 

Yorkshire Ry 408* 

Smoke Box, Virginian Mallet Loco 357* 

Smoke, Burning Briquets 68 

Smoke, Effect of Brick Arches on 62§", 74* 

Smoke Jacks. "Phoenix" 5* 

Smoke Prevention in Locomotive Operation.. 409f 
Smoke Stack and Deflector, 2-8-8-2 Loco., So. 

Pac. Co; 3 6 8* 

Smokeless Combustion 205| 

Snell, Fred H., Wood's Locomotive Firebox. 271 
Socket (see Drill Socket). 

Soule, Richard IL, Obituary Notice 42 

Southern & Southwestern Ry. Club, 

„ 65, 209, 422, 462 

Southern Pacific Mallet Comp. Loco., 

16*. 22§, 181*. 199S, 367* 

Southern Ry., Gas-Electric Motor Cars 405 

Souvenirs at the Conventions 22§ 

Specifications for Leather Belting 255 

Splicing Center Sills 291* 

Spring and Brake Rigging, Loco., Machine 

Tools Required for 134 

Springfield Machine Tool Co., Machine for 

Boring Loco. Driving Axles 173* 

Spring Hanger, Dies and Former for Forging 131* 

Spring Steel, Heat Treatment of 492* 

Springs, Helical, Design of 103 

Springs, Semi-Elliptic, Design of 59 

Square Holes, Boring 33* 

Squaring Mentally, Process for ll 

Stack, Diamond, for Burning Lignite 391* 

Standard Allowances 217 

Standard Costs or Allowances 219 

Standard Tool Co., Circular Shank for Drills 178* 
Standard Tool Co., "Economy" Sockets and 

Sleeves 78* 

Standardization of Locomotive Supplies 54 

Standardization Need Not Check Progress... 299f 

Standardization, Practical Benefits from 41lj 

Standards, Revision of M. M. Association... 281 

"Stantool" Shank for Drills 178* 

Statistics, Records of 217 

Staybolts, Flexible ^ 322, 389t 

Staybolts, Flexible, A Criticism 494J 

Staybolts, Flexible, Applying 19* 

Staybolts. Flexible. A New Departure in 190* 

Staybolt Nipper. Pneumatic 178* 

Staybolts, Machine Tools Required for 125 

Staybolt Threads, Test of 433* 

Stays (see Boiler Stays'). 

Steam, Action of in a Locomotive 220 

Steam Chests. Machine Tools Required for... 123 

Steam Drop Hammer 461* 

Steam Hose (see Hose). 

Steam Per I. H. P., Saturated 283 

Steam Per I. H. P., Superheated 285 

Steam Pipes Between Cylinders and Saddle 

Casting, 2-8-2 Loco., Va. Ry 227* 

Steam Railways, Electrification of in Boston. 178 

Steam, Saturated, What It Is 220 

Steam, Superheated (see Superheated Steam). 

Steam, What Is it ? 53f 

Steel, Alloy 63§ 

Steel Car for Carrying Plate Glass 231* 

Steel Car Repairs 174* 

Steel Car Wheels, Design of 324* 

Steel Freight Car, Coke, Four Hopper, P. R. 

R 187* 

Steel Freight Car, Gondola, 50-Ton Steel, 

Denver & Rio Grande 250* 

Steel Freight Car, Gondola, 50-Ton Steel, 

Maine Central Ry 252* 

Steel Freight Car, Gondola, 50-Ton Steel, 

Nor. Pac. Ry 251* 

Steel Freight Car, Gondola, 50-Ton, Norfolk 

& Western Ry 349* 

Steel Freight Car, Gondola, 50-Ton, Virgin- 
ian Ry 395* 

Steel Freight Car, Hopper for Ore, Summers 338* 

Steel Freight Car, Hopper, Summers 49* 

Steel Freight Cars, Ore, Summers, Air Oper- 
ated Drop Doors on 369* 

Steel Freight Cars, Maintenance 
ami Repair of at Altoona, Penn- 
s ylvniiin Kail r oa * I . 

All-Steel Cars, Number and General Di- 
mensions 84 

Blacksmith Shop, Straightening Damaged 

Parts for Steel Cars 100* 

Body Bolster Reinforced on Steel Hopper 

Cars 99* 

Bolt for Drawing LTp Parts 91 , 

Car Equipment on Pennsylvania R. R. . . S3 

Cars Repaired at Altoona, Number of... 87 

Car Shop, Steel 87* 

Center Sills, Reinforcing of 90* 

Center Sills, Splicing of 90* 

Center Sills, Splicing on Steel Hopper 

Cars 97* 

Classification of Freight Cars 85 

Corrosion of Steel Cars 86 

Coupler Yokes, Method of Riveting to 

Couplers 91 

Cranes, Locomotive, for Freight Car Re- 
pair Yard 99* 

Drawbar Yokes, Method of Riveting to 

Couplers 91 

East Bound Repair Yard 99* 

End Sills, Reinforcing on Steel Hopper 

Cars 96* 

Freight Car Shop 100 



Gate Shear, 125-Inch 88" 

Heater for Rivets, Portable 97* 

Heaters for Steel Car Repairs 1)5* 

Hopper Car Cross Tics 99 

Indestructibility of Steel Cars 86 

J ntroductory 81 

Jacks, Pulling and Pushing, for Steel Car 

Repairs 91", 95* 

Life of Steel Cars 83 

Locomotive Cranes for Freight Car Re- 
pair Yard 99* 

Number of All Steel Freight Cars 84 

Number of Cars Repaired at Altoona... 87 
Number of Steel Undei fi arae Freight 

Cars 84 

Organization of Car Department 80 

Paint Spraying Machine 102* 

Painting 101* 

Piece Work for Steel Car Repairs 93* 

Pneumatic 1 hills, A Simple i tevice Used 

in Connection With 95* 

Pool, P. R. R. Freight Car 86 

Portable Rivet Healer 97* 

Press, 1500-Ton, Chambersburg 91* 

Press for Straightening Damaged Parts 

of Steel Cars 94*, 100* 

Repair Card for Steel Car Repairs 93* 

Repairs, How Made 92* 

Repairs, How Made in Steel Car Shop.. 91* 

Repair Yards, Altoona 81* 

Repair Yard, East Bound 99* 

Repair Yard, West Hound 92* 

Rivet Heater. Portable 97* 

Shear, Gate, 125-Inch 88* 

Shop, Freight Car 100 

Shop, Steel Car 87* 

Steel Cars, Number and Dimensions of. . 84 

Steel Car Shop 87* 

Steel Underframe Cars, Number and Di- 
mensions of 84 

Storehouse, West Bound Freight Car Re- 
pair Yard 97* 

Storeioom, East Bound Repair Yard.... 100* 
Straightening Irons for Steel Car Repairs 95* 
Straightening Press for Damaged Steel 

Car Parts 94*, 100* 

Tool Room, West Bound Repair Yard... 93* 

Tools and Devices for Repairing 93* 

Torch for Heating Damaged Parts of 

Steel Cars 92*. 95* 

Trestles for Freight Car Repair Yards. . 99* 
West Bound Freight Car Repair Yards.. 92* 

Wooden Car, Passing of 85* 

Yard, East Bound Repair 99* 

Yard, West Bound Repair 92* 

Yards for Repairing, Altoona 81* 

Steel Freight Cars, Painting 293 

Steel Passenger Cars 131f 

Steel Passenger Car, Combination, P. R. R. . 273* 

Steel Passenger Cars, Cost of 189 

Steel Passenger Cars, Common Standard.... 252f 

Steel Passenger Car Design 198§, 434* 

Steel Passenger Cars, Inside Lining of 203 

Steel Passenger Cars, Painting 171| 

Steel Passenger Cars, Seat Arms and Window 

Sills on 273t 

Steel Passenger Car, Suburban, Long Island 

R. R 12* 

Steel, Spring, Heat Treatment of 492* 

Steptoe Shaper Co., Back Geared Crank 

Shaper 112* 

Stillman, Howard, Oil Burning Locomotives, lllj 

Stokers, Mechanical 279. 364§ 

Stop Block for Engines in Roundhouse 37 

Storehouse, East Buffalo Roundhouse 9* 

Storehouse, Idahi & Washington Nor. Ry... 157 

Storehouse, Steel Car Repair Yard 97* 

Storekeepers' Convention, Railway 261| 

Straight Lines, Arcs Equal to 11* 

Straightening Iron for Steel Car Repairs.... 95* 

Straightening Levers, Device for 143* 

Straightening Press, Steel Car Repairs 100* 

Strouse Mechanical Stoker 279 

Suburban Car, Steel, Long Island R. R 12* 

Summers* Ore Car 338* 

Summers' Ore Car, Air Operated Drop Doors 

on 369* 

Summers' Ore Car, Efficiency of 444§ 

Summers' Ore Cars, Good Work of 461f 

Summers' Steel Hopper Car 49* 

Superheat, Desirable Degree of 222 

Superheat, High vs. Low on Basis of Heat 

Units and Volume 224 

Superheat, Value of a High Degree . 222 

Superheated Stenm. 

Advantages of 221 

Best Degree of for Locos 287 

Boiler Pressuie, Relation to 220* 

Editorial Comment 241§, 278§ 

Effect of on Cast Iron Pipe Fittings 177f 

Effect on Hauling Power of Locomotive. 223 

Low, Moderate and High 220*, 241§, 339 

Most Efficient Degree for Loco. Service. 223 

Specific Heat of 222*, 339 

Total Heat and Volume of One Pound.. 224* 
Vs. Saturated, Comparative Tests. . .278$, 282* 

What It Is 220 

Weight of 223*, 339 

Work Performed per Lb. of 222 

Superheaters 

2-8-0 Loco., C. P. Ry 426* 

Air and Steam, for Locomotives 13 

Baldwin, Tests of 241 

Buck, Santa Fe Mallet Comp. Locos 48'-?* 

Cole, C. R. I. & P. Ry 467 

Fire Tube, Coal Consumption With 222 



Fire Tube, Cost of Maintenance 223 

Firi i ubi \ .. : imoke Box 221 

Fin Tube, Wabash Pittsburgh rei minal 

Ry 

Great Noi thi 1 n Ky 413 

Fai ob 

J'.', lative I 01 1 ol Smoke Box and I i ■ 

'i ni>' 222 

Ri nil . 1 1 Mm on tin Rock Island 281 

Schmidt, 11.' Loco., Nor. Pac. Ry 107* 

St n mult, Number of Locos. Equipped 

With 10f 

Supri heaters 281 

Tubes, Life of 222 

iii ' , Locomotive (see Loco. Supplies). 

Supplyman, His Position and Influence 

Supply man. The . . 81 it 

Surfacing, High Speed Steel Cutters for 78* 

Surgeon, The Shop 311 

Surprise Tests tint 

Switching Locos., 0-G-0, Data 276 

Switching Locos., 0-8-0, Data 275 

Switching Loco., 0-8-0, Va. Ky 359* 

Switching l.u. ,., u , c, Western Ky. of Ha- 
vana 310* 

Sv\ itching Locos., 0-10-0, Data 275 

Switching Locos., Tabular Comparison 2*5 



Tank Cars 330 

Tank. How to Repair Leaky Gasoline 350t 

Tank Switch, Automatic 381* 

Tapping Holes in Boiler 433* 

Tapping Pipes, Power Required for 355 

Tate, Jones & Co., Kirk wood Down Flame 

Flue Welding Furnace 460* 

Tate, Jones & Co., Oil Furnaces 3-11* 

Taylor, Wm. H., High Speed Milling Cutters 

With Inserted Blades 308* 

Team Work 1C|, 218 

Technical Publicity Association 4G2t 

Telephone Train Dispatching 473t 

Telephones for Calling Enginemen 1ST 

Telephones on Freight Cabooses 453| 

Telephone System for Shops 379* 

Temperatures (see Smoke Box Temperatures). 

Tempering High Speed Steel Tools 393| 

Ten-Wheel Loco., Passenger, N. C. & St. L. 

Ry 52* 

Ten-Wheel Loco., Tabular Comparison.. .2 75, 277 

Tender, 12,000 Gallon, Santa Fe 477* 

Tender Derailments 316 

Tender Trucks 316 

Tender Truck, 6-Wheel, for 12,000 Gal Ten- 
der, Santa Fe 479* 

Tender Trucks, Location of Side Bearings en, 

232*. 299 

Testing Locomotive Fuel 396 

Testing Machine for Air Motors 355* 

Testing Machine for Studying the Strength of 

Materials 441* 

Testing Machine, Ten Million Lb 102 

Tests of Briquets for Locomotives 62§ 67* 

Three-Cylinder Simple Loco., Phila. & Read- 
ing Ry 459* 

Three-Cylinder Simple Loco., Fast Run on 

the Philadelphia & Reading 473* 

Throttle Rigging, Machine Tools Required 

for 124 

Tickell, W. D., Pivoted Equalizer Stand 497* 

Tillotson Bequest 279, 289 ' 

Timber Decay Costs Millions 483 

Timber Waste 18f 

Tires, Driving, Flange Wear on 248* 

Tires, Machine Tools Required for 122 

Tires, Renewal of on the Lancashire & York- 
shire Ry 407 

Tires, Shrinkage of on Lancashire & York- 
shire Ry 408 

Toledo, St. Louis & Western R. R., Baker- 

Pilliod Vave Gear on 32* 

Tool Box, Portable, Steel 141* 

Tool Holder, Lang 420* 

Tool Room, Loco. Shop, Machine Tools Re- 
quired in 126 

Tool Room, Steel Car Repair Yard 93* 

Tools and Devices L T sed for Steel Car Repairs 93* 

Tools, Tempering High Speed Steel 393| 

Torch, Engineer s 55* 

"Track Skate" in Roundhouse 161f 

Tracks, Widening Gauge of 288 

Trailer Truck, Outside Journal Boxes, 4-6-2 

Loco., Chicago & Alton Ry 269* 

Trailer Truck With Outside Boxes, 2-8-2 

Loco., Virginian Ry 228* 

Train Brake and Signal Equipment 297 

Train Delays in New York State 64" 

Train Dispatching by Telephone 473f 

Train Resistance Formulas 472 

Training Railroad Men, Best Method of 63§ 

Trains, Percentage of Power Brakes on 258 

Travel Becoming Safer 443| 

Traveling Engineers, Bonus Schedule for.... 235 

Trespassing on Railroad Property 451 

Trestle for Car Repairs 99* 

Triple Valve, Cleaning and Repairing, 

146*, 158*. 336 

Triple Valve Tests, Code for 297 

Trolley Wire, New Haven Electrification.... 2S 
Truck for Boiler Washing Hose and Tools... 141* 

Truck for Electric Cars 499* 

Truck, 4- Wheel, C. R. R. of N. J. Coach 4SS* 

Truck, Freight Car 335* 

Truck Hanger, Dies and Former for Forging 130* 
Truck on Mallet Comp. Locos 14 



Truck, 6- Wheel fo IS 1 nder, 

1 i - 

1 nder , , . ' 310 

1 I- nder. Location of Side Bearing 

232 
1 I Frailer Ti uck). 

I rut k, V irginian Mallet Loco 

1 Work, Engine and Tender, Machine 

Required for 124 

Tubes. 

Abrasion Cut-off Saw for 361* 

Area of Inside Surface 139 

Collap ■•'.- I' - 'ires 198* 

Copper Safe-Ends for lgf 

Cubic Capacity of 139 

1 . lata 1 19, 192* 

Joints, The Slipping Point of Rolled 

Boiler 

Life of Superheater 

Machine Tools Required for . 126 

Plant, An Efficient, Collinwood Shops... 350' 

Rack for 

Reduction in Leakage of 1 7a| 

Safe Internal Fluid Pressures 

tit of 

Welding to the Tube Sheet 354$ 

With Closed Ends, Safe Internal Fluid 

Pressures 192* 

Tube Work, Machine Tools Required for 126 

Tunnels at New York City, P. R. R 

Turner, L. II., On Apprenticeship 

Turntable Donkey, Electric Q * 

Turntable, East Buffalo Roundhouse y* 

Turret Head Bolt Cutter «• 

Turret Lathe for Pin Work 

Turret Lathe, Vertical, in Railroad Shops... 2t0* 

Turret on 36-in. Triple Geared Lathe 

Twelve-Wheel Loco., Data 

Twist Drills, Data on High Speed 20*" 

Twist Drills, High Speed 



u 

Underwood Universal Boring, Turning and 

Facing Machine 171 * 

Union, Kewanee 41* 

Union Pacific Educational Bureau of Infor- 
mation 392 

Union Pacific, Motor Cars on 317 

Union Railroad Steel Hopper Car, Summers' 49* 

Universal Saw Bench 262* 

University of Cincinnati, Co-operative Engi- 
neering Courses 199 

"Use-Em-Up" Drill Socket 76* 



V 

Valve, Blow-off (see Blow-off Valve). 
Valve, By-Pass (see By-Pass Valve). 
Valve Chamber, 4-4-2 Loco., Bal. Comp., 

Santa Fe 479* 

Valve Chamber Bushings, Hydraulic Press for 463* 

Valve Ellipses, Baker Pilliod 32* 

Valve Gear, Baker-Pilliod 32* 

Valve Gear, Baker-Pilliod, 4-6-2 Loco., Chica- 
go & Alton Ry 268* 

Valve Gear, Joy (see Joy Valve Gear). 

Valve Gear Link Grinders 30* 

Valve Gear, Machine Tools Required for.... 123 
Valve Gear, Walschaert (see Walschaert 

Valve Gear). 
Valve, Piston (see Piston Valve). 
Valve Rod Extension, 2-8-0 Loco., C. P. Ry. 430* 
Valve, Safety (see Safety Valve). 
Valve Setting Apparatus, Care of in Round- 
house 143* 

Valve Stem Clamp. Emergency 56* 

Valve, Triple (see Triple Valve). 

Valves, Machine Tools Required for 123 

Valves, Setting With walschaert Gear 12S* 

Vanadium Steel for Forging Dies 497 

Van Arsdale, Robert M 465*, 484§ 

Vauclain Comp. Atlantic Type Loco., C. M. 

& St. P. Ry us* 

Vauclain, S. M., Mallet Compound Locomo- 
tives 17», 22§ 

Vaughan, H. H., Effect of Flat Wheels on 

Rails 149J 

Vaughan, H. H., Hammer Blow from Incor- 
rect Counterbalance 45* 

Vaughan, H. H„ Locomotive Counterbalanc- 
ing 39cS*, 405§ 

Vaughan, H. H., On Motor Cars 318 

Vaughan, H. H., President's Address, M. M. 

Association 265 

Vaughan, H. H., On Superheaters 287 

Vertical Boring Mill, 30-Inch 380* 

Vertical Car Boring Machines 167*, 213* 

Vertical Drill, High Speed 41S* 

Vertical Milling Machine, Cincinnati 16S* 

Vertical Milling Machine, Newton 212* 

Vertical Turret Lathe in Railroad Shops 260* 

Victor- Balata Belting 416* 

Victor Mechanical Stoker 279 

Virginian Railway. Caboose 402* 

Virginian Ry., Eight Wheel Switching Loco. 359* 
Virginian Railway, 50-Ton Steel Gondola Car 395* 

Virginian Ry., Formal Opening of 203| 

Virginian Railway, Mallet Compound Loco., 

2-6-6-0 261*. 357t 

\ irginian Ry., Mikado Type Freight Loco... 225* 

Vise Bench, Portable 141* 

Vise Bench for Roundhouse g* 



Von Schrenck, Hermann, The Handling of 

Lumber in the Yard 352 

Yoorhees, M., Metal Grain Door 31* 

Y-Thread, Passing of 213T 

w 

Wabash Pittsburgh Terminal Ry. 2-8-0 Loco. 

With Fire Tube Superheater 256* 

Wabash Railroad, Ash Pan With Hinged 

Doors 244* 

Wagstatf, George, On Jacobs-Shupert Firebox 200J 
Walschaert Valve Gear, 2-8-0 Loco., C. P. 

Ry 429* 

haert Valve Gear, 1-4-2 Loco., Bal. 

Comp., Santa Fe 479 

Walschaert Valve Gear. Bal. Simple Loco., 

C. R. I. & P. Ry 467* 

Walschaert Valve Gear Indicator Cards 32* 

Walschaert Valve Gear, Instruction for Ap- 
prentices 440* 

Walschaert Valve Gear, Link Grinder for... 30* 
Walschaert Valve Gear, Mallet Comp. Loco., 

Santa Fe 475* 

Walscnaert Valve Gear, Setting Valves With 128* 

Washing Out Boilers, Methods of 353 

Washing Out Boilers, Miller System 5 

Washing Out Boilers, Truck for Hose and 

Tools 141* 

Water Glass Guard, "Positive" 382* 

Water Power, Available 397T 

Water Softening, Results of 78t 

Water Tube Boiler. Locomotive, Tests of... 253* 

Water Tubes in Fireboxes 322 

Watson-Stilhnan Co., Automatic Tank Switch 381* 
Watson- Stillman Co., Calibrating Apparatus 

for High Pressure Gauges 495* 

Watson-Stillman Co.. Forcing Press 209* 

Watson-Stillman Hydraulic Coping Machine. 381* 



Watson-Stillman Co., Hydraulic Jacks 301* 

Watson-Stillman Hydro-Pneumatic Pit Jack.. 459* 

Wattmeter, Graphic Recording 323* 

Weighing Coal for Locomotives 346 

Weight Distribution of Mallet Articulated 

Loco 51* 

Weight of Superheated Steam 223* 

Weights of Round Iron 361 

Welding Boiler Tubes to the Tube Sheet.... 354*. 

Welding of Fireboxes by Oxy-Acetylene 378 

Welding Locomotive Frames, Rutland Ry... 453* 

Welding by Oxy-Acetylene Methods 62§ 

Welding With Oxy-Acetylene Machine 34* 

Welfare Work Among Workmen 486§ 

West, Geo. W., Obituary Notice 42 

Western Canada Railway Club, 

114, 153, 209. 237. 422. 4(12, 487 
Western Electric Co., Shop Telephone Sys- 
tem 379* 

Western Railway Club, 

25, 66, 113, 153, 209. 422, 4C2, 487 
Western Ry. of France, Bal. Comp. 4-6-2 

Loco. 26* 

Western Ry. of France, Increasing the Life 

of Loco. Crank Axles 396* 

Western Railway of Havana, Eight-Wheel 

Switching Loco. 310* 

Westinghouse Electric Freight Loco., N. Y. 

N. H. & H. R. R 498* 

Westinghouse Electric Locomotive 490* 

Westinghouse Electric Turntable Donkey.... 76* 
\vestinghouse Graphic Recording Wattmeter. 323* 

Wheel Lathe, Car 340* 

Wheels, Car 324* 

Wheels, Driving, Machine Tools Required for 122 

Wheels, Effect of Flat on Rails 149$ 

Wheels, Gauges for 327* 

Wheels, Graphical Record of Pressures in 

Pressing on 452* 

Wheels, Grinding Car 208* 



Whiteford, J. F., Efficient Foremen 

Whitworth Thread for Staybolts 

Wide Firebox Sheets, Failure of 

Wide Firebox Side Sheets 20, 

Wille, H. V., A New Departure in Flexible 
Staybolts 

Wilson, Hugh M., Dinner to 

Window Cleaning Device 

Window Fixtures, Car 

Window Sills in Steel Pass. Cars 

Wind iws, Roundhouse 

Wire (see Trolley Wire). 

Wireless Telegraphy Tower, Washington... 

Wisconsin, Univ. of, Forest Products Labor- 
atory 

Wisconsin Univ., Summer School at 

Wood's Firebox and Tube Plates, C. B & 
Q. R. R 

Wood's Locomotive Firebox 

Wood, Supply of 

Wood, Use of in Building Construction 

Wood, Win. II, Flexible Staybolts 

Wood. Wm. H., Jacobs-Shupert Firebox 201 j, 

Wooden Freight Car, The Passing of 

Woodworker, Hamilton Universal 

Woodworking, High Speed Steel Cutters for. 

Workman, The Ingenious 



234* 

433* 

70* 

23§ 

190* 
301t 
259" 
114* 
273t 
58t 



. 363t 

161t 
233 1 

373* 

271J 
146f 

2 
494| 
27U 
85* 
342* 
363t 
1985 



Yacht, Non-Magnetic 337T 

Y'ards, Arrangement and Operation of, Al- 

toona 81* 

Y'azoo & Mississippi Valley R. R., Pivoted 

Equalizer Stand 497* 

Y. M. C. A., Railroad 352t, 373t, 403* 



Zealand, Theo. F. H., Jib Crane Design 11* 



The Page Numbers for the Different Months of the Year 1909 are as Follows: 



Tanuarv 
February 
March . 
April . . 



1-44 May 181-216 

45-S0 lune 217-264 

M-120 lulv 265-304 

121-1^0 August 305-344 



September 345-384 

October 385-424 

November 425-464 

December 465-504 




DESIGN OF OIL BURNING LOCOMOTIVES. 



Harrington Emerssn. 



A locomotive is an apparatus in which the heat evolved by the 
combustion of carbon, hydrogen and sulphur with oxygen is 
transferred to water in an enclosed receptacle, the water being 
converted into steam under pressure, which by its pressure and 
expansion drives the steam engine. 

To a coal-burning locomotive there are two principal limita- 
tions : 

(i) The ability of the draft arrangements to furnish sufficient 
air for combustion. 

(2) The ability of the fireman to feed coal properly. 

Draft. — The draft is created by the escape of steam. Exhaust 
steam is preferably used and the more work it does in making 
draft, the greater the back pressure. If live steam is used, to 
that extent the steam available for the engine cylinder is cur- 
tailed. It is evident that with very little draft there will be 
very little combustion and consequently very little available 
steam. If, however, all the steam is used to create a draft there 
will be none left over for power purposes. The problem, there- 
fore, is to obtain the maximum of draft without using too much 
of the steam for this purpose. Of the power used for draft, 
one-third is consumed in drawing the air through the bed of 
coals, one-third in drawing the air through the tubes and one- 
third in the resistance in the front end, diaphragm, etc. Dratt, 
therefore, could be very much increased if there were no bed 
of coals, if there were no diaphragm and if tubes were larger, 
fewer and shorter. 

The Fireman. — There is a limit to the ability of the fireman: 

(1) To shovel coal. 

(2) To shovel coal so as to reach the further parts of a 
large grate. 

(3) To shovel coal so as to maintain an even bed of fire. 
Even when the fireman shovels coal perfectly, if the furnace, 

the tubes and the front end are not of proper design, the results 
will fall off. 

The draft is often so strong as to lift the bed of coals from 
the grate and to plug the small flues with big cinders. Very 
small flues would not do. 

The combustion space above the bed of coals must be large 
enough to complete the combustion of the coal before the gases 
enter the tubes. 

Perhaps the chief faults in the design of the large modern 
coal-burning locomotives are : 

(1) The tubes have been unnecessarily lengthened beyond the 
length of maximum result, 13 feet. 

(2) The fire box has not been enlarged sufficiently to pro- 
vide an ample combustion chamber. 

Nevertheless, modern coal-burning locomotives, both in Europe 
and America, are well designed and efficient power generators. 

When it comes to oil-burning locomotives, every principle of 
correct power generation has been violated. Oil burning 
locomotives were not specially designed for oil, but are in 
fact nothing but coal burners with an oil-spraying nozzle sub- 
stituted for the grate. It stands to reason that designs and 
dimensions suited for coal are not suitable for oil. The sole 
excuse for using a coal-burning furnace and boiler design for 
oil is that it seems economical to put an oil nozzle in a fire box 
and to call the locomotive an oil burner. Also when oil becomes 
scarce it seems cheap to remove the nozzle, put back a grate and 
rechristen the locomotive a coal burner. 

When, however, it is considered that a coal-burning fire box 
may last from 8 to 15 years, and the same-fire box racked by oil 



combustion will last only from 1 to 5 years, and must then be 
renewed at a cost of from $2,000 to $5,000, the economy of 
adaptation proves fallacious, especially as a suitably designed 
oil furnace and boiler would not prove as inefficient for coal, 
as a coal furnace is for oil. 

The particular limitations which apply to coal burning appa- 
ratus do not apply to oil: 

Q) Because the "il i- pumped h. or injected, the limit o\ 
fireman's strength or skill is eliminated. 

(2) The limit to the amount of fuel is the amount of air that 
can be supplied. 

(3) As there is no bed of coals through which to draw the 
air, this source of friction falls away. 

(4) As there is no need of a diaphragm or screen to catch 
cinders, the front end friction is also reduced. 

(5) As a consequence of reduced friction a very much larger 
volume of air can be furnished for combustion than in a coal 
burner. 

(6) This larger volume of combustion requires a larger com- 
bustion chamber. 

(7) With coal burners the gases enter the tubes at a tempera- 
ture of about 1,300 degrees F., which 13 to 20 feet away drops 
to 500 degrees F. 

(8) In modern oil burners the temperature of the gases is 
2,800 degrees as they enter the tubes. This high heat enormously 
and rapidly damages the flue sheet and tube ends. 

(9) Temperature of escaping gases is no higher than in coal 
burners. 

(10) Therefore in an oil burner more heat is transmitted 
through the fire box and through part of the tubes near the fire 
than in 1 a coal burner. 

(11) As no cinders are dragged into the tubes to clog them 
up, tubes could be made much smaller in diameter, probably not 
over one-half inch. 

(12) Tubes could also be limited to the best length for maxi- 
mum result, about 13 feet. 

(13) Many tubes are now 22 feet long. These might be short- 
ened to 13 feet, thus making available 9 feet, a large part of 
which could be devoted to enlarging the combustion chamber, 
and the balance to a steam superheating or feed water heating 
device. 

(14) The water spaces around the fire box ought to be much 
larger and the 9 feet extra length available for combustion 
chamber will permit water spaces one foot in width without 
making combustion chamber too small. 

(15) With tubes one inch or less in diameter, although only 
13 feet long, there will be more tube-heating surface than with 
tubes 22 feet long but 2j^ inches in diameter. 

(16) These smaller tubes can be thinner and because the gases 
have been fully burned in the combustion chamber before reach- 
ing the tubes, there will be in operation less deposit of carbon. 
Carbon deposits are in any case removed by sand and more 
easily from small than from large tubes. 

(17) In consequence of lessened air friction, greater volume 
of air, unlimited oil supply, big combustion chamber, lower tem- 
peratures of gases entering tubes, big water spaces, greatly in- 
creased fire box heating surface and tube heating surface for 
same sized locomotive, the oil-burning combination could pro- 
vide steam abundantly and economically as to fuel, and operate ■ 
at low repair cost for furnace and boiler even in the largest 
Mallet compounds. 



1 (January) 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



THE USE OF WOOD IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 



Great as the advance in fireproof construction has been during 
the last ten years there has been no let-up in the use of lumber, 
and both architects and builders find themselves so dependent 
on wood to-day that they are compelled to admit that the forests 
of the country are likely to be the chief source of building ma- 
terial for many years to come. 

"The use of cement, terra cotta, brick and stone, with a frarne- 
work of steel, will make it possible soon to do away with wooo 
entirely," is a remark often heard. As a matter of fact, the 
popular idea that fireproof materials will do away with the need 
of using lumber in a comparatively few years is a very erro- 
neous one. All of the various fireproof materials going into 
the approved construction of the more substantial buildings art 
used in greater quantities now than the world dreamed of a 
few years ago, yet the heavy demand for lumber continues. 

That wood predominates is shown by the annual building 
records. Of the permits used for buildings erected last year, 
approximately 61 per cent, were constructed of wood, and the 
remaining 39 per cent, of fire-resisting material, according to a 
report issued by the Geological Survey on operations in forty- 
nine leading cities of the country. These figures are the more 
significant when it is realized that they only represent the build- 
ing activities in the largest cities ; they do not take into account 
the construction of dwellings, stores and other buildings in the 
thousands of small cities and towns scattered over and not in- 
cluded in the forty-nine cities on which the reckoning is made. 

In towns and small cities wood is usually the predominating 
building material and it is safe to say that if the statistics had 
included figures for all places of whatever size, the percentage 
of wooden construction would have been much greater. — From 
a report of the Forest Service of the U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



The Importance of Knowing Costs Promptly. — The accounts 
showing what is actually spent each day must be in the hands of 
those in control as soon as possible after it is spent; not a month's 
nor a week's report at a time, but a day's report at a time, and it 
must be in the possession of the officer or man in charge of the 
expenditure as soon as possible. The section foreman must know 
at the close of to-day what he has spent to-day. The same is true 
of the shop foreman. The supervisor should know to-morrow 
what has been spent by his section foreman to-day. 

At first thought it may seem that this would involve an im- 
mense amount of bookkeeping and complication of accounts, and 
consequently a large additional force of men. This, however, is 
not so. It does not involve the putting on of any additional men, 
as this daily check can be carried out by the present force with- 
out difficulty, as the necessary accounts are so simple and are kept 
by so many that it puts but little work on each, and in the larger 
offices, such as the division superintendents and master mechanics, 
it means but a consolidation of figures. This is no theoretical or 
fanciful scheme whatever, but is a definite practice which has 
been in actual operation for sufficient time to thoroughly demon- 
strate its practicability. It simply means system in expending 
the money for operating expenses and adapting to the railroai. 
business the same rules as to knowing and watching cost that 
apply to all other lines of business. — W. J. Harahan, before the 
New York Railroad Club. 



Freezing of Air Brake Hose. — The reason that air brake hose 
gets hard in cold weather is generally due to freezing. If we 
could get some kind of rubber that would not freeze we would 
be very happy. Crude rubber will freeze at about 20 degrees F., 
and vulcanized rubber freezes at about zero. All rubber com- 
panies have experimented in different ways to prevent this, and 
they have added oils and all kinds of things that do not freeze so 
readily, but in this country the temperature gets so low that it 
frequently gets beyond us. — A. D. Thornton, general technical 
superintendent, Canadian Rubber Company, before the Canadian 
Railway Club. 




EAST BUFFALO ROUNDHOUSE. 



New York Central & Hudson River Rah 



A new 30 stall roundhouse for passenger locomotives has 
recently been placed in operation by the New York Central & 
Hudson River Railroad at East Buffalo. It lies between the 
West Shore Railroad tracks and the Pullman Parlor Car Works, 
near the old 28 stall roundhouse of the West Shore Railroad. 

General Arrangement.— As shown by the dotted lines on the' 
general plan, provision has been made for the addition of a 
50 stall roundhouse to meet future requirements; also for addi- 
tional ash pits and water tanks and for the extension of the 
coaling station and the power plant. 

Engines enter the plant from the east, on one of the incoming 
tracks, and take coal and sand, after which they move forward 
and take water and then move on to the ash pits. The coaling 
station is about 650 it. from, the turntable and the standpipes are 
a sufficient distance from the coaling station so that one engine 
may take water while another is coaling on the r.ame track. Coal 
for the power house Is brought in over the track at the north, 
the cars unloading into coal bins from a trestle. Coa! for the 



may be taken 011I at t lie western end over the track which 
separates the main portion of the engine house from that part 
containing the drop pits, machine shop and offices. 

The Roundhouse. — The main portion of the roundhouse, con- 
sisting of 26 stalls, is divided by two fire walls, with steel fire 
doors, into three portions. The drop pit section contains three 
stalls, and the machin ■•hop, which has a common wall with the 
drop pit section, has n pit which may be used for engines requir- 
ing light repairs. Two of the pits in the main portion of the 
house arc equipped with a drop pit for ei The 

building has a depth of 90 ft., measured fiom center to center 
of the wall columns &nd the distance from the center of the 
turntable to the inner wall of the house is 130 ft. iH in. The 
tracks radiate at an angle of 5 <leg. 44 min. 52 sec. from ihe 
center of the turntable. 

The foundation, pus and floor of the house are of concrete 
and the walls are of brick. The cciumns are of yellow pine, of 
the dimensions shown, and the roof trusses are of timber. The 




CROSS-SECTION THROUGH THE DROP PIT SECTION OF THE ROUNDHOUSE. 



coaling station is also brought in on the track at the north and 
may be stored on the three tracks just east of the roundhouse. 
These tracks are on an incline and, as the coal is needed, a car 
may be started down the grade with the aid of a pinch bar and 
be stopped over the hopper, into which it is dumped and from 
which it is elevated to the storage bins above the tracks. The 
sand, after being dried in the sand house, is elevated to storage 
tanks in the coaling plant by compressed air. 

The tracks over which the coal and sand are brought in do 
not in any way interfere with the incoming and outgoing tracks 
for the engines; the only place where there is liable to be any 
interference is in connection with the cinder cars from the ash 
pit and this can readily be guarded against. Ordinarily the 
engines come in and go out at the eastern end of the plant but 
provision has been made so that in case of emergency engines 



roof consists of 2 in. timbers upon which "Special Brooks Brand" 
roofing, furnished by the H. W. Johns-Manville Cc, is laid. 

The most noticeable feature of the house is the large amount of 
window space, which furnishes splendid day-lighting, and the 
amount of head room. The wall above the windows is supported 
by two 9 in. I beams, which extend crosswise above the windows. 
Wooden doors are used; they are held in an open position by 
bolts which fit in sockets in concrete piers, about 2 ft. square in 
section. 

The cross-sectional view of the house shows a section through 
the drop pits. The pits in the main part of the house are 67 ft: 
gyi in. long, extendin-; to within 8 ft. Y> in. of the outer wall. 
They are 3 ft. 4 in. deep at the inner end and /■ ft. 8 in. deep 
at the outer end. A '5 in. jacking timber is placed aloi 
the rails of each pit. 






AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 





January, L909, 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD fOURNAI 



Smoke Jacks. — The smoke jacks are of a new type, known as 
the "Phoenix," furnished by the II. W. Johns Manville Co., of 

New York. They are fire and acid proof, being made of a com- 
pound of asbestos and magnesia, reinforced by galvanized iron 
cloth, which is imbedded in this material, 'j he material and 
the mould's were shipped to the roundhouse and the jacks were 
moulded on the premises in three pieces — the hood, circular part 
or stack, and the cowl. The plastic material sets hard in a few 
hours, after which it is very hard and durable and is not affected 
by fire, acids or moisture. 

The jacks are supported by rods which are attached to lugs on 
the hood. These lugs, which are moulded on the hood, are 
reinforced by heavy wire cable, ( he ends of which are unrav- 
eled and interwoven with the wire cloth. After the jacks were 
installed the supporting rods were covered . with the "Phoenix" 
material to prevent deterioration. The interior of the jack is 
smooth, having no protruding bolt heads or llanges. The average 
thickness of the material is Y& in. and it weighs from 4 to 
AV2 lbs. per square foot. The jacks shown on the cross-sectional 
view, over the drop pits, have a hood 19 ft. in length at the 
bottom, but in the main part of the house this length is only 
8 ft. They are 4 ft. wide. 

Locomotive Boiler Water Changing and Washing Out Equip- 
ment. — The VV. L. Miller Heating Company's system for chang- 
ing the water and washing out the locomotive boilers is used. 
The piping for this system, as well as the air pipes and the live 
steam pipes for blowing purposes, are carried overhead and 
have branches extending downward alongside the columns be- 
tween every other pit. The live steam and hot water pipes are 
covered to prevent radiation. The Miller heating system con- 
sists of a 3 in. hot water pipe, a 4 in. cold water pipe, and a 6 in. 
blow-off pipe. There is a mixing box and a connection for 
attaching two hose lines on the columns between every other pit 
In the section of the power house containing the heating fans 
are two large tanks, one above the other, in which the water foi 
washing out and filling the boilers is heated from the exhaust 
steam from the locomotive boilers, when they are emptied. The 
larger of the heating tanks is 22 ft. 10 in. long over the heads 
and "2 in. inside diameter; the inne. - one is 18 it. long and 48 in. 
inside diameter. 

This system is guaranteed to give the following results : When 
water and steam at about 190 lbs. pressure are blown from the 
locomotive boiler, sufficient fresh water at 55 degs. F. will be 
heated to 195 degs. F. to fill a similar locomotive boiler to the 
same level without the use of any steam or hot water, except that 
supplied by the first boiler and the exhaust steam from the 
water pump. When water and steam at about 190 lbs. pressure 
are blown off, sufficient fresh water at 55 degs. F. will be heated 
to 125 degs. F. to thoroughly wash out a locomotive boiler of the 
same size. The time required for this operation should not 
exceed 2 hours. The same operation may be performed on two 
adjacent pits without affecting the above results. 

Heating System. — The heating fans are contained in the section 
of the power house nearest the roundhouse and connected to it by 
a passageway. Hot air is forced into a duct, or tunnel, which 
extends around the outer circle of the house This tunnel is of 
concrete and is 9 ft. 6 in. wide by 7 ft. deep w'here it enters, 
tapering gradually as it extends to either end of the house. 
Between every other pit a conduit, 36 in. in diameter, leads from 
the main duct and from either side of this three 18 in. ducts lead 
to the pits; two of these ducts enter the pit near the ends, and 
the other one near the middle. The 36 in duel gradually de- 
creases in diameter, ending in a 10 in. duct which extends upward 
and opens into the house at the column alongside the doorway. 
These openings, as well as those leading into the pits, are fitted 
with dampers. The branch ducts, wdiere they lead from the main 
tunnel, are equipped with deflectors, so that under normal con- 
ditions the same amount of air is delivered to each pit. Pipes, 
5 in. in diameter, extend upward, from the main tunnel, under- 
neath the windows at the outer wall of the house and have at the 
upper ends a T into which perforated pipes 5 in. in diameter, 
with caps at the ends, are fitted. The upper member of the T 
thus formed is 9 ft. in length and has several i'i in. perforations 



in the top idi A 33 in. •■ . pipe 

d up ard from the end of the h el and. into the 

"I'" him hop brai In li ai 1 ;mg the heated 

air downward, thu 

I he hi ating g Co. 

and is gi rature of I 

when thi ' ernal air is 10 degs below zero, and when fresh 
in only is supplied to the fans. It is guaran lintain the 

same temperatu id< when the temperature of the external 

air is 20 degs. b ro and 25 p of the air taken into 

the heater is from the inside and is recirculated. The tempera- 
ture of 65 degs. F. is to In obtained after the doors leading from 
the turntable havi been closed live minutes. It is also expected 
that the house will be kept clear of fog and steam. The fans 
have a capacity for changing the entire contents of the housj 
even' eight minutes, and of the annex every fifteen. Steam for 
the heating coils i- furnished at a pressure o; r lb. or less. 

The heating coils consist of two systems of inverted U 
shaped coils, constructed with two groups in each system. These 




SMOKE JACKS. ALSO SHOWS THE PIPING USED IN CONNECTION" WITH 
THE BOILER WATER CHANCING AND WASHING OUT SYSTEM. 

groups are arranged in four divisions, so that the amount of 
heating surface may be varied to suit conditions. The heaters 
contain an aggregate length of 14,000 actual lineal feet of I in. 
pipe. The free area in any row of coils is not less than 40 per 
cent, of the total cross-section through the row nearest the point 
of admission of cold air. The fans are of the three-quarter 
housed, steel plate type and have a capacity for delivering 8S,ooo 
cu. ft. of air per minute, with a pressure of not less than -; 4 oz. 
at the discharge orifice, and when operating at 140 r. p. m. 
The fans are driven by 14 x 14 in. direct connected horizontal 
.-team engines, using steam al So lbs pn ssurc and having an 
indicated horsepower 1 1 52, with a back pressure of not less 
than 1 lb. and cut-off at half stroke. 

Ligliting. — The lai. nt of window space in the outer 

walls of the house furnishes splendid _ ting The electrical 

power for artificial lighting is furnished by the Xiagara Falls 
Power Co. An Edison two-three wire system provides alternat- 
ing current at 60 cycles ana 104 and 20S volts. A multiple 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 








January, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 




CROSS-SECTION THROUGH THE MACHINE SHOP AND 



enclosed type arc lamp, for six amperes at no volts, is suspended 
between the stalls, except at the ends and at the fire walls. A 
portable outlet, snap switch and two incandescent lights are 
placed on each side of the fire walls and a; the end walls, and 
a snap switch and cutout control each pit light circuit. Recesses 
are placed in the drop pits for incandescent lights. All the 
wiring is carried in loricated iron conduits. 

Equipment. — At the head end of each pit an iron block or 
stop is fastened to the track and prevents the locomotive from 
running into the wall. It is also the practice to place a heavy 
chain on the track in front and behind of one of the drivers, so 
that if for any cause the throttle should accidentally become 
opened, or leak, it would be impossible for the engine to move out 
of place. The machinists have portable tool boxes, which are 
about 3 ft. long, 18 in. wide and 13 in. high and are fastened 
upon trucks, so that they can easily and quickly be moved to any 
part of the house. There are also two or three portable vises, 
which are fastened on trucks. The boiler washer's tools and 
hose reels are carried on trucks. One of the illustrations shows 
the simple and substantial method by which a vise bench is fast- 
ened to the wooden columns. The table upon which the vise is 
placed is of cast iron, 20 x 30 in. x l /$ in. in size and about 30 in. 
above the floor. The vises are the. No. 6 size made by the How- 
ard Iron Works. 

At about the center of the middle section of die house, against 
the wall of the outer circle, is a tool room, 8 by 13 ft. in size. 
Here all of the heavy and special tools are kept, the mechanics 
drawing them as they are needed and returning them as soon 
as the job they are working on is finished. The jacks are stored 
just outside this room and are looked after and kept in good 
condition by the man in charge of the tool room. 

Drop Pits. — That section of the house, consisting of three 
stalls adjacent to the machine shop, is entirely separated from the 
main part of the house and is equipped with two drop pits 
extending under all three tracks, one for driving wheels and 
the other for truck wheels. These drop pits are 8 ft. 3 in apart 
and are connected by three passageways, one of which has a track 
with a turntable at each end, so that the trucks carrying the 
telescopic jacks can be transferred from one pit to another. The 
driver pit is 7 ft. 4 in. wide and the pony or truck wheel pit 5 ft. 
wide. 

In removing a pair of wheels from an engine the pedestai 
binders are taken down and the rods disconnected. Jacks are 
placed under the engine frame. The telescopic jack is placed 
underneath the middle of the axle and the drivers are raised 
sufficiently to allow the 10 in. I-beams, to which the rails are 
bolted, to be pulled aside. The wheels are (hen lowered into the 



pit. A 6 ton electric hoist will be installed over the drop pits. 
There is also a pony or truck wheel drop pit extending under two 
tracks in the main part of the roundhouse, as shown on the 
plan view. 

Machine Shop. — The machine shop is adjacent to the drop pit 
section of the roundhouse, having a common wall with it. It is 
40 ft. wide inside, 102 ft. long, and has a concrete floor. Along 
the side nearest the offices is a pit upon which light repairs may 
be made. The remaining portion of the shop is used for machine 
tools and a forge and anvil for the smith. The construction of 
the roof, which is supported by light steel trusses, is shown in 
the cross-sectional view of this shop, and on the photographs, 
and furnishes a plentiful supply of daylight. The machine tools 
are driven by a 40 h.p. alternating current motor, which is 
mounted on a wall bracket. At the present time the following 
machine tools are in use: 

Lathe, Putnam Machine Co. 

Small Drill Press, Bement-Miles & Co. 

Shaper, Gould & Eberhardt. 

Bolt Cutter, Acme. 

Turret Bolt Cutter. No. 4, Pratt & Whitney. 

Grinder, Bridgeport Safety Emery Wheel Co. 

Drill Press, Cincinnati Machine Tool Co. 

Boring Mill, Two Head, Bullard Machine Tool Co. 

Lathe, McMahon & Co. 

There is also a forge, with a stack to carry off the smoke and 
gases, and an anvil. A crane will be installed to serve the heavier 
machine tools. 

The Pratt & Whitney No. 4 turret head bolt cutter has a 
revolving head carrying nine dies, any one of which may be pre- 
sented instantly to the bolt to be cut. The turret is secured 
in position by a spring lock-bolt. The spindle is hollow to 
receive bolts of any length and by removing the die, opposite thr- 
one that is at work, allowing the bolts to project through the 
turret, the thread may be cut any length requi-ed. The spindle 
is equipped with a chuck for holding the bolt or tap and is driven 
by a cone pulley. The chips and oil are caught in the bed and the 
oil drains free from the chips through a strainer into a receiver, 
from which it may be drawn and used again. As the machine 
is fitted with nine different dies, this many different size bolts 
may be threaded almost as quickly as the same number of one 
size. Such a machine is especially valuable in a roundhouse, 
where the number of bolts of one size, to be cut at one time, is 
small and where changes of size are frequent. The machine is 
furnished with two nut plates and one nut plate holder, and the 
follow-ing sizes of taps and dies, Yz, Y%, $i, fa I, ij^, 1%, ifjj 
and 1V2. 

Offices, Rest Room and Toilet. — A small addition to the 
machine shop, 16 ft. wide and about 59 ft. long, is divided into 
four parts, two of the rooms, with wooden floors, being used as 






AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 





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GZSS 







January, iao<). 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD fOURNAL. 




GENERAL ARRANGEMENT OF THE COALING STATION 



offices. The toilet and wash room has a concrete floor and i= 
equipped with iron fixtures furnished by the J. I.. Mott Iron 
Works. The rest room is furnished with a bench around two 
sides and may be used by the workmen while eating their lunch, 
or when off duty. A railroad Y. M. C. A. building is located 
only a few blocks from the loundhouse and is very convenient 
for the engine crews. 

Turntable. — The turntable is 85 ft. long and was built by the 
King Bridge Company, of Cleveland, O. The pit is of concrete 
construction. The table is driven by electric power. The elec- 
trical controlling apparatus is enclosed in a small house, which 
is heated and lighted by electricity. A hand brake and sanding 
apparatus are also provided. 

Coaling Station. — The coaling station consists of two circular 
pockets constructed of 4-s in. steel and having a storage capacity 
of 300 tons. The flow of coal from these tanks to the tenders is 
controlled by under-cut gates. The conveying apparatus and the 
storage tanks are covered by a monitor, consisting of a steel 
frame-work covered with corrugated galvanized steel. The two 
smaller tanks shown between the larger ones a-e used for sand. 
As shown on the general plan, the coal is stored on three tracks 
near the engine house. As occasion requires t'e cars are moved 
down the slight incline and over the hopper, which is covered by 
a structure 14 ft. wide and 40 ft. long. The coal is unloaded into 
the hopper, and from this a reciprocating feeder feeds it in regu- 
lar and uniform quantities to the conveying apparatus. 

The conveying apparatus is furnished in duplicate, each unit 
having an elevating capacity of 100 tons per hour. This appa- 
ratus, extending from the feeder to above the lirst storage tank, 
measures 127 feet between centers and is placed at an angle of 30 
degs. with the horizontal. A horizontal conveyor is used for 
carrying the coal from the inclined conveyor to the storage hop- 
pers. These conveyors are driven by alternating mrrent motors, 
operating on 3-phase, 25 cycle, 140 volt service The plant is 
heated by steam and lighted by incandescent lights. It was de- 
signed and installed by the Link-Belt Company, of Philadelphia. 

Sand.— The sand house is 55 ft. long by 15 ft. 8 in. wide and 
is located near the hopper house of the coaling sTation. The sand 
is shoveled into the storage space in the house and from there 
is wheeled up an incline in barrows and dumped above the 
sand stoves, of which there are two. As it dries it drops into a 
pit and is fed into tanks, 3 ft. in diameter. Ir is forced from 
these tanks to the storage tanks in the coaling station, through 



2 l /z in. extra heavy pipe, by compressed air. The storage tanks 
above the tracks have a capacity for 190 cu. ft of sand. 

Water Supply- — At the present time there is a 50,000 gallon 
tank which supplies the water columns. As the plant is extended 
it will be necessary to add additional water tanks, as indicated. 
The location of the water columns is shown on the general plan. 

Cinder Pits. — There are two cinder pits, each 200 ft. long, with 
a depressed track between them. The pits are 20 in. deep and 
the cinders, after they have been wet down, are shoveled from 
these into gondola cars. The pits are cf concrete construction 
and the rails are carried on cast iron chairs, as shown in the 
illustration. 

Store House. — The store house is 61 ft. 4 in. in length and 
30 ft. 8 in. wide. The platform, on two sides o) it, is of paving 
brick, laid herringbone, with a concrete curbing. The building 
is a steel frame brick structure with concrete floors and fire- 
proof roofing. The doors are covered with metal and the win- 
dows are wire glass in galvanized iron frames. One end of the 
storehouse, about 34 ft. in length, is used for oil and waste, and 
the other, and smaller part, is used for the storage of other 
supplies. 

In the oil room are four large oil tanks. The oil is unloaded 
from the cars in barrels, which are rolled across the platform 
and into a frame work, or basket, shown in the accompanying 
illustration. This is then raised by means of an air hoist, which 
is attached to the roof beams inside of the building. When the 
basket, or frame work, is flush with the opening the barrel 
rolls by gravity into the building and onto a gallery above the 
oil tanks ; it is then discharged into these tanks by gravity. 
Kerosene and fuel oil are stored in two large tanks west of the 
power house, each having a capacity of 10,000 gallons. These 
are supported on concrete piers and are connected by pipes 
to the oil house, being high enough so that the oil Hows to the 
house by gravity. 

Power Plant — Mention has already been made of that part 
of the power house wl ich contains the heating apparatus and 
the equipment for the boiler water changing and washing out 
system. This part of the building is 51 ft. 6 in. wide by 67 ft. 
long, except that one corner is cut off and a passage way extends 
from it to the engine house. It also contains an air compressor, 
of the Ingersoll-Rand, class H, type, having 16 x 16 and 26 x 16 
in. steam cylinders and i6J4 x 16 and 2$ l \ x 16 in. air cylinders. 

Connected to this portion of the building is a pump room, 
about 25^2 ft. square, which contains the fire and service pumps. 









10 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



The Underwriter's fire pump has a capacity for 1,000 gallons 
per minute, or four good i z /s in. smooth nozzle streams. There 
are two M. T. Davidson Co., 14 x Wa x 14 in. service pumps. 

The remaining portion of the building consists of a boiler 
room, 66 ft. long and 43 ft. 6 in. wide. It contains three 200 
h. p. Heine Safety Boiler Company boilers, with space for an 
additional unit if it should be required. The boilers are de- 
signed for 180 lbs. working pressure and are equipped with 
McClave shaking grates. The feed water heater is the No. 3 
size made by The Piatt Iron Works Co., Dayton, O. A Worth- 
ington 7 ! j x 4>j x 10 in. feed pump is used. 

Along one side of the boiler room are the coal and ash rooms. 



A GOOD MIXTURE FOR CASE HARDENING. 




DEVICE FOR ELEVATING OIL BARRELS AT THE STOREHOUSE. 

The coal is brought in over these rooms by means of a 16 ft. 
trestle, with a 5 per cent down grade, and is dropped into them 
by gravity. That part of the trestle leading to the building is 
supported' by timbers resting on concrete piers. The track 
above the coal and ash rooms is bupported by concrete piers, 3 
ft. in section and spaced about 16 ft. apart. 

The radial brick chimney, 125 ft. high, 12 ft. 4 in. in diameter 
at the base and 7 ft. 2=4 in. in diameter at the top, was built by 
the Alphons Custodis Chimney Construction Company, New 
York. It has a capacity to supply draft for boilers aggregating 
800 h. p. and is fitted with an automatic draft regulator. 



John Buckley, foreman blacksmith at the Burnside shop of the 
Illinois Central Railroad, uses the following mixture for case- 
hardening. It gives splendid results and is much less expensive 
than the method in use at many shops: 

Take charcoal broken fine, about one inch in size. Put a two- 
inch layer of this in the bottom of the box and pack it down with 
a mallet. Sprinkle about one pound of common salt over the 
charcoal, one pound of pulverized sal soda over the salt, one 
pound of pulverized rosin over the sal soda, and one pound of 
black oxide manganese over the rosin. Lay the material to be 
case-hardened on this, taking care not to have the pieces too 
close together nor too close to the sides of the box, where metal 
boxes are used. Fill in between the pieces with charcoai 
and pack well, taking care to have about two inches of charcoal 
between the work to be case-hardened. Repeat the sprinkling of 
compounds over the second layer of work, the same as in the 
bottom of the box. Finish off with about two inches of char- 
coal at the top of the box and sprinkle a little salt over it. Put 
the cover on the box, calk with clay, and place in the fur- 
nace for ten to fifteen hours, according to the amount and size 
of the work to be case-hardened. Heat to a bright red and cool 
in cold clear water. 

The size of the box used for the above mixture is about twelve 
inches deep, fifteen inches wide, and forty inches long. It will 
hold one set of links, blocks, plates and pins. 



CoRR£SPONDENCE.-Correspondence should not be shifted around 
simply to relieve desks of the presence of papers, but it should be 
thoroughly gone into, all questions answered, and, if an answer 
naturally develops another question, it should also be answered. 
It is exasperating to receive returned papers in which all ques- 
tions are not answered, in an effort evidently to easily get rid of 
the correspondence, and such methods are insensibly treasured 
against those performing such indifferent service. It should be 
the pride of a man conducting correspondence to feel that his 
superior officer did not have to return it for additional f acts,_ if 
such additional facts could have been reported on in the first in- 
stance by a conclusive investigation. Where possible and con- 
sistent, definite recommendations should always be made, other- 
wise a' man's office becomes but a clearing house for correspond- 
ence, and such clearing houses are not essential or even desir- 
able.— W. J. Harahan, before the Neiv York Railroad Club. 



Teamwork.— The gift of creating harmony is the keystone of 
the arch of success without which the structure will not sustain 
itself. True harmony, when carried to a finality, familiarly known 
as teamwork, engenders enthusiasm on the part of the individuals 
forming the organization. An organization without harmony 
disintegrates and soon becomes utterly demoralized, so that a dis- 
turber should be ejected from it with little ceremony, or he will 
prove its undoing. Departmental lines should vanish before the 
company's welfare. If, by sustaining an expense, another depart- 
ment can be helped sufficiently to justify the expense assumed, 
there should be not only no hesitancy, but an eagerness to do so, 
bearing in mind that the ultimate result to the company as a 
whole is what should govern. Where possible to do so, however, 
it will be found that the introduction of a friendly rivalry be- 
tween officers of the same relative grade will, if properly handled, 
produce far reaching results, without in any manner affecting har- 
mony, because of the incentive thus given them to use their intel- 
ligence and ability to accomplish at least as much, and, if possible, 
more than their fellows. — W. J. Harahan, before the New York 
Railroad Club. 



Gold Leaf for Signal Blades, B. & O. R. R. — For some time 
past the signal and paint departments of the Baltimore & Ohio 
R. R. have been experimenting with gold leaf as a covering for 
signal arms, in an effort to retain distinctness of color without 
having to resort to painting the arms three or four times a year. 
The signal engineer of the road is reported as greatly pleased 
with the results of the experiment, which seem to justify its 
continuance as standard practice, for the reason that under all 
varieties of background the arm so prepared presents a more 
distinct aspect, which consequently is favorable to the runner. 
While the first cost is comparatively high, the results indicate 
that the reduction in maintenance will more than offset this and 
make the gold leaf arms cheaper in the long run. 



Locomotives with Schmidt Superheaters. — On December 2, 
190S, there were 1,898 locomotives in actual operation and 1,743 
in course of construction, fitted with Schmidt superheaters. These 
are distributed over 101 different railway systems. Among the 
American railways participating are the Canadian Pacific, 33 
locomotives; Great Northern, 2 locomotives; Chicago, Burling- 
ton and Quincy, 2 locomotives ; Northern Pacific, I in operation 
and 2 on order; Pennsylvania, I ordered; making a total of 41 
locomotives. 



DATA OF SPECIAL INTEREST TO THE DRAFTING ROOM 



PROCESS FOR SQUARING MENTALLY. 

{Furnished by W. E. Johnston, Nor. Pac. Ry., St. Paul, Minn. 
Taken from Robinson's "Higher Arithmetic," page 236.) 



Rule: — Add to, and subtract from the number (a) to be 
squared, a number (b) whose square is known and which will 
make the sum (a + b) or the difference (a — b) a multiple of 
ten so as to be a convenient multiplier. Multiply this sum by 
the difference, [(a + b) (a — b),and add the square (b 2 ) of the 
number added and subtracted. The result (a -j- b) (a — b) + b 2 
equals the square (a 2 ) of the number as desired. 
For (a + b) (a — b) = a 2 — b= 

Therefore (a + b) (a — b) + b 2 = a 2 — b 2 + b 2 = a 2 
Arithmetical example : — 

89 2 = (89 + 11) (89 — 11) + ll 2 

(100 X 78) + 121 = 7921 

56 2 = (56 — 6) (56 + 6) + 6* 

(50 X 62) + 36 = 3136 

21^ 2 = (2VA — V/i) (2V/ 2 + V/ 2 ) + V/2* 

(20 X 23) + 2J4 = 462J4 

192 2 = (192 + 8) (192 — 8) + 8 2 

(200 X 184) + 64 = 36864 



(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(4) 



JIB CRANE DESIGN. 



(From Theo. F. H. Zealand. Whiting Foundry Equipment 
Company, Harvey, III.) 



Frequently motive power officials, when contemplating the pur- 
chase of jib crane equipment, prefer to submit designs of their 
own upon which crane manufacturers are invited to offer quota- 
tions ; often cranes built from the designs thus submitted would 
be unsafe in the service for which they are intended, the weak 
member of the design being the jib C. 

The stresses in this member are imposed as follows : 

Bending due to the load W. 

Bending due to the weight of the jib. 

Compression due to the tension in A. 

All these produce compression in the top flange of the beam C, 
which compression is a maximum when the load is placed ap- 
proximately two-thirds of. the jib length from the mast B. These 




calculations are usually made with sufficient accuracy but, when 
choosing the size of the beam or channel for the jib C, no ac- 
count is taken of the tendency of the top flange of the beam to 
deflect laterally due to the compression. To guard against this 
the allowable compressive stress in this member must be reduced, 
necessitating the use of a larger size beam than would otherwise 
be required. 

The allowable compression per square inch of cross sectional 
area is given by the following empirical column formula, where 



and b equals the flange width of the beam, both dimensions ex- 
pressed in inches ; the working compressive stress used through- 
out the design being 10,000 pounds per square inch: 

p 11" iO 

V 

1 -I- — 

3000 V 

P is the allowable compression per square inch in the top 
flange. 

No claim is made to originality in connection with the formula 
given. It is to be found in any good structural steel hand- 
book, as 



P = 



[8000 



1 + 



1' 
8001 F 



giving a reduced allowable stress corresponding to a working 
stress of 16,000 pounds, as used for quiescent loads. 



ARCS EQUAL TO STRAIGHT LINES. 



(Furnished by W. E. Johnston, Nor. Pac. Ry., St. Paul. Minn. 

From "Elementary Mechanism" by Stahl and Woods, 

pages 75-76. Rankine's Methods.) 



1. — To find a straight line whose length is equal to a given arc 
of a circle. 
Let AB be the given arc. Draw AC tangent to the arc at A, 




also draw the chord AB and extend it to D, making AD equal 
to one-half of the chord AB. With D as a center and DB as a 
radius, draw the arc CE intersecting the given circle AB at the 
point E. Then the arc AE equals the line AC. 

2. — To find an arc of a given circle whose length is equal to 
a given straight line. 

Let AB be the given circle and AC the given line. Lay off AD 
equal to one-fourth of AC. With D as a center and DC as a 




radius, draw the arc CE intersecting the given circle AB at the 
point E. Then the arc AE equals the line AC. 

The error in each of the above methods is about 1/900 when 
the arcs AB and AE in Figs. 1 and 2 respectively are 60°, and 
varies as the fourth power of the angle so that the error at 30° 



/ equals the length of the jib from the mast to the extreme end is about 1/14400, the line being shorter than the arc. 

11 






12 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 




ALL-STEEL SUBURBAN CAR — LONG ISLAND RAILROAD. 



ALL-STEEL SUBURBAN CARS. 



Long Island Railroad. 



The Long Island Railroad is putting into service the order of 
fifty all-steel suburban cars, which it recently received from 
the American Car and Foundry Company. These cars represent 
the latest development in equipment of this class and are excel- 
lent in every particular. While they were designed for and can 
easily be adapted to electric service, they are for the present to 
be used in steam service and are being operated out of the Long 
Island City terminal. 

As can be seen by the illustrations, they are of the standard 
design for all-steel passenger equipment adopted about a year 
and a half ago by the Pennsylvania Railroad, which was de- 
scribed and illustrated in the June and July, 1907, numbers of this 
journal. Reference can be made to those issues for drawings 
and photographs of all details. The theory on which the de- 



signs were based has been fully treated in the series of articles 
mi "Steel Passenger Equipment," by Messrs. Barba and Singer, 
which has been running in these columns during the past year. 
Reference can be made to the December, 1907, and June, 1908, 
numbers for discussion on the design of underframe for sub- 
urban cars of this class. 

In brief, the structure consists of two 9-in., 15-lb. channels, 
with a ,'4-in. cover plate on top and ^s-in. plates on the bot- 
tom, forming a box girder center sill. The side sills are 5 x 3$4- 
in. angles and transfer the load of superstructure and one-half 
the lading to the center sills through four special cantilevers, 
two of which form the body end sills and the others, of heavier 
construction, being located at the proper points between the 
center plates. No bolsters are provided, the center plates, which 
are of a special extension design to reach the same trucks used 
on heavier equipment, being secured directly to the bottom of 
the center sill girder. Cross bearers are provided between the 
sills for horizontal stiffeners, but do not assist in carrying the 




INTERIOR OF ALL-STEEL SUBURBAN CAR — LONG ISLAND RAILROAD. 



January, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD fOURNAL. 



13 



load coming to the side sills or on the floor. The main side 
posts arc of pressed steel in channel section, with the edges 
flanged out parallel to the web and riveted to the shi athing. I he 
upper end are narrowed down and curved inward, forming the 
lower deck carlincs. The upper leek carlines are of the same 
section. The inside and outside sheathing, roof, etc., is of steel 
sheets of varying thickness. A combination Ik sill and plate 
of special flanged shape, stiffened 1 > v malleable iron posts is an 
interesting feature of the roof construction. All mouldings for 
interior finish are pressed steel as arc also the guides in the 

window frames. The window sashe are wood, but the fri 

are flanged steel in one piece. The floor is formed of plastic 
cement laid on corrugated steel plali 

The interior finish is unusually attractive, the color being a 
warm tone of green relieved by a small amount of border strip- 
ping. The seats are of the Hale & Kilborn walk-over type with 
steel frames, wooden arm rests and rattan covering. Hand holds 
are formed in the outer corner of the backs. A continuous ba I 
rack of substantial design has been provided. All doors are of 



AN AIR AND STEAM SUPERHEATER FOR 
LOCOMOTIVES. 



The New Centurj Eng is intro- 

ducing an app: u the purpi mg and super- 

heating air and steam fi i which has been 

devi ed bj ti it . Field & Morris and is illustrated and de- 
scribed in The Mi i I In apparatu consists of two air 
compressors which are attached ahead of the cylinders and op- 

l by i perated by 

connection to the cross head, and furnish compressed air at 
boiler pressure. A relief valve is provided to prevent excess 
of pressure. This compressed air is fed into a superheater of 
practically the Pielock design, except that it is located in the 
front end and adjacent to the front flue sheet, the boiler tubes 
being extended to pass through it. The steam from the dry 

pipi enters near the i point a the air and in passing -through 

tin baffles of the superheater they are thoroughly mixed and 
superheated. 




UNDERFRAME OF STEEL SUBURBAN CARS FOR THE LONG ISLAND RAILROAD. 



the sliding type, the vestibule doors being operated by the guard 
standing on the buffers between the cars. A trap door and step 
are provided for use where there are no raised platforms. 

The trucks are of special design and are arranged for the easy 
installation of motors. They were fully illustrated and described 
on page 237 of the June, 1907, issu? of this journal. The trucks 
under these cars differ from those illustrated in having quad- 
ruple instead of sextuple elliptical springs under the bolster. 
They have 36-in. wheels and a --ft. wheel base. 

The cars have a length of 54 ft. 1% in. over the body and 64 
ft. 5-34 in. over buffers. They weigh 77,100 lbs., which, of course, 
is without any electric equipment. 



Keep in Touch With Progress. — He who would seek to de- 
velop his capabilities to the fullest extent and keep that proper 
pace with progress, absolutely required. for the continuation of 
success, should read carefully the literature of the profession. 
It is as necessary for the successful railroad officer to follow the 
changed conditions surrounding railway practices, and to know 
the new and advanced ideas and physical improvements as it is 
for the lawyer or doctor to do so in his profession. The railway 
and engineering periodicals and certain books on railroad sub- 
jects are the most valuable aid to him and should be freely used. 
They contain everything that is current and information pertain- 
ing to all departments so that a man may inform himself fully as 
to not only the work of his own department, but as to that of 
other departments. — W. J. Ilamhan, before the New York Rail- 
road Club. 



Large Saw Mill.— A saw mill at Bogalusa, La., belonging to 
the Great Southern Lumber Co., has a capacity of 600,000 ft. of 
sawed lumber boards per day. This is sufficient to build a little 
town of 40 houses in addition to a good-sized church and a 
school house. 



This apparatus has been given a very thorough test on the 
North British Railway and has indicated a very substantial 
economy in coal consumption. This economy is explained in 
two different ways, one being that the air forms an envelope 
around the steam particles and thus resists the tendency to con- 
densation as the temperature and pressure falls during expan- 
sion. Another explanation is that the compressed air itself con- 
tains considerable heat and since its temperature is higher than 
the steam at the same pressure it exerts a superheating action to 
some degree which allows the superheater itself to give a much 
higher degree than it would give with steam alone. 



Instrument for Measuring Color. — The difficulty of main- 
taining a standard by which colors for car bodies, etc., can be 
accurately gauged is easily understood and an instrument for 
performing this service has been invented by Frederick E. Ives 
and is in use in the Arthur D. Little Laboratory in Boston. This 
instrument is called a colorimeter, and is arranged to give a 
scale reading. After the standard shade has been determined, 
a board is carefully painted in the same manner as the paint will 
be used in practice and the color measured by the instrument, 
which thus gives a scale reading. This reading being recorded, 
the same color can be duplicated at any time by preparing sam- 
ple boards which will be correct only when the instrument will 
record the same reading as was originally given as the standard. 
The same procedure is, of course, possible for determining the 
exact shades of different components which go to make up the 
composite color desired. 



Air Compressors in Roundhouses. — The air compressor should 
have a capacity of about twenty cubic feet of air per minute per 
engine house pit, delivering the air into a receiver or reservoir at 
a pressure of one hundred pounds per square inch. — R. D. Smith 
before the New England Railroad Club. 



ARTICULATED COMPOUND LOCOMOTIVES 



American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 



At the annual meeting, held in New York, December I to 4, C. 
J. Mellin, member of the Society ana consulting engineer of the 
American Locomotive Company, presented a paper on the above 
subject, which was discussed by a number of the best-known lo- 
comotive experts. Mr. Mellin stated in part : 

"The constantly increasing demand for heavier power, made by 
most railways in the country during the last decade, and espe- 
cially by those roads having heavy gradients combined with sharp 
curves, brought out various designs which on account of rail 
pressure limitations required so many coupled wheels that the 
length of the rigid wheel base made them unwieldy to operate 
with efficiency. This demand for greater power was, of course, 
greatest in mountain districts where heavy grades and sharp 
curvatures generally go together, necessitating, for safe opera- 
tion, comparatively short wheel bases, reduction in engine re- 
sistance and wear of wheel flanges and rail, together with mod- 
erate weight of the working parts of the engine. 

"In striving to meet this demand the locomotive designers and 
builders were brought face to face with an unsurmountable 
barrier to further progress in the enlargement of engines on the 
old lines; and in 10x32 the American Locomotive Company de- 
cided to work out a design of a heavy, powerful locomotive for 
the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, having two sets of engines under 
one boiler, capable of adjusting themselves independently to the 
alignment of roads with curvatures up to 30 degrees, on the 
principle developed by the prominent French engineer, M. Ana- 
tole Mallet, of Paris. 

"Mr. Loree, then president of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, 
considered the question seriously ; but it was first thought that 
it would be of no advantage to the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, 
even if it proved successful, and the subject was left undecided 
for some time. In the latter part of 1903, on the recommenda- 
tion of Mr. J. E. Muhlfeld, who in the meantime had become 
general superintendent of motive power, the Baltimore & Ohio 
ordered one engine of this type,* which was built at the Schenec- 
tady Works of the American Locomotive Company during the 
winter of 1903 and 1904, to suit the conditions of that railway. 

"The Mallet articulated arrangement presents the advantages 
of enormous tractive power concentrated in the combination of 
the two sets of engines, with practically no increase in the indi- 
vidual weights of the moving and wearing parts over those of 
engines of the ordinary types; double expansion of the steam; 
simplicity and ease in operation and a short rigid wheel base, 
with the weight distributed over a long total wheel base, resulting 
in the greatest flexibilty and ease o-i track and brdges. It was 
also found possible at the very first to provide an engine under 
the control and operation of a single crew, having double the 
power of the largest engines of the ordinary type. 

"Opinions on the use of a truck in the articulated engine are, 
however, divided, but, because of the many objections connected 
with the application of a front truck in freight service as to the 
first cost, maintenance, dead weight and unfavorable distribution 
of the machinery sometimes causing serious obstructions, nothing 
is gained by this objectionable feature, as it is practically the 
same as putting a truck ahead of a truck. 

"The front engine in going ahead being a truck in itself, the 
first pair of drivers have a leverage in their favor on entering 
the curve. The reason for this is that the virtual support of the 
weight of the rear system, which is carried by the front system, 
falls back on the latter and in the rear of the sliding bearing; 
thus allowing a great part of the load of the rear engine to be 
carried by the hanger bolts between the frames. 

"This alone reduces the pressure very materially on the sliding 
plate, which together with the short arm for friction resistance 
* See American Engineer. June and July, l'J04, pages 237 and 262. 



and long guiding arm for the flanges, reduces the pressure on 
them to a small fraction of the total friction load on the sliding 
plate and comparatively light centering springs will therefore 
suffice for this purpose and still further reduce the flange pres- 
sure. 

"These same leverages and resistances act equally favorably in 
backing, as it is simply a reverse operation and the rear drivers 
have to swing the boiler against these resistances. Therefore, 
it is important that these should be small and with the shortest 
possible leverage, which naturally also minimizes the flange pres- 
sure on the rear wheel, that is, the last wheel of the engine, 
which then has to do the guiding. 

"With the use of a front truck, the center of support is shifted 
forward and with it the virtual and actual supporting points of 
the weight of the rear engine carried on the front system. The 
weight on this support, must, therefore, be increased with the 
carrying capacity of the truck and offer little or no opportunity 
for transferring any of this load to the hanger bolts, practically 
doubling both the load on the sliding plate and the length of the 
resistance arm. At the same time, by the application of a front 
truck, the guiding point is moved forward so that the leverage 
has been increased to offset the increased side resistance of the 
engine. The guiding power of the truck, however, is limited to 
its swing resistance. This, therefore, may leave as much or more 
guiding to be done by the front drivers as where no truck is 
used because of the increased moments of resistance of the en- 
gine when curving. 

"A more serious matter, however, is the backing with a front 
truck. The high resistance moments in the front must be over- 
come by the rear drivers, which are doing the guiding, and it is 
easy to understand how fast the flange pressure is multiplied by 
this displacement of the load and the safety margin for derailing 
dangerously reduced. It is, therefore, evident that a rear truck 
is a necessity when a front truck is used where backing is to be 
considered, thus curing one evil with another. Even with the 
application of a rear truck, the objections caused by the applica- 
tion of the front truck will be only partly compensated for; as 
the following very essential objections still remain : 

a. The application of a front truck increases the distance 
of the front buffers from the first pair of drivers by 15 to 20 
per cent., and consequently throws the front drawhead of the 
engine further from the center cf the track in curves than 
with shorter extensions where no front truck is used. 

b. It increases the total wheel base of the engine about 8 
ft. 6 in., requiring an 80 ft. turn-table to take an average 
sized engine with its tender. 

c. Additional dead weight to be carried by the truck must 
be provided and the expenses hi maintenance and first cost by 
the use of it are items that should not be overlooked. 

d. The long arms for friction resistance on the sliding 
plate with increased load on them, due to the front truck, will 
not be lessened by the application of a rear truck. 

c. When only a front truck is applied, the boiler is neces- 
sarily moved so far forward that it leaves scant room for the 
valve motion on the rear engine. The result of this is that 
the width of the firebox is necessarily limited to about 72 in. 
"In the case of the passenger engines of the articulated type, 
however, large wheels would be used, and only four pairs of 
drivers can or need be applied. A four wheel front truck, with 
rigid center pin and rigid trailing wheels, works in conveniently 
in the place of a third pair of drivers in each engine front and 
rear, respectively, which otherwise, with their large diameter, 
would make the engine unduly long. 

"Among the various differences between this class of engines 
and that of the ordinary type, is the action of this engine when 



14 



January, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



15 



loaded to the slipping point. While the former is less liable to 
slip than the latter, due to a more uniform pressure on the pistons, 
they will not be considered loaded to anywhere near their capacity 
until slipping takes place, and consequently slipping does occur 
on heavy grades. With the ordinary engine, slipping at such 
times is a serious matter, as the train is losing speed and may 
stall on that account after a few repetitions. In the case of 
the articulated engines, the loss in power by the slipping of one 
engine is practically gained by the other in the increase of unbal- 
anced pressure that thereby results. 

"The effect on cars and draft gears in starting heavy trains by 
this type of engine, as well as convertible compound engines on 
the same principle, is a most important feature, as it is accom- 
plished with a so-called dead pull, without the necessity of taking 
advantage of the slack in the train with its destructive jerks. 
These locomotives are, therefore, easier on the draft gears than 
simple engines of half their size loaded to their full capacity. 
The reason for this is found in the great starting and emergency 
power, with which these engines are provided, so that the slack is 
taken up under very slow speed. This is generally done with 
light throttles. The front cars start successively under a slight 
acceleration of the engine, gradually going over to a retardation 
before the last cars get into motion, after which the engine is 
given full throttle. In other words the train is stretched first 
and then it is started under direct pull, so that there need not be 
any but slight shocks or jerks. 

"These engines are adaptable to a greater variety of condi- 
tions than the older types, rendering it possible to double the en- 
gine power on a given rail weight ; and their advantages are most 
pronounced as displayed on heavy grades and sharp curvatures. 

"It should also be remarked that, due to the absence of jerks 
and slack in starting, as well as the more uniform cylinder pres- 
sure, the stresses on the machinery and framework are consider- 
ably reduced; and, further, that the milder exhaust produces a 
less intense heat and a better utilization of it, all of which con- 
tribute to a reduction in the repairs of the locomotive as a whole, 
compared with a simple engine, if iz were practical to construct 
one of this type. This has never been advanced as a feature to 
the credit of the articulated engine because it is difficult to give 
it any definite value ; but is referred to as a reply to the often 
repeated supposition that these engines are hard to keep in re- 
pair. As a matter of fact, the opposite is the case, because on 
account of sub-division of the work in two engines the parts are 
lighter and easier to handle in repairs and renewals." 

The paper also discussed briefly the distribution of weight in 
an articulated locomotive, which subject will be fully treated in a 
special article in the next issue of this journal. There was also 
included illustrations and descriptions of details of various loco- 
motives that have been built, most of which hive been illus- 
trated in these columns. A number of proposed designs, for both 
passenger and freight articulated locomotives, were included, as 
well as photographs and general dimensions of all of this type 
of locomotive that has been built in this country. 

DISCUSSION. 

In opening the discussion F. J. Cole analyzed the features of 
construction which differentiate the Mallet from other types and 
enables it to perform satisfactorily and efficiently its remarkable 
work in Europe and this country. Among these he mentioned 
the short rigid wheel base, the fact that the flexible steam con- 
nection has only to carry low pressure, the practical impossibility 
of both engines slipping at the same time and the extreme flex- 
ibility of the machine. The possibilities of the designing of 
enormous locomotives with a reasonable axle load was com- 
mented upon and tables given. He mentioned the surprising 
ease with which these engines were fired and attributed it largely 
to the use of compounding, which reaches its maximum efficiency 
at slow speeds and long cut-offs. He stated that, "in ordinary 
service, especially for helping and pushing, the use of leading 
truck wheels is entirely unnecessary. It is of great advantage 
to utilize the entire weight for adhesion and no useful purpose is 
served by adding the additional complication of truck wheels. No 
sharp flanges have developed on the Baltimore & Ohio locomotive 



iii r four years of service, although this locomotive is operated 
twenty-four hours a day pushing up hill and backing down 
sharp curves. In comparison with ordinary consolidations in 
usi "ii this road, which do wear their flanges badly, this fact is 
extremely gratifying, and proves conclusively that the extreme 
flexibility of this engine is sufficient in ii "Vc freely 

around curves without the use of guide wheels. ' ' Ex- 

cept for the possible u*e in road rvice, where the sp<-' 
40 or 45 miles per hour and the requirements from the boiler are 
such as to render it impossible to utilize the entire weight for 
adhesive purposes, the emplo mi nl of lei ding or trailing wheels 
does not seem t" I" necessary and it seems to me that the prin- 
ciple justification for their use may be found in cases where the 
, ictri tne boili r capacity I under such condi- 

only wiil their use be justil 

Harrington Emerson stated that a few years ago Bion J. 
Arnold had remarked that there vac no known way of movng 
freight as cheaply as putting a steam locomotive ahead of the 
train. In connection with the contention of the electrical engi- 
neers during the past lew years, who had attempted to p 
their case by assuming ideal conditions for electric traction and 
that the current locomotive practice was the best attainable, he 
remarked that two things had put the electrification far into the 
future, one was the panic, which reminded railroad managers very 
forcibly of the financial situation and the other was the Mallet 
type of locomotive. He related a few instances in connection 
with the large Santa Fe type of locomotives which, while operat- 
ing most economically, had so long a wheel base as to cause con- 
siderable trouble with the track, and said that the Mallet type 
would give all, and more, advantages than the Santa Fe and at 
the same time would correct the trouble with the long wheel 
base. 

L. R. Pomeroy considered briefly the commercial side of the 
introduction of the Mallet type of locomotive, which in a number 
of special cases had proven to be trie remedy for present condi- 
tions that it has previously been believed could only be improved 
by the substitution of electric traction. He took up a special in- 
stance of a 50-mile mountain section, having a maximum grade 
of 2.2 per cent, with seven trains per day in each direction. 
The reduction of one-half in train mileage, with the same ton- 
nage, at 50 cents per train mile, this rate covering the items di- 
rectly affected and used in computing the saving to be advan- 
tageous in grade reduction, would bave $65,000 per year, which 
capitalized at 6 per cent, would equal $1,000,000. In order tc 
obtain this saving electrically the complete electric apparatus 
would cost considerably more than this capitalized amount, where- 
as the required number of Mallet compound steam locomotives 
to perform the service would cost about one-third the amount 
necessary for an equivalent electri: service. Stating the case 
in another way and basing the saving on the reduction in train 
crew expense, leaving out all other advantages, it is seen that with 
a total of 14 trains, which is equivalent to about 700 train miles per 
day, the cost of the train crews amounting to 12H cents to 15 
cents per train mile, the saving then, in reducing the train mileage 
one-half, would equal $17,800 per annum, which at 6 per cent, is 
a capitalization of about $300,000, or more than enough to pay 
for the required number of Mallet locomotives to perform the 
service. 

This is not meant to be a reflection upon the possibilities of 
electric traction in general, but was simply a particular case, 
which was not at all unusual, where the magnitude of the business 
would not justify an electric proposition, but where the Mallet 
locomotive could obtain all of the savings that electric traction 
would obtain on a larger basis, and would serve as a very profit- 
able bridge between the present conditions and the eventual traffic 
density where electric service would be advisable. 

George L. Fowler, on request of Dr. Goss, drew attention 
to the credit that is due Mr. Mellin for developing Mallet's 
engine, which was originally designed for narrow-gauge lines 
and was of light weight, into the enormous and powerful ma- 
chines that are now being built on this principle. 

G. R. Henderson briefly drew attention to the fact that in order 
to obtain the full advantage of these large locomotives it would 



IS 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 





January, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



17 




i-V-84^- 



ARTICULATED COMPOUND PASS] M.Ik LOCOMOTIVE FOR THE SANTA FE, UNDER CONSTRUCTION AT THE BALDWIN I' ' WORKS. 




ARTICULATED COMPOUND FREIGHT LOCOMOTIVE FOR THE SANTA FE, UNDER CONSTRUCTION AT THE BALDWIN LOCOMOTIVE WORKS. 



be necessary to give careful attention to the development of au- 
tomatic stokers. 

S. M. Vauclain, general manager of the Baldwin Locomotive 
Works, discussed the subject at some length by means of a large 
number of lantern slides. He showed a photograph of Monsieur 
Mallet and spoke most highly of his great ability as a designer 
and expressed regret that owing to the expiration of patents, etc., 
he would not receive the pecuniary returns which by right should 
be his. Mr. Vauclain briefly followed the early history of this 
type of locomotive, showing drawings of the DeCauville Railway 
locomotive, which he believed to be the first one of the type ever 
publicly exhibited. He stated that it was in 1877 that Mallet first 
designed an articulated compound locomotive. 

Lantern slides were then shown of a design which was sub- 
mitted in 1898, by the Baldwin Locomotive Works, to the Erie, 
but was not accepted. Following this a large number of slides 
were shown of outline diagrams of studies which had been made 
for locomotives of this type for use on the Santa Fe. These 
studies included a great variety of arrangements of cylinders, 
combustion chambers, re-heaters, feed water heaters, etc., and 
all of them, except the first, included a leading pony truck and 
most of them also had a trailing truck. This series of studies was 
completed by the design of freight and passenger locomotives 
which are shown in the above illustrations and are now un- 
der construction at the Baldwin Locomotive Works. It will be 
seen that in both of these the boiler proper, with the ordinary 
firebox and 19 and 20 ft. tubes, ends in a large combustion cham- 
ber, ahead of which the shell is continued and tube plates, with a 
nest of large tubes, are arranged to form a feed water heater, 
ahead of which is the front end with the exhaust pipe and stack. 
In the combustion chamber is to be located a superheater, or a 
re-heater, or possibly both, and the boiler shell is arranged to be 
easily disconnected at this point for inspection and cleaning of 
the apparatus. The freight locomotive is of the 2-8-8-2 type and 
has 6$ in. drivers with a 34 in. stroke, the cylinders being 26 and 
38 in. in diameter. The passenger locomotive is of the 4-4-6-2 
type, with y^ in. drivers. 

Following this series of studies, examples were shown, by means 
of drawings and photographs, of other articulated compound loco- 
motives built by the Baldwin Locomotive Works during the past 
few years, all of which have been illustrated in these columns. 

Mr. Vauclain then showed a series of diagrams illustrating the 
development of a design of articulated compound locomotive 



for the Southern Pacific. This started out with a desire to apply 
the principle to a tank locomotive which would carry its coal and 
water on the locomotive frames. This however, was finally 
given up as impractical and after several different steps 
the design shown on the opposite page was accepted and 
two of this arrangement are now being built at the Baldwin 
Works. It will be seen that this is somewhat similar to the 
Santa Fe freight locomotive, the wheel arrangement being the 
same, but that the reheater is located in the front end proper, the 
combustion space being considerably shorter, as is also the feed 
water heater. In this case the boiler is not arranged to be dis- 
connected at the combustion chamber, but a manhole is fitted for 
admission to this space from the top. These locomotives have 
57 in. drivers and a 30 in. stroke, the cylinders be:ng 26 and 40 
in. in diameter. 

Mr. Vauclain then threw a design on the screen, which he 
presented as a proposed arrangement of what he guaranteed 
would be an entirely satisfactory design for a heavy freight 
locomotive. This design is also shown on the opposite page. 
In it there is introduced an entirely new and novel feature 
and idea; that is, of having a flexible boiler as well as an 
articulated frame, so that there would be no necessity for the 
front group of frames to move relative to the boiler in taking 
curves. Mr. Vauclain is willing to back up this design to the 
fullest extent. The illustration shows the general features very 
clearly and it will be seen that it includes both a superheater ana 
a reheater, located in a large combustion chamber, at which point 
the bellows connection is also placed, and it has the low pressure 
cylinders attached to the front end in the ordinary manner. 

The remarks of the speaker were closed by showing some for- 
eign locomotives of small size which had been equipped with 
front and trailing trucks. 

Mr. Vauclain also briefly referred to a discussion on the paper 
that had been furnished by Mr. Emerson of the Great Northern 
Railway, which will be printed in full in the proceedings of the 
society. Mr. Emerson confined himself to a report of the ser- 
vice that the locomotives on his road, which now number about 
68 of two sizes, had given during the past two years. This ex- 
perience was so favorable that it has been decided to extend the 
use of this type of locomotive to districts having grades as low 
as .72 per cent. 

On the Cascade division of that load, where the ruling grades 
vary from I per cent to 2.2 per cent the service had previously 



18 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



been performed by consolidation locomotives having 20 x 32 in. 
cylinders, 55 in. drivers, 210 lbs. of steam and weighing 180,00c 
lbs. on drivers. 

"In the beginning the large Mallets were first introduced on 
the hill between Skykomisk and Leavenworth on the Cascade di- 
vision with a consolidation engine used as road engines and the 
Li* helpers used on the hill only. Up to the present time the 
tonnage over these mountains has been gradually increased from 
1050, with two consolidations, to 1600 tons now being hauled 
with the Li engines. The Li engines have now entirely re- 
placed the consolidation engines and it is the practice to start 
out from Everett with one Li engine used as a road engine, tak- 
ing 1600 tons as far as Skykomisk, over a ruling grade of 1 per 
cent. At Skykomisk another Li engine is put on as a pusher 
and takes the 1600 ton train over the mountain. The tonnage 
hauled in the opposite direction is the same and the Li Mallet 
has proven itself to be not only valuable for helper service but a 
good reliable road engine and the combination of road and 
helper service works out admirably on this division, making it 
unnecessary, going east, to reduce the tonnage at Skykomisk in 
order to get over the heavy grade. Recent performances show 
that on a round trip over this division the Li engines hauled 1600 
tons with a total consumption of 43.8 tons of coal, equivalent to 
25.13 lbs. of coal per 100 ton miles. The consolidation engines 
could only handle 1050 tons, with practically the same amount 
of coal consumed, equivalent to 3S.29 lbs. of coal per 100 ton 
miles. In other words the tonnage on this division has been in- 
creased at least 52 per cent with the result due to the Mallet en- 
gine of a saving of 34.39 per cent lbs. of coal per 100 ton miles. 

"Since putting the Li engines : n road service the perform- 
ance has been so satisfactory that there are now but four of them 
used exclusively as pushers, two as helpers over the Cascade 
mountains and two on the Butte division in transfer service. 

"On the Spokane division the 1600 tons delivered at Leaven- 
worth is reduced to 1450 tons and a small Mallet, class L2,f'takes 
this train to Hillyard, a distance of 195 miles. These engines 
have enabled us to increase the tonnage from 1100 tons hauled 
by the consolidation to 1450 tons, sn increase of 31.8 per cent. 
The run is so long that this tonnage has been established in or- 
der to get the trains over the district in a reasonable time and 
they handle the tonnage at from eight to ten miles per hour on 
the heaviest hills and up to 30 miles per hour where the grades 
are not so heavy. The engines a:e run straight through but 
crews are changed half-way at Wilson Creek. 

"The performance for the year ending June 30, 1908, shows 

22.04 lbs. of coal per 100 ton miles on this district, a saving of 

27.5 per cent, over the consolidation. 

"On the next division east the L2 engine takes a train of 1700 
tons from Whitefish to Essex, wherj the ruling grade is .8 per 
cent. At this point an Li helper :s put on to assist the train 
to Summit, a distance of 18 miles, where the ruling grade is 1.8 
per cent. West bound an L2 engine takes a train of 1450 tons 
through, the ruling grade being 1 per cent. On this district the 
tonnage has been increased 20 per cent, with a reduction of coal 
per 100 ton miles of 20 per cent. In the next district, from Cut 
Bank to Havre, a distance of 125 miles, with a ruling grade of 
.8 per cent, an L2 engine takes 1700 tons over the division. West 
the ruling grade is 1 per cent and this engine handles 1450 tons. 
The round trip on this division, with the L2 engine, is made 
with 32 tons of coal, or an equivalent of 15.75 lbs. of coal per 100 
ton miles. The consolidation previously used handled but 1200 
tons west and 1425 tons east and tv.cd 18.9 lbs. of coal per 100 
ton miles, showing an increase of 20 per cent in tonnage and a 
decrease of 16.6 per cent, in coal per 100 ton miles. 

"At another point, where the ruling grade is 2.2 per cent, the 
L2 engines have increased the tonnage previously handled by the 
consolidations from 550 to 700 tons. 

"The question of maintenance we would naturally expect to be 
higher on the Mallet engines and for the year ending June 30, 
1908, the cost of repairs on the L2 class was 10.47 cents, which 



is not considered at all excessive. The cost of maintaining the 
consolidation engines in the same service has seldom been less 
than 8 cents per mile. 

"Another feature which has been noticed is that the Mallet 
engines are not at all hard on draw bars, owing to the fact that 
the train is not jerked by the engine slipping and catching, since 
both engines do not slip at the same time. The tire wear on 
these engines is very light and the flange wear is not excessive. 
In fact the Mallet engines have been put on some divisions where 
the flange wear on the consolidations was very bad and no wear 
has been noticed on them. 

"We still have in service two of the first Li Mallet engines 
which have never yet been in the shop for general overhauling, 
in fact have never been off their wheels and have been in con- 
tinual service since October, 1906.'' 



Copper Safe-Ends for Flues.- — Extensive experiments have 
been made attempting to use copper flues and iron flues with cop- 
per safe-ends; brass flues have also been tried, but it appears that 
the most serious problem is to prevent the rapid destruction of 
the beads on account of the abrasive action of the fire-box gases 
and cinder. This was very well proven in a recent experiment 
on the Norfolk & Western Railway by putting copper safe-ends 
in a consolidation freight engine equipped with the reinforced 
flue sheet (see American Engineer, June, 1908, page 207). The 
engine ran but a short time before the flues began to leak, which 
condition became continuous, the engine seldom going through 
a terminal without requiring attention. The heads were finally 
entirely burned off, and the ends of the flues were reduced to 
practically a knife-edge. The engine was finally withdrawn from 
service on this account, the flues having made but 9,189 miles, 
which is about one-fourth of the mileage we should expect to get 
with iron or steel. — Alexander Kearney, assistant superintendent 
motive power, Norfolk & Western Ry., before the Richmond 
Railroad Club. 



Timber Waste in U. S. — We are now cutting timber from the 
forests of the United States at the rate of 500 feet board meas- 
ure a year for every man, woman and child. In Europe they 
use only 60 board feet. At this rate, in less than thirty years 
all our remaining virgin timber will be cut. Meantime, the for- 
ests which have been cut over are generally in a bad way for 
want of care ; they will produce only inferior second growth. We 
are clearly over the verge of a timber famine. This is not due 
to necessity, for the forests are one of the renewable resources. 
Rightly used, they go on producing crop after crop indefinitely. 
The countries of Europe know this, and Japan knows it; and 
their forests are becoming with time not less, but more, pro- 
ductive. We probably still possess sufficient forest land to grow 
wood enough at home to supply our own needs. If we are not 
blind, or wilfully wasteful, we may yet preserve our forest in- 
dependence and, with it. the fourth of our great industries. — 
Treadwell Cleveland, Jr., U. S. Forest Service. 



Honesty. — What may be designated as the first element, or 
rather, essential, of success, is common honesty. To state the old 
maxim : "Honesty is the best policy," is but to reiterate a truism, 
and to repeat parrot-like the principle that has stood the test 
of ages. There is, however, a broader honesty than that appa- 
rent on the surface, that is a requirement. This consists not en- 
tirely in the application of the Commandment, "Thou shalt not 
steal," but seeks also for its guiding principle the "Golden Rule." 
In other words, a studious and persistent effort to render just and 
fair treatment to all alike whether he or it be great or small. — 
W. J. Harahan, before the New York Railroad Club. 



• Large type Mallets. Sec American Engineer, Oct., 1906, page 371. 
t Small type Mallet. See American Engineer, June, 1907, page 213. 



At Altoona, Pa., telephones have been installed in the homes 
of 517 trainmen of the Pennsylvania Railroad, and all of the 
trainmen and yardmen of the Middle division are now called to 
service by telephone, instead of by messenger as formerly. Fif- 
teen callers have been appointed to other positions. 



January, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



19 



APPLYING FLEXIBLE STAYBOLTS.' 



By R. V. Anderson. 



One of the most important jobs on a locomotive boiler is Che 
proper application of flexible staybolts. Every part of the work 
has to be carefully performed to be successful. The method 
used at the Rogers Locomotive Works, which has been very suc- 
cessful, is as follows: 

The holes in the sheet are punched 1/32 inch smaller tban the 
diameter, of the root of the thread at the point of the sleeve, 
and reamed with a taper reamer that has a guide on the point 
which goes through the firebox sheet. There is a collar fastened 
on the reamer at the proper place near the head which stops the 
reamer from going in too far, and allows 3/32 inch for thread, 
and makes all the holes exactly the same size. The tap has also 
a guide and a stop on it so the holes are tapped the same. We 
only use one reamer and one tap in the holes and get a perfect 



more than thi lo limit Bhould be spent in order to secure the 

minimum 1 tivi mi nance, including all the 

,1 not 1 I ual repair expenses, labor, and material, 

but also interi iation, insurance and taxes upon the 

plant provided, 1 qui tion that should have the most careful 
consideration. 

The following analysis of the total cost will serve to indicate 
the relative importance of the decisions that must be reached in 
order to give each dollar expended a maximum earning capacity. 




DEVICE FOR HOLDING ON IN RIVETING FLEXIBLE STAYBOLTS. 

thread. The sleeves are screwed in with a stud nut, driven with 
a ratchet lever. The bolts are run in with an air drill until they 
are nearly home, then adjusted carefully by hand, taking care 
to get an equal load on all the bolts without pulling the firebox 
sheet out of line. 

While riveting the bolt we have a simple device for holding 
on which may be new to some of you. It obviates all danger 
of spoiling the thread on the sleeve. It consists of a nipple 
which is screwed on to the sleeve, and has a sliding plunger in- 
side which fits on the head of the bolt. The holding on is done 
by a common holding on sledge which backs up on the outside 
end of the plunger. An order of 60 boilers for the Wabash 
Railroad recently completed had 298 flexible staybolts in each, 
making a total of 17,880 bolts. The inspector would not permit 
any calking on the sleeves, but only 10 of them had to be re- 
newed because of leaks. The most important thing needed in 
putting in flexible saybolts is good judgment. You can have 
your holes perfect, your reamer perfect, your tap perfect, your 
bolts and sleeves perfect, yet an injudicious or careless workman 
will spoil the whole job. 



ANALYSIS OF COST OF LOCOMOTIVE REPAIR SHOPS 



George A. Damon, of the Arnold Engineering Company, pre- 
sented the following analysis of the cost of locomotive repair 
shops in a paper on "Arrangement of Railroad Shops," read be- 
fore the Canadian Railway Club : 

Our records show that locomotive repair shops which are laid 
out on a basis of the number of pits required equal to 6 per 
cent, of the number of locomotives served can be built and 
equipped complete for an expenditure ranging between $50,000 
and $65,000 per pit. If one pit will serve sixteen and two-thirds 
engines per year, the cost of repair facilities will fall some 
place between the limits of from $3,000 to $4,000 per locomotive. 
An investment amounting to the lower limit is absolutely neces- 
sary if the engines are to be kept on the road. Just how much 



Table op Cost Limits fob Locomotive Repaib Show on the 
Basis of Twenty-Five Erecting Pits. 

Approx. 
Limits of Cost Propor- 

1)1 VISIONS Pur Pit tx 

' High To 






17% 
7% 
4% 
3% 

1% 
3% 

1% 



sum- VABD8 "Low." "Ill 

Tracks, Crane Runways, Transferor 

Turn Tables.. ..* $1,400 $3,000 

Water and Sewer Systems 1,000 1,800 

Piping and Wiring Tunnels and 

Tunnel Piping 500 1,000 1% 

BUILDINGS. 

Machine and Erecting Shop 8,000 (.2,000 

Boiler and Tank Simp 3,000 5,000 

Forge Shop , 1,500 2,400 

Storehouse and Offices 1,000 2,500 

Locomotive Carpenter Shop 500 1,000 

Power House 1,200 2,400 

Oil House and Equipment 400 600 

Miscellaneous buildings : 

Scrap Bins, Material Sheds, Fences 500 1,000 1% 

GENERAL EQUIPMENT FOR ALL" DEPARTMENTS. 

Power House Equipment 5,000 8,000 

Traveling Cranes 1,500 3,000 

Tool Equipment 10,000 15,000 

Heating System 1,200 2,500 

Power and Lighting Systems, includ- 
ing yard, wiring, and lighting. . 1,500 4,500 

Plumbing- and Lockers 300 1,000 

Air, Water, Steam, and Oil Piping 

in Buildings 600 1,200 

Incidentals, Organization, and En- 
gineering '2,000 7,000 



11% 
4% 

22% 
3% 

5% 
1% 

2% 

8% 

100% 



Note. — These figures do not include items for Real Estate and Prepara- 
tion of the Shop Site, which cost necessarily varies between wide limits. 
The Foundry building and equipment are not included in these figures. 

The sum total of the "low" and of the "high" figures shown 
will result in grand totals which will show a wider range than 
the 335/3 per cent, variation indicated by unit figures of $3,000 
to $4,000 per locomotive, but as it is improbable that any shop 
would be built using either the lowest or the highest estimate 
for every one of its parts it will be found that only in excep- 
tional cases will the actual total cost fall outside of the limits 
first given. 



Hardening of Steam Hose. — In the case of steam hose th<* 
hardening is caused from the fact that there is too much sulphur 
in the rubber and vulcanization goes on with the heat from the 
steam, after you commence to use it. If we could get an exact 
proportion of sulphur this vulcanization would not go on, but 
this is a very difficult thing to do. The crude rubber is gathered 
by natives all the world over, and is taken from trees varying 
from seven years to ten years old, and if you bought ten tons 
of rubber, you might have ten different qualities. — A. D. Thorn- 
ton, general technical superintendent, Canadian Rubber Company, 
before the Canadian Railway Club. 



' A paper presented before the Master Blacksmiths' Association. 



Roller Bearings. — There is almost no limitation for the use 
of anti-friction bearings, but the possibilities a.n be better appre- 
ciated when it is known that such bearings are sold at prices 
ranging from 2 cents to $7,500 for a single bearing, and are 
used to carry loads from a few ounces, running at 30,000 revolu- 
tions per minute, to loads of 1,500,000 pounds at 100 revolutions 
per minute and 250,000 pounds at 500 revolutions per minute. 



20 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



SIDE SHEETS OF WIDE FIREBOXES.* 



C. A. Selev. 



The author prefaced his paper with the following remarks: 

"I suppose I ought to make an apology for offering a paper 
to this club on a matter of pure speculation. I have no data to 
offer ; I built up a theory on a set of conditions which I believe 
represent the result that we are getting in the life of the side 
sheets of the modern locomotive. The matter is not new, as it 
was discussed in the Master Mechanics' Association in 1905, the 
subject in part being covered by the topical discussion by Law- 
ford H. Fry, of the Baldwin Locomotive Works. There is one 
paragraph of his paper which I would like to read, part of 
which I agree with for reasons other than are assigned. He says 
'As the water in contact with the side sheets is turned into steam, 
it must be allowed to rise to the steam space and must be re- 
placed by other waters. The water spaces should be so designed 
that this natural circulation is aided and that the currents of 
steam and water impede each other as little as possible. This is 
secured if the firebox sheets are vertical or with a slight slope 
outward as they rise from the mud ring, so that the steam can 
rise along the firebox sheets and the water descend along the out- 
side sheets without mutual interference.'" 

* * * * * * * 

The life of side sheets in the modern wide-firebox locomo- 
tives is a problem that is demanding the active attention of 
motive power officials because of their decidedly shorter life as 
compared with side sheets in the older narrow-firebox types. A 
prominent railway mechanical officer recently stated the matter 
about as follows : "That the old-style deep firebox with ogeet sides 
■was rather hard on staybolts, but the boxes lasted on an average 
•of from six to nine years. The later wide fireboxes, while easier 
■on staybolts, frequently fail in two or three years." On this 
showing it was thought that the tendency in firebox design would 
be towards a modified ogee side with very flowing lines. 

The above statement presents an effect and a possible remedy, 
but docs not consider the causes. It is unfortunate if we cannot 
utilize an increase in the width of the grates to secure the area 
•necessary in large locomotives without having such a decided 
reduction in the life of the side sheets. It has not been noted 
that the crown sheets are similarly affected, there has been no 
radical change in the quality of the steel employed, or of the fuel 
or service demanded of the locomotive, that would account for 
the trouble, and we are forced to the conclusion that there must 
be some element in the design or operation of wide fireboxes 
which has an unfavorable influence not clearly understood. 

By the life of side sheets is meant serviceable condition, free- 
dom from cracks, leakage, and other failures that may require 
renewal. The life is not particularly affected by the pressure 
carried, as the staying is generally done with a large factor of 
safety, but is directly affected by the temperature changes, the 
expansions and contractions, in service under steam as well as 
when out of service on sidings or over cinder pits and in wash- 
ing out, and water changing in the roundhouse. 

Steel will stand a certain number of stresses before failure, 
dependent on the degree or amplitude. We can increase the num- 
ber of applications of a test specimen by decreasing the amplitude. 
In a firebox it is difficult to decrease the number of the appli- 
cations as they are dependent on the service of the engine, the 
number of times it is fired up and cooled off and these conditions 
are not materially different for the two types of fireboxes under 
discussion, and thus it may be that the short life of the side 
sheets of wide fireboxes can be accounted for by the greater 
amplitude of the movement or increased expansion and contrac- 
tion. 

At first thought one would say that the ogee box presents a 
series of curves that will adjust themselves to meet those move- 
ments in a way not possible in the straight and more rigid side 
of 'the wide box. This is true only in part, as the side is straight 

"'■ 1; ad lh 1> ccmber meeting of the Western Railway Club. 
•;■ pi,, form liifvinj a reverse curve in section with the convex part abov?. 



longitudinally in both designs, and this is the most important di- 
rection. Apparently, therefore, the increased amplitude must be 
accounted for by a higher internal temperature of the side sheets 
by reason of less perfect heat transmission to the water in the 
leg. 

In the later designs of boilers we find a general tendency to- 
wards the use of wider mudrings and water legs than formerly. 
This has resulted in giving stayboits longer life, as their in- 
creased length gives a smaller amplitude of vibration or motion, 
but it has also decreased the rate of the flow of the water up- 
ward proportionally as the volume of water in the leg is in- 
creased. This point will be considered later. 

In getting away from the ogee form of box and the narrow 
water leg, it was thought that the circulation of the water would 
be improved, as the ogee presents a curve adverse to the direct 
vertical rise of the water as it is heated and displaced by the 
cooler water coming from the throat. The results, however, 
would seem to prove this theory wro.ig, or at least we have only 
gained in life of staybolts. 

The secret of the matter seems to be that, if the rate of flow 
and its wiping, scrubbing, impinging action can be directed 
against the side sheets it has the effect of wiping off the steam 
bubbles as they form, prevents their combining into a film or 
curtain of steam against the sheet, which is by no means as good 
a conductor of heat as is the solid water. This theory will ac- 
count for increased internal temperature of vertical and in- 
wardly inclined side sheets and can be inferentially proven. 

It is well known that crown sheets outlast several sets of side 
sheets, and while this is due in part to the fact that there are not 
the same variations of temperature at the same time in different 
parts of the sheet, it is also true that its surface presents no 
chance for formation of a film of steam and it has practically 
solid water in contact with it at all times. 

This is also true of the Wooten type of furnace, the parts fail- 
ing being generally a limited portion at the sides, which approach 
the vertical. It has also been noted that the door sheets of fire- 
boxes which have moderately inclined back heads do not last as 
long as those that are vertical. The incline forces the wiping 
action of the circulation against the outer sheet. 

It has been stated that in the early days of torpedo boat de- 
sign a locomotive type of boiler was tried because of its great 
efficiency and amount of steam produced per foot of heating sur- 
face in locomotive service. On the boat, however, it was an 
utter failure. By way of experiment this boiler was put on a 
vibrating cradle, which greatly increased the steam production. 
This could only be accounted for by an increased circulation, 
facilitating the heat transmission. It has been proven by late 
Government experiments that increased boiler efficiency can be 
obtained by increasing the rate of flow of the gases, this action 
tending to wipe off from the heating surface the partially cooled 
gases, replacing them with new and hotter gases. 

Thus the questions of circulation, whether of water or gases, 
seems to be a very important factor in boiler efficiency, and 
while some of the examples quoted may be somewhat remote in 
their application, yet they seem to point to the circulation in 
the water leg as being a vital factor in the life of side sheets. 

There seems to be no question that if there is a strong imping- 
ing circulation against the fire sheet, the heat will be more freely 
transmitted, steam film prevented, solid water maintained against 
the sheet, and the internal temperature of the sheet kept down 
and the amplitude of the sheet movement reduced to the mini- 
mum. To effect this the side sheets should not be vertical nor 
sloped inward, but be sloped or curved outward from above the 
fire line, but it is obvious that this cannot be extreme without 
getting into grate area difficulty. 

It is quite possible, however, that we have gone too tar and 
are too liberal in that respect, as the reports of successful steam- 
ing of some recent engines would seem to indicate, these engines 
having a much lower proportion of grate area than is at present 
common. If a reduction of grate area can be made, it will per- 
mit the modification of side sheets as proposed. 

The question might also be raised as to the width of water 
' leg. Aside from affording sufficient room to hold the accumu- 



January, 1009. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



21 



lated sediment to a safe height, there seems to be no good reason 
for a wide leg except from the staybolt point of view. There 
is no question of a stronger circulation with the narrow leg, and 
if need be, some form of flexible staybolt could be considered 
for extreme cases of angular movement. 

In the older designs of fireboxes it was often 80 inches from 
the mudring to the water level above the crown sheet, the water 
varying in temperature, while in circulation from 150 or 180 
degrees at the bottom to the temperature due to the steam pres- 
sure at the top. The depth of this column of water in wide fire- 
box designs is very materially decreased, and as the temperature 
limits are about the same, it is apparent that for an equal widtli 
of water space the rate of flow of the circulation as a whole 
would be decreased about proportionately to the travel. If in 
addition to this, the width of the water leg be increased, the rate 
of movement is further decreased. 

If rapid circulation and a wiping effect will serve to carry off 
the steam bubbles, preventing steam film and overheating of fire 
sheets, this function has been absolutely sacrificed in many wide 
firebox designs and the short-lived side sheets seem to prove it. 
The highest duty boilers are those having the most rapid circu- 
lation. The water spaces in legs and between tubes of fire en- 
gine boilers are very small, but the probabilities are that the 
rate of steaming and efficiency would be decreased if these spaces 
were materially increased and the larger volume of water would 
lower the rate of circulation. 

It is quite likely that the rate of movement in the locomotive 
water leg has much to do with this question. The water next to 
the fire sheet has an upward tendency. That next to the outside 
sheet can only rise when heated by conduction through a body 
of water equal to the entire width of the leg or by the mingling, 
mixing action set up when the sheets are not vertical. There 
seems to be a reasonable ground for the belief that there is a 
very sluggish circulation in a directly vertical water leg of con- 
siderable width, contributing to formation of a steam film and 
overheating of the sheets when fires are forced. 

This discussion would not be complete without considering the 
other end of the temperature scale to which the fire sheets are 
subjected. As before stated, it is the amplitude of the vibra- 
tions or movement of the sheet which are most subject to con- 
trol. All possible mileage should be made between knocking out 
of fires. Firing methods can often be improved so that an en- 
gine can be returned without knocking the fire. The usual ash 
pit methods use up much of the life of side sheets and cold 
water washing and filling, and rapid firing up takes a lot more. 
It is quite true that the old-time fireboxes had to stand all this, 
but while considering temperatures and their effects it would be 
just as well to help on the lower end of the scale if possible. 

Improved methods of blowing down and filling up of the boiler 
at terminals, hot water changing and washout plants are now 
well demonstrated and these will all help to reduce the ampli- 
tude of the temperature scale traversed in locomotive operation 
as regards the firebox sheets and thus add to their life. 
******* 

After considerable discussion the writer's closing remarks were 
as follows : "I think I have attained my object in getting a dis- 
cussion on this rather interesting question. The idea that I had 
in mind was simply to find some reason why the modern wide 
fireboxes are lasting one-third of the life of the old-time boxes. 
In seeking for a theory it occurred to me to consider those ele- 
ments which contribute to ultimate failure, viz : the vibrations or 
the expansions and contractions or movements of the sheet in the 
performance of its duty. I do not know that I am right yet, but 
at the same time, if there is successful performance of fireboxes 
about sixty inches wide, and boxes wider than that have not 
given as good performance, it would indicate that the slope of 
the sheet due to the narrower width had something to do with 
it. Xow, just how that works out; whether I am correct in sup- 
posing that that upward circulation against an outwardly inclined 
sheet assists in wiping off the steam bubbles and combining them 
with the current, transmitting the heat, warming up the entire 
body of water in the water leg, instead of permitting a curtain or 
film of steam which will contribute to over-heating of the sheet, 



it at least seems to be a reasonable theory or explanation with 
some foundation for it. 

"Whether Mr. Fry's theory of downward circulation or mine 
of facilitating wiping action of the circulation are used, the re- 
sult is tlie same as regards the desirability of outward instead of 
inward inclination of firebox side sheets. 
"As regards Mr. Squire's inquiry about the solid water, it would 
seem to me that there is absolutely no possibility of a steam 
bubble combining with another ami another and another until 
there is a film on any portion of the crown sheet which is con- 
siderably beyond the vertical. If the volume of the water leg is 
increased by greater width of water leg, I think it is reasonably 
sure that the rate of the circulation as a whole is decreased, due 
to that larger volume, and if the rate of circulation is a factor in 
keeping down the internal temperature of the sheet, the failures 
are in accord with my theory. 

"What I am trying to find out is this, — you will probably all 
admit that a firebox sheet has a certain life, it will stand so many 
vibrations, so many expansions, so n.any contractions, from the 
normal and then it will develop that crack that goes off like a 
pistol shot, or some other way, at any rate there is a failure of 
the sheet. Now, that being the case, if we can lengthen out the 
period of time over which that total movement will happen, we 
get the increased life in our sheet. It seems to me that if the 
box is designed in such a way that the internal temperature of 
the sheet is kept down by keeping solid water against it by any 
means whatsoever, then with all of the fireboxes, evfn with the 
despised ogee, we have made a distinct gain. I think this is a 
matter worth thinking about and possibly of going into our records 
of firebox failures. Classify the fireboxes of different widths and 
angles and forms on our roads and go back through our records 
for years and find out the number of fireboxes and side sheets 
that have been applied and see what results we obtain. I do not 
believe that it is due to the quality of firebox steel falling down 
necessarily, but probably a matter of design. 

"As regards Mr. Wickhorst's belief that there is no downward 
circulation, or at least that there does not seem to be much to 
support that theory, I agree with that in a great measure. My 
idea of the circulation is that it is a very rapid, upward, against 
the inside sheet and less rapid at the outside, so that a number of 
inclined lines, each of a greater angle, would express the velocity 
as I understand it. But I can hardly understand why water up 
at two-thirds of the height of the firebox against the outside 
sheet should come down. I cannot see why it will not rise, al- 
though at a very less rate than that of water that is close to the 
firebox sheet. 



Inspection Pits at Engine House. — An adjunct to terminal 
facilities is now being advocated by those giving the matter 
close attention, and that is having what is known as an inspection 
pit placed, where engines bound toward the roundhouse will pass 
over it. This pit should be shallow, simply deep enough to per- 
mit men to walk under the engine and enable them to examine all 
its parts. The object of the pit is that engines will be stopped 
over it on their arrival and will be thoroughly examined by com- 
petent inspectors, and in a busy time this is quite an advantage 
in helping the movement of engines. Many times an engine reach- 
ing this pit will be found on inspection to have but a few nuts 
loose here and there, or in need of some slight repairs that can 
be made right on the pit ; the engine then passing along through 
its different operations, goes on the table to be turned and is 
ready for a return trip. This saves its going to the house at 
all and is an advantage at a busy terminal in busy times when 
power is scarce.— R. D. Smith before the New England Railroad 
Club. 



A Car was Blown from the Track of the Union Pacific Ry. 
near Lone Tree Creek, Wyo., 30 miles west of Cheyenne, on 
October 19. It was the caboose of a work train bound for Her- 
mosa Junction and carried about 40 laborers. The wind threw 
the car from the rails, breaking its coupling, and it dropped 30 
feet down the embankment. The car was entirely broken up and 
six men were killed. 



22 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD TOURNAL. 



(Established 1832). 



— AMERICAN _ 

Engineer 



RAILROAD ^JOURNAL 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY 

BY 

R. M. VAN ARSDALE 

140 NASSAU STREET, NEW YORK 

; — S — 

J. S. BONSALL, Business Manager. 
F. H. THOMPSON, Eastern Representative 



H. V. WRIGHT, ( 
E. A. AVEUILL, j 



Editors. 



JANUARY, 1909 



Subscriptions $2.00 a year for the United States and Canada; $2.50 a 

year to Foreign Countries embraced in the Universal Postal Union. 
Remit by Express Money Order, Draft or Post Office Order. 
Subscription for this paper will be received and copies kept for sale by the 

Post Office News Co.. 217 Dearborn St., Chicago, III. 

Damrell & Upham, 28S Washington St., Boston, Mass. 

Philip Roeder, 307 North Fourth St., St. Louis, Mo. 

R. S. Davis & Co., 340 Fifth Ave., Pittsburg. Pa. 

Century News Co., 6 Third St., S. Minneapolis, Minn. 

W. Dawson & Sons, Ltd., Cannon St., Bream's Buildings, Lon- 
don, E. C, England. 



Advertisements. — Nothing will be inserted in this journal for pay, 
except in the advertising paoes. The reading pages will contain 
only such matter as we consider of interest to our readers. 

Contributions. — Articles relating to Motive Power Department prob- 
lems, including the design, construction, maintenance and operation of 
rolling stock, also of shops and roundhouses and their equipment are 
desired. Also early notices of ovtcial changes, and additions of new 
equipment for the road or the shop, by purchase or construction. 



CONTENTS 

Design of Oil Burning Locomotives, by Harrington Emerson 1 

The Use of Wood in Building Construction 2 

The Importance of Knowing Costs Promptly 2 

Freezing of Air Brake Hose . • * 

East Buffalo Round House. N. Y. C. & H. 11. R. R 3 

Correspondence 10 

Good Mixture for Case Hardening 10 

Team Work JJJ 

Gold Leaf for Signal Blades 10 

Locomotive with Schmidt Superheaters 10 

Process for Squaring Mentally 11 

Jib Crane Design 11 

Arcs Equal to Straight Lines 11 

All-Steel Suburban Car, Long Island R. R 12 

Keep in Touch with Progress 13 

Air and Steam Superheater for Locomotives 13 

Instrument for Measuring Color 13 

Air Compressors in Roundhouses 13 

Articulated Compound Locomctives, A. S. M. E 14 

Copper Safe-Ends for Flues 1| 

Timber Waste in U. S l| 

Honesty '| 

Calling Enginemen by I elephone « 

Aoplying Flexible Stayholts, by R. V. Anderson 19 

Analysis of Cost of Locomotive Repair Shops 19 

Hardening of Steam Hose 19 

Roller Bearings 1» 

Side Sheets of Wide Fireboxes, by C. A. Seley 20 

Inspection Pits at Engine Houses 21 

Souvenirs at Conventions *| 

Organization jA 

Articulated Compound Locomotives J* 

Oil Burning Locomotives 22 

The Railway Business Association 23 

Roundhouse Conditions ~% 

Life of Side Sheets 23 

Good Times Ahead for the Railroads 24 

With the Railroad Clubs *\ 

Value of Railroad Clubs 25 

Balanced Compound Pacific Type Locomotive, Western Ry. of France 26* 

The Employment of Men ■„■■■; ; ■ ; ■ ■ VV W " VV" Vr' 

Results of Operation of the Electrified Section of the N. Y., N. H. 

& H. R. R., by W. S. Murray 27 

The Poor Roundhouse Foreman 2H 

Engine Failures and Roundhouse Service 29 

Link Grinders »° 

Metal Grain Door 31 

Roundhouse Facilities 31 

Baker-Pilliod Locomotive Valve Gear 32 

36-inch Lathe with Turret on the Shears. 34 

Portable 0>y- Acetylene Welding and Cutting, by Andre Beltzer 34 

Heavy Pattern Axle Lathe 36 

22-inch Cincinnati Planer 37 

Stopping Block for Engines in Roundhouses 37 

Boring Square Holes 38 

The Abuse of the M. C. B. Repair Card, by J. J. Hennessey 39 

Denatured Alcohol from Natural Gas ._ 39 

"N. B." Air Brake and Signal Hose Connection 40 

Folding Doors for Roundhouses 41 

Kewanee Air Pump Union « 

Personals *£ 

Books 7? 

Catalogs and Business Notes •« 



The practice of giving away souvenirs at the annual con- 
ventions of the Master Mechanics' and Master Ca<- Builders' As- 
sociations is to be abolished by the request of the executive com- 
mittees of those bodies. This action will receive the hearty 
approval of all who attend the conventions. 



ORGANIZATION. 
"You have hit the bull's-eye," 'Worth its weight in gold," "The 
best article ever published in a railroad paper," are some of the 
many expressions which have been received concerning the ar- 
ticle on "Motive Power Department Organization," which ap- 
peared in the December issue. The demand for copies of that 
issue has been so great that we have been forced to reprint the 
article on "Organization." Additional information concerning 
this will be found in the advertising section of this number. 



ARTICULATED COMPOUND LOCOMOTIVE 



Mr. Vauclain, in discussing Mr. Mellin's paper on Mallet ar- 
ticulated compound locomotives, presented at the annual meet- 
ing of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (see page 
14), presented some very interesting designs for locomotives of 
this type, several of which are now under construction, for dif- 
ferent roads, at the Baldwin Locomotive Works. These designs 
include appliances for increased economy which have never be- 
fore been combined in a single locomotive in this country, viz. : 
a superheater, a reheater, a feed water heater and compound 
cylinders on one engine. Advantage has been taken of the enor- 
mous length of the boiler, possible and desirable for freight en- 
gines of the 2-8-8-2 type, to install a feed water heater which is 
the real thing and should prove tc be as valuable in increasing 
the economy as is the double expansion of the steam. 

A report from Mr. Emerson, of the Great Northern Railway, 
which, owing to the shortness of the time, was not read in full 
at the meeting, contained some very interesting and valuable data 
and observaions from the result of the operation of 68 locomo- 
tives of this type under his supervision. It has been found that 
on quite a number of different divisions of that road the Mallet 
locomotive will handle about So pei cent, more tonnage on the 
same amount of coal when compared with the large consolida- 
tion locomotives. Results as a whole have led to the decision 
to use locomotives of this type on all grades of .72 per cent, and 
over. __ _ == __-^_ 

OIL BURNING LOCOMOTIVES. 



It is beyond successful contradiction to say that any piece of 
machinery or apparatus will perform the work for which it is 
specially designed better than will some other machine or appa- 
ratus which was designed for a different purpose and has been 
adapted to this use. This is as true of a locomotive as any 
other piece of machinery, and there is no doubt that an engine 
designed especially and exclusively for use with oil fuel will give 
better results than a coal burning locomotive adapted for using oil. 
The important points of difference in the design of the locomo- 
tive boiler for use with these two fuels is discussed in an article 
by Harrington Emerson elsewhere in this issue. Mr. Emerson 
has had excellent opportunities of studying the service of oil 
burning locomotives, and especially those which were primarily 
designed to burn coal, and has been impressed with the extra ex- 
pense in connection with the rapid renewal of fireboxes and 
flues that is required on such boilers. These locomotives on one 
road cost between 3 cents and 16 cents more per mile for main- 
tenance than does the same engine when burning coal, which, 
with a locomotive making 30,000 miles per year, would give from 
$900 to $4,800 per year. It would seem to be worth while to use this 
amount for a boiler construction adapted for'this fuel rather than 
for the maintenance of a locomotive designed to burn coal. In 
considering the subject, however, it should not be forgotten 
that the importance of having locomotives capable of using both 
fuels and thus available for use at different points on a large sys- 
tem may be greater than the expense of maintaining fireboxes. 



January, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



23 



THE RAILWAY BUSINESS ASSOCIATION 



The Railway Business Association (see page 431, November, 
1908, issue) is doing a work that is deserving of the active sup- 
port of every fair-minded man. The efforts of this association 
are directed toward the restoration of the purchasing power of 
railroads, which, as every one knows, has been practically exter- 
minated during the past year. This condition is very largely due 
to the anti-railroad legislation of recent years, which has resulted 
in making investors apprehensive as to the security of railroad 
investments. This has, of course, practically destroyed the bor- 
rowing power and hence very largely the purchasing power of the 
roads and compelled them to stop all extensions and improve- 
ments. Furthermore, recent legislation has added greatly to the 
expense of railroad operation, while transportation rates, figured 
on a ton-mile basis, have been continually reduced, resulting in 
a narrowing of the margin between cost and revenue. This has 
become serious and it has become necessary to consider an ad- 
justment of rates exactly as is necessary in all commercial enter- 
prises involving increasing costs. 

The members of this association, who represent a capital of 
about $500,000,000, and employ many thousands of men, believe the 
agitation should be stopped and the companies should be allowed 
to readjust themselves to the new conditions and give the new 
laws on the statute books a fair trial without further handicap. 
They believe that when the public is educated to view transporta- 
tion problems without prejudice, agitation against railways will 
cease for lack of- popular support, but meanwhile emergency 
measures are necessary to prevent further damage. The first 
effort of the association, and in this it has been surprisingly suc- 
cessful, has been to persuade boards of trade throughout the 
UnitedStates to pass resolutions looking to the discouragement of 
anti-railroad legislation. It has followed this by starting a cam- 
paign of personal demands upon legislatures with the same object 
and it is in this work that the readers of this journal can be of 
great assistance. The association is urging everybody to write 
to legislatures, both state and national, demanding calmness in 
legislation affecting railroads, and the results of its efforts give 
promise of the accomplishment of its object. To make the success 
more far-reaching for the future every one dependent upon rail- 
road activity should join, individually, in raising a voice of pro- 
test to those who make our laws; furthermore, all companies 
manufacturing or dealing in railway supplies should, by all means, 
identify themselves with this as sociation. 

ROUNDHOUSE CONDITIONS. 

An ideally operated roundhouse should have facilities for 
promptly handling the engines and keeping them in a first-class 
state of repair. By so doing, and replacing broken and defec- 
tive parts at once, better service will be obtained and the mileage 
between shoppings will be greatly increased. Railroads are or- 
ganized to sell transportation and any feature which will show 
decided advantages, tending to give better service and bring 
greater financial returns to the stockholders, should receive the 
support of the officers and boards of directors. Are the miser- 
able conditions which exist on some roads due to a lack of fore- 
sight of these men, or is it because the motive power and operat- 
ing officials have failed in impressing them with its importance? 
In some instances it would seem that the motive power and op- 
erating departments have been so busy trying to "knock' each 
other that neither one has had time or energy enough left to 
carefully analyze this subject as it should be. 

While it must be admitted that much is still to be desired in 
designing and equipping roundhouses to better meet the severe 
conditions for which they are intended, especially in the northern 
districts, yet splendid progress has been made in this direction 
during the past eight or ten years. Those who are somewhat 
acquainted, with the newer roundhouses and the results being 
obtained from them must receive a severe shock to find the most 
miserable roundhouse conditions imaginable existing on large 
and important systems. Houses which were inadequate, even for 
the times in which they were built, are being used, sometimes at 
important points. With the newer locomotives it is often neces- 



sary to keep the doors partially or entirely open when the en- 
gines are in the house. Turntables are in many instances still 
operated by hand and are in such poor condition that a large 
part of the roundhouse force is required to operate them during 
the winter. The coaling station, sand and water supply and the 
ash pits are arranged so that engines are frozen up before they 
reach the house, resulting in troubles too numerous to mention. 
Houses are so full of smoke, gas and steam that it is an out- 
rage to ask men to work in them. 

What is the result? Engines are poorly taken care of and are 
rarely ever ready for service, although they are sent out some- 
times to fail miserably on the road ; delayed trains and poor 
service; low mileage between shoppings and increased cost of 
maintenance. Whose fault is it? Is it reasonable to suppose 
that any intelligent board of directors would not take prompt 
action if they knew of these conditions and what it meant finan- 
cially to the railroad? 

LIFE OF SIDE SHEETS. 



The great reduction in the life of firebox sheets on wide fire- 
box locomotives, as compared with those in narrow fireboxes, is 
by no means a new problem, but that does not lessen its great 
importance. Mr. Seley in a paper before the Western Railway 
Club, given on page 20 of this issue, has elaborated a theory for 
explaining this condition, which seems to be very plausible. In 
studying the subject, he starts with the fact that a side sheet in 
a firebox 60 in. wide, having an ogee curve, will last on an aver- 
age of 7^4 years, while in a firebox 80 in. wide, with straight side 
sheets inclined inward from the mud ring on a locomotive operat- 
ing in the same service, with the same feed water, and burning 
approximately the same amount of coal, though at a lower rate 
per square foot of grate area, they will only last three years, and 
incidentally will give considerably more trouble from leakage 
during that period than did the others. It is also known that 
steel will stand a certain number of stresses of any given amount, 
which number is varied in an inverse proportion to the amount of 
the stress. With these conditions as a basis, Mr. Seley presents 
the theory that the failure of the straight side sheets may be due to 
their attaining a higher temperature and thus becoming subject to 
a greater stress, which reduces the number of stresses they are able 
to resist, and that this increase in temperature is caused by the 
formation of a film of steam on the outside of the sheet, which 
prevents the water from coming in actual contact with the sheet 
and keeping it cooler. The reason the firebox with ogee sides is 
not subject to the same condition, he figures, is due to the fact 
that it has an outward inclination and that the circulation in the 
water leg impinges against the sheet, breaking up the film of steam 
and thus keeping it at a lower temperature. Further, the narrower 
water leg in these boilers increases the rate of circulation, and 
hence this impinging action, thus aiding in the same cause. 

The facts in this case are beyond contradiction in most places, 
and certainly in those where the feed water conditions have re- 
mained unchanged since the introduction of the wide firebox 
locomotives. This condition was forcibly illustrated recently by 
the building of some large narrow firebox Pacific type locomo- 
tives for the Chicago & Alton, illustrated on page 309 of the Oc- 
tober 1908, issue of this journal, which had followed a long 
series of experiments with the two different types of fireboxes 

on that road. 

If Mr Seley's theory is correct, and it is the increase n tem- 
perature of the sheet that caused its early failure, it would seem 
that the remedy would be in the shape of some construction 
which would allow the free expansion of the sheet either in the 
form of vertical corrugations or provision at the end of the 
sheet for permitting its expansion. Both of these remedies are 
now being tried, the former quite extensively on one road. The 
matter of the narrower water leg has an objection in the reduc- 
tion of the length of staybolts, but it probably does increase the 
rate of circulation and hence the steam capacity of the boiler. 
The objection to reducing the length of the staybolts could be 
overcome by the use of flexible bolts or some similar provision. 



GOOD TIMES AHEAD FOR THE RAILROADS 



What arc you doing to help bring it about? 



If you arc a manufacturer or dealer in railroad supplies join the Railway Business 
Association* and PUSH. 



Whoever you are, sit down at once and write to your Senators and Congressmen at 
Washington and to your State legislators, asking them for calm and careful consideration of all 
legislation affecting railroads. Urge your friends to do the same. 



"We want to put back on full time the plants whHi manufac- 
ture materials and equipment for railroads." Thus spoke an 
official of the Railway Business Association. "When other busi- 
ness picks up, we want our share. And if concerns which sell 
to railroads do not resume normally, other business cannot and 
will not become normal. The purchasing power of railroads can 
only be restored by strengthening their credit with investors. 
Investors can only be reassured by evidence that the public is 
ready to consider railroad legislation in a calm spirit. We are 
laboring to create and to crystallize public opinion favorable to 
moderation in the restriction of railroads, to acquaint legislators, 
national and state, with the existence of a widespread demand 
from business men for constructive legislation, and then to keep 
investors in touch with what is being done to safeguard their 
interests." 

******* 

That the association is performing this work in an effective 
manner is evident in many ways. Railroad managers are ex- 
pressing their hearty appreciation of the methods employed and 
the results obtained. Resolutions have begun to be adopted by 
important business bodies looking to legislative calmness; letters 
in large numbers are going forward from railroad material, 
equipment and supply manufacturers and other business men to 
legislators, and encouraging replies are coming back; all of which 
cheering news is contained in a letter just sent to members of 
the stock exchanges in the principal cities, asking them to let 
their clients know what is going on in this direction. 

******* 

On December 7 the association issued a "Business Appeal to 
Business Bodies." This document set forth that the railroads 
were not buying material or equipment except in meagre quanti- 
ties, and that manufacturing establishments depending upon the 
railroads have been wholly or partly idle for a year. "Many 
men," this circular pointed out, "are out of work, and the loss 
is extended to those who supply the necessities of life to the 
men affected." After explaining that the cost of constructing 
and of operating railroads had greatly increased, and that gov- 
ernment officials have urged the railroads not to reduce wages, 
it was declared that two things are necessary. "First, modera- 
tion in legislation, for a while, to allow the great transportation 
industry to adjust itself to radically changed conditions due to 
recent enactments; second, an adjustment of rates to permit rail- 
roads to add to the price of service to cover increased cost of 
operation — exactly as do manufacturers and merchants." And 
the appeal concluded by asking the body addressed to adopt a 
resolution along the line indicated. 



The response was immediate. On December 8 the Southern 
Commercial Congress, composed of delegates from 64 business 
organizations in 14 Southern' States, adopted at Washington, 

dress G. M. B.-.sford. Acting Secretary, No. 

24 



D. C, a resolution declaring that (he construction of transporta- 
tion facilities adequate for developing the resources of the South 
"can be accomplished only by assuring the holders of capital that 
such enterprises will be safeguarded by conservative and con- 
structive legislation, and we urge upon our Southern legislators 
the wisdom of such policy and condemn any agitation leading 
to the contrary." This was passed unanimously amid spontane- 
ous applause. 

******* 

The following day, December 9, the New York Board of Trade 
and Transportation unanimously instructed its committee on rail- 
way transportation to issue a resolution declaring it to be of 
"paramount importance to the commercial interests of our coun- 
try that the earning power of our railroads shall not be reduced 
or their credit impaired by legislative acts and decrees of com- 
missions," and deprecating "any action by business bodies, in- 
dividual shippers or federal and state officials which may tend 
to aggravate public prejudice against railroads." The resolu- 
tion also "urges the business men of the country to favor such 
freight rates as will insure the railroads adequate revenues for 
maintaining the equipment and roadbed and handling the traffic." 
******* 

On December 21, the executive committee of the Merchants' 
Association of New York, a body which has several times given 
public expression to similar views, stated in a preamble that the 
purchasing ability of the railroads, especially that relating to 
new construction, is largely contingent upon their ability to make 
such new issues of securities as may properly be needed to cover 
their financial requirements, and the abiilty to do this is directly 
dependent in turn upon public confidence in the stability of the 
conditions which determine the earning power of the railroads." 
The resolution urges legislators and railroad commissioners "to 
encourage the return of railroad business to normal conditions 
by ceasing and discountenancing ill-considered or unjustified 
censure of existing methods of railroad management, and by 
limiting proposed new legislation on these matters to such meas- 
ures as have been so carefully investigated and studied as to de- 
termine clearly not only the necessity for their enactment, but 
also their proper form and scope for the accomplishment of in- 
tended reforms." 

******* 

Copies of these resolutions have been sent to hundreds of 
business organizations all over the country together with a sec- 
ond appeal to them to take similar action. Many such associa- 
tions have notified the Railway Business Association that the 
matter had been referred to the committee charged with such 
matters, and vigorous efforts are being put forth, especially in 
cities where the Railway Business Association has members, to 
secure the adoption of resolutions. 
2 Rector Street, New York City. 



WITH THK RAILROAD CLUBS. 



Canadian Railway .Club (Montreal, Can.).— J. A. Kinkead, 
manager of sales for the Parkersburg Iron Company and for- 
merly engineer of tests for the American Locomotive Company, 
will present a paper on "Springs and Spring Steel" at the meet- 
ing for Tuesday, Febri-.ary 2nd. 

Secretary, James Powell, P. O. Box 7, St. Lambert, near Mon- 
treal. 



Central Railway Club {Buffalo). — The annual meeting and 
banquet will be held at the Hotel Iroquois on Friday, Janu- 
ary 8th. 

Secretary, H. D. Vought, 95 Liberty street, New York City* 



New England Railroad Club (Boston, Mass.). — The next reg- 
ular meeting will be held at the Copley Square Hotel, January 
12th. N. W. Storer, of the engineering department of the West- 
inghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, will read a paper 
on "Single-Phase Railway Systems." Dinner will be served at 
6:30 and the meeting will be called to order at 8 p. m. 

R. D. Smith, assistant superintendent of motive power of the 
Boston & Albany Railroad, in his paper on "Terminal Facilities 
for Handling Locomotives," presented at the Ocotber meeting, 
considered, in more or less detail, the general arrangement of 
engine-house plants, as well as the design and construction of 
engine-houses and their equipment. General plans were shown 
of three new roundhouses on the Boston & Albany, at Beacon 
Park, Mass., West Springfield, Mass., and Rensselaer, N. Y. 
From the very thorough discussion which took place it would 
appear that there is a great need for better locomotive terminal 
facilities and that the railroads must awaken to the realization 
of the fact that the efficiency of the motive power depends largely 
on having proper engine-house facilities. 

Henry B. Fletcher, architect of the Boston & Maine Railroad, 
in his paper on "Railroad Stations," read at the November meet- 
ing, described the various types, from the flag station to the 
large teiminal station, and considered at length the requirements, 
as well as the best arrangements, for each class. , 

Secretary, Geo. H. Frazier, 10 Oliver street, Boston, Mass. 



Nezv York Railroad Club. — At the meeting for Friday even- 
ing, January 15th, J. E. Muhlfeld will read a paper on "The 
Education and Organization of Railway Engineeung Labor." 

The annual reports, presented at the October meeting, showed 
a membership of 1,420, with $14,450.48 in the treasury. 

Secretary, H. D. Vought, 95 Liberty street, New York City. 



Northern Railway Club (Duluth, Minn.). — Next meeting Sat- 
urday evening, January 23rd. Claude Richards, foreman boiler- 
maker, C, St. P., M. & O. Ry., Itasca, Wis., will speak on "Boiler 
Repairs in the Roundhouse from the Standpoint of a Boilermaker." 
N. P. White, roundhouse foreman, N. P. Ry., Duluth, will speak 
on "Engine Repairs in the Roundhouse from the Standpoint of 
a Machinist." 

At the annual meeting held at Superior, Wis., November 28th, 
one hundred and seventy-nine members were present with their 
wives. The annual reports showed that 244 members had been 
added during the year, bringing the total membership to 529. 
There was $588 in the treasury, with considerably more still due. 
The following officers were elected: President, J. W. Kreiter, 
supt., D., M. & N. Ry., Proctor, Minn. ; vice-presidents, J. H. 
Hicken, chief dispatcher, Gt. N. Ry., Superior, Wis., and J. E. 
Goodman, div. supt. motive power, N. P. Ry. : treasurer, S. F. 
McLeod, purchasing agent, D., M. & N. Ry., Duluth: secretary, 
C. L. Kennedy, commercial agent, C. M. & St. P. Ry., Duluth. 
Minn. 



This meeting was the third anniversary of the club. Dinner 
was served at 8 :30. The business meeting followed, after which 
there was a short musical program, the rest of the evening being 
given over to dancing. 

Secretary, C. L. Kennedy, 401 West Superior street, Duluth, 
Minn. 



Railway Club of Pittsburgh. — At the meeting for Friday even- 
ing, January 22nd, Win. Elmer, Jr., master mechanic of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad, will read a paper on "Some Engine- 
House Auxiliaries." 

At the December meeting Col. B. W. Dunn, chief inspector of 
the Bureau of Explosives of the American Railway Association, 
gave an illustrated talk on the proper way to handle explosives 
and other dangerous articles in shipment. 

Secretary, C. W. Alleman, General Offices, P. & L. E. R. R., 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 



Richmond Railroad Club. — Next meeting, Monday evening, 
January nth. 

At the annual meeting in November the following officers were 
elected : President, H. M. Boykin, division freight agent, Sea- 
board Air Line Ry. ; first vice-president, E. H. Lea, agent, South- 
ern Railway ; second vice-president, A. H. Moncure, master car 
builder, R. F. & P. R. R. ; third vice-president, \V. H. Owens, 
master mechanic, Southern Railway; secretary and treasurer, 
F. O. Robinson, C. & O. Ry. The club has 236 members and a 
balance of about $1,650 in the treasury. 

Secretary, F. O. Robinson, 8th and Main streets, Richmond, Ya. 



St. Louis Rail-way Club. — At the next meeting, January 15th, 
E. F. Kearney, supt. transportation, Missouri Pacific System, will 
address the club on "Ethics of Railroading." 

Judging from the souvenir program of the Christmas Smoker, 
held December nth, the members had a pretty lively time. Over 
five hundred were present. 

Secretary, B. W. Frauenthal, Union Station, St. Louis, Mo. 



Western Railway Club (Chicago). — At the next meeting, Tues- 
day, January 19th, Eugene McAuliffe, general furl agent of the 
Rock Island Lines, and president of The International Railway 
Fuel Association, will address the club on "The Purchase and 
Handling of Railroad Fuel." 

J. J. Hennessey, in his paper on "The Abuse of the M C. B. 
Repair Card," at the December meeting, directed attention to the 
annoyance and expense caused by the non-application of repair 
cards. A portion of his paper appears on another page of this 
issue. C. A. Seley presented a paper on "Life of Side Sheets of 
A'ide Fireboxes," suggesting a theory to accouni for the long 
life of the side sheets of the narrow firebox. This paper will 
also be found in this issue. 

Secretary, Jos. W. Taylor, 390 Old Colony Building, Chicago, 
Illinois. 



Value of Railroad Clubs. — Membership in such clubs as this, 
and kindred associations, is also a most fruitful method of ob- 
taining information as to the progress of the profession not only 
from participation in the formal proceedings but in the chance 
to meet his colleagues, discuss his difficulties and take advantage 
of their ideas and impart his to them. The human mind is so 
constituted that often what may be a serious stumbling block 
for one individual will be readily solved by another of equal or 
even of inferior capacity. — W. J. Harahan, before the New York 
Railroad Club. 



25 






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BALANCED COMPOUND PACIFIC TYPE LOCOMOTIVE. 

Western Railway of France. 



The Western Railway of France has recently completed in its 
own shops two very large and powerful Pacific type passenger 
locomotives, which slightly exceed in total weight those recently 
put into service on the Paris-Orleans Railway (See American 
Engineer, Sept., 1908, p. 339), and are believed to be the heaviest 
passenger locomotives in that country. They are of the four- 
cylinder balanced compound type, the cylinders being arranged, 
relative to each other, the same as on the Cole compounds in this 
country, i.e., the high pressure cylinders are between the frames 
and located some distance ahead of the low pressure cylinders, 
which occupy the same position relative to the engine truck and 
stack as do the cylinders of the simple locomotive. The high 
pressure cylinders drive on the first driving axle, which is 
cranked, and the low pressure connect to the second pair of 
drivers. This arrangement of cylinders is different from what has 
heretofore been used in France on four-cylinder compounds and 
was caused by the large diameter of the low pressure cylinders 
making it impossible to conveniently locate them between the 
frames. Since they must be placed outside it is preferable to 
have as direct passage as possible to the exhaust nozzle which 
locates them over the center of the front truck. This location 
also improves the distribution of weight. The high pressure 
cylinders are then set sufficiently far ahead of the front drivers 
to give a satisfactory length of main rod. 

The arrangement of the valve gear is very unusual, being so 
constructed that both sets of gears on each side are operated en- 
tirely from a return crank on the second pair of drivers. The 
eccentric rod from the usual return crank pin drives the outside 
link in the ordinary manner, and the inside link through a rocker 
extending over the guides and frame, as is shown in the illus- 
tration. The combination levers are not connected to the cross 
heads as is usual, but are driven by an extension on the return 
crank, which carries a pin 180 degrees from the main crank pin, 
from which a rod extends to a rocker located between the first 
and second pair of drivers. From this, inside and outside, there 
are rods connecting to the ends of the combination levers. The 
outside gear is arranged with the combination lever extending 
downward in the usual manner and the inside gear has it ex- 
tending upward. The reversing mechanism is separate for each 
of the two sets of gears, having two reach rods and two sets of 
power reversing gear, both located on the left side. This ar- 
rangement gives a valve gear that is practically all on the outside 
of the locomotive, and allows the elimination of eccentrics on 
the cranked axle, the latter being the controlling reason for ar- 
ranging it in this manner. Eccentrics on a cranked axle must 01 
necessity be very narrow and compel the use of a narrower driv- 
ing journal than would otherwise be desirable. With this ar- 
rangement the journals can extend practically to the face of the 
cranks, giving a liberal bearing, and the crank pin can also be al- 



lowed a wider surface. The inside and outside cranks on the 
same side are set 180° apart. 

The guides, as well as all of the valve gear mechanism in the 
vicinity of the cylinders, are supported by a single large steel 
casting which extends over and between the frames just ahead of 
the forward driving wheel. The guides are of the single bar type, 
the inner pair being supported directly between this steel casting 
and the H. P. cylinder heads. The position of the outside guides 
is such, however, that the supporting casting comes opposite their 
center, and they are supported at either end by another steel cast- 
ing, which shows in the illustration, being connected to the back 
cylinder head and the guide yoke or casting and extending far 
enough to the rear to carry the reversing link. 

The frames are of the plate type and are securely braced ana 
stiffened by vertical stiffeners between each set of drivers as 
well as a very substantial cross bracing for both the horizontal 
and vertical direction, just in front of the fire box. The cast steel 
guide yoke just mentioned also acts as a valuable frame brace 
and stiffener and in connection with the H. P. cylinder castings 
and the saddle gives a very rigid and strong construction at the 
front end. The driving springs are overhung, being located just 
inside the frames and above each journal box. The system of 
equalization on each side includes the trailing truck, giving a 
three point suspension for the whole locomotive. 

The coupling between the locomotive and tender has been given 
careful attention, because of its distance back of the rigid wheel 
bas"e of the locomotive, which gives it a large lateral movement. 
This movement has been cut down as much as possible by bring- 
ing the buffer forward underneath the cab for a considerable 
distance and provision has been made for the lateral displace- 
ment of the tender underframe by using a front tender truck 
fitted with swing links. 

The boiler is of the Belpaire type, telescopic in the arrange- 
ment of the barrel sheets, being about 63J4 in. in diameter at 
the front end. Its center is raised sufficiently high to give a deep 
throat without an excessive slope to the grate. The fire box ex- 
tends over the frames, giving a grate 5.9 ft. wide and 7.32 ft. 
long. The back head is sloped from the mud ring to the level of 
the crown sheet, above which point it is vertical, being stayed by 
rods which extend forward and connect to the barrel with two 
exceptions, which are continued forward to the front tube sheet. 
The tubes, 19 ft. 8 in. long, are of a smooth type, Serve tubes not 
being used because of the extreme length. The dome is located 
on the center of the three barrel sheets and contains a balanced 
throttle valve, taking steam from the top only. The heating sur- 
face, grate area, etc., are given in the table of dimensions. The 
front end, which it will be observed is extremely long, contains 
a re-heating drum or receiver, into which the steam from the 
high pressure cylinders is exhausted and from which the supply 
to the low pressure cylinders is taken. This drum is not very- 
large and is secured in a longitudinal position at the top of the 
front end ahead of the stack. The pipes leading to and from it, 
however, give considerable heating surface and the result, no 



January, 1909. AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 2* 

doubt, will be at least perfectly dry steam for the L. P. supply. RESULTS OF OPERATION OF THE ELECTRIFIED SEC- 

The design of the trailing truck, which has inside journals, is TION, N. Y. N. H. & H. R. P. 

interesting. It ; s of the radial type, both journal boxes forming 

part of a single casting that is continuous over the axle and vir c Miirrav 

includes the radius bar. The weight is transferred from each 
journal box through two swinging links to a casting which 

forms the guide for the boxes and is itself in turn guided by the ' '" dut > assigned to the engineers of the New York, Xew 

jaws of the pedestal, thus having motion only in the vertical di- ""' " 8 Hartford R ' to provide for the electrical op 

rection. The semi-elliptical springs are carried from' the bottom tion of their trai b id of April I, 1905, when 

of this casting, being connected to the equalizers at one end and wv settled down '" ,his responsible task, the data in the field, 

the frame at the other. u P on which to base real conclusions, were about 5 per cent, in 

As can be seen, a speed recording apparatus is applied, being comparison with thi e: pi rience now available. To those who 

driven by a gear from the back driving axle. The indicating ma - v '"' ""' '''"'' '" '">' '""elusion in regard to the electrification, 

pointer is located in the front wall of the left side of the cab ' ' l! ,[ ' ' was in favor of the use of thc present 

or directly in front of the engineer, who sits on the left-hand s y stom tliree - vcars a 8°> tllat tlow > standing on the more stable 

side. All of the controlling gear of the locomotive is arranged « r0l,nd of experience, particularly ir regard to the department 

in front of the driver, thc reversing gear being controlled by a ot faults, 1 am doubly in favor of it. 

hand wheel arranged like the steering gear of a motor car, 1. <•. . In the conception of the form of power house, line, and loco- 
vertical instead of horizontal, and operates either or both sets of motive to be used on thc Xew Haven system, thi ntly 
valve gear, as desired; the throttle lever projects down along- interested in its success believed lhat while the chain of power 
side of the fire box, within convenient reach of the right hand ; generation, and its transmission and utilization for traction, was 
the simpling valve, brake valve, sanding apparatus, blow-oft of a new character, its links, however, were made up of prin- 
cocks (operated by compressed air), etc., are located at conven- ciples long recognized and reliable. They were right in this con- 
ient points in the same vicinity. The appliances operated by the elusion, except that it did not include certain phenomena which 
fireman are placed on the right hand side. could not have been anticipatd, due to the combination of these 

The ash pan is divided into three parts by longitudinal partitions old principles in the form of this new chain. For example, 

and is fitted with one inner and two outer doors, which insure a there was nothing particularly disturbing about an 11,000-volt 25- 

proper distribution of air underneath the grate. cycle, three-phase power house from which was to be taken most 

The facts concerning this locomotive have been drawn very of the power from one of the phases generated; or of a 300- ft., 

largely from a very complete descriptive article in the Revue 11,000-volt, single-phase transmission line, from the terminals of 

Generate des Chemins de Fer. which the same voltage was to be distributed, east and west, 

Same of the more important general dimensions and ratios are along the right-of-way of a railroad; or of a locomotive with a 

given in the following table: transformer installed upon it to take 11,000 volts and step it 

general data. , ,, .,. , down to 6oo volts to supply 300- volt single-phase railway motors. 

Gauge 4 ft. SJ^ in. rr j ** a f 

Service Passenger Power houses of this character have been designed the world 

Tractive' effort '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'...'..'.'.'.'.'........'.................. .27,874 lbs. over ' except perhaps that single-phase current in the amount to 

Weight in working order 200,000 lbs. be utilized had not been used elsewhere. Transmission lines ot 

Weight on drivers 118,020 lbs. , , , , , • . , 

Weight on leading truck 49.3S0 lbs. 60,000 volts had been in constant use. And except that there 

w^i^ t &^^v;;;;:/;:;;;:;:;;//:;//////.""'.'.'.".v.i?'ft D i l ta: was a movin s contact in connection with the current that was 

Wheel base, total 34 ft. 6 in. to go to the step-down transformers on the locomotives, trans- 
Weight on drivers -4- tractive effort""? 5 ' 4.25 formers of many times the capacity and voltage were in universal 

Total weight -=- tractive effort 7.18 use. The single-phase motor indeed, may be said to have been new 

Tractive effort X diam. drivers -r- heating surface 700.00 , , , . , 

Total heating surface -f- grate area 70.00 so tar as the size required tor the .New Haven service is con- 

Weigh', o h n a driv B ersl a totS he^^"— "" """ ■■'■■■' '■■'■■ ■'■^ ^"^ ^ ^ F**. UP0 " T"®" U " ltS dem0 » 5t rated beyond 

Total weight -h total heating surface 66.00 peradventure its tractive qualities and showed its characteristic 

Volume ecuiv. simple cyls., cu. ft 10.00 , , t - . M , . . 

Total neating surface -j- vol. cylinders 302.95 curves to be closely similar to those of its prototype, the direct- 
Grate area -f- vol. cylinders , 4.32 current motor. 

Kind ""I?™! - Bal. comp. This reasoning, in close consideration of each class of appar- 

Kind^fvaWes 5 '™^ "^ and 86 * .^Piston atus ' per sc ' P roved itself correct, and such irregularities as have 

wheels. ' existed in the initial electric service, which the New Haven road 

?Sn;Vucl m wneeiniarn r e e . S e'r \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\Z\\\\\\\^ "in! offered *° the public have been due to the ramification of a series 

Trailing truck wheels, diameter siy, in- of faults that have developed entirely outside the zone of prev- 

Style ..' Belpaire i°us experience. The delays (and public criticisms of them) 

o^sid^Se^r'n;sV;,n g :::::::::::::::;::::::::::::;:;::;;; 2 ^^: have folIowed «<* into this late day, when the electric service 

Firebox, length and width 87.84 x 70.8 in. is far better than the steam service it has replaced. It has oc- 

Tubes, number and outside diameter 283 — 2.16 in. , . ., . . . . , , ,. . 

Tubes, length 19.6 ft curred to me that certain engineers, who are unbelievers in the 

HeatlnS s'urtce! firebox " \ \ [ \ \ \ ! \ \ [ \ \ \ \ \ V. \ \ \ \ \ \ \ ] \ \ \ \ ] \ \ \ ] ! 1495 sq! ft sin § le -P ha se system, may interpret this paper as an apology. To 

Heating surface, total 3029.5 sq. ft. them I would say, as I do to the public, it is an apology for hav- 

Cente/oT boiler above'rail'. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. ! '. '. '. '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. '. '. ! '. '. '. '.'.'.'.'.'.'.. .114.1 in. in § delayed any of their appointments. To others, it is needless 

tender. to add that the citation of these troubles is given in the hope that 

Wate/'caracity''.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.^^ they will, as they easily can, avoid them in the future. 

Coal capacity '. . .9 tons „ 

Power House. 

The Employment of Men. — One of the most important duties The electric power supply for the Xew Haven road is derived 

of an officer entrusted with it is the employment of men, and it from four n,ooo-volt steam turbine generators, three of which 

is one which he should weigh well, and, should seriously appre- have an electric capacity of 3750 kilovolt-amperes single phase; 

ciate the gravity of. In hiring the inferior grade of employees the fourth unit consisting of a 6000 kilovolt-ampere, three-phase 

he should reflect that he is hiring the future section or shop fore- generator which can also supply single-phase current to the sys- 

man, the future dispatcher, the future engineer, the future con- tern. Although the generators as originally designed were made 

ductor, and if the true principle is carried out the future officer exceptionally strong, and particular attention paid to their insula- 

of whatever grade: it therefore requires rare discrimination tc tion due to the necessity of grounding one phase it was found 

do that which is the proper thing.— JJ\ /. Harahan, before the that the utilization of so much singie-phase current from a three- 

Neiv York Railroad Club. phase star-wound generator produced a stray magnetic field com- 

* From a paper presented before the Amer. Insti . oi Electrical Engineers. 



28 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



pletely out of the path of normal lamination. As a result is was 
impossible to develop for continued operation more than 66 per 
cent of the normal rating of the generators. Overloads of any 
character produced abnormally rapid heating, making such oper- 
ation dangerous, although the generators were guaranteed to 
carry 50 per cent overload for two hours, and 100 per cent over- 
load for two minutes in order to meet the sudden drafts of 
currents required for a schedule such as exists on the New 
Haven road. Indeed, at the very start the actual drafts of 
current showed that the generators must meet imperatively the 
guarantees as to normal and overload capacities if the electrifica- 
tion was to be successful. 

I trust it is not to be my pleasure to meet the prophet, who 
says, "This could have been anticipated." Suffice it to say that 
after three unsuccessful attempts at complete correction, each, 
however, affording some constructive results — months being ab- 
sorbed in the dismantling and readjusting of the parts of these 
generators — the final attempt was successful and the generators 
are to-day operating in the power house, fulfilling the guarantees 
mentioned previously. But this last mentioned fact is insignifi- 
cant when compared with the valuable information that has been 
derived, which will permit all other generators to be manufac- 
tured without the fault described. 

Line Insulation. 
The years of experience which we have had in the study of in- 
sulating various voltages led to what was considered a very 
conservative insulation in the various parts of the line. Messen- 
ger cables had to be insulated from the intermediate trusses and 
at their anchor-bridge termini. The trolley copper conductor 
was suspended from the messengers and had to be insulated at 
points where it entered the oil switches on the anchor bridges. 
Trolley wires had to be insulated from each other at section 
breaks. On curves both messengers and trolley wires had to be 
strained over the center of the tracks through the agency of pull- 
off posts at the side of the tracks, the pull-off wire being insu- 
lated between tracks and the pull-off column itself. Feeder wires 
had to be insulated from their supporting cross-arms and at 
points where they pass under highway bridges. None of these 
problems in insulation had the appearance of an especial charac- 
ter and indeed, did the roadbed provide traffic only for electric 
trains the problem would have been simplicity itself. A press- 
ure of 11,000 volts being the prevailing dielectric strain, the 
problem was to provide sufficient insulation at all the points men- 
tioned above. 

Of the effect of steam locomotive discharges upon insulators, 
there was no initiative by which to be guided, and it became 
necessary to decide upon the facors of insulation that would 
be required. It was thought that ample provision had been 
made ; it proved otherwise. Experience has proved that, in 
places, just double the amount is required. It was quickly noted 
that the greatest number of insulator failures occurred wherever 
the insulation was subject to the d ; rect blast of the steam loco- 
motive. To correct the difficulty, therefore, it was found neces- 
sary to double up on anchor insulators. The intermediate mes- 
senger insulators proved adequate and it was not found necessary 
to increase the impregnated stick insulation between trolley wires 
at curves, but wood stick insulators had to be added in series with 
the moulded material insulator between the pull-off wire and 
pull-off post. The original insulators on the anchor-bridge 
switches were made of moulded material and for them wis 
substituted porcelain. It was not necessary to change the feeder 
insulators on the catenary bridge struts. While very little trouble 
has been experienced with the form of insulation used for sup- 
porting the feeders under highway bridges it is anticipated that 
trouble will follow if this is not changed. The present form 
consists of the corrugated spool-type insulator, for which there 
will be substituted a regular porcelain double-petticoat insulator. 
To-day instead of line failures being the rule they have become 
the exception. 

Circuit Breakers. 
The momentary energy involved in a short-circuit produced 
upon a line fed by high power high speed turbines is very great. 



Under the subtitle "Power house"' it has been stated that the 
generators were operating under their guaranteed capacities. 
Internal heating, due to stray magnetic field, was the cause of 
the generators failing to meet their designed capacity. This 
heating was completely cured by th: simple addition of a short 
circuited winding surrounding the rotating member of the gen- 
erator, similar to that used in the well-known squirrel cage type 
of induction-motor rotors. It is interesting to note here, how- 
ever, that while the heating is entirely eliminated by this short 
circuited winding, its effect on the occasion of a short circuit 
is to allow more current to flow. This tendency, however, is con- 
trolled by a method later to be described. In the New Haven 
system, as the current from the power house was fed directly 
to the line and from there to the locomotives without transfor- 
mation of voltage by transformer.?, the inductive element to> 
counteract the surging current was practically negligible ; un- 
der these conditions there resulted short circuits which no circuit 
breaker apparatus then designed could be relied upon to take 
care of. 

The failure of circuit brakers, either in the power house or orr 
the line, naturally produced train delays of large or small mag- 
nitude. It was difficult to believe that these large circuit- 
breakers were incapable of taking care of the short circuits, and 
some time was wasted in thinking this way. Therefore, we re- 
luctantly but surely arrived at the conclusion that the conditions 
would have to be changed. 

1 he remedy was simple. Instead of feeding the main line 
with a direct transmission straight from the power house bus- 
bars to the trolleys directly opposite the power house, the current 
was fed into the line over feeders connected to it at Port Chester 
and Stamford. By the introduction of this ohmic resistance, 
amounting to not more than 2 per cent normal drop on the sys- 
tem, we were immediately released from the disastrous effect of 
short circuits on our circuit breaker apparatus. Instead of los- 
ing as many as half a dozen circuit breakers in a day, not that 
many were reported out of commission for a month, and, of 
course, they were not damaged to the extent of the others nor 
did they cause any serious delays. 

For the feeder resistance, above described, there has since 
been substituted impedance coils installed in the leads of the 
generators. These coils act as shock absorbers, protecting the 
generators. Later, it is to be expected that there will be in- 
stalled a circuit breaker across the terminals of these impedance 
coils, which, for normal operation, will shunt the current through 
them, the breakers opening under stress of abnormal flow of 
current and automatically closing when normal conditions are re- 
stored. 

Trolley Wi^e. 

In the month of May, 1908, it became evident to us that within 
at least one month from that date, if some change were not ef- 
fected in the contact wire, that the New Haven electric service 
would cease. While this truth was so plain, it may be best de- 
scribed by the fact that daily reports were showing that the cop- 
per trolley wire was breaking at various points; and where it 
was not broken it had become so badly kinked at the hanger 
points that it was impossible to operate electric locomotives upon 
the line without serious arcing. This resulted in violent surging 
on the locomotive transformers, and, at times, on account of the 
extremely poor contact of overhead shoes on the line, in reducing 
the voltage to such a low value as to prevent a sufficient supply 
of power to enable the locomotive 10 perform its schedule. An 
examination of the hard-drawn copper trolley wire through- 
out its length proved that even after only a few months' opera- 
tion upon it, its cross-section had been so materially reduced as 
to point to its short life with a continuance of operation upon it. 
Especially was this true in the vicinity of the many low highway 
bridges where the trolley wire approaches the bridge on a two 
per cent gradient. This fault and dilemma were indeed serious. 
The cause of the difficulty was perfectly apparent ; namely, the 
hard spots in the line which existed at the hanger points. 

Many suggestions were offered. None of them, however, of- 
fered the speedy installation that was paramount. Mr. Mc- 
Henry, vice-president of the New York, New Haven & Hart- 



January, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



29 



ford Railroad Company, made the suggestion that an auxiliary 
wire be suspended from the present copper wire by clips at its 
midpoint between the hangers, and followed up the suggestion 
that this auxiliary wire be made of steel, of the same cross sec- 
tion as the oooo grooved hard drawn copper above it. It took 
two weeks for the manufacturer to draw two miles of this wire. 
It was installed immediately upon its receipt on the main line be- 
tween Port Chester and Harrison. On the night of its completed 
erection a special seven-car train with two locomotives was op- 
erated upon it for several hours. Previously to the installation 
of the steel wire there had been installed a section of hard al- 
loyed wire suspended in a manner similar to that of the steel. 
The electric train was operated upon them both, officials from 
both the railroad company and the contracting company being on 
hand to note their comparative merits. 

It was the general consensus of opinion that there was less 
sparking on the hard wire, and the general tendency was to- 
wards adopting that rather than the steel. Though admitting 
that the operation was better, the steel seemed to be of an entire- 
ly satisfactory commercial nature, and all present finally con- 
curred in this conclusion. It is undeniably true that hard al- 
loyed wire would, from a purely operative point of view, be the 
better of the two, and yet the commercial aspect, which would 
naturally include its cost, had to be considered, particularly in 
reference to so large an immediate order as one involving ioo 
miles of single-phase electric trackage. Again it is important to 
note that the steel, besides having the advantage of being a 
cheaper, harder, and stiffer wire, aiso possesses a lower coeffic- 
ient of expansion and higher elastic limit, especially valuable 
characteristics for the service desired. 

The auxiliary wire construction on the main line, as described, 
prevails throughout the whole system, except at the approaches 
of and under a few very low highway bridges, where the contact 
system consists of two wires strung in the same horizontal plane. 
The New Haven trains have been operating now on the auxiliary 
wire for several months, and absolutely no kinking has been 
noted at the hanger points, with the attendant result of a smooth 
and almost sparkless overhead contact. 

Locomotives* 

There were originally purchased 35 locomotives, which was 
considered an adequate number to take care of the passenger 
service. These locomotives, considered per se, were rated on a 
half-unit basis. That is to say, the half unit was designed to 
handle about 75 per cent of our trains, the remaining 25 per cent 
to be handled by two units. Only a short experience in commer- 
cial operation revealed two important facts. The first one of a 
very encouraging nature, the second, decidedly otherwise. The 
first was the proof that the two main parts of the locomotive; 
namely, the transformer and motors, had sufficient capacity to 
more than handle the manufacturer's guarantees. The second 
was the discovery that many of the auxiliary electrical and me- 
chanical parts of the locomotive equipment were not of equiva- 
lent capacity. The strength of the chain being measured always 
by its weakest link, it was immediately seen that the locomo- 
tives would be able to handle trailing loads in excess of their 
guarantees if the auxiliary parts were made of sufficient capacity 
to furnish the necessary current for the overload conditions. It 
was simultaneously apparent that more locomotives would be 
required to provide for an increase of train service and the re- 
duction of time schedule, and an order was promptly placed for 
six additional ones. Before acceoting their design, however, a 
careful survey was made of all the component parts of the loco- 
motives at hand, in order to determine the changes necessary to 
be incorporated in the six new engines. To accomplish this it 
was found necessary to make a number of electrical and mechan- 
ical changes. 

The most important electrical changes made were in the switch 
groups and brush holders of the motors. The former lacked 
carrying capacity and the latter sufficient insulation. To these 
shortcomings were due the greatest number of our first train 



delays. The mi ant mechanical changes necessary were 

the reinforcement of the truck bolsters and installation of pony 
wheels. The especial reference to these electrical and mechani- 
cal changes must not be construed as diminishing in any way 
the force of necessity of the others, as they were all considered 
absolutely necessary in order to preserve a low cost of electrical 
and mechanical maintenance. 

With the exception of the installation of pony trucks,! the six 
new electric locomotives arrived within five months of the date 
of their order. To be noted here is the marked value of the 
spring type of armature and field suspension begun with the New 
Haven locomotive motors, thus making flexible the entire motor 
suspension. Indications already predict that this arrangement in 
combination with the pony trucks will reduce materially the 
track and locomotive maintenance and repairs. Today the re- 
construction has been effected on over 90 per cent of our locomo- 
tives. This last and serious fault with which we had to contend 
completes the major difficulties that were constantly threatening 
the regularity of electric service. 

It seems to be the time and place, here, to draw attention to a 
point in design concerning the Ne.v Haven locomotives that has 
been so persistently misrepresented by those who seem to have 
been ignorant of the facts. The specifications upon which the 
locomotive units were purchased, as stated hereafter, were that 
each unit would handle a normal trailing load of 200 tons. The 
writer, by careful measurement of the weights of all the trains 
(trailing loads) in the New Haven service, found that they aver- 
aged 212 tons. It seemed good engineering that if 75 per cent 
of the service could be handled '->y locomotives rated upon a 
basis of 200 tons trailing load, that that would be the correct 
locomotive unit size; using two units for the remaining 25 per 
cent of the trains. Today, three years after this decision, we 
find that 72 per cent of our trains can be handled with single 
units, 27 per cent requiring two un ; ts. The percentage is slightly 
different from the original, as the service is slightly heavier. 

Locomotive Current Collectors. 
An efficient pantagraph shoe has proved itself a very difficult 
problem. The present cost is about .06 of a cent a locomotive- 
mile. We have made various experiments with aluminum, phono, 
copper, and steel rigid and spring-supported pantagraph shoes. 
While this feature does not present a serious aspect, it is none 
the less a most interesting study. Shoe life is also seriously af- 
fected by the amount of soot deposited by the locomotives upon 
the overhead wire. While we have obtained mileages varying be- 
tween 600 and 1500 miles per shoe with various types used, other 
roads of lesser speed and not subject to the effect of locomotive 
stack discharges, have obtained as high as 25,000 shoe-miles. 



The Poor Roundhouse Foreman. — I doubt if there is any 
more abused individual than the engine-house foreman. It seems 
to be his lot to receive complaints, knocks when they get worse 
than complaints, from his superiors, from the engineers and fire- 
men and from everybody anywhere nearly connected with the 
movement of trains or power. If there is a delay the engine- 
house foreman is held responsible, whether he is responsible or 
not. Sometimes it is practically impossible to get the power into 
the house. That makes no difference, the engine-house foreman 
gets it just the same. The master mechanic relieves himself of 
the responsibility largely by throwing it on to the engine-house 
foreman. The engineer, in the case of any delay occasioned by 
repairs or getting engines out of the house, will throw it on to 
the engine-house foreman. I said some months ago when this 
question came up that I believed that the most important indi- 
vidual on a road was this same engine-house foreman, and I 
have to further add to that, that he is the most abused. — IF. B. 
Leach before the New England Railroad Club. 



• See American EnciMriK, Oct., 1907, page 397. 
t See American Encinllr. Dec. 1908, page 4S9. 



Engine Failures and Roundhouse Service. — It is the place 
to stop engine failures on the road, and good roundhouse service 
will be quickly reflected in better train movements and in re- 
ducing overtime on the road. — R. D. Smith before the New Eng- 
land Railroad Club. 



30 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 




RADIUS GRINDER FOR VALVE GEAR LINKS. 



LINK GRINDERS. 



The advent of the Walschaert valve 
gear has made it necessary to devise a 
machine for grinding and truing up the 
links, the devices ordinarily used for the 
Stephenson links not being suitable. A 
simple and substantial machine, especial- 
ly adapted for this purpose, as well as 
for any radius grinding, and which may 
be readily converted into a surface 
grinder, is shown in the illustrations. To 
give some idea of the efficiency of this 
machine, a worn Stephenson link with 
a slot 18 in. long and 2J4 in. wide, was 
trued up in 35 minutes actual grinding 
time, exclusive of the time required to 
place the link on the table find adjust 
the machine. After the link was trued, 
1/32 in. was ground off one side of the 
slot in 45 minutes. 

The machine has two tables, the lower 
one being driven by a gear and rack and 
having an automatic reverse motion ac- 
tuated by the same method as used on 
an ordinary planer. The length of the 
travel is adjustable, the dogs, which con- 
trol the shifting mechanism, being clear- 
ly shown in the illustrations. The upper 
or floating table receives its motion from 
the lower table by means of a pivot 
block, which fits in a slot on the upper 
table; the radius described by this 
table is governed by the position of 




RADIUS GRINDER SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR GRINDING THE LINKS OF 
THE WALSCHAERT VALVE GEAR. 



January, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



31 





LINK GRINDER FOR STEPHENSON LINKS. 

the swivel bracket on the radius bar. This radius bar is ordi- 
narily furnished about 7 feet long, although it may be made 
longer if desired. The radius bar has graduations every 3 in., 
and by using a scale in connection with this, it is possible to 
quickly and accurately adjust it for any radius. 

The work is placed on parallel strips and is clamped to the 
table, as shown in one of the sketches. If a large number of the 
links to be ground are of a standard design the setting of the 
work may be greatly facilitated by providing a special chuck for 
these. Link blocks may also be easily clamped to the table and 
ground. 

Vertical and horizontal motions to the grinding wheel are ob- 
tained by means of the two hand wheels. The machine may be 
converted into a surface grinder by removing the radius bar and 
inserting an additional pin, thus fastening the two tables to- 




METHOD OF CLAMPING WALSCHAERT LINKS ON TABLE OF GRINDER. 

gether. The upper table is 36 in. long, exclusive of the end 
pockets, 14 in. wide and has two "T" slots for ¥$ in. bolts. The 
floor space required, exclusive of the radius bar, is 4 ft. 4 in. by 
3 ft. 6 in. The machine weighs 2,200 lbs. and is manufactured by 
H. G. Hammett, Troy, N. Y. 

For a number of years Mr. Hammett has also manufactured 
a link grinder, which is especially adapted for grinding Stephen- 
son links. As shown in one of the illustrations, it consists of a 



wall bracket at the end of wheh is a long vertical bar upon which 
the carriage, carrying the pivot upon which the radius bar swings, 
may be adjusted. The grinding wheel frame is placed on a bench. 
The link is hung on the two hooks, as shown. To make sure 
thai the bolts which these hooks engage are centrally located in 
the holes, taper washers are used and these are bored 1/32 in. 
off center, making it possible to adjust for uneven wear in the 
link, or warping due to case-hardening. The operator swings the 
link back and forth and by means of the small lever, underneath 
the pulley on the grinder shaft, works the grinding wheel side- 
wise, thus grinding the link evenly. The radius bar is adjusted 
by means of the large hand wheel, and a slight adjustment may 
also be obtained by the sleeve just above the hooks which en- 
gage the link. Arrangement is also made for taking up the 
wear of the wheel without affecting the radius of the work. The 
link blocks may also be ground on this machine. 



METAL GRAIN DOOR. 



The railroads are under a heavy expense in maintaining grain 
doors on box cars. The temporary wooden doors, in general 
use, are often broken while being removed, or are not replaced on 
the car after it is unloaded, or are lost in transmission. The ship- 
pers often use heavy spikes for holding the doors in place, and 
it is not unusual for the door posts to be injured in prying the 
doors off at the elevators. More or less time, often as much as 
thirty minutes, is required in loosening and raising the grain 
doors at the elevators. Knot holes in the wood and opening of 
seams in the door under a heavy load are responsible for the 
loss of considerable grain, especially while the cars are being 
switched. 

The logical solution would seem to be to have a substantial 
door, preferably of steel, which wculd be a permanent fixture 




and be controlled by some mechanism by which it would be possi- 
ble to easily and quickly raise the door. 

The grain door, shown in the illustration, was devised by J. B. 
O'Neil and M. Voorhees, general foreman of the G, R. I. & P. 
Ry. at Peoria, 111. It consists of two parts, the lower or smaller 
part being made of s/16 in. boiler plate and the upper part of 3/16 
in. steel reinforced on the inside by two 1*4 in - «mgle irons. The 
small door is controlled by a 2 in. shaft, to which it is securely 
attached, and which is operated through a worm and worm-wheel 
by an 18 in. bar or crank on the outside of the car. The lower 
door is first raised about 10 in., allowing the grain to start run- 
ning and cave away from the top part of the door, after which 
both doors are raised and turned back flush with the door post, 
where they are practically locked in position. 

In tests recently made at the Central City elevator in Peoria 
the door of a car was raised and the unloaders were in the car 
in four minutes. 



Roundhouse Facilities.— A good roundhouse foreman and 
a good yard master can go a long way towards running a rail- 
road, but neither of them can do very much unless he has men 
and facilities to work with. — /. A. Droege before the New Eng- 
land Railroad Club. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 




BAKER-PILLIOD 
LOCOMOTIVE VALVE GEAR 




Card 1 



During the past four or five years more attention has been 
given to the proper movement of the valves of the locomotive 
for obtaining a greater economy, both of steam and maintenance, 
ease of action of the locomotive as a whole and simplicity of 
construction than was the case during its entire previous history. 
In this time a number of valve gears, which offered improve- 
ments in one way or another over the previously standard Ste- 
phenson gear, have been intro- 
duced and are being given ex- 
tended practical trials on a large 
scale. Among these, of course, 
the Walschaert valve gear has 
passed beyond the experimental 
Mr.ge and is now the most popular 
gear for heavy power. Other valve 
gears, notably the Young and the 
Alfree-Hubbell, are being used to 
some extent very successfully. The 
latest development in this field is 
a new gear which, during the past 
year, has been applied to a num- 
ber of locomotives with results 
that seem to indicate it will fulfil 
all the claims of its inventors. 
This gear is called the Baker-Pil- 
liod and is shown in the accom- 
panying illustrations. It is be- 
ing applied on various railways 
throughout the country, notably 
on the Chicago & Alton, where, 

after a careful trial, it has been specified for use on twenty con- 
solidation, five Pacific type and five six-wheel switching loco- 
motives now being built by the American Locomotive Company. 

The mechanical construction of the gear consists of a return 
crank, from the main crank pin, similar to a Walschaert gear, but 
having considerably less throw. From this the eccentric rod trans- 
fers the motion to the point A, where a link is connected from 
a bell crank having unequal arms, which is operated from the 
cross head. This combination of motions gives the point A 
a circular or elliptical path, depending on the ratio of the arms 
of the combination lever bell crank. From A the continuation 
of the eccentric rod is carried to the point C, which is supported 
by a link swuns around the point D, which in turn is swung 



APPLICATION OF THE EAKER-PII.LIOD VALVE GEAR. 

around the point G by the movement of the reverse lever. When 
the gear is set, the point D is stationary and the point C follows 
a radial path, the location and inclination of which depends upon 
the location of the point D. Thus the link between A and C is 
given a circular or elliptical motion at one end and a radial mo- 
tion at the other, which combined gives point B, from which the 
movement of the valve is taken, a distorted elliptical path, the 
shape, size and location of which depends on the movement of 
the point C, and thus the position of the reverse lever. The 
motion from point B is transferred from the vertical to the hori- 
zontal direction by means of the bell crank fulcrumed at E, the 




Card 2 





Card 3 Card 4 

Cards number 1 & 2 taken from engine equipped with the Walschaert Valve Gear 
Cards number 3 & 4 taken from engine equipped with the Baker -Pilliod Valve Gear 

downwardly extending arm of which, as is shown in the illustra- 
tion, operates the valve stem. 

All of the motion is carried in a cradle similar to that often 
used in Pacific type locomotives equipped with Walschaert valve 
gear, which, in this case, is supported between the guide yoke 
and the cross tie extending continuous across the frames just 
back of the first driver and supported by knees secured to the 
main frame. This cradle carries all of the weight of the gear 
proper. The pins throughout are hardened steel and run in 
hardened bushings. 

One of the illustrations shows the valve ellipse given by this 
gear in comparison with the ellipse given by other radial gears, 
from which it can be seen how this combination of motions 



January, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



33 




COMPARISON OF VALVE ELIPSES. 

works to correct inaccuracies of oilier designs of radial gears. 
The indicator cards, shown in another of the illustrations, illus- 
trate these points even more clearly and give a comparison be- 
tween the Walschaert and the Baker-Pilliod gears, from which 
the points of superiority of the latter, in the matter of steam 



distribution, are evident. These cards were taken from ei 
of the same class, make, and on the same railroad, working in 
similar service. The most noticeable features illustrated by these 
cards are the quick opening of the Baker-Pilliod gear, which 
gives a full porl opi ning on 5 per cent, piston travel in full gear 
operation, and thu carrii all pressure up to the point 

of cut-off; the delay* d release which occurs at <jn per cent, of the 
stroke in comparison with 75 per cent, with the Walschaert, and 
gives a much longi toil ; the free exhaust, due to the 

same cause as the full steam line, i. c, quick movement of the 
alvi al tlii point . the delayed compression "-e of pre- 

admission. 

The geai givi lead the same as the Walschaert and 

weighs 3,236 lbs. total, of which the moving parts on both sides 
of the engine give but 1,028 lbs. for the locomotive shown in 
the half-tone. This locomotive (No. 42, T. S. & L. & W. R. R.) 
was run opposite No. 40 for several months, and during the 
month of July the comparison of coal consumption is given in the 
following table : 

TOLEDO, si. LOl (S S WEt ,ERN RAILROAD CO. 

PeKF"! I ' ICS 40 ANJ 4'i FOR THE Mokth <i> JlU, 1908. 

40 42 

Miles tiaveled 4,914 5,587 

Passengei car miles 17,280 23,151 

Tons coal consumed 280 258.5 

Average miles run per ton 17.5 21.7 

Pounds of coal consumed i -t r engine mile 114.4 

Pounds o) co it i onsumed per nassengi 22.1 

Engine 40 equipped villi - Link. Engine 42 equipped witU 

Baker-Pilliod Valve Gear. 





PLAN AND ELEVATION OF BAKER-PILLIOD VALVE GEAR AS APPLIED TO A TEX-WHEEL LOCOMOTIVE. 



34 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 




AMERICAN TRIPLE GEARED LATHE WITH TURRET ON THE SHEARS. 



36-LNCH TRIPLE GEARED AMERICAN LATHE WITH 
TURRET ON THE SHEARS. 



The American Tool Works Company, Cincinnati, has recently 
built one of the thirty-six inch, heavy pattern, triple geared 
lathes with a turret on the shears, as shown in the illustration. 
The back gears are automatically disengaged when slipping the 
pinion into the internal gear. The longitudinal feed of the car- 
riage is controlled by a friction, and the cross feed by a saw- 
tooth clutch, operated by the "star" handle on the apron. The 
rack pinion in the apron is withdrawn while thread cutting. 

The feed box, on the front of the machine, below the head- 
stock, supplies three instantaneous changes for feeding and screw 
cutting for every change of gears in the quadrant at the head end 
of the lathe. The compound rest is fitted with a "four stud" 
tool holder, the tool resting on a serrated steel base. This rest 
may also be equipped with a double T slotted top-slide and with 
regular tool posts set in tandem, which prevents the cutting 
tool from slipping under heavy duty. 

The turret is of new design and is equipped with an indexing 
mechanism which is self-compensating for wear. This mech- 
anism is located at the front of turret top-slide, bringing the 
locking-pin very near to the tool. The turret may be tripped or 
revolved automatically, or by hand ; the mechanism may be set 
so as to be inoperative, when it is desired to run the slide back 
to extreme limit, without withdrawing the locking-pin or revolv- 
ing the turret. This is accomplished by the small lever shown 
near the large pilot wheel. The turret top slide is supported on 
its outer end by a gibbed bracket attached to the front of the 
slide, which travels along the V's of the bed. This support elimi- 
nates all tendency to spring under a long reach. The bracket 
may be removed should the work require that the turret slide 
pass over the carriage of the lathe. The bottom-slide of the 
turret is moved along the bed by the pilot wheel shown at rear 
end. It is clamped to bed by two eccentrics, one at the front 
end and the other at the rear. It is further secured from slip- 
ping, due to severe end-thrusts, by a pawl, which, dropping from 
the turret, engages a rack cast in the center cf the lathe bed. 

The turret is supplied with eight carefully selected feeds, rang- 
ing from .005 in. to .162 in. ; these are entirely independent of 
the regular carriage and apron feeds. The turret feeds are con- 
trolled by the two "star" knobs, carrying index dials, which are 
shown one directly above the other to the right of the feed box. 
The dials and pointers indicate at once the feed in inches, as 
set ; all changes may be made while the lathe is running. The 
"star" knobs operate through shafts, extending through the bed 
to the quick-change turret feed-box at the rear of head-stock, 
which is provided with a neat and substantial cover. 

Provision is made to quickly attach the turret top-slide to the 
compound rest slide. This is valuable when it is desired to im- 
part the feeds of the carriage to the turret, such as in large tap- 
ping operations. In such cases the taps get a "positive lead," 
since the screw cutting mechanism may be engaged in the apron 
and the proper lead thereby transmitted to the turret slide, carry- 
ing the tap. This feature relieves the tap of all "dragging at the 



start" and the "positive lead" prevents the reaming tendency of 
the tap on the hole, at the start, which would spoil the work. 
This feature is also of value jn ordinary jobs of chasing internal 
threads with a turret tool. 

The turret feeds may be reversed, a valuable feature when it 
is necessary to "back face" or "counter-bore." Reversal of feeds 
is controlled by a lever, conveniently located on the driving 
sprocket of the quick-change turret feed-box. 

The taper attachment is of heavy and substantial construction 
and is designed to eliminate all binding tendencies of the parts, 
thereby insuring smooth and uniform action. It is given a sup- 
port on the bed and is supplied with a vernier attachment to 
facilitate fine adjustment. It is graduated and the entire attach- 
ment is bolted to and travels with the carriage. It may be quickly 
engaged or disengaged at will, without disturbing the taper, 
as set. 



PORTABLE OXY-ACETYLENE WELDING AND 
CUTTING MACHINE. 



Andre Beltzer.* 



The large advantages which the oxy-acetylene process of weld- 
ing and cutting offers to manufacturers, railroads and contractors 
are now pretty generally understood and it is not necessary for 
me to discuss them in a general way. So I will confine my 
discussion to a new portable equipment which makes it possible 
to take advantage of the wonderful possibilities of this new 
method much more generally than has previously been the case. 

Practically all of the welding machines which have been in- 
stalled in the United States are stationary, that is to say, it is 
necessary to bring near the machine the pieces which are to be 
welded or cut. In many cases (repair of a leak in a power 
plant, repair of a locomotive, etc.) this transportation is impos- 
sible, or it means a big cost of handling, and it is necessary to 
forego the advantages of the process. It is for this reason that the 
Beltzer-Delcampe Welding Co., Bridgeport, Conn., who are man- 
ufacturing welding machines of all sizes, have invented and are 
manufacturing a portable oxy-acetylene welding and cutting ma- 
chine weighing not more than 750 lbs., which can be installed on 
a wagon four by eight feet. 

A portable machine can be easily imagined in connecring a 
tank of oxygen and a tank of acetylene with a blowpipe, but 
everybody knows that the expense of the two gases compressed 
in tanks would render the process impracticable, especially for 
cutting work or repairing of big castings, where considerable 
quantities of gases are used. 

The machines as manufactured by the Beltzer-Delcampe Weld- 
ing Co. are, however, really small portable welding factories. 
The two gases, oxygen and acetylene, are liberated in special 
generators from a cheap powder called "oxyvite" and calcium car- 
bide. The oxyvite has the property of liberating 100 per cent, pure 
oxygen at a low temperature and absolutely free of any gas 



Cliemical Engineer, Bridgeport, Conn. 



January, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOl R] 



35 




FIG. 2. — D] ■ IF I 0NN1 CTIONS 01 I 0UT1 



which could corrode the metals and deteriorati the w< Iding ma 
chine, as is ordinarily the case with oxygen liberated from i 
cals. It is also entirely free of poisonous gases which would in- 
commode the welders. 

These machines offer special advantages to a railroad com- 
pany in connection with the repairing of broken locomotive 
frames or cracked cylinders without taking than down and 
makes it possible to do this work in the engine house very con- 
veniently. 

A general view of this equipment is shown in Fig. I and a 
diagram of its connections in Fig. 2. The oxygen generator (a) 
produces, continuously, compressed oxygen gas in the most simple 
manner from oxyvite which liberates the gas without the slight- 
est danger of explosion. The acetylene generator (b) is of most 
substantial construction, being specially made for rapid and rough 
handling. The blowpipe (c^ with its set of nozzles, permits the 
welding of any thickness of sheets up to l% inches, and repair- 
ing of castings of any dimensions. The same blowpipe by chang- 
ing the nozzle, is used for the cutting of steel up to 4 inches 
thick. 

The oxygen pressure tank (d) is fitted with a reducing valve 
(e), and the exit pipe of the tank connects with the oxygen pipe 
(g) of the blowpipe. The exit pipe (h) of the acetylene gen- 
erator is connected with a safety- 
valve (i), the purpose of which is to 
prevent the forcing back of oxygen 
toward the acetylene generator, as 
for instance in case the exit nozzle 
of the blowpipe should be stopped by 
molten metal. The exit pipe (k) of 
the safety-valve is finally connected 
with the acetylene cock (f) of the 
)lowpipe. There is a branch at (1) 
on the acetylene line connecting with 
acetylene bunsen burners which sup- 
ply the heat required by the oxyvite 
retort (o). The acetylene generator 
is loaded with 12 lbs. of carbide, and 
the oxygen retort with a correspond- 
ing amount of oxyvite. In twenty 
minutes after the lighting of the 
burners the oxygen tank is filled with 
pure oxygen gas at 100 lbs. pressure, 
and the machine is ready for weld- 
ing and cutting. 

It may be interesting to consider 
the cutting process in detail, as this 
is not so well known or easily under- 
stood as the welding, and in many 
cases is the more important use of 
the equipment. 

The principle of the process is very 
simple. The metal is heated to a red 
heat by means of the oxy-acetylene 
flame and a pure jet of oxygen, di- 
rected on the red spot, burns the iron 
to a mixture of the two oxides FeO 
and Fe 3 Ot, which flows down, and 



'he cuttii. 
Accori 

of heat. The 

play any a< ' 

ly in 
half of 
hich iron 

heat. 

to start the proo 

ture for its quick con in oxygen. 

It seems very peculiar thai all kinds of steel can be cut with 
this process and that cast-iron, whose main comi> iron, 

is cut but very slowly. The reason of this is probably a physical 
one, i.e., cast-iron melts with the oxy-acetylene flame to a very 
thick liquid and the jet of oxygen seems to slide on this molten 
metal without penetrating it. 

The following table gives the expense for gases in cutting steel 
plates of various thickness by the machine under discussion: 



Thickness of 


1 i ' 


Required to 


Oxygen Required, 


Acetyl 


•ne 


Required 


J late, Inches. 


Cut 1 F 


OOt. M : 


Cu. Ft. 






'A 




0.6 












>-• 




1.0 




1.5 






0.5 


IK- 




3.S 




10. 






2.5 


l*S 




4.2 










2.7 


O 




6.0 




15.5 






4.1 


2'A 




6.6 




ir.1 






4.5 



When the metal to be cut is first heated the expense is consid- 
erably reduced. For instance, a plate iVj, inches thick, heated 
to such a temperature that it begins to become red, can be cut 
at a speed of 2 ft. per minute, which is eight times faster than for 
cold metal, and with the cheap oxygen supplied by this machine 
the cost of cutting a foot of if^-in. steel plate is but 3.3 cents. 




ACETYLENE WELDING OUTFIT. 



3G 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 




LODGE & SHirLEY HEAVY AXLE LATHE. 



HEAVY PATTERN AXLE LATHE. 



An extra heavy axle lathe, manufactured by The Lodge & 
Shipley Machine Tool Company of Cincinnati, is illustrated 
herewith. It is of rigid construction, has a powerful drive and 
is equipped with all the conveniences which are desirable for this 
class of work. 

The bed is of massive construction, the cross girths being of 
box section. A longitudinal member, of box section, is cast in 
the center of the bed, extending its length, parallel to the outer 
walls, and is for the purpose of further stiffening the cross 
girths. The walls of the bed are heavy and the metal on the 
upper and lower edges is as nearly equal as possible. The ends 
of the bed are cut away to facilitate the removal of the tail- 
stock, or permit of a reasonable overhang for unusual lengths 
of work. In addition to the front and rear V's, with the inner 
flat tracks, an additional 45 degree plain surface has been ma- 
chined upon the bed to support the carriage apron at the bottom. 

The drive is simple and powerful. Power is applied to a con- 
stant speed pulley of large diameter and wide face, running at a 
high velocity. The variation in speed is obtained by sliding 
gears, which run in a bath of oil. All shafts are carried in 
bushed, positive ring oiled bearings. All gearing is of steel. The 
driving shaft is of large diameter and is held in alignment by 





601 



a number of journal blocks bolted to the bed. There is no 
overhang of the pinion of the main driving gear, the shaft being 
supported on either side of it in long bearings. The large gear, 
meshing with this pinion, is placed in the center of the drivng 
head, and like the pinion has a double bearing. A powerful com- 
pensating driver is secured to the gear in the head by dogs which 
are faced with steel plates. 
All feed gears are of steel. The speed of the splined feed rod 




DOUBLE, OR BOX APRON. 



DRIVING AND FEED GEARS. 

is governed by the gear- train driving from the main shaft 
through a change gear box, giving three feeds which may be 
changed while the lathe is in operation. 

The apron is of compact box construction, which is tongued 
and grooved into the carriage. In addition to the clamping ar- 
rangement of the apron to the carriage, the apron is further sup- 
ported by a third V cast on the bed, and in such position as to 
be directly under the apron. The purpose of this is to support 
the apron at the bottom for both vertical and transverse stresses. 
The spring of the apron due to the thrust from the rack pinion 
is thus effectively overcome. 

In addition to the bearing on the V's, on the front and rear 
shear of the bed, the carriage also has a flat bearing, or track, 
on the inside of the front shear. A further angular bearing of 
45 degrees tends to secure a permanent alignment of ihe carriage 
with the bed. The carriage bearing upon the bed is of importance 
because of the great thrust from the burnisher, as well as from 
heavy cutting. Water troughs are provided around the tool slide 
and wings of the carriage. The tool posts are arranged with hard- 
ened toothed plates interlocking with the tool and effectively 
preventing any possibility of the tool swiveling, or slipping, under 
the heaviest cuts. The tool slide is of steel. 

The tailstocks are of massive construction and firmly bolted 
to bed. A pawl, engaging with a rack, cast in the bed, is at- 
tached to each tailstock, this design tending to relieve the strain 



January, VM'j. 



AMERICAN KM.INEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



37 



on clamping bolls and ovi-ivonn the ilinr-i <if In , . •, ,mi 

when lilimi cutting tool angles are used. 'I he tailstock, ai 
driving end, has a stationary spindle with no tran versi adju I 

ment, the necessarj adjustment being obtained h the spindle 

of the second tailstock, which is provided with a transverse ad 
justment. The plug clamps tor binding the tail spindli 




END VIEW OF AXLE LATHE WITH GEAR CASE REMOVED. 

improved design; there are two instead of one for each tail - 
stock, and they are placed at the top of the spindle barrel. 

Provision is made for delivering an adequate supply of water 
to the tools; all journals are copiously supplied with oil by means 
of positive automatic oil rings. 



22-INCH CINCINNATI PLANER. 

Until recently The Cincinnati Planer Company, Cincinnati, 
Ohio, has not built planers smaller than 24 inch. A short time 
ago, however, it added to its line a machine which planes 22 in. 
wide, 22 in. high and 5 feet in length, with two cutting si" 1 d 
24 and 50 ft. per min. 

The bed is bored for shaft bushings and these bushings have a 
groove milled on the outside about }i in. wide and deep ; also 
an oil groove cut on the inside, botli on top and bottom, as shown 




in the sketch. This method insures positive lubri- 
cation and prevents the scoring of the shafts. The 
bed is fitted with oil rollers for automatically oiling 
the ways. 
The shifting device is of a new and simple construction and 



is designed with pi 

« "1 li i ded with a safety locking device and with a 

liandli on th< real i ol th< bed so that the machine may be 

operated from eithi The crank handles on the rail are 

d in the ii plai 1 h; ■ e so that 

thi opi rati r cai hold on it while turning the screw 

rapidly. 

1 or a full circle, so that the 

ma bi n both sides of the machine. The down 

feed screw is fitted w ith usandths. 

crful and cut from soli<" stock; the large 
and rai I .tings, and the pin- 

ion from teel i \\ hile .'II of th p ol the machine 

havi been madi r rigid for hea 'vice, special attention has 

been given to facilities for rapid handling. 



STOPPING BLOCK FOR ENGINES IN ROUNDHOUSE. 



I lure is a point which I wish some one might bring out, and 
that is a means of preventing locomotives from passing through 
the outer walls of the house occasionally. In the modern houses 
we have large air ducts under the floor around the outer walls 
of the house, and if this thing, which has happened so frequently 
in the past, continues to happen, the results will be somewhat 
serious to the structure and, incidentally, to the record of the 
output of the locomotives from the roundhouse for the time 
being. 

We experimented with a cast iron chock to prevent the engine 
from going too far, using one that would allow the pilot to pass 
over it, bolting it securely to the rails. By repeated trials it was 
quite conclusively shown that any chock that would allow 
the pilot to pass over it would not be sufficient to stop an engine 
if it got beyond control even to a moderate extent only. From 
the result of these experiments a chock was made and used in 
one house, and will be used in at least one other, which stands 
up about ten inches above the rail, fitting the shape of the ordi- 
nary wheel which will strike it, but, of course, before the wheel 
gets to it the pilot will be broken or, in case the engine backs 
against it, some of the brake gear may suffer. We concluded 
that it was better to run the chance of some slight damage of that 
kind than the more serious damage that would result from break- 
ing into the air duct and through the wall, at the same time prob- 
ably causing serious injury to the locomotive. — William Parker 
before the New England Railroad Club. 




CINCINNATI 22-INCH PLAXF.R 



38 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



r ^ 


d ^^ 


\ 


\ 






\ 

< 


— ^ 


C 



DIAGRAM ILLUSTRATING THE WORKING 
OF THE DEVICE. 




APPLICATION OF CHUCK TO MILLING MACHINE. 



BORING SQUARE HOLES. 



An attachment, or chuck, which may be used on a lathe, milling 
machine, or drill press, for boring square or angular holes in 
metal, has been used with success in Germany during the past 
two years. 

The chuck, which is shown in the illustrations, consists essen- 
tially of three parts ; first, a driving part, which is screwed to the 
spindle of the machine ; second, a stationary part, which may 
either ride upon the first part by means of a bearing, or be fast- 
ened directly to the frame of the machine; and third, a part into 
which the shank of the drill is screwed and which is caused to 
rotate by the first part, but is also free to move sidewise to a 
certain extent. This sidewise motion is limited by a guide or 
matrix in the second or stationary part, the exact amount and 
form of the motion being determined by the shape of the guide 
and by the shape of the shank of the tool. 

The tool for boring square holes has a three-cornered shank, 
the sides being segments of circles struck from the opposite 
angles or edges as centers, and the radius of all three circles 
being the same or equal to one side of the square guide in which 
the shank turns. By reference to the diagram, it will be seen 






DETAILS OF CHUCK FOR BORING ANGULAR HOLES. 

that when one side of the shank is either rolling or sliding upon 
one side of the square guide, the opposite edge of the shank will 
move in a straight line. This holds true for all positions of the 
shank except for a very small distance at the corners. If it is 
desired to bore a square hole with sharp corners a special tool is 
employed having a shank considerably larger than the cutting 
head, one of the corners of the shank being rounded instead of 
angular. The exact form of this shank has been worked out 
empirically and standards have been made for all the sizes of 
holes likely to be needed in practical work. 

The cutting edges of the tool are on the end, as in the case 
of either flat or twist drills. To do commercial work with this 
device, it is necessary to have as many different drills as there 
are sizes of holes to be bored, but the matrix or guide in the sta- 
tionary part of the chuck can be adjusted to a considerable range 
of sizes, making only one chuck necessary. Where it is desired 
to bore triangular, pentagonal, or hexagonal holes, or other 
forms of holes, a corresponding tool and matrix may be sup- 
plied. 

For grinding the drills a special attachment is used, which 
may be applied to any grinder. 




AN EXAMPLE OF THE WORK DONE. 



AN ANGULAR DRILL FOR DRILLING SQUARE HOLES. 



January, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



39 



The Radical Angular Drill & Tool Company control the pat- 
ents for this country, and are demonstrating the working of these 
drills at 114 Liberty street, New York, with a view to introduc- 
ing and manufacturing the device :'n this country. 



THE ABUSE OF THE MASTER CAR BUILDERS' ASSO- 
CIATION REPAIR CARD." 



J. J. Hennessey. 



If, as required by the Master Car Builders' rules, the road 
which did the incorrect work applied a M. C. U. repair card 
covering the items objected to, its identity would of course be 
immediately known, and the adjustment of the account would be 
a very easy matter. The application of the repair card in all 
cases of repairs to foreign car equipment as required by the 
M. C. B. rules, is not, I am very sorry to state, being done, and 
the fact that these repair cards are not being applied, brings to us 
a very difficult problem for solution. The road with which I am 
connected has cases coming up every day where our cars are 
offered home to us with wrong repairs to sills, trucks, draft gear, 
and other very expensive parts of our equipment, and the ex- 
pense of correcting these is enormous, and we cannot afford to 
bear it. The repair card is invariably missing, and we are then 
forced to the only method of ascertaining by whom the repairs 
were made, and this leads us to that same old story of tracing 
with its attendant voluminous correspondence, loss of time, and 
expense, to say nothing of the burden placed upon the office 
forces of our motive power and car accounting departments. 
This difficulty has been growing worse from year to year, until 
now it presents a very serious condition with no apparent relief 
in sight. It is to be deplored that this particular rule is so fla- 
grantly violated. 

In the regular course of business our cars drift hundreds of 
miles from home and we have to depend upon the honesty of the 
foreign lines in the matter of repairs and the rendition of bills. 
There are instances without number where foreign roads have 
noted upon their repair cards that wheels were renewed account 
of sliding, axles renewed account cut journals, air hose renewed 
account missing, and numerous other parts repaired or renewed, 
for which the possessing road assumes the expense of such re- 
pairs because of the manner in which the defects were brought 
about. If the foreign lines were dishonest they could have re- 
ported such defects as the result of ordinary wear and tear and 
rendered bills for the work. It would not, therefore, be con- 
sistent for us to assign dishonesty as the cause of non-application 
of the repair card when repairs are made to foreign cars. 

My personal opinion is that it is due to indifference on the part 
of our repair men. I have heard it said that the application of the 
repair card is not really necessary in view of the fact that the 
stub of such card reaches the car owner with the repair bill, 
or when sent through the mails in case no bill is rendered. This 
we all know is a grave mistake, as it is necessary to know im- 
mediately, when the car reaches home, where the incorrect re- 
pairs were made in order to avoid the objectionable tracing. It 
has also been stated that insufficient time is given to execute and 
apply repair cards when making up trains or wdien trains stop for 
only a brief period at repair points. I have looked into this and 
found that by having repair cards dated and signed, that it re- 
quires only a trifle more additional time to fill in the other neces- 
sary data and apply the card, as it means only minor repairs such 
as air hose, journal bearings, brake shoes and the like. I am 
therefore satisfied that this objection can be overcome if only an 
effort is made. 

The road with which I am engaged has what we term a travel- 
ing inspector, who is continually traveling over our system. It 
has been made part of his duties .0 look over foreign cars taken 
off our various repair tracks; also such foreign cars as receive 
minor repairs in the yards. If he finds any repairs made to such 
cars and no repair card attached covering the items, he reports it 
to headquarters and also to the foreman in charge at the local 

• Extracts from a paper read !)< fore the December meeting of the Western 
Railway Club. 



point, and the parly at fault 1 

Headquarters also censure the foreman for allowing such viola- 
tion, so that there is considerable incentive for the foremen to be 
vigilant in this regard. We have found this to be producti 
very good results, ami we have also found that the mere issu- 
ance of an order to apply repair cards in all cases of foreign 
car repairs, does not bring about the di sired result; there must 
be something dom to show that you mi in to have the order 
obeyed. 



DENATURED ALCOHOL FROM NATURAL GAS. 



The production of denatured alcohol from natural gas can be 
made at a cost which permits it to compete successfully with 
gasoline or other petroleum products for light, heat or power. 
The apparatus for this distillation is shown in the accompanying 
illustration, being patented by the Continental Natural Gas Al- 
cohol Company of Wheeling, West Virginia. 

The percentage of methane contained in natural gas varies 
with the locality, but on an average it is about 94 per cent. The 
percentage of alcohol which may be produced from the gas 
varies with the percentage of methane. The processes consist 
of subjecting the natural gas to an electrically heated German 
silver, closely woven, fine wire gauze coiled and enclosed in an 
enamel retort. By subjecting the gas to heat and combining it 
with oxygen in the presence of steam, which prevents complete 
combustion and maintains the temperature below the decompo- 
sition point of alcohol ; destructive distillation or oxidation of 
the gas is induced, resulting in the latter being converted into 
a fluid containing alcohol, benzol, nitric acid and prussic acid in 
varying proportions. 

Referring to the illustration, the German silver gauze, elec- 
trically heated, is contained in retort Xo. 2, from which distillate 




APPARATUS FOR DISTILLATION OF ALCOHOL FROM NATURAL GAS. 

goes to retort No. 6, where it is partially cooled and condensed 
and by specific gravity the products of condensation are par- 
tially separated. These are then passed directly to an airometer 
7. From the airometer the volatile products are passed under 
pressure, through a pipe 9 to the outer coil 10 of a water cooled 
distillator II, while the condensed or liquid portion of the prod- 
uct is passed in the form of alcohol and dehydrogenated alco- 
hol, through a pipe 12 to the inner coil 13 of the distillator, thence 
directly conveyed into a manometer 15, and then drawn off 
through an outlet tube or faucet 16, a specific gravity meter 17 
being employed, whereby the separation of the liquid into its 
various constituents is facilitated. For further refining, the 
product of distillation, which has passed to the overflow vessel 
19 of a vacuum type with an outlet tube 20 may be conducted 
through a filter 21, and thence through a hydrometer 22 connect- 
ed with pipe and faucet 23. 24 and 25 respectively indicate the 
gas and steam pipes, which are connected or united at 26 for 
directing the gas and steam together into the retort 2. The con- 
nections shown illustrate but one of various methods which may 
be employed. 



40 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



b: 



■/4" 



I Jo form air Sea/.^ 






-16 
Mc+o/ ring. 



. I hrcc *eo/*>e.r>+o/ c/'fit, OS 

SAo**VfJ, Snoop&d /fyf~ Joe*;' 
°P*ling6 , -to rertr/h ho%* irt position. 




Mo/Uo-6/* /ron oo*MatS 

FIG. I. — METHOD OF ATTACHING "nb" CONNECTION TO AIR BRAKE HOSE. 



"NB" AIR BRAKE AND SIGNAL HOSE CONNECTION. 



The George M. Newhall Engineering Co., Ltd., of Philadel- 
phia, Pa., are putting on the market a device designated as the 
"NB" air brake and signal hose connection. This was designed 
by E. D. Nelson, engineer of tests, Pennsylvania Railroad, and 
W. L. Brown, his assistant. 

The objects sought in designing this coupling were to over- 
come injury to the soft inner tube of the hose by the nipples 
used in the ordinary form of mounting and to secure a method 
of fastening the hose to the metal parts which would be free 
from the danger of a hose pulling off the fitting. 

The "NB" coupling is so designed as to avoid any contact of 
the metal parts with the soft rubber lining of the hose, and, 
therefore, preserves it against injury, thus leaving it free to per- 
form its function of sealing the hose structure against small 
leaks, which eventually may cause bursting. (When the hose 
is inserted in the coupling the clip, as shown in the illustration, 
is driven against the shoulder of the hose until the lug on the 
clip springs into place through the aperture in the coupling. The 
hose is thus securely mounted without having anything in con- 
tact with the inner tube.) 

Every railroad man, who has made a study of hose failures, 
knows that while the strength of the hose depends primarily 
upon the ability of the duck wrapping or jacket to hold the pres- 
sure, the safety of the hose against bursting depends absolutely 
on the integrity of the inner tube. A defect in the rubber lining 
permits air to find its way between and into the layers of duck, 
breaking through one or two of the inner layers and leaving 
only the outer layers to sustain the inner pressure. The pres- 
sure then, having only the remaining layers left, causes a rup- 
ture, and the result is a burst hose. The effect in freight service 
may be disastrous, due to the emergency application of the brake. 

The internal nipples now generally used are responsible for a 



large percentage of such failures, because the constant swinging 
of the hose is resisted by the end of the nipple against the soft 
rubber tube, cutting into it and permitting the air to escape 
through and into the duck wrappings. 

Carefully kept records show that about 6o per cent, of the hose 
failures in freight service are due to the bursting of hose at the 
nipples, and in passenger service the percentage is still higher. 
As will be seen from the cut, the use of "NB" couplings ab- 
solutely eliminates failures from this source. 

Hose mounted with the present standard fittings and with this 
improved form of fitting have been pulled apart in the same 
way as occurs in service when cars are separated, but the air 
brake coupling not uncoupled by hand. The result of repeating 
this a very large number of times showed marked cutting of 
the nipple in the inner tube with the standard fitting, and no 
injury whatever to the inner tube with the improved form of 
fitting. 

As to security against pulling off, repeated trials have demon- 
strated that when mounted with the "NB" coupling the body of 
the hose has torn apart in every case, leaving the end of the hose 
still attached to the fitting. 

The form of air brake and signal couplings and threaded nip- 
ples is the same as that in common use, so that there is no 
change in standard so far as the couplings and car fittings are 
concerned. "NB" hose and couplings can be mounted as quickly 
and as easily as the presdit M. C. B. standard. 

This new coupling has the decided advantage of being prac- 
tically indestructible. All the parts can be used over and over 
again, whereas with the present system it is always necessary to 
have new bolts and nuts, and in most cases new bands for every 
mounting. 

Arrangements have been made with several of the largest hose 
manufacturers to make this special end on the M. C. B. or in- 
dividual railroad specifications hose. It can also be obtained 
from the manufacturers of the coupling if desired. 





NB AIR BRAKE AND SIGNAL HOSE CONNECTION. 



January, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



41 



FOLDING DOORS FOR ROUNDHOUSES. 



The accompanying illustration shows a rounclhousi on the 
Cincinnati, New Orleans and Texas Pacific Railroad at Ferguson, 
Ky., in which there are twenty-one Ritter folding doors in use. 
This type of door has proven to be very successful for use at 
freight and store houses and would seem to be even bettei 
adapted for roundhouses. 

One gn al advantage is, of course, that it occupies no ground 




space when open and requires very little clearance up to a poirtt 
as high as the top of a tank. Again, it cannot blow closed like a 
swinging door; it allows a maximum of clearance between cab 
and post, equalling a rolling door in this respect ; it closes lightly 
and keeps the house warm ; is easily operated by one man and thus 
will be kept closed in cold weather, and finally it permits a maxi- 
mum of lighting area. All of these points are of great import- 
ance in a roundhouse in cold climates. 

The construction is evident from the illustration. The opera- 



tion is by an endless chain ovi p, which is 

direct i 01 ted to a drum operating il i both 

idi of the door al thi botto unlcrbalances at 
ill' other end. 

I >oors of this type an also in ui e in i oundhoi i Cin- 
cinnati, .Vow Orleans & I i Pacific Railway and the Cincin- 
nati, Hamilton & Dayton Railway and hai d for 

"i thi i road tt ha also beti used ii shops on 

quite a number of roads with entire, satisfaction. 

This design of door, in either steel or wood, is manufactured 
by the Ritter Folding Door Co., Cincinnati, O. 

KEWANEE AIR PUMP UNION. 



The National Tube Company, 1608 Frick Building, Pittsburgh, 
Pa., has recently brought out a new union for use in connection 
with locomotive air pumps. This design has a number of ad- 
vantages over the type in ordinary use, principally due to the 
fact that it docs not require the use of a gasket and the thread 




connection is between brass and iron and hence not liable to cor- 
rosion. It has a ball seat arranged as shown in the illustration, 
which forms a tight joint without packing. These unions are 
thoroughly tested under ioo lb. pressure of compressed air before 
being put on the market and are guaranteed to be absolutely tight. 



PERSONALS. 



Manual Parra has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Mexican Ry. at Apizaco, Tlax, Mex., to succeed J. B. Cozart. 



J. B. Cozart. master mechanic of the Mexican Railway at 
Apizaco, Pucbla, Mex., has resigned to go to the Pan-American 
Ry. . 

W. A. George has been appointed superintendent of shops of 
the Atchison, Topeka Si Santa Fe Ry., with office at Albuquerque, 
N. Mex. " 

Edward C Cole has been appointed traveling engineer of the 
Iowa Central R R., with office at Des Moines, Iowa, succeeding 
W. B. Ferris. 



F. H. Reagan has been appointed assistant superintendent of 
shops of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Ry. at Colhn- 
wood. 

Clarence Lessels has been appointed mechanical engineer of 
the Guayaquil y Quito R. R. of Ecuador, S. A., with office at 
Guayaquil. 



J. K. Witman has been appointed superintendent of materials 
and supplies of the Philadelphia and Reading Ry., vice John H. 
Rankin, deceased. 



Calvin Schreck has been appointed head foreman of engines 
of the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis Ry., at Belle- 
fontaine, Ohio. 



A. West has been appointed master mechanic of District I 
of the Canadian Pacific Ry., with office at Keuora, Ont., succeed- 
ing A. H. Eager. 



B. Ff. Lent has been reappointed road foreman of engines of 
the Arizona division of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry., 
with office at Needles, Cal. 



B. F. Kuhn has been appointed general foreman of the Collin- 
wood shops of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Ry. vice 
F. H. Reagan, promoted. 



T. N. Ely. chief of motive power of the Pennsylvania R. R., 
has been granted a protracted leave of absence to visit Italy, 
France and Egypt. He sailed December 12 



42 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



George K. Anderson has been appointed road foreman of 
engines of the Albuquerque division of the Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa Fe Ry., with office at Winslow, N. Mex. 



YV. L. Hudson has been appointed road foreman of engines 
of the Pittsburgh division of the Pennsylvania R. R., succeeding 
J. K. Russell, retired, with headquarters at Pittsburgh. 



The offices of M. S. Monroe, master mechanic, and J. P. Caiia- 
han, master car builder, of the Chicago, Like Shore & Eastern 
Ry., have been moved from South Chicago, 111., to Gary, Ind. 



E. J. Shoffner, foreman of the frog and rail mill of the Nor- 
folk & Western Ry. at the Roanoke shops, has been appointed 
general foreman at Cleveland, Ohio, succeeding H. F. Staley. 



Daniel Royce, formerly assistant editor-in-chief of the Railway 
Age, has been appointed assistant to W. V. S. Thome, director 
of purchases of the Harriman Lines, with office in New York 
City. 

A. W. Horsey has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Chalk River section of District 4 of the Canadian Pacific Ry., 
with headquarters at Smith's Falls, Ont., succeeding G. T. 
Fulton. 

YV. H. Thorn has been appointed general storekeeper of the 
Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha Ry., with headquar- 
ters at the St. Paul, Minn., shops, succeeding G. A. Gipple, 
assigned to other duties. 



W. J. Spearman has been appointed general foreman of the 
Missouri Pacific and St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern 
Rys., with office at Kansas City, Mo., succeeding A. Hewitt, 
assigned to other duties. 



W. D. Knott has been appointed purchasing agent of the 
Atlanta, Birmingham & Atlantic Ry., with office at Atlanta, Ga. 
The duties of purchasing agent have previously been performed 
by Alex Bonnyman, general manager. 



Frederick Regan, formerly with the Chicago & Alton R. R. 
in the motive power department, has been appointed master 
mechanic of the southern division of the Kansas City Southern 
Ry., with headquarters at Shreveport, La. 



H. F. Staley, general foreman of the Norfolk & Western Ry. 
at Bluefield, W. Va., has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Carolina, Clinchfield & Ohio Ry., with office at Johnson City, 
Tenn., succeeding H. L. Hobbs, transferred. 



P. C. Staley, foreman of the Mifflin shops of the Pennsylvania 
R. R., has been transferred to the Altoona car shops. E. H. 
Newbury, assistant engine house foreman at Deny, Pa., suc- 
ceeds Mr. Staley. G. C. Schneider, inspector at Rcnova shops, 
succeeds Mr. Newbury. 



T. P. Dunham, foreman of the Holidaysburg shops of the 
Pennsylvania R. R., has been transferred to roundhouse No. 3 at 
Altoona. P. C. Kapp, foreman of the State Line shops, succeeds 
Mr. Durham. C. D. 8arrett, inspector on the New Jersey divis- 
ion, succeeds Mr. Kapp. 



J. T. Robinson, master mechanic of the Seaboard Air Line at 
Savannah, Ga., has been appointed master mechanic at Jackson- 
ville. Fla., succeeding H. P. Latta. He will have charge of all 
mechanical matters on the Seaboard Air Line in Florida. J. W. 
Sasses, general foreman of shops at Raleigh. N. C, succeeds 
Mr. Robinson. 

John Reed, of the mechanical department of the Oregon Short, 
Line at Salt Lake City, Utah, has been appointed general super- 
intendent of the Salt Lake & Ogden Ry. at Salt Lake City, in 
place of A. D. Pierrson, resigned. Mr. Reed is succeeded by 
George Wilson, chief clerk of the master mechanic at Pocatello, 
Idaho. 



J. E. Hickey, master mechanic of the International Ry. of 
Mexico, has been appointed superintendent of shops of the Mex- 
ican Central R. R., at Aguascalientes, Aguas., Mex., succeeding 
G. F. Tilton, assigned to other duties. 



Joseph Bryan, owner of the Richmond (Va.) Times Dispatch, 
died at his home just outside the city of Richmond, on Friday, 
November 20th, after an illness of only a few days. Mr. Bryan 
was president of the Richmond Locomotive & Machine Works 
from 1898 to 1901, when the company was purchased by the 
American Locomotive Company, and at the time of his death 
was a director of the American Locomotive Company and man- 
aging director of the Richmond plant. 



J. D. Harris has been appointed general superintendent of 
motive power of the Baltimore & Ohio R. R., succeeding J. E. 
Muhlfeld, resigned. Mr. Harris began railway work as a ma- 
chinist apprentice on the Pennsylvania Lines West in October,' 
1889. He later became a locomotive fireman, and in March, 1895, 
was made assistant foreman and later foreman of the machine 
shops of the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago Ry. In Febru- 
ary, 1897, he was made assistant road foreman of engines, and' 
five months later became assistant engineer of motive power of 
the Northwest System of the Pennsylvania Lines West. In Jan- 
uary, 1898, he was made master mechanic of the Eastern and ' 
Toledo divisions, with headquarters at Crestline, Ohio, and the 
next year was made master mechanic of the Cleveland & Pilts- 
burgh, now part of the Pennsylvania Lines West. In 1901 he 
was made assistant to the general superintendent of motive 
power of the Baltimore & Ohio R. R., which position he held for 
two years, and then became assistant chief engineer and works 
manager of the Westinghouse Co., holding this position until his 
recent appointment. 

Richard H. Soule, for thirty years active in railway work, died 
at his home, Brookline, Mass., December 13. He was born in 
1849 at Boston, Mass., and began railway work in 1875 as drafts- 
man in the mechanical engineer's office of the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road, at Altoona, Pa. Two years later he became assistant in the 
test department. In 1879 he was made superintendent of motive 
power of the Northern Central. In 1881 he became superinten- 
dent of motive power of the Philadelphia & Erie division of the 
Pennsylvania, and a year later was made superintendent of 
motive power of the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati & St. Louis, now 
part of the Pennsylvania Lines West. In 1S85 he was 
made superintendent of motive power of the New York. West 
Shore & Buffalo, now part of the New York Central & Hudson 
River, and later in the same year became superintendent of mo- 
tive power of the New York, Lake Erie & Western, now the 
Erie, and two years later was made general manager. In 1888, 
leaving railway work, he became general agent for the Union 
Switch & Signal Co., but returned to the railways in 1891 as su- 
perintendent of motive power of the Norfolk & Western. From 
1897 to 1899 he was with the Baldwin Locomotive Works, travel- 
ing for one year in South Africa and Russia, and for a year and a 
half was Western representative at Chicago. In 1900 he opened 
offices in New York as consulting engineer, retiring in 1905. Mr. 
Soule's series of articles on the arrangement and design of ratf- 
way shops, which appeared in The American Engineer and 
Railroad Journal during 1903 and 1904, are regarded as classics 
on that subject. He was very active in the work of the Master 
Mechanics' and Master Car Builders' Associations. 



George W. West, superintendent of motive power of the New 
York, Ontario & Western Railway, died on the evening of De- 
cember 24, 1908, at his home in Middletown, N. Y. He had been 
in poor health for some time, suffering from kidney trouble and 
a weakened heart. Mr. West was born April 3, 1S4;, at Troy, 
N. Y., and hence was over 61 years of age. He has long been 
one of the best known and foremost motive power men of the 
country and has done his full shar; in advancing the science and 
practice of rolling stock design and maintenance. For many 
years he has been one of the most valuable members of th° Mas- 
ter Mechanics' and Master Car Builders' Associations and has 



January 1 , 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL 



43 



prepared some of the most important reports and discussions 
that have been presented. He was president of the Master Me- 
chanics' Association in 1902 and 1903. He has also been 
active in the New York Railroad Club, of which he was a mem- 
ber for nearly 20 years. He was elected a member of the ex- 
ecutive committee in 1892 and for the past seven years has been 
its chairman, having been re-elected at the last annual meeting. 
He was president of this club in 1894. He was also a member 
of the executive committee of the Central Railway Club and was 
president of that organization in 1901 and 1903. His character 
and manners were such as to compel admiration and to win him 
a very large circle of most loyal friends. 

Mr. West was educated in the public schools at Troy and en- 
tered railway service as a machinist on the New York Central & 
Hudson River R. R. at Schenectady, in 1865. In 1867 he was 
transferred as foreman at Syracuse where he remained until 
1873. For the following ten years he was master mechanic of 
the Chenango Valley R. R. and on its absorption by the West 
Shore Railroad was appointed general foreman at East Buffalo 
and the following year was appointed master mechanic of the 
Buffalo Division, where he remained until 1886. He was then 
appointed master mechanic of the Mahoning division of the New 
York, Lake Erie & Western R. R., with which he remained as 
master mechanic at different points until 1890, when he was ap- 
pointed superintendent of motive power of the New York, On- 
tario & Western Railway, which position he has since held. 



BOOKS. 



Earth Slopes, Retaining Walls and Dams. By Chas. Prelini. 
6x9. 129 pages. Cloth. Published by D. Van Nostrand 
Co., 23 Murray street, New York. Price, $2.00 net. 
This book is largely given up to a consideration of the graph- 
ical methods of solving problems concerning the slopes of earth 
embankments, the lateral pressure of earth against a wall and 
the thickness of retaining walls and dams. 



The Proper Distribution of Expense Burden. By A. Hamilton 
Church. 116 pages, cloth bound, 5x8 in. Published by 
The Engineering Magazine, 140 Nassau street, New York 
City. Price, $1.00. 
Because railroad repair shops have not been in active compe- 
tition, the matter of accounting has not been given the attention 
which its importance deserves. During the past few years, how- 
ever, a distinct advance has been made in this respect, on several 
roads, thus making it possible to better direct the work of im- 
proving the shop efficiency. While Mr. Church's book de- 
scribes principles which are applicable to manufacturing or- 
ganizations, and especially to the machine shop, the broad prin- 
ciples may be studied and used to advantage in connection with 
railroad repair shop management. The contents by chapters fol- 
lows : Interlocking general charges with piece costs, distributing 
expense to individual jobs, the scientific machine rate and the 
supplementary rate, classification and dissection of shop charges, 
mass production and the new machine rate, apportionment of 
office and selling expense. 



Design of High-Way Bridges. By Milo S. Ketchum, C. E. 6 x 
9. 531 pages. Cloth. Published by the Engineering News 
Publishing Company, 220 Broadway, New York. Price, 
$4.00. 
The author of this work, in his position as Dean of the Col- 
lege of Engineering of the University of Colorado, was im- 
pressed by the comparatively slight attention that has been given 
to the design of high-way bridges by the many excellent books 
on bridge design. As a consequence many high-way bridges 
are very poorly designed, as is evidenced by the failures that have 
taken place in the past few years. A noticeable feature of 
this work is the attention given the subject of the sub-structure, 
a feature which is not always fully considered in works on 
bridges. A section of the book discusses the details of cost of 
different parts of high-way bridges, and should assist greatly in 
leading to economical design. The work is very completely il- 



lustrated and manj ection 1 Form of problems with 

the complete solutioi ipanying them 



Westinghou - Diary foi [909, Published by The Westing! 
Companies' Publishing Department, Pittsburg, Pa. 
This >-, Hi- hiih edition oi this little 10 Let diary. Its 

96 pages contain considerable new data. The section on "Elec- 
tric Railway Data" devotes several pages to the single phase rail- 
way system. Nine pages are given to a consideration of the ap- 
plication of motors to machine tools. Fol 

on electric heating; power transmission; meter testing; steam 
turbines, including high and low pressure turbines and the Le- 
blanc condenser; gas engines; mechanic Dat _ 

teries, weights, measures and materials; Xernst, incandescent, 
tungsten and Cooper-Hewitt lamps; Union Switch and Signal 
Co. appliances; Morse chains, and gears. In addition to this 
technical information there are several maps, as well as consider- 
able handy information; also a diary and pages for addresses and 
other memoranda. 



Patents as a Factor in Manufacturing I: Edwin T. Prindle. 134 
pages, cloth bound, 5x8 in. Published by The Engineering 

Magazine, 140 Nassau street, New York City Price, $2.00. 
The author's aim has been to lay down the fundamental prin- 
ciples concerning patents so that they may easily be grasped fully 
enough to direct the inventor, patentee or manufacturer in the 
early steps which arc usually taken before the advice of counsel is 
secured. In the words of the preface the plan "is lather to con- 
vey an idea of the nature of a patent, the protection it may afford, 
the advantages it may possess for meeting certain commercial 
conditions, the safety which may be secured in relations between 
employers and employees, and the general rules by which the 
courts will proceed in upholding the patent and in thwarting at- 
tempted infringements, to show the manufacturer, in a general 
way, what may be accomplished by patents, but not to lead him 
to attempt such accomplishment without legal advice." Mr. 
Prindle is especially well fitted to discuss this subject and he not 
only brings out the information clearly but does it in a most in- 
interesting manner. The contents by chapters follow : Influence 
of Patents in Controlling a Market, Subject, Nature and Claim 
of a Patent, What Protection a Patent Affords, Of Infringemens, 
Patenting a New Product, Patent Relations of Employer and 
Employee, Contests Between Rival Claimants to an Invention. 



Railroad Construction, Theory and Practice. By Walter Loring 
Webb, C. E. Fourth edition, revised and enlarged. 4^ x 
654 in. 754 pages. Published by John Wiley & Sons, 43 
E. 19th street, New York. Price, $5.00. 
This standard work on the theory and practice of railroad con- 
struction, designed principally for use as a text book by students 
in colleges and technical schools, is too well known to require 
any extended comment. The fourth edition, now being issued, 
has been subject to some revision, especially in the chapter on 
"Earth Work," where several tables have been added. The 
chapter on "Economics" has also been revised to conform with 
more recent estimates of cost of operation. While this book is 
undoubtedly thoroughly modern and up to date in all of the 
features considered most essential by the author, yet to one ac- 
quainted with the progress in the motive power department of 
railways in recent years and its direct effect on roadway and 
economic problems, it seems peculiar that chapter fifteen, devoted 
to rolling stock, has evidently not been given any attention since 
the book was first prepared in 1809. While, of course, this chap- 
ter is not intended to be a course in the design of locomotives 
and cars, it would seem that it should, at least, give the modern 
practice in the features which it considers. For instance, it is 
odd to read that it is practically impossible to operate a consoli- 
dation type locomotive with all the drivers flanged and that such 
locomotives have only the front and rear drivers flanged. Again, 
in the second section, on the classified types, we find the "Colum- 
bia" type given, but do not discover the Pacific, Prairie, Santa 
Fe or any of the articulated types. The further statement that 



44 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



37 square feet is about the maximum grate area obtainable ex- 
cept in a Wooten firebox, gives an indication of the date at 
which this chapter was written. We trust that the author in 
his next revision will bring this chapter up to the same standard 
as those on earth work, tunnels, ties, etc. 



CATALOGS. 



Technical Books. — The Norman YV. Henley Publishing Company, 132 
Nassau street, New York, is issuing a new catalog of its varied assortment 
of practical technical books. 



Friction Clutches. — The Carlyle Johnson Machine Company, Hartford, 
Conn., has issued its 1900 catalog of the Johnson friction clutch. The dif- 
ferent applications of the clutch are described and illustrated in detail. 



Radial Dsills. — The FosJick Machine Tool Co., Cincinnati, O.. is issu- 
ing a number of sheets, in a loose leaf binder, describing its 4, 5 and 6 ft., 
half and full universal radial drills. 



Transformers. — The Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co., Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., is issuing circular No. 1157, descriptive of type S distributing 
transformers for single phase power. The transformer is very completely 
illustrated and described in detail. 



Folding Doors. — The Ritter Folding Door Company, Cincinnati, O., is 
issuing a standard size catalog very largely given up to illustrations of 
railway buildings which have recently been equipped with this type of 
door. These include freight and store houses, engine houses, round houses, 
shops, garages, and illustrate doors of wood, combination wood and glass 
or steel applied to either wood, masonry or concrete buildings. 



Electrical Apparatus. — Among the bulletins recently issued by the 
General Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y., are included No. 4633, 
devoted to the subject of motor gentiator sets in capacities of from .2 to 
1500 k. w., No. 4631 on the subject of series alternating enclosed arc light 
system, No. 6430 on the subject of direct current portable instruments 
and a very attractive catalog on fan motors. 



Chain Blocks, Electric Hoists, Trolleys and Cranes. — The Yale & 
Towne Mfg. Co., 9 Murrav street, New York City, have issued an attrac- 
tively arranged and illustrated catalog, describing their triplex, duplex and 
differential chain blocks and parts; trolleys and cranes, also triplex trolley 
blocks, overhead track and crabs and winches; electric hoist*, including 
triplex electric hoists and trolleys with current collectors for use with 
electric hoists. , 



Valves. — The American Steam Gauge & Valve Mfg. Co., Boston, Mass., 
is issuing its 1909 standard size catalog containing 89 pages, which gives 
illustrations and brief desciiptions of a very full and complete assortment 
of pop valves and relief valves for both pressure and vacuum. These include 
muffled pop safety valves for locomotives of the latest improved pattern, 
as well as valves for use at any point where pressure of either gas or 
liquid is found. 



Reamers. — Cleveland Twist Drill Co., Cincinnati, O., is issuing catalog 
No. 36, devoted exclusively to the "Peerless" high speed s-teel reamers, 
the construction of which was described on page 449 of the November 
issue of this journal. The catalog contains an illustration of each style, 
which is accompanied by a table giving the dimensions and prices of each 
size. The sizes maintained in stock vary by 1/32 in. from l / 2 to 3 in. in 
most cases. These reamers are made as hand, core, chuck, shell core, and 
shell chucking types, any of which can be" furnished in solid or expansion 
styles. 



Packing and Hose. — The Revere Rubber Company, 77 Bedford street, 
Boston, Mass., is issuing two very attractive catalogs, one on packing and 
the other on rubber hose. The former, which is printed in two colors, 
shows the great variety of packings for valve stem, pipe fittings, etc., 
including many special forms for unusual conditions. Each of the large 
number of styles is illustrated and described and the price is given in each 
case. The other catalog, which is also printed in two colors, fully de- 
scribes the construction of the "Revero" hose, which is made in all the 
usual sizes for water, steam, air, chemical, sand, gas, vacuum, oil, etc. 
Hose fittings are also shown. 



Ball and Roller Bearings. — The Standard Roller Bearing Company, of 
Philadelphia, is issuing catalog No. 24, 5 x 8 in. in size and containing 
187 pages. It contains very fully illustrated descriptions of the ball and 
roller bearings which are designed and manufactured by this company for 
use in almost every conceivable point where friction occurs. The results 
of many tests of these bearings in use on various pieces of machinery are 
given. These include a test of a stieet car in Syracuse which has been 
successfully equipped with roller bearing journals. Views of the very 
complete plant operated by this company in Philedelphia are scattered 
through the catalog. Both ball and roller bearings, in standard patterns, 
are maintained in stock and tables are included giving the dimensions, 
loads to be carried and prices of each size. 



Friction Clutches. — The Hill Clutch Company, Cleveland, O., is issu- 
ing a very attractive catalog devoted exclusively to its friction type of 
clutches, which are shown in a number of different arrangements. Each 
type is illustrated and tables are included giving prices for each style and 
size. This company manufactures friction clutches ranging from 12 in. in 
diameter, with a capacity of 5 h. p. at 100 r. p. m. to S4 in. in diameter, 
with a capacity of 1,300 h. p. at 100 r. p. m. 



NOTES. 



The Ritter Folding Door Co. — The shops of the Carolina, Clinchneld & 
Ohio Ry., at Erwin, Tenn., are to be equipped with Ritter folding doors 
of wood and glass construction. 

Electrical Show.— The Western-Southern Electrical Show will be held 
in Cincinnati March K: to 37, 1^09. Space for this exhibit can be obtained 
by addressing Western-Southern Electrical Show, 408 Fourth National 
Bank Building, Cincinnati, O. 



American Specialty Company. — John L. Walker, formerly auditor for 
The Buda Foundry & Mfg. Co., has resigned to accept a position as man- 
ager of the "Use-Em- Up"' socket depaitment of the above company, 834 
Monadnock Bldg., Chicago, Illinois. 



Dearborn Drug and Chemical Works. — Herbert E. Stone, formerly 
president of the National Association of Steam Engineers and recently 
manager of the Pittsburgh office of the Chapman Valve Co., has accepted 
a situation as manager of sales in the eastern department of the above 
company, with headquarters in New York City. 



Falls Hollow Stavbolt Co. — The above company announces that 
Willis C. Squire, 209 Western Union Bldg., Chicago, has accepted the 
agency for its products ror the railway trade in the Chicago territory. 
Also that Alex S. Mitchell, 45 Broadway, New York, will be agent for the 
railway and boiler trade in the New York territory. 



Memorial Tablet to Ampere. — A bronze and tile memorial tablet in 
honor of the great French scientist, Andre-Marie Ampere, has been set 
up at the Lackawanna Railroad station at Ampere, N. J., by Dr. Schuyler 
Skaats Wheeler and was unveiled by the French Ambassador on December 
3. Monsieur Ampere was born in 177') and died in 1S36, and this tablet 
forms probably the only memorial raised in his honor in America. 



Snow Plows. — The Russell Car ^nd Snow Plow Company, Ridgeway, 
Pa., announces that among its recent shipments were a double track, size 
2, plow for the Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh Railroad, and electric 
plows, size 6, for the Bangor Railway & Electric Company and the Lewis- 
ton, Augusta & Waterville Street Railway and a combination car and 
snow plow, with double track steel noses, for the Ottawa Electric Com- 
pany. 



Meeting of the A, S. M. E. — The January meeting of tlie American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers will be held in the Engineering Societies 
Building, New York, on Tuesday evening, January 12. The paper will be 
by Carl G. Barth of Philadelphia, upon the "Transmission of Power by 
Leather Belting," which will be illustrated by lantern slides. Valuable 
chaits have been prepared by the author for the solution of belting prob- 
lems and will be given in the paper. 



Oil Fuel on Hydraulic Dredges. — The U. S. Army has just ulaced in 
commission the second of two very large hydraulic dredges required for 
service in the Gulf of Mexico. The first one built, the "General C. B. Com- 
stock," was placed in commission six years ago and was fitted for burning 
oil for fuel, the entire fuel equipment being furnished by Tate, Jones & 
Co., Inc., of Pittsburg. The service of that vessel has led to the equipping 
of the new one, the "Galveston," which has four boilers and 2,000 indi- 
cated horse power, in the same manner, the apparatus being furnished by 
the same company. 



A New Correspondence School. — The Modern System Correspondence 
School Company, with offices at 6 Beacon street, Boston, Mass., has been 
organized and Oscar E. Perrigo has been elected president and educational 
director. This school will give practical instruction in the subjects of 
modern cost systems; shop methods and systems; shop construction, devel- 
opment, organization and management; factory and commercial office sys- 
tems; foundry systems; mechanical drawing and engineering systems, and 
such other allied subjects as may be added from time to time. The New 
York office is at ]32 Nassau street. 



Termination of Receivership. — The Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. 
Company again became the property of the stockholders on December 5, 
after having been in the hands of the receiver since October 23, 1907. It 
is stated that this is the most successful receivership that has ever taken 
place, the operations of the company during the time of receivership 
showing a net profit of over $1,000,000. The newly elected officers con- 
sist of, president, George Westinghouse; temporary chairman of executive 
committee, E. C. Converse; first vice-president, E. M. Herr; second vice 
president, L. A. Osborne; secretary, Chas. A. Terry, and treasurer, T. W. 
Siemon. 



THE HAMMER BLOW FROM INCORRECT COUNTERBALANCE 



H. H. Vaughan. 



The generally accepted solution of a consideration of (he actiou 
on the rail of a wheel containing counterbalance is that of a 
variable pressure between the rail and the wheel squalling the 
static weight on the wheel, added to or reduced by the vertical 
force due to the action of the unbalanced weight. Thus in Fig. 
i if OA represents the time of one revolution, BC the pressure 
between the rail and the wheel due to the weight on the wheel, 
OB and ODAE the vertical force due to the action of the over- 
balance, the result and pressure between the rail and the wheel 
is shown by the line BFG and equals the ordinate of the shaded 
area at any time. 

Should the overbalance be excessive and the speed so high 
that the vertical force caused by the overbalance exceeds the 
weight on the wheel, there may be a negative pressure between 
the wheel and the rail, or in other words, a force tending to lift 
the wheel, which condition is shown in Fig. 2, where the cross 
hatched portion below OA represents an upward force which 
tends to lift the wheel and attains a maximum value TP at 



in connection with counterbalance, as a misnomer, and to ascribe 
the damage that may occur, to the high pressures wnich exist, 
rather than to the effect of an actual fall of the wheel on the rail. 
In the early part of 1008 a serious case of damaged rails 
occurred on the Canadian Pacific Railway, the rails being sharply 
i" m for about a mile, on both sides al intervals about equal to 
the circumference of a driving wheel. The damaged spots were 
carefully measured over a considerable distance, averaged, and 
the diameter of the wheel so found corresponded with that of an 
engine which had made a very fast run over the damaged track 
the day previous. The wheels of :liis engine were taken out and 
the main drivers found to contain an excessive amount of over- 
balance, actually amounting to about 1,000 pounds. As the weight 
on these wheels was 22,000 pounds, the force on the rail at the 
speed estimated varied from 57,000 pounds to an upward force 
of 13,000 pounds. A portion of the rail was experimented with 
in a testing machine and it was found impossible to bend it in 
the same manner as had occurred on the track, with different 




fig. 1. 



the instant when the counterbalance is vertically upwards. For 
a numerical example suppose the weight on the wheel is 20,000 
pounds and the maximum vertical effect of the overbalance is 
25,000 pounds. The pressure on the rail will become 45,000 
pounds at the point S, while at T there will be a force of 5,000 
pounds tending to lift the wheel, and that the wheel docs lift 
under the action of this force is well shown from the experi- 
ments on the Purdue and St. Lotus testing plants. The greatest 
pressure on the rail occurs when the counterbalance is vertically 
downwards, and as this in many cases of improperly balanced 
engines reaches such figures as 50,000 to 60,000 pounds, the dam- 
age that has occasionally been caused to the rail when such en- 
gines have run at specially high speeds, has been asi ribed to this 
great downward force. A consideration of the diagrams shows 
that however great this force may be at this point, its application 
is entirely gradual and it cannot possibly partake of the nature 
of a blow given by a falling weight, however high he speed. 
as the pressure between the rail and the wheel gradually in- 
creases from nothing or a comparatively small amount until it 
reaches its maximum and then decreases, and it has therefore 
become usual to regard the hammer blow, so often mentioned 



centers of supports and with loads as high as 200.000 pounds 
While the cause of the damage was thus located, the method by 
which it was effected was still not apparent, and a general dis- 
belief in the calculations of the forces caused by the unbalanced 
weights on the wheels was the natural result. It then occurred 
to the writer to investigate the action of the wheel when lifted 
from the rail by the upward force caused by the overbalance, 
with results that are interesting and to a large extent explain the 
action which takes place. 

The wheel is taken as a mass of 3,200 pounds weight, pressed 
down by the spring with a force equal to the static weight on 
the rail, less its own weight, running on rigid track and acted 
upon by the forces caused by the overbalance. As an example the 
speed was assumed to be 300 revolutions per minuze, the weight 
on the rail 20,000 pounds and the force due to the overbalance 
25.000 pounds, so that the force tending to lift the wheel attained 
a maximum of 5.000 pounds. The mathematical discussion which 
applies to any set nf conditions is given below, and the results 
are shown in Fig. 3 for this particular example. 

The horizontal dimensions in this diagram indicate the move- 
ment of the wheel in degrees, o° being the position of the wheel 



45 (February) 



46 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



5000 


2 


.04 










r e ^ 


















«£>^ 










9 



1 



_5 
o 
'-* 

l 


.05 


©~ 

.02 




4 




















^-^ 












40° 


-V 


0° 

M= 
W= 


° 

100 

200 


1 \ 


o' t 


)" \t 


0° li KP° |\12 






c = 


260 










| 












rymi = 


30O 










1 

1 


5000 


2 


,H4 


















| 


















1 




:; 
i 


.06 

.08 
[0 


















l 1 
\ 


lnOiiii 
















\ 1 
\ 1 
\ 1 
















\ 1 
\l 



FIG. 3. 

when the counterbalance is vertically upwards, while the vertical 
dimensions indicate to three different scales, the forces acting 
on the wheel, the velocity of the wheel upwards and its upward 
movement. Thus, at about — 37'A°, or when the center line 
of the counterbalance makes that angle with the vertical, the up- 
ward force due to the overbalance equals the weight or. the wheel, 
and beyond that exerts an upward force on the wheel, tend- 
ing to lift it, which becomes a maximum of S.ooo pounds at 
o° and zero again when the counterbalance has moved ziYi-° 
past the center. The wheel then commences to be acted upon by 
a downward force due to its weight and the force of the spring 
which becomes greater than the effect of the counterbalance. Since 
the latter continues to decrease and at qo° becomes zero and later 
in its turn acts downward, this force increases rapidly. Further 
consideration indicates that the upward velocity of the wheel, 
zero at — 37°, gradually increases 
until the wheel has turned to 37°, 
when its upward velocity is a maxi- 
mum, since, while the forces acting 
on it upward have been decreasing 
from 0°, they have still been acting 
to increase its upward velocity. As 
the downward forces become re- 
versed they first destroy this upward 
velocity which becomes zero at about 
75°, after which they impress on it 
an increasing downward velocity un- 
til the wheel reaches the rail. To 
find the point at which this takes 
place, it is necessary to plot 1 he- 
space line or that showing the move- 
ment of the wheel vertically upwards 
from the rail. This commences with 
zero, at — 37 , gradually increasing 
to 0.0465 feet or about .55 inch at 
75°, at which point the upward veloc- 
ity is zero and the upward movement 
has attained its maximum. The wheel 

then begins to return to the rail, its movement becoming zero again, 
or in other words, striking the rail at tlS°, and by referring to 
the velocity curve, it will be seen that at the point the downward 
velocity is 4.7 feet per second. This velocity corresponds to that 
gained in dropping freely through a height of 0.36 foot, or about 
A l /z inches, and as the weight is 3,200 pounds, there is an actual, 
but not severe, blow. 

It is interesting to note that this diagram explains completely 
the results obtained on testing plants, and with wire run under 
the drivers, in which W. F. M. Goss has noted that the wheel 
appeared to drop more quickly than it went up, and at a con- 
siderably greater distance from the center, and it is evident that 



this should be so. The movement of the wheel does not coincide 
with the variation in the force. As long as the force .s upwards 
the wheel is acquiring an upward velocity and this velocity does 
not become zero until the downward forces have acted on the 
wheel for a sufficient time to destroy it. In the same way, the 
upward movement goes on increasing not only until the upward 
velocity decreases, but until it is destroyed and the wheel does 
not return to the track until the downward velocity has attained 
a very considerable amount. 

The diagram in Fig. 4 shows similar curves plotted at 320 revo- 
lutions for the engine mentioned as having caused the damage to 
the rail on the Canadian Pacific. This is of course an excep- 
tionally bad case, but it will be seen that the wheel did not return 
to the track for 177 , when it had a downward velocity of 171^ 
feet per second, corresponding to a free fall of 4J-4 feet, from 
which height a weight of 3,200 pounds would certainly deliver 
a blow of sufficient energy to account for the effects observed. 

In an extreme case of this nature, however, the method of 
analysis employed gives results that are greater than would actu- 
ally occur, since the force acting down on the wheel is not con- 
stant, but would increase as the wheel moved upwards and de- 
flected the spring. For instance, if the latter had a deflection of 
0.2 foot under the working load of 18,800 lbs., the downward 
force with any upward movements of the wheel would equal 



3200 + 1 8800 



(^) 



in place of a constant amount of 22,000 pounds, and the accelera- 
tion equation would then become 

<Ps 

32C0 + 18800 j 
dr 



I 



i 1 ^)] 



This expression involves s and becomes exceedingly compli- 
cated to integrate, but the effect of including it would be to 
diminish the upward movement and slightly reduce the striking 
velocity. In the first case its influence is inappreciable as the 
upward movement is small, but in the second it would certainly 
reduce this, and account for the box not striking the frame. An 



15000 

10000 

5000 



En 
5000 

10000 

10000 
20000 


15 
10 


k- 

10 

i . 
30 


0.3 
0.2 
0.1 

DO 

0.1 
0.2 
0.3 
























































y 








$s£ 


e^^ 


















J20 
























'' - 2 


M = 
W= 


100 

220 


0" 


' \ I 


b 


t 


11 J \. 1 


' 1 


II ' 1 


1 

1 








G = 


300 
320 
















1 

1 

1 


























1 

\ 1 

\ 1 


























\ 1 





FIG. 4. 

exact solution would in addition allow for the elasticity of the 
track, and this in its turn would apparently increase the velocity 
of the blow, although an equation involving it would probably 
be too complicated to treat mathematically except by an expert. 

While, however, the solution here given in Fig. 4 may not be 
exactly correct, the actual striking velocity being lower than that 
calculated, there is no doubt that it is of considerable magnitude 
and probably from 12 to 15 feet per second, and an absolute 
hamimer blow is therefore accounted for which is of sufficient 
intensity to explain the damage that has occurred. 

It is interesting to note that in extreme cases the wheel does 

not return to the track or the blow occur until the wheel has 



February, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



47 



moved to a position where the counterbalance is within 20° or 30° 
of being vertically downwards and the popular connei tion "f this 
blow with the downward movement of the counterbalance is thu 
explained. 

The result of these calculations would emphasize the danger of 
an unbalanced force which could equal the weight on the wheel 
On the usual assumption that the maximum speed in miles per 
hour equals the diameter of drivers in inches, this would restrict 
the overbalance in any wheel to 2' ', per cent, of the weight 
on the wheel and to be entirely safe the practice on the Canadian 
Pacific Railway is now to limit it t< 1 1 1 per cent, and to make il 
I per cent, if possible. 

Mathematical Analysis. 

When counterbalance is vertically upwards t = o 
Let 7c = acceleration due to downward force of spring and 
weight of wheel, acting on mass of wheel 
c = acceleration due to maximum value of force caused by 

overbalance, acting on mass of wheel 
j = vertical movement of wheel, from rail, feet 
t = time, seconds 
kt = angular movement of wheel, radians 

<?s 
Then, = c cos kt — w 

dr 



ds c 

dt k 



sin kt — wt + C 



= o when t = — /,, when cos kt, = — 

w 

c 
Then C = — sin lit, — 7e</, 
k 

ds c c 

And — = — sin kt -\ sin kt, — wt — wt„ from which 

dt k k 

the velocity curves are plotted 



c ct wt 

s = cos kt + — sin kt, — 

k 2 k 2 

= o when / = — t, 

ct, c 

Then C = sin kt s -\ cos kt, 

k k" 



wtt, + C 

wh" 
2 

wt, 2 wt 2 



and i = — {kt, sin kt, + cos kt,) — 

k' 2 

1 1 sin kt, — wt, I — — cos kt, 

\ k ) k 2 

from which the space curves are plotted. 



RAILROADS WANT FAIR TREATMENT. 



The railroad system of the country has been built up by indi- 
vidual energy working with capital that was invested because 
it expected a profit in the enterprise. Capital has ceased to be 
generally available for this work at a time when its co-operation 
is greatly needed. The return of prosperity to the transportation 
business and to all other business, since the connection between 
them is direct and intimate, is conditioned upon such a testora- 
tion of confidence as will again permit and promote liberal invest- 
ments. And that will happen only when the public is convinced 
that capital put into railroad securities will have the same protec- 
tion against unjust or unfair attack, the same right to earn a 
proper return, as capital invested in other occupations enjoys. 

The country, in fact, is waiting to see what is to be the at- 
titude of public authorities, legislatures, commissions and courts 
toward the railroad interest. It needs and asks no favors; it is 
entitled to fair play, and the capital employed in it to a reason- 
able profit. When this appears certain, and public policies are 
framed accordingly, not only transportation, but all other indus- 
try, will experience a real return of prosperity. The material 



welfare oi th< nation will be promoted by every expression of 
determination on the pari of individuals and associations repre- 
senting great inten sts to secure that just treatment and that se- 
curity without which capital withdraws itself, every form of in- 
dustry declines, and all the people suffer loss.— l ; rom a letter by 
1. J. Hill to the 11 <ard of Trade. 



CARS AND LOCOMOTIVES BUILT IN 1903.+ 



To understand the condition of the car and locomotive build- 
ing business fully (lining the past year, it is necessary to study 
both the number of orders placed for equipment during this 
period and also the number built. The orders placed, which 
arc fully reported in another column of this issue, reflect both 
business conditions throughout the year [908 and expectations 
of better conditions during 1909. The amount of equipment 
actually built during the year, on the other hand, shows only 
actual conditions unlightened by hope of the future, since actual 
recovery of business started too late in the year to show in the 
form of completed cars and locomotives. The following figures 
are also interesting in that they are compiled from returns from 
equipment building companies only, and do not include the out- 
put of railway companies' shops, the operation of which through 
the year has helped in giving somewhat of a market for labor 
and makers of railway supplies. 

In 1907, car and locomotive builders worked at full capacity 
throughout the year on orders placed in the early part of that 
year. By the end cf the year, however, the full effects of the 
depression were being felt, and comparatively few orders were 
carried over into 1908. Last December, officials of represen- 
tative companies estimated that their orders on hand would 
keep them busy at full capacity for from two to four months only. 
Where possible, working time and forces were cut down so as 
to keep plants running on part time for as long a period as pos- 
sible on completing such orders as could be delayed. 

During the past year 35 car building companies in the United 
States and Canada built 78,271 cars, which is only 27 per cent. 
of the number built in T907. These figures include subway and 
elevated cars, but not street railway and interurban cars. Of 
the cars built in the United States, 66,751 were freight cars for 
domestic service, 1,206 freight for export, 7,566 passenger cars 
for domestic service and 71 passenger for export. Canada built 
8,593 freight cars for domestic service, 5 freight for export, and 
79 passenger cars for domestic service. In 1907, Canada built 
9,159 freight cars and 106 passenger cars. 

The following table shows the cars built during the last 10 
years : 

Year. 

1898 

1901) 

1901 

1902 

1903 

1904 

190.'. 

lfllln 

1907 

1908 



Freight. 


Passenger. 


Total. 


119,SS6 


1,305 


121,191 


115,631 


1,636 


117,267 


130.950 


2.1)55 


139,005 


102,599 


1,948 


164,547 


153.195 


2.007 


155,202 


on. son 


2 144 


62,950 


105.455 


2.551 


•168.006 


240,503 


8,167 


•243.670 


2S4,1SS- 


5,451 




76,555 


1,716 


•78,271 



• Includes Canadian output. 

Returns from 11 locomotive builders in the United States and 
Canada show a total of 2.342 engines, about the same relative 
tailing off as in the cars built. Of the -'.124 built in the United 
States, 1,668 were for domestic use and 456 for export. These 
figures include 245 electric and 79 compound locomotives. The 
Canadian engines, 218. were all for domestic service. Of these 
20 were compound. 

Comparisons for the last 16 years are given in the following 
table : 





No. 




Xo. 




Xo. 




Xo. 


Year. 


built. 


Year. 


built. 


Year. 


built. 






1893.. 


. . .2,011 


1897. - 


- . 1,451 


1901. . 




1905.. 


. .*5,491 




. . . 695 








...4.070 


1906.. 








1S99. . 


, . .2,475 


1903.. 




1907... 




1896 




1900. 


.. 3.153 


1904 




190S... 


. . '2.312 



•Includes Canadian output. 

f From the Kailroad Age Gazette, Dec. 25. 1903. 



48 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 





Operating End. 



Sec 'ion Through Center of Car. Halt Section in Front of Bolster. Half End Elevation 

SECTIONAL ELEVATIONS, PLAN AND END ELEVATION OF SUMMERS STEEL HOPPER CAR — UNION RAILROAD. 



SUMMERS' STEEL HOPPER CAR 



These cars are of the hopper type and have door openings 16 
ft. 2 in. long and varying in width, depending upon the con- 
ditions of unloading, as shown by the sketches, but in some cases 
amounting to as much as two-thirds of the width of the car. 
These doors are controlled from one end of the car, and by the 
proper manipulation of three cranks the combinations of unload- 
ing shown on the sketches may be obtained. All of the load may- 
be discharged clear of the track on either side of it, or part of 
it may be discharged on either side, or all of it may be dumped 
in the center. The amount of the flow, in any of these cases, 
may be regulated by stopping the doors in a partially opened po- 
sition, where it will remain without locking. 

Tin- cars were designed to carry a load of 100,000 lbs. and have 
.1 cubic capacity, when loaded level, of 59.8 cu. yds., or 1,617 cu. 
ft. With a 30 deg. heap they have a capacity for 73.59 cu. yds., 
in- 1,087 cu. ft. With this capacity, and the above mentioned 



the cross-sectional view, the metal is so distributed as to ac- 
complish the desired results with a comparatively small amount 
1 if metal. The peculiar shape given to the top of the side sheet 
makes Ibis member very stiff at a point where many of the steel 
hopper cars have proved defective in the past. The sides are 
lied together at the middle by the pressed steel stiffeners. The 
vertical side stiffeners are placed on the inside and consist of 
10 in., 25 lb., I-beams split, thus forming a T with the project- 
ing part shaped to give the greatest strength where it is most 
needed. 

The drop doors are of J4 in. plate and are carefully reinforced 
to stand up under the severe service to which they are sub- 
jected. The guards at the ends of the doors and in front of 
the trucks are used to spread the material which may be dumped 
between the tracks, and to push it out from the track when 
dumped at the side. 




SUMMERS STEEL HOPPER CAR, 100,00'J LBS. CAPACITY — UNION RAILROAD. 



advantages for unloading, it is remarkable to find that the car 
weighs only 45,000 lbs., although it is as strong, and probably 
stronger, than most of the 100,000 lb. hopper cars in service. 
While it is especially adapted for construction work and for 
hafrdling coal and ore, and material of this kind, it may be used 
advantageously for any purpose to which the ordinary hopper 
car is suited. 

The features of construction are clearly shown on the draw- 
ings. The design is unique from the fact that the car has no 
center sills, the draft sills extending from the end sills to the 
hopper only. These sills transmit the pulling and buffing stresses 
to the side girders through the pressed steel diagonal braces. 
The side construction is very strong and rigid, and, as shown by 



The draft sills are 12 in., 25 lb., channels; Westinghouse fric- 
tion draft gear is used, the draft lugs being of cast steel. The 
extension of the side sills and the ends of the end sills receive 
additional support from the diagonal brace which extends up- 
ward to the side sheets. The coupler carrier iron is of cast 
steel and is secured by pins to two cast steel arms, which are 
riveted to the end sill channels. 

The Union Railroad Company (a constituent of the Carnegie 
Steel Company) has over 600 of the cars now in operation and 
a number of other steel-producing concerns are also using them 
and increasing their number by additional orders from time to 
time. 

The Union Railroad made a fill in the past year, raising the 




ILLUSTRATION OF WAYS IN WHICH THE SUMMERS STEEL CARS CAN BE UNLOADED. 

49 



50 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 





SUMMERS STEEL ORE CAR — DULUTH AND IRON RANGE RAILROAD. 



level of a classification yard some 20 feet with over two million 
cubic yards of filling material. The use of these cars for this 
work materially reduced the cost of handling refuse material 
over that of other years notwithstanding they were operating 
at a great disadvantage on account of having to do the work 
and keep traffic open through the yard at the same time. 

A till which can be made by discharging the load all at one 
side and follow up the fill by moving the track over, is where 
this design of car is especially advantageous, and under such 
conditions will save its cost in a comparatively short time. 

This type of car has also proven itself to be specially adapted 
for ore traffic and the illustration above shows a design, 800 of 
which are now under construction, for the Duluth & Iron Range 



Railroad. This order followed a long experience with a sam- 
ple car. 

Of course, the ore car, while following the same general 
features, differs from the regular car in many details. The 
most noticeable feature is in the slope of the sides, which are 
at an angle of 50 degs. instead of 30 degs. The cubical con- 
tents, of course, is considerably smaller for the same weight 
capacity, giving both a shorter and a lower car and one which, 
in the case of the sample car, weighed but 32,100 lbs. 

The cars of both types are equipped with standard arch bar 
trucks and were designed by E. W. Summers, president of the 
Summers Steel Car Company, Farmers' Bank Building, Pitts- 
burg, Pa. 



WEIGHT DISTRIBUTION OF MALLET ARTICULATED 

LOCOMOTIVES 



II. M. Sloat. 



The calculation of the weight distribution of any type of I 

motive involves the center of gravity and the calculation of 
the center of gravity involves the knowing or estimating tin- 
weight of each part and its distance from some assumed point. 
On account of the articulated feature of Mallet design, the two 
systems require separate consideration. 

The center of gravity of each system is found in the usual 
manner, the front system being considered as comprising all the 
parts forward of the point of articulation, such as the low pits 
sure cylinders, front frames, front bumper, guides, etc., and 1 ln- 
rear system as comprising the remaining parts, including the 
boiler. In these calculations only the weights above the springs 
are considered, i. e., the live load. 

Since the design of an articulated compound locomotive calls 
for the same tractive effort from each set of cylinders, which 
means that the same adhesive weight should exist in each sys- 
tem, it is, of course, necessary that the total weight should be 
divided equally between the two groups of wheels, and since the 
rear system is by far the heavier, the front system must, there- 



II 
where equals the dead .-. i ight Bi each 

h is obvious thai in order to obtain the desired weight at the 
virtual point of support, thi center of gravity of the rear system 
can be located in but one place. To determine this location we 
divide the moment ol the rear system— obtained by multiplying 
the weight falling on the virtual point of support (X) by its 
distance from the center of the wheel ba e of this system (y) — 
by the total weight of the system (B). The result is the dis- 
tance ahead of the center of the rear wheel-base at which the* 
center of gravity acts. 

But it is also evident that the actual center of gravity may 
not coincide with this point, and when such is the case, the loca- 
tion of the boiler is shifted, or the position of the 'other heavy 
parts, such as the cylinders, frames or castings is moved, or the 
wheel-base changed until the center of gravity is moved suffi- 
ciently. An approximate plan is laid out and then modified until 
the desired conditions are reached. 




FIG. I. 



fore, support one-half of the difference between the two to en- 
sure this distribution. 

The point where this weight is to be supported on the front 
system is readily located by determining a lever arm of such 
length that the moment obtained by multiplying it with the 
weight will equal the moment obtained by multiplying the weight 
of the front system by the distance of its center of gravity from 
the center of the wheel-base of this system. This point may be 
called the "Virtual Supporting Point" of the rear system on the 
front engine, and is shown at distance a. Thus Xr = Dc (Fig. 
i.l. As the moments are equal, the tilting effect of the system 
produced by its center of gravity falling so far ahead of the mid- 
dle point of the wheel-base will now be balanced. 

Figure I shows clearly how the weight is distributed through 
the system. The balls represent weights, the various sizes being 
indicative of the amount considered as acting at that particular 
point. Thus, D is the weight of the front system shown at its 
center of gravity; X is the proportion of the weight brought over 
to the front system to equally divide the total weight of the en- 
gine ; G equals the sum of D and X ; F is the weight carried by 
the rear system ; B equals the sum of F and X, and T represents 

H H 

the total weight of the engine or the sum of F -| J- G + — , 

2 2 



The proportion of the total weight supported by the front and 
back systems is readily found by considering the rear system as 
a beam carrying a concentrated load and resting on two sup- 
ports, i. c, the load is divided according to the respective dis- 
tances of the supporting points from its point of application. 
This is shown by the following equation: 
B 

Front system, X — — a and G = X + D 



B 



Back svstem, 



F = 



This, when added to the dead weight ot the respective systems, 
will equal the total rail load of that system and cne-half the 
total weight of the engine. 

The actual or sliding support through which the weight is 
brought on the front system, is shown in Fig. I located between 
the second and third pairs of drivers : it is not practical to place 
this support coincident with the virtual point of support, because 
then the front engine would be unstable and tip one way or the 
other by changes due to inertia in stopping or starting or the 
slightest disturbance due to change of grade. It should be placed 
a sufficient distance ahead of the virtual point to insure stability. 
But since the lever arm from this support to the center of the 
rear wheel-base is now lengthened, the weight carried to the 



51 



52 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



front system is reduced and thus actually Xz will not equal Dc 
and the- front engine will consequently tend to tip forward. To 
correct this disturbance, a pair of vertical hanger or suspension 
bolts is applied just forward of the point of articulation, between 
the tipper member of the frame at the extreme rear end of the 
front engine, and the lower member of the frame at the extreme 
front end of the rear engine. By tightening these bolts, the 
proper alignment of the front engine may be adjusted and the 
actual supporting point brought back, so that in effect it coin- 
cides with the virtual. This reduces the pressure on the sliding 
support and imposes load on the bolts in proportion to the re- 
spective distances of the two supports from the virtual support- 
ing center. These bolts are shown in Fig. 2. The disturbance 
due to grade or inertia may also be reduced by providing two 
supports, one on each side of the virtual. 

The application of both front and rear trucks will not disturb 
the position of the centers of gravity, for they will take a cer- 
tain percentage of the load depending on the position of their 
equalizing arms, a like amount being taken off the drivers on 
each system. Tn case, however, only a front truck be added, 
this will necessitate shifting the boiler or cylinders ahead in order 




FIG. 2. 

to keep a sufficient weight on the front drivers thus compensat- 
ing for the weight taken off by the truck. The proportion of 
weight falling on the truck is determined by the same method 
used when considering a mogul or a consolidation type of loco- 
motive. 



BALANCED COMPOUND PASSENGER LOCOMOTIVE 



Nashville, Chattanooga and St. Louis Railway. 



About three years ago the Baldwin Locomotive Works com- 
pleted an order of three balanced compound passenger locomo- 
tives of the ten-wheel type for the Nashville, Chattanooga and 
St. Louis Railway which gave so good an account of themselves 
that a fourth engine was ordered from the same drawings in 
1906 and a further order of three more have recently been de- 
livered. The last order differs from the previous ones in the 
substitution of the Walschaert valve gear for the Stephenson, 
but in other respects is practically a duplicate. The design 
throughout is conservative and represents a modernized example 
of the type of passenger locomoltive which was very popular ten 
years ago and is still being successfully operated in large num- 
bers, principally on branch lines, with probably a smaller main- 
tenance cost per engine mile than any later type of passenger 
power. The modernizing process consists in applying balanced 
compound cylinders and Walschaert valve gear together with 
some minor features, as electric headlight, pneumatic sanders and 



These locomotives are now operating over the Chattanooga 
division, a profile of which is shown in an accompanying illus- 
tration, where the ruling grade negotiated by a single locomo- 
tive is S3 ft. per mile and the maximum grad.', between Stephen- 
son and Cowan, where a helper engine is used, is 105 ft. per mile. 
The division is 151 miles long. Train No. 1 makes the run in 
five hours and ten minutes, including 27 stops. The regular train 
consists of a baggage car, mail car, express car, four coaches 
and two sleeping cars and has a weight of 420 tons. Train No. 3 
makes the run in five hours and fifteen minutes, with 12 stops, 
and normally weighs 450 tons. Extra sleepers, however, are fre- 
quently added, giving a 12 or 13-car train, but the locomotives 
have sufficient reserve capacity to still maintain their schedule, 
which was altogether out of the question with simple engines 
under these conditions. Mr. F. H. Scheffer, superintendent of 
machinery at Nashville, states that in a general way the running 
repairs are about one-third more than for a simple engine, al- 



g so 

ll 


r\° 
1 \° 


« £ 








A 

% A B 


/ 






V\p/ 












/ 




2 g 


/ 


















f> 




X 


I 


/ 






A P. A 




1 




















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Mil, ■ 






























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1 ^VA^ 2, 



PROFILE OF THE CHATTANOOGA DIVISION OF THE NASHVILLE, CHATTANOOGA & ST. LOUIS RAILWAY. 



bell ringer, etc. The compound cylinders permit a very desir- 
able increase in capacity while still retaining the narrow firebox, 
wagon top boiler with its many advantages from a maintenance 
standpoint. The advantages of the Walschaert valve gear over 
the Stephenson, particularly on a locomotive with a cranked 
axle, are so evident that its application needs no explanation. 
The other features are, of course, improvements without any 
counteracting disadvantages and the net result is a locomotive 
which retains the best features of the old with some of the best 
features of the new era of design. 



though some small changes made in the last order will probably 
largely reduce this percentage, but, since the engines save coal 
and satisfactorily perform the service demanded, there is no 
objection to the increased maintenance cost, and balanced com- 
pounds are very popular in that district. 

This design of balanced compound cylinders has been illus- 
trated and described several times in these columns and is too 
well known to require further description. The present example 
contains no unusual features. The piston valves are 15 in. di- 
ameter and are located directly over the frames. This requires 



February, 1909. AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 53 

the introduction of a rocker to transfer the motion from the Heating surf ebo .185 aq. ft. 

Healing surface, tubi .2,7.15 aq. it. 

plane of the valve gear to the valve, ft is placed just back of Crate area 

... , , ,, t i:__ *u« _i»4.« Smokestack, heig!" i It ft. 11 in. 

the cylinders and has two upwardly extending arms, the outer r , nll , ,,, |, , .,■... . - ft. 11 in. 

one connecting to the combination lever at the same point the .her. 

valve stem connection is made in the usual design on simple en- Tank 

Frame > n in, Chan. 

gines. Wheels, diameter 33 in. 

~, , , c ,, , •,, ■,, „ .„ . „. i ---.*-_ Journals, diametei anrl length 6 x 9 in. 

I he crank axle is of the bum up tyi'e with a cast steel center Water capacity , . . ■ gal«. 

web which was illustrated in this journal in August, 1906, page Coal capacity ».S ton* 
I 18. The main rods are approximately 75 inches in length. 

The main frames are cast steel 1 inches wide and the single COALING ARRANGEMENTS AT ROUNDHOUSES. 
bar front frames are iron with a comparatively light section 

made possible by the use of balanced cylinders which very de- The coal pocket should bi located that engint can take coal 

cidedly reduce the stress in them as compared to what it would inbound or outbound, as on modern engines the flues mu 

be with simple cylinders. cleaned from the firebox end, and this cannot well be done when 

The boiler is of the well-known narrow firebox, wagon top the tender is full of coal. A locomotive with modern front end 

type and measures 64 in. outside diameter at the front ring. The appliances is so arranged that it is impossible to clean out 

mud ring is but 3 in. wide at the sides and back and the side stopped up Hues from the front without removing the draught 




BALANCED COMPOUND TEN-WHEEL PASSENGER LOCOMOTIVE — N., C. & ST. L. RV. 

water legs are narrow throughout, widening to only about 4 appliances, and these 111 many cases have to be so :arefully ar- 
inches at the crdwn sheet. In the back water leg the space is ranged that it is expensive, and many chances are run in get- 
increased to 6J4 inches at the crown sheet. ting them back just right, so as to insure the engine steaming ; 

The O'Connor firedoor flange is used and flexible staybolts it has been found that on wide firebox engines, with the best ar- 

have been fitted in the breakage zones. The tubes number 256 rangements of front end, stopped-up flues must be cleaned from 

and are 2*4 in. diameter and 17 ft. long. The bridges are ap- the back end. 

proximately >i in. The tube heating surface gives a ratio of If from ten to twenty tubes are stopped up (and this is not 

73.2 to the grate area. exaggerated), it means that the heating surface of the engine 

The general dimensions, ratios and weights arc as follows: is diminished by about 150 square feet, and this has a very ma- 

general data. terial effect on the steaming of the engine, especially as the 

fe^we'^^^^^^^^'i^^^"^'^'^'^^'^'ii^^^^^^'^"^'^^^'^^'^'^^■.^»*™Be^ stopped-up flues are very Hkeiy to be at the bottom of the boiler, 

.',•>"•' ■■„ oPl'nn Shs' where the water is coldest. 

tractive effort .ja.ion lbs. _ . 

Weight in working order 170,000 lbs. A terminal that is so arranged that an engine muii take its 

weight on te r adfnT't™ck::: :::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::"moS Ibt coai inbound, or block traffic if taking it outbound, is not ar . 

Weight of engine and tender in working order 280,000 1 lbs. raree d to give the best and most economical service, because, 

Wheel base, driving 1- "■ ° . . . . , , , , 

Wheel base, total 26 ft- for the reasons given above, it is important that the tenders be 

Wheel base, engine and tender.... „_ 55 ft. 2 m. ^^ q{ ^ ^^ ^ ^.^ c?meg .^ ^ hou£c> for the 

Weight on drivers 4- tractive effort 4-28 double purpose of first permitting the flues to be blown out, and 

Total weight H- tractive effort 5.81 *- ,,.,,,.. j .1 • 1 

Tractive effort x diam. drivers -h heating surface 705.00 second, that the tank may be lightly loaded and thus easier nan- 

^olTheating 1 'sttrfaceV^heliing surface: 'per cent ! [ [ .' \ .' ] I \ \ ! TSSo died in case work is to be done on either the tender, its frame, or 

\\ 1 ight on drivers -f- total heating surface 45.80 { j ]e (,.,,,.1^5 — R jj Smith before the New England Railroad Club. 

Total weight ~- total heating surface 63.00 

Volume equiv. simple cylinders, cu. ft 10.20 — ^^ == ^ ====== ^^ == 

Total heating surface -4- vol. cylinders 268.00 

Crate area -=- vol. cylinders 3.40 j HE Problem of To-day is not only to develop the inanimate 

K ;,„l .'.' Bal. Comp. mechanical forces, methods and materials, many of which have 

Diameter and stroke 16 & 37 x 86 in d n f hfc h may be, standardized, but to study, select, 

Kind of valves rrsion > J 

Diameter "f valves 15 in. train and manage the animate human element, which cannot be 

Driving, diameter over tires "Tff!f! 68 in. standardized, and is the potent and controlling factor in the 

Driving,'. thickness of tires.. ,-;-„,\; 10 W Vo'u in man-machine unit.—/. E. Muhlfeld, New York Railroad Club. 

I driving journals, main, diameter and lengtb 10 x 10 y 2 in. ' 

Driving journals, others, diameter and length x 12 in. 

Inline X^^k^^^\\\\\\V^::^\\\\\\\\\Y^\\iW^ S What is STEAM?-What would you give, off-hand, as (ho defi- 

boiler. w T nition of steam? Is it a simple element to define? At an ex- 

VVorking pressure 2'° 'hs. amination of firemen for promotion, held by one of the roads in 

Outside diameter ot first ring 61 in. ~ , ,, • _„„»;-._ ,..„ c „,,► t n -, hn-maii • "What is 

Firebox, length and width 120 x 417, in. Texas recently, tins question was put to a fireman, wnai is 

|?irebo> pljites, iliickness S. & B. ! s . C. 7 'is T. '.. in. steam?" He hesitated for a moment and then replied: "Steam 

Tubes > , X number and outside 'diameter.' .'.'.' .'.'.'.' .'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.".'..'..!. .256— 25* in! j s water gone crazy with beat." lie was promoted.— Raihi-ay 

Tubes, length 17 ft. . . 

Heating surface, tubes 2,650 sq. it. JOW nal. 



HANDLING LOCOMOTIVK SUPPLIES' 



BY E. FISH ENSIE. 



Part III. — Standardization. 



Introductory. — In the January, 1908, issue of this journal (page 
7), the writer gave a general outline of the whole problem of 
handling and maintaining locomotive tool and supply equipments 
from its several aspects; for example, costs involved, minimum 
expectable expenditures, variations in cost on different roads and 
with different degrees of supervision, the primary Interstate Com- 
merce Commission prescribed accounts covering all the expendi- 
tures involved, handling requisitions, standardizing equipment, 
checking for equipment, caring for and repairing equipments, 
with a summary of the results to be expected. 

In the March, 1908 issue (page 90), the accounting and de- 
tailed costs were dealt with at some length, sufficient perhaps to 
give any mechanical transportation or accounting officer material 
for effectively applying the necessary basic accounting measures 
to secure full and reliable data for intelligent supervision of this 
item of expense. 

It is the writer's purpose to conclude this series of articles 
with a chapter dealing with the standardization of the various 
articles constituting the locomotive equipments, and with the in- 
specting system by which alone the complete results as to low 
costs (the words "maintenance cost" would be misleading, as the 
I. C. C. charges are under the Transportation Accounts, and not 
under the Maintenance Accounts) can be secured. 
Objects of Standardization. 

Standardization is a two-fold process: it determines in a gen- 
eral way what articles shall constitute a locomotive equipment, 
considering the purposes for which the equipment is needed, 
whether the need is real, whether it may be fulfilled in some other 
way, or by some substitution ; and it specifies in minute detail 
as to design and quality, the construction of each item or article. 

The objects of standardization are : 

To give the best practical service of each article, and of the 
equipment as a whole ; in other words, to bring the efficiency of 
the equipment to the highest point. 

To give equipment so well designed, and so durable that it will 
last the longest per dollar expended, and not require the 
-trouble and care of replacement, thus providing the greatest 
economy consistent with the greatest efficiency in the use of the 
supplies and equipments. 

To promote the lowest yearly costs for the totals of each item 
used. 

To reduce to a minimum the amount of equipment on an en- 
gine and hen£e the trouble of taking care of it as well as the 
first investment cost. 

To set such uniform standards and specifications for all ar- 
ticles that there will not be confusion and variation in the order- 
ing, and that purchases in large quantities at best quotations may 
be arranged for. 

And to have such a uniform arrangement of the equipment 
on all engines, that inspection and care may involve the least 
amount of labor, and that records and supervision will be re- 
duced to the greatest simplicity. 

An outline will here be given of the method of such standardi- 
zation, illustrating in detail a few of the articles thus stand- 
ardized. 

The locomotive of the olden time was fortunate in having its 
individual captain and attendant; the personalities of the engi- 
neer and fireman were wrapped up with the individual peculiari- 
ties of the locomotive, and the one responded to the sympathetic 



Continued from page 95 of the March, 100S, issue. 



and skilful handling of the others. The engineer was largely 
his own mechanic, and when the locomotive went to the shop he 
laid off, too, and saw that a good job was done on his engine. 
His oil cans, hammers, wrenches and other tools and appliances 
also partook of his individual idiosyncrasies; in fact, he prob- 
ably bought most of these from his own pocket money, just as 
the average machinist of to-day buys his own rule and calipers. 
The engines were small, the parts were light, and the engineer 
was able to effect emergency repairs with his tools on the road, 
or at a turning point off on a small branch line. He was a ma- 
chinist as well as an engineer. 

The pooled locomotive' service, resulting from the use of 
heavier and more expensive units of motive power, has quite 
changed this situation, yet we find that the average locomotive 
equipment list of to-day savors of the character of a traveling 
machine shop, rather than of that of a set of appliances for the 
mere purpose of getting an engine over the road. Some articles 
are archaic, and serve a by-gone usefulness ; others are duplica- 
tions of articles carried elsewhere in the train ; and still others 
were best left behind in the roundhouse or shop. The ax and 
saw have in modern days become an anachronism on a locomo- 
tive like the polished brass bands about the boiler jackets, and 
the luxuriant landscape views on the tenders, of former days. 
Extra air and signal hose are usually carried attached to the 
train and signal lines at the forward end of the locomotive, and 
may be detached from this position, where they are seldom used, 
in case of mishap to the hose and couplings at the tender end; 
jacks, bars and wrecking chains may be usually found as part 
of the equipment of a baggage car or a caboose car, and often 
only serve to be in the way and to get in uselessly bad condition 
when carried on the locomotive tender and mixed up with the 
coal. Sledges, soft hammers, various sizes of screw and pipe 
wrenches, keys, cotters, and other like parts, exhaust nozzles, 
and spare bells and whistles, had better remain in the tool room, 
or in the stock room, than to be carried around for some re- 
motely (im)possible exigency on the road. 
Standard Articles. 
A list of standard equipment which will fulfil satisfactorily the 
average needs on American railways, with of course some 
changes here or there to fit particular circumstances, is given 
herewith. It would be beyond the space permitted in this paper 
to give detailed specifications, drawings, photographs, prices, and 
names of manufacturers, of each item of this standard equip- 
ment, and a few typical instances only will be chosen to illus- 
trate the way in which standardization is handled. 

The first case chosen will be that of the engineer's torch, be- 
cause it combines the functions of several different kinds of 
equipment (namely, of tool, of lamp, of oil receptacle, and of an 
indispensable article). The function of the torch is primarily to 
give light to the engineer when oiling around, both outside and 
inside the frame ; the torch should not be too heavy to hold, nor 
too bulky; it should stand up solidly, or lie down without leak- 
ing or going out; it should be of such proportion as to have 
its light easily thrust into restricted quarters; and it should be 
durable, and of such distinctive design that shopmen may not 
appropriate it without detection; it should burn well, and hold 
sufficient, but not too much oil. When engineers had their 
torches specially made, they used to be made of polished brass 
tubing, fitted with a large screw cap at the bottom, or possibly 
an end piece soldered fast, and a screw top with wick nipple 



54 



February, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



55 



at the other end, for holding the torch wicking. These torches 
were quite expensive, but the engineers took great pride in them, 
often keeping them highly polished, and jealously guarding them 
as their personal property for many years. At the present time 
the torch is either a tin pot torch, of the teapot pattern, or a 
malleable iron pot or hand torch (the latter of similar dimen- 
sions to the old-time brass torch), or more rarely a sheet iron 



Aluminum Casting -s 



#20 BW.G 




All Joints to be 
Brazed 



STANDARD ENGINEER'S TORCH. 

torch of a lighter, more handy, and more durable construction. 
The objection to the old-time brass torch was, of course, in its 
cost to make, though, if well taken care of, there is no question 
but that the brass torch at $2.00 or $3.00 each, is more economical 
than some of the cheaper torches that are bought to-day, as they 
will last years, where the others do not last weeks. But it is of 
course true that if the equipment is not carefully looked after 
the indiscriminate and wasteful use and abuse of brass torches 
will prove a great extravagance. Lack of care and restraint in 
the use of property always results in wasteful extravagance. 

The tin pot torch largely in use to-day, although suitable for 
shop use, is altogether unfitted for the rigors of service out on 
the road. The seams become unsoldered, the torch upsets and 
leaks, it is crushed, dented, and handle and spout broken off; 
the oil cap is lost, the spout cannot be thrust far in between 
the motion work of an engine in close quarters; and it is light 
and upsets easily. The average life of such a torch, even under 
good practice and care, and taking advantage of the resolder- 
ing and re-using of second-hand torches, is less than two months ; 



the hand form will nol stand up will, and when it lies down it 
almost always leaks— in practice, that is; but for these disad- 
vantages the malleable iron hand torch would he almost ideal 
for use. It costs but slightly more than the tin torch. 

Several supply firms handle a form of sheet iron torch, with 
a brazed seam, substantial bottom, an hape, and effi- 

cient wick nipple. A design is here shown that represents the 
best features of the best of these torches, but that is not the 
product of any particulai ompany. Its construction may 

be briefly described: the main body of the torch is a piece of 
sheet metal (iron, brass, or even aluminum), formed in the shape 
of a cone, brazed together substantially at the seam, flanged at 
the base, brazed to a ]A-\n. iron bottom of sufficiently wide pro- 
portions to make the torch stable, and tapering to about an inch 
and a half in diameter at the uppi r end, An aluminum, or a very 
light steel nipple, of considerable length, is used for the wick, 
and screws into a ring (hat is brazed inside of the upper taper 
end. This torch will sit up, because it has a concentrated weight 
at the hotlom; it is of a simple, durable, strong and substantial. 



<H- 




1 ^ 


4 


i 


Yi 





4\ 



12 



STANDARD ENGINEERS HrtMMER. 

construction ; it will not leak ; it is light and handy in use ; and it 
can be thrust into the narrowest quarters. Its cost very little, if 
at all, exceeds that of the cheaper torch just quoted, yet a much 
smaller number are required to be supplied to engines each year. 

An example has been quoted of a large railway that used a 
new torch on an average of each week to ten days for each en- 
gine in service ; the standards on this railway were the malleable 
iron hand, and tin pot torches. Hammers, used by the engineers, 
which cost about the same price, were not used up nearly so 
fast. The extraordinary consumption of these torches was due, 
not so much to general carelessness of enginemen, as to the care- 
lessness resulting from their disgust with unsatisfactory articles. 

We shall next consider a standard hammer. This hammer 
should be designed for use by engineer on the road. An ordinary 
machinist's or boilermaker's hammer will not do. The ma- 
chinist's hammer is too light, the handle is too long for the work 
in contracted quarters under an engine, and the design, being 
identical with that of the shopman's hammer, offers a needless 
temptation to roundhouse men and others to purloin these from 



P. /\l LWA V 



i 



-24 






/9^ 



STANDARD ENGINEER S CHISEL BAR, 

and the average cost is over 25 cents for even the cheapest grade 
of the article that will give service at all. Compare this with 
tiie more efficient, serviceable and satisfactory brass torch, that 
will cost ten times as much, but last twenty times as long, with 
the same proportionate amount of care and attention. 

The malleable iron torch is a very durable affair, and some 
examples of it, especially in the hand torch, are very well de- 
signed. These torches are much handier to use than the pot 
torches, but in practice they are found to have the following dis- 
advantages: they are so heavy that the engineer finds them dif- 
ficult to handle, becomes disgusted with them, gets rid of them 
at the first opportunity, and prefers even the much less suitable 
tin torch, because of its lightness; the malleable iron torch in 



the engine. Moreover, the ball pein is of no use practically to an 
engineer. An engineer's hammer should weigh about two pounds, 
so that he can strike an effective blow with it to knock out a pin 
or holt, should have a handle about twelve inches long, and 
should he equipped with a wedge pein so that it may be used in 
lifting the lids of cellar boxes, and to distinguish it completely 
from the shopmen's hammer. A hammer fulfilling these condi- 
tions, which may be economically made of malleable iron, is 
shown in the illustration. 

The chisel, too, ought to be radically different and distinguish- 
able from the shopmen's tools, and for this reason should be 
made of hexagon, instead of octagon steel. The flat chisel is 
all that is required in this direction on a locomotive, as a cape 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



chisel, or round-nose, are of little use in the hands of an engi- 
neer of to-day, who is not a machinist in a specialized sense. 
This chisel serves also as a set, or as a wedge. 

Next is shown a small chisel bar, which serves the purpose of 
bar, of cold chisel, and of jack lever, where a jack is carried. 
As this article has no duplicate in the shop, it can be made of 
the customary octagon steel. 

It is sometimes advocated that it is economy to use up on the 
locomotives all the old brooms that have served one period of 
usefulness already in the various offices, stations, shops, and else- 
where on the railroad. This idea is all right, but it does not go 
far enough. There are not nearly enough brooms to go around, 
as one broom is consumed per locomotive every two to six weeks. 
This case is not like that of the torches, due to indifference, 
and flagrant carelessness, but is due to legitimate wear in actual 
sweeping service, and is unavoidable, so long as brooms are used. 
To a limited extent, the second-hand brooms can and should be 
used, but it will be found that they will not supply more than 
from three to twelve per cent, of the locomotive needs, and will 
then of course not last as long as new brooms. It is true that 
a short and stubbly broom is more suited for use on an engine 
than a nice long resilient house broom. A special design of 
broom embodying the characteristics needed for locomotive use, 
and wearing from two to three times as long as the average 
finer broom can be made, the first cost being practically the same. 

The next article, an emergency valve stem clamp, normally 
carried bolted on the valve stem, should be on every engine, and 
the design shown will fit almost every locomotive valve stem in 
existence, the screw lengths on the bolts permitting of this wide 
variation in size. The upper loop of the clamp, is of course at- 
tached under the gland nut. This is a very useful and convenient 
article in case the engine has to be disconnected. 

Another emergency article is the crank-pin block. These 
blocks are often made to closely fit the crank pin of the particular 
engine to which they are to be applied, being nicely sawed round 
for this purpose. This care in fitting is unnecessary. Usually 

It H' * 



,V. \ 




1 1 


Jv ' "^ 


•- ] ) I 


a. V --- 

J6 \N — 



s - -4 




I. 



r 



cS.' 



1 A3- 
f" ^a 



r 

i 

i 




Size 


B 


C 


l 


w 




1 


11% 


10 


13 


7V. 




2 


7X 


y% 


10 


sy s 




3 


5% 


SH 


8'A 


4>/8 





STANDARD CRANK-PIN BLOCK. 

two or three sizes will take care of all classes of engines, these 
sizes being determined by the length of pin, a half-inch play being 
permissible. The diameters of the openings need only be such as 
will permit of the crank pin collar holding the block in place. 
One standard size bolt serves all blocks. Great economy in man- 
ufacture and in stock carried is attained by these standard blocks. 
Cross-head blocks may be reduced to similarly few standard 
sizes. 

In discussing standard articles of equipment connected with 
handling locomotive supplies, mention should be made of the im- 
portance of having standard measuring cups at the oil houses, so 
that the oil allowances may be accurately given out. By the 
working out of this plan under the direction of one of the most 
progressive motive power men in this country, it was found that 
many thousands of dollars were saved annually by the deterrent 
thus provided against excessive oil issues. "A standard design 
of can is here shown, together with full dimensions. 
Standard List. 

The accompanying list is nearly complete as regards the neces- 
sary movable equipment carried on a locomotive. The writer 
would welcome any comments, amendments, changes, additions 
or subtractions that readers may be interested enough to offer. 
Articles prefixed by an "S" should be reduced to one standard 
for all engines where used. Those marked "X" may be used 
according to special characteristics of the service or at the dis- 
cretion of the officials of each road considering the proposition. 

Standard for all engines in every class of service: 



* r* t - 



XI 

S 1 
S 1 
S 1 
S 1 

1 
1 
S 1 
S 1 
S 1 
S 1 
S 2 
S 1 
S 1 
1 
S 1 
S 2 
S 1 
S 1 

1 

X4 

S 1 

1 

S 1 

S 1 

S 1 

S 1 

S 1 



S 1 

1 



STANDARD EMERGENCY VALVE STEM CLAMP. 



Medical box S 1 

2 lb. wedge pein hammer S 1 

21" screw wrench S 1 

12" screw wrench 3 

Grease cup wrench 

Double end set screw wrench ^ 2 

Air pump spanner wrench X 1 

Flat chisel X 2 

Valve stem clamp X 3 

Red lantern 

White lantern X 2 

Classification lamps X 

Steam gauge lamp 1 

Water gauge lamp 2 

Headlight case and reflector S 2 

Water cooler S X 1 

Drinking cups S 1 

Tank bucket S 1 

Broom S 1 

Set of flag staffs and flags, as SI 

prescribed by operating rules 

Short hot box hose 

Sprinkler hose 

Bell cord (preferably cotton) 

Torch 

2 gal. valve oil can 

2 gal. engine oil can 

1 gal. headlight oil can 

1 gal. signal oil can 

Complete sets spare wicks 

for each lamp and lantern X 2 

Extra white lantern globe S X 1 

Set of slides, as required by 

operating rules for classifica- X 2 

tion lamp (colored glass) 



Long engine oiler 
Valve oiler 
Emergency knuckle 
Seat cushions 
Back cushions 
Arm rests 
Back curtain 
Side curtains 

Lubricator glass tubes where 
used 

Water glasses where used 
Guards for above 
Oil can box 
Clothes boxes 
Clothes hooks 
Kt/ hook 
Small tool box 
Supply box 

Large emergency tool box 
Set of instructions for hand- 
ling lubricator, air brake, 
fuel, supplies and tools, re- 
porting boiler troubles, hand- 
ling injectors, reporting en- 
gine troubles, and electric or 
acetylene headlight, operating 
rules, handling compound lo- 
comotive, and superheater 
locomotive, handling oil burn- 
ing locomotive 
Flue plugs 

Compound bucket, where 
needed 
Plugs for cylinder relief valve 



February, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



57 



Measure mod* of 
IX bright tin 



T 



* — 



V? 




J5r1 



%>p turned orer 
-hj£ mre iio.16 Burn 



Inside 

(7/? £/au5 ,0/crte, stamp 
capacity ot measure 
m pints 



B- 

inside 




i/'ne 
Ho. 


size 
/n 

P/nts 


A 


5 


C 


Z? 


£" 


F 


a 


H 


/ 


K 


L 


At 


1 


& 


«f 




€ 


^* 


*' 


r 


'V 


I' 
2 


jfc' 


I* 

2 






2 


4 


2% 


'ie 


4 


J 

/? 


1 


4 


*k 


% 


% 


1 






3 


7 

re 


4 


*& 


2 


J 
/0 


1 


4 


si 


% 


1 


1 






4 


i 

2 


* 


2/1 


2=? 
<J2 


J 


1 


4 


4 


% 


1 


* 


1" 


V 


■5 


1 


4 


X I6 


4 


1 


1 


4 


2k 


% 


% 


1 


a 

T6 


I 


e 


/ 


4 


4 


4 


£ 


/ 


<l 


3 


1 


i 

2 


/ 


ts 


13 

16 


7 


4 


4 


*f 


? 27 
■SJ2 


4 


/ 


>% 


3 


1 


/ 
2 


/ 


i 


1 


3 


4 


4 


J J2 


•>J2 


4 


/ 


'I 


3 


1 


/ 
2 


/ 


>h 


IS 

16 


9 


2 




4 


4 


4 


/ 


>l 


3 


1 


/ 
2 


/ 


,3 

'Te 


1 


10 


2-^ 
*2 


* 16 


4 


4 


4 


/ 


>l 


3 


1 


/ 
2 


/ 


4 


>h 


II 


J 


4 


4 


4 J 


1 


/ 


4 


3 


1 


/ 
2 


/ 


4 


4 


12 


4 


'* 


4 


4 


/« 


4 


*k 


4 


4 


I 


4 


>h 


4 


13 


.i - 


4 


S 32 


4 




4 


4 


4 


4 


% 


4 


'16 


4 


14 





« 


*3Z 


<f 




<k 


4 


4 


4 


1 


4 


'T6 


'J 



STANDARD Oil. MEASURING CUP. 



/n addition to above, all road engines: 



S 1 


Long oiler 








S 6 


Torpedoes 


XI 


Recorder 








6 


Fusees 


S 1 


Torch 








S 1 


Packing hook 


1 


Wrecking wedge 








S 1 


Packing spoon 


S 1 


Pinch bar 








S 1 


Chisel bar 


I 


Guide blocks 






S 


XI 


Extra steam heat hose 


2 


Crank pin blocks 






S 


XI 


Extra mica headlight 


1 


Engine truck brass 










ney, or 


2 


Tank brasses 






S 


x s 


Extra carbons, and 


S 1 


Red lantern globe 






s 


X 1 


Extra electrode, or 




Extra flags and staffs. 


as re 


s 


XI 


Extra acetylene tip 




quired by operating 


ru 


les 




S 1 


Time card holder 


Coal burners only: 












S 2 


Coal scoops (1 second-hand) 




1 


Ash hoe 


1 


Fire hook 








1 


Grate shaker bar 


S 1 


Coal pick 













Checking List. 

These articles should be listed upon a convenient manila card 
form arranged in such a way as to furnish a ready means of 
checking by the tool checker or inspector at terminals. If the 
standard tools are placed according to a standard arrangement in 
the standard cab and tank boxes, and the list is made up so as to 
follow a natural and convenient order for inspecting the various 
articles, it is the work of but from two to six minutes to com- 
pletely inspect the equipment of an engine. With a well-worked- 
out arrangement of this kind, the cost of inspection and super- 
vision is reduced to a minimum. 

The list may better be checked by the items found missing 
than by those found intact, and the checking may be done cither 
with pencil and carbon copy, or preferably by punch or pinhoU. 
A copy should be retained by the checker ; one sent to the master 
mechanic in charge of the engine, and with some comment or 
explanation as to missing articles ; and one sent to the equip- 
ment or supply supervisor responsible for the efficient handling 
of these supplies and tools. From these sheets valuable records 
of the habits of the various engine crews may be compiled. 

It has been often suggested that tools and other articles may 
best be guarded on the engines to which issued, if they bear the 
stamp of the engine number to which originally issued. Simple 
as such a plan would seem to be, it is found open to many ob- 
jections in practice. Stencils must be kept at every store or sup- 
ply house; there is delay in issuing; the number stamps must 
be such as to be proof against easy alteration, abrasion, or coun- 
terfeiting. It is difficult to stamp oil cans and some other articles, 
such as red lantern globes or wrecking frogs. Articles may be- 
come mislaid or duplicated when engines are shopped. What 
is one to do when a duplicate number is issued and the original 
turns up? On the whole, it will be found best to avoid this de- 
gree of refinement in keeping track of equipment — at least, until a 
system of checking and looking after the tools and articles in 
question has been very thoroughly worked out, and has already 
reached a high state of efficiency and economy. Then it will be 
time enough to consider whether the extra cost of numbering all 
articles, and keeping track of them interminably will be worth 
while in view of the further savings practicable. 

Reliability of Comparative Accounts of Costs. 

In connection with this whole matter of checking and accounting; 
for the engine equipments it has been suggested, since the chap 
ter in the March, ioo8, issue on "Accounting," that reliable com- 
parisons are not to be had in view of the wide diversity of prac- 
tice in accounting for these articles ; and that such comparisons 
are especially meaningless with the still greater diversity of past 
years in accounting practice. The suggestion is perhaps well 
taken, although full consideration may not be given to the weight 
or value of each of the elements entering into the charges for 
equipment and supplies. A careful examination of the accounts 
on pages 90-92 of the March issue will make clear beyond al- 
most any reasonable doubt where the various charges for the 
various items making up an engine equipment should go accord- 
ing to the only legal and prescribed classification of accounts 
promulgated by the Interstate Commerce Commission. To make 
the matter still clearer, I am adding another list apportioning 
various classes of articles in respect of their proper accounts. 

According to the Interstate Commerce classification of oper- 
ating expenses, the following items, attachments to the engine, 
should be charged to the cost of repairs : 



chim- 



Oil burners only: 

1 Tank oil gage 
1 Carbon bar 
S 1 Sand funnel (built in fire 
door) 

Yard engines only: 



S 1 Engine cab sand box 
sanding flues 



for 



S 1 
S 2 



Push pole 
Re-railing frogs 



Fire extinguishing apparatus 



Flag brackets 

Classification and marker lamp 

brackets 
Gauge lamp brackets 
Headlight bracket 
Boxes 

Coal boards 
Fire door chains 
Grease cups 
Gauge cock drip trough 
Permanent piping for hot tender 

boxes 
Hooks 
Front and back coupler knuckles in 

place 
Air signal hose, front and back, in 

place 



Air hose, front and back, in place 
Steam heat hose, back, in place 
Water hose between engine and ten- 
der 
Oil hose between engine and tender 
Lubricator 

Tank scoop (water scoop) 
Cab windows 
Electric cab block signals 
Recorder 

Built-in-sand funnel 
Whistle lever 
Bell 

Bell ringer 
Gongs 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



The following articles also should be charged to the account, 
"Repairs to Locomotives" : 

Ann rests and cab cushions Cab lamps 

Cab curtains and awnings Classification lamps 

Crosshcad blocks Extra signal, brake or steam hose 

Guide blocks Extra brasses 

Flue plugs Extra rod packing 

Valve stem clamps Emergency knuckles 

Headlight 

The following items, although attachments, should be charged 
to the accounts covering other supplies to yard and road locomo- 
tives : 

Guard for water and lubricator Fire hose 

glasses Switch chains 

Bell cord, extra only Switch ropes 

Grate shakers Switch poles 

Squirt hose Thawout hose 

Hot box hose connection Water coolers 
Hose reels 

Locomotive operating tools : 

Ash hose Picks 

Ash pan rods Pokers 

Clinker hooks Scoops 

Graphite can Shovels 

Packing hooks Slash bars 
Packing spoons 

Oiling tools : 

Oilers Grease cup wrench 

Long oilers Packing hooks 

Tallow pot Packing spoons 

Locomotive adjustment and repairing tools: 

Buggy and chisel bars Plugging bars 

Chisels Punches 

Crowbars Scrapers 

Drifts Sledges 

Files Sets 

Hammers Wrenches 
Pinch bars 

Emergency tools: 

Axes Saws 

Hand saws Pinch bars 

Hatchets Wrecking frogs 

Tacks Switch chains 

Jack screws Medical box 

Locomotive cleaning appliances : 
Brooms Pans for soap and lather 

Brushes Sponge 

Buckets Sponge holder 

Soap Front end scrapers 

Tripoli Headlight reflector chamoix 

Signalling apparatus : 

Headlight chimneys Torpedoes 

Flags and flag staffs Fusees 

Classification lamps and slides Bell cord 

Lanterns and parts 

Consumable stores : 

Headlight oil Soap 

Signal oil Putz 

Wicking Matches 

Graphite Sand 

For carrying tools and supplies: 

Portable boxes Soap box 

Oil supply cans Tripoli can 

Match case 

Lubricants for locomotives : Accounts 77 and 86. 

Valve oil Dope 

Engine oil Waste 

Car oil Lubricating compounds 

Grease 

Examination of the tables of "Approximate Apportionment of 
Detail Expenses" shown on page 92 of the March issue will show 
still further just definitely where each class of expenses in con- 
nection with handling locomotive supplies and tool equipments, 
belongs, and the approximate proportion of each to the whole. 
These tables, which are a thorough analysis of the charges in 
question, show that even including all kinds of charges to ac- 
counts other than those prescribed by the I. C. C, for "Other 
Supplies for Locomotives," such as tool checkers, supervision, 
accounting, stationery, inspector's traveling expenses, hostlers on 
this work, etc., etc., the total of all charges of this nature should 
not exceed $77.50 per locomotive per year in any case, and 
should reasonably fall to $35 per engine per year with proper 
supervision and systematic handling. At the latter rate a road 
owning 1,000 locomotives should cost all told from $35,000 to $77,- 
500 a year for all expenses connected with locomotive supplies and 
equipments, only some $18,500 to $37,000 of which properly be- 
long under the accounts prescribed for these expenditures : if 
the road owned some 1,400 locomotives, the total cost should in 
no case exceed $107,500, especially if it were an eastern road, and 
if the expense according to the prescribed account alone were 
more than this, such excess would be a certain indication of 
avoidable waste which by reasonable attention and economy 



ought to be saved. As a matter of fact, in the latter hypothetical 
case, an additional $60,000 should also be cut off the annual ex- 
penditure. 

In conclusion it should be stated that all the methods, forms 
and standards indicated in this series of papers are taken from 
practice, and represent practical and not theoretical propositions. 
In no sense are the economies sought and attained a paper show- 
ing — a mere shifting of accounts. It used to be that any one 
with sufficient ingenuity could "make a showing" by shifting bur- 
densome changes to accounts not connected with the activities 
concerned in the "showing." But now such a course would be 
illegal, and future comparisons of railroad statistics will be more 
reliable than they have been. 



A CHICAGO PLAN FOR JOINT SHOP AND SCHOOL 

WORK 



According to the Iron Age Chicago machinery manufacturers 
and the Lewis Institute are co-operating in a plan of joint shop 
and school instruction for boys, somewhat similar to that which 
has been carried out by Cincinnati manufacturers and the Uni- 
versity of Cincinnati for several years. A modification of the 
plan has also been in operation at Fitchburg, Mass., since the 
fall of 1908, though in the latter the school does not have any 
shop equipment. The Chicago arrangement, after a short period 
of experiment, has recently been put in effect. Under it the man- 
ufacturers send their apprentices to school at the institute half 
the time, one week being spent in the shop and the next week in 
the school. The course extends over two years, but it is not the 
idea of the manufacturers or of the instructors at the Lewis 
Institute that a boy can become a skilled workman in that time. 
The expectation is that he will get a more intelligent grasp of his 
trade than he could otherwise obtain. The age limits are 16 and 
20 years. Each manufacturer may be represented in the school 
by a unit, or two boys, or by two units — four boys. The em- 
ployer pays the tuition fee of $50 a year for each pupil and pays 
the boy $5 for each week he works in the shop. In this way 
the boy receives his instruction free and $2.50 a week for two 
years. Two weeks' school vacation are given in the summer, but 
26 weeks a year are spent in the shop. 

The Lewis Institute will give instruction to the boys eight 
hours a day five days in the week. Two hours a day will be 
spent on each of the following lines of study: 1. Physical science 
and the principles of mechanics. 2: Mechanical drawing. 3. 
Shop work, supplementing that done in the metal working estab- 
lishments. 4. English, history and mathematics. Twenty-seven 
boys are now taking the metal working course in the institute, 
and some of them are sufficiently advanced to be sent to shops 
at once. Several boys serving apprenticeships in shops are being 
tried out, and will probably prove good enough to be sent to the 
institute. The boy who puts in the full course at the institute 
will still have to learn his trade, though the term of his appren- 
ticeship may be reduced as a result of his better education. The 
Lewis Institute has equipment for the instruction of 60 boys in 
the course provided in the metal trades. 



Windows in Roundhouses. — One of the engine house details 
which is constantly in sight are the windows. These get dirty 
very easily and are a constant expense to keep clean. With the 
usual construction involving a high wall to let in lots of light, it 
is often necessary to clean the upper sash by ladders or long- 
handled brushes. A scheme which has been found very satisfac- 
tory is an arrangement of four sash in a single frame, the top 
one balanced against the lower and the two intermediate ones 
balanced against each other. This does away with sash weights, 
and any sash may be pulled down to the window sill level and the 
glass easily and cheaply cleaned. It also has the advantage of 
giving a clear opening of 75 per cent, of the frame area in sum- 
mer time. A 12-inch I beam makes a very good frame as it never 
rots out and is stiff and rigid. Short sections of the parting 
strips are removable at the bottom so the sash can easily be 
slipped in and hung. — Wm. Elmer, before the Railway Club of 
Pittsburg. 



7 DATA OF SPECIAL INTEREST TO THE DRAFTING ROOM 

SEMI-ELLIPTIC SPRINGS. 



(From the American Locomotive Company's Standard Practice.) 



(from an article by William II. Mussey, American Engineer & 
Railroad Journal, June 1906. page 233.) 



CALCULATIONS. 

In obtaining the net static load, the actual weights of the nails 
constituting dead load, such as wheels, axles, boxes, etc., should 
be deducted instead of taking a certain arbitrary percentage. 

Maximum fibre stress allowable, 80,000 pounds. The figures 
given on Spring Card in "Load" column are the calculated loads 



Careful tests made in actual service showed that the greatest 
value for a live load on a locomotive driving spring was about 
65 per cent, above the static working load, and the minimum was 
45 per cent, less than the static working load. 

Reauleaux formula for semi-elliptical springs is as follows: 



SPRING TABLES. 

SEMI-ELLIPTIC SPRINGS. 



- ■ V) 

£ LI « 








ONE PLATE 


WIDE. 








g ngju 


W 


PLATE 


%„» PLATE 


%" PLATE 


Via" PLATE 


1,2" PLATE 


T hi LI 
(DO 


LOAD 


DEFLECTION 


LOAD 


DEFLECTION 


LOAD 


DEFLECTION 


LOAD 


DEFLECTION 


LOAD 


DEFLECTION 


20 


167 




.98 


260 


.78 














22 


152 




1 .1 9 


235 


.95 


34 1 


.79 










24 


139 




1 .4 1 


2 1 7 


1.13 


3 1 2 


.94 










26 


128 




1.66 


200 


1.32 


288 


1 . 1 O 


393 


.95 






28 


1 1 9 




1.92 


1 86 


1.53 


268 


1 .28 


365 


MO 






30 


1 1 1 




2.20 


1 73 


1.76 


250 


1 .4 7 


34 1 


1.26 






32 








1 63 


2.00 


234 


1 .67 


3 1 9 


1.43 






34 








1 53 


2.26 


220 


1 .88 


30 1 


1.62 






36 








1 44 


2.53 


208 


2. 1 2 


284 


1.8 1 


372 


1 .58 


38 












1 97 


2.35 


269 


2. 03 


350 


1.76 


40 






FORMULA 


E USED IN 


1 87 


2.60 


255 


2.24 


333 


1 .95 


42 






COMPUTI 


NG TABLE 


1 78 


2.87 


243 


2.47 


3 1 7 


2.16 


44 




P 


S3333 H- 




1 70 


3. 1 5 


232 


2.7 1 


303 


2.37 


46 




L 




1 63 


3.45 


222 


2.96 


290 


2.58 


48 




F 


.000611 -£■ 
n 




1 56 


3.75 


2 1 3 


3.22 


277 


2.82 


50 






204 


3.49 


266 


3.06 


52 




P 


net static 


load 






1 97 


3.78 


256 


3.30 


54 




V 


deflection 








1 89 


4.O8 


247 


3.57 


56 




H 


thickness 


of plate 










238 


3.83 


58 




L 


length be 


tween centers 










230 


4. 12 



AMERICAN LOCOMOTIVE COMPANY S STANDARD PRACTICE CARD. 



which springs will carry at 80,000 pounds fibre stress and are 
the maximum loads for which springs should be used. 

It is advisable usually to make the capacity of springs slightly 
more than the net actual load, as given below. 

REQUIRED CAPACITY. 

Driving and Engine Truck Springs : Use calculated static 
load plus 500 to 1,000 pounds, or about 5 per cent. 

Underhung Driving Springs: For passenger engines use cal- 
culated static load plus 20 per cent. 

Trailing Springs: Use calculated static load plus 15 per cent. 

Tender Springs : Use calculated static load taken with maxi- 
mum load of coal and water. 

The spring tables for semi-elliptic springs give the capacity of 
one plate one inch wide and different thicknesses. 

To obtain the required number of plates, multiply the figure 
given in "Load" column by the width of spring in inches and 
divide the required capacity by the result. The quotient gives 
the number of plates required. Where quotient gives decimal 
more than 3 add one plate to the whole number. 

The number of full length plates must be 25 per cent, of the 
whole number required. The last full length plate must be 
tapered at ends and the remaining plates must be regularly short- 
ened and tapered. The length of the shortest plate must not be 
less than twice the length of the spring band. 

The deflection given in table is the difference between free 
and loaded height, irrespective of width or number of plates : 
for full-elliptics the number of plates and deflection given is for 
each half of spring. 



S nbh» 
6L 



P = 

P= Static load on one end. 

L. = y 3 span in inches less % width of band. 

S — Fibre stress per square inch. 

b — Width of plate in inches. 

h = Thickness of plate in inches. 

n == number of plates. 

D (deflection) = -|t" 
hh- 
E = Modulus of elasticity = 29,400,000. 

There may be some question about the deduction from L of 
one-quarter the width of the band, but this is theoretically cor- 
rect, as a study of the action of the leaves of the spring will 
show. 

Where possible short springs should be avoided and also nar- 
row ones. Long springs with wide plates give the most even 
deflections, taking up shocks most effectively. Springs equalized 
together should have equal deflections under the same working 
loads as far as possible. An example is given in the case of a 
spring with a span of 26 in. and 3i in. leaves which was equal- 
ized with a spring having a 38 in. span and 7/16 in. leaves. This 
short spring gave very poor service. However, by reducing the 
thickness of the plate, with still about the same fibre stress, much 
better results were obtained. The aim should be to increase the 
deflections for given loads on short springs and decrease them 
on long springs which are equalized together. The formula for 
deflections shows that it varies directly as the square of the 
length of span and inversely as the square of the thickness. 



Canada requires pi cars to be lighted by Pintsch gas, 

acetylene or electricity. 



59 



60 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 




£ 

s 



o 

H 

SI 



z 

o 



a 
Z 

< 

o 

H 

Id 



ARTICULATED COMPOUND LOCOMOTIVE 0-6-6-0 TYJM 



Denver, Northwestern & Pacific Railway. 



The American Locomotive Company has recently delivered tu 
the Denver, Northwestern & Pacific Railway, generally known 
as the Moflfatt road, a Mallet articulated compound locomotive, 
which is shown in the accompanying illustration. The topography 
of this road would seem to be particularly well adapted for the 
articulated type of locomotive, and judging by experience on 
other roads, under similar conditions, this will probably prove 
to be the forerunner of further equipment of the same kind. 

The district in which these engines will be put in operation 
has a deep sag at Boulder, Colo., or. either side of which 
there is a continuous grade for about 17 miles, which reaches 
a maximum of four per cent., the line being practically a con- 
tinuous series of curves. Trains of 500 tons are now being op- 
erated in good weather by two and in bad weather by three con- 
solidation locomotives. It is expected that this Mallet engine 
will alone handle these trains at a speed of about 12 miles per 
hour. 

This locomotive is also to be experimented with in a service 
for which it would appear to have special advantages, i. e., push- 
ing a rotary snow plow. This region has very long winters, with 



GENERAL DATA. 

Gauge 4 ft. BX in. 

Service Pushing 

Fuel Bit. Co»l 

Tractive effort 73,900 lbs. 

Weight in working order 327,500 lbs. 

Weight on drivers :;27, iO 

Weight of engine and tender in working order 487.300 lbs. 

Wheel base, driving ]0 ft. 10 in 

Wheel base, total 30 ft. 8 in. 

Wheel base, engine and tender 64 ft. 4 in. 

RATIOS. 

Weight on drivers -r- tractive effort 4.43 

Totalweight -5- tractive effort 4.43 

Tractive effort x diani. drivers -3- heating surface .*....??3.U0 

Total heating surface -~ grate ai ea 72.60 

Firebox heating surface -f- total heating surface, per cent 3.90 

Weight on drivers -r total heating surface 02.20 

Total weight -s- total heating surface i)2.20 

Volume equiv. simple cylinders 19.45 

Total heating surface ~ vol. equiv. cylinders 270.00 

Grate area -5- vol. equiv. cylinders 3.70 

CYLINDERS. 

Kind Mellin Compound 

Diameter 20JS and 33 in. 

Stroke 32 in. 

VALVES. 

Kind, H P 10 in. Piston 

Kind, L P Allen- Porter Slide 

Greatest travel H. P 6 in. 




MALLET ARTICULATED COMPOUND LOCOMOTIVE — DENVER, NORTHWESTERN & PACIFIC RY. 



very heavy snows, and the line is kept open only by the continu- 
ous use of rotaries. 

The plows have heretofore been pushed by as many as five 
consolidation locomotives, and because of the large number of 
engines, which makes it difficult to control the starting and stop- 
ping as quickly as is desired, it is believed that the Mallet, capable 
as it is of exerting a very large tractive effort at slow speed 
and with its non-slipping ability, will prove to be a great suc- 
cess in this service. 

The design in general follows very closely that used on the 
first locomotive of this type built in this country for an Amer- 
ican railway, i. e., the Baltimore & Ohio 0-6-6-0 type. There 
are, however, a number of small differences; as will be noticed 
by comparing the list of dimensions below with those used on 
the B. & O. locomotive, which were given in the table of dimen- 
sions published in the June, 1908, number of this journal. 

The weight has been reduced from 334,500 to 327.500 lbs., a 
reduction of 7,000 lbs. Part of this was obtained by reducing 
the number of flues from 436 to 409 and the rest by the re-design 
of a number of the heavier paVts. The size of the cylinders has 
been changed, the present engine having 20'/£ and 33 in. diameter 
cylinders in place of 20 and 32 in. The steam pressure has been 
reduced from 235 to 225 lbs. and the tractive effort increased to 
73,000 lbs. The general arrangement of the boiler and machin- 
ery is shown in the illustration on the opposite page and the 
dimensions, weights and ratios are given in the following table : 



Greatest travel L. P 6H m. 

Outside lap H. P IX in. 

Outside lap L. P 1 in. 

Inside clearance J4 in- 
Lead in full gear 3/16 in. 

Gear, kind Walschaert 

WHEELS. 

Driving, diameter over tires. . 56 in- 
Driving, thickness of tires 3£4 in- 
Driving journals, main, diameter and length 9 x 13 in. 

BOILER. 

Style Straight 

Working pressure 225 lbs. 

Outside diameter of first ring 84 in. 

Firebox, length and width 108 & 96 in. 

Firebox, plates, thickness C— 7/10, T— 9/16, S & B— H in. 

Firebox, water space F — 5, S & B — 4J4 in. 

Tubes, number and outside diameter 409 — 2>4 >n. 

Tubes, length - - - - • - -21 f- 

Heating surface, tubes 6035 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, firebox 206 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, total 5241 sq. ft. 

Grate area 78.S sq. ft 

Smokestack, diameter • • • - 1 »54 "i- 

Smokestack, height above rail la tt. 9H in. 

Center of boiler above rail 120 in. 

TENDER. 

Tan jj Waterbottom 

Frame' '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. A. U Co. Standard 

Wheels, diameter ■••■ • •*•> in. 

Journals, diameter and length °" n £.}° l , 

Water capacity 900 » 8» ls - 

Coal capacity lz ton3 

Railway Storekeepers' Association. The sixth annual meet- 
ing of the above association will be held in Chicago, May 17 to 
19, inclusive, 1909. The headquarters will be at the Auditorium 
hotel. 



61 



62 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



(Established 1832). 

— AMERICAN — 

Engineer 



RAILROAD JOURNAL. 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY 

BY 

R. M. VAN ARSDALE 
140 NASSAU STREET. NEW YORK 

J. S. BONSALL, Business Manager. 
P. H. THOMPSON, Kastern Representative 



R. V. "WRIGHT. 
E. A. AVERILL 



' [eAU 



FEBRUARY, 1909 



Subscriptions. — $3.00 a year for the United States and Canada; $2.50 a 

year to Foreign Countries embraced in the Universal Postal Union. 
Remit by Express Money Order, Draft or Post Office Order. 
Subscription for this paper mill be received and copies kept for sale by the 

Post Office News Co., 217 Dearborn St., Chicago, III. 

Damrell & Upham, 283 Washington St., Boston, Mass. 

Philip Roeder, 307 North Fourth St., St. Louis, Mo. 

R. S. Davis & Co., 310 Fifth Ave., Pittsburg, Pa. 

Century News Co., 6 Third St., S. Minneapolis, Minn. 

IV. Damson & Sons, Ltd., Cannon St., Bream's Buildings, Lon- 
don, E. C, England. 

Advertisements. — Nothing will be inserted in this journal for pay, 
except in the advertising paces. The reading pages will contain 
only such matter as we consider of interest to our readers. 



Contributions. — Articles relating to Motive Power Department prob- 
lems, including the design, construction, maintenance and operation of 
rolling stock, also of shops and roundhouses and their equipment are 
desired. Also early notices of owcial changes, and additions of new 
equipment for the road or the shop, by purchase or construction. 



CONTENTS 



The Hammer Blow from Incorrect Counterbalance, by H. H. Vaughau 45* 

Railroads Want Fair Treatment 47 

Cars and Locomotives Built in 1906 47 

Summers' Steel Hopper Car i9 * 

Weight Distribution of .Mallet Articulated Locomotive, by H. M. Sloat 51' 

Balanced Compound Passer.ge; L motive, X. ('. & St. L. Ry 52* 

Coaling Arrangements at Roundhouses 53 

VV hat is Steam ? ° 3 

Handling Locomotive Supplies, by E. Fish Ensi». Part III — Stand- 

ardmation *** 

Data of Special Interest to the D.afting Room 59 

Articulated Compound Locomotive, D. N. W. t \ P. Ry 61* 

Oxy-Acetylene Welding 62 

Briquets for Locomotives 6.J 

Alloy Steels 63 

Circulation in Fire Box Water Legs 63 

Best Method of Training Railroad .Mm 63 

Are Railroad Clubs Worth While ? 64 

Railroad Club News 65 

Fulton Bill Dangerous to Railroads 66 

Comparative Tests of Run-of-mir.c and Briquetted Coal on Locomo- 
tives, by W. F. M. Goss ° 7 * 

Failure of Side Sheets on Wide Fireboxes, by W. E. Johnston 70* 

Narrow Gauge Mallet Articulated Type Locomotive 71* 

Pneumatic Dispatch Tube at Engine Houses ?2 

Locomotive Cylinder Planer 73 

Effect of Brick Arches and Blowers on Smoke 71 * 

New Pipe Joint Cement 75 

Direct Current on Pennsylvania 75 

Electric Turn Table Donkey 76 * 

"Use 'Em Up" Drill Socket 76 * 

New High Duty Drill 77 * 

Economy Sockets and Sleeves 78 

High Speed Steel Cutters for Surfacing 7 8* 

Water Softening and Leakage of Flues 78 

Books ^ 8 

Personals ~ 9 

Catalogs 80 

Notes s0 



BRICK ARCHES AND SMOKE. 



The reduction of smoke from locomotives in itself, except 
possibly in the immediate vicinity cf stations, is of no particular 
importance to a railroad company, but because of its effect on 
popular opinion, in more thickly settled sections, it is given at- 



tention and more or less serious attempts are made, by means 
of instructions and orders, to reduce it to a minimum in those 
regions. This, of course, is a wrong view to take of the matter, 
fur while the effect of the smoke may not be sufficiently serious 
to be worthy of attention, as an indicator of what is going on 
in the fire box it is of considerable importance and from that 
standpoint should be given the most careful attention. 

It has long been known in a general way that a brick arch 
will reduce smoke, but in many districts they were more trouble 
and expense than it was considered worth while to incur and 
largely disappeared after a short trial. The Chicago smoke in- 
spection department, however, decided to find out for itself ex- 
actly to what extent they were useful in this way, especially whe'i 
used in connection with blowers, and have carried out an elabo- 
rate series of tests in connection with the Chicago, Burlington 
and Quincy Railroad. The results as far as smoke is concerned 
are very convincing, as is clearly shown by the curves on an- 
other page. That this really means a saving that is worth while 
is shown by tests on the Lake Shore given in the same article. 



OXY-ACETYLENE WELDING. 



Rapid progress is being made in the adoption of the new oxy- 
acetylene process of cutting and welding to railway uses. While, 
like all other new things, it does not come up to all expecta- 
tions or claims at first trial, it is proving to be a valuable re- 
source in many ways. On one road where a plant has been in 
experimental use for some time, it is now planned to weld the 
tubes in the back tube sheets of locomotive boilers, which evi- 
dently will cure the continual trouble with leaky tubes. Broken 
cylinders are being repaired by its aid, and while no large frames 
have so far been welded by this process it is expected that even- 
tually this can also be done. For cutting risers off from large 
castings and holes in boiler plate it has been found especially 
useful. 

There would also seem to be a wide field for its use in steel 
passenger car construction, especially in connection with roof 
sheet joints, where expensive riveted construction is now neces- 
sary entirely for the purpose of tightness. The sheets in many 
places have to be small and the joints are numerous and must 
be water-tight. 



BRIQUETS FOR LOCOMOTIVES. 



As is well known, the limited coal supply in foreign countries, 
with the accompanying high price, has led the railways there to 
give the most careful attention to fuel economy on locomotives. 
The most important feature, which is quite general in many pans 
of Europe, is to base the enginemen's wages almost entirely on 
the amount of coal they burn. Another method, which sooner 
or later will have to be considered in this country, is the use of 
low grade fuels that in their natural form are not suitable for 
locomotives. This is being, and has for some time been done, 
by means of briquetting and on many railways, particularly in 
France, briquets form a large proportion of the locomotive fuel. 

While this is a subject that has been discussed more or less 
in this country, the condition of our natural resources has not 
reached a stage that makes it imperative to carefully investigate 
the question and it is only within the past few years that any 
really serious investigation or tests have been made with briquets 
from American coal. The organization of a fuel testing plant 
by the U. S. Geological Survey at the St. Louis Exposition in- 
cluded in its program an investigation of this subject, and while 
the study was first made in connection with stationary plants, 
later tests of briquets for locomotive use were made. The full 
report by W. F. M. Goss has just been issued by the Geological 
Survey and is quite largely reprinted in this issue. 

The results are very interesting and valuable, although many 
of the extravagant claims that have been made for briquets were 



February, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



63 



not proven. The tests were made by means of a comparison be- 
tween a firsl rate grade of fuel in its natural state and the same 
fuel briquetted ; the briquets included four or live varieties in 
two different shapes the varieties differing in the amount ol 
binder used. Thej were carried out on the Pennsylvania loco- 
motive testing jilant at Altoona and hence give results that are 
capable of accurate analysis and perfect conlidenee. 

The conclusions reached by Dr. Goss are, that the evaporative 
efficiency of the boiler was increased by the use of briquets over 
natural coal and that they gave a marked increase in the effi- 
ciency of the locomotive and a slight reduction in the amount 
of smoke. liny increased the facility with which an even fire 
oyer the whole area of the grate may be maintained. The bri- 
quets suffered little hy handling; stood exposure to the weather 
very well and while there was no noticeable reduction in the 
amount of cinders and sparks the amount of heat lost in this 
manner was less. The tests made in actual service on several 
different railways showed them to be a satisfactory fuel, al- 
though there was no noticeable increase in the efficiency of the 
locomotive. 

ft is to be hoped that the experiments will be continued and 
that tests will be made with briquets from coal which in its nat- 
ural state is not suitable at all for locomotive use, particularly 
the lignites of the far west. 



CIRCULATION IN FIRE BOX WATER LEGS. 



It seems to be pretty generally agreed that the failure of side 
sheets in wide lire box legs is due to a sluggish circulation in 
the water legs or at least that it can be cured by an increase in 
the rate of circulation. In the January issue we presented Mr. 
Seley's theory of the subject in that the circulation should im- 
pinge against the sheet and thus prevent the formation of a him 
of steam which would keep the temperature in the sheet much 
higher than is desirable. Elsewhere in this issue we give a dis- 
cussion by Mr. Johnston on the same subject, in which he sug- 
gests the use of a circulating plate, which would form a division 
in the water leg of a wide fire box locomotive having inwardly 
inclined side sheets and prevent the cross currents and eddies now 
probably existing and caused by the steam tending to rise along 
the outside sheet. Such a plate would give a free passage for the 
downward circulation of the colder water along the outside sheet 
and, by making a narrower space for the rising of the steam 
along the inside sheet, would tend to increase the rate of circu- 
lation and thus prevent the formation of a film of steam on the 
side sheet by simply bringing the water to the sheet so rapidly 
as to prevent its formation. The fact that a scheme of this 
kind was discredited a long lime ago in connection with very 
narrow water legs should not condemn it without trial under 
the present conditions. The idea is capable of application with 
small cost to the present locomotives and certainly is worthy of 
trial. 



ALLOY..STEELS. 



The use of the so-called "alloy" steels has not been as general 
on railroad equipment in this country as would naturally be ex- 
pected or as it has on foreign railways. This is particularly 
noticeable when a study is made of present day automobile con- 
struction where alloys of vanadium, chromium, nickel and man- 
ganese with steel or iron are widely employed. The service of 
an automobile in many ways is very similar to that of a loco- 
motive, and if it pays to use these expensive materials there, it 
would seem to be advantageous to use them on railway rolling 
stock. 

The foreign railways have recognized their value and have 
been using them for a number of years. A striking example of 
this is found in an order of large simple passenger locomotives 
recently built for a German railway in which the reciprocating 
parts were made so light as not to require any counterbalance 



in the wheels. Such tesl as have been i. particularly in 

connection with vanadium in cast iron ear wheels, axles, frames, 
tires, etc., all iinln ate that there are ■ ibilities in this 

direction ol decreasing wear, reducing weight, increasing safety 
and lowering maintenance charges. 



BEST METHOD OF TRAINING RAILROAD M±.N. 



Jhe often discusseu subject ol the \alue ol a college or uni- 
versity training as a preparation lor a career in railroad work, 
particularly in the motive power department, again came up at 
ilir January meeting of the New York Railroad Club. Some of 
the old arguments pro and con were again advanced with the 
usual conviction on the part of the speakers and the Usual result 
on the audience, viz., each one's ideas were mllueneed by the ex- 
perience he, personally, had had with college men and while the 
vital importance of the subject was more or less generally recog- 
nized the conclusions were based on individual experience. 

In view of the history of the development of mechanic arts 
of all kinds, it seems rather odd at first thought that it should 
be considered worth while to discuss this subject, or m fact 
that it should be capable of discussion at all. it would seeiu to 
indicate that there was an idea existent that education or learn- 
ing is not valuable or worth while. Actually, however, that is 
not the point at all. All are agreed that the successful man 
must have both technical learning and experience and that he 
cannot be fully successful unless he is able to properly combine 
them and bring the combination to bear on every problem. i"he 
argument is really all on which of the two is the more important 
and should be given the preference. Un the one side is advo- 
cated the crowding of the technical training all into a few years 
to be followed by an equally concentrated dose of practical ex- 
perience, and on the other the obtaining of experience to be the 
principal object and the picking up of technical information to 
be by individual effort at odd times. 

That the later method is not proving successful under present 
conditions is shown by the general introduction of shop schools, 
apprenticeship systems, trade schools, etc., which is now going 
on. That the former is faulty is indicated by the very fact that 
the subject is so often up for discussion. 

These facts indicate the true condition. Neither method is 
fully successful and neither technical training nor experience 
is the more important or should be given the greater attention. 
They must be given equal care to attain the best results. This 
is beginning to be recognized at a few points and special courses 
are being given in mechanical engineering in the colleges in con- 
nection with practical work in the shops of manufacturing plants 
in the vicinity which alternate the school and shop work at equal 
intervals. The best railroad apprenticeship systems are doing 
the same thing to a less extent, giving greater emphasis to the 
shop training. 

This movement is excellent and should be extended. While 
its success to a large extent depends on the location of the 
proper manufacturing shops 'in the same vicinity there are 
many places which offer the proper combination for its 
immediate installation. The course which seems to be the 
most successful requires attendance in the shop and school 
room on alternate weeks and includes the full curriculum of 
a technical course leading to the degree of mechanical engineer 
except the shop work and some of the experimental laboratory 
work usually included in these courses. 

The application of this idea to a special railroad training is a 
little more difficult as very few colleges offering the properly- 
trained teaching staff and laboratory facilities are located in the 
same locality as large railroad shops. The apprenticeship sys- 
tems now being organized, however, give a first-class start, in- 
cluding, as they do, all the elements of this idea. A form of post- 
graduate course could probably be arranged with some of the 
technical schools which would produce the result desired with a 
comparatively small expenditure of time. 



ARE RAILROAD CLUBS WORTH WHILE? 



We regret that space does not permit reproducing in full the 
splendid address on this subject, made before the St. Louis Rail- 
way Club, by its president, J. J. Baulch. After considering in 
detail the aim and the work of the St. Louis Railway Club, he 
directed attention to some of the special features of the other 
clubs, among which the following may be mentioned : 
New York Railroad Club has 1,400 members. 
New England Railroad Club has a dinner before each meet- 
ing. Recently celebrated its twenty-fifth anniversary. 

Northern Railway Club has a half-hour's entertainment each 
night, different districts having charge of the program for the 
various meetings. 

Richmond Railway Club has special programs two or three 
times a year, the ladies being invited; also contributes to the 
Railroad Y. M. C. A. 

Western Railway Club maintains a library and each year pre- 
sents its members with a bound volume containing the proceed- 
ings for the year. 

Central Railway Club endows a bed in the Brooks Hospital at 
Dunkirk and contributes to a home for newsboys and bootblacks 
in Buffalo. 

Canadian Railway Club maintains a scholarship at McGill Uni- 
versity. 

St. Louis Railway Club in the past ten years has paid for the 
education of a young man at the Blees Military Academy at 
Macon and another at Purdue University. At present it has a 
young man at the University of Missouri. 

"The railway club ;s educational. We are living in a rapidly 
advancing age ; to-day's standards are discarded for something 
newer to-morrow, and the superintendent or traffic officer of the 
railroad to-day may be operating an airship line to morrow; and, 
by attendance at our meetings, will keep abreast of the times, 
know what is going on in the world of thought ar.d action, and 
be prepared, not surprised, at the many changes in methods of 
construction, maintenance, machinery, operation, accounting, and 
the legal attitude of the Government towards the railroads. 

"The meetings of the club, the fraternal intercourse of man as 
man, employers and employees meeting on a common level, dis- 
cussing those questions always arising in our work, offering sug- 
gestions for the betterment of the service makes for us the gen- 
eral democratic feeling which is the foundation of our success, 
and increases our ability to consistently perform our duties. That 
club men are frequently diffident about getting up and express- 
ing themselves on the various questions cannot be gainsaid, but 
attendance at meetings often wears this diffidence off. 

"It is only natural that we should make this organization the 
medium through which to communicate our ever advancing 
thoughts and ideas to each other, and to the railroad world gen- 
erally, for the railway club here, as elsewhere, is an educator 
for the members and for those who peruse the proceedings, 
making the mingling together, the exchanging of views as to 
best methods of accomplishing good results in railway work, 
an educational feature tending to make the club a power for 
good and a permanent institution. 

******* 

"It, however, indicates, as we all know, that much friction 
exists between the various departments of the railroad. The 
operating and traffic departments do not agree, nor do the me- 
chanical or the audit, or the road or the claim, or the repair or 
the inspection. They are often further apart — than if they were 
employed on rival lines. Bickering and crossfiring do not tend 
u> the betterment of themselves or the service. Let these same 
men join a railway club, attend the meetings, write a paper oc- 
casionally, join in the discussion, take interest in the papers on 
topics covering departments other than their own, and I'll guar- 
antee the practical elimination of department friction, and the 
upbuilding of the service. 



"Here arises the time-honored excuse, too busy to attend, and 
entirely too busy to prepare a paper. That is the fellow we are 
after, the busy man. Glance over the 150 or more papers pre- 
pared for and read before this club since its inception, and see 
who has furnished, not only the papers, but from the discussion, 
who has read them. The answer is, the busy man. Again I say, 
the busy man is the fellow we are after, and as the railroad fra- 
ternity, and the men associated with railroad work and rail- 
road supplies, etc., furnish but few drones, we are pretty sure 
to hit a busy man every time we shoot. Hence, I repeat, it's the 
busy man who prepares the papers and discusses them. The very 
fact that they are busy men shows that their interest, their 
thoughts are in the work, and they are ready to impart such in- 
formation as they may, and to absorb all that they can, but the 
more railway clubs that we have and the larger the membership, 
the greater the good, and the more efficient the rervice. 

"There is more or less misconception as to the value of the 
club. The acquaintance and association with men in every de- 
partment of the railway and with supply men and others con- 
nected with the railroads in every day affairs, cannot be over- 
estimated, and the mingling together removes friciion, brightens 
up ideas, strengthens the membership generally, keeps up the in- 
terest in the meetings, and all to the end that we are better in 
every way for a membership in any railway club. Permit me 
here to quote from President Vreeland of the New York Club : 
'It is conceded by practical railroad men of experience that there 
is no better school for the younger men in the service than the 
opportunity given by the various railroad clubs of the country 
for membership, which secures to them instruction from papers 
and discussions thereof.' " 

The foregoing is to prove that railway clubs are worth while, 
and that there are not enough such organizations. With at most 
not over a dozen clubs in existence, some of them dormant, it 
does seem that more of the employees of the 2.7,000 miles of 
railroad in this country ought to gel together, and that every city 
of any size should have a Railway club, and railroad men attend 
it, not only for its value educationally, but for the social and 
fraternal features that are sure to arise, all of which go to make 
railway clubs worth while. , 



The Need of Good Engine-House Facilities. — A generous 
appropriation for engine-house repairs saves money in the long 
run, by reducing the periods between shopping, insuring larger 
mileage, and giving a superior quality of service. The statistics 
of engine-house expense are usually ba/ed on the number of 
engines handled outward over a turntable, and an engine-house 
foreman sometimes, when urged to reduce that unit cost, does 
so to the detriment of the service by slighting some of the re- 
pairs. — W. J. Cunningham before the Neiv England Railroad 
Club. 



Train Delays. — The report of the New York Up-State Public 
Service Commission for October shows that yy p. a r cent, of the 
steam railway trains operated in New York State were on time 
during this period, while the average delay of the remaining 23 
per cent, of the trains was 26.3 minutes per train. Nearly two 
fifths of the aggregate delays for the month were due to trains 
waiting for trains on other divisions. The chief causes of delay 
and the percentage which each represented in the aggregate were: 
Engine failures, 5.6 per cent.; failures of other equipment, 1.7; 
wrecks, 6; unfavorable conditions of tracks, 2.1; waiting for 
trains on other divisions, 39.4; waiting for train connections with 
other railroads, 10.5; meeting and passing trains, 6.8; signals, 1.3; 
trains ahead, 7.1; waiting for orders, 4; train work at stations, 
15.2; storms, 2; all other causes, 3.7. 



64 



RAILROAD CLUB NEWS 



Canadian Railway Club (Montreal, Can.) — At the regular 
monthly meeting, held on January s, a very interesting lecture, 
illustrated witl*. stereopticon views, was given by Professor J. A. 
Bancroft, of McGill University, the subject being "Western 
Canada." The speaker explained how the prairies, mountains, 
etc., had been formed by the icefields and volcanic eruptions of 
pre-historic times and explained why certain localities and 
grounds were the best suited for certain crops. 

The annual dinner of the club is scheduled to have been held 
at the Windsor Hotel on January 29. 

At the December meeting the paper was presented by Mr. 
Gutelius on the subject of "Steel Rails in Canada." The authoi 
handled his subject in a very simple and interesting manner, 
pointing out how various difficulties, particularly in regard to 
the extremely low temperature found in Canada, had been over- 
come by the steel makers and how they had continually kept up 
with the increasingly difficult requirements of the railways. The 
specifications for rails from the Canadian Pacific Railroad were 
given in full. The discussion was general and included some in- 
teresting matter in connection with the effect of flat spots and 
counter-balance on rails. 

At the same meeting a discussion of the paper presented at the 
November meeting, on "Freight Car Brakes" was continued. 

The paper scheduled for the meeting of March 2 is on "Shop 
Time Keeping," by E. C. Lloyd. 

Secretary, James Powell, P. O. Box 7, St. Lambert, near Mon- 
treal, Can. 



Central Railroad Club (Buffalo, N. Y.) — At the meeting on 
January 8 a paper on "A Modern Method of Cutting Steel" was 
presented by Cecil Lightfoot. This paper explained briefly the 
method of cutting steel by means of a jet of oxygen, the mate- 
rial previously having been raised to a high temperature by 
means of an oxy-acetylene or other flame of great heat. A 
demonstration was given of the method described. The author 
states that no progress has been made in the cutting of cast iron 
by this process. 

The annual banquet of the club was held at the Hotel Iroquois 
on the evening of the same date. 

Secretary, H. D. Vought, 95 Liberty street, New York. 



New York Railroad Club. — At the meeting held on January 15, 
J. E. Muhlfeld presented a paper on "The Education and Organ- 
ization of Railway Engineering Labor," in which the subject of 
the proper training of young men for railroad work was consid- 
ered most carefully in a broad way. The relations of the em- 
ployer to the employee, as concerned railways, were discussed and 
the great value of harmony was pointed out. The discussion of 
the paper was largely along the lines of the value of college train- 
ing for men in the motive power department. Mr. Basford drew 
attention to a new idea in the training of apprentices for indus- 
trial plants, which is beng tried by the University of Cincinnati. 

The paper for the meeting of February 19 will be by Col. B. 
W. Dunn, chief inspector of the American Railway Association 
Bureau for the Safe Transportation of Explosives and other 
Dangerous Articles. 

Secretary, H. D. Vought, 95 Liberty street, New York. 



New England Railroad Club (Boston, Mass.)— At the Decem- 
ber meeting, William F. Garcelon, of Newton, a member of the 
Massachusetts House of Representatives, presented a paper on 
"Railroad Men in Politics," in which he called upon railroad em- 
ployees to take a more active participation in politics, and praised 
the various organizations, such as The Railway Business Associa- 
tion, for the work which they were doing, stating "that the crea- 



tion of public sentiment by open and fair means is proper and 
justifiable and generally very effective. With a more active par- 
ticipation in politics by all classes of hones' legislative 
bodies will he more conservative ; they will better express the 
wishes of the people and the busini inter ts will hav 
cause to complain of the evils of politics and legislation." During 
the discussion W. B. Leach explained in detail what the Railway 
Business Association was organized to do d upon all 
supply men to join it and aid in the work. 

The next regular meeting of the club will be held at Young's 
Hotel, Boston, February 9, when Henry C. Boynton of the John 
A. Roebling's Sons Co., of Trenton, N. J., will present a paper 
on "Steel Rails." Dinner will be served at 6:30 p, m., to h 
lowed by the regular business session at 8 p. Id. 

Secretary, George H. Frazier, 10 Oliver str m, Mass. 



A orlhern Railroad Club (Duluth, Minn.) — Next meeting Sat- 
urday evening, February 27. The paper will be by VV. H Sicdel, 
chief dispatcher Great Northern Railway, Superior, Wis., on the 
subject of "Dispatching of Trains by Telegraph or Otherwise." 

At the December meeting the discussion of Mr. Seddon's paper 
on "Locomotive Boiler Washing" was continued. All of the 
members participating spoke most highly of the hot water wash- 
ing out system. Those who had experience claimed great sav- 
ings in the mater of time, as well as reduction in boiler repairs. 
The paper of the evening was on "Steel and Concrete Ore 
Docks,'-' by W. A. Clark. The paper briefly touched upon the 
most important features in ore dock construction and gave a 
short description of a new dock recently built at Two Harbors. 
A topical discussion on the subject of "Causes of Sharp Flanges 
011 Driving Tires" was briefly considered. 

Secretary, C. L. Kennedy, 401 West Superior street, Duluth. 
Minn. 



Railroad Club of Pittsburg. — At the meeting of February 26 a 
paper will be presented by R. G. Manning, engineer, American 
Bridge Company, Ambridge, Pa., on the subject of "Steel Rail- 
road Bridges." 

At the January meeting Wm. Elmer presented a paper on the 
subject of "Steam Engine House Auxiliaries." The author be- 
gins with an engine which has just finished its run and is on its 
way to the ash pits and follows it through each step until it is 
again coupled to an out-going train. Each feature of work on 
the engine is clearly and carefully treated and the best methods 
of doing the work, in the author's estimation, are illustrated. 
The paper is filled with valuable suggestions for expediting ter- 
minal work and was quite extensively illustrated. 

At the January meeting resolutions were passed complimenting 
the Railway Business Association on its work for better senti- 
ment on the part of the public toward the railroads and pledging 
the hearty support of the club to the movement. 

Secretary, C. W. Alleman, General Offices, P. & L. E. R R., 
Pittsburg. 



Southern and Southwestern Railway Club (Atlanta, Ga.). — At 
the quarterly meeting, held January 21 at the Piedmont Hotel, 
the subject of "Head Lights" was discussed. The next meeting 
will be April 15, subject not yet announced. 

Secretary, A.. J. Merrill, Prudential Bldg., Atlanta, Ga. 



St. Louis Railway Club. — At the next meeting, on February 12, 
W. E. Harkness will present a paper on the subject of "Train 
Dispatching by Telephone," which will include an actual demon- 



65 



60 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAl 



stration of the workings of (lie selector in connection with the 
telephone. 

The January meeting was very largely attended and was greatly 
entertained by George A. Post, president of the Railway Busi- 
ness Association, who spoke on the subject of 'The Smile Com- 
bine." 

Secretary, B. W. Frauenthal, Union Station, St. Louis, Mo. 



Western Railway Club (Chicago). — At the next meeting, Feb- 
ruary 16, a paper will be presented by R. B. Dole, assistant chem- 
ist of the Water Resource Branch of the U. S. Geological Survey. 
This department has been making a mineral analysis of surface 
water all'over the U. S. and this paper will discuss the waters in 
the middle-western slates through which the roads running out 
of Chicago are located. 

Mr. McAulliffc in his paper on "The Purchase of Railway 



Fuel Coal" made a [ilea for some provision which would pre- 
vent the present biennial shut-down of the mines, caused by the 
readjustment of labor conditions in the mines every two years 
and usually occupying about ten weeks. Previous to this shut- 
down extra efforts are put forward by the miners and a stock 
of coal has accumulated and incidentally he acquires sufficient 
money to tide him over the strike period. The paper suggested 
the formation of an arbitration committee and law similar to 
that now in force in Canada, which would prevent this shut- 
down. It contains some very striking figures on the consump- 
tion of coal by railways in the U. S. and made a strong argu- 
ment for basing fuel contracts on quality and introduce com- 
petition rather than make them a reward for commercial ton- 
nage. The mechanical and fuel departments should have a 
closer relation. 

The subject was not given a very extended discussion. 

Secretary, J. W. Taylor, 390 Old Colony Bldg., Chicago. 



FULTON BILL DANGEROUS TO RAILROADS. 



MOW YOU CAN HELP. 



So many are asking concerning the Fulton Bill as to indicate 
the importance of an explanation of the proposed enactment, 
giving its nature and its possible effects if made into a law. 

Under the present laws a railroad, wishing to increase rates 
may file the new rate schedule with the Interstate Commerce 
Commission and after thirty days, under normal conditions, 
tlie new rates will go into effect. Should a shipper complain 
of unfairness of a rate to his interests, the case comes befon 
the Interstate Commerce Commission for investigation and ad- 
judication. Meanwhile, the shipper is paying the advanced rate 
and when the case 1- decided, if this rote is judged to be un- 
fair to the shipper the railroad refunds to the shipper the dif- 
ference between the amount he has paid and the amount the 
Interstate Commerce Commission judges that he ought to have 
paid. 

This method seems, all things considered, to be most satisfac- 
tory and equitable. Shippers complain because in the event of a 
new rate case being decided adversely t 1 the railroad, the ship- 
per's funds may be tied up pending a trial of the case. The 
Interstate Commerce Commission is a busy body of men and 
it naturally requires time tc investigate complicated cases of 
rates, frequently rendering the process of decision rather slow. 
The shipper, however, loses no money by the delay. 

The Fulton Bill would change all this. It would reverse 
matters with respect to the operation of a new rate. In its 
original form the bill provides that a shipper may protest against 
a new rate and prevent it from being put into effect until the 
new rate has been investigated by the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission, and judged to be fair. This would mean that shippers 
could through unlimited accumulation of protests prevent a rail- 
road indefinitely from obtaining from the commission the right 
to put a given increase into effect, or even a hearing. If this 
principle should be applied to a merchant it would deprive him 
of any voice in the price which he should charge for his goods. 
Senator Fulton was impatient concerning the delay in reporting 
his bill from the Interstate Commerce Committee of the Senate, 
and on January 6 that committee reported it unfavorably. 

Mr. Fulton, undoubtedly realizing the difficulties in securing 
the passage of the bill, has amended it, putting it in such form 
as to be more likely to become a law The most important 
change is to make it discretional witli the Interstate Commerce 
Commission whether or not it will allow the new rate to go 
into effect pending the decision of the Commission as to whether 
or not it is reasonable. 

The amendment also carried into the bill a new feature which 
looks in the general direction of promoting pooling by the rail- 



roads, under the control of the Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion. 

The bill is now upon the calendar of the Senate and with the 
amendment is likely to be brought up for debate. This bill should 
not become a law for the following reasons : 

In the interests of all concerned, the investor, the shipper and 
the public, it is necessary that the railroads should have the 
right to raise a rate which is found to be too low, subject to pro- 
test by a shipper, adjudication by the Commission, and refund 
by the railroad in case of an adverse ruling, because such a 
method is just, right and fair to all concerned. 

This bill, becoming a law, would prevent the increase of a rate 
.upon one protest or without a protest until the busy Interstate 
Commerce Commission reaches its decision. 

Such a law would swamp the Commission, which is already 
hopelessly behind in its work. Before a rate could be decided 
the conditions might change and tin decisions in such delayed 
cases, while they might be fair on the main issue, might lead to 
injustice because they might not apply to the changed conditions. 

Such delays would render the rale problem exceedingly in- 
elastic, and the difficulty of raising a rate would have the effect 
of preventing the roads from ever making a reduction. 

Rate discrimination, covering large sections of the country, 
might result from such a law, because of the certainty that 
rates would not be reduced anywhere, whereas it would be dis- 
cretionary with the Commission whether or not rates should 
be raised. 

Our national legislators can probably be induced to give the 
railroads a fair hearing before voting upon this bill, if all who 
appreciate the situation will at once write their Senators and 
Representatives requesting intelligent study of its probable ef- 
fects upon the people. Will you who read these paragraphs write 
your Senators and Representatives at once before you lay this 
paper aside? Will you also notify the Railway Business Asso- 
ciation (No. 2 Rector street, New York City), that you have 
done so? In writing about the Fulton bill please also urge calm- 
ness and fair-mindedness in the consideration of all other 
measures affecting public interests through the transportation in- 
terests. 

The bill has aroused vigorous protest from many interests. 
Telegrams and letters were poured in on the Senate Committee 
from financial, labor and industrial leaders. The Railway Busi- 
ness Association on January 5 sent about 250 telegrams from its 
members and others in sixteen States, and this influence is said 
at Washington to have had a potent effect. The next day the 
adverse report was made, the vote in committee having been 
6 to 5. 



COMPARATIVE TESTS OF RUN-OF-MJNE AND BRIQUETTED 

COAL ON LOCOMOTIVES 



W. P. M. Goss. 



INTRODUCE ION. 

For the purpose of procuring data that could be used in esti 
mating the value of the briquetting process as applied to Amer- 
ican fuels, the United States Ccolugical Survey, in co-operation 
with other interests, began in 1004, at the Louisiana Purchase 
Exposition, certain experiments involving the production and use 
of bituminous-coal briquets. It installed at St. Louis, and later 
at Norfolk, machines for the manufacture of sucli briquets, and 
the output of these machines has been tested in locomotive ser- 
vice on several different railroads in comparison with natural 
fuels. An elaborate and carefullj executed series of tests in- 
volving the use of natural coals and of briquets made from the 
same coal, previously crushed, has been carried out on a locomo 
live mounted at the testing plant of the Pennsylvania Railroad 
Company at Altoona, Pa. ; and some preliminary experiments in- 
volving the use of briquets in marine service have ben made in 
connection with one of the Government's torpedo boats. A de- 
scription of these tests is presented herewith. The results sus- 
tain the following general conclusions : 

1. The briquets made on the Government's machr.ies have well 
withstood exposure to the weather and have suffered but little 
deterioration from handling. 

2. In all classes of service involved by the experiments, the 
use of briquets in the place of natural coal appears to have in- 
creased the evaporative efficiency of the boilers tested. 

3. The smoke produced has in no test been more dense with 
the briquets than with coal ; on the contrary, in most tests the 
smoke density is said to have been less when briquets were used. 

4. The use of briquets increases the facility with which an 
even fire over the whole area of the grate may be maintained. 

5. In locomotive service the substitution of briquets for coal 
has resulted in a marked increase in efficiency, in an increase in 
boiler capacity, and in a decrease in the production of smoke. It 
has been especially noted that careful firing of briquets at ter- 
minals is effective in diminishing the amount of smoke produced. 

Comparative Tests of Lloydell Coal and Briquets. 

The tests of Lloydell coal and briquets here reported were 
made under the direction of A. W. Gibbs, general superintendent 
of motive power of the Pennsylvania Lines, by E. D. Nelson, 
engineer of tests, at Altoona, Pa. 

purpose of the tests. 

Many low-volatile coals, such as those mined in the vicinity e f 
Johnstown, Pa., are semi-smokeless and therefore very desirable 
for use in locomotives at or near terminals; nevertheless, on ac- 
count of their low evaporative efficiency, they have not been 
found altogether satisfactory when used as locomotive fuel. 
Their tendency to disintegrate rapidly on the grate during com- 
bustion causes large quantities of cinders and spark? of high 
calorific value to be discharged. These cinders accumulate 111 
the smoke-box of the locomotive, obstruct the draft en the fires 
and reduce the capacity of the boiler. The investigation here 
reported, therefore, was undertaken to determine m what meas 
ure, if any, the process of briquetting will serve as a remedy for 
these defects and to discover the effect of the process on effi- 
ciency and capacity. 

coal tested. 

The coal selected for the tests was taken from a mine work- 
ing the Lower Kittanning coal bed near Lloydell, IV, on the 
South Fork branch of the Pennsylvania Railroad. This coal 
was practically the same as that mined in the Scalp Level dis- 

• Extracts from Bulletin 3G3 of the United States Geological Survey. 



trict ui Pennsylvania, which was used in all the locomotive tests 
1 nil by the Pennsylvania Railroad Company at the Louisiana 
Purchasi 1 position in [904. Its characteristics as a locomotive 
fuel were therefor, well known. The Lloydell coal is a very 
friable, low volatile, bituminous coal, and the carloads selected for 
the lests cons'sted of run of mine. The coal was exposed to the 
weather for thirty days on the way to the St. Louis testing plant, 

being briquetted. It showed but little change di 

exposure except a decided increase in moisture, which, how- 
ever, was eliminated in the briquetting process. 

BRIQUETS TESTED. 

The briquets tested were of two sizes, and the amount of bind- 
ing material in them ranged from 5 to 8 per cent. The larger 
size, called in the tests "square," was rectangular in form, about 
3 li\ 4 T 4 by 6?4 inches, with slightly rounded corners, and 
weighed about y/ 2 pounds. The smaller size of briquet, called 
"round," was cylindrical with convex ends, had a diameter of 
about 3 inches and a length over the convex ends of 2 inches, 
and weighed about one-half pound. 

The binding material in all the briquets was water-gas pitch. 
This material was furnished at the briquetting plant of the 
United States Geological Survey, in St. Louis, at $9 per ton, or 
0.45 cent per pound. The least amount in binding material that 
would make perfect briquets was found to be 5 per cent, of the 
weight of the coal. The cost of the binder in one ton of the 
5 per cent, briquets was therefore 45 cents. 

The cost of briquetting, including all charges, ; s est-'mated to 
be about $1 per ton of briquets; that is, the briquetting added ap- 
proximately $1 per ton to the cost of the coal. Tti2 bricuets were 
made, however, in an experimental plant, and the price is for 
this reason probably not so low as if they had been made on a 
much larger scale. 

The briquets were made by the fuel-testing plant cf the United 
States Geological Survey at St. Louis. After the coal was made 
up into briquets it was returned to the locomotive testing plant 
at Altoona, Pa., for the tests. The method of making the 
briquets is described in detail in previous reports of the Geolog- 
ical Survey.* In this process the binding material is mixed with 
the crushed coal, the mass is softened by contact with steam as 
it passes to the briquetting press, and the briquet is finally formed 
in a compressing machine. 

The locomotive used for all tests was a simple Atlantic type 
passenger locomotive of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company's 
class Eaa. 

TEST CONDITIONS. 

In order to obtain results covering all practical rates of evapo- 
ration up to the limit of the boiler capacity, tests were made 
with each style of briquets and with the natural coal under the 
following conditions of running: First, a low evaporation test 
at 80 revolutions per minute and IS per cent, cut-off; then a 
higher evaporation test at 120 revolutions per minute and 20 per 
cent, cut-off; next a still higher evaporation test 1" 160 revolu- 
tions per minute and _>5 per cent, cut-off: and finally a test made 
at the maximum possible evaporation. With the briquetted coal 
this maximum-capacity test was at 200 revolutions per minute 
and 32 per cent, cut-off. Four or at most five tests were thus 
sufficient to cover the range of boiler capacity. 

EVAPORATIVE EFFICIENCY. 

Figure 1 shows the equivalent evaporation per pound of dry 

* Report on the operation of the coal-testing plant of the United States 
ficnlotrical Survey at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. St. Louis. Mn 
1104 'Prof Paper No. 4S. See also Bulletins 29". 332, and 343 



67 



68 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 











X 


1 

Piquets, square, 


1 

)X binder 




















l. Briquets, square, %V. binder 
O Briquets, square.7% binder 
o Briquets, round, 8', binder 






































• 


Haw Lloyde 


l coa 






















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B 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 
DRY COAL FIRED PER HOUR, POUNDS PER SOUARE FOOT OF GRATE 

FIG. I. 

coal plotted against the rate of combustion. The figure repre- 
sents a comparison under the same test conditions between the 
natural Lloydell coal and the same coal briquetted. It shows 
that a well-defined improvement in the evaporation per pound of 
fuel is obtained by briquetting. Figure 2 shows the same relation 
as Fig. I, expressed in per cent. 

In a comparison made on the basis of evaporation per square 
foot of heating surface, the better results for briquetting are 
further emphasized. The maximum evaporation possible with 
the natural Lloydell coal was 16 pounds per square foct of heat- 
ing surface per hour, but with the same coal briquettec the evap- 
oration was more than 19 pounds. 

The ultimate measure of locomotive efficiency is expressed, of 
course, in terms of coal per dynamometer horse-power hour. 
This value, plotted against dynamometer horse-power, is given 
in Fig. 3, which shows that whatever may be the power devel- 



ural coal, though the quantities in pounds of cinders may be the 
same. 

The amount of heat lost in the form of cinders and sparks, 
expressed as a percentage of the total heat supplied, is shown 
graphically by Fig. 4, in which the solid line represents the aver- 
age cinder and spark loss for raw Lloydell coal at varying rates 
of combustion, and the broken line the same loss for the briquet- 
ted Lloydell coal. The points representing the former lies ex- 
tremely close to the average line, but those representmg the latter 
do not fall in such close alignment. It is a fact worthy of note, 
however, that those points which represent tests witl. briquets 

6 5r 













X 


Tiquels, sq 


uare,5% bi 


ndcr 






















a briquets, square, b~/ a hinder 
d Briquets, square, 7% binder 
Briquets, round, 8% binder 
































70 






































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1 








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o 


























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I 50 














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10 20 30 40 SO 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 
DRV COAL FIRED PER HOUR, POUNDS PER SQUARE FOOl OF GRATE 

FIG. 2. 

oped, the briquets give the greater efficiency, but that when the 
power is extremely low or extremely high the difference is small. 
At the point of maximum efficiency the difference amounts to 
nearly 35 per cent. It should be remembered, however, in deal- 
ing with dynamometer horse-power that several variable factors, 
such as machine friction and engine efficiency, are introduced 
into the equation ; and that the only true comparison to dis- 
close the relative values of different fuels is that which is based 
on boiler performance alone. 

CINDERS. 

There appears to be little or no difference in the weight of 
cinders obtained from the natural coal and the briqi etted coal 
at any particular rate of combustion. The sparks from the stack, 
when the locomotive was fired with briquets, were in the form 
of flakes of a size considerably larger than thote discharged 
when coal was fired. 

The calorific value of the cinders collected in the smoke-box 
and the sparks discharged from the stack is, in general, higher 
for the natural coal than for the briquetted coal. That is, the 
heat loss due to the sparks and cinders is greater for the nat- 



5 

E 



■'ib 





1 1 1 

x Briquets, square, 5% binder 








a Briquets, square,6X binder 








o Briquets, square, 7% binder 










? Briquets, round %7 


inder 










■ Raw Lloydell coal 



















o 












• 










• ^* 




p 

< 






\ 






O ' 








\ . 






/' 












O 


o 







400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 

DYNAMOMETER HORSE POWER 

FIG. 3. 

having the larger percentage of binder generally fall below the 
average line, whereas those for the smaller percentage of binder 
generally fall abov= the average line. The curve therefore shows 
that, (a) the loss due to cinders and sparks is greater when 
raw coal is used than when briquets are used, and the difference 
increases as the rate of evaporation increases ; (b ; the loss due 
to cinders and sparks decreases slightly as the percentage of 
binder used in the briquets is increased. 

SMOKE. 

The density of smoke from the locomotive was compared with 
the Ringelmann charts. These charts are usually designated as 
follows.- No. o, no smoke; No. i, light gray; No. 2, darker gray; 
No. 3, very dark gray; No. 4, black; No. 5, very black. 

In Fig. s the smoke density is plotted against boiler capacity, 
and average lines are drawn through points representing tests 



11 
£10 

UJ 

O 

°= 9 

Q_ 
CO 

2 8 

Z 

o 7 

a 

z 
* 6 

CO 

£ 5 



1 


I 1 
x Briquets, square, 


1 
bVo binder 




















nBriquets, square, 7% binder 












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o Briquets, round, 8 % binder 
• Raw Lloydell coal 












* 


/ 


























, 


/ 






















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10 



DRY COAL FIRED PER HOUR, POUNDS PER SQUARE F00F OF GRATE SURFACE 
FIG. 4. 



February, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



69 



with raw coal and 'briquets with 8, 7, and 5 per cent of binder. 
As there are but two points representing tests witli briquets hav- 
ing 6 per cent, binder, and as their position seems to be contra- 
dicted by the position of the other points, no line has been drawn 
through them. The curves show that the smoke density is nearly 
constant for all capacities under 90 per cent, of full load, but 
that for capacities beyond this point the density increases rap- 
idly. It appears that for all tests with briquets the density of 
the smoke is less than for corresponding tests with raw coal, but 
more smoke is produced with briquets having 8 per c< nt. binder 
than with those having 5, 6, or 7 per cent. Whether this fact is 
to be explained by the varying amounts of binder used or by 
the difference in size and shape is a question. However, as the 
binding material employed consists largely of volatile matter, it 
is reasonable to suppose that the varying amounts used in the 
several briquets cause the varying density of the smoke shown 
in Fig. 5. 

SMOKE DENSITY IN INTERMITTENT RUNNING. 

At the end of test 13, with the locomotive standing, the blower 
was put on, and after two minutes the smoke cleared. Imme- 
diately after the close of test 14, with a very heavy fire, the en- 
gine was again started at a slow speed and with partly open 
throttle. With these conditions of running, the smoke cleared 
entirely after eighteen minutes. These conditions are not dis- 
similar to the intermittent operation to which a locomotive is 
subjected as it enters a terminal, and the results show the degree 













1 
x Briquets, 


square 


sx 


inder 






















d Briquets, squjre,6"' binder 
O Briquets, square,??, binder 




















Briquets, round, 85d binder 






































<V 


^ 
































1 

1 




3 


























1 


1 


^ 






















/ 


f 


if 




/ 


2 






















X 


* 


•1 


ft 


























/ 


<S 
















fta*i 














y 


/ 


u 














\ ■- 












,X 


s 












1 







x b'/ 

2S — 


binde 

n 


r 


X 


Q— - 















50 60 70 80 90 100 110 

BOILER CAPACITY, PER CENT 

FIG. 5. 

of smoke control which the use of briquets makes possible under 
adverse conditions. 

BEHAVIOR OF COAL AND BRIQUETS DURING COMBUSTION. 

Briquets of both small and large size were fired with the or- 
dinary shovel and were handled in much the same manner as 
coal. In all tests they were fired alone without mixing with coal. 
It was not necessary to break the briquets in order to handle 
them readily with the ordinary scoop shovel, and the unbroken 
briquets burned freely and completely. They disintegrated slowly 
from the heat of the flame and became more or le?s porous as 
they swelled and opened under the action of the heat. 

In the process of starting a fire with briquets no -liffirulty was 
experienced, the ordinary blower arrangements at the engine 
house being sufficient. The natural coal was finely dhided when 
fired and did not form so open a mass in the fire-box as the 
briquets. Much of the finer portion was drawn, unburned, 
through the tubes by the force of the draft. 

EFFECT OF HANDLING AND WEATHERING ON BRIQUETS. 

To observe the effect on briquets of exposure to the weather, 
a number of the round and square briquets were placed on the 
roof of the testing plant. After four months of exposure for 
the round and three months for the square briquets, no change 
whatever from their original condition was noticed. They ap- 
peared to be entirely impervious to moisture and w;re still firm 
and hard. 

The briquets were little affected by handling. They were 



loaded at St. Louis in open gondola cars and shipped to Almona, 
where they were unloaded by hand and stacked. '1 hey were 
handled a third time in taking them to the firing platform of 
the test locomotive. After these three handlings they were ■-till 
in good condition, very few were broken, and the amount of dust 
and small particles was practically negligible. 
CONCLUSIONS. 
The results of the tests justify the following conclusions : 
Co) The evaporation per pound of fuel is greater for the 
briquetted Lloydell coal than for the same coal in iis natural 
state. This advantage is maintained at all rates of evaporation. 

(6) The capacity of the boiler is considerably incieased by 
the use of briquetted coal. 

(c) Briquetting appears to have little effect in reducing the 
quantity of cinders and sparks ; the calorific value of tr.ese, how- 
ever, is not so high in the briquetted as in the natural fuel. 

(d) The density of the smoke with the briquetted coal is much 
less than with the natural coal. 

(e) The percentage of binder in the briquet has l ; »tle influ- 
ence on smoke density. 

(/) The percentage of binder for the range tested appears io 
have little or no influence on the evaporative efficitney. 

(g) The expense of briquetting under the conditions of the 
experiments adds about $i per ton to the price of the fuel, an 
amount which does not seem to be warranted by the resulting 
increase in evaporative efficiency. 

(h) With careful firing, briquets can be used at terminals 
with a considerable decrease in smoke. 

(0 The briquets appear to withstand well exposure to the 
weather, and suffer very little deterioration from handling. 

Comparative Road Tests of Coal and Briquets, 
atlantic coast line railroad. 
In the following table are presented the results of compara- 
tive tests of run-of-mine New River coal and of briquets of the 
same fuel, made in December, 1907, on a locomotive in the regu- 
lar passenger service of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad. These 
tests were conducted under the supervision of R. E. Smith, gen- 
eral superintendent of motive power of the railroad, in co-opera- 
tion with the United States Geological Survey. Sixteen complete 
test trips were run between Rocky Mount and Wilmington, N. C. 
with the same engine, crew, and trains. An equal number of 
tests were made with run-of-mine coal furnished bv the railroad 
company and with round and rectangular briquets made at the 
Geological Survey fuel-testing plant at Norfolk, Va.. from the 
same coal, with 6 per cent, of water-gas pitch binder. 

Coal. 

Number of test trips IS 

Total pounds consumed 172.700 

Average pounds consumed per trip 10.794 

Average tons consumed per trip 5.387 

Total engine miles 1.984 

Total car miles 10.912 

Pounds consumed per car mile IS. 8 

Average cars per train 5.6 



Briquets. 

IB 

lrtl.980 

10.12t 

5.062 

1.984 

1?.WB 

12 5 

6.5 

It is reported that from a practical standpoint the briquets 
thus tested were very satisfactory. Their use was found to elim- 
inate all black smoke. No objectionable clinker was formed and 
the fuel seemed to burn completely. 

CHESAPEAKE AND OHIO RAILWAY. 

In December, 1907, the United States Geological Survey co- 
operated with the Chesapeake and Ohio Railwav in making a 
series of comparative road tests of the performance of run-of- 
mine coal and briquets of the same coal on locomotives in regu- 
lar service. 

No attempt was made in these tests to make careful measure- 
ments of- fuel and water: however, during the tests the follow- 
ing facts were developed. The briquets ignited freel---, made an 
intensely hot fire, and when the engine was working erriitted very 
little smoke. It was found that a comparatively heavy fire could 
be carried without danger of clinkering. Few ashes were left 
in the fire-box or ash pan, and the cinder deposit in the front 
end was smail. The results do not show that any apparent im- 
provement in evaporative efficiency was obtained bv the use of 
briquets, as compared with that obtainable from the natural fuel 



FAILURE OF SIDE SHEETS ON WIDE FIREBOX LOCOMOTIVES 



W. E. Johnston. 



It appears to be the general opinion that the trouble from 
cracked side sheets in wide fireboxes is due to defective circula- 
tion. Assuming this to be true, it must be the result of one of 
two causes, viz : excessive resistance to the circulation or the 
lack of a sufficient impelling force. Th<; wide water legs now 
in use offer much less resistance to a free circulation than the 
narrow ones used on old narrow firebox boilers which gave no 
trouble in this respect. The lack of a sufficient impelling force 
must therefore be the true reason for the defective circulation. 

Steam liberated in a body of water tends to move vertically 
upwards. In the water leg of a wide firebox boiler as shown 



Norma] Direction of' 
Motion of Steam 




Vertical Motion 
of Steam in still 
Water 



Actual Motion 
of Steam at "A" 



Downward Motion 
of Water at "A " 



FIG. I. 

in Fig. i, this movement carries it towards the outside shept as 
indicated by the arrows, the actual movement of the steam (in- 
dicated by the solid arrows) being a combination of this tnutral 
vertical tendency and the downward motion of the water near 
the outside sheet. If the water near the outside sheet be at a 
sufficiently low temperature the steam will be condensed and will 
give up its latent heat of evaporation. By this action, all the 
water in the leg tends to become of uniform temperature. If 
the water near the outside sheet is riot cool enough to condense 
all the steam the remainder will rise along the sheet in opposi- 
tion to the desired direction of circulation. In either case, the im- 



pelling force which should cause the general circulation up the 
fire sheet and down the outside sheet is very materially reduced. 
To produce a rapid circulation, the heat and steam must be kept 
in the water close to the fire sheet, so that there may be as great 
a difference as possible between the specific gravities of the water 
near the fire sheet and that near the outside sheet. 

With a sluggish circulation, the water at the fire sheets evi- 
dently reaches a much higher temperature than with a brisk 
circulation, and the amount of steam liberated in the water leg 
probably varies nearly inversely as the rapidity of the circula- 
tion. The pressure seven feet below the surface of the water in 
a boiler carrying steam at 200 pounds pressure is about 2j/£ 
pounds greater than at the surface, and the temperature at which 
steam will be formed at this increased pressure is about 1 degree 




fig. 2. 

Fahr. higher than that of steam at 200 pounds pressure. Assum- 
111.!; some rate for the transmission of heat through the fire sheet 
to the water, the calculation of the point at which the water will 
reach the boiling temperature as it flows up the fire sheet at 
assumed velocities shows at once that the point at which steam 
begins to form on the fire sheet moves downward rapidly as the 
velocity of the circulation is diminished. With the sluggish cir- 
culation existing in the water leg, shown in Fig. 1, it is probable 
that steam begins to form at such a low point that the sheets 
are exposed to the direct flame with nothing but steam to pro- 
tect them, leading inevitably to burnt and cracked sheets. 



70 



February. 1009. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



71 



The solution of the difficulty may lie in the old so-called "cir- 
culating plates" used ninny years ago, but abandoned on account 
of trouble from clogging up, etc. With the new designs of 
boilers using wide water legs, there seems to he ample room for 
such a plate without danger of clogging. Fig. 2 shows a plato 
in the boiler shown in Fig. I. This may be suspended independ- 
ently of the staybolts, if desired, with holes sufficiently lar^'- 
so as not to interfere with their free deflection with the move- 
ments of the fire sheet. A little steam might leak through these 
holes, of course, but the amount would be so small as to be 
negligible. With this plate the steam leaving the surface of 
the lire sheet would be compelled to follow its proper cours- up 
ward on the inside of the plate and the water on the outside of 
the plate would fir kept cool and free from steam and therefon 
heavy until it got to the proper point near the bottom of the 
water leg, from which point it would be drawn up between the 
fire sheet and the circulating plate. 



Bj stopping off the circulating plate at the top whei 
heel begins to curvi and low the washout pit lo 

cated even with the crown, any possibility of trouble from ill 
ability to thoroughly wa h oul would bi ■'■ I As no steam 

will be formed very near thi bottom ol the water leg with a 

brisk circulation, the botl it th< circulating plate ma 

kepi some distance up from the mud ring, -ay 18 inch' 
ing on the inward slope of thi fleet 

Figure 3 showV a circulatinj ipplied to the boilers of 

some standard engii that the trouble 

' icperienced with the plati in thi 1 or similar boilers is no in- 
dication that the plate as applied in Fig. 2 would not be entirely 
satisfactory. 1 In the new di ign > of wi boil 1 

the strain and hot water by following their natural tendency to 
rise vertically, mix with the water which should stay cold, the 
casi is entirely differ ecially as the wide water leg! 

ample space for the application of the plate. 




NARROW GAUGE MALLET ARTICULATED TYPE 
LOCOMOTIVE. 



The locomotive shown in the accompanying illustration has 
recently been finished by the Baldwin Locomotive Works, and is 
to be used on a plantation in Santo Domingo. The gauge is 2 
ft. 6 in., and although the locomotive weighs 60,200 lbs. total it 
will be operated over a track laid with 25 lb. rails, and having 
curves of 17s ft. radius. A tractive effort of 11,630 lbs. can be 
exerted, which, considering the track conditions, is very large. 

The locomotive is, in general, a miniature of the engines built 
at these works for road service on the Great Northern Railway, 
illustrated in this journal June, 1907, page 213. The weight on 
drivers is 51,900 lbs., which gives an average weight per axle of 
8,650 lbs. The front set of frames are connected by an articu- 
lated joint having the pins in the center of the high pressure sad- 
dle, which is cast separately from the cylinders. The frames 
throughout are of cast steel and are in one piece on each side of 
each group of wheels. The leading truck is center bearing and 
is equalized with the front group of drivers, while the trailing 
truck is side bearing and is equalized with the rear group. All 
four cylinders have slide valves operated by Walschaert valve 
gear. The reverse shaft for the high and low pressure gears 
are connected by a single reach rod, placed in the center line of 
the locomotive and passing through a slot in the high pressure 
cylinder saddle. It is provided with a knuckle joint immediately 
in front of the articulated frame connection. The reversing is 
effected by the usual lever and also by a hand wheel and screw, 
either of which may be used. 

The boiler is of the straight top type, with a radially stayed 
fire box set on top of the frames. The grate is arranged for 
wood burning, as is also the front end and the stack. The boiler 
is fed by two injectors and has an auxiliary duplex feed pump 
located on the left hand running board, immediately in front 
of the cab. Steam brakes are used. The tender has a capacity 
of 1,200 gallons of water and iV 2 cords of wood. The general 
dimensions, weights and ratios are given in the following table : 



(.ANTRAL DATA. 

Gauge 4 it. S'A in. 

Service Freight 

Fuel 

Tractive effort l ] ,680 Pis. 

Weight in working order 60.200 lbs. 

Weight on drivers 51,900 lbs. 

Weight on leading truck . 4.550 lbs. 

Weight on trailing truck 3,750 lbs. 

Weight of engine and tender in working order 8 »,000 lbs. 

Wheel base, driving c, ft. 

Wheel base, total 

Wheel base, engine and tender 43 ft. 9J4 in. 

RATIOS. 

Weight on drivers -~- tractive effort 4.41 

Total weight -s- tractive effort 5.18 

Tractive effort X diam. drivers -f- heating surface 

Total heating surface — grate area ' 

Firebox heating surface -f- total heating surface, per cent 9.80 

Weight on drivers -f- total heating surface 94. 0O 

Total weight -f- total heating surface 

Volume equiv. simple cylinders, ell ft 

Total heating surface ~ vol. cylinders 

Grate area ~ vol. cylinders 3.77 

CVLIN1 I . 

Kind Ma]'et Comp 

Diameter and stroke 10 & 15 x lfi ir. 

Kind of valves Bal. Slide 

WHEELS. 

Driving, diameter over tires 33 in. 

Driving, thickness of tires 3 

Driving journals, diameter and length 1 \ ., x fi in 

Engine truck wheels, diameter 20 in. 

Engine truck, journals 3.V4 x 6 in. 

Trailing truck wheels, diameter 20 in. 

Trailing truck journals %y 2 x 6 in. 

BOILER. 

Style Straight 

\\ orking pressure 1- 

Outside diameter of first ring . . 3fi in. 

Firebox, length ard width 67'j x 20 

Firebox plates, thickness 5/1G, 3/S & 7/16 in 

Firebox, water space . . F-3. S & B-2 in. 

Tubes, number and -outside diameter 

Tubes, length \o f, ^ in. 

Heating surface, tubes 

Heating surface, firebox 19 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, total 530 sq. ft. 

Grate area 04 sq. ft. 

TENTER. 

Frame 6 in. chan. 

Wheels, diameter 24 in. 

Journals, diameter and length 2^ x 5 in. 

Water capacity 1200 gals. 

Wood capacity 1 l> cords 



72 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 





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MACHINE FOK LOADING COAL INTO BOX CARS. 



LOADING' COAL IN BOX CARS. 

It has long been known by coal dealers and others that much 
coal is stolen from shipments made in open cars, not alone when 
the cars are standing on sidings, I ml even when the cars are 
moving; sometimes by boys and men who steal a ride and throw 
off gunny sacks filled with coal, and even by the railroad em- 
ployees themselves, who shovel off coal near their homes. Nat- 
urally the customer who receives the shipment is short by the 
amount of coal thus lost, for it is seldom that i man weighs 
his carload lots, and even if he does, he still has to pay for the 
amount shipped. 

To overcome this, many customers have advocated that the coal 
be shipped in box cars, but in many cases the extra cost of the 
labor for loading and unloading was sufficient to prevent such 
shipments being made, except where there was no alternative. 
Mechanical loaders have been used to some extent to reduce 
the cost of handling, but in most cases they throw the coal to 
the ends of the cars, causing considerable breakage, especially in 
soft coal. 

To overcome these difficulties a number of coal companies have 
installed the type of box car loader shown in the illustration 
which pushes the coal into place even to the ends of the cars, 
and hence avoid breakage. The example shown has recently 
been installed at the Silver Creek colliery of the Philadelphia 
& Reading Coal & Iron Company at New Philadelphia, Pa., and 
is the first installation of the kind in the anthracite region. This 
type of loader, however, is used quite generally in the bitumin- 
ous region. 

Coal is supplied by chutes from overhead bins to the hopper of 
the loader from which it is distributed alternately to the ends 
of the car, the hopper being entirely inside the car when at 
work. The hopper rocks up and down and at the same time 
moves back and forth from one end of the car to the other. 
As it passes the door in each trip it receives coal from the chute 
and carries it to the end of the car, here it is emptied by the 
movement of a scraper which moves through the hopper, pushing 
the coal ahead of it. The motion of the hopper is reversed by 
reversing the motor, but a mechanical reversing device is used on 
the scraper. All the movements of the scraper, of the hopper 
inside as well as out of the car, and of the entire loader from 
one car to another are obtained from a single in. 'lor, and arc 
under the control of a single operator bj mean- of various 
clutches and reversing gears, all conveniently arranged for rapid 
operation. The loader i- also used lor moving the ears, loaded 
or unloaded, as required, and for this purpose a hook is pro- 
vided on the truck, into which a rope may be fastened. 

Tin- motor is a Westinghouse direct current type "S" series 
wound design, running at 150 ■ p m. at full load Power is sup- 
plied at 2_'0 volts through two trolley wires (not shown in the 



illustration), as the track circuit is not used for return. The 
motor is controlled by a standard Westinghouse R-32 controller 
with grid resistance. It is necessary to reverse the motor at 
frequent intervals and to run at different speeds; hence the re- 
sistance has sufficient capacity to carry the current for an in- 
definite period. The motor has a rating of 75 h.p. on an inter- 
mittent service basis, which meets the requirements of this case, 
and is, in fact, capable of developing far greater torque. 

This loader at the present time is used for loading chestnut, 
stove, egg and broken coals, and can handle all other sizes of 
anthracite coal with equal success. Thirty box cars are being 
loaded by this equipment in a nine-hour day, and sixty can be 
handled when conditions require it. The loader puts all but the 
last few tons into the car, and these are filled in directly from 
the chutes. 



PNEUMATIC DESPATCH TUBE AT ENGINE HOUSES. 



When the inspectors have completed their examination at the 
inspection pit each man writes his report on the proper form 
and sends it by pneumatic dispatch tube to the engine house 
office. By this means the reports covering the condition of the 
engine will reach the work distributor's desk almost as soon as 
the engine reaches the ash pit. The tube can easily be installed 
by any competent pipe litter and is usually constructed of two- 
inch pipe laid in a box underground or carried on the ends of the 
ties. The fins should be smoothed off the inside of the pipe and 
a simple carrier can be made of an old air brake hose. When the 
reports are ready they are slipped into the carrier and the latter 
pushed into the open end of the tube. A hinged flap valve is then 
held against the tube and the air pressure turned on, a distance 
of several hundred feet requiring only a few seconds. As almost 
all of the larger engine houses arc provided with air compressors, 
it is easy to secure the motive power needed by using a reducing 
valve set to a few pounds. The carriers as they come out of the 
tube strike against a spring buffer a foot or so away and drop 
into a basket. The man at the receiving end then signals to the 
other end by means of a bell or incandescent lamp and the air 
is shut off and the flap valve allowed to fall. 

The usefulness and value of this simple and inexpensive tube 
system can hardly be appreciated by those who have never used 
it. The condition of an engine is known to the engine house 
force within a few minutes after it reaches the inspection pit, and 
they know at once whether the engine can be marked up for a 
run and a crew called or whether it will require shop attention 
which may take several hours. The condition of inspection pits 
and pneumatic tubes will save their cost many times over at nme- 
tenths of the large engine terminals of the country. — Wm. Elmer, 
before the Railroad Club of Pittsburg. 



February, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD TOURXAI. 



73 




PLANER SPECIALLY ARRANGED FOR LOCOMOTIVE CYLINDERS. 



LOCOMOTIVE CYLINDER PLANER. 



'1 he accompanying illustrations give two views of a "2 x ~2 
in. x 18 ft. planer built especially for machining locomotive cyl- 
inders and particularly for cylinders with piston valves. The 
machine itself is a regular planer as manufactured by the Cin- 
cinnati Planer Co., and is arranged for a parallel drive. The 
changes making it particularly adapted for cylinders are in the 
arrangement of the side heads, which are a radical departure 
from the usual practice. 

The planer housings are machined on the inside with a guide 
having a dovetail toward the front and a square face to the rear. 
A specially shaped bracket, counterweighted by a chain and 
weight (the latter not being shown in the illustration), fits in 
this guide and extends inward and forward toward the front of 
the housing. This bracket is secured to the housing at any point 
by tightening a taper gib on the straight side, which forces the 
bracket against the dovetail and draws it to a tight bearing. It 
is lifted up and down by means of a sprocket wheel, which car- 
ries the chain from the counterweight and is arranged with a 
crank for raising and lowering the bracket to suit the various 
cylinders. The front end of the bracket has a considerable 
height and is machined and scraped parallel to the front of the 
housing. This face carries a special shoe which has a dovetail 
on its forward side that fits the cross slide of the side head and 
is in line with it. This shoe slides up and down on the guide 
on the face of the bracket. 

After the slide has been run on to the shoe the latter is ad- 
justed to the bracket by means of two taper gibs and the shoe 
then becomes a part of the side head, so that when the latter is 
moved up or down it carries the shoe with it sliding on the face 
of the bracket. Thus when it becomes necessary to reach out, 
say twenty-four inches, from the housing edge, this bracket 
offers additional support to the side head and greatly diminishes 
the strain which usually takes place on work of this kind. The 
bracket is made of a length to clear the projection on all sizes 



and makes of cylinders and yet have sufficient bearing to give 
the greatest desirable vertical movement to the side head. 

Whenever the machine is to be used for other purposes than 
cylinders the slide can be run back in the usual way on the side 
head and the bracket raised up out of the way, the machine then 
having the usual full capacity for ordinary planing. This ma- 
chine is being manufactured by the Cincinnati Planer Co., Cin- 
cinnati, O. 







mmWJ 1 • 1 It'* 


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9.i 


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74 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



EFFECT OF BRICK ARCHES AND BLOWERS ON SMOKE 
FROM LOCOMOTIVES. 



The Department of Smoke Inspection of the City of Chicago 
recently made some quite extensive tests for obtaining accurate 
information on the possibilities of reducing the amount of smoke 
caused by locomotives within the city limits. A bulletin which 
has been issued by the department contains a complete account- 
of the tests and a general discussion of the subject. 

In considering the matter of blowers for forming artificial 
draft when the steam is shut oft" the bulletin states, "much smoke 
is caused in locomotive operation by inefficient blower arrange- 
ments, either in the cab or in the smoke box, or by carelessness . 
on the part of the engine crew in not putting whatever blower 
arrangement their locomotive is equipped with into operation. 
The only function of the blower as a smoke preventative is to 
induce a draft to draw air into the fire box in order that there 
may be enough oxygen supplied, in the absence of a draft pro- 
duced by exhaust from the nozzle, to completely burn the coal. 
The best blower arrangement, therefore, is the one that gives 



If it is arranged to be automatic it should open when the throt- 
tle is closed and remain open after the throttle has been opened, 
until the engine has required speed enough for the exhaust from 
the cylinders to furnish sufficient draft." An illustration and 
description of an automatic blower valve which operates in this 
manner and is being very successfully used by one of the rail- 
roads in Chicago is given. 

The effect of brick arches on the amount of smoke given out 
by a locomotive in regular operation was most carefully studied 
and the writer of the bulletin states that all of the reports of 
tests with brick arches, as compared with no arch, have been 
most favorable to their use. "Whether their use is economical 
or not, provided their expense is not so great that it would be 
prohibitive, should not stand in the way of their adoption, 
for they are efficient as smoke preventors. Many tests 
have been made to determine the value of arches in the 
saving of fuel. Among these a series of very comprehensive 
tests has recently been made by the Lake Shore & Michigan 
Southern Railway. In this investigation a very careful record 
was. kept of the fuel used, the miles run and the tonnage hauled, 



COMPARATIVE BRICK-ARCH TEST 

No Arch Arch No Arch Arcli 

Engine number 4676 4664 

Duration of test 10 da. 10 da. 10 da. 10 da. 

Train numbers 10 & 5 10. &, 5 28 & 23 28 & 23 

Average number cars per trip. . . . 9.1 9.2 8.8 8.9 

Average tonnage per trip 479.5 495.8 457.5 459.9 

Total number of miles 2680 2680 2680 2680 

Total number ot ton miles 1,285,060 1,328.744 1,226.100 1.230.120 

Total tons coal consumed 130.5 118.7 140.2 129.6 

Lbs. coal consumed, 1000 ton mi... 203 181 228 210 

Cost coal consumed, 1000 ton mi. .$ 0.179 $ 0.159 $0,200 $0,184 

Average steam pressure per sq. in. 196.6 19S.3 190.3 196.6 

Number of times flues cleaned.... 15 6 19 9 

Total cost of cleaning flues 0.43 0.21 $0.71 $0.31 

Number of times netting cleaned.. 16 7 19 9 

Total cost of cleaning netting 0.37 0.11 $0.58 $0.23 

Material and labor cost cost, in- 
stalling first arch 0.00 8.36 0.00 8.36 

Cost of materials for replacing 

broken brick 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.70 

Cost of labor for above replace- 
ment 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.0S 

Cost of material for replacement 

on acct. flue work 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 

Cost of labor for above replace- 
ment 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 

Number of times brick cleaned off. 

Total cost of cleaning brick 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 

Total cost for maintenance per 

1000 miles 0.00 3.10 0.00 3.41 

Gross amount saved by use of arch 

over no arch. 1000 mi 0.00 7.99 0.00 7.16 

Net amt. saved by use of arch 

over no arch, 1000 mi 0.00 4.S9 0.00 3.75 



No Arch Arch 
4668 



10 da. 

37 & 4 

6.2 

299.3 

2680 

S02.164 

119.8 

298 

$0,262 

194.1 

17 

$0.59 

IS 

$0.46 

0.00 

0.00 

0.00 

0.00 

0.00 



0.00 

0.00 

0.00 

t 



10 da. 

37 & 4 

6.9 

311.5 

2680 

834. S20 

110.9 

265 

$0,232 

196.5 

12 

$0.18 

10 

$0.24 

8.36 

1.44 

0.12 

0.00 

0.00 



0.00 

3.6S 

8 20 

4.55 



No Arch Arch 
4650 
10 da. 10 da. 



50 



: 3 

5.3 

226.8 

2770 

628.236 

111.2 

353 

$0,310 

195.5 

16 

$0.56 

18 

$0.40 

0.00 

0.00 

0.00 

0.00 

0.00 



0.00 

0.00 

0.00 

0.00 



50 & 3 

5.3 

228.0 

2770 

lil7.710 

100.6 

325 

$0,286 

197.2 

10 

$0.21 

10 

$0.21 

1 

8.36 

0.7t 

0.06 

0.00 

0.00 



0.00 

3.30 

5.S8 

2.58 



results approaching as nearly as possible the conditions which 
exist when the engine is working steam." 

Tests were made on a number of different types of blowers 
by the department and it was found that a combination blower 
and exhaust tip, adaptable to locomotives having a single nozzle, 
gave the best results. This consists of a special exhaust tip hav- 
ing an annular chamber into which the blower steam pipe is led. 
Sixteen J4 in. openings or jets from the chamber are arranged in 
a circle around the outside of the nozzle and so -directed Hiat the 
steam from them forms a single hollow jet, filling the stack near 
the top. The advantages claimed for this blower are that it in- 
duces sufficient draft, is economical in steam consumption and 
is comparatively noiseless. 

On locomotives having a double exhaust tip this arrangement 
of blower is not practical and a double blowing arrangement, 
consisting of two pipes extending up from the nozzle on either 
side and ending at about the base of the stack, being inclined 
inward, so as to cause their combined jets to fill the stack near 
the top is advocated. The tips of these blowers are flattened 
down to give a wide thin jet of steam, the opening being but J4 
in. wide from a I in. pipe. 

In discussing this subject the bulletin states that, "in order to 
obtain good results no blower connection should be less than 
I in. pipe and the blower itself should have an aggregate open- 
ing of the same size as the pipe. In order to facilitate the op- 
eration provision should be made for the engineer and firemen to 
open the blower independently of each other, or better, to make 
the means of opening the blower partially or wholly automatic. 



together with all expenses incident to the arches. Four engines 
were used in the tests, each one running on the same train for 
ten days without the arch and ten days with the arch. The re- 
sults given in the table above show a very gratifying saving of 
fuel, which amounts to approximately g per cent. The net sav- 
ing in dollars and cents per thousand miles varies from $2.58 
to $4.89, or an average of $3.44. 

The department undertook, some time ago, a/i extensive series 
of observations to determine as nearly as possibly, the relative 
value of different arrangements of blowers and arches as smoke 
preventers. Through the courtesy of the Chicago^ Burlington 
& Quincy R. R., the observations were made with locomotives on 
that road. These locomotives were in suburban service between 
Chicago and Downers Grove. The observations were made by 
A. J. Cota, master mechanic of the Chicago terminal division, 
simultaneously with, but independently of, G. E. Ryder, deputy 
smoke inspector of the city of Chicago, the results checking very 
closely. 

The object of these observations was to obtain some definite 
data upon which could be based a comparison of various arch 
and blower arrangements. To make this comparison fair to each 
arrangement, care was taken to eliminate as much as possible 
any features that would give any one equipment an advantage 
over any other; and at the same time select power that would 
not class any part of the results as observations made under spe- 
cial condition: - .. Four locomotives were selected and the equip- 
ment changed from time to time as follows: Engine No. : no, 
no arch, with 2^-in. straight blower; engine No. 1143, no arch, 



February, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER 'AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



75 



with [-in. double blower; engine IllO, solid front arch, with 
; i in straight blower; engine No. 1143, solid front arch, with 
1 in. double blower; engine No. [1 12, double solid arch, with J^-in. 
Straight blower; engine No. 1143, double solid arch, with I-in. 
double blower; engine No. 1 1 u, double hollow arch, with ->4-in. 
Straight blower; engine 1175. double hollow arch, with [-in. double 
blower; engine No. 1143, broken arch, with 1 in. double blower; 
engine No. 1143, broken arch, with 1 in. double blower. 

By the straight blower is mean! the ordinarj blower pipe in 
the smoke box directed vertically toward the center of the stack, 
the form most commonly used in locomotives. The double 
blower consists of two pipes, one on each side of the . xhaust 
nozzle. The tip of this blower is somewhat above the exhaust 
nozzle and is flattened to give an opening about \\ in. in width. 

The double solid arch arrangement is identical with the solid 
front arch except that a crown is added as shown in C on the 
chart. The double hollow arch is the same as the double solid 
arch, differing only to the extent that it is made hollow for 
the purpose of admitting air over the fire. Air is admitted 
through combustion tubes in the sides of the fire box, conveyed 



that the black covers respectively o per cent., 20 1., 40 

pi 1 ' int., 60 per cent., 80 per < < nt and 100 per cent, of the white 
surface of the card iin 1 graded for convenience into o, 1, 
2, 3, 4 and 5. l'y this me: I ample, smoke- proceeding 

from the stack which con card 3 is 60 per cent, black. 

Readings of the smoke on these observations were taken every 
fifteen seconds during tin- time of each run. 

The results of thesi "l, ervations wei I on charts for 

each rim with each equipment. The chart, shown here, is the 
performance of each equipment on train No. 105. On the ver- 
tical scale the grade 01 per ''tit. black is plotted. The horizontal 
scale is the time. A second horizontal scale shows the number 
of shovels of coal at each firing and the time of the firing. The 
effect of heavy firing is evident from the smoke occurring after 
such a fire had been made. 



A NEW PIPE JOINT CEMENT. 



It has been customary to furnish pipe joint cements and red 
or white lead for the same purpose already mixed with either 



DouHs Solid Arc/r 



5 j ' ' dlorpr- 




lif 




Jt 



I -h. Her 



m 



±± 



,' Bicker 



\ ■ Blower 



4 t~ \ Time 



r rJ 1_rflA 



A 



A 



alh Ul-il ItriTH 4l in 



P 



!M 



P 



lb 



K 



TT 



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W 



■i-i 



a I 1 3 I I ntfrit-t 



jail 



JO. 



Pr 



n. 



JM 



lip 



■n- 



\m 



1 



n 



**r 



j-Lnlm 



-f 



pi 



rui 



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i= : 



j' «■■' ts 



f \ 



OA 



A 



IS 



I 



n 



Si 



A 



a 



ja_ 



?4i 46 *7 *S 49 SO SI 51 53 54 55 56 57 55 5? SO 01 02 03 0* OS 06 07 OS 0<J 10 II 12 IS H IS IS 17 IS It 20 21 2? 23 2* 25 26 27 28 29 SO 31 22 53 S4 55 

CHART SHOWING THE EFFECT OF BRICK ARCHES ON SMOKE. 



through the arches and delivered to the fire box from the nose 
of the front arch and the lower side of the crown arch. This 
arrangement is shown in D on the chart. The broken arches 
shown in E and F on the chart are made in the form of the 
solid front arch with the top brick placed in a horizontal po- 
sition. The object of this arrangement is to change the direc- 
tion of the gases, part of them passing through the opening in 
the arch and the remainder passing around the nose of the arch. 
This horizontal course of brick has somewhat the same action 
in the fire box of a locomotive that a mixing pier has in the com- 
bustion chamber of a stationary boiler setting. 

Prof. Ringleman's method for classifying the smoke into six 
grades according to its density or percentage of blackness is the 
one most commonly used in observations of this kind. This 
method is explained as follows : In making observations of the 
smoke proceeding from a chimney, four cards ruled with differ- 
ent thicknesses of lines, together with a card printed in solid 
black and another left entirely white, are placed in a horizontal 
row and hung at a point about so feet from the observer and as 
nearly as convenient in line with the chimney. At this distance 
the lines become invisible, and the cards appear to be of differ- 
ent shades of gray, ranging from very light gray to almost black. 
The observer glances from the smoke coming from the chimney 
to the cards, which are numbered from o to 5, determines which 
card most nearly corresponds with the color of the smoke, and 
makes a record accordingly, at once noting the time. 

The width of the lines and area of the spaces are so arranged 



water or oil, and no doubt a customer buying these cements 
pays as high a price per pound for the water or oil as for the 
cement itself. To obviate these disadvantages the H. W. Johns- 
Manville Company, New York, has recently placed on the mar- 
ket a pipe joint cement put up in powder form, which can, of 
course, be kept in stock indefinitely and does not dry up or de- 
teriorate. It is simply necessary to mix this powder with water 
or linseed oil to make it ready for use. 

The chemical properties of this cement are such that it ex- 
pands after the joint is made up and does not harden like red 
or white lead, which permits, the joint made with it to be easily 
broken at any time without danger of breaking the fittings. It 
is not poisonous and will not taint water. The manufacturers 
claim that one pound of this powdered cement, which has been 
given the name "H-O Pipe Joint Cement," is equal to four 
pounds of the usual ready mixed cement. 



Direct Current on the Pennsylvania. — The Pennsylvania 
Railroad has adopted the direct-current system of electric trac- 
tion, with third rail conductor, for its New York and Long Island 
tunnel extension. This decision was reached after making its 
own independent experiments, and is the result of mature con- 
sideration of the entire subject in view of the special require- 
ments of its tunnels, station and yards. This system of electric 
traction is now in use on the lines of the Long Island Railroad, 
with which lines the tunnel extension will be directly connected. 



1& 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



ELECTRIC TURNTABLE DONKEY. 



It has long been known that for doing work of a purely labori- 
ous sort, that is, requiring merely strength, the human animal is 
a very inefficient piece of apparatus when compared with a me- 
chanical power producer such as an electric motor, inefficient 
both in point of size, weight and cost of operation. Neverthe- 
less it has long been a very general custom to operate the turn- 
tables and often transfer tables on steam railroads by man power. 
A striking example of the economy and convenience which re- 
sults from the use of electric power for this service is shown by 
the installation of a motor on a turntable on one of the rail- 
roads in New York state. 

This turntable was formerly operated by hand, requiring the 
time of a number of men at intervals, which averaged the con- 
tinuous service of two men for 24 hours a day. The donkey 
was equipped with a standard Westinghouse induction motor, 
known as type "F" high torque, rated at 20 h.p., 200 volts, two- 
phase, 60 cycles. This reduced the labor required to one man 
per day of 24 hours. 

Inasmuch as the men were paid 15 cents an hour in each case 
this motor produced a saving of $3.60 a day, or $1,314.00 per 




Kl.ECTRIC TURNTABLE DONKEY WITH CAB. 

year of 365 days. As the cost of power for the motor has aver- 
aged but $8.00 a month, or a total of $96.00 a year, the net saving 
is $1,218.00 a year. The total cost of the electrical equipment, 
including the cost of installing the outfit, was approximately 
$1,500.00, which is but slightly greater than the actual saving in 
one year. 

The economy is not, however, the most important point in the 
advantages of the electrical equipment, although it makes a very 
good showing. The work of a turntable is intermittent and is 
usually rushing for a short time and then at a standstill, espe- 
cially at terminals, where many locomotives often come in at 
the same time. The length of time required to turn a locomo- 
tive by hand depends largely upon the number of men available 
to do the turning, but even with the handles full, which condition 
requires from four to eight men, it is impossible to do the work 
as rapidly as with a motor. Hence the saving in time at such 



periods is of great importance as the congestion at the turntables 
is relieved and the movement of traffic is expedited. 

The electric donkey forms a separate piece of apparatus con- 
sisting of a very heavy cast iron frame carrying a wheel which 
runs on the circular rail. The electric motor is mounted on this 
frame and drives the wheel through a reduction gearing of large 
ratio. The frame is securely connected and braced to the table 
in such a manner as to allow it to be free to move independently 



HH^^H 




r \ 








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1 


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P^^^Si^H 


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B rrr rIri|M||| |8 g^i 


ilil • M 















ECTRIC Tl'KN'l Al'.I.i; MlNICl'V 



MOTOR AN'll BRAKE. 



in .1 vertical direction. A band brake is provided on an exten- 
sion of the shaft of the driving wheel. 

The method of supplying the electric power has some interest- 
ing details. A bridge is used with overhead wires, which run 
to an overhead collecting switch. This switch is constructed 
with brushes and collector rings so that contact is made at all 
limes and in all positions of the turntable. It is so constructed 
that there is no strain on the line wires, as the cross arm to 
which they run does not move with the table, but is stationary 
while the table revolves. 

In this installation the cab is mounted on the center of the 
11 rntable, so that the wires run directly from the bridge to the cab 
and then to the motor. In many instances the cab is mounted at 
ore end, hut instead of being directly on the table, it is mounted 
on the donkey directly over the motor, to overcome the jolting 
which the cabman would get when the locomotives run on and 
off. The type of cab which the Westinghouse Company has 
adopted as a standard for this work is shown in the accompany- 
ing illustration. 

In many cases, especially in a new installation, the feed wires 
are run underground in conduit and brought up through the 
king pin in the center of the table. The same type of switch 
mentioned above is placed between the tracks and the connec- 
tions made from this point in the usual manner. 



"USE-EM-UP" DRILL SOCKET. 



The advent of the expensive high speed drills has brought be- 
fore all drill users more strongly than ever before the problem 
of the loss occasioned by twisted tangs and broken shanks. With 
the ordinary carbon steel drills, notwithstanding the fact that 
the loss was considerable from this source, it was generally 
neglected, and considered as an unavoidable evil. However, when 



_/~ 



,. i _ . , r 



* 




Feeruary, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



77 



the tang was twisted off, or the shank broken on a high speed 
drill of approximately four times the value of an ordinary drill, 
and this expensive tool thereby rendered useless, the men in 
charge of such matters began to give the subject some serious 
thought. 

A cure for this trouble has been devised by the American Spe- 
cialty Company, Chicago, 111,, in the shape of a new type of drill 
socket, which is illustrated herewith. It will be noted that this 
socket is similar to the standard taper socket, with two excep- 
tions. One, that it has a flat on its inside surface, and the other 
that the drift slot is somewhat longer than on the ordinary 
socket, to facilitate the driving out of tangless drills. 

With this socket it is only necessary to grind a flat on the 
remaining portion of the shank after it has been broken off, or 
the tang twisted off, in order to put the drill into immediate use, 
or if a flat is ground on a new drill the liability of trouble from 
this source is entirely eliminated. Several 01 the standard drill 
makers are now furnishing their drills flatted to lit this socket 
at the same price as the ordinary drill. 

It will be noted that flattening drill shank to fit this socket does 
not in any way interfere with its use in the standard taper socket. 



A NEW HIGH DUTY DRILL, 



A 24-inch drilling machine, especially adapted for handling 
high speed drills of from y 2 to 1^4 in- > n diameter, wh»n drill- 
ing in solid steel to their full cutting capacity, has just been de- 
signed and is being manufactured by The Foote-Burt Company, 
Cleveland, O. In addition to the size shown in the illustration 
a smaller size of the same type is being manufactured and it is 
planned to build two larger sizes in the near future. 

This machine contains a number of improvements and the 
design throughout is marked by extreme simplicity. It is single 
speed pulley driven, all speed changes being made by a quick 
change gear device located in the foot of the column. The levers 
for starting and stopping the machine and for changing speeds 
and feeds are conveniently located within easy reach of the op- 
erator. 

All bearings are bronze bushed and are provided with liberal 
oil grooves. Throughout the machine spur gears are used, ex- 
cept one pair of slow running 2-to-i bevel gears at the driving 
end, and one worm and worm gear for the feed. The spindle is 
of forged high carbon steel fitted with a ball thrust bearing. 

Three changes of geared feed are provided, any one of which 
is instantly available by shifting a lever at the front of the 
machine. All of the feed changes can be made without stop- 
ping the machine. The power feed is equipped with an adjust- 
able automatic stop and a hand stop. The hand feed is through 
a worm and worm wheel, and quick traverse of the spindle in 
either direction is afforded through the spider hand wheel at 
the front of the machine which is engaged or disengaged auto- 
matically. 

Nine spindle speeds are available through a double train of 
gearing, which is always in mesh and runs in a bath of oil. The 
device employs a lock bolt engaging any one of thiee gears, in 
each of the two trains, thereby giving the nine different speeds, 
any one of which is instantly available by shifting the levers at 
the side of the machine, directions for the use of which are given 
on the index furnished. At the end of the speed box is the pair 
ot 2-to-i bevel gears inside of the column, making the connec- 
tion to the vertical driving shaft. Between the latter and the 
spindle gear is an idle spur gear, making it unnecessary to em- 
ploy any more bevel gears. 

When desired, a tapping attachment can be furnished which 
consists of a positive steel clutch, located on the idle gear on the 
top of the machine. It obviates the necessity of driving and 
leading the spindle through the keyed member of the clutch. 
The attachment reverses at a ratio of 2 to 1. 

The table is of the bracket knee type and has a large square 
lock bearing surface on the upright, to which it is securely gibbed. 
It is further supported and elevated by a square thread jack 
screw beneath it, slightly back of the center of the spindle, to 



permit boring bars or other tools passing through the table. It 
i-, also provided with a liberal >il gi i I lots. 

This machine has the following dimensions : The distance 
from the center of the spindle to the face of the column is 12 
inches. The maximum distance from the nose of the spindle to 
the top of the table is 28 incln ■-. ; the l<ngth of power feed is 16 
inches; the spindle has a diameter of 3 inches at the nose, and 
is provided with a No. 4 Mors<- taper. '1 he spindle driving gear 
is 8% inches in diameter with a l',i inch face. The table has a 
vertical adjustment of 20 inches. The nine spindle speeds range 




HIGH DUTY DRILLING MACHINE WITH SlNc LE SPEED riRIVE PULLEY. 

between 71 and 306 revolutions per minute. The three feeds are 
0.007, 0.016 and 0.033 inch respectively. The net weight of the 
machine is 2,450 pounds. 

As an extra attachment, a compound table can be furnished, 
with a knee specially built for supporting it. This compound 
table has a longitudinal adjustment of 14 inches, and a cross ad- 
justment of 8 inches. The working surface is l6j/i X 3° inches. 
When the compound table is furnished, the maximum distance 
from the nose of the spindle to the top of the table is decreased 
by 354 inches. 



Frank Thomson Scholarship Examination. — The General 
Managers of the Pennsylvania Lines East and West of Pitts- 
burgh announce that the examinations of applicants for the 
Frank Thomson scholarships will be held in June, 1909. These 
scholarships, amounting to $600 a year, were established in 1907 
by the three children of the late Frank Thomson. After 1910 
there will be eight holders of scholarships, and this number is 
expected to be maintained in succeeding years. The examination 
will be open to the sons of all employees of the Pennsylvania and 
its controlled lines. The College Entrance Examination Board 
of New York City will conduct the examinations. Applications 
are to be sent before June 3 to Thomas S. Fiske, Secretary- 



It is reported that the Pullman Co. is experimenting with a 
view to discover some material to replace the plush which covers 
the seats of its cars. 



78 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



ECONOMY SOCKETS AND SLEEVES. 



Every user of Taper Shank Drills has had a number of them 
made useless because of broken or distorted tangs, caused usually 
by worn or poorly fitting sockets. Such drills are in most cases 
consigned to the scrap pile which is necessarily a very expen- 
sive practice. 

To meet the growing demand for a device to utilize such drills, 




The Standard Tool Co., Cleveland, O., is making a special type 
of socket shown in Figs. I and 2. These are similar to the 
regular sockets and sleeves on the market, but with the slot for 
driving lower down and of larger dimensions. 




fig. 2. 



To provide a new tang to fit these sockets, the Economy Tang 
Gauge is used. By slipping it over the shank of the broken 
drill as shown in Fig. 3, a new tang can be marked of the cor- 
rect size and position, which is then shaped either by milling, 




FIG. 3- 

planing, filing or grinding. The new tang is heavier and stronger 
than the old one, as will be seen in Fig. 4, and insures an accu- 
rate and powerful drive. 
The shanks of the "Economy" sockets and sleeves are made to 




standard dimensions and will 
makes of power drill presses 



FIG. 4. 

[ lit the spindles of all the leading 



HIGH SPEED STEEL CUTTERS FOR SURFACING. 



The advantages of high speed steel for cutting either metal or 
wood are generally appreciated, but its use, by simply replacing 
the present cutters with the new steel, is made impossible in a 
great majority of cases by the great expense and the difficulty 
in properly working and tempering it in such large sizes. The 
general, and most satisfactory, method of surmounting this diffi- 
culty is to use what amounts to a tool holder of proper design 
and first-class material, arranged to carry a comparatively small 
piece of high speed steel, which simply forms the cutting edge. 

Among the most recent applications of this idea is the blade's 
cylinder for surfacing, beading and siding, shown in the accom- 
panying illustration. This tool has been designed and is being 
manufactured by Samuel J. Sheimer & Sons, Milton, Pa. The 



new cylinder provides for the use of thin blades of high speed 
steel, which fit snugly in knife holders of high grade tool steel, 
which in turn fit in the grooves in the cylinder. The knife 
holders form part of the chip-breaker and when worn or in- 
jured may be replaced without discarding the cutter head. The 
high speed steel blades when properly tempered and treated will 
serve for one or two days' work on hard maple, oak or hickory. 
This new type of cylinder has many advantages in point of 
simplicity and durability. The blades may be kept in good work- 
ing order with less grinding and less trouble in setting and fast- 
ening to the head and are also less liable to get cut of balance 
owing to their lighter weight. The chip breakers are easily re- 
newed and the thin blades of the high speed steel being so care- 
fully reinforced with the holding clamps are entirely free from 
the possibility of breakage. 



Water Softening and Leakage of Flues. — Experience would 
indicate that the amount of hard scale present is a true index 
to flue leakage. In our Ohio district we encountered extremely 
hard water wdiich resulted in overcrowding our shops with power 
on account of flue failures ; but after the installation of water- 
softening plants at all of the important stations, a decided re- 
duction was obtained, which at once improved the general effi- 
ciency of the power. There is hardly a question but that the 
presence, to an extent, of hydrates and carbonates in treated 
waters decreases the tendency towards corrosion, leaving to ba 
controlled the amount of total solids and excess of reagents so 
as to prevent boiler foaming. The use of soda ash in waters 
containing free acid, or any dissolved salts, such as magnesium 
chloride, decreases corrosion, thereby increasing the life of the 
flue material. — Alexander Kearney, assistant sufcrintent motive 
power, Norfolk & Western Ry., be fine the Richmond Railroad 
Club. 



Automatic Block Signals in 1908. — According to the Rail- 
road Age Gazette over 900 miles of railway were equipped with 
automatic block signals during the year 1908 and it is probable 
that 2,000 miles will be equipped in 1909. 



BOOKS. 



Spring Tables. By Egbert R. Morrison. 6x9 in. 84 pages. 

Bound in cloth. Published by E. R. Morrison, Sharon, Pa. 

Price, $2.00. 
This book, which is designed as a handbook for engineers, 
students and draftsmen, is practically entirely given up to tables 
giving data in connection with various types of springs. The 
formulae for springs of the usual types are given in the first 
lew pages, following which are a number of very handy tables 
giving the fractional parts of "", and another of the 5th powers 
from 1-16 to 2, and a table giving the cubes from 1-16 to 3M>, 
advancing" by sixteenths. The most useful information in connec- 
tion with helical springs takes up the next 52 pages, there being 
one table for light steel springs and tables for heavier spring, 
with a diameter of bar varying from 1-16 to y 2 in. by sixteenths. 
A section is then given to rectangular sections of helical springs 
and the remainder of the book is taken up by similar tables for 
elliptic springs. 



Proceedings of the American RaiKvay Master Mechanics' Asso- 
ciation. Forty-first annual convention. Atlantic City, June 
22 to 24, 1908. Published by the association. J. W. Taylor, 
Secretary, 390 Old Colony Building, Chicago. 
The full report of the committees and the discussions thereon 

on the floor of the convention are given in this volume. Very 



February, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



79 



valuable reports were given at the IQ08 convention by committees 
on the following subjects: Apprenticeship system; Blanks for 
reporting repairs on engines; Castle nuts; Four-cylinder com- 
pound locomotives; Mallet compounds; Mechanical stokers; Re- 
vision of standards; Safety valves; Superheating; Washing-out 
and re-filling boilers, and Widening the gauge of track on 
curves. In addition to the committee reports topical discussions 
were given on the following subjects: Alloy Steel; Standard- 
ization of Locomotive Parts ; Smoke Nuisance ; Ball Joint Unions 
for Steam and Air Line Connections and Non-combustible 
Engine House Jacks. 



Proceedings of the International Railroad Master Blacksmiths' 
Association. Sixteenth annual convention. Cincinnati, August 
18 to 20, 1908. Published by the association. A. L. Wood- 
worth, Secretary, Lima, O. 
The subject discussed at the last annual meeting of this asso- 
ciation included committee reports on Tools and formers ; Flue 
• welding; Case hardening; Piece work; Locomotive frames; 
Thermit welding; Frogs and crossings; High speed steel and 
Manipulation of tool steel. This association now has a member- 
ship of 280 and will hold its next convention at Niagara Falls. 



Tables of Quantities for Preliminary Estimates. By E. F. Haugh 
and I'. D. Rice. i,y 2 x 7 in. 92 pages. Cloth. Published by 
J. Wiley & Sons, 43 E. 19th St., New York. Price, $1.25. 
This hook is practically entirely given up to tables of earth- 
work, which have been designed primarily for the requirements 
of the locating engineer, and are published in compact and con- 
venient form for field use. The formulae and methods of calcu- 
lation are given in the first few pages. A few other tables of 
interest and value to the locating engineer are included. 



Proceedings of the Master Car Builders' Association. Forty- 
second annual convention. Atlantic City, June 17 to 19, 
1908. Published by the association. J. W. Taylor, Secre- 
tary, 390 Old Colony Building, Chicago. 
A large number of unusually important subjects were reported 
upon at the last convention by various committees, standing 
and temporary, and were given very energetic and interesting 
discussion. Among some of these reports might be mentioned 
the ones on the revision of the various rules of the association ; 
Standards and recommended practice; Steel passenger cars; Ven- 
tilating and heating passenger cars; Cast iron wheels and Auto- 
matic connectors. Definite action was taken on a number of 
the most important recommendations and others will be brought 
up at the next convention for further discussion. The volume 
includes a full list of drawings, showing the standards and recom- 
mended practice of the association, as well as a list of members 
with their addresses, the constitution, etc. 



Proceedings of the Traveling Engineers' Association. Sixteenth 
annual meeting. Detroit, Mich.. August 25 to 28. 190S. 
Published by the association. \V. O. Thompson, Secretary, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
The proceedings of this association continue to increase in 
size and value each year and the last one is filled with sug 
gestions and reports on appliances for locomotives, all tending 
towards better locomotive service on American railways. The 
subjects considered by the association are, in general, those with 
which they are more familiar and better informed than any 
other railroad men and hence the ones on which the opinion of 
the members is of the greatest value. Among the subjects dis 
cussed are reports on The amount of territory a road foreman of 
engines should cover; Tests to locate defects of the new types 
of locomotive brakes and remedies for them; Service of super- 
heaters on locomotives; Best method for training firemen in tin 
proper methods of firing; Discussion on electric locomotives; 
How road foremen can best assist in increasing railway net 
earnings; Influence of education On engine men; Steam reversing 
gears; Si/c of air pump exhaust, etc. This association now has 
a total membership of (556. The proceedings include a list of 
all members with their post office addresses. 



PERSONALS. 

II. Carrick has been appointed assistant division master me- 
chanic of the Oregon Short Line, with office at Pocatello, Idaho. 



Frank Rusch has been appointed master mechanic of the Chi- 
cago, Milwaukee & St. Paul lines wesf of Butte, with office 
at Seattle, Wash. 



James McBrian has been appointed district car inspector, 
Choctaw district, of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Ry., with 
office at Argenta, Ark. 



E. F. Jones, acting master mechanic of the Chicago & Western 
Indiana Ry., has been appointed master mechanic, with office at 
Chicago, succeeding P. H. Peck. 



G. W. Rink, chief draughtsman of the Central Railroad of 
New Jersey, has been appointed mechanical engineer, with of- 
fice at Elizabethport shop, succeeding Mr. Flory. 



F. C. Fosdick, assistant master mechanic of the Chicago and 
Northwestern Ry. at Chicago, has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Iowa and Minnesota divisions at Mason City, la. 



R. Emerson, assistant engineer of methods of the Santa Fe at 
Topeka, has resigned to become assistant to the general man- 
ager of the Lehigh Valley, with headquarters at So. Bethle- 
hem, Pa. 



William Hutchinson, master mechanic of the Iowa and Min- 
nesota divisions of the Chicago and Northwestern Ry., at Mason 
City, la., has been appointed master mechanic of the Ashland 
division at Kaukauna, Wis. 



S. C. Graham, master mechanic of the Ashland division of 
the Chicago and Northwestern Ry. at Kaukauna, Wis., has been 
appointed master mechanic of the lines west of the Missouri 
river at Missouri Valley, la. 



E. W. Pratt, master mechanic of the Chicago and Northwest- 
ern Ry. lines, west of the Missouri river at Missouri Valley, la., 
has been appointed assistant superintendent of motive power and 
machinery, with office at Chicago. 



E. A. Walton, division superintendent of motive power of the 
New York Central and Hudson River R. R. at Albany, has re- 
tired, and his duties have been assumed temporarily by Mr. 
Daniel R. MacBain, assistant superintendent of motive power 

at that place. 



Edgar B.Thompson, assistant superintendent motive power and 
machinery of the Chicago & Northwestern Ry., has been ap- 
pointed superintendent of motive power and machinery of the 
Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha Ry., succeeding John 
J. Ellis, retired on account of having reached the age limit pro- 
vided for in the pension system of the company. 



D. Gallaudet, master mechanic of the Chicago division of the 
Baltimore & Ohio R. R., has been appointed master mechanic of 
the Grand Junction Terminal of the Denver & Rio Grande Ry., 
with jurisdiction over the second district second division; also 
that portion of the second district of the third division between 
Grand Junction, Somerset and Montrose, with office at Grand 
Junction, Col. 



The office of superintendent of motivi •• i division, 

of the Atlantic Coast Line, has been moved from Savannah. Ga.. 
to Waycross. X. E. Sprowl, master mechanic at Savannah, has 
been appointed shop superintendent at Waycross, and W. J. 
I'ainplin has been appointed master mechanic of the Savannah 
and Waycross districts, with office at Waycross, and jurisdiction 



so 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



i\ i i ihe forces at Savannah, Ga., Jesup, Brunswick, Thomasville, 
Albany and Waycross, including enginemen and firemen as- 
signed to these districts. 



fit. Shoes and wedges are finished except the box face, and so on for 
other locomotive parts. The catalog contains many convincing arguments 
on the advisability of procuring work in this manner instead of doing it 
in the regular locomotive shops. 



J. F. Bowden, master mechanic of the Baltimore & Ohio R. R. 
at Parkersburg, W. Va., has been appointed master mechanic of 
the Chicago division, with office at Garrett, Ind., succeeding 
D. Gallaudet. 



B. P. Flory, mechanical engineer of the Central of New Jer- 
sey, has been appointed superintendent of motive power of the 
New York, Ontario & Western Ry., succeeding G. W. West, de- 
ceased. Mr. Flory was born at Susquehanna, Pa., on November 
9, 1S73. He graduated from Cornell University in the class of 
[89S, and before beginning railway work was for about three 
years a draftsman for the Anaconda Copper Mining Co. His 
first railway position was that of inspector on the Lehigh Val- 
ley, which position he took in 1899. He was later made chief 
draftsman, and in November, 1902, was made mechanical engi- 
neer. In 1903 he was transferred to a special staff, doing work 
pertaining to the, at that time, new shops at Sayre, Pa. In 
March, 1904, he was appointed mechanical engineer of the Cen- 
tral of New Jersey, which position he held until his recent ap- 
pointment. Mr. Flory has designed and invented a number of 
motive power and rolling stock improvements now in successful 
operation. 

CATALOGS 



IN WRITING FOR THESE PLEASE MENTION 
THIS JOURNAL. 



Car Interchange Manual.— The McConway & Torley Company, 18th 
Street and A. V. Ry., Pittsburgh, are issuing a car interchange manual 
which contains a complete epitome of all the decisions of the arbitration 
committee of the M. C. B. Association up to date. Supplements are issued 
from time to time to cover the latest cases. 



Pipe and Boiler Insulation. — A new catalog being issued b\ the H. W. 
Johns-Manville Company, 100 William street, New York, is devoted to a 
thorough presentation of the problems of insulating all kinds of heated and 
cold surfaces, such as pipes, boilers, flues, ducts, etc. as well as insulation 
for refrigerating and cold storage work. 



Ventilating Pininc Cars. — The General Railway Supply Company. 922 
Marquette Building, Chicago, is issuing a leaflet discussing the proper ven- 
tilation of dining and private c.-.rs so as to overcome the serious objection 
of the kitchen odors permeating the other parts if the car. This problem 
lias been solved by this company and the method is illustrated and de- 
scribed in this leaflet. 



Electrical Apparatus. — The General Electric Company is issuing a 
number of new bulletins, each being the usual complete am! satisfactory 
description of some particular electrical appliance manufactured by it. 
Vmong these might be mentioned No. 3M7 on ihe subject of Tungsten 
lamps for battery service. These lamps are specially suitable for train 
lighting. No. 4038 is a guide for the design of medium and small capacity 
central station switchboards. No. 4628 describes the compai.j's new mer- 
cury art rectifier, which will operate on any frequency from Lu to 140 ar.d 
can he supplied for operating on frequencies from 25 to 60. 



Anvils and Vises.— Fisher and Norris. Trenton, N. .1.. ar« issuing a 
small catalog largely given up to illustrating . and describing anvils of vari- 
ous kinds. Many of these are for special purposes and arranged for handy 
and accurate work. Under each is included a table giving the general 
dimensions for various sizes, with the weight in pounds and in some casi 
the prices. The same catalog also contains an illustration and a brief de- 
scription of the Fisher double screw parallel leg vise which has many 
advantages for heavy work. A circular is also being sent out by the same 
company showing the new Fisher-Brooks bench vise which is made of the 
linesl quality of cast iron with jaws of cast tool steel welded on by a pat- 

,,,!,,! ss and properly tempered. This vise is made in various sizes, 

as shown by the list in the circular. 



NOTES. 



Errata. — It was erroneously stated in the January issue of this journal 
that the Cleveland Twist Drill Company was located in Cincinnati, O., in- 
stead of Cleveland. 



Chicago Car Heating Company. — W. H. Hooper, formerly general agent 
of the Safety Car Heating and Lighting Company, has beei. appointed 
assistant to the president of the above company, with headquarters at the 
general office, Railway Exchange Building, Chicago. 



Mrs. Frances A. W. McIntosh. formerly advertising manager of the 
Buffalo Forge Company and associate companies, has resigned that position 
to open an office at 103 Anderson Place, Buffalo, N. Y., where her services 
in the preparation and printing of advertising literature can be secured. 



Dearborn Drug and Chemical Works. — Edward C. Brown, manager of^ 
the Hawaiian office of the above company at 42 Queens strct*, Honolulu, 
is making an extensive oriental trip during which lie will visit Japan, China, 
Australia, Philippine Islands, Java and other important islands in the 
Pacific Ocean. 



Finished Lo< OMOTIVE Parts. — A very attractive, standard size, catalog, 
is being issued by the Locomotive Finished Material Company, Atchison, 
Kans. This company is engaged in a new departure in the railroad licit] and 
in ,, position to furnish finished locomotive castings of any size irom a 
packing "ii^ to :\ cylinder without delay and :tt a price which can compete 
(vith i".; ticallj any existing railway shop. The catalog is largely given up 
i<> illustrations of the work turned out by this company mid views of the 
>h<>|>s and machincrj owned by it. Parts which require fitting are hit with 
sufficient '■ al thai point i" permit the pvopci adjustment being 

made Foi instance, cylinders are finished complete excepi the saddle. 
Solid piston heads arc left % in. large in diameter and l /$ in. small in rod 



New Shops. — Large shops are being erected by the Caroline. Clinchlield 
iv Ohio Railroad at Johnson City, Tenn. These will be the principal shops 
of the road and are to be equipped with modern machinery capable of 
nandling the largest motive power. This road has been making a number 
uf improvements and building large extensions during the past year and is 
contemplating other large extensions. 



Tate, Jones & Company. — The large new works of the National Sanitary 
Mfg. Company, at Salem. O., have been equipped throughout with the 
"Kirkwood" system of fuel oil burning manufactured by the above com- 
pany at Pittsburgh. This installation presented a numbei of unusuat and 
difficult conditions for the burning of fuel oil and the satisfactory per- 
formance of the equipment has been very gratifying. 



Joseph Dixon Cruciple Company.— The December, 1908, issue of "Graph- 
ite" completed the tenth annual volume of this very interesting publication, 
which first appeared as a small sheet of four pages and has continued to 
grow in size and interest up to the present twenty and more pages, standard 
size, publication, which is welcimed by 15,000 subscribers and friends. It 
was one of the pioneers of the high grade house organ idea, that has 
lately become so popular. 



American Steam Gauge & Valve Mfg. Co. — It is announced that John 
B. Guthiie is the sole representative of this company in the Pittsburgh dis- 
trict, having been appointed January 1, 1909. His offices are ir the Columbia 
Bank Building, corner 4th avenue and Wood street, Pittsburgh. It is also 
announced that the southern branch of this company, which for several years 
has been located in the Equitable Building, Atlanta, Ga., has been removed 
to No. 524 Candler Building, in that city. 



American Brake Shoe & Foundry Company. — Chas. R. Herron of Chat- 
tanooga., Tenn., late southern salt's manager of the above company, died 
at his home on December 0, 1908. Mr. Herron was a highly respected 
citizen and well known business man of Chattanooga, with a host of friends 
throughout the south. He was born in Ireland in 1844 and came to America 
with his parents in 1S48. His connection with the brake shoe business 
began in 1S99, when he took charge of the Ross Mchan foundry at Chatta- 
nooga. He later became connected with the American Brake Shoe Com- 
pany and in 1903 with the American Brake Shoe & Foundry Company, 
where he continued as southern sales manager until the time of his death. 



American Locomotive Company. — This company has purchased a p! >t of 
130 acres of land at Gary, Indiana, from the Gary Land Company, a sub- 
sidiary company of the United States Steel Corporation, and plans are 
being drawn for a new plant which it is said will be the most complete 
and best equipped locomotive works in the world. The land purchased is 
twice the extent of that occupied by the largest of its piesent plants and 
when fully occupied will give employment to from 12,000 to 15,000 work- 
men. The land adjoins that of the new plant of the United States Steel 
Corporation. This site was selected at Gary, 24 miles from Chicago, to 
provide for the. territory where the largest number of railroads converge to 
a single commercial center. The Chicago district is a great railroad cen- 
ter and that district is rapidly developing in manufacturing importance, 
which renders it favorable as a location for securing material for building 
locomotives. This 'company now operates plants in Schenectady and Dun- 
kirk, New York; Pittsburgh and Scranton, Pennsylvania; Richmond, Vir- 
ginia; Paterson, New Jersey; Manchester, New Hampshire; and Montreal, 
Canada. At present there is no large locamotive plant wist of Pittsburgh, 
and the selection of a location in the Chicago district provides additional 
locomotive building capacity where it is most needed for prompt and direct 
delivery to a large number of railroads. The size of the new plant will be 
sullicicnt to provide liberally for the growing needs of the railroads for 
years to come. 



MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR OF FREIGHT CARS. 



With Special Reference to Steel Equipment. 



PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD AT ALTOONA. 



INTRODUCTORY. 

During the past few years there have been many inquiries 
from railroad officials concerning the advisability of introducing 
steel underframe or all-steel freight equipment on their lines. As 
the price of lumber has advanced 'he difference between the first 
cost of the wooden and the steel car of the same type and ca- 
pacity has steadily decreased. The weight of the all-steel equip- 
ment for the same capacity is less ; its life is considerably 
greater and as far as the body of the car is concerned the cost 
of maintenance is very much less. To demonstrate how simple 
it is to maintain and repair steel freight cars an extensive study 
of the methods in use on the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad at Ml. 

Clair was presented in the May, 

1907, issue of this journal, and of 
the McKees Rocks plant of the Pitts- 
burgh & Lake Erie Railroad in the 
January, 1908, issue. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad adopt- 
ed modern all-steel freight cars 
somewhat earlier than the Baltimore 
& Ohio. The methods of repairing 
and maintaining these cars were con- 
sidered on the latter road first, be- 
cause it was doing the work with 
very few special facilities, thus mak- 
ing it possible to demonstrate to the 
officers, having the adoption of steel 
equipment under consideration, that 
the work could be done successfully 
with very little special equipment. 
As a matter of fact, although the 
Pennsylvania Railroad has a shop at 
Altoona for making the heavier re- 
pairs to steel cars, which is very con- 
venient and greatly facilitates the 
repairing of these cars, yet a large 
proportion of the heavy repairs are 
being made successfully in the re- 
pair yards under conditions which 
are no more favorable than those on 
the Baltimore & Ohio at Mt. Clair. 
At the present time only a small part of the steel shop is being 
used for repairs, the greater portion of it being devoted to the 
building of underframes for new freight and passenger equip- 
ment. The number of steel cars repaired in the shop per month 
fluctuates, depending upon the new equipment which is under 
construction. 

Freight cars are repaired at four different places in Altoona ; 
i.e.. at the east and west bound repair yards, the steel shop and 
the freight shop. W'hile the heavier and the greater part of the 
repairs to the steel cars are made at the west bound repair 
yard and in the steel shop, light repairs are also made to these 
cars at the east bound repair yard and in the freight shop. 



Synopsis. 

Introductory 

The Altoona Yards, Including a Brief Description 

of Their Anangenient and Operation, and of 

the Facilities for Repairing Freight Cars 

Pennsylvania Railroad Steel Freight Car Equipment 

The Passing of the Wooden Car 

The Life of Steel Cars 

The Pennsylvania System Freight Car Pool 

Organization of the Car Department at Altoona... 
Cars Repaired at Altoona During December, 1908.. 
The Steel Car Shop 

The Building 

Its Equipment 

Methods of Doing the Work 

West Bound Repair Yard 

General Arrangement 

Mow ihe Work is Carried On 

Tools and Devices Used for Steel Car Repair 
Work 

The Storehouse and th-: Parts Which Are Car- 
ried in Stock for Repairs to the Bodies of 
Steel Car^ 

Other Equipment Used in the Repair Yard 

East Bound Repair Yard 

Geneial Arrangement 

The Buildings 

Freight Car Shop 

Straightening Parts at the Blacksmith Shop... 

Repainting Steel Cars 



THE ALTOONA YARDS. 

To understand more clearly the relation of these four repair 
points to each other, it may be well to briefly study the general 
arrangement of the Altoona yards and the car shops, general 
plans of which are shown in Figs. 1 and 2. The Altoona yards 
consist of thirteen yards having 206.82 miles of track with r,075 
switches and a capacity for 10,500 cars. There are four humps, 
two on the west bound and two on the east bound tracks. As 
many as 169 trains, having 9,027 cars have been passed through 
the Altoona yards in one day. 

The prevailing direction of heavy traffic is eastward, a large 
percentage of the west bound trains being made up of empties. 
West-bound freight trains enter the 
west - bound empty receiving yard, 
the loaded trains passing along the 
track at the north side of this yard 
and into the west-bound loaded re- 
ceiving yard. After entering the re- 
ceiving yard the locomotives and 
cabin cars are cut off and the cars 
are carefully examined by the in- 
spectors. The hump between the re- 
ceiving and classification yards for 
empty trains is ordinarily in opera- 
tion about sixteen hours out of every 
twenty-four, and as many as 1,773 
cars, requiring 654 cuts, have been 
passed over it from 6 a. m. to 6 p. m. 
The operation of these yards has 
been improved and the number of 
damaged cars reduced by placing a 
searchlight at the hump, with a lens 
specially ground to include an angle 
to cover the extreme ladders at the 
head of the yard. The cars requir- 
ing repairs are shifted to special 
tracks in the classification yard, from 
which they arc removed to the west- 
bound repair yard. After the west- 
bound trains are made up they are 
pulled to the west-bound advance 
tracks, where locomotives from the East Altoona roundhouse 
are attached and the air brakes are tested. 

The cars in the loaded receiving yard, after they have been in- 
spected, are shifted over a hump into the loaded classification 
yard. Cars requiring repairs are placed on a special track, from 
which they are taken to the west bound repair yard. The loaded 
trains, after they are made up, are taken to the west bound ad- 
vance tracks, where the road engine is attached and brakes 
tested. 

The east bound freight trains are handled in a similar man- 
ner. Certain tracks in the receiving yard are reserved for 
trains which are to be weighed, while others are used for trains 



81 
83 
85 
86 
86 
SO 
87 

87 
87 
01 

93 
92 

93 



97 
99 

99 

99 

100 

100 

101 



81 (March) 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD TOURNAL. 





< 

S 

< 
a. 



March, 1900. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



83 






ait 



] 



DO 



f^ 



dorc 



p fl 



IH£< 



that it is nol nei i .:>< : . to rhe trail d are 

passed over a hump, and o what is d is the 

bound ll i ■ I . 'rains thai it is not I 

sary to weigh an pa ed imp into thi east bound classi- 

fication yard. From thi cla ification yards 1 re taken to 

the advance tracks and forwarded in tl <v as the west 

bound trains. Cars requi irs are shii ecial tracks 

in iIt' classification yards and are taken to tl ind repaii 

yard. 

Preference trains use the main freight tracks and are in- 
spected and forwarded as quickly as possible. Car-, in 
trains requiring repairs an eithei cial track in the 

repair yard or are taken to tl i wrecking gang 

has ils headquarters at the freighl nd lakes care of the 

repairs of cars in preference trains which an cei i during the 
night. 

As practically all of the cars going ea are loaded, the east- 
bound repair tracks are specially equipped for handling loaded 
cars or transferring the loads. Ordinarily onlj -pairs 

arc made to the bodies of steel fi at this yard. If a 

car is received which requires heavy repairs thi load is usually 
transferred and the car is forwarded to the steel car shop. 

The heavier repairs to steel cars are supposed to be made in 
the steel shop, but at the present time it is being used largely 
for the building of new equipment. A large number of steel 
cars, many of them requiring comparatively heavy repairs, are 
being handled on the west-bound repair tracks. This work is 
done there very successfully, although, as will be shown, very 
little special equipment is used and conditions generally are not 
very favorable, since the yard is being used temporarily for this ' 
work and was not designed for repair yard purposes. Even- 
tually the west-bound repair yard may be transferred to the 
space east of the Altoona roundhouse, between the main tracks 
and the advance tracks for the east-bound freight trains. 

The freight shop is built in tlr.- form of a roundhouse, with 
a turntable at the center, and because of -the difficulty in shift- 
ing cars in and out is used mostly for the heavier repairs to 
wooden cars and for repairing cars from the preference trains 
received during the night. Repairs to the trucks of steel cars 
may be made on any of the tracks in this house, but repairs to 
the body, or repairs requiring the driving of rivets, can be made 
on only a few of the tracks, alongside of which rivet heating 
furnaces have been placed. 

PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD STEEL FREIGHT CAR 
EQUIPMENT. 

The first steel cars built by the Pennsylvania Railroad were 
the special flat cars constructed in 1887 for carrying wire cables 
for cable railroads. These are known as the Fd class and were 
designed to carry a concentrated load of 120,000 lbs. The Fe 
cars, built in 1889, were similar except that the capacity was 
20,000 lbs. less. The Fg cars were built in 1892 and were de- 
signed for transporting heavy guns. One of these cars has a 
capacity for carrying 140,000 lbs. and consists of twe small four- 
wheel cars with a bridge. The other has a capacity for 285,000 
lbs. and consists of four small four-wheel cars with three bridges 
(American Engineer, May, 1893, page 218). 

In 1896 the Pennsylvania designed the Gm steel gondola cars 
(American Engineer. October, 1903, page 352). Five of these 
cars were built by the Schoen Pressed Steel Company and de- 
livered in June, 1898. As it is necessary to shovel part of the 
load through the drop doors these cars have not been very popu- 
lar, although from the standpoint of maintenance they have 
given splendid results. No side sills were used, the sides acting 
as trusses to assist in carrying the load. 

In July, 1898, the first Gl steel hopper cars went into service. 
This design was the result of conferences between the mechan- 
ical officials of the Pennsylvania Railroad, the Pennsylvania 
Lines West and the Schoen Company. The details of the car 
were largely developed by the Schoen Pressed Steel Company 
and were mostly of pressed steel. A large number of these cars 
were built during the following four or five years and were 
carefully watched and studied by the railroad officials. Based 



84 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



ALL-STEEL FREIGHT CARS— PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD 

DECEMBER 31, 1908 





j. 
< 


H 
< 

•4 

a 


Year Built 


No Cars in 
stkoyei'since 
Placed in- 
service 




KIN' D. 


1887 


1889 1892 

1 


1898 ' 




1901 


1902 


1903 


1904 


1905 


,1906 


1907 


1908 


Total 


Engineer" 




Fd 

Fe 
Fg' 

Ft 2 
Fn 

Fl 
Fm 

GI 

Gl 
Gla 
Gla 
Gm 
i rsa 
Gsd 
Gp 
Gpa 
Gsa 
Gsd 


120.000 
100.000 

285,000 

120. 

L75, 

80,000 

100,1 

100, 

110,000 
100,000 
110,000 

ion ,000 

lnn.nlHI 


1 


1 


















1 

1 
1 

1 

2 

49S 

885 

11.771 

1.839 

8,588 

3 

5 

1.660 

16,919 








1 




























Flat 1 
Cars, < 
Special. 


1 
1 
























































May, 1893. p. 218. 
June, 1904, p. 209. 












2 

49S 


















I 




























Flat 1 
Cars. 1 

Hopper ! 








Oct., 1903, p. 354. 
Dec. 1905. p. 436. 














is 
4437 
537 


769 

2711 
437 


71 






7 




2 
5 








819 
251 


441 
104 


532 

lis 


2831 
392 






[Oct. '03, p. 352; Dec, '03. p. 435. 
























1498 

2 


77s 


mi;; 
1 


235 




j May. 1905. p. 148. 


Cars. 






















1 


1 








5 
















Oct. '03, p. 352; Nov. '03, p. 402. 


Long .1 
Gondola. 1 














1 10 


486 


4»; 


1.57 
270 


60 
[5199 






















145n 




2 


j Jan., 1906, p. 11. 
























Oct.. 1905. p. 359. 


Cuke 

Gondola. 1 


inn null 

100,000 






















200 
3003 

30 








200 
3.101 
2,300 




Oct., 1905, p. 359. 
















13 


46 


19 
























1270 


1000 






t Jan,, 1906, p. 11. 
























607 












1 


1 2 


1075 


545 


650 


3723 


5505 


4449 


5140 


17.5(17 


8535 


235 


47,775 


10 































Fd and Fe were specially designed for carrying wire cables. .... 

Fg 1 and Fg 2 . were designed for carrying large guns, Fg 1 has two small four-wheel cars connected with a bridge, and Fg 2 has four small four-wheel cars, 
connected with three bridges. 

Fn is a special car with a well-hole. ...,,, 

The main difference between the Gl cars of 100,000 lbs. capacity and those of 110.000 lbs. capacity is that the former have cast iron wheels and the 
latter rolled steel wheels. This is also true of the Gla cars. 



GENERAL DIMENSIONS OF ALL-STEEL FREIGHT CARS— PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD. 



Class 

Capacity 

Weight 

Face to face of coupler 

Extreme "Width 

Height from rail to top of sides 

Length inside body 

Widih inside body 

Length outside body 

Width outside body 

Height of sides above floor 

Total wheel base . . 



Fd 


Fe 


Fg' 


Fg' 


In 
120.000 


Fl 


Fm 


120,000 


100 000 


140 000 


285,000 


175,000 


80,000 


100,000 


i i a 


51,000 


72,900 


175,000 


43.300 


31,500 


39,000 


42' 2" 


42' 2" 


57' in' 


89' 4" 


39' 11" 


41' Hi" 


41' 11" 


T 11" 


7' 11" 


8' 3i" 


9' 10" 


10' 0" 


9' 11 J" 


9' Hi" 


Flat 


Flat 


Flat 


Flat 


Flat 


Flat 


Flat 


39' 2" 


39' 2" 


55' 7" 


87' 7" 


38' 0" 


40' 0" 


40' 0" 


7' 11" 


7' 11" 


7' 6" 


9' 10' 


10' 0" 


9' 3" 


9'0" 


Flat 


Flat 


Flat 


Fla' 


Flat 


Flat 


Flal 


35' u" 


35' n" 


48' 3" 


SO' 3" 


33' 6" 


34 6 


35' 6" 



Gl 

inn, I I 111 
39.200 
34' Hi" 
10' li" 
10' 0" 
31' 6i" 

9' 6" 
32' 1" 
10' li" 

6' 6" 
28' 9" 



Gla 

100,000 

39,(1511 
34' 2" 
in' l-V 
10' ' 
30' 5" 
9' 6" 
31' 0i" 
10' ltt" 

27' 9" 



Gm 

li "» 1 1 

33.S00 
32' 2" 
111' 1" 
10' 0" 
28' 6" 

9'5i" 
29' 0" 
Ill's" 

6' 2J" 
25' 7" 



Gsa 

100,00(1 
40.200 
41' 11" 

9' Hi" 

T 2" 
38' 2i" 

9'3V 
38' 3" 

9 1 

3' 9" 
35' 6" 



Gsd 


Gp 


Gpa 


100,000 


100,000 


100.000 


40,000 
41' 11" 


52,950 


50,355 
43' 1 1" 


43' 11" 


9' 114" 


10' 0" 


10' 0" 


7' 2" 


12' 0" 


12' 5" 




40' 2 54" 


40' 2'A" 


9' 3i" 


9' 4H" 


9' *H" 


3S' 3" 


tn'9V 


40' 9^4" 


9' 4" 


10' 0" 


10' 0" 


3' 9" 






35' 6" 


37' 6" 


37' 6" 



FREIGHT CARS WITH STEEL UNDERFRAMES— PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD 

DECEMBER 31, 1908 





91 

< 
hi 
o 


> 
H 

< 
< 


Year Built 


Number Cars 

Desi roved 

Since Being 

Placed in 

Service 


Described in the 


Kind. 


1901 


1902 


1903 


1904 


1905 


1906 


1907 


190S 


Total 


"American Engineer"' 


r 


XI 

Xla 

Xlb 

Xlc 

Xm 

Gr 

Gra 

Ad 

Kf 

Rf 

Nd 


100,000 
100.000 

inn. 

ion, nun 
100.000 

11111,11(111 

100,000 


986 


3.172 
748 


1.529 


891 


701 


5,308 


3.652 


3,441 


19.680 

748 

10 

100 

16 

13.918 

1.000 


51 
2 


Oct. '03, page 354. Jan. '04, page 3. 










111 




















Kill 

5 

134 










I 








4 
227 


3 
3,149 


4 








Long Gon- ( 
dola 1 




6.315 


l,'» 




2 


Dec. 05, page 436. 






1,000 
























llllll" 

inn nun 








44 

542 

29 


94 
781 
219 




14 
169 
279 




15J 

2,675 

868 






Refrigerator 




1 




1.155 
281 


27 
59 


6 

5 


Jan. '04 page 3. 






1 


June, '04, page 210. 
















986 


10,236 


5,623 


1,737 


4,957 


6,983 


4,118 


4,527 


39,167 


66 




1 







Note— Gra is 40 feet long inside, holding two lengths of 20-foot tube. It was specially designed for this purpose. 



GENERAL DIMENSIONS OF STEEL UNDERFRAME FREIGHT CARS— PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD. 



Class 

Capacity 

Weight 

Face to face of coupler 

Extreme width 

Height from rail to top of sides,, 

Length inside body 

Width inside body 

Length outside body 

Width outside body 

Height of sides above floor 

Total wheel base 



XI 

100.000 

45.3(11) 

40' :>" 

9' 10" 



36' 0" 
S' 6" 

37' li" 
9' 4i" 
8' 0"t 

34' 0" 



Xla 

100.000 

44,200 

40' 5" 

9' 10" 



36' 0" 
S'6" 

37' li" 
9'4i' 
8' 0"t 

34' 0" 



Xm* 

inn, 

53,200 
40' 5" 

9' 10" 



32' 5i" 
8' 6" 

9' 4i" 
7' 6it 
34' 0'' 



Gr 

100, 

44.000 
41' 11" 

6' 4g ? ' 

37' Si' 

8' 9" 

3S' 3" 

9' 4" 

2' 6" 

35' 6'' 



Gra 

100.000 



44' 11" 
9' Ul" 
6' 4j" 

40' 8" 
8' 9" 

41' 3" 
9' 4" 
2' 6" 

38' 6" 



Ad 

12.000 gal. 

41,000 

38' 11" 

in n 



33' 5i ' 

7' urn 

37' 0" 
10' 0" 



32' 6" 



Kf 

100,000 
47,100 
40' 5" 
10' 0|" 



35' Hi" 
8' 5i" 

36' 11 j" 
9' 4i" 
8' 0i"f 

34' 0" 



Rf 

90,000 
56,900 
40' 5" 



30' 0i" 
8' 4" 

37' li" 
9' 4i" 

7' 6"r 

34' 0" 



* Produce, t Height inside, tt Diameter of tank. 

{See page Sj for Freight Car Classification.) 



28.000 
27' 10}" 
in 5T' 



20' 4i" 
8' 2i" 

21' 0" 
9' 13" 

13' 6" 



March. 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 




FIG. .1- — OLD WOODEN FREIGHT CARS BEING DISMANTLED AT THE METAL YAR'i PREPARATORY To BEING BURNED. 



upon the experience thus gained the Gla and the other types of 
all-steel and steel underframe curs were designed. 

The weakest point on the Gl cars proved to be the center 
sills, which were of pressed steel, 10 in. deep at the bolster. The 
cross-sectional area through the center sills at that point is only 
12^4 sq. in. On the Gla and other types of cars which followed 
the cross-section was never allowed to be under 23 sq. in., and 
in most cases is considerably higher. The center sills on the 
Gl cars give considerable trouble directly back of the bolster. 
The rear draft lugs of the Westinghouse friction draft gear 
practically reach to the bolster and there is thus no opportunity 
for the sill to buckle in front of it. 

The Gla cars (American Engineer, May, 1905, page 148) are 
built- principally of structural steel, the center sills being 10 in. 
channels, in place of the fish-bellied pressed steel sills used on 
the Gl. The center sills are reinforced by cover plates and also 
by angles at the lower flanges between the bolsters. There are 
no side sills between the bolsters, the sides being utilized to 
assist in carrying the load, as on the Gm cars. The Gla cars, 
although much stronger than the Gl class, weigh less. The in- 

FREIGHT CAR CLASSIFICATION. 

Each class of car is designated by a primary letter 
and the different styles of each class are designated by 
affixing to the primary letters other letters in alpha- 
betical order. The primary letters used to designate 
freight cars are as follows: 

A — Tank 

F— Flat 

G — Gondola 

K— Stock 

N— Cabin 

R — Refrigerator 

X— Box 

creased strength lies mainly in the increased sectional area of 
center sill. They are seldom to be found upon the repair tracks 
for heavy repairs, but when this occurs, they are not so easily 
repaired as if of pressed shapes since the latter are more easily- 
restored to their former shape while the structural shapes are in- 
clined to break. 

The center sills are reinforced by diagonal braces extending 
from the end sill, near the center, to the side sills at the bolster 
(American Engineer, May, 1905, page 148). It is customary on 
some roads to have this brace extend from the corner of the 
car to the center sill at the bolster, but since it is a compara- 
tively simple matter to repair the corner it is believed to be bet- 
ter practice to place it so that it will reinforce the center sills. 

It is practically impossible to design a steel car which cannot 
be damaged by rough handling and it would not be economy to 
do so if it was possible. Heavier power and the introduction 
of hump yards have greatly increased the severity of the service 



to which freight cars are subjected. Trainmen should be made 
to realize that the careful handling of equipment is an impor- 
tant factor in keeping down the cost of repairs. Poorly de- 
signed car unloading machines and careless handling of cars 
upon them is responsible for much damage. It would be folly 
for the designer to attempt to design cars to stand all the abuse 
which they might receive from these causes. The best inter- 
ests of the railroad will be conserved by the removal of such 
abuses rath;r than by trying to build a car which will stand 
them. The later Pennsylvania cars are designed to stand 
end shocks of 300,000 lbs. every day, and occasional end shocks 
of 500,000 lbs. Thus far no serious defects have developed in 
any of the steel cars other than the Gl hopper cars. 

A detail description of the design of the different types and 
classes of steel cars will be found in connection with a series 
of articles or, "Steel Car Development on the Pennsylvania 
Railroad," ' which appeared in the American Engineer during 
1903, '04, '05 and '06. Particular reference to these articles will 
be found in the accompanying tables, which show the number 01 
cars of each type of both all-steel and steel underframe cars in 
service on the Pennsylvania Railroad at the beginning of this 
year ; also the year they were placed in service and the total 
number of each class which have been destroyed. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad has 157,823 freight cars, of which 
47,775 are of all-steel construction; 39,167 are wooden cars with 
steel underframes and the remainder are of wood. Thus 30.3 
per cent, of the equipment is of all-steel construction and 24.8 
per cent, has steel underframes. General dimensions and data 
for these cars J will be found on page 84. 

THE PASSING OF THE WOODEN CAR. 

The high capacity steel car has proved to be much more eco- 
nomical than the lower capacity wooden car. The steel cars are 
much stronger and may be handled more roughly without injury. 
The lower capacity wooden cars are not only more liable to in- 
jury when mixed in a train with steel cars, but they increase the 
chance of damage to the steel equipment. For these reasons the 
Pennsylvania Railroad decided a few years ago to destroy 12,000 
wooden cars which, although in good condition, were of low ca- 
pacity. 

In addition the larger capacity wooden cars which require re- 



1 A study of the development in the design of steel cars on the Baltimore 
& Ohio Railroad will be found in the May, 1907, issue, page 163. 

Some suggestions as to improvements in file construction of steel cars will 
be found on page 402 of the October, 1908, issue. These were made by 
G. E. Carson in a paper read before the Railway Club of Pittsburgh. 

2 Similar data for steel cars on the Baltimore & Ohio will be found on 
page 161 of the May, 1907, issue. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



General Fore man 

Altouna Cnr si,. r 



Asst. Gen. For. 



Foreman ■ : I 



Gang I . 

Frelghl Car I a 



Foremau 



Storekeeper, A. C.& 



■ 

Painters and 
Steneilleis 



i & StencIUe 



1 



i . \\ ..iL Clerk 

M.C.B. Clerks 

Material Clerk 

Messenger 



(■ling Leader 

I 



Gang Leader 

I 



Air Drake 

'-■I'*' ■■"" 

I 



■ Leadei 



I.,,., 



Track Watchers 

Lumber* Coal Man 

Derrick Man 

Tool Checker 

Carpenter 

Tinner 

Blacksmith!) 

Blacksmith's Helpers 

Machine Man.l 



Clerk 
Attendants 



FIG. 



-DIAGRAM SHOWING THE ORGANIZATION OF THE WEST- UOUND FREIGHT CAR REPAIR YARD. 



pairs are looked over very carefully, and if the estimated repairs 
are considered too high they are destroyed. During the past 
three years over 18,000 of the wooden cars have been removed 
from service and destroyed. At Altoona such cars are taken 
to the metal yard and the air brakes, draft rigging, trucks and 
metal roofing are removed. If any of the longitudinal sills are 
in first-class condition they are removed and the remaining por- 
tion of the car is then burned, the metal scrap being gathered 
afterward. One of the illustrations, Fig. 3, shows a number of 
these cars which have been or are being stripped and are to be 
burned during the night. 

THE LIFE OF STEEL CARS. 8 

It is practically impossible to obtain figures which will give a 
fair comparison as to the life and the cost of maintenance of 
steel and wooden cars.* In the first place, although steel cars 
have been in general use since 1898, they are, generally speaking, 
still in first-class condition, and while the cost of repairing the 
bodies of the Gl hoppers may be quite large, because of the 
weak design of center sills, this defect has been remedied on the 
later designed cars. 

Thus far the matter of corrosion 5 has not become serious. 
While a number of the hopper sheets near the drop doors have 
rusted through, this is about the only part of the cars that has 
given serious trouble in this way, and such cases have been com- 
paratively few. The cause of this corrosion seems to be that the 
moisture in passing down through the coal combines with the 
sulphur in the coal, forming a dilute sulphuric acid, which at- 
tacks the sheets and eats them much more rapidly than a stronger 
solution would. Where the cars are in constant service and are 
not allowed to lie on the side tracks the matter of corrosion is so 
slight as not to warrant consideration, but if the cars are not 
kept in constant use or are allowed to stand for any length of 
time with loads of coal or cinders, and these become damp, the 
sheets become more or less badly corroded. As all of the mois- 
ture in the cars drains off through the hopper doors, it does not 
come in contact with the underframes, and on all classes of steel 
cars these are practically in as gooJ condition as when the cars 
were placed in service, as far as corrosion is concerned. 

The life of a car will, of course, depend upon the service in 
which it is used. The floor and hopper sheets, in addition to 
being subjected to the above conditions, causing corrosion, receive 
more or less severe treatment while the cars are being loaded, 
especially where coal or ore is dropped from a tipple. It is esti- 



3 See page 167 of the May, 1907, issue. 

* The Union Pacific System and the Southern Pacific Company have 
records of the cost of maintenance of a lar^e number of steel and wooden 
cars of about the same age and capacity. These statistics, covering a period 
of 2'A years, will be found on page 270 of the July, 1907, issue. They 
show a laige difference in favor of the steel car. 

The comparative cost of repairing certain parts of steel and wooden cars 
on the Baltimore & Ohio is given on page 172 of the May, 1907, issue. 

Data showing the relative cost of heavy repairs to steel and wooden cars 
on the Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad will be found on page 403 of the 
October, 1908, issue. 

Interesting data concerning the cost of repairing 60-ton steel hopper cars 
is given on paje 17 of the January. 1907, issue. 

• See page 157 of the May, 1907, issue. 



mated, however, that these sheets will not require renewal inside 
of 12 or 15 years from the time they are placed in service. Some 
of the more lecently designed cars have floor sheets % in. thick, 
while the side sheets, which do not deteriorate so rapidly, are 
only 3/16 in. thick. 

It is variously estimated that the steel car will last from lJ/£ 
to 2 times as long as the wooden car and that during the life of 
the car the repairs to the body of the steel car will be less than 
those to the body of the wooden car during its life. 

The indestructibility of the steel car may be judged from the 
fact that of the 47,775 all-steel cars now in service, 1,075 of 
which have been in use since 1898, only seven cars have been de- 
stroyed.' Two of these were lost in a flood in Kansas and most 
of the others were destroyed on foreign lines. It is quite prob- 
able that they would have been repaired and again placed in 
service if the damage had occurred on a road with facilities for 
handling steel car repairs. Of the 39,167 cars with steel under- 
frames 66 have been destroyed. A large portion of these were 
box cars. Where the superstructure is badly damaged and catches 
on fire the underframe is often in such condition as to make it 
unwise to rebuild the. car. 

While the bodies of the steel cars cost less to maintain than do 
the bodies of the wooden cars, the wheels are much more expen- 
sive to maintain, because of the higher capacity of the steel cars. 
The limit of the cast iron wheel, at least as it is at present con- 
structed, has been passed for the high capacity car, and there is 
an imperative need for a much better wheel. The steel car, be- 
cause of its high capacity and the fact that it is handled more 
roughly than the wooden car, and that it is less elastic in itself 
than a wooden car, requires a stronger draft gear of high ca- 
pacity. 

THE PENNSYLVANIA SYSTEM FREIGHT CAR POOL. 

On August 1, 1891, the various lines composing the Pennsyl- 
vania System formed a freight car pool. Each road keeps an 
accurate record of the amount of money spent for repairs to cars 
in the pool and the freight car mileage. Based on this mileage 
the cost of repairs is prorated among the different lines. In De- 
cember, 1908, the Pennsylvania System had about 130,000 all-steel 
and steel underframe cars in service. This is about 53 per cent 
of its equipment. 

ORGANIZATION OF THE CAR DEPARTMENT AT ALTOONA. 

The Altoona car shops and repair yards are in charge of a 
general foreman who reports to the division superintendent mo- 
tive power. The various foremen reporting to the general fore- 
man and his assistant are shown on the accompanying diagram, 
Fig. 4-' 



8 Simiiar information for the B. & O. is given on page 169 (second 
column) of the May, 1907, issue. 

7 This organization covers, in addition to the work of freight car repairs, 
the building of new freight equipment and the construction and repairs of 
passenger and other equipment cars, as well as the preparation of a large 
amount of supplies and repair parts for other shops. 



March, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



87 



In the steel car shop the foreman has an assistant and the 
force is divided into gangs, the various gang foremen reporting 
to the foreman and his assistant. This is also true of the freight 
shop. 

The organization of the west bound repair yard, which is quite 



General Office Force 

Shop Clerk 

Storekeeper 

Foreman East Bound Repair Yard 

Foreman West Hound Repair Yard 

Foreman Metal Yard 

Foreman Lumber Yard 

Foreman Steel Car Shop 

Foreman Truck Shop 

Foreman Freight Shop 

Foreman Passenger Shop 

Foreman Blacksmith Shop 

Foreman Cabinet Shop 

Foreman Machine Shop 

Foreman Plumbing Shop 

Foreman Upholstering Shop 

Foreman Tin Shop 

Foreman Paint Shop 

Foreman Buffing Room 



General Foreman 



I 



Assistant 

General 

Foreman 



Foreman Bolt Shop 
Foreman Planing Mill No. 1 
Foreman Planing Mill No. 2 
Foreman Laborers 
Foreman Carpenters 
Foreman Car Inspectors 
Yard Master of Car Department 
Chief P. R. R. Fire Department 
Head Watchman 
Police Officers 

Two Inspectors attached to General 
Foreman's Office. 



FIG. 4- — GENERAL ORGANIZATION OF THE ALTOONA CAR SHOPS. 

similar to that of the east bound, is shown on the accompanying 
diagram, Fig. 5. It will be noted that while both the foreman 
painter and the storekeeper report direct to the general foreman, 
their representatives at the repair yard are also under the juris- 
diction of the local foreman and his assistant, as is indicated on 
the diagram. 

CARS REPAIRED AT ALTOONA DURING DECEMBER, 1908. 







STEEL 


CARS 




WOODEN 
CARS 


TOTAL 
OF 




Hopper 


Gondola 


Steel 
Under- 
Frame 


Total 


ALL 

CARS 


East Bound Re- 
pair Yard 

West Bound Re- 
Freight Shop 

Steel Shop 


1,164 

1,106 
116 
226 


302 

195 

84 
35 


352 

326 

206 

9 


1,818 

1,627 
406 
270 


1,809 

1.898 

1,420 

24 


3.627 

3.525 

1,826 

294 


Total 


2,612 


616 


893 


4,121 


5.151 


9,272 



STEEL CAR SHOP." 

The steel car shop is directly cast of the freight shop, as shown 
on the general plan of the car shops, Fig. 2. It is 93 ft. wide by 
553 ft. long, and has a steel frame, the roof consisting of slate 
on white pine sheathing, supported by 12 in., 25 lb. channels. The 
sides and en Is of the building are covered with corrugated gal- 
vanized iron. As may be seen from the drawings and photo- 
graphs, the windows form a large part of the side and end walls, 
furnishing splendid lighting. Additions near the middle of one 
side of the building contain the office, tool room and store room. 
The building is arranged so that, if necessary, extensions may 
be added on each side in the future. There is ample space for 
the storage of castings, steel parts and dies and formers at the 
ends and side of the shop. 

The Equipment. 

There are three Shaw electric traveling cranes of i2j/< tons 
capacity each. The width of the crane span is 87 ft. and the 
distance from the floor to the top of the crane run-way is 26 ft. 
Along one side of the shop and extending about two-thirds of its 
length a number of tools are arranged, which are used for new 
work only; these include two hydraulic riveters with a 10 ft. 
6 in. gap, made by the Chambersburg Engineering Company. Also 
two hydraulic riveters of 50 tons capacity, with a 24 in. gap and 
a 6 in. stroke, made by the same company. There are three port- 
able riveters of different types used in connection with a jib 
crane attached to one of the wall columns. 

Two electric traveling hoists, having a capacity of 3 tons each 
and a lift of 16 ft. 6J4 in. furnished by Pauling & Harnischfeger, 
operate on a run-way placed alongside the wall and underneath 
the large traveling crane run-way. These handle the material 
for the gap riveters. On the other side of the shop is a No. 2 
rapid action, automatic stop Hilles & Jones punch, having a 20 
in. throat and with a. jib crane above it. Located near this is a 
radial drill. At one corner of the shop is an accumulator and 
a triple plunger single acting pump made by the Chambersburg 
Engineering Company, and having a capacity of 60 gallons per 
minute at a pressure of 1,500 lbs. per square inch. It is driven 
by a 65 h.p. motor geared direct to it. This pump and accumu- 
lator furnish hydraulic pressure for the riveters and also for a 
large press which has just been installed south of the shop (Fig. 
10). This press is used to form the larger pressed parts used on 
both the freight and passenger car equipment. It was furnished 
by the Chambersburg Engineering Company and measures 10 ft. 

8 See January, 1908, issue for a description of the steel car repair shop at 
McKees Rocks on the P. & L. E. R. R. 





0- .) 



d Column 
Side Elevation 



FIG. 6. — STEEL CAR SHOP AT ALTOONA. 



88 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD TOURNAL 





r | 

I. 









March, 1909 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 




'.Ill 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL 




March, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



91 




FIG. 21. — PULLING AND PUSHING DEVICES. 



2 in. and 7 ft. 10 in. between the centers of the columns. It has 
a 42 in. stroke and is provided with a stripping ram having a 
diameter of 10 in. The press has three plungers, each of which 
exerts a pressure of 500 tons. The center one may be used alone, 
furnishing 500 tons pressure, or the two outside ones may work- 
together, furnishing 1,000 tons pressure, or all three may be 
used at the same time, furnishing 1,500 tons pressure. The op- 
erating levers are so arranged that it is impossible to operate the 
plungers in any but these three combinations. Located near it is 




FIG. 10. — I, SOO-TON PRESS OUTSIDE OF STEEL CAR SHOP. 

a Hilles & Jones No. 6, 125 in., gate shear (Fig. ill, used for 
trimming large size sheets to shape, such for instance as the 
pressed steel underframes for freight equipment. 

How the Repairs Are Made. 

As has been stated, only the heavier repairs to steel freight 
equipment are made in the steel shop. These consist quite largely 
in repairing buckled or cracked center sills on the Gl hopper cars. 
In cases of this kind, or where extensive repairs are to be made 
to the underside of a car, it is turned up-side down, as shown 
by the accompanying photos. If the center sills are to be spliced 
the end sills and draft rigging are removed before the car is 
turned, as this work can be done to better advantage while the 
body of the car is in its normal position. Two of the traveling 
cranes are used to turn a hopper car. Chains are connected to 
one of the side sills at the bolsters and the car is turned over od 



its side ( Fig. \2). The chains are then placed around the center 
sills (Fig. 13J and the car is lifted upward and is placed up-side 
down on blocks, as shown in Fig. 14. The workmen then climb 
to the top of the car and cut out the rest of the rivets and re- 
move or splice the center sills, or repair the bottom of the hop- 
pers with comparative ease. 

The center sills of the car, which is shown being turned in the 
illustrations, were badly buckled back of the bolster. This is 
more clearly shown in the detail view, Fig. 15. The sills back 
of the other bolster were in practically the same condition. The 
two center sills were cut out and replaced with new sills, the 
old sills being sent to the blacksmith shop to be straightened out 
and cut into lengths suitable for splicing sills on other cars. 

In many instances the center sills crack directly back of the 
bolster, as shown in Fig. 16. This is the weakest part of the sill 
and apparently the metal gradually gives away under the re- 
peated stresses and finally cracks, starting at the bottom through 
the flange, which is weakened by the rivet hole, and gradually 
extending upward. In cases of this kind the body bolster is re- 
moved after the car has been turned up-side down and a Yz in. 
stiffening plate is riveted to the sill, as shown in Fig. 17. This, 
of course, means that the bolster diaphragm, extending from the 
center to the side sill, needs to be shortened to make up for 
the width of the plate. It is possible to do this by hand, but 
dies are being constructed so that it may be done better and 
more quickly. Where the sills are buckled back of the bolster the 
end of the sill is cut off and a new piece is spliced on as shown 
in Fig. 18. 

A car, one end of which has been badly damaged, is shown in 
Fig. 19. The plates were straightened, new ends were spliced 
to the center sills and the other parts straightened, or repaired, 
and replaced. This was done at a very reasonable cost. 

An interesting design of bolt is used for drawing up parts 
preparatory to riveting. The pitch is very large and the top 
and bottom of the thread are rounded off and are much broader 
than the standard thread. The nuts can be drawn up, or re- 
moved, much more quickly than on a standard bolt and the 
threads are not easily damaged. The V% in. bolts have four 
threads to the inch and the % and Y± in. five threads to the inch. 

On repair work ten men work in a gang and two cars are as- 
signed to each gang. On new work six men work in a gang. 
The tools used on the repair work will be considered at length 
in connection with the work of the west-bound repair yard. 

When it is desired to turn a gondola car up-side down to do 
work on the under-side, three cranes are used. Chains from 
two of the cranes are passed about the draw bars at each end 
and the third crane catches a hook underneath one side of the 
car. When the two cranes have lifted the car a sufficient dis- 
tance from the ground the third crane turns it over. 

Most of the drawbar yokes used at Altoona are riveted to the 
couplers just outside the end of the steel shop. After the yoke 
has been placed over the end of the coupler a band is slipped 
over the yoke and a wedge is driven between it and the yoke, 
forcing the sides of the yoke tightly against the coupler. A 
block and screw jack are then placed between the coupler and 
the end of the yoke and the lugs are drawn tightly against the 
coupler. The rivets are driven while the coupler and yoke are 
held in this position. 



92 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL 




FIG. 20. — CRUDE (III. TORCH I OR H EATING DAMAGED DARTS. 



Where sheets, or other parts of a car, are bent it is often 
possible to straighten them in place without removing them 
from the car. The parts may be heated locally by a crude oil 
torch," shown in Fig. 20, and can usually be hammered back into 
place if not too badly damaged. 

Fig. 21 shows two devices which are often used to advantage. 
The one in front consists of a chain with hooks which slip over 
the sides of the car, as shown. A turnbuckle at the left side, 
not shown very clearly, allows the sides of the car to be pulled 
inward. The device shown in the rear performs the opposite 
function and consists of a piece of heavy pipe with a screw jack 
arrangement at each end. With this it is possible to force the 
sides of the car outward and to hammer out any kinks. These 
devices may be used either separately or in connection with one 
another. 

Parts which are badly bent or torn, and that cannot easily be 
hammered 011; straight on a face plate, are sent to the smith 
shop, where they are straightened tinder an air press, as will be 
described later. Meanwhile new parts are taken from stock for 
use on the damaged car. When the repaired parts o r e returned 
they are placed in stock. 

The amount of steel freight car repair work done in the steel 
shop varies. If, as is the case at the present time, a large amount 
of new steel or steel underframe equipment is being built, only 
a comparatively small part of the shop is used for repair pur- 
poses. 

WEST-BOUND REPAIR YARD. 

General Arrangement. 

The west-bound repair yard was not designed for this pur- 
pose, the distance between the track centers being only about 12 
ft. ; it is being used for this work temporarily, the idea being 
to transfer it later to a more convenient point near the East 
Altoona engine house. To provide room for buildings for the 
necessary offices, shops, storehouses and men's rooms, two of 
the tracks near the middle part of the yard are covered over. 
To one side of these temporary buildings is a running track and 
three tracks which are u*ed for light repair work. On the other 
side are two tracks, used for heavy repair work, and a running 
track. To these may be added the parts of the two tracks not 
covered over at either end of the row of buildings. This pro- 
vides room for over 300 cars. 

The temporary buildings include a tool room and lumber stor- 
age shed; the office with a room tor inspectors connected to it 

3 In the repair yaril of the II. & O. at Mt. Clair a fire is built about 
the damaged part, scrap wood being; used (see page 167 of the May, 1907, 
issue). On the P. & L. E. R. R. at McKee's Rocks a natural gas burner is 
used for this purpose, as shown on pare 4 of the January, 1908, issue. 



by a window ; three rooms for the men, containing lockers, wash 
basins and time clocks ; a room for storing paints and stencils ; 
an oil room for the oil and waste ; an air brake room ; a black- 
smith shop and a storehouse and storeyard. 

How the Work is Carried On. 

At one time when a large number of steel cars were regularly 
being brought in for repairs special gangs were detailed for 
this work, but during the past year or two this class of work 
has been lighter and at the present time there are only three 
steel car gangs, and they work on wooden cars as well. In event 
of a rush of steel cars they could be handled to advantage by 
the men in the other gangs. Each gang works under the direc- 
tion of a gang leader and is composed of from 12 to 18 men. 10 
The gang leader's duty is largely to order the necessary material 
and get it promptly to the cars, and to otherwise direct the work 
of the gang. 

The men who work on steel car repairs are not boiler mak- 
ers ; in many instances they were repairmen on wooden cars, but 
after a little experience were able to do first-class work on the 
steel cars. Most of the work on the bodies of steel cars is done 
on a piece work basis, a certain amount being paid for each 
rivet which is cut and removed and for each new rivet driven 
and for each hole drilled or reamed. Where parts are slightly 
bent or damaged it is often possible to heat them with a torch 
and hammer them back into place without removing them from 
the car. Where it is necessary to remove the distorted parts 
they may often be repaired on a straightening press" in the re- 
pair yard and be replaced on the car. Where the parts are thus 
treated the men are paid on a time basis. Badly damaged parts 
which it is not thought advisable to try to straighten are loaded 
on a car and sent to the blacksmith shop. Here they are straight- 
ened " under a large air press, the men being paid on a piece- 
work basis, at so much per ioo lbs. of material straightened. 

When a car is placed in the repair yard an inspector makes 
note of the repairs which should be made on a form, known as 
M. P. 124, shown in Fig. 22. Any other work which may after- 
wards be found necessary must be referred to the inspector. On 
one side of this card he fills in the date, car number, initials and 
kind, the light weight, size of axles, and the account to which 
the repairs are to be charged, such as pool, foreign or M. C. B. 
On the other side he fills in the date and all of the columns ex- 
cept those showing the value of the material. The card is then 
placed alongside the springs on one of the trucks. 

10 The practice in this respect on the B. & O. and P. & L. E. R. R. is 
described on page 161 of t:ie May, 1907. and page 6 of the January. 190S, 
issues, respectively. 

11 See page 162 of the May, 1907, issue. 



March, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



93 



f 


a. P- 151 


Pennsylvania Railroad Company tr^S 8 

hOATBilW '■>.iii»i RAILWAY i ■■«!-■ . 
Wut JlkllT A SlAIHONI l*n i ■■■ ' (JciHPAITT 








190 


To 




Icrlccl Pto 


HI o-QiunlilT 


0E9CRIPTI0N Of MATIHIAl 


Prlc« ;.< Uill 





































































Enter on Bach Card Items Chargeable to One Account Only 


Ci 








C 




19^ 


Foreman 



IIG. 23. — MATERIAL ORDER FORM, M. P. I 5 I . 

The gang leader, to whose gang the car is assigned, orders 
the necessary material on form M. P. 151, which is reproduced 
in Fig.. 23. When the work on the car has been completed he 
fills in his name on M. P. 124 and also the time the work was 
commenced and completed. The card and the work are then ex- 
amined by the inspector and if found O. K., the card is signed 
and turned in to the shop clerk. Formerly it was the practice 
to enter all of the material used for repairs 011 the front of the 
card, but at the present time this is only done in the case of 
foreign cars. After the store department has checked the forms 
M. P. 151 and posted them on their books the originals are re- 
turned to the shop clerk and fastened to forms M. P. 124. to 
which they refer, after which they are filed. As may be seen, 



M. P. .12* 1*70 KX 10-7-06 55$I9X 

PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD COMPANY. 



Northern Central Riii.*.i Compajiy 
Webi JllHIl it SnAKiifHiE lUlLHorV CcUTAfT 



REPAIR CARD NO 



To 

Car No..„ 

Commenced 
Light "Weight 
Charge to 



Initials ... Kind 

Completed 
lbs. Size of Axles 



. . . 1Q <> - 
Gang Leader 



No. of 
Plei M 



KIND OF MATERIAL 



Weight or Price 
Quantity per Unit 



r- 


, . 


I l 






! 






SEAL RET'i •!.■!■ .. .1 . . '•'■'■■■ ' 1 "v ■ " ' ' 


















* 


Foreman. 


•-When Completed, Card must be pr< mptly n©t\t to SHOP CLERK. 



in by eai h man dm the sum- 

mary reporl id hi ich man per hour. From 

th is data th p clerl 

man, The rati ig do not differ 

very greatl \ men who are 

Ix-ii ik broken in and ha /e noi t, and 

of tin ".hi" idei '.I • ■ [htly higher 

that of tin otln 1 

TOOLS w D Dl ICI I STEEL I \RS. 

I In tool room i in charge of a man, who in addition 

to checking the tools in and out, keeps them in good 

condition and pr ipi i n pair. I hen is also a man in the 

tool room who docs thi carpentry work, including the 

making of wheel bai row 5, handli for various tools, etc. 

An interior view of a portion of the tool room is shown 

in Fig. 24a. 

Hanging above the board, upon which the tool checks are 

placed, is a list of the classes of tools which are used, each one 

being numbered. 1 he board is marked off by a number of ver- 











REP/ 


JRS REQUIRED. 


ieo 

























Ir 


■*• - t 


Cause of 
P Igfl 




1 


3 


£ 


2« 


s 

to 
















-- 










— 


- 











_ 






-• 



•~| 

........ 

1 






























- 




I 


TI-1TAT. 















FIG. 22A. — BACK OF FORM, M P. I24. 



M. P. 130. 


1«7 /.' 55 '•" 

PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD COMPANY. 

PiilI.Ai'i I.r-ntv RtlTJVOI .'. A »Si*I-.'iTON EUlUtnAL> Ua 

S*ORTIIKJl> CiCNTItAL 1: >i! vv»Y Co. 

IVlusl JtUtSU. 1- tll.ROAD I'O 

SUMMARY OF CARS REPAIRED. 

Jfo 


190 




" 


Car Ntunbci 


Ir.itinl Kind Charge to Amount 


I I 


1 1 



FIG. 22. — FORM M. P. I -'4. 

there is space on M. P. 124 for the seal report and notations as 
to damaged lading. 

Time clocks are placed in the men's quarters, furnishing a 
record of each man's time. The gang leader is required to make 
out a summary card, Form M. P. 130, Fig. 24, from which the 
pay-rolls are made up. These summary cards must be turned in 
every few days and the shop clerk checks them up with the 
M. P. 124 forms. On the summary card is shown the number of 
the gang, the date, the name of the gang leader, the car number, 
initial and kind, or class; also the account to which it is charged, 
;'. e., pool, foreign, or M. C. B. ; and the total amount due the 
gang for each car. At the lower part of the card the names 
of the members of the gang are shown, the number of hours put 



















DISTRIBUTION. 


I* aloes 




Hours 


Rate 


Amount 























1 



Total, 






1IG. 24. — SUMMARY REPORT FORM, M. P. 130. 



94 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 







Mari ii, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



95 



tical and horizontal lines, the spaces between the horizontal lines 
being numbered and designating the gangs and the spaces be- 
tween the vertical lines also being numbered and designating the 
class of tool, as above referred to. In this way it is possible to 
find quickly how many and what tools each gang has. The tools 
are expected to be turned in every night. In addition to the 
tools which are listed in this way each man is furnished with a 
ball pein hammer and the necessary cold chisels, drifts and 
wrenches. These he keeps in a small tool box which he carries 
about with him. 

The tools which are kept in the tool room and are used for 
steel car repairs are as follows : 

Pneumatic Drills, for drilling and reaming holes, with the nec- 
essary drills and reamers. 

Pneumatic Hammers and the necessary dies for driving rivets. 

Air Hose for the pneumatic tools and for connecting the port- 
able rivet heaters to the air line. 

Sledges, 6 and 10 pounds. 

Cutting Bars of various lengths and with different shaped cut- 
ting edges, as shown in the upper right-hand corner of Fig. 25. 

Center Punches on handles as shown in Fig. 26. 




FIG. 27. — A SIMPLE AND CONVENIENT DEVICE. 

Straightening Irons for grasping and bending sheets. One of 
these with a crooked handle is shown at the left in Fig. 26, and 
the other with a straight handle is shown near the left in Fig. 25. 

A Block and Wedge, shown in Fig. 25. This is used for hold- 
ing against the counter-sunk heads on the rivets used to fasten 
the draft castings to the sills on certain hopper cars. By means of 
the handle the block is held between the sills and the wedge is 
driven down, holding against the rivet head while the rivet is 
being driven. 

Cutters on handles as shown near the left in Fig. 26. 

Tongs for handling rivets, etc. 

Rivet Punches for driving out rivets. 

Drop Door Wrenches of various sizes for operating the drop 
doors. 

Torches for lighting purposes and similar to those used on a 
locomotive. 

Hydraulic Jacks of 15 tons capacity. These are kept in repair 
and issued from the tool room. There are also a number of 
ratchet jacks, used. 

Chucks or Expansion Bars for pneumatic drills, as shown to 
the right of the pneumatic drill in Fig. 25. 

Pup or Journal Box Jacks. 



Blowers or Torches." Oni of thesi 1 hown ii ip ti in 

Fig. 20. They are used for heating parts of the car which 
be repaired or straightened without removing there car. 

The end or burner is made of a piece of 3 in p 8 in. 

long, which is screwed into a 3 in. to J4 in. reducing sleeve. The 
34 in. pipe or nipple, fastened to this sleeve, connects to a 34 x 
Yt x y% in. T. The air, controllei '.{lobe valve, passes 

through the )<g in. pipe, which is 1 % in. at it> upper 

end inside of the T, and syphons the oil through the other ^ in. 
pipe from the can, which is placed on the ground. 

Clubs or Dolly Bars, also called holding on bars. Several 
shapes of these are shown in Figs. 25 and 26. 

Cans with a Soda Solution for lubricating the drills and 
reamers. 

Pulling and Pushing Jacks, as shown in Fig. 26. By using 
wooden blocks the side sheets may be pressed outward with the 
jack shown at the right, in the same manner as performed by the 
device shown in Fig. 2r. Chains may be fastened by pins at 
each end of the jack shown to the left and the chain hooks may 
be thrown over the sides of the ear and the sheets pulled in 




FIG. 2Cj. — A SIMPLE BRACE FOR PNEUMATIC DRILLS. 

An Angle Device used in connection with the pneumatic drills, 
making it possible to drill at right angles in places where it is 
impossible to use the standard drill. 

These tools are used exclusively for steel car work and are 
in addition to the hand hammer, cold chisels, wrenches and drifts 
with which each man is furnished. As may be seen, some of the 
tools are of a very special nature and are only used occasionally, 
so that it is not necessary to have more than two or three of 
them for several gangs. In other cases, such for instance as 
pneumatic hammers, it would be necessary to provide one for 
every four or five men in a steel car gang. 

Inasmuch as the number of steel cars in the repair yard varies 
greatly, so that often there is not enough work to keep more than 
one or two gangs engaged, while at other times there may be 
sufficient to keep several gangs going, it is impossible to make 
an estimate as to just what the tools for this work would cost 
per man, or per gang, but it is safe to say that a gang of five 
or six men could be very fully equipped with the necessary tools 
for less than $500. 

In addition to the tools mentioned above there are several 



96 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL 






March, 1900. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



97 




other special devices used in the repair yard in connection with 
the repairs to steel cars. One of these, shown in Fig. 27, is n 
of wrought iron, the top fittii de of the car. The 

workman is hold a doll) bar" or "holding on bar" against a 

rivet, which is being driven from the other side of the sheet. 

By using two or 1 of these brackets and placing planks upon 

the horizontal portion a platform may be erected along the 
side of the car. 

In t lie west bound repair yard are two straightening presses, 
one of which is shown in Fig. 28. These consist of a wooden 
framework reinforced and tied tog< ther by iron rods and at- 
tached to a base of timbers upon the top of which a cast iron 
plate is placed. Bent or distorted pieces may be pressed into 
shape by the use of ratchet jacks, as shown, and by hammering 
the pieces into shape with sledges. An open forge, not shown in 
the photo, is at the left and is used for heating the parts. 

Fig. 29 shows a brace that is very convenient for drilling or 
reaming holes. These braces are made in a variety of shapes 
for getting at inconvenient places on the car. 

A portable rivet heater 12 is shown in Fig. 30. The cast iron 
pot is about ij4 in. in thickness and measures 12 in. inside 
diameter at the top. It has a hole 6J4 in. in diameter at the bot- 
tom in which a small grate fits. The plate upon which the pot 
rests is 2 ft. square and is of cast iron. The lower portion, cast 
integral with the plate, has a cavity 5 in. square and 9 in. deep, 
near the top of which the air enters from the air hose and into 
which the ashes fall, being removed by a slide at the bottom. 

The Storehouse and the Parts Carried for Steel Cars. 

Because of the temporary location of the west bound repair 
yard the store room is only large enough to hold the bolts, rivets 
and smaller material. The larger material is arranged on a plat- 
form just outside. A tin pocket is attached to each box or bin 
containing material and in it is a card showing the date and the 
amount of material received at various times; also the amount 
and date of all lots of material issued. It is thus possible to find 
quickly the exact amount of material on hand and also the rate 
at which it is being withdrawn. 

Very little new material is required for repairs to the bodies of 
steel cars, but a certain amount is carried in stock to replace 
parts which are sent to the blacksmith shop for straightening, or 
to reinforce or strengthen the weak parts on the Gl cars. In 
examining the store house stock the following parts for bodies 
of steel cars were found : 

Center Sill Splices. 13 These are for the Gl cars and are similar 
to those described on page 91, in connection with the work in the 
steel car shop. It is interesting to note that the Gl cars are the 
only ones on which the center sills give trouble, the Gla cars, 
which were designed later, giving splendid results in this respect. 
This is probably due to the increased sectional area of the center 
sills of the Gla cars; the trouble with breakage was one of the 
main reasons for making the increase. Gl cars with cracked or 
buckled center sills are very often received in the west bound 
repair yard and the sills are spliced in the same way as in the 
steel shop. A center sill splice made in the repair yard is shown 
in Fig. 31. 

End Sills. The end sills of the Gl hopper cars are damaged 
when the center sills are buckled. If badly damaged they are 
straightened on the straightening press in the yard or sent to the 
blacksmith shop. In the latter case an end sill is taken from 
stock, so as not to delay repairs to the car. 

End Sill Stiffening Plates." On the Gl hopper cars the 
coupler carrier iron is supported by two plates riveted to the 
end sill, each side of the coupler, as shown in Fig. 32. Where 
the end sill is damaged at the center these plates are often re- 
moved and replaced by a large single plate, as shown in Fig. 33. 
This reinforces and strengthens the sill. 



a See race 4 of the Tanuarv, 190S, issue for a portable rivet heater 
used on the P. & L. E. R. R. 

u The method of splicing center sills of steel hopper cars on the B. & O. 
is shown on page 171 of the May, 1907. issue. 

" The application of end sill reinforcing plates to B. & O. cars is shown 
on page 168 of the May, 1907, issue. 



98 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 




March, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



99 



Side Stakes. These are sometimes damaged or torn off when 
a car receives side swipes or is otherwise badly damaged. 

Comer Posts. These are sometimes badly damaged on the 
hopper cars and a small supply of new ones is carried in stock. 

Bolster Stiffeners. The Gl cars were equipped with trucks 
having pressed steel bolsters. The center plate was pressed in the 
top cover plate. This plate was not properly reinforced under- 
neath the center and after the cars had been in service for 
several years the center plate was forced downward, thus bring- 
ing the side bearings down and throwing the greater part of the 
weight of the body on them. This tears or distorts the lower 
flanges of the body bolster members to which the side bearings 
are riveted. When a car comes to the repair track in this con- 
dition the top member of the truck bolster is cut off and is 
replaced by a new plate and a cast steel center plate. The 
distorted flanges of the body bolster, are forced back into posi- 
tion and are reinforced by l /i in. angle plates, as shown in Fig. 
34. a In some instances the side bearings are badly damaged and 
a stock of these is carried at the store house. This trouble has 
been corrected on the later cars by a change in the design of the 
bolsters. 

The Cross Ties connecting the sides of the Gl hoppers consist 
of corrugated plates, the ends being riveted to the sides. They 
are placed vertically so as to offer the least resistance to the coal 
or other material which may be dropped into the car. This 
construction is not very strong and it is often necessary to re- 
place the plates. On the Gla cars this cross tie is made up of 
two plates, with a V pressed in them, riveted together, thus form- 
ing a box section which is much stiffer and not so easily dam- 
aged as the plate on the Gl cars. (See page 148, May, 1905, 
issue). 

Hopper Doors are sometimes badly damaged and the various 
parts of these doors are carried in stock. The same may be said 
concerning certain parts of the draft rigging. 

Other Equipment. 

An important and commendable feature in the repair yard is 
the trestle for supporting the car, shown in Fig. 35. These are 
about 40 in. high and are made of 4 x 4 in. planks with a 2 in. 
plank, 10 in. square, at the top. The timbers are securely bolted 
together. These trestles eliminate any possibility of such acci- 
dents as sometimes occur when cars are supported on barrels or 
where a lighter trestle is used, or where the ratchet jacks, with 
a narrow base, are left to perform this duty. 

Two 15-ton locomotive cranes, one with a boom 45 ft. long and 
the other with one 29 ft. long, are used for handling the wheels 
and axles in and out of the trucks and for the lifting back and 
forth of heavy parts. These cranes are shown in Fig. 36 and 
were furnished by the Browning Engineering Company, of 
Cleveland, O., and the Bay City Industrial Works, of Bay City, 
Mich. 

The blacksmith shop contains a 100-pound Shaw & Justice 
power hammer and a two-spindle ij^ in. bolt cutter. 

EAST BOUND REPAIR YARD. 

General Arrangement. 

Most of the repairs made at the east bound repair yard are 
to loaded cars or cars from which it has been necessary to trans- 
fer the lading. Only light repairs are made to steel cars. The 
yard has been carefully arranged and equipped to handle the 
work to the best advantage. The building in which the offices, 
store house, men's quarters and shops are placed is substantially- 
built and splendidly arranged, both as to facilities for perform- 
ing the work and for the comfort and convenience of the 
workmen. 

The repair tracks are laid out with plenty of distance be- 
tween centers and a system of narrow gauge tracks extends 
throughout the yard, over which supplies may be carried on push 
carts. The tracks are spaced about 16 ft. center to center; be- 
tween every other track is the narrow gauge track for carrying 



a On page 170 of the May, 1907, issue is shown the method of repairing 
and reinforcing the body bolsters, as used at the Mt. Clair shops of the 
B. & O. 



supplies, the repair track centers in this case measuring about 
19 ft. center to center. There is a narrow gauge cross track, 
with turntables, near the center of the yard. The space between 
the tracks throughout the yard is covered with heavy planking, 
the timbers bi ing taken from cars which were destroyed at the 
metal yard, which lies just west of the repair yard. 

For transfering coal, coke or similar material from damaged 
cars there is an unloading trestle with capacity for holding five 
cars. For transferring loads in box cars two tracks are placed 
so that there is only about 22 in. space between the cars. One 
of the tracks is placed about 14 in. lower than the other, so that 
heavy pieces of machinery, or other material, may be more easily 
transferred. A depressed track into which gondola cars are run 
makes it possible to conveniently and cheaply load the scrap 
and refuse material. 

The Building. 

The building containing the offices, men's rooms, shops, etc., 
is of special interest, since, although it is substantially built and 
conveniently arranged, the timbers from which the frame is made 
were practically all taken from wooden cars which were assigned 
to the metal yard for destruction. The ground upon which it is 
built is filled in and it rests upon concrete piers. Underneath the 
floor is a layer of ballast and the floor timbers are planks taken 
from old freight cars. The roof is covered with four-ply slag, 
and the sides with white pine sheathing and battens. The build- 
ing is 45 ft. wide and 640 ft. long. 

Referring to the plan showing the arrangement it will be seen 
that a large office is placed at one end, having a private office 
and a record room in connection with it. The piece work inspec- 
tors' room is next to the office and has three small openings con- 
necting into it. On each side of these windows, or openings, are 
wire baskets. The piece work inspectors pass the repair cards, 
M. P. 124 (see page 93), through the first one of these openings 
when they refer to repairs which are to be billed against foreign 
roads. The clerk, in the office on the other side, makes out the 
M. C. B. cards and attaches the ones which are to be placed on 
the cars to the repair cards and passes them back through the 
second opening. When the inspector has checked these and placed 
the M. C. B. cards on the car the repair cards are returned 
through the third opening. 

The most interesting part of the building is the men's room, 
which is 176 ft. long, an interior view being shown in Fig. 37. 
In this are placed large expanded metal lockers. A number of 
long tables, with benches, are provided at which the men eat their 
lunches. These tables are fitted with drawers, in which the gang 
leaders may keep the material for the reports which they must 
make out. There are a number of wash basins with hot and 
cold water faucets. Underneath and about these basins the floor 
is of concrete, draining toward the center. Near either end of 
the room are two time clocks, where the men register. This 
room, like the rest of the building, is well heated, steam for the 
radiators being furnished from the boiler at the end of the 
smith shop. 

Adjacent to the men's room is a lavatory. A room is pro- 
vided for the trainmen who may be stationed in or near the 
repair yard. Next to the room which contains the carpentry 
and air brake departments is an opening or tunnel through the 
building through which material may be carried over a narrow- 
gauge track. All of the stock material is kept under cover, the 
store room being 144 ft. in length. It is very neatly and con- 
veniently arranged, as shown by the photograph, Fig. 39. 

The next section contains the wood working machinery, includ- 
ing a band saw, planer, boring machine, rip saw and grind stone. 
The machine shop contains two gap lathes for turning the jour- 
nals without removing the wheels and also a Norton grinding 
machine for grinding out the flat spots on cast iron car wheels. 
There is also an emery wheel, a bolt threading machine and a 
drill press. In the blacksmith shop are several forges and a 
boiler which supplies heat and power for the plant. 

Located a couple of hundred feet from the main building is 
a smaller one for the use of the painters and steneilers and for 
the storage of oil and waste. 



1 01 1 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 




I 





FREIGHT SHOP. 

The freight shop was built many years ago and is in the form 
of a round-house, the outer circle of which is 434 ft. in diameter, 
and having an open inner space 285 ft. in diameter, containing a 
105 ft. turntable. The turntable is driven by a steam engine, 
and a small switch engine does the shifting. The width of the 
building inside is about 65 ft. It has 40 divisions or spaces. 
Thirty- four of these are used for repair purposes; three are in 
the form of tunnels and are used as running tracks ; the re- 
maining three divisions have two tracks only, and the space about 
them is devoted to the stores department for the storage of stock. 
Rivet heating forges are placed alongside two or three of the 
tracks upon which repairs to steel cars may be made. Cars are 
also repaired in the open space between the building and the 
turntable. 

STRAIGHTENING PARTS AT THE BLACKSMITH SHOP. 19 

The badly damaged steel parts are taken from the steel car 
shop, the freight shop and the west bound repair yard to the 
smith shop for straightening. This is done under a pneumatic 
press, which is shown in Figs. 40 and 41. A frame-work supports 
the 20 in. air. cylinder. Underneath the cylinder is a foundation 
upon which a cast iron table, 6 in. thick, 4 ft. wide and 7 ft. long, 
is placed. The air in the cylinder is controlled by a pneumatic 
four-way valve at one side of the frame work. 

There are two of these presses just outside one end of the 
blacksmith shop. With the aid of a few cast iron blocks and 
two or three men to handle and hammer the sheets it is possible 
to straighten any part of the car and bring it back to its original 
shape. This work is done by piece work, the men being paid a 
certain rate per 100 pounds of material straightened. It is re- 
markable how adept the men become in doing this work. At one 



" At the Mt. Clair yards of the B. 8r O. this work is done in what is 
known as a flange fire shop, as described nn page 162 of the May, 1907, 
issue. 



March, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



101 



mx'« I i'-"x"« 1 v" 




FIG. 41. — STRAIGHTENING PRESS, BLACKSMITH SHOP. 



side of the press is a special oil furnace, with an opening 30 in. 
wide and 15 in. high, through which long material may be passed 
and any part of it heated locally. On the other side ot the press 
is a large oil furnace for heating other parts. It has an opening 
8 ft. wide and 21}^ in. high at the center and is about 10 ft. 
deep. 

REPAINTING STEEL CARS. 17 

The question of repainting steel cars — how often they should 
be repainted and how it should be done— is a troublesome one. 
The inside of the car corrodes or deteriorates more rapidly than 
the exterior. The rapidity or extent to which this takes place 
depends upon the service to which the car is subjected. Where 
the car is in constant service and is not allowed to stand idle it 
is very slight. When allowed to stand with loads of coal, coke 
or cinders, especially during damp weather, it is more serious 
Experiments have been made to find some covering which would 
protect the interior of the car, but such materials as have been 
experimented with are quickly worn off by the friction of the 
lading. 

The deterioration on the outside does not appear to be at all 
serious, the most notable instances of corrosion being opposite the 
hoppers at points where they have apparently been pounded with 
hammers or bars to loosen the lading. Frequent painting of the 
car would not do much good under such treatment. As the paint 
wears or flakes off the sheets become rusted, but it is a question 
as to whether the coat of rust does not to some extent protect 
the sheets. The underframes are protected from drippings 
from the inside of the car and where they were properly painted 
when they are built, are practically in as good condition as 
when they were first placed in service, although some of them 
are more than ten years old. 

It would, therefore, appear that it is comparatively useless to 
repaint the interior of the car and that the necessity for re- 
painting the exterior depends more on the appearance than on 



" See also page 18 of the January, 1907, issue; page 17S of the May, 
1907. issue: page 6 of the January. 1908, issue; and page 40S of the Octo- 
ber. 1908, issue. 



the effect which it would have on the life of the sheets. Surely 
it would not be policy to withdraw a car from service during 
busy times for repainting because of any increase in the life of 
the sheets which might result. 

If the appearance of the cars is to govern the length of time 
before repainting them, the uncertain question as to just what 
will constitute a good appearance must be considered. If the 
appearance is to be first-class the car should be painted about 
once in three or four years, as against once in six or seven years 
for a wooden car. The expansion and contraction of the ma- 
terial, due to changes in temperature, the loading of the cars 
with hot cinders, and the fact that the paint does not adhere so 
readily to the steel as to the wood, makes repainting necessary 
more often than is the case with wooden equipment. As a mat- 
ter of fact cars are running which have not been repainted since 
they were placed in service, six, seven, eight, nine, and even ten 
years ago. 

At each of the car repair points in Altoona is a gang of paint- 
ers, in charge of a gang leader, who look after the stenciling of 
the cars which are repaired and the painting of new or repaired 
parts. These men work by piecework, being paid a certain rate 
per square foot for painting and so much per letter for stenciling. 
The gang leaders report direct to the assistant paint foreman. 

Where it is desired to repaint a car complete it is taken to 
the freight car paint shop, which is 109 x 512 ft. in size, and con- 
tains six tracks. Here the underframe and the body of the car 
are painted by a spraying machine. These machines consist of a 
tank, having a capacity of about 10 gallons, placed in a frame- 
work which may be wheeled about the shop. The arrangement 
of this apparatus and the details of the atomizer are shown in 
Fig. 42. The advantage of this type of spraying machine is that 
the atomizer is at the tank and only one hose extends from it to 
the car. 

A visit to the paint shop showed that there was very little 
surplus paint on the ground about the car. The spraying machine 
has several advantages. Both labor and material are saved and 
better work is done. On a Gl hopper car only two-thirds as 






102 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 




- ] H Ho«s 



FIG. 42. — DETAILS OF PAINT SPRAYING MACHINE. 



much paint is required with a spraying machine as by hand and 
the car can be painted in about one-half the time. The paint is 
also much more uniformly distributed. In painting with a brush, 
with the class of labor and the rate at which it is usually done, 
the rivets, bolt heads, etc. on the car pull the paint from the 
brush; any one who has watched the painting of freight cars 
will realize how much material is wasted in this way, at the 
same time detracting from the appearance of the car. Before 
repainting a car the rust is cleaned off with scrapers and wire 
brushes. Formerly two coats were used in repainting the steel 
cars, one of the standard black for use on steel or iron and the 
other of the standard Pennsylvania freight car color. During 
the past year or two, however, the cars have been given only one 
coat of paint, that being the standard freight car color. 

The specifications for painting new cars require that all parts 
where metal is placed on metal, and either riveted or bolted, 
must be painted before assembling with a lute made by mixing 
one pound of lamp black with 9 pounds of linseed oil. All 
surfaces of the underframe and body, where metal is placed on 
metal, which are not accessible after assembling must be painted 
before assembling with one coat of black protective paint. After 
assembling all cracks must be thoroughly filled in with lute and 
all surfaces, which are accessible, must be painted with two coats 
of black protective paint after which the outside of the body, 
side sills and end sills, the bottom of the floor and all exposed 
parts under the slopes must be painted with a final coat of stand- 
ard freight car color. 



A TEN MILLION POUND TESTING MACHINE. 



The structural materials testing laboratory of the U. S. Geolo- 
gical Survey is having built, by Tinius Olsen & Co., of Philadel- 
phia, a compression testing machine having a capacity of 
10,000,000 pounds. 

This machine will be capable of testing full size structures 
measuring 65 ft. high and having a section of 6 x 6 ft. This 
■would easily take in a full sized structural steel part larger 



than was the chord which failed in the Quebec bridge. 

The machine is a large verticle hydraulic press with one ad- 
justable head and a weighing system which will record loads of 
100 pounds on the regular beam, and smaller sub-divisions by 
means of an additional needle beam. It consists of a base con- 
taining the main hydraulic cylinder which has an effecive area of 
about 2,000 sq. in. upon which rests the lower head with a ball 
and socket bearing. The upper head is adjustable, through four 
vertical screws, 13J4 in. in diameter and 72 ft. 2 in. long, by 
means of gearing operating four nuts provided with ball bearings. 
This head operating mechanism is controlled by the same motor 
which operates the compressor pump. The great length of the 
main screws necessitated splicing, which is accomplished as 
follows : In the center of the screw at the splice is a 3 in. 
threaded pin for the purpose of centering, the splice being made 
by means of long split sleeve nuts, which can be removed when 
it is necessary to lower the upper head below this point. 

The hydraulic pressure is obtained from a triple plunger pump 
operated by means of a 15 h. p. variable speed motor. A needle 
valve is provided, which permits a constant load to be main- 
tained on the compression cylinder. 

The weighing device consists of a set of standard Olsen levers 
upon which is weighed 1-80 of the total load ■ on the main 
cylinder, the reduction being effected through the medium of a 
small piston and diaphragm, the main cylinder having a diameter 
of 50 in. and the weighing cylinder of 5 9-16 in. 

The main cylinder has a vertical movement of 24 in. and the 
upper head can be operated for adjustment at a speed of 10 in. 
per minute. The speed in applying loads varies from a minimum 
of 1-60 in. per minute to a maximum of yi in. per minute. The 
contract provides that the machine shall have an accuracy of at 
least Y$ of 1 per cent, for any load over 100,000 pounds up to its 
capacity. 



The steam when skilfully made by the fireman must be skil- 
fully and economically distributed in the cylinders if we wish to 
get power and speed from the steam for moving the train. 



DATA OF SPECIAL INTEREST TO THE DRAFTING ROOM. 



HELICAL SPRINGS. 



Out- 
side 


2" Steel 


,',." Steel 


</' Steel 


,",." St 


eel 


\" Steel 


\\" Steel 


■\" Steel 


\l" Steel 


I" St 


eel 


!;:" Steel 


Dia 

nf 


Load Hg't 


Load 


Hg't 


Load 


HR't 


Load 


Hfi'l 


Load 


Hp'l 


Load 


HK't 


Load 


Hfr't 


Load 


Hg-'l 


Load 


Hfr'l 


Load He't 


Coil 


Solid Free 


Solid 


Free 


Solid 


Free 


Solid 


Free 


Solid 


Fn:i 


Solid 


Free 


Solid 


Free 


Solid 


Fret 


Solid 


Free 


Solid 


Free 


7 


1.020 1.3F. 


1.680 


1.76 


7.600 


1.18 






























?•/. 


883 


i.hr 


1.450 


1.35 


7.750 


1.75 


3,300 


1,18 


























TA 


780 


1.64 


1.270 


1.-14 


1.970 


1.37 


7.900 


1.74 


4.100 


l.lf 






















?y. 


b98 


l.HCJ 


1.140 


1 51 


1.750 


1.41 


7.550 


1.30 


(.(.(ill 


1,7.1 


4,900 


l.lf 


















3 


631 


1.HH 


1.030 


l.hh 


1.580 


1.50 


7,300 


1.37 


3.700 


I.7S 


4,400 


1.7? 


5,900 


11f 














■M 






935 


1.82 


1.430 


1.61 


7.100 


1,46 


7.900 


1.36 


4,000 


I.7F 


5.100 


1.77 


6.900 


l.lf. 










W 






858 


1.98 


1.310 
1.710 
1.130 


1.72 

1.85 
1.98 


1.910 
1,760 
1.630 


1,54 
1.64 

1.75 


7,650 
7.450 
7.300 


1.47 
1.50 
1.58 


3,600 
3,300 
3.100 


1.33 
1.40 
1.46 


4,800 
4.400 
4.100 


1,7/ 
1.32 
1.38 


O.'IOO 
5.800 
5.300 


1.7? 8.000 
1,76 7.300 
1.31 b.700 


1.18 
1,7? 
1.75 






W 






9.700 1 18 


4 










8.500 1.21 


4!4 








1,570 


1,86 


7.100 


l.b/ 


7,850 


1,54 


3.800 


1,44 


4,900 


1,36 


6.700 


1.3C 


7.800 11.25 


4)4 


FORMULA U 


ifD IN 




1.470 


I.9H 


1,980 


1.// 


7,650 


1,61 


3,500 


l.ftl 


4,600 


1,41 


5,800 


U4 


7.300 11.79 


4X 


COMPUTING 


TABLE 








1.860 


1,8/ 


7,500 


1./C 


3.300 


1,5/ 


4.300 


1.4/ 


S.400 


I.3S 


6.800 1.33 


1) 


p.. 8 "" 3 










1.760 


l,9F 


7.350 


I.7S 


3.100 


1.64 


4,000 


1.53 


5.100 


1,44 


6.400 


1 3R 


hX 














7.750 


t.Kti 


2.950 


1./7 


3.800 


l.ftS 


4.800 


1 V 


6.000 


147 


S* 


16 r 














7.100 


1.9f 


7,800 


1.80 


3,600 


1.6/ 


4.600 


1.55 


5.700 


1.47 


H 


P=load at solid h 


eight 
















7.700 


1,8'' 


3.400 


1.74 


4.300 


1,67 


5-400 1.53 


fi 


S— fibre stress 
d- diameter of st 


80,000# 
iel 
















7.550 


1.98 


3.300 
3,000 


1.81 
1,98 


4.100 
3.800 


1.69 
1,83 


5.100 1.58 


6M 














4.700 1.71 


/ 


r--radius of cente 


r of coil 
























3.400 


1,98 


4.300 1.84 


/« 






























3,900 1.98 




\" Steel 


'lV S 


teel 


li" Steel 


1 1 Si " s 


eel 




\\" Steel 


1,;" Steel 


\'>" Steel 


I, 7 ,." St 


eel 


I 1 ." Steel 


4 


10.500 


1.18 






























4K 


9.700 


1,71 


11.800 


1.18 






























4X 


9 000 


1.75 


10,900 


1.71 


13,300 il,18 




























4Si 


8.400 


1,78 


10,200 


1.74 


17,400 '1.71 


14,800 


1,18 
























b 


7.900 


1.3? 


9.500 


1.78 


11.600 ! 1,74 


13.800 


1.71 




16,400 ji.18 


















W 


7.400 


I.3fi 


8.900 


1.31 


10,900 1,77 


13.000 


1.73 




15.300 1,21 


18.000 


1.18 














VA 


7.000 


1.41 


8.400 


1,35 


10.300 1,30 


17.700 


1. ] l< 




14.500 1,23 


16 900 


1.70 


19.800 


1,18 








b« 


6.600 


1,45 


8.000 


1.3S 


9.700 ,1.34 


11,500 


1,3(1 




13.700 1.26 


16.000 


1.73 


18.700 


1,7(1 


71.700 


1.18 




b 


6.300 


1.50 


7.600 


1.43 


9,700 11.37 


10.900 


1,33 




12,900 1.26 


15.100 


1.76 


17.600 


1,73 


70,400 


i.?r 


73.600 1.18 


bX 


5.700 


l.bl 


6,900 


1.5? 


8.300 1.46 


9.900 


1,40 




11.700 11.36 


13.700 


1,31 


16.000 


1,78 


18.500 


1.75 


71,700 1.7? 


/ 


5.200 


1,/Z 


6.300 


I.«3 


7,600 1,54 


9,000 


1.48 




10.700 


1.4? 


17.500 


1.38 


14.600 


1,33 


16.800 


1.3(1 


19.300 1.77 


/X 


4.800 


1.85 


5.800 


1.73 


7,000 ,1,64 


8,300 


1,56 




9,800 


1.5(1 


11.500 


1,45 


13.400 


1.4(1 


15.400 


1,3fi 


17.700 1.3? 


8 


4.500 


1,48 


5.400 


1,85 


6,500 1.75 


7,700 


l.fifi 




9.100 


1,58 


10.600 


1.5? 


17.400 


1,46 


14.200 


1.4? 


'6.300 1.38 


8K 






5.000 


1,98 


6,100 1.86 


7,700 


1,76 




8,500 


1.6/ 


9.900 


1.6(1 


11.500 


1.54 


13.700 


1,48 


15.700 1,44 


» 










5,700 


1,98 


6.700 


1,8/ 




7,900 


1,// 


9.700 


1,6 


10.700 


1,61 


17.300 


1,55 


14.700 ,1.50 


IS 














b.300 


1,98 




7.400 


1,87 


8,600 
8,700 


1.78 
1,88 


10.100 
9.500 


1,70 

1.70 


11.600 
I 0.900 


1.63 
1.71 


13.300 1.57 


10 


















7,000 


1.08 


17.500 


1.64 



{From the American Locomotive Company's Standard Practice.) 



Calculations. 

In obtaining the net static load, the actual weights of the parts 
constituting dead load, such as wheels, axles, boxes, etc., should 
be deducted instead of taking a certain arbitrary percentage. 

Maximum fibre stress allowable 80,000 pounds, when springs 
are solid. The figures given in the table in the "Load" column 
are the calculated loads which will bring springs solid at 80,000 
pounds fibre stress. 

It is advisable usually to make the capacity of springs slightly 
more than the net actual load, as given below. 



The static load for helical springs must not exceed one-half 
the load required to bring the springs solid. 

Required Capacity. 

Driving and Engine Truck Springs : Use calculated static 
load plus 500 to 1,000 pounds, or about 5 per cent. 

Trailing Springs: Use calculated static load plus 15 per cent. 

Tender Springs : Use calculated static load taken with three- 
quarters of maximum load of coal and water. 

Spring Tables for helical springs give the capacity or load, for 
all heights, when spring is solid : the height free is per one inch 
of solid height. 



PISTON THRUST. 



CYLINDER 


BOILER t=> 


RCS 


SUR 


E—Pounds 


DIAMETER 


AREA 


150 


160 


170 


180 


190 


200 


210 


220 


17" 


226.98 


34050 


36320 


38590 


40860 


43130 


45400 


47670 


49940 


17V 2 " 


240.53 


36075 


38475 


40885 


43285 


45690 


48095 


50505 


52905 


18" 


254.47 


38175 


40720 


43265 


45810 


48355 


50900 


53445 


55995 


18%' 


268.80 


40320 


43008 


45695 


48385 


51075 


53760 


56450 


59135 


19" 


283.53 


42525 


45360 


48195 


51030 


53865 


56700 


59535 


62370 


19%" 


298.65 


44790 


47775 


50760 


53745 


56730 


59720 


62705 


65690 


20" 


314.16 


47130 


50270 


53415 


56555 


59700 


62840 


65985 


69120 


20% ■ 


330.06 


49500 


52800 


56100 


59400 


62700 


66000 


69300 


72600 


21" 


346.36 


51960 


55425 


58890 


62350 


65815 


69280 


72740 


76210 


21%" 


363.05 


54450 


58080 


61710 


65340 


68970 


72600 


76230 


79860 


22" 


380.13 


57000 


r.osiHi 


64600 


68400 


72200 


76000 


79800 


83600 


22 V 2 " 


397.61 


59635 


63615 


67590 


71570 


75540 


79520 


83490 


87470 


23" 


415.48 


62320 


66480 


70630 


74790 


78950 


S3100 


87250 


91410 


23 %" 


433.74 


65050 


6'..:-!!mi 


73730 


78070 


82400 


86740 


91060 


95420 


24" 


452.39 


67860 


72380 


76910 


81430 


85950 


90480 


95000 


99530 


24%" 


471.4-1 


70710 


75120 


80130 


84850 


89570 


84270 


98990 


103630 


25" 


490.87 


73630 


78540 


83450 


88360 


93270 


98180 


103080 


108000 


25%* 


510.71 


76600 


81710 


86810 


91920 


97030 


102130 


107240 


112350 



103 



104 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



(Established 18321. 

— AMERICAN—. 

Engineer 

RAILROAD ^JOURNAL 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY 

BY 

R. M. VAN A R S D A L E 

140 NASSAU STREET, NEW YORK 

J. S. BONSAL.L,, Business Manager. 
F. H. THOMPSON, Eastern Representative 



R. V. WHIG 
E. A. AVER 



,,T ' i Editors. 



MARCH, 1909 



Subscriptions $2.00 a year for the United States and Canada; $2.75 a 

year to Foreign Countries embraced in the Universal Postal Union. 
Remit by Express Money Order, Draft or Post Office Order. 
Subscription for this paper will be received and copies kept for sale by the 

Post Office News Co., 217 Dearborn St., Chicago, III. 

Damrell & Upham, 283 Washington St., Boston, Mass. 

Philip Roeder, 307 North Fourth St., St. Louis, Mo. 

R. S. Davis & Co., 346 Fifth Ave., Pittsburg. Pa. 

Century News Co., 6 Third St., S. Minneapolis, Minn. 

W. Dawson & Sons, Ltd., Cannon St., Bream's Buildings, Lon- 
don, E. C, England. 



Advertisements. — Nothing will be inserted in this journal for pay, 
except in the aovertisino pages. The reading pages will contain 
only such matter as we consider of interest to our readers. 

Contributions. — Articles relating to Motive Power Department prob- 
lems, including the design, construction, maintenance and operation of 
rolling stock, also of shops and roundhouses and their equipment are 
desired. Also early notices of ovicial changes, and additions of new 
equipment for the road or the shop, by purchase or construction. 



CONTENTS 



Maintenance and Repair of Freight Cars With Special Reference to 

Steel Equipment, P. R. R 81 * 

10,000,000 lb. Testing Machine 1° 2 

Helical Springs 103 

Piston Thrust l° s 

Improvement in Locomotive Fire Boxes 104 

Our Next Issue 10 * 

Correspondence *04 

Railway Business Association, G. M. Basford 105 

Fulton Bill Reported Adversely 105 

Jacob-Shupert Locomotive Fire :tox . . 106* 

Oil Burning Locomotives, by Howard Stillman Ill 

Effect of Flat Wheels on Rails, E. L. Hancock Ill 

16-Inch Back Geared Crank Shaper US' 

Railroad Club Activities 113 

Some New Car Window Fixtures 114* 

Condition of the Country's Forest Resources 114 

Vauclain Compound Atlantic Type Locomotive, C. M. & St. P. Ry... 116* 

Universal Cutter Grinder HO* 

American Semi Plug Piston Valve 117* 

Files of Precision 117 

Boring Jigs in the Manufacture of Shapcrs IIS* 

Railway General Foremen's Convention 118 

Railway Appliance Exhibition 110 

Books 118 

Personals HO 

Catalog* ISO 

Notes 120 



IMPROVEMENT IN LOCOMOTIVE FIRE BOXES. 



On page 106 of this issue is illustrated what we believe to be 
the most radical change in the construction of locomotive fire- 
boxes that has ever been suggested, outside of a water tube 
equipment. Anything which will improve the steam-making ca- 



pacity, decrease the cost of maintenance and increase the safety 
of a locomotive boiler is to be welcomed and it is with these 
three features in mind, accompanied by a desire for other less 
important improvements, that this design has been made. The 
matter of cost and rapidity of manufacture and renewal has been 
given careful attention and the different sections are all formed 
by dies and drilled from templets, so that they are exactly inter- 
changeable in every way. This work is being done so accurately 
that when a complete fire-box is temporarily bolted in place a 
line of sight can be taken through any of the rivet holes through- 
out the length of the box, either inside or out, and the use 
of drift pins or forcing in any way is not required. This makes 
it possible to quickly and cheaply renew any section which may 
fail for any reason and greatly decreases the cost of manufac- 
ture. The opportunity for using very thin sheets, with their 
greater flexibilty and increased conductivity, for the inside fire- 
box sheets is also an important one, and should greatly assist 
in reducing maintenance troubles and cost, as well as improving 
the steaming capacity. 

Taken altogether this design is worthy of the most careful 
study and we shall be glad to receive and publish the opinions 
our readers may form of it. That the Santa Fe officers have 
confidence in it, is evident from the fact that it has been specified 
for use on the two articulated type passenger locomotives now 
building at the Baldwin Locomotive Works which will be the 
largest locomotives in the world. In addition to this it is also 
being applied to some Santa Fe type locomotives at Topeka. 



OUR NEXT ISSUE. 



Our April issue will be of a special nature and will be devoted 
largely to railroad shop practice and machine tools. During the 
past year or so, while business has been dull, the machine tool 
builders have given considerable attention to re-designing and 
improving their tools, and as the railroads will shortly be in the 
market for considerable equipment of this kind a special issue, 
of the above mentioned nature, will prove timely. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



In view of the vitally important part which letter-writing plays 
in the scheme of modern business it is somewhat surprising that 
more attention is not given to the instruction and training of 
men, often officials as well as clerks, in the proper principles and 
rules for obtaining the best results. If it were possible to com- 
pute the amount of time which is practically wasted by high 
salaried men in wading through a long and rambling letter, which 
more often than not, does not contain the desired information, the 
result would no doubt be so striking as to cause immediate at- 
tention to this subject. The story of the wrecking boss Harri- 
gan illustrates a principle which is too often forgotten, even in 
railroad offices. 

In addition to the principles of writing letters, the handling 
of the mail, particularly in connection with general offices, is in 
a majority of cases capable of considerable improvement, and 
can often be made to show direct savings of surprising amounts. 
In reporting on this feature recently a committee of the Asso- 
ciation of Transportation and Car Accounting Officers stated 
that by having the mail for each address assembled and con- 
solidated at regular intervals during the day in the different gen- 
eral offices or departments a saving of over 40 per cent, in the 
number of pieces handled could be made and a saving of from 
75 to 100 dollars per month for postage on U. S. mail could be 
attained at one office investigated. 

Mention of this feature was also made in connection with the 
instructions to chief clerks incorporated in the article on the 
organization of the motive power department of the L. S. & M. 
S. Ry., published in the December number of this journal; the 
section referred to being on page 468. 



THE RAILWAY BUSINESS ASSOCIATION— AN INSIDE VIEW 



G. M. Basford. 



For sixty days out of the one hundred and twenty days of the 
life of the Railway Business Association it has been the good 
fortune of the writer to be associated with this unique movement, 
and it is with regret that pressure of his own work makes it 
necessary for him to turn over to other hands the official duties 
of the position of secretary. A pleasant obligation will be ful- 
filled if some additional light may be thrown upon the accom- 
plishments and possibilities of the work of the association from 
the inside. 

It is doubtful if any association has ever before in such a brief 
period received such co-operation and recognition. Never before 
have the commercial interests dealing directly with the railroads 
been organized in such a way as this. 

For very well understood reasons the railroads have not yet 
begun to share in the return of prosperity and while many com- 
mercial interests are busier than they were, those concerned in 
supplying railroads with material and equipment have been unable 
to secure orders sufficient to put their men back on full time. 
This serious situation brought together our members in an efforf 
to effect a change in public opinion which would lead to an 
improvement of the general railroad situation and aid in restor- 
ing to prevent extremes in legislation constitutes a permanent 

This movement was not only necessary but timely. The pen- 
dulum of popular sentiment had swung adversely to the railroads 
and swung too far, as indicated by a large amount of legislation, 
which affected the transportation interests by increasing the cost 
of railroad operation, while curtailing revenues. 

At a recent dinner in New York the statement was made that 
during the years 1906 and 1907 the British Parliament enacted 
114 laws for the government of Great Britain and Colonies, 
whereas during the same time Congress and the State Legisla- 
tures of the United States enacted 25,000 laws. It is reasonable 
to doubt that 12,000 wise laws, per year, can be enacted in anj 
country. The thinking people who constitute the safeguard of 
the nation had begun to recognize that the railroad interests could 
not be adversely affected by restrictive legislation without affect- 
ing all other human interests. There has been no general senti- 
ment in favor of weakening restriction of railroads, but there is 
a growing conviction that restriction must be intelligent. 

The way in which the members of the association rallied to 
the call is scarcely more impressive than the ready support of 
the commercial public. By a combination of very important man- 
ufacturing concerns into a good-natured association, public 
opinion has crystallized to a gratifying extent and legislators, 
both State and National, have heard from the people in a voice 
devoid of quavering. 

Some of the largest commercial associations have been ready 
and willing at the suggestion of the Association to make pacific 
utterances. Responses from the largest cities and from National 
Associations covering the entire country have been surprising. 
The voice asking for legislative quiet and for true statesmanship 
with respect to railroad enactments has come from many direc- 
tions and from many interests, some of them being entirely sepa- 
rated from railroad affairs. Those, for instance, who make and 
sell shoes have co-operated through their national organizations 
to indicate appreciation of the fact that the welfare of those con- 
cerned in transportation is involved with their own welfare to 
such an extent as to justify a long step from their beaten paths 
to correct the unfortunate situation in which our members find 
themselves. 

One reason for this co-operation lies in the recognition of the 
fact that the personnel of the association is remarkable in in 
eluding men known for the most successful engineering, manu- 



facturing, and commercial achievements. Some of our constit- 
uent concerns are as large commercially as a fairly large railroad. 
The number of men employed by such concerns as are represented 
in our membership is as great as the number employed by the 
railroads. Our association has conflicting competitive interests, 
all united in the bond of good fellowship to carry out the plan 
which makes for the common good. This plan is conducted ab- 
solutely independently of the railroads. It has been shown for 
the first time to be possible for influence outside of the railroads 
to band together to promote by organized action a realization of 
the inter-dependence between the public and the transportation 
interests. 

Our activities are by this time very well known. In four 
months the fact has been demonstrated that the people are ready 
not only to acknowledge what the railroads have done for the 
country, but to give transportation questions the consideration 
which they deserve. To turn the light on obscure questions af- 
fecting the relation between the people and the railroads, tend- 
ing to prevent extremes in legislation constitutes a permanent 
work for this organization. 

Not all tho work already accomplished has been easy. The 
railroads as well as the public have their part to do and the work 
of the association will include efforts to bring about a permanent 
friendly relationship. This cannot be done in a short time. 

One of the most effective elements of the success of this asso- 
ciation is the generous good fellowship of its members. The 
organization already extends into sixteen States and often com- 
petitive interests in the same city are united in local achieve- 
ment. No discordant notes are heard in the conduct of its af- 
fairs and it is inconceivable that any will be heard und^r the 
leadership of such a personality as that of the president of the 
association, sustained by, and enjoying, the constant counsel 
of the able, energetic and potential men who compose its general 
executive committee. These two months in the executive office 
have been so crowded with important developments that they 
have seemed exceedingly short. 

At the outset reasonable doubt of the possibilities of the 
movement may have been justified. Some may have felt that it 
was too intangible and experimental to win their instant support 
Now there is no room for doubt. It is no longer experimental. 
The writer regrets that because of compelling business obliga- 
tions he cannot continue in direct co-operation with a work so 
inspiring. This brief time has convinced him that the need for 
the organization was great, the field for its efforts wide, the plan 
of its work effective. 

It is equally clear that so much remains to be done as to justify 
the question : How can any concern engaged in supplying the 
railroads with their requirements, delay enrollment in the Rail- 
way Business Association? 



Fulton Bill Reported Adversely. — Senator Elkins in report 
ing the Fulton amendment adversely said: "The country is now 
demanding repose in its industrial upbuilding. It is not a time 
to experiment and to change the basis upon which the former 
acts to regulate commerce have been predicated. The recent law 
passed by Congress so greatly enlarging the authority of the 
commission should, before changes are sought, have the oppor- 
tunity of at least a fair trial as to the value of its provisions in 
the regulation of interstate commerce. When trial has been 
given and normal conditions have been restored, any defect in 
the regulating statute can then, in the light of experience, be 
promptly passed." 



105 



JACOBS-SHUPERT LOCOMOTIVE FIRE BOX. 



H. W. Jacobs. 



Much effort and study have been expended upon the locomON 
tive boiler to improve its efficiency in the generation of steam 
and to promote economy in its cost of maintenance. Many im- 
provements have been made in its design and construction ; yet 
no radical departure from early practice has been made since the 
locomotive reached its present general arrangement. Attempts 
at improvement have included a decided increase in size, a slight 
alteration of the general form, the occasional introduction of 
water tubes or the combustion chamber, and the widening of 
the water leg. The demand for greater tractive power has caused 
the enlargement of grate areas and the shape of firebox sheets 



4. An increase in the circulation of the gases outside. 

5. An increase of transference of heat from the gases to the 
water per unit of surface. 

6. A reduction of weight in proportion to steaming power. 

7. A greater heating surface in proportion to weight. 

8. A reduction of fuel consumed per effective horse power. 

9. A reduction of water delivered with the steam. 

10. A reduction of heat delivered into the atmosphere. 

The firebox meeting these requirements has been designed, 
and three are now under construction in Topeka shops of the 
Santa Fe Railroad. These boxes are being applied to what is 




FIG. I. — VIEW OF COMFLETED BOILER WITH JACOBS-SCHUPERT FIREBOX. 



and wrapper sheets has been modified. In the main, however, 
the principles long ago established have been adhered to until 
the present. 

Long experience and careful study of the prevailing design, 
however, has led to the decision that improvements can be made 
in the arrangement and construction, and that the following re- 
sults can be obtained : 

1. The maximum of strength due to the form without artificial 
support, such as from stays. 

2. A greater strength with a reduction in thickness and weight 
of material. 

3. An increase of circulation of the water inside. 



known as the "Santa Fe type" engine, which is the largest engine 
in the world of rigid wheel-base design. This same type of 
firebox is also to be applied to the new passenger Mallet type 
engines, which will be the largest locomotives in the world of 
any type. 

In this firebox the usual arrangement of flat sheets supported 
by staybolts has been abandoned except in the front sheets and 
door sheets. Side sheets and wrapper sheet have been replaced 
by sets of channel-shaped sections riveted together with their 
flanges away from the fire. Staybolts have been replaced by 
stay sheets, one at each joint of the channels, which are inter- 
posed between the sections and secured by the same rivets that 




FIG. 2. — VIEW OF FIREBOX WITH BOILER SHEEL AND OUTSIDE SECTIONS REMOVED. 

106 



March, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



107 



hold adjacent flanges. These sheets are partially cut away in 
the water leg, as shown in Fig. 2, to permit horizontal circula- 
tion of water around the firebox and the edges of the sheets 
form caulking strips for making tight joints between adjacent 
channel sections. All seams are submerged and no joints are 
exposed to the direct current of heat and gases. Due to the 
irregular outline thus formed for the firebox crown and sides, 
the available heating surface of the hottest section of the boiler 
is enlarged without increasing the size of the grate area. A mud- 
ring of either the ordinary type or a special design consisting of 
cast steel pockets, may he used. 



tion, however, it is impossible for a break to extend from one 
section to the other, and should a rupture occur in any section 
it will be simply a local break and cannot pass beyond the stay 
sheets to which the sections are riveted. The pressure will have 
no increased leverage to rupture the sheet in the original break, 
and consquently no violent explosion can occur which will give 
anything like the disastrous results shown in Figs. 4 and 5. 

NO LOCALIZED STRESSES. 

The arched, pressure-withstanding, concave construction (Fig. 
6-c) of the sections insures that there will be no undue and enor- 




FIG. 3, — BOTTOM VIEW OF FIREBOX WITHOUT MUDR1NG OR OUTSIDE SHEETS. 



In the fabrication of this firebox all the work is done by means 
of templets, jigs and formers, so that each one of the component 
parts is exactly like every other one, and all are interchange- 
able. This is achieved absolutely independent of the skill of the 
operators. 

This construction presents many advantages over the usual 
design with very few counteracting disadvantages. The most 
striking features of advantage are : 



Due to its sectional construction this type of firebox is less 
liable to violent explosions than the ordinary type. Disastrous 
results of explosions with the ordinary firebox are shown in 




FIG. 4. — RUPTURED CROWN SHEET. 

Figs. 4 and 5. With the ordinary construction when there is a 
weak place in the sheet, the pressure causes the sheet to be torn at 
that point. The larger the fracture, the larger is the leverage 
and the pressure acting with this increased leverage will rip out 
large portions of the sheet before it is relieved. It is the sudden 
opening up of these large holes that causes the violent explo- 
sions. There is practically nothing to check a break in the ordi- 
nary firebox sheet and, when it is once started, it is very liable to 
continue until much damage is done. In the sectional construc- 



mous local stresses due either to the pressure or induced by 
large differences or sudden changes in temperature at different 
points. The shape of each section is such that it wnll expand 
or contract with variations of temperature, and produce only 
small stresses on the adjacent sections. This is not true of the 
usual firebox (Fig. 6-a). This sectional construction is specially 
adapted to relieve the excessive stresses that are set up in 
the ordinary construction by the local difference in tempera- 
ture due to cold feed-water. When cold water is injected into 
the boiler, the temperature of the side sheet is very much re- 
duced, and the effect is to contract the side sheet at its lower 
portion while it is expanded at its upper section. The forces 
induced by contraction and expansion, due to changes in tem- 
perature, are practically irresistible, and if no provision is made 




FIG. 5. — RUPTURED CROWN SHEET. 

to take cars of the contraction or expansion, there will be enor- 
mous local stresses set up in the metal. 

Take, for example, a sheet six feet in length, and assume that 
its temperature is suddenly lowered by 200 degrees ; the metal 
will contract until its length is reduced from 72 inches to 71.91 
inches, or about .1 inch. If no provision is made to take care 
of this change in length, local stresses will be set up in the 
metal as great as 36,000 lbs. per square inch. This is the 
value of the elastic limit of good steel and three times as great 



108 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



a pressure a< should be used with safety under 
good conditions. 

NO BURNED SEAMS. 

All seams are submerged (Fig. 6-d), and 
thus are not subject to the danger of burning 
and leaking. The stay sheets between the 
channel and arch sections serve readily as 
caulking strips. 

LOW MAINTENANCE COST. 



Due to the design, and also to the absence 
of staybolts and crown-bar bolts, the mainte- 
nance cost of the boiler should be very much 
lower than with present usual construction. 
The maintenance cost would be approximately 
something over 40 per cent, less than is now 
the case. As the cost of maintenance and re- 
newals of fireboxes, staybolts, and flues 
amount to an approximate expenditure of 
$2,000,000 per year on a road having 2,030 
locomotives, this firebox should bring about a reduction of ovei 
$800,000 yearly in this expense. 



eft ft ft eft 

^* fc^^^^^^rf (^^^^^^J ^^^^^^^J ^m 




Old Construction 



New Construction 



FIG. 6. 




* * * 



VIEW SHOWING WAY IN WHICH STAY SHEETS ARE CUT OUT. 
USES THINNER SHEETS. 

Owing to the absence of large local strains from unequal ex- 



riod of time. In two bodies of the same temperature no heat 
transfer takes place, and it is obvious that beginning with this 
condition, the transfer must be very slight and slow when one 
body is only a little hotter than the other. The diagrams (Figs. 
7. 8, 9) will illustrate this. 

In Fig. 7 the two bodies are of the same temperature, and 
there is no heat transference owing to the temperatures being 
balanced. 

In Fig. 8 there is a slight and slow flow of heat from the 
warmer body to the colder owing to the small difference in the 
temperature. It is well known that the pressure of water from a 
standpipe increases with the increase in height — that is, with the 
difference between the level of the source and discharge. The 
same principle holds true of temperature levels. 

In Fig. 9 the heat differences are relatively greater, and the 
heat flow consequently more rapid. This flow of heat takes 
place as indicated irrespective of whether the warm and cold 
bodies touch each other (or are indeed portions of the same 
object at different temperatures) or whether the heat has to 
traverse some intermediary, such as air, a wall of metal or other 
substance, or a body of water or other fluid. In the case of a 
fluid intermediary, the circulation assists the heat flow. 

The transfer of heat through metal is usually considered pro- 
portional to the difference in temperature of the two sides of the 
metal. The greater the difference in temperatures, the greater 
the quantity of heat that passes through the metal in a given 
time. 

This fact is shown graphically in Fig. 10. The hot gases are 
on one side of the metal and the colder water is on the other 
side. If the temperatures are plotted vertically, and the thick- 
ness plotted horizontally, lines connecting the two temperatures 
will give the relative rates of heat transference. 

The steeper the line, the greater quantity of heat that will 
be transferred in a given time. For instance, the slope of the line 
AB is less than that of AC in Fig. 10, showing that less heat 



pansion and contraction (Fig. 6-c) the firebox sections can be. passes through the metal per unit of time when the water has a 

thinner than in the design with flat 

sheets and stays (Fig. 6-a) ; also 

owing to the absence of any side 

staybolts and crown-bolt heads (Fig. 

6-b), the heat will be transmitted to 

the water more rapidly, and it wilt 

cause a greater evaporation for a 

firebox of the same grate area and 

heating surface, and per pound of 

coal burned. 

It is a fact requiring no demon- 
stration that heat flows from hotter 
bodies to cooler bodies. This trans- 
fer of heat, however, is not instanta- 
neous, but continuous through a pe- 





fig. 8. 



FIG. 9. 



March, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



109 




temperature of 200 degrees than when it has a temperature of 
100 degrees. 

If the metal were only half as thick and there was the same 
temperature difference, the slope of the heat flow line would 
be much greater, showing that more heat is transferred through 
thin than through thick metal in the same period of time. 

Careful experiments, as well as mathematical demonstrations, 
show that heat is transferred through metal, not with a con- 
stant, but with a varying slope. The actual curve is similar to 
that shown in Fig. 11. 

If horizontal lines are drawn through the temperatures to the 
slope curve, and vertical lines are then drawn, these vertical 
lines will divide the metal into portions of various width. The 
difference in temperature between the lines on the metal is al- 
ways the same, for this case, 100 degrees. There is the same 
temperature head causing heat to flow, but because of the vary- 
ing width of each section, the slope is less in each succeeding 
section. Kcat flows less readily through H than through G : 
through G than through F, et cetera. 




"In the theory of heat transmission the assumption is made that 
the gas comes directly into contact with the metal surface ot 
the boiler flue, and also that the water in the boiler absorbs the 
heat as fast as the metal can transmit it. In a commercially op- 
erated boiler neither of these assumptions is true. The metal of 
the boiler flue is insulated from the gas with a layer of soot, 
and from the water with a layer of scale and, perhaps, a layer 
of steam (Fig. u). As these layers team 

are very poor conductors, a resistance many times greater than 
that of the metal of the boiler tube itself is offered to the pass- 
age of heat. It is evident that under such conditions the differ- 
ence of temperature between the first layer of gas and that of 
the first layer of water must be greater than it would have to 
be if the insulating layer of soot, scale, and steam were not 
present, in order that the heat should flow from the gas to the 
water at a certain desired rate. This temperature difference must 
be larger the greater the required rates of heat transmission and 
the thicker the insulating scales. Inasmuch as capacity is the 
rate of heat absorption, this explains why at higher capacities 
the gases leave the heating surface of a boiler at higher tem- 
peratures than they do at lower capacities. It is clear, then, that 
in order to have the heating surface efficient it must be kept 
free from soot and scale, and the bubbles of steam must be re- 
moved from the surface as fast as they form, so that the water 
can come directly into contact with the metal. This last re- 
quirement emphasizes the importance of water circulation in 




Cold 
Water 



the boiler. The faster the circulation of water the faster are 
the bubbles of steam carried away and the better is the contact 
between the metal and the water." * 

The comparative effect of heat on thick and thin plates can be 
illustrated by putting a postage stamp on the bottom of a tin 
drinking cup (Fig. 13-a), pasting it absolutely flat. Fill the cup 
with water and put a candle underneath the postage stamp. 
It will be found that the heat from the candle is absorbed so 
quickly in the water that it does not allow the stamp to be 
burned, the temperature of boiling water not being high enough 
to set fire to the stamp. 

But should there be two thicknesses of tin. as in Fig. 13-b, and 
the same process tried, it would be found that the stamp would 
be charred or burned off. 

If 1/16 of an inch of cement be deposited in the bottom of 
the cup (Fig. 13-c) it would be found that not alone would the 



Length of Heating Surface 
TIC. 12. 



Thii-kness of Layers 



* Report of Prof. Breckinridge on St. Louis boi!er tests. U. S. Geological 
Survey. 



no 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



stamp be burned off, but the metal would be blue, due to the 
slow transmission of heat into the water. 

The transfer of heat through irregular sections follows the 
same general law as just stated, but is more difficult to establish 
by experiment. 

In Fig. 14 the lines of equal temperature are drawn for an 
irregular heating surface projecting into the water to be heated. 
A is the temperature of the metal next to the hot gases ; for 
instance, it may be taken as 600 degrees. B is the line of tem- 



applied to the side of a vessel, the water will be heated very 
slowly. In the first case the heat is taken from the hot metal 
by convection of the bodily transference of the heat due to the 
motion of the heated water. In the second case, convection 
currents are not easily established and the heat is, for the most 
part, conducted through the water. 

In a boiler the circulation is produced by convection, and it 
is of great importance to have a design that does not interfere 
with the water circulation in order to transmit heat. 






X. Cement 



perature of 500 degrees throughout the metal, C is 400 degrees, 
D is 300 degrees, and E the temperature of the metal in contact 
with the cold water, is 200 degrees. 

The transfer of heat through the crown sheet containing stay- 
bolts is rather more complicated, as shown in Fig. 15. 

The surfaces A in contact with the hot gases will be at a high 
temperature and the heat wave will tend to travel across the 
metal perpendicular to the surface. The staybolt head is curved 
and the heat energy tends to concentrate. A portion of the 
energy in its travel will strike the inner portion of the head in 
an oblique direction. Because of the contact of two metals heat 
is reflected back from this surface and tends to travel outward 
toward the head of the staybolt. The effect is that the whole 
surface of the head of the staybolt gets very hot, while the sur- 
face of the sheet is much cooler because its heat has been trans- 
mitted freely through the unobstructed metal. In case, how- 
ABC D E 



In the ordinary type the crown bars are a great obstacle to the 
free circulation of water in a boiler by convection. Referring to- 
Fig. 6 the path of a particle of hot water leaving the sheet is 
seen to be obstructed by the crown bars which prevents free 
circulation, and makes the metal less efficient in transmitting heat. 

In the other half of this figure it is seen that there is no ob- 
struction to free circulation, and consequently there will be a 
high heat transference. In this type, the arched surfaces are 
more efficient in producing convection currents than the flat sur- 
faces in the ordinary construction, due to the fact that less 
eddy-currents are set up. 

LESS SCALE. 

Since the water is generated into steam very much faster, we 
have very much better circulation. In consequence of better 
circulation, causing greater scrubbing action, and also, due to the 





AB C D 



ever, the surface E gets covered with a non-conductor and does 
not yield up heat freely, there is a tendency for the entire metal 
to get hot. 

The transfer of heat through metal depends upon the action 
of the hot and cold bodies on either side of the metal. If there 
is a slow circulation, or no circulation, a small quantity of heat 
will be transferred. If the water circulates freely and rapidly, 
more water comes in contact with the surface in the same time 
and more heat is transferred. 

If the heat is applied to the under side of a vessel containing 
water, the water will be rapidly heated. If the same heat is 



fig. 1.5. 

expansion and contraction of each unit, scale will not adhere 
to firebox sheets. 

HEAT ABSORBED FASTER. 

The corrugations of the interior walls of the firebox cause heat 
waves to be deflected into small eddies (Fig. 6-e) on the sheets, 
thus giving the heat units more time to pass through the sheet 
into the water and also scouring the soot off the sheet. 

LONGER LIFE. 

There will be much longer life in the flue sheet and flues, 
as they will be subjected to less strain on account of the ex- 



March, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



ill 



pansion and contraction being taken up by the corrugated sec- 
tions. 

FUEL CONSUMPTION REDUCED. 

There should be a reduction in the amount of fuel used per 
unit of power developed, equal to 12 per cent. This would ap- 
pear either as a direct reduction in the total fuel cost, or as 
an increased gross ton mileage per ton of fuel consumed, and 
in either case the cost of fuel as a proportion of transportation 
expense would be reduced. 

ROUNDHOUSE DELAYS REDUCED. 

Detention of engines in roundhouses for boiler repairs should 
be so substantially lessened as to make engines available for 
service 8 to 16 per cent, more of their total time than at present, 
thus increasing the motive power available for traffic, and post- 
poning the necessity for additions to this equipment. 



[Editor's Note. — All the featvres of design and construction of this fire- 
box are fully covered by patents.] 



OIL BURNING LOCOMOTIVES. 



To the Editor : 

Referring to the article in your January issue by Harrington 
Emerson on design of oil burning locomotives, the suggestions 
made by the author are, in my opinion, excellent as referring to 
design of a strictly oil burning locomotive boiler, but the items 
referred to as peculiar to burning oil fuel can be applied only, 
in practice, to construction of equipment for oil burning only. 
As the fuel supply of this country is somewhat indefinite as to 
quantity, it is impossible to predict, in the life of the locomo- 
tive, when it may not have to resume coal fuel. Hence, it does 
not appear, as a general proposition, that strictly oil burning 
equipment can be indefinitely maintained. With this in view 
there are some comments I would make on the items of Mr. 
Emerson's paper, as follows: 

I agree that a larger combustion chamber for oil burning is re- 
quired, not only in consequence of reduced friction referred to by 
Mr. Emerson, but because greater volume is required for com- 
bustion of volatile matter only. Ample space is required for 
proper mixing of air and hydrocarbons to complete combustion 
which properly should occur in the firebox and not in the flues 
for the following reasons : 

If in an oil burning boiler sufficient firebox or combustion 
volume is not allowed, the hydrocarbon vapors must be consumed 
within the flues if burned at all. The purpose of flues in a 
steam boiler is to absorb heat from gases of combustion passing 
the furnace space. If these flues are fulfilling their office in ab- 
sorbing heat, the temperature of the passing vapor falls rapidly. 
If small flues of sufficient length are used to deliver into the 
smokebox the least temperature, the vapors in process of com- 
bustion soon fall in temperature below that required for complete 
oxidation, hence there is a precipitation of soot. This, we know 
from experience, is very undesirable, as the soot is a non-con- 
ductor of heat and engines fall off in steaming capacity very 
rapidly as this deposit occurs. It is relieved by "sanding out," 
but this is not a prevention of the evil. It is my opinion that the 
smoking of oil burning locomotives is largely due to this, and it 
would be an error to place the smaller tubes unless we have a 
firebox amply large to insure complete combustion. It is my 
opinion that where oil burning is applied to ordinary locomotives, 
flues should be larger in diameter than they are now, instead of 
smaller. 

The temperature of combustion maintained in our oil burning 
locomotives was recently determined by Dr. Arthur W. Gray, of 
the Department of Physics, University of California, who was 
conducting experiments for the University. The average temper- 
ature in hottest parts of the oil fire was found to be about 2,600 
degrees F., observations ranging from 2,732 to 2,552 degrees F. 
While this is in excess of coal burning practice, under the same 
circumstances, by from 300 to 500 degrees F. the excess could 
hardly be termed "enormous," as referred to by Mr. Emerson. 
The temperature of smoke arch gases ranges from 870 to 820 
degrees F. in our oil burning consolidated locomotives. In coal 



service this temperature ranges from 650 to 700 degrees F. The 
length of tube in these engines is fifteen feet. These boilers were 
designed for coal burning and evidently are forced in oil burning 
service. It is quite evident that if the combustion volume of the 
firebox were increased by diminishing length of flues, the engines 
would consume oil to better advantage. It appears, however, that 
the length of flues should remain ; in other words, the whole 
boiler should be extended if it were designed for burning oil ex- 
clusively. In principle, any form of fuel used under a steam 
boiler should deliver its smoke arch gases at as low a temperature 
as possible, and the temperature should be the same for any fuel, 
but of course this can only be obtained by building boilers espe- 
cially adapted for either fuel, which is the purpose of this refer- 
ence. 

As to severity of oil versus coal on firebox sheets and flues. 
We experienced considerable difficulty in the early history of our 
oil burning experience, from damage to firebox sheets, flue sheets, 
and tube ends. We did not consider this so much due to exces- 
sive temperatures as we did to the greater range of temperatures 
that must exist in a firebox supplied with either fuel. With coal 
fuel the solid mass in combustion on the grate serves as a reser- 
voir of temperature, the control of which by dampers, etc., we 
are familiar with. In the use of oil fuel there is no fixed carbon 
or grates involved. The shutting off of oil fire leaves no bed 
of solid fuel to maintain even temperature. The difficulties are 
largely due to improper control of the extremes of temperature 
obtained in handling oil fires, from inexperience and carelessness 
of oil firemen. 

From records we have kept as to cost of maintenance of coal 
versus oil burning locomotives, we know that if a furnace is 
properly equipped with draft adjustment as nearly perfect as it 
can be made by admitting the required amount of air and dis- 
charging the oil in the furnace at the proper temperature, prefer- 
ably with superheated steam, and correctly regulated by the atom- 
izer, the exhaust nozzle being as large as it will stand and getting 
sufficient draft on the fire to enable us to fill the whole interior 
of the furnace with a mellow flame, that an oil burning firebox 
will, under these conditions, outlast a firebox using coal. That is 
to say, on the same class of engine in the same class of service. 
However, as referred to above, it cost us a good many fireboxes 
to determine just what was-the best arrangement. 

In this connection it should be stated that the oil fireman is a 
large factor in successful oil burning practice on locomotives. 
Having the proper arrangement and draft appliances for oil 
burning it requires careful attention to business, and intelligence 
on the part of the fireman, with special training, to obtain best 
results. The personal equation enters largely into successful 
practice with oil burning. A careless fireman can do enormous 
damage on the locomotive. 

San Francisco. Howard Stillman. 



EFFECT OF FLAT WHEELS ON RAILS. 



To the Editor : 

I have read with interest the various letters on the effect of 
the flat wheels on rails in the American Engineer and Railroad 
Journal and the Railway Age Gazette, and have noted the criti- 
cisms offered to the analysis given by the writer (American En- 
gineer and Railroad Journal, May, 190S, page 188). 

It should be clearly understood that when this analysis was 
written the puthor made no claim for completeness, but on the 
contrary, stated that many factors had been omitted. Two points 
in the analysis have been criticised, namely: (1) The equating 
of the kinetic energy of the wheel to the energy of a hammer 
falling through a given height. (2) The concentration of the 
mass of the car at the center of the wheel. 

equating kinetic energy. 

Regarding the first point I would say that I attempted to 
measure the kinetic energy of the wheel in terms of some known 
kinetic energy, and the most natural comparison was with 
the energy required in accepted impact tests. In using this com- 
parison it is not necessary to consider that the length of the 



112 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



flat spot is sufficient to break the rail. The idea was to equate 
the kinetic energy of the wheel to the maximum allowed for any 
_given rail, and then taking a proper factor of safety, to get a 
safe length of flat spot. This method is entirely rational. It is 
the method used to get the safe tensile strength of materials, for 
example. In such cases the ultimate strength divided by a proper 
constant is always taken as the safe working strength. 

It is true that in the impact test the rail rests upon supports 
three feet apart, while in the roadbed these supports are con- 
siderably closer, say 18 inches. This supposition, then, is on the 
side of safety.- Everything considered, the writer is still of the 
opinion that no good reason has been advanced to show that 
the analysis is wrong in this particular. 

CONCENTRATION OF MASS. 

Regarding this point, the writer believes that it is more 
rational to consider only the mass of the rotating parts as con- 
centrated at the center of the wheel. When this is done the 
"limiting velocity" is changed from five miles per hour to some- 
thing like eighty miles per hour, as shown by George L. Fowler 
in the Railway Age Gazette, January 8, 1909. Under this as- 
sumption the effect of even small flat spots is very serious. The 
writer believes that with this change in his original assumption 
the analysis gives results much nearer the truth than those ob- 
tained by any analysis yet proposed. 

In the analysis by H. H. Vaughan, in your journal, December, 
1908, page 475, it is assumed that there is an upward force equal 
to (Mv : ) -f- r, opposing the downward force, as soon as the wheel 
begins to turn about the forward edge of the flat spot. It is 
also assumed that the mass of all the parts below the springs 
may be included in M. This latter assumption is obviously 
wrong, since only rotating parts can have a lifting effect. Con- 
sidering the assumptions made by Mr. Vaughan, the limiting 
speed is about fifteen miles per hour. While this analysis in- 
cludes a factor neglected by any other, there seems some doubt 
as to whether or not the force (Mv 2 ) -=- r acts exactly as as- 
sumed. 

It has been pointed out that many factors of importance in con- 
nection with the effect of impact of flat spots have been neg- 
lected ; among those are the following : 

(1) The swaying of the car from side to side, increasing at 
times the effect of the blow considerably. 

(2) The elasticity of the track and roadbed, tending to de- 
crease the effect of the blow. 

(3) The bending of the rail, causing it to wrap around the 
wheel, lessening the blow. 

(4) The decreased force of the spring as the wheel is forced 
downward. 

It is obviously impossible to include all these factors in any 
mathematical analysis with any hope of obtaining results that 
will be of value. Indeed, it seems to the writer almost useless to 
extend mathematical work much beyond the present limits until 
some experimental confirmation of results are obtained. The 
matter now rests with the experimenter. 

E. L. Hancock. 



J6-INCH BACK GEARED CRANK SHAPER. 



A number of new features have been incorporated in the newly 
designed 16-inch back geared crank shaper of The John Steptoe 
Shaper Company, Cincinnati, which is shown in the illustra- 
tion. The head can be instantly loosened, so that it may be 
swiveled to any angle, by pushing the lever just back of it. It 
may be again instantly fastened securely in position, by pulling 
the lever toward the operator. This arrangement makes possible 
a considerable saving in time over the old method of fastening 
the head with bolts, and there is no wrench to be lost or mis- 
placed. 

The length of stroke is controlled by the shaft projecting 
through the feed plate and may be changed while the machine is 
in operation. There is no necessity of locking the shaft in posi- 
tion when the crank or lever with which it is operated is re- 



moved, since the device in the bull gear is self-locking. The 
ram is of substantial design, strongly ribbed and braced. The 
strength and stiffness of the operating side of the machine is in- 
creased by the basin-shaped projection or brace. The base of the 
machine is made heavier than the former designs. 

The back gear ratio is 20 to 1 and the ratio in single gear 
6J4 to 1. A single geared shaper of the same design is also 
made with a ratio of 6J4 to 1. The back gears are thrown in and 
out by the lever at the back of the column which is easily oper- 
ated from the side of the machine. The driving gears are of 
phosphor bronze. 

The shaft bearings are provided with cast iron bushings, which 
are pressed in, although they may be readily removed and re- 
placed, if necessary. The shaft bearings are fitted with ring 
oilers, the ring carrying the oil from an oil well to the shaft, as 
it revolves, thereby affording constant lubrication. The rings 
are made of wide strips of brass, thereby having a liberal con- 
tact on the shaft, and distributing the oil more freely. It has 
been demonstrated that with a round ring the contact on the 
shaft is so small that comparatively little oil is distributed. 

The feed plate is of an entirely new design. The feed eccen- 
tric is pivoted and may be swiveled in any direction. The 
holes in the plate are reamed tapered. The stud in the eccentric 
has a spring in it, and is also tapered. The tapered pin will 




STEPTOE BACK GEARED (RANK SHAPER. 

thereby take up any wear which may occur in this hole. The 
holes are drilled in a circle to keep them as far apart as pos- 
sible. They are drilled and numbered to agree with the teeth 
in the feed ratchet, thereby making it easy to secure any de- 
sired feed. The ring which encircles the feed eccentric is split, 
and fitted with a fibre washer, thereby permitting any wear, 
which may occur in the ring, to be easily taken up by filing 
the washer. 

There is no opening through the base of the machine in the 
pocket in which the telescopic screw operates; dirt and moisture 
are thus prevented from getting in at the bottom. The gradu- 
ations on the vise base are placed on an angle so that they may 
be more easily read by the operator. In fastening the work in 
the vise the upper jaw has a tendency to raise as the work is 
tightened. To overcome this the upper jaw- may be firmly 
clamped to the lower one by two bolts as shown. 



RAILROAD CLUB ACTIVITIES 



Canadian Railway Club (Montreal, Can.; — The meeting sched- 
uled for April 6 is on "Snow Fighting,'' by A. W '. Wheatley and 
T. McHattie. 

At a January meeting the paper presented by Mr. Kinkead on 
"Locomotive Springs" was received with much interest and given 
an extended discussion. The experience in the making and use 
of springs from steel of both British and American manufacture, 
given by a number of the members, formed a very interesting 
part of the discussion. In reply to a question the author of 
the paper stated that he knew of no Vanadium steel springs in 
use in that country (Canada), although there were a number in 
service across the line, but he was unable to give any data show- 
ing results. 

The seventh annual dinner of the club was held on Friday 
evening, January 29, with about 170 members and guests present. 
The President gave a brief address, drawing attention to the 
value of railroad clubs to all classes of employees and pointing 
out that no matter how minor a position a man occupies on a 
railway system his work is important and worthy of study. 
Toasts were responded to as follows : "The Railways," by G. E. 
Drummond, C. Murphy and G. T. Bell. "Our Guests," by Mr. 
Goodchild and Cy. Warman. "The Railway Supply Men," by 
S. King and J. S. N. Dougall. The members present were also 
entertained by a quartette and by humorous remarks from George 
Armstrong. 

Secretary, James Powell, P. O. Box 7, St. Lambert, near Mon- 
treal, Can. 



Central Railroad Club (Buffalo, N. Y.) — The next meeting 
will be held at the Hotel Iroquois on the evening of Friday, 
March 12, at 8 o'clock. The paper will be by John M. E. Ames, 
mechanical engineer of the American Car & Foundry Co., on 
"The Use of Steel in Passenger Car Construction." 

Secretary, H. D. Vought, 95 Liberty St., New York. 



New England Railroad Club (Boston, Mass.) — At the Febru- 
ary meeting a paper by Henry C. Boynton, on "Steel Rails/ 
which was illustrated by stereopticon views, brought out the 
largest attendance so far this year. The discussion of the paper 
was equally interesting. J. P. Snow, bridge engineer of the 
Boston & Maine Railroad, showed some slides on the same sub- 
ject, as did also Professor Henry Fay, of the Massachusetts In- 
stitute of Technology. 

The next regular meeting will be held at the Copley Square 
Hotel, Boston, March 19. Dinner will be served at 6.30 p. m. 
to be followed by the regular business session at 8 p. m. The 
paper will be by A. W. Martin, superintendent of the Boston 
Division of the N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R., on the subject of "The 
Railroad Club — Its Worth." The following subjects will also be 
discussed at this meeting: "The Abuse of the M. C. B. Repair 
Card" and "The Rules of Interchange of the M. C. B. Associa- 
tion." This will be the annual meeting of the club and election 
of officers will take place 

Secretary, George H. Frazier, 10 Oliver St., Boston, Mass. 



New York Railroad Club. — At the meeting of February 19 a 
paper entitled, "The American Railway Association's Bureau for 
Safe Transportation of Explosives and Other Dangerous Ar- 
ticles," was presented by Col. B. W. Dunn. In this paper Colonel 
Dunn explained the reasons for the formation of the bureau ; the 
difficulties which it has met and overcome ; its plans for the 
future and the large amount of good that it had already been 
able to accomplish. He made a plea for more general interest in 



the work which the bureau is doing, especially in connection with 
helpful suggestions. 

The March meeting will be given up to the annual electrical 
discussion, which has always been a very popular feature of this 
club's activities. The best known authorities on steam railway 
electrification speak at this meeting, which will be held on 
March 19, at the Engineering Societies Building, 29 West 39th 
St., at 8 p. m. 

Secretary, H. D. Vought, 95 Liberty St., New York. 



Northern Railroad Club ( Duluth, Minn.) — The paper scheduled 
for the next meeting, Saturday evening, March 27, is on "The 
Soliciting of Freight ; The Carrier and the Shipper," by W. H. 
Smith, assistant general agent, Northern Pacific Railroad. 

At the January meeting the discussion was taken up on Mr. 
Clark's paper on "Concrete and Steel Ore Docks vs. Wooden 
Ore Docks." The general consensus of opinion seemed to be 
that the concrete offered a great many advantages for ore dock 
construction, and that it would undoubtedly be extensively used 
in this connection. Some trouble in the matter of freezing in 
cold weather had occurred, but it was not believed that this 
would be serious. 

N. P. White, roundhouse foreman, Northern Pacific Railway, 
Duluth, presented a paper on "Engine Repairs in the Round- 
house, From the Standpoint of a Machinist." This briefly re- 
viewed the changed conditions a roundhouse foreman has tc 
meet at present compared with those of a number of years ago, 
which have added greatly to his burden and responsibility. The 
matter of making work reports was considered briefly and the 
custom of making strictly temporary repairs was depreciated. 

A paper on "Boiler Repairs in the Roundhouse, From the 
Standpoint of a Boiler Maker," by Claude Richards, foreman 
boiler maker of the C, St. P., M. & O, was presented. This 
pointed out hew much boiler trouble could be avoided by using 
proper care in washing out and also in making careful repairs. 

Secretary, C. L. Kennedy, 401 W. Superior St., Duluth, Minn. 



Railway Club of Pittsburgh. — The next meeting, on March 26 
will be given up to a discussion of the report of the standing 
committee on "The Revision of M. C. B. Rules of Interchange" 
and the subject of "The Abuse of the M. C. B. Repair Card." 

Secretary, C W. Alleman, General Offices, Pittsburgh & Lake 
Erie Railroad, Pittsburgh, Pa. 



St. Louis Railway Club. — The February meeting was held on 
the evening of February T2, at the Southern Hotel, and was one 
of the most enthusiastic ever held by this club, there being over 
400 members and visitors present. The paper presented was by 
W. E. Harkness on "Train Dispatching by Telephone." Aftei the 
regular meeting a practical demonstration of the telephone in 
connection with the selector for train dispatching was given. 

The paper for the meeting of March 12 will be by D. T. Taylor, 
foreman of the car department of the St. L. & S. F. Railroad, 
on "Piece Work in the Repair Shop." 

Secretary, B. W. Frauenthal. Union Station, St. Louis, Mo. 



Western Railway Club. — The paper for the March 16 meeting 
will be by W. L. Park, general superintendent of the Union Pa- 
cific Railroad, on the subject of "Publicity for Railroad Acci- 
dents." 

The paper by R. B. Dole, assistant chemist of the Water Re- 
source Branch of the L T . S. Geological Survey, on the "Quality 01 
Surface Waters in the North Central States," presented at the 
February meeting, proved to be very interesting and was fully dis- 



113 



114 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



cussed, principally by the chemists of the various railroads en- 
tering Chicago. 

Secretary, J. W. Taylor, 390 Old Colony Bldg., Chicago, 111. 



Western Canada Railway Club (Winnipeg, Man.) — A club has 
been organized with headquarters at Winnipeg, Man., which will 
hold regular meetings on the second Monday of each month, ex- 
cepting June, July and August. At the intial meeting the fol- 
lowing officers were elected: Hon. president, William Whyte; 
hon. vice-presidents, M. H. McLeod, G. J. Bury, G. W. Caye and 
Wilford Phillips; president, Grant Hall; vice-president, L. B. 
Merriman ; secretary, W. H. Roseberry ; treasurer, T. Humphries ; 
executive committee, R. J. Hungerford, C. W. Cooper, J. Mc- 
Lenzie, W. Smith, R. McNeil and L. O. Moody. 



SOME NEW CAR WINDOW FIXTURES. 



The matter of having windows in passenger cars air and dust 
tight, non-rattling, and at the same time capable of being easily 
raised and secured at any desired height, is a very important one 
and is being given careful attention in modern passenger cars of 
all classes. Inventors are giving this subject thorough study and 




TOP VIEW OF WINDOW FIXTURES IN OPERATIVE POSITION. 

among the recent products of their energy are the system of 
weather stripping, dust deflectors and sash locking devices, shown 
in the accompanying illustrations, which would appear to fulfil 
the desired conditions perfectly. 

With this arrangement the sash is fitted loosely between the 
stops, there being sufficient clearance to allow it to be easily 
raised and lowered at all times without binding. This opening 




around the loosely fitted sash is positively sealed air tight and 
dust proof by the weather strip forming a flexible joint. The 
illustrations show these strips in position on the window and 
make it evident that it will fulfil the purpose for which it is 
designed. 

For preventing the rattle and to prevent the sash from falling, 
a gravity wedge locking device is used. The lock bolt in this 




GRAVITY WEDGING SASH LOCK AND RACKS. 

case is beveled at an angle of 45 degrees, and sets into a corre- 
sponding downwardly and outwardly beveled rack. This arrange- 
ment permits the weight of the sash to force it to a bearing 
against the outside stop and not only prevents it rattling, but also 
permits it to come to a gradual stop when lowered and eliminates 
any sudden jar, such as would loosen the fixtures or break the 
glass. A number of different designs of racks for these locks 
are shown in the illustration. 

These devices are manufactured by the Grip Nut Company, 
1590 Old Colony Building, Chicago, which also has a number 
of other improvements in car window fixtures, suitable for either 
wood or steel cars. 



CONDITION ;OF COUNTRY'S FOREST RESOURCES. 



VIEW OF SIDE 



COMPRESSION WEATHER STRIP AND 3-INCH BEARING AT 
TOP CORNERS OF SASH. 



The forests of the United States now cover about 550,000,000 
acres, or about one-fourth of the land of the whole country. The 
original forests covered not less than 850,000,000 acres, or nearly 
one-half. The forests owned by the government cover one-fourth 
of the total forest area, and contain one-fifth of all timber stand- 
ing. Forests privately owned cover three-fourths of the area, 
and contain four-fifths of the standing timber. 

Forestry, or conservative lumbering, is practiced on 70 per cent, 
of the forests publicly owned and on less than 1 per cent, of the 
forests privately owned. The chairman of the section of forests 
of the National Conservation Commission, in outlining the future 
recently said: 

"By reasonable thrift, we can produce a constant timber supply 
beyond our present need, and with it conserve the usefulness of 
our streams for irrigation, water supply, navigation, and power. 
Under right management, our forests will yield over four times 
as much as now. We can reduce waste in the woods and in the 
mill at least one-third, with present as well as future profit. We 
shall suffer for timber to meet our needs, until our forests have 
had time to grow again. But if we act vigorously and at onrr, 
we shall escape permanent timber scarcity." 



March, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



us 




VAUCLAIN COMPOUND ATLANTIC TYPE 
LOCOMOTIVE. 



Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway. 



The Baldwin Locomotive Works has recently completed an 
order of twelve Atlantic type locomotives, of the original Vau- 
clain four-cylinder compound type, for the Chicago, Milwaukee 
& St. Paul Railway. This road has had an experience with this 
type of locomotive which dates back to the year 1896, when two 
engines were placed in high speed service between Chicago and 
Milwaukee. Subsequent orders of similar construction were 
made, and in 1901 a new design, employing the same type of 
cylinders but of much heavier construction, with a wide firebox, 
was prepared and a number built. 

The service which these locomotives have been satisfactorily 
performing in handling heavy passenger trains is outlined as fol- 
lows : Trains Nos. 5 and 6, running between Chicago and Min- 
neapolis, normally made up of 10 cars weighing 508 tons, are 
scheduled to cover the distance of 420 miles between the two 
cities in 13 hours and 45 minutes, or an average speed of 30^2 
miles per hour, which, in view of the fact that the schedule calls 
for 45 stops and the trains are often composed of 13 or 14 cars, 
is a very creditable performance. On trains Nos. 1 and 4, be- 
tween Chicago and Milwaukee, the distance is 85 miles, and the 
time is 2 hours and 10 minutes, or an average speed of 39.3 
miles per hour. This includes three stops and a speed of 12 miles 
per hour within the city limits. These trains are frequently 
composed of 14 cars weighing 750 tons, and at times 16 cars 
are handled. On the run between Chicago and Omaha, a dis- 
tance of 492 miles, trains of 7 cars, weighing 372 tons, are oper- 
ated in 13 hours and 40 minutes, including 45 stops. A train of 
11 cars, weighing 552 tons, covers the distance in 14 hours and 30 
minutes and makes 25 stops. 

This is a very creditable operation, especially for a four 
coupled locomotive and explains the last order of the same type 
of locomotive, which is different only in details from those now 
in service. 

The cylinders are 15 and 25 x 28 in. and have the high pressure 
cylinder placed on top. The steam distribution on each side is 
controlled by one 15 in. piston valve driven by a Walschaert valve 
gear. The valve being necessarily set inside the cylinders, re- 
quires the introduction of a rocker, which will be seen secured in 
front of the guide yoke and connecting directly to the combina- 
tion lever. The inner arm operates the valve through a short 
valve rod provided with a knuckle joint. 

The frame bracing is most substantial and comprises a broad 
steel casting over the main driving pedestal, a cross steel cast- 
ing at the front end of the mud ring and a steel casting at the 
guide yoke. The main frames are of cast steel and have single 
front rails. The rear extension or trailer frame is of the slab 
types 10 in. deep and 2H in. wide, being adapted to accommodate 
the DeVoy type of trailer truck. In this truck the wheels have 



inside journals and both journal boxes are formed in the same 
casting which extends across the locomotive. It is guided by cast 
steel pedestals and the weight is transferred to it through steel 
rollers over each box. It has about 2J4 in. lateral motion and re- 
quires no radius bar. 

A conspicuous feature of the boiler design is the depth of 
the throat, the bottom of the mud ring being 28I/2 in. below 
the underside of the barrel. The grate is equipped with drop 
grates, front and rear, and a brick arch supported by four 3 in. 
tubes, is provided. 

The smokebox is of the extension type and is fitted with a 
high double nozzle with a petticoat pipe. Provision for washing 
out the boiler has been given careful attention and includes a 
large number of wash-out plugs, there being six on the front 
tube sheet. 

The general dimension, weights and ratios of this locomotive 
are as follows : 

GENERAL DATA. 

Service Passenger 

Tractive effort, compound 22,200 lbs 

Weight i:i working order 210,400 lbs. 

Weight or. drivers 108,760 lbs. 

Weight on leading truck 66,960 lbs. 

Weight en trailing ti uck 46,700 lbs. 

Weight of engine and tender in working order 343,000 lbs. 

Wheel base, driving 7 ft. 4 in. 

Wheel base, total 29 ft. »H in. 

Wheel base, engine and tender CO ft. 7 in. 

RATIOS. 

Weight on drivers -~ tractive effort 4.90 

Total weight -f- tractive effort : . 9.66 

Tractive effort X diara. drivers -=- heating surface 592.00 

Total heating surface ~- grate area 70.80 

Firebox heating surface -~ total heating surface, per cent 6.78 

Weight on drivers -r- total heating surface 84.30 

Total weight -5- total heating surface 66.00 

Volume equivalent simple cylinders, cu. ft 9.20 

Total heating surface -f- vol. cylinders 846.00 

Grate area H- vol. cylinders 4.90 

CYLINDERS. 

Kind Compound 

Diameter and stroke 16 & 26 x 28 in. 

VALVES. 

Kind Piston 

Diameter 16 in. 

Greatest tiavel 6J4 in- 
Lead H. P S/l« ;■>. 

Lead, L. P 5/16 in. 

WHEELS. 

Driving, diameter over tires 85 in. 

Driving journals, diameter and length 10 x It in. 

Engine truck wheels, diameter 83 in. 

Trailing truck wheels, diameter *3 in. 

POILER. 

Style Wagon Top 

Working pressure 220 lbs. 

Outside diameter of first ring 66 in. 

Firebox, length and width 107H — 5954 «L 

Firebox plates, thickness S. & B.— X. C— 7/16, T— 54 in. 

Firebox, water space F-4^4, S. & B. 4 in. 

Tubes, numbei and outside diameter 346-2 in. 

Tubes, length 1« ft- • in. 

Heating surface, tubes 2,974 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, firebox 214 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, total 3188 sq. ft. 

Grate area * 5 s 1- .«• 

Smokestack, height above rail 179 in. 

Center of boiler above rail 11SJ4 in. 

TT.NDER. 

Wheels, diameter 38 in. 

Tournals, diameter and length 6J4 x 10 in. 

Water capacity 7000 gals. 

Coal capacity 1° ton* 



116 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 





SHARPENING CUTTER IN STRAIGHT BAR. 

The spindle head has a two-step cone pulley thus furnishing 
two speeds for the grinding wheel ; it is graduated and may be 
swiveled to any angle. The table has a bearing its entire 
length on the slide and is graduated and may be turned clear 



OESTERLEIN UNIVERSAL CUTTER GRINDER. 





SHARPENING TAPER REAMER. 



SHARPENING PERIPHERY OF INSERTED TOOTH MILLING CUTTER. 

UNIVERSAL CUTTER GRINDER. 



This machine, known as the No. 3 universal and tool grinder, 
and manufactured by The Oesterlein Machine Company, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, is adapted for grinding all cutters and tools used 
in a machine shop and also for cylindrical work within its 
capacity. The chief difference between this new design and the 
No. 2 machine are the addition of an automatic feed, having six 
changes, and a pump and tank for providing a plentiful supply of 
water. The water guards and shields are adjustable and may 
be quickly removed, if necessary. The feed may be reversed 
within very close limits, allowing work to be ground close to a 
shoulder. 




Wr 



SHARPENING FACE OF AN INSERTED TOOTH MILLING CUTTER. 



March, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



117 



around and clamped in any position on the Blide, ["here is also 
a scale on the slide which indicates the amounl oi tapi i pi i fool 
The taper setting may !>.■ delicately adjusted bj means of a worm 
ami worm wheel at one i nd o) the table. I he slide has a V and a 
flat bearing on the saddle and the saddle lias a V and Hat bear- 
ing on the knee, thus insuring that the cross movement will at 
all times remain ai right angles with the longitudinal movemi nt. 

The hcadstock may be swivclcd and clamped in any position in 
the vertical or horizontal plane. The tailstock lias a compel al 
ing center and is actuated by a lever, making it very convenient 
to withdraw the centre from the work. The vise when mounted 
on the hcadstock swivels in any angle; it is provided with a V 
block tn lil lli< lower jaw for holding circular work; the upper 
jaw swivels to accommodate any taper. A tooth rest is furnished 
which is universal in construction and has a micrometer adjust- 
ing nut lor accurate setting in any position. 

A simple device on the countershaft obviates the use of a tight 
and loose pulley. The table has an automatic feed of 16 inches, a 
transverse movement of 8 inches and a vertical movement of 
7J/2 inches. It takes 24 inches between centres and swings 9 
inches, or 12 inches, with raising blocks. The grinding wheel 
spindle operates at 2,942 and 4,080 r. p. m. and the table feed 
.1 the rate of 8, ii$4, i6J4, 24, 34 and 60 inches per minute. The 
machine weighs about 1,400 pounds. To give some slight idea of 
the range of work for which it is intended several illustrations 
are presented showing various operations on the No. 2 machine. 



AMERICAN SEMI-PLUG PISTON VALVE. 



The valve which is shown in the accompanying illustration is 
called a "semi-plug" piston valve because when drifting, or at 
any time with the steam shut off, it acts like a snap ring valve, 
that is, the packing rings are expansible and adjust themselves to 
the valve chamber, but, when steam is turned on, it becomes a 
plug valve due to the pressure acting on the wedges, as will be 
explained below, and locking the snap rings at a fixed diameter. 

It is, of course, of great importance for securing the best service 
from piston valves to have the cages perfectly true, and this con- 
dition would be best maintained by a plug valve. It is also of 
importance, for a satisfactory valve, to prevent lateral wear 
which will allow steam to blow around and underneath the rings. 



- E££S£3 




It is for the purpose of fulfilling these requirements that this 
valve has been designed. 

Referring to the sectional view, it will be seen that the pack- 
ing consists of two snap rings (1) which have straight outside 
faces fitting against the straight wall of the follower and spool. 
The inner faces of the snap rings, however, are beveled. Inside 
of these are a pair of rings, (2) which are called wall rings. 
These are uncut, non-expansible, steel rings and are beveled at 
different angles on the two sides, as shown. Between these fits 
an expansible ring called a wedge ring (4). An expansible ring, 
(3) with grooves which forms the actual packing and bears on 
the cage, fits between and interlocks with the snap rings. This 
ring is wide enough to carry the snap rings across the port when 
drifting, and it also acts to keep them parallel with each other. 

The operation of this packing is as follows: When steam is 
turned on, with an internal admission valve, it enters through the 



holi , (S) in the -pool, of which there will be from 14 to 18 on 
ai li end, and thus gain the packing. Its first 

action 1 roe out tl 1 ap ring, which will also carry 

with it the second 11 king strip, and then acts 

to ;e out the 1 1 . which wedges outward 

tb< 11 -, which in turn force the snap 

1111 against the wall follower and spool and hold I 

solidlj in position. The angles on either side of the wall rings 
are carefully calculated so that thi pressure is just sufficient to 
bold tin- -nap rings in position, but not sufficient to reduce them 
in diameter. Tin it dent when it is con- 

sidered that 11' it 1 too largi ii will force the snap rings inward, 
while if it is too small it will not prevent the steam underneath 
forcing the rings outward and thus defeat the desired plug effect. 

The complete packing is entirely free to move up and down 
on the spool, which will permit it to fit the cage perfectly, re- 
gardless of any variation in the centering of the spool. It is, of 
course, disastrous to a valve cage to allow the weight of the 
spool to ride upon it and with this type of packing the spool 
must be carried by the valve rod. 

The design of this packing is such, however, that in case the 
packing is locked at a point in the cage that is larger in diameter 
than at some other point the . t of the valve will force 

it down to the smaller diameter, wdierc it will remain. From this 
it will be evident that this valve will not wear a cage out oi 
true and it is also evident that it is important to have a true cage 
to begin with. 

This design of piston valve is manufactured by the American 
Balanced Valve Co., Jersey Shore, Pa., and has proven in actual 
service to fulfil all the conditions for which it is designed. 



FILES OF PRECISION. 



In the manufacture of files, the American makers have here- 
tofore confined themselves very largely to the production of 
those which can be produced in large quantities and of a grade 
that can be sold at low prices, leaving it almost entirely to the 
Swiss file makers to supply the more limited, but important, de- 
mand for the better quality of file needed by tool makers, die 
sinkers, jewelers and manufacturers of fine tools and instru- 
ments generally. For work of this kind the ordinary American 
file is not sufficiently accurate in shape and gradation of cuts. 

To produce these "Files of Precision," as they are called in 
Switzerland, the Swiss makers have a large body of highly 
skilled artisans whose wages in comparison with American labor 
are very low, only exceptionally good workmen receiving as 
much as one dollar a day. The Swiss file is the outgrowth of 
the Swiss watch industry, which is about 200 years old. These 
watches are made quite largely by hand, so that the production 
of files of the very highest grade early became a vital necessity 
in that country. The excellence of these files is largely due to 
the manual skill of the man who forms the teeth and the careful 
inspection which rejects all below a required high standard. 

Even under the present protective duty, files of this grade could 
not be made in America by the same methods employed in 
Switzerland, and it is evident that new methods had to be devised 
in order to produce files of precision in the United States umL-r 
American conditions, which would be of the same quality and 
able to compete with the imported product. These methods 
have been devised and are in use at the factory of the American 
Swiss File & Tool Company at Elizabethport, N. J., which is at 
present said to be the only manufacturer of these high quality 
files in the United States. Its methods of manufacture differ 
essentially from those of any other file factories either here or 
in Europe and the conditions which make it possible for these 
makers to compete with the imported product are briefly summed 
up as follows : An exact scientific method of annealing, which 
reproduces the same conditions day after day and year after 
year; the use of machinery in cutting the teeth, made possible 
by the uniformity of annealing, and thus greatly reducing the 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



cost of cutting ; the carefully devised scientific methods of hard- 
ening, reproducing exactly the same results continuously; and, 
finally, the greatest care and conscientiousness in the inspection 
of the finished product. 

In making these files in America no improvement has been 
attempted in the shapes and sizes of the blanks and the fineness 
of the teeth used in Swiss files, which have been developed by 
ihe needs of the most skilful workmanship in the world, but in all 
other respects these files are not an imitation of either Swiss or 
American. files and the machines used for making them have been 
altered and improved materially, so as to perform their work 
with greater precision. This company, therefore, claims to have 
established a new and rather difficult branch of industry, not 
by imitating any one, but devising new methods in forming and 
shaping the blanks, in cutting the teeth and notably, in the 
process of forging, annealing and hardening. 

American mechanics are able to appreciate tools of this class 
and these makers are receiving large numbers of complimentary 
letters from such men. They are willing to let their product 
speak for itself by furnishing samples, to be used in competition 
with other makes, to any one desiring to make a competitive 
test. The address of the company is 24 John street, New York 
City. 



BORING JIGS IN THE MANUFACTURE OF SHAPfcRS. 



It is of great importance in the manufacture of shapers to have 
the most accurate and uniform work in all parts if the finished 
tool is to be of the highest character and capable of the best 
grade of work. A shaper is subjected to many unusual stresses, 
because of its method of driving, the large overhang of the 
driving cone and the many holes and joints in which lost motion 
would be fatal to the best results. If the utmost care is not given 
to these features in the manufacture the machine is not only not 
capable of performing the service desired, but it soon wears itself 
into a comparatively useless condition. 





FIG. 2. — BORING JIG FOR ROCKER ARMS. 

These points are thoroughly appreciated by most shaper manu- 
facturers and the accompanying illustrations show some boring 
jigs which are used in the shops of the Queen City Machine 
Tool Company, Cincinnati, O., in order to obtain the very highest 
class of workmanship and perfect interchangcability in their 
crank shapers. 

The illustration, Fig. 1, shows a boring jig for shaper columns, 
by means of which it is possible to get all the holes through the 
column in perfect alignment. The jig is of a full box pattern, 
both ends of the boring bar being supported. The bars have a 
universal joint connection to the driving spindle of the machine. 
Two cuts are taken in each case, the roughing cut leaving but 
a very thin film of metal to be removed by the finishing cut. 

In Fig. 2 is shown a jig for boring and reaming the holes in 
the rocker arm, which must be at exact right angles to the sliding 
block bearing. The illustration shows the method of performing 
this work which turns out perfectly interchangeable rocker arms 
having all their bearings at exact right angles to the sliding 
surfaces. 

These are but examples of the many jigs used in these shops, 
the value of which is proven by the high quality of the output. 



RAILWAY GENERAL FOREMEN'S CONVENTION. 



FIG. I. — BORING TIG FOR SHAI'KR COLUMNS. 



The annual convention of the International Railway General 
Foremen's Association, will be held at Chicago, June 1 to 5. The 
Lexington Hotel has been chosen as the official headquarters. 
Arrangements have been made for exhibits by the supply firms, 
particulars of which can be secured from the secretary of the 
supply men's association, J. Will Johnson. 1427 Monnadnock 
block, Chicago. E. C. Cook, Royal Insurance Building, Chicago, 
is secretary of the foremen's association. 



March, L908 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 






RAILWAY APPLIANCES EXHIBITION. 



An exhibition of all appliances used in the construction, main- 
tenance and operation of railways will be held on a large scale 
at the Coliseum, Chicago, the week of March 15-20, inclusive. 
The appliances exhibited will be full size and many of them will 
be in operation. 

For a number of years, The Road and Track Supply Asso- 
ciation has had a small exhibit of models and drawings of these 
appliances in the parlors of the Auditorium Hotel during the 
annual meeting of the American Railway Engineering and M.iin 
tenance of Way Association. As railway officials naturally pre- 
fer to see the devices themselves, it was decided to give an ex- 
hibition that would comport in size and importance with the im- 
portance of the engineering and maintenance departments of 
American railways. 

The Coliseum, which has been chosen for this purpose, has 
on the main floor 45,317 square feet, of which 32,517 square feet 
will be devoted to exhibits and 12,800 to aisles. In addition to this, 
there is an annex containing 9,582 square feet, 6,138 square 
feet of which will be devoted to exhibits. It will be the largest 
and most complete exhibit of materials for the engineering de- 
partment that has ever been held in this country. It is expected 
that a very large number of railway officials will be in attend- 
ance, as it will be an opportunity of seeing the improvements 
made in the different devices, in which they are interested and 
that they could use to advantage. 

That the manufacturers have shown great interest and taken 
advantage of this opportunity to show their product is evidenced 
by the large spaces that some of them have taken. Two firms 
have secured upwards of 1,500 square feet each, several 1,000 
square feet each, and others sufficient space to show their de- 
vices. 

Space at this exhibition can be secured from John N. Rey- 
nolds, Secretary-Treasurer, 160 Harrison street, Chicago. 



BOOKS. 



The Internal Combustion Engine. By H. E. Wimperis. 5 r j x 
&y 2 . Cloth. 320 pages. Illustrated. Published by D. Van 
Nostrand Co., 23 Murray St., New York. Price, $3.00. 
This book was written as a text-book on gas, oil and petrol 
engines for the use of students and engineers. It is a very com- 
plete and thorough technical work on internal combustion en- 
gines and gas producers, very completely illustrated, and wili 
prove to be a very valuable book for the gas engineer. 



High Steam Pressure in Locomotive Service. By W. F. M. 
Goss. Bulletin No. 26 of the Engineering Experimental 
Station, University of Illinois. Published at Urbana, 111. 
This bulletin is a review of the report to the Carnegie Institu- 
tion of Washington on the subject of high steam pressure in 
locomotive service and was given in practically its present form 
on page 13 of the January, 1907, issue of this journal. 



General Lectures on Electrical Engineering. By Charles P. 
Steinmetz. 275 pages. 6x9. Cloth. 48 diagrams. Pub- 
lished by Robson & Adee, Schenectady, N. Y. Price, $2.00. 
The lectures forming this book were delivered to a class of 
young engineers, consisting mainly of college graduates, during 
the winter of 1007-08, by Dr. Steinmetz. The book includes 17 
lectures in which the use of mathematics has been avoided. 
They give a broad review of the entire field of electrical power 
generation, transmission, distribution, control and use, and com- 
prise a thorough discussion of the different methods of applica- 
tion of electric energy ; the means and apparatus available ; the 
different methods of carrying out the purposes and the ad- 
vantages and disadvantages of the different methods,, and ap- 
paratus. The matter, while of a very high character, is given 
in simple language and is thoroughly illustrated by line diagrams. 



Practical!) ill of the important brai lectrical engineering 

an considered. An excellent colored photograph of Dr. Stein- 
metz forms tin fronti . 

PERSONALS. 



J. A. Mellon, mechanii I 1 .1 thi Delaware, Lacka- 

wanna & Western Ry. at Scranton, i'a., has resigned. 



W. S. Kenyon has been appointed master mechanic ol 
Missouri Pacific Ry., at Ferriday, La., succeeding Mr. Peasley. 



George W. Kaiser, formerly assistant master mechanic of th< 
Juniata shops of the Penn ylvania R. R., died at his home in 
New York recently. 



E. G. Osgood has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Williamsville, Greenville & St. Louis Ry., succeeding O. D. 
Greenwalt, resigned. 



J. C. Garden has been appointed master mechanic of the 
eastern division of the Grand Trunk Ry., with office at Montreal, 
succeeding T. Mcllattie. 



W. H. Edgecombe has been appointed bonus supervisor of 
the western grand division of the Atchison, Topeka & Sam 
Ry., with office at La Junta, Col. 



T. McHattie, master mechanic of the Grand Trunk Ry. at 
Montreal, Que., has been appointed superintendent of motive 
power of the Central of Vermont. 



B. J. Peasley, master mechanic of the Missouri Pacific Ry. at 
Ferriday, La., has been appointed master mechanic at De Soto. 
Mo., succeeding P. J. Conrath, resigned. 



F. C. l'ickr.rd, master mechanic of the Mississippi Central Ry., 
has been appointed master mechanic of the Cincinnati. Hamilton 
& Dayton Ry. at Indianapolis, Ind., succeeding C. P.. Cramer, re- 
signed. 



A. L. Kendall, general foreman of car shops of the New York 
Central & Hudson River R. R., at West Albany, has resigned to 
become gene r al salesman for the W. P. Taylor Company, Buf- 
falo, N. Y. 



W. 11. Dunlap, general foreman of the South Louisville shops 
of the Louisville and Nashville R. R., has been promoted to 
master mechanic at Covington, succeeding William Adair, who 
retires on a pension. 



r. L. Burton has been appointed general inspector in charge of 
air brake, steam heat and car lighting equipment of the Philadel- 
phia & Reading Ry., and will also perform such other duties as 
mav be assigned to him. 



R. G. Cullivan, general foreman, locomotive department, of the 
New York Central & Hudson River R. R . at West Albany. N. Y.. 
has been appointed division superintendent of motive power at 
West Albany, succeeding E. A. Walton. 



J. E. Irwin, master mechanic of the Marietta. Columbus & 
Cleveland Ry.. has resigned to become superintendent of equip- 
ment of the Indian Refining Co., Georgetown. Ky . and Law- 
renceville, Ind., and the position of master mechanic has been 

abolished. 



Louis C. Fritch, assistant to the president of the Illinois Cen- 
tral R. R., has been appointed consulting engineer, in charge of 
electrification work, of the Illinois Central Ry., the Indianapolis 



120 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



Southern and the Yazoo & Mississippi Valley, with office at 
Chicago. 



G. I. Evans, chief draughtsman, is performing the duties of 
mechanical engineer of the Canadian Pacific Ry., with head- 
quarters at Montreal. 



S. S. Riegel has been appointed mechanical engineer of the 
Delaware, Lackawanna & Western R. R., with office as Scranton, 
Pa., vice J. A. Mellon, resigned. Mr. Riegel was formerly chief 
draughtsman of the Southern Railway and lately an engineer 
with the American Locomotive Company at Schenectady. 



T. S. Reilly, who was appointed superintendent of motive 
power of the Canton Hankow Railway, at Canton, China, about 
a year ago, died suddenly from an abscess of the liver on Jan- 
uary 30, 1909. He was 38 years of age at the time of his death. 
He graduated from the Pennsylvania Military College with the 
highest honors, and was well known among railway men in this 
country. His sudden death will be deeply regretted by his many 
friends. 



Charles L. Gaspar, heretofore mechanical engineer on the 
Wisconsin Central Railway, has been appointed superintendent 
of motive power of the Canton Hankow Railway of China. 
Mr. Gaspar is a native of Wisconsin, and received his technical 
education at the Universites of Wisconsin and Purdue. He 
became special apprentice in the shops of the Wisconsin Central 
Railway in August, 1899, and in 1902 was employed as ma- 
chinist on the same ground. From 1902 to 1903 he was chief 
draftsman, from which position he was promoted to that of 
mechanical engineer in 1904. 



CATALOGS 



IN WRITING FOR THESE PLEASE MENTION 
THIS JOURNAL,. 



Electric Pump Governors. — The Westhixhouse Traction Brake Com- 
pany is issuing instruction pamphlet No. T-1542 on the subject of elec- 
tric pump governors, giving full instructions for the operation and 
maintenance of these instruments. 



Calendars Received. — Among the many calendars received are a number 
deserving special mention, viz.: Dearborn Drug & Chemical Works, Chicago; 
Falls Hollow Staybolt Co., Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio: Revere Rubber Co., Bos- 
tan, Mass., the Rodger Balltst Car Co., Chicago, and the American Tool 
W'crks Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. 



Paints for Metal. — The National Paint Works, Williamsport, Pa., 
is issuing the seventh edition of a paper entitled, "The Review of 
Technical Paints for Metals," by Frank Cheeseman. This paper con. 
siders this important subject very carefully and contains many valuable 
pointers. 

Oil vs. Coal. — Tate Jones & Co., Pittsburgh, Pa., is issuing a very 
attractive illustrated booklet largely gWen up to a synopsis of the fuel 
oil equipment in use at the Jacksonville shops of the Seaboard Air Line; 
the Fort Wayne Shops of the Pennsylvania Railroad and the Westing- 
house Air Brake Company's plant. 



Locomotive Valves. — The American balanced Valve Co., Jersey 
Shore, Pa., is issuing booklet No. 2S, designed for information and con- 
venience in ordering repair parts for valves manufactured by it. Each 
separate part of the different valves is illustrated and a convenient sys- 
tem of numbering is employed for identifying the parts. 



Emfry and Corundum Wheels. — The American Emery Wheel Works, 
176 Fulton street, New York, is issuin ; a standard size, 83-page catalog, 
illustrating a great variety of emery, corundum, adamite, vitrified and 
silicate grinding wheels. The catalog includes list prices in each case, 
and, in addition to wheels, abrasives in other forms are shown. 



Shapers. — Gould & Eberhardt, Newark, N. J., is issuing the 1909 edi- 
tion of its catalog on hi^h duty shapers avid attachments. This catalog 
shows several new features that have been introduced in these high clasa 
machines during the past two years and very attractively illustrates and 
describes the output of this company, which coveis all types of shapers 
and attachments. 



Westinghouse Apparatus. — Among the recent bulletins being issued 
by the Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co. is one on mercury' rectifier 



battery charging outfits, explaining the principle of operation and the 
construction of this device very clearly. A very attractive catalog is 
also being issued on the subject of fan motors; and small leaflets on 
small direct current generator sets and electric vacuum cleaners. 



HARr Water Made Soft. — The L. N. Booth Co., 136 Liberty street, 
New York, is issuing a booklet on the above subject, which points out 
the special advantages and many uses of the type F Booth water 
softener. The subject of the value of soft water is very fully covered. 



General Electric Co. — Among the bulleiius lately issued by this com- 
pany are No. 4641, pointing out the advantages in the use of electricity 
in the lumber and woodworking industries, including a description of 
the plant of the Great Southern Lumber Co. No. 4643 covers the sub- 
ject of direct current switchboard instruments, and No. 4640 is devoted 
to large transformers. A small catalog on fan motors is also being sent 
out. 



Blue Printing Machine. — Keuffel & Esser Co., Hoboken, N. J., is 
issuing a catalog that very completely illustrates and describes the 
Champion continuous- blue printing machine, which offers many advan- 
tages in connection with In.ch speed and improved quality in making blue 
prints. The tracings are fed in either with separate sheets or on a 
continuous roll of blue print paper on top of the paper and right side 
up, which permits the operator to be much mere accurate in his work 
than is usually possible in this type of machine. 



NOTES. 



Ritter Folding Door Company. — Thornton N. Motley has been ap- 
pointed eastern agent of the above company, with office at 1571, No. 50 
Church stieet. New York City. 



Railway Business Association. — Frank W. Noxon has been ap- 
pointed secretary, succeeding G. M. Basford, who has completed his 
work with that organization and again taken up his duties as Assistant 
to the President of the American Locomotive Company. 



Falls Hollow Staybolt Company. — William C. Ennis, formerly oc- 
cupying official positions in the motive power department of various 
railways and of late connected with the American Locomotive Com- 
pany, and now located -it 543 Broadway, Patcrson, N. J., has been ap- 
pointed eastern traveling representative of the above company. 

U. S. Metallic Packing Company. — Harry Yissering, for the last ten 
years general sales agent of the above company, with office at Chicago, 
has resigned, owing to his large interests in other fields. This resigna- 
tion also covers his position as superintendent of the American Locomo- 
tive Sander Company. 



Monarch Steel Castings Company. — Alexander B. Wetmorc will accept 
the position of sales manager of the above company, Detroit, Mich., on 
March 1st. Mr. Wetmore leaves a long period of service with the Detroit 
Lubricator Co. to take up t^rc sales of the "Monarch" coupler and "Mon- 
crch" graduated draft gear, made by the Monarch corporation. 

Ajax Metal Company. — This company announces that the patent of- 
fice has granted it a re-U*ne patent, which covers the process of making 
bearing metals by limiting the tin to 9 per cent of the copper and thus 
permitting an almost indefinite increase of the lead above 20 per cent. 
This patent has been passed upon by the U. 'S. Circuit Court. 



American Blower Company. — Announcement has been made of the 
consolidation of the Amei ican Blow er Company, of Detroit, and the 
Sirocco Engineering Company, of New York. The plants of both com- 
panies will continue in full operation and the business will, hereafter be 
transacted under the name of the American Blower Company, with prin- 
cipal offices at Detroit, Mich. 



J. Rogers Flanntry & Co. — A selling company has been organized 
under the above name, with headquarters at Pittsburgh, Pa., to take over 
the sale of the Tate flexible staybolt, and also to exploit the Keystone 
nut lock. The representative of this company will be H. A.. Pike, New 
York; W. M. Wilson, Chicago; Grundy & Leahey, Richmond, Va., and 
Tom R. Davis, mechanical expert, Pittsburgh, Pa. 



American Specialty Company. — A contract has been closed between 
the American Specialty Company of Chicago and the High Speed Drill 
Company of Dubuque, Iowa, whereby the former takes the entire output 
of the latter and become exclusive sales agents for the complete line of 
Collis flat and flat twisted high speed drill-:.. These drills have a standard 
taper shank, but can also be obtained with a straight shank. 



Standard Roller Beaming Co. — This company announces that it has 
secured Henry Souther, a well-known engineer of Hartford, Conn., to 
devote a large part of his time to its interest as consulting engineer. 
Announcement is also made that the sales organization of the company 
has been extended by the appointment of F. M. Germane, formerly 
sales manager, as assistant general manager of the company; T. J. Hellet 
has been appointed sales manager and F. W. Lawrence as western repre- 
sentative, the latter with headquarters at Chicago. 



A STUDY OF THE NUMBER AND KIND OF MACHINE 

TOOLS REQUIRED IN A RAILWAY LOCOMOTIVE 

MACHINE AND BOILER SHOP. 



I.. R. POMEROY. 



Editor's Note. — Mr. Pomeroy presents a most valuable and unique scheme for logically de- 
termining the kind and number of machine tools which may be required in a railroad shop to 
furnish a desired output. The usual method of basing the selection of tools for a new shop on the 
number and kind of tools used in an older shop, or in some other shop on the same road, or on 
other roads, is faulty and is little less than a "hit and miss" method. Improvements in railroad 
shop organization and operation, the rapid development of modem machine tools, and the in- 
crease in the size and the changes in design of locomotive parts make it necessary to consider each 
new shop by itself, and in detail. The idea of carefully investigating and studying each individ- 
ual machine tool operation and basing the tool requirements upon the average time required for 
each operation and the average number of such operations in a given lime is certainly a far 
more logical method than that usually followed. In these days when piece work and bonus sys- 
tems are so generally used, making it possible to readily find the average time required for each 
indizndual operation, it should not be a difficult task to make such an analysis. 



The Scranton shops of the Delaware, Lackawanna & 
Western Railroad are to have an ultimate capacity for 
building and repairing the following number of standard 
consolidation locomotives per month : 

30 General Repairs. 
8 Light Repairs. 
4 New Locomotives. 

The analysis, in tabular form on the following pages, 
considers each machine tool operation to be performed 
in the machine and boiler shops each month for the four 
new locomotives complete, and also the average number 
of operations to be performed for renewing or repairing 
the necessary parts for the engines receiving heavy and 
light repairs. Knowing the number of operations which 
must be performed each month and the average time 
required for each it is a- simple matter to arrange the 
data as shown and to select the proper tools for doing 
the work. 

Not only is it possible to determine the number and 
kind of tools required, but the study automatically indi- 
cates the proper grouping of the machines to promote a 
logical and proper sequence of operations, as will be 
apparent from a study of the tabulated data. 

Knowing the tools which are necessary for the maxi- 
mum output, a selection may readily be made of those 
necessary to meet a predetermined minimum condition, 
such as will prevail when the shop is first opened ; at 
the same time the groups may be arranged to admit of 
tools being added from time to time, leading up to the 
maximum requirements. In this way the original scheme 
may be carried out without in any way interfering with 
the shop efficiency conducted on a minimum basis. 

As the basis for the tabulation, the heaviest standard 
road engine was used. This is a 2-8-0 type with an 
anthracite burning, Wooten-type boiler and separate 
engineer's and firemen's cabs, the former being located 
ahead of the firebox. It has 2ix32-inch cylinders, 55- 



inch driving wheels, and weighs 177,000 pounds on driv- 
ers, with a total weight of 200,000 pounds. It was 
thought that by using the largest standard locomotive as 
a basis, rather than the average, the figures would be 
more conservative. 

On some details, where it might prove more difficult to 
predetermine the amount of work necessary to true up 
worn parts, etc. (t. e., on a repair basis), a percentage 
has been used, based on manufacturing conditions for 
similar parts for new engines. In the column showing 
the number of repair parts to be machined each month 
the parts for both heavy and light repairs are included, 
although from the way in which they are derived it might 
appear that they referred to the heavy repairs only. 

The use of the largest standard engine and the per- 
centages used to determine the average work for repairs, 
have been considered as leaving enough margin to amply 
provide for contingencies, and also to provide for such 
manufacturing for other divisions of the road as is 
deemed wise : this is considered the main shop of the 
system and has a foundry and other facilities not pos- 
sessed by the division shops. 

A great deal has been done in the way of standard- 
izing patterns, scaling them down very closely to finished 
sizes ; such forgings as crank pins and piston rods are 
purchased rough-turned to within 1- 16-inch of the fin- 
ished size, and driving and truck axles are received within 
's-inch of the finished size; the rough-turning is done 
with a flat nosed tool and therefore the amount of metal 
tc be removed on such parts is reduced to a minimum. 

The driving power for each machine and the method 
of driving, whether group or individual drive, is to be 
determined by the actual service requirements and the 
relation of the particular tool to the whole or local de- 
partment, on the basis of an expected maximum amount 
of metal to be removed. Consequently it is safe to as- 
sume that a favorable load factor can be realized. 



121 (April) 



A STUDY OF THE MACHINE TOOL OPERATIONS REQUIRED IN A RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE. 

MACHINE SHOP, FOR MAKING REPAIRS TO AND BUILDING THE FOLLOWING NUMBER 

OF CONSOLIDATION LOCOMOTIVES PER MONTH. THE SHOP OPERATING 

F.IGHT HOURS PER DAY:— 30 GENERAL REPAIRS, 8 LIGHT 

REPAIRS, AND FOUR NEW LOCOMOTIVES. 



Class 

op 
Work 



Machine Tool 



Number of Pieces per Month 



Operation 



New Engs 



Repairs 



Total 



Average 

Time 
per Piece 



Total 
Days 
Work 

per 
Month 



Driving 
Wheels 

AND 

Tires 



SO" Driving Wheel Lathe 
Driving Wheel Lathe.. . . 

7' Vertical Boring Mill. . . 

400 Ton Wheel Press 

Quartering Machine 

Ver. Boring Mills, 6 and 7 
ft 



Turning Tires 

Trueing Tournals 

( Boring Tires 4x8 = 32 

I Smoke Arch Rings 4x1 =4 

Quartering Wheels 4x4 = 16 

Wheel Centers 4x8 = 32 



4xS ' and 30x4 2 
152x50% 
30x8x15% =36 
30x1x10%= 3 

30x4x10% = 12 

30x8x10% =24 



152 3 
76 3 
68 

7 

28 
56 



1} hrs. ' 
2} hrs. * 
40 min. 
2* hrs. 

3 hrs. 

8 hrs. 



288 

24 
53 
2J 

10} 

56 



1 Planer, 36"xl5' 4 Heads. 
1 Frame Planer, 72"x32'.. . 
Frames . 1 Three-Head Frame Slot- 

ter 

1 Frame Drill. 4 Head. . . . 



Front Rails 4x4 = 16 

Main Frames (2 Per Setting) I 4x2= 8 

Slot (4 Per Setting). 4x2= 8 

Drill and Ream ! 4x2= S 



30x4x10% =12 
30x2x10%= 6 

30x2x10%= 6 
30x2x10%= 6 



28 
14 



14 
14 



4 hrs. 

8 hrs. < 



15 hrs. 
15 hrs. 



14 

14 

26J 
261 



1 mach. 
1 mach. 

1 mach. 6 

1 mach. 

1 mach. 

2 mach. 



1 mach. 
1 mach. 



1 mach. 
1 mach. 



Axles 



1 Lathe, 32"xl4' 

1 Double Key way Cutter. 

1 Lathe, 26"xl4' 

1 D. H. Axle Lathe 



Rods 



Crank 
Pins 



Driving 
Boxes 



1 Slab Miller. 48"xl6' 

1 Vertical Miller, 42" 

1 D. H. Rod Borer 

1 Ver. Drill, 44", Comp. 
Table 



1 Slotter, 10". 
1 Slotter, 12". 



1 Planer, 36*x8'. 4-Head. 
1 Planer, 30"x 12' 



1 Lathe, 16"x8' 

1 Hyd. Press. 25 Ton . 



Driving Axles . 4x4=16 j 30x4x50%=60 

Cutting Keyways 4x4 = 16 30x4x50%=60 

Engine Truck Axles 4x1 = 4 30x1x50% = 15 

Tender Truck Axles 4x4 = 16 30x4x60%=72 



76 
76 
19 

88 



Rods 

Mill Hubs. . 
Rods 



Rods and Straps 

Valve Yokes 

Main Rod Straps, Back End 

Main Rod Straps, Front End 

Main Connecting Rod Straps 

Main Connecting Rod Knuckle Fit. 

Rods to Length 

Straps. New. 

Rods, New 

Rods, Old 

Back Cyl. Heads 

Knuckle Pins 

Knuckle Pin Bushings 

Wrist Pins 

Bushings 



1 Lathe, 26"xl0\... 
1 Vertical Drill, 36" 



Crank Pins 

Crank Pins 

Guide Bars 

Guide Blocks 

Crossheads 

New Crosshead Shoes 10 . 



1 Planer, 42"x20'. 
1 Planer, 42"xl2'. 



1 Ver. Rapid Production 
Lathe, 37" (Bullard). . . . 

1 Draw Shaper, Morton . . . 
1 Ver. Boring Mill, 37" i 

1 Crank Planer, 20"x20"x 

24" : 



1 Radial Drill. 3'. 



Boxes : . 

Old Boxes 

Face New Boxes 

Turn Brass for Box Fit 

Bore Ecc. Crank (Walschaert). . 

Piston Valve Cyl. Heads 

Shape for Brass and Cellar Fit. 

Bore Brass and Face Box 

Cellars 

Brasses 

Rod and Eccentric Keys 

Frame Keys 

Boxes 

Old Boxes 



4x8 = 32 
4x6=24 
4x6 = 24 



4x2= 8 



4x2= 8 
4x4 = 16 
4x4 = 16 
4x2= S 



30x8x10% = 24 
30x6x10% = 18 
30x6x10% = 18 



30x2x50% =30 



4x8 = 32 
4x6 = 24 
4x4=16 
4x4 = 16 
4x2= 8 



Cylinders 

and 

Heads 



1 Cylinder Boring Mill. . . . 
1 Cylinder Planer, 72"xl2'. 
1 Port Miller 

1 Radial Drill, 5' 



1 Ver. Boring Mill, 42" 

1 Ver. Rapid Production 
Lathe. 37" Bullard 

1 Radial Drill, 3' 



Bore Cyls 

Plane Cvls 

Mill Ports 

Cylinders 

Wheel Centers 

Front Frame Rails 

Piston Packing Rings 

Front Cylinder Heads 

Back Cylinder Heads 

Piston Valve Bushing 

Piston Valve Packing Rings., 

Front Cyl. Head 

Back Cyl. Head 

Piston Valve Bushing 



4x8 = 32 

4x8 = 32 
4x8 = 32 
4x2= 8 
4x4 = 16 
4x8 = 32 
4x8 = 32 
4x8 = 32 
4x8 = 32 
4x8 = 32 
4x16 = 64 
4x8 = 32 



4x2 = 
4x2 = 

4x2 = 
4x8 = 
4x4 = 
4x6 = 
4x2 = 
4x2 = 



4x2 = 
4x2 = 



32 
16 
■24 



30x2x15% = 
30x4 = 120 
30x4 = 120 
30x2= 60 



56 
42 
42 



38 

17 

17 

17 

6 

24 

41 

56 

15 

17 

136 

136 

68 



30x8x10% = 
30x6x10% = 
30x4x30% = 
30x4x30% = 
30x2x15% = 
30x2x25% = 



30x8x10% = 
30x8x90% = 
30x8x10% = 
30x8x90% = 
30x2x 5% = 
30x4x 5% = 
30x8x10^ = 
30x8 = 240 
30x8x20%, = 
30x8x90% = 
30x8x40$! = 
30x16x50'; 
30x8x10% = 
30x8x90% = 



24 
216 
24 
216 

3 

6 
24 

216 
96 

= 240 
24 
216 



30x2x10% = 
30x2x10% = 

30x2x10% = 
30x8x10% = 
30x4x10% = 
38x6 = 228 
30x2x30% = 
30x2x15% = 
30x4x25% = 
30x8x50% = 
30x2x30% = 
30x2x15% = 
30x4x20% = 



6 
6 

6 
24 

12 

IS 

9 
30 
120 
18 

9 
30 



56 
42 
52 
52 
17 
15 



56 

216 

56 

248 

11 

22 

56 

272 

80 

248 

128 

304 

56 

216 



3 hrs. 
1 hr. 
2{ hrs. 
45 min. 



29} 
94 
5i 



6 hrs. 
5 hrs. 
2 hrs. 

4* hrs. 
2 "hrs. 



5} hrs. 



1* hr. 

3} hrs. 

1} hr. 

9 hrs. 
30 min. 
30 min. 

1 hr. 



3* hrs. <> 
2} hrs. 

49 min. 

12 min. 

15 min. 
1 hr. 



14 
14 

14 
56 
28 

252 
26 
17 
30 

120 
26 
17 
30 



3Jhr. 
54 min. 

l}hr. 
20 min. 

2 hrs. 

2 hrs. 

3J hrs. 
44 min. 
30 min. 
20 min. 
25 min. 
20 min. 

2* hrs. 
30 min. 



42 

261 

10} 

31} 

9} 



33} 



7} 
22} 

2} 
19} 

8 

8 

8} 



24J 

13* 

51 

11 

4 
li 



8 hrs. 
15 hrs. 

6} hrs. 
40 min. 

4 hrs. 
20 min. 
68 min. 

4 hrs. 

4 hrs. 
20 min. 
84 min. 

2 hrs. 

4 hrs. 



22} 
24 
9} 

10 o\ 
5} 

22* 

25 
5 

10} 
63 

12} 

16 

13} 



14 
261 

11* 

4} 

14 

10} 
33 
8} 

15 
5 

4} 
41 

15 



1 mach. 
1 mach. 
1 mach. 
1 mach. 



1 mach. 
1 mach. 
1 mach. 

1 mach. 



431 days 
2 mach. 



, 52} days 
2 mach. 



24} days 
1 mach. 

1 mach. 



1 mach. 



22 days 
1 mach. 



\ 2 mach. 

I 28 days 
[ 1 mach. 

1 mach. 
1 mach. 

I 34} days >< 

[ 1 mach. 

) 

> 1 mach. 



1 mach. 
1 mach. 
1 mach. 

1 mach. 



22J days 
1 mach. 

1 mach. 

23J days 
1 mach. 



Piston 
Rods 



1 Lathe. 26"xl2' 

1 Gap Grinder, Norton. 
1 Cottering Machine. . . 



Piston Rods.. 
Piston Rods.. 
Keyways 



4x2 = 
4x2 = 



30x2x60% = 
30x2x60% = 
30x2x40% = 



36 

36 1 
24/ 



44 
68 



4 hrs. 
40 min. 



22 

53 



1 mach. 
1 mach. n 
1 mach. 



Guides 



1 Plain Hor. Miller, 20"xS'. 
1 Guide Bar Grinder. 80". . 

1 Shaper, 16" 



1 Lathe, 16"xS'. 



/ Guides 

I Old Guides 

Guides 

[Cut to Length, Cut Clearance. 
J Old Guides, Cut Clearance. . . . 

1 Guide Blocks 

[ Frame Keys 

f Guide Blocks 

\ Crank Pin Collars 

[ WYist Pin Washers 



1 Planer, 30"xlty . 



Cross- 
heads 



1 Horizontal Boring Mill 
4" Spindle, 6' Table 



(Crossheads 
Crossheads, Old 
Block and Gibs, Old Crossheads. . . . 
IBore and Ream for Piston Rod Fit.. 
Ream Old Heads 
Rebore Air Pump Cyl 
Bore Steam Chests 
Bore and Make Joints, Throttle Box . 
I Rebore Old Throttle Box 



4x4 = 16 



4x4 ■■ 
4x4> 

4x4 
4x8 ' 
4x4 
4x8' 
4x2 



= 16 
= 16 

= 16 
= 32 

= 16 
= 32 

= 8 



30x4x30%= 36 

30x4x70%= 84 
30x4=120 

30x4x30%= 36 

30x4x70%= 84 

30x4x20%= 24 

30x8x10%= 24 

30x4x20%= 24 
30x8x50% = 120 

30x2x30%= 18 



52 
84 

136 
52 
84 
40 
56 
40 

152 
26 



4x2 = 



4x2= 8 



4x2 = 
4x1 = 



30x2x15%= 9 

30x2x85%= 51 

30x4x20%= 24 

30x2x15% = 9 

30x2x15%= 10 

30x2x50%= 30 

30x2x30%= 18 

30x1x20% = 6 

30x1x50%= 15 



17 
51 
24 
17 
10 
30 
26 
10 
15 



4 hrs. 


1 hr. 


30 min. 


lhr. 


30 min. 


35 min. 


30 mm. 


1 hr. 


40 min. 


30 mm. 


4 hrs. 


90 mm. 


72 min. 


2 hrs. 


1 hr. 


1 hr. 


1 hr. 


3 hrs. 


1 hr. 



26 
10} 

8} 

11 
3 

3} 
5 

12} 
U 



II 
3i 
4} 
H 
3i 
31 
31 
li 



1 36}'days 

J 1 mach. 

1 mach. 

181 days 
1 mach. 



19* days 
1 mach. 



22 days 
1 mach. 



, 181 days 
1 mach. 



1 Light Repairs. ' Heavy Repairs. 3 Pairs. < Per Pair. c Per Frame. 6 Balance of Time Available for Wheel Centers. 7 See Previous Note. 8 Avail- 
able for Driving Axles. L Time required when main pins are rough turned. 10 Drilled for old crOFshead c . " Balance of time available for valve yokes, 
wrist pins. etc. 12 See shoes and wedges. 

122 



April, 1909. AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 






123 




(Machine Tool 


Operation 


Number op Pieces per Month 


Average 

Time 
per Piece 


Total 
Days 
Won; 

PER 

Month 




► OP 

Work 


New Engs. 


Repairs 


Total 






1 Planer, 36'xlC, D. H.... 




4x2= 8 
4x2= 8 

4x2= 8 
4x2= 8 
4x2= 8 
4x4 = 16 

4x2= 8 


30x2x30%= 18 

30x2x30%- 18 
30x2x30%= 18 

30x2x30%- 18 
:sn*:;x30%- 18 
.'1(1x2x30%- 18 
30x4x 7%= 8 

30x2 OH 


26 

26 

18 

26 
26 
26 
24 
68 


3hrs. 

2J hrs. 
1 hr. 

1 hr. 

2 hrs. 
30 min. 

1 hr. 
1 hr. 


9} 

8J 






1 Steam Chest Covers and Pressure 
Plates 


20* days 






















































1 Planer, 30"xl0', D. H. . . 

1 Plane Miller, 14"x6' 

1 Lathe, 20"xlO / 




4x2= 8 
4x2= 8 

4x2= 8 

4x2= 8 
4x2= 8 

4x2= 8 


30x2x50%= 30 
30x2x50%= 30 
30x2x25%= 15 
:so*2 

30x2x26%= 15 
30x2x75%= 44 
30x2x50%= 30 
30x2x25%= 16 
30x2x25%= 16 
30x2x15%= 8 


38 
38 
15 
38 
15 
52 
38 
16 
16 
16 


4 hrs. 
30 min. 

2 J hrs. 

2 hrs. 

2* hrs. 

lihrs. 

2 hrs. 
10 hrs. » 

7 hrs. » 

4 hrs. 


19 

2i 
* A 

94 
4? 

9$ 
9i 

20 

14 
8 


1 26 days 
















1 24 days 
[ 1 mach. 




















! 51 i days 




1 Lathe 24"xl4' 






















1 Lathe 32"xl2' 




4x1= 4 
4x2= 8 

4x4 = 16 

4x2= 8 


30x1x20%= 6 
30x2x25%= 15 
30x2x15% = 9 
30x2x50%= 30 
30x4x 5%= 6 
30x2x 5%= 3 


10 
15 
17 
30 
22 
11 
800 


2J hrs. 

40 min. 

4 hrs 

1 hr. 

2 hrs. 
li hrs. 

45 min. 


n 

84 
34 
54 
2 
75 






Old Lifting Shaft 








24} days 




3 Lathes, 18", 18" and 16". 

1 Centering Machine, 14".. 

1 W. S. Turret Lathe, 3"x 

36" 








1 Drill, Ream, Turn Valve Rod (Wals.). 
Pins (34 Locos) 
































1 Rapid Production Ver. 
Lathe, 37", Bullard 

1 Horizontal Boring Mill, 
4" Spindle, 6' Table 

2 Planers, 30*xl0' 

1 Horizontal Milling Mach. 
SO'xlC (for Walschaert 




4x4 = 16 
4x4 = 16 

4x2= 8 

4x2= 8 
4x2= 8 

4x2= 8 
4x4 = 16 
4x2= 8 
4x2= 8 
4x4 = 16 
4x2= 8 
4x2= 8 

4x2= 8 
4x2= 8 
4x2= 8 
4x2= 8 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 


30x4x50%= 60 
30x4x50%= 60 
30x4x20%= 24 
30x2x10% = 6 
30x2x10%= 6 
30x2x60%= 36 
30x2x20%= 12 
30x2x30%= 18 
30x2x10%= 6 
30x2x 5%= 3 
30x4x50%= 60 
30x2x 5%= 3 
30x2x20%= 12 
30x4x 5%= 6 
80x2x10%= 6 
30x2x 5%= 3 
30x2x10%= 6 
30x2x 5%= 3 
30x2x 5%= 3 
30x2x 5%= 3 
30x2x 5%= 3 
30x1x20% = 6 
30x1x20% = 6 


76 
76 
24 
14 

6 
36 
20 
26 

6 
11 
76 
11 
20 
22 
14 
11 

6 
11 
11 
11 
11 
10 
10 


li hr. 

1 hr. 
40 min. 

2 hrs. 
2 hrs. 
1} hrs. 

40 min. 
45 min. 

1 hr. 

2ihrs. 

1 hr. 

2 hrs. 

3 hrs. 
3 hrs. 
2Jhrs. 

1 hr. 

2 hrs. 

3 hrs. 

5 hrs. 

6 hrs. 
2 hrs. 
1J hrs. 
1 hr. 


14i 
9i 
2 
3i 

1 

It 
% 

7i 
8i 
4f 
lj 

i 

it 

if 


25i days 
1 mach. 








Rebore Old Ecc. Straps 


















19 days 
1 mach. 






































35J days 




Link Saddle (Wals.) 
































25J days 
'- 1 mach. 
































1 Vertical Miller, 42" 

1 Vertical Miller, 33" 




4x2= 8 
4x2= 8 
4x2= 8 
4x2= 8 
4x2= S 
4x2= 8 
4x4 = 16 
4x2= 8 
4x2= 8 
4x2= 8 
4x2= 8 
4x4 = 16 


30x2x10% = 6 
30x2x 5%= 3 
30x2x 5%= 3 
30x2x 5%= 3 
30x2x 5%= 3 
30x2x 5%= 3 
30x4x25%= 30 
30x2x15%= 9 
30x2x10% = 6 
30x2x10%= 6 
30x2x10% = 6 
30x4x40%= 48 


14 
11 
11 
11 
11 
11 
46 
17 
14 
14 
14 
64 


6 hrs. 
10 hrs. 
12 hrs. 

1 hr. 
3 hrs. 

2 hrs. 

2 hrs. 
34 hrs. 
1 hr. 

3 hrs. 
llhrs. 
9 min. 


10i 
13} 

1 

Hi 

7i 

ii 

51 

2f 
U 


































Gear U 






























Rod Keys 












1 Plain Miller 14*x6' 








76 
14 
34 
14 
14 
34 
34 
34 
10 
10 


20 min. 
35 min. 

2 hrs. 

li hrs. 

1 hr. 
15 min. 
12 min. 
12 min. 
30 min. 

2 hrs. 


3-h 

i 

i 
i 
i 

2 f 


























Valve Rod (Wals.) 
















23 h days 














































4x1= 4 


30x20% = 6 












1 Slotter, 12" 








76 
12 
10 
11 
14 
6 
20 
10 
.'0 


20 min. 
15 min. 
15 min. 

2 min. 
li min. 

3 min. 

2 min. 

3 nun. 
2 mm. 


34 

1 

2} 
5 

3} 

5 






































































4x1= 4 


30x20% =6 






















1 Crank Planer 20"x20"x 
24" 


f Ecc. Straps for Blade Fit 






76 
30 
14 

36 
12 
14 
14 
88 
20 


25 min. 
1 hr. 
3 hrs. 

30 min. 

1 hr. 

2 hrs. 
20 min. 
20 min. 

30 min 


4 

3i 

6i 

21 

s 

: 
















Valve Rod Guide Box (Wals.) 










Ecc. Blades for Strap Fit and Jaw 






27 days 








30x2x20% = 12 


















4x2= 8 


30x2x10% =6 






Link Block Plates 



























8 See Crossheads. 7 Also rough turn all motion pins, eccentric set bolts, bushings, etc. 8 This incudes two cast steel follower plates, two skeleton rings and 
one center piece. 6 This includes straightening, centering and all work from the rough forging. 



124 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 





Machine Tool 


Operation 


Number 


op Pieces per Month 


Average 

Time 
per Piece 


Total 




OP 

Work 


New Engs. 


Repairs 


Total 


Work 

PBR 

Month 






1 Vertical Drill, 21* 

1 Vertical Drill, 26* 

1 Radial Drill 5' 








IOl.s. 
17 
11 
30 
14 
30 
20 
40 
20 
11 
14 
11 
11 
11 
11 
6 
10 
10 
30 
14 
34 
34 
34 
34 
10 
11 
88 
20 
20 
76 
76 
11 
20 
6 


1 hr. 
3 hrs. 

2 hrs. 

I hr. 
lihr. 
Ill hrs. 

30 min. 
15 min. 

II hr. 

1 hr. 
30 min. 

lihr. 

2 hrs. 
lihr. 

45 min. 
2i hrs. 
35 min. 
15 min. 
35 min. 

1 hr. 

3 min. 
6 min. 
6 min. 

15 min. 
10 min. 
45 min. 
12 min. 
11 hrs. 
40 min. 

2 hrs. 
1 hr. 
1 hr. 
1 hr. 

20 min. 


11 l 












61 

II 
2| 
4f 
l| 

H 

a 

2 
2i 
2 
1 

1 

i 

i 

TC 

ft 
l 
1 
l 

2 J 
3i 
18 

19 
91 
1* 
2i 

I 






























































































































Guide Bar fWals.) 


























87 days 








































































































































































30x2x10% =6 














1 Rapid Prod. Ver. Lathe, 
37*^ 




4x2= 8 


30x2 = 60 


68 

120 

29 

29 

7 

7 

104 

30 


2 hrs. 

8 min. 
45 min. 
20 min. 

lihr. 

1* hr. 

H hr. 

1 hr. 


17 

9 

2f 

u 

H 
11 

161 
34 






3 Rapid Production Verti- 
cal Lathe, 37" 








Piston Rod Glands 


4x2= 8 


30x2x35% = 21 








4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x8 = 32 


30x10% =3 
30x10^; =3 
30xSx30% = 72 
30x2x50% =30 


28§ days 






1 mach. 






Hub Plates 




















1 Wheel Borer, 48* 

1 Wheel Lathe, Steel Tire 
48* 


Truck Wheels. Eng. and Ten 


4x10 = 40 


11x30x60% = 198 


238 

165 3 
12 
19 
19 

106 
28 
19 
32 
92 
35 
40 
14 

114 


20 min. 

1 hr. 

2 hrs. 

3 hrs. 
2J hrs. 

30 min. 
45 min. 
13 hrs. 
16 hrs. 

1* hr. 
20 min. 

1 hr. 

lihr. 
20]min. 


10 

20& 
U 

7i 
6 

8 4 

2J 
31 
64 
171 

li 
5 

li 

4f 


1 mach. 




1 Planer 48"xl0' 




4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x4 = 16 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x2= 8 
4x8 = 32 
4x2= 8 
4x4 = 16 
4x2= 8 
4x6 = 24 


30x25% =8 
30x50% = 15 
30x50% =15 
30x6x50% =90 
30x4x20% = 24 
30x50% = 15 
30x2x40% = 24 
30x8x25% =60 
30x3x30% =27 
30x4x20% =24 
30x2x10% =6 
30x6x50% = 90 














24 days 




2 Drill Press, 20* andI26*. . 
2 RadiallDrill, 3' and 4'. . 

lfShaper r 20* 




1 mach. 








Truck 




1 95 days 
J 4 mach. 








[ Col. Cstg., Ten. Truck 












304 days 






Filling Blocks 


1 mach. 
































Shoes 

and 

Wedges 


2 Planers,'36"xl2', 30*xl2'. 

1 Crank Planer, 20*x20*x 

24*. . 




4x16 = 64 


30x16 = 480 


544 
544 


35min. 
15 min. 


39 
17 











Drill for Set Bolts 




























1 Lathe f 32*xl2' 


See Crossheads for Hor. Bor. Mill 


4x1= 4 
4x2= 8 
4x1= 4 
4x5 = 20 
4x1= 4 


30x20% = 6 
30x2x20% = 12 
30x50% = 15 
30x5x35% =50 
30x20% = 6 


10 
20 
19 
70 
10 
24 
10 
19 
10 
19 
32 
20 
34 
24 
19 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
32 
19 
19 
24 


2 hrs. 

2 hrs. 

3 hrs. 
1 hr. 
1 hr. 

30 min. 

I hr. 
30 min. 

4 hrs. 

II hr. 
40 min. 
40'min. 
20Jmin. 

lihr. 
15"min. 
20 min. 

2| hrs. 

1 hr. 

1 hr. 
11 hr. 

2 hrs. 
1 hr. 

10 min, 
30 min. 


21 

5 

7i 

8l 

11 

li 

H 

li 

5 

31 

2| 

if 

3 

"I 

3 

11 

\\ 
8 

1 
li 












Throttle Valves 


















1 Lathe U8*x8'... 










ThrottleWalve'Shafts 


4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x2= 8 
4x2= 8 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x2= 8 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 


30x20% =6 
30x50% =15 
30x20% = 6 
30x50% = 15 
30x2x40% = 24 
30x2x20% = 12 
30x1=30 
30x1x65% = 20 
30x50% = 15 
30x20% =6 
30x20% = 6 
30x20% = 6 
30x20% = 6 
30x20% = 6 
30x2x40% = 24 
30x50% = 15 
30x50% = 15 
30x1x65% =20 






ThrottleWalve' Stems 


























1 




Standpipe U Bolt. Drill and Tap 












ThrottleTStuffing Box and Gland 








26$ days 








l.mach. 








































1 VerticarDrill, 22* 




4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x2= 8 
4x2= 8 
4x2= 8 


30x65% = 20 
30x65% =20 
30x2x65% =40 
30x2x50% =30 
30x2x50% =30 
30x8x20% = 48 
30x16 = 480 
30x2x35% = 21 
30x2x35% =21 


24 
24 
48 
38 
38 
48 
544 
29 
29 


1 hr. 

1 hr. 
15 min. 
30 min. 

2 hrs. 
15 min. 

31 min. 
20 min. 
15 min. 


3 
3 

2, 

3 

3* 
H 
1 






Top Rails 














26} days 
1 mach. 


Miscel- 




laneous 




Work 




4xi6 = 64 
4x2= 8 
4x2= 8 












Valve Stem Packing Glands 




Spring 

and Brake 

Rigging 


1 Radial Drill, 3' 




4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 


30x75% = 22 
30x75% = 22 


26 
26 


9 hrs. 
18 hrs. 


29i 
58 


1 87J days 
J 3 mach. 


2 Ver. Drills, 25* and 40*. . 













1 Pairs. 



e See Driving Boxes. 



Levers, crank, shaft and arms, quadrant, quadrant brackets, latch, latch lifter and reach rod. 



April, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL 



135 



Class 
of 

Work 



Machine Tool 



Operation 



Number op Pieces per 



New Engs. 



Repairs 



Total 



Averace 

Time 
; er 



Total 
Days 
Work 

PER 



1 Lathe, 16"x8' . . 
1 Lathe, 18"xl0'.. 

1 Lathe, 14"x0'. . . 



Piston and Valve Stem Pa< 

Tank Valves 

Throttle Stuffing Box and Gland,. 

Turn Rocker Bushing 

Bells 

Whistles 

Tank Hose Nuts and Connections. 

Hub Liner Bolts 

Boiler Plugs 

Driving Box Plugs 

Muffler Valves Overhauled 

Feed Pipe Sleeve 

Valve Stems, etc 



1,1 10 

4x2- 8 
4x1= 4 



[20 
30x2x6091 16 
30x20% -6 



4x1= 4 



30 L0% = 3 



4x10 = 40 
4x8 32 



4x2 8 



128x8 

111 hi ,ir ; i ,: 
30x8 240 
30x2 60 

30x2x50% -30 



136 

i I 
10 
96 
7 
10 
• 68 

10 

272 

60 

38 



If hr. 
40 min. 

2 hrs. 
20 min. 
I 3} hrs. 
I 4 hrs. 
20 min. 

4 min. 

4 min. 

7 min. 

1 hr. 
17 min. 



2H 

1 

4 

3 

5 

21 

8 

1A 

It 

4 



1 mach. 



21 dayi 
1 mach. 



26i days 
1 mach. 



Brass 
Work 



1 Turret Lathe, 20"x6' 
4 Turret Lathes, 18"x6' 



Relief Valves 

Relief Valves Overhauled 

Blow-off Cocks 

Blow-off Cocks Overhauled 

Water Glass Cocks 

Water Glass Cocks Overhauled 

Gauge Cocks 

Gauge Cocks Overhauled 

Air Pump Valves. 1" Angle 

Air Pump Valves Overhauled 

Blower Valves. li" 

Blower Valves Overhauled 

Injector Steam Valves, 2" Angle 

Iniector Steam Valves Overhauled. . . 

Car Heater Valves 

Car Heater Valves Overhauled 

Lubricator Valves, i" Angle 

Lubricator Valves Overhauled 

Steam and Air Gauge Cocks 

Steam and Air Gauge Cocks OverhTd 

Tallow Plugs 

Tallow Plugs Overhauled 

Check Valves 

Check Valves Overhauled 

Air Cyl. Cocks 

Air Cyl. Cocks Overhauled 

Pet Cocks, f 

Pet Cocks Overhauled 

Blower Connection 

Tallow Pipe Conn, and Nuts 

Tank Cocks 

Tank Cocks Overhauled 

Whistle Elbow 

Cab Door Lock and Slides 

Brazing Rings 

Ext., Gauge and Water Glass Cocks. . 

Pipe Sleeves and Nuts 

Filling Plugs and Nuts. Lubricator. . . 

Drain Plugs for Lubricators 

Sand Nozzles 

Safety Valve Extensions 

Nipples and Reducers 

Rocker Box Set Bolts 



4x2 

'4x1 = 



4x2= 8 

'■IXO Jl' 



4x1= 4 
4x2 s 
4x2= 8' 



4x2= 8 
4x2= 's' 



4x2 = 
'4x2 = 



4x4=16 

4x8 = 32' 



4x2= 8 
4x2= 8 
4x1= 4 



4x1 = 

4x4 = 



>" x50% = 30 
30x2x50% =30 
30 50% = 15 

:sox.-,o% = i5 
:«)x-_>x50%-30 

50% =30 

nix0x50%=90 
m ix0xS0% =90 
30x50% = 15 

',=15 

:;ox2x50% = 30 
;>Ox2x50% = 30 
30x2x50$ " 
30x2x50% -30 

30 ■ ' fc = 7 
30a !5% = 7 
30x2x50% =30 

31 1x2x50% = 30 
30x4x50% = 60 
30x4x50% = 60 

in 'x50% = 30 
30x2x50% =30 
30x2x25% = 15 

[5 
30x4x50% =60 
30x4x50% =60 
30x8x50% = 120 
30x8x50% = 120 
30x4x50% = 60 
30x2x50% = 30 
30x50% = 15 
30x50% = 15 
30x25% =8 
30x4x25% =30 



4x8 = 32 



30x8x25% =60 
34x8x25% = 68 



4x2= 8 



30x2x25% = 15 
'30x8x25% = 60 ' 



38 
30 
19 
15 
38 
30 

114 
90 
19 
15 
38 
30 
38 
30 
7 
7 
38 
30 
68 
60 
38 
30 
23 
15 
76 
on 

152 

120 
68 
38 
19 
15 
12 
46 

500 
92 
68 
30 
30 
50 
23 

200 
60 



2 hrs. 
20 min. 

2, hrs. 
30 min. 

H br. 
20 min 
50 min. 

8 min. 
95 min. 
25 min. 
95 min. 
25 min. 

21 hrs. 
30 min. 
95 min. 
25 min. 

li hr. 
20 min. 
25 min. 
10 min. 
35 min. 
15 min. 

2J hrs. 
25 min. 

2 hrs. 

8 min. 
30 min. 

6 min. 
18 min. 

17 min. 
70 min. 
20 min. 

18 min. 
30 min. 

12 min.' ' 
17 min. 
15 min. 



20 min. 

10 min. 

4 min. 



I« 

li 
12 

31 

A 

li 

101 

li 

li 

A 
i} 

3i 

II 

1 

7 \ 
19 
1 

91 
H 
2J 
li 
21 

> 

1 

1 
2i 

1 



149 days 
5 mach. 



Air 

Brake 
Work 



1 Lathe. 16"x6'. 



[ Air Pump Piston Rods 

I Old Piston Rods Rep'd 6 

I Fulcrum Shaft 

[ Refitting Brake Hanger Posts. 



4x2= 8 
4x6 = 24 



30x50% = 15 
30x50% = 15 
30x2x25% = 15 
30x6x75% =135 



15 

15 

23 

159 



2* hrs. 
40 min. 

li hr. 
15 min. 



Rod 
Brasses 



1 B. B. Ver. Milling Mach.. 

1 Ver. Rapid Prod. Lathe. 

37" Bullard, 4 Jaw Chuck 



Shape or Mill 

f Bore and Face 

L Bore Bushing and Turn. 



4x4 = 16 
4x4 = 16 
4x8 = 32 



1 Ver. Boring Mill, 51* 



1 Lathe. 24'xlCr - .. 



Miscel- 
laneous 
Castings 



Miscel- 
laneous 
Forcings 



Stay- 
bolts 



1 Planer, 30*x8'. 
1 Planer. Se'xlff 
1 Planer, 48*xl2' 



2 Radial Drills. 4' and 5' . . 
1 Ver. Drill. 32" 

1 Slotter, 12 

1 Slotter. 18" 

1 Planer, 42'xlC 

1 Radial Drill, 4' 

1 Lassiter 6-Spindle Mach. 
1 4-Spindle Drill 

1 Gisholt Lathe for 6"Stock 

1 Gisholt Lathe for 4J" 

Stock 



Sand Boxes. Top and Base 

Eng. Truck Tires 

Dome Rings 

Crossheads. Face, Bore. Turn 

Crossheads. Rebore Old 

' Sand Box Shaft 

Bell Yoke 

Hand Holes and Covers 

Male Center Casting 

Mud Chambers 

Tank Valve Racks 

Expansion Braces 

Guide Yokes 

Guide Yoke Brackets 

Guide Yoke Extensions 

Castings 7 

Filling Blocks 

Driver Brake Fulcrums 

Hopper Castings 

Drawhead Casting 8 

Chafing Blocks 

Crosstie Link Bracket, etc. ° 

Drilling Miscellaneous Holes for New 
and Repair Work 10 



4x1= 4 



4x1= 4 
4x2= 8 



4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x2= 8 
4x2= 8 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x2= 8 
4x2= 8 
4x4 = 16 
4x4 = 16 
4x2= 8 
4x1= 4 
4x3 = 12 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 



30x4 = 120 
30x4 = 120 
30x8 = 240 



136 
136 

272 



2 hrs. 
40 min. 
25 min. 



f Frame Braces 

Equalizer, Main. . . . 

Pedestal Binders. . . . 

Grate Bearing Bars. 

I Frame Rails 

I Pedestal Binders. . . . 
{ Frame Braces 

Miscellaneous n 



4x3 = 12 
4x1= 4 



4x2= 8 
4x4=16 
4x8 = 32 
4x4 = 16 



30xl0%=3 
30x3x10% = 10 
30x5% =2 
30x2x15% =9 
30x2x20% = 12 
30xl0% = 3 
30x25% =8 
30x50% = 15 
30x20% =6 
30x2x50% = 30 
30x2x50% =30 
30x10% =3 
30xl5% = 4 
30x2x25% = 15 
30x2xl0% = 6 
30x4x10% = 12 
30x4x10% = 12 
30x2x10% =6 
30x1x20%, = 6 
30x3x10% =9 
30x1x20% -6 
30xlx5% = 2 



30x3x25% =23 
30x10'"; =3 
30x8x25% =60 
30x2x25% = 15 
30x4x10% = 12 
30xSxlO%=24 
30x4x10% = 12 



7 
10 

6 
17 
12 

7 
12 
19 
10 
38 
38 

7 

8 
23 
14 
28 
28 
14 
10 
21 
10 

6 

5500 



3 hrs. 
3 hrs. 
2 hrs. 
8 hrs. 
1 hr. 

1 hr. 
1J hr. 

30 min. 

2 hrs. 

2 hrs. 
45 min. 
12 hrs. 

7 hrs. 

3 hrs. 

4 hrs. 
2} hrs 
2 hrs. 

40 min. 
40 min. 

6§ hrs. 

li hrs. 
15 hrs. 



35 
7 
60 
23 
28 
56 
28 



3 hrs. 
5 hrs. 

1 hr. 

2 hrs. 
8 hrs. 
1§ hr. 
2 hrs. 



Staybolts. Av. 7i" Long 4x1500 = 6000 30x1500x30% = 13.500 19.500 

Telltale Holes in Bolts 19,500 



10S0' 
800" 



4| 
li 
4 5 



34 

iii 

14* 



21 

35 
li 
17 
li 

A 

2i 
9i 

34 

10i 

7 

8t 

7 
9 

7 

li 

I7J 

li 
HI 



13i 
4| 

7* 
5* 
28 
9i 

7 



15j days 
1 mach. 



1 mach. 

25i days 

1 mach. 



26j days 
1 mach. 



19j days 
' 1 mach. 



8U days 
13 mach. 



3 mach. 



1 



5Sj days 
2 mach. 



161 days 
1 mach. 1J 



18 
24J 



1 mach. 
1 mach. 



Pin 
Work 



Crank Pins. . . . 
Wrist Pins. . . . 
Knuckle Pins. 



4x6 = 24 
4x2= 8 
4x4 = 16 



30x6x50% =90 
30x2 = 60 
30x4 = 120 



114 

68 

136 



45 min. 
20 min. 



2 mach. 



1 Per day. • Old piston rods and heads filed and regrooved. 7 Center castings, female center, equalizer fulcrum, tender center castings. s Engine and 
tender, front and back. • Also lift shaft tie brace. 10 Drill center casting, engine and tender, fulcrum casting, expansion braces, filling blocks, driver brake ful- 
crum, hopper casting, drawhead castings, chaffing blocks, crosstie brace, mud chambers, tank valve racks, guide yokes, guide yoke brackets and extensions, 
sand boxes, dome rings, smoke box rings, fire door frames and doors, bell yokes and frames, hand hole plates and covers. n Drill frame braces, equalizers, 
binders, bearing bars and supports, crank pin collars, cab braces, foot board brackets, etc. Average 77 holes per day. " Available on miscellaneous castings. 



126 


AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 










Machine Tool 


Operation 


Number op Pieces per Month 


Average 

Timb 
per Piece 


Total 
Days 
Work 

per 
Month 




OP 

- Work 


New Engs, 


Repairs i Total 






1 Turret Lathe, 3*x36* 

1 Turret Lathe, 2i"x24" . . . 
3 Turret Lathes, 2"x24* . . . 

1 Lassiter Bolt Turner, 4- 
•Head 




[ Studs, average length 4i* 


4x600 = 2400 
4x80 = 320 
4x8 = 32 
4x8 = 32 
4x2= 8 

4x274 = 1896 


30x600x50% =9000 11,400 
30x80 = 2400) ! 2,720 
30x8 = 240 272 


175' 
60> 

125 > 
40> 
16 » 

300 < 


65 
45 
2J 

a 

30 


1 






! 123£days 






30x8 = 240 
30x2 = 60 

30x474x50% = 71 10 


272 
68 

9006 


I 5 mach. 
































For Fitting Bolts 














3 Lathes, Portable " 
















i 
















































































































2 mach. 



1 Per day. 12 For erecting shopI(14*x5'). 

The fact that the ability of roads generally in realiz- 
ing the full advantage to be obtained from the use of cast 
steel frames, is dependent upon the facilities for machin- 
ing and finishing them, leads to the selection of some 
tools not generally found outside of builders shops, and 
as such tools might be considered as of more or less 
intermittent character, special consideration has been 
made in their selection with a view of adapting them 
for general work, when not fully occupied on new work, 
in order to keep the surcharge down to the lowest 
possible point. 

The forging department has received careful con- 
sideration and the general plan, and the selection and 
arrangement of tools, together with the further fact that 
water gas is to be used in the heating furnaces war- 
rants the assumption that this department will bear its 
full share in preserving the integrity of the output. 



The study has been based upon eight working hours 
per day. In some instances it will be noted that only 
one machine tool is provided where it is apparent that 

TOOL ROOM MACHINES. 

1 Universal Miller. 

2 Plain Millers, one 14" x 6' table, and one 39" x 10'. 

4 Lathes: one 14" x 6'; one 16" x S'; one 16" x 8'; one 12" x 6'. 

2 Drill Presses: one 13" and one 25". 

1 Shaper, 14". 

1 Crank Planer, 20 x 20 x 24 '/S in. stroke. 

1 2 x 24 in. Turret Lathe. 

1 Gisholt Tool Grinder. 

1 Sellers Tool Grinder. 

1 Reamer Grinder. 

1 Cutter Grinder. 

1 Die Grinder. 

2 Twist Drill Grinders. 



more work will be required of it than can be performed 
during the regular working hours. In such cases it has 
been deemed advisable to have the machine work over- 



( 'Continuation of .Table on Opposite Page.) 



Class 

of 
Work 



Machine Tool 



Operation 



Number of Pieces per Month 



New Engs. 



Repairs 



Total 



Average 

Time 
pbr Piece 



Total 
Days 

Work 
per 

Month 



Roll 



1 Bending Roll, 15'. 
1 Bending Roll, 8'.. 



Crown Sheet of Firebox. 
Side Sheets, Firebox. . . . 
Crown Sheets, Boiler. . . . 

Side Sheets, Boiler 

Cyl. Courses, Boiler 6 ,. . . 

Smoke Arches 

Domes 

Smoke Arch Rings 

Smoke Arch Liners 

Cistern Sheets 

Hopper Chutes 

Draft Pipes 

Engineer's Cab Roofs 

Tank Cabs 

Fireman's Cabs 

Manholes for Cistern. . . . 



4x1 = 


4 


30x1x25% = 7 


4x2 = 


8 


30x2x27% = 16 
30x1x4% = 1 


4x1 = 


4 


4x2 = 


8 


30x2x4% =2 


4x1 = 


4 


30x1x4% = 1 


4x1 = 


4 


30x1x25% = 7 


4x1 = 


4 


30x1x4% = 1 


4x1 = 


4 


30x1x25% = 7 


4x1 = 


4 


30x1x25% =7 


4x1 = 


4 


30x1x10% = 3 


4x1 = 


4 


30x1x10% =3 


4x1 = 


4 


30x1x10% =3 


4x1 = 


4 


30x1x4% = 1 


4x1 = 


4 


30x1x10% =3 


4x1 = 


4 


30x1x10% =3 


4x1 = 


4 


30x1x20% =6 



11 

24 
5 

10 
5 

11 
5 

11 

11 
7 
7 
7 
5 
7 
7 

10 



1 hr. 

Hhr. 

1 hr. 

Uhr. 

4ihrs. 

li hrs. 
45 min. 

1 hr. 
30 min. 

4 hrs. 
30 min. 
30 min. 
30 min. 
30 min. 
30 min. 
20 min. 



II 
3 

if 

2i 
2 
3i 
1» 

# 



i 



2 mach. 



Planb 



1 Plate Planer, 30'., 



Crown Sheets, Firebox.. 
Side Sheets. Firebox. . . 
Crown Sheets, Boiler. . . 

Side Sheets, Boiler 

Cyl. Courses for Shell '. 

Smoke Arches 

Running Boards 



4x1 = 
4x2 = 
4x1 = 
4x2 = 
4x1 = 
4x1 ■ 



4x4 = 16 



30x1x25% =7 
30x2x27% = 16 
30x1x4% =1 
30x2x4% = 2 
30x1x4% =1. 
30x1x25% =7 
30x4x10% = 12 



11 

24 
5 

10 
5 

11 

28 



li hr. 
li hrs. 
li hrs. 
li hrs. 
6 hrs. 
li hr. 
10 min. 



4* 
1 

9 

31 
2 



16 days - 
1 mach. 1 



Hyd. 
Riveting 



Hyd. Gap Riveter, 17* 

Throat, 54" Gap 



Riveting Boiler. 



4x1= 4 



30xlx4% = l 



: days 



10 



1 mach. 



Drilling 



1 Radial Drill. 6'.. 
1 Horizontal Drill. 
1 4 Spindle Drill. . . 



Plate Frames '. 

Bearing Bar Support Brackets.. 

Shaker Rods and Brackets 

Tender'Frames 

Plug Holes in Back Head 

Flue Holes 

Smoke Arch Front Ring 

Bead Iron for Cistern 

Dome Saddle 

Dry Pipe Hole in Flue Sheet. . . 

Reinforcing Ring 

Bearing Bar Supports 

MudiRing 



4x1= 4 
4x4 = 16 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x5 = 20 
4x2x350=2800 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x2= 8 
4x1= 4 



30x1x75% =22 
30x4x10% = 12 
30x1x25% =7 
30x1x10% =3 
30x5x4% =5 
30x2x350x20% =4200 
30x1x25' 7 
30x1x10% =3 
30x1x4% = 1 
30x1x20% =6 
30x1x20% =6 
30x2x25% = 15 
30x1x10% =3 



26 
28 
11 

7 

25 

7000 

11 

7 

5 
19 
10 
23 

7 



3 hrs. 
10 min. 
3i hrs. 
3 days 
8 min. 



6 hrs. 

2 hrs. 

6 hrs. 

1 hr. 

1 hr. 
15 min. 
14 hrs. 



9t 

4 

21 

i 

24 
8i 
l| 

?! 

12i 



89J days 
3 mach. 



Flue 

Work 



Flue Rattler 

1 Cutting-off Mach 

2 Cutting-off Mach 

2 D. H. Welding Machines 



Clean Flues 

! Making Safe Ends 
Measure and Cut to Length. 
Cutting Off Rough Ends 
Flues Scarfed 

\ Flues Welded and Swaged . . 



4x350 = 1400 



30x350 = 10,500 
30x350=10,500 
30x350 = 10,500 
30x350=10,500 
30x350=10,500 
30x350=10,500 



10.500 
10.500 
11,900 
10,500 
10,500 
10,500 



22 
56 
16} 
163 

24 



1 mach. 
3 mach. 

2 mach. 



•Three courses included. 



7 Three courses included. 



12 Available for planing throat sheets, flue sheets and'"door sheets on flange. 



A STUDY OF THE MACHINE TOOL OPERATIONS REQUIRED IN A RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE 

BOILER SHOP, FOR MAKING REPAIRS TO AND BUILDING THE FOLLOWING NUMBER 

OF CONSOLIDATION LOCOMOTIVES PER MONTH, THE SHOP OPERATING 

EIGHT HOURS PER DAY: 30 GENERAL REPAIRS, 8 LIGHT 

REPAIRS AND FOUR NEW LOCOMOTIVES. 



•Thr«« courui included. Notb. — Where not definitely specified, items under " Shearing and Punching" are sheared only. 

(The Continuation of this Table will be Found at the Bottom of page 126.) 

127 



Class 

of 
Work 




Operation 


Number 


op Piechs per Month 


Average 
per Piece 


Total 
Days 
Work 

per 
Month 




Machine Tool 


New Engs. 


• airs 


Total 






1 Throat Shear, 60" 

V Throat Shear, 36" 


f Flue Sheet, P. and S 


4x2= 8 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x2= 8 
4x2= 8 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x2= 8 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x10 = 40 
4x10 = 40 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x4 = 16 
4x1= 4 
4x4=16 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 


30x2x20% - 12 
30x1x25% =7 
30x1x10% = 3 
30x1x25 % =7 
30xlx4% = l 
30x1x4% -1 
30x1x2.5% 7 
30x2x27% = 16 
30x2x4% = 2 
30x1x1 I 
30x1x25% = 7 
30x1x2.5% =7 
30x1x10% =3 
30x2x10%, =6 
30x1x10% =3 
30x1x30% =9 
30x10x25% = 75 
30x10x25% = 75 
30xlxl5% = 4.5 
30x1x10% =3 
30x4x.V , l, 
30x1x1.5%. =4. 5 
30x4x10% = 12 
30x1x10% =3 
30x1x10% =3 
30x1x10% =3 
30x1x10% =3 
30x32x75% = 720 
30x1x10%, =3 
30x2x50% =30 
30x1x10% =3 
30x2x10% =6 
30x2x10% =6 
30x1x10% =3 
30x2x10% =6 
30x1x10% =3 
30x1x10% = 3 
30x1x10%, =3 


20 
11 

7 
11 

5 

5 
11 
24 
10 

5 
11 
11 

7 
14 

7 

13 

115 

115 

8.5 

7 
22 

8.5 
28 

7 

7 

7 

7 
720 

7 
38 

7 
14 
14 

7 
14 

7 

7 

7 


1 hr. 

3} hrs. 

3} hrs. 

4 hrs. 
45 min. 
45 min. 

1 hr. 

1 hr. 

3 hrs. 
2i hrs. 

30 min. 

20 min. 

1 hr. 

4 hrs. 

10 min. 

5 min. 

20 min. 
1 hr. 

10 min. 
15 min. 
20 mm. 
20 min. 
20 min. 


3 

11 

1 

3 






Door Sheet, Back Head, P. and S. . . . 














1 
1 
3 

1 
3 
6 
2 

1 

4j 

5; 

1 






























Shearing 
and 


Ash Pan Hopper and Wheel Covers. . 


63 ttdaj- 




Tank- Cabs 


1 

1 

J 

\ 

't 

t 






Deck Plates 






































4x1= 4 
4x2= 8 
4x1= 4 
4x2= 8 
4x2= 8 
4x1= 4 
4x2= 8 
4x1= 6 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 


30 min. 
5 min. 
20 min. 
15 min. 
10 min. 
20 min. 
10 min. 
20 min. 
10 min. 
10 min. 






Pilot Steps 




































1 Throat Punch, 60* 

1 Throat Punch, 36* 

1 Throat Punch, 16* 




4x2= 8 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x2= 8 
4x2= 8 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x2= 8 
4x1= 4 
4x10 = 40 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x4=16 
4x1= 4 
4x4=16 
4x1= 4 
4xtl= 4 
4)X|1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x2= 8 
4x1= 4 
4x2= 8 
4x2= 8 
4x2= 8 
4x2= S 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 


30x2x20' 
30x1x25 ' 
SOxlxlO 1 ' 
30x1x25? 


c=12 
"c=7 
'c = 3 
5, = 7 


20 
11 

7 
11 

5 

5 
11 
10 
24 

5 
11 
11 

7 

14 

13 

115 

8.5 

7 
22 

8.5 
28 

7 

7 

7 

7 

7 
38 

7 
14 
14 
14 
14 

7 

7 

7 

7 

5 


Hhr. 

1} hr. 

1| hr. 
45 min. 
40 min. 

3jhrs. 

3* hrs. 

2t hrs. 

3 A hrs. 

8* hrs. 

l|hr. 

1 hr. 
15 min. 
45 min. 

5 hrs. 
1* min. 

4 hrs. 

7 hrs. 
20 min. 

2 hrs. 

6 min. 

8 min. 
15 min. 

8 min, 
15 min. 
10 min. 
10 min. 
20 min. 

6 min. 

3 min. 
15 min. 

5 min. 
10 min. 
30 min. 
10 min. 

5 min. 
3J hrs. 


n 

1 












Throat Sheet, Fire Box 








30x1x4% = 1 
30x1x4', =1 
30x1x25% =7 
30x2x4% =2 
30x2x27%, = 16 
30x1x4% =1 
30x1x25% = 7 
30x1x25% = 7 
30x1x10% =3 
30x2x10% =6 
30x1x30% =9 
30x10x25% =75 
30x1x15% =4.5 
30x1x10% =3 
30x4x5% =6 


2 

5i 
3, 
10 
5i 
V 

\ 

4 
6 

2 

■ 


h 

r 
V 

: 
■ 
: 

: 

1 




























1 


Ash Pan Hoppers and Wheel Covers.. 


67J days 
3 mach 


' 


Deck Plates 


30x1x15' 
30x4x10' 
30xlxlO r 


c=4.5 
? c = 12 
~„=3 














30xlxl0%=3 
30x1x10% =3 














30x1x10' 
30x1x10' 
30x2x50' 
30x1x10' 
30x2x10' 
30x2x10' 
30x2x10' 
30x2x10' 
30xlxl0< 
30xlxl0< 
30xlxl0< 
30x1x10' 


7 =3 
o = 3 
i=30 
"o = 3 
7 = 6 
"o=6 
"c=6 
7 C =6 
"c=3 
X = 3 
7 c = 3 
7„=3 


















Wind Shields. Engr's Cab 






Cab Sheets 


I 

2 






Wind Shields in Cab 


















Tool Box 






Flag Box. . , 














30x1x4% = 1 












1 Punch and Shear andI25' 




4x1= 4 
4x2= 8 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 


30x1x10% = 3 
30x2x20% =12 
30x1x25% =7 
30x1x4% = 1 
30x1x4% = 1 
30x1x25% = 7 


7 

20 

11 

5 

5 

11 


2? days 
25 min. 
45 min. 
95 min. 
45 min. 
35 min. 


19i 
1 
1 
1 

li 


. 






' 2 mach. 




















Door^Sheets, Fire Box 












1 Hydraulic Flange Press. . 




4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x1= 4 
4x2= 8 
4x2= 8 
4x4 = 16 
4x1= 4 
4x2= 8 


30x1x20% =6 
30x1x20% =6 
30x1x20% =6 
30x1x4% = 1 
30x1x4% = 1 
30x1x25% =7 
30x1x4% = 1 
30x2x20% =12 
30x2x10% =6 
30x4x10% = 12 


10 
10 
10 

5 

5 
11 

5 
20 
14 
28 

7 
14 


45 min. 
45 min. 

3 hrs. 

4 hrs. 
1 hr. 
1 hr. 
2J hrs. 

30 min. 
12 min. 
10 min. 
45 min. 
45; min. 


31 
2* 

i 

i 












Throat Sheet, Boiler 










Flanging 




I 15} days 
1 1 .mach. 












30x1x10 
30x2x10 


%=3 
fc=6 




! 





12S 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



time, which may, of course, readily be done where the 
tools are driven by individual motors. 

All of the new locomotives are to be equipped with 
Walschaert valve gear ; the study is based upon the sup- 
position that So per cent, of the engines in service have 
Stephenson gear, the remaining ones being equipped 
with the Walschaert gear. 

On roads where each individual operation has been 
carefully studied, as, for instance, where piecework- 
methods are used or schedules tabulated by time studies 
or other shop efficiency methods, there is no reason win- a 
complete analysis of this kind could not be made for a 



new shop which is to turn out a similar class of work. 
The output is affected by so many conditions, such as the 
design and the type of the locomotives, the organization 
of the shop and its method of operation, the class of tools 
and the way in which they are driven, and the tool steel 
which is used, that it is, of course, necessary to make an 
individual study for each shop. 

The writer was enabled to make these studies through 
the courtesy of T. S. Lloyd, superintendent of motive 
power and machinery of the Delaware, Lackawanna & 
Western Railroad and with the assistance of Thomas 
Jeffrey, general piecework inspector of that road. 



SETTING VALVES ON LOCOMOTIVES WITH WALS- 
CHAERT GEAR.* 



Oscar ANTZ.f 



When the Walschaert valve gear was first introduced in this 
country, the impression was common that it was designed entirely 
on the drawing board and that no variations from the figures 
thus obtained must be allowed; later on it became evident that 
these exact dimensions cannot always be maintained, but outside" 
of the locomotive works it does not, even now, seem to be gen- 
erally known what is the best way of setting the valves and de- 
termining what to change to obtain certain results. The Ste- 
phenson link motion is usually set entirely by the lead, and as 
tin Walschaert gear is designed to have constant lead at all 
points, it is believed by many that this is the first and only object 
to be obtained in setting the valves, the other events being cor- 
rect as a natural consequence. While this is approximately so, 
it is not an easy matter and requires some calculations to deter- 
mine just what is necessary to change, and how much to change 
it, to obtain this constant lead when more than one part is in- 
correct. What is iherefore recommended as the best and at the 
same time the simplest method is to practically lay out the gear 
on each individual locomotive. This is not, by far, as compli- 
cated as it sounds, and may not be new to some, but as it is not 
generally known, it will be treated at some length. 

It is assumed that the gear has been correctly designed and 
that the proportions of the combination lever are such that the 
travel of the valve in midgear is exactly twice the sum of the 
lead and lap. Such being the case, it is not necessary to measure 
the lead until the valves are practically set and ready to run 
over. It is further assumed that the parts have all been mad? 
to the drawings and have been checked as correct; that the 
valves and seats are of the correct dimensions to give the de- 
sired lap and exhaust clearance, and that the locomotive is on 
its wheels and ready to have the valves set. Then proceed as 
follows for each side of the locomotive . 

First :— Put the main wheels on rollers and have the main rod" 
in place connected to the crosshead; have the valve in place and 
connected; have all parts of the valve gear in place and con 
nected, except the union link and eccentric rod. 

Find the exact front and back dead centers of the crank pin in 
the usual way and mark them on the wheel with a tram from 
the frames. Put marks on the guides and crosshead indicating 
the extreme front and back ends of the travel of the crosshead, 
also mark the point midway between these. Get "port marks" on 
the valve stem or other convenient part in the usual manner 
showing points of opening and closing of steam and exhaust sides 
of the valve. 

Second : — Put the link block in the exact center of the link. 
This can be ascertained by raising and lowering the block by 
means of the reverse lever and oscillating the link (see Fig. i) 
by taking hold of the lower (now loose) end until there is no 
motion to the valve and combination lever. Should it not be 
possible to get both sides to remain stationary with one position 

•See also American Engineer, November, 1908, p. 134. 
t Supervisor of Valve Motion. I.. S. & M S. Ry. 



of the reverse lever, adjustment must be made on either side in 
the lifting device until they do so. 

Put the crosshead in the middle of its travel, and with straight 
edges on the lower guides and a tri-square (A, Fig. i) move the 
combination lever, loose at the lower end, until a line through 
the centers of the upper two holes is square with the guides. 
L'sually the three holes in this lever are in the same straight line, 
but in case they are not, the line through the upper two should 
lie taken. 

Tram the location of the valve and if it is not in central posi- 




tion with the valve seat, adjust the valve stem so that the valve 
is central and change the port marks to suit. 

Connect the union link : it should not move the combination 
lever out of its vertical position ; if it does so, adjust the length 
of the union link. 

Third : — Connect the eccentric rod and put the engine on one 
center; with a convenient tram put a mark on the frame or an 
attached part, such as the guides, from the center of the front 
pin of the eccentric rod (B, Fig. 2). Move the engine to the 
"ther center and make a similar mark. These marks should co- 
incide; if they do not, move the eccentric crank on the main pin 



April, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



129 



until they do. The amount of the necessary change is one-half 
of the horizontal distance between the two marks made with the 
tram, measured on a horizontal line through the eccentric crank 
pin. 

Fourth : — Put the engine on either center and move the reverse 
lever from extreme forward to extreme backward position; the 
combination lever and valve should not move. If they do, the 
length of the eccentric rod must be adjusted so that there will 
be no motion ; the amount of the necessary change being one- 
half of the motion of the forward end of the radius arm, 
conveniently measured with a tram (C, Fig. 3), multiplied by the 
ratio of the link arm radius to that of the link block, that is, the 
distance of the center of this block in extreme upper or lower 
position from the center of the link. 

The valves are now approximately set as close as it is possi- 
ble on this particular locomotive and are ready to be run over 
to get the different valve events. 

On account of the errors introduced when changing rectilinear 
to circular motion and vice versa, which occurs three times in 
this valve gear, there are always certain irregularities to be found 
in the valve events which can be minimized but never entirely 



overcome; two of these are important enough to 

It is assumed that the work of adjusting the parts was carefully 

done and that they ari 

The lead may be found to be more at one end than at the 
other, which will probably be due to the fact that the union link 
swings more to one side of a horizontal line than to the other; 
this can be corrected to a slight degree by adjusting the length 
of the union link. 

The valve travel may be found to be more at one end than at 
the other; this can be corrected by slightly adjusting the length 
of the front end of the radius arm to make the travel nearer 
equal, and adjusting the length of the union link to keep the lead 
equal. This will throw the combination lever out of square with 
the guides in mid position and will also affect some of the other 
valve events. 

None of these changes if considerable is advised until the mo- 
tion is laid out on the drawing board and its effect ascertained 
and the best amount of the change determined. If after this, a 
still closer adjustment is desired, the entire gear must be re- 
designed. 



HOW ONE OF THE RAILROADS SELECTS ITS NEW 
MACHINE TOOLS. 



It may be of interest to many of our readers to know just 
how a large railroad, such as the Pennsylvania, selects its new 
machine tools. In the fall of each year each grand division sub- 
mits to the general superintendent of motive power its estimated 



THE PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD COMPANY. 



NOHTBGB* CIBTniL H 1 ■ I H • I OQMF.UIT 

West Jrju.tr ft SEjraoac Railuoad Couvit 



SHAPER. 



Number required, 

Type 

Stroke of tool, 

Max. diatam i' between took, (double h 

( Belt, 
Drue, I Motor, eoltage, 

\ Motor, Toltage, . 
Attachments, 



TRANSACTION No. 



wbicb should conform to the following requirements: 



A. C. | .1. .,-..■ . 



Cyclosy 



The following information should be fuinisbcdby the manufacturer: 

Maximum stroke - - .. Lengtb of bed, _ 

Max. longitudinal travel of bead. 

Max. and min. distance from table to uudcraidu of bead, . 

Speed of cutting stroke, _ __,.... . Ratio cut to return. 

Range of speeds, Range of feeds, 

Horse power of motor, , 

Weight, (without motor) . . 

P. 0. B. at 

Karliesldelmry, 

Price, . 



Name of manufacturer. 
Agent,. 



NOTE Any variation from the above T«,uir 



.. inn, i be fully .l.i.i.l 
i a separate blank. 



I any all. mala pro[-nillion m„.l be mail 



FORM TO BE FILLED IN BY THE MACHINE TOOL BUILDER. 

requirements for new tools for the coming year, covering re- 
placements and additional equipment, to meet the conditions 
which it is estimated will obtain at the several shops of the re- 
spective divisions. These requirements are studied in the office 
of the general superintendent of motive power and eliminations 
and additions made as deemed advisable, after which a tool pro- 
gram is prepared therefrom, with the estimated costs, and is sub- 
mitted to the executive officers for approval. 



After the program has been 'lpproved, each division is in- 
formed as to the amount appropriated, and the superintendents 
of motive power request the purchasing agent to obtain bids 
from the various manufacturers for the kind and style of tool 
they desire. In requesting these bids the purchasing agent for- 
wards to the machine tool builders a form covering the particular 
tool required. One of these forms, for a shaper, is shown in the 
illustration. In returning these blanks, filled in, to the purchas- 
ing agent, the bidders usually write to him, calling attention to 
any new attachments which may be on the machines, etc. 

These letters are forwarded to the superintendent of motive 
power who requested the bids, and the information is transferred 
to a sheet, which condenses the information from all the bidders. 
After further investigation of the relative merits and adaptability 
of the tools the requisitions are made out by the superintendent 
of motive power and sent to the office of the general superin- 
tendent of motive power for approval, together with the indi- 
vidual bids and the condensed sheet before mentioned, as well 
as a letter explaining their preference for the machines specified 
on the requisitions. When the requisitions and bids are received 
in the office of the general superintendent of motive power they 
are carefully gone over. If the general superintendent of motive 
power can advise that there is some other machine in the market 
with features that make it more adaptable for the service than 
the one specified, or when it is known that the machine specified 
has not been a success at some other point, the requisition is 
changed accordingly. When approved by the general superin- 
tendent of motive power the requisition is returned to the super- 
intendent of motive power, who forwards it through the regular 
channel to the purchasing agent. 

It is understood that the various divisions, as well as the office 
of the general superintendent of motive power, shall keep in 
touch with the improvements thit are made in machine tools 
from time to time, by carefully noting the catalogs and descrip- 
tive matter received from the machine tool builders, and by per- 
sonal visits to other shops and manufacturing plants, making 
notes of machines for special work, and new attachments on ma- 
chines with which the motive power department is familiar, for 
future reference. 



The Mineral Production in the United States now ex- 
ceeds two billion dollars per annum, and it contributes more 
than 65 per cent, to the total freight traffic of the country. We 
now produce nearly 500,000,000 tons of coal per annum, or 40 
per cent, of the world's product. We also produce 58 per cent, 
of the world's iron ; 22 per cent, of the world's gold ; 60 per cent. 
of the world's copper. 



To Find the Weight of Castings multiply the cubic inches b-- 
0.2; for iron. 0.20 for steel and 0.30 for brass. 



130 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 




FIG. 7.- — DIES AND FORMER FOR BAGGAGE CAR DOOR KNOB. 



FIG. 6. — DIES AND FORMER FOR CASTLE NUT. 



FORGING AT THE COLLINWOOD SHOPS. ; 



Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway. 



Truck Hanger. — The dies and formers for forging a truck 
hanger for the standard Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Rail- 
way four-wheel passenger truck are shown in Figs, i, 2 and 3. 
The hanger is made of two pieces of wrought iron 1'/$ by 3 in. 
in size. These pieces are heated and bosses are forged on the 
ends which form the fork, while they are separate, by the dies 
shown in Fig. 1. The two pieces are then clamped together, 
heated to a welding heat and the slotted end is formed by using 
the dies shown in Fig. 2 ; the two pieces are welded together at 
this end at the same time by squeezing them tight between the 
jaws with the side motion of the machine. The jaw, or forked 
end, is opened with a common wedge in a bulldozer. 

The forked end of the hanger is then reheated and brought to 
a welding heat. It is placed in the forging machine and the 
jaw is finished and that end of the body of the hanger is com- 
pletely welded together by the dies and former shown at the 
right in Fig. 3. The slotted end of the hanger is then heated and 
the slot is punched with the dies and punch shown at the left 
in the same photograph. The center of the hanger is drawn to 




FIG. 4. — DIES AND FORMER FOR SPRING HANGER. 

length and finished under a steam hammer. This makes a very 
satisfactory hanger and costs less than a steel casting. 

Spring Band. — A spring band for an under-hung type of spring 
and the dies and former for forging it are shown in Fig. 4. The 
band is formed from a 1 by 5 in. bar of commercial iron. The 
bar is bent to suitable shape to go into the die; a filler is placed 
between the two pieces and it is completed in one stroke of the 
machine. This makes a strong spring band at a very low cost. 

Drawbar Yoke Filler. — The filling block for the back end of 
a curved drawbar yoke, and the dies and former for making it, 
are shown in Fig. 5. These blocks are usually made of malle- 
able iron, but it has been found that they may be made more 
cheaply by forging them. The forged block is made from pieces 
of different size arch bars, varying from 1 by 3 in. to 1% by 4 
in. The pieces are cut to the proper length to insure the same 
cubical contents ; a hole is punched in the center and the piece 
is bent into a "U" shape, heated to a welding heat, placed be- 

• Other articles on forcing at the Collinwood shops may he found on page 
142 of the April, 1906, issue; page 234, June, 1906; page 192. May. 1907, 
and page 344, September, 1907. Machine forging at the South Louisville 
shoos of the Louisville & Nashville Railroad was described on page 125, 
April, 1907; at the Topeka shops of the Santa Fe, page 463, December, 
1906; at the St Paul shops of the Gt. Northern Railway, page 222. June, 
1908. 



tween the dies of the forging machine, one blow of which causes 
ilu metal to flow to the shape shown in the photograph, welding 
it along the center line and maintaining the hole and completing 
the block. 

It is important that these pieces be placed in the machine by 
inserting a bar in the hole, which is punched in the blank, thus 
insuring the blank fitting in a central position in the die. It 
sometimes happens that there is not sufficient metal to com- 
plete the block. In such cases a second heat is taken and piece* 
of iuon, the required size to fill up, are placed in the recess of the 
block and both pieces are heated to a welding heat. Another 
operation of the machine will then turn out a complete block. 
The recesses are made in the side to bring the wrought iron 
block to the same weight as that of malleable iron. 

Castle Nut. — A 2 l / 2 in. castle nut t and the dies, former and 
blank for making it are illustrated in Fig. 6. The guide pin or 
mandrel and punch for piercing the blank to form the castella 
tions, are made in one piece with a threaded projection on the 
opposite end. This is screwed into the hexagon of the head, 
making a very simple form of header. The blank is made from 
a piece of commercial iron about % by 5 in. and is bent cold in 
the bulldozer to the shape shown ; n the photograph. It is then 
heated to a welding heat and placed between the dies ; one 
blow of the machine welds it solid, forms the hexagon, pierces 
the castellations and finishes the nut complete, as shown. 

Door Knobs. — Considerable trouble is found in getting a sat- 
isfactory porcelain door knob for baggage cars. Brass dooi 
knobs are stolen. The problem has been solved on the Lake 
Shore by using iron forgings, the dies and former for making 
them being shown in Fig. 7. The knob is formed with one blow 
of the machine from a round bar of iron in the lower part of 
the dies. It is then placed in the upper part of the dies where it 
is completed. 

These forgings were all made on y/2 and 5 inch Ajax forging 
machines. For the past three or four years the Collinwood smith 
shop has been very successful in using compressed air for 
making difficult welds in these machines. An air pipe is 
:onnected to the forging machine dies and is so arranged that 
it may be directed on the parts to be welded. The high pressure 
air coming in contact with the heated parts, blows off the scale 
and dirt and raises the temperature of the heated iron to the 
point of fusion. With this method a poor weld is very rare. 

tThe method of forging castle nuts from Vt to lii in. in size on the 
C. M. & St. P. Ry. is described in the November, 1908, issue, page 427 
The dies and former for making the smaller size nuts at Collinwood were 
illustrated in the May, 1907, issue, page 192. 



Steel Passenger Cars. — The use of steel in passenger car con- 
struction is not an experiment, but a matter of daily use. It lends 
itself readily to the skill of the artisan and reduces risk of serious 
accident to the passengers. It is more available than wood, pro- 
duces a plainer effect, is easy to clean and weighs no more than 
a wooden coach if economically designed. The initial cost per 
passenger carried is about the same as for wooden coaches, its 
maintenance considerably less. The life of a coach is greatly in- 
creased by the use of steel, and damage suits as well as suffer- 
ing in case of accident greatly reduced. The use of steel in coach 
construction is increasing daily and is here to stay. — John McE. 
Ames before the Central Raikeay Club. 



Cosr of Drop Tables.— In regard to the cost of the drop table, 
that varies from the smaller 24 ft. table, which is for trailer 
wheels, front or rear drivers or engine and tender trucks, cost- 
ing about $8,coo.oo, to the large ones for a whole locomotive, 
which cost about $11,000.00. — Wm. Elmer before the Railway 
Club of Pittsburgh. 



131 



132 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 




A STUDY OF THE ^GENERAL ARRANGEMENT OF 

BEECH .GROVE SHOPS. 



THE 



C. C. C. & St. L. Ry. (Bic-Four). 



The arrangement of the Beech Grove shops of the Big-Four 
is of special interest because, like the East Moline shops of the 
Rock Island System, there were no restrictions as to the shape 
and arrangement of the buildings. Every detail was carefully 
studied out and it may therefore be regarded as an ideal layout 
for the conditions for which it is intended. The buildings are 
all arranged so that they may be considerably enlarged in the 
future. 

Indianapolis is the central and most important point of 'he 
Big- Four system; six divisions radiate from it. Beech Grove 
is about six miles from Indianapolis on the Chicago division. 
The new shops replace those at Brightwood, also near India- 
napolis, but which were built a number of years ago and were 
not adapted for handling the new and larger power which has 
come into use since that time. The Big-Four has several other 
shops, most of which are not fitted for taking care of the heavier 
locomotives, and the Beech Grove shops, in addition to repairing 
the locomotives for the six divisions leading out of Indianapolis, 
will take care of the heavier power of the entire system and also 
do all of the manufacturing work for the system. 

It is proposed to build a large concentration freight yard near 
Indianapolis and the new shop plant is located opposite the junc- 
tion of the east and west bound classification yards of this yard. 
As may be seen from the general plan, provision has been made 
for repairing freight and passenger cars, as well as locomotives. 
When the new freight yards are installed it will be necessary to 
build a roundhouse which will probably be located north of the 
western part of the plant. 

At present only the power house, store house and the machine 
and erecting, forge and boiler shops have been erected. These 
have been in operation for about six months. The car repair 
work is still done at Brightwood but will be transferred to Beech 
Grove as soon as conditions allow of the completion of the new 
plant. 

Convenient handling of material and its steady progress from 
the raw to the finished state, and its application to the car or 
locomotive, have been carefully studied. The ten-ton yard crane 
extending from the end of the boiler shop to the end of the 
coach paint shop, about 2,000 ft., and the system of industrial 
tracks are important features in this connection. The lumber is 
stored at the eastern end of the plant, from which it goes direct 
to the planing mill or, if it is to be dried, to the dry kiln and 
from there to the planing mill or the dry lumber shed. The 
planing mill is near the power house and also convenient to the 
freight car repair shop and yards, where most of the lumber is 
used and to which it is transported over the industrial tracks. 
The coach shop is equally convenient to the planing mill. The 
small amount of lumber required for cabs and pilots may easily 
be delivered by the yard crane and over the industrial track ex- 
tending from it to the cab and pilot shop. The cabinet shop willl 
be placed on the second floor of the planing mill. 

The wheel shop is close to the freight car repair yard where 
the greater number of the wheels and axles will be used. The 
coach shop and the paint shop, each 177 ft. wide and 442 ft. long, 
are served by a transfer table. The truck work will be handled 
in the northern end of the coach shop. These shops are wide 
enough to accommodate two coaches on each trackand there is 
also room for a coach between the transfer table and the build- 
ing. If necessary, the coaches may be stripped in this open space 
and the seats and brass work may be sent to the upholstering 
shop and the brass finishing room before the coach is taken into 
the shop. The finishing work on the coaches may also be done 
here, if necessary. This arrangement also places the coach shop 



a sufficient distance from minimize the danger 

should the latter catch fire. The northern end of the forge shop 
and the eastern part of the southern end are to be used for car 
work and manufacturing; the southwestern quarter will be used 
for locomotive work. It is thus equally convenient tc the three 
departments where its product is mostly used — the locomotive- 
shop, the coach shop and the freight car repair yard. 

The power house is centrally located and is equipped with 
Westinghouse-Parsons steam turbines, direct connected to the 
generators. It has a boiler room 45 ft. 6 in. wide, a pump room 
23 ft. wide ami a turbine room 45 ft. 6 in. wide. The building is 
176 ft. long. 

The locomotives, coming in for repairs, enter the plant at the 
western end. The 85 ft. turntable, west of the locomotive shop, 
is used for turning the locomotives so that they may be headed 
in the proper direction in the erecting shop ; it is also used in 
transporting the boilers from the erecting shop to the boiler 
shop, and the tenders to the tank shop. As may be seen from 
the cross sectional view, the machine and erecting shop is of the 
double banked type and has two main erecting bays and a central 
portion consisting of two spans of about 65 ft. each and one span 
40 ft. wide, with a balcony above it on which the heating fans, 
lavatories, locker rooms, tin shop, etc., are placed. The roof 
above these three central bays is of saw-tooth construction. The 
building is 572 ft. long, consisting of 26 panels of 22 ft. each. 
There are 52 engine pits, four being used for ingress and egress 
and 48 for repair purposes. The erecting shops are equipped 
with 120-ton traveling cranes, with 10-ton cranes operating on 
run-ways underneath those of the main cranes. The two bays in 
the machine shop, where the heavier tools are placed, are served 
by 10-ton traveling cranes. 

The boiler shop is entirely separated from the locomotive shop 
and is 122 ft. 4 in. wide and 561 ft. long and has a 30-ton crane 
over the main bay and a 10-ton crane over the smaller bay in 
which the machine tools are placed. The foundry is located so 
that it has plenty of room about it for 7 the storage of material; it 
faces the store house platform. The material may either be 
shipped from this platform or distributed throughout the plant 
by the midway crane and over the industrial tracks. The pat- 
tern shop is located convenient to the foundry. Like the power 
house, the store house and offices are centrally located, but di- 
rectly opposite and nearest to the locomotive shop where the 
greater part of the supplies are used. The storehouse building is 
70 ft. wide and 260 ft long inside ; the first and second stories 
are used for storehouse purposes and the third floor for offices, 
laboratory, assembly rooms, apprentice school room, hospital 
room, etc. 

The buildings have concrete foundations to the water table 
and are of structural steel with walls of Colonial shale brick, 
which is very hard and does not absorb moisture. The founda- 
tion footings are in most cases reinforced, thus saving a consid- 
erable amount of concrete. The buildings are lighted with 
Cooper-Hewitt lamps. 

There are three sewerage systems ; one of them, known as the 
high level, drains the water from the roofs of the buildings into 
a reservoir, furnishing a supply of soft water for the toilet 
rooms, and other purposes. In case the reservoir should overflow 
the water from the high level system may be diverted into what 
is known as the low level system, which carries off all the sur- 
face drainage. The third system, the sanitary sewer, empties 
into the septic tank. The 100,000 galkn steel tank near the 
power house is 115 ft. high and is supplied from three wells. 



133 



134 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



The piping from the power house to the various buildings is 
carried in a tunnel; the wiring is carried in conduits laid along- 
side the tunnel. 

The Beech Grove locomotive shop is in some respects modeled 
after the new erecting shop at Mt. Carmel, built a few years ago ; 
the semi-cross-section is quite similar, the Beech Grove shop 
being of the double banked type. The Beech Grove shops, in- 
cluding the layout, design of the buildings and the selection and 
arrangement of the equipment, was worked out by a committee 
from the New York Central Lines' mechanical department, of 
which William Garstang, superintendent of motive power of the 
Big-Four, was chairman. The other members of the committee 
were E. D. Bronner, superintendent of motive power of the 
Michigan Central, L. H. Turner, superintendent of motive power 



of the Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad, R. T. Shea, general in- 
spector of tools and machinery of the New York Central Lines, 
F. M. Whyte, general mechanical engineer of the New York 
Central Lines and B. D. Lockwood, mechanical engineer of the 
Big-Four. The committee originally included H. F. Ball, who 
during his service on the committee was superintendent of motive 
power of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway, and 
who after his appointment as vice-president of the American 
Locomotive Company was succeeded by Mr. Turner. The com- 
mittee was assisted in working out the general details by the 
Arnold Company, who worked in immediate touch with the 
chairman of the committee and his mechanical engineer, who 
were constantly in direct touch with all of the details of the in- 
stallation. 



RAILROAD MACHINE SHOP PRACTICE. 



SHOES AND WEDGES. 



George J. Burns. 



Having an expensive machine 100I and being confident that 
it represented in efficiency what it must command in price, the 
writer took up the study of machine shop practice in locomotive 
repair shops, with a view of getting at a basis on which to guar- 
antee an increased output at a decreased cost. Appreciating that 
the output of a superior machine may be offset by clumsy 
methods, the investigations included a comparative study of shop 
practices in order that the best methods might be recommended. 
So far the principal shops of thirty of the largest railroads have 
been visited and the data obtained have been compiled and classi- 
fied. 

While the observations are of great value to the machine too', 
builder they are of even greater value to the railroads. The un- 
necessarily wide range in time and cost for doing the same work 



ling, setting and holding the work. The former can be increased 
only by superior mechanism, while in the latter there is usually 
great room for improvement. As the machine produces only 
while in operation, every gain in the time of handling the work 
is clear profit. Many shops are employing, or have employed 
shop economists, and nearly all have speed or efficiency men. No 
one man can possess the combined experience of all. Experi- 
menting is expensive. What is required is direct specific knowl- 
edge of what are the best results and how they are being accom- 
plished. Observation is the best teacher, and results are the most 
conclusive demonstration. 

Shoes and Wedges. 
Material. — Most roads use cast iron shoes and wedges; a few 
are using bronze, and one is using cast iron with a bronze facing. 
The use of bronze for locomotive parts is decidedly on the in- 
crease, but as the subject of material is not immediately perti- 
nent to the purpose of these articles the comparative advantages 
of different materials will not be considered. It may be noted, 
however, that most tools on which bronze is machined are not 
running at speeds at which the metal can be cut most efficiently. 




nc 2 





r jnL n 
















. 


L 





FIC.l 



r=3 



FIG. 4 



1 ■ -_ 1 - - 



FIG. 3 



FIG. 5 



MACHINING SHOES AND WEDGES. 



on similar machines in different shops is amazing. Nearly every 
shop has some superior methods, but some methods in every 
shop can be improved upon. Each shop should profit by the ag- 
gregate brains and combined experience of all. Co-operation 
through some common medium of analysis and comparison would 
bring about a revolution in the cost of repairs. 

Aside from the skill of the operator in manipulating the ma- 
chine after it is in actual operation, the output is limited by its 
speed and power capacity, and by the method and order of hand- 



Preparing Shoes and Wedges. — Most shops limit the prepar- 
ing of shoes and wedges to the sides and the frame fit. The 
practice seems to indicate that anything more than that is an un- 
necessary expense. Shops that finish faces or edges argue that 
it assists in getting a square job. The value of that contention 
seems to be limited to practice where the frame fit is the last 
process in preparing. 

The most common practice seems to be the least efficient. The 
pieces are usually set up on the sides in parallel rows, as shown 



April, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



135 



in Fig. I. One shop bolts the pieces to an angle, as shown in 
Fig. 2. Where machining the sides is the first process the pieces 
are chucked for frame fit as shown in Fig. 3. Another shop 
bolts the pieces down on the faces and planes the sides with the 
rail tool on the down feed. The last practice seems to be the 
least efficient, as there is a tendency for the tool to crowd out, 
often necessitating a second cut. 

In preparing shoes and wedges the order of processes that 
seems to give the best results in output and cost is to finish the 
frame fit first. It is good planer and milling machine practice 
to start, when practical, by setting the piece on its broadest base, 
in which position it can be held most securely. The frame fit 
having been machined, the pieces are bolted to a jig for side 
planing or milling. This secures a quick setting, a secure hold 
and a square job. (See Figs. 4 and 5.) 

The jig shown in Fig. 5 is removable; the operator fastens 
the pieces on one set of jigs while he is planing the other set. 

The most common practice, and seemingly the best, in making 
the frame fit is to plane down the sides with a double point, 01 
broad forming tool. Some shops have abandoned this methoo 
because of liability of breaking the tool. This can be overcome 
by blocking the tool to prevent it from rising on the return 
stroke. One shop that prepares shoes and wedges on milling 
machines runs two machines side by side with an operator and 
helper, each assisting the other in setting the work. Results, 
however, do not show as much efficiency as is secured by use of 
the jig (Fig. 4). 

Cost of Preparing Shoes and Wedges. — Cost runs all the way 
from 15 cents to 64 cents, the most common cost being about 30 
cents. The lowest cost observed was 15 cents on a planer, and 
included face and edges, but it was manufacturing work, and 
cannot be fairly compared to repair work, which in most shops 
is necessarily more or less intermittent. On a powerful milling 
machine the piece price was 20 cents and included faces and edges. 
The piece price of work done on the jig, shown in Fig. 5, was 
20 cents, which includes planing the edges of the shoes; this is 
done on a slow planer, running much below the speed capacity of 
the steel. On a modern high speed planer the piece price on this 
process can be materially reduced. 

Replaning or Fitting Shoes and Wedges. — This work is done 
on planers and shapers. The average time required is from 15 
minutes in some shops *o one hour in others, and the piece price 
varies from 8 to 35 cents, the usual cost being about 20 cents. 

The average cost of the shoe and wedge work in a shop de- 
pends largely upon the proportion of new work. The shortest 
time and the lowest cost can be obtained only by a tool of supe- 
rior efficiency. The amount of reduction is frequently more than 
one inch, and the material, as a rule, is very difficult to cut. Some 
shops line up old shoes and wedges when they become thin, but 
whether this pays depends upon the cost of preparing the new 
ones. 



Photographing Machinery. — In photographing machinery the 
lens should be of long focus ; never shorter than the diagonal 
of the sensitive plate. The machinery should be painted a "flat'' 
drab color, parts in shadow being painted a lighter shade than 
more prominent parts. Light should come from one direction 
only, and at a downward angle of about 20 degrees from the 
horizontal. In focusing, the points of sharpest focus should be 
midway between the center and the edges of the ground glass. 
No matter how much the camera is pointed up or down, the 
ground glass should always be vertical. Exposure should be 
ample ; an under-exposed plate can never show what the light 
has never recorded upon it. — 5. Ashton Hand, before the Amer. 
Soc. Mech. Engrs. 



Feed of a Planing Machine. — The rate of feed is an impor- 
tant factor in determining the life of a knife edge on a planing 
Cutter. It is, of course, dependent upon the lumber, the class of 
work desired, etc., but it should never be less than eight knife 
marks per inch and never finer than 16 knife cuts per inch. 



MOULDING PACKING RINGS. 

United States metallic packing rings for piston and valve stem 
packing are moulded at the McKees Rocks shops of the Pitts- 
burgh & Lake Erie Railroad so as not to require machining; they 
are steam tight and satisfactory in every respect. The moulds 
are of cast iron and are shown in the accompanying illustrations. 
The contour of that part of the ring which fits the stuffing box 
is, of course, the same for all the engines; to provide for the 
variation in the diameter of tl at part of the mould for 




MOULD FOR PACKING RINGS. 

the inner side of the ring is removable and a sufficient number 
of these removable parts are carried to provide the necessary 
variety of diameters. 

When the plugs or inner parts have been adjusted the top 
of the mould is put in place, as shown in the second illustration. 
It is locked by the three clamps ; the metal is poured in the 
larger holes, the air escaping through a set of smaller ones. The 
three clamps are then loosened, the two at the left-hand end 
dropping downward out of the way. The lever near the left is 




PACKING RING MOULD, READY TO POITR. 

lifted and the lug on it strikes the top plate of the mould, moving 
it backward and cutting off the sprues. The cover is then lifted 
off and the rings are removed and are ready for application to 
the locomotive. To use such a mould successfully the packing 
metal must be carefully selected. Most metals do not seem to 
flow freely enough to fill the entire space and the Lake Erie 
officials have only found one or two metals which are satisfactory 
for this purpose. 



Protection of Railroad Men. — I am strongly convinced that 
the government should make itself as responsible to employees 
injured in its employ as an interstate railroad is made responsi- 
ble by federal law to its employees, and I shall be glad, whenever 
any additional reasonable safety device can be invented to re- 
duce the loss of life and limb among railway employees, to urge 
Congress to require its adoption by interstate railways. — In- 
augural Address of President Taft. 



THE DESIGN OF MILLING CUTTERS. 



C. J. Morrison. 



The high initial cost of the alloy or high speed steels necessi- 
tates the use of extreme care in the design and manufacture of 
tools of these metals. A few spoiled or inefficiently designed lools 
will soon eliminate the saving in labor charges which should 
result from the use of tools made of alloy steel. This applies 
more directly to milling cutters than to any of the other tools. 
The average railroad machinist or toolmaker has had very little 
experience in designing and making milling cutters that will cut 
freely and not chatter. Yet the milling machine is so intimately 
associated with the economical operation of a railroad shop that 
the proper design of cutters is extremely important. The econ- 
omy obtained by the use of milling machines for work on driving 
boxes, shoes and wedges, eccentrics, crossheads, rods, etc., is 
well understood, but, at the same time, many milling machines 
have been condemned for such work largely on account of the 
poor design of cutters. 

General practice, under necessity of economy of manufacture 
and grinding, has placed milling cutters in two distinct classes, 
known as solid and inserted teeth. Under solid cutters are 
usually included all cutters under six inches in diameter. This 
type of cutter is used for milling flutes of reamers and taps and 
for general work where small sizes are best adapted. Under 




FIG. I. — SOLID MILLING CUTTER. 

inserted teeth cutters, are included all cutters over six inches in 
diameter. This type is used for facing, side cutting and other 
special and general work. It is not considered practicable to 
make inserted teeth cutters under six inches in diameter. The 
blank for these cutters should, in all cases, be made of soft steel. 
Solid Cutters. — The number of cutting edges for solid milling 
cutters, intended for general work, has been taken in average 
practice as follows : 



Diameter of Cutter. 

w 

X" 
1" 
154" 

iyi" 

2" 

2'A" 

3" 

3'A" 

4" 

5" 

6" 



No. Cutting Edges. 

6 

8 
12 
14 
16 
18 
21 
24 
26 
28 
30 
32 



In most cases the cutting edge is made with a radial face, as 
indicated by dotted lines in Fig. I. The spaces may be cut with 
a tool that will produce an angle of so degrees between the face 
and the back of the tooth. This angle gives ample depth to the 
clearance space, and at the same time furnishes well supported 
cutting edges. The milling machine cutter used for forming the 
teeth is run in deep enough to leave the lands .09 to .1 in. in 
width, according to the size of the cutter being made. The teeth 
are also cut on the sides of the cutter, as shown in Fig. 1. The 



spaces here may be cut with a milling cutter that will produce 
an angle of from 60 to 70 degrees between the face and the back 
of the tooth. When milling the teeth on the side the index head 
cannot be left at the 90 degree mark or on the zero mark, but 
must be inclined a little, in order that the cutter may make the 
lands of equal width. The amount the index head is to be in- 
clined depends upon such varying conditions that computation 
of it is a very difficult problem, and in practice it is more 
easily found by trial. 

After cutting the teeth, remove all burrs by filing, and then 
harden. In order to grind a high speed alloy cutter, it is first 
circularly ground, then backed off for clearance. It is essential 
that great care be taken not to draw the color on the cutting 
edge, as this tends to soften it. Alloy steel is air hardening, but 
nevertheless experience has shown that with any of these cuiters 
that have been drawn, it is impossible to get as good results as 
with one that has been more carefully handled, and the color of 
which has not been drawn. Alloy cutters should preferably be 
ground dry, but not too viciously. If water is used, the supply 
should be plentiful, as sprinkling the cutters creates su'face 
cracks. The reason for this is that the tungsten in the steel 




KIG. 3. — INSERTED TEETH CUTTER. 

tends to adhere to the cutting edges and fill up the pores o r the 
grinding wheel, thereby glazing the surface of the wheel, and 
causing the rapid heating of the piece being ground. 

Helical Milling Cutters. — When making solid helical miring 
cutters, more commonly known as spiral milling cutters, choose 
the helix that will give the cutting edge an angle of about 20 de- 
grees to a plane passing through the axis of the cutter. It does 
not make any particular difference whether the helix is left- 
handed or right-handed, when the cutter is intended for a ma- 
chine on which the cutter arbor is supported at the end. How- 
ever, when used for a machine on which the end of the arbor is 
free, the helix should be such that the tendency will be to force 
the arbor home; that is, if the cutter is left-handed, the helix 
should be right-handed. A right-handed helix is one that in ad- 
vancing, turns in the direction of the hands of a clock ; a left- 
handed helix turns in the opposite direction. A left-handed 
cutter is one that travels in the direction of the clock, when 
viewed from the front of the machine and looking towards the 
spindle, and a right-handed cutter is one that travels opposite 
to the hands of a clock. 

For heavy milling a style of cutter with nicked teeth is rec- 
ommended, as the nicks break up the chips, thereby enabling a 
heavier cut to be taken than is practicable with a cutter with a 
continuous cutting edge. These nicks, in the ordinary cutter, are 
y& in. long by li in. deep and iJ4 ' n - from center to center on 



136 



APRIL, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



137 



surface cutters under 6 in. in diameter; on surface cutters above 
6 in. in diameter the nicks are Yi in. long by 3/16 in. deep and 
iyi in. from center to center. These nicks are milled in rows 
around the circumference, a row consisting in alternate ricks 
and teeth, as shown on the cutter in Fig. 2, a row always extend- 
ing around the edge of a cutter, as "AA," Fig. 2, thus eliminating 
breakage of teeth. 

In the manufacture of inserted teeth cutters there are many 
ways of holding the blades in the body. The one outlined in 
Fig. 3 is adapted for medium sized cutters for all general work, 





FIG. 5- — BLADES ARE 10 BE MILLED TO THE LINES OF A HELIX. 

and is a design furnished by many manufacturers. The metal 
between every pair of slots, as "BB," Fig. 3, is slotted with a 
narrow slot, "C." Before cutting these slots, a hole is drilled 
and reamed taper to receive the taper pin, "G," which is driven 
in after the cutter, "F," is in place, thus holding the blades fric- 
tionally. Driving the taper pin out loosens the cutter sufficiently 
to allow it to be easily withdrawn. In the case of very long 



index head by trial to the angle that will give straight slots 
coinciding closely with the helix. 

If a milling machine is not so arranged that the index head 
swivels on the platen, the slots will have to be cut with an end 
mill. Where the mill has a so-called raising block, to which the 
index head may be clamped and then swiveled across the platen, 
the slots can be cut with a regular axial cutter. After th<* cut- 
ters have been inserted into the slots, and locked, the milling 
machine is geared again for the proper helix, and the cutting 
face of each cutter is milled helical and radial. The number of 
cutting edges for milling cutters with inserted blades may be as 
given bHnw, which is good average practice : 



TAI '.K OF CUTTING EDG1 [ILLS WITH 


INSERTED 






CUTTERS 






Diameter. 




r. 


Diameter. 


Number. 


6 


12 




18 


35 


7 


II 




20 


38 


8 






22 


41 


e 


IS 




21 


44 


in 








46 


12 


'i 




2H 


48 


14 


28 




30 


50 


L6 


3:; 




:-,4 


52 



The proportions of the cutters may be about as follows: tSee 
Fig. 3.) The thickness of the cutter may be about one-fourth 
the distance from one cutting edge to the next ojie. The depth 
"K" may be about .75 of the pitch of the cutting edges, and the 
depth "M" of the slots may be about .55 of the pitch. By pitch 
here is meant the distance from one cutting edge to the other 
measured along the arc of the circle circumscribed about the 




FIG. 2. — MILLING CUTTER WITH NICKED TEETH. 



FIG. 4. — STRAIGHT BLADE SET AT AN ANGLE. 



•cutters, this method is not used, but the cutters are dovetailed in 
and the back of the cutting edge is then caulked. 

Inserted milling cutters may be given a helical cutting edge 
for the same purpose that solid cutters are provided with it. but 
if a helical slot is cut in the body the cutting tool will have to 
be helical in order to fit. This is very hard to make, however, 
and cannot successfully be made with the machinery found in 
the average tool room. For this reason straight slots are cut 
at an angle which will vary with the length of the cutter. Iv, no 
case should this angle be so small that when one blade leaves 
the work, the other is not engaged in cutting. 

Straight cutters are universally used. Straight cutters set at an 
angle are open to one objection, which is that the front face of 
the cutter is not radial throughout its length, but changes from 
front rake at one end to radial face at about the center, and to 
negative rake at the other end. This is illustrated in Fig. 4, 
which shows one straight cutter inserted at an angle. In order 
to bring out the objectionable feature more clearly, the body has 
been made rather small. At the end, "A," the face of the cutting 
edge has front rake, as indicated by radial line "OC;" the cut- 
ting edge radial line changes to a negative rake at "F," as shown 
by "OE." 

The best way to relieve this defect is to mill the cutting face 
helical with a suitable cutter set to produce a radial face. This 
is shown in Fig. 5. In order to allow this to be done the blades 
are made heavier in large cutters, being as much as one-half 
inch thick. Before cutting the slots at an angle, select a helix 
that will give an angle of about 5 degrees, with a plane passing 
through the axis. Gear the milling machine to cut this line and 
turn the blank body in the machine. With a scriber clamped 
to the milling machine arbor, scribe a helical line on the face 
of thi body; this line will then serve as a guide for* setting the 



cutter, or in other words the pitch of the cutting edges is equal 
to the circumference of the cutter divided by the number of teeth. 
The cutters may be backed off with a milling cutter that will 
give an angle of about 60 degrees between the front and top of 
the cutter, as shown in the figure. The backing off may be car- 
ried forward far enough to leave a land of about .03 inches. 
After the cutters have been thus formed and shaped, they are 




FIG. 6. — INSERTED TOOTH CUTTER WHICH MAY BE ADJUSTED FOR 

WIDTH. 

driven out and hardened in the regular way of hardening alloy 
steel, and are then put in the slots and circularly grounc and 
given a relief of about 5 degrees, in place of the old practice of 
3 degrees which was generally used with the carbon steel. 

A type of cutter known as the expanding inserted nvlling 
cutter is extremely useful in milling shoes and wedges, in that 



138 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



the body of the cutter is adjustable in width. Two distinct sets 
of blades are set in two separate bodies at an angle of 4 de- 
grees from the axial line and with the cutting edges slanting 
inward. The two bodies interlock and by placing liners between 
them a variation of about 3/16 in. can be obtained in the width 
of the mill ; this allows 3/32 in. to be ground off before reset- 



ting the blades, and at the same time lowers the labor cost in 
resetting the blades, and increases the life of a cutter. Such a 
cutter is shown in Fig. 6. 

Adherence to the practices as here outlined will provide efficient 
milling cutters at low cost, which produce the large output of 
work required by modern shops. 



THE RAILROAD SHOP APPRENTICE. 



New York Central Lines. 



arithmetic work which he turns in. To be useful the data sheets 
must be simple and applicable to features with which the appren- 
tice comes in direct contact in connection with his work. 



A form of instruction which appeals to the boys and is giving 
very satisfactory results has recently been introduced in the 
school room. Large blueprints, showing sections and elevations 
of locomotive boilers, are spread out upon a table and one or 
two boys, working together, fill in on suitably prepared blanks all 
of the information called for. These forms include information 
such as ordinarily appears in a specification or bill of material, 
and are written in such language and terms as may be easily com- 
prehended by the apprentices. Some of the questions require a 
long hunt before the answer is found. The boys know it is some- 
where on the print and do not give up until it is found. 
******* 

As a bonus for performing certain amounts of home study, as 
indicated by the number of problem sheets which are turned in, 



O 



DATA SHEET 
12 



O 



TYPES OF LOCOMOTIVE BOILERS. 



Radial Stay and Wagon Top 



Crown Bar and Wagon Top 

n 




Wide Firebox and Straight 





Wooten or Mother Hubbard 

n_ 



Vanderbilt 



New York Ceotral Line; Sliop Classes 



TYPICAL DATA SHEET FOR APPRENTICES. 

data sheets containing rules, formula, tables and sketches are 
issued to the boys in blueprint form. One of these sheets is 
reproduced herewith. The practice at one shop is to give a data 
sheet to the apprentice for every ten consecutive sheets of home 



Sketching is being emphasized more and more strongly. Each 
apprentice on the system has recently been furnished with a 
sketch book, soft pencil and two-foot rule. 

The successful mechanic must understand mechanical drawing, 
but even more important is the ability to quickly sketch an object 
or put practical ideas on paper intelligently, without the drawing- 
board and T square. 

******* 

It has been found necessary to set an arbitrary educational 

standard for boys enrolling as apprentices. So many boys who 

are not fully qualified wish to enter the schools that an entrance 

examination has been adopted ; failure to pass this requires the 

boy to wait and study until he can do so. One or two boys 

below the standard can very greatly lower the standing of a 

whole class. 

******* 

Harper's Weekly has been running a series of articles entitled 
"This Land of Opportunity." One of these was given over to 
a consideration of the New York Central Lines apprenticeship 
system, from which the following extract has been taken : 

"It is required from the boy, in order not to take too much 
from his shop time, that he shall do a considerable part of these 
problems at home. With only the rarest exceptions, this work 
is prosecuted faithfully and well. When it isn't, something drops. 
Your delinquent student in this college goes up before a facultv 
consisting of a division foreman in whose sight he is a very 
negligible unit. 

"I am informed," said this Nemesis to a boy in the West Al- 
bany shop school a little while ago, "that you haven't been work- 
ing out the problems given to you, and that you're away behind.' 

"Yes, sir; I guess that's right." 

"Well, you've got just one more chance. Work 'em or go get 
your time." 

At shop time next morning the backslider walked up with a 
handful of problem papers, and all were solved. 

"All these?" said the faculty, in surprise, "when did you dc 
'em?" 

"Last night." 

"H'm ! It must have taken some time." 

"It took all night. I haven't been to bed." 

And having "worked off his condition," he went back to his 
job in the shops and put in a full day. 

That is a fair sample of the school discipline and the way it 

works. 

******* 

There are now ten apprentice schools on the New York Cen 
tral Lines with a total of 547 apprentices. It is expected that two 
more schools will soon be opened. 



Equipment of the C. P. R. — It is reported that Sir T. Shaugh- 
nessy has written a letter to Sir Wilfrid Laurier pointing out 
that during the years 1902 to 1908 the Canadian Pacific Railway 
has added to its rolling stock at the rate of fourteen freight cars 
every day, one passenger car every two days, and one locomotive 
every three days ; and yet such is the volume of traffic that passes 
over this system that it has the utmost difficulty in keeping pace 
with the demand made upon it. It has been calculated that the 
combined freight cars on the Canadian Pacific Railway have a 
deadweight capacity equivalent to the weight of the entire popu- 
lation of Fn°land. 



ENGINEERING DATA— TUBES 



From a hand-book on "The Mechanical Properties of Shelby Seamless Steel Tubing"; 
prepared by Prof. Rcid T. Stewart. Published and copyrighted in 1008 by the National Tube 
Company of Pittsburgh, Pa., through ivhose courtesy rcr arc enabled to present this data. 



TABLE ' Inside Surface in Square Feet Per Lineal Foot 

For Shelby Standard Cold Drawn Mechanical Tubing 

Held T. Stewart and R. L. W.. 1907. Chkd. by W. F. F. 


Out. 

side 
Dlam. 
Inches 


THICKNESS IN GAGE AND FRACTIONS OK AN INCH 


22 
BWG 


20 
BWG 


18 
BWG 


1/16 


3/32 


1/8 


5/32 


3/16 


7/32 


1/4 


5/16 


3/8 


1/2 


5/8 


3/4 


7/8 


' 


t 
I 

1 

1 

li 

11 
11 
It 

11 

2 

21 

21 
2) 
3 

3t 
3) 
31 

4 
41 

4) 

41 

5 

54 


.1162 
.1490 
.1817 

.2144 
.2471 
.2799 

.3126 


.1126 

.1453 
.1780 

.2107 
.2435 
.2762 

.3089 
.3416 
.3744 


.1052 
.1380 
.1707 

.2034 
.2361 
2689 

3016 
.3343 
3670 


.0982 
1309 
.1636 

1963 
.2291 
2618 

.2945 
3272 
3600 

.4254 
4909 
5563 

6218 
6872 


OH 18 
.1145 
.1473 

1800 
.2127 
.2454 

.2782 
3109 
3436 

.4091 
4745 
5400 

6054 
6709 
.7363 

8018 
.8672 


.0654 
.0982 
.1309 

1636 
.1963 
.2291 

2618 
2945 
.3272 

.3927 
.4581 
.5236 

5890 
6545 
7199 

.7854 
8508 
.9163 

9817 


.1145 

.1473 
.1800 
2127 

2454 
2782 
3109 

3763 
.4418 
5072 

5727 
6381 
7036 

7690 
8345 
8999 

9654 
1 0308 
1 0963 

1 1617 
1 2272 
1 3581 


.0982 

.1309 
1636 
.1963 

2291 
.2618 
.2945 

3600 
.4254 
4909 

-5563 
6218 
.6872 

.7527 
8181 
-8836 

9490 
1 0145 
1 0799 

1 1454 
1 2108 
1 3417 


.1145 

1473 
.1800 

.2127 
.2454 
.2782 

3436 
.4091 
.4745 

-5400 
6054 
.6709 

.7363 
8018 
.8672 

.9327 

9981 

1.0636 

1.1290 
1 1945 
1 3254 


.1309 
1636 

1963 
-2291 
.2618 

3272 
.3927 
4581 

-5236 
5890 
6545 

7199 
7854 
8508 

9163 

9817 

1 0472 

1 1126 
1 1781 
1-3090 


.1636 
.1963 
.2291 

2945 
.3600 
.4254 

.4909 
5563 
6218 

6872 
.7527 
.8181 

.8836 

9490 

1 0145 

1 0799 
1 1454 
1 2763 


1309 
.1636 
1963 

.2618 
3272 
3927 

4581 
5236 

5890 

.6545 
7199 
-7854 

8508 
9163 
.9817 

1 0472 
1 1126 
1 2435 


.1309 

1963 
2618 
.3272 

3927 
-4581 
5236 

5890 
-6545 
.7199 

.7854 
.8508 
.9163 

.9817 
1 0472 
1 1781 


.1963 
.2618 

.3272 
.3927 
.4581 

.5236 
.5890 

.6545 

.7199 
.7854 
.8508 

-9163 

9817 

1 1126 


3927 

.4581 
.5236 
5890 

6545 
.7199 
7854 

.8508 

9163 

1 0472 


.3272 

.3927 
.4581 
.5236 

.5890 
6545 
.7199 

7854 
-8508 
9817 


.2618 

.3272 
.3927 
.4581 

.5236 
5890 
.6545 

.7199 
7854 
9163 



TABLE ' Capacity in Cubic Inches Per Lineal Foot 

For Shelby Standard Cold Drawn Mechanical Tubing 

Reld T. Stewart and R. L. W., 1907. Chkd. by W. F. F. 


Out- 
side 

Dlam. 

Inches 


THICKNESS IN GAGE AND FRACTIONS OF AN INCH 


22 
BWG 


20 
BWG 


18 
BWG 


1 16 


3/32 


1 8 


5/32 


3. 16 


7/32 


1/4 


5 16 


3/8 


1/2 


5/8 


3/4 


7/8 


1 


4 
I 

1 

i 

1 
11 

is 
li 
11 

1! 

2 

2i 

21 
21 
3 

31 
3) 
31 

4 

41 
44 

41 

5 
54 


1.858 
3 051 
4.539 

6 322 
8 399 
10 770 

13. 436 


1.743 

2.903 
4.358 

6.107 
8.151 
10 490 

13.123 

16 051 
19 273 


1523 
2 618 
4.007 

5.690 
7.668 
9 941 

12 508 
15.37 
18 53 


1 325 

2 356 

3 682 

5.301 
7 216 
9 425 

11 93 
14.73 
17.82 

24.89 
33.13 

42 56 

53.16 
64. 94 


920 
1 804 
2.982 

4.455 
6 222 
8 283 

10 64 
13 29 
16-24 

23.01 

30 96 
40.09 

50.40 
61.89 
74.55 

88 39 
103 41 


.589 
1 325 
2.356 

3.682 
5 301 
7.216 

9.425 
11. 93 
14 73 

21.21 
28. 86 
37.70 

47.71 
58. 90 
71.27 

84.82 
99.55 
115.45 

132.54 


1804 

2.982 
4.455 
6.222 

8 283 
10 64 
13.29 

19.48 
26.84 
35.38 

45.10 
56.00 
6807 

81 33 
95.76 
111-37 

128 15 
146.12 
165.26 

185.59 
207.09 
253.62 


1.325 

2.356 
3.682 
5 301 

7.216 
9.425 
11 93 

1782 
24.89 
33.13 

42. 56 
53.16 
64. 94 

77.90 
92.04 
107.35 

123.85 
141.52 
160. 37 

180.40 
201 60 
247. 55 


1.804 
2.982 
4.455 

6 222 
8 283 
10. 64 

16.24 
23.01 
30- 96 

40- 09 
50 40 
61. 89 

74. 55 
88.39 
103.41 

119. 61 
136 99 
155. 55 

175.28 
196. 19 
241.55 


2.356 
3.682 

5.301 
7.216 
9. 425 

14. 73 
21.21 
28. 86 

37.70 
47.71 
58 90 

71.27 
84.82 
99.55 

115 45 
132.54 
150 80 

170 24 
190 85 
235. 62 


3 682 
5 301 
7.216 

11.93 
17.82 
24.89 

33.13 
42.56 
53. 16 

64.94 
77 90 
92 04 

107. 35 

1?..! 35 
141.52 

160 37 
180. 40 
223. 99 


2 356 
3- 682 
5. 301 

9.425 
14.73 
21.21 

28. 86 
37 70 
47- 71 

58 90 
71 27 
84 82 

99. 55 
115 45 
132. 54 

150.80 
170-24 
212. 65 


2.356 

5. 301 
9.425 
14. 73 

21.21 
28 86 
37 70 

47 71 
58 90 
7127 

84. 82 
99.55 
115.45 

132.54 

150 80 
190. 85 


5.301 
9.425 

14 73 
21.21 
28 86 

37.70 
47. 71 
58 90 

71.27 
84.82 
99.55 

115 45 
132 54 
170.24 


21.21 

28 86 
37 70 

47 71 

58-90 
71.27 
84.82 

99.55 
115.45 
150.80 


14 73 

21.21 
28. 86 
37.70 

47.71 

58. 90 
71.27 

84 82 
99 55 
132.54 


9 425 

14.73 
21.21 
28 86 

37 70 
47 71 
58.90 

71 27 
84 82 
115 45 



TABLE 5 








Weight in Pounds Per Lineal Foot 














For Shelby Standard Cold Drawn Mechanical Tubing 










Based on 


irt. 1 cu. In. Steel -0.263.1 lb. Reld T. Stewart and R. L. 


W.. 1907. 


Chkd. by W. F. F. 


Out- 
side 

Dlam. 

Inches 


THICKNESS IN GAGE AND FRACTIONS OF AN INCH 


22 

BWG 


20 
BWG 


18 
BWG 


1 16 


3/32 


1 3 


5/32 


3/16. 


7/32 


1/4 


5/16 


3/8 


1 2 


5 '8 


3/4 


7/8 


1 


1 
1 
) 


.141 
.179 
.216 


.174 
.221 
.267 


.236 
.301 
.367 


.292 
.375 
.459 


.407 
.532 
.657 


.501 
668 
.834 


• 991 


1.13 




















1 

1 
II 


.253 
.291 
.328 


.314 
.361 
.407 


.432 
.498 
.563 


.542 
.626 
.709 


.782 

907 

1.03 


1 00 
1.17 

1.34 


1.20 
1.41 
1.62 


1.38 
1-63 
5.88 


1-53 
1 83 
2.12 


2.00 
2. 34 
















i: 
li 
it 


■ 365 


.454 
501 
548 


.629 
.694 
.759 


.793 
.876 
.960 


1.16 
1.28 

1.41 


1.50 

1.67 
1.84 


1.83 
2.03 
2.24 


2.13 
2 38 
2.63 


2.41 

2.70 
2-99 


2.67 
3.00 
3.34 


3.13 
3 55 
3. 96 


3.50 
4 01 
4.51 


5.34 










is 

2 
21 








1.13 

1.29 
146 


1.66 
191 
2 16 


2.17 

2.50 
2.84 


2 66 

3 08 
3.49 


3.13 
3. 63 
4.13 


3. 58 
4.16 
4.75 


4 01 
4. 67 
534 


4. 80 
5.63 
6 47 


5. 51 
6 51 
7. 51 


6 68 
8 01 
9.35 


9.18 

10 85 








21 
21 

3 








1 63 
1.79 


2 41 
2 66 
2.91 


3.17 
3.50 
384 


3 91 

4 33 
4.75 


4. 63 
5 13 
5 63 


5 33 

5 91 

6 50 


6 01 

6 68 

7 34 


7 30 

8 14 
8 97 


8 51 

9 51 
10 51 


10 M 

12 02 

13 35 


12 52 

14 18 

15 85 


18.02 


1986 


21 36 


3! 
31 
31 










3.16 
3- 41 


4 17 
4 51 
4 84 


5 16 
5.58 

6 00 


6 13 
6.63 
7.13 


7 08 
7.67 
8-25 


8 01 

8 68 

9 35 


9 80 
10 64 
11.47 


11 51 

12 52 

13 52 


14 69 

16 02 

17 36 


1" 52 

19 19 

20 86 


20 03 

22 03 

24 03 


22.19 
24 53 
26 87 


24.03 

26 n 

29 37 


4 

41 
41 












5- 17 


6.41 
6.83 
7.25 


7.63 
8.14 
8 64 


8-83 
9-42 
10 00 


10 01 
10.68 
11. 35 


12.31 
13.14 
13 98 


14.52 
15- 52 
16.52 


18 69 

20 03 

21 36 


22 53 

24 20 
2587 


26-03 
28 04 
30. 04 


29.20 
31.54 
3388 


3204 
34.71 
37.38 


4i 
5 
51 














7. 67 
8 08 
8 92 


9 14 
964 
1064 


10. 59 
11.17 
12. 34 


1202 
12. 68 
14.02 


14.81 
15 64 
17.31 


17.52 
18.52 
20 53 


:: to 
:4 m 

26 70 


27 53 

29 20 
32.54 


32.04 
34 04 
38.05 


36-21 ] 40.05 
38 55 42 72 
43.22 1 48 06 



139 



HO 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL 





LABOR AND TIME SAVING DEVICES IN THE ROUND- 
HOUSE. 



Pin burgh & Lake Erie Railroad, McKm i Pa. 



There is no place on a railroad where labor and time saving 
devices are so important as in the roundhouse. The foreman's 
ingenuity is taxed to the utmost to make every move count and 
to perform each operation in the shortest possible time. D. J. 
Redding, master mechanic of the Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Rail- 
road, and president of the Railway Club of Pittsburgh, has sug- 
gested that a description of the best labor and time saving de- 
vices and methods used in roundhouses, selected from a number 
of different railroads, would prove of great benefit to those inter 
ested in this work. Following this suggestion several such de- 
vices have been selected from the McKees Rocks roundhouse of 
the Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad and are described herewith. 
Our readers are urged to send us descriptions of tools, devices 
or methods, which they have found valuable in roundhouse work. 

Truck for Boiler Washing Hose and the Boiler Washer's 
Tools. — This truck, or cart, is comparatively light and may easily 
be pushed about the house. There is no excuse for the boiler 
washer losing or misplacing his tools, or not keeping them in an 
orderly manner. The use of the hose reel has increased the life 
of the hose about 50 per cent. Where a hose reel is not used the 
hose is worn out by being dragged over rough floors and often it 
is left lying on the floor where it may be struck by falling objects 
or run over by trucks, wheelbarrows, etc. The side plates of the 



the engine upon which he is working and his bench, which may 
be at opposite sides of the house. 

The tool box shown in the photo is made of 1/16 in. steel 
with a wrought iron band s% in. wide riveted along the top 
edges. The box is 39 ,18 in. wide and 10J/2 in. deep. An 

end compartment, 12 in. wide, has a tray fitting in the top, which 
is about 7 in. long and may be moved back and forth, thus making 
it possible to get underneath it without lifting it out of the box. 
The cover of the box is flanged at the edges to fit over the sides 
and in addition is stiffened by the 1 x 1 in. angle, riveted to it. 
The truck is about 8 in. high. 
Portable I 'ise Bench. — This bench may be moved near the en- 
11 thereby saving the time usually consumed in carrying ma- 
terial back and forth between the engine and the wall bench. 
When used in connection with the portable tool boxes there is 
no need for maintaining the old style benches, which are usually 
a "catch-all" for an accumulation of wrenches, sledges, liners, 
bars, old overalls and all sorts of material. The men will not 
accumulate this stuff when they have to carry it from one engine 
to another in the portable tool box. These benches are 48 x 24 
in. in size and 32 in. high. They are fitted with 6 in. vises. The 
timbers in the frame work are 2 l /i x 2J-2 in. and are bolted to- 
gether by the Y% in. rods. The wheels are 8 in. in diameter. 



.V Holes, One Side Only 




TRUCK FOR BOILER WASHING HOSE ANn TOOLS. 



reel are of % in. steel and are spaced 4 in. apart, or just a trifle 
more than the diameter of the hose, thus preventing any possi- 
bility of its becoming tangled in winding it on or off the reel. 
The V shaped pockets on either side of the reel are for the 
boiler washer's tools and are 6 in. wide, about 19 in. deep, and 
36 in. long at the top. They are made from No. 16 iron and 
are reinforced by iron bands or bars at the edges, as shown. The 
wheels are 24 in. in diameter and the push handles are of Y in. 
gas pipe. The iron pipe nozzles used for washing out are shown 
projecting from the rear pocket ir the photograph. 

Portable Steel Tool Boxes. — Portable tool boxes for round- 
house machinists are not uncommon, but they are usually con- 
structed of wood. While the steel boxes are more expensive 
than the wooden ones, as far as the first cost is concerned, they 
are practically indestructible and cannot be broken open. 

These boxes are designed to hold all of the hand tools used 
by the workmen, except the larger wrenches, jacks, etc., which 
are kept in the tool room. This cuts out the necessity of a 
man making several trips for files, liners, chisels, etc., between 



Device for Pulling Down Binders. — This is used where the 
binders do not come down easily after the binder bolts are re- 
moved. The two yokes are slipped over the binder and con- 
nected to the rest of the apparatus, as shown, using wooden 
blocks between the ends of the long bar and the bottom of the 
pedestals. By operating the screw the binder is easily forced 
downward. The long bar is 26 x 3 x ij4 in. ; the short one is 
14 x 3 x 2]< in.; the screw is 2 in. in diameter and 10 in. long, 
with square threads. 

Repairing Sand Boxes. — It is quite often necessary to repair 
the sand boxes, or the sanding apparatus, in the roundhouse. 
Even if the hostler understands that this is to be done and does 
not take sand before bringing the engine into the house there is 
usually more or less left in the box from the previous trip. This 
must either be emptied and wheeled to the sand house or dumped 
with the refuse. When the engine is ready to go on the road 
it must be stopped at the sand house on the way out to take sand, 
which in most instances is not a convenient operation. To over- 
come this difficulty the tank and the apparatus shown in the 



141 



142 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 




D 
< 

< 






April, 1909 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JUI K . \t.. 



13 



photos have been constructed. If il is necessary to empty the 
sand box the tank is win' I'd alongside the engine. The and 
pipe is disconnected and the sand is run from the sand box on 
the locomotive into the lank through the rubber hose, as shown 
in tiic illustration below. 'The rubber hose is then disconnected 
and a nipple with a ; i in. rut out cock is screwed into the hole 
in the tank through which the rubber hose emptied the sand. 




EMPTYING SAND FROM SAND BOX INTO TANK. 

When the repairs have been completed the hose, which con- 
nects with a cast iron straight-way plug valve at the center of 
the head of the tank, is connected with the top of the sand box 
by means of a 1% in. pipe, which in the illustration above is shown 
standing alongside of the tank at the rear in an upright position. 
This pipe is securely held in place by a clamp, attached to the 
hand rail. A i]4" pipe, connecting with the plug valve, extends 
to within about 54 in. of the bottom of the tank. By connecting 
the 34 m. cut-out cock with the compressed air line and allow- 
ing the air to enter the tank the sand may be quickly forced 
back up into the sand box. 

The sand tank is 26 x 40 in. in size and of practically the same 
design as a main reservoir. A small amount of sand remains 
heaped around the side of the tank at the bottom, but this could 
be done away with by either shaping the bottom of the tank so 
that all the sand would run to the center, or by filling it with 
wooden blocking to give the inside the required shape. This ap- 
paratus permits the hostler to fill the sand boxes of all engines 
before they are taken into the house, whether repairs are to be 
made to the sand box or not, and it is thus never necessary to 
fill the sand boxes while the engine is leaving the roundhouse. 

Valve Setting Apparatus. — Much time is lost, both in erecting 
shops and the roundhouses, in getting together the various parts 
of the device for turning the drivers and the necessary tools 
and trams used for adjusting and setting the valves. Parts of 
the apparatus are often lost or misplaced and oftentimes its 
condition generally is anything but what it should be. To over- 



come ibis a large portable doubli I, 

pi 1 ially ai r; ;i d for hoi 

quired for live 

to place. It is kept in tl 

locked, as shown in on< trations. Another view 

;how ill' I" 1 w Mb tin- co lened up and part ol 

removed. The box is constructed of 'A in. ed at 

the corners by the iron bands, a shi ' vheel 10 in. 

in diameter. The apparatus for turning the drivers is shown 
Mblcd in one of the illustrations and is driven by an air 
motor, the driving mechanism being modeled after that of an 

old 1 j linder boi in ai bine. 

Portable Hoist for Handling tlu Large Compound Air Pumps. 
—Many of our n aders arc familiar with the smaller size Frank- 
lin portable cranes and hoists. The one shown in the illustra- 
tion is a special size and is used principally for handling the 
new Westinghouse 8$4 in. compound air It is 12 ft. 9 in. 

high and the height of the hoist is it ft. 8 in. The bed is 4 ft. 
10; j in, wide outside and 5 ft. 1 in. in length. The. crane has an 
overhang of 4 ft. 1 in. and a capacity of 3 tons. It weighs about 
1,940 lbs. and is manufactured by The Franklin Portable Crane 
& Floist Co., Franklin, Pa. The two smaller castors at the side 
were added to increase its stability, thus giving it five poil 
support. 

Device for Straightening Levers, etc. — This device is very 
simple and was designed for taking out kinks or bending brake 
levers or eccentric blades without taking them down. The strap 




FORCING SAND BACK INTO THE SAND BOX. 

is placed over the lever or bar, which is to be straightened, and 
the key is dropped in place, as shown at the rear. By turning 
the screw bolt the lever may be bent the desired amount A 
smaller one of these is used for the eccentric blades. 

Gasket Cutter. — Considerable time is wasted in many round- 
houses by cutting gaskets out with a knife: usually they do not 
give verv good satisfaction when made in this way. A most 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL 




PORTABLE HOIST 



FOR HANDLING COMPOUND AIR PUMPS. 




DEVICE FOR BABBITTING CROSSHEAD SHOES. 

efficient machine for cutting out gaskets from old hose has been 
constructed and is operated by the roundhouse tool man in his 
spare time. The air cylinder is 12 x 14 in. and is limited to a 3/2 
in. stroke, so that a comparatively small amount of air is con- 
sumed. The cutters are made of tool steel, as shown, and a 
copper plate is fastened to the top cross-bar back of the gas- 
ket, to reduce the liability of injuring them. The bar, which 
passes through a slot in the piston rod, limits its stroke and 
forces two pins upward, as the cutter drops back to the position 
shown in the illustration, pressing the gasket out. Where cut- 
ters of this type are struck with a hammer or sledge in cutting 
gaskets they are easily broken on account of the unequal pres- 
sure on the cutting edges. With this press there has thus far 
been no breakage and the life of the cutter seems to be indefinite. 
Moulding Grease for Driving So.r«.-The device used for 




DEVICE FOR MOULDING GREASE FOR DRIVING BOX CELLARS. 



April. 1900. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL 



!4J 



moulding the grease for driving uo> cellars is illustrated both by 
a photo and a sketch. The bottom of the mould is held in place 
by the two latches and the grease is put in through the hole at 
the front. Air is then allowed to enter the u x 12 in. cylinder 
and the plate at the end of the piston rod presses the grease to 
the shape shown in the illustration. The former method of 
pounding the grease into shape by hand was slow and expensive." 
Babbitting Crosshead Shoes. — The old practice was to till the 
shoes with babbitt, over blocks slightly smaller than the guide, 
and plane them out to size. With the device illustrated the shoe, 




DEVICE FOR MOULDING GREASE FOR DRIVING BOX CELLARS. 

after being removed from the crosshead, is put in a frame ; the 
frame is placed vertically on the floor and the babbitt is poured. 
The shoe is then ready to be replaced on the engine. No ma- 
chine work is required and the entire operation may be per- 
formed in from fifteen to twenty minutes. 

With the old method it was necessary, at roundhouses where 
there were no planers, to replace the shoe with one which had 
already been babbitted and was carried in stock. These shoes 
almost invariably required some fitting of the bolts, as the holes 
would not line up properly, so that in a short time a lot of shoes 
would accumulate in which the holes did not match properly 
with those in the crosshead. 



THE AMERICAN RAILROAD EMPLOYEES* AND 
INVESTORS' ASSOCIATION. 



The following letter has been issued by P. H. Morrissey, presi- 
dent, explaining the plans of the above association for benefit to 
all railroad employees and investors. This movement is deserv- 
ing of the support of all our readers : 
To Railway Men: 

The American Railroad Employees' and Investors' Association, 
organized at Chicago, 111., September 14, 1908, invites the railway 
employees of the United States to a serious consideration of its 
plans and purposes. 

Necessity for a medium through which the railroads and their 
employees might act jointly on questions of mutual interest 
prompted the formation of the association. It aims to bring 
together the railway employees and railway owners for the pur- 
pose of cultivating and maintaining between them such concern 
on the part of all for the welfare and prosperity of American 
railroads as will best promote their successful and profitable oper- 
ation for the benefit alike of the employees, the investors and the 
public. 

Tbe association will at no time be used for partisan political 



purposes and will take no part in which 

may arise between railro oad officials, h 

will encourage by every propi method cordial and frii 
ing on the part of the public toward American railroads and their 
welfare, and will oppose the enactment of untimely, needless or 
arbitrary laws in regulation or restriction of railroad business. 

This movement is but the development of a sentiment often 
expressed by both employer and employee — that there is a mutu- 
ality of interests between the two. Co-operation is, therefore, 
natural and practical, for in no other way can the things in which 
they are commonly interested be protected. The last year and a 
half, with its thousands of railway men cither out of employment 
or working on short time, with their lean pay checks, is an ob- 
ject lesson. 

How long can the railroads stand against increasing cost of 
service combined with decreasing rate of compensation? 

Our plan will be to enroll as members the large army of rail- 
way employees of the United States. They are sufficiently nu- 
merous to influence public opinion materially, to the end that the 
hostile attitude of opposing interests may be changed, and that 
railways may be operated profitably, thus furnishing continuous 
employment at good wages to the many engaged in the service. 
In order that its work may be carried on systematically, subordi- 
nate branches will be organized at points where the required 
number of employees work. State organizations will also be 
formed. 

It should be distinctly understood that the association will not 
interfere in any way with any of the established organizations of 
railway employees nor will it attempt to assume jurisdiction over 
matters which properly belong to them. It is organized for a 
specific purpose and will keep within its legitimate bounds. Its 
methods will bear scrutiny, for it is open and above board. 

Its executive committee is composed of an equal number of 
representatives of investors and railway employees, and ,as all 
are tried and reputable men, it is assured that the influences of 
the association will at no time be used for any purpose that will 
be antagonistic to the employees. The employee's connection 
with it will be from the standpoint of promotion of his material 
welfare and not subserviency to the wish of the employer. A 
small admission fee will be charged. 

The association has come to stay. The active co-operation of 
the railway employees of the country will make its influence a 
power for good. 

Mr. C. D. Kellogg, of Cedar Rapids, Iowa, formerly editor of 
The Railway Conductor, has been elected secretary, and to him 
all communications should be addressed at 233 Railway Ex- 
change, Chicago. The by-laws of the association have been 
adopted and, with other literature and information, may be had 
upon application. 



Depreciation of a Power Plant. — Charles T. Main, a well- 
known mill engineer of Boston, states that with good water and 
good care a stationary boiler should last about twenty years, thus 
having a depreciation of about 5 per cent, per year, assuming 
that it is operated 12 hours a day. Slow speed engines running 
10 hours a day should have a life of about 25 years, or a depre- 
ciation of four per cent. High speed engines should have a 
depreciation of 7 per cent, or greater if operated more than 10 
hours a day. Economizers have a depreciation varying from 10 
to 2j4 per cent., depending upon the initial temperature of the 
entering water. 



American Society of Hungarian Engineers & Architects. — 
A society having the the above title, has recently been organized 
for the purpose of bringing in closer touch the engineers and 
architects of Hungarian extraction living in this country and to 
give moral support and information to newcomers. It also de- 
sires to encourage the exchange of engineering, technical and in- 
dustrial information between the technical men of Hungary 
and the U. S. and will hold monthly meetings. Information can 
be obtained by addressing the secretary at Box 103. General 
P. O, New York City. 



14G 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILRUAD JOURNAL. 



REPAIRING TRIPLE VALVES. 



The illustration shows a simple but ingenious device for find- 
ing whether the emergency valve stem of the triple valve is bent, 
or if the valve has been distorted, it is used in the air brake 
room of the west-bound freight car repair yard of the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad at Altoona. The valve is slipped into place, as 




shown, and the partially cone-shaped piece just below the valve 
stem is screwed to within a very short distance of the stem. By 
revolving the valve it can readily be seen whether the stem is 
out of true. The cone-shaped part may be slipped sidewise to 
test the stem at various points. If the stem is out of true it may 
be pressed back into place by forcing the screw above the valve 
stem downward. 

To the right, but indistinctly shown, is another screw with a 
block at its left end; this may be brought to within a very short 
distance of the side of the valve. By revolving the valve it may 
be seen whether it is distorted, if so it may be taken out and re- 
paired in a vise. This device was made by W. L. Goodman of 
the air brake department. 



SHOULD RAILROADS MANUFACTURE? 



In a house organ, published by The Crane Co., of Chicago, R. 
T. Crane writes an article on "Should Railroads Manufacture?" 
The article begins by saying: 

"A nice question may be raised as to when a railroad legiti- 
mately and advantageously may enter into manufacturing for 
itself." 

The writer relates how in his early business career as a manu- 
facturer of car axle brasses he was asked to advise with the 
directors of the Galena (now the Chicago and Northwestern) 
railroad, as to whether they should go into the manufacture of 
their own brasses. Mr. Crane advised against it, and related 
how a few years ago Dr. Williams, of the Baldwin Locomotive 
Works, then a director on the Galena road, congratulated Mr. 
Crane on the wisdem of his counsel. 

Mr. Crane continues : "After a long and varied business expe- 
rience, I am more than ever of the opinion that the less manu- 



facturing the railroads do the better. Railroad men, no matter 
how efficient, cannot be expected to know the inside and outside, 
the hindside and foreside of manufacturing, as well as those who 
devote their entire time to manufacturing." 

It will occur to very many who read Mr. Crane's article to in- 
quire where "a nice question may be raised as to when a manu- 
facturer legitimately and advantageously may enter into publish- 
ing for himself, and whether a manufacturer, "no matter how 
efficient, can be expected to know the inside and outside, the 
hindside and foreside of publishing," as well as those who devote 
their entire time to publishing? — Selling Magazine. 



PREPARING PACKING LEATHERS FOR AIR BRAKE 
CYLINDERS. 



The photograph shows a simple device, used by the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad, at its different shops, for forming the packing 
leathers for air brake cylinders. An 8 and a 10 in. cylinder are 
mounted in a frame work, as shown. The top part of the cylin- 
ders are counter-bored for a distance of about i in., so that the 
tlat piece of packing leather fits into them nicely. A wooden block 
with a projection on its under side, which fits into the inner 
circle of the leather ring, and is concentric with the outer edge 
of the block, is placed on top of the leather ring; this is forced 
down into the cylinder by means of the screw press. The wooden 
Mock is just enough smaller than the inside diameter of the cyl- 
inder to accommodate the edge of the leather ring, which is 
turned upward. The screw is then raised and another ring and 
block are forced down upon the top of the first one. 




In this way the cylinder is filled with a number of packing 
rings and blocks. Each time a packing ring is required for use 
and is about to be forced out at the bottom of the cylinder a new 
ring and block are put in at the top. The rings are not removed 
until shortly before they are placed in the brake cylinders. It 
will be seen that two rings have been placed in position, prepara- 
tory to being forced into the cylinder at the right, and a ring 
and one of the blocks have been forced out at the bottom. 



Supply of Wood. — The estimated amount of wood annually 
consumed in the United States at present is twenty-three billion 
cubic feet, while the growth of the forest is only seven billion 
feet. More than three times as much wood is thus being used 
than the forests are producing. 



April, 1909. AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 147 

CIRCULATION IN THE JACOBS-SHUPERT FIREBOX men offered similar objections to the principles involved in the 

early design of this firebi when models were exhibited for the 

To the Editor:— purpose of inducing comments. The work of developing this 

In your editorial in the March issue you invite opinions in re- firebox has been progressing for several years, and many of its 

gard to the Jacobs-Shupcrt locomotive firebox, and I venture to P ra ct>cal features are due to honest criticism, generously given, 

give you the following: Several details have been contemplated and abandoned, and some 

I think the principal defect in this boiler will be the lack of of the ori e inal idea s »ave been greatly modified. In spite of the 

longitudinal water circulation and of the direct scrubbing action critlasms offered during the early stages of development, all 

which is necessary to remove the steam film from the hot sheet P ractlcal men wh ° have seen the actual boilers under construc- 

and replace it with solid water, thus preventing the overheating tlon at U,c T °P eka shops have expressed unqualified belief in 

of the sheet and at the same time insuring efficient transmission lr ultlmate success. 

of heat through the sheet to the water. The illustration in the Your correspondent's principal objection to a boiler equipped 
first column on page 108 shows the provision made for the hori- w,th a J a cobs-Shupert firebox is what he refers to as the lack 
zontal circulation of water from the barrel of the boiler to the ot l°ns>tudinal ™ a ter circulation. While horizontal circulation is 
hack of the firebox, and it will be seen that the plate area in the "««sary to replace that water which has been generated into 
partitions is larger than the open space area for water circulation, * team tlle greatest emulation around any firebox is vertical, 
and this plate area will act as 'a baffle constantly impeding the Whcn waler ln contact wlth thc hot metal of the firebox becomes 
water current where it should be as free as possible. The small heated Sllffic >cntly l ° '"sen its density, it rises and establishes 
area of the open space is particularly noticeable along the side convection currents. The circulation due to heat and convec- 
sheets. The ribs which extend out from the normal surface of t,0n currents "uses the water in the boiler to rise vertically. 
the side sheet will each act as a dam to all currents running Water "P la «ng the heated water circulates in a direction de- 
along the length of the firebox, and instead of flowing freely p f dmg upon the source of water su PP lv - In th <= ordinary type 
along the side sheet and constantly scouring it, the current will of firebo , x ' convection currents will be vertical at and near the 
move in a corrugated or sinuous line and it will tend to leave J nner slde sheets - Water "P^ing the heated water will circu- 
steam pockets at each channel flange. The current will thus be Iate horizontally as well as in an upward direction. In ordinary 
very slow in getting to the back of the firebox, which may be °P erat 'on these currents will constantly intermingle. Much better 
overheated. On page no the description says that it is of great results would be obtained if it were practicable to apply a cir- 
importance to have a design that does not interfere with water cuIatlng sheet grating the upward and downward vertical 
circulation in order to transmit heat, but the impression given currents, thereby maintaining constant and uninterrupted con- 
by this design is that it must interfere with the circulation, and vectIon currents. It would also be desirable, if possible, to sepa- 
this will be found to be its greatest defect. rate the convection currents and the constant supply currents, 
In the crown sheet the V-shaped pockets on the fire side will ther f by obvlat '"g a "V interruption in the vertical circulation. In 
allow clinkers to accumulate because they are not in the direct n0 for r m ° f locomotive firebox, however, is the horizontal air- 
line of the flame current tending to clean them, and to the ex- rent of sufficient strength to give a scouring action along the side 
tent that these pockets are filled up, the heating surface will be f eet ' and thls res " Its onl y from the vertical currents formed 
reduced. The scale will form along the rivets on the opposite by tbe ™P ,d nse of the heated water - 

side just as it is illustrated on the crown bars in the old con- c , T he flanges of the channels forming the sides of the Jacobs- 

struction shown on top of page 108. There will then be a greater Rupert firebox, instead of impeding circulation, really assist it. 

tendency for these sheets to overheat and burn out than in a These flanges tend to se P arate the verticaI from the horizontal 

radial stay crown sheet which is perfectly clear on the fire side curr ? nts and thereby P rovlde an ""obstructed path for the up- 

and has only staybolt obstructions on the water side. " ard mOTeme nt of steam bubbles leaving the heated metal. The 

u_x ■_ i._ «■• _ •* ■ a-cc it 4 i 4 i i supply currents are prevented from distorting the convection 

Referring to Fig. 3, page 107, it is difficult to understand how ** J , ... 

.... . 4-.. j . ucu jl 4-i4 currents and when the two become mingled, the general tendency 

the mud ring can be fitted to such a firebox and be so tight as to . . . . , ,. 

. .11 .. 11 i- 1.41 j-** m direction will be upward along the side of the firebox, 

prevent constant leakage, as the spaces are all slightly different . ' ° 

... j .. . . . , 4T 4- 11 • the experiments made bv the Northern Railroad of France 

in their curvature, and it is not clear how any effective caulking K f 

. . AJ4 i-ir.i- u.1.4 -4t-- some years ago. demonstrating the relative value of heating sur- 

can be done. Advantage is claimed for thinner sheets, but within ...... _,..,. 

.,,...,.,., ,. ., , , c , , . ., face in locomotive boilers, are well known. By dividing the 

the limits of thickness ordinarily used for firebox sheets, there . . J 

.... , ..." e , . , boiler into separate sections and measuring the water evaporated 

is no perceptible change in thc rate ot heat transmission, and . . , _ . ... 

„ . c 1 j • 1 4 r ,u 4U- 1 c 4U ln eac h section, the effectiveness of heating surface was found 
modern formulas do not take account of the thickness of the 

sheet. The first cost of the boiler will be greater, the cost of ". , 

• . .. , ., ,., , , .. .. c * 1 Sections 1, 2, 3 and 4 are of the tubes, and section 5 is the 

maintenance higher, the life shorter and the consumption of fuel u 

per unit of work not very different from present construction. _ ' „ 

_, , t , • , , ,.,.-, , Sections. 12345 

From what I have said above and judging from the construe- Area, square feet 179.2 179.2 179.2 179.2 76. s 

tion as shown by your illustrations I should not expect the fire- f^JSaS % ' 0M0& .'! ! ! ! ! ! \ U H l" ill ".fi 

box of this boiler to last a year. If it does and proves to be an Upon entering the boiler and moving toward the firebox the 

important improvement in locomotive boiler construction, I shall quantity of water passing through any section is less than that 

be much pleased and quite willing to admit that I have been mis- through a previous section by the amount evaporated during its 

taken in the opinions as above expressed. Circulation. passage. In the case cited, only 44.5 per cent of the water 

passed to the firebox, the other 55.5 per cent, being evaporated 

To the Editor : — before it reached the firebox. This is an important considera- 

It is not surprising that the editorial in the March issue of tion in determining the sizes of the openings leading from the 

your valuable journal, inviting comments on the Jacobs-Shupert barrel of the boiler to the water legs. 

firebox,* has called forth an adverse criticism from "Circulation." Thirty thousand pounds of water are used per hour by a loco- 
Human nature is naturally opposed to innovations, and the de- motive of the type to which tne Jacobs-Shupert is applied, 
sign of this firebox is a very decided innovation in locomotive when working at the maximum capacity possible for it to main- 
boiler practice. Every innovation since time immemorial has tain for any length of time. The area through the check valve 
met with opposition, and often with resentment. Everyone is is 2.36 sq. ins. and the velocity of water through the check valve 
familiar with the story of "Fulton's folly," yet steamboats are in is 81 feet per second, assuming that one injector delivers all the 
operation to-day and there is no question as to their success. water and operates continuously. 

Criticisms as to circulation and construction of this firebox In order to show the size of the water spaces leading from 

are by no means original, for a number of competent mechanical the barrel of the boiler to the water legs of the Jacobs-Shupert 

• For detailed description see page 106, March issue of this journal. firebox, the accompanying illustration (Fig. i) of the firebox 



14S 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



under construction is presented. The area of the space through 
the stay sheet immediately adjacent to the mud ring is 16.94 sa .- 
ins. on each side. The area of both spaces then is 33.88 sq. ins. 
If half of the water is evaporated before reaching the firebox, 
and all water going to the water legs passes through the spaces 
immediately over the mud ring, the velocity of the water as it 
enters the water leg will he only 2.4 feet per second This veloc- 
ity will never he exceeded and will really be much less, due to the 
fact that a considerable portion of the water will pass through 
the openings higher up in the stay sheets. 

The criticism that the V-shaped pocket on the lire side of the 
crown sheet will allow "clinkers" to accumulate, is probably in- 
tended to mean the accumulation of so-called "honey-comb" 
sometimes noticeable in fireboxes. It is generally recognized that 
such an accumulation does not occur except where there is a 
leak. There is no reason, then, why this material should collect 
at any of the joints of the channel sections, or in the "Y-shaped 
pockets" mentioned by "Circulation." 

Experience with fireboxes having submerged seams at the 
juncture of all sheets illustrates quite clearly what may be ex 
pected as to any accumulation at the joints. The construction 
of the submerged seams produces a formation similar to that 
at the joint between the channel sections of the Jacobs-Shupert 
firebox. Fireboxes having these submerged seams have been in 
service for five years and during that time there has been no 





FIG. 2. — VIEW OF INTERIOR OF JACOBS-SHUPERT FIREBOX, SHOWING CONNECTION TO THE MUL) RING. 



I. — JACOBS-SHUPERT FIREBOX UNDER CONSTRUCTION. 

The criticism that the thickness of 
the sheet does not enter into con- 
sideration in the design and con- 
struction of boilers, is hardly in ac- 
cord with the most eminent authori- 
ties. In all formulae for the rate of 
conduction of heat, the thickness of 
the plate is taken as the denomi- 
nator of the fraction, and the vari- 
ous authorities agree that conductiv- 
ity is inversely proportional to the 
thickness of the plate. For example, 
the formula by Professor Clerk 

I Maxwell (Theory of Heat, page 

('''''■] 234), is as follows: 

H = a b tk (T — S) H- c, in which 
c = thickness of plate. 

In Rankine's formula: 

Q = (T> — T) ~ r x, in which 
x = thickness of plate 
and r = internal thermal resistance, 
constant for any one material. 

In the "Modern Steam Boiler" by 
Rowan, the author quotes Mr. Ble- 
chynden as follows: 

"The results of experiments cer- 
tainly point to the conclusion that 
the thinner the plates forming part 
of the heating surface of a -boiler, 



evidence of leaks or of any accumulation in the pockets at the 
joints. 

Referring to Fig. 6, page 108, of the March issue, the criticism 
is made that scale will form along the rivets on the water side 
of the section corresponding to the crown sheet. There can be 
no comparison between the obstruction offered by a row of cone 
head rivets and the T irons of the sling stays. It is customary 
practice to introduce several rows of sling stays at the forward 
end of a crown sheet supported by radial stays. The usual form 
of T irons used in connection with sling stays impedes circulation 
to such an extent that it is not uncommon to find the space be- 
neath the T irons solid with scale. This collection of mud and 
scale has caused crown sheets to burn even with water in the 
boiler at proper level. 

The criticism as to the practical application of the mud ring 
is most readily answered by referring to the accompanying illus- 
tration (Fig. 2) of fhe interior of the firebox showing the mud 
ring in place, and to the sketch (Fig. 3) showing the method 
of reverse lapping; the sections to fit the mud ring. 



the higher should be the boiler's efficiency." 
Topeka, Kan. 



H. W. Jacobs. 



Idle Cars.— The number of surplus cars on March 17 was 
291,418, a decrease of 8,507 in two weeks. 



Flue Sheet. Firebox Section. Shell Sectio 



Cross Section of Waterleg. 



I ) 

II 1 




e:;;o 01 
01 

— Ill , — — 



) 



L 0< UliP 

Wo * 



> 



3 




FIG. 3.— CONNECTION TO MUD RING— JACOBS-SHUPERT FIREBOX. 



April, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



149 



EFFECT OF FLAT WHEELS ON RAILS. 

To the Editor : 

The discussions of my article on the effect of flat spots* by E, 
L. Hancock, given in your March number, and by Georgi I 
Fowler, in the Railway Aye Gazctic, January 8, 1909 (reprint d 
in the next column), are, 1 consider, more due to a misundei 
standing of the article than a valid criticism of it. 

Mr. Fowler calls attention to the fact that a ilat spot delivers 
a substantial blow at speeds above live miles an hour as antagon- 
istic to the results arrived at, and suggests that both writers based 
their computations on gravity, from which I can only infer that 
Mr. Fowler did not read carefully either the conditions assumed 
or the results stated in my article. The conditions assumed are 
very largely those outlined by Mr. Fowler, but on account of the 
weight below the springs supported by the wheel being considered 
as dropping with the wheel the acceleration taken is ten times 
that of gravity in place of 17.7 times as taken by Mr. Fowler. 
The speed at which the flat spot strikes its maximum blow would 
not, however, vary directly as the acceleration, but as its square 
root as shown in Section I of Mr. Spilsbury's analysis,! while it 
the decreasing action of the spring is taken into account it would 
be somewhat less. As a matter of fact for any ordinary tlac 
spot the actual drop of the wheel is so small that the action of 
the spring may, without introducing any appreciable error. In- 
taken as constant. 

With regard to practical considerations of the irregularities in 
track, rolling of car, etc., it is true that these enter into the ques- 
tion and cannot easily be allowed for, but as I understand the 
importance of this question, the information desired is the order 
of magnitude of the blow delivered by flat spots with the existing 
limitations, and I consider that ihe results arrived at in Mr. 
Spilsbury's analysis have determined this to be of a reasonable 
and safe amount as opposed to the highly dangerous magnitudes 
arrived at in Mr. Hancock's original calculation. The blow will 
be substantially increased or decreased in the same way as the 
pressure between the rail and a wheel without a flat spot varies 
from the same causes, but this does not lead us to neglect the 
weight on the wheel as a measure of the pressure on the rail, and 
I consider that the kinetic effect of the wheel striking the rail 
is determined by Mr. Spilsbury with the same accuracy, with the 
proper figures for the various quantities, that the pressure be- 
tween the wheel and the rail is, when the weight on the wheel is 
known, provided of course that no actual error is shown in the 
calculation, which so far has not been the case. 

I do not quite understand Mr. Hancock's position, wherein he 
states that it is more rational to consider only the mass of the 
rotating parts as concentrated at the center of the wheel, as to 
whether he intends to supplement this with the action of the 
springs. If this be the case he has abandoned his original con- 
dition and there is simply a change in the assumptions I have 
made, and as an extreme conditio'.i let us take the weight of the 
wheel and one-half the axle as the rotating weight, say i.ioe 
pounds, take the same total weight per wheel as before, and as- 
sume that the springs, carrying the entire remaining weight per 
wheel, press directly on the journal. The resulting maximum 
striking velocity (see result D) is 4.6 ft. per second in place of 
3.8. In other words, there is weight of 1,100 pounds striking at 
4.6 ft. per second against one of 1,600 pounds at 3.8 feet per sec- 
ond, as originally assumed. The kinetic energy is 363 foot-pounds 
against 358 in the latter. 

There is no assumption of an upward force in Mr. Spilsbury's 
analysis; when a body of mass M is rotating around a centei, 
distance R from its center of gravity, the centrifugal force, as it 
is generally termed, is Mv ! -:- R, and this is the force referred to 
when the condition is postulated as in Section I of the wheel 
turning around the leading edge of the flat spot. 

I trust you will pardon these demands on your space, but 1 
consider Mr. Spilsbury has supplied a correct and reasonable 
analysis of this important question and one that agrees with prac- 



tical experii n< 1 and [feel tha I taken 

place would no n entirely correct impn ision. 

Montreal, Can. 11. II. VaUGBAN. 

{Abstract 0) Communication from Geo. I.. Fowler m tlic KaU- 

road Aij. . January H, l'jixj.) 

Every practical railway man knows that a flat spot does deliver 
a very substantial blow al speeds abovi fivi miles an hour if the 
evidence of the sense of hearing and an occasional bent rail is 
of any value. So it seems that there must be something wrong, 
not necessarily with the mathematics but with the premises on 
which the calculations are based. 

A suggestion is offi n d to the effect that both writers (Vaughan 
& Hancock) based their computations on gravity, as if this 
were the only thing to be taken into consideration, but there are 
others. 

For example, the weight of the ear is resting on the axle box 
through the intervention of a spring, and this spring is, there- 
fore, under considerable compression and ready to expand with 
all the strength of its elasticity the moment it gets a chance. The 
axle is being drawn by its housing and the truck pedestal, in 
which there is considerable lost motion, and so is crowding back 
against the fixed parts of the truck, and there is always a possi- 
bility of its being thrown forward to the limit of the lost mo- 
tion by any force tending to drive it to the front. So when 
the wheel starts to roll over the flat spot there is the quick acting 
spring tending to push it down and forward. This spring has 
a compression due to the load above, which may be 18,000 or 
19,000 lbs. Taking the lower figure and considering the wheel 
and half the axle to weigh 1,075 lbs., the rate of acceleration dur- 
ing the fall of the wheel will be about 17.7 times as fast as when 
gravity alone is at work. This would immediately raise the speed 
at which the train can be running, and the flat spot strike its full 
blow, from 4.55 to something more than 79.5 miles an hour, modi- 
fied by the decreasing tension of the spring as the wheel drops 
away from it, by which the rate of acceleration is corresponding- 
ly decreased. The problem is further complicated by the size of 
the spring, as the fall in spring pressure will be the more rapid 
as the stiffness of the spring and its consequent compression is 
increased, and the severity of the blow will be increased accord- 
ing to the downward velocity of the wheel at the moment of the 
impact of the flat place. Further complications are added, in 
practice, by the motion of the load at the moment. If the car 
body is rising in its vibrations the blow will be less than if it is 
falling. 

It appears, then, that this spring action accounts for the fact 
that the severity of the blow apparently increases with the speed, 
because the spring has a chance to produce a rapid downward 
acceleration, and may account for the destructive effects produced 
both on track and rolling stock, while the complexity of the 
forces involved renders a mathematical analysis and solution ot 
the problem no easy task and one that would not be conclusive 
when it was finished, simply because there would be no cer- 
tainty that all of the factors in the case had been taken into con- 
sideration and given due importance. 



•American Engineer and Railroad Journal, December, 1908, pagi !T 
t Page 477, December, 190S, issue. 



The Mine Rescue Station at the University of Illinois. — 
The United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the 
State Geological Survey has established at the College of Engi- 
neering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, a Mine Explc 
sion and Mine Rescue Station. The purpose of the station is to 
interest mine operators and inspectors in the economic value 01 
such modern appliances as the oxygen helmets and resuscitation 
apparatus as adjuncts to the normal equipment of mines. The 
station also will concern itself with the training of mine bosses 
and others in the use of such apparatus. Its service is to be 
rendered gratuitously, and so far as possible to all in Illinois, In- 
diana. Michigan, West Kentucky, Iowa and Missouri, who may 
desire the benefits thereof. 

The formal opening of the station constituted a part of the 
proceedings of a Fuel Conference which was held at the Uni- 
versity of Illinois March n to 13, inclusive. 



150 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



(Established 18321. 

-AMERICAN- 

Engineer 

RAILROAD ^JOURNAL 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY 

BY 

R. M. VAN A R S D A L E 
l+O NASSAU STREET, NEW YORK 

J. S. BONSAL.I,, Business Manager. 
P. H. THOMPSON, Eastern Representative 



It. 
E. 



WRIGHT, 

AVERILL 



:.}' 



APRIL, 1909 



Subscriptions. — $2.00 a year for the United States and Canada; $8.76 a 

year to Foreign Countries embraced in the Universal Postal Union. 
Remit by Express Money Order, Draft or Post Office Order. 
Subscription for this paper will be received and copies kept for sale by the 

Post OfKce News Co., 217 Dearborn St., Chicago, III. 

Damrell & Upham, 283 Washington St., Boston, Mass. 

Philip Roeder, 807 North Fourth St.. St. Louts, Mo. 

R. S. Davis & Co., 346 Fifth Ave., Pittsburg. Pa. 

Century News Co., 6 Third St., S. Minneapolis, Minn. 

W. Dawson & Sons, Ltd., Cannon St., Bream's Buildings, Lon- 
don, E. C, England. 

Advertisements.— Nothing will be inserted in this journal for pay. 
except in the advertising paces. The reading pages will contain 
only such matter as we consider of interest to our readers. 

Contribntions. — Articles relating to Motive Power Department prob- 
lems including the design, construction, maintenance and operation of 
rolling stock, also of shops and roundhouses and their equipment ate 
desired. Also early notices of ov/cial changes, and additions of new 
equipment for the road or the shop, by purchase or construction. 



CONTENTS 



A Study of the Number and Kind of Machine Tools Required in a 

Railroad Shop, by L. R. Pomeroy .121, l->0 

Setting Valves on Locomotives With Walschaert Valve Gear, by 

Oscar Antz ••••, "n. 

How One of the Railroads Selects Its Machine Tools 1»» 

Forging at the Collinwood Shops lal 

Steel Passenger Cars "J 

Cost of Drop Tables "i 

A Study of the General Arrangement of the Beech Grove Shops— 

Machining of Shoes'aiid' Wedges, by George J. Burns 134*, 160 

Photographing Machinery "» 

Feed of a Planing Machine jao 

Moulding Packing Rings 1" 

Protection of Railroad Men tjjj 

The Design of Milling Cutters, by C. J. Morrison 136 

The Railroad Shop Apprentice 138 

Equipment of the Canadian Pacific Railway 1« 

Data of Interest to Draftsmen ••■■••„• Vl ,, .' , T ,, !,";"i' } . , . 

Labor and Time Saving Devices in the Roundhouse, P. & L. K K. K. HI 

The American Railroad Employees' and Investors' Association 146 

Depreciation of a Power Plant 145 

Repairing Triple Valves 1*6 

Preparing Packing Leathers for Brake Cylinders 140 

Should Railroads Manufacture 146 

Circulation in the Jacobs-Shupert Fire Box 147 

Effect of Flat Wheels on Rails 149 

Mine Rescue Station at the University of Illinois 149 

Belting J-jl 

Grinding Car Axle Journals 101 

Railroad Outlook Improving 161 

The Railroad Clubs - 152 

International Railway Fuel Association, Meeting of lo3 

New Locomotive and Car Shops, I. & W. N. Ry 154* 

Cleaning and Repairing Triple Valves 158* 

Noiseless Gears 15 9 

1,200 Volt Direct Current Electric Railway 159 

Multiple Spindle Drills in Railroad Shops 160* 

Extra Heavy Rod Milling Machine 161* 

Track Skate 161 

Safety Valve Capacity, by Philip G. Darling 162* 

Back Geared Crank Shapers 1 66* 

Electric Hammer 171 

Five-Spindle Car Boring Machine 167* 

High Power Milling Machine 168* 

Compressed Air Traction System 170 

Shaper Tests 171* 

Boring, Turning and Facing Machine 171* 

Painting Steel Passenger Cars 171 

Modern Heavy Duty Lathe Headstock 1 72* 

Boring Locomotive Axles 173* 

Steel Car Repairs 174* 

New Outside Moulder 175* 

Two-and-One-Half Foot Radial Drill 176* 

College Men in Railroad Service 176 

Pressures in the Metric System 176 

Motor Application to High Speed Geared-Head Lathe 177* 

Forged Steel Hydraulic Jacks 177* 

Pneumatic Staybolt Nipper 178* 

Steam Railroad Electrification in Boston 178 

A Stronger Shank for Drills 178* 

Books 178 

Personals 179 

Notes and Catalogs 180 



RAILROAD MACHINE SHOP PRACTICE. 

It is surprising to note the great difference both in the detail 
design of locomotive parts and the methods of handling and 
machining them in railroad repair shops. It is not unusual to 
find a difference of several hundred per cent, in the cost of per- 
forming the same operation in different shops. It is too bad that 
mechanical department officials generally do not realize the im- 
portance of having their shop officers visit other railroad shops 
and study their methods. 

Mr. Burns' observations on the handling of shoes and wedges, 
in his article on "Railroad Machine Shop Practice," are based 
on the practices as noted in a large number of shops and forcibly 
emphasize the importance of having the shop official look about 
and compare his methods and costs with those of others doing 
the same work. This is the first of a series of articles which Mr. 
Burns has in preparation for this journal. 



CONCERNING MR. POMEROY'S ARTICLE. 



Not only will the railroad official, interested in the selection of 
machine tool equipment for the locomotive repair shops, welcome 
Mr. Pomeroy's article in this number, but it will prove of great 
value to the machine tool builder who wishes to know just whal 
class of work his tools are required to do in shops of this kind. 
While many of our readers have the pleasure of knowing Mr. 
Pomeroy personally, it may not be amiss to say something of 
the experience and qualifications that fit him so well for making 
a study of this kind — a study which is far more logical than that 
ordinarily followed by the railroad official in making a selection 
of machine tools to accomplish a certain output. 

While Mr. Pomeroy has never Deen a railway mechanical de- 
partment employee he has, for many years, as a representative 
of manufacturing interests, come into intimate contact with the 
officials of that department. As assistant to the general man- 
ager of a large locomotive building plant he has had special op- 
portunities for studying the design and manufacture of loco- 
motives. As the steam railroad representative of one of the 
most important electrical companies, he has not only exploited 
the possibilities of the application of electricity to steam road 
conditions, but also in the .designing and equipping of railroad 
shops ; during this time heiwas connected in a consulting capacity 
on the engineering details of some of the largest railway shop 
plants in this country. Having had experience with the designing 
and equipping of many railroad shops, and having watched their 
operation closely, he has gained a much broader view of the situ- 
ation than could possibly be enjoyed by one having a less exten- 
sive experience or having an intimate acquaintance with one or 
two plants only. 

A most pains taking investigator with systematic and well con- 
sidered methods of classifying and investigating facts, he has 
developed the faculty to a marked degree, if indeed he was not 
born with it, of eliminating the inessential details or less im- 
portant facts, and getting to the very root of things. Having 
access to the data of many plants and being an indefatigable 
worker he has developed principles and solved problems which 
others could not have done. By those who know him intimately, 
and this includes many of the leaders in railroad mechanical de- 
partment affairs, he is regarded as an authority on questions re- 
ferring to railroad repair shop requirements and the possibilities 
of the substitution of electric for steam locomotives. 

With a rare unselfishness his knowledge has at all times been 
at the service of his friends. So quietly and unobtrusively has 
he worked that his name has not even been connected with many 
of the most important developments for which he has been large- 
ly responsible. His work in connection with the Master Mechan- 
ics' Association has. been exceedingly important, but it has been 
done in such a characteristically quiet way that but very few 
realize its extent or importance. 

In spite of the important work upon which he has been en- 
gaged he never misses an opportunity to encourage and help the 



April, 1900. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



151 



young men with whom he comes Vi contact and many young men 
owe their advancement, at least to some extent, to a quiet word 
or suggestion made to a superior officer, although the young men 
themselves may not know or realize to whom they are really 
indebted. 



BELTING. 



One of the most forceful arguments, showing the necessity of 
buying only high grade belting and of properly installing and 
looking after it, was the experience at the Topeka shops of the 
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway, as described in the De- 
cember, 1906, issue of this journal. In fourteen months the 
cost of maintaining the belting, including labor, supplies and 
new belting, was reduced from $1,000 to $310 per month. These 
figures have been still further reduced as the older belting has 
gradually been replaced by that bought under the new specifica- 
tions, which call for belting of the best quality. The best prac- 
tice indicates that the cost of maintaining belts should average 
yearly about 14 per cent, of its first cost. 

What is the best qualiy of belting? The best belting is ob- 
tained from the native American steer when killed at about four 
years of age. Only a certain part of the hide is suitable for belt- 
ing and the best quality is taken from a section about 30 in. 
wide, 15 in. each side of the backbone, and about 4 ft. long, 
measured from the tail. This should weigh about 16 ozs. to a 
square foot. A good second grade of belting may be secured 
from strips 6 in. wide taken at either side of the above section. 
The rest of the hide, consisting of the flanks and belly, is not 
suitable for belting but may be used to advantage for the making 
of halters, and other products. 

As a matter of fact much of this inferior stock is made into 
belts, which, although sold at a lower price, proves very ex- 
pensive to the user in the end. The hide or belting butt, as it is 
called, should not only be carefully selected but be tanned with 
oak bark and by slow process, and be properly curried, stretched 
and finished before it is cut into strips. That part of the butt 
directly over the backbone is of greater density and vitality and 
the fibres are more uniform than in the rest of the belting butt. 
Having greater strength and less elasticity this portion of the 
butt is especially valuable for the wider belts, but the center of 
the belt must correspond to the :enter of the butt, or that part 
directly over the backbone, in order to have the belt equally bal- 
anced so that it will run true. 

How is it possible to check the grade of the belting? If the 
manufacturer has a regular system of cutting the strips it is pos- 
sible, if the purchaser has a sample belting butt with the strips 
cut according to the same system, to check the belting with these 
strips. A movement is now on foot to have every large user fur- 
nished with the sides and centers of a butt showing the methods 
used in cutting the strips to get the various widths of belting. 
Such a system, while it checks the part of the butt from which 
the belt is taken, does not locate carelessness in the preparation of 
the leather. The only way in which the users of belts can pro- 
tect themselves against this is to deal with reputable firms only 
and to insist that the maker's name and brand be marked on the 
belting at frequent intervals. The history should be kept of each 
belt installed in a shop, so that the user can know absolutely 
whether the belt is giving the service which he should have 
from it. 

The railroads should buy belting on as definite and absolute 
specifications as other supplies. The great cost of replacements 
of belting in railroad shops is largely due to the fact that it 
is bought at the lowest price obtainable and too little atention 
is paid to the quality delivered. 



GRINDING CAR AXLE JOURNALS. 



believed that the saving which could be made would, within a 
short time, pay for the cost of installing the necessary grinding 
machine. Under present conditions, when an axle is re-turned 
it is necessary in order to get the best results to have the cutting 
tool pass underneath the low spot on the journal. With a grind- 
ing machine it would be possible to true the journal absolutely 
without removing an ounce more material than necessary. 

This idea of rcgrinding the journals has appealed to several 
officials to whom it has been submitted. The only objection 
which was brought up was that the fine particles from the grind- 
ing wheel might become imbedded in the surface of the journal 
and cause hot boxes. The fallacy of this objection can readily 
be seen when it is recalled that a large number of railroads have 
been grinding their piston rods for several years. The links and 
link blocks of the valve motion are also ground. Parts of an 
automobile, including the various journals and the crank shafts, 
are ground and no difficulty of this kind has ever been experi- 
enced. The following is from an article written by Charles H. 
Norton, who probably knows more about grinding and grinding 
machines than any other man in this country or abroad. 

"Another erroneous impression, not, however, so common, is 
that emery adheres to ground surfaces, causing cutting of bear- 
ings when used. It would seem clear to reason that should the 
emery adhere to the steel, there could be no grinding, but in- 
stead the wheel would be torn away. The fact is that neither the 
microscope nor chemical laboratory reveals an atom of emery 
in any form adhering to the steel. This has been thoroughly 
demonstrated and yet there are mechanics with large enterprises 
in charge who will not grind machine parts because they are so 
sure that emery adheres to them. 

"A good illustration of this point is furnished by the well- 
known air-brake mechanism. Some fourteen years ago the writer 
designed special machines for grinding the cylinders of the so- 
called "triple." This cylinder is about tf/z in. in diameter by i]/£ 
in. deep, having a bottom, and is brass lined; the brass piston 
working very freely, yet air tight, in this brass lining. 

"The general belief at that time was that emery would remain 
on the brass surface and cause scratching, and it was with no 
little effort that the writer overcame this objection. When tests 
were made it was found that a blast of air removed all dust 
from the interior of the cylinder and pcrts and that the life of 
the cylinders was very much increased over the lathe-finished 
ones. 

"There still remain a few who suppose that copper, babbitt, 
lead and soft rubber cannot be ground with emery and corundum 
wheels, because the material adheres to the cutting wheel; when, 
the fact is, there is no substance of which the writer has any 
knowledge that cannot be ground successfully with a wheel suit- 
ably constructed for each case." 

At present the fillets at either end of the journal vary con- 
siderably for the different size standard M. C. B. axles. It 
would, of course, be better to have the fillets at the outer end ot 
the journals, and also those at the inner end, standardized so as 
not to have to change the grinding wheels for different sizt 
journals. If it is desired to repair the journals with the wheels 
removed, and to grind the wheel fit as well as the journal, it 
will be necessary to make the fillets at the inner end of the 
journal and at both ends of the wheel fit the same size. 



RAILROAD OUTLOOK IMPROVING. 



It has been suggested that the railrosds could add consider- 
ably to the life of the car axles by grinding the journals after 
they have become worn instead of turning them on a lathe. It is 



Many signs point to a return of activity in the construction 
and extension of railroads, not only reasonably soon, but under 
such conditions that railroad projects will be undertaken with 
as much confidence and breadth of scope as other industrial and 
commercial enterprises. 

So far as the tariff is concerned, it is not so much fear of 
what the schedules will be, as delay until it can be seen what 
they are, that causes hesitation. Never before in the history of 
the tariff has a bill enjoyed such a thorough going-over by the 
experts as the Payne Bill before its introduction into the House 
and it is understood that when the measure is sent to the Senate, 



153 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



the Committee on Finance of that branch will have considered it 
step by step and utter it for debate at the earliest possible mo- 
ment. Pressure will be strong on all sides for short speeches and 
experienced observers arc predicting that the bill will be signed 
very much earlier in the year than has been the case after pre- 
vious revisions. 

Other conditions, such as agricultural prosperity and activity 
in the manufacture and distribution of dry-goods, are sound and 
improving. The special reason for hesitation which has beset 
the railroad managers and officers, namely, the fear of hostile 
legislation which would make extensive construction hazardous, 
is now rapidly giving way to a feeling that the American people- 
are being touched in one of the strongest features of their nature 
— the desire to see fair play — and many concerns making mate- 
rial and equipment for railroads are contemplating the future in 
a very hopeful way, while many of them are planning extensions 
to their plants to he carried out as soon as business is somewhat 
better. 

Considering these conditions, the Railway Business Association 
issues the following: "The spirit of fair play towards railroads 
is unmistakably gaining ground. Signs of its approach can be 
seen here, there and everywhere throughout the country. A 
splendid nucleus of influential citizens who earnestly advocate 
moderation has been developed ready to help us disseminate, in 
widening circles, the doctrine of good nature in the discussion of 
railroad restrictions. We believe the present opportunity to place 
sound views as to railroads before the public is unique. 

"Influential newspapers north, south, east and west are boldly 
advocating conservatism. Where a few editors urge moderation 
editorially, many now open their news columns to matter setting 
forth the needs of the transportation interests. We are con- 
fident that if the friends of the railroads will now speak under 
a concerted plan their words will be adequately spread before 
the people. 

"Great interests, through their commercial organizations and 
their trade press, are declaring for conservatism. These men are 
the shippers of the country. They are becoming convinced that 
improved transportation is to be lad by study and conference 
rather than by assault. We hope to impress this view upon others 
who still hesitate or who at present decline to express like sen- 
timent, and we feel that the degree of our success in this direc- 
tion will depend largely upon the support our efforts receive. 



"Congress adjourned on March 4 without enacting any further 
restrictions of consequence on railroads, yet the members can 
return to their homes without fear of having forfeited their 
neighbors' good will. Some State Legislatures appear to be Hear- 
ing adjournment with a similar record and a like confidence in 
the forbearance of their constituents. Even in the most radical 
Legislatures there has been decided resistance to purely hostile 
proposals. It looks as if there would not be a 'bumper crop' 
this year for the agitator. 

"At a time when the overturn by judicial process of a two-cent 
passenger rate is widely received as a matter of course, we can- 
not avoid the conviction that the transportation interests will be 
able to command fair consideration at the bar of public opinion. 

"The appeal we have been making to business men and work- 
ing men to regard, in their own interest, railroad prosperity as 
vital, has still many ears to reach and many minds to convert, 
but it has gone far ; a large field has been tilled. It is now for 
us to sow seed in the soil thus prepared or to be prepared. 

"The public is developing a readiness to hear arguments with- 
out prejudice. We do not desire that regulation shall cease, or 
expect that our particular views as to specific measures will in- 
variably and everywhere prevail. We shall feel that a useful 
service has been performed if we can seize upon the present 
receptive mood of the public and lay before them certain general 
fundamental principles of railroad economics, concerning which 
there has been much loose thinking. Once a large number of 
shippers, workingmen and citizens in general have been led to 
give careful consideration to our view of these problems, ideas 
will lodge permanently in their minds which may affect legisla- 
tion for many years to come. 

"The iron is hot. Now is the time to strike. 

"The great industrial interest which the Railway Business As- 
sociation is endeavoring to represent has before it a splendid 
opportunity for effective work. We need the influence and the 
financial support of more members in order that we may do this 
work thoroughly. If you have not joined, we earnestly urge you 
to do so at once and add the force of your co-operation and 
your contribution to a movement which many careful observers 
believe can, if adequately supported, do very much to promote a 
healthy stability in the conditions of railroad management, upon 
which the permanent and expanding prosperity of your business 
so largely depends." 



THE RAILROAD CLUBS. 



Central Railroad Club (Buffalo, N. Y.) — The next meeting of 
the club will be held at the Hotel Iroquois on the evening of 
Friday, May 14. 

Mr. John McE. Ames presented a paper on "The Use of Steel 
in Passenger Car Construction" at the March meeting, which 
considered briefly the primary reasons for the introduction of 
this material in passenger car construction and described the de- 
tailed features of a car, particularly as regards the use of other 
material than steel for interior finish and fittings. The best 
practice, in the author's estimation, was given for practically all 
of the different features. The matter of weight and cost was 
briefly considered ; an important point in this connection was 
the greatly reduced liability for claims, when a wreck occurs, 
with steel equipment. This, in connection with the reduced cost 
of maintenance, more than offsets any increased price for equip- 
ment of this kind. 

Secretary, H. D. Vought, 95 Liberty St., New York. 



Canadian Railway Club (Montreal, Can.) — The meeting of 
April 6 will be given up to a paper on "Snow Fighting" by A. W. 
Wheatley, manager of the Montreal Locomotive Works. The dis- 
cussion of the paper on "Shop Time Keeping," presented at the 
February meeting will be continued. The meeting of May 4 will 



be the annual meeting of the club; the subject of the paper has 
not yet been announced. 

The paper on "Shop Time Keeping and Labor Distribution," 
by E. E. Lloyd, which was presented at the February meeting, 
drew attention to the importance of extreme accuracy and rapid- 
ity in shop time keeping. A number of the older systems were 
briefly mentioned and the weak points in each clearly pointed 
out. The modern methods of checking in and out men and dis- 
tributing accounts were fully described and the important ad- 
vantages of each mentioned. Samples of the blanks used by 
the foremen in distributing the accounts and the forms used in 
reporting the time, and other matters in connection with the 
shopmen, were illustrated. 

This paper deals with a feature which in many cases is not 
given the attention that it really deserves. 

Secretary, James Powell, P. O. Box 7, St. Lambert, Nr. Mon- 
treal, Can. 



New England Railroad Club (Boston, Mass.)— At the regular 
meeting of the club to be held at the Copley Square Hotel, Bos- 
ton, on April 13, Mr. George F. Baker will present a paper on 
"Smoke Prevention in Relation to Combustion." Dinner will be 
served at 6.30 p. M. and the business session of the club will start 
at 8 o'clock. 



April, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



153 



"The Single Phase Railway System" was the subjei I of a paper 
by N. W. Storer of the Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co., which 
was presented at the January meeting. The general subject of 
electric traction and the history of its application to steam rail- 
ways up to the present time, as well as an elemenary discussion 
of the development of the electrical science, occupied the first 
part of the paper; following this was a comparison between di- 
rect current and single phase alternating current for use in heavy 
service, giving the advantages and disadvantages of each, Then 
followed quite an extensive description of the different design 
of single phase equipment that have been installed in the last 
three or four years, showing the present state of the art, The 
discussion consisted largely of questions from the members. 

Secretary, George II. Frazier, 10 Olivet St., Boston, Mass. 



New York Railroad Club. — At the meeting of March 19 the 
subject of "The Abuse of the M. C. B. Repair Card" was briefly 
discussed by Messrs. Chamberlain and Goodnough. Following 
this the electrical subjects were taken up. Mr. McClellan, in a 
very broad and conservative manner, considered the future of 
the electrification of steam railways and in that connection ad- 
vised very strongly the adoption of standards for many features 
in electrification as soon as possible. Among these was the loca- 
tion of the third rail, of the over-head trolley, voltage, frequen- 
cies, etc. W. S. Murray gave some of the later experiences of 
the New Haven Railroad with electric traction and stated among 
other things, he was convinced that in a similar work of this 
kind it would be better to have the power house generate at a 
lower voltage, which could be stepped up by transformers at the 
power house. Mr. Murray stated that the mileage of the New 
Haven electric locomotives averaged 210 miles per day. Mr. 
Kattee, of the New York Central, gave some very interesting fig- 
ures in connection with the train movement at the Grand Central 
Station and of the electric service on the N. Y. C. The N. Y. C. 
electric trains have during the past year averaged 3,000 miles per 
minute of delay. There are 450 electric train movements in and 
out of the Grand Central every 24 hours, which require 120,000 
K. W. hours of current. C. L. de Muralt spoke to the effect 
that he believed standardization of details would be very foolish 
at the present time, stating that all important details were already 
practically standardized. He discussed the three phase current 
for use on railways, speaking very strongly in favor of it. The 
three phase system gives a great reduction in the weight of a 
locomotive, a constant speed irrespective of the resistance, a 
completely enclosed motor and the disadvantage of two over* . 
head wires are offset by the absence of a commutator. Messrs. 
Storer and Stott also presented discussions. An extensive discus- 
sion by L. C. Fritch, of the Illinois Central, will be printed in 
the Proceedings. 

The meeting of April 16 will be on the subject of "Air 
Brakes." 

Secretary, H. D. Vought, 95 Liberty St., New York 



Northern Railroad Club {Duluth}. — The paper scheduled for 
the next meeting, Saturday evening, AprTl 24, is on "The Con- 
sumption of Fuel and Oil on Locomotives" by Frank Burk, 
traveling engineer, D. M. & N. Ry. 

The February meeting was given up to a continuation of the 
discussion on the papers presented at the January meeting on 
Concrete and Steel Ore Pocks and Boiler and Engine Repairs 
in Roundhouses. A large part of the discussion swung around 
the advantages and disadvantages of pooling locomotives. 

Secretary, C. L. Kennedy, 401 West Superior St., Duluth, 
Minn. 



Railway Club of Pittsburgh. — The meeting on the evening of 
April 23 will be to consider a paper on "Titanium Alloy" by 
Charles V. Slocum. 

The report of the standing committee on the M. C. B. 
Rules of Interchange was quite extensive, a large number of 
suggestions for the improvement of rules being offered and thor- 
oughly discussed by the members. The results of the commit- 



tee and club's effort, will appear al the convention ■ 
C B. Association. 

C. W. Alleman, P. & L. K. R. R., Pittsburgh. 



Richmond Railroad Club n lectun by II. O. 

Williams, railroad ecretarj 1 [1 ei nati e< of 

the Y. M C. A . entitled "V. I 0! Vim rican Rail 

ways", will be given at thi meeting ol \pril [2, 

The March meeting was tained by W. Morris Tye, who 

demonstrated and fullj explained th< Burlingame tel 

typevt riter, which si nd 1 telegi aphi m< b implj opi 
ing the keys of a typewriter. 

Secretary, F. ( ). Robinson, Richmond, Va. 



St. Louis Railway Club. — The next regular meeting of the club 
will be held in the parlors of the Southern Hotel on Friday, April 
7, at which time a paper will be presented by H. Wade Hibbard, 
Professor of Mechanical Engineering, University of Missouri, 
entitled "Organization." This will be the last meeting of the 
year and the officers will make their annual report. New offi- 
cers will also be elected. 

Secretary, B. W. Frauenthal, Union Station, St. Louis, Mo. 



Western Canada Railway Club (Winnipeg, Man.) — This last 
addition to the railway club circle has already over 150 members 
and bids fair to be a complete success. The first regular meet- 
ing was held on the evening of March 8, the paper being by G, J. 
Burry, general manager of the Western Lines of the Canadian 
Pacific Railway, on "A Review of Organization and Some Sug- 
gestions." The paper considered the history of labor organization 
down to the present time and very comprehensively discussed 
the labor problem on railways. 

The active officers of this club are : President, Grant Hall, su- 
perintendent of motive power of the C. P. Ry. ; vice-president, A 
E. Cox, general storekeeper of the C. N. Railway; second vice- 
president, L. B. Mirriam, division chief engineer of the G. T. P. 
Railway ; treasurer, E. Humphreys. 

Secretary, W. H. Rosevear, 199 Chestnut St., Winnipeg, Man. 



Western Railway Club (Chicago). — The meeting of April 20 
will be given up to a discussion of the report of the Committee 
on Revision of Rules of Interchange and also a short paper on 
"The Influence of Ash on the Value of Coal in Locomotive Ser- 
vice" by A. Bement. 

The meeting of March 17 was taken up by a discussion of the 
paper on "Publicity for Railroad Accidents." It was largely at- 
tended and the paper was very fu'ly discussed by W. G. Bessler, 
general manager, C. R. R. of N. J.: W. B. Throop. general su- 
perintendent of the Iowa District of the C. B. & Q. R. R. ; W. D. 
Cantillon, assistant general manager of the C. & N. W. Railway ; 
C. E. Lee, gen. supt. of the B. & M. R. R., and others. 

Secretary, J. W. Taylor, Old Colony Bldg., Chicago. 



Meeting of the International Railway Fuel Association. — 
The first annua! meeting of this association will be held in the 
Auditorium Hotel, Chicago, June 21, 22 and 23. At this meet- 
ing papers on the following subjects will be presented by the 
various committees for discussion : "Proper Method of Pur- 
chasing Fuel with Regard to Operating and Traffic Conditions, 
Considering also the Permanent Interests of the Producer When 
Located on the Consumers' Rails" ; "Standard Type or Types of 
Coaling Stations, Best Design and Most Economical Coal Chute 
for Handling Coal from Cars to Locomotives"; "Best Method of 
Accounting for Railway Fuel, Including Movement from Mine 
Through Coaling Station to Engines, up to Monthly Balance 
Sheet" ; "Difference in Mine and Destination Weights, Legiti- 
mate Shrinkage Allowable on Car Lots. Correct Weighing of 
Coal at Mines and on Railroad Track Scales, Importance of Tare 
Weights Being Correct" ; "Difficulties Encountered in Producing 
Gean Coal for Locomotive Use." D. B. Sebastian, 327 La Salle 
Street Station, Chicago, is secretary. 



NEW LOCOMOTIVE AND CAR SHOPS. 



Idaho & Washington Northern Railway. 



The new shops of the Idaho & Washington Northern Railway 
at Spirit Lake, Idaho, which were completed and put into opera- 
tion last November, are designed to handle heavy repairs on 
about 40 locomotives annually. The railroad is equipped with 
the heaviest type of ten-wheel and consolidation locomotives and 
is being extended at present so that the shops are shortly ex- 
pected to be worked at full capacity. They are also designed 
for easy extension and enlargement in case their present capacity 
is exceeded at any time. The same features apply to the repair 
of passenger equipment, for which a special building is provided. 

In the general arrangement of the buildings, shown in one of 
the illustrations, the roundhouse and facilities for turning en- 
gines naturally takes precedence, and since, from the topography 
of the country, the shops had to be placed between the main line 



Coal Chute and Cinder Pit. 

On the approach tracks to the roundhouse is located a coal 
chute providing ten 5-ton pockets filled by gravity from a stor- 
age bunker of 175 tons capacity. The loaded coal cars are drawn 
up the 19 per cent, incline by a motor driven hoist and dumped 
directly into the storage pockets. This is a wooden structure 
and includes the sand house, which is provided with a compressed 
air elevating device, allowing the iocomotive sand boxes to be 
filled by gravity. 

Between the coal chute and the roundhouse on the same lead 
track is located the cinder pit, a section of which is shown in 
one of the illustrations. This is constructed of concrete through- 
out and is of the hand operated type. The bottom of the pit i. 
extended outside the inner rail to make a ledge about 4 ft. wide, 




,«#■<«»"' 



arrangement of tracks and buildings, spirit lake shops, 
I. & w. N. ry. 

of the road and a hill side it was decided to locate the shop 
buildings between .the main tracks and a straight lead to the 
roundhouse. As the buildings are comparatively few in num- 
ber and of moderate size, this idea worked out very nicely. 

Because of the comparatively high cost of steel in that region 
and the cheapness of timber, as small an amount as possible of 
the former material was used in the construction of the build- 
ings. The structures throughout are of brick walls resting on 
concrete foundations with wooden roofs supported by wooden 
roof trusses. In the roundhouse the walls of the outer circle 
are carried up to a height of five feet above the floor, above 
which they are continued as pilasters for supporting the roof, 
I-beams being used as lintels. Concrete has been extensivelj 
used for pits, heating ducts, cinder pits and other places where 
its advantages apply. 

Unusual care has been given to obtaining the maximum amount 
of natural lighting in all building-;. Pivoted sashes, fitted with 
operating mechanism for swinging, are used wherever desir- 
able. This feature is especially noticeable in the roundhouse 
where nearly 60 per cent, of the outer circle is given up to win- 
dows in addition to 100 sq. ft. per pit of window area over the 
doors on the inner circle and three large windows in the end 
walls. There are 18 swinging sash between each two pilasters 
in the outer wall, 6 stationary sash- over the doors and 9 swing- 
ing sash in each of the end wall windows. This gives, as can 
be seen in the illustration, a very light and pleasant roundhouse. 



giving the workmen a convenient location for shoveling and also 
reducing the amount of cinders which fall into the depressed 
track. The inner rail is carried on I-beams supported by con- 
crete piers at intervals of 7 ft. 5 in. 

Roundhouse. 

The roundhouse at present has but nine stalls, but is located so 
as to allow extension to the full circle of 44 stalls. A 75 ft. turn- 
table in a concrete pit is provided, having two lead tracks foi' 
locomotives, one passing the coal chute and over the cinder pit 
and the other, for outgoing engines, located parallel to this and 
between it and the shops. The turntable is hand operated and is 
provided with a very complete set of interlocking derail devices 
for preventing runaway locomotives from dropping into the 
pit. These consist of a derail on each roundhouse track at a 
distance of 20 ft. from the turntable and on the lead tracks at 
a distance of 50 ft. from the pit. These derails are normally in 
operating position and can be thrown out only by the locking 
device on the table when it is set for that particular track. 





■20-* 



1 



SECTIONAL ELEVATION OF CINDER PIT. 

Provision for handling heavy pieces of machinery and driving 
wheels directly from the roundhouse to the machine shop is 
made by extending one of the roundhouse tracks through the 



154 



Al'lUu, 1909. 



VMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOI RNAL. 



155 




INTERIOR VIEW OF ROUNDHOUSE, IDAHO AND WASHINGTON NORTHERN RV. 



outer wall, connecting il to the track which runs through the 
machine shop. 

The cross section of this roundhouse, shown in one of the il- 
lustrations, gives its dimensions and general features very clearly. 
The roof has a continuous drop from the inner circle toward the 
outer wall and is supported by three rows of intermediate posts. 
The pits are of concrete, draining toward the inner end. The 
floor is of concrete and is slightly sloped to drain into the pits, 
permitting the house to be kept clean with minimum expense, in 



doors are of a heavy framed wooden type and swing outward. 
The workmen's benches and lockers are placed between the stalls 
at the outer row of posts, giving a clear passage around the 
house along the outer wall. Drop pits for driving and truck 
wheels are provided, being fitted with hydraulic and pneumatic 
drop pit jacks respectively. The heating of the house is by the 
indirect system, a small building adjoining the outer wall con- 
taining the heating coils and fans, which deliver the hot air 
through underground ducts into the engine pits. 




<-f- 
-no 4 

ELEVATIONS AND SECTION OF ROUNDHOUSE, IDAHO AND WASHINGTON NORTHERN RAILWAY. 

addition to making the trucking of heavy parts comparatively Machine and Erecting Shop. 

easy. This shop occupies a building 210 x 70 ft., the entire area of 

A 4 in. water, V/2 in. air and a iH in- steam line are carried which is served by a 10-ton, three-motor, electric crane, arranged 

along the roof; the latter two having a connection at the posts to be operated either from a cage or by pendant cords extend 

between each two stalls and the water at every second stall. The ing to the floor. In it will be done all of the locomotive rr.s 



156 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 




INTERIOR VIEW OF MACHINE AND ERECTING SHOP, IDAHO AND WASHINGTON NORTHERN RV. 



chine and erecting work, as well as the boiler work, with the 
exception of the flues, which are handled in the blacksmith shop. 
Several wood-working tools are also included in the equipment 
of this shop. 

The erecting shop occupies three pits at one end of the build- 
ing, the track over the center pit extending throughout the 
length of the building and into the roundhouse as above men- 
tioned. These three pits are served by a common drop pit con- 
taining a 30-ton hydro-pneumatic transfer jack. One of the il- 
lustrations shows the construction of this drop pit, the design 
of which was given close attention with the idea of making it 
thoroughly reliable and rapid in its action. The removable sec- 
tions of the running rails over the drop pit are carried on 15 in. 
I-beams, the whole being hinged at one end and sliding on a 
guide, so that they can be quickly and easily removed, or re- 



placed. This pit, if desired, can be used for removing and're- 
placing the truck as well as the driving wheels. The locomo- 
tives are then either supported on blocks or special trucks, de- 
pending upon whether circumstances allow it to be stripped over 
the pit or not. Actual practice has shown that a locomotive can 
be wheeled with this arrangement as quickly as it could, under 
normal conditions, be transferred from another part of the shop 
and set down on its wheels by overhead cranes. 

The location and arrangement of the machine tools in this 
shop are shown in one of the illustrations. The drive is by elec- 
tric motor in all cases, the smaller tools being grouped along the 
east wall and driven from a line shaft supported by timbers car- 
ried on the wall and located so <-.s to minimize the obstruction 
of light from the windows. The larger tools, consisting of a 48 
in. planer, a 36 in. lathe, 51 in. boring mill, 60 in. half universal 









Wheel 











19 Wheel Lslhe 




[— , V?-I==g 



& 



PLAN OF MACHINE SHOP SHOWING LOCATION OF MACHINE TOOLS, SPIRIT LAKE SHOPS, T. & W. N. RY. 



April, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RATLROAD JOURNAL. 



15? 



radial drill, 79 in. driving wheel lathe with double quartering at- 
tachments and a 400-ton wheel press, are driven by individual 
motors. The wheel press is set in a covered pit of such depth 
that the ram is at a height above the floor suitable for pressing 
on and off car and truck wheels. By removing the pit cover, driv- 
ing wheels are handled in the same press. The boring mill has a 
chuck on the table and is used for boring car wheels as well as 
for general work. It is equipped with a jib crane and air hoist 
for handling work from the floor. The smaller tools consist of 
an 18 in. lathe, a 24 in. shaper with an attachment for slot 
ting driving boxes and with index centers, a 2 in. bolt cutter 
with lead screws for cutting staybolts, a J4 in. high speed drilt 



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< Duct S6x SS" 







Sectiou A-A on Ceuter 
Track Fit 







Section ( -1 Showing Rat] Hiuge, 
Lodi.an.l Cnrb for Hatches 
over Drop fii. 




1 I'.-n on CenL-r I in- of 
Driver \\h«t Prut. Til 



PLAN OF ERECTING PITS AND DETAILS OF DROP PIT, SPIRIT LAKE SHOPS. 

press, a 4 in. pipe machine, twist drill grinder, power hack saw 
and wet and dry grinders. In addition to this there is a band 
saw and a single spindle wood borer, both of which are driven 
by a single motor set on the floor. 

The tool room enclosure is located in one corner of the shop, 
at the end opposite the erecting shop. A 500 cu. ft. two-stage 
motor driven air compressor is located inside of the tool room, 
being operated automatically by means of an unloading device. 
In this same space is also located the motor generator which 
supplies direct current for the variable speed motors driving 
machine tools and for the crane motors. The power for the 
shops is supplied by a three-phase 440-volt current from an out- 
side source. Since this electric equipment requires practically 
no attention, the same holding true for the air compressor, the 



services of an engineer arc not required and this machinery is 
watched and cared for by the man in charge of the tool room. 

In the opposite corner of the building are located the radiators 
and fans for the heating system, and over these, on an enclosed 
platform, are the lockers and toilets for shop employees. 

This shop has a concrete floor, the same as the roundhouse, 
and presents the same advantages. The heating is by hot air 
through underground concrete and tile pipe ducts, a motor driven 
120-in fan giving circulation. The lighting is by arc lights freely 
distributed along the roof trusses and the usual incandescent 
lights at the machines, plugs for portable lights also being fre- 

Blacksmith Shop. 

The blacksmith shop and boiler plant are 
located in a building 97 ft long by 40 ft 
wide, the former taking up 65 ft. of the 
south end. The equipment in this shop 
consists of one 1,100 lb. steam hammer, a 
single ended motor driven punch and 
shear, and three forges, one of them being 
extra large. A 3 ton jib crane serves the 
hammer, the punch and the large forge. 
One corner of this building is used as a 
flue shop and is equipped with a motor 
driven flue cutter and oil flue welding fur- 
nace and a pneumatic flue welder. Space 
outside of the building has been provided 
for a llue rattler. 

Since the shops obtain power from an 
outside source there is no necessity for a 
power house, but steam is required for 
heating the various buildings and the 
coaches in the coach yard, for operating 
the steam hammer and for roundhouse 
uses. Therefore a boiler plant, consisting 
of two 125 h. p. horizontal return tubular 
boilers, which burn either coal or refuse 
wood, has been installed in one end of the 
blacksmith shop building, the two rooms 
being separated by a brick wall. This lo- 
cates the boilers at about the center of the 
group of shop buildings. 

Storehouse and Office Building. 
The storehouse is a brick building 124 x 
30 ft in the south end of which are the 
offices of the mechanical department, and, 
at the north end, a fireproof oil cellar. 
The metal oil tanks in this cellar are filled 
from the level of the storeroom floor, and 
the oil is distributed from a delivery coun- 
ter, to the level of which the various kinds 
of oil are lifted by self -measuring pumps. 
The storehouse platform extends all 
around the building at the same level as 
the storehouse floor; or at the height of 
the average car floor. At the north end 

of the building the platform is extended out 100 ft. from the 

building wall with the full width of 42 ft 

Paint and Coach Shop. 

This building is intended for general use in repairing, cleaning 
and painting passenger cars. It is 108 ft. long and 45 ft wide 
with two longitudinal tracks extending nearly the whole length 
of the building. The roof has longitudinal skylights extending 
along the center line to give ample light between the tracks. 
The floor is of concrete and is sloped in accordance with an 
underground system of drains in order to permit washing of 
coach bodies and trucks. Along the walls at the north end are 
sinks for washing the removable parts and the drying racks for 
sashes, doors, ventilators and seat arms. Trussed planks resting 
on ladder horses are provided for painting or repairing coach 
sides. 



* * n 

-1;--r|-- n — p— n — r./«, 
^-_it--u--u — U--0--0O J 



158 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



Coach and Freight Car Yard. 

Owing to the ordinarily mild climate at Spirit Lake, the freight 
car repairs are mule outside, on tracks west of the blacksmith 
shop. A car repairman's house 40 x 12 ft. is located alongside 
of the repair tracks, for housing tools and clothes. A line of 
piping for compressed air is rim along the tracks with hose con- 
nections for compressed air drills and hammers. The coach 
yard has two tracks between which are service boxes at intervals 
of 50 ft., containing steam, water and air connections. Standard 
gauge industrial tracks are provided for handling mounted 
wheels and transporting heavy material between the machine 
shop and repair tracks and the blacksmith shop. 

Water Service and Sewers. 

The high cost of cast iron pipe in this locality made the use 
of iron water mains undesirable, and as the soil at the shop is a 
dry gravel, wooden water pipe was installed throughout the 
shop yards. Fire hydrants are arranged about the yard ; and 
in addition two hose houses, each containing a hose reel on a 
truck and a supply of fire hose, have been provided. In the in- 



terior of each building hose valves and reels of fire hose have 

been provided so that tires originating inside of the building may 

be properly attacked. 

Owing to the fact that seepage through the soil is very rapid, 

the roundhouse, turntable and cinder pit drain into a sump pit. 

The sanitary sewers from the machine shop and storenouse are 

connected through a manhole to a city sewer running near the 

shops. _ 

Construction. 

The preliminary work for the plans of the shops was taken 
up in May, 1908, and construction was begun the latter part of 
June. 

All buildings and equipment were turned over to the railroad 
company for operation, early in November, 1908. 

The shops were designed and built, and all the equipment was 
furnished and installed, including even all hand tools necessary 
to make the shops complete and ready for operation, by Westing- 
house, Church, Kerr & Co., engineers, under the supervision of 
R. F. Blackwell, vice-president and general manager, and W. C. 
Smith, chief engineer of the Idaho & Washington Northern 
Railroad. 



CLEANING AND REPAIRING TRIPLE VALVES. 



The cleaning and repairing of triple valves may be greatly fa- 
cilitated by providing a special bench, such as shown in the illus- 
trations. This bench is in use at the east-bound freight car re- 
pair yard of the Pennsylvania Railroad at Altoona. Two men 
may work at the bench at the same time, one at each end. 

The triple valve is placed on the bench, as shown in Fig. 2; a 
pin fits into one of the bolt holes in the flange of the triple and 
the two clamps fit over the flange. These clamps are held firmly 
against the flange by a spring in the socket of the clamp and 



one pin, as there is a hole cut through the tilting table large 
enough to fit the projection on the bottom of the triple, which 
answers for the second pin. 

While in the position shown in Fig. 2 the bolts are removed 
and the check valve case which projects forward and the cylinder 
cap which projects upward, are removed, as shown in Fig. 3. 

The check valve case is dropped into and fits snugly in an 
opening which is cut in the edge of the bench to the left of the 
tilting portion upon which the triple valve is fastened. The 
check valve case is thus held firmly in position while the train 
line check valve is being ground in. 




FIG. 2. — TRIPLE VALVE CLAMPED TO BENCH. 

underneath the nut. The clamps may be quickly adjusted or 
released with the hands. The pin keeps the triple valve from 
turning and can be quickly removed and placed in other holes 
provided for receiving the different size triple valves. The old 
way of holding the triple valve on the bench with two pins, one 
on each side of the valve, was unsatisfactory, as it was not held 
firmly enough; with the new bench it is only necessary to have 




FIG. 4. — TRIPLE VALVE TILTED BACKWARD. 

In order to carefully examine the space in the triple valve body 
between the emergency valve piston and the emergency valve 
and its seat, that portion of the table upon which the valve is 
carried is tilted backward, as shown in Fig. 4. This is accom 
plished by pressing the treadle alongside the bench with the 
foot, thus withdrawing the pin that locks the tilting portion, 
which when tilted locks itself in any one of a number of differ- 



April, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD -JOUKNAr 



).">9 




FIG. I. — BENCH FOR CLEANING AND REPAIRING TRIPLE VALVES. 





FIG. 3. — CHECK VALVE CASE AND CVUNDER CAP REMOVED. 

ent positions, at the will of the operator. While in this position 
the feed groove in the upper wall of the triple piston cylinder is 
exposed to the light and can be thoroughly cleaned. In order 
to properly clean this feed groove on the old bench it was neces- 
sary to remove the valve from the pins and turn it over to the 
light. The feed groove is very small and must receive careful 
attention, as the air that charges the auxiliary reservoir passes 
through it. 

To clean the cylinder and the slide valve bushing the table is 
placed as shown in Fig. 3. After this is completed the table is 
tilted forward, as shown in Fig. 5. The light reflected from the 
chute underneath makes it possible to examine the bushing prop- 
erly. This being done the table is again placed as in Fig. 3 and 
all lint from the waste, which may have adhered to the valve, is 
blown out with compressed air. The parts of the valve are then 
reassembled. 



NOISELESS GEARS. 



The introduction of motor driven machine tools has in many 
cases been accompanied by at least one disadvantage. This to 
be sure is minor when compared with the advantage derived in 
other ways, but nevertheless it is a decided and noticeable fault 
and one which is not at all necessary. Reference is made to the 
nerve racking noise which develops after metal gears running 
at high speeds have been in operation long enough to lose their 
perfect contour. 

It is true that attention must be given to durability at these 



FIG. =. — TRIPLE VALVE TILTED FORWARD. 

points and that the ordinary rawhide gears and some gears of 
special composition have not proven satisfactory, but that does 
not mean that the men studying this feature have given the 
problem up as insolvablc. They have nut by any means, and 
for many purposes they have actually solved it. Gears can be 
obtained which are noiseless in operation, and while they won't 
outwear the steel gears with which they mesh, they will last 
long enough to be entirely practical from a durability and cost 
standpoint. 

The great advantage of such gears will be readily appreciated 
by those who have to spend any time in the neighborhood of 
machine tools, electrically driven through steel gears, which have 
been in operation a few months, and while the value of less 
noise is hard to estimate in dollars and cents, no one denies 
that it has a very real value judged on that standard. 



A 1,200 VOLT DIRECT CURRENT ELECTRIC RAILWAY 



The Pittsburgh, Harmony, Butler & Xew Castle Railway, 
which was recently opened with 65 miles of single track and 
double track for llJ4 miles, employs direct current of 1,200 volts 
pressure at the trolley wire. This is said to be the pioneer high 
tension direct current road of the country, although it is not 
the first to be actually put into operation. Grooved 0000 trolley 
wire is used, strung double over the entire line. The road is 
operating fourteen four-motor passenger cars of the usual inter- 
urban type and will shortly put into service several freight cars. 



160 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 




DRILLING ECCENTRICS. 




DRILLING PISTON HEADS. 

MULTIPLE SPINDLE DRILLS IN RAILROAD SHOPS. 

Several typical operations, which may be performed to ad- 
vantage on a multiple spindle drill in a railroad locomotive repair 
shop, are shown in the accompanying illustrations. Two \V 2 in. 
holes are being bored in the spring saddle at the rate of i l / 4 in. 
per minute. The machine upon which the work is being done 
measures 4954 in. between -uprights; the minimum distance be- 
tween the center of the spindles is 8 in. and the maximum 48 in. 
The table has a vertical adjustment of 12 and the maximum dis- 
tance from the nose of the spindle to the top of the table is 24 
in. The heads are independent in drive and feed. 

The two holes are drilled and tapped in one eccentric while 
the other one is being clamped to the table. The third illustration 




DRILLING SPRING SADDLE. 



shows the method of drilling and tapping piston heads. The 
machine used is made by The Foote-Burt Company, as is indi- 
cated by the ball bearing thrust bearings on the spindle. 



Jib Crane in Roundhouses. — In most modern engine house* 
there are one or more columns between the tracks, and the one 
at the front of the engine should be utilized for a jib crane of 
about 2,000 pounds capacity. This will be found of great assist- 
ance in handling stacks, fronts, bells, air pumps, steam chest lids, 
etc. A differential chain block hung on a trolley will be found to 
answer all requirements. — Wtn. Elmer, Ry. Club of Pittsburg. 



April, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



161 




HEAVY MILLING MACHINE FOE CONNECTING AND SIDE RODS. 



EXTRA HEAVY ROD MILLING MACHINE. 



The 48-inch milling machine, shown in the illustrations, is ex- 
ceptionally powerful and was specially designed for milling lo- 
comotive connecting and side rods in pairs. It is driven by a 
65 h.p. motor with a two to one speed range. This furnishes all 
the speeds necessary for milling rods, but motors of differ- 
ent speed ranges or greater power may be applied to suit other 
conditions. This machine has removed 82 cubic inches of steel 
per minute, but with a larger motor than noted above. 

The machine measures 48 in. between the housings and the 
maximum distance from the center of the spindle to the table is 
36 in. The spindle is 8 in. in diameter, except for that part to 
which the cutter mandrel is locked, which is enlarged to 12 in. 
in diameter. There is a horizontal adjustment for locating the 
cutters and a central bearing for supporting the mandrel be- 
tween the cutters. 

The table is 40 in. wide on its working surface and is usually 
made 14 ft. between the end pans, although this may be changed 
to suit requirements. A trough is cast around the table for col- 
lecting the cutting lubricant; this drains to a lower receptacle 
from which it is pumped to a tank by a power driven pump. 
The table is fed by a separate 7 h.p. variable speed motor, 
so wired with the driving motor that it stops when current to 
the driving motor is cut off. This motor also drives the table 
fast power traverse. By using this separate feed motor a great 
variety of table feeds are instantly obtainable without changing 
the cutting speed, and both may be adjusted to get the maximum 
output of both the cutters and the machine. This machine is 
made at the Bement Works of the Niles-Bement-Pond Com- 
pany. 



"Track Skate." — In regard to preventing engines from running 
into the pit, we have a very simple device which seems to have 
answered the purpose. It is a steel casting which we call a track 
skate. It has a thin edge which l<es on top of the rail and the 
flange keeps it from shifting sideways, and the end is turned up 
6" or 8" so that in case the engine starts to move into the pit the 
tender wheel rides on this track skate and pushes it along and it 
acts as a very effective brake. — IVm. Elmer before the Railway 
Club of Pittsburgh. 




OPERATING SHU cil ROD MILLING MACHINE. 

Forest Products Laboratory. — The government's new forest 
products laboratory will be located at the University of Wis- 
consin, at Madison. The establishment of this laboratory 
means the concentration of all lines of the experimental 
utilization of timber and the checking of wood waste. Forest 
Service laboratories for timber test work at Yale and Purdue 
Universities and the government's wood pulp and wood chem- 
istry laboratory in Washington will be consolidated and trans- 
ferred to Madison as soon as practicable. A force of fifteen to 
twenty timber test engineers, experts in wood preservation, wood 
pulp manufacture and wood distillation will have charge of the 
work carried on. The laboratory will have an equipment valued 
at not less than $15,000. The University will furnish the build- 
ing, light, heat, and power, and in return advanced students will 
have the use of the laboratory for fpecial work in related lines. 



162 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



SAFETY VALVE CAPACITY* 



Philip G. Darling/)- Assoc. Amer. Soc. M. E. 



The function of a safety valve is to prevent the pressure in 
the boiler to which it is applied from rising above a definite point, 
to do this automatically and under the most severe conditions 
which can arise in service. For this, the valve or valves must 
have a relieving capacity at least equal tc the boiler evaporation 
under these conditions. If it has not this capacity, the boiler 
pressure will continue to rise, although the valve is blowing, with 
a strain to the boiler and danger of explosion consequent to over- 



^S\ 



PAPER SPOOL 




PAPER DRUM DRIVEN 
BY MOTOR THROUGH 
THE WORM AND WHEEL 



PENCIL MAKING 
RECORD 



f IXED CENTER 

. SHAFT DRIVEN BY 



I 



PUSH BUTTON FOR 
RECORD WITH A JUMP 
SPARK 




A SMALL 
MOTOR 




CONNECTION TAPPED ^JTO 
QPFERENT PLACES IN VALVE 
CASE EXHAUST PRE E 
TO DETERMME BACK 
.PRESSURE 




CONNECTION TO BOILER 



CONNEC TED to BOILER 
AS IN SERVCE 



FIG. 2. — ARRANGEMENT OF APPARATUS TO GIVE VALVE LIFT DIAGRAM. 

pressure. Thus with the exception of a requisite mechanical 
reliability, the factor in a safety valve bearing the most vital 
relation to its real value is its capacity. 

Two factors in a safety valve geometrically determine the area 
of discharge and hence the relieving capacity — the diameter of 
the inlet opening at the seat and the valve lift. The former is 
the nominal valve size, the latter is the amount the valve disc 
lifts vertically from the seat when in action. In calculating the 
size valves to be placed on boilers, rules, which do not include a 



• Presented before a meeting of the American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers, Feb. 28, 1909. 

t Mechanical Engineer, Consolidated Safety Valve Co. 



term for this valve lift, or an equivalent, must necessarily be de- 
rived from the basis of a certain lift assumed for each size of 
valve. Nearly all existing rules and formulae are of this kind and 
rate all valves of the same nominal size as of the same capacity. 
To find what lifts standard make valves actually have in prac- 
tice and thus test the truth or error of this assumption that they 
are approximately the same for the same size valve, an apparatus 
has been devised and tests upon different makes of valves con- 
ducted. With this apparatus not only can the valve lift be read 
at any moment to thousandths of an inch, but an exact perma- 
nent record of the lift during the blowing of the valve is ob- 
tained in a form somewhat similar to a steam engine indicator 

card (Fig. i) and of a quite simi- 
lar use and value in analyzing the 
action of the valve. 

As appears in Figure 2 the valve 
under test is mounted upon the 
boiler in the regular manner, and a 
small rod is tapped into the top 
end of its spindle and connects the 
lifting parts of the valve directly 
with a circular micrometer gauge, 
the reading hand of which indicates 
the lift upon a large circular scale 
or dial. The rod through this 
gauge case is solid, maintaining a 
direct connection to the pencil move- 
ment of the recording gauge above. 
This is a modified Edson recording gauge with a multiplication 
in the pencil movement of about 8 to I, and by means of a chart 
drum driven by a small electric motor (not shown), gives a hori- 
zontal time element to the record. The sttam pressures are noted 
and read from a large test gauge and an electric spark device 
makes it possible to spot the chart at the different pound pres- 
sures during the blowing of the valve. The actual lift equivalents 
of the pencil heights upon the chart are carefully calibrated so 
the record may be accurately measured to thousandths of an 
inch. 

With this apparatus, investigations and tests were started 
upon seven different makes of 4 inch stationary safety valves, 
and these were followed with similar ones upon nine makes of 
muffler locomotive valves, six of which were 3l4 inches, all of 
the valves being designed for and tested at 200 lbs. The sta- 
tionary valve tests were made upon a 94 h. p. water tube boiler 
from the Babcock & Wilcox Co. The locomotive valve tests were 
made upon locomotive No. 900 of the Illinois Central R. R., the 
valve being mounted directly upon the top of the main steam 
dome. This locomotive is a consolidation type, having 50 sq. ft. 
of grate area and 2,953 sq. ft. of heating surface. Although a 
large amount of additional experimenting has been done only the 
results of the above will be quoted in this paper. These lift 
records show (with the exception of a small preliminary simmer 
which a few of the valves have) an abrupt opening to full lift 
and an almost equally abrupt closing when a certain lower lift is 
reached. Both the opening and closing lifts are significant of 
the action of the valves. 

The results of the 4 inch iron body stationary valve tests sum- 
marized are as follows: Of the seven valves the average lift at 
opening was .079 in. and at closing .044 in., or excluding the valve 
with the highest lifts, the averages were .07 in. at opening and 
.037 in. at closing. The valve with the lowest lifts had .031 in. 
at opening and .017 in. at closing, while that with the highest had 
.137 in. and .088 in. Of the six 3H in. muffler locomotive valves 
the summarized lifts are as follows : Average of the six valves 
.074 in. at opening and .043 in. at closing. Average, excluding the 
highest, .061 in. at opening and .031 in. at closing. The lowest lift 
valve had .04 in. opening and .023 in. closing; the highest .140 in. 
opening and .102 in. closing. 

The great variation — 300 per cent. — in the lifts of these stand- 
ard valves of the same size is startling and its real significance 
is apparent when it is realized that under existing official safety 
valve rules these valves, some of them with less than one-third 



April, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



163 



the lift and capacity of others, receive the same rating and are 
listed as of equal relieving value. Three of these existing rules 
are given below as an illustration of their nature : 

RULE OF THE UNITED STATES HOARD OF SUPERVISING INSPECTORS. 

A =: .2074 X (W -=- P) 

A = area of safety valve in sq. in. per sq. ft. of grate surface. 
W = lbs. of water evaporated per sq. ft. of grate pev hour. 
P = boiler pressure (absolute.). 

In 1875 a special committee was appointed by this Board to 
conduct experiments upon safety valves at the Washington Navy 
Yard. Although the pressures used in these experiments (30 to 
70 lbs. per sq. in.) were too low to make the results of much 
value to-day, some of the conclusions reported are significant. 

"First: That the diameter of a safety valve is not an infallible test oi 
its efficiency. 

"Second : That the lift which can be obtained in a safety valve, other 
conditions being equal, i.y a test of its efficiency." 

The present rule of the Board as giver, above, formulated by 
L. D. Lovekin, Chief Engineer of the New York Shipbuild- 
ing Co., was adopted in 1904. Its derivation assumes practically 
a 45 degree seat and a valve lift of 1/32 of the nominal valve 
diameter. The discharge area in this rule is obtained by multi- 
plying the valve lift (D -H 3,2) by the valve circumference 
(t X D) and taking but 75 per cent, of the result to allow for 
the added restriction of a 45 degree over a flat seat. The 75 
per cent, equals approximately the sine of 45 degrees or .707. 
This value for the discharge area, i. c. (.75 t D 2 -r- 32), is sub- 
stituted directly into Napier's formula for the flow of steam. 




LIFT TESTING APPARATUS ON STATIONARY BOILER. 

Thus in the valves to which this rule is applied the following 
lifts are assumed to exist: 

1 in. valve... .03 in. 3 in. valve... .09 in. 5 in. valve... .16 in. 

2 in. valve... .06 in. 4 in. valve... .13 in. 6 in. valve... .19 in. 
Referring to the valve lifts obtained by the tests, it is seen that 

the highest lift agrees very closely with the lift assumed in the 
rule and if the valve lifts of the different designs were more uni- 
formly of this value or if the rule expressly stipulated either that 
the Vft of 1/32 of the valve diameter actually obtain in valves 
qualifying under it or that an equivalent discharge area be ob- 
tained by the use of larger valves, the rule would apply satisfac- 
torily to that size of valve. However, the lowest lift valve actu- 
ally has but %, the next larger less than J/ and the average lift of 
all but the highest lift valve, which average is .07 in., is but 56 
per cent, of the lift assumed in the rule for these 4 in. valves. 

MASSACHUSETTS RULE 01' IOXX). 

A = (70 W -r P) X « 

A = area of safety valve in sq. in. per sq. ft. of grate. 

W = lbs. of water evaporated per sq. ft. of grale surface per second. 

P =: boiler pressure (absolute). 



This rule is merely the United States rule given above with 
a 3.2 per cent, larger constant and hence requiring a valve larger 
by that amount. The evaporation term is expressed in pounds 
per second instead of per hour and two constants are given in- 






l£_ 



FIG. I. — VALVE LIFT DIAGRAM. 

stead of one, but when reduced o the form of the United States 
rule it gives A = .214 X ( W : P). Figuring this back as was 
done above with the United States rule, shows that this rule as- 
sumes a valve lift of 1/33 of the valve diameter instead of 1/32. 
This changing of the assumed lift from 1/32 to 1/33 of the valve 
diameter being the only difference between the two rules, the 
inadequacy of the U. S. rule just referred to applies to this more 
recent rule of the Massachusetts Board. 

PHILADELPHIA RULE. 

A = 22.5 G -T- (P + 8.62) 

A = total area of safety valve or valves in sq. in. 

G = grate area in sq, ft. 

P = Boiler pressure (gauge). 

The Philadelphia rule now in use came from France in 1868, 
being the official rule there at that time and having been adopted 
and recommended to the City of Philadelphia by a specially ap- 
pointed committee of the Franklin Institute. The area (A) of this 
rule is the effective valve opening, hence if it is applied as its 
derivation by the French requires, the lift of the valve must be 
known and considered. However, the example of its applica- 
tion given in a city ordinance, as well as that given in the origi- 
nal report of the Franklin Institute Committee, which recom- 
mended it, show the area (A) applied to the nominal valve open- 
ing. In the light of its derivation, this method of using it takes 
as the effective discharge area, the valve opening itself, the error 
of which is very great. Such use, as specifically stated in the 
report of the committee above referred to, assumes a valve lift 
at least % of the valve diameter, 1. e., the practically impossible 
lift of I in. in a 4 in. valve. 

The principal defect of these rules in the light of the preceding 
tests is that they assume that valves of the same nominal size 
have the same capacity and they rate them the same without 
distinction, in spite of the fact that in actual practice some have 
but Vi of the capacity of the others. There are other defects as 




LOCOMOTIVE ARRANGED FOR TEJTING SAFETY VALVES. 

have been shown, such as varying the assumed lift with the valv_ 
diameter, while in reality with a given design the lifts are more 
nearly the same in the different sizes, not varying nearly as rap- 
idly as the diameters. And further than this the actual lifts as- 
sumed for the larger valves are nearly double the actual average 
obtained in practice. 

The direct conclusion in this is that existing rules and statutes 
are not safe to follow. Some of these rules in use were formu- 



164 



\MERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



lated before, and have not been modified since spring safety 
valves were invented, and at a time when 120 lbs. was considered 
high pressure. None of these rules take account of the different 
lifts which exist in the different makes of valves of the same 
nominal size, and they thus rate exactly alike valves which actual- 
ly vary in lift and relieving capacity over 300 per cent. It would, 
therefore, seem the duty of all who are responsible for steam 
installation and operation to no longer leave the determination 
of safety valve size and selection to such statutes as may happen 
to exist in their territory, but to investigate for themselves. 

The elements of a better rule for determining safety valve 
size exist in Napier's formula for the flow of steam, combined 
with the actual discharge area of the valve as determined by its 
lift. In "Steam Boilers" by Peabody & Miller, this method of 
determining the discharge of a safety valve is used. The uncer- 
tainty of the coefficient flow, that is, of the constant to be used 
in Napier's formula when applied to the irregular steam dis- 
charge passages of safety valves has probably been largely re- 
sponsible for the fact that this method of obtaining valve capaci- 
ties has not been more generally used. To determine what this 
constant or coefficient of flow is and how it is affected by varia- 
tions in valve design and adjustment, an extended series of tests 
were recently conducted by the writer at the Stirling Department 
of the Babcock & Wilcox Co., at Barberton, Ohio. 

A 373 h. p. Class K, No. 20 Stirling boiler, fired with a Stirl- 
ing chain grate, with a total grate area of 101 sq. ft. was used. 
This boiler contained a U type of superheater designed for a 
superheat of 50 degrees F. The water feed to this boiler was 
measured in calibrated tanks and pumped (steam for the pump 
being furnished from another boiler) through a pipe line all con- 
nections to which had been blanked by stop valves back of which 
there were open drips to insure that there was no leakage. The 
entire steam discharge from the boiler was through the valve 
being tested, all other steam connections from the boiler being 
either blanked or closed with stop valves beyond which were 
placed open drip connections to indicate any leakage. A constant 
watch was kept throughout the testing upon all points of the 
feed, and steam lines to insure that all water measured in the 
calibrated tanks was passing through the tested valves without 
intermediate loss. 

The valves tested consisted of a 3 in., 3j4 in. and a 4 in. iron 
ilationary valve, and a ij4 in., 3 in. and 3J4 in. locomotive valve, 
the latter with and without mufflers. These six valves were all 
previously tested and adjusted on steam. Without changing the 
position of the valve disc and ring the springs of these valves 
were then removed and solid spindles, threaded (with a 10 pitch 
thread) through the valve casing above, inserted. Upon the top 
end of these spindles, wheels graduated with 100 divisions were 
placed. Figure 3 shows the arrangement used with the locomo- 
tive valves, the spindle and graduated wheel being similar to that 
used with the stationary valves. By this means the valve lift to 
thousandths of an inch was definitely set for each test. 

In conducting the tests three hours duration was selected as 
the minimum time for satisfactory results. Pressure and tem- 
perature readings were taken every three minutes, water read- 
ings every half hour. In all 29 tests were run, 15 were 3 hours 
long, 4 2J4 hours, 3 2 hours and 7 of less duration. 

Tests numbered 1 to 5 were preliminary runs of but one hour 
or less duration apiece, and the records of them are thus omitted 
in the table on the next page which gives lifts, discharge areas, 
average pressure and superheat, and the steam discharge in 
pounds per hour of each of the other tests. The discharge areas 
have been figured for 45 degree seats from the formula, A = 
2.22 L D + i.ii L 2 , where A equals the effective area in sq. in., 
D equals the valve diameter in inches, and L equals the valve 
lift in inches. In tests 8 and 23 where the width of valve seat was 
.225 in. and .185 in., respectively, and the valve was thus slightly 
above the depth of the valve seat, the area was figured for this' 
condition. 

As previously stated the application of these 'results is in fixing 
a constant for the flow of Napier's formula as applied to safety 
valves. The formula is W = AP -4- 70, in which W equals pounds 



of steam discharged per second, P equals the absolute steam 
pressure behind the orifice or under the valve and A equals the 
effective discharge opening in sq. in. This may be stated as 
E = C X A X P ; in which E equals the pounds of steam dis- 
charged per hour and C equals a constant ; the value of E, A and 
P being given for the tests, C is directly obtainable. 

Figuring and plotting the values of this constant indicates the 
following conclusions : 

l 1 ) Increasing or altering the steam pressure from approxi- 
mately 50 to 150 lbs. per sq. in. (tests 14 and 10) does not affect 
the constant, this merely checking the applicability of Napier's 
formula in that respect. 

( _• > Radically changing the shape of the valve disc outside of 
the seat at the huddling or throttling chamber, so-called, does 




FIG. 3.— VALVE FITTED FOR CAPACITY TESTS. 

not affect the constant or discharge. In test No. 15 the valve 
had a downward projecting lip, deflecting the steam flow through 
nearly 90 degrees, yet the discharge was practically the same as 
in tests Nos. 10 and 14, where the lip was cut entirely away, giv- 
ing a comparatively unobstructed flow to the discharging steam. 

(3) Moving the valve adjusting ring through much more than 
its complete adjustment range does not affect the constant or 
discharge (Tests Xos. 16 and 17). 

(4^ The addition of the muffler to a locomotive valve* does 
not materially alter the constant or discharge. There is but 2 
per cent, difference between tests Nos. 10 and 13. 

(5) Disregarding the rather unsatisfactory i l / 2 in. and 3 in. 
locomotive valve tests, the different sizes of valves tested show 
a variation in the constant when plotted to given lifts of about 
4 per cent. 

(6) There is a slight uniform decrease of the constant when 
increasing the valve lifts. 

The variations indicated in the last two conditions are not 
large enough, however, to materially impair the value of a single 
constant obtained by averaging the constants of all the 24 tests 



Ai'KiL, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



165 



Test 
No. 



Duration 
of test. 



Safetv Valve Capacity Tests. 
Run at the Stirling Works of the ISabcock & Wilcox Co., liarberton, Ohio. 

Pri . 

ure, Super- 
Size and type Valve lbs. per heat, 
of valve v Adjustment remarks lift, in. sq.in. 



.1. i F, 



November 30 to December 23, 1908. 

, Discharge , 

Per br., 

lbs. Area.* Remarks, 

of steam. sq.in. t^u, 



6 


3 hrs. 


4-in. 


R.F. iron 


stationary. 


Ri a] 


:-ii, . 'ii.iir 1 piped 





151.7 


43.6 


6,120 


0.0226 


7 


;: " 


4-in. 


" " 


" 


" 


.. .. ., 


189 


145.4 


45.1 






8 


3 " 


•tin. 


" 


" 


" 


" " " 


L80 


135.7 


49.2 


11,026 


L.704 





3 " 


4-in. 


.. 


« 


u 


.. 


.1045 


149.4 


41.9 


7,290 


.94 06 


10 


tyi" 


i'A 


locomotive 


Form B. 


" 


" without muffler. 


.140 


146.7 


39.0 


8,685 




11 


8 " 


sy 2 


" 


" 


" 


.. .< >< 


.070 


162.5 


88.0 


4,670 


.8280 ) 


12 


3 " 


3 A 


" 


" 


" 


., .• it 


. 1 ».") 


150.8 


41.2 


6,780 


13 


3 " 


3/ 2 


" 


11 


" 


" with muffler. 


.1305 


146.3 


38.1 


8,400 


1 . 1 O'l 


14 


2 " 


S'A 


.. 


.. 


« 





.140 


62.2 


61.3 


3,620 


1.1011 


16 


2 A" 


Do.; 


with lipped feather. 


" 


" " " 


1 n. 


146.4 


39.0 


8,600 




ii. 


.; ■• 


4-in. 


Rl. iron 


stationary. 


" 


" exhaust |'i|i d. 


.140 


13*. f, 


4 2,3 


8,770 


1.266 


17 


3 " 


4-in. 


" 




Adj. 1 
abi *\ 


ng one turn 1-16 in. 
m ..ill 11 position. 


.140 


142.0 


60.1 


8,900 


1.265 


18 


2 " 


I'A 


locomotive 


Form B. 


Reglr. 


adj. with mufflei 


m; 


140.8 


23.0 


8,616 


.42721 


19 


1 " 


IK 


" 


*' 




ii 11 ii 





151.2 


None 


1,650 


.2038 I 


20 


2A" 


IK 


" 


" 


" 


11 .1 ii 


, 


Ull.3 


None 


2,625 


.2660 f 


21 


2A" 


ik 


" 


M 


" 


11 11 11 


i', . 


1 :;.- 


None 


1,976 


.2. r .U>J 


22 


\A" 


3 A 


R.F. iron 


stationary. 


" 


" exhaust piped. 


Hil) 


146.8 


42.6 


4,320 


.6498 


23 


3 " 


s<A 


" " 


" 


11 


<i 11 11 


.140 


139.9 


43.6 


3,860 


1.1. 86 


24 


3 " 


ZA 


11 it 


** 


" 


11 11 11 


.106 


141.6 


48.7 


6,300 


,82801 


25 


3 " 


3 


" it 


" 


" 


11 n 11 


.130 


1 10.1 


48.4 


6,370 


.8846 1 


26 


3 " 


3 


*' '■ 


'■ 


" 


11 ii 11 


.100 


142.8 


45.6 


6,160 


.6770 f 


27 


2 " 


3 


a it 


" 


" 


11 11 i< 


.070 


142.4 


29.6 


3,705 


,4716 J 


28 


3 " 


:: locomotive Form B. 


" 


" with muffler. 


ISO 


Ms 1 


48.7 


7,060 


.884.1 


29 


8 " 


3 


' 




" 




.090 


189.8 


43.9 


4,950 


.r.iu 1 



1 pressure. 
sure 2 lbs. 
3 lbs.; max. press.; lift 
1 than depth of scat. 
.sure, 1 lb. 

10 to 12 inclusive, with an 

open locomotive valve. 
Muffler valve in this and following 

locomotive tests. 
Test at low steam pressure. 
Different type of valve disc. 
No bk press. ; rep. of test No. 7. 
Back press., 3 lbs. ; ring position 

changed. 

Tests 18-21, inc., unsatisfactory; 
valve loo small for boiler used. 

No back pressure. 

No back press.; lift greater than 
depth of seat. 

Tests 24 to 27, inclusive, no back 

pressure. 



•The valves all having 45 deg. bevel seats these areas are obtained from formula: a = 2.22 x D x I -4- 1.11 x I 2 ; except where, as 
in test Nos. 8 and 23, the valv- lift is greatei than the depth of the valve seat, where the following formula is used: a = 2.22 
x D x d + 1.11 x d= + 77 x D x (1— d). 
a = discharge area (sq. in.j. D = valve I'm' 1. 1 (in.). 1 = valve lift (in.). d = depth of valve seat (in.). 

Note. — The four wings of the valvi Feather or disc probably reduce the flow slightly, hut as these are cut away at the seat (see 
sketch) a definite correction ... th 1 it areas i"t- them is impossible. Further, the formula constants are desired for the valves as 
made. 




given. The selection of such a constant is obviously in accord 
with the other four conditions mentioned. This average constant 
is 47.5, giving the formula E = 47.5 X A X P. Its theoretical 
value for the standard orifice of Napier's formula is 51.4, of 
which the above is o^H per cent. 

To make this formula more generally serviceable, it should be 
expressed in terms of the valve diameter and lift, and can be still 
further simplified in its application by expressing the term E 
(steam discharged or boiler evaporation per hour) in terms of 
the boiler heating surface or grate area. For the almost uni- 
versal 45 degrees seat the effective discharge area is, with a slight 
approximation (L X sine 45° X ff X D), in which L equals the 
valve lift vertically in inches and D the valve diameter in inches. 
Substituting this in the above formula gives 
E = 105 X L X D X P. 

Note that the nominal valve area does not enter into the use 
of this formula and that if a value of 12, for instance, is obtained 
for D it would call for 2, 6 in. or 3, 4 in. valves. For flat seats 
this constant becomes 149. 

The fact that these tests were run with some superheat (an 
average of 37.2 degrees F.), while the majority of valves in use 
are used with saturated steam, would, if any material difference 
exists, place the above constants on the safe side. 

To make the use of the rule more direct where the evaporation 
of the boiler is only indirectly known it may be expressed in terms 
of the boiler heating surface or grate area. This modification con- 
sists merely in substituting for the term E (pounds of total evap- 
oration) a term H (sq. ft. of total heating surface) multiplied 
by the pounds of water per sq. ft. of heating surface which the 
boiler will evaporate. Evidently the value of these modified 
forms of the formula depends upon the proper selection of aver- 
age boiler evaporation figures for different types of boilers and 
also upon the possibility of so grouping these boiler types that 
average figures can be thus selected. This modified form of 
the formula is D = CH -e- LP, in which H equals the total boiler 
heating surface in sq. ft. and C equals a constant. 

Values of the constant for different types of boilers and ser- 
vice have been selected. These constants are susceptible of course 
to endless discussion among manufacturers, and it is undoubtedly 
more satisfactory where any question arises, to use the form con- 
taining the term E itself. Nevertheless, the form containing the 
term H is more direct in its application and it is believed that the 
values given below for the constant will prove serviceable. In 
applying the formula. in this form rathet than the original one, 
containing the evaporation term E, it should be remembered that 



these constants are based upon average proportions and hence 
should not be used for boilers in which any abnormal proportions 
or relations between grate area, heating surface, etc., exists. 

For cylindrical multitubular, vertical and water tube stationary 
boilers a constant of .068 is suggested. This is based upon an 
average evaporation of y/2 lbs. of watei per sq. ft. of heating 
surface per hour, with an overload capacity of 100 per cent., 
giving 7 lbs. per sq. ft. of heating surface, the figure used in ob- 
taining the above constant 

For water tube marine and Scotch marine boilers, the suggested 
constant is .095. This is based upon an overload or maximum 
evaporation of 10 lbs. of water per sq. ft. of heating surface 
per hour. 

For locomotives the suggested constant is .035. In locomotive 
practice there are special conditions to be considered which sepa- 
rate, it from regular stationary and marine work. In the first 
place the maximum evaporation of a locomotive is only possible 
with the maximum draft obtained when the cylinders are exhaust- 
ing up the stack, at which time the throttle is necessarily open. 
The throttle being open is drawing some of the steam and there- 
fore the safety valves on a locomotive can never. receive the fuli 
maximum evaporation of the boiler. Just what per cent, of this 
maximum evaporation the valve must be able to relieve under the 
most severe conditions can only be determined experimentally. 
Evidently the most severe conditions obtain when an engineman 
after a long, hard, up-hill haul with a full glass of water and full 
pressure, reaching the top of the hill, suddenly shuts off his throt- 
tle and injectors. The work on the hill has set the engine steam- 
ing to its maximum and the sudden closing of throttle and in- 
jectors forces all the steam through the safety valves. Of course, 
the minute the throttle is closed the steaming quickly falls off 
and it is at just that moment that the most severe test upon the 
valves comes. 

A large number of service test? have been conducted to de- 
termine this constant. The size valves upon a locomotive has 
been increased or decreased until one valve would just handle 
the maximum steam generation, and the locomotive heating sur- 
face being known, the formula was figured back to obtain the 
constant. Other speci;il conditions were considered, such as the 
liability in locomotive practice to a not infrequent occurrence 
of the most severe conditions: the exceptionally severe service 
which locomotive safety valves receive; and the advisability on 
locomotives to provide a substantial excess valve capacity. 

As to the method of applying the proposed safety valve capacity 
rule in practice, manufacturers could be asked to specify the 



166 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



capacity of their valves, stamping it upon them as the opening 
and closing pressures are now done. This would necessitate no 
extra work further than the time required in the stamping, be- 
cause for valves of the same size and design giving practically 
the same lift, this would have to be determined but once, which 
of itself is but a moment's work with a small portable lift gauge 
that is now manufactured. The specifying of safety valves by 
a designing engineer could then be as definite a problem as is 
that of other pieces of apparatus. Whatever views are held, as 
to the advantages of high or low lifts, there can be no question, 
it would seem, as to the advantage of knowing what this lift 
actually is, as would be shown in this specifying by manufacturers 
of the capacity of their valves. Further, as to the feasibility of 
adopting such a rule (which incorporates the valve lift) in 
statutes governing valve sizes : — this would involve the granting 
and obtaining by manufacturers of a legal rating for their valve 
designs based upon their demonstrated lifts. 



of stroke. It is well braced by internal ribs, and has long wide 
bearings on the column with a continuous taper gib, having end 
screw adjustment for taking up the wear. The stroke of the ram 
is positive and has eight changes, ranging from y.y to 96 strokes 
per minute. The length of stroke may be easily changed without 
stopping the machine. The device for positioning the stroke is 
located on the ram near the head and may be operated while 

TEST SHEET OF 21" BACK GEARED SHAPER. 



'0 

0.3 

a 


T3 O 

" h 


&4 

3-8* 

S V »- 


• 

a °- 
oH 
■* jt0 

<"§ 
a 


u 

0.2 

u 

»" 


4I U 

0! 





"i . 

u 
<u 

< 


"if 


u 

a 


> 


%" 


.080" 


11.4 


2 


III 


157 


u'A" 


9 


2.65 


220 




■ 160" 


16.3 


3 


In 


225 


13K" 


24 


7.07 


do. 




.200 ' 


11.4 


2 


In 


157 


Mi" 


21 


6.19 


do. 



BACK-GEARED CRANK SHAPERS. 



Above Test Made in Cast Iron — Close Grained — IS" Stroke. 



A 21 in. back-geared crank shaper, one of a new line which is 
being placed on the market by The American Tool Works Com- 
pany of Cincinnati, is illustrated herewith. To give some idea of 
the power and efficiency of these machines the results of several 
tests are shown in the tables. These arc not intended to repre- 
sent the maximum capacity of the machines, but leave a good 
factor of safety and are well within their limits. The 21 in. 
machine has a 21 J4 in. stroke, a down feed to the head of 9 in. 
and a table travel of 14^2 vertically and 263 2 in. horizontally. 



'," 


.080" 


11.4 


2 


In 


157 


14" 


21 


6.19 


220 




.096" 


11.4 


2 


In 


157 


14" 


24 


7.07 


do. 




.080" 


11.4 


2 


In 


157 


14" 


32 


9.43 


do. 



Above Test Made in Machinery Steel— Very Tough — 21" Stroke. 



*Cone tteps are numbered from 1 to 4, 1 being the largest diameter. 

the machine is running. A pointer on the ram, traveling along 
an index, shows the length of stroke as set. The rocker arm is 
extra heavy and thoroughly braced and gives practically a uni- 
form rate of speed to the ram for its entire stroke; it also pro- 
vides an exceedingly quick return. The machine is readily 




T\\ EXTV-ONE INCH BACK GEARED CRANK SHAPER. 



The column is usually deep and wide, tapering slightly towards 
the top. It is strongly braced internally, and is reinforced out- 
side by a wide, deep rib. An exceptionally long bearing is pro- 
vided for the ram. The base is deep and strongly ribbed, and 
is of pan construction to catch oil drippings. The ram is heavy 
and designed for uniform rigidity throughout the entire length 



changed from single to back-geared through a convenient, self- 
locking lever, and has a back-gear ratio of 24.3 to 1, which with 
the large cone pulley, gives it extraordinary power for taking 
heavy cuts. 

The head is operative at any angle within an arc of 100 degrees 
and has a convenient and efficient locking device. The down 



April, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



107 



slide is fitted with a continuous taper gib having end crew ad- 
justment, for taking up the wear. The down f < -t- < 1 is of un- 
usual length and the feed screw has an adjustable graduated 
collar reading to .ooi in. The table is of box form with three 
T-slots on both the top and the sides. It is thoroughly bpai ■ d 
internally, insuring accuracy and stillness and is readily detach- 
able. The apron is provided with a continuous taper gib having 
end screw adjustment. It has three T-slots on the face for 
clamping work when the tabic is removed. A patented auto- 
matic stop releases the feed and prevents breakage to parts when 
the tool is fed into the cut or should the apron be accidentally- 
fed to its limit in either direction on the rail. 

The cross rail is of box form, heavy and strongly ribbed. It 
is of exceptional length, giving the table a long horizontal range 
of travel. It is bolted to the column by clamps and bolts of im- 
proved design, which prevent the cross rail from dropping away 
when the binder bolts are loosened. A telescopic elevating screw 
of large diameter is provided, having a ball-bearing thrust. The 
cross feed is a new patented design. It is variable and automatic 
with a range of .008 in. to .200 in., instantly obtainable while the 
machine is running. It is supplied with graduations either side of 
zero and a pointer reading from 1 to 25 notches, each notch rep- 
resenting .008 in. feed. The construction is such as to render 
unnecessary any adjustment of the feeding mechanism due to 
change of the position of the rail. The feed is uniform as set, 
regardless of the position of the rail. The feed is thrown in or 
out, and also reversed through the knob on the large feed gear. 
The feed gears are neatly covered to afford protection. 

The rocker arm is made of double section at the top and this 
with the large opening through the column permits a shaft 3^ in. 
in diameter to be passed under the ram for keyseating. Larger 



TEST SHEET OF 16" BACK GEARED SHAPER. 









* 






--1 










ag 
Q 


V 0) 

P. M 

^ £ 


"ui a 


%2 

« 
u 


P 




1° 


S = 


<LJ — 

U O 

V 

< 




V 

bo 
« 


> 


X" 


.160" 


17.3 


2 


In 


210 


\VA" 


21 


6-3 


224 


H" 


.088" 


17.3 


2 


In 


do. 


do. 


24 


7 2 


do. 


'A" 


.080" 


17.3 


2 


In 


do. 


do. 


23 


6.9 


do. 



Above Tests Made in Cast Iron— Close Grained— 16" Stroke. 



Y» 


.080 


17.3 


2 


In 


210 


12" 


11 


3-3 


224 


a 


.024 


9.9 


4 


In 


418 


do. 


15 


4.5 


do 


% 


• 040 


14. 


3 


In 


294 


do. 


15 


4-5 


do. 



Above Tests Made in Machinery Steel— Very Tough— 16" Stroke. 
•Cone steps are numbered from 1 to 4, 1 being the largest diamete.-. 

shafts may be keyseated by setting over the table to allow the 
shaft to pass outside of the column, using the head set at an 
angle. Special attention has been paid to the thorough lubrication 
of all working parts. The ram slides are oiled from the center 
where oil pockets are provided, from which felt wipers take 
their supply of oil and distribute it through oil grooves to the 
extreme ends of the slides, thus doing away with a multiplicity 
of oil holes to be attended to. These slides are provided with felt 
wipers at both the front and center of the column. An oil pocket 
is cast integral with the column at the rear, storing any waste 
of oil, which may be drawn off through a pipe extending from 
the rear of column. A large quantity of oil is stored in a pocket 
cast integral with the arm, which, with suitable means of distri- 
bution, insures thorough lubrication on the crank pin and the 
sliding block in the rocker arm. 

This new line of shapers consists of a 15 in. single-geared and 
16, 18, 21, 25 and 30 in. back-geared machines. If desired they 
may be furnished with four-speed gear boxes and electric motor 
drives. 



Safety Appliance Hearing. — The Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission will hold a hearing on May 5 in Washington, D. C, con- 
cerning an increase in the minimum percentage of power brakes 
on railroad trains. 



FIVE-SPINDLE VERTICAL CAR BORING MACHINE. 

The Hamilton fi 1 lindl 1 car boring machine, shown 

in the illustration, 1 di igned in railroad and 

car shops and is manufactured by The Bentel-Margedant Com- 
pany, Hamilton, Ohio. The illustration shows three vertical and 
two radial Spindles, but these are- subject to variation in number. 

The spindles, of heavy construction, are mounted in large hous- 
ings which slide on the frami in in dovetail slides. They 
have a 20 in. vertical trol and .1 transverse adjustment of 22 
in., the latter by means of a hand wheel and pinion with chain 
feed, quick and positive in action. Each spindle is separately 
driven by its own belt from the rear of the machine and any 
spindle may be thrown out of commission without disturbing the 
"tin rs. The spindles are provided with a miter gear drive which 
is covered by a dust-proof bo gears run in long slides pre- 
venting wear of the boxes by the action of the spindles. The 
spindles are brought down separately by hand to do the boring 
and are returned to their positions by counterbalanced levers in 
the three vertical spindles and by springs in the radials. Stop 
gauges are provided to gauge the depth of the hole. 

The table is to ft long, clamps 22 in. wide by 16 in. thick and 
has all the convi ni< 110 for I andling heavy or light material. The 
top is provided with six rolls upon which the material rests. The 




FIVE-SPINDLE VERTICAL CAR BORING MACHINE. 

center and two end rolls are geared together by a chain and may 
be driven either by power or hand feed. A large hand wheel 
is provided on the center roll for hand adjustment. A center 
clamp is also used to hold the material against the fence and to 
prevent the bits from raising it from the table. The power feed 
for the table consists of reversible friction pulleys controlled 
from the front by a convenient nand lever. The power feed 
is generally used for moving long distances, while the hand 
wheel feed is for accurate setting and short distances. A longer 
traveling table may be provided, if desired. The countershaft 
is placed on the floor at the rear of the machine and is provided 
with tight and loose pulleys. The machine weighs 7,000 lbs., oc- 
cupies a floor space 6 by 10 ft. and requires from 10 to 15 h. p. 
for driving. 



Address by F. W. Taylor. — Dr. Frederick W. Taylor, past- 
president of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, gave 
an address before the College of Engineering of the University 
of Illinois on Thursday. February 18. His talk was along gen- 
eral engineering lines supplemented by anecdotes from the early 
part of the careers of successful engineers. 



168 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



HIGH POWER MILLING MACHINES. 



A few years ago railroad officials, in buying machine 
tools, were inclined to lay considerable stress upon the 
weight of the tool as an indication of its capacity. To- 
day the purchaser insists on having accurate informa- 
tion as to the quality and quantity of work which a 
tool is capable of turning out, and the weight is a 
matter of secondary importance. This, and the de- 
mand for high power machines, has lead the Cincinnati 
Milling Machine Company to design its latest line of 
milling machines on the basis of certain standard cuts 
which may be taken continuously on each size of ma- 
chine. Starting with this as a basis, and with the re- 
sults of elaborate tests and experiments to guide them, 
it has been possible to design each individual part to 
produce a most efficient and harmonious design as a 
whole. The value of high cutting capacity may be 
largely offset by inconvenience in operating the ma- 
chine and this point has also been given careful con- 
sideration. 

An important feature, especially from the manufac- 
turing standpoint, is that the vertical and horizontal 
machines are identical up to the frame head, the ver- 
tical machine differing only in the frame casting, the 
mechanism at its top and the pair of bevel gears for 
changing the motion to the vertical shaft. An even 
more important feature, from the standpoint of the 
purchaser, is that the method of driving and feeding 
may readily be changed at any time to suit changes 
in his power transmission system. For instance, the 
constant speed standard belt-driven machine, with the 
driving shaft parallel to the spindle, may be changed 
to a right angle drive by simply changing the brackets. 
By substituting a simpler driving gear box a cone pul- 
ley drive may be used. In the former case the feed box 
is driven from the constant speed driving shaft and in 
the latter from the spindle, but with no change in the 
feed box itself. By changing brackets the cone pulley 
drive may be changed to one at right angles. By sub- 
stituting a sprocket wheel for the driving pulley and 
adding a bracket at the base a constant speed motor 
may be applied. In the same way the cone pulley drive 
may be changed to a variable speed motor drive. By 
changing an index plate the feed on the constant speed 
drive machines may be changed from inches per minute 
to thousandths per revolution. 

To give some idea of the power and efficiency of these 
machines a view of the No. 4 plain horizontal machine 
is shown in Fig. I, milling four drop-forged steel pieces 
at one time, taking a cut 13/16 in. wide and 1% in. 
deep, at a table travel of 2 in. per minute. This amounts 
to 8% cu. in. removed per minute. The machine is 
driven by a 10 h. p. motor. 

The high power vertical machine, shown in Fig. 6, is 
engaged in milling forged steel bars, having 55,000 lbs. 
tensile strength and 50 per cent, elongation. The bars 
are 5 in. wide and the machine is taking a cut % in. 
deep and feeding at the rate of 16 in. per minute. This 
amounts to 10 cu. in. per minute. The 10 h. p. driving 
motor is slightly overloaded, delivering 12 gross horse 
power. 

The constant speed belt-driven machine has sixteen 
changes in spindle speed. A clutch, operated by the 
lever at the right of the driving gear box, Figs. 2 and 3, 
allows the driving pulley to run loose on the shaft when 
tne machine is not in operation. Fig. 3 is a view of 
the exterior of the driving gear box ; Fig. 4 shows the 
interior. The upper part of the column, with the cover 
plate removed, on the opposite side of the machine 
from the gear box, is shown in Fig. 5. The tumbling 
», shown near the center of the box, in Fig. 4, 




FIG. I. — PLAIN HORIZONTAL MILLING MACHINE REMOVING 8'/£ CUBIC 
INCHES OF DROr-FORGED STEEL PER MINUTE. 




-PLAIN HORIZONTAL MILLING MACHINE WITH RIGHT-ANGLE 
DRIVE. 




FIG. 3. — OUTSIDE OF DRIVING-GEAR BOX. 



April, 1009. 



AMERICAN I ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOUR 



169 




FIG. 4. — DRIVING-GEAR MX, INSIDE. 




FIG. 



-UPPER PART OF COLUMN WITH COVER-PLATE REMOVED SHOW- 
ING DRIVING-GEA5 TRAIN. 




6. — HIGH POWER VERTICAL MILLING MACHINE, REMOVING 10 
11 BIC INCHES OF MATERIAL PER MINUTE FROM FORCED 
STEEL BARS. CUT */& IN. DEEP AND 5 IN. WIDE. 
FEED l6 IN. PER MTNUTE. 



of the four gears on the sleeve to the 
right on the lower shaft in Fig. 5. These four speeds 

. using the back gears at the left in Fi 
5. If the smaller one of the set of four gears is en 
gaged with the large gear to the left on the sleeve on 
the spindle, eight additional spindle speeds may be ob- 
tained with the use of the back gears. The advan- 
tages of this scheme of transmission are that the spin- 
dle is relieved of torsional strains throughout its length 
and no gears are ever in mesh except those used for 
transmission. The eight fastest spindle speeds are ob- 
tained with "nly two pairs of gears in mesh. 

The slidin ai in operated by the lever which 
takes the positions C and D in Fi'<. 3; the back gears 
and clutch pinion are m ived by the lever which takes 
ilij positions A and narrow gear to the right 

Mt' the back pears in Fig. 5 facilitates the engagement 
"i the teeth in the back gears. The tumbler is operated 
by the pilot wheel on the gear box and is automatically 
and positively locked in position after each change in 
speed. The tumbler gear mechanism is illustrated in 
Fig. 7. The arrangement of the index plate is clear 
from the illustrations. In case the gears should inter- 
fere while being shifted they may be revolved slightly 
by a gentle pressure on the treadle, which is connected 
to the main starting lever. When a cone pulley drive is 
used the tumbler mechanism and two of the cone gears 
are done away with. 

By pulling out the pin, in the frame near the upper 
right hand corner of the driving gear box, the ribs in 
the face-gear web are engaged by a locking pin and 
the spindle is locked, a desirable feature when attach- 
ing or removing arbors, or face mills which screw on 
the spindle. The pin is automatically released when the 
starting lever is thrown to the left. 

The feed box is just below the driving gear box, and 
provides 16 feeds ; it is quite similar to the driving gear 
box in principle, except that the tumbling shaft is the last 
instead of the first shaft, thus making it possible to 
use gears of large diameter running at moderate cir- 
cumferential speeds. The feed may be changed while 
the machine is in operation. The interior of the feed 
tripping and reversing box is shown in Fig. 8. This is 
located on the side of the knee and is connected to the 
feed box by the universal joint shaft. The feed trip 
mechanism, of the single plunger type, operates through 
a large clutch on a shaft in the reverse box, which 
runs ten times as fast as the feed screw. The strain 
on the teeth is therefore much lower and it is very' sen- 
sitive. The feed screws are of large diameter with 
double threads and steeo pitch and are provided with 
ball bearing thrust bearings. The table is provided 
with a quick return handwheel. 

The column and knee are both of box construction, 
heavy and rigid. The table is of unusual depth with 
large bearings; wear is in all cases taken up by adjust- 
able gibs. The outer arbor bearing is rigidly supported. 
Special attention has been given to the lubrication. A 
circular milling attachment has been made to fit both 
the horizontal and vertical machines. 

The vertical type machines differ from the horizontal 
type only as concerns ihe distinctly vertical features. 
They are designed for heavy duty, and the parts are of 
the largest proportions practicable. The spindle is 
driven from the horizontal driving shaft by miter gears 
of large diameter and coarse pitch. The gear on the 
spindle is located so as to bring the drive as close to 
the lower bearing a? possible, thus reducing the liability 
of torsional vibration to a minimum. 

The head frame has long bearing surfaces and there 
is provision for taking rp wear by means of a taper 
gib. There is also an adjustment provided for main- 
taining the vertical alignment of the spindle. When 



170 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 




A COMPRESSED AIR TRACTION SYSTEM. 



FIG. 0. — VERTICAL MILLING MACHINE, CONSTANT SPEED BELT DRIVE, 
CIRCULAR MILLING ATTACHMENT. 




FIG. 8. — INSIDE OF FEED TRIPPING AND REVERSING BOX. 

the machine is used on repetition work, requiring heavy 
cutting, the gib screws may be tightened so as to se- 
curely clamp the head to the body of the machine and 
thus hold it in a fixed position. The spindle may be 
adjusted vertically by means of the mechanism at the 
side of the head. The spindle has the same size bear- 
ings and is of the same length as that on the horizon- 
tal machines of equivalent size. 

There is a pilot wheel for quick adjustment at the 
rate of 6 inches per turn. There is also a slow hand 
movement which is brought into engagement by means 
of a positive clutch operated by the knob on the end 
of the pilot wheel shaft. The slow movement is pro- 
vided with a micrometer dial. The hand stop at the 
side of the head is fitted with a micrometer adjustment. 



The buildings of the Plymouth Cordage Co., Ply 
mouth, Mass., on account of their extent — a length of 
2,500 feet and breadth of 1,000 feet — can only be served 
to advantage with some sort of surface track scheme. 
This service is attained by compressed air locomotives, 
hauling small flat cars on a narrow gauge track. Five 
locomotives are in use. They have 5 x 10 inch cylin- 
ders, two coupled 24 inch drivers, a single storage tank 
4 x 11 feet, with a capacity of 132 cubic feet, and 
weigh 8,500 pounds each. The track is run about the 
yard, into or through buildings, many of which are 
filled with inflammable material, with no danger from 
fire. A consideration of this single feature has con- 
vinced the owners that the steam locomotive is barred 
and the electric motor has a serious handicap in com- 
parison. 

The locomotives are charged at various points about 
the plant. The charging valves are located particularly 
with the idea of having the tanks filled at the same 
time that the cars are being loaded or unloaded. Some 
of the runs are quite long, the longest being 2,400 feet 
and the round trip under favorable weather conditions 
is made with one charge. On this run a net load of 
8,500 pounds is carried and the cost of air figures .04 
of a cent per ton per 100 feet. Other runs figure .08 
of a cent per ton per 100 feet. 

This cost is based on a cost of one-half cent per 100 
cubic feet of free air and includes all charges up to 
delivering the air into the mains at 200 lbs. pressure; 
these figures are on the conservative side. 

The system as a whole, taking lump figures, moves 
one ton, net load, one hundred feet for approximately 
one cent. This includes the air used for all other pur- 
poses, fixed charges on all the rolling equipment as 
well as compressing apparatus, and all attendance. 



Large Cantilever Bridge Opened. — The Queensboro 
bridge between Manhattan and Queens boroughs, pass- 
ing over Blackwells Island, New York, was opened on 
March 30. This bridge cost $20,000,000 and has a total 
length of 7,636 ft. 



FIG. 7- — TUMBLER GEARS AND FRAME. 



April, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL 



171 



SHAPER TESTS. 



Several tests were recently made by the (Jueen City Machine 
Tool Company of Cincinnati to determine the horse power re- 
quired by shapers under conditions met with in ordinary prac- 
tice. These were made on a 16 in. shaper, driven by a 5 h. p. 
constant speed motor, and a 24 in. shaper, driven by a 20 h. p. 
motor. In both cases the shapers were belt-driven from a 
countershaft which was driven by an electric motor. The length 
of stroke in each case was 16 in., being the rated capacity of the 
smaller machine. All cuts were made with the back-gears en- 
gaged. The 16-in. machine was run at an average cutting speed 
of 24 ft. per minute, and the 24-in. at 22 ft. per minute. 

The motor and countershaft were first run idle and the power 
noted. In the values noted on the diagram this is deducted from 
the other readings, the object of the test being to learn the horse 
power required to run the machine idle, and when cutting. The 
motor was arranged to take care of its own loss, and this would 
perhaps vary some in different types. When the machine belt 
was thrown in there was no appreciable increase in the current 
taken for the 16-in. shaper, and there was only about l A ampere 
rise at the moment of reverse. The 24-in. shaper took just l / 2 

































































































































































"* 
















































,' 
















































... 


f -. 


» 














































s 


# 



















































c* 






















X 




























-- 


























1 ' 


























' 




























a 
























/ 
















































r 




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c 




















4 


( 
































1 4 


















* 




































* 














' , 


S 






































£ J 












/' 










































2 n 










/ 


















































y' 


























la ijitck 


t;« 


red 


Cra 


nkS 


hai 














































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flck 


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.05 .04 .00 



.18 .20 .2'.' .24 .2li 

TESTS OF l6 AND 24 IN. BACK GEARED CRANK SHAPERS. 



.10 .is .14 ,11 

Feed in lnchea 



ampere to run the ram on the stroke, and nearly 2 amperes at 
the moment of reverse. All readings were taken at the highest 
point reached by the needle of the ammeter on each stroke. The 
cuts were all V 2 in. deep ; the material was cast iron of a rather 
hard grade. The first cut on each machine was with a one notch 
feed, and eacli succeeding one with a one notch increase of feed, 
except the last one in each test. 

It will be seen that the hsrse power on a given cut was about 
the same with both machines, and that it increased by about 
equal amounts for each increase in feed, showing little loss 
from bind and friction, even under the heavier cuts. This is ac- 
credited to accurate fitting of the machine parts, and is some- 
thing of an achievement when the overhang and twist inherent 
in a shaper are considered. 

In selecting a motor for a shaper it is important to note that 
the return stroke of the ram is an idle one, consequently a 
motor, if of standard make, can be used with a rating somewhat 
less than the horse power called for, as such motors provide for 
a momentary overload of ioo per cent. 



Electric Hammer. — An electric hammer, which- has been used 
very successfully for chipping steel plates and iron castings, has 
been developed by The Cincinnati Electrical Tool Company. 
Cincinnati, Ohio, and will shortly be placed on the market. The 
hammer is light and its action under severe service conditions 
seems to indicate that it will not only prove successful but can 
be maintained at a very low cost, both as concerns power con- 
sumed and repairs required. 



UNIVERSAL BORING, TURNING AND FACING MACHINE. 

The tool shown in the illustration was originally designed for 
turning off the rivet head on crank pins, in order to remove 
them; it is, however, adap of other work. Two 

bars, with Vs cut in them, fit ovi I thi - rank pin and are drawn 
together by the two one-inch boll . clamping the pin firmly. The 
body of the machine is attached to thi base by bolts which pass 
through the two adjustable spacing blocks that straddle the crank. 

The spindle is driven by the handwheel through the two spur 
gears and a worm and worm wheel. The handwheel may be 
replaced by a pulley, electric motor or air drill. Three spindle 
speeds are available by interchanging the spur gears or by driv- 
ing direct without these gears. The spindle has an endwise move- 
ment of 4 in. and will face up to about i-' in. in diameter. The 
cutting tool fits in a steel slide in the end of the spindle and is 
adjustable for different diameters by means of a hand feed 
screw at the end of the slide. The spindle is fed endwise by the 
screw with a square head at the extreme right. 




BORING, TURNING AND FACING MACHINE. 

The device when clamped in position is firm and rigid, yet each 
piece is light enough to be easily handled by one man in setting 
the machine up. It is claimed that at least 70 per cent, of the 
time required for chipping off the crank pin rivet head with a 
hammer and chisel may be saved by the use of this device. By 
using an extra facing attachment it is possible to face off pump 
or engine valve seats, it being immaterial whether the steam 
chest is solid or whether the valve seat is several inches below 
the face of the chest. When used on work of this kind the 
feed is operated by a star wheel knocker. For turning, an offset 
tool is used and it is possible, of course, to turn for compara- 
tively small lengths only. This machine is made by H. E. Ln- 
derwood & Co., of Philadelphia. 

Painting Steel Passenger Cars. — After building a coach en- 
tirely of steel at great expense so as to safeguard the passenger 
against fire, the builder is often required to paint and varnish 
the exterior and grain the interior to resemble wood, using high- 
ly inflammable material. This is, of course, an inheritance from 
the wooden coach, a habit which is hard to change. Steel can be 
given an excellent dull paint finish which could be easily kept 
clean and we await some Lochinvar to lead us away from the 
highly polished and inflammable finish now in vogue. Inciden- 
tally the subject of noise due to the use of steel was a mooted 
question before any coaches were built, but anyone who has 
ridden in a steel coach will concede that, except for a slight 
drumming sound over the trucks, there is, if anything, less no'se 
in a steel than in a wooden coach.— John McE. Ames before the 
Central Railway Club. 



172 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD FOURNAL 



NO CONTACT BETWEEN SLEEVE 




ARRANGEMENT OF PATENT LATHE HEADSTOI I. 



MODERN.' HEAVY DUTY LATHE HEADSTOCKS. 

The following data, furnished by The Lodge & Shipley Ma- 
•chine Tool Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, presents a comparison of 
their patent head lathe with the all-geared lathe headstock. The 
all-geared head recognizes the necessity of accumulating belt 
travel, at the expense of spindle speed. Its power possibilities 
arc very great, but power is obtained at the expense of the open 
belt speeds. The arrangement of an all-geared head is shown 
on one of the accompanying diagrams. The compact and pow- 
erful design is evident and the broad face and coarse pitch gear- 
ing will transmit much power. Both the all-geared head and 
the Lodge & Shipley patent head are capable of driving high 
speed steels beyond the limit of their efficiency. There are three 



It 

TH 



SPINDLE SPfED! 
U. OBTAINED 
ROUiH GEW5 



-ZR. 



_A5_ 



AA. 



_hH_ 



77 



3A. 



_LL4_ 



AAA 



A2Z. 



£10 



2&.0 



SURFACE" SPEED ON WORK 
IN FEET PER. MINUTE 



_LL 



11 



.22 



JH 



22 



40 



4 ( 1 



M 



1A 



5LTJ. 



LLQ. 



_£2 



3lL 



.4.6 



11 



25 



22 



111 



14ft 



1M 



120. 



SM 



S2 



M 



ACL 



32. 



111 



1A5. 



123. 



Z2A 



Z1Q. 



Jii 



12. 



All 



lofc 



132 



JL£J 



135 



Z23. 



232 



AAA 



ian 



no. 



ZkQ. 



PERIPHERY 
SPEED 

ON r,FARINS 



1Z. 



IASL 



JJL 



AL± 



2 1 7 



270 



37 6 



457 



4<,4 



6fiQ 



750 



3L 



12. 



_L5_ 



Jfl. 



ji. 



iii 



ji. 



lS 



IB 



ii 



.15 



IS 




ALL-GEARED HEAD LATHE. 

serious defects in the all-geared head design: No open belt cuts; 
no adjustment for wear of headstock gearing; high gear speed 
of headstock gearing when lathe is run on small diameters. 

A r o open belt cuts are possible because a gear ratio must exist 
between the driving pulley and the spindle, the object being to 
make use of the high belt speed, and consequent great power 
obtained by revolving the headstock pulley at a speed far greater 
than would be practicable if carried upon the lathe spindle. The 
coarse pitch, wide face gearing is of such design as to trans- 
mit great power from the fast running driving belt to the 
spindle. This coarse pitch gearing is bound to mark the work 
being turned, particularly upon finishing cuts. This marking 
•will be the same as that seen on work when the finishing cut 



is taken with worn back gears on a cone-head lathe. Fine! 
pitch gears in the headstock will lend to remedy this fault, but 
with the sudden heavy loads that are thrown upon the gearing 
when picking up high speed cuts, the life of the gearing will be 
short. 

No adjustment for gear wear. Since the shafts of the all- 
geared head are carried in bearings that are in alignment with 
each other, having no adjustment for wear, the wear of the 
gearing, that is inevitable from a constant service, will make 
the drive become noisy in operation. Just how long it will be 
before this becomes so great as to seriously endanger the quality 
of the machine output will depend upon the character of the 



^' \.<:z :'-.■> 



_L3 



11 



21 



Ik 



21 



21 



4 7 



1.1 



31 



ILL. 



l<li 



_74 



IZil 



Zk&. 



im. 



414. 



SURFACE 
IN FEET 



SPEED ON WORK 
PER. MINUTE 



1U 



Z&. 



32 



23 



,i'l 



13. 



11. 



3L 



113. 



Ill 



UK 



Zlh. 



14. 



Lfl. 



21 



21 



41 



43. 



SsA. 



_Z£_ 



31 



ill 



ISO. 



111 



Z2H 



zm. 



2SL 



22 



22. 



■±CL 



31. 



LI. 



12. 



B&. 



ill 



lAk. 



an. 



222. 



111. 



216. 



14 



.11 



kth. 



11. 



13.. 



12a 



I S3 



132 



Hi 



PERIPHERY 
SPEED 

O.N GCafllNCi 



ML 



22 



1£L 



115. 



[hi 



ZQA 



Ml 



ASl. 



.■?& 



JJL. 



<?l 



AIL- 



I. 38 



ifo ft 



^£03_ 



J2 64 



315 



401 



4 8 4 



wm 



ftEtrT- 



eurs- 



11 



101 



Hi. 



11 



M 



m 



in 



ii. 



13- 



21 



Si 



ill 



ii- 



12 




LATENT HEAD LATHE. 

service demanded from the lathe. The all-geared headstock 
illustrated, driven by a IS h. p. motor, became so noisy after 
being less than four years in operation that it is was necessary 
to take out the machine and substitute a patent head. The work 
was limited to steel bars of 5J4 in. diameter, one roughing and 
one finishing cut being taken : the bar was then finished to size 
on a grinder. The use of rawhide in place of the iron or steel 
pinions will remedy the noisy operation of the headstock, but 
will prove quite an expense to maintain, since the life of a raw- 
hide pinion was found lo be hardly two years, in the all-geared 
headstock under corsideration. 



April, 1'jo<j. 



.MERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



173 



The high gear speed of the headstock gearing in the all-geared 
head drive is due to the design that mounts a large diamc t< i 
gear upon the lathe spindle, and the absence of open belt speeds 
for the fastest spindle speeds. In the headstock illustrated the 
two gears shown upon the spindle are [3 and 15 in. in diameter. 
Cuts taken on all diameters of work must be driven through 
one of these gears. Should these diameter bi small, from 2 to 
4 inches for example, the peripheral speed of the spindle gear in 
the headstock will be from four 10 eiylit limes greaiei Mian 1 1 n ■ 
surface speed upon the work being turned. The result is that 
with proper cutting speeds, when high speed steel is used, the 
peripheral speed of the headstock gearing is very great and will 
thus introduce the element of rapid wear. The power of the 
drive on the all-geared head construction bears little relation to 
the actual cutting needs, since the belt travel is constant for all 
speeds that may be obtained through the gear changes in the 
headstock. 



not need to bi delivered through the belt to the headstock when 
the nature of th< cut calls for only 5 h.p. 



BORING LOCOMOTIVE AXLES. 



It is the practice, in several railroad shops, to bore hole» 
through the center of locomotive driving axles to guard against 
defective material or defects in forging. Such holes must be 
straight and smooth in ordei oyer these imperfect 

The Springfield Machine Tool Company, Springfield, Ohio, re- 
cently made some tests on the smaller of two sizes of machines 
which have been developed for this purpose, and for boring 
spindles (February, 1905, page 62). It was found that a iVt in. 
hole could be bored at the rate of 00 in. per hour. 

Some idea of the heavy construction of the machine may be 
gained from the photograph. The head consists of a large 
annular bearing, the front of which carries a three jaw 




MACHINE FOR BORING LOCOMOTIVE DRIVING AXLES 



The diagrams show the spindle speeds, surface speeds on cer- 
tain diameters, peripheral gear speeds, and horse power of the 
all-geared head, and a 24-inch patent headstock. It will be seen 
that the peripheral speeds of the patent head face gear are very 
much less for the high speeds than on the all-geared head spin- 



SPINQIX BEARinG5. N 




DRIVING PULLEY 

ARRANGEMENT OF GEARING ON ALL-GEARED HEAD LATHE. 

die gears; also that the six high spindle speeds, when taken on 
the patent head, are delivered through the open belt. 

The gearing in the patent headstock may be adjusted for wear 
by means of the eccentric bushes carrying the back gear sleeve. 
Independently of such wear or adjustment, work can be finished 
with open cuts, thus insuring a perfectly round surface and one 
free from gear marks. The belt speed may also be regulated to 
serve the needs of any particular outs. Twenty horse power will 



chuck, with the face gear cut in the rear portion of the chuck. 
This chuck and spindle will receive an axle 11 in. in diameter. 
The head is provided with eight changes of speed. The car- 
riage is exceptionally long and heavy and is driven by power 
feed and a double rack, thus insuring a long life, and a steady, 
powerful forward motion under the heaviest cuts. The carriage 
is provided with ten changes of speed. 

The machine is equipped with a special pump and telescopic 
brass oil piping. This system of conducting the oil to the tool 
is unique and convenient, and does away with all the incon- 
veniences of flexible hose piping. The cutting compound, by a 
special construction of the boring bar, is delivered to the very 
point of the boring tool, under high pressure, thus forcing the 
chips from the cutting edge, and hack out of the hole. 



Wastes in Mining. — Attention is directed to the waste of ma- 
terial which is, to a considerable extent, preventable in the min- 
ing and extraction of ores in the mining industries, as in 
lead, zinc, copper, gold and silver mining : and especially to the 
enormous waste in coal mining, which is equivalent to about 
one-half of the total'product mined, or for the year 1007 about 
240,000,000 tons. The aggregate of all these products of mineral 
waste for the past year is estimated to approximate $1,000,000 
per day in value. The mineral production of the United States 
during the past year was approximately $2,000,000,000, so that 
this estimated waste is equivalent to more than one-sixth the 
value of the total production. — Report of Minerals Section of the 
National Conservation Commission. 



The Fulton Street Hudson River Tunnel between New 
York and Jersey City was holed through on March 11. This is 
the last of the river tunnels at Xew York City to be finished 
r eady for lining. 



174 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



STEEL CAR REPAIRS. 



The repairing of steel cars is not a serious problem where 
proper facilities are provided. The greatest difficulty is with 
the bent or buckled parts, but they may be readily repaired after 
some form of heat treatment. In many cases these parts may 
be straightened in place ; in others it is necessary to remove 
them and heat, straighten and re-rivet them to the car. 

A steel car repair plant should have some means of heating 
bent parts in place ; a proper equipment should comprise one or 
more portable heating outfits for this class of work. Also a 
furnace capable of taking plates at least 6 ft. in width and 10 
ft. in length ; this furnace to be us.ed for straightening such parts 
as have to be removed from the car. The shop and yards should 



on wheels for holding a supply of oil. A mixing valve is pro- 
vided at the tank for mixing the oil and air. Leading from the 
valve is a section of hose and a short piece of pipe at the end of 
which a burner is attached. Here the oil is ignited. The burner 
gives off an intense heat and rapidly brings the damaged part 
up to a suitable straightening heat. This heater can be readily 
handled over yard tracks and elsewhere by one person. 

For heating plates or other parts which have to be removed 
for straightening, this company manufactures a line of furnaces, 
two sizes of which are shown on ihe accompanying photos. One 
of these is 6 ft. 8 in. in width inside and io ft. in length. It has 
a door at one end the full width of the furnace; also a smaller 




FURNACES FOR HEATING STEEL CAR PARTS. 



be provided with adequate facilities for riveting. The Rail- 
way Materials Company, of New York and Chicago, manufac- 
tures a line of heating equipment which is especially designed 
for use in repairing steel cars. It includes portable heaters for 
local repairs, several sizes of furnaces for heating plates, and a 
variety of rivet furnaces. 

The Ferguson portable heater shown in the illustration affords 
a rapid and easy means of heating a damaged part locally. It 
operates with compressed air and consists of a tank mounted 



door at the opposite end ; on one side an additional burner is set 
at the floor line, thus providing admirable facilities for locally 
heating a sill or other part. The other furnace is larger, being 
8 ft. io in. in width and 14 ft. in length inside. It also has a 
door the full width of the furnace at one end, and a smaller 
door at the other end. The larger door is constructed to lift in 
sections, which are independently operated by means of air hoist 
lifts. It is also equipped with an extra burner at the floor line 
for heating members locally. These furnaces are substantially 



April, 1909. 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



175 



constructed and are lined throughout with a heavy lining of 
high-grade fire hrick; they are sold erected in position and ready 
to operate. They are intended to operate with crude or fuel oil 
supplied to the burners at a pressure of from 5 to 10 lbs. A fan 
blast pressure of 8 ozs. per sq. in. is used, compressed air not 
being required. 



A portable outfit for heating rivets is also manufactured by 
this company an' 1 is hown in one of th< illustrations. It carries 
its own fuel supply and op ; h compressed air. Its weight 

is approximately 550 lbs. with iply of fuel and it may be 

easily transported about the yards. The tank holds about ten 
gallons of oil, 01 ienl quantity for a day's run. 



NEW OUTSIDE MOULDER. 



A number of important improvements have been made in the 
new American outside moulders. These will work Q, 10, 12 and 
14 in. wide by 5 in. thick. The cylinder boxes are of a patent 
side clamping flange type which prevent the operator from 
screwing the top portion of the boxes down on the shaft so 
tightly as to cause the shaft to heat and often to spring. With 
the improved method the cap is held in position by drawing 
together the sides of the boxes with heavy bolts; as the cap is 
plain tapering, it is impossible to force itself up. 

With the older type moulders it was necessary, in order to ad- 
just the side spindles vertically, to loosen four bolts in each cap, 
or eight in all, and to re-tighten these after the spindle was ad- 
justed. Now one movement of a lever locks and unlocks both 
caps and the spindle may be adjusted very quickly. This is true 
of the inside and outside side spindles, as well as of the top head- 
stock. It has been necessary, up to the present time, in remov- 
ing the lower feed rolls in moulders to almost entirely dismantle 
the machine, consuming at least half a day; on the new machine, 
the lower feed rolls can be removed and new feed rolls be put in 
and the machine be ready for work in not over ton minutes. This 



detachable plate or chip breaker in front of the bottom head can 
be adjusted from the top of the table. The adjustable guide back 
of the outside head has a screw adjustment of 4 in. without dis 
turbing the base of the guide. The bed carries the inside and 
outside headstock; each headstock has an independent adjust- 
ment. 

The feed works are exceptionally heavy, having four 6 in. 
driven rolls; a new direct gear drive makes it a most positive 
and powerful feeding device, without the use of heavy weights. 
There is a spring intervening between the weight lever and rolls 
to minimize any jar when dropping. The top rolls and the hoods 
for the top head can be raised and lowered by a lever placed con- 
veniently. This will admit placing forms, setting knives, or slip- 
ping back stock when desired. The top rolls are provided with an 
outside bearing, which can be easily removed for changing the 
rolls. The feed is arranged with a new gear change, furnishing 
six rates of feed, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40 and 60 feet per minute, with- 
out extra pulleys or extra gears. The top head has a lateral ad- 
justment; the bottom head has lateral and vertical adjustments 
controlled by hand wheels. The hood for the top head is fitted 
with an adjustable chip breaker, made in three interchangeable 
sections. It can be thrown up and back across the machine, giv- 




I IMPROVED OUTSIDE MOULDER. 



feature is appreciated when it is desired to change from plain to 
corrugated feed rolls for running wet stock. Another import- 
ant feature, which is new on outside machines, is the provision 
for stopping and starting the feed from either end of the ma- 
chine. 

The frame is heavy and is cast in one piece. The heavy column 
at the rear end makes a substantial support for the end of the 
table, and also for the under cutter-head. The top arbor is pro- 
vided with an adjustable outside bearing, bolted to the base of the 
frame, for lining up the arbor when necessary; at the top it is 
secured firmly by a bolt passing through the table and the frame. 
The bed is heavy and securely gibbed to the frame, with proper 
provision for taking up the wear ; it is raised and lowered by a 
large screw on ball bearings, operated by a crank. There is^ a 
reversible bed plate directly under the top head— one side plain, 
the other side grooved ',■ in. deep and '/ 2 in. wide, allowing 
knives to extend below the face of the bed, if necessary. The 
extension of the bed, beyond the lower head, drops down, giving 
free access to the cutter head, without disturbing the grides. The 



ing free access to the top-head cutters. The cutting circle of all 
heads is 6's in. All chip breakers are adjustable, permitting 3 in. 
extension of knives on top and bottom heads (giving 12 in. max- 
imum swing), and 2'j in. on side heads. The side heads raise 
and lower with the table, and can be set to an angle and be 
moved vertically and laterally without changing the angle. The 
outside head is arranged with an adjustable weighted chip 
breaker, which travels with the head. The inside head can be 
adjusted from the front or rear side of the machine. Both side 
heads can be adjusted vertically from the top or bottom of the 
headstock. The step box for the side spindles has self-oiling, 
self-leveling steps. One movement of the lever locks the head- 
stocks firmly. These machines are made by the American Wood 
Working Machinery Company of Rochester, N. Y. 



New York Train Service Record.— The record of the New 
York Public Service Commission shows that during the month 
of January. 53.560 passenger trains were run in the State of 
Xew Y..rk. and of these 86 per cent, were on time. 



176 



AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 



TWO-AND-ONE-HALF FO