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Full text of "The American Esperanto book; a compendium of the international language Esperanto"

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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

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THE AMERICAN 

ESPERANTO BOOK 



A COMPENDIUM OF THE INTERNATIONAL 
LANGUAGE 



ESPERANTO 



COMPILED AND EDITED BY 

ARTHUR BAKER, A. E. A., EDITOR OF "AMERIKA 

ESPERANTISTO," CHICAGO 



CHICAGO 
CHARLES H. KERR & COMPANY 
1907 






Copyright, igoy, by Arthur Baker 
All Rights Reserved 



PRESS OP 

jfOHN F niGGINS 

CHICAGO 



PREFACE 

The purpose of Esperanto is to be a second 
language for those persons who have relations with 
people whose native languages they do not know. 
This great need of humanity Esperanto supplies. 
By a few weeks of study, even without the aid of 
a teacher, one can qualify himself for conversation 
and correspondence with all the other Esperantists 
of the world, whatever their nationality. Their 
number is increasing by hundreds of thousands 
each year. These facts being established beyond 
doubt, it would be conferring an undeserved dignity 
upon those who oppose the language to reply to 
their arguments. **It has an artificial sound*' — 
so has the voice in the telephone. "It is not art- 
istic'* — neither is a steam locomotive. The useful- 
ness of Esperanto is so thoroughly established that 
the discussion of its artistic merits may well be 
dismissed, with perhaps the observation that the 
language is frequently mistaken by the uninitiated 
for Italian or Spanish, popularly supposed to be 
the most musical of languages. 

The aim of this book is to provide, in one vol- 
ume, the means of acquiring a thorough, practical 
knowledge of Esperanto. As suggested by its 
title, the contents are especially adapted to the 



American student, due regard being paid to the 
Americanisms of our language. 

Sources of Authority 

This volume is based upon the Ekzercaro^ by 
Dr. Zamenhof. All the exercises are taken from 
it and are therefore absolutely authoritative. The 
notes and translations, with the discussion of the 
grammar, while containing much original work, 
are also indebted to the following sources : The 
Standard Course of Esperanto, by George W. Bul- 
len, F. B. E. A.; Esperanta Sintakso, by Sro. Paul 
Fruictier; Grammar and Commentary, by Major- 
General George Cox. The Esperanto-English 
vocabulary is compiled from the second edition of 
the Esperanto-English Dictionary, by A. Motteau, 
and Worterbuch Esperanto- Deutsch, by Hermann 
Jurgensen, the latter volume being preferred where 
the two are not in concord. Supplementing these, 
the English- Esperanto Dictionary, by J. C. O'Con- 
nor and C. F. Hayes, is drawn upon for the matter 
contained in the English-Esperanto vocabulary. 

How to Study 

Read carefully the first part of the book, pages 
7 to 76 inclusive. It is by no means desirable to 
attempt to assimilate everything set forth in these 
pages at once, but the student who has forgotten 
much of English grammar will find his memory 
refreshed, and the person who has considered him- 



self a good grammarian will find that Esperanto 
may widen his knowledge of the subject. 

Upon finishing this matter, return to page 7, 
and commit to memory the sounds of the Esperanto 
letters described on this and the four succeeding 
pages. Then take up, in their order, the exercises. 
Having finished these and memorized all the words 
contained in them, you will be able to read readily 
any ordinary correspondence and literature in the 
language. This book being a modest compendium 
of Esperanto material, it has seemed necessary to 
include in the Esperanto-English vocabulary many 
unusual words and technical terms, and the wise 
student will not attempt to burden his memory 
with such as are outside his own needs and uses. 

You may put your knowledge of Esperanto to 
immediate practical use in reading, or in correspon- 
dence for any purpose whatever, with persons in 
any part of the world. Addresses may be obtained 
on request (with stamp), from Amerika EsperantistOy 
Chicago* 



CONTENTS 

Alphabet 7 

Rules of the Grammar - - - - 12 
The Article ----- -19 

The Substantive 20 

The Adjective ------ 24 

Pronouns - 26 

The Verb 28 

The Participle - - - - - - 37 

The Adverb - 41 

The Preposition 47 

The Conjunction ----- 59 

The Interjection ----- 61 

The Numerals ------ 53 

Prefixes and Suffixes 65 

Correlative Words ----- 70 

Capitals and Punctuation - - - - 74 

Order of Words - - . . . ^^ 

Foreign Names ' - , - - - 76 

Exercises - - . - - - - 77 

Correspondence - - - - - 180 

La Esperantismo - - - - 184 

VOCABULARIES 

Esperanto-English Vocabulary - - 3 

English-Esperanto Vocabulary - - . 7y 



THE AMERICAN ESPERANTO BOOK 

THE ALPHABET 

The alphabet consists of twenty-eight letters, 
each representing one sound only: 

Aa, Bb, Cc, Ce, Dd, Ee, Ff, Gg, Gg, Hh, Hli, 
li, Jj, J!, Kk, LI, Mm, Nn, Oo, Pp, Rr, Ss,S§, 
Tt, Uu, Uu, Vv, Zz. 

The Names of the Letters A, E, I, O, U 

(vowels) are the sounds, and those of the conson- 
ants are formed by adding the Esperanto noun 
ending : b ^^, c tso, t choy d do, i fo, g go, g jo, 
h ho, n hho, j yo, J zho, k ko, 1 lo, m mo, n no, p po, 
r ro, s so, § shoy t toe, u wo, v vo, z zo, 

SOUNDS 

The sound given each letter is the same as in 
English, with the following exceptions: 
A is like a in father, 
C is like ts in hats, 
C is like ch in chop. 
E is like a in fate (but not so long). 
G is like ^f in go, 
G is like / in joy, or g in George, 
H is like r^^ in loch (See explanation). 
I is like ee in j<?^. 



8 ' ' 'The 'A?neriain\}L'speranto Book 

J is like y in yet, 
J is like z in seizure, 
O is like o in ^^//. 
S is like s in i'<?. 
S is like sh in show, 
U is like ^^ in soon, 
U is like ^ in how, 
Z is like z in 2;^;^^. 

It will be observed that the letters bearing the supersign ^ 
are pronounced ch, gh, hh, jh, sh. Printers unable to pro- 
cure the special type may substitute these forms. 

The Esperanto E is a matter of difficulty to 
writers of text-books, as there is no English vowel 
sound which exactly represents it. Authorities 
agree that it is approximately half-way between our 
e in men and a in fate. Inasmuch as ej exactly 
duplicates the English a in fatey it is considered 
best to advise the student to pronounce e like our 
long a, but to cut it short. Still, if pronounced 
long, it cannot possibly be misunderstood except 
in two or three words; e. g. veno, vejno. 

Trill the R. — While not listed as an exception 
r is pronounced with the trill usually regarded as 
an affectation in America, but used by most of 
Europeans. Copy the rrr of your German, French 
or Bohemian friends. 

O in Esperanto is not exactly as in English, 
Beginners should pronounce it as in vote, roily etc. , 
shortening the sound as much as possible. 



The American Esperanto Book 9 

J has the sound of s as in pleasure^ measure^ 
leisurCy treasure^ or z in seizure^ azure, 

J is classed as a consonant, and the sound is 
always blended with the preceding vowel in forming 
the plurals, oj, ojn, aj, ajn, uj, ujn, and its addition 
to the vowel ending of a word never changes the 
position of the accent : Plume, ploo-mo; plumoj, 
ploo-moy; plumojn, ploo-moyn; granda, grahn -dah\ 
grandaj, grahri-dai (^ai as in aisle or as /in file^; 
grandajn, grahn-dine; tiu, tee'-oo; tiuj, tee-ooy; 
tiujn, tee-ooyn; plej, play, 

OJ, Pronounced "oy," is not an inconsistency, 
as many superficial students suppose, nor is aj 
when given the sound of long /. If you doubt this, 
pronounce oh yes and ah yes very quickly and you 
will observe that perfect diphthongs result. 

tj is a consonant, and is used after a and e to 
form the diphthongs au and eii. The sound of the 
, letter is like w in English, and sometimes puzzles 
beginners, who think that they have discovered an 
exception to the rule that Esperanto letters have 
each one invariable sound. 

AU has the sound of ow in how^ cow, plow, 

EU has a sound which may be approximated by 
a quick pronunciation of ehoo or ayoo, eliminating 
most of the oo vowel sound. A still better practice 



10 The American Esperanto Book 

combination is ehw as in pronouncing very quickly 
the words eh Willie, This combination never makes 
two syllables: europano is pronounced ehw-ro-pa- 
no, not eh-oo-ro-pa-no. 

H presents some difficulty to English-speaking 
people. It is a strong gutteral aspirate, produced 
from a position lower in the throat than any English 
sound. It is used in several European languages, 
but if the student has not heard it he may approxi- 
mate it by pronouncing it hH, Fortunately, the 
letter is seldom used. 

Combinations such as kv, kn, gv, §v, §t, §m, 
etc., are also unfamiliar to one who speaks only 
English, but present little difficulty, although one 
must remember that no letters are ever silent. The 
combination sc is no more difficult than many in our 
native language, except that we must not slur it, 
but bring out each detail: sts. 

Especial attention is directed to two other 
combinations: In pronouncing lingvo, and almost 
every word in which n is followed by g, the inclin- 
ation of the beginner is to sound the ng as in Eng- 
lish. Such words are leen-gvo, feen-gro, etc. The 
kz in ek-zi-li and similar words is pronounced as 
written, and should not be given the sound of gz 
as found in exempt ^ example, etc. 

Accent. — The tonic or principal accent is on 



The American Esperanto Book 1 1 

the syllable next to the last, no matter now many 
syllables the word may contain; do'Vs\o\ 6e-z/^-lo; 
ak-ci-i>/-tro; ad-min-is-tran-/^-ro. The secondary 
accents are placed where euphony, or good sound, 
demands, with due respect to derivation. The 
latter consideration is important in compounding 
words. For example: juvelo, a jewel; kesto, case\ 
juvelkesto would require the secondary accent on 
the second syllable, or at least this should sound 
as strongly as the first. 

A syllable is necessary for every vowel, no 
matter how many come together; there are no 
double vowels in Esperanto: traire, tra-i-re; boao, 
bo-a-o', metiisto, tne-ti-ist-o-y treege, tre-eg-e) zool- 
ogio, zo-o-lO'gi'O. 



12 The American Esperanto Book 



RULES OF THE GRAMMAR 

[The paragraphs in Esperanto are the Sixteen Rules given 
by Zamenhof , a part of the Fundamento de Esperanto, The 
accompanying English paragraphs are a translation] . 

I 

The Article. — There is no indefinite article; 
there is only a definite article, la, alike for all sexes, 
cases and numbers. 

Remark. — The use of the article is the same 
as in other languages. Those persons to whom 
the use of the article presents a difficulty may at 
first not use it at all. 

Artikolo nedifinita ne ekzistas; ekzistas nur 
artikolo difinita {la), egala per 6iuj seksoj, 
kazoj kaj nombroj. 

Rimarko. — La uzado de la artikolo estas tia 
sama kiel en la aliaj lingvoj. La personoj, por 
kiuj la uzado de la artikolo prezentas malfacil- 
ajojn, povas en la unua tempo tute ne |in uzi. 

II 

The Substantive. — Substantives have the end- 
ing o. For the formation of the plural we add the 
ending j. There are only two cases — nominative 



* Accusative, in English grammar, is termed objective. 



The American Esperanto Book 13 

nominative by the addition of the termination n. 
The other cases are expressed by the help of prep- 
ositions (the genitive^ by de, the dative^ by al, the 
ablative^ by per or other prepositions according to 
the meaning). 

La substantivoj havas la finigon 0. Per la 
formado de la multenombro oni aldonas la fin- 
i|on /. Kazoj ekzistas nur du: nominativo kaj 
akuzativo; la lasta estas ricevata el la nomina- 
tivo per la aldono de la finigo n. Lia ceteraj 
kazoj estas esprimataj per helpo de prepozicioj 
(la genitive per de, la dativo per a/, la ablativo 
per per au aliaj prepozicioj lau la senco). 

Ill 

The Adjective. — The adjective ends in a. Cases 
and numbers as with the substantive. The com- 
parative is made by means of the word pli, the 
superlative by plej; with the comparative the con- 
junction ol is used. 

La adjektivo fini|as per a. Kazoj kaj nom- 
broj kiel 6e la substantive. La komparativo 
estas farata per la vorto p/i, la superlative per 
p/ej) Se la komparativo eni uzas la konjunkcion 

ol. 

IV 

The Numerals. — The cardinal numerals (they 



**In English grammar, possessive. 
^These cases do not exist in English. 



14 The American Esperanto Book 

are not declined) are: Unu, du, tri, kvar, kvin, 
ses, sep, ok, naii, dek, cent, mil. The tens and 
hundreds are formed by the simple joining of the 
numerals. For the signification of the ordinal 
numerals, we add the ending of the adjective ; for 
the multiples — the suffix -obi; for the fractionals — 
-on; for the collectives, -op; for the distributives — 
the word po. Besides that, substantival and ad- 
verbial numerals can be used. 

La numeraloj fiindam^ntaj (ne estas deklin- 
aciataj) estas unu, du, tri, kvar, kvin, ses, sep, ok, 
naU^ dek, cent, mil. La dekoj kaj centoj estas for- 
mataj per simpla kunigo de la numeraloj. Por la 
signado de la numeraloj ordaj oni aldonas la 
finigon de la adjektivo; por la multoblaj — la 
sufikson -obi, por la nombronaj — -on, por la 
kolektaj — -op, por la disdividaj — la vorton po, 
Krom tio povas esti uzataj numeraloj substan- 
tivaj kaj adverbaj. 

V 

The Pronouns. — Personal pronouns: mi, vi, 
li, §i, gi (referring to thing or animal), si, ni, vi, 
ili, oni; the possessive pronouns are formed by the 
addition of the adjective ending. Declension is as 
with the substantives. 

Pronomoj personaj: mi, vi, li, //, ii (pri ob- 
jekto au besto), si^ ni, vi, ili^ oni; la pronomoj 
posedaj estas formataj per la aldono de la finigo 



The American Esperanto Book 1^ 

adjektiva. La deklinacio estas kiel Ce la sub- 
stantivoj. 

VI 

The Verb. — The verb is not changed in person 
or number. Forms of the verb: the present tense 
takes the ending -as; the past tense, -is; the future 
tense, -os; the conditional mode, -us; the imperative 
mode, -u; the infinitive mode, -i. Participles (with 
an adjectival or adverbial sense): active present, 
-ant; active past, -int; active future, -ont; passive 
present, -at; passive past, -it ; passive future, -ot. 
All forms of the passive are formed by the help of 
a corresponding form of the verb esti and a passive 
participle of the required verb; the preposition with 
the passive is de. 

La verbo ne estas Sangata lau personoj nek 
nombroj. Formoj de la verbo: la tempo estanta 
akceptas la finigon -as\ la tempo estinta -is\ la 
tempo estonta -as ; la mode kondiCa -us ; la 
modo ordona 'U\ la modo sendifina /; Partici- 
poj (kun senco adjektiva au adverba): aktiva 
estanta -ant \ aktiva estinta -int ; aktiva estonta 
'ont; pasiva estanta, -at; pasiva estinta, -//; 
pasiva estonta, -ot. Ciuj formoj de la pasiva 
estas formataj per helpo de responda forme 
de la verbo esti kaj participo pasiva de la bezo- 
nata verbo; la prepozicio 6e la pasivo estas de. 



i^ Thf American Esj>erani0 Book 

VII 

The Adverb. — Adverbs end in e; degrees of 
comparison as with the adjective. 

La adverboj finigas per e ; gradoj de kom- 
parado kiel 6e la adjektivoj. 

VIII 

Nominative with Prepositions. — All preposi- 
tions require the nominative. 

Ciuj prepozicioj postulas la nominativon. 

IX 

Pronunciation. — Every word is read as it is 
written. 

Ciu vorto estas legata, kiel gi estas skribita. 

X 

Accent. — The accent is always on the penulti- 
mate (next to the last) syllable. 

La akcento estas 6iam sur la antaiilasta 
silabo. 

XI 

Compound Words. — Compound words are 
formed by the simple joining of words (the princi- 
pal word stands at the end); the grammatical end- 
ings are also regarded as independent words. 

Vortoj kunmetitaj estas formataj per simpla 
kiinigo de la vortoj (la 6efa vorto staras en la 



The American Esperanto Book 17 

fino); la gramatikaj finigoj estas rigardataj 
ankaii kiel memstaraj vortoj. 

XII 

Negation. — With another negative word the 
word ne is omitted. 

Ce alia nea vorto la vorto ne estas forlasata. 

XIII 

Direction. — In order to show direction, words 
take the ending of the accusative. 

Por montri direkton, la vortoj ricevas la 
linigon de la akuzativo. 

XIV 

The Preposition Je. — Every preposition has a 
definite and constant meaning; but if we have to 
use a preposition and the direct sense does not 
show us what special preposition we ought to take, 
then we use the preposition je, which has no inde- 
pendent meaning. Instead of the preposition je 
we can also use the accusative without a preposi- 
tion. 

Ciu prepozicio havas difinitan kaj konstan- 
tan signifon; sed se ni devas uzi ian prepozicion 
kaj la rekta senco ne montras al ni, kian nome 
prepozicion ni devas preni, tiam ni uzas 
la prepozicion je^ kiu memstaran signifon ne 
havas. Anstatau la prepozicio je oni povas 
ankaii uzi la akuzativon sen prepozicio. 



1 8 The American Esperanto Book 

XV 

Foreign Words. — The so-called foreign words, 
that is, those which a majority of the languages 
have taken from one source, are used in the Esper- 
anto language without change, receiving only the 
orthography of this language; but with various 
words from one root it is better to use unchanged 
only the fundamental word, and to form the rest 
from this latter according to the rules of the Esper- 
anto language. 

La tiel nomataj vortoj fremdaj, t. e., tiuj 
kiujn la plimulto de la lingvoj prenis el unu 
fonto, estas uzataj en la lingvo Esperanto sen 
§ango, ricevante nur la ortografion de tiu t\ 
lingvo; sed 6e diversaj vortoj de unu radiko 
estas pli bone uzi sen§ange nur la vorton fun- 
damentan kaj la ceterajn formi el tiu t\ lasta 
laii la reguloj de la lingvo Esperanto. 

XVI 

Elision. — The final vowel of the substantive 
and the article can be omitted and replaced by an 
apostrophe. 

La fina vokalo de la substantive kaj de la 
artikolo povas esti forlasata kaj anstatauigata 
de apostrofo. 



The American Esperanto Book 19 



THE ARTICLE 

No indefinite article, such as a^ is used in 
Esperanto, this being implied in the noun: hundo, 
a dog', arbo, a tree. 

The definite article is la: la hundo, the dog-, 
la arbo, the tree. Its use is much the same as in 
English, with some very important exceptions. 
For example, when we use a word in its generic 
sense, the article is employed: The sentence, Man 
is a slave, we translate La homo estas sklavo. 
La medicino estas sziQnQO=Medicine is a science, 
Tiel blanka kiel la nego^^j white as snow. 

Instead of possessive pronouns the article i s 
used when referring to a relative of the speaker or 
person addressed, or even of a third person when 
the identity is unmistakable. La patro=JO (or 
your) father, [See Exercises 8 and 9] . 

Before numeral adjectives which denote day, 
hour, etc.: Venu je la deka \i.ovo=-Come at ten. 
La unua de \2inM2SO=^The first of January, 

The apostrophe may be substituted for the 
a of the article. In Exercise 27 Dr. Zamenhof 
adds: **but only after a preposition which ends in 
a vowel." This permission is useful chiefly in 
poetry, when necessary to eliminate a syllable. 



20 The American Esperanto Book 



THE SUBSTANTIVE 

A substantive (noun) is a word expressing the. 
name of anything: domo, a house\ birdo, a bird\ 
penso, a thought\ riSeco, wealthy ago, an act. 
The sign of the substantive is the final o. When 
more than one thing is spoken of, we add the 
plural sign, j: katoj, cats\ knaboj, boys\ arboj, trees. 

The nominative form of the substantive is 
the regular form, either singular or plural. This 
IS used in all relations except three, hereafter ex- 
plained. 

Possession is indicated by the preposition de 
preceding the substantive: La libro de la knabo^ 
The boy's book (literally, the book of the boy). 

The accusative form is used where the sul)- 
stantive stands as the object of a transitive verb; 
that is, a verb which implies some action or change 
directed against the substantive: La knabo batis 
la hundon = The boy beat the dog. Here, the dog 
is the object of the action implied. Hence, we add 
the accusative sign, n, to hundo. This change is 
necessary in Esperanto because this is an interna- 
tional language, to be used by many millions of 
people who put the object of an action before the 
word expressing the action. 



The American Esperanto Book 21 

After a preposition the accusative case is not 
used, except for the purpose indicated in the par- 
agraph following : 

To show direction or motion toward a given 
place, when no accompanying word indicates this, 
the accusative form is used: Li iris Bostonon==^ 
He went to or toward Boston, 

Accusative Without Preposition. — Accord- 
ing to Rule XIV we may omit the preposition and 
substitute the accusative form. This is frequently 
done in expressing date, measure, etc., but there 
is no set rule demanding it: Li venos lundon = 
He will come Mo7iday, Li venos je lundo=Zr<f 
will come on Monday, Each of these forms is cor- 
rect. Mi laboris ok horojn==/ worked eight hours. 
Mi laboris dum ok horoj=/ worked during eight 
hours. It will be noted that in either English dt 
Esperanto the preposition may be omitted; bift in 
Esperanto the omission is indicated by a signal. 

Order of Signs. — The sign of the plural pre- 
cedes that of the accusative case: librojn, homojn. 

Elision. — The final of the noun may be omit- 
ted (Rule 16) and the apostrophe (') substituted, 
but this is usually confined to verse. Writers of 
Esperanto poetry are inclined to take the similar 
liberty with oj and ojn where no confusion as to 
meaning is to be feared. 



22 The American Esperanto Book 

We omit the preposition, usually, translating 
such forms as Dominion of Canada, City of New 
York: Regno Kanado, Urbo Nov-Jorko. The 
accusative is not used here to indicate an omission, 
because no Esperanto preposition is left out, this 
language not confessing the need of a preposition 
in these cases. So the English preposition is wiped 
out of existence. 

Adjective for Possessive. — A few students 
are confused by the use of the adjective form for 
possessive case with the pronoun and not with the 
substantive. There are, however, cases in which 
an English possessive is translated by an Esperanto 
adjective, and these require careful observation: 
Unuhora dormo=(9^^ hour''s sleep, Unuahora 
%;ds6iO'=^The first hour''s watch. Close scrutiny will 
show, however, that these cannot be called an 
exception to the Esperanto rule, as they are hardly 
possessives in English, and not at all in Esperanto. 

The superiority of Esperanto as a means of 
precise expression is illustrated in the following 
sentences : Mia frato amas mian filinon pli ol 
mian filon=J/j^ brother loves my daughter more than 
my son {more than he loves my son). Mi amas mian 
filinon pli ol mia filo=/ love my daughter more 
than my son (gloves her). In the first sentence, 
filon, being accusative, must be understood as the 
object of the implied verb. In the latter, filo, being 
nominative, can be connected with the sentence 



The American Esperanto Book 23 

only as the subject of the implied verb. In English 
we must supply the phrase to express the meaning; 
in Esperanto the case of the noun expresses the 
sense beyond doubt. 



24 The American Esperanto Book 



THE ADJECTIVE 

An adjective is a word used to express some 
quality, attribute or limitation of a substantive: 
blanka domo, a white house\ larga strato, a wide 
street', alta viro, a tall man, Blanka, larga and 
alta are adjectives, each expressing some quality 
of the substantive. The adjective sign is final a. 

Adjectives may be formed from almost any 
root, and attribute to the substantive the idea ex- 
pressed by the root: ligno, wood, ligna, wooden\ 
danki, to thank, danka, thankful. Adjectives may 
be formed also from prepositions, adverbs, etc.; in 
fact the adjective ending may be applied to almost 
any word : en, in, ena, inner*, tro, too, troa, exces- 
sive\ tie, there, tiea, of that place. 

In number and case the adjective agrees with 
the substantive to which it belongs: Ruga pomo= 
A red apple, Rugaj ^OTiXo\^=^Red apples, Li §atas 
rufajn pomojn=Zr<? likes red apples, 

A predicative adjective, that is, one preceded 
by some form of esti (if not in the word, then at 
least in the thought), is always nominative, even 
though it may refer to an accusative substantive. 
Mi trovis mian amikon malsanan=/ found 7ny 
sick friend. Here, malsanan belongs directly to 
amikon. But if we say Mi trovis mian amikon 



The American Esperanto Book 25 

inalsana=/ found my friend sick, the meaning is 
materially changed. Literally, it would read: Mi 
trovis mian amikon esti (aii, ke li estas) mal- 
S2Si2i=-I found my friend to be (or, that he is) sick, 
[See remarks on Adjectival Participles'] . 

Comparison of adjectives is effected by means 
of various words.. Some of them are: 

Pli. . . . ..ol'^More than, 

Malpli o\^=Less than. 

Tiel kiel =As as, 

Tia \ii3,'==Such as, 

Tia sama \i\dL=The same as, 

Ju pli des pli=7y^^ more the more, 

Ju malpli des malpli=7'>^^ less the less, 

[For uses of these words see Exercise 4] . 

Degree may also be expressed by the suffixes, 
eg and et: varmeta, varma, wa.vv[iQgQP=lukewarm, 
warm, hot. 

The superlatives are expressed by plej and 
malplej: La plej gr8inda= The largest, I^a mal- 
plej granda=7'>^^ smallest. 

Adverbial Ending. — Where the indefinite // 
is employed in English, as // is warm, it rains, 
Esperanto uses no equivalent for //; in such cases, 
or where a verb or phrase forms the subject, and all 
cases where there is neither a noun or pronoun to 
which the adjective refers, the qualifying word, 
even if adjectival in meaning, is adverbial in form: 
Estas necese=// is necessary, Estas agrable= 
// is agreeable, Esti bele estas oportune==7'(? be 
beautiful is fortufiate. 



26 The American Esperanto Book 



PRONOUNS. 

A pronoun is a word used to represent a noun 
or substantive. Its use lends grace and facility to 
speech, by avoiding repetitions of the real name 
for which it stands. Many of the cruder languages 
do not possess pronouns. An Indian, for example, 
uses his own name instead of the pronoun /. Es- 
peranto is especially well equipped with pronouns. 
Relative pronouns, with several other kinds, are 
listed under the head of Correlative Words, as their 
use is somewhat different from that of the personal 
pronouns. 

The personal pronouns are : mi, // vi, you 

(singular or plural); li, he; §i, she; gi, //; ni, we ; 
ili, they\ si, a reflexive pronoun referring only to 
subject of proposition and always in the third per- 
son, meaning himself^ herself^ itself^ themselves ; 
oni, one or they : oni diras, they say, Oni is 
always nominative. 

The possessive case of pronouns is formed 
by the addition of the adjective sign, a: mia, 
my, mine ; via, your, yours ; lia, his ; §ia, her, hers; 
nia, our, ours ; ilia, their, theirs \ sia, one^s, his, 
hers, their, etc, 



The Ainerican Esperanto Book 2 J 

The possessive pronoun, being an adjective 
in form, is governed by the rules of the adjective. 
It agrees in number and case with the noun which 
it qualifies. Using the English words, their booky 
the pronoun is understood to be plural; ilia libro, 
however, shows the pronoun in the singular form, 
though obviously referring to more than one per- 
son; it becomes plural in form only when the noun 
is plural — iliaj libroj. Conversely, miaj libroj 
{,fny books) shows the personal pronoun in the plu- 
ral form, though certainly singular in sense. The 
plural sign is merely an indication that the word 
belongs to a plural noun. 

The reflexive pronoun requires careful study 
for its correct use. It is always in the third per- 
son and can refer only to the subject of the clause 
or proposition in which it is used. Johano ren- 
kontis mian patron kaj lian amikon=/^>^« met 
my father and his (my father's) friend. Johano 
renkontis mian patron kaj sian amikon=/M;/ 
met my father and his (John's) friend, [See Exer- 
cise 12]. 



28 The American Esperanto Book 



THE VERB 
A verb is a word used to express action or 
being. In English these words often vary accord- 
ingly as they express the action of one person or 
more; or the action of the speaker, the person who 
is addressed, or a third person. For example, we 
say / am, you are, he is. In Esperanto the verb 
does not change thus; we say: mi estas, vi estas, 
li estas. 

All verbs are regular, — In English, several 
hundred verbs have special forms for expressing 
past or completed action, so that to use the wrong 
form would give rise to seemingly humorous ab- 
surdities ; for example, write, wrote, written*, fight, 
foghte, fitten. The various Esperanto verbs use 
exactly the same forms, and the entire list of these 
forms in their various uses is called the conjuga- 
tion. 

INDICATIVE MODE 

The indicative mode expresses action or being 
as now taking place, which has, or which will take 
place. It involves a simple, definite statement, 
as distinguished from the indefinite, conditional, 
interrogatory, etc. 



The American Esperanto Book 29 

ACTIVE VOICE 

The active voice represents the action as be- 
ing performed (present, past or future) : 

Mi skribas=/ write, am writing, 
Yi ludis = You p/ayedf were playing, 
Li laboros=^<? will work, be working. 
Mi estas skribanta=/ am writing (emphasiz- 
ing present continuity of act.) 

Vi estis ludanta= You were playing, 
Li estos laboranta=^<? will be working. 
Mi estas skribinta=/ have written, been writ- 
ing, 

Vi estis ludinta=K?« had played, been playing, 
Li estos laborinta=Zr<? will have worked, have 
been working. 

Mi estas skribonta=/ am to write, am about 
to write, 

Vi estis ludonta=K?« were about to play, 

Li estos laboronta=Zr<? will be about to work, 

PASSIVE VOICE 

The passive voice describes the action as 
being received: 

Mi estas amata=/ am loved. 
Vi estis trompata==F^« were deceived, were 
being deceived, 

Li estos forlasata=Zr<f will be forsaken. ^ 

Mi estas 2imit2i=^I have been loved, 

Vi estis tronipita=K?^^ had been deceived. 



30 The American Esperanto Book 

Li estos forlasita=Zr<? will have been forsaken. 

Mi estas amota=/ am to he (or, about to be) 
loved, 

Vi estis trompota= K?^ were about to be 
deceived, 

L»i estos forlasota=Zr<? will be about to be for- 
saken. 

The Present Tense. — If an action is in prog- 
ress at the time of speaking or writing, the verb 
takes the ending of the present tense. Johano 
skribas=yi?>^;2 writes. This means that John is 
now writing, but it may also mean that he writes 
generally, is a copyist. When necessary, however, 
to emphasize the fact that the action is of present 
duration and still incomplete, we use the participle 
and estas, thus: Johano estas skribanta. This 
can mean only that John is now, at the time of 
speaking, in the act of writing. 

The present tense is also used in Esperanto 
to describe an act occurring at a time past, but of 
which a descriptive account is being given. For 
example, / shakes my fist in his face and I says to 
him, ^'GoT is vividly expressive, but ungrammat- 
ical. However, Mi minacas lian vizagon per 
la mia pugno kaj diras al li *' For !'* has all the 
emphasis which the English sentence receives from 
the use of the present tense, and is grammatically 
correct. 



The American Esperanto Book 31 

The Past Tense. — When an act occurred at 
some time now wholly past, or was occurring at 
such a time, the past tense is employed: Johano 
skribis=y^/^;2 wrote ^ or was in the act of writing. 
But again, if we wish to state clearly that he was, 
at some particular time, writing, we use the parti- 
ciple : Johano estis skribanta. 

The Future Tense. — When an action is to 
take place at some future time, we use the future 
tense. Johano skribos=y<?/?;^ will write, or will 
be writing. As with the other tenses, if we wish 
so be precise, to say that at some definite future 
time John will be in the act of writing, the participle 
is necessary: Johano estos skribanta. 

Completed action, indicated in English by 
what are called the perfect tenses, is expressed in 
Esperanto by some form of esti and a past parti- 
ciple of the principal verb: Hi estas kantintaj = 
They have been singing (literally, * *they are were 
singing' 0» This means that now, at this time, the 
act of singing is complete. Hi estis kantintaj = 
They had been singing, Estis refers to a time past, 
and kantintaj indicates that the act of singing was, 
at that time, already finished. Hi estos kantintaj 
'=^They will have been singing. At the future time 
indicated by estos, the act of singing will have been 
finished. 



32 The America7t Esperanto Book 



CONDITIONAL MODE. 

The Conditional Mode describes an action 
that is conditional ; something that might happen 
or have happened ; something doubtful in itself, or 
contingent upon something else. It is usually 
introduced by the conjunction, se (//). The gram-, 
matical sign of the conditional mode is -us, alike 
for all tenses. If time is expressed, this is accom- 
plished by a participle or another verb used in 
connection. 

Se §i amus=7/j/^^ should love, 
Se §i estus am ant a = Were she loving, 
Se §i estus aminta==//' she had loved, or been 
loving. 

Se §i estus Simont3i= JVere she about to love, or 
be loving. 

Se §i estus aniata= Were she loved, or being 
loved, 

Se §i estus amita==7/*j-//!^ had been loved, 

Se §i estus amota= Were she about to be loved. 

Example: Se pluvus, ni iros fi§kapti== 

Should it rain, we shall go fishing. Here, the first 
verb is conditional, the second indicative. Se 
estus pluvinte, ni irus fi§kapti=7/'// had rained, 
we would go fishing. Here, both verbs are condi- 
tional. The student must not permit himself to 



The American Esperanto Book 33 

be confused regarding the two meanings of should. 
In one sense, this is a conditional auxiliary, and 
as such is used in the foregoing translations. In 
the other sense it expresses duty, as *'He should 
love his parents." This has nothing whatever to 
do with the conditional mode of Esperanto, and is 
translated by the verb devi, ought. 



34 The A77ierican Espera^ito Book 



IMPERATIVE MODE 

The imperative mode indicates command, 
desire, purpose, etc. Its sign is -u. 

In giving commands and making requests it 
is used directly, without connecting words: Haltu! 
=IIalt / Prenu i^OTCion\ = Take an apple! Li 
venu tien 6i \=Let him come here! 

In expressing purpose it is usually preceded 
by ke or por ke: Por ke §i ricevu pardonon, 
%\ gin petu=/:?2 order that she receive a pardo7i, let 
her ask it. Mia patro deziras ke li venu=JO 

father desires that he come. 

Participles may be used with the imperative : 
Li insistas ke vi estu punata==i7^ insists that you 
be punished. 



The A7nerican Esperanto Book 35 



INFINITIVE MODE 

The infinitive mode, sign -i, has no tense, 
signifying simply to be, to love, etc. As with the 
conditional and imperative modes, it may receive 
a suggestion of tense when accompanied by a par- 
ticiple. 

Ami^To love. 
Esti amante=7d? be loving". 
Esti amite^Tl? have been loved. 
Esti amonte = 7'(? be about to love, 

A substantival sense is expressed by the 
infinitive, which may of itself be the subject of a 
sentence : Erari estas home ; pardoni, 6\^=To 

err is human-, to forgive, divine. 

Note that the adjectives and participles modifying the 
infinitive take the adverbial form. 



36 The American Esperanto Book 



INTERROGATION 

In questions, the indicative mode is used, and 
accompanied by an interrogatory word. There are 
(see Correlative Words) nine interrogatory words 
beginning with k: kia, kial, kiam, kie, kiel, kies, 
kio, kiom, kiu. These words are used in precisely 
the same manner as their English equivalents, 
what, why, when, where, how, etc. 

Kiam li revenos ? = ^/^^;^ will he return? 
Kie ni estas ?= ^F/^^-r^ are we? 

Any sentence not introduced by one of these 
may be changed to a question by the word 6u, 
meaning whether: Cu vi venos ?=lVill you come? 
Cu vi nin amas l^^Do you love us ? 



The Afjiericaii Esperanto Book 2i7 



THE PARTICIPLE 

A participle is a word derived from a verb 
root, and implying action, though not directly- 
stating it, as does the verb. Participles in Esper- 
anto are of three classes: 

Adjectival — Expressing the quality of being 
in action : Kantanta birdo=-^ singing bird\ and, 
with a helping verb, the act itself : La birdo estas 
kantanta=272^ bird is singing. 

Adverbial — Expressing the fact of the action, 
usually by way of connecting it with some other 
act, and always without a directly governing 
substantive: Vidante muson, §i forkuris = 6*^;^^^ 

a mousey she ran away. 

Substantival — Expressing the act and agent 
in the active form, the act and the recipient in the 
passive : parolanto, the speaker \ parolato, the 

person spoken to. 

The participle plays a much more important 
part in Esperanto than in English, and the student 
must give it careful study. It may have the end- 



33 The American Esperanto Book 

ing of the adjective, adverb or substantive. Its 
signs are: 

-ant-, Present active, 
-int-. Past active, 
-ont-. Future active. 
-at-. Present passive, 
-it-. Past passive. 
-ot-. Future passive. 

An adjectival participle may be directly qual- 
ifying, and as such is usually placed before the 
substantive, as in English : Fluanta q^mo'=FIoW' 
ing water. When so used, and qualifying a plural 
or accusative substantive, it takes the same case 
and number : Ni vidis la brulantajn domojn= 
We saw the burning houses. 

When used as a predicate, that is, when 
preceded by a form of esti, expressed or implied, 
the participle agrees with the noun as to number, 
but is never accusative*: La domoj estas brul- 
antaj == The houses are burning, Ni vidas la 
domoj n brulantajn is translated We see the burning 
houses. Here, brulantajn is a directly qualifying 
word and hence is accusative because of domojn. 
But if we say Ni vidis la domojn brulantaj= ^^ 
saw the houses burning, this means that we saw the 
houses (first proposition) and also (second propo- 
sition) discovered, or saw, that they were burning : 
We saw the houses to be^ (or, that they were) burning. 



The American Esperanto Book 39 

Here, although esti and ke ili estas are omitted, 
the meaning is clearly shown by the nominative 
form of the participle. 

Esperanto participles also convey a sugges- 
tion of tense : Mono havata estas pli grava ol 
havita=J/^;20' possessed (now) is more importa7it 
than (that which has) been possessed. Pasero 
kaptita estas pli bona ol agio kaptota = A spar- 
row caught is better than an eagle to be caught. 

Adverbial participles have the regular adverb 
ending, e, which is invariable. They are usually 
employed in sentences like the following : Trovinte 
pomon, mi gin T[i^n%\s=B'avi7tg found an apple, 
I ate it. Promenante sur la strato, mi falis= 
Walking aloftg the street, I fell. Lii venis al mi 
tute ne atendite^=Zr<? ca7ne to me quite unexpect- 
edly. Here, trovinte and promenante take the 
adverbial ending because there is no substantive to 
which they can directly belong. ' 

Participles should not be used in lieu of 
simple adjectives and adverbs. When the partici- 
pial form is used, action should always be distinctly 
understood. Fluanta akyo (^running water) is 
correct, because action is implied ; amanta edzo 
(^ loving husband) would ordinarily be incorrect, 
because quality, and not action, is expressed. 
Here, the simple adjective, ama (^affectionate). 



40 The American Esperanto Book 

would be the proper word. Li kantas Carme 
{^He sings charmingly) ^ not Carmante. 

Substantival participles have the regular o 
sign of the substantive, and indicate, in the active 
form, the person or thing performing the action 
(a participle invariably implies action). In the 
passive form they indicate the recipient of the 
action: 

Anianto=^ lover — one who is now loving. 

Aminto=^ lover — one who did love. 

Amonto= One who will love, 

Amato==^ beloved person, 

Amito=^ beloved — one who has been loved. 

PiMiO\.o^=^One about to be loved. 



The American Esperanto Book 41 



THE ADVERB 

The use of the adverb is to qualify, emphasize 
or explain verbs, adjectives, participles or other 
adverbs. Example : La tre bela, bone vestita 
virino agas apenaii gentile = 77/^ very beautiful, 
^vell dressed woman acts hardly politely. The 
four adverbs, tre, bone, apenau and gentile have 
the following positions in the sentence : Tre 
belongs to the adjective, bela ; bone belongs to the 
participle, vestita ; gentile to the verb, agas ; 
apenau to the adverb, gentile. As will be seen, 
each adverb conveys some added meaning to the 
word to which it belongs. 

Adverbs regularly derived from a root have 
the ending e, thus : from bel', the root for beauty, 
we have bele, beautifully. Besides this, there are 
some so-called primary adverbs, which do not 
belong to the word-families which spring from each 
root. A few of these have the ending e, but most 
have not. 

PRIMARY ADVERBS 

The following list includes the primary adverbs 
most used: 

Adiaii, Adieu, Goodbye, 

Ain, Ever (after kiam, kie, etc.) 



42 The American Esperanto Book 

Almenau, At least, 

Ankaii, Also, 

Ankorau, Yet, StilL 

Apenau, Hardly, Scarcely, 

Baldau, Soon, 

Bis, Once more, 

Ci, The nearest, 

Cial, For every reason, 

Ciam, Always 

Cie, Every Where 

Ciel, In Every Way, 

Ciom, All, All of it, 

Cu, Whether, 

Des pli, The More, 

E6, Even 

For, Away, 

Hierau, Yesterday, 

Hodiau, Today, 

lal, For Some Cause, 

lam, Some Time, Any Time, 

le, So7?ie Where, Any Where, 

lel, In Some Manner, 

lom, Some Quantity, 

Ja, Indeed. 

Jam, Already 

Jen, Here, Behold. 

Jes, Yes, 

Ju pli, The More, 

Jus, Just Now 

Kial, Why, 



The American Esperanto Book 43 

Kie, Where, 

Kiel, How, As, 

Kiom, How Much, 

Kvazau, As if. 

Morgau, Tofnorrow, 

Ne, Not. 

Nek, Neither, Nor. 

Nenial, For No Cause. 

Neniam, Never. 

Nenie, No Where. 

Neniel, In No Manner. 

Neniom, None, 

Nun, Now. 

Nur, Only, 

Plej, Most. 

Pli, More. 

Plu, Further, 

Preskau, Nearly, 

Tial, For that Cause. 

Tiam, Then. 

Tie, There, 

Tie ei, Here, 

Tiel, In that Manner y So. 

Tiom, So Much. 

Tre, Very. 

Tro, Too, 

Tuj, Immediately, 



44 The American. Esperanto Book 

DERIVED ADVERBS 

Any root or primary word may be given an 
adverbial meaning by the addition of the adverb 
ending, e, provided this can logically be done. A 
few such words are given in the following list : 

Afrankite, Postage paid, 

Aliloke, Elsewhere, 

Alivorte, In other 7vords, 

Alvenante, Upon arrival, 

Antaue, Previously, 

Aparte, Separately, specially, 

Bonstate, In good condition, 

Cirkaue, Around, 

Ciufoje, Every time, 

Ciujare, Yearly, 

Ciumonate, Monthly, 

Ciusemajne, Weekly, 

Ciutage, Daily, 

Dekstre, On the right, 

Efektive, Actually, 

Ekstere, Outwardly, 

Escepte, Excepting, 

Gustatempe, Promptly, at the right time, 

Intence, Intentionally. 

Jene, As follows, 

Jese, Affirmatively, 

Ka§e, Secretly, 

Kompate, Mercifully, Sympathetically, 

Kompreneble, Of course. 



The American Esperanto Book 45 

Laiilarge, As to width. 

Laiilonge, Lengthwise, 

Lauvole, At will, 

Laiite, Loudly, 

Lerte, Skillfully, 

Male, On the contrary. 

Malfacile, With difficulty, 

Maldekstre, On the left, 

Malka§e, Openly, without concealment. 

Malmulte, Not much, 

Malproksime, Ln the distance, afar. 

Malpleje, Least, 

Malrekte, Lndirectly^ slantingly, 

Malsupre, Below, 

Matene, In the morning. 

Multe, Much, 

Nelonge, Not long. 

Nedube, Doubtlessly. 

Nune, At present, 

Nuntempe, Nowadays. 

Pace, Peacefully, 

Parole, Verbally, 

Pere, By indirect means* 

Persone, Personally. 

Piedire, On foot. 

Pleje, Mostly. 

Plezure, With pleasure. 

Plivole, Preferably, 

Plue, Furthermore, 

Poste, Afterwards, 



46 The American Esperanto Book 

Precipe, Especially, 

Proksime, Near, 

Proksimume, Approximately^ 

Rapidire, By fast ?neans, express, 

Ree, Again. 

Rekte, Directly, 

Sajne, Seemingly, 

Sekve, Coiisequently. 

Senescepte, Without exception, 

Senintermanke, Uninterruptedly, 

Senpage, Free^ without pay, 

Sensehce, Without sense, 

Skribe, In writing, 

Somere, In smnmer, 

Speciale, Specially, 

SufiCe, Sufficiently, 

Supre, Above, 

Tiamaniere, In such a manner. 

Treege, Extremely. 

Troe, Excessively, 

Tute, Totally, entirely^ quite. 

Vole , Voluntarily. 

Volonte, Willingly. 



The American Esperanto Book 47 



THE PREPOSITION 

Prepositions are used to define relations be- 
tween other words, or phrases : La hundo ku§as 
antau la fajro=7y/^ dog lies before the fire, Resti 
apud vi estas, sen escepto, la plej bone el ciuj 
plezuroj^^T"^ stay near you is, without exception, 
the best of (from among) all pleasures. 

The complement (accompanying substantive) 
of a preposition is always in the nominative case, 
unless, to show direction, the accusative is used. 

Rule XIV permits the omission of the prepo- 
sition where the sense does not clearly show which 
one to use, and in such cases the substantive is 
made accusative. We can also use the general, 
undefined preposition, je. 

Every preposition except Je has a fixed and 
constant meaning, which should be learned. So 
many English prepositions are used for more than 
one idea that ridiculous errors would arise from 
their literal translation / Jle talked over the tele- 
phone, to a firjn over the river, and sold over eighteen 
cases of eggs that had been left over. Here, two' 
prepositions, per, meaning by means of and trans, 



48 The American Esperanto Book 

beyond^ would be used, in the two other cases the 
meaning would require words which are not prepo- 
sitions, and at no point does the Esperanto prepo- 
sition, super, meaning over or above, enter into 
consideration ! 

The following examples show most of the 
ordinary uses of the prepositions : 

AL— r(9, TOWARD 

Li iros al Bostono^iTi? will go to Boston, 
Mi rompis al mi la brakon=/ broke my arm. 
Li havas amon al la pSitro=JIe has love for 

his father. 

Donu al mi la libron= 6^/27^ (to) me the book, 
Ordonu al li ke li venu=6^r^<fr (to) him to 

(that he) come, 

Aldonu al tiu sumo kvin dolarojn=^^^ to 

that sum five dollars, 

ANSTATAtj—UVSTEAD OB 

Anstataii konsilo, mi deziras prunton=/;z- 

stead of advice, I want a loan, 

Anstataii plori, la vidvino devas %o\\.^=In- 

stead of weeping (to weep), the widow should rejoice, 

AI^TAJJ—BEBOBE 

Arbo staras antau la domo=^ tree stands in 
front of the house, 

Iru antaii vi\\=^Go before me. 



The American Esperanto Book 49 

Antaii niaj okuloj flugis fantomo=^</<?r^ our 
eyes there flew a phantom, 

Antaii ol morgau, li v^nos=^Before tomorrow^ 
he will come, 

Antau tri tagoj, li v^Vi\^=^Three days ago, he 
came. 

The use of antau in the last two sentences is 
worthj^ of special observation. The tense of the 
verb, and the conjunction ol, show in the first that 
a future time is mentioned ; while in the latter, the 
absence of ol and the past tense of the verb show 
that the time referred to has passed. 

APUD— iV^^i? 

La fonto apud la granda arbo=77^^ spring 

near the large tree, 

Bulonjo apud MsiVO^^Boulogne-on-the-Sea, 

Ck—at 

Atendu 6e la po%tofico= IVait at the post office. 
Mi estos 6e vi=I shall be at your house (liter- 
ally, at you^, 

Li venis ce la deka^=Zr<f came at ten, 
Ke 6e 6iu vorto kiun vi diros=7'>^^/ at every 
word you speak. 

Ce la komparativo oni uzas la konjunkcion 
ol= IVith the comparative one uses the co?ijunction ol. 
Koro ce koro ni parolis=?F^ talked heart to 
heart. 



so The American Esperanto Book 

tlRKAt— AROUND 

Soldatoj staras 6irkau la diOmo=Soldiers are 
standing- around the house. 

La prezo estas cirkaii kvindek cendoj=Z^^ 

price is about fifty cents. 

Mi venos Sirkaii la sepa horo==/ shall come 
about the seventh hour, 

Li siirmetis ledan zonon Cirkaii la talio=^"^' 

put a leather belt around his waist, 

DA— OF 

This preposition is used only after words denot- 
ing quantity, weight, number or measure. 

Funto da teo — A pound of tea, 
Multe da ^^nso\'='Many (of) thoughts, 
Miloj da \\ovcio\= Thousands of i?ien, 
Peco da ligno=-^ piece of wood. 

The beginner will find great care necessary to 
avoid confusion as to da and de. Compare care- 
fully the examples. 

DE— (97^, BY, FROM 

This preposition is used as the sign of posses- 
sion, and to connect the passive participle with its 
complement. It also indicates origin, place of 
beginning, etc. : 

La libro de Johano=y^//;^V book. 

La filino estas amata de sia patro = 77'^ 
daugJiter is loved by her father. 



The American Esperanto Book 51 

De tia kauzo=^r^/;/ such a cause, 

Tio dependas de lia respondo=77^(^/ depends 
upon his reply, 

De loko al \dko=^From place to place. 

Mi foriros de tie t\=I shall £-0 away from 
here, 

Li logas malproksime de tie ti=Ife lives far 
from here, 

Li logas proksime de tie ci==Ife lives near 



De ilia unua renkonto=^/;/r^ (from) their first 
meeting, 

De tri tagoj mi ne mangas=A?r three days I 
have not eaten, 

Li mortis de malsato=^<? died of hunger, 

-DUlii— DURING, WHILE. 

Dum la nuna \2SO^=Duri7ig this year, 
Dum li parolas= While he is talki^ig, 

EKSTER— (9 ^r^*//^^ 

Ekster la diOVSXO'^ Outside the house. 
Ekster tiuj ci ^2i\xzo\^=^ Out side these causes, 

^-Ls—OUT OF, FROM AMONG 

Plej bona el 6iuj=^^j"/ of all, 
Unu el ni devas iri=6^;^^ of us ought to go. 
Elcizita el marmoro^Cy^/i-^/^^/r^;;/ marble. 
Li iros el la urbo=Zr<? will go out of the city. 



52 The American Esperaiito Book 

Musd venis el sub la lito=^ mouse came fr on* 
under the bed, 

EN— /A^ 

This word is also translated into. When this 
meaning is implied it must be followed by the 
accusative of direction. 

Hi iras en la pregejon^Tyzo' are going into 

the church. 

Hi estas en la pretejo= J^^O' are in the church, 

Nokto en somero=-^ night in summer. 

En tia okazo=6^;z such an occasion. 

Estas dudek-kvar horoj en \.2igo=^There are 

twenty-four hours in a day, 

QIS— UNTIL, AS FAR AS 

Vi povas veni gis la pordego=F<?2^ may come 
as .far as the gate. 

De Marto gis yL'd\o=From March until May. 
Atendu gis morga.u= IVait until tomorrow, 

INTER— jBFTJVFFJV, AMONG 

Inter aliaj Sifero}=Among other matters. 

Inter la du 2Si\V&o\=Between the two friends. 

Inter Marto kaj Mdi]o=Between March and 
May. 

La amikoj malkonsentis inter %v==-The friends 
disagreed among themselves. 



The American Esperanto Book 53 

JE 

This preposition has no fixed meaning, and is 
used only when the sense does not clearly require 
some other word : 

Li ridas je mia eraro=Zr^ laughs at my error, 

Je la unua okazo=^/ the first opportunity » 

Li ekkaptis la hundon je la ^OT^o=Ile caught 

the dog by the throat. 

Je la kyara de TCi2iVto='On the fourth 0/ March, 

Altaje ses {MtO]==Six feet high, 

Je la unua fojo en sia w\vo==For the first time 

in his life, 

KONTRAIJ—OFFOS/TE, AGAINST 
Kontraii la \io\.€io'=Opposite the hoteL 
Ni iris kontrau la vento= We went against the 

wind, 

JUL 

La armeo mar§is kontrau la arbo=7'y^<f army 

marched against the city. 

La pastro predikis kontrau la ebrieco=71^<f 

pastor preached against drunkenness, 

K'ROyi=BESinES. 

La vento, krom forta, estas tre malvarma= 

The wind^ besides (being) strong^ is very cold, 

Krom mono, §i havis belecon=j^^i-/^/^i" money 
she had beauty. 



54 The American Esperanto Book 

KUN—lVITIf 

This word is never used where the relation is 
that of means or instrument, per being the correct 
preposition in such cases. 

Li edzifos kun Mario=^^ wi/l marry (with) 
Mary, 

Resti kun leono estas danfere^Tb remain 
with a lion is dangerous. 

Li laboras kun pacienco=J7^ labors with 
patience, 

laKXi— ACCORDING TO 

Laii mi a opinio =^^^^r^/;^^ to my opinion, 

Lau la \Q^o^=According to law. 

Laii vico==/;^ turjty according to rank. 

Lau lia kutima maniero=/^ his customary 
manner, 

Promenante laii la v\v^xo^=- While walking 
along the river, 

MAL,GRAiJ—NO TWITHSTANDING 
Malgraii 6io, ni atingos la celon=iV^/ze//M- 
standing everything, we will attain the purpose, 

V'£.R—BY MEANS OF 

This preposition indicates the means, tool or 
instrument by means of which an act is accom- 
plished, and translates with^ through, by means of, 

Li silentigis ilin per rigardo=Zr^ silenced them 
with a look. 



The American Esperanto Book 55 

Oni trandas per X.V2cnt\\o=^One cuts with a 
knife, 

FO— AT THE RATE OF, 

Po du dolaroj Siutage=^/ the rate of two dol- 
lars per day, 

Li acetis tri librojn po unu dolaro=^^ bought 
three books at the rate of one dollar (Not ''at the 
price of"; see Por). 

FO'Rr-FOR 

Li acetis tri librojn por unu dolaro=^^ 

bought three books for 07ie dollar. 

La patrino diras ke estas tempo por 6io= 
Mother says there is a time for everything, 

Li venis por vin danki=Zr<? came (for) to 
thank you. 

Por ke vi ne forgesu, skribu ^in=Zest you 
forget, write it down, 

POST =BEJIIJVZ> 

When used with reference to time, this word 
means after. 

Post la Cevalino trotas 6evalido=j^^>^/W the 

mare trots a colt. 

Post hodi3.u=A fter today, 
Horo post horo='Ilour after hour, 
lom post iom=Zittle by little. 
Post unu }a.ro=After one year. 



56 The American Esperanto Book 

Post la diOmo=B ehind the house. 

Post kiam la horlogo batos la dekan, vi 
devos ior\v\=^After the clock strikes ten, you will 
have to leave. 

Post via reveno=^^//^r your return, 

PRETER— P^^T 

Preter is translated by or past with respect to 
motion and relative position — not time: 

Mi iris preter la fenestroj de la domo=/ 

went past the windoivs of the house. 

"PKl— ABOUT, CONCERNING 

Mi demandis lin pri la vojo=/ asked him 
about the way, 

Ne pensu pri %\=Do not think about it, 

Li paroladis pri Afriko=J7'<? lectured on Africa, 

V'RO— BECAUSE OF. 

Li demandis §in, pro kio §i ploras==Zr^ asked 
her for (on account of) what she was crying. 
Pro manko de tempo =i^^r lack of time. 
Mi dankas vin pro la sendo de la libro = / 

thank you for sending the book, 

^'K^— WITHOUT 

Li ne povas vivi sen ^i=IIe cannot live with- 
out her. 

Dek sen kvar faras ses=7V« less four makes 
six. 



Prepositions 57 

SPITE— ZA^ SPITE OF. 

Spite la gepatroj, §i edzinitis=/;^ spite of her 
parents^ she married. 

Oni lin arestis, spite lia baraktado^T'^O' 

arrested him in spite of his struggles. 

SUPER— (9r^i? 

This preposition means over and above in the 
sense of relative position, and must never be used 
in translating such phrases as **over the tele- 
phone" — use per; *'over*the river," meaning 
across or beyond — use trans ; **over the electric," 
meaning by way of — use lau. 

Super la tero sin trovas aero=^^^z^^ the earth 
is found (finds itself) air, 

Birdoj flugis super niaj V2.^o\'=^Birds flew ov'er 
our heads. 

SUR— (9iV^ 

Translated on ox upon, and implies, in this use, 
contact. Where direction is expressed, it is fol- 
lowed by the accusative, and means on to : 

Sur la tablo ku§as papero^i'^/*?^ lies upon 
the table. 

Li staris supre sur la monto kaj rigardis 
malsupren sur la kanipon=Zr<? stood above upon 
the mountain and gazed below upon the field. 

Hi ekpafis sur neofendajn vila|anoin=Z^O^ 
fired upon inoffensive villagers. 



58 The American Esperanto Book 

^"R^— THROUGH 

This word, means through in a strict sense, and 
always implies motion or relative position. 

Li proitienis tra la a.TbsiTO=He walked through 
the -street. 

Tra lainondo iras forta vdk6=Through the 
world there goes a strong call, 

TRANS— ACROSS, BEYOND 

m 

La hirundo flugis Israns la riveron, car trans 
la rivero sin trovis aliaj hirundoj = 77z^ swallow 
flew across the river, because beyond the river were 
(found themselves) other swallows. 

Trans la ^Xx2Xo'=^Across the street. 



The American Esperanto Book 59 



THK CONJUNCTION. 

A conjunction is a word used to join other 
words, phrases or parts of sentences. Its function 
may be merely that and nothing more, as .• Bovo 
kaj 6evalo=^;^ ox and a horse. It may also estab- 
lish a definite relation between the parts of a sen- 
tence : Plu^is ; tial, ni restis hejme=// rained; 
therefore, we remained at home. 

. Conjunctions do not require the careful study 
necessary for the correct use of the prepositions, 
and need only be memorized. According to« use, 
some words may be either conjunctions, adverbs 
or prepositions, but as a rule the student need not 
trouble himself to analyze these delicate distinc- 
tions. Following is a list of the words most used 
as conjunctions : 

Alie, Otherwise, 
Almenau, At least, 
Au, Or. 

Au au. Either or. 

Car, Because^ for. 

Cu, Whether. 

Do, Indeed^ therefore indeed, 

Ec se, Even if, 

Escepte se, Unless (Excepting if). 



6o The American Esperanto Book 

Ja, Indeed^ in fact, 

Jen jen, Now now, now again, 

Kaj, Afid. 
Ke, That. 

Kvankam, Although, 
Nek, Nor, 

Nek nek, Neither nor. 

Ol, Thaii, 

Por ke. In order that, 

Se, //. 

Sed, But, 

Sekve, Consequently, 

Tarn en, However, nevertheless . 

Tia kia, Such as, 

Tia ke, Such that. 



Interjections 6i 



THE INTERJECTION 

Interjections are exclamatory words, usually 
more or less emphatic in meaning. They are not 
arranged in sentences, have no grammatical re- 
sponsibilities, and more closely resemble the prim- 
itive animal cries and exclamations than any other 
part of human speech. They may express fear, 
pain, warning, surprise, doubt, entreaty, command, 
grief, joy, approval, contempt, etc. Following is 
a list of Esperanto words, some of which are always 
interjections, others frequently used as such : 

Adiau! Farewell! 

Antauen ! Forward I 

Bis ! Encore I 

Bone! Well I 

Bonvenu ! Welcome / 

Brave ! Bravo ! 

Certe ! Certainly I 

Efektive ! Really! 

Fi! Fi! 

For ! Away \ 

Hal A/i\ Hal 

He ! Hey I Hello ! 

Ho! 0/i\ Bo I 

Ho ve ! Alas ! 

Hontu ! Be ashamed\ Shame I 



62 The American Esperanto Book 

Hura ! Hurrah \ 

J a ! Indeed ! 

Jen! Behold \ Look\ 

Kompreneble ! Of course I 

Ne ! No ! 

Nu ! Well \ 

Ve! Woe\ 

Vere ! Really I 



The American Esperanto Book 63 



THE NUMERALS 

The cardinal numerals do not change in form 
to agree with words to which they belong. This is 
the meaning of Rule IV, which says that they are 
not declined. They are: 

Unu, one ; du, 4wo ; tri, three ; kvar, four ; 
kvin, five ; ses, six ; sep, seven ; ok, eight ; nau, 
nine \ dek, ten\ cent, hundred \ mil, thousand \ 
miliono, million. 

The tens and hundreds are formed by joining 
numerals ; when the relation is one of multiplication 
the smaller number comes first : dudek, twenty ; 
kvardek, forty ; sepcent or sep cent, seven hun- 
dred. The units are added to the tens and hundreds 
when placed after them : dekunu, eleven ; dekdu, 
twelve ; dekses, sixteen) kysLvdek-kvar, forty-four, 
[See Exercises 12 and 14]. 

Adjectival ordinals are formed by adding the 
adjective ending : unusiy first ; dua, second; tria, 
third; mil naucent kaj sepa, nineteen hundred and 
seventh. 

Adverbial ordinals are obtained by adding 
the adverb ending : unue, firstly ; due, secondly ; 
kvine, fifthly. 



64 The Numerals 

Fractionals are made by adding the suffix on, 
with the ending of the substantive, adverb or 
adjective, according to meaning: \x\ono^ one-third\ 
kvinone, one- fifthly. 

Multiples are formed by adding obi, with the 
adjective or adverb ending : unuobla, single ; du- 
obla, double \ trioble, triply \ kvaroble, quadruply. 

Collective numerals are made by the addition 
of the suffix op : duope, two together ; kvarope, 
four abreast y by fours. 

Substantival numerals are formed by adding 
the substantive ending, o. These are subject to 
the rules governing all substantives: cento, a 
hundred (considered as a unit); miloj kaj miloj, 
thousands and thousands. 



Prefixes and Suffixes 65 



PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES 

Esperanto is equipped with a system of prefixes 
and suffixes which give a wide range of expression 
to a very small vocabulary. Taking a root word 
for the central thought, these affixes are used to 
express the various ideas arising from the central 
idea. In Exercise 42, Dr. Zamenhof shows us 
fifty-three words thus formed from one root, The 
only limit to such combinations is legibility and 
logic. 

PREFIXES 

BO indicates relationship by marriage : frato, 
brother ; bofrato, brother-in-law, 

CEF chief or principal : kuiristo, a cook ; 
cefkuiristo, a head cook, 

DE means from or of\ preni, to take ; depreni, 
to take from, 

DIS dismemberment or separation : semi, to 
sow ; dissemi, to scatter broadcast ; §iri, to tear ; 
dissiri, to tear apart y tear to pieces, 

EK to begin suddenly ; something of short 
duration : ridi, to laugh ; ekridi, to burst out 
out laughing, 

EKS same as the English ^jt: : eksprezidanto, 

ex-president. 



66 The American Esperanto Book 

FOR signifies away, iri, to go\ foriri, to go 

away, 

GE both sexes taken together : patro, father ; 
gepatroj, parents. 

MAL the direct opposite: bona, ^^^^; mal- 
bona, bad', alta, high-, malta, Ioiju. 

NE denotes neutral or negative: bela, beautiful\ 
nebela, plain (not necessarily ugly — for direct 
contraries use mal). 

PRA means either great or primordial \ avo, 
grandfather ; praavo, great grandfather ; patro, 
father \ pT3ipatT0}y forefathers, 

RE to repeat or reverse : diri, to say ; rediri, 
to repeat ; veni, to go ; reveni, to return, 

SEN equivalent of -less, the English suffix : 
haro, hair\ senhara, bald, hairless. 



SUFFIXES 

AD denotes continued action, meaning the same 
as the English substantival participle ending, 'ing\ 
kanto, a song\ kantado, sifiging. 

AN an inhabitant or partisan of : Ameriko, 
America ; amerikano, an American ; Kristo, Christ, 
kristano, a Christian, 



Suffixes 67 

AJ a concrete idea or object, possessing the 
quality indicated by the root: bela, beautiful \ 
belajo, a beautiful object ; bovo, an ox \ bovajo, 

beef. 

AR a collection or group of things : arbo, a 
tree) arbaro, -a forest ; vorto, a word; vortaro, 
a dictionary, 

Cj affectionate diminutive for masculine names: 
Johano, y^/z;^ , Johancjo, Johnnie \ patro, father; 
pa6jo, pa, papa, 

EBLr denotes possibility: vidi, to see; videbla, 
visible ; porti, to carry ; portebla, portable, 

EC denotes the abstract quality : bela, beauti- 
ful; beleco, beauty; bona, £'ood ; boneco, goodness, 

EG denotes increased degree or size : varma, 
warm ; varmega, hot ; pordo, door ; pordego, 
a gate, 

EJ indicates place of action or place devoted 
to : lerni, to learn ; lernejo, a school, 

EM shows tendency or inclination ; labori, 
to work ; laborema, industrious , 

ER denotes a single object as distinguished 
from the collective term : mono, money ; monero, 
a coin ; sablo, sand; sablero, a grain of sand, 

ESTR a leader or manager : urbo, city ; 
urbestro, mayor ; §ipo, ship ; §ipestro, captain. 



68 The American Esperanto Book 

ET denotes diminution of size or degree : 
varma, warm ; varmeta, lukewarm \ tranCilo, a 
knife ; tran^ileto, a pen knife, 

ID denotes the young of, or a descendant of : 
kato, cat ; katido, kitten ; refo, king ; regido, 
a prince, 

IG means to cause to become : ri6a, rich ; riCigi, 
to enrich \ pura, clean \ purigi, to clean, (Ig verbs 
are always transitive). 

IG means to become : riCigi, to become rich ; 
purigi, to become clean, (Ig verbs are always in- 
transitive and can never take the passive participle 
forms, at, it or ot). 

IL denotes the instrument or tool : kudri, to 
sew ; kudrilo, a needle\ pafi, shoot ; pafilo, gun, 

IN suffix of the feminine : frato, brother \ 
fratino, sister ; koko, chicken ; kokino, hen, 

IND denotes worthiness : ami, to love ; am- 
inda, amiable \ kredi, to believe \ kredinda, worthy 
of belief, 

ING holder for a single object: plumo, a pen; 
plumingo, penholder ; cigaringo, cigarholder, 

1ST denotes a person professionally occupied 
with, or associated with : kanti, to sing) kantisto, 
a professional singer ; metio, a craft ; metiisto, 
a craftsman. 



Suffixes 69 

NJ affectionate diminutive for feminine names ; 
Mario, Mary ; Marinjo or Manjo, Molly ; patrino, 
mother ; panjo, ma^ mamma, 

UJ signifies that which bears, contains or pro- 
duces : kremo, cream ; kremujo, a cream pitcher ; 
porno, apple ; pomujo, apple tree ; turko, a turk ; 
Turkujo, Turkey, 

UM has no definite meaning : mano, hand ; 
manumo, cuff\ malvarma, cold\ malvarmumi, 

to catch cold, 

UL indicates a person of the quality implied : 
granda, large ; grandulo, a large per s 071 ; pia, 
fious ; piulo, a pious person, 

a6, a sufifix indicating contempt or unworthiness, being 
the opposite of ind, is used by many Esperantists, though not 
yet officially authorized by Lingva Komitato. Example: 
hundo, dog; hunda6o, cur; pia, pious; pia6a, sanctimonious. 



ORDER OF AFFIXES 

The demand of logic is that the affix standing 
nearest the root first attach its significance to the 
word: monto, mountain \ montego, alargemoun^ 
tain ; mont-eg-an-ar-o, a band of people of the 
large mountain ; mont-ar-an-eg-o, a large moun- 
taineer \ mont-et-an-ar-eg-o, a large band of people 
of the hills. These are exaggerated illustrations, 
and simplicity is no less desirable in Esperanto 
than anywhere else. 



70 The American Esperanto Book 



THE CORRELATIVE WORDS 

Among the few original words of Esperanto 
(the immense majority having been taken from 
living European languages) are forty-five pronouns, 
adjectives, adverbs and conjunctive adverbs, so 
nicely correlated as to render most of them self- 
defining. 

As to application, they have five significations, 
indicated by the beginnings : 

I, indefinite, signifying some or any, 

C, distributive or collective, signifying each^ 
every ^ all, 

K, interrogative or relative, signifying what^ 
which, 

NEN, negative, meaning no7ie, no, 

T, demonstrative — that. 

As to meaning, they have nine general signi- 
fications, indicated by nine endings : ia, ial, iam, 
ie, iel, ies, io, iom, iu. 



1A=^KIND OR QUALITY 

Adjectival 

\2i—^Some kind of, any kind of, some, any, 
d3L'=£ach kind of , each, every. 



Correlative Words 71 

Kia= What kind of, as. 

Nenia=iVi? kind of, no such a, no, 
l^m^==^That kind of, such a kind, such a. 



IAL.=M0TIVE, REASON 

Adverbial 

lal=^Eor some reason, for some cause, for any 
cause, 

C^ial=Eor every reason, all reasons, 
KiQ.\=Eor what reason? Why, wherefore, 
Nenial=jP^r 710 reason, for no cause, 
Tial=Eor that reason, for that cause, therefore, 

lPiM = TIME 

Adverbial 

lam= At any time, some time, ever, 
Ciam==^/ all times, all the time, always. 
Kiain=^/ what time? When, 
Neniam=.^/ no time, never, 
Tiani=^/ that time, then. 



IE.=FLACE 

Adverbial 

l^==Some place, any place, somewhere, anywhere, 
d^^Everywhere, in every place, 
K.\^=^In what place? Where, 
^^n\Q=In no place , nowhere, 
liiQ^^ There, in that place. 



72 The American Esperanto Book 

YEAj=MANNER 

Adverbial 

lel=/n some way, somehow, anyhow, in any 
manner. 

Ciel=/(^ every manner, every way, all ways, by 
all means, 

Kiel=/;/ what manner? How, as, like, 

Neniel=/;^ no 7?ia7iner, in no way, by no means^ 

Tiel=//^ that way, thus, so, as, like. 



lES ^POSSESSION 

F7^ononiinal 

lQS'=Somebody' s, anybody^ s, anyone^ s, 

Cies=Everybody's, each one^s, everyone^ s, 

Kies = JVhose. 

N Gnies= JVobody's, no one's, 

T^iGS== That one's, such a person's. 



10=TB'ING 

Substantival and Pronotntnau 

lo^=Some thing, anything, 
Cio=^E very thing, all things, all, 
Kio= What, which, that which, 
l>[Qmo='Nothing, 
TiO'^ That, that thing. 



Correlative Words 73 

lOM^QUANTITY 

Adverbial 

loTCi=^So7ne quantity, some ^ a little, 
Ciom=A II, all of it, every quantity, 
KioTn=Ifow much, how many, as, 
Neniom=iV<? quantity, none, 
^iovci=^That much, that many, as many, 

l\J=INniVinUALITY 
Pronominal 

l\i=Anyone, anybody, some person, 

du^=£veryone, each one^ each, every, Ciuj, all, 

Kiu= Who, which, what one, 

\i\^ri\\\.'= Nobody, no one, 

lLi\i= That person, that one, that, 

Cl, denoting proximity, is added to thre^ 
demonstratives: tie ti, here, in this place ; tio 6i, 
this thing', tiu 6i, this, 

A demonstrative and relative of the same 
series are used in comparisons : Tiel bona kiel= 
As good as, Tiom multe kiom^^j" much as, as 
many as, so much as, Tia homo kia=i5'^^y^ a per- 
son as. 

See Exercise 30 and accompanying notes 



74 The American Esperanto Book 



CAPITALS AND PUNCTUATION 

The present custom with regard to punctuation 
is for each writer to follow the methods of his own 
language, it being practically impossible to change 
the meaning of a sentence by punctuation, which is 
so frequently possible in English, The same lati- 
tude is permitted in the use of capital letters, but 
on this point Esperanto printers have arrived at 
certain seemingly international styles. The main 
points of variance between English and Esperanto 
in this respect are : 

Names of Countries begin with capitals, but 
the names of races, with the correlative adjectives 
and adverbs, do not : Francujo, France ; franco, 
a Frenchman ; franca, French ; france, in French, 
The same rule applies to political parties, orders, 
churches, etc. The names of the days of the week 
are begun with small letters. 



Order of Words 75 



ORDER OF WORDS 

Esperanto being intended for ready use by 
peoples of widely different language systems, it is 
indeed wise that it be so constructed that chang- 
ing the order of words would not, ordinarily, change 
the sense. 

La beleta infano senzorge rompts la novan ludilon, 
Senzorge rompis la beleta infano la novan ludilon. 
Beleta la infano novan la ludilon senzorge rompis. 
Ludilon la novan rompis senzorge la infano beleta. 

This sentence, 'The pretty child carelessly 
broke the new toy," cannot be erroneously trans- 
leted, whatever the word order. Although the 
order first given is preferred, the others are not 
grammatically incorrect. On the whole, however, 
the order of words in Esperanto is so nearly the 
same as in English that the student may safely 
follow, at first, his natural inclinations. The 
Esperanto style will not be at all difficult to ac- 
quire, and may be attained much more easily by 
reading good literature than by memorizing rules. 



yS , T/ie American Esperanto Book 



FOREIGN NAMES 

As rapidly as possible, all important proper 
names are being adopted into the Esperanto family 
and receiving an international spelling, Some of 
them are rendered according to sound, others ac- 
cording to meaning. Generally speaking, it would 
seem that the best Esperantists of a given nation 
are of necessity the authorities as to the spelling 
of names connected with their own land, as they 
are naturally more familiar with their origin and 
spirit. There is no apparent need of attempting 
to resolve into Esperanto the names of small towns 
and affairs of local significance, unless they con- 
tain letters not found in the Esperanto alphabet. 



EXERCISES 

The following series of exercises belongs to the 
Fundament o de Esperanto, They are a part of the 
unchangeable foundation of the language, carefully 
arranged by Dr. Zamenhof , author of Esperanto. 
The compiler of this book has added the transla- 
tions and comment, with an occasional explanatory 
word accompanying the vocabularies. 

The learner may begin the study of the Exer- 
cises without going at length into the foregoing 
discussion of the Grammar, but will find the latter 
useful for reference and review. 

How to Study 

^ Persons studying in classes will devise methods 
adapted to their needs and convenience, but to the 
person studying alone a few suggestions may prove 
of value. Go over carefully, all least twice, all 
that is said herein on pronunciation. Then take 
up, in their order, the Exercises. 

Pronounce the words aloud, for this will help 
to familiarize the sense of hearings though you hear 
only your own voice ; you will thus be able to con- 
verse with the first Esperantist whom you meet. 

Memorize each vocabulary as you proceed. A 
good plan is to memorize also the names of famil- 



78 Amc7'ican Esperanto B. 



00 



Jy 



iar objects seen every day, 2«,nd form sentences 
addressed to or about them as you see them. 
Learn to name them in Esperanto at sight. 

When you have finished the Exercises, subscribe 
to at least one Esperanto journal, where you will 
find announcements concerning a great assortment 
of books, as well as addresses of persons who wish 
to correspond in the language. 



EXERCISE 1 

Before attempting this Exercise, please read 
very carefully Page 7 and those following, on pro- 
nunciation. So many persons have asked that this 
book contain keyed words showing pronunciation 
that this is attempted here. The student must 
realize that the puzzling added consonants are 
frequently inserted only to certify the vowel sound; 
and especially note that eh signifies a sound be- 
tween long a and short e. The accented syllable, 
marked ' , is always the one next to the last. 



Al. Ba'-lo. Nu-bo. Ce'-lo. Ci-tro'-no. 

ahl bah-lo noo-bo tse-lo tsee-tro-no 

Sen'-to. Sci'-o. Co'-lo. Ko'-lo. O-fi-ci'-ro. 

tsehn-to stsee-o tso-lo ko-lo oh-fee-tsee-ro 

Fa-ci'-la. La'-ca. Pa-cu-lo. Car. Ce-mi'zo. 

fah-tsee-lah lah-tsah pah-tsoo-lo char cheh-mee-zo 

Ci-ka'-no. Ci-e'-lo. Cu. Fe-li'-ea. Ci'-a. Ci'-a. 

chee-kah-no chee-eh-lo choo feh-lee-chah tsee-ah chee-ah 



Exercises 79 

Pro-ce'-so. Sen-6e'sa. Ec. E^. Ek. Da. Lu'-do. 
pro-tseh-so sehn-cheh-sah ehts ehch ehk dah loo-do 

Den'-to. Plen'-di. El. En. De. Te'-ni. Sen. 
dehn-to plehn-dee ehl ehn deh teh-ni. sehn 

Ve'-ro. Fa'-li. Fi-de'-la. Tra'-fi. Ga'-lo. Gran'- 
veh-ro. fah-lee fee-deh-lah trah-fee. gah-lo grahn- 

da. Gen'-to. Gip'-so. Gus'-to. Le'-gi. Pa'-go. 
dah gehn-to geep-so goos-to leh-gee pah-go 

Pa'-go. Le'-go. Cis. Cus'-ta. Re'-gi. Car-de'-no. 
pah-jo leh-jo jees joos-tah reh-jee jar-deh-no 

Lon'-ga. Reg'-no. Sig'-ni. Gvar-di'-o. Lin'-gvo. 
lohn-gah rehg-no seeg-nee gvar-dee-o leen-gvo 

6u-a'-do. Ha'-ro. Hi-run'-do. Ha'-ki. Ne-he'-la. 
joo-ah-do hah-ro hee-roon-do hah-kee ne-heh-lah 

Pac-ho'-ro. Ses-ho'ra. Bat-hu'-fo. Ho'-ro. Ho'-ro. 
pahts-hoh-ro sehs-hoh-rah baht-hoo-fo hoh-ro Wio-xo 

Ko-le' ro. Ho-le'-ro. He-mi'-o. I-mi'-ti. Fi'-lo. 
koh-leh-ro h/^o-leh-ro h^e-mee-o ee-mee-tee fee-lo 

Bir'-do. Tro'-vi. Prin-tem'-po. Min. Fo-ir'o. 
beer-do troh-vee preen-tehm-po meen foh-ee-ro 

Fe-i'-no. I'-el. I'-am. In. Jam. Ju. Jes. Ju- 
feh-ee-noo ee-ehl ee-ahm een yahm yoo yehs yoo- 

ris'-to. Kra-jo'-no. Ma-jes'-ta. Tuj. Do'-moj. 
rees-to krah-yo-no mah-yehs-tah tooy doh-moy 

Ru-i'-no. Pruj'-no. Ba-la'-i. Pa'-laj. De-i'-no. 
roo-ee-no prooy-no bah-lah-ee pah-ligh deh-ee-no 

Vej'-no. Pe-re'-i. Mal'-plej. ' Jus'-ta. Jus. Je'-ti. 
vay-no peh-reh-ee mahl-play zhoos-tah zhoos zheh-tee 

Ja-lu'-za. Jur-na'-lo. Ma'-jo. Bo-na'-Jo. Ka'-po. 
zhah-loo-zah zhoor-nah-lo mah-yo bo-nah-zho kah-po 



8o The American Esperanto Book 

Ma-ku'-lo. Kes'-to. Su-ke'-ro. Ak'-vo. Ko-ke'-to. 
ma-koo-lo kehs-to soo-keh-ro ahk-vo ko-keh-to 

Li-kvo'-ro. Pac-ka'-po. 
lee-kvo-ro pahts-kah-po 



EXERCISE 3^ 

La'-vi. Le-vi'lo. Pa-ro'-li. Mem. Im-pli'-ki. 

Em-ba-ra'-so. No'-mo. In-di-fe-ren'-ta. In-ter-na- 

ci'-a. 01. He-ro'-i. He-ro-i'-no. Foj'-no. Pi'-a. 

Pal'-pi. Ri-pe'-ti. Ar-ba'-ro. Sa'ma. Sta'ri. 

Si-ge'-lo. Sis-te'-mo. Pe-si'-lo. Pe-zi'-lo. Sen'-ti. 

So-fis'mo. Ci-pre'-so. Si. Pa'-§o. Sta'-lo. Sta'-lo. 

Veg'-to. Ves'-to. Dis-§i'ri. San-ce'-li. Ta-pi'-§o. 
vehsh-to vehss-to. dees-shee-ree shahn-tseh-lee ta-pee-sho 

Te-o-ri'-o. Pa-ten -to. U-ti'-la. Un'-go. Plu'-mo. 

Tu-mul'to. Plu. Lu'-i. Ki'-u. Ba-la'-u. Tra-u'- 

lo. Pe-re'-u. Ne-u'-lo. Frau-lo. Pau-li'-no. 

Laii'-di. Eii-ro'-po Tro-u'zi. Ho-di'-aii. Va'-na. 
lahw-di ehw-roh-po tro-oo-zee hoh-dee-ow vah-nah 

Ver'so. Sol'-vi. Zor'-gi. Ze-ni'to. Zo-o-lo-gi-o. 

A-ze'no. Me-zu'-ro. Na'-zo. Tre-zo'-ro. Mez- 

nok'to. Zu'-mo. Su'-mo. Zo'-no. So'-no. Pe'-zo. 



*One of the numbered sections of the Ekzercaro is omitted 
here, the matter being found in the beginning of this book. 



Exercises 8i 

Pe'-co. Pe'-so. Ne-ni'-o. A-di'au. Fi-zi'-ko. 
Ge-o-gra-fi'-o. Spi-ri'to. Lip-ha'ro. In-dig-'ni. 
Ne-ni'-el. Spe-gu'-lo. Spi'-no. Ne'-i. Re'-e. He- 
ro'-o. Kon-sci'-i. Tra-e-te'-ra. He-ro-e'-to. Lu'-e. 
Mo'-le. Pa -le. Tra-i'-re. Pa-si'-e. Me-ti'-o. In- 
ge-ni-e'-ro. In-sek'-to. Re-ser'-vi. Re-zer-vi. 



EXERCISE 4 

Pronounce carefully the following words, giving 
attention to the division into syllables, which is 
not marked. Always speak slowly and clearly, 
never slurring a sound or leaving a letter * silent' ^ 

Citrono. Cento. Sceno. Scio. Balau. Sanceli. 
Neniel. Embaraso. Zoologio. Reservi. Traire. 
Hodiaii. Dis§iri. Ne-u-lo. Majesta. Packapo. 
Heroino. Pezo. Internacia. Seshora. Cipreso. 
Stalo. Feino. Plu. Sukero. Gento. Indigni. 
Sigelo. Krajono. Ruino. Pesilo. Lipharo. Me- 
tio. Cardeno. Sono, Laiidi. Pale, Facila. In- 
sekto. Kiu. Zorgi. Cikano. Traetera. Sofismo. 
Domoj. Spino. Majo. Signi. Ec. Bonajo. Legi, 
lel. Juristo, Cielo. 



82 The A^nerican Esperanto Book 



EXERCISE 5 

^2Xro^ father, kolombo, dove, 

kaj, a7id, birdo, bird. 

frato, brother, aparteni, to belong to, 

leono, lion, al, to, 

esti, to be, suno, sun. 

besto, beast brili, to shine, 

rozo, rose, sana, well, healthy, 

fioro, flower, tajloro, tailor. 

la, the (definite article). 

o, substantive (noun) ending. 

a, adjective ending 

as, verb ending, present tense. 

^ Patro kaj frato. ^ Leono estas besto. 'Rozo 
estas floro kaj kolombo estas birdo. * La rozo 
apartenas al Teodoro. ^ La suno brilas. * La ^ patro 
estas sana. ^La^ patro estas tajloro.^ 

^The use of la here signifies a definite father; the father of 
whom we have been speaking; my father, your father, etc. 

^After esti in all its forms the noun is nominative. 



TRANSLATION 5 

^ A father and a brother. ^ A lion is a beast. 
'A rose is a flower, and a dove (or pigeon) is a 
bird. * The rose belongs to Theodore. ^ The sun 
shines. ^ (The) father is healthy. ^ (The) father 
is a tailor. 



The American Esperanto Book 83 



EXERCISE 6 



infano, child. ne, not, 

matura, mature, ripe, homo, man (general 
jam, already, for human being). 

plori, to mourn, weep, Cielo, heaven, sky, 

blua, blue, kie, where, 

libro, book, krajono, pencil, 

sur, on, upon, tablo, table, 

ku§i, to lie Gi^^)» fenestro, window, 

plumo, pen ^ jen, lo, behold 

pomo, apple, kiu, who, 

mi, /. trovi, to find, 

tero, earth. §tono, stone, 

n, ending of accusative (objective). 

is, verb ending, past tense. 

^ Infano ne ^ estas matura homo ^. ^ La infano 
jam ^ ne ploras. ^ La Cielo estas blua. * Kie estas la 



'^In Esperanto, the negative word precedes the verb, and 
usually precedes other words to which it belongs, though not 
always: tute ne=wo/ quite; certe n^-=^certainly not. 

^Homo, a human being, man in general; Vixo^ama?!; virino, 
a zvomaji. 

^Jam nQ=already not. Jam is used v/ith much greater fre- 
quency than the word already in English, and it is Vvell for 
the student carefully to study the sense wherever it is found. 



84 The American Espera7ito Book 

libro kaj lakrajono? ^Lalibro estas sur^ la tablo 
kaj la krajono ku§as sur la fenestro. ^ Sur la fen- 
estro ku§as krajono kaj plumo. ^ Jen ^ estas porno. 
^ Jen estas la porno, kiun ^ mi trovis. ^ Sur la tero 
ku§as §tono. 

*^See, in list of prepositions, the uses of sur. Esperanto 
prepositions require careful study. 

^Jen means behold. It translates with equal precision the 
English phrases here is and yonder is. 

^Kiun is here in the accusative (objective) case, being the 
object of trovis. Fomo is the subject of estas, which (See 
Note b. Exercise 5) cannot be followed by an accusative. To 
understand precisely why kiun is accusative, let us remember 
that it is a pronoun and stands for porno. If we render the 
sentence Jen estas porno, pomon mi trovis, the reason for the 
accusative becomes clearer. Kiu is frequently thus placed in 
accusative by verbs which follow it. 

TRANSLATION 6 

^ A child is not a mature man. ^The child no 
longer (already not) cries. ^ The sky is blue. 
^ Where are the book and the pencil? ^The book is 
upon the table and the pencil lies upon the window. 
^ Upon the window lie a pencil and a pen. '^ Here 
is an apple. ^ Here is the apple which I found. 
^ On the ground lies a stone. 



American Esperanto Book ^^ 



EXERCISE 7 

forta, strong, dento, tooth. 

de, of, by, from, akra, sharp, 

doni^ give. mano, hand, 

vidi, to see, resti, to stay^ remain, 

kun, with, dangero, danger, 

kuraga, brave ^ daring, rajdi, to ride, 

paroli, to speak, pri, about, concerning, 

j, sign of the plural. 

e, adverb ending. 

i, verb ending, infinitive mode. 

u, verb ending, imperative mode. 

* Leono estas forta. ^ La dentoj de leono estas 
akraj^. ^Al leono ne donu la manon. * Mi vidas 
leonon. ^ Resti ^ kun leono estas dangere^. * Kiu 
kuragas rajdi sur leono? '^ Mi parolas pri leono. 

"Observe that the adjective, akraj, is in the plural form, as 
the noun to which it refers is plural. 

*^Infinitive verb; has no subject, no tense or time of action. 
For any person, at any time, to stay with a lion, is dangerous. 

°Here, the word dangere takes the adverbial form (ending 
e) not because it is adverbial in sense, to be translated dan- 
gerously, but because it has no noun, the subject of this 
sentence being the verb, resti. Should we say leono estas 
dangera, the adjective form would be used. 

TRANSLATION 7 

^A lion is strong. ^The teeth of a lion are 
sharp. ^ Do not give your hand to a lion. * I see 
a lion. ^ To remain with a lion is dangerous. 
*Who dares to ride on a lion? ^I am speaking 
about a lion. 



S6 



American Esperanto Book 



EXERCISE 8 



bona, good, 
diri, to say, 
diligenta, diligent, 
veni, to come, 
filo, son, 

apud, near^ close by, 
koni^ to know (to be 
acquainted with). 
per, by ineans of, 
flari, to smell. 
antau, before, 
arbo, tree. 



Capelo, hat, 
ke, that (conjunction), 
ami, to love, 
kune, together, 
stari, to stand, 
pur a, clean, pure, 
pa no, bread, 
mangi, to eat, 
bu§0, mouth, 
nazo, nose, 
domo, house. 
eambro, room. 



* La * patro estas bona. ^ Jen ku§as la Capelo de 
la patro. ^ Diru al ^ la patro, ke mi estas diligenta. 
* Mi amas la patron. ^ Venu kune^ kun la patro. 
^ La filo staras apud la patro. ^La mano de Johano 
estas pura. ^Mi konas Johanon. ^Ludovicko, donu 
al ^ mi panon. ^^ Mi mangas per la bu§o kaj flaras 
per® la nazo. ^^ Anta(i la domo staras arbo. ^^ La 
patro estas en la Cambro. 

^See Note a, Exercise 5. 

^Diru al= Tell to. The preposition al is used in expressions 
such as speak to, reco7i?zt to, etc. 



American Esperanto Book 87 

^'Kune \i\in== Together with. Here, a word is repeated with 
no apparent purpose other than that of emphasis. This is 
often done with prepositions, especially in connection with 
verbs^ See Note c, Exercise 31. 

<^Note again that the preposition is followed by the nomina- 
tive case. Literally, this would read give to Thread, 'Panon 
is in the accusative case from the verb. donu. 

®Find, on Page 54, the proper uses of per. 



TRANSLATION 8 

* (The) father is good. ^ Here lies father's hat. 
^Tell (to the) father that I am industrious. *I 
love (the) father. ^ Come with your father. ® The 
son stands near the father. ^ John's hand is clean. 
^ I know John. ^Ludovick, give me [some] bread. 
^^ I eat with the [my] mouth and smell with the 
[my] nose. " Before the house stands a tree. 
^''^The [my] father is in the room. 



It is suggested that the student review the pre- 
ceding exercises, read again all that is said about 
sounds and pronunciation in the beginning of this 
book and test his pronunciation by tne rules. It 
is much easier to correct errors before they shall 
have become habits. 



88 



American Esperanto Book 



EXERCISE 9 



flugi, to fly, 
agrabla, agreeable, 
6ar, because, for, 
voli, to wish, to will, 
knabo, boy, 
peli, pursue, chase out, 
okulo, eye, 
orelo, ear. 
tial, therefore, 
ricevi, to get, obtain, 
iri, to go, 
onklo, uncle. 
sed, but. 



kanti, to sing, 
akvo, water, 
ili, they, 
trinki, to drink, 
ior, forth, out. 
ni, we. 
audi, to hear, 
lerni, to learn, 
bati, to beat. 
avo, grandfather. 
nun, now. 
legi, to read. 
li, he. 



letero, letter (missive) litero, letter(^d^,h,c, etc.) 
skribi, to write. 



^La birdoj flugas. ^La kanto de^la birdoj 
estas agrabla. ^ Donu al la birdoj akvon, Car ili 
volas trinki. * La knabo forpelis^ la birdojn^ ^Ni 
vidas per la okuloj kaj aiidasper la oreloj. ^Bonaj 
infanoj lernas diligente. ''Aleksandro ne volas 
lerni, kaj tial mi batas Aleksandron. * De la patro 
mi ricevis libron, kaj de^la frato mi ricevis plu- 
mon. * Mi venas de la avo, kaj mi iras nun al la 



American Esperanto Book 89 

onklo. ^^Milegas libron. "La patro ne legas 
libron, sed li skribas ® leteron. 

*The article here is used in a sense not known to English. 
It refers to birds generally — the song of birds. La is used 
with the plural form in speaking of a species or race: La 
birdoj, birds in general; la homoj, mankind in general. Of 
a science or trade, we use the singular form, with the article: 
Science^ la science; medicine, la medicino. 

^A preposition may thus be joined to any verb, modifying 
its meaning: Iri, to go; foriri, to leave, to go away; eniri, 
to entex, to go into; preteriri, to go fast. 

^'The sign of the accusative case follows that of the plural. 

•^De is translated by several English prepositions. See exam- 
ples of da and de, Page 50. 

^Skribas may be translated writes or is writing, according 
to sense. See The Verb, Indicative Mode. 

TRANSLATION 9 

^ Birds fly. ^The song of birds is pleasing. 
' Give the birds water, as they wish to drink. *The 
boy drove away the birds. ^We see with (by 
means of) the eyes and hear with the ears. * Good 
children learn diligently, ^Alexander does not 
want to learn, and therefore I beat Alexander. 
^ From the [my] father I received a book, and 
from the [my] brother I received a pen. ^ I come 
from the [my] grandfather and am going now to 
the [my] uncle. ^^ I am reading a book. ^^ Father 
is not reading a book, but he is writing a letter. 



po 



The American Esperanto Book 



EXERCISE 10 



papero, paper. 
kajero, copy-book, 
fraulo, unmarried man, 
dol6a, sweet. 
mia, my, 
bela, beautiful, 
obstina, obstinate, 
vi, you, 

sinjoro, sir^ Mr, 
goji, to rejoice. 



blanka, whitc^ 
juna, young, 
fraulino, Miss. 
rakonti, to tell^ relate, 
amiko, friend. 
historic, story^ history, 
deziri, to desire, 
tago, day, 
mateno, morning, 
festi, to make a festival. 



kia, what kind, what a, hodiau, today. 



en, Z7i. 

nokto, night, 
pala, pale. 
stelo, star. 
pli, more, 
Rutri, to nourish, 
vino, wine. 
ivQ^Qi, fresh, 
q\, from, out from, 
plej, most. 
tiel, thus, so, 
kiel, as, how, 

saga, wise, 

in, suffix of the feminine. 

mal, prefix of contrary, opposite 



hela, clear, glaring, 
nokto, night. 
luno, moon. 
nego, snow, 
lakto, ??tilk, 
ol, than, 
havi, to have, 
erari, to err, 
tiM, each, every one, 
ciuj, all. 
si, oneself, 
sia, one'^s. 



Exe7^cis€S 9 1 

^ Papero estas blanka. ^ Blanka papero ku§as 
sur la tablo. ^ La blanka papero jam ^ ne ku§as sur 
la tablo. * Jen estas la kajero de^ la juna fraulino. 
^La patro donis al mi dolCan pomon. '^ Rakontu 
aP mia juna amiko belan historion. ^ Mi ne amas 
obstinajn^ homojn. ^ Mi deziras al vi bonan tagon, 
sinjoro ! ^ Bonan matenon ® 1 ^^ Cojan feston ! (mi 
deziras al vi). ^^ Kia goja festo I (estas hodiau). 
*^ Sur la Cielo staras la bela suno. ^^ En la tago ni 
vidas la helan sunon, kaj en* la nokto ni vidas la 
palan lunon kaj la belajn stelojn. ^* La papero estas 
tre blanka, sed la ^ ne Jo estas pli blanka. ^^ Lakto 
estas pli nutra, ol vino. ^* Mi havas pli ^ fre§an 
panon, ol vi. ^^Ne, vi eraras, sinjoro ; via pano 
estas malpli fre§a, ol mia. ^^ El ^ 6iuj miaj infanoj 
Ernesto estas la plej juna. ^^ Mi estas tiel forta, 
kieP vi. ^^ El Ciuj siaj ^ fratoj Antono estas la mal- 
plej saga. 

*See Note c, Exercise 6. 

^Esperanto nouns form the possessive case with the help of 
the preposition de: La libro de la knabo=7'^^^oy5 hook. 

*^Imperative mode, signifying, here, a command or request. 
This mode has other uses. See Page 34. 

*^ Adjectives agree with their nouns in number and case. 
There is an exception — see The Adjective. 

®Bonan matenon is accusative here, the verb being omitted, 
but understood. Mi deziras al vi bonan matenon=/ zt//^^ you 
good morning. Bonan tagon!=6'ooc? day I 



92 The American Espe7'anto Book 

^As in English, this preposition may be en {in) or dum 
{during). 

^See Note a, Exercise g. 

^See Comparison, Page 25. 

^El means of, out of , from among. 

^Tiel kiel. These are correlative words, the first being 

demonstrative and the second relative. They are translated 
as as, so as, etc. 

^For full explanation of the uses of si, sin, sia, see Reflexive 
Pronoun, Page 27, and also examples in Exercise 18. 



TRANSLATION 10 

^ Paper is white. ^ White paper lies upon the 
table. ^ The white paper no longer lies upon the 
table. * Here is the young lady's copy-book. 
^ Father gave me a sweet apple. ^ Tell my young 
friend a pretty story. 'I do not like obstinate people. 
^ I wish you good day, sir I ^ Good morning 1 ^^A 
joyous festival I (I wish you). ^^ What a joyous 
festival! (there is today). ^^ In (on) the sky 
stands the beautiful sun. ^^ In the day we see the 
bright sun, and at night we see the pale moon and 
beautiful stars. ^* Paper is very white, but snow 
is whiter. ^^ Milk is more nourishing than wine. 
^^ I have fresher bread than you. ^^ No, you are 
wrong,' sir; your bread is less fresh than mine. 
^^ Of all my children, Ernest is the youngest. ^^ I 
am as strong as you. ^^ Of all his [the] brothers, 
Anthony is the least wise. 



Exercises 93 

EXERCISE 11 

it\no^ fairy, unUy one. 

vidvo, widower, du, two* 

simila, like, similar. karaktero, character. 
vizato, face. povi, can, to be able, 

pensi, to think, ambau, both. 

fiera, proud, oni, one, people, they, 

vivi, to live, plena, full, complete, 

portreto, portrait, laii, according to, 

honesta, honest, krom, besides, 

ec, suffix denoting abstract quality: 
bona, good; boneco, goodness. 

Iu2l Feino 

^ Unu * vidvino havis du filinojn. 'La pli mal- 
juna estis tiel simila al la patrino per sia karaktero 
kaj vizago, ke t\\x, kiu §in vidis, povis pensi, ke li 



^Unu here is not an indefinite article, neither is it precisely- 
definite. In Exercise 12, Sentence 5, we have: El §iaj mul- 
taj infanoj, unuj estas bonaj=<9/" her many children, some 
[certain ones] are good. The good children receive more or 
less of definite identification from unuj. 



94 Aifierican Esperanto Book 

vidas la patrinon ; ili ambau estis tiel malagrablaj^ 
kaj tiel fieraj, ke oni ne povis vivi kun ili. ^La 
pli juna filino, kiu estis la plena portreto de sia 
patro laii sia boneco kaj honesteco, estis krom tio 
unu el la plej belaj knabinoj, kiujn oni povis trovi. 

*^Mal always confers a directly opposite meaning. Although 
the more agreeable idea is usually expressed by the root word 
and the opposite by means of mal, it has no significance of 
bad: Alta, high, malalta, lozv; forta, strong, malforta, weak. 



TRANSLATION 11 

^ A certain widow had two daughters. 'The 
older was so like her mother in character and face 
that every one who saw her might think that he 
saw (sees) the mother ;^ they were both so dis- 
agreeable and proud that one could not live with 
them. ^ The younger daughter, who was the exact 
image of her father in her goodness and honesty, 
was, in addition to that, one of the most beautiful 
girls that one could find. 



Exercises 



95 



EXERCISE 12 



multe, much. 
nur, only, 
tri, three, 
cio, everything', 
fingro, finger, 
kvin, five, 
kvar, four, 
mil, thousand, 
nau, ;^/;^^. 
minuto, minute. 



fari, /^ ^(^, /^ make. 
promeni, to walk, 
hundo, a dog, 
dek, ten, 
alia, other, 
sep, seven. 
ok, ^/^/^/. 
cent, hundred. 
ses, i"/^. 
horo, ^<?^r. 



konsisti (el), consist of sekundo, second, 
JsLtiuSLTOy January. monato, month, 

Aprilo, April, jaro, year, 

Novembro, November, semajno, week. 
Decembro, December, Dio, God, 
Februaro, February 
ti, //. 

krei, to create. 
Marto, March. 

it, sign of past participle: 

am-it-e, been loved. 



elekti, choose ^ elect, 

sankta, holy, 

dato, date, 

naski, to bear, produce. 



^ Du homoj povas pli^ multe^ fari ol unu. 



'Mi 



*Pli multe ol=Literally, more much than. It should be 
remembered that pli is merely a word of comparison: Pli 
granda=/ar^^r, ''more large''; pli malgranda=5wa//(fr, 
''more sm,all." 



96 The American Esperanto Book 

havas nur unu bu§on, sed mi havas du orelojn. 
^Li promenas kun tri hundoj.' *Li faris 6ion per 
la dek fingroj de siaj^ manoj. ^El §iaj multaj 
infanoj unuj^ estas bonaj kaj aliaj estas malbonaj. 
^ Kvin kaj sep faras dek du. '^ Dek kaj dek faras 
dudek. ^ Kvar kaj dek ok faras dudek du. ^ Tri- 
dek kaj kvardek kvin faras sepdek kvin. ^^Mil okcent 
naudek tri. ^^Li havas dek unu infanojn. "^^Ses- 
dek minutoj faras unu horon, kaj unu minuto kon- 
sistas el® sesdek sekundoj. ^^Januaro estas la unua 
monato de la jaro, Aprilo estas la kvara, Novembro 
estas la dek-unua, Decembro estas la dek-dua. 
^* La dudeka (tago) de Februaro estas la kvindek- 
unua tago de la jaro. ^^ La sepan tagon de la 
semajno Dio elektis, ke gi estu^pli sankta, ol la ses 
unuaj tagoj. ^* Kion Dio kreis en la sesa tago? 
^^Kiun daton^ ni havas? ^^ Hodiau estas la dudek 
sepa tago de Marto. ^^ Georgo Va§ington estis 
naskita la dudek duan^ de Februaro de la jaro mil 
sepcent tridek dua^ 



^his use of multe is quite confusing to the beginner. The 
final e frequently has a neutral rather than an adverbial sense. 
Multaj birdoj, multo da birdoj and multe da birdoj all mean 
about the same, the adverbial form being most often used. 
This is similarly true of kelke da, which is used instead of 
kelkaj. 



Exercises 97 

<^Be sure that you understand the use of this pronoun. See 
Reflexive Fronou?i, Page 27. 

^See Note a, Exercise 11. 

^See El, Page 51. 

'Note that the imperative form is used in a subjunctive 
clause indicating purpose. See Imperative Mode, Page 34. 

^ What date have we ? Instead of How old are you ? the 
Esperanto query is What age have you ? 

^See Rules of the Grammar, XIV, Page 17. Neither sur 
{on), 6e {at) nor en (zw)expresses the sense, so we can use je 
or the accusative without a preposition. 

^The adjective ending denotes the ordinal numeral. We 
say, in English, Nineteen hundred and ^even. In Esperanto 
the sense is always The nineteen-hundred-and-seventh. 

TRANSLATION 12 

^ Two men can do more than one. ^ I have only- 
one mouth, but I have two ears. ^ He takes a walk 
with three dogs. * He did everything with the ten 
fingers of his hands. ^ Of her many children, some 
are good and others are bad. ^ Five and seven 
make twelve. ^ Ten and ten make twenty. ^ Four 
and eighteen make twenty- two. ^ Thirty and forty- 
five make seventy-five. ^^ One thousand, eight 
hundred and ninety-three. ^^ He has eleven chil- 
dren. ^^ Sixty minutes make one hour, and one 
hour consists of sixty seconds. ^^ January is the 



98 The American Esperanto Book 

first month of the year, April is the fourth, Novem- 
ber is the eleventh, December is the twelfth. ^* The 
twentieth day of February is the fifty-first day of 
the year. ^^The seventh day of the week God 
selected to be more holy than the first six days. 
^^ What did God create on the sixth day? ^^ What 
date is it (have we) today. ^^ Today is the twenty- 
seventh day of March. ^^ George Washington was 
born on the twenty-second day of February, in the 
year one thousand, seven hundred and thirty-two. 



Exercises 99 



EXERCISE 13 

daiiri, to continue, ordinara, ordinary. 

persono, a person, . tiu, that, 

varma, warm, sama, same, 

tempo, time, teruro, terror. 

kontraii, against, devi, ought, 

kuiri, to cook, labori, to labor. 

sen, without, 6esi, to cease. 

inter, between^ among, afero, affair^ matter. 

derpi, to draw. tre, very. 

proksima, near, loko, place. 

porti, to carry. kruCo, pitcher, 

ig, suffix, meaning to cause to be : pura, pure ; 
purigi, purify, 

eg, suffix of increased degree : granda, large ; 
grandega, immense, 

ej, suffix indicating the place devoted to: lerni, 
to learn ; lernejo, a school. 

ad, suffix showing continued action : spiri, to 
breathe ; spirado, breathing, 

n, sign of accusative case. 

61, denotes proximity: tie, there ; tie 6i, here''\ 
tic, that\ tic 6i, this, 

fojo, **//w^" : unu fojo, onetime^ once\ du fojoj, 
twice. 

La Feino 

(Daurigo) 
^ Car 6iu amas ordinare personon, kiu estas 
simila al li^, tial tiu t\ patrino varmege amis sian 
pii maljunrai filinon, kaj en tiu^ sama tempo §i 



loo The A77ierican Esperanto Book 

havis teruran malamon kontraii*^ la pli juna. ^ §i 
devigis §in mangi en la kuirejo kaj laboradi sen- 
Cese. ^Inter aliaj aferoj tiu 6i malfeliCa infano 
devis du fojojn*^ en 6iu tago iri 6erpi akvon en tre 
malproksima loko kaj alporti domen® plenan 
grandan kru6on. 

^Li, here, and not si, because if si were used it would refer 
to kiu, which is the subject of this clause, and again refers to 
persono, the person who is loved. In the same sentence sian 
is used because it refers to the subject of the phrase in which 
it appears. 

**Tiu sama tempo= Z'-^a/ same time, Esperanto often uses 
a demonstrative adjective or pronoun instead of la. 

^Malamon yion\x2i\x= Hatred against. In a similar sense we 
would use, in English, /"or or toward. 

<^Accusative because an implied preposition is omitted. Je 
du io]0]=For tivo times. This is also written dufoje. 

®Domen; literally, housezvardly. Again we see the ready- 
use of the adverbial form. Were the noun, domon used here 
it might mean that the poor girl, in addition to her other bur- 
dens, was carrying the house 1 Domen has the accusative end- 
ing to show direction — toward the house. See Rule XIII. 

TRANSLATION 13 
The Fairy ( Continued ) 

^ As every one ordinarily loves a person who is 
like him [self] , therefore this mother ardently loved 
her elder daughter, and at the same time she had 
a terrible hatred against the younger. ^ She com- 
pelled her to eat in the kitchen and to work inces- 
santly. ^ Among other things this unhappy child 
had to go, twice every day, to draw water in a very 
distant place, and carry home, full, a large pitcher. 



Exercises loi 



EXERCISE 14 

urbo, town, loti, to lodge ^ reside, 

aceti, to buy. au, or, 

kulero, spooji, forko, fork, 

re, back^ again, mono, money, 

danki, to thank, por, for, 

peti, request^ ask, ankau, also, 

post, after, behind, kiam, when. 

bezoni, to need, want, pagi, to pay, 
§tofo, goods, stuff. kosti, to cost. 

Ciam, always, jeti, to throw, 

venki, to conquer. pago, page, 

se, if. fini, to end, to finish, 

tuta, whole, entire, 
da, of\ used after words expressing weight or 

measure. 

prunti, to lend or borrow ; prunte doni, to give 

as a loan\ prunte preni, to take as a loan. 

ant, ending of active participle, present tense : 

amante, loving, being now loving, 

obi, ,fold\ duobla, twofold, double, 

op, suffix of collective numeral : duope, by or 

in twos ; two together, 

on, suffix of fractionals : duono, half, 

^ Mi havas cent pomojn. ^Mi havas centon^da 
pomoj. ^Tiu 6i urbo havas milionon da logantoj. 



^Centon. The cardinal numerals are not changed. When 
we say cento, milo, dekduo, etc., we have substantives, which 
take the regular case and number changes. The two forms 
are used interchangeably. Mil homoj, milo da homoj, are 
both correct. 



102 • The ^Amr.rica7i Esperanto Book 

*Mi aCetis dekduon (au dek-duon) da kuleroj kaj 
du dekduojn da forkoj. ^ Mil jaroj (au milo da 
jaroj) faras miljaron. ^ Unue mi redonas al vi la 
monon, kiun vi pruntis al mi ; due mi dankas vin 
por la prunto ; trie^ mi petas vin ankau poste 
prunti al mi, kiam mi bezonos monon. ^ Por 6iu 
tago mi ricevas kvin frankojn, sed por la hod.iaiia 
tago mi ricevis duoblan pagon, t. e. (=tio estas) 
dek frankojn. * Kvinoble^ sep estas tridek kvin. 
^Tri estas duono de ses. ^^Ok estas kvar kvinonoj 
de dek. ^^ Kvar metroj da^ tiu 6i §tofo kostas naii 
frankojn ; tial du metroj kostas kvar kaj duonon 
frankojn (au da frankoj). ^^ Unu tago estas tri- 
cent-sesdek-kvinono aii tricent-sesdek-sesono de 
jaro. ^^ Tiuj 6i du amikoj promenas Ciam duope®. 
^*Kvinope ili sin Jetis sur min, sed mi venkis la 
kvin atakantojn. ^^Por miaj kvarinfanoj mi aSetis 
dek du pomojn, kaj al 6iu el la infanoj mi donis po' 
tri pomoj. ^^ Tiu t\ libro havas sesdek pagojn ; 
tial, se mi legos^ en Ciu tago po dek kvin pagoj, 
mi finos la tutan libron en kvar tagoj. 

^Note the addition of e to form adverbial ordinals: Unue, 
due, XTi&^==^ Firstly^ secondly, thirdly, 

^Suffix of multiplication, -obi-: Unuobla, single, duobla, 
double. See again the use of the adverbial ending. This has 
a neutral significance (Note b, Exercise 12). Kvinoble sep 
has a noun value and is the subject of the sentence. 



Exercises 103 

^Da. This preposition, translated of, is used with words 
indicating quantity, weight, measure, etc. See Da, De, P. 50. 

®The collective suffix cf Esperanto has no exact English 
equivalent. Duope, triope=^y twos, by threes. 

^Po means at the rate of. For distinction between po and 
per, see Page 55. 

^Here, although the sentence is conditional in sense, the 
conditional mode is not used. After se, the endings as, os 
and is are frequently used. 



TRANSLATION 14 

* I have one hundred apples. ^ I have a hundred 
**of'' apples. ^ This city has a million of inhab- 
itants. ^ I bought a dozen spoons and two dozen 
forks. ^A thousand years (or, a thousand oi years) 
make a millenium. ^ First, I return to you the 
money which you lent me ; second, I thank you for 
the loan ; third, I ask you also to lend to me after- 
wards, when I shall need money. '^For each day I 
receive five francs, but for today I receive double 
pay, that is, ten francs. * Five times seven is 
thirty-five. ^ Three is half of six. ^^ Eight is four- 
fifths of ten. ^^Four meters of this material 
cost nine francs ; therefore two meters cost four 
and a half francs (or of francs^. ^^ One day is a 



I04 The American Esperanto Book 

three-hundred-and-sixty-fifth, or a three-hundred- 
and-sixty-sixth, of a year. ^^ These two friends 
always walk (two) together. " Five together they 
threw themselves upon me, but I overcame all five 
assailants. ^^For my four children I bought twelve 
apples, and to each of them I gave at the rate of 
three apples. ^^This book has sixty pages ; there- 
fore, if I read at the rate of fifteen pages every 
day, I shall finish the entire book in four days. 



Exercises 105 



EXERCISE 15 

fonto, source, ri6a, rich 

volonte, willingly. tuj, immediately, 

lavi, to wash* sub, under ^ beneath. 

teni, to hold, grasp, Oportuna, opportune. 
trankvila, quiet. soifi, to thirst. 

donaci, fnake a present, preni, to take, 
preni, to take, formo, form, 

vilago, village, gentila, polite, 

Ce, at, 
viro, a man. This word is used as a suffix to 
designate the male of animals : bovviro, kokviro. 



La Feino (Daurigo). 

* En unu^ tago, kiam §i estis apud tiu fonto, 
venis al §i malriCa virino, kiu petis §in, ke §i donu 
al §i^ trinki^. ^ **Tre volonte, mia bona,*' diris la 



*See Note a. Exercise 11. Here, in both Esperanto and 
English, we do not use 07ie in a numerical sense, but as a 
semi-definite article. 

^Five times in this sentence %\ occurs. At first, the student 
might think that si could be substituted somewhere, but observe 
that in each instance the action or thought passes from one 
person to the other : The woman came to the girl and asked 
the girl that the gtrl give a drink to the woman. 



io6 The American Esperanto Book 

bela knabino. ^ Kaj §i tuj lavis sian^ kruSon kaj 
Cerpis akvon en la plej pura loko de la fonto kaj 
alportis® al la virinon, 6iam subtenante^ la kruCon, 
por ke la virino povu trinki pli oportune. *Kiam 
la bona virino trankviligis sian soifon, §i diris al 
la knabino: **Vi estas tiel bela, tiel bona kaj tiel 
honesta, ke mi devas fari al vi donacon*' (Car tio 
ei estis feino,, kiu prenis sur sin la formon de mal- 
riCa vilaga virino, por^ vidi, kiel granda estos al 
gentileco de tiu t\ juna knabino). ^"Mi faras al 
vi donacon,'* da^rigis la feino, '*ke 6e^ 6iu vorto, 
kiun vi diros, el via bu§o eliros ati floro aii* multe- 
kosta §tono." 



^That she give her to drink. This use of the infinitive, 
though once common in the English, is now obsolete, and 
represents a peculiarity of Esperanto which the student should 
remember. 

<^Here, sian, the reflexive pronoun which always refers to 
the subject of the clause, is properly used: The ^zr/ washed 
the girl's pitcher. 

®See Note c, Exercise 8. 

* The use of the adverbial ending here supports our previous 
statements -that this frequently has a neutral significance. 
When the participle is directly qualifying it is adjectival: 
fluanta 2ikvo=Jlozving' zuater. When it is a part of the 
predicate, preceded by some form of esti, it is adjectival : 
La akvo estas fiuanta=772^ zvater is JlGzvi7ig. When, how- 
ever, it refers to the noun, yet is not connected with it in 



Exercises 107 

either of these ways, it is adverbial : Fluante, akvo sin 
purigas=(When) fioiving, water ^purifies itself. 

^ For to see, for to do, etc., are forms of expression often 
used. Per means in order to, for the purpose of. 

^ See uses of 6e, Page 49. 

* Observe use of aii 2iU=eitker or. 



TRANSLATION 15 
The Fairy (Continued) 

^ One day, when she was near the spring, there 
came to her a poor woman, who asked her that she 
give her a drink. ^**Very willingly, my good 
[woman]," said the beautiful girl. ^And she at 
once washed her pitcher and drew water in the 
cleanest place in the spring and carried [it] to the 
woman, all the time holding the pitcher, in order that 
the woman could drink more conveniently, *When 
the good woman had quieted her thirst, she said to 
the girl: **You are so beautiful, so good and so 
honest, that I must make you a gift'* (for this was 
a fairy, who had taken upon herself the form of a 
poor village woman, to see how great would be the 
politeness of this young girl). ^'*I make you a 
gift, continued the fairy, '*thatat every word which 
you say there shall come out of your mouth either 
a flower or a precious stone." 



io8 \. America7i Esperanto Book 



EXERCISE 16 

ci, thou, anstataii, instead of, 

uzi, to use, tran6i, to cut, 

ruso, a Russian, fardeno, a garden, 

voki, to call, fidela, faithful, 

vero, truth, vintro, wifiter, 

hejti, to heat, forno, stove, 

il, suffix indicating tool or instrument : tranfii, 
to cut \ tran6ilo, a knife, 

^ Mi legas*. ^Ci skribas (anstataii ci oni uzas 
ordinare vi^, ^ Li estas knabo, kaj §i estas kna- 
bino. * La tranCilo tranCas bone, Car gi estas akra. 
^Ni estas homoj. * Vi estas infanoj. ^ Hi estas 
rusoj. ^ Kie^ estas la knaboj? * Hi estas en la 
gardeno. ^^ Kie estas la knabinoj? "Hi ankaii 
estas en la gardeno. ^^ Kie estas la tranCiloj? ^^Hi 
ku§as sur la tablo. ^* Mi vokas la knabon, kaj li 
venas. ^^ Mi vokas la knabinon, kaj §i venas. 
^^La infano ploras, Car gi^ volas mangi. ^'^ La 
infanoj ploras, Car ili volas mangi. ^^ Knabo, vi 
estas negentila.^ ^^Sinjoro, vi estas negentila. 
^^Sinjoroj, vi estas negentilaj. ^^ Mia hundo, vi 
estas tre fidela. ^^ Oni® diras, ke la vero 6iam 
venkas. ^^En la vintro oni hejtas la fornojn. 
^*Kiam oni estas riCa (au ricaj) oni havas multajn^ 
amikojn. 



Exercises 109 

^■See uses of the present tense, page 30. 

^ Kie may have either an interrogatory or relative sense ; 
Iru kie gloro vin atendas=6^o zuhere glory zvaits thee. 

^'As in English, it (gi) is used with reference to a child, 
when unnecessary to specify sex. 

^Ne has only a neutral significance and does not mean, 
like mal, the direct opposite. Here, the sense is that the boy 
is not polite, though not necessarily that he is rude. 

® Oni translates the English one or they in such sentences 
as one ought, they say, etc. As the author indicates (Sentence 
24), it may be followed by a plural adjective if the sense 
requires this. Oni is always nominative, its accusative and 
possessive being reflexive, sin, sia : Oni devas sin gardi 
rilate sian reputacion= (9w^ ought to watch himself -with 
res feet to his refutation. 

'See Note 6, exercise 12. 

TRANSLATION 16 
^I am reading. ^Thou art writing — instead of 
ci (thou) we ordinarily use vi (you). ^ He is a 
boy, and she is a girl. * The knife cuts well, for 
it is sharp. ^We are men. ®You are children. 
^They are Russians. * Where are the boys? 
'They are in the garden. ^^ Where are the girls ? 
^^They also are in the garden. ^^ Where are the 
knives? ^^ They lie upon the table. ^* I call the 
boy, and he comes. ^^ I call the girl, and she 
comes ? ^^ The child cries because it wants to eat. 
^'^The children cry, because they wish to eat. 
^^ Boy, you are impolite. ^^ Sir, you are impolite. 
^^Sirs, you are impolite. ^^ My dog, you are very 
faithful. ^^ They say that truth always conquers. 
^^ In the winter they heat the stoves. ^* When one 
is rich, one has many friends. 



no The American Esperanto Book 



EXERCISE 17 

insulti, to insult. kial, why, wherefore, 

frue, early, pardoni, to forgive, 

longa, long, salti, to leap, jump, 

perlo, pearl, granda, great, large, 

diamanto, diamond, miri, to wonder, 

§ajni, to see77i, nomi, to name. 

naiva, naive, okazi, to happen, 

dum, during, while, sendi, to send, 
kapabla, capable. 



La Feino (Daiirigo ) 

^ Kiam tiu 6i bela knabino venis domen, §ia 
patrino insultis^ §in, kial §i revenis tiel malfrue de 
la fonto. ^**Pardonu al mi, patrino," diris la mal- 
felica knabino, "ke mi restis tiel longe^." ^ Kaj 
kiam §i parolis tiujn t\ vortojn, elsaltis^ el §ia bu§o 
tri rozoj, tri perloj kaj tri grandaj diamantoj. 
**^Kion mi vidasl" diris §ia patrino kun grandega 
miro. ^"Sajnas al mi, ke el §ia bu§o elsaltas perloj 
kaj diamantoj ! ^ De kio tio 6i venas, mia filino?" 
^(Tio ei estis la unua fojo, ke §i nomis §in sia 
filino). ^LamalfeliSa infano rakontis al §i naive 
Cion, kio okazis al gi, kaj, dum §i parolis, elfalis el 



Exercises 1 1 1 

§ia bu§o multego da diamantoj. * **Se estas tiel," 
diris la patrino, *^mi devas tien^ sendi mian filinon. 
^^ Marinjo, rigardu, kio eliras el la bu§o de via 
frafino, kiam §i parolas ; Su® ne estus al vi agrable 
havi tian saman kapablon? ^^ Vi devas nur iri al 
la fonto Cerpi akvon ; kaj kiam malriSa virino petos 
de vi trinki, vi donos gin al §i gentile." 

^Insultis §in kial — literally, ijisulted her why. In English 
insult would not be the proper word, though obviously the 
writer intends to express a humiliating invasion of the girl's 
dignity and "feelings." 

^Longe is adverbial, there being no noun to which it could 
be joined. If we say dum tia longa tempo, the adjective is 
of course properly used. 

*^See Note c, Exercise 8. 

<^ Accusative sign for direction. It is not proper to refer to 
words of direction as in the "accusative case," as it is seen 
that adverbs may have this ending. 

®6u {whether) is the sign of the question, when no other 
word indicates it. Kie vi Qstas? = JVhere are you? Here, 
kie indicates the question. 6u vi estas en la domo?=^r^ 
you in the house? 



TRANSLATION 17 

The Fairy ( Continued ) 

^When this beautiful girl went home, her mother 
insultingly asked (insulted) her why she returned 



112 The American Esperanto Book 

so late from the spring. ^* 'Pardon me, mother/' 
said the unhappy girl, **for staying so long." 
^And when she spoke these words [there] leaped 
from her mouth three roses, three pearls and three 
large diamonds. ***What do I see !" said her mother 
in intense wonder. ^'*It seems to me that from her 
mouth leap out pearls and diamonds! ^Whence 
(from what) comes this thing, my daughter?" 
^(This was the first time that she [had] called her 
her daughter). ^The unhappy child told her art- 
lessly all that [had] happened to her, and while 
she was speaking [there] fell out of her mouth a 
great number of diamonds. ^**If it be so," said 
the mother, *'l must send my daughter there. 
^^Molly, look what comes out of your sister's mouth 
when she speaks ; would it not be pleasing to you 
to have the same capability? ^^You need only go 
to the -Spring to draw water, and when a poor 
woman asks of you [a] to drink, you will give it 
to her politely." 



Exercises 1 1 3 



EXERCISE 18 

kuri, to run, vespero, evening, 

6u, whether, edzo, husband, 

montri, to show, nova, new. 

vesti, to clothe. mein, self. 

zorgi, care, be anxious, gardi, to watch, 

gasto, guest, akompani, accompany, 

gis, up tOy until, serci, to search, 

pupo, doll, forgesi, to forget, 
facila, easy, 

^ Li amas min, sed mi lin ne amas. ^ Mi volis 
lin bati, sed li forkuris de mi. ^Diru al mi vian 
nomon. * Ne skribu al mi tiajn longajn leterojn. 
^ Venu al mi hodiau^ vespere. ^ Mi rakontos al vi 
historion. ^ Cu^ vi diros al mi la veron? ^ La 
domo apartenas al li. ^ Li estas mia onklo, Car 
mia patro estas lia frato. ^^ Sinjoro Petro kaj lia 
edzino tre^ amas miajn infanojn ; mi ankau tre 



* Together with tomorroiv evening, yesterday morning, 
etc., Esperanto has today morning and today evening. 

^See Note e. Exercise 17. 

*^Tre, rendered very, modifies verbs directly, while in 
English we would use another adverb — very greatly, very 
much, etc. 



114 The American Esperanto Book 

amas iliajn (infanojn). '^Montru al mi vian novan 
veston. ^^ Mi amas min mem^, vi amas vin mem, 
li amas sin mem, kaj 6iu homo amas sin mem. 
^^ Mia frato diris al Stefano, ke li amas lin pli, ol si 
mem, ^* Mi zorgas pri §i tiel, kiel mi zorgas pri 
mi mem ; sed §i mem tute ne zorgas pri si® kaj 
tute sin ne gardas. ^^ Miaj fratoj havis hodiaii 
gastojn ; post la vespermango niaj fratoj eliris kun 
la gastoj el sia domo kaj akompanis ilin gis ilia 
domo. ^^ Mi jam havas mian Capelon ; nun sercu 
vi vian. ^^ Mi lavis min en mia 6ambro, kaj §i 
lavis sin en sia 6ambro. ^^ La infano serCis sian 
pupon ; mi montris al la infano, kie ku§as gia pupo. 
^^ Oni ne forgesas facile sian unuan amon. 



^Mem means self in the sense of personality, and can be 
used with the personal pronouns. 

®Here, si and sin refer back to §i : she does not care 
about herself. Examine carefully all sentences using si, sia, 
and sin, comparing them with the accompanying translations. 



TRANSLATION 18 

^ He loves me, but I do not love him. * I wished 
to beat him, but he ran away from me. ^ Tell me 
your name. *Do not write me such long letters* 



Exercises 115 

^ Come to me [my house] this evening. ^ I will 
tell you a story. ^ Will you tell me the truth? 
^ The house belongs to him. * He is my uncle, for 
my father is his brother. ^^ Mr. Peter and his wife 
love my children very much ; I also love theirs 
very much. ^^ Show me your new coat. ^^ I love 
myself, you love yourself, he loves himself, and 
every man loves himself. ^^ My brother told 
Stephen that he loves him more than himself. 
^^ I take care of her as I care for myself ; but she 
takes no care at all of herself and does not guard 
herself at all, ^^ My brothers had guests today ; 
after the evening meal our brothers went out of 
their (the brothers') house with the guests and 
accompanied them to their (the guests') house. 
^^ I already have my hat ; now you look for yours. 
^^ I washed myself in my room and she washed 
herself in her room. ^^ The child was looking for 
its doll ; I showed the child where its doll lay. 
^^ One does not easily forget one's first love. 



ii6 The American Esperanto Book 



EXERCISE 19 

murmuri, to 77iurmur, vazo, vase, 

argento, silver. apenau, scarcely, 

princo, prince, certa, certain, sure, 

speciala, special, opinio, opinion, 

koleri, to be angry, servi, to serve, 

serpento, serpent, voxio.frog, 

us, ending of verbs, conditional mode. 

ar, suffix of collective : §tupo, step ; Stuparo, 
stairs ; arbo, tree \ arbaro, forest, 

em, suffix showing a tendency or inclination: 
babili, to chatter \ babilema, talkative. 



La Feino (Daurigo) 

^'*Estus tre bele%" respondis la filino malgentile, 
**ke mi iru al la fonto I " ^ "Mi volas ke vi tien 
iru^," diris la patrino, *'kaj iru tuj." ^La filino 
iris, sed 6iam murmurante. *Si prenis la plej belan 
argentan vazon, kiu estis en la logejo. ^Apenaii §i 
venis al la fonto, §i vidis unu sinjorinon, tre ri6e 
vestitan^, kiu eliris el la arbaro kaj petis de §i trinki 
(tio 6i estis tiu sama feino, kiu prenis sur sin la 
formon kaj vestojn de princino, por vidi, kiel 



Exercises 117 

granda estos^ la malboneco detiu 6i knabino). ^**Cu 
mi venis tien 6i," diris al §i la malgentila kaj fiera 
knabino, **por doni al vi trinki? ^Certe, mi 
alportis argentan vazon speciale por tio, por® doni 
trinki al tin ti sinjorino ! ^ Mia opinio estas: prenu 
mem akvon, se vi volas trinki." * * Vi tute ne 
estas gentila, " diris la feino sen kolero. ^^'*Bone, 
Car vi estas tiel servema, mi faras al vi donacon, 
ke Ce Ciu vorto, kiun vi diros, eliros el via bu§o 
ail serpento aii rano." 



* Be sure that you understand why the adverbial form is 
used. See Note c, Exercise 7, and Adverbial Ending, P. 25. 

^Imperative mode in a subjunctive clause. See Page 34. 

^ Vestitan, though following the substantive to which it 
belongs (sinjorinon), is considered directly qualifying — a very 
richly-dressed lady. If between the substantive and participle 
there intervened any form of esti, the participle would be 
nominative. 

^Estos instead of estus. See Note ^, Exercise 14. 

*See Note h. Exercise 12. 

TRANSLATION 19 
The Fairy ( Continued ) 

^ **It would be very fine," replied the daughter 
rudely, '*for me to (that I should) go to the 



Ii8 The American Esperanto Book 

spring.'' * **I want you to go there,'' said the 
mother, **and go at once!" ^The daughter went, 
but grumbling all the time. *She took the most 
beautiful silver vase that was in the house. ^ She 
had scarcely reached the spring [when] she saw 
a lady, very richly dressed, who came out of the 
forest and asked her for a drink (this was that 
same fairy, who had taken upon herself the form 
and dress of a princess, to see how great would be 
the badness of this girl). ^"Did I come here," said 
to her the rude and proud girl, **to give you a drink? 
'^Certainly, I brought a silver vase especially (for 
that) to give a drink to this lady ! ^ My opinion is, 
take the water yourself, if you wish to drink." 
'**You are not at all polite," said the fairy, without 
anger. ^^'*Well, since you are so obliging, I make 
you the gift that at every word you (shall) say> 
from your mouth shall come either a snake or a 
frog." 



Exercises 119 



EXERCISE 20 

sidi, to sit, silenti, to be silent, 

hieraii, yesterday. renkonti, to meet. 

saluti, greets salute, sabato, Saturday, 

morgaii, tomorrow, dimanCo, Sunday, 

vendredo, Friday, lundo, Monday. 

viziti, to visit, kuzo, cousin. 

plezuro, pleasure, horlogo, clock. 

timi, to fear, dormi, to sleep, 

veki, to wake, scii, to know, 

leciono, lesson, instrui, to teach. 

puni, to punish, surda, deaf. 

muta, mute. tu§i, to touch. 

spegulo, mirror. kara, dear, 
ordoni, order^ command, babili, to chatter. 

kandelo, candle. gaja, gay, glad. 

danci, to dance. morti, to die, 
petoli, to be mischievous. 

uj, suffix indicating that which contains : ruso, 
a Russian ; Rusujo, Russia ; cigarujo, cigar-case. 



^ Nun mi legas^, vi legas kaj li legas ; ni Siuj 
legas. ^ Vi skribas, kaj la infanoj skribas ; ili tm\ 
sidas silente kaj skribas. ^ Hieraii mi renkontis 
vian filon, kaj li gentile salutis min. * Hodiaii 



^Note again the use of the simple verb, legas, where in 
English we would say am reading. 



I20 The Avierica7i Esperanto Book 

estas sabato, kaj morgaii estos dimanCo. ^ Hierau 
estis vendredo, kaj post-morgau estos lundo. 
^Antau tri tagoj^mi vizitis vian kuzon, kaj mia vizito 
faris^ al li plezuron. ^ Cu vi jam trovis vian hor- 
logon? ^Mi gin ankoraii ne serCis ; kiam mi finos 
mian laboron, mi serCos mian horlogon, sed mi 
timas, ke mi gin jam^ ne trovos. ^ Kiam mi venis 
al li, li dermis; sed mi lin vekis. ^^Se mi estus® 
sana, mi estus® feliSa. ^^Se li scius®, ke mi estas 
tie 6i, li tuj venus® al mi. ^^ Se la lernanto scius 
bone sian lecionon, la instruanto lin ne punus. 
^^ Kial vi ne respondas al mi ? ^^ Cu vi estas surda 
aii muta? ^^ Iru for 1 ^^ Infano, ne tu§u la spegu- 
lon ! ^^ Karaj infanoj, estu 6iam honestaj I ^^ Li 
venu, kaj mi pardonos al li. ^^ Ordonu al li, ke li 
ne babilu. ^^ Petu §in, ke §i sendu al mi kandelon. 
^^Ni estu^ gajaj, ni uzu bone la vivon, Car la vivo 
ne estas longa. ^^ Si volas danci. ^^ Morti pro la 
patrujo estas agrable^. ^*La infano ne Sesas 
petoli. 

^This does not mean before three days, but three days 
ago. See Antaii, Pp. 48, 49. 

*^Fari is usually translated ^o make, to do. Here, it means 
give, analogous with our English use of mahe when we say 
''make you a present." 

^ Jam, translated already, is used in this sentence where no 
such word would be required in English, and its significance 
can best be understood by a careful study of its uses in these 
Exercises. See Note c. Lesson 6. 

®Mr. Bullen, in his Standard Course of Esperanto, 
says: "This sentence should be carefully noted, as it illus- 
trates the fact that Esperanto always uses the conditional in 
-us, where a real condition or supposition (that is, that the 



Exercises 121 

fact is non-existent) is implied.'* We observe here that both 
verbs are conditional: If I zv ere healthy (but I am not) 
I should be haffy (but I am Jiot). 

^Note the various uses of the imperative in this Exercise. 
In English, the imperative is used for direct command or 
entreaty, but in Esperanto we have mi iru, ni iru, etc. 

^See Note c, Exercise 7. 

TRANSLATION 20 
^ Now I am reading, you are reading ; we are 
are all reading. ^ You are writing, and the children 
write ; they all sit silently and write. ^ Yesterday 
I met your son and he greeted me politely. * Today 
is Saturday and tomorrow will be Sunday. ^ Yes- 
terday was Friday, and the day after tomorrow 
will be Monday. ^ Three days ago I visited your 
cousin, and my visit gave him pleasure. ' Have 
you already found your clock ? ^ I have not yet 
looked for it ; when I finish my work I shall look 
for my clock, but I fear that I shall not find it. 
^ When I came to him he was sleeping, but I awoke 
him. ^^ If I were well, I should be happy. ^^If 
he knew that I am here, he would come to me at 
once. ^^ If the pupil knew his lesson well, the 
teacher would not punish him. ^^ Why do you not 
answer me ? ^* Are you deaf or dumb ? ^^ Go 
away 1 ^^ Child, do not touch the mirror 1 ^^ Dear 
children, be always honest. ^^ Let him come, and 
I will forgive him. ^* Order him not to chatter. 
^**Ask her to send me a candle. ^^Let us be joyful, 
let us use life well, for life is not long. ^^ She 
wishes to dance. ^^ To die for one's country is 
pleasant. ^* The child does not cease to be mis- 
chievous. 



122 The American Esperanto Book 



EXERCISE 21 

rimarki, remark, notice krii, to cry. 

nu ! well ! jes, yes, 

kulpa, blameable, ka§i, to hide, conceal, 

rego, king, 6asi, to hunt, 

demandi, demand, ask. sola, alone, 

pro, for the sake of, ho ! oh! 

ve ! woe! ho ve ! alas! 

ek denotes sudden or momentary action : krii, 
to cry ; ekkrii, to cry out. 



La Feino (Datirigo). 

* Apenau §ia patrino §in rimarkis, §i kriis al §i: 
*'Nu, mia filino?" ^'*Jes, patrino, '* respondis al 
§i la malgentilulino^, eljetante unu serpenton kaj 
unu ranon. ^**Ho, 6ielo!" ekkriis la patrino, 
*'kion mi vidas? *Sia fratino en Cio estas kulpa; 
mi pagos al §i por tio 6i 1 '* ^ Kaj §i tuj kuris bati 
gin. " La malfeliCa inf ano forkuris kaj ka§is sin en 
la plej proksima arbaro. '^ La filo de la rego, kiu 
revenis de 6aso, §in renkontis ; kaj, vidante, ke §i 
estas tiel bela, li demandis §in, kion §i faras^ tie 
ei tute sola, kaj pro kio t\ ploras. *^*Ho ve, 
sinjoro, mia patrino forpelis min el la domo." 



Exercises 123 

*In this wofd we have our first combination of two suffixes. 
There is no limit to the combination of these so long as the 
meaning is clear. Here, the meaning is offosit^-foUte-fer- 
son-feminine — a rude girl or woman. 

**Faras. This word is in the present tense, although the 
time referred to is past. See The Present Tense ^ Page 30. 



TRANSLATION 21 
The Fairy (Continued) 

^ Scarcely had her mother observed her [when] 
she cried to her : **Well, my daughter?'* ^*'Yes, 
mother," replied to her the rude one, throwing 
out a snake and a frog. ^*'0h heaven ! " exclaimed 
the mother, **what do I see? * Her sister is to 
blame for everything ; I will pay her for this!" 
*And she immediately ran to beat her. ^ The 
unhappy child ran away and hid herself in the 
nearest forest. ''The king's son, who was returning 
from a hunt, met her ; and observing that she was 
so beautiful, he asked her what she was (is) doing 
here all alone, and for what she was crymg. 
***Alas, sir, my mother drove me from the house." 



Review the preceding Exercises, reading aloud 
the Esperanto text. Learn to think in Esperanto, 
grasping the idea from the Esperanto word, with 
no thought of English, Memorize the ideas of the 
vocabularies, not the definitions. 



124 



The American Esperanto Book 



EXERCISE 22 



flui, to flow, 
strato, street, 
peki, to sin, 
levi, to lift, raise, 
meriti, to merit, 
pasi, to pass, 
neniu, nobody, 
savi, to save, 
lingvo, language, 
pasero, a sparrow, 
agio, eagle, 
jugi, to judge, try. 



movi, to move, 
fall, to fall, 
intenci, to intend, 
riproci, to reproach, 
mensogi, to tell a lie, 
neniam, never, 
atendi, to wait, expect, 
mondo, world, 
grava, important, grave, 
kapti, to catch, 
soldato, soldier, 
konduki, to conduct, 
tra, through. 



aresti, to arrest, 

at, sign of present passive participle 
being loved, 

int, sign of the past active participle 
having loved, 

ont, sign of future active participle : 
being about to love, 

ot, sign of future passive participle 
being about to be loved. 



amate, 



aminte, 



amonte, 



amote, 



^ Fluanta akvo estas pli pura ol akvo staranta 
senmove. ^ Promenante^ sur^ la strato, mi falis. 
^ Kiam Nikodemo batas Jozefon, tiam Nikodemo 



Exercises 125 

estas la batanto^ kaj Jozefo estas la batato. *A1 
homo, pekinta^ senintence, Dio facile pardonas. 
^Trovinte pomon, mi gin mangis. ^La falinta 
homo ne povis sin levi. ^ Ne ripro6u vian amikon, 
Car vi mem pli multe meritas ripro6on ; li estas nur 
unufoja® mensoginto, dum vi estas ankorau nun 



* Adverbial ending, because not directly connected with 
the subject. See Note/", Exercise 15. 

^Observe use of preposition sur. 

^ See Substantival Participle, Page 40. 

<^This participle is adjectival in form, not because it mod- 
ifies homo directly — an unintentionally -sinning man — but 
because it is predicative, kiu estas being omitted ; in English, 
a man zuho has sinned unintentionally. But if kiu were 
the subject of a verb other than estas, then the participle 
would stand detached, and take the adverbial ending : Al 
homo kiu, pekinte senintence, pentas, Dio facile pardonas= 
The man zvho, having sinned unintentionally, re^ent^t 
God readily pardons, 

® Literally, a one-time j^erson-who-has-lied. The person 
referred to has told a lie, therefore the past form, -into. In 
the same sentence, mensoganto is in the present form because 
it refers to some one who is a general liar ; as the person 
speaking tells him, with commendable candor, a stilly nozv, 
all-the-time liar. 



126 The America?! Esperanto Book 

6iam mensoganto. ^ La tempo pasinta^ jam neniam 
revenos ; la tempon venontan neniu ankorau konas. 
^ Venn, ni atendas vin, Savonto de la mondo. ^^En 
la lingvo '^Esperanto" ni vidas la estontan lingvon 
de la tuta mondo. ^^ Augusto estas mia plej amata 
filo. ^^Mono havata estas pli grava, ol havita. 
^^ Pasero kaptita estas pli bona, ol agio kaptota. 
^*La soldatoj kondukis la arestitojn tra la stratoj. 
^^Li venis al mi tute neatendite. ^^ Homo, kiun 
oni devas jugi, estas jugoto. 



' This meaning can be expressed : Tempo pasinta=/'as^ 
time. Tempo kiu estas pasinta= Time uuhich has passed. 
Tempo, pasinte, jam neniam revenos= Time, having passed^ 
will never return. 



TRANSLATION 22 

^ Flowing water is purer than water standing 
still. ^ While walking in the street, I fell. ^When 
Nicodemus beats Joseph, then Nicodemus is the 
beater and Joseph is the beaten. *God readily 
pardons a man who has sinned unintentionally. 
^ Having found an apple, I ate it. ^ The fallen man 
could not raise himself. ^Do not reproach your 
friend, for you yourself more deserve reproach ; he 



Exercises ' 127 

is only once a liar, while you are still, now, always 
a liar. * The past time will never return ; the 
future time no one yet knows. ®Come, we await 
you, Savior of the world. ^*^In the language 
''Esperanto" we see the future language of the 
whole world. " Augustus is my most beloved son. 
^^ Money had [now] is more important than [that 
which has] been had. ^^A sparrow caught is 
better than an eagle to be caught. ^* The soldiers 
led the arrested persons through the streets. ^^ He 
came to me quite unexpectedly. ^^ A man whom 
they have to try is the accused (person to be tried). 



The student has observed that while sometimes 
the translations of these Exercises follow the 
Esperanto text so literally as to make very poor 
English, this is not invariable; frequently the 
translation follows the thought more closely than 
the text. The student will find fewer parenthetical 
explanations as he proceeds and will rely more and 
more upon his own perceptions to grasp the spirit 
and style of Esperanto. 



laS The American Esperanto Book 

EXERCISE 23 

kelke, some, aventuro, adventure. 

konsideri, to consider, inda, worthy, valuable. 

doto, dowry, palaco, palace. 

propra, (one's) own. akcepti, to accept. 

baldaii, soon. angulo, corner, angle. 

if, to become : pala, pale ; palifi, to turn pale* 

je, indefinite preposition. See p. 53. 



La Feino (pino) 

* La regido, kiu vidis, ke el §ia bu§o eliris 
kelke^ da perloj kaj kelke da diamantoj, petis §in, 
ke §i diru al li, de kie tio 6i venas. ^ Si rakontis 
al li sian tutan aventuron. ^La regido konsideris, 
ke tia kapablo havas pli grandan indon, ol 6io, 
kion oni povus doni dote al alia fraulino, forkondu- 
kis^ §in al la palaco de sia patro, la rego, kie li 
edzigis je §i. * Sed pri §ia fratino ni povas diri, 
ke §i farigis^ tiel malaminda, ke §ia propra patrino 
§in forpelis de si ; kaj la malfeli6a knabino, multe 
kurinte kaj trovinte neniun* kiu volis §in akcepti, 
baldaii mortis en angulo de arbaro. 



Exercises 129 

*Kelke. See Note h, Exercise 12. 

^ Conducted azvay. For, with other Esperanto adverbs 
and prepositions, is often thus joined to the verb instead of 
following it. 

• Fail, to make; farifi, to become, 

TRANSLATION 23 

The Fairy ( Concluded ) 

* The prince, who saw that from her mouth 
issued some pearls and diamonds, begged her to 
tell him whence this came. ^ She told him her 
whole adventure. ' The prince considered that 
such a gift had greater value than all which one 
could give as a dowry to another maiden, [and] 
took her away to the palace of his father, the king, 
where he married her. * But concerning her sister 
we may say that she became so hateful that her 
own mother drove her away from her ; and the 
unhappy girl, having run about a great deal and 
having found no one who wished to receive her, 
soon died in a corner of the forest. 



l3'o The American Esperanto Book 



EXERCISE 24 



salono, drawing-room, 

OS, sign of future tense of verbs : amos, will 
love. 



^ Nun li diras al mi la veron. ^ Hieraii li diris 
al mi la veron. ^ Li 6iam diradis^ al mi la veron. 
*Kiam vi vidis nin en la salono, lijam antaiie diris 
al mi la veron (ati li estis dirinta al mi la veron). 
^Li diros al mi la veron. ^ Kiam vi venos al mi, li 
jam antatie diros al mi la veron (ati li estos dirinta 
al mi la veron ; aii antad^ ol vi venos al mi, li 
diros al mi la veron). ^Se mi petus lin, li dirus 
al mi la veron. ^Mi ne farus la eraron, se li 
antaiie® dirus al mi la veron (au se li estus dirinta 
al mi la veron). ^Kiam mi venos, diru al mi la 
veron. ^^ Kiam mia patro venos, diru al mi antaiie 
la veron (aii estu dirinta al mi la veron). ^^Mi 
volas diri al vi la veron. ^^Mi volas, ke tio, kion 
mi diris, estu vera (aii mi volas esti dirinta la 
veron). 



Exercises 131 

^ Diri, to say; ad, suffix of continued action ; diradas, 
continues to say, to tell. 

^ Antaii ol, before than. See Page 49. 

^^ Observe that the conditional, or -us mood, has no time. 
Here, the past tense is inferred from antaiie. 



TRANSLATION 24 

^ Now he tells me the truth. ^ Yesterday he 
told me the truth. ^ He always tells me the truth. 
*When you saw us in the drawing-room he had 
already (previously) told me the truth. ^ He will 
tell me the truth. * When you come to me he will 
previously have told me the truth (or he will have 
told me the truth ; or, before you come to me he 
will tell me the truth). '^ If I should ask him, he 
would tell me the truth. * I should not have made 
the mistake if he had previously told me the truth. 
^When I shall come, tell me the truth. /® When 
my father comes, tell me (previously) the truth. 
" I wish to tell you the truth. ^^ I wish that what 
I said be true (or, I wish to have told the truth). 



In connection wifh this Exercise the student 
should review the conjugations of the Infinitive, 
Imperative and Conditional modes. See pp. 32-35. 



132 The American Esperanto Book 



EXERCISE 25 

inviti, to invite. komerci, to trade, 

sekvi, to follow* konstrui, to construct. 

§uldi, to owe. oro, gold, 

ringo, ring. lerta, skillful. 

projekto, project. ingeniero, engineer. 

fero, iron, vojo, road, way. 

agi, to act. pastro, priest, pastor, 

kameno, fire-place. poto, pot. 

kaldrono, kettle. boli, to boil. 

vaporo, steam, pordo, door. 

korto, yard, court. 

a5, something made from or possessing the qual- 
ity of; malnova, old\ malnovajo, an old thing-, 
frukto, fruit ; fruktajo, something made from fruit. 



^ Mi estas amata. ^ Mi estis amata. ^ Mi estos 
amata. ^ Mi estus^ amata. ^ Estu amata. * Esti 
amata. ^ Vi estas lavita. ^ Vi estis lavita. * Vi 
estos lavita. ^^ Vi estus^ lavita. ^^Estu lavita. 
^^Esti lavita. ^^ Li estas invitota. ^* Li estis 
invitota. ^^ Li estos invitota. ^^ Li estus^ invitota. 
^^ Estu invitota. ^^ Esti invitota. ^^ Tiu 6i komer- 
cajo estas 6iam volonte aCetata^ de mi. ^^La 
surtuto estas aSetita de mi, sekve gi apartenas al 
mi. ^^ Kiam via domo estis konstruata, mia domo 
estis jam longe konstruita. ^^ Mi sciigas, ke c^e 



Exercises 133 

nun la §uldoj de mia filo ne estos pagataj de mi. 
^^ Estu trankvila ; mia tuta §uldo estos pagita al 
vi baldaii. ^^ Mia ora ringo ne estus^ tiel longe 
serCata, se gi ne estus tiel lerte ka§ita de vi. ^^Laii 
la projekto de la ingenieroj° tiu t\ fervojo estas 
konstruota en la dauro de du jaroj ; sed mi pensas, 
ke gi estos konstruata pli ol tri jarojn*^. ^^ Honesta 
homo agas honeste. ^^ La pastro, kiu mortis antau® 
nelonge (ati antau nelonga tempo), logis longe en 
nia urbo. ^^ Cu hodiau^ estas varme au malvarme? 
^^ Sur la kameno inter du potoj staras fera kaldrono ; 
el la kaldrono, en kiu sin trovas bolanta akvo, 
eliras vaporo ; tra la fenestro, kiu sin trovas apud 
la pordo, la vaporo iras sur la korton^. 

* The use of estus in Sentences 4, 10 and 16 indicates the 
presence of a condition or contingency, though this is not 
stated, as in Sentence 24. Be careful not to translate should 
by estus where duty is expressed — use devas=ow^7i/. 

^ The passive participle is connected with the source of the 
action by de. See Rule VI, Page 15. 

^ This word means civil engineer. The word for locomo- 
tive engineer is maSinisto, or a more precise term, lokomotiv- 
isto. Fervojo {iron-zuay) is the Esperanto term for railway. 

^Do not forget that where a preposition is omitted the 
accusative case is used. Here, the absent preposition is dum. 

® Antaii nelonge is the expression usually used for not lo7ig 
2igo, a short time ago, rece^itly. 

'Hodiafi, hieraii and morgaii are not nouns, but adverbs, 
Hence the adverbial form of varme and malvarme. The 
noun form, when necessary so to speak of today, tomorrow, 
is la hodiaiia tago, la morgaiia tago. 

^Accusative to show direction. 



134 "^^^ American Esperanto Book 

TRANSLATION 25 

^ I am loved. ^ I was loved, ^ I shall be loved. 

* I should be loved [if ]. ' Be loved. ' To be 

loved. '^ You have been washed. * You had been 
washed. ^You will have been washed. ^^You 
would have been washed. " Be washed (past). 
^^ To be washed. ^^ He is to be invited. ^* He was 
to be invited. ^^ He will be (about) to be invited. 
^^ He would be (about) to be invited. ^'^ Be invited 
(future). ^^To be (about) to be invited. ^^This 
article (of commerce) is always willingly purchased 
by me. ^^ The overcoat has been bought by me , 
consequently it belongs to me. ^^ When your house 
was being built, my house had already been built 
for a long time. ^^ I make [it] known that from 
now on the debts of my son will not be paid by me. 
^^ Be at ease ; my entire debt will have been paid 
to you soon. ^* My gold ring would not be so long 
searched for if it had not been so cleverly hidden 
by you. ^^ According to the project of the engin- 
eers, this railway is to be built in the course of 
two years, but I think that it will be under con- 
struction more than three years. ^^ An honest man 
acts honestly. ^^ The priest who died recently had 
lived a long time in our city. ^^ Is it warm or cold 
today? (or, is today warm or cold?) ^^ On the 
hearth between two pots stands an iron kettle ; from 
the kettle, in which is (finds itself) boiling water, 
issues steam ; through the window, which is near 
the door, the steam goes into the yard. 



Exercises 



135 



EXERCISE 26 



ekster, outside, 
piedo, foot, 
meti, to puty place, 
muso, mouse, 
super, over^ above, 
kafo, coffee, 
sukero, sugar, 
interne, within, 
hirundo, swallow, 
rivero, river, 
atenta, attentive. 
dubi, to doubt, 
fi! fie! 



vojagi, voyage y travel, 
benko, bench, 
kanapo, sofa^ lounge, 
lito, bed, 
aero, air. 
teo, tea, 
kremo, cream, 
fianCo, betrothed person 
trans, across, 
estro, chief, 
kvankam, although, 
estimi, to esteem, 
abomeno, abomination. 



■ rapida, rapid, quick, 

et, diminution of degree or size : malvarma, 
cold\ malvarmeta, cool; ridi, to laugh\ rideti, 
to smile. 



^ Kie vi estas? ^ Mi estas en la gardeno. ^ Kien 
vi iras? *Mi iras en la gardenon. ^La birdo 
flugas en la Cambro (=ti estas en la 6ambro kaj 
flugas en gi). ^La birdo flugas en la Cambron 
(=gi estas ekster la Cambro kaj flugas nun en 
gin). ^ Mi vojagas en Hispanujo. ^ Mi vojagas 
en Hispanujon. ^ Mi sidas sur sego kaj tenas la 
piedojn sur benketo. ^° Mi metas la manon sur la 



136 The American Esperanto Book 

tablon*. ^^ El sub la kanapo la muso kuris sub la 
liton, kaj nun gi kuras sub lalito. ^^ Super la tero 
sin trovas^ aero. ^^ Anstatati kafo li donis al mi 
teon kun sukero^, sed sen kremo. ^*Mi staras 
ekster la domo, kaj li estas interne. ^^ En la salono 
estis neniu krom li kaj lia fiandno. ^^ La hirundo 
flugis trans la riveron, Car trans la rivero sin trovis 
aliaj hirundoj. ^^ Mi restas tie 6i lafi la ordono de 
mia estro. ^^ Kiam li estis t^ mi li staris tutan 
horon® apud la fenestro. ^^ Li diras, ke mi estas 
atenta. ^^Li petas, ke mi estu* atenta. ^^ Kvankam 
vi estas riCa, mi dubas, 6u^ vi estas feliCa. ^^ Se vi 
scius, kiu li estas, vi lin pli estimus. ^^Se li jam 
venis, petu lin al mi. ^* Ho, Dio 1 kion vi faras I 
'' Ha, kiel bele ! '' For de tie Ci ! '' Fi, kiel 
abomene ! ^^ Nu, iru pli rapide ! 

* I move my hand toward the table in the act of placing it 
upon the table. Hence, n for direction. Note carefully this 
sign of direction in Sentences 4, 6, 8, 10, 11, 16. 

^Observe the use of sin trovas here, as in Sentence 29, 
Exercise 25. This is often used instead of estas. A similar 
form is sin turnu al, to address oneself to, to turn to. 6iuj 
sin turnu al la redaktoro=Z^^ all address the editor. 

^Sukero here, because kun is a preposition. Without the 
preposition, it would be teon kaj sukeron. 

^ Esperanto often uses the pronoun thus : 6e Tni=At my 
Jiouse. Ce vi=At your house. 
See Note c, Exercise 25. 

' This meaning, in English, has two forms of expression — 
he asks that I be attentive, or he asks me to be attefitive. 
In Esperanto the former is invariably used. 



Exercises 137 

^Dubi in any form is followed by 6u to connect a proposi- 
tion containing a verb, and by pri when followed by a noun : 
Mi dubas 6u vi estas fidela=/ dozibt zuhether you are faith- 
ful Mi dubas pri via fideleco=/ doubt (concerning) your 
fidelity, 

TRANSLATION 26 

^ Where are you? ^I am in the garden. 
' Where are you going ? * I am going into the 
garden. ^ The bird flies in the room (it is in the 
room and flies about in it). ^Thebird flies into the 
room (it is outside the room and flies into it). "'^I 
am traveling in Spain. ^I am traveling into Spain. 
^ I sit on a chair and keep my feet upon a stool. 
^^ I place my hand upon the table. ^^ From under 
the sofa the mouse ran under the bed, and now it 
runs about under the bed. ^^ Above the earth is 
(finds itself) air. ^^ Instead of coffee he gave me 
tea with sugar, but without cream. ^* I stand out- 
side the house, and he is within. ^^ In the draw- 
ing-room was nobody except him and his fiancee. 
^^ The swallow flew across the river, because beyond 
the river were other swallows. ^' I am remaining 
here according to the orders of my chief. ^* When 
he was at my house he stood a whole hour at the 
window. ^^ He says that I am attentive. ^^ He 
asks that I be attentive. ^^ Although you are rich, 
I doubt that (whether) you are happy. ^^ If you 
knew who he is you would esteem him more. ^^ If 
he has already come, ask him to come to me. ^* Oh 
God ! what are you doing? ^^ Ah, how beautiful ! 
^^ Away from here 1 ^^ Fie, how abominable 1 ^^Well, 
go faster 1 



138 The American Esperanto Book 

EXERCISE 27 

artikolo, article. tiam, then, 

objekto, object. tia, such^ such a 

kompreni, understandt ekzemplo, example, 

polo, Pole, necesa, necessary, 

vokalo, vowel, pvG'pozicio, preposition, 

kunmeti, to compound, simpla, simple, 

ligi, to bind, radiko, root, 

soni, to sound, klara, clear, 

postuli, claim, require, gramatiko, grammar, 

nacio, nation, diversa, diverse, various 

§ipo, ship, aboni, to subscribe, 
matenmangi, to eat breakfast, 

^ La artikolo la estas uzata tiam^, kiam ni paro- 
las pri personoj aii objektoj konataj. ^ Cia uzado 
estas tia sama kiel en la aliaj lingvoj. ^La per- 
sonoj, kiuj^ ne komprenas la uzadon de la artikolo 
(ekzemple rusoj au poloj, kiuj ne scias alian ling- 
von krom sia propra) , povas en la unua tempo tute 
ne uzi la artikolon, Car ^i estas oportuna sed ne 
necesa, * Anstataii la oni povas ankaii diri l\ (sed 
nur post prepozicio, kiu finigas per vokalo). 
^ Vortoj kunmetitaj estas kreataj per simpla kun- 
ligado de vortoj ; one prenas ordinare la purajn 
radikojn, sed, se la bonsoneco au la klareco postu- 
las, oni povas ankau preni la tutan vorton, t. e., 
la radikon kune kun gia gramatika fini^o. ^Ek- 
zemploj : skribtablo aii skribotablo (tablo, sur kiu 
oni skribas) ; internacia (=kiu estas inter diversaj 
nacioj); tutmonda (de la tuta mondo); unutaga 



Exercises 1 39 

(kiu daiiras unu tagon); unuataga (kiu estas en 

la unua tago); vapor§ipo (=§ipo, kiu sin movas 

per vaporo); matenmangi, tagmangi, vespermangi; 

abonpago (=pago por la abono), 

* Observe this use of tiam ^\2Xi\=^then zvhen. In English 
we use zuhen alone, and frequently in Esperanto simply kiam. 
Tiam kiam is more definite and emphatic. 

^ Note that kiuj is plural because it represents more than 
one person. 

TRANSLATION 27 
* The article la is used when we speak of persons 
or things known. ^ Its use is the same as in the 
other languages. ^ Persons who do not understand 
the use of the article (for example Russians or 
Poles who do not know another language beside 
their own), may at first not use the article at all, 
for it is convenient but not necessary. ^Instead 
of la we can also say /' (but only after a preposi- 
tion which ends with a vowel). ^ Compound words 
are formed by simple junction of words ; we gen- 
erally take the pure roots, but if euphony or clear- 
ness demands, we can also take the whole word ; 
i. e., the root together with its grammatical ending : 
* Examples : skribtablo, or skribotablo, a table on 
which one writes ; internacia, that which exists 
between or among various nations ; tutmonda, ^ of 
the whole world ; unutaga, lasting one day ; unua- 
taga, of the first day ; vaporsipo, a ship which 
moves by steam ; matenmangi, tagman^z, vesper- 
manii, to breakfast, to dine, to eat supper ; abon- 
pago, payment for subscription. 



I40 The American Esperanto Book 



EXERCISE 28 



iam, at any time^ ever nominativo, nominative, 
akuzativo, accusative tie, there, 
dependi, to depend, kauzo, cause, 
esprimi, to express, direkti, to direct, 
celi, to aim, egala, equal, 

ia, any kind of. veturi, to journey, travel 

flanko, side, dekstra, right-hand, 

neniel, in no way, nek. . , . nek, neither, , , nor 

dis' same as the English prefix dis : semi, sow\ 
dissemi, to scatter broadcast^ disseminate. 



^ Ciuj prepozicioj per si mem postulas Ciam nur 
la nominativon. ^ Se ni iam post prepozicio uzas 
la akuzativon, la akuzativo tie dependas ne de la 
prepozicio, sed de aliaj kaiizoj. ^Ekzemple: por 
esprimi direkton, ni aldonas al la vorton la finon n\ 
sekve: tie (=en tiu loko), tien (=al tiu loko); 
tiel same ni ankau diras * *la birdo flugis en la gar- 
denon, sur la tablon," kaj la vortoj '^Jardenon,'* 
**tablon" staras tie 6i en akuzativo ne Car la pre- 
pozicioj '*en'^ kaj '*sur*' tion Si postulas, sed nur 
Car ni volas esprimi direkton, t. e. montri, ke la 



Exercises 141 

birdo ne sin trovis antaiie en la gardeno kaj tie 
flugis, sed ke gi de alia loko flugis al la gardeno, 
al la tablo (ni volas montri ke la gardeno kaj la 
tablo ne estis la loko de la flugado, sed nur la celo 
de la flugado); en tiaj okazoj ni uzas la finigon n 
tute^ egale Su ia prepozicio starus aii ne. *Morgau 
mi veturos Parizon (aii en Parizon). ^ Mi restos 
hodiau dome. ^ Jam estas tempo iri domen. '^ Ni 
disigis kaj iris en diversajn flankojn : mi iris dek- 
stren kaj li iris maldekstren. ^Flanken, sinjoro ! 
* Mi konas neniun en tin t\ urbo. ^^ Mi neniel povas 
kompreni, kion vi parolas. ^^Mi renkontis nek lin, 
nek^ lian fraton (au mi ne renkontis lin, nek lian 
fraton). 

*Egale is here used where one would expect same. 

*^Note nek nek, translated w^zVA^r nor. A similar 

form, though practically obsolete, is sometimes used in Eng- 
lish: nor voice nor sound. 



TRANSLATION 28 

^ All prepositions, in themselves, always require 
only the nominative. ^ If we ever, after a prepo- 
sition, use the accusative, the accusative there 
depends not on the preposition, but on other causes. 
• For example, to express direction, we add to the 



142 The American Esperanto Book 

word the ending n \ consequently, tie^ in that place: 
Hen, to that place; similarly, we also say **the 
bird flew into the garden, upon the table"; and the 
words **garden," **table," here stand in the accu- 
sative not because the prepositions *'in" and **on" 
require this, but only because we wish to express 
direction; i. e., to show that the bird was not 
previously in the garden and flew about there, but 
that it flew from another place into the garden, 
upon the table (we wish to show that the garden 
and table were not the place of the flying, but only 
the goal of the flight); in such cases we use the 
accusative just the same, whether any preposition 
is there or not. * Tomorrow I shall go to Paris. 
^ I shall remain in the house today, ^ It is already 
time to go home, '^We separated and went in 
different directions ; I went to the right and he 
went to the left, ^ To one side, sir ! ^ I know no 
one in this city. ^^ I can in no way understand 
what you are saying. ^^ I met neither him nor his 
brother (or, I did not meet him, nor his brother). 



p 



Exercises 143 



EXERCISE 29 



senco, sense, komuna, common. 

ebla, possible, ofte, often, 

ridi, /^ laugh, lasta, /^i"/, latest, 

sopiri, to sigh, long for, regulo, rule, 
verbo, verb, obei, to obey, 

permesi, to permit^ allow, 

^ Se ni bezonas^ uzi prepozicion, kaj la senco ne 
montras al ni, kian prepozicion uzi, tiam ni povas 
uzi la komunan prepozicion je, ^ Sed estas bone 
uzi la vorton je kiel eble pli^ malofte. ^ Anstataii 
la vorto je ni povas ankaii uzi la akuzativon sen 
prepozicio. * Mi ridas je lia naiveco ( aii mi ridas 
pro lia naiveco, a\i : mi ridas lian naivecon) 
^ Je la lasta fojo mi vidis lin 6e vi (au : la lastan 
fojon). ^ Mi veturis du tagojn kaj unu nokton. 
^ Mi sopiras je mia perdita feliSo (aii: mian perditan 
feliCon), ^ El la dirita regulo sekvas, ke se ni pri 
ia verbo ne scias, 6u gi postulas post si la akuza- 
tivon (t. e. 6u gi estas aktiva) aii ne, ni povas 



* Note indicative mode following se. The need of a prepo- 
sition is not a matter of doubt. See Note e. Exercise 20. 

** Another peculiar Esperanto form, very frequently used : 
Kiel eble plej frue, kiel eble plej bone, kiel eble plej multe. 



144 ^>^^ American Esperanto Book 

Ciam uzi la akuzativon. ^Ekzemple, ni povas diri 
*'obei al la patro" kaj **obei la patron" (anstataii 
**obei je la patro"). ^^Sedni ne uzas la akuzativon 
tiam, kiam la klareco de la senco tion 6i malper- 
mesas ; ekzemple : ni povas diri '*pardoni al la 
malamiko" kaj '*pardoni la malamikon," sed ni 
devas Ciam diri '*pardoni al la malamiko lian kul- 
pon." 



TRANSLATION 29 j 

* If we need to use a preposition and the sense 
does not show us what preposition to use, then we 
can use the common preposition je. ^ But it is 
well to use the word je as seldom as possible. 
^ Instead of the word je we can also use the accusa- 
tive without a preposition. * I laugh at his sim- 
plicity. ^ The last time I saw him at your house. 
^ I travelled two days and one night. '^ I sigh for 
my lost happiness. ^ From the said rule it follows 
that if, concerning any verb, we do not know 
whether or not it requires the accusative after it 
(i. e. whether or not it is transitive) we can always 
use the accusative. ^ For example, we can say **to 
obey 'to' the father" and "to obey the father," 
^*^But we do not use the accusative when the clearness 
of sense forbids this ; for example, we can say "to 
pardon 'to' the enemy" and "to pardon the enemy"; 
but we should always say "to pardon to the enemy 
his fault." 



Exercises 



145 



EXERCISE 30 



ia, ^y any kind. 
ial, for any cause, 
iam, at any time, ever, 
ie, anywhere. 
iel, in any way. 
ies, anyone's, 
io, anything. 
iom, ^;2!j quantity, 
iu, anybody, somebody. 



konsili, counsel, advise, 
serio, series, 
pronomo, pronoun, 
adverbo, adverb. 
rilati, to be related to, 
prefikso, prefix, 
ajn, ever. 

diferenci, to differ. 
helpi, to help. 



sufikso, suffix. 



^ la, ial, iam, ie, iel, ies, io, iom, iu, * La 
montritajn naii vortojn ni konsilas bone ellerni^, 
Sar el ili Ciu povas fari al si grandan serion da 
aliaj pronomoj kaj adverboj. ^ Se ni aldonas la 
literon k ni ricevas vortojn demandajn au rilatajn : 
kia, kial, kiam, kie, kiel, kies, kio, kiom, kiu, * Se 
ni aldonas la literon /, ni ricevas vortojn montrajn : 
tia, tial, tiam, tie, tiel, ties, tio, tio7n, tiu. ^Aldon- 



*E1, when used as a prefix, is sometimes translated thor- 
oughly, though this is not its literal sense. EUerni, to learn 
out, to study out; ellabori, to zvork out. 



146 The American Esperanto Book 

ante la literon ^ ni ricevas vortojn komunajn : 
^ia, tial, Ham, tie, tie I, ties, tio, tiom, tiu, ^Aldon- 
ante la prefikson nen ni ricevas vortojn neajn : 
nenia, nenial, neniam, nenie, neniel, nenies, nenio, 
neniom, neniu, ^Aldonante al la vortoj montraj la 
vorton ti ni ricevas montron pli proksiman ; ekzem- 
ple : tiu, pli malproksima, tiu ti (aii ti tiu) pli 
proksima ; tie, malproksime, tie ti au ti tie, prok- 
sime. ^Aldonante al la vortoj demandaj la vorton 
ajn ni ricevas vortojn sendiferencajn : kia ajn, kial 
ajny kiam aj'n, kie ajn, Mel ajn, kies ajn, kio ajn, 
kiom ajn, kiu ajn, Ekster tio el la diritaj vortoj ni 
povas ankorafi fari aliajn vortojn, per helpo de 
gramatikaj finigoj kaj aliaj vortoj (sufiksoj) ; ek- 
zemple : tiama, tiama, kioma, tiea, ti-tiea, tieulo, 
tiamulo, k. t. p. (=kaj tiel plu). 



In connection with this lesson, the student should review 
what is said of Correlative Words, pp. 70-73. A few explana- 
tions are added here : 



Tia is the demonstrative of quality, translated that, such a, 
such kind. With the relative, kia, it translates such as. 
Also, it is used as a demonstrative article, in the sense of the 
for the purpose of giving added force, just as unu is similarly 
used in a less definite sense. (See Note a. Exercise 11). 
In this sense, it loses its significance of quality, and may be 
followed by kiel, the relative of manner. In Exercise 27, 



Exercises 147 

Sentence 2, we have tia sama kiel, which is correct, because 
tia means the. But we must not say tia bona kiel, the sense 
here being as good as, and the correct form tiel bona kick 

Id, tio, kio, 6io, nenio. These all refer to objects and are 
not used as modifying words, They indicate the thing itself. 
Kio estas tio? Nenio=?^Aa/ is thai? Nothing. But if we 
wish to use the correlatives as modifying words, we say : la 
biTdo= Any kind of bird. 6iuj birdoj=^// birds. 

6iu means each, or every, but does not mean all, as do 
6iam, 6ie, 6iel, 6iom, etc. lu and the other four words of 
this series express individuality, but refer, when not otherwise 
specified, to persons. Hence, to express plurals, 6iuj, kiuj, 
tiuj are the correct forms. 



TRANSLATION 30 

^ Some kind, for some reason, some time, some- 
where, somehow, somebody's, something, some 
quantity, somebody. ■ ^ The nine words shown we 
advise [the student] to learn thoroughly, because 
from them everyone can make for himself a large 
series of other pronouns and adverbs. ^If we add 
to them [as a prefix] the letter k^ we obtain inter- 
rogative or relative words : what kind, why, when, 
where, how, whose, what (thing), how much, whp. 
If we add the letter / we get demonstrative words : 
such, therefore, then, there, thus, that person's, 



148 The American Esperanto Book 

that, that much, that person. ^Adding the letter t 
we get collective words : each and every kind, for 
every reason, always, everywhere, in every way, 
everybody's, everything, all, everyone. ® Adding 
the prefix nen, we obtain negative words : no such, 
for no reason, never, nowhere, nohow, no one's, 
nothing, none, nobody. 'Adding to the demon- 
strative words the word ^/, we obtain a meaning of 
proximity ; for example : tiu, that, tin ^/, this ; 
//V, there, tie ^/, here. ^Adding to the interrogative 
words the word ajh, we get indifferent words : 
whatever kind of, for whatever reason, whenever, 
wherever, however, whosesoever, whatever, what- 
ever quantity, whoever. ^Besides this, from these 
words we can make still other words, with the help 
of the grammatical endings and other words (suf- 
fixes) ; for example: contemporaneous (existing 
then), eternal, how much, there, a person living 
there or being present, a contemporary or person 
of that time. 



Exercises 1 49 



EXERCISE 31 

humoro, huinor, fermi, to shut. 

korpo, body. animo, soul. 

kontrakti, to contract. plenumi, to fulfilL 

bruli, to burn. ligno, wood. 

materialo, material. bastono, stick. 

tegmento, roof. funto, pound. 

koloro, color. supre, above, upper. 

telero, plate. tero, earth. 

kesto, chest, box. lipo, lip^ 

haro, hair. griza, gray. 

vango, cheek. 

ist, person occupied with : maro, sea\ maristo, 
sailor. 



* Lia kolero longe daflris. ^ Li estas hodiaii en 
kolera humoro. ^Li koleras kaj insultas. * Li 
fermis kolere la pordon. ^ Lia filo mortis kaj estas 
nun malviva. ^La korpo estas morta, la animo 
estas senmorta. '^ Li estas morte malsana, li ne 
vivos pli, ol unu tagon. * Li parolas, kaj lia parole 
fluas dolCe kaj agrable. ^ Ni faris la kontrakton 
ne skribe, sed parole. ^^ Li estas bona parolanto. 
^^Starante ekstere, li povis vidi nur la eksteran 
flankon de nia domo. ^^Li lojas ekster la urbo. 
^^ La ekstero de tiu Ci homo estas pli bona, ol lia 
interno. "Li tuj faris, kion mi volis, kaj mi 



I50 The American Esperanto Book 

dankis lin por la tuja plenumo de mia deziro. 
^^ Kia granda brulo ! kio brulas ? ^^ Ligno estas 
bona brula materialo. *^ La fera bastono, kiu 
ku§is en la forno, estas nun brule^ varmega. ^^Cu 
li donis al vi jesan respondon, ati nean? ^^Li eliris 
el^ la dormoeambro kaj eniris en la mangoCambron. 
^^ La birdo ne f orflugis ; gi nur deflugis de la arbo, 
alflugis al la domo kaj surflugis sur la tegmenton. 
^^Por Ciu aCetita funto da teo tiu 6i komercisto 
aldonas senpage funton da sukero. ^^ Lernolibron 
oni devas ne tralegi, sed tralerni. ^^Li portas 
rozkoloran^ superveston kaj teleroforman Capelon. 
^*En mia skribotablo sin trovas kvar tirkestoj. 
^^Liaj lipharoj estas pli grizaj, ol liaj vangharoj. 

*In Sentences i, 2, 3, 4, kolero, kolera, koleras, kolere; 
in 15, 16, 17, brulo, brulas, brula, brule. These sentences are 
designed to show with what facility an Esperanto root may be 
used as a noun, adjective, verb or adverb. To add the parti- 
ciples in their adjectival, substantival and adverbial forms, 
with the variations and degrees of meaning made possible by 
the use of affixes — it would puzzle the expert Esperantist to 
measure the possible range of expression. 

^Eliris el, deflugis de, alflugis al, surflugis sur. See Note 
t, Exercise 8. 

^This lesson contains a number of compound words. The 
student may at first find it difficult to distinguish these at sight, 
but he will soon "catch the spirit" of Esperanto. Failing in 
this, he will search the vocabularies in vain for seeming roots 
which are only simple combinations. 



Exercises 151 



TRANSLATION 31 



* His anger lasted a long time. ^ He is today in 
an angry mood. ^ He is angry and is insulting. 
* He shut the door angrily. ^ His son died and is 
now lifeless. ^ The body is mortal, the soul is 
immortal. ^ He is mortally ill, he will not live 
more than one day. ^ He speaks and his speech 
flows sweetly and agreeably. ^We made the con- 
tract not in writing, but verbally. ^^ He is a good 
speaker. " Standing outside, he could see only 
the outside of our house. ^^ He lives outside the 
city. ^^The exterior of this man is better 
than his interior. ^* He did at once what I wished, 
and I thanked him for the immediate fulfillment 
of my desire. ^^ What a big blaze ! What is 
burning? ^^Wood is good burning material. 
^^ The iron rod which lay in the furnace is now 
burning hot. ^^ Did he give you an affirmative or 
a negative reply? ^^ He went out of the bed-room 
and entered the dining-room. ^^ The bird did not 
fly away ; it only flew down from the tree, flew to 
the house and lit upon the roof. ^^For every pound 
of tea purchased, this dealer adds free a pound of 
sugar. ^^A text-book one ought not to read through, 
but to learn through. ^' He wears a rose-colored 
gown and a mortar-board hat. ^* In my writing- 
table are four drawers. ^^ His mustache is grayer 
than his whiskers. 



152 The American Esperanto Book 

EXERCISE 32 



teatro, theater, okupi, to occupy, 

maniero, manner, melianiko, mechanics, 

Iiemio, chemistry, diplomatic, diplomacy, 

fiziko, physics, science, science, 

glaso, glaso. nigra, black, 

drapo, cloth, signifi, to signify, 

ovo, egg, bordo, shore, 

maro, sea, amaso, crowd, 

autuno, autumn, lando, land, country, 

suferi, to suffer, najbaro, neighbor, 
mezuri, to measure. 



^ Teatramanto ofte vizitas la teatron kaj ricevas* 
baldaii teatrajn manierojn. ^ Kiu okupas sin je 
mehaniko, estas mehanikisto, kaj kiu okupas sin je 
hemio, estas hemiisto. Diplomatiiston oni povas 
ankau nomi diplomato, sed fizikiston oni ne povas 
nomi fiziko. Car fiziko estas la nomo de la scienco 
mem. *La fotografisto fotografis min, kaj mi 
sendis mian fotografajon al mia patro. ^ Glaso de 
vino estas glaso, en kiu antaiie sin trovis vino, au 
kiun oni uzas por vino ; glaso da vino estas glaso 
plena je vino. ^ Alportu al mi metron da nigra 



Exercises 153 

drapo. (Metro de drapo signifus metron, kiu 
ku§is sur drapo, aii kiu estas uzata por drapo). 
"'Mi aCetis dekon da ovoj. ^ Tiu 6i rivero havas 
ducent kilometrojn da longo. ^ Sur la bordo de la 
maro staris amaso da^ homoj. ^^ Multaj birdoj 
flugas en la autuno en pli varmajn landojn. ^^ Sur 
la arbo sin trovis multe (aii multo) da birdoj. 
^^ Kelkaj homoj sentas sin la plej feliCaj^, kiam ili 
vidas la suferojn de siaj najbaroj. ^^En la Cambro 
sidis nur kelke da homoj. ^* **Da" post ia vorto 
montras, ke tiu t\ vorto havas signifion de mezuro. 



* Note the use of ricevas where the incHnation would be to 
use akiras. The latter would mean that he desired or culti- 
vated the manner, rather than that it simply "stuck to him," 
and in some instances at least would be fully appropriate. 

^If the student will thoroughly study the uses of da in this 
exercise he should never err regarding its use. 

^Sentas sin feli6aj=i^?^/ themselves haf^y. Feli6aj is 
nominative, being a predicative adjective. Supplying the full 
sense, we have sentas sin esti feli6aj. See also Sentence 7, 
Exercise 33. 



TRANSLATION 32 

^A theater-lover often visits the theater, and 
soon acquires theatrical manners. ^ He who occu- 



154 "^^^ American Esperanto Book 

pies himself with mechanics is a mechanic, and he 
who occupies himself with chemistry is a chemist. 
^A diplomat we can call diplomato, but a physician 
we cannot call fiziko, because jfiziko is the name of 
the science itself. * The photographer photogaphed 
me and I sent my photograph to my father. 
Glaso de vino is a glass in which was previously 
wine, or which one uses for wine ; glaso da vino 
is a glass full of wine. * Bring me a meter of (^dd) 
black cloth (^metro de drapo would mean a meter 
which lay on the cloth, or which is used for cloth). 
'I bought ten eggs. * This river is two hundred 
kilometers long. ^ On the shore of the sea stood a 
crowd of people. ^^ Many birds fly in the autumn 
to warmer countries. " Upon the tree were many 
birds. ^^Some people feel happiest when they 
witness the sufferings of their neighbors. ^^In the 
room sat only a few people. ^* Da after a word 
shows that this word has a sense of measure. 



Exercises 155 



EXERCISE 33 

mezo, middle, kreski, to grow. 

dika, thick, fat, larga, broad, 

lumo, light, mola, soft, 

turmenti, to torment, senti, to feel, 

beni, to bless, nobla, noble. 

rekta, straight. knrba, curved, 

kredi, to believe, renversi, to upset, 

monto, mountain, kampo, field, 

koko, cock, chicken, nepo, grandson, 

duonpatro, stepfather, bovo, ox 

bo, relative by marriage : patrino, mother \ bo- 
patrino, mother-in-law. 



^ Mia frato ne estas granda, sed li ne estas 
ankaii malgranda ; li estas de meza kresko. ^ Li 
estas tiel dika^, ke li ne povas trairi tra nia mal- 
larga pordo. ^ Haro estas tre maldika. * La nokto 
estis tiel malluma, ke ni nenion povis vidi e6 antaii 
nia iiazo. ^Tiu 6i malfre§a pano estas malmola, 
kiel §tono. ^ Malbonaj infanoj amas turmenti 



* Dika, usually translated thick, here means thick in a 
sense not often thus expressed in English. Careful English 
is stout, while a popular and expressive Americanism is fat. 



156 The American Esperanto Book 

bestojn. "^Li sentis sin tiel malfelica, ke li malbenis 
la tagon, en kiu li estis naskita. ^ Mi forte^ mal- 
estimas tiun t\ malnoblan homon. ^La fenestro 
longe estis nefermita*^; mi gin fermis, sed mia frato 
tuj gin denove^ malfermis. ^^ Rekta vojo estas pli 
mallonga, ol kurba. ^^La tablo staras malrekte, 
kaj kredeble baldau renversigos. ^^Li staras supre 
sur la monto kaj rigardas malsupren sur la kampon. 
^^ Malamiko venis en nian landon. ^* Oni tiel mal- 
helpis al mi, ke mi malbonigis mian tutan laboron. 
^^ La edzino de mia patro estas mia patrino kaj la 
avino de miaj infanoj. ^^Sur la korto staras koko 
kun tri kokinoj. ^^ Mia fratino estas tre bela 
knabino. ^^ Mia onklino estas bona virino. ^^ Mi 
vidis vian avinon kun §iaj kvar nepinoj kaj kun 
mia nevino. ^^ Lia duonpatrino estas mia bofra- 
tino. ^^ Mi havas bovon kaj bovinon. ^^Lajuna 
vidvino farigis denove fianCino. 



^ The use of forte to lend intensity to the verb is, we think, 
an improvement over the English use of adverbs from roots 
of meaning similar to, but not synonomous with, that of the 
verb — dearly love, fiercely hate, etc. 

^'Ne here, and not mal. The student will readily grasp 
the difference between opened and not closed. 

*^ Denove is frequently used for again. It means anew. 



Exercises 1 57 

TRANSLATION 33 

* My brother is not tall, but he is also not short ; 
he is of medium growth. ^He is so stout that he 
cannot pass through our narrow door. ^A hair is 
very fine. *The night was so dark that we could 
see nothing, even before our nose. ^ This stale 
bread is as hard as stone. ^Bad children like to 
torment animals. '^ He felt so unhappy that he 
cursed the day on which he was born. * I intensely 
despise this ignoble person. ^ The window was 
long open ; I closed it, but my brother immediately 
opened it anew. ^^ A straight road is shorter than 
a curved one. " The table stands crookedly 
and, * 'understandably", will soon be upset. ^^ He 
stands above upon the mountain and looks below 
on the field. ^^An enemy entered our land. ^* They 
hindered me so that I spoiled my whole work. 
^^My father's wife is my mother, and the grand- 
mother of my children. ^^ In the yard stands a 
cock with three hens. ^^ My sister is a very beau- 
tiful girl. ^* My aunt is a good woman. " I saw 
your grandmother with her four granddaughters 
and my niece. ^^ His stepmother is my sister-in- 
law ^^ I have an ox and a cow. ^^ The young 
widow became again a fiancee. 



158 



The American Esj^eranto Book 



EXERCISE 34 



viando, meat, 
korko, cork, 
§topi, to stop up, 
kombi, to comb, 
gliti, to skate, 
vetero, weather, 
segi, to saw, 
kudri, to sew. 
sonori, to ring-, 
inko, ink, 

sorbi, to absord, sip, 
tuko, cloth, 
brava, brave, 
§tupo, step, 
germano, a German, 
vasta, wide, vast, 
pa§ti, to pasture, 
precipe, principally, 

§afo, 



po§-o, pocket. 
tiri, to draw, pull, drag- 
botelo, bottle, 
somero, summer, 
frosto, frost, 
haki, to hew, chop, 
fosi, to dig, 
tondi, to clip, shear, 
fajfi, to whistle 
sablo, sand, 
brando, brandy 
militi, to war, fight, 
kruta, steep, 
hispano, Spaniard, 
tamen, however, 
herbo, grass 
bruto, brute 
lano, wool, 
sheep 



^La tranCilo estis tiel malakra, ke mi ne povis 
tran^i per gi la viandon, kaj mi devis uzi mian 
po§an tranCilon. ^Cu vi havas korktirilon, por 
malStopi la botelon? ^ Mi volis §losi la pordon, 



Exercises 159 

sed mi perdis la §losilon. * Si kombas al si la 
harojn per argenta kombilo. ^En somero ni veturas 
per diversaj veturiloj, kaj en vintro ni veturas per 
glitveturilo. ^Hodiaii estas bela frosta vetero, 
tial mi prenos miajn glitilojn kaj iros gliti. '^Per 
hakilo ni hakas, per segilo ni segas, per fosilo ni 
fosas, per kudrilo ni kudras, per tondilo ni tondas, 
per sonorilo ni sonoras, per fajfilo ni fajfas. *Mia 
skribilaro konsistas el inkujo, sablujo, kelke da 
plumoj, krajono kaj inksorbilo. ^Oni metis antati 
mi manjilaron, kiu konsistis el telero, kulero, 
tranCilo, forko, glaseto por brando, glaso por vino 
kaj telertuketo. ^^ En varmega tago mi amas pro- 
meni en arbaro. ^* Nia lando venkos, Car nia mil- 
itistaro estas granda kaj brava. ^^ Sur kruta 
§tuparo li levis sin al la tegmento de la domo. 
^^ Mi ne scias la lingvon hispanan, sed per helpo 
de vortaro hispana-germana mi tamen komprenis 
iom vian leteron. " Sur tiuj €1 vastaj kaj herbo- 
riCaj kampoj pa§tas sin grandaj brutaroj, precipe 
aroj da bellanaj §afoj. 



TRANSLATION 34 
* The knife was so dull that I could not cut the 
meat with it, and I had to use my pocket knife. 



l6o The A7nerican Esperanto Book 

^ Have you a corkscrew to open the bottle? 'I 
wished to lock the door, but I had lost the key. 
* She combs her hair with a silver comb. ^ In the 
summer we travel by means of various vehicles, 
and in winter we travel by sleigh. ^ Today it is 
fine frosty weather, therefore I shall take my 
skates and go skating. ^ With an ax we chop, 
with a saw we saw, with a spade we dig, with a 
needle we sew, with scissors we clip, with a bell 
we ring, with a whistle we whistle. * My writing 
outfit consists of an ink-stand, a sand-box, some 
pens, a pencil and a blotter. * They placed before 
me eating utensils, which consisted of a plate, a 
spoon, a knife, a fork, a small glass for brandy, 
a glass for wine, and a napkin. ^® On a hot day I 
like to walk in the forest. " Our country will win 
because our army is large and brave. ^^On a 
steep ladder he climbed to the roof of the house. 
^^ I do not know the Spanish language, but with 
the help of a Spanish-German dictionary I never- 
theless somewhat understood your letter. ^* Upon 
these vast and fertile fields pasture large herds of 
stock, principally flocks of fine-wool sheep. 



Exercises i6l 



EXERCISE 35 



konfiti, to preserve, kuko, cake, 

fluida, liquid. suspekti, to suspect, 

acida, sour. vinagro, vinegar, 

sulfuro, sulphur, azoto, azote, 

gusto, taste, alta, high, 

nature, nature, Cemizo, shirt, 

kolo, neck, cetera, the rest. 

tolo, linen, glacio, ice. 

heroo, hero, pla6i, to please, 

lago, lake, kovri, to cover. 

nagi, to swim. folio, leaf, 
frandi, to be fond of sweets. 

*Vi parolas sensencajon, mia amiko. ''Mi 
trinkis teon kun kuko kaj konfitajo. ^Akvo estas 
fluidajo. *Mi ne volis trinki la vinon, 6ar gi en- 
havis en si ian suspektan malklarajon. ^ Sur la 
tabic staris diversaj sukerajoj. ^ En tiuj t\ boteletoj 
sin trovas diversaj acidoj : vinagro, sulfuracido, 
azotacido kaj aliaj. '^ Via vino estas nur ia abomena 
acidajo. ^La acideco de tiu t\ vinagro estas tre mal- 
forta. *Mi mantis bongustan ovajon. ^^Tiu ci granda 
altajo ne estas natura monto. ^^ La alteco de tiu 
monto ne estas tre granda. ^^ Kiam mi ien veturas, 
mi neniam prenas kun mi multon da pakajo. ^^Ce- 
mizojn, kolumojn, manumojn kaj ceterajn similajn 
objektojn ni nomas tolajo, kvankam ili ne Siam 
estas faritaj el tolo. ^* Glaciajo estas dolca glaci- 



i62 The American Esperanto Book 

igita frandajo. ^^ La riCeco de tiu t\ homo estas 
granda, sed lia malsageco estas ankoraii pli granda. 
^^ Li amas tiun 6i knabinon pro §ia beleco kaj 
boneco. ^'^Lia heroeco tre placis al mi. ^^Latuta 
suprajo de la lago estis kovrita per najantaj folioj 
kaj diversaj aliaj kreskajoj. ^^ Mi vivas kun li en 
granda amikeco. 

TRANSLATION 35 

^ You talk nonsense, my friend. ^ I drank tea, 
with cake and preserves. ^ Water is a liquid. *I 
did not wish to drink the wine, because it had in 
it some suspicious unclear matter. ^Upon the 
table stood various sweetmeats. ^ In these little 
bottles are various acids : vinegar, sulphuric acid, 
nitric acid and others. ^Your wine is only some 
kind of abominable acid stuff. ^ The acidity of 
this vinegar is very weak. ^ I ate a good omelet. 
^^ This great eminence is not a natural mountain. 
^^ The height of that mountain is not very great. 
^^ When I go anywhere I never take with me much 
baggage. ^^ Shirts, collars, cuffs and other similar 
objects we call linen, though they are not always 
made of linen. ^*An ice is a sweet frozen dainty. 
^^ The wealth of this man is great, but his foolish- 
ness is still greater. ^^ He loves this girl because 
of her beauty and goodness. ^'^ His heroism pleased 
me very much. ^^ The whole surface of the lake 
was covered with floating leaves and various other 
growths. ^^ I live with him in great friendship. 



Exercises 163 

EXERCISE 36 

gratuli, to congratulate, altaro, altar, 
kuraci, to heal, treat, doktoro, doctor, 
pra, great-, primordial, hebreo, a Hebrew 

Cevalo, horse, 
ge, persons of both sexes : patro, father ; ge- 

patroj, parents, 

id*, descendant or young of: Sevalo, a horse \ 

Cevalido, a colt, 

^ Patro kaj patrino kune estas nomataj gepatroj. 
^ Petro, Anno kaj Elizabeto estas miaj gefratoj. 
^ Gesinjoroj N. hodiaii venos al mi. *Mi gratulis 
telegrafe la junajn geedzojn. ^La gefianSoj staris 
apud la altaro. ^ La patro de mia edzino estas mia 
bopatro, mi estas lia bofilo, kaj mia patro estas la 
bopatro de mia edzino. ^ Ciuj parencoj de mia 
edzino estas miaj boparencoj, sekve §ia frato estas 
mia bofrato, §ia fratino estas mia bofratino ; mia 
frato kaj fratino (gefratoj) estas la bogefratoj de 
mia edzino. ^La edzino de mia nevo kaj la nevo 
de mia edzino estas miaj bonevinoj. ^Virino, 
kiu kuracas, estas kuracistino ; edzino de kuracisto 
estas kuracistedzino. ^^ La doktoredzino A. vizitis 
hodiau la gedoktorojn P. ^^ Li ne estas lavisto, 11 



164 The American Esperanto Book 

estas lavistinedzo. ^^ La filoj, nepoj kaj pranepoj 
de rego estas regidoj. ^^La hebreoj estas Izrael- 
idoj, Car ili devenas de Izraelo. ^* Cevalido estas 
nematura cevalo, kokido — nematura koko, bovido — 
nematura bovo, birdido — nematura birdo. 

TRANSLATION 36 

^A father and a mother together are called 
parents. ^ Peter, Anne and Elizabeth are my 
brother and sisters. ^ Mr. and Mrs. N. will come 
to our house today. *I congratulated by 
telegraph the young married couple. ^The affi- 
anced pair stood at the altar. ^ My wife's father 
is my father-in-law, I am his son-in-law, and my 
father is my wife's father-in-law. ^ All relatives of 
my wife are my relatives-in-law ; consequently her 
brother is my brother-in-law, her sister is my 
sister-in-law ; .my brother and sister are the brother- 
and sister-in-law of my wife ^ My nephew's wife 
and my wife's niece are my nieces-in-law. ^A 
woman who treats the sick is a female physician ; 
a wife of a physician is a physician's wife. ^^The 
wife of Dr. A. visited today Dr. and Mrs. P. ^^He 
is not a laundryman, he is a laundress' husband. 
^^The sons, grandsons and great-grandsons of a 
king are princes. ^^The Hebrews are Israelites 
because they are descended from Israel. ^*A colt 
is an immature horse, a chick an immature chicken, 
a calf an immature cow, a fledgling an imma- 
ture bird. 



Exercises 165 



EXERCISE 37 

regno, state^ kingdom, province, province, 

severa, severe, justa, just^ righteous, 

poll CO, police, sufi6e, enough. 

Kristo, Christ, franco, a Frenchman, 

konfesi, to confess, religio, religion, 

regimento, regiment, boto, boot, 

§uo, shoe, lasi, to leave ^ let alone, 

droni, to drown, verki, to compose, 

e6, even, ombro, shadow, 

pregi, to pray, virga, virginal, 

an, inhabitant, member, partisan : Nov-Jorko, 
New York ; Nov-Jorkano, New- Yorker, 

ur, a person noted for: avara, covetous \ ava- 
rulo, a miser. 



^La gipanoj devas obei la Sipestron. ^Ciuj 
logantoj de regno estas regnanoj. ^ Urbanoj estas 
ordinare pli ruzaj, ol vilaganoj. *La regnestro de 
nia lando estas bona kaj saga rego. ^ La Parizanoj 
estas gajaj homoj. ® Nia provincestro estas severa, 
sed justa. '^Nia urbo havas bonajn policanojn, 
sed ne sufiCe energian polices tron. ^ Luteranoj kaj 
Kalvinanoj estas kristanoj. ''Germanoj kaj francoj, 



1 66 . The American Esperanto Book 

kiuj logas en Rusujo, estas Rusujanoj, kvankam ili 
ne estas rusoj. ^^Li estas nelerta kaj naiva pro- 
vincano. ^*La logantoj de unu regno estas sam- 
regnanoj, la logantoj de unu urbo estas samurbanoj, 
la konfesantoj de unu religio estas samreligianoj. 
^^Nia regimentestro estas por siaj soldatoj kiel 
bona patro. ^^ La botisto faras botojn kaj §uojn. 
" La lignisto vendas lignon, kaj la lignajisto faras 
tablojn, sejojn kaj aliajn lignajn objektojn. ^^Stel- 
iston neniu lasas en sian domon. ^^ La kurag^a 
maristo dronis en la maro. ^'^ Verkisto verkas 
librojn, kaj skribisto simple transskribas paperojn. 
^^ Ni havas diversajn servantojn : kuiriston, 6am- 
bristinon, infanistinon kaj veturigiston. ^^La riCulo 
havas multe da mono. ^^ Malsagulon 6iu batas. 
^^ Timulo timas e6 sian propran ombron. ^^Li estas 
mensogisto kaj malnoblulo. ^^ Pregu al la Sankta 
Virgulino. 



TRANSLATION 37 

^ The sailors ought to obey the captain. ^AU 
inhabitants of a state are citizens. ^City people 
are usually more cunning than villagers. * The 
ruler of our country is a good and wise king. 
^ The Parisians are gay people. ^ Our governor is 



Exercises 167 

strict, but just. ^ Our city has good policemen, 
but not a sufficiently energetic chief of police. 
^Lutherans and Calvinists are ChristianSc ^Ger- 
mans who live in Russia are Russian citizens, 
though they are not Russians. ^^He is an awk- 
ward and simple provincial. ^^ The inhabitants of 
one country are fellow-countrymen, the inhabitants 
of one city are fellow-citizens, the believers of one 
religion are fellow-religionists. ^^ Our regimental 
commander is like a good father to his soldiers. 
^^ The shoemaker makes boots and shoes. ^* The 
wood dealer sells wood and the joiner makes tables, 
chairs, and other wooden articles. ^^ No one lets 
a thief into his house. ^^ The brave sailor was 
drowned in the sea. ^^An author writes books, 
and a copyist simply copies papers. ^^ We have 
various servants — a cook, a chambermaid, a nurse, 
and a coachman. ^^ The rich man has much money, 
^^ Everybody beats a fool. ^^ A coward fears even 
his own shadow. ^^ He is a liar and an ignoble 
person. ^^ Pray to the Holy Virgin. 



1 68 The American Esperanto Book 



EXERCISE 38 

d^nsa, dense, brui, to make a noise, 

kale§0, carriage, pluyo, rain, 

pafi, to shoot, 

6j, masculine, nj, feminine; suffixes used after 
the first (i to 6) letters of names, to form endear- 
ing diminutives. 

^ Mi aCetis por la infanoj tableton kaj kelke da 
segetoj. ^En nia lando sin ne trovas montoj, sed 
nur montetoj. ^ Tuj post la hejto la forno estis 
varmega, post unu horo gi estis jam nur varma, 
post du horoj gi estis nur iom varmeta, kaj post 
tri horoj gi estis jam tute malvarma. *En somero 
ni trovas malvarmeton en densaj arbaroj. ^Li 
sidas apud la tablo kaj dormetas. ^Mallarga 
vojeto kondukas tra tiu Ci kampo al nia domo. 
'^ Sur lia vizago mi vidis gojan rideton. ^Kun bruo 
oni malfermis la pordegon, kaj la kale§o enveturis 
en la korton. ^Tio Ci estis jam ne simpla pluvo, 
sed pluvego. ^^Grandega hundo metis sur min 
sian antauan piedegon, kaj mi de teruro ne sciis, 
kion fari. " Antau nia militistaro staris granda 
serio da pafilegoj. ^^Johanon, Nikolaon, Erneston, 



Exercises 169 

Vilhelmon, Marion, Klaron kaj Sofion iliaj gepatroj 
nomas JohanCjo (au JoCjo), NikolCjo (aii Niko6jo 
aii Nikejo aii Niajo), ErneCjo (au ErCjo), Vilheiejo 
(au Vilheejo aii Viiejo au Viejo), Manjo (aii 
Marinjo), Klanjo kaj Sonjo (aii Sofinjo). 



TRANSLATION 38 

^ I bought for the children a little table and 
some little chairs. ^ In our country there are no 
mountains, but only hills. ^Immediately after 
heating, the stove was hot, after an hour it was 
only warm, after two hours it was only somewhat 
warm, and after three hours it was entirely cold. *In 
summer we find coolness in dense forests. ^ He 
sits near the table and dozes. ^A narrow path 
leads through this field to our house. ' Upon his 
face I saw a happy smile. * Noisily they opened 
the gate, and the carriage drove into the yard. 
^ This was no longer a simple rain, but a flood. 
^^ An enormous dog put his forepaw upon me, and 
from terror I did not know what to do. " In front 
of our army stood a large array of cannon. ^^John, 
Nicholas, Ernest, William, Mary, Clara and Sophia, 
their parents call Johnnie, Nick, Ernie, Willie, 
MoUie, Clarie, Sophie. 



lyo The American Esperanto Book 



EXERCISE 39 

koto, dirt. broso, brush. 

ruga, red. honti, to be ashamed. 

solena, solemn. infekti, to infect, 

printempo, springtime, relo, rail 
rado, wheel. pendi, to hang, 

Capo, capy bonnet, vento, wind. 

blovi, to blow. kapo, head. 

branCo, branch. 



* En la kota vetero mia vesto forte M&tpui'i&js,* 
tial mi prenis broson kaj purigis^ la veston. ^ Li 
paligis de time kaj poste li rugijis d6> honto. *Li 
fiancigis kun f raulino Berto ; post tri monatoj estos 
la edzigo ; la edziga soleno estos en la nova pregejo, 
kaj la edziga festo estos en la domo de liaj estontaj 
bogepatroj. * Tiu ci maljunulo tute malsagigis kaj 
infanigis. ^Post infekta maisano oni ofte bruligas 
la vestojn de la malsanulo. ^Forigu vian fraton, 
Car li malhelpas al ni. ' Si edzini^is kun sia 
kuzo, kvankam §iaj gepatroj volis §in edzinigi kun 
alia persono. ^En la printempo la glacio kaj la 
nego fluidigas. ^Venigu la kuraciston, Car mi estas 



Exercises 171 

malsana. ^^Li venigis al si el Berlino multajn 
librojn. ^^Miaonklo ne mortis per natura morto, 
sed li tamen ne mortigis sin mem kaj ankaii estis 
mortigita de neniu ; unu tagon, promenante apud 
la reloj de fervojo, li falis sub la radojn de veturanta 
vagonaro ka] mortigis. ^^Mi ne pendigis mian 
6apon sur tiu 6i arbeto ; sed la vento forblovis de 
mia kapo la Capon, kaj gi, flugante, pendigis sur la 
branCoj de la arbeto. ^^Sidigu vin (au sidigu), sin- 
joro ! ^* La junulo aligis al nia militistaro kaj 
kurage batalis kune kun ni kontrauniaj malamikoj. 



* Study carefully the distinction between ig and ig. The 
former is always transitive, while the latter is intransitive : 
purigi, to clean ; purigi, to become clean. Sentences 7 and 11 
well illustrate this difference. 



TRANSLATION 39 

^ In the muddy weather my coat became very 
dirty ; therefore, I took a brush and cleaned the 
coat. ^ He turned pale with fear, and afterwards 
he blushed with shame. ^ He became engaged to 
Miss Bertha ; three months hence will be the 
wedding ; the marriage ceremony will be in the 
new church, and the wedding festival will be in the 



172 The American Esperanto Book 

house of his future parents-in-law. * This old man 
has become quite imbecile and childish. ^ After an 
infectious disease they often burn the clothes of 
the patient. ^Send your brother away, for he 
hinders us. '^She married her cousin, although her 
parents wished to marry her to another person. 
^ In spring the ice and snow melt. ^ Bring the 
doctor, because I am ill. ^^ He procured for him- 
self many books from Berlin. ^^ M}^ uncle did not 
die a natural death, but, however, he did not 
kill himself, and was not killed by anyone ; one 
day, while walking near the rails of the railroad, 
he fell under the wheels of a moving train and was 
killed. ^^ I did not hang my cap upon this 
shrub ; but the wind blew the cap from my head, 
and it, flying, hung itself on the branches of the 
shrub. ^^ Seat yourself (or, be seated), sir. ^* The 
youth joined our army and fought bravely, together 
with us, against our enemies. 



Exercises 1:73 



EXERCISE 40 

surprizi, to surprise. laca, tired^ weary . 
trompi, deceive, cheat, fulmo, lightning* 
§viti, sweaty perspire, bani, to bathe, 
magazeno, store, vendi, to sell, 

cigaro, cigar, tubo, tube, 

fumo, smoke, skatolo, small box, cas^, 

pantalono, pants, surtuto, overcoat, 

brako, arm, 
ing, a holder for a single object : cigaringo, 
cigar-holder 'y kandelingo, candle-stick. 



^ En la daiiro de kelke da minutoj mi aiidis du 
pafojn. ^La pafado daiiris tre longe. ^ Mi eksaltis 
de surprizo. * Mi saltas tre lerte. ^ Mi saltadis la 
tutan tagon de loko al loko. ^ Lia hieraiia parolo 
estis tre bela, sed la tro muUa parolado lacigas 
lin. / Kiam vi ekparolis, ni atendis aiidi ion novan, 
sed baldaii ni vidis, ke ni trompigis. ^Li kantas 
tre belan kanton. * I^a kantado estas agrabla 
okupo. ^^La diamanto havas belan brilon. "Du 
ekbriloj de fulmo trakuris tra la malluma 6ielo. 
^^La domo, en kiu oni lernas, estas lernejo, kaj la 
domo, en kiu oni pregas, estas pregejo. ^^La kuiristo 



174 '^^^ American Esperanto Book 

sidas en la kuirejo. ^*La kuracisto konsilis al mi iri en 
gvitbanejon. ^^Magazeno, en kiu oni vendas cigarojn, 
ad eambro, en kiu oni tenas cigarojn, estas cigarejo; 
skatoleto aii alia objekto, en kiu oni tenas cigarojn, 
estas cigarujo ; tubeto, en kiu oni metas cigaron, 
kiam oni gin fumas, estas cigaringo. ^^ Skatolo, 
en kiu oni tenas plumojn, estas plumujo, kaj bas- 
toneto, sur kiu oni tenas plumon por skribado, 
estas plumingo. ^^ En la kandelingo sidas brulanta 
kandelo. ^^ En la po§o de mia pantolono mi portas 
monujon, kaj en la po§o de mia surtuto mi portas 
paperujon ; pli grandan paperujon mi portas sub la 
brako. ^^La rusoj logas en Rusujo kaj la germanoj 
en Germanujo. 

TRANSLATION 40 

^ In the course of a few minutes I heard two 
shots. ^The shooting continued very long. ^I 
jumped from surprise. * I jump very skilfully. I 
jumped all day from place to place. ^His speech of 
yesterday was very fine, but too much speaking tires 
him. '^When you began to speak, we expected to hear 
something new, but soon saw that we were deceived. 
^He is singing a very beautiful song. ^Singing is an 
agreeable occupation. ^^The diamorid has a beau- 



Exercises 175 

tiful sparkle. ^^ Two flashes .of lightning passed 
across the dark sky. ^^ The house in which people 
learn is a school-house, and the house in which 
which they pray is a church. ^^ The cook sits in 
the kitchen. ^* The doctor advised me to go to a 
Turkish bath. ^^ A store in which they sell cigars, 
or a room in which they keep cigars, is a cigar- 
store ; a small box or other object in which people 
keep cigars is a cigar-case ; a little tube in which 
one puts a cigar when he smokes it, is a cigar- 
holder. ^^ A box in which we keep pens is a pen- 
case, and a little stick, on which we have a pen for 
writing, is a penholder. ^^ In the candlestick is a 
burning candle. ^^ In the pocket of my trousers 
I carry a purse, and in the pocket of my overcoat 
I carry a pocketbook ; a larger document-case I 
carry under my arm. ^^ Russians live in Russia, 
and Germans in Germany. 



176 The America7i Esperanto Book 

EXERCISE 41 

§talo, steel. fleksi, to bend. 

vitro, glass, rompi, to break, 

laudi, to praise, memori, to remember, 

Spari, to economize, bagatelo, trifle. 

vengi, to avenge, eksciti, to excite, 

polvo, dust, fajro, fire, 

eksplodi, to explode. pulvo, gunpowder, 
er, one of many objects of the same kind : sablo, 
sand\ sablero, a grain of sand, 

^Stalo estas fleksebla, sed fero ne estas fleksebla. 
^ Vitro estas rompebla kaj travidebla. ^ Ne Ciu 
kreskajo estas man Jebla. * Via parolo estas tute 
nekomprenebla kaj viaj leteroj estas 6iam skribitaj 
tute nelegeble. ^ Rakontu al mi vian malfeliSon, 
6ar able mi povos helpi al vi. ^ Li rakontis al mi 
historion tute nekredeblan. '^ Cu vi amas vian 
patron? ^Kia demando ! kompreneble, ke mi lin 
amas. ^ Mi kredeble ne povos veni al vi hodiau, 
Gar mi pensas, ke mi mem havos hodiau gastojn. 
^^Li estas homo ne kredinda. ^^ Via ago estas tre 
laudinda. ^^ Tiu 6i grava tago restos por mi 6iam 
memorinda. ^^ Lia edzino estas tre laborema kaj 
§parema, sed §i estas ankaii tre babilema kaj 
kriema. ^* Li estas tre ekkolerema kaj ekscitigas 
ofte 6e la plej malgranda bagatelo ; tamen li estas 
tre pardonema, li ne portas longe la koleron kaj li 
tute ne estas vengema. ^^ Li estas tre kredema : 
e6 la plej nekredeblajn aferojn, kiujn rakontas al li 



Exercises 177 

la plej nekredindaj homoj, li tuj kredas. ^^ Cen- 
timo, pfenigo kaj kopeko estas moneroj. "Sablero 
enfalis en mian okulon. "Li estas tre purema, 
kaj e6 unu polveron vi ne trovos sur lia vesto. 
^^ Unu fajrero estas sufiCa, por eksplodigi pulvon. 

TRANSLATION 41 

^ Steel is flexible, but iron is not flexible. 
^ Glass is brittle and transparent. ^ Not every 
plant is edible. * Your speech is quite incompre- 
hensible, and your letters are always written quite 
illegibly. ^ Tell me your unhappiness, for possibly 
I shall be able to help you. ^ He told me a totally 
incredible story. '^ Do you love your father? 
* What a question ! Of course I love him. ® I 
shall probably not be able to come to your house 
today, for I think that I myself shall have guests 
today. ^^ He is a man unworthy of belief. ^^Your 
act is very praiseworthy. ^^ This important day 
will ever remain memorable for me. ^^ His wife is 
very industrious and thrifty, but she is also very 
talkative and noisy. ^* He is very quick-tempered, 
and often becomes excited at the smallest trifle ; 
however, he is very forgiving, he does not bear 
anger long and is not at all vengeful. ^^He is very 
credulous ; even the most incredible things, which 
the most untrustworthy people tell him, he at once 
believes. ^^A centime, a pfennig and a kopek are 
coins. ^^A grain of sand fell into my eye. "He 
is very clean, and you will not find even a single 
speck of dust on his coat. ^^One spark is sufficient 
to explode gunpowder. 



178 The American Esperanto Book 

EXERCISE 42 

atingi, to attain, rezultato, result, 

§iri, to tear, rend, peco, piece. 

mo§tO, universal title, episkopo, bishop, 

grafo, earl, count, difini, to define, 

^Ni 6iuj kunvenis, por priparoli tre gravan aferon; 
sed ni ne povis atingi ian rezultaton, kaj ni disiris. 
^ MalfeliSo ofte kunigas la homojti, kaj feliSo ofte 
disigas ilin. ^ Mi disSiris la leteron kaj disjetis 
giajn pecetojn en Ciujn angulojn de la Cambro. 
*Li donis al mi monon, sed mi gin tuj redonis al li. 
^Mi foriras, sed atendu min, Car mi baldatirevenos. 
^La suno rebrilas en la klara akvo de la rivero. 
^ Mi diris al la rego : via rega mo§to, pardonu min! 
^ El la tri leteroj unu estis adresita : al Lia Epis- 
kopa Mo§to, Sinjoro N.; la dua : al lia Grafa 
Mo§to, Sinjoro P.; la tria: al Lia Mo§to, Sinjoro 
D. ^La sufikso um ne havas difinitan signifon, 
kaj tial la (tre malmultajn) vortojn kun um oni 
devas lerni, kiel simplajn vortojn. ^^Ekzemple: 
plenumi, kolumo, manumo. ^^ Mi volonte plenumis 
lian deziron. ^^ En malbona vetero oni povas facile 
malvarmumi. Sano, sana, sane, sani, sanu, san- 
iga, saneco, saniio, sanigi, sanigi, sanejo, sanisto, 
sanulo, malsano, malsana, malsane, malsani, mal- 
sanulo, malsaniga, malsanigi, malsaneta, malsan- 
ema, malsanulejo, malsanulisto, malsanero, mal- 
saneraro, sanigebla, sanigisto, . sanigilo, saniio, 



Exercises 179 

resanigi, resaniganto, sanigilejo, sanigejo, malsan- 
emulo, sanilaro, malsanaro, malsanulido, nesana, 
malsanado, sanilajo, malsaneco, malsanemeco, 
saniginda, sanilujo, sanigilujo, remalsano, remal- 
sanigo, malsanulino, sanigista, sanigilista, sanil- 
ista, malsanulista^ k. t. p. 

TRANSLATION 42 
^ We all convened to discuss a very important 
matter, but we could not attain any result, and we 
separated. ^Unhappiness often unites people and 
and happiness often separates them. ^ I tore up 
the letter and scattered its fragments into all cor- 
ners of the room, * He gave me money, but I 
immediately returned it to him. ^ I am going 
away, but await me, as I shall soon return. ^The 
sun reflects in the clear water of the river. ^ I 
said to the king: ** Your Majesty, pardon me ! " 
* Of the three letters, one was addressed : ''To His 
Reverence, Bishop N."; the second: "To His 
Excellency, Count P."; the third : ''To The Hon- 
orable Mr. D." ^The suffix U7n has no definite 
meaning, and therefore the (very few) words with 
um one should learn as simple words. ^^For ex- 
ample : plenumi, kolumo, manumo. ^^ I willingly 
fulfilled his desire. ^^ In bad weather one can 
easily catch cold. 

*The fifty-three words shov/n here from the root san* are 
self-defining and serve to illustrate the wide latitude of ex- 
pression which may be had by use of the affixes. 



i8o The American Esperanto Book 



CORRESPONDENCE 

In the date-line of a letter, we usually omit the 
preposition je and write the day of the month with 
accusative sign following the figures : 

St, Louis, 1 8^^ de Atigusto, igo8. 
San Francisko, 26^^ de Marto, 1914, 

Everyone may safely use his own taste as to 
the form of salutation, conforming, however, to the 
relations between adresanto and adresato. By a 
peculiar paradox, the most formal style of address 
for Americans, ''My Dear Madam", is far from 
formality in its literal meaning, and should the 
average European be addressed as Mia Kara he 
would infer at least some degree of affection. A 
few of the many forms of greeting are : 

Sinjoroj : 

Respektata Sinjorino : 
Tre Esti^nata. Amiko : 
Kara Kolego : 
Kara Samideano^ : 

The forms of closing letters are much the same 
as in English : 

Kun plena respekto, 

Tre vere via^ 

Kun granda estimo, etc., etc. 



^ Sam-ide-an-o, a f cUotju -thinker . 



Correspondence l8i 

Modelaj Leteroj 

Al Administranto de Amerika Esperantisto, 

Cikago, U. S. A. 
Sinjoro : 

Tralerninte mian lernolibron kun treega intereso, 
kaj dezirante lernadi pli multe pri Esperanto, kiel 
ankau uzadi mian gis nun akiritan scion, mi sendas 
enfermite mandaton por la sumo da unu dolaro kaj 
dudek-kvin cendoj. Aminde enskribu mian nomon 
kiel abonanto al via gazeto dum unu jaro, komen- 
conta je la oktobra kajero. Ankaii, enpresu kiel 
eble plej frue, la sekvantan anonceton : 

Dekses-jara esperantistino deziras korespondadi 
kun kelkaj geartistoj de fremdaj landoj pri la inter- 
sango de artajetojn, kuriozajojn^ k, t, p. A/able sin 
turnu al\ Fno. Gladys Nelson^ 23 Paul Avenue^ 
Suite 16, Nov- Yorko, 

Esperante ke vi baldau plenumos mian mendon, 
mi estas, sinjoro, 

Tre respekte la via, 

(Fraiilino) Gladys Nelson, 

Urbo Nov-Jorko, 16^^ de Septembro, 1907. 
23 Paul Avenue, Suite 16. 



1 82 The American Esperanto Book 

Toronto, Kanado, 17^" de Aprilo, 1908. 
D"^ W. F. Cody, 

Galveston, Texas, U. S. A. 
Mia Kara Samideano : 

Respondante vian leteron pri la reciproka inter- 
San Jado de manuskriptojpredikaj, mi povas diri ke 
mi multe aprobas la projekton. Per tiu t\ farado 
ni sendube ricevos multe da helpon, kaj plibonigos 
nian laboradon. Mi sendas al vi per la sama po§to 
lanotojn de mia hieraua prediko, titolita **Ju pli da 
Sapo, des pli da Sankteco.'* Mi vere kredas ke oni 
ne povas purigi la morojn de la amasoj gis kiam 
ili havos sufiSe da riCeco por gui purajn domojn, 
puran aeron kaj purajn vestojn. Cu vi opinias ke 

mi eraras? 

Frate via, 

Charles Saunders Hamm. 

Novembro la 6^", 1906. 
Sekretario de V Altera Esperantista Societo, 

4, rue du Marine^ Algero, Algerujo. 
Respektata Sinjoro : 

Cu vi povas doni al mi, poStkarte, adreson de 
juna altera esperantistino kiu kredeble §atus kores- 
pondi kun nord-amerika samideanino? Mi multe 
interesas pri la afero nia en Afriko, kaj deziras pli 
detale sciigi. Kun kora danko pro via komplezo, 
mi subskribas min, sinjoro, 

Via humila servantino. 

Alberta V, Edwards. 
Adreso: Griff, Mo., U. §. A. 



Correspondence 183 

Especially in correspondence with foreign per- 
sons, one should be careful to write plainly, as to 
many of these Esperanto script is not easy to read 
unless clearly written. Be particularly careful as 
to name and address. We Americans, many of 
whom habitually use figures of speech called slang 
while new, and good English when the gloss is worn 
off, must remember that such language cannot be 
translated. An Indiana man writes me that a 
certain book is a persiko. He is a rare American 
who doesn't know what is meant by a metaphorical 
* 'peach,' ' and most Europeans would understand 
if we mentioned *'bird"; but to the home-grown 
Japanese or Maori these words would indicate 
things pertaining to horticulture and ornithology. 



184 The American Esperanto Book 



LA ESPERANTISMO 

La sekvanta Deklaracio estis eldonata de la Unua 
Ifiternacia Kongreso Esperantista en Boulogne-sur- 
Mer, la gan de August 0^ 1905 \ 

Car pri la esenco de la esperantismo multaj 
havas tre malveran ideon, tial ni subskribintoj, 
reprezentantoj de la esperantismo en diversaj landoj 
de la mondo, kunvenintaj al la Internacia Kongreso 
Esperantista en Boulogne-sur-Mer, trovis necese 
laii la propono de la autoro de Esperanto doni la 
sekvantan klarigon. 

1. La esperantismo estas penado disvastigi en 
la tuta mondo la uzadon de lingvo neutrale homa, 
kiu, **ne entrudante sin en la internan vivon de la 
popoloj kaj neniom celante elpu§i la ekzistantajn 
lingvo jn naciajn,'' donus al la homoj de malsamaj 
nacioj la eblon komprenigadi inter si, kiu povos 
servi kiel paciga lingvo en publikaj institucioj de 
tiuj landoj, kie diversaj nacioj batalas inter si pri 
la lingvo, kaj en kiu povos esti publikigataj tiuj 
verkoj, kiuj havas egalan intereson por 6iuj popo- 
loj. Ciu alia ideo au espero, kiun tiu aii alia 
esperantisto ligas kun la esperantismo, estas lia 
afero pure privata por kiu la esperantismo ne 
respondas. 

2. Car en la nuna tempo neniu esploranto jam 



La Esperantismo 185 

dubas pri tio, ke lingvo internacia povas esti nur 
lingvo arta, kaj Car el Ciuj multegaj provoj faritaj 
en la daiiro de la lastaj du centjaroj, Ciuj prezentas 
nur teoriajn projektojn, kaj lingvo efektive finita, 
Ciuflanke elprovita, perfekte vivipova kaj en Ciuj 
rilatoj pleje tauga montrigis nur unu sola lingvo, 
Esperanto ; tial la amikoj de la ideo de lingvo 
internacia, konsciante ke teoria diskutado kondukos 
al nenio kaj ke la celo povas esti atingita nur per 
laborado praktika, jam de longe Ciuj grupigis Cirkaii 
la sola lingvo Esperanto kaj laboras por gia disvas- 
tigado kaj la riCigado de gia literaturo. 

3. Car la aiitoro de la lingvo Esperanto tuj en 
la komenco rifuzis unufoje por 6iam Ciujn personajn 
rajtojn kaj privilegiojn rilate tiun lingvon, tial 
Esperanto estas **nenies proprajo'' nek en rilato 
materiala, nek en rilato morala, Materiala majstro 
de tiu ei lingvo estas la tuta mondo kaj Ciu dezi- 
ranto povas eldonadi en aii pri tiu t\ lingvo Ciajn 
verkojn, kiajn li deziras, kaj uzadi la lingvon por 
Ciaj eblaj celoj ; kiel spiritaj majstro j de tiu 6i 
lingvo estos 6iam rigardataj tiuj personoj, kiuj de 
la mondo esperantista estos konfesataj kiel la plej 
bonaj kaj plej talentaj verkistoj de tiu t\ lingvo. 

4. Esperanto havas neniun personan legdonan- 
ton kaj dependas de neniu aparta homo. Opinioj 
kaj verkoj de la kreinto de Esperanto havas, simile 
al la opinioj kaj verkoj de 6iu alia esperantisto, 
karakteron absolute privatan kaj por neniu devigan. 
La sola unufoje por Ciam deviga por 6iuj esperan- 



1 86 The American Esperanto Book 

tistoj fundamento de la lingvo Esperanto estas la 
verketo '^Fundamento de Esperanto,'* en kiu neniu 
havas la raj ton fari §angon. Se iu deklinigas de la 
reguloj kaj modeloj donitaj en la dirita verko, li 
neniam povos pravigi sin per la vortoj * 'tiel deziras 
ail konsilas la aiitoro de Esperanto." Ciun ideon, 
kiu ne povas esti oportune esprimata per tiu mate- 
rialo, kiu trovijas en la "Fundamento de Esperan- 
to," Ciu esperantisto havas la rajton esprimi en tia 
maniero, kiun 11 trovas la plej gusta, tiel same, kiel 
estas farate en Ciu alia lingvo. Sed pro plena 
unueco de la lingvo al 6iuj esperantistoj estas 
rekomendate imitadi kiel able plej multe tiun 
stilon, kiu trovigas en la verkoj de la kreinto de 
Esperanto, kiu la plej multe laboris por kaj en 
Esperanto, kaj la plej bone konas gian spiriton. 

5. Esperantisto estas nomatjgi 6iu persono, kiu 
scias kaj uzas la lingvon Esperanto, tute egale, por 
kiaj celoj li gin uzas. Apartenado al ia aktiva societo 
esperantista por twi esperantisto estas rekomend- 
inda, sed de deviga. 



I 



VOCABULARIES 



The following Esperanto-English Vocabulary 
contains all of the word-roots found in the Funda- 
7nento de Esperanto^ with some hundreds of others 
in general use. The student must understand that 
the great majority of these roots can be changed 
by the addition of the various grammatical endings 
and of the prefixes and suffixes ; so that, having 
appropriated a thousand Esperanto roots, he will 
possess a working vocabulary of several thousand 
words. 

The English-Esperanto Vocabulary is merely a 
supplementary help, to assist the student in finding 
the root connected with the idea he has in mind. 
It contains few feminine nouns, these being formed 
from the general or masculine term by adding the 
suffix in. Hundreds of words for which Esperanto 
has no root equivalent are translated by the word 
of contrary meaning, with the prefix maL The 
method of word-building is shown in the following 
series of words from the root for health : 

Sano, health. 
Sani, to be healthy. 
Sana, healthy. 
Sane, healthfully. 
Sanigi, to make healthy. 



Vocabularies 

Sanigi, to become healthy. 
Malsani, to be ill. 
Malsano, sickness. 
Malsaneco, the state of being sick. 
Sanulo, a healthy person. 
Malsanulo, an inyalid. 
Resanigebla, curable. 
Nesanigebla, incurable. 
Malsanulejo, a sanitarium, hospital 
Resanitanta, convalescent. 
Remalsanigi, to suffer a relapse. 
Malsanema, sickly. 
Malsanero, a malady. 
Malsaneraro, a category of diseases. 
Sanemulino, a healthily-inclined female. 
Sanigilo, a medicine. 
Sanigilaro, materia medica.^ 
Sanigisto, a physician. 
Malsaneto, a slight disease. 
Malsanego, a very serious malady. 
Sanigilujo, a medicine case. 
Etc., etc,, etc. See full list of affixes, pp. 65 
to 69. 



Esperanto- English Vocabulary 



a, adjective ending 
abat-o, abbot 
abel-o, bee 
aberaci-o, aberration 
abi-o, fir 

abisen-o, Abysinnian 
abism-o, abyss 
abiturient-o, abiturient 
ablativ-o, ablative 
abomen-o, abomination 
abon-i, to subscribe to 
abnegaci-o, abnegation 
abrikot-o, apricot 
abrotan-o, southern- 
wood 
abrupt-a, abrupt 
absces-o, abscess 
absin-to, absinthe 
absolut-a, absolute 
absolutism-o, absolut- 
ism 
absolv-i, to absolve 
absorb-i, to absorb 
abstemi-a, abstemious 
abstinenc-o, abstinence 
abstrakt-a, abstract 
absurd-a, absurd 
acer-o, maple 
acetat-o, acetate 
acetile-RO, acetylene . 



acid-a, sour 
a6et-i, to buy 
ad, suffix indicating con- 
tinued action : paroli, 
to speak \ parolado, 
a speech 
adapt-i, to adapt 
adekvat-a, adequate 
adept-o, adept 
adiau, farewell 
adici-i, to add 
adjektiv-o, adjective 
adjunkt-o, adjunct 
adjutant-o, adjutant 
administr-i, administer 
administraci-o, admin- 
istration, management 
admir-i, to admire 
admiral-o, admiral 
admiralitat-o, admi- 
ralty 
admon-i, to admonish 
adopt-i, to adopt 
ador-i, worship, adore 
adres-i, to address 
adstring-a, astringent 
adult-i, to commit adul- 
tery 
adverb-o, adverb 
advent-o, advent 



Espera7ito-English Vocabtilary 



advokat-o, attorney, 
advocate . 

aer-o, air; aerumi, to 
ventilate 

aerometr-o, aerometer 

aeronautik-o, aeronaut- 
ics 

aerostat-o, aerostat 

afabl-a, affable 

afekci-o, affection (not 
love) 

afekt-i, to affect 

afer-o, affair, matter 

aforism-o, aphorism 

afiks-o, affix 

afis-o, placard 

afrank-i, to pay postage 

Afrik-o, Africa 

afust-o, gun-carriage 

ag-i, to act 

agac-i, to set the teeth 
on edge 

agarik-o, mushroom 

agat-o, agate 

agend-o, note-book 

agent-o, agent 

agit-i, to agitate O^/.) 

agiot-o, a speculation in 
stocks 

agl-o, eagle 

aglomer-i, to agglom- 
erate 

aglutin-i, to agglutinate 

agoni-o, agony 

agord-i, to tune 

agrabl-a, agreeable 



agraf-o, metal clasp 

agregat-o, aggregate 

agrikultur-o, agricul- 
ture 

agronomi-o, agronomy 

ag-o, age 

ajl-o, garlic 

ajn ever : kiam ajn, 
whenever 

aj, something made from 
or possessing the 
quality of : bovo, ox ; 
bovajo, beef\ bela, 
beautiful \ belajo, a 
beautiful thi7ig, 

akaci-o, acacia 

akademi-o, academy 

akapar-i, to "corner 
the market" of 

akar-o, mite, tick 

akcel-i, to hasten, ac- 
celerate 

akcent-o, accent 

akcept-i, to accept 

akcesor-o, accessory 

akci-o, share of stock 

akcident-o, accident 

akcipitr-o, hawk 

akciz-o, excise 

akir-i, to acquire 

aklam-i, to acclaim 

akn-o, pimple 

akompan-i, to accom- 
pany 

akomod-i, accommodate 
to, to fit 



Esperanto- English Vocabulary 



akonit-0, aconite 
akord-o, chord {music) 
akr-a, sharp 
akrid-o, grasshopper 
akrobat-o, acrobat 
aks-o, axle 
aksel-o, axle-hole 
aksiom-o, axiom 
akt-o, act (theatrical) 
aktiv-a, active {gram.) 
aktor-o, actor 
akurat-a, accurate 
akustik-o, accoustics 
aku§-i, to deliver a 

woman 
akut-a, acute 
akuzativ-o, accusative 
akv-o, water 
akvafort-o, aquafortis 
akvarel-o, a painting 

in water-color 
akvari-o, aquarium 
al, to or toward 
alabastr-o, alabaster 
alarm-o, alarm 
alaud-o, lark (bird) 
alban-o, Albanian 
albinos-o, albino 
album-o, album 
albumen-o, albumen 
alcion-o, halcyon 
ald-o, alto 
ale-o, walk, path 
alegori-o, allegory 
alen-o, awl 
alfabet-o, alphabet 



alg-oj, sea- weed 

algebr-o, algebra 

Algeri-o, Algiers 

alJiemi-o, alchemy 

ali-a, other 

ali-e, otherwise 

alibi-o, alibi 

aline-o, paragraph or 
break in printing 

aligator-o, alligator 

alk-o, ellt 

alkali-o, alkali 

alkohol-o, alcohol 

alkoy-o, alcove 

almanak-o, almanac 

almenau, at least 

almoz-o, alms 

aln-o, alder 

alo-o, aloes 

alopati-o, allopathy 

Alp-oj, Alps 

alpak-o, alpaca 

alt-a, high 

altar-o, altar 

alte-o, marshmallow 

altern-i, to alternate 

alternativ-o, an alter- 
native 

alumet-o, match 

alun-o, alum 

alud-i, to allude to 

amalgam-o, amalgam 

amas-o, crowd 

amator-o, amateur 

ambasador-o, ambassa- 
dor 



Esperanto- English Vocabulary 



ambau, both 
ambici-o, ambition 
ambl-o, amble 
ambos-o, anvil 
ambr-o, ambergris 
ambrozi-o, ambrosia 
ambulanc-o, ambulance 
amel-o, starch 
amen! amen! 
Amerik-o, America 
ametist-o, amethyst 
amfibi-a, amphibious 
amfiteatr-o, amphithe- 
ater 
amik-o, friend 
amindum-i, make love 
amnesti-o, amnesty 
amoniak-o, ammoniac 
ampleks-o, extent, size 
amput-i, amputate 
amuz-i, to amuse 
an, suffix indicating a 
member, citizen, par- 
tisan, etc.: Ameriko, 
America; Amerikano, 
an American 
anagram-o, anagram 
anakronism-o, anachro- 
nism 
analiz-i, to analyze 
analogi-o, analogy 
analitik-o, analytics 
ananas-o, pineapple 
anarhi-o, anarchy 
anatomi-o, anatomy 
anas-o, duck 



ancov-o, anchovy 
And-oj, Andes 
Andaluzi-o, Andalusia 
anekdot-o, anecdote 
aneks-i, to annex 
anemon-o, anemone 
angil-o, eel 

angin-o, quinsy, angina 
angl-a, English 
angl-o, Englishman 
anglism-o, anglicism 
angul-o, angle, corner 
angel-o, angel 
angelus-o, angelus 
anilin-o, aniline 
anim-o, soul 
aniz-o, anise 
ankaii, also 
ankorau, yet, still 
ankr-o, anchor 
anomali-o, anomaly 
anonc-i, announce 
anonim-a, anonymous 
ans-o,catch, clinch, latch 
anser-o, goose 
anstatau, instead of 
ant, sign of present act-- 
ive participle: amanta 
loving 
antagonism-o, antag- 
onism 
antagonist-o, antagon- 
ist 
antarkt-a, antarctic 
antau, before 
anten-o, antenna 



Esperanto- English Vocabulary 



anticip-i, to anticipate 
antikrist-o, Antichrist 
antikv-a, antique 
antilop-o, antelope 
Antil-oj, the Antilles 
antimon-o, antimony 
antipati-o, antipathy 
antipod-oj, antipodes 
antiseps-a, antiseptic 
antitez-o, antithesis 
antologi-o, anthology 
antracit-o, anthracite 
antraks-o, anthrax 
antropologi-o, anthro- 
pology 
Anunciaci-o, Annunci- 
ation 
anus-o, anus 
aort-o, aorta 
apanag-o, appanage 
aparat-o, apparatus 
apart-a, special, sepa- 
rate 
apartament-o, suite, 

apartment 
aparten-i, to belong to 
apati-o, apathy 
apelaci-o, apellation 
apenau, hardly, scarcely 
Apenin-oj, Appenines 
aper-i, to appear 
apetit-o, appetite 
aplaiid-i, to applaud 
aplomb-o, aplomb 
apog-i, to lean upon 
apoge-o, apogee 



apokalips-o, apocalypse 
apokrif-a, apocryphal 
apolog-o, apologue 
apologi-o, apology 
apopleksi-o, apoplexy 
apostat-a, apostate 
apostaz-i, to apostatize 
apostol-o, apostle 
apostrof-o, apostrophe ' 
apotek-o, a chemist's 

shop 
apoteoz-o, apotheosis 
apozici-o, apposition 
apr-o, wild boar 
April-o, April 
aprob-i, to approve 
apsid-o, apsis 
apud, near 
ar, indicates a collection 

of things : arbo, tree; 

arbaro, forest 
arab-o, an Arab 
arabesk-o, arabesque 
arak-o, arrack 
arane-o, spider 
arang-i, to arrange 
arb-o, tree 
arbitr-a, arbitrary 
arbitraci-o, arbitration 
arco, violin bow 
ard-o, ardor 
arde-o, heron 
ardez-o, slate 
arometr-o, areometer 
are-o, area 
aren-o, arena 



^y 



8 



Esperanto-English Vocabulary 



areopag-o, areopagus 

arest-i, to arrest 

argil-o, clay 

argon-o, argon 

argument-o, argument 

Argus-o, Argus 

argent-o, silver 

artiaik-a, archaic 

arliaism-o, archaism 

arheologi-o, archeology 

arhipelag-o, archipel- 
ago 

arhitektur-o, architec- 
ture 

ariiitrav-o, architrave 

arhiv-o, archives 

ari-o, air (^rnusic) 

aristokrat-o, aristocrat 

aritmetik-o, arithmetic 

ark-o, arc, bow 

arkad-o, arcade 

arke-o, ark {Noah^s) 

arkt-a, arctic 

arleken-o, harlequin 

arm-i, to arm 

arme-o, army 

armen-o, Armenian 

arnik-o, arnica 

arog-i (al si), to arro- 
gate to oneself 

arogant-a, arrogant 

arom-o, aroma 

arorut-o, arrowroot 

arpeg-o, arpeggio 

arsenik-o, arsenic 

art-o, art 



artemezi-o, wormwood 
arteri-o, artery 
artez-a, artesian 
artifik-o, artifice 
artik-o, joint 
artikol-o,article(^r^w.) 
artileri-o, artillery 
artist-o, artist 
artisok-o, artichoke 
artrit-o, arthritis 
as, present tense ending 

of verbs 
as-o, ace, of cards 
asafetid-o, asafetida 
asbest-o, asbestos 
asekur-i, to insure 
asert-i, to assert 
asesor-o, an assistant 

judge 
asfiksi-o, asphyxia 
asign-i, to assign 
asimil-i, to assimilate 
asist-i, to assist 
askarid-o, spoolworm 
asket-o, ascetic 
asketism-o, asceticism 
asoci-o, association, 

organization 
asonanc-o, assonance 
asparag-o, asparagus 
aspekt-o, aspect 
aspid-o, asp, aspic 
aspir-i, to aspire 
asteroid-oj, asteroids 
astr-oj, stars, in general 
astrologi-o, astrology 



Esperanto-English Vocabulary 



astronomi-o, astron- 
omy 

at-, sign of the present 
passive participle : 
amate, being loved 

atak-i, to attack 

atavism-o, atavism 

ateism-o, atheism 

ateist-o, atheist 

atenc-i, to attempt 

atend-i, to wait 

atent-a, attentive 

atest-i, to attest 

ating-i, reach, attain 

Atlantik-a, Atlantic 

atlas-o, satin 

atlet-o, athlete 

atmosfer-o, atmosphere 

atotn-o, atom 

atribu-i, to attribute 

atribut-o, attribute 

atripl-o, mountain spin- 
ach 

atrofi-o, atrophy 

atut-o, trump, at cards 

au, or, either 

aud-i, to hear 

auditori-o, audience 

augur-o, augury 

August-o, August 



aiikci-o, auction 
aureol-o, aureole 
aurikl-o, auricle 
Auror-o, Aurora 
auskult-i, to listen 
auspic-oj, auspices 
austr-o, an Austrian 
Australi-o, Australia 
autentik-a, authentic 
autobiografi-o, auto- 
biography 
autograf-o, autograph 
aiitokrat-o, autocrat 
autokrati-o, autocracy 
automat-o, automaton 
aiitomobil-o, automo- 
bile 
autor-o, author 
autoritat-o, authority 
autun-o, autumn 
av-o, grandfather 
avar-a, avaricious 
avel-o, hazelnut 
aven-o, oats 
aventur-o, adventure 
avid-a, avid, eager 
aviz-i, to notify 
azen-o, ass, donkey 
Azi-o, Asia 
azot-o, azote 



babil-i, to chatter 
babord-o, larboard 
bacil-o, bacillus 
bagatel-o, trifle 



bajonet-o, bayonet 
bak-i, to bake 
bakteri-o, bacterium^X/; 
bal-o, ball, dance ><!/></ 



lO 



Esperanto-English Vocabulary 



bala-i, to sweep 
balad-o, ballad 
balanc-i, to balance 
balast-o, ballast 
balbut-i, to stammer 
baldaken-o,, canopy 
baldau, soon 
balen-o, whale 
balet-o, ballet 
balkon-o, balcony 
balon-o, balloon 
balot-i, to vote by ballot 
Balt-a, Baltic 
balustrad-o, balustrade 
balzam-o, balsam 
balzamen-o, balsamine 
bambu-o, bamboo 
ban-i, to bathe 
banan-o, banana 
band-o, band, gang 
bandag-o, bandage 
banderol-o, a strip of 

paper 
bandit-o, bandit 
bank-o, bank (financial) 
bankier-o, banker 
bankrot-i, to fail in 

business 
bant-o, bow of ribbon 
bapt-i, baptize 
bar-i, to obstruct 
barak-o, barracks 
barakt-i, to struggle 
barb-o, beard 
barbar-o, barbarian 
barbarism-o, barbarism 



barbir-o, barber 
bar6o, beet-root soup 
barel-o, barrel, cask 
barier-o, barrier 
barikad-o, barricade 
bariton-o, baritone 
barium-o, barium 
bark-o, bark (boat) 
barometr-o, barometer 
baron-o, baron 
bas-o, base {niusic) 
basen-o, reservoir 
bask-o, skirt of garment 
bast-o, inner bark of tree 
bastard-o, bastard 
bastion-o, bastion 
baston-o, stick 
baslik-o, kind of hood 
bat-i, to beat 
batal-i, to fight 
batalion-o, battalion 
batat-o, sweet potato 
bateri-o, battery 
batist-o, cambric, lawn 
bavar-o, a Bavarian 
baz-o, chemical base 
bazalt-o, basalt 
bazar-o, bazar 
bazilik-o, basilica 
bazilisk-o, basilisk 
bed-o, garden-bed 
bedaur-i, to regret 
beduen-o, Bedouin 
bek-o, beak 
bel-a, fine, beautiful. 
beladon-o, belladonna 



Es;peranto- English Vocabulary 



II 



beletristik-o, belles- 
lettres 

belg-o, a Belgian 

ben-i, to bless 

benefic-o, benefice 

benk-o, bench 

benzin-o, benzine 

benzol-o, benzola 

ber-o, berry 

berber-o, a Berber 

beril-o, beryl 

best-o, beast 

bet-o, beet 

betul-o, birch 

bezon-i, to need, want 

bibli-o, Bible 

bibliografi-o, bibliog- 
raphy 

bibliotek-o, library 

bicikl-o, bicycle 

bien-o, landed estate 

bier-o, beer 

bifstek-o, beefsteak 

bigami-o, bigamy 

bigot-a, bigoted 

bil-o, promissory note ; 
bileto, ticket 

bilanc-o, balance-sheet 

bilard-o, billiards 

bilion-o, billion 

bild-o, picture, poster 

bind-i, to bind (books) 

binokl-o, binocular 

biografi-o, biography 

biologi-o, biology 

•bird-o, bird 



biret-o, biretta 

bis, once more, encore 

biskvit-o, biscuit 

bismut-o, bismuth 

bistr-o, bistre 

bisturi-o, lancet 

bitum-o, bitumen 

bivak-o, bivouac 

blank-a, white 

blasfem-i,to blaspheme 

blat-o, weevil 

blazon-o, blazon 

blek-o, cry of animal 

blend-o, blende 

blind-a, blind 

blok-o, block 

blond-a, blonde 

blov-i, to blow 

blu-a, blue 

bluz-o, blouse 

bo, relationship by mar- 
riage : patro, father ; 
ho^^Xvo, fat her 'in- law 

boa-o, boa 

boat-o, boat 

boben-o, bobbin, spool 

bohem-o, a Bohemian 

boj-i, to bark 

bojkot-i, to boycott 

boks-i, to box 

bol-i, to boil 

Bolivi-o, Bolivia 

bomb-o, bomb 

bombard-i, to bombard 

bombon-o, bonbon ^ 

bon-a, good ^^y^ 



12 



Esperanto-English Vocabulary 



bosk-o, grove, park 
bot-o, boot 
botanik-o, botany 
botel-o, bottle 
bov-o, ox 

bracelet-o, bracelet 
brahiur-o, crab 
brak-o, arm (of body) 
bram-o, bream (fish) 
braman-o, Brahmin 
bran-o, bran 
branco, branch 
brand-o, brandy 
brank-o, gills (of fish) 
bras-i, to brace {naut.) 
brasik-o, cabbage 
brav-a, brave 
brazil-o, a Brazilian 
bre6-o, breach 
bret-o, shelf 
breton-o, a Breton 
brev-o, papal breve 
brevier-o, breviary 
brid-o, bridle 
brigad-o, brigade 
brik-o, brick 
briketo, briquette 
bril-i, to shine 
briliant-o, a brilliant 
brit-a, British 
broc-o, brooch 
brod-i, to embroider 
brog-i, to scald 
brokant-i, to haggle 
brom-o, bromine 
bronk-o, bronchial tube 



bronkit-o, bronchitis 
bronz-o, bronze 
bros-o, brush 
bro§ur-o, brochure 
brov-o, eyebrow 
bru-o, noise 
brul-i, to burn ; bruligi, 

to cause to burn 
brun-a, brown 
brust-o, breast 
brut-o, brute 
bub-o, ragamuffin 
bubal-o, buffalo 
bu6i, to butcher 
bud-o, booth, small store 
budget-o, budget 
buf-o, toad 
bufed-o, buffet 
bufr-o, buffer of car 
buk-o, buckle 
buked-o, bouquet 
bukl-o, ringlet, curl 
buks-o, boxwood 
bul-o, ball of earth 
bulb-o, bulb, onion 
bulgar-o, a Bulgarian 
buljon-o, broth 
bulk-o, roll (bread) 
bulvard-o, boulevard 
bun-o, bun 
burd-o, bumble-bee 
burg-o, civilian, burgess 
burgon-o, bud 
burlesk-a, burlesque 
burnoos-o, burnoose 
busprit-o, bowsprit 



Esperanto-English Vocabulary 



13 



bust-o, bust 
bu§-o, mouth 
bu§el-o, bushel 
buter-o, butter 



butik-o, store 
buton-o, button 
butor-o, bittern 
buz-o, buzzard 



car-o, czar 
ced-i, cede, yield 
cedr-o, cedar 
cejan-o, cornflower 
cel-i, to aim 
cek-o, Czech 
celeri-o, celery 
celuloid-o, celluloid 
cembr-o, kind of pine 
cement-o, cement 
cend-o, cent 
cent, hundred 
centav-o, centavo 
centigram-o, centigram 
centilitr-o, centilitre 
centim-o, centime 
centimetr-o, centimeter 
centr-o, center 
centraliz-i, centralize 
cenzur-i, to censure 
cerb-o, brain 
cercedul-o, teal 
ceremoni-o, ceremony 
ceri-o, cerium 
cert-a, certain, sure 
cerv-o, deer 
ceter-a, the rest ; kaj 
ceteraj, and so forth 



cezi-o, caesmm 
ci, thou ; cin, thee 
cianacid-o,prussic acid 
cibet-o, civet 
cidoni-o, quince 
cidr-o, cider 
cifer-o, cipher, figure 
cigan-o, gipsy 
cigar-o, cigar 
cigared-o, cigarette 
cign-o, swan 
cikad-o, cicada 
cikatr-o, scar 
cikl-o, cycle 
ciklon-o, cyclone 
ciklop-o, cyclop 
cikoni-o, stork 
cikori-o, succory 
cikumo, brown owl 
cikut-o, hemlock 
cilindr-o, cylinder 
cim-o, bug 
cimbal-o, cymbal 
cinabr-o, cinnibar 
cinam-o, cinnamon 
cindr-o, ashes 
cinik-a, cynical 
cipres-o, cypress 



14 



Esperanto- English Vocabulary 



cir-o, shoe blacking 
cirk-o, circus 
cirkel-o, compass 
cirkl-o, circle 
cirkonstanc-o, circum- 
stance 
cirkul-i, to circulate 
cirkuler-o, a circular 
cirkumfleks-o, circum- 
flex 



cistern-o, cistern 
cit-i, to cite, quote 
citadel-o, citadel 
citr-o, zither 
citron-o, lemon 
civil-a, civil( not milit- 
ary, etc.) 
civiliz-i, to civilize 
civilizaci-OjCivilization 
col-o, inch 



6abrak-o, caparison 

6agren-o, chagrin 

6ani-o, chamois 

6ambelan-o, chamber- 
lain 

cambro, room 

6ampan-o, champagne 

6an-o, cock (of gun) 

cap-o, furred cap 

6apel-o, hat 

6apitr-o, chapter 

6ar, because, for, since 

6ar-o, chariot 

6arlatan-o, charlatan 

Sarm-a, charming 

6arnir-o, hinge 

6arpent-i, to do carpen- 
ter work 

6arpi-o, lint 

cas-i, to hunt 

Casta, chaste 

ee, at 



6ef-, head or principal; 

Cefurbo, metropolis, 
6ek-o, check (on bank) 
6el-o, cell (of matter ; 

also of insects' comb) 
Cemizo, shirt 
Cen-o, chain 
ceriz-o, cherry 
6erk-o, coffin 
6erp-i, to draw water 

from well 
6esi, to cease 
6eval-o, horse 
6i, the nearest : tio, 

that ; tio 6i, this. 
6ia, all, all such 
6ial, for every reason 
ciam, always 
cie, everywhere 
6iel, in every way 
6iel-o, heaven, the sky" 
Cies, everybody's 



Esperanto-English Vocabulary 



15 



Cif-i, to crumple 
6ifon-o, rag 
6ikan-i, chicane, cavil 
6io, all, everything 
6iom, all, all of it 
Cirkau, around 
ciu, each, every one 
6irp-i, to chirp 



6iz-i, to chisel 

6j, endearing diminutive 
for masculine names : 
Petro, Peter \ PeCjo, 
Pete, 

6il-o, a Chilian 

6okolad-o, chocolate 

6u, whether 



da, of ; used instead of 
de after words denot- 
ing quantity, weight, 
number. 

daktil-o, date (fruit) 

dali-o, dahlia 

dalmat-a, Dalmatian 

dam-oj, draughts (game 

damask-o, damask 

dan-o, a Dane 

danc-i, to dance 

dand-o, a dandy 

danger-o, danger 

dank-i, to thank 

Dardanel-oj, Dardan- 
elles 

dat-o, date (time); dat- 
um!, to date 

dativ-o, dative 

datur-o, datura 

dauri, to continue 

de, of, by, since, from 

debet-o, a **charge," 
debit (indicates debt) 



debit-o, selling transac- 
tion, ready sale 
dec-i, to be proper, de- 
cent 
Decembr-o, December 
decid-i, to decide 
decilitr-o, decilitre 
decimal-a, decimal 
decimetr-o, decimeter 
de6ifr-i, to decipher 
dediCi, to dedicate 
dedukt-i, to deduce 
defend-i, to defend 
deficit-o, deficit 
definitiv-a, definitive 
degel-i, to thaw 
degener-i, degenerate 
degrad-i, to degrade 
dejor-i, to be on duty 
dek, ten 

dekadenc-o, decadence 
dekagram-o, dekagram 
dekametr-o, dekame- 
ter 



i6 



EsperantO'EnglUh Vocabulary 



dekan-o, dean 
deklam-i, to declaim 
deklar-i, to declare 
deklaraci-o, declaration 
deklinaci-o, declension 
dekliv-o, declivity 
dekoraci-o, decoration 
dekret-i, to decree 
dekstr-a, right ; oppo- 
site of left 
deleg-i, to delegate 
delegaci-o, delegation 
delfen-o, dolphin 
delikat-a, delicate 
delir-o, delirium 
delt-o, delta 
demagog-o, demagogue 
demand-i, to ask 
demokrat-o, democrat 
demokrati-o, democra- 
cy 
demon-o, demon 
denar-o, denarius 
dens-a, dense 
dent-o, tooth 
denunc-i, to denounce 
departement-o, depart- 
ment of government 
depe§-o, dispatch 
depon-i, to deposit 
deput-i, to depute 
deriv-i, to derive 
des pli, the more 
desegn-i, to design 
desert-o, dessert 
desinfekt-i, disinfect 



despot-o, despot 
despotisni-o,despotisEr 
destin-i, to destine 
detal-o, detail 
detektiv-o, detective 
determin-i, determine' 
detru-i, to destroy 
dev-i, ought, must 
devi-i, to deviate 
deven-o, origin 
deviz-o, emblem, device 
dezert-o, desert 
dezir-i, to desire 
Di-o, God 
diabet-o, diabetes 
diabl-o, devil 
diadem-o, diadem 
diafan-a, diaphanous 
diafragm-o, diaphragm 
diagnostik-o, diagnosis 
diagnoz-i, to diagnose 
diagonal-a, diagonal 
diakon-o, deacon 
dialekt-o, dialect 
dialog-o, dialogue 
diamant-o, diamond 
diametr-o, diameter 
diant-o, a pink 
diapazon-o, diapason 
dibo6-o, debauSh 
didaktik-a, didactic 
didelf-o, kangaroo 
diet-o, diet 
difekt-i, to damage 
diferenc-i, to differ 
difin-i, to define 



Esperanto- English Vocabulary 



17 



difteri-o, diphtheria 
diftong-o, diphthong 
dig-o, dike, dam 
digest-i, to digest 
idiism-o, deism 
dik-a, thick; also ''fat*' 
dikt-i, to dictate 
diktator-o, dictator 
dilem-o, dilemma 
dilet-i, to delight in 
diligent-a, diligent 
dimanC-o, Sunday 
dimensi-o, dimension 
diminutiv-o, diminutive 
dinam-o, dynamo 
dinamik-o, dynamics 
dinamit-o, dynamite 
dinasti-o, dynasty 
diplom-o, diploma 
diplomat-o, diplomat 
diplomati-o, diplomacy 
dir-i, to say 
direkci-o, management, 

board of directors 
direkt-i, to direct 
direktor-o, director 
direktori-o, directory 
dis, indicates separation 

or scattering : §iri, 

to tear ; dis§iri, to 

tear to pieces, 
disciplin-o, discipline 
disenteri-o, dysentery 
disertaci-o, dissertation 
disk-o, disc 
diskont-o, discount 



diskret-a, discreet 
diskut-i, to discuss 
dispepsi-o, dyspepsia 
dispon-i, to dispose 
disput-i, to dispute 
distanc-o, distance 
distil-i, to distil 
disting-i, to distinguish 
distr-i, to distract 
distribu-i, to distribute 
distrikt-o, district 
divan-o, divan 
diven-i, to guess 
divers-a, various 
diverg-i, to diverge 
divid-i, to divide 
dividend-o, dividend 
divizi-o, division (army 
do, indeed 

docent-o, docent, tutor 
dog-o, large dog, mastiff 
dogm-o, dogma 
dot-o, doge 
doktor-o, doctor 
doktrin-o, doctrine 
dokutnent-o, document 
dolar-o, dollar 
dolCa, sweet 
dolor-o, pain 
dom-o, house 
domag-o, pity 
domen-o, domino 
don-i, to give 
donac-i, to make a gift 
dorlot-i, coddle, nurse 
dorm-i, to sleep 



i8 



Esperanto- English Vocabulary 



dorm-i, to sleep 
dorn-o, a thorn 
dors-o, back 
dct-i, to give a dower 
doz-o, dose 
dragon-o, dragoon 
drak-o, dragon 
drakm-o, drachma 
drakon-a, draconian 
dram-o, drama 
drap-o, cloth 
drapir-i, to drape 
drast-a, drastic 
dra§-i, to thresh 
drelik-o, twilled cotton 

goods, drilling 
dren-i, to drain 
dres-i, to train 



driad-o, dryad 
drink-i, to tipple 
drog-o, drug 
dromedar-o, dromedary 
dron-i, to drown ; dro- 

nigi, cause to drown 
druid-o, druid 
du, two 

dub-i, to doubt 
duel-i, fight a duel 
duet-o, duet 
duk-o, duke 
dukat-o, ducat 
dum, during, while 
dung-i, to hire 
duplikat-o, duplicate 
dur-o, a Spanish coin 
du§-o, douche 



£ 



e., abbreviation for ek- 
zemple ; e. g. 

e, sign of derived ad- 
verb : be la, beautiful) 
bele, beautifully 

eben-a, even 

ebr, denotes possibility: 
audi, to hear ; aud- 
ebla, audible 

ebon-o, ebony 

ebri-a, inebriate, drunk 

ebur-o, ivory 



ec, abstract quality : 
bona, good ; boneco, 
goodness 

ec, even ; e6 se, even if 

Eden-o, Eden 

edif-i, to edify 

edikt-o, edict 

eduk-i, to educate 

edz-o, a husband 

efekt-o, effect 

efektiv-a, real, actual 

efemer-a, ephemeral 



Esperanto-English Vocabulary 



19 



efemer-a, ephemeral 

efik-i, to effect 

eg', increased degree cr 
size: vento, wind \ 
ventego, tempest 

egal-a, equal 

Egid-o, ^gis 

egipt-o, an Egyptian 

eglefin-o, haddock 

eglog-o, eclogue 

egoism-o, egotism 

egoist-o, egotist 

eli-o, echo 

ej', place devoted to : 
lern-i, to learn ; ler- 
nejo, a school 

ek', prefix indicating an 
action of short dura- 
tion or sudden begin- 
ning : brili, to shine ; 
ekbrili, to flash 

ekip-i, to equip 

eklektik-a, eclectic 

eklezi-o, church (the 
institution) 

eklips-o, eclipse 

ekliptik-o, ecliptic 

ekonom-o, superintend- 
ent 

eks', of the past, ex : 
eksprezidanto, ex- 
president, 

ekscelenc-0, excellency 
(title) 

ekscentr-a, eccentric 

eksces-o, excess 



ekscit-i, to excite 
eksklusiv-a, exclusive 
ekskomunik-i, to ex- 
communicate 
ekskrement-o, excre- 
ment 
ekskurs-o, excursion 
ekspansi-o, expansion 
eksped-i, to expedite 
eksperiment-o, exper- 
iment 
ekspertiz-o, investiga- 
tion by experts 
eksplod-i, to explode 
ekspluat-i, to exploit, 

to work out 
eksport-i, to export 
ekspozici-o, exhibition, 

exposition 
ekspres-a, express,pos- 

itive 
ekstaz-o, ecstasy 
ekstemporal-o, extem- 
porization 
ekster, outside 
eksterm-i, exterminate 
ekstr-a, extra 
ekstrakt-o, extract 
ekstrem-a, extreme 
ekvaci-o, equation 
ekvator-o, equator 
ekvilibr-o, equilibrium 
ekvilibrism-o, equili-' 

ibrism 
ekvivalent-o, equiva- 
lent 



20 



Esperanto- English Vocabulary 



ekvivok-a, equivocal 
ekzakt-a, mathematic- 
ally exact 
ekzamen-i, to examine 
eksegez-o, exegesis 
ekzekut-i, to put to 

death, execute 
ekzem-o, eczema 
ekzempl-o, example 
ekzempler-o, copy (of 

a book, etc.) 
ekzerc-i, to exercise 
ekzil-i, to exile 
el, out of, from, from 

among 
elast-a, elastic 
elefant-o, elephant 
elegant-a, elegant 
elegi-o, elegy 
elekt-i, to choose, elect 
elektr-o, electricity 
elektroliz-o, electrolysis 
elektromotor-o, elec- 
tric motor 
element-o, element 
elevator-o, elevator 
elf-o, elf 
eleksir-o, elixir 
elips-o, ellipse 
elimini-i, to eliminate 

{math, ) 
elizi-i, to elide 
elokvent-a, eloquent 
em', inclination: labori, 
to work ; laborema, 
industrious. 



emajl-o, enamel 
emancipi-i, emancipate 
embaras-o, encum- 
brance 
emblem-o, emblem 
embrazur-o, embrasure 
embri-o, embryo 
embriologi-o, embryol- 
ogy 
embusk-o, ambush 
emerit-o, 'emeritus 
emfaz-o, emphasis 
emigraci-o, emigration 
eminenc-o, eminence 

(title) 
eminent-a, eminent 
emoci-o, emotion 
empiri-a, empirical 
empirism-o, empirism 
en, in, into 

enciklopedi-o, encyclo- 
pedia 
endivi-o, endive 
energi-o, energy 
enigm-o, enigma 
enket-o, a poll of mem- 
bers; inquest, inquiry 
entomologi-o, entomol- , 
ogy I 

entrepren-i, undertake ' 
entuziasm-o, enthusi- 
asm 
enu-i, to be tired, dull 
envi-i, to envy 
eparhi-o, diocese 
epideiiii-o, epidemic 



Esperanto- English Vocabulary 



21 



epiderm-o, epidermis 
Epifani-o, Epiphany 
epigraf-o, epigraph 
epigram-o, epigram 
epikurism-o, epicurism 
epilepsi-o, epilepsy 
epilog-o, epilogue 
episkop-o, bishop 
epistol-o, epistle 
epitaf-o, epitaph 
epitet-o, epithet 
epitom-o, epitome 
epizod-o, episode 
epizooti-o, murrain 
epok-o, epoch 
epolet-o, epaulet 
epope-o, epopee 
er*, unit, one of a col- 
lection : sabl-o, sand\ 
sablero, grain of sand 
erar-i, to err 
erik-o, heather 
erinac-o, hedgehog 
erizipel-o, erysipelas 
ermen-o, ermine 
ermit-o, hermit 
erotik-a, erotic 
erp-i, to harrow 
erupci-o, eruption 
escept-i, to except 
esenc-o, essence 
eskadr-o, squadron 
eskim-o, Esquimo 
eskort-o, escort 
esoter-a, esoteric 
esper-i, to hope 



esplor-i, to explore 
esprim-i, to express 
est-i, to be 
establ-i, to establish 
estetik-a, esthetic 
estim-i, to esteem 
esting-i, to extinguish 
estr-o, leader, chief 
estrad-o, rostrum 
e§afod-o, executioner's 

scaffold 
et*, diminution of size 

or degree : monto, 

mountain ; monteto, 

hill 
etag-o, story of building 
etat-o, social rank 
etend-i, to extend 
eter-o, ether 
etern-a, eternal 
etik-o, ethics 
etiket-o, etiquette 
etimologi-o, etymology 
etiop-o, an Ethiopian 
etnologi-o, ethnology 
eufemism-o euphemism 
eunuk-o, eunuch 
Europ-o, Europe 
evangeli-o, gospel 
eventual-a, eventual, 

contingent 
evident-a, evident 
evit-i, to avoid 
evoluci-o, evolution 
esofag-o, esophagus 
ezok-o, pike (fish) 



22 



Esperanto-English Vocabulary 



fab-0, bean 

fabel-o, story (fiction) 

fabl-o, fable 

fabrik-o, factory 

facil-a, easy 

faden-o, thread 

faeton-o, phaeton 

fag-o, beech 

fajenc-o, earthenware 

fajf-i, to whistle 

fajl-i, to file 

fajr-o, fire 

fak-o, section, division 

fakir-o, fakir 

faksimil-o, fac simile 

fakt-o, fact 

faktor-o, printer's fore- 
man 

faktori-o, business de- 
pot, agency 

faktur-o, invoice 

fakultat-o, faculty (of 
college, etc.) 

fal-i, to fall 

falang-o, phalanx 

falbal-o, furbelow 

fal6-i, to mow 

fald-i, to fold 

falk-o, falcon 

fals-i, to falsify, adul- 
terate 

falt-o, a wrinkle 



fam-o, rumor 
famili-o, family 
familiar-a, familiar 
fanatik-a, fanatical 
fand-i, to melt (metals) 
fanfar-o, fanfare 
fanfaron-i, to boast 
fantazi-o, fancy 
fantom-o, phantom 
far-i, to make, do 
fara-o, Pharaoh 
faring-o, pharynx 
farize-o, pharisee 
farm-i, to farm 
farmaci-o, pharmacy 
fart-i, to fare (as to 

health or safety) 
farun-o, flour 
fasad-o, facade 
fask-o, bundle 
fars-o, farce 
fason-o, shape cut of a 

garment 
fast-o, fast, abstinence 
fatal-a, fatal 
fatalism-o, fatalism 
fauk-o, jaw, opening 
fav-o, ringworm 
favor-a, favorable 
faz-o, phase (of the 

moon, etc.) 
fazan-Oj pheasant 



I 



Esperanto- English Vocabulary 



23 



fazeol-o, haricot bean 

febr-o, fever 

Februar-o, February 

fe6-o, dregs 

feder-i, to federate 

federaci-o, federation 

federalism-o, federal- 
ism 

fe-o, fay; feino, fairy 

fel-o, hide, pelt 

felic-a, happy 

felieton-o, feuilleton 

felp-o, velveteen 

felt-o, felt 

feminism-o, feminism 

feminist-o, suffragist, 
feminist 

femur-o, thigh 

fend-i, to split 

fenestr-o, window 

fenikopter-o, flamingo 

feniks-o, phoenix 

fenkol-o, fennel 

fenomen-o,phenomenon 

fer-o, iron 

ferdek-o, deck of ship 

ferm-i, to close 

ferment-i, to ferment 

fervor-o, fervor 

fest-i, to celebrate, to 
entertain 

festen-o, banquet 

feston-o, festoon 

feti^-o, fetish 

feud-a, feudal 

fez-o, fez (cap) 



fi! fie! 

fiakr-o, fiacre, cab 

fian6-o, a betrothed man 

fiask-o, fiasco 

fibr-o, fiber 

fibrin-o, fibrine 

fid-i, to trust, rely 

fidel-a, faithful 

fier-a, proud, haughty 

fig-o, fig 

figur-i, to represent by 
drawing, etc. 

fiks-i, to fix (not repair) 

fiktiv-a, fictitious 

fil-o, son 

filantrop-o, philanthro- 
pist 

filantropi-o, p h i 1 a n - 
thropy 

filatel-o, philately 

filharmoni-o, philhar- 
monics 

fili-o, branch of organi- 
zation, firm, etc. 

filigran-o, filigree 

filik-o, fern 

filistr-o, Philistine, vul- 
garian 

filologi-o, philology 

filozof-o, philosopher 

filozofi-o, philosophy 

filtr-i, to filter 

fin-i, to finish 

final-o, finale 

financ-o, finance 

fingr-o, finger 



24 



Esperanto- English Vocabulary 



Finland-o, Finlando 

firm-o, a firm 

fisk-o, public treasury 

fistul-o, fistula 

fi§-o, a fish 

fizik-o, physics 

fiziologi-o, physiology 

fizionomi-o, physiog- 
nomy 

fjord-o, fjord 

flag-o, banner, signal 
flag 

flagr-i, to flicker, flare 

flam-o, flame 

flan-o, custard 

flanel-o, flannel 

flank-o, side 

flar-i, to smell 

flat-i, to flatter 

flav-a, yellow 

fleg-i, to nurse 

flegm-o, phlegm 

fleksi-o, inflection 

flik-i, to patch, mend 

flirt-i, to flirt 

flok-o, flake 

flor-i, to flower, bloom 

floren-o, florin 

flos-o, raft 

flu-i, to flow 

flug-i, to fly 

fluid-a, liquid 

flut-o, flute 

foir-o, a fair 

foj-o, **time"; unufojo, 
one time 



fojn-o, hay 
fok^o, seal 
foken-o, porpoise 
fokus-o, focus 
foli-o, leaf 
foment-i, foment 
fond-i, to found 
fonetik-a, phonetic 
fonograf-o, phonograph 
font-o, spring of water 
fontan-o, fountain 
for, away from 
forges-i, to forget 
forg-i, to forge (metals) 
fork-o, fork 
form-o, form, shape 
formaci-o, formation 
* fprmal-a, formal 
format-o,size and shape 

of a book 
formik-o, ant 
formul-o, formula 
forn-o, stove, oven 
fort-a, strong 
fortepian-o, piano 
fortik-a, solid, substan- 
tial 
forum-o, forum 
fos-i, to dig 
fosfor-o, phosphorus 
fost-o, stake, post 
fotograf-i, to photo- 
graph 
frag-o, strawberry 
fragment-o, fragment 
fraj-o, spawn 



Esperanto- English Vocabulary 



25 



frak-o, evening dress 

coat 
frakas-i, to shatter 
frakci-o, fraction 
fraksen-o, ash (tree) 
framason-o, freemason 
framb-o, raspberry 
franc-o, a Frenchman 
frand-i, to be fond of 

sweets 
frangol-o, black alder 
frang-o, fringe 
frank-o, franc 
frap-i, to knock 
frat-o, brother 
fraul-o, unmarried man 
fraz-o, phrase 
fregat-o, frigate 
fremd-a, foreign 
frenez-a, mad, crazy 
fresk-o, fresco 
fre§-a, fresh 
fring-o, chaffinch 
fringel-o, canary 
fripon-o, rascal, rogue 
fris-o, frieze 
frit-i, to fry 
frivol-a, frivolous 
friz-i, to curl (the hair) 
fromag-o, cheese 



front-o, front of army 
fronton-o, gable 
frost-o, frost 
frot-i, to rub 
fru-e, early 
frugileg-o, rook 
frukt-o, fruit 
frunt-o, forehead 
ftiz-o, consumption 
fug-o, fugue ^ 
fulard-o, foulard 
fulg-o, soot 
fulm-o, lightning 
fum-i, to smoke 
fund-o, bottom 
fundament-o, founda- 
tion 
funebr-o, funeral 
funel-o, funnel 
fung-o, mushroom 
funkci-o, function 
funt-o, pound 
furag-o, forage 
furioz-a, furious 
furor-o, furore 
furunk-o, a boil 
fusten-o, fustian 
fu§-i, to bungle, botch 
fut-o, foot (measure) 
fuzilier-o, fusilier 



gabi-o, gabion 
gad-o, codfish 



gaj-a, 
gajn-i, 



gay 
to gain 



26 



Esperanto-English Vocabulary 



gal-o, bile, gall 
galant-o, snowdrop 
galanteri-o, toilet ar- 
ticles 
galantin-o, galantine 
galen-o, galena 
galer-o, ship's galley 
galeri-o, gallery 
galicism-o, gallicism 
gall-a, Gallic 
galop-i, to gallop 
galo§-o, galosh 
galvan-a, galvanic 
galvanism-o,galvanism 
gam-o, gamut 
gama§-o, gaiter 
gangli-o, ganglion 
gangren-o, gangrene 
gant-o, glove 
garanti-i, to guarantee 
garb-o, a sheaf 
gard-i, to guard 
gardeni-o, gardenia 
gargar-i, to gargle 
garn-i, garnish, decorate 
garnitur-o, garniture 
garnizon-o, garrison 
garol-o, jay 
gas-o, gas 
gast-o, guest 
gastronomi-o, gastron- 
omy 
gavot-o, gavotte 
gaz-o, gauze 
gazel-o, gazelle 
gazet-o, gazette 



ge*, prefix meaning both 
sexes: patro, father ; 
gepatroj, parents, 
gehen-o, gehenna 
gelaten-o, gelatine 
gem-o, gem 
gencian-o, gentian 
genealogi-o, genealogy 
general-o, a general 
generaci-o,a generation 
geni-o, genius, talent 
genitiv-o, genitive 
genot-o, genet 
gent-o, tribe 
genu-o, knee 
geografi-o, geography 
geologi-o, geology 
geometri-o, geometry 
gerani-o, geranium 
german-a, German 
gerundi-o, gerundive 
gest-o, gesture 
gigant-o, a giant 
gild-o, guild 
gimnastik-a, gymnastic 
gimnazi-o, a college 
gine-o, guinea (coin) 
gips-o, gypsum 
girfalk-o, gerfalcon 
girland-o, garland 
gitar-o, guitar 
glace-a, spick and span, 

**dress-" 
glaci-o, ice 
glad-i, to iron, smooth 
gladiator-o, gladiator 



Esperanto- English Vocabulary 



27 



glan-o, acorn 
gland-o, gland 
glas-o, drinking-glass 
glat-a, smooth 
glav-o, sword 
glazur-o, varnish 
glicerin-o, glycerine 
glieiriz-o, licorice 
glikoz-o, glucose 
glim-o, mica 
glit-i, to glide 
glob-o, globe 
glor-i, to glorify 
glu-i, to stick 
glut-i, to swallow 
gobi-o, gudgeon 
golet-o, schooner 
golf-o, gulf, bay 
gondol-o, gondola 
gorg-o, throat 
goril-o, gorilla 
got-a, Gothic 
graci-a, graceful 
grad-o, grade, degree 
graf-o, earl, count 
grafit-o, graphite 
grajn-o, a grain, stone, 

pip (of fruit) 
grak-i, to croak 
gram-o, gram 
gramatik-o, grammar 
gran-o, a grain, particle 
granat-o, pomegranate 
grand-a, large, great 
' grandioz-a, grandiose, 

magnificent 



granit-o, granite 
gras-a, fat 
grat-i, to scratch 
gratul-i, to congratulate 
grav-a, important 
graved-a, enciente 
gravur-i, to engrave 
grek-o, a Greek 
gren-o, grain, cereal 
grenad-o, grenade 
Grenland-o, Greenland 
gri-o, oatmeal 
grif-o, griffin 
grifel-o, slate-pencil, 

stylus 
gril-o, cricket 
grimac-o, grimace 
grinc-i, to grate, rasp 
grip-o, influenza 
griz-a, gray 
grog-o, grog 
gros-o, gooseberry 
grot-o, grotto 
grotesk-a, grotesque 
gru-o, crane (bird) 
grum-o, groom 
grumbl-i, to grumble 
grunt-i, to grunt 
grup-o, group 
guan-o, guano 
guberni-o, government 

of a province or state 
gudr-o, tar 
guf-o, a large owl 
gulden-o, gulden 
gum-o, gum 



28 



Esperanto- English Vocabulary 



gurd-0, hand-organ 
gust-o, taste 
gustum-i, to taste 
gut-i, to drip 
gutaperk-o, gutta per- 
cha 



guvern-i, to educate in 

private 
gvardi-o, a guard of 

soldiers 
gvid-i, to guide 



garden-o, garden 
gem-i, to groan 
gen-i, to hinder 
gendarm-o, gendarme 
general-a, general 
gentil-a, polite 
germ-o, germ 
gi, it 

gib-o, hump 
gin-o, gin 



ginece-o, gynecium 
gir-o, endorsement (df 

note, draft, etc.) 
giraf-o, giraffe 
gis, till, until, as far as 
givr-o, hoar-frost 
goj-O, joy 
gu-i, to enjoy 
gust-a, just, exact 



H 



ha ! ha ! ah I 
Haban-o, Havana 
hajl-o, hail 
hak-i, to hack 
hal-Of a covered mar- 
ket-place 
haladz-o, offensive ex- 
halation 
halebard-o, halberd 
helen-a, Hellenic 
halt-i, to stop ; haltigi, 
to cause to stop 



halter-o, dumb-bell 
halucinaci-o, hallucin- 
ation 
hamak-o, hammock 
hamstr-o, hamster 
har-o, hair 
haradri-o, plover 
hard-i, to harden 
harem-o, harem 
haring-o, herring 
harmoni-o, harmony 
harp-o, harp 



Esperanto-English Vocabulary 



29 



harpi-o, harpy 
harpun-o, harpoon 
haut-o, skin 
hav-i, jto have, possess 
haven-o, haven, port 
hazard-o, hazard 
he ! hey ! hello 1 
hebre-o, Hebrew 
heder-o, ivy 
hejm-o, home 
hejt-i, to heat 
hekatomb-o, hecatomb 
heksametr-o, hexame- 
ter 
hektar-o, hectare 
hektograf-o, h e k t o - 

graph 
hektogram-o, h e k t o - 

gram 
hektolitr-o, hektolitre 
hektometr-o, hekto- 

meter 
hel-a, bright, glaring 
helik-o, edible snail 
heliotrop-o, heliotrope 
helium-o, helium 
help-i, to help, assist 
hemorojd-o, piles 
hepat-o, liver 
heraldik-o, heraldry 
herb-o, herb, grass 
herbari-o, herbarium 
hered-i, to inherit 
herez-o, heresy 
hermafrodit-o, herma- 
phrodite 



hermetik-a, air-tight 
herni-o, hernia, rupture 
hero-o, hero 
herold-o, herald 
heterogen-a, heteroge- 
neous 
hetman-o, a Cossack 

chief 
hiacint-o, hyacinth 
hidr-o, hydra 
hidrarg-o, mercury 
hidraulik-o, hydraulics 
hidrofobi-o, hydropho- 
bia 
hidrops-o, dropsy 
hien-q, hyena 
hierarlii-o, hierarchy 
hierau, yesterday 
hieroglif-o, hieroglyph 
higien-o, hygiene 
himn-o, hymn 
hind-o, a Hindoo 
hiperbol-o, hyperbole 
hipnot-a, hypnotic 
hipodrom-o, hippo- 

drome 
hipokrit-i, to pretend 
hipopotam-o, hippopo- 
tamus 
hipotek-o, mortgage 
hipotenuz-o, hypothe- 

nuse 
hipotez-o, hypothesis 
hirt-a, bristly 
hirud-o, leech 
hirund-o,swallow(bird) 



30 



Esperanto-English Vocabulary 



hiskiam-o, henbane 

hisop-o, hyssop 

hispan-o, a Spaniard 

histeri-o, hysteria 

histori-o, history 

histrik-o, porcupine 

histrion-o, clown 

ho ! oh ! ho 1 

hoboj-o, hautboy, oboe 

hodiaii, today 

hok-o, hook 

holand-a, Dutch 

hold-o, hold of ship 

hom-o, human being 

homeopati-o, homeop- 
athy 

homogen-a, homogen- 
eous 

honest-a, honest 

honor-i, to honor 

honorari-o, honorarium 



hont-i, to be ashamed 
hor-o, hour 
horde-o, barley 
horizont-o, horizon 
horlog-o, clock 
horoskop-o, horoscope 
hortensi-o, hortensia 
hospital-o, hospital 
hotel-o, hotel 
ho ve! alas! 
huf-o, hoof 
hulul-o, howlet 
human-a, humane 
humer-o, humerus 
humil-a, humble 
humor-a, humorous 
hund-o, dog 
hungar-o, a Hungarian 
hura! hurrah! 
huz-o, large sturgeon 
huzar-o, hussar 



H 



^ameleon-o, chameleon 
liaos-o, chaos 
tiemi-o, chemistry 
tiimer-o, chimera 
hin-o, a Chinese person 
hirurg-o, surgeon 
liirurgi-o, surgery 



Iioler-o, cholera 

iior-o, choir 

Iioral-o, chorale 

Iiromotipi-o, chromo- 
type, color-printing 

tironologi-o, chronol- 
ogy 



Esj^eranto- English Vocabulary 



31 



i, infinitive verb ending: 

ami, to love 
ia, any kind of 
ial, for any reason 
iam, ever, at any time 
ibis-o, ibis 
id', the young of: kato, 

cat\ katido, kitten 
ide-o, idea 
ideal-a, ideal 
idealism-o, idealism 
ident-a, identical 
idili-o, idyll 
idiom-o, idiom 
idiot-o, idiot 
idol-o, idol 

ie, someplace, anywhere 
iel, somehow, anyhow 
ies, . somebody's, any 

person's 
ig', to cause to become : 

bela, beautiful \ bel- 

igi, beautify, 
ignam-o, yam 
ignor-i, to ignore 
ig', to become: ruga, 
^red\ rugigi, to blush 
i!itiokol-o, isinglass 
ir, tool or instrument : 

tondi, clip\ tondilo, 

scissors 
ileks-o, holly 
ili, they 
ilumin-i, to illuminate 



ilustr-i, to illustrate 

iluzi-o, illusion 

imag-i, to imagine 

imit-i, to imitate 

imperi-o, empire 

imperial-o, roof of a 
vehicle 

imperialism-o, imperi- 
alism 

impertinent-a, imper- 
tinent 

implik-i, to implicate 

impon-i, to impose 

import-i, to import 

impost-o, tax 

impotent-a, impotent 

impres-o, impression 

impuls-o, impulse 

imput-i, to impute 

imun-a, immune 

in*, suffix of the femin- 
ine : viro, man ; vir- 
ino, woman 

inauguraci-o, inaugu- 
ration 

incit-i, to incite 

ind', worth: fidi, to 
trust ; fidinda, trusi" 
worthy 

indeks-o, index 

indian-o, Indian 

indien-o, chintz 

indiferent-a, indifferent 

indig-o, indigo 



32 



Esperanto- English Vocabulary 



indign-i, to be indignant 
indigen-o, a native 
indikativ-o, indicative 
individu-o, individual 
induk-o, induction 
indulg-i, to indulge 
industri-o, industry, 

business 
inerci-o, inertia 
infan-o, child 
infanteri-o, infantry 
infekt-i, to infect 
infer-o, hell 
infinitiv-o, infinitive 
influ-i, to influence 
inform-i, to give infor- 
mation 
infuz-i, to infuse 
ing', holdor for a single 
object : plumo, ^en ; 
plumingo, penholder, 
ingven-o, groin 
ingenier-o, engineer 
iniciat-i, to initiate 
iniciativ-o, initiative 
injekt-i, to inject 
ink-o, ink 
inklin-o, inclination 
inklusiv-e, inclusive 
inkognit-o, incognito 
inkub-o, nightmare 
inkvizaci-o, inquisition 
inkvizitor-o, inquisitor 
inokul-i,to inoculate 
insekt-o, insect 
insid-i, to ensnare 



insign-o, msignia 
insist-i, insist 
inspekt-i, to inspect 
inspir-i, to inspire 
instal-i, to install 
instanc-o, instance 
instig-i, to instigate 
instinkt-o, instinct 
instituci-o, institution 
institut-o, institute 
instru-i, to instruct 
instrukci-o, directions, 

instructions 
instrument-o, musical 

instrument 
insul-o, island 
insult-i, to insult 
int*, the past participle: 
aminte, having loved 
integral-a, integral 
intelekt-o, intellect 
inteligent-a, intelligent 
intenc-i, to intend 
intens-a, intensive 
inter, between, among 
interdikt-o, interdict 
interes-i, to interest 
interjekci-o, interjec- 
tion 
intermit-i, to occur at 

intervals 
intern-a, internal 
interpret-i, to interpret 
interpunkci-o, punctu- 
ation 
intervju-o, interview 



EsperafitO' English Vocabulary 



33 



intest-o, intestine 
intim-a, intimate 
intrig-i, to intrigue 
invad-i, to invade 
invalid-o, invalid 
invers-a, inverse 
inversi-o, inversion 
invit-i, to invite 
io, something, anything 
iom, somewhat, some 
ir-i, to go 
iris-o, iris 
Irland-o, Ireland 
ironi-o, irony 
inventar-o, inventory 



is*, sign of past tense : 
amis, did love, 

Islam-o, Islam 

Island-o, Iceland 

ist', one occupied with : 
kuraci, to heal\ kura- 
cisto, a doctor. 

istm-o, isthmus 

it*, past participle pas- 
sive : amite, having 
been loved, 

ital-a, Italian 

iu, anybody, somebody 

izol-i, to isolate 

Izrael-o, Israel 



j, sign of the plural : 
knabo, boy\ knaboj, 
boys, 

ja, indeed, in fact 

jaguar-o, jaguar 

jalit-o, yacht 

jak-o, a round jacket 

jam, already, yet 

jamb-o, iambus 

Januar-o, January 

japan-a, Japanese 

jar-o, year 

jard-o, yard (measure) 

jasmen-o, jessamine 

je, is an indefinite prep- 
osition 



jen, behold, lo 
jes, yes 
Jesu-o, Jesus 
jod-o, iodine 
ju pli, the more 
jubile-o, jubilee 
jud-o, Jew 

juft-o, Russia leather 
jug-o, yoke 
jugland-o, walnut 
jugi, to judge 
Juki, to itch 
Juli-o, July 
jun-a, young 
jung-i, to harness 
Juni-o, June 



34 



Esperanto-English Vocabulary 



jumper-o, jumper 
junk-o, reed, stalk 
junkr-o, Prussian noble 
jup-o, skirt 



jurist-o, jurist 
just-a, just, righteous 
jut-o, jute 
juvel-o, jewel 



Jak-o, morning-coat 
Jaket-o, jacket 
Jaluz-a, jealous 
Jargon-o, jargon 
Jaiid-o, Thursday 
Jet-i, to throw 



joke-o, jockey 
jongl-i, to juggle 
jur-i, to swear 
jurnal-o, newspaper 
JUS, just, just now 



K 



k. c, kaj ceteraj\ and 
the rest 

k. s., kaj si7nilaj\ and 
similar 

k. sekv., kaj sekvantaj, 
and following 

k. a., kaj aliaj, and oth- 
ers 

k. t. p., kaj iiel plu, and 
so forth 

kab-o, cape of land 

kabal-o, cabal 

kaban-o, cabin, hut 

kabinet-o, cabinet, 
closet 

kabl-o, cable 

kabriolet-o, cab 

ka-6o, batter, pap 

kadavr-o, cadaver 



kadenc-o, cadence 

kadet-o, cadet 

kadr-o, frame 

kaduk-a, decrepit 

kaf-o, coffee 

kafr-o, kaffir 

kag-o, cage 

kahel-o, paving tile 

kaj, and 

kaj-o, quay, wharf 

kajer-o, copy-book, a 
paper book, single 
number of series 

kajut-o, hut, cabin 

kaka-o, cocoa 

kakatu-o, cockatoo 

kakt-o, cactus 

kal-o, corn, callous 

kalci-o, calcium 



Espera7itO' English Vocabulary 



35 



kaldron-o, cauldron 
kalejdoskop-o, kaleido- 
scope 
kalendar-o, calendar 
kalandr-i, to calendar 
between hot rollers; to 
mangle in laundry 
kalendul-o, marigold 
kale§-0, carriage 
kalfatr-i, to calk 
kalibr-o, caliber 
kalif-o, caliph 
kalik-o, cup, chalice 
kalikot-o, calico 
kalk-o, lime 
kalkan-o, heel 
kalkanum-o, heel of 

shoe, etc. 
kalkul-i, to calculate 
kalomel-o, calomel 
kalson-o, pair of draw- 
ers, pants 
kalumni-i, to slander 
kamarad-o, comrade 
kame-o, cameo 
kambi-o, draft, bill of 

exchange 
kamel-o, camel 
kamen-o, fire-place 
kamer-o, box-room 
kamizol-o, short night- 
dress 
kamlot-o, camlet 
kamomil-o, camomile 
kamp-o, field 
kan-o, rush, reed, cane 



kanab-o, hemp 

kanaben-o, linnet 

Kanad-o, Canada 

kanajl-o, scoundrel 

kanal-o, canal 

kanap-o, sofa, couch 

kanari-o, canary 

kanastr-o, canister 

kancelier-o, chancellor 

kand-o, candy 

kandel-o, candle 

kandelabr-o, candela- 
brum 

kandidat-o, candidate 

kanibal-o, cannibal 

kankr-o, crawfish 

kanon-o, canon (church 
law) 

kanonik-o, a church 
official, canon 

kant-i, to sing 

kantarid-o, cantharides 

kantat-o, cantata 

kantin-o, canteen 

kanton-o, canton 

kantor-o, chanter 

kanvas-o, canvas 

kap-o, head 

kapabl-a, capable 

kapel-o, chapel 

kaper-i, seize as a prize 

kapital-o, capital, in- 
vested money 

kapitan-o, captain 

kapitel-o, capital (^r^/?. ) 

kapitol-o, capitol 



36 



Esperanto- English Vocabulary 



kapitulac-i, capitulate 
kapon-o, capon 
kapor-o, caper-bush 
kaporal-o, corporal 
kapot-o, cape 
kapr-o, goat 
kapreol-o, roebuck 
kapric-o, caprice, whim 
Kaprikorn-o, Capricorn 
kapstan-o, capstan 
kapsul-o, capsule 
kapt-i, to catch 
kapu6en-o, capuchin 

monk 
kapu6-o, capuche, cowl 
kar-a, dear 
karaben-o, carbine 
karaf-o, decanter 
karakter-o, disposition 
karakteriz-i, to charac- 
terize 
karamel-o, caramel 
karas-o, crucian (fish) 
karavan-o, caravan 
karb-o, charcoal; ter- 
karbo, §tonkarbo, coal 
karbol-o, carbol 
karbonad-o, carbonate 
karbunkol-o, carbuncle 
karcer-o, prison 
kard-o, thistle 
kardel-o, goldfinch 
kardinal-o, cardinal 
kares-i, to caress 
karier-o, career 
karik-o, sedge, rush 



karikatur-i, caricature 
kariofil-o, clove 
kariol-o, carry-all 
karmin-o, carmine 
karn-o, flesh 
karnival-o, carnival 
karo-o, diamonds (in 

cards) 
karob-o, carob-bean 
karot-o, carrot 
karp-o, carp 
Karpat-oj, Carpathians 
karpen-o, yoke-elm 
kart-o, card 
kartav-i, to speak thick 
kartel-o, cartel 
kartilag-o, cartilage 
kartoc-o, cartridge 
karton-o, paper board 
karusel-o, carousal 
kas-o, money-drawer 
kasaci-o, cassation 
kaserol-o, saucepan 
kask-o, helmet 
kaskad-o, cascade 
kast-o, caste 
kastel-o, castle 
kastor-o, beaver 
kastr-i, geld 
ka§-i, to hide 
ka§tan-o, chestnut 
kat-o, cat 

katafalk-o, catafalque 
katakomb-o, catacomb 
katalepsi-o, catalepsy 
katalog-o, catalogue 



Es;PerantO' English Vocabulary 



37 



kataplasm-OjCataplasm 
katar-o, catarrh 
katarakt-o, cataract (of 

the eye) 
katastrof-o, catastrophe 
kategori-o, category 
katehism-o, catechism 
katen-oj, fetters 
katolik-a, catholic 
katun-o, cotton cloth 
kaiici-o, bail, security 
kau6uk-o, rubber 
kaiir-i, to cower, squat 
kauteriz-i, to cauterize 
kauz-i, to cause 
kav-o, hole, pit 
kavaleri-o, cavalry 
kavalir-o, cavalier 
kavalkad-o, cavalcade 
kavern-o, cavern, den 
kaviar-o, caviare 
kaz-o, case (grammar) 
kaze-o, curds 
kazein-o, caseine 
kazemat-o, casemate 
kazern-o, barracks 
kazin-o, casino 
ke, that (conjunction) 
kegl-o, skittle 
kel-o, cellar 
kelk-e, some, a few 
kelner-o, waiter 
ken-o, resinous wood 
kep-o, a peaked cap 
ker-o, hearts (cards) 
kerub-o, cherub 



kest-o, chest, box 
kestrel-o, kestrel 
kia, what, what kind of 
kial, why 
kiam, when 
kie, where 
kiel, how 
kies, whose 
kil-o, keel 

kilogram-o, kilogram 
kilolitr-o, kiloliter 
kilometr-o, kilometer 
kimr-o, a Welshman 
kinematograf-o, cine- 
matograph 
kinin-o, quinine 
kio, what, what thing 
kiom, how much 
kiras-o, cuirass, armor 
kirl-i, to whirl rapidly 
kir§-o, cherry cordial 
kis-i, to kiss 
kitel-o, a workman's 

blouse 
kiu, who, which 
klaft-o, fathom 
klak-i, to clack, clatter 
klap-o, valve, plug 
klar-a, clear, distinct 
klarnet-o, clarinet 
klas-o, class (category) 
klasifik-i, to classify 
klasik-a, classic 
klav-o, key (of piano, 

typewriter, etc.) 
klemat-o, clematis 



38 



Esperanto-English Vocabulary 



kler-a, well-informed 
klerik-a, of the clergy 
klient-o, client 
klimat-o, climate 
klin-i, to incline 
kling-o, blade 
klinik-o, clinic 
klister-o, clyster 
klis-i, to stereotype 
kloak-o, sewer, drain 
klopod-i, to strive for 
klor-o, chlorine 
kloroz-o, chlorosis 
klo§-a, bell-shaped 
klub-o, club (society) 
kluk-i, to cluck 
kluz-o, sluice 
knab-o, boy 
knar-i, to grate, creak 
kned-i, to knead 
knut-o, knout 
koaks-o, coke 
kobalt-o, cobalt 
koalici-o, coalition 
kobold-o, goblin, imp 
kocinel-o, cochineal 
kod-o, code 
kodeks-o, codex 
kodicil-o, codicil 
kofr-o, travelling trunk 
koincid-i, to coincide 
kojn-o, wedge 
kok-o, cock, rooster 
kokard-o, cockade 
kokcinel-o, ladybird 
koket-a, coquettish 



koklu§-o, whooping- 
cough 
kokon-o, cocoon 
kokos-o, cocoanut 
koks-o, hip 
kol-o, neck 
kolbas-o, sausage 
koleg-o, colleague 
kolegi-o, college 
kolekt-i, to collect 
kolektiv-a, collective 
koler-o, anger 
kolerik-a, choleric 
kolibr-o, humming-bird 
kolik-o, colic 
kolimb-o, diver (bird) 
kolizi-o, collision 
kolodi-o, coUodium 
kolomb-o, dove, pigeon 
kolon-o, pillar, column 
kolonel-o, colonel 
koloni-o, colony 
kolor-o, color 
koloratur-o, colorature 
kolos-o, colossus 
kolport-i, hawk, peddle 
kolubr-o, adder 
koluni-o, collar 
kolz-o, rape (plant) 
kom-o, comma 
komand-i, to command 

(army) 
komandor-o, comman- 
der (of an order) 
komb-i, to comb 
kombin-i, to combine 



Esperanto- English Vocabulary 



39 



komedi-o, comedy 
komenc-i, to commence 
komentari-o, commen- 
tary 
komerc-i, to trade 
komet-o, comet 
komfort-o, comfort 
komik-a, comic 
komisari-o, comissary 
komisi-i, to commis- 
sion, to intrust with 
komitat-o, committee 
komiz-o, clerk, employe 
komod-o, commode 
kompakt-a, compact 
kompani-o, company 

(corporation, etc,) 
kompar-i, to compare 
komparativ-a, compar- 
ative 
kompas-o, a compass 

(marine) 
kompat-i, to pity 
kompendi-o, compend- 
ium 
kompens-i, compensate 
kompetent-a, compet- 
ent 
kompil-i, to compile 
komplement-o, com- 
plement igram,^ 
komplet-0, a suit of 

clothes 
komplez-i, to be kind, 

obliging 
komplik-i, to complicate 



kompliment-i, to com- 
pliment 
komplot-o, plot 
kompon-o, a composi- 
tion (musical) 
kompost-i, to set type 
kompren-i, understand 
kompromis-o, compro- 
mise 
kompromit-i, to impli- 
cate, compromise 
komun-a, common 
komuni-i, to give sacra- 
ment 
komunik-i, communi- 
cate 
komunism-o, commun- 
ism 
komut-i, to commute 
kon-i, to know, be ac- 
quainted with 
koncentr-a, concentric 
koncern-i, to concern 
koncert-o, concert 
koncesi-o, concession 
konciz-a, concise 
kondamn-i, to condemn 
kondi6-o, a condition, 

stipulation 
kondolenc-i, to condole 
kondor-o, condor 
konduk-i, lead, conduct 
konduktor-o, conductor 
kondut-i, to behave 
konfeder-i, to confeder- 
ate 



40 



Esperanto- English Vocabulary 



konfekci-o, the clothing 

business 
konferenc-o, conference 
konfes-i, to confess 
konfid-i, to confide 
konfidenci-a, confiden- 
tial 
konfirm-i, to confirm 
konfirmaci-o, confirm- 
ation (church) 
konfisk-i, to confiscate 
konfit-i, to preserve 
konflikt-o, conflict 
konform-a, in conform- 
ity 
konfuz-i, to confound 
konglomerat-o, con- 
glomeration 
kongregaci-o, congre- 
gation 
kongres-o, congress 
konifer-o, conifer 
konjak-o, cognac 
konjekt-i, to conjecture 
konjugaci-i, conjugate 
konjunkci-o, conjunc- 
tion 
konk-o, shell 
konkav-a, concave 
konklud-i, to conclude 
konkret-a, concrete 
konkur-i, to compete 
konkurs-o, competition 
konsci-i, be conscious 
konscienc-o, conscience 
konsent-o, consent 



konserv-i, to conserve 
konservativ-a, conser- 
vative 
konservatori-o, conser- 
vatory 
konsider-i, to consider 
konsil-i, to advise 
konsist-i, to consist 
konsistori-o, consistory 
konsol-i, to console 
konsonant-o, consonant 
konspir-i, to conspire 
konstant-a, constant 
konstat-i, to declare 
konstelaci-o, constella- 
tion 
konstern-i, to dismay 
konstituci-o, constitu- 
tion 
konstru-i, to erect 
konsul-o, consul 
konsult-i, to consult 
konsum-i, to consume 
kont-o, trade account 
kontakt-o, contact 
kontant-o, ready money 
kontent-a, satisfied 
kontinent-o, continent 
kontingent-o, contin- 
gent 
kontraband-o, smug- 
gling 
kontrabas-o, base viol 
kontrakt-i, to contract 
kontrast-o, contrast 
kontrau, against 



Esperanto- English Vocabulary 



41 



kontrol-i, control 

kontur-o, outline 

kontuz-i, to bruise 

konus-o, cone 

konval-o, lily of the 
valley 

konveks-a, convex 

konven-i, to suit 

konvenci-o, convention, 
agreement 

konvert-i, converge 

konversaci-o, conver- 
sation 

konvert-i, to convert 

konvink-i, to convince 

konvulsi-o, convulsion 

kopek-o, kopeck 

kopi-i, to copy 

kor-o, heart 

koral-o, coral 

koran-o, Koran 

korb-o, basket 

kord-o, chord 

kordon-o, cordon 

korekt-i, to correct 

korelativ-a, correlative 

korespond-i, to corre- 
spond 

koridor-o, corridor 

kork-o, cork 

korn-o, horn 

korne-o, cornea 

kornet-o, cornet 

kornic-o, cornice 

kornik-o, crow 

korp-o, body 



korporaci-o, corpora- 
tion 

korpus-o, army corps 

korsaj-o, corsage 

korsar-o, corsair 

korset-o, corset 

kort-o, yard, court 

korv-o, raven 

kosmetik-o, cosmetic 

kosm-o, cosmos 

kosmopolit-a, cosmo- 
politan 

kost-i, to cost 

kostum-o, costume 

kot-o, mud 

kotiz-i, to pay dues 

kotolet-o, chop, cutlet 

koton-o, cotton 

koturn-o, quail 

kov-i, to brood 

kovert-o, envelope 

kovr-i, to cover 

kozak-o, Cossack 

krab-o, crab, crawfish 

krabr-o, hornet 

kra6-i, to spit 

krad-o, grate 

krajon-o, pencil 

krak-i, to crack 

kramp-o, fulcrum 

kran-o, tap 

krani-o, cranium 

kratag-o, hawthorn 

krater-o, crater 

kravat-o, cravat 

kre-i, to create 



42 



Espc7' ant 0- English Vocabulary 



kred-i, to believe 

kredit-o, credit 

kreditor-o, creditor 

krejcer-o, kreutzer 

krem-o, cream 

kreol-o, Creole 

krep-o, crape 

krepusk-o, twilight 

kres-o, cress 

kresk-i, to grow 

kresp-o, pancake 

krest-o, crest, comb (of 
birds or fowl) 

krestomati-o, chresto- 
mathy 

kret-o, chalk 

krev-i, to burst 

kri-i, to cry 

kribr-i, to sift 

krim-o, crime 

kriminal-a, criminal 

kring-o, a ring-shaped 
cracker or biscuit 

kripl-a, crippled 

kript-o, crypt 

Krist-o, Christ 

kristal-o, crystal 

kriteri-o, criterion 

kritik-i, to criticise 

kriz-o, crisis 

krizalid-o, chrysalis 

krizantem-o, chrysan- 
themum 

kro6-i, to hook 

krokodil-o, crocodile 

krom, except 



krom-o, chromo 
kron-o, crown 
kronik-o, chronicle 
kronologi-o, chronology 
krop-o, crop (of birds) 
kroz-i, to cruise 
kruc-o, cross 
krucum-i, to crucify 
kru6-o, jug, pitcher 
krud-a, crude, raw 
kruel-a, cruel 
krup-o, croup 
krur-o, leg 
krust-o, crust 
krut-a, steep 
kub-o, cube 
kubut-o, elbow 
kudr-i, to sew 
kuf-o, woman's cap 
kugl-o, bullet 
kuir-i, to cook 
kuk-o, cake 
kukol-o, cuckoo 
kukum-o, cucumber 
kukurb-o, pumpkin 
kul-o, gnat 
kuler-o. spoon 
kulp-a, guilty 
kult-o, cult 
kultur-o, culture 
kun, with 
kunikl-o, rabbit 
kup-o, cupping-glass 
kupe-o, compartment 

in railway car 
kupol-o, dome, cupola 



Esperanto- English Vocabulary 



43 



kupon-o, coupon 
kur-i, to run 
kurac-i, to treat, cure 
kurag-a, courageous 
kurator-o, curator 
kurb-o, curve 
kuri-o, papal council 
kurier-o, courier 
kurioz-a, uncommon 
kurs-o, course 
kursiv-a, cursive 
kurtag-o, brokerage 
kurten-o, curtain 
kusen-o, cushion 
ku§-i, to be lying down 
kutim-o, habit, custom 
kutr-o, cutter (boat) 
kuv-o, tub 
kuz-o, cousin 
kvadrant-o, quadrant 
kvadrat-o, square 
kvadril-o, quadrille 
kvaker-o, Quaker 



kvalifik-i, to qualify 

kvalit-o, quality 

kvankam, although 

kvant-o, quantity 

kvar, four 

kvaranten-o, quaran- 
tine 

kvarc-o, quartz 

kvart-o, fourth (music) 

kvartal-o, quarter or 
section of a town 

kvartet-o, quartet 

kvazau, as if 

kver-i, to coo 

kverk-o, oak 

kvestor-o, questor 

kviet-a, calm 

kvin, five 

kvintesenc-o, quintes- 
sence 

kvit-a, quit 

kvitanc-i, to receipt for 

kvocient-o, quotient 



r, la, the 
labor-i, to work 
lac-a, tired 
lacert-o, lizard 
lac-o, lacing-string 
lad-o, tin 
laf-o, lava 
lag-o, lake 
lagun-o, lagoon 
laik-o, layman 
lak-o, varnish 



lake-o, lackey 
lakon-a, laconic 
laks-o, diarrhoea 
lakt-o, milk 
lam-a, lame 
lam-o, llama 
lamp-o, lamp 
lampir-o, glow-worm 
lan-o, wool 
lanc-o, lance, spear 
land-o, land, country 



44 



Esperanto- English Vocabulary 



lang-o, tongue 

lani-o, shrike 

lantern-o, lantern 

lanug-o, down 

lap-o, bur 

lapis-o, lapis 
' lar-o, sea-gull 

lard-o, lard 

larg-a, wide 

larik-o, larch 

laring-o, larynx 

larm-o, tear (of eye) 

las-i, to leave 

last-a, last 

lat-o, lath 

latin-a, Latin 

latrin-o, cesspool, closet 

latuk-o, lettuce 

laii, according to 
. laiib-o, arbor 

laud-i, to praise 

launtenis-o, lawn tennis 

laur-o, laurel 

laureat-o, laureate 

laiit-e, loudly 

lav-i, to wash 

lavang-o, avalanche 

lavend-o, lavender 

lazur-a, azure 

lecion-o, lesson 

led-o, leather 

leg-i, to read 

legat-o, legate 

legend-o, legend 

legi-o, legion 

legitim-i, to legitimize 



legom-o, vegetable 

legumin-o, legume 

leg-o, law 

lek-i, to lick 

lekant-o, marguerite 

lekci-o, lecture 

leksikon-o, lexicon 

lektor-o, lecturer 

lent-o, lentil 

lentug-o, freckle 

leon-o, lion 

leontod-o, dandelion 

leopard-o, leopard 

lepor-o, hare 

lepr-o, leprosy 

lern-i, to learn 

lert-a, clever 

lesiv-o, wholesale wash- 
ing of clothes 

letargi-o, lethargy 

leter-o, letter 

leiitenant-o, lieutenant 

leuk-o, league (measure) 

lev-i, to lift 

li, he 

lian-o, bindweed 

libel-o, dragon-fly 

liber-a, free 

liberal-a, liberal (/^/.) 

liberalism-o, liberalism 

libr-o, book 

lice-o, lyceum, French 
college 

lien-o, spleen 

lig-i, to tie, to bind 

lign-o, wood 



Esperanto-English Vocabulary 



45 



liken-o, lichen 
likvid-i, to liquidate 
likvor-o, liquor 
lili-o, lily 
lim-o, limit 
limak-o, snail 
limf-o, lymph 
limonad-o, lemonade 
lin-o, flax 
linari-o, red linnet 
lin6-i, to lynch 
lingv-o, language 
lingvistik-o, linguistics 
lini-o, line 
link-o, lynx 
lip-o, lip 
lir-o, lyre 
lirik-o, lyric 
list-o, list 
lit-o, bed 
litani-o, litany 
liter-o, letter (alphabet) 
literatur-o, literature 
litograf-i, to lithograph 
litov-a, Lithuanian 
litr-o, litre 
liturgi-o, liturgy 
liut-o, lute 
liver-i, to deliver 
livr-o, pound (sterling) 
livre-O, livery 
lod-o, half-ounce 



log-i, to allure 
logik-o, logic 
log-i, to dwell 
logi-o, theater box 
lojal-a, loyal 
lojt-o, lote 
lok-o, place 

lokomotiv-o, locomo- 
tive 
lol-o, tares 
long-a, long 
lonicer-o, honeysuckle 
lorn-o, field-glass 
lot-i, to draw lots 
loteri-o, lottery 
lu-i, to hire 
lud-i, to play 
luks-o, luxury 
lul-i, to lull to sleep 
lum-i, to shine 
lumb-o, loins 
lumbrik-o, earthworm 
lun-o, moon 
lunatik-o, lunatic 
lund-o, Monday 
lup-o, wolf 
lupop-o, hop (plant) 
lustr-o, luster 
lut-i, to solder 
luteran-o, Lutheran 
lutr-o, otter 



M 



maC-o, unleavened 
bread 



mafi-i, to chew 
madon-o, madonna 



46 



Esperanto- English Vocabulary 



magi-o, magic 
magistrat-o, magistrate 
magnat-o, magnate 
magnet-o, magnet 
magnetiz-i, magnetize 
magnoli-o, magnolia 
mahagon-o, mahogany 
Mahomet-o, Mahomet 
maizo, maize, corn 
Maj-o, May 
majest-a, majestic 
majolik-a, majolica 
major-o, army major 
majstr-o, master of an 

art, trade, etc. 
makadam-o, macadam 
makaron-o, macaroon 
makaroni-o, macaroni 
makler-i, to do broker- 
age business 
makrop-o, kangaroo 
maksim-o, maxim 
maksimum-o, maxi- 
mum 
makul-o, spot, stain 
makzel-o, jaw 
mar, denotes contrary : 
bona, good) malbona, 
bad, 
malaj-o, Malay 
malari-o, malaria 
maleol-o, ankle 
malgraii, notwithstand- 
ing 
malic-a, malicious 
malt-o, malt 



malvarmum-i, to take 

cold 
mamo, breast, udder 
mamut-o, mammoth 
man-o, hand 
mana-o, manna 
mandaren-o, mandarin 
mandat-o, money-order 
mandolin-o, mandolin 
mandragor-o, m a n - 

drake 
maneg-o, riding-school 
mant-i, to eat 
mani-o, mania 
manier-o, manner 
manifest-o, manifesto 
manik-o, sleeve 
manipul-i, manipulate 
mank-i, to be lacking 
manovr-o, maneuver 
mantel-o, a mantle, 

cloak 
mantil-o, mantilla 
manufaktur-o, manu- 
facture 
manum-o, cuff 
manuskript-o, manu- 
script 
mar-o, sea, ocean 
mar6ipan-o, marchpane 
mar6-o, marsh 
marcand-i, to bargain 
mard-o, Tuesday 
margarin-o, oleomar- 
garine 
margen-o, margin 



Esperanto- English Vocabulary 



47 



marin-i, to pickle 
marionet-o, marionette 
mark-o, mark 
markez-o, marquee 
markiz-o, marquis 
markot-o, runner of a 

plant 
marli-o, catgut 
marmelad-o, marme- 

lade 
marmor-o, marble 
marmot-o, marmot 
maroken-o, morocoo 
Mars-o, Mars 
inar§-i, to march 
marsal-o, marshal 
Mart-o, March 
martel-o, hammer 
martingal-o, martingale 
martir-o, martyr 
mas-o, mass, agglom- 
eration 
masag-o, massage 
masiv-a, massive 
mask-o, mask 
mason-i, to do mason 

work 
mast-o, mast 
mastik-o, mastic 
mastodon-o, mastodon 
mastr-o, master of a 

house ; host 
ma§-o, mesh 
ma§in-o, machine 
mat-o, mat 
jnatador-o, matador 



matematik-o, mathe- 
matics 
maten-o, morning 
materi-o, matter 
material-o, material 
materialism-o, materi- 
alism 
matrac-o, mattress 
matric-o, matrix, die 
matrikul-i, matriculate 
matronin-o, matron 
matur-a, ripe 
maur-o, a Moor 
mauzole-o, mausoleum 
mazurk-o, mazurka 
mebl-o, a piece of fur- 
niture 
mec-o, wick 
medal-o, medal 
medalion-o, medallion 
medi-o, the medium, 
average, commonplace 
medicin-o, medicine 
medit-i, to meditate 
medium-o, medium 
meduz-o, jellyfish 
mehanik-o, mechanics 
melianisni-o, mechan- 
ism 
mejl-o, mile 
Meksik-o, Mexico 
mel-o, badger 
melankoli-o, m e 1 a n - 

choly 
melas-o, molasses 
meleagr-o, turkey 



48 



EspcrantO'English Vocabulary 



melis-o, garden mint 
melk-i, to milk 
melodi-o, melody 
melodram-o, melo- 
drama 
melon-o, melon 
mem, self or selves 
membr-o, member 
membran-o, membrane 
memor-i, to remember 
mend-i, order (goods) 
mens-o, spirit, mind, 

distinct from matter 
mensog-i, to tell a lie 
menstruaci-o, men- 
struation 
ment-o, mint 
menton-o, chin 
mentor-o, mentor 
menu-o, menu 
menuet-o, minuet 
meridian-o, meridian 
merinos-o, merino 
merit-i, merit, deserve 
meriz-o, wild cherry 
merkred-o, Wednesday 
merl-o, blackbird 
mes-o, mass (church) 
Mesi-o, Messiah 
mestiz-o, a half-breed 

(Spanish) 
met-i, to put 
metafizik-o, metaphys- 
ics 
metafor-o, metaphor 
metal-o, metal 



metalurgi-o,metallurgy 

metamorfoz-o, meta- 
morphosis 

meteor-o, meteor 

meti-o, a trade, handi- 
craft 

metod-o, method 

metr-o, meter 

metrik-a, metric 

metropol-o, metropolis 

mev-o, sea-gull 

mez-o, midst, middle 

mezalianc-o, mesalli- 
ance 

mezur-i, to measure 

mi, I 

miasm-o, miasma 

miiau-i, to mew 

miel-o, honey 

mien-o, mien, air 

migdal-o, almond 

migr-i, to migrate 

mikrob-o, microbe 

mikroskop-o, micro- 
scope 

miks-i, to mix 

mil, thousand 

mild-a, gentle, mild 

mili-o, millet 

miliard-o, milliard 

milici-o, militia 

milimetr-o, millimeter 

milion-o, million 

milit-i, to fight 

mimik-o, mimicry 

min-o, mine 



Esperanto-English Vocabulary 



49 



minaret-o, minaret 
mineral-o, mineral 
mineralogi-o, mineral- 
ogy 
minac-i, to threaten 
mini-o, red lead 
miniatur-o, miniature 
minimum-o, minimum 
ministr-o, minister 
minus-o, minus 
minut-o, minute 
miogal-o, musk-rat 
miop-a, nearsighted 
miozot-o, myosotis 
mir-i, to wonder 
mirakl-o, miracle 
mirh-o, myrrh 
miriad-o, myriad 
miriametr-o, miriame- 

ter 
mirmekofag-o, ant- 
eater 
mirmeleon-o, lion-ant 
mirt-o, myrtle 
mirtel-o, bilberry 
misal-o, missal 
misi-o, mission 
mister-o, mystery 
mistifik-i, to mystify 
mistik-o, a mystic 
mit-o, myth 
mitologi-o, mythology 
mitul-o, mussel 
mizer-o, misery 
mobiliz-i, to mobilize 
mod-o, fashion, mode 



model-o, model 
moder-a, moderate 
modern-a, modern 
modest-a, modest 
modif-i, to modify 
modul-i, modulate 
modulaci-o, modulation 
mok-i, to mock 
mol-a, soft 
molekul-o, molecule 
molusk-o, mollusk 
moment-o, moment 
mon-o, money 
monali-o, monk 
monarh-o, monarch 
monat-o, month 
mond-o, world 
moned-o, jackdaw 
monitor-o, monitor 
monogram-o, mono- 
gram 
monokl-o, monocle 
monolog-o, monologue 
monomani-o, mono- 
mania 
monopol-o, monopoly 
monstr-o, monster 
monoteism-o, mono- 
theism 
mont-o, mountain 
montr-i, to show 
monument-o, monu- 
ment 
mops-o, pug dog 
mor-oi, morals 
moral-a, moral 



50 



Esperanto- English Vocabulary 



morbil-0, measles 
mor6el-o, mushroom 
mord-i, to bite 
morfin-o, morphine 
morgaii, tomorrow 
mort-i, to die 
morter-o, mortar 
moru-o, species of cod- 
fish 
morus-o, mulberry 
mosk-o, musk 
moske-o, mosque 
moskit-o, mosquito 
most-o, unfermented 

wine 
mo§t-o, title of respect 
mot-o, motto 
motiv-o, motive 
motor-o, motor 
mov-i, to move 
mozaik-o, mosaic 
mucid-a, damp, mouldy 
muel-i, to grind 



muf-o, muff 
mut-i, to roar 
muk-o, mucus 
mul-o, mule 
mult-o, much 
multiplik-i, multiply 
mulmuslin-o, mull 
mumi-o, mummy 
mur-o, wall 
murmur-i, to murmur 
mus-o, mouse 
musk-o, moss 
muskat-o, nutmeg 
musked-o, musket 
muskol-o, muscle 
muslin-o, muslin 
mustard-o, mustard 
mustel-o, martin, sable 
mu§-o, common fly 
mut-a, mute 
muz-o, muse 
muze-o, museum 
muzik-o, music 



N 



n, ending of the accusa- 
tive or objective case; 
also shows direction 
or motion toward 

naci-o, nation 

nadir-o, nadir 

naft-o, naphtha 

nag-i, to swim 



naiv-a, artless 
najbar-o, neighbor 
najl-o, nail 

najtingal-o, nightingale 
nanken-o, nankeen 
nap-o, turnip 
narcis-o, narcissus 
narkot-a, narcotic 



Espei'anto- English Vocabulary 



51 



nask-i, to give birth to 
natr-o, soda 
natur-o, nature 
nau, nine 

nauz-i, to nauseate 
nav-o, nave 
naz-o, nose 
ne, no 
nebul-o, fog 
neces-a, necessary 
neg-o, snow 
neglig-o, negligee 
negoc-o, business af- 
fair, transaction 
negr-o, negro 
nek, neither 
nekrologi-o, necrology 
nektar-o, nectar 
neni-o, nothing 
nenia, none, no such 
nenial, for no cause 
neniam, never 
nenie, nowhere 
neniel, in no way 
nenies, nobody's 
nenio, nothing 
neniom, none 
neniu, nobody 
neologism-o, neologism 
nep-o, grandson 
nepotism-o, nepotism 
nepre, unfailingly 
nest-o, nest, den 
net-o, clean copy 
neuralgi-o, neuralgia 
neutr-a, neuter 



neutrala, neutral 

nev-o, nephew 

ni, we 

ni6-o, niche 

nigr-a, black 

nihilism-o, nihilism 

nikel-o, nickel 

nikotin-o, nicotine 

nimb-o, nimbus, halo 

nimf-o, nymph 

nivel-o, level 

niz-o, sparrow-hawk 

nj' endearing diminutive 
of feminine names : 
patrino, mother-, pan- 
jo, mamma, 

nobel-o, nobleman 

nobl-a, noble 

nokt-o, night 

nom-o, name 

nomad-o, nomad 

nombr-o, number 

nominal-a, nominal 

nominativ-o, nomina- 
tive 

nord-o, north 

normal-a, regular 

norveg-o, a Norwegian 

nostalgi-o, homesick- 
ness 

not-i, to note, to make 
memoranda 

notari-o, notary 

nov-a, new 

novel-o, novel 

Novembr-o, November 



52 



E si>er ant o- English Vocabulary 



novic-o, novice 

nu, well 

nuanc-o, hue, tint 

nub-o, cloud 

nud-a, nude 

nuk-o, nape of the neck 

nuks-o, nut 

nul-o, zero 



numer-o, number, No. 
numid-o, guinea-fowl 
numismatik-o, numis- 
matics 
nun, now 
nunci-o, nuncio 
nur, only 
nutr-i, to nourish, feed 



o, ending of the noun or 
substantive 

oaz-o, oasis 

obe-i, to obey 

obelisk-o, obelisk 

objekt-o, object 

obr, multiple of num- 
erals : du, two ; du- 
obla, double 

oblat-o, wafer 

obligaci-o, bond 

oblikv-a, oblique 

obol-o, a small Greek 
coin, obolus 

observ-i, to observe 

observatori-o, observ- 
atory 

obstina, obstinate 

obstrukci-o, obstruction 

ocean-o, ocean 

od-o, ode 

odor-i, to give odor 

ofend-i, to offend 



ofer-i, to sacrifice 
ofic-o, employment 
oficial-a, official 
oficir-o, officer 
oft-e, often 
ok, eight 
okaz-i, to occur 
okcident-o, west 
okr-Q, ochre 
oksid-o, oxide 
oksigen-o, oxygen 
oksikok-o, cranberry 
oktav-o, octave 
Oktobr-o, October 
okul-o, eye 
okult-a, occult 
okup-i, to occupy 
okzal-o, sorrel 
ol, than 
ole-o, oil 

oleandr-o, oleander 
oligarlii-o, oligarchy 
oliv-o, olive 



EsperaniO'E7iglish Vocabulary 



53 



omar-o, lobster 

ombr-o, shade - 

ombrel-o, umbrella 

omnibus-o, omnibus 

on', mark of fractions : 
tri, three\ triono, one- 
third 

ond-o, wave 

oni, ''one," ''they" 

oniks-o, onyx 

onkl-o, uncle 

ont', future active par- 
ticiple: amonte, about 
to love 

ontologi-o, ontology 

op', suffix or collective 
numerals : kvar, four\ 
kvarope, by fours 

opal-o, opal 

oper-o, opera 

operaci-o, operation 

opi-o, opium 

opini-i, to opine 

oportun-a, convenient 

opozici-o, opposition 

optik-o, optics 

optimism-o, optimism 

optimist-o, optimist 

or-o, gold 

orakol-o, oracle 

orangutang-o, orang- 
outang 

orang-o, orange 

orangeri-o, hot-house 

orator-o, orator 

oratori-o, oratory 



ord-o, order 

orden-o, the order of 

knighthood 
ordinar-a, ordinary 
ordon-i, to order, com- 
mand 
orel-o, ear 
orf-o, orphan 
organ-o, organ 
organism-o, organism 
organiz-i, to organize 
organik-a, organic 
orgen-o, organ {mus,) 
orgi-o, orgy 
orient-o, east 
origin-o, origin 
original-o, original 
oriol-o, oriole 
orkestr-o, orchestra 
orkide-o, orchid 
ornam-i, to adorn 
ornat-o, clerical robes 
ornitologi-o, ornithol- 
ogy 
ort-a, rectangular 
ortodoks-a, orthodox 
ortografi-o, orthogra- 
phy 
ortopedi-o, orthopedics 
OS, sign of future tense: 

amos, will love 
osced-i, to yawn, gape 
osifrag-o, osprey 
ost-o, bone 
ostr-o, oyster 
ostracism-o, ostracism 



54 



EsperantO'Eng-lish Vocabulary 



of, passive participle, 
future : amote, about 
to be loved 

ov-o, egg 



ovaci-o, ovation 
oval-a, oval 
ozon-o, ozone 



pac-o, peace 
pacienc-o, patience 
padel-i, to paddle 
paf-i, to shoot 
pag-i, to pay 
pagod-o, pagoda 
pag-o, page 
pagi-o, page (boy) 
pajl-o, straw, thatch 
pak-i, to pack 
pal-a, pale 
palac-o, palace 
paladi-o, palladium 
palankin-o, palanquin 
palat-o, palate 
paletr-o, palette 
palis-o, stake 
palisandr-o, rosewood 
palm-o, palm tree 
palp-i, to feel 
palpebr-o, eyelash 
palt-o, greatcoat 
Palestin-o, Palestine 
pamflet-o, pamphlet 
pan-o, bread 
panegir-o, panegyric 
panel-o, panel 
panik-o, panic 



panoram-o, panorama 
pantalon-o, trousers 
panteism-o, pantheism 
panteist-o, pantheist 
panter-o, panther 
pantofl-o, slipper 
pantomim-o, panto- 
mime 
pap-o, pope 
papag-o, parrot 
papav-o, poppy 
paper-o, paper 
papili-o, butterfly 
papirus-o, papyrus 
par-o, pair 
parad-i, to parade 
paradiz-o, paradise 
paradoks-o, paradox 
paraf-Ojflourish, paraph 
parafin-o, paraffine 
parafraz-o, paraphrase 
paragraf-o, paragraph 
paralel-o, parallel 
paralelogram-o, paral- 
lelogram 
paraliz-i, to paralyze 
parapet-o, parapet 
parazit-o, parasite 



Esi>erantO' English Vocabulary 



S^ 



parcel-o, lot of land 
parcimoni-o,parsimony 
pardon-i, to forgive 
parenc-o, relative 
parantez-o, parenthesis 
parfum-o, perfume 
parget-o, flooring 
park-o, park 
parker-e, "by heart" 
parlament-o, parlia- 
ment 
parodi-o, parody 
paroli-o, parish 
paroksism-o, paroxysm 
parol-i, to speak 
part-o, part 
parter-o, theater pit 
parti-o, party 
particip-o, participle 
paru-o, titmouse 
pas-i, to pass 
pasament-o, lace 
paser-o, sparrow 
pasi-o, passion 
pasiv-a, passive 
Pask-o, Easter 
paskvil-o, lampoon 
pasport-o, passport 
past-o, paste 
paste6-o, pie, tart 
pastel-o, lozenge, pas- 
tille 
pastinak-o, parsnip 
pastoral-o, pastoral 

play or poem 
pastr-o, priest, pastor 



pa§-i, to step 
pa§t-i, to pasture 
pa§tel-o, pastel crayon 
pat-o, frying pan 
patent-o, patent 
patologi-o, pathology 
patos-o, pathos 
patr-o, father 
patriark-o, patriarch 
patrici-o, patrician 
patriot-o, patriot 
patrol-o, patrol 
patron-o, patron 
pauz-i, pause 
pav-o, peacock 
pavian-o, baboon 
pavilon-o, pavilion 
pavim-o, pavement 
pearirO, pean 
pec-o, piece 
peC-o, pitch 
pedal-o, pedal 
pedant-o, pedant 
pedel-o, beadle 
pedik-o, louse 
peg-o, woodpecker 
pejzag-o, landscape 
pek-i, to sin 
Pekin-o, Pekin 
pekl-i, to pickle 
pel-i, to chase away 
pelikan-o, pelican 
pelt-o, pelisse, pelt 
pelv-o, basin 
pen-i, to try, endeavor 
penc-o, penny 



56 



Esi>eranto-EngUsh Vocabulary 



pend-i, to hang 
pendol-o, pendulum 
penetr-i, to penetrate 
penik-o, artist's brush 
pens-i, to think 
pensi-o, pension 
pent-i, to repent 
pentr-i, to paint 
peoni-o, peony 
pep-i, to chirp, twitter 
pepsin-o, pepsin 
per, by, by means of 
percept-i, to perceive 
perd-i, to lose 
perdrik-o, partridge 
pere-i, to perish 
perfekt-a, perfect 
perfid-i, to betray 
pergamen-o, parchment 
periferi-o, periphery 
perimetr-o, perimeter 
period-o, period 
peristil-o, peristyle 
perk-o, perch (fish) 
perl-o, pearl 
perlamot-o, mother-of- 
pearl 
permes-i, to permit 
peron-o, steps (before 

a house) 
perpendikular-a, per- 
pendicular 
persekut-i, prosecute, 

persecute 
persik-o, peach 
persist-i, to persist 



person-o, person 

perspektiv-o, perspect- 
ive 

Peru-o, Peru 

pes-i, to weigh (^trans,') 

pesimism-o, pessimism 

pesimist-o, pessimist 

peset-o, peseta 

pest-o, pest, plague 

pet-i, to ask, request 

petol-i, to be petulant, 
mischievous 

petrol-o, petroleum 

petrosel-o, parsley 

pez-i, to weigh, to have 
weight 

pfenig-o, pfennig 

pi-a, pious 

pice-o, fir-tree 

pied-o, foot 

piedestal-o, pedestal 

pig-o, magpie 

pigme-o, pigmy 

pigment-o, pigment 

pik-i, to prick 

piked-o, picket 

pilgrim-i, to make a 
pilgrimage 

pilk-o, ball (playing) 

pilol-o, pill 

pilot-o, pilot 

pin-o, pine 

pin6-i, to pinch 

pingl-o, pin 

pini-o, species of fir 

pint-o, pinnacle 



Esperanto- English Vocabulary 



57 



pio6-o, pickaxe 
pionir-o, pioneer 
pip-o, pipe 
pipr-o, pepper 
pips-o, pip (disease) 
pir-o, pear 
piramid-o, pyramid 
pirat-o, pirate 
Pirine-oj, Pyrinees 
pirit-o, pyrites 
pirol-o, bullfinch 
piroteknik-o, pyrotech- 
nics 
pist-i, to pound 
pistak-o, pistachio 
pistil-o, pistil 
pistol-o, pistol 
pi§t-o, piston 
piton-o, python 
piz-o, pea 
plac-o, plaza 
pla6-i, to please 
plad-o, dish 
plafon-o, ceiling 
plagiat-o, plagiarism 
plan-o, plan 
pland-o, sole of foot 
planed-o, planet 
plank-o, floor 
plant-i, to plant 
plantag-o, plantain 
plastik-o, plastic art 
plastr-o, plaster 
plat-a, flat 
plate-o, spoonbill 
platen-o, platinum 



plaud-i, to splash 
plebej-o, a plebeian 
pled-i, to plead (law) 
plej, most 
plekt-i, to weave 
plen-a, full 
plend-i, to complain 
pleonasm-o, pleonasm 
plet-o, tray 
plezur-o, pleasure 
pli, more 

plor-i, to shed tears 
plot-o, roach (fish) 
plu, further 
plug-i, to plow 
plum-o, feather, pen 
plumb-o, lead 
plu§-o, plush 
plutokrati-o, plutocracy 
pluv-o, rain 
pluvi-o, plover 
po, at the rate of 
podagr-o, gout 
poem-o, poem 
poent-o, point(in game) 
poet-o, poet 
poezi-o, poetry 
pokal-o, cup, goblet 
pol-o, a Pole 
poleniik-o, polemics 
polic-o, police 
poligami-o, polygamy 
poligon-o, buckwheat 
.polip-o, polypus 
polis-o, insurance policy 
politeism-o, polytheism 



58 



Esperanto- English Vocabulary 



politik-o, politics 
polk-o, polka 
poluci-o, pollution 
polur-o, polish 
polus-o, pole (of mag- 
net, etc.) 
polv-o, dust 
pom-o, apple 
pomad-o, pomatum 
pomp-o, pomp 
ponard-o, poniard 
pont-o, bridge 
ponton-o, pontoon 
popl-o, poplar 
popol-o, people 
popular-a, popular 
per, for, in order to, for 

the purpose of 
porcelan-o, porcelain 
porci-o, portion 
pord-o, door 
porfir-o, porphyry 
pork-o, hog 
port-i, to carry 
portal-o, portal 
porter-o, porter (drink) 
portope-o, swordbelt 
portik-o, portico 
portret-o, portrait 
portugal-a, Portuguese 
posed-i, to possess 
posesiv-a, possessive 
post, after 

posten-o, military post 
postul-i, to require 
postulat-o, postulate 



po§-o, pocket 
po§t-o, post, mail 
pot-o, pot 
potas-o, potash 
potenc-a, powerful 
potencial-a, potential 
pov-i, to be able 
poz-i, to pose 
pozitiv-a, positive 
pra*, great-, primordial; 
prapatroj, forefathers 
praktik-o, practice 
pram-o, ferry-boat 
prav-a, right 
precipe, chiefly 
preciz-a, precise 
predik-i, to preach 
prefer-i, to prefer 
prefiks-o, prefix 
preg-i, to pray 
prelat-o, prelate 
prelud-o, prelude 
prem-i, to press 
premi-o, premium 
premis-o, premise 
pren-i, to take 
prepari, to prepare 
prepozici-o, preposition 
prerogativ-o, preroga- 
tive 
pres-i, to print 
presbiter-o, presbyter 
preskau, nearly 
pret-a, ready 
pretekst-o, pretext 
pretend-i, to pretend 



Esperanto- English Vocabulary 



59 



preter, beyond 
prez-o, price 
prezent-i, to present 
prezid-i, to preside 
pri, about, concerning 
prim-o, first (music) 
primol-o, primrose 
primitiv-a, primitive 
princ-o, prince 
princip-o, principle 
printempo, springtime 
prism-o, prism 
privat-a, private 
privilegi-o, privilege 
pro, on account of 
problem-o, problem 
proced-i, to proceed 
procent-o, interest 
proces-o, legal process 
procesi-o, procession 
produkt-i, to produce 
profan-i, to profane 
profesi-o, profession 
profesor-o, professor 
profet-o, prophet 
profil-o, profile 
profit-o, profit 
profund-a, deep 
program-o, program 
progres-i, to progress 
projekt-o, project 
proklam-i, to proclaim 
prokrast-i, to delay 
proksim-a, near 
prokur-o, procurator 
proletari-o, proletarian 



prolog-o, prologue 
promen-i, to walk 
promes-i, to promise 
promoci-o, promotion 
promontor-o, cape 
pronom-o, pronoun 
propagand-o, propa- 
ganda 
propon-i, propose 
proporci-o, proportion 
propr-a, one's own 
proskripci-o, proscrip- 
tion 
prospekt-o, prospect 
prosper-i, to prosper 
prostitu-i, to prostitute 
protagonist-o, protag- 
onist 
protekt-i, to protect 
protest-i, to protest 
protestant-o, protest- 
ant 
protokol-o, protocol 
prototip-o, prototype 
prov-i, to try 
proverb-o, proverb 
provinc-o, province 
provincialism-o, pro- 
vincialism 
proviz-i, to provide 
provizor-a, provisional 
proz-o, prose 
prozelit-o, proselyte 
prozodi-o, prosody 
prud-a, prudish 
prudent-a, prudent 



6o 



Esperanto- English Vocabulary 



prujn o, white frost 
prun-o, plum 
prunel-o, sloe 
prunt-o, a loan 
prus-o, a Prussian 
pruv-i, to prove 
psalm-o, psalm 
pseuda, pseudo, false 
pseudonim-o, pseudo- 
nym 
psik-a, psychic 
psikologi-o, psychology 
publik-o, public 
pudel-o, spaniel 
pudr-o, toilet powder 
puf-o, puff, tuft 
pugn-o, fist 
pul-o, flea 
pulm-o, lung 
puls-o, pulse 
pulv-o, gunpowder 



pulvor-o, dust, powder 
pumik-o, pumice 
pump-i, to pump 
pun-i, to punish 
punc-o, crimson-red 
punc-o, punch 
punkt-o, point, dot 
punt-o, lace 
pup-o, doll 
pupil-o, pupil of eye 
pur-a, clean, pure 
pupitr-o, desk 
Purgatori-o, Purgatory 
puritan-o, puritan 
purpur-o, purple 
pus-o, pus 
pu§-i, to push 
put-o, a well 
putor-o, polecat 
putr-i, to rot 



rab-i, to seize and carry 

away, to rob 
rabarb-o, rhubarb 
rabat-i, to rebate 
raben-o, rabbi 
rabi-o, madness, rabies 
rabot-i, to plane 
raci-a, rational 
rad-o, wheel 
radi-o, ray 



radik-o, root 
radikal-a, radical 
rafan-o, horse-radish 
rafin-i, to refine 
rajd-i, to ride 
rajt-o, right 
raket-o, rocket, fusee 
rakont-i, to relate 
ramp-i, to crawl 
ran-o, frog 



Esperanto- English Vocabulary 



6i 



ranc-a, rancid 
rand-o, edge 
rang-o, rank 
ranunkol-o, ranunculus 
rapid-a, rapid 
rapir-o, foil, rapier 
raport-i, to report 
rapsodi-o, rhapsody 
ras-o, race 
rasp-i, to rasp 
rat-o, rat 

rauk-a, hoarse, raucus 
raup-o, caterpillar 
rav-i, to enrapture 
raz-i, to shave 
re, again 
reakci-o, reaction 
real-a, real 
real-o, real (coin) 
realist-o, realist 
rebus-o, rebus 
recenz-i, to review 
recept-o, doctor's pre- 
scription 
reciprok-a, reciprocal 
redakci-o, editorship 
redakt-i, to edit 
redaktor-o, editor 
redukt-i, to reduce 
redut-o, redoubt 
ref-o, reef (of sail) 
referenc-o, reference 
reformaci-o, reforma- 
tion 
refut-i, to refute 
regatt-o, regatta 



reg-i, to govern 

regal-i, to regale 

Fegeneraci-o, regenera- 
tion 

regi-o, state monopoly 

regiment-o, regiment 

region-o, region 

registr-i, to register 

reglement-o, regulation 

regn-o, state 

regol-o, wren 

regres-o, regress 

regul-o, a rule 

reg-o, king 

regisor-o, stage-man- 
ager 

rejs-o, reis (coin) 

reklam-o, advertising 

rekomend-i, to com- 
mend 

rekompenc-i, to reward 

rekord-o, record 

rekrut-o, recruit 

rekt-a, straight 

rektor-o, rector 

rekviem-o, requiem 

rekvizici-o, requisition 

rekvizit-o, requisite 

rel-o, rail 

relief-o, relief, embos- 
sed work 

religi-o, religion 

rem-i, to row 

rembur-i, to stuff 

remiz-o, garage, coach 
house 



62 



Esperanto- English Vocabulary 



rempar-o, bulwark 
ren-o, kidney 
rendevu-o, rendezvous 
renegat-o, renegade 
renesanc-o,renaissance 
renkont-i, to meet 
rent-o, income 
renvers-i, to upset 
repertuar-o, repertoire 
reprezent-i, represent 
reputaci-o, reputation 
reskript-o, rescript 
respekt-i, to respect 
respektiv-e, respect- 
ively 
respond-i, to respond 
respublik-o, republic 
rest-i, to remain 
restoraci-o, restaurant 
ret-o, net, netting 
retin-o, retina 
retorik-o, rhetoric 
retort-o, retort {chem.) 
retroaktiv-a,retroactive 
retrospektiv-a, retro- 
spective 
reumatism-o, rheuma- 
tism 
rev-i, to dream 
reveng-o, revenge 
reviz-i, to revise 
revoluci-o, revolution 
revolver-o, revolver 
revu-o, review, journal 
rezerv-i, to reserve 
rezign-i, to resign 



rezignaci-o, resignation 

(to one's lot, etc.) 
rezin-o, resin 
rezoluci-o, resolution 
rezon-i, to reason 
rezult-i, to result 
rib-o, currant 
ribel-i, to rebel 
ricev-i, to receive 
ri6-a, rich 
rid-i, to laugh 
rif-o, reef 

rifut-i, to take refuge 
rifuz-i, to refuse 
rigard-i, to look at 
rig-i, to rig 
rigid-a, rigid 
rigl-i, to bolt 
rigor-a, rigora 
rikan-i, to grin, sneer 
rikolt-i, to gather 
rilat-i, to relate 
rim-o, rhyme 
rimark-i, to remark 
rimed-o, means 
rimen-o, strap 
rimes-i, to remit money 
ring-o, ring 
rinocer-o, rhinoceros 
rip-o, rib 
ripar-i, to repair 
ripet-i, to repeat 
ripoz-i, to repose 
ripro6-i, to reproach 
risk-i, to risk 
rism-o, ream 



Esperanto- English Vocabulary 



63 



risort-0, spring (metal) 
rit-o, rite 
ritm-o, rythm 
river-o, river 
riverenc-o, reverence 
riz-o, rice 
rob-o, robe 
rod-o, road (sea) 
rojalism-o, royalism 
rok-o, rock 
rol-o, role 
roman-o, a novel 
romanc-o, ballad 
romantik-a, romantic 
romp-i, to breok 
rond-o, circle 
ronk-i, to snore 
ros-o, dew 
rosmar-o, walrus 
rosmaren-o, rosemary 
rost-i, to roast 



rostr-o, trunk, snout 
rot-o, company {milit,) 
rotond-o, rotunda 
roz-o, rose 
rozari-o, rosary 
rub-o, rubbish 
ruband-o, ribbon 
ruben-o, ruby 
rubl-o, rouble 
rubrik-o, head-line 
rug-a, red 
ruin-oj, ruins 
rukt-i, to eructate 
rul-i, to roll 
rum-o, rum 
ruman-o, a Roumanian 
rus-o, a Russian 
rust-i, to rust 
ru§-o, ruche, ruching 
rutin-o, routine 
ruz-a, cunning 



sabat-o, Saturday 
sabl-o, sand 
sabr-o, saber 
safir-o, sapphire 
safran-o, saffron 
sagac-a, sagacious 
seg-o, arrow 
sag-a, wise 
sagu-o, sage 
sak-o, sack 
sakr-o, sacrum 



sakrament-o,sacrament 

sakrilegi-o, sacrilege 

saks-o, a Saxon 

Saksujo, Saxony 

sal-o, salt 

salajr-o, salary 

salamandr-o, salaman- 
der 

salamoniak-o, sal am- 
moniac 

salat-o, salad 



64 



Esperanto-English Vocabulary 



sald-0, balance of an 

account 
salik-o, willow 
saliv-o, saliva 
salm-o, salmon 
salon-o, reception-room 
salpetr-o, saltpetre 
salt-i, to jump 
salut-i, to salute 
salvi-o, sage 
sam-a, same 
sambuk-o, elder (tree) 
samovar-o, samovar 
san-a, healthy 
sandal-o, sandal 
sang-o, blood 
sankci-o, sanction 
sangvin-a, sanguine 
sankt-a, holy 
sanskrit-o, Sanskrit 
sap-o, soap 
sard-o, a Sardinian 
sardin-o, sardine 
sark-i, to weed 
sarkasm-o, sarcasm 
sat-a, satiated 
Satan-o, Satan 
satir-o, satire 
satirus-o, satyr 
satrap-o, satrap 
satur-i, to saturate 
sauc-o, sauce 
sav-i,' to save 
scen-o, scene 
sceptr-o, scepter 
sci-i, to know 



scienc-o, science 
sciur-o, squirrel 
se, if 

seb-o, tallow 
sed, but 
seg-i, to saw 
segment-o, segment 
seg-o, chair 
sek-a, dry 
sekal-o, rye 
sekc-i, to dissect 
sekci-o, section 
sekret-o, secret 
sekretari-o, secretary 
seks-o, sex 
sekst-o, sixth (music) 
sekt-o, sect 
sekulariz-i, secularize 
sekund-o, second 
sekv-i, to follow 
sel-o, saddle 
selakt-o, whey 
sem-i, to sow 
semafor-o, semaphore 
semajn-o, week 
semid-a, Semitic 
seminari-o, seminary 
sen, without 
senat-o, senate 
senc-o, sense, meaning 
send-i, to send 
sensaci-o, sensation 
sent-i, to feel 
sentenc-o, sentence 
sentimental-a, senti- 
mental 



Esperanto- English Vocabulary 



65 



sep, seven 
sepi-o, cuttle-fish 
Septembr-o, September 
seraf-o, seraph 
serb-o, a Servian 
ser6-i, to seek 
seren-a, serene 
serenad-o, serenade 
serfent-o, sergeant 
seri-o, series 
serioz-a, serious 
serpent-o, serpent 
serur-o, lock 
serv-i, to serve 
servic-o, course (at a 

meal) 
servut-o, servitude 
ses, six 

sever-a, severe 
sezon-o, season 
sfer-o, sphere 
sfinks-o, sphinx 
si, self 

Siberi-o, Siberia 
sibl-i, to hiss 
sid-i, to sit 
sieg-i, to besiege 
sifilis-o, syphilis 
sifon-o, syphon 
sigel-i, to seal 
sign-o, sign 
signal-o, signal 
signif-i, to signify 
silab-o, syllable 
silent-i, to be silent 
silik-o, flint 



silk-o, silk 
silogism-o, syllogism 
siluet-o, silhouette 
silur-o, shad 
silvi-o, hedge-sparrow 
simbol-o, symbol 
simetri-o, symmetry 
simfoni-o, symphony 
simi-o, monkey, ape 
simil-a, similar 
simpati-o, sympathy 
simpl-a, simple 
simptom-o, symptom 
sinagog-o, synagogue 
sincer-a, sincere 
sindik-o, syndic 
sindikat-o, syndicate 
sinedri-o, sanhedrim 
singult-i, to hiccup 
sinjor-0, Mr., Sir 
sinod-o, synod 
sinonim-o, synonym 
sintaks-o, syntax 
sintez-o, synthesis 
siren-o, siren 
Siri-o, Syriia 
siring-o, lilac 
sirop-o, syrup 
sistem-o, system 
sitel-o, pail 
situaci-o, situation 
skabel-o, stool 
skaben-o, alderman 
skabi-o, itch 
skadr-o, squadron 
skal-o, scale (of map) 



66 



Esperanto- English Vocabulary 



skalp-o, scalp 
skandal-o, scandal 
skandinav-o, a Scandi- 
navian 
skapol-o, shoulder-blade 
skarab-o, beetle 
skarlat-o, scarlet 
skarp-o, scarf 
skatol-o, small box, case 
skelet-o, skeleton 
skeptik-a, sceptical 
skerm-i, to fence 
skiz-i, to sketch 
sklav-o, slave 
skolastik-a, scholastic 
skolop-o, woodcock 
skombr-o, mackerel 
skorbut-o, scurvy 
skorpi-o, scorpion 
skot-o, a Scot 
skrap-i, to scrape 
skrib-i, to write 
skrupul-a, scrupulous 
sku-i, to shake 
skulpt-i, to sculpture 
skun-o, schooner 
skurg-o, whip, scourge 
skvam-o, scales (fish) 
slang-o, slang 
slav-o, a Slav 
smerald-o, emerald 
smilak-o, sarsaparilla 
smirg-o, emery 
sobr-a, sober 
soci-o, society at large, 
the social body 



soci-a, social-a, social 
socialism-o, socialism 
socialist-o, socialist 
sociologi-o, sociology 
societ-o, society 
sod-o, soda 
sof-o, sofa 
sofism-o, sophism 
soif-i, to be thirsty 
sojl-o, threshold 
sol-a, alone 
sol-o, solo 
soldat-o, soldier 
sole-o, sole (fish) 
solen-a, solemn 
solid-a, solid, substan- 
tial, respectable 
solidar-a, jointly liable 
soliter-o, tape-worm 
solv-i, to solve 
solvent-a, solvent 
somer-o, summer 
son-i, to give a sound 
sonat-o, sonata 
sond-i, sound, fathom 
song-o, dream 
sonor-i, to ring 
sopir-i, to sigh for 
sopran-o, soprano 
sorb-i, to absorb 
sor6-o, witchcraft 
sorik-o, shrew-mouse 
sorp-o, black haw 
sort-o, fate 
sovat-a, wild 
spac-o, space 



Esi>erantO' English Vocabulary 



67 



spalir-o, espalier 
spasm-o, spasm 
spat-o, spavin 
spec-o, species 
special-a, special 
specifik-i, to specify 
specimen-o, specimen 
spektr-o, specter 
spegul-o, mirror 
spektakl-o, spectacle 

scene 
spekulaci-0, specula- 
tion 
spekulativ-a, specula- 
tive 
sperm-o, sperm 
spert-a, experienced 
spez-o, a clearing of 
funds : enspezi, to 
take in ; elspezi, to 
pay out 
spic-o, spice 
spik-o, ear (of grain) 
spin-o, spine 
spinac-o, spinach 
spindel-o, spindle 
spion-o, a spy 
spir-i, to breathe 
spirit-o, spirit 
spiritism-o, spiritism 
spiritualism-o, spirit- 
ualism 
spiritus-o, spirit (alco- 
holic) 
spite, in spite of 
split-o, splint, sliver 



spong-o, sponge 

spontane-a, spontane- 
ous 

sporad-a, sporadic 

sport-a, sport 

sprit-a, witty 

spron-o, spur 

sput-i, to spit, spit up 
blood, etc. 

stab-o, staff (army) 

stabl-o, work-bench 

staci-o, station 

stadi-o, stadium 

stal-o, shed, stall 

stalagmit-o, stalagmite 

stalaktit-o, stalactite 

stamp-i, to stamp, to 
mark 

stan-o, pewter 

standard-o, flag 

stang-o, pole 

stapl-o, pile, heap 

star-i, to stand 

stard-o, bustard 

stat-o, state, condition 

statik-a, static 

statistik-o, statistics 

statu-o, statue 

statur-o, stature 

steb-i, to stitch 

stel-o, star 

stenografi-o, stenogra- 
phy 

step-o, steppe 

stereoskop-o, stereo- 
scope 



68 



Esi>er ant 0' English Vocabulary 



stereotip-o, stereotype 
sterk-o, dung, manure 
stern-i, to stretch or 

sprawl out 
stertor-i, to make a 

harsh noise 
stil-o, style 
stimul-i, to stimulate 
stipo, broom (shrub) 
stof-o, Russian measure 
stoik-a, stoical 
stomak-o, stomach 
stopl-o, stubble 
strab-i, to squint 
strang-a, strange 
strat-o, street 
stre6-i, to stretch 
strek-i, to streak 
stri-o, streak, stripe 
strig-o, owl 
strigl-i, to curry(comb) 
strik-o, strike (workers) 
striknin-o, strychnine 
strof-o, strophe 
struktur-o, structure 
strut-o, ostrich 
student-o, student 
stuk-i, to stucco 
stump-o, stub, stump 
stup-o, tow 
sturg-o, sturgeon 
sturn-o, starling 
sub, under, beneath 
subit-a, sudden 
subjekt-o, subject 
subjektiv-a, subjective 



subjunktiv-o, subjunc- 
tive 

sublimat-o, sublimate 

substanc-o, substance 

substantiv-o, substan- 
tive 

subtil-a, subtle 

subtrah-i, to subtract 

su6-i, to suck 

sud-o, south 

sufer-i, to suffer 

sufic-a, sufficient 

sufiks-o, suffix 

sufok-i, to suffocate 

sugesti-o, suggestion 

suk-o, sap, juice 

sukcen-o, amber 

sukces-i, to succeed 

suker-o, sugar 

sulfur-o, sulphur 

sulk-o, furrow, wrinkle 

sultan-o, sultan 

sum-o, sum 

sun-o, sun 

sup-o, soup 

super, above 

supersti6-o, supersti- 
tion 

supoz-i, to suppose 

supr-e, above 

sur, on 

surd-a, deaf 

surpriz-i, to surprise 

surtut-o, overcoat 

suspekt-i, to suspect 

suveren-o, sovereign 



Esperanto- En£^lish Vocabulary 



ip 



svarm-i, teem, swarm 
svat-i, to act as match- 
maker 
sved-o, a Swede 



,sven-i, to swoon 
sving-i, to swings 
svis-o, a Swiss 



S 



§af-o, sheep 
Saft-o, shaft (machine) 
§ah-o, shah 
§ajn-i, to seem 
§ak-oj, chess 
§akal-o, jackal 
§akt-o, shaft (mining) 
§al-o, shawl 
§alup-o, shallop 
Salm-o, straw, stalk 
§am-o, chamois skin 
§anc-o, luck, chance 
§ancel-i, to cause to 

hesitate, to shake 
§ang-i, to change 
gankr-o, canker 
§arad-o, charade 
§arg-i, to load, charge 

(a gun, etc.) 
§art-i, to load (wagon, 

car, etc.) 
§ark-o, shark 
§at-i, to prize, like 
§aum-o, foam 
§el-o, shell 
§elak-o, shellac 
§elk-o, suspenders 



§erc-i, to joke 
§i, she 
§ild-o, shield 
§iling-o, shilling 
§im-i, to get mouldy, 

to spoil 
§ind-o, shingle 
§ink-o, ham 
§ip-o, ship 
§ir-i, to tear 
Sirm-i, to shield 
Slim-o, slime 
§los-i, to lock 
§mac-i, to kiss noisily 
§mir-i, to smear with 
§nur-o, string 
§ov-i, to shove, push 
§ovel-i, to shovel 
§ovimsm-o, jingoism 
§par-i, to be sparing 
§pic-o. Spitz (dog) 
§pin-i, to spin 
§pruc-i, to spurt, spout 
§rank-o, cupboard 
§rapnel-o, shrapnel 
§raub-o, screw 
§tal-o, steel 



70 



Esperanto- English Vocabulary 



§tat-o, state 
§tel-i, to steal 
§tip-o, block of wood 
§tof-o, goods, stuff 
§ton-o, stone 
§top-i, to stop up 
§trump-o, stocking 
§tup-o, stair-step 



§u-o, shoe 
§uld-i, to owe 
§ultr-o, shoulder 
§ut-i, to chute or pour 

out grain, sand, etc. 
§vel-i, to swell 
§vit-i, to perspire 



t. e., tio estas, that is 
tabak-o, tobacco 
taban-o, gad-fly 
tabel-o, table (figures, 

names, etc.) 
tabl-o, table (furniture) 
tabul-o, plank 
taburet-o, tabouret 
ta6ment-o, a squad of 

soldiers 
taft-o, taffeta 
tag-o, day 
tajlor-o, tailor 
tajd-o, tide 
taks-i, to estimate the 

value of, to price 
taksus-o, yew 
takt-o, bar (music) 
taktik-o, tactics 
talent-o, talent 
taler-o, thaler 
tali-o, waist 
talisman-o, talisman 



talmud-o, talmud 
talp-o, mole (animal) 
talk-o, talc 
tambur-o, drum 
tamburin-o, tambourine 
tamen, however 
tamtam-o, tom-tom 
tan-i, to tan 
tandem-o tandem 
tangent-o, tangent 
tanin-o, tannin 
tapet-o, tapestry 
tapi§-o, carpet 
tar-o, tare (of weight) 
tarantel-o, tarantella 
tarantul-o, tarantula 
tarif-o, tariff 
tas-o, cup 
task-o, task 
tartar-o, cream of tartar 
tatar-o, a Tartar 
tatu-i, to tattoo 
taiig-i, to be fit for 



]£si>eranto-E7iglish Vocabulary 



71 



tavol-o, layer 
te-o, tea 
teatr-o, theater 
ted-i, to be tedious 
teg-i, cover completely 
tegment-o, roof 
teism-o, theism 
teknik-a, technical 
teks-i, to weave 
telefon-o, telephone 
telegraf-o, telegraph 
telepati-o, telepathy 
teler-o, plate 
teleskop-o, telescope 
tem-o, theme, subject 
temp-o, time 
temperament-o, tem- 
perament 
tempi-o, temple (head) 
templ-o, temple 
ten-i, to keep, hold 
tend-o, tent 
tenden-o, tendon 
tendenc-o, tendency 
tenor-o, tenor 
tent-i, to tempt 
teologi-o, theology 
teori-o, theory 
ter-o, earth 

terapeutik-o, therapeu- 
tics 
teras-o, terrace 
tercet-o, musical trio 
terebint-o, turpentine 
teritori-o, territory 
termin-o, definition 



termit-o, termite 

termometr-o, thermom- 
eter 

tern-i, to sneeze 

terur-o, terror 

testament-i, bequeath 

testik-o, testicle 

testud-o, tortoise 

tetan-o, lockjaw 

tetr-o, grouse 

tetra-o, hazel-hen^ 

tez-o, thesis 

tia, such, that kind 

tial, therefore 

tiam, then 

tiar-o, tiara 

tibi-o, tibia 

tie, there 

tiel, thus, in that way 

ties, that person's 

tif-o, typhus 

tigr-o, tiger 

tikl-i, to tickle 

tili-o, linden 

tim-i, to fear 

timian-o, thyme 

timon-o, pole or shaft 
of vehicle 

tin-o, vat 

tindr-o, tinder 

tine-o, moth 

tinktur-o, tincture 

tint-i, to jingle 

tio, that, that thing 

tiom, that much, that 
many 



72 



Esi>eranto- English Vocabulary 



tip-o, type 

tipografi-o, typography 
tir-i, to draw, pull 
tiran-o, tyrant 
titol-o, title 
tiu, that person, that 
tog-o, toga 
tol-o, linen 
toler-i, to tolerate 
tom-c, tome, 
tomat-o, tomato 
tomb-o, tomb 
tombak-o, tombac 
ton-o, tone 
tond-i, to shear, clip 
tondr-i, to thunder 
topaz-o, topaz 
topografi-o, topography 
tor6-o, torch 
tord-i, to wind, twist 
torent-o, torrent 
torf-o, peat, turf 
torn-i, to turn on lathe 
tornistr-o, knapsack 
torped-o, torpedo 
tort-o, tart 
tost-o, toast 
tra, through 
trab-o, beam 
tradici-o, tradition 
traduk-i, to translate 
traf-i, to hit the mark 
tragedi-o, tragedy 
trahe-o, trachea 
trajt-o, feature 
trakt-i, to treat of 



traktat-o, treatise 
tram-o, tram 
trand-i,to cut 
trankvil-a, calm 
trans, across, beyond 
transcend-a,transcend- 

ant 
transitiv-a, transitive 
trapez-o, trapeze 
trat-i, to draw (a draft, 

note, etc.) 
travesti-o, travesty 
tre, very 

tref-o, club (in cards) 
trem-i, to tremble 
tremolo, asp, aspen 
tremp-i, dip, immerse 
tren-i, to drag 
trezor-o, treasure 
tri, three 
tribun»o, rostrum 
tribunal-o, tribunal 
tribut-o, tribute 
tricikl-o, tricycle 
trik-i, knit 

trikot-o, knitted work 
tril-o, trill 
trink-i, to drink 
trip-oj, tripe 
tritik-o, wheat 
triumf-o, triumph 
trivial-a, trivial 
tro, too, too much 
trofe-o, trophy 
trog-o, trough, manger 
tromb-o, water-spout 



Esperanto- English Vocabulary 



73 



trombon-o, trombone 
tromp-i, to deceive 
tron-o, throne 
trop-o, trope 
tropik-o, tropic 
trot-i, to trot 
trotuar-o, sidewalk 
trov-i, to find 
tru-o, hole 
trud-i, to intrude 
truf-o, truffle 
trul-o, trowel 
trump-o, a large horn 
trumpet-o, trumpet 
trunk-o, trunk (of tree) 
trup-o, troupe 
trust-o, trust, syndicate 
trut-o, trout 
tualet-o, toilet 
tub-o, tube 

tuber-o, bulb or knot 
(in plants) 



tuf-o, tuft 
tuj, immediately 
tuk-o, a cloth 
tul-o, tulle 
tulip-o, tulip 
tumult-o, tumult 
tunel-o, tunnel 
tunik-o, tunic 
tur-o, tower 
turban-o, turban 
turbin-o, turbine 
turd-o, thrush 
turist-o, tourist 
turk-o, Turk 
turkis-o, turquoise 
turment-i, to torment 
turn-i, to turn 
turnir-o, tournament 
turt-o, dove 
tus-i, to cough 
tu§-i, to touch 
tut-a, entire, whole 



U 



u, sign of imperative : 

amu, love 
uj', that which contains: 

cigarujo, cigar-case 
ukaz-o, ukase 
ul', a person noted for : 

time, fear\ timulo, 

a coward. 
ulcer-o, ulcer 
uleks-o, furze 



ulm-o, elm 
uln-o, ell 

ultimat-o, ultimatum 
ultramar-a, ultramar- 
ine 
um', indefinite suffix 
umbilik-o, navel 
unc-o, ounce 
ung-o, finger-nail 
uniform-o, uniform 



74 



Esperanto-English Vocabulary 



univers-o, universe 
universal-a, universal 
universitat-o, univers- 
ity 
unik-a, unique 
unu, one 
ur-o, ure-ox 
uragan-o, hurricane 
uran-o, uranium 
urb-o, city, town 
urin-i, to urinate 
urn-o, urn 



urogal-o, heath-cock 
urs-o, bear 
urtik-o, nettle 
us, conditional of verb: 

amus, might love 
uter-o, womb, uterus 
util-a, useful 
utilism-o, utilitarianism 
utopi-o, Utopia 
uvertur-o, overture 
uz-i, to use 
uzurp-i, to usurp 



vad-i, to wade 
vafi-o, waffle 
vag-i, to roam 
vagon-o, railway car 
vakcini-o, whortleberry 
vak-i, to be vacant 
vaks-o, wax 
val-o, valley 
valid-a, valid 
valiz-o, valise 
valor-i, to be worth 
vals-i, to waltz 
valv-o, valve 
vampir-o, vampire 
van-a, vain 
vandal-o, vandal 
vanel-o, lapwing 
vang-o, cheek 
vanil-o, vanilla 
vant-a, vain, futile 



vapor-o, vapor 
varb-i, to recruit, enlist 
variol-o, small-pox 
varm-a, warm 
vart-i, to nurse 
vasal-o, vassal 
vast-a, wide, vast 
vat-o, wadding 
Vatikan-o, Vatican 
vaz-o, vase 
vazelin-o, vaseline 
ve ! woe ! 
veget-i, to vegetate 
vegetar-a, vegetarian 
vejn-o, vein 
vek-i, to awake 
vekt-o, scale beam 
vel-o, sail 
velen-o, vellum 
velk-i, to fade 



Esperanto- English Vocabulary 



75 



velociped-o, velocipede 
velur-o, velvet 
ven-i, to come 
vend-i, to sell 
vendred-o, Friday 
venen-o, poison 
vener-a, venereal 
veng-i, to avenge 
venki, to vanquish 
vent-o, wind 
ventol-i, to ventilate 
ventr-o, abdomen 
ver-a, true 
verand-o, veranda 
verb-o, verb 
verben-o, verbena 
verd-a, green 
verdigr-o, verdigris 
verdikt-o, verdict 
verg-o, switch, rod 
verk-i, to compose 
verm-o, worm 
vermut-o, vermouth 
vermidel-o, vermicelli 
vers-o, verse 
verst-o, verst 
ver§-i, to pour 
vert-o, fore part of the 

head 
vertag-o, terrier 
vertebr-o, vertebra 
vertikal-a, vertical 
veruk-o, wart 
verv-o, rapture 
vesp-o, wasp 
yesper-o, evening 



vespert-o, bat 

vest-i, to dress 

vestibl-o, vestibule 

ve§t-o, vest 

vet-i, to bet 

veter-o, weather 

veteran-o, veteran 

veterinar-o, veterinary 

vetur-i, travel, journey 
by vehicle 

yezik-o, bladder 

vezir-o, vizier 

vi, you 

viadukt-o, viaduct 

viand-o, meat 

vibr-i, to vibrate 

viburn-o, viburnum 

vic-o, rank, turn, order 

vici-o, vetch 

vid-i, to see 

vidv-o, widower 

vigl-a, alert 

vikari-o, curate 

vilat-o, village 

vin-o, wine 

vinagr-o, vinegar 

vind-i, to swaddle 

vinjet-o, vignette 

vinkt-i, to rivet, clinch 

vintr-o, winter 

viol-o, violet 

violon-o, violin 

violon6el-o, a violon- 
cello 

vip-o, whip 

viper-o, viper 



76 



Esperanto- English Vocabulary 



vir-0, a man 
virg-a, virginal 
virt-o, virtue 
virtuoz-o, virtuoso 
visk-o, mistletoe 
viski-o, whisky 
vist-o, whist 
vi§-i, to wipe 
vitr-o, glass 
vitriol-o, vitriol 
viv-i, to live 
vizag-o, face 
vizi-o, vision 
vizier-o, vizor 
vizit-i, to visit 
V06-0, voice 
voj-o,way, road 
vojag-i, to voyage 
vojevod-o, wayvode, a 
small Polish official 



vok-i, to call 
vokal-o, a vowel 
vol-i, to will 
volfram-o, wolfram 
volont-e, willingly 
volum-o, volume(book) 
volumen-o, volume 
volupt-o, volupty 
volv-i, to roll, wind 
vom-i, to vomit 
vort-o, word 
vost-o, tail 
vual-o, veil 

vulgar-a, vulgar, com- 
mon 
vulkan-o, volkano 
vulp-o, fox 
vultur-o, vulture 
vund-i, to wound 



zebr-o, zebra 
zelat-o, zealot 
zenit-o, zenith 
zibel-o, sable-marten 
zigzag-o, zigzag 
zingibr-o, ginger 
zink-o, zinc 
zizel-o, zizel 



zodiak-o, zodiac 
zon-o, girdle 
zoologi-o, zoology 
zorg-i, care for, watch, 

see after 
zuav-o, zouave 
zum-i, to hum 



ENGLISH - ESPERANTO VOCABULARY 



abandon, forlasi 
abash, hontigi 
abbot, abate 
abbreviate, mallongigi 
abdomen, ventre 
abduct, forrabi 
abide, resti, logi 
ability, talento 
able, pova 

abolish, forigi, nuligi 
abomination, abomeno 
abound, svarmi 
about, preskaii, Cirkaii 
above, supre 
abscess, absceso 
absent, forestanta 
absolute, absoluta 
absorb, sorbi 
abstract, abstrakta 
absurd, absarda 
abuse, trouzi 
academy, akademio 
accede, cedi, konsenti 
accelerate, akceli 
accent (mark), signo 
accent, akcento 
accept, akcepti 
accident, okazo 
accompany, akompani 



according to, laii 
accouche, akuSi 
account, konto, kalku- 

lo, rakonto 
accumulate, amasigi 
accurate, akurata 
accuse, kulpigi 
accustomed, kutima 
ace, aso 
ache, doloro 
acid, acido 
acknowledge, konfesi, 

avizi 
acorn, glano 
acquaint, sciigi, konigi 
acquiesce, konsenti 
acquire, akiri 
acrobat, akrobato 
act, ago, akto 
active, agema, aktiva 
actor, aktoro 
actual, efektiva 
adage, proverbo 
add, aldoni, adicii 
address, adresi 
adept, adepto 
adequate, adekvata 
adhere, aligi 
adieu, adiati 



78 



English' Esperanto Vocabulary 



adjacent, apuda 
adjective, adjektiva 
administer, administri 
admiral, admiralo 
admire, admiri 
admonish, admoni 
adopt, adopti, alpreni 
adore, adori 
adorn, ornami 
adulterate, falsi 
adultery, adulto 
Advent, Advento 
adverb, adverbo 
advertise, anonci 
advise, konsili, avizi 
affable, afabla 
affair, afero 
affect, afekti 
affection, amo, afekcio 
affirm, atesti 
affirmative, jesa 
affix, afikso 
afterward, poste 
again, ree 
against, kontraii 
agate, agato 
agent, agento 
agitate, agiti 
ago, antati 
agony, agonio 
agree, interkonsenti 
agriculture, agrikulturo 
ah! ha! 
ahead, antaiie 
aid, helpi, asisti 
aim, celo 



air, aero, aerumi, ario 
alas ! alas ! 
album, albumo 
albumen, albumeno 
alcohol, alkoholo 
algebra, algebro 
alias, alie 
alike, simila 
alive, viva 
all, Ciom, Ciuj 
allot, lotumi 
allow, permesi 
allude, aludi 
allure, logi 
almighty, Ciopova 
almost, preskaii 
alms, almozo 
aloft, supre 
alone, sole 
alphabet, alfabeto 
Alps, Alpoj 
already, jam 
also, ankau 
altar, altaro 
although, kvankam 
alto, aldo 
altogether, tute 
alum, aluno 
always, Ciam 
amalgam, amalgamo 
ambassador, ambasa- 

doro 
amber, sukceno 
ambition, ambicio 
ambush, embuski 
America, Ameriko 



English ■ Espera nto Voca bulary 



79 



amidst, meze 
ammonia, amoniako 
among, inter 
ample, sufiCa 
amuse, amuzi 
analogy, analogio 
analyze, analizi 
anarchy, anarliio 
anatomy, anatomic 
ancestor, prapatro 
anchor, ankro 
ancient, antikva 
and, kaj 
anger, kolero 
angle, angulo 
animal, besto 
ankle, maleolo 
announce, anonci 
anonymous, anonima 
answer, respondi 
ant, formiko 
antelope, antilopo 
antipathy, antipatio 
antique, antikva 
anvil, amboso 
any, ia 
anybody, iu 
anybody's, ies 
anyhow, iel 
any quantity, iom 
any time, iam 
anything, io 
anywhere, ie 
apart, aparte 
apathy, apatio 
ape, simio 



apology, apologio 
apoplexy, apopleksio 
apostle, apostolo 
apostrophe, apostrofo 
apparatus, aparato 
appear, §ajni, aperi 
appetite, apetito 
applaud, aplaudi 
apple, pomo 
appoint, nomi, elekti 
approach, proksimigi 
approve, aprobi 
apricot, abrikoto 
April, Aprilo 
Arab, arabo 
arbitrary, arbitra 
arbitration, arbitracio 
arbor, laiibo 
arc, arko 
arcade, arkado 
archipelago, insularo 
arctic, arktika 
ardent, fervora 
arena, areno 
argue, argumenti 
arm, armi, brako 
army, armeo 
aroma, aromo 
around, Cirkaii 
arrest, aresti 
arrogant, aroganta 
arrow, sago 
arsenic, arseniko 
art, arte 
artery, arterio 
artichoke, artigoko 



8o 



English- Esperanto Vocabulary 



article, artikolo, ajo 
artist, artisto 
as, kiel, tiel 
ashes, cindro 
Asia, Azio 
ask, demandi, peti 
asphalt, asfalto 
aspire, aspiri, celi 
assault, atako 
assign, asigni 
assist, asisti, helpi 
astringent, adstringa 
astrology, astrologio 
astronomy, astronomio 
at, ee 

atheism, ateismo 
athlete, atleto 
atmosphere, atmosfero 
atom, atomo 
attack, ataki 
attain, atingi 
attempt, atenci 
attend, atendi, atenti, 

servi, zorgi 
attention, atento 
attest, atesti 
attract, altiri 
auction, atikcio 
audience, aiiditorio 



aunt, onklino 
auspices, aiispicoj 
Australia, Aiistralio 
Austrian, aiistro 
author, aiitoro 
authority, aiitoritato 
autocrat, autokrato 
automatic, automata 
automobile, atitomobilo 
autumn, aiituno 
avalanche, lavango 
avaricious, avara 
avenge, vengi 
average, meza 
aversion, antipatio 
avert, deturni 
avid, avida 
avoid, eviti 
await, atendi 
awaken, veki 
away, for 
awful, terura 
awkward, nelerta 
awl, aleno 
axe, hakilo 
axis, akso 
axiom, aksiomo 
azote, azote 
azure, lazura 



babble, babili 
baboon, paviano 
baby, infaneto, ido 



bachelor, fratilo 
back, dorso, re, poste 
badge, simbolo, devizo 



English - Esperanto Vocabidary 



8i 



badger, melo 
bag, sako 

bagatelle, bagatelo 
baggage, pakajo 
bail, kaiicio 
balance, balanci 
balance-sheet, bilanco 
balcony, balkono 
bald, senhara 
ball, balo, pilko, globo 
ballad, balado 
ballast, balasto 
ballet, baleto 
balloon, balono 
ballot, baloti 
balsam, balzamo 
bamboo, bambuo 
banana, banano 
band, ligilo, bando 
bandage, bandago 
banish, ekzili 
bank, banko, bordo 
banker, bankiero 
banner, flago,standardo 
banquet, festeno 
baptize, bapti 
bar, bari 

barbarian, barbaro 
barber, barbiro 
bare, nuda 
bark, boji, barko 
barley, hordeo 
barometer, barometro 
baron, barono 
barrel, barelo 
baritone, baritono 



base, fundamento 
basin, pelvo 
basket, korbo 
bass (music), baso 
bat, vesperto 
battery, baterio 
battle, batalo 
bayonet, bajoneto 
bazar, bazaro 
be, esti 
beak, beko 
beam, trabo 
bean, fabo 
bear, urso 

bear, naski, produkti 
beard, barbo 
beast, bruto, besto 
beat, bati 
beautiful, bela 
beaver, kastoro 
because, Car 

bed, lito 

bee, abelo 
beech, fago 
beef, bovajo 
beer, biero 
beet, beto 
beetle, skarabo 
before, antau 
beg,petegi, peti almoion 
begin, komenci 
behave, konduti 
behind, post 

belch, rukti 
Belgian, belgo 
believe; kredi 



82 



English' Esperanto Vocabulary 



bell, sonorilo 
belly, ventro 
belong, aparteni 
below, sub, malsupre 
belt, zone 

bench, benko, stable 
bend, fleksi 
benediction, bene 
berry, bero 
besides, krom 
besiege, siegi 
bet, veti 
between, inter 
beyond, trans 
Bible, biblio 
bicycle, biciklo 
big, granda 
bigamy, bigamio 
bile, galo 
bill, bilo, kalkulo, beko, 

kambio, afi§o 
bind, ligi, bindi, ban- 

dagi 
biography, biografio 
biology, biologio 
birch, betulo 
bird, birdo 
biscuit, biskvito 
bishop, episkopo 
bit, peco 
bite, mordi 
black, nigra 
blackbird, merlo 
bleat, bleki 
bless, beni 
blind, blinda 



block, gtipo, bloko, 

kvadrato 
blot, makulo 
blow, blovi 
blouse, bluzo, kitelo 
blue, blua 
boa, boao 
board, tabulo 
boast, fanfaroni 
boat, boato 
body, korpo 
Bohemian, bohemo 
boil, boll 
bolt, rigli 
bomb, bombo 
bonbon, bombono 
bone, osto 
bonnet, Capo 
book, libro 
boot, bote 
booth, budo 
borax, borakso 
bore, bori 

borrow, prunte preni 
bosom, brusto 
botany, botaniko 
both, ambaii 
bottle, botelo 
bottom, fundo 
boulevard, bulvardo 
boundary, limo 
bouquet, bukedo 
bow, saluti 
bow, arCo, pafarko, 

banto 
bowl, pelvo, kaliko 



English-Esperanto Vocabulary 



83 



box, kesto, skatolo 

pugnebato, logio 
boy, knabo 
brag, fanfaroni 
brain, cerbo 
brake, haltigilo 
bran, brano 
branch, branCo 
brave, brava 
bray, bleki 
bread, pane 
break, rompi 
breast, brusto, mamo 
breathe, spiri 
brick, briko 
bridge, ponto 
bridle, brido 
brigade, brigade 
brigand, bandito 
bright, hela, brila 
brighten, briligi 
brilliant, brilianto 
bring, alkonduki 
brink, rando 
briny, sala 
brittle, facilrompa 
broad, larga 
brochure, broSuro 
bronchitis, bronkito 
brooch, broeo 
brood, kovi 
brook, rivereto 
broom, balailo 
brother, frato 
brown, bruna 
bruise, kontuzi 



brush, broso 
brute, bruto 
bucket, sitelo 
buckle, buko 
buckwheat, poligono 
bud, burgono 
buffalo, bubalo 
bug, cimo 
build, konstrui 
bulb, bulbo 
Bulgarian, bulgaro 
bull, bovoviro 
bullet, kuglo 
bun, bulko 
bundle, fasko 
bungle, fu§i 
burden, garfo 
bureau, komodo, oficejo 
burn, bruli, bruligi 
burnish, poluri 
burner, flamingo 
bury, enfosi, enterigi 
bush, arbeto 
bushel, buSelo 
business, afero, pro- 

fesio, komerco, ofico 
bust, busto 
busy, okupata 
but, sed, krom, escepte 
butcher, buCi 
butter, butero 
butterfly, papilio 
button, butono, buton- 

umi 
buy, aCeti 
by, per, apud, preter 



84 



English' Esperanto Vocabulary 



cab, fiakro 
cabbage, brasiko 
cabin, kajuto, kabano, 

Cambreto 
cable, gnurego 
cadet, kadeto 
cafe, restoracio, kafejo 
cage, kago 
cake, kuko 
calculate, kalkuli 
caldron, kaldrono 
calendar, kalendaro 
calf, bovido, tibikarno 
caliber, kalibro 
calico, kalikoto 
call, voki 
callous, kala 
calm, kvieta, trankvila 
calumny, kalumnio 
camp, tendaro 
camphor, kamforo 
can, povas 
canal, kanalo 
canary, kanario 
candidate, kandidato 
candle, kandelo 
candy, kando 
cane, kano, bastono 
cannon, pafilego 
canon, kanono 
canopy, baldakeno 
canvas, kanvaso 
cap, Capo, kepo 
capable, kapabla 



capital, kapitalo, kapi- 

telo, granda litero 
capitol, kapitolo 
caprice, kaprico 
captain, gipestro, kap- 

itano 
carat, karate 
caravan, karavano 
carbuncle, karbunkolo 
card, karto 
cardboard, kartono 
care, zorgi 
caress, karesi 
carmine, karmino 
carnival, karnivalo 
caricature, karikaturi 
carp, karpo 
carpenter, Carpenti 
carpet, tapiSo 
carriage, veturilo 
carrot, karoto 
carry, porti 
cartilage, kartilago 
cartridge, kartoCo 
case, kazo, kesto, ingo 
cash, mono, kontanto 
cast, fandi 
castle, kastelo 
cat, kato 

catalogue, katalogo 
catarrh, kataro 
catch, kapti 
cathedral, katedralo 
-Catholic, Katolika 



Efiglish' Esperanto Vocabulary 



85 



cauliflower, florbrasiko 
cause, kauzo 
caution, averti 
cavalry, kavalerio 
cave, kaverno 
cease, 6esi 
cedar, cedro 
cede, cedi 
ceiling, plafono 
celery, celerio 
cell, 6elo 
cellar, kelo 
cement, cemento 
censor, cenzuri 
cent, cendo 
centime, centimo 
center, centre 
century, centjaro 
ceremony, ceremonio 
certain, certa 
certify, certigi, atesti 
chagrin, Cagreno 
chain, Seno 
chair, sego 
chalice, kaliko 
chalk, kreto 
chamber, Cambro 
chamois, Samo 
chamois-skin, §amo 
chance, hazardo, §anco, 

okazo 
change, §an^i 
chapter, Capitro 
character, karaktero 
chariot, Caro 
charlatan, Carlatano 



charming, Carina 
chaste, Casta 
chatter, babili 
cheap, malkara 
cheat, trompi 
cheese, fromago 
chemise, Cemizo 
chemistry, Iiemio 
check, Ceko 
cherry, 6erizo 
chess, §akoj 
chest, kesto, brusto 
chestnut, ka§tano 
chew, maCi ^ 

chief, Cefa 
child, infano 
chimney, kamentubo 
chin, mentono 
china, porcelano 
Chinaman, Iiino 
chirp, eirpi, pepi 
chisel, Cizi 
chocolate, Cokolado 
choicCj^ elekto 
choir, hero 
chop, haki 
Christ, Kristo 
Christmas, Kristnasko 
church, eklezio, pregejo 
cider, cidro 
cigar, cigaro 
cigarette, cigaredo 
cinder, cindro 
cinnamon, cinamo 
cipher, cifero 
circle, rondo 



86 



English- Esperanto Vocabulary 



circular, cirkulero 
circumstance, cirkon- 

stanco 
circus, cirko 
cistern, cisterno 
cite, citi 

citizen, urbano, ano 
city, urbo 
civil, civila, gentila 
civilize, civilizi 
class, klaso 
claw, ungo, ungego 
clay, argilo 
clean, pura 
clear, klara 
clerk, komizo 
clever, lerta 
client, kliento 
climate, klimato 
climb, suprenrampi 
clink, tinti 
clip, tondi 
cloak, mantelo 
clock, horlogo 
close, proksima 
close, fermi 
cloth, drapo, tuko 
clothe, vesti 
cloud, nubo 
clove, kariofilo 
club, bastonego, trefo, 

klubo 
coal, karbo, §tonkarbo 
coast, marbordo, gliti 
coat, vesto 
cock, koko 



cocoa, kakao 

cocoanut, kokoso 

cod, gado 

codicil, kodicilo 

coddle, dorloti 

coffee, kafo 

coffer, kesto 

coffin, 6erko 

coin, monero 

coke, koakso 

colic, koliko 

collar, kolumo 

collect, kolekti 

college, kolegio 

colonel, kolonelo 

colony, kolonio 

colossal, kolosa 

color, koloro 

column, kolono 

comb, kombi 

combat, batalo 

combine, kombini 

come, veni 

comedy, komedio 

comet, kometo 

comfort, kotnforto 

comic, komika 

comma, komo 

command, komandi, 
ordoni 

commander (of an or- 
der), komandoro 

commence, komenci 

commentary, komen- 
tario 

commerce, komerco 



English- Esper an t o Vocabulary 



87 



commission, komisio, 

maklero 
committee, komitato 
common, komuna, vul- 

gara 
commune, komunumo 
compact, kompakta 
company, kompanio, 

roto, trupo, anaro, 

gastoj 
compare, kompari 
compass, kompaso, cir- 

kelo 
compel, devigi 
complicate, kompliki 
compute, kalkuli 
comrade, kamarado 
conceal, ka§i 
concede, cedi 
concern, koncerni 
concerning, pri 
concert, koncerto 
conclude, konkludi, fini 
concubine, kromvirino 
condemn, kondamni 
condition,kondi6o, state 
condole, kondolenci 
conduct, konduki 
conduct, konduto 
cone, konuso 
confederate, konfederi 
conference, konferenco 
confess, konfesi 
confide, konfidi 
conform, konformi 
confuse, konfuzi 



congress, kongreso 
conjecture, konjekti 
conscience, konscienco 
consent, konsento 
consequently, sekve 
console, konsoli 
constitution, konstitu- 

cio 
construct, konstrui 
consul, konsulo 
consume, konsumi 
consumption, ftizo 
contact, kontakto 
contain, enhavi 
contempt, malestimo 
contend, batali, disputi 
content, kontenta 
contest, disputi, konkuri 
continent, kontinento 
continue, da^ri, daiirigi 
contour, konturo 
contraband, kontraban- 

do 
contract, kontrakto 
contradict, kontratidiri 
contrary, kontra(ia 
contrast, kontrasti 
contrive, elpensi 
control, kontroli 
contusion, kontuzo 
convene, kunveni 
convenient, konvena 
conventional, kutima 
converge, konvergi 
conversation, konver- 

sacio 



8S 



English- Esperanto Vocabulary 



convert, konverti 
convince, konkinki 
cook, kuiri 
copper, kupro 
copy, kopii, ekzemplero 
coquet, koketi 
coral, koralo 
cork, korko, §topi 
corkscrew, korktirilo 
corn, maizo, kalo 
corner, angulo 
cornice, kornico 
corporal, korporalo, 

korpa 
corpse, kadavro 
correct, korekta 
correspond, korespondi 
corset, korseto 
Cossack, kozako 
cost, kosto 
costly, multekosta 
cotton, kotuno 
cough, tusi 
counsel, konsili, advo- 

kato 
count, kalkuli, grafo 
countenance, vizago 
country, Iando,kamparo 
couple, pare 
courage, kurago 
courier, kuriero 
course, kurso 
court, jugejo, jugistaro, 

amindumi 
courteous, gentila 
cousin, kuzo, kuzino 



cover, kovri, tegi 
cowl, kapuCo 
coxcomb, dando 
coy, rezerva 
crab, kankro 
crack, fendi, kraki 
cradle, lulilo 
crafty, ruza 
crane, gruo, §arglevilo 
crape, krepo 
crater, kratero 
cravat, kravato 
crawl, rampi 
crayon, krajono 
crazy, freneza 
cream, kremo 
create, krei 
credit, kredito 
creditor, kreditoro 
credulity, kredemo 
creed, kredo 
creep, rampi 
Creole, kreolo 
crest, tufo 
crevice, fendo 
crev7, §ipanaro 
cricket, grilo 
crime, krimo 
crippled, kripla 
crisis, krizo 
criticise, kritiki 
crocodile, krokodilo 
crop, rikolto, kropo 
cross, kruco, malafabla 
crystal, kristalo 
cube, kubo 



English-Esperanto Vocabulary 



89 



cuckoo, kukolo 
cucumber, kukumo 
cuff, manumo 
cuirass, kiraso 
culpable, kulpa 
cunning, ruza 
cup, taso 
cupola, kupolo 
cure, kuraci, resanigi 
curl, buklo 
currant, ribo 



current, fluo 
curtain, kurteno 
cushion, kuseno 
custom, kutitno 
cut, tranCi 
cutlet, kotleto 
cyclone, ciklono 
cylinder, cilindro 
cymbal, cimbalo 
cypress, cipreso 
czar, caro 



daffodil, narciso 
dagger, ponardo 
dahlia, dalio 
daily, Ciutaga 
dainty, frandajo 
daisy, lekanteto 
dam, digo 
damage, difekti 
damask, damasko 
dame, sinjorino 
damn, kondamni 
dance, danci 
dandy, dando 
Dane, dano 
dandelion, leontodo 
danger, dangero 
dangle, pendeti 
dare, kuragi 
dark, malluma 



darken, mallumigi 
darling, karuleto 
darn, fliki 
dart, sego, pikilo 
date, date, datumi, 

daktilo 
dative, dativo 
daub, fu§i 
daughter, filino 
daunt, timigi 
dauntless, sentima 
dawn, tagigo 
day, tago 
daybook, taglibro 
daydream, revo 
dazzle, blindigi 
deacon, diakono 
dead, senviva, mortinta 
deaf, surda 



90 



English- Esperanto Vocabulary 



deal, komerci, disdoni 
dear, kara, multekosta 
death, morto 
debate, debato 
debauch, diboCo 
debit, debito 
debt, §uldo 
decanter, karafo 
decaying, kaduka 
deceive, trompi 
December, Decembro 
decent, deca 
decide, decidi 
decipher, deCifri 
deck, ferdeko 
declaim, deklami 
declaration, deklaracio 
declare, aserti 
declivity, deklivo 
decorate, ornami 
deep, profunda 
deer, cervo 
defend, defendi 
deficiency, deficito 
define, definite 
delay, prokrasti 
delegate, delegito 
delegation, delegacio 
delicate, delikata 
deliver, liveri 
demand, postuli 
democrat, demokrato 
demon, demono 
denounce, denunci 
dense, densa 
deny, nei 



depend, dependi 
depute, deputi 
describe, priskribi 
desert, forlasi 
desert, dezerto 
deserve, meriti 
design, desegno 
desire, deziri 
desk, skribtablo 
dessert, deserto 
destine, destini 
destroy, detrui 
detail, detalo 
deter, malhelpi 
devil, diablo 
devoted, sindona 
dew, roso 
diagonal, diagonala 
diagram, diagramo 
dialect, dialekto 
dialogue, dialogo 
diameter, diametro 
diamond, diamanto 
dictate, dikti 
dictionary, vortaro 
differ, diferenci 
dig, fosi 
digest, digesti 
diligent, diligenta 
dine, tagmangi, vesper- 

mangi 
dip, trempi 
diphthong, diftongo 
diploma, diplomo 
diplomacy, diplomatic 
direct, direkti, ordoni 



English-Esperanto Vocabulary 



91 



direct, rekta 
director, direktoro 
dirt, koto 
disc, disko 
discount, diskonto 
discover, eltrovi 
discreet, diskreta 
discuss, diskuti 
disgust, na^zi 
dish, plado 
disinfect, dezinfekti 
dispatch, depe§o 
dispel, forpeli 
dispute, disputi 
dissolve, solvi 
distinct, klara 
distinguish, distingi 
disturbance, tumulto 
diverse, diversa 
divide, dividi 
divorce, eksedzigo 
do, far! 
doctor, doktoro, kura- 

cisto 
document, dokumento 
dog, hundo 
dogma, dogmo 
doll, pupo 
dollar, dolaro 
door, pordo 
dose, dozo 
dot, punkto 
doubt, dubi 
douche, du§o 
dove, kolombo 
down, lanugo 



drag, treni 
dragon, drako 
dragoon, dragono 
drama, dramo 
draw, tiri 
drawers, kalsono 
dray, Sargveturilo 
dream, songi 
dregs, feCo 
dress, vesti 
drill, bori 
drink, trinki 
drone, bur do 
drop, guto, fail 
drown, droni 
drug, drogo 
drum, tamburo 
dry, seka 
duck, anaso 
dude, dando 
duel, duelo 
duet, dueto 
duke, duko 
dull, malakra 
dung, sterko 
durable, fortika 
duration, daiiro 
during, dum 
dust, polvo 
duty, devo, imposto 
dyke, digo 
dynamics, dinamiko 
dynamite, dinamito 
dynasty, dinastio 
dysentery, disenterio 
dyspepsia, dispepsio 



Q2 



English- Esperanto Vocabulary 



each, t\M 
eager, avida 
eagle, agio 
ear, orelo, spiko 
earl, grafo 
early, frua, frue 
earth, tero 

earthenware, fajenco 
earthquake, tertremo 
east, oriento 
Easter, Pasko 
easy, facila 
eat, mangi 
ebony, ebono 
echo, elio 
economize, §pari 
ecstacy, ekstazo 
eczema, ekzemo 
Edeno, Eden 
edge, rando 
edict, edikto 
edify, edifi 
edit, redakti 
edition, eldono 
educate, eduki 
eel, angilo 
effect, efiki 
effort, peno, atenco 
egg, ovo 

Egyptian, egipto 
eight, ok 
either, ati 
elastic, elasta 
elbow, kubuto 



elect, elekti ' 

ell, ulno 
elm, ulmo 
else, alie 

embarass, embarasi 
emblem, emblemo 
embrace, eirkaiipremi 
embroider, brodi 
emerald, smeraldo 
eminent, eminenta 
empire, imperio 
employ, dungi, uzi 
employment, ofico 
empty, malplena, vak- 

anta 
enamel, emajlo 
enclose, enmeti,enfermi 
encore, bis 
encounter, renkonti 
encroach, trudi 
end, fino 
endow, doti 
enemy, malamiko 
energy, energio 
engine, maSino 
Englishman, anglo 
enjoy, gui 

enlist, varbi, aligi al 
enough, sufi6e 
enterprise, entrepreno 
enthusiasm,entuziasmo 
entice, logi 
entire, tuta 
entreat, petegi 



English-Esperanto Vocabulary 



93 



envelop, envolvi 
envelope, koverto 
envy, envii 
epidemic, epidemic 
epilepsy, epilepsio 
episode, epizodo 
epitaph, epitafo 
epithet, epiteto 
epoch, epoko 
equal, egala 
equation, ekvacio 
equator, ekvatoro 
err, erari 
errand, komisio 
erysipelas, erizipelo 
escort, eskorto 
especial, speciala 
essence, esenco, oleo 
establish, fondi, kon- 

stati, starigi 
esteem, estimi 
eternal, eterna 
ether, etero 
ethics, etiko 
etiquette, etiketo 
euphonious, belsona 
Europe, Europo 
even, eC, ebena 
event, okazo 
ever, ajn, iam 
every, Siu, Cia 
everybody, tin 
everybody's, ties 
everything, tio 
evei'y where, 6ie 
evident, evidenta 



evolution, evolucio 
exact, preciza, gusta 
examine, ekzameni 
example, ekzemplo 
except, escepte 
excessive, troa 
exchange, inter§ango 
exchange, borso 
excite, eksciti 
exclusive, eksklusiva 
excursion, ekskurso 
execute, ekzekuti 
exercise, ekzerco 
exhibition, ekspozicio 
exist, ekzisti 
expand, etendi 
expect, atendi 
expedite, ekspedi 
expel, elpeli 
expense, elspezo 
experience, sperto 
expert, lerta 
explain, klarigi 
explode, eksplodi 
explore, esplori 
express, esprimi, sendi 

rapidire 
extend, etendi 
external, ekstera 
extinguish, estingi 
extra, ekstra 
extreme, ekstrema 
eye, okulo 
eyebrow, brovo 
eyeglasses, okulvitroj 
eyelid, palpebro 



94 



English' Esperanto Vocabulary 



F 



fable, fablo 
facilitate, faciligi 
facsimile, faksimilo 
fact, fakto 
factory, fabriko 
fade, velki 

fail,malsukcesi, bankroll 
faint, sveni 
fair, foiro, justa 
faith, fido 
fairy, feino 
fall, fall 

falsa, falsa, malvera 
fame, famo 
family, familio 
familiar, familiara 
fan, ventumi 
fanatical, fanatika 
fantasy, fantazio 
far, maHroksima 
farewell, adiaii 
farm, farmi 
fashion, maniero, modo, 

fasono 
fast, rapida 
fat, grasa 
fatal, fatala 
fate, sorto 
father, patro 
fathom, sondi 
faucet, krano 
fault, kulpo, eraro 
favor, favoro 
fear, timo 



feast, festeni 
feather, plumo 
February, Februaro 
fee, pago 
feed, nutri 
feel, palpi, senti 
felt, felto 
female, ino 
feminism, feminismo 
fence, skermi, barilo 
fennel, fenkolo 
ferment, fermenti 
fern, filiko 
ferry, pramo 
fervor, fervoro 
festoon, festono 
festival, festo 
fetter, kateno 
fever, febro 
few, iom, nemultaj, 

malmultaj, kelkaj 
fiance, fiango 
fiber, fibre 
fictitious, fiktiva 
fie! fil 
field, kampo 
fig, figo 
fight, batali 
figure, cifero 
file, fajli 
fill, plenigi 
final, fina 
finance, financo 
find, trovi 



English- Esperanto Vocabulary 



95 



fine, delikata, bela, mal- 

dika 
finger, fingro 
finish, fini 
fir, abio 
fire, fajro 

fire-place, kameno 
firm, firmo, fortika 
first, unua 
fiscal, fiska 
fish, fi§o, fi§kapti 
fist, pugno 
fit, taiiga 
five, kvin 
fixed, fiksa 
flag, flago, standardo 
flake, floko 
flame, flamo 
flank, flanko 
flannel, flanelo 
flap, klapo 
flat, plata 
flatter, flati 
flea, pulo 

flesh, karno, viando 
flexible, fleksebla 
flint, siliko 
flirt, koketi, flirti 
flour, faruno 
flow, flui 
flower, floro 
flue, kamentubo 
fluid, flua 
flute, fluto 
fly, flugi, mu§o 
foam, §a\imo 



focus, fokuso 

fodder, furago 

fog, nebulo 

fold, faldi 

follow, sekvi 

fond, ama 

fondle, dorloti 

foot, piedo, futo 

foot, on, piedire 

fop, dando 

for, pro, per, Car 

forbear, toleri 

force, devigi 

forehead, frunto 

foreign, fremda, ali- 

landa 
foresee, antafividi 
forge, forgi, falsi 
forest, arbaro 
forget, forgesi 
forget-me-not, miozoto 
forgive, pardoni 
fork, forko 
form, formo 
formal, ceremonia 
formation, formacio 
formula, formulo 
forsake, forlasi 
fortify, fortikigi 
forward, antaiien 
forward, ekspedi, sen- 

di, antaiienigi 
foster, nutri 
foul, malpura 
found, fondi 
foundation, fondajo 



96 



English' Esperanto Vocabulary 



fountain, fontano 
four, kvar 
fowl, kortbirdo 
fox, vulpo 
fraction, frakcio 
fragment, fragmento 
frame, kadro 
franc, franko 
France, Francujo 
frank, sincera 
fraternal, frata 
fraud, trompo 
freckle, lentugo 
free, libera, senpaga 
freemason, framasono 
freight, Sargo 
Frenchman, franco 
frequent, ofta 
fresco, fresko 
fresh, fre§a 



friend, amiko 
fringe, f ran go 
frivolous, frivola 
friz, frizi 
frog, rano 
frost, frosto 
froth, §aiimo 
fruit, frukto 
fry, friti 
fulfill, plenumi 
full, plena 
funnel, funelo 
fur, felo 
furious, furioza 
furnace, forno 
furnish, provizi 
furniture, meblaro 
further, pile, plu 
futile, vanta 
future, estonta 



gam, gajni 
gaiter, gamaSo 
gall, galo 
gallery, galerio 
gallop, galopi 
game, ludo, Casajo 
gamut, gamo 
gang, bando 
gangrene, gangrene 
garden, gardeno 
gargle, gargari 
garland, girlando 



garlic, ajlo 
garment, vesto 
garrison, garnizono 
garter, gtrumpligilo 
gas, gaso 
gather, kolekti 
gauge, mezuri 
gauze, gazo 
gay, gaja 
gazette, gazeto 
gelatine, gelateno 
gendarme, gendarmo 



English- Esperanto Vocabulary 



97 



gender, sekso 
genealogy, genealogio 
general, generala, gen- 

eralo 
gipsy, cigano 
grave, tombo, grava 
gravy, viandsuko 
gray, griza 
grease, graso 
great, granda 
green, verda 
Greek, greko 
grimace, grimaco 
grind, pisti, mueli 
groan, Jemi 
groin, ingveno 
grotesque, groteska 
ground, tero 



group, grupo 
grouse, tetro 
grow, kreski 
grumble, grumbli 
grunt, grunti 
guarantee, garantio 
guard, gardi, gvardio 
guess, diveni 
guest, gasto 
guide, gvidi 
guillotine, gilotino 
guilt, kulpo 
guitar, gitaro 
gulf, golfo 
gum, gumo 
gun, pafilo 
gunpowder, pulro 
gypsum, gipso 



H 



ha! ha! 
habit, kutimo 
hack, haki 
hail, hajli 
hair, haro 
half, duono 
halt, halti, haltigi 
ham, ginko 
hammer, martelo 
hand, mano 
hang, pendi, pendigi 
happiness, feliCo 
harbor, haveno 
bard, malmola 



hardly, apena(i 
hare, leporo 
harem, haremo 
harmony, harmonio 
harness, jungi 
harp, harpo 
harpoon, harpuno 
harrow, erpi 
harsh, malmilda, severa 
harvest, rikolto 
hasten, rapidi, rapidigi 
hat, Capelo 
hatchet, hakilo 
hate, malami 



98 



English- Esperanto Vocabulary 



have, havi 

haven, haveno 

hawk, akcipitro, kol- 

porti 
hay, fojno 
hazard, hazardo 
hazel-nut, avelo 
he, li 

head, kapo, estro 
heal, resanigi, kuraci 
heap, amaso, staplo 
hear, audi 
heart, koro, kero 
heat, hejti, varmigi 
heaven, 6ielo 
heavy, peza 
Hebrew, hebreo 
hedgehog, erinaco 
heed, atenti 
heel, kalkano, kalkan- 

umo 
heir, heredanto 
heliotrope, heliotropo 
hell, infero 
helm, direktilo 
help, helpi 
hem, borderi 
hemisphere, duonsfero 
hemp, kanabo 
hen, kokino 
hence, de nun, de tic 
her, §in, §ia, si, sia 
herald, heroldo 
herb, herbo 
herd, pa§ti, brutaro 
here, tie Si, t\ tie 



heresy, herezo 
hermit, ermit 
hero, heroo 
herring, haringo 
hesitate, Sanceligi 
hiccough, singulti 
hide, ka§i 

hierarchy, hierarliio 
hieroglyphic, hieroglifo 
high, alta 
him, li, lin 
himself, sin, si mem 
Hindoo, hindo 
hinge, Carniro 
hip, kokso 

hippodrome,hipodromo 
hippopotamus, hipopo- 

tamo 
hire, dungi 
his, lia, sia 
hiss, sibli 
history, historic 
hit, frapi 
ho ! ho ! 

hoarfrost, prujno 
hoarse, rauka • 
hoe, sarki 
hog, porko 
hold, teni, holdo 
hole, true 
holiday, festo 
holly, ilekso 
holy, sankta 
home, hejmo 
homeopathy, homeo- 

patio 



English' Esperanto Vocabulary 



99 



honest, honesta 
honey, mielo 
honor, honoro 
hoof, hufo 
hook, hoko 
hope, esperi 
hops, lupolo 
horizon, horizonto 
horn, Korno 
horoscope, horoskopo 
horse, Cevalo 
host, mastro, multego 
hot, varmega 
hotel, hotelo 
hour, hero 
house, domo 
hOAV, kiel 
however, tamen 
hue, nuanco 
hum, zumi 
human being, homo 
humane, humana 
humble, humiia 



humerus, humero 
humor, humoro 
hump, gibo 
hunger, malsato 
hundred, cent 
hunt, 6asi, serCi 
hurrah ! hura 1 
hurry, rapidi 
hurt, vundi, dolori, di- 

fekti 
husband, edzo 
husk, §elo 
hyacinth, hiacinto 
hydrogen, hidrogeno 
hydrophobia, hidrofo- 

bio 
hyena, hieno 
hymn, himno 
hyperbole, hiperbolo 
hypokritical, hipokrita 
hypothesis, hipotezo 
hyssop, hisopo 
hysteria, histerio 



I, mi 

ice, glacio 
idea, ideo 
ideal, idealo 
identical, identa 
idiom, idiomo 
idol, idolo 
if, se 
ignorance, nescio 



illness, malsano 
illuminate, ilumini 
illusion, iluzio 
illustrate, iiustri 
image, figuro 
imagine, imagi 
imitate, imiti 
immediately, tuj 
immense, grandega 



100 



English- Esperanto Vocabulary 



immigrate, enmigri 
imp, koboldo 
impair, difekti 
imperative, ordona 
imperial, imperia 
import, enporti 
impress, impresi 
in, en 
inch, colo 
incite, inciti 
incline, inklini, deklivo 
include, enhavi 
income, rento 
indefinite, nedifinita 
index, tabelo 
indicate, montri 
indicative, indikative 
indifferent, indiferenta 
indignant, indigna 
individual, individuo 
indorse, girl 
industrious, diligenta 
industry, an, industrio 
inertia, inercio 
infant, infano, infaneto 
infect, infekti 
infernal, infera 
infinite, senlima 
influence, influi 
influenza, gripo 
inform, informi, sciigi 
infuse, infuzi 
inhabit, logi 
inhale, enspiri 
initiate, iniciati 
injury, vundo, difekto 



inoculate, inokuli 

inquire, demandi 

inquisitive, sciama 

insane, freneza 

insect, insekto 

inside, interne 

insidious, insida 

insist, insisti 

inspiri, inspiri 

instance, instance 

instead of, anstatatl 

instinct, instinkto 

institute, fondi, insti- 
tute 

institution, institucio 

instruct, instrui 

instrument, instrumen- 
to, ilo 

insult, insulti 

intelligent, inteligenta 

intend, intenci 

intense, forta, ega 

inter, enterigi 

interest, intereso, pro- 
cento 

interior, interna 

interpret, traduki 

interrupt, interrompi 

intrigue, intrigi 

intrude, trudi 

invalid, invalido, mal- 
sanulo 

invent, elpensi 

inventory, inventaro 

investigate, esplori 

invite, inviti 



English- Esperanto Vocabulary 



lOI 



invoice, fakturo 
iodine, jodo 
Ireland, Irlando 
iron, fero, gladi 
irony, ironio 
is, estas 
island, insulo 



isolate, izoli 
issue, eldoni 
isthmus, istmo 
it, gi 

Italian, Italo 
itch, Juki 
ivy, hedero • 



jackass, azenviro 
jackal, gakalo 
jacket, jako, Jako,Jaketo 
jail, karcero 
jam, fruktajo 
January, Januaro 
Japanese, japano 
jay, garolo 
jessamine, jasmeno 
Jesus, Jesuo 
Jew, judo 
jingle, tinti 
job, tasko 
join, kunigi 



joint, artiko 
joke, §erci 
journal, Jurnalo 
joy, gojo, joy 
jubilee, jubileo 
judge, juji 
jug, kruCo 
juggle, Jongli 
juice, suko 
July, Julio 
June, Junio 
just, justa, guste 
just now. Jus 
justice, justeco 



kangaroo, didelfo 
keel, kilo 
key, glosilo 
kick, piedfrapo 
kidney, reno 
kill, mortigi, buSi 
kilogram, kilogramo 
kiloliter, kilolitro 



kilometer, kilometro 
kind, speco, bonkora 
king, rejo 
kiss, kisi 
kitchen, kuirejo 
knapsack, tornistro 
knead, knedi 
knee, genuo 



I02 



English-Esperanto Vocabulary 



knife, tranCilo 
knight, kavaliro 
knit, triki 
knout, knuto 



know, scii 
knot, banto, tubero 
kopeck, kopeko 
Koran, korano 



labor, labori 

lace, laCi, pasamento, 

punto 
lack, manko 
lackey, lakeo 
laconic, lakona 
lad, knabo 
lady, sinjorino 
lake, lago 
lamb, §afido 
lame, lama 
lamp, lampo 
lance, lanco 
land, tero, lando 
landlord, hotelmastro, 

bienulo 
landscape, pejzago 
language, lingvo 
lantern, lanterno 
larceny, §telo 
lard, lardo 
large, granda 
lark, alaudo 
larva, larvo 
larynx, laringo 
last, lasta, daiiri 
late, malfrua 
lath, lato 



lathe, tornilo 
Latin, latina 
laugh, ridi 
laundress, lavistino 
laurel, laiiro 
law, lego 
lawsuit, proceso 
lay, meti 
layer, tavolo 
lead, konduki 
lead, plumbo 
leaf, folio 

lean, klini, malgrasa 
leap, salti 
learn, lerni, sciigi 
legitimate, legitima 
lemon, citrono 
lemonade, limonado 
lend, prunti, prunte doni 
leopard, leopardo 
leprosy, lepro 
less, malpli 
lesson, leciono 
lethargy, letargio 
letter, letero, litero 
lettuce, latuko 
level, nivelo, ebena 
liable, responda 



English- Esperanto Vocabulary 



163 



liberal, malavara, lib- 
erala 

liberate, liberigi 

library, biblioteko 

libretto, libreto 

license, permeso 

lick, leki 

lie, ku§i, mensogi 

lieutenant, leiitenanto 

life, vivo 

lift, levi 

light, lumo, malpeza 

lightning, fulmo 

lighthouse, lumturo 

like, §ati 

like, simila, tiel 

likely, eble, ver§ajne 

lilac, siringo 

lily, lilio 

limb, membro, branCo 

lime, kaiko 

limit, limo 

limp, lami 

line, linio 

linen, tolo, tolajo 

lion, leono 

lip, lipo 

liquid, fluida 

liquidate, likvidi 

liquor, likvoro 

liquorice, glicirizo 
i list, registro 
; listen, aiiskulti 
I literature, literaturo 
! lithograph, litografi 

liter, litro 



little, malgranda, eta, 

malmulte, iom 
liturgy, iiturgio 
live, vivi, logi 
liver, hepato 
lizard, lacerto 
lo ! jen ! 

load, §argi, §argi 
loaf, bulkego 
loan, prunto 
lobster, omaro 
locality, loko 
lock, glosi, seruro, buk- 

lo, kluzo 
lockjaw, tetano 
locomotive, lokomotivo 
log, §tipo 
logic, logiko 
loins, lumbo 
lone, sola 
long, longa 
look, rigardi, serCi 
looking-glass, spegulo 
loom, teksilo 
loosen, ellasi 
Lord, the, la Sinjoro 
lose, perdi, malgajni 
lot, sorto, kvanto 
lots, cast, loti 
lottery, loterio 
loud, laiita 
louse, pediko 
love, ami 

low, malalta, mallaiita 
lower, mallevi 
lowly, humila 



104 



English- Esperanto Vocabulary 



loyal, fidela 

luck, ganco, bon§anco 

lull, lull 

lung, pulmo 



lute, liuto 
Lutheran, luterano 
luxury, lukso 
lyre, liro 



M 



macadam, makadamo 
macaroni, makaroni 
machine, ma§ino 
madam, sinjorino 
magazine, revuo, gazeto 
magic, magic 
magnet, magneto 
mahogany, mahogono 
mail, po§to 
maize, maizo 
majestic, majesta 
major, majoro 
majority, plimulto 
make, fari 
male, viro 
malicious, malica 
man, homo, viro 
manage, administri 
mania, manio 
manifesto, manifesto 
manifold, multenombra 
manner, maniero 
manufacture, fabriki 
manure, sterko 
many, multe, multaj, 

multo 
marble, marmoro 
March, Marto 



march, mar§i 
margin, margeno 
marguerite, lekanto 
marine, mara 
mark, signo, stampo, 

marko 
marquis, markezo 
marriage, edzeco, edzigo 
marsh, marCo 
marshal, margalo 
martyr, martiro 
mask, masko 
mast, masto 
master, majstro 
masticate, maSi 
mat, mato 
match, alumeto 
material, material© 
matter, materio, puso 
mattress, matraco 
mature, matura 
maxim, maksimo 
maximum, maksimumo 
May, Majo 
mayor, urbestro 
mazurka, mazurko 
me, min, mi 
meal, faruno, mango 



English- Esperanto Vocabulary 



105 



mean, meza, signifi 
measles, morbilo 
measure, mezuri 
meat, viando 
medal, medalo 
medicine kuracilo, 

medicino 
meditate, mediti 
medium, meza, medi- 

umo 
meet, renkonti 
melancholy, melanko- 

lio 
melody, melodic 
melon, melono 
melt, fluidigi, degeli 
memory, memoro 
menace, minaci 
mend, fliki 
mention, citi 
mercury, hidrargo 
mere, nura 
meridian, meridiano 
merit, meriti 
mesh, ma§o 
message, depe§o 
Messiah, Mesio 
metal, metalo 
meteor, meteoro 
method, metodo 
meter, metro, mezurilo 
microbe, mikrobo 
middle, meza 
mien, mieno 
might, povo 
migrate, migri 



mild, milda 
milk, lakto, melki 
mill, muelilo 
millet, milio 
million, miliono 
mind, animo, spirito, 

obei, atenti, zorgi 
mine, mia, mian 
mine, mino 
mineral, mineralo 
minister, pastro, min- 

istro 
mint, mento 
minute, minuto, noto 
mirror, spegulo 
miserly, avara 
misery, mizero 
misprint, preseraro 
miss, fraiilino 
mission, misio 
Mister, Sinjoro 
mix, miksi 
moan, gemi 
mock, moki 
mode, modo 
model, modelo 
moderate, modera 
modern, moderna 
modest, modesta 
modulate, moduli 
Mohammedan, maho- 

metano 
moment, momento 
monarch, monarlio 
Monday, lundo 
money, money 



io6 



Eiiglish - Espera nto Vocabulary 



money-order, mandate 
mongrel, hibrida 
monkey, simio 
monograph, monografo 
monogram, monogramo 
monologue, monologo 
monomania, monoma- 

nio 
monopoly, monopolo 
monster, monstro 
month, monato 
monument, monumento 
mood, humoro, modo 
moon, luno 
morala, morala 
morals, moro, etiko 
more, pli multe, pli, plu 
more, the, ju pli....des 

pli 
inorning, mateno 
mortgage, hipoteko 
mosiac, mozaiko 
mosquito, moskito 
moss, musko 
most, plej, plej multe 
moth, tineo 
mother, patrino 
motion, movo 
motive, motive 
motto, moto 
mouldy, §ima 
mountain, monto 
mouse, muso 
moustache, lipharoj 
mouth, bu§o 
move, movi 



mow, falsi 

much, multe, multo 

mud, koto, §limo 

muff, mufo 

mulberry, moruso 

mule, mulo 

multiply, multigi, mul- 

tipliki 
mummy, mumo 
municipal, urba 
murder, mortigi 
murmur, murmuri 
muscle, muskolo 
muse, muzo, revi 
museum, muzeo 
mushroom, fungo 
music, muziko 
musket, muskedo 
muslin, muslino 
must, devas, devegas 
mustard, mustardo 
musty, §ima 
mute, muta, mutulo 
mutiny, ribelo 
mutter, murmuri 
mutton, §afaJo 
mutual, reciproka 
muzzle, bu§umo 
my, mia, mian 
myriad, miriado 
myrrh, mirho 
myrtle, mirto 
mystery, mistero 
mystify, mistifiki 
myth, mito 
mythology, mitologio 



English- Esperanto Vocabulary 



107 



N 



nail, najli, ungo 
naive, naiva 
naked, nuda 
name, nomo 
nankeen, nankeno 
narrate, rakonti 
narrow, mallarga 
nasal, naza 
nation, nacio 
naturally, nature, kom- 

preneble 
nature, naturo 
naught, nulo 
nausea, naiizo 
nay, ne 

near, proksima, apud 
nearly, preskaii 
necessary, necesa 
neck, kolo 
necktie, kravato 
need, bezoni 
neither, nek 
nephew, nevo 
nerve, nervo 
neuter, neiitra 
neutral, neiitrala 
never, neniam 
nevertheless, tamen 
new, nova 
newspaper, Jurnalo 
nice, agrabla 
nickel, nikelo 
nicotine, nikotino 



niece, nevmo 

night, nokto 

nine, naii 

noble, nobla 

nobleman, nobelo 

nobody, neniu 

no, no 

noise, bruo 

nomad, nomado 

nominative, nominativo 

none, neniom 

noon, tagmezo 

nor, nek 

normal, normala 

north, nordo 

nose, nazo 

nostril, naztruo 

not, ne 

notary, notario 

note, noti, rimarki, bilo 

nothing, nenio 

notice, rimarki, avizo 

notify, sciigi, avizi 

noun, substantivo 

novel, romano 

November, Novembro 

now, nun 

nowhere, nenie, 

nude, nuda 

number, nombro, nu- 

mero 
nurse, varti, flegi 
nut, nukso 



io8 



English- Esperanto Vocabulary 



oak, kverko 

oar, remilo 

oasis, oazo 

oath, Jure 

oatmeal, grio 

obelisk, obelisko 

obey, obei 

object, celo, objekto 

object, kontraiiparoli 

obligation, devo 

oblige, devigi, fari kom- 

plezon 
oblique, oblikva 
observe, rimarki 
obstinate, obstina 
obstruct, obstrukci 
obtain, ricevi, akiri 
obtrude, trudi 
occasion, okazo 
occupy, okupi 
occur, okazi 
ocean, oceano 
October, Oktobro 
ocular, okula 
odd, stranga, nepara 
ode, odo 
odor, odoro 
of, de, da 
offend, ofendi 
offer, proponi, prezenti 
office, ofico 
often, ofte 
oh! ho! 



oil, oleo 

old, malnova, antikva, 

maljuna 
olive, olivo 
omen, antausigno 
omnibus, omnibuso 
omnipotent, Ciopova 
on, sur 
once, unufoje 
one, unu 
onion, bulbo 
only, nur 
onward, antaiien 
onyx, onikso 
opal, opalo 
open, malfermi 
opera, opero 
opera-glass, lorneto 
operate, operacii, funk- 

cii 
opinion, opinio 
opium, opio 
opponent, kontraiiulo 
opportune, gustatempa 
opportunity, okazo 
oppress, subpremi 
optics, optiko 
optimism, optimismo 
opulent, riCa 
or, au 

oracle, orakolo 
orange, orango 
ordain, ordeni 



English- Esperanto Vocabulary 



109 



order, mendi, ordoni 
organ, organo, orgeno 
orient, oriento 
ornament, ornami 
orphan, orfo 
orthodox, ortodoksa 
orthography, ortografio 
ostrich, struto 
other, alia 
ought, devas 
ounce, unco 
our, nia 
out, el, ekster 
outline, skizo, konturo 
outside, ekster, -a, -e 
oval, ovala 



ovary, ovujo 
oven, forno 
over, super 
overcome, venki 
overhead, supre 
overtake, atingi 
overthrow, renversi 
t)verturo, uverturo, pro- 

pono 
owe, §uldi 

owl, strigo,gufo,cikumo 
own, propra, posedi 
ox, bovo 

oxygen, oksigeno 
oxide, oksido 
oyster, ostro 



pack, paki 
package, pakajo 
pad, vati 
pagoda, pagodo 
pail, sitelo 
pain, doloro 
paint, pentri, kolori 
pair, paro 
palace, palaco 
palate, palato 
palatable, bongusta 
pale, pala, paligi 
palm, palmo, manplato 
I paltry, triviala 
pamper, dorloti 



pamphlet, pamfleto 
panic, paniko 
pantaloons, pantalono 
panther, pantero 
pantomime, pantomimo 
papa, paCjo 
paper, papero 
papyrus, papiruso 
parade, paradi 
paradise, paradizo 
paradox, paradokso 
parasol, sunombrelo 
parchment, pergameno 
pardon, pardoni 
pare, sen§eligi 



no 



Eiiglish- Esperanto Vocaoul ry 



parents, gepatroj 
park, parko 

parliament, parlamento 
parody, parodio 
parrot, papago 
parsimony, parcimonio 
parsley, petroselo 
parsnip, pastinako 
parson, pastro 
part, parto, porcio 
participate, partopreni 
participle, participo 
partition, divido 
partridge, perdriko 
party, partio 
pass, pasi 

passenger, vojaganto 
passion, pasio, manic 
passive, pasiva 
passport, pasporto 
past, estinta 
paste, pasto 
pasteboard, kartono 
pastel, pa§telo 
pastille, pastelo 
pastor, pastro 
pastoral, kampara, pas- 

toralo 
patch, fliki 
patent, patento 
paternal, patra 
pathos, patoso 
patience, pacienco 
patriarch, patriarko 
patriot, patrioto 
patrol, patrolo 



pause, pauzo 
pavement, pavimo 
pavilion, pavilion 
pay, pagi 
pea, pizo 
peace, paco 
peach, persiko 
peacock, pavo 
peak, pinto 
pear, piro 
pearl, perlo 
pedal, pedalo 
pedant, pedanto 
peddle, kolporti 
pedestal, piedestalo 
peel, §eIo 
pelt, felo 
pen, plumo 
penalty, puno 
penchant, inklino, emo 
pendulum, pendolo 
penetrate, penetri 
penitent, penta 
penny, penco 
pension, pensio 
penurious, avara 
peony, peonio 
people, popoli, homoj 
pepper, pipro 
percentage, procento 
perch, perko 
perfect, perfekta 
perform, fari, plenumi 
perfume, parfumo 
perhaps, eble 
peril, dangerego 



Ii^dgUsh- Esperanto Vocabulary 



III 



period, periodo, punkto 
perish, perei 
perjury, Jurrompo 
permit, permesi 
perpetual, Ciama, eterna 
persevere, persisti 
person, persono 
perspire, §viti 
perverse, kontra^a 
pest, pesto 
pestle, pistilo 
pet, dorloti 
petition, petskribo 
petroleum, petrolo • 
phantom, fantomo 
pharmacy, farmacio 
pharynx, faringo 
phase, fazo 
pheasant, fazano 
phenomenon, f enomenb 
philanthropist, filan- 

tropo 
philately, filatelo 
philosopher, filozofo 
philosophy, filozofio 
phlegm, flegmo 
phoenix, fenikso 
phonetic, fonetika 
phonograph, fonografo 
phosphorus, fosforo 
photograph, fotografi 
piano, fortepiano 
picture, pentrajo, foto- 

grafajo 
pie, pasteSo 
piece, peco 



pig, porko 

pigeon, kolombo 

pigmy, pigmeo 

pile, staple, amaso 

pilgrim, pilgrimanto 

pill, pilolo 

pillar, kolono 

pillow, kapkuseno 

pilot, piloto, gvidanto 

pimple, akno 

pin, pinglo 

pinch, pinCi 

pine, pino, konifero 

pineapple, ananaso 

pinnacle, pinto 

pioneer, pioniro 

pious, pia 

pirate, pirato 

pistol, pistolo 

pit, partero, fosaJo,kavo 

pitch, peCo 

pity, kompato, domago 

pivot, pivoto 

placard, afi§o 

place, loko 

placid, kvieta 

plain, senornama,nebela 

plait, plekti 

plan, piano 

plane, raboti 

planet, planedo 

plank, tabulo 

plant, planti 

plate, telero 

platinum, plateno 

play, ludi, teatrajo 



112 



Eiiglish' Esperanto Vocabulary 



pleasant, plaCa 
plenty, sufiCa 
pliable, fleksebla 
plot, konspiri, komploto 
plow, plugi 
pluck, kurago 
plum, pruno 
plump, dika 
plural, multenombra 
plush, plu§o 
pocket, po§o 
pod, §elo 
poem, poemo 
poet, poeto 
point, punkto 
poison, veneno 
pole, stango, poluso 
police, polico 
polish, poluri 
polite, gentila 
politics, politiko 
polyp, polipo 
pomade, pomado 
pomgranate, granato 
pompous, pompa 
pond, lageto 
poniard, ponardo 
poodle, pudelo 
pope, papo 
poplar, poplo 
popular, populara 
porcelain, porcelano 
porcupine, histriko 
pore, poro 
pork, porkajo 
porphyry, porfiro 



port, haveno 
portion, porcio, parto 
portrait, portreto 
positive, pozitiva 
possess, posedi 
possible, ebla 
post, fosto 
post card, poStkarto 
poster, afi§o 
pot, poto 
potash, potaso 
potato, terpomo 
potency, potenco 
poultice, kataplasmo 
pound, pisti, bategi, 

funto, livro 
pour, ver§i, §uti 
powder, pulvo, pulvoro, 

pudro 
power, povo, potenco 
practical, praktika 
practice, kutimo 
prairie, herbejo, stepo 
praise, laudi 
prattle, babili 
pray, pregi 
preach, prediki 
precentor, kantoro 
precise, preciza, gusta 
prefer, preferi 
prefix, prefikso 
pregnant, graveda 
prejudice, antadjugo 
premium, premio 
prepare, prepari 
preposition, prepozicio 



E7iglish-Esperanto Vocabulary 



113 



presbyter, presbitero 
prescription, recepto 
present, donaci,prezenti 
preserve, konfiti 
preside, prezidi 
press, premilo, presilo 
pretext, preteksto 
pretty, beleta 
previous, antaiia 
price, prezo 
prick, piki 
priest, pastro 
prince, princo 
principal, precipa 
principle, principo 
print, presi 
prison, karcero 
private, privata 
privilege, privilegio 
prize, premio 
probe, sondi, esplori 
problem, problemo 
proboscis, rostro 
proceed, procedi 
procession, procesio 
proclaim, proklami 
procure, akiri 
prodigal, mal§para 
produce, produkti 
profess, profesi 
profession, profesio 
professor, profesoro 
proficient, kompetenta 
profile, profilo 
profit, profito, gajno 
progeny, ido, idaro 



proletarian, proletario 
promenade, promeni 
promise, promesi 
promptly, tuj, gusta- 

tempe 
pronoun, pronomo 
pronounce, elparoli 
proof, pruvo, provo 
propaganda, propagan- 

do 
property, posedajo 
prophet, profeto 
proportion, proporcio 
proposal, propono 
pro rata, proporcie 
prose, prozo 
prosper, prosperi 
protect, protekti 
protest, protesti 
proud, fiera 
prove, pruvi 
proverbo, proverb 
provide, provizi 
province, provinco 
provision, provizajo 
provisional, provizora 
provoke, incite 
proximity, proksimeco 
prudent, prudenta 
prune, sekpruno 
Prussian, pruso 
psalm, psalmo 
public, publika 
publish, eldoni, publik- 

igi 
pull, tiri 



114 



English- Esperanto Vocabulary 



pulley, rulbloko 

pulse, pulso 

pump, pumpi 

pumpkin, kukurbo 

punch (drink), punCo 

punctuate, interpunkcii 

puncture, trapiki 

punish, puni 

pupil, lernanto, pupilo 

purchase, aSeti 

pure, pura, virta, Casta 



puritan, puritano 
purple, purpnro 
purpose, celo, intenco 
purse, monujo 
pus, puso 
push, pu§i 
putrid, putra 
putty, mastiko 
puzzle, enigmo 
pyramid, piramido 
python, pitono 



quack, anasbleki, 6ar- 

latano 
quadrant, kvadranto 
quadrille, kvadrilo 
quail, koturno 
quality, kvalito, eco 
quantity, kvanto 
quartet, kvarteto 
queen, regino 



queer, stranga 
question, demando 
quick, rapida 
quiet, kvieta 
quill, plumo 
quit, lasi 
quite, tute 
quoin, kojno 
quote, citi 



rabbi, rabeno 
rabbit, kuniklo 
radius, radiuso 
raft, floso 
rag, aifono 
ragamuffin, bubo 
rail, relo 
railroad, fervojo 
rain, pluvo 
rainbow, Cielarko 



rake, rasti 
rank, vico, rango 
rape, perforto 
rapid, rapida 
raspberry, frambo 
rat, rato 
rate, procento 
rather, pli volonte 
reach, atingi 
read, legi 



Engl is J i - Esp eranto Vocabulary 



lis 



readily, volonte, facile 
ready, preta 
real, vera, reala 
really, vera, efektive 
ream, rismo 
reap, rikolti 
reason, rezoni 
rebate, rabato 
rebel, ribeli 
rebuke, riproSi 
rebut, refuti 
receipt, kvitanci 
receipts, enspezoj 
receive, ricevi 
recently, antaii nelonge 
recite, rakonti, deklami 
recognize, rekoni 
recommend, rekomendi 
recompense, rekom- 

penci 
recount, rakonti 
recruit, rekruto 
red, ruga 
reduce, malpliigi 
reed, kano 
reef, rife 

reflect, rebrili, pripensi 
refuge, take, rifu^i 
refund, repagi, redoni 
refuse, rifuzi 
refute, refuti 
regale, regali 
regard, rigardi 
regarding, pri 
region, regiono 
register, registri 



regret, bedaiiri 
regulation, regulo 
reject, rifuzi 
rejoice, goji 
relate, rakonto 
relation, rilato, parenco 
religion, religio 
rely, konfidi 
remain, resti 
remark, rimarki 
remedy, rimedo 
remember, memori 
remote, malproksima 
render, redoni 
rent, lui 
repair, ripari 
repeat, ripeti 
report, raporti 
repose, ripozi 
represent, reprezenti 
reproach, riproCi 
reproduce, reprodukti 
republic, respubliko 
reputation, reputacio 
request, peti 
require, postuli, bezoni 
rescue, savi 
research, esploro 
resemble, simili 
reserve, rezervi 
resist, kontraiistari 
resolute, decida 
respect, respekti 
respond, respondi 
rest, pauzo, resti, ripozi 
restaurant, restoracio 



ii6 



English' Esperanto Vocabulary 



result, rezulti, rezultato 
retain, gardi, teni 
retina, retino 
retort, respondi 
return, redoni, reveni 
revenge, revengo 
review, revuo, parado 
revolt, ribelo 
revolution, revolucio 
reward, rekompenco 
rheumatism, reiima- 

tismo 
rhinoceros, rinocero 
rhubarb, rabarbo 
rhyme, rimo 
rythm, ritmo 
rib, ripo 
ribbon, rubando 
rice, rizo 
rich, ri6a 
ride, rajdi 
ridiculous, ridinda 
rifle, pafilo 
right, rajto, guste, dek- 

stra, rekta, prava 
righteous, justa 
rim, rando 
ring, ringo, rondo 
ringlet, buklo 
rise, levigi 
risk, riski 
rival, konkuri 
river, rivero 
road, vojo 
roam, vagi 
roar, mugi, blekegi 



rob, rabi 
robe, vesti, robo 
robust, fortika 
rock, roko 
rogue, fripono 
roll, ruli, ruligi, bulko 
roof, tegmento 
rook, frugilego 
room, eambro 
rooster, koko 
root, radiko 
rope, §nuro 
rose, rozo 
rosin, kolofono 
rot, putri 
rouble, ruble 
round, ronda 
rouse, veki, eksciti 
route, vojo 
ro^v, remi, vico 
rub, froti 
ruby, rubeno 
rude, malgentila 
ruin, ruino 
rule, regi, regulo 
run, kuri 
rum, rumo 
rural, kampara 
ruse, ruzo 
rush, kuregi 
rush, junko 
Russia, Ruslando 
Russian, ruso 
rust, rusti 

ruthless, senkompata 
rye, sekalo 



English' Esperanto Vocabulary 



111 



sack, sako 
sacred, sankta 
sacrifice, oferi 
saddle, selo 
sagacious, sagaca 
sage, salvio, saga 
sail, velo, 
salad, salato 
salary, salajro 
sale, vendo 
saline, sala 
salmon, salmo 
salt, sale 
salute, saluti 
same, sama 
sample, specimeno 
SEinction, sankcii 
sand, sablo 
sane, racia 
sanitary, higiena 
sarcasm, sarkasmo 
sardine, sardine 
Sardinian, sardo 
Satan, Satano 
satin, atlaso 
satire, satiro 
saturate, saturi 
Saturday, sabato 
sauce, saiico 
sausage, kolbaso 
savage, sovaga 
save, savi, §pari 
saw, segi 



say, diri 
scab, skabio 
scaffold, e§afodo 
scald, brogi 
scale, skalo, skvamo 
scales, pesilo 
scandal, skandalo 
Scandinavian, skandi- 

navo 
scar, cikatro 
scarcely, apenaii 
scarf, skarpo 
scarlatina, skarlatino 
scarlet, skarlato 
scent, odoro 
scheme, projekto 
science, science 
scissors, tondilo 
score, dudeko 
Scotchman, skoto 
scoundrel, kanajlo 
scourge, skurgi 
scrape, skrapi 
scratch, grati 
screen, §irmiIo 
screw, §ra(ibo 
scrofula, skrofolo 
sculpture, skulpti 
sea, maro 
seal, sigeli, foko 
search, serCi 
seashore, marbordo 
season, sezono 



ii8 



English' Esperanto Vocabulary 



seat, sego, sidigi, sidigi 

second, sekundo, dua 

secret, sekreto 

secrete, ka§i 

sect, sekto 

section, sekcio, parto 

secular, neeklezia 

sediment, feCo 

seduce, delogi 

see, vidi 

seed, semo 

seek, serCi 

seem, §ajni 

seemly, deca 

seize, ekkapti 

select, elekti 

self, selves, mem 

sell, vendi 

semicolon,punktokomo 

seminary, seminario 

senate, senato 

senator, senatano 

send, sendi 

sense, sento, senco, 

racio, sageco 
sensible, saga 
sensual, voluptema 
sentence, jugi, kon- 

damni, frazo 
separate, aparta 
September, Septembro 
seraph, serafo 
serenade, serenado 
serene, trankvila 
sergeant, sergento 
series, serio 



serious, serioza 
sermon, prediko 
serpent, serpento 
servant, servisto 
servile, sklava 
seven, sep 
several, kelkaj, multaj, 

diversaj 
severe, severa 
sew, kudri 
sex, sekso 

shade, nuanco, ombrajo 
shaft, timono 
shake, Sanceli, skui, 

tremi 
shame, honto 
shape, formo 
share, dividi, akcio, 

parto, porcio, parto- 

preni 
shark, §arko 
sharp, akra 
shatter, frakasi 
shave, razi 
shawl, §aIo 
she, §i 
sheaf, garbo 
shear, tondi 
sheath, ingo 
sheep, §afo 
shelf, breto 
shell, §elo 
shepherd, pa§tisto 
shield, §ildo, §irmi ^ 
shilling, gilingo 
shine, brili 



English' Esperanto Vocabulary 



119 



shingle, §indo 
ship, §ipo 
shirt, Cemizo 
shock, frapo 
shoe, §uo 
shoot, pafi 
shore, marbordo 
should, devas 
shoulder, Sultro 
shove, §ovi 
shovel, §oveli 
show, montri 
shrewd, sagaca 
shun, eviti 
shut, fermi 
sick, malsana 
side, flanko 
siege, siego 
sift, kribri 

sign, signo, subskribi 
signal, signalo 
signify, signifi 
silence, silento 
silk, silko 
silver, argento 
similar, simila 
simple, simpla 
sin, peko 

since, Car, de tiam 
sincere, sincera 
sinew, tendeno 
sing, kanti 
single, unuobia 
singular, stranga 
sir, sinjoro 
.siren, sireno 



sister, fratino 
sit, sidi 

situation, situacio, ofico 
six, ses 

sixteen, dekses 
sixty, sesdek 
size, grandeco 
skate, gliti 
sketch, skizi 
skillful, lerta 
skin, hadto 
skirt, jupo 
skull, kranio 
sky, Cielo 
slander, kalumnii 
slang, slango 
slanting, oblikva 
slate, ardezo 
slave, sklavo 
sleek, glata 
sleep, dormi 
sleeve, maniko 
slender, maldika 
slide, gliti 
slipper, pantoflo 
slime, glimo 
slit, fendo 
slope, deklivo 
smear, §miri 
smell, flari, odori 
smile, rideti 
smock, kitelo 
smoke, fumi 
smooth, glata, ebena 
smother, sufoki 
snail, limako 



I20 



English' Esperanto Vocabulary 



snake, serpen to 

snare, kaptilo 

sneeze, terni 

snore, ronki 

snow, nego 

so, tiel, tia, tiom 

soap, sapo 

sober, sobra 

social, sociala, socia 

socialism, socialismo 

soda, sodo 

sofa, sofo 

soft, mola 

soil, tero 

solar, suna 

solder, luti 

soldier, soldato 

sole, sola 

solemn, solena 

solid, fortika, firma 

soliloquy, monologo 

solution, solvo 

solve, solvi 

some, kelkaj, kelke, 

iom, ia 
somebody, iu 
somebody's, ies 
somehow, iel 
something, io 
somewhat, iom 
somewhere, ie 
son, filo 
sonata, sonato 
song, kanto 
soon, baldaii 
soot, fulgo 



soprano, soprano 

sorrel, okzalo 

sort, speco 

soul, animo 

sound, sono, sondi 

soup, siipo 

sour, acida 

source, fonto, deveno 

south, sudo 

sow, porkino 

sow, semi 

space, spaco, daiiro 

spade, fosilo 

spade (cards), piko 

spare, indulgi 

sparrow, pasero 

speak, paroli 

species, speco 

specter, fantomo 

speculate, spekulacii 

speed, rapideco 

spell, silabi 

spend, elspezo 

sphere, sfero 

sphinx, sfinkso 

spice, spico 

spider, araneo 

spill, disver§i, dis§uti 

spin, §pini 

spine, spino 

spirit, spirito, animo, 

fantomo, energio, al- 

koholo 
spiritualism, spiritual- 

ismo 
Spit, kraCi 



English-Esperanto Vocabulary 



121 



spite, malamo 

spite of, in, spite 

splash, §pruci, platidi 

split, fendi 

spoil, difekti, malbon- 

igi, malbonigi 
spoke, radio 
sponge, sponge 
spoon, kulero 
spoonful, plenkulero 
spring, salti, printempo, 

risorto, fonto 
spur, sprono 
spy, spiono 
squad, taCmento 
squadron, skadro(miI.) 

eskadro (naval) 
square, kvadrato 
squint, strabi 
squirrel, sciuro 
stab, pikegi 
stable, Cevalejo 
staff, stango, stabo 
stage, scenejo 
stain, makulo 
stair, §tuparo 
stake, paliso, fosto 
stall, budo, stalo 
stamin, stameno 
stammer, balbuti 
stamp, stampi, po§t- 

marko 
stand, stari 
standard, standardo, 

modelo 
.star, stele 



starboard, dekstro 
stato, etate, state 
statue, statue 
stature, kreske 
statute, regule, lege 
stay, resti 

steak, steke, bifsteke 
steal, §teli 
steam, vapore 
steel, §talo 
steep, kruta 
steer, direkti, bevo 
stenography, stenegra- 

fie 
step, Stupe, pa§i 
step- (relation), duen- 
stereotype, stereotipe, 

kli§i 
sterile, senfrukta 
stick, bastone 
stick, glui 
stiff, rigida 
stifle, sufoki 
still, trankvila, kvieta, 

tamen, ankoratl, sen- 

mova, distilile 
stir, mevi 
stitch, stebi 
stocking, gtrumpo 
stoical, stoika 
stomach, stomake 
stone, §tone 
stool, skabele 
stop, halti, haltigi, Cesi 
store, previze, maga- 

zene, butike 



122 



English- Esperanto Vocabulary 



Story, historic, fabelo, 

etago 
stout (fat), dika 
stove, forno 
straight, rekta 
strain, streSi, kribri 
strait, markolo 
strand, fadeno 
strange, stranga 
stratum, tavolo 
straw, pajlo 
strawberry, frago 
streak, streko 
stream, rivero, rivereto 
street, strato 
street- car, tramveturilo 
stretch, streCi 
strict, severa 
strike, frapi, striko 
string, gnureto 
stringent, severa, dra- 

kona 
strip, strio 
stripe, streko 
stroll, promeni 
structure, strukturo 
struggle, barakti 
strut, paradi 
strychnine, striknino 
student, studento 
studious, lernema 
study, lerni 
stuff, §tofo, plenigi 
style, stilo, mode, faso- 

no 
stylish, moda 



subject, temo, subjekto, 

regato, regnano 
submarine, submara 
subscribe, aboni, sub- 

skribi, monoferi 
subsequently, sekve, 

poste 
substitute, anstataiii 
subterfuge, artifiko 
succeed, sukcesi 
such, tia 
sue, procesi 
suffix, sufikso 
suffrage, voCdono 
sugar, sukero 
suit, konveni, kompleto 
sulphur, sulfuro 
sum, sumo 
summer, somero 
summit, supro 
sumptuous, luksa 
sun, suno 
Sunday, dimanSo 
superfluous, superflua 
superior, supera 
superstition, superstiCo 
supper, noktomango, 

vespermanjo 
supplement, aldono 
supply, provizi 
support, subteni 
suppress, subpremi 
surprise, surprizi 
suspect, suspekti 
swallow, gluti, hirundo 
swarm, svarmi 



English- Esperanto Vocabulary 



123 



swear, Juri, blasfemi 
sweat, §viti 
Swede, svedo 
sweep, balai 
sweet, dolCa, malacida 
swell, gveli 
swift, rapida 
swim, nagi 
swing, svingi 
Swiss, sviso 
swoon, sveni 
sword, glavo 
syllable, silabo 



symbol, simbolo 
symmetry, simetrio 
sympathy, simpatio 
symphony, simfonio 
symptom, simptomo 
synagogue, sinagogo 
syndicate, sindikato 
synod, sinodo 
synonym, sinonimo 
syntax, sintakso 
synthesis, sintezo 
syrup, siropo 
system, sistemo 



table, tablo, tabelo 

tactics, taktiko 

taffeta, tafto 

tail, vo§to 

tailor, tajloro 

take, preni 

tale, rakonto, fabelo 

talent, talento 

talk, paroli 

tall, alta 

tallow, sebo 

Talmud, talmudo 

tan, tani 

tar, gudro 

tariff, tarifo, imposto 

tart, acida, torto 

taste, gusto, gustumi 

tattoo, tatui 



tax, taksi, imposto 
tea, teo 
teach, instrui 
tear, §iri 
tear, larmo 
teat, mampinto 
tedious, teda 
telegram, telegramo 
telephone, telefoni 
telescope, teleskopo 
tell, rakonti, diri 
temperature, tempera- 
ture 
tempest, ventego 
temple, tempio, tempio 
tempt, tenti 
ten, dek 
tenant, luanto 



124 



English' Esperanto Vocabulary 



tendon, tendeno 

tenor, tenoro 

tent, tendo 

term, templimo, termino 

terminate, fini 

terrace, teraso 

territory, teritorio 

terror, teruro 

test, provi 

testament, testamento 

testify, atesti 

tetanus, tetano 

text, teksto 

textile, teksa 

than, ol 

thank, danki 

that, tic, tiu, kiu, ke 

thaw, degeli 

the, la 

theater, teatro 

their, ilia, sia 

them, ilin, ili 

theme, temo 

then, tiatn, do, poste 

theology, theologio 

theory, teorio 

there, tie 

therefore, tial 

thermometer, termo- 

metro 
they, ili 
thick, dika 
thief, gtelisto 
thigh, femuro 
thing, io, ajo 
think, pensi 



thirst, soifo 
this, tio ei, tiu Ci 
thistle, kardo 
thorn, dorno 
thou, ci, vi 
though, kvankam 
thrash, draSi 
thread, fadeno 
threaten, minaco 
three, tri 
threshold, sojlo 
thrill, vibri, eksciti 
throat, gorgo 
throne, trono 
throng, amaso 
through, tra 
throw, Jeti 
thrush, turdo 
thumb, dika fingro 
thunder, tondri 
Thursday, Jaudo 
thus, tiel, tiamaniere 
thy, ci, via 
thyme, timiano 
ticket, bileto 
tickle, tikli 
tide, tajdo 
tie, ligi, kravato 
tier, vico 
tiger, tigro 
till, gis 
time, tempo 
tin, stano 
tinkle, tinti 
tipple, drinki 
tipsy, ebria 



English' Esperanto Vocabulary 



125 



tire, lacigi, tedi, enui 
title, titolo 
to, al 
toad, bufo 
toast, toasto 
tobacco, tabako 
today, hodiaii 
toe, piedfingro 
tolerate, toleri 
tomato, tomato 
tomb, tombo 
tomorrow, morgaii 
tone, tono 
tongue, lango 
too, tro 
tool, ilo 
tooth, dento 
top, supro, pinto 
topaz, topazo 
topic, temo 
torch, torSo 
torment, turmenti 
torpedo, torpedo 
torrent, torento 
torrid, varmega 
tortoise, testudo 
toss, Jeti 
total, tuto 
totter, §anceli 
touch, tu§i, palpi 
tow, stupo 
toward, al 
towel, vi§ilo 
tower, turo 
town, urbo 
toy, ludilo 



trace, postsigno 

track, vojo 

trade, negoci, komerci, 

metio 
tradition, tradicio 
tragedy, tragedio 
train, dresi, vagonaro, 

instrui 
trait, trajto 
traitorous, perfida 
transcribe, transskribi 
translate, traduki 
transparent, travidebla 
travel, veturi, vojagi 
tray, pleto 
treadle, pedalo 
treasure, trezoro 
treat, kuraci, regali, 

trakti 
treaty, kontrakto, in- 

terkonsento 
tree, arbo 
triangle, triangulo 
tribe, gento 
trifle, bagatelo 
trill, trili 
trio, trio 
triumph, triumfo 
trivial, triviala 
trombone, trombono 
troop, bando, amaso 
tropic, tropiko 
trot, troti 
trough, trogo 
trousers, pantolono 
trout, truto 



126 



English' Esperanto Vocabulary 



trump, atuto, trumpo 
trunk, kesto, kofro, 

trunko, rostro 
trust, konfidi, fidi 
try, peni, provi, atenci 
tub, kuvo 
tube, tubo 
tuber, tubero 
Tuesday, mardo 
tuft, tufo 
tulip, tulipo 
tumbler, glaso 
tumult, tumulto 
tune, agordi 
turf, torfo 
Turk, turko 



turkey, meleagro 
turn, turni, torni, vico 
turpentine, terebinto 
turquoise, turkiso 
turtle, testudo 
turtle-dove, turto 
twelve, dekdu 
twine, fadeno, Snureto 
twinkle, brileti 
twist, tordi 
twitter, pepi, Cirpi 
two, du 
type, modelo, preslitero, 

tipo 
typhus, tifo 
tyrant, tirano 



U 



udder, mamo 
ugly, malbela 
ukase, ukazo 
ulcer, ulcero 
unbounded, senlima 
uncle, onklo 
under, sub 
undergo, suferi 
underscore, substreki 
understand, kompreni 
undertake, entrepreni 
unexpected, neatendita 
unhappy, malfeliCa 
uniform, uniformo 
union, unuigo, unuigo 
unit, unuo 



universal, universala 
university, universitato 
unless, escepte ke 
until, gis 
unto, al 

unworthy, malinda 
upon, sur 
urge, urgi 
urine, urino 
us, nin 
use, uzi 
usual, kutima 
usurp, uzurpi 
utilize, utiligi 
Utopia, utopio 
utterly, tute 



English- Esperanto Vocabulary 



127 



vacant, vakanta 
vacation, libertempo 
vaccinate, inokuli 
vain, vana, vanta 
vainly, vane 
valise, valizo 
valley, valo 
value, valoro 
valve, klapo 
vanilla, vanilo 
vanquish, venki 
vapor, vaporo 
variola, variolo 
various, diversa 
varnish, laki 
vase, vazo 
vaseline, vazelino 
vassal, vasalo 
vast, vasta 
vegetable, legomo 
vehicle, veturilo 
vein, vejno 
vellum, veleno 
velvet, veluro 
vengeance, vengo 
venom, veneno 
ventilate, ventoli 
venture, riski 
verb, verbo 
verdict, verdikto 
verse, verso 
vertical, vertikala 



very, tre 

vessel, §ipo, boato, ujo 
vest, ve§to 
veteran, veteran© 
vex, Cagreni 
vice, malvirto 
victory, venko 
view, vidi, vidajo 
vigilant, vigla 
village, vilago 
villain, kanajlo 
vinegar, vinagro 
violence, perforto 
violet, violo 
violin, violono 
virginal, virga 
virus, veneno 
vision, vido, aperajo 
visit, viziti 
vizage, vizago 
vizier, veziro 
voice, V060 
volkano, vulkano 
volume, tomo, volumo 
voluptuous, voluptema 
vomit, vomi 
vote, baloti, voCdoni 
vouch, garantii, atesti 
vow, promesi Jure 
vowel, vokalo 
vulgar, vulgara 
vulture, vulturo 



128 



English- Esperanto Vocabulary 



W 



wad, vati 

wager, veti 

wages, salajro 

wagon, gargveturilo 

waist, talio 

w^ait, atendi, servi 

'waiter, kelnero 

wake, veki 

walk, mar§i, promeni 

wall, muro 

walnut, juglando 

'waltz, valso 

wander, vagi 

'want, bezoni, manki 

ward, kvartalo 

warm, varma 

warn, averti 

'wash, lavi 

watch, gardi, po§hor- 

logo 
water, akvo 
wave, ondo 
wax, vakso 
way, vojo, maniero 
we, ni 

wealth, riCeco 
"wear, porti, eluzi 
weary, laca, enua 
weather, vetero 
wedge, kojno 
Wednesday, merkredo 



weed, sarki 
"week, semajno 
weep, plori 
'weigh, pezi, pesi 
welcome, bonveno 
well, nu, Sana, bone, 

puto 
west, okcidento 
wet, malseka 
whale, baleno 
what, kia, kio 
-wheat, tritiko 
wheel, rado 
when, kiam 
-where, kie 
whether, Cu 
which, kio, kiu 
'while, dum 
whim, kaprico 
'whip, vipo 
'whiskers, vangharoj 
'whisper, paroleti 
'whistle, fajfi 
whist, visto 
white, blanka 
who, kiu 
'whole, tuto, tuta 
wholesale, pogrande 
'whom, kiun 
'whose, kies 
why, kial 



Eng-lish- Esperanto Vocabulary 



129 



widower, vidvo 
wife, edzino 
wild, sovaga 
willful, obstina 
will, testamenti, voli 
willingly, volonte 
win, venki, gajni 
wind, vento 
wind, tordi, vindi, streCi 
window, fenestro 
wine, vino 
wing, flugilo, flankajo 
wink, palpebrumi 
winter, vintro 
wipe, vi§i 

wisdom, sago, sageco 
■wish, deziri, voli 
wit, sprito 
without, sen 
witness, vidi, atesti 



wizard, sorCisto 
^volf, lupo 
woman, virino 
womb, utero 
wonder, miri 
woo, amindumi 
v^ool, lano 
"word, vorto 
work, labori, verko 
world, monda 
v^orm, vermo 
'worship, adori 
Tvorth, valoro, indo 
•wound, vundi 
•wrap, kovri, volvi 
wreath, girlando 
wreck, gippereo 
wretched, mizera 
wrinkle, sulko 
write, skribi, verki 



yacht, yatito 
yard, korto, jardo 
yawn, oscedi 
year, jaro 
yearly, Ciujara 
yell, kriegi 
yellow, flava 
yes, jes 

yesterday, hieraii 
yet, tamen, ankoraii 



yew, taksuso 

yield, cedi, kapitulaci, 

produkti 
yoke, jugo 
you, vi 

young, juna, ido 
your, yours, via 
youth, junulo, juneco 
youthful, juna 
Yule, kristnasko 



130-316** Mng-lish- Esperanto Vocabulary 



zeal, fervoro zigzag, zigzago 

zebra, zebro zinc, zinko 

zenith, zenito zoology, zoologio 

zero, nulo zouave, zuavo 



**Total number of pagei, 316. 



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