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Full text of "The American flora : or history of plants and wild flowers : containing their scientific and general description, natural history, chemical and medical properties, mode of culture, propagation , &c., designed as a book of reference for botanists, physicians, florists, gardeners, students, etc."

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£Lr-i:X 



THE 



AMERICAN FLORA, 



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HISTORY OF PLANTS AID ¥ILD ELO¥EES: 



CONTAINIKO 



THEIR SCIENTIFIC AND GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 

NATURAL HISTORY, 

CHEMICAL AND MEDICAL PROPERTIES, MODE OF CULTURE, PROPAGATION, &C. 



AS A BOOK OF REFEP.EXCE FOR BOTANISTS, PUYSICIANS, FLORISTS, aARDENEES, 

STUDENTS, ETC. 



BY A. B. STRONO, M. D. 
VOL. I. 

IS ILLUSTRATED WITH 

SIXTY-SIX BEAUTIFUL COLORED ENGRAVINGS, 

TAKEN FROM NATURE. 

LIBRARY 

« , NEW YORK 

BOTANICAL 

NEW-YORK: ^"^^"^^ 

PUBLISHED BY HULL & SPENCEB, 

13 ANN STREET. 

1855. 



i^ 









vN- 



• 'f 



Entered accorJing to Act, of Cougiess, in the year 1S45, by 

GREEN i SPENCER, 

In the Clerk's 0£5ce of the District Court of the Southern District of Xew York 



^ B 



PREFACE. 



In the whole catalogue of the Materia Medica, the productions 
of the animal and mineral kingdom bear a small proportion to 
those of the vegetable. Though it must be acknowledged that, fur 
some time past, the medicinal uses of vegetable simples have been 
less regarded by physicians than they were formerly, which probably 
may be ascribed to the successive discoveries and improvements in 
chemistry ; it would, however, be difficult to show that this prefer- 
ence is supported by any conclusive reasoning, drawn from a com 
parative superiority of chemicals over galenicals, or that the more 
general use of the former has actually led to a more successful 
practice. 

The various American works on Botany have given but very 
limited portions of the vegetable kingdom ; yet limited as they are, 
few medical practitioners have a distinct botanical knowledge of the 
individual plants of which they are composed, though generally well 
acquainted with their effects and medical uses. But the practitioner 
who is unable to distinguish those plants which he prescribes, is not 
only subjected to the impositions of the ignorant and fraudulent, but 
must feel a dissatisfaction which the inquisitive and philosophic 
mind will be anxious to remove, and to such, it is presumed, the 
American Flora will be found an acceptable and useful work ; the 



JV PREFACE. 

profos.seil dcsi^r. of v. Lull is uol only to enable the reader to dis- 
tinguish with prccisiou all those plants which are directed for med- 
ical use, and to furnish him at the same time wiih a circumstantial 
detail of their respective virtues, and of the diseases in which they 
have been most successfully employed by different authors. 

A child may walk into the field, and amuse himself with the 
groups of flowers which there present themselves to his notice. He 
may be able to distinguish between the Tulip and the Snowdrop, 
the Rose and the Lili/, and be delighted with their external beauties 
and rich varieties; but it is the liotanist alone, who by an accu- 
rate knowledge of the various parts of the plant, can expatiate on 
its wonderful formation. 

If, then, a knowledge of Botany is so necessary to men of 
science and general literature, it must be obvious that those plants in 
the vegetable kingdom which possess medicinal properties, ought 
certainly to attract the attention of medical men. 

The Author has the satisfaction of introducing many rare and 
valuable plants, which have never been completely portrayed in any 
preceding work whatever, embracing all the Wild Flowers of 
America, all beautifully colored, and their drawings taken from 
nature ; and by subjoining a botanical description, natural and medi- 
cal liistory of each species, curiosity is more fully giatified, and a 
double interest is excited in the mind of the student. 



LATIN NAMES. 

Kletris farinosa 
Aloe pcrfoliata 
Aloe socotorina 
Aloe vulgaris 
Amygdalus communis 
Anacardium occidentale - 
Anemone pralensis 
Anthemis nobilis 
Anthemis pyrethrum 
Aquilegia canadensis 
Arctium lappa 
Atropa belladonna 
Borago officinalis 
Camelia japonica 
Capsicum annum 
Cassia fistula 
Celastrus scandens 
Chelone glabra 
Cichorium intybiis - 
Cistus creiicus 
Citrzis aurantitim 
Colchicum autumnale 
Convolvulus jalapa 
Croton tiglium 
Dianthus caryopkyllus 
[hgitalis purpurea 
Gtntiana pttrpurea • 
Oladiolus alatus 
Habranthus roseus 
ffetleborus niger 
Hyacinthus orientalia 
Hypericum perforatum 
fnula helenium 



INDEX. 




COMMON NAMES. 


tkOt. 


Star Grass 


51 


Common Aloe 


83 


Socotorine Aloe 


74 


African Aloe 


72 


Common Almond Tree 


173 


Cashew Nut 


25 


Pasqiie Flower 


36 


Common Chamomile 


167 


Spanisli Chamomile 


111 


Columbine - - . 


29 


Burdock 


96 


Deadly Nightshade 


100 


Common Borage 


8S 


Japan Rose Tree 


61 


Guinea Pepper 


115 


Purging Cassia 


88 


Bitter Sweet 


140 


Balmony ... 


146 


Wild or Blue Succory - 


142 


Cretan Cistus 


136 


Orange Tree 


53 


Meadow Saffron 


134 


Jalap Bind- Weed 


44 


Purging Croton 


123 


Clove or Carnation Pink 


132 


Purple Foxglove 


66 


Purple Gentian 


119 


Sword-Lily 


48 


Rosy Habranthus 


127 


- Black Hellebore 


58 


Common Hyacinth 


18T 


St. John's- Wort 


98 


Elecampane . . . 


38 



INDEX. 



LATIN NAMES. 


COMMON ^AME3. 


PIOB. 


Iris florentitia 


Florentine Orris 


165 


Ixia Crateroides 


Cup-Shaped Ixia 


157 


Ixia tricolor - - - 


Three-Colored Ixia 


156 


Juniperus sabina 


Common Savine 


129 


Leontodon taraxacum 


Dandelion . - - 


138 


lAimm usilalissimum 


Common Flax . . - 


113 


Lobelia syphilitica 


Blue Lobelia 


148 


Malva sylvestris 


Common Mallow 


93 


Martynia probocidea 


Horny Martynia 


27 


Mentha viridis - - - 


Spearmint ... 


171 


Morns 7iigra 


Common Mulberry Tree 


178 


Myristica Moschata 


Nutmeg Tree - - . 


121 


Narcissus triandrus - 


Three- Aiithered Rush Daffocli 


184 


Oxalis acetosella 


Wood-Sorrel 


176 


PcBonia officinalis 


Common Peony 


33 


Papaver rhceas - - - 


Red or Com Poppy 


81 


Passijlora ccerulea 


Passion Flower 


169 


Pulmonaria officinalis 


Common Lungwort 


90 


Pyrolla tmibellata 


Pipsissewa . . - 


150 


Pyriis spectablis 


Chinese Pear 


10 


Quassia am^ara 


Bitter duassia 


182 


Quercus robur 


Common Oak ... 


163 


Rododendrum chrysanthuv% - 


Yellow-flowered Rhododendrum 


161 


Rhus glabrum 


Upland Sumach 


12 


Ribes rubrum 


Red Currant 


154 


Ribes sangnineiim 


High Blackberry 


78 


Rosa canina 


Dog Rose or Hep Tree 


109 


Rosa centi/olia 


Hundred-Leaved Rose - 


7 


Rubus idans 


Common Raspberry' Bush 


70 


Rubtis strig-osns 


Red Raspberry 


18 


Scutellaria lateriflora 


Blue Scull Cap 


180 


Spigelia marilandica 


Carolina Pink - - - 


159 


Stalagmitis cambogioules 


Gamboge Tree 


144 


Tropaoliim majiis 


Indian Cress ... 


104 


Tulippa oculis solis - 


Scarlet Tulip 


107 


Veronica bcccabunga 


Brooklime - - . 


125 


Wachcndorfia paniculata 


Panicled Wachendorfia 


158 





INDEX. 




COMMON NAMES. 


LATIN N/MES. 


Pica. 


Almond Tree 


Amygdalus communis 


173 


Aloe, African 


Aloe vulgaris ... 


72 


Aloe, Common 


Aloe perfoliata 


83 


Aloe, Socotorine - 


Aloe socotorina 


74 


Balmony 


Chelone glabra 


146 


liitler Sweet 


Celastras scandens 


140 


Blackber'-y, High 


Ribes sanguincum - 


78 


Borage, Common 


Borago officinalis 


85 


Brooldime 


Veronica beccabimga 


125 


Burdock 


Arctium lappa ... 


96 


Cashew Nut 


Anacardium occidentale 


25 


Cassia, Purging 


Cassia fistula ... 


83 


Chamomile, Common 


Anthemis nobilis 


167 


Chamomile, Spanish 


Anthemis pyrethrum 


HI 


Columbine 


Aquilegia canadensis 


29 


Cretan Cistus 


Cistus creticus 


136 


Croton, Purging 


Croton tiglium 


123 


Currant, Red 


Ribes rubrum ... 


154 


Dandelion 


Leontodon taraxacum 


139 


Elecampane 


Inula helenium 


38 


Flax, Common 


Linum usitatissimnm 


113 


Foxglove, Purple 


Digitalis purpurea 


66 


Gamboge Tree 


Slalagmits cambogioides 


144 


Gentian, Purple 


Gentiana purpurea 


m 


Hal)ranthus, Rosy 


Habranthus roseus • 


127 


Hellebore, Black 


Helleborus niger 


68 


Hyacinth, Common - 


Hyacinthus oricntalis 


187 


Indian Cress 


TropsEolum majus 


104 


Ixia, Cup-shaped 


Ixia crateroides 


157 


Ixia, Three-colored 


Ixia tricolor . - - 


160 


Jalap Bind- weed 


Convolvulus jalapa 


44 


Lily, Sword 


Gladiolus alatus 


48 


Lobelia, Blue 
3 


Lobelia syphilitica - 


148 



iV 



INDEX. 



COMMON NAMES. 

Lnngwort, Common 

Mallote, Common 

Marly nia, Horny 

Mulberry Tree, Common 

Nighl-shade, Deadly 

Niilmeg- Tree 

Oak, Common 

Orange Tree 

Orris, Florentine 

Pasque floicer 

Passion Jloicer 

Pear, Chinese 

Peony, Common 

Pepper, Guinea 

Pink, Carolina 

PiTik, Clove or Carnation 

Pipsissewa 

Poppy, Red or Com 

Quassia, Bitter - 

Ra.'pherry Bush, Common • 

Raspberry, Red 

Rododendrum, Yellow-Jlowerti 

Rose, Dog or Hep Tree 

Rose, Hundred-leaved 

Rose, Japan 

Rush Daffodil, Three-anthered 

tSttffron, Meadow 

SSavine, Common 

ScuVcap, Blue 

Sorrel, Wood 

Spear-mint - • 

Star Grass - . • 

iS». John's- Wort 

Sticcory, Wild or Blue 

Sumach, Upland 

Tulip, Scarlet 

W<ichendorfia, Panidtd 



LATIN NAMES. 


PIGE. 


Pulmonaria officinalis 


- 


90 


Malva sylvestris 


- 


93 


Martyuia probocidea 


- 


27 


Moms nigra 


- 


178 


Atropa belladonna 


- 


\m 


Myristica inoschata 


- 


121 


Quercus robur - 


- 


163 


Citrus aurantium 


. 


53 


Iris llorentina 


- 


165 


Anemone pratensis - 


- 


36 


Passiflora ccErulea 


. 


109 


Pyrus spectablis 


- 


10 


Paionia officinalis 


- 


33 


Capsicum annum 


- 


115 


Spigelia marilandica 


• 


159 


Dianthus caryophyllus 


- 


132 


Pyrolla umbellata 


- 


150 


Papaver rhaeas 


- 


81 


Quassia amara 


- 


182 


Rubus idaeus 


. 


70 


Rubus strigosus 


. 


LS 


Rododendrum chrysanthum 


161 


Rosa canina 




109 


Rosa centifolia - 


- 


r 


Camelia japonica 




61 


Narcissus triandrus 


. 


184 


Colchicum autu-iinale 




134 


Juniperus sabina 


- 


129 


Scutellaria lateriflora 




180 


Oxalis acetosella 


-3 - 


176 


Mentha viridis 




171 


Aletris farinosa 


. 


51 


Hypericum perforatum 




98 


Cichorium intybus 


. 


142 


Rhus glabrum 


- 


12 


Talippa oculis solis 


- 


107 


Wachendorfia paniculata 


15R 




V/" / / / ^4^ 



NAT. ORDER. 

Lenticosce. 



ROSA CENTIFOLIA. HUNDRED-LEAVED ROSE. 

Class XII. IcosANDRiA. Order V. Polygnia. 

G(in. Char. Petals five. Calijx pitcher-shaped, five-cleft, fleshy, and 
contracted at the neck. Seeds numerous, hispid, and affixed to 
the under side of the calyx. 

Spe. Char. Germen ovate. Peduncles hispid. Stem hispid and 
prickly. Petioles unarmed. 

Various opinions are entertained with respect to the native place 
of this species of rose, and it is a point which stiU remains undeter- 
mined. It is cultivated in gardens very extensively, as an ornamental 
flower, and grows luxuriantly in most parts of the United States, and 
throughout the continent of Europe, flowering in June. 

The Rosa CentifoUa has prickly stalkg, which are from three to 
six feet in height. The leaves are pinnated, consisting of two or 
three pairs of leaflets, with an odd one ; the leaflets are oval, broad, 
serrated, veined, hairy, and attached by very short petioles to a rough 
common footstalk ; the floiocrs are large, varying in color, generally of 
a pale red, and supported on peduncles which are beset with bristly 
hairs ; the leaves of the calyx are semi-pinnate ; the petals are large 
and numerous; the parts oi fructification are by cultivation converted 
into petals. 

There are many varieties comprehended under this species of 
rose, which are indiscriminately gathered for medicinal purposes, and 
are found by chemical analysis not to differ essentiallj from each 



8 NAT. ORDER. — LENTIGOS^. 

Other. It was formerly regarded as the Damask Rose, until by close 
investigation it was foimd to be a perfectly distinct species. 

This division comprises the portion which has most particularly 
interested the lovers of flowers. It is probable that the earliest of 
which there are any records as being cultivated, belonged to some 
portion of it ; but to which particular species those of Cpene or 
Mount Pangceus are to be referred, is now too late to enquire. The 
ottar of roses, which is an important article in commerce, is either 
obtained from them indiscriminately, as in the manufactory at Flor- 
ence, conducted by a convent of friars, or from some particular kind, as 
in India. It appears, from specimens brought from Chizapore, by Col- 
onel Hardwicke, that Rosa Damascena is there exclusively used for 
obtaining the essential oil. The Persians also make use of a sort which 
Koempfer calls Rosa Shirazeiisis, from its growing about Schu-az, 
in preference to others ; this may be Rosa Damascena, or Rosa ccnti- 
folia. It is, however, well known that ottar of roses from different 
countries, is of various degrees of goodness ; that from Turkey being 
usually the best. It is therefore probable tliat Rosa nwschata may 
be sometimes used either alone or mixed with other kinds, especially 
at Mogodor, where considerable quantities are procured, but of infe- 
rior quality. To three or four species herein enumerated, nearly all 
the fine double roses of the gardens are referable. 

Rosa Damascena. This is a shrubby looking plant, rising from 
two to three feet in height ; pricldes unequal, larger ones falcate ; 
sepals, reflexed ; fruit elongated ; flowers large and white, or red, 
single or double. The present species may be cMstinguished from the 
Rosa centifolia, in the greater size of the prickles, green bark, elon- 
gated fruit, and long reflexed sepals. The petals of this species, and 
all the varieties of Rosa centifolia, as well as all those of other species, 
are employed indiscriminately for the purpose of making rose-water. 
Native of Syria, and flowers in June and July. ^ 

P-opagation and Culture. The rose may be increa^^d by seed for 



NAT. ORDER. LENTIGOS^. 

new varieties, and chiefly by layers for continuing approved sorts. Tlicy 
are also increased by budding, cuttings and suckers. Extracting tbe 
stamens from one flower, and dusting the stigmas with the pollen of 
another kind, will sometimes answer a most admirable pm"pose. The 
tips generally ripen in October or November, and the seed does not 
vegetate till the second year after sowing. 

Medical Properties and Uses. The petals of this rose possess a 
very highly fragrant odor, which is not entirely dissipated by keeping, 
but some of the flavor is lost unless used fresh ; the rose-water is dis- 
tilled from petals recently gathered; their taste is sweetish and slightly 
bitter. Water extracts the odor of the petals both by infusion and 
distillation ; and when large quantities of them are employed in 
the distillation, a very small portion of yellow, fragrant, butyraceous 
essential oil is sometimes procured, which is of a very mild nature, 
possessing no pungency. They also give out a bitter principle to 
water, but alcohol is their best menstruum. They are chiefly used as 
a perfume. The otto of roses, which is procured from this species, 
has a most powerful and fragrant odor, and is exceedingly diff"usible. 
They are slightly laxative, but are rarely administered medicinally, 
except occasionally to children ; the chief use to which the petals are 
applied in this country, is for the distillation of rose-water, which pos- 
sesses no medicinal virtues, and is only used on account of its agree- 
able odor 

Aqua Roscc. Rose-water. U. S. Dispensatory. Take of fresh 
hundred-leaved roses, or petals, eight pounds, water two gallons ; mix 
them and distil one gallon. The Dublin College orders a gallon of 
the water to be distilled from eight pounds of the petals. The Lon- 
don College takes ten pounds of roses, seven fluid ounces of proof 
spirit, and two gallons of water, and distills one gallon. The Edin- 
burgh College proceeds the same as the London, substituting three 
fluid ounces of rectified spirit for seven of proof spirit, and adds the 
following notice : " The petals should be preferred when fresh, but it 
also answers well to use those which have been preserved by beating 
them with twice their weight of muriate of soda." 



NAT. ORDER. 

Pomacea. 
\ 

PYRUS SPECTABLIS. A CHINESE PEAR. 

Class XII. IcosANDRiA. Order IV. Pentagynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx, five-cleft. Petals, five. Pome, inferior, five- 
celled, many seeded 

Sj?e. Char. Leaves, ovate, oblong, acuminate, serrate, smooth. 
Umbells, simple, sessile. Claws of the corolla shorter than the 
calyx. Styles, smooth. 

This species oi'pear is a native of China, where it attains the 
height of fifteen to twenty-five feet ; the leaves are ovate, oblong, 
pointed, crenate, and stand in pairs ; the Jlowers which appear so 
numerous, grow in clusters — they are large, aggregated, and at first 
of a blood red color, afterwards more pale, and at last, before the 
petals fall, they become almost entirely white ; the petals ai*e nu- 
merous, but do not exclude the existence of stamens, and pistils ; 
pistils five ; stamens more than twenty, all attached to the calyx — 
the number of the stamens is not always the same in all the 
flowers. 

The pear tree which is eo universally spread over both conti 
nents, has now become naturalized to many parts of the United 
States, where, with proper cultivation and a rich soil, it ripens its 
fruit and flourishes equally well, if not better, than in its native 
country, China. From history, we leai-n that it was introduced into 
England immediately after the first settlement of that country, from 
which time it has been constantly cultivated, and various improve- 
ments made by grafting and inoculation. The natural order poma- 
ceae, contain, according to the best authorities, nine hundred and 

10 



NAT. OUUEU. POMACES. 11 

eighty varieties, of which the pear alone constitutes more tha^Ji one- 
third. In China, Hindostan, and the southern parts of Germany, 
the pear is extensively cultivated as a prominent article of food. 

The pear is decidedly one of the most useful fruits in cultiva- 
tion ; its characteristics, of hardness of the tree, beauty of its 
flowers, and wholesomeness of its fruit, whether prepared in pre- 
serves, taken immediately from the garden, or the fruit room, cer- 
tainly must be considered as one of the choicest gifts of nature. In 
manv parts of the Eastern continent, where this fruit is so exten- 
sively cultivated, it forms one of the principal articles of diet, not 
only for man, but for keeping and fattening of cattle. 

Medical Properties arid Uses. The seeds of the pear are very 
much esteemed in some parts of Europe and China, in the treatment 
of fevers; they are considered cooling, and are found to possess 
considerable astringent, and tonic properties. Culpeper speaks 
very highly of the leaves of this tree — to be used fresh, after being 
bruised, as an excellent remedy for wounds, bruises, swellings, stop- 
page of blood, and reducing inflamation. The fruit, as an article 
of food, and the flowers for beauty, are the chief peculiarities of 
this tree, the wood being almost as hard as that of box, for which 
it is even substituted by wood engravers. 



NAT. ORDER. 

Dumosce. 



RHUS GLABRUM. UPLAND SUMACH. 

Class V. Pentandria. Orde?- III. Trigynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx, five-parted. Corolla-petals, five. Berry, one 
seeded. 

Spe. Char. Leaves, pinnate, quite entire. Petioles, membranace- 
ous, jointed. ' , 

This specimen of Sumach is a small tree usually rising from 
six to twelve feet in height ; the stem is divided into many strag- 
gling branches, which are bent and covered with a smooth light 
grey, or somewhat reddish bark ; the leaves are pinnated, alternate, 
and consist of several pair of pinnae, which are ovate-lance-shaped, 
obtusely serrated, smooth above, hairy beneath, and stand upon 
short footstalks; the ^oivers are numerous, small, white, and placed 
in large branched spikes ; the calyx is five-toothed, erect, persistent, 
and placed below the germen ; the corolla consists of five petals, 
which are ovate, white, and mostly erect ; the Jilaments are five, 
and very short; the anthers are small; \he germen is roundish, and 
about the length of the corolla ; the style is scarcely visible • the 
stigmas are three, and somewhat cordate ; the fruit is a roundish 
one-celled red berry, and contains one solitary round hard seed. 
It produces its flowers in June and July. 

This species of Sumach is found in almost all parts of the 
United States, growing in old neglected fields, along fences, and on 
the borders of woods. It is described by various authors as being 
a native of the South of Europe, where it was considerably culti- 



■ NAT. ORDER. — DUMOS^. 13 

vated in their extensive gardens previous to the year 1648, but is 
still a scarce plant in that country. 

The genus to which this species belongs, comprehends seve- 
ral species which are known to be extremely poisonous, especially 
the Toxicodendron, Radicans, and Vernix ; but the Glahrum is per- 
fectly innocent, and its berries are in most countries used for 
culinary purposes. 

Its medicinal qualities are chiefly to be ascribed to its stypti- 
city or astringency ; a property which it possesses in a sufficient 
degree to render it useful in dyeing, and also in tanning of leather, 
for which it was used in the time of Dioscorides. 

The berries, which are red and of a round compressed figure, 
contain a pulpy matter, in which is lodged a brown hard oval seed, 
manifesting a considerable degree of astringency. The pulp, even 
when dry, is gratefully acid, and has been discovered to contain an 
essential salt, similar to that of wood-sorrel, or perhaps more nearly 
allied to chrystals of tartar. 

Bhus vcrnicifcra. Varnish-bearing Sumach, or Japan Varnish-tree. 
This is a tree rising from twenty to forty feet in height ; leaves with 
five or six pairs of leaflets, long, resembling those of the walnut ; 
petioles naked, and are as well as the branchlets, clothed with down ; 
leaflets elliptic, acute, quite entire, smoothish above, but velvety be- 
neath from puljescence. Tlumberg affirms that the very best varnish 
is prepared from this tree, which grows in gi-eat abundance in many 
parts of that country ; and is likewise cultivated in many places on 
accoimt of the great advantage derived from it. The varnish which 
oozes out of the tree on being wounded, is procured from stems that 
are three years old, and is received in some proper vessel. At first it 
is of a lightish color and of the consister ce of cream, but grows thick- 
er and black on being exposed to the air. It is so transparent when 
laid ])ure and unmixed upon the boxes or furniture, that every vein 
of the wood may be clearly seen. For the most part a dark ground 



u 



NAT. ORDER. DVM03M. 



is spread underncuth it, which causes it to reflect like a mirror, and 
for this pui'pose recourse is frequently had to the fine sludge, which 
is got in the trough under the grindstone, or to ground charcoal ; oc- 
casionally a red substance is mixed with the varnish, and sometimes 
leaf-gold ground very fine. This varnish hardens very much, but 
will not endure any blows, cracking and flying almost like glass, 
though it can stand boiling water without any damtige. With this 
the Japanese varnish over the posts of their doors, and most articles 
of household furniture, which are made of wood. It far exceeds the 
Chinese and Siamese varnish, and the best is collected about the 
town of Jassino. It is cleared from impurities by wringing it through 
very fine paper ; then about a hundi-edth part of an oil called toi, 
which is expressed from the fruit of Bignonia tomentosa is added to it, 
and being put into wooden vessels, either alone or mixed with native 
cmnabar, or some black substance, it is sold all over Japan. The 
expressed oil of the seeds sei-ves for candles. The tree is said to be 
erpially poisonous with the Hhus venenata, or American poison-tree, 
in some parts called Swamp Sumach. It is a native of Japan. 

jRIius venenata. Poison Sumach, Poison-wood, Swamp Sumach 
Dog-wood, &c. This tree rises from fifteen to twenty-five feet m height ; 
leaves with six or seven pairs of smoothish deciduous leaflets ; pe- 
tioles naked ; leaflets ovate-lanceolate, acuminated, quite e«itire, net- 
ted with vems beneath ; flowers dioecious, green ; fruit white, smooth, 
containing a fiu-rowed nut. The milky juice of this tree scams linen 
a dark-brown. The whole slirub is m a liigh degree poisonc us, and 
the poison is communicated by toucliing or smelling any part of it 
In forty-eight hours, inflammation appears on the skin in large 
blotches, principally on the extremities, and on the glandulous parts 
of the body ; soon after small pustules rise in the inflamed parts, and 
fill with watery matter, attended with burning and itchkg. In two 
or three days the eruptions suppurate, after which the mflammation 



NAT. ORDER. — DUMOSiE. 15 

subsides, nnd the ulcers lical in a sliort time. It operates, however, 
somewhat diflercntly on difrereiit constitutions, and some ai'e incapa- 
ble of being poisoned with it at all, while others will receive its in- 
fection seA^eral rods distant from the tree, only looking at it. Persons 
of an irritable habit are most liable to receive it. All wi'iters agree 

. in the poisonous nature of this tree. An incision being made, a 
wliitisli-yellow juice, which has a nauseous smell, comes out be- 
tween the bark and the wood. The natives of this comitry stain 
their cloth black with the juice of this tree, which is retained after 

k a great number of washings in lye ; the instant the cloth is exposed 
to the sun, after being washed in this juice, it tmnis a beautiful jet- 
black, of a shining natm'e. This is a native of North America, from 
Canada to South Carolina, in hedges, cUtches, waste places, and par- 
ticularly in moist swamps in woods. It flowers in July. 

Rhus radicans. Rooting poison-oak, or Sumach. This is a 
climbing plant. Leaflets large, entire or rarely toothed, ovate ; flow- 
ers dioecious, greenish ; berries white. This plant having in com- 
mon with the ivy the quality of not rising without the support of a 
wall, tree, or hedge ; it is called in some parts of America creeping 
ivy. It will climb to the top of tall trees in woods, the branches 
every where throwing out fibres, which penetrate the trunk of the 
tree on which it grows. When the stem is cut it emits a pale-brown 
sap, of a chsagreeable scent, and is so sharj) that letters or marks 
made upon linen cannot be got out again, but gi-ows blacker the 
more it is washed. Like Rush venenata it is poisonous to many per- 
sons, but in rather a less degi-ee, and some are not afTected with it in 
the least. It is a remarkable fact that members of the same family 
are not affected by this plant ; one will handle and use it without 
any trouble, while a brother or sister will receive its venom as soon 
as they come within several feet of it, or even at a greater distance 
at the windward of it. The writer has experimented some witli the 



16 NAT. ORDER. — DDMOSjE. 

juice of this plant, trying it upon Iiiiaself, even rubbing it in the 
eyes, without producing any bad effect, but on another person's hand, 
which he had covered very thick with it, the skin a few hours after- 
wards become as hard as tanned leather, and peeled off afterwards 
in scales. There are three other varieties, differing but very little 
in general appearance, and equally poisonous. This is a native of 
North America, from Canada to Georgia, common in all woods, fields, 
and along fences. It flowers in July. 

Bush toxicodendron. Common Poison-tree, or Poison Oak. This 
is a slirub creepmg upon walls ; leaflets deeply angled or sinuated, 
pubescent ; flowers greenish. According to Nuttal, this is a truly 
distinct species from the preceding. The juice of this plant is 
milky when it first exudes, but becomes jet-black by exposure to 
the air. It is poisonous to the touch. It was first tried as a 
medicine by Dr. Alderson, of Hull, in imitation of experiments of 
M. Fresnoi, with the Rhus radicans. He gave it in four cases of 
paralysis, in doses of half a grain or a grain tlu^ee times a day, and 
all his patients recovered to a certain degree the use of their limbs. 
The first symptoms of amendment was always an unpleasant feel- 
ing of prickling, itching or twiching in the paralytic limbs. Dr. 
Duncan has given it in larger doses, without experiencing the 
same success ; it was not, however, inactive. In one case the 
patient discontinued its use on account of the disagreeable prickling 
it occasioned, and in general it operated as a gentle laxative, not- 
withstanding the torpid state of the bowels of such patients. It is a 
native of North America, along with the Rhus radicans. It flowers 
in Jmie and July. 

Propagation and Culture. The hardy species of this genus are 
very proper for shubberies ; some of them are propagated freely from 
cuttings of the roots, and others from cuttings and layers. The green- 
house and stove species will grow in any kind of soU, and ripened 



NAT. ORDER. — DUMOS^. 



17 



cuttings of them root freely under a hand glass m sand ; those of 
tlie stove species require heat 

Medical Properties and Uses. The berries of the Sunacli are 
astringent and refrigerant: a tincture or an infusion from them is 
highly useful in febrile complaints, and forms a pleasant gargle for 
inflammation and ulceration of the throat. It is also recommended 
as a specific for the sore mouth attending inordinate mercurial 
salivation. 

Both the leaves and berries are diuretic, but the latter is the 
most efficient. They may be used in connection with other medi- 
cines, for all the purposes of an astringent." The bark of the root, 
says Dr. Smith, is considered a valuable antiseptic : in the form of 
a poultice for old ulcers, it is scarcely equalled by any other 
remedy. Taken internally, it operates like a purgative. The 
excrescences which form upon the leaves of this shrub, are nearly 
equal in astringency to galls ; and, if finely powdered, and made 
into ointment with fresh lard, affcrd a soothing application for piles. 



,.1 



NAT. ORDER. > 

Senticosce. 



RUBUS STRIGOSUS. RED RASPBERRY, 

Class XII. IcosANDRiA. Order V. Polygnia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx, five-cleft, inferior. Petals, five. Fruit, com- 
posed of many one-seeded juicy acines, on a dry receptacle. 

Spe. Char. Leaves, unarmed, rigidly hisped. Leasts, three or 
pinnate-quinate, oval, at the base obtuse, acumate, marked with 
lines, and white downy beneath. Peduncles and Calyx, 
hisped. 

The ste7n of this species of raspberry, is upright, branching, of 
a pale red color, thickly covered with stiff bristles, and rises from 
three to five feet in height; the leaves stand in one or two pairs, 
supported on long slender hairy footstalks, with an odd one at the 
end : they are wrinkled edged with acute teeth, marked with par- 
allel lines on the upper surface, of a silvery whiteness beneath, and 
terminated by long slender points ; the Jhwers are white and dis- 
posed in little nodding clusters, succeeded by a profusion of deep 
scarlet red berries. It flowers in June and sometimes again in Sep- 
tember, producing a second crop of fruit, when the season oermits. 

The raspberry is found throughout nearly all the northern and 
southern States, growing in dry waste lands, and on stoney hills. 
It is very abundant in the New England Statss, growing on the 
mountain sides and among; the rocks. 

Ruhiis ardkus. Dwarf crimson Bramble. This is rather a creep- 
ing plant, never rising more than eight or ten inches high ; stems herba- 
ceous, smooth, unarmed ; leaves trifoliate, almost glabrous ; leaflets 

Vol, 1.-18. 



NAT. ORDER. SENTICOS*. 19 

obovate, obtuse, crenately serrated ; stipulas ovate, very blunt ; flow- 
ers solitary, terminal, deep rose-colored ; calycine segments, lanceo- 
late-linear, downy, shorter than the corolla ; petals eraarginate ; fruit 
large, purple, or red, sweet scented. Limiajus has accurately figured 
this species of Bramble in his Fl. Lapponica, out of gratitude, as he 
expresses himself, from the benefit he reaped from it in his Lapland 
journey ; it having so frequently recruited his spirits when almost 
sinking with fatigue and hunger, by the vinous nectar of its berries. 
He informs us that the principal people in Norland, make a syrup, a 
jelly, and a wine from these berries, which they partly consume 
themselves, and partly send to their friends ; this wine is of the 
most delicious kind. This is a native of Canada, of Siberia, and the 
northern part of England. Flowers in June and July. 

Riihiis chnnvrmorus. Mountain Bramble. This is a creeping 
plant, only rising from six to eight inches in height ; stem simple, 
one-flowered, puberidous, unarmed ; leaves somewhat uniform, wrin- 
kled, plicate, roundly lobed, and toothed ; stipidas oval, obtuse ; 
flowers dioecious ; calycine segments, ovate, longer than the corolla ; 
petals elliptical, rather incumbent ; carpels nearly globose, large, 
flowers white ; fruit large, of a dull orange-color, acid nuicilaginous, 
and_ pleasant to the taste. From their exalted situation, they are 
sometimes called cloud berries, also knot benies, krwut berries, or roe 
berries. The plant flowers in June, soon after the snow is dissolved, 
and the berries are scarcely well ripened in August, before the plant 
is again overwhelmed with its winter covering. The snow preserves 
the fruit, and is used by the Laplanders to keep it through the win- 
ter ; for they, as well as the Scotch highlanders, esteem it as one of 
their most grateful and useful fruits, especially on accomit of its long 
duration. Its taste is moderately acid and mucilaginous, with some- 
thing of the flavor of tamerinds. They are held tc be an excellent 
anti-scorbutic. The Norwegians pack them upon wooden vessels, 



20 



NAT. ORDER. SENTICOSJE. 



and send them to Stockholm, where they are served up in deserts 
or made into tarts. The Laplanders bruise and eat them with the 
milk of tlie reindeer. Neill observes, that they are the most graceful 
kind of fruit gathered by the Scotch Highlanders. On the sides and 
near the bases of the mountains, it may be collected for several 
months in succession. It is not cultivated without difficulty, and it 
seldom yields fruit in a garden. By crossing the flowers with those 
of the common l)raml)le or raspberry, and raising from the seeds so 
impregnated, in all probability this plant might become a valuable 
accession to the kitchen garden. It is a native of Europe, Siberia, 
and North America. Flowers in June. 

The fruit of the Raspberry is grateful to most palates as nature pre- 
sents it, but sugar improves the flavor; accordingly it is much esteem- 
ed when made into sweetmeats, and for jams, tarts, and sauces. It is 
fragrant, sub-acid, and cooling, allays heat and thirst. It is much 
used in distilling, to make the cordial spirituous liquor, from which 
it has its name. Raspberry syrup is next to the strawberry in dissol- 
ving the tartar of the teeth, as like that fruit it does not undergo the 
acetous fermentation in the stomach ; it is recommended to gouty and 
rheumatic persons. There is already known one hundred and forty- 
seven species of this delicious plant, besides an innumerable number 
of their varieties. 

Propagation aivl Culture. The varieties can be perpetuated by 
the young suckers, which spring from the roots in spring and smmner ; 
when these have completed one year's growth, they are proper to de- 
tach with roots for planting, either in the autumn or the next spring in 
February or March, but never later than the middle of April. These 
new plants will bear some fruit the same year, and furnish a suc- 
cession of strong bottom shoots for full bearing the second year. New 
varieties are easily raised from seed, and they will come into bearing 
the second season. 



NAT. ORDER. SENTICOS;E. 21 

Soil and Situation. All the varieties will succeed in any com- 
mon mould, trenched about two feet deep, and sufficiently manm-ed ; 
but the soil in which the raspherrij bush prospers most and bears the 
finest fruit, is in a light rich loam. Allot the main crop a free expo- 
sure to tlie sun, that the beri'ies may ripen in perfection. Be careful 
to favor the double bearers, with a dry soil, and a sheltered sunny 
situation, to give the second crop every aid in coming to maturity 
When raspberries are cultivated on a large scale, it is best to keep 
them in plantations by themselves. Set them in rows from four to 
six feet asunder, as the bushes are of the smaller or smallest kinds, 
and by three or foiu" feet in the row. Scattered bushes may either 
occupy a small row lengthwise along the back part of tlie border, or 
suuid in detached stools, at ten or fifteen feet distant from eacli other. 
Select sorts are frequently trained against walls, stakes, or espaliers, 
from the most sunny to the most shady aspect, for early and late 
fruit of improved growth and flavor. Neill says the raspberry bush 
grows freely in any good garden soil ; but is the better for being 
slightly moist. Although the place be inclosed by trees, and even 
slightly shaded, the plant succeeds well. In an inclosed and well 
sheltered quarter, with rather a damp soil, containing a proportion of 
peat moss, we have seen very great crops of large and well flavored 
benies produced. 

• Neic Plantations. Raspberry bushes are in their prime about the 
third and fourth year, and, if well managed, continue in perfection 
five or six years ; after which they are apt to decline in growth, and 
the fruit to become small, so that a successive plantation shoidd be 
improved in time. Select new plants from vigorous shoots, in full 
perfection as to bearing. 

Summer Culture. Keep them free from weeds during the sum- 
mer by hoeing between the rows, at the same time loosen the earth 
about the plants ; under this management the plants, if tolerably 



22 NAT. ORDER. SENTlOOSiE. 

strong, will both yield a moderate crop the first season, and supply 
yoimg steins for bearing in greater plenty and perfection the foUow- 

' ing season, and so from year to year the summer culture should be 
repeated. As the plants get established, let all straggling suckers 
between the rows, or from the extreme roots of single shoots, be cleared 
out by hoeing, or twisted off, to admit the air and sun freely to the 
fruit. Tlie fruit of the raspberry may be obtained of a very large 
size, other circumstances being favorable, by destroying all the suck- 
^ t ers ; but in this way, the plant being destroyed, a double plantation 

is wanted, one to grow only suckers, and the other fruit. 

Pruning and Whiter Dressing. It is requisite every winter 
or spring to cut out the dead stems, and to thin and regulate the suc- 
cessional young shoots. This annual priming may be performed any 
- time during open weather, from November till the beginning of April. 
When kitchen garden crops are cultivated between the rows, it is 
most convenient to do this as soon as the old bearers begin to decay. 
As to prmiing indiscriminately in the open weather in winter, it 
sometunes happens that severe frosts immediately foUow, and par- 
tially kill the plants ; therefore it is safer to shorten the tender young 
shoots early in the spring, but let it not be deferred till the buds are 

■ making new shoots, as that would weaken the roots. Cut out all 
the old dead stems close to the bottom, and having selected from the 
strongest young shoots on each main stool, four or five to be preserv- 
ed for a succession of bearers, cut away the superabundant shoots 
close to the ground. Let each of the shoots retained be pruned at the 
top below the weak bending part, cutting tliem in smaller plants to 
about tliree or four feet in length, and in the large sorts to the length 
of five or six. feet. If any of the stems diverge irregularly, or strag- 
gle much asunder, they may be tied together at the top, and thus the 
strong ones will support the weaker, or the taller varieties may have 
the support of stakes. Pnme plants against a wall or trellis, in the 



NAT. ORDER. SENTICOS^. 23 

same manner as directed above, and train the shoots to rise a little 
diagonally. After pruning, having cleared away the cuttings, dig the 
ground between and about the plants. To tiu'n m a little rich com- 
post, will conduce much to then- growth ; lay it at the extremities of 
the roots, and deeper as the plantation gets older. Eradicate all 
straggling .suckers. 

Taking the Crop. The fruit of the cUfierent varieties comes in 
from the end of June or July till October, or later. As it ripens it 
should be timely gathered for immediate use, because when fully 
ripe it will not keep above two or three days before it decays and 
becomes unfit for use. 

Mcdiad Properties and Uses. The leaves of this plant have of 
late become quite fashionable as a substitute for black tea ; many 
villages in some sections of the Northern States use, and prefer the 
raspberry leaves to the best of black tea, which is not easily distin- 
guished apart. The raspberry is certainly the most wholesome, and 
with the addition of a little sugar and mUk, forms a very pleasant 
beverage. Tlie fruit is considered cooling, gently laxative, and 
antiseptic, and can be used with gi-eat advantage to correct any 
putrid tendency in the stomach or bowels, especially dui'ing the 
hot weatlier. Dr. Mattson, author of the " American Vegetable 
Practice," appears to have made himself more fully acquainted 
with this species of raspberry tiian most botanists ; he describes the 
leaves as being " moderately astringent, with a slightly bitter, and 
very agreeable aromatic taste." A decoction made from the leaves 
and small branches he highly recommends as an " excellent remedy 
in the bowel complaints of children ; and if used in season, will 
arrest the disease and effect a cure. It should be given in small 
draughts, and administered also by way of injection. The addition 
of a little ulmus falva will render it stUl more efficacious." The 
tea is very valuable as a soothing and cleansing wash for ulcers, 



24 NAT. OKDEK. SE.NTICOS^E. 

scalds, burns, and all excoriated surfaces, which are very.sore or 
irritable. 

From my own experience in the the use of the raspberry for 
several years past, I must acknowledge that I have found it one of 
the most valuable medicines in use. I have administered it in hun- 
dreds of cases, and never found any deleterious or bad effects from 
it, taken in any quantity or in any stage of disease. A strong and 
pleasant tea made from the leaves and given to children afflicted 
with diarrhoea (or summer complaint so called), I have found it to 
give more speedy and permanent relief than any other article with 
which I am acquainted. The addition of a little bark of the myrica 
cerifera will render it still more effectual. A syrup is prepared 
from the berries, called the syrup of raspberries. Also a cordial 
which is a most delicious drink. Various other preparations are 
prepared from the fruit, which renders it not only useful as a medi- 
cine ; but extremely delicious when made into preserves. 



-^ ^4r 



'iL_ 




• ,-7 



r^/"/. lA^/'y- ^^ // /. 



NAT. ORDER. 

SolonacecB. 



ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE. CASHEW-NUT. 

Class X. Decandria. Order I. Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx, five leaved. Petals, five, reflex. Anthers, ten, 
one only fertile. 

Spec. Char. Nut, kidney-shaped, on the top of a fleshy receptacle. 

This beautiful small tree rises from twelve to twenty feet in 
height; the fruit is about twice as large as a large sized orange; 
the calyx is divided into five parts, the divisions ovate and decidu- 
ous; the corolla consists of five reflected petals, which are about 
twice the length of the calyx ; the stamens consist of ten capillary 
filaments, which are shorter than the calyx ; the anthers are small 
and roundish ; the pistil has a roundish germen ; the style is subu- 
late, reflexed, and about the length of the corolla ; the stigma is 
oblique ; jJericarp none ; the receptacle is large and fleshy ; the seed 
is a large kidney-shaped nut, placed above the recejatacle. 

Of this only one species is as yet known to botanists. It is a 
native of the West Indies, and cannot be cultivated either here or 
in Europe without great care and difficulty. A gum exudes spon- 
taneously from the bark of this tree, which bears some resemblance 
to gum Arabic. The fruit of this tree is full of an acrid juice, and in 
appearance and taste resembles that of the common lemon ; to the 
apex of this fruit grows a kidney-shaped nut, much larger at the 
end which is next the fruit, than at the other, consisting of two shells, 
with a black juice between them, and a sweet oily kernel within 
the inner shell This plant is easily raised from the fresh nut 



26 NAT. ORDER. SOLONACEiE. 

they should be planted each in a separate pot filled with a light 
sandy soil, and placed in a hot bed of tanners bark ; they should 
be kept dryish until the plant comes up, otherwise the seed is apt 
to rot. 

Medical Properties and Uses. In describing the medical pro- 
perties of this rare plant we shall take the authority of both modern 
and ancient writers. Wood and Bache says, " the receptacle is a 
redish yellow, and of an agreeable sub-acid flavor with some astrin- 
gency. It is edible, and affords a juice which has been recom- 
mended as a remedy in dropsy. This juice is converted by 
fermentation into a vinous liquor, from which a spirit is obtained by 
distillation, much used in making punch, and is said to be power- 
fully diuretic. The nuts are well known under the name of cashew- 
nuts. The black juice contained between the inner and outer 
shell, is extremely acrid and corrosive, producing when applied to 
the skin, severe inflamation, followed by blisters or desquamation of 
the cuticle. It is used in the West Indies for the cure of corns, 
warts, ringworms, and obstinate ulcers, and is said to be sometimes 
applied to the face by females in order to remove the cuticle, and 
produce a fresher and more youthful aspect. The worst case of 
external poisoning which has ever come under our notice, was 
produced in a lady who was exposed to the fumes of the nut while 
roasting. The face was so much swollen that for some time not a 
feature was discernible. The kernel when fresh has a sweet, agree- 
able taste, and is eaten like chesnuts, either raw or roasted. It is 
also used as an ingredient in puddings, &c., and forms an excellent 
chocolate when ground with cocoa. By age it becomes rancid and 
looses its agreeable flavor." The natives of the Island make use of 
the juice in obstinate cases of diarrhcea, and diabetes. The oil is 
used by painters to give their colors a lasting black, and to preserve 
wood from putrefaction. 




/ '.yCpt^^t/yy (.y/uiU 



/^/u-ciy. 



2 (/^■^M^?^m/ 



'une^. 



NAT. ORDER. 

Pedalinece. 

MARTYNIA PROBOCIDEA. HORNY MARTYNIA. 

dass XIV. DiDYNAMiA. OrdcT II. Angiosperma. 

Chn. Char. Calyx, five parted. Corolla, ringent. Capsule, woody, 
dry, with a hooked beak, containing a four celled-nut. 

»^e. Char. Stem, branched. Leaves, alternate, lobed cordate at the 
ba.se. Stamens, four, all fertile. 

Thi.s plant rises from one to three feet in height ; stem branched, 
annual, villous, and vi.scid ; the leaves are placed alternately upon 
the stem and branches, they are lobed and cordate at the base ; the 
stamens are four, all fertile ; corollas with a yellowish white tube, 
variegated with green, yellow, and violet spots and lines ; limb wide, 
pale violet, marked with saffron-colored and violet dots and lines ; 
the lobes of stigma close when touched, according to best authority. 
This plant is a native of Louisiana, found growing on the banks of 
the Mi.ssissippi ; also some parts of Mexico. 

iMartijnki longijlora. Long-flowered Martynia. This species 
rises about two feet in height ; the stem is erect, scabrous, simple ; 
leaves three-nerved, opposite, roundish, repand; flowers axillary, 
solitary, and hang on short pedicels ; tube of corolla, very long, gib- 
bously flattened at the base ; stamens foiu", all fertile ; corolla pur- 
plisli ; in place of bracteas at the base of the pedimcles, there is a 
pedicellate gland. Native of the Cape of Good Hope. Flowers in 
July and August. 

Martynia diandria. Diandrous Martynia. This species ri&es 
from two to three feet in height ; the stem is reddish and considera- 

Vol. i.— 27. 



28 



NAT. ORDER. — PEDALINEfi, 



bly branclicd ; leaves villous, viscid, opposite fobed, and cordate at 
the base ; stanieus four, two of them sterile ; flowers thyrsoid, in the 
forks of the stem, tkooping ; corolla with a white tube, tinged with 
purple, and spotted with red and yellow ; limb pale-red, with a shin- 
ing purple spot at each segment ; upper lip reflexed. Native of 
Mexico, at Vera Cruz, and near Campeche. 

Martynia Zanquchnrica. Zanzibar Mart}niia. The stem of 
this plant rises from one to two feet in height; leaves pinnatified, 
pilose ; flowers axillaiy, solitary, and of a pale purple color ; beaks 
of capsules secund ; calyx pilose, with lanceolate, nearly equal, de- 
ciduous, expanded segments ; corolla ringent, with a large, roundish, 
gibbous tube, and a short limb ; upper lip trifid, obtuse, the middle 
segment emarginate ; the lower lip ovate, longer, entire ; fruit bisul- 
cate on botli sides, foiu'-beaked, four-celled, one-seeded, and two-valv- 
ed. Native of Zanzibar. Flowers in July and August. 

3Iartijnia liitca. Yellow-flowered Martynia. Tliis plant rises 
only from one to two feet high ; the stem is branched and clothed with 
glandular doY^^l ; the leaves stand opposite upon the stamaned branches, 
cordate-orbicular, toothed, and clothed with glandular do^-n ; beaks 
much longer than the pericarp ; calyx involucred by two bracteas ; 
corolla large, funnel-shaped, orange yellow, clothed with blood-color 
inside. Native of Brazil. Flowers in August. 

This genus was named, accorcUng to Houston, in honor of John 
Martyn, professor of Botany at Cambridge : author of Historia Plan- 
tarimi Variaram, and several other works : editor of Virgil's Georgics 
and Eclogues. Born Sept, 1699, died 1768. 

Pro])agati(m and Culture. The seeds of the species should be 
reared on a hot-bed, as other tender annuals ; and when transplanted 
into other parts, they should be kept in the hot-house or green-house, 
until the seed is ripened. A light rich soil suits them best. 



NAT. ORDER. 

Ranunculaccce. 



AQUILEGIA CANADENSIS. COLUMBmE. 

Class XIII. PoLYANDRiA. Order V. Pentagynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx five-leaved, petaloid, deciduous. Petals five, 
terminating below in a spurred nectary. Capsule five, erect, 
acuminate with the styles, many-seeded. 

iS^e. Char. Spurs straight. Styles and stamens exserted. Calyx 
rather acute, longer than the petals. Leaves three-parted, rather 
obtuse, incisely toothed. 

The Columbine is a native of America, growing in abundance in 
rocky places, fi-om Canada to Louisiana, and is also found in most parts 
of Europe, where it is cultivated in gardens as an ornamental flower. 
It is a perennial, herbaceous plant, all parts of it having been exten- 
sively medicinally employed. The roots, leaves, and flowers have a 
disagreeable odor, and a bitter, acrid taste ; the seeds are small, black, 
shining, inodorous, and of an oleaginous sweetish taste, followed by a 
sense of acrimony ; it starts up early in the spring, and rises from two 
to four feet in height, and continues to flower from May to July. 
There are seven different kinds of Columbine, which we shall here- 
after notice: among them are the Aquilegia Vulgaris, or common 
single Columbine ; Aquilegia vulgaris fllore plena, common double 
Columbine ; Aquilegia inversis corniculis, double inverted Colum 
bine ; Aquilegia rosea, the rose Columbine ; Aquilegia degener, the 
degenerate Columbine, and the Aquilegia Virginiana, the early red 
T'olumbine of Virginia. 



30 NAT. ORDER. RANUNCDLACE^. 

Acjuilcgia vulgaris. Coimnon Columbine. This species rises 
from oue to two feet high ; the spurs are a little incurved ; capsules 
villous ; stem leafy, luaay-floweredj and is, as well as the leaves, 
smoothish ; styles not exceeding the stamens in length ; flowers either 
single or double, blue, white, rose-colored, purple or variegated, or 
spotted with the same colors. The whole plant has been recommended 
to be used mecUcinally, but it belongs to a susj^icious natural order, and 
Linna;us aflkms that cliildren have lost their lives by an over-dose 
of it. The virtues ascribed to a tincture of the flowers as an anti- 
phlogistic, and for strengthening the gums and deterging scorbutic 
ulcers in the mouth, appear to be better founded ; the tinctm'e being 
made with au addition of the vitrioUc acid, and cUfleruig but little 
from our officinal tincture of roses. It is a native all OA^er the United 
States, m waste places, pastures, on the side of hUls and mountains, 
among rocks. It flowers in JiUy and August. 

Aquilegia ccerulea. Blue Columbine. This species rises about 
one foot high ; spurs straight, almost twice the length of the limb of 
the petals ; styles and stamens shorter than the corolla ; stipulas 
acute ; segments of the leaves deeply lobed ; flowers blue. Native 
of North America, on the Rocky Mountains. 

Aquilegia brevistyla. Short-styled Columbine. This species 
rises about two feet high ; the whole plant is rather pubescent ; spurs 
incurved, shorter than the limb ; styles short, inclosed ; stamens 
rather shorter than the coroUa ; stem and leaves as in Aquilegia vul- 
garis, but the flowers are only about one-half the size, color, blue. 
Native of North America, in the western part of Canada, and as far 
north as Bear Lake. 

Aquilegia viscosa. Clammy Columbine. Tliis species rises from 
eighteen inches to two feet in height ; spurs incurved ; capsules vil- 
lous ; stem bearing one, or tliree flowers, almost naked, and is as 
well as the leaves clothed with clammy pubescence ; style not ex- 



NAT. ORDER. — RANUNCULACE^. 31 

ceetling the stamens in length. This very much resembles the Aqid- 
legia vulgaris, and is only selected from it by its being clothed with 
a clammy pubescence, and the flowers being much larger, and of a 
purple color. It is a native of Spain, Portugal, south of France, Peid- 
mont, Naples, etc., in rugged moimtainous places, exposed to the sun. 
Flowers in May and June. 

Aqidlegia alpina. Alpine Columbine. This species rises from 
twelve to eighteen inches high ; spin's straight but somewhat incurv- 
ed at tlie apex, and one-half shorter than the petals ; stem leafy, two 
or three-flowered ; segments of leaves deeply divided into linear 
lobes ; flowers large and blue. This is the most showy of all the 
species. It is a native of the Alps, Switzerland, <fec., in shady humid 
places. Flowers from May till July. 

Aqiiilegia Jiyhrida. Hybrid Columbine. This species rises from 
one to two feet high ; spurs straight, hardly incm'ved at the apex, 
longer than the petals, wliich are very blunt ; styles hardly exceed- 
ing the length of the stamens and petals ; sepals acute, about the 
length of the petals ; stem and leaves clothed with very delicate pu- 
bescence, many-flowered ; flowers twice as large as those of Aquilc- 
gia canadoisis, with dark purple sepals, yellowish petals and purple 
spurs, Avhich are green at the tips. Native of Siberia. Flowers in 
May and June. 

Aquikgia parvijlora. Small-flowered Colvmibine. This species 
rises about one foot liigh ; spurs straight, short, almost equal in 
length with the blmit petals ; stamens recurved, length of the acute 
.sepals ; stem two or three-flowered, and is as well as the leaves 
smootli, and almost naked ; flowers blue, smaller than those of the 
Aquikgia canadensis; ovaries pubescent. Native of Siberia, in 
woods, at the river Lena. It flowers from May till July. 

Aquikgia ancmonoidcs. Anemone-like Columbine. This spe- 
cies rises only from three to six inches in height ; spurs straight, very 



32 NAT. ORDER. RANUNCULACELE. 

short, equal in length with the petals ; petals tlirice as long as the 
calyx ; peduncle radical, one-flowered, and almost naked ; flowers 
purple. This is thought, according to Fisher, to he a variety of 
Aquilcgia glandulosa. Native of Siberia, on the Ataian mountains. 
Flowers in May and June. 

Propagation and Culture. All the species of Columbine are very 
ornamental, and deserves to be cultivated in every garden. They 
will tlu-ive ill any common garden soil, and are easily increased 
by dividing the plant at the root or by seeds, which generally ripen 
in abundance. 

Medical Proj)crtics and Uses. As a remedial agent, the Colum- 
bine possesses very little, if any, efficacy, although it was formerly 
celebrated as a specific in scrofula and some other disorders ; but 
experience has proved it to be one of those remedies which have at 
different times risen into notice and employment, by empirics, birt has 
now so far fallen into disrepute as to have been discarded from general 
practice, and no longer holds a place in the officinal catalogues, and is 
even suspected to possess dangerous properties, like most other plants 
of this order. It has been considered as a diuretic, diaphoretic, and 
anti-scorbutic, and was formerly in high repute and extensively used in 
the cure of jaundice, and was said to have been beneficially employed 
in small-pox to promote the eruption ; it was also used in measles and 
scurvy, and externally as a vulnerary. Culpepper, in the year IGIO, 
speaks very highly of the Columbine, and mentions several cases 
where he has applied it with success, prepared as a lotion, in cynanche 
tonsillaris, and cynanche trachealis ; one drachm of the seed, taken in 
wine, has been found good in hepatitis, icterus, and various chronic 
bilious affections. In Spain this plant was highly esteemed, and for 
many years was considered as the great panacea for the ills which 
flesh is heir to. 



NAT. ORDER 

MultisUiquce. 



PJEOmA OFFICINALIS COMMON PEONY. 

Class XIII. POLYANDRIA. Oldei' II. DiGYNIA. * •■ 

Gen. Char. Calyx five-leaved. Petals five. Styles none. Cap- 
sules many-seeded. 

Spe. Char. Leaves double pinnate, sub-lobed. Leaflets oblong, vein- 
ed underneath. 

The root is perennial, large, knobby, externally brow^n, internally 
white, and compact ; the stalks rise from two to three feet in height, 
which are thick, smooth, succulent and branched ; the leaves are pin- 
nated, or cut into lobes, which are oblong and few, terminated by an 
odd one ; the flowers terminal, solitary and red ; the calyx is com- 
posed of five unequal, ovate, concave leaves ; the corolla generally 
consists of five large petals, which are roundish and concave; the fila- 
ments are about thirty, which are short, slender, and supporting ob- 
long quadrangular anthers ; germens two, ovate, hairy, and erect ; 
styles none ; stigmas hooked ; capsules two, which are hairy, oblong, 
inclining outwardly, single-celled, single-valved, and containing nume- 
rous small seeds. 

The Peony is a native of Switzerland, where it was esteemed 
very highly on account of its supposed medical virtues, and for which 
purpose it was extensively cultivated in various parts of that country ; 
from Switzerland it was introduced into Europe as an ornament to the 
flower garden, and from Europe into the United States, where it has 
now become naturalized, and is found growing wild in all its beauty 

8 



34 NAT. ORDER. MULTISIL JdOiB. 

m deserted fields and waste lands, producing its flowers in May and 
June. 

P(mn^ an ancient celebrated Physician, was the first to use this 
in medicine. The Greek legend adds, that he used it to cui-e Pluto 
of a wound inflicted by Hercules. 

Paonia coralUna. Coralline or Male-Pseony. This species rises 
from one to two feet high ; carpels tomentose ; segments of the leaves 
ovate, entire, glabrous ; the leaves are very broad and of a dark 
shining gi"een color ; flowers crimson. Native of many parts of Eu- 
rope, France, Greece, Siberia, and some parts of the United States ; 
generally to be found on the rocky clefts of steep mountains. It 
flowers in May and June. 

PcBonia f estiva. Common or Handsome PjBony. This species 
rises about two feet high ; carpels tomentose, erect ; segnients of 
the leaves unequally jagged, smooth, with the divisions crowded, 
oblong-lanceolate. Native of many parts of Europe, in mountains, 
woods ; in France, Switzerland, Greece, Crete, etc. It flowers in 
May and June. 

Paionia paradoxa. Paradoxical Pseony. This species rises 
from one to two feet in height ; the carpels downy and straight ; seg- 
ments of the leaves many-parted, blunt and somewhat waved, glau- 
cous and hairy imderneath ; flowers of a violent crimson color, with 
obovate, jagged petals, which are often bifid. Native of Spain and 
the south of France, on mountains. Flowers in June. 

PcBonia puhens. Downy Pseonia. This species rises from two to 
three feet high ; the leaves biternate ; leaflets lanceolate, accumina- 
ted, densely clothed with soft pubescence beneath ; ovaries clothed 
with whitish tomentum, each crowned by a somewhat orbicidar stig- 
ma ; stem, petioles, and pedimcles somewliat hairy ; flowers large, 
dark-pm-ple , anthers yellow. Native of Siberia. It flowers in May 
and June. 



NAT. ORDER. MDLTISILaUiE. 35 

Pceonia inllosa. Villous Pseonia. This species varies consider- 
able ia its height, I'ising from two to six feet, according to the climate 
and the richness of the soil ; the carpels are densely tomentose, 
erect, I)ut somewhat incurved at the apex ; leaves villous, pubescent 
and whitish-glaucious beneath — lower ones somewhat triternate — 
upper ones ternate ; leaflets pinnatified ; segments oblong-lanceolate, 
elongated, incurved at the apex. Native of France. 

Medical Properties and Uses. This plant has long been con- 
sidered as a powerful medicine, and until the late revision of the Phar- 
macopceia by the London College, it had a place in the catalogue of 
the Materia Medica, in which the two common varieties of this plant 
are indiscriminately directed for use, and improperly distinguished into 
male and female Peony. The roots, flowers, and seeds, have been 
esteemed in the character of an anodyne and corroborant, especially 
the roots, which have been extensively used in the treatment of epi- 
lepsy ; for this purpose the ancients' method was to cut the roots into 
tliin slices, which were attached to a string and suspended about the 
neck as an amulet ; if this failed of success the patient was to have 
recourse to the internal use of the root, which was given in the form 
of powder, and in the quantity of a drachm two or three times a day, 
by which we are informed both infants and adults were cured of this 
disease. By some it is recommended that the expressed juice should 
be given in wine, and sweetened with sugar, as the most effectual way 
of administering this plant. The seeds have been considered by some 
authors to possess emetic and purgative properties, and by others anti- 
spasmodic. They may be given in the same dose as the dried root, 
but are very little used hi modern practice. The roots and seeds of 
Peony have, when fresh, a faint, unpleasant smell, somewhat of the 
narcotic kind, and a mucilaginous sub-acrid taste, with a slight degree 
of bitterness and astringency. In drying they lose their smell, and 
part of their taste. Extracts made from them by water are almost in- 
sipid .IS well as inodorous, but extracts made by rectified spirit are 
bittei md considerably astringent. 



NAT. ORDER. 
Hanujiculacece. 



ANEMONE PRATENSIS. , PASQUE FLOWER. 

Class XII. POLTANDRIA. OrdcT VI. POLYGNIA. 

Gen. Char. Calyx none. Petals six or nine. Seeds many. 

Spe. Char. Peduncles involucred. Petals straight. Leaves bipin- 

nate. 

f ■ ■ 

The root of Anemone is perennial, short, and sends off several 
strong fibres ; the floxcer-stem is smooth, covered with soft hairs, near 
the top furnished with a laciniated involucrum, and rises from six to 
eight inches in height ; the leaves are radicle and bipinnated ; the seg- 
ments are narrow, short, linear, and of a glaucous green color ; it has 
no calyx ; the petals are six, oblong, hairy, of a dark purple color, 
and their apices turned backwards ; the plaments are numerous, slen- 
der, about half the length of the petals, and furnished with yellow an- 
thers ; the germens are numerous, collected into a bundle, and sup- 
plied with long styles, terminated by tapering blunt stigmas ; the seeds 
are placed on the common receptacle, and retain their styles, which, 
when the seed goes off^ resemble long downy tails. 

This species of the Anemone is a native of Germany, where it 
grows wild in open fields, producing its flowers in May and June. 
Woodville informs us that " it was first cultivated in England by Mr. 
Miller, in 1731, both as an ornament and for medicinal purposes. Il 
very much resembles the Anemone Pulsatila, which grows wild in this 
country, and would doubtless prove a good substitute so far as legards 
its medical qualities. This plant, in its recent state, has but very little 

36 



NAT. ORDER. — MULTlSlLKiU-E. 37 

if any smell, but its taste is extremely acrid, and when chewed cor- 
rodes the tongue and fauces ; the dried plant likewise still retains a 
considerable share of acrimony. It has also been found upon chemical 
experiments to contain a camphoraceous matter, which was obtained 
in the form of crystals, of an unctuous taste, and highly inflammable. 

Mrdkal Properties and Uses. This species of the Anemone, 
like several others of great activity, has been received into the Ma- 
teria Medica of the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia, upon the authority of 
Baron Stoerck, who recommends it as an effectual remedy for most of 
the chronic diseases affecting the eye, particularly amaurosis, cataract, 
and opacity of the cornea, proceeding from various causes ; it was also 
found highly useful in the treatment of nocturnal pains, ulcers, caries, 
indurated glands, suppressed menses, serpiginous eruptions, melancholy, 
and palsy. The baron himself, who had for two years suffered very 
much from a violent contusion of his eye, took this remedy-, whicli he 
soon found occasioned acute lancinating pain in the part affected ; this 
he considered as a favorable omen of the specific action of the plant, 
an opinion which was afterward confirmed in the treatment of a great 
number of patients. Six cases of amaurosis, three of cataract, and 
seven of affections of the cornea, we are assured from high authority, 
were either entirely cured, or greatly benefited, by the exhibition of 
this medicine. Several cases pronouncing its success in other disor- 
ders, which were under my own immediate care, have fully convinced 
me of its superior efficacy in cases of syphilis, scrofula, dropsies, dia- 
betes, and all eruptive complaints. Every part of the plant, except 
the root, is ordered for medicinal use, and is prepared for this purpose 
into an extract, distilled water, syrup, or an infusion ; given in large 
doses it frequently excites nausea and vomiting, and sometimes griping 
pains in the bowels. It is proved to be emetic, cathartic, and diuretic. 

The fluid preparations of the plant are likewise recommended for 
external use in ulcers and complaints of the skin. The manner of 
preparing the extract is given in the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia. 



NAT. ORDER. 

Compositm. 



INULA HELENIUM. ELECAMPANE. 

Class XIX. Syngenesia. Order II. Polygamia Superflua. 

-, Gen. Char. Receptacle naked. Down simple. Anthers ending in 

two bristles at the base. 

Spe. Char. Leaves stem-clasping, ovate, wrinkled, tomentose under- 
neath. Scales of the calyx ovate. 

The root is perennial, large, thick, branched, externally brown or 
grey, internally whitish ; the stalk is upright, strong, round, striated, 
branched, covered with soft hairs, and rises from three to four feet in 
height ; the leaves are large, ovate, serrated, crowded with reticular 
veins, and supplied with a strong fleshy midrib ; the pagina superior 
smooth, the inferior downy ; the leaves placed upon the upper part 
of the stem are sessile, and surround the branches, those near the bot- 
tom stand upon footstalks; ihejlowers are large, yellow, and terminate 
the stem and branches ; the calyx is composed of several rows of 
strong imbricated ovate segments ; the corolla consists of numerous 
florets, which are of two kinds; those occupying the centre are of 
regular tubular form, divided at the brim into five small segments, and 
are hermaphrodite, each containing five short filaments, which have 
their anthers so united as to form a hollow cylinder, and a long ger- 
men, which supports a slender style, about the length of the tube, and 
furnished with a bifid stigma ; the Jlorets at the circumference are 
female, at the lower part tubular, but at the upper ligulated or strap- 
shaped, and cut at the extremity into three narrow pointed teeth \ the 



■ff^ ■-.. 




(^€£^^1 7rrJfyAan£ 



< 
-5 



,.^- 



NAT. ORDER. COMPOSITE. 39 

female part is simiilar to that in the hermaphrodite florets, the seeds 
are solitary, striated, quadrangular, and furnished with a simple feather 
or papus ; the rccrptaclr is naked and flat. 

This valuable plant, bearing a large and beautiful flower, is a na- 
tive of Europe, where it is cultivated not only as an ornament for the 
garden, but more extensively for medical uses. It was introduced 
into the United States by our first settlers, and has now become nat- 
uralized in many parts of the country, growing spontaneously in the 
meadows and by the road-sides in New England and Pennsylvania. 
July and August are the months in which it flowers. The root is the 
officinal part directed for use, which should be taken from the ground 
in the autumn of the second year of its growth, as after that time it 
will generally become stringy and woody ; when fresh it is thick and 
branched, having cylindrical ramifications which are furnished with 
thread-like fibres, and the transverse sections present radiating lines. 
The dried root which is found in the shops is an article of considerable 
traffic with some of our country people, who dig it at the proper sea- 
son, cut it into longitudinal or transverse slices, and prepare it for the 
practitioner or purchaser, by drying it in the shade ; the internal color 
of the root when it has been subjected to the above process, is of a 
greyish cast ; the smell is slightly camphorous and it has an agreeable 
aromatic taste, which is at first glutinous and rancid, but upon chewing 
becomes warm, aromatic, and bitter. Its medical properties may be 
extracted by either alcohol or water, but the former will become more 
strongly impregnated with them, and its bitterness and pungency more 
plainly developed. Mr. Rose, a chemist of Berlin, discovered in Ele- 
campane a peculiar principle resembling starch, which he named alan- 
tin ; but Dr. Thompson proposed the title of inulin, as being more 
appropriate, and it has been generally adopted. Independent of this 
principle, however, Elecampane contains, according to some writers, a 
white concrete substance, called hcbcnin, intermediate in its properties 
between the essential oils and camphor, and separable by distillation 
with water ; a bitter extractive, soluble in water and spirit ; together 



40 NAT. ORDER. CO.MPOSITiB. 

with a soft, acrid, bitter resin, wliich develops a very agreeable aro- 
matic odor when heated ; also a gum, albumen, lignin, traces of vol- 
atile oil, wax, and various other saline substances. 

Inula BrUanica. Creepiug-rodted Elecampane. This species 
lias a pei-ennial root ; the stem rises from two to three feet high, 
dividing in the upper paz't mto two or three upriglit branches, or 
peduncles eacli sustaining one very elegant large flower, of a deep 
yellow color. These blossom in the greatest perfection in July, but 
seldom ripen seeds in this climate, as it is a native of Germany. 

Inula saUcina. Willow-leaved Elecampane. The sttMii of this 
species rises from one to three feet in heigiit ; the root is perennial, 
aromatic, subastringent, smelling nuicli like cinnamon ; the stem is 
also upright, smooth, hard, firm, tinged with red, gi'ooved or angular 
toward the top, where it is usually branched ; the leaves alternate, 
sessile, or half embracing, stifi", smooth, of a dark, shining green, very 
slightly cut, and somewhat rugged about the edge ; the (lowers ter- 
minating on alternate, one-flowered, grooved, reddish peduncles, form- 
ing altogether a corymb ; the calycine scales in t\\ o rows, smooth, 
brown, lanceolate, and curved back a little at the end ; tlie flower 
is about an inch in diameter. It is a native of Germany. 

Inula saturcioldes. Savory-leaved Elecnnipane. This species 
rises with a shrubby stalk about two feet high, di\nding into many 
slender branches, which are hairy ; the leaves narrow, stiff, sessile, 
— from the edge of these protrude long hairs, wliich are stiff, and 
come out by paii's ; at the end of the branches are placed the naked 
peduncles, fom* or five inches long, sustaining one .small, yellow 
flower, somewhat radiated. It is a native of Vera Cruz. 

Inula fruticosa. Shrubby Elecampane. This species has a 
stem ten or twelve feet high, divided into several woody branches ; 
the leaves are about five inches long, and one inch and a luilf broad 
in the middle, smooth on the upper side, but on the mider having 



XAT. ORDER. COMPOSIT.E. 41 

three longitudinal Aeins ; the flowers are produced a the ends of the 
branches, havuig very long, large, scaly calyxes ; they are as large 
as a small sun-flower, of a pale yellow color. It is a native of Car- 
thageiia, in New Sjiain. 

Propai^ation and Culture. The first sort may be propagated by 
seed sown in autumn soon after they are ripe, on a warm, loomy soil, 
forming a border. Then they should be transplanted to the places 
where they are to grow in the following autumn. But the common 
practice is to increase it by oflT-sets, which, when taken from the old 
roots carefully, with a bud or eye to each, take root easily. The best 
season is the autunm, as soon as the leaves begin to decay ; planting 
them in rows a foot asmider, and nine or ten inches distant in the 
rows. The following spring the ground should be kept clean from 
weeds, and be slightly dug over in the autumn following. The roots 
will be fit for use after two years growth, but will siu^ve many 
j'ears if permitted to stand. 

The two following sorts may be increased by parting the roots, 
and planting them in the autunm, in the borders or other places 
where they are to remain. They should not be removed oftener than 
every three years. 

The foiu-th and fifth sorts may be raised by planting cuttings of 
the branches in the summer season, in pots of light earth, in shady 
borders. They must be removed into shelter in autumn, but should 
have as much free air as possible at all times when the weather is 
mild. The last sort is propagated by seeds procured from where it 
grows naturally. These must be sown in pots, or upon a hot-bed, 
and when the plants are fit to remove, be each put into a small pot, 
filled with light earth, and plunged into a fresh hot-bed ; treating 
them in the same manner as other similar tender plants. It requires 
to be kept constantly in the stove. 

The first sort may be cultivated for the medicinal use of the 
roots, or for ornament, in large borders. The two following sorts 



42 NAT. ORDER. — COMPOSIT.E. 

may have places in the same way. The fom-th and fifth kinds afTorc 
variety among other potted and green-house plants, and the last 
among stove-plants. 

Midkal Properties and Uses. Elecampane is a tonic, gently 
stimulant, aromatic, and possesses more or less diaphoretic, diuretic, 
expectorant, and eramenagogue properties. The high opinion enter- 
tained by the ancients of the virtues of this plant, would fill volumes 
in support of its efficacy in the cure of diseases so peculiar to females; 
indeed such was their estimation of the medicinal qualifications of El- 
ecampane, that at one time it was considered almost an universal rem- 
edy for not only such cases in which it has proved itself so highly use- 
ful, but was also prescribed in connection with other medicines for 
nearly all the diseases prevalent to their countrj-, and is still occa- 
sionally resorted to by our more modern practitioners, in cases of re- 
tained or suppressed menstruation. In this country it is chiefly used 
in chronic diseases of the lungs and liver, and is sometimes highly ben- 
eficial when the affection of the chest is attended with weakness of 
the digestive organs, or with general debility. From its peculiar diu- 
retic properties it is considered useful in chronic engorgements of the 
abdominal viscera, and the dropsy, to which they so often give rise. 
It has also been highly recommended both as an internal and external 
remedy in tetter, psora, and other diseases of the skin. The usual 
modes of administration are in powder and decoction. The dose of 
the former is from a scruple to a drachm. The decoction may be pre- 
pared by boiling one ounce of the root in a pint of water, and given 
at a dose from one to two fluid ounces. 

The following is a translation from a very extensive botanical 
work, published in London in the year IGIO, which ivill give the 
reader some idea of the extent, the various preparations, and the dis- 
eases in which Elecampane was employed : 

The liquid juice is procured from the stalk and leaves, while 
green, which are expressed, after which one ounce of alcohol is added 
to five ounces of the juice, to prepare it for keeping. It is used to 



- NAT. ORDER. COMPOSITjE. 43 

expel wind from the stomach and bowels, also for coughs, colds, con- 
sumption, shortness of breath, and obstructions of the lungs. Dose, 
from one to two tea-spoonsful twice a day. 

The syrup of Elccamjmne is made from the dried root. Take 
of the root eight ounces, water one gallon ; boil it down to three 
quarts, strain it off, and add when cold two pounds honey, one pint 
French brandy, half an ounce essence of wintergreen. Dose, half a 
wine-glassful two or three times a day. Used in dropsy, consumption, 
colds, coughs, bronchitis, catarrhs, obstructions, and most diseases 
where a diuretic is required. 

The decoction or infusion in wine is made by taking two ounces 
of the dried root, cut in small slices, and added to one quart of good 
wine, which should stand a lew days before using ; a little loaf sugar 
may be added to prepare it for the palate. This preparation has been 
extensively used in France and England as a remedy for worms of all 
kinds, expelling them from the stomach and bowels. Dose, half a 
wine-glassful at a time. 

The salts of Elecampane is procured from the whole plant, 
burnt to ashes while green. Taken internally it operates powerfully 
as a diuretic and as a purifier of the blood. A small quantity of the 
salts mixed with the juice of lernons, will usually check vomiting in 
most obstinate cases. Dose, from one scruple to half a drachm. 

The root made into a powder, which is taken in doses of about 
one tea-spoonful at a time, is said to be good for wind, diarrhoea, 
weakness, &c. 

Various other preparations are prepared from Elecampane, most 
of which have been considered highly useful for such diseases in which 
it has been so profusely administered. Indeed, such was the reputa- 
tion of the virtues of this plant in former times, that it would be al- 
most impossible to enumerate the different preparations prepared from 
the root and other parts of the plant, which were so peculiarly ar- 
ranged as to be adapted to the cure of all the principal diseases which 
llesh is heir to. 



-^ , 



NAT. ORDER. 

ConvolvulacecB. 



CONVOLVULUS JALAPA. JALAP BIND-WEED. 

Class V. Pentandria. Order I. Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Sepals five. Corolla campanulate. Stamens included. 
Capsules two-celled. Style one. Stigma two-lobed ; the lobes 
capitate. Ovary two-celled ; cells two-seeded. 

Spe. Char. Stem twining. Leaves ovate, somewhat heart-shaped, 
downy on the under side. Peduncles supporting one flower. 

The root is perennial, large, ponderous, abounding with a milky 
juice, of an irregular, oval form and blackish color ; the stalks are 
numerous, shrubby, slender, twisted, striated, rising from ten to tweh e 
feet in height, and twmuig for support round the neighboring plants ; 
the leaves are various, generally more or less heart-shaped, but ofteu 
angular, or oblong and pointed, smooth, of a bright green color, and 
stand alternately upon long footstalks ; the Jiowers stand upon two 
short branches, sending off two peduncles, each of which supports a 
single flower, which is large, beU-shaped, entire, plicated, externally of 
a reddish color, but of a dark purple within ; the calyx consists of 
five oval leaves ; these are concave, somewhat indented at their points, 
and of a pale green color ; the filaments are five, slender, short, and 
the anthers large and yellow ; the style is shorter than the stamen ; 
the stigma is round, and the gcTmen oval. 

This species of jalap is a native of South America, and flowers in 
August and September. It derived its name from the city of Xalapa, 
in the s*ate of Vera Cruz, in the neighborhood of which it grows in 

44 




c/<«^^ /ff^--^-^^' ^^'^^</- 



NAT. ORDER. — CONVOLVULACELE. 45 

greai abundance, at a heidit of more than six thousand feet above 
the ocean. It without doubt coidd be successfully cultivated, and be 
made a source of profit in the southern sections of the United States, 
■wore it fostered in those warm climates so congenial to the soil. It 
accjuires groat vigor and luxm-ianco, extending its stalks from fii'toen 
to eighteen feet in length ; the roots, also, both in appearance and 
medicinal powers, essentially differ from those cultivated in colder 
climes. 

Houston and Miller seem to be the only authors who knew the 
plant which produces the true Jalap of the shops ; as the plant gen- 
erally described, cultivated, and known as such, is a very distinct 
species, and appears to be only a purple flowered variety. The true 
plant is found principally in the neighborhood of Jalapa; it al)ounds 
also, on tlie eastern slope of the Cordillera of Anahuac ; in the same 
latitude is produced the JliniUa and SursapariUa. From 200,000 to 
300,000 pounds are annually exported from Vera Cruz. Although 
the root forms a well known and valuable cathartic, which is, per- 
haps, more generally employed than any other vegetable origin, it 
was not until lately that the genus to which it belongs was accu- 
rately ascertained. In its wild state, the plant delights in a dry, 
sandy soil. The dry root of Jalap is imported in thin, transverse 
slices, and in round masses. It is solid, hard, and heavy, of a dark 
grey color. It has a sickly smell, and a sweetish, subacid, nauseous 
taste. Powdered, it is of a pale yellow-brown color. Jalap when 
dear, is often adulterated with scammony, gamboge, briony root, etc. 
Jalap is an active purgative, wliich can always be relied upon, and 
would be administered much more ofteii •\ere it not for the disagreea- 
ble effects produced by it, as nausea and griping. It is, notwithstand- 
ing, a very safe medicine. 

Tpiinan Tiirp'jthain. Turpethum Ipomoea. The stem of this 
species is a little angular, glabrous, downy, upright ; leaves cordate?- 



46 



NAT. ORDER. CO?JVOLVULACE^ 



ovate, acuuiliiatctl, sonictiincs entire, sometimes angularly sinuatcd, 
or crenated ; pedmicles thick, one to four-llowered ; bracteate at the 
apex ; outer sepals the largest, ovate-roundish ; root thick and pur- 
gatlA'e ; corolla campanulate, twice as large as the calyx, white ; 
capsule showy, size of a nut. The bark of the roots is employed by 
the natives of the East Indies as a purgative, which they use fresh, 
rubbed up fresh. About six inches of the root in length tliey reckon 
a dose. Cattle do not eat the plant. The root being free from nau- 
seous taste and smell, gives it a decided superiority over Jalap, for 
which it might be substituted. It is a native of the East Indies, on 
the banks of the Hoogly and Ganges. It flowers from March tiU 
June. 

Ipomcea Bogotcnsis. Bogota Ipomcea. Tliis is a twining shrub, 
with a branched, angular stem, clothed with canescent villi and re- 
trogi'ade hairs ; leaves ovate, deeply cordate, acuminated, beset with 
silky strigoe above, and hoary tomentum beneath, about two inches 
ong, and the hinder lobes approximate ; pedmicles many flowered, 
shorter than the leaves ; sepals sUky hispid, oblong-lanceolate, subu- 
ately acuminated, and nearly equal ; corolla purple, downy outside 
towards the apex, twice as long as the calyx ; capsule glabrous. It 
is a native of New Granada, on high planes. 

Ipomcea /(istigkUa. Fastigiate Ipomcea. This is a twining, glab- 
rous plant ; leaves cordate acuminated and mucronulate, entire, sin- 
uated, fiddle-shaped, or tliree lobed, and like the young branches, 
often tinged with purple, particularly the margins, veins and nerves ; 
peduncles exceedmg the petioles, from three to twelve flowered, 
cymose ; sepals lanceolate, mucronately a\^iied ; outer ones shortest ; 
stolons long, creeping along the earth ; corolla showy, piu-ple, glab- 
rous ; capsule smooth ; seeds glabrous. Native of the West India 
Islands, Guiana, and Bengal. It flowers in June, July and August. 

Propagation and Culture. All the species of fpomcsa are very 



NAT. ORDER. — CUIS VOLVULACEiE. 47 

showy wlicii ill blossom, and much admired. Tlie ishrubby aud 
perennial herbaceous kinds reqiure a Ughi, rich soil, or a niLxture of 
loam and peat, or decayed leaves and loam suits them best. They 
are well adapted for trauiing up trellis-work, or pillars in stoves. 
Youug cuttings strilie root readily under a hand-glass, in heat. The 
aimual species shoidd be reared in a hot-bed, and when of sufllcient 
size, shoidd be placed in pots of a suitable size. A light, rich soil, or 
a inixtui'e of loam and decayed leaves suits them best. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Jalap was first introduced into 
medical practice in Europe in the latter part of the sixteenth century, 
and from there into the United States, where it now ranks among the 
purgative medicines most extensively employed. The United States 
Dispensatory highly recommends it as being applicable in most cases 
where an active cathartic is required, and from its hydragogue powers 
is especially adapted to the treatment of dropsy. It is generally given 
with other medicines, which assist or qualify its operation. In drop- 
sical complaints it is used in connection with the bitartrate of potassa ; 
also in the treatment of the hip disease and other scrofulous affections 
of the joints. With calomel it forms a cathartic compound, which has 
long been very popular with some physicians in the treatment of bil- 
ious fever, and otlier complaints attended with conjestion of the liver 
or portal circle. In over doses it sometimes produces dangerous, 
symptoms, hype rcathar sis, and will often purge when applied to a 
wound. 

The dose of Jalap in powder is from fifteen to thirty grains ; of 
the resin or alcoholic extract, which is chiefly used in Europe, and is, 
now directed by the Edinburgh College, from four to eight grains . 
the latter is usually given rubbed up with sugar, or in emulsion, by 
which its tendency to irritate painfnlly the mucous membrane of the 
bowels is thought to be in some measure obviated. Various species 
of the Jalap have at diflferent periods been introduced into medical 
practice, all possessing more or less cathartic quahties. 



NAT. ORDER. 

Iridece. 



GLADIOLUS ALATUS. SWORD-LILY. 

Class in. Triandria. Order I. MonoGVnia. 

Gen. Char. Spatha, two-valved, grassy. Corolla, six-parted and 
garjjing. Stamens, three, rising upward. Stigma, trifid, re- 
curved, Capsule, oblong, three-sided. Seeds, winged. 

Spe. Char. Filaments, distinct. Anthers, bursting. Capsule, three- 
celled, three-valved. 

The root is tuberous, hard, internally white, externally brown, 
and sends off innumerable quantities of small threcd-like fibres; the 
stalks rise from the root, and is surrounded at its base with three 
or five, long, pointed, narrow, sword-like leaves; the leaves are 
equitant, or alternately embrace each other, so as to enclose their 
edges ; the cahjx and corolla are superior, confounded, their divi- 
sions either partially cohering, or entirely separate, sometimes 
irregular, the three petals being very short ; the stamens are three, 
and rise from the base of the sepals ; x\\e JilamerUs are distinct or 
cornate , the anthers bursting externaly, lengthwise, fixed by their 
base, two-celled ; orrt'?7?/??2, three-celled ; cells many-seeded; style, 
one ; stigma, five, often petaloid, sometimes two-lipped ; the capsule 
is three-celled, and three-valved, with a loculicidal dehiscence; the 
seeds are attached to the inner angle of the cell, and sometimes to 
a central column, which afterwards becomes loose. 

According to Miller the above is divided into three species, as 
the common sort described above, with the flowers disposed on one 
side of the stalk, varying with white and flesh-colored flowers, called 

48 



/, 




'2a^-<^ . 



2; t.^C^^ 



-<?-<2^.=»i^^^i^; 



NAT. ORDER. IRIDE.E. 49 

Italian Corn-Jlag ; tlie Italian, with flowers on each side the stalk, 
of which there is a variety with white flowers, named French Corn- 
flag ; and the Great Corn-flag of Byzantivuii, which has larger roots, 
hut of the same form ; the leaves are much broader and larger, with 
deeper cbannels ; tlie flower-stalks rise to a greater height, the flow- 
ers much larger, of a deeper red-color, and the sheaths longer. This 
is the sort mostly cultivated, making a veiy gay appearance when in 
full blossom, and the roots do not increase so much as to be incon- 
venient. Besides these, according to more modern authors, there are 
three other varieties ; the Blush, the White, and the Small Pui'ple. 

Gladiolus imbricatus. Imbricated-flowered Gladiole. In this 
species the leaves are sword-shaped, and the flowers are small, be- 
ing all directed one way, and imbricate. It is a native of Russia. 

Gladiolus angustus. Narrow-leafed Gladiole. In this species 
there rises but a simple scape, or but httle branched, sheathed, round, 
striated, smooth, flexuose-ereet, and about a foot high ; the leaves 
are from long sheaths, ensifox-m, marked with white elevated streaks, 
entire, smooth, and shorter than the scape ; the upper ones gradual- 
ly smaller; the flowers all on the same side, ascending, on one or 
two spikes, about six mches in length ; the rachis is angular, flexuose, 
twisted, and smooth ; the spathes the length of the tube of the corolla, 
shorter than the branches, green ; the segments of the border of the 
corolla usually waved. 

Gladiolus cardinalls. Superb Scarlet Gladiole. In this species 
the flowers are of a fine scarlet, with large, wliite, somewhat rhom- 
boidal spots on several of the lowermost divisions of the corolla. 
Strong plants will throw up a stem three or four feet high, dividing 
at the top into several branches. It flowers in July and August, and 
is a native of the Cape of Good Hope. 

The Su'07'd-Lili/, (by some called the Corn-flag,') belongs to a 
genus of tuberous plants, and is one of the finest ornaments of the 
flower garden. The Asiatic and European species, have long been 



50 - NAT. ORDER. IRIOE^. 

cultivated in many parts of England, formerly for medicinal par- 
possess, but more lately as an ornament. A vast accession of species 
have, at different times, been received from the Cape of Good 
Hope, and many of which are most beautiful and pleasing to the 
eye. The European species thrive and do very well in hedges 
and borders ; but the Cape species require careful nursing, and to be 
treated like other bulbous roots from the same country, that is, 
potted in sandy leaf-mould, kept dry when dormant, fresh potted 
in October, and afterwards placed in a frame and regularly watered 
after they begin to grow. They continue in blossom from May 
till the middle of July.' 

Medical Properties and Uses. This species of gladiolus, was 
extensively used in the time of Galen, and was then considered 
extremely useful in the treatment of many chronic diseases, but of 
late has fell into disuse, and like many other very valuable medici- 
nal plants, is not recognized as being officinal, either by the Edin- 
burgh, London, or United States Pharmacopse's on which account 
it is, at the present time, but little known ; although forgotten or 
neglected, its medical properties are valuable, and needs only to be 
tested to give it a place in our modern Materia Medica. It is both 
tonic and astringent, and can be safely employed both as an inter- 
nal and external remedy. 

The roots beaten up and mixed with a little meal, honey and 
lard, in the form of a poultice, is said to be a certain remedy for 
scrofulous swellings in the throat, tumors etc. The powder made 
from the leaves or seeds, taken freely, is highly recommended in 
cases of billions cholic, giving immediate relief. The fresh leaves 
bruised and applied to old sores and wounds, have proved very 
serviceable in cleansing them from putrid or foul matter, having a 
tendency to draw splinters, thorns and peices of broken bones out 
of the flesh. It is also found useful, applied externally, in reducmg 
tumors, local swellings, inflamation, etc., in which cases the leaves 
or roots are powdered, made into a poultice, and applied. 



NAT. ORDER. 

Liliacecc. 



ALETRIS FARINOSA. STAR GRASS, 

Class VI. Hexandria. Orda- I. Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Corolla tubulous-ovate, six-cleft at the summit, rugose, 
persistent. Slamcns inserted into the base of the segments. 
Style triangular, separable into three. Capsule opening at the 
top, three-celled, many-seeded. 

Spe. Cliar. Fhiwers pedicellate, oblong-tubular. Corolla when de- 
caying, nearly smooth. Leaves broad lanceolate. 

The root is perennial, small, crooked, branched, externally black- 
ish and internally brown ; the leaves are sessile, lanceolate, entire, 
pointed, very smooth, longitudinally veined, and of unequal size, the 
largest being about six inches in length ; from the middle of the 
leaves a flower-stem rises to the height of one or two feet, nearly 
naked, witli remote scales, which sometimes become leaves. It ter- 
minates in a slender scattered spike ; the Jloicers stand on very short 
pedicels, and have minute bractes at the base ; the calyx is wanting ; 
the corolla is tubular, oblong, divided at the summit into six spreading 
segments, of a whitish color, and presenting, when old, a mealy or 
rugose appearance o? the outside. 

The Abtris Farinosa is a native of this country, and is found 
growing in almost all parts of the United States, in fields and on the 
borders of woods, flowering in June and July. The likeness here 
presented was taken by the author while residing in the middle part 
of the slate of Massachusetts, some five years since, where Iw found 

51 



1.. 



52 NAT. ORDER. LILIACEiE. 

growing in considerable quantities not only this, but many other very 
rare and valuable medicinal plants, all of which would well repay the 
labour of gathering and preparing for market. 

Medical Properties and Uses. The root, which is the officinal 
portion, possesses tonic, expectorant, sudorific, narcotic, and purgative 
properties, which renders its use in most cases objectionable, and some- 
times hazardous. From experience I have found this to be a powerful 
and dangerous substance, drastic even in small doses, and in larger 
ones it causes vertigo and bloody stools. Notwithstanding the dan- 
gerous properties of this plant, it has been introduced into medical 
practice as a substitute for the helonias dioicia, (Unicorn,) and exten- 
sively used throughout the United States. The root, which is in- 
tensely bitter when tinctured in alcohol, becomes turbid upon the addi- 
tion of water. The decoction is moderately bitter, but much less so 
than the tincture, and affords no precipitate with the salts of iron. In 
small doses it appears to be simply tonic, and may at times be advan- 
tageously employed for similar purposes with other bitters of the same 
class. When given in large doses it produces nausea and vertigo. 
The powder is frequently administered as a tonic in the dose of eight 
or ten grains. It also enters into the various preparations prepared 
by some physicians in the treatment of prolapsus, general weakness, 
and obstructions. - 










'7' 



NAT. ORDER. 



■'omacece. 



CITRUS AURANTIUM. ORANGE TREE. 

Class XVIII. PoLYADELPHiA. Order II. Polyandria. 

Gen. Char. Calyx, five cleft. Petals, five, oblong. Anthers, 
twenty, the filaments united into several parcels. Berry, mnc- 
celled. 

Spe. Char. Petioles, winged. Leaves, accuminated. 

This handsome evers:reeti rises from six to twelve feet in height 
sending ofF many branches, and covered with a greyish bark ; the 
leaves are nearly eliptical, pointed, smooth, entire, of a shining green 
color, and stand upon strong winged footstalks; the Jloivers appear 
during the whole summer, they are large, white, and rise from the 
smaller branches upon simple and branched peduncles ; the calyx is 
.saucer-shaped, and cut at the brim into five small pointed teeth ; the 
petals are five, oblong, white, concave, and beset with small glands; 
thejilamenfs are about twenty, united at the base in three or more 
distinct portions, and furnished with yellow anthers, placed verti- 
cally ; the germen is roundish, supporting a cylindrical style, termi- 
nated by a globular stigma; the J ruit is so well known that it needs 
no description. 

It is scarcely necessary to observe, that the various species of 
this genus are among the most beautiful, most fragrant, and most 
useful of fruit trees. The warmer parts of the temperate zone 
appear to be the fovoritc of the orange; but even between the tro- 
pics, they come to great perfection, provided the situation is iiiyh 
enough above the .sea. Whether the wild lime in the junglfs of 



o 
5:i 



54 NAT. ORDER. — POMACEiE. 

India be the original stock from which all the numerous varieties of 
the orange have been, in the course of time, derived, is a question 
admitting of no certain answer. The limes in India, and other 
places, are exactly alike, and bear the same relation to the oram^e 
that the crabs in our native wilds bear to the apple. 

This fruii tre differs from all others, in bearing two crops of 
fruit at the same time in different stages of their growth toward 
perfection ; that is, the young fruit in the spring does not ripen until 
late in the autumn of the next year, and it frequently hapj)ens that 
flowers appear before the ripe fruit is gathered. As all the best 
varieties of the citrus tribe are truly artificial or accidental crea- 
tions, they cannot be reproduced from their seed. In this respect 
they are like our garden and orchard fruits; and, therefore must 
be perpetuated by grafting or budding. The Chinese, who may be 
called a nation of gardners, possess many varieties of the citrus, and 
especially some excellent oranges. Their mandarin variety is a 
very superior fruit, and has the singular property of discharging 
the rind from the pulp when fully ripe. This kind of orange grows 
in great abundance, and is purchased at a very low price in the 
streets of Canton, provided the seller be allowed to strip the fruit 
and retain the rinds, of which they make some specific use. 

The specific name is derived from minis, gold, color of the fruit. 
As a desert fruit the orange is well known. The varieties most es- 
teemed are the China, Portugal, and Maltese. The fruit is also used 
in confectionary, both ripe and w hen green, and not larger than a 
pea ; it forms various liquors and conserves, either alone or with su- 
gars, wines, or with spirits. In cooking it is used to perfume a num- 
ber of dishes. It is used to form various perfumes and pomades, and 
the flowers distilled produce orange water, used in cooking, medicine, 
and as a perfume, but the chief use of the sweet orange, is for the 
desert. There are nineteen varieties of tlie orange enumerated by 
Sisso. 

Magorca orange. Fruit globose, shining, with a thick rind and 
sweet pulp ; the branches are furnished with spines at their base ; 



NAT. ORDER. POMACES 55 

the loaves arc less than in the spreading spec-ies, thicker, aaJ more 
shining the peduncles are very long, from three to six-flowered, and 
have a pleasant sweet smell ; the fruit is globose, smooth, deeply 
colored, and arrives ^•ery soon at matiu-ity. It will keep a longer 
time than any of the other varieties; the pulp is very sweet, and 
usually without seeds. This tree is not much cultivated, on account 
of its not being very productive. 

China oraiige. This is a very majestic tree ; the leaves are 
oval-oblong, sometimes roundish, a little waved at the margins, of a 
pale green color, upon long petioles ; the flowers are usually dispos- 
ed in corymbs : these are situated upon the top of the branches ; the 
fruit is round, depressed, firm, weighty, of considerable diameter ; the 
rind is very thin, adhering closely to the pulp, which is very sweet ; 
the seeds are oblong, with a curved point. This tree is much culti- 
vatd at Nice. The fruit is not so sensible to cold as the other varieties. 

Nice orange. This orange, from the abundance of its fruit, 
forms a very lucrative business for the inhabitants of Nice. The 
leaves are oval-oblong, tapering gradually to a point, of a beautiful 
shining green, bearing on its axils a great quantity of bmiches of 
sweet scented flowers, toward the months of March and April ; the 
fruit is roimd, usually depressed at both extremities, firm, of a beau- 
tiful yellow color, with a thin rind ; the pulp is divided into ten or 
twelve cells, fidl of sweet and pleasant juice, and oblong seeds. This 
elegant tree is in general cultivation. 

Genoa orange. This tree is very large. The leaves are small, 
oval-oblong, pointed, and of a fine dark green ; the flowers are dis- 
posed in bunches, and are composed sometimes of only three petals ; 
the fruit is round, but sometimes oblong, commonly marked with a 
little ridge, which extends even to the middle of the rind, which is 
rather thick, and of a beautiful yellow color ; the pulp is divided in- 
to ten cells, full of sweet juice ; the seeds are yellowish. This is 
also extensively cultivated. 



m 



NAT. ORDER. POMACEjE. 



Tliick-rind orange. The fruit of this tree is round, large, w ith 
a thick rind, and sweetish pulp; the leaves are always of a beauti- 
ful green, usually collected in tufts at the tops of the branches ; the 
flowers arc very large ; the fruit is also a deep yellow color, with a 
very thick granulated spongy rind, adhering closely to the pulp, 
which is divided into ten cells, some of these contain a few small 
seeds ; the juice is sweet and more watery than in the preceduig 
varieties, which is the cause of the fruit not being easily preserved 
any length of time. This tree bears fruit well in an espalier, but 
is very little cultivated, as other varieties are more proiitable. 

Teat-fruited orange. This tree is large and very branchy ; fruit 
round, with a sweetish insipid pulp ; the leaves are usually ciu-led ; 
the fruit is also of a reddish-yeUow color, covered with large protu- 
berances, and its juice is never so sweet as the other varieties. 

Snudl-fruUed orange. Many gardeners are of opinion that this 
variety was the first that was introduced to the south of Europe, and 
in many parts of Spain. It differs from all the other varieties in the 
leaves being smaller, situated upon petioles, which are a little wingeil 
at the base ; the flowers are collected into bmidles at the ti])s of the 
branches, each containing about twenty-six stamens ; the fruit is 
always very small, and of a pale-yellow color, full of sweetish juice, 

Double-Jlowcrcd orange. Fruit somewhat globose, usually feti- 
ferous, with a sweet pulp, and very different from any other variety, 
as the pulp is formed of a double, miequal range of cells, which 
are full of sweet juice; the leaves are large; the flowers are com- 
posed of from six to ten petals ; the pistol is usual y di\4ded into 
two parts at the top, each bearing a yellow stigma. This tree is 
very little cultivated, as the fruit is not so valuable as some others. 

There are many other vai'ieties of the orange cultivated, and 
equally worthy of notice, but space will not allow of their descrip- 
tion. 



NAT. ORDER. POMACES. 57 

Propagation and CnUnre. All the species of Cit'! us may be pro- 
pagated by seeds, cuttings, layers, by grafting or budding. The ob- 
ject of raisuig plants from seed, is stock for grafting or budding, or 
for new varieties. To attempt raising new varieties from seed, in 
this country, woidd be too tedious, as the plants raised from seed in 
Italy do not produce fruit under seven or eight years. Citrons or 
Seville Oranges, Miller considers the best to raise for stocks, as they 
are of more robust and quicker gi-owth. In Italy the plants are bud- 
ded at from two to five feet high on the stem, according to the in- 
tention of the trees ; a bud is commonly inserted on each side of the 
stock. Grafting is occasionally resorted to in Italy, and is most gen- 
erally adopted in the nurseries in this coimtry. The stocks, when 
of two years growth, and not much thicker than a scion, are cut off 
and grafted in the whip manner. Most of the gardeners consider 
cuttings as the quickest mode of getting plants. Cuttings with wood 
of two years old, will strike as freely as young wood. They may be 
put in at any time of the year, except wlien the plants are making 
young shoots. They generally strike in about six weeks with a 
hand-glass over them, in a gentle heat. The Citron strikes easiest, 
and makes much better stocks for grafting than any other kind. 

Medical Properties and Uses. The juice of the orange is a 
grateful acid liquor, which, by allaying heat, quenching thirst, pro- 
moting various excretions, and diminishing the action of the sangui- 
ferous system, proves of considerable use in all febrile and inflam- 
matory disorders. It is also a powerful antiseptic, and of great 
efficacy in preventing and curing the scurvy. The outer yellow 
rind of the fruit is a grateful aromatic bitter, and is considerably 
employed by some physicians as a stomachic, a character in which 
it is deservedly much esteemed. It is however used in connection 
with other medi ernes, in preparing the various kinds of stomach 
bitters. 



NAT. ORDER. 

Ranmiculacece. 



HELLEBORUS NIGER. BLACK HELLEBORE. 

Class XIII. PoLYANDRiA. Order VI. Polygynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx, wanting. Petals, five, or more. Nectaries, bil- 
abiate, tubular. Capsules, many-seeded, nearly erect. 

Spe. Char. Scape, one or two-flowered, nearly naked. Leaves. 
'• pedate. 

The root is perennial, transverse, rough, knotted, externally 
black, internally whitish, and sends ofT many strong, round, long, 
depending fibres ; i\\eJlower stalks are erect, round, tapering, and 
towards the bottom of a redish color ; the leaves are of a deeji green 
color, compound, and of a peculiar shape, generally divided into 
five leaflets, and spring directly from the root by long footstalks ; 
the leaflets are eliptical, smooth, coriaceous, and the upper half 
serrated; xhe floral leaves, which are oval and concave, supply the 
place of the calyx ; the petals are five, large, round, concave, and 
spreading, at first of a redish tint, but by age they turn green ; 
the nectaries are about eight in number, tubulated, somewhat com- 
pressed, bilabiated, and of a greenish yellow color ; the filaments 
are numerous, and white ; the antliers are yellow : the germeiis 
vary in number, usually from four to eight : the capsules or jmds. 
contain many oval, shining, blackish, seeds. 

^\{\s, plant is a native of Austria and Italy, but is found growing 
wild in Germany and many parts of Switzerland. It \\ as unknown 
to the gardners in England, until cultivated l)y Mr. John Gerard 
in 1596, where, if the weather be sufficiently mild, it flowers in 

58 




'V^ ■' 



^ y. 



./' f/i 



r-M'€-C'-i:^€^ 



NAT. ORDER. RANUNCULACE^. 59 

January, from which circumstance it is sometimes :;alled, Christ- 
mas Flower. If any arguments were required to evince the neces- 
sity of botanical accuracy in discriminating medical plants, the 
Helleborus Niger would furnish us with many facts, from which such 
aro;uments might be deduced. Many instances are recorded of 
the fatal effects of this plant, by which it since appears, that other 
plants were mistaken for it, and actually employed ; of these we 
can enumerate the Helleborus viridis, Adonis vernalis, TroUius eiiro- 
peeiis,Accea spicata, Aslranlia major, and Aco7iitujn napellus ; and as 
the roots of these plants possess altogether different powers, we 
cannot be surprised that the medical history of this root is not only 
contused and contradictory, but calculated to produce very mis- 
chievous and even fatal consequences. Mellampus is said to have 
observed its pui-giiig quality in the goats which feed on it, and intro- 
duced it into the Materia Medica, from whence it was styled Mal- 
ampudinm. 

Ildlchorus odorus. Sweet-scented Hellebore. This species rises 
about one foot high ; the leaves are radical, palmate, and pubescent 
on their under surface ; segments oblong, undivided, quite entire at 
the base, but serrated at the apex ; stem bifid ; sepals ovate-oblong, 
acutish, green. It is very much like the IJcllehorus pw-jmrasams, and 
IMlchorus viridis : differing from the first, in the flowers being green, 
not purplish. Native of Hungary. Flowers in March. 

Hilkhorus viridk. Green Hellebore. This plant rises about a 
foot and a half in height; the leaves are radical, very smooth, cauline 
ones almost sessile, and palmate ; peduncles generally bifid ; sepals 
roundish, ovate, green ; flowers green. Haller reckons up all the 
reputed virtue of Hdhhore, under this species ; which indeed seems 
to be what German practitioners have substituted for the true plant 
of the ancients, Helleborus orientalis. 

We learn from the Flora Lomlinensis, that the roots of this plant 
are used in Loudon for the true Black Hellebore ; and probably their 



60 NAT. ORDER. RANUNCULACE.E. 

qualities arc the same, lor this species is eveu mure nearly allied 
to the ancient Greek plant, Ilcllehorus oricntcdls, than the Hellebore nigcr. 

Hdleborus fuct'idus. Foeted Hellebore. This species rises from 
two to three feet in height ; the stem is many-flowered, and leafy ; 
leaves pedate, very smooth ; segments oblong-linear. This is an 
evergreen plant with green flowers, w-liich are tinged on their edges 
with purple. The whole herb is fa'ted, acrid, and violently cathartic, 
with a nauseous taste, especially when fresh. The leaves when 
dried, are sometimes given as a domestic medicine to destroy worms, 
but they must be used sparingly, being so ^^ole^t in their operation, 
that many of their fetal eflfects are recorded. A dose of about fil'teeu 
grains of the powder of the dried leaves is given to childi'en, which 
proves gently emetic and pm-gative. The decoction of about a drachm 
of fresh leaves being considered equal to fifteen grains of the dried 
ones ; it is usually repeated on two, and sometimes three successive 
days, and seldom fails to bring away worms, if there be any in the in- 
testinal canal. Native of Portugal, Spain, Italy, &c., in waste places. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Black Hellebore when taken into 
the stomach, or applied externally to wounds, its effects are very 
sudden and viijlent : although many writers consider this root to be 
perfectly innocent and sale ; yet we laid many ])roofs of its poison- 
ous eirects ; the symptoms of which are most distressing. It occa- 
sions violent vomiting and purging, attended with griping and cold 
sweat, great derangement of the nervous system, and if it contiiuie 
long in the alimentary canal, it becomes inflamed, which symptoms 
may, in a measm-e, be prevented at the connnencement by giving 
active emetics and laxatives. It often proves a very powerful 
emmenagogue in plethoric habits, where steel is ineffectual or im- 
proper. It is very drastic in its operations, therefore while we have 
in our possession remedies of equal efllcacy, and harmless, and such 
as can be depended on, we would recommend its use only in extreme 
cases. A single leaf powdered is said to be three doses for a child. 



NAT. ORDER, 

Columniferce. 



CAMELIA JAPONICA. JAPAN ROSE TREE, 

Class mil. PoLYANDRiA. Order I. Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Corolla, six or nine petalled. Calyx, five or six leav- 
ed. Capsule, tricoccous. 

Spe. Char. Leaves, eliptical-oblong, rugosus. 

The Camelia Japonica is an evergreen tree, rising in favorable 
situations, from twenty to forty feet in height, much branched, and 
covered with a rough, dark, redish bark : the leaves are eliptical, 
or lanceolate, entire, alternate, obtusely serrated, veined, and placed 
on short foot-stalks ; the calyx is small, smooth, persistent, and 
divided into five obtuse segments; x\\e flowers are of a scarlet red, 
often two or three together, and placed on sejjarate peduncles ; the 
corolla vai-ies in the size and number of its petals, but are usually 
six, and of an irregular roundish form ; the /llamenfs are short, very 
numerous, and inserted at the base of the corolla ; the anthers are 
large and yellow; the ger7nen is roundish or triangular ; the style 
is trifid, spreading at the top, and furnished with simple stigmas; 
the capsule is three celled, opening, and contains three oblong brown 
seeds. 

This beautiful t7-ee is a native of Japan, m which country alone 
it is f Mind to flourish, and grows wild by the side of fences and 
in neglected fields, It was formerly cultivated for culinary purpo- 
ses, but more recently as a prominent and very useful article in 
the manufiicturing of tea, and for which purpose it is very exten- 
sively employed. All the various kinds of tea imported into this 



62 NAT. ORDER. — COLUMNIFERJE. 

country, arc more or less flavored with the leaves of this plant, which 
renders it much more agreeable to the taste. 

The varieties at present cultivated in Europe and in this country, 
are as follows : — 

Camdia alba-plcna. Double white Camelia. The flowers are 
pure white, from three to four mches in diameter, the petals being 
disposed in circles from the circumference to the centre, and lying 
particularly flat, and even one above another. 

Camdia variegate. Double striped Camelia. The flowers of a 
fine dark rose of red-color, irregularly blotched with white, whilst 
those which appear in the spring, are generally plain red. They are 
three or four inches in expansion. The outer petals are about one 
and a half inches in diameter, roundish, cordate, thick and fleshy at 
the base, and sometimes divided at the apex. When the flowers 
axe fully expanded, they become rcciurved. The centre petals are 
often small, narrow, and upright, confusedly arranged, many of 
them being disposed in tufts, with small parcels of stamina inter- 
mixed. Some flowers are particularly handsome, and as double as 
a rose. 

Camelia anemomjlora. Anemone-flowered Camelia. The flow- 
ers are remarkable showy, and resemble a double anemone. They 
are about three or four inches in diameter, and of a deep red color ; 
the outer petals expand quite flat, roundish-cordate, surrounding a 
great number of smaller ones, regularly disposed and rising upright 
in the centre ; each of them are roundish-cordate, and slightly marked 
with veins of a deeper color. Those m the centre of the flower are 
of a peculiar form, being small and fleshy at the base, and broad and 
tliin towards the point, with a very mmute tip, which is white ; they 
are compactly arranged in rows, from the circumference to the 
centre, which is considerably elevated about the outer petals, and 
each incurved towards the styles, with their edges turned out- 
wards. 



NAT. ORDER. COLUMNIFER.E. 63 

Camclia Pomponia. The Kcw-Blush Camclia. The flowers of 
this variety are \'ery delicate, and measure, when fully expanded, 
four inches in diameter. They consist of ten or twelve roundish- 
cordate outer petals, arranged in two rows round a great number of 
smaller ones that rise in the centre, in an erect, irivgular mass, the 
outer petals spread open and become almost flat, they are sometimes 
entire, but usually indented and undulated. Their color is pure 
white, excepting about one-third of their length, nearest the base, 
which is deeply tinged with red, as well as a small stripe up the 
centre. 

Camelia semiduplcx. Semi-double Red Camelia. This plant is 
not easily chstiuguished from Middlemist's Red Camelia, unless when 
in flower. The flowers consist of from six to twelve petals, which 
are large, roundish, and in a single or semi-double series, round the 
column of stamens, and expanding to two and a half inches in diam- 
eter ; they are generally concave, and all marked with veins that are 
darker than the uniform rich rose-color of the flowers ; the stamens 
rise erect, they are transformed into roundish, ligulated petals, slight- 
ly di\ided at the apex, and sti'iped with white in the same manner 
as Middlemist's Red, but not so large, nor are the petals so numer- 
ous. It has been impregnated with the polen of tlie single white, 
and some excellent varieties have been raised from the seed, by Mr, 
Press, a celebrated gardener. 

There are numerous other names for varieties known by garden- 
ers, but they appear to be all synonymous with those described above, 
unless they are seething varieties. 

Proixtgation and Culture. All the species of Camelia are uni- 
versally admired by every collector of plants, on account of their 
beautifid rose-like flowers, and elegant, dark-green, shining, laurel- 
like leaves. They are very hardy, green-house plants, and are easy 
of culture, requiring only to be sheltered from severe frosts. The 
best soil for them is an equal quantity of good sandy loam and peat. 



64 NAT. OllDEK. — COLUMNIFER.E. 

The pots should be well drained with pieces of potsl.crd, tliat they 
may not get soddened with too luuch wet, as nothing injures tliem 
more tlian over watering, particularly when they are not in a grow- 
ing state. When growing freely, they can scarcely have too much, 
and they should he watered all over the leaves with a fine rose-pot 
They are readily increased by cuttings or inarching on the connnouer 
kinds. The cuttings should be taken off at a joint, as soon as they 
are ripened, and planted in sand mider a hand-glass, «here they will 
soon strike root ; when this is the case, they should be planted singly 
into small pots, and set in a close frame, and they must afterwards 
be hardened to tlie air by degrees. 

Camdias have the best effect, and are grown to most advantage, 
in a house entirely devoted to them. Such a house should be rather 
high than otherwise, as the plants never look so well as Avhen six or 
eight feet high, trained in a conic form, and clothed A^ith 
branches from the root upwards. The plants should be raised near 
to the glass by means of a stage; which should be so contrived that 
as they advance in height it may be lowered in proportion ; only the 
very best crown glass should be used, because it is found that th6 
least inequality of smface or thiclcness of material, so operates on the 
sun's rays as to concentrate them, and burn or produce blotches on 
the leaves. When the plants ai'e in a gi'owing state they require to 
be liberally watered, and to have a gi'eater degree of heat than that 
which is usually given to green-house plants. If this heat and wa- 
tering is not given in November and December, the plants will not 
expand their blossoms freely, neither will vigorous shoots be suppli- 
ed after the blossoming is over. The plants produce better flowers 
from November to April than in the smnmer months, although they 
are sometimes to be had all the year roimd. They delight to be kept 
damp all the summer months, and a little sliaded from the strong 
sun. Give them plenty of water all the time they are making their 
young shoots. They may also get a gentle sprinkling over the leaves 



NAT. ORDER. COLUMNIFER^. 65 

once every week dui-iag the summer months, except ivhen they are 
in flower. 

Medical Properties and Uses. With respect to the qualities 
of this plant as a medicine, we extract from Dr. Cullen, whose 
oj)inion in this place cannot fail to be well received. "An infusion 
of its leaves like that of the green Tea, has the effect of destroying 
the sensibility of the nerves, and the irritability of the muscles ; and 
the recent plant contains an odorous narcotic power, which we 
might jjrcsume from the necessity which the Chinese find of drying 
it with considerable heat before they will allow it to be brought 
into market, and even after such preparation they abstain from its 
use, for a year or more, until its volatile parts are still further dis- 
sipated ; also it is said that unless they use this precaution, the Tea 
in its more recent state manifestly shows strong narcotic powers. 
Even in this country the more odorous Teas often show their seda- 
tive powers in weakening the nerves of the stomach, and indeed the 
whole system." 

From these considerations we must conclude, that Tea pos- 
sesses both narcotic and sedative properties, especially so, in its 
most odorous state. Its effects however appear different in differ- 
ent pei'sons, and hence the various and contradictory accounts, that 
are reported from its use. But if we consider the difference of 
constitution, which occasions some difference of the operation of 
the same medicine in difTerent persons, and of which we have a 
remarkable proof in the operation of opium, we shall not be sur- 
prised at the different operations of Tea. 

If to this we add the fallacy arising from the condition of the 
Tea employed, which is often so inert as to have no effect at all : 
and still add to this the power of habit, which can destroy the 
powers of the most powerful substances, we shall not allow the 
various and contradictory reports of its effects to alter our judg- 
ment with respect to its ordinary and more general qualities in 
affecting the human body. 



NAT. ORDER. 

LuridcB. 

DIGITALIS PURPUREA. PURPLE FOXGLOVE 

Class XIV. DiDYNAMiA. Order II. Angiospermia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx five-parted. Corolla bell-shaped, five-cleft, ven- 
tricose. Capsule ovate, two-celled. 

Spe. Char. ScgmeJits of the calyx ovate, acute. Corolla obtuse, 
upper lip imdivided. Leaves downy. 

' ' The 7-oot is biennial, and fibrous; the stalk is erect, simple, taper- 
ing, covered with fine hairs or down, and grows to the height of four 
or five feet ; the leaves are large, oval, narrowed towards their points, 
obtusely serrated, veined, downy, and stand upon short-winged foot- 
stalks; the floral leaves or bracteae, are spear-shaped, sessile, and 
purplish towards the point ; the calyx consists of fine segments, Avhich 
are eliptical, pointed, nerved, or ribbed, and the uppermost segment is 
narrower than the others ; the flowers grow in a long terminal spike, 
chiefly on one side; they are large, monopetalous, pendulous, bell- 
shaped, purple, and marked on the inside with little eyes, or dark 
coloured dots, placed in whitish rings ; the tubular part appears in- 
flated, and almost cylindrical, but swelling towards the base, and open- 
ing at the limb into four irregular, short, obtuse segments ; of these 
the uppermost is the shortest, appearing truncated or cut off trans- 
versely ; the peduncles are round, short, villous, and bend downwards 
by the weight of the flowers ; the fllaments are two long and two 
short, white, crooked, inserted in the bottom of the tube, and crowned 
with large oval yellow anthers ; the style is simple, and thickening to- 

66 




/, i^^<?a:^-y^^ ^ 



Zy ^<?V?'?^^^>;i^>'/yW-./>^^^ 



NAT. ORDER. LURID.E. 67 

wards tlie stiginc, which is bifid ; the germ is oval, .iiul surrounded 
at the bottom by a small uectarious glaud ; the cajjsule is bilocular, 
aud contains many blackish seeds. It grows usually by the road- 
sides and ditches and hedges, especially in dry gravelly soils, aud 
flowers in June and July. 

The leaves of the Foxglove have a bitter, nauseous taste ; it 
grows wild in most of the temperate countries of Europe, and in the 
United States, and is often cultivated in gardens for ornament and 
me(hcinal purposes. The leaves are the part usually employed^ 
altliough the seeds are recognized as being officinal. Much care is 
requisite in selecting, preparing, and preserving Foxglove, in order to 
insure its activity. 

Digitalis parvljlora. Small-flowered Foxglove. This species 
rises from two to three feet high ; leaves oblong-lanceolate, undula- 
ted, deflexed, ciliated with wool, entire, margined, radical ones oI)0- 
vate ; racemes dense, cylindrical ; segments of corolla, as well as 
those of the calyx, roundish ; corollas small, brownish-purple, pilose. 
The native country of this plant is unknown, but grows sparcely in 
many places throughout the United States, and some parts of Europe. 
It flowers m June, July, and August. 

Digitalis fuloa. Tawny-flowered Foxglove. This species rises 
from two to three feet high ; leaves lanceolate, ciliated ; bract eas all 
not half so long as the corolla ; corolla downy, reticulated, fulvous, 
with a rusty color ; segments ovate, acute ; lip bearded ; stamens 
about equal in length to the tube, and glabrous ; calyx downy. By 
some this is thought to be a hybrid between some other species. The 
native country of this is also unknown. I have found it growing by 
tiie side of small streams, on Great Hills, in Leverett, Mass. It waa 
in flower, in its wild state, in July and August. 

Propagation and Culture. Most of the species of Foxglove are 
showy, and well (itted for decorating flower borders. Tiicy all 
grow freely in comiimn garden earth, and are rculily increased 



68 



NAT. ORDER. LDRID^E. 



by seed. Some of (lie more tender species require protection in 
winter. 

Medical Propcrlks ami Uses. Digitalis is narcotic, sedative, 
and diuretic — a violent poison, but yet a valuable medicine — and 
when administered in quantities isapt to produce a sense of tightness, 
or weight, with dull pain in the liead, vertigo, dimness, or other dis- 
order of the vision, and of the mental operations ; externally it has 
been used in sores and scrofulous tumours, with considerable advan- 
tage. Respecting the internal use of this plant, we are told of its 
good effects in epilepsy, scrofula, and phthisis, but the incautious man- 
ner in which it has been employed, renders it a very dangerous rem- 
edy ; yet while Digitalis was generally known to possess such medi- 
cinal activity, its diuretic effects, for whicli it is now deservedly re- 
ceived in the Matei'ia Medica, were wholly overlooked. To this dis- 
covery. Dr. Withering has an undoubted claim ; and the numerous 
cases of dropsy related by him, and other practitioners of established 
reputation, afford incontestible evidence of its diuretic powers, and of 
its practical importance in those diseases. 

Foxglove has been analizcd by Destouches. Foiu* ounces of the 
dried leaves yielded successively, nine drachms of watery and seventy- 
eieht grains of alcoholic extract. The first was brown, smooth, and 
of a consistence fit for making pills. The second had a very deep 
green color, a virose and disagreeable smell, the consistence of tallow, 
but more tenacious : did not im-nish ammonia by distillation, and was 
not acted upon by acids. The ashes contained salts of lime and po- 
tass. The effects o^ foxglove, vf\\ci\ taken into the stomach, are to 
diminish the frequency of the pulse, and the irritability of the sys- 
tem ; and to increase the action of the absorbents, and the discharge 
by urine. In excessive doses it produces vomiting, dimness of sight, 
vertitfo, delirium, hiccough, convulsions, collaps, and death. For 
tliese symptoms, the best remedies are emetics of Lobelia infata, 
cordials, and stimulants. Internally Digitalis has been recommend- 



NAT. ORDER. LURID.E. 69 

eJ. First, in iaflammatory diseases, from its very remarkable pow- 
er of diminishing the velocity of the circuh'tion. Second, in active 
lueniori'hages, and phthisis. Third, in some spasmodic affections, as 
in spasmodic asthma, palpitation, <&c. Fomth, in mania, from effu- 
sion on the brain. Fiflli, in anasarcous and dropsical effusions. 
Sixth, in scrofulous tumors. Seventh, in auem'ism of the aorta, and 
hypcrtropliy of the heart. Externally it has been applied to scrofu- 
lous tumors. It may be exhibited — first, in substance, either by it- 
self, or conjoined with some aromatic, or made into pills, with soap 
or gum anunoniac. Withering directs the leaves to be gathered be- 
fore the plant comes into flower ; he rejects the petioles and mid-rib, 
and dries the remaining part either in the smishine or before the fire. 
In this state they are easily reduced to fine green powder, which is 
given in doses of one grain twice a day, and the dose is gradually in- 
creased until it acts upon the-kidneys, stomach, pulse, or bowels, 
when its use must be laid aside, or suspended. Second, in infusion ; 
the same author directs a drachm of dried leaves to be infused for 
four hours in eight oimces of boiling water, and an ounce of any kind 
of spirit for its preservation. Half an ounce, or an ounce, of this 
infusion may be given twice a day. Third, in decoction, Darwin di- 
rects that four ounces of the fresh leaves be boiled in two pounds of 
water, until they are reduced to one, and that half an ounce of the 
strained decoction be taken every two hours, for four or more doses. 
Fourth, in tincture, put one ounce of the dried leaves, coarsely poAv- 
dered, into four ounces of diluted alcohol ; let the mixture stand by the 
fire-side twenty-four hours, frequently shaking the bottle, and the satu- 
rated tincture, as Darwin calls it, must then be separated from the resi- 
dum by standing, or decantation. Twenty drops of the tincture were 
directed to be taken twice or thrice a day, but the dose is dangerous. 
The EJinburgh College, and the United States formulas, recommend 
eight ounces of diluted alcohol to one of the powder, but let it digest 
seven days. 



-'f 



NAT. ORDER. 

Senticos(B. 



RUBUS IDiEUS. . RASPBERRY BUSH. 

Class XII. ICOSANDRIA. OrdcT V. POLYGNIA. 

Gen. Char. Calyx five-cleft. Berry composed of one-seeded ocini. 

Spe. Char. Leaves quinate, pinnate, and ternate, tomentose under- 
neath. Petioles channelled. Stem prickly. 

The stems of the Raspberry are biennial, upright, branching, 
three or four feet high, of a reddish color, and thickly covered with 
very stiff bristles ; the leaves are rough, veined, serrated, downy on 
the under side, and composed of five or three pairs of oval pinna?, ter- 
minated by an odd one ; the Jlowers termmate the branches in panicles, 
and appear in succession ; the calyx is divided into five oblong ex- 
panding segments ; the corolla consists of five petals, which are up- 
right, blunt, narrow, white, and inserted into the calyx ; the Jilamcnts 
are numerous, somewhat shorter than the petals, fixed to the calyx, 
and terminated with roundish compressed anthers ; the germcns are 
numerous, and each supports a short capillary style, furnished with a 
simple, permanent stigma; the J'ruit is a red berry, composed of sev- 
eral roundish granulations, collected into a knob, which is convex 
above, concave beneath, and placed upon a conical receptacle ; each 
granulatio7i has one cell, containing an oblong seed. 

The Raspberry is a native of Europe, but has now become nat- 
uralised to this country, growing spontaneously in the different states, 
from Maine to Georgia, seeking moist situations, woods, hedges, rocky 
mountains, and the most inaccessible waste places, flowering in May 

70 



NAT. ORDER. — SENTICOS-E. 



71 



and June, and producing innumerable quantities of its fruit in July and 
August. It is also extensively cultivated in our gardens, not only as 
an ornament, but more particularly on account of its delicious fruit. 
The figure which accompanies this description vv'as taken from a gar- 
den specimen, and consequently appears more luxuriant than when the 
Rasjfberry is found in its natural or uncultivated state. For cultiva- 
tion they require a shelter afforded by a hedge or fence, in order to 
protect them from the too powerful rays of the sun. Tlie soil sliould 
be of a light, sandy loam, perfectly friable and well manured. They 
should be planted in double rows, twelve inches apart, and running 
east and west, that each row will serve in a measure to shelter the 
next one from the sun. The double rows should not be more than 
three feet apart, and the plants when first set out eighteen inches from 
each other, after which they may be allowed to run together ; they 
will be found most productive, and the fruit larger, when they are thus 
allowed to partially shade each other. The rows should be supported 
by a slight railing at each side, or by a cord attached to stakes or 
poles at suitable distances. 

Nearly all the varieties of the Raspberry are cultivated from 
suckers, by planting them in the ground, and again by loping down the 
ends of their summer shoots to the earth, which take root and form 
new plants. 

Medical Properties and Uses. The virtues of the Raspberry 
consist in allaying heat and thirst, and in promoting the natural excre- 
tions. Dr. Matson, in his practice, found it to possess cooling, gently 
laxative, and antiseptic properties. The leaves are moderately astrin- 
gent, with a slightly bitter, and very agreeable aromatic taste ; made 
into a tea it has proved to be one of the most valuable remedies in our 
country, for dysenteria and all bowel complaints in children, and if 
taken in season will usually effect a cure ; the tea is also soothing, and 
a cleansing wash for ulcers, scalds, burns, and all excoriated surfaces 
which are very sore or irritable. 



I 



NAT. ORDER. 

LiliacecB. 



ALOE VULGARIS. THE AFRICAN ALOE. 

Class VII. Hexandr'a. Order I. Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Corolla erect, with a spreading, smooth, and nectarif- 
erous bottom. Filaments inserted into the receptacle. 

Spe. Char. Floxccrs spiked, in corymbs, drooping, pedunclcd, sub- 
cylindrical. Stem-leaves toothed, embracing, sheatliing. 

The root is perennial, strong and librous ; the Jlowci'-stcms rise from 
two to six feet in height, varying according to the richness of the soil : 
they are smooth, erect, of a silvery green color, and toward the top 
beset with bracteal scales ; the leaves are first spreading, then ascend- 
ing, of a glaucous green color, someAvhat mottled with darker spots, 
flat on the upper surface, convex beneath, and armed with hard red- 
dish spines, distant from each other, numerous perpendicular to the 
margin, narrow, tapering, thick or fleshy, succulent, beset at edges 
with spring teeth; the^oiversare produced in terminal spikes, and of 
a purple or reddish color ; ca7i/x none ; the corolla is monopetalous, 
tubular, nectariferous, cut into six narrow leaves, separating at 
the mouth ; the filaments are six, which are tapering, yellowish, in- 
serted into the receptacle, and furnished with oblong orange-colored 
anthers ; the gcrmen is oblong, supporting a simple slender style, 
about the length of the filaments, and terminated by an obtuse stigma ; 
the capsule is oblong, and divided into three cells, three valves, and 
contains many angular seeds. 

The Aloe Vulgaris is a native of south-eastern Europe and the 

73 




iSZ^^^r^i^z^n t^t^:^. 



NAT. ORDER — LILIACE.E. -^3 

norlh of Africa. It is cultivated in Italy, Sicily, Malta, and {specially 
in the AVest Indies, where it contributes largely to furnish the Barba- 
does Aloes. The U. S. Dispensatory, in its description of this species 
of Aloe, probably gives as good, if not a better, than any of the 
others. It remarks that " the proper aloetic juice exists in longitudi- 
nal vessels beneath the epidermis of the leaves, and readily ilows out 
when these are cut transversely. The liquid obtained by expression 
from the parenchjma is mucilaginous, and possessed of little medicinal 
virtue. The quality of the drug depends much upon the mode of pre- 
paring it. The finest kind is that obtained by exudation and subse- 
quent inspissation in the sun. Most of the better sorts, however, are 
prepared by artificially heating the juice which has spontaneously ex- 
uded from the cut leaves. The chief disadvantage of this process, is 
the conversion of a portion of the soluble active principle into an in- 
soluble and comparatively inert substance, through the influence of an 
elevated temperature. The plan of bruising and expressing the leaves, 
and boiliig down the resulting liquor, yields a much inferior product, 
as a kige portion of it must be derived from the mucilaginous juice of 
the parenchyma. The worst plan of all is to boil the leaves them- 
selves i:i water, and to evaporate the decoction. The quality of the 
drug U also affected by the careless or fraudulent mixture of foreign 
■ 'atters with the juice, and the unskilful management of the inspis- 
;-ition." 

Mtdkal Properties and Uses. The different varieties of this 
i.]ant are all similar in their mode of action. They are all cathartic, 
' perating very slowly but certainly, having a peculiar affinity for the 
large intestines. Their action appears to be directed rather to the 
muscular coat than to the exhalent vessels, and the discharges which 
they produce are therefore seldom very thin or watery. In full doses 
they quicken the circulation and produce general warmth. 



NAT. ORDER. 

Liliacea. 



ALOE SOCOTORINA. SOCOTORINE ALOE. 

Class VI. Hexandria. Order I. Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Corolla erect, mouth spreading, bottom nectariferous. 
Filaments inserted into the receptacle. 

S2)e. Char. Floicers in corymbs, sub-cylindrical, peduncled, droop- 
ing. 

The stem, like all of the Aloe tribe, is erect, from one to two 
feet in height, woody, leafless, and the lower part very rough, from 
the remains of decayed leaves. " At top it is embraced by green, 
sword-shaped, ascending leaves, somewhat concave on their upper sur- 
face, convex beneath, curved inward at the point, wath numerous small 
white serratures at their edges ; the Jlotcers, which are cylindrical, 
simple raceme, are scarlet near the base, pale in the centre, and green- 
ish at the summit, and have unequal stamens, of which three are longer 
than the corolla." 

The plant received its name from the island of Socotra, of which 
it is a native, and where the genuine Socotorine Aloes is produced. 
This island lies in the straits of Babelmandel, about forty leagues to 
the east of cape Guardafui ; but we are informed that a large portion 
of what is sold under that name, is prepared in the kingdom of Me- 
linda, upon the eastern coast of Africa, and some in the neighboring 
parts of Arabia. It is said that the commerce in this variety of Aloes 
is carried on chiefly by the maritime Arabs, who convey it cither to 
India, or up the Red Sea, by the same channel through which it 



NAT. ORDER. LILIACEJS. 75 

reached Europe before the discovery of the southern passage into the 
Indian Ocean. History informs us that this species of Aloes grows on 
the sides and summits of mountain.^, from five hundred to three thou- 
sand feet above the level of tlic plains. It is found in all parts of the 
island, but most abundantly on the western portion, where the surface 
is thickly covered whh it for miles, and it appears to thrive best in 
parched and barren places. Much less of the drug is collected than 
formerly, as the whole produce seems to be monopolized bj' the Ara- 
bian Sultan of Risseen, who still claims sovereignty over the island. 
The leaves are plucked at any period of the year, and are placed in 
skins into which the juice is allowed to exude ; it is exported in skin3, 
and the qualities ditlcr much according to the care taken in its prepa- 
ration. Much of the Aloes sold as the Socotorine lias never seen tlie 
island of Socotra, or even the Indian seas. It has been customary to 
affix this title as a mark of superior value to those portions ot the 
drug, from whatever source they may have been derived, which have 
been prepared with unusual care, and are supposed to be of the best 
quality. Thus both in Spain and the West Indies the juice which i.? 
obtained without expression, and inspissated in the sun without arti- 
ficial lieat, has been called Socotorine Aloes, and is probably little if 
at all inferior to the genuine drug. 

Aloe saponar'm. Great Soap Aloe. This seldom rises much 
above two feet iii height ; the leaves are very broad at their base, 
where they closely embrace the stalk, and gradually decrease to a 
poiut ; the edges are set with sharp spines, and the under leaves 
spread open horizontally in every direction ; these are of a dark-green 
color, spotted with white, somewhat resembling the color of soft 
soap, whence its name ; the flowers grow in umbels, on the tops of 
the stalks, and are of a beautiful red color, appearing in August and 
September. 

Abr. hnm'dis. Dwarf Hedgehog Aloe. This is a very low plant, 
never rising into stem ; the leaves are broad at their base, but tiper 
to a p:)int, where they are triangular ; they are beset on their ed:;es 
and both surfaces with soft spines very closely, from whence t'us 



76 



NAT. ORDER. LILIACEiE. 



plant has its name. The flowers grow in a loose head on the tojj of 
the stalk, wliich is very thick, but seldom a foot liigh ; they are of a 
fine red color l)elow, but of a pale green above. The flower would 
indicate that it belonged to the preceding species, though it may ap- 
pear diflercnt by its habits. 

Aloe marguritifcra. Pearl Aloe. This species is of humble 
gi-owth ; tlie leaves come out on every side, without order, near the 
gi-ound; they are thick triangular at their ends, and closely studded 
with white protuberances ; wlience its name. There is also a vari- 
ety of this, still smaller, which has been long preserved in gar- 
dens in this country. The plant flowers in several seasons of t'.ie 
year. 

Propagation and Culture. The propagation of these plants is 
effected in different methods, according to their nature. As many of 
the roots aflbrd plentiful supplies of suckers, or offsetts from their 
roots, they may be easily raised in that way. And in those wiiich 
do not possess this property, it may be often accomplished by taking 
off some of the under leaves. Where ripe seeds can be procured, they 
may also be raised in that method. 

But in order to the successful cultivation of tlie Aloe in this cli- 
mate, it is necessary that it has a proper soil prep ired for it. This 
should be constituted of about one-half of fresh, good, light mould, 
which has a considerable proportion of decayed vegetable matter in 
it, and one-fourth part of sea-sand, or the scraping of roads after they 
are become dry and of a sandy nature, with an equiil quantity of ef- 
fete lime : such as the sittings of lime rubbish. These substances 
should be intimately incorporated together, by frequent turning over 
with the spade ; and to render them perfectly mellow, and suitable 
for the purpose, they should be suffered to remain in this state of 
mixture for eight or twelve months before they are made use of. 

With this earthy compost some very small pots are to be filled 
in a close manner. The suckers, offsets, or root-leaves, are then to be 
planted out separately in these pots of earth, which should be slight- 



NAT. ORDER. LILIACE.E. 77 

ly pressed round them. The most proper season for performing tlic 
work is about the middle of July, when old plants are shifted. At- 
ter being planted out in the pots, they should be sliglitly watered, 
and tiien set in some shady situation for about a fortnight ; after 
which tiie more tender sorts may be removed into a very moderate 
hot-bed. By this means they strike root more readily. But here it 
will be necessary to shade the plant in the heat of the day, and to let 
them have as much air as possible. 

Where leaf-sets are made use of, they should be planted in June, 
setting the part that was separated from the old plant an inch or an 
inch and a half into the earth. About the middle of August it will 
be necessary to begin to harden these plants. This is to be perform- 
ed by removing the glasses occasionally when the weather is fine, 
anil ill (ilher circumstances raising them by props in such a manner 
as to admit the air freely, and thereby promote their vigor and 
growth. In this way they will become fit to be removed into the 
house, which must be performed about the latter end of Septendjer. 
After this the plants are to be treated in the same manner as old 
plants. . ' 

The Aloe plants, from their great differences in tlieir height, modes 
of growth, and the shapes of their leaves, as well as tlie beauty of 
their flowers, are well adapted for the purpose of affording variety, 
and producing a singularity of effect in the green-house, or in courts, 
or in other places about the house, during the summer season. 

Medical Properties and Uses. The varieties are all similar in 
their mode of action, and are purging, expelling, stomatic, anthelmin- 
tic, and act on the lower intestines. Their taste is nauseous and bit- 
ter, and they are highly useful in obstructions, hypochondriasis, jaun- 
dice, worms, and ulcers. Dose in the form of pills, from two to five 
grains of the extract. 



NAT. ORDER. 

SenticoscB. 



RIBES SANGUINEUM. HIGH BLACKBERRY. 

Class XII. IcosANDRiA. Order V. Polygynia, 

Gen. Char. Calyx, superior, campanulate, five-cleft. Petiole and 
Stamen inserted upon the calyx. Style two-cleft. Berry 
many-seeded. 

Spe. Char. Leaves acutely lobed, dentate, reticulate-rugose. 
Raceins, rather loose, many-flavored, stiffly erect. Berries 
hisped. 

The root of this elegant and fruitful bramble is long, slender, 
woody, branched, internally of a white or yellowish appearance, 
externally of a dark brown, and sends forth numerous small succu- 
lent fibres; the stem is erect, strong, ribbed, armed, much branched 
pear the tops, of a greyish-red color, and rises from three to five 
feet in height ; the leaves are inversely ovate, blunt, entire, dentate, 
serrated, veined, and stand four or five together upon simj)le foot- 
Stalks ; the Jlowers are first of a deep red, but afterwards fade into a 
lioht pink color, and appear on the stalk in slender pendulous ra- 
cems ; the calyx is composed of six leaflets, which are ovate, concave, 
colored, deciduous, alternately larger and smaller ; the corolla con- 
sists pf SIX petals, which are roundish, concave, and at the base fur- 
nished with two small oblong orange colored nectaries ; the Ji/a- 
ments are six, erect, compressed, tapering, shorter than the petals, 
and terminated by double anthers, which adhere to their sides; the 
germen is cylindrical, and about the length of the filaments; style 
none ; stigma circular, flat, and surrounded by a sharp border; the 

78 







^*)' 



^/A? / .^^ /Y 



^ ^ i!r /<•/>? fJ. OnT^^'t iv . 



NAT. ORDER. SENTICOSiE. 79 

fruit IS a red berry composed of several roundish granulations, col- 
lected into a knob, and placed upon a conical receptacle ; each gran- 
ulation has one cell which contains a small kidney-shaped seed. 

It has been said that this species of hlackhcrry is a native of 
Eurojje, but from what authority, or source of accurate knowledge 
of its origin, that it could have been so considered, we arc unable 
to account, for certainly it is, that when this country was first dis- 
covered by the Europeans, which was long before the introduction 
of any foreign plant, the high, or bush blackberry, (so called from 
its shrub-like and robust appearance,) was found in all 23arts of the 
New England States, growing in open woods, on the south side of 
mountains, and in rocky and waste places. From this we are led 
to believe that this species of blackberry is a native of this country, 
and especially when we take into consideration the innumerable 
quantities produced, and the vast extent of territory in which it is 
found growing in a wild state. We do not remember of seeing, nor 
can we learn from its history, that it has ever been cultivated in this 
country; although it produces large quantities of fruit, of a rich 
and highly palatable flavor, and can be multiplied to any extent, 
which would in our opinion richly repay the labor, and prove a 
source of profit, not only for medicinal purposes, but a grateful and 
wholesome addition to the luxuries of our markets. 

Medical Froperties and Uses. The roots of this plant have 
long been considered as one of the most valuable astringent and 
tonic medicines in the Matei-ia Medica. From the earliest period 
of history they have been a favorite domestic i-emedy in bowel af- 
fections; and from popular favor have passed into regular practice. 
Given in the form of decoction, they prove acceptable to the stom- 
ach, and not offensive to the taste, and can be employed with great 
advantage in cases of diarrhoea from relaxation of the bowels, 
either in adults or children. We would also add our own testimony 
to that of others who have spoken favorably of their use in this com- 
plaint ; and many other cases where astringents are found servicable. 



80 NAT. ORDER. SENTICOSiE. 

Blackherry Birup. The following is a valuable receipt for a 
sirup, which may be made from the roots of the blackberry, in 
combination with a le.^^ other articles; and if properly prepared, 
proves one of the most valuable remedies that can be found in the 
vegetable catalogue; from several years experience, and a practical 
knowledge of its effects upon many cases of diarrhoea, the author 
can bear testimony, as its superior powers to most of the medicines, 
usually prescribed for those complaints, and on this account has 
deemed it incumbent on himself, to make known to others the ar- 
ticles employed, that they may have an opportunity, (should it be 
required,) of administering this remedy. Take of Rihes sanguin- 
eum, Blackberry, (by some called High Briar root,) eight ounces ; 
Myrica cerifera, Bayberry bark, four ounces ; Geranium viaculatum, 
Cranesbill, two ounces ; Balsamodendron myrrha, Gum myrrh, one 
ounce; Cinnamomum aro7naticum, common Cinnamon, one ounce; 
Foejiiculum vulgare, Fennel-seed, half an ounce ; Carum carui, 
Caroway, the seed, half an ounce; Capsicu7a bacatum. Bird pepper, 

half an ounce. The whole should be put into four quarts of water, 
and steeped six or eight hours, then to be strained and reduced to 
two quarts ; then add, while hot, two and a half pounds loaf sugar; 
let it .stand until cold and add, Tinctura opii, which is made from 
the Papaver somniferum. Laudanum two fluid ounces ; Essence of 
Cinnamon one fluid ounce ; and one and a half pints of best French 
Brandy. 

A table-spoonfuU is a suitable dose for an adult, repeated accord- 
ing to circumstances, or as the urgency of the case may require. 
Many physicians who.se practical observation and experience, cer- 
tainly entitles their opinions to respect, have recommended this 
compound in the treatment of cholera, and speak of it as being un- 
rivalled in the treatment of this complaint also. 




^--^^2^^^' ^^?Z^ S^^U'. 




NAT. ORDER. 

Rhcedes. 



PAPAVER RH^AS. RED OR CORN POPPY. 

Class XIII. PoLYANDRiA. Order I. Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Corolla four-petalled. Calyx two-leaved. Capsule 
one-celled, opening by pores under the persistent stigma. 

Spe. Char. Capsule glabrous, globose. Stem hairy, and many- 
flowered. Leaves pinnatifid, incised. 

The root is annual, simple, fibrous ; the stalk is upright, branched, 
having hairs standing at right angles with the stem, which rises from 
one to two feet in height ; the leaves are pinnated, toothed, hairy on 
both sides, and at the base sheath-like ; the peduncles are slender, 
furnished with hairs like the stem, and each supports a single flower , 
the calyx consists of two leaves, which are ovate, rough, concave, and 
deciduous ; the corolla is composed of four petals, which are large, 
spreading, roundish, unequal, of a bright scarlet color, and marked at 
the base with a shining black spot ; the Jilaments are numerous, slen- 
der, purplish, and furnished with roundish, compressed antherae ; the 
germcn is egg-shaped, and truncated at the top ; there is no style ; 
the stigma is convex and radiated — the radii of a purple color, and 
permanent ; the capsule answers the description given of the germen ; 
it is smooth, marked with several longitudinal projecting lines, which 
are in number equal to the radii of the stigma, and at the top it is 
(colloped ; the radii are numerous, minute, and of a purple color. 

This plant is quite common in cornfields, and flowers in June and 
July. It is a native of Europe, but has been introduced and culti- 



82 NAT. ORDER. — RHCEDES. 

vatccl in this country. It may be distinguished from the P. dubium, 
to wliich it bears a general resemblance, by its urn-shaped capsules, 
and by the hairs upon the peduncles standing in a horizontal direc- 
tion. 

Propagation and Culture. All the species of this plant are quite 
showy, and have flowers, varying greatly in size and of various hues. 
The pereimial species may be increased by dividing the plants at 
the roots, but the common and best way is by seeds. The an- 
nual kinds may be sown in the open border, about the middle or end 
of March, where they are intended to remain, as they do not bear 
transplanting. They all thrive best in a light rich soil. The Papa- 
ver nudicmdc and varieties, microcarjnim, ruhro-aurantiacum, pijrc- 
naicum and varieties, and Papavcr (dpiiium, are beautiful little plants, 
and should be kept as alpines, in pots ; or otherwise are very apt to 
damp off in the winter, especially in most parts of England, and in 
this country, where their culture has been attempted. 

Medical Properties and Uses. The capsules of this species, like 
those of the Somnifci-um, contain a milky juice of a narcotic quality, 
and an extract has been prepared from them having the properties 
of opium ; but the quantity is too small to repay the trouble of its 
preparation. The petals are the officinal portion ; they have a nar- 
cotic smell, and a mucilaginous, slightly bitter taste. By drying they 
lose their odor, and assume a violet-red color. The flowers have a 
smell similar to that of opium. A sirup made of them has been re- 
commended as being useful as an anodyne and pectoral, and is there- 
fore prescribed in coughs and catarrhal affections ; but from all that 
we can gather, from an extensive catalogue of botanical works, and 
our own limited experience, as regards the medicinal properties of 
this plant, it seems that it is more highly valued for the beauty of its 
colors than for its virtues as a medicine. 



NAT. ORDER. 

Coronaii<B. 

ALOE PERFOLIATA. COMMON ALOE. 

Class VI. Hexandria. Order I. Monogynia.' 

Gen. Char. Corolla erect, with an expanded mouth, and a nectar 
rious base. Filaments inserted into the receptacle. 

Spe. Char. Floiccrs spiked, horizontal, bell-shaped. Stem-leaves 
toothed, embracing, sheathing. 

This beautiful and valuable plant is a native of Africa, where it 
grows in great abundance, and flowers most part of the year. Several 
varieties of the Aloe, are described by Linnseus as belonging to the 
Aloe Perfoliata, of which the Spiked Aloe is the best. 

The stem is round, smooth, about four inches in diameter, and 
rises from three to four feet in height, and is of a glossy green color, 
the top beset with ovate bracteal scales ; the leaves are numerous, 
spreading, thick, fleshy, succulent, and beset with acute teeth ; the 
Jloicers spread horizontally, in close spikes ; the cuIj/x is wanting ; 
under each flower is an ovate, broad, acute bracte, shorter than the 
corolla, which is six-petalled, and contains a small portion of honey- 
juice ; the Jilaments are tapering, yellow, inserted into the receptacle, 
and terminate in oblong anthers ; the gcrmen is oblong, supporting a 
slender, style, upon which is an obtuse stigma ; the capsule is three- 
celled, and contains numerous seeds. 

From good authority we are informed, that about fifty miles from 
the Cape o<" Good Hope the Aloe grows in great abundance, large 
tracts of land being almost entirely covered with it, which renders the 

ti3 



84 NAT. ORDER. CORONARI.E.' 

planting of them unnecessary, and on account of its dense thickness is 
said to prove a very strong defence against the invasion of foreign 
powers. It is cultivated also in the island of Barbadoes and Jamaica, 
from whence we are mostly supplied, although it frequently happens 
that the American Aloe is substituted for it, which is but little if any 
inferior. 

The United States Dispensatory gives four varieties of aloes as 
the principal kinds known in commerce, viz., that of the Cape of Good 
Hope, the Socotrine, the Hepatic, and the Barbadoes ; the two first 
being by far the most abundant, are mostly used in this country, and 
from their extraordinary cheai^ness and excellent qualities, bid fair 
to supersede the other varieties which have been imported principally 
from Great Britain. 

The juice of this plant does not arrive at perfection until the 
plant is two or three years old, at which time the most succulent 
leaves are cut off near the root, and placed perpendicularly by the side 
of each other in tubs, to afford an opportunity for the juice to exude, 
which is afterwards collected into a large shallow vessel, and expos:?d 
to the rays of the sun, till it becomes of a proper consistence. Some- 
times the leaves are cut in small pieces, and then set aside for the juice 
to exude ; by either of these modes the best kind of Aloes is procured 
an inferior sort is obtained by boiling the sliced leaves in water for a 
short time, then removing them and adding more, and continuing to 
repeat this until the liquor becomes of a dark color, when it is evapo- 
rated by the rays of the sun to a proper consistence. 

Medical Propcities and Uses. Aloes is a stimulating cathar- 
tic, acting chiefly upon the lower part of the large intestines ; it does 
not much increase the secretion from the bowels, but promotes theii 
peristaltic action, and by that means causes the expulsion of any accu- 
mulation in them, from its operation being almost exclusively confine( 
to the lower portion of the intestinal canal ; it is said to possess con 
siderable emmenagogue properties, which are generally attributed to i 
sympathetic extension of irritation through the rectum. 



NAT. ORDER. 

Asperifolice. 



BORAGO OFFICINALIS. COMMON BORAGE. 

Class V. Pentandria. Order I. Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Corolla wheel-shaped, flat, tube short. Calyx five-cleft, 
ovate, rough. ; 

Spe. Char. Leaves ovate, alternate, undulated, hairy. Floxoers 
large, blue. 

The Borago Officinalis, although commonly found growing about 
rubbish and in waste grounds, is not, however, originally a native of 
this country, but has now been long enough naturalized here to be 
considered as an American plant. Its Jioioers, which appear from 
June till September, are of a beautifid blue color ; hence this plant 
in many gardens is cultivated for ornament as well as for its popular 
use, as an ingredient in that grateful summer beverage known by the 
name of " cool tankard." 

This plant appears to have been very much used by the ancients, 
and its reputed medicinal character seems also to correspond most ex- 
actly with that of the common bugloss ; the flowers of both have been 
termed cordial, from which they have been very highly recommended 
in melancliolia, and other affections of the nervous system. As these 
flowers possess neither warmth, pungency, nor fragrance, their cordial 
efficacy has been ascribed to a saline quality, which, by abating inordi- 
nate heat, is found to be peculiarly grateful and refreshing. But 
(hough the herbaceous substance of Borage has been discovered to 

contain a saline matter, there is no evidence of its existence in t!;i 

as 



86 NAT. ORDER. ASPERIFOLLE. 

flowers ; so that the advantages supposed to be derived by a vinous 
infusion of these, like those of bugloss, can only be imputed to the 
menstruum. Tlie leaves of Borage manifest nothing remarkable either 
to the smeU or the taste ; but tliey abound with a juice, which in its 
expressed state is said to be saltisli, and which, on being boiled a suf- 
ficient time, forms crystals of nitre ; similar crystals have also been 
obtained from a decoction of the leaves ; and hence it may be inferred 
that this plant has a peculiar claim to the possession of refrigerating 
and aperient virtues. 

Borago oricntalis. Oriental Perennial Borage. This species is 
an annual plant, with thick fleshy roots, spreading under the siu-face ; 
the root-leaves are numerous, oblong, and heart-shaped, on long 
iiatry foot-stalks ; the flower-stem rises more than two feet in height, 
having at the joints a single, small, sessile leaf; tlie upper part 
branches out into several small foot-stalks, which are terminated by 
loose panicles of flowers, of a pale-blue color ; the petals is turned 
back, so that the connected anthers and styles are left naked. The 
seeds are smaller than of the common borage. When the flower- 
stalks first appear, the flowers seem collected into a close spike, some 
of which spread open before the stalk is six inches high ; but, as the 
stalks advance, they divide into many loose spikes. It is a native 
of Constantinople, and flowers in March. 

Projjagation and Culture. These plants are easily propagated, 
either by the seed or dividing the roots, according to the kinds. The 
first sort, and varieties, will succeed in almost any soil or situation, 
being perfectly hardy ; but the latter species, as the flower stems are 
put forth very early in the spring, requires a dry soil, and warm as- 
pect, to guard against the effects of frost. Such effects are much ob- 
viated by having their roots planted in dry lune or other rubbish, as 
well as their over luxuriant growth prevented, and the danger of 
frosts consequently greatly lessened. When these plants have 
been once planted, they continue for many years with little trouble 
and are not liable to be injured by the vicissitudes of heat and cold. 



NAT. ORDER. ASPERIP0LI7E. 87 

The best mode, however, is by sowing the seed annually in the 
autumn or spring months, in the places where the plants are to 
stand, or by letting plants shed their seed, keeping them from stand- 
ing too closely together. When they are intended tor the produce of 
their tender yomig leaves, they may be soavu broadcast in small 
beds at different times, from the spring till autmnn, in the garden, 
covering the seed by the rake ; afterwards, when of proper gTowth, 
keeping the plants thinned out to a good distance, as six or eight 
inches or more. In this way supplies of green leaves and flowers 
are provided in succession, for summer, autmnn, and the following 
early spring. 

The second species is increased Avith much facility by parting the 
roots, and planting them out where they are to remain, in the autumn. 
It may also be raised by sowing the seeds at the same season, where 
they are to remain, keepuig the plants while yoimg perfectly free 
from weeds. This latter sort is wholly employed as a flowering or- 
uamental plant. 

Medical Properties and Uses. It has been considered dlapho- 
rcUc, tonic, alterative, and refrigerant. This plant is veiy much used 
in France. A sirup made of the leaves and flowers is employed as 
a demulcent, refrigerant, and gentle diaplioretic in catarrhal affec- 
tions, rheumatism, and disease of the skin ; it pm-ifies and cleanses 
the blood from all humors, is very imich used in all malignant, putrid, 
or spotted fevers, and is said to l)e a sm-e remedy for poison, obstruc- 
tions, yellow jamidice and melancholy ; it has also been found useful 
as a gargle for ulcers and cancer of the mouth, and to aUay inflam- 
mation of the tonsils in the throat. 

Sirup. Take one pound of the leaves and blows ; steep in 
four quarts of water down to three quarts ; stam off and add one 
quart of good molasses and two quarts of Holland gin, when it 
is ready for use. Dose, — A wine-glassful two or three times a 
day, before eatuig, and more should the urgency of the case re- 
quire it 



NAT. ORDER. 

Lomentacece 



CASSIA FISTULA. PURGING CASSIA 

Class X. Decandria. Order I. Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. Calyx, five-leaved. Petals, five. Anthers, three, 
sujierior, barren, the three lower ones beaked. Lomentum. 

Spe. Char. Leaves, with five pair of leaflets, ovate, sharp-pointed, 
petioles without glands. 

This tree rises from forty to fifty feet in height, producing 
many spreading branches towards the top, and covered with a 
brownish bark, intersected with many cracks and furrows; the 
leaves are pinnated, composed of four to six pairs of 2iinn£e, which 
are ovate, jjointed, undulated, nerved, of a pale green color, and 
stand ujion short foot-stalks ; the Jlowers are large, yellow, and 
placed in spikes upon long peduncles ; the calyx consists of five 
oblong, blunt, greenish, crenulated leaves ; the corolla is divided 
into five petals, which are unequal, spreading, and undulated ; the 
filaments are ten, the three under ones are very long and curled 
inwards, — the remaining seven exhibit only the large anthers, which 
are all rostrated, or open at the end like a bird's beak ; the germen 
is round, curved inwardly, without any apparent style, and termi- 
nated by a single stigma; the fruit is a cylindrical, pendulous pod, 
from one to two feet in length ; at first, soft and green, afterwards 
it becomes brown, and lastly, black and shining, divided transversely 
into numerous cells, in each of which is contained a hard round 
compressed seed, surrounded with a black pulpy matter; \he flotvers 
appear in June and July. 

88 







'a^-^iz^. 



NAT. ORDER. LOMENrACE^. gg 

This tree, which is a native of both the Indies, and of Egypt, 
was first cultivated in England by Mr. Philip Miller, in 1731. The 
pods of the East India Cassia are of less diameter, smoother, and 
afford a blacker, sweeter, and more grateful pulp than those which 
are brought from the West Indies, South America, or Egypt, and 
are universally preferred. In Egypt, it is the practice to pluck 
the Cassia pods before they arrive at a state of maturity, and to 
place them in a house from which the external air is excluded as 
much as possible ; the pods are then laid in a strata of half a foot 
in depth, between which palm leaves are interposed ; the two fol- 
lowing days the whole is sprinkled with water, in order to promote 
its fermentation, and the fruit is suffered to remain in this situation 
forty days, when it is sufficiently prepared for keeping. 

Medical Properties and Uses. The pulp of Cassia has long 
been used as a laxative medicine ; and being gentle in its operation, 
and seldom occasioning griping or uneasiness of the bowels, has 
been thought well adapted to children, and to nervous and delicate 
females. Adults, however, find this of little effect, unless taken in 
very large doses, as an ounce or more ; and therefore, to them, this 
pulp is rarely given alone, but usually in combination with some 
more active purgative. It has been observed by some, that its pur- 
gative quality is remarkably promoted by manna; but this effect 
was never discovered by Dr. Cullen, in his trials — testing its medi- 
cinal virtues. The U. S. Dispensatory recommend it given in 
small doses, in " cases of habitual costiveness." In quantities suffi- 
cient to purge, it occasions nausea, flatulence, and griping. In 
this country, it is very rarely prescribed, except as an ingredient 
in the confection of senna, which is a highly pleasant and useful 
laxative preparation. The dose of the pulp as a laxative, is one or 
two drachms, — as a purge, one or two ounces. 



NAT. ORDER. 

AsperifolicB. 



PULMONARIA OFFICINALIS. COMMON LUNGWORT 

,4 

Clms V. Pentandria. Order I. Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx, prismatic, five-cornered. Corolla, funnel-form- 
ed, with an open throat. 

Spec. Char. Leaves, hirsute. Stetn-leaves, ovate, oblong. Rool- 
leaves, subcordate. 

The root is perennial; the stem is simple, erect, angular, rough, 
and rises about a foot in height ; the stem-leaves are somewhat ovate, 
or rather lanceolate, broad, pointed, hairy, alternate, and on the 
upper side speckled with small whitish spots ; the radical leaves are 
broader and more elongated towards the base ; the Jloiveis are ter- 
minal, fasciculate, and of a reddish purple color ; the calyx is pris- 
matic, rough, and divided at the mouth into five short, pointed, 
segments ; the corolla is funnel-shaped, consisting of a cylindrical 
tube, open at the mouth, and a spreading limb, cut at the margin 
into five obtuse segments ; \he filaments are five, very short, placed 
at the mouth of the tube, and furnished with simple yellow anthers; 
the germen is quadrifid, supporting a tapering style of the length of 
the calyx, and crowned with a blunt notched stigma ; the seeds are 
four in number, which are lodged at the base of the calyx. 

This plant, although a native of the eastern part of Europe, is 
found growing wild in many parts of the United States; but not in 
sufficient quantities to supply the shops. In England, and to some 
extent in this country, it is cultivated in gardens for medicinal pur- 
poses ; in which case the leaves become broader, and approach more 

90 



NAT. ORDER. ASPERIFOLI^. 91 

to a cor Jjite sliape, as may be seen by the detached leaves represen- 
ted in the plate. The figure itself, however, represents a specimen 
of the spontaneous growth of this country. Tiie leaves which are 
the part directed for use, are inodorous, but in their recent state 
manifest a shglitly astringent and mucilaginous taste ; hence it 
seems not wholly without foundation, that they liave been supposed 
to be denuilcent and pectoral. The name, Puhnonaria, seems to 
have oi'iginated rather fr(_)m the speckled appearance of the leaves, 
(they resembling that of the huigs,) than from any intrinsic quality 
wliich experience has discovei-ed to be useful in pulmonary com- 
plaints. 

Puhnonaria angustifolia. Narrow-leaved Lungwort. In this 
species tlie leaves are mucli narrower than those of the first sort, 
and covered with soft hairs, not spotted ; the stalks rise about a foot 
m height, and have narrow leaves, nearly the same shape of those 
of the follo\ving species, but a little smaller and almost embracing. 
The flowers aa"e produced in bunches on the top of the stalks, of a 
beautifid blue color. Native of Sweden. 

Palinunary Virginka. Virginian Lungwort. This species has 
a peremiial, thick, tleshy root, sending out many small fibres ; the 
stalks a foot and a half high, dividing at the top into several short 
branches ; the leaves near the root are four or five inches long, and 
from two to three mches broad, smooth, of a light green, and on short 
footstalks ; those upon the stem diminish in their size upwards ; 
they are of the same shape and sessile. Every small branch at the 
top of the stalk is termmated by a cluster of flowers, each standing 
upon a separate short peduncle. The most common color of these 
flowers is blue ; but there are some purple, others red, and some 
white. They appear in April, and if they have a shady situation, 
continue in beauty the most part of May. It grows upon momitains 
in almost every part of North America. 

Pulmonaria mollis. Soft Lmigwort. This species rises not 
more than a foot in height ; calyxes rather longer than the tube of 



92 NAT. ORDER. ASPERIFOLI^E. 

the corolla ; leaves ovate-oblong, half stem-clasping, and clothed with 
downy tonientum; radical ones oblong-lanceolate ; peduncles shorter 
than the floral leaves. The recesses between the lobes of the corolla 
are wider than in Pulmonaria ujjlcinuiis. Color of the flower, the 
same as in the two preceding. This is an intermediate plant be- 
tween Pulmonaria officinalis and Pulmonaria angustifolia, covered 
all over with soft hairs. 

Propagatvni and Culture. All the species of Pulmonaria are 
very pretty plants when in blossom ; and being early flowers, they 
are rather desirable for borders. They are of the most easy culture, 
and will grow in any common garden soil, and are readily increased 
by division. Most of the species grow well under the di-ip of trees, 
and all do best in a shady situation. The seeds should be sown in 
the spring, in a bed or border, raking them in. They soon come up 
and should be transplanted late in summer. 

Medical Properties and Uses. The leaves of this plant have been 
highly esteemed by some, as a pectoral and demulcent, and have 
been employed in catarrh, hcemoptysis, consumption, and other aflfec- 
tions of the chest ; but at present is seldom admiuistcred unless in 
comiexiou with other remedies. A sirup has been prepared of the 
following articles, which has proved highly serviceable in the treat- 
ment of pidmonary aflfections, and coughs of long standing. Take of 
Aralia nudicaulis, Spikenard root, Marruhium vulgarc, Horehound, 
Inula Iielenium, Elecampane, Symphytum offincinale, Comfroy, Pul- 
monaria officinalis, Lungwort, each one poiuid, add a suitable quan- 
tity of water ; boU, and pour off the infusion repeatedly, until the 
strength is all extracted ; then strain and reduce the whole of the 
liquid down to about six quarts, after this add white sugar six 
pomids, and good honey tliree pomids ; clarify it with the whites of 
eggs. Let it stand for twenty-four hours, that it may settle ; add 
one quart good French brandy, and bottle it for use. Dose, — half a 
wine-glassfull, three or four times a day 



% 




'S^/^t^?n/-'^i' Cy/^/^f/'/'^^^' 



y£^/^^^ 






NAT. ORDER. 

Malvacece. 

MALVA SYLVESTRIS. COMMON MALLOW. 

Class XVI. MoNADELPHiA. Ovdcr VII. Polyandria. ' 

Gen. Char. Calyx double ; outer three-leaved. Capsules many, 
united in a depressed whorl, one-celled, one-seeded. 

Spe. Char. Stem prostrate. Leaves cordate, orbiculate, five-lobed. 
Peduncle declininar. 



Ol 



"The root, of the Malva Sylvestris is perennial, thick, long, 
whitish, and furnished with many strong fibres ; the stem is erect, 
round, strong, hairy, branched, and rises from one to three feet in 
height ; the leaves are numerous, roundish, and divided into five or 
seven lobes, unequally serrated or notched at the edges, and stand 
upon long, round, hairy footstalks ; the two stipules are placed at the 
base of each footstalk ; the Jloivcrs are large, consisting of five petals, 
which are inversely heart-shaped, sinuated at the apex, and of a purple 
color, painted with veins of a deeper hue, and stand upon slender pe- 
duncles, which proceed from the bottom of the leaf-stalk ; the calyx 
is double, the outer being composed of three, and the inner of five 
oval, pointed, liairy segments ; the stamens are numerous, united at 
the base in a cylindrical form, above separate, bending downwards, and 
furnished with kidney-shaped anthers ; the germcn is roundish ; the 
style is cylindrical, short, and furnished with many filiform stigmas ; 
the seeds are numerous, of a kidney shape, and covered with a coat 
or arillus, which opens inwardly." — Woodv. Med. Bot., 

This species of Mallow is a native of England, where it grows in 

93 



94 NAT. ORDER. MALVACEAE. 

a1»undance on waste lands and by the side of roads, flowering from 
May till August. It is sometimes cultivated ia om- gardens for medi- 
cinal purposes. 

Malca rotundijlom. Round-leaved Mallow. The stems of this 
j)laut is prostrate ; leaves cordate, orbicular, very bluntly five to seven 
lobed ; fructiferous pedicels bent downwards, and are pubescent as 
well as loot-stalks ; corolla twice the size of the calyx ; flowers pale- 
lilic color, but the kind, said to be a native in cultivated gi'oimds, 
from Pennsylvania to Carolina, has white flowers. This plant is a 
native of most parts of Europe, in waste gromids, and by way sides 
in towns or villages. It is also quite common in some parts of Massa- 
chusetts, and Vermont. It flowers in this country Irom June till 
September. 

Malva circinata. Circiuate-leaved Mallow. This species rises 
about one foot in height ; stem erect, with a few scattered hairs ; 
eaves cordate, crenulated, lower ones kidney- shaped, upper ones 
circiuate, six-lobed ; petioles hispid above ; peduncles solitaiy, one- 
flowered, not half so long as the petioles ; outer leaflets of tlie calyx 
oblong, inner ones ovate, acute, four times shorter than the corolla. 
Native of Corsica. 

Malva Americana. American Mallow. Tliis plant rises from 
one foot to eighteen inches in height ; leaves ovate, acute, crenately 
serrated, rather pilose ; flowers axillary, generally solitary, or in ter- 
minal capitate spikes ; carpels awnless. It is a native of St. Domin- 
go. Flowers m July. 

Malva scabra. Scabrous Mallow. This species is a shrub, ris- 
ing about four feet in height ; leaves ovate-lanceolate, coarsely tooth- 
ed, obsoletely three-lobed, under surface as well as branches scabrous 
with stiUate hairs ; peduncles axillary, generally two-flowered. — 
There is a variety with sessile flowers. Native of Peru, in arid pla- 
ces. Flowers in Jmie and July. 

Propagation and Oidtare. The stove species of MaUmo will 



NAT. ORDER. — MALVACEAE. 95 

^ succeed iu any kind of rich soil with a hand-glass placed over them, 
and cuttings of them will strike root freely if planted in rich soil. 
The green-house species will grow iu the same kind of soil as the 
stove species, and are jjropagated m the same manner ; most of them 
are worth cidtivating for ornament, but particularly those belonging 
to the section Capcnscs. The hai'dy perennial species should be 
planted in the open border, and they may either be increased by 
divicUng the plants at the root, or by seed. The annual species only 
require to be sown in the open ground, but none of them are worth 
cultivating, unless in general collections, except a few of the most 
showy kinds. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Mallow is emollient and demul- 
cent. The infusion and decoction are sometimes employed in catar- 
rhal, dysenteric, and the nephritic complaints ; and applicable to all 
other cases which call for the use of mucilaginous liquids. Several 
varieties are introduced into medical practice, all possessing nearly 
the same properties — Mcdva RotandifoUa, Dwarf Mallow, Malva Syl- 
vcslris. Common Mallow, Althcca Officinalis, Marsh Mallow. The 
last of these abounds with a mucilaginous matter, without smell or 
taste ; the root contains the greatest proportion of this mucilage, from 
which alone it is extracted for medicinal purposes. By boiling the 
sliced roots in water the whole of the mucUaginous parts may be ex- 
tracted ; this is the chief preparation derived from the root. The 
herb and flowers, which are the parts directed for use, have a weak, 
herbaceous, slimy taste, without odor. They abound in mucilage, 
wliich they readily impart to water, and the solution is precipitated 
by acetate of lead. The infusion and tincture of the flowers are 
blue, and serve as a test of acids and alkalies, being reddened by the 
former, and rendered green by the latter. The roots and seeds are 
also mucilaginous. 



NAT. ORDER. 

CompositCB. 



ARCTIUM LAPPA. BURDOCK. 

Class XIX. Syngenesia. Order I. Poltgamia Moxkhis. 

Gen. Char. Receptacle chaffy. Calyx globular; llie scales at the 
apex with inverted hooks. Seed-down bristly, chaffy. 

Spe. Char. Leaves cordate, costate, coriaceous. 

The Burdock is a biennial plant, with a long tapering root, from 
twelve to eighteen inches in length, dark brown externally, but white 
and spongy within, having withered scales near the top ; the stem is 
branching, pubescent, succulent, and two or three feet in height, 
having very large leaves, which are dark green upon their upper sur- 
face, and stand on long footstalks ; the Jloiccrs are globose, purple, 
and arranged in panicles ; the imbricated calyx consists of scales with 
extremities that are hooked, by which they attach themselves to cloth 
and the coats of animals ; the down of the seed is prickly and rough ; 
the bur is many-seeded, and the seeds are quadrangular. 

This plant is a native of the United States, growing in many 
places in great abundance, in pastures, fields, along the road-side, and 
in cultivated grounds ; it flowers in July and August ; the root should 
be dug in the spring, before the leaves start, or in the fall after the 
top is dead, as then it possesses the full strength of the entire plant ; 
the odor of the root is weak and unpleasant ; the taste is mucilaginous 
and sweetish bitter, with a slight degree of astringency ; the seeds 
contain essential oil, and are aromatic, bitterish, and somewhat acrid. 

Medical Properties and Uses. The root, which is principally 

96 





/, <LyoiA^^^ 



J'J^ ^ 9^^^^ ^^ 



NAT. ORDER. — composit.t:. 97 

used, possesses diaphoretic, diuretic, sudorific, and tonic properties. 
It has been successfully used in a great variety of chronic diseases, 
such as rheumatism, scurvy, gout, lues venerea, and nephritic affec- 
tions. A sirup made of the roots has been successfully employed in 
dropsical cases vphere other powerful medicines had been ineffectually 
used ; and as it neither excites nausea, nor increases irritation, it may 
occasionally deserve a trial where more active remedies are improper. 
It is also used as a diuretic, and is said powerfully to promote per- 
spiration. The leaves applied to the feet as drafts, are highly useful 
in many complaints, especially fevers ; they may also be taken green, 
rolled, and saturated with vinegar, and applied as warm as can be 
borne on any part of the body suffering with pain. The leaves may 
be dried and kept for use without losing any of their medicinal 
properties. The root is generally used in decoction, which may be 
made by boiling two ounces of the fresh root in three pints of water 
to two, which, when intended as a diuretic, should be taken in the 
course of two days, or if possible in twenty-four hours. The follow- 
ing sirup, made of the root, I have found highly beneficial in the cure 
of scrofulous and other hereditary diseases : 

Take of the dried root eight oimces, boil in three quarts of water 
down to two ; strain off) and add while warm, one pound of loaf 
sugar and one pint of good gin. Dose — from one table-spoonful to 
a wine-glassful several times a day. 

The root is in considerable demand, and is sold in quantities at 
the drug stores in the city. The best way of curing, is by slicing 
across the root from one fourth to half an inch thick, and then dry- 
ing it. 



- r 



NAT. ORDER. 

Rotaccce. 



HYPERICUM PERFORATUM. ST. JOHN'S WORT. 

Class XVIII. PoLYADELPHiA. Order V. Polyandria. 

Gen. Char. Calyx five-parted. Petals five. Filaments many, con 
nected at the base, in five bundles. 

Spe. Char. Stem ancipital. Leaves blunt, with pellucid dots. 

This species of the Hypericum is found growing abundantly both 
in Europe and in this country, often covering whole fields, and proving 
extremely troublesome to farmers. It usually grows in uncultivated 
fields, from one to two feet in height, producing its tlowers in July and 
August. The root is perennial, ligneous, divided and subdivided into 
numerous small branches, and covered with a straw-colored bark ; the 
stalks are round, smooth, of a light color, and towards the top send 
off many opposite floriferous branches ; the leaves are without foot- 
stalks, and placed in pairs ; they are entire, oval, and beset with a 
great number of minute, transparent vesicles, which have the appear- 
ance of small perforations through the disk, and hence the specific 
name Perforatum ; the Jloicers are numerous, pentapetalous, terminal, 
of a deep yellow color, and grow in a corymbus, or in clusters, upon 
short peduncles ; each petal is of an irregular oval shape, and on the 
under side near the apex is marked with many blackish dots ; the calyx 
consists of five persistent acute leaves ; the stamens are numerous, 
and generally unite at their base into three portions or bundles ; the 
anthers are yellow, and marked with a small black gland, by wliich 
this species of the Hypericum is at once distinguished ; tlie styles are 

98 



NAT. ORDER. ROTACE^. (j'J 

three, and tlie capsule has three cells, which contain many small, ob- 
long, brownish seeds. 

Medical Properties and Uses. The U. S. Dispensatory describes 
St. John's Wort as having a peculiar balsamic odor, wliich is rendered 
more sensible by rubbing or bruising the plant. Its taste is bitter, res- 
inous, and somewhat astringent. It imparts a yellow color to cold 
water, and reddens alcohol and the fixed oils. Its chief constituents 
are volatile oil, a resinous substance, tannin, and coloring matter. As 
a medicine it was in high repute among the ancients, and was much 
employed by the earlier modern physicians. Among the complaints 
for which it was used, were hysteria, mania, intermittent fever, dysen- 
tery, gravel, hemorrhages, pectoral complaints, worms and jaundice ; 
but it was most highly esteemed as a remedy in wounds and bruises, 
for which it was employed both internally and externally. It is diffi- 
cult to ascertain its exact value as a remedy ; but from its sensible 
properties, and from the character of the complaints in which it has 
been thought useful, it may be considered independently of its astrin- 
gency, as somewhat analogous in medical power to the turpentines. It 
formerly enjoyed great reputation for the cure of demoniacs, and the 
superstition still lingers among the vulgar in some countries. At pres- 
ent this plant is but very little used, except by the botanic physicians, 
or as a domestic remedy, and its name is omitted in the Materia Med- 
ica of the last edition of the Edinburgh Pharmacopojia, and in the 
London Pharmacopoeia the flowers only are directed to be used, as 
containing the greatest proportion of the resinous oily matter in wliich 
the medical efficacy of the plant is supposed to reside. The dark 
puncta of the petals and the capsules, afford this essential oil, which is 
contained in minute vesicles or glands. 



NAT. ORDER. 
iMfidm. 



ATROl'A BELLADONNA. DEADLY NIGHT-SHADE. 

Class V. Pentandria. Order I. Monogynia. ' • 

Gen. Chat: Corolla, bcii-slmped. Stamina, distant. Berry, glob- 
ular, two-celled. 

Spe. Char. Stalk, herbaceous. Leaves, oval and entire. 

The Atro])a Belladonna is a native of Europe, where it grows 
in shady places, along the walls and amid rubbish ; it flowers in June 
and July, and ripens its fruit in September ; it is frequently cultiva- 
ted m our gardens, and rises from three to five feet in height. The 
fruit is a roundish berry, contained within the calyx, of a blackish 
color and pulpy, having several kidney-shaped seeds; root thick, 
branching ; stem tinged with pui'ple ; the branches dichotomous ; 
leaves rather large, soft to the touch, and a little hairy on both surfaces ; 
corolla large, lurid, dusky-pm-ple within, and streaked with a yellow 
variegated base, but greenish-red or dusky brown outside. 

Atropa virdiflora. Green-flowered Deadly Night-Shade. This 
IS a twining shrub, rising from ten to twenty feet in height, where it 
can find support ; stem sufli-uticose ; leaves twin, elliptic-ovate, sub- 
acuminated, quite entire, hairy; peduncles two-flowered; flowers, 
drooping ; limb of the corolla ten-cleft ; corolla tubularly fumiel-shap- 
ed, green, three or four times longer than the calyx, hairy, and fur- 
nished with five tubercles on the outside at the base ; filaments 
glabrous, dilated at the base. It is a native of New Granada, be- 
tween the town of Pasto and Chilanquer, on the high lands. 

Atropa aspcra. Rough Deadly Night-^iade. This species rises 

Vol. i.-100. 




^^rr/</o/ t '%r/A/(//rf/:^ . 



// 



NAT. ORDER. LURID^. 



101 



about two feet in heiglit ; stem herbaceous, angular, pilose, branch- 
ed, tlichotomous ; leaves twin, unequal, oval-oblong and lanceolate, 
quite entire or subsinuated, hairy ; peduncles one-flowered, drooping, 
extra-axillary, or in the forks of the stem ; limb of the corolla ten- 
cleft ; corolla yellowish blue, violaceous in the centre, with five of the 
segments acute, and the alternating five emarginate ; filaments hairy, 
violaceous ; berry white, and about the size of a pea ; seeds red. 
Native of Peru, and many other parts of South America, on high 
hills. 

When this plant was found to differ from the genus Solanum, 
it assumed the Italian name of Belladonna, which was given to it, 
according to some, because it was used as a wash among the ladies, 
to take off pimples from the skin ; or, according to others, from its 
quality of representing phantasms or beautiful women to the disturb- 
ed imagination. The qualities of the plant are malignant, and it is 
extremely poisonous in all its parts. Buchanan relates the destruc- 
tion of the army of Sweno, the Dane, when he invaded Scotland, by 
the berries of this plant, which were mixed with the drink which 
the Scots, according to truce, were to supply the Danes. The Danes 
became so inebriated that the Scottish army fell on them in their 
sleep, and slew such numbers, that there was scarcely men enougli 
left to carry off the king. The case related by Ray is remarkable, 
that is, the dilatation of the pupil of the eye caused by a part of the 
leaf applied outwardly, and which took place successively on the 
repetition of the experiment. When the berries or any other part 
of the plant have incautiously been eaten, the general sensibility of 
the system is said to be weakened to a great degree, so that the 
stomach will bear a far larger dose of emetic medicines than it 
woidd otherwise have done. Vinegar liberally drank has been 
found efficacious in obviating the effects of tlie poison. A remarka- 
ble instance of tlie malignant powers of tlie young shoots, occurred 
in the presence of Professor Martyn, in tlie botanic garden at Cam- 



102 NAT. ORDER. LURID^. 

bridge, which fully proved that they are not less deleterious than 
the berries. 

Belladonna has been best analized by Mr. Brandes, an apothe- 
cary at Salz Ufrelni, who has discovered a new alkaloid upon which 
its narcotic ^artues depend, which he calls atropia. He urges the 
necessity of caution in the examination of atropia and its salts. 
Even the vapor of their solutions causes dilatations and paralyses 
of the pupil ; anil during the whole time of the experiments, Mr. 
Brandes experienced violent headache, vertigo, pain of back, and 
nausea, so that he coiUd scarcely continue them. On tasting 
a small quantity of sulphate of atropia, which was rather salt 
than bitter, he had extreme confusion of the head, trembling in all 
his limbs, pulse weak, and at last retching. But the most severe of 
these symptoms abated in half an hour. 

Propagation and Culture. The species of airopa are of an 
easy culture and propagation. They will grow in common earth. 
The shrubby kintls are increased by cuttings or seeds, and 
the herbaceous perennial kinds by seeds, or by dividing at the 
roots. 

Medical Properties and Uses. The whole of tliis plant possesses 
poisonous qualities. The berries have a sweetish taste, rather sick- 
ly, leaving a sense of acrimony on the tongue ; the berries, though 
less powerful, are a narcotic poison, and furnish us vrith many in- 
stances of their fatal effects, particularly upon children, who are 
tempted to eat this fruit by its alluring appearance and sweet taste. 
After they have been swallowed a short time the child is seized with 
symptoms of intoxication, delirium, excessive tliirst, nausea, retchmgs, 
grinding of the teeth, and convulsions ; the pupil becomes dilated and 
immoveable, and an almost insensibility of the eye to external objects ; 
the face becomes red and swelled, with spasmodic contractions of the 
jaw; to these symptoms succeed subsultas tendinum paleness of the 
face, coldness of the extremities, with a small, quick pulse, and the 



NAT. ORDER. LURIDTl. JOb 

child will sometimes fall a victim. The symptoms are less urgent 
when taken in small quantities, and sometimes the only one present is 
temporary intoxication. 

In cases of this kind the first object is to excite vomiting, and as 
the stomach is very torpid it requires powerful emetics ; free use of 
the lobelia ivflata most usually gives relief; when the stomach is 
cleared, give saline purgatives, and after this, vegetable acids. Where 
death has been produced by these berries, the stomachy intestines and 
liver have been found inflamed; and although this plant is so pernicious 
to man, it is eaten with impunity by some other animals. The sen- 
sible effects produced by the leaves of this plant taken in medicinal 
doses, are usually by the skin, the urinary passages, and sometimes by 
stool ; in larger doses troublesome dryness of the mouth and throat, 
giddiness, and dimness of sight are experienced. That the advantages 
derived from the internal use of Belladonna are only in proportion to 
the evacuations effected by it, is a conclusion we cannot admit as suf- 
ficiently warranted by the facts adduced upon this point. 

As this plant is very uncertain in its operation, the proper dose is 
with difficulty ascertained. The most prudent manner of administer- 
ing it is by beginning with one grain or less, which may be gradually 
increased according to its effects. Although a powerful narcotic, it 
likewise possesses some diaphoretic and diuretic properties. CuUen 
speaks of its being very useful in cancer, and even asserts that this 
destructive disease has been cured by it ; subsequent trials of it, how- 
ever, have not been attended with equal success, and we therefore 
think that no reliance can be placed on it as a remedy, capable of pro- 
ducing a radical cure. Applied to the eyelids in the form of extract, 
it produces great dilatation of the pupil, and on this account it has 
been used to render the operation for cataract less difficult 



" .» 

't'f 



NAT. ORDER. 

TrihilatCB. 



TROPiEOLUM MAJUS. INDIAN CRESS. 

Class VIII. OCTANDRIA. OrdcT I MONOGYNIA. 

Gen. Char. Calyx one-leaved, with a spur. Petals four, unequal. 
Nuts three, coriaceous. 

Spe. Char. Leaves peltate, repend. Petals obtuse. 

The root of the Indian Cress is annual ; the stalk is trailing, 
climbing, round, branched, smooth, succulent, and grows to several feet 
in length ; the leaves are roundish, marked by several radiated ribs, 
entire obscurely five-lobed, and stand single upon long bending foot- 
stalks, which are attached to the centre of each leaf; the Jioiccrs are 
large, solitary, of a tawny yellow, and stand upon long peduncles ; the 
calyx is yellowish, large, forming a horn-like nectarium behind, and 
divided at the mouth into five irregular segments, which are acute, 
erect, and striated ; the corolla consists of five petals, which are round- 
ish, and the two uppermost bent backwards, marked with black lines 
at the base, and inserted into the segments of the calyx ; the three un- 
dermost have long claws or ungues, and are bearded at the base ; fil- 
aments eight, which are yellow, tapering, and spreading ; tlie anthers 
are yellow, ovate, and four-celled ; the gcrmcn is triangular ; style 
simple, erect, and yellow ; stigma bifid ; fruit three, adhering, berries, 
compact, externally striated, containing three irregular shaped seeds. 
Its flowers appear from June till October. 

This plant is a native of Peru, growing wild in tlie low lands and 

on the borders of small streams. It was first introduced into France 
104 



NAT. ORDER. — TRIHILAT^. 105 

in the year 1684, and there called Le Grand Capuchie ; two years 
afterwards it was introduced into Eiu-ope by Dr. Lumley Lloyd, and 
since that time has been constantly cidtivated in the English gardens, 
both as an ornament and a luxury ft)r the table. 

In its recent state this plant, and more especially its flowers, 
have a smell and taste resembluig those of water-cress, and the leaves 
on beuig bruised, emit a pungent odor, similar to that of horse-racUsh. 
By distillation with water they impregnate the fluid to a considera- 
ble extent with the smeU and flavor of the plant. The flowers are 
very much used in salads, and the capsules are by many highly 
esteemed as a pickle. Elizabeth Christina, daughter of the celebra- 
ted Linnaeus, we are informed by her father, observed the flowers 
of the great Indian-cress to emit spontaneously, at certain intervals, 
sparks like electric ones, visible only in the evening. If this be the 
case in this plant, it is probable the whole possess the property more 
or less. 

Tropceolum tricolorum. Three-colored Indian-Cress. This is a 
climbing plant ; the roots tuberous, and very much depressed ; stem 
slender, climbing, branched ; leaves peltately divided ; segments from 
six to seven, ovate entire, cuspidate ; petioles cirrhose ; petals yel- 
low, unguiculate, a little longer tiian the rather closed permanent 
calyx, obtuse, and quite entire ; calyx permanent, of an orange-scar- 
let color, tipped with black, with a long straight spur. This is the 
most showy of all the species. Native of ChUi. Flowers from 
June till October. 

TropcBolum aduncmn. Hooked-spurred or Frmged-flowered 
Indian-Cress. This is a climbing species; leaves peltate-nerved, 
somewhat kidney-shaped, with from five to seven lobes, which are 
mucronatc ; petals yellow, but a little longer than the calyx ; uppei 
petals lobed, nmcronate, three lower ones smaller, and somewhat 
fringed ; the spur is hooked, and about the length of the upper petals. 
Native of Peru and Mexico. This species is cultivated at Gibraltar, 
in the open air, where it is called canary-bird flower. 



106 NAT. ORDER. TRIIIILAT^. 

Propagation and Culture. All the species of Indian-Cress are 
very showy, therefore they are desirable plants in every collection. 
The green-house and frame species will thrive in any light rich soU, 
and cuttings will root freely if planted in tlie same kind of soil, under 
a liand-glass. The aimual kuids should be sown in the open ground 
in April. In fact, all the species may be either increased by seeds 
or cuttings, whether said to be annual or pereimial, because those 
species said to be annual ai-e permanent when protected from the 
frosts in winter. The sjiecies are all climbing when sup])orfod, but 
if not, Ihey are prosti'ate. All the tuberous-rooted kinds \\ ill grow 
well in a light soU in the open air, in a sheltered situation, all the 
summer, and in winter the roots may be taken up and kept in dry 
sand, mitil the spring, when they may again be planted out into the 
open ground. 

Medical Properties and Uses. The root, stalk, and leaves, have 
been considered to possess diaphoretic, diiu-etic, expectorant, and 
emeuagogue properties, and have on that account been prescribed in 
the treatment of dropsies, nephritis, enteritis, cystitis, scrofula, and 
various eruptions of the skin. Hence the auti-scorhutic character of 
the uastm'itium seems to be well founded, at least so far as we are 
able to judge from its sensible qualities ; therefore in all these cases 
where the warm anti-scorbutive vegetables are recommended, this 
plant may be occasionally adopted as a pleasant, safe, and effectual 
variety. Patients to whom the taste of water-cress or scurvy-grass 
is nauseous or offensive, may find a grateful substitute in the nastu- 
ritium. The expressed juice may be taken in a dose of half an 
ounce, or prepared in an extract and taken in the form of piUs, two or 
three a day. 




f^/( !^' ' 



y////// 



NAT. ORDER. 

LibiacecB. 



TULIPPA OCULIS SOLIS. SCARLET TULLP 

Class VI. Hexandria. Order I. Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Corolla, six-petalled. campanulated, with a longitudi- 
nal nectarious line. Capsule, the valves connected by cancel- 
lated hair. 

Sj)e. Char. Leaves, from three to five, fleshy, smooth and pointed. 

The J'oof is a large bulb, from vv^hich proceed several succulent 
fibres ; the stem is firm, round, upright, simple, and rises from three 
to four feet in height ; the leaves are long, narrow, pointed, fleshy, 
smooth, without footstalks, and placed at the base of the stem ; the 
jlower is large, of a deep red, and terminates the stem ; it has no 
calyx', the corolla is bell shaped, consisting of si-s. petals, which are 
of a beautiful, shining, scarlet red color, but without, ridged, and of 
a less luminous appearance ; the filaments are six, tapering, much 
shorter than the corolla, upon which are placed large orange-colored 
anthers ; the style is longer than the filaments, and furnished with a 
fleshy triangular stigma ; the germen becomes an oblong capsule, 
marked with six furrows, and divided into three cells, which contain 
numerous flatish, semicircular-form seeds. It flowers in June and 
July. 

This species of tulip is a native of Persia, and was once con- 
sidered the dearest and most beautiful flower on which the sun 
ever shone. From Persia it was introduced into Holland, about 
the middle of the seventeenth century, and such was the mania 

for particular sorts in that country, that a single bulb was sold for 

107 



108 NAT. ORDER. LIBIACEiE. 

twenty thousand dollars. By this floral gambling it is said that 
the city of Harlem derived more than ten million pounds ster- 
ling, in less than three years. The flowers were varigated by 
placing the bulbs in a peculiar soil, although it is probable that this 
art was confined to a few. It is now cultivated in France and 
some parts of England ; but it is not known in this country. The 
flowers have a very sweet, pleasant, odor, and were formerly used 
for medicinal purposes ; a watery distillation of them was employed 
as a cosmetic, and the oil was supposed to possess anodyne and 
nervine powers ; but the odorous matter of the flowers is of a very 
volatile kind, being totally dissipated by drying, and entirely car- 
ried off in evaporation by rectified spirit as well as water ; and 
though both menstrums become impregnated with their agreeable 
odor by infusion or distillation, yet no essential oil could be obtained 
from several pounds of the flowers. It is therefore the roots only 
which are now directed for use by the Edinburgh college : they 
are extremely mucilaginous, and are chiefly used, boiled in milk or 
water, in emollient and suppurating cataplasms. Dr. Alston thinks 
that the roots are of the nature, and possess nearly the properties 
of squills. Godorus, sergeant-surgeon to Clueen Elizabeth, it is 
said, cured large numbers of dropsical people, by giving them 
bread in which the tulip roots were baked. I have myself admin- 
istered the tulip root in many cases of chronic inflammation of the 
bowels, and found it highly serviceable; also in inflammation of 
the kidneys and bladder, and many other diseases, where a diuretic 
was required, I have found it equally valuable. It possesses astrin- 
gent, diuretic, and diaphoretic properties. It was employed at 
one time, in Holland, to a great extent as a remedy fcr dysenteria 
and long standing weaknesses of the bowels, but at the present 
time is but little known in practice, as many articles much easier 
obtained will answer the same purpose. 




7 .^^^ ^^z<pa^ 
2 .^^^^^^^^-^ ^.^m^^<m^^-^ 



NAT. ORDER. 

SenticoscB 



ROSA CANINA. DOG ROSE, OR HEP TREE. 

Class XII. IcosANDRiA. Order V. Polygynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx, pitcher-shaped, five-cleft, fleshy, contracted at 
the neck. Petals, five. Seeds, numerous, hispid, affixed to the 
inner side of the calyx. 

Spe. Char. Fruit, ovate. Peduncles, glabrous. Stalk and Petioles, 
prickly. 

This small tree usually rises from ten to twelve feet in height, 
dividing toward the top into many spreading branches, covered 
with a smooth bark, and beset with alternate hooked prickles ; the 
leaves are pinnated, consisting of two or three pair of pinnae, or leaf- 
lets, with an odd one at the end — they are all of an oblong or oval 
shape, serrated, veined, pointed, growing close to the common foot- 
stalk, which is prickly, and at its base furnished with a sheathy 
expansion, fringed at the edges ; the bractece are oval shape, fringed, 
and placed in pairs at the peduncles, which are smooth; thejloweis 
are large, terminal, two or three together, and of a reddish or fleshy 
color ; the calyx is pitcher-shaped at its base, fleshy, separated 
above into five long expanding divisions, subdividing into smaller 
segments ; the corolla consists of five inversely heart-shaped petals ; 
the filaments are numerous, slender, short, inserted in the calyx, and 
furnished with triangular anthers; the ger?nens are numerous, in the 
l)ottom of the calyx, supplied with an equal number of styles, which 
are villous, short, compressed in th» neck of the calyx, inserted in 
the side of the germen, and terminated with obtuse stigmas ; the 

109 



no NAT. ORDER. SENTICOSiE. 

fruit is a fleshy, smooth, oval berry, flesh-colored, formed of the tubu- 
lar part of the calyx, and contains many long round seeds. It is a 
native of England, and is usually found growing in woods and 
hedges, flowering in June and the early part of July. 

The flowers of this shrub make a very conspicuous and beau- 
tiful appearance, when they are cultivated either as an ornament in 
the garden, or in the hedge, where they are so extensively grown. 
The fruit, called heps or hips, has a sourish taste, and in some parts 
of England is very much used in preparing a conserve ; for this 
purpose the seeds and chaflTy fibres are to be carefully removed, for, 
if these prickly fibres are not entirely scraped off from the internal 
surface of the fruit, the conserve is liable to produce great irrita- 
tion on the primse viae. 

Medical Properties and Uses. The officinal preparation of the 
fruit of this tree, is considered by modern practitioners to possess 
but little, if any, medicinal virtue, although it is extensively used in 
some parts of Europe, and highly esteemed as useful in many disor- 
ders, as dropsies, calculous complaints, dysenteries, haemorrhages, 
etc., but at the present time it is not considered of sufficient impor- 
tance, to place much reliance on its powers. It is agreeable to the 
taste, and well suited to give form to the more active articles of the 
Materia Medica. 



NAT. ORDER. 

Composites. 

ANTHEMIS PYRETHRUM. SPANISH CHAMOMILE. 

Class XIX. Syngenesia. Order II. Polygamia Superflua. 

Gen. Char. Receptacle, chafFy. Seed-down, none, or a membranous 
margin. Calyx, hemispherical, nearly equal. Florets, oH the 
ray more than five 

Spe. Char. Stems, simple, one-flowered, decumbent. Leaves, 
many times pinnated. 

The root is perennial, tapering, long, externally brown, and 
sends off several small, whitish, fibres ; the stems are simple, round, 
trailing, bearing but one flower, and rise about a foot in height ; 
the leaves are double, pinnate, with narrow, nearly linear segments, 
of a pale green color ; the Jlowers are large, at the disc, of a yellow 
color, at the radius, white on the upper side, on the under side, of 
a purple color — the different florets answer to the description given 
of the Anthemis nobilis. It flowers in June and July. 

This plant is a native of the Levant, and the southern parts of 
Europe ; it was first cultivated in England by Lobel, in the year 
1570, since which time it has been introduced into France, and 
some parts of the United States ; but does not ripen its seeds here, 
unless the season proves very long and dry. The root is the part 
considered as officinal, and used under the name of Pellitory of 
Spain ; it has a very hot pungent taste, without any sensible smell ; 
its pungency resides in a resinous matter, of the more fixed kind, 
being extracted completely by rectified spirit, and only in small 
part by water, and not being carried off, in evaporation or distilla- 
tion by either menstrum. 

'' in 



112 NAT. ORDER. — COMPOSITE. 

We are told that the ancient Romans employed this root as a 
pickle ; and indeed it seems much less acrid than many other sub- 
stances now employed for this purpose. The ancient Egyptians 
held this plant in such high repute, that they dedicated it to the 
cuz'ing of agues; their experience and success, in the administra- 
tion of this medicine, gained for it a reputation that placed it very 
high in their estimation ; they employed it with great success in 
the treatment of disease of the Pleura. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Spanish camomile, or Pellitory, 
is a jjowerful irritant, almost exclusively used as a sialagogue in 
certain forms of rheumatism, neuralgic affections of the face, head- 
ache, toothache, etc., or as a local stimulant in palsy of the tongue 
or tliroat. In its recent state, this root is not so pungent as when 
dried, yet, if applied to the skin, it is found to act similar to the 
bark of mezereon, and in four days produces inflammation of the 
part. 

From the aromatic and stimulating qualities of Pyrethrum, 
there can be no doubt but that it may be found an efficacious 
remedy, and equally fitted for an internal medicine, as many others 
of this class now so extensively prescribed. Its use, however, has 
long been confined to that of a masticatory, for, on being chewed, 
or long detained in the mouth, it excites a glowing heat, stimulates 
the excretories of saliva, and thereby produces a free discharge. 
It is also a valuable external application for sprains, bruises, swell- 
ings, rheumatism, contracted muscles, tumors, etc., and for this pur- 
pose it is generally employed in the form of a nei've ointment. For 
many purposes it may be chewed, or employed as a gargle in 
decoction or vinous tincture. The dose, as a masticatory, is from 
30 grains to a drachm. 

In a very ancient but valuable medical work, published in 
London, in the year 1610, by William Salmond, M. D., we find 
several pages of this extensive English Herbal devoted exclusively 
to the medicinal virtues of this plant. 



NAT. ORDER. 

Linacea. 



LINTJM USITATISSIMUM. COMMON FLAX. 

Class V. Pentandria. Order V. Pentagynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx five-leaved. Petals five. Capsules five-valved, 
ten-celled. Seeds solitary. 

Spe. Char. Calyx and capsules mucronate. Petals crenate. Leaves 
lanceolate, alternate. Stem generally solitary. 

The root is annual, simple and fibrous ; the stalk is erect, round, 
smooth, branched towards the top, and rises from one to two feet in 
height ; the branches are simple, alternate, and terminated by the 
flowers, which are solitary, and of a sky-blue color ; the leaves are 
lance-shaped, acute, sessile, smooth, glaucious, vertical, and alternately 
scattered over the stalk and branches ; the calyx is divided into five 
segments, which are semi-lance-shaped, pointed, and slightly fringed 
with small hairs ; the corolla is funnel-shaped, consisting of five petals, 
which are large, obovate, striated, and minutely scolloped at their ex- 
tremities ; i\i& filaments are five, tapering, upright, about the length of 
the calyx, united at the base, and crowned with simple anthers ; the 
germen is oval ; the five styles are filiform, erect, and furnished with 
reflected stigmas ; the capsule is globular, divided into five valves and 
ten cells ; the seeds are solitary, glossy, and of a flat, oval sliape. It 
is supposed to be a native of Egypt, and by some was thought to be 
obtained from the great plains of central Asia. It flowers in June and 
July, and ripens its fruit in August. Both the seeds and oil expressed 
from them are oflficinal. 

113 



114 NAT. ORDER. LINAOEiE, 

Flax is an article of such extensive utility for various economical 
purposes, that the plant which furnishes it has obtained the trivial 
name of usitatissimum ; and when it is considered tliat its seeds 
afford an oil equally useful in arts and in medicine, it may well be 
deemed an object of national importance. Sensible of this, the society 
for the encouragement of arts, manufactures and commerce, in Eng- 
land, has laudably endeavored to promote and extend its cultivation 
throughout the different parts of Europe, and not without success, as 
it is now extensively cultivated there as well as in most parts of the 
United States. The seed, which is directed for medical use, especially 
the interior part or nucleus, is very rich in a peculiar oil, which is 
separated by expression, and very extensively used in the various arts. 
The ground seed can be found in the different shops, under the name 
o^ flaxseed meal. This is of a dark grey color, highly oleaginous, 
and when mixed with warm water forms a very soft, pliable, adhesive 
mass, which is much employed by practical chemists for luting. The 
cake which remains after the expression of the oil, usually called oil- 
cake, still retains the mucilaginous matter of the envelope, and affo'-di' 
a highly nutritious food for cattle. This is the Lini Farina of tne 
Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia. 

Medical Properties and Uses. "Flax-seed is demulcent and 
emollient. The mucilage obtained by infusing the entire seed in boil- 
ing water, in the proportion of half an ounce to the pint, is much and 
very advantageously employed in catarrh, dysentery, nephritic and 
calculous complaints, strangury, and other inflammatory affections of 
the mucous membranes of the lungs, intestines, and urinary organs. 
By decoction water extracts also a portion of the oleaginous matter, 
which renders the mucilage less fit for administration by the mouth, 
but superior as a laxative enema." 



NAT. OEDER. 

LuridcB. 

CAPSICUM ANNUM. GUINEA PEPPER. 

Class V. Pentandria. Order I. Monogvnia. 

Gen. CJiar. Coro/fc, wheel-shaped, ^^rry, without juice. 

Spe. Char. Siem, herbaceous. Peduncles, solitary. 

The root is annual ; the stem is thick, roundish, smooth, crooked, 
branched, and rises four or five feet in height; the leaves are ellipti- 
cal or egg-shaped, pointed, veined, smooth, and placed in no regu- 
lar order upon long footstalks; thejloioers are solitary, white, and 
stand at the axillae of the leaves, upon long peduncles ; the calyx is 
persistent, angular, tubular, and cut at the extremity into five short 
segments ; the corolla is monopetalous, wheel-shaped, consisting of 
a short tube, divided at the limb into five segments, which are 
spreading, pointed and plated; the five,^/tf;ree«^5 are short, tapering, 
and furnished with oblong anthers ; the gennen is egg-shaped, and 
supports a slender style, which is longer than the filaments, and 
terminated by a blunt stigma ; the capsule is a long conical pod, or 
berry, of a shining redish color, separated into two cells, which 
contain several flat kidney-shaped seeds. It is a native of both 
the Indies, and flowers in June and July. 

This species of Capsicum, and nearly all its varieties, are now 
cultivated in various parts of Europe. Some varieties have been 
introduced into the United States, where it thrives equally well, but 
does not ripen its fruit unless in the southern parts ; the fruit 
varies both in shape and color, that which is of a conical form, and 
of a redish or orange color is prefered. Its taste is extremely pun- 
gent and acrimonious, setting the mouth as it were on fire, which 

115 



116 NAT. ORDER. LURIDA^. 

sensation lasts for a considerable time. It gives out its pungency 
to rectified spirit, together Avitli a pale yellowish red tincture ; the 
spu'it, gently distilled off, has l)ut little impregnation from the Capsi- 
cum, and leaves an oily extract wliich is insupportably fiery. 

Capsicum is called PiinoU in French, Sjjanischr jifcffei', in Ger- 
man, Peberone in Italian, Chilli in Mexico, and Tschili in Hindostan. 
There are three species in general cultivation. Cajysicum annuuin, 
the Guinea pepper, though a native of India, endures our climate in 
summer. The Capsicum ccrusifonne, the cherry -pepper, is also an 
annual, standing our climate in sunnner ; and is known by its small 
cherry-shaped fruit, which is sometimes heart-shaped or angular ; in 
color red or yellow. Capsicum grossum, the belb-pepper, a biennial, 
and in common cultivation throughout this country ; the berries of 
this kind are large, red or yellow. 

Capsicum frutescens. ChQli Pepper. This is a shrub, I'isiug 
from two to three feet in height ; berry conically attenuated, incurv- 
ed, long, pointed, red or copper-colored, or redish-yellow ; leaves 
oval acuminated at both ends ; petioles and branches Avhich arc 
downy, angular ; corolla white. This species also fm'nishes the cay- 
enne-pepper of the shops ; and is nmch used in many parts of Eu- 
rope. The ripe pods are dried in the sun, and then in an oven after 
bread is baked, in an earthen or stone pot, with flower between the 
strata of pods. When quite dry they are cleaned from the flower, 
and beaten or ground to fine powder. To every ounce of this, a 
pound of wheat flower is added, and it is made into small cakes with 
leaven ; these are baked again, that they may be as dry and as hard 
as a biscuit, and then are beaten into powder and sifted. It is then 
fit for use as a pepper, or for being packed in a compressed state, 
and so as to exclude air for exportation. Native of India. Flowers 
from June till September. 

Capsicum globiferum. Globe Chili Pepper. This species rises 
about two feet high ; branches glabrous, terete, tubular ; leaves rather 
scabrous on both surfaces, downy while young, twin or solitary, 



NAT. ORDEU. LURID.E. 117 



ovate, acuminated at both ends, sulx-iliatcd ; flowers minute, droo[)- 
iug ; berry aljout the size of a small cherry, of a pale yellow color 
This is supposed by some to be the true hacatuni. Native in plan- 
tations about the Essequibo. Flowers in June and July. 

Propagation and Culture. All the species, with their varieties, 
are raised from seed ; a small pai'cel, or the produees of two pods, 
will be a suflicient quantity of each or of any one variety for ordi- 
nary supply. Sow all the annual sorts at the end of March, or the 
begimiing or iiiiudle of April, in a moderate hot-bed under a frame. 
Cover the seed a quarter of an inch deep. When the plants are two 
or three inches in growth, prick some into a new, moderate hot-bed, 
to forward them for final ti'ansplantiug ; or in default of this, prick 
them into a bed of natm'al eai'th, at the beginning of May, if fnie, 
settled, warm weather ; defend them with a frame or awning of 
mats at night, or in cold weather. Give water lightly at planting, 
and occasionally afterwards in moderate supplies, to assist their fresh 
rooting and subsequent growth. At the beginning of June, when tlie 
weather is settled warm, transplant them into the open garden, in 
beds of light, rich earth, from tAvelve to eighteen inches apart, giving 
water. They will thus advance freely. Flowers in July or August 
and produces plenty of pods from August till the end of September. 
Under the deficiency of a hot-bed or stove, or for succession, annual 
capsicums may be raised in a bed of light, rich earth under a hand- 
glass ; but the sowing must be deferred till fine, warm weather in 
May. Give the plants air in the day, but cover them close at night 
till danger from frost is over. At the close of June transplant as 
above. The perennial and shrubby species may be wintered in the 
stove. To save seed, leave one or two of tlie largest and handsom- 
est shaped pods to ripen in autumn ; after gathering them the best 
way is to hang them up in a dry place, and not take out the seeds 
tiU wanted for sowing in Spring. 

The green pods, or inflated berries of all the species, and their 
varieties, wliich are very numerous, are used medicinally for pick- 



118 NAT. ORDER. LURID.E. 

ling. They are sometimes used in their ripe state, when they form a 
spice of hottest quality, known by the name of Cayenne Pepper, and 
in tliis form it enters various compounds in medicine. The fruit of 
Capsicum grossum are deemed better for pickling than the others, 
the skin being thick, pulpy and tender. 

Medical Properties and Uses. The use of this and the other 
species of Capsicum, which have long been employed for culinary 
purposes, have but lately been adopted as a medicine. Cayeiine 
Pepper, which is now so extensively at our tables, is the fruit of Cap- 
sicum baccatum (Bird pepper) and differs not materially in its effects 
from that of the species here given, for which it is often substi- 
tuted. In hot climates, particularly in the West Indies and in some 
parts of Spanish America, the Capsicum is eaten both with animal 
and vegetable food in large quantities, and it enters so abundantly 
into their sauses, that to a person unaccustomed to eat them, their 
taste is intolerably hot. But in the climates of which the Capsi- 
cum is a native, we are told that the free use of it is a salutary 
practice, it being found to strengthen the stomach and assist diges- 
tion. As an aromatic of the most acrid and stimulant kind, it 
certainly is highly valuable, and can be employed to great advantage 
in the treatment of rheuinatic and gouty cases, or to promote 
excitement, where the bodily organs are languid and torpid. Mat- 
son says. Capsicum "is the best and most efficient stimulant known, 
and though freely employed, does not occasion any of the evil 
consequenses which flow from the use of acrid, narcotic, or poison- 
ous stimulants. Taken into the stomach, it produces a pleasant 
sensation of warmth in that organ, which soon diffuses itself 
throughout the whole system." It has the effect to equalize the 
circulation, and hence its value in fever, inflammation, and all those 
diseases which depend upon a morbid increase of blood in any 
particular part of the body. By its equalizing influence, it reduces 
a full and bounding pulse, or gives it force and vigor where it is 
threat-like and feeble. 





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NAT. ORDER. 

Gentianacea. 



GENTIANA PURPUREA. PURPLE GENTIAN. 

Class V. Pentandria. Order II. Digynia. 

Gen. Char. Corolla, monopetalous. Capsules, superior, two-valved, 
one-celled, with two longitudinal receptacles. 

Spe. Char. Corolla, five-cleft, rotate, virticillate. Calyx, spathace- 
ous. 

The root is perennial, cylindrical, slender, branched, exter- 
nally brown, or dark, and internally of a pale yellowish color ; the 
stem is erect, simple, smooth, strong, succulent, and rises from 
twelve to eighteen inches in height; the lower leaves are nearly 
eliptical, ribbed, and entire ; the upper leaves stand in pairs, sheath- 
like, they are concave, pointed, ribbed, and embrace the stem, en- 
closing the flowers ; the jloicers are large, purple, and stand in 
whorls, upon short peduncles, ; the calyx opens lengthwise, and falls 
off late in the autumn ; the corolla is bell-shaped, purplish, plicated, 
and divided at the limb into five ovate dotted segments; the_^/a- 
ments are most usually five, about the length of the germen, and 
furnished with long, erect, tapering anthers ; the germen is oblong ; 
the style is cleft with reflexed points, and furnished with a blunt 
stigma ; the capsule is ovate, two-celled, and contains numerous small 
seeds. 

This species of gentian is a native of the Alps, and was first 

introduced into England for cultivation by Professor de Saussure 

in the year 1768, since which time it has found its way into France, 

Spain, and some parts of the United States, Rafensque says it is 

H9 



120 NAT. ORDER. GENTIANACE^. 

found growing wild in great abundance from Carolina to Alabama, 
and West Kentucky, in glades and open plains, it is also cultivated 
in hot houses and gardens, but chiefly as an ornament. 

The root alone is the part medicinaly employed, and so exactly 
resembles that of the yellow or common oflScinal Gentian, that it is 
almost impossible to distinguish them apart; and in some countries 
where the latter is scarce, the former is employed in its stead. 

Medical Properties and Uses. The medical character of this 
plant is to be regarded precisely the same as that of the gentiana 
lutea, which is now so universally used as a bitter. This root ranks 
high as a tonic, and also possesses sudorific, anticeptic, corroborant, 
and cathartic properties. It appears to have been in constant use 
from the earliest times ; but its virtues (as is frequently the case 
with other remedies) were held in too high estimation by the 
ancients. As a tonic it may be administered with the best effects 
in dj^spepsia, particularly where there is weakness of the stomach : 
also in debilitated states of the constitution, brought on from various 
causes, or in diseases which exhaust the power of the S3"stem, as 
diarrhoea, dropsy, fevers, hysteria, scrofula, worms, &c. Many dys- 
peptic complaints, though arising from debility of the stomach, are 
more effectually relieved by bitters than by peruvian bark : and 
hence may be infered their superior tonic powers on the organs of 
dio;estion. 

Gentian Bitters. Take of Gentiana purpurea, Purple Gentian 
one ounce ; Panax quinquefolium. Ginseng two ounces ; Chelone 
glabra, Balmony quarter of an ounce ; Aurantii cortex, Orange peel 
one and a half ounces; put this into one gallon {^ure wine, let it 
stand for two or three days, when it is ready for use. Dose, half 
d, wine glass full, taken usually before eating. This I nave found to 
be one of the most valuable bitters in use, as a strengthening tonic, 
nothing can claim its superior. Those who are reduced from gen- 
eral debility, or other causes, would do well to try this remedy. 
The dose of the powder of the root is from five to ten grains, 



NAT. ORDER. 

MyristicacecB. 

MYRISTICA MOSCHATA. NUTMEG TREE. 

Class XXII. DicEciA. Order XUI. Monadelphia. 

Gen. Char. Male — Calyx, bell-shaped, trifid. Corolla, none. Fila- 
ment, columnar. Anthers, six or ten, united. Female — Calyx, 
trifid, bell-shaped, deciduous. Corolla, none. Style, none. 
Stigma, two. Drupe, a nut involved in an arillus. Mace, with 
one seed. 

Spe. Char. Leaves, oblong, pointed. Fruit, smooth. 

This tree rises about thirty feet in height, and produces numer- 
ous branches ; the trunk is covered with a dark brown bark, but 
that on the branches has a more greenish appearance ; the leaves 
are eliptical, pointed, indulated, entire, obliquely nerved, and placed 
alternately on short footstalks, the color of which is a bright green 
on the upper surface, and grayish beneath, having an aromatic 
taste ; the Jlowers are small and placed on axillary peduncles ; the 
male and female are on separate trees ; in the ?7iale flowers, the Jil- 
aments are short, joined into one bundle, supporting long linear 
anthers, and inserted into the receptacle; in the female the germen 
is superior, oval, covered with a style, which is terminated by two 
stigmas ; the calyx of the male and female is bell-shajied, and divi- 
ded at the brim into three small teeth ; the fruit is an oval berry, 
with a fleshy tough covering, which opens and displays the mace, 
closely investing the shell of the nutmeg. 

The Myristica moschata is a native of the Molucus and its 
neighboring Islands, but is extensively cultivated in Sumatra, Java, 



122 NAT. ORDER. MVRISTICACEiE. 

Penang, and many other parts of the East Indies ; it has also been 
introduced into the Isle of France and Bourbon, the French colony 
of Cayenne, and some of the West India Islands. It commences 
to flower about the eighth or ninth year, after which it continues in 
blossom, and bears fruit of all ages at the same time, which is said 
to continue without intermission for seventy or eighty years, and 
the leaves fall in so small a proportion that their loss is almost insen- 
sible. 

By distillation with water nutmegs yield nearly one third of 
their weight of a limped essential oil, which is very fragrant, and 
of a pale straw color, possessing all the properties of the nutmec;; a 
fatty substance floats on the surface of the water, which has scarcely 
any taste or smell. Alcohol by infusion extracts all its active pro- 
perties. 

Medical Properties mid Uses. Nutmeg is an aromatic, to most 
persons of a grateful odor and taste. By its volatile parts it is a 
medicine of considerable power, possessing all the virtues of the 
other aromatics, both with respect to the alimentary canal, and to 
the whole system. Given in large doses it proves a powerful nar- 
cotic, from two to three drachms of the powdered nutmeg has in 
many instances been known to produce stupor, delerium, and dan- 
gerous if not fatal consequences would follow its free use. Dr. 
Cullen mentions a case where he was an eye witness, of a person 
who by mistake took two drachms of the powdered nutmeg; "he 
felt it warm in his stomach without any uneasiness, but in about an 
hour after, he was seized with a drowsiness, which gradually 
increased to a complete stupor and insensibility; he soon fell from 
his chair on the floor ; being laid in bed he fell asleep, but on wak- 
ing was quite delerious, and thus continued alternately sleeping and 
delerious, for several hours together, after which he recovered." It 
is employed to cover the taste, or correct the operation of other 
medicines, but more frequently as an agreeable addition to farina- 
ceous articles of diet, and to various kinds of drink. 



NAT. ORDER. 

Tricocce. 

CROTON TIGLIUM. PURGING CROTON. 

Class XXI. MoNoECiA. Order VIII. Monadelphia. 

Gen. Char. Male ; Calyx, cylindric, five-toothed. Corolla, five- 
petalled. Stamens, ten to fifteen. Female ; Calyx, many-leaved. 
Corolla, none. Styles, three, bifid. Capsule, triocular. Seed, 
one. 

Sjpe. Char. Leaves, ovate-acuminate, serrated, glabrous, with two 
glands at the base. Petioles, shorter than the leaves. Racemes, 
terminal. Stem, arboreous. 

This species of Croton is a native of Asia ; growing in many 
parts of India, China, the islands of Ceylon, Java, etc. It is a tret 
that seldom exceeds the height of fifteen or twenty feet ; the trunk 
and larger branches are covered with a soft bark, of a blackish 
color — the younger ones are green, with a reddish tinge ; the 
leaves, are alternate, ovate-acuminate, serrated, smooth, and of a 
bright green color when old — downy, with stellated hairs, while 
young — standing upon petioles about one fourth of their length, with 
two glands seated at their base ; xhejloivers are in erect, simple ter- 
minal racemes, with downy pedicels; the calyx in the the 7nale- 
ftotcer, is cylindrical and five-toothed ; the corolla is composed of five 
straw-colored petals, which are very hairy ; the stamens are from 
ten to fifteen; in the female Jlower i\ie calyx is divided into many 
obtuse segments, which are reflected under the downy germen ; 
there is no corolla ; the styles are th-ree and bifid ; the capsule is 
about the size of a hazel-nut, trylocular, smooth, and containing 
three seeds. 

123 



124 NAT. ORDER TRICOCiE. 

The genus croton contains upwards of one hundred and fifty 
species, of which the Tiglium is the only one possessing purgative 
qualities. In Euro])e, the seeds have been long known under the 
names of Gratia Molucca and Grana Tiglii ; the former of which 
names, was derived from the Molucca Islands, whence the seeds 
were formerly exported into Europe. It appears that the natives 
of the Eastern nations have for centuries past been well acquainted 
with the purgative effect of the seeds ; and in Europe they were ior- 
nierly precribed as a drastic purge, but fell into disuse on account 
of the very violent and alarming symptoms which so often occurred 
by their use. Both in this country and Europe, the fixed oil express- 
ed from the seed, has been brought into general use, through the 
exertions of Drs. Conwell, Nimmo, Frost, and others. 

Oil of Croton is of a deep orange color, with a peculiar odor, 
sui genet-is, and an extremely acrid and pungent taste. Dr. Nimmo, 
of Glasgow, found 100 parts of this oil to consist of ]5 per cent, 
of an active purgative principle, soluble in volatile and fixed oils, 
alcohol, and sulphuric ether; and 55 per cent of a bland oil, resem- 
bling oil of olives, insoluble in alcohol. It appears that the croton 
oil which is imported into this country, is usually very much adul- 
terated, either with the oil of olives or castor, and differing in 
strength ten-fold : the consequences of prescribing a medicine of 
such unequal powers must be obvious. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Every part of the Croton Tig- 
lium tree possesses medical properties. Among the Eastern nations 
it is most highly valued for its purgative, diaphoretic, and diuretic 
properties : the roots, as well as the seeds, are powerfully cathartic, 
and very much used in some parts of Europe as a specific for 
dropsy; the wood of the trunk and branches, in small doses, acts 
upon the skin and kidneys ; and the leaves, in powder, are used by 
the Japanese, as a topical remedy for the bites of serpents. In this 
country, the expressed oil is the only part medicinally employed, 
and when genuine, one drop proves a powerful cathartic. 



i 



NAT. ORDER. 

PersonatcB. 

VERONICA BECCABUNGA. BROOKLIME. 

CUiss II. DiANDRiA. Order I. Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Corolla, foui--parted, laciniate. 

Spe. Char. Capsule, biocular. Leaves, ovate, plain. Stalk, up- 
right. 

Brooldlme is a native of the United States, although found in 
some parts of Eiu-ope. It grovrs by the side of brooks, and in moist 
lands, and sometimes in the water. This plant, although very com- 
mon in America, has, I think, never been accurately described by any 
American botanist whatever ; yet some of the works speak of it, but 
not as being officinal. 

The root is perennial, creeping, jointed, and sends forth from each 
joint numerous long slender fibres ; the leaves are thick, oval, smooth, 
ol)tusely serrated, of a pale gi'een color, and stand upon the stem in 
pairs, either sessile, or upon very short footstalks ; tlie stem is round, 
jointed, creeping, smooth, succulent, and usually of a reddish brown 
color, rising from one to two feet in height ; the raceme or Jloicer- 
sp'thcs are lateral, opposite, bracteated, and terminated by the flowers, 
wliich are of a faint blue color, and divided into four small roundish 
leaves ; the calyx is quadrifid. 

Propagation and Culture. The hardy, herbaceous, perennial 
species of Veronica are generally grown in flower borders, for which 
they are well fitted, on account of their beauty ; they are of the most 
easy culture, and are readily increased by division at the roots. The 



126 NAT. ORDER. PERSC NAT.E. 

animal kinds, liaving rather a weed-like appearance, are onlygro^vn 
in botanical gardens ; the seeds of them only require to be sown in 
the open ground. There are some species wliich are natives of 
New Holland, Van Diemen's Land, and New Zealand, which be- 
ing rather tender, require to be treated as green-house plants ; the 
shrubby kinds of these are propagated by cuttings ; the others by 
divisions. 

Medical Properties and Uses. The leaves and stem of Brook- 
lime have a bitter, warm, and somewhat astringent taste ; it has been 
considered diaplioretic, diuretic, expectorant, and tonic, and is said to 
have been employed with considerable success in jx?ctoral and ne- 
phritic complaints, haemorrhages, and diseases of the skin ; it has 
been employed in the fi'esh state in purifying the blood, and as a 
remedy in scurvy. 

Woodville, in describing this plant, says, — " that by a chemical 
analysis they appear to be subacid, and possess some degree of as- 
tringency, but that tliese qualities are common to almost all fresh 
vegetables, and afford no proof of their medical powers." 

This plant was formerly considered useful in several diseases, 
and was applied externally to wounds and ulcers ; but if it possesses 
any peculiar efficacy, it is to be derived from its anti-scorbutic virtue. 
The juice is used as a mild refrigerant where an acrimonious state of 
tile fluids prevail, indicated by prurient eruptions upon the &kin, or 
scurvy ; it is ordered in the London Pharmacopoeia as an ingredient 
in the success of cochliariae compositus, probably with a view to cor- 
rect the pungency of the cress. We must, however, acknowledge, that 
we should expect equal benefit from the same quantity of any other 
bland fresh vegetable matter taken into the system. To derive any 
advantage from it, the juice ought to be used in large quantities, or 
the fresh plant eaten as food. 



NAT. ORDER. 

Lillacece. 



HABRANTHUS ROSEUS. ROSY HABRANTHUS. 

Class VI. Hexandria. Order I. Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Flowers, declined. Anthers, adhering in the middie. 

Style, declined, recurved. Leaves, linear, ovate. Stigma, threts 

lobed. 
Spe. Char. Leaves, glaucous. Flowers^ two, rose-colored, green at 

the base, expanding wide. Filaments, conspicuously, of four 

lengths. Faucial membrane not recorded. 

This is a very highly ornamental plant, with beautiful rich dark 
rose-colored ^oi/7ers ; the leaves are long and glancous, linear-lorate, 
umbel precocious, unequally pedmiculated ; stigma, three-lobed ; cap- 
sule, tubinate ; faucial membrane (as far as is known) never want- 
uig ; Jlower, declined ; perianth, short-tubed, subcampanulate, not 
convolute, more or less patent ; alternate scgmeiUs nearly equal ; Jilor 
ments, properly of four lengths, inserted alike at the mouth of the 
tube, declined, recurved, semi-fasciculate ; faucial membrane (when 
manifested) annular ; aiUlwrs affixed at the middle, incumbent, versa- 
tile ; style, declined. It is a native of Chiloe, whence it was introduo 
ed in 1818. It flowers in June and July. 

Hahraixtkus gracilifoUus. Slender-leaved Habranthus. The btdb 
of this plant is oblong and blackish ; and there are four or five very 
long slender leaves, which are almost cylindical, with a channelled 
line on the inner side. The species is a native of South America, 
near Maldonado, whence it was introduced in 1823, The flowers 
are without scent, and two or more are produced from each scape ; 

137 



128 Nat. order. — liliace^. 

they are pink, and close at night, expanding partially in the sun, but 
never opening fully ; the tube is very short and green on the outside. 
It flowers in September and October ; and as the leaves only appear 
in November, and continue all the vrinter, it is generally kejit in a 
green-house, though the plants appear hardy. The leaves decay 
about May or June. There is a variety figured and described by Euro- 
pean botanists, which blossoms earlier, and has rather darker and 
more open flowei-s. It was named in honor of Mr. Booth, who dis- 
covered the plant, and states that he is inclined to consider it as half- 
hardy, only requiring protection from frost. The soil round tlie bulbs 
when found, was of a very sandy nature. Mr. Booth adds, that the 
plant seeks a mixture of loam, peat, and sand ; that it flowers in Octo- 
ber, and that the flowers remain in perfection eight or ten days. 

The name of Habrantlms, which is derived from two Greek 
words, " signifying deUcate flowers," is applied to a genus of bulbous 
plants, very nearly allied to Zcp/ir/ranthcs in appearance, but difl'er- 
ing so much botanically, that Mr. Herbert found it impossible to raise 
any hybrid between the two genera. He observes that the flower of 
the Habranthus rises after the dry season of rest, and is followed by 
the leaves, which remain on the plant through the winter, while the 
leaves of the ZcphyraiUhcs appear with the flowers, and fade in the 
winter. Thus though all the chfferent kinds of Habranthus are quite 
hardy, yet as their leaves are in perfection during winter, they must 
be liable to injury, unless they are protected in some manner. 

Propagation and Culture. These plants require, in order to pre- 
pare their blossoms, a hot period of rest, which would be often want- 
ing to them if exposed to our climate. When cultivated in a border, 
they should be covered with a glass frame, to keep them hot and dry, 
in May, June, and July. Mr. Herbert adds, that any covering of 
mats or straw that wiU prevent injury from severe frost, will be suf- 
ficent to protect them in winter ; or they may be taken up when the 
leaves decay, without breaking the fibres, kept in sand and re-set 
three months afterwards. 




-2, j^^^t^i, t * lu^^'^^^^zZ^^h^/c^^'?^^ 



NAT. ORDER. 

ConifercB. 



JUNIPERUS SABINA. COMMON SAVINE 

Class XXII. Di^ciA. Order XIII. Monadelphia. 

Gen. Char. Male : Amcnt ovate. Calyx a scale. Corolla want- 
ing. Stamens three. Female : Calyx three-parted. Petals 
three. Styles three. Berry three-sided, irregular, with the tu- 
bercles of the calyx. 

Spe. Char. Leaves opposite, erect, decurrent ; the oppositions closed. 

This shrub is found growing in some parts of the United States, 
but is a native of the southern parts of Europe and the Levant. It 
occupies high situations, and is cultivated for medicinal purposes. It 
rises three or four feet high, and is covered with a reddish-brown 
bark ; it sends off many branches, which are numerously divided. 
The leaves are small, numerous, opposite, erect, pointed, firm, and of 
a bright green color, terminating the younger branches in sharp points. 
The male and female flowers are on different plants ; the male catkin 
consists of three opposite flowers, placed in a triple row, with a tenth 
flower at the end ; at the base of each flower is a broad scale. The 
filaments are only in the terminal flower ; they are tapering, united at 
the base, and furnished with simple anthers, which are sessile in the 
lateral flowers. In the female, (which our plate represents,) the calyx 
is composed of three permanent scales ; the petals are stiffj sharp, and 
permanent ; the germen supports three with simple stigmas ; ihe fruit, 
when ripe, is a round fleshy berry, of a purple color, tuberculated, and 
containing three small irregular shaped seeds ; it flowers in May and 

129 



130 NAT. ORDER. CONIFERS. 

June. The leaves have a heavy, resinous, strong, unpleasant ^r, 
and a hot, bitter taste. They aflTord by distillation with w&tcr a 
considerable proportion of colorless essential oil, possessing the smell 
and taste of Savine. Water extracts the activity from the leaves, but 
alcohol is considered much the best ; both Avater and spirituous ex 
tracts possess considerable pungency and warmth, but they retain 
scarcely any of the odor of the plant. 

Juniperus communis. Common Juniper. This is a low shrub, 
seldom rising more than three feet high, sending out many spreading 
tough branches, which incline on every side, covered with a smooth, 
browni, or reddish bark, with a tinge of purple ; the leaves narrow, 
awl-shaped, ending in acute points, placed by threes round the 
branches, pointing outwards, bright green on one side, and grey on 
the other, continuing through the year ; the male-flowers are some- 
times on the same plant with the females, but at a distance from 
them, although they are usually on distinct plants ; the female-flow- 
ers are succeeded by a cluster of roundish berries, which are first 
green, but when ripe of a dark purple color, continuing on the bush 
two years. This plant is common in all the northern parts of Eu- 
rope, in Canada, and all the Northern States. 

Propagation and Culture. All species o^ Junipeiiis, except J. I'^rgin- 
iana, Bed Cedar, may be increased either by seeds, layers, or cuttings. 
The latter methods are proper for the Savin kinds. The seeds or ber- 
ries should be so^Am in beds of ligiit earth, early in spring, in a warm 
sheltered situation, in the open gi-oimd, being well raked in. The 
beds should be kept perfectly cleai- from weeds, and tiie young plants 
be occasionally watered during the summer season. When the plants 
have had two years growth in these beds, and have attained strength, 
they should be removed into nursery rows at two feet apart, and a 
foot or eighteen inches distant in the rows. They should remain in 
this situation tUl of a proper growth to be planted out where they 
are to remain. 

The layers of the yomig branches shoidd be laid down early in 



NAT. ORDER. CONIFERS, 131 

the spring season, and when well rooted, taken off, and planted in 
the nurseiy, in the same manner as tlie seedling plants. The cut- 
tings should be made ft'om the young branches, and be planted in a 
shady border in the latter part of August, watering them occasion- 
ally till they have stricken root ; when they may be taken up with 
earth about their roots, and be managed in the same manner as l)y 
the other metiiods. 

The common, upright and striped Savins may likewise be in- 
creased by planting slips of the young l)ranches ; for the last sort the 
most variegated being made use of, in the latter part of summer, or 
in the autumn, in a shaded border. These plants all succeed in the 
open ground, and grow in any connnon soil and situation. 

Mr diced Properties and Uses. Savine is a powerful stimulant, 
acting upon the skin, bowels, and uterus, and has long been consider- 
ed the most efficacious in the Materia Medica for producing a deter- 
mination to the uterus, and thereby proving emmenagogue ; it heats 
and stimulates the whole system, and is said to promote the fluid 
secretions. The power which this plant possesses in opening uterine 
obstructions, is considered to be so great, that it has frequently been 
employed with too much success, for purposes the most infamous and 
imnatural. Cases of this kind are not uncommon from the deleteri- 
ous effect of this plant. Dr. Cullen observes : " Savine is a very acrid 
and heating substance, and I have often on account of these qualities 
been prevented from employing it in the quantity perhaps necessary 
to render it emmenagogue. I must own, however, that it sliows a 
more powerful determination to the uterine vessels than any other 
plant I have ever employed." " But," says he, " I have frequently 
been disappointed in this, and its healing qualities always require great 
caution.'" In over doses it is capable of producing dangerous gastro- 
intestinal inflammation, and should never be given when much gen- 
eral or local excitement exists. It is most conveniently administer- 
ed in the form of powder, of which the dose is from five to fifteen 
grains, repeated three or four times a day. 



"'^- iu. 



NAT. ORDER. 

CaryojilujllacccE. 



DIANTHUS CARYOPHYLLUS. ^^ JFuNAT^JAmK. 

Class X. Decandria. Order II. Digynia. 

Gen. Char. Caly.v cylindric, one-leaved, with four scales at the base. 
Petals five, with claws. Cajjsules cylindric, one-celled. 

Spe. Char. Caly cine-scales cylindric, very short. Petals crenate. 

The j-oot is perennial, firm, divided, and beset with numerous 
fibres ; the stems are slender, smooth, branched, upright, jointed, of a 
glaucous, or sea-green color, and rise from one to two feet in height ; 
the haves upon the stem are short, linear, and placed in pairs at the 
joints ; those of the young shoots are numerous, narrow, pointed, 
smooth, entire, and of the same color as the stalk ; the Jlowcrs stand 
single at the extremities of the branches, and are of a deep crimson 
color ; the caly.v is tubular, cylindrical, divided at the mouth into five 
segments, and surrounded at the base with four oval pointed squami- 
form scales ; the corolla consists of five petals, which at the limb are 
roundish, patent, scolloped, fringed, and attached to the common re- 
ceptacle by long narrow claws ; the Jilamcnts are ten, longer than the 
calyx, tapering, spreading towards the top, and furnished with oblong 
compressed anthers ; the gcrmen is oval ; the styles are two, slender, 
longer than the filaments, and their stigma turned or curled outwards ; 
the capsule is cylindrical, and contains many small roundish seeds. 

This fragrant and beautiful plant is said to be a native of Italy, 
but is now cultivated by the florists in most parts of the civilized 

132 



NAT. ORDER. CARYOPHYLLACEiE. 133 

world, chiefly as an ornament to the flower-garden. It has been 
known to grow wild in several parts of our country, on old walls and 
in the crevices of rocks ; but the flowers which are pharmaceutically 
employed are usually produced in gardens, where they become ex- 
tremely luxuriant, and by the various arts of culture those beautiful 
varieties have been produced which are so highly esteemed under the 
name of carnations. 

Medical Properties and Uses. The flowers of the Clove Pink, 
which is the part directed for medical use, has an agreeable, pleasant, 
aromatic smell, somewhat allied to that of clove spice ; their taste is 
slightly bitter and subastringent. It can be safely employed in the 
treatment of dropsies, as it possesses considerable diaphoretic and diu- 
retic properties. Rectified spirits digested on the flowers receives a 
much paler tincture than watery liquors, but extracts the whole of 
their active properties. In the process of distillation or evajjoration 
spirit elevates much less than water ; the spirituous extract retaining a 
considerable portion of the fine smell of the flowers as well as their 
taste, and the color purplish like that of the watery extract. In for- 
mer times the flowers of this plant were supposed to have considerable 
effect upon the nervous system, and were therefore recommended in 
headache, faintings, palpitations of the heart, convulsions, tremors, &c., 
and were employed to a considerable extent in the treatment of ma- 
lignant and putrid fevers. At present, however, they are valued 
mostly for their sensible qualities, and the syruj)us caryoj)hylli rubri, 
which is the only officinal preparation admitted into either the London 
or the United States Pharmacopoeia. But its fine color and pleasant 
flavor renders it a very useful article in the prepaiation of other me- 
dicines. 



NAT. ORDER. 

SpathacecB. 



COLCHICUM AUTUMNALE MEADOW SAFFRON 

Class VI. Hexandria. Order III. Trigygnu. 

Gen. Char. Corolla six-parted, with a rooted bulb. Capsules three, 
connected, inflated. 

Spe. Char. Leaves flat, lanceolate, erect. 

The root is perennial, consisting of a solid double succulent bulb, 
covered with a brown membranous coat; the leaves appear in the 
spring, and are numerous, radical, spear-shaped, one or two of which 
are much narrower than the others ; the Jlowcrs are large, of a pur- 
plish color, and rise immediately from the root upon a long naked 
tube ; calyx none ; the corolla is monopetalous, and divided into six 
lance-shaped, large, erect segments, of a pale purple color ; the fila- 
nicnis are six, tapering, white, much shorter than the corolla, and fur- 
nished with erect, pointed yellow anthers ; the germen is lodged at 
the root, from which issue three slender styles, reflexed at the top, and 
terminated by simple pointed stigmas ; the capsule is three-lobed, 
divided into three cells, containing numerous small globular seeds, 
which do not ripen until the succeeding spring, when the capsule rises 
above the ground upon a strong peduncle. 

Colchicum Autumnale is a native of the temperate parts of Eu- 
rope, where it grows wild in moist meadows. Various attempts have 
been made to introduce its culture into this country, but with no very 
encouraging success. The oflicinal portions are the bulb or cormus, 
and the seeds. The root, botanically speaking, consists of the fibres 

134 







'^^^ 



NAT. ORDER. SPATHACEiE. 



131: 



whicli are attached to the base of the bulb. The flowers have been 
found to possess similar virtues with the bulb and seeds, but have uot 
been adopted in the pharmacopoeias. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Colchicum Autumnale is one of 
he most active medicines ever introduced into medical practice. It 
possesses diaijhoretic, diuretic, cathartic, and emetic properties. Baron 
Stoerck asserts, that on cutting the fresh root into slices, the acrid par- 
ticles emitted from it irritated the nostrils, fauces, and breast, and that 
' ■ ' the ends of the fingers with which it had been held, became for a time 
benumbed ; that even a single grain in a crumb of bread, taken inter- 
nally, produced a burnmg heat and pain in the stomach and bowels, 
urgent strangury, tenesmus, colic pains, cephalalgia, hiccup, &c. From 
this account we need not be surprised that we find so many melan- 
choly instances recorded where it has proved a fatal poison both to 
man and brute animals ; also of its effects upon children, who have 
accidentally partaken of the bulbs, in whom it occasioned tlie symp- 
toms alone. Two boys, after eating this plant, which they found 
growing in a meadow, died in great agony. Violent symptoms have 
been produced by taking three of the flowers ; the seeds also will pro- 
duce the same effect. Deer, oxen, and other animals have fallen a 
sacrifice to this poison ; and according to Stoerck two drachms of the 
root killed a dog in thirteen hours, and upon opening its abdomen the 
stomach and bowels were found to be greatly inflamed, or in a gan- 
grenous state. When applied to the skin it produces similar effects as 
when taken into the stomach, which must depend on its being absorbed 
and taken into the circulation. 



■eu 



NAT. ORDER. 

RotacecB. 



CISTUS CRETICUS. CilETAN CISTUS 

Class XIII. PoLYANDRiA. Older I. Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Corolla, five-petalled. Calyx, five-leaved, with two 

of the leaflets smaller. 
Spe. Char. Leaves, spatulate, ovate, petioled, nerveless, rugged. 

Cahjx, lanceolate. 

'YX'ii?, plant seldom rises to any great height — it is covered with 
a dark-colored bark, and sends off several simple branches ; the 
leaves are oblong, pointed, waved, rough, viscous, veined, and stand 
in pairs upon short foot-stalks, which are broad at the base, so as 
to nearly surround the younger branches ; \\ieJlowers arc produced 
in succession at the extremities of the branches, in June and Jul}' — 
they are large, of a purple-red color, marked with dark spots at 
the base of each petal, and stand on short peduncles ; the calyx is 
divided into five large oval-pointed persistent segments, of which 
the two outermost are smallest ; the corolla is composed of five 
petals, which are large, roundish, spreading, and readily fall off on 
being touched ; the filaments are numerous, very short, slender 
and supplied with simple anthers of an orange color ; the germen 
is oval, and supports a short style, furnished with a flat circular 
stigma ; the capsule is roundish, and contains many small orbicular 
seeds. 

This shrub, which is a native of Candia and some of the 
Islands of the Archipelago, was first cultivated in England by Mr. P 
MiHer, in the year 1731, and is now extended to most of the princi • 

136 



NAT. ORDER.— ROTACEiE. 137 

pal gardens throughout that country, although it is not as common 
as many other exotic species of this genus. Not only this j^lant, 
but most of its congeners, abound with a glutinous liquor, which 
in summer exudes upon their leaves. It is well known that the 
Cistus Cretitus is the species from which the officinal labdanum 
is collected. This is done by means of an instrument called 
Ergastiri, made in the form of a rake, to which several leathern 
thongs are affixed instead of teeth, and with which the leaves of 
the shrub are lightly brushed backwards and forwards, so that the 
flued labdanum may adhere to the leather, from which it is after- 
wards scraped off with knives, and formed into regular masses for 
exportation. 

Three kinds of labdanum have been described by authors, 
all possessing nearly the same projierties ; the Cistus cfeticus, Cistus 
ladaniferus, and the Cistus laurifolius, all of which are small ever 
green shrubs, inhabiting the Grecian Islands. The best labdanum, 
which is the soft kind, has an agreeable smell, and a lightly jjungent 
bitter taste ; the hard is much weaker. Rectified spirits of wine 
dissolves nearly the whole gum into a golden-colored liquor; on 
distillation with water, there comes over a fragrant essential oil. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Labdanum is a stimulant expec- 
torant, and astringent, and was formerly employed internally as a 
pectoral, and in catarrhal affections, dysenteries, and many 
other diseases ; but at present it is wholly confined to external use, 
and as an ingredient in the stomachic plaster, although seldom use<l 
in the United States for that purpose. 



■M- 



NAT. ORDER. 

CompositcB. 



LEONTODON TARAXACUM. DANDELION. 

Class XIX. Stngenesia. Order I. Polygamia iEauALis. 

Gen. Char. Receptacle naked. Calyx double. Papus stipitate and 
hairy. 

Spe. Char. Outer calyx reflect. Scape one-flowered. Leaves runci 
nate, smooth, with tooth-lobes. 

The Dandelion is a very common plant, and is to be found in 
most parts of the United States, growing in meadows and pastures, 
and flowering from April to August. The root is perennial and spin- 
dle-shaped, wliich, with the whole plant, abounds with a milky juice ; 
ih.Q Jlowcr-stalk is simple, colored, shining, and unifloral ; the leaves 
are all radical and cut in a peculiar way, forming a good example of 
what botanists call runcinata ; the seeds, on approaching to maturity, 
become crowned with a fine downy feather, disposed in a spherical 
shape. The young leaves of this plant are very much used in the 
spring as a pot-herb ; in some parts of Europe the roots are roasted 
and substituted for coffee by the poorer inhabitants, who find tliat an 
infusion prepared in this way can hardly be distinguished from that of 
the coffee-berry. The root, when dry, is very much wrinkled, shrunk, 
and brittle, and on being broken presents a shining resinous fracture ; 
it has a sweetish bitter, herbaceous taste, and yields its medical prop- 
erties to boiling water. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Dandelion is generally con 
sidered by medical writers as the most active and efficacious of th 

138 



.^■ 













n 



NAT. ORDER. COMPOSITE. ] 39 

lactescent plants ; the expressed juice is bitter and somewhat acrid ; 
the root, however, is still more bitter, and possesses greater medicinal 
power than any other part of the plant. Taraxacum has long been in 
repute as a mild detergent and aperient ; it is also diuretic and tonic, 
and has a direct action upon the liver and kidneys, exciting them when 
languid, to action. It is most applicable to liejaatic diseases, and de- 
rangement of the digestive organs generally. In chronic inflammatjons 
of the liver and spleen, in cases of deficient biliary seci'ctions, and in 
dropsical affections of the abdominal viscera, it is capable of being 
very beneficial if properly applied ; from experience I can speak in 
its favor. Howard, in his Materia Medica, says he has used it in 
pulmonary diseases and found it an invaluable remedy. He believes 
that if ever any one article cures a confirmed consumption, it will 
prove to be this. Possessed of such active and extensive medical 
properties, it may be so managed in its exhibition as to produce 
almost any effect to any extent desired on any function, tissue, or set 
of organs in the animal machine, Rafinesque says that the milky 
juice of the stem of this plant removes freckles from the skin. 

It is usually given in the form of extract, decoction, or syrup. 
The syrup is made by boiling one pound of dried root in one gallon 
of wafer down to two quarts. Strain off] and add while warm one 
pound of loaf sugar, and one pint of good spirits. Dose — ball' a wine- 
glassful three times a day. ' 



NAT. ORDER. 

Calastrinece. 



CELASTRUS SCANDENS. BITTER SWEET. 

Class V. Pentandria. Order I. Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Cc/yo;, five-lobed, flat. Coro^/a, five petaled. Stam- 
ens, seated around a five-toothed glandulous disk. Capsule, 
or theca, obtusely triangular, three-celled, three-valved. Cells, 
one- seeded. Seeds, covered with a four-cleft colored arillus. 

82^6. Char. Ste?n, climbing, unarmed. Leaves, oblong, acuminate, 
serrate. Racemes, terminal. Flowers, arillus. 

The root is creeping, of a bright orange color, from three- 
eights to three-fourths of an inch in diameter, and sometimes 
extends several rods in length ; the stem is covered with a reddish 
brown bark, and seldom exceeds an inch in diameter; the leaves 
are tapering near the base, with minute teeth along the mai-gins, 
and a sharp and extended point ; the blossoms are of a greenish 
3'eliow color, and very fragrant; the berries grow in clusters, and 
remain upon the vines during winter. EarJy m the autumn, they 
are of an orange color, but after the first or second frost, the exter- 
nal covering divides into three valves, which turn backward, and 
disclose a beautiful scarlet berry in the centre. It flowers in the 
first or second week in June. 

A very beautiful description of this species of Bitter Sweet 
may be found in Matterson's Vegetable Practice, from which we 
copy. " The Bitter Sweet is a woody vine, attaining, in favorable 
situations, the height of thirty or forty feet. It twines around the 
branches of trees similar to the grape-vine, and creeps upon hedges, 

HO 




'^^ (..uc<:>c<^r U . 



NAT. ORDER. CELASTRINEvE. lU 

fences, and rocks. It has various names — as staff tree, red root, 
fever twig, and wax work. It is common throughout the northern 
and southern States, thriving the most lu.xuriantly in a rich, damp 
soil. 

" The solanum dulcamara, or woody night-shade, is sometimes 
confounded with this plant, probably on account of the name hitter 
sweet being common to them both. The dulcamara possesses poi- 
sonous properties, and hence the necessity of this caution. It has 
a slender, vine-like stem, seldom exceeding seven or eight feet in 
length, with leaves of a dull green color, and clusters of elegant 
purple blossoms, which remain in bloom from June till August." 

Medical Properties and Uses. The Bitter Sweet, says Dr. 
Smith, is both a powerful and useful medicine, although like most 
of tlie invaluable medicinal plants of our country, which nature has 
so profusely furnished to our hands, its virtues are but little appre- 
ciated, and that but by a few. It increases all the secretions and 
excretions, particularly perspiration, acts gently as a diuretic, and 
excites the heart and arteries. It is an excellent discutient, deter- 
gent, and resolvent medicine, and may be employed both in,ternally 
and externally. It is peculiarly beneficial in liver complaints, and 
in all cutaneous affections; also in rheumatism, scirrous swellings, 
ulcers, scrofula, jaundice, weakness and obstructions. The ex- 
pressed juice of this plant has been applied to cancers of the breast 
and scrofulous tumors: the juice is rubbed on the cancer or the 
swelling, and the green leaves are applied over the breast. For 
internal use, it is recommended to boil half a pound of the bark in 
one gallon of water ; the dose is a gill three or four times a day. 
It is also very highly valued in the treatment of fevers and dropsi- 
cal swellings. 

To make Bitter-sweet Ointment, put equal parts of the berries and 
lard in a close kettle, over a gentle fire, for several hours; strain it, 
and add half a pound of pulverized lobelia seed; heat the whole 
gently for a few hours, and strain again for use. A cure for piles. 



NAT. ORDER. 

CompositcB. 

CICHORIUM INTYBUS. WILD, OR BLUE SUCCORY. 

Class XIX. Syngenesia. Order T. Polygabiia ^equalis. 

Ge7i. Char. Calyx, calycled. Pappus, slightly five-toothed, ob- 
scurely hairy, i^ecef'^ac/*?, somewhat chaffy. 

Spe. Char. Flotvers, twin, sessile. Leaves, runcinate. 

The root is perennial, long, tapering, branched, or spindled- 
shaped, lactescent, externally yellowish, and internally white ; the 
stalk is erect, rough, branched, angular, and rises from one and a 
half, to three feet in height ; the leaves at the root are pinnatifid, or 
cut into irregular segments, like those of the dandelion : on the 
stalk they are alternate, sessile, somewhat spear-shaped, but indent- 
ed and rough at the base; xhejlowers are compound, large, blue, and 
stand in pnirs ; the calyx, which is common to all the florets, is com- 
po id of a double set of leaves, the outer ones, which are five in 
number, are ovate, spreading, and fringed with glandular hairs; the 
inner set consists of about eight; the corolla is composed of herma- 
phrodite florets, which are regular, blue, and about twenty in num- 
ber, each consisting of a short white tube, from which rises a long 
flat ribbed limb, divided at the extremity into five teeth; thejilamcnts 
are white, slender, and unconnected; the anthe7s are blue, and form 
a hollow angular cylinder ; the germen is conical, and crowned with 
short hairs ; the style is filiform ; stigmas are two, rolled back, and 
blue; the seeds are numerous, naked, angular, and lodged at the 
bottom of the calyx. 

This jflant belongs to the same family with the garden endive, 
and by some botanists has been supposed to be the same plant in its 

142 



NAT. ORDER. — COMPOSIT.^. 143 

uncultivated state ; but the endive so inucli used as a sallad, is an 
annual, or at most a bionnial plant, and its parent is now known to 
be the Cichorium Endivia. It is a native of Europe, but has been 
introduced, and has now become naturalized to this country, where 
it is found growing on the borders of cornfields, and flowers in July 
and August. 

It appears from history that the cichorium was highly esteemed 
by the Romans as a sallad ; and according to Pliny this name sig- 
nified the wild species of the plant. The Intyhus and Scris are 
also mentioned as its congeners, the latter implying the cultivated 
species. 

Medical Properties and Uses. The roots and leaves of this plant 
have formerly been considered as useful aperients, acting mildly 
and without irritation, tending rather to abate than to increase heat, 
and may therefore be given with safety in hectic and inflamma- 
tory cases. Taken freely, they act as a gentle purgative, and when 
continued for some time, they have often proved salutary in obstruc- 
tions of the viscera, in jaundices, hypochondriacal and other chro- 
nic disorders. The virtues of succory, like those of the dandelion, 
reside in its milky juice ; and in most of the plants of the order 
Semifioculosce, a. juice of a similar nature is to be found ; therefore 
what has been observed of the effects of taraxacum^ will, in a grea» 
measure, apply to the cichorium, and we are warranted in saying, 
that the expressed juice of both these plants taken in large doses 
frequently repeated, has been found an efficacious remedy in phth 
isis pulmonalis, as well as in various other affections of a similar 
nature. The seeds of the cichorium, which are small, angular, and 
jf a brown color, taken in the form of a powder, or in decoction, 
are considered cooling, and are very much used for that purpose. 



NAT. ORDER. 

GullifercB. 



STALAGMITIS CAMBOGIOIDES. GAMBOGE TREE. 

Class XXIII. PoLYGAMiA Order I. Moncecia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx, four-leaved. Corolla, four-petaled. Stamens, 
thirty, inserted into a fleshy, quadrangular receptacle. Style, 
thick. Stigma, four-lobed. Berry, one-celled, crowned by 
the style and stigma. 

Spe. Char. Male. Calyx, Corolla, and Stamens, hermaphrodite. 

The Stalagmitis cambogioides is a middling sized tree; the 
branches are oj^jjosite and divaricated ; the leaves are ojipositc, ovate, 
entire, smooth, coriaceous, riged, and supported on short petioles ; 
t\ie Jlowers are hermaphrodite and male; the hermaphrodite jloicers 
are in axillary or lateral whorls ; the malejlowers are either in dis- 
tinct clusters or mixed with the hermaphrodite ; the calyx in the 
male flowers consist of four ovate leaflets, the two exterior of which 
are smaller than the interior; xhe petals are four, spreading, coria- 
ceous, with ciliated margins, and of a yellow color ; the stamens are 
about thirty, and placed upon a four-square, fleshy receptacle ; the 
arithers are club-shaped, — sometimes there are rudiments of a style, 
and an unequal, sterile stigma ; the calyx, corolla, and stamens of 
the hermaphrodite flowers, resemble those of" the male ; the germen 
is globular, and supports a short style, crowned with a three or 
four-lobed stigma, the lobes of which are obcordate and persistent, 
the fniit is a smooth, globular, yellow berr}-, crowned by the style 
and lobes of the stigma, and contains several long, triangular seeds. 

This tree is a native of the kingdom of Siam and Ceylon, 

144 



f^o, 




/ 









y. 



NAT. OKUEK. — GULLIFEU..E. 



145 



where it is known by the name of Ghohata ; but is not the only 
plant which yeilds the gamboge, although it is probable that the 
greatest portion which is bi-ought to market, is the product of this 
tree. The Gainbogia gutta, Garcinia celibica, Hypericum promi- 
ferum, and many other plants, j-eild a yellow gum-resin, resembling 
in every respect the gamboge of the shops. It is obtained by 
wounding the bark of the tree with sharp stones, or by breaking 
off the leaves and young shoots, from whence the juice exudes, and 
is collected in cocoa-nut shells, and thence jjoured into the joints 
of the bamboo, which gives it the cylindrical form. 

Sensible and Chemical Properties. Gamboge has no odor, and 
but little taste : it is of a golden yellow color, and when macerated 
in water, forms a fine turbid yellow solution, and about two-thirds 
of its substance is dissolved. Alcohol dissolves about 90 per cent. ; 
water renders the tincture cloudy and bright yellow ; but it is long 
before any precipitation takes place. Ether dissolves 60 per cent.; 
the solution is transparent, and of a deep golden color. 

■ Medical Properties and Uses. Gamboge is a drastic cathartic, 
acting powerfully upon the alimentary canal ; even when adminis- 
tered in small quantities, it often produces vomiting, hypercatharsis, 
and other unfavorable symptoms. Some writers have given it a 
place among the acrid poisons : they came to this conclusion from 
the experiments made on animals — finding that it frequently occa- 
sioned death by the powerful local action which it exerts, and by 
the sympathetic irritation of the nervous system. When admininis- 
tared with due caution, gamboge often proves a successful hydra- 
gogue in di'opsy, either alone, or in combination with other cathar- 
tics. It has also been given with success for exj^elling taenia?, and 
is probabh' the most active ingredient in most nostrums sold for 
that purpose. For destroying the tape-worm, it has been given 
to the extent of fifteen or twenty grains, combined with an equal 
quantity of vegetable alkali. 



NAT. ORDER. 

Schrophularia. 



CHELONE GLABRA. BALMONY. 

Class XIV. DiDYNAMiA. Order II. Angiospermia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx, five-parted, with three bracts. Corolla, ringent, 
ventricose, sterile. Filament, shorter than the rest. Anthers, 
woolly. Capsules, two-celled, two-valved, Seeds, membrana- 
ceously margined. 

Spe. Char. Stem, smooth. Leaves, opposite, lanceolate, oblong, 
accuminate, serrate. Flowers, in dense spikes. 

The root of this plant is perennial and fibrous ; the stems are 
numerous, erect, branched near the top, smooth, bluntly four cor- 
nered, and rise from three to five feet in height ; the leaves are 
opposite, tapering, from five to six inches long, pointed, edged with 
acute teeth, of a dark green color when fresh, almost black when 
dry, and intensely bitter ; the Jloiccrs are terminal, of dilferent 
colors in different varieties, white, spotted, tinged in some instances 
with a delicate shade of red, a,nd of a most singular shape, resem- 
bling the head of a snake with its open mouth ; they are disposed 
in a cluster, as may be seen in the drawing. It does not bloom 
until late in the autumn. 

This valuable plant was cultivated and extensively employed 
as a medicine in the sixteenth, and beginning of the seventeenth 
century. Salmond, in his English Herbal, published in 171l, 
describes this jilant and several of its varieties, as possessing 
highly valuable medical properties; since which time it appears to 
have fallen into disuse, or forgotten; but has recently been revived 

146 



NAT. ORDER. SCROPIIULARIA. 147 

and now enters largely into various compounds prepared as atonic 
or strengthening syrup. Matterson says the herb should be col- 
lected in clear, dry weather, and as soon as it is in bloom, as the 
leaves frequently become mildewed after that time. It should be 
dried in the sun, or in a warm chamber or loft, and carefully 
guarded from a moist or damp atmosj^here, or it will acquire a 
dark and black color. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Balmony possesses both tonic 
and laxative properties, and, without exception, is one of the best 
articles to promote an appetite that can be found. It can be ad- 
ministered by itself, or in combination with other articles. Thom- 
son says, " the balmony is a bitter of the first order, for correcting 
the morbid secretions of the bile, removing the torpidity of the 
liver, and creating an ap[)ctite. A tea made of the leaves is well 
calculated to restore the digestive powers." Matterson describes 
this plant as having long been known in New England as a tonic 
and laxative. " It is employed in costiveness, dyspepsia, loss of 
ajipetite, and general languor or debility. Given to children afllict- 
ed with worms, it will generally afford relief. It is a valualile 
medicine in disorders of the liver; and in jaundice, it tends to 
remove the yellow tinge from the skin and eyes." Rafinesque says 
it is an active and powerful cathartic, as well as tonic ; but of this 
I am inclined to think he may be mistaken, as I have administered 
it in many cases, and never found it to act as a cathartic, unless 
frequently taken, and in extreme large doses; in which cases it 
sometimes caused a gentle movement of the bowels. As a vermi- 
fuce, combined with the Chcnopodlum anthehninthicum, 1 think it 
has no superior, rarely failing to expel the worms ; it should be 
administered in infusions, continued for a time, and followed by a 
suitable purge. It is said that the Indians made use of a strong 
■lecoction of the whole plant in eruptive diseases, biles, sores, 
scrofula, piles, &c. An even tea-spoonful of the powdered leavea 
is a dose, and may be given in fevers, jaundice, &c. 



NAT. ORDER. 

Lobeliacec£. 



LOBELIA SYPHILITICA. BLUE LOBELIA, 

Class V. Pentandria. Order I. Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx five-cleft. Corolla one-petalled, irregular. Cap- 
sules inferior, two or three-celled. 

Spc. Char. Stem erect, rather hairy. Leaves ovate, lanceolate, sub- 
scrate. Sinuses of the calyx reflex. 

The rOi. is perennial, and furnished with innumerable small white 
fibres ; the stem is upright, strong, simple, smooth, and rises from two 
to three feet in hciglit ; the leaves growing near the top of the stem 
are oval and pointed, those at the bottom rather elliptical, and obtusely 
lancc-shaped ; they are both minutely serrated, veined, smooth, and 
without footstalks ; the Jlowcrs are numerous, large, blue, and grow 
upon a long spike, o.i short peduncles ; the corolla consists of a long 
tube, which is nearly cylindrical, and divided at the limb into five 
pointed oval segments, of a rich blue color ; the calyx is composed of 
five halbert-shaped leaves, fringed at the margin, and reflected at each 
side ; the filaments are five, tapering, equal in length to the tube of 
the corolla, and closely connected at the top by the anthers j the ger- 
men is short and oonical ; the style is about the length of the stamens, 
which terminates with a blunt, hairy stigma ; the capsule is oval, and 
divided into two cells, which contain many small seeds. 

Lobelia, of which there are at least fifty difltrcnt species, was 
first introduced to botanical notice by M. Lobel, physician and bot- 
anist to James I., of England, from whom the plant derived its name. 

148 




■^, c ^y^^^^le^h 



NAT. OUDER. L.TELIACE.E. Ill) 

Tliere are ten of these species common to onr New EnglcUid States, 
and among them one of the most beautiful, generally known as the 
Cardinal Flower, Lobelia Cardinalis. This superb plant, according 
to Mr. Aiton, was first cultivated in England by the celebrated bot- 
anist, Mr. Ray, and it has now become a general and favorite orna- 
ment in the gardens of that country, where much care is bestowed 
upon its culture, while in its native soil it is quite common and flour- 
ishes in all its bi-auty on the banks of our brooks and ponds. The 
Lobelia Syphilitica, which is represented in the plate, is also one of 
the species that are natives of this country ; and although it cannot 
vie with its cardinal brother in grandeur and magnificence, it far sur- 
passes it in usefulness and beneficial properties, being one of the most 
valuable appendages to our botanical materia medica. Its medicinal 
virtues were long known and applied by the North American Indians, 
before the more scientific professors of our schools discovered its val- 
uable properties, and indeed much controversy and diversity of opinioc 
has existed among modern practitioners upon the subject. Volumes 
have been written in support of its efficient and beneficial qualities ir 
its application and use, and many in endeavoring to prove the almost 
'"''rtain and fatal consequences of administering it under any circum- 
stances of sickness and disease. 

Medical Properties and Uses. AH tlie various species possess 
more or less highly valuable medicinal properties ; of the Lobelia Sy- 
phUitica, the root is the part most used as a medicine ; it possesses 
emetic, cathartic, expectorant, sudorific, and diuretic properties ; when 
given as the former it operates powerfully and speedily, producing, 
however, great relaxation, debility, and perspiration, and therefore 
should be administered with great caution and care, and only by those 
who are well acquainted with its medicinal effects. The Lobelia Lon- 
gijlorei is a native of some of the West India islands ; when taken in- 
ternally it acts as a violent cathartic. Seve -al of the species are in- 
troduced into medical practice, some of which we shall give a more 
particular description of hereafter. 



NAT. ORDER. 

PyrolacecR. 

P¥ROLLA UMBELLATA. PIPSISSEWA. 

Class X. Decandria. Order I. Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx, in five deep segments. Petals, five. Capsule, 

superior, five-celled, bursting at the angles. Anthers, opening 

by two pores. . . 

Spe. Char. Leaves, wedge-shaped, lanceolate, serrated. Flotcers, 
somewhat umbellate. Sta?nens, smooth. Style, immersed. 

The root is perennial, creeping, and long, sending up at various 
distances several woody, somewhat angular, erect, or slightly pro- 
cumbent 5^e/«5, which rise about a span in height; the leaves are 
produced in irregular whorls, of which there are usually two or 
three on each stem, — they are wedge-shaped, lanceolate, serrated, 
smooth, supported upon short petioles, and are of a deep shining 
green ; the i7iJlo7-escence consists of a small corymb, generally of 
five flowers, on simple, nodding pedicells ; the calyx is inferior, and 
consists of five roundish, permanent segments, much shorter than 
the corolla ; the petals are five, roundish, concave, spreading, of a 
cream color, with a tinge of crimson at the base ; the filaments are 
ten, which are awl-shaped, curved, and supporting large two-celled 
anthers, of a purple color ; each cell opening by a short, round, 
tubular orifice, at the summit ; the style is cylindrical, half the 
length of the germen, and concealed by the stigma, which is large, 
pelate, covered by a viscid matter, and obscurely five-rayed ; the 
capsules are orbicular, depressed, with five valves, five cells, and 
five partitions, from the central column ; the seeds are very minute, 

150 



Nat. order. — PYROLACEiE. 15^ 

of an oval figure, each contained in a membranous tunic, elongated 
at both ends. 

This beautiful species of winter-green is a native of the United 
States, and is also to be found in many of the northern parts of 
Europe and Asia. It is found growing mostly in shady woods, 
where it is protected from the solar rays, and nourished by a soil 
formed from the decompo.sition of leaves and other vegetable matter. 
In the northern parts of this country it is a very common plant, and 
known by the names oi ground-holly^ lointer-green, plpsissetva, prin- 
cespine, and by the Indians, hcrhe de Paigne. In Canada, it is 
known by the name of X' Herbe a Pisse. The genus Pyrola com- 
prises about fifteen species, of which eight are indeginous to North 
America, and five to Europe. The Pyrola umhellata was intro- 
duced into medical practice about fifty years ago; but it is only 
within the last ie\v years that it has excited the attention of the 
profession as a remedial agent. The Pyrola umhellata, Pyrola 
uniflora, Pyrola secunda, Pyrola picta, Pirola asarifolia, Pyrola macu- 
lata, Pyrola elliptica, Pyrola dentata, are the only varieties which 
have as yet been discovered in this country ; although some of the 
English botanists have described the Pyrola ?nenziesu, and the 
Pyrola occidentalis, as growing in great abundance on the north- 
west coast of North America. 

Sensible and Chemical Properties. The whole plant has a 
moderately warm pungent taste, somewhat between bitter and 
sweet ; when bruised, it exhales a strong, and rather unpleasant 
odor. Both water and alcohol extract its virtues, but the latter 
most completely. The watery infusion of the dried plant is of a 
brownish color ; the decoction is of a deeper color, and both strike 
a black with the sulphate of iron. According to the experiments 
o{ Dr. Wolf, 100 parts of the herb contain about 18 of a bitter 
extractive principle, 2,04 of resin, 1,32 of tannin, a slight portion 
jf gum, the rest fibrous matter and earthy salts. The resin is 



1^2 NAT. OUDER. PVROLACE^. 

adhesive, brownish, readily soluble in ether, or alkalies, L urning 
with flame and a resinous odor, leaving a white cinder. 

Medical Froj^erties and Uses. The Pyrola umhellata is diuretic 
and tonic ; externally stimulant. It has lately been introduced into 
practice as an efficacious diuretic in dropsy, and from the favora- 
ble testimony of physicians who rank high in the profession, we 
are warranted in recommending it to general p'ractice, as a reme- 
dial agent, possessing most valuable diuretic and tonic powers; the 
proof of which seems to have been fully illustrated by Dr. W. Som- 
erville, in a paper on this vegetable published in London. The 
facts presented by this physician afford satisfactory evidence of the 
powers of this medicine, to promote the urinal exertion, and to 
afford relief to patients afflicted with dropsy in its various forms. 
One of the most remarkable and distinguished cases presented by 
him, is that of Sir James Craig, the British Governor of Canada, who 
was labouring under general dropsy, which, in its progress, had 
assumed the forms of hydrothorax, anasarca, and ascites, and which 
was couibined with different organic diseases, especially of the liver. 
After having tried \\ith little or temporary success, • almost every 
variety of diuretic and cathartic medicines, and submitted twice to 
the operation of tapping, the patient had recourse to a strong infu- 
sion of Pyrola, in the quantity of a pint every twenty-four hours. 
Although the case w'as altogether an unpromising one, yet the plant 
gave relief, not only in the first, but also in the subsequent instances 
of its use. It increased the urinal discharge, and, at the same time, 
produced an augmentation of strength, and an invigorated appetite. 
A great variety of cases of dropsy are detailed in Dr. Somerville's 
paper, in which the Pyrola \vas administered by himself and by 
other practitioners with decided advantage. Dr. Somerville found 
his patients remark that an agreeable sensation was perceived in 
the stomach soon after taking the Pyrola, and this was followed in 
some instances by an extroi'dinary increase of appetite. He consid- 
ers it as having in this respect, a great advantage over other diur- 



NAT. ORDER — PVUOLACE.E. ]~[] 

etics, none of which are agreeable to the stomach, and most iS tlicni 
very ofFensivo to it. lie further states that no circumstance had 
occurred within his own c;x[)erience or niformation, to forliitl its use 
in any form, or to limit the (h)se. Sir Walter Farquhar, stales that 
he used the Pyrola, in the case of a lady laboring under ascites in 
which the diuretic effect of tliis plant were very striking. Dr. 
Barton, author of " The Vegetable Materia Medica of the United 
States," also corroborates the accounts of the diuretic effects of this 
vegetable, by four cases which came under his care at the Marine's 
Hospital, Philadelpia, in which a sti'ong infusion was given with the 
most decided advantage. Dr. Bigelow says : " I have administered 
this plant on various occasions, and attended to its operation. In 
a number of dropsical cases, when first given, it made a distinct and 
evident impression on the disease, communicating an increased 
activity to the absorbents, followed by a great augmentation of the 
excretion from the kidneys; but," says he, " I found it better to omit 
the medicine for a time, and resume it afresh, than to continue until 
the system had become insensible to its stimulus." It has proved, 
in almost every case, a very acceptable medicine to the patient 
and is prefered both for its sensible qualities and its effects on the 
stomach, to other diuretics and alteratives which have been pre- 
scribed. Dr. Mitchell, an American jihysician, relates many cases 
of its extraordinary success administered in fevers. We are told 
that the Indians administer a strong and warm decoction of this 
plant in rheumatism and fever; they employ the whole plant, and 
take it in large quantities. Many cases which have come under 
my own observation, in the treatment of patients, and where I have 
watched its effects, have satisfied me that the Pyrola umhdlata 
possesses most highly valuable medical properties, especially in the 
treatment of dropsies, ulcers, tumors, scroffula, etc. As an exter- 
nal remedy, it has been used with success in various chronic indu- 
rated swellmgs. 



NAT. ORDER. 

Pomacece. 



RIBES RUBRUM. RED CURRANT. 

Class V. Pentandria. Order I. Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Petals five, inserted with the stamens into the calyx. 
Style bifid. Berry many-seeded, inferior. 

Spe. Char. Racemes smooth, nodding. Leaves obtusely five-iobed. 

The Red Currant is a native of England, but is now cultivated 
in gardens throughout most parts of the United States. It grows 
from five to six feet in height, is divided into many branches, and cov- 
ered with a dark brown bark, except the younger limbs, wliich arc of 
a liglit green color. The leaves are serrated, veined, divided into five, 
and sometimes seven lobes, of a pale green color, and stand upon 
tapering footstalks, which are about the length of the leaves, and some- 
what hairy near the base ; the bractece are small, oval, pointed, and 
placed at the base of the leaf stalks and peduncles ; the flowers grow 
in lateral, pendulous, raceme, or clusters, and appear in April; the 
calyx is divided into five spreading, reflexed, pointed, oblong, concave, 
permanent segments, which are of a greenish yellow color ; the corolla 
is composed of five small, obtuse, upright petals, of a yellow color, 
and inserted in the calyx ; the anthers are compressed, gaping at the 
edges, and attached at their sides to the filaments ; the grrmcn is 
roundish, placed below the corolla, and supports a cloven style, with 
obtuse stigma ; the fruit is a round, shining red berry, of one cell, 
separated into two receptacles, and containing many roundish seeds, 

and of a pleasant, tart taste ; the root is woody and spreading. 
154 




t^-^isz^ ^2Y/^Z^i>n^ 



NAT. ORDER. — POMACE.E. 155 

The Currant being so abundantly cultivated in our gardens, ren- 
ders it accessable to those who may wisli to be supplied with the fruit, 
which from its grateful acidity, becomes universally acceptable, eitlicr 
as nature has presented it, or variously prepared by art. From ac- 
counts given of this plant by various writers, it appears that several 
species have been found growing wild in Switzerland and some parts 
of Africa — the Ribrs Ruhrum, Red Currant, Ribrs Nigrum, Black 
Currant, Ribcs Albo, White Currant, Rlbcs Floridum, Ribrs Trifidum, 
Ribes Rigcns, Ribes Triflorum, all of which possess nearly the same 
properties. A very delicious wine is made from the expressed juice 
of the Red Currant, with the addition of a little sugar, which sur- 
passes in point of flavor and quality almost all other kinds. 

A very curious method has of late been discovered in the art of 
cultivating the Currant, which adds greatly to its appearance and 
beauty, and hence forms, not only one of the most useful, but one of 
the most pleasing and beautiful plants that have ever been introduced 
into our gardens. Early in spring a single stalk is cut near the ground, 
and the largest branches trimmed off; the tip end is then cut and 
placed some six inches into the ground, which takes root, and small 
branches appear at the top which was once the root ; after it has 
taken sufficient root^ the stalk is trimmed to where the new branches 
make their appearance, and the plant assumes the appearance of a 
small tree, the trunk entirely divested of succulent stalks, and the 
branches laden to their extremities with the fruit. 

Medical Properties and Uses. The medicinal properties of Red 
Currants appear to be similar to those of the other sub-acrid fruits, 
which are esteemed to be moderately refrigerant, antiseptic, attenuant, 
and aperient. They may be used with advantage to allay thirst in 
most febrile complaints, to lessen an increased secretion of the bile, 
and to correct a putrid and scorbutic state of the fluids, especially in 
sanguine temperaments. 



NAT. ORDER. 

Ensatce. 



IXIA TRICOLOR. THREE-COLORED IXIA 

Class III. Triandria. Orda- I. Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx and corolla superior. Sepals short. Stamens 
three, arising from the base of the sepals. 

Spe. Char. Filaments distinct. Anthers bursting. Style one. Stig- 
mas five. Capsule three-celled. Seeds attached. ' 

This rare and beautiful plant is a native of the Cape of Good 
Hope, where it grows spontaneously, in the plains and by the borders 
of woods ; it is also found growing wild in some parts of Asia and 
Africa, and is extensively cultivated in Spain as an ornamental llowcr. 
The 7'oot is large and bulbous, very much resembling the crocus or 
meadow saffron ; calyx and corolla superior, confounded, tlicir divis- 
ions either partially cohering or entirely separate, sometimes irregular ; 
stamens three, rising from the base of the sepals ; filaments distinct 
or connate ; anthers bursting externally lengthwise, fixed at tlieir base, 
two-celled; the ovarium is three-celled, cells many-seeded; style one; 
stigmas five, often petaloid, and sometimes two-lipped ; cajjsnlc three- 
celled and tliree-valved ; the seeds, wliich are ver}' small and nume- 
rous, are attaclied to the inner angle of the cell, and sometimes to a 
central column, which afterwards becomes loose. 

Genus Crocus. This is an ancient name, being derived from the 
youth Crocus, who as the heathen poets feigned, was turned info this 
flower. This genus has a large number of species, growing from six 
inches to several feet in height, many of which rank among the most 

156 




/ (^^'C^t<^ey-,.^t>€:^'^c^^.€^'' C2^-c. 



'^^^Zy. 



^, T^^#^-,,.<;?i»^^<e;sz:^(2^;i!^<2^ 



NAT. ORDER. EX.-.iT.E. 157 

ornamcnlal of garden flowers, and from their beautiful appearance and 
variety of colors luive become particular favorites, on account of their 
early flowering as well as their beauty. Nearly all tlie varieties of 
this class and order are propagated by their bulbous roots, and can 
be cultivated to almost any extent by sowing the seeds. 

Another very important species of the Ixia Tricolor, is one so 
frequently spoken oi' by the ancients. The top spreads itself into a 
kind of umbel, composed of many long, narrow leaves. The lower 
part of tile stalk is surrounded with long sword-shaped leaves. This 
is the plant from which the celebrtited jMjJijrus of the Egyptians and 
other ancient nations was obtained. Between the flesh and bark of 
tlie thick part of the stalk there grows a membrane, which being 
stripped ofT in the form of narrow pieces or ribbons, was united into 
slieets by pressm-e, and then dried in the sun. Many of those sheets 
put together made the rolls on which the ancient manuscripts were 
written. This plant is indigenous in the swamps of Egypt and Etlii- 
opia, and as a matter of experiment in England has been cultivated 
in cisterns of water, witli rich mud at the bottom. 

Isia braleriodes. Cup-shaped Ixia. This is a very beautiful 
species, from the brilliant color and large size of its flowers ; they are 
not, however, so numerous, as most of the other species, seldom ex- 
ceeding two or three in each cluster. It should be grown in pots, 
Avell drained by being a tiiird part filled with cinders, in sand ; and 
the pots should stand in a saucer of water. Flowers in July. 

Medical Properties and Uses. The Ixia Tricolor, the represen- 
tative of our drawing, possesses some very valuable medical properties. 
In France, Spain, Italy, and Germany, it has been introduced into 
practice, and successfully administered in ob;- tinate cases of diarrhoea 
and dropsies. The root, when dried, is one of the most powerful as- 
tringents that has been introduced into the materia medica ; the fresh 
root is a powerful cathartic, and for this purpose the juice has been 
rm])loycd in doses of a drachm and upwards, in dropsies ; it is also 
used to scent hair powder, on account of its aromatic and fragrant odor. 






NAT. ORDER. 

Ensatoi*^ 

WACHENDORFIA PANICULATA. PANICLED WACHENDORFIA. 

Class III. Tkiandkia. Order I. MoiNogynia. 

Gen. Char. Perianth, sub-bilabiately-rotatc, resupinate, with a chan- 
nelled honey-bearing appendage on both sides at the base. Sta- 
mens, six-declinate. Stijlc, elongated, oblique, partly persistent. 
Capsule, membranaceous, three-celled, three-valved, triquetrous, 
the angles compressed. Cells, one-folded. 

^e. Char. Racemes, corymbosely panicled. Leaves, deciduous, 
plicate. 

The stem of this plant rises about a foot in height ; tlie root is 
perennial, a little creeping, and furnished with oblong cylindrical, and 
nearly perpendicular tubercles ; the leaves are radical, two-ranked 
sessile, equitant, vertical, spreading, dilated on the inner side at the 
base, channelled, linear-lanceolate, pointed, entire, nerv-ed, bright 
green ; they die soon after the plant has done flowering, and do not 
appear again for some months ; the stalk is erect, cylindrical, bearing 
one or two small leaves, branched and many-flowered ; general^o/re;- 
sto/A", alternate, spreading, racemose, bearing from three to five flow- 
ers, cylindrical and downy ; partial ones sliort, downy, all directed 
upwards, and single-flowered. 

The name of Wachendorfia was given to this species by Thunberg, 
in honor of M. Wachendorf, a Dutch botanist, who imported it from 
the Cape ; but though it appears to have been the first species sent 
to Europe, it was not introduced into England till the year 1770. 

158 



NAT. ORDER. 

SpigclUicca;. 

SPIGELIA MARILANDICA. CAROLINA TINK 

Class V. Pentandria. Order I. Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Corolla, funnel-shaped. Cajjsules, twin, two-celled, 
many seeded. 

Spe. Char. Stem, four-sided, all the leaves opposite. 

The root is perennial, unequal, simple, sends off many slender 
fibres, and grows in a horizontal direction ; the ste7ns, several of 
which rise from the same root, are simple, erect, smooth, obscurely 
quadrangular, of a purple color, and rise from twelve to twenty, 
inches in height ; the leaves are ovate, entire, sessile, somewhat undu- 
lated, of a deep green color, and stand in pairs upon the stem; the 
flowers are large, funnel-shaped, and terminate the stem in a spike ; 
the calyx divides into five, long, narrow, pointed, smooth segments; 
the corolla is monopetalous, consisting of a long tube, gradually 
swelling towards the middle, of a bright purplish red color, and 
divided at the mouth into five jiointed segments, which are yellow 
on the inside; \he^\\ejilaments are the length of the stamens, and 
crowned with halberd-shaped anthers; the germen is small, ovate, 
placed above the insertion of the corolla, furnished with joints near 
its base, supports a round style, which is longer than the corolla, 
bearded towards the extremity, and supplied with an obtuse stigma; 
the capsule is double, two-celled, and contains many small angular 
plano-convex seeds. It is a native of South Carolina, and most of 
the South-western States, being seldom if ever found north of the 
potomac. It grows in rich soils on the borders of woods, and flow- 
ers from May till July. 

159 



IGO NAT. OUUER. STELLATiE, 

Two species of this plant are now well known to botanists, the 
Spigelia anthenmintica, and the Spigelia viarilaiidica ; they have 
both been used as anthelmintics; the effects of the former have been 
extensively noticed by Dr. Browne in his History of Jamaica, pub- 
lished in the year 1751, and by several other distinguished foreign 
writers. But the accounts of the vermifuge virtues of Spigelia, 
given by Drs. Linning and Garden, from Charleston, South Caroli- 
na, evidently refer to the latter species, which is here described. 
Dr. Garden in his first letter to Dr. Hope, in 1763, says: ' About forty 
years ago, the anthelmintic virtues of the root of this plant were 
discovered by the Indians ; since which time it has been used here 
by physicians, practitioners, and planters; yet its true dose is not 
generally understood. I have given it in hundreds of cases, and 
have been very attentive to its effects ; but never found it to be of 
much service, except when it proved gently purgative." 

Medical Froperties and Uses. Pink-root is ranked among the 
most powerful anthelmintics. In small doses it produces but little, 
if any sensible effect on the system ; more largely given, it acts as a 
cathartic, but very unequal and uncertain in its operation ; in over 
doses it excites the circulation, and determines to the brain, giving 
rise to vertigo, dilated pupils, dimness, spasms, and sometimes gen- 
eral convulsions. Spasmodic movements of the facial muscles, and 
eyelids, are frequently observed by those who witness its narcotic 
action. At presnt this root stands at the head of the anthelmintics. 
It may be given to an adult in doses of one to two drachms; of the 
powdered root, to a child, from ten to twenty grains, to be repeated 
morning and evening for several days, and then followed by a brisk 
cathartic. The infusion is the most common form of administra- 
tion. A preparation is generally kept in the shops called worm 
tea, which consists of pink-root, senna, manna, and savine, mixed in 
various forms to suit the views of different individuals. 





'^>^' 



Ute^^f^- ^ 



u?.n^M,<?^z^- 



NAT. ORDER. 

£/ncuccce. 



RHODODENDRUM YELLOW FLOWERED 

CHRYSANTHUM. RHODODENDRUM. 

C/ass X. Decandria. Order I. Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx, five parted. Corolla, infundibuliform. Sta- 
mens, declimate. Capsules, loculicidel. 

Spe. Char. Leaves, oblong. Corolla, rotate, irregular. 

Tliis beautiful evergreen shrub sends off spreading branches, 
which are covered with a brown bark, and rises from twelve to 
eighteen inches in height ; the leaves are oblong, obtuse, thick, veined, 
reflexed at the margin, on the upper side of a deep green, on the 
under ferruginous, or glaucous, and surrounding the branches uj3on 
strong footstalks, which rise from between the imbricated stipular 
squamae; ihejloioers are large, yellow, and terminate the branches 
upon long peduncles, forming umbels ; the calyx is persistent divided 
into five teeth ; the corolla is monopetalous, wheel-shaped, inclining, 
irregular and divided at the limb into five round spreading seg- 
ments ; xhejilainents are ten, slender, spreading, nearly of the length 
of the corolla, and furnished with oval anthers; the germen is pen- 
tagonal, indented, and supports a style, which is longer than the 
stigma ; the capsule is egg-shaped, somewhat angular, and divided 
into five cells, which contain numerous small seeds. 

This plant is a native of Siberia, inhabiting mountainous situa 
tions, and flowers in June and July. Its medicinal effects, were first 
described in the year 1747, by Gmelin and Steller, who mention it 
as frequently and successfully used in Siberia and other northern 

161 



1G2 NAT. OUDEK. BICORNES. 

siluations of which it is a native, for the cure of rheumatism, and 
(Ulier painful affections of the joints. Little attention however was 
paid to this remedy until the year 1779, when it was strongly 
recommended by Roelpin as an efficacious medicine not only in 
rhcumati.sm and gout, but in all diseases that arise from impurities 
of the blood. 

Medical Properties and Uses. This plant is now very gene- 
rally employed, in some parts of Europe, in the cure of chronic 
rheumatism; but has not been introduced into medical practice in 
this country. I have, however, seen it administered in two cases, 
both of which manifested alarming symptoms, the result of which 
must have proved fatal, had the doses been repeated, The leaf, 
which is the part directed for use, has a bitterish subastringent taste, 
and, as well as the bark and young branches, manifest a degree of 
aci-imony. Taken in large doses they prove a powerful narcotic 
poison, producing those symptoms which we have described as 
occasioned by the Atropa helladonna, or Deadly Night Shade. 

As a powerful and active medicine this shrub may probably bo 
found an important addition to the Materia Medica. Dr. Home, 
who tried it unsuccessfully in some cases of acute rheumatism, says, 
"it appears to be one of the most powerful sedatives which we have, 
as in most of the trials it made the pulse remarkably slow, and in 
one patient reduced it to twenty-two beats; but in cases where it 
was used, at Edinburgh, it was said to be productive of good effects, 
and accordingly was introduced into the Edinburgh Pharmacopseia. 
The manner of using thie plant by the Siberians, was by putting 
two drachms of the dried leaves in an earthen pot, with about ten 
ounces of boiling water, keeping it near a boiling heat for a night, 
when it was ready for use. It is said to occasion heat, thirst, dele- 
rium, and a peculiar sensation on the part effected. Ten leaves of 
this plant have been given to a goat to eat, which was seized in a 
few minutes with stupor, trembling, and convulsions, which lasted 
for some hours ; but appeared well on the next day. 




/>9n^?i^^^i^ C"^^^ 



NAT. ORDER. 

AmentacecB. 



QUERCUS ROBUR. COMMON OAK, 

Class XXI. MoRCECiA. Order VI. Polyandria. 

Gen. Char. Calyx generally five cleft. Corolla none. Stamens five 
to ten. 

Si)c. Char. Leaves oblong, glabrous, sinuate. Lobes rounded. Fruit 
oblong. 

The Oak is a native of North America, a very valuable tree, and 
one of the largest of the forest ; it frequently attains the height of 
from seventy to one hundred feet ; its trunk is covered with a thick 
bark of a dark brown colour. It flowers in April, and the fruit 
ripens in October. The acorns are round, flattened at the tojD, and 
placed in a saucer-shaped cup. It sends off numerous strong branches. 
The haves are oblong, deeply sinuated, and form obtuse lobes ; they 
are of a deep greenish colour. The Jlowcrs are small and yellow. 

This extensive genus comprises not less than eighty species, of 
which not less than thirty or forty are found Avithin the limits of the 
United States, and in many, places comprise the largest portion of the 
timbered land, and is too well known to need further description. 

Medical Properties and Uses. The Oak bark has long been 
esteemed as a powerful and useful astringent and tonic. It is highly 
recommended in obstinate cases of diarrhoea, and chronic forms of dys- 
entery ; also in leucorrhcea and other chronic serous discharges de- 
pending on debility and relaxation of the secreting vessels. 

The decoction may also be employed with advantage as an in- 

163 



164 NAT. ORDER. AMENTACE^. 

jection, in cases of gleet, leucorrhcea, prolapsus, &c. Dr. Cullcn tells 
us that he has frequently employed the decoction 'vvith success in slight 
tumefactions of the mucous membrane of the fauces, and in many 
cases of prolapsus uvulae ; and in a number of cases this decoction, 
early applied, has appeared useful in preventing these disorders. It 
must be remarked, however, that Dr. Cullcn almost constantly added 
a portion of alum to these decoctions. An extract is procured from 
the bark by boiling down to a proper consistency, which is put up in 
small earthen pots. 

Galls, which are so numerously found upon the leaves of this 
tree, are occasioned by a small insect, with four wings, called Cynips 
Querci Folii, which deposits an egg in the substance of the leaf, by 
making a small perforation through the under surface ; the ball pres- 
ently begins to grow, and the egg in the centre of it changes to a 
worm ; tliis Avorm again changes to a nymph, and the nymph to the 
flying insect above mentioned, which by eating its passage out leaves a 
round hole ; those galls which have no holes, are found to have tlie 
dead insect remaining in them. 

Galls appear to be the most powerful of the vegetable astrin- 
gents, striking a deep black when mixed with a solution of ferrum 
vitriolatum, and therefore preferred to every other substance for the 
purpose of making ink. As a medicine, they are to be considered as 
applicable to the same indications as the oak bark, and by possessing a 
greater degree of astringent and styptic jjower, seem to have an ad- 
vantage over it, and to be better suited for external use. Reduced to 
powder, and made into an ointment, they have been found of great 
service in haemorrhoidal affections ; tlieir efficacy in intermittent fevers 
was tried by order of the Academy of Sciences ; from their report 
it appears that the galls succeeded in many cases, and also that they 
failed in many others, which were afterwards cured by Peruvian bark. 



NAT. ORDER. 

Iridacece. 



IRIS FLORENTINA. FLORENTINE ORRIS. 

Class III. Triandria. Order I. Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Corolla six-petalled, unequal. Petals alternate, jointed 

and spreading. Slig)?ias petal-form, cowled, two-lipped. 
Spec. Char. Corolla bearded. Sitcm with leaves higher than the 
flowers, often two-flowered. Flowers sessile. 

The root is j^erennial, ponderous, tuberous, branched, fibrous, 
somewhat compressed, externally brown, and internally of a yel- 
lowish white color; the leaves are sword-shaped, radical, inserted 
into each other, pointed, shorter than the stem, and of a dull green 
color ; the stem is round, smooth, jointed, and about a foot in height ; 
the jloxcers are large, upright, of a white color, and often have a 
bluish tinge; the calyx is a spatha of two valves; the corolla 
divides into six segments or petals, of these, three stand erect, the 
other three, w^hich are of an irregular oval shape, turn back, and 
at the base are painted with brown lines, and bearded with yellow 
hairs; (he Jiilaments are three, and crowned with long yellow 
anthers ; the style is short and simple ; the stigma separates into 
three expanded segments, resembling petals, which form an arch 
over the stamens; the germen is long, of an obtusely triangular 
shape, and placed below the corolla ; the capsule has three cavities, 
which contain numerous flat brown seeds. 

This [)lant is a native of Italy, and other parts of the south of 
Europe, where it is found growing wild in great abundance, flower- 
ing in June and July. It was first cultivated in England by the 

165 



IGG NAT. ORDER. IRIDACEjE. 

celebrated Gerard in the j^ear 1596, and is now constantly propa- 
gated by the florists through the diflerent parts of that country. 
It has also been found in some sections of the United States, but 
not in sufficient quantities to supply the demands of the druggists. 
Ill the year 1840, while traveling in the northwestern district of 
New-York, I found tliis species of the Iris quite plenty, growing 
alongr the margin of small streams and in moist meadows, and at 
thnt time procured the drawing from the living plant, which repre- 
sents the description. The root which is the officinal part, is dug 
up in spring and prepared for market by the removal of its cuticle 
and fibres. That which is produced in thi-s conntry have neither 
the odor, nor the other qualities, of those of warmer climates, so 
that for medicinal use they are imjDorted from Leghorn, in large 
casks. 

Medical Properties and Uses. The root in its recent state, is 
extremely acrid, and when chewed, excites a pungent heat in the 
mouth, which continues several hours; on being dried, this acri- 
mony is almost wholly dissipated, the taste slightly bitter, and the 
smell agreeable — approaching to that of violets. No essential oil 
has hitherto been obtained from this root, but spirituous tinctures 
of it contains more of its virtues than watery infusions. The fresh 
root is a powerful cathartic, and for this purpose, its juice has been 
emjjloyed in the dose of a drachm and upwards in dropsies. It is 
now chiefly used in its dried state, and ranked as a pectoral, or 
expectorant, and is occasionally used for chewing to conceal an 
offensive breath, and enters into the composition of numerous 
tooth powders. But, from my own limited experience, I have 
never found it to possess any very remarkable expectorant powers, 
and have therefore considered it chiefly valuable for the pleasant- 
ness of its perfume, and the flavor which it communicates. In 
the form of small I'ound balls, about the size of a pea, it is much 
used by the French for maintaining the discharge from issues. 



NAT. ORDER. 

Composite. 

ANT HEMIS NOBILIS. COMMON CPIAMOMILE. 

Class XIX. Syngenesia. Order 11. Polygamia Slpekflua. 

Gen. Char. Receptacle, chaffy. Seed-down, none, or a membra- 
nous margin. Calyx, hemispherical, nearly equal. Florets of 
the ray more than five. - ,- 1 

Spe. Char, ieaucs, bipinnate, linear, acute, subvillous. ■.. 

The roots are perennial, fibrous and spreading ; the stems are 
slender, round, trailing, hairy, branched, of a pale green color, and 
about a foot in length ; the leaves are doubly pinnated, linear, point- 
ed, a little hairy and divided into three terminal segments; the^o- 
wers are compound, radiated, white, at the centre yellow, and stand 
singly ; the calyx is common to all the florets, of a hemispherical 
form, and composed of several small imbricated scales; \heJloicers 
of the radius are female, usually about eighteen in number, narrow, 
white, and terminated with three small teeth ; the tubular part of 
the Jloret encloses the whole of the style, but does not conceal the 
bifid reflexed stigma ; the Jloivers of the disk are numerous, herma- 
phrodite, tubular, and cut at the brim into five segments ; the_^/a- 
ments are five, very short, and have their anthers so united as to form 
a hollow cylinder; the germen is oblong; the style is short, slender, 
and furnished with a bifid reflexed stigma; the seeds are small, and 
of an irregular shape, It flowers in July and August. 

The common Camomile is a native of Europe, where it is 
found growing wild, in all the temperate parts of that continent. 
Though not a native of this country, it may be found growing wild 

167 



168 NAT. ORDER. COMPOSlTiE. 

in some of the Northern and Middle States. It seeks dry mead- 
ows, pastures, and open fields, and is often seen growing in such 
quantities as to produce the appearance of a cultivated flower gar- 
den. Upon a closer examination it very much resembles the Anthe- 
mis cotula Mayweed, and Matricaria cliamomilla German camomile, 
all of which possess nearly the same medical properties, and in 
appearance look somewhat alike. A double flowered variety is 
usually kept in the shops, but as the sapid matter chiefly resides in 
the disk, or tubular part of the florets, the flowers' alone are pre- 
fered, in which the matter proves most abundant. Both the flowers 
and leaves of this plant, have a strong though not ungrateful smell, 
and a very bitter nauseous taste. The flowers give out their virtue, 
both to water and rectified spirit. 

Medical Properties and Uses. The flowers possess the tonic 
and stomachic qualities usually ascribed to simple bitters, having 
very little astringency, but a strong aromatic odor, which is of a 
very penetrating kind. They are said to possess carminative, 
emmcnagogue, and in some measure antispasmodic and anodyne 
properties. In England they have been long and successfully 
employed for the cure of intermittent, and nervous fevers accom- 
panied with visceral obstructions. That the flowers may be safely 
substituted for peruvian bark in the cure of intermittent fevers, 
appears from the experience and testimony of many respectable 
physicians, to which we may add that of Dr. Cullen, who sa\^ " I 
have employed these flowers by giving several times during the 
intermission, from half a drachm to a drachm of the flowers in pow- 
der, have cured manv cases of intermittent fevers from their use; 
but have found, however, that the flowers were attended with this 
inconvenience, that is, given in a large quantity, they readily run off 
by stool, defeating thereby the purpose of preventing the return of 
paroxysms. I have used this in connexion with an opiate or an 
astringent, that the patient might receive the full benefit of them. 







/; cya^iJ^c^^>9t 



2, tjl/i€^ 



NAT. ORDER. 

PassifloTcce. 

PASSIFLORA CCERULEA. THE PASSION FLOWER. 

Class XVI. MoNADELPHiA. OrdcT II. Pentandria. 

Gen. Char. Petals five. Cotyledons two. Stamens five, inserted 
into the calyx. Corolla with an imbricated aestivation, glandular 
leaves. 

Sjie. Char. Ovarmm seated on a long stalk. Fruit surrounded by 
the calyx, one-celled, three-valved. Seeds attached. Flowers 
terminal. 

This beautiful plant is the pride of South America and the West 
Indies, where the forests are filled with their numerous and splendid 
varieties, which spread themselves from tree to tree, bearing innu- 
merable quantities of flowers of striking beauty and singularity ; in- 
deed such was the estimation in which they were held by the Span- 
iards, who first discovered and settled the American continent, that 
they attached to their history many Christian traditions, which they 
failed not to disseminate among the aborigines of the country. The 
fruit, which is most tempting in appearance, delicious and refreshing 
to the palate, was also made an instrument subsersive to their religious 
zelotry, as it was invariably spoken of as one of the especial gifts of 
Divine Providence bestowed upon the inhabitants of the wilderness, 
whereby they might enjoy continued happiness and comfort. 

The drawing or the plate which represents this beautiful spe- 
jimen of the floral tribe, was taken from nature by Mrs. C. Norton 
)f this city, the correctness and accuracy of which can only be sur- 

169 



ITO 



NAT. ORDER. PASSIFLOREJE. 



passed by nature itself. Professor Lindlej^, who has given a more 
particular description of this species of plant tJian any of our other 
botanists, describes it as having five sepals, sometimes irregular, com- 
bined in a tube of variable length, the sides and throat of which are 
lined by filamentous or annular processes, apparently metamorphosed 
petals. Five j)ctals, arising from the throat to the calyx, on the out- 
side of the filamentous processes, occasionally wanting, sometimes ir- 
regular, imbricated in aestivation ; s^rtmc7is five, monadelphous, rarely 
indefinite, surrounding the stalk of the ovarium ; anthers turned out- 
wards, linear, two-celled, bursting longitudinally ; ovarium seated on a 
long stalk, superior, one-celled ; styles three, arising from the same 
point, clavate ; stigmas dilated ; fruit surrounded by the calyx, 
stalked, one-celled, with three parietal polyspermous placentae, some- 
times three-valved ; seeds attached in several rows to the placenta, 
with a brittle sculptured testa surrounded by a pulpy arillus ; embryo 
straight, in the midst of fleshy thin albumen ; radicle turned towards 
the hilum ; cotyledons flat, leafy ; herbaceous plants or shrubs, usually 
climbing, very seldom arborescent; leaves alternate, with foliareous 
stipulfn, often glandular ; floiocrs axillary or terminal, often with three- 
leaved involucre. 

Notwithstanding a tropical climate appears to be the natural 
home of the Passion Flower, one or two of its species have attached 
themselves to our own country, as well as some of the southern parts 
of Europe ; several appear to be indigenous to Africa and its neigh- 
boring islands, and a few in the East Indies, but the greater part of 
these belong to the genus Modccia, and the flowers, although they 
rank among the most beautiful of any country where they are found, 
are far inferior, both in size and brilliancy of color, to the South 
American plant we have been describing. 

Its medical properties and uses are comparatively unknown, at 
least it has never been introduced into either American or European 
practice, perhaps on account of its rarity ; consequently this part of 
its history yet remains for the discovery of science. 



NAT. ORDER. 

Verticillatcs. 



MENTHA VIRIDIS. SPEAR MINT. 

Class XIV. DiDYNAMiA. Order I. Gymnospermia. 

Gen. Char. Corolla almost equal, four-cleft; the broader segment 
emargiuate. Stamina upright, distant. 

Spe. Char. SpeA'cs cylindrical. i(?atr5 oblong, acute, serrate, hairy, 
subsessile. Stein strisrose. Stajncns lonojer than the corolla. 

The root is perennial, creeping, and sends forth numerous small 
fibres ; the stems are square, hollow, erect, branched, and rise about 
two feet in height; the leaves are large, eliptical, serrated, pointed, 
of a bright green color, and placed in pairs close to the stem, or 
on short footstalks; the Jlowers are small, of a light purple or pink 
color, and produced in terminal spikes ; the fdainents are larger 
than the corolla. It flowers in August. 

This plant is a native of North America, and can be found 
growing on the banks of rivers and small streams, in most of the 
Northern and Middle States. It is also found growing in many 
' parts of Europe, and in England is cultivated for culinary uses. 
Many virtues were ascribed to mint by the ancients, but what spe- 
cies they referred to must ever remain uncertain ; even at this time 
the different species of this numerous family are not satisfactoiily 
ascertained ; but in a medical sense, this is of little importance, as 
the virtues of all reside in the aromatic flavor, which is, common to 
the whole genus. 

Oa drying, the leaves loose about three-fourths of their weight 

without suffering much loss of their odor or taste. Cold or warm 

171 



172 



NAT. ORDER. VERTICILLAT.*:. 



water, by maceration for a short time, becomes richly impregnated 
with its flavor. Dry mint, digested in rectified spirit, either cold or 
with a gentle warmth, gives out readily- its peculiar taste and smell, 
without imparting the grosser and more ungrateful matter. The 
tincture appears by day-light of a fine dark green, by candle-light 
of a dark red color; a tincture extracted from the remaining mint 
with fresh spirit, appears in both lights green ; the color of both 
tinctures change in keeping, to a brown. 

Medical Properties and Uses. To spear-77iint we may ascribe 
the same medical properties which are given to peppermint; but 
the different j^reparations of the former, though more pleasant, are 
perhai:)s less efficacious. It contains considerable essential oil, but 
of an odor much less agreeable than that of lavander. It is there- 
fore less employed as a cephalic, but acts very powerfully on the 
parts to which it is immediately applied, especially on the stomach, 
invigorating all its functions. It acts powerfully as an anti-spasmod- 
ic, relieving pain and cholic depending upon spasm. It is also suc- 
cessfully administered in many cases of severe vomiting, giving 
relief in a few minutes. Practitioners who have been in the habit 
of using mint, all agree that the infusion of its leaves in warm wa- 
ter, agrees better with the stomach than the distilled water. To 
allay nausea and relieve spasmodic pains of the stomach and bow- 
els, or to cover the taste and qualify the nauseating or griping effects 
of other medicines are among the most common purposes for which 
it is used. The fresh herb, bruised and applied over the epigastri- 
um often allays sick stomach, and is highly useful in the cholera of 
children. We are told that when cows have eaten of the mint, es- 
pecially the Mentha arveniss, which they will do at the end of sum- 
mer, when the pastures are bare and short of feed, their milk can 
hardly be made to yield cheese ; a circumstance which sometimes 
puzzles the dairy-maids. The officinal preparations are an oil, a 
tincture, and a disl lied water. 



t ■ 
NAT. ORDER. 

PomacccR. 



a:\iygdalus communis. common almond tree 

Class XII. IcosANDRiA. Ovclcr I. Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx five-cleft, inferior. Drupe with a nut, perfo- 
rated. 

Spc. Char. The louver serratures of the leaves glandular. Flowers 
sessile, in pairs. 

The Almond Tree is a native of Syria and Barbary; it is culti- 
vated likewise in France, Italy, Sicily, and in England ; but the 
warmth of this climate is not generally sufficient to bring it to perfec- 
tion. It flowers in March and April, and thrives best in a light sandy 
soil and southern climate. The tree is from fifteen to twenty Icct 
high, divided into many spreading branches, which are covered with a 
dark grey bark ; the fruit is of a peach kind, the outer substance of 
which is liard, tough, hairy, and marked with a longitudinal furrow 
where it opens ; under this is a thick, rough shell, which contains tho 
kernel or almond. 

This tree seems to have been known in the remotest times of 
antiquity, being frequently mentioned by Theophrastus and Hippo- 
crates ; it is probable, however, that this tree was not very common 
in Italy in the time of Cato, as he calls the fruit by the name of Greek 
nuts. It was cultivated in England by Lobel' previous to the year 
1570 ; and though it does not perfect its fruit in that country, yet it 
is tliere very much propagated for the beautiful appearance of its 
flowers, which are the more conspicuous by showing themselves early 

173 



174 NAT. ORDER. POMACES, 

in spring, before the leaves are expanded. The fruit or seeds of 
most phmts produce varieties, dillering more or less from the parent 
plant, and from each other ; I)ut in the Almond tree this diflcrcnce is 
principally confined to the fruit, which is larger or smaller, the sliell 
thicker or thinner, and the kernal bitter or sweet ; hence the distinc- 
tion of bitter Alinon(Li and sweet Almonds. 

Tlie tree forms an important article in the general culture of 
many parts of France, Italy, and Spain. In a forward spring the 
blossoms often appear in Februaiy, but in this country frosts gener- 
ally destroy them, and they bear little or no fruit, Avhereas when 
the trees do not flower till March, they seldom fail to produce fruit 
in abundance. 

The kernal of the nut is the only part used, which is tender 
and of a fine flavor. The sweet Almonds and other varieties are 
brought to the desert in a green or imperfect ripe, and also in a ripe 
state. They are also nmch used in cookery, confectionery, perfumery 
and medicine. Sweet Almonds used as food, Professor Martin ob- 
serves, are diflicult of digestion, and afford very little nourishment, 
uidess extremely well comminated. The tender shelled is in the 
gi'eatest esteem, and next the sweet and Jordan. 

Propagation and Culture. The Almond is propagated like the 
peach, by seeds for varieties or stocks, and by budding on its own or 
on a plum stock for continuing vai'ieties. Plum stocks are preferred 
for strong moist soils, and peach and almond stocks for dry situations. 
The trees are generally planted as standards in shrubberies, and 
these will sometimes in good seasons ripen their fruit, but when fruit 
is the object, they .should be trained against a west or east wall, 
like the peach. The Almond Tree bears chiefly on the young wood 
of the previous year, like the apricot and peach, and in part upon 
small spurs on the two and three year old, and older brandies ; it is 
therefore primed like these trees. 

The fruit may be gathered and preserved in the following man- 
ner. — a part may be gathered when nearly ripe, daily, for some 



NAT. ORDER. POMACEiE. 175 

weeks before gatheriu;^ the wliole crop. This operation is generally 
performed in September, when a part may be laid in the fruit room, 
and a part thoroughly dried and bedded in sand in the fruit cellar^ for 
keeping through the wiuh r. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Sweet Almonds exercise no other 
influence upon the system than that of a demulcent ; they are said to 
be useful in catarrlial affections. Bhter Almonds are more energetic 
although not much in use ; they might be employed with advantage in 
cases to which the hydrocyanic acid is applicable. An emulsion made 
of them has been successfully used in pectoral affections attended with 
cough ; it is said to have cured intermittents when bark had failed ; it 
operates by diminishing the excitability of the nervous system, and 
moderating existing irritation. They are also highly recommended for 
the expulsion of the tape-worm. Bitter Almonds afford by expression 
an oil equally bland as that obtained from the sweet ; but the residue 
after expression is more intensely bitter than the residue of the sweet 
They also yield by distillation a very fragrant, acrid, and bitter essen 
tial oil, which is heavier than water, and proves a very active poison 
to animals ; a few drops only is extracted from several pounds of ker- 
nels. From the prussic acid which bitter Almonds contain, they are 
found to destroy some animals ; in the human subject, if eaten freely, 
they occasion nausea, vomiting, and other distressing symptoms. When 
administered to animals with a view to their destruction, they become 
absorbed and carried into the circulation, and eventually act upon the 
nerves as a sedative. They were used by the ancients in intermittents 
and for worms, but from the uncertainty of their operation, and the 
risk attending it, we seldom see them administered by modern prac- 
titioners. They are occasionally used to flavor wines, cordials, &c., 
but are chiefly valued on account of the fixed oil they contain, which 
is obtained indiscriminately from the two varieties. 



NAT. ORDER. 

Gi-uinales. 



OXALIS ACETOSELLA. WOOD SORREL. 

Class X. Decandria. Order IV. Pentagynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx five-parted. Petals five, often connected at the 
^ base. Capsules five-celled, five-cornered, opening at the corners. 

Seeds arrilled. 

Spe. Char. Styles equal. Leaflets in threes, obcordate, hirsute. 
Root toothed. 

- The Wood Sorrel is a small perennial, herbaceous, stemless plant ; 

the root is horizontal, scaly, and of a bright red color ; the leaves 
grow three together, inversely heart-shaped, of a yellowish green 
color, frequently purple underneath, and beset with a few hairs ; th6 
leaf stalks are about three inches long, nearly upright, tender, pro- 
ceeding from little bulbs, which form a kind of sheath ; at the bottom 
these stalks are red and round, but towards the top grooved on one 
side ; the Jlowcrs are white or flesh-colored, and elegantly streaked 
with red veins ; the Jloioer-stalk is a little longer than the leaf-stalk, 
and furnished near the top with two oval pointed bracteae, which part- 
ly surround it ; the calyx is divided into five segments ; these are 
short, permanent, bluntish, membraneous at the edges, and often spot- 
ted with purple ; the j)ctals are five, affixed to the receptacle by the 
claws, which bend a little inward just above where the claws adiicrti 
together ; they are blunt, slightly crenated, and tinged at the bottom 
with yellow ; the stamens are ten, upright, and white, the five exte 
rior the shortest : the anthers are yellow and bilocular ; the s^crmen 

176 



•*-< 



NAT. ORDER. GRUINALES. ] 



/ t 



is quadrangular and green ; the styles are five, very slender, a little 
longer than the stamens, and the stigma is blunt ; the capsule is oval- 
ish, pentagonal, spotted, divided into five cavities, each containing 
three seeds, which are heart-shaped, longitudinally grooved, convex on 
both sides, of a briglit reddish brown color, and enclosed within a 
shining, white, elastic arillus, by the bursting of which the seeds are 
thrown out. 

This plant is foimd growing in various parts of Europe and Asia, 
but is a native of North America, where it is chiefly found in the 
mountainous regions of the interior part of the United States. It 
selects shady places, such as woods, groves, and hedges, and flowers 
from April tiU June. 

Medical Projjerties and Uses. The Acetosella is totally ino- 
dorous, but has a grateful acid taste, which is more agreeable than the 
common Sorrel, {Rumcx Acctosa,) and approaches nearly to that of 
the juice of lemons, or the acid of tartar, with wliich it also corres- 
ponds in a great measure in its medicinal effects, being considered re- 
frigerant, antiscorbutic, and diuretic, and was formerly used extensive- 
ly in the treatment of bilious and putrid fevers. The principal use, 
however, of the Acetosella, is to allay inordinate heat, and to quench 
thirst ; for this purpose a pleasant whey may be formed by boiling the 
plant in milk, which under certain circumstances may be preferable to 
the conserve directed by the London College, though an extremely 
grateful and useful medicine. Many have employed the root of lu- 
zula, probably on account of its beautiful red color rather than for its 
superior efficacy. An essential salt is prepared from this plant, known 
by the name of essential salt of lemons, and used for the purpose of 
taking oit ink spots, iron mould, and sometimes as a test for lime. 



NAT. ORDER. 

Scabrida. 



MORUS NIGRA. COMMON MULBERRY TREE. 

Class XXI. MoNCECiA. Order IV. Tetrandria. 

Gen. Char. Male, Calyx four-parted. Corolla none. Female, 
Calyx four-leaved, Corolla none. Styles two. Calyx becom- 
ing a berry. Seeds one. 

Spe Char. Leaves cordate, rugged. 

This species of mulberry, grows from ten to twenty feet in 
height but sends off several crooked branches, and is covered with 
rough brown bark ; the leaves are numerous, heart-shaped, serra 
ted, veined, rough, of a light green color, and stand upoa short foot- 
stalks ; the Jlowers are male and female upon the same tree, the 
?nale /lowers are placed in close roundish catkins, each floret com- 
posed of a calyx, divided into four leaves, which are oval, concave, 
and erect; there is no corolla ; the Jilaments are four, longer than 
the calyx, and furnished with simple anthers ; the calyx of the fe- 
male jloioer is divided into four obtuse persistent segments ; corolla 
none; the germen is roundish, and supports two rough styles, sup- 
plied with simple stigmas ; the fruit is a large succulent berry com- 
posed of a number of smaller berries, each containing an oval seed, 
and affixed to a common receptacle. It flowers in June and its 
fruit ripens in September. 

The Mulberry tree is a native of Italy, from whence it has been 
introduced and cultivated in almost every part o'i the civilized 
world, not only for the grateful fruit which it affords, but in most 

178 




Ci-t?-^^y^n^-n 




NAT. ORDER. SCABRID^. 179 

places for the more lucrative purpose of supplying silk-wornis. 
with its leaves upon which they feed. The Mon/s ruba a native 
of our country, produces a fruit quite equal to that of the imported 
species. The Morits alba, white mulberry, originally from China, 
and now extensively cultivated as a source of food for the silk- 
worm, bears a white fruit, which is sweeter and less grateful than 
the others. Fustic, a yellow dye, is the wood of ]\[orus tincioria, 
by some called the Osage apph; it bears a globular compound fruit 
about the size of an orange; but is not eatable; the wood is much 
esteemed by the Osage Indians for making their bows ; it dves a 
beautiful yellow, and much resembles the Fustic of the West Indies. 
The Moius maclura, is a native of Hindostan, the bark of which ia 
a powerful tonic, and is administered by the Hindoos in diabetes. 
The Aforus tartarica is said to be the most valuable iuv the culture 
of silk; especially in China where the best silk is made. Forster 
in a letter to Professor Murry, gives an account of another species 
of Mulberry, the Morus pajjyrifera, from which the Japanese make 
a very fine paper, and the inhabitants of some of the Islands of the 
South Sea, make a kind of cloth. ;•>•> 

Medical Properties and Uses. The ripe fruit of this species 
of mulben-y abounds with a deep violet-colored juice, which in its 
general qualities agrees with that of the other Acido-dulces, allaying 
thirst, partly by refrigerating, and partly by exciting an excretion 
of mucus from the mouth and fauces; a similar effect is also pro- 
duced in the stomach, where, by correcting putrescency, a power- 
ful cause of thirst is removed. This is more generally the case 
with all those fruits in which the acid prevails over the saccharine 
part, as the currant which we have already noticed, and to which 
the medicinal qualities of this fruit may be referred; but both of 
these, and most of the other summer fruits, are to be considered 
rather as articles of diet than of medicine. The bark of the root 
is highly cathartic, the dose of which is half a drachm of the 
powdered root. 



NAT. ORDER. 

Labiatee. 



SCUTELLARIA LATERIFLORA. BLUE SCULLCAP. 

Class XIV. DiDYNAMiA. Older I. Gymnospermia. 

(len. Char. Stalks, branched, smooth. Leaves, on long petiole- 
ovate, dentate, sometimes cordate, membranaceous. Racems, 
lateral leafy. 

Spe. Char. Upper lip of the calyx covering the fruit like an oper- 
culum. 

The roots are perennial, fibrous and yellow ; the stem, is erect, 
square, and rises from one to three feet in height; the branches are 
similar to Lobelia Inflata, the lower branches being the longest, but 
none of them reaching above the top of the stem ; the leaves are 
ovate, dentate, acute, subcordate upon the stem, opposite, and sup- 
ported upon long petioles ; the flowers are small, of a pale blue 
color, and are placed on the branches which contain several small 
nracts or leaves ; the calyx has an entire margin, which, after the 
corolla has fallen, is closed in with a helmet-shaped lid ; the tube 
of the corolla is elongated, the upper lip concave and entire, the 
lower three-lobed ; the seed-vessels are of a light green color, and 
somewhat in the shape of a hood — they open laterally by a valve, 
each one containing four seeds. 

ScuUcap has of late become quite celebrated for the cure of 
hydrophobia. Rafinesque says : " This property was first dis- 
covered by Dr. Vandervere, about 1772, who used it with the 
utmost success, and until 1815, when he died : he is said to have 
prevented four hundred persons, and more than one thousand cattle, 
from becoming hydrophobic, after they were bitten by rabid ani- 

180 




^'^///, 



NAT. ORDER. LABIAT.(E. lg| 

mals. His son is stated to have relieved or cured forty persons iu 
three years, in the States of New- York and New-Jersey, by the 
use of this medicine. 

Medical Properties a7id Uses. Scullcap is ranked by those who 
are best acquainted with its properties, as one of the most effectual 
nervines in use ; it can be given to all classes, and in most any stage 
of disease, with safety. It is highly useful in St. Vitus' dance, con- 
vulsions, locked-jaw, tremors, ague and fever, tic-doloreux, and all 
nervous affections. It may be given with advantage to children, 
where their health is impaired from the effects of teething. 
Besides its other good effects, it has a tendency to keep the pores 
open and skin moist. The U. S. Dispensatory describes this species 
of Scullcap as possessing but little, if any, taste or smell, or appear- 
ance of any remarkable medical virtues. It is even destitute of the 
aromatic properties which are found in a large portion of the labiate 
plants. When taken internally, it produces no obvious effects upon 
the system. Notwithstanding its apparent inertness, it obtained at 
one period extraordinary credit throughout the Union, as a preven- 
tative of hydrophobia, and was even highly recommended for the 
disease itself. A strong tea made of the leaves and branches of 
this plant was given in the dose of a wine glass full, and rej^eateil 
several times a day ; this was continued for three or four months 
after the bite was received, while the herb itself was applied to the 
wound. Strong testimony has been adduced in favor of its prophy- 
lactic powers; but has shared the fate of many other specifics 
against hydrophobia, which have been brought into temporary 
fjopularity only to be speedily abandoned. It is now nearly dis- 
carded from medical practice, and its merits have not been much 
investigated since. We think this plant well worthy the attention 
of physicians, especially with a view to ascertain its real merits. 
As a nervine it ranks high, and enters into various compounds pre- 
pared by some of our modern practitioners for the treatment of 
nervous diseases. 



NAT. ORDER. 

Gruinalis. 



aUASSIA AMARA. BITTER QUASSIA, 

-Class X. Decandria. Order I. Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx, five-leaved. Petals, five. Nectary, five-leaved. 
Pericarp, five, distant, each having one seed. 

Sj)e. Char. Flowers, bisexual. Leaves, unequally pinnate. Leajlets, 
opposite, sessile. Petiole, jointed, winged. Floiccrs, in race- 
mes. 

The Bitter Quassia is a small tree or shrub, rising several feet 
in height, and sends off many strong branches ; the wood is white 
and light ; the bark is thin, and of a grey color ; the leaves are 
placed alternately upon the branches, and consist of two pair of 
opposite pinnse, with an odd one at the end ; all the leajlets are 
of an elliptical shape, entire, veined, smooth, pointed, sessile, on 
the upper pagina, of a deep green color, on the under, paler ; the 
common foot-stalks are articulated and winged, or edged on each 
side with a leafy membrane, which gradually expands near the 
base of the pinnee ; the Jlowers are all hermaphrodite, of a bright 
red color, and terminate the branches in long spikes ; the hractea, 
or Jloral, are lance-shaped, or linear, colored, and placed alternately 
ujion the peduncles ; the calyx is small, persistent, and five-toothed ; 
the corolla consists of five lance-shaped equal petals, at the base of 
which is placed the nectary, or five roundish colored scales ; the 
filaments are ten, slender, somewhat longer than the corolla, and 
crowned with simple anthers, placed transversely ; the receptacle is 
fleshy and orbicular; the germen is ovate, divided into five parts, 

182 



NAT. ORDER. GRUINALIS. 



183 



and supports a slender style, longer than the filaments, and termi- 
nated by a tapering stigma ; the capsules are five, two-celled, and 
contain globular seeds. It is a native of South America, particu- 
larly of Surinam, and also of some of the West India Islands. 

The botanical character of this species of Quassia, w^as known 
to the ancients long before that of the Simaruba ; but its medicinal 
properties were never fully appreciated until the year 1756, when 
a negro, by the name of Quassia (from whom it derived its name), 
employed it with uncommon success, as a secret remedy in the 
malignant endemic fevers, which prevailed to a considerable extent 
at Surinam. In consequence of a valuable consideration, this secret 
was disclosed to Daniel Rolander, a Swede, who introduced it into 
general practice ; and numerous testimonies of its efficacy were 
published by many respectable authors. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Various experiments with 
Quassia have been made, with a view to ascertain its antiseptic 
powers, from which it appears to have considerable influence in 
retarding the tendency to putrefaction. It is purely tonic, invigo- 
rating the digestive organs, with little excitement of the circulation, 
or increase of animal heat, and possesses, in the highest degree, all 
the properties of the simple bitters. It is particularly adapted to 
dyspepsia from debility of stomach, and to that weakened state of 
the digestive organs which sometimes succeeds acute disease. It 
may also be given with advantage in the remission of certain fevers 
in which tonics are required. 

It is most conveniently administered in decoctions, or extracts, 
as the difficulty of reducing the wood into a powder renders it 
objectionable. 



NAT. ORDER. 

SpathacccB. 

NARCISSUS TRIANDRUS. THREE-ANTHERED RUSH DAFFODIL. 

Class VT. Hexandria. Order I. Monogytoa. 

Gen. Char. Style, straight, slender. Filaments adhering to the up- 
per part of the tube. Limb, decidedly reflex. Cup, equalling 
or shorter than the limb. Tube, drooping. Capsule, erect. 
Seed, oblong. 

Spe. Char. Tube and Limb, equal, and much longer than the cup. 
Limb, reflexed. Sjmthc, many-flowered. Flowers, drooping. 
The three alternate Stametis much shorter than the others, and 
with the Style concealed by the cup. 

The Jlower-stalk or scajje in aU these species has two or three 
flowers, and the flowers are always drooping. It may also be ob- 
served, that all the species called Jonquil, of which this once was 
one, are distinguished by their slender, rush-like leaves, whence in- 
deed they take their name, as it is derived from the Latin word 
Juncifolius, literally rush-leaved. The leaves are somewhat chan- 
nelled ; the sjjathe is one-flowered ; the whole corolla snow-white ; 
the petals ovate-oblong ; the nectary bell-shaped, shorter by half than 
the corolla, with the margin straight, and unequally crenulate ; the 
stamens three, seldom six ; the anthers dark yellow, shorter than the 
nectary. In nurseries the flowers are of a pale yellow, having two, 
and sometimes three flowers from a spathe. It is a native of Por- 
tugal. 

There are perhaps few plants that rary more in the flowers than 

184 




(■.^^^4^€^':><^i^^^i^le^^/^^^^^^c^ 



NAT. ORDER. — SPATHACE.E. 185 

this, as they are very often different on the same stalk. They al- 
ways, however, agree in three of the stamens being so much shorter 
ihan the others, and are perceptible without a very close examina- 
tion. Tlie limb of the flower is always reflexed, and the cup 
projecting. But this is a characteristic of the genus Ganymaks, which 
is named from the cup-bearer of Jove, from its constantly projecting 
cup. Like all the plants in this division, this species is very deli- 
cate, and requires a warm and sheltered situation, and a light rich 
soil. This plant differs from many of its species, in having a twisted 
stem, whence Parkinson's name of the Tiu*uing Jonquil. 

JVaixissus pscudo-narcissits. Common Daffodil. This has a 
large bulbous root, from which spring out five or six flat leaves, about 
a foot long, and an inch broad, of a greenish color, and a little hollow 
in the middle like the keel of a boat ; the stalk rises about eighteen, 
inches m height, having two sharp longitudinal angles ; at the top 
comes out the nodding flower, inclosed in a thin spathe ; the corolla 
is of one petal, being connected at the base, but cut almost at the 
bottom into six spreading parts ; in the middle is a bell-shaped nec- 
tary, called by gardeners the cup, which is equal in length to the 
petal, and stands erect ; the petal is of a pale brimstone or straw 
color, and the nectary is of a full yellow ; the seeds are roundish 
ana black. It is a native of many parts of Europe, and flowers in 
March. 

JVarcissus poeticus. Poetic Narcissus. This species has a smaller 
and rounder bulb than the previous ; the leaves are longer, flatter, 
and more narrow ; the stalk or scape does not rise higher than the 
leaves, and which are of a greyish color ; the flower is produced at 
the top of the stalk from the spathe, nodding on one side ; the corolla 
is snow white, spreading open flat ; the petals rounded at the points ; 
the nectary or cup in the centre is very short, and fringed on the bor- 
der with a bright purple circle ; the flx)wers have an agreeable odor, 
appear in May, and seldom produce seeds. It is a native of Italy, 
and the South part of Germany. Flowering in April. There are 



1 



186 NAT. ORDER. SPATHACE^. 

varieties with double white flowers, with purple-cupped flowers, and 
with yellow-cupped flowers. 

Propagation ami Culture. All the difierent species and varieties 
of this extensive genus may be increased with facility, by planting the 
olT-set bulbs from the roots ; and by sowing the seed in order to pro- 
cure new varieties, which is chiefly j^ractised for the fine sorts of 
Polyanthus Narcissus. For tliis pvupose the seed should be care- 
fully saved from the best and most curious plants after being perfect- 
ly ripened. 

The seed should be sown after it becomes ripe, in or about the 
beginning of August, in shallow boxes or flat pans perforated with 
holes in the bottom, and filled with fresh light sandy earth, being cov- 
ered about a quarter of an inch deep with fine sifted mould, and placed 
in such situations as are only exposed to Jie moniing sun, till the 
beginning of whiter, when they should be removed to have the full 
sun, and be sheltered from the severe weather. In the spring, when 
the plants appear, they should be occasio ally watered in dry weather, 
and be screened from the mid-day heat, remo^-ing them into cooler 
situations as the warm season advarces, keeping them free from all 
sorts of weeds. Towards the latter part of summer, when their 
stems decay, the surface mould of the boxes or pans should be stir- 
red or wholly removed, and some , -esh mould sifted over the plants, 
being careful not to disturb the roots, and keeping them dry in a 
shaded situation. 

They should have the samef- management annually, till the period 
of their leaves decaying in the third summer, when the bulbs shoiUd 
be taken up, and the larges. separated and planted out on raised 
beds of light fine mould '^ rows six inches apart, and three or four 
distant in them, having .e depth of two or three inches. They 
should afterwards be ^vept clean ; and when they show flowers, so 
as to ascertain their properties, they may be removed, and managed 
a* other bidbous roots. 



t - 



.XI<. 




(^.i:^^u^9^&c^u t^yc^^ftz^-f^Pt^-. 



>>>;:■, 



NAT. ORDER. 

Liliacece. 



HYACINTHUS ORIENTALIS. COMMON HYACINTH. 

Class Vr. Hexandria. Ordey- 1. Monogynia. ' 

Gen. Char. Perianth, tubular, six-cleft. Segments, reflexed. Sfa- 
mens, six, inserted in the middle of the tube. Style, awl-shap- 
ed. Stigma, obtuse. Capsule, ovately-trigonal, three-celled. 
Seeds, many, roundish. 

i^K. Char. Perianth, funnel-shaped, half-cleft. Segments, spread- 
ing. Ticbe, venticose at the base. 

The root is large, viscid, and bulbous ; the scape or stem risti 
immediately from this biUb, bearing from six to ten leaves, which arc 
broadish, keeled, pale-green at the bottom, but much darker near the 
ends ; the scajje is from six to ten inches in height, smooth, roundish, 
pale-green below, but tinged with brown towards the top; tiie 
Jloioers are placed near the top, standing one above another, on dif- 
ferent sides, and each nodding on pedicels, about half an inch iu 
length, usually of a very dark-green color, and having a pair of brae- 
tes at the base ; the corolla is nearly an inch in length, almost cylin- 
drical except at the base, where it swells ; i\\&Jlowers have a very 
sWeetish smeU, and are much valued for the variety of their colors. 

The hyacinth is probably known to every lover of flowers ; but 
many who are unacquainted with its history will be surprised to 
hear that there are only three species in the genus, and that two of 
these are rarely seen. The fact is, that all the almost innumeral)le 
kinds of hyacinths common in our gardens are varieties of one spe- 

187. 



188 NAT. ORDER. LILIACE.E. 

cies, Hijncintlius orientalis ; and as these vary very much from seed, 
may be readily crossed with each other, no limit can be given to the 
number and variety of hyacinths that may be raised. 

The hyacinth, m its vpild state, is generally blue, but sometimes 
pink, and it grows in great abundance in tlie neighborhood of Alep])o 
and Bagdad. It has also been occasionally found in France and 
Barbary, but in both cases it was probably only a garden flower, 
which had sown itself accidentally. The garden hyacinth was first 
introduced in England before 1596, as Gerard speaks of it as a well 
known flower, without saying when it was introduced ; and he de- 
scribes several double varieties of the origmal flower, Avliich he says, 
simply, was first brought from the East. The varieties known to 
Gerard were all blue, white, or pink ; and only these colors were 
known in hyacinth till about the commencement of the present cen- 
tury, when a few pale yellow, or rather lemon colored, kinds were 
raised from seed. These liave smce been greatly improved by hy- 
bridizing and cultivation. 

Much has been said and Avritten on the culture of the hyacinth, 
but the following accoimt of the Dutch mode of culture, (which was 
ti-anslated for and published in the Gardeners' Magazine,) which we 
have been told by florists, contains every thing that is necessary to 
be known on the subject. 

" The hyacmth likes a very sandy soil, well-prepared, fine, wnth- 
out any appearance of stones or gravel, and which consequently looks 
exactly as if it had been passed tlu-ough a fine sieve. All kinds of 
loam or stiflT soil, wliich bind so closely together that, when diy, the 
wind cannot separate their particles as it does those of sand, must 
be avoided. No kind of red, blush, or blackish soil will produce 
perfect hyacinths ; but one is considered particularly good, which is 
light grey, and which resembles fine, very sandy, and light garden 
mould. This sand, which is very light of itself, is made still lighter 
by the addition of the thin sand of the Dutch downs, which is of a 
pale yellow color, very fine, and contains neither stones nor gravel ; 



NAT. ORDER. — LILIACE.E. 189 

and as this sand constitutes the principal part of the niLKture of tlie 
soil, if natui'e denies us a supply of it at home, we nuist search l(.)r it 
at other places, or try to prepare one like it. Various soils have been 
used for this piu*pose, but the preference is given to a pale yellow 
river-sand, to which is added a third of leaf-mould. 

In preparing the beds, particular attention must be paid to two 
rules : — first, Tliat for the space of four years previously to planting, 
no manure of a heating quality, must be mixed with the soil. Second, 
That hyacinths must not be grown in the same soil oftener than once 
every four years. The latter ride must be particularly attended to ; 
because, if planted a year earlier, the decayed remains of the old 
bulbs would communicate the rot or other diseases to the newly- 
planted bidbs. In Holland, a bed is planted the first year with hya- 
cinths, the second with tulips, the third with Polyanthus Narcissus ; 
and it would be desirable if something similar were planted even the 
fourth year. The bed, however, is generally prepared for hyacinths 
the fourth season as follows : — Between December and February the 
ground is dug five or six feet deep ; and, when too much water is 
apprehended, a drain is dug all round the bed, and filled with ^^ood 
or stones, and then covered up. In March every square yard is en ■ 
ri died with fonr hand-barrowfids of pure cow-manure (without straw) 
dug in a foot deep. During the summer, vegetables or annuals are 
grown on the bed, which do not exhavist the soil too much. The 
following autuma (therefore the fifth,) the soil is dug one and a half 
or two inches deep, taking care to let the manure, which was put on 
the ground in spring, remain a foot deep in the earth. When a pro- 
per drain is not made, a trench is used, two feet wide, and one and 
a half feet broad, which is left open, so that the water collected in it 
may be taken out 

When the above operation is performed, the bulbs must be prepa- 
red for planting in the beginning of October. This preparation con- 
sists in examining whether the bulbs are perfectly healthy ; because 
if they are unhealthy, they not only will not flower, but will infect 



190 NAT. ORDER. LlLIACEiE. 

those near them. It is necessary, therefore, in the first place, to be 
acquainted with the diseases they are liable to, which are : — 
First, the white rotz : Second, the black rotz : Third, the rot : 
Fourth, mould : Fifth, consumption or wasting : Sixth, shrinking : 
and Seventh, excess of offsets. 

Fi7st. The white rotz is known by a resin which generally 
oozes from the upper part of the biUb, and also from the side, and 
which, about this time of the year, (October,) is of a hard consis- 
tency, not unlike the resin that flows from trees. The white rotz 
also assumes the appearance of a white slimy substance, and has 
a very unpleasant smeU, which is particularly evident when the 
bulb is cut open ; and bulbs in this state should be thrown away 
without hesitation. 

Second. The black rotz is more difficult to know than the 
white rotz ; because, as soon as the bulb is taken out of the groimd 
and kept dry, the rotz dries up also. The stool or plate of the 
bulb, (that is, the point from which the roots proceed downwards,) 
appears a.5 if eaten out on the side, and the scales at that part have 
dry black edges. ; . . 



THE LANGUAGE OF FLOWERS. 



' URIT AMOK PLANTAS." — LOVE CONSUMES THE FLOWEIiS. 



Acacia — (Eose). Elegance of appear 
ance and manners. Tliis beautiful 
sbrub has been compared to a fash 
iouable lady in her ball dross. 

Aloe. Hope in futurity. It grows in 
the ■wilderness, and is slightly attach- 
ed to the earth by thread-like roots 

Amaranth. Immortality. The name 



signifies 



■ never fading," and the 



flower retains its foiTn and colorin 
in spite of time. In many countries 
it is a funeral flower. 

Amaryllis. Affectation, pride. It is 
one of the most beautiful of flowering 
plants, but often refuses to open its 
petals. 

Ambrosia. Elevated Sentiments. The 
name signifies the food of the gods 

Amaita. Aivay ! I shall revecd no 
secrets. This is a mushroom, which 
being eaten, produces a sort of intox- 
ication, during which the subject is 
said to reveal his own secrets, and 
those of his neighbors. 

Anemone. / am forsakoi and in de- 
spair. 

Andromeda. A cruel fate lias fixed 
me here. This was named in allusion 
to the fate of the maiden, Androme- 
da, who was condemned to spend her 
days in the midst of a marsh which 
was haunted by ferocious reptiles. 

Angelica. Thou inspirest me with 
ptoetic visions. Tlic Lapland poets 
are crowned with tliis plant, and con- 
sider themselves inspired by its fra- 
grance. 

Asphodel. My thoughts will follow 
you beyond the grave. This was 



planted by the ancients near the 
tombs of their friends, because it was 
supposed that the shades of the dead 
would walk in the fields of this plant. 

Arethusa. My regret shall become 
a fountain of tears. The name is 
that of a nymph of Diana, who was 
transformed into a foimtain. 

Balm of Gilead. You have cured 
my pains. It was famous in ancient 
times as a soothing remedy. " Is 
there no bahn in Gilead ?" 

Balsam. Impcdience — ToucJi me not, 
if you2:>lease. On the slightest touch 
the capsules fly open, and distribute 
their seeds. 

Berberry. A sour ternpier is no slight 
evil. The fruit is acid, and the 
shrub is armed with thorns. 

Bay Leaf. I change but in dying. 

Basil. / may hcde you falsely. It 
was formerly used as an emblem of 
poverty and distress, and by some 
esteemed in cookery. 

Box. / change not. It is esteemed 
for its unchanging nature. It con- 
stantly retains its verdure from year 
to year, and changes but little in size. 

Bulrush. You are indiscreet. It is 
an emblem of indiscretion, because it 
bends in any direction with the 
slightest touch. 

Buttercup. Deceit is often thus cov- 
ered. The flowers are of a beautiful 
color, and pleasing to the eye, but 
will blister the skin. 

Burdock. Don't come near me. The 
calyx is armed with hooks, which 
chng to every thing they touch. 



'2 



LANGUAGE OF FLOWERS. 



Cactus. You strihe me tvifh horror. 
This plant is armed with ferocious- 
looking sj lines, which are ready to 
shed tlie blood of those who touch 
them. 

Calla. Beauty unadorned. The 
spathe is gracefully curved, and with- 
out a blush of color. 

Camellia. Your various icaittics ice 
all admire. A species of the tca- 
])lant, with jnire white or variegated 
tints of its jjetals, which outrivals in 
permanent beauty all other exotic 
plants. 

Catchfly. I am not to he caught 
tvithout my consent. The leaves oi^en 
to the sun, but close upon any insect 
which happens to touch them. 

Carxatiok. There is danger of a 
fcdl. It grows high, and requires a 
prop to keep it erect. 

Gakdinal-Flq-vver. Yotcr heauty is 
heightened hy contrast. A beautiful 
flower, growing in swamps, among 
rushes and brambles. Wheu first 
seen it elicits emotions of surjirise 
and pleasure. 

Chamomile. Energy ivill surmount 
adversity. Though every day tram- 
pled upon, it still grows, and flour- 
ishes and blossoms. 

CiRC-EA. I shall beware of your en- 
cheintmcnts. Named after Circe, the 
enchantress, and is called Enchant- 
er's Nightshade. It grows in shady 
places, and about the ruins of old 
buildings, where such characters are 
supposed to dwell. 

Clematis — Virgin's Bower. Your 
injiuence favors mental accomplish- 
onents. This vine screens the sun, 
and forms a refreshing place of study 
in the hot season. 

Columbine. I see folly marked upon 
your face. The nectaries turn over, 
and resemble the caps worn by those 
who were fools and jesters by profes- 
sion in ancient times. 



Cock's-comb. Fops cannot hut he 
fools. The flower resembles the 
crown of the bird of which the name 
implies. 

Convolvulus. Thou lovest darlcness 
letter than light. Some of the spe- 
cies sleep, or close their petals during 
the day, and spread them only during 
the night. 

CoRNus. Precocity often comes to 
naught. The Dogwood blossoms in 
the spring, before anything else ; but 
the flowers are mere involucres, fall- 
ing off, and coming to nothing. 

Crocus. You are a constant enigma 
to all your acquaintcuice . Tlic sem- 
ination of the Crocus is a wonder. 
The germen emerges from under 
ground on a white peduncle, and 
ripens its seeds above ground, differ- 
ing from all other vegetables. 

Cowslip. Thoic art a gem in the 
midst of the desert. Each footstalk 
is said to bear twelve flowers, hence, 
by Linnajus, Dodecathcon, that is, 
twelve divinities. 

Cypress. An emblem of mourning. 
Tliis is an evergreen, which the an- 
cients delighted to place among the 
tombs of their friends. Many of the 
chests containing Egyptian mummies 
are made of this wood ; also the 
gates of Rome. 

Coreopsis. Love at first sight. A 
native of Mexico. The Spanish la- 
dies adorn their heads with this 
flower. 

CoRCHORUS. Tliy absence is not for- 
gotten, The name is taken from the 
Greek, signifying a delicious pot herb 
much esteemed by that people. 

DaffodiIj. Uncertainty. You are 
now in the morning of life, fuU of 
hope ; but time will show you their 
uncertainty. 

Dew Plant. Serenade. May j-our 
dreams be as fine as pearly bells, ris- 
ing in cijstal fountains. 



LANGUAGE OF FLOWERS. 



Dahlia. Elegance and dignity. 
love thee for thy high-born grace ; 
thy beauty is as undcnicd as the 
beauty of a star. 

Daisy. Beauty and innocence. I can- 
not look upon a star, a fleecy cloud, 
or any form of inirity, unless I needs 
must dream of thee. 

Dandelion. You force yourself where 
you are not toatited. Its seeds fly 
through the air, and perplex the gar 
dener, by planting themselves in his 
rich soils. 

Duck Meat. Tou are too light to 
sink in toater. This plant grows on 
the surface of ponds, never touching 
the bottom even with its roots. 

Eglantine. Poetic excellence. The 
Greeks awarded this as a prize for 
poetic eloquence in floral games. 

Elder. Compassion. Oh ! let me 
wipe the tears from your eyes ; and 
when sick or wounded, ease thy pains. 
Its properties are healing. 

Evergreen. Poverty and Worth 
Though your dress be coarse and 
simple, you have a heart most free 
and kind. 

Everlasting. Always remembered. 
At morn, or noon, or night, of thee 
my mind's eye never loses sight. 

Fennel. Strength. It is said that 
gladiators mixed it with their food 
to give them strength and ferocity. 

Fir. Time. The slow unfolding flow- 
er, or harvest ripening in autumn's 
sun, chides your impatient haste. 

Flax. Domestic industry. In ancient 
tunes the spinning of flax was a female 
employment, so honorable that the 
daughters of princes did not disdain it. 

Flowering Keed. Confidence in 
heaven. There's peace, strength, 
holy fortitude, and sweet rest, in 
thoughts and visions of that cKme 
where dwell the loved and blest. 

Flower of an Hour. Delicate beauty. 
'Tis thus that loved ones quick de-[ 



cay, and lose their beauty in one 
short hour ; not so their memoiy. 

Forget-me-not. True love. This 
beautiful flower is found by some se- 
cluded stream, or in the silent glen; 
but by the mildness of its purple hue 
attracts the wanderer. 

Foxglove. Your influence affects my 
heart. When the leaves of this 
plant are taken, the pulse is reduced 
to a very great degree. 

Fuchsia. Humble love. This plant 
is universally admired for its modest 
retiring beauty. 

Gentian. Beauty and excellence. 
It derives its name from Gentius, a 
king of Illyria, and is esteemed for 
its invigorating and healthful influ- 
ence. 

Geraniuji. Domestic enjoyment. K'') 
plant thrives so well in inhabited 
rooms as the Geranium. 

Geranium (Fish). Fom arc disagree- 
able to me. None admire the smell 
of fish. 

Geranium (Ivy-leafed). A bridal de- 
coration. May you wear so honora- 
ble a badge. 

Geranium (Lemon). Tranquillity of 
mind. 

Geranium (Oak-leaved)l Names con- 
fer no qualities. It has not the 
qualities of the noble oak. 

Geranium (Kose). You have tlieprc- 
ferencc. Who does not enjoy the 
fragrance of the Kose ? 

GERANiUM(Scarlet). Thouart changed. 

GiLLY Flower. Bonds of affection. 
Its influence renders it peculiarly 
welcome to the afilicted. 

Golden Kod. Encouragement. Fresh 
courage take ; here is a remedy for 
your pains. 

Grape. Mirth. A delicious fruit, 
making an exhilarating beverage. 

Harebell. Grief. 'Tis sad to mark 
the ravage that the heart makes of 
itself. 



LANGUAGE OF FLOWERS. 



IIawthoen. Hope on, hope ever. — 
Like a quickset liedge, a sure defence 
against despair. 

Heaet's-ease, or Pansy. Think on 
me luJien I'm away. This species of 
violet has no fragrance, but has been 
ail emblem of love, from its tiny size 
and beauty. 

llEATn. Esteem does not depend on 
Elevation. This shrub is esteemed 
for its easy culture, and the profusion 
of flowers it puts forth in winter. 

Helliotrope. / am devoted to one oh 
Jcct. It is said always to keep its 
disk towards the sun. 

Hellebore. Calumny. A native 
of Europe and Asia ; flowers green- 
ish — a very poisonous jjlant. 

Hibiscus. Beauty is vain. All that's 
bright must fade. 

Holly. Come not near me. The 
leaves of this shrub are armed with 
thorns. 

Hollyhock. You are ambitious of 
show. A native of Syria, and one 
of the most elevated and showy of 
all our annuals. 

Hon£y Flower. 3Iy love is sweet and 
secret. Indigenous to the Cape of 
Good Hope. Flowers yellow and 
pink ; nectarious. 

Honeysuckle. Fidelity. I will be 
tliine in weal or woe. 

HousTONiA. Unaspiring beauty lasts 
the longest. A little blue flower 
■which covers our meadows, and con- 
tinues to bloom from April to No- 
vember. J^! "^^f ., - . 

Hyacinth. Love of pilay may decide 
your fate. Name of a youth killed 
in a game of quoits by Apollo. 

Hydrangea. Superior merit when 
assumed is lost. The red color of 
this plant is changed to blue when 
watered by a solution of alum. 

Hypericum. Animosity. 

IpoMiEA. / tootdd attach myself to you. 
The Morning-glory cannot chmb 



without something to which it may 
attach itself. 

Iris. I come with a pleasing message. 
The flower-de-luce is a species. The 
fabled Iris was a messenger of the 
gods, who carried only good news. 

Ice Plant. Your very looks are 
freezing. This is a jilant covered 
with a mucUagc resembhng ice. 

Ivy. Nothing can divide our affections. 
The Ivy is a vine which cUngs with 
great tenacity to whatever may be 
its support. 

Jasmine. Thy mild grace has won 
my heart. The branches of tliis vine 
may be twisted into fanciful shapes, 
and still retain their vigor. 

Jonquil. Affection returned. It has 
a golden colored flower, emitting a 
pleasant and powerful perfume. 

Juniper. I tvill pirotect you. The 
thick drooping branches of this shrub 
afford protection to the hare and other 
timorous animals when pursued. 

King-cup. I would be rich. This is 
an extensive genus, numbering near- 
ly one hundred species : the flowers 
are of a veiy glossy yellow, and very 
common in our fields in June. 

Laburnum. Pensive beauty. Flow- 
ers purplish or yellow, drooping in 
clusters. 

Ladies'- Slipper. You are too wild 
for a domestic companion. It is a 
beautiful, prudish-looking red flower, 
which stands nodding in the forest, 
but does not thrive so well in the 
garden. 

Larkspur. Fickleness. A flower very 
easily cultivated, and whose form 
and hue is often changed. 

Laurel. Oh ! what a goodly c:cterior 
falsehood hath ! A magnificent 
American shrub, with gaudy colors, 
but acts as a poison when taken. 

Laurustinus. a token. An ever- 
green shrub ; flowers white, some- 
times tinged ■with red. 



,^ 



LANGUAGE OF FLOWERS. 



■/*- 



Lemox. Grief. This fruit is an em- 
blem of grief, or mourning, and Ls fre- 
quently placed in the hands of the 
Hindoo widow, who is about to offer 
herself on the funeral pile of her hus- 
band. 

Lilac. Youth. This xhrub is partic- 
ularly domestic in its nature, and 
flowers early in the spring. 

Lilly of the Valley. Returned 
liappiness. This modest little favor 
ite sends forth its shining leaves and 
fragrant bells in the month of May, 
that happiest season of the year. 

Lilly (Water). Eloquence. 

Lilly (White). Purity. The lily is 
among the oldest inhabitants of the 
flower-garden, and its white andfra 
grant flowers justly entitle it to the 
language of ]iurity. 

Lobelia (Common). You may yet 
learn to appreciate my goodness. 
Although this plant has many ene 
mies, yet, as its pro])erties become 
more known, so is it the more highly 
appreciated. 

Locust. Affection beyond the grave 
The locust is a beautiful tree, with 
white and very fragrant flowers. 

Loxdon-Pride. Frivolity. 

LuPiXE (White). Slavery. It derived 
its name from lupms, a wolf, on ac- 
count of its being supposed to destroy 
the fertilty of the soil. 

Madder (Dyer's). Deceit is often the 
means of its oiun detection. When 
cattle break into the madder-fiehls 
and eat their leaves, they stain or 
color their teeth red. 

Magnolia. Thou art one of nature's 
nobility. This noble genus surpasses 
all others, either in simiilicity, mag- 
nificence, or beauty. 

Mallow. Mild as a mooribeam. Nam- 
ed in allusion to the soft mucilagin- 
ous qualities which the plant is pos- 
sessed of. 

Mandrake. Emblem of a guilty con- 



science. This plant seeks the shade, , 
and is said to be noxious to the earth \ 
where it grows. 

Marygold. Inquietude. This gilded . 
flower has ever been made the em- V 
blem of distress of mind. 

Meadow Sweet. Healing. This plant 
possesses valuable properties for heal- . 
ing wounds and sores. 

Mezereon (Common). Love in a 
snoiv-wreath. This is a highly or- 
namental plant, but is very acrid and 
poisonous. 

Mignonette. Your qualities omicli 
surpass your appearance. This little 
favorite, with unpretending modesty, 
is frequently sought for rooms and 
balconies on account of its fragrance. 

MiMORA, or Sensitive Plant. Sen- 
sitiveness. This plant possesses small 
fibres, which contract under the least 
irritation, droop and die. 

Mint. Virtue. 'Sam.ed from, mintha, 
in allusion to a nymph of that name, 
fabled to have been changed into 
mint by Proserpineinafitof jealousy. . 

Misletoe. Your existence is de- 
pendent upon others. This is a par- 
asite plant that lives, and derives 
its nourishment from the truidvs of 
trees. 

Mock-Orange. Memory. When 
once we inhale the penetrating odor 
of this flower, it dwells on the sense 
for a long time. 

Monk's-hood. You commit many 
black and horrid deeds. Almost 
numberless are the accounts of the 
fatal effects of this poisonous plant. 

Moss. Maternal love. The first spe- 
cies of vegetation that clothes the soil 
in spring, and the last that disap- 
pears when it ceases to nourish. 

Motherwort. Concealed love. 

Mulberry. Wisdom. 

Myrtle. Unchanging love. Anti- 
quity has consecrated the myrtle to 
Venus. Its leaves are unchangingly 



LANGUAGE OF FLOWERS. 



greeu, and from tliis circumstance 
has obtained this sentiment. 

Narcissus. Self-love. Egotists are 
only agreeable to themselves. 

Nasturtium, or Indian Water 
CRESS. Darkness flees at your ap- 
2)roach. In the darkness of mid- 
summer's night, it is said, that the 
electrical sjjarks maybe seen omana' 
ting from the flowers of this plant. 

Nasturtium (Small-leaved). Ilidden 
secret. Emblematically named in 
allusion to the small, hardly evident 
petals, and from its being but imper- 
fectly known. 

Nettle (Stinging). Your 2^oisonous 
fang is long remembered. The poi 
son of this plant, like that of the 
bee, is contained in the ovulum, a 
little sac, and which is forced out as 
the point enters the skin. 

Night-flowering Cactus. 3Ieet me 
hy moon-light. The flowers of this 
plant begin to open about eight 
o'clock in the evening, and at three 
in the morning withers, droops and 
dies. 

Night-shade (Deadly). The emhlem 
of death. The generic name is after 
one of the Yates, whose business it 
was to sever the thread of life. 

Oak. Thou art honorable above all 
others. Among the ancient Romans 
the civic crown formed from the 
leaves of this tree, was the most ex- 
alted honor the nation could confer. 

Oleander (Common). I fear for you. 
There's nothing true but heaven. 

Olive. Fence be with you. The olive 
tree has been celebrated since the 
time the Dove conveyed the branch 
to Noah's ark, as the bounteous 
gift of heaven, and as an emblem of 
peace and plenty. 

Orange Flowers. Bridal purity. 
The leaves of the orange are a beau- 
tiful shining green, and the flowers, 
from their beauty and fragrance, have 



long been employed to decorate the 
head of the bride. Hence they have 
obtained the language of " Bridal 
Purity." 

Orchis. My poicer shall be felt Ion- 
ger than those I imitate. Tliis plant 
possesses a flower that so strongly 
resembles a bee as frequently to be 
mistaken for that insect. 

Osier. (Common). Frankness. The 
readiness with which the bark of this 
tree yields its valuable mucilaginous 
properties, obtained for it the lan- 
guage of " Frankness." 

Palm (Fan). Virtue. The character 
of grandeur, as well as their iumiense 
value to mankind, in aflording food 
and raiment and numerous objects 
of economical importance, claims for 
this tree its scntunent. 

Parsley. / relish your j^jresence. 
This has ever been a fevorite ]dant 
for the seasoning of various dishes 
of luxury. 

Pasque-flower. (Garland). Unpre- 
tending goodness. This flower is 
valued for its hardy nature, and be- 
cause it will flower at almost any 
season of the year, by due attention. 

Passion-flower. Love and reli- 
gious faith. This beautiful flower 
is supposed to represent the Cross, 
the Crown of Thorns, the Scourge, 
and the nails used at the Crucifix- 
ion. 

Pea (Sweet). Rememher me. This 
is a graceful pretty vine, with flow- 
ers variegated with blue, lilac, rose, 
and white, emitting a delightful fra- 
grance. 

Peach Blossom. Yoidhful piety. 
The Peach is a well kno^^^l tree. It 
blooms among the first of fruit-bear- 
ing trees. 

Pear. Yoidhful loveliness. Its flow- 
ers are nearly white and very pretty, 
and expanding so early in the sea- 
son, renders them a veiy appropriate 



LANGUAGE OF FLOWERS. 



emblem of youtlif'ul loveliuess. 

Peppekmint. Warmth of feelinf/. 
The pleasant, warm, and agreeable 
taste of this aromatic plant, is too 
well kiunvn to require description. 

Pekiwjnkle. Sweet remembrances. 

Phlox. Our so^ils arc united. 

Pink Apple. TJiou art perfect. This 
jdant aflords the most delicious fruit 
in the world ; the brilliant flowers 
arising amid its sword-like loaves, 
and the sweet-scented fragrance of 
its fruit, leaves nothing further to be 
desired. 

Pink (Red). Woman's love. The 
red ]>iiik claims a conspicuous part 
among the many varieties, both for 
the richness of its color, and its dc- 
lightfid fragrance. 

Pink (White). You retain your orig- 
inal simplicity. This is said to be 
the primitive plant, from wliicli the 
numerous variegated varieties have 
been produced by art. 

Polyanthus. Confidence. The ex- 
pectation of future happiness is the 
best relief of anxious thought, the 
guide of life, and the comfort in 
death. 

Foppy. Sleep of the heart. Tliis 
plant is a jjowerful narcotic, from 
which opium is extracted. 

Peide of China. Discussion. Life 
is the time for action, not for fruitless 
speculation. 

Primrose. Early youth. This plant 
is one of the first to announce the 
return of spring, and it being the pe- 
riod before the bright days of sum- 
mer appear, makes it emblematical 
of a lovely girl just passing from 
childhood to youth. 

QuAMOCLiT (Crimson). Busybody. 

Quince. Beware of temptation. Some 
learned commentators have advanced 
the idea that it was this fruit, instead 
of the apple, by which sin and wo 
entered this world. 



Ranuecielus. You are radiant with 
char 7ns. 

Rhododendron. Danger. Ancient 

'botanists have reputed this tree to 

possess noxious qualities, ])oisoning 

the honey made from its blossoms, 

when bees have had access to it. 

Rosemary. Fidelity and Love. The 
rosemary has long been considered 
an emblem of fidelity in lovers, from 
the supposed quality, of strengthen- 
ing the memory. 

Rose. Thy presence is universally be- 
loved. From the earliest periotls of 
history, this flowerhasbeen cidtivated 
and esteemed in eveiy part of the 
world. 

Rose-bud. Love. The rose-bud has 
long been considered an emblem of 
love.- 

Rose (Dog). Simplicity. 

Rose (llundrcd-lcaved). Grace. 

Rose (Japan). 3Iy destiny is in your 
hands. 

Rose (Monthly). Your charms only 
fade to he renewed. This beautiful 
species sends forth new blossoms eve- 
ry month. 

Rose (Moss). Perfect beauty. No 
class of plants yields more intrinsic 
delight to the amateur than the rose. 

Rose (White). Silence. Byron in his 
poems has rendered this species sa- 
cred to the silence of the tomb. 

Rue. An emblem of jnirification. 

Rush. Docility. This slender reed, 
deprived of support, bows gracefully 
to every passing breeze. 

Saffron (Meadow). Excess is dan- 
gerous. A small portion of the leaves 
or seeds of this plant has proved a 
fatal poison to man and beast. 

Sage. I loould prolong your days. It 
was believed by the ancients, that 
sage would restore the sick to health, 
and prolong the days of the infirm. 

Snapdragon. You are dazzling but 
dangerous. This plant is named in 



8 



LANGUAGE OF FLOWERS. 



allusion to tlie form of the leaves, be- 
ing snout-form, hence dragon-like. 

Snowball (Tree). If all tvcre like you 
the earth ivould soon hecome a desert. 
The stamens of this plant are 
changed into petals, therefore pro- 
ducing no seed. 

Snowdkop. Though in chains hope 
has not forsaken me. As soon as this 
dwarfish plant is uncovered from the 
snow and ice, it opens its petals and ap- 
pears in the full Lloom and vigor of life. 

St. John's-wokt. I do not crave your 
jjrotection. In superstitious ages 
this i)lant was hung in the windows 
as a charm against storms, thunder, 
and e\al spirits, and was also carried 
about as a charm against witchcraft. 

Stock-Jillt-flower. I]y cultivation 
the rustic may attain the highest dis- 
tinction. Originally tliis was an in- 
significant little straggler, but bj' 
close attention it has become one of 
the noblest of ornamental plants. 

Stkaavbeery Tree. Perseverance. 

Sunflower. You are valued for luhat 
you do not possess. This stately 
annual is supposed to turn its dial; 
constantly towards the sun. 

Sweet Pea. DepaHure. 

Sweet-william. Childhood. 

Tansey. I declare tear against you. 
This herb is extremely nauseous and 
bitter to the taste, and in some coun- 
tries the inhabitants present its leaves 
to those they intend to insult. 

Thistle. I am afraid of 'you. This 
plant is thickly beset Avith bristles, 
and bids defiance to the touch. 

Thorn-apple. Thy poisonous charms 
are only for the night. In warm 
climates the flowers of this genus 
droop and languish during the day 
but upon the approach of night un- 
fold and display their gorgeous balls. 

Trefoil (Clover). Providence. 

Trumpet-flower (Ash-leaved). Sep- 
aration. 



Tuberose. Vohptuousness. 

Tulip. Thou wert once the dearest 
flotver on tvhich the sun ever shone. 
About the middle of the l7th century, 
such was the mania for particular 
sorts of tliis plant in Persia, that a 
single bulb was sold for $20,000. 

Tulip Tree. Rural happiness. 

Vervain. Now thine art is knoicn thy 
sjkII no longer binds. Most oxtra- 
ordinarj' magical vuiues were attri- 
buted by the ancient Druids, but like 
other sorts of witchcraft, the spell was 
broken when its fallacy was known. 

Vine (Grape). Repentance follows 
thine embrace. Anarcharsis says 
that the \'ine produces three kinds of 
fruit ; intoxication, debauchery, and 
repentance, and that Avisdom shuns 
them all. 

Violet. I must he sought for to be 
found. Ever since Diana changed lo 
into a violet, to hide her from Apol- 
lo, the flower has been made the em- 
blem of modesty. 

Wall-flower. My affection is above 
time or misfortune. This modest 
little plant blooms on the nourish- 
ment derived from the dust of ruined 
castles, and never fails to })ut forth 
its modest flowers, unless disturbed 
by the hand of man. 

Willow (Weeping). Mourning for 
friends deceased. From earliest his- 
tory to the present time we find the 
willow used to designate places sa- 
cred to the dead. 

WOOD-SORKEL. Joy. 

Wormwood. Emblem of anguish. 
The peculiar qualities of this plant 
have established it as the insignia of 
bitter sorrow. 

Yew. Insensibility. This may be 
considered an emblem of iusensibili- 
tv, war, or mourning ; in the poetry 
of Scott, it is a symbol of war ; in 
one of Byron's beautiful dirges, it is 
made an emblem of mourning. 



QK110.S768 1855 v 1 gen 

Strong. Asa B/The American flora : or hi 



i llllililllllllllil III III III llllllllMllllilllJI 
3 5185 00001 5485 



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