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Full text of "The American flora : or history of plants and wild flowers : containing their scientific and general description, natural history, chemical and medical properties, mode of culture, propagation , &c., designed as a book of reference for botanists, physicians, florists, gardeners, students, etc."

""^'■■'"■»'I-.'W 




^. 



THE 



AMERICAN FLORA, 



OK 



HISTORY OF PLANTS AND ¥ILD FLOWEHS: 



CONTAINING 



THEIR SCIENTIFIC AND GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 

NATURAL HISTORY, 

CHEMICAL AND MEDICAL PROPERTIES, MODE OF CULTURE, PROPAGATION, &C. 



AS A BOOK OF REFERENCE FOE BOTANISTS, PHYSICIANS, FLORISTS, GARDENERS, 

STUDENTS. ETC. 

BY A. B. STRONa, M. T>. 

-^ LIBRARY 

NEW vor: 

VOL. II. BOTANICA 

IS ILLUSTRATED WITH 

SIXTY-SIX BEAUTIFUL COLORED ENGRAVINGS, 

TAKEN FROM NATURE. 



NEW-YORK: 
PUBLISHED BY HULL & SPENCER, 

U ANN STREET. 
1855. 



. S-7(of 



BntoroJ according to Act of Congress, in the jear 1845i ""J 

GREEN A SPENCER, 

In the Clerk's Office of tho District Court of the Southern District of Neir-Tort 



INTRODUCTION. 

The public are how presented with the second volume of the 
"American Flora," which is intended as a standard work, founded 
upon the Lin^n System ; its correctness in name, classification, de- 
scription, order, character, general and specific ; medical properties 
and uses of the various plants and herbs of which it treats, has re- 
ceived the highest encomiums from some of our most eminent bot- 
anists and physicians ; and thus from the favorable reception which 
it has hitherto met with, entitles the author to conclude that his 
labors have not been altogether unprofitable. And in consequence 
of a more than anticipated demand for the first volume, the pub- 
lishers have been induced to make a large additional outlay, that 
the present volume may be marked with additional embellishments, 
correctly displaying the natural appearance of the plant or flower. 
The whole work, when complete, will be one of the richest gems 
in the cabinet of modern literature and art. It is poetically said 
" there is a language in flowers." With what delight do we listen 
to the rustling of the forest trees, when moved by the gentle breeze 
of the summer's gale ! With what pleasure do we inhale the varied 
and sweet-scented odors of the flowers of the garden and the 
fields, and with what a pure feeling of admiration does the eye 
dwell upon their brilliant, soft, clear and variegated tints ! In truth, 
there is a language in them, that conveys to the refined and cultiva- 
ted mind, a joy as uncontaminated as the source is pure and inex- 
haustible. The names, history and habits of these delightful whis- 
perers, is a study of the highest and most pleasing description; and 

Vol. ii — iii 



IV INTRODUCTION 

if we may be allowed the expression, the " American Flora " is a 
Biography of Nature, and that too of her most lovely works ; and 
the faithfulness of its records may be relied upon. It describes 
minutely the peculiarities of the several classes, and their method 
of propagation ; it unfolds their beauties in the spring and summer 
of their lives, their grandeur and magnificence in maturity, and 
their innumerable capabilities of rendering pleasure, gratification, 
and service to man. It is a work classic in its conception, pleasing 
and instructive in detail, and scientific in conclusion. The accura- 
cy of the drawings, and their brilliant and perfect coloring, is one of 
its chief ornaments, — they place the reader at once in possession 
of the subject of his interesting enquiry. Its descriptive matter is 
plain and simple, disencumbered of all useless and unintelligible 
matter, but clear and explicit — intended, without the intense labor 
required on more elaborate works, to imprint on the memory an 
impression as perfect, but of much easier and more lasting reten- 
tion. From the practical knowledge and experience of the Author, 
its pharmacological observations are both extensive and important, 
and its medicinal information will insure its claim as a valuable 
acquisition to the library of the practitioner. It is a work of much 
care and research, where the very spirit of botanical science is ex- 
tracted from its countless integral, like the essential oils by distilla- 
tion from the sweet-scented leaves of the Rose or the Jassamine. 
It is no ephemeral of a passing day, as we have seen some, shining 
with a borrowed lustre from a sun that never intended to gild and 
brighten their leaves, but which have faded when his influence was 
withdrawn, and withered in the absence of his light. 




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WBRARy 

NEW voj^j. 



NAT. ORDER. 

Senticosce. 



FRAGARIA VIRGINIANA. VIRGINIA STRAWBERRY. 

Class XII. IcosANDRiA. Order V. Polygynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx ten-cleft. Petals five. Acines naked, fixed on 
a large, pulpy, deciduous receptacle. 

Spe. Char. Leaflets broad-oval, smoothish above. Hairs of the 
petiole spreading. Peduncles appressed, fructifei'ous. Calyx 
spreading. 

The strawberry has been long in cultivation, and many excellent 
varieties have originated under the practical skill and care bestow- 
ed on their culture. The best and most convenient season for 
forming a new plantation of strawberries is the month of August, 
as then the young plants produced on what is called runners from 
the old stocks are fit to be separated from the parent, each having 
roots of its own. The best soil for most of the varieties is a mellow 
loam, but almost any kind of garden soil in good heart is suitable. 
The ground intended to receive them should be trenched or double- 
digged, and the surface well enriched. The improvements which 
have been made in this country, within the few years past, relative 
to the cultivation of this delicious fruit, has induced many to com- 
mence its culture, and it has now become one of the most valuable 
22 and acceptable luxuries of our markets. The most recent and im- 

proved method of planting is on beds of four-and-a-half feet wide, 
on which four rows of plants at twelve inches in distance between 
are dibbed ; and at like distances between plant and plant ; this will 
allow a margin of three inches on each side. The beds are sepa- 

Vol. ii.— 5 



6 NAT. ORDER. SENTICO.SiE. 

rated by alleys, usually about two feet wide, to allow of weeding, 
watering the plants and gathering the fruit. 

The strongest plants are always chosen for transplanting, and 
in order to obtain them as strong as possible, a shallow trench is 
made between the rows of old plants, and filled with a rich com- 
post ; on this the first runners are laid and fastened down by little 
hooks. The runners quickly take root in this compost, and grow 
strongly. To encourage them still more they should be watered 
with the mother plants especially in dry weather. When the sea- 
son arrives for transplanting, the young j^lants rise with fine roots, 
and generally strong enough to promise a good crop in the follow- 
ing year. 

The beds are never dug between the plants, but only kept 
clear of runners and weeds by the hoe. The alleys are dug every 
winter, and a small portion of the fresh soil from them are thrown 
over the beds as a top dressing. It is usual to lay straw, or some 
kind of clean loose litter round the plants before the fruit begins to 
ripen, to save them from being dashed with earth by rain or when 
watered. When young plants are not wanted, the bearing ones 
should be kept free from runners, otherwise they will rob the swell- 
ing fruit. 

This plan of keeping the mother plant distinct and separate is 
most suitable for the larger sorts ; the alpines, and sometimes the 
hautbois are planted individually at first, but afterwards allowed to 
run all over and occupy the whole surface, in which state these 
kinds will, in somewhat shady situations, do well, and continue pro- 
ductive for several years. Some cultivators, instead of beds, plant 
the large sorts in open order, say two feet apart every way on well 
prepared ground, knowing that the more space each plant is allow- 
ed the stronger it will grow and flower, and bear fruit in greater 
numbers, and of greater size. Besides this, the side branches of the 
mother plant (not the runners) have room to extend and yield fruit 
in as great quantities as the principal crown. To understand this 



NAT. ORDER. SENTICOSiE 7 

result rightly, it is necessary to advert to the constitutional character 
of the strawberry plant. The plant is compound ; that is, it is com- 
posed of a principal and central division, which yields flowers and 
fruit the next year after it is formed. This principal is surround- 
ed by a secondary set of branches, which also in time yield flow- 
ers and fruit, superseding the first, which decays and disappears 
after it has ripened its fruit. The secondary set of branches, or 
divisions, of the system put forth, in their turn, a tertiary birth of 
branchlets, which also in time are fruitful ; and these again a fourth 
set of offsets, which process is continued yearly until the plants are 
either destroyed by accident, or by each other. During this pro 
cess, the system from this annual subdivision continues to grow 
weaker, so that at last the flowers are so few and diminutive, that 
the crops are unprofitable, and not worthy of a place in the garden. 

The process is so well known to cultivators, that they do not 
consider a strawberry plantation worth its place after the third 
year, and many take only two crops from the plants, trenching 
them down as soon as the crop of the second year is gathered. It 
may be asked by some, how is it that plants allowed to occupy the 
whole surface of the ground are suffered to be usurpers ? The 
answer is, — to save trouble, and as some of the runners are always 
yielding fruit for the first time, these being passable as to size and 
flavor, guarantee the preservation of the whole. 

The most esteemed sorts of strawberries are the following, 
viz. : — 

The Alpine red and white are both of weakly growth, and 
yield fruit from well-established plants from the end of June till No- 
vember. A light chalky soil suits them best; and as they succeed 
the earlier sorts, they are usually planted on north borders, in order 
to prolong their fruiting season. 

The Virginian, or scarlet pine, is universally cultivated ; it 
requires a strong and rather rich loam ; an early sort, and forces well. 

The Roseherry is a variety of the preceding ; very fruitful, and 



8 NAT. ORDER. SENTICOSiE. 

grows to a large size. This also requires a rich soil and an open 
situation. 

The Chili bears a large and well-flavored fruit, but without 
much color. It grows strong, and is considerably cultivated. 

The Keeris seedling bears a large showy fruit, and is much 
esteemed in the market as well as at table. 

The Pine is a new variety, and much cultivated in the neigh- 
borhood of London. It requires to be planted singly in very open 
order. A loamy soil and open exposure is most suitable both to this 
and the Imperial, a kindred variety also much esteemed. 

The Hauthois is an old sort, valued for its high and peculiar 
musky flavor, and when well grown is certainly one of the best. 
There is a peculiarity in the flowers of this sort unlike its congeners ; 
some of the plants being destitute of female organs — of course bar- 
ren. These barren plants, however, are not without their use, for 
it is found, if duly interspersed with the others which are defective 
in their stamens, good and jilentiful crops will be obtained. In 
making a new plantation of the hautbois, both the male and female 
plants should be carefully mixed in the rows to insure success. Air 
and light are particularly necessary to this sort ; and if the flowers 
and tresses of fruit be tied up to little stakes, so that they may be 
above the leaves, it matures them perfectly. 

There are several other new varieties of strawberries lately 
brought into cultivation ; such as Kny vett's New Pine, Grove End 
Scarlet, Downtons, &c., all requiring similar management. 

Soon as strawberries begin to be scented, they are eagerly prey- 
ed on by snails and slugs, to the depradations of which their posi- 
tion near the ground and dense covert of foliage subject the fruit. 
To prevent these animals harboring about the plants, the beds or 
rows should be two or three times, during the months of March and 
April, well watered with lime water. This will, probably, either kill 
or banish them before the fruiting season. 



NAT. ORDER. 

Lomentacece. 



CASSIA ELONGATA. PERUVIAN SENNA. 

Class X. Decandria. Order 1. Monogvnia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx four and five-cleft. Petals five. The three 
superior Anthers sterile ; the three inferior beaked. 

Spe. Char. Leaflets from four to six pairs, sub-ovate. Petioles 
without glands. 

The root is annual ; the stalks are strong w^oody, rough, veined, 
branched, erect, and rise from two to three feet in height; the 
leaves are split about one-fourth of their length from the point, 
and stand on long petioles, irregularly placed upon the stalk and 
branches ; the Jlowers are of a delicate changeable red, and placed 
upon long peduncles; the corolla is composed of five petals, which 
are roundish, long, entire, and of unequal size ; the filaments are 
ten ; the seeds are brown, roundish, flat, and produced in a long round- 
ish pod, divided by transverse partitions; the^ice;-* appear in July 
and August. 

This most beautiful plant is said to be a native of Peru, where 
it is cultivated chiefly for medicinal uses. Its properties are the 
same as those of the Alexandria Senna, although not as powerful, 
yet equally valuable as a medicine. The plants which yield senna, 
belong to the genus cassia, of which a large number of species 
contribute to furnish the drug as found in our shops. These were 
confounded together by Linnaeus as one species, which he named 
Cassia Senna. Since his time the subject has been more thoroughly 
investigated by able botanists, who have discovered a variety of 

Vol. ii.— 9 



10 NAT. ORDER. LOMENTACE^. 

species, many of which are imported into this country as the genu- 
ine Alexandria Senna, and are but little, if any inferior in value. 
Some species are natives of Egypt, some of Asia, Arabia, Africa, 
France, England, and three species natives of America. 

The Senna Italica, or blunt-leaved senna, is a variety of the 
Alexandria species, which by its cultivation in the south of France 
has been found to assume this change ; it is less purgative than the 
pointed-leaved senna, and requires to be given in larger doses. It 
is very much used by physicians on the Island of Jamaica, as a 
cathartic, where it grows on the sand banks near the sea. 

Senna appears to have been cultivated in England in the time 
of Parkinson, (1640,) who speaks very highly of its medicinal vir- 
tues at that time ; and there is no doubt, but that many portions of 
the United States are equally well adapted to its culture; and 
we would ask, why will not our societies of agriculturists, who 
with patriotic views for the encouragement, and advancement in the 
arts, offer a sufficient remuneration as a reward to those who may 
succeed in the attempt, which will be ultimately accomplished ? 

The leaves of senna, which are imported here for medicinal 
use, have rather a disagreeable smell, and a bitter nauseous taste ; 
they yield their virtue both to water and rectified or proof spirits, 
communicating to water and proof spirit a brownish color, more or 
less deep, according to the proportions ; to rectified spirit a fine green. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Senna which is now in common 
use as a purgative, was first known to the Arabian physicians ; and 
was soon afterwards introduced into practice by the Greeks, who 
made use of the fruit and not the leaves. For covering the taste of 
Senna, Dr. Cullen recommends coriander seeds ; but for preventing 
its griping, he thinks the warmer aromatics, as cardamons or ginger, 
would be more effectual. The formulae given by the different Col 
leges, are those of an infusion, a powder, a tincture and an electuary. 
For a cathartic, its dose in substance is from a scruple to a drachm. 
Senna is very much used in connection with Spigelia for worms. — 




^/rhiay cM^^m^^ 



NAT. ORDER. 

Saxifragece. 



HYDRANGEA HORTENSIS. CHINA HYDRANGEA. 

Class X. Decandria. Older II. Digynia. 

Gen. Char. Slainens ten. Styles two. Petals f^-e. Calyx five- 
leaved. Capsules two-celled. 

Spe. Char. Leaves large and fleshy. Stamens equal. 

This shrub rises from two to three feet in height; the stems are 
branched, thick, cylindrical, straight, and furnished with opposite 
leaves; the leaf-stalk is short, thick, and of a light green color; the 
leaves are elliptical, large, from six to eight inches in length, smooth 
on both si(^es, glossy on the upper surface, tipped with a beautiful 
green, and sometimes with a purplish red, marked with large fibres 
whieh form an acute angle with the mid-rib, and deeply serrated 
on the edges ; the Jlowers are of a delicate pink color, and are pro- 
duced in terminating corymbs. It is a native of China, and Japan, 
and continues in blossom from June till September. 

The Genus Hydrangea derived its name from udor, water, and 
aggeion, a vessel. The species which appears to be so extensively 
cultivated as an ornament, is a marsh plant, and thrives best in a 
moist loamy soil, that is sometimes covered with water, even some 
of our garden varieties, especially those which are potted, require 
from eight to ten gallons per day. The Hydrangea Hortensis, some- 
times called the Changeable Hydrangea, is much admired on 
account of its profusion of delicate and beautiful blossoms, which 
are of a rosy hue, and destined to retain their gayest appearance 
clurino- several of the summer months, which should certainly enti- 

Vol. ii.— 11 



12 NAT. ORL-ti. SAXIFRAGES. 

tie it t^ I'lie attention oi every practical florist. Though destitute 
of any peculiar flavor, or valuable as a medicine, it has been an ob- 
ject of particular attention among the Chinese ; in proof of which 
we find its blossoms painted upon almost every article which was 
formerly imported from that country. It is said never to have been 
found in its wild state by any botanist; but it is cultivated as a gar- 
den ornament in almost every country. 

A short description of the propagation and culture of this most 
beautiful shrub, may not be uninteresting to the reader. The 
Hijdrangea Hortensis is very easily increased by cuttings, which 
method is pretty generally diffused and understood within the last 
few years. It thrives best in good rich loamy soil, well watered. 
Various experiments have been made to introduce its culture in the 
open field and by itself, the failure of which fully proves that it is 
to be considered rather as a green-house plant than a hardy one ; 
as they will seldom if ever thrive even on the borders of the flower 
garden. The flowers like those of the snowball are monstrous, and 
produce no seed. It has been remarked by some florists, that if the 
plant be well watered with alum water, it will produce beautiful 
blue flowers the season after. 

Medical Properties and Uses. This species of Hydrangea, has 
never been introduced into regular practice, yet it possesses some 
valuable properties. It is now considerably used in some parts of 
Asia as a remedy for rheumatism. The bark of the root is the part 
best adapted for medicinal purposes, and is said to contain tonic, 
astringent, and emmanagogue properties. It is more valuable as an 
ornamental flower than a medicine, as it is even suspected by many 
to be powerfully narcotic and drastic. It yields its properties both 
to water and rectified spirits. 



NAT. ORDER 

PapaveracecE. 



P^ONIA PEREGRINA. PEONY OF THE ALPS. 

Class XIIT. PoLYANDRiA. Older II. Digynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx five-leaved. Petals five. Styles none. Cap- 
sules many-seeded. 

Spe. Char. Leaves double, pinnate, sub-lobed. Leaflets oblong, 
veined underneath. 

The male peony is furnished with long thick roots, which are 
fleshy and of a bright yellow color; the stalks are uj^right, single, 
streaked with red, and rises from two to four feet in height; the 
leaves are of a dark green, veined, and stand in pairs upon short 
' footstalks ; thejlowers are single and of a beautiful red color. The 
female frequently rises to the height of six feet ; the leaves of which 
are pale and narrow ; tYieflotoeis are double and of a deep red ; the 
roots are very irregular, composed of several tuberous pieces, hang- 
ing by rough filaments from one head. It is a native of the Alps, 
where it is found growing in its wild state, in large quantities, pro- 
ducing flowers from June till October. 

This species of peony was verj- anciently considered as a 
prominent article in the Materia Medica. Galen mentions many 
very remarkable cures made by the use of this plant, but from the 
accounts given by modern physicians of distinction, we are led to 
believe it possesses little, if any, medicinal properties, that would 
entitle it to a place in the Materia Medica, excepting its narcotic 
power. Galen is probably the author of the anodine necklace, which 
was composed of this plant, and so long famous for its remarkable 

Vol. ii— 13- 



14 NAT. ORDER. PAPAVERACE/E. 

virtues among the vulgar of Europe, the roots were at first directed 
to be hung round the neck, and if relief did not follow, a drachm 
of the dried root was to be taken two or three times a da\'. The 
fresh roots and seeds have a faint narcotic smell, with a slight acri- 
monious and astringent taste ; but when dried, loose wholly, or in a 
great degree, both. Water extracts are insipid, spirituous ones bit- 
ter and slightly astringent. 

Medical Proper-ties and Uses. Every physician knows that the 
poppy possesses powerful narcotic properties, and this character 
prevails generally in the whole order. Their seed is universally 
oily and destitute of the narcotic properties which reside in flowers 
and plants, the oil is obtained from the seed by expression, is per- 
fectly wholesome, and very much used in France and some parts of 
England for the table. It is also extensively emyloyed in the adul- 
teration of olive oil, and its use was at one time prohibited in France 
by decrees' issued in compliance with popular clamor. It is but lit- 
tle used in the United States, although it was frequently introduced 
into practice for the cure of epilepsy but never proved sufficiently 
beneficial to warrant its continuance. 

On cutting or breaking the stalk, a milky juice exudes, which 
if exposed to the sun will attain the consistency of a gum, resem- 
bling both in appearance, and medical properties, that of pure 
opium, which is made from the Papaver Somniferum ; the descrip 
tion of which willsoon be given, and the various methods of ob- 
taining, and preparing the gum. 



NAT. ORDER. 

Lobeliacece. 



LOBELIA INFLATA. INDIAN TOBACCO. 

Class V. Pentandria. Order I. Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx five-cleft. Corolla irregular, fi\e-partecl, cleft 
on the upper side nearly to the base. Anthers united into a 
tube. Stigma tvvo-lobed. Capsule inferior, or semi-superior, 
two or three-celled, two valved at the apex. 

Spe. Char. Stem hair}', branched. Leaves ovate-lanceolate. 
Racemes leafy, somewhat paniculate. Capsules somewhat 
inflated. 

"The Lobelia Injlata\& ^h\enm?i\, indigenous plant, usually found 
growing from twelve to eighteen inches in height, with a fibrous 
root; the stem is hairy, soUtary, erect, angular, much branched 
about two-thirds of the way, and rises considerably above the sum- 
mit of the highest branches ; the leaves are sessile, acute, serrate, 
oval, hairy, and much scattered ; the Jlowers are disposed in numer- 
ous leafy terminal racemes, and supported on short foot-stalks ; the 
segments oi the calyx are linear and pointed; the j^owe?', which 
is of a delicate bluish color, has a border labiate, the upper lip 
being divided into two, and the lower into three acute segments ; 
the piod is an ovate, inflated capsule, crowned with the pei'sistent 
calyx, and contains in two cells numerous small brown seeds." — 
Thomsons Materia Medica. 

Lobelia is a native of the United States, and is found growing 
from Canada to Louisiana, by the road-sides and in stubble fields, 
especially the next season after the crop is taken off. When broken 

Vol. ii.— U) 



16 NAT. ORDER. LOBEMACE^. 

a milky juice exudes, which is of a most jienetrating diffusable 
nature, and if apphed to the eyeUd, produces a powerful effect upon 
the eye, from which circumstance it is sometimes called eyebright. 
This plant being biennial, throws out the first year only a {ew radi- 
cal roundish leaves laying close to the ground, the next year it pro- 
duces the stem, branches, and seeds. The leaves and roots of the 
first year are as powerful as the mature plant, excepting the seeds 
which are the strongest. The whole plant is acrid and nauseous, 
producing salivation; whence, we suppose originated the mistaken 
supposition that it causes the slavers in horses and cattle. 

Medical Properties and Uses. The following is in part taken 
from Howard's Materia Medica, wherein the symptoms, and its 
effects are more accurately detailed than in any other medical work, 
and to which we can bear testimony from experience, having ad- 
ministered it in some hundreds of cases and attended on its opera- 
tion, and have never experienced any bad effects from its use. 
That it is a valuable remedy for some diseases, must be admitted ; 
but like many other powerful medicines, in the hands of those who 
are unskilled in its use, it is liable to be abused, when its effects are 
alarming, and dangerous, and even fatal consequences are some- 
times the result. Howard says, " the lobelia iiiflata is the most val- 
uable emetic known ; its full merits being scarcely appreciated, 
even by those who are in the habit of making frequent use of it. 
It also acts as a sudorific, diuretic, expectorant, and diff'usable stimu- 
lant; and is said by some physicians to possess powerful narcotic 
properties; as an antispasmodic, and for the relief and cure of 
asthma, its equal, in our opinion, has not yet come to the knowledge 
of the world. As a stimulant it extends its effects to every part of 
the system, removing obstructions, and restoring a healthy action, 
wherever the one exists and the other is needed. Its action or 
effects may often be sensibly felt or known by a pricking sensation 
over the system, particularly in the fingers and toes. 

A diversity of symptoms attend the operation of lobelia 



NAT. ORDER. LOBEUACE^. 17 

emetics, evincing the magnitude of its power, and the surprising 
energy upon the liuman system, which often terrify those who are 
acquainted with its operation. Its effects are different on different 
individuals, and upon the same individual at different times. Some- 
times it produces severe pain in the stomach and bowels; strange, 
agitated, and indescribable, unpleasant sensations. Convulsive mo- 
tions of the lower jaw, often attended with a convulsive and rapid 
respiration. General distress, or a universal sickening feeling per- 
vades the whole system. Sometimes the patient is perfectly easy 
and quiet, without the power to move a hand or a foot, or rolling 
the eye balls in their sockets ; and at other times great restlessness 
and anxiety, with symptoms of a most alarming character, prevail. 
In some instances the countenance becomes pale, and the skin cold, 
with the appearance of approaching death ; whilst in others, the 
countenance assumes a florid ai:)pearance, bearing the marks of 
health. 

These symptoms, together with a great variety of others, which 
it would be impossible for us to describe, are often attendant on 
the administration of a lobelia emetic, and frequently prove very 
alarming, even to those who are well acquainted with its effects. 
Dr. Thomson, who claims the honor of first introducing the lobelia 
into general notice, speaking of them, says, " they appear to be the 
last struggle of disease, and are certain evidences of a favorable 
turn of the disorder. The alarming effects of lobelia are probably 
caused by the restoration of a healthy action to diseased parts, which 
have long been accustomed to a morbid sensbility and a diseased 
action. A healthy operation being thus suddenly restored, and the 
organs not being properly prepared to receive the new impulse, an 
unusual and oftentimes alarming train of symptoms are produced." 

"As an antidote to poisons of all kinds, whether animal or 
vegetable, the lobelia stands unrivalled ; particularly in the cure of 
hydrophobia. Several well attested cases of cures of this terrible 
and fatal disease, have come to our knowledge. The lobelia is used 



18 NAT. ORDER. LOBELIACEiE. 

ill powder, infusion, or tincture of the leaves and pods, or the seeds, 
either simply by itself or compounded with other articles." — 
Hoicard. 

It should be gathered in the fall, at the time the leaves begin to 
turn yellow, as the seeds are then ripe, and the whole plant valuable 
for medicinal uses. This plant may be transferred and cultivated 
in o-ardens, where it will thrive much more luxuriantly than in the 
wild state. In fields where it is found growing, if some of the stalks 
are left standing, it will sow itself, similar to our garden mustard, 
and I see no good reason why it could not be made a source of 
profit which would well repay for its cultivation, as the seed is in con- 
siderable demand, always finding a ready market and commanding 
a price of about one dollar per pouud. Thus, taking into con- 
sideration the increased consumption of this invaluable plant, 
and that too by a very limited number of physicians in this country, 
the price at which it is sold, and a prospect that our native plant, 
will not even meet the wants of our shojis, we cannot but express 
our con\iction that its cultivation might be made extremely profit- 
able. 

Tincture of Lobelia herb. Take of lobelia herb, either fresh or 
dry, any quantity, press it close in a thi or earthen vessel, so that it 
may be compact ; then add proof spirit sufficient to cover the herb, 
stop the vessel close, and let it stand for two or three days, then 
strain and press out the liquor from the herb, flavor it with essence 
of sassafras, and bottle it for use. Dose as an emetic, from two to 
three tea-spoonsfull, to be repeated every ten minutes, until vom- 
inff is induced. This tincture is valuable not only as an emetic, but 
also as an external application to wounds, bruises, inflamations, ulcers, 
eruptions of the skin, and poisons of every description. 

Compound tincture of Lobelia. This is the most powerful of 
all other preparations, and is given only in such cases as require im- 
mediate relief, such as lockjaw, fits, spasms, &c. Dose, from eight 
to twenty drops, repeated according to circumstances. 




■■^^-zH/yAt^tn-'t^i i /•-/■ -■ 



NAT. OllDER. 

Holoracea;. 



RUMEX ACETOSA. SOUTHERN SORREL. 

Class VI. Hexandria. Ordei- III. Trigyma. 

Gen. Char. Gz/y^: three-leaved. Pe^a/5, three, converging. Seed, 
one, three-sided. 

Spe. Char. Flowers dioecious. Leaves oblong, sagitate. 

The stem is erect, striated, rises from six to twelve inches in 
height, and of a purplish red color ; the leaves are oMong, ovate ar- 
row-shaped, and of a bright green color; the radical ones are peti- 
olate and obtuse ; those of the sfon without footstalks, jilaced alter- 
nately and pointed ; l\ie Jlowers are dioecious, and are disposed in 
terminal branched spikes, standing upon short slender peduncles ; 
the corolla is divided into three petals, and the calyx into three oval 
segments ; the filaments are short, bearing erect large anthers ; the 
stxjles are short, supporting large bearded stigmas, and proceeding 
from a triangular germen. It flowers from July until October. 

There are few parts of the world that do not acknowledge the 
presence of some species of this plant. In Europe, Africa, North 
America, and many parts of Asia, they fill the ditches, hedges and 
waste grounds, and form a considerable portion of the pasturage in 
poor and sandy soils. The leaves of the Southern Sorrel! have an 
agreeable acid taste, very much like that of Oxalis Acetosella, or 
Wood Sorrel, which we have described in Vol. 1, page 176 ; the prop- 
erties of both are so near alike, that they are medicinally employed 
for the same purposes, and what has already been said of that plant, 
will in a great measure apj)ly to this ; being easily procured, and in 
great abundance, may be substituted for it. 

Vol. ii.— 19 



20 NAT. ORDER. — HOLORACE^E. 

Medical Properties and Uses. It is but recently that the prop- 
erties of this valuable plant have been discovered, in consequence 
of which we have never before been able to appreciate some of its 
most beneficial and best qualities. We are informed that the In- 
dians of this country, have been in the habit of using this plant from 
its earliest history in the cure of cancer and all cancerous swellings, 
for which purpose we consider it one of the most valuable produc- 
tions of our country. The leaves have a pleasant and extremely 
aoid taste, and may be used in all cases where acids and antiscep- 
tics are required. The leaves simply bruised have been applied to 
scrofulous swellings with excellent effect, promoting supuration and 
granulation in the most satisfactory manner. 

The insipissated or concrete juice of this plant has, of late, be- 
come somewhat celebrated as an external application for cancerous 
affections. Repeated cases are reported, of cures of cancers by the 
application of this simple article ; and from a well attested expe- 
rience in its use, we would with much confidence recommend it in 
the treatment of this painful and highly dangerous affection. 

A salve made from the leaves is the best method of preparing 
it for cancerous affections, it is prepared in the following manner : — 
Take of top and leaves, any quantity, bruise them in a mortar, and 
then press out the juice, put it on plates or flat bottom dishes, and 
expose it to the sun for evaporation. When it has become of prop- 
er consistence to form a paste it ought to be put in earthen or glass 
vessels to preserve it for use. When applied to the cancer, spread 
a thin plaster on a soft piece of leather or cloth, of a size suitable 
to cover the sore. These plasters must be occasionally renewed, 
washing the cancer with soap suds at each renewal. Two plasters 
have been known to cure a bad cancer of the female breast; and in 
some instances one has been sufficient. 

This remedy has been known by a iew, whose names have been 
celebrated in the cure of cancers, but the knowledge of it sold at 
a high price. 



NAT. ORDER. 

Lilacece. 



LIBIUM PHILADELPHICUM. ORANGE OR TIGER LILY. 

Class VI. Hexandria. Order I. Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Corolla six-petaled, bell-shaped, with a long necta- 
rious line. Capsules the valves connected by cancellated hair. 

Spe. Char. Leaves verticulate, linear-lanceolate. Nerves hairy be- 
neath. ^SiJem one to two flowered. Co?-(3//'a erect, companuble, 
spreading. Petals unquiculate. - • 

The ?'oot is large, knotty, and covered with numerous small 
succulent fibres ; the stem is firm, round, upright, simple, and usually 
rises from eighteen to thirty inches in height; the leaves are numer- 
ous, long, narrow, pointed, smooth, without footstalks, and irregular- 
ly scattered over the stem ; xhejlowers are large, of an orange yel- 
low, spotted with dark red, and terminate the stem in clusters upon 
short peduncles; it has no calyx; the corolla is bell-shaped, consist- 
ing of six petals, which within are of a beautiful shining white, but 
without ridged, and of a less luminous appearance; the filaments 
are six tapering, much shorter than the corolla, upon which are 
placed transversely large orange-colored anthers ; the style is longer 
than the filaments, and furnished with a fleshy triangular stigma; 
the germen becomes an oblong capsule, marked with six furrows, 
and divided into three cells, each of which contain a number of flat- 
ish, semicircular formed seeds. It flowers in June and July. 

The lily has now become one of the most common ornaments of 
the flower garden ; the principal florists, both of this country and 
England, have introduced its culture as a border plant, and it is now 

Vol. ii.— 21 



22 NAT. ORDER. LILACE^. 

very much admired for its sweet smell and the variegated tints of 
its flowers. The LUium Philadelphician is a native of this country, 
but is found growing in various parts of Europe, where it has been 
cultivated ever since the time of Gerard. 

Medical Properties and Uses. The flowers of this plant have a 
sweet pleasant smell, and were formerly used in some parts of Eu- 
rope for medicinal purjDoses ; a watery distillization of them was 
employed as a cosmetic, and the oleum lilirum was supposed to pos- 
sess anodyne and nervine powers ; but the odorous matter of these 
flowers is of a very volatile kind, being totally dissipated in drying, 
and entirely carried off in evaporation by rectified spirit as well as 
water ; and though both menstrums become strongly impregnated 
with their agreeable odor by infusion or distilization, yet no essen- 
tial oil can be obtained from any quantity of its flowers. It is there- 
fore the roots only which are directed for use, the properties of 
which are similar to those of the Nymphaiaodaratas, White Pond 
Lilly, and can in most cases be substituted for it. It is a valuable 
medicine, for either internal or external use. Internally it is an as- 
tringent tonic, and can be used in diarrhoea, dysentery and all cases 
of general debility. Externally it is useful in poultices, for biles, 
tumors, inflamations, ulcers, &c. The leaves are also useful for the 
same purpose. The fresh juice of the roots mixed with lemon 
juice, is said to be good for removing freckles, pimples and blotches 
from the skin. 

Sin/j) of Lilies. This preparation is made after the following 
manner. Take a single hand-full of the flowers, steep them mod- 
erately in a quart of water over a slow fire, for one hour; then 
strain and sweeten well with loaf sugar, grate in a little nutmeg, and 
add half-a-pint of good French brandy. This is an excellent arti- 
cle for children, when teething, or in bowel complaints. Mothers 
will find this an excellent remedy for what is called the nursing, or 
sore mouth. In the form of a poultice, prepai'ed with slippery elm, 
it is excellent for swelling and to reduce inflamations. In all cases 
it is an excellent sedative to ease pain. 



NAT. ORDER. 

LauracecB. 



RHODODENDRON ARBOREUM. ROSE BAY. 

Class IX. Enneandria. Order 1. Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx none. Corolla calycine, six-parted. Nectary 
of three two-bristled glands, surrounding the germ. Drupe 
one-seeded. 

Spe. Char. Leaves ovate lanceolate, perennial, shining. Flowers 
placed upon short peduncles. 

This beautiful shrub never rises to any great height, but usual- 
ly sends off many radical shoots, oftentimes growing close and bushy; 
the baj-k is smooth, and of a dark olive color ; the leaves are ellipti- 
cal, pointed, smooth, veined, often waved at the margin, and of a 
shining green color; the Jlotvers appear in April and May, and like 
those of Laurus Sassafras, are male and female upon different plants ; 
they appear single and stand upon short peduncles; the corolla di- 
vides into four oval leaves, which stand nearly erect, and are of a 
yellowish white color ; the stamens vary in number, from seven to 
thirteen ; there is no caly.v ; the style of the female flower is very 
short, and the germcn becomes an oval berry, covered with a dark 
green rind, and separable into two lobes or cotyledons. 

This tree is a native of Italy, and other southern parts of Eu- 
rope, and the first account we have of its cultivation is given by 
Turner, \\ hicli was in 1562, when it was introduced into Eno^land for 
medical purposes. It is a beautiful evergreen, and is now very com- 
mon in the extensive parks and shrubberies of that country. The 
spicy warmth of the berries, formerly recommended them for culi- 

Vol. n.—Kt 



24 • NAT. ORDER. LAURACE^. 

nary purposes, and in this way they were very much used by the 
Romans. And the leaves both of this and the common laurel were 
frequently used in custards, &c., but the practice has by most been 
discontinued, since the recent and fatal proof of the poisonous qual- 
ities was made public. To such we would observe, that the com- 
mon laurel, or Piunus lauro ccrasus of Linnaeus, differs in every 
respect, from the plant here described, both in its effects and in its 
botanical characters. It may be remarked, however, that the dele- 
te rcous part of it is the essential oil, which requires to be separated 
by distillization, in order to become an active poison. 

Medical Properties and Uses. The leaves and berries possess the 
same medicinal properties, both having a sweet fragrant smell, and 
an aromatic astringent taste. In distillization with water the 
leaves yield a small quantity of very fragrant essential oil ; with 
rectified spirit they afford a moderately warm pungent extract ; the 
berries yield a larger quantity of essential oil; they discover like- 
wise a degree of unctuosity in the mouth, give oait to the press an 
almost insipid fluid oil, and on being boiled in water, appears on the 
surface, a thick butyraceous oil, of a yellowish green color, impreg- 
nated with the flavor of the berry. The oil thus obtained may be 
used with safety and advantage in assisting digestion ; and it has 
even been thought to obviate the poisonous effects of the laurel. 

The Laurus of honorary memory, the distinguished favorite of 
Apollo, may be naturally supposed to possess extraordinary fame as 
a medicine, but its pharmacutical uses are so limited in the pres- 
ent j^ractice, that this dignified plant is now rarely emjiloyed, except 
by the way of enema, or as an external application ; thus in the 
London Pharmacopoeia the leaves are directed in the decotum pro 
fomento, and the berries in the emplastrum cumini. The berries 
however appear to possess some share of medicinal efficacy, and if 
we do not allow them to be so extensively useful as rejjresented by 
S. Bauhin, Tournefort, Goeff'ry, and some others, yet we have no 
doubt of their possessing highly valuable emn>enagogue properties 



NAT. ORDER. LAURACEiE. 25 

and have often proved serviceable in the treatment of kidney affec- 
tions. Beroius and some others made great use of a tea made from 
its leaves in the treatment of hysteria, but cautioned its too free use, 
as it was thought to act with peculiar power on the uterine system, 
proving considerably diuretic, and powerful as an emmenagogue. 
An infusion of the leaves is sometimes recommended by modern 
physicians ; and the essential oil of the berries is given from one to 
five drops on sugai', or dissolved by means of mucilages, or in spirit 
of wine, this mode of administration has been urgently recommend- 
ed in chronic rheumatisrns, painful affections of the joints and bones, 
particularly those of a syphilis nature, for which it is extensively 
used in some parts of Europe even at the present day. 

Dr. Koelpir, of Alten-stetin, an eminent botanist, claims to have 
made some valuable discoveries in relation to this plant. He made 
an infusion of it in water, kept twenty-four hours in nearly a boil- 
ing heat, in the proportion of two drachms of the leaves and tops 
of the plant to ten ounces of water. It was sometimes made double 
this strength, and the dose was two ounces, to be repeated after a 
* few hours, and continued as required. Dr. Home found it an as- 
tringent and 2^"werfuliy sedative; he directs it in infusion, from 
half-a-drachm to two drachms for a dose. When taken internally, 
it produces — according to Koelpir — a feverish heat, intoxication, 
sometimes a stupor, with a pricking sensation in the limbs, or other 
parts of the body ; but the intoxication leaves neither headache or 
nausea. During the heat, the patient complains of intense thirst; 
and drinking cold \\ater is followed by a violent but salutary vom- 
iting, especially in comphiints of the bowels; and a copious sweat 
on the parts affected with rheumatism or gout. In some instances 
the pains grow worse at first; but this increase of disease is soon 
followed b\' a remarkable relief: the pulse is rendered much weak- 
er and slower, and in chronic rheumatism its effects are sometimes 
greatly increased. The infusion at first often produces heat and 
constriction in the fauces ; which is a proof of some little acrimony, 



26 NAT. ORDER. LAURACE^. 

but this effect speedily disappears. In robust habits it usually ope- 
rates quickly, and with a considerable degree of violence ; in the 
infirm and feeble, more slowly, so that the dose should not in any 
case be hastily increased. It sometimes proves fatal, and Morgagni 
has recorded the appearances on dissection of a woman who was 
killed by it ; though we are inclined to think that this plant was the 
nerium oleander of Linnaeus, sometimes called rhododendron, or the 
rlwdodendron ferrugineum which has similar powers. 

Sirup of Rose Bay. The illustrious and celebrated Parkinson 
in his treatise upon the vegetable creation, has ascribed many vir- 
tues to this plant. He relates many cases, where cures were per- 
formed by the adminstration of this simple decoction alone, many 
of which would appear almost incredible were it not from a reliable 
source. He gave it in the form of a sirup, prepared in the following 
manner, viz. Take of the dried leaves of rhododendron arhoreum, 
rose hay, two ounces ; berries, after being dried, one ounce ; pepatica 
nmericana, liverwort, one ounce ; puhnonaria officinalis common 
lungwort, one ounce ; steep all these together over a slow fire in 
one gallon of water down to three quarts, strain off", and add w^hen 
cold, two pounds of bee's honey, one quart of best French brandy, 
one and a half pounds loaf sugar, and flavor it with the essence of 
wintergreen. This has been found highly servicable in the treat- 
ment of coughs, colds, consumption, and all pulmonary diseases. 
The dose is from a table-spoon full to half a wine-glass full, to be 
taken three or four times a day. 




'^rtx^ 



Tl^tCrtx^'M.ftct 



'Ocy-^ 



» 



NAT. ORDER. 

Cinchonacece. 



CINCHONA OBLONGIFOLIA. CINCHONA OF THE ANDES. 

Class V. Pentandria. Order I. Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Corolla funnel-form. Capsules infei-ior, two-celled, 
divided, the valves parallel to the partitions, opening inwardly. 

Spe. Char. Leaves ovate, lanceolate, smooth. Capsules oblong. 

This elegant tree rises from thirty to sixty feet in height ; the 
trunk is single, round, smooth, erect, and covered with a brown or 
ash-colored hark; the older branches are smooth, round, and have a 
rusty appearance ; the younger branches are obtusely quadrangular, 
leafy, and of a reddish color ; the leaves when full-grown, are from 
one to two feet long, of an oblong-oval shape, and stand ojiposite, 
sujiported on semi-round petioles of a purple color; the stipules ^re 
supi'a-axillary, interfoliaceous, opposite, contiguous, united at the 
base, and of an obovate figure ; ihejloicers are produced in large, 
erect compound, ter\mndi\, panicles, and placed upon long, brachiated, 
many-flowered peduncles; the calyx is small, fine-toothed, and of a 
purple color; the corolla is white and odorous; the Jilaments are 
very short and inserted into the tube of the corolla ; the anthers 
are oblong, bifid at the base, and situated below the middle 
of the tube of the corolla ; the cap)sules are large, oblong, 
obscurely striated, somewhat curved, and crowned by the calyx. 
This tree is found on the Andes, growing in woods, on the banks of 
mountain streams, and particularly abundant at Chincao, Riobamba, 
and Chuchero, flowering in June and July. 

The entire genus of this valuable tribe of plants is indigenous to 

Vol. ii.— 'i7 



28 



NAT. ORDER. CINCHONACEiE. 



South America; growing for the most part among mountainous re- 
gions, diflicult of access, and in other i-espects affording but httle en- 
couragement to the scientific traveller. To this cause we may ascribe 
our comparative want of information respecting one of the most 
valuable remedies which the vegetable world lias yet offered to 
mankind. Recent events added to the valuable labors of pharma- 
ceutical chemistry, and the present enterprise and improvement in 
that science, will, it is hoped, soon bring us better acquainted with 
the botanical characters of those of cinchona, to which medicine is 
so much indebted. We believe the fact to be well established, that 
there are many species of this tree, which yield a bark partaking 
more or less of the properties that distinguish the imruvian bark 
of commerce, although the destinctive characters of these species 
are still a desideratum in our botanical works. Riz and Pavon have 
described fifteen species native of Peru and Chili, and seven have 
been found by Mutis, a very celebrated botanist of Cadiz, who went 
to Santa Fe in 1760, as physician to the Viceroy, Don Pedro Misa 
de la Cerda, which he found in the forest near Gruduas. It is now 
known that very many more remain undescribed. The Edinburgh 
College formerly enumerated three varieties of the Peruvian, viz.: 
the common or pale bark, the red and the yellow ; but it has long 
since been ascertained by both Spanish and Amei-ican botanists, 
that these barks not only belong to distinct species, but that, prob- 
ably, each of them is taken indiscriminately from several distinct 
species. In the history of sciences, it often happens that the per- 
son who knows how to diffuse, with a certain degree of boldness, 
the discovery of another, passes for the discoverer himself, instead 
of him who made the discovery. 

Sensible Properties. The recent discoveries of the French 
chemists, M. M. Caventou and PoUetrcr supersede all the previous 
researches, so far as medicine is concerned, into the nature of cin- 
chonas. Vanquelin ascertained that there were three, if not four, 
classes of cinchona-bark, differing essentially in their chemical con- 



NAT. ORDER. CI.NCHONACE^. 29 

stitution. The first class precipitates astringents, but not gelatine ; 
the second precifiitates gelatine, but not astringents ; the third pre- 
cipitates both gelatine and astringents ; there are also some barks 
which precipitate neither gelatine nor astringents ; but they are 
not considered by botanists as properly belonging to the genus cin- 
chona. Each of the three first classes ai'e said to be capable of 
curinof intermittants. 

It had been long a desideratum among pharmaceutical chem- 
ists to discover in the barks the particular substance to which the 
febrifying proj^erty might be ascribed ; and in pursuit of this object, 
Laubert of Paris, Strenss of Moscow, and Gomez of Lisbon, pub- 
lished, about the same time, the result of their observation ; but the 
French chemists were most successful ; they obtained a substance, 
which they recognised as that to which M. Gomez had given the 
name of cinchonine, and they evidently proved more successful in 
arriving at the correct properties of this most valuable plant. The 
cinchonine was obtained by operating on the cinchona condamina, or 
grey hark of the French botanists. The cinchona cordifolia (the cin- 
chona officinalis of our Colleges, the yellow-bark of the French) was 
next subject to analysis, and from this was obtained an alkali, in 
many points resembling the cinchonine, but still differing in many 
important ones, sufficiently to prevent their being confounded : this 
alkali was called Quinine, The examination of the red-hark (cin- 
chona ohlongifolia) followed ; and "it was an interesting question," 
says M. Magendie, " to determine whether this species, considered 
by many medical men as eminently febrifuge, contained quinine cin- 
chonine, or a third variety of alkali. The result was, that they ob- 
tained, not only a treble quantity of cinchonine, (in all respects like 
that obtained from the grey-hark) but also nearly twice as much 
quinine as the same quantity of yellow bark had yielded. From 
ulterior experiments, made on large masses, it appears that quinine 
and cinchonine exist in all three species of bark, but the cinchonine 
is in greater quantity than the quinine in the grey-bark, while in 
the yellow-bark, the quinine greatly predominates." 



30 NAT. ORDER. CI.NCHONACE.(E. 

The mode of obtaining the qumine and cinchoriine (as given by 
Magendie,) is to "boil the bark in alcohol until it loses all its bitter- 
ness ; evaporate the decoction to drj^ness in a water bath ; dissolve 
the extract thus obtained in boiling water, strongly acidulated with 
hydrochloric acid; add an excess of calcined magnesia; which 
after boiling a (ew minutes, fixes the red coloring matter, and leaves 
the liquid clear ; when cold, filtrate, and wash the magnesian pre- 
cipitate with cold water, dry it on a stone, separate all the bitterness 
by repeated digestions in boiling alcohol, mix the alcoholic liquors, 
and the cinchonine will crystalize as the fluid cools." 

The cinclionine and quinine may be obtained by one operation, 
as follows. Having obtained the sulphate of quinine, by the above 
jjrocess, (operating on the cinchona cordifolia) decompose the 
mother waters, and the washings of that operation, (which hold in 
solution the sulphate of cinchonine) by magnesia or lime ; dissolve 
the quinine and cinchonine contained in these liquors, by digesting 
the magnesian precipitate when washed and well dried in alcohol ; 
if the spirit be sufficiently charged, the cinchonine which predomi- 
nates will chrystalize ; if it do not, further concentration is neces- 
sary. The cinchonine thus obtained, must undergo a re-chrystal- 
ization to purify it ; this is done by dissolving it in a sufficient quan- 
tity of boiling alcohol. 

Chemical Properties of Cinchonine and Quinine. Cinchonine is 
white, translucent, chrystalizable in needles, and soluble only in 
seven hundred parts of cold water. If dissolved in alcohol or an 
acid, its taste is powerfully bitter, and resembles that of grey-bark. 
It is dissolved in very small quantities of the fixed oils, and sulphu- 
ric ether. With acids it forms salts which are more or less soluble. 
According to the analysis of Mr. Brande, cinchonine consists of 
about — Carbon 80, 20 — Nitrogen 12, G5 — Hydrogen G, 85 — aggre- 
gate, 99 70. Quinine is white, incrystallizable ; it is as little solu- 
ble in water as cinchonine, much more bitter to the taste, as are also 
most of its salts, which are distinguished by a pearly appearance. 



NAT. ORDER. CINCHONACEiE. 31 

It is very soluble in ether, while cinchonine is very little so ; this 
difference serves as well to distinguish their bases, as to separate 
them when united. Quinine likewise differs from cinchonine in 
containing oxygen, and that in nearly as large a proportion as hy- 
drogen. According to M. Brande, its ultimate parts are nearly as 
follows: — Carbon 73,80 — Nitrogen 13,00 — Hydrogen 7,65 — Oxy- 
gen 5,55 — 99,90. Quinine when melted becomes ido-electric, and- 
acquires the resinous electricity with much intensity when rubbed 
with a piece of cloth. 

M. Robiquet, in the Journal of Science, has given an analysis of 
the two sulphates of quinine, but he found that the sub-sulphate lost 
a portion of its acid during each chrystalization ; he has given the 
composition of this salt, both after the first and third crystalization, 
as follows : — 100 parts of Acid Sulphate of Quinine contain — Acid 
19,1 — Quinine 63,5 — 82,6 — 100 parts of Sub-Sulphate, first crystal- 
ization, contain — Acid 11,3 — Quinine 79,0 — 90,3. 

The Sulphate of Quinine, when exposed to the temperature of 
100° (212° Farenheit) becomes luminous, especially when subjected 
to slight friction. This remarkable property was first discovered 
by M. Callaud d' Annecey, a French chemist. "M. M. Dumas and 
Pelleties exposed about three ounces of the sulphate, enclosed in a 
glass flask, which they kept in a sand-bath for half-an-hour, to the 
temperature of boiling watei% when it exhibited, on friction, a briliant 
white light. On passing through the cork of the flask a metalic rod, 
ending in a point at the internal extremity, and by a ball at the op- 
posite one, and applying it to the ball of the rod by a voltaic elec- 
troscope, shaking the flask before each contact, these gentlemen ob- 
tained the greatest separation of which the rods of the electroscope 
are susceptible; the electricity was always vitreous. The Sulphate 
of Cinchonine possesses the same phosjjhorescent property, but in 
a less degree, and the electric faculty in the same ratio." 

Medical Properties and Uses of Peruvian Bark will be found 
under the head of Cinchona Officinalis; we shall therefore intro- 



32 NAT. ORDER. CINCHONACEifi 

diice into notice in this place only the medical properties and for- 
mularies for the exhibition of the cinchonine and quinine. M. Ma- 
gendie says — " a sufficient number of cases induce me to believe 
that these two alkalies (cinchonine and quinine) possess the medical 
properties of the cinclionas, and may be substituted for them on all 
occasions. In the twelfth volume of the Medico-Chiurgical Trans- 
actions, Dr. Elliotson of London has sufficiently established the feb- 
rifuge efficacy of both simple quinine, and of the sulphate, which is 
further confirmed by Dr. Dickson of Clifton, in the Edinburgh Med- 
ical and Surgical Journal. " For us to insist on the value of these 
preparations is needless; since their introduction into some of the 
ague districts of our Western States, their use has become general, 
and seldom fails to effect a cure. As a general tonic, both the cin- 
chonine and quinine may be successfully exhibited, in all cases where- 
in the cinchona would be indicated. The sulphates are the prepa- 
rations most generally employed, and are recommended from one 
to eight grains to be given in twenty-four hours. Some physicians 
have thought it necessary to carry the dose much higher, but in 
general the result has not answered their expectation, aud some pa- 
tients have experienced severe symptoms, such as great agitation, 
with strong cerebral excitement. 

" The United States Dispensatory recommends the introduction 
of this bark, occasionall}*, into the s^-stem by other sources than 
that of the stomach, where it has been found to exercise its pecu- 
liar influence whenever applied. Injected into the rectum, with 
opium to prevent purging ; also in intermittants. Bark jackets, and 
baths, have been found servicable. But the best preparation of 
bark for external application is decidedly sulphate of quinia, which, 
sprinkled upon a blistered surface, denuded of the cuticle, is speed- 
ily absorbed, and produces on the system effects not less decided 
than those which result from its internal administration " 



' NAT. ORDER. — CINCHONACE.E. 33 

Dr. James Osgood, of Boston, Mass , informed me that while he 
was engaged in the practice of medicine in some of our Western 
States, in the years 184C and 1847, he made extensive use of the 
Cinchona, in the treatment of fevers so prevalent in that portion of 
the country- ; and in all cases where the directions had been faith- 
full\- attended to, the chills and fever were invariably broken up, 
either on the second or third day. He advises its use in connection 
with other articles, and compounded after the following manner, 
viz. : Take equal parts of cinchona ruba peruvian bark, diospyros 
virginiana persimmon bark, (of the root.) and corallorhiza odontor- 
hiza crawley root. Let them all be finely pulverised and well mix- 
ed together, and exhibit half an even tea-spoon full in a gill of cold 
water, once an hour, for six hours. This treatment," says Dr. Os- 
good, " I have usually preceded with an emetic, and have invaria- 
bly found it efficacious in removing the febrile symptoms within the 
time above specified. In very severe cases I have added to each 
dose one or two grains of Quinine. This mode of treatment is ap- 
plicable to all the fevers of the Western country, and is decidedly 
the best that I have ever pursued. It produces speedy and profuse 
perspiration, to which the fever shortly yields. 

How far the same treatment would be applicable to the fevers 
of this region, I am unable to determine, having had but a single 
opportunity to test it. That was a case of Pleurities, pleuricy, in 
which it equalled my most sanguine expectations. It may be well 
to remark that it would be injudicious to continue the use of the 
medicine longer than about six hours, as the perspiration would 
cause too much debility. In connection with the treatment it is my 
uniform practice to keep the bowels open." 

TINCTURE OF QUININE. 

Take of siil[)hate of Quinine - - 6 grs. (gr. 4. 92 trov.) 
Alcohol of 34" (847) - - 1 oz. (7 dr. 52. 5 gr. troy.) 
We are told that the sul[)hate is to be preferred to the pure 
quinine, in this case; because when the tincture is made by using 



34 NAT. ORDER. CINCHONACE^. 

alkali not saturated by an acid, a precipitate is formed on adding it 
to aqueous liquors. 

WINE OF QUININE. 

Take of good Madeira Wine* - 1 livre (oz. 22. 104 troy.) 
Sulphate of Quinine - 12 grs. (grains 9. 84 troy.) 

SIRUP OF QUININE. 

Take of simple sirup - - 2 pounds (31 oz. 4 dr. 2 gr. troy.) 
Sulphate of Quinine 64 grains (gr. 52. 48 troy.) 
M. Magendie has proposed the following formulae for the exhi- 
bition of Cinchonine : — 

SIRUP OF CINCHONINE. 

Take of simple sirup - - - - 1 pound (15 oz. 6 dr. 1 gr. troy.) 
Sulphate of Cinchonine - 48 grains (gr. 39. 36 troy.) 

TINCTURE OF CINCHONINE. 

Take of sulphate of Cinchonine - 9 grains (gr. 7. 383 tro}-.) 
Alcohol at 34° (847) - - 1 ounce (7 dr. 52. 5 gr. troy. 

WINE OF CIWCHONINE. 

Take of Madeira Wine - - - - 1 litre (oz. 31. 104 troy.) 
Sulphate of Cinchonine - 18 grains (gr. 14. 76. troy.) 
The above preparations of cinchonine may be given in equal 
doses, and under the same circumstances with the preparations of 
quinine. 

• Any other white wine may be substituted. 





V^' 












NAT. ORDE R. 

AracecE. 



ARUM TRIPHILLUM. WILD TURNIP— WAKE ROBIN, 

Class XXI. MoNCEClA. Order VII. Polyandria. 

Gen. Char. Si)athe one-leafed, cowled. Spadix naked above, 
female below, stamineous in the middle. Berry one-celled, 
many-seeded. 

Spe. Cluir. Stemless. Leaves ternate. Leajlefs ovate, acumi- 
nate, entire. /S/jarf/:?: clavate. )S/ja/7?e ovate, acuminate, convo- 
lute below, flat and bent above. 

The root is perennial, round, flattened, tuberous, with many- 
white fibres around the base ; skin dark, loose, and wrinkled ; the 
leaves are usually three or four, growing from each root ; these 
are arrow-shaped, of a deep green or jiurplish color, beset with 
many veins and dark spots, and stand upon long grooved, and 
somewhat triangularly shaped footstalks ; the jlower-stalk is very 
short and channelled ; the calyx is a sheath of one leaf, large, oval, 
nerved, and enclosing the spadix, which is round, club-shaped, 
fleshy, above of a purple color, below whitish, standing in the cen- 
tre of the sheath, and supporting the parts necessary to fructifica- 
tion : on tracing it towards the base we first discover the necta- 
ries, or several oval corpuscles, which are terminated by long, 
tapering points ; next to these are placed the anthers, which are 
quadrangular, united, and of a purple color; under these we find 
again more nectaries ; and lastly the ger77iens, which are very nu- 
merous, round, without styles, and crowned with small bearded 
stigmas. This curious species of inflorescence displays itself 
early in spring, but the berries do not ripen till late in the summer, 

Vol. a.— 35 



36 NAT. ORDER. ARACE^. 

when tliey appear in naked clusters, of a bright scarlet color, 
making a very conspicuous appearance in the swamps and damp 
woods where they are most commonly found growing. 

This plant is a native of North and South America, and is quite 
common in almost every part of the United States, growing in 
Rwamps, in damp woods, by the side of small streams, along ditches, 
and in other moist shady places. The root is the medicinal part 
of the plant, which in a recent and lactescent state is extremely 
acrimonious, and uj^on being chewed, excites an intoleralile sensa- 
tion of burning and pricking in the tongue, worse than that of 
Capsicum bacatum, the strongest kind of Cayenne pepper, which 
continues for several hours. This active principle is a peculiar 
substance, Aroine, highly volatile, having no affinity with water, 
alcohol, oil or acids, and J)ecoming an inflammable gas by heat or 
distillation. When cut in slices and applied to the skin, it has 
been known to produce blisters. This acrimony, however, is gra- 
dually lost by drying, and may be so far dissij^ated by the applica- 
tion of heat, as to leave the root a bland farinaceous aliment ; its 
medical efficacy, therefore, resides wholly in the active volatile 
matter, and consequently the powdered root must lose much of its 
power on being long kept. Lewis says, " the fresh and moderately 
dried roots were digested in water, in wine, in proof spirit, and in 
rectified spirit, with and without heat : the liquors received no 
color, and but very little if any taste. In distillation, neither spirit 
nor water, brought over any sensible impregnation from the arum. 
The root nevertheless loses in those operations almost the whole 
of its pungency." Dr Cullen considers it a general stimulant, not 
only exciting the acti\'ity of the digestive powers, where they hap- 
pen to be languid, but stimulating the whole system ; in proof of 
this he observes, that it has been useful in intermittent fevers. The 
ancient writers condemned its use in any form, they fancied that it 
possessed poisonous properties, and was wholly incapable of being 
valuable as a medicine in any complaint whatever. 



NAT. ORDER. ARACEiE. 37 

Medical Properties and Uses. Armn is certainly a very pow- 
erful stimulant, and by promoting the secretions may be advanta- 
geously emj)loyed in cacliectic and clilorotic cases, in rheumatic 
affections, and in various other complaints of phlegmatic and tor- 
pid constitutions ; but more especially in a weakened or relaxed 
state of the stomach, occasioned by the prevalence of viscid 
mucus. If this root is given in powder, great care should be taken 
that it be young and newly dried, when it may be used in the dose 
of a scruple or more twice a day ; but in rheumatisms and other 
disorders requiring the full effect of this medicine, the root should 
be given in a recent state, and to cover the insup2)ortable pungen- 
cy it discovers on the tongue, it may be used in substance mixed 
with milk or molasses, as it does not imjjart its virtues to any liquor ; 
or the fresh roots may be grated, or reduced to a pulp, with three 
times their weight of sugar, thus forming a conserve, the dose of 
which is a teaspoon-full twice a day. Dr. Lewis advises it to be 
administered in the form of emulsion, with gum arable and sjierma- 
ceti, increasing the dose from ten grains to upwards of a scruple 
three or four times a day ; in this way, says he, " it generally oc- 
casioned a sensation of slight warmth about the stomach, arid after- 
wards in the remoter parts manifestly promoted pei'spiration, and 
frequently produced a copious sweat." It is also used for flatu- 
lence, cramp in the stomach, asthmatic and consumptive affections, 
and has been strongly recommended for the removal of the most 
obstinate rheumatic pains. It quickens circulation, and promises 
to be a useful topical stimulant when the acrid principle may be 
rendered available. It has been found beneficial in lingering atro- 
phy, debilitated habits, great prostration in typhoid fevers, chronic 
catarrh, &c. 

Bergius speaks highly of the efficacy of Arum in headachs, 
which were of the most violent kind, and resisted all the means he 
employed, till he used the jiowder of this root, which never failed 
to relieve them. 



38 NAT. ORDER. ARACEiE. 

The medical properties of this plant have of late attracted 
the attention of physicians, in regard to its pectoral properties 
Dr. Samuel Thompson, of Boston, says: "it has proved highly 
beneficial in coughs, consumption of the lungs and asthma, foi 
which we have successfully used it for more than forty years. 
The root should be dried, pulverized, and given in doses of three 
to six grains, four times a day ; or it may be given in honey, in the 
sirup of preserves, or in any other saccharine matter, or it may 
be made into a paste, with honey or sirup, and used in the form of 
candy, by letting the substance dissolve gradually on the tongue, 
so as to diffuse its warmth through the mouth, and thus used it is 
good for apthous sore mouth and throat." The following is Dr. 
Thompson's method of making cough drops. 

WAKE ROBIN COUGH DROPS. 

Take six ounces of dried wake robin, well pulverized, stir it 
into one jjint of cold water, infuse it till the knobs, or small accu- 
mulations of the powders, are well mingled with the water, then 
pour on half a gallon of boiling water, and a heaped teaspoon-full 
of caiisicum annum, cayenne pepper, half a gallon^ of molasses, 
half a gallon of Jamaica rum, one pint of the tincture Lobelia in- 
jlata, (common tincture of the herb,) and the juice of half a dozen 
best Sicily lemons." 

This is one of Dr. Thompson's most valuable remedies for 
coughs, colds, raising of blood, croup, asthma, or any other difficul- 
ty of the lungs and throat. He strongly recommends that a small 
vial of these drops should be carried by those who are affected 
with a cough, and about half a teaspoon-full taken at a time, 
whenever there is an irritation in the throat, or an inclination to 
cough. This will keep the throat and lungs under a continual 
stimulation or excitement, by which means expectoration will be- 
come easy. It will also relieve pain in the side and breast, cholic 
pains, &c. ; and is a valuable remedy for many other comi3laints. 



NAT. ORDER. 

ConifercE. 



PINUS BALSAMEA. BALM OF GILEAD FIR. 

Class XXI. MoNCECiA. Order VIII. Monadelphia. 

Gen. Char. Male flower in a catkin. Calyx, none. Corolla, none. 

Starnens numerous, on a small stalk. 
Female flower in a catkin, or cone of close, rigid, two-lipped, two- 
flowered scales. Seeds, two to each scale, ringed. 
Sjje. Cluir. Leaves solitary, flat, imperfectly two-ranked. Cones 
cylindrical, erect, with sharp-pointed scales. Crest of the an- 
thers pointless. 

This species of pine forms a very beautiful tree, varying in 
height from thirty to fifty feet ; the trunk, which measures from 
twelve to fifteen inches in diameter, is straight, and covered with a 
smooth, whitish gray bark ; the leaves are very fragrant, disposed 
on either side of the branches, like the teeth of a comb ; they are 
solitary, flat, linear, short, not exceeding eight lines in length, and 
pointed ; of a bright green on their upper surface, paler beneath, 
and marked with whitish lines ; the male catkins are ovate ; the 
crest of the anthers kidney-shaped, pointless, or furnished with 
short spines, V:)ut never bifid ; the females \vith numerous ovate, 
notched, pointed bracteas ; the cones, which stand erect ujion the 
branches, are large, nearly cylindrical, and when full grown, of a 
beautiful, deep, glossy, purple color, inclining to black, and exu- 
ding a great quantity of transparent resin, which gives them a 
very beautiful appearance. Figure a represents a female catkin ; 
h a male caBvin ; c scales of a catkin ; d its bracteolas ; e the an- 
thers ; f scale of a cone. 

Vol. ii.— 39 



40 NAT. ORDER. CONIFERS. 

The rinus halsamea is a native of the coldest regions of this 
continent, growing abundantly in Canada, Nova Scotia, northern 
parts of New England, and other northern provinces. It has 
been introduced and cultivated in some jaarts of England, since 
the year 1698, but the climate does not appear to be congenial to 
it, for although it attains a considerable height, it seldom survives 
above twenty years. 

The fine turpentine of the shojis, or what is commonly called 
Canada balsam, is yielded by this tree. It exists in great quantity, 
in the vesicles between the wood and bark ; being collected by 
making incisions in the trunk of the tree, through which it exudes. 
It is then put in casks of from one to two hundred pounds, and 
shipjied to most parts of the civilized globe. 

Sensible and Chemical Properties, Sfc. Canada balsam, or tur- 
pentine, has a strong, but rather agreeable odor ; its taste is some- 
what bitter, and resembles the other turpentines ; its color is pale 
yellow, with a greenish tinge, transparent, and has the consistence 
of honey fresh from the comb. 

Distilled with water, it yields a limpid, colorless, essential oil, 
and leaves a solid resin, resembling the common yellow resin. 
Distilled by itself, it yields, first, a clear oil, in appearance like 
that obtained by distillation with water, but which gradually 
changes to yellow, and then to red, and leaves a black resin. 
During the operation of distillation, succinic acid also rises. It is 
insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol and ether, also in the vol- 
atile and drying oils ; it is soluble in alkaline ley, and the strong 
acids ; the sulphuric and nitric acids convert it into artificial tan- 
nin. The essential oil, or spirit of turpentine, as it is conm:ionly 
called, has a strong penetrating odor, and a hot, pungent, bitterish 
taste. It is perfectly limpid and colorless, light, volatile, inflamma- 
ble, and burns with a very vivid, crackling flame. It is soluble in 
six parts of sulphuric ether, very sparingly soluble in cold alcohol, 
one hundred parts unite with twenty of alcohol ; if the alcohol be 



NAT. ORDER. CONIFERjE. 41 

heated, the oil readily combines with it, but will be separated again 
as soon as the spirit cools. A stream of oxymuriatic gas passed 
through it, converts it into a yellow resin. Distilled with four times 
its volume of water, it becomes lighter and brighter. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Canada bakatn possesses similar 
medicinal jiroperties to the other turpentines, which are more fully 
described under the head of Pin us sylvestris, Pinus ahies, Pin us 
picea, and Pinus larix, in the present and other vols, of this work ; 
consequently, we shall only make a few observations regarding the 
use of turpentine as a remedial agent, and more especially for the 
expulsion of tsenia. It was fii'st recommended by Dr. Fenwick as 
an anthelmintic of extraordinary powers. The Dr. jirescribed it 
in doses of two ounces, and repeated it in ounce doses until it had 
the desired effect ; purging is in general produced, and the worm 
is usually evacuated lifeless. Turpentine, when given in large 
doses, by acting as a cathartic, seems to pi-event its absorption, 
hence its action on the urinary organs becomes obviated, and 
stranguary, which so frequently accompanies the internal use of 
small doses of turpentine, is not to be apprehended ; not only for 
the expulsion of taenia, but for other worms, (especially the Imnbrici) 
it has been administered with equal success. Dr. Copeland 
strongly recommends the oil in the hoemorrhagiEe, particularly in 
atonic epistaxis, also in epilepsy, in the last stages puerperal fever, 
and m the convulsions of infants, when arising from a disordered 
state of the alimentary canal. It is also a powerful emmenagogue, 
thence useless in chlorosis. We are told by Dr. Copeland, that in 
some cases of ovarian dropsy, its effects were such as to recommend 
its employment in the incipient stages of tliat disease, and also in 
other dropsies. Externally, the oil is used with much advantage as 
a primary application to scalds and burns. Dr. Kentish was the 
hrst who introduced its use, and subsequently his practice has been 
confirmed and adopted by many surgeons of skill and eminence. 
It is also topically applied as a discutientto indolent tumors, &c. 



42 NAT. ORDER. CONIFERiE. 

The United States Dispensatory enumerates several varieties of 
the Abies from which Canada balsam is obtained and considered 
officinal. The Abies excelsa of Europe, and Abies canadensis of the 
United States, have been considered as the sources respectively of 
Burgundy and Canada pitch. The Abies j^icea of Linnaeus, Abies 
pectinata of De Candolle, Abies taxifolia of the French Codex, Fi- 
nns picea or European silver fir tree, growing in the mountainous 
regions of Switzerland, Germany and Siberia, yields the Strasburg 
turpentine, which is much used in some parts of Europe. The 
Abies nigra, (Pinus nigra,) or black spruce of this country, yields 
a product, which though not recognised by the Pharmacopaeia, is 
considerably employed. The substance alluded to is the essence 
prepared from the young liranches by boiling them in water and 
evaj^orating the decoction. This is a thick liquid, having the color 
and consistence of molasses, with a bitterish, acidulous, astringent 
taste. It is much used in many parts of Germany and Europe, in 
the preparation for the manufacturing of beer, which is a pleasant 
and wholesome drink in summer. 

As a remedy for pulmonary affections and coughs of long 
standing, the balm of Gilead buds, in our opinion, stand second to 
no other article in the Materia Medica. A syrup made after the 
following prescription, has been successfully employed in the cure 
of many very obstinate cases of coughs, where other remedies 
seemed to have failed. 

Cough Syrup. Take of Abies balsamea buds, (balm of Gilead 
buds,) two ounces; Inula heleniam, (elecampane,) two ounces; 
Symphytum officinale, (comfrey root,) three ounces ; Lobelia inftata 
herb (common Indian tobacco,) one ounce ; Marruhium vulgare, 
(hoarhound,') one ounce. Put this in one gallon of water, boil 
down to three quarts, strain off, and when cold add one quart best 
honey, or Stewart's syrup molasses, one pint best French brandy, 
and one ounce essence of wintergreen : shake and mix, when it is 
ready for use. Dose, one teaspoon-full three times a day. 




fj//una rv^ 



et/n^f/^iO'Tta 



NAT. ORUEU 



Le gummosa. 



POINCIANA PULCHERRIMA. CHINA POINCINANA. 

Class X. Decandria. Order I. Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx, sejmls five, unequal. Petals, five, stipitate 
and Jefi)rmed. Stamens, ten, longer than the petals. 

Spe. Char. Leajiets prickly, ovate or obovate, notched at the end, 
smooth. Petals fimbricate, longly, stipitate. 

Sepals are five in number, unequal, joined at the base into a 
somewhat persistent cup, the lower one arched ; the ^^e/«/s are five, 
stipitate, having the u^apcr one of a different form ; the stamens 
are ten, very long, all bearing anthers, filaments hairy at the base ; 
s^y/e very long; legume flatly compressed, two-valved, somewhat 
many-celled, with spongy isthmuses ; the seerf* are obovate, com- 
pressed, having the internal integument in a gelatinous water; 
cotyledons, flat and oval ; the leaves are abruptly bipinnate ; the 
Jlowcrs are disposed in a corymbose panicle; pedicels long, without 
bracteas at the base. 

This most magnificent shrub grows to the height of ten feet 
and upwards ; and as the plate shows, bears panicles of the most 
brilliant flowers. It is a native of the East Indies. Sigou states 
that it was imjjorted into Barbadoes from the Cape de Verd Island. 
Its beauty has attracted the attention of the Chinese for some time, 
and wherever they settle, they cultivate it as the crown of all 
garden ornaments, and call it by the name of the peacock's crest. 
It was introduced into Holland from Amboyna about the year 1670, 
where it was extensively cultivated in the Chelsea Garden by Sir 
Hans Sloane, in the year 1691. The flowers are most beautiful to 

Vol. ii.— 43 



44 NAT. ORDER. LEGUMINOSiE. 

the eye, and rather sweet-scented, but the whole plant when bruis- 
ed has a disagreeable odor, very much resembling that of Savine, 
and is used in the West Indies by many supposing it to possess sim- 
ilar properties. Tliis plant is considered valuable in the West In- 
dies (independent of its beauty) for making fences, mixed with the 
Parkinsonia aculata; which, says Jaquin, forms one of the most 
beautiful fences imaginable. 

This delightful plant cannot be cultivated in this country, (es- 
pecially in the Northern States,) without great care and nursing. 
It is a stove shrub requiring a strong heat, with plenty of pot room 
to grow it \\ell. The soil should be three-fourths loam and one- 
fourth well rotted dung and peat, using plenty of drainers. It is 
projjagated by seeds, which are occasionally received from the 
East and West Indies, and tropical America. There are frequently 
brought into this country different varieties, distinguished merely 
by the color of the flowers. 

The present drawing was made from a sj^lendid specimen 
sent to the artist by John Willmore, Esq., about two years ago, 
when the plant flowered for the first time in that gentleman's col- 
lection. The stamens, which are always assurgent in this species, 
have been represented by our artist as declinate, owing, no doubt, 
to their having begun to flag before the drawing was commerK^ed. 
Its generic name is in compliment to M. de Poinci, governor of the 
Antilles: pulcherrima refers to the beauty of its inflorescence. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Various medical writers have 
attempted to describe the specific properties of \\\\» plant, and 
most of whom have fallen into a great error in supposing it to pos- 
sess considerable narcotic powers. An acquaintance of mine, a 
physician, who has lately come from Holland, kindly furnished 
me with a small package of the leaves of this plant, which he had 
brought for medical purposes ; these leaves I subjected to a chem- 
ical process, and found them to be destitute of any narcotic pro- 
perties, but acting violently and powerfully as an emenagogue. 



METHOD OF PREPARING EXTRACTS AND SIRUPS 

From Plants and Roots, in a concentrated form, and by lohich they 

retain all their virtues. 

The question is frequently asked, " is there no way of obtain- 
ing the medicinal virtues of these valuable jilants in a form that 
would not be objectionable to the taste, and at the same time, pre- 
serve all the active properties of the whole plant ;" in answer to 
which, we give the substance of a letter kindly furnished us by Dr. 
James Osgood of Boston, and published in the Western Medical 
Reformer, a monthly journal of medical and chirugical science: 
the letter is written by J. King, M. D., of Owings\dlle, Ky.; with 
whom the process of extracting appears to be original. We think 
it a very valuable acquisition to the science of medicine, and one 
that is worthy of the attention of every physician. Dr. King re- 
marks that "vegetable medicines are as capable of being jsrejaared 
in diminished quantities as mineral substances, and when thus re- 
duced, are much more effectual in their results. Thus, Iris versi- 
color, (blue flag root,) contains resin and mucilage : in the former 
resides the jiurgative and alterative properties ; in the latter, diu- 
retic. Then why administer the crude root in powder, in which 
these properties are combined with woody fibre and other inert 
substances, when a few grains of the proper constituent will 
answer ? The same is the case with the Cimicifuga racemosa ; (Co- 
hosh root,) its alterative, anti-scrofulous, anti-rheumatic, emmena- 
gogue, and other properties for which it is generally employed, 
reside in its resin. Then certainly it is useless to administer it in 
conjunction with tannin, galic acid, gum, &c., when a kw grains 
of its active principle is sufficient. The medical constituent of 
a plant is all that we require. True, there are some plants whose 
virtues consist in the union of these constituents, but they are 
rare. 

Vol. ii.— 4.''> 



46 METHOD OF PREPARING EXTRACTS AND SIRUPS. 

" For the last several years I have pi-epared my medicines, or 
rather those of which I make the most frequent use, in such a 
manner, that the doses in quantity, are much smaller than usual, 
and are fully as eifectual in their results, if not more so, than the 
same articles as generally administered. The object most desira- 
ble in chronic diseases, is not to shock the system by repeated 
large quantities of active medicine, as is too often the case with 
practitioners, and from which cause very few real and permanent 
cures are effected in chronic cases, but to give medicines in the 
least possible doses that may be found necessary to keep the sys- 
tem constantly under their peculiar alterative, tonic, or other 
action, and always in union with the other requisites of proper 
exercise, diet, cleanliness, &c. 

" My method of preparing these medicines depends upon the 
required active constituent or constituents of the medicine ; thus, 
with the greater part of tinctures, I prepare them saturated, instead 
of the common strength, which of course lessens the dose in quan- 
tity. * * * From some I obtain only the resin, by 
extracting all that alcohol will take up, then filter the alcoholic 
tincture, to which add an equal quantity of water, and separate the 
alcohol by distillation ; the resin sinks in the water. Thus, an ex- 
cellent hepatic is obtained from the Hijdrastus canadensis in the 
dose of from one fourth to three grains ; a purgative, alterative or 
emmenagogue, from the Iris versicolor, Podophyllum pcltatum, San- 
guinaria canadensis, Cimicifuga racemosa, Caulophyllum thalic- 
troides, &c. 

" Sometimes I distil the alcoholic tincture to a certain quantity 
without the addition of the water, and then evaporate the remain- 
der until the residue is of the required consistence for a pilling 
extract, or powder as with Sang, canad., Alctris farinosa, Peonia 
officinalis. Euphorbia ipecacuanha, Apocynum canahinum, &c. 

" With other articles I make the alcoholic extract, as above, 
then boil the roots or herbs in water till all the virtues are obtained, 



METHOD OF PREPARING EXTRACTS AND SIRUPS. 47 

reduce it to an xtract, and then combine the alcohoHc and aque- 
ous extracts toge ther, as with. Rutnux crispus, Solon urn dulcamara, 
Leptandria virginica, Baptisia tinctoria. Inula helenium, Arctium, 
lappa, Aristoli>cliia serpentaria, Berberis vulgaris, Cornus sericea, Vi- 
burnum oxycoccus, Cyprepcdium puhcscens, Jimiperus sahina, Xan- 
thoxylon fraxineum, Phytollacca decandria, &c. 

" With some articles I make an alkahne extract, but with only 
those Avhich contain resin and have a drastic effect, which is made 
by adding from time to time, during the evaporation of the alco- 
holic tincture, and at every time when the resin begins to separate 
from the liquid, small portions of pearlash, (carbonate potash,) and 
continue adding it in like manner until the extract is finished; this 
renders the article less drastic, and completely prevents it from 
producing any nauseous or irritating sensation, as with the Iris 
versicolor. Podophyllum pelt atum, &c. There are other articles, 
again, where I obtain the ethereal oil or extract, and which is 
made by saturating sulphuric ether with the article, filtering, and 
then allowing it to evaporate spontaneously, as with Capsicum an- 
num, Secale cornutum, Cochlearia armorica. Crocus sativa, Ictodes 
foetida, Lycopus virginicus. Lobelia injlata, Scutellaria latcrijlora, &cc. 

" By preparing medicines as above, there is no change of the 
virtues of the constituent principles requisite, chemically consid- 
ered, as is the case with sulphate of quinine, and some other 
articles, in which there is often entire decomposition, or at least, 
new combinations ; the doses are also small in quantity, and the 
effect much greater upon the human system, than when combined 
with inert, woody and other substances. 

" In preparing medicinal sirups, the following will be found 
one of the best modes : have a vessel which will hold from 40 to 
50 pounds of plants, to which add two gallons of water, and if the 
article contains resin, add in addition one and a half pounds of sal- 
eratus, which must be dissolved in water before it is added ; by a 
gentle heat gradually distil off this water, returning it, as it 



48 METHOD OF PREPARING EXTRACTS AND SIRUPS. 

passes, into the vessel by means of- a tube adapted • r that purpose. 
Continue the distillation in this manner, until the herbs or roots 
are all as soft as mush ; then remove them from the fire, and by 
means of a screw press, press out all the fluid, until the articles are 
left dry in the press, remembering to add to it the two gallons 
of water which had been used to soften. Place this expressed 
liquor in a barrel by itself, and well closed. In like manner, obtain 
the expressed liquid of each article separately. To 2:)repare a 
sirup : pour into a barrel churn the necessary quantity of each in- 
gredient, together with sufficient molasses or sirup to sweeten; 
churn the articles together, for half an hour, then bottle and cork 
tight. The dose of any purifying sirup thus made, is one teaspoon 
full, three or four times a day, and it will keep well in any cli- 
mate. 

" If, however, it is mcon- cnient for a physician thus to pre- 
pare his sirujis, he can make a very pleasant cordial, as follows : 
take one pound of any mixture required, and in a coarse, bruised 
state ; place it in a vessel, and add to it three pints and a half of 
alcohol, place it over a fire till it boils, then cover tightly and re- 
move from the fire. When cold, pour oflT the alcohol into a sepa- 
rate vessel, and add more alcohol, merely sufficient to cover the 
articles ; let this stand three days, and pour it into the same vessel 
with the other. To the mixture of roots, add six pints of boiling 
water, and when cold add the alcoholic tincture and six pounds of 
loaf sugar. Let it stand for one week, frequently shaking it, and 
it will be fit for use. Dose ; from a tablespoon half full, to a wine- 
glass half full, three times a day." 

As this subject is of essential importance to the best interests 
of the physician, I have not deemed the above suggestions super- 
fluous or uncalled for, and trust that every practitioner and well- 
wisher to the science of medicine will investigate this subject still 
further. 




'.:r /ft /fluffy 



' C/iaAo u^'i/^y 



NAT. ORDER. 

Vitacece. 



VITIS VINIFERA. COMMON GRAPE VINE. 

C/ass V. Pentandria. Order I. Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Petals cohering at the ajiex, withering. Berry five- 
seeded, superior. 
Spe. Char. Leaves broad-cordate, angularly sub-three-lobed, cin- 
ereous-tomentose beneath. Racemes small. Berries large. 
The vine sends off numerous long, slender, climbing branches, 
and is covered with rough, dark-brown bark ; tlie leaves are 
roundish, deeply serrated, commonly divided into three lobes, and 
stand alternately upon long footstalks ; the Jloivers are small, and 
produced in S2jikes ; the calyx is divided into five small narrow seg- 
ments ; the petals are fine, small, oblong, whitish, withered, adherent 
at their ajjicies, and soon fall off; the ?i.\e filaments are tapering, 
and furnished with simple anthers ; the germen is egg-shaped, 
without any style, but supplied with a cylindrical stigma ; the fruit 
is a large round berry, of one cell, and contains five hard seeds, 
of an irregular form. The flowers appear in June and July. 

The vine is a native of most of the temperate 2^arts of the four 
quarters of the globe, and is successfully cultivated between the 
thirtieth and fifty-first degree of latitude. Through the effects of 
culture, and a difference of soil and climate, numerous varieties of 
grapes are produced, diflfering widely in shape, color, and taste, and 
affording wines which are known to be extremely various. Vine 
leaves, called ^ww/;»r/, and the tendrils, or cajireoli, have an astrin- 
gent taste, and were formerly used in diarrhceas, hemorrhages, and 
other disorders, requiring refrigera''t and styptic medicines. The 

Vol. u.— 49 



50 NAT. ORDER. VITACEjE. 

juice or sap of the vine, named tachryina, has been recommended in 
calculous disorders, and is said to be an excellent application to 
weak eyes, and specks of the cornea. The unripe fruit has a 
harsh, rough, sour taste : its expressed juice, called veijuice, was 
much esteemed by the ancients, but is now superseded by the 
juice of lemons ; for external use, however, particulary in bruises 
and sprains, verjuice is still employed and considered to be a very 
useful ajiplication. 

The dried fruit constitutes an article of the Materia Medica, 
under the name of vva 2)assa, of which two kinds were formerly 
mentioned in our pharmacopaeias ; viz., uvce passcp, majoresand mi- 
nores, or raisins and cui-rants ; the latter is a variety of the former, 
or the fruit of the vitis corinthiaca seu apyrena. The manner f)f 
preparing them is by immersing them in a solution of alkaline salt, 
and soap 136, made boiling hot, to which is added some olive oil 
and a small quantity of common salt, and afterwards drying them 
in the shade. These fruits are used as agreeable lubricating aces- 
cent sweets, in pectoral decoctions, and for obtunding the acrimony 
of other medicines, and rendering them grateful to the palate and 
stomach. They are directed in the Decoct um hordei compositum, 
Tinctura sennce, and Tinctura cardamomi composita. 

Wine, or the fermented juice of the grape, of which there is 
a great variety, has by medical writers been principally confined to 
four sorts, as sufficient for officinal use. These are the Vinum al- 
bum Mspanicum., mountain ; Vinum canarium, canary or sack; Yi- 
num rhenanum, rhenish ; and Vinum ruhrum, red port. 

Medical properties and uses. New wines, when taken into the 
stomach, are liable to a strong degree of acescency, and thereby 
occasion much flatulency, and eructation of acid matter ; heart- 
burn and violent pains of the stomach from spasms are also often 
produced ; and the acid matter, by passing into the intestines and 
mixing with the bile, is apt to occasion colics or excite diarrhoeas. 
Sweet wines are most likely to become acesent in the stomach. 



NAT. ORDER. VITACEiE. S] 

The quantity of alcohol which they contain, is much more 
than appears sensibly to the taste ; their acescency is thereby in a 
great measure counteracted. Red port, and most of the red 
wines, have an astringent quality, by which they strengthen the 
stomach, and prove useful in restraining immoderate evacuations ; 
on the contrary, those which are of an acid nature, as rhenish, 
l^ass freely off by the kidneys, and prove gently cathartic. But 
this, and perhaps all the thin or weak wines, though of an agree- 
able flavor, yet, as containing little alcohol, are readily disjDosed to 
become acetous in the stomach, and thereby to aggravate all an- 
thritic and calculous complaints, as well as to produce the effects of 
new wine. 

The general effects of wine, are, to stimulate the stomach, 
exhilarate the spirits, warm the habit, quicken the circulation, 
promote perspiration, and, in large quantities, to j^rove intoxica- 
ting, and powerfully sedative. 

In a great variety of diseases, wine is universally admitted to 
be of important service, and especially in fevers of the typhus 
kind, or of a putrid tendency, in which it is found to raise the 
pulse, support the strength, promote a diaphoresis, and to resist 
putrefaction ; and in many cases, it proves of more immediate ad- 
vantage than the Peruvian bark. Delirium, which is the conse- 
quence of excessive irritability, and a defective state of nervous 
energy, is often entirely removed by the free use of wine. It is 
also a well founded observation, that those who indulge in the use 
of wine, are less subject to fevers, both of the malignant and inter- 
mittent kind. In the putrid sore throat, in the small pox, when 
attended with great debility, and symptoms of putrescency, in 
gangrenes, and in raging epidemics, wine is to be considered a 
principal remedy ; and in almost all cases of languors, and of 
great prostration of strength, wine is experienced to be a more 
grateful and efficacious cordial, than can be found among the 
whole class of aromatics. 



•,2 NAT. ORDER. VITACE^. 

The tartar, which i.s thrown off from wines, to the sides and 
the bottom of the cask, is also an officinal article, and consists of 
the vegetable alkali, supersaturated with acid. When taken from 
the cask, it is found mixed with an earthy, oily and coloring mat- 
ter : that obtained from red wine, is of a deep brown color, and 
commonly called red, and when it is of a paler color, white tar- 
tar. It is purified by dissolving it in boiling water, and separating 
the earthy part, by filtering the boiling solution. On cooling the 
solution, it deposites irregular crystals, containing the coloring 
matter, which is separated by boiling the mass with white clay. 
The tartar, thus purified, is called cream of tartar. If this be ex- 
posed to a red heat, its acid flies off, and what remains is the vege- 
table alkali, or salt of tartar. 

Crystals of tartar are in common use as a laxative and mild 
cathartic ; they are also esteemed for their cooling and diuretic 
qualities, and therefore have been much employed in dropsical and 
other cases, requiring an antiphlogistic treatment. Dr. Cullen says 
that "in large doses, they act like a purgative, in exciting the action 
of the absorbents in every part of the system, and that more pow- 
erfullv, than happens from the operation of any entirely neutral 
salt;" and on this is founded their utility in the cure of dropsy. It 
must be remarked, however, that they do not readily pass off by 
the kidneys, unless taken with a large quantity of water; and there- 
fore when intended as a diuretic, they ought to be given in a liquid 
form, as Dr. Home has directed. The dose is to be regulated ac- 
cordinor to circumstances, from a drachm to two ounces. These 
salts enter several officinal compositions. 

Another article which is worthy of notice here, is vinegar, 
which has been esteemed of great use in almost all inflammatory 
and putrid disorders, whether internal or external. It is very effi- 
cacious in counteracting the effects of vegetable poisons, espe- 
cially those of the narcotic kind. Vinegar is also much emploved 
as a menstruum, or for extracting the virtues of other medicines. 



NAT. ORDER 

LobeliacecE. 



LOBELIA SURINAMENSIS. SHRUBBY LOBELIA 

Class XIX. Syngenesia. Order I. Polygajhia tEqualis. 
Gen. Char. Calyx, five-parted. Corolla, one-petaled, irregular 

Capsules, inferior, two to five, three-lobed, two-valved at the 

apex. 
Spe. Char. Stem, fruitful. Leaves, oblong, glabrous, serrated. 

Flowers, pedunculated. 

The vAxoie plant is smooth, and of a beautiful shining green 
color. The stem is slender, erect, and branched, and, in good soil, 
obtains the height of several feet ; the leaves are linear, and re- 
motely denticulate ; radical ones, spathulate ; raceme, few-flowered, 
and leafy ; peduncles, longer than the fruit, with two minute 
bracts near the flower ; the capsule is attenuate at the base ; the 
hlossoyns are very large, of a pale red color ; and its anthers, which 
are sometimes mistaken for the stigma, are usually hairy. It is a 
native of the West Indies. 

The Lohelia surinamensis is a plant which was formerly des- 
cribed by the younger Linnaeus,* under the name Laevigata, appa- 
rently from the smoothness of its flowers. In the year 1786, Mr. 
Alexander Anderson, a botanist of some reputation in the West 
Indies, procured this plant, and sent it to the Royal Garden at 
Kew, where it was extensively cultivated for medical purposes; 
but is now found growing spontaneously, in the woods and dry 
marshes, not only here, but also at Surinam, and the country ad- 
joining. Mr. Aiton has assigned to it a new specific description, 

and a new trivial name, for the correctness of which, we are at 

Vol a.— 53 



54 NAT. ORDER. LOBELIACE^. 

present unable to determine, as the plant is but very little known, and 
probably has never been introduced for culture into this country. 
The drawing accompanying this description was taken from a 
plant which flowered in the hot house of Messrs. Grimwood & 
Co., Kensington, who spared no pains or expense in procuring all 
the rare and curious exotic plants for culture, and more particu- 
larly, to promote the cause of botany. It begins to flower in 
January and February, and continues to blossom during most of 
the summer months, and is easily increased by cuttings. 

Medical Properties and Uses. — The medicinal properties of this 
plant, but more particularly the root, are considered invaluable 
by the Indians of this country. They administer it with astonish- 
ing success in the treatment of cancers, ulcers, tumors, and syphil- 
itic affections, of the most virulent kind. Five or six of the 
plants, including the roots, are boiled in water, and the patient 
drinks as much as he can of this decoction, in the morning, and 
during the day. It soon purges, and the strength of the decoction 
is increased or lessened, as the patient can bear the evacuation. 
If any part is sore, it is to be washed with this decoction, by which 
process, in the course of two or three weeks, a perfect cure is 
effected. Every part of this plant abounds with a milky juice, 
and has a very disagreeable, rank smell. The root, which is the 
part preferred in medicine, in taste, resembles tobacco, and 
sometimes excites vomiting. A handful of it, dried, is boiled in 
twelve pints of water, till they are reduced to eight ; the patient 
begins taking half a pint, morning and evening, then more fre- 
quently, if the purgative effect is not too violent. Should it prove 
so, the medicine must be omitted for three or four days, and then 
again taken, till the cure is completed. The ulcers are to bo 
washed with a decoction of the roots, and if deep and foul, 
sprinkled with the powder of the inner bark of the Ceanothus 
Americanus, New Jersey Tea, or Red-root, and which is sometimes 
used as a substitute. The leaves of this plant were used during 



NAT. ORDER. LOBELIACE^. 55 

the revolutionary war, as a substitute for tea. It is also highly 
recommended as a local application in apthous affections of the 
mouth and fauces, and in the sore throat of scarlatina, and as 
an internal remedy in dysentery, for which a strong decoction 
should be made of the dried leaves and seeds. We owe some 
portion of this description to Sir W. Johnson, who received it 
from the Indians of this country. The author would also oeg 
lea^■e to state a fact which has come under his own observation, 
and of which he has been a daily witness, fully sustaining its high 
reputation, not only for the cure of ulcers, tumors and scrofulous 
affections, but in the treatment of cancers of the most obstinate 
character. 

In the month of March last, Miss Vanriper, from the central 
part of New Jersey, called upon me for advice in regard to a can- 
cer which was located upon her left breast. After making the 
necessary examination, I found it to be of the scirrhus kind ; the 
tumor had extended over tlie whole breast, and was then very 
painful. The puckering of the skin, the dull leaden color of the 
integuments, the knotted and uneven surface, the occasional dart- 
ing pains in the part, its fixed attachment to the skin above, and 
muscles beneath, and in the breast, the retracted state of the 
nipple, accompanied with declining health, and a peculiar sallow 
complexion, formed so striking an assemblage of symptoms, that 
there could not be the smallest doubt, that the tumor was a true 
scirrhus. 

The encouragement which I orave of effecting a cure without 
extirpation, was but little, nor should I have attempted it under 
any circumstances, especially, at this stage of the disease, had I 
not previously become acquainted with the valuable properties of 
this species of lobelia, in the treatment of scrofula, tumors, cancers, 
eruptions of the skin, &c. I have administered it in many cases, 
and never failed of making a cure, unless in the cancer, where it 
was very far advanced, and the vital powers o^ life exhausted. In 



I- 



56 NAT. ORDER. LOBELIACEvE. 

the present case, however, I ordered a tea, made from the plant and 
roots, and one single handfull, to two quarts of water, boiled down 
to three pints : of this, to drink a wine glass full, three or four 
times a day ; externally, to bathe and wash the tumor with the 
same tea, two or three times a day, and apply a poultice made 
with one part of the powdered leaves of the same plant, and two 
parts ulmusfulva, mixed with the same tea. This poultice should 
be kept on both night and day, only removing it when the part is 
to be bathed ; the poultice to be renewed once in twenty-four 
hours. It may be proper to remark, also, that at the time of bath- 
ing, I had the parts well rubbed with the bare hand, and the wash 
freely apjilied. Although still under simple treatment, I consider 
the cancer entirely cured, as not a vestige of it now remains. This 
course of treatment, with a slight*variation according to circum- 
stances, seldom fails of making cures of the most obstinate kinds. 
As a remedy for cancer, it has long been used by the Indians, and 
the secret sold for a high price. 

For wounds, amputations, inflammations, ulcers, and other 
diseases which have a tendency to terminate in mortification, this 
plant proves one of the most valuable articles in the Materia Med- 
ica. The author would also remark, that one of the most obsti- 
nate cases of gangrene which ever appeared on record, has just 
been cured by the use of this valuable herb. The person re- 
ferred to, is a Mr. Smiiie, a highly respectable gentleman of this 
city, now living at 48 Delancy-street ; this gentleman had for the 
last eight months been afflicted with dropsy, in the course of 
which time, he had employed several eminent physicians, who 
gave it as their opinion, that nothing farther could be administei-ed 
to save the life of the patient ; both legs were swelled to an enor- 
mous extent, and mortification had made its appearance. A strong 
decoction made from the leaves of this plant, drank freely, and a 
poultice prepared from the powder, mixed with elm, applied fresh 
every day, effected a perfect cure. 



NAT. ORDER. 

Aracece. 



ARUM TRILOBATUM. ' THREE LOBED ARUM. 

Class XX. Gynandria. Order III. Hexandria. 
Gen. Char. Sjyaihe, one leafed, cowled. Spadix, naked above ; 

female below. Stamens, in the middle. 
Spe. Char. Leaves, hastate, quite entire. Spadix, club-shaped. 

The Arum trilohatum which our figure represents, is an exotic 
plant, and by most writers said to be a native of Amboyna and 
Ceylon. The root in appearance very much resembles the arum 
triphyllum, and is extremely acrid : the jilant is the smallest of the 
tribe, and particularly distinguished by the rich brown, velvety 
appearance of its flowers ; the length of its tapering sjM/dix, espe- 
cially on its lower part, is full of small cavities, and resembles in 
appearance a piece of metal corroded by long exposure ; and by 
the insupportable smell which the whole of the flowei% but more 
especially the spadix, sends forth. 

Mr. Miller, in his figure of this plant, to which Linnasus 
refers, has been more happy in his representation, than in that of 
many others. Rumphius' figure and description accord with our 
plant, although some of his leaves are more perfectly three-lobed 
than any we have seen here on the living plant, and to this varia- 
tion he informs us they are subject. We learn from Miller and 
others, that this singular plant was first brought into notice in the 
year 1752, and was discovered growing wild in the neighborhood 
of Ceylon. It flowers in May and June, and is regarded by most 
botanists as a hot-house plant ; wc have seen it succeed very well 

Vol ii.-67 



58 NAT. ORDER. ARACEyE. 

with tender treaiment in the green-house, and a rapid increase by 
offsets from its roots. 

Medical Properties and Uses. " The acrid property which re- 
sides in this, as well as all other species of arum," says Dr. Bigelow, 
" appears to depend upon a distinct vegetable principle, at present 
but little understood. It is extremely volatile, and disappears al- 
most entirely by heat, drying, or simple exposure to the air." This 
principle appears to possess no affinity for water, alcohol, or oil, 
being volatile, and in a state of gas, inflammable. Sir John Hill, 
in his English herbal, speaks very highly of this plant as being 
useful in palsies ; " a piece of the fresh gathered root, bruised and 
taken in milk, will sometimes restore the speech at once ; and a 
continued use will perfect a cure." It is also good in scorbutic 
cases, and in all inward obstructions. It is by no means incapable, 
as is stated by some writers, of affecting the general circulation. 
On the contrary, we have had many satisfactory ev-idences. In 
the chronic, asthmatic affection of old people, it is a remedy of 
great value. Dr. Cullen says he "has administered the root, and 
witnessed its good effects in chronic catarrhs, and in phthisis pul- 
monalis." In these complaints it has now become one of the most 
common remedies in domestic practice. It has also been prescribed 
with advantage in rheumatism, and in apthous sore mouth. In this 
latter affection. Dr. Thacher says it is a remedy of extraordinary 
and approved efficacy. It has also been recommended in the 
form of an ointment made of the fresh root, in tinea capitis and 
tetter. Dr. Burson states that the berry of the arum is more re- 
tentive of its peculiar acrimony than any other part of the plant. 
The root, which is the part used for medicinal purposes, is di- 
rected by physicians best acquainted with its properties, to be given 
in the form of a decoction, in milk ; Dr. Bigelow, however, re- 
marks that the arum triplujllum imparts none of its acrimony to 
milk on boiling ; and that the best mode of administering it, would 
be in the form of an emulsion with gum arable and sugar. 







^t/T/if'/y^y 



/. 



f,' r'^l'i/?^ ry^Y/^^vv./ Ual /(€'( 



NAT. ORDER 

Liliacece. 



ALLIUM DESCENDENS. PURPLE-HEADED GARLIC. 

Class VL Hexandria. Order I. Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Corolla, six-parted, spreading. Spathe, many flow- 
ered. Unihells, heaped. Capsule, superior. 

Spe. Char. Umhells, rounded. Stamens, lanceolate, larger than 
the corolla. 

Baron Haller, in his most admirable Monographia on the plants 
of this genus, published in his Opuscula Botanica, describes and 
figures this species, as a hardy perennial, a native of Switzerland, 
and cultivated, according to Mr. Aiton, previous to the year 1766, 
for medicinal purposes. 

The root is long, fleshy, hard, and sends ofl^ near the base, small 
succulent fibres ; the stein is simple, and usually rises about three 
feet in height ; the leaves are long, pointed, serrated, and placed 
alternately upon the stem ; the jlowers, as in many other species, 
grow in a capitulum, or little head, not an umbell, strictly speaking; 
but as Linnasus describes it, "this head is at first covered with a 
whitish membrane, wearing some resemblance to a night cap ; on 
the falling off of which, the whole of the capitulum is perceived 
to be of a green color." Soon after, the croion becomes of a fine 
reddish purple, this color extends itself gradually downwards, 
after which, we see the upper half of the head purple, the lower 
half green. In this state, it has a most beautiful and pleasing ap- 
pearance ; the purple still extending downwards, and its whole head 
finally becomes uniformly so. At this time, the flowers begin to 
open, and emit an odor which is very agreeable and pleasant. On 

Vol. ii.— 59 



60 NAT. ORDER. LILIACEiE. 

dissectingf the flower, we find three of the stamens of each, longer 
than the others, and bearing two Httle points, which proceed not 
from the anthers, but from the top of the filaments ; it is therefore 
one of those alliums which Linnteus describes, as having Antlienz 
hicornes ; the capsule is short, broad, tri-lobed, three-celled, three- 
valved, and contains roundish seeds. It flowers in June and July. 

This species of garlic, according to Linn^us, grows spon- 
taneously in Switzerland, and some parts of Sicily, but it is not 
known to be cultivated in any part of the United States. The 
specific properties resemble those of the other garlics ; therefore, 
in describing the medicinal virtues of this species, it is applicable 
to the whole family of garlics, most of which are now cultivated 
in gardens, throughout the civilized world. 

This species is easily increased by offsets, which should be 
separated and planted in Autumn. We know not why Linnaeus 
should give it the name of descendens, unless from its being one of 
those plants whose roots, in process of time, descend deeply into 
the earth. 

Medical Properties and Uses. The whole family of garlics, 
especially the root, possess a pungent, acrimonious taste, and a 
peculiarly offensive strong smell. This odor is extremely pene- 
trating and diffusive ; for instance, the root being taken into the 
stomach, the alliaceous scent impregnates the whole sj'stem, and is 
discoverable in the various excretions. This volatile matter is, 
in part at least, an essential oil, which may be obtained in distilla- 
tion in tlie ordinary manner, and, like the oils of many of the 
Liliquose plants, sinks in water. Applied to the skin, garlic 
produces inflammation, and frequently vesicates the part. On 
drying, this root loses almost nine parts in fifteen, without suffering 
any material loss, either of taste or srnell ; hence, six grains dried 
are supposed to be equivalent to fifteen grains of the fresh root. 

Garlic is generally allied to .j^ie onion, from which it seems 
only to differ in being much more powerful in its effects, and in its 



NAT. ORDER. LILIACE^. 61 

active matter, being in a more fixed state ; by stimulating the 
stomach they both favor digestion, and the stimulus is readily dif- 
fused over the system ; they may therefore be considered as use- 
ful condiments with the food of phlegmatic people, or those whose 
circulation is languid, and secretions interrupted ; but with those 
subject to inflammatory complaints, or where great irritability 
prevails, these roots, in their acrid state, may prove very hurtful. 

The medicinal uses of Garlic are various. It has long been 
hekl in high estimation as an expectorant in j^ituitous asthmas, and 
other pulmonary affections unattended with inflammation. Its 
utility as a diuretic in dropsies, is also attested by unquestionable 
authorities ; and its febrifuge power has not only been experienced 
in preventing the paroxysms of intermittents, but even in subduing 
the most violent epidemics. 

Another virtue ascribed to Garlic is that of an anthelmintic : 
it has likewise been found of great advantage in scorbutic cases, 
and in calculous disorders, acting in these, not only as a diuretic, 
but in several instances manifesting a lithontriptic power. That 
the juice of alliaceous plants in general has considerable effect 
upon human calculi, is to be inferred by the experiments of Lobb ; 
and we are abundantly warranted in asserting, that by a decoction 
of the beards of leeks, taken freely, and its use continued for a 
length of time, has been found remarkably successful in calculous 
and gravelly complaints. 

The Garlic was formerly used in obstinate coughs, for which 
purpose it was mixed with honey, and the dose of a table-spoon- 
ful taken three times a day ; or that it may be boiled in milk, a 
pint of which is to be taken night and morning. A case is re- 
ported to us of a boy, six or seven years old, who had for a con- 
siderable time suffered by a calculous in the urinary bladder, 
which had been discovered on sounding ; he had recourse to this 
decoction, which very soon relieved him of pain ; after which his 
urine became extremely turpid, and constantly deposited a copious 



62 NAT. ORDER. LILIACEjE. 

clay-like sediment for several weeks, when it resumed its natural 
appearance, and the boy has ever since been free from the com- 
plaint. Another case similar to this has also been reported to us, 
of the truth of which we have not a doubt. Garlic has also been 
variously employed externally to tumors and cutaneous diseases ; 
and in certain cases of deafness, a clove or small bulb of this root, 
wrapped in gause or muslin, introduced into the meatus auditorius, 
has been found an efficacious remedy. 

For poultices, garlic stands second to no other vegetable in 
the Materia Medica. That almost fatal disease, Cynanche trach- 
ealis, or croup, has in almost every instance been cured where an 
early application of a poultice was made to the throat and chest, 
and prepared after the following manner : Aaz., take of Allium 
descendens, or any other species of garlic, one pound ; Lobelia in- 
jlata, the common lobelia herb, made fine, four ounces; mix into a 
paste with Oleum olivce, sweet or olive oil. Apjjly this in the form 
of a poultice, so as to entirely cover the throat and upper part of 
the chest. After this is done, prepare and administer an enema 
made after the following manner : viz., take one even tea-spoon- 
ful of the seed of Lohelia injlata, pounded fine ; three grains Cap- 
sicum bacatum, bird pepper, and steep in warm but not boiling 
water for five or ten minutes, when it is ready for use. Repeat 
this by enema, (remembering to give the same quantity,) every ten 
minutes, until vomiting is induced. Strictly following this rule 
will invariably cure the most obstinate cases of croup. I have ad- 
ministered these compounds to a large number of children, within 
the last five years, in some of which, life appeared almost extinct, 
and have thus far been successful in performing a perfect cure in 
the short space of from one to three days. 

The sirup of garlic is officinal. The dose in substance is 
from half a drachm to a drachm, or even two drachms of the fresh 
bulb; that of the juice is half a fluiddrachm. 



NAT. ORDE R 

Liliacecp, 



ALSTRCEMERIA PELEGRINA. SPOTTED ALSTRCEMERIA. 

■ Class VI. Hexandria. Order I. Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. Corolla, six petalled, superior, irregular. Stamens, 

declinate. 
Spe. Cliar. Stem, erect. Corolla, campanulate. Leaves, linear- 
lanceolate. 

This most beautiful exotic plant was presented to us by a 
physician of this city, for the purpose of ascertaining its medical 
properties ; and in compliance with his wishes, and a desire to in- 
vestigate, promulgate, and extend the science of botany, we have 
thought best to give it a place in the " American Flora," that its 
beauty and elegance may be more generally known. This drawing 
was made from a fine specimen now in our collection ; and the 
only one of the kind which is publicly known to have been 
brought to this country. 

One of the most celebrated ancient botanists figures and de- 
scribes three species of Alstraemeria, viz., Pelegrina, Lio-tu and 
Salsilla, common names by which they are severally distincruished 
in Peru, its native country. The present species, which is highly 
valued by the natives on account of its beauty, he informs us is 
found growing wild on a mountain about one mile north of the city 
of Lima. From Peru, and as might be expected, this plant found 
its way into Spain, from whence, by the means of his most inti- 
mate friend Alstroemer, Linnaeus first received its seeds ; the 
value he set upon this acquisition was great, as will evidently ap- 

Vol. ii.— 63 



G4 NAT. ORDER. LILIACEiE. 

pear from the great care he took of the seedling plants, preserving 
them through the winter in his bed chamber. Accordingr to Mr. 
Aiton, this species was introduced to the Royal Garden of Eng- 
land by Messrs. Kennedy and Lee, as long ago as the year 1753. 

This being a mountainous plant, it is found to be much more 
hardy than the Ligtu, and is generally treated as a green-house 
plant ; it is found, however, to flower and i-ipen its seeds better 
under the glass of a hot-bed frame, where air is freely admitted. 
It flowers from June till October, and though a perennial, is gen- 
erally raised from seeds, yet may sometimes be inci-eased by part- 
ing its roots, which somewhat resemble those of the Asjiaragus. 
The seeds should be sown in spring, in a pot of light earth, on a 
gentle hot-bed orf rich soil. 

Medical Properties and Uses. The root of this plant, which is 
inodorous, and of a weak, sweetish taste, was formerly used in the 
southern part of France, as a diuretic, aperient, and purifier of 
the blood ; and it is stated to be still employed, not only there but 
in many parts of England. It is most generally given in the form 
of a decoction, made in the proportion of one or two ounces of 
the dried root to a quart of water. From exj^eriments of more 
modern practitioners, it appears that this medicine operates pow- 
erfully on the kidneys, and in almost all cases where it has been_ 
administered, to increase the quantity of urine, which in some in- 
stances was quintupled. The most convenient forms for exhibition 
are those of sirup and extract, prepared from the roots. The 
former may be given in the dose of one or two fluid ounces, the 
latter, of half a drachm or a drachm. The best method of pre- 
paring the sirup is by adding a sufficient quantity of sugar to the 
expressed juice of the roots, previously deprived of its albumen 
by exposure to heat and by filtration. The extract is made by 
evaporating the same juice to the consistence of a pibular mass. 
This medicine has also been highly recommended as a remedy for 
diseased heart. 




y 



d:^7^^^<ilC'^^^■/^€/^^tl/y^^7^^ 



NAT. ORDER 

OrchidacecR. 



DENDROBIUM FIMBRIATUM. FRINGED DENDROBIUM 

Class XX. Gynandria. Order I. Monandria. 

Gen. Char. Sepals, membranaceous, erect, spreading. Petals, 
large, membranaceous. Lip, articulated, sessile, three lobed. 
Anthers, two celled. heaves, plain and veined. Flowers, soli- 
tary. 

/Spe. Char. Stems, terete, pendulous. Leaves, ovate-lanceolate. 
Racemes, lateral, many flowered. SejJals, oblong, undulated and 
spreading. Petals, larger, undulated, ciliated. Lij), undivided, 
hooded and fringed. 

The ste7n of this most beautiful plant rises from two to three 
feet in height ; the sepals which stand erect are membranaceous 
and spreading, the lateral ones larger, oblique, and connate with 
the lengthened base of the column ; the petals are frequently larger 
than the upper sepal, sometimes smaller, always membranaceous ; 
the lip articulated or cornate with the foot of the column, always 
sessile, undivided or three lobed, most commonly membranaceous, 
sometimes appendiculate ; the column is semi terete, with a length- 
ened base ; the anthers are two celled ; pollen-masses, four, collat- 
eral, in pairs ; epiphytic plants, sometimes caulescent, sometimes 
with a creeping rhizoma, bearing pseudo buds ; the leaves are 
plain and most commonly veined, ovate-lanceolate, striated and bi- 
farious ; xhejhwers are solitary, fasciculated or racemose, hand- 
some ; the lip is convolute, with a broad, spreading limb of an in- 
tense beautiful golden color. 

Vol. u.— 65 



6C NAT. ORDER. ORCHIDACE.«:. 

This elegant species of dendrohium is a native of Nepal, in 
the East Indies, from whence it was imported some years ago ir.to 
the city of London, and is now beginning to be cultivated in many 
parts of Europe. Though well known to the cultivators of or- 
chidaceous plants, we think it probable that many of our readers 
have never had an opportunity of seeing this, especially as it js 
but very little known by the florists of this country, and on th'^t 
account we have thought best to give it a place in the "Flora," 
hoping by this to induce some more able botanist to give a more 
lengthy description, both of its history and medical propertief 

For cultivation it requires to be kept in a warm and huniid 
state while growing, but more cool and dry during the period of 
rest. It should be potted in rough peat and broken pots ; it is also 
increased by dividing, like many others of this tribe. The generic 
name, dendrohium, is derived from the Greek, wood, in allusion to 
the habit of the sj^ecies growing upon trees, and thus ornamenting 
with their tortuous stems and beauteous flowers the extensive for- 
ests of India, where the greater portion of them are found. The 
specific wmTxe, Jimhriatum, has reference to the fringed margin of 
the lip. 

Medical Properties and Uses. We have searched in vain some 
very extensive botanical libraries, for the purpose of gathering 
some information in support of the medicinal \artues of this valu- 
able plant ; and not being able to obtain any satisfactory evidence 
on this point, will proceed to state briefly some of its most impor- 
tant medical properties, and its application to use. A gentleman 
who is a resident physician in Scotland, informed me that he found 
this plant serviceable in all nervous diseases, and that he consid- 
ered it superior to any other article in the vegetable kingdom, as a 
nervine. It also possesses sudorific and diuretic properties. The 
leaves are the part which are recommended for use. 




c^-^a^ 



Cc<i^?9p7n^^i 



T 



^^ (^ya^^ta'nt^cl'. 



NAT. ORDER 

Convolvulacece. 



CONVOLVULUS SCAMMONIA. SCAMMONY, OR BINDWEED 

Class V. Pentandria. Order I. Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. Corolla, bell-shaped, plaited. Stigmas, two. Cap- 
sules, two-celled, each cell containing two seeds. 

Spe. Char. Leaves, sagitate, truncated on the back part. Pe- 
duncles, columnar, with about three flowers. 

The rooi is tapering, and somewhat branched towards its 
lower part, and, in good soil, oftentimes grows to the length of 
four or five feet, and from three to four inches in diameter ; it is 
covered with a bark, of a light gray color, and contains a consid- . 
erable quantity of milky juice ; the stalks are numerous, slender, 
twining, and proceed from the root, fifteen to twenty-five feet in 
length ; the leaves are arrow-shaped, smooth, of a bright green 
color, and placed upon long foot-stalks ; the Jiowers, which stand 
in pairs on the pedicles, are funnel-shaped, plaited, and of a pale 
yellow color ; the calyx is double, consisting of four emarginated 
leaflets in each row ; the capsules are three or four-seeded, and 
contain pyramidal seeds. 

This is a perennial plant, and is described as being a native 
of Syria ; it is also found growing extensively on the chain of 
mountains extending from Antioch to Mount Lebanon. Recently, 
however, this valuable plant has been discovered growing wild in 
this country. In the western part of the State of New- York, and 
some parts of Ohio, we have seen the Scammony growing in 
some of the most impenetrable forests; and its luxuriant foliage 

Vol. u— 67 



08 • NAT. ORDER. CO.NVOLVULACEjE. 

and rapid growth, reminded us that, if not a native of this 
country, our climate and soil was equally well adapted for its 
culture, as tliat of the older countries. 

The root is the part directed for use, and was formerly kept 
by the druggists, both in England and France. In the beginning 
of June, the earth is removed from the upper part of the roots, 
and an oblique incision is made into each, at the distance of about 
two inches from where the stalk springs up ; a milky juice then 
flows, which is collected in convenient vessels, placed at the most 
depending part. The quantity of juice thus obtained from each 
root, is but a few drachms, which trickles away in about twelve 
hours ; the whole that is collected from the different roots, is then 
transferred to one common receptacle, where, by exposure to the 
air and sun, it hardens. It should be of a bright green color, 
light, friable, with a fracture having a shining, irregular appear- 
ance ; it has an acid taste, and its smell is very peculiar, and rather 
unjjleasant. We often meet with this in medicine stores, of various 
colors, varying from a light brown, to nearly a jet black. In its 
recent and soft state, before it is imported, it is often adulterated 
with starch, ashes, juices of other plants, &c., which of course 
renders the article less active. We can best ascertain its value 
by mixing it with water, when the pure scammony will be dis- 
solved or suspended, and the impurities will subside, and may be 
examined. The very best kind of scammony comes from Aleppo, 
which is light and friable ; an inferior sort is imported from Ger- 
many, which is heavy, compact, of a dark color, with scarcely any 
smell, and is found to contain more impurities than the former. 
It contains rather more than fifty per cent of resin, the rest being 
extractive matter and gum. Proof spirit would be its best men- 
struum ; but it is only given in the form of powder. 

Medical Properties and Uses. It is rather surprising that some 
authors should have doubted the purgative quality of this article, 
which must be obvious to every one who gives it but a few trials 



NAT. ORDER. CONVOLVULACE.E. 69 

it is indeed one of our most uscfid purgatives. The ancients eni 
ployed it as an external np^'lication, in the form of poultices, in 
cases of Sciatica, and for the removal of indurated tumors, sca- 
bies, &c. ; but this practice is now wisely laid aside, to make way 
for more effectual modes of treatment. It is now only employed 
as an internal remedy, and as it is an article possessing powerful 
purgative qualities, and one whicli can be relied on, it may be em- 
ployed in any cases requiring such remedies. In people of indo- 
lent habits, who generally have constipated bowels ; and in children 
to remove any foeculent accumulations, it will be found highly ser- 
viceable ; or when combined with some other active vegetable 
cathartic, like the PodophyUiim peltatum, (May Apple,) it relieves 
that inactivity in the function of the liver, which is often connected 
with worms, and which are sometimes very effectually removed. 
This compound proves equally serviceable in dropsical patients, 
l)eing a powerful hydragogue. It is necessary to combine it with 
some article, to prevent its griping, as aromatics, or sugar, ■^a.v- 
ticularly when it is administered to children. Inflammatory dis- 
orders are sometimes very much increased, and irritable and ex- 
citable habits occasionally injured by it. It needs no corrector; 
thouo-h for this purpose it has been exposed to the fumes of burn- 
ing sulphur ; biit we thus only lessen its activity. When scam- 
mony has undergone this operation, it is called diagrydium. 
Since the time of Boerhaave, it has been considered a safe, 
though stimulating cathartic, and is frequently given uncombined 
with other articles, without producing tormina, or an excessive 
discharge. It is certainly a brisk purge, and is usually given in 
cold, phlegmatic constitutions. The dose in powder, is from eight 
to twenty grains^ which may be given two or three times a day. 



NAT. ORDER 

Orchidece. 



GENIPA VANILLA. COMMON GENIPA 

Class XX. Gynandria. Order I. Monandria. 

Gen. Char. Corolla, ringent, uj^P^i" ^P vaulted. Lip, dilated. 

with a spur beneath. Pollens, two, terminal, adnate. 
Spe. Char. Lip, obovate, undivided, crenate, retuse. Petals, 

straight, the lateral ones longer. Horn, clavate, shorter than 

the germen. Bracts, longer than the flower. Stem, leafless. 

This most beautiful shrub rises from three to eight feet in 
height, sending off numerous branches ; the fruit of which very 
much resembles that of the Theohroma cacao, (cocoa-nut.) and is 
oftentimes used for similar purposes. The perianthium is superior 
and ringent ; the sepals are three, usually colored, of which the 
odd one is uppermost, in consequence of a twisting of the ova^ 
rium ; the petals are three, usually colored, of which two are 
uppermost, and one, called the Up, undermost ; this latter is fre- 
quently lobed, of a different form from the others, and sometimes 
spurred at the base ; the stamens are three, united in a central 
column, the two lateral abortive, the central perfect, or the central 
abortive, and the two lateral perfect ; the anthers are either per- 
sistent, or deciduous, two, or four, or eight-celled ; the pollen is 
powdery, and cohering in definite or indefinite waxy masses, 
either constantly adhering to a gland, or becoming loose in their 
cells ; the ovarium is one-celled, with three parietal placenta; the 
sttjle forms part of the column of the stamens ; the stigma presents 
a viscid space in front of the column, communicating directly with 

Vol. u— 70 




ry 



mm 



^^r2^t22M2lZC/e: 



'€?t6Aa. / 



NAT. ORDER. ORCHIDE.(E. 71 

the ovarium by a distinct open canal ; the impregnation takes 
effect by the absorption from the pollen-masses, through the gland 
into the stigmatic canal ; capsule inferior, bursting, with three 
valves and three I'ibs, very rarely bacate ; the seeds are parietal 
and numerous ; the testa is loose, reticulated, and contracted at 
each end ; there is no albumen ; the embryo is a solid, undivided, 
fleshy mass ; the roots are fleshy and hard ; the leaves arc simple, 
and quite entire, and often articulated with the stem ; Jlowers, 
solitary. 

We do not deem it necessary, in this place, to enter into an 
historical inquiry as to the gradual alteration which has from time 
to time taken place in the opinions of different botanists, with re- 
gard to the structure of the gynandrous apparatus of these most 
curious plants, or to explain what degree of error has heretofore 
existed in the descriptions of those who mistook masses of pollen 
for anthers, or a column of stamens for a style. Such errors could 
only have occurred at a period when the laws of organization 
were totally unknown : but they have now been corrected, and 
described in a more jjerfect manner, by different writers. But 
long before the publication of any rational exjilanation of the 
structure of this most beautiful family of plants, while botanists 
were in utter darkness upon the subject, it was most fully inves- 
tigated by a gentleman, unrivalled for the perfection of his micro- 
scopical analysis, the beauty of his drawings, and the admirable 
skill with which he follows nature in her most secret workings ; the 
sketches of which we have before us, were executed from the year 
1794 to 1807, in which, not only that which has been j^ublished 
since that period is shown in the most distinct and satisfactory 
manner, but in which more is represented than botanists are even 
now aware of. By these means we hope to be able to give some 
of those extraordinary productions of the pencil to the world, 
in ;m illustration of this curious family of plants, and which is now 
in preparation. If the gynandrous apparatus of an Orchideous 



72 Nat. order. — orchide^. «; 

plant is examined, it will be found to consist oi a fleshy body, sta- 
tioned opposite the labellum, bearing a solitary anther at its apex, 
and having in front a viscid cavity, ujion the upper edge of which 
there is often a slight callosity. This cavity is the stigma, and the 
callosity is the point through which the fertilizating matter of the 
pollen passes into the tissue communicating with the ovules. 
Hence, such a plant would appear to be monandrous. 

Plants of the order Orchidese are remai'kable for the bizarre 
figure of their multiform flower, which sometimes represents an 
insect, sometimes a helmet with the visor ixp, and sometimes a 
grinning monkey : so various are these forms, so numerous their 
colors, and so complicated their combinations, that there is 
scarcely a common reptile or insect to which some of them have 
not been likened. They all, however, will be found to consist of 
three outer pieces belonging to the calyx, and three inner belong- 
ing to the corolla ; and all departures from this number, six, de- 
pends upon the cohesion of contiguous parts, with the solitary 
exception of IMonomeria, in which the lateral petals are entirely 
abortive. In nearly the whole order, the odd petal, called the 
labellum, rises from the base of the column, and is opjjosite it. 
The pollen is not less curious: now we have it in separate grains, 
as in other plants, but cohering to a meshwork of cellular tissue, 
which is collected into a sort of central elastic strap ; the gran- 
ules cohere in small, angular, indefinite masses, and the central 
elastic strap becomes more apparent, and has a glandular extrem- 
ity, which is often reclined in a peculiar pouch, especially destined 
for its protection ; again, the jjoUen combines into larger masses, 
which are definite in number, and attached to another modification 
of the elastic strap ; and finally, a complete union of the pollen 
takes place, in solid waxy masses, without any distinct trace of 
this central elastic tissue. 

Such is a part of the singularities of Orchideous i)lants, and 
upon these the distinctions of their tribes and genera are naturally 



"■ NAT. ORDER. ORCHIDE^. 73 

founded. Whoever studies tliem must bear in mind that their 
fructification is always reducible to three sepals and three petals, 
a column consisting of stamens crrovvn firmlv to one another, and 
to a single style and stigma ; and, with this in view, he will have 
no difficulty in understanding the organization of even the most 
anomalous Cape species. For a long time it was supposed that 
no deviation from the general structure existed, and that we had 
not in Orchidete any very decided link between that fimily and 
others; but the discovery of a remarkable Indian plant by Blume 
and Wallick, called Apostasia by the former botanist, which with 
many of the peculiarities of this order, is triandrous, with a regu- 
lar corolla, and three locular fruit, seems to show that even in this 
tribe there are gradations which tend to destroy the value of the 
technical differences of botanists. It does not, however, appear 
to me certain that this genus, although referred to by Blume as 
belonging to Orchideae, is not really a different tribe. 

Some species of this beautiful family of plants are to be found 
in all parts of the world, except upon the very verge of the frozen 
zone, and in climates remarkable for their dryness. In Europe, 
Asia and North America, they are found growing in marshes, and 
in meadows ; in the drier parts of Africa they are either rare or 
unknown ; at the Cape of Good Hope they abound in similar situ- 
ations as in this country ; but in the hot, damp parts of the East 
and West Indies, in Madagascar and the neighboring islands, in 
the damp and humid forests of Brazil, and on the lower moun- 
tains of Nipal, these Orchideous plants flourish in the greatest 
vari -ty and profusion, some kinds no longer seeking their nutri- 
ment from the soil, but clinging to the trunks and hmbs of trees, 
to stones and bare rocks, where they vegetate among ferns and 
other shade-loving plants, in countless thousands. Of the epiphy- 
tic class, one only is found so far north as South Carolina, and 
most commonly found growing with the Magnolia, if we except a 
sii gle specimen of Japan, which appears to have a climate ])c- 



tt4. NAT. ORDER. ORCUWF.JE 

cullar to itself, among countries in the same parallel of latitude. 
The number of species of this tribe is at present unknown, but 
probably is not less than 1500. 

Medical Properties and Uses. It often happens that those pro- 
ductions of nature which charm the eye with their beauty, and 
delight the senses with their perfume, have the least relation to 
the wants of mankind, while the most powerful virtues, or the 
most deadly poisons are hidden beneath a mean and insignificant 
exterior : thus, Orchidete, beyond their beauty, can scarcely be 
said to be of known utility, with a very few exceptions. The 
nutritive substance called Salep, is prejiared from the subterraneous 
succulent roots of Orchis mascula and others ; it consists almost 
entirely of a chemical principle called Bassorin. The root of 
Bletia verecunda is said to be stomachic ; and some of the South 
American species, such as the Catasetums, Cyrtipodiums, Sec, con- 
tain a viscid juice, which, being inspissated by boiling, becomes a 
kind of vegetable glue, used for economical purposes in Brazil. 
The aromatic substance called Vanilla, is the succulent fruit of a 
West India plant, of which our drawing is a representation. 

Throughout the whole of Holland, the fruit of this shrub is 
much admired for its astringent qualities. The inhabitants take 
the unripe fruit, or the bark of the roots, which they boil or steep 
until they become perfectly soft, then express and strain into a 
tight vessel, adding suflScient French brandy, and sugar, for safe 
keeping. The dose of this is from half to a wine-glassful two or 
three times a day. This is an excellent remedy for dysenteiy, 
and all diseases of the bowels. 



NAT. ORDER 

Campanulacece. 



MICHAUXIA CAMPANULOIDES. ROUGH MICHAUXIA, 

Class VIII. OcTANDRiA. Order I. Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx, sixteen-parted. Corolla, wheel-shaped, eight- 
parted. Nectarium, eight-valved, staminate. Capsules, eight, 
locular, polysperma. 

Spe. Char. Leaves, alternate, simple, deeply divided. Flowers, 
single, in racemes or spikes. 

This is a biennial green-house plant, and of course only to be 
raised from seeds. The corolla is monopetalous, inserted into the 
top of the calyx, usually eight-lobed, and withering on the fruit ; 
the stamens are inserted into the calyx, alternately with the lobes 
of the corolla, to which they are equal in number ; the anthers are 
two-celled and distinct ; the pollen is spherical ; the ovarium is in- 
ferior, with two or more polyspermous cells opposite the stamens, 
or alternate with them ; the style is simple, covered with collecting 
hairs ; the stigma is naked, simple, or with as many lobes as there 
are cells ; the fruit is dry, crowned by the withered calyx and 
corolla, dehiscing by lateral, irregular apertures, or by valves at 
the apex, always loculicidal ; the seeds are numerous, attached to 
a placenta in the axis ; the embryo is straight, in the axis of fleshy 
albumen ; radicle, inferior ; the leaves are almost always alternate, 
simple, or deeply divided, without stipulas ; th.eJlowers are single, 
in racemes, spikes, or panicles, or in heads usually blue or white, 
but very rarely yellow. 

The celebrated author of the Hortus Kevensis informs us 
that the plant here figured and described is a native of the Le- 

V'ol ii. — 75 



76 NAT. ORDER. CAMPANULACEiE. 

vant, and was first introduced into England in the year 1787, by 
Mons. L. Heritier, who first gave it the name of Michauxia, and 
wrote a Monograjjhia, or particular treatise upon it. We have 
frequently before observed, that when a plant has been named in 
lioiior of any particular person, that name .should, under any cir- 
cumstances, be retained in all countries, however uncouth its pro- 
nunciation may be. It is now generally understood by botanists, 
that several varieties of this most beautiful plant are natives 
of the north of Asia, Europe, and many parts of North America, 
and scarcely known in the hot regions of the world. In the 
meadows, fields and forests of the countries they inhabit, they con- 
stitute the most striking ornament. Some curious species are 
also found in the Canaries, St. Helena, and Juan Fernandez. M. 
Alphonse Decandolle remarks, that "it is within the 36° and 47° N. 
lat., that, in our hemisphere, the greatest number of species is 
found ; the chain of the Alps, Italy, Greece, Caucasus, and the 
Altai range, are their true countries. In whatever direction we 
leave these limits, their number of species rapidly decreases. In 
the southern hemisphere, the Cajie of Good Hope, (lat. 34° S.,) is 
another centre of habitation, containing not less than sixty-three 
species. This locality has a climate so different from that of our 
mountains, that it may be easily imagined that the species capable 
of living there differ materially from those of our own hemisphere ; 
in fact, they belong to other genera." Of three hundred species, 
only nineteen are found within the tropics. 

Medical Properties and Uses. The roots and young shoots of 
this plant are occasionally used as an article of food. The milky 
juice is rather acrid, and possesses considerable diaphoretic and 
expectorant properties. It is sometimes administered in coughs 
and bronchial affections, but is more valued for its beauty than as 
a medicine. The dose of the dried root is from twenty to forty 
grains. That of the tincture, half a fluid ounce, made by adding 
one ounce of the fine dried root to a pint of diluted alcohol. It 
may be taken from two to three times a day. 



NAT. ORDER 

TrilliacecB. 



TRILLIUM LATRIFOLIUM. CLOVER TREEFOIL. 

Class V. Pentandria. Order I. Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Corolla, hirsute. 8tig?na, bifid. Capsule, one-celled. 
Spe. Char. Leaves, ternate. 

This ])Iant is quite common in the eastern parts of Euroiae. 
It grows in low and marshy meadows, producing its flower at the 
end of a long terminal spike, which is of a very peculiar shape, 
and appears in the latter part of June, and beginnino- of July ; 
the scape or stalk rises from one to three feet in height ; the ^?eto/s 
are sometimes entirely white, but most generally rose-colored ; the 
root is perennial, creeping and jointed, sending forth many lono-, 
slender filaments. The latrifolium is easily distinguished from the 
other species of Trillium by its ternate leaves, which have been 
thought to resemble those of the common garden bean ; hence, 
the English formerly called it the Buck Bean. 

The whole plant is so extremely bitter, that in some coun- 
tries it is used as a substitute for hojjs, in the jareparation of malt 
liquor ; yet Linnteus observes that the largest j^ortion of the poor 
people in Lapland make a bread of the powdered roots mixed 
with meal, but at the same time he acknowledges that it is a very 
unpalateable food. 

Medical Properties and Uses. The blackness manifested by^ 
adding a solution of green vitriol to the juice, or to a sti-ong in- 
fusion of the leaves of this plant, is a sufficient test of its astrin- 
gency ; while a drachm of the powdered root or leaves seldom 

Vol. ii— 77 



78 NAT. ORDER. TRII.LIACE^. 

fails to open tlie bowels, or produce vomiting ; so that in common 
with the tonic properties of a bitter, it seems farther to possess a 
considerable share of medicinal activity ; we can, therefore, more 
easily credit the reports of its success in a great number 
of chronic diseases mentioned by various authors, such as scurvy, 
dropsy, jaundice, asthma, pei-iodical headaches, intermittents, hy- 
pochondriasis, cachexia, obstructio mensium, rheumatism, scro- 
fula, worms, gout, &c. Dr. Boerhaave was relieved in the last 
mentioned complaint by drinking the juice mixed with whey ; and 
Dr. Alston tells us, that " this plant had remarkable effects in the 
gout, in keeping off the paroxysms ;" but adds, " though not to the 
jiatient's advantage." In confirmation of the good effects of 
Treefoil in dropsies, we are told from undoubted sources, that 
sheep, when forced to eat it, are cured of the rot, oves tabidce ; yet, 
as we have but few and imperfect proofs of its diuretic powers, 
this fact will be considered of little weight. 

Bertxius confines the uses of this plant to scorbutic and rheu- 
matic affections, and this specification is still farther contracted by 
later writers on the Materia Medica. In Lewis' I\Iat. Med., by 
3£r. Aikin, it is said that the leaves of Treefoil " have of late 
years come into common use as an alterative and aperient, in im- 
purities of the humors, and some hydropic and rheumatic cases ;" 
and as an active eccoprotic bittei-, we should suppose them well 
adapted to supply the want of bile in primce vite, and thus infer 
their use in protracted jaundice, and other biliary obstructions. 
Dr. Cullen has " had several instances of their good effects in some 
cutaneous diseases, of herpatic, and seemingly of the cancerous 
kind." 

The leaves may be given in jiowder, from five to ten grains 
for a dose, two or three times a day ; but a strong infusion of 
them is, perhaps, preferable ; and with delicate stomachs it may 
be necessary to conjoin a grateful aromatic. They impart their 
properties both to watery and spirituous menstrua. 




't(>t^l//t^ 



<unvr i^^^^/o^'^t/^^^-^. 



T 



NAT. ORDER 

Bromeliacece. 



BILLBERGIA IRIDIFOLIA. DROOPING BILLBERGIA. 

Class VI. Hexandria. Order I. Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Cahjx, three-parted, tubular, persistent, cohering 

with the ovarium. Petals, three, colored, unequal. Stamens, 

six, inserted into the base of the calyx. 
Spe. Char. Leaves, long, sheathing and spiny. Scape, spicate. 

Flowers, distant, solitary, sessile, inflated. Caly.v, superior 

Petals, linear, obtuse, revolute apex. Anthers, versatile. 

The Billbergia iridifoUa belongs to the Pine-apple family, 
and hence, is a native of the hot and dry countries of South 
America. The calyx is superior, three-parted, with a single 
bractea; the petals are three, longer than the sepals, rolled up into 
a tube, and having scaly appendages at the base ; the sta?ne?is are 
six, free, and are inserted between the scales at the base of the 
sepals and petals ; the ovary is three-celled, and many-seeded ; the 
ovules are very minute; the 5^y/e is thread -shaped ; the stigmas 
are three, linear, and convolute : the capsule is berried ; the seeds, 
(according to Martius,) are naked. Epiphytic plants, (of equi- 
noctial America,) with dry leaves, covered with leprous scales ; 
\h.eJloicers are sessile, sometimes spiked, sometimes paniclcd, and 
manifestly articulated with the rachis ; the leaves are from a foot 
to a foot and a half long, sheathing and spiny towards the base, 
the upper surface of a dark rich green, and covered beneath with 
leprous scales; the scape is spicate, terminal, red, pendulous, flex- 
uose, and clothed with deep red inflated bracteas ; the jlowers are 

Vol. ii— 79 



80 NAT. ORDER. BROMELIACE/E. 

distant, solitary, sessile, and half invested by the rich, red, in- 
flated bracteas ; the divisions of the calyx are ovate-oblong, mem- 
branaceous, of a yellowish gi-een tipped with blue, and scarcely 
half as long as the corolla ; the petals are linear, of a yellowish 
green, with a blue, obtuse, revolute apex, having at the base two 
fimbricated, nectariferous scales ; the anthers are versatile ; the 
ovary is inferior, smooth, three-cornered, and three-celled. 

This plant, which is no less singular than beautiful in its ap- 
pearance, was introduced to this country several years ago, and is 
now raised in some of our principal hot-houses, as a rare ornament, 
but is by no means common in collections. It is a native of Rio 
Janeiro, where, like other epiphytic plants, it may be seen growing 
upon the trunks and branches of trees, which, in tropical climates, 
are thus frequently adorned with hues and odors not their own. 
The genus Billhergia was originally founded by Thunberg, and 
has been adojjted by Dr. Lindley, as embracing some species for- 
merly included in BromeUa, but which appears to differ from that 
genus in certain peculiarities of structure. 

The natural order Bi'OJneliacece, to which Billbersia belongs, 
contains altogether about twenty genera, one of which, Ananassa, 
(the Pine-apple,) is remarkable for its well-known rich, fleshy 
fruit. No other species can boast of the same interest. The 
plants of this order are all very peculiar in their habit : many of 
the species have the power of existing without water, and even 
without soil ; hence, it is not unusual for the inhabitants of South 
America to suspend in their apartments such of the species as are 
remarkable, either for the brilliancy of their colors, or the delicacy 
of their fragrance ; they are not only suspended in their dwellings 
and chambers, but attached to the balustrades of the balconies, in 
which situation they flower abundantly, filling the air with their 
sweet-scented odor. The genus iridifolia is a stove-plant peren- 
nial ; it requires a strong heat to grow it fine, and should have 
a rather limited supply of water during the winter months. The 



NAT. ORDER. BROMEI.IACEiE. 81 

soil should be loam and sand, with plenty of drainers at the bot- 
toms of the pots. It is readily increased by dividing ; the spring 
is the best season for that pui'pose. Although this plant requires 
great heat and dry situations to ensure its fine growth, it will 
almost live in a warm green-house, esjiccially if the heat is kept 
even, through the different seasons. All, without any exception, 
are natives of the islands of this country, whence they have mi- 
grated eastward in such numbers, as to have established them- 
selves in great quantities all along the west coast of Africa, and 
some parts of the East Indies. 

Medical Properties and Uses. The Billbergia iridifolia has 
been considered by most writers, as possessing considerable tonic, 
expectorant, and slightly cathartic properties. In many jiarts of 
South America, the inhabitants indulge in the free use of a drink 
prepared from this delicious plant ; for which pur^iose they col- 
lect both the tops and roots, and subject them to the process of 
distillation, by which means the medicinal, saccharine, and stimu- 
lating proj^erties are obtained. The liquid obtained by this pro- 
cess resembles in apjiearance that of Acer saccharinum, (Sugar- 
maple,) but cannot be conveniently made into sugar. It has a 
somewhat cordial taste, and proves highly stimulating by its free 
use. A tea made from the leaves has been considerably employed 
by some physicians in pulmonary and other lung difficulties, for 
which purjiose it is recommended to take two ounces of the fresh 
dried leaves, and steep in two quarts water, over a gentle fire, un- 
til it is reduced to three pints ; then add half a jjint pure French 
brandy, and one pound clarified sugar. Dose, from one to two 
fluid ounces, (or half a wine-glassful,) three times a day. It is 
more valued for its fine flavor and beautiful appearance, than for 
medicinal purposes, and is at the present time but very little used 
in medicine. 



NAT. ORDER. 

MenispermacecE 



COCCULUS PALMATUS. CALUMBA ROOT. 

Class XX. DicEciA. Older VI. Hexandria. 

Gen. Cliar. Sepals and petals, arranged in a double series, very 
rarely in a trijale series. Stamens, six, free, opposite to the 
petals. Carpels, from three to six. Fruit, drupaceous, reni- 
form, rather compressed, one-seeded. Cotyledons, distant. 

Spe. Char. Leaves, cordate, five to seven-lobed. Lobes, entire, 
acuminate, somewhat hairy on both sides. Stem and germen, 
clothed with glandular hairs. 

This species of Cocculus is a native of the eastern part of 
Southern Africa; it has been ascertained to grow naturally, and 
in great abundance, from fifteen to twenty miles inland, in the 
thick forests about Oibo and Mozambique, on the Zanguebar 
coast. Formerly, it was erroneously supposed that the plant which 
produced the calumba-root of commerce, was a native of the 
island of Ceylon, and that its name was derived from Columbo, the 
principal town of that island. We are indebted to ]\I. J. F. For- 
tin, a French gentleman, for the discovery of the true plant, 
■which produces this valuable root ; who, when at Mozambique, 
procured an entire offset, of a larger size than usual, from the 
main root. This he brought with him to Madras, in 1805, from 
which a male plant was raised in Dr. Anderson's garden ; and 
from this individual, Dr. Berry's figure and description were 
made The female plant had not been described at that period, 
but it was ascertained to belong to the natural order, Menisperma- 

Vol ii — 82 




^i^M^fm/u • c ^^r/ . 



NAT. ORDER. iMENISPERjMACEiE. 83 

ceiS. The root is perenniai, composed of a number of fasciculated, 
fusiform, somewhat branched, fleshy, curved, and descending tubers, 
from one to three inches in thickness, clothed with a thin, brown 
epidermis, marked towards the upper part especially, with trans- 
verse warts ; internally they consist of a deep yellow, scentless, 
very bitter flesh, filled with numerous parallel, longitudinal fibres 
or vessels ; the stems are annual, herbaceous, one or two proceed- 
ing from the same root, about the thickness of the little fingei-, 
twining, simple in the male plant, branched in the female, rounded, 
green ; in the full-grown plant, below, thickly clothed with succu- 
lent, longitudinal hairs, which are tipped with a gland ; the leaves 
are alternate, the younger ones thin, pellucid, bright green, gen- 
erally three-lobed ; older ones remote, a span in breadth, nearly 
orbicular in their circumscription, deeply cordate, five to seven- 
lobed, the lobes entire, often deflexed, wavy on the surface and 
margin, dark green above, paler underneath, hairy on both sides, 
with prominent nerves, and supported on round, hairy footstalks, 
about as long as the leaves. 

In the male plant, the racemes are axillary, solitary, or two to- 
gether, drooping, about as long as the petioles, compound, clothed 
with glandular hairs, and having at the base small deciduous brac- 
teas ; the cahjx is smooth, consisting of six ovate, acute, nearly 
equal leaves, arranged in a double series ; the corolla is pale o-reen, 
consisting of six oblong, {ree petals, with involute margins, and re- 
curved apices, arranged round a central, orbicular disk, or gland, 
in a single series ; xkve filaments are six, thick, shorter than the 
petals, with terminal, truncated, four-celled anthers ; the cells 
opening internally, and filled with linear, oblong grains of yellow 
pollen. In the female plant, the racemes are also axillary, solitary, 
simple, patent, shorter than those of the male ; the pedicels are 
furnished with minute, caducous bracteas ; the sepals, or leaves of 
the calyx, are six, in two series, three inferior, small, ovate, acute, 
subpatent, plain, glabrous ; the petals are six, rarely eight, green, 



84 NAT. ORDER. MENISPERjtACEiE. 

glabrous, shorter than the germens, and recurved at the extremity ; 
the ])islils are three, free, of which two are generally abortive, 
ovate-acuminate, glanduloso-pilose, and containing one ovule ; the 
style is very short, and the stigma has several spreading points ; the 
fruit is drupaceous, or berried, about the size of a hazel-nut, 
densely clothed with long spreading hairs, which, at their extrem- 
ity, are tipped with a gland ; the seed is subreniforrn, clothed with 
a thin black shell, transversely striated. Figure a, the pistils; 
b, a female flower; c, a stamen and pistil; d, a male flower; e, a 
seed. (Examine Plate.) 

Calumba-root is the staple export of the Portuguese, from 
Mosambique ; and, from the quantity exported, it is not at all re- 
markable that its place of growth should have so long remained 
unknown, or doubtful to the rest part of the world. The roots 
are dug up in March ; but the offsets only are taken. Soon after 
they are dug up, they are cut into slices, strung on cords, and hung 
up to dry in the shade. When they are sufficiently dry, they 
break short, and are then deemed good ; but when they are soft, 
and of a dark color, their quality is considered bad, and not mar- 
ketable. The dried root is brought to this country, packed 
in bags or cases. It is in transverse sections, generally about 
one-third of an inch in thickness, and from one to two inches in 
diameter. 

" The late Sir Walter Farquhar was very anxious to intro- 
duce into England the calumba-root in a living state ; and for that 
purpose he desired his son. Sir Robert Farquhar, Governor of 
Mauritius, Bourbon, and their dependencies, to procure the j^lant 
from its native soil in Africa, and forward it to London. Sir Rob- 
ert lost no time, after assuming his government, at the conquest of 
the French Islands, in applying to the governor of Mosambique, 
, for growing plants ; and was repeatedly assured that these should 
be sent to him at the proper season. The promises, however, 
were never fulfilled, although renewed by the several succeeding 



NAT. ORDER. MENISPERMACE^. 85 

officials of the Portuguese possessions on the East coast of Africa, 
ever since the year 1811. Dr. Wallick, also, took much jiains for 
effecting the same object, and sent to Governor Farquhar the 
drawing made at Calcutta, of a male plant of the calumba-root, 
which had been brought to the Botanic Garden there by Mr. 
Berry. Copies of this drawing were distributed to the different 
ships of war, and captains of merchant vessels, trading to the 
eastern coast of Africa, that they might be enabled to distinguish 
the plant, and bring it to the Mauritius, since there had evidently 
been an unwillingness on the part of the Portuguese authorities 
to permit this precious vegetable to be taken away in any other 
state than what it bears in commerce, when deprived of vegetative 
power, by passing through the oven. 

" All the attempts resulting from these ineans proved fruitless, 
until Capt. William Fitzwilliam Owen, commanding the surveying 
squadron of the British Navy, on the East African coast, under- 
took the task. The extensive influence he had acquired by his 
intercourse with the native chieftains and tribes, enabled him to 
procure living plants, while his botanical knowledge secured him 
against the mistakes committed by others, who had been misled by 
the local settlers in their search, and imposed on by the substitution 
of other species, instead of the true calumha-root. Capt. Owen, 
in the year 1825, brought away, in the English ship-of-war Severn, 
from Oibo, a great number of cases filled with growing roots, of 
male and female plants, laid down in the sandy loam which ap- 
pears to be their favorite soil. No time was lost by him in for- 
v^arding a great portion of these to M. Telfair, at Mauritius, 
planting some also at Mahe, an island in the Seychelles Archipel- 
ago, and sending to Bombay several cases, in order to multiply by 
dispersion, and the chances of success in naturalizing them in dif- 
ferent climates." 

The roots that were brought to Mauritius were partly trans- 
mitted to England, New Holland, and America ; but the greater 



86 NAT. ORDER. MEMSPERMACEiE. 

number were distributed among the vai-ious districts of Mauritius 
and Bourbon. JNIany of these plants blossomed at ^lauritius, in 
the course of a year, but the flowers all proved male. The roots, 
however, had during that time multiplied to twenty or thirty times 
the original quantity ; and thus an opportunity was given for dis- 
tributing them still more extensively. The female plants flowered 
at Seychelles, and Mr. G. Harrison, the government agent there, 
transmitted some of these roots to ]\Ir. Telfair, in whose garden 
of Bois Cheri, in the Mauritius, they have flowered ; and being 
fecundated by Prof Boyer, who touched them with the pollen of 
the male blossom, they bore seeds. From these individuals, the 
drawings by Prof Boyer have been taken, which give a delineation 
and dissection of every part. 

Sensible and Chemical Properties. Calumha root is bitter, and 
slightly aromatic ; it breaks with a starchy fracture, and is easily 
pulverized ; externally of a brown, wrinkled appearance ; inter- 
nalh' yellow. The woody part of the root should be of a light 
yellow color, somewhat solid and heavy. Its smell is weak, with 
a slight aromatic odor. Boiling water takes up about one-third 
of its weight ; the infusion has the sensible qualities of the root ; 
it is not altered by sulphate of iron, nitrate of silver, corrosive 
sublimate, nor by emetic tartar ; but it is copiously precipitated 
by acetate of lead, tincture of nutgalls, lime-water, and ^'ellow 
cinchona bark. It gives out its properties also to alcohol, and 
proof spirit ; but the latter is the best menstruum. It affords an 
essential oil by repeated distillation with water ; the remaining 
decoction yields malate and sulphate of lime. M. Blanche ob- 
tained from this root one-third its weight of starch ; a yellow, bit- 
ter resin ; a small quantity of volatile oil ; salts of lime and potass ; 
oxide of iron ; silex ; and a large proportion of a substance which 
resembled animal matter. We are told that a spurious calumha 
root is met with in some parts of France, which is imported from 
the states of Barbary. It is known by its not containing starch ; 



NAT. ORDER. MENISPERMACE^. 87 

hence, it is easily detected by the agency of iodine, which does 
not alter its color ; by its changing black with sulphate of iron ; 
and by its infusion reddening turnsole paper. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Calumba root is considered a 
powerful antiseptic and tonic, and also possessed of some astrin- 
gent properties ; on which account it is highly recommended in 
diarrhcEa, cholera morbus, general debility, and in the last stages 
of phthisis pulmonalis, and in hectic fever ; it has been found to 
check colliquative diarrhoea, to allay nervous irritability, and to im- 
part some degree of vigor to the stomach. It has also been con- 
sidered useful in allaying the distressing nausea and vomiting 
which accompany pregnancy ; and in the low stage of puerjjeral 
fever. It is also an excellent remedy in dyspepsia. Calumharoot 
may be given in powder, in doses of from fifteen to thirty grains, 
and repeated once in four or six hours. It is usually, however, 
taken in the form of infusion, either alone, or in combination with 
neutral or alkaline salts, aromatics, or ojiiates, according as cir- 
cumstances may indicate. By the natives of Mosambique, and 
also by those at a remote distance, this root is considered almost a 
specific for every disorder of long standing ; but more especially 
for dysenterial and venereal disorders. 

The calumba root is considered a most valuable tonic, and is 
most commonly prescribed in the state of infusion. The dose of 
the powder is from ten to thirty grains, and can be repeated three 
or four times a day. It is frequently combined with powdered 
ginger, carbonate of iron, and rhubarb. 

Infusion. — Take of calumba root, bruised, one ounce ; water, 
half a pint. JNIacerate for six hours in a close vessel, and strain. 
The dose of the infusion thus prepared is one fluid ounce. It 
should be remembered that all infusions of roots prepared in wa- 
ter very soon spoil : therefore, there should be added sufficient 
alcohol to keep it. 



NAT. ORDER 

Theacece. 



THEA. TEA TREE. 

Class XIII. PoLYANDRiA. Order I. Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. Corolla, six or nine-petalled. Calyx, five or six- 
leaved. Capsules, tricoccus. 

Sjye. Char. Leaves, elliptical, oblong, and rugose. 

This is a small evergreen shrub, much branched, and covered 
with a rough dark grey bark ; the leaves are elliptical, or lanceo- 
late, entire, alternate, obtusely serrated, veined, and placed on 
short footstalks ; the cahjx is small, smooth, persistent, and di%'ided 
into five obtuse segments ; the Jloicers are white, often two or thi*ee 
together, on separate peduncles, and placed at the axillte of the 
leaves ; the corolla vai'ies in the number and size of its petals, but 
most commonly six, which are of an irregular, roundish form ; the 
filaments are numerous, short, and inserted at the base of the co- 
rolla ; the anthers are large and yellow ; the germen is roundish, 
or rather triangular ; the style is trifid, spreading at the top, and 
furnished with simple stigmas ; the capsule is three-celled, and 
opening ; the seeds are three, oblong and brown. 

This most valuable shrub is a native of China and Japan, and, 
as history informs us, was first introduced into England in 1768, 
by John Ellis, Esq., who raised it from seed, and presented it to 
the king's gardener at Kew. But we are informed by other wri- 
ters, that the Tea-plant which first flowered in Europe, belonged 
to his grace, the duke of Northumberland, at Sion-house. 

Vol ii— 88 




"b 



NAT. ORDER. THEACEiE. 89 

All the various kinds of Tea which are imported into this 
country, should come under the denomination of Bohea and 
Green, as it is now generally supposed by learned botanists that 
they are produced from the same species of the plant. Linnaeus, 
however, has described them as specially different, founding the 
distinction in the number of their petals. Others have also ob- 
served, that the leaves of the Tea-plants differ considerably, both 
in form and color ; and this difference we have ourselves frequently 
noticed in the plant, which is occasionally found in flower gardens 
of this country ; but whether these which the gardeners cultivate, 
and sell by the name of Bohea and Green Tea-plants, are to be re- 
garded as permanent varieties, or distinct species, we have not the 
means to decide. De Loureiro has described three species of 
Thea, viz. : Thea cochinchinensis, Thea cantonensis, and Thea ole- 
osa. The first is a native of Cochin China, where it is cultivated, 
and used medicinally in hot weather, as a sudoi-ific and refrigerant. 
The TJiea oleosa grows wild in the neighborhood of Canton, where 
an oil obtained from its seeds is used for various domestic purposes. 
The Thea cantonensis, which Loureiro carefully examined in its 
native soil, was found to bear a close resemblance to another var- 
iety, called Siao cJiong cha, and by us Souchong. Both these are 
brown, but more fragrant and valuable than the common green 
Tea, which grows in the province of Fo Men. Notwithstanding 
that this author has described the three species of Thea above 
mentioned, he says, that on examining the di-ied flowers of the 
green Tea, brought from the province of Klang si, he observed a 
great diversity in the number of the parts of the calyx and co- 
rolla : hence, he concludes that all the various Chinese Teas are 
taken from the same botanical species, and that the different flavor 
and appearance of Teas depend upon the nature of the soil, the 
culture, and method of preparing the leaves. 

The opinion, which is founded on the sportive tendency of 
the flowers of the Tea-plant, clearly shows the fallacy of distin- 



90 NAT. ORDER. TIIEACEiE. 

guishing the Bohea and Green Tea trees by the number of their 
petals, which, even in this country, have been found to vary from 
three to nine ; yet this circumstance, though it proves the insuffi- 
ciency of the Linngean characters, by no means determines the 
botanical identity of the Green and Bohea Teas ; and while the 
present narrow and jealous policy of the Chinese continues, many 
interesting particulars respecting the natural history of Tea must 
still remain unknown to us : hence, we feel unauthorized to add a 
specific name to the plate of the Tea-plant here annexed, which 
represents the variety in the Hort. Kev., or the Thea viridis of the 
London gardeners. 

The various Teas imported into Europe and the United 
States, are obtained both from the wild and cultivated plant. The 
manner of gathering and preparing the leaves, as practised in Ja- 
pan, is very fully described by Kcjempfer, and is, as far as our in- 
formation extends, conformable to the method used by the Chi- 
nese. 

The first gathering of the Tea leaves, according to this 
author, commences about the last of February, when the leaves 
are young and expanded. The second collection is made about 
the beginning of April, and the third in June. The first collec- 
tion, which consists only of the fine, tender leaves, is most es- 
teemed, and is called Imperial Tea. The second is called Toots- 
yaa, or Chinese Tea, because it is infused and drank after the 
Chinese manner. The last, which is the coarsest and cheapest, is 
chiefly consumed by the lower class of people. Besides the three 
kinds of Tea here noticed, it may be observed, that by garbling, 
or sorting these, the varieties of Tea become still farther multi- 
plied. As many Tea-plants grow on cliffs, and places of difficult 
access, the Chinese Tea-gatherers are said to have occasional re- 
course to the assistance of monkeys, which are chased up the 
Tea trees, and so much irritated, that in their fury they bite off 
the branches, and throw them down in resentment ; the branches 



NAT. ORDER. THEACEjE. 91 



* 



are then taken up, and the leaves j^ickecl off. The leaves are not 
collected from the cultivated plant till it is three years old; and 
after growing seven or ten years it is cut down, in order that the 
numerous young shoots may afford a greater supjjly of leaves. 

The leaves should be dried as soon as possible after they are 
collected ; and for this purpose Koempfer relates, that jniblic build- 
ings are erected, containing from five to ten, and even twenty 
small furnaces, about three feet high, each having at the toji a 
large iron pan. There is also a long table covered with mats, on 
which the leaves are laid, and rolled by workmen who sit round it. 
The iron pan being heated to a certain degree by a fire made in 
the furnace beneath, a few pounds of the leaves ai-e put upon the 
pan, and continually turned and shifted by the hands, till they be- 
come too hot to be endured ; they are then thrown upon the mats 
to be rolled, which is done between the palms of the hands, after 
which they are cooled as speedily as possible. 

It is desirable that all the moisture of the leaves should be 
completely dissipated, and their twisted form preserved, for which 
purpose the above process is repeated several times with the same 
leaves, but less heat is employed than at first. The Tea thus 
manufactured is afterwards sorted, according to its kinds or good- 
ness. Some young, tender leaves are never rolled, and are im- 
mersed in hot water before they are dried. 

From this account of the Japanese method of curing their 
Teas, it appears that a prompt and complete exsiccation is the 
chief art employed. We suspect, however, that the Chinese are 
more indebted to art than to nature for the various kinds of Tea 
with which they supply this country. Many of their Teas are so 
widely different in taste, odor, color, and form, that instead of ap- 
pearing to be the leaves of the same species of plant, they are so 
much disguised as scarcely to manifest any resemblance to each 
other. It is true that some species and varieties of the Tea, as 
appears by Loureiro, are naturally more odorous than others; yet 



92 NAT. ORDER. THEACE^. 

we cannot suppose tliat nature ever made them totally difTerent. 
The same observation will be equally applicable to the various 
flavors and colors of this exotic. We maj' therefore infer that the 
Chinese method of curing their fine Teas is not quite so sijnple as 
that practiced by the Japanese. 

Tea was first introduced into Europe by the Dutch East 
India Compan.y, and into England about the year 1666, when it 
sold for sixty English shillings per pound, and for many years its 
great price limited its use only to the most opulent. Its use was 
introduced into this country at the time of its settlement by our 
forefathers, and has now become a common beverage of both the 
rich and poor ; and its effects have been variously represented ; — 
but as to enter fully upon this subject would fnr exceed the limits 
of this work, we shall refer the reader for a more full account to 
Dr. Lettsom's elaborate history of the Tea tree ; and conclude 
this article with a transcript of its medicinal powers, as given by 
Dr. Cullen, whose opinion in this place cannot fail to be well re- 
ceived. 

" With respect to its qualities as a medicine, that is, its power 
of changing the state of the human body, we might suppose it as- 
certained by the experience of its daily use ; but from the univer- 
sality of this use in very different conditions of the plant, and in 
every possible condition of the persons emjiloying it, the conclu- 
sions drawn from its effects must be very precarious and ambigu- 
ous, and we must attempt by other means to ascertain its qualities 
with more certainty. 

" To this purpose, it appears from Dr. Smith's experiments, 
that an infusion of green Tea has the effect of destroying the sen- 
sibility of the nerves, and the irritability of the muscles ; and from 
the experiments of Dr. Lettsom, It appears that green Tea gives 
out. In distillation, an odorous water, which Is powerfully narcotic. 
That the recent plant contains such an odorous narcotic power, is 
not to be doubted ; for we find that the Chinese take great jialns 



NAT. ORDER. THE.^CE^. 93 

ill drying it, before they will suffer it to be brought into uae ; and 
that even after such preparation, they usually abstain from its use 
for a year or more, that is, until its volatile ])arts are all completely 
dissijiated ; and it is said that unless they use this precaution, the 
Tea, in a more recent state, manifestly shows strong narcotic 
powers. Even in this country, the more odorous Teas often show 
their sedative powers in weakening the nerves of the stomach, and 
sometimes the whole system." 

From these considerations, we may safely conclude, that Tea 
is to be considered as a narcotic and sedative substance ; and that 
it is powerfully such in its odorous state, and therefore less in the 
Bohea than in the Green Tea, and the most so in the more odor- 
f)us, or what are called the finer and better sorts. Its effects, how- 
ever, seem to be very different in its operation ujion different con- 
stitutions ; and hence so many different and contradictory accounts 
that are reported of these effects. But if we consider the differ- 
ence of constitution, which occasions some difference of the 
operation of the same medicine in different persons, and of which 
we have a remarkable proof in the operation of opium and other 
narcotics, we should not be surprised at the different o])erations 
of Tea. 

If to this we add the falicy arising from the condition of the 
Tea employed, which is often so inert as to have no effects at all ; 
and if we still add to this the power of habit, which can destroy 
the powers of the most powerful substances, we shall not allow 
the various, and even contradictory reports of its effects to alter 
our judgment with respect to its qualities in affecting the human 
body. Thus, from the experiments above mentioned, and from 
observations with which every physician must necessarily become 
more or less familiar, in witnessing its effects upon all sorts of per- 
sons, we must be convinced that the qualities of Tea are narcotic 
and sedative. 

Tt is often contended that the bad effects imputed to Tea, are 



94 NAT. ORDER. THEACE^. 

owing to the large quantity of warm or hot water which accom- 
panies it ; and it is possible that some bad effects may arise from 
this cause ; but from attentive observation, we can assert that 
whenever there are any marked effects, they are, in nine of every 
ten persons, entirely from the qualities of the tea ; and that any 
similar effects of warm water do not occur in one of a hundred 
who take in this very largely. 

But while we thus endeavor to establish the jjoisonous nature 
of Tea, we do not at the same time deny that it may sometimes 
show useful qualities. It is possible, that in certain persons, taken 
in moderate quantity, it may, like other narcotics, in a moderate 
dose, prove exhilarating, or like these, have some effect in taking 
off irritability, or in quieting some irregularities of the nervous 
system. As its bad effects have been often imputed to the ^varm 
water that accompanies it, so we have no doubt that some of its 
good effects may also be ascribed to the same cause, and jaarticu- 
larly its being so often grateful after a full meal. 

The U. S. Disjiensatory, describing the properties of Tea, 
says " that it is astringent, and gently excitant, and in its finer 
varieties exerts a decided influence over the nervous system,, 
evinced by the nervous feelings of comfort, and even exhilaration 
which it jiroduces ; and the unnatural wakefulness to which it gives 
rise when taken in unusual quantities ; or by those unaccustom.ed 
to its use. Its properties, however, are not of so decided a char- 
acter as to render it capable of very extensive application as a 
medicine ; and its almost exclusive use, as every one knows, is as 
a grateful beverage at the evening meals. Taken nwderately, and 
by healthy individuals, it may be considered perfectly harmless. 



NAT. ORDER 

Thymelaceee. 



DAPHNE MEZEREUM. ' ' MEZEREON. 

Class VIII. OcTANDRiA. Order I. Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Cahjx, none. Corolla, four-cleft, withering, enclosing 

the stamens. Drupe, one-seeded. * 

Spe. Char. Flowers, sessile, in threes on the stem. Leaves, lance- 
olate, deciduous. 

The Mezereon is a hardy shrub, which usually grows to the 
height of five or six feet, and sends off several branches ; the ex- 
terior bark is smooth, and of a gray color ; the root is of a fibrous 
texture, of a 2>ale color, and covered with smooth olive-colored 
bark ; the leaves are {ew, tender, lance-shaped, sessile, deciduous, 
and appear at the terminations of the branches, after the flowers 
have expanded ; xhejlowers surround the branches in thick clus- 
ters ; they are sessile, monopetalous, tubular, having the limb di- 
vided into four oval, spreading segments, generally of a purple 
color ; the stamens are eight, alternately shorter, and concealed 
within the tube of the corolla ; the style is very short, the stig7na 
flat, and the germen, which is oval, becomes a reddish berry, con- 
taining a round seed. 

This shrub is a native of England, though not very common. 
We are informed that it grows wild in the woods near Andover 
in Hampshire, and also about Loxfield in Suffolk ; but it is gene- 
rally cultivated in gardens, on account of the beauty and earliness 
of its flowers, which appear in February and March. 

This plant is extremely acrid, especially when fresh ; and if 

Vol. ii.— 95 



96 NAT. ORDER. THYMELACE^. 

retained in the mouth, excites great and long continued heat and 
inflammation, particularly of the throat and fauces. The berries 
also have the same effects, and, when swallowed, prove a power- 
ful corrosive poison, not only to man, but to dogs, wolves, foxes, &c. 
The bark and berries of INIezereon, in difi'erent forms, have been 
long externally used in obstinate ulcers and sores. In France and 
some parts of England, the former is strongly recommended as an 
application to the skin, which, under certain management, pro- 
duces a continued serous discharge, without blistering, and is thus 
rendered useful in many chronic diseases of a local nature, 
answering the purpose of what has been called a perpetual blister, 
while it occasions less pain and inconvenience. 

Medical Properties and Uses. In England and in the United 
States, at the present time, Mezereon is only employed in the cure 
of some syphilitic comjilaints, for which purpose. Dr. Donald 
Monro was the first who gave testimony to its efficacy in the cure 
of these loathsome diseases. A few months after this, several 
cases were published by Dr. Russel, then physician to St. Thomas' 
Hospital, fully establishing the utility of the cortax mezei-ei in ve- 
nereal nodes. He says, " The disease for which I principally re- 
commend the decoction of mezereon-root as a cure, is the node 
that proceeds from a thickening of the memhrane of the bones, 
which appear to be the cause of the greatest part of those tumors, 
at least when recent. In a thickening of the periosteum from 
other causes, I have seen very good effects from it." But in the 
nocturnal pains accompanying syphilis, unless occasioned by the 
node itself, he found it necessary to join a solution of sublimate to 
the decoction. We would also remark that Dr. R. never found 
tlie decoction to increase any of the natural evacuations. Dr. 
CuUen observes, that "Dr Home has not only found this de- 
coction to cure scirrhous tumors which remain after the lues 
venerea, and after the use of mercury, but that it healed, also, 
some scirrhous tumors from other causes ; and that he has 



NAT. ORDER. THVMELACE^. 97 

employed it in several cutaneous affections, and very often with 
success." 

The great burningf and continued heat and irritation that is 
produced in the throat when mezereon is chewed, induced Dr. 
Witherinor to think of giving it in a case of difficulty of swallow- 
ing, seemingly occasioned by a paralytic affection. The patient 
was directed to chew a thin slice of the root as often as she could 
bear it, and in about a month recovered her power of swallowing. 
This woman had been a great sufferer from her complaint, for 
about three years, and was greatly reduced, being totally unable 
to swallow solids the whole time, and liquids but very imperfectly. 

Mezereon, in its recent state, is an active poison, and should 
be given with great care, if given at all. A case is related to us 
from undoubted authority, of a woman who gave twelve grains of 
the berries to her daughter, who had the fever-ague. She vomited 
blood, and died immediately. As the acrimony of these berries 
is not immediately perceived . uj3on being tasted, the ignorant and 
unwary are ':he more easily betrayed to swallow them. 

As some may wish to try this plant in their practice, which is 
as yet unknown to most physicians in this country, and promises 
beneficial effects in several complaints, we shall briefly recite the 
usual mode in which it has been conducted. 

A square piece of the fresh-gathered bark, about the size of 
a penny, macerated a little in vinegar, is applied to the skin, over 
which is bound a leaf of ivy or plantain. This application is at 
first renewed night and morning, till it cauterizes the part, and 
brings on a serous discharge, when a renew-al of the bark once in 
twenty-four hours is found sufficient to continue the issue for any 
length of time. By means of suitable plasters, it is thought by 
some physicians, it might prove valuable if applied behind the 
ears to relieve the eyes ; and on a larger scale prove useful in 
practice in sundry diseases. It must be observed, however, that 
it .sometimes produces cutaneous eruptions, which is atlr!l)ute(l to 



98 NAT. ORDER. THYMELACEiE. 

the absorption of the particles of the bark. We would suggest 
the propriety of using it as a substitute for calomel, as it possesses 
most of its valuable qualities, without any of its bad effects. The 
berries of Daphne laureola are poisonous to all animals except 
birds. In Jamaica a species is found which is called the Lacehark 
tree, in consequence of the beautifully reticulated appearance of 
the inner bark. Cordage has been manufactured from several 
species. A very soft kind of paper is made from the inner bark 
of Daphne clwlua in Nipal. Daphne gnidium and Passerina tine- 
tor ia are used in the south of Europe to dye wool with, which 
gives it a beautiful yellow color. 

^Vhen the berries or bark are taken in over-doses, we should 
exhibit diluents, emollients, and laxatives, in order to expel the 
poison from the alimentary canal ; and after this, if the nervous 
system has been much excited, give nervines in repeated doses to 
allay the irritation. If inflammation of the stomach or intestines 
should follow, we must have recourse to some of the most active 
vegetable emetics. The decoction has been given in some cases, 
with decided advantage in chronic rheumatism, some cutaneous 
affections, «&c., but it is a remedy seldom emjjloyed at the present 
day, excejit in combination with others ; for its exhibition requires 
great caution, otherwise vomiting and purging may be produced. 
In some instances it acts with such violence as to occasion spitting 
of blood, and fatal diarrhoea. 




L^^n'?n/-/n /tZc^c^ct^y. 



NAT. ORDER. — AMARANLACEiE. 91 

lower ones rufous liver-colored on the upper surface, bright purple 
on the lower, with elevated veins — the upper ones green, with red 
tips; the petioles channelled, bright purple, smooth, and edged at 
the top with the decreasing leaf; the lower ones nearly their length ; 
the glonicrulcs subsessile, dark purple, on a very short, undivided 
peduncle ; the calyx five leaved ; the leaflets oblong, purple, mem- 
braneous, ending in a dark red point. Professor Martyu observes 
that this species varies in the color of their leaves : as, when grown 
in the open air, they are of a dirty purple on their upper surface, 
and in the younger ones green ; while, in the stone, the whole 
plant is of a beautiful fine purple color. It is, however, easily 
distinguished in all states by its color, its leaves, its lateness of flow- 
ering, &c. It is a native of Guiana and the East Indies. Mr. Mil- 
ler remarks that it grows to the same height of the Tricolor, and in 
the manner of its growtli greatly resembles it ; but the leaves have 
only two colors, an obscure purple and a bright crimson, so blended 
as to set off each other, making a fine appearance when the plants 
are vigorous. 

Am arantlais tricolor. Three-colored Amaranthus. 'In this species 
the stems rise from a foot and a half to two feet in height ; tliey are 
obscurely angular, smooth, and upright; the leaves blue with a red 
point, smooth and waved ; the younger ones yellow, with red, espe- 
cially the tips ; those in a more mature state coralled at the base, 
violet in the middle, and green at the end ; the old ones green with 
a violet base ; the petioles very long, smooth, green, channelled, and 
bordered ; the glomerules germinate,, green, and axillary ; the calyx 
three-leaved ; the leaflets oblong, acuminate, membranaceous, with 
a green nerve. It varies in the color of the leaves, which are less 
painted in the open air than in the stone. It has been long cultiva- 
ted for the beauty of its variegated leaves, in which the colors are 
elegantly mixed. When the plant is in full vigor, these are large 
and closely set from the bottom to the top of the stalk. The branches 
also form a sort of pyramid ; so that in form, as well as tiie beauty 



02 NAT. ORDER. — AMARANLACE.E. 

of its flowers, there are but few plants that can vie with it in gran- 
deur. It is a native of Guiana. Flowers all summer. 

Ainaranlhus sanguineous. Spreading, or Bloody Amaranthus. In 
this species the stem is uprigiit, about four feet in height ; they are 
firm, round, red, and streaked ; the leaves somewhat convex, or 
rather, so contracted as to possess the form of a boat, and pointed ; 
the older ones rather blunt ; the upper surface is a mixture of red 
and green, the lower more or less purple ; the petioles are tinged 
Avith purple, channelled, and quite rough, and winged at the top with 
the leaf; the racemes are very red ; the branches smooth, — 
the lower ones spreading ; the calyx five-leaved ; leaflets oblong, 
blunt, membraneous, and red ; the bracteas subulate-setaceous, red, 
longer than the flowers, closely surrounding the glomerules. 

Amaranthus caudatus. Pendulous Amaranthus, or Love-lies- 
bleeding. In this species the stem is from two to two and a iialf 
feet in height, green, obscurely angular, grooved and streaked, smooth, 
and covered at the top with thin, whitish, scattered hairs; the upper 
part somewhat nodding on account of the extreme length of the 
racemes ; the leaves are smooth, bright green, blunt, emarginate, 
with an incurved transparent point; the petioles are much shorter 
than the leaf; the racemes terminating, elegantly purple, very long, 
cylindrical, and composed of flowers very closely glomerate ; the 
calyx is five-leaved ; the leaflets oblong, red, acuminate, membrana- 
ceous ; the bracteas oblong, pointed, and scattered. 

Amarantlms maxhnus. Tree Amaranthus. In this species the 
stems ri.se to the height of seven or eight feet, sending oflT numerous 
horizontal branches at every ton or twelve inches ; the leaves are 
green, rough, and lu.x:uriant; the spikes are seldom half the length 
of those of the other sorts, but are much thicker. It is said to 
degenerate gradually into the smaller kind. The seed, which at 
first are wliite, also become red. It flowers in August and Septem- 
ber, and is a native of Persia. 










T 



NAT. ORDER. — AMARANLACE.E. 93 

Amaranthus crucntas. Various-leaved Amaranthus. In this 
species the stem is a foot and a half or two feet in height, grooved, 
green with red streaks, smooth, and slightly pubscent among the 
flowers ; the leaves are green, spotted w ith brown above, red 
beneath, bluntish with a reddish short point ; the petioles are red, 
channelled, and smooth ; the racemes red and green, with branchlets 
spreading and nodding a little; the calyx five-leaved ; the leaflets 
oblong, pointed, white-membraneous, with a red nerve, and a point 
of the same color. It varies of a shining red color — with a red 
stalk with pale leaves — wnth a green stalk with variegated leaves, 
&c. When first cultivated in this climate, the stem is wholly red 
and smooth ; the petioles, ribs, and nerves of the leaves underneath 
purple ; the spikes purple, much spreading, and a little nodding. 
They are highly beautiful, and make a gay appearance for the first 
two years ; but after that time the seeds degenerate, and the plants 
possess but little beauty, which is the same with some others of this 
genus. It is a native of the East Indies. 

Propagation and Culture. The propagation in most of these spe- 
cies is not effected without considerable trouble, as they require the 
aid of artificial heat in order to bring them forward in tlie greatest 
perfection. There are few, however, that may be raised in the open 
ground without the assistance of heat applied in the above manner. 

The second and third species, being the most tender, demand 
much greater attention, and more artificial heat in producing them, 
than those of the fourth, fifth, and sixth kinds. And the first and 
last species are capable of being raised with still less heat than those 
of the above sorts, though not in the fullest perfection without a 
slight degree of it. 

In all the difierent species the business is accomplished by sowing 
the seeds annually in the early part of the spring months, say about 
the last of March, or about the beginning of April, on beds of good 
earth, either over heat or in the natural ground, according to the 



91 '^ NAT. OlIDER. AMARANLACEjE. 

nature of (lie plants. Tlie earlier the sowing can be perfonned, the 
be'tcr growth the plants will attain in the summer season. 

In raising the second and third sorts in the greatest lustre and 
perfection, the aid of two or three dilTerent hot-beds is necessary, 
which should be covered with frames and glasses, so as to slide with 
case and convenience. The first of these hot-beds should be small 
and made in the ordinary way, for the purpose of receiving the seed, 
and which may likewise serve for that of other annuals of the ten- 
der kind of similar growth. They should be earthed over the tops 
within the frames, to the depth of five or six inches, with good light 
dry mould. In this the seed sliould be sown in small shallow drills, 
and covered over very liglitly with fine sifted mould ; the glasses are 
then to be placed over them. In these situations the plants should 
be suffered to remain till they have attained the height of two or 
three inches, air being admitted in fine days, and the glasses covered 
with mats at night. When the plants are in this situation, a second 
hot-bed is to be prepared in the same manner, into which the young 
plants are to be pricked out to the distance of about four inches from 
each other, moderate waterings being occasionally given, and the 
plants well shaded from the sun until they have taken fresh root. 
Air siiould now be admitted more freely when the w'eatlier is fine, 
by raising one end of the glasses, and the night coverings be carefully 
applied. After the plants have remained in these beds a month or 
six weeks, and have become tolerably strong in their growth, so as 
to require more space, the final hot-beds should be made ready. 
These ought to be of much larger dimensions. When the frames 
are placed over them, earth to the depth of four or five inches should 
be laid over, and the plants, after being taken up with balls of earth 
about their roots, planted in pots of good sized dimensions, water 
being immediately applied in a sparing manner, and the pots plunged 
in the earth of the beds, the frames being raised occasionally as the 
plants advance in growth. The lights are to be constantly kept on, 
but air freely admitted by raising the ends daily, and water applied 



NAT. ORDER. AMARANLACE^E. 95 

every one or two days. Towards the end of June the plants will 
have attained nearly their full growth, when they may be placed out 
in the open air, where they are fully seen, when the weather is fine 
and settled, each of them being supported by a proper stick. la 
their after culture, they require to be kept constantly in the pots, and 
to have water freely applied almost every day when the sea.son is 
hot 

All the other species are raised with much less trouble, but simi- 
lar to those already described. They are of the most highly orna- 
mental kind, althougii attended with some trouble in their culture, 
yet they well repay for the labor. They should have rather open 
exposures, and be distributed towards the fronts, especially those of 
the low growing kinds. 



NAT. ORDER, 
Ranunculacea. 



ANEMONE HORTENSIS. BROAD-LEAVED GARDEN ANEMONE. 

Class XIII. POLYANDRIA. Ord&T VI. POLYGNIA. 

Gen Char. Involucre, three cut-leaves, distant from the flower. 
Calyx of five to fifteen petal-like, colored sepals. Petals wanting. 

Spe. Char. Leaves ternate. Segments multifid. Lobules, linear, 
mucronated. Leaves of the involucrum sessile, multifid. Se- 
pals six, oval. 

The stems of this plant, when under a slate of cultivation, rise 
from ten to fifteen inches in height. The root-leaves appear to be of 
two kinds : one very deeply gashed, so much that they have the 
appearance of being five-fingered, but are in reality tiu-ce parted, the 
side-lobes being two-parted to the very base; all the lobes are nar- 
row and sliarp ; the side ones deeply bifid, the" middle ones trifid or 
quadrifid, the extreme ones sharply lanceolate — the other kind 
broad, deeply three-lobed, blunt, bluntly and shortly serrate at tiie 
tip, with an awn standing out; the leaf on the stem, or involucre, is 
ternate ; the Icajlets ovate, lanceolate ; the peduncle is solitary and 
one-flowered ; the i^ctcds three times three (in the natural flowers), 
long, elliptic, marked with lines, the outer ones subhirsute on the 
outside, white at the base with green lines ; the roots consist of small 
white fibres, which are tuberous. 

There are numerous varieties of this species, both with single and 
double flowers : the single and double Yellow ; the Purple Star 
Anemone, darker and paler ; Violet Purple ; Purple-striped ; Car- 
nation ; Gredeline, between a peach color and a violet ; Cochenille, 
of a fine reddish violet or purple ; Cardinal, of a rich crimson red ; 
Blond-red, of a deeper, but not so lively a red; Crimson ; Stamcll, 
near unto a scarlet ; Incarnadine, of a fine delayed red or flesh-color ; 

Vol. iv.— 9G. 





■ne - <ri (.y 



NAT. ORDER RANUN'CDLACE.E. 9T 

Spanish Iucarnate,ofa lively flesh color, shadowed with yellow; Clash, 
of a fair whitish red ; Nutinegge, of a dark whitish color, striped with 
veins of a blusli color ; IMonk's-gray, pale whitish, tending to a gray ; 
Great Orange Tawnie; Lesser Orange Tawnie. Of the great 
double varieties there are, the great double Anemone of Constanti- 
nople, or Spanish Marigold; great double Orange Twarnie; double 
Anemone of Cyprus; double Persian Anemone; the common great 
double Variable Anemone; common double and variegated Scarlet; 
Red and Purple ; variegated of these sorts. The best vStar Ane- 
mones are said to come from Brittainy, where they raise yearly a 
great variety of sorts. 

Anemone coronarla. Narrow-leaved Garden Anemone. In this 
species the flower-stems rise between the leaves immediately from 
the roots, from the number of one and two to four and five from the 
same root, to the height of from eight to twelve inches, having a leafy 
appendage or involucrum a little above the middle ; the radical 
leaves are a little divided into numerous segments, which are subdi- 
vided into many narrow divisions. At the top each stem is adorned 
with a flower, which in the double sorts is large and very ornamen- 
tal. It i-s a native of the Levant, where it grows single, but has 
been rendered double by cultivation. 

Tiie varieties are very numerous : in the single sorts, the Watchet 
or pale blue ; the common Purple ; the Scarlet, and many interme- 
diate varieties. In the double kinds, the common Double Red and 
Scarlet ; the Parti-colored Crimson ; the Crimson Velvet ; the 
great double Blush ; the White ; the Lesser Blush ; the Purple ; 
the Blue ; the Rose-colored ; the Carnation ; the Purple Velvet of 
three colors ; the double Brimstone ; the Green, &c. 

Anemone ncmorosa. Wood-leaved Garden Anemone. In tliis 
species the root is perennial and creeping ; the height of the whole 
plant is only from five to ten inches ; the stem single, round and 
pubscent ; bearing one leaf, and one flower ; the leaf is doubly ter- 
nate, each part being petioled ; the petiole is flat and broad, particu- 



'98 NAT. ORDER. RANUNCULACE^. 

If; 
larly at the base ; each part or leaf (for some consider i as three 

leaves), is (rifid ; each leaflet being gash-serrate, and hairy under- 
neath, especially on the nerves ; the peduncle is from one to two 
inches long, and is only a continuation of the stem, and springs from 
the centre of the leaf; the flower consists of six or seven oblong- 
ovate petals, sometimes ending bluntly, sometimes emarginate, and 
sometimes even gashed or lacerate. The usual color is white, but 
they are often tinged with purple on the outside, particularly the 
three outer ones ; and sometimes they are entirely purple on both 
sides. The joint of the stem and the backs of the leaves are also 
apt to be tinged with red. The varieties are : with single flowers, 
with double flowers white, with single, purple flowers, with double 
purple flowers, and with reddish purple flowers. 

Anemone apennina. Mountain-blue Wood Anemone. In tiiis 
species the root is perennial and tuberous; the stem round, purplish, 
and about a span high ; the root-leaves on long petioles, ternate, and 
leaflets usually three-parted ; the segments variously cut and divided, 
somewhat pointed, hairy on both sides ; one tiiree-parted leaf, or 
three leaves together on the stem, like the others, but on short, 
sheathing petioles. From the centre of these arises the peduncle, 
about six inches high, round, and purplish except near the flower, 
where it is green. The stem-leaves and peduncle are slightly hairy ; 
the flowers are upright, of a pale blue color, and sweet smell ; the 
petals oblong, from twelve to fifteen, and disposed in three rows. It 
flowers in April. The varieties are : with single blue flowers, with 
double blue flowers, with single violet-colored flowers, and witii 
double violet-colored flowers. 

Anemone ranunculoiclcs. Yellow- wood Anemone. This plan 
diflers from the one previously described, in its having a yellow 
corolla, and two petals standing alternately outer, and two inner, and 
one having one side within and the other side without the next 
petal — whereas that has three outer and three inner petals ; it diders 
also in the peduncles being accompanied with two leaflets, the latter 



NAT. ORDER. MULTISILIQU^E. 107 

the cause of his disease ; and, to convince the company that it was 
perfectly innocent, he eat freely of its leaves ; but he suffei-ed for 
his imprudence, as he shortly died in great agony. 

Medical Properties and Uses. This plant has been generally 
prepared as an extract, or inspissated juice, after the manner di- 
rected in the Edinburgh, and many of the foreign pharmacoposias ; 
and, like all virulent medicines, it should be first administered in 
small doses. 

Storeck recommends two grains of the extract to be rubbed 
into a powder, with two drachms of sugar; and to begin with ten 
grains of this powder, two or three times a day. We find, how- 
ever, that the extract is often given from one grain to ten for a 
dose ; and some physicians even increase from this quantity. In- 
stead of the extract, a tincture may be made from the dried 
leaves, macerated in six times their weight of spirits of wine, 
forty drops of which may be given for a dose. 

Modern experiments prove this plant to be powerfully nar- 
cotic and diaphoretic ; and it is now frequently applied to cancers 
and cancerous tumors, &c. But we cannot conceive that cancer 
can be cured either by its internal or external administration, al- 
though it has been strongly recommended in that disease. But 
from the uncertainty of its strength, and its operation, we rarely 
find it used at the present day, especially in the United States. 
Even its external application is not unattended with danger; 
therefore, if applied to cancerous sores, or other tumors, it must 
be with great caution. There are other species of Aconite, which 
were formerly in use, possessing similar properties to the one 
here described ; but from their having fallen into disuse, it will be 
unnecessary tc describe them in this place. 



NAT. ORDER 
LiliacecB. 



ERYTHRONIUM AJNIERICANUM. DOG'S TOOTH VIOLET 

Class VI. Hexandria. Order I. Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx, none. Corolla, inferior, six-petalled ; the three 

inner petals with a callous prominence on each edge, near 

the base. 

Spe. Char. Leaves, lanceolate, punctate. Petals, oblong-lanceo- 
late, obtuse at the point ; interior ones bidentate near the 
base. Style, clavate. Stigma, entire. 

This is an indigenous, perennial, bulbous plant, sometimes 
called after the European species, Dog's Tooth Violet. The bulb, 
or cormus, which is brown externally, white and solid within, sends 
up a single naked flower-stem, and two smooth, lanceolate, nearly 
equal leaves, sheathing at their base, with an obtuse, callous point, 
and of a brownish green color, diversified by numerous irregular 
spots ; thejlower is solitary, nodding, yellow, with oblong-lanceo- 
late petals, obtuse at the point, a club-shaj^ed, undivided style, 
and a three-lobed stigma. The Erythronium grows in woods and 
other shady places, throughout the Northern and INIiddle States. 
It flowers in the latter part of April, or early in INIay. All parts 
of it are active. 

Of this genus Mr. Miller makes two species ; but Linnaeus, 
perhaps with more propriety, only one ; for breadth of leaves, or 
color of flowers, can hardly be considered as sufficient to consti- 
tute a specific difference. It is found in some parts of Europe, 
cultivated in gardens, where it produces a variety of colors : — 

Vol. u— 108 



NAT. ORDER. LILIACE^. 109 

some are purple, of two different tints ; others are white and yel- 
low. They are said to grow naturally in Hungary and Italy, 
They are propagated by offsets from their roots, and thrive best 
in a shady situation, and a gentle loamy soil ; but should not be 
too often removed. They may be transplanted any time after the 
beginning of June, when their leaves will be quite decayed, till the 
middle of September ; but the roots should not be kept very long 
out of the ground, as, if they shrink, it will often cause them to 
rot. The roots of this plant should not be planted scattering 
in the borders of the flower-garden, but in patches near each 
other, where they will make a good appearance. — U. S. Dispen- 
satory. 

Medical Properties and Uses. This is a very ancient medi- 
cine, and was used in the time of Salmond to a considerable ex- 
tent. The physicians of Europe employed it in those days for 
the cure of all venereal complaints, and as a remedy for worms. 
They obtained a strong decoction from the leaves and powdered 
root, after the following manner : take four ounces of the leaves, 
well dried ; or two of the root, powdered ; and add two quarts 
diluted alcohol; macerate for fourteen days; filter, when it is 
ready for use. The U. S. Dispensatory recommends giving it in 
doses of twenty or thirty grains, and says, " the recent bulb acts 
as an emetic ; the leaves are said to be more powerful ; and that 
the activity of the plant is diminished very much by drying." 
So far as we at present are acquainted with the virtues and uses 
of this plant, we are inclined to consider it a useless addition to 
the Materia Medica. It is however adopted in the present U. S. 
Dispensatory, but not very highly recommended in practice. A 
gentleman with whom I am well acquainted, informed me that he 
has frequently used the Erythronium in connection with other 
medicines, with decided advantage in rheumatism and gout ; and 
advises that it be applied externally, and well rubbed in, so as to 
produce considerable friction. 



NAT. ORDER. 

TrilliacecE. 



TRILLIUM SESSILE. VIRGINIA TURNIP. 

Class VI. Hexandria. Order HI. Trigynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx, three-leaved. Corolla, three-petalled, Stig- 
ma, sessile. Berry, superior, three-celled. Cells, many- 
seeded. 

Sj^e. Char. Peduncle, inclined. Flower, nodding. Petals, ovate, 

acuminate, flat, spreading ; broader, and a little longer than 

the calyx. Leaves, broad-rhomboid, acuminate, sessile. 

This species of turnip has a tuberous, perennial root, which 

sends up in the spring a large, colored spathe, flattened and bent 

at the top, like a hood, and supported by an erect, purplish scape ; 

the spathe has within it a club-shaped spadix, variegated, round at 

the end ; at the base it is surrounded by the stamens, the female 

organs being below the male ; the spathe, spadix and ger?ns are 

converted into a bunch of scarlet berries ; the leaves stand on long, 

sheathing footstalks, and are composed of leaflets, paler beneath 

than on their upper surface, and in time becoming glaucous. 

Of this genus there are several species, all of which are na- 
tives of North America. They have been described by Miller, 
in his Gardener s Dictionary, under the head of American Herb 
Paris ; but the Paris and Trillium, though somewhat similar 
in the style of their foliage, are very different in their parts of 
fructification. This species takes its trivial name of sessile, from 
the flowers ha\'ing no footstalks, but sitting, as it were, immediately 
on the end of the stalk. 

Vol. ii— no 



NAT. ORDER. TRILLIACEiE. Ill 

The figure here exhibited was taken from a plant which 
flowered in my garden, last spring, from the roots sent me the 
preceding autumn, by a practical gardener of South Carolina, 
who is not only well acquainted with the medical plants of this 
country, but indefatigable in discovering and collecting the more 
rare species of that portion of our country, and with which the 
gardens of our Northern States are likely soon to be enriched. 

It grows in shady situations, in a light soil, and. requires the 
same treatment as the Dodecatheon, and round-leaved Cyclamen. 
We have not leai'ned, neither have we had a fair opportunity of 
ascertaining whether this species will ripen its seeds with us ; 
though a native of South Carolina, where it has been known and 
applied for medical purposes, ever since the first settlement of that 
country, it has never found its way north ; and hence we may 
conclude that it is not very readily propagated, or more easily 
destroyed. 

Medical Properties and Uses. This, as well as all the vai'ieties 
of the Wild Turnip, in its fresh state, is a powerful stimulant and 
local irritant, possessing, in a great degree, the power of stimula- 
ting the secretions of the lungs and skin. It is also recommended 
as valuable for pain in the bowels, and colic. Dr. Samuel Thom- 
son says , " Its pectoral properties have proved highly beneficial 
in coughs, consumption of the lungs, asthma, and sore throat, for 
which we have used it for more than forty years. The root should 
be dried, pulverized, and used as cough powdei's ; or it may be 
given in honey, in the sirup of preserves, or in any other saccha- 
rine matter ; or it may be made into a paste with honey or sirup, 
and used in the form of candy, by letting the substance dissolve 
gradually on the tongue, so as to diffuse its warmth through the 
mouth. It is also good for sore mouth and throat, canker, and 
swellings about the neck, and is considered good in coughs, colds, 
and catarrhal affections. 



NAT. ORDER. 

MagnoliacecB. 



MAGNOLIA YULANS. - UMBRELLA TREE. 

Class XIII. PoLYANDRiA. Older VI. Polygynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx, three-leaved. Petals, six or more. Cap- 
sules, two-valved, one seeded, imbricated in a cone. Seed, 
berried, pendulous. 
Spe. Char. Sepals, three to six, deciduous. Stamens, indefinite. 

" This is a small tree, sometimes, though rarely reaching an 
elevation of thirty feet, and almost alw^ays having an inclined 
trunk ; the leaves are scattered, petiolate, oval, obtuse, entire, glab- 
rous, thick, opaque, yellowish-green on their upper surface, and 
of a beautiful pale glaucous color beneath ; the jlowers are large, 
terminal, solitary, cream-colored, strongly and gratefully odorous, 
often scenting the air to a considerable distance ; the calyx is 
composed of three leaves ; the petals are from eight to fourteen 
in number, obovate, obtuse, concave, and contracted at the base ; 
the stamens are very numerous, and inserted on a conical recep- 
tacle ; the germs are collected into a cone, each being surmounted 
by a linear, recurved style ; the fruit is conical, about one inch in 
leno^th, consisting of numerous imbricated cells, each containing a 
single scarlet seed. This escapes through a longitudinal opening 
in the cell, but remains for some time suspended from the cone 
by a slender thread, to which it is attached." 

"The Magnolia Yula7is extends along the sea-board of the 
United States, from Cape Ann in Massachusetts, to the shores of 
the gulf of Mexico. It is abundant in the Middle and Southern 
Vol. a.— 112 




fyMaa<^^e;^Mi^'\ 



NAT. ORDER. MAGNOLIACEiE. 113 

States, usually growing in swamps and morasses ; and is seldom 
met with in the interior of the country, west of the mountains. It 
begins to flower in May, June or July, according to the latitude ;" 
and if we credit the writings of some of the authors, in their de- 
scriptions of this iTiost magnificent tree, we cannot but consider it 
as one of the most lovely shade trees that inhabit our country. 
Wood & Bache, in their description of this tree, say : " The med- 
icinal properties which have rendered the bark of the Magnolia 
officinal, are common to most, if not all of the species composing 
this splendid genus. Among the numerous trees which adorn the 
American landscape, these are most conspicuous for the beautiful 
richness of their foliage, and the magnificence, as well as delicious 
odor of their flowers ; and the Mag7iolia grandijiora of the South- 
ern States rivals in magnitude the largest inhabitants of our for- 
ests." The focus of this order is undoubtedly North American, 
where the woods, the swamps, and the sides of the hills abound 
with them. Thence they straggle on the one hand into the West 
India Islands, and on the other into India, through China and Ja- 
pan. Mr. Brown remarks, while at Congo, that no species have 
been found on the continent of Africa, or in any of the adjoining 
islands. Twenty-eight species are all that M. Decandolle enu- 
merates. It derived its name in honor of Professor Magnol, of 
Montpelier, the author of several botanical works. 

Medical Properties and Uses. The general character of all 
the plants pertaining to this order, is, to have a bitter, tonic taste, 
and fragrant flowers. The latter produce a decided action upon 
the nerves, which, according to Decandolle, induces sickness and 
headache from Magnolia tripetala ; and, on the authority of Bar- 
ton, is so stimulating on the part of Magnolia glauca, as to produce 
paroxysms of fever, and even an attack of inflammatory gout. 
The bark has been found to be destitute of tannin and gallic acid, 
notwithstanding its intense bitterness. The bark of the root of 
the Magnolia glauca '» an important tonic ; and the same proper- 



114 NAT. ORDER. MAGNOLIACE^. 

ties are found in the Liriodendron tulipifera, which has been said 
to be equal to Peruvian bark. The MicMia doltsopar is one of 
the finest trees in the forests of Nipal, yielding an excelleiit fra- 
grant wood, which is much used in that country for house build- 
ing. Magnolia excelsa yields a valuable timber, called Chamj), 
which is at first greenish, but soon changes into a pale yellow, the 
texture of which is very fine. The cones of Magnolia acuminata, 
of Virginia, yield a spirituous tincture, which is employed with 
some success in rheumatic affections ; and, in fact, the seeds of all 
the species are remarkable for their bitterness ; those of the Mag- 
nolia yulans are emjjloyed in various parts of China as febrifuges. 
None of the species are to be considered as aromatics. It possesses 
stimulant, tonic and diaphoretic properties, and has been used as a 
substitute for Peruvian bark, in intermittent fevers, and has also 
jjroved highly serviceable in chronic rheumatism, dyspepsia, and 
many other complaints, in which a gentle stimulant and tonic im- 
pression is desirable. The bark is often administered in connec- 
tion with the bitter tonics, as a restorative bitter ; and has been 
found highly serviceable for weak and debilitated constitutions. 
The dose of the bark in powder is from half a drachm to two 
drachms. The infusion and decoction are also used, but are less 
efficient. They may be prepared in the proportion of an ounce 
of the bark to a pint of water, and given in the quantity of one 
or two fluid ounces. The dose of the saturated tincture is a fluid 
drachm. 



J>i 



NAT. ORDER. 

DumoscB 



ILEX VOMITORIA. SOUTH SEA TEA, OR HOLLY. 

Class IV. Tetrandria. Order HI. Tetragynia. .-^>«^ ^iJ^wWufe^; 



Gen. Char. Calyx, perianthium, four-toothed, very small, perma- 
nent. Corolla, one-petalled, four-parted, wheel-shaped, divi- 
sions roundish, spreading, rather large, with cohering claws. 
Stamens: Filaments, {onr, awl-shaped, shorter than the co- 
rolla, ^w^^e;-*, small. Pistils 3,nd. Germens, Youndiiah.. Style, 
none. Stigmas, four, obtuse. Pericarp : Berry, roundish, 
four-celled. Seed, solitary, bony, oblong, obtuse, gibbose and 
cornered. 

6pe. Char. Calyx, four-toothed. Corolla, wheel-shaped. Style, 
none. Berry, four-seeded. 

The leaves of the Ilex vomitoria are alternate, distant, oblong, 
bluntish, crenate-ferrate, and about the size, shape, texture and 
color of the small-leaved Alaternus, but somewhat shorter, and a 
little broader at the base; the Jloicers dive produced in close whorls 
at the joints of the branchesj- near the foot-stalks of the leaves ; 
they are white, and are succeeded by red berries, which continue 
upon the plants most part of the winter, and, being of a bright 
red color, they make a very beautiful appearance, intermixed with 
the green leaves. This tree usually rises from ten to fifteen feet 
in height. It is a native of West Florida. 

It has been supposed by the inhabitants of the South, that 
this shruh possesses poisonous properties ; and if we may judge 
from their continuing so long untouched by birds, in a country 

Vol. ii.— 115. 



116 NAT. ORDER. — DUMOSiE 

wliere these animals are so numerous, we may conclude that they 
have some venomous quality in them. It was sent to England, 
and there cultivated, in the year 1700, and preserved in several of 
the most extensive gardens near London, till the severe winter in 
1739, when most of them were destroyed. But since that time 
many young plants have been raised from seeds, and have resisted 
the cold of that country without any covering, though they often 
suffer in very cold seasons, especially where they are not very 
well sheltered. The leaves of this species are not so bitter as 
those of the Cassine, or Cassioberry-bush, especially when green, 
and are therefore preserved for making an infusion in the manner 
of Tea, which is accounted by the Indians to be very wholesome, 
and is almost all the medicine they use as a cathartic, in many 
tribes. At a certain season of the year they come down in great 
numbers, from a distance of some hundred miles, to the coast, for 
the leaves of this tree, which is not known to' grow at any consid 
arable distance from the sea. They make a fire on the ground, 
and, putting a large kettle of water over it, they throw in a suffi- 
cient quantity of these leaves to make a strong decoction, and, 
setting themselves round the fire, from a bowl that holds about a 
pint, they begin drinking large draughts, which in a very short 
time produces vomiting that continues for the sj^ace of two or 
three days, until they have sufficiently cleansed themselves ; and 
then, every one taking a quantity of the leaves to carry away 
with him, they all retire to their habitations. This plant is gen- 
erally supposed to be the same as that which grows in Paraguay, 
wheie the Jes\iits make a great revenue from the leaves, and of 
which an account is given by Professor Frezier. 

Holly makes an impenetrable fence, and bears cropping well ; 
nor is its verdure, or the beauty of its scarlet berries, ever ob- 
served to suffer from the severest of our winters. It would claim 
the preference for this purpose, even to the Crataegus, Hawthorn, 
were it not for the slowness of its growth whilst young, and the 



NAT. ORDER. DUMOSi'E. 117 

difficulty of transplanting It when grown to a moderate size. But 
when it once takes well, the hedge may be rendered so close and 
thick, as to keep out all sorts of animals. 

The common Holly, being a very beautiful tiree in winter, de- 
serves a place in all plantations of evergreen trees and shrubs, 
where its shining leaves and scarlet berries make a fine variety ; 
and if a few of the best variegated sorts are properly intermixed, 
they will enliven the scene. The wood of this valuable tree is 
the whitest of all hard woods, and is used by the inlayer, espe- 
cially under thin plates of ivory. The mill-wright, turner and 
engraver, prefer it to any other. It makes the very best of han- 
dles and stocks for tools, and surgical instruments. We are in- 
formed, also, that it is extensively used in the manufacturing of 
the finer kinds of cabinet furniture, as it takes a very beautiful 
polish. Sheep and deer are fed during the winter with the crop- 
pings ; birds eat the berries ; the bark, fermented, and afterwards 
washed from the woody fibres, makes a very good bird lime. 

From forty to fifty varieties, depending on the variegations 
of the leaves or thorns, and the color of the berries, all derived 
from this one species, are raised by the nursery-gardeners, for sale, 
and formerly were in great esteem, but are now less regarded, 
since the old taste of filling gardens with short evergreens has 
been laid aside ; a few, however, of the most lively varieties 
should be admitted, as they will have a good effect in the winter 
season, if they are properly disposed. Of those varieties, the 
Bexferox, or Hedge-hog Holly, is the most remarkable. Its leaves 
are not so long as the common Holly, the edges armed with 
stronger thorns, standing closer together ; the upper surface set 
very close with short prickles. This is a native of Canada. 

Ilex apaca, or Carolina Holly, is a native of Carolina, and 
flowers in May and June. The Ilex perada, or Thick-leaved, 
Smooth Holly, is a native of Madeira : it flowers in April and 
May Ilex priinoides, or deciduous Holly, is a native of North 



118 NAT. ORDER. DUMOS-E. 

Carolina and Virginia: it flowers in July. Ilex cassine, or Dahoon 
Holly, rises with an upright, branching stem, to the height of 
eighteen or twenty feet. The bark of the old stems is of a brown 
color, but that of the younger stems or branches is green and 
smooth. The leaves of this tree are more than four inches lontr, 
and about one inch and a half broad. This is a native of South 
Carolina and Florida. There are two varieties of the Dahoon 
Holly ; one with broad leaves, the other with narrow leaves, with 
scarcely any serratures. Ilex Asiatica : leaves, broad-lanceolate, 
blunt, quite entire. It is a native of the East Indies. Ilex cunei- 
folia : leaves wedge-form, three-cusped. It is a native of South 
America. Ilex integra : leaves oblong, obtuse, entire ; peduncles 
one-flowered. Ilex rotunda : leaves rounded, acute, entire ; pe- 
duncles umbelliferous. Hex crenate : leaves ovate, crenate ; 
peduncles on the branches, scattered, bearing two or three flowers. 
Ilex emarginate : leaves obovate, emarginate ; flowers axillary, 
usually in pairs. Ilex serrata : leaves ovate, acute, ciliate, serrate : 
flowers axillary, solitary. It flowers in June. Hex Japonica : leaves 
opposite, sessile ; flowers in tei-minating racemes. It flowers in 
April. Ilex latijlia : leaves ovate, serrate ; flowers axillary, aggre- 
gate. Ilex crocea : leaves oblong, serrate ; serratures ciliate-spiny. 
Native of the Cape of Good Hope. 

Propagation and Culture. Holly is propagated by seeds, 
which never come up the first year, but remain in the ground ; 
therefore the berries should be buried in a large pot or tub one 
year, and then taken up and sown in the autumn upon a bed ex- 
posed to the morning sun. The following spring the plants will 
appear, which must be kept clean from weeds ; and if the spring 
should prove drj', it will be of great service to the plants if they 
are watered once a week ; but they must not have it oftener, nor 
in too great a quantity, as too much moisture is very injui-ious to 
these plants when young. In this seed-bed the plants may remain 
two years, and then should be transplanted in the autumn, into 



NAT. ORDER. DUMOS^. 119 

beds, at about six inches distance each way, where they may 
stand two years longer, during which time they must be kept con- 
stantly clean from weeds ; and if the plants have grown well, they 
will be strong enough to transplant where they are designed to 
remain ; for when they are transplanted at that age, there will be 
less danger of their failing, and they will grow to a larger size 
than those which are removed when they are much larger. But 
if the ground is not ready to receive them at that time, they 
should be transplanted into a nursery, in rows, at about two feet 
distance each way. In case they are designed to be grafted or 
budded with any of the variegated kinds, that should be performed 
after the plants have grown one year in this nursery ; but the 
plants so budded or grafted should continue two years after in the 
nursery, that they may make good shoots before they are removed. 

Mr. Evelyn says, that the varieties with white berries and gold 
and silver leaves, may be raised from seed, sown and planted in a 
gravelly soil; mixed with a portion of chalk, and pressed down 
hard. Mr. Miller says, also, that he has raised the Hedge-hog 
Holly from the berries, and always found the plants to continue 
the same. They are, however, all usually propagated in the nur- 
series by budding or grafting upon the common Holly. The stocks 
will be fit to be grafted or budded on at four or five years' growth. 
The grafting must be done in March, and the budding in July. 

Medical Properties and Uses. The leaves and berries are both 
used, and somewhat resemble each other in taste. They have a 
pleasant, corroborant effect upon the stomach ; but, when very 
largely taken, will purge and vomit. The usual mode of admin- 
istering it is in decoction, which is made by macerating one ounce 
of the dried leaves in one quart of diluted alcohol; the dose of 
which is from fifteen to forty drops, given three or four times a 
day. That of the powder is from five to ten grains. It can be 
tinctured, and the spirit evaporated, and thus brought into an ex- 
tract, one small three grain pill of which is a dose. 



NAT. OUDE R. 

Coronaria. 



CONVALLARIA POLYGONATUM. SOLOMON'S SEAL. 

Class VI. Hexandria. Order I. Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. Corolla, six-cleft. Berry, spotted, three-celled. 
Spe. Char. Leaves, alternate, stem-clasping Stem, ancipital. 
Peduncles, axillary, generally one-flowered. 

The 7Voi is perennial, horizontal, white, fibrous, beset with 
knobs, and marked with circular depressions, resembling the im- 
pressions of a seal ; hence the name Solomon's Seal ; the stalk is 
inclined, angular, smooth, and rises about a foot in height ; the 
leaves are oval, pointed, ribbed, smooth, above of a deep green 
color, underneath glaucous, and at the base embrace the stem ; the 
flowers are long, bell-shaped, white, or tinged with red, divided at 
the extremity into six short segments, and hang from the same 
side of the stalk, upon slender j^eduncles ; the filaments are six, 
tapering, short, and inserted in the corolla; xho, anthers are oblong 
and erect ; the style is filiform, longer than the stamens, and 
crowned with a blunt, triangular stigma ; the germen is round, 
and when ripe becomes a black berry, divided into three cells, 
each containing a single round seed. It grows in the rocky and 
woody parts of nearly all the States. It is also found growing in 
considerable abundance in some parts of England. It flowers in 
May and June. 

In many parts of New Jersey, especially on the Highlands 

and mountainous regions, the Solomon's Seal is found in great 

quantities. I have at various times visited the interior sections of 
Vol n.— 120 




'^y^/d. 



1 




4 S/l^^y/u^J^1^. 



/ 



NAT. ORDER. — CORONARIiE, 121 

that State, for the purpose of gathering specimens, of medical 
plants, and am fully convinced that many valuable hints may be 
gathered, that will be of inconceivable advantage to the botanist, 
and in the conducting of a medical work. Plants of which we 
have but a limited history, and many which have not been de- 
scribed at all, and which are of great importance in medicine, 
are found promiscuously scattered over every section. 

Medical Properties and Uses. The root, which is the medici- 
nal part of this plant, is generally, by writers on the Materia Med- 
ica, referred to the Convallaria multiflora, of Linnaeus, or the 
Polygonatum latifolium vulgare, of C. Bauhin. It is of a mucil- 
aginous quality, and has long been employed as a discutient 
poultice to various kinds of tumors, but more particularly to 
bruises, accompanied with extravasation of blood in the cellular 
membrane. It is also recommended as a cosmetic ; and in Galen's 
time was used by women, to prevent and remove pimples and 
freckles of the skin. The berries, flowers and leaves are ex- 
tremely acrid, and are said by some to be of a j^oisonous quality. 
Modern practitioners describe the roots as being a mild, and yet 
very healing restorative, and useful in all cases of female weak- 
ness. It is also recommended for consumption and general de- 
bility. It may be used in tea, sirup or cordial. The mucilage of 
the roots is recommended to be applied to inflammations and 
piles. 



NAT. ORDER 
Rosacea. 



ROSA SEMPERFLORENS. EVER BLOOMING ROSE 

Class XII. IcosANDRiA. Order VI. Polygynia. 

Gen. Char. Petals, five. Calyx, pitcher-shaped, five-cleft, fleshy, 

contracted at the neck. Seeds, numerous, hispid, afiixed to 

the inner side of the calyx. 
Spe. Char. Germen, ovate. Peduncles, hispid, with prickles. 

The stalks are erect, and covered with small prickles ; the 
foliage resembles that of the Centifolia, but the segments are less 
acute ; the petals are large, less numerous, spreading, and of a 
deep crimson color ; \}a.Q filaments are numerous, thread-like, sup- 
porting yellow anthers. The Ever Blooming Rose is a native of 
China, and blossoms in every month in the year. 

We are induced to consider the Rose here represented as 
one of the most desirable plants in point of ornament, ever intro- 
duced into this country. Its flowers, large in proportion to the 
plant, are semi-double, and with great richness of color unite a 
most delightful fragrance. They blossom during the whole of the 
year, but rather more sparingly in the winter months. The shrub 
itself is more hardy than most green-house plants, and will grow 
in so small a compass of earth, that it may be reared almost in a 
coffee cup. It is kept with the least possible trouble, and propa- 
gated without difficulty, by cuttings or suckers. 

This beautiful Rose is but little known on the Western Con- 
tinent, although its cultivation begins to be more general, and will 
most likely increase and become conspicuous in the collections of 

Vol. ii.— 122. 



NAT. ORDER. ROSACEiE. 123 

the principal nurserymen, and, in the course of a few years, will, 
no doubt, decorate the window of every amateur. The largest 
])lants we have seen, have not exceeded three feet. It may, no 
<hmbt, be cultivated so as to attain a much greater height. A va- 
riety of it, much mox'e robust, having usually several flowers on a 
foot-stalk, of a pale red color, and semi-double also, has quite 
latelv been introduced, and, as far as we can learn, is a native of 
the eastern part of Europe. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Tlie properties of the j^etals 
are very diffei'ent from those of the Centifolia ; having but very 
little odor, and possessing an astringent, bitter taste. The astrin- 
gency is the greatest before the flowers are fully blown ; hence, 
they should always be gathered previous to the expansion of the 
flower. When deprived of their calyces, it is of importance that 
they be immediately and quickly dried, as exposure to the light 
will impair their color, and at the same time deprive them in some 
degree of their astringency. When perfectly dry, they should 
be packed, and kept in a dark, dry situation. They imjiart their 
virtues both to water and spirit ; but the color of the infusion is 
much improved by the addition of a small quantity of acid; and 
the sulphuric, being the most astringent, is generally preferred. 

The conserve of red Roses is a very useful palliative remedy 
in allaying phthisical coughs, especially when combined with Sir. 
Papar ; and this will be greatly improved by the addition of a 
small quantity of Ictodes fcetida, which renders it more grateful 
and searching, and in this form can generally be continued for a 
longer time, as it tends greatly to check nightly j^erspirations. 
The Inf. Rosce is a mild and grateful astringent and tonic, and 
may often be given with advantage in cases where more powerful 
tonics would be injurious, as towards the close of fevers, where 
there is but slight febrile irritation remaining. In haemorrhages 
of different descriptions, it is a very useful beverage ; and when 
drank freely in hemoptysis and menorrhagia, will often put a stop 



124 NAT. ORDER. ROSACEyE. 

to the disease. It is also a very useful gargle for sore tnroats, 
both the simple and malignant. 

Prof. Lindley, speaking of this class of plants, says : " No 
Rosaceous plants are unwholesome ; they are chiefly remarkable 
for the presence of an astringent principle, which has caused some 
of them to be reckoned febrifuges. The root of Tormcntilla is 
used for tanning in the Faroe Isles. PotentiUa anserina has been 
used by tanners, and the PotentiUa reptans as a febrifuge. Geum 
urhanum and rivale have been compared for efficacy to Cinclwna. 
The petals of Rosa Damascena yield a highly fragrant essential 
oil, called Otter of Roses ; those of the Rosa gallica are astringent 
when dried rapidly, and are sometimes found useful in cases of 
debility, such as leucorrhoea, diarrhoea, &c." The root of Ruhus 
villosiis is now becoming a very popular astringent medicine, 
through almost every part of North America. Two or tl. -ee tea- 
spoonsful of the decoction, administered three or four times a ■*--- 
has been found useful in cholera infantum, and seldom fails of ef- 
fecting cures of the most obstinate character. One of the most 
powerful anthelmintics in the world belongs to this family. It is 
an Abyssinian plant, known to botanists by the name of Brayera 
nnthehnintica. Upon the authority of Dr. Brayer, after whom it is 
named, two or three doses of the infusion are sufficient to cure 
the most obstinate cases of tcenia. The petals of many of the 
varieties of Red Rose enter into a compound called the Bread of 
Life. Take one ounce of the petals of red roses, finely jiulver- 
ized, two ounces TJlmus fulva, and four ounces each of Populii 
nigra and white Havana sugar, all made fine, and mixed, by sift- 
ing them together. Mix this with warm water, sufficient to make 
it into the consistency of bread : roll it out into flat cakes, and 
cut it into small squares, for drying. This is an excellent medi- 
cine for coughs, colds, sore throat, and pains in the chest. It ii 
also an excellent remedy for bronchitis. 



NAT. O U D E K 

Luridce. 



> 



NICOTIANA TABACUM. VIRGINIAN TOBACCO 

Class V. Pentandria. Order 1 Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Corolla, funnel-shaped, with a plaited border. Sta- 

mens, inclined. Capsule, two-valved, two-celled. 
Spe. Char. Leaves, ovate-lanceolate, sessile, decurrent. Flowers, 

acute. ■ 

The Tobacco is an annual plant, and a native of South Ame- 
rica, but is now cultivated in most parts of the temjserate zones 
of the Western Continent. The roof is large and fibrous, sending 
up an erect, branching stalk, four or five feet in height, round and 
haiiy ; the leaves arc numerous, large, alternate, oblong, pointed, 
entire, sessile, slightly decurrent, of a pale green color, with a 
.strong . midrib ; the bractece are strong, linear and pointed ; the 
Jlowers are in large terminal panicles ; the caly.x is hairy, and 
divided into five acute segments ; the corolla is monopetalous, fun- 
nel-shaped, of a purplish rose color, with a tube twice the length 
of the calyx, opening like a cup, and divided into five short, 
pointed segments ; xh.e Jilaments are the length of the tube of the 
corolla, and support oblong anthers; the germen is oval and sup- 
ports a long, slender style, which terminates in a round, cleft 
stigma ; the capsule is divided into two cells, which contain many 
small, roundish seeds. It was first brought from the Island of 
Tobago, about the year 1560, and from thence called tabacum ; 
from Nicot, the name of the man who first took it to France. Sir 
Francis Drake first introduced its use into England, and Sir Wal- 
ter Raleigh rendered it fashionable. 

Vol ii.— 125. 



126 NAT. ORDER. LURID^. 

The history of Tobacco is a singular one. The production 
of a httle island, or a small district in North America, has fascin- 
ated the whole world. The Arab cultivates it in the burning 
desert ; the Laplanders and Esquimaux risk their lives to j^rocure 
this delicious refreshment; the seaman endures every privation, 
while he can obtain this luxury ; and the financier collects from 
it a copious revenue. Yet its fame has not been without occa- 
sional diminution. It has been opposed by physicians, proscribed 
by governments, and yet the fashion still prevails, nor until the 
time arrives when men shall become more humanized by female 
society, will the custom of smoking be less prevalent. We talk 
of the habits of the Chinese, in their dissipation, by the extrava- 
gant use of opium, and at the same lime make use of a much more 
loathsome and deadly narcotic, prepared and taken in all shapes 
that the ingenuity of man can invent. 

Medical Properties and Uses. The leaves have a strong, disa- 
greeable smell, and a burning, acrid taste, yielding their active 
parts both to spirit and water, but more perfectly to the former. 
A very small proportion of its virtues, however, rise in distillation 
from either ; but the watery extract is less pungent than the 
leaves. The American Tobacco is much stronger than that 
raised in England, or any other part of Europe, and affords a 
more pungent extract, though in less quantity. This plant is ev- 
idently a narcotic, as is evinced by its botanical analogy, and ef- 
fects. Small quantities snuffed up the nose have produced gid- 
diness, stupor and vomiting ; and, in larger quantities, there are 
instances of its pro^^ng a poison. But, with these narcotic 
qualities, it is said to stimulate, especially in the stomach and 
intestines, and, in moderate doses, to prove emetic and purgative, 
occasioning exti-eme anxiet}', vertigo, stupor, and disorders of the 
senses. In proper quantities, it is, however, an effectual purgative 
in clysters. By distillation it affords a very pungent essential oil, 
which is a very active preparation, and, if applied to the tongue 



NAT. ORDER. LURID^. 127 

of a dog, in a very small quantity, will speedily destroy life. The 
modus ope rail di of it is very obscure, but it appears to act in some 
indirect way upon the nervous system. The chief activity of 
Tobacco most probably depends on this essential oil, for, by long 
boiling the decoction, it is rendered almost inert. 

The medicinal properties of Tobacco are narcotic, emetic, 
purgative and errhine. When the leaves are swallowed, they 
occasion nausea, violent vomiting, vertigo, and relaxation of the 
bowels. Similar effects have followed the snuffing of a small 
quantity up the nose. From its sedative powers arise all the fas- 
cination of this plant. It gives that calm serenity always occa- 
sioned by the abstraction of stimuli, and, like tea, opium, and the 
beetle-nut, composes the mind, under the greatest distress. It is 
necessary, however, to examine its effects in all the varieties of 
its use. By chewing, it acts upon the stomach, producing all the 
inconveniences of a narcotic pois6n — acidity, flatulence, indiges- 
tion, depraved appetite, &c. The same symptoms follow taking 
enuff^ as a portion of the tobacco generally falls through the pos- 
terior fauces into the stomach. The advantages of each mode are 
nearly the same, as the discharge of phlegm which they produce 
relieves accumulations in the head, and all the diseases depending 
on them. 

In smoking, the oil of the plant is separated, and rendered 
empyreumatic by heat, and of course applied to the fauces and 
lungs in its most active state. Musing over a pipe, assists, it is said, 
reflection — its smoke accompanied Newton's "patient thinking," 
and added to the wisdom of the politician ; but it is novvforbidden 
in the drawing-room and parlor, and confined jJrincipally to the 
ale-house, and other public drinking shops. Like other forms of 
taking Tobacco, smoking occasions a tranquility, a freedom from 
care, a slight and harmless intoxication, increasing, also, the dis- 
charge of saliva. 



123 NAT. ORDER. LLRID^. 

Smoking generally produces a considerable discharge of this 
fluid, and from it, as well as the warmth, has been occasionally 
useful in jaains of the teeth, in rheumatic affections of the head 
and jaws, and in asthmas, both serous and spasmodic. It lessens 
the appetite, however, blackens the teeth, and renders the whole 
person most indescribably offensive to those who possess the 
slightest delicacy of smell, or to whom a clean appearance is 
acceptable. 

Another mode of using Tobacco, is that of chewing it, when 
it shows its narcotic properties as strongly as in any other way of 
applying it ; though its nauseous taste sometimes prevents its being 
carried far in this pi-actice. 

If considered as a medicine, it will be found, a valuable one, 
though its emetic power often defeats the benefits we expect from 
it. In the form of infusion and of smoke, it is introduced into the 
rectum, and is often effectual as an enema, when every thing else 
has failed. Its smoke probably penetrates farther than any liquid, 
and is more useful on this account, as well as from the oil acting 
in its separate state. Its operation is, however, generally attend- 
ed with faintness, and therefore peculiarly useful in ileus and 
hernia, less so as a means of reviving those in asphyxy, from 
drowning, or any other cause. Ascarides, also, in the same form, 
it certainly kills. It is seldom employed as an emetic, as its sick- 
ness is peculiarly distressing; yet, in nauseating doses, we presume 
from its other qualities, that it may be equally effectual, and less 
dangerous than the digitalis, which is classed m the same family, 
and stands very near to it in the natural systems of modern bot- 
anists. Its emetic power prevents it from acting as a laxative, 
except in clysters, and as a diuretic, except in the form of its al- 
kali, after burning. The oil which remains adhering to the salts, 
adds to the diuretic power of the alkali, and it has been supposed 
useful in dropsies. Though boiling lessens this emetic projjerty. 



NAT. ORDER. LURIDiE. 129 

ii IS not destroyed ; and, though it is nearly lost in the extract, 
there is much doubt whether its virtues are diminished in the same 
proportion. 

Tli-c infusion of Tobacco is employed in the form of enema with 
advantage, in some cases of obstinate constipation ; but, generally 
speaking, it is a dangerous remedy. As to the propriety and safety 
of employing it in strangulated hernia, there is considerable dif- 
ference of opinion. By some it is considered as most unsafe, whilst 
others speak of it as highly beneficial ; and it is no easy matter to 
decide as to the most advisable mode of practice. We may, 
however, safely say, neither of these opinions should be strictly 
adhered to, for, in the first instance, this disease is sometimes con- 
nected with such prostration of strength, that a Tobacco enema 
would in all probability lestroy the jiatient in a very short time ; 
but, on the contrary, wht-n a person is in a vigorous state of health, 
pulse strong, and whose strength requires to be diminished, the 
Tobacco might be advantageously employed. We should use it 
with the greatest caution in every case, for there are many in- 
stances on i-ecord, where it has proved destructive in this and 
other diseases. An infusion of half a drachm is quite sufficient 
for one clyster. As an external application, it may be dispensed 
with, for when applied in that way, it is apt to occasion unpleasant 
symptoms. Thus, Murray mentions a case where it was applied 
to the cure of Itch, and it produced vomiting of blood, and con- 
vulsions ; and there are other cases on record, of the injurious 
effects of it as an external application. 



INAT. ORDER 

Oleacece. 



OLEA EUROPCEA, EUROPEAN OLIVE TREE. 

Class II. DiANDRiA. Order I. Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Corolla, four-cleft, with sub-ovate segments. Drupe, 

one-seeded. 
Spe. Char. Leaves, lanceolate, quite entire. 

This tree usually rises about twenty feet in height, and 
sends off' numerous long branches, covered with bark of a grayish 
color ; the lea/oes are firm, narrow, lance-shaped, entire, on the up- 
per side of a bright green, on the under whitish, and stand in 
pairs, upon short footstalks ; thejlowers are small, white, numerous, 
and proceed in clusters near the footstalks of the leaves ; the ca- 
lyx is tubular, and divided at the brim into four small, erect, de- 
ciduous segments ; the corolla is a funnel-shaped petal, consisting 
of a short tube, about the length of the calyx, and divided at the 
border into four semi-ovate segments; \\\e filaments are two, ta- 
pering, opposite, and crowned with erect anthers ; the germen is 
round, and supports a simple, short style, furnished with a stigma, 
which is cleft in two, and each division notched at the apex ; the 
fruit is of the drupous kind, of an oblong or oval shape, contain- 
ing a nut of the same form. It is a native of the south of Europe, 
and also of the north of Africa; and flowers from June till 
August. 

The Olive, in all ages, has been greatly celebrated, and held 
in peculiar estimation, as the bounteous gift of Heaven ; and in 
gratitude to the Deity, it was formerly exhibited in the religious 

Vol. li.— 130. 




'2^4c^-^^'^^ 



NAT. ORDER. OLEACE.E. 1-31 

ceremonies of the Jews. It is still considered as emblemntic of 
peace and plenty ; and the great quantity of oil wliicli in some 
countries it produces, effectually realizes one of these blessings. 
The Olive has been long cultivated in the south part of England ; 
it is mentioned in the catalogues plantarum Horti Medici Oxoni- 
ensis, published in 1G48 ; and when sufficiently sheltered, it bears 
the cold very well, though in that country it rarely jjroduces 
flowers, and we believe never ripens its fruit. 

The varieties of this tree are numerous, distinguished not 
only by the form of their leaves, as already noticed, but also by 
the shape, size and color of the fruit ; as the large Spanish Olive, 
the small, oblong, Province Olive, the oblong, dark green Olive, 
the small, roundish, white Olive ; Aglandau, the large, fleshy, or 
Royal Olive ; the large, round Olive ; Ampoulan, the small, round, 
reddish black Olive, and the small, fragrant, or Luca Olive. Of 
these, the first two sorts, when pickled, are well known to us by 
the names of Spanish and French Olives, which to many are ex- 
tremely grateful, and have been supposed to excite aj^petite, and 
to promote digestion. Pickled Olives are prepared from the green, 
unripe fruit, which is i-epeatedly steeped in water, to which some 
add alkaline salt, or quick-lime, in order to shorten the operation ; 
for when macerated in water only, the Olives require a long tinie 
before their bitterness is sufficiently extracted. After this they 
are washed, and preserved in a pickle of common salt and water, 
to which an aromatic is sometimes added. 

The principal consumption of Olives is in the prejaaration of 
the common salad oil, or Oleum Olivarum of the pharmacopoeias, 
which is obtained by grinding and pressing them when thoroughly 
] ipe. The finer and purer oil issues first by gentle pressure, and 
inferior sorts on heating the residuum, and pressing it more strongly. 
The best Olive-oil is of a bright, jiale amber color, bland to the 
taste, and without any smell. It becomes rancid by age, and the 
sooner, if kept in a warm situation. By cold, at the 38th degree 



132 NAT. ORDER. OLEACEiE. 

of Fahrenheit, it congeals, and does not become rancid if kejit in 
a degree of cold equal to the freezing point of water. All the 
mild exjiressed oils of vegetables are nearly of the same nature ; 
a preference, however, in the opinion of Dr. CuUen, should be 
given to the most fluid ; and hence the oil of Olives, and that of 
Almonds, are most commonly directed for internal use. Oil, in 
some shape, forms a considerable part of our food, both animal and 
vegetable, and affords much nourishment : with some, however, 
oily substances do not unite with the contents of the stomach, and 
are frequently brought up by eructation. This happens more es- 
pecially to those whose stomachs abound with acid to an uncom- 
mon degree. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Oil, considered as a medicine, 
is supposed to correct acrimony, and to lubricate and relax the 
fibres, and has been recommended internally, therefore, to obviate 
tbe effects of various stimuli, which produce irritation, and con- 
sequent inflammation. On this ground it has generally been pre- 
scribed in coughs, catarrhal affections, and erosions. This oil has 
likewise been successfully used in worm cases, and in nejihritic 
pains, spasms, colics, constipations of the bowels, &c. Externally, 
it has been found a useful application to bites and stings of various 
poisonous animals, burns, tumors, and other affections, both by it- 
self, or as mixed in liniments or poultices. Oil rubbed over the 
body has been found by many of great service in dropsies, partic- 
ularly in ascites. In regard to the general effects of oil, taken in- 
ternally, we may remark, that though its effects as a medicine 
extend over the primae vias, yet it may be very rationally doubted 
if it produces any medicinal effect after jiassing into the sanguife- 
rous system. This oil also enters several officinal compositions; 
and wlien united with water, by the intervention of alkali, is 
usually given in coughs and hoarseness, &c. 



NAT. ORDER 

Papaveracece. 



PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM. WHITE POPPY. 

Class XIII. PoLYANDRiA. Order I. Monogynia. 

Gen. Char Corolla, four-petalled. Calyx, two-leaved. Capsule, 

one-celled, opening by pores, under the persistent stigma. 
Spe. Char. Calyces and Capsules, smooth. Leaves, incised, and 

embracing the stem. 

The root is annual, tapering and branched ; the stalk is round, 
smooth, erect, often branched, of a glaucous green color, and rises 
two or three feet in height ; the leaves are alternate, large, ovate, 
lobed, smooth, deeply cut into various segments, and closely em- 
brace the stalk ; the Jlowers are very large, terminal, and usually 
white or purplish ; the calyx consists of two leaves, which are 
ovate, smooth, concave, bifid, and fall off on the opening of the 
flower ; the corolla consists of four petals, which are large, round- 
ish, entire, undulated ; \\\ejilaments are numerous, slender, much 
shorter than the corolla, and furnished with oblong, erect, com- 
pressed anthers ; the germen is large, globular, and upon it is 
placed the stigma, which is large, flat, radiated, and forms a kind 
of crown ; the capsule is one-celled, smooth, divided half way into 
many cells, which open by several apertures beneath the crown, 
and contain a very large number of small white seeds. It is a 
native of Asia, and is found wild in the south of Europe, where 
the seed had probably been accidentally scattered. It is also cul- 
tivated in many parts of England. 

Vci. ii.— n3 



134 NAT. ORDER. PAPAVERACE^. 

This species is said to have been named White Poppy from 
the whiteness of its seeds ; a variety of it, however, is well knov^^n 
to produce black seeds. The double-flowered ^Vliite Poppy is 
also another variety ; but for medicinal purposes, any of these 
may be employed indiscriminately, as it is not possible to discover 
the least difference in their sensible qualities or effects. 

The seeds, according to some authors, possess a narcotic 
power, which we are inclined to think is very limited, and we can 
see no good foundation for this opinion. They consist of a simple 
farinaceous matter, united with a bland oil, and in many countries 
are eaten as food. As a medicine, they have usually been given 
in the form of emulsion, in catarrhs, stranguaries, &c. 

The heads, or capsules of the Poppy, which are directed for 
use in the Pharmacoj^oeias, like the stalks and leaves, have an un- 
pleasant smell, somewhat like that of opium, and an acrid, bitter 
taste. Both the smell and the taste reside in a milky juice, which 
is more abundant in the cortical jiart of the capsules, and in its 
concrete state constitutes the officinal opium. These capsules are 
powerfully narcotic, or anodyne ; boiled in water, they impart to 
the menstruum their narcotic juice, together with the other juices 
which they have in common with vegetable matter in general. 
The liquor, strongly pressed out, suffered to settle, clarified with 
whites of eggs, and evaporated to a due consistence, yields an ex- 
tract which is about one-fifth or one-sixth of the weight of the 
heads. This possesses the \drtues of opium, but requires to be 
given in double its dose, to answer the same intention, which it is 
said to perform without occasioning a nausea and giddiness, the 
usual effects of ojjium. This extract was first recommended by 
Mr. Arnot ; and a similar one is now received in both the Edin- 
burgh and United States Pharmacopoeias. It is found very con- 
venient to prepare the sirup from this extract, by dissolving one 
drachm in two pounds and a half of simple sirup. The Sin/pus 
•papaveris albi, as directed by both colleges, is a useful anodyne. 



NAT. ORDER. PAPAVERACE^E. .135 

and often succeeds in producing sleep, where opium fails. It is 
more especially adapted to children. White Poppy heads are 
also used externally, in fomentations, either alone, or more (re- 
qaeuilj added to the decoctufn pro fo?nento. 

Opium, as we have already observed, is obtained from the 
heads or capsules of this species of Pojjpy, and is imported into 
Europe and the United States from Persia, Arabia, and other warm 
regions of Asia. The manner in which it is collected has been de- 
scribed long ago by Koempfer and others ; but the most circum- 
stantial detail of the culture of the Poppy, and the method of 
procuring the opium from it, is that given by Mr. Kerr, as practised 
in the province of Bahar. He says : — " The field being well pre- 
pared by the {)lough and harrow, and reduced to an exact level 
superfice, it is then divided into quadrangular areas of seven feet 
long, and five feet in breadth, leaving two feet of interval, which 
is raised five or six inches, and excavated into an aqueduct, for 
conveying water to every part, for which purpose they have a well 
in every cultivated field. The seeds are sown in October or No- 
vember. The plants are allowed to grow six or eight inches dis- 
tant from each other, and are plentifully supplied with water. 
When the young plants are six or eight inches high, the}^ are 
watered more sparingly ; but the cultivator strews all over the 
areas a nutrient compost of ashes, and nitrous earth, scraped from 
the highways, and old mud walls. When the plants are near 
flowering, they are watered profusely, to increase the j nice. When 
the capsules are half grown, no more water is given, and thev be- 
gin to collect the opium. 

At sunset they make two longitudinal double incisions with a 
fine-pointed knife upon each half-ripe capsule, passing from below 
upwards, and taking care not to penetrate the internal cavity of 
the capsule. The incisions are repeated every evening, until each 
capsule has received six or eight wounds. They are then allowed 
to ripen their seeds. The ripe capsules afford little or no juice. 



136 NAT. ORDER. PAPAVERACEiE. 

II' tlic wouiul was made in the heat of the day, a cicatrix would 
be too soon formed. The night-dews, by their moisture, favor the 
exstillation of the juice. 

Early in the morning, old women, boys, and girls, collect the 
juice, by scraping it off the wounds with a small iron scoop, and 
deposit the whole in an earthen pot, where it is worked by 
the hand, in the open sunshine, until it becomes of a considerable 
mass. It is then formed into cakes of a globular shape, and about 
four pounds in weight, and laid into little earthen basins, to be 
further exsiccated. These cakes are covered over with the 
Pojipy or tobacco leaves, and dried, until they are fit for sale. 
Ojiium is frequently adulterated with cow-dung, the extract of 
ihe Poppy-^ilant, procured by boiling, and various other substances, 
which they keep in secrecy." Opium is here a considerable branch 
of commerce. There is from 600,000 to 800,000 pounds of it an- 
nually exjaorted from the Ganges. 

It appears to us highly probable, that the White Poppy might 
be cultivated for the purpose of obtaining opium to great advan- 
tage in this country. Alston says, " The milky juice, drawn by 
incision from the Poppy heads, and thickened either in the sun or 
shade, even in this country, has all the characters of good opium ; 
its color, consistence, taste, smell, faculties, phenomena, are all the 
same ; only, if carefully collected, it is more pure, and more free 
of feculencies." 

Similar remarks have also been made by others, to which we 
may add those of our own ; for during the last summer we at dif- 
ferent times made incisions in the gi-een capsules of the White 
Poppy (growing in our garden), from which we collected the 
juice, which soon acquired a due consistence, and was found, both 
by its sensible qualities and effects, to be of the first quality of 
opium. 

Opium, called Opium Thebaicum, from being anciently pre- 
pared chiefly at Thebes, has been a celebrated medicine from the 



Nat. order. PAPAVERACEiE. 137 

remotest times. It differs from the Meconium, which by the 
ancients was made of the expressed juice or decoction of the ^ 

Poppies. » 

Opium is imjiorted into this country in flat cakes, coverea < . 
with leaves, to prevent their sticking together ; it has a reddish 
brown color, and a strong, pecuHar smell ; its taste at first is nau- 
seous and bitter, but soon becomes acrid, and produces a slight 
warmth in the mouth. A watery tincture of it forms an ink, with 
a chalybeate solution. According to recent experiments, it ap- 
pears to consist of about five parts in twelve of gummy matter, 
four of resinous matter, and three of earthy, or other indissoluble 
imjjurities. For further particulars regarding the properties and 
their proportions, we would refer to the United States Dispen- 
sa:ory. " 

The use of this celebrated medicine, though not known to 
Hippocrates, can be clearly traced back to Diagoras, who was 
nearly- his cotemporary ; and its importance has ever since been 
gradually advanced by succeeding physicians of different nations. 
Its extensive practical utility, however, has not been long well un- 
derstood ; and in this country perhaps may be dated from the 
time of Sydenham. Opium is the chief narcotic now employed : 
it acts directly upon the nervous power, diminishing the sensibility, 
irritability, and mobility of the system ; and, according to a late 
ingenious author, in fi certain manner suspending the motion of 
the nervous fluid, to and from the brain, and thereby inducing 
sleep, one of its principal effects. From this sedative power of 
Opium, by which it allays pain, inordinate action, and restlessness, 
it naturally follows, that it may be employed with advantage in a 
great variety of diseases. Indeed, there is scarcely any disease 
in which, under some circumstances, its use is not found proper ; 
and though in many cases it fails of producing sleep, yet if taken 
in a full dose, it occasions a pleasant tranquillity of mind, and a 
drowsiness, which approaches to sleep, and which always refreshes 



j 38 NAT. ORDER. PAPAVERACEiE. 

the patient. Beside.s the sedative power of Opium, it is known to 
;vct more or less as a stimulant, exciting the motion of the blood ; 
but this increased action has been ingeniously, and, as we think, 
rationally ascribed to that general law of the animal economy, by 
■which any noxious influence is resisted by a consequent re-action 
of the system. By a certain conjoined effort of this sedative and 
stimulant effect. Opium has been thought to produce intoxication, 
a quality for which it is very much used in some of tlie eastern 
countries. 

We shall now proceed to consider the use of Opium in par- 
ticular diseases, beginning with fevers. 

In most continued fevers of this climate, though originating 
i'rom contagion, or certain corruptions of human effluvia, &c., 
there is at the beginning more or less of inflammatory diathesis : 
and while this continues. Opium would generally aggravate the 
svmptoms, and prove dangerous. Its use is likewise forbidden in 
the more advanced stage of this fever, whenever topical inflamma- 
tion of the brain is ascertained, which sometimes exists, and pro- 
<luces delirium, though other symptoms of the nervous and putrid 
kind prevail. But when irritation upon the brain is not of the 
inflammatory kind, and debility has made much progress ; or 
where delirium is accompanied with spasmodic affections. Opium 
is a sovereign remedy, and may be employed in large doses 
every eight hours, unless a remission of the symptoms, and sleep 
take place. 

In intei-mittent fevers. Opium, in combination with other med- 
icines, was much used by the ancients ; but since the introduction 
of the Peruvian bark, Opium is seldom trusted to for the cure of 
these disorders. This medicine, however, has been strongly re- 
commended as an effectual means of stopping the recurrence of 
the febrile paroxysms ; and has been given before the fit, in the 
cold stage, in the hot stage, and during the interval, with the best 
effects, producing immedis^te relief, and in a short time cui'lng the 



NAT. ORDEH. PAPAVERACE-«. 139 

patient, without leaving those abdominal obstructions which have 
been ascribed to the bark. But in these fevers we think the 
best practice is to unite Opium with the bark, which enables the 
stomach to bear the latter in larger doses, and adds considerably 
to its efficacy. 

In inflammatory diseases, the use of Opium has been much 
condemned ; and by some has been established as a general rule, 
that Opium is improper in all those diseases in which bleeding has 
been thought necessary : this, however, has been much disputed ; 
and there are certainly numerous exceptions to it, which we will 
recite in the words of Dr. Cullen. " Such are those cases in which 
the inflammatory state arises from irritation in a particular part, 
producing spasm, and supervening inflammation. Tlius, in cases 
of jaundice, I have found a biliary stone, in passing the biliary 
ducts, give such an irritation, as to produce a considerable inflam- 
matory state in the system ; and though I have found it necessary, 
for moderating this, to employ blood-letting, yet, as I considered 
the passage of the stone to be chiefly interrupted by a spasmodic 
constriction of the ducts, I have employed Opium for taking off 
this, with great advantage. Similar circumstances have frequently 
occurred in the case of urinary calculi passing the urelers, 
in which I have found it necessary to employ Opium, and suitable 
medicines for equalizing the blood, at the same time. 

In like manner as Oi^ium is useful in moderating excretions, 
so when the irritation occasions an increase of these excretions, 
which is attended with affections which irritate the whole system, 
Opium becomes especially useful. Hence it becomes so generally 
useful in catan-hal affections, and the cough attending them ; and 
I^robably it is this analogy that has brought the use of Opium to 
be frequently emjiloyed in pneumonic inflammations. It is possi- 
ble that there may be cases of sucli inflammations wherein the 
Opium may be more useful in taking off the cough, than hurtful 
by aggravating the inflammatory state of the system ; but I have 



140 NAT. ORDER. PAPAVERACEiE. 

nardly met with such cases ; and even in the recent state of ca- 
tarrhs from cokl, I have found the early use of Opium hurtful ; 
and in cases of pnemonic inflammation, I have always found it to 
be very much so, if exhibited before the violence of the disease 
had been moderated by repeated doses of a medicine of a nutral- 
izing quality. "Wlien that indeed has been done, T have found the 
Opium very useful in quieting the cough, and I have hardly ever 
found it hurtful by stopping the expectoration. It may suspend 
this for some hours ; but if the glands of the bronchia have been 
duly relaxed by suitable applications, the expectoration, after the 
use of opiates, always returns with more advantage than before. 
The mucus which had issued before, had been poured out from 
tne follicles in an acrid state ; but, by being made to stagnate, it 
becomes milder, and is discharged in what the ancients called a 
concocted state, with more relief to the lungs." 

When Opium is so managed as to procure sweat, it will tend 
to remove an inflammatory state of the system, and 'may prove 
generally useful. A notable instance of this may be observed in 
the cure of acute rheumatism, by means of Dover's powder. 

In the small-pox, Opium, since the time of Sydenham, has 
been generally and successfully prescribed, especially after the 
fifth day of the disease ; but, during the first stage of the eruptive 
fever, we are told that it always does harm ; an ojoinion which 
our experience in the treatment of small-pox in this city warrants 
us to contradict ; for even at that period of the disorder, we often 
find the pulse languid, and the countenance pale, though pains in 
the loins and head are at the same time very severe. These 
symptoms, with restlessness, and other signs of irritability, which 
appear for some days after the attack of the disease, are con- 
.siderably relieved by Opium ; taking care always to keep the 
bowels sufficiently open, by a free use of the Podophyllum pel- 
tatum. 
. In hcemorrhagic disorders, the use of Opium is inferred from 



NAT. ORDER. PAPAVERACE^. 141 

its known effects in restraining all the excretions, except that of 
sweat ; but unless the hoemorrhages be of the passive kind, or ex- 
cited by irritation, unattended with inflammation. Opium may pro- 
duce considerable mischief, and therefore its use in these com- 
plaints requires great caution and judgment. 

In dysentery. Opium, though not to be considered as a rem- 
edy, may, however, be occasionally employed to moderate the 
violence of the symptoms. 

In diarrhoea, especially when the acrimony has been carried 
off by a continuance of the disease. Opium is a certain and effica- 
cious remedy. In cholera and pyrosis, Opium is the remedy 
chiefly trusted to. 

In colic it is employed with laxatives ; and no doubt often 
2)revents ileus and inflammation, by relieving the spasm. Even in 
ileus and in incarcerated hernia, it is often found to allay the vom- 
iting, the spasms, the pain, and sometimes to diminish the inflam- 
mation, and prevent the gangrene of the strangulated gut 

Opium has been recommended for the cure of venereal ; and 
instances are related where it jaroved successful, where mercuiy 
failed ; yet {ew practitioners, we apprehend, will trust to either 
one alone in these com^jlaints. Its use in preventing and stopping 
t!ie progress of gangrene is well established. 

Opium is successfully used in different species of tetanus, and 
affords relief to various spasmodic and convulsive symptoms oc- 
curring in several diseases, which it would exceed our limits to 
describe particularly. Of these we may mention asthma, epilep- 
sy, dyspepsia, hypochondriasis, rabies canina, chorea sancti viti, 
mania, &c. 

Respecting the external application of Opium, authors seem 
not sufficiently agreed. Some contend that when applied to the 
skin it allays pain and spasm, procures sleep, and produces all the 
salutary or dangerous effects which result from its internal use ; 
while others assert that thus applied it has little or no effect 



142 NAT. ORDER. PAPAVERACE.(E. 

whatever. But there is no doubt, that, when mixed with caustic, 
it diminishes the pain which would otherwise ensue, probably by 
decreasing the sensibility of the part. Injected up the rectum, it 
has all the effects of Opium taken into the stomach ; but to answer 
this purpose, double the quantity is to be em23loyed. Applied to 
the naked nerves of animals, it produces immediate torpor, and 
loss of 2'>ower in all the muscles with which the nerves communi- 
cate. Opium, taken into the stomach, in an immoderate dose, 
proves a narcotic poison, producing vertigo, tremors, convulsions, 
delirium, stupor, stertor, and finally, fatal apoplexy. 

The officinal preparations of this drug are Opium purifi- 
catum, pilul(B ex opio, ^nilvis opiatus, tinctura opii, and tinctura opii 
campliorata : it also entei-s the pulois sudorificus, halsamum anody- 
num, electuarium japonicum, pulvis e creta composita, &c. 

The requisite dose of Opium varies in different persons, and 
in different states of the same person. A quarter of a grain will 
in one adult produce effects which ten times the quantity will not 
do in another ; and a dose that might prove fatal in cholera or 
colic, would not be perceptible in many cases of tetanus or mania. 
The smallest fatal dose, to those unaccustomed to take it, seems 
to be about four grains ; but a dangerous dose is so apt to produce 
vomiting, that it has seldom time to produce death. When given 
in too small a dose, it often produces disturbed sleep, and other 
disagreeable consequences ; and in some cases it seems impossible 
to be made to agree in any dose or form. Often, on the other 
hand, from a small dose sound sleep and alleviation of pain will be 
produced, while a larger one occasions vertigo and delirium. Some 
prefer the repetition of small doses ; others the giving a full dose 
at once, when its operation lasts about eight hours. 

It is well known, that by the continued use of Opium, the 
dose requires to be increased, to produce the eflTect desired ; and 
we are told of some instances in which it was increased to ten 
drachms a day 



NAT. ORDER 

Artocarpece. 



ARTOCARPUS INCISA. BREAD-FRUIT TREE 

Class XXI. MoNCECiA. Order I. Monandria. 

Gen. Ch<ir. Flotvcrs, monoecios, in heads or catkins. Calyx, 

with an uncertain number of divisions. 
Spe. Char. Male Calyx, two-valved. Corolla, wanting. Style, 

one. Drupe, many-celled. 

The Bread-fruit, ^r/ora?j7M.s ^?^c^5a, grows on a tree about* 
thirty feet in height ; the leaves are large, being from eighteen to 
twenty inches wide, and from two to three feet long, pinnatified, 
and deeply gashed; the fruit is about the shape and size of a 
child's head, with a rough and net-like surface ; the skin is thin, 
and it has a small core at the centre, which is nearly as white as 
snow, and somewhat of the consistence of new bread 

Though this tree has been mentioned by many voyagers, and 
particularly by Dampier, Rumphius, and Lord Anson, yet very 
little notice seems to have been taken of it, until the return of 
Capt Wallis from the South Seas ; and since that time by others 
who have touched at Otaheite, and some other countries in the 
East Indies. Capt. Dampier relates, that in Guam, one of the 
Ladrone Islands, " there is a certain fruit called the Bread-fruit, 
growing on a tree, which is about the size of our apple-trees, 
with large dark leaves. The fruit is round, and grows on the 
boughs like apples, and is of the size of a small loaf of bread ; 
when ripe it turns yellow, soft, and sweet ; but the natives take it 

Vol ii.— 143. 



144 NAT. ORDER. ARTOCARPE^E. 

green, and bake it in an oven, until the rind is black ; this they 
scrape off; and eat the inside, which is soft and white, like the 
inside of new baked bread, having neither seed nor stone ; but if 
it is kept above twenty-four hours it is harsh. As this fruit is in 
season eight months in the year, the natives feed upon no other 
sort of bread during that time," of which we are informed the 
Ladrone Islands pi'oduce large quantities. 

We have also been informed by captains of vessels, and sea- 
ncn, who have spent years in the countries where the Bread-fruit 
s most plenty, that the fruit is shaped like a heart, and increases 
lo the size of a child's head. Its surface, or rind, is thick, green, 
and covered everywhere with warts, of a quadragonal or hexago- 
nal figure, like cut diamonds, but without points. The more flat 
and smooth these warts are, the less number of seeds are contained 
in the fruit, and the greater is the quantity of pith, and that of a 
more glutinous nature. The internal part of the rind, or peel, 
consists of a fleshy substance, full of twisted fibres, which have 
the appearance of fine wool. These adhere to, and in some 
measure foi-m it. The fleshy part of the fruit becomes softer to- 
wards the middle, where there is a small cavity formed, without 
any nuts or seeds, except in one species, which has but a small 
maiiber ; and this sort is not considered good, unless it is baked, 
or prepared in some other way : but, if the outward rind be taken 
olT, and the fibrous flesh dried, and afterwards boiled with meat, 
as we do cabbage, it has then the taste of Cynara, artichoke 
bottoms. The inhabitants of Amboyna dress it in the liquor of 
cocoa-nuts ; but they prefer it roasted on coals, till the outward 
part, or peel, is burnt. They afterwards cut it into pieces, and 
eat it with the milk of the cocoa-nut. Some people make fritters 
of it, or fry it in oil ; and others, as the Sumatrians, dry the inter- 
nal soft part, and keep it to use as bread, with other food. It af- 
fords a great quantity of nourishment, and is very satisfying; and 



NAT. ORDER. ARTOCARPE^. 145 

has been considered very proper for hard workuig people. It is 
of a gentle astringent quality ; and is good for persons of a laxa- 
tive habit. 

This fruit is more nourishing boiled after our manner, with 
fat meat, than roasted on coals. The milky juice which exudes 
from the trunk, boiled with the cocoa-nut oil, makes a very strong 
bird-lime. This tree is found on the eastern parts of Sumatra, 
and in the Malay language is called Soccus, and Soccum capus. It 
grows likewise on the Island of Java, in the towns of Bantam, 
Ballega, and Madura, and is there called Soccu?}i. 

Capt. Cook, in his voyage, observes, that this fruit not only 
serves as a substitute for bread among the inhabitants of Otaheite, 
and the neighboring islands, but, also, variously dressed, composes 
the principal part of their food. Of the Bread-fruit the natives 
make four dishes, by putting either water, or the milk of the cocoa- 
nut to it ; then beating it to a paste with a stone pestel ; and after- 
wards mixing it with ripe plantains, bananas, or the sour paste 
which they call mahie. 

The mahie, wliich is made to serve as succedaneum for ripe 
Bread-fruit, before the season comes on, is made by gathering the 
fruit of the Bread-ti-ee, just before it is perfectly ripe ; and then 
laid in heaps, closely covered with leaves. In this state it under- 
goes a fermentation, and becomes disagreeably sweet. The core 
is then taken out entire, which is done by gently pulling out the 
stalk ; and the rest of the fruit is thrown into a hole which is dug 
for that purpose, generally in the houses; and neatly lined on the 
bottom and sides with grass. The whole is then covered with 
leaves, and heavy stones laid upon them. In this state it undergoes 
a second fermentation, and becomes sour, after which it will suffer 
no change for many months. It is taken out of the hole as it is 
wanted for use ; and, being made into balls, it is wrapped up into 
leaves, and baked. After it is dre.ssed, it will keep five or six 
weeks. It is eaten both cold and hot ; and the natives seldom 



146 NAT. ORDER. ARTOCARPE/E. 

make a meal without it, though to us the taste is as disagreeable 
as that of a pickled olive, the first time it is eaten. The fruit 
continues good for eight months in the year, and the mahie sup- 
plies the inhabitants during the other four. 

To procure this most bounteous gift of the Creator, which is 
the principal article of their food, these happ}' people have no 
other trouble or labor, except climbing up the tree which produ- 
ces the Bread-fruit, and plucking it from the stems. It is said that 
this tree does not grow spontaneously ; but, as an ancient author 
has remarked, " if a man plants ten of these trees in his life time, 
which he can do in about one hour, he will as completely fulfil 
his duty to his own and future generations, as the native of our 
less temperate climate can do, by ploughing in the cold of winter, 
and reaping in the summer's heat, as often as these seasons return. 

There are two species of Artocarpus — the incisus, with gashed 
leaves ; and the integri/oHa, with entire leaves. There is also 
said to be another distinction, into that which bears fruit with 
Btones, or seeds, and that in which the fruit has none. The parts 
of fructification of that tree which beai's the fruit without stones, 
are defective. The amentum, or catkin, which contains the male 
parts, never expands. The style, or female part of the fruit, is 
likewise deficient ; from which it follows, that there can be no 
stones or seeds ; and, therefore, this tree can be propagated only 
by suckers or layers ; although it is abundantly evident that it 
must originally have proceeded from the seed-bearing Bread-fruit 
tree. Instances of this kind we sometimes find in both European 
and American fruits, such as the barberry, and the Corinthian 
grape from Zante, sometimes called currants. Dr. Scholander was 
assured by the oldest inhabitants of Otaheite, and the adjoining 
islands, that they well remember that there was formerly plenty 
of the seed-bearing Bread-fruit, but they had been neglected on 
account of the preference given to the bread-fruit without seeds, 
which they propagate by suckers. 




r^^'tr/z/v^p . 



NAT. ORDER 

Malvacece. 



ALTH^A OFFICINALIS. MARSH-MALLOW OF SURINAM. 

Class XVI. MoNADELPHiA. Order VIII. Polyandria. 

Gen. Char. Calyx, double ; the exterior, six or nine-cleft. Caj)- 

sules, numerous, one-seeded. 
Spe. Char. Leaves, simple, downy. 

The root is perennial, long, tough, white, and fibrous ; the 
stalk is upright, firm, wooley, somewhat branched towards the top, 
and rises from three to six feet in height ; the leaves are somewhat 
oval, or heart-shaped, commonly with a lobe on each side, pointed, 
irregularly serrated, covered with a soft down, and stand upon 
long, round footstalks ; the stipulm are two, narrow, and placed at 
the base of each leaf-stalk ; the jlowers are large, and consist of 
five petals, inversely heart-shaped, indented at the apex, and of a 
pale purple color ; the calyx is double, the exterior consisting of 
nine, and the interior of five narrow, pointed segments ; the sta- 
mens are numerous, united at the base, and terminated by kidney- 
shaped anthers; the germen is orbicular; the style is cylindrical, 
and furnished with many long, bristling stigmas ; the seeds are 
kidney-shaped, numerous, placed in a circle, and covered with an 
arillus. It is a native of Surinam ; but is found growing in many 
parts of England, and throughout the United States, near the sea 
shore, or about salt marshes. It flowers in August. 

The Althaea seems to have been favorably known to the an- 
cients, and has continued in general use by practitioners in every 
country where the science of medicine is regularly cultivated. At 
Surinam this plant is called okkerum, and is considered the most 

Vol, u.— 147. 



148 NAT. ORDER. MALVACEiE. 

elegant species of the Marsh-mallow. There are also several 
other species of the Althaea, which somewhat resemble each 
other, especially in the ajipearance of their flowers ; and possess 
similar properties. The A/thcea vulgaris, or common JNIarsh-mallow 
is a native of England, and has a perennial root, and an annual 
stalk, which perishes every autumn. The Altfuea hirsuta, or hairy 
Marsh-mallow, is a native of Spain and Portugal. It is a low 
plant, usually found trailing on the ground, unless supported by 
stakes. The AUhcea cannabina, or shrubby Marsh-mallow, is a 
native of Hungary and Austria. It has a woody stem, and rises 
to the height of four or five feet, with numerous branches. 

Though this variety of the Althaea is found naturally growing 
in salt marslie.s, vet it will thrive when transplanted in any soil, or 
in any situation, but will always grow larger in a moist than a dry 
eoil. It may be propagated by parting the roots in autumn, when 
tlie stalks decay, or by sowing the seeds in the spring. 

Medical I'ioperties and Uses. The dry roots of this plant, 
boiled in water, give out half their weight of a gummy matter, 
which, on evaporating the aqueous fluid, forms a flavorless, yellow 
mucilage. The leaves afford scarcely one-fourth of their weight; 
and the flowers and seeds still less. This glutinous or mucilaginous 
matter, with which the Althaea abounds, is the medicinal jjart of 
the plant, and is commonly emjiloyed for its emollient and demul- 
cent qualities. Its use is recommended where the natural mucus 
of membranes becomes acrid or abraded ; for obtunding and in- 
crassating acrimonious, thin fluids ; in ticklingr coughs, from an ir- 
ritable state of the fauces and lungs ; in hoarseness, erosions of 
the stomach and intestines; strangury; and for lubricating and 
relaxing the passages in nephritic and calculous complaints. The 
root is sometimes employed externally for softening and maturing 
hard tumors. The principle use of the root is that of a poultice ; 
and its use in sirup. In France the powdered root is used in the 
preparation of pills and electuaries. 



NAT. ORDER 

Iridece. 



IRIS SAMBUCINA. YELLOW OR PURPLE WATER-FLAG. 

Class III. Triandria. Order I. Monogynia. 
Gen. Char. Corolla, six-petalled, unequal. Petals, alternate, 
jointed, and spreading. Stigjnas, petal-form, cowled, two- 
lipped. ^ 
Spe. Char. Corolla, beardless. Interior Petals, less than the stig- 
mas. Leaves, ensiform. 

The root is perennial, about half an inch in thickness, of an 
irregular shape, horizontal, on the outside blackish, covered with 
ridged fibres, and puts forth many long, whitish, perpendicular, 
slender roots, which within are spongy, and of a yellowish red 
color ; the leaves which grow from the root are upright, broad, 
sword-shaped, and at the bottom riding or closely embracing each 
other ; those on the stalk are short, alternate, and sheathe the joints 
of the stem ; the stalk is upright, round, smooth, alternately in- 
clined from joint to joint; thejlowers are large, showy, of a pur- 
ple or yellow color, and stand upon short bi-anches, which proceed 
from the joints of the stem; the corolla divides into six segments 
or petals ; of these the three inner ones are small and erect ; the 
three outside are large, of a roundish, oval shape, turning back, 
and painted near the base with reddish lines ; the calyx is a sheath, 
or spathe, of two, three, or four valves, according to the number 
of the flowers ; the filaments are flat and tapering ; the anthers 
are oblong, yellowish at the edges, purplish, and bent down by 
the stigmas ; the germen is triangular, and placed below the co- 

Vol. U.--149. 



J 50 NAT. ORDER. IRIDEiE 

rolla ; the style is short and slender ; the stigma divides into three 
petalous expansions, of a yellow color ; these are oblong, bent 
down and outwards, and irregularly serrated at the extremity ; 
the capsule is triangular, and divided into three cells, which contain 
numerous flat seeds of a yellow color. 

This plant is common in marshes, and on the banks of rivers ; 
and is rendered quite conspicuous by its large and beautiful 
flowers, which a2:)pear in the beginning of July. It is said to be a 
native of the eastern parts of Europe ; but is found in most parts 
of the United States. It formerly had a place in the London 
Pharmacopieia, under the name of Gladeolus luteus. 

Medical Properties and Uses. The root, which is the part 
usually employed in medicine, is without smell, but has an acrid, 
stiptic taste ; and its juice, on being snuffed up the nostrils, pro- 
duces a burning heat in the nose and mouth, accompanied with a 
copius discharge from those organs: hence, it is recommended 
both as an errhine and sialagogue. This root is such a jDowerful 
astringent, that it has been used instead of galls, in the making of 
ink, and also for the purpose of dying black ; and from this quality 
it has been successfully employed as a medicine, for the cure of 
diarrhoeas. When given with this intention, however, the root is 
to be well dried ; for the fresh root and the juice are strongly ca- 
thartic ; so much so, that eighty drops of the latter produced re- 
peated evacuations, after jalap, gamboge, aloes, &c., had failed ; 
and by continuing its use in an increased dose, it cured a most 
obstinate case of dropsy. Dr. Rutherford mentions a case where 
he had used the most powerful cathartics, such as jalap, gamboge, 
calomel, &c., all proving ineffectual ; after which he ordered eighty 
drops of the Sticcus radicis, Iridis palustris, to be given every hour 
or two, in a little sirup of buckthorn, which had very immediate 
effects, making him pass several pints of water by stool, that very 
night. The expressed juice is likewise said to be a useful appli- 
cation to serpiginous eruptions, and scrofulous tumors. 



■?» 



NAT. ORDER 

SolanacecB. 



DATURA STRAMONIUM. COMMON THORN-APPLE 

Class V. Pentandria. Order I. Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Corolla, funnel-form, plaited. Calyx, tubular, angu- 
lar, deciduous. Capsules, four-valved. 

Spe. Char. Pericarp, sjjinous, erect, ovate. Leaves, ovate, 
smooth. 

The root is large, annual, white, divided, and fibrous ; the 
stalk is thick, erect, round, smooth, shining, below simple, above 
dicholomous, and rises from two to four feet in height ; the leaves 
are alternate, large, broad towards the base, pointed at the ex- 
tremity, indented, and formed into several obtuse angles, smooth, 
dark green, and stand upon strong, round, short foot-stalks ; the 
foioers are solitary, large, white, and placed on short, erect pedun- 
cles, at the junction of the branches; the calyx is composed of 
one leaf, tubular, pentangular, and divided at the brim into five 
teeth ; the corolla is white, monopetalous, funnel-shaped, plicated, 
cut at the margin into five teeth, and furnished with a long, cylin- 
drical tube ; the ^\e filaments are tapering, about the length of the 
calyx, adhering to the tube, and supplied with oblong, flat anthers ; 
the germen is oblong, and placed above the insertion of the co- 
rolla ; the style is filiform, equal in length to the filaments, and ter- 
minated by a thick, blunt stigma ; the capsule is large, oval, fleshy, 
beset with spines, divided into three cells, and four valves, which 
contain numerous kidney-shaped seeds. It grows wild in most 
parts of the United States, in waste places, gardens, and by the 
road-side ; and flowers in July. 

Vol. ii.— 151 



162 NAT. ORDER. SOLANACEJ!. 

This plant has been long known as a powerful narcotic 
poison. Its congener, Datura metel, is thought by Theophrastus 
and Dioscorides to be superior, and was therefore the species re- 
ceived by Linnaeus into the IMateria Medica. The Stramonium, 
in its recent state, has a bitterish taste, and a smell somewhat re- 
sembling that of poppies, or, as called by an ancient author, nar- 
cotic, especially if the leaves be rubbed between the fingers. By 
holding the plant to the nose for some time, or sleeping in a bed 
where the leaves are strewed, giddiness of the head, and stupor, 
are said to be produced. 

Instances of the deleterious effects of this plant are numerous, 
especially of the seeds, some of which we shall relate, for the 
purpose of conveying to the reader some idea of the symptoms 
which they produce. A man, aged sixty-nine, laboring under a 
calculous complaint, by mistake boiled the capsules of the Stra- 
monium in milk, and, in consequence of drinking of this decoc- 
tion, was affected with vertigo, dryness of the fauces, anxiety, fol- 
lowed by loss of voice and sense : the pulse became small and 
quick, the extremities cold, the limbs paralytic, the features distor- 
ted, accompanied by violent delirium, continual watchfulness, and 
a total suppression of all the evacuations; but in a few hours he 
was restored to perfect health. Many circumstances of a similai' 
character have come under our observation, showing in' every in- 
stance that this plant is a most deadly narcotic, and should be used 
with great caution. We lately saw several children poisoned with 
the roots of the Aconite, or monk's-hood, thrown into the street, in 
the suburbs of the city; also with the seed of the Stramoniuyn, or 
Thorn-apple ; both at the same time. Those that partook of the 
former were seized with very violent complaints of vomiting, an 
alarmint^ pain in the head, stomach and bowels ; the latter with 
blindness, and a kind of madness — biting, scratching, shrieking, 
lautjhing and crying, in a frightful manner. Many of them were 
very dangerously affected, and escaped very narrowly with liCe. 



NAT. ORDER. SOLANACE^E. 153 

These, and all other poisonous plants, taken out of gardens, should 
be carefully buried or burned. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Every part of this plant appears 
to possess a narcotic jjower ; but the seeds are the only pai'ts of 
whose fatal effects we find instances recorded. Their soporiferous 
and intoxicating qualities are well known in some parts of Europe ; 
and, if we can credit the accounts of some authoi's, have been 
converted into purposes the most licentious and dishonorable. 
The internal use of Stramonium, as well as that of several other 
deleterious plants which we have had occasion to notice, was first 
ventured upon and recommended by BarOn Stoerck, who gave an 
extract prepared of the expressed juice of this plant, with advan- 
tage, in cases of mania, epilepsy, and some other convulsive affec- 
tions. But as the success of this plant, even in the hands of the 
Baron, was not remarkable enough to claim any extraordinary 
praise, his account of the efficacy of the Stramonium probably 
would not have procured it a place in the Materia Medica, had its 
character rested solely upon its representation. Odhelius, a cele- 
brated ancient physician, says " that of fourteen patients suffering 
under epileptic and convulsive affections, to whom he gave the 
Stramonium, in a hospital, eight were completely cui-ed ; five were 
relieved ; and only one received no benefit." Wedenberg also 
relates his experience, where he cured four girls, affected with 
convulsive complaints, by the use of this medicine. Other instances 
of the kind might be added. Greding, however, who made many 
experiments, with a view to ascertain the efficacy of this plant, 
was not so successful ; for out of the great number of cases in 
which he employed the Stramonium, it was only in one instance 
that it effected a cure ; and he objected to the cases stated by Dr. 
Odhelius, on the ground that the patients were dismissed befoi-e 
sufficient time was allowed to know whether the disease would 
return again or not. 

In this country we are not acquainted with any practitioners 



154 NAT. ORDER. SOLANACE^E. 

whose experience would throw any light on the medical charac- 
ter of this plant. It appears to us, however, that its effects as a 
medicine are to be referred to no other power than that of a nar- 
cotic. Dr. Cullen, speaking on this subject, says, "I have no doubt 
that narcotics may be a remedy in certain cases of mania and ep- 
ilepsy ; but I have not, and I doubt if any other person has learned 
to distinguish the cases to which such remedies are properly 
adapted. It is, therefore, that we find the other narcotics, as well 
as the Stramonium, to fail in the same hands in which they had in 
other cases seemed to succeed. It is this consideration that has 
occasioned my negltcting the use of Stramonium, and therefore 
prevented me from speaking more precisely from my own ex- 
perience on this subject." 

The extract of this plant has been the preparation usually 
employed, and given in the quantity of from one to ten grains a 
day ; but the powdered leaves may be given in the quantity of 
two to six grains, according to circumstances. In procuring the 
extract, which is usually found for sale at the botanical and Sha- 
ker shops in this city, we find it to vary exceedingly in strength ; 
on which account but little I'eliance can be placed upon it. 

Externally, the Stramonium is used with great advantage, es- 
pecially in the treatment of old sores and ulcers. It is also quite 
extensively used for the piles, for which it has of late gained con- 
siderable celebrity. 

Unguentum Stramonii ; Stramonium Ointment. " Take of 
fresh Stramonium leaves, cut into j^ieces, and bruised with the 
pestle, a pound ; lard, three pounds ; yellow wax, half a pound. 
Boil the Stramonium leaves in the lard, until they become friable ; 
then strain through linen : lastly, add the wax, previously melted, 
and stir them until they are cold." — U. S. Dispensatory. 

Tinctura Stramonii ; Tincture of Stramonium. " Take of 
Stramonium seed, bruised, four ounces ; diluted alcohol, two pints. 
Macerate for fourteen days : express ; and filter through paper." 



NAT. ORDER 
Geraniacea. 



PELARGONroM QUERCIFOLIUM. GATH'S PERFECTION. 

<Class'XN\. MoNADELPHiA. Order III. Heptandria. — 

Gen. Char. Calyx, five-parted. Corolla, five-petalled, iaregular, 
Filaments, ten, unequal. 

Spe. Char. Petals, tricolor. Styles, five, filiform. 

The root is long, slender, knotty and fibrous ; the leaves are 
deeply serrated, and are placed upon long, slender footstalks, 
■which stand in pairs ; sepals five, persistent, more or less uneqtial ; 
with an imbricated asstivation; petals five, seldom four, in conse- 
quence of one being abortive ; the stamens usually monadelphous, 
hypogynous, two or three times as large as the petals, some occa- 
sionally abortive ; ovarium comj^osed of five pieces placed round 
an elevated axis, each one-celled, one-seeded ; ovula pendulous; 
styles five, cohering round the elongated axis ; fruit formed of five 
(pieces, cohering round alengthened, indurated axis; eachpiececon- 
sisting of one cell, containing one seed, having a membranous per- 
icarpium, and terminated by an indurated style, which finally curls 
back from the base upwards, carrying the pericarpium along with 
it ; the seeds are solitary, pendulous, and without albumen ; the 
embryo is somewhat curved ; the radicle is usually found pointing 
to the base of the cell ; the cotyledons are foliaceous, convolute, 
and plaited ; stems turned, and separate at the joints; /eaves either 
opposite or alternate ; in the latter case opposite the peduncles. 

For this beautiful species of the Geranium tribe, we are 
indebted to Mr. Carter, an artist of great merit. His spe- 

Vol. u.— IS5. 



156 NAT. ORDER. GERANIAOEiE. 

cimens of drawings, taken from nature, which we have seen 
are truly the richest productions that have graced the floral cata- 
logue ; and on which account the proprietor of this publication 
has at a great expense secured his services ; hence, our readers 
may in future expect original likenesses of many rare native plants, 
which have never been introduced into any work whatever. The 
Pelai-gonium quercifolium, in point of beauty, is thought to eclipse 
all that have hitherto been introduced into this country. Its blos- 
soms are certainly the most showy — in a collection of jilants, they 
are the first to attract the eye : the peculiarity of color, joined to 
their form, has induced some to fancy a resemblance between its 
flowers and those of the Heart's-ease. To the blossoms of the 
Lathyrus articulatus, in point of color, they bear a distant resem- 
blance. 

In our eagerness to lay before the public this striking novelty, 
we may possibly omit some circumstacce relative to its history and 
treatment, which future experience may develope. They will 
not, however, we trust, be very material. The plants which we 
have had an opportunity of seeing, have scarcely exceeded two 
feet in height, growing up with a shrubby stem, and expanding 
widely into numerous flowering branches. They are unusually 
disposed to produce flowers in a constant succession, so that during 
most of the summer months the plant is loaded with a profusion of 
bloom. These flowers, for the most part, go off without being 
followed by any seed ; and when any seed is produced, of which 
we have seen a few instances, there is generally one perfect and 
four abortive ; and frequently all of them fail. The blossoms 
vary in the number of their stamens. In many of the varieties, 
four are most generally apparent, three superior, and that very 
constantly, one inferior, and often two. We have never observed 
seven, the proper number of fertile stamens in a Pelargonium. 
In most of the sorts, the whole plant is covered with short, white 
hairs, which give to the foliage a somewhat silvery appearance. 



NAT. ORDER. GERANIACE.E. 157 

In many of these jalants, instances have occurred, in which 
one or more of the white petals have had a stripe of red in them ; 
and we have observed that the dark color at the base of the upper- 
most petals, is, in a certain degree, soluble in water ; for, on the 
plants being watered, the white petals have here and there become 
stained by the coloring matter proceeding from it, and which, in a 
diluted state, is of a purplish tint. As the flowers decay, this 
apparently black part, distinguished by the roughness of its sur- 
face, arising from prominent lucid points, and which essentially 
distinguish the species, is sometimes perforated with numerous 
small holes. It is a native of the Cape of Good Hope ; and the 
various varieties comprise the great majority of the entire Natural 
Order of this class of plants. ... 

Projyagation and Culture. Numerous varieties of the Gera- 
nium have been introduced into this country; and such attention 
bestowed uj^on their culture, that they have now become a common 
ornament in almost every parlor ; the accumulation of which, if 
placed in a tight room, is certainly very injurious to health. The 
following remarks upon the cultivation of this beautiful plant, are 
from the pen of Mr. Carter. He says : " This plant is increased 
by cuttings, and sometimes by seeds. To propagate them by cut- 
tings, take, after the plant has done flowering, a strong shoot of 
new wood ; and after cutting off the toj-), leaving not more than 
three buds, taking care to cut the bottom off at the eye or bud ; 
and plant it, one bud in the ground, and two out. Let the soil be 
of a light, rich loam — if convenient, after the following : — a rich, 
light soil, as mixture of loam and peat, with one-third decayed 
leaves ; drain well with charcoal, and be sure to keep them from 
the frost, as very little chill will destroy them." 

The cultivation and raising of plants, is becoming an object 
worthy the attention of every admirer and lover of nature's best 
gifts. The figure of the plant here described, was taken from 
the garden of the celebrated florist, Mr. Gath, of Providence ; 
hence, by Mr. Carter, to whom we are indebted for its likeness, it 



158 NAT. ORDER. GERANlACEiE. 

is sometimes called Gath's Perfection. There is ai innumerable 
number of plants comprising this order ; most of v.hich possess 
similar properties ; and many are highly celebrated for their 
beautiful ajipearance, as may be found in the various greenhouses 
throughout the country. Some of the most prominent and invi- 
ting are such as the Pelargonium echinahim, Prickly-stalked Gera- 
nium ; Pelargonium hicolor, Two-colored Crane's-bill ; Pelargonium 
acefosum, Sorrel Crane's-bill ; Pclargoniu7n tetragonum. Square- 
stalked Geranium ; Pelargonium glutinosum, Clammy Crane's-bill ; 
Pelargonium cordifolium, Birch -leaved Crane's-bill ; Pelargonium 
betulinnm, Heart-leaved Geranium ; Pelargonium tricolor, Three- 
colored Crane's-bill. These, with many other varieties, are very 
generally cultivated by ladies in this and other cities, not only as 
an ornament, but as rendering great assistance in the study of 
Botany. 

Medical Projjerties and Uses. Most of the jilants of this 
family are powerful astringents, and may be employed for all 
purposes for which astringents are apijlicable. The Geranium 
maculatum. Common Crane's-bill, is most generally preferred for 
medicinal purposes. Wood & Baclie, in their U. S. Dispensatory, 
say : " The absence of unpleasant taste, and all other offensive 
qualities, renders it peculiarly serviceable in the cases of infants^ 
or of persons with very delicate stomachs. Diarrhoea, chronic 
dysentery, cholera infantum in the latter stages, and the various 
haemorrhages, are the forms of disease in which it is most com- 
monly used, and with greatest advantage ; but care should be ta- 
ken before it is administered, that the condition of the system, 
and of the part affected, is such as not to contraindicate the use 
of astringents. As an application to indolent ulcers — an injection 
in gleet and leucorrhea ; a gargle in relaxation of the ovula, and 
apthous ulcerations of the throat, it answers the same purpose with 
kino, catechu, and other foreign remedies of similar character." 
The dose of the powder is twenty or thirty grains — the decoction, 
.one to two fluid ounces. 



K 




'^ 



NAT. ORDER 
RosacecB. 



HIBISCUS ROSA SINENSIS. CHINA-ROSE. 

Class XVI. MONADELPHIA. OrdcV V. POLYANDRIA. 

Gen. Char. Calyx double, outer many-leaved. Capsules, five- 
celled, with many seeds. 
Spe. Char. Leaves, sub-peltate, cordate, seven-angled, serrate. 
Stem, hisped. 

This is an evergreen shrub, and usually attains the height of 
four to six feet. Its appearance very much resembles the hazel- 
nut. The sepals are five, more or less united at the base with a 
valvate aestivation, often bearing external bracteas, forming an in.- 
volucrum ; petals of the same number as the sepals, hypogynous, 
with a twisted aestivation, either distinct, or adhering to the tube 
of the stamens ; stamens indefinite, of the same number as the 
petals ; filaments monadelphous ; anthers one-celled, reniform, 
bursting transversely ; ovarium formed by the union of several 
carpella round a common axis, which is distinct ; the styles are the 
eame number as the carpella, either united or distinct ; stigmas 
variable ; fruit either capsular or baccate, its carpella being mon- 
ospermous, and united in one ; seeds hairy ; albumen none, or in 
small quantity ; embryo curved, with twisted and double cotyledons ; 
leaves alternate, more or less divided ; peduncles axillary. 

Rumphius, in his Herbarium Amboinense, gives an excellent 
account of this beautiful native of the East Indies, accompanied 
by a representation of it, with double flowers, in which state it is 
more particularly cultivated in all the gardens in India, as well as 
China; and, according to his account, it grows to the full size of 

Vol. ii.— 159 



NAT. ORDER. ROSACEiE, 160 

mir hazel, and that it varies with white flowers. It is well known 
that the inhabitants of India are extremely partial to whatever is 
red — they consider it as a color which tends to exhilarate ; and 
hence they not only cultivate this plant universally, but use its 
flowers on all occasions of festivity ; and even in their sepulchral 
rites. There are also many other j^urposes to which these flowers 
are ajaplied, and which, however, is little consistent with their ele- 
gance and beauty — that of blacking shoes, whence their name of 
Rosce calceolaria : the shoes, after the color is imparted to them, 
are rubbed with the hand, to give them a gloss, and which there- 
by gives them a bluish tinge, to discharge which, they have recourse 
to lemon juice. 

With us, in this country, it flourishes only as a greenhouse 
plant, and blossoms very freely, during most of the summer 
months. The single blossoms last but a short time, yet their su- 
periority, arising from the curious and beautiful structure of the 
interior parts of the flowers, compensates well for the shortness of 
their duration. 

Medical Properties and Uses. The seeds have been considered 
stimulant and anti-spasmodic ; but are now used only in perfumery. 
The Arabs flavor their coffee with them. They have also been 
used to a considerable extent in the adulteration of musk. There 
is another species, the Hibiscus csculentus, or Ahelmoschus esculentus, 
which is cultivated under the name of okra, hendee, or go7nho, in 
various parts of Europe, principally for its fruit, which abounds in 
mucilage, and is much employed for thickening soup. The leaves 
are sometimes employed for preparing emollient poultices. This 
plant has also obtained considerable celebrity as a remedy for 
croup, taken internally in the form of decoction, and externally 
applied as a poultice. The decoction is prepared by adding one 
ounce of the dried leaves to one quart of diluted alcohol : let it 
stand for fourteen days : then filter. Dose, from two drachms, to 
half a fluid ounce : that of the powder, from five to ten grains. 



NAT. ORDER 

Iridece. 



GLADEOLUS TRISTIS. SaUARE-LEAVED CORN-FLAG. • 

Class III. Triandria. Order I. Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Corolla, six-23arted. Stamens, ascending. Anthers, 

turned outwards. '•?' 



Spe. Char. Calyx and Corolla, superior. Stame?is, three. Stig- 

mas, five. Style, one. 

LiNN^us gave to this species of Gladeolus the name o£ tristis, 
from the color of its flowers. The roof is long, knotty, white, and 
fibrous ; the stalk is upright, square, bearded, and rises from three 
to six feet in height ; the calyx and corolla are both superior, and 
their divisions partly cohering, but are sometimes entirely separate, 
and very ii-regular ; the petals are very short ; the stamens are 
three, and arise from the base of the sepals ; ihe filaments are dis- 
tinct or cornate ; anthers bursting externally, lengthwise, fixed by 
their base, and two-celled ; the ovariuvi is three-celled, and the 
cells many-seeded ; sttjle, one ; the stigmas are five in number, 
which are often petaoloid, and sometimes two-lipped ; the capsule 
is three-celled, three-valved, with a loculicidal dehiscence ; the 
seeds are attached to the inner angle of the cell, or to a central 
column, which becomes loose ; the albumen is corneous, or densely 
fleshy ; the emhryo is enclosed within it. It flowers in April and 
May, and gives forth a most agreeable fragrance. This sjjecies is 
a native of the Cape of Good Hope, and other parts of Africa, 
but is cultivated in many parts of England. 

The leaves, which so characteristically distinguish this spe- 
cies, are highly deserving of notice. Instances of such rarely oc- 
cur, as the bulbs produce numerous offsets, and the plant is pro- 

Vol.U.— ici. 



V 



J 62 NAT. ORDER. IRIDEiE 

pagated by them without difficulty, requiring about the same 
treatment as other plants of a similar character. Some authors 
describe the flowers as being painted in the most gay and lively 
colors ; but in all the specimens which we have seen, the blossoms 
have been of a pale, or faded, yellowish color, shaded in particu- 
lar parts with very fine pencillings, especially on the under side. 
]\Iost authors describe the flowering-stems as producing only two 
flowers. Linneeus has observed that they sometimes produce 
many ; and we have seen thetn do so, where the plant has grown 
in perfection. 

Medical Properties and Uses. Most of the plants comprising 
this order are more remarkable for their beautiful fugitive flowers 
than for utility. A few are stimulating ; some diuretic ; and quite 
a number purgative. The Gladeolus ^m^i* is a powerful cathartic, 
and has been used as such for many years in all the eastern coun- 
tries. In the United States, its use is but little known, and re- 
quires to be further investigated, and its properties more particu- 
larly defined, before it is brought into general jaractice. By some 
this plant has been considered as a powerful emmenagogue, and 
has been used for particular purposes, foi* which that class of 
plants are so notorious. 

The establishment of this class has occasioned considerable 
hypercriticism ; yet, as pointing out a change to be produced, it is 
equally proper with emetics or cathartics; nor is it an objection, 
that we must produce the change through some medium, and not 
by any direct action on the vessels themselves. All emmenagogues 
are generally or partially stimulants, tonics, or anti-spasmodics ; 
and hence have a direct action upon those organs which are cal- 
culated to promote heemorrhage. The dose of the extract is from 
two to five grains, which may safely be given three times a day 
That of the decoction is from half to a whole fluid ounce. Both 
the extract and decoction are prepared after the manner of other 
similar preparations. 




^^«f< 



/^/:^^^^^>e^l.y■^'l^^s-^. 



"1 



NAT. ORDER. 

Pomacece ' f 



PYRUSCYDONA. COMMON QUINCE TREE. 

Class XII. IcosANDRiA. Order IV. Pentagynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx, five-cleft. Petals, five. Pome, inferior, five* 

celled, many seeded. 
Spc. Char. Leaves, purplish, entire. Flowers, solitary. 

The Quince tree seldom rises very high, and is generally crooked 
and very much distorted ; it sends off numerous branches, and is 
covered with a brown bark ; the leaves are simple, roundish or oval, 
entire, on the upper side of a dusky green color, on the under whit- 
ish, and stand upon short footstalks ; the flowers are large, solitary, 
of a pale red or white color, and placed close to the axilte of the 
leaves ; the calyx is composed of one leaf, and divided into five 
spreading oval notched segments ; the corolla consists of five petals ; 
these are large, convex, roundish, and notched at their extremities ; 
the fllamcfits are about twenty, tapering, shorter than the corolla, 
inserted into the calyx, and furnished with simple anthers ; the 
germen is orbicular ; the styles are five, slender, nearly of the length 
of the filaments, and supplied with simple stigmas ; the fruit is of the 
apple kind, and divided at the centre into five membraneous 
cells, containing the seeds, which are oblong, angular, pointed at 
one end, obtuse at the other, on one side compressed, on the other 
flat, and covered with a brownish pelhcle. It is a native of Austria, 
and flowers in May and June. 

It appears from Pliny, that the malus Cydonia of the Greeks was, 
originally, brought from Cydon, in Crete ; hence the name Cydona. 
At present, the Quince tree is known to grow wild on the banks of 
the Danube, though in a much less luxuriant state than when culti- 
vated in our gardens, as may be found in almost every section of 

Vol. II.— I6S 



IGl NAT, ORDER. — POMACE/E. 

the United States. The form of the fruit approaches to that of the 
pear or apple, according to the different varieties of the species of 
tree from which it is produced, and which we have abeady no- 
ticed. 

Medical Properties mid Uses. The Quince has a very pleasant 
odor, and quite an austere taste ; its expressed juice, repeatedly 
taken in small quantities, is said to be coohng, astringent, and 
stomachic, and may be considered very useful in nausea, vomiting, 
nidorous eructations, and some kinds of alvinc fluxes. Formerly, 
this juice was ordered in the Lond. Pharm.to be made into a sirup; 
but the only preparation of the Quince which is now directed, 
is a mucilage of the seeds, made by boiling a drachm of the seeds 
in eight ounces of water until it acquires a proper consistence. 
This has been recommended in apthous affections, and excoriations 
of the mouth and fauces. It may be a more pleasant mucilage, but 
is certainly a much less efficacious one, than that of simple gums. 

Decoctum Cydonia. Lond. Decoction of Quince seeds. Take of 
Quince seeds, two drachms; distilled water a pint. Boil over a slow 
fire for ten minutes ; then strain, or filter through paper. This de- 
coction is viscid, nearly colorless, insipid, and inodorous, and con- 
sists chiefly of the mucilaginous principle of the Quince seeds dis- 
solved in water. The decoction is only employed externally, as it 
speedily undergoes decomposition, and it should be used immedi- 
ately after being prepared. 

The cultivation of the Quince has been, within the last few cen- 
tm-ies, extended to almost every part of the civilized Globe. Among 
the farmers, both in Europe and the United States, the Quince is 
universally planted in their gardens, and considered as the most de- 
licious luxury of the fruit kind. The most important purposes for 
which they were employed was that of making Quince sauce. This 
was done by quartering and coreing the fruit, and gently stewing it 
in sugar and molasses. The Quince is found in all the markets, 
where they command a ready sale, averaging from 75 cents to $1 50 
per hundred in number. 




2^*5^/-^ 



- <4*i//v< 



N AT. ORDER. 

Capparidece. 



CAPPARIS SPINOSA. COMMON CAPER-BUSH. 

Class XIII. PoLYANDRiA. Order I. Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx, four-leaved, coriaceous. Petals four. Stamens 

long. Berry corticose, one-celled, pedicelled. 
Spe. Char. Pedimcles one-flowered, solitary. Stipides spiny. 
Leaves, annual. Capsules, oval. 

The root of this shrub is woody and crooked ; the stem is trail- 
ing, round, and smooth ; the branches are alternate, spreading, often 
downy, leafy, and many-flowered ; tlie leaves are alternate, spread- 
ing, oval, or roundish, and stand on short footstalks, in the wild 
plant often terminated by a little sharp point, which disappears by 
culture, entire, veiny, succulent, bright green, deciduous ; Stipulce 
none ; but in their place are two spines at the base of the footstalks 
which are acute, somewhat recurved, yellowish, and nearly obliter- 
ated in the cultivated plant ; the Jlowers axe numerous, axillary, sol- 
itary, placed on short footstalks, without bracteas, large, handsome 
and inodorous ; thejlower-stalks are round and longer than the leaves ; 
the calyx consists of four unequal concave leaves, tipped with pur- 
ple ; the petals are much larger than the calyx, spreading, obovate, 
waved, white, and sometimes are found with a faint tincture of red ; 
the stamens are very numerous, the length of the petals, spreading, 
slender in the upper part, and of a pale purple like the anthers ; the 
germcn is oval, small, green, and stands on a round purplish footstalk, 
which is longer than the stamens ; tho stigma is smaU and blunt ; the 
capside is oblong, oval, and coriaceous. It is a native of the south 
of France, Italy, and the Levant. 



166 NAT. ORDER. CAPPARIDEJE. 

Dr. Smith, of whose figure and description of the caper-bush we 
have licrc availed ourselves, says, " it is surprising that this beau- 
tiful shrub, which is as common in the South of France as the bram- 
ble is with us, and which grows luxuriantly in the open air, when 
trained against a wall, even at Paris, should be almost unknown in 
the English and American gardens, where it can scarcely be made 
to flower, except in the greenliouse, and even then with all possible 
care." 

Medical Properties and Uses. The buds or unexpanded flowers 
of this plant, have been used for a long time as a common pickle , 
and for this purpose the smaller or younger buds arc preferred, 
they being the most tender, and better calculated for such purposes. 
This grateful pickle has the character of an antiscorbutic, and of 
removing hepatic and other visceral obstructions ; but the part of 
the plant which has been chiefly recommended for medicinal pur- 
poses, is the bark of the root. This is of a considerable thickness, 
externally of an ash color, and transversely wrinkled ; on drying, it 
rolls up into quills of about one-third of an inch in diameter ; its 
taste is somewhat aromatic, bitterish, and acrid. 

By Discorides, and other ancient writers, it was not thought of 
great efficacy as a deobstruent, and was generally employed in ob- 
structions of the liver and spleen, menstrual suppressions, and scia- 
tica ; in this view it has been used by Forestus and Sennertus ; and 
on the preservation of its deobstruent power, it was reckoned one 
of the five less aperient roots ; at present, however, it is discarded 
from practice, and is but little kno^Ti in medicine. We may further 
remark, that this is the only plant in the natural order Avhich has 
ever been considered medicinal. The dose of the bark prescribed 
is from four to ten grains ; that of the decoction, from two drachms 
to a fluid ounce. The decoction is made in proportions of one 
ounce of the bark of the root to one pint diluted alcohol, well mac- 
erated and filtered. 



NAT. ORDER. 

ScabridcB. 



HUMULUS LUPULUS. 



THE COMMON HOP. 



Pentandria. 

Corolla, none. 



Styles two. 



Class XXII. Dkecia. Order V. 
Gen. Char. Male : Calyx five-leaved. 

Seed, one, with a leafed calyx. 
Spe, char. none. 

The Hop is an indigenous, perennial plant, growing in hedges, 
flowering in June and July, and ripening its seeds in September. 
Sir J. E. Smith considers the hop as truly wild in England, notwith- 
standing the old distich — that 

" Turkej's, carp, hops, pickerel, and beer, 
Came into England all in one year." 

This is supposed to have been in Henry VIH's reign, when per- 
haps, hops were first used for making beer, and, (as has been the 
case with many other plants), might be imported from abroad, 
though really wild at home. The female plants are very extensive- 
ly cultivated at the present time both in England and the United 
States, principally for the use of brewers, who consume large quan- 
tities of the strobiles in the brewing of malt liquors. 

There is but one species of the genus Hamulus, the male and 
female flowers are on separate plants. The roots are branching, 
from which arise many long, twining, rough, angular, flexible stems, 
which support themselves by twining round bodies that may be 
placed near them ; the leaves are opposite, in pairs, petiolate, cor- 
date, or entire, serrated, of a dark green on the upper disc, paler 
beneath ; both the leaves and petioles arc scabrous, with minute 
prickles ; and at the base of each leaf-stalk are two intcrfoliaceous, 
entire, reflected, smooth, stipules ; the Jlowers are axillary or termi- 



168 NAT. OUDER. — SCABRID^. 

nal, and furnished wifh bractcas ; tlie males are in drooping panicles 
of a pale, greenish-yellow color ; the calyx consists of five, oblong 
concave, minutely serrated leaflets ; \\\e filaments are five, capillary, 
and supporting oblong anthers, which open at the apex by two pores ; 
the female flowers are in solitary, pendlous, ovate cones or strobiles, 
composed of membranous scales of a pale greenish color ; tubular, 
from being rolled in at the base, and containing the ^craiew which is 
small, supporting two short, subulate styles, tipped with awl-shaped, 
downy stigmas ; the seed, which is enclosed in the tubular part of 
the scale, is round, flattish, truncated, and of a bay brown color. 

The hop is not confined to England and America, but has been 
introduced into many other parts of the world. The culture of this 
plant was introduced into England from Flanders, about the year 
1524. From England into America at the time of its settlement. 
The strobiles were first used for preserving malt liquors in the lat- 
ter part of the reign of Henry VIII. ; but the prejudice against them 
continued for a long time, as the citizens of London, a century af- 
terwards, petitioned Parhament to prevent their use. 

At the season when the strobiles are sufficiently ripe, the plants 
are cut a foot or two from the ground, and the poles on which they 
are supported, pulled up. The strobiles are then carefully picked 
off", care being taken to separate those that are defective from those 
that are sound ; both kinds are carried to the kiln, for the purpose 
of drying as soon as possible after they are gathered. The heat 
of the kiln requires to be regulated Avith great nicety, to prevent 
their being dried too rapidly — to obviate this occurrence many kilns 
have two floors, on the upper one the greener hops are laid, and 
gradually dried, before being brought to support the heat of the 
lower floor. Charcoal is usually employed, as the other kinds of 
fuel are said to injure the flavor of the hops. The strobiles are 
considered sufficiently dried when they become crisp ; but they re- 
quu-e some degree of tenacity and touglmess, from lying in heaps 
on the floors of the store-houses, previous to their being bagged. 



NAT. OUDER. — SCABRID^. 169 

Sensible and Chemical Properties. — The dried strobiles have 
a pecuhar fragrant odor, and a very bitter, somewhat aromatic, and 
a shghtly astringent taste. New hops are of a pale, greenish- 
yellow hue, and appear like thin, transparent leaves ; by long 
keeping their color changes to a yellowish-brown. The watery 
infusion has a pale straw color, is rendered muddy by the mineral 
acids ; alkalies deepen its color ; it strikes an olive with sulphate 
of iron ; is jjrecipitatcd by solutions of nitrate of silver, tartarized 
antimony, superacetate of lead, and alcohol : and when rubbed 
Avith magnesia, or lime, a rod dipped in muriatic acid discovers the 
presence of ammonia. By distillation in water, an essential oil is 
obtained. The virtues of hops are extracted by alcohol, ether, and 
boiling water ; by long boiling the aromatic properties are dissipated. 

From the experiments of Dr. Ives of New York, it appears, that 
the active properties of hops reside in a powder, which may be rea- 
dily separated from the strobiles, by merely sifting in a fine sieve. 
This substance forms about one-sixth part of their weight, and to it 
Dr. Ives has given the name lupuUn. According to Dr. Ives' analy- 
sis, 120 grains of lupulin contain about — of tannin .5 grains, extrac- 
tive matter 10, bitter principle 11, wax 12, resin .36, lignum 46. — 
The extractive matter is soluble in water only ; the bitter principle 
is soluble in water and alcohol ; the wax is soluble only in alkalies 
and boiling ether ; the resin is soluble in ether and alcohol ; the 
aromatic and bitter properties of the lupulin are more readily and 
completely imbibed by alcohol than water, and much sooner by both 
when hot than when cold ; about five-eighths of lupulin are soluble 
in water, alcohol and ether, three-eighths being vegetable fibrous 
matter. M. Payer and A. Chevalier have confirmed Dr. Ives' opin- 
ion, that the properties of the hop reside in the lupuhn, or the yel- 
low grains which are scattered over the membranous scales of the 
strobiles. They also discovered a volatile oil in lupulin, which is 
similar in odor to the hop, but much more penetrating. The fol- 
lowing process has been practised by M. Planche, for purifying 
lupulin. 



170 NAT. ORDER. — .SCABRID^. 

" To separate the sand from the lupuhn — put it into water, shak«5 
it for a few minutes, decant that which is held in solution by the 
water, and a dark colored sand is deposited : repeat the process 
several times, and spread the lupulin which is insoluble in water, on 
bibulous paper ; let it drain and then dry it in the air, neither ex- 
posed to the sun, nor to a temperature above 76° Fahrenheit. It 
should be prepared yearly, and this cleansing process must be quickly 
conducted, or it will undergo a change." 

Medical Properties mid Uses. — Hops are narcotic, tonic, and 
diuretic. We are told by Dr. Maton, that, besides allaying pain 3.nd 
producing sleep, the preparations of hops reduce the frequency of 
the pulse, and increase its firmness in a very decided manner. One 
drachm of the tincture, and four grains of the extract, given once in 
six hours, reduced the pulsation from ninety-six to sixty in twenty- 
four hours. He found the extract very efficacious in allaying the 
pain in articular rheumatism, in which disease we have frequently 
administered both the tincture and the extract with much benefit to 
the patient. As a narcotic it is very inferior to opium ; but under 
certain circumstances, where opium disagrees, (which is not unfre- 
quently the case,) it will generally procure undisturbed and refresh- 
ing sleep. Dr. Ives observes, " with regard to the medicinal efficacy 
of hops, every accurate observer must acknowledge, that they pos- 
sess httle merit if administered according to the directions given in 
our pharmacopoeias. The quantity of proof spirit which enters into 
the tincture would produce stimulating effects, independent of any 
properties which it imbibes from the hops ; and although its action 
may be modified by their combined agency, so as, in some measure, 
to increase the cordial and invigorating influence of the alcohol, it is 
difficult to conceive, that the tonic or narcotic virtues of the hop 
should be sufficiently concentrated to produce much remedial be- 
nefit. It is otherwise with the pharmaceutical preparations of the 
lupidin which we have been accustomed to prescribe. 

From extensive observation and experience, I am confirmed in 
my opinion, that diseases which are the consequence of exhausted 



NAT. ORDER. SCABRID.^. 171 

excitability, or, more directly, of a deranged state of the stomach 
and bowels, are certainly much relieved by this medicine. It fre- 
quently induces sleep, and quiets nervous irritation, without causing 
costiveness, or imparing, hke opium, the tone of the stomach, and 
merely increasing primary disease. The preparation most common- 
ly used in this city, is the tincture prepared from the lupulin. In- 
quietude and watchfulness, connected with excessive irritability in 
all its gradations, from the restlessness consequent upon exhaustion 
and fatigue, to the most uncontrollable paroxysm of delirium tre- 
mens, are more frequently allayed by this remedy than any other in 
ordinary use. Another eligible mode of exhibiting the lupulin, is in 
pills. From two to four pills, each containing three grains of the 
powder, may be given at a dose. Dr. Desroches, who published a 
dissertation on the hop in 1803, supposed that its narcotic principle 
resided in the essential oil ; but is it not more than probable that 
this was a conjecture, arising from the imaginary soporific virtues 
of the hop-pillow? It requires much experience, and accurate ob- 
servation to speak confidently upon this subject ; but, from havinof 
frequently used the lupulin collected from old hops, in which little 
aroma seemed to remain, and also the extracts prepared by decoc- 
tions, by which process the essential oil is chiefly dissipated. I am 
still of opinion, that its narcotic properties reside in the resinous ex- 
tract : externally, an ointment compounded with the powder of the 
hop, and lard is recommended by Mr. Freake as an anodyne 
application to cancerous sores, and a decoction, used as a fo- 
mentation, affords much relief in painful tumefactions. A cata- 
plasm, made of an infusion of the strobiles, has been applied with 
decided benefit to the bowels, for inflammation, ague in the face, 
swellings of all kinds, bilious colic, and ill-conditioned ulcers. 

Mode of Employing Lupulin. Lupulin may be administered in 
form of extract, tincture, pills, powder, or sirup. The extract may 
be prepared either with the aqueous infusion, or with the de- 
coction; when prepared with the latter, it is equally bitter, but less 
aromatic. Dose, from five to ten grams. 



NAT. ORDER. 

Rotacece, 

CISTUS LADANIFERUS. GUM CISTUS. 

Class XIII. PoLYANDRiA. Order I. Moxogynia. 

Gen. Char. Corolla, five-petaled. Calyx, five-leaved, with two, and 

sometimes three of the leaflets smaller. 
Spe. Char. Leaves, ovate, nerveless, rugged. Calyx, lanceolate. 

Tins rare and beautiful plant, has seldom been known to exceed 
five feet in height ; its trunk and branches are covered with a dark, 
or brownish-colored bark ; the branches are simple ; the leaves are 
oblong, somewhat pointed, veined, viscous, valved, somewhat twisted, 
and stand in pairs upon short foot stalks, which embrace the stem ; 
the Jloivcrs are produced in succession at the extremities of the 
branches ; they are large, of a purple red color, and marked with 
dark spots near the base of the petals ; the calyx is divided into five 
large, crab-pointed, persistent segments ; the corolla is composed of 
five petals, which are large, roundish, spreading, and readily fall off 
on being touched ; the filaments are very nmiicrous, short, slender, 
and supplied with simple anthers of an orange color ; the germcn 
is oval, and supports a short style, which is furnished with a flat, 
circular stigma; the capsule is round, and contains a numerous 
quantity of small round seeds. 

Prof Miller, who was much admired as a distinguished bota- 
nist, speaking of this plant, says, " It is one of the most ornamental 
and hardy shrubs that we possess ; at once pleasing to the eye, and 
grateful to the smell. The whole plant in warm weather exudes a 
sweet glutinous substance, which has a very strong balsamic scent, 
so as to perfume the air to a great distance from the plant." Its 
blossoms, which appear in June and July in great profusion, exhibit 




i^^ny" W^^^i^. 



NAT. ORDER. — ROTACE.E. 173 

a remarkable instance of quickly-fading beauty, opening and ex- 
panding to the morning sun, and before night sti'ewing the ground 
with their elegant remains ; as each succeeding day produces new 
blossoms, this deciduous disposition of the petals, common to the 
genus, is the less to be regretted. It is a native of Spain and Por- 
tugal, and prefers a dry soil and warm situation, and in very severe 
seasons requires some kind of covering. It is readily increased by 
cuttings ; but Miller remarks that the best plants are raised from 
the seeds. 

One or two varieties have been found with varied leaves, and 
having petals without a dark spot at the base. This is not the plant 
from whence the officinal Ladanum of the shops is procured, though 
affording in warmer countries than this a similar gum, hence its 
name, ladanifera. This plant grows most plentifully on or near the 
sea shore, and consequently sand is occasionally mixed with the 
gum. The best sort is in dark colored black masses, of the consis- 
tence of a plaster, which grows still softer when handled : the other 
is in long rolls curled up, harder than the former, but of a paler 
color and of less value. 

Medical Properties and Uses. — In general this gum agrees in 
virtue with the balsam of Peru ; but it is rarely used except in 
external applications. It has an agreeable smell, and a light, pun- 
gent, bitterish taste. Rectified spirit of wine dissolves nearly the 
whole of the gum ; and water takes up the most of its smell and 
taste. By distillation with water an essential oil arises, leaving 
behind a brittle resin. 

Heat quickly destroys the specific flavor of this gum, which was 
formerly given as a pectoral and astringent in catarrhal affections 
and dysenteries ; but it is now confined to external use, in the form 
of a plaster. The plaster is made by taking, Pitius abies resina, 
Burgundy pitch, one pound ; Ci.slus ladani/crus resina, gum of the 
Cistus, one pound ; beeswax half a pound ; melt these together. 
This is an excellent compound for a plaster, and will be found valu- 
able where plasters are necessary. 



NAT. ORDER. 

CompositcB. 

TUSSILAGO FARFARA. COMMON COLTS-FOOT. 

Cla&s XIX. Syngenesia. Order II. Superflua. 

Gen. Char. Receptacle, naked. Paptis, simple. Calyx, scales equal, 
as Ions as the disk, somewhat membranaceous. 

Spe. Char. Scape, one flowered, imbricate. Leaves, subcordate, 
angular and toothed. 

The root is long, round, tapering, creeping, and sends off many 
small short fibres ; the stalks are furrowed, downy, simple, six or 
eight inches high, beset with several scaly leaves, of a brownish 
pink color, and closely embracing the stem ; the leaves are obtusely 
heart-shaped, angular, irregularly indented, above of a bright, green 
color, beneath white, downy, and stand upon long roundish radical 
footstalks ; the Jlowcrs are compound, large and yellow ; the Jlorcts 
in the disc are hermaphrodite, tubidar, the limb is cut into five acute 
segments, which curl outwardly ; the anthers, by uniting, form a 
tube, but their apices are separate and pointed; the germen is short; 
the style is filiform and longer than the anthers ; the stigma is round ; 
the jllorets at the circumference are female, tubular at their bases, 
and the limb is long and linear ; the germen is oblong ; the stignia 
bifid ; the seed is oblong, and of a pale brown color, crowned with 
simple down ; the calyx is cyhndrical ; the Icajlets are oblong, 
pointed, and alternately narrower. It is found most common in 
moist, clayey places, and the flowers appear sometimes before the 
leaves, which usually takes place in March and April. 

Medical Properties and Uses. — The sensible qualities of colts- 
' foot at the present time, arc not considered as being of much im- 
portance in the practice of medicine ; it has a rough mucilaginous 



»?. 




NAT. ORDER. COMPOSITE. 175 

taste, but no remarkable smell. The leaves have always been of 
great fame, as possessing demulcent and pectoral virtues ; of course 
it is esteemed useful in pulmonary consumption, coughs, asthmas, 
and in various catarrhal affections. Fuller recommends Colts-foot 
as a valuable medicine in scrofula ; and Dr. Cullen, who does not 
allow it any powers as a demulcent and expectorant, found it ser- 
viceable in some strumous affections. It may be used as tea, or 
given in the way of infusion, to which liquorice root or honey may 
be added. 

We might, without exception, cite every writer of the Materia 
Medica, as speaking in favor, except Dr. Cullen, who suspects that 
this plant has little virtue, as he has often employed it, but never 
found it either eminently demulcent or expectorant. Some ounces 
of the expressed juice of the fresh leaves were taken every day, and 
seemed to assist the healing of scrofulous sores ; even a strong de- 
coction of the dried leaves, employed as Fuller proposes, has seemed 
to answer the same purpose ; but both have occasionally failed. 

The leaves and flowers were smoked by the ancients for pulmo- 
nary complaints, and in some parts of Germany, this habit is still 
kept up, and by some used as a substitute for tobacco. The usual 
form of administration is that of decoction. An ounce or two of 
dried leaves may be boiled in two pints of water to a pint, of which 
a teacup-full may be given several times a day. The root of this 
plant is used for many other purposes ; on account of its agreeable 
odor and spicy taste, many people have been in the habit of carry- 
ing small pieces of the roots in their pockets for the purpose of 
chewing ; and it is reported by numbers who have used it in this 
way, that they have been relieved of dyspepsia, and weaknesses of 
the stomach. It has also been found useful, (after being reduced to 
powder,) as an addition to the catarrh snuff, rendering it more plea- 
sant, active, and agreeable to take. 



NAT. ORDER. 
CephcclidecB. 

CEPHiELIS IPECACUANHA. IPECACUAN. 

Class V. Pentandria. Order I. Moxogynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx, superior, quinquefied. Flowers in an involucred 
head. Corolla tubular. Stigma two-parted. Berry two-seeded. 
Receptacle chaffy. 

Spe. Char. Stem simple, ascending, somewhat shrubby, sarmentose 
Leaves ovate-lanceolate, somewhat pubescent. Head of 
Flowers terminal, pedunculated, solitary. Corolla five-cleft, 
chaffy. Bracteas large. Involucre tetraphyllous. 

The Cephcelis Ipecaciuinha is a perenniel plant, a native of Brazil, 
and in moist situations in the provinces of Rio Janeiro, Mariannia, 
Pernambuqua, Bahia, etc., inhabiting the woods, and flowering frona 
December to March. The root is simple, or somewhat branched, 
and furnished with a few short radicles; it is roundish, three or four 
inches in length and two or three lines in thickness, irregularly bent, 
externally of a brown color, and annulated with numerous promi- 
nent, unequal rings ; the steiii is procumbent at the base, rising 
from five to nine inches in height, round, the thickness of a hen's 
quill ; smooth, leafless, of a brownish color, luiotted at the lower 
part, and leafy towards the upper : after the first year it throws out 
a few knotty runners, from which, about six inches apart, new stems 
arise ; the itiferior leaves are caduous, so that not more than eight 
generally remain at the summit of each stem, where it flowers : they 
are nearly sessile, opposite, spreading, ovate, pointed at both ends, 
tliree or four inches long and less than two broad ; of a bright 
green on the upper surface, beneath of a whitish green color, pu- 
bescent, varied; at the base of each pair of leaves, is a pair of 



\ 



NAT. ORDER. CEPH^LH)^. 177 

short, fimbricated, withering stipules, embracing the stem ; the 
JloiDcrs are aggregated in a sohtary head, on a round, downy ybo^ 
stalk, terminating the stem ; somewhat drooping and encompassed 
by a four-leaved involucre ; the fords are sessile, from fifteen to 
twenty-four in number, interspersed with little bracteas; the calyx 
is very small, five-toothed, superior, persistent ; the corolla is mono- 
petalous, the border shorter than the tube ; woolly about the throat, 
swelling upwards, and divided into five, ovate, acute, spreading 
segments ; the f laments are short, capillary, inserted into the upper 
part of the tube, surrounded at their base with a short nectariferous 
rim, and bearing oblong, linear, erect anthers; the germen is ornate, 
surmounted by a thread-shaped style, as long as the tube, and ter- 
minated by two obtuse stigmas which are the length of the anthers ; 
the fruit is a one-celled berry, of a reddish-purple color, becoming 
wrinkled and black, and containing two smooth, oval seeds. \ 

Brown ipecacuan was first introduced into Europe about the 
middle of the last century ; but it is impossible to ascertain at what 
period this root was first made known for its emetic effects in this 
country. Piso published an account of it in 1618. Although the 
root of this plant has long been employed as an emetic, and as other- 
wise forming a valuable remedial agent in our list of materia medica ; 
yet the botanical characters of the plant itself were unknown, till 
Professor Brotero of Coimbra determined the genus to which it 
ought to be referred. According to Decandole, the term Ipecacu- 
anha, in South America, implies vomiting-root, and therefore it is 
implied to the roots of very different plants, such as the Asclepias 
currassavica, Cynanchum Ipecacuanha, Viola Parviflora, Viola Ipe- 
cacuanha, Viola calceoiaria, and Cynanchum tormentosum : and some- 
times to the Dorstenia brasiliensis, Dorstenia arifolia, and to the Eu- 
phorbia ipecacuanha. Two varieties of the root are brought to this 
country, packed in bales from Rio Janeiro, the brown and the white, 
but whether they be the roots of one and the same plant, or other- 
■wise, does not appear to be exactly determined. Accordino- to 
Mutis, the former is the root of the Ccphcelis, and the latter, on the 



lT8 NAT. ORDER. — CEPU^LID^. 

authority of M. Gomez, wc must suppose to be yielded by the 
Richardsotiia Brasiliensis. There is also a third variety, called black 
Ipecacunn, which is a native of Peru, and is exported from Cartha- 
gcnia to Cadiz. It is the root of the Psychotria cmetica. It is fusi- 
form, striated, articulated, but not annulatcd. White Ipecacuan is 
externally of a dirty white color, and turns brownish by drying, is 
simple, or little blanched, five or six lines thick, three inches long 
or upwards, attenuated at the extremities, variously contorted, with 
transverse finnular rugosities, but larger than those of the brown 
ipecacuan, its back is thick, white, internally softer than the brown, 
the woody part white, hard and fine as a thread. The brown ipe- 
cacuan is characterized by being contorted, wrinkled, and unequal 
in thickness, having a thick, black, deeply fissured, transversely 
covering a very small, central, woody part, so as to give the idea of 
a number of rings strung upon a thread. Its color varies with dif- 
ferent shades of brown and grey. In St. Domingo several species 
of Ruellia are denominated false ipecacuan. 

Sensible and Chemical Properties. — The root of Ipecacuan is 
inodorous, unless when reduced to powder, in which state it has a 
faint and somewhat unpleasant smell. The taste is nauseous, bitter, 
and slightly acrid. Boiling water takes up eight parts in twenty, 
proof spirit about six and a half, and alcohol four parts. Various 
experiments have been instituted by chemists to detect the particu- 
lar constituent to which Ipecacuanha owes its emetic quality. Ac- 
cording to the analysis of M. M. Pelleties and Magendie, the 
components of Ipecacuanha, are : Oil, 2 : Wax, 6 : Gum, 10 : 
Emetine, 16 : Starch, 40: Wood, 20 : Loss, 6 in 100. They also 
found that the cephaelis Ipecacuanha, Viola emetica, and Psychotira 
emetica contain a common principle which they named emetine ; to 
obtain, they digested the powdered root in double its weight in 
ether, in order to separate any fatty matter; the remainder was 
heated with four times its weight of highly rectified alcohol, until it 
ceased to become colored, even when aided by heat. The solution 
was evaporated to dryness and re-dissolved in water, acetate of lead 



NAT. ORDEK, RUTACE.E. 179 

Lastly, I would mention that the Bucku of our Pharmacopaeias, 
which has lately obtained so much celebrity as a sudorific, diuretic, 
and tonic ; such at least as I have examined and prescribed from our 
druggists, undoubtedly belongs to the present species. Hence, though 
others of the Dlosiua groupe may contain similar preperties, abound- 
ing, as they all do, in a strong aromatic odor, and glands filled with 
essential oil, yet by the Hottentots and those who gather Bucku for the 
European and American markets, preference is given to our Barosma 
crcnukita. The scent seems to me to be as powerful as that of any 
other of the tribe, but at the same time much more agreeable, and 
more resembling that of some mints. 

Barosma pulchella. Neat Barosma. This shrub grows from one 
to three feet in height; leaves crowded, ovate, quite smooth, with 
thickened, crenate-glandular margins; peduncles axillary, usually soli- 
tary, exceeding the leaves ; flowers pale-red. The Hottentots use 
the leaves of this plant, dried and powdered, under the name of 
Bucku, to mix with the greese with which they anoint themselves. 
It gives them so rank an odor, thatThunberg says he could not bear 
the smell of the men who drove his waggon. It is a native of the 
Cape of riood Hope, and flowers from September till February. 

Propagation and Culture. This is a genus of pretty little shrubs, 
which thrive best in a mixture of sand, peat, and a little turfy loam ; 
and cuttings taken from ripened wood, and planted in a pot of 
sand, with a bell-glass placed over them, will strike root readily and 
thrive well. 



NAT. ORDER 
Cactete. 



OPUNTIA BRASILIENSIS. BRAZILIAN PRICKL Y-PEAR. 

Class XI. IcosANDRiA. Older I. Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Sepals, numerous. Stamens, numerous, shorter tlian 
tlie petals. Sti/lc, cylindrical. Stigmas, many. 

Spe. Char. Berry, ovate. Petals, conivant. Flowers, red. Joints, 
obovate. 

The peculiar habit and mode of growth at once distinguish this 
species. It rises with a perfectly straiglit, erect, slender, but fiiin 
and stiff, round stem, to a height of from ten to twenty, or even thirty 
feet, very gradually tapering to a point from a diameter of two to 
six inches at the base, and furnished all the way up with short, 
mostly horizontal or declining branches, spreading round on all sides, 
and gradually becoming shorter upwards ; the whole ^:>/a?i^ resembles 
a straight taper ; pole, artificially dressed up with branches ; main 
stem perfectly round, continuous and straight tiiroughout ; branches 
horizontal, or declining, short ; the ultimate />/a/s are obovate, and 
resemble leaves in appearance and thickness, more than in any other 
described species of Opuntia ; being only about twice as thick as 
those of Cereus phyllanthus, or phyllanthoides, but stiffer ; the whole 
plant is a bright green inclining to yellow, especially in young or 
sickly plants ; the lower part of the stem only is brownish ash-color- 
ed; the flowers open in long succession, being abundantly produced 
all over the plant from the prominent parts of the edges of the ter- 
minal joints ; they are bright lemon-yellow, middle-sized ; when ex- 
panded, from an inch to an inch and-a-half in diameter ; and without 
Vol sv.— isa 



NAT. ORDER. CACTE^. 



181 



tube ; petals imbricated, sub-patent; the outer ones short, thick, and 
fleshy, the inner from iialf an inch to an inch long; style, longer than 
the stamens, pale-yellow, thickish, swollen downwards, solid, or with 
only a thread-like, central hollow towards the top ; stigma of gener- 
ally five, sometimes four, pale-yellow, finally ferruginous bordered, 
erect, subconnivant, ovate lobes ; filaments and anthers pale ; germen 
half or three quarters of an inch long, cup-shaped at top, uneven, 
bearing a minute, fleshy, ovate-globose, yellowish, deciduous leaf at 
the summit of each irregular tubercle, inside of which is a fascicle of 
short, minute, chestnut bristles; a vertical section discovers the cen- 
tral, subtriangular, cell-like ovarium, containing from one to five 
ovules ; frait subglobose, approaching to oval more or less, with the 
cup-shaped hollow at the top obsolete, so as to be often truncate, 
from an inch to an inch and-a-half in diameter, the color of a Mag- 
num-bonum Plum ; perfectly even, but furnished with short, dense 
fascicles, tufts, or branches, of rich chestnut-colored bristles, contras- 
ting beautifully with the delicate transparent yellow of the thin, 
smooth skin; a few of these are twice as long as the rest; all are 
extremely deciduous, brittle, and acute, so as to render the exami- 
nation of the fruit more than ordinarily troublesome. It is hardly 
possible to touch the plant when in fructification without getting 
the skin or closes full of these bristles ;. inside of the fruit pale yel- 
lowish-white, containing in the middle from one to four, much flat- 
tened, rather large round seeds, three or four lines in diameter, en- 
veloped in a singular, dense, cottony mass of fibres ; the fruit is rather 
agreeable, juicy, with a fine acid, somewhat resembling an indiffer- 
ent, hard-fleshed, or unripe Plum, with a smell and slight flavor 
like the leaf-stalks of garden Rhubarb. Its principal flowering sea- 
son is May and June. 



NAT. ORDER. 

Saxifragea. 



SAXIFRAGA LIGULATA. FRINGED SAXIFRAGR 

Class X. Decandria. Order II. Digynia. 

Gen. Char. Calyx, five, parted. Petals, five, on short claws. Sta- 
mens, ten. Capsules, adnate to tiie calyx. Seeds, numerous. 

Spe. Char. Leaves, obovate, subcordate. Floicers, pale-red, almost 
white. 

This plant has a thick woody root, bearing several large spread- 
ing, bright-green, broadly ovate leaves, beautifully ciliated at the 
margin, and frequently waved there also; i\\e petiole is short, thick, 
bearing a long, erect, ciliated sheath or ligule (whence the specific 
name) just above where it is set on the stem ; scales five or six inches 
long, with one or two hractcas, and terminated by a cymose panicle 
of large, handsome, white flowers, frequently tinged with rose-color; 
calyx obtuse and red at the base, and greener upwards, and five-cleft; 
corolla ot five, ohov ate j>cta Is-, with short claws; stamens ten; fda- 
ments erect, alternately shorter, rose-colored ; anthers reddish pur- 
ple ; germen free ; styles long, erect ; stigmas obtuse. 

ScLvi/raga jKtroia. Rock Saxifraga. This plant grows almost 
flat upon the ground, only rising from three to six inches in height; 
the leave.? are radical and palmately five-lobed ; cauline ones tripar- 
tite and cut ; peduncles are very long, one-flowered ; calycine seg- 
ments linear, acute ; petals obovate, truncate at the apex and emar- 
ginate, twice the length of the calyx ; the plant is diffusely braiiclied, 
and furnished with glanduliferious hairs; stems erect, branched at 
the base ; branches elongated fastigiate ; radical leaves on long peti- 

Vol. iv.— 188. 



NAT. ORDER. — SAXIFRAGES. 



183 



ole.s, somewhat reniform at the base; lobes obtuse; cauline leaves 
all petiolate ; upper cauline leaves undivided, acute at both ends ; 
peduncles and calyxes clothed with viscid down ; flowers white, 
much larger than those in many of the other species ; petals tripple 
nerved ; nerves simple. It is a native of IMount Baldo, among bro- 
ken rocks, and of the Alps of Corinthia ; also of North America, in 
alpine rivulets on the Rocky Mountains. It flowers in April and 
May. 

Saxifra^a hyponoidcs. Hypnum Saxifrage. This plant rises on- 
ly from three to eight inches high, gemmifei'ous ; surculi very long, 
procumbent; radical leaves five or three parted; surculine leaves 
simple, linear, stiff, ciliated, mucronately awned, furnished with 
ovate, acute, buds in the axils ; calycine segments triangularly ovate, 
awned ; petals roundish, obovate, white, tripple-nerved, rose-colored 
on the outside at the apex ; nerves siinple ; the herb is densely tuft- 
ed before flowering, quite glabrous, but afterwards becoming loose, 
surculose, and villous ; from two to four flowered. This is a native 
of the Alps of Switzerland, Austria, and Pyrenees. In Britain, in 
the north of England, Scotland, and North Wales, in both the Upper 
and Lower Canadas, on high rocky mountains ; as well as on lime- 
stone rocks, walls, and roofs in less elevated situations, abundantly. 
It flowers in April. 

Medical properties and Uses. Linnaeus describes the taste of this 
plant to be acrid and pungent, which we have not been able to dis- 
cover; neither the tubercles of the root, nor the leaves manifest to 
the organs of taste any quality likely to be of medicinal use, and 
therefore, though these species of Saxifrage has been long employed 
as a popular remedy in nephritic and gravelly disorders, yet we do 
not find either from its sensible qualities, or from any published 
instances of its efBcacy, that it deserves a place in the Materia 
Medica. 

The superstitious doctrine of Signatures suggested the use of the 
root, which is a good example of what Linnaeus has termed radix 



184 NAT. ORDER. SAXIFRaGE^. ,. 

granulata. The bulbs or tubercles of sudi roots answer an impor- 
tant purpose in vegetation, by supplying the plants with nourish- 
ment and moisture, and thereby enabling them to resist the effects 
of that drought to which the dry soils they inhabit peculiarly ex- 
pose them. 

Scdum Tekphiwn, one of the species, is admitted in the Materia 
Medica in the foreign pharmacopoeias ; it has not the acrid characters 
of the various species here figured, but on the contrary is bland and 
mucilaginous. It is said to be diuretic, and, according to Dr. With- 
ering, is used with success to cure the piles. Simper viv am tectorum 
(common house-leek) which is nearly allied to the Tdcphium in bo- 
tanical affinity, likewise abounds with a mucilaginous juice, said to 
be an useful application to burns, creeping ulcers, and in apthous 
cases. Cactus Opuntia (common Indian fig) and Portulaca oheracea 
(garden purslane) both of this natural order, afford a simular juice, 
which also has been applied to medical purposes. 

Propagation and Culture. Sa.xifraga is a most extensive genus of 
pretty alpine plants, the greater part of which are well adapted for 
rock-work, or to be grown on the sides of naked banks to hide the 
surface. Many of the more rare and tender kinds require to be 
grown in pots, in light sandy soil, and placed among other alpine 
plants, so that they may be protected by a frame in winter. The 
species belonging to sections Micranthes and Hirculus grow best in 
a peat soil, which should be kept rather moist. The species be- 
longing to the section Porphjreon are so very pretty little plants as 
to be worth growing in pots for ornaments, being clothed with ele- 
gant little red flowers early in the spring. A mixture of peat and 
sand suits them well. The varieties are all well suited to ornament 
the borders of flower-gardens. 



NAT. ORDER. 

Liliacece. -^,. 



TULIPA SYLVESTRIS. TURK'S-CAP, OR WILD TUJ.IP 

Class VI. Hexandria. Order I. Monogynia. 

Gen. Char. Petals, six. Stamens, six. Stigma, tliree-lobed. 

Spe. Char. Stem, one-flowered. Leaves, tapering to a point. 

This beautiful exotic plant rises about two feet in height ; its 
■flowers are large, yellow, roundish, and very beautiful to the eye ; 
the stalks, or stems, are generally one, and one-flowered ; thepetals 
are six in number, of a whitish color, but tipped with yellow ; the 
stamens are six, — three longer, and three shorter ; the stigma is 
three-lobed ; the leaves are inserted at the base, sword-like, fleshy, 
and firmly ribbed. It increases by throwing out a long fibre, at 
the extremity of which a bulb is produced, which shoots forth a 
new plant the next season. It is said to be a native of Holland, 
where it has been cultivated for four centuries. 

The name Tulip, originated from the Turkish word, Tulipan, 
which is the name the Turks give their Head-tyres, or caps ; and 
we in English, in conformity with this name, call it the Tulip, 
which somewhat resembles the Turk's cap. By modern writers 
upon the subject of Botany, but little can be gathered respecting 
the history and origin of this rare plant, although it is well 
known to have been cultivated for more than four hundred 
years ; yet, from a want of knowledge, or from some other 
imknown cause, this family of plants has been most wonder- 
fully neglected. Salmond, an ancient, but distinguished botanist, 
in his Herbal, describes three hundred and sixty-one different 
varieties of the Tulip Tribe, most of which were extensively 

Vol. u.— 187 



18S NAT. ORDER. — LILIACE.E. 

cultivated in various parts of Greece, both as ornaments, and 
for medicinal purposes. 

Propagation and Culture. To raise these plants from seed, 
great caution is necessary, that we select the best flowers — 
such as have become fully grown, and well ripened, as some- 
times the roots lose their fibres, and the stalks dry before 
the seed is half ripe. This seed is generally ready for gather- 
ing about the middle of July, or later, if the season proves 
backward, which can be known by the di'vness of the stalks, 
or opening of the seed-vessels. The whole plant should be 
taken with the roots, letting the seed remain in the pods till 
the first of October. It may then be taken out, and cleansed 
from the chaflf, and s.">wn in beds of fine sifted earth, care being 
taken that the seed is covered about half an inch in depth. 
About the end of June, the second year after sowing, they 
should be taken up, and the small roots cleansed, and set again 
in rows, at a wider distance, and so continued every other year, 
until they bear flowers, but altering the ground with fresh earth. 

Medical Froperties and Uses. The 7-oot is the jiart directed 
i'or medicine ; and if we are to give credit to the writings of 
the ancients, in regard to its effects, we shall describe it as 
possessing extraordinary properties for the removal of all pul- 
monary complaints. By the ancients, it was extensively used 
in coughs, catarrhs, consumptions, and more particularly as a 
generator of blood. The expressed juice of the plant was for- 
merly used, in doses of from one to three fluidrachms, taken 
every morning, and on going to bed. In this form it was given 
by them, as a tonic, acting chiefly on the urinary organs, both 
stimulating and exciting ; and was often administered for inflam- 
mation of the k'dneys, bladder and spleen. 



INDEX. 



LATIN NAMES. 

Aconitum napdlus 
Alium descendens 
Alstrameria pelegrina 
Ahhcea officinalis . 
Arlocarj)i.s inciaa 
Arum triphillum 
Arum trilohatum 
Dillbergia iridifolia 
Capparis spinosa 
Cassia elonsrata 
Cephaelis ijiecacuanfia . 
Cinchona oblongifolia 
Cistus ladaniferus 
Cocculus palmatus . 
Cojivallaria polygonatum 
Co?ivolvulus scammonia 
Cypripcdiuiii album 
Vnjihnc mczcrcum . 
Datura Stramonium 
Dendrobium Jimbriatum 
Enjthronium Americanum 
Fragraria Virginiana 
Genipa vanilla 
Gladeolus trislis . 
Hamulus lupului . 
Hibiscus rosa sinensis . 
IIijdran<rca hortensis 
Ilex vomitoria 







COMMON NAMES. 




Wolf's-bane, or Monk's-hood 


104 


Purple-headed Garlic 


. 57 


Alstroemeria, Spotted 


63 


Marsh-Mallow of Surinam . 


. 147 


Bread-fruit Tree 


143 


Wild Turnip— Wake-Robin 


. S.5 


Arum, Three-lobed 


Gl 


Billbergia, Drooping . 


. 79- 


Caper-bush, Common 


163 


Peruvian Senna . 


9 


Ipecacuan .... 


176 


Cinchona of the Andes 


. 27 


Gum Cistus .... 


172 


Calumba-Root . , 


. 82 


Solomon's Seal 


120 


Scammony, or Bindweed . 


. 67 


White Lady's-Slippcr . 


101 


Mezereon, Common . 


. 9-5 


Common Thorn Ajiple 


1.5 [ 


Dendrobium, Fringed 


65 


Dog's-tooth Violet 


. lOS 


Virginian Strawberry 


5 


Common Genipa 


. 70 


Square-leaved Corn-Flag 


161 


The Common Hop 


. 167 


China Rose, .... 


159 


China Hydrangea 


. 11 


South Sea Tea, or Holly 


115 



190 



INDEX. 



LATIN NAMES. 

Iris sambucina 
Lilhim candidum 
Lilium riiiladcljihictim 
Lobelia injlata 
Lobelia Sitrinamcnsis . 
Magnolia yulans 
Michuuxia campamiloides 
Nicotiana tabacum . 
Olea Eu}-opa:a 
Paonia peregrina . 
Papaver somniferum 
Pelargonium quercifolium 
Pinus balsamea 
Piper cubcba 
Poinciana pulchcrrima 
Pyrus cydona 
Rhododendron arboreum 
Rosa Semperflorens 
Rumcx acetosa 
Tlica .... 
Trillium latrifolinm 
Trillium sessile . 
Tiilipa sylvcstris 
Tussilagn farfara . 
Vitis vinifera 

COMMON NAMES. 

Alstrccmeria, Spotted . 
Arum, Thrce-lobed 
Balm of Gilead Fir . 
Billbcraria, Drooping- 
Bread-fruit Tree 
Calumba-Root 
Caper-bush, Common 
Cinchona of the Andes 



COMMON NAMES. 

Yellow or Purple Water-flag . 149 

Common White Lily . . . &9 

Orange, or Tiger Lily . . 21 

Indian Tobacco .... 15 

Shrubby Lobelia ... 53 
Umbrella Tree . . . .112 

Rough Michauxia ... 75 

Virginia Tobacco . . . 125 

European Olive Tree . . 130 

Peona of ihe Alps ... 13 
White Poppy . . .133 

Oath's Perfection . . , 155 

Balm of Gilead Fir . . . 39 

Cubebs, or Java Pepper . 184 

China Poinciana ... 43 

Common Quince Tree . . 163 

Rose Bay ..... 23 

Ever-blooming Rose . . 122 

Southern Sorrel .... 19 

Tea Tree .... 88 

Clover Treefoil .... 77 

Virginia Turnip . . . 110 

Turk's-Cap, or Wild Tulip . 1S9 

Common Colt's-foot . . . 174 

Common Grape-Vine . . 49 

LATIN NAMES. 

Alstrcemeria pelegrina , . 63 

Arum trilobatum ... 61 

Pinus balsamea .... 39 

Billbergia iridifolia ... 79 

Artocarpus incisa • . . 143 

Cocculus palmatus ... 82 

Capparis spinosa . . . 165 

Cinchona oblongifolia . . 27 



<>■ 



INDEX. 



191 



COMMON NAMES 

China Hydrangea . 
China Poinciana . . 
China Rose 
Clover Tree/oil . 
CoWs-foot, Common . 
Corn-flag, Square-leaved 
Cuhebs, or Java Peppef 
Dendrohlum, Fringed 
Dog's-tooth Violet 
Garlic, Purple-headed . 
Oath's Perfection 
Genipa, Common , 
Chape- Vine . 
Gum Cistus 

Hops, Common . , 
Ipecacuan . 

Ladi/s-Slippcr, White . 
Lily, White, or Common 
Lily, Orange or Tiger , 
Lobelia, Shrubby 
Marsh-Mallow of Surinam 
Mezereon, Common 
Michauxia, Rough 
Olive Tree, European 
Peona of the Alps 
Poppy, While 
Quince Tree 
Pose-Bay 

Rose, Ever-blooming 
Scammony, or Bindweed . 
Senna, Peruvian 
Solomon's Seal 
South Sea 'Tea, or Holly 
Sorrel, Southern 
Strawberry, Virginia . 



XATIN NAMES. 




. Hydrangea hortensis . • . 


■i li 


Poinciana pulcherrima . 


43 


. Hibiscus rosa sinensis 


. 15» 


Trillium latrifolium 


77 


. Tussilago farfara 


. 174 


Gladeolus tristis 


161 


. Piper cubeba 


. 184 


Dendrobium fimbriatum 


65 


. Erythronium Americanum . 


. lOS 


Alium descendens . 


67 


. Pelargonium quercifolium . 


. J «5 


Genipa vanilla 


70 


Vitis vinifera . . . 


49 


. Cistus ladaniferus . 


172 


Humulus lupulus 


. 167 


. Cephaelis ipecacuanha . 


176 


Cypripedium album . 


. 101 


. Lilium candidum . 


99 


Lilium Philadelphicum 


. s;.. 


. Lobelia Surinamensis 


53 


, . Althaea officinalis 


. 147 


Daphne mezereum 


. 95 


. Michauxia campanuloides 


76 


Olea Europaea . 


. 130 


. Pgeonia peregrina . 


13 


Papaver somniferum . 


. 133 


. Pyrus cydona 


163 


Rhododendron arboreum 


. 23 


. Rosa semperflorens 


122 


Convolvulus scammonia 


. 67 


. Cassia elongata 


9 


Convallaria polygonatum 


. 120 


. Ilex vomltoria 


115 


Rumex acetosa . 


. 19 


. Fragaria Virginiana 


5 



192 



INDEX. 



COMMON NAMES. 


LATIN NAMES. 




Tea Tree .... 


Thea 


. 88 


Thorn- Apple, Common . 


. Datura stramonium 


151 


Tobacco, Indian . . . 


Lobelia inflata . 


. 15 


Tobacco, Virginia 


. Nicotiana tabacum . 


125 


TurVs-Cap, or Wild Tulip . 


Tulipa sylvestris 


. 1S7 


Turnip, Virginia 


. Trillium latrifolium 


110 


Turnip, Wild— Wake-Robin . 


Arum triphillum 


. 35 


Umbrella Tree . 


. Magnolia yulans 


112 


Water-flag, Yellow or Purple 


Iris sambucina . 


. 149 


Wol/^t-bane, or Monk's-hood 


. Aconitum napellus 


lOi 



QK1 10 .5768 1855 V. 2 gen 

Strong, Asa B/The American flora : or hi 




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