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Accoant of a deserted gorge of the MiBBiBBippi near Minne- 
haha Falls. [lUustrated.] Uly S. Grant 1 

Qeoeric relations of Platyceros and Capalus. Chas. R. 

Ebtks e 

Tha Fermo-Garboniferous of Greenwood and Butler conn- 
ties, Kansas. [lUaBtrated. ] L, C. Woostbr 8 

On the contact of the Hnroniao and Laurentian rocks north 

of lake Enron. Alpekd E. Barlow . . . .^ 19 

Arterian water from the drift. Chab, W. Roi.fe 32 

The non-feldapathic intrusive rocks of Maryland and the 
course of their alteration. [Illustrated.] George H. 
Williams 35 

Ice-cliffs on Kowak river, Alaska, observed b; Lieut Cant- 
well. Israel C. Rubsell 49 

Reoteui of recent geological literature. — La Pfirlodo gUcfaIre, fitudl^ prln- 
cipalement en France et en Ijutsse, A. Falhan, S3. — Quaternary 
hlutory of Mono valley, California, Israbi. C. Russell, .'>4.^>n 
certain Devonian plants from Scotland, Sm William Dawson, r>6. 
— Tbe mammalia of (he Uinta formation, Willlau B. Scott and 
Hknbt F. Obborn, Sd. 

Recent PvbllaitUfni, 57. 

CoTTesp(»idenee.^Some further corrections of "North American geol- 
ogy and palBeontology," Will H. Suerzer, 54. — Miller's "North 
American Geology and Paleontology," S. A. Miller, 61. — Use of 
the term Laurentian and Champlain, In Geology, Jules Ma rcou, 
64. — Some observatlona on natural casts of crinolds and bla^tolds 
from the Burlington limestone, R. R. Rowlet, 66. — Modlolopsis 
oblonga, Jobbfh F. James, 67. 

Personal and SdenOfio mcuw, 68. 


harlea Albert Ashbumer [Portrait], Abthue Wjnslow, 
ower and Middle Taconic of Europe 

» [u], Jules MABCoti...' 

fl on MontJcnllpora, G. Rohinoir. , 

.he Lower and Middle Taconic of Europe and North Amer- 
ica [u], Jules MAHCoti..: 

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IV CoTttents. 

Eeview of recent geological Kteroture.— The CretaceoDs and Terttarr 
geology of the Berglpe-AIagoas basla of Brazil, John C. Braitosb, 
121. — Ooms and precious Siones, Geo. F. Kinsz, 123. — Deacrlptlona 
of new apeolos of fossils, Geo. P. Simpson, 122,— Catal<^ue of Min- 
erals, Oeo. L. Eholibh &. Co., 133. — First aanoal report of tlie 
Geological Survey of Teias, E. T. Di7>ibi.e, 123.— Hamtlnlte, a new 
mineral. Hidden £ Pehfield, 133. — A prellmlnarr annotat«d 
check-tial of the Cretaceoas Invertebrate fossils of Texas, Bobebt 
T. Hn-L, 1Z4. 

Becent PuWtartton*, 134- 

ConeepvnSfnix. — Genesis of the Arietldte, 128. — On the name " Lauren' 
tlan," Jos. P. James, 133. 

PersOTwt tmd SderrtVlc Weuw, 1 34. 


A Sketch of Richard Owen [Portrait], N. H. Winchbll 135 

The Carboniferons area of Central Texas. R. 8. Takb, . . 14& 

On the glaciatjon of the Northern part of the Cordil- 
lera, with an attempt to correlate the events of the gla- 
cial period in the Cordillera and Great Plains. Q-eobqe 
M. Dawson . * 153 

Notes on the characters of the £nipti\'e Bocks of the Lake 

Huron Region, HxRCtLD W. Faikbanks 162 

New Lamellibranehiata [Illnstrated], E. O. Uleioh 173 

EOiUorial CommfflU— The pre-natal history of the Geological Society of 
America, 181. 

BeiAew of recent geoXoyieoX H(€raiure.— Characteristics of volcanoes, with 
contributions of facts and principles from the Hawaiian Islands, 
Jab. D. Dana, 194.— Geology of the Lassan Peak district, J. S. 
DiLLKB, IBB- — The geographic development of northern New Jer- 
sey, Wm. M. Davis, 1B5.— The fossil butterflies of Florissant, 8am- 
TJEL H, 8CUDDBB, 197.— The geology of the Island of Mount Desert, 
N. S. Shai^bb, 197. 


The Thlckneas of the Devonian and Silurian Rocks of 

Western Central New York, Chas. S. Ph088er 199 

Artesian Wells in North an* South Dakota, Warbsn Up- 

HAM 211 

The Lower and Middle Taconic of Europe and North Am- 
erica [hi], JulksMarcou 221 

On the Cheyenne Sandstone and Neocomian Shales of Kan- 
sas, [i] F. W. Craqin 233 

Coal Meaanres of the Indian Territory, H. M. Chanck 238 

Olaciation of Eastern Canada, Robebt Chalmsbs 240 

Editariai Comment.— Snow Hall of Natural History at Lawrence, Kan- 
1 [Illustrated], 244.- What constitutes the Taconic Range of. 

Mountains? [Ilinstrated], 347. 

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C<mteni8. v 

Review of recera gentitgicallUernture.—Aa American Geological railway 
guide, Jamfm R. Macfarlane, 248.— Syuopsis ol American Car- 
bonic CalyptrtBidas, Charlks K. Kbyes, 348. — Meteoric Stones, 
Oeoroe F. Kunz, 249.— Cri no idea from the Lower Niagara lime- 
stone at Lockport, N. Y., E. N. S. RiNauEBRRQ, 350.- Nolcs on 
Radlolaria (rom the Lower Paleozoic beds of tlio south ot Scotland, 
Qbokos Jennings HiNUE, 3r>0.— Notes on tbe leaves ol Lirioden- 
dron, Theodob Holm, 251— Mineral rasourceB of Michigan, 
CttARtES D. Lawtoit, SSL- Annual report of the Department of 
Mlnes,_ New South Wales, for the year 1889, 258. 
CorrespondeTice.-EspIorfttion of the Indian Territory and the medial 
third of Red river, Rohekt T. Hir.i., 253,— The Texas Cretaceous, 
EoBBBT T. HiLi,, 253.— The Welwoods, John Bbtsoh, 353.— Pale- 
ontologlcal Notes from Indianapolis, E. W. Claypole [Illua- 
trated], 355. 

Femonal and ScUnMc News. — Iowa Academy of Sciences, Fourth An- 
nual Session, 361, — Geological Society o( America, 261.— American 
Association for the Advancement of Science, 361. 


The T&conic Iron Ores of Minnesota and of Weatern New 

England, N. H. Winchell and H. V. WlNCUELL. . . 263 

Stracture, Classification and Arrangement of American 

Paleozoic Crinoids into Families, S. A. Milleh [i] . . 275 

Pilot Enob: a Marine Cretaceous Volcano [Illustrated], 
Robert T. Hill ; With Notes on ita Petrography, by 
J. P. Kemp 28C 

The Northeastern Extension of the Iroquois Beach in New 

York, J. W. Spencer 294 

The Relations of the State and National Geological Surveys 
to each other, and to the Geologists of the Countiy, 
John C. Branner 295 

Editorial Comment.— Quebec not In conflict with the Taconic, 310. 

Jiepteu? o/Hecenl GcoJogtoal Literature. — The Iroquois beach: a chap- 
ter In the geological history of lake Ontario, J. W. Si'encer, 311.- 
NiCHOLBOK & Lyddeker's palcontology, 313. — Coal and plant- 
bearing beds of eastern Australia and Tasmania, O. Fbihtmantkl, 
aao. — Records of the Geological Survey of New South Wales, 331. — 
The fossil Fishes of the Hawkosbiiry series at (Josford, A. S. 
Woodward, 323.— Western Australian fossils, H. A. Kicholson, 
323. — Remarks on some fossil remains considered as a peculiar 
kind of marine plants, Leo LEsguBRBUX, 333. — Stollcjkaria and 
SyringosphiErlda;, P. M. Duscan, 333. — tJcographtcal distribution 
of fossil plants, Ward, 333. — The paleozoic tlshes of North Amer- 
ica, J. S. NEWBERBy, 323. — Fossil wood and lignite of the Potomac 
formation, P. H. Knowltos, 331. 

CorrespondcjKW. — The glaclation of the Cordillera and the Laurentide, 
ROHEBT Chalmkiis, 334. 

Personal and Scientific Neioa. — Meteorites of North Carolina; Mr. I. C 
Russel In Alaska ; Uonlophyllum pyramidale ; Western Society of 
Matnralists ; The rate of growth of corals, 325-8. 

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On the cauBc of the Glacial period. WARaEN Upiiam, . . . 
Structure, Clasaificatioa and Arrangement ol American 




Paleozoic Crinoida into Families, S. A. Miller [li] 

A great Quartzyte more recent than the Olenus schist, N, 

Recent Observations on some Canadian Rocks, Alexander 

The Brenham, Kiowa county, Kansas, Meteorites, N. H. 

WiNCHELL. and J. A. Dodge [ii]. [Illustrated].,.. 370 

New Lamellibrancbiata, B. 0. Ulricii [hi], [Illustrated] 375 

Review of Recent Geological Leterature. — Geological raconnaissance In 
southweaturn Kansas, Robkbt Hat, 389. — On some relations be- 
tween the Geologyor easCero Maine and New Brunswick, L. W. 
Bailby, 390. — Tbe glacial boundary in western Pennsylvania, Ohio, 
Kentucky, Indiana, and Illinois, Q. F. Wright, 390. 

^Isi of Recent Publications, 391. 

Correspondence. — The Pleistocene submergence of tbe islbmns of Pan- 
ama, Wakkbh Upham, 396. — Studies on Monticullpora, J. M. Niok- 
i.ES, 396. — Data for the determination ol earth-movements, E. H. 
WniiAMS, Jb., 400.— The Iroquois Beach, W. M. Davis, 400.— Car- 
cinosonia substituted for {^r; soma, B. W. Claifole, 400. 

Peremtal and ScienUflc NeiDB. — The organizing committee of the Int. 
Cong. Geologists, 400. — Mapping the drumllns of Massachusetts, 
402.— Gathering of scientists at Washington in 1891, 402. 

Indtn to Volume VI, 403. 

Index to volume vi 403 


l>.ige 30, note 3, read 1B51 for 1859. 

31, note 4, read vol. 9, for vol. 19. 

I'uge 62, 9th lino for superviancy road subattrvlency. 

201, 4th line from the bottom, ros,d 2TiO for 2701, 

269, 19th lino from the top, before '' of" Insert, be the equivalent. 

284, 7th line from bottom, road shape, Instead of shade. 

286~S00, for ash, or ashes, read debris. 

331 in (ootnotfl 17 for 256-8, read 265-8. 

332, line 15 for Nachoak road Nachvak. 

345, line T, for Biastoldte read Bla^toldi-a. 

347, tenth line from the bottom, for Tecunoerlnns read Techno- 

348, eighth line from the bottom, for fine read Sve. 
.I.'il, ninth lino from the bottom, tor (III) read (III). 
35T, fifteenth lino, tor Amerlcanus, road americanus. 

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ide from a moun- 
nt — ia due almost 
results which are 
ibly because they 
:3 and can still be 
nnels cut by great 
» usually termed 
smaller channels, 
B, will be briefly 
minor results of 
' assistance in the 
lich has been dis- 
of Pennsylvania.' 
vely insignificant 
ice in the general 
dly are of consid- 
. drainage basins, 
^ructure similar to 

ing, a distance of 
Amer. Nat v. ixtii. 

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2 The American Geologist. July, ism 

over eight miles, the Mississippi flows in a deep gorge of 
somewhat less than a fourth of a mile in width. The falls 
have receded from Ft. Snelling to their ])re8ent position since 
the retreat of the ice-sheet from within the limits of Minneso- 
ta.' Two miles above Ft. Snelling, Minnehaha creek enters 
the Mississippi through a small gorge from the west. The 
rocks of this region arc covered by drift averaging, where the 
river has cut through it, perhaps not more than thirty feet in 
thickness. Immediately below the drift occur the practically 
horizontal beds of Trenton limestone, having a thickness of 
twenty-seven feet, as is shown at the brink of Minnehaha falls. 
The upper and lower beds are of comparatively soft shales, but 
the greater part is of hard, compact limestone. The Trenton 
lies conformably on the St. Peter sandstone, which is quite 
friable, generally po-sseasing very little or no cementing mate- 
rial. The limestone forms the brink of every water-fall within 
this area, and in no place have the streams as yet cut entirely 
through the sandstone. 

From its falls to the Mississippi, Minnehaha creek flows in 
a narrow gorge cut through the Trenton and some thirty feet 
into the St. Peter. The upper part of this channel {the gorge 
proper of Minnehaha) is less than two hundred feet wide and 
extends eastward for about six hundred and fifty feet ; at this 
point the channel enters an older gorge and widens abruptly 
to twice its original width and thence continues in a south- 
easterly direction undiminished to the Mississippi, — a distance 
of two-thirds of a mile. From the point where the channel so 
suddenly expands, the older gorge not only runs, as before 
stated, southeastward to the river, hut also extends north- 
ward for some three hundred yards and ends abruptly.' Beyond 
the northern termination of this part of the gorge, which is now 
deserted, a low, level plain, much wider than the deeper 
channel below, passes northward and its upper end is seen to 
join the great gorge of the Mississippi at the top of the lime- 
stone ledge. Each Fide of this level area is sharply defined by 
a terrace sloping liack to the higher land on each side. 
These terraces evidently represent the banks of a former 

' V'df Geol. and Nat. Hist. Survey ot Miun., v. ii, pp. 313-n4l. 

'Prof. S. H. U'inchell and Pmt. C. F. WriRlit were the flrat to 
notice t)ie iiortiiwant extensiua of this gorge; the former called the 
wri;er's attention to it. 


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4 2%e Ameriean Oeohgitt. Jnif, mm 

present size and then, but not before, cut its channel down 
through the drift to the Trenton UmeBtone. As the hard lime- 
stone layers offered considerable resistance to erosion and as 
' the drift hanks offered much less, the river would he com- 
pelled to widen its channel rather than to deepen it ; thus a 
broad, shallow stream would result. That the river had worn 
down to the limestone and was flowing along its surface long 
before cutting its gorge is noticed in several places. It is 
especially well shown in the wide shallow channel above the 
ancient falls, where the limestone layers are everywhere at the 
surface, being covered by only a few inches of soil which has 
accumulated since the water was drained &om this channel. 
{Compare section CD.) 

Another subject of noteworthy interest in this connection is 
the fact that the river did not cut its gorge of the same width 
as the channel in which it was flowing just before wearing 
through the limestone. In many places are found the rem- 
nants of old river terraces several rods beyond the limits of 
the gorge. This is shown on a small scale in the deserted 
channel described, where the distance between the terraces is 
much greater than that between the walla of the gorge, and 
there are no intermediate banks showing a diminution of the 
water or a narrowing of the channel after these terraces were 
formed and before the gorge was cut. And again, the Mieais- 
aippi above the falls of St. Anthony has a much greater width 
than has the gorge below the falls. This could be explained 
by the stream's wearing away the limestone more rapidly at 
one side of the brink of the falls than at the other on account 
of its greater depth or on account of the softness of the rock ; 
ifoncebegunthis would be continued by additional water which 
would be drawn to this point, and so one side of the falls would 
recede more rapidly than the other ; and as a consequence, 
more and more water would be directed to this part of the 
channel until a portion of the brink had no water flowing over 
it, and would remain stationary. Thus it is probable that the 
river at first cut its gorge of width only sufficient to carry its 
volume of water ; the size of the gorge has since been slightly 
increased by other causes mentioned below. 

The effect of islands in rivers on the hastening of the final 
result of erosion, — the leveling of the drainage basin, — ^is of 
considerable importance. In the case under consideration 



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irant. 5 

re slowly than 
I ; hence one 
ils. But on 
gorges taken 
)y the Btream 

not directly 
it. That the 
; same width 
ue to the fact 
was enlarged 
channel. Ae 
f the Missis- 
jughout their 
ided that the 
^mained con- 
imparison of 
hat a smaller 
irger one ; the 
o the present 
—in the same 
.it a gorge of 
H. Winchell 
e falls of St. 

;' from this 
ut one-tenth 
;2) That the 
he volume of 
,h of Minne- 
Le to five, but 
o thirty. 
is almost im- 
)wed, for the 
k; but when 
hese streams 
rosion of its 

softer sand- 
bloeks of the 
;orge is often 
d by the rills 
n close prox- 

)v Google 

6 The American Qeologist. Jm 

imity to a fall is much narrower than it ie a short diet 
below that point. This element in the widening of a gor 
of some importance, but as it proceeds, unless the 
changes its course and wears into the bank, the tendeni 
to round off the sharp outlines and to make the. slopee i 
gentle, thus decreasing the rapidity of further erosion ii 
rock. This is very nicely shown in the deserted gorge, in 
the subduing process has gone on uninterruptedly anc 
banks are, although comparatively steep, not in the leasl 
pendicular, ae they formerly were ; the rock outcrops are 
cealed and almost completely protected from further en 
by debris washed down from above. The same thing is el 
at many points in the Mississippi gorge where the river 
not flow near the side of the gorge. The streams of 
region are by no means overloaded with suspended sedin 
so in addition to what material they transport from the i 
they are prepared to take up and carry away large amouc 
detritus from below the limestone. 

The effect of islands in a river would then be to decreas 
speed with which the river cuts back its channel, but t 
crease the total width of the channels cut. There would 
apparently be a larger amount of material removed in a ^ 
time; but even if the amount was not increased by tliisc: 
it would be by the additional sediment transported b; 
smaller streams. Hence the final effect is to accelerat 
rapidity of the leveling of the drainage basin. 

The depth of the gorge has not been taken into consii 
tion, as the river very rapidly cuts down into the aandf 
after it has once made an opening through the lime rock. 


By Charles R. Keves, 
In 1840 Conrad ' established the generic term Platycers 
a certain group of paleozoic gastcropods having P, ventria 
Con. for its typical representative. By most American 
some European writers since that time, this name has 
frequently used in the description of forma more or less cL 
resembling the type of Conrad's genus. Other terms, Acrot 
Orthonychin, Igoceras, etc., have been proposed from tin 
■Ann. Bept. N. Y. Geol, Eur., p. 205. 

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Capulug and Platyc&ras. — Keyea. 7 

time for forms now generally considered congeneric with PJa- 
tyceraa. But of late years many European authors have been 
inclined to regard the shells of the group in question as refer- 
able to the modern genus Capulus founded in 1810 by Mont- 
fort; though (Ehlert" has recently revived Phillips' Acroculia,' 
proposed in 1841. 

As regards the real generic characters of the different species, 
their specific limitations, rjingc of variability and the geologic 
and geographic distribution of the various forms, greater con- 
fusion perhaps nowhere exists among fossil mollusks than in 
the group under consideration. This want of agreement 
among writers concerning the main features presented by the 
individuals of the various species is directly traceable to a 
number of causes. These, however, need not be reviewed here. 
Nor is it the intention in the present note to attempt a removal 
of the difficulties; but merely to call attention to several per- 
tinent facts regarding the structural features of the fossil shells 
hitherto commonly referred to Platyceras of Conrad. 

The most salient characters of recent Capulus, as shown by 
the more typical shells, are the more or less obliquely conical 
form, the small, often closely incurved fpire, the broad, cam- 
pauulate, apertural ])ortion3 and the characteristic muscular 
impressions on the interior of the shell. The close relations of 
such paleozoic shells as Flati/ceras paralhim W. & W. and 
P. equilatervm Hall and the modern forms of Capulus, as C. 
hunffaricus Linn,, can hardly be denied after even a casual 
comparison. The affinites are not less striking in many of 
the other forms. Nor are examples wanting from the Mesozoic. 

The three hundred species which have been ascribed to 
Platyceras present such a great variety of forms that it is diffi- 
cult to foresee just how they can he most satisfactorily 
arranged when they have been carefully considered anew and 
in relation to one another. The placing of Platyceras, 
Orthonychia and other sections as subgenera imder Capulus, 
as has been done by Zittel,' and others, manifestly does not 
meet the requirements, at least ao far as the American species 
are concerned. Whether or not the forms can all be included 
under Capulus remains for future comparison to decide. It 

'Bnl. de la Soc. G^ol, de France, (3), t. xi. p. (i02. 

'Palffi. Fobs. Cornwall, p. 93. 

•Hatidb. der. Palaiontologie, n Band. p. 216. 

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8 7^6 American Geologiat. July, ism 

seems very probable, however, that a number of the Bo-called 
Platycerata will be ahown by further study to belong more 
properly to genera closely allied to Gapulua rather than to the 
genus itself. This would carry hack the antiquity of certain 
modern groups somewhat beyond what has hitherto been con- 
sidered. A recent critical examination of certain aheUa 
described as Platycerata alao ahows that some of these forma 
are members of families entirely different from that supposed. 

Even if the group to which Conrad gave the name Platyceras 
was a valid one, it ia very questionablewhetherthe term could 
stand, InaBmuch as it had been practically pre-occupied for 
nearly three-quarter a of a century. It has long been known 
that GeofFroy ' in 1764 proposed, among Coleoptera, the generic 
name Platyceras, a term which waa later employed by 
Latreille,' and which continues to the present day in good 
usage as originally founded. In so far as the species hereafter 
mentioned are concerned, it matters little whether or not the 
type of the genus Platyceraa — P. ventricosum Con. — be a true 
Capulus; but certain it ia that aorae of the forms described 
under the former title are generically identic with the latter 

It is well known that the species that have been included 
under Piatyceraa present a large variety of forms. And lately 
it has been further shown that in this group variation ia very 
great even among individuals of the same species. The man- 
ifold phases thus disclosed have resulted from the sedentary 
habits of the mollusks ; and in a number of species the for- 
eign objects of attachment have proved to be the calyces of 
crinoids. The evidence, however, hearing upon this question 
has been given with considerable detail elsewhere " and is only 
incidentally referred to here. Several hundred examples of 
thia kind embracing ten or a dozen different species of Platyce- 
ras and more than twenty species of crinoids show rather 
conclusively that the sedentary propensities of many of these 
fossil forma were not unlike those of the living representatives. 
The occurrence of gasteropods on crinoids as thus brought 
out has given rise to a belief, quite prevalent, that these mol- 
luaks were parasitic in their habits ; but lately this has been 

' Hist, ahrfg^e dea Insectes, 1764. 

'Precis des CaractEres, des laeectes, ]796. 

'Kejes: Proc, Am, Philoaophical St>c., vol. ixv, 1888. 

)v Google 

no grounds what- 
'apiili led parasitic 

iiat there is often 
to separate certain 
forniB of PiatyoB- 
a which there ia a 
ncoil; and on the 

jropods presenting 
itisfactorily relied 
e to clearly distin- 
c Capulus. Many 
ich importance in 
tie, if any, specific 
t has thus become 
nificance the basis 
r than upon iinim- 
.■erse condition of 
or le.=s extensive 
in the selection of 
evident that only 

change are avail- 
under Platyceras, 

Doubtless quite a 
e been referred to 

* Keyea. 

» (Hall.) 
ri-» (Hall.) 
'ulum (M. &W.) 

1 K*-ve8. 


iiis m.& w.) 



ted in the south- 
rkansaa river. The 
y three miniature 

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12 7%e American Geohgitt. JniT. ism 

this distance it is still cutting its channel deeper in the un- 
derlying rock ; and the bordering first bottoms, averaging less 
than one-balf mile in width, are receiving but slight additions 
of silt. 

As might be supposed, such a stream does its chief work in 
times of flood. The average fall of the river and its tributaries 
exceeds twelve feet to the mile, the uplands and the slopes are 
destitute of forests, so the average rainfall of between thirty 
and thirty-five inches is quickly drawn into its channel and 
hurried onward to the Arkansas. The narrow border of tim- 
berland near the stream is insufficient to restrain the flood and 
a rise of twenty-five feet in a single day is not uncommon. 
This on-rushing torrent serves as a mighty plow and scraper 
combined, and every year it works a marked change in its 
rock -bottomed channel. The work of the river is aided by the 
varying character of the strata. The limestones and shales 
average only nine feet and twenty-five feet in thickness, respect- 
ively, and thus the river for its entire length shows a succes- 
sion of cascades, rapids and deep quiet places. The border- 
ing bluffa through the varying resistant power of the strata, 
show, through rain erosion, a similar succession of falls, be- 
ing terraced to the top. 

The broad valley of the Fall river, limited by blufi's frequent- 
ly rising to a hight of one hundred and sixty feet, is wide 
enough for the Mississippi river, and seems at first thought to 
owe its existence to a river nearly as great. But the fact that 
Fall river and the neighboring streams hug, for the most part 
the southwestern side of their valleyp, suggests a different ex- 
planation. The strata dip on the average about twenty feet 
to the mile, west by south, and consequently the rivers slide 
to the right side of their valleys and erode that border most 
readily and deeply. Deserted channels at higher levels are 
numerous on the other side of the valley, and give testimony 
in favor of this explanation. 

Eureka lies in the abandoned portion of Fall river valley, 
and in some situations the village wells and cellars reveal 
some curious facts in its history. Two wells, sunk in allu- 
vium three-fourths of a mile distant and seventy-five feet 
higher than the present channel of Fall river, brought to light 
portions of the skeletons of horses, at the depth of twenty-eight 
feet. A molar tooth in my possession evidently belongs to 

)v Google 

s of Kansas. — Wooster. 13 

:se were the skeletonB of the 
American genua, Equus, is a 

glacial drift Id these counties 
to the subjacent rocks. While 
lacial drift is not absent. A 
the writer's possession, weigh- 
I found near the summit of a 
of Greenwood county, nearly 
1 and aub-8oil. A bowlder of 
jrty pounds was discovered in 
on the south side of Fall river 
rted from the southern part of 
?er, and a pebble of serpentine 
been picked up in acreekval- 
But these are all I have been 
heir rarity makes them objects 

I miles north near Lawrence 
riders are not uncommon, and 
intoffin floes or small bergs 
f alley. But as they were lodged 
it of eleven hundred feet above 
ts either a much less relative 
■eat thickness of ice and depth 


ferous shales, limestones and 
opographic features of south- 
sidered in the preceding pages, 
lusand and one strata exposed 
would be out of place in the 
f this paper will be given to a 
if the rocks and life, 
shed by Kansas geologists, the 

II be applied to strata desig- 
easures in Iowa and Nebraska ; 
he Upper Coal Measures and 

;ss of the Lower Coal Meas- 
t, and the Permo-Carbonifer- 
>rmations there is no percepti- 

)v Google 


The American Geologist. 

ble break but for leaBOQB stated below tbe line of separation 
will be placed fey the writer at the upper surface of tbe thick 
stratum of limestone.lSS ft. thick, shown in the section at the 
head of this paper, penetrated by tbe boring at the village of 
Fall River south of Toronto. Thia is the thickest stratum of 
limestone of the entire Carboniferous formation and will thus 
constitute a useful horizon as a datum plane for the geologist. 
This limestone outcrops near the middle of Woodson and Wil- 
son, tbe adjoining counties on the east and southeast, near the 
line Prof St. John has fixed as the eastern boundary of the 
Perrao-Carboniferous, possibly with this stratum in mind. 

Between the base of the Permo-Curboniferous thus estab- 
lished and the summit of Flint Hills there intervene 1800 feet 
of shales, limestones and sandstones. The various outcrops 
show that the sandstones are limited to the lower 500 feet 
and the arenaceous shales to the lower 1,000 feet. The lime- 
stones and shales are evenly distributed between the base and 
the top. 

One thin bed of coal lies about 400 feet from tbe base, an- 
other 700 feet, three about 850 feet and the highest bed, little 
more than a highly carbonaceous shale, about 1,300 feet. 

The following tables will present other details of strata ob- 
tained from outcrops in tbe eastern, middle and western por- 
tions of the district. 












^S.5 leet 


5 ;; 


Deep welU at Eureka, Fall River, Topeka and Emporia 
show similar sections. All were sunk with a churn drill ex- 








No, 01 



(IW4 It deep,) 



43 '■ 

!5 ■■ 



»,25 It, 


3 •■ 
M '■ 

„ Google 

„ Google 

16 The American Oeologiat. July, um 

heavy bed at the base of oar section ont-croppiog hetweett To- 
ronto and YateB Center, Woodeon connty, is mnch used for 
building porposea, as is also the thinner stratum above, out- 
cropping west of Toronto; bat the argillaceona beds of the 
middle part of the section, exposed at Eareka, are worthless 
except for building sand. The shallow water origin of these 
strata is shown by ripple marks and leaf impreBsions. 

Some of the thinner beds of limestone are ripple-marked as 
well, but most of it is heavy bedded, or at least contains the 
remains of animals which frequent the deeper, purer waters, 
Buch as tbe crinoide whose stalks make a large percentage of 
the material of many of these layers, and many corals. 

Since the deep sea then covering western Kansas and 
eastern Colorado would take to itself the debris of the western 
mountains, we must look for the source of the material of the 
sandstones and shales in the ancient mountains of Missouri, 
ranges of no mean extent and altitude, to furnish the thous- 
ands of cubic miles of sediments of the later Paleozoic forma- 
tions of Missouri, Kansas and Kebraska. 

So great was the diversity of conditions while these sedi- 
ments were being deposited, so unequal and frequent were the 
oscillations of the CTUst of the earth over eastern Kansas, at 
least, that little reliance can he placed upon the thickness and 
lithological characters of the strata. It would seem that shale 
and limestone and even sandstone were being deposited at the 
same time even in an area not larger than a congressional 
township. The writer spent weeks, almost months, trying to 
trace a series of strata from bluff to bluff on the same side of 
Fall river and across the valley to the opposite side. Even 
coal beds were of little assistance for they varied greatly in 
thickness and extent. Fossils, the main reliance of the geolo- 
gist, did not help for they varied in the same stratum and the 
same species occurred above and below, with fortunately, how- 
ever, one exception. A layer of limestone was at last discov- 
ered containing Fusulina cylindrica var. robusta in great abun- 
dance. From this layer alone was it possible to prepare a 
section for Eureka and vicinity that would stand all tests. All 
field geologists will appreciate the joy attending its discovery. 

Whether this layer with F. robusta extends more than three 
miles is not known by tbe writer; bat be is confident that such 
horizons are rare, and that general truths gained from a study 


„ Google 


„ Google 

18 77ie American Oeologitt- 

shales and limestones. Heads arc not common and 
exception of Zeacrinus mucrospinua in the lower an 
strata, only two have been discovered. One of these; 
Neal, Zeacrinus, measures four inches from the ha 
tips of the arms, and another at Eureka, an Eitsoi 
about half as long. 

Sea urchins are represented by plates and spines ii 
of the formation. 

Among brachiopods, Spirifer cameratus and Hen 
crassus are remarkable for their wide range in size a 
hution, and Productus semireticulatus for its great 
wide range. The last with P. nebrascensis is very c( 
the chert at the summit of the Flint Hills. 

Lamellibranchs are widely distributed and bel< 
largely to the order, Asiphonia. The characteristic f 
been mentioned above ; but many collected are ag ye1 

Gasteropods have likewise a wide range, and ma 
remain unclassified. A single layer of limestone i 
has yielded the major part of the collection. One, i 
Bonia-like gasteropod, measures three and one-half in 
the base to the apex and revolves eight times in the 
ance. The Macrocheilina; in the same layer rani 

Chambered shells and trilobites have thus far b< 
only in the middle and upper strata. 

Sharks teeth of the genus Petalodus occur in th 
horizon, and labyrinthodont foot-prints are found in 
limestone a short distance above the same horizon. 
Unclassified species of sea weeds, Calamites, feme 
laria have been collected at nearly all horizons to t 
the Flint Hills, not above. 

The writer has been especially interested in th 
forms that are to become extinct at the close of the 
show no diminution in numbers in the liighest strat 
ed. They seem to await the great change in thei 
ment as their final summons to give up their long si 
existence, and not to die out from the infirmities 
old age. ■ 

)v Google 




Br ALrscD B. Biau>i>, U. k., OtUwa. 

S«ad before the Logan Clob, Ottnira, Febnitry Z7tb, IWO. 

In thia paper the writer ptoposes to bring forward some 

observatioDB on the nature of the contact between the typical 

Huronian rocks of lake Huron and the Laurentian gneisses, 

which, it is thought, have an important bearing on the qaes- 

tioD of the origin and relative age of the latter. During the 

past five years he has had many opportnnities, first as assist- 

ant to Dr. A. C. Lawson in the lake of the Woods and Rainy 

lake regions, and latterly as assistant to Dr. R. Bell in the 

country north of lake Huron, of becoming familiar with the 

phenomena of Archean geology and of studying particularly 

the conditions of contact where the Laurentian comes gainst 

the other rock formations of the Archean complex. 

The Huronian area to the north of lake Huron is made up 
of a series of quartzites, graywackes, slate conglomerates, clay 
slates, hydro-mica, chloritic, epidotic and homblendic schists, 
diabase and cherty limestones. 

The majority of the clay slates have the appearance of being 
very little altered except in contact with the diabase and 
other igneous rocks and present in great part the same appear- 
ance as wheu hardened from the original soft sediments. The 
quartzites, graywackes and slate conglomerates have «I1 been 
hardened and altered by the deposition of silicious matter be- 
tween the component grains, and near the gneiss the two for- 
mer species are altered into quartzose mica schists. In the 
neighborhood of diabase masses the slates and limestones are 
hardened and traversed by reticulating veins of secondary 
quartz, while the quartzites near igneous masses become more 
indurated and present veins of secondary quartz running par- 
allel with the bedding, so that it is likely tliat the eruptive 
material has been the source of the heated solutions of silica. 
The Laurentian formation to the north of lake Huron is rep- 
resented solely by orthoclase gneiss, a rock which may be 

"cribed as essentially a crystalline admixture of feldspar, 
irtz and hornblende or mica, although in many cases both 

^se last named minerals are present in the same rock mass. 

is distinguished from granite only by its foliated texture, a 

■nctnre produced by the parallel distribution of the compo- 

)v Google 

20 The American Geologist. luir. dm 

n«nt crystals or the alternation of lighter and darker bands 
according to the prevalence of the feldepar and quartz or 
hornblende and mica. Freqnentl; this foliation is quite dis- 
tinct, though Bometimeg it is obscure and occasionally it can 
not be detected at all, the rock then being indistinguishable 
from ordinary eruptive granite. 

Messrs. Logan and Murray, although they carefully exam- 
ined and mapped out the diatribution of the different members 
of the Huronian system, almost ignored its contact with the 
Laurentian, and it is only of late years that attention has been 
directed to the contact as a means of ascertaiuing the relative 
ages of the two systems. In the absence of all fossil remains 
this is the only criterion to determine the age of Laurentian 
gneiss in regard to the Huronian. 

Dr. Robert Bell, in his report' on the geology of the neigh- 
borhood of the village of Shiboananing (Killsrney) says: 
"The village itself stands upon red syenitic granite, which, 
"except at the sides, has a massive homogeneous structure, 
"but in a few instances a single reddish or yellowish green 
"ghaly streak an inch or two in thickness was observed running 
"in a northeasterly direction. Towards each side the grain of 
"the rock begins to assume a sort of parallelism or a gneissoid 
"structure." The junction between this and the Huronian 
qu&rtzite and hornblende schists is seen at a rocky island in 
a cove about a mile north of the western end of "the passage" 
on the north aide of which the village is built. "The granite 
is flanked by a stratified rock of a reddish gray color consist- 
ing of a fine grained cryBtalline mixture of feldspar and 
quartz." Both rocks have approximately the same northeast- 
erly strike, but while the Huronian beds are about vertical the 

granitoid gneiss dips southeast I 50°. Dr. Bell refers this 

granitoid gneiss to the Huronian rather than the Laurentian 
although he gives no reason for so doing. The coincidence in 
direction of the "streaks" in the midst of the granite itself as 
well as the more perfect development of the lamination near 
the junction with the Huronian schists are characteristic 
features of obscure or non-foliated gueissic areas. 

From Killarney the line of junction strikes in a northeast- 
erly direction for about sixteen miles, crossing the eastern 
boundaries of the townships of Goschen and Carlyle (Salter's 

' See Report Geological Server of Caaada, 1876-1877, page 208. 

)v Google 

„ Google 

22 7^ Ameriean Oeologitt. J°1t, uw 

bedding of the schists, thus showing the coincidence of the 
lines of least resistance wit^ the lamination of the schists. 

The eruptive nature of these gneissic patches and sheets is 
quite evident from even a cursory examination of the relations 
of the two rocks "in situ" for the foliation of the gneiss com- 
posing these intrusions is parallel to the walls of the fissuresi 
even when these fissures cross the strike of the schists. This 
also demonstrates that gneissic lamination ia caused hj the 
flow of the rock while viscid under difierential pressures. Angu- 
lar fragments of the Huronian mica-schists are included in the 
gneiss, the foliation of the latter conforming roughly with the 
irregular outlines of the fragments. The flow structure thus 
produced is always very marked. We have then the three 
oriteria by which the presence of an eruptive mass is ascer- 
tained: 1st, the penetration of the sedimentary strata by 
dykes of the irruptive matter ; 2nd, the occurrence of broken 
fragments of these same beds in the irruptive mass itself, and 
3rd, the metamorphism or alteration of the stratified rocks 
along the line of junction. Evidence ia also famished of the 
irruptive character of this gneiss by the abrupt changes in the 
strike of the mica schists in the vicinity of the line of out«rop 
of the gneias. 

The line of junction was next seen on the western shore of 
Wavy lake about six miles in a direction N. 16° E, from the 
place where it was examined east of lake Panache. Although 
it has not been thoroughly explored through the intervening 
space, the boundary can be laid down with a very close ap- 
proximation to the truth &om a knowledge of the strike of the 
gneiss in the neighborhood ; for it has been noticed that the 
direction of the line of demarcation depends not on the strike 
of the Huronian schists or quartzites. but on the foliation of 
the gneiss, whose line of outcrop is always parallel to the 
gneissic lamination in the immediate vicinity. In the south- 
em part of Wavy lake the gneissic foliation has a northeast- 
erly trend, which in coming north gradually curves around to 
an almost easterly direction. In the northern portion of the 
lake the strike bends around very abmptly from a northeast 
to a southeast direction and the change is further continued 
till in the eastern part of the lake the lamination of these two 
areas of gneiss converges in a common strike of N. 70° E. 
A funnel-shaped trough is thus formed in the western portion 


„ Google 

arUno. 28 

highly inclined 
of this tron^ 
)n an irruptive 
Dip S. 25° W. 
tipS.E. L_75°. 
ification of the 
mination of the 
deir declination 
g S. 52° W. l_ 

Wavy lake are 
le proportion of 
the gneiss ia 
, the quartz ites 
iture developed 
)ntact. At the 
)f the northern 
lommon strike, 
niaa micaceous 
IB, the foliation 
le of these f rag- 
curves around 
was next seen 
uth line of the 
nd a half miles 
of nearly six 
X. Murray, who 
m Salter's base 
inetion between 

to the township 
id to the north- 
a general strike 
! ached. 

'junction takes 
•° E. and dip S- 
ion has a direc- 
rhroughout the 
irever, the mica- 
itely the same 

)v Google 

71^ Amtriean- Owhgitt. Joir, uw 

ad dip BB the gneiss. The gneisB is always saperim- 
iQ the sedimentary strata and both rocks dip in a 
,y direction at angles varying from 66*'-70*'. 
the line of junction the eiliceouB elates and qnartzites 
highly Bchistose and micoceouB and show signB of haT- 
X subjected to great pressore. Angular pieces of the 
e rocks are included in the gneiss, especially near the 
I the line of junction, while intrusions of gneiss were 
several places penetrating the stratified rocks. In one 
; a lenticular mass of distincUy laminated micaceons 
^as seen intruded through the Bchista parallel to their 
; at a distance of three hundred yards from the line of 
. Besides these gneissic intrusions there are irregular- 
id fi88ure8,ruQning transversely to the strike of the schists 
td with coarsely crystalline feldspar and quartz. In the 
)ortions of. these veins, the feldspar and quartz are 

in about equal proportion, but where they begin to 
t, quartz seems to be^the main, and, in some cases, the 
astituent. These pegmatitic apophyses are evidently 
8 of the adjacent gneiss which have been injected 
I the schists and crystallized in the presence of heated 
:. A lai^e pegmatite vein of this sort was noticed on 

between Broder and Dill, extending across the strike 
chists for a distance of half a mile from their contact 
e gneiss. Through the township of Dill the boundary 

been examined in detail, but it follows in general a 
sterly course for about five miles when there is another 
turn to the north, and the junction was again seen 
1 to the west of a small lake which Sows into the 
pitae river four miles below Wahnapitae Station on the 
m Pacific railway. The whole line of contact from 
ake to this point follows very closely the trend of the 
f lakes which form "The Whitefish River route." On 
tage leading westward from this small lake the Huroni- 
)B and quartzites, with a strike varying from east to 
«t, are interrupted by the gneiss, whose foliation has a 
ly direction. The siliceous slates and quartzites have 
etamorphosed even at a distance of two miles from the 
Finally crystalline feldspathic intrusions as well as 
)arsely crystalline apophyses of pegmatite penetrate the 
ntary strata while the gneiss near the line of junction 

)v Google 

Sttronian and Laurentian Contact. — Barlow. 25 

is rendered more schistose or alftty by the incorporation of 
detached fragments of elate and qnartzite elongated or flat- 
tened in the direction of the gneieaic foliation. 

Continuing Btill farther northeast the boundary strikes the 
Wahnapitae riyer just below the Canadian Pacific railway 
bridge. The actu^ contact is not seen and the intervening 
apace of one hundred and fifty yards between exposures of the 
two rocks is occupied by the river and a grassy fiat. On the 
west side of the bridge are light greenish gray feldspathie 
quartzites with some thin interlaminated bands of darker col- 
ored sandy shale which have a strike of N. 65° E. and dip N. 
26" W. I_ eO°-70''. On the opposite bank of the river and 
near the railway station a dark gray, evenly laminated mica- 
ceous gneiss was noticed striking N 67° E. and dipping S. 23° 
E. I — 60.° Ruby colored garnets, arranged parallel to the foli- 
ation, ate exceedingly numerous, the crystals frequently meas- 
uring from a quarter to half an inch in diameter. 

The line of separation is occupied by the bed of the stream 
for a short distance when it again strikes inland, running par- 
allel to the general course of the river. Through this distance 
of nearly six miles the contact is generally half a mile south- 
east of the river. The gneiss dips in a southeasterly direction 
at high angles, while the Huronian rocks with the same strike 
are nearly if not quite vertical. Apophyses of pegmatite are 
very often seen penetrating the silicious slates and quartzitei 
which near the line of junction are altered into mica-schists. 
For nearly two miles further the contact is again concealed by 
the bed of the stream ; but from this point it strikes across the 
country in a direction N. 60° E. for sixteen miles and was 
next seen by Mr. Murray crossing the Sturgeon river two 
miles below its confluence with the Maskinong^ river. Noth- 
ing very defiDite, however, was ascertained regarding the rela- 
tions of the two rocks at this place. Continuing on the same 
general course for twenty miles the line of division strikes the 
southern end of Cross lake. Here the Huronian slate con- 
glomerate underlies the gneiss with perfect conformity, both 
•ks dipping S. 85° E. 1_ 56°. The slate conglomerate has 
y evidently been disturbed and altered near the line of con- 
t and where the two rocks are in immediate juxtaposition 
ery perfect set of cleavage planes were noticed in the con- 
merate dipping N. 60° E. I__ 73°. At first these were mis- 

)v Google 

26 The American Geotogial. 

taken for the planes of bedding but a more careful t 
tioQ revealed their true character. Further to the norl 
lake Temi seaming the Byenitic gneiss rests conformab 
Huronian strata, both rocks dipping to the southess 

Mr. Walter McQuat in his report of the Temiecamit 
gives a very detailed description of the junction as 
on that part of the Ottawa river locally known 
Quinze." He mentions especially the occurrence near 
tact of lenticular masses of a gneissic character in the 
aa hornblende schists which have a general directio 
ponding with the bedding. In addition he notes the i 
through the Huronian at a considerable distance fron 
of junction of a light gray granitic gneiss, whose fol 
parallel to the stratification of the adjacent schists, 
ticular irruptive mass measures six hundred yards lor 
hundred wide and the direction of the longer axis cor 
with the strike of the schists. As the stream is ascei 
the great mass of the gneiss approached the sediments 
show signs of great alteration and hornblendic, chlo 
steatitic schists occupy the upper portion of the r 
the junction the Huronian schists are seen to rest c< 
bly on the syenitic gneiss. Further to the north w 
McQuat made a somewhat hurried examination the I 
rocks everywhere near the contact with the gneiss, i 
abundant signs of disturbance and alteration conse 
the irruption of the gneiss. The same geologist in hi 
ation of the Blanche river which flows into the nort 
of lake Temiscaming, notices the occurrence of two 
gneiss separated from one another and apparently cc 
surrounded by Huronian schists. The southern ares 
ten miles across but the limits of the northern ares 
on the shores of Round lake at the head of this stn 
not ascertained. On the southeast as well as on tl 
west side of the southern area, the gneiss rests confon 
the chloritio, micaceous and hornblendic schists, o 
apparently a synclinal basin in these schists. At tl 
eastern edge of the northern area the schists dip a' 
the gneiss. Although Mr. McQuat in his printed rep 
to the northern area as an intrusive mass of syenite, 

'See Report Geol. Survey Canada 1872-73. 

)v Google 

ttact. — Barlow. 27 

ap as Laurentian gneiss, 
racter and origin. The 
a belt composed cbieSy 
■,eB, which, starting from 
ctend in a northeasterly 
1 from about twenty-five 
to nearly one hundred 
t various places isolated 
rough these sedimentary 
rruptive maeeee and con- 
lutcrop. Ad area of this 
ipies the north shore of 
it from Blind river to the 
don. Another area was 
the "Soo" branch of the 

ce of two of these bosses 
ssibly be connected with 
Q the Blanche river. A 
rnblendic gneiss occupies 
g, McLean and Anima- 
ake Temt^ami and the 
te conglomerate through 
8 everywhere altered in 
eof junction the Huroni- 
3 upturned edges of the 
lere the immediate con- 
erate inclines N. 50° W. 

. I 70°. Along the line 

ps off the irruptive mass 

short distance away the 
angle (15^-20°). 

lake are exposures of a 
ose contact with the sur- 
abase indicates its intra- 
iiated junction is every- 
are seen in juxtaposition. 
,te and greenstone while 
ock species are included 
«d and indistinguishable 
in. This gneissic area ia 

)v Google 

3S 7%0 Amtriemt OttlsfitL t^trjm 

probablj contimuHU with ths one to the aonthv«6t in the 
township of Bl«s«rd and mmj even be etHinected with the 
floull ezpomire of finely CTyrttlliiie it CT H)tiw ; sjroiitiG gneiflB 
wea to the Kiatfaeast of the Mdit^ mine foar miles northwest 
of Sudbury. 

The line of deuuicalion ie very eeldom a mmple i^ene of di- 
vision, die breccia preeent aloogtbe line of junction frequent- 
ly covering a considerable epace. It is therefore often impoe- 
sible to draw an accurate line of diriaion between these two 
rocks unless we aasnme that soch a line should be placed 
where the two rocks are present in about equal proportion. 
The general correspondence of the gneissic intrusion with the 
stratification of the enclosing schists and the frequent lenticu- 
lar outline and parallel dispontion of the detached Echistose 
fragments in the gneiss often resemble at first sight an alter- 
nating sequence of transitional beds. Again the ciystalline 
condition of the Huronian feldspathic and micaceous quart- 
zites near the line of contact, which frequently resemble in 
character and composition the more evenly laminated gneisses 
has been referred to as evidence of such a transition. Bat 
even in such a case the bedded character of the Huronian is 
in strongly marked contrast to the granitic aspect of the 

In conclusion then, the following facta seem to prove beyond 
a doubt the irmptive nature of Laurentian gneiss and its mag- 
matic condition at a time subsequent to the petrifaction of 
the Huronian sediments. I. The diverse stratigraphical re- 
lations of the two rocks along their line of junction. More 
frequently perhaps the Huronian strata dip into or under the 
gneiss, although very often this position is reversed and the 
Huronian beds are seen superimposed on the gneiss with per- 
fect conformity. In many instances the two rocks occupy 
vertical positions side by side and occasionally the gneiss has 
been observed dipping away from vertical Huronian strata. 
Huronian rocks have also been seen resting nnconformably 
on the upturned edges of Laurentian gneiss. Sometimes 
where the siuuositisB of the line of outcrop of the gneiss were 
too abrupt to be followed by the stratified Huronian, the lat- 
ter rocks have abutted on the gneiss as on an irmptive mass. 
These different phenomena can all be readily and naturally ex- 
plained by the irruption of the gneiss, while on the hypothesis 

)v Google 

(. — Barlow. 

ust be difficiL 
B sedimentary 
has been inva 
Ely examined. 
maBB of the 
pieces have i 
iss where the; 
their outlines are 
ence of gneiseic in- 
le apophyses of peg- 
iverse to the bedding 
are distinctly irrup- 
their source in the 
th The absence of 
any species of rock 
26 crystalline lime- 
in the lake Huron 

the quartzites and 
ed with the gneiss, 
ns of the more com- 
al character of the 
ior has far more re- 
! with a foliated tex- 

Sir. W. E. Logan 
lake TemiBcaming, 
«." The Huronian 
Idest aeries of eedi- 
it any knowledge in 
have been laid down 
5 by the character of 
analogous to granite, 
d greywackes have 
eldspathic material. 
nerates indicate that 
a foliated or gneiss- 
and subsequent re- 
Soor that gave rise 
pressure exerted by 
y{ Huronian strata, 
of the comparative- 

ly Google 

30 The American OeologisU July, ism 

ly thin and weak crust coneequent on the earth's secular re- 
frigeration would all tend to mark the lower portions of the 
Huronian beneath the line of fusion, and aa this fusion contin. 
ued a large part of the stratified rocks was assimilated into 
the mass of the gneiss. This granitic fusion or alteration 
must have taken place at a great depth below the earth's pres- 
ent surface and subsequent upheaval and denundation have 
now exposed it. Strang evidence has been secured from fre- 
quent observations of the strike of the gneiss through the lake 
Huron country that a great part if not all of the region charac- 
terized by the presence of this rock is made up of huge circular 
or irregularly oval shaped concentric areas which anastomose 
with one another. This concentric arrangement of the gneis- 
sic foliation seems to indicate that the forces of upheaval in 
the gneiss have acted from certain centres. These observa- 
tions and conclusions indicate that the typical Huronian bears 
a relation to the Laurentian precisely similar to that which 
has been sstablished in the country northwest of lake Super- 
ior for the Keewatin and Coutchiching groups of rocks by 
Dr. A, C. LawBou. 

Dr. A. C. Lawson very kindly undertook the examination 
under the microscope of seven thin sections of both rocks to 
show some of the contact phenomena, and below will be found 
the result of his investigations. 

Slide No. 1. North shore of Archie baj, lake Panache, foor miles 
west of the contact. 

This rock may be regarded as a typical specimen of the less altered 
qiiartziCe and a, thin slice of it was examined under the microscope to 
show its relations with the more altered micaceouB quartzite near the 
line of the junction. "A fine grained, light yellowieh gray quartzite rust 
"stained in places ; under the microscope it is seen to be a crushed 
"quart!: -sands tone. A cataclastic condition is seen to have been induced 
"upon the original epiclaatic erains of quarti ; wavy extinction is com- 
"men. There is a rude parallel arrangement of the quartz graina in 
"long areas and between the constituent grains is a fine cement 
"which is largely made up of a (elt work of muacovite. In some por- 
"tions of the slide this felt work of muscovite is mixed with elastic 
"grains of quartz and forms a bane in which the larger clastic grains 
"are imbedded. Besides quartz there is present a notable proportion 
"of fragments of feldspar." 

"Slide No. 2. In contact with the gneiss east of lake Panache. A 
"light gray, fine textured, somewhat micaceous quartzite with occaa- 
"ionftl "sheen surfaces" alongshearplanes. L'nder the microscope the 
"rock is seen to be an aggregate of sobangularor rounded quartz grains 
"with a subordinate proportion of feldspar grains, moat of the latter 
"being quite fresh and snowing the multiple twinning of plagioclase. 
"Some of this pl^ioclase is clearly in original clastic grains but some 
"appears to be secondary interstitial growth. Scattered throughout 

)v Google 

Huronian and Laurentian Contact- — Barlow. 31 

"the slide are nnmerone scales of brown biotite and a lesa proportion 
"of muBoovite. Most of these mica scales have a parallel arrangement 
"but some are seen to have been developed in the curved lines or areas 
"bet'neen the original clastic grains. Some of the quarU grains show 
"evidence of pressure in the optical tension which they manifest under 
"crossed nicots. Inclusions are not abundant in the quartz." 

"Slide So. 3. In contact with the gneiss east of lake Panache. A 
"silvery micaceous, very quartiose schist, somewhat rusted, andwith 
"strongly micaceous sheen surfaces. Under the microscope the rock 
"is seen to be composed essentially of quartz and muscovite. There 
"ia a well marked parallelism in the arrangement of the muscovito 
"and the quartz ahows distinct cataclaetic structure, wavy extinction, 
"arrangement in parallel areas and other crushed phenomena. Evi- 
"dently an all^rea sandstone." 

"BIideNo.4. Contact east of lake Panache. The hand specimen 
"before sliced showed two small bands of granitoid gneiss irruptive 
"through it. "Dark greenish gray fine-grained quart*ile traversed by a 
"small stringer, three-quarters of an inch wide of rather coarse Sesb 
"red ^anite. Under the microscope the quartzite is a typical epi- 
"clastic rock presenting no strong evidence of deformation by pressure. 
"It consists of a heterogeneous aggregate of clastic grains of quartz and 
"feldspar, much of the latter being plagiociase. In sections the shape 
"of these grains is rounded, sub-angular or sometimes angular. Tne 
"larger grains are imbedded in abase composed of much smaller grains 
"of Uie same materials but intimately mixed with agreen chloritic sab- 
"stance which gives its color to the rock. The section crosses the con- 
"tact ol the granite stringer and the (juartzite. The contact between 
"the two is sliarp but ragged and portions of the clastic rock are seen 
"to have been incorporated in the granite. The granite itself ia a 
"coarse angular aggregate of orthoclase and quartz, with extremely 
"little of the ferro-magnesian constituent. There is a certain amount 
"of finer base in the granite of which it is difiicult to say whether it is 
"simply a later and more rapid consolidation r' the mn'gmn about the 
"larger constituents or whether it is a portion oi the clastic rock which 
"has been incoiporated without fusion in the granite." 

Slide No. 5. Laurentian gneiss in contact with Uuronian micaceous 
quartzit«, north shore of Wavy lake. "A reddish highly felilapathic 
"granite with occasional shear planes traversing it. Under the mi- 
"croscope the rock is a granular aggregate of orthoclase, quartz, 
"plagiociase and btotite in which crush phenomena are to a 
"limited extent apparent. The orthoi'lase is very much kaolinized 
"in its central portion but quite fresh in the peripheral zone. The 
"plagiociase is as a rule fresh. Th« biotito is very sparingly represent- 
"ed and is almost entirely altered to chlorite. There is present alwo a 
"little brown iron oxide. The effects of secondary presBure are seen 
"on the occasional dislocation of the plagiociase crystals and in cata- 
"clastic structure which has to a limited extent been developed in por- 
"tions ol the sections." 

Slide No. 6. Township of Broder, Concession m. Line between 
"lots 4 and 5, 350 yards north of the contact with the gneiss. "A gray 
"moderately fine textured schist, spotted with scales of brown mica 
"and having unevenorlompy cleavage surfaces, with marked silvery 
'gloss. Under the microscope the clastic character of the rock is ap- 
''parent, it being composed of grains of quartz and feldspar chieSy. 
"Throughout this claetic aggregate there have been developed numer- 
'erons plates of brown mica and some of muscovito nearly all in paral- 
"lei position. Scattered throughout the slide are nests of separated or 
"closely aggregated grains of a light yellow pleochroic mineral proba- 
"bly epidote. The separate grains ot epidote in each nest have lor the 

)v Google 

^ The American OeologisU July, uso 

"most part all a conuaon oiientatiOD and extinguish together. None 
"present crTStalographic boundaries nor distinct cleavages. There is 
"a considerable proportion of black opaqns material scattered through 
"the section — probaolf maKnatit«." 

Slide No 7. Township of Broder, Concession iii. Line between lota 
4aj:idG — at the contact. "A pinkish to yellowish gray medium tex- 
"tnred biotlte granitoid gneiss, with B portion of a very fine textured 
"^enish gray schist paTtl;^ adhering and partlj^ enclosed in the gran- 
"it« on one side of the specimen. The thin section examined is across 
"the contsct of the gnmite gneisB and the schist. In the section the 
"two rockB are verv distinct and the contact while fairly sharp shows 
"portions of the schists iocluded within the granite. The granite is a 
"^anolar aggregate of orthoclase, nticrocline, plagioclase, quartz, bio- 
"tite and muecovite. Some of the orthoclase shows a zonal structure, 
"the interior idiomorphic portions being more decomposed than the 
"outer Eone whose form is allotriomorphic. A colorless mineral with 
"stronglv miU'ked relief, probably garnet, was also observed without 
"crystalline botmdaries. Some small shreds of chlorite arising ap- 
"parently from the decomposition of the biotite, are also found scat- 
"tered through the granite. There is present in association the chlo- 
"ritlzed biotite, some magnilSte and also some opac|ne granular dust, 
"probably also magnitite. Apatite occurs sparingly in slender needles 
"and in atont oval bodies. In the atmcture of the rock there are some 
"slight evidences of pressure seen In the occasional dislocation of a 
"crystal of plagioclase bat there is neither shearing or cataclastic 
"structurei. The schist in contact with this granite is profoundly 
"sheared and it only requires an inspection of the slide to see that the 
"shearing was affected before the magma from which the granite has 
"crystallized was brought in contact with the schist. The schist is 
"composed essentially of qnartz and muscovita and these minerals 
"rearranged in parallel thinly lenticular areas which wedge into one 
"another. The optical tension of the qaarti lenses is very constant. 
"The cataclastic structure of the quarts is pronounced. The general 
"aspect of the schist is that of a streaky rhyotlte. 

Br Chas. W. Rolfe, Ilrbuia, HI. 

The presence, in the drift, of water-bearing veins undei 
sufficient head to cause them to Sow at the surfacewhen tapped 
is not a very ancommon occarrence, but the district ahout to 
be described is, I think, remarkable for its size, and the ease 
with which flowing wells can be obtained over a large part of 
its area. This fact, and the many misconceptions of its struc- 
ture as shown by the theories advanced to account for its 
water supply, have led me to think that a brief study of its 
characteristics would be acceptable as an aid in interpretingsim- 
ilar phenomena elsewhere. 

The district lies on the eastern side of the state of Illinois, 
about sixty miles south of Chic^o, and is roughly covered by 
Iroquois county, although it reaches over into the contiguous 

)v Google 

Artesian Water from the Drift— RoUe. 83 

portioDB of Kankakee, Champaign and Vermilliou counties. Its 
eastern boundary seems to agree essentially with the state line, 
and ite western with the eastern side of Ford county. The 
area 10 approximately 1200 square miles. 

Its general surface-may be described as a level prairie slop- 
ing gently to the north with an average inclination of about 
three feet to the mile, and diversified here and there by ridges 
and groups of low hills evidently left as moraines by the re- 
treating Lake Michigan glauler. The southernmost of these 
runs eastward from Rantoul, following closely the line of the 
narrow guage railroad. 

The entire area is covered by a mass of drift varying in thick- 
nesa from seventeen feet, seven miles north of St. Anne in 
Kankakee county, to more than three hundred feet in central 
and southern Iroquois county. 

Records of borings and cuts, show that this drift is made up 
of a tough blue clay, which encloses here and there elongated 
masses of sand and gravel varying from a few inches to more 
than twenty feet in thickness. These sand beds are always 
surrounded by a layer of closer grained, more impervious clay 
called hardpan by the well borers, and are always water bear- 

In the more elevated portions of the area, no flowing wells, 
so far as I am able to find, have been obtained, but between 
and around these at lower levels many wells have been struck 
from which water can he made to flow above the surface to a 
hight which varies from a few inches to four feet, the usual 
limit. In two instances only that have come to my knowledge 
did the water rise to the hight of ten feet. One of these was 
at LaHogue near the Ford county line and the other that east 
of Penfield just over in Vermillion county. 

The depth of the wells varies from five feet to over two hun- 
dred and seems to be entirely independent of surface elevation. 
At LaHogue the well mentioned above is ninety feet deep, 
while at Gilman, whose elevation is fifteen feet less, the wells 
are usually from one hundred to one hundred and twenty feet, 
d a few miles farther oast, where the surface is twelve feet 
»er still, they are only sixty feet deep. Then again at Bnck- 
r, twelve miles south of Gilman and forty-five feet higher, the 
joal depth is only five feet. As a further illustration, two 
'Is were bored not far from Gilman, one of which reached 

)v Google 

34 Tk& American Oeologist. 

flowing water at the depth of thirty-seven feet, wV 
only a few rods distant and on about the eame levi 
it at a. depth of one hundred and eighteen. 

At several places in the county, there appear tc 
teeian horizons, but on the other hand the preaen 
ing well is nowhere a guaranty that another can \ 
at a few rods diritance. Dry holes or "pump wel 
mon result of borings in all parts of the count 
near Penfield in Champaign county has five floT 
one of which water was found at forty-five feet, 
one hundred and fifty-eight, the water rising a 
above the surface each time, while a number of 1 
have bored with no success. 

Several theories have been advanced to ace 
presence of artesian water in this district, of whic 
notice three. The first, and perhaps the moxt pli 
the prolongation of the re c; on- La Salle fault pe 
of water from the St. Peter sandstone. In anewe 
attention to the fact that the fault disappears a fe 
of LaSalle and its further course, or continuance 
ly hypothetical ; that the point near LaSalle at wh 
stone outcrops is several feet below the lowest 
district ; that south south-ea^jt of the outcrop tl 
dips rapidly under the great synclinal of centn 
eastern Illinois. The deep borings at Chatswort 
both made at some distance from the supposed 
fault on its upthrow side failinj; to disclose its 
depth exceeding one thousand feet, and that ct 
Peter sandstone was so situated as to make 
source of water the character of the drift materia 
culiar distribution of its water-bearing pockets v 
impossible that they could draw their water froc 

A second theory looks on lake Michigan i 
source of the water, but the entire area lies from 
hundred feet above the level of the lake. 

A like answer can be given to the theory th 
Kankakee swamps as the source. 

The facts given above would seem to warrant 
conclusions : 

The Lake Michigan glacier in its backward 
movements, caused by alternating series of cc 

)v Google 

N'on-feldtpathic Intrusive Rocks. — TP ilUamt. 35 

seasone, built up aa its ground moraine the immense mass of 
drift which, as we have seen, covers the whole area, and the 
ponds and atreame arising from it at each recession assorted 
and deposited long lines of sand and gravel, of variouebreadth 
and thickness, having a small dip away from the higher por- 
tions, as it has been observed these patches actually do have. 
These in turn would be covered and others formed aboVe them ; 
and in this way the whole mass would be built up- The low 
dip would give to these lines of sand and gravel a broad out- 
crop neat' the higher portions and at the same time would 
carry it rapidly below the surface ; a dip of one degree 'equals 
92 feet per mile, bo it ia evident that even a much smaller dip 
than that indicated would carry the aand beds down to the 
level at which we find them, within a comparatively short dis- 
tance from the highlands. 

We believe then that the water-bearing sands derive their 
supply from the broad area which they expose among the hillst 
that the water ia kept within them as in a pocket by the all but 
impervious layer of hard pan ; and that when this is penetra- 
ted St a point where the surface is lower than the catch basin 
we baveall the requirements for an artesian flow. The distri- 
bution of these bands through the drift will explain the occur- 
rence ofdry wella, of two or more water-bearing strata in a 
single well ; of the variation in the depth of wells in the same 
neighborhood, and of the differences in head which the wells 


By GioBOE H. Williams. 
1st Paper. 

The OrUjiml Rocks. 

;Pu1i(Itlied by permlBtlon of the Director of tbe U. S. GealoglMl Surrey.) 



OccurceDCe lud JLiaoclttlon »5 

ReWion to the SerpenKnes S7 

<~bariietero[theOrlRlnaJNon-feld!iiiathlcRoCbs 37 

1, Tbe Pyrozeae-otlTiDG Rocke— Pertdotit«B. SB 

n. Tba Pure Pyroxene Roots— P>roXGQlMi. 40 

ccurtenceof Pyroienltc outside ol Man'l>nd 43 

D Ih4 nM af tbe name Pytoxenlte m 

mdusllonoflhelfaryldnd Pyroitenltes tuto other type« 47 

ccHTr^fKe and AsKociaWon. The seventeen hundred square 
as which compose the Piedmont plain or area of crystalline 

)v Google 

86 ITie American Oeologiti. 

' rocka io Maryland is divided by ite watershed, kno 
Ridge, into two distinct regions. Of these, the n 
is occupied mainly with chloritic and aericitic ech 
ing intercalated beds of limestone. This region it 
noticeably free from intrusive rocks of any kind 
particular it presents a marked contrast to the 
crystalline gneiaaes and marbles of the eaatern 
Piedmont area. These are interrupted by larg 
igneous rocks which possess a considerable variel 
rent three distinct types. These three types, in o: 
eucoession, are as follows : 

1. The ptayiodase or <jabbro type. This is the o 
as the most extensive of the three. It embraces I 
gabbro and diorite, with from 44 to 48 per cen 
moderate amount of alkali and considerable alum 

2. The non-fekhpathic or maiineaian type. This 
lated to the first type but is of less extent. It e 
pentines and associated steatitic and hornbl 
together with the pyroxene and olivine masses, fr 
spar, from which these have been derived. They 
rich in magnesia but almost devoid of both alumni 

3. T)ie orlhodum or (jranilic type, quite distil 
other two. These rocks are richest in silica, a 
alkali, and embrace granite, granite-porphyry, fe 
granite) and pegmatite. 

All of these massive rocke, with the exception 
the granites, exhibit the effects of dynamo-roei 
which has altered both their structure and mineral < 

The members of the first type, together with the 
products, have already been described by the 
memoir' which also contains a brief description 
feldspathic rocka. 

The members of the third or granitic type are 
future study and description, although they 1; 
been brought into prominence by Dr. W. H. Hobbi 
oftheallanite surrounded by a regular growth of c] 
they contain as an essential constituent.' 

'The GabbroB and asaaciatc<I Hornblende Kocks oci 
neigbboThoml of Baltimore, Md. Bulletin of the U. W 
No. 28, W«Bhiu^ton. 1886, 

'Johns Hopkins UniverBity Circulars No. 66, Apr., ]8f 
Science (ni) vol. 3S p,223, Tschermak's Min. und Petr. 

)v Google 

Non-feldapathic Intruaive Bocks.-~ Williams. 37 

Relation to the Serpentines. The serpentiiies of Maryland 
have long been known on account of the chromite they con- 
tain. They stretch in a aeries of lenticular and irregularly 
elongated areas along the Maryland and Penneylvania Btate 
line on the northern border of Cecil county, whence they follow 
the great westward bend in the Appalachians through Harford 
and a part of Baltimore counties, and then turn to a soutb- 
weatward direction along the eastern base of Parr's Ridge 
through a part of Baltimore and across Howard and Mont- 
gomery counties to the Potomac . 

While by no means regular in their distribtition, these ser- 
pentine areas lie for the most part on the west and northwest 
side of the gabhros. This fact is not without significance 
when taken in connection with the westerly or northwesterly 
dip of the crystalline schists, as indicating that the non-feld- 
apathic ernptives and their alteration products are younger than 
the gabbros — a result which is quite in accord with all obser- 
vations made on the field relations of these rocks where they 
occur together. 

The serpentines of Maryland, as well as the extensive horn- 
blendic and steatitic masses with which they are intimately 
connected, are plainly of secondary origin. They have all been 
produced by the alteration of what were once basic eruptive 
rocks, devoid of feldspar, which are still to be found in an 
almost unchanged condition. From these original rocks the 
serpentines and their associates can be traced through every 
intermediate stage so as to leave no doubt as to the exact 
course of their alteration. 

Character of the Original Non-/eldspathic Rocks. The original 
rocks from which the Maryland serpentines and their associ- 
ates have been derived belong to two distinct, but closely 
related groups. The members of both of these groups are 
alike in being too poor in alumina to produce any feldspar, 
while the mineralogical differences which divide them are 
mainly due to the smaller or larger percent of silica that they 

The rocks of the group poorest in 8ilica('10-44X)are richest 
magnesia and are characterized by olivine as an essential 
istituent. They are therefore representatives of the class 
idotile ; and, according to their greater or less proportions 

)v Google 

38 27te American Geolegiat. 

of lime, tbey form dialla^e-bronzite peridotitt 
lite), or broDzite peridotites (Harzburgite). 

The members of the second group, with from £ 
sHica, are too acid to allow of the formation of oliv 
therefore composed altogether of pyroxene. To tl 
may apply the class name, Pyrorenilc. These ro 
the same variations in their proportions of time i 
here of the first group ; and this gives rise to diall 
and pure bronzite aggregates which are equivalent 
free Iherzolites and harzburgites respectively. 

In their distribution, in the occurrence of every i 
form, and in the similarity of their alteration 
groups are so closely related that it is impossibli 
them as anything but mineralogical facies of a sir 
Nevertheless, their extremes represent two petri 
distinct and well characterized types, which must 1 
before attempting to trace out their relationships. 

I. The Pijroj-ene'oUnnc Rocks—Pcniiolilcs. T 
much less common than the pyroxenite ; not perh 
it was originally less extensively developed, but ra 
it is more subject to alteration, since olivine is : 
compound under present conditions than pyrosei 
ia even the freshest peridotite specimens obtainab 
stituent, olivine, is partially transformed to 
although not to an extent which disguises the ori; 
ure or character of the rock. 

The Maryland peridotites have been alread; 
by the writer in a former paper.' Their most 
feature is their porphyritic structure, which 
in Fig. 1, PI. II. The groundmasa appears i 
specimen homogeneous, compact, and of a gre 
color, but under the microscope is seen to be * 
posed of small olivine grains, more or less complet 
to serpentine. Cores of the unaltered mineral frt 
cupy the central portions of the grains ; and art 
by the anastomosing netnrork of serpentine and 
which has resulted from the partial alteration 
vine. In this groundmass are imbedded the die 
phyritic crystals of pyroxene in which the prooes 
tinization is far less advanced than in the oli 

•Bull. U. S. Geol. Survey, No. 2S, pp. 50-55. 1886. 


„ Google 

Non-feldapathic Intrusive Rocks. — Williams. 39 

structure iDdicates that the olivine is the youngeBt of the 
original mtQerals, and it seems therefore opposed to the rulcj 
given by RoaenbuscV and others, that, in eruptive rocks, the 
order of crystallization is in inverse order of acidity, the most 
basic constituent forming first, etc. The porphytitic structure 
is always noticeable in the Maryland peridotites, but is much 
more pronounced in some cases than in others, owing to the 
larger size of the pyroxene crystals. 

In these peridotites the pyroxenic component is always, 
wholly or in part, bfonzite. With this is frequently associated 
diallage, which in some instances exceeds the bronzite in 
amount. The only other original constituent present is magne- 
tite, except in those varietes where the development of a little 
basic feldspar produces a transition to olivine-gabhro. 

In composition these peridotites arc ultra-basic ferro-mag- 
nesian silicates, with a minimum amount of alumina. Their 
two varieties — olivine-bronzite aggregates (Saxonite, Harzburg 
ite) and olivine-bronzite-dinllage aggregates (Lherzolite), are 
produced by the relative proportions of lime present in the 
crystallizing magma; and hence, as mineralogical facies of 
the same mass, merge imperceptibly into one another. An- 
alyses of two specimens are here given. I shows the com- 
position of a typical porphyritic Iherzolite, from Johnny 
Cake road, Baltimore county, {No. 174) as determined by 
Mr. T. M. Chatard of the U. S. Geological Survey. This is the 
rock represented in Fig. 1. II is the analysis of afeldapathic 
lherzolit« from a dike exposed on the Western Maryland 
railroad near Pikesville, Baltimore county, (No. 54). It was 
made by Dr. Leroy McCay of Princeton College. 





. .12.. 

AI,0, . . 

.. 1.64.. 

'.'..'.'.'. 7.58 

Cr,0, . . . 

. .+1 . 


, 8.9f... 

; 5.99 


. 2.fi0.. 


MnO .... 

. .19.. 


Ca . . . . 

. 6.29. . 






. .50.. 



.. 8.72 

JH,0 4,73) 8 35 

jCOj 3.t!2f °-°'' 

Sp. gr. 3.022. 


101.74 Sp. gr. 2.989. 

^Neues Jahrb. fur Min., etc., 1882, ii, p. 8. 

)v Google 

40 The American Oeologiit. JqIt. isso 

In both of these rocks the presence of diallage manifests 
itself in the amount of lime which the analysis Bhowa. In the 
second, the presence of the basic feldspar (anorthitej is indi- 
cated by the greatly increased percentages of both alumina 
and lime. The loss by ignition shows a large amount of water, 
indicating serpentinization of the olivine; and also, in the 
flecond instance, the carbon-dioxide proves extensive carboni- 
zation of the feldspar and diallage. 

TI, The Pure Pyroxene Rocks — Pyroxenites. The masses of 
plutonic rocks composed wholly of pyroxene, which are so 
abundant in Maryland and from which the steatites and possi- 
bly some of the serpentines have been derived, are even better 
worthy of description than the peridotitea. This is, Ist, be- 
cause they represent, in typical and extensive development, an 
important group of igneous rocks which has not heretofore 
received its due recognition ; and 2d, because the abundance 
of material in all states of preservation permits of the trac- 
ing out of the course of their alteration. 

The pure pyroxene rocks of Maryland exhibit two well 
marked types, of which the diirker and heavier is somewhat the 
morebasic and richer in iron. This is composed of bronzite or 
hypersthene and diallage, while the lighter and more acid type is 
made up of the same orthorhombic pyroxene and diopside. 

The first of these two types, or the hypersthene-diallage rock, 
is much the more common and has a specific gravity of 3.32. 
Much of this rock presents an evenly granular texture, both of 
its constituents being present in allotriomorphous individ- 
uals from one to two millimeters in diameter. Only in the 
thinnest flakes are the colors of these minerals visible to the 
naked eye. Under the microscope the rock presents a pleasing 
contrast of red and green ; the diallage remaining always of 
the latter color, while the strongly pleochroic hypersthene 
changes from one to the other as the stage is rotated. The 
mineral composition of this rock is monotonous in its sim- 
plicity. AVith the exception of an occasional speck of opaque 
iron ore no trace of any other con Eftituent is present. The two 
pyroxenes seem to be about equal in amount, as gauged by a 
microscopic examination, but the following analysis (m) of a 
representative specimen from the Johnny Cake road, by Mr. 
J. E. Whitfield of the U. S. Geological Survey, indicates a 
Blight excess of diallage. 

)v Google 

ve Bockt. — WiUiama. 

.. 3.40 

... 8.U 
. . . 0.17 

eat) 0.5! 
.... 0.24 

Sp. gr. 3.318 
of this rock is represented 
)erfectly without the use of 
letituentB do not diSer mater- 
r, but in the figure the hyper- 
fer to distinguish it from the 
omponent of this rock exhib- 
when such is present it always 
dicating that of the two, this 

jd is not uncommon at many 
: is to be found in its freshest 
e Johnny Cake road, one mile 
along Gwynn'a Falls south of 
tsville Station. At the latter 
■emely coarse grain and it not 
; crystals of orthorhombic py- 

type of the Maryland pyrox- 
ron, and hence lighter both in 
iust described. Even in hand- 
ODStituents present that con- 
r type is observable only in a 
ic mineral is reddish brown 
nerald green. The grain is in 
rphyritie development of the 
i. The cohesion between the 

fresh specimens may some- 
e fingers. This, together with 
iers the separation of the two 

)v Google 


The A}iuirican Geologist. 

constituents easy, even without the aid of a heav 
The best locality for unaltered specimens oi 

near Hebbville P. 0., on the Windsor road, ah 

west of Baltimore. 
The following analyses {iv and v) of two sa 

rock are by Dr. T. M. Chatard of the U. S. Geolo 

while under vi and vii the composition of ea( 

minerals composing rock v is given according 






....52,65 ... 

...54.63 { 


.... 0.15.... 

.... 0.14.... 


.,.. 2.71.... 

'.'.'.'. 1.93.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 


.... 0.53.... 

.... 0.44,... 

.... 0.30 



.,,. 1.27.,., 

.... 1.70 



.... 4.90.... 

.... 8,92 


,,,, 0.21.... 

. ... 0.24.... 

.,.. 0.28 




.... 2.25 i 






..,.29.51 1 



"■' '.'.'.'..'..". 

H, . 

;... 0.83.... 

. ... i.oo'V.'. 

'.'.'.'. l.U. '-'.'.'.'.'..'. 

P"0' . . 


. . , . tr 




100.56 ! 

Sp. gr. 




The two seperate analyses vi and vii enable us 
quantitatively the mineralogical composition of t\ 
the microscopical examination shows that it cent 
ponents other than the two pyroxenes. In the s[ 
which the material was separated, the ratio of orti 
monoclinic pyroxene is one to three, as is shown 
v; but this proportion varies in other specimei 
seen from analysis iv, which indicates relatively 
orthorhombic mineral. 

Analysis vi is that of a typical bronzite, and the 
al is indicated by all of the optical properties of 
brown constituent. 

The emerald green pyroxene, whose compositic 
analysis vii, is monoclinic, with an extinction 
clinopinacoid, 6 : c, of 40°. It is to be designate' 
rather than diallagc, since it is translucent and 
pinacoidal parting. This mineral Beems to agt 
pects with the chrome-diopside of the Iherzolil 
olivine rocks, as may he seen by comparing its i 

)v Google 

Non-feldapathic Intrusive Rocks. — Williams- 43 

those of Damour, Oebbecke, Farsky, Cosb& and Heddle, <iuot- 
ted by Teall (British Petrography, p. 89.)' 

The extremely friable nature of this rock renders the prep- 
aration of thin sections difficult. NevertheleeB ita two compo- 
nents may be easily separated and studied independently. The 
structure is almost always granular ; but whenever it ie at all 
porphyritic, the bronzite is the older constituent, so that if 
correlated with the porphyritic peridotites above describedi 
the diopside supplies the place of the olivine groundmass. 
This change is produced by an increase of the silica while the 
proportion of alumina remains too low to allow the formation 
of feldspar. 

Occurrence 0/ Pyroxenite niitside of Maryland. Observations 
are not lacking which indicate that massive pyroxenites of 
both the types here described from Baltimore county, are ex- 
tensively developed and widely distributed through the crys- 
■ talline areas of the eastern United States, although our present 
knowledge hardly indicates what their real importance is. 

Rocks of the first type, or bronzite- dial! age aggregates, have 
been traced by the writer through Harford county, Md., in 
close connection with the serpentine of thiit district. Profess- 
or F. D. Chester has also recently described them as associat- 
ed with, and giving rise to many of the state line serpentines 
of Cecil county, Md., and Chester and Lancaster counties, Pa.° 
It has also been long recognized that many other serpentines 
of Pennsylvania have originated from the alteration of pure 
pyroxene rocks, especially enstatite and bronzite aggregates. 

Pyroxenites of the second type, bronzite-diopside aggregates, 
are known in the south, and the writer gladly avails himself 
of the kind permission of Mr. Geo. P. Merrill of the U. S. 
National Museum to describe in thi.'i connection certain very 
beautiful rocks of this type which he collected near Webster, 
N. C. They are abundantly exposed at this locality and form 
a member of the corundum-bearing dunite series which ex- 
tends through North Carolina and Georgia. The specimens 
received from Mr. Merrill are, like the Hebbville, Md., rock, 
imposed entirely of bronzite and a light emerald green mon- 
'ilinic pyroxene, but they are more acid and richer in mag- 

^ee tiino the analyaie by Player of a chrome diopside from the Lizard 
iftbbroB, published by Teall, Miner. Mag. viii, p. lUi, 1868. 
•Annual Report of the Geological Survey of Pennsylvania for 1887, 

)v Google 

44 Th£ Aiwerican Qeologist. juiy.iMo 

nesia than their Maryland equivalents, as may be seen from 
the following analysis (vm) by E. A. Schneider of the V. S. 
Oeoloeical Survey. 


SiO, 55.14 

A1,0, 0.66 

Cr,0, 0.25 

Fe,0,. 3.48 

FeO 4.73 

MnO 0.03 

CaO 8.39 

MgO 26.66 

NaiO 0.30 

HjO 0.38 

P,Os 0.23 

Total 100.25 

The base of this rock is a saccharoidal and easily pulver- 
ent aggregate of briinant green diopside grains, through which 
are distributed large and somewhat rounded crystals of a pale 
brown bronzite, whose diameter is from one to three millime- 
ters. The relative amount of bronzite is quite variable, even 
in the same hand specimens, as it shows a tendency to con- 
centration in nests or bands, but the porphyritic structure of 
the rocks is nevertheless very pronounced, and there can be 
no doubt that the bronzite is decidedly the older of the two 

The specimens obtained by Mr. Merrill from Webster are 
such admirable representatives of the bronzite-diopside rocks 
that the name Webslerite is suggested as a suitable designation 
for them ; and there seems to be no impropriety in extending 
this term over all the massive intruiives which are composed 
entirely of monoclinic and orthorhombic pyroxene.' 

'The rocka from Hebbville, Md., and Webster, H. C, find their 
foreign equivalenta in the well known pyroxenite o[ Russdorf and 
Mohsdorf in Saxony. These were described by Dathe ia 1876 as 

Etistalil-oUvin-feU (Neues Jahrbucb fur Min., etc., 1S76, p. 233,) but he 
subsequently discovered that the mineral which be considered to be 

olivine waa in reality a paie green pyroxene (diopaide) and he there- 
fore designated the ruck aa Pyroxen-^eli, (Neues Jtihrbuch fiir Min., 
etc., 1S83, II. p. S9.) Kalkowsky calls the same rock Enitatit-pyroxen- 
it (Elem. d. Lithologie, p. 235, 1B86.) Itwaa also upon Bathe's earlier 
description of this occurrence that Wadaworth baaed hie name Saxonitt 
for an olivine-bronzite aggregate (Lithological titudies, p. 125, 1&84), 
which was not accepted by Rosenbuach for this reason (Massige Oe- 
ateine, 2d Ed., p, 267.) Aa referring to rocks so much like these here 
deacribed from Maryland and North Carolina, Wadsworth's name 
might be revived for this type, but as its use in a new sense could only 
result in further confusion, it seems better to propose a wholly new 
designation. (See next page.) 

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Non-feld»pathie Intrusive Soekt. — Williams. 45 

Other Plutonic rocks containing neither feldspar nor olivine, 
which may therefore be properly clasaed as pyroxenitee 
although they do not belong to either of tlie two types here 
described from Maryland, have been mentioned by Hunt' from 
Rougement and Montarville, Canada, and by Dana' and the 
writer" from near Peekskill on the Hudson, Similar masses 
composed of intensely pleochroic rhombic pyroxene (ambJy- 
Btegite), horableDde and biotite were foand by Teall" in the 
Hebredean gneiss of northern Scotland, while Hatch" reports 
hypersthene-diallage rocks from Madagascar. Prof. F. W. 
Hatton" in his recent paper on the Eruptive rocks of New 
Zealand describee as pyroxenites an enstatite-diallage rock 
forming a dike in the serpentine of the Dun mountain ; a 
homblende-biotite rock from Dusky sound and a chlorite 
biotite rock from Martin's bay. 

Oa the use of the name Pyroxenite, The undoubledly wide dis- 
tribution of igneous rocks free from both feldspar and olivine, 
suggests the necessity of establishing a class designation, co- 
ordinate with the name Perulolite given by Rosenbusch to the 
corresponding olivine-bearing serieB, and, like this, capable of 
Bubdivision into types. For such generic use the term, Pyrox~ 
enite, is in all respects the most desirable, although it has 
already been employed as a petrographical name in at least 
four distinct senses. It is my hope to be able to show that its 
use as a designation for any rocks except those of igneous 
origin which are devoid of any feldspathic or olivine constitu- 
ents sfaould'be abandoned. 

The name pyroxenite was first used by Dr. T. Sterry Hunt,'* 
who applied it both to intrusive rocks composed mostly of 
pyroxene, like those of Roiigemont and Montarville, and to 
the more or less massive beds or nests of pyroxene so often 

'Serpentine which appear to have originated from pure pyroxene rocks 
have also been described by Dreische from Carintbia, Tyrol and from 
Ireland (Tschm. Min. Mitth,, i, 10, 3871) ; by Berwerth from Italy (ib. 
IV, 238, 1876) ; by Becke from Greece (Tschm. Min, Petr. Mitth., t,4til, 
1878); by Eithstadt from Sweden CGeol. Foren. Fijrh., vii, j. 333, 
18S4) ; and by Kosenbusch from Baden (Massige Gest,, 2d Ed-, p. 
•"'i, 1885). 

Geology of Canada, p. 667, 1873. 

Am. Jour. Science, (in), vol. 20 p. 199. 
i°Am. Jour. Science, (in), vol. 33, p. 1J)4. March, 1887. 

■British Petrography, pp. 71 and 84, 1888. 

"Quart. Jonr. Geol. Soc, vol. 44, p. .145. May, 1S83. 

'Roy. Soc, New South Wales, p. 15a, Aug. 7, IWtit. 

•Geology of Canada, 18fi3, p. G07. 

)v Google 

46 7T4e American Oeologitt. Jmr. iseo 

intercalated in the Archean limestones of New York and Cana- 
da.'' Between these two groups, genetically ao distinct, no 
sharp line has ever been drawn. In their text-books, Kal- 
kowsky'' and J. D. Dana'' designate as pyroxenite any rock 
composed wholly or largely of pyroxene, without regard to its 

Among the Canadian geologists the term has gradually 
come to stand ahuost altogether for the pyroxenic neste or 
beds in crystalline limestone which contain a great variety of 
other minerals," and have genetically no connection with the 
Maryland pyroxene rocks. 

Among French authors the use of the term pyroxenite, is 
again (juitc different and includes members of the crystalline 
schists which are not wholly or even principally composed of 
pyroxene. Thus de Lapparent says: "Les Pyroxenites aont 
des rochcB de plagioclase et de pyroxene, qui forment des 
conches de quelques centimetres jusqu 'A plusieurs metres r4gu- 
li^rement interstratifiees dans les gneiss.'"^ In his recent 
valuable pai>er on the "Pyroxenites of the Islands of Morhi- 
han,'"'^ Prof. Ch. Barrois describes beds of gneissic rock con- 
taining besides malacolite and diallage, quartz, feldspar, garnet, 
idocrasp, zircon, sphene, rutile, apatite, etc. These alternate 
with layers of fibrolitic mica-schists and are regarded by the 
author as extremely metamorphoaed calcareous beds of a 
sedimentary series. They are quite identical with the pyrox- 
ene-gneiss of Roguedas in Brittany, mentioned by Cross." 
Messrs. Lacroix and Baret describes as pt/roxhiite (> wern^ritc a 
gneissic rock composed of scapolite, pyroxene, sphene and 

'^Catalogue of the Canadian Rocks at the London Exhibition, 1862; 
and Geological Survey of Canada, Keport for 160.1-66, pp. 185 and 226. 

"Elemente der Lithologie, pp. 231-235, 1S86. 

"Manual of Mineralogy and Petrography, p. 488, 1S87. 

"McFarlane: Geol. Surv. Can., Report 1863-66, p. 05. 

Harrington: ib. 1877-8, Appendix G., p. 2. 

Adams and LawBon ; Canadian Record of Sci«nce, 1888, p. 188. 

To this class also belong the well-known ifalacoiUhJeU of Rocblitz 
in Bohemia; the Erlanfelt of Saxony; and the remarkable diopside 
nodules which alter to serpentine in the limeHtone of Montville, N. J. 
(vid, G. P. Merrill : Proc. U. S. Nat. Mub.. 1888, p. 105.) 

"Traits de GMogie, 1st Ed., p. 620, 1888. 

'"Lea Pyroxenites dea ttes du Morbihan. Ann. Soc. Gtol. du Nord, 
vol. sv., pp. t>g-96, 18S7-8. 

"Taehermak's Min. Pelr. Mitth., vol. in, p. 372, 18S1. 

)v Google 


Non-feldBpathic Intrutive Bocks. — Williajna. 47 

some Becondary oligoclase, occurring as a member of the crys- 
talline series near Saint Nazaire, France." 

Rocks of this kiud would be called by Germao and English 
petrographers, luigile fjneiss, and it ia a pleasure to see that in 
his most recent work on rocks of this kind, Lacroix has con- 
formed to this usage." 

Finally the name pyroxenite has been temporally employed 
in still a fourth sense to indicate certain recent volcanic rocks. 
Zujovies( or Jouyovltch)''' and Doelter" both proposed to use 
it in this way; but they subsequently sulfatituted avfiilitc ioT 
it upon discovering the many senses in which pyrorcnilc h&d 
already been employed." 

If the Canadian use of the name pyioxenite for aggregated 
nests in crystalline limestone be abandoned, as the French 
employment of the same term for augite gneiss, and the Ger- 
man use for certain basic volcanic rocks practically have 
been, we shall then have two parallel series of non-feldspatbic 
plutonic rocks, the one free from and the other containing 
olivine, which may be further subdivided as follows : — 



, (S»ioulte, .Wartiwoi 
' (HsuburgEte.lRoicn 
■ " ■ ■ enalallto & aiigltc. 

. Bryetlts, [Judd, IS8S) 
DuDlCe, (V. Hoctailetter, It 

hornbleade & 



STeBU'i ^nonli of Si'otl«nd 
IIuttoD> Ni'v Zealand rock. 

LimbDrslie. IKoseobasch, 18T2) | J Ausltlte, (Doelter. 1882) 

Hacma-Walt, (Borleky, 1373) | | 

Qradfidon of the Maryland Pyroxenites into other Rock lupfs. 
The bronzite-diallage rocks, which form the types of pyroxen- 
ite prevalent in Maryland, can be traced by insensible grada- 

"Boll. de la Soc. Fr. de Minfiraiogie, vol. x, p. 2fls, 1SS7. 

lb. vol. xii.p. 83, 1889. 

Note aur lee roches ^ruptives ct m^tamorphiques des Andes. Bel- 
ide, 18S0. 

■*tleber Pyroxenite, ein neues basaltischea Geetein. Verb. k. k. geoL 
tichganet, 1882, p. 140, and Die Vulhane der Cap Verden, p. 137, 1882. 
'•Les roches dea Cordilieres, Paris, 1884, p. 88-.'l!*. 
•J. also Rosenbsncb : Maaa. Gest. 2d Ed. p. 813, 1S35. 

)v Google 


TTi* American Oeologitt- 

tions into other rock types. Their close relat 
peridotites has already been alluded to, and the 
intermediate, both in occurrence and compoe 
these rocks and the more abundant hypersthenc 

If we take the composition of the pyroxenitc 
analysis in and iv as a starting point, three d 
variation may be plainly traced by an abundan 
diate types. Theae are produced by changes i 
of one of the three constituents, silica, lime ai 
follows : — loss of iiliai produces olivine and mal 
loss of lime obliterates the diallage and makes a 
of alumina produces feldspar and makes a hyp\ 

Simultaneous disturbance of the relative pro^ 
of these constituents produces intermediate typ 
tions may be seen from the following diagram : 

Any of these types might with equal righi 
starting point. Together they form a eonnectei 



Ice Cliffs on Kovak River. — Suttell. 49 

represents the yariouBly differentiated faci«8 of a single mag- 
ma. Such a magma probably continued to furnish, through 
a long period, eruptive material, while it wag itnelf undergo- 
ing local changes in chemical confltitution ; or else BucceaBive 
eruptions occurred from a magma which was itself never 
chemically homogeneous. Such a union of several petro- 
graphical types into a geological unit mass is the rule rather 
than the exception in eruptive areas. It is illustrated in even 
greater variety in the "Corllandt Series," near Pekskill, N. Y.," 
■where, as in the neighborhood of Baltimore, certain well- 
marked types prevail, which are connected by every conceiv- 
able intermediate form. 

In a later paper the writer hopes to trace out chemically and 
microscopically the course of alteration whereby the Mary~ 
land pyroxenites are transformed into serpentinous, horn- 
blendic and steatitic masses. 

Pttroarapliical Laboratory of Che Johni HopUn* Vnirertity, 
BaltimoTt, ApHl, 1890. 

In a recent report of a cruise of the U. S. Revenue Marine 
steamer "Corwin,"' there is an interesting narrative by Lieut. 
John 0. Cantwell, of a boat journey up the Kowak river, 
Alaska. In this narrative there is a brief account of remark- 
able ice cliffs forming the river's bank, of the same general 
character as the ice cliffs at Elephant point, on Eschschlotz 
bay, several accounts of which have been published.' Four 

"Am. Jonr. Science, (iii) vol. 35, p. 447, Jane, 18S8. 

'Report of the cruise ol the Revenue Marine-Bteatner "Corwin" in 
the Aretic Ocean in the year 1885. By Capt. M. A. Healy, V. S. R. M. 
Conunander, Washington, 1887, 49tb Congresa, Ist BeEBion, House 
•>{ BepreeeDtatives, E£. Doc. No. 153, 4to, pp. 1-102, 2 maps and 42 


•Descriptions of thia locality may he found in the following books : 

Otto von Kotzebue : A voyage of diecovery into the South aea and 

ifaring'H straits, tor the purpose of exploring a northeast passage. 

ndertaken in the years 18I5-liJI8. London, 1S2I, 8vo, vol. i, pp. 

I9-2S0. (See next page.) 

)v Google 

60 , The American Geologist. 

illustrations of the ice cliffs are presented, whict 
them as bold, angular bluffs, risiDg directly from t 
a uniform hight, and covered with a layer of Boil 
forest trees grow. The cliffs are in reality the eroi 
of a for est- cove red plateau, under which ice takes tl 
rock. The character of the surface of this plateau is 
by Lieut. Cantwell as follows :' 

"Climbing to the top of one of these ice-cliffs, Mr. 
and I pushed our way through the dense thickets 
and luxuriant growth of grass into the interior for 
mile, where we found a shallow lake about a mile in 
and which I have no doubt had its origin in the n 
over which we had been traveling. It is almost inc 
how such a rank vegetation can be sustained under 
ditions. If we stood in one place any length of time, t 
moss became saturated, and soon a pool of dark-coh 
made our position untenable. Besides the moss, b 
stunted willows, clusters of spruce trees, some measu 
8 inches in diameter, have taken root and grown i 
strata of soil overlying the ice." 

Being anxious to obtain a more detailed descript: 
interesting deposit, I addressed a letter to Lieut. Cs 
dicating the facts would be of geological interest, 
favored with the reply given below. This inform 
requested for publication in a paper on the surface 
Alaska, but owing to delay in the mails, it did nc 
time to be used in that connection, and is here pt 
order that the interesting observations it contain 
be lost. 

Captain Beethey : A narrative of the vovage and traveli 
Beechey, R. N., F. E. S., Ac, to the Paci'fic and Bebrin 
T>erformed in the years 1S25, '20, '27 and '28. Loadon, 8vo, 

W. H. Dall : Extract from a report to C. P. Patterson, 
Survey work in Alaska.] Am. Jour. Sd., 3rd aer., vol. 2 

C. L. Hooper : Report ol the cruise of the U. S. Revel 
Corwin in the Arctic ocean [in 1880.] Treasury Departmen 
ing, 1881 , Svo, pp. 2-1-25. 

C. L. Hooper ; Report of the craise ot the U. S. Kevei 
Thomas Corwin, in the Arctic ocean, 1881. Treasury I 
Washington, 1834. 4to, up. 79-Sl, PI. op. p. 80. 

W. H. Dall: Giaciation in Alaska. Buli. Phlloaophtci 
Washiuj^'ton, vol. 6, 1884, pp. 33-36. 

=Loc. Cit. pp. 4S-49. 

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Ice Cliffs on Eowak Eiver.—Eusiell. 51 


Aatoria, Oregon, March 2Stb, 1890. 
Sib : — During the summer of 18S4, 1 was detailed by captain 
M. A. Healy, Com'gthe U. S. steamer "Corwin," to take charge 
of a amall party sent out from that vessel for the purpose of 
exploring the Kowak river, a stream which had hitherto been 
unknown, except through native reports and from superficial 
examinations of its mouth by occasional visiting ships. The 
river takes its rise in a system of lakes situated in the north- 
west part of Alaska, flows in a westerly direction and empties 
into Hotham inlet which is an arm of the Kotzebue Bound. 
Itfl course throughout is within the Arctic circle and is very 
tortuous in the vicinity of its delta. The river is navigable 
for a distance of about 375 miles. Beyond this point the chan- 
nel is obstructed by rapids and contracted by many small 
islands and gravel beds. At two points before reaching the 
head-waters of the stream, we encountered gorfies where the 
width of the stream scarcely exceeds twenty yards and where 
the channel was filled with rough bowlders. The current at 
these points was so strong that we were compelled to portage 
our small boats. 

Some seventy or eighty miles from the mouth of the river is 
where we first observed the ice-clifls mentioned in my ofiicial 
report. At this point the cliff's were from 125 to 150 feet high, 

gradually decreasing in hight as we noted their recuri 
oar way up stream, until they had entirely disappeared when 
we had reached the foot-hills of the first chain of mountains 
through which the river flows. The topography of the Kowak 
valley in the vicinity of the ice-cliffs is characterized by un- 
dulating tundra plains, varied by patches of small spruce 
timber which, as a general rule, was most abundant along the 
banks of the stream. The moat remarkable example of this 
curious formation is the first series of ice-cliff's seen on the 
journey up stream. Here, as before ptated, the cliffs are not 
lees than 125 feet high and abut directly on the river. For 
about a mile, there is exposed to view a solid mass of ice, 
superposed by a layer of soft earth forming a uniform thick- 
ness of about six feet. The surface of the soil is covered by a 
dense growth of moss and sphagnum. The timber growing 
over the ice is as heavy as that found anywhere else in the 
vicinity, being from four to eight inches in diametev and from 
twenty to forty feet high. The exposed face of the cliff' is 
^roken into a thousand fantastic shapes by the combined 
3tion of Bun and rain, and the lower portion ii hollowed out 
ind curved by the constant erosion of the stream. 
In color, the cliffs are dark brown, varied by grayish spots 
lere pieces of ice have recently been detached. The ice is 
tt clear, and must have been formed from water holding in 

)v Google 

The American QwlogUU joIlum 

ation a large quantity of earthy matter. There is no appa- 
it stratification. A email piece which I obtained and melted 
>wed a j-eeidum composed largely of fine dust, moss and 
recognizable vegetable matter. No gravel was seen either 

specimens examined or anywhere along the base of the 
ffs. The shore line in front of the clifis was marked by an 
cumulation of soft, almost impalpable dust, piled in heaps 
a hight of fifteen or twenty feet. The dust piles were evi- 
atly the result of the melting of the ice during the summer 
leon, as the annual spring freshets caused by the melting 
jw on the mountains sweep everything movable before them. 
My first impression was that the ice-cliffs were formed bv 
.ft ice brought down by the river and forced into the soft 
I, but further observations caused me to reject this theory 
untenable. In the first place, the ice is solid, without crease 
fracture from top to bottom ; and, again, there are numer- 
s high sand and clay cliffs abutting on the river in situations 
ictly similar with reference to the current to those occupied 

the ice-cliffs, in which not a particle of ice is to be seen, 
i of the ice-cliffs are located on the left or south bank of the 
er and appear and disappear as the course of the stream 
preaches or recedes from an imaginary straight line joining 
im. It is a somewhat remarkable fact that if this line 
juld be extended to the coast, it would pass through the 
-cliffs visible on the shores of E.'schscholtz bay. 
The query arises, may this not be an old glacier which has 
in buried beneath the deposits of a more recent inundation? 
The ice-cliffs can be reached from Kotzebue sound by a 
rty going up the Kowak in a steam launch, in two or three 
ys. It is to he hoped that an effort will be made to send 
ne one competent to make a full investigation of this curi- 
s formation, north for that purpose, in some public vessel 
lising in the vicinity. 

Very respectfully, 

J. C. Cahtwell, 
2nd Lieutenant, U. S. R. M. 


M Phiodt Glaciaire, Hudiie principalement en France el en Suitu. 
• A. Falsan. 364 jiagea, with a map of the Quaternary glaciers of 
ince, a profile of the ancient glacier of the Rhone, and 105 cuts in 

text, Paris: Felix Alcan, 108, Boulevard Saint-Germain. 1889. 
'he excellent work of M, Falsan several years ago on the drift for- 
tfon and the ancient glaciers of the central portion of the basin of 

Rhone, prepared him well for reviewing in this treatise the history 

)v Google 

RevUw of Recent Geological Literature. 53 

of the iL-e age in France and SwitierUnd, the action of ice in erosion, 
transportation, depoaition, and the cansei of this aniqae geologic 
period. Apparently at the same time with the accumulation of the 
great ice-sheet of northwestern Europe, deep and hroad ice-streuos 
poured downward from the Alps to the vicinity of Strasbourg on the 
north and to Lyons on the west ; while the Pyrenees, the mountains 
of Anvergne, of the Morvan, and the Vosges,nooriahed glaciers similar 
to those which remain in the Alps at the present day. The traces of 
the ancient glaciation of these districts, their moraines and other 
glacial and alluvial deposits, the loeas, and especially notahle erratic 
blocks or boulders, are interestingly described, with numerous illtistra- 
tions from photographs. For the greater part of France the glacial 
period was characterized by abundant rainfall with no permanent accu- 
mulations of snowaadice ; the fauna included the mammoth and rein- 
deer and with them primitive man is known to have been a witness of the 
climatic vicissitudes of the growth, cnlmination, and departure of the 
vast Quaternary glaciers, but the author believes that no proofs of 
greater antiquity of our race have yet been discovered. 

Much attention is given to the progress and changes in opinions in 
explanation of the facte observed, from the times oC DeSauasure, Elie 
de Beaumont, Playfair, Charpcntier, and Agaafliz, to the present gen- 
eral assent accorded to the theory of land-ice as the drift-forming 
agency, first understood in (he Alps and thence extended to explain 
the drift of continental areas. The deep lakes bortlering the Xips are 
attribnted to orographic movements, but glacial erosion has produced 
small mountain tarns. Fjords, however, seem to have been channel- 
led by streams before the Ice age, instead of being orogenic fractures, 
as they are regarded by this author. After noticing BoQcheporn's 
suggestion of displacement of the earth's axis as the cause of glacia- 
tion in what are now temperate latitudes, and Dr. Croll'e theory of its 
dependence on eccentricity of the eartb'a orbit, both of which are 
thought to lack enfficient support, M. Falsan concludes that an elev- 
ation of the mountains above their present hight was the chief ele- 
ment inducing the formation of the great Quatenary glaciers ; and 
from his study in the Rhone basin he finds evidence of only one glacial 
epoch, but this included various phases ot retreat and re-advance of the 
ice, by which Btratified and sometimes fosailiferouB bcde came to be 
intercalated between nnetratified formatione of glacial origin. 

Nearly the same opinions on the cause and the unity of this period 
are held by Proi. Q. F. Wright in his work on "The Ice A^e in North 
America." which was published almost simultaneously with this vol- 
ume. But if there were in some regions two distinct glacial epochs, 
parated by a long interval of warm or temperate climate, as many 
Bologists believe to be proved for other alpine districts, for Great 
ritan, Bavaria, and North America, the repetition of ice-accumulations 
ascribed by M. Falsan to repeated uplifts of the land, which, as 
iggested also by TTpham, were not probably synchronous for all 

)v Google 

54 The American Oeologiit. Jn^r. «» 

glaciated countries. What the elaborate treatiaeH oi Geikie, Falsant 
and Wright have done for the Ice age in Scotland, France, and the 
United States, it now beeomea very desirable that others should eop- 
ply in similar form, attractive to ordinary readers, for ite extensive 
and very important records in Germany, Scandinavia, and Canada. 
Toarists visiting the French side of the Alps or Fyreenes Ebould not 
fail to read M. Falsan's book, a dnodecimo of the "Bibliotb^ne 
Scientifiqne Internationale;" and it will be found a most Talnable 
hand-book for glaoialists everywhere. 

QuattTnary HUtory of Mono Valley, California. By Israel C. Russ- 
ell. Pages Zei-394 ; plates xvi— xliv; and 1'2 figures in the text. (Ac- 
companying the eighth annual report of the director of the U. S. Geo- 
logical Survey.) 

The readeris very agreeably introduced to the district described in this 
memoir and becomes acijuainted with its principal topographic features 
and present climatic and physical conditions ae a section of the arid 
and most desert regions of the Great Basin, bounded on the west by the 
High Sierra, and learns the outlines of its geologic structure and his- 
tory, while crossing the Mono basin in an imaginary ride with the author 
on hia explorations and ascending with him to the summit of Sit. Dana 
on the Sierra water-shed, eight miles distant from lake Mono, above 
which it riseB 0,010 feet, to a hight 12,990 feet above the eea. Aside 
from th6 scientific value of this work, Mr.Rnssell has succeeded in telling 
his observations and conclusions with charming literary skill We 
almost share with him the exhilaration of field-work, study, and dis- 
covery ; and numerous maps, sections, and illustrations of scenery, but 
especially the textual description, bring the region clearly and vividly 
int« comprehensive view. 

Lake Mono has a rudely circular outline, with a maximom diameter 
of 14 miles, sn average depth of about 60 feet, and a maximum depth 
of 162 feet. It has no outlets and its waters are strongly alkaline. 
Above the present lake, distinct evidences of its expansion and higher 
levels dnring the Quaternary era ore shown by terraces, shore cliffs, 
beach ridges of gravel and sand, and delta deposits. The highest beach, 
varying slightly from ita original horizontal ity, is 670 to 710 feet above 
the level of the lake in 1883; but at that hight the lake still lacked 
about 100 feet of reaching to the lowest points of the water-shed, 
where it would have overflowed either eastward or northward. Only 
about twenty-five miles distant to the north, the southern extremity 
of the many-armed Jake I.ahontan stood, at its highest level, aboat 
2,700 feet below the Quaternary lake Mono, and thence stretched ISO 
miles northward, itself also without outlet. 

The histery of lake Lahontan, previously studied by Mr. Busi 
finds many close analogies in that of lake Mono, especially in 
abundant chemical deposits of lithoid tufa, dendritic tufa, and thino 
all being calcium carbonate, which frequently form crags, colnn 
and tewer-like masses both above and beneath the present suriac 



Sevieto of Recent Geological Literature. 66 

the lake. It is shown that the formBtion of the crags and colutunar 
tranks the latter Bometimee resembling a forest of gnarled trunka and 
BtumpB changed to stone, commenced wilh the deposition of porous 
and tabular lithoid tnfa from the waters of sub-lacuslral springs, and 
that the cones and tubular maases thus formed were subsequently en- 
veloped in sheatbingB of the dendritic, thinolitic, and lithoid varieties, 
precipitated from the lake waters. Careful investigation, however, 
baa not yet determined "why at one time the tufa slioold have a 
be^Lutifdlly dendritic structure, at another time form regular and aym- 
metric crystals, and still again be a structureless stony roHss. eacb de- 
posit having the same coropositioii and being evidently formed from 
the same solution." 

Glacieraofgreatextent covered the Sierra NeTada excepting its high- 
est sharp peaks and ridges, and flowed down the lateral canons heap- 
ing great morainal embankments along tbeir sides and on the broad 
lower slopes, terminating below the highest Mono beacb. Their max- 
imum extension preceded the highest level of the lake, wbicb proba- 
bly marked a time of rapid melting of the snow and ice on the mount- 
ains. There were at least two epochs of glacial extension, besides 
many minor fluctuations ; and what may be termed an interglflcial 
epoch is recorded in the sediments of the ancient lake by an nccumul- 
ation of gravel separating two heavy deposits of Incustral sediments. 

Volcanic action has been displayed on a grand scale in the Mono 
basin since the high water stage of the lake which followed the max- 
imum extension of the Sierra Nevada glaciers. Some of these points 
of recent eruption are situated on the islands of the lake, ot)iers lie 
bsneath ita surface, and still others are found on the aoutbern portion 
of the basin, where they form part of a range of volcanic cones known 
as the Mono Craters, which in greater part, however, seems to he of 
earlier Quaternary age. Beginning less than a mile from the ahore of 
the lake, the Mono Craters extend in a crescentic belt to the southeast 
and south about eight miles, rising K)0 to 2,750 feet above the late 
level. All the cones of the range are largely built of lapilli, which 
have a light gray tint and form smooth, even elopes about the vents 
from which they were ejected. Interbedded with these acfumulations 
of volcanic rock fragments are thick sheets of black obsidian that flow- 
ed in various directions from vents, usually near the crest of the range. 

"Owing to the viscid character of the lava at the time of its extru- 
sion, it formed thick sheets which terminated on their lower margins 
in precipices two or three hundred feet high. The contrast here pre- 
sented by esentially the same rock under different conditions of extru- 
~'on can scarcely be surpassed. The lapilli are loose, vesicular, 
ncoherent, and light- colored, and form smooth, curved slopes of great 
egnlarity and beauty; the obsidian is compact, dense, black in color, 
naeaive in appearance, and the surface is broken into huge angular 
blocks thrown together in the utmost confusion. 

Reviewing the climatic changes indicated by lakes Mono, Laliontan, 

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1^ American OeologiBt. Juir, ia«o 

onoeville, the antlior coacludeB that the early Qa&temary wae 
;-coatinned period of aridity, and that this was followed by a Ume 
ilively great but not excesaive hainidity, daring which a large 
er of the enclosed baaine of the region became flooded, thoagh 
of them were not raised so high as to overflow. Then followed 
terlacnstral epoch of low water, doabtlees coinciding with the 
ipal iatergUcial epoch, when many, if not all, of these basins 
completely desiccated- A 'second maximum of lake extension 
'ed this arid epoch and was succeeded by another era of desiqpa- 
f great intensity, during which and probably not more than three 
'ed years ago the lakes of the Lahontan basin were evaporated to 
se. Recently a gradual change to a more humid climate brought 
the conditions now characteristic of the arid regions of the West ; 
[r. Rnssell think<i that this latest change has not yet culminated, 
lat increased humidity in the Great Basin may be expected in 

•.ertain Deuonian planti from Scotland. By Sir J. W». Dawson. 
ire, April 10, 1890.) 

a communication ennmerates several species of fossil plants from 
shire and Caithness, Scotland. The most abundant species is 
ikyton princepi Dn. and then P. rohutliut Dn. and Arthrosiigma 
e Dn. These species constitute a flora which ie identical with that 
lower division of the Gaep6 sandetoneH of Canada. The Caith- 
; labs contain Corif a £Ie« angutCi/olia Da. , Which is also found in 
>evonian of Canada. The Perthshire plants were noticed in 
e'a "Test-book of Geology," 1882, p. 708, where a good figure of 
ihglon robiutiui Dn. is given, which shows the fruiting. The 
■ is interesting since it is one of the few cases in which pre-Car- 
jroUB plants can be used for correlating approximately the stra- 
>hy of two widely separated sections. 

F Mammalia of the Uinta Formation. By William B. Scott and 
;y F. Osbors. (Trans. Amer. Phil. 6oc., Fhila., vol. xvi, part 
;90. pp. 461-572.) 

>f. Scott contributei part i, "The Geological and Faunal Relations 
! Uinta Formation, "in wliich be discusses the stratigraphicsl and 
mUiIogical relations of the various groups of this formation- In 
i, "The Creodonta, Rodent! a and Artiodactyla," he gives some 
and valuable descriptions of the various genera and species from 
linta; the rodent Pletiarctomyt iciuroides S <^ O, a species much 
or to P. detieatiitimus, is described from well preserved skull, 
' jaw and limb bones. In the artiodactyla.. Prof. 8cott.and 
m's genus Leplotragulu) (L. proavug) is treated at length and its 
matic position defined. This genus is regarded as the forerunner 
■brothtrium. Prof. Scott thinks Homacodon is the direct anceater 
nlolragului. The former has been placed by Marsh {.Am. J. Sci. 
37) with nelohyut in the family Helohydix against which Prof. 

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Recent Publicatitma. 57 

Scott prot«Bta with apparently very good reasons. A length; discus- 
sion of 17 pagM is given to Protonodon S & 0. In part iii, Prof. Osbom 
describes the ntter confusion brought about bj the useless attempts to 
describe and work from brief descriptions without the aid of plates or 
cute. Upon investigation he has found the perissodactjla of this for- 
mation coneiderablf mixed up, and it seems proper at this point to 
call attention to the necessity of ignoring to a certain extent brief des- 
criptions unless accompanied by plates or some other method of 
illustration. Tlie family Amyodantidm is discussed and a new species 
A. intermedium described and illustrated; Diplaeodon, Iteclolophut, 
TriplopMt and Epihippat complete the part. The memoir is then con- 
cluded with an interesting paper by Prof. Osborn on "The Evolution 
of the Ungulate Foot," and some extremely interesting material is 
brought forward. Like all the )>aperB from the Princeton Museum this 
exhibits the nsual great care with which their subjects are treated. 
It is illastrated by well executed plates. 


1. State and GovernmeiU Rtportt. 

California state Mining Bureau. Wm. Irclan, Jr., state mineralogist. 
Ninth annual report, for the year 1S8S). 352 pp., octavo. Numerous 
half-tone plates, and other illustrations. Sacramento. 

Geological Survey of Texas. K. T. Dumble, state geologist. A pre- 
liminary annotated check-list of the Cretaceous invertebrate fossils of 
Texas. Bulletin No. 4- Robert T. Hill. 67pp.,8vo. 

Geological Survey of Missouri. Arthur Winslow, ptate geologist. 
BnUetin No. 1 contains : Administrative rejiort, Arthur Winslow ; 
The coal beds of Lafayette county, Arthur Winslow; Tbe building 
•tones and clays of Iron, St. Francois and Madison counties, G. E. 
Ladd ; The mineral waters of Saline county, A. E. Woodward ; A pre- 
liminary catalogue of tbe fossils occurring in Missouri, £. Hambaeh. 

Revision of the genus Araucarioxjlon of Krans, with compiled des- 
criptions and partial synonymy of the species. F. H. Knowlton. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., vol XII, pp. 601-617. 

Notes on the serpentiaous rocks of Essex county, N. Y. ; from Aque- 
duct shaft 26, New York city, and from near Easton, Pa. Geo. P. 
Merrill. U. S, Nat. Mus., vol. xii, pp. 695-600. 

Report of the U. S. Geographical Sun-eys west of the 100th 

Midian, in chaige of Capt. Geo. M. Wheeler, vol. i. Geographical 

W)rt, Washington, 1889, Quarto, pp. 780, 38 plates, 8 maps. 

2. Proeeedingt of Scientific Sodetiet. 
i^e Journal Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., April, 1890, contaios ; Description 

some new genera and species of echinodermata from the Coal Meas- 

ly GoOgIc 

The American Oeologiat. 

Bub-carbon if erou8 rocks of Indiana, MiBsoari 
id Wm. F. E. Gurley ) Deecription of a new ff 
ke rodent (CaBtoroidea georgieneis), Joseph 
inton formation in Ohio, Joa. F. Jamea. 
iotogical Society of America hoa iEsued the fol 
)f its Bulletin : The value of the tenn " Hudsi 
;ical nomenclature, C. D- Walcott ; Some resi 
Alexander Winchell ; Post- Tertiary depoaite 
;ll; Sandstone dikes, J. S. Diller ; Tertiary 
of eastern MassftchuHetts, N. 8. Shaler; Tbi 
jbec group," R. W. Ells ; Some additional ev 
nterval between the glacial epochs, T, C. CI 
! zone and ita fauna, a, discussitm of methods ( 
tuna ; The Caiciferous formation in the Cb. 

and Seely, with a anpplement on the Fort ( 
mas, by R. P. Whitfield; Proceedings of the 
Few York, Dec. 3U, 27 and 38, 188!i, containing 
1 by Newberry (The Laramie group) ; Geo. H. 
entines at Syracuse, N. Y.); Clark (Tertiarj 
ar river region); McConnell (Glacial featnn 
:kenzie basins); Wright (Moraine of recesal 
Appomattox formation) ; Geo. If. Williams (1 
IS in Norway); David White (Cretaceous plan! 
I); Hitclicock (Oval granitoid areas in the Ixin 
. (Porphyritic and gneieaoid granitea in 
Watchung trapa of New Jeraey); Upham ( 
1 evidence of elevation and depression) ; McK 
lake Superior) ; and the constitution, bylaw 
Ks of the society, the whole volume coraprisin 
dum to the minerals and mineral localities of 
■1 Hidden <Jour. Eliaha Mitchell Bci. Soc, Ch; 

ichia, vol. VI, No. 1 contains : The cliff-dwell: 
18, Frederick H. Chapin; Some Adirondack p 
i; The Madison boulder, W. O. Crosby. 

.t. Papers in Seitntifie JournaU. 
■ur- Set., May No. Elementary proof of the '. 
;ker; Hornblende of St. Lawrence county, N. ■" 
ote on some secondary minerala of the amphi 
ps, Whitman Croaa ; Spangolite, a new coppt 

Archean axes of eaatern North America, J. 1 
Beriea of aontbeastern New York, F. J. H. M 
I North Carolina, L. G. Eakina; Disiinctive < 
tUopoda, and additional characters of the C< 

new Crelaceoua dinosaars, O. C. Marsh. . 

new mineral. Hidden and Penfield ; Notice 
9, O, C. Marsh. 

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Ihern Marylmii and Vir- 
la University Circulari, 

omian Shales of Kansas. 

No. 2). 

eoc-histinNew England, 


correspondence of April 
I work, relating; to tbe 
group give evidence of 
luable addition to the li- 
ons, however, are rather 
not already acijiiaiiited 
ed in this liranch of pal- 
genera Bimilar to that 
d published i»ome fifteen 
of the generic descrijit- 

lOBition of the inner wall 
; of the septa about the 
scribed by Kicholaon aa 
' of the European ejiecies 
leveloped though seldom 

Qphyllum. It was found- 
Diphyphyllum archiaci 
amphlet entitled, "Bes- 
immenden, Devonischen 
(. The description was 
I the same year but the 
I gave its name to the 
H. and A.rantliophyl- 
!d (p. 10) hy the narrow 
d, outer area by a heavy 
peripheral region. The 
■Jan. 1878, (5lh aer. vol. 
;hol90n "On the minute 
yllum and Crepidophyl- 
>t-note, '■Descriptions of 

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60 The American OeologiH. Jo'!'. i«» 

the charactars of Heliopbyllnm knd Crepidopbyllum formed part of a 
paper, by Hr. Jamee Thompson and tn jself , which was laid before the 
Royal Society of Edinbargh in the seaaion of 1875-76, and an abstract 
of which was published in the 'Proceedings,* vol. ix. No. 95, p. 149." 
The latter genne was founded upon aome specimeae from the Devon- 
ian of Canada, formerly referred by Kicholson to Heliopbyllnm (snb- 
csespiiosum), and is identical with Craspedophyllum, which upon the 
most favorable consideration preceded it by two yeare. In the article 
above referred to Nicholson states (p. 49) "By Dybowski (Hon. der 
Zoanth. scler. rng. aus der silnr. formation, etc., p. 83} the genna 
Heliophyllam is placed in a special family Craspedophyllidte along 
with two new genera Acanthophyltam and Craapedophjllnm, the only 
character assigned to the family being that Ihere ia no accessory wall, 
that the septa are complete, and that the sides of the septa are enp- 
plied with lateral ontgrowtbs." The portion of the classification of 
Dybowski referred to is here given. 

6. Family Graspedophyllidffi. 

1. No accessory wall. Septa completely developed. 
a Side faces of the septs supplied with 

lateral outgrowths. 

Genns, Heliophyllum £. & H. 
6 Side faces of the septa supplied with 
thorny outgrowths. 

Genus, Acantbophyllum Dyb. 

2. An accessory wall present, only an outer series 

of septa existing. Side faces of the septa 
supplied with lateral outgrowths. 

Genus, Craspedophyllum Dyb. 

Prof. Nicholson seems to have entirely overlooked the second divis- 
ion of this family and to have been ignorant of the original descrip. 
tion of the genns, otherwise he would not have written, "In- 
deed I am not acquainted with any genua in which any close approxi- 
mation to the peculiar structure of the central portion of the coraltum 
in Crepidophyllum, can be found. There is no otlier recorded genus 
in which the median portion of the central tabulate area is partitioned 
off by a distinct wail, with which all the primary septa are connected 
directly and in which they terminate." The genus of Thompson and 
Nicholson must then be abandoned and Craspedophyllum retained 
with its two Bpeciea, C. archiaci (Bill) Dyb. (not americanum) and C. 
subcffiBpitosum Sich. 

The genus Chonophyllum E. & H. has been especially unfortunate 
in its history, its structure being very generally misunderstood and 
species assit^ed to it which possess n* such structual affinities. It 
was founded in 1^^ by Edwards and Haimc upon a specimen fignred 
and descrilieil by Goldfuss, in 1826, as Cyathophyllnm plicatum. In 
the same list of Cyathopfaylla, however, the German scientist had just 
described an entirely difi'erent coral under the same name. Perceiv- 
ing the dnplication he afterwards changed the name of the former to 


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Correspondence. 61 

perfoliatam. Conceived thus in error the ^ddb has seemed ill-fated 
throughout its historj. The original description mnat be considered 
largel7 Teeponsible and this has unfortunately been given a new lease 
of life in Mr, Milter's work. The writer ha« in preparation a paper on 
this genus in which ha hopes to make clearer ita internal itructure ; it 
is aufficient to state here that it is not made up of a series of invagin- 
ftted cells, has no tabnltP, the septa are not generally equally develop- 
ed, it has or had a wall and poHseaHea a complete vesicular structure. 

Of the American species magnificiim and ponderosum may be stated 
certainly to belong to this genus. Belli and vadnm are doubtful in re- 
gard to their generic relations and must be compared with type struct- 
nres before they can positively be accepted. An examination of num- 
erous specimens of ellipticum has proven conclusively that they do 
not belong here ; their coarse, vesicular tissue and tabalte give them 
Btmctnral relationship with Cyathophyllum honghtoni Rominger, as 
pointed out by this author, ((ieol. Snr, of Mich. vol. in, pt. ii, p. 105). 
Capaz, with its concentric wrinkles and radiciform procesi<es, deep 
fovea, and false columella, is removed with equal certainty from 
Cbonophyllum, and sedaliense has nothing in its description or figure 
to safest this genus. C. validiiin Hall must be an error of the com- 
pi]er. Its references belong to C. radum Hall. 

Conophyllnm Hall has not the relatjonship to the above genus that 
its name would seem to imply, or which Prof. Hall later supposed that 
it possessed. Its type species, C. magarense Hall, has been correcUy 
determined by Dr. Rominger to be a Cyatiphyllum. (Geol. Sur. of 
Mich. vol. in, pt. II, p. 13SJ The frequent rudimentary condition of 
the septa and the invagiaated, blistered cells, shown in specimens 
from N, Y., Mich., Ind., and Iowa all attest the correctnesB of this 
judgment, It is especially unfortunate that Mr, Miller hits figured 
this alone with which to represent Chonophyllum. 

There are a number of less important corrections that may be noted 
before closing ;— Zaphrentis cornicula ia a well pronounced Heliophyl- 
Inm ; Ptychophyllura should be credited simply to Edwards and Haime ; 
SyringoporaT multicanlis Hall is shown by its well developed septa to 
be a Diphyphyllum— (See Geol. Sur. of Mich. vol. m, pt. ii, p. 122) 
and Cyathophyllnm helianthoides Goldf. in not syiionymoua with Hel- 
iopbyllnm halli E. & H, Specimens mt the former from the Eifel show 
carinie in places but they are specially distinct from the latter. 

Will H. Sherzbr. 
OtoU Laboratory, UnivertUy of Michigan, April IS, 1890. 

Miller's North American Gkoj.ooy am> Paleontology. — I would 
: apace in your journal for a plain statement of tliat which is iti part 
■sonal to myself and in part relates to the work which I recently 

iblished under the name of the "North American Geolocy and Pahu- 
»logy." Messrs. Dulau & Co. of London, Encland, ordered severiil 
lies of the hook, and I took the liberty ol sending an extra copy to 
it hook-concern to be delivered to tbe AnnaUand Magazine of NaluT- 



The American Geologist. 

a'.ffUtoTy,ot London, torreviev. In the April nombero 
there appeared a false, malirioas and libellooB article, n 
a revieir of the work. The journal was not Bent to me, bnl 
lyeaw the articleandatonce wrote a letter to the Annala i 
of Natural History, in care of Dalau &Co., nhohaddelire 
which tetter was retnmed to me with a refusal to publish 
aek here to expose the cowardice of the anonymouB Itbelle 
any criticisms upon the disingenuous managementof th 
Magazine of Natural History, or its superviency to t: 
home, but 1 ask you to publish the letter I Bent to that joi 
pend hereto, and on another occasion I will make known 
that actuated the unwarranted attack, as I recognize the a 
by hie feet tracks, as I would if his Bignatnre had appei 
middle name at full length as naual. 

Cincinnati, 0., Hay 24tb, ISM. S. J 

CisnssATTi, Ohio, Ap 

EditonoJ AnnnU and Magazine of Natural Hitlory,'Loui\on 

The April number of your journal, containing a rene' 
work on North American Geology and PalaKintology fell it 
today, at the Public Library of this city. I think therevi 
of being critical, baa been intemperate and spitefnl, and, t 
er the name of the author nor his initials are made to a] 
theless, I Chink he is the same individual with whom 
correspond some years ago ; but wboei-er he may be, and 
molives may have been, he has certainly shown himself t 
with geology and paliv ontology. 

The reviewer accuses me o( "the hard pedantry of rel 
capitals in specific names." The report on Zoological n 
to the American Association for the Advancement of Sci< 
page 32, contains the following language : ' 'It is probabl 
cases it would be better to commence the generic name w; 
and a specific name with a small letter. " I have followe< 
mcndation ami so has nearly every American naturalii 
time, and I have given the reason for so doing on page 98 

But beyond all this, it is the rule adopted, in 1S42, b} 
Association for the Advancement of Science, and is most < 
adopted by the AmericanOrnitholotnsts Union, in its code < 
ture of 1886, in these words ; "Specific names should olicoj 
with a small initial letter, even when derived from peraoi 
and generic names should always be written with a capital 

He complains that I use only one letter "i" in the genitiv 
but, in that regard, I follow the rules of nomenclature of tJ 
AsKociation, as will be seen by referring to page 28 of 
Again he says, "ignoring the masculine gender of the Late 
ckeitue oiehilut, rhynchut and phycu» (in combination) 
Greek forms are neuter, is not good, even in the dog-Lati 
naturalists." Prof. Lindstrom, in 1S84, in his great work 

)v Google 

C&rregpondenee. 63 

lurian (.iastropoda made the geuue Onyckoehilm tnd the epeciea O. 
eockUatum and 0. Teticulaium. Prof. WhitaaveB, in lti34, made Codnn- 
oeheUui and C rin'aium. Prof. Hall, in 1885, made ProrhyncKut, P. 
angiilatum, P. nattitum and P. Quadratum. Prof. Whitfield, in IS92, 
made Stretitorhynckta eardinale, and in the Annual Rep. (!eo. Sur. 
Wis. for 1877, page 50, he made Pahrophycui plamoinm. If this re- 
viewer is correct, Liodstrom, WhiteaveH, Hall, WhittieM and inaDy 
others whom I might name are "illiterate amateurs," nhoee knowl- 
edge of Liitin IB not above the liarking of a dog. It happene, however, 
they nre iliatinguished naturalists, and some of them are distinguished 
linguists, and they have all conformed to the laws of lanjiiiage and the 
laws of nomenclature in the UHe of Ihese words, for the rule ie, the 
Greek word takes on only the funn of the Latin lan^'uage and retains 
the gender and meaning which l>elong to it. I have followed the laws 
of nomenclature, and the practice of all si'ietititic men of this country, 
and BO far as I am advised the learned naturalists of other countries. 

I have before me Andrews' Latin Lexicon, published l>y Harper 
Brothers, New York, 1872. On page 4G, "atgilops" is defined as "J 
kindofofik with edible fruit (ncorna), QiuTcut aegilopi," and the pahi'on- 
tolopst who used the name for a species did so hecause his fossil was 
like an acorn. On page 170, '•aurelta" ia defined as "A lille bird," and 
no other definition is given, and it was used by the piib<'ontolo;.'iHt, 
from a fancied resemblance of his fossil to a small bird. On pajie 1H5, 
"bellulut" is defined as "pretty, elegant, lotety, beaati/iit," and Ihe name 
has been used in American p:il:i' ontology only in the sense of "viry 
prelt'/." On page 2111, "eerfiiui" is defined as "a ehtrry," and the 
paleontologist used the name "ceratiformis" because he thought his 
fossil was "like a dried cherry." On |iage 811, "intectiit" is defined aa 
"non tectm," and the word when applied to a fossil has been used in 
the sense of "uncul." On page ]52;t. "lemernria»" Is defined as "acci- 
dental, casual,' ' and it is only in that sense the word is used in pahi'on- 
tology. On page 16.">2of Liddell and Scott's Greek-English Lexicon, 
published in I8T2by Harper Brothers, New York, one of the deiltiitions 
of "chtiloii" is "the edge," and the pahi-ontologist who used "dikrochei- 
lut" used it in the sense of "two edged" or "hacing two edget." 
"Munmiform" is defined in Web.ster's Unabridged Dictionary, as 
"retembliag a mummy," and "mumifoTinie" has been used as a specific 
name for a black, carbonaceous fossil which the author fancied "re- 
tembUid a mummy." 

A glossary is defined by Webster as "A collection of gloiiei or e.rpla- 
naCions of Che special meaning! and dijIicuU lermt of a luork," and so far 
T am able to discover the correct special meaning of each of the 
ive words is given in my glossary. But your reviewer may say I 
ve not accounted for all the errors he has found, that make him 
'Try for the ainaletirt." Well, he has found some tyjiographical 

Liors that would be patent to the merest beginner, for instance, 
Itilis" meane "fattened," and the types have made it mean "flallen- 

)v Google 

64 The American Oeologiat. Jnir. iwo 

ed," and "eadoivi" means "fvll of tkallowg," and the printer read the 
two "ll'i in the manuecript for a "d" and thus printed "thadomt" in- 
stead of "shallows." Id this country, a pretended lti tic guilty of la)' ing 
streae upon a transparent typographical error would be regarded as 
having a mind too "thallow" to entitle him to any consideration , 
How about "TurriUpas" not "tv-rnlepasT" On page 257 of my work, 
the word "Lepas" is defined. On page 5159, an accidental mistake of 
my own or of the printer exists, for the word is correctly defined, in 
the edition of my Catalogue of Palieozoic Foasils, in 1877, and the 
meaning of the word has been well known to me as wel) as the fossils 
bearing the name tor twenty years. How aljout "Leperditiat" There 
I mailc a mistake aud the only one mentioned by the reviewer worthy 
ot consideration. I never saw the memoir of Rouault, and never heard 
the proper name, Lcperdit, until since the publication of my work, 
when Prof. Lindstrom, recognizing the difficulty ot finding the special 
meaning of some technical names, very kindly gave me the informa- 
tion, by letter. 

The reviewer, however, reaches, the climax of bis apiteorignorance, 
in the closing paragraph, when he says, "Above all, graciliui, a, wm, 
majat, a, urn, andminxit, a, um, Iht neuter comparative forms of gracil- 
iui, ituxgnus and parvut. Had he given u» also, pltts, pla, plum, he would 
havemade the series nearly complete." On page 952 ot Andrews' Latin 
Lexicon, you will find "minus, a, um;" on page 916, you will find 
"majui, a, um;" and on page 687, you will find "graeUus, a, tim." They 
are good latin words. Prof. Hall, in 1888, in Pal. N. Y. vol. 7, p. 34 
made "Gomphocerai minum," audlmight point out where each of these 
words has been used by eminent pah^ontologiste of this conntry, but 
there is no necessity for so doing, as I made a glossary for the purpose 
of indicating the special meaning the authors had intended to indicate, 
and not to criticise or belittle their taste, in the selection of names. 
Besides the tendency of naturalists is to retain names in spite of faults. 
"Plus, pla, plum" is the Latin of the critic in question, and it will com- 
pare favorably with his knowledge of geology and palaeontology, and 
1 doubt not with his other scientific attainments. 
Very Eespectfully, 

S. A. Miller. 

Use op tub terms Laurentian asb Champlain in Gioloqy. In the 
April number of the American Geolohibt there is an article on the 
names Lanrentian and Champlain to which some corrections and ad- 
ditions may be of use. At p. 17!), HUtorie du Canada par F. X. Gai^ 
neau, tome I, Quebec, I84€, we read: "La chaine des Laurentidea, 
montagnee qui s^parent les eaux qui se versent dans le St. Laur^"* 
de celles qui tombent danslabaie d' Hudson". And in afoot note a: 
the word Hudson at p. 180, we read: "Cette chaine n' ayant pas 
nom propre et reconnu, nous Iui donnons celui de Laurentides, 
nous parait bien adapts A la situation de ces montagues qui suivent 
direction parall^le an St. Laurent. 

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Correspondence. 65 

The first time the name was ased in geolop^y with tlie Biffnification 
attached to it by its originator, is at p. IS, A gcologieal map of the United 
Slattt and the Briliih Provineti of North Ameriea, hy Zn\(}aiili\ta<i\i,Biib- 
ton, Jnly, 1853, where we read: "System of mountains, wliich I shall 
call, after the example of the author of tlie ilittory of Canada, Mr. F.X. 
Gamesn, the Lavirentine Mountains," and at p. GT "Lawrentine tyitem — 
The granitic, ayenitic and gneiss rucks, whicli make the foundation of 
the Lawrentino Mountains." 

Logan, one year and a half after the publication of my Tolunie, in 
h'lB Report of Progreu for the year IS'^S-i, Ijafhec, lH-')4, hut not iHrfucd 
until April, 1855, BpoaltB at p. 7 of "the metamnrphic hills to which 
Mr. Garneau in his History of Canaiia lias given the name of thf- I,au- 
rentidea" ; and in the following page lio uses the name of Laiirenlian 
teriet, directly helow the Potadam sandatoiic, without a siii^le rock be- 
tween them, suppressing the 25 or 30,000 feet of strata found and de- 
scribed by Dr. Emmons, under tlie name ot Taeiniic aysttm. 

From these data and quotations, it is very clear that tlio proposition 
of my good friend Francois Xavior Garneau was unknown to alt gi;olo- 
gists, until I pointed it out in July, 1S53. 

On the 20th of November, 1850, Desor proposed, before the Boston 
Society of Natural History, to name some Quaternary marine shell de- 
posits the Laurentian, and the 10th of May, 1S5], he gave more force to 
his proposition in publishing a luiper with a section in the Bulletin of 
the Geological Socitt}/ of France, vnl. viu, pp. 420-4T-S. He distinguished 
two terrains and called the marine shell deposits Laurentian or terrain 
Lawentien, because it is especially well developed in the basiu of the 
St. Lawrence river. Logitn in using Laurentian in 1.S55 for masses of 
crystalline rocks duplicated the name, and acted against the riglit of 
priority ; notwithstanding hia explanation that he ti>ok the name fri>m 
the moantaio chain of the Laurontides, and not from the valley of the 
St. Lawrence river, " 

Champlain as a designation of the Quaternary clay of the same region 
and as a synonym of Laurentian is even more against all right of prior- 
ity and against all suuud principles of nomenclature. As far back as 
1842, Dr. Emmons, the founder of the I^ower Palieozoic classification 
aad nomenclature, proposed the name Champlain to designate all the 
strata containing the second fauna, and the name of Champlain group 
or Champlain lyitem has been used constantly ever since by almost all 
geologists, the Geological Survey of Canada included. Tlie idea of 
proposing for the second fauna group of strata the name Ordofirian as 
late as 1879, and to use it in America instead of Champlain is a rare 
example of passing over all ripht of priority, and of substituting fancy 
""d caprice for rules used in natural history. But the return and en- 
rcemeat of right of priority in geological nomenclature and ciassifica- 
a is certain one day or another, aiid the sooner tlie bettor, for there 
ictnally a tendency to increase geographical names at such a rate, 
d confusion has already taken such proportions, that tlie constant 

)v Google 

" The American Qeologitt. 

□and for explanation will force a return b 

1 botanj. 

'amhridgt. Matt., April, 1890. 


>ii THE BuBLiNQTON LiuEBTONB. The Sub^ftrbonifcrouB series of rocks 
the Misaiasippi valley ia a perfect Btoreliouee of foesii Echinodenns, 
I fortunate is the nataralist wliose "lot bas been cast" near such 
louB collecting ground as Bnrlington, Keoknk" or LeGrande, Iowa; 
iwfordaville or Bono, Indiana. ; Chaster or Warsaw, 111.; Cowan, 
in.) Bowling Green, K7., or Huntsvilie, Ala. 

'o understand the riclmeaa of this fan n a the collector has only to 
t such collections as that of Meaarg Wachamuth and Springer at 
■lington, la., or the atate collection at Springfield III. 
To other locality in the world haa fielded euch a Tichnesa of forms 
[ species as Burlington, Iowa. It was here that many stmctaral pe- 
iaritiea of Crinoids were discovered or more perfectly understood, 
ve learn from the Illinois state reports on geology and palieontol- 

and the writinga of Wacbsmuth and Springer. 
nonrcollectingground (PikeCo., Mo.) while the Lower Burling- 

limestone is repreaented by its usual thicknesa of thirty to fifty 
;, the upper beds are but pooriy represented by a few feet of lime- 
ne and lose cherts scattered over the hiUa and along the streams. 
ny of these cherts or flinta are rich is natural casts of crinoids and 
Btoida and furnish interesting collecting, especially interesting in 

structural character of the specimens. 
.mong some two thonaand or more chert crinoids and blaatoids in 

collection ore many beautiful and instructive natural caats of Strot- 
inns, Actinocrinua and scorea of other genera of crinoids. 
.mong this material are apecimena showing the socalled internal 
voluted digestive t|ack, the radiating tnnnels beneath the vault with 
ir accompanying ambulacral tuhea, and many other vault features, 
.s bat few of these casts show the arms, columns or probosces at- 
tied, we conclude the movements of the water here were more violent 
n at Bnrlington, where anch appendages are not so rare. 
mong the apecimena with arms attached, only Eretinocrinas, Platy- 
ine and Cyathocrinus have been found, two of the first named, two 
lie second and one of the third. 

If a great many specimens of several epecies of Dichocrinue not one 
serves the vault and this ia a little surprising in as much aa the re~ 
id genus Platycrinue is represented in the collection by about twenty- 
I individuals of perfect bodiea. However, we might say that, al- 
ugh Plalycrinus is fairly plentiful, not one individual in twenty 
serves the dome, while Dorycrintts, Agaricocrinns and Batocrinus, 

most abundant forms in the cherts, are rarely without it. 
ess than one-fourth the e samples of Actinocrinus, Physetocrinus 
1 Strotocrinua preaerve the ventral aurface, while isolated domes 

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Correspondence. 67 

with the higher plates of the calyx of the two last named of the genera 
are quite as common as lone calyces. 

Imperfect examples of Batocrinns and Eretinocrinna are generallj 
specimena without the baeal plates, only. Sometimes an individual 
baebeen injured about the base of the anal tube, but rarely. Imper- 
fect Dorycrini either want the basHl plates or have suffered breaks in 
the vault at the epine bases or around the anal aperture. Ollacrinua 
and RhodocrinQs are rare in any condition. UBually as isolated 
calyces. Sacocrinusiarareandseldomhastbe vault inplace. 

In a very few instancBB we have noticed remains of small radiating 
calyx tubes that were imbedded in the eubatance of the radial plates, 
and have traced them from the middle of the first radikl to the arm 
bases, bifurcating with the plates. Similar roda on the ventral surface 
arenot rare, but we do not remember having seen any notice of these 
radial tubes in the calyx, by any writers on crinoida. Fragments of 
these tnbes con be distinctly seen on a specimen of Physetocrinus in 
our collection. As these tubes, represented by delicate rods in the 
casts, were free their entire length, the sligbtest jar would usually de- 
stroy them and so not one cast in a thousand shows any traces of 
aach vessels. 

Among blastoids, Pentremites elongatus is the rarest with one ex- 
ception, a TroostocrinuB? represented by but one spccimea in the col- 
lection. 0( handreds of examples of Granatocrinue norwoodi not one 
shows the central opening above closed by plates, while specimens of 
Scbiioblastus sayi not unusually show this feature. 

Specimens of G. norwoodi often preaerve the ambnlocral rods but the 
jar in breaking the fiints usually destroys them The preservation of 
these rods on 8. sayi is much more rare. 

On many of the casta of blastoids the spiracles and hydroapires are 
well shown. No specimens of blastoids have been found with pinnies 

We have one specimen of a Platycrinus which had a rather large 
anal opening entirely closed by minute plates. Perhaps it is an ab- 
normal feature, R. R. Bowliy. 
CurryvHU, Mo., March, 18B0. 

MoDioLOPSiB OBiiOKQA. In the May number of the Gbolooist, vol- 
V, p. 272, Mr. Ulrich describes a species with the above name. It ia 
unfortunately pre-occupied, Mr, TJ. P. James having in 1882 proposed 
this name in place ot M. tuh-tpatulata which had beon previously used 
by him, and which Hall had also uaed. (See "The Falieontologist," 

■pt. 12, 1882, p. 63). Joseph F. Jambs. 

Wathington, D. C, April £9, 1S90. 

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68 The American GeoloffUt- Jnij.iwe 


Prof. J. W. Spencer, Statk Geologist ofGlobgia, who has 
been in England dnring the winter months, has retomed, and 
has resumed his work. Hia address is Atlanta. 

The THiBTY-imiTH heetikg of the Amebicas Associatiok 
FOKTHG Advancekewt OF SCIENCE will bcheld at Indianapolis, 
Ind., begining August 19, 1890. Committees of the Indiana 
Academy of Science, and of the citizens of Indianapolis are ac- 
tively engaged in the preliminaries of this session. The enthnft- 
iasm which they manifest bespeaks a full and very satisfactory 
eession. There will be, in connection with this session, the 
Bummermeetingofthe Geological Society of America,u) which 
the geologists of America are specially interested. Nnmer- 
oUB important papers will be presented. 

At a Recent Mketing of the Geological Society of Loh- 
DON, Feb. 26, 181(0, Dr. George J. Hinde exhibited specimens 
and miscroscopic sections of Radiolarian chert from the Ordo- 
vician strata (=Llandeilo-Caradoc) of the southern uplands of 
Scotland, in the counties of Lanarkshire and Peebleshire. The 
specimens were submitted to Dr. Hinde by B. W. Peach, Esq., 
of the Geological Survey of Scotland, for the purpose of as- 
Cfcrtaining if the chert of this series resembled tnat of the Car- 
boniferous in being of organic origin. The microscopic sectiODS 
show that the rock is filled with small spherisal booies that in 
many instances prove to be simple or concentric lattice-like 
shells, some witn long radical spines, precisely similar in 
characterto the shells of recent and fossil Radiolaria, and it 
is probable that they may be included in the same genera with 
recent forms. This is the first definite notice of the presence 
of undoubted Radiolariana in palaeozoic strata. To Prof. H. 
A. Nicholson, of Aberdeen, belongs the credit of having first 
noticed the organisms in the chert ; but in his specimens only 
casts without structural characters were preserved, and they 
were conjectured to be Radiolarian, a conjecture which is now 
shown to be correct. In this notice we have quoted freely the 
language emi>loyed by Dr, Hinde in describing his remarkably 
interesting exhibit. 

Prof. 0. A, Derby, so long director of the geological eub- 
sectioQ of the Brazilian National Museum at Rio de JaDeiio,ia 
no longer connected with that institution. He continues, 
however, in charge of the geographical and geological survey 
of Sao Paulo, which will enable him to still carry on his geo- 
logical work in Brazil. 

Lieut. A. W. Vogdbb has been transferred from Fort 
Hamilton to Fort Canby, state of Washington. His P. 0. Ad- 
dress is Astoria, Oregon. 


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Vol. VI. AUGUST, 1890. No. 2. 


B; Aethui Wihslow, Jaffersoa City. 

Charles Albert Aahbumer was born on February 9th, 1854 ; 
he died on December 24th, 1889. The time of birth, the time 
of death, these are the ahcissfe of man's activities on earth ; by 
the magnitude, by the qualities of his works are the ordioates 
measured ; the area thus limited expresses the value of the life ; 
the hounding curre, often irregular, is a function of many var- 
iables, but ail are assignable to heriditary traits or to the con- 
ditions of life. The abcissee, the periods of activity, we can 
readily express in unite of time ; but who can gauge the ordi- 
nates, the qualities of these acts? Infinite wisdom only. We 
can but surmise, can but express opinions, at best approxi- 
mate. Of values, the future is the best judge ; for, in propor- 
tion as a man's character and work affect the future, through 
the present, so should hie value he measured. With us, the 
contemporaries, it rests, however, to hand down, to this tribu- 
nal of the future, accurate pictures of those who pass away; 
pictures which shall be for ever inseparable from the works of 
'■^ 'Be whom they represent ; that future generations may know 
vhat manner of man the work perishes, of what manner of 
ui it endures forever. With this feeling is this sketch pre- 
red, with this sense of the obligations involved ; prepared 

)v Google 

70 The American Geologist. Aug., imo 

by one who knew Mr. Ashburner first as a superior ofBcer, 
later as a profeesional associate and friend. 

Beginning with the time of his birth, we will touch upon the 
epochs. - To the bare narrative of facts we will add such sug- 
gestions, such interpretations and such illustrations as will, 
in our calna judgement, help to best picture the man, claiming 
for them only the recognition due every honest opinion, and 
resting confident in the belief that, in proportion as it is truth- 
ful will this picture live. 

Mr. Asburner's great grand-paients on both sides, came di- 
rectly to Philadelphia from England, about the time of the 
Revolution. His father was Algernon Eyre Ashburner, the 
mother Sarah [Blakiston] Ashburner, and he one of the nine 
children of whom only two are now living. Of what are recog- 
nized as English traits there seemed to be, however, no rem- 
nant left in Ashburner. On the contrary, his impulses, his 
mental attitude and his acts were typically American. He was 
of a nervous temperament, his action quick, his mind inTenti^'e 
and fertile in resources. How much of this was inherited, 
how much acquired, we cannot say. His education was en- 
tirely American. The early part was at Friends' Central 
School in Philadelphia, then at the High School of the same 
place and afterwards at the Towue Scientific School of the 
University of Pennsylvania. Of his career during these early 
years little is known to the writer. At the early age of sixteen, in 
September, 1870, he entered the University of Pennsylvania 
and was graduated in 1874, first in his class, as civil engineer- 
While at the University, a elassmate writes : "I was early 
impressed with his mathematical ability, his determination to 
lead, and his energy in carrying that determination to a suc- 
cessful culmination." But, in addition to this success in his 
studies, he was further fortunate in drawing to himself, during 
his last college years, the interest and attachment of professor 
Lesley, who then occupied the chair of geology at the Univer- 
sity. How much of the shaping of Ashbumer's career are we 
to attribute to this association? To this infiuence one natur- 
ally concludes, it was due that the career of the civil engin"*" 
was abandoned for that of the geologist. Thus, while an i 
dergraduate. in 1872, he took part in a survey of the raft ch' 
nel of the Delaware river, between Easton and Trenton ; 
■was one of the organizers of the Engineer's Club of Philad 


Charlet Albert AaKbumer. — Wintlow. 71 

phia in 1873 ; further, upon graduation, he accepted a poBition 
on a light-house survey, under Gen. W. F. ReynoldB and with 
professor Lewie M. Haupt. But, in the same year, on the or- 
ganization of the second geological survey of Pennsylvania, 
he seems more than ready to leave this work of the civil en- 
gineer to begin his life's work as a geologist, even as a volun- 
teer assistant on the survey. Thus early did this friendship of 
professor Lesley make itself felt, and it was ever after an im- 
portant factor in Mr. Ashbumer's life ; a strong and sincere at- 
tachment which now ezpresses itself in beautiful, but pathetic 
words of grief for the departed pupil and friend. 

We can add nothing to what has already been written of the 
first years of his work on the Pennsylvania survey, of his work 
in Mifflin and Juniata counties in 1874, in theAughwick valley 
and East Broad Top district in 1875, in McKean, Elk, Forest 
and Cameron counties in 1876. 

It was in the late summer of 1881 that we first met Mr. Ash- 
burner, at Wilkes Barre in the Wyoming valley, he, then, but 
recently married. The work of the survey of the anthracite 
regions was already planned in detail, branch offices were 
opened at Pottsville, Hazelton and at Wilkes Barre, and much 
progress had already been made. It was a time of buoyant 
moods with Ashburner. He was underthe exhilarating effects 
of the opening of a successful professional career. He gloried 
in his responsibilities and in the importance of the work en. 
trusted to him — he only twenty-seven years of age. To some 
he seemed over confident, enough to excite scepticism, while 
others would find cause to take slight offense. But there was 
no bad feeling, no real arrogance in his self reliance. 

From early in the year 1882, for over two years the writer 
was associated with Mr. Ashburner in the work in the anthra- 
cite regions. Though not the first to use the contour method of 
illustrating under-ground structure, Ashburner seems to have 
been the first to use it extensively and his results are certainly 
unparalleled. And this very case of applying to bo general an 
■nd a process which hitherto had been of such limited use, 
ras an illustration of what was one of his characteristic traits, 
e. what has been called the "adaptive faculty", or the power 
f putting to their best uses, of extracting the full value of such 
neans as were at his disposal. He was fertile in expedients. 
^"6 was, perhaps, rather an organizer, a man of system, than a 

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! The American Qtologiai. 

rilliant generalizer. Hia methods were accural 
iveringly attempted to perfect the details ; his ' 
rstematized and he drilled his forces admirabl 
10 much syBtematizing, too much drilling, we j 
I think, wishing youth-like, to be free from all 
iseuted it at times, hut, aince, have appreciated 
as rather a striving with him to reach his idea 
lent of parts, than an arbitrary exercise of poi 
imself, a most unremitting and persevering 
idgement of men, his power of reading chara( 
id hence his selection of assistants and his alio 
ere generally admirable ; and, as writes a eriti( 
arked degree, the ability of making the best p< 
lis work. At one time we thought be did not pi 
ate our share in euch, but have since had cai 
lis opinion. 

To bis assistants he was most kind and cordia 
:em to develop the best that was in them, and 

interest in their careers and to his loyalty in a 
,n testify. But he was not what is called a "m 
ere were many who did not like him, though ge 
zing his ability ; his self-coniidence was not ah 

the self-esteem of others ; yet his versatility 
in on a wide range of topics made him a moa 
impanioD. That which was sterling in him < 
it on first and short acquaintance ; in fact it wi 
e lovable and the cordial of his nature became 
me ; traits to which the warm expressions of e 
oquent tribute. 

The work in the anthracite regions and oth 
icted with the Pennsylvania survey, occupied B 
itil late in the year 1886. At this time he had 
>n of first assistant geologist for over a year, b 
pervision of all the office and field work of tbt 
After his resignation from the Pennsylvani 
86' Mr. Ashhurner went to Pittsburg to take t 
gineer and geologist with the Fuel Gas and 5 
)mpany, one of the associated Westioghouse c< 

'For most of what follows relating to Mr. Ashburaer'e 
irg Kod elsewhere, tbe writer is indebted to Hr. ( 
ttaboTg, for man; fears Hr. Ashbumer's friend aai 


Charles Albert Ashhtmer. — Winalow. 73 

He continued id an adviBory capacity with this company 
Qp to the time of hie death, having reported upon and advised 
on the drilling of a large number of gas and oil properties. 
During this time he made a large number of reports for pri- 
vate interests, outside of his connection with the above com- 
pany; for, having made the subject of the occurrence of oil 
and gas a special study, hie Bervicee were much sought after. 

In September, ISSS, he was elected general manager of the 
New York and Montana Mining and Milling Company, and 
retained that position until a month before his death. 

In the fall of 1888 he was commissioned, by Mr. George 
Westinghouse, Jr., to investigate and report upon a number of 
copper properties, and, after many negotiations and personal 
examinations, he purchased a large property in southern Ari- 
zona, and when the Duquesne Mining and Reduction Company 
was incorporated, in December, 1889, he was made Vice-PreBi- 
dent and General Manager. 

On November 2nd, 1889, he left Pittsburg for the went for 
the purpose of starting mining operations, after having been 
delayed for several days on account of a cold which had clung 
to him after his return from a trip to Ottawa. This visit to 
the west was for the purpose of buying and transporting, 
twenty miles from a railroad line, boilers, engines, and every- 
thing necessary to inaugurate a new mining enterprise, and, 
as was his wont, he went at it in his enthusiastic way, and bo 
overtaxed himself. But, little thinking of the approaching 
end, he writes from Tombstone, under date of November 20th, 
in glowing terms of his professional success and prospects, 
and concludes with the following words, which now sound 
moat pathetic : "I hope some day I may be sufficiently well 
off to return to state geological work where my heart has 
always been." But soon after, on November 26th, he writes 
from Tucson that he has been much delayed during the week 
by a severe attack of sickness which prostrated him and which 
his physician thought might develop into mountain fever. 
" fter staying at Tucson a few days, he went to Wilcox to re- 
ort on a gold and silver property, some thirty miles or more 

im the railroad, and he thought that the drive into the 
.ountain would do him good ; but, on his return to Wilcox, 
■eling no better, and finding a message of solicitation from 

)v Google 

74 The American Geologist. 

home, he decided to return and not to go on to I 
as he contemplated. 

He returned home on December 9th, and on t 
half an hoar at the office. He was advised by hii 
remain at home, which he did, attending to bui 
as the; came up. On December 16tb his cond 
such, owing to Bright'a disease, that he was com 
to his bed. Sick as be must then have been, 1: 
not deprive him of his natural geniality ant 
for the future. Accepting, as he had, the 
of all that appertained to his new enterprise, he wt 
on the helm, to know that everything was goin 
in Arizona, and up to the day before he died he 
affairs of the Duquesne Mining and Reductic 
then he was induced by Mr. Westinghouee 
thoughts of business, and to try to get well. 
had written in pencil a letter of four pages to Ari: 
directed everything preparatory to taking a rest 
well ; but the rest did not come in time. On i 
Christmas, after be bad thought of and provided 
and friends in the ajiproaching Christmas festi" 
away from his loved ones and those he esteemed 

In 1881 Mr. Aehburner married Roberta M. J 
ville. It is in a man's home life that bis true sel 
and those who were permitted to cross the thre 
felt the genial influence of his home life. He id< 
and his two childrenj Elizabeth and Lesley, and 
too great or expense too much that might give t 
His wife was a graduate of Wilson College, an 
in and appreciation of scientific work must hi 
much in his work. 

Mr. Ashburner had taken three degrees in the 
Pennsylvania : B. S., M. S. and D. S. C. Of thes 
proud of the last. He took his honorary degre< 
1889, and it is worthy of mention that he was tl 
ate of the University to receive this degree f: 
mater, and that the original nomination came frc 
with whom he had pursued his undergradnat 
was cordially confirmed by the Board of Tru! 
personal knowledge of bis work. 

He took charge of the collection of the coa 

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Charles Albert Aahbumer. — Winalow. 75 

the United Statea Survey in 1835, and issued reports for 1885, 
1886, 1887 and 1888. He took great pride in the collectioii of 
these statistics and the issuance of the reports, so much bo, 
that the work was largely a labor of love. In August, 1889, 
he assumed charge of the collection of the coal statistics of 
Pennsylvania for the Eleventh Census, as special agent, and 
was engaged on this work at the time of his death, 

Mr. Ashburner was a member of Calvary Episcopalian 
church at East Liberty and a member of its brotherhood. Of 
him, a former rector writes : "One can never measure the in- 
fluence of such a life as his, full of active benefit to his fellow 
men in the world, doing his full duty as a scholar and inan, 
honored for his ability and devotion to his secular work, and 
yet always bearing witness for his Lord and for his faith by the 
upright, loyal, christian chsractei of his manhood." Further, 
writes another, and an intimate friend : "One of Charles Aah- 
bomer's pet ideas was the harmony [ot rather the identity] of 

true Religion and true Science." " Abreast with the most 

modern thought, accepting every established doctrine of the 
latest science, he yet saw in none of these anything whereby 
he was debarred from an honest coafesaiou of his Lord and 
Savior in the Christian creed, nor from a due and faithful re- 
ception of the holy sacrament." 

Mr. Ashburner was an active member of the following soci- 
eties : American Philosophical Society ; American Institute 
of Mining Engineers ; Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sci- 
ences ; American Association for the Advancement of Science ; 
American Society of Naturalists ; Engineers Club of Philadel* 
phia; Honorary member of the Lackawanna Institute of 
History and Science ; Franklin Institute of Philadelphia ; 
Trinity Historical Society ; Texas Historical Society and a 
Corresponding member of the Wyoming Historical and Geol- 
ogical Society, 

A review of his publications and of his works would be be- 
yond the scope of this paper. These publications and this 
work are now before the world and their worth is being tested 
very day. They can be consulted and judged of by many, 
.nd many are familiar with them. An estimate of their rela- 
ive and absolute values has already been given by one more 

)v Google 

76 The American GeoloffisL auc. ism 

competent to judge than the writer. * Thos ve will be content 
in submitting the following liet of his profeegtonal papers, 
fvhich, by their number and by the importance of their topica, 
give some measure of the prodigious industry of the man and 
of the character of Ma work. All of this he had produced and 
yet had not reached hie prime. Surely, death seems to have 
ruthleaaly cut short a moat useful career. But. though the 
friend ia gone, though the body is dead, the man yet lives in 
theae his works and thia influence will never die. 

DsHcriptioQ of the Discovery of VeBpertino Coal Beds, HantinKdoa 
Cu., Pa. ; Amer. Inst. Hia. Eng., Cleveland, Oct. 1875. 

Section of the Palfeazoic strata of Hontingdoa Co. Pa. ; Amer. Inst. 
Slin. Eng. Phila. June 1876. 

Palsocoic Formatione in Middle Penna. ; Amer. Phft. Soc. Feb. 

Description of the Wilcoi Spouting Water well ; Amer. Phil- Soc 
Sept. 1877. 

The Oil Sands of Penna. Engineer'a Clab, Phila. Feb. 1878. 

Report on the Metric System ; Engineer's Club, Pbila. April, 1876. 

The Geology of the Anshwick Valley and East Broad Top Dist. Pa. ; 
Report F, Geol. Snrv. of Pa. 

Geology of the Benovo Coal Basin, Clinton Co. Pa. ; Report Geol. 
Surv. ot Pa, 

Notes on the Geology of Potter Co. ; Report G3, Geol. Snrv. of Pa. 

The Geology and Description ol .the Bradford Oil District; Amer. 
Inxt. Min. Eng. Feb. 1379. 

The CoDsiitution of the Bradford Oil Sand; Amer. Phil. Soc. March 

The Geology of the Brazos Coal Field, Texas ; Amer. Inet. Min. Eng. 
Feb. 1881. 

Drilling for Coal in McKean Co. ; Geol. Sur. of Pa. 

Geolugical .Section of St. Mary's, Pa. ; Amer. Phil. Soc. Mar. 1861. 

New Method of Mapping the Anthracite Coal Fields of Pa. ; Amer. 
In^t. Min. Eng. Feb. 1882. 

The Anthracite Coal Beds of Pa. ; Amer. Inat. Min. Eng. Aug. 1882. 

New Method of Estimating the contents of highly plicated Coal 
beds as applied to the Anthracite fields of Pa. ; Engineers Club, Phila. 
March 1883. 

The Geology of McKean Co. ; Report G, Oeol. Sor. Pa. 1886. 

Geological Atlas of McKean Co. ; Atlae B, Geol. Sur. of Pa. 1880. 

DascrEptioD of the Flaanery Boiler setting for the Prevention of 
Smoke; Amer. Inst. Miu. Eng. Oct. 1881. 

'Obituary Notice of Charles Albert Ashburner, by J. P. Lesley. 
( Read before the American Philosophical Society, February 21,1890.] 

Bioi^raphical Notice of Charles A. Ashburner, by J. P. Lesley. Trans. 
Amer. Institute Mining Engrs., Waafaingtoit meeting, Feb. 1890. 


„ Google 

Charles Albert Ashhumer. — Winslow. 

Report on the Geology of Elk, Cameron and Forest Cos. ; Geol. Bur. 
P«. Report R2, 1885. 

Geological Atlss of Elk, Cameron and Foreit Cos. ; Geol. Sur. Pa- 
AUu RR, ISSl. 

Second Report of Progress Anthracite Survey ; Pt. 1,1884, Geol. Kur. 

Geological Atlas of Southern Anthracite Field, 1882. 
Ditto Northern Ditto 188o. 

Ditto WesUrn Middle, Do 1884. 

Ditto Eastern Middle, Do 1885. 

The Prodnct and Exhaustion of the Oil Regions of Pa. & New York ; 
Amer. Tnat. Min. Eng. Kept. 1886. 

The Geology of Natural Gas in Penna & New York ; Amer. Inst, 
Min. Eng. Sept. 1885. ' 

The Composition and Classi&cation of the Pd. Anthracites ; Amer. 
Inat. Min. Eng. Feb. 18S6. 

Second Report Progress Anthracite Sur. Part n, 188.5. 

The Geology of the Brandywino Kummit.Kaolin Deposits, 188.J. 

The Wyoming Valley Limestones and their Geology ; Wyo. Hist. & 
Qeol. Soc. 1885. 

Description of the Qunteruary Geology of the Wy oming- Lackawan- 
na Valley, 188.->. 

The Geology of the Tipton Run Sub-Carboniferous Coal Basin, Blair 
Co. Pa. 1885. 

Description of the Wyoming Valley Limestone beds ; An. Rep. Oeol' 
8ur. of Pa. 1885. 

Composition of Anthracites ; Science , 18S4. 

The G«ology of Carbon Co. Pa. ; Hist, of Carbon Co. 1884. 

Brief Description of the Anthracite Coal Fields of Pa. \ Eng. Club, 
Phila. June 1884. 

The Geological Distiibntion of Natural Gas in the United States; 
Amer. Inst Min. Eng. 1886. 

Three statistical Charts showing the History and Development of 
theOil Regions of Pa., andN.Y. lS5il-18rtO;Rep. on Petroleum ; 10th 
U. S. Censns. 

Report on the Geology of the Bernice Coal Basin, Sullivan Co , Pa. 

The Geology of Natural Gob; Crew's Treatise on Petroleum, 1887. 

Description and Production of the Anthracite Coal Fields of Pa. 1881 
1S82; Mineral Reeources TJ. S. ISSo. 

Statistics of the Coal Fields of the U. S. for 1885 ; Mineral Resources 
U. 8. 1886. 

Description and production of the Coal Fields o( the U. S. IftSti; 

mineral Resources of U. S. 1887. 

Description and production of the Coal Fields of the U. S. 1887, 

woed in 1888. ; Mineral Resources. 

)v Google 

78 TTie American Geologist. Aug- 1«» 

Methods in practical geology ; Amer. Soc. Nat. Washii^itoii, Dec. 

Boring for Oil in Potter Co. with geological concloaions based on the 
same ; An- Rep. Geol. Sur. Pa. 1885. 

DiecasBion of the Westinghouse iyetemfor regalating the presaare 
of Natural Gas ; Amer. Maouf. Vol. xli, No. 22. 

Coal Production in Utah 1886 ; Amer. Inat. Mitt. Eng. July 1SS7. 

Agricultural Geology; End. Britan., Amer. Beprint. Vol. 7. 
Geology of Natural Gaa in Kansas. 1 

Ditto, Missouri. \ Amer. Hanof. Dec. 1887. 

Geological exploration for Natural Gaa, ) 

Americap Petroleum. Its history; Geology; Technology; Trans- 
portation; Refining; Statistics ; Chatauqnan Mag. Feb. 1888. 

Progress of the Geological Survey of Pa. ; Eng. Club, PhUa. 

The Publications of the Geological Survey of Pa. ; Amer. Phil. Soc. 

Geological Relations of the Nanticoke Disaster; Amer. Inat. Hin. 
Eng. May 1886. 

Grand Geological Atlas, Anthracite Coal Fields of Pa. Parts 14 2, 

The Development and Statistics of the Alabama Coal Fields for 1S87 ; 
Amer. Inst. Min. Eng. Vol. xvii. 

The Geology of Buffalo as related to Natural Gas explorations along 
the Niagara Biver; Amer. Inst. Min. Eng. Vol. xvii. 

Statistics of Coal Mining and Miners' Wages in the United States for 
1888 ; Amer. Inst. Min. Eng. Vol. xviii. 

Natural Gaa Explorations on the Ontario Peninsula ; Amer. Ins. Min. 
Eng. Vol. xviii.' 


B7 JDLEB U iBcoo, Cambridge. 

Norway. — I have given previously the classification of pro- 
fessor Brcegger for the Paradoxides beds of Norway. His 
"etage 1 b." having been placed in the Holmia zone or Scandi- 
navian, we have left for the Bohemian formation only his 
"etagea 1 c and 1 d," in which are found at Krekling, Styggedal, 
(Exna, Tunsaosen, and Finden, the following fossils : Para 
doxides iemni, Par. rugulomis and Par./orchkammeri, Dolichovie 
topus miecicus, three Liostracus, Conocoryphe sulzert, Elyx, three 
Solenopleura, Conocephalite3,tyfoAnomocaTe,Ellipsocephaljis, two 
Arionellus, fourteen Agnoslus with seven varieties, an Ortkis, 

*He corrected the proof of this last paper on hia death bed. 

)v Google 

Lower and Middle Taeonic. — Marcou. 79 

LingvXa, Obolella, two Acrotkete, Acrolrela, three Hyalites, a 
Gasteropod and a Prolospongia. The Norway Bohemian forma- 
tion is characterized, like that in Sweden by the ParadoxiiUs 
and its great number of Agnostua in the npper beds with the 
existence of Orthis at Krekling. 

In his admirable paper : "Parallele entre les depots siluriens 
de Bob^me et de Scandinavie", Prague, 1856, Barrande has 
signalized the existence of a land barrier between Scandina- 
via and Bohemia ; and more than once, be has called attention 
to the great difference between the Paradoxides faunas of En- 
rope, saying that the faunas were as well defined and localized 
to special regions or provinces during the Taconlc period as 
they are now in our oceans. A great truth, which all subse- 
quent researches all over the world, haii proved to be a most 
valuable law, applicable to all the periods through which our 
globe has passed, since life made its apparition on its surface. 
British hies. — The Bohemian formation or ParadoxidsB zone, 
was pointed out as existing in the British Isl«s as far back as 
1850, by Barrande, when on a visit to the Museum of Practi- 
cal Geology in London. A specimen of Paradoxtdes, not well pre- 
served and fragmentary, without any label of any sort, butaurely 
British, found by him in the Museum recently created by de 
la Btehe, Edward Forbes and Salter, led Barrande to assure 
the English geologists, that the primordial fauna existed some 
where in their country. Is it not strange, that Enghsh pride 
of having the right to name and classify the older Palaeozoic 
rocks, to the exclusion of the discoveries made in all the other 
countries, as it was assumed at the Berlin International Con- 
gress of 1886, by the Director General of the geological survey 
Mr. A. Geikie, should have received such a helping hand, in 
in a rapid visit to one of their museums. 

As soon as Barrande had called their attention to it, they 
began to look more carefully over their Lower Palajozoic 
rocks of Wales; and Salter more especially devoted many 
years in hunting for an English locality of Paradoxides when 
finally twelve years after Barrandc'a visit and valuable indica- 

on of the existence of the Paradoxides zone and of the prim- 
>rdial fauna in the British Isles, Salter had the good luck to 

od in situ at St Davids the "gigantic trilobite long looked for 
Britian": Paradoxides Davidis! That discovery modified 

.ofouadly the English classification, which until then was 

)v Google 

80 The American. Oeohgiat. i 

limited to the "Lingula flaga of Wales" for the primordii 
even that much was also due to the visit and advice o 
rande, who truly discovered the primordial fauna in Er 
My friend, the late J. W. Salter, has done excellent 
notwithstanding his premature poor health and sad 
and he may be considered as the representative of Barra 
England. It was not until 1856, aix years after the cele 
visit of Barrande to the different museumB in Novembi 
December, 1850, that Salter first discovered in situ on 
primordial foaeils ; Oldhamia in Ireland, and a head of : 
bite in the Longmynd gronp of Sedgwick. Previously 
primordial trilobitee, recognized as primordial by Barra 
1850, had been collected accidentally in the Lingula flag 
Bangor district, and had been described by Salter in t 
cades of the geological survey, and also before the Briti 
Bociation in 1852. But after the discovery of the St. Da 
cality, then the primodial fauna of the British Isles was 
ly developed, thanks to the combined efforts of Salter, 
Homfray, Dr. H. Hicks, Prof. R. Harkness, C. Callai 
Lapworth, Kinahan, etc. Aa Salter rightly says : "I 
(Barrande) therefore belongs the whole credit of origi 
the term, and defining the fossil characteristic of this i 
dial zone a group of rocks which grows in distinctness ai 
logical importance day by day" (The Geology of North 
p. 245, London, 1866, in the 3d Vol. Mem. Geol. Surv. 

Salter in his "Catalogue of the collection of Cambrit 
Silurian fosaila," Cambridge, (England) 1873, 4to, divi 
Paradoxides zone or Bohemian formation, into three sub- 
called ; 

a. Longmynd group. 

6. Harlec) " 

The superposition of those sub-groups is doubtful and 
English geologists consider the Menevian group of St. 
as contemporaneous with the Longmynd and Harlech 
of North Wales. The Menevian of southwestern Wal 
been enclosed between the Longmynd and Harlech 
and the Festiniog group, more as an imaginative claesil 
and nomenclature than the result of direct stratigraphic o 
tion. For the three groups do not exist auywh 
gether ; and we may consider the whole Bcheme as a ] 


Lower and Middle Taoonic. — Marcou. 81 

tiooary measure in order to control all future diBcoveries of 
primordial fossils in the area of Wales and vicinity. Very 
likely the Menevian is the homotaxis of the greater part of 
those ill-defined groups the Longmynd and Harlech. 

The fossils of the Bohemian formation of Great Britain are : 
J^arad. har&neeei, Par. davidis, Par. hickaii and Par. au- 
rora,one Conocoryphe or Conooephalites, two Microdiacus., one 
Arionellua, two Afwpolenua, and three doubtful Olenusf one 
Holoc&phalina, a Plvtonia, ten Affnostvs, four Primitia and 
one Hysnenocaait ; Diicina, three Oboleta, Lingulella, one 
Orthia, five Theca, Stenotheca, Cyrtotfieca, two Oldhamia, 
two Protoapongia and one Cyrtidea. As a whole the Brit- 
ish Bohemian fauna, although related to Barrande's fauna of 
Bohemia, had more affinities with the Bohemian fauna of 
Sweden and Norway. The Agnoatua is very abundant in the 
uppermost part of the formation, as it is in Norway. 

France. — It was not until 1888, that a patch of the Bohe- 
mian formation or Paradoxidea zone was found at Ferrals- 
lea^Montagnes, H^rault, in Prance, by M. Jules Bergeron. 
That loctdity of the "Montagne Noire," northeast of Carcas- 
sone, in Lsnguedoc, presents a small outcrop of red, yellow, 
and green elates only 36 feet thick, coa^AXiAngo. Paradoxidea, 
one Arionellue, two Conocephalites, and several species of Agnos- 
tvs ("Faune primordiale-Paradozidien-dans les environs de 
Ferrals-lea-Montagnea [Herault],"in Bulletin Soc. GSol. France, 
vol, xvi, p. 282, Paris). From the scanty notes published so 
far, we may infer that the Ferrats primordial fauna, shows 
affinities and relationship with the faunas of Bohemia, Sar- 
dinia and Spain, and they seem to indicate that it belongs to 
the same Middle Taconic province, which may be called 
Asturio-Bohemia province ; as the province of England, Nor- 
way and Sweden may be called Scanio- Wales province, mak- 
ing two distinct zoological provinces in Europe for the Par- 
adoxidea zone or Bohemian formation. 

Sardinia. — To the northwest of the town of Iglesias, between 
Malfid and Masua, and at Canalgrande (See Carta geologica 
i'ltalia, scale 1:1,000,000, in two sheets, published by the 
geological survey of Italy, Roma, 1889), on the sea shore 
there are several outcrops of fossiliferous primordial rocks. 
The classification of strata have not yet been given with all 
the details required for a complete understanding of the strat- 

)v Google 

82 The American Geologist. Aug. ib» 

igraphy ; and the late professor G. Meneghini has made use 
proviBioaally of a general division in two parts ("Palieontol- 
ogia dell' Iglesiente Trilobiti," in Mem. delta carta geologica 
d'ltalia, vol. ni, Firenze, 1886). Mr, J. G. Bornemann has 
pnbliahed also at Halle, in 1886, his "Die Versteinerungen der 
CanibriBchen Schichten systemB der Insel Sardioien." 

These two important paleontological works enable us to 
say with certainty that the Paradoxides zone or Bohemian for- 
mation is well represented in Sardinia. Very likely a part of 
the Upper Taconic, more especially the Olenus zone, exists 
also there. Further detailed sections and close research for 
fossils will further develop the first discovery of the primordial 
fauna, made, as far back as 1857, by the late general Alberto 
de la Marmora in the island of Sardinia. Meneghini has des- 
cribed 3 Paradoxides, 6 Conocephalifes, 2 Conocoryphe, 1 Lios- 
trucua and 6 Anamocare ; besides 5 Olenus which seems mixed 
in the same beds with Paradoxides, an abnormal association 
which requires to be carefully looked after, before being 
accepted as an indisputable fact. 

Spain. — In 1859, Casiano de Prado, found the Paradoxides 
zone north-east of Leon, between Sabrero and Bofiar ("Sur 
I'existence de la faune primordiale dans la cbaine Canta- 
brique ;" Bulletin soc. geol. France, vol. xvii, p. 516, Paris, 
1860). Barrande and de Verneuil pu'blished the fossils found 
by de Prado, and here is the list : Paradoxides, Arionellus, 3 
Conocephalitea, 2 Agnostus, Leperditia, Capxdvs, Discina, Orthis, 
Orthisina and a Cystidean. Barrande insists on the great 
analogy of the Paradoxides zone of the Cantabric chain with 
the one of Bohemia ; three species of trilobitea being identical. 

In 1882, M. Charles Barrois published his geological studies 
and researches on the Asturias, a very remarkable and valu- 
able work entitled ; "Recherches sur les terrains anciens des 
Asturies et de la Galice," p. 168, etc. in Mem. Soc. geol. A'orrf, 
vol. II. Lille. M. Barrois has recognized the Paradoxides 
zone or Bohemian formation at la Vega, Rivadeo and Pont- 
Radical. His list of fossils, several of which are new species, 
gives the following Bohemian forms : 2 Paradoxides, 3 Con- 
ocephalilcx,- Arionellus, Trochocystites, and some Brachiopoda 
badly preserved. 

The Paradoxides zone has been signalized, 1874, by Mr. F. 
M. Donayre, in the province of Saragoza. We know also that 

)v Google 

Lower and Middle Taconic. — Marcou. 83 

the Tftconic eyetem exists in the provinces of Ciudal-Real, 
Caceres, Andalusia, Grenada, Alemtejo (Portugal) and Tras 
OS Hontes (Portugal), but further researches are wanted before 
a final classification of the different patches in Spain and Por- 
tugal may be properly attempted. 

Newfoxindland. — Resuming the stratigraphic researches of 
Messrs. Howley and Murray, and the paleontological works of 
Messrs. Billings, Whiteaves and himself, Mr. G. F. Matthew. 
in his interesting paper, already quoted, "Cambrian faunas of 
Newfoundland" pp. 149-151, gives the following sub-divisions 
of the Paradoxides zone i 

A. — Horizon of Agrauloe strenuua. Holmia Zone. 

B.— id. of the Conocoryphinaj.— Paradox ides — id. — 

C. id. of Paradoxidea epinosus. — id. id. — 

D. id. id. id. teaaini. id. id.— 

E. id. id. id. davidia. id. iii. — 

Fauns of Olenus division of Kelly's island imd Great Bell island. 
As we have seen before, division A contains Holmia (Para- 
doxidesf), and belongs to the Scandinavian formation or 
Holmia {Olenelliis} zone. There remains only four aub-divis- 
ions B, C, D and E, of Paradoxides beds. They are all situated 
in St. Mary's, Conception and Trinity bays, in the south-east- 
ern part of Newfoundland. 

What Mr. Matthew calls "fauna of the Olenus division" from 
Kelly's island and Great Bell island, is so far very limited 
and rather meagre, but further researches may develop it. At 
Bell island Mr. Howley has found a large trilobite, undeter- 
mined, rather rare; and the other fossils quoted by Mr- 
Matthew: Eophyton, Arlhraria, Lmgula, Limftdlclla and 
Crnzimm, are all old forms. 

Mr. Howley in his column of primordial strata, calls the 
Pdraffoa-irfes beds of St. Mary's and Conception bays, division 
n. Then o. and p. designate a limestone of Highland cove 
(Trinity bay) with ParadoAdea ; and divisions 5, r, s, show the 
thick formation of Kelly's island and Bell island of Conception 
bay, just spoken of in the preceding paragraph. 

According to Mr. Matthew, the Paradoxida zone fauna of 
his divisions B., C, D. and E., is composed of 5 Paradoxides, 3 
Microdisncs, S Conocephalites, Agmulon, Sdenoplnim, Aiwpole- 
nus, Centrophvra and 12 Agno>'lu», Hi/oUteg, Oboleila, and 
Eocystites. All these are forms of the Bohemian formation of 
England, Norway and Sweden. The similarity of the fos^sils 

)v Google 

84 The American Qeologiat. July, i8» 

of Newfoundland is such that Boutheastem Newfoundland 
may be placed in the north NeutralHomozoic Band of the Middle 

Taconic period. In Newfoundland the sediments are much 
thicker than in Scandinavia ; even more so than in Wales. 

Mr. Walcott has added a few foBsils, more especially trilo- 
bites, found by him at Manuel brook in Conception bay, such 
as Paradoxides hicksi, Ctenocephaltis, lAoatracm, Erinnys, 2 
Ptychoparia, Holocephalina, Linnarssonm, Acrolkela and Orthis. 

The locality of Branch at St, Mary's bay, containing the 
great Paradoxides bennettu and Agraulos affinis, is very likely 
at the base of the Paradoxiden zone, like the Braintree Para- 
doxides beds of Massachusetts, and also Band c. of division 1 
of the St. John group of New Brunswick, called for Newfound- 
land by Mr, Matthew "B. Horizon of the Conocoryphinie." 
Probably more minute and new search in St. Mary's bay will 
bring more fossils and throw more light on the lower horizon 
of the Paradoxidee zone of eastern North America. 

New Brunswick. — In 1862, many years after the discovery of 
the Paradoxidean fauna by Dr. Emmons, and even several 
years after the discovery of the Braintree Paradoxides and the 
St. Mary's bay Paradoxides, Rev. C. R. Matthew, found Para- 
doxidean trilobites near and even in the town of St. John, 
New Brunswick. My lamented friend, the late Frederick C. 
Hartt, determined and described the fossils collected by the 
two Messrs. Matthew and himself in 1S65 and 1868. After- 
ward Billings added a few species ; and finally Mr. G. F. 
Matthew, since 1877, has made extensive collections round St. 
John, and has published important stratigraphic and paleoQ- 
tologic memoirs, so that he has made St. John the typical 
locality for the Paradoxides zone or Bohemian formation of 
eastern North America, and one of the most important regions 
in the world. 

Since Barrande's admirable studies on the primordial trilo- 
bites, nothing so important and so thorough, has been pub- 
lished as Mr. Matthew's remarkable "Illustrations of the Fauna 
of the St. John Group." in four parts, 1882-1887, 4to in the 
Trans. Roy. Soc. Canada. The works of Mr. Matthew are of 
the first order, and place him at the head of American paleon- 
tologists, for the Lower Paleozoic. I am glad to have an 
occasion to express my admiration for the excellent work he 
is doing, on account of our diveigence in the use of names for 

)v Google 

Lower and Middle Taconic. — Marcou. 85 

the nomenclature of the strata containing the primordial fauna. 
As a true English geologist, with a patriotic leaning ('), in- 
tensified by his stay in a colony of the British crown, Mr. 
Matthew adheres to the word Cambrian — not the primitive 
Cambrian of Sedgwick, but a lately made up Cambrian — for 
the name to be given to all the strata containing the primor- 
dial fauna, against plain facts of priority in favor of the name 
Taconic, first used by American geologists, as far back as 1844 
and 1842, many years before the discovery of the primordial 
fauna in tlie British Isles and in all the British colonies. 
Barrande was more just, for as soon as he was acquainted with 
Dr. Emmons discoveries, with a true scientific and liberal 
spirit, he did not hesitate to publish his complete adhesion to 
them and to proclaim that an American geologist had discov- 
ered first the primordial fauna and the Taconic system in 
which it is located. But Barrande had a cosmopolitan and 
widely open mind, and a sense of justice very rare among 
geologists and paleontologists. 

Mr. Mathew divides his "Series 1. B. — the St. John group," 
which represents in New Brunswick the Bohemian formation 
or Paradoxides zone, into four bands or assises «. b. c. and d. 
The fossils are r 6 Puradoxides — one species the Piirad. etemimis 
hae four varieties, and another one the Parad. reijiwi in hon- 
or of her majesity, Queen Victoria, is the largest sized Poru- 
doxides yet found — EHIpsocephfdus, 2 Solcnoideurn, PlyehopnriH, 
2 LiogtracHi, 3 Agmulos, 2 Conocori/phe, 3 Micrudisms, 8 Aiinos- 
ttts with four varieties; Primilia, 2 Bfyn'chona, Hi/jionicharioit, 
Lepidiila, 2 Lepiditta, Hurtlia, 6 Simotheca, 2 Diptothcca with 
four varieties, 3 HyoUics, 2 Orthis, 2 Kutonjina, Acrothdc with 
two varieties, 2 Acrolreta, 2 LinnarnHonia, 3 LhigtdcUa, Eocy- 
gliles, 2 Hydrozoa or Grnptolites, Eocoi-yite, Pivlnspooyia and 

CJ It IB extremely difficult tor Eiiirlisb geoIogi.'<tB to accept and use 

nomenelHture aiode otitside of their ii^lands. I remember forty-live 

vears ago, liow the^ were oppoKpil to the use of the iianaes Jura and 

Jarassic eyetem, -instead of Oolite and (lolitle pyntem. It took three 

and four generations before tliey were reconciled to that beautiful name 

of Juraaiic series.' The Trias also was strongly opposed as a name, 

?3use it originated in Germany. As to Dyaa instead of the wrongly 

-atedPermian, it begins only now to be usea, notwithstanding the long 

jiitled error of Marchison, who confounded the whole Russian Trias 

th the Zechstein and Rothliegende, So wc must expect a long op- 

""lition by English geologists to the use of the American name of 

conic i and very likely it will take five or sis generations before they 

)v Google 

The Amerioan Oeologiat. 


ArckaiQcyaihus, a most complete and very important fauna of 
the Paradoxies zone. 

Braintree, Massachusetts. — ^The Bohemian formation of Braio- 
tree near Boston, was classiSed as such by Bartande in 1860, 
The specieB of fossils are few, being confined to Paradoxidee 
karlani, a very large trilobite closely allied to Parad. epinosus 
of Bohemia and to Parad. bemiettU of Newfoundland, 
1 Ptychoparia,CLn Arionellus ot Agraulos &ad a Hyalites; only 
four species. It represents the same horizon as the bedi of 
Branch on the St. Mary's bay, Newfoundland, and belongs to 
the lowest horizon of the Paradozides zone. 

Nev ado-Canadian Lower and Middle Taconic. — Now that 
we have reviewed all the outcrops of the Lower and Middle 
Taconic strata of the Acadia- Russian sea, and have tried to 
give a clear and exact classification and nomenclature in four 
great formationa or groups, we shall describe and compare the 
patches of Lower and Middle Taconic existing in the Nevado- 
Canadian sea, the original region of the Taconic syst«m and 
the first place in the world where the primordial fauna was 
found and described as the oldest fauna existing below the 
Cambrian fauna of Wales, 

Tabular view of the Lower and Middle Taconie of ike Nevado-Canadian 

IV. Georgia formatioa or Elliptocephalae (Olenellus) zone. 
III. and [I. St. Albsne formaiion. 
I. Cbaar formation of the Grand Canon of the Colorado. 
Original Taconic area. — The Acad io- Russian sea of the Ta- 
conic period, was separated from the Nevado-Canadian sea by 
a long isthmus extending from the eastern coast of Labrador 
to Rhode Island and southeastern Massachusetts. At two 
points the isthmus was very narrow and can be compared 
with the present isthmus of Panama and Tehuantepec. The 
first place was between Canada bay in the extreme north- 
eastern part of Newfoundland and Bonavista bay, southeastern 
Newfoundland, a distance of 150 miles ; and the second point 
was between Braintree near Boston and Attleborough near 
Providence, Rhode Island, a distance of only 35 miles.' At 
Bonavista bay and at Braintree, we have slate deposits of the 
argillito lithoiogical type, containing Paradoxides and conse- 

' The (errajlnna on the ''Physical Sketch-map" as frontispiece of 
this paper, in the June nnmljer Aubbicak Gbologist, Vol. V, p, 357, 
is too browl between Braintree and Attleborongh, MassachitaettB ; it 
ought to be reduced to a single line. It is an error of the engraver. 

)v Google 

Lovjer and Middle Taconic. — Marcov. 87 

qnently of the Paradoxides zone ; and at Canada bay and atAttle- 
borough we have the fauna of the Georgia formation oTEUiplo- 
cepKalue (Olenellug) zone, diSerent as regard species, and even 
forms of the trilobitee form the fauna of the Bohemian forma- 
tion- We have on the two sides of that great isthmus two 
faunas which can be parallelized and are at least partly homo- 

The deposits of strata on each side, are quite different litho- 
logically, although having in common the slaty characters of 
the principal masses of rocks. In the Acadio-Ruesian sea 
the slates and argillites contain, very seldom, limeetone nod- 
ules or very small limestone lentilles, called Kalkboller at 
Krekling in Norway and bovhler-like masses at St. .John, New 
Brunswick, of extremely limited dimensions, varying in size 
from nodules of only one inch across, to elliptical masses of 
about a yard in diameter, while in the Nevado-Canadian sea 
the slates inclose great lenticular masses of limestone, generally 
more or less dolomitic ; which vary in dimensions from the size 
of a man's head to knobs of prominent spherical masses of fifty 
yards and even more in diameter, as round St. Albans, in Ver- 
mont, or elongated lenticular masses from twenty-five yards 
long to one thousand yards and even more, as we find them 
at Phillipsburgh, High gate falls, Pointe-Levis, Bio harbor, and 
in many places in Vermont, New York, Massachusetts and 
Rhode Island. T^'he importance of the deposits in the Nevado. 
Canadian sea is due, not only to their great thickness and 
their peculiar lithology, but also and mainly because, it was 
while studying them that by a stroke of genius Dr. Emmons 
recognized that they belonged to an older system, than any 
known until then, and that they were characterized by a spec- 
ial fauna, totally different from the faunas previously discov- 
ered and signalized in Europe and America. It was a gigan- 
tic step, which displaced the base of the Paleozoic strata, car- 
rying it down twenty-five thousand feet lower than Sedgwick 
and Murchison had done by their researches in England and 
on the continent of Europe. 
These discoveries of Dr. Emmons were made from IS3S to 
i44, and published, first in his "Final Report of the second 
latrict of New York" (Jan. 1, 1842), and finally in 1844, in 
The Taconic system, etc." Two years later Barrande in his 
'Notice pr^liminaire sur le systOme Silurien et les trilobites de 

)v Google 

88 The American Oeologiat. 

la BohGme," p. 9. Leipzic, 1846, insisted on the con: 
pendence of the fauna of hie inferior division C, a 
ingto the happy expression used by d'Omalius d'H 
rande "created the primordial fauna." Then Bai 
not know Emmons' discoveries but as soc 
got hold of Emmons' publications, he disavowed a! 
priority, and with hia great honesty and courteaj 
"I fear that some one may attribute to me the meri 
ty which I am far from pretending," • «■ * ' 
that Dr. Emmons has first announced the existence 
anterior to that which has been established in tl; 
xyatem as characterizing the Lower Silurian division 
I have named second fauna. It is then just to rec< 
priority, and I think it all the more fitting to state 
time, that it has not been claimed to this day" f""] 
anciens et nouveaux sur la faune primordiale et 
Taconique en Amerique," in Bulletin Soc. genl. Fr 
xvui, p. 225, Paria, 1861.) 

After Barrande's noble words and the continual ' 
of the primordial fauna in the Taconie strata of Noi 
ca, the "cardinal principles of geologic nomenclatu: 
ity of definition, and 2 accuracy of the original obser 
they are called by a recent writer, will forcibly one 
other, lead all geologists to use the name Taconie, in 
al classification of the world. It is only a questi( 
and justice, and in geology time is everything, as tc 
will come as a consequence of truth against all nati 
dices and interested of^positions. 

Dr. Emmons' classification of the Taconie sti 
original Taconie area of western Massachusetts s 
New York, comprises five divisions, two of which 
the Upper Taconie b and d, and the three others n, 
the Middle and Lower Taconie, In the "Granular 
division e, we have a small fauna indicating that 
likely contemporary and homotaiical of the Scandi: 
mation or Hohnia zone of Europe. Only three ft 
been found yet in it, two miles east of Bennington 
a Nothozot, a Hyolitcg, s.nd a trilobite called Olenellw 
hy Mr. Walcott. As no figure, nor description of : 
the trilobite has been given, except the few words : " 
species of Olenellua undistinguishahle from 0. th 

)v Google 


Lower and Middle Taeonic. — Marcou. 89 

the Georgia formation in Franklin countf, Vermont," ("The 
Taeonic system of Emmona, etc." in Amer. Jr. Sc, vol xxxv, 
p. 234, 1888) ; it is impossible to say what sort of trilobite it is. 
Mr. Walcott's determination of Atopt trilineatus Emmons, &s 
identical with Triartkrus beckii, his belief that ElUptocephalus 
( Olenellus) aeapkoides is "generically identical with Holmia 
kjemlfi and Schmidtia mickwitzi," and also his reference of the 
original yficrodlscus quadricostatus Emmons to Trinucleus con- 
centriais, saying that "we now know that the light colored 
fragile shales of Augusta county, Virginia, belong to the Hud- 
son River group," are examplestoo conspicuous of his way of 
identification of species and genera, and determination of age 
of strata to enable us to accept hia conclusions, without the 
most positive documents, with good figures and accurate des- 
criptions. His extraordinary announcement that Ol&ullus 
{ElUptocephalwi) thompsoni was found ranging in 14,000 feet 
of strata in New York and Vermont, is another suspicious dis- 
covery which requires to be controlled by reliable stratigraphic 
observations bafore being accepted. It is best to regard his 0. 
thompsoni of the Granular quartz of the vicinity of Bennington,a8 
not identical with the trilobite of Georgia, but as a Paradoxidean 
form, which may belong perhaps to Holmia or to Schmidtia. 
In such cases- we may have the Scandinavian formation, or 
even perhaps the Esthonian formation of Europe. Further 
researches are necessary before reaching final conclusion. 
Provisionally regarding the division e, Granular quartz of 
Emmons, as Lower Taeonic and the homotaxis of the Estho- 
nian formation, his division c Magnesian slate, and a Black 
slate, belong with certainty to the Middle Taeonic or Scandi- 
navian and Bohemian formations; because in them are found 
the true primordial fauna of the Georgia formation of Ver- 
mont. The list of fossils in the original Taeonic area, for the 
vicinity of Bald mountain (the first place in the world where 
the primordial fauna was recognized as a special fauna), the 
vicinity of Troy, Dutchess county, etc., is : Atops, 2 Ellipto- 
■nhalns, (Paradoxides of Barrande ; Olenus, Barrandia and 
enellus of Hall), Pagura, 4 Microdiscus, Ptychoparia, Solen- 
leura, Olenoides, 3 Agnoslus, 2 LeperdHia, 6 ffyolites, Platycc- 
r, Stenotkeca, Scenella, Fordilla, Ortkis, 3 Obolella, lAnguUlla, 
itorgina. Linnarssonia ; all representative species of forms 
ist characteristic of the Paradoxides zone or Bohemian for- 

)v Google 

90 -Thi American Oeologitt. 

mation of Bohemia, Scandinavia, England, Newfoun< 
New Brunswick. 

VemMnt. — At West Georgia, Vermont, in the vicii 
Albana, the primordial fauna was accidentally discov 
farmer, Mr. N- £. Parker, fifty yardi from his house an 
by Messrs. James Hall, Logan and Hitchcock to tb 
River group, or even to a special group above it. 
seeing that this singular and curious stratigraphica 
given to bis primordial fauna, would involve a tram 
the second fauna, and consequently break down his 
good observer, as well stratigraphically as paleontt 
begged me repeatedly to go there and make the etrati 
section. This was done in 1861 and 1862 ; and my 
tion on the succession and true stratigraphic posit 
Taconic or primordial faunas in America, is the fin 
atic arrangement of the formations containing them 
made and published on the basis of the paleoi 
determinations of Barrande, and against the eitr 
stratigraphic and paleontologic views of Hall and Lo 

Here is the order of succession, as I published 
and 1862. {') 
ToW* of the TaconU of Vtrmont (Proceed. Botton Soe. Nat 


Potsdam sandatone 300 to 400 feet. ConocephaHtex- 
Lingula flags 500 to 600 feet. Lingula, Orihitina, 

GeorgiaelateflSOO toflOOfeet. Paradoxide*{,Olenelliu) thorn 

Pellura, ConoceyhaliUi, OhoUlla, Orlhiaina,Cameretla. 
St. Albans group 2500 to 3000 feet. Tribolitea undetem 

Table of the Taconic in Vermont (Letter to M, J. Barrande on t 
p. 4. Cambridge, I86S.) 
Potsdam eandBtone 300 feet. Conocephalitet and Oboliu. 
Swaoton elates 2000 feet. Oraploliiei . 
Phillipabiirgh group 1500 feet, Dikelooephaltu, Bath 

Camerella ana colonies of second fauna. 
Georgia slates 400 feet. Elliptoeephalut (Oleneltui) thorn 
Conocephalitei, Obolella, Orlhisina, Camerella. 
St. Albans group, 5,000 feet, with roofing slalea and grant 

(M Mr. C. D. Walcott in his two papers: "Second cont 
tlie studies on the Camhrian faunas," pp. 12 and 13, WaahiE 
and "Stratigraptiic position of the Olenellus fauna in Non 
and Europe," Amer. Jo'irn., vol. xixvii, p. 374, New H. 
passes over my observations and published tables of the Bu 
the Taconir fauna, as if thev did not exist; and refers, ag 
and all ri^ht of priority, the first systematic arrangement of 
or formations containing them, to Logan in 1864, three year 
table ofl861, and to Messrs. Dana<lSSl).\V1iitflold (1S85) an 
Hunt (1884), a very incorrect and partial review. 

)v Google 

Lovser and Middle Taconic—Marcou. 91 

The Georgia slates represent the Bohemian formation of the 
Acadio-Russian sea, or Paradoxides zone with its characteris- 
tic fossils, Buch as, Eltiptocephalus (Olenellus) thompsoni, 2 
Protypus, 2 Conocephalitea (Ptychoparia),Olenoidesf MesonacU, 
Pellura (Bathynotm), SoUnopleura, Agnostits, Salter ella,HyoHte9, 
Scenella, Orthisina, Camerella (Kutorgina), and two OrapUr 
litee. I have not signalized sooner the existence of graptolitee 
Id the Middle Taconic, although it was first recognized by Dr. 
£miuons, and Mr. Matthew has found one species at St. John, 
because that rather problematio and very low organism has 
been used too freely, and the coneequence has been on the part 
of the adversaries of the Taconic system, a confusion in the 
classification of the great Taconic alaty rocks, with the Utica 
slates and Lorraine shales. More careful studies of the forms 
and more strict stratigraphical determination for their habitat, 
are required before we can know their value in the classifica- 
tion of strata. 

The St. Albana group was created to place in it all the strata 
existing between the band of the Georgia slates or formation 
in Franklin county, Vermont, eastward of Parker's farm out- 
crop, and the talcose slates and conglomerates of Fairfield. 
Although there have been reports that large tribolites have 
been found in two places, east of St. Albans village and High- 
gate Falls village, no specimens have ever found their way into 
the hands of paleontologists, or reliable practical geologists 
The thickness of five thousand feet is very likely less than the 
truth ; and in that great mass of stratified rocks, fossils, 
although rare, can be found when they are carefully explored 
by fossil collectors and resident strati graphists. 

In the St. Albans group, near the base, in the vicinity of the 
Georgia railroad station, true argillite slates are found, as at 
Braintree and St. Mary's bay, and there is no reasonable doubt 
that one day or another primordial fossils and more especially 
large trilobites of Paradoxidean forms will be found in the St. 
Albans group of Vermont, Canada and Maine. It is a question 
f^ftime, But now, already, we can consider the St. Albans 
;oup as representing stratigraphically and lithologically all 

e lower parts of the Paradoxides zone containing the large 

aradoxides, such aa Paradoxides harlani, Par. rcgina. Par. 

inettii, and Par. davidis, and also the Holmia zone and even 

le Schmidtia zone. 

,v Google 

92 7^ American Oeologitt- Ang. um 

The upper part of the Paradoxides zon*, is represented with- 
out any possible doubt, by the Georgia formation or Ellipto- 
cephalas (Olenellus) zone. The very learned and excellent 
observer, professor W. C. Brcegger of Stockholm, has published 
a paper on the position of the Olenellus zone, in North Amer- 
ica, ("Om alderen af Olenellus zonen i Nord Amerika," Stock- 
holn], 1886) based on the erroneous classification used by the 
adversaries of the Taconic system. If professor Brcxgger had 
not attributed several of our groups of strata to the Lower and 
Middle Potsdam, with which they have no relation whatever, 
he would have come to different cooclusions. His Olenellus 
(Holmia) zone of Scandinavia, is well represented as he says in 
Newfoundland, But the Georgia formation with its original 
Elliptocephalxis (Olenellus), contains all the forms of fossils of 
the upper part of the Paradoxides zone of Scandinavia, and is 
the homotaxical fauna of the divisions : a beds with the Agtws- 
tUB IxvigatuSf c beds with Paradoxides Jorchhawmeri and C 
beds with Agnostus lundgeri of Messrs. TuUberg and Natb- 
rost's classification of Scania. Several of the forms of the 
fossils of Georgia are prophetic types and are the "avant-cour- 
eurs" as Barrande says, of the forms of foseils which develop in 
the supra-primordial fauna ; such is the case with Olenoidesf 
mareoui, Orthisina, FordiUa, Leperditia, Ptatyceras, and Pleur- 
otomaria (Raphisloma) ; no one of which is found in the Scan- 
dinavian formation or Holmia zone. Many confusions creat- 
ed by the ever changing and always incorrect classification of 
the adversaries of the Taconic system, would have been avoid- 
ed by professor Brcegger, if he had not accepted as correct 
the tables of strata published at different times by Messrs. 
Hall, Ford, Whitfield, Walcott and the Geological surveys of 
Canada and Newfoundland. 

The synchronism between the strata of the Taconic system 
deposited in the Nevado-Canadian sea, and those deposited in 
the Ac ad io- Russian sea, can be made only by homotaxical 
faunas and a reasonable allowance for strati graphical positions. 

The St. Lawrence ijvlj and the vicinity of Quebec city. — The 
upper portion of the Middle Taconic or Georgia formation is 
found in several localities of northeast and western New- 
foundland, from Canada bay. Belle isle Strait, to Port-fl-Port 
hay, with its characteristic fossil the Elliptocephalns ( Olenellus) 

)v Google 

Lower and Middle Taconic. — Mareou. 93 

Id the province of Quebec, on the southshoreofthe St. Law- 
rence mer, from Bic Harbor, Notre Dame du Portage, St, Denis, 
St. Roch, St. Jean, L'Islet, Canoe Island to the vicinity of Beau- 
mont near Point Wvis, we have a fine belt of the Georgia for- 
mation or EUiptocephalu-i (Olenellii^) zone, containing the 
whole fauna of Georgia, as well developed as in Vermont. As 
far back as 1862, in my ''Letter to M. Joachim Barrande, on the 
Taconic rocks of Vermont and Canada," with "comparative 
tabular sections of the Upper Taconic rocke of Vermont and 
Lower Canada" p. 10, Cambridge, I have classified a group 400 
feet thick, which I called "Redoute group," containing a pure- 
ly primordial fauna, with the Georgia formation. In 1864, 1 
published a very detailed plan of the lenticular masses inclos- 
ed in slates at Point Levis ("Notice eur U's gisements dea len- 
titles trilobitiferes taeoniquea de la Point Levis au Canada," 
Bui. Soc. Geol. France, vol. xxi, p. 236, Paris}, with a slight 
change, sayiilg that " The Georgia slates have not yet been re- 
cognijed with certainty in that region" ; and I gave the follow- 
ing classification : 

Quebec city group, 2,400 feet. 

Point Levis group, 1,400 feet. 

Chaudifire and Sillery group, 3,000 feet. 
Saying at the same time, the Georgia groU]> is pro- 
bably situated between thePointe Levis and the ChaudiOre 
and Sillery groups. The discoveries made since by the Geo- 
logical Survey of Canada of the Georgia formation with Elh'p- 
torei>hahi» (OleitrHiis) ihofiijimiii at L'Islet, Canoe I.iland and 
above Beaumont, in close proximity to Pointe Levis show that 
my supposition was correct. 

What Dr. Ellscaltshis Sillery group. (Amt. H.-fmrl Orol. Stir. 
Cntmdn, 1887-88, vol. iir, part ii, K. 1889), is composed of two 
dirisions, the Upper and Lower Sillery. This Upper Sillery is 
simply the Georgia formation presenting different facies of the 
typical Georgia slates of Vermont, on account of an eruption 
of dioritic or porphyritic trap (a true diabase) in the urea of La 
Chaudiere and Etchemin rivers. In that peculiar facies the fCHip- 
'ocf/jhnbis (Olenelhts) thorn j'^oni and other fossils of Georgia are 
carce, and when no lentieular masses of limestone arc found, the 
slates of both groups, Sillery and Pointe Leviy are confounded 
1 one single mass of shales, red, greenish, greyi.'^h, blackish, 
/ith a few limited bands of quartzitc and calcareous sandstone, 

)v Google 

l^e American Qeologiat. 


which it is impossible to divide into groups, 
beds containing the Obolella pretioaa may be rej 
upper horizon of the ChaudiSre and Sillery gri 
junction beds of the Sillery with the Pointe Levi 
to my observations and views, what Dr. Ells 
Sillery" represents the Georgian formation in th 
ity of Quebec city and at Pointe L^vis, ( '). He: 
sification of the great slaty massea and limeeton 
inee of Quebec. 

Tabular vieio of the ttratigraphy of Ike province of 
Utica SLATEs,ftoniRou8e'8 Pointto St 

tongues or narrow atripea resting on the 
Champlain of slaCee of the Citftdel Hill and Swanton g 
EmmoDB, or slides along the line of contact of the Ti 
true Cam- Tacoaic slates. 

brianofSedg-, Trenton, including Black River groi 
wick or Low- morency falls and other localities. 
er Silurian of Chazy and Calciferoub, represenh 
Murchiaon. ter passing Chico creek by a conglomer 

rolled pebbles of the underlying quartzi 

in thickneBB. 
Break . 

No Potsdam was deposited round the i 


( Citadel Hill and Quebec city ob Si 

th precursory centers of the second te 

of limestone at Qm 

Upper TacoE 

us and Dike- ; 


precursory centers of the second fann 

[^ lenticular masses at Pointe L^vis and ai 
d d 1 e Ta- f Geohcia ok Upper Sillery ; or Elliploc 

liptoceph a 

1 liptocephalui eastward from i 

LowerTacon-f ChaudiCre or Lower Sillery, corresp 

ic, 1 with the St. Albans group of Vermont. 

Dr. Ells, his assistants Messrs H. M. Ami, N. J 

St. Cyr, Director Selwyn and Mr. C. D. Waloott, : 

'The Point L^via group although aynchronized with th 
group, on a(;count of fourteen comcaon species of fossili 
a little older and is the equivalent of the slates at the b 
lipsbnrgh lenticular masses of limestone, which extes 
narrow valley of the village of St. Armaad between thi 
lenticular limestone and the Georgia formation belt. 

)v Google 

Lovi&r and Middle Taeonic. — Marcov. 95 

the result of their joint researches, the following classification, 
which I r^sumd in a tabular view, in order to make it clear to 
the reader. 

Lorraine Shales, at St. Nicolas and St. Croix 12 
miles above Pointe L^vie and Quebec city, HeBsra. 
GiroDx and Ami refer all the slates, between Cbarle- 
bourg and Indian Lorette, to Ste. Foix and the Tower 
No.4 betnMn"c()te de la n^greese andc6te Sattvageau" 
to the Ixirraine ahales or true HudsoaBiver Bedimente, 
witb a thickness of at least 4,000 feet. No fossils are 
given for the area between Quebec citj, Ste. Foix, Lor- 
ette and Charlebourg. 

Utica Slates at the mouth of the river Montmorency 
with Tkxartknu heckii common; and at the eastern side 
of the foot of Montmorency falls.' 

Tbbntor I.IMBSTOKB, at Pointe aox Trembles, Ancient 
Lorette, Beauport, and Montmorency, viiih a Black 
River facies in their lowest portion at Lorette and 

Fault North of the city of Quebec, at the great 

escarpment, west of Tower No. 4. 

Quebec city bocks. The exact horizon of the ctta- 
del rocks is still to some extent doubtful. According 
to professor Lapworth, it is Lower Trenton, that is to 
say Black River group ; and Dr. Elle calls it a peculiar 
development about the age of the Trenton formation. 

Liivis FORMATION, referred by Dr. Ella to the Low- 
er Ordovician or Cambro-Silorian (lower Champlain ol 
Emmons) ; and by Mr. Walcott to the CidciferouB age. 
SiLLEBY FOBMATioH, divided into "Upper Sillery" 
ynXh OboleUa pretiota and "Lower Sillery" by Dr. Elle, 
who refers both of them to the Cambrian (Taeonic). 
Mr, Walcott includes the Upper portion of the Sillery 
beds in hia Ordovician (Champlain) above the typical 
Potsdam of New York, and he ia inclined to think that 
the Lower series of the Sillery is the source from which 
the "litneatone conglomerate' of the L^vis waa derived 
which contains the Olentllut fauna" 

sra. Selwyn 
and EUs, or 
Ordovician of 
Mr. Walcott. 
The Cham- 
plain of Em- 

Cambrian of 
Messrs. EIIb 
snd Selwyn. 
Lower por- 
tion of Ordo- ' 
vician and 
the Lower 

'At both places the Utica slate lies in discordance of atratiGcation 
on the Taeonic slates of the citadel and Quebec city group. By com- 
lined erosion and denudation, a patch of lower Utica and upper Tren- 
onbas slippedover the fall, and a tongue of Utica slate has been preserv- 
m1 at the actual month of the Montmorency river in the St. Lawrence. 
I^arefol observations at Montmorency, Lorette, Quebec city, will con- 
vince every practical geologist of the occurrence of landslides in the 
vhole area, from the moment that it become dry land or Terra Jirma, 

)v Google 

96 The American Oeologitt. 

TabU ihowinf! the eorrelationt of the elataificatioju and 
according to the observationi o/Mesiri. Selwyn, ElU, 
and Marcou. 


rcoa, 1862. 

Selwyn and EllB, 1889. | 



UticA Slates. 


Chazy and Cal- 
ciferoua or quartz- 
itea conglomerate. 



Lorraine Shales. 

Utica Blate. 
Trenton withBlackRiver, 
the lower beds are made 
up of reeemented debris 
from the underlying 

Quebec city or Lower 

LeWs formation or Cal- 


No Potsdam. 
(iuebec City. 
Points L^via. 


No Upper Taconic, or 
DikelocepbaluB and Bathy- 
uruB Zone. 





Georgia or 

Upper Sillery. 



-iUcT^"""" *""""■ 


Ciiandi&re or 
Lower Sillery. 

Lower Sillery. 

The divergences of classification are still very gre 
some progress has been made foi the nomem 
Geological survey of Canada having abandonee 
incomprehensible term of "Quebec group." Afte 
tations they have come to use my nomenclature 
the exception of the name Chaudi^re, for the pri 
ions of the rocka of that area ; using the names of 
group, Pointe I>evis group and Sillery group ; 
greater precision and a better understanding of I 
of strata. For the present the three preceding t&\ 
cient to show how matters stand, and I shall rei 
IB proved last winter again by a landi 

'Dr. Ells HpeakB o( "conglomerate limestone" reterrin 
ially "to pebbles of conglomerate found in the conglor 
L^via series." The eo-called "limeBtone conglomerati 
foBsils at Fointe L^vis is not conglomerate at all, but a m 
Btone with a sab-crystalline and fragmentary testure h 
dinary limestone. 


Lower and Middle Taeonio.—Marcou. 97 

detailed accoant of the geology of the vicinity of Quebec city, 
for my future paper on : "The Upper Taconic of Europe and 
North America." 

Rhode Island and Attleborough (Massachusetts.) — As far back 
OB 1S44, Dr. Emmons, nith his extreme keeness of observa- 
tion and a true prophetic sense of deduction as a practical 
geologist, in classifying the oldest Btratified rocks, recognized 
hi3 Taconic system in Rhode Island, about ten miles from 
Providence, saying that he found there "a fragment of the 
Taconic system" ("Agriculture of New York," vol. i, pp. 90-93, 
Albany, 1846.) 

Lately Messrs. N. S. Shaler and A. F. Foerste have publish- 
ed a paper : "On the geology of the Cambrian district of Bris- 
tol county, Massachuaetts, with description of North Attlebo- 
rough fossils," in Bull. Mug. Coinp. Zool. vol. XVI, No. 2, 
Cambridge, 1SS8, which is simply a confirmation of the old 
discovery and observations of Emmons. A new example 
among the many already signalized of the correctness and 
excellent views and exact classifications of the father of 
American palseozoic geology. 

As usual with the adversaries of Dr. Emmons, who want to 
obliterate his record, and replace his right of priority by 
English nomenclature, notwithstanding the many years which 
have elapsed between the American and the British discover- 
ies of primordial fossils, Messrs. Shaler and Foerste, not only 
have not used the national name of Taconic, but they have 
even neglected to quote the discovery of Emmons in Rhode 
Island, between Providence and Wrentham, Massachusetts, 
going so far as not to notice the well known reference of the 
stratified rocks of that little basin to the older paleozoic series. 
They say : "Various conjectures have been made as to the age 
of these deposits. They have been thought by one observer 
to resemble the Trias, while others, owing partly to their posi- 
tion, haw assigned them to the Devonian age. Until I (Mr. 
Shaler) began my studies upon this district, the strata have 
"'^orded no fossils, and the determinations above noted were 

rely conjectural." 

The determination of Emmons was not "purely conjectural," 

it baaed on lithology and stratigraphic position, being en- 

osed in a little basin of Primary rocks. The strata are 
ormed of magnesian slates, inclosing lenticular masses of 

)v Google 

98 The American Oeologiat. Augia» ' 

limestone, exactly as in the original Taconic area, and the 
foBtils found by Mr. Shaler — twenty in nnmber — ^belong to the 
Georgia fauna, with identical species of those found by Dr. 
EmmoiiB near Bald mountain in his original Taconic region, 
at Troy near Albany and at Bic Harbor on the St. Lawrence 
river. Here is the list of species : 2 Obolella, Fordilla troyenais, 
Scenetla,S Stenotheca, Platyceras, Pleurotomaria (Raphistoma),^ 
HyoHtea, Hyolitelhts, Sallerella^Ariatozoe f 2 Microdiacus, Paradox- 
ides walcottii (is not a Paradoxides but the small head of Ellip- 
(ocephalvs otaphoides of Emmons), Ptychoparia mucronalv^ 
(isidentical in every respect vith Atops trilineattia of Emmons), 
and Ptychoparia altleborenis. 

That such a fauna, so different from the Braintree fauna, 
should be placed below, by Mr. Walcott, the paleontologist 
of the United States Geological survey, and synchronized with 
the Hobnia zone or Scandinavian formation of Manuel's 
brook, is absolutely against all paleontological rules and 
against all our knowledge of Taconic paleontology ("Position 
of the Olenellus fauna, etc.," pp. 388-389, Avier. Jr. Sc, vol. 
xxxvir, May, 1888.) 

Alleghany area. — It is probable that the Middle Taconic or 
Georgia formation extends south from the eastern ^art of 
the state of New York, following the eastern base of the Alle- 
gbanies or Appalachian mountains. Indications of its exis- 
tence have been signalized many years ago in Virginia by Dt. 
Emmons, and more recently by others in the states of Georgia, 
Tennessee and Alabama. 

In Texas, strata older than the Upper Taconic, lie in dis- 
cordance of stratification under beds which contain the supra- 
primordial fauna or Olerms zone. But until now no fossils 
have been found. 

Rocky Mountain area. — The Rocky Mountain region promis- 
es to be one of the most important fields for the study of the 
Taconic system. The development attained by the series of 
Lower Paleozoic strata in the Grand Caflon of the Colorado, 
in the Wasatch mountains of Utah, in the Eureka district of 
Nevada, and in the Castle mountains (Canadian Pacific rail- 
way near the fifty-first parallel), show beyond any doubt, that 
we have in those areas a complete development of the Taconic 
system. Only we shall have to wait for further research before 
we can outline all the great divisions, and before we can find 


„ Google 

Lower and Middle Ta&mic. — Marcau. 99 

the homotaxiB deposits of all the formations ne know now to 
exiBt in the Acadio-Russian sea. 

j4rtjoiia, — In the Grand Cafion of the Colorado, below the 
sapra-primordial fauna beds, called the "Tonto formation,' 
there is in discordance of stratification, a great mass of strata 
of sandstone, shales and limestones, 12,000 feet thick, which 
antil now have given very few fossils. The difficulties of 
search, in such ravined and almost perpendicularly cut strata, 
eo far removed from inhabited countries, combined with the 
sporadic character of the appearance of fossils during the 
whole Taconic period, are sufficient reasons for the scarcity of 
the Grand Caflon primordial fossils. However, Mr. Walcott 
has found in a bed situated at a third of the thickness of the 
formation in descending order, three fossils : one Discinoid 
shell, an obscure HyoUies, and pieces of a segment of what 
seemed to be a trilobite — with such paleontological fragment 
it is impossible to synchronize with certainty, those beds with 
the great formations of the Middle and Lower Taconic Only 
we can say, that it is a first hint of the existence there of a 
fauna which may prove to belong to the infra-primordial 
fauna, and may be referred with doubt and provisionally only, 
to the Esthonian formation or Schmidtia zone. The strata 
containing that very small fauna of the Grand Gafion has been 
called "Chuar formation," 

Nevada, — The Eureka district of Nevada, explored with 
some detail by Messrs. A. Hague and C. D. Walcott, presents 
a development of about 2,000 feet thick of strata belonging to 
the Lower and Middle Taconic. First, we have resting on the 
granite, the "Prospect Mountain quartzite," 1,500 feet thick, in 
which, until now, no fossils have been foimd. Being below 
the Georgia formation or Kl!iplorcphah(8 (Olmcllus) zone, as 
we shall see presently, those quartzites seem to represent the 
St. Albans group, or at least a part of it. 

Directly above the quartzite there are one hundred feet of 
red shale, surmouuted by five hundred feet of magnesian lime- 
stone. Until now the limestone has not furnished fossils ; but 
le red shales are fossiliferous, and here is the list published 
r Mr. Walcott: Olenelhie {Elliptocepkahs) gilherti ('), 01 
Idingti, Olenoides quadriceps, Anomocare parviim, Ptychoparia, 
~:enella, and Kutorgina. Farther up, in the magnesian lime- 
.one, in a band of shales, enclosed in the limestone, are the 

)v Google 

100 The American Geologist- 

following foBeile; Ohnoides (^vadricepe, Ptyehopc 
and SceneUa. All these foseils are forms cloi 
species of the Georgia formation in New York, 
Canada. So we have in Eureka the upper part < 
Taconic or ElUploccpfialus zone correeponding ai 
taxis of the upper part of the Pnradoxides zone 
formation of the Acadio-Rusaian areas. 

In the Highland range, 125 miles south of Euri 
gia formation is well developed, containing 1 
fossils : Olenelluft (SUiptoccphalitu) gilhcrti, 01. idc 
paria and Hyolii.e», 

East of the Highland range, at 20 miles distan 
mountains near Pioche city, is the Elliptocephal 
zone with fossils having a complete Georgian aspt 
such as : EUiptorephahia (Oleiielhtg) gilhcrti, Oleno 
2 Crepicephalui, Hyalites, OrthiK, Acrotreta, Acrothi 
and Litigvlella. In regard to Olenoidvg typicnlis, 
F. Schmidt remarks in "Weitere Beitrflge 
niss des Otendlui Slickwilzi," p. 4, St. Peters 
it is related to Olciiellus (Schmidtia) mickwilz 
greatly by the inferior part of the thorax below 
differs also in the pygidium and the head. T 
typkalis may be considered as a degenerate forn 
representative of the group of the Schmidtia. 

Farther south in Nevada, at the end of the Tim] 
the Georgia fauna has been found by Mr. G. K. C 
sented by the two ElUptoccphali, gilberti and iddin 

Utah. — In the Wasatch mountains of Utah, a1 
tonwood canon, above 11,000 feet of non-foasilil 
the Georgia formation was found with its i 
fauna: EUiptocepluilm {Ohncllus) gilberti. Ptych 
ditia, Hyalites, Kntorgina and Lingulclla. As i 
been found yet, in the 11.750 feet of strata belo^ 
of the jE//!j*(0(T/jfta?('s zone, there are strong hopes 
find in that section the equivalent and homotaxi( 
the other groups of the Middle and Lower Taconi 

(■) The resemblance with Elliptocephatut (OtenelliL 
each, that it is doubful, if it is a distinct species ; it is, : 
very closely alliefl spedea and a representative of the G 
Aa to a generic iiientification with Holmia Kjerulfi, it i 
accept it with such difference In the pygidium, in tlM 
the head. 

)v Google 

Lower and Middle Taconic. — Mareou. 101 

At Ophir city, in the Oquirrh range, Utah, the Georgia for- 
mation contiuns Elliptocephalus ( Olenellus) giU)erti, Bathyuris- 
eu«and lAngulella. And finally at Antelope Spring, in the 
House range, western Utah, Mr. Gilbert has recognized the 
Georgian fauna composed of Agnostvs, Olenoides, 2 Ptychoparia 
and Acrotbele. 

British Columbia. — In the Rocky mountains of Canada, near 
the vicinity of the passes followed by the Canadian Pacific 
railroad, fifty-first parallel, the Taconic syatem is well derelop- 
ed and occupies a most important place in the stratigraphy of 
that region. Dr. Charles Rominger has first made known 
a primordial fauna, found at mount Stephens by an astrono- 
mer, Mr. 0, Klotz. The fossils described by Dr. Rominger, 
are : Oxygia klotzi, Ox. senata, Embolinus spinoia, Emb. rotunda, 
Mtmocepkalus sallerif Conocephaliles cordillerae, BnthyuTusf 
Agnostvs, Hyolites, Orlkis? Kutorgina, Metoptoma and Obolella. 
("Description of Primordial fossils from Mount Stephens, N. 
W, Territory of Canada," in Procfcrf. Acad. JV«(. Sc. Philndd- 
pkia, 1887, pp. 12-19.) 

Mr. R. G. McConnell has published in the "Annual Report 
of the Geological Survey of Canada for 1886," a description 
with an important section of the Castle Mountain group. He 
has found fosails at two different horizons ; the lowest one in- 
dicates the Elliptocephalus (Olenellus) zone with an Elliptoceph- 
alus (OlenelUisf), a. Ptychoparia, and a Protypus. That small 
fauna rests on 10,000 feet of a series of durk colored argillites 
and sandstone, in which no fossils have been found yet ; but 
which very likely may prove to represent the lower group of 
the Middle Taconic andLowerTaconic, just like the St. Albans 
group of Vermont and the lower great series of Cottonwood 
cafton in Utah, and the Grand Cafion of the Colorado. 

Above the horizon of the Olenellusf (ElUpfocephnlus), at a 
distance estimated at 2,000 feet, Mr. McConnell has found the 
fauna described by Dr. Rominger, which seems to indicate for 
the Georgia formation of British Columbia a thickness four or 
five times greater than at the typical locality of Georgia, Ver- 

lont. But in such grouping of strata, in grent dislocated 

lasses of slate, it is impossible to give very exact measure- 
ments for the different formations ; and we may regard the two 
horizons of fossils at mount Stephens, in the Castle Mountain 

)v Google 

102 The American Oeologitt- 

group, as belonging to the upper part of the B 
and the homotaxicol representative of the uppe: 
Paradoxides zone or Bohemian formation. 


Br Di. C. BOKINotB, Add Arbor. 

This group of paleozoic foBsile, very prolific i 
forms, familiar to every paleontologist in a g 
neverthelesB remained very imperfectly known 
comparatively recent time, when the microsc< 
investigation began to be adopted by paleontoli 
those who contributed to a more accurate ki 
Monticulipora tribe Prof. Alleyne Nicholson 
foremost. His first publication on this Bubje< 
of the geological reports of the State of Ohio, i 
amination of specimens, found in the Hudson 
the environs of Cincinnati, conducted accord 
customary method, restricting itself to obsem 
characters, visible with the naked eye, or assi 
of an ordinary lena. Mr. Nicholson h 
this part of his work to be merely a preliminai 
to arrange the numerous differentiated form 
within certain definite specific limits. In a seco: 
entitled "Oil the Slnictvre of the Tubulate Con 
are derived to a great extent from the microscc 
tion of thin sections, whereby a number of ■ 
closed themselves to biro which previously t 
notice, and which in many instances demande 
important changes of his formerly expresse* 
subsequent continuance of these microscopici 
constantly adding new facts, involved for him i 
many other progressive modifications of hia v: 
laid down in his last publication "On the •Strva 
ties of the f/enus Monti'ctdipora." Therefore pass 
his works, only the statements made in this la 
taken as the true exponents of his tempora 
which, in his own opinion, is susceptible of greai 
by the prospective discovery of new facts by '. 
the same line of study. 



Studies on Monticulipora. — Rominger. 103 

About the same time that Mr. NicoUon'e publicatione appear- 
ed Mr. E. O. Ulricb, of Cincinnati, took up the study of the 
monticuliporoid family as a specialty and made the results of 
hia labors known through a auccesBion of essays appearing in 
the Journal of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 
Later, in the fourteenth annual report of the Geological Sur- 
vey of Minnesota, he gives deacriptionB of quite numerous 
representatives of this group, and just recently, his contribu- 
tions to micropaleontology of the Cambro-silurian rocks, came 
out as a part of the geological reports of Canada. We are 
also promised by him an explicit treatise on Bryozoa in the 
eighth volume of the Geological Survey of Illinois, not yet 
printed. The diflFerent publications of Mr. Ulrich give credit- 
able testimony of his zeal and his ability in making observa- 
tions, but it is to be regretted to see him attribute to every 
trifling modification he observes in these structures an undue 
importance which induces him to propose on the strength of 
these, a fabulous number of generic and specific distinctions, 
which, instead of helping the reader to a quick and clear per- 
ception of the typical features of the very numerous represen- 
tatives of this group, inundate his mind and memory with a 
flood of vague definitions which is bewildering and repulsive. 

As I had always felt a particular interest in the study of 
this same group of fossils and had published, twenty-five years 
past, a small essay, entitled "On the Structure of Cha^tetes 
and Belated Forms" in the proceedings of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (1866), I take the occasion 
now to communicate the results of continued studies in this 
direction, which filled out a good many of my leisure hours 
during later intervals, by passing a critical review over the 
works of the two mentioned writers, whereby opportunity 
offers itself to corroborate many of their observations, and on 
the other hand, points of disagreement in observations, or in 
conclusions based on such, can be most conveniently argued. 

In the first chapter of his work on MovticuJipom Mr. Nichol- 
son explicitly discusses the general history of the genus Mon- 
tifuVqiora and hereby gives expression to the views entertained 
by himself. A second chapter treats on the general and com- 
parative structure of Monliculiporn, which genus in its wider 
sense he defines as "Forms in which the corallum is composed 
of numerous closely approximated tubular corallites, the 


104 The American Geologist. 

walU of which are nerer absolutely amalgamated ^ 
aDOther. Walls imperforate ; septa entirely wanting 
always present in greater or less number, though soi 
obsolete or neatly so ; generally 'complete' and approi 
horizontal ; sometimes in a peculiarly modified mac 
complete." Corallites usually divisible into two distinct 
one of large, the the other of small tubes ; the latt 
usually, but not always, more closely tabulated i. 
larger tubes, or ehowing other peculiarities of st 
Surface often, but not always, exhibiting at regular ii 
definite areas which are occupied by coralUtes which a 
larger or smaller than the average. These areas 
elevated above the general surface, when they ar( 
monticules, or they may be level with the surface or 
depressed below it, when they are called '^macutas." 1 
goes on to describe the form of the corallum, as being e 
ly variable, though often constant for the same speci 
distinguishes a massive, a discoid, dendroid, lam 
frondeacent and an encrusting mode of growth, wheret 
particularly in the dendroid forms, an obvious difiere: 
of the corallum into an axial and peripheral regioi 
In the axial region the corallites are generally thir 
and angular, often with few tabulse. On the other b 
the peripheral region the corallites are often thick 
commonly rounded, and usually with many tabulse ; ] 
the statement is made that interstitial tubular and 
called spiniform corallites, if present, are most general 
fined to this peripheral region. This differentiation 
axial and peripheral region is less developed in forms 
sive or discoid mode of growth. Considering the si 
of the tube walls of Monticulipora Mr. Nicholson poi 
the genera! duplicity of the walls of contiguous tubes 
in certain forms is permanently preserved, as for ine) 
^f. trentoneitsis, M.jamen and others. In other form 
as j\f. undulata, petropolitana, etc., the walls are so t 
BO intimately united that in sections they present the 
as delicate dark lines without structure. In a thir< 
represented by M. ramosa, M. o'nealU, etc., Mr. Ni 
describes the substance of the dividing walls Bufl 
thickened as to exhibit a dark ring in the circumferenc 
orifices, but the outer limits of the juncture of the ac 


Studies on Monticulipora. — Rominger. 105 

vails are merely indicated by an intermediate lurid space 
without a Uae' of demarkation. Finally he mentione jl/. an- 
drewsii, M. gracilis, M. moniliformia as examples which exhibit 
an amalgamation of the adjoining walls to such an extent that 
the substance intermediate between the visceral cavities 
appears as a homogeneous mass of high-colored sclerenchyma, 
barely showing in the neighborhood of the actual tube cavities 
some fine concentric lines of deposition. These enumerated 
modifications in the wall structure are to my conceptions not 
the exponents of a real difference in their organization, but 
merely specific variations of the same structural type. 

The superimposed obliquely ascending layers of scleren- 
chyma, well represented in fig 3, page 40, of Mr. Nicholson's 
work, are, in my opinion, not a structural peculiarity, con- 
fined to the terminal part of the tube-walls, but the entire 
tabes, from base to top, are built of a succession of similarly 
superimposed oblique layers, which unite in an arch or under 
a more or lefs acute angle with similar layers of the adjoining 
tubes. No part of the wall is structureless, as Mr. Nicholson 
expresses it, but I admit that the mode of preservation and 
the delicacy of the tube-walls often obscures the traces of 
structure. The mentioned succession of obliquely super- 
imposed sclerenchym layers not only builds up the outer 
walls of the tubes, but all the tabulte intersecting the tube 
cavities are a direct continuation of such layers, periodically 
spread across the channel and constituting then a regular cup. 
It is the same process of growth that builds up the calyx of a 
cup coral with its transverse tabulse, but I am far from sug- 
gesting a relationship; my inference is only to show how 
nature often uses the same means in the accomplishment of 
organic structures of altogether different affinities. 

A very common superficial character of Monticulipora and 
allied forms is the occurrence of numerous nodular or spire- 
like projections, located in the circumference of the tube 
orifices and on the angles of junction between the tubes. 
Among the specimens described by Milne Edwards from the 
trata of Cincinnati, he observed in one of the kinds, numer- 
DUH stout spinulea disseminated over the surface and consider- 
ed this to be a character of sufficient importance to distin- 
guish that form from the associated Monticuliporas as a 
peculiar generic type, under the name "Dekaya," which dis- 

)v Google 

106 The American Geologist. 

tinciioD has always been accepted by Mr. NicholB< 
Mr. Ulrich. 

In the previously mentioned essay published by va 
I objected to the separation of this form, from ^/oni 
on the ground that an overwhelming majority of all 
comprised under the name MonticuUpora, is prov 
similar spinulose prominences, and that in the sti 
the so-called Dekaya no other peculiarity can be po 
in which it differs from MonticuUpora proper- I 
also, that these splnules were of subordinate functio 
as in the same specimens a portion of the surface mi 
spinules, while in another none are observable. 

Mr. Nicholson is inclined to attribute to these s 
proininences a greater physiological importance, bj 
ing them with the ordinary corallites, as being a ] 
modified form of Zooide, which he designates by th 
"Spiniform Corallites," and describes as blunt, us 
perforate projections, in which he exceptionally co' 
times discover an apical aperture. From the appe: 
these spines in thin sections, their composition of c 
laminfe of sclerenchyma, with a dark, or a clear luci 
the center, leaves no doubt in him, that these stru 
primitively hollow, and represent a peculiar modii 
corallites, whose cavity becomes in progress of gro 
up with a secondary deposit of sclerenchyma. 

I have examined several hundreds of sections of 
pora specimens provided with spinules, and admit th 
ness of Mr. Nicholson's observations, that these i 
resemble, in tangential as well as in longitudinal 
tubules with very thick concentrically laminated T 
that in some instances even an actual central canal 
exist, usually, however, the center of these spinulei 
originally so, and not as Mr. Nicholson thinks, by a i 
process of deposition, replenished with sclerenchym 

The lucid central portion of the spinules, supposei 
been the former channel, is not defined from the aui 
laminated sclerenchyma mass, but merges into it by : 
gradation. If these spinules were actually tubules in 
and analagous to the ordinary tubules of the coral 
should also be built up according to the same plai 
others, but this is not the case. The ordinary tu 

)v Google 

Studies on Montieulipora. — Rominger. 107 

as has been incidentaliy described before, built up by a suc- 
cession of delicate layers, directed from below, upward and 
outward. Periodically their cavity is intersected by ttaits- 
verse diaphragms, which likewise are an extension of sach 
layers across the tube-channel, in which case the deposited 
layers form a closed cup, and the whole length of the tube 
may be considered a sucoeseion of similar cups, one invagina- 
ted into the other and open toward the periphery. The 
structure of the spinules, with regard to their supposed cen- 
tral cavity, is just inverted ; their lamination, in perfect ac- 
cordance with the lamination of the ordinary tubules, holds 
an ascending anticlinal position toward their central canal 
and forms a series of invaginated cups closed at the apex and 
not in the bottom, which excludes the possibility of a central 
channel, opening on the surface, like the other tubules. To 
my conception the spinules are an integrant part of the or- 
dinary tube-walls, whose margins, *>y exuberance in secretion 
of shell matter, form nodular prominences in certain spots of 
their circumference, which, amalgamating with similar prom- 
inences of the adjoining tube-walls, contribute the spinules. 
On the line of junction between these joining walls, usually 
an uninterrupted continuation of the lamina;, from one side of 
these conical prominences to the other, can be observed, but 
sometimes on this line, by incomplete amalgamation of the ends 
of the anticlinal layers a central vacant space is left which re- 
sembles the channel of a tube, but the physiological functions of 
such merely occasionally developed tubular space3,are not com- 
parable with those of the ordinary tubes, which are the domi- 
cile of an organism secreting this calcareous structure, in 
layers conforming to the shape of its body. The channels, 
perforating exceptionally the center of the spinules, have no 
walls of their own ; they are surrounded by the walle of neigh- 
boring tubes, whose structural channels hold an anticlinal 
position toward the cavities of the spinules, which structure 
is a positive proof that these channels cannot be a specific 
modification of tubular Zocecia, or else thej' would be enclosed 
byindependent walls, ofthe make of the inhabitingZooidia,which 
rails would hold necessarily a synclinal and not an anticlinal 
josition of their lamination toward the cavity, as the case is. 
The occurrence of spinules is generally restricted to the 
peripheral ends of the tubes, they form columnar, incrassated, 

)v Google 

108 The Atnerioan Oeoloffut. 

longitudinal streaks in the wall eubstance, withir 
of the peripheral area, (Wandetraenge, Dybowsky] 
ferent Monticulipora species, while in Stenopora, as 
incrassation is subject to periodical intcrrup 
appears in vertical sections through the branchlets 
of beads, stringed together, instead of presenting 
colXtmns as in Monticulipora. 

It may be of interest if I remark on this occas 
none of Silurian, Devonian or lower Subcarbonifet 
culiporoide this beaded appearance occurred to n 
Bpecimens from the Chester group and from tl 
strata of the Coal Measures, all exhibit this beaded i 
and besides have a large central perforation ol 
phragms, which, according to Nicholson, is anoth 
character of Stenopora. A third characteristic 
Stenopora mentioned by Prof. Nicholson, a per 
the tubes by connecting pore-channels, I have ii( 
to recognize in any single instance, although somi 
amined specimens were so favorably preserved 
perforations existed they could not have escaped r 

The previous expositions regarding the occu 
structure of the spinules in Monticulipora are not ' 
ble for the sustenance of Mr. Nicholson's augge 
these structures have a functional analogy with tl 
tubes and deserve therefore to be designated as 
corallites," I may be equally at fault, considerin 
gans as merely ornamental, because I know nothi 
about their vital functions; but the circumstance t 
of one and the same specimen spinules are often 
developed, while in other parts of the surface th&y 
missing, or only thinly scattered, seems to me a i 
indication that their functional importance cam 
great, and at all events not essential for the vital < 
such specimen. 

In the same category with the ordinary superf 
lose projections probably belong spinules, which I 
recently on inner circumference of the tube-channf 
iculipora vwnih'/ormis Nicholson. They are accura 
to the spinules represented by Mr. Nicholson or 
his work, in the tubes of Heteropora neozelandica, 

)v Google 

Studies on Monticulipora. — Bominger. 109 

tial sectioDB from four to seven of these can be seen encircling 
the lumen of the tubes, not all of them stand on the same 
level, nor in longitudinal rows, but they are scattered pingly 
all over the inner cavity without apparent order. Similar 
Bpinules I found in great numbers covering the inner surface 
of the tubes of a Moiilindipora or S/e»c/j'irn from the Chester 
group of ArkansaB, With reference to Moid. moniUJormisl 
have to state yet the perfect independence of the inner hori- 
zontally projecting Bpinules, from the much larger ones, ver- 
tically projecting above the angles of junction between the 
tubes. The discovery of spinules covering the inner surface 
of the tube-channels in a few species of Montindipt'i-a and 
their absence in the majority of other species, while it proves 
a wider distribution of this structural character than previous- 
ly was known, the restriction of the appendages to a few 
species only, demonstrates at the same time, that their 
functional value cannot be very great, no more than a specific 
peculiarity, of the same order, as the more generally develop- 
ed superficial spinules. Proceeding with the chapter on the 
comparative structure of Monti ml ipom, Mr. Nicholson de- 
scribes the corallura ot ^font^c<llijwm as being generally dimor- 
phic, explaining, that he does not follow the current opinion 
regarding the minute tubules, interstitial between the larger 
ones, as young coraHites, or as coenenchymol tubuli, but re- 
ferring to Mr, Moaeley'a researches on the living Helitijiora, 
he feels himself thoroughly satisfied that in Moiilimlipoin a 
similar dimorphism exists to that in Hcliaimra, and that the 
different sets of tubes in Moniindipora are inhabited b}' differ- 
ent sets of Zooids, He admits, however, that there are forms 
of Monticulipora resembling the dimorphic species, in which 
all of the corallites of the colony are apparently similar in 
their internal structure and approximately equal in size, of 
which he hesitates. to assert positively their dimorphism. 

Discussing the nature of the tabulie, the form and arrange- 
ment of these structures indifferent corallites of the colony, 
Mr. Nicholson goes on to state that they ore never wholly 
bsent in any form of MonlkuHpora. but sometimes entirely 
"anting in portions of the corallum. That the tabulaj are in 
le majority ofmoatic!iporoids"complete"horizonta! or curved, 
>ut that in other forms a peculiar incompleteness of the 
abulEB occurs, whereby an excentric or sometimes subcentral 

)v Google 

110 The American Geologitt 

l&rge perforation mterniptB the continuity of the mi 
obliquely downward-bent diaphragms, which in loi 
sections appear like a string of imbricating vesicul 
ing to the sides of the tubes and leave an open chan 
aide of them, which usually is found intersected pt 
by straight diaphragraa extending from the vesici 
opposite free portion of the side walls. Occasion 
incomplete tabula have also the shape of short-tub 
one invaginated into the other. The set of smal 
usually developed in the forms with incomplete ( 
in distinction from the Urge tubes always inter 
closely approximated and complete straight di; 
Concerning the occurrence of longitudinal septa v 
tubules ot Monltculip<}Ta Mr. Nicholson with propriet 
that nothing of septa, in the proper sense of the 
ever been detected. The indentation of the orifices \ 
observable in certain spinuloBe forma of Montici 
caused by a merely accidental projection of spinule 
orifices, whose outer margins they occupy, and is 
comparable with the radiation of septate corals, 
spinules which I discovered in the tube-cavities of 
pora DLOiiiliforniU Nicholson, and in another Car] 
species not yet named, are no exception to this ru 
have no analogy with radial septa. 

In the third chapter of his book Mr. Nicholson giv 
opinion on Prof Lindstrocm's views, who thinks ^To 
to be only a certain stage in the developement of a 
ella or Ccramopora, passing first through a transito 
pora stadium, and finally in its full developement re; 
a Moiitiri'lijiorn. This totally erroneous conception, ii 
ed by Mr.Xicholaon aa in direct opposition with his ( 
vations, and I fully concur in this repudiation not 
cause observations on American specimens prove a 
pendenco of these 3 generic types, but also because 
I received from Mr. Lindstroera, to demonstrate his 
after careful examination,exhibited an alternate incn 
one form by the other, hut no genetic connexion wh 

In a second paragraph of the third chapter, Month 
compared with the Mesozoic and yet living genua J 
After consideration of many points of resemblance b 
two, the perforated walls of Hrfcropom and the spi 

)v Google 

Studiea on Monticulipora. — Rominger. Ill 

jecting into their tube cttvitiea Appear to Mr. NicboleoQ diSer- 
ences of sufficieot import to abrogate a real close affinity be- 
tween the two genera. The occurrence of spinulee within the 
tubes of certain species of Monticulipora, which ie stated by me 
previously, invalidates one of the supposed principal charac- 
ters of differentiation, but notwithstanding this, I concur in 
in Mr. Nicholson's opinion, believing, that the perforated 
structure of the inseparably united tube walls of Heteropora 
not differing in any way from the smaller interstitial tubules, 
ie for itself alone, a difference, derogatory to a very close rela- 
tionship between ^fonticulipora and Heteropora, but I still be- 
lieve th&t ^fonticul^pora stands in its general organization near- 
er the Bryozoa than the Alcyonaria, which latter are regarded 
by Mr. Nicholson as the group to which Monticulipora belongs. 
In chapter IV, the relations of Munticulipora to C/ustetes, 
Stenopora, Tetradium Cfimmojiora and Hclcrodictya are ex- 
pounded in a mode, which in a general way meets my appro- 
batioD. Chxtetes is defined, as composed of inseparably unit- 
ed tubules of one kind only, which multiply by division, in- 
stead of lateral gemmation, as Monticulipora exhibits it; these 
forms first appear during the Carboniferous period. Another 
form, beginning at the same period, is Slcnopora Lonsdale, re- 
defined by Mr. Nicholson, as resembling a typical ramose Mon- 
ticulipora, whose tubules in the peripheral area of the stems 
undergo a process of incrassation, with periodical interrup- 
tions, while in Monticulipora this process of thickness went on 
uniformly. This periodicity in the accretion gives the walls 
of Stenopora an annulated appearance like a string of beads. A 
further peculiarity of Stenopora is found in the structure of its 
diaphragms, which in part being complete and flat, exhibit in 
another portion a large sub-central perforation with a thickened 
slightly deflected rim round this opening. A third generic 
feature, ascribed by Mr. Nicholson to Stniojmra, is very ques- 
tionable in its reality ; this is a perforation of the tube walls by 
communicating pores as in Favosiles. In his statements he 
relies on specimens of Stenopora jackii from Australia in 
bich he claims to have discovered the unmistakcable exist- 
.ice of such pores, while on the other hand he admits his fail- 
_re to discover similar pores in other species of Stf}iopora 
ivhich came under his observation. In a number of specimens 
Pound in the Chester group of the Mississippi valley and in the 

)v Google 

The American Geologist. Aug- w" 

il Measures above, I could plainly recognize the beaded 
icture of the tube walls aad the centrally perforated dia- 
agma, typical for Stenopora, but in none of the numerous 
;ionB made of specimene of this kind I was able to obsen-e 
presence of'connecting mural pores. I express therefore my 
nest doubts whether any species of Stenopora is provided 
h such channels of communication. 

n the further progress of comparisons the general resem- 
Qce of Tetradium to the massive forms of Monticvlipora is 
itioned, but considering the structure of the first, of insep- 
Lily united tubules of one kind only, •which exhibit from 3 
[ inflexions of their walls, which project into the cavity as 
minent longitudinal septa, besides a different character in 

transverse tabulation, Mr, Nicholson comfes to the appro- 
ve conclusion, that there exists no closer relationship be- 
en the two genera. 

lomparing Ccnmojinra with Monticulipora he recognizes a 
ch closer affinity, but considers the generally oblique posi- 
1 of the tube orifices to the surface in Ceramopora and the 
jecting rim surrounding them, besides a difference in the 
ure of the interstitial cell spaces of the compared forms, as 
uliarities of sufficient import to separate them as generical- 

L. fifth chapter is devoted to, an attempt of subdivision of 
nficulipora in its wider sense, into subordinate groups, and 
Ti a standpoint of practical expediency he distinguishes 
m Monticulipora in a more restricted sense, the genera Fistu- 
>ra and Constellarin, and Dekaya, although he admits a very 
K! relationship between them and Montiru lipora proper . He 
n correctly points out the differences between Fiatvlipora 
i Monticulipora, but I believe commits an error in identify- 

Fiitulipora with Calhpom of Hall, the type form of which 
Jallnpora elegaiitvla. The interstitial cells of this latter form 
'6 always the shape of cloudy tabulated conical tubules, 
ircalatcd between the peripheral portions ofthe larger tubes 
1 not developed in the central portions of the stems, and 

orifices of the larger tubes, opening rectangular to the sur- 
e never project with free rims above the general surface. In 
titlipora the orifices of the larger tubes always open more or 
i oblique to the surface and project with an annular, or one- 
ed labial rim, over the general surface. Its interstitial cell- 


Stttdiet on Monttculipora. — Bominger. 113 

spaces are much more numerous and take part in the consti- 
tution of the corallum throughout its entire mass ; moreover 
these interstitial cells never have the form of gradually enlarg- 
ing conical, closely tabulated tubules, but are arranged in 
superimposed vesicular layers with laterally interlocking vesi- 
cules incompatible with the presence of a common wall inclos- 
ing the superimposed cellspaces of very unequal dimensions. 

Mr, Nicholson aware of this fact, draws a comparison be- 
tween Heliolites aad Propora which differ among themselves in 
a similar manner, one having an obviously tubular interstitial 
tissue, the other presenting like Fistulipora, layers of interlock- 
ing yesicules As this comparison implicitly admits an equal 
diflference between KsluH^iora and Ca(/oporn, as we observe it 
in Heliolites and Propora, it foliows that Mr. Nicholson ac- 
knowledges to Callopora the same typical independence as ex- 
ists between Heliolites and Propora, Si/ellia. On this occasion 
I feel induced to remark that the above comparison strikingly 
illustrates how nature repeated its structural designs in widely 
diETerent organisms in almost exactly the same manner. Con- 
ilellaria Dana, is by Mr. Nicholson considered as synonym 
with StelHpor aHall. Mr. Ulrich thinks the two differ essential- 
ly. As I have never seen an authentic specimen of Stellipora, 
I can give no definite opinion, but it appears to me, that an 
tdenti6cation of the Hudson River group fossil with the form 
described by Hall as Stellipora anthdoidea is not justified by 
the figures given by Hall, and also his description of the 
unique specimen, does not apply to Conslcllaria of the Hudson 
River group. 

In the above mentioned essay, published by me in 1866, I 
had from the external appearance of Comtrllaria, which in 
many respects resembles fwf((/ij)n>-a, inferred theirgenericiden- 
ty, and also Mr. Nicholson considers them so closely related 
that he is in doubt whether a generic separation of the two is 
advisable. Examination of thin sections, however, has since 
fully convinced me, that except this external similarity, there 
is little resemblance in the structure of Comiellnria and Fistu- 
-pora. In the latter, the interstitial vesicules are equally de- 
aloped through the entire corallum and form an interlocking 
ontinuous plasma, into which the larger tubules are immersed. 
n Constellaria the interstitial cells are confined to the peri- 
.heral crusts of the stems, whose interior is exclusively formed 

)v Google 

114 The American Qeologitt. 

of the larger kind of tubules, and tbe peripheral inte 
are not an indiscriminate mass of interlocking ve 
evidently are transversely tabulated conical tubulei 
ding with tbose, peculiar to the species of Monticvi-. 
Mr. Nicholson assembled under the name Heterotri 
The genus Dekaya of Ed. & Haime has been i 
Mr. Nicholson with the remark that its distinctloi 
iferous species of MonticuUpoTa is merely an arbH 
which the species can be conveniently distinguishe 
apart, but in reality such distinction ie an endlei 
confusion. The great majority of all Monticulipo 
vided with spinules and a distinction of forms wll 
more distant spinules from those with smaller 
vague as the difference between large and small, f 
ing a defined standard of magnitude for comparis 
other hand are those spinulose prominences in 
forms, provided with them, equally developed ; so 
of a stem may be conspicuously ornamented with 
another part of of it does not exhibit any. I rejec 
the acceptance of Dekaya as being an obnoxious b 

Monticulipora, in its restrictive sense, is defi 
icholsonas: "Coralla composed of tubular cora 
re mostly of two kinds, differing from one anothe 
ize and also in their tabulation. Tbe small c< 
never so greatly developed as to entirely isolat 
tubes except in an occasional corallite, nor do the 
shaped elevated monticules. The tabula; of the i 
lites never become vesiculoae, nor are even their 
erated. Spiniform corallites commonly presen 
project above the surface as blunt spines, but they 
conspicuous surface columns." 

The genus as above defined includes a large nuni 

exhibiting great variations in internal structure. 

olson therefore provisionally proposes a sub-div 

80-framed genus in a number of subgenera. Thesi 

"J, Heterotn/pa; 2, Diphlrypa; 3, Moiiotrypa; 4 


Hetemtrypa includes conspicuously dimorphic 
two sets of corallites of different sizes. The larger 
polygonal or sometimes rounded shape are more ( 

)v Google 

Studies on Montwalipora. — Rominger. 115 

CDed towards their mouths, while they usually possess few and 
remote tabulfe. These corallites are to some extent contigu- 
ous, but always partially separated by the corallites of the 
smaller series, which are also subangular or rounded and more 
or leas thickened towards their mouths. In all the corallites 
the tabuUe are complete and the small tubules are more close- 
ly tabulate than the larger ones- Spiniform corallites are - 
often very well developed, but at other times are few or want- 

As the type of Heterotrypa Mr. Nicholson selected Mont, 
mammulata of D'OrMgny. but the form described by him under 
that name, is in my opinion, and the opinioo of the plurality . 
of paleontologists, not the form so named by D'Orbigny ; it is 
Mont. Jrondosa of D'Orbigny. which latter name Mr. Nicholson 
applies to another form described by me under the name 
Mont, decipieiis, and the name M. mavtmulata actually be- 
longs to a form to which Mr. Nicholson gave the name Mont, 
molesta. As additional representatives of the subgenus Hetero- 
trypa he mentions "Het. ulrichi, H. gracilis, H. andrewnn, 
H. ramosa, T^gosa, a.nd its varieties, approximatn, &nd dalei ; 
besides H. monili/ormi«, sxibpulckella, o'nealli, noduhsa 
ja)iiesii, impUcata, girDan€)>^is, treitto)i^.iisia and dawMni." 

With the exception of M. rugosn, ramosa and dalei, all other 
enumerated species are new, defined and named by Mr. 
Nicholson himself.. 

The forma grouped together under the subgenus Heterotrypa 
are not all closely related in the type-form, {NichoUon's viam- 
midata). In H.frondosa, heBiiiea H.subpidchdla, H. ulrichi, H. 
trcntoTiensis, H. dawsoni, the dimorphism of the corallites 
notably differs from the dimorphic structure exhibited by 
H. ru^osa, ramoaa, o'neatii, gracilii, etc. In the latter the 
smaller interstitial tubules retain along their whole extent 
about the same diameter, and are much more closely septate 
than the ordinary larger corallites, so that this structural 
difference obviously is to be taken as representing a ditference 
in function, while on the other hand the previously enumer- 
ated species exhibiL in the structure of their interstitial tubules 
no great departure from that of the ordinary tubes ; they rapid- 
'y dilate in the course of their growth and their diaphragms 
with this enlargement pari passu, become more distant and 
finally we can, at least in a part of them, observe their direct 

)v Google 


116 The American Geologist. aui.ismk 

tranaformatioD into normal larger tubes. In epeciea like 
H. moniliformis a dimorphiBm can scarcely be claimed, as only 
« very limited number of smaller interstitial tubules occur, 
which do not differ in structure from the larger ones and by 
right can be considered as young ordinary tubes. 

The subgenus Diplotrifpa is intended to embrace specimens 
of hemispherical growth, with obviously distinct sets of larger 
and smaller tubules, which latter are much more septate than 
the larger ones and are uniformly deyeloped throughout the 
corrallum from its basal commencement to the upper surface. 
There is also no thickening of the tube walls observable as 
they approach the periphery, but this ie not a typical pecu- 
liarity for Diptotrypa, but in all other forms of MonlicuHpora, 
which grow in globular or hemispherical masses, the tubes do 
not appreciably thicken towards their peripheral ends. On 
the contrary all Monticuliporas of ramose growth become 
much more thick-walled near the surface than they are in the 
central parts of the stems. 

The subgenus Prasopora perfectly corresponds with Diplo- 
trypa in mode of growth, the only difference between the two 
is, the development of incomplete vesiculose diaphragms 
aside of ordinary complete tabulse in Prasapora, whilft 
in Diplotrypa only complete transverse tabulffi occur and 
no vesicular ones. As in many instances the developement 
of vesicular incomplete diaphragms occassionally occurs, 
where as a rule only complete ones are observed, and as in- 
versely specimens of typical Prasopora exhibit not rarely a 
part of their larger tubes intersected by complete transverse- 
tabulce only, with almost total exclusion of the incomplete 
vesicular kind, in such case the structure of the corrallum is 
absolutely identical with that of Diplotrypa.^ and as the develop- 
ment of vesicular diaphragms is an invariably constant struct- 
ural feature of Prasopora in all the specimens or portions of 
specimens, I am of the opinion it would be better to suppress 
Diplotrypa altogether and subordinate the forms concerned to 
Prasopora, allowing in its definition the exceptional want of ■ 
development of incomplete vesicular diaphragms. The only 
difference is, that the tubes in Prasopora are not perceptibly 
incrassating as they approach the periphery, while in Pervno- 
pora the tubes are subject to a considerable thickening process 
in the pheripheral parts of the coralla. Mr. Nicholson states 

)v Google 

Studies on Monticulipora. — Bominger. 117 

also that the mode of growth in Peronopora is either lamiDar 
or incruBting, but there is besides a number of species of truly 
ramose growth, which harmonize in general structure with 
Peronopora. Among these I mention the forms which Mr. lUrich 
has described under the name of Homotrypa, and which do not 
seem to have come tinder the observation of Mr. Nieholson. 
It has been remarked on a previous occasion that in all species 
of Monticulipora growing in hemispherical or subgiohular form 
whatever other specified peculiarities they may have, the tubes 
are not subject to an incrassation as they approach the surface 
and on the other side, that invariably, with the ramose growth, 
a thickening of the tube walls near the surface is coincident; 
considered from this standpoint the whole difference between 
Pra^opara and Peronopora rests on a difference in the mode of 

The fifth subgenus Monotrypn, comprises the forma whose 
tubules show no dimorphism, but are all of one kind. Some of 
these, located on or around the monticules, or in correspond- 
ing not elevate spots, are of somewhat larger size than the re- 
mainder, but they otherwise do not differ in structure from 
the smaller ones. Usually a few small angular cell openings 
are observable between the orifices of the ordinary tubes, but 
in sections it becomes evident that also these are only young 
tubules orignating by lateral gemmation from the older ones. 

Certain species as for instance M. moniliformig are by Mr: 
Nicholson arranged under the genus Heterotrypa, but accord- 
ingto their structure their appropriate place is with Mvnotrypa. 

These subdivisions of Monlindipnra, considered as an expe- 
diancy for general orientation, concerning the developement of 
certain structural characters, peculiar to a group of certain 
species and not, or not so well, developed in others, I find ap- 
propriate, but the division lines drawn by Mr. Nicholson be- 
tween these groups, are no more than an artificial arrangement. 
placing the principal weight on a certain structural character 
in one instance, and in another on some other character, where- 
by frequently forms otherwise not closely related on account of 

e conspicuity of this one character, are assembled into one 

*oup, and on the other hand, closely related forms differing 

ily in that one special point, are for such reason severed and 

-posed of in different groups. 
LS it regards the establishment of the precise limits of cer- 

)v Google 


The American OeologUt. 

Aag. 1S90 

tain epeciee described by Mr. Nicholson I find not rarely that 
the material uoder his observation must have been insufficient 
or that his observations lacked in accnracy. Mr. Ulrich decid- 
edly is the more accurate observer of the two, although his 
vivid phantasy sometimes makes him believe he sees things 
which do not exist ( for example the pores connecting the tubes 
of his Homotrypa), but comparing the work of the two writers 
Mr. Nicholson's method of doing his work is far preferable to 
Mr. Ulrich's. The first strives to give his 8cienti6c communica- 
tions in the shortest possible condensation, the second comes 
out with pompous display as a radical reformer. On the one 
aide he parades on every possible occasion with the Darwinian 
evolution theory, speaks of the ancestry and derivation of cer- 
tain forms, of prophetic types, and of analogies quite dubious 
in reality, still in total contradiction with the evolution theory. 
He tries to potentiate the most trifling differences in the struc- 
ture of the examined fossils to a magnitude which is incom- 
patible with specific'or generic identity ; and then, of course, 
such widely differing typeforms must have names, specific or 
generic, with Mr. Ulrich's signature behind them. Funny enough, 
Mr. Ulrich sometimes seems to feel himself embarrassed about 
the too prolific crop of his genera, for instance on page 247 
while defining the genus AlactoporeUa he says, "the new geniu 
differs frovi Atactopora, in having vuvierom closely tabjilafed in- 
'tergUtial cells, cystoid diaphragnis in the proper zooeia and thin 
imtend of thick walU." Now comes the self-consoling phrase, 
" These are nil good generic characters" etc., which expression in 
my mind raises the suspicion that Mr. Ulrich was not so very 
sure whether the three mentioned characters really deserved 
such valuation. 

To enter into a special critical review of the proposed ays' 
tetnatical schemes of Mr. Ulrich would be a tedious task, and 
extend the bulk of this essay far beyond its intended limits. 
Many of these eccentricities will soon fall into oblivion with- 
out contradiction, but in justification of this summary dis- 
posal of the matter, a reproduction of the list of generic names 
applied by Mr. Ulrich to the several members of the group of 
fossils formerly and at present considered to constitute the 
single genus MonticiUipora, will for a good many persons be a 
satisfactory excuse. 

1. Monticidipora is for Ulrich represented in M. inammulata 

)v Google 

Studies on MontieuUpora. — Rominger. 119 

D'Orby, which in Mr. Nicholson is a Peronopora, and by nine 
other Bpecies of his own make, four of which are not yet de- 

2. Seterolrypa Nichols, is acknonledged, hut of the seven- 
teen species Nicholson places nnder this group, bat two are in 
Mr. Uirich's opinion, representing the genus ; among these, 
however, he adds to the two, several other species described by 

3. Diplotrypa Nicholson is taken as valid. 

4. Mofialrypa Nicholson likewise, but only Monotrypa vndu- 
lata is s true representation. Af. quadrala and some other forms 
described by himself are 

5. MoHotryitella Ulrich. 

6. Proiopora Nicholson is enriched by a number of new 
species of Mr. Uirich's. 

7. ■ Peronopora Nicholson likewise receives a number of new 

8. Homntrypa Ulrich are specimens of ramose growth very 
similar in structure to Pcronoporu. 

9. Homotrypdla Ulrich differs from No, 8 by more abundant 
interstitial cells. 

10. Stenopord Lonsdale redefined by Nicholson is accepted. 

11. Callopora Hall according to Ulrich embraces also the 
forms like 31 rugoea, M. ramosa, M. tialei M. Edw. M. aiidreusii 
Nichols., M.o'nealli Nicholson, which association also in my 
own opinion is supported by a very close similarity in the 
structure of these forms. 

12. Calloporclta Ulr. grows in thin expansion in distinction 
from the ramose form of Callopora. 

13. Ampkxopora Ulrich is designed for several species de- 
scribed by Ulrich, but embraces also Nicholson's species Het- 
erop. tiifinilifnrmis, barratidii, M. disroidca Nich. and others. 

14. Bfl(o«(o»i(i Ulrich is represented by Hetcrotr. jamesH'Sich.. 
and by ff. implir.ata besides various of Mr, Uirich's own 

15. Balosomella represented by Heterotr. gracilin Nicholson be- 
'des several new species of Mr. Ulrich. On comparison with the 

scription of Batostoma with the one given of itself, onlydif- 
:r3 from the former by the remark "Cell apertures small." 

16. Lcioclema Ulrich, enumerated by him among the monti- 
aliporoids, is the form described by Hall under the name 

)v Google 



The American Geologist. 

Caltopora punctata. In my opinion it does not belong in this 
asaociation and representB an independent type. 

17. Atactnpora Ulrich, incrusting forms with abundant epinu- 
lea giving tbe orificies by projection on their margin an irreg- 
ular indented form. 

18. Atacloporella similar to the former, but differing by 
numerous interstitial cells and by vesicular diaphragms which 
are said to be simply straight in the former. 

19. Delcaya Kdw. & H. iB accepted. 

20. Dekayella Ulrich are similarly spinulose forms with num- 
erous interstitial cells. 

21. Ncbidipora M'Coy is accepted. 

22. Anpidopora Ulrich are small convexo-concaTe expansions 
covered by an epitheca on the lower side, structure correspond- 
ing with other forms of Montindipora of dimorphous character 
with abundant interstitial cells and spinules on the angles of 
junction of the tubes. 

23. Dhcotrijpa Ulrich of similar growth to the former, but 
destitute of spinules and interstitial cells. 

24. Pctigopora Ulrich. ChMetes peteckinlvt Nicholson. Small 
parasitic cumuli of Monticalipora structure without interstitial 
cells but numerous stout spinules projecting from the angles 
of junction. 

25. Leptotrypa Ulrich incrusting forms with thin walled 
polygonal tubes without interstitial tubes but provided with 
spinules situated on the angles of junction. Besides several 
newly described species. Mr. Ulrich places here also Chxt_ 
dii^coideii^ James, Miml. calceola Miller and Monl. davacoidea 

26. Spafiopora Ulrich, thin incrusting expansions of the 
Monticulipora type with short shallow tubules, and some few 
interstitial ones, smooth or strongly tuberculated surface, and 
ornaipented with spinules of considerable size. 

Endeavoring to impress my mind with the distinguishing 
features of the long scries of the just enumerated genera, I 
fancied to see each of them displayed in a circle, Mr. Ulrich'a 
descriptions liguring as just so many spokes in a wheel, as the 
number of genera amounts to. I then supposed to make com- 
parison of these generic spokes as they pass before my eyes, 
by setting this wheel in revolving motion, but alas! in the 
eagerness of my attempt I allowed the revolving motion to be- 

)v Google 

Review of Recent Oeological Literature. 121 

come too rapid, the single spokes soon were no more discerni- 
ble, I coald see a quivering disk only, and everything around 
me begitn to rotate, then a prostrating giddiness overcame 
me, cold drops of sweat ran down over my temples, and in this 
dreadful agony, near to fainting, I fortunately could recollect 
an old popular German remedy, very eflicacioua in similar 
cases of ailings ; it is, "the invocation of Sanctus Ulricus," acci- 
dentally a namesake of the author ; I did eo, and it was not in 
vain, I felt instantaneous relief after the invocation, but vowed, 
never to attempt a similar experiment, even on the risk of being 
deprived forever of the pleasure of fully comprehending Mr. Ul- 
rich's interpretations of creation. Trusting in Mr. Ulrich's pro- 
nounced taste for eccentricities, I have committed one myself 
hoping some success from a humorous attack on his method 
of making natural history, I should be veiy sorry if he took 
it as meaning personal offense. 1 have wished only to open his 
eyes, to see, how little good he can do by wasting his ingenuity 
the way be does, and how much more he would benefit science 
and himself ifhe contented himselfto communicate the results 
of his assiduous labors in the simplest possible manner, and 
with a perspicuity allowing to see every detail ; but before all 
sketching with conspicuous outlines the p t rue tural characters! 
proving a harmonious unity of design in the organization of 
all these natural objects to which the present discussion has 


The Crttateout and Teritary Otology of Ihe Scrgipe-Alagoai Batin of 
Brazil. By Johm C. Branser. {Trana. Amer. Phil. Soc. Philada ; vol. 
xvi, part 3, 1890 ; p. 369-434 ) This study of Cretaceous and Teritary 
geology of a portion of Brazil forms an important addition to geological 
literature. Prof. Branner examined this region in I875-IR70 and ac- 
cording to bia statements, thepubtication of the resultfl was deferred 
in order that the BraziliaD (iovernment might publish the results, 
which however was never done, and Prof- Branner prepared a paper, 
ich was read before the Philosophical Society, Sept. 7th, 18RS, The 
hor ia very much impressed with the geological importance of this 

>gion and the results brought out later tend to prove this assertion. 

3eir importance consists in the great ranfie of deposits, the very rich 

9siliferouB beds and the "accessibility of good exposures across the 

lire section." 

)v Google 

122 The American Oeoloffiat- 

A section from the Archcean region north of Serra, throt 
gipe-Alagoaa Basin to Sto. Amaro (on the sea) ahowe 
schlstfi conglomorates, sand-stones and shales, partial) 
phosed, limeetonea, shatea sand-stones, oolitic limeatont 
stoaeB, chalky bed a, horizontal Teritary sandstones and da 
teruarj' and recent beds. The foasila of the Creatceous series 
unnaually abundant. "The Stratigraphical Relations of ai 
tions attending the deposition of, the Mesozoic beda" are 
The beautiful oolitic limstonea of the Rio Sergipe will, 
Prof. Branner, no doubt be exteneively utilized in the nei 
architectural purpoaea. Fart ii. "The Brazilian Mesozoic ] 
than that of Segipe-Alagoaa." In thia part are described I 
ouB beds of Sao Francisco do Sul,Bahia baein and Pernaml 
part is concluded with "Correlation of the Mesozoic of tl 
the interior." Part iii. The Teritary Geology. Two note 
nres of this Tertiary are the uniformity in the general chl 
beds and the almoat entiro abaence of fosaila. Two by] 
offered for the latter : That theac rocka were deposited a< 
with water so overloaded with sediments, that animal life 
aibte, or that theae beda once held organic remains, but tl 
been dissolved out by infiltrating waters. Part iv, is a b! 
some siKty-hve titles. From the paper now before us it U 
this region presents unusual advantages for a study, bol 
and palajontological and it ia to be regretted that the a 
paper has 1)een unable to continue hie inveatigationa, so 

Gem» and Preciout Stonet. By Geobok Frederick: Kui 
Scientific Publishing Co., New York, 1H90. Undoubtei 
artistic book of the year and of a nature both popular a 
IB Hr. Knnz'a present work. No one ia better fitted to wr 
important aubject than Mr. Kunz. His great experienc 
and precious stones in all conditions makes this presei 
inestimable value. The subjectie treated in a manner wl 
both to the scientific and the general reader and in every 1 
himself delighted. Naturally enough the diamond is first 
then all the other minerate which hare been or could be i: 
are succeasively described. The author deserves great c 
maimer in which the book appears and the beautifully ex 
by Messrs. Prang & Co. add mach to the value of thia em 

Detcripliont of Ntiu Speeiei o} Fottilt. By Gboh(!e B.Sihi 
Amer. Phil. Soc. Phila.) Vol. ivi., part %, 1890, pp. 436' 
sils described in this paper are contained in the collection 
logical Survey of Pennsylvania. The species are all ue 
are quite interesting ; from the Chemung one net 
Orthis, Cyrtina, Meristella, Avicnlopecten, Lyriopectf 
teria, Modiomorpba, Goniophora, Nncula, Syringothyria 

)v Google 

Sevieio of Recent Geological Literature. 123 

particitlarly interesting,) two' Leptodeams, and six Platjceras; 
from the Clinton one new Orthia, Khynchonella, Hodiolopaie, Kucula, 
and two Tellinomya; from the Lower Helderberg one Chonetes, 
Acermlaria and Cladopora; Waverly, one Syringothyria and two 
Bhynchonella ; Honalonotas trentonensia Simp. n. ap. from the strata 
of the Trenton group near Reedsville, MifBin Co., Pa. 

Catalogue of Mineralt for lalt by George L. Engltth it Co., Philadel- 
phia and Kew York loth edition, 1890, pp. 100. 

This ianndoubtedly the most comprehe naive catalogue of minerals 
80 far issned in this country, the work not only containing the trade 
catalogue bat also a large amoant of much neeful information concern- 
ing many new minerals lately described, forty pages being devoted to 
descriptions of beryllonite, jaroaite, lettaomite, phenacite, bertrandite, 
sperrylite, etc., all indicating the valuable character of the material 
tbia firm offers to the public. 

In the price list Danna'a claasi&cation ia used, beginning with the 
native elements, sulphideB, etc. Then follows an alphabetical list of 
new species and varieties (brought up to date of publication) which is 
undoubtedly one of the most valuable features of the booti, which is 
then concluded with an index of all the apeciea. 

Mesars. English & Co. deserve great credit for this beantifnl publica- 
tion. It is well and neatly illustrated and very handsomely boand. 

Firii Annual Report of the Geological Survey of Texat, 1889. E. T. 
D[rMBL.E, State Geologist, Auatin ; Royal octavo, xc. and 410 pp., with 

This fine volume embraces a general report by Mr. Damble on the 
organization of the survey and on the preliminary claaaiflcation of the 
Texas formations, and several accompanying papers, viz : By R. A. F. 
Penrose Jr. on the gulf Tertiary of Texas, by Robt. T. Hill on the 
Cretaceous rocks of Texas and their economic uHes, by W. F. Cnm- 
mins on the southern border of the central coal field, and on the Per- 
mian of Tesas and its overlying beds, by Ralph 8. Tarr on the coal 
fields of the Colorado river, by Streeruwitz on the geolo^^ of Trane- 
Pecos Texas, and by Theo. B. Comstock on the central mineral re- 
gion of Texas. 

The report of Mr. Comstock shows that in the Archiean in Texas, 
there are probably three series or systems of rocks, and in this respect, 
as well as in many of tbe detaila, the features of the Texaa Archfean 
are strikingly like those of the Archiean of Manitoba and Minnesota. 

Hamlinite; a new mineral. By Messrs. Hidden and Pencield. (Am. 
'- Sci.38, p. 611.) 

J'ive years ago the authors observed a new rhombohedral mineral 

'curring with herderile at Stoneham, Me. As the material then noticed 

8 insufficient for chemical investigation theauthorsdeferredpublish- 

f any results with the hope that more miglit be discovered ; this 

pe has not been realized and the present paper is therefore apparently 
rellminary one. 

)v Google 


The American Oeologiit. 

Aug. i; 

Hamliniu (aft«t Dr. A. C. Hamlin, o! Btngor, Me.) cryBtallizea in 
the hexagonai-rhombohedral eyeXata, the observed crystals meRsuriDg 
about 2 mm. Hardness 4.5, 8p. Gr. 3.228 in barium-mercDric iodide 
solution. Fusibility 4. Colorlees to yellow. Qualitatively gives rea- 
tionefor phoBphoricacid. water, fluorine, alnmina, and the authors have 
coins to the caaclUBioa ih&t the mineral is a new phosphate of beryl- 
lium and alumina with fluorine- 

A preliminan/ annotaledehtch-littof tht Cretacfout inrerlebrate /otiilt qf 
Texat. RoBBRT T. Him.. (Bulletin Ko. 4, Geol. Sur. of Texas.) 
Austin, IKSC. 

This valuable publication reveals the great labor that has recently 
been l>eBtowed by Prof. Hill, on the Cretaceous of Tesas, by which he 
has been enabled to more than double the recognized thickness of the 
Cretaceous, and to lay down, in a preliminary way, the paleontological 
data by which all its parts may be identified. Kot to mention the 
early and fragmentary observations of Riemer, Marcou, the Shumard 
brothers, and the paleontological determinations of Morton, by which 
aome unproved generalizations were indicated, some of which are Still 
in doubt. Prof. Hill has made the first systematic and continued re- 
searcb in the strata of that age jn Texas. He demonstrated the exist- 
ence of the great unconformable Comanche ttriei, and although this 
series is claimed as Neoeomian by Jlr. Harcou, and the lowest part of 
it as Jurassic, there is no question of its actuality and of the credit 
that is due to Prof. Hill in elucidating ita structure and its relations. 
Minor details will have to be worked out in the future, and as they 
cast their light on the disputed questions all the differences will be 
likely to disappear. For the field-geologist in the Texas Cretaceous, 
indeed for every laboratory worker, this check-list will serve as a guide 
and reference of great value. The liet proves evidently that all the 
Cretaceous strata in Texas are more recent than the English Gault, 
although some have identified Texas fossils with those that in Europe 
belong to the Gault or the Neoeomian. 


1. Stale and OoverninenI Reports. 

First annual report of Ihe geological survey of Texas, 1880. E. T. 
Dumble, F. G. S. A., state geologist, 410 pages with maps. 

Geological survey of New Jersey. Annual report of the state geolo- 
gist (or the year 188!). 112 pages. 

Bulletinof the U. S. Geological Survey, No. 64. On the thermo- 
electric measurement of high temperatures, Carl Barus. 313 pages with 

Bulletin of the U. a. Geological Purvey, No. 66. Report of work 

)v Google 

Recent PublicatiotiK- 125 

d«ue in the division of cbemiBtry and phyeicB, mainly during the fiscal 
year 18S6-87. 72 pagee with plates. F. W. Clarke. 

Bnlletin of the IT. S. Geological Survey, No. 56. Fossil vood and 
lignite of the Potomac formation, % pages. F. H. Knowlton. 

Bulletin of the U. S. Geological Survey, No. 57. A geological recon- 
naissance in sonthweatern Kaoeas. 40 pages. Hobert Hay. 
2. Proceeding* of Scientific Socieliei. 

Transactions Kmnaas Academy of Science, vol. ah, part 1, 188i», con- 
toioB proceedings of twenty-Hecond annual session jNotes on the occur- 
rence of gold in Montana, J. R. Mend: On magnetic declination in 
Kansas, F. 0. Marvin; .Vrteaian wells in Kansas, and the causes of 
their flow, Kobert Hay, F. G. 8. A.; Some Kansas mineral waters, E. 
H. 8. Bailey; Barite and associated minerals in the concretionary rocks 
of eastern Kansas, E. H. S, Bailey and E. E. Slosson, (abstract). 

The proceedings of the academy of Natural ."Sciences o( Philadelphia, 
Jan. -March, IS 90, contain : Pea-Lke phosphorite from Polk Co.. Florida, 
Edward Goldsmith; Distribution of color marks in the Pteropodidae, 
Harrison Allen, M. D. ; Fossil vertebrates from Florida, Jos. Leidy, 
M. D. ; Notes on the genesis and horizons of aerpentinf s of southwest- 
ern Pennsylvania, Theodore D. Rand ; Geology of artesian wells at 
-Ulanlic City, N. J,, Lewis Woolman. 

3. Paperi in Scientific Journals. 

Am. Jour. Sei., July No. Southern extension of the AppoTnnttox 
formation, W. J. McGee ; Notes on the minenils occurring near Port 
Henry, N. Y., J, F. Kemp ; Occurrence of Goniolina in the Comanche 
series of the Texas Cretaceous, R. T. Hill ; Development of the shell 
in the genua Tornoceraa Hyatt, C. E. Beeclier ; Fayalite in tlie Obsid- 
ian of Lipari, J. P. Iddings and S. L. Peiifield ; Selenium and Tellur- 
ium minerals from Honduras, E. S. Dana and H. L. Wells ; Oonnellite 
from Cornwall, England, S, L. Penfielrt. 

Am. yaturalitt, Nov. No. Character and distribution of the genera 
of brachiopoda, Chas. W. Rolfe. April No- On the brecci at ed char- 
acter of the St. Louis limestone, C. H. Gordon. Juue No. The ppr- 
eistence of plant and animal life under changing; conditions of environ- 
ment, Persifor Frazer. 

Ottawa Naturalitt, May No. On some of the larger unexplored re- 
gions of Canada, G. M. Dawson. 

Can, Record of Sci., vol. IV, No. 2. Note of a fossil fish and marine 
worms in the Pleislocene nodules of Green'ecreek on l>e Ottawa, J, 
W. Dawson; Notes on gothite, serpentine, garnet and other Canadian 
minerals, B. J. Harrington; Scolecite from a Canadian locality, J. T. 
McDonald; On Asbestus, Ac. , J.T. Mc Donald; Lower Heldeilier;: for- 

aation of St. Helen's inland, Wm. Deeks. 

4. Excerpts and individual publication). 

The dynamic influences of evolution, Wm. H. Dall. [ before the 
biological Society of Washiuirton, Mar. 8th, ISHO.) 

)v Google 

126 The American Geologist. 

The Nampa Image. Correspondence relating to its disco 
'explanatory comments etc. (From, the proceedings of Ba 
Nat. Hiet. vol ixiv, 1889.) 

Channel Islands, by Dr. Lorenio G. Yatea, F.G.8.A. Stra 
the geology oi the Channel Islands. The mollusca of the Cham 
of California. Insnt a r floras- (Written for the mntli annual re] 
state mineralogist of California,) 

Description of some new genera and species of Ecbinodern: 
the Coal Measures and sub-Carboniferons rocks of Indiana, 
and Iowa; by S. A. Miller and Wm. F. E. Gurley. 

The rivera of northern New Jersey, with notes on the cla 
of rivers in general, by William Morris Davis, delivered I; 
"National Geographic Society" at Washington Jan. 24, 1890. 
in the "National Geographic Magazine," Vol. ii, No. 2. 

The geographic development o£ northern New Jersey, bj 
Morris Davis and J. Walter Wood, Jr., (from proceedings B 
Nat. Hist- Vol. ,\xiv, 1889). 

On some of the larger unexplored regions of Canada, by G 
son, D. S., F. G- 3. extracted from the Ottawa Naturalist, M 

On Cambrian organisms In Acadia, by G. F. Matthew, U. 
Roy. Soc. Canada. (Read May 30, 1880.) 

The Iroquois Beach, a chapter in the geological history of 
tario, by Prof. J.W. Spencer, M. A., Ph. D., F. G. S.,Trans. 
Canada, (Communicated by Dr. T. Sterry Hunt, May 5, 188) 

Notes on the geography and geology oi the Big Bend of the t 
by A. P. Colemn, Trans. Roy. fioc. Canada.' (Coramanicatec 
M. Dawson, May 15, 1889.) 

5. Foreign PiMxeationt. 

Die tertiiiren Bildungen dcs Kreidberges bei Liinenbnrg. 
Btiimcke. Jahr. d. nat. wisaen. Ver. f. d. Fiirstentum L 
SI, 1888-1889, 8.91. 

Mittheilungen aus d, Min. Inat. Keil, Bd. 1, Heft 2, 
Bemerkungen iiber die Gneisae im Granulit des sachsisch 
gebirgca, E. Danzig; Ueber den Wiesenbalk des Farbet 
Nindorf Betrachtungen iiber die Art und Wcise,wie die Gesc 
gelNonldeatschlandszur AblangeruDggelangteind. H. J. H{ 
ein Neocomgeschiebe ana dem Dilnvium Schleswig-Holal 

Die Conchylien des Losses am Bruderholz bei Basel. F 
berger. (Verhl. Nat. Geaell. Basel, 8 Theil. Stea. Heft). 

Byoliten vid sjon Mien, af N. 0. Hollz. (Sver. Geol. ' 
Ser, C. No. 110). 

Gren/e zwischen ketten und Tafel-jura. F. Miihlberg. 
geologicK HolvctiiE. 188«, No. 5.) 

On the origin of the basine of the great lakes of Amerit 
Bpencer. (Geol. Soc. of London, April 16, 1890, Abel 

1 Goo'^lc 


Recent Puhlicationt. 127 

Annoal report of the Department of Mines, New South Wales, for 

1888. Folio. 233 pp., many maps and platea, Sydney, 1889. 
0«ological featareB and mineral resources, Maukai dtatrict, Queens- 
land. R. L. Jack. 

Geological observations at the heads of the Isaacs, the Suttor and 
the Bowen rivers, Queensland. R. L, Jacks. 

Report on the Sellheim silver mines and surrounding district, 
Qneenland. R. L. Jacks. 

Kleiae Uitth. aua mln. Inst. Univ. Giessen, No. 6, contains: Neue 
Fnnde von Mineralien, Geateinen and Verateinerungen ausder Umge- 
gend von Giessen, A. Streng ; Bemerkungen uber den Melanophlogit, 
A. Streng; Binenene Limatulaausdemoligocaodes Mainzer Beckens, 
G. Oreim ; Ueher eine eigenthumliche Siiulenbildung im Tageban des 
Braoneteinbergwerks in der Lindner Mark bei Giessen, J. Uhl ; Ueber 
Regentropfenspuren ebendaselbst, J. Uhl. 

Zeitschritt der Geaellschaft fiir Erdkunde zn Berlin, ersCes heft, no. 
146, "DerlathmoB von Korinth," eine geologiach-geographiiche Mono- 
graph ie, von Dr. Alfred Philippson. 

Annales de la Societe Geologique de Belgique, tome aeizi^me, 1688- 

1889, contains : Etude sur les depots gypseux et gypso-aalif^riens, U. 
Cb. De La Valine Pouasin. Etude geologique dee Giaements de Phos- 
phate de Chanx du Cambr^sia, X. Stanier ; Sur les affinit^e des genres 
Favosites, Emmonsia, Pleurodictyum et Michelinia d, I'occasioti de la 
description d' une forme nouvelle de Favositide du calcaire carbonifere 
sap^iiear, Julien Fraipont ; Etude sur la stratigrapfaie souterraine de 
la partie nord-ouest de la province de Liege, Renter Iklalherbe ; Note 
sur les roches cristallinee recaeilliea dans les depute de transport, sitii^s 
dans la partie m^ridionale du limbourg hollandais, Alph. Erens. 

FSldtani Kozlony, Jan. — Mar. Wn. (Geiflogiache Mittheilungen.) 
Zeitschriftderllngartscben geologiachen Gesellschaft. Kedigirt von Dr. 
Moriz Staub. Budapest. Enthaltend Daten zurGeologie des Bakony (m 
2 Abb.) Dr. F. Schafarzik ; Beitriige zur geologiechen BeschafTenheit 
der UmgebuDg von Hunkiies (m. ! Abb. ) , Dr, J. Szildeczky ; Beitrage 
znrfossilen Flora der Umge bung von Munk des (m, 1 Taf.) M. Staub; 
Ueber das geologieche ProQl des Scherunitzer Kaieer— Francisci Erb- 
atollena (m. 1 Taf.) ; Zur Geotogie dea Djebel-Bu-Kornein in Tunis (m 
2 Abb.), J. Jank6 jun. ; Kurze Ueberaicht der in der Zone des aieben- 
biii^schen Erzgebirges von Ziim bis zum Ompolythale erforschten 
RShlen, G. T^gMs. 
Annual report and proceedings of the Belfast Naturalists 'Field Club. 

1889-90. Series ii. Vol. m. Part ii. contains the following papers : Ee- 
>rt of a committee of investigation on the gravels and nsanciated 

jeda of Curran at Lame, by R. Lloyd Fraeger ; A contribution to the 

nost-tertiary fauna of Ulster, by R. Lloyd Praeger. 
Festschrift zur Feier des f iinfundzwanzigjiihrigen Bestehens des nat- 

urwisBenecbaftlioben VereinszurBremen. Abhandlungen heransgege- 

ben vom naturwissenschaftlicben Vereine zu Bremen. Band XI, Heft I, 

mit 16 Tafeln. 1889. Heft 2, mit 4 Taf. ISIXI, 

)v Google 

128 7%6 American Geologist. aus. i»o 

EclogteGeologicteHelveti*. Revue GeoIogiqneSuiMfl ponr I'annfe 
I88S, par MM. Em«at Favre et Hans Schardt. 

6. Scientific Laboratorie» and Muteumt. 
Further noteson the KeauBXiphocolaptes of Lesson. Robert Ridgwa^. 

(Smitlieonian Inst. Proceedings oE the Nat. Museum, Vol. xiii — No. 796); 
Notes on the seTpentinous rocks of Essex Co., N. Y. from aqueduct 
shaft 26, N. Y. city, and from near Easton, Penn., Geo. P. MerrUl, 
(bmithsoniaa Inst, Proceedings, Vol. xii. No. 783) ; Preliminary report 
on the flsheE collected by the steamer AJhatroBS on the Pacific coast oE 
North America during the year 1889, with descriptions of twelve new 
genera and ninety-two new species, Charles H. Gilbert, [Smithsonian 
Inst. Vol. .Tin, No. 707.) 

Bulletin from the Laboratories of Natural History of the State Uni- 
versity of Iowa, containing : Some new species of paleozoic fossils, S. 
Calvin ; The Loess and its fossils, B. Sbimek ; A new species of fresh 
water mollusk, B. Shimek, and other papers. 


Gb.vesis of the AitiBTiD.iii, BT Alphbus Hvatt. Smithsonian Con- 
tributions to Knowledge, No.G73, 4to text, 238 pp., five folio tables and 
14 Plates ; "Washington, 1889.— Professor Hyatt begins his preface by 
saying: "It is a common mistake to designate my classification as 
tmbryologicaL. It will be found by those who read these pages, that 
the whole life of the indiydual, and all its metamorphoses, have been 
deemed essential standards for the estimation of affinities. Even the 
degradational metamorphoses of old age are used as characteristics 
of value in the generic descriptions ; it is properly speaking an onto- 
logical classification," (Loc. eit p, vii.) 

The mistake is due to the long andcarefnl studies of professor Hyatt 
on the embryology of Cephalopodes in general and of the Ammonites 
m particular, and by the late professor Louis Agassiz saying that 
Hyatt was working out the embryology of the Ammonites. It is only 
a misuse of a term tea long employed for all the work of classification 
at the Slnsenm of Compsrative Zoology, and which has been retained 
to designate briefly the starting point of the true ontolngical and natur- 
al classification so well advocated by professor Hyatt. 

The memoir is divided into two, or more exactly into three parti 
The firat part comprises the Preface, the Introduction, Genealogy and 
Genesis of characteristics ; and is devoted entirely to morphology, de- 
velopment, origin of forms, origin of differentials, Stages of growth and 
decline, radical stock, etc. It is the theoretical part, written entirely 
in the spirit of changes in the organic world, of development and evo- 
lution inaugurated by Lamarck. As far back as 1300, Lamarck "eel 

)v Google 

Correspondence. 129 

homme de g£nie, Btoiqiie et d^sinteresse" as he is called by Geofl^y 
Saint-Hilaire, presented hie doctrine of progression, which was bo 
much in advance of tlie Btandard of hia time, that it took more tlian 
half a century tor it to be truly apiireciated at its real value ; it was not 
until after the publication of the "Origin of Species" by Charles Dar- 
win, in September, 18i>9, that the grand t'ei'eralizations of the French 
natnralist began to be thought oF bv the new generation of naturalists ; 
and now it Ib a true triumph for his long neglected doctrine of varia. 
tion, to see a school, with such representatives as professor E. D. Cope, 
Dr. A. S. Packard and professor A. Hyatt, appropriately called ''the 

The author of the "PhiloBophie Zoologi4ne,"of the "Flore francaiee," 
of the "Hiatoire naturetle dea Animauz sans vortt'bres" and of the 
"Coquilles fonBiicB des environs de Paris," Jean, Pierre, Baptiste, An- 
toine de Monet de Lamarck, after beinjr neglected for so many years, 
and having his reputation shadiiwed and almost totally obscured by 
George Cuvier and his school, comes out again, tbiinks to the careful 
researcbes of a new school, whii h .strange to aay has been educated and 
trained by one of Cuvier's most illustrious pupils, Louie AgaSMz, It 
is a new example which shows how useless are all the opposition and 
neglect of contemporaries and adversaries, to views based on facts 
rightly observed and interpreted. And it ia a great spectacle to witness 
now the rehabilitation of a naturalist, who, if he had done nothinj: else 
but his splendid work "Les Animanx eans vert^bres" has left a repu- 
tation second to no one ; but whose far seeing and far reaching philos. 
ophy of gradual and insensible evolution of species, places him in hia 
right place as a naturalist of genius among the Coremofit great thinkers 
as well as great observers. 

The first part of professor Hyatt's memoir, will attract the attention 
of all zoologists and will have undoubtedly autrong influence on yoiinii 
American observers, as a rare example of close reasoning, based on a 
great many facts well studied and carefully recorded. To be sure it is 
the part most open to criticism, on account of its theoretical leaning ; 
but it is written with sucli candor, and the conclusions arc so fairly 
drawn, that it will remain a.'^ a precious acijuisition to our biological 
knowledge of a family of highly organized invertebrates. 

The second part, "Geological and fannal relations, "ia addressed to 
geologists well trained by long practical researches in the field of the 
lower and tmiddle Lias. Although professor Hyatt says that "his re- 
searches where conducted almost wholly inMuseums,"he made himself 
well acquainted.not only with all the stratigraphy and practical work in 
the field of local geologists, but he studied carefully the beds of tlie 
Jarassic and Triassic systems in several of the classical areas of south- 
ern Germany and eastern France ; and it is to hia practical knowledge 
that is due the great value of his "Remarks on fauna! relations." I 
would call attention especially to what follows: "That the North 
American assemblage of species has a distinct facies of its own, and 
ongbt to be separated at least provisionally from the South American 

)v Google 

130 The American Geologitt. 

and all European fannos as the province of i\ortli America." 
he has a provisional separation between the district ol 
(Chiti) and the Argentine RepabHc, and the region of nor 
making two basinB at least, in the Jtira of the South 


Profeesor Ifyntt instead of using the terms Mediterrane 
Europe and Russia for the homozoic band of the Jurassic 
by ihe late Melchior Neumayr, tbe celebrated and mncb re 
feasor of palfeontology of the University of Vienna, in 
"Ueber clim^ieche zonen der Jura, etc.," has adopted thi 
ture of tropical, tem|>erate and polar homozoic bands. 
Neumayr's names are not well appropriated to the homoxc 
the Jurassic period in America ; only the terms of tropical t 
ate are objectionable, becanae the tropical of the Jura 
encroaches on ihe actual temperate to siicli an extent aa U. 
almost entirely the term temperate as it is understood in 
time ; and it Is more appropriate to use the terms centre 
tropical, and neutrnt instead of temperate, on account of thi 
in the limits of those two ban^S in the Jurassic time whei 
with the present physical conditions of the world. 

Hyatt thinks that some of the baaina in the Lower Lias | 
capable of evolving new forms ; naA he named tliem "Aldaii. 
because they were centers of origin of new series, and ihei. 
called "autochthonous." He bad arrived at the importan 
the beginning of tbe.\rietidH! was in the northeastern Alps ;t 
Germany was peopled by chorological migration, and thei 
of the Jura and Cute-d'Or. Thus a zone of autochthones. < 
nic band of basins, were fonneil running to the westward, 
south of this zone all faunas seem to have been residual fau 
cit , p. 89.) 

After reviewing all tbe observations regardin): the prol 
and migration of his sub-genua Psilocerafi,Tm{Bgocer«s,Wa> 
Schlotheimia, Vermiceras, Caloceras, Arniocerns, Coronic 
siseras, Asterocpraa and Oxynoticeras, professor Hyatt has 
condensed all his facts in most interesting tables of the g 
the Arietidic. Table i, for the fauna of south Germany ; tal 
fauna of the Citte-d'Or; table iii, fauna of the Rhone basi 
fauna of Kugland ; table v. fauna of Ihe province of centi 
and table vi, fauna of the province of the Mediterranean. 

Those gpuealogie tables are the result of an immense amoi 
well digested, nn'l clearly systematized and classified, 
professionally a paleoniolo^ist, professor Hyatt has shown 
siflcation and nomenclature of strata, as well as in bis ub< 
nitidic for a prni<er unJerslanding of the great systems of r 
knowledtre of questions which have been of late too ofte: 
I mean to refer to those hybrid terms of Permo-Carbonife 
Jura.Jurn-Trias, Jurassic-Cretaceous.Cretacic-Eocenal.etc. 

)v Google 

Correspondence. 131 

during the lut twenty years. The tendency to use euch expressions, 
which after all id nothing else, on the part of those who employ them, 
than an admisaion ol their inahility to arrive at the exact geological 
and chronological age of a certain amount of strata, ia mischievous in 
the extreme, because it introduces into a science, which cannot exist 
without the most perfect chronology, a sense of uncertainty contrary 
to the good and proper nnderstanding of alt that relates to succession, 
development, evolution and geological age. 

The following paragraph is most interesting on account of its precis- 
ion and its well balanced classificBtion : "The ammouoidM, therefore, 
according to our viewH, are not divisible into two grand divisions, hut 
have six suborders : the GoniaMtinic, of the Silurian, Devonian, Car- 
boniferons, Dyas, and Trias; the ClymeniniS of the Devonian ; the 
Arcestinte of the Dyas and Trias; the Ceratitinicoftiie Dyas and Trias; 
the LyIoceratiuR? of the Trias, Jura and Cretaceous; and the A in mo- 
nitinie of the Trias, Jura, and Cretaceous." (ioc. cii. p. 7.) 
According to Hyatt's view, two of the suborders of the ammonoids 
are special and characteristic of the Dyas and Trias, a result com- 
pletely in harmony with professor Huxley's opinion of the Vertebrata. 
It is most important to see such pa leonto logical observers as Huxley 
and Hyatt agree in placing the separation between the paln'oioic and 
the Mesozoic below the Dyas, as it has always been advocated and 
maintained by all practical geologists. 

The divisions used by professor Hyatt for the Lower Lias, are excellent 
and very complete, bpginnini; with the Bone-bed o( Quensiedt, and 
eitending from the Planorbis beds to the Raricostntus belt. He 
has carefully avoided placing the Ehetic in the Lias, lea\-ing it in the 
Trias, which is its proper place according to stratigraphy, lithology 
and a well balanced palifontolojiy. In fact all the geoloijical clas»iti- 
cations need by professor Hyatt, show precision and discri mi nation 
seldom equalled in a pal eontolo^ical work nnd which recall most hap- 
pily the great geological wisdom of Barrande. 

The third or last part of professor Hyatt's memoir is the most extea- 
stve, covering almost half of the volume, from page 120 to p. 221 ; it 
is devoted entirely to practical palieontolojjy, giving the "Descriptions 
of genera and species of Arietidfe." He begins with the "Radical 
stock" first, or Psiloceran branch with the genera Psilocerns and 
Tma'goceras, then come the second branch with its Wiclineroceras and 
Schlotheimia, then the third branch with its Caloceras and Vermiceras, 
then the fourth branch with its Arnicoceras and Coroniceraa, then the 
fifth branch with its Agassiceras and Asteroceras, and finally the sixth 
branch or Oxynoteras. 

All the species described and figured are Knropean with (he excep- 
tion of Caloceras newbcrryi Hyatt, from near Cerro de Pasco, Peru; 
Caloceras ortoni Hyatt, from Tingo, near Chacapoyas, northern Peru ; 
Arnioctraif nevadantim Hyatt; from near Volcano, Keviida; and Arni- 
Qetra$ kumboldii Hyatt, from Humboldt county, Nevada, which show 
beyond any possible doubt the existence of the Lower Lias in West 



The American Geologist. 

Aug. 1(90 

Humboldt range and its Bouthern extension to VolcAno in Esmeralda 
county, Nevada, pnd in Pern, Sooth America. 

In 1829, Leopold!' von Bnch used for the first time the name Arittidte 
in paleontglog'y to designate a family of Am mo ui linn.'. Lamarck in 
hia celebrated "Afaimaui sans verttbrea," in 7 vols , 1815-1822, divides 
the genus Ammonites of Brugui^re, into only three genera; Ammo- 
nites, Orbulites and Planulites. Sowerby In his "Mineral conchology 
of (Ireat Britain,'' 10 vols. 181S'1329, divides the Ammonites into three 
sectiona, accor^lirit to the forms of the back. Von Boch with his 
great sagacity so* that the lobes of the chambers of the she!!, were 
regular accordir'' to species ; and combining the forms oF the lobes ^ith 
the exterior ornaments of the shell, he was led to divide the Ammo- 
nites of Lamarck Into nine great series called by him Arietes, Amalthei, 
etc., etc. He began hia paper of 182^: "Sarla distribution des ammo- 
nites en famille'»(^iin. iSc. iVaf., vol. xviit, p. 417, Paris), by saying 
that "probably all the Ammonites can enaily be classified into natura] 
families, and f 'at he found each an arrangement at the Museum of the 
University ofWel (Bale), Switzerland, under the direction of Pierre 
Marian." 'during the years 1825-27, von Buch worked at his classifi- 
cation, believing that he was the only paleontologiat interested in the 
question ; « i';''n to his great surprise, during a visit at the Museum of 
Bale, he sa-v'-.ll the Ammonites classifled by professor Marian, exact- 
ly in the sai le order that he had arrived at in his own collection at Ber- 
lin. At first he thought he had been betrayed by somebody, but a lew 
minutes of c inversation with Marian dissipated all his suspicions ; and 
Marian with a rare modesty and disinterestedness, not only did not 
claim any right of priority or even of equality in the discovery, but he 
relinquished al! thought of even saying anything abiut it; and if von 
Buch had not stated the fact in his paper of 1829, it would have remain- 
ed unknown. From that day von Buch and Marian become moat 
intimate friends and every year von Buch used to visit Marian, once at 
least, often twice and even three times. 

The Arietes or"Les BSliers"in French, are so well defined in the sis 
lines consecrated to their diagnostic by von Buch, at p. 418 {IiOc. cit.'i, 
that nothing has been changed in that family ever aince by all the 
paleontologists from d'Orbigny, Quenstedt, Pictet, Oppel to Neumayr, 
Mojsisovics and Hyatt ; and even his first saying that all the species of 
thatfimily belonged to the Lisa, has been confirmed by professor 
Hyatt, who^e exhaustive monograph of Arieti die shows their prevalence 
in the Lower Lias, with only two species of Oxynoticeras passing into 
the Middle Lias. Von Buch quotes only eight species of Arietidte, in 
his paper of 1828, taking as his type the Ammonites turneri of the 
t'anton of Bale ; Hyatt in his description and enumeration gives no less 
than eleven genera, eighty-six apecies and numerous varieties of Arie- 
tidie. It is hardly possible to prize too highly the excellence of pro- 
fessor Hyatt's platea, ao well execut-ed, with such exactness, that his 
work will remain a model for all future publications of Mesozoic fossils 
in America. 


Correspondence. 133- 

Tfae paper IB not only an honor to ite author, bnt even more it is moat 
creditable to American paleontology that such an important memoir 
baa been worked out and published in America, ou material mainly 
collected and derived from Europe. It is a rare and most valuable 
contribution to the paleontology of the flrat great gro jp or base of the 
Jurassic system. Only it i8 so profoaod and it requires such an amount 
of special knowledge to anderstand all the meaniug, reasoning ami 
conclusions of the author that it is doubtful if a single person in 
America, besides profesaor Hyatt, is able to read critically every part 
of the ''Genesis of the Arietidte." Certainly the bioiOgical part is ac- 
cessible to all soologiste and will he much appreciated, -nore especially 
by the young generation of American obser^'ers; hut the geological 
part can be understood only by those who have studied with detail the 
Mesozoic faunas and the stratigraphy of Dyas, Trias and Jura in cen- 
tral E)uropc, and the number of such American geoloe<sta can easily 
be counted on the fint^ers of a man's hand. 

In Europe the work of professor Hyatt will exercise tha most bene- 
ficial influence, and we know already it is highly estima' id by all the 
Austrian, Belgian, Engliab, French, German, ItaliaL i^id Swiss 
observers, who have devoted themselves to researches of the same sort, 
and altbough their number Is necessarily limited, it is P.licient to 
reward professor Hyatt for his great effort in his work f, progress, 
for his last publication hag placed him in the front rank >f paleon- 
tolt^sts. J. M. 

Caiahridge, Matt., IB Hay, 18S0. 

O.v TKB NAVB "LttTBBHTtAH." — lu the April number of the QtOLoaiiT, 
(pp. 107-200) Prof. G. H. Hitchcock refers to a paper of mine in the 
January number, upon the use of Lwirentian as applied to a Qaater* 
nary terrane. On page 107 he ssys : "It is to bs regretted that Mr. 
James did not examine my reference to the publication where Hr. 
Desor proposed the use of the name Lawrentian." UnEortunately 
Prof. Hitchcock does not refer to any paper of Deaor's where the word 
"I.nwi«ntian" was used, either in his report on the Quaternary 
(Ambbicak Gsologist, vol. 2, p. 303), or in the Report on the Geology 
of Vermont (vol. 1, p. 167.) I am glad to know, however, from the 
foot note reference in his article where and wben the name was first 
used. As far as the origin of the name is concerned, there can be no 
question but that Desor derived It from the St. Lawrence valley, 
where the deposits were first studied. 

On page 200 Prof. Hitchcock says, that "Hr. Desor disclaims the 
origination of the application of the t«rm Lawrencian." [Lawrentian.] 
T' should be rememltered, however, that the report in the Proceedings 
the Boston Society of Natural History was not written by Desor 
iself, but by a third person. Ws arc, therefore, hardly justified in 
epting either the language or the spelling of the term as that of 
)or. But, however this may be, in other places Desor did claim to 
t,he aotbor of the term, and in these papers it was not spelled Law- 

)v Google 

134 The American Oeologitt- 

rentiut nor Lawrencion, but Laurentian or Laurentie 
31 and 34 of January, 1890, Gkoloqist ) 

I agree with Prof. Hit«hcof k that ttie spelling might ' 
fiirm to the derivation of the word, and read "St. 
although tbia wonid not be tbe term used by Dettor SI 
it could be applied to a Qttalernary terrane, while "Lai 
be used for the crystalline rocks aa designated by Logan 
the term "Champlain" can hardly ho used. It was ch 
ed by Emmana. 

I take this opportunity of correcting two errors in t: 
my paper : page 30, note 2 read 1S5J for 16&!) ; page 31 , i 
9 for Tol. 19. 

Waihington, D. C, July 1, IS90. 


Peof, C. H. Hitchcock is on a visit to Mx.Wr 
party of excuraioniats. In July he viaited th 
islands, Csribbeaii Bea. 

PRIKCETOK Scientific Expeditios. A Princ 
tological party composed of Profs. W. B. Scott, 
Mr. John Eyerman and six Princeton undergradu 
Princeton the latter part of July for & trip tbrou 
rivercountry of Mcbraska and Dakota. Mr. Eyt 
pects to explore in south-western Colorado, 

The Rocky Mountain Club, which was orgai 
year ago at the University of Michigan, has heei 
as to include other northwestern institutions, an 
ship now numhers about ninety. Its purpose i 
examine, with such care as the objects of theclul 
points of scientific and popular interest in the ' 
tains. Its second annual excursion, under the gc 
A. Winchell, occupied two weeks in the latter 
leaving St. Paul on July 14. 

The Menage Scientific Expeoition to the I 
LANDS, started from Minneapolis July 22nd andw 
two years on the Islands making collections for I 
Academy of Natural Sciencep. This expeditioi 
by the munificent generosity of Mr. L. F. Menagi 
olis, and its results, if commensurate with thone o 
by the young gentlemen who compoRe it, will be 
to science. Mr. D. C. Worcester and Mr. F, S. E 
the University of Michipan, and associated wil 
Steere in a. former expedition to the islands, hai 
of this. 

)v Google 


Vol. VI. SEPTEMBER, 1890. No. 3. 


Br N. H- WxNCHtLi., MlDiie*pOlU. 

Richard Owen, whose sudden death occurred at New Har- 
mony, Indiana, March 24th, 1890, by accidental poisoning' 
was the youngest brother of David Dale and Robert Dale Owen, 
and wa§ associated with them in many of their undertakings. 
He participated in some of the early geological surveys, partic- 
wlariy in that of Wisconsin, Iowa and Minnesota, and that of In- 
diana. He had longbeenknownextenaively as an author, teach- 
er, scientist and soldier. He was born Jan. 6, 1810, at Braxiield 
House, Lanarkshire, Scotland, and was therefore at his death 
somewhat more than eighty years of age. 

Dr. Owen received a training similar to tnat of his brother 
D. D. Owen, namely ; tuition under a private tutor, later at the 
Lanark grammar Bchool, subsequently three years (after 1824) 
at Hofwyl, Switzerland, where, with military drill and daily 
gymnastics, he acquired familiarity with French and German, 
and made chemistry a specialty, then again in Glasgow a full 
conrse in chemistry and physics with Dr. Andrew Ure at the 

adersonian Institution. With his brother, D. D. Owen, he 

'The death of Prof. Owen waa peculiarly distressing. Ajugotem- 
Jming flnid waa sent by miatake to a neighbor o£ Prof. Owen {a 
ercbant}, labeled "medicated water." Thinking it mineral water 
/Ota some friend the two drank a amall quantity, and its deadly qaal- 
' WBB Boon discovered- Medical aid was summoned, hut ProL Owen 
icumbed under its effects, and died before midnight. 

)v Google 

136 The American Oeologitt Sept. iwo 

continued chemical experiments with apparatus brought by 
them to this country in 1827. 

For a short time after arriving at New Harmony, Ind. he 
was engaged, though but 17 years of age, in teaching. Circum- 
atances having placed a considerable amount of land and rent- 
grain, also a merchant steam flouring-mill in his hands, 
he conducted the same for seven years, and in this he found 
his former experience in farming in Lancaster county, Penui 
and a three years service with his friend Dr. Wm. Price, at 
Cincinnati, chiefl; learning malting and brewing, had sup- 
plied him a valued and adequate preparation. 

Through the aid of his brother, Hon. R. D. Owen, then in 
Congress, he was appointed captain in the 16th U. S. infantry 
and remained seventeen months in Mexico, from April, 1847 
to August 1848, chiefly near Monterey, with Gen. Taylor in 
charge of the provision trains. 

On returning from the Mexican war, Dr. R. Owen found bis 
brother Dr. D. D. Owen engaged in a survey of the N, W. 
Territory, and devoted the autumn and winter of 1848-9 to 
special preparatory training for the duties assigned him in 
1849 ; which duty took him to the north shore of lake Super- 
ior and as high as Lake of the Woods, and consisted chiefly in 
making the barometrical observations, and the illustrative 
sketches, diagrams, &.C, especially showing the remarkable 
trap upheavals, sometimes in basaltic arches of great beauty. 
A majority of the woodcuts in the body of the quarto report of 
Dr. D. D. Owen (sub-report by Dr.Norwood) are from the pen- 
cil of Dr. R. Owen. 

Late in 1849, Col". Thornton Johnson (cousin of Hon- R. M. 
Johnson, vice president of the U. S.) who had organized at 
Drennen Springs in Kentucky the "Western Military Institute," 
on the plan of the U. S. Military Academy, offered Dr. R. Owen 
the chair of Natural Science in that institution. This he accept- 
ed and remained over nine years connected with it. Daring the 
last three years, it formed a department of the Nashville Uni- 
versity, and was conducted, as it had been for three years prev- 
ious, at the joint pecuniary expense and risk of Col. B. R. 
Johnson (subsequently a confederate brigadier general) and 
Dr. R. Owen ; Col Thornton Johnson having died. But Dr. 
Owen foreseeing, as indicated in his Mount Vernon address, 
the probability of BecesBion, in 1858 sold out bia interest to 


„ Google 

A S/Mtch of Richard Owen,— Winchell 137 

Col. Busbrod R. Johnson, The addrese was delivered at the 
request of the ladies of the Mount Vernon Association, in the 
capitol at Nashville and was printed in pamplet form under 
the title "Honor to the IlluatriouB Dead." While at Nash- 
ville he received (in 1858J his degree of M. D. from the Nash- 
ville Medical College after a two years' course. 

Oil reaching his home at New Harmony, Ind., he was imme- 
diately employed in the Indiana Geological Survey, and on the 
death of his brother, Dr. D. D. Owen in 1860, was appointed 
state geologist. He was still engaged on his 8vo. report of 
that reconnaissance, when he was offered by governor 0. P. 
Morton the Lt. Coloneley of the 15th Inda. vols, and accepted ; 
reading the proof of his report, in camp, May, 1861.' After the 
battle of Greenbrier, W. Virg., Dr. Owen was promoted colonel of 
the 60tb Ind. Vols., which he had enlisted, and remained with 
his regiment until Dec. 1863, participating in the capture of 
Vickfiburg and Jackson, Miss, and in the Red River campaign- 
He was with Gen, Reynolds at the battle of Rich mountain 
and participated in the defense of the cjimp at Huttonsville. 
In the same regiment were Dr. Owen's two sons, as Eubordi- 
nate officers. The winter of 1861-62 he guarded at Indiampo- 
lis 4,000 prisoners captured at Fort Donnelson. In the spring 
of the following year he was ordered to Kentucky, and his reg- 
iment 'was taken as prisoners of war by Gen. Bragg at Mum- 
fordsville. Three months later they were exchanged. Although 
the regiment was paroled, Dr. Owen was not, nor were his side 
arms taken. On the contrary Gen. Buckner went out into the 
field where the regiment was guarded and thanked Col, Owen 
for his kindness to the 4,000 Fort Donnelson prisoners at camp 
Morton. Gen. B. R. Johnson, with whom he hiid been asso- 
ciated as teacher, and two students, then officers in theconfed- 
erate army, whom Dr. Owen bad often- drilled, also called on 
him. He was treated very politely by Gen. Bragg with whom 
he had become acquainted in the Mexican war. 

After the exchange he was ordered to the southwest and par- 
ucipated in the capture of Arkansas Post. His regiment lost 
quite extensively in killed and wounded in this engagement. 
He waa with Sherman in the first attempt on Vicksburg, and 
afterwards at the capture of the city by Grant, July 4, 1863. 

'See p. 280 of bia report: "Geological BeconDaiesance of Indiaiia, 

)v Google 

138 The American Geologist. 

Soon after, in command of a brigade, he was with SI 
the taking of Jackson', Miae. He participated with 
the Red River campaign, and at the attack on Banks' 
Carrion Crow bayou, his regiment suffered severely, 
been ordered to bring up and protect the rear. 

Jan. 1st, 1864, fresh from Red river campaign, ] 
stood for the first time on the rostrum of the Indiani 
sity, Bloomington, where he labored for 15 years, em 
to infuse into his classes a love for natural science, p 
ly geology, biology and chemistry. During his^ci 
with the Indiana University he made geological i 
sances, in 1864, in New Mexico and Arizona, alsi 
North Carolina, and in 1869 he visited Europe, and 
Asia and Africa." 

'He was in Paris 15th Aug. daring thecentenarybtrthdayi 
of Napoleon the First ; in Athens during the visit of empreaa ] 
Jeruaalem meeting the emperor of Anstria and crown prin 
aia,' all on their way to the opetiing of the Suez canal, 17 No 
reached Port Said 16 Nov. and saw the pageant of reception 
royal representativea of the different nationalitiee. 

The route taken, to reach all these places, was from Vienn 
ititii! Adelsberg grotto and obtaining a living Proteusfaubseq 
served in alcohol, and now in the museum at Purdue X 
down the Danube, thence over the Black sea to the Crimea 
geological apeeimens from Sebsstopol, Balaklava, Simphei 
and back to Constantinople (picking up basalt on Bosphoi 
Scutari) then to Athens wherehesaw nneBpecimen8i.>ftheb 
Hipparion and Rhinoceros from the Tertiary a short distan 
that city over to Smyrna with its tomb of Polj-carp dating b; 
tiiries; ihe Island of Khcdes, still exhibiting the gran 
tions erected by the Knights Templar ; Syria replete wifli re 
bible history ; thence to Egypt. He describes the pyramid 
as being entirely of Nummulitic limestone, of which he 
specimen, now in Purdue Univ'y. while the pyramid next i 
a ayenitic rock for its entire baae, and the Sphinx ia sculpt 
sandstone in »itu, of Cenozoic age. 

Returning by way of Sicily, lie ascended Mount Etna, t 
lavas of different periods ; in and around Maples he examin 
teresting geological records, sui-h as mount Slonte Nuovo, 
of Jupiter Serapis, the Solfatara (bringing home from th 
vents specimens of arpenic sulphide, etc.] thence Vesuvine 
and Herculaneum ^ thence through Rome and Florence, ove] 
ner Pass to Bonn, in the region of the ^iebengebirge and no 
the instructive Eifel, thence through Belgium to England. 
he had fine facilities for obtaining information regarding t 
Museum and Prof . (now Sir Richard) Oneu'a views on ae 
questions in biology, being invited to his suburban villa, 8h 
in Richmond Park. He had also a letter of introduction to 
sor (as director of the Brit. Museum) Prof. W. H. Flower, 
then at the head of the cnllege of surgeons. 

While visiting Stra I ford-on- Avon Dr. Owen being acquaint) 
ex-mayor of the city, Mr. Edward Flower (father of Pi 
Flower) had a fine opportunity, through his courtesy, of 

)v Google 

A Sketch of Richard Owen.— Winchell 139 

In 1874, Wabash College conferred on Dt. Owen the degree 
of L.L.D. and in the same year he was elected Grand Master 
of Indiana 1. 0. 0. F. and subsequently Grand Representative 
of that order to the Sovereign Lodge of U. S. Hewae also an 
honorary member of the New Orleans Academy of Science, 
also of that of N. Albany Ind., and later charter member of 
the Ind. Acad, of Science. Being a Fellow of A. A. A, S., when 
the Geological Society was formed, he was enrolled as a 
charter member. He wjia elected (1872) president of Purdue 
University at La Fayette, Ind, but in consequence of the delay 
in organization he resigned in order to accept at the Ind'a 
Univ'y.,in addition to retaining his original chair, the curator- 
ship of the Museum. The Trustees had bought the large collec- 
tion of Dr. D. D. Owen, known as the "Owen Cabinet" and made 
many valuable additions, besides the necessary cases through 
purchases from the interesting establishment of Prof Ward of 
Rochester, N. Y., giving Dr. R. Owen, genial occupation in 
arranging, labeling, etc. Unfortunately the museum was de- 
stroyed July 12, 1883 by fire some years after Dr. 0. left Bloom- 
ington, only a few of the type specimoiiB, which were in sep- 
erate portable cases, being saved. These have subsequently 
formed a part of the collection in the new museum. 

Dr. Owen remained at Bloomjngton from 1864 to the end of 
the session of 1879, having resigned in 1878 in consequence of 
impaired hearing caused by sunstroke. From that time he 
lived quietly at New Harmony Indiana, and on Jan. 6, 1890, 
celebrated his eightieth birthday. 

Dr. Owen married in 1837, Miss Anne Neef, youngest daugh- 
ter of Prof. Joseph Neef, formerly coadjutor with Pestalozzi, 
and author of two educational works. Three children were 
the Lia«, as several quarries exist ill tl^c iioi^liborhood for olitaining, 
in that formation, a hydraulic limeatone. Dr. O. Htates tliat after they 
have carted and dumped along the margin, say of a ten acre field, all 
the soil, and have quarried and removed all the available hydraulic 
limpBtonB, they then return the dehrJB and finally the soil. He aaw 
good crops growiD)^ on fields thus treated. 

While traveling m Palestine, Dr Owen obtained at the Sea of Gali- 
lee, trachyte, amygdaloids and other volcanic rocha ; alao there and at 
the Dead sea the evidences of earthquake aition were very strikinit. 
He published in "The Holy Land" (a quarterly journal,) Boine of these 
facta, and the reaennHfor believing that a1tltou);h by these c roplies 
the surface of the Dead sea is now over 1,200 feet below the Mediier- 
ranean, there is evidence to show the probnliility that, before these 
convuleiona, the Jordan emptied its watera thronnh a volley still trace- 
able from the Dead sea, past Fetra to the gulf of Akaba in the Ked 

)v Google 

140 TKb American QechgisU 

bom to them, an only daughter, who died, and two e 
gene and Horace, now in business at New Harmo 
Owen la kindly remembered at Bloomington. His 
portrait graces the walls of 'Athenian Hall,' and of t] 
new buildings of Indiana University, the one devotei 
study of natural history, which he loved so well, b 
name of Owen Hall, in his honor. "The older etuden 
University remember him with great respect. One n 
his eminent success as a teacher was bis knack of g< 
young men. His idea was that young men of col 
should be taught self-government, and that part of the 
ment of discipline might be left to their own managei 
der a code formed by themselves and approved by the I 
Dr. Owen was a member and deacon of the Pres 

Throughout Dr. Owen's works he evinces the spirit 
cere lover of and seeker after truth. His addresses 
students of the University, his communications to thi 
ieal literature of his time, no leas than his unostentat 
dustry and his simple and consistent christian life, 
the devout spirit with which he carried on all his res 

Although the literary work of Richard Owen was hi 
multifarious, yet he did not seek the more exclusive e 
channels of publication- He desired to reach a wider a 
and produce an immediate impression. His papers 
found in educational journals, in some of the New Yoi 
bany weeklies, in stray pamphlets and in some of the 
scientific serials of the United States. One who was I 
at the Kentucky MiUitary Institute gives a glimpse of 
dustrious life he spent there in the following words : 

, , „-. ^ _ would find him en 

painting and drawing, and he w&s ver; good tit that.*" 

It is due to a life of so many years of labor, that so 
ord be made here in a more detailed category, of some 
papers that he has published. 

1840-41. Ten letters, on education, detailing the sye 
Fellenberg, Pestalozzi, etc. Southwest Sentinel, Eti 

•G. C. Broadhead. 

)v Google 

A Sketch of Richard Owen.— Winchell 141 

1S16. Deacriptiona and drairinga,frommicroBcopicobBerva- 
tiona of the FIyingWeevil,a troableeome wheat pest in Indiana, 
Albany Cultivator, Joly and November (see also Jceger's Life of 
North American insects, p. 185). 

1849. In his brother's quarto report on Wisconsin, Iowa 
and Minnesota a chapter, with a map, by R. Owen is descrip- 
tive of Pigeon point. Minnesota. 

1857. Key to the Geology of the Globe, with numeroQB orig- 
inal maps and diagrams, A. S. Barnes & Co., New York. 256 
pp. 8vo. 

1862. Report of a geological Reconnaissance of Indiana 
(David Dale Owen, State Geologist,) By Richard Owen, princi- 
pal assistant, now state geologiRt, pp. 368. Roy. ootavo. 

1864. The rock salt at New Iberia, Louisiana. Transactione 
of the St. Louis Academy of Science, vol. ii, p. 250, Sep. 1864. 
(copied in Am. Jour. Sci. vol. XL, (ri), p. 120. 

Various articles in the A'cw York Tribjuie, Indianapolis Journal 
and Indiana Famier calculated to popularize science. 

1864. Dr. Owen this year made a geological survey in New 
Mexico and Arizona, his report being printed in octavo pamph- 
let. {Report on the mines of New Mexico, by Profs. Owen and E 
T, Cox, Washington, 1865, 60 pp. 8vo.) A similar survey fend 
seport were subsequently made in North Carolina. 

"A western glance at eastern scenes." A series of 15 letters 
in the Evanaville Journal [Ind.] giving details of his foreign 
travel. Other letters were published in the New York Tribune 

After leaving Bloomington Dr. Owen prosecuted hie re- 
aearchea in physical geography and seismism. His papers are 
found at various dates in the reports of the America7i. Asgocia- 
lion for the Advancement oj Science, in the Scientific American. 
and the American Meteorological Journal. He also publiahed 
a series of papers in the Southwestern Journal of Education, 
(Nashville), detailing some observations not found in works 
on physical geography. To these he gave the title : "Aids to 
the fltudy of Geography." 

He competed for the prize of 25,000 francs offered by the 
' 'ng of the Belgians for "The best system of popularizing 

ography." Of aixty competitors Dr. Owen was one of four 

receive honorable mention, the prize being awarded to a 
trerman professor. Among the recommendations made in Dr 
)wen'8 eseay was the employment of relief maps, since he 

)v Google 

142 The American Oeologii 

come common, to illustrate the natural ge( 
try, and he eent to Brueaels numerous' spec 
eteJin putty as illustrations. A fuUdeacrip 
employed with this plastic material was Bub 
cated to the Scientific American, and the Jo- 
He also sent eighty-five original maps and : 
relief map of Europe, in four pieces, was ( 
from the map of Sir R. I. Murchison, an 
size, viz : about 50 by 42 inches. After thi 
els, maps and diagrams, etc., were pres 
American minister at Brussels, judge L 
"scholastic museum," in which, accordii 
Journal" of 15 Nov., 1887, they occupy 
Due acknowledgement was made by the . 

Dr. Owen also communicated a paper to 
of the International Congress of GeotogtKts, 
ed the cordial thanks of the president, Sig 

Notices of Dr. Owen's works may be fou 
Dictionary of authors," also in "Applet 
American biography ;" but a brief summa: 
and conclusions on dynamical geology i 
place here. For details on these, and 
reader may consult the Proceed i}>(ii> of the . 
for the Adrnnremriil of Srienee, at the Ind 
Boston, Cincinnati, Montreal, Philadelp] 
meetings ; also the Polytechnic Reviev), New 
cember, 1878; Journal of the Franklin Ini^V 
Scientific American, March 29, 1884, and M 
wei<terii Journal of Education, (Nashville), £ 
February and December, 1888, and the Am 
Jovrnal, {Ann Arbor), Sept., Oct., and No' 
and Nov., 1887 ; Nov. 1888 and Jan. and A 
the latest of Dr. Owen's scientific put 
prompted by an inquiry of the writer on th 
ena of a well-tube at Gordonsville, Minnes' 
Standard at Albert Lea, Minn, and dated 1 

His seismic and dynamic researches wer 
at least suggestive results as to the probab 
and remote, of the many changes throug 
has passed, or is now passing, as more eep 

)v Google 

A Sketch at Richard Owen. — Winchell. H3 

its cniBt, coceequentl; they deal with earlier refrigeratioii, as 
well as later seismiem. 

1. The fuQdsmental idea, partly set forth in the "Key," and 
more elaborated iu later publications, was that the present 
configuration of land and water was to a considerable extent 
pretij^red and determined during the earlier cruet consolida- 
tion. Thus we may trace two vertical great circles, at right 
angles to each other; one passing, in the eastern hemisphere, 
through the Caspian sea, and, in the western, along the Cas- 
cade range, the other through Greenland and Japan. They di- 
vide our globe into four equal segments, each embracing a double 
continent: (a)Europe Africa, (b) N.aiid S. America, (c.) Asia 
and Australasia (d.) N. and S. Oceanica. Great continental 
trends form, with this meridional segmentation, angles of 
about 24°. This primal arrangement does not conflict with 
subsequent important changes in the position and form of con- 
tinents, icithin those bounds. 

The above described segmentation, as well as the continen- 
tal outlining, seems connected with the two great movements 
of the earth ; one, that of daily axial rotation, chiefly influenc- 
ing or promoting symmetrical vertical, meridional, segmenta- 
tion (elevation and depression) ; the other determining the 
coast trends and outlines, which_in theirangulardivergence of 
23°-24°, from -the meridian, indicate a connection with the an- 
Boal revolution of the earth in its orbit, inasmuch as they are 
perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic, and hence remotely 
connected with solar influence; as well as being probably 
affected (in the early history of the planet, when partially fluid 
interiorly) by lunar tides. 

2. Dr. Owen showed later thattheeastern trends of the five 
continents (Asia, Africa, S. America, N.America and Oceanica) 
are 72'^ (=3x24°) apart, if we include as a continent, sinking 
or rising Oceanica, and that a radius of V° (=36°) nearly de- 
fines the continental bounds, and passes usually through Cen- 
ozoic areas. 

3. He called attention to the greater prevalence andenlarg- 
i areas of later geological formations, as we trace southerly 
ivergence from the more restricted, northerly Archean. 

4. He claims to have demonstrated that the European Alps 
near Monte Rosa, constituted the pole of the land hemisphere, 

leing intermediate between the equator and its pole, between 

)v Google 

144 The American Oeologitt. 

the two fUDdamental great circles, and about equ: 
any given parallel of latitude, east to the Asiatic 
west to the N. American Pacific. Farther, a major 
seismic movements, recorded in Mallet's cat&logi 
earthquakes, paes in the yicinity of that elevated e 
and the same meridian is pivotal for the oscillation 
netio system by which the magnetic needle for mid 
-Africa, diverges equidistantly west to Boothia F 
about 333 years, east to northern Siberia. 

5. This seismiam has been, and still is, most ret 
mitted along the strike of rocky elevations, notabl; 
ranges such as the Andes and Alps, usually in grea 
' 6. Dr. Owen suggested that the elevation of lane 
molecular activity in some form, and conseq 
motion, energy which remotely is derived (in out sc 
from tho sun ; the motive cosmical origin, not only 
but of the stellar universe, being the result of the p 
tic, creative impulse. 

"The chief i\ew scientific fact which was brought 
TVork, judging from its being copied into Dana'i 
and Cope's works and the latest French geological ' 
Lapparent, is that the general coast trend of cont 
their chief mountain ranges form angles of 23^ df 
the meridians, the latter according with the oiwt of i 
trends whether east or west, being secondary to t! 
the ecliptic, according, therefore, with the axi» of or 

Dr. Owen's lines of research were marked by orig 
his conclusions, though often striking, if not bole 
modestly before the public. He was one of the tt 
thoritiea on earthquakes, and on the location of the 
their disturbances, and their movements in given li 

His life, which in its voluminous correspondcnc 
co-laborers articulated at one end with the labors of 
Murchis on, Mather and Emmons, spans an interval 
been fraught with activity and progress in all theo; 
economic science, and at its close was filled with 
and with that wisdom which length of days is sure 
the careful and thoughtful student of nature. His 

'The Indiana Student, April 1886. 

)v Google 

Carboniferous Area of T&xas. — Tarr. 146 

and training were of the old regime, aod ha «Ter manifatfad 
the scrupuloaenasa of etatement, of peraonat manner and of 
conserratiTe caution which its influence engendere He was 
not a great leader, but he filled well and long various subor- 
dinate posts of dot; and reBponsibility which fell to hia charge. 


' KALfB S. TiKK. Aaitlo. 


\ I. General Statement 146 

1. PoBilion of the formatioo 145 

2. Erosion of the Cretaceous 146 

3. Boundary of tlie CarboniferouB 146 

a. Probable extent 146 

b. The Silurian area 146 

C. The LowiT Carboniferoua aeries 147 

II. Description of the upper Carbonilerous series. 147 

1. Thickness of the series 147 

2. General etratigraphic relations 148 

3. Dip of the beds 149 

4. Divisions of the series 149 

a. Richland Sandstone 149 

b. Milburaflhales 150 

c. Brownwood limeatone 140. 

d. Waldrip Coal Division 15! 

e. Coleman Diviaion 1 ..: 

III. Summar; 15i' 

I. General StateTmnt. 


The Cretaceous beds in central Texas have been removed 
&om a portion of the valley of the Colorado and Braces rivers 
SO as to reveal the underlying Palaeozoic rocks. This region 
which has been called by Prof. R. T. Hill' the Central Denuded 
Area, consists in its southern portion of a very much dis- 
turbed region of older Silurian and Cambrian rocks with gran- 
ite bosses and possibly Archiean Schists. Unconformably 
upon this is a belt of lower Carboniferous partially revealed by 
the erosion of the overlying unconformable upper Carbonifer- 
ous. Above the latter there is Permian. 


Whether the Cretaceous covered all this central area is a 

— oted question. There seems to be no evidence to the contrary 

1 Prof. Hill has announced* the probability of such former 

easion- In several places the Cretaceous ie found resting on 

"nblisbed by peimiseion of £. T.DumUe, State Geologist for Texas. 

HBBtCAK Gkolooist, Jan. 1S90. 

•n. J. Scl., Apr., 1889, p. 284. 

)v Google 

146 7%e American Oeoloffist. sepi. wo 

the Silurian ; in one place, southweet of the Brady in McCul- 
loch connty, at an elevation of 2,000 feet. As the Cretaceous 
at this point is of the lowest division (Trinity of Hill) and as 
Prof Hill has given evidence that the Cretaceous is in part a 
deep water formation there seems to be no question that it 
once co%'ered all this region, particularly since the entire area is 
surrounded by a receeding Cretaceous hlufT. That the Carboni- 
ferous has been uncovered from beneath a uniform mantle of 
Cretaceous strata is ci-ident at first sight. Not only is it sur- 
sounded by a receding bluff of Cretaceous but tongues of 
Cretaceous strata extend over, and isolated buttes and very 
much degraded patches remain upon the Carboniferous. The 
so-called Santa Anna mountains of Coleman county consist 
of two isolated buttes of Cretaceous rock, in the center of the 
Carboniferous, separated from the main mass of the Cretaceous 
on either side by more than fifteen miles. 


n. Probable Extent. 

On the east and west of this Carboniferous area the Creta- 
ceous beds form an almost uninterrupted boundary beneath 
which the continuation of the Carboniferous beds is hidden 
This boundary is broken west of the central portion and here 
the Permian occurs. Northward the Carboniferous stretches 
away towards the Indian Territory, and this area is 
undoubtedly continuous with the Carboniferous of that sec- 
tion. On the south is the old pre-Carboniferous land. At 
present there is revealed an insular patch of comparatively 
small size ; but the evidence of the Carboniferous rocks seems 
to point to a former much greater extension of this Silurian 
area (as I shall show below) east of the Carboniferous and be- 
neath the Cretaceous. 

b. The Silurian Area. 

The Silurian as at present revealed in Piano, Mason counties 
and adjoining counties, is a very much degraded mountain- 
ouB tract of pre sub-Carboniferous age. The rocks are all meta- 
morphosed regionally and in places by contact with the granitic 
area. In southern San Saba and Brady counties near the 


„ Google 

Carboniferous Area of Teaat. — Tarr- 147 

rocke of the CarboDiferoua sjBtem the Silurian ia chiefly mar- 
ble, with much contained flint of concretionary origin. The 
foaeils are chiefly destroyed by metamorphistn, but it is easy 
to separate the two eyBtems on. lithologic grounds. An irreg- 
ular lioe of contact between the CarboniferouB and Silnrian 
Bhowa an extensively eroded pre-Carboniferoua land, and the 
ancient shore line, with its bays, promontories and islands, 
presents an interesting field for study. 

C. Lower CuTboniferous Seriea. 
Resting unconformably on the Silurian rocks is a narrow 
belt of lower Carboniferous limestone somewhat disturbed by 
small synclinals and anticlinals, but with a general dip of one 
or two degrees to the northwest, and a thickness of several 
thousand feet. The breadth of the strip between the Silurian 
and the receding edge of the overlapping upper Carboniferous 
varies from a few hundred yards to several miles, the linear 
extension of the strip being diagonal to the dip. The evidence 
of unconformity is given elsewhere.* 


1. Thickness of the Series. 

Above the lower Carboniferous in the valley of the Colorado 

river and its tributaries is a series of beds having an aggregate 

thickness of more than 8,000 feet in the area uncovered by the 

erosion of the Cretaceous. I have recently finished a detailed 

study of a portion of these beds, principally in Coleman, 

McCnlloch and San Saba counties, and have made a cross 

section of the series from the Cretaceous on the southeast in 

Lampasas county to the northwestern Cretaceous in Coleman 

county. The entire length of the cross section is not far from 

seventy-five miles. North of the area is a partially continuous 

ridge of Cretaceous outcrop, forming the divide between the 

tributaries of the Colorado on the south and the Brazos on the 

north. Beyond this ridge the Carboniferous strikes northeast 

toward Indian Territory. In this area the upper Carboniferous 

's, which in the southern region are buried beneath the 

taceous, are revealed. When these are studied several 

lUB&nd feet of strata will he added to the Carboniferous 


let Annual Report Texas Geol. Survey for 1889. 

)v Google 

148 Th^ American Geologist. 


The beds of the Carboniferous have analmoBt a 
dip to the northwest. In a few places their uoi 
slightly disturbed by very small folds, but no fault 
detected nor any large folds. At isolated places so 
where the Cretaceous haebeen eroded from the Palce 
a southeast dip has been reported. This has b( 
evidence of a broad anticlinal, but the evidence is 
It ie possible that the dip thus reported is connect 
of the disturbances which have occurred in this rej 
Carboniferous times. Such is plainly the case in 
described by Prof. Hill, near Marble Falls.' So 
observations have gone there is no evidence of a 
fold. The beds may be traced from the lower ti 
in monoclinal sequence. I believe the beds were ( 
the north and west of a former much more extensii 
perhaps continuous with the older rocks of Indiai 
and that the post Carboniferous disturbances in 
have been very slight, consisting of a general elev; 
tilting to the west. Contrary to the general hype 
anticlinal I am inclined to believe that we have ir 
a great synclinal trough whose western extension n 
in the Rocky Mountain uplift. My reason for ' 
most of the beds of the upper Carboniferous in i 
are of littoral origin, and even well up in the sectit 
able above the middle, are conglomerate beds y 
chiefly flint derived from rocks closely rese 
Silurian of the southern region. That some sourc 
that now visible must have been drawn upon for th 
part, seems evident from the fact that such congli 
cur thirty miles north of any visible source. Tl 
to suspect that a 8ilurian land area is buried 
Cretaceous east of this. The lower beds, or thos 
supposed eastern area of Silurian, are coarse-gra 
sandstone, and the upper beds, progressively furtl 
from that place, are finer. Furthermore theraidd 
lowed northeast along their strike, become mon 
sandy as they approach this region which by mj 
should be Silurian. It follows, therefore, if Siluria 
east of this area and these beds are, as they ap| 

'American Geologist, May 1889, p. 5- 

)v Google 

CaThonifer<yu9 Area of Texat. — Tarr. 149 

water bede derived from this shore, that the hypothesis of an 
extensive anticlinal is untenable. What connection this Car- 
boniferouB series bears to that of the monntains in West Texas 
I hope to ascertain this summer. At the present time our 
scanty evidence on the subject seems to indicate a central 
basin changed in Permian times, after a slight uplift, to an 
inland aea, and then, after a long period of denudation, fol- 
lowed by the cycles of Cretaceous deposition, and finally the 
grand uplift of the Rocky mountains with all its involved 
complication of contemporaneous disturbance and subsequent 


In estimating the dip of these beds considerable difficulty is 
encountered in determining a mean average. The dip is so gen- 
tle that the slightest disturbance by recent down-dropping or 
contemporaneous irregularity frequently not only lessens the 
dip, but even at times reverses it. In the few previous obser- 
vations on this central Carboniferous area the dip has been 
placed at a very low figure— even as low as thirty feet to the 
mile. Numerous observations and a carefully drawn average 
have convinced me that this is much too low, and that one 
hundred feet to the mile is not an over estimate, but if any- 
thing something under the true dip. In my calculation I have 
used one hundred feet per mile as the estimated dip. 


a. Richland Sandstone.' 
The lowest observed beds of the upper Carboniferous are 
sandstone with some interbedded shale and conglomerate, the 
whole obtaining a thickness of 4,500 feet. Without any better 
evidence than its uniform saudy nature and its position as 
the lowest division of the upper Carboniferous unconforma- 
bly resting on the lower Carboniferous, this may be called the 
Tezas^equivalent of the millstone grit and the upper 3,500 
feet the coal bearing beds. The sandstone of this division is 

*The nse ol the word Binhland needs Bome explanation ut this place, 
proposed the name San Saba Handeioue, but ttiie name waa needed 
r another member of the Texas survey. The name San Saba used in 
y mannscript wai accordingly changed to Richland. The new name 
as unfortunately chosen aince the eandetone ia not well developed at 
lat point. It occupies nearly one-third of San Saba county. Owing 
I absence in the field I could not be consulted on the aubject. Tiie 
iret Annual Beport Texas Geological Survey, contains an announce- 
ent of this and the other diviBion used in this paper. 

)v Google 

150 The American Geologiat. 

a light yellow and white rock, generally quite fine 
and containing enough iron to readily form a rustj 
which in pieces long exposed forms a colored sbel 
inches in thickness. The fossils found in this div: 

chiefly plant impressions of the ordinary lepedodendi 
aigillaroid types and imperfect casts Of lamellibranc 
ably Allorisma, Myalina and the like. The scattered 
shale are generally sandy and almost equally unfoss 
Some few thin beds of carbonaceous shale occur; bul 
crops invariably consist of disintegrated clay. The i 
erate bands are general local cross bedded layers of 
less brecciated pebbles of very small size so that the 
whole is rather a coarse sandstone than a conglomert 

The Richland Sandstone division is terminated at 
conglomerate which I have called the Rochelle cong 
bed. This bed which starts near the Rochelle post 
McCulloch county, has been traced northeast fo 
twenty miles, becoming finer grained in this direct 
where it is buried beneath the Cretaceous being a coa: 
stone with cross bedded layers of fine grained congl 
This bed is of interest for several reasons. It is an 
of progreaaive change in the texture from course to fi 
from southwest to northeast, quite the reverse of what i 
in the beds above. The point of origin is plainly tb 
eastern Silurian, since all the pebbles are flint from th( 
a careful search failing to reveal any other pebbles ; : 
is the nearest point of approach to the Silurian of an 
beds of the Richland division in this area. Near Re 
rests on an eroded base of lower Carboniferous, a few 
feet thick geologically and as many yards borizontall 
on the Silurian, which is at this point a headland. 
b. Milhurn Shales- 

Above the Richland division is the division of the 
shales, a series of alternating sandy shales, clay sh. 
one or two bands of carbonaceous shale with thin 
coal. This series thickens to the northeast and has 
age thickness of about 160 feet. 

c. jSrownwood limeaUme. 

The shallow water alternating beds of the Milbui 
are succeeded by deepet water and more uniform be 

)v Google 

CarhoniferouB Area of Texat. — Tarr. 151 

The total thickcess of the next division, theBrownwood divis- 
ion, 18 not far from 1300 feet, chiefly (in tte eouthern part) of 
limestone. On the southern portion there is one band of sand- 
stone 25 feet thick and the remainder of the section is lime- 
stone. Much of this limeBtone is pure and free from foreign 
particles, particularly in the southern portion, but there are 
several bauds of impure limestones with a considerahle ad- 
mixture of clay and in places even of sand. These beds which 
are marked by a dark brown rust on the surface, when traced 
northeastwards merge into beds of sandstone. At Brownwood 
there are six or eight beds of sandstone in the series instead 
of only one, twenty miles south of that place. It seems cer- 
tain that there must have been a place of origin for this sand 
somewhere east or northeast of Brownwood. Beds of con- 
glomerate in this division contain medium sized pebble.s of 
flint resembling that in the Silurian more than thirty-five 
miles south of their present position, and it seems unlikely 
that they have been transported that far, 

d. Waldrip Coal Division. 
The Brownwood limestone division is followed by a series 
ofshallowwaterdcpositschieflyof finesediment. This, whichi 
call the Waldrip Coal Division, is the chief coal bearing series 
of the section. The lower beds are sandstone containing sev- 
eral thin beds of limestone. These beds, which in the south- 
em portion are nearly two-thirds limestone, become progress- 
ively more sandy to the northeast until west of Brownwood 
they are fully two-thirds sandstone.' This thickening of the 
■andstone and disappearance of the limestone away from the 
known land area is suggestive ; and more so, when, far re- 
moved from the present known Silurian, are beds of conglom- 
erate with pebbles of Silurian flint. The beds above the sand- 
stone ar« the typical coal bearing shales and clays 300 feet 
thick, with one seam of coal seldom thicker than twenty-four 
inches, and sometimes locally divided into several seams bv 
clay partings. These beds are particularly rich in fossils of the 
--al aeries, but no detailed paleontologic study has been made, 
lithe limestones of this and the other divisions are rich in 
limal remains, and in the carbonaceous shales the flora is 

ill represented. ^ 

' A. detailed stratigraphic deHcription of thia and the otber diviHionn 
ill appear in the forthcoming Second Annnal Report of tlie Texas 
eological Soivey. 

)v Google 


152 The American Geologist. sept-isw 

e. The Colcvuiii Dii-ision. 
The last divieion of my section is the Coleman division with 
a thicknusB of 1,700 feet to the point where it is hidden by 
Cretaceous. This division is almost entirely composed of 
numerous thick beds of limestone (100 feet) with iaterbedded 
clays and shale. The clay beds consist of thin strata of 
variously colored clays, (red, yellow, white and blue) with clay 
shiilcB. sandy shales and thin beds of clayey' limestone. 
The aggregate thickness of these strata rarely exceeds more 
than tifty feet in any one series, and both above and below will 
almoi^t invariably be found a thick bed of limestone. The 
limestones of this division are adulterated with clay to such 
an extent that it ia somtinies difBcult to assert that the rock 
is a limestone, Accompanying tliis lithological feature is a 
faunal peculiarity due to the condition of sedimentation. The 
true limestone fauna consisting of Ay thris and the like is here 
generally absent, and is replaced by laniellibranchs such as 
.^llorisma and Myalina and some of the clay-dwelling gas- 
teropods. Large species of Productus and Spirifer are some- 
times abundant, but the delicate species that lived in the clear 
water at the time of deposition of the Brownwood beds are 
rarely observed. An occasional bed of sandstone is found, 
and these beds become more numerous to the northeast. Very 
likely when the strata of this division are traced further north- 
eustward sandstone beds will be much more frequent and will 
have a greater thickness. 

lit. SUMMARY. 

The history of the Carboniferous system as briefly outlined 
<m the preceding pages commences with the deposition of a 
considerable thickness of lower Carboniferous limestone on an 
old shore of Silurian land. An interval accompanied by an 
elevation, a small amount of disturbance, and probably some 
erosion, is followed by the opening of the upper CarboniferoQs. 
Forty-five hundred feet of sandstone, shales and conglomerate 
included in the Richland di^^Hion probably represent the 
Texas equivalent of the Millstone grit. Following this quite 
uniform shallow water deposit was a time of quiet wf 
deposition, during which the Milburn shales were laid d( 
with a total thickness of about 160 feet. A submergence 
least in the southwest, marks the beginning of the Brownw( 


Glaciation of the Cordillera. — Dawson. 153 

division, a period of liraeatone dopoait in the southwest, but of 
more sandy beds to the northwest, which seema to point 
to the presence of an old land area near there, which is 
now hidden from view beneiith the Cretaceous. The last beds 
of the Brownwood division indicate a return to shallow water 
conditions, and this ie followed by the coal bearing shale beds 
of the Waldrip division. Following this is the deposition of 
alternating clays and limestones, containini; much clay and 
a consequent change in fauna. The conditions of this deposit 
seem to indicate that the then shore line was in the Carbon- 
iferous, and that the Carboniferous beds previously deposited 
and unconsolidated were in part furnishing sediment for the 
forming strata. The Permian conditions are probably being 
approached, and possibly even at this time the basin of de- 
posit has become a partially enclosed aea. A gap of unknown 
extent ensues after the close of the Permian until the bej^inning 
of the Lower Cretaceous which buried the Palipozoic rocks, 
now by erosion partially uncovered for study. 






By GioBOE M. DiivsoM, L L.D.. F.G.S. 

AsiliCant Director Geological Survej- ol CAnads, 

Broadly viewed, the Cordilleran region of British Columbia 
and the adjoining part of the Canadian Northwest Territory to 
the north of that province, may be said to constitute an ele- 
vated mountainous 3one bordered by two dominant ranges — 
that of the Rocky mountains projier on the northeast and that 
of the Coast ranges on the southwest. The width of this zone 
is about 400 miics, and on one side of it lies the wide area of 
the great plains, on the other the Pacific ocean together with 
a partially submerged outer mountain-range of which Van- 
couver island and the Queen-Charlotte islands are projecting 

In a coniraunication which has already appeared in this 
'ournal,' the writer has brieiiy outlined the principal observa- 

'ThiB article may be considered as a p.irtial altstriict of a paper read 
y the author before the Royal Societv of Canada, May '^M\, 1890. 
■"Vol. Ill, p. 249. 

)v Google 

154 J7ie American Geologist. <.[.i inso 

tiona in accordance with which he has been led to believe that 
this part of the Cordillera of the West was, in the Glacial 
period, covered by a great confluent glacier-mase. Evidence 
of the existence of the Bouthem part of this great ice-masB 
was, at an early stage in hie investigation of the glacial phe- 
nomena of the region, obtained in the corresponding part of 
the interior plateau of British Columbia; and though doubts 
were at first entertainfid as to the mode by which the traces of 
a general, as distinct from the local, glaeiation of the region 
might be explained, these were solved at a later date.' Stiil 
later, the writer was enabled, while engaged in an exploration 
in the Yukon district, to find evidence of the northwestward 
extension of the same confluent glacier and approximately to 
determine its limits in that direction. Having thus surround- 
ed the area of this great glacier, it was proposed to name it the 
Cordilleran Glacier in order to distinguish it from the second 
and larger ice-cap by which the northeastern part of the con- 
tinent was at the same periodmore or less completely covered.' 

The Cordilleran glacier, as thus defined, had, when at its 
maximum development, a length of nearly 1200 miles. The 
main gathering-ground or neve of the mer de glace was contained 
approximately between the 55th and 59th parallels of north lati- 
tude, that part of the ice which flowed northwestward having 
a length beyond these limits of 350 miles, that which flowed in 
the opposite direction a length of about 600 miles. When at 
its greatest, a portion of its ice also passed off laterally by gaps 
transverse to the Coast ranges, and filling the wide valley be- 
tween Vancouver island and the mainland, the ice there divided 
and flowed in opposite directions as the subsidiary, but yet large, 
glaciers of Queen-Charlotte sound and the Strait of Georgia, 
Ice from the main mer de glace does not appear to have crossed 
the Rocky Mountain range proper, on the other side, though 
considerable local glaciers were at the same time developed on 
the northeastward slopes of this range. 

That portion of the Cordilleran glacier which moved south- 
eastward along the interior plateau of British Columbia , is now 
known, from numerous observed instances of striation crossing 
high points, to have covered the summits of isolated moun- 
tains of 7000 feet and over in hight ; a circumstanco wltich im- 

)v Google 

Gtaeiation of the Cordillera. — Daioton. 155 

plies the ice reached a general thickness of 2000 to 3000 
feet above even tlie higher tracts of the plat«aii, while it must 
have attained a thickness of over 6000 feet above the main 
riTcr-valleya and other ])rincipal depressions of the surface.' 

The existence of this great Cordilleran glacier is naturally 
the first event of the period of glaciation of which evidence has 
been found in the region, as its ice-maaa was competent to 
remove all signs of the more local growing glaciers which 
must have occurred during the early stages of the period of 

The object of this paper is to sketch briefly, in the first 
place, the subsequent history of the events of the Glacial per- 
iod in this part of the Cordillera, and in the second, to en- 
deavor to show in what way these events may be connected 
with those of the same period found on the Canadian great 
plains. In so doing it will not he possible to pursue the in- 
ductive method by which the propositions here staled have 
been reached, nor even to do more than to refer to the nature 
of the evidence upon which the various statements are based. 
Much of this evidence has however already been published in 
several papers written during the past fifteen years, and a sum- 
mary of that which has not yet been made public is contained 
in a forthcoming more detailed memoir on the same subject. 
For this reason, the writer feels that he must claim the indul- 
gence of the reader to some extent, in here advancing hypo- 
theses without adeijuate proof, and without even giving in de- 
tail the reasons which have led him to modify suggestions al- 
ready made by himself at various stages in the investigation. 

During the maximum of the Cordilleran glacier, it appears 
that the Cordillerian region stood at a considerahie higher level 
than it now does, while an important part at least of the great 
plains was depressed to such an extent as probably to admit 
waters in connection with, and nt the level of those of the sea. 
The eventual retreat of the Cordillerian glacier was contempo- 
raneous with, if not caused by, a subsidence of the mountain 

The first effect of the decay of the great glacier appears 
to have been the production of lakes upon its surface or 
within the central pa rt of the southe rn porti on of its a rea, in 

^ Tbeee HtateiiieiHe depend in part on facts pnblisbed in the Geologi- 
i;_aJ Hagaxine, Aiigusl, 1889; in part on additional evidence yet unpub- 


166 The American QeologUt- Sept. wo 

the relatively dry region of the interior plateau. Along the 
borders of one or more such englacial lakes, t«rraceB, compoBed 
of material reeenibling boulder-clay, were formed on projecting 
highlands.' The best marked and highest terrace to which 
this origin is attributed, has an elevation of about 5290 feet 
above the present sea level, and this terrace, (or others at or 
about this level,) has now been recognized in a number of 
places. Such englacial lakes continued to increase in size and 
to become lower in level, for some time, while the general sub- 
sidence also progressed. There is also some evidence to show, 
that aft«r the final draining of these lakes and as the great 
glacier retreated from the interior plateau, it was followed by 
gradually deepening water which was in communication with 
that of the sea. The boulder-clay deposit of the interior plat- 
eau is believed to have been formed during this retreat, at, or 
in water contiguous to, the retiring ice-front. The lower boul- 
der-clay of the littoral was laid down under similar ciroum- 
atances, but at a somewhat earlier stage in the glacial deca- 
dence, and as the submergence became deeper, stratified inter- 
glacial silts were formed above it in the same region. 

The nextchange is supposed to have been a re-elevation of the 
CordiHera, during which most of the higher terraces of British 
Columbia were formed, and eome further evidence of which is 
offered by the removal at about this time of much of the pre- 
viously formed boulder-clay from some of the larger river val- 
leys.' The land eventually stood probably as high and pos- 
sibly higher than it now does relatively to the Pacific, and in 
consequence of its elevation and the severe general conditions 
of the climate of the period, it became again covered to a con- 
siderable extent byglaciers,which, however, were as a rule.ofa 
local character and in evident relation to the various mountain 

Following the maximum of this second period of glaeiation, 
came apparently a second subsidence, less in amount than the 
first, but sufficient to depress the Cordilleran belt generally, to 
a level about 2500 feet below that which it holds at the present 
day. At this stage, and while glaciers of considerable size still 
occupied the mountain-valleys, and the position of the ■n^ve of 
the former Cordilleran glacier was probably held by an ice-cap 

'These must at the time have resembled the Ntinatt^ of Greenland. 

' The date assigned to this removal depends on the existence and 
relations of the eilt deposits next alluded to, in the same valleys. 

)v Google 

Olaeiation of the Cordillera. — Dawton. 157 

of some size, the land remoiQed nearly stationary for a long 
interval, and remarkable and important silt deposits, well bedded 
and of considerable thickness, were tranquilly laid down in 
different low tracts scattered along the Cordillera region for a 
length of about 1200 miles. These deposits, the writer has in 
previous publications referred to as the White Silts, and as 
observations accumulated, it at length became evident that 
these silts possess more than a local significance. They appear 
in fact to constitute a well marked formation, characterizing a 
definite and long maintained stage of stability in the glacial 
history. In the various more or less completely separated 
basins in which they occur, tlieir level is bo nearly identical, 
as apparently to show that this must be referred to a common 
cause, which it is believed, in consideration of all the circum- 
stances and particularly in view of the vast area which ttie 
observations here referred to cover, can have been no other 
than the elevation of the sea at the time. No morainic or other 
accumulations have been found such as to account for the pro- 
duction of lakes in which thesie silts might he supposed to have 
been depo8ited,and had they been formed in separate lakes held 
in either in the manner suggested or by glacier-dams, they 
would, in a region of such bold relief as the Cordillera, lie ex- 
pected to occur at different levels in each basin.' 

The level which is obviously the important one in dealing 
with this subject, is that of the upper limit of the main White 
Silt deposit in each basin, and in order to present the salient 
facts of this important episode in the glaciation of the Cordill- 
era, the significance of which is here for the first time pointed 
out, the general result may be given as in the sulijoined list." 

"The occuranreof two Buch nrciiB at the B;ime level, under tlie cir- 
cumstances, mi^ht ba chiiructerized as a. remarkatile coiriridr-Dce, of 
three as an extraordinary cuincidonce and if Heveml as a coincidence 
of an aatouading character, unleaa under the induence of a conimcin 
cause as here suggented. 

noted that the Hilts so included are not the only onea of the region. Occa- 
sional small and local occurrences of silts at considerably higher levelx, 
are found, and aome of these are known to be due to glacier-dammed 
iakes of an earlier stace. The lower level of the White Silt formation, 
■nalso to some extent indelinile, as it i« probable that some imrtions of 
were deposited io relatively d"ep water, while in other pliicea, re- 
irranged silts have since l>een formed at loner levels, and tbei^e it is 
lotalwaya possible to distinguish from those of the original msin 

)v Google 

Normal upper level of the Wbite Silt formation in va 
points of the Cordilleran re^on. 

„ ■ ■ Nor 

Dittnct. level I 

Coliimbia-KootaDie valley, between Rockj' mountainsj ^ 

and Gold raagen, (Opens to the south.) f 

Southern part of Interior Plateau. Silta here chiefly) 

confined to main valleys, (opens to the south and^- 2< 

to the I'acific.) ) 

Sorthern part of Interior Plateau. SiltH here cover an 1 

area of about 1000 square miles. (Opens to Peace > 2 

River plains and to the south.) > 

Peace River Plains. Silte here cover surface of pis' 

(In drainage basin of Mackenzie river. ) 
Upper valley of Stikine. {Opens (o Pacific.) 
Upper Liard Basin. (Opens to Mackenzie.) 
Upper Yukon Basin. (Drains to Behringsea.) 

The material of the White Silta was evidently' affc 
Btreams flowing from adjacent glaciers, the approsimi 
of which at the time are shown by the termination of 
as they approach the various ranges at levels lower tl 
elsewhere attained by these deposits," 

The evidently somewhat rapid retreat of the already 
glaciers of the second period, was apparently not in 
to subsidence of the Cordillera, but on the contrary, 
have been contemporaneous with, or was soon follow 
progressive movement in elevation. It is supposed 
final decay of glaciers occurred rather in connectio 
general amelioration of climate, by which the close o 
cial period as a whole was brought about, as to 1 
of which no opinion is bore offered. 

'" The greatCBt devclupment of silts here is below 1700 I 
with other facts, is supposed to indicate partial local elevati 
the progress of the deposit. The upper level here given is 
well marked. 

" Mr. I. C. Russell, in a valuable paper entitled Notes on t 
Geology of AUuta, proposes to name the body o{ water in 
silts of the Lewps have been laid down, 'Lake Yakon.' Hi 
do that this water was not that of an isolated lake, I would s 
name 'Yukon Inlet'. The silt formation on the Lewes hae 
limit of about 2150 feet, while in the contiguous region of 
Pellv, the limit is found at 2700 feet, as given above. 
level of the higher part of the formation on the Lewes, I be 
due to the fact that the whole upper portion of thia valle 
cupied by glacier-ice at the time of its deposition. Cf. Rep 
cress Geol. Surv. Can., 1877-78 p. 163 B; Annual Report G 
Can., 1SR7-88, Part B; Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., Vol. I. 

)v Google 

Olacialion of the Cordillera. — Dawaoii- 158 

It JB worthy of note, that most of the long fiord-like lakes of 
the mountain regions of British Columbia, can be shown to oc- 
cnpy portions of the abandoned beds of the glaciers of the stage 
of the White Silt formation. To the elevation which began 
about the time at which we liave now arrived, the draining of 
the White Silt basins, together with the formation of all the 
lower-level terraces, is supposed to be due. There appears, 
however, to have been one well marked pause, during which the 
littoral, at least, was at a hight about 200 feet lower than It now 
is, and there i.« in addition some evidence of a succeeding move- 
ment in elevation of several hundred feet, which, if it ocoured, 
constitutes the last important change of the kind in the 

Having elsewhere discussed the glaciation of the great plains 
at some length, " the writer may now without attempting any 
further description of the phenomena which they preBent,offer 
the subjoined comparative scheme of events in the areas of the 
plains and the Cordillera respectively. Under this scheme, he 
has endeavored to include all the known facts and to deal 
with these in the light of personal familiarity with the greater 
part of both regions, and while it can scarcely be hoped that 
this scheme, here tentatively presented, will be found to stand 
the test of further investigations in all its details, it is believed 
that it may at least be accepted as indicating the mode in 
which the facts met with must be explained. In explanation 
of the fundamental idea involved in this comparison it may be 
premised, that already in Tertiary times some evidence is given 
of correlative phases of elevation and depression as between 
the Cordillera and the great plains, and these, it is believed, 
may have culumiated in a series of inaportant correlative 
movements during the Glacial period, in which the plains were 
in a position more or less exactly complementary to the 
Cordillera. The general application of such correlative move- 
ments in the Glacial period, has lately been forcibly advocated 
by Mr. AVarren ITpham ", and appears to the writer to hold 

" C£. Canadian Naturalist, February 1878. 

'Geology and ReBources of the 4Uth Parallel, Chapters ix aiidx;Quart. 
.loum. Geol yoc.. Vol. xxxi p. fi03,, Vol. x.wvii, p. 27G; Report of 
'rogrcBH Geol. .'!urv. Can., 1884-8.1, p. 139 C. See also E. G, McCon- 
lell, in Ann. B«port,Geol, Siirv.Can., 188.5, PartC, andj. B. Tyrrell 
inn. Report Geol. Sarv. Can. IRSi. PartE. 

" Wright's ice Ago in North America. Appendix A. 

)vGoo^qlc ^^ 

The Ameriean Qefdogiat. 

oQt the prospect of a solution of many of the ditficulties which 
have so far attended the explanation of the facts of this period. 

Cordilleran Region, 
Cordilleran zone at a high ele- 
vation. Perioii of most severe 
glaciatioQ and maximum develop- 
ment of the great Cordilleran 

«eat glacier, with deposition of 
the boulder-clay of the interior 
plat«au and the Yukon basin, of 
the lower bonlder-clay of the lit- 
toral and probably alao, at a later 
fltage (and with greater submer' 
gence) of the interglacial silts of 
the same region. 

Be-eievation of the Cordilleran 
region to a level probably bh lii^h 
as or somewhat higher than the 
present. Maximum of second per- 
iod of glaciation. 

Partial aubsidence of the Cor- 
dilleraa region, to a level about 
2500 feet lower than the present. 
Long stage of atability. Glaciers 
of the second period considerably 
reduced. Upper boulder-clay of 
the coast probably formed at this 
time, thoogh perhaps in part dur- 
ing the sect ' ' 

Renewed elevation of the Cor- 
dillera region, with one well 
marked pause, during which the 
littoral stood about 200 feet lower 
than at present. Glaciers much 
reduced, and diminiahing incon- 
sequence of general amelioration 
of climate towards the close of 
the Glacial period. 

been connected w 

eral northern elevation of land &t 

the close of the Glacial period . 

Referring to the several correlative movements of elevation 
and of depression of the Cordillera and the great plains, aboTe 

Region 0/ ihn Great Plaint. 
Correlative subsidence and sub- 
mergence of the great plains, with 
possible contemporaneous in- 
creased elevation of theLaurentiaa 
axis and maximum development 
of ica upon it. Deposition of the 
lower boulder-clay of the plains. 

Correlative elevationof the west- 
cm part, at least, of the great 
plains, which was probably more 
or less irregular and led to tlie 
production of extensive lakes in 
which intei^lacial depoait><, in- 
cluding peat, were formed. 

Correlative subsidence of the 
plains, which (at least in the west- 
ern part of the region) exceeded 
the nrst subsidence and extended 
submergence to the base of the 
Kockv mountains near the 49th 

Rarallel. Formation of second 
oulder-clay, and (at a later stage) 
dispersion of large erratics. 

Correlative elevation of the 
plains, or at least of their western 
portion, resulting in a condition 
of equilibrium as between the 
plains and the Cordillera, their 
relative levels becoming nearlj^ aa 
at present. Probable formation 
of the Missouri cuteau along a 
shore-line during this period of 

Simultaneous elevation of the 
in'eat plains to about their present 
level, with final exclusion of 
waters in connection with th<i saa. 
Lake Agaasiz formed and eventu- 
ally drained toward tlie close of 
this period. This simultaneous 
movement in elevation of both 

„ Google 

, Olaeiaticn of the Cordillera. — J)awson. 161 

set forth, it ma^ be admitted on ft priori grounds ae not im- 
probable that Buch conditions of oscillation once initiated, in 
consequence of the interaction of whatever forces, might 
have a tendency to repeat themselves several times before a 
stable condition was regained, — a state of equilibrium being 
in the end attained either by the general decrease in intensity 
of the operating causes, or by the final ascendency of one 
class of these. It may also be pointed out that the t^upposed 
sequence of events is generally in accordance with the view 
that the epochs of maximum glaciation of the Cordillera, were 
those of its greatest elevation, while the decay of its glacier:< 
was in both instances accompanied, if not caused, by subsi- 
dence leading to the encroachment of the oceanic waters. 
The supposed flooding of the great plains (the glaciated portion 
of which lies almost entirely in the Arctic baBin}by cold north- 
ern waters, while the Cordillera stood as a much elevated land 
between these and the warmer waters of the Pacific, in itself 
goes far to explain the conditions under which the excessive 
precipitation required for the production of the Cordilleran 
glaciers might occur. 

The sequence of events here advanced is furthermore com- 
patible with the belief that the weight of a ponderous ice-cap 
may alone be sufficient to produce subsidence of the land, and 
with the idea that such an ice-cap may thus eventually become 
self-destructive, by obliterating the elevation to which its ex- 
istence is in the first instance largely due. 

Though independently baaed upon, and primarily intended 
to include the observed phenomena of the Ulacial period in the 
northwestern part of the continent alone, it is also worthy of 
remark, that the elevation believed to have affected the Cana- 
dian plains during the interglacial episode, is to some extent 
confirmed by the fact that Messrs. Chamberlin and Salisbury 
find evidence of a similar upward movement of the upper 
Mississippi valley at a corresponding time, to an amount of 
about 1000 feet." It is further noteworthy that the two great 
" 'Telative movements of elevation of the Cordillera and de- 
ssion of the great plains here admitted, correspond in a 
eral way with the principal similar,though less considerable, 
nges in level, which are accepted by Mr. W. J. McGee as 
tlaining changes which affected the region of the middle At- 
'^bcth Annual Report U. S. Geol. Survey, p. 214. 

)v Google 

162 The American Geologist. sepi.isso 

lantic slope, and indicated there by the Columbia formation." 
Ae in the case of the great plains, both changes in level were 
there in the sense of depression, followed by re-elevation, bat 
if we may l>elieve that dcpreBsion in one region is made up 
for by elevation in another, the only important point to which 
attention need be drawn, is that both maxima of glaciation, 
on the Pacific as well as on the Atlantic side of the continent, 
were coincident with considerable disturbance in level. 

It may be added in conclusion, that it is now distinctly 
known, as the result of work done under the auspices of the 
Geological Survey of Canada, and more particularly of obser- 
valions by the writer and his colleagues, Messrs. McCounell 
and Tyrrell, that the extreme margins of the western and 
eastern glaciated areas of the continent barely overlap, and 
then only to a very limited extent, while the two great centers 
of di.'fpersion were entirely distinct,'" For numerous reasons 
whicli can not be here entered into, the writer does not con- 
.•■ider it probable or even possible that the great confluent 
glacier of the north-eastern part of the continent extended at 
any time far into the area of the great plains, but erratics and 
drift derived from this ice-mass did so extend and are found 
between the 4i>th and 60th parallels stranded on the surface of 
moraines produced by the large local glaciers of the Rocky 
mountains. Recognizing, however, the essential separateness 
of the western and eastern confluent ice-masses, and the fact 
that it is no longer appropriate to designate one of these the 
"Continental glacier," the writer ventures to propose that the 
eastern mer do glace may appropriately be named the great 
Zaurentide glacier, while its western fellow is known as the 
Cordilleran glacier. 


Harold W. Fii[tB*HKH, Ann Arboi. 

The material for the following notes is based on the field 

relations, and microscopical characters of eighty specimens 

of the dikes and other irruptive rocks observed daring a trip 

around lake Huron, in a small boat, in the summer of 1389. 

)v Google 

Eruptive Rocks of Lake Huron Region. — Fairbanks. 1(>3 

The exposures of Laurentian gneiss, formiDg the whole of the 
eastern and northern sides of Georgian bay, as far as the vil- 
lage of Killarnoy, are remarkably free from regular dikes. There 
were noticed however, two occurances of an apparently irrup- 
tive rock of much interest : a email bare island just above the 
water, four miles north west of Buahby inlet, is formed of a 
dark massive rock, very different from the gneiss of the sur- 
rounding islands. Under the miscroscope it is seen to consist 
largely of a deep green strongly pleochroic hornblende, in ex- 
ceedingly irregular crystals or leaf-like aggregations. The 
centres of the crystals appear of a dull color and are rendered 
nearly opaque by thickly clustered minute grains of magnet- 
ite arranged along the cleavage lines of the former augito crys- 
tals. Large grains of magnetite are associated with the horn- 
blende as, also, are numerous biotite leaflets and garnets ; 
these are all embedded in a water-clear granular matrix of 
quartz and indistinctly twinned feldspar. 

A little north of Bing inlet occurs another rock of similar 
aspect, cutting the gneiss in an irregular manner. Under the 
microscope this shows a very interesting character, and though 
the constituents appear to be secondary, yet its derivation from 
a diabase is evident, and illustrates how completely the primary 
minerals may be removed and yet their form preserved. Garnet, 
magnetite, mica, quartz and cpidote are the most important 
constituents ; Dark, nearly opaque, masses polarizing in deep 
blue and purplish tints and allotriomorphically developed are 
decomposition products of augite. Penetrating these dark 
masses are angular spaces exactly corresponding in form and 
arrangement to labradorite crystals in diabase, and filled with 
paramorphs of garnet aggregates. The open spaces between 
the alteration products of augite are filled partly with elongat- 
ed rectangular aggregations of garnets, and partly by graniilai' 
quartz, epidote, mica, and aggregations of green raicrolitic 
bodies. In many of the garnet aggregates are quartz grains 
and an interlacing net-work of green microlites. Lines of 
garnet surround all the dark augite alteration products and 

ica and garnets border the large irregular magnetite grains ; 

ales of mica are often enclosed in the magnetite. 

Three miles east of Killarney, near the junction of the 
uartzite with the Laurentian gneiss, appears the first un- 
listakable dike intercalated with a fine gramtlite whose strike 

)v Google 

A The American Geologist. SepLisso 

a little south of west. Labradorite, au^te, magoetite and 
)atite needles are the only constituents. The labradorite crj'B- 
.Is are beautifully twinned, and show the beginning of dec om- 
)sition into a green fibrous substance ; or perhaps rather a 
igration of the decompoaition products (actinolite?) of the 
igite within the plagioclase. Many do not extinguish sim- 
taneously for on revolving the stage light and shadow sweep 
:roF8 from one side to the other or from the centre out- 
ard. The augite shows polysomatic crystals ; and the mag- 
jtite presents crystalline outlines suggesting, though by no 
eans proving, it to be primary. 

Five miles westward on Badgely island, a dike of precisely 
le i;ame microscopical character intersects a granitoid rock 
I an east and west direction ; this may be a continuation of 
le one just described though somewhat wider and having near 
s southern edge two narrow dikes ; one a foot wide the other 
iree feet. This dike illustrates well the the usual character 
'a mass irrupted through a cool rock: it is coarse in the 
intTC,much broken into rectangular blocks by jointing planes, 
bile at the sides it is aphanitic. 

For sixty miles no more normal diabase dikes are seen, 
umerous altered diorites are met along the shore or on the 
lands. Some are only a few feet wide, others fully a mile 
;ro3s. These extend more or less continuously westward 
ona Cloche island, forming the whole or simply the northern 
des of many of the chain of islands as far as six or eight 
liles beyond Spanish mills. This altered diorite, whether in 
: in its great mass, exhitits a remarkable uniformity over its 
hole extent, showing quite uniform composition, texture, and 
egree of alteration. The main body is intercalated with the 
:hists which have a very constant east and west strike and 
2rtical dip. Between this irruptive rock and the bedded 
ihists is usually a dark, soft layer of chlorite schist, resulting 
-■idently from movement and pressure. In one place only 
ere the strike and dip of the country rock noticed as being 
isturbed, this was ten miles west of the Wallace mine where 
lick-bedded quartzite forming a small island has a dip of but 
')°. Directly adjoining this is a large, high island consisting 
itirely of diorite which is, evidently, the cause of the unusual 

)v Google 

ake Huron Segion. — Fairhanka. 165 

ion of sectionB from various portions 
masB SB well aa from several narrow 
nd shows in most instances a highly 
I only a few instances is there any ap- 
on of the hornblende or the chlorite, 
decomposed, from any prei-xisting 
\ a narrow dike in the granite a little 
6 a micaceous diorite containing much 
.tic hornblende, the rest bleached and 

borders; smaM twinned plagioclase 
ite, and pyrite. The mica scales and 
ten mixed indisctiminatoly. 
in sericite schist on the long peninsula 
sland, under the microscope shows a 
list. The hornblende crystals polarize 
ish tints, are irregular in outline and 
lolite like fibres. The fine granular 
e cryytala is filled with similar long 
les, and a little magnetite. Basal 
ie cleavage. In the centre of the large 
r spaces dotted thickly with granular 
ips, of prelJxisting augite- Sections 
)t of Wallace mine, exhibit a pale green 
inular in the centre with bright green 
} grains dot the cleavage cracks, and 

largely clouded. A dike intersecting 
contains a large proportion of deep 
le, similar to the nralitic hornblende 
he feldspar is dotted with aggregations 
d ilmenite in small opaque granules 
') borders is present in small quantity, 
tions are taken at intervals from the 
assive diorite, before described as form- 
ilands for so many miles. These sec- 
; that one description will do for all. 
alteration has proceeded so far that 
as of secondary products appears, 

constituent, in irregular, pale green or 
3, represents former hornblende; judg- 
al sections. These bleached fibrous 
ndeiinite character it is often difficult 

)v Google 

166 The American Geotogtfl. t-ert, isso 

to distinguish from among them tlie decomposition products 
of the feldspar crystals, whose outlines are nearly gone, and 
are represented partly by epidote and partly by akaolinic pro- 
duct with a little granular calcite. Many sections show 
ilmenite grains with cloudy borders, and numerous small 
bright, orange-red granules or crystals which as nearly as can 
be determined are rutile. There is also some secondary quartz 
and orthoclase. 

A very peculiar vein or dike occurs in thediorite afew mites 
west of Spanish mills. Thin sections shows it to be a mica- 
ceous pyroxene schist exhibiting the following minerals : a 
rhombic pyroxene, biotite, quartz, magnetite, chlorite and 
serpentine. The pyroxene crystals show strong plenchroism, 
lire very much broken, irregular and somewhat altered, so that 
the cleavage is indistinct, yet the general appearance is that 
of hype rat bene. Numerous large scales of mica are partly in 
good condition and partly altered to a brownish or greenish, 
almost amorphous substance, full of numerous opaque needle* 
and grains. Fine granular quartz forms the body of the rock. 

About eight miles west of Spanish mill^ granite and gneiss 
again take posse.Bsion of the shore and islands. On the mainland 
northwest of Bird island appear several elongated, rectangular 
massesofdiorite enclosed in granite. They have a perfectly 
fresh appearance. A strongly pleochroic hornblende, often in 
well formed crystals is mingled with about an equal amount 
of plagioclase and a little magnetite and quartz. 

A dike of typical olivine diabase, three hundred feet wide, 
appears to the westward. It lies in an east and west direction 
and is intercalated with gneiss. To the naked eye it could 
not be distinguished from the diabase exposure at Kiilarney, 
but under the microscope in seen to vary somewhat. The au- 
gite is in almost perfect condition and as usual, is allotrio- 
morphically develoijed, exhibiting pale brownish color, strong 
double refraction and rough section surfaces. The feldspars 
show beautiful tivinning and are sometimepi entirely enclosed 
in the augite- Many of thi' crystals show extinction succes- 
sively ill successive portions. Inclusions of long apatite 
needles are \'evy abundant. The form of the magnetite crys- 
tals often appears to he conditioned by that of the feldspar, 
showing that the feldspar crystalized first. Con.siderablo oli- 
vine, sometimes showing crystalline boundaries, butmoreoften 


„ Google 

Fairbanks. 167 

' of the grains 
into green ser- 

showB a com- 
1. Basal horn- 

fAlgoma Mills 
vhich contalDS 
!1 as the usual 
rly decomposed 
ed by a large 
ns of ilmenite. 
f a number of 

south of west 
f a number of 
'iation between 
ro sections tak- 
e edge are com- 

by cloudy ag- 
ifused mass of 
d in places by 
ular magnetite 
IV feet from the 
Lbe key to the 
composition, as 
matter, magne* 
entres of many 
showing basal 
ike cuts across 
t a small angle, 

Y illuBtrated by 

ut three miles 
J miles, is occu- 
ptaces angular 
with a sort of 
i semi-eruptive 
nd as a general 
Ldwest. About 
large irregular- 

ly GoOgIc 


The American Geologist. 

Sept. ISM 

ly bounded mass of diorite eeems to have broken through the 
granite and in places the red coloring matter of the latter is 
blended with the eruptive rock. Sections from the various 
portions show, as usual, a high state of alteration. In one in 
particular the forms of the feldspar crystals are scarcely dis- 
cernible, while distinct, four to six sided crystals of chlorite 
and others of granular epidote, seem to be paramorpha after 

Two sections of dikes a little to the east show very distinctly 
the effects of pressure in the broken and crushed feldspar crys* 
tals. The cracks are 611ed with chlorite. One of the sections 
shows crystals of leucoxene altered to titanite. Froceeding 
westward toward Thessalon the various dikes met, with few 
exceptions, are greatly altered, and exhibit a very similar ap- 
pearance. In some there is a deep uralitic hornblende; in 
others it is chiefly viridite; a little magnetite or ilmenite 
with leucoxene and rutile often appear; and occasionally apa- 
tite needles. One dike deserves mention aa it contains horn- 
blende which has every characteristic of primary origin, be- 
ing in distinct pleochroic crystals. 

Three miles east of Thessalon three sections were obtained 
from a dike intersecting a basal Huronian conglomerate. They 
do not show much difTerence in texture between the middle 
and the edge and are very much altered. The section from 
the centre contains a large amount of calcite in granular ag- 
gregations ; plagioclase, partly decomposed ; chlorite, apatite 
needles; quartz; and numerous opaque and cloudy granules, 
referable perhaps partly to magnetite and partly to ilmenite. 
The specimen intermediate between the centre and thti edge 
contains long, jagged, opaque needles like ilmenite, also some 
mica, in addition to the minerals of the other section. That 
from the edge contains long lath shaped crystals of plagio- 
clase mostly clouded and cut up by numerous small epidote 
crystals and has instead of ilmenite many crystals somewhat 
j;ranular and cloudy but otherwise closely resembling tita- 

A quarter of a mile west of this point a mass of eruptive 
rock begins, and extends along the shore continuously to 
Thessalon. This presents a uniformly, fine aphanitic texture 
often amygdaloidal, and in places on the upper surface where 
the amygdules have decayed out, shows a highly Bcorificeotis 

)v Google 

Eruptive Rocks of Lake Huron Region. — Fairbanks. 169 

character, remindingone of the lava overflows of the westeni 
states. Near the eastern border this masa presents ft jointed 
and Botnewhat slaty appearance. And a mile east of Tfaeesa- 
loQ, portions are so soft as to reaemble chlorite echist. The 
amygdules are usually calcite, epidote, or quartz. The quartz 
is not often amorphous but in fine granular mosaics, with the 
grains arranged concentrically around the cavity; the coarser 
in the middle. Some of the larger cavities contain agates. 
Angular or rounded fragments of felsite and granulite stand 
out distinctly in numerous places. Rounded pebbles of clear 
quartz, several inches in diameter, occur frequently, present- 
ing no signs of secondary origin. At one spot a more modern 
dike cuts this old eruptive formation. It is fresher looking 
but contains the same constituents. 

Ten sections made from various portions are almost identi- 
cal in composition though they show considerable variation in 
the degree of alteration and in texture. The components are 
not distinguishable to the naked eye, but under the microscope 
show minute interlacing crystals of plagioclase usually cloud- 
ed; and alteration products consisting of chlorite, viridite, 
epidote, calcite, and sometimes mica and leucoxene. Two sec- 
tions show a microfelsitic texture ; and in one are large crys- 
tals of feldspar of previous generation. 

Whether the original state was that of a raelaphyre or ba- 
salt, it is impossible to say. Logan applies the term "chlorite 
slate" to this masa of rock, which is very misleading, for it is 
plainly a lava overflow with no trnces of stratification. 

Quartzitc is met again a short distance west of Thesealon 
and on several islands it is intersected by dikes having an east 
and west direction. The first is a coarse diabase much alter- 
ed, the augite being mostly changed to uralitic hornblende, 
mica and viridite. The feldspar crystals are largely clouded ; 
the unaltered portions show successive extinction similar to 
that noticed in diabases farther east. The magnetite is usual- 
ly surrounded by a layer of biotite mica. A section from the 
""ge of this dike shows lath-shaped labradorite in good con- 
ion, and much magnetite and alteration products. On an 
joining island, appears a dike quite similar to this, though 
t so much altered; the augite is in polysomatic crystals, and 
ten bordered by green hornblende. One of the largest crys- 



The American Geologist. 


talB haa terminating within itself a long, narrow, rod-like 
crystal of augite which is differently oriented. 

A mile westward appears an interesting rock which in thin 
sections shows a very pretty pegmatitic structure. Small an- 
gular lamellfe of quartz with the same orientation over consid- 
erable portions of the section, penetrate a decomposed feldspar 
or other alteration products like epidote and viridite. Por- 
tions of the section contain uralitic hornblende, and appear 
like highly altered diabase. 

A very fine aphanitic dike six inches wide intersects an al- 
tered diorite a little farther westward on the main land. Un- 
der the microscope appears a net work of interlacing and very 
minute and acicular plagioclase crystals with jagged ends. 
These are imbedded in amicro-felsitic matrix which is render^ 
ed nearly black by minute opaque grains. 

Five miles west of Thessaion is an altered dike probably an 
old diabase. It cuts across the strike of the quartzite nearly 
east and west. It is somewhat schistose in the direction of 
its length. It has rendered the quartzite bedded in the same 
direction for at least ten feet away. This slaty structure of 
the quartzite is so pronounced that in weathering it breaks 
off in slabs parallel to the dike. That a great strain and move- 
ment took place subsequent to the time of injection is shown 
by the presence of a breccia, five or six feet wide bordering the 
dike. It consists of a mixture of angular fragments of the 
eruptive rock and of the quartzite, imbedded in a matrix of 
quartz and chlorite. 

Beginning a short distance west of this point, the shore and 
islands are formed of a dark massive rock, an altered diabaae 
of coarse texture. A thin section shows a dull colored mass 
in which the form of the greenish plagioclase crystals can be 
distinguished. Some quartz containing apatite needies forms 
a pegmatitic structure. Most of the alteration products are 
of such an indefinite character that they cannot be made out. 
This rock extends as far as the Bruce mines and forms the 
island in the bay. 

Continuing westward up the channel toward the head of St. 
Joseph's island, we pass several dikes. The first one of any 
particular interest being opposite the light house west of Camp- 
ement d' Ours island. It shows a peculiar pegmatitic struc 
ture ; large crystals of twinned plagioclase are pierced by hie- 

)v Google 

—Fairbanks. 171 

£e penetrating any 
tatioD, while those 
orientation ; green 
te, forms irregular 
te the feldspar in s 
patite needles are 

ugar island, are a 
riy direction. They 
3grees of alteration 
showing a fair con- 
which the altera- 
le mass. 

le north shore are 
evidently diahase; 
i type ; and some 
ins from that type, 

kes is the general 
ue to the strike of 
leir bedding planes 
rhich their direc- 


)f Thessalon is evi- 
liform fine texture 
ler two large areas 
consolidation, ap- 
ikes. The scoria- 
eruptive seems to 
ed notions of the 
on are exaggerated 
Jr. LawBon, palceo- 
le Archiean rocks, 
is region, perhaps, 
listance to the Si- 

ution, in the study 
-mlnation of their 
le present altered 
Ban age. They are 
1, in many places, 

)v Google 


The American Geologist. 

can be seen resting upon the quartzite or gneisses is not at all 
disturbed. The dikes showing the greatest degree of altera- 
tion occur, both in the Huronian quartzite and siliceous schists 
and in Laurentian gneiss, while the irt^aheBt and most per- 
fect examples met were in the Laurentiao gneies. 

If we attribute the very great amount of alteration, exhibit- 
ed by the extensive body of massive diorite in the vicinity of 
Spanish Mills to crushing or deformative forces or penetrating 
water, we must separate its origin in time from the unaltered 
diabases, in the immediate vicinity, by an immense period, 
sufficient for the conversion of augite into hornblende and 
that hornblende into viridite. And these forces must have en- 
tirely ceased before the injection of the unaltered diabases. 
One can hardly believe in such a sequence of events for some 
of these eruptive, for example the mass of diorite just men- 
tioned. From microscopic examination and field relation 
there appears no clue to the action of those forces, which is 
evident, have usually brought about the alteration, during 
foldings of the strata, of narrow or interbedded masses of trap 
rock of no great extent. It seems to me we can attribute to 
some of these bodies of eruptive matter such conditions at 
their solidification as would favor the formation of hornblende, 
in others that of augite; and in special cases, with certain 
other conditions of solidification in which moisture in some 
form is present in the cooling mass, the formation of primary 
hydratod minerals; or at least give rise to a rock whose compo- 
sition and method of solidification have endowed it with an 
inherent tendency (o decay. 

T. S. Hunt in speaking of chlorite, in some granites says 
it indicates the presence of water in the original liquid mag- 
ma. And could not the same conditions be conceived ae ex- 
isting in other rocks solidifying from fusion. Granting that 
auch a condition may exist under favorable circumstances, we 
have a more rational method of arriving at the original con- 
dition of some of these rocks, than to attempt to carry their 
history back through several changes to one fixed original type 
in which augite plays the principal part. 

Geological Labratory, University of Mich., March 4th 1890. 

)v Google 



By E. O. Ulrich, Newport, Ky. 

No. S, On two new genera and six new speciea. 

iBchTTodonta, n- gen. [Bty. iickyroi, strong, odoui, tooth.] 

Short or elongated, thick bivalve shells, having email flub- 
termiual beaks, with the hinge straight or slightly arcuate aDd 
extended posteriorly. Hinge plate wide and strong, without 
posterior lateral teeth, but with a strong cardinal tooth in the 
left valve and two nearly as strong in the right. Just in front 
of them a pair of subcircular large and deep anterior inuBcular 
impresBions, and between these and the teeth another very 
small pair. Posterior scar large but faintly marked, ovate, 
situated in the postero-cardinal region. Pallial line simple. 
Liirament probably internal. 

In casts of the interior the beaks are prominent and com- 
pressed, and a well defined sulcus, representing a ridge-like 
internal thickness of the shell, extends from the umbones 
more than half the distance to the baeal margin. Type, Ischy- 
rodonta truncata, n. sp. 

The internal casts of the two species of shells for which the 
above generic name is proposed, remind one of both Cypricar- 
dites Conrad, and Modiolopais Hall, the position of the new genera 
being, perhaps, very nearly intermediate between these two 
genera. From Cypricardites, which they resemble the raost in 
the general form, thick shell, and wide hinge plate, they differ 
in having no posterior lateral teeth. The cardinal teeth are 
also less numerous, stronger, and differently arranged. From 
Modiolopaia, of which they likewise resemble certain species in 
their general aspect, they differ in having a thicker shell, wider 
hinge plate, and much stronger cardinal teeth. In true Modi- 
olopsi'f there is only a mere thickening or slight fold of the 
hinge plates beneath the be»ks, yet I do not think that the 
plan of hingement is fundamentally different from that of 
hehyrodonta, in which I believe it has simply found more full 
expression. The small accessory scars situated just above the 
anterior adductors, are not, as far as I am aware, ever present 

either Modiohpnia or Cypricardites. 

)v Google 

The American Oeologiat. 
IschTTOdonta tmncats, n. sp. 

Fig, 11. Iichyrodonta tnmeala, n. ap., Cincinnati gronp, Oiford, 
Ohio, a, outline view of a left valve ot thie upecies, Blightly restored. 
6, internal view of eame, showing only tbe liinge plate, cardinal teeth, 
and anterior muscular impression, the cavitr being filled with adhering 
matrix, c, d and e, three views of a very Dearly perfect cast of the in- 
terior. Between the beaks of the centra) figure is shown a thin film of 
stone that had orisinally filled a narrow interstice between ttie hinge 
plate and cardinal teeth. 

Shell of medium size, moderately convex, Bubquadrate to 
broad-oval, widest posteriorly. Cardinal margin straight or 
faintly arcuate, nearly as long as the shell. Anterior end Tery 
short, rounding uniformly into the convex baaal margin. 
From here the edge makes a sharp turn (in the post-basal 
region) into the somewhat truncate but convex posterior mar- 
gin, meeting the posterior extremity. Surface of the thick 
shell smooth between a limited number of impressed lines of 

Hinge plate thick and wide, flat; the cardinal teeth strong. 
Anterior muscular impreesion deep, its outline somewhat top- 
shaped, pointed below where the well marked pallial line runs 
into it. Posterior scar very faint, large, subcircular, situated 
near the postoro-cardinal angle. In casts of the interior the 
beaks are prominent, compressed, while a well marked furrow 
extending from the beaks nearly to the center of the base, gives 
rise to an obtuse umbonal ridge of which no sign is apparent 

)v Google 

mchiata. — Ulrich. 175 

other but lees deep and shorter 
ten this and the anterior mUB- 

iypical form has the following 
< mm.; greatest liight, (from 
e to posterior portion of base) 
angle to antero-basal region 
D-basal region 35 mm. ; great- 
interior of a specimen of the 

) confounded with any other 
ati rocks. I have seen speci- 
■s haineni S. A. Miller, a shell 
it there is little reason for con- 
pecies has posterior cardinal 
high posteriorly. 
I of the Cincinnati gruup at Oxford, 

. up., Cin. gr., Oxford, O. Three 
aat of the interior of this species, 
of the interior have been seen. 
as follows : Shell rather large 
leat posteriorly, strongly con- 
nvexity a little in front of the 

)v Google 

176 The American OeoUgiat. i 

middle. Beaks prominent, compressed, almost ter 
Cardinal margin convex ; posterior margin rather st 
convex, and generally somewhat straightened in the 
half; basal margin straight or faintly sinuate; anterii 
abruptly rounded, very short. Anterior muscular scai 
subquadrate, situated beneath the beaks. Just above 
small accessory scar. 

Tlie much greater length of this ehell distinguishes i 
/. inincala, with which it is associated. The outline is 
like that of Modiolopsia modiolaris Conr., but the casts ( 
species are not so convex and the beaks lees prominent. 

Associated with this species and /. truncafa I found i 
examples of a form apparently intermediate in charac 
tween the two. They are, unfortunately, not in very 
condition, liut as far as they admit of comparison itwoi 
pear that they represent nothing more than a slightly eh 
variety of /. ImncaUi. 

Position ami locality : nenr the top of the Ciacinnati group, 
ford, O., and Kiclimond, Ind. 

Wbitella, n. gen. (Ety., proper name) 

Shell large, thin, obliquely quadrangular or si 
equivalve, inequilateral, more or less ventricose, 
all around. Beaks prominent, incurved. Cardinal r 
straight or slightly convex, the edges inflect«d to 
a sharply defined escutcheon extending beyond the 
nearly to the anterior extremity of the shell; area finelj 
ted longitudinally. Hinge line straight, from one-half 
thirds the length of the shell, with four or five oblique ti 
front of the beak.s. Posterior portion of hinge appa 
edentulous. Ligament probably both external and Interi 
latter only along the posterior third of the hinge line, 
simple adductor impressions, the posterior one very 
pallial line simple, entire. Surface of sbeil with fine com 
lines and sometimes with stronger concentric unduli 
Type, W. obliquata,n, sp. 

The shells for whose reception this genus is proposed 
been variously referred by authors to Dolabra McCo 
Meek and Worthen,) Cypricardites Conrad, ( by Ha 
Whitfield,} or Ci/rtodonla Billings. If McCoy's deecripl 
his genus is reliable then MTi-iteUa is clearly distinct, si 

)v Google 

New Lamellibranchiata. — Ulrick. 177 

claims that Dolabra is foimded upon inequivalve shells, hav- 
ing an edentulous hinge. 

From Gy;»n'cardV(e8(provi3ionaliy including Cyrtodonta) the 
new genuB ia totally different. All true species of that genus 
have thicker shells, a wide and strong hinge plate , and from 
two to four strong posterior lateral teeth. They have also no 
wide escutcheon as in Wkilella, though a narrow striated Hga- 
mental area exists in some of the species. 

The species which I would refer to this genus, besides those 
here descrihed as new, are Dolabra (Cypricardites,) gtertingensia 
M. and W, ( CypHcarditet quadrangular^ Whitfield, and { Cyr- 
todanla kindi Billings, At least four other undescribed species 
areknown to me, two in the Trenton and Galena of Minnesota, 
one in the Trenton of Kentucky, and one in the upper beds of 
the Cincinnati group, at WayneeviUe, Ohio. 

Wbitella obliqnata, 

)v Google 

The American Oeologisi- 

Fig. 13. 

Fig- ' 
Middletown and Waynesville, Ohio, and Spring Valley, Minn., a left 
Bide of a cast of the interior, preserTing a small fragment of the abell 
at " a " ; the specimen is a small one nat of the normal form, b, and 
c. anterior and cardinal vievB of another, nearly perfect, past of the 
interior. rf, left aide of another caa', the higlit of wliichhae been a lit- 
tle reduced by comprettsion. e, partial view of the interior of a valve from 
Minnesota, preserving the hinge teeth and faint muscular impresBiona. 

She!! large, oblique, eubrhomboidal in outline, produced in 
the postero basal region, ventricose, with point of greatest con- 
vexity above the middle ; beaks rather small, prominent, slight- 
ly incurved, sitnated one fourth of the length of the hinge line 
from its interior extremity, umbonal ridge well marked, the 
cardinal elope concave. Anterior end small, narrowly rounded 
above, merginf; gradually into the evenly and only moderately 
convex ventral margin. Posterior end sharply curved and 
produced below, gently convex and sloping forward in the up- 
per half to meet the slightly convex, cardinal margin. Escut- 
cheon well marked, wide, shallowest in front of the beaks. ■ 
Anterior muscular .scar elongate. Hinge thin, the posterior 
half simple, the anterior half, of the left valve, with two long 
slightly oblique teeth just beneath the beak, and two shorter 
parallel ones at the anterior extremity. 

The dimensions of cast of the interior, of the average size, 
areas follows: greatest length 50 mm.; greatest hight 38 
mm. ; greatest convexity 24 mm. A large specimen is 69 mm 
long, and 42 mm. high. 

This species is related to W. sterlingeims (Dolabra sterling- 
ensis, M. and \V.) but has a longer hinge line, is less convex, 
wider posteriorly, and more oblique, the angle included be- 
tween the hinge line and the umbonal ridge being much nar- 
rower. W.hindi ( Cyrtodont a hindi BUlmga) is much more, 
acutely produced posteriorly, being besides on the whole a more 
elongate shell, with the umbones also more tumid. 

Position and Ir>ca1ity : Upp«r beds of the Cinrinnati group, at several 
localities in Ohio and Indiana. One sppciirien from an equivalent 
horizon at Spring Valley, Minn Though not a rare Bpecies, good 
specimens are not by any means common. 

\Vhitella umbonata, n. sp. 

A detailed description of this species is scarcely neceBsary, 
since the main point in identifying it is to diatingoiBhit from 
W. obliquata. On comparison it will be found that the beaks 
and umbones are much larger than in that species, the pos- 


„ Google 

New Lamellihranekiata. — Ulrieh. 


tero-dorsal elope shorter and more abrupt, the hight compar- 
atively greater and the outline in general somewhat dlEFerent, 
particularly in the ventral region where the margin ia more 
convex than in IC ohUqiuila. W. qundrangvlaria (Cypricar- 
dites qitadrangularia Whitfield) is much shorter and more 

In a large specimen the hight and length are respectively 47 
mm. and 60 mm ; in a small Epecimen 38 mm. and 45 mm. 
greatest convexity of the latter 25 mm. 

Position and locality. Tapper bciie of tlie Cincinnati group at Blan- 
Chester, Uiddletown and other locations in Ohio and Indiana. 

Fig. 14. Whiielln umbonota, Ji. ep., upper beds of the Cincinnati 
roup. a. View of the riiflit side of a large example, taken from a 
utta-percha cast of a natural mould ot tlie exterior, ft, c, and d, three 
iews of ft well preserved but small cast of the inlerior, collected at 
}f iddletown, Ohio. 

)v Google 

The American Qeologist. 
Wbiiella compreBsa, i 

Fig. 15. Whitelia comprei'a n. ap., Trentoii alialee, Minn 
Minn. a. rig'it siile of ucast of ttii; interior; outline eli^htij res 
cardinal view of same, showing the imp^e^i8ion of the internal I 
at ''a"; c, anterior end view of eame ; a, ontlina view to pUow « 
of beaks above the hitijie line. Tlie figure.') are drawn it a seal 
leBB than natural size. «, view of the hiniie of a specimen I 
same beds at Cannon Falls, Minn., now reganled as belongini 
other species for which the uame Whiltlta tcoiirtdi ia proposed.' 

This spedea reBembles IT. obliquata, from the upper 
the Cincinnati group, rather closely, but differs in the 
ing respectB. It is much less ventricose, the umbona 
less marked, and the hinge line more extended ant 
causingtheanteriorend to be angular above or at any ra 
sharply rounded than is the case in W. obliquata. f 
the other species are very closely allied. 

The best specimen seen I owe to the liberality of Pro 
Hall of the Mianesota State University, who found it : 
neapolis, in the Trenton shales exposed in the railr 
near the University. Its greatest length, measuring fr 
anterior extremity of the hinge line to the postero-basa 
is hb mm. ; from beaks to same point, 51.5 mm. ; from 1 
tenor extremity of hinge line, at right angles with it, t 
margin, 41 mm. ; greatest convexity 19.5 mm. 

Fig, 15', is taken from an example collected at < 

'Since these dpHcriptiona and remarks were written I have 
a lot of bivalve sIipUb irom Mr. W. H. Scolield of Cannon Fall, 
tliem several specimens of If. tcoKeldi. showini; it to be a good 
I hope to offer additional illustrations in the next number. 

)v Google 

Editorial Comment 181 

Falia, Minn., which preserves the Bhell. This I now regard as 
belonging to a distinct species with a raore distinct urabonal 
ridge, greater tumidity and less projecting beaks, thus in al- 
most every respect agreeing more nearly with W. obliquata. 
Still it must be regarded as specifically distinct from that 
species since there is a well marked difference in the dentition 
of the hinge, the teeth in front of the beaks being shorter and 
leas nearly horizontal. Additional differences are brought out 
by a comparison with the Ohio specimens of that species, such 
as greater convexity, more pronounced umbonal ridge, slight- 
ly lees projecting and more closely approximated beaks. 
The escutcheon also is narrower, witii its sides more nearly 
vertical, while the internal ligament support at the posterior 
extremity of the hinge is stronger. The form of the shell is 
besides somewhat different, being comparatively higher and 
more erect. 

The basal margin and lower portion of the posterior end are 
unfortunately broken away on the Cannon Falls specimen, 
but BO far as the evidence at hand permits of judgment it 
would appear that the poatero-ventral angle is more abrupt 
than in W. obliquata. 

Taking all these points into consideration I feel justified in 
regarding it as sufficiently distinct to deserve recognition. I 
propose therefore to call it Whitella scojieldi in honor of Mr. 
W. H. Scofield of Cannon Falls, Minn., to whom I am indebted 
for many favors. 


Tbe Pri-Natal History of trb Geological Society of Amkrica. 
The movement for the Geological Society was inaugurated 

at Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1881. The following are the official 

records : 
The geologists of the American Association for the Advancement of 
ience, at the Cincinnati meeting, at a raeeting held in the room of 
ctlOD B, 5 p. m. Aug. IS, 1881, having renolved lo orgaoize an b^ho- 
fttion of the geologists of America, appointed a committee to draft a 
onstitntion and organization of such society. This committee con- 

listed of the following members : 
George C. Swallow, Columbia, Mo. 

)v Google 

182 The American Oeologiat. Bept. um 

N. H. Wincbetl, Minneapolis, Mino. 

S. A. Miller, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Wm. J. Davis, Loniaville, Ky. 

Jolin Collett, Intlianapolie, Ind. 

H. S. Willianw, Ithaca, N. Y. 

This committi^e met at the close of the meetinf; <of Section B.) with 
Prof. Wiuchell as chairman, and appointed H. S. WiUiame, Secretary, 
and after some I'onsultaticm it was agreed that S. A. Miller he re- 
quested to draft a constitution for the consideration of the committee 
at its next meeting. 


The second meeting was held at 9 a. m. Friday, Ang. ]9tb- Present: 
Winchell, Miller, Davis, Willianis and Swallow. Miller presented the 
following prenmble and constitution : 

Whereas, The geologists of America are without any central organi- 
zation ; there is no place for them to assemble for the discussion of 
difiicalt questions, and no publication which they can call their own ; 
now, therefore, in order to bring them together in an associatioD for 
the mutnal benefit arising from such discussion and to found a publi- 
cation devoted exclusively to their services, we do establish this 
society nndcr the following constitution : 

Akt. 1. This society shall be known as the Ameriean Oeological 

Art. 2. Any (ine desiring to cultivate a knowledge of geology or 
paleontology is eligible for membership. Members shall be elected 
by ballot at a regular meeting, except that during the interim mem- 
bers may be el-'Cted by the vot''P of the President, Treasurer and Sec- 
retary, in which case the Secretary shall record the ballot. The 
initiation fee shall be $10, and the annual dues shall be fixed by the 
by-laws ; but any member contributing at any one time to the society 
the sum of flOO shall become a life member, free from the payment of 
annual dues or other assessment. 

AnT. 3. The officers shall be a President, two Vice Presidents, a 
Treasurer, a Secieiary, and such other officers as may be required by 
the by-laws of the Societv. They shall hold their offices for one year 
and until their successors are duly elected. 

This constitution wob discussed, amended, and was to be 
Bent to other geologists for suggestiona and improvements, 
but it was finally decided to be best to defer more definite 
action to the next meeting of the A. A. A. S., while a commit- 
tee were to prepare a circular asking for the opinions of geolo- 
gists generally, and reporting at Montreal. The Secretary, 
Prof. H. S. Williams, prepared a rough draft descriptive of the 
meeting and the contemplated action desired, which read as 
follows : 

)v Google 


. A. A. S. (August 1S81) the 
onsider the propriety of form- 
eir mutual interests in direct- 

■d work by geologiata throagh- 
ition and intercom man ication 
resent to offer good reason for 
of Geologists. Tliie wont la 
cat identification and descrip- 
if the true values and relative 
rock maaeea appearing in the 
purpose of mutual aid and co- 
lds, it was resolved by formal 
a distinct society of Americun 

lonstitution, but upon further 
importance that all the geolo- 
e consulted, and that perma- 
l and mature deliberation than 
>n of the Association. It was 
le prepared by the committee, 
lembled, and that this be sent 
tir consideration and the time 
..A.A.S. be designated for the 
ucb a society. The following 
le attained by such an oi^ani- 
r any already esieting society. 
nelhods of making and record- 
enclalure ; and a better under- 
ist territory of America, 
publication and discussion of 
ngto stratigraphy and paleon- 

ahall be collected for reference 
ona needed by every working 
mt out of print, very rare and 
. consulted. 

ing of American geologists for 
; to scientific system the great 
gatliered by individuals or by 
regions. The want of better 
^communication among the 
heir mutual aid tind coo[>era- 

ig are of the opinion that those 
ation of a distinct society of 

)v Google 


7%e American QeologiaU 

American geologists, with a permanent organisation, a central and 
permanent abiding place, and an oi^an for the publication of the work 
of its members. These views are reepectfullj' submitted ta our fellov 
geologists of America with the request that they give them careful 
consideration, and that all interested in the accomplishment of the 
porposeB here eet forth may be present at the next meeting of the 
A.A.A.S. at Montreal, and prepared to take action in the matter — the 
organization of such a society as will meet the necessities and be 
worthy the grandeur of the work given to American geologists to ac- 

The circular letter finally prepared by N. H, Winchell and 
adopted by the committee reads as follows : 


To the Geologitli of America : 
At a meeting of the geologists in attendance at the Cincinnati session 

(IttSJ) of the American AaBOciation for the Advancement of Science, 
the nnderaigned were appointed acommittee to correspond withAiner- 
ican geologists, respecting the formation of a .American QeologietU 
Society, the result of such correspondence to be reported at the next 
meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Sci- 

Pursuant to such instructions, it is deemed best to present etindry 
considerations, some of tbein brought forward at Cincinnati, which 
seem to render it desirable that such a society be organized in America, 
and which have been approved, and hereby are presented jointly by 
the committee. 

The committee are desirous of eliciting opinions from all active and 
professional geologists, to the end that more judicious and effective 
action may be taken at the neit meeting. 

1. The science of geology, with its kindred branches of paleonto- 
logy and lithology, has niade rapid progress in America-'perhapB 
more rapid than in any other country — in tlie last twenty years. 

2. The literature of geology is largely distributed through numerooa 
scientific journals, and in the proceedings of miscellaneous scientific 
societies, to procure which is diflicult and expensive. 

3. The present facilities afibrded through the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science are insufficient, and are nnavailable by 
the working geologists of the country— because : (a.) The meetings 
are held in the summer, which is the geologist's working season. In 
order to be present he must interrupt his work and leave the field, 
often at considerable expense especially if he has a party with him. 
(b.) Its brief meetings partake largely of the nature of vacation 
pleasure -parties, and much of the time is engrossed by reception, 
gratulation and excursions, (c) There is no sufficient avenue ol 
publication of the work of geologists and especially of palfeontologists. 
(d.) The aesoaiation has become so large, wide-spread and popular is 

)v Google 

Editorial Comment. 185 

its work, membership and organization that its spirit necessarilr, and 
properly, is not favorable to tbe development of any special work 
tbroogb its own agency- 

4. The geologiets as a body, have no way of expreesing their views 
on important state, national or international meaaures, except throagh 
the medium of the American Association, at the meetings of which 
there is a perceptible and increasing lack of attendance and interest 
on the part of geologists, in cnnseqaence of which the actual views of 
the geologists of the country on such questions can not be obtained 
and expressed correctly. 

6. There is a need of co-ordination of the results of state surreys, 
to the establishment of greater uniformity in nomenclature and 

6. There is a need of co-operation on the part of palaeontologists, 
and of some system in describing and publishing new species. 

7. There is no strictly geological magazine or journal in America. 

8. There is no strictly geological society in America. 

9. There are numerous such societies and journals in Europe, as 
well as journals and societies devoted exclusively to the branches of 
pateontology and mineralogy. 

The committee desires also to disclaim any intention to trespass on 
the field and plans of the American Association for the Advancement 
of Science, or to criticise it in any way aa to the discharge of its func- 
tions. Its tendency is to popularize science and to advance its accep- 
tance by the world by difTusing scientific knowledge, and by 
announcing important discoveries, and as such its sphere of activity is 
one that no special scientific body can occupy, but which still will be 
aided by the existence of tribntary organizations, snch as that contem- 
plated by this circular. 

Persona to whom this circular is addressed are requested to 
communicate promptly their views and recommendations to any 
member of the committee, in order that a report may be presented at 
the Montreal meeting of the American Association, embodying such 
recommendations as may be warranted by the correspondence, and 
sDmmarizing the same. 
Signed : N. H. WINCHELL, State Geologist of Minnesota, 

Minneapolit, Minn. 
JOHN R. PROCTER, SUte Geologist of Kentucky, 

FranifoH, Ky. 
HENRY S. WILLIAMS, Professor of Paleontology, 
ComtU Univernty, Ithaca,N. Y. 
JOHN COLLETT, State Geologist of Indiana, 

IndianapoliM, Indiana. 
G. C. SWALLOW, Professor of Geology, etc., 

Vnivertity of Miiiouri, Columbia, Mo. 
WM. J. DAVIS, Paleeontologiet, 

AititlarU Qeol. Sur. of Ky., LouiivilU, Ky. 
S. A. MILLER, Palseontoli^st, 

Cincinnati, Ohio. 




The American Oeologitt. 

Prof. H. S, Williame presented notes and suggeBtioua at 
Montreal, in 1882, derived from the replies made to the circu- 
lar sent out by the committee. Most of tbese are quoted be- 
low. Those omitted are of peraons who did not finally become 
fellows of the existing G.S-A. 

S. A. Miller, Cincinnati: Approves "if such a society can be formed 
Mthout unwarranted contention." 

R. ElUworth Call, DeB Moinea, la. : "The project meete my hearty 
approval." Urges that it should Include only "working geologists." 
"The project is well devised." Very cordial in approval. A strictly 
geological journal could be Buccessfully sustained. 

Ja». Macfarlane, Tonawanda, Pa.: "Most heartily concurs with 
every word" of the circular, and "sincerely hopes" the society may 
be formed. 

Warren Upham, Minneapolis: Receives his hearty approval. 
"Such a. society can be abundantly supported" and "made an efHcient 
working oi^caniiation" and "will contribute to a more rapid and more 
sure extension of our knowledge in geology." 

Franklin and W. &. Piatt, PhUadelphia : Entirely agree with tlie 
Committee, and will cooperate in carrying out the scheme and the 
eetabliahment of a geological magazine in any way that maybe chosen. 

W. P. Blakt, New Haven, Ct. : Pledges his hearty cooperation in 
any well considered plan. 

C. A. Aghbumer, Philadelphia: After much consideration comes to 
the following- conclueiona: 1. The movement should be general 
and issue witli the approval of representative geologists. 2. There 
should be numerous sab-societies whose me mherehip shall cover special 
areas with close fellowship and correspondence. 3. Very great need 
of a geological magazine. 4, There should be a league or congress to 
meet in different parts of the states every four or five years, the mem- 
bers being only members of local societies authorized by the congress. 
The journal shall be published by a committee nominated by the 
several societies and elected by the league. Every society should 
publish its own transactions, and the league a brief of its proceedings. 

J. D. Dana, (in a letter to Ashburner, dated August 25, ISfiT) : 
"There is no doubt that a geological journal would be a good thing for 
the science if it would be used by authors. The country is so large 
that every little corner has its publishing society, and so science is as 
wide spread in its original publications. There is good in this but 
great inconvenience — and evil also." 

R. T. CroM, Denver, Col. : "There certainly ought to be an Ameri- 
can Geological Society." 

P. A- Chadboume, Amherst, Maes. : "The reasons given in the cir- 
cular letter for forming an American Geological Society are weighty, 
and I shall be glad to cooperate in forming such a society." 

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rial Comment. 187 

'.. I. : "I heartly endorse the moTement." 
"I BB.J to you, aa a member of that com- 

lich. : "Circular letter was received with 
lideratioDB presented seem to me pertinent 
ay full sympathy and support; and hope a 
iSentAtive geologists of America will return 

mSeld, Pa. : "I should be very glad to see 
I this country, and to do all I can to aid it. 
bte, though difficult to maintain such a 
lent condition." Endurees all the points 
1 whether such a society, if established, is 
ifnl. This depends mostly on the founda- 
Ue does nut think fortnightly nor monthly 
. Englund is ho small thiit the geologists 
In the United States the distances are too 
t often. If the meetings are to be held in 
S. there would be unplenaant rivalry. He 

mteiin'jt but the reliance ihall be on pub- 

nada : Expresses hearty approval of the 
'. Its desirability is so wl'II set forth in the 
ticult to say more in favor of Che plan. "I 
iBons therein stated" etc., and "trust that 
rn as one of the original members" at the 

, Mass. ; "I shall be very glad to aid the 

1 Geological Society in every way in my 
Id undertake the publication of an authori- 
dcHOriginal articles one could And nbstrnctB 
ig of importance published in this country 
1 the subject. I think such a society, with 
neetings (if necessary) and publications, 
ank among the scientilic societies in the 
licient support from geologists and pnleon- 

.', 1'h. : Ifeartly approves the suggextionB 
whether thero should not l>e head-quiirters 
iw York, with oltice, library and museum, 
lere and sometimes at other points. 

"The formation of such a society would 
nericau geology, especially if it leads to the 
ted geological journal, as it would do much 
uon nomenclature by American geologists." 
t, N. Y. : " Such a society, it seems to me, 
it necessary ; and I shall be most happy to 
•very way in my power." 


188 The American Geologist. sept. ib»8 

Chat. E. B\Uin,'l\\. : " The geological societj' ahonld Btaod on its 
own feet, and not start ae a section of any other society. Yon can 
count on me BS a supporter." 

0. E. UlHeh, Cincinnati, O. : "I heartily endorse the committee's 

W. H. Feittt, Ann Arbor, Mich. : " In tlie circular lett«r the reasons 
vhy it is deairatale to form a new society, in addition to those already 
existing, are stated quite cogently ; and I am now more strongly in- 
clined than I have hitherto been, to favor the project." 

C. H. Hitchcock, Hanover, N. H. : " The proposal strikes me favor- 
ably. It is not necessary to be divorced from the parent association, 
any more than for the chemical and entomological societies, which 
frequently hold sessions in connection u'ith those ol the A. A. A. B. 
It would not be desirable to conflict witii that. It might be practicable 
to meet sometimes with the mining engineers. If the membership 
(ball include all geologists, it would be practicable to combine their 
enei^iea to secure certain objects not now attainable. We could organ- 
ize committees to propose a scheme for classification of rocics or uni- 
form colors, unless we accept the results of the International Congress. 
We could catalogne the fossiisi make a U. g. map, etc. Better than 
all, we could eeitablieh a magazine in which every one could be free to 
eKpreflb his opinions. We shall have to organize on a free, democratic 
basis Tliere should be no cliques to unite. The free voice of tbe 
majority should decide every disputed point. Votes upon debated 
points should be obtained by correspondence. If enough geologists 
would cooperate to make the society a success, I should be in favor of 

G. H. Stone, Colorado- Springs, Col.: "I am in favor of ancli .a 
society, provided it can be made to remedy the defects of the A. A. A. 
a. To this end it would be necessary to secure the very general coop- 
eration of geologists and also large endowments bo as to publish the 
parers presented. If geologists have to furnish their own plates (as in 
A. A. A. S.) no gain will be secured. If sn efficient plan is adopted I 
shall be glad to aid it in any way in my power." 

Edward Orion, Cleveland, 0.: "I am cordially in favor of an asso- 
ciation of American geologists under proper auspices. The new organ- 
isation need not come into collision or rivalry with the A. A. A. S." 

John CoUtU, Indianapolis, Ind. ; "The desire for such a society is 
unanimous and emphatic." 

TV. /. Davit, President of the Ohio Falls Geological Society,'Ky., 
regrets being unable to attend the Montreal meeting, and authorizes 
N. H. Winchell to act as his proxy. The Geological Society of thirteen 
members approves of the formation of this national or rather Amtrican 
Geological Society, so as to include the Canadian brethren. 

Principal J. W. Dawton, McGill College, Montreal, P. Q., in ac- 
knowledging the receipt of circular, says: "In this matter we have 
been beforehand with yon in Canada. Our new Royal Society has a 
geological section which will serve all the purpose to us of a Geological 


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Comment. 189 

itnfoTBf constitute a distinct bod? 
the U. 8., but shall be very glad to 

al, 1682 (official. At the Montreal 
l)t82, a number of American geolo- 
Btion of organizing an American 
ill vas chosen chairman andC. H. 
ione were held, whose proceedings 

Btateinenta : 
t tbe committee appointed in Gin- 

geologists upon the expediency of 
; ninety answers had been receii'ed 
wo of which spoke favorably of the 
;y,, reported answers from thirty 
id answers from six persons, all 
undred and twenty-six opinions in 
rom the formation of tire proposed 

otchkiHS, K. P. Whittield, and C. 
sider the situation, and report th« 
I. This committee recommended 
itablishment of a geological maga- 
id adopted. Tlie Cincinnati com- 
le formation of a geolo^ficnl associ- 
upon the tablf! ; and the commit- 
tnd report at JlinneapoliH in 1883, 
ng of C. II. Hitchcock, J. S. New- 
IS and G. M. Cook was designated 
' Washington, with the view of sa- 
id be afforded by him in the sup- 
voted to recommend to (Section E 
ramittee to confer with the director 
(gard to cooperation between the 

3ral meetings were Profs. A, Win- 
H. S. Williams, W. H. Niles, E 
, K. P. Whitfield, A. H. Worthen 
. Cook, J. W. Spencer, J. S. New- 
a. F. Walling, E. D. Cope and f. 

C. H. Hitchcock, Secy. 
inferred with major Powell in re- 
ed a desire fur the success of the 
'ibute to its welfare when estah- 
prejudicial to its interests if he 

C. H. Hitchcock, f^ecy. 

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190 7^ American Geoloffitt. Beptuw 


ThisBOcietj shalt be called "The American Geological Society." Its 
object shall be the ext«iuioii of the science of geology in America by 
the following mesne : 

(a) The publication of a geological magazine or jonmal. 

W The publication of memoirs on any branch of the science in such 
manner aa hereinafter provided. 

(e) The maintenance of an organization for the discuaaion of gen- 
eral queatioQS of importance in cartography, nomenclature and stra- 

(d) The assembling of the geologiato of the coantry tor mutual in- 
formation and comparison of their respective work. 

Any person may become a member of this society by sabscribing to 
the constitution and paying the initiation fee of five dollars, and may 
maintain each membership by the annnal payment of the sum of three 
dollars. Any member in arrears tn*o years shall be stricken from the 
roll providing he shall have been twice notified by the secretary of the 
society after an interval of six months. 

Exeeutife Council. There shall be elected by printed ballot from 
the members of the society after open nomination an E.reculire Council 
numbering twenty-flve, whose duties shall be such as hereinafter pro- 
vided. Those members only ehall be eligible to the Council who shall 
have prosecuted within the last preceeding five years, some original 
work in geology or shall have published such original papers as shall 
show that they are actively engaged in the science. 

J>uii« o/lht Coancil. The executive council shall have charge of all 
the work and property of the society. The executive conncil shall be 
elected in the first iuHtance by tlioae geologists present at the first meet- 
ing after the adoption of this constitution, and annually thereafter 
three new nu^mber^ shall be elected at large by the society. The coun- 
cil first elected shall be divided into five sections in alphabetical order 
for the purpose of determining the tenure of office of each member. 
These sections sh 1 determine by tot which shall hold office for one, 
two and tliree years respectively, and at each annual election those 
newly elected shull fill the places of those whose terms shall annaaUy 

The executive council shall determine the number and material of 
all publications, and shall have the responsible control of all its work 
and property, except so far as otherwise <letermined by this constitution. 
They shall take measures to extend the membership of the society, to 
establish and maintain a geological mngazine when in their judgment 
such journal would be successfully maintained ; to publish the works 
of paleontologists and others, in memoirs or in serials; to call meetings 
of the general society at such times and places as they shall determine 
and shall arrange for the programs of proceedings at such meetings, 
and do euch other things as shall be in their judgment necessary for 

)v Google 

^log7 in Amer- 

dent, who shall 
be the president 
ne of thia office; 
ho eh&ll perform 
ve such compen- 

Lhe MinDeapolis 
le geologists as- 
igazlne was held 
ere read and ap- 

ogical Section of 
Idreseed to the 
uerican Society 
iralty concurred 
da liberal publi- 
iple endowment 

lat a committee 
^ological Section 
rith reference to 
ablishment of a 

idelphia meeting 
ttee, the othera 

of this meeting, 
ots. N. H. Win- 

S. Williams. 
Buce were N. H. 

W, Spencer, E. 
7. Claypole and 

rety much dis- 
iW3 at Miiine- 
Emed to have 
my, since they 
the committee 
in 1884. Four 
opponents to 
iretary of the 
lid be done by 
;hey sent out a 

)v Google 

192 Th€ American Geologist. 

tion with the 1888 aeesion of the A. A. A. S, Tl 
proved to be efficacious as it led to the orgai 
Geological Society of America. 

Meanwhile, several of the geologiats, unwi 
longer the issuance of a geological magazine, hi 
initiative and established The American Geoloc 
journal of geology. The first number appeared 
with the following gentlemen for editors ani 
Prof. S. Calvin, Prof. E. W. Claypole, Dr. Persi 
Lewis E. Hicks, E. 0. Ulrich, Dr. A. Winche 
H. Winchell. The call for the Cleveland mee 
in the Geologist for June, 1888, (which see). 

Selectiom from antviert to this circvlaT: — 

W. B. Potter, Washington University, St. LoQis, ] 
like to see a geological society formed on an independ< 
to that of the Geological Soi-iety of Great Britain, 1 
four meetings a year and liaving the direction and coc 
ical quarterly mngazine, in \s'hicli high class papei 
subjects should appear, with reliable notes, reference: 
geological material. It does uot seem to me that thii 
espect of the present stage of geological knowledge ah 

A. R. C. Seiu'^n, Director of the Geological Survej 
cordially endorse the idea [of the society], and have n 
our geologists will join the society when inaugurated.' 

F. W. Putnam, Permanent Secretary, A.A.A.S. : ' 
meetings of Section E, I do not see any reason why E 
vote to meet at such tjme.^ as it may agree upon, and 
the sanction of the council. If the council agrees to 
matured by the section, I should think that would si 
Of course the section could not involve the Associatior 
not previously sanctioned by the council, and any m. 
tion would have to be acted upon by the council." 

E. D. Cope, Philadelphia: "On genera! principles 
more societies and publications than we have. But tb 
turn is closely detined membership, bo that such new » 
an improvement on what we have. If the membership 
would there be enough members to pay expenses? I 
that there would be enough working geologists in the < 
on such a society sucessfully; but I suspect that th( 
would suffer by their frequent absence. On the wh( 
of such a society, provided, (1) that its memberebip is I 
gists who have actually done good work, and (2) that 
officers independent of all other bodies whatsoever. I 
ty must look to the future for its principal utility, 

J. J. Stevertton, New York City, does not wish the m 


„ Google 

prefer mach to see an 
;ht be eligible except 
the advancement of 

formation of a club or 
distinct organization, 
ner or in May, and to 

I favor of the indepen- 
for the reason that it 
To the present prop- 

'Hastens to say that 
most desirable, as is 

a see a live American 
of the possibility of 

the proposed organi' 

> each of the proposi- 

bts the expediency of 
the A. A. A. S, "I am 
)gical Society as soon 
jin, contribute freely 
1 Geological Society, 
jport of two-thirds or 
lould prefer that the 
not make my support 

of Sciences, approves 
t, geological society is 
..A.A.S. But an in- 
ng section E has the 

es the proposition to 

plan of the circular, 

;eology does not of 
the A. A. A. S.and 
ate anew association. 
he proposed society 
1 feeling among geol- 
lot have memberBhip 

)v Google 

Ifl4 The American Geologist. 8«pt.i»c 

dependent upon membership In the national aeaociation, bnt instead 
throw open the doora widely to all tme geologists that care to come." 

W. X. Davit of Cambridge, Mass., asks if the proposed society would 
not interfere with the winter meetings of the Society of American Nat- 
uralists. Saggesta that with membership as open as that of A. A. A. 
6. th« society wonld not be an advanced institution. He woald have 
stricter attention paid to technical geological business at the meetings 
of Section E, etc. . 

C. IT. Hitckeoek, Hanover, N. H., suggests (1) that members of Sec- 
tion E, F and H of A. A. A. S. be eligible to fellowship in the new or- 
ganiiation ; {2) officers of Section E to be «:t o^cio the mant^ere of any 
extra meetings through the year ; (3) sectional committee of Section E 
with the President and Secretary to constitute the council for the man- 
agement of the the society ; (4) the council to call the extra meetinge 
and to make all the neceHsary arrangements; (5) excursions for the 
porpoRe of acquiring familiarity with not^d localities to be a specialty ; 
(6) special publications to be issued whenever there are funds on band 
sufficient for that purpose; these to be issued in slips or forms and 
distributed to every member as soon as printed. 

A sketch of the meetings held later, leading to the establish- 
ment of the present Society, will be found in volume 1 of the 


Characleriitiot of Volcatioa, leith contributiont of facU and principUi 
from the Hawaiian itlandt, including a historical review of Hawaiian 
volcanic action of the past Bixty-seven years, a discussion of the rela- 
tion of volcanic islands to deep sea topoj^raphy, and a chapter on 
volcanic island denudation. By Jamet D. Dana. Illustrated by maps 
of the islands ; abathymetric map of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans ; 
and views of cones, craters, a lava cascade, a lava fountain, etc. New 
York : Dodd, Mead & Co., 1890. 8 vo. pp. ivi, 399, with 16 plates and 
65 illustrations in the text. 

The title-page of this volume well indicates its scope and contents. 
Excepting its first 24 pages, which are an elementary general descrip- 
tion of volcanoes and their products, with remarks on the methods 
and causes of volcanic action, it is chiefly reprinted from articles pub- 
lished in the American Journal of Science during the past four years. 
The author'fl first obnervations on the Hawaiian volcanoes were made 
in 1840, as geologist of the Wilkes United States Exploring Expedition ; 
and in the preparation of this work he again visited these islands '" 
1887, fifty-throe years after the beginning of his study of the TOlcanOi. 
in an ascent of Veattviue. His son, Prof. Edward S. Dana, contribntt 
37 pages on the petrography of the Hawwiau lavas, of which 10 page 
with a plate and several figures describe very remarkable lava atalae 
tites from eaverus in the Ifoont Loa lava streams. 


leal Literature. 195 

, DOW generally accepted, 
Dtinental plateaus became 
in era aad have since been 
'e mnet refer the great vol- 
islands, as likewise other 
nearly all of wbicti consist 
. of molten portions of the 
a of considerable thickness 
be continents. The lavas of 
'ying chiefly in the amount 
ion of the magma in the 
steam, producing vesicula- 
va six to nine hundred fee't 
sated to infiltration of the 
he column of molten rock. 
ore frequent occurences of 
greater volumes of steam 
imit crater than in Kilauea, 
}n the flank of Mount Loa. 
ithetic action of these vents 
. the elastic vapor of water 
ry and of superficial origin, 
f the magma at the great 
ippliee of lava and of vol- 

3. E. Button in the Fourth 
'ey, with the earlier notices 
raiian islands the foremost 
rt important branch of geo- 
1 to be solved. 
Ifew Jeney. By William 
{From Proceedings of the 
V. 1889, pp. 3G5-423; with 
t.) This essay is based on 
tudent at Harvard college, 
contoured maps published 
estigation proved very in- 
icIuaioDS will probably be 
rtions of the Atlantic slope 
of adjoining states and the 

in Permian time, produced 
imably of great hight for a 
seic belt their topography 
) relief before Triassic de- 
. of mountain-building the 
;ie TriasBic cycle suffered 


196 The American Geologist. sopt isw 

monoclinBl tilting and faulting, with the result of a new monntainouB 
topography of leas elevation and much less stractural distortion Uian 
that of Permian time. The Appalachian mountains are therefore not 
to be regarded as the residual relief of an elevation given once for alt 
at the time of the great Permian folding. The original mountain 
ranges were worn down low before and during Triassic time, after 
which, in the Jurassic period, they were again uplifted and much 
eroded to a sarEace named by the authors the Schooley peneplain. 
Next the southeastern portion of this area was moderately depreased 
beneath the oea and covered by Cretaceous sediments. The ridges of 
the present time, showing remarkable evenness in their general hight 
are parts of the old peneplain that have as yet withstood the erosion 
consequent on a third uplift, which as well as other oscillations of later 
date, seems to have been of moderate amount and gentle inequality. 

Vary interesting studies of changes in the course of streams are 
given in detail with numerous maps. The valleys in the Archfean 
highland portion of the peneplain are mainly coincident in position 
with those of an earlier geographic cycle, but in the Triassic area most 
of the streams were superimposed upon the present rocks from Creta- 
ceous Strata that formerly stretched across them, and in many instances 
they appear to have been much affected by adjustments required by 
their denudation of the soft Cretaceous formation and the uncovering 
of the hard trap ridges of the Watchnng mouotains. 

Geology nf the Laseen Peak District, By J. S. Diller. Pages 395* 
432; plates xlv-li; figures 13-19. (Accompanying the eighth annual 
report of the director of the U. S. Geological survey.) The mountain 
district of northern California here described, culminating in Lasaen 
peak, 10,437 feet above the sea, appears topographically to be a coO' 
tinuation of the Sierra Nevada, but is found to belong geologically to 
the Cascade range. Eruptive rocks of the Pliocene and Quaternarj' 
periods, including rbyolite, quartz andeaite (dacite), hornblende 
andesite, hypersthene andesite, basalt, and quartz basalt make up the 
entire Lassen ridge. These overlie sedimentary rocks, which in de- 
scending order comprise Pliocene and Mioeene strata, the Chico beds 
of the upper Cretaceous, and the auriferous slate series. The present 
report treats mainly of the sedimentary formations and the topograph- 
ic changes brought about by erosion and deposition, by the outpouring 
of lava, and by orographic movements ; while detailed descriptions of 
the igneous rocks are reserved to a later report. 

After the folding and uplifting of the aoriterons series near the close 
of the Jurassic period, Mr. DiUer finds evidence that "during the 
whole of the Cretaceousand the Tertiary the greatbelt of country lying 
east of the present Bacramento valley, embracing the region now oc- 
cupied by the Sierra and a lai^e portion of the Great Basin, was above 
the sea, and subjected to great degradation, which reduced it almost 
to its base level of erosion." But at the end of the Pliocene period 
this area is shown to have been greatly elevated by successive uplift? 

Kuba. J 


Icffieal Literature, 197 

along the course of the Sierra and 
I the Quaternary period, profound 
xa as « distinct range bj the 8ub- 

'al of this highest monutain range 
ee lava flows of the Pacific slope to 
laccumnlated in vast thickness and 
itinent.The possible and indeed the 

great geologic developments has 
ell in the Grst volume of the Aubb- 
ended eiploration of the geology of 
cuiedby Mr. Becker of the U. S. 

much fuller knowledge of its age 
Gapt. Button's researches on the 
ce northward may be expected to 
rith the drift formations and the 

By Samuel H, ScuonER. Pages 
iO-23. (Accompanying the eighth 
ey.) Seven of the total seventeen 
ttve been found at Florissant, Col- 
in beds BuppoBed to be of Oligo- 
regarded as dietinctly subtropical 
inging to the aberrant group Liby- 
'csembles least of all the American 
of all one that occurs in western 
I in the structure of the Florissant 
there was very rapid development 
hat they began to exist at a far 
in which, at Aii, the oldest fossil 

nt Deterl, Maine. By Nathaniei, 
; plates LXiv-Lsxvi ; figures S.ll-K. 
report, U. S- geological survey.) 
was undertaken for the purpose of 
t of New England hae been affected 
overed by the recession of the ice- 
1. Mount Desert, the largest island 

Maine, having an area of about a 
i for this inquiry because it is the 

shore line of the United States, 
lint, rises 1,527 feet above the sea, 
land is almost five hundred feet, 
outb and east, and its long, smooth 
I, are well adapted for preserving 
tbe land. 

)v Google 

198 The Amencan Oeologitt. Septim 

Professor Shkler believes that he finds one class of shore lines, 
namely, rock escarpments eroded b^ wave action, clearlj traceable in 
certain localities at successive bights, first, 90 to 100 feet above tbtt 
sea; second, about 160 to 195 feet; third, about 220 to 540 feet; fourth, 
from 270 to 290 feet; fifth, about 300 feet; sixth, 3S0 to 430 feet; and 
seventh, abont 480 to 500 feet. At still greater heights precipitooa 
cliffa, which Prof. Shater thinks to have been worn by the sea, occur 
in nnmerons places between 550 and 1000 feet above the sea. Finally, 
on the more gently sloping mountain enmmits of the island, eroded 
benches of rock ore fonnd at the hights of 1,140 to 1,160 feet ; 1,210 to 
1,240 feet; and, less distinctly, from 1,260 to 1,320 feet, at 1,460 to 1,480 
feet, and at about 1,610 feet, or only 17 feet below the top of the Green 
mountain. The author therefore concludes that the Mount Desert re- 
gion at the time of the disappearance of the ice-sheet was depressed 
probably not less than 1,500 feet, and certainly more than 1,20<> feet, 
below its present level, to which he supposes that it has been elevated 
by a succession of Qplifts, sometimes very sudden, with long interven- 
ing stages of repose. 

It seems more probable, however, if not altogether sore, that the 
eroded rock benches and clifis so fully observed and described 
in this memoir have been produced by the ordinary process of subaC- 
rial denudation, in which the formation of horizontal benches, resem' 
bling those of shore lines, would result from the presence of the nearly 
horizontal system of joint planes intersecting the granites of these 
mountain slopes. Indeed, this explanation of the origin of the rock 
scarps without aid from marine action is the only view coosistt-nt with 
the absence of wave-cut terraces and wave-built beach ridges upon the 
deposits of glacial drift which cover large tfact^ of the island. Nearly 
twenty yeurs ago Prof. Shaler thoroughly searched for shore lines of 
this class on Mount Besert.but found no traces of them (Memoirs, Bos- 
ton Society of Natural History, 1874, vol. ii. p. 327) ; nor have any been 
discovered during more recent investigation. This deficiency, though 
not alluded to in the present report, seems fatal to its argument that 
there has been a great and long continued postglacial submergence. 

But marine fossils occnning up to the hight of about 100 feet above 
the sea in the stratified bedson Mount Desert formed during the glacial 
retreat, nnd at the hi^ht of about 'iOO feet on Deer Isle, ten to fifteen 
miles distant to the southwest, show that the region was depre»^ed to 
a moderate amount. From the elevations at which such fossiliferons 
marine deposits are found overlying the till, it is known that the post- 
glacial submergence of the land, beginning in the vicinity of Boston 
and in Nova S<'otia, gradually increased toward the north and north- 
west to about 520 feet at Montreal. This depression, however, appt 
to have been of short duration, for no definite lines of shore erosioi 
beach deposits raised above the present eea level have beea diecovei 
if we except these rock benches and clifis of Mount Desert. 

)v Google 


OBER, 1890. 


■a S. Prosper. 

ay, Ohio, demonstrated in Novem- 
natural gas in comiQercial quan- 
3 of northweBtern Ohio, The dia- 
lorizoD for oil and gas was follow- 
ells in other states, especially in 
erlain bj the Trenton limestone, 
ictors was early directed toward 
jing field. In April, 1887, a teat 
tral New York, near Morrisville, 

le year wells were drilled in west- 
thaca, Seneca FbUb, Clyde, Wol- 
! Seneca Falls, Wolcott, and 
itity of natural gas was obtain- 
Qount for commercial purposes, 
well came from the upper part of 
-oiu the upper Trenton limestone 
re lis. 

leen failures, in bo far as obtaining 
>urposes is concerned ; yet, from a 

)v Google 

200 The American Oeologiat. ootiaeo 

scientific BtaodpoiDt, they have furnished the geologiet with 
mportant information. PreviouB to the drilling of t bese wells 
it was not poasible to give accuratel7 the thickness of the De- 
vonian and Silurian rocks of central New York. The thick- 
ness of the formations was estimated in various ways, princi- 
pally by the following two : first, from sections of cliffs or 
hills and secondly from the supposed rate of dip per mile ; but 
it has been found that in nearly all cases these were underesti- 
mates of the actual thickness of the formations. Furthermore, 
these estimates seem to have been regarded by many geologists 
, as the maximum estimate for the thickness of the rocks and 
for this reason they were inclined to regard them as an over- 
estimate for the probable thickness of the formations. 

In a communication recently presented by an able geolo- 
gist to a geological society it was stated that the Utica shale at 
Syracuse, New York was one thousand feet below the surface.' 
WheB we remember that a well was drilled at Syracuse to the 
depth of 1969 feet, that it stopped in the gray Medina and 
that below this is the entire thickness of the Hudson group 
befcwe reaching the Utica shale, then we have an idea of the 
dilT^Dce between the popular notion of the thickness of 
these rocks and their actual thickness. On this account it 
seems desirable to compile general geological sections for New 
York state ; giving, so far as possible, the thickuess of the 
difl^rent formations as obtained from these well records. The 
seotioD selected for this paper is one ranging geologically 
from the Barclay coal of Pennsylvania to the Archean of On- 
tario, Canada. Geographically the section extends northward 
from Barclay, Bradford county, Penn'a, passing near Elmira, 
Ithaca, Seneca Falls, Clyde and Wolcott, New York, and un- 
der lake Ontario to Canada. It fs appoximately along a line 
somewhat east of the 77tli meridian and may he called the 
section of western central New York, 


First, a condensed record of each well will be given and then 
a general geological section, compiled in the main ^om these 
recorda. The wells will be taken up in geographical order, com- 
meDoing with the southern and proceeding northward. 

The Bird Creek well is located near the center of the north- 

'American Geologist, vol. v. (February, 1890), p.I18. 

)v Google 

Devonian and Silurian Bocks. — Prosaer. 


ern boundary liiiQ of Wells township, Bradford county, Peno., 
not far &om Wells station on the Tioga Division of the New 
York, Lake Erie and Western R. R. It ie eighty rode south 
of the 77th mile etone of the state line between New York and 
Pennsylvania, and about eight miles southwest of Elmira, 
New York. Drilling was commenced November 15tb, 1887 
and finished April 17th, 1888. The well produced no oil ; but 
a small amount of gas was obtained at a depth of 348 feet. At 
371feet a little salt water was found and at about the same depth 
a vein of mineral water. The altitude of the mouth of the 
well ia about 1600 feet A, T., according to Mr. Wm. Brown, to 
whom I am indebted for the samples of drillings. The well 
commenced in the upper part of the Chemung group and at a 
depth of about 930 feet there was a change from the greenish- 
gray, micaceous sandstone chips to those of greenish-blue or 
blue argillaceous shales, which ate probably the upper part of 
the Portage group. The well was drilled to a depth of 2710 
feet, without reaching the Genesee black shale, which indicates 
in this well a thickness of more than 1780 feet for the Portage. 
Or, since there is some doubt as to the line of separation be- 
tween the Chemung and Portage, it shows that in southern 
New York, near the meridian of Elmira, the combined thick- 
ness of the Chemung and Portage groups is considerably more 
than 2700 feet. 

I Section of the Bird Cretk WeH. 

• ^ Altitude, estimated, 1600' A. T. 

First sample, greenisb, non-calcerous sandstone. 
750' Greenish-gray jmicaceouBsaodetoneiBlightlycaicareons. 

Chips partly from lightgrayBandstone; but mostly from 
a slightly purplish sandstone, which is some- 

-what calcareous. 

Greenish-blue, noa-cslcarcous, argillaceous shale which 
is probably in the upper part of the Portage. 

The specimens from the remainder of the well are nearly 
all of greenish or bluish tint, are mostly from ar> 
gillaceous or arenaceous sliales which are usually 
non-calcareous. At 2700' the chips are from a 
dark blue, finely arenaceous shale, which is 
slightly calcareous. 

The last aami>le from the bottom of the well, at 2701' 
is a bluish to greenish- gray, fine grained, arena- 
ceoua rock, which is very slightly calcareous; 
also, there is blue argillaceous shale. 

)v Google 

The American Qeohgiat. 

U drilled at Ithaca, Tompkint county. Ntvi York, 
in the valUs, one-fourth of a milt lotith of Ithaca. 

1612' ■ 
1694' ■ 
1786' ; 

fieoo- ■ 



Geneaee black shale. 
Tally limestone. 
!' Hamilton shales ai^ sandstones. 
Marcellus black shale. 

ComiferouB limestone. 

Oriskany saodatone. 

Lower Helderbei^ limestones. 
^Approximate top of the i^alina gronp. 
Magneelan limestones, calcareous shales and s 

let rock salt Bttatum.' 
'_ Shale. 

2d Fock salt. 
'_ 8hal«. 
'_ 3d Tock rait. 
'_ Shale. 

1th rock salt. 
'_ Shale. 

5th rock salt. 
'_ Shale. 
_ Btb Tock salt. 
'_ Shale. 

'_ 7th rock salt 4—6 
'_ Shale. 
_ 8th rock salt. 

- Greenish" shale. 

Dark gray shale. 

)v Google 

Devonian and Silurian Bocks. — Progser. 203 

Othrockaalt, S'-S'. 

Some salt crystals. 

Green ehate. 

Salt crrstata, the last seen. 

Traces of mottled red and green shales. 

Green Shale. 

Mottled red and green shales. Most of the shale is 
green, but there is some red and green mottled. 



' Bottom of well according to the contractor, Mr. Bust. 
The rthaca well passed Uurough from 1230 '-1285 ' of the Salina and 
only reached the first of the red aad green mottled shales above the 
red shale. , , , 

Forsome additional information in reference to the Ithaca well see 
Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Eng., vol. xvi, pp. 941, 942. Also, N. Y. Ass. 
Doc. *89, No. W, p. 22 and charts ii, iii and iv. 

Section of well drilled at Seneca Falh, Seneca county. New Yori. Loca- 
tion in theSeneca River valley in the eastern part of the village. 
Altitude, approximately, 3So' A. T. 

Drab colored, impure limeetones. 

Blae marlB with an occasional red and green chip. 

Greenish -gray marls and drab colored limestones. 

I mottled red and 














Dark blue limestone and shale in the upper part with 
greenish shalea at the base. 

Niagara and Clinton groups, 

Bed shalea and sandstones of the Medina group. 

Bottom of the well. 
This well commenced in the upper partoE the Salina group and was 
drilled to the depth of 1500 ', the last l.iO' being in the Itledina group. 
See Trans. Am. Inst. Hin. Eng. vol, xvi, pp. 1)49, 050. 

Section of well drilled at Clyd*. Wayne county. New York. Location in 
Clyde village. 
Altitude, appronimately, 389' A. T. 

Gray, green and blue marls with gypsum. 

Bed marls. 

Blue and green marls, probably Salina. 

)v Google 

















The American Qeologist. o 

Dark blue limeatone, upper divieion of Niagara. 

Shaly limestone of Niagara, 

Approximate top of the Clinton groap. 

Sample from GTo'-egC 
ciiipa are greenish i 

Red shale of Medina. 

Greenish, gray siliceous sandstone ; the "Gray band." 

Red shales alternating with red sandstones and lorm 
ing the Red Medina. 

Gray saudetone of Oswego ( Vanuxem) . 
Bottom of well. 
Bee Trans. Am. Inet. Min. Eng. vol. xvi, pp. 942,943. 

StetUm o/ well drilled at WoUott, Wayne county. New York. Loealion 
in the ravine at Wolcott village. 

Altitude, approximately, 317- A. T. 

Red shale alternating with red, silJceons sandstone, 
forming the Red Medina. 

Oawego sandstone of Vanuxem. 

stone, similar to the Oswego Bandstone. 

Undoubted Hudson blue shale. 

Utica shale. 

Top of Trenton. 

Limestone alternating with shaly, calcareous layers. 


Largest (low of gas. 

Bottom of well, yet in the Trenton limestone. 
p. 943, 944. 
Ontario, Wayi 

















See Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Eng. vol- svi, pp. 943, 944, 
From a partial record of a well drilled in Ontario, Wayne county. 
New York ii seems probable that the bottom of the Wolcott well ib 
within about lOO of the base of the Trenton group, below which is 
perhaps 150 of Calciferoue limestone before the Archean would be 

)v Google 



compiled the following 
r the different geological 
ckness of the series from 

Archean. The thickness 
al to the top of the Por- 
ider of the series it haa 

at Bird Creek, Ithaca, 

n Central New York. 

iKlatoueaiitl blue ahalee 

)v Google 

The American Oeologist- 


Trenton limestone. 

7 Calctferous limestone. 


Iq order to show the relatioa of the above section to our 
previous knowledge a general geological section, ranging 
through the same series of formatione, has been compiled from 
the books. In the compilation of this section the maximuin 
thickness of the formations, as near the line of section as pos- 
sible, has been taken. The notea following the section give the 
authority and reference to the work in which may be found the 
statement of the thickness of the various formations. 


From the Barclay lower fPottsville conglomerate, 
coal to top of the 1 Mauch Chunk shale. 

Chemunt;. 1 Pocon'o sandstone. 


Chemunj;, both in Penn. and New York. 
Upper Portage of H. S.Williams 
Itbaca group of Vanuxem. 
f^wer Portage of H. S.Williams. 

Genesee shale. 

Tully limestone. 


Marcellus shale. 

Corniferous and Onondaga limestones I 

Oriakany sandstone. 

)v Google 



Devonian and Silurian Bocks. — Prosser. 
) Lower Helderberg limeetonea. 

■j Salina. 


■j Niagara limestone aad shales. 


\ CliDton. 

Utica shale. 

Authority and rtference for the thickneit o/ the formationi, m gicen in 
the prtceding tection. 

1. Dr. Henry S. WilliamB. On the Fossil Faunas of the Upper De- 

vonian along the meridian of 7(i°30' from Tompltine county, 
N. Y., to Bradford county. Pa. Bull. U- S. Geol. .Surv., No. 3, 
p. 28. 

2. Idem. Loc. dt. pp. 2.5, 2(J and 29. 

See Trans. Am. Inst. Win. Eng., vol. xvi. p. 94.'). 
The Chemung in New York was estimated by Prof. Hall to 
have a thickneBs of 1500' {Geol. of N. Y., Ft iv, p. 260) ; thie 
did notinclndeSOO' of the Upper Cheroung in PennBylvania, 
but did include the Upper Portage of H. ^^. ■\Villiama 
and the Ithaca group of Vanuxem both ot which Dr. Williams 
baa referred to tlie Portage. Dr. WOliame' estimate for thie 
series WEB 1950'(TranB. Am. Inet. Min. Eng., vol. xvi, p. 945). 

3. Dr. WilliamB estimatea the Portage, which is anbdivided into the 

Upper Portage, Ithaca group and Lower Portage, as 1300' in 
thickness (Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv., No. 3. p. ;!1). Vannxem 
eatiniated the Ithaca group as about 400' ((Jeol. of N. Y., Pt. 
Ill, p. 174) which is regarded by Dr. Williams as 450' in thick- 
ness (Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Eng., vol.svi, p. 945). Vanuxem 
said that "the walloi rock at Ithaca can not be less than about 
400' thick" ; but this probably included some of the Lower ( 7) 

)v Google 

208 The American Geologist. Oct. isw 

and Upper ( ?) Portage. Vannzem called the Portage group, 
which correspondB to the Lower Portage of Williams, 150' 
thick tGeol. N. Y., Pt. iii. p. 170), this is eetimated by Dr. 
Williams to be 250' in thicknees (TranB. Am. Inst. Min. £ng., 
vol. ivi, p. 945). 

4. Vftnuxem said that "in the ravines east of Ludlowville [near 
the eastern shore of Cayuga lake], the alate [GeneeeeJ 

cannot be less than from eighty to one hundred feet 

inthicknesa" (Geol. N. Y., Pt. iii,p.l69). 

6. Prof. S. G. Williams says " On both sides of Gaynga lake the 
thickness of the undoubted Tully varies from twelve feet at 

King'sFerrytoamaximum of eighteen and one-half feet 

In the Owasco lake valley, the general thickness i» 

somewhat greater than on Cayuga lake.' ' One section in this 
latter valley is twenty-three feet thick (6th Ann. Rep't of the 
Btate Geologist [N. Y.) for the year 1888, p. 18). 

6. 'Hall wrote "the thickness of this group [HamUton] on the 

eastern limit of the district [fourth f;eo\. district,* Cayuga lake 
region] cannot be less than 1000 feet" (Geol- N. Y., Pt. rr, p. 
1S4J. Vanuzem gave the maximum thickness as 700' (Geol. 
N. Y., Pt., Ill, p. 151). While Dana states that "the greatest 
thickness — abont 1,200 feet — is found east of the centre of the 
state." (Man. of Geology, 3d Ed., p. 266). 

7. Hall, Marcellus shale 60' {Geol. N. Y., Pt. iv, p. 179). 

8. Comiferous limestone 35' Hall {Ibid,^. 168); Onondaga lime- 

stone 20" at Williamsville, Erie county, N. Y., i/6»d p. 157), 
both 55' in thickness. Prof. S. G. Williams calls It IOC thick 
(Ithaca Daily Journal, April 1"), 18S7) . 

9. Vanuxem, Oriskany Hanilstone is nearly three feet in thick- 

ness near Springport, on Cayuga lake (Geol. N. Y,, Pt. in, p. 
127). Prof. S. G. Williams gives the thickness as three feet 
eight inches for the same exposure (Am. Jour. Sci., 3d ser., 
vol. xxs, p. 212). 

10. Prof. S. G. Williams, Lower Helderberg limestones 110" {Ibid 

pp. 212, 213) ; also, \1(y thick (Ithaca Daily Journal, April 19, 

11. Dana says "they [Salina beds] are TOO to 1000 feet thick in 

Onondaga and Cayuga counties (Man. of Geol. 3d Ed., p. 233) ; 
also, see idem p. 236. See Dr. F. E. Engelhardt's record of the 
Jamesville well, 8 miles south-east of Syracuse, which was 
commenced on top of the waterlime and at a depth of 1040' 
had not reached the bottom of the red shales, which form the 
lower part of the group. (Ann. Rep't Sup't Onondaga Salt 
Springs, for 1881. N. Y. Assembly Doc. 1882, No. 10, p. 20.) 
JUd. for 1884. Ihid. 1885, No. 32, p. 18. 

Ihid. for 18SS. Ibid. 1S89, No. 43, pp. 23, 24 and chart No. ii., 
Sir William Logan stated that "it [Salina] attains its greatest 


Devonian and Silurian Soc&t- — Prosser. 209 

thickneBB, which is about 700', in Wayne connty" (Oeol. 
Surv. of Canada. Rep't of Prog, from its Commencemeiit to 
1863, p. 346). 

According to Hall the shale of Niagara group at Wolcott, 
Wayne county "is little less than 100 feet" and the limeetone 
"ie apparently not more than 30 or 40 feet thick in Wayne 
county" (Geol. N. Y., Pt. iv, p. 97). 

The thickness of the Clinton group in Wayne county ia eome- 
what less than 80 ' (Hall : Ibid. p. 66; . 

HaH'e report eaya "Its [the Medina] greatest iridth is on the 
Niagara river; but here a large portion of it is excavated on 
the north, leaving probably less than half its original extent 
within the state. From the width here exposed, the thick- 
ness actually measured, and the rate of dip to the southward, 
there is about three hundred and fifty feet of the rock between 
the mouth of Niagara river and the termination of the rock 

above Lewiaton This rock thins out entirely in an 

easterly direction in Oneida connty." {Ibid. p. 43). At Roch- 
ester, N. Y., somewhat less than 600 ' (Logan: Geol. Surv. of 
Canada. Rep't of Pri^ from its Commencement to lSt>3, p. 

The Hudson group is from 800 to 1000 feet thick in central and 
northwestern New York (Hall : Geol. Surv, N, Y., Paleeon- 
tology, vol. iir, pt. i, text, p. 20, toot note). It is 770 ' thick 
on the east side of the township of Collingwood, on Nottawa- 
saga bay, at the head of Georgian bay, Ontario. (Logan : Geol. 
Surv. of Canada. Rep't of Prog, from its Commencement to 
18f>3, p. 213). 

The Utica ahale is "250 feet in Montgomery county; ,300 in 
Lewis county" (Dana: Man. of Geology, 3d Ed., p. 196). The 
Campbell well, three miles west of Utica, passed through "IC*- 
of Utica shale and there are surface outcrops in the Mohawk 
Valley (?) of 600' (Walcott: Proc. Am. Ass. Adv. Sci., vol. 

XTTTl, p. 212). 

Vanuxem stated that "the greatest thickness of the Trenton 

limestone is in Lewis connty where it cannot be 

less than three hundred feet" (Geol. N. Y., Pt. iii, p. 49). 
Emmons called it 400' ; (Geol. N. Y., Pt. ii, p. 116). In 
Ontario, Canada, north of Ontario, Wayne county, N. Y. it 
is 679 ' (Logan : Geol, Surv. of Canada Ri^p't of Prog, from its 
Commencement to 1863, p. 18G) ; and along the Trent river 
about 750' (/6trf. p. 188). 

In the Campbell well, near Utica, about 4^0 ' ; surface out' 
crops 290'(Waioott: Proc. Am. Asa. Adv. Sci., vol. issvi, p. 

Logan wrote under the heading of the "Calciferous forma- 
tion" that "On the west side of theridge(Laurentian], follow- 

)v Google 

210 The American Geologist. oet.i»9o 

ing the Potedtim where this is present and resting on the Lan- 
rentian Beries where it is wanting, there are generally met with 
thirty or forty feat of strata almost destitute of organic remains 
and about the eame amount with a few fossils insufficient to 
determine the age of the strata with certainty." (Geol. Surv. 
of Canada. Rep't of Prog, from ita Commencemeat to 1863, 
pp. 118, 119), Also, "to the westward of the Lanrentian 
ridge of the Thousand Islands, there are about eighty feet of 
strata, the age of which is not very clear" {Ibid. p. 177 and 
see p. 1S2). 

Calciferoue and arenaceotts strata in the Campbell well, near 
Utica, about 360'; surface outcrops 350' (Walcott: Froc. 
Am. Asa. Adv. Sci. vol. xixvi, p. 212). 
Taking the Bum of these maximum eetimateB and we have a 
series of rocks 8835 ' in ihicknesB between the lowest or Bar- 
clay coal and the Archean. 

But in the State well at Syracuse, aa reported by Dr. F. E. 
Engelhardt, it is 1237 ' from the top of the Niagara to the bot- 
tom of the red and brown Medina. (See Ann. Rep't Sup't 
Onondaga Salt springs, for 1884. N. Y. Assembly Doc, 1885, 
No. 32, pp. 15-17; and, Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Eng., vol. xvi, p. 
944). The thickness of the same series, and including the 
Oswego sandstone, is given in the books as 820 ',or 417 'less than 
the actual thickness at Syracuse. Adding this correction to 
the 8835' and we have for the general section a total thickness 

Geologists did not generally use these maximum estimates 
of thickness, as has been shown by their estimates of the 
depth at which certain formations might be reached. The 
Ithaca test well affords a good illustration of the above state* 
ment and others might be given. The mouth of the well is 
geologically at about the top of the Lower Portage of Dr. H. 
S. Williams and the objective point was the Trenton limestone. 
Estimates of the depth to which it would be necessary to 
drill, in order to reach the Trenton, were furnished the com- 
pany by several geologists. One estimated the thickness of 
the formations to be penetrated in drilling the well as follows : 
Portage and Hamilton 10.10 ' 
Corniferous limestone 100' 
Lower Helderberg - 120 ■ 
Salina. - - 700 ' 

Niat^ara, including Ciin- 

tun and Medina - 1-tO ' 
Hudson (iroup and 
tIticaNhftle - -200' 

)v Google 

Artesian Wells in N. and S. Dakota. — VpKam. 211 

This eatimate located the top of the Trenton limestone at a 
depth of 2300 ' and the bottom of the formation at a depth not 
exceeding 2800'. (See article on "Oil and Gas. Do they exist 
in this region?" Ithaca Daily Journal, April 19, 1887). 

Taking the thickness of this series of rocks from the gener- 
alized section of maximum thickness and we have 4766' asthd 
depth of the top of the Trenton limestone at Ithaca, N. Y. 
The thickness of this series, asshownby continnouB well sec- 
tions in the preceding general sectioQ, is 5708 ' or 953 ' more than 
the BQpposed maximum thickness of this series. If the record 
of the state well at Syracuse be considered then the maximum 
estimate to the top of the Trenton limestone would be 5172 ', 
or 536' less than the probable thickness of these formations. 

JJ. S. Geological Survey, June, 1890. 


Bt Wakbbn Dphah, Somerville, Mass. 
{Read before tbe MlnucBota Academy ol Natural Sciences, June 10, 1890.] 

On the broad fertile plaia called the Red river valley, which 
was the bed of tbe glacial Lake Agassiz, many artesian wells have 
been obtained within the thick drift sheet, deriving their supply of 
water from poroas beds or veins of sand and gravel beneath, and 
frequently between, deposits of boulder-clay or till. The depths 
of these wells vary from 40 to about 250 feet, and the hight to 
which the water is capable of rising is often only a few feet and 
seldom more than 25 to 50 feet Hundreds of these flowing 
wells, commooly one to two inches in diameter of pipe, are in use 
on farms, at grain elevators, and for the supply of towns, on 
lK)th ttie Minnesota and North Dakota sides of the Red river. 
Some tracts of considerable area, however, fail to find artesian 
water, but even these generally encounter water-bearing layers at 
depths corresponding with those of the artesian wells, from which 
water rises nearly to the surface. 

The narrow areas that may be sometinies occupied by the sand 
and gravel layers yielding artesian water, or the thin and in some 
places entirely deficient condition of these layers, is illustrated by 
the different depths at which a flow of water was first encountered 
by four wells in the vill^e of Grandin, North Dakota. These 

)v Google 

212 2%e American Geologist. oct. i89o 

wella are on an area only about fifty rode in extent, and their 
several depths are lOK feet, 1&8 feet, 187 feet, and 248 feet 
Either the upper water-bearing beds here are narrow, like a atresm 
course, so that they were not found by the deeper wells, or, if 
they exist as sheets of great width as well as length, they are in 
some parts thinned out, allowing the hnpervious tUl above to rest 
on that below. But in the direction from which Uie water supply 
is received, these gravel and sand veins or beds must have a great 
extent and descend from levels higher than the centnd part of the 
Bed river valley, where the artesian wells are situated. At least 
this must be the case where the water is fresh or only very slightly 
saline, as at Grandin and in all the southern part of the valley as 
far northward as the vicinity of Crookston in Minnesota and 
Blanchard in North Dakota, and in a large district of Xaoitoba 
including Winnipeg and the Mennonite reserve east of the Red 

North of Crookston and Blanchard to the international boond- 
ar}' and in the south edge of Manitoba, the water of these wells, 
almost without exception, is distinctly eailae and alkaline. It 
seems very probable that the water-bearing tteds of that large 
portion of the Bed river valley differ widely in the origin of their 
water supply from the foregoing. Instead of deriving their water, 
tike the fresh artesian wells, from nunfoll upon higher parte of 
the drift surface contiguous to the Red river valley, there seem to 
be good reas<HiB for believing that the brackish water is mainly 
from the basal sandstone of the Cretaceous series, coming through 
that sandstone from its outcrops on the Sanks of tiie Bocky 
Mount^ns and Black Hills, and permeating upward into the drift 
of the Bed river valley from areas where this sandstone Is t2te 
underlying bed-rock. 

Deep artesian wells of somewhat saline and alkaline water, like 
that of the part of the Bed river valley just described, are ob- 
tained on a belt that extends across North and South Dakota from 
Devil's Lake to Yankton and Vermillion, including the greato* 
part of the James river basin. Wherever borings along tJiis belt 
have penetrated to the Dakota sandstone, the lowest formation of 
the Cretaceous series in the Upper Missouri region, artesian water 
has been found. Probably as many as a hundred wells have been 
boied, their depths ranging from 900 to 1,550 feet, except in the 
southern part of the James and Vermillion valleys, where many 

)v Google 

Artedan WdU in iVi and S. Dakota. — Upham. 213 

wells are only 600 to 750 feet deep, and a few, the farthest 
Boutheast, are between 300 and 400 feet in depth. These wells 
are moetly five or six inches in diameter, and their strong pressure, 
commonly from 50 to 175 pounds per square inch at the surface, 
makes them valoable. not only for flrc-hydrants, but also to fur- 
aLsli power for manufacturing purposes. Several wells have been 
bored at Aberdeen, and three years ago fifteen wells were in use 
in Yankton. The pressure of the wells in Yankton ia sufficient 
to raise the water 129 feet, and in numerous places along the 
middle portion of the James river valley, as Huron, Redfield, 
and Aberdeen, the pressure corresponds to a rise of more than 
400 feet above the surface. 

The sections of these deep wells in North Dakota and on tbe 
high land between the James and Missouri rivers in South Dakota 
include, beneath the drift, the Fort Pierre, Niobrara, and Fort 
Benton divisions of the Cretaceous series ; but along the lower 
part of the James river and on the Yermillion, erosion during Hie 
Tertiary era removed the upper portion of Uiese beds, leaving 
only the Fort Benton shales or a part of that formation over the 
Dakota sandstone. 

At Devil's Lake, where an artesian well was bored last year, 
about six feet above the depot, or 1,470 feet above the sea, the 
flection was as follows : — 

Section of Well at Dei'il't Lake. 

Glacial drift, tiU as on the surface 25 feet 

Dark shale, nearly alike through its whole thickness, in- 
cluding the Fort Pierre and Fort Benton formations, 
with no noticeable calcareous beds at the intermediate 

Niobrara horizon 1,403 feet 

Oravel, of granitic pebbles up to a half inch in diame- 
ter, firmly cemented with nodular pyrite 3 feet 

Dakota sandstone, or rather a bed of loose sand, ver)' 
fine, white or light gray, the base of which was not 
reached 80 feet 

Total 1,511 feet 

From the sandstone, at the depth of 1,470 feet, artesian water 
came up with a nisli, but sand soon filled the pipe so that the 
supply became small. It is from this level that the pi-esent flow 
comes, through narrow slits cut in the pipe. The boring was 
continued 40 feet deeper, but no such strong Sow was obtained 

)v Google 

214 ThfB Americati Geologist, oct i8» 

below. In July, 1889, when the well was completed, it supplied 
1,800 barrels of water in 24 boars, or about 40 gallons per 
minut«, the diameter of the pipe being 8 inches, reduced to 3^ 
inches in the lower portion. The stream flowing away was tiien 
turbid with the exceedingly fine particles of sand brought up from 
the bottom. 

The Jamestown well, bored in the winter of 1886-87, about 
eight feet below the depot or 1,400 feet above the sea, went 
through a similar section of about 1,400 feet of shales, with ao 
dist^ctly different portjon to indicate the place of the Niobrara 
formation. The same nearly uniform section has also been 
found to a depth of 1,350 feet at Delorune, in Manitoba, close 
northwest of the Turtle Mountadn, as I am informed by Mr. J, 
B. Tyrrell of the Geolt^cal. Survey of Canada. At that depth, 
which was bored last )'ear, there still lacked about 300 feet of 
reaching the sea level, from which the Devil's Lake artesian 
water rises. 

For the greater part of my notes of the artesian wells of South 
Dakota, also of EUendale and Oakes in North Dakota, I am in- 
debted to Setourcet of Dakota, published by the territori^ Cwn- 
missioner of Immigration in 1887, and to recent correspondence 
with Prof. G. E. Culver, of the University of South Dakota, and 
with Prof. C. W. Hall, of the Uolversity of Minnesota. These 
data, with those obtained by me at Devil's Lake and Jamestown, 
I have placed in tabular form for oonveoiMit comparison, showing 
( 1 and 2 ) the distances of the localities north and west from the 
mouth of the Big Sioux river at the southeast comer of South 
Dakota ; ( 3 ) depths of the wells ; ( 4 ) their pressure at the sur- 
face, wherever tt has been obtainable, in pounds per square inch ; 
( 5 ) tiie corresponding bight or head to which the water would 
rise above the surface ; ( 6 ) the altitude, with reference to the sea 
level, of the source of the artesian water in the Dfdiota sand- 
stone ; ( 7 ) the altitude of the surface ; and ( 8 ) the bight of 
the computed head of water above thesea. 

The flow of water from the Dakota sandstone at Devil's Lake is 
found exactly at the sea level, but the top of the sandstoQ 
formation is 39 feet higher. At Jamestown the flow rises from 
depth of 76 feet below the sea level, indicating that the top of th« 
Dakota sandstone there sinks slightly lower than at Devil's Lake. 
Along the distance of eighty-five miles from north to south be 

)v Google 

Artman Wells in N'. and S. Dakota. — Vpkam. 215 

tweea these points, its level is probably nearly constant ; and 
borings at intervening towns, as New Rocktord and Carrington, 
"will doDbttesa find artesian water at or slightly below the sea level. 
Farther south, the top of the sandstone and ite water supply are 
found throughout a large district of South ^Bakota and the south 
«dge of Nortti Dakota at a plane 250 to 450 feet above the sea. 

Artetian Weill deritnng water from, the Dakota »and»tone in 
North and South Dakota. 


Dist. In miles 
OD )at. * Ion. 
from the S. 
E. corner of 
So. Dakota. 







des in 
e the 





































































Woonsocket . . . 












'The pressure reported aV Ashton Is 100 or 125 pounds \ than 
wonld be expected In proportion with other localities; and at Uroton It 
3 somewhat more. The discrepancy of the laCt«r, however. Is no 
•TBater than may be due to superior permeability of the wator-bearlng 

)v Google 

216 The American Geologist. oct. i8»o 

Continuing still sonthnard, from Woonsocket to the Missouri 
river, the crater-bearing stratum rises to altitudes from &58 feet to 
618 feet above the sea, the highest levels being at Meckliog and 
Vermillion, the moet southeastem localities of this list. 

The same southeastward ascent of the Dakota sandstone 
reaches to ita outcrops on the southwest side of the Missouri in 
Dakota county, Nebraska, whence its name is derived, opposite to 
the southeast comer of South Dakota. There and at other exten- 
sive outcrops in Western Iowa and Eastern Nebraska, having ^>- 
proximately the same elevations ae the surface at Vermillion and 
Yankton, the water coursing through this sandstoae finds outlet 
in springs ; and these avenues of discharge explain the gradual 
reduction in the altdtude of the head of water above the sea level, 
as the series of wells is followed from north to south and from 
west to east Somewhat uniform altitudes of 1,619 to 1,743 feet 
are recorded as the bights to which water would rise in pipes for 
all the wells, where pressure is reported, from Jamestown to 
Huron and Woonsocket, excepting those west of Huron, which 
will be considered later, and the well at Ashton, where the re-* 
ported pressure is probably erroneous, lacking 100 pounds or 
more of its true amount At Hitchcock the head of water has a 
computed altitude of 1,743 feet above the sea; eighteen miles to 
the south, at 'Huron, it is 1,691 feet; twenty-two miles farther 
south, at Woonsocket, it is 1,66J feet ; and eighty-one miles still 
farther south, at Yankton, it is only 1,325 feet. 

Equally distinct gradients of the plane of water bead are found 
descending from west to east on and near the latitudes of Huron 
and Yankton. Thus at Highmore, sixty miles west of Huron, the- 
head is 1,948 feet above the sea ; at Miller it has declined 73 feet 
in a distance of twenty-two miles to the east ; and in the thirty- 
eight miles thence to Huron it falls 184 feet more. Between Fort 
Randall and Yankton, in a distance of sixty miles from west to 
east, this plane descends at least 40 feet, but the descent is more 
if the well at Fort Randall is at a considerable hight above the 
Missouri river. ■ In the next twenty-two miles eastward to Ver- 
million the descent is 140 feet. This feature of the artesian water 
supply is caused, as before stated, by its outlets through springs 
in outcrops of the Dakota sandstone, which begin thirty to forty 
mUes southeast of Vermillion and extend thence southeast and 

)v Google 

Artesian Wells in JV. an^ S. Dakota. — Upliam. 217 

All the eastern outcropa of the Dakota sandstone are lower 
than the upper portions of the James river basin and the wells 
farther west at Highmore and Harold. These outcrops therefore 
cannot be the sources from which the sandstone receives its arte- 
sian water, but, as we have seen, they are the avennes of its nat- 
aral outflow. We must look instead to the western outcrops of 
this formation, where it skirts the Black Hills and exposes its up- 
turned edges along the base of the Bocky Mountain ranges, for 
the areas upon which water is varried downward into the sand- 
stone. Thence we know this stratum to be continuous beneath 
the plains to the James river valley, for there are no nearer nor 
other inlets from which the copious supply of the artesian wells 
can come. At a plane of similar or greater depth an artesian 
reservoir exists beneath much, if not all, of the countf}- west^ 
ward to the mouDtuns. The gradients of the altitudes to which 
the water of wells is capable of rising along east to west lines in 
South Dakota, as at Hnron, Miller, and Highmore, are approxi- 
mately the same as the average westward ascent of the countrj-, 
demonstrating this western origin of the water supply, and indi- 
cating that such wells may be obtfuned upon an extensive region 
of the arid plains. 

How far then can this artesian water be utilized for irrigation ? 
Will it be practicable to store the water in reservoirs for use in the 
season of growing crops, and especially during severe droughts 
like that which so reduced, or in some portions entirely cutoff, the 
crops in North and South Dakota last year ? To this inquiry we 
may reply by computing the amount of water needed for irrigat- 
ing a given space, as a quarter-section of 160 acres, the usual 
area of a homestead. Allowing a depth of twelve inches of 
water for this use during the growing season, the year's supply of 
water from a well flowing 100 gallons per minute is required, 
without allowance being made for leakage or evaporation from the 
reservoir. The Devil's Lake well would, therefore, irrigate only 
64 acres, and the Jamestown well, flowing 375 gallons per minute 
will water less than a section one mile square. But each of these 
wells cost about $7,0'U0, to which must be added the cost of the 
construction of reservoirs and irrigating ditehes, placing the ex- 
pense of such water supply far beyond its prospective value for 
ordinary agriculture. 

)v Google 

218 TTie American Oeologiat. Oct. isso 

An important objection, however, against the use of this water 
fur irrigation seems to lie in its disBolved alkaline and saline nut- 
ter, which must be left in the soil. After continued use in irriga- 
tion during many years, the residuum from this water would quite _ 
certainly prove injurious to crops, so that the land would become 
worthless. Such results have attended irrigation with only verj- 
slightly alkaline water on the alluvial plains of the arid n(Hth- 
'Western provinces of India. The proportion of sulphate of soda 
in streams flowing down from the Himalayan range and in canals 
taking water from them varies from 9 to 43 parts in a million, 
and the proportion of common salt is from 0. 33 to 15 parts ; jet 
under the dry climate of northwestern India the natural evapora- 
tion of BO nearly pure water, and its use inirrigalaon, have caused 
extensive tracts of land formerly productive to become barren.* 

The analysis of the water of the Jamestown well, which doubts 
less closely resembles that of all the wells obt^ning their supply 
from the Dakota sandstone, is given by Prof. James A. Dodge, 
University of Minnesota, as follows : — 

Analytis of the mineral matter in the water of the artetian well at 
Jamestovm, North Dakota. 

Parts per million. Oraina per galloD. 

Silica 35.7 2.0823 

Alumina 3.5 .2041 

Carbonate of iron 2.2 .1283 

Carbonate of lime 188.0 10.6743 

Sulphate of lime 249. 14.5241 

Sulphate of magnesia. 154.2 8.9944 

Sulphate of soda. 1139.4 66.3602 

Sulphate of potash 81.5 4,7523 

Chloride of sodium -, 369.1 21.5296 

Phosphates Traces 

Totals a222. 6 129. 2496 

The quantities of alkaline matter and salt are sufficient to give 
the water a brackish taste, rendering it nnpatatable for drinking 
and unfit for ordinary domestic uses ; but it is drunk freely by 
cattle and horses, with no unfavorable effects. These dissolved 
mineral ingredients seem to have been derived from the Cretaceous 
shales, and probably in part from beds in the Dakota formation, 
vith which the water has been in contact during its slow percola- 

*Hedllcott and Blanford, Manual of the Geology of India, pp. 413-il5. 

)v Google 


Artesian Wells in iV. and S. Dakota. — Vpkain. 21i* 

tion hundreds of miles tbrongh the sandstone. They are the 
game in kind and similar in amount with the mineral matt«r of 
Deiil's lake, concentrated by evaporation vithout outlet from the 
water of inflowing streams and springs, which bring verj- small 
amounts of these salts dissolved from the drift and Cretacoou& 
shale of the atljoining country. 

Jluch shale, gravel and detritus, rich in sulphates, are present 
in Oie glacial drift over nearly the entire Red river basin, and the 
percolating r^n-water, found by the fresh artesian wells in tlie 
drift of the southern and northern ends of the Red river valley, . 
has acquired minute qnantitics of alkaline and saline matter. 
But where its proportion is lai^e, as in the brackish water of tlie 
wells from Crookston and Blanchard northward to the edge of 
Manitoba, it seems impossible that so remarkable difference can 
be dne to diversity in the material of the drift, or to longer time 
and better opportunity afforded to the water for such impregna- 
tion while percolating through porous beds or veins in the drift. 
The saline and alkaline artesian waters of the drift gravel atul 
sand along this central portion of the Red river valley therefore 
appear to be received mainly from the same Dakota sandstone 
which supplies the deep wells of the Jaraca river valley. 

Several wells in the viciijity of Blanchard and Mayvilk. 375 
to 404 feet in depth, pass tlirough the drift and enter a verj' fine 
white sandstone, probably the Dakota formation, from which they 
obtidn flows of brackish water. About a dozen miles east of 
Blanchard the drift was found to have a total thickness of 310 
feet, below which a boring went 107 feet into exceedingly fine 
white sandstone, finding, however, no artesian water, apparently 
because of tlie very close texture of the rock. The top of tlie 
sandstone in these wells is 650 to 575 feet nliove the sea. If it is 
the Dakota sandstone, as seems probable, it has an iisccnt of 
about 600 feet in 75 miles east from the meridian of Devil's Lake 
and Jamestown, rising in its approach toward the Silurian, t';im- 
brian, and Archtean areas of I^Iinnesota and Mtiuitolia. Tt may 
be thus the bed-rock, on which the drift is deposited, Iwneatli ex- 
tensive tracts in the middle part and on the western border of the 
Red river valley, discharging there its alkaline and saline artesian 
water into the permeable beds of gravel and sand in tlie drift 
sheet, whence it rises in the brackish wells of that district. 

)v Google 

220 . The American Geologist. Oct. laeo 

Besides the classes or groups of artesian wells thus far coa- 
sidered, there remain to be mentioned numerous shallow flowing 
wells, from 20 to 168 feet deep, in the drift of the Vennillion 
river basin in South Dakota, repoiicd by Prof. G. E. Culver, and 
two deep artesian wells in North Dakota at Tower City and Graf- 
ton. The wells in the vicinity of the Vermillion river are on an 
area nnmarked by grand contrasts of elevation, though toward the 
north and northeast the surface gradually rises in the Coteau des 
Prairies, They seem to be comparable with the plentiful flowing 
wells or fountains along the Maple river in Blue Earth and Fari- 
banlt counties, Minnesota. 

The Tower City well, fifty miles east of Jam^towu, is four feet 
lower than the depot, being 1,168 feet above the sea. Its depth 
is 670 feet, through drift, 163 feet; Cretaceous shales, with occa- 
sional beds of sandstone, 502 feet ; and quicksand, into which the 
boring advanced only 5 feet Salty and alkaline water outflows 
{l^- gallons per minute, and is capable of rising 33 feet above the 
surface. The scanty flow and low head of this well suggest that 
the water-bearing stratum may lie enclosed within the Fort Benton 
shales ; but its altitude, 500 feet above tAe sea level, accords with 
that of tiie sandstone reached by wells nt Blancbard and Mayville, 
so that more probably it is the top, of the Dakota formation. 
The plane of the head of water supplied from this formation 
would show a marked descent northeastwardj as is thus indicated 
at Tower City, and in less degree at Devil's Lake, in comparison 
with Jamestown and Kllendalc, if there are abundant natural out- 
lets of this artesian water along the Red river valley, as appears 
to be true, by springs rising through the drift These brackish 
springs occur on many of the streams tributary to the Red river 
both in North Dakota and Minnesota, the most remarkable being 
on Forest and Park rivers, which therefore were formerly called 
the Big and Little Salt rivers. 

At Grafton, in the Red river vallej' on the Park river, the arte- 
sian well, 825 feet above the sea, is 915 feet deep, going through 
( 1 ) drift, 298 feet ; { 2 ) limestone, appai'ently the Lower Mag- 
nesian formation of the Cambrian scries in souttiern Minnesota, 
137 feet ; ( 3 ) white sandstone, referred to the Jordan formation 
of the same series, 65 feet, yielding a copious flow of brackish 
water ; ( 4) reddish, blue, and gray shales, with some arenaceous 
or cheity and dolomitic beds, representing the Saint Lawrence 

)v Google 

Lower and Middle Tfuxmic. — Marcou. 221 

fonnatiou of that series, 398 feet, yielding a. feeble fiow of very 
salt water from il^ upper part ; ( 5) sandstone, perhaps a trace of 
the Dresbach sandstone of soiitheastem Minnesota, 5 feet, 3'ield- 
ing a small flow of brine, which was analyzed by I'rof. Henrj' 
Montgomery of the University of North Dakota, and pronounced 
more saline than sea water ; and (6) granite, e& determined by 
Prof. N. S. Shalcr from specimens of the borings, 12 feet The 
water used from this well is taken from the top of the Jordan 
sandstone, at the depth of 438 feet. The diameter of the pipe is 
sis inches, and the flow, according to three meaaurementa in 1886 
and 1887, during the first year after the completion of the well, 
was 800 gallons per minute. The reference of this section to the 
Cambrian series seems to be well determined by correlation with 
other wells penetrating Cambrian strata in this valley at Humboldt, 
Hionesota, and Rosenfeld, Manitoba, respectively about thirty- 
five and fifty-five miles farther north. At Rosenfeld, however, 
according to mj- interpretation of the section, the Cambrian series 
is overlain by 352 feet of Lower Silurian strata, which are there 
the bed-rocks first encountered below the drift Not far west of 
Rosenfeld and south of Grafton, ttie Dakota sandstone, forming 
the base of the great Cretaceous series which is penetrated by the 
wells at Deloraine, Devil's Lake, and Jamestown, probably abuts, 
with horizontal or only slightly inclined stratification, upon the 
similarly almost horizontally bedded Silurian and Cambrian rocks. 


By JuLBS Marcou, Cambridge, 


Order of Succession op the Lower and Middle Taconic 


— L The older strata containing fossil remains ai'e round St. 
Johns, Newfoundland. Until now, no trilobite has been found 
and no one of the other old forms known in the primordial fauna 
has been discovered there ; the only fossil remain being an As- 
pidtUa, the oldest animal yet found in the world. The same 
strata are very likely in the Grand Cai\on of the Colorado and 
in the Wasateh mountains of Utah ; but until rtow we possess no 
palieontological proof. In Europe the Nincfonn<}landian, in 
French Terreneuvien, has not yet been signalized, even hypothetic- 

)v Google 

222 The A^nerican Geologist. oci. isw 

ally. Wg do not know of it bo far, in Esthonia, nor in Scandi- 
navia. It may however be found there and in the firitiafa Isles, 
in Bohemia and the southern part of Europe. 

II. The nest formatiou or Schmidtia zone is in Busaia, Scandi- 
navia, the British Isles, and Bohemia. But outside of Esthonia 
it is only on stratigraphical principles ; round Revel only a fauna 
has been discovered below the MoJmia zone. So far we have nine 
species ; one trilobite — Schmidtia miekwilsi, tbeoldeatio the world, 
five forms of very low and imperfect brachiopoda, a problenaijc 
form called Valborlheila, one Cystid^ and one Medim'tes. Cer- 
tainly a verj- meagre representative fauna of all the forms of 
marine animals which developed rapidly during the Middle Taconic 

The onlj' formation, in the Ncvado-Canadian sea, which may 
belong to the Esthonian or Schmidtia zone, is the Chaar formation 
of the grand Caflon of Colorado, where three doubtful forms of 
marine animals have been signalized. It may be that those few 
and badly preserved forms belong to a higher horizon, and that 
they may be classified finally in the Middle Taconic. But it ia 
more prudent to let the Chuar formation into the Lower Taconic, 
for the present, and to regard it as representing in part, if nut 
wholly, the infra- Primordial fauna strata. 

III. The true Primordial fauna or Middle Taconic system be- 
gins with the fib/wi/a zone or Scandinnvian tormatioa. At first 
that formation was considered in Scandinavia and in Xewfotind- 
land, as the lower part of the Paradosides zone, to which it is 
closelj' allied by most intimate relations, etmtigrapliic as well as 
paleontotogic. Although not so important in thickness, as tlio 
succeeding formation of the great Paraduxidea zone, and not so 
rich in regard to the number of fossils and paleontologic sul)- 
horizons, it poaecsea a well defined fauna of the greatest import- 
ance, on account of its forms, which fore-run and shadow forth 
the development of the whole primordial fauna discovered and 
created by the researches of Dr. Emmons and Joachim Barrande 
in 1844 and 1846.' 

( ' ) The discovery of the Taconic system with Ita special primon 
fauna antedates the Cambrian system, as It is now put Torward by E 
lish geologists, by nigh teen years — 1663 being the year of Salter's c 
covery of the primordial fauna In slttt at St. David. Sedgwltk did 
Had any fossils In tho strata ol the lowirpart of hiaprtmitlveCambr 
which remained In a state of complete confusion uatll Salter's 

)v Google 

Ixmer and Middle Taoonic. — Marcou, 223 

Its Bepafation from the Paradoxidet zone, Tiiacle by the Scandi- 
navian geologiflts, is well justified andisagood move in the classi- 
fication. The names proposed are in tiarmony with the whole 
scheme of Qomenclature need in geol(^y, and recoil the country 
where it was first discovered and the most characteristic form of 
fossil contained in it : Scandinavian formation, or Hulmia zone. 

Lately an unfortunate confuston has arisen from a too hasty 
identification of generic forms, which are widely separated ; and 
the consequent parallelism and equivalency of the great Geoi-gian 
formatioD or EUipioeejikuhtt ( Olenellui ) zone with the Scandinavian 
formation, or Holmia (Puradoxides-OleiirUiu) zone is an error 
to be regretted, on account of the great publicity it has received, 
too hastily, at the International Congress of (icologists, London, 
in 1888. 

Until now the Scandinavian formation has been found only at 
foor localities in Scandinavia, two being near one another north 
of Christiania ; and another one found in Lapland has not 3'et l>eeD 
described. In England, its existeuee has been signalized by pro- 
fessor Lapworth at one single locality, and in Newfoundland, 
since 1868, it is known in Conception bay. In all six outcrops of 
the Scandinavian formation fauna are actually known. 

The number of fossils found, described or simply signalized is 
abont forty species with a certain number of varieties. Thirteen 
species are actually known in Scandinavia ; very likely three or 
four more species will soon be added by Dr. Holm when he has 

searches, and bo had no Idea that thrrc were; two dlstlnca systrni!! In- 
closed Id U. Tho <:ontuMon he made was cltiari>d out tlrst by Dr. Em- 
mons In America, and afterward by Itarrando In Europe ; both of whom 
showed that bt^low the fosslll[erou!i stratu found and described by Si-dg- 
wlck, Ihcrf^ was a great system of strata trontalning an older and sp<K-lal 
fauna, entirely unknown to tjedgwick and Murchlson. 

The Cambrian of Hedgwlck, by all rules of priority and classl Heal ton 
according to groat faun®, Is confined to the second fauna, wlileh, 
mlrabiU dictit, la called, by the actual geologists of the Hrltlsh emulrc, 
Ordovtcbin by the Cambridge sfhool, and Lincer SUurUm by the scboi)! of 
the Geological survey of England. The name CluimpUitn glv<'n by Dr. 
Emmons, as far back as 1H4:^ to the second fauna system, anti'datOM 
Ordovlclan by thirty-seven years ; and so long as the IImbIIsIi geologists 
maintain thuir pntsont classification against alt right of priority. It la 
Important for American geologists to use (heir national claMHllication of 
Taconic system and Champlain system, for the strata containing the 
primordial and (he second faunas. Instead ot Cambrian system for tba 
primordial fauna and of Ordovlclan syatPta tor the second fauna, two 
names entirely unadapted to fulfill the rules used In geology for classifi- 
cation and nomenclature. | See for all the exact dates, my paper : '- On 
the use of the name Taconic " in Proceed. iloMtoit Hoc. itiiL Hist., vol. 
XXtn, p. 343, March, 1887). 


224 The American Geologigt. Oct. laoo 

published hia mateiiols collected in Bouthem Lapland.' We have 
only four species in Kngland, tlma muking ntxtut twenty species for 
the Scandinavian formation of Kurope, In Newfoundland we 
have also about twenty species. Total 40 species. 

The trilobiUis are the most conspicuous forms in that fauna, 
some of them, like the genus Holmia attaining the dimensions of 
a moderate sized Piiniduxidei. The relations of the genus Hi>l- 
Tnlii to Piirado-cides and Elliptocephalus ( Olcnellus ) has been verj' 
well pointed out and characterized by Dr. Holm. Br&chiopods of 
ver^- low foi-ras and organization are found with a certain number 
of pteropods. 

On the whole, the fauna of the Scandinavian formation does 
not yield much evidence in favor of the theorists on the origin 
and des<.:ent of species. So far the results are negative, as has 
been maintained with great force bj' the greatest of all the 
paleozoic pal eonto leasts, M. Joachim Barrande. 

IV. The great Parmloxtihs zone or Bohemiim formation ap- 
pears in more numerous patches and more widely scattered than 
the three preceding formations. As a consequence its fauna is 
much more developed than any of the previous ones, for all three 
of those number only about fifty species, while the Paradoxides 
zone fauna reaches about 270 species for the deposits of the 
Acadio-Russian sea, and of that number thirty belong to the 
great genus of Paradoxides. 

In the Nevado- Canadian sea, the homotaxical fauna of the Bo- 
hemian formation, numbers already more than one hundred species, 
five or six of which represent the Paradoxiden, under the form of 
a verj- closely alliedgenus, the EUiptocfphnliis ( Olenelhu). 

On the whole, the faunasof the Paradoxides and E/Hptocepka/ut 
(Olnrc/lae) zones, which are in the mc^n contemporaries and homo- 
taxical, are composed of almost 400 species of marine fossils ; a 
considerable increase on the precedingfaunasof the Scandinavian, 
Esthonian and Newfoundland! an formations. 

As Barrande foreshadoweil and announced forty years ago, the 
trilobite is the dominant family, and the most common forms of 
them revolve round the Paradoxidean tjpe, aa well in the Lower 
Taconic as in the Mi<idle Taconic. 

The following tables givea resume of the parallelism of the four 
formations under iwnsidoi-ation, and their equivalents in Europe 
and in Xorth America. 

)v Google 

Lower and Middle Taconic. — Marcou. 








1 ■ 



1 "^ ? ,, 3 



1 a 

1 S 


1 rS 

s a S - . 



8 o S S ? 


jliii 1 


i i ^ « .i 




3 S ~ 

1:11 1 

-fiatvii! sapixopujuj 

1 s 

5 s s 
f = s 

■= 5 « 


a 1 ' 


- i 
i 5 

„ Google 


The American Geologist. 












1 "^ 






Q Q' H 


= u 



si % 




1 1 

1 i 

1 1 

i i 

a 1 
= 1 

S i 


„ Google 

e. — Mmnm. 9 

S io-S J 

«=s!s . 



O -« o Ml. 

5 ft S" S o ft 

s s § 3 1 3 


■SW S 3-5-S 


S * « " k. 


S, J -i J -,S~ 

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„ Google 

2%e American Geoloffist. 

Table iV.— Synchronism of the formations intheAca- 
dio-RussIan and Nevado-Canadian Seas. 

Acadlo-Ruaslan Areas. 

Canadian Area. 

Nevadlan Area. 


IV. Bohemian forma- 
tion or Parade xldes 

IV. Georgia torma- 
tlon. The lower part 
wants more study be- 
rore we can know If it 
Is the exact homotar!- 
ualfaunaof the whole 
Paradosldes Mne. 

IV. Georgia forma- 
tion. In British Co- 
lumbia It seems more 
developed and repre- 
sents there the whole 
Paradoxldes zone. 




III. Bcandlnavlan 
tonnatlon or Holmla 

II. Esthonlan forma- 
ttoD or Schmidtia 

III. and II. The Si, 
Albans and Granular 
Quartz formations 
want to tie explored 
and studied carefully 
before any correla- 
tion and synchronism 
8 attempted with the 

III. Unknown paleon- 

II. Grand Canon or 
the Colorado ; small 
fauna referred with 
doubt to the Esthonl- 
an formation. 


I. Newfoundlandlan 


I. Unknown. 

I. Unknown paleon- 
tologlcally, but repre- 
sented Btratlgraphlc- 
ally In the Grand 
Canon, the Wasatch 

The Physical Slietch map of tlie Lower and Middle Tacoaic 
l)erio<:l, accompanjing this paper,* shows at & glance the supposed 
and conjectured terra fit-Tna and the seaa, for the north temperateor 
neutral zone of about one-half of the northern hemisphere. Many 
veaJBago, in 1860, 1 tried to give a reconstruction of the lands and 
seoB, as they existed during the Jurassic period, in my ' ' Lettres 
Hur les rocbes du Jura et leur distribution gtographique dans les 
deux hemispheres ", addressed to my much regretted friend, the 
late Albert Oppel. It was a bold attempt with very scanty ma. 
terinl at my disposal. 

However, as imperfect and conjectural as it was, it contained 
the first germ of geographical distribution bj-Homozoic bands and 
provinces in geological times, and opened a path which has been 
followed since, with more success, by several of my young con- 
temporaries, notably by Messrs. Neumayr, Mojsisovics and Niti- 

*See the June number, 18510. 

)v Google 

Lower and Wddle Taconic. — Marcou. 229 

kin lor the Jura and the Trias periods, Mr. Edward Hull, the 
learned director of the Geological Survey of Ireland, has made 
researches in the same field, but on a more limited area. Mr. 
Hull has given a series of very interesting paleo-geol(^ical and 
geographical maps of the British Islands and the adjoining parts 
of the continent of Europe. And flnalty, th« important memoir 
of Director A, Karpinski of the Geological Survey of Russia, on 
Uie physical geography in geological times of Russia in Europe, 
ehoold be mentioned. I shall say only a few words in regard to 
the theory put forward many years ago, of the permanency of the 
oontineats and oceans, which is still advocated by a few geolo- 
gists.t — generally only theroists — and which is strongly sup- 
ported by zoologists. Partisans or advcraaries of the evolution 
of species want the permanence of the continents and oceans, to 
eostain theirviews, however conflicting they may be, and they do 
not hesitate to miuntain as a creed that with slight changes only 
the oceans and the terra firmit have always presented the same 
geographical distribution as now. It is simply a wrong generali- 
zation from the facte, which every practical geologist readily ac- 
cepts : that is to say, that some part of the terra firma has al- 

fProfesBOT Jamea Qelkle In & paper entitled; " The evolution of cli- 
mate," with maps, just Issued as a reprint from the ScoBteJi Gcoflr«ph(- 
cal Magazine for February, fSSO, says at p. 31; "But, although the 
boundaries of the land masses shown upon the maps referred to are thus 
confessedly provisional, the maps nevertheless bring out the main tact of 
a gradual growth and consolldattOD of the land-areas — a passage from 
Insular to continental conditions. I need hardly say this Is no novel 
Idea. It was clearly set forth by professor Dana upwards of forty years 
ago (SiHiman's J■{rttr^MI^ 1848, p. 353; 1847, pp. 176, 381 ), and it re- 
ceived so _no years later further lllustratlou from professor Gityot, who 
Insisted upon the limular character of the climate during paleozoic 
times (The Earth and Man, 1850)." 

The Idea of a gradual growth of the. land-areaa — a passage from In- 
snlar to continental conditions did not origlnalo with professor Dana or 
professor Ouyot, who only applied It many years after Us publication, 
in France, by Elle de Beaumont, who is the true originator of the Idea. 
Elle do Beaumont was In the habit of showing such maps and used 
them, In his lectures on practical geology, at both the College de France 
and the School of Mines In Paris, as far back as 1836. Profi'ssor Iteu- 
dant, with the permission of Bile de Beaumont, has published three of 
those maps for the Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary seas In his Cours 
Slertientaire de Oeologte pp. 2S7, 2il, aud 343, 1^41; and profcs.sor Carl 
Vogl in his Lelvrbach de Oeologle und Petrefttctenkande, 1843, based en- 
tirely on the lectures of Bile de Beaumont during 1844-4Q, as he e.\- 
pressly says in his introduction, gives at the end of bis manual, tour 
large maps of the Carboniferous, Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary seas. 
So the "novel Idea" Is due to Bile de Beaumont ; and Its publication 
was made first by Beudant In 1841, and afterward by Carl Vogt In 1843, 
several years before Dana's and Guyot's publications. 

)v Google 

230 TA^ American Oeologiat. Oct. isso 

waya been diy land and was aever covered by salt water and con- 
seqneatly by sedimentary marine d^raeita. Tbe number of sach 
areas is ver^' limited, and more so than appears from a first 
glimpse at the "Geolt^cal Map of the World "; for dislocatioiu 
on an enormous scale have bronght to light great masses of 
crystalline rocks w))ich were concealed under slfata during cer- 
tain periods of the earth's history ; it is not safe, for iastaace, to 
ctmclude from the existence of the great masses of crystalUne 
rocks of the Alps, or Himalaya, or Rocky moontains, ttiat those 
r^ons were always out of the seas and formed dry lands, gtract- 
nral and orographic geology must be always cwisulted and ap- 
plied, before reaching conclosions. And any one who has studied 
carefully any part of the earUi, where crystalline rocks exist, 
would hesitate more than once, before saying such part of th« 
crystalline or primitive rocks has been and remuned out of tbe 
reach of sea water, and has never been covered by sedimMits of 
any sort, except from the aerial decomposition of tiie crystalline 
rocks. That such areas exist, it is certain, among the great 
masses of primitive rocks which cover great surfaces ; sacli, for 
instance, as the great Scandinavian peninsula and its adjunct 
Finland, and also some parts of Labrador and even New England. 
But they are only isolated patches scattered, without connection, 
all over the actual land areas of the world. 

As to permanency of the oceans, it is also true that some 
spots have remained constantly under sea water, and as the seas 
cover two-thirds of the earth's surface, it must be expected that 
isolated patches of permanent sea covering, should be more 
numerous and larger than the patches of permanent dry land. 
One thing is certain, that not one of those patehes is large enough 
to form a sea, though very limited, like the White sea or the Bal- 
tic sea ; and no patches of land of the primitive outeropa consti- 
tute now a continent such as Australia, or even an island as laige 
as New Zealand, Celebes, or England. 

To try a reconstruction of the land and sea during the Taconic 
period is an extremely difficult task ; because the more we descend 
into remote age in the geological chronology, the more we are i 
duced to fragmentary and scattered documente not easy to d< 
cipher, It is very bold in me to present such an essay, but 
hope it will be regarded as a most informal sketch, extrem' 
crude and rather too hypothetical, but after all an attempt at 

)v Google 

Xower and Middle Taconic. — Ma/rcou. 231 

ordination of facte scattered over one-half the northern hemi- 
sphere and which need some sort of bond to consolidate what 
haa already been acquired, by the isolated efforts of fifty or 
more |>ractical geolt^sts from St Petersburg to Prague, Mad- 
rid, St David, St. Johns, Cambridge, Williamstown and. Eureka 

The Acadio-Russian sea, was bordered on the north by a Ta- 
conic continent running from the vicinity of Revel (Esthonia), 
to Lapland, Scotland, Ireland, Labrador and the northwest terri- 
tory of the Canada Dominion. On the east, was an extensive 
peninsula, starting somewhere near St, Petersburg and extending 
between Scania and the Baain of Bohemia, as far west as Corn- 
wall and French Brittany and probably a little farther west 
Then a sort of Mediterranean area covered by the Acadio-Russian 
sea, connected Bohemia, France, the Iberian peninsula and the 
island of Sardinia. South of it, the Taconic continent was 
fomed, very likely, by the whole r^ion of the Barbary states, 
the Qreat Sahara desert and the Guinea coast There seems to 
have been a sea between Africa and South America. 

A narrow and very extended isthmus, connected the North Tar- 
conic continent with the South Taconic continent, from Labrador, 
eaat of the Straits of Belle Isle, descending to Nova Scotia, the 
■White mountains of New England, Boston, eastern Vii^inia, 
Georgia, and expanding under the form of a great continent, 
which occupied the whole region of the West Indies, Central 
America, Venezuela, Guiana, Columbia, southern Mexico and ex- 
tending some distance into the actual tropical Pacific ocean. 

West of the great isthmus just spoken of, and inclosed on 
three aides by dry lands, we have the Nevado-Canadian sea, with 
its opening west and' its extension into the Paciflo ocean of that 

All the outcrops of Lower and Middle Taconia with their spe- 
cial fannna, exist in a single band, which can be called the North 
Neutral Homozoic band of the Taconic period. In it we have in 
the two seas, three provinces of marine animals for each sea; 

lich seems verj- distinct and appropriate. Beginning at the east 
de, we have first ( alpha ) the Scania-Wales province, comprising 
1 the part of the AcadioRussian sea, which extends between 
Russia and England ; then ( l)eta) the A sterio- Bohemia province, 
'omprisingBohemia,Francc, Spain imcl Sardinia; and finally (ddtn) 

)v Google 

832 The American Oeelogiat. Oct isso 

tiie Newfoundlond-Massachusetta proTince, comprising Bouth- 
easterc Newfoundland, New Brunswick and Braintree. Each one 
of these provioces is characterized by special fosBils. some pass- 
ing from one province to another ; but so far the common species 
are very few. 

In the Nevado- Canadian sea, we have also three different prov- 
inces of marine animals. The (epsilon) Belle Isle Strait — Bald mono- 
tain province, compriaing the straits of Belle Isle, Canada bay, 
the whole Gulf of St. Lawrence region, Quebec, Vermont, eastern 
New York, and farther south. The primitive and original area of 
the Taconic system with the Taconic range of mountains and the 
spot where Dr. Emmons discovered the primordial fauna, are en- 
closed in that province. The (gamma) Eureka-Utah province, com- 
prises the state of Nevada, the territory of Utah, and the Grand 
Cafton of the Colorado. Finally the ( pi ) Castle Mountain prov- 
ince of British Columbia, comprises all the areas north of tiie 
preceding province. All these three provinces of the Nevado- 
Canadian sea are connected by similar forms of fossils and also 
by a few common species. 

Until now, we have no indications of the Taconic faunas exist- 
ing in the Central and Polar Homozoic bands. It is reser\-ed to 
future discoveries, for to this day no primordial faunitic horizons 
are known in either the Central Homozoic band, or Polar Homozoic 
band. Only an indication exists of a primordial fauna in tiie 
Soutb Neutral Homozoic band in South America. But when we 
remember that in 1844, when Dr. Emmous made his first discov- 
ery of a special and older fauna, called since primordial by Bar- 
rande, absolutely nothing was known of those immense periods of 
time which, appropriately, he called Taconic, and that in less 
than half a century, we have already recognized and described 
more than six hundred marine species, distributed in six prov- 
inces of the North Neutral Homozoic band, for only the two old- 
est parte of the Taconic period — not speaking for the present of 
the Upper Taconic time — then we may fairiy hope a greater ex- 
tension of our knowledge all over the world during the next half 
century ; and that the first centennial anniversary of Emmcms' 
great diacoverj' and Barrande's great creation of the primordial 
fauna, will be celebrated with materials collected from Cape Horn 
to the Arctic archipelago, and from Newfoundland to Kamt- 
schatka, Tasmania, the Cape of Good Hope and Central Africa, 

)v Google 

Cheyenne Sandstone of Kansas. — Cragin. 233 

and will be Bufflcient to allow geologists to give then, a first well 
baaed generalization on what was our globe zoologically, as well 
sa pbjHically, during those far remote Taconic times. 
Camhriil^e, IHnti., March, 1890. 


Bt F. W. CBAom, Topek». K»obm. 

[ThtB Article ww origliiBUr propiired as & contribution to tlie November ( 1889 ) 
meetins of the Ktutws Academy ol Science, but was attetwarda withhold from 
the Academy'a Tnauacliona tot the puipoae of incorporating additional data, 
•nd wunnblisbed In the Builetln of the Washburn Coliene Laboratoir, No. 11 
(dated HUireh. 1890. bat not issued till April 3 ). 

It 1b beUeved to be of anmcient inl«rei<t to entitle It to b wider reading than it 
can have tbtooKh the medium of a local ButletiJi, and it is here reproduced wiUi 
afew sIlKht chances, hut essentiallyas It was published in the .Btil/e[ln.] 

Resting onconformably upon the fine-grained brick-red deposits 
of the Triassic of southern Kansas, in parts of Barber, Pratt, 
Kiowa, and Comanche counties, on the upper drainage of the 
Medicine Lodge river and on Mule creek, may be seen a stratum 
of friable, false-bedded, littoral sandstone, attiuning locally a 
thickness of forty feet. It is ordinarily rather coarse-grained, 
sometimes gravelly ; in a few localities exceedingly Sue. Its 
slight but variable coherency imparts to It a rugged relief. In- 
deed, the outcrop of this rock offers more variety of form and 
color than that of any other formation in eonthem Kansas, 
though its features are on a smaller scale than that seen in the 
Gj-psum Hill Permian of Barber county. 

Two or three "Hell's Half Acres," mere skeletons of theorig- 
inal stratum , the " Natural Corral," in the southeast comer of 
Kiowa county; the " Natural Well," in Comanche county, near 
Mule creek; Osage Rock, a prominent point of rocks opposite the 
village of Belvidere ; and numerous named and unnamed chim- 
ney-rocks, eaatles, forts, and guiehea— some of them gailj- dec- 
orated with spots and stripes of purple, crimson, scarlet, and 
brown, but of prevailing yellow, gray, and whitish shades — are 
sharacterietic features in the relief of its outcrop. 

The dip is to the southeast 

While this sandstone seems to be closely related to the Potomac 
and Tuscaloosa divisions of the Atlantic states, to the Trinity 
division of Texas and Arkansas, and to the Atlantoaaurus beds of 
Wyoming and Colorado, it would be premature to assert positively. 

)v Google 

234 T^e American Geologist. oet. isso 

at this time, the precise identity of any two of these. Incom- , 
plete geographic and stratigraphic data suggest a probability that 
the above described Bandstone represents a portion of the Trlaitj 
division ; but reference of it to the Trinity division in any way, 
until the Indian Territory interval has been explored, is of course 
merely a^suppoaition, however probable. 

The fanna of the Trinity division, according to Prof. Hill, is 
Pnrbeck- Weal den in its affinities, but according to Prof. Marcou, 
it LB referable to the upper Jurasaia Thatof the sandstone under 
consideration is wholly unknown. The one genus known to be- 
long to the flora of the latter, ranges from the Purbeck to the up- 
per Neocomiau, but the species is moat like those of the Purbeck. 

In default of precise knowledge as to the stratigraphic and 
paleeontolt^c equivalency of thia sandstone, it will be expedient 
to know it, for the present, by a local name I designate it, 
therefore, as the Cheyenne sandstone. This name was suggested 
(see Bui. WaiM>um Coll. Lab. Nat. ifiX., No. 11, p. 70) in 
allusion to the prominent point of rocks above mentioned as 
"Oat^e Rock," which has been called by some, " fiie Cheyenne 
Bock," and which belongs to the stratum under discuaslon, is 
easily accessible by waj' of tbe Melvane Extension of the C. K. 
& W. Ri^lvay, and boasts historical prestige as an Indian battle- 
ground. It appears, however, that the name, •' Osi^ Rock," is 
now far more generally used, the Osages having been the victors 
in the latest battle. The name " Cheyenne," so far as based upon 
the supposed name of the Belvidere point of rocks, is therefore 
not the moat appropriate. But as it was proposed for a tempor- 
ary purpose only and is probably destined to become a sjTionym, 
it seems needless to change it ; and I would here propose it aneV, 
in allusion to the fact that the Cheyenne Itidians frequently 
ranged over the district in which this sandstone occurs. 

The only fossils of the Cheyenne sandstone thus far discovered 
are cloaely related to thoae of the "Purbeck Dirt-beds" of Eng- 
land, the most important being a portion of the stump of a cyc^ 
of the genus Cycadoidea ( Mantellia ). The species, which is ap- 
parently distinct from any of the several known forms from tjie 
old worirt upper Jurassic and lower Cretaceous, was described in 
December, 1889, in the Bulletin of the Waahburn College 
Laboratory of Natural History (Vol II. , p. 65 )t under the name, 
t"Contrlbutioii:i uilhe Pateoutologyot the Plains. — No. 1." 

)v Google 

Clteyetme Sandstone of Kansas. — 0>-agin, 235 

Cyeadoldea munita. The type-specimeD iadicatee a stump a foot 
in diameter and of about the same or a little greater higbt, and 
of broadly orate outline in side-view. The false-barli, which 
seems to have been more or less readily separable from the wood, 
had a thickness of 3.25 to 3.75 inches in the region of greatest 
faorlzontat diameter of the stump, diminishing to 2.25 inches or 
less in the upper portion. The rhomboidal marliings on the ex- 
terior of the falae-bark measured 1 to 1.5 inches by .6 to .8 inch 
(for the most part about 1.25 inches for the horizontal dimension). 
The species is thus intermediate in its characters between C 
megalophylla and C. micropkylla. For an account of the char- 
acter of the inner portion of the leaf-stalk, and for other details, 
the above-cited reference may be consulted. 

The Maryland cycad announced by Mr. T. P. Tyson in 18601 
was, as I am informed, .taken from the formation now known as 
the Potomac Diviaion. A photograph, for the use of which I am 
indebted to Mr. Jules Marcou, representing this cycad with an ex- 
tended two-foot rule beside it, and thus providing for accurate 
comparison with the Kansas specimen, indicates! the probable 
specific identity of the Potomac cycad with the latter. 

Occurring abundantly in the Cheyenne sandstone are silicified 
logs belonging to trees of the conilerons sort, but of genera as 
yet undetermined. They are presumably allied to those which are 
associated with Cyeadoidea in the Purbeck and Neocomian of 
England. One of these logs was traced by the writer from the 
loose sand of a ravine into the solid sandstone and for a lengUi of 
forty-five feet, wliich included neither stump nor tree-top, the 
smaller end having a thickness of thirteen inches. It is to this 
sandstone that the ordinary petrified logs seen in door-3'ards, and 
in use sometimes as hitehtng-posts in the Sun City and Belvidere 
district, belong. 

Seams of lignite and fragments of soft, charcoal-like, bitumin- 
ized wood occur in the Cheyenne sandstone in some localities. 
Careful study of these may lead to further light on the plant-life 
if Kansas in Jura-cretacic times. 

The false-bedded structure, the drifted l(^a and cyoads, and the 
'ftnds of lignite all testify that this sandstone was deposited in 
ittoral waters. 

)v Google 

236 JXtf American Geologist. Oct isBO 

The Cheyenne sandBtone is for the moBt part overl^d with the 
Neocomian shales, or immediately with the shell-conglomerate 
( Na & of Belvidere section ) ; but in a few localities the shales 
and more or less of the sandstone itself have been eroded, so that 
what remains is covered with fluviatile Qnatemuy imd recent 
talus deposits. On some of the valley slopes of Soldier creek, 
near the east line of Kiowa county, ledges at Cheyenne sandstone 
may be seen overl^d with calcareons marl, sand, and graveL 
That the latter is disint^rated Loup Fork conglomerate, is shown 
by the traces of incrustation with characteristic Loop Foric cement 
In the Comanche county " Natural Well " above-mentioned, the 
Cheyenne stratum forms a considerable part of the wall and is 
found beneath recent alluvial. 

Of the extent of the Cheyenne division beyond the limits of 
the four counties above mentioned, little e^ now be siud, aside 
from speculations as to its equivalency to the Potomac and Trin- 
ity divisions. It seems to be lacking in Clark county, where 
Neocomian shell-conglomerates and shales, similar to those which 
overlie the Cheyenne sandstone on the Medicine Lodge river, rest 
directly upon the Red-beds. It probably reached at least as far 
east as the west line of Harper county originally, near which line, 
though in Barber county, fragments of the fossils of this sand- 
stone and of the more recent Neocomian sheU-conglomerates oc- 
cur as inclusions in the Lonp Fork TeilJary conglomerate. Cer- 
tain sandstones and mottled white and deep purple-red clays, asso- 
ciated with the black shale and lignite, resting upon the Permian, 
andoverl^d by strata containing characteristic fossils of No. 3 of 
the Belvidere section, which outcrop on the western border tA 
McPherson county, near Windom, are probably the equivalents of 
Cheyenne sandstone in that region. 

I first examined the Cheyenne sandstone about the first of Jan- 
uary, 18B5, and partially described it in April of the same year 
in my > ' Notes on the Geology of Southern Kansas " { Bvl. Wash. 
ColL Lab. Nat Hist No. 3, p. 90>,* but I at that time quite 

The following Is the description referred to, In connection with a still 
briefer description of the shales discussed in the ' latter part of the 
present paper ; It Is of Interest as that of one of the remarkable color- 
dlaplaya so common In the Cheyenne sandstone and fts the earliest printed 
reference to the leading features of the Cheyenne and Comanche divi- 
sions In Kansas: "A locality a few miles southwest of Sun Clt;, locally 
known as the 'Block Hill,' affords an easily recognized horlion for ref- 
erence In any studies that may be made of the neighboring formations. 

)v Google 

Cheyenne SandntoTie of Kansas. — Cragi/n. 237 

misunderstood the stratigraphic relatioDS of that region, and re- 
ferred this sandstone to the Benton. It was subsequently 
visited by Mr. Robert Hay, who referred it to the Dakota ( Tran. 
Kan. Ac. Sci. X, 22). Still later, it was reconnoitered by Prof. 
Orestes St. John, who likewise referred it to the Dakota (Fifth 
Biena Rep. Kan. State Bd. Agr. , Part II, p. 143). Since the 
fall of 1884, I have had frequent opportunity of studying the 
r^oD in which the Cheyenne division occurs, and some prelimi- 
nary results of that study were published in No. 9 of the Wash- 
bum Collie Bulletin, under the title " Geological Notes on the 
region south of the Great Bend of the Aikaneaa River." In that 
article (p. 35) I have briefly redescribed the Cheyenne sandstone 
and placed it, in my Belvidere sectjon, at the base of a series of 
shales which I provisionally refeired to the Comanche serieB. 
Though at that writing I suspected its identity with the Dinosaur 
Band ( later called Trinity division ) of Prof. Hill, I contented 
myself with pointing out the probable age of the overlying shales 
and giving a section showing the relations of the sandstone to the 
latter. On receiving my paper, Prof. Hill expressed his belief 
that the sandstone in question was probably referable to his Trin- 
ity division (Ann. Rep. Ark. Geol. Surv. for 1888, II, 115). 
The data which the writer has acquired touching the Cheyenne 
saudBtoue tend to confinn this opinion and the suggestion also 
made by Prof. Hill (op, cit., p. 179 ) that the Trinity division is 
allied to the Potomac. Indeed, if the Cheyenne sandstone be re- 
ferred to the Trinity division, the discoverj- of Purbeekian cycads 
in the Cheyenne, in connection with the previously reported occur- 
rence of the same in the Potomac, adds a strong link to the chain 
of evidence associating the Trinity division witb the Potomac. 

being well up above tha gypsum, conspicuous, and quit* unique. It 
may be designated as the ' Black lilll horizon.' The deposit from wlilch 
the hill takes Us name ts a bed of carbonaceous and rapidly decoiupus- 
ing shale. 

" In connection with the shale are found fragmentary seams of poor 
lignite- Immediately above and below this Is a layer of shcll-coiigloin- 
erBte,madeup largely of Ostrenatid OryplKfi. Below these is a formation 
)uite unlike any other I have seen or heard of in Kansas, and well 
worth a visit to the plaj;c to see. It Is a variegated sandstone, unfortu- 
nately loo friable for utility, but displaying a most beautiful variety of 
colors. Brown, purple, blue, crimson, scarlet, pink, orange, lemon-yel- 
low, and white, these and many intermediate shades maybe seen, hi 
brightest contrasts and most delicate bletidlngs. Streaked and Inter- 
streaked lu a tortuous manner, clouded and blended, blotched and 
blurred, the dispositions of the colors are as endless as ihelr shades." 

)v Google 

238 I%e American Geologist. Oct, i89o 

If we aBSilme that the Cheyenne sandstone is referable to the 
Trinity division, it is remarkable that 0»trea /rankli'ni shoald be 
widely characteristic of and, so far as now known, confined to the 
latter division in Texas and Arkansas, while in Kansas it is lack- 
ing in the same, but characteristic of the Neocomiaji series. 

It thua appears that Oatrea franklini ia common to the Trinity 
of Texas and the Neocomian of Kansas ; and if, as claimed by 
Marcou,* the Enropean analogue of Ottrea /TanMini is 0. acwm- 
inata of the Kimmeridge, it is not easy to see how the O./rank- 
lini has any weight in determiming whether the Trinity divisiMi 
be more nearly related to the upper Jurassic or to the lower Cre- 
taceous. The same difficulty remains if Ostrea dubiemis of the 
Montbeliard Kimmeridge be considered, with Hitit, the European 
form of 0. fTwaklini. Pleuroce-ra etrombiformii being common 
to both Purbeck and Wealden {Jide Hill ), is likewise unavailable 
as a criterion. If the fact that the only known Upper Neoco- 
mianf Cycadoidfa ( C. indut, Carr ) is a small species, conclu- 
sively indicated that the forms of this genus underwent a gradoal 
diminution in size from the Purbeckian through Neocomian time, 
the laige size of the Kansas and Maryland specimens would seezn 
to refer them to the upper Jurassic. Bnt there remains a geo- 
graphical explanation of the small size of C. incluta, which is at 
least plausible, not to mention the alleged inferiority of data from 
botany, as contrasted with those from marine invertebrate zoolt^y 
OS chronologic criteria. 

The estuarine sedimeute at the base of the American Cretaceous 
can, therefore, hardly be referred to the Pnrbeck or to the Weald- 
en with perfect satisfaction as yet, and are probably best consid- 
ered, for the present, aa transition i-ocks, or Jura-cretacic. 



By Db. U M. Chance. Philadelphia. 
The writer has already published a paper descriptive of the gen- 
eral features of the Indian Territory Coal Measures under the title 
of " Geologj' of the Choctaw Coalfield " in the Transactions of 

•Amemcan GuoifloiST, Dec, 1889, p. 301. 

tAnn. Rep. Geol. Surv. Ark. for ISSS, II, 131 and 132, 

fPrPstwlch. (ieologf: Chemical, Physical, and ijtratlgrsphlcal. Vol. 

)v Google 

Coal Measures of the Indian Te)intory. — Chance. 239 

the Amaricaa Institute of Mining Eiigineere, Fe)>ruar;-, 1890, and 
here desires only to describe more particularly the discoverj' of 
the unexpected and extraordinary- thickness of coal-l>onring rocks, 
which is stated in the above mentioned paper ore at least 8,500 
and possibly 10,000 feet thick. 

During the winter of 1889 Mr. R. H. Sanders made a flying 
visit to the McAlester district on the line of the M. E. and T. 
railroad, and upon returning to Philadelphia informed me that the 
Coal Pleasures present in that ( McAlester ) basin were certainly 
3,000 feet or more thick. Upon arriving on the grouud in the 
spring of 1889 I was therefore prepared to find Coal Measures 
about equal in thickness to those of our Appalachian fields. 
Commencing explorator}- work in the McAlester basin I soon I>e- 
came convinced that Mr. Sanders' estimate was substentially cor- 
rect, but to his measurements I had subsequently to add somewhat 
more than 1,000 feet for measures not coming to the surface at 
McAlester and which underlie the McAlester coal betl. 

The explorations were made for the Chi>ctaw Coal and Railway 
company, then partiallj' organized, the offleials of which with 
commendable generosity have permitted publication of the results; 
which in similar cases are t'>o often jealously gnanled as private 
information too valuable to be given gratuitously to tlie public. 

Continuing the explorations eastward from the McAlester field 
towards Arkansas, bj- tracing the Gradj- ( lowest ) and McAlester 
series of Coals, I was astonished tj) find a great mass of rocks 
also coal-bearing and lithologically quite similar, coming in al>ove 
the McAlester basin series and eiuiently conformable to, and a 
virtual upward extension of, the series, making a total thickness 
of 8,500 to 10,000 feet Unfortunately the time and facilities for 
careful study and accurate measurement could not be had, and I 
was forced to be content with an estimate made by calculation 
from distances measured by an odometer attached to a " buck- 
board " wagon. 

This great mass of coal-bearing rocks is found in the Kava- 
naugh (or Cavanal or Cavaniol or Cavanaugh) mountains 15 to 
30 miles west of the Arkansas state line and north and west of 
the St Louis and San Francisco railroad. 

Starting at Bryan station on that railroatl where tlie Orady 

owest) coal is opened and worked, and parsing almost due north 

*o and across the Kavanaugh mountains, a distance of five or six 

)v Google 

240 The American Geologist. Octiaso 

milee, the whole aeries is crossed, and an accurately flur^-ejed line 
here would give the data for a cross-section showing ite true 
thickness. The dip is constantly to the north, being about 40 de- 
grees at the Bryan mine and gradually decreasing until the forma- 
tion is flat under the centre or backbone of the Ravanaugh range. 

Doubtless the results of Mr. Winslow and his successor in the 
Arkansas fields will show the existence of nearly the same thick- 
ness, for I believe the Foteau and Sugarloaf mountatos on the 
Arkansas line are geologically the equivalents of the Kava- 
nangh range in the Choctaw country. 

In a general way the formation is divisible into an upper and a 
lower coal-bearing or "productive " series, each carrying workable 
beds of coal, — tJiat is, beds from. 3 to 5 feet thick, ^-with an in- 
tervening "barren" series in which no large beds of coal bat's 
yet been found. These are possibly the same with Mr. Wiuslowa' 
provisional "upper"and "lower" series in his preliminary re- 
port for 1888,* but the thickness assigned his "lower " series is 
but a few hundred feet while the "lower" series in lie Choctaw 
country is over 3,000 feet, which difference may prove to be merely 
one of classification. 

Possibly the work of the Texas sun'ey may disclose the presenoe 
of a similar development 

While I have no paleeontotc^ical evidence of the Coal Measure 
age of the whole series ( and possibly the upper portion may prove 
of Permian age), from the lithol(^ical and strati graphical features 
of the formation I am inclined to think the whole series belongs 
to the true C arbonif erous, — that the lowest coals are not ' ' Subcar- 
boniferouB " nor the upper beds Permian. 

In the presence of such an unusual thickness of coal-bearing 
rocks and the absence of complete surveys of the formatioa in 
adjacent states, it seems useless to attempt correlation except per- 
haps with the Arkansas coals, which has already been indicated. 


By RoBEKT Ckalhbbs, Ottawa, Canada. 
Ot the Cuwdiui Oeolovlcal Survey. 

A paper on the Glaciation of Eastern Canada by the writer f 

peared in the April No. of the Canadian Record of Seien 

Montreal. It was intended to be a condensed statement of 1 

)v Google 

Glaciation of Eastern Caaiada. — Chaljners. 241 

principal facts hitherto collected od thia intereeting subject, with 
references to the reports and pu))lications in wbieh details are 
given. The following is an abstract which I send to the Geolo- 
QIST. The snbject is regarded as an important one, and has oc- 
cupied the attention of geologists for many years, as eastern Can- 
ada is the battle ground, so to speak, of the advocates of the 
rival theories of continental glaciation and floating ice. The re- 
sults thns far obtained from a somewhat careful study of its 
glacial phenomena, however, point to conclusions which are at 
variance with those held hy extreme* gtacialists, and show that the 
theory of local glaciers upon the more elevated portions of the 
coan^ and icebergs or floating ice striating the lower costal areaa 
during the Poet-Tertiary submergence of these, as maintained by 
Sir William Dawson, will serve to explain all the observed phe- 
nomena. The term ' local glacier ' I define as an iee-Bheet limited 
in extent, that is, confined to one valley or hydrographic basin, 
whether large or small, and influenced in its movements by local 
tt^Kigraphic features, such as mountains, wator-eheds, hills, or the 
valleys of the larger rivers. The data have been collected chiefly 
by th^ staffed the geological survey; but Sir William Dawson, 
who has long studied this region, and others have done much valu- 
able work in glacial geoli^;y here. 

In reference to the origin and movements of local glaciers, It 
may be stated, that the main facte pertaining to- each centre of 
disperfiion, when correlated, show tliat these glaciers were inde- 
pendent bodies which had lai^e gathering-grounds upon the higher 
parte of the country where snow fields and n^i-^ must have ex- 
isted. Whenever motion began this snow and n^v^ became con- 
verted into glacier-ioe. Upon areas where they never underwent 
cliange into ice'no striation of the rocks took place. In their 
movements the glaciers, generallj' speaking, followed the slopes of 
the land or the present draini^e channels. Some of them seem 
to have been quite large, and those from adjacent drainage areas 
may have coalesced on the lower grounds and become confluent. 
At all events, the slopes and costal tracts are usually more glaciated 
than the interior and higher grounds. 

In Nova Scotia there was a shedding of ice from the Cobequid 
mountains northward and southward, and the South mountain ap- 
pears also to have sent glaciers down its slopes, on either side. 
Sir William Dawson, Dr. Honeyman, Mr. H. Fletcher, Dr. R, W. 

)v Google 

242 The American Gedogist. Oct. i8»o 

Ells, and others have made numerous observations showing maoy 
divergent courses of strise, which are explicable only on the theory 
of local glaciers and icebergs. 

The main wat«r-shed of New Brunswick, which traverses the 
province from north-west to south-east, sent off glaciers in nearly 
opposite directions, or north-eastward towards the bay Des Cha- 
leurs and gulf of St Lawrence on the northern slope, and 
south-eastward towards the bay of Fnndy on the aouthem slope. 
This is abundantly proved by data collected by the writer and 
others. ' 

Considerable areas in the interior of this province, where centres 
of dispersion for local glaciers existed, are unglaciat«d, no ice- 
aclJon whatever nor boulder-clay being seen, and the loose ma- 
terials consisting largely of rock debris in siiw. These were 
probably snow-fields and gathering grounds for the ice during the 
glacial period. The glaciers on the southern slope appear to have 
been much larger than on the northern. But even upon the 
former they had numerous local and divergent movements, as the 
evidence shows. 

The Shickshock or Notre Dame mountains in south-eastern 
Quebec and their continuation south-westward had also large 
gathering grounds for snow and ice on their summits and shed 
glaciers south-eastward into the bay Des Chaleurs and the vallej's 
of the Reatigouehe and St John rivers, and north-westward into 
the St Lawrence valley, the estnarine portion of which must then 
have been open to receive them.' The valleys of tributarj' rivers 
and the sulxirdinate ridges and hills caused, however, many local 
deflections in the ice-currents. 

The glacial phenomena of the Archean area north of the St ' 
Lawrence and great lakes have also been InvestigatM to some ex- 
tent. The general parallelism of the Laurentian slope, north of 
the St. Lawrence, to that of the Notre Dame range on the south 
side caused the strite observed on it to have nearly the same course 
as those on both slopes of the latter, the ice flowing down these 
slopes at about right angles to the main axes of the mountains.* 
This fact has been made use of to support the theory of a massive 

'Annnal Report, Qfiol. Surv. Canada, 1885, vol. I. part GO. 

'Annaal Report, Geo). Surv. Canada, 1gS6, parts I. and M. 
■Geology of Canada, 1883, pp. 890-03: Notes on the Posi-PIioceiie 
Gpology of Canada, 'Canadian Naturalist,' 1872 ; Annual Beport, Oeol, 
Surv. Canada, 18BU, parts I. and M. 


Glaciation of Eaetem Canada. — Chalmers. 243 

ice-eheet moving from the Laurentides across the St Lawrence 
valley over the summits of the Appalachians and down ttie New 
England slope to the Atlantic. But it appears the evidence at 
hand does not support this view. The Archean area has, however, 
sent sheeta of ice down its slopes in all directions around its cir- 
cumference. In tbe central part, on the east side of the Hudson 
bay, they moved directly westward into its l>a8in. In Hudson 
strait, according to Bell, the ice had a northeastward and east- 
ward flow. Whether the whole Archean area was covered by 
glaciers flowing outwardly from die centre towanis the circumfer- 
ence, or with snow fields forming tlie n^i^ of local glaciers, as 
seems more probable, is a question to be decided by future inves- 
tigation. Areas of unglaciated rock surface, doubtless, occur 
there as well as upon other elevated portions of eastern Canada 
where decomposed rock lies undisturbed except from subaerial 

The extent and thickness of the glaciers cannot as yet be satis- 
factorily determined ; but they seem to have been largest on the 
southern slopes of the Appalachians and Lanren tides. The 
cause of this is not evident ; but as regards those of the first 
mentioned mountains, which are in a part of the country with 
which the writer is most familiar, it may be owing in some 
measnre at least to 'the difference in the steepness of the sIo[K's on 
either side of it The south-eaat slope is long, much broken, and 
has numerous comparatively level areas upon it As the rate of 
motion would be slower on this slope, the ice wouhl necessarily 
accumulate in larger sheets in depressions and on the level tracts. 
On the shorter and steeper slope of the St. Lawrence the motion 
of the ice would be more rapid, and it would more rea<li[y de- 
bouch into the estuaty or sea. 

Evidences of tlie action of icebergs or fioating ice are found in 
the St Lawrence valley and on the bay Des Chalcurs co:ist also 
in a number of other places around tlie shores of the gulf of St. 
Lawrence. So far as the writer has observetl, tliey are met with 
only on ledges below the 200 to 350 feet conlour-Hue abo\e sea- 
level. Floating ice seems to have played an important part in 
transporting boulders over the siibmei^cd areas. 

The views here bricfiy outlined will doubtless undergo some 
modification, when this region, especially that part of it known as 
the great Archean area, comes to be studied in gi-eater detail. 

)v Google 

244 2%e American Geologist. oct. isao 

I think, however, the main cooclusions herein advanced will 

Newfoundland, although not forming part of Canada, is geo- 
graphically connected with it, and its glacial phenomena may 
therefore be referred to here. The late Alex. Muiray, C.M.G. , 
Director of the Geological Survey for many years, states tiiat ite 
surface is everj'where glaciated. ' He held the theory of a conti- 
nental ice-fiheet, however ; but his facts show that the striie are 
quite diveif;eut, following depressions and valleys in different ^- 
rcctions. It seems probable, therefore, that here, as in eastern 
Canada, local glaciers produced the chief striation obser^'ed, as 
pointed ont by the late captain Kerr, R. N. * But from its insular 
position and lying as it does in the track of the arctic currents, 
t^e coast areas must have been intensely eroded from icebergs and 
floating ice. 


Snow Hall op Natural History at Lawrence, Kansas. 

In 1885 the Legislature of the State of Kansas appropriated 
the snm of $50,000 for the erection of a suitable building for the 
natural history department of the State University. The build- 
ing was completed in the autumn of 1886 and named for Prof. 
F. H. Snow, who had been connected with the university from its 
beginning and under whose direction numerous and valuable col- 
lections in ever}' department of natural history, &ad been made. 

Snow Hall is two stories high with basement and attic. It is 
partially divided from top to bottom by halls, and atMrways, into 
two parts. The portion thus set off to the west of the main en- 
trance is devoted to purposes of exhibition, and the opposite por- 
tion to instruction. On the east side are lecture rooms, laboratories 
and work rooms with special cabinets. The m^n lecture room is 
a large room with ceiling 30 feet high, and is capable of seating 

'TraDsactloDS of the Ro;. Soc. of Canada, 18B3, sec. Iv., paper on the 
Olaclatlon of KcwCouDdlaud. 

^Trans. of tlic Roy. Soc. of Canada, 1833, Sec. Iv., paper on the 
Olaclatlon of Newfouudland, p. 68. 

)v Google 

Editorial Comment. 245 

oearlj 300 pet»>ns. The seate rise gradually from the basement 
to the first floor. On the west side are four ioi^e rooms, one 
above the other, with dimeuBions 86x36 ft : the lowestone is used 
for laboratory work, the two middle ones for pnblic museum rooms, 
and the fourth one in the attic for storage purposes. 

The first floor. is devoted to geolt^y. The spacious museum 
ro(mi contains the large Cooper collectioD of minerals ; and a 
most unique and ytdnable collection of Dakota sandstone fossil 
leaves, made by ]ndge £. P. West Fossil Bhells of all kinds, 
immense sanriaos, horses, sharks and a life size cast of Megathe- 
rium cuvieri also And a place here. 

The coUectioQ of vertebrate fossils from the Niobrara section of 
the Cretaceous formation in western Kansas, is pronounced by 
Dr. Geo. Baur to be the flnest collection on exhibition in either 
Europe or Aqierioa. This collection contains many remarkable 
sanrians, fishes and birds including a Mososaur with the dermal 
scales iu perfect preservation. The latter specimen was discov- 
ered by Prof. Snow in 1878, and has never been duplicated. 
Another unique specimen is the fossil feather of a Cretaceous bii^, 
discovered last summer by judge West, and the only bird feather 
yet found in America below the Tertiary. 

Prof. S. W. WiUiston, professor of anatomy in Yale Medical 
School has accepted the chair of geoli^y, and will b^in service 
Septemtier 1st. Professor Willistou was for j'ears professor 
Marsh's right hand man, and is ^so the most eminent authority 
on Diptera in the country. 

All work in Zoology and Botany is done on the 2d fioor. Pro- 
fessor Snow, while the chancellor of the university, is still director 
of the museum, and has a supervision over all departments. His 
specialty has been entomology, especially from an economic 
standpoint, and the university possesses the largest collection of 
insects to be found in any American college with the exception of 
the one at Cambridge. V. L. Kellogg is the assistant in entomol- 
ogy. He is a graduate of the department and has contributed to 
scientific knowledge by bis observations on the Mallophage. 

Work in botany is directed by Mr. W. C. Stevens, also a gradu- 
ate of the University of Kansas. He is aided by a lai^e 
herbarium of North American plants, collected by professor 

)v Google 

246 T&e Anieriean Geologist. Oct isoo 

Prof. L. L. Dyche, in the chair of Anatomy and Zoology, haft 
bililt up a magnificent collectJon of American birde and mammals. 
He is aaid to be the most accurate taxidermist in the country ; 
and his etriking groups of grizzly bears, mount&in lioua, Rocky 
Mountain sheep and goats, and buffalo are evidence of his skilL 
Professor Dyche shoots nearly all the animals he mounts, spend- 
ing most of his vacations in the field. He is now preparing for 
his second trip to northern British America, to hunt moose and 
caribou. He is assisted by Miss Gertrude Crottj- in anatomy, and 
by E. D. Eames in taxidermy. 

The rooms of Snow Hall are heated by steam, the ' ' indirect " 
method being employed to furnish the rooms with f reah air, and 
the direct method for securing proper temperature. 

Fresh air is introduced into the building by means of a " plenum " 
extending under the entire building and connecting with the outer 
air by arched openings and areas. Ventilation is accomplished 
by means of la^ flues leading from floor to ceiling of all rooms, 
to a lai^e iron chamber in the attic, in which sufficient radiation 
is located to secure a sucessful movement of the foul lur through 
a ventilating cupola to the exterior. 

Plenty of light even on cloudy days, is secured by the lai^, 
well arranged windows. The museum rooms are lighted on three 
sides, and opposite the center of the unlighted side of each of 
these rooms, a lai^e plate glass window eight feet wide and eleven 
feet high helps to diffuse a proper amount of light all over the 

The building is rendered nearly fire proof by use of iron 
girders, floors deadened with mortar on corrugated iron, wire 
lathing, polished hard wood finish, and slate and stone exterior. 
And in addition to prevention secured by construction, improved 
appliances for curing a conflagration hang on every floor. 

The stone used in this building is the white limestone from the 
Cottonwood Falls (Kansas) quarries, and this rock is wrought 
Into handsome carvings over the buttressed front 

Work in this beautiful building is being prosecuted under most 
favorable circumstances. The department has been treated gen- 
erously in the matter of appropriations and has . been able to se- 
cure the best appliances and able instructors. 

)v Google 

EdUcrial Comment. 

What Constitutes the Taconic Range op Mountains. 

Dr. Asa Elb:h deBcribes the T&conic mount&ina in the following 
iTOrds : Runs Eilong the east line of this county, immediately on 
the Vermont aide of that line. From Mt. Anthony in Benning- 
Hon, it passes through Spruce (or West) mountain, Bed, Equinox 
Bear, Antonio, Rupert and Pawlet ( two names given to one long 
mountain ) to Haystack, east of Oraaville village. ( Histobical, 


Wabhinoton, 1849, p. 936.) 

Prof. J. D. Dana describes the Taconic range of mountains in 
the following words, so far as they esist in Vermont : This 
great slate belt extends from Weybridge on the north to the 
Bouthweatem comer of the state, widening southward and spread- 
ing into the state of ^ew York. The part south of Brandon has 
been called the Tacouic range of mountains, it being properly a 
continuation of the Taoonic range of Massachusetts. [Am. 
Jour. Set (3) XIU. 336, 1877.] 

Geologically th^e hills consist, according to Mr, C. D. Wal- 
oott's geological map of the Taconic region, of "Cambrian" 
formationB, i. e. of Taconic or primordial strata. [See his mf^ 
accompanying hia papers on The Taconic system of Ehuons 
and the use op the name Taconic in oeolooic nomencla- 
TUBE. Am. Jour. Sci. (3) XXXV.] He also says : Fossils oc- 
cur more or less abundantly at over 100 localities as now known 
to me within the typical Taconic area, and they are distribQted at 
various horlsons throughout the 14,000 feet or more of strata re- 
ferred to this terrane. [ Am. Jour. Sci. ( 3 ) XXXV. 242. ] 

This is a direct and complete verification of the claims of Dr. 
Emmons in the establishment of the Taconic system on the rocks 
of the Taconic mountains. 

Thin* own moath coadcmneth tliec and not I : r<Hi thine own Ilpi t««tUj 

„ Google 

7%0 American Geologwt. 


^n American Oeological Rallwa]/ Ouide, glvtne the geo1(%lc»1 toTiaar- 
tlon at every railway Btatton, with altitudes above mean tide-water, 
notes on interestlos places on the routes, and a description at epch of 
the formations. B; James Macfarlame. Second edition, revised and 
enlarged, edited by Jahes R. Macfarlans. D. Appleton & Co., 18B0. 
pp. 426. 

The first edition of this convenient manual appeared twelve years 
ago; and at the time of the author's death. In 1885, he had prepared 
several of the chapters for this second Issue, and had published ad- 
vance sheets of the part relating to the Dominion of Canada. Its com- 
pletion has bees accomplished as a work of filial love by his son, durloK 
the fragments of leisure that could be spared from a busy professional 

The plan of the book Is to give the names of the successive railway 
stations, with their distances In miles from the beginning of tiie line, 
and against each to state the geologic formatioii exposed there, and lis 
hlghl In feet above theses. Copious notes aJso call attention to locali- 
ties of qaarrloa, mines, oil and gas wells, the best points for collection 
of fossils and minerals, and views of grand or beautiful scenery. 

Introductory tables of the geologic formations, as arranged by Dana 
and by Hunt, and the general descriptions of the formations. Intended 
tor travelers who are not versed in geology, occupy the first fifty pages. 
In the later parts of the work, under each district, as the Maritime 
Provinces of Canada, the New England states. New York, etc, the 
local development of these formations is stated In descending order, 
with a nnlform system of numbering, by which the various regions majr 
be readily compared. A small sketch map of the geology of the United 
States Is given ; but a larger geologic map, or more than one. Including 
Canada, folded in a pocket of the cover, would l>e a useful addition. 

Appreciating the practical value of such a compilation, the several 
' state and United States and Canadian geolc^ists have cooperated with 
the author and editor, supplying detailed information of their respective 
districts. Not only the bed-rocks, but also the glacial drift, moraines, 
drumllns, and Quaternary lake-beds, are quite fully noticed. Per- 
haps the most interesting feature of the book for many tourists will i>e 
the figures showing how the proBle rises and falls in crossing the water- 
sheds and descending Into the valleys. It will 1>e a most valuable 
hand-book for all geologists and travelers in this country and Canada. 

Synopeta of .American Carbonic Calvn^nddtc, by C11AB1.BB B. Keteb. 
( Proc. Acad. Nat. Scl., Phllada., 1890, p. 150-iai.) 

This is a complete rSsum£ of all that -Is at present known concerning 
the American Carbonic shells hitherto commonly referred to Conrad's 

)v Google 


RevietB ofSecerU Geologictd Literature. 249 

genus PUtyceras. There are also Incorporated many new obserratlons 
derived from on exhaustive stud; of a large number of specimeuB col- 
lected during tbe past few years ; besides an examlnatlOD of nearly alt 
the types of the different forma. Of a single species more than three 
hnndred specimens we|;B obtained from a single locality for the purpose 
of determining the limits of variation. Although It Is to be regretted 
that the familiar name established by Conrad nearly half a century ago 
Is to be given up. It Is thought that the change will be a great advant- 
age in tbe ctmslderatlon of this group, since It has long been regarded, 
particularly by those paleontologists who are somewhat familiar with 
recent shells, that Conrad's group actually formed a part of Capulus of 
Hontfort. After a brief review of the nominal history of the group, 
the habits of the ancient Calyptrseua are discussed. This refers chiefly 
to the attachment of the gasteropod shells to crinolds ; and th^ conse- 
quent variation In the form of the shell and range of variability. The 
descriptions of numeraas Illustrative ex&mplesare given at length. This 
lntlmal« association of crlnold and gasteropod has been noted In the 
cases of at least a score of species of tbe former, and nearly a dozen of 
the latter. These are given In tabalated form. It must be borne In 
mind that the close relations of the two forms do not imply that the 
gasteropod was parasitic In Us habits as Is generally regarded but that 
the moUnsk,. though for a greater part of Its life stationary, probably 
ted only on the ex ere mentltloas matter of the crlnold and on the minute 
organisms brought near by the slowly waving arms of the cchlnoderm. 
The remarks on gec^raphlc and geologic distribution have a wide ap- 
plication. The relation of the forms from the Burlington and Keokuk 
rocks Is very slgnlflcant In Us bearing upon the true connection of the 
two tormatlouB. Following the last section is a strati graph leal cata- 
logue of the known forms, a discussion of the generic characters and 
an enumeration ef the recognized species : of the latter new descriptions 
are made from the abundant material examined. Each description Is 
accompanied by a full bibliography and a complete discussion of the 
leading characteristics, peculiarities and other points of interest. 
Twenty-two species are regarded as valid. The closing section is de- 
voted to brief remarks on the spurious and doubtful species. A plate 
of twenty-three figures of tbe most peculiar forms, and species never 
before figured, accompanies the monc^raph. 

MeU»rtc iTont. Oeorok F. Ecsz, In the Trans. N. ¥. Acad. Scl., 
Vol. IX, No. 8, May-June, gives some interesting descriptions of various 
meteorites. In the first paper (pp 186) are described about twenty or 
more meteorites recently discovered In Brenham twp., Kiowa county, 
Kansas. The masses range in size from 406 IbS. to 1 lb. and less. 
Two of these masses ( 345 lbs. and 75 lbs. ) belong to the calllltes, the 
others, containing olivine, to the pallasltes. Analyses of the Iron gave 
Fe, 88.49; Ni. 10.35; Co. .57; Sp. gr. 7.93. Mr. Kunz says: "This 
group of meteorites possesses more than ordinary Interest on account 
both of the peculiar composition and structure, and also of the 

)v Google 

350 7%e American Oec^iat. oot ism 

undoubted ethnological relation, espectally because of the probable con- 
nection with the meteoric Iron lound In the Turner Uounds (Ohio). 

The second paper (pp.194), "Meteoric Iron (rom Bridgewater. 
Burke Co., N. C. '' This mass originally weighed 30 Iba., has a sp. gr. 
of 6.617 and contains Fo. 88.90; Nl. 9.9*; Co. .76; P. .35; CI. .03. The 
Wldmannstatten figures were developed. The third paper (pp. 196), 
"Metooric Iron from Summit, Blount Co., Ala." This mass weighs 
2.3 lbs., sp. gr. 6.949, comp., Fe. 93.39; Nl. 5.62; Co. .58; P. .31; con- 
tains a large quantity of free chloride of Iron. Instead of the Wid- 
mannsUktten figures there was developed a banded appearance. Fourth 
paper on " Meteoric Iron from Colfax twp., Rntherford Co., N. C. " 
This Is a small mass weighing 12 Tror ounces. Composition verr var- 
iable, ranging Fe. 87.69 to 89.33 i.Nl. 11.26 to 9.37; Co. .68 to .53. 
Fifth paper ( p. 198 ) short description of a Stone which fell at Ferguson, 
Haywood Co., N. C, July IS, 1889. 

Sixth paper ( p. 301 ) Is a most Interesting pne on the "Aerolites 
which fell May 3d, 1890, In Winnebago Co., Iowa." Over 600 pieces 
o{ the shower have been recovered ; the largest of these weighs 8S lbs ; 
the smallest ,■,, oz. This meteor is a typical chondrodlte, porous, with 
a ap. gr, of 3.638. According to L. Q. Eaklna the approximate com- 
position of the mass Is : NIckellferous Iron, 19.40 ; TroUlte, 6.19; Sili- 
cates soluble in HCl, 36.04; Silicates Insoluble in HCI, 38.37. 

The Crlnoiden, of ttxe Lower Siagara L,ime»ton€ o( Locfcport, N. Y., 
wUh new species; by E. N. S. RiNGUEBERe, (Ann. N. ¥. Acad. Scl., 
Vol. v., July, 1890, p. 301). 

Notwithstanding the above title no descriptions arc given of the var- 
ious crinoids announced up to the date of this paper, the author confln- 
ing himself to the descriptions of five new species as follows: Calllcrlnus 
acanthinus, Dendocrlnus 1 nodlbranchlatus, Qlyptaster lock porten sis, 
IctbyocrlDus conoldeus and Eucplyptocrlnus muralls, all from Lockport, 
New York. The first proves to be a most Interesting as well as a 
remarkable discovery. The genus has not heretofore been recognized 
from America, but, according to Wacharouth, Eucalyptocrlnus cornntus 
Hall, and E. ramifer Roemer should be referred to Calllcrlnus. 

Notai on Radiolarla from Ote Lower PiUisozoic Ito<3ia (LandeUo-Cara- 
6oc ) of the South of Scotkmd. By Qeorob Jshnisob Hindb, Ph. D. 
(Annals and Magazine of Natural History, for July, 1890, ) 

In the Gkologist for July, 1890, p. 68, Is a notice of the dlscoTery of 
Paleozoic radiolarlans In Lanarkshire and Peebleshlre, Scotland. In 
the Annals and Magazine of Natural History for the same month. Dr. 
Hinde publishes an elaborate paper giving descriptions and flgores of 
these ancient radiolarlans. The radiolarlans are found In beds and 
nodular masses of chert Id strata of Lower Silurian age and adjacent lo 
beds of shale containing Qlenklln graptolltes. They are strikingly 
■ like the modern forms of this group and may all be readily assigned to 
orders and sub-orders established by Haeckel in his report on the 

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Beview of Recent Geoloffieal Literature. 261 

chert is Interestlog from the fact that, fh>m what we know of modem 
Radlolarla of the Challenger Expedttlon. Furthermore this Sllarlan 
Radlolarla, we ma; Inter that we have In these old chert beds a true deep 
sea deposit of Palceozoic orlglD. The paper enumerates twenty-three 

species distributed among eleven genera. 

Notes on the Leaves of lArtodendron. By Theodor Qoim. (From 
the Proceedings of the United States National Museum, vol. Kill, 1890, 
No. 794, pp. 15-35, pi. iT-ll.) 

This paper gives the result of a study of the variation of leaves from 
the living UHodendron tuiipifera L. and then takes up the so-called 
fossil species of Llrlodendron and considers that 'ithese ancient Amer- 
ican types have shown a liability to variation In the same degree as our 
recent tonn." The aim of the paper is very clearly stated on page 16, 
where the writer says that " The object of these notes Is to prove that, 
as tar as Is known to the author, there is not a greater difference In the 
foliage between many of the eitinct species of LMoAendTon than be- 
tween a series of leaves from a very young tree or from a branch of an 
older one o( our recent species." The article may be regarded as a pro- 
test against the undue haste of paleobotanlsts generally to rush into 
"species making." Until within a comparatively recent time there was 
tbe same passion for "species making" among paleozoologfsts; but, 
now with the more careful writers there Is a greater effort directed 
toward the combination ot variations of a species than to the descrip- 
tion of so-called new species. This great variation in the form ot 
leaves, not only from different trees of the same species but from an 
individual tree, emphasises to a geologist the greater value of paleo- 
zoology than of paleobotany for the purposes of stratlgraphical geology. 

The author's use ot geological terms shows that he has not so thor- 
ongbly mastered the details ot that science as those ot botany. 

Mineral lUaoarcet of Michigan. Charles D. Lawton. Robert 
Smith & Co., State Printers, Lansing, Michigan. Svo., pp. 181, 1B90. 
• For mine owners and others directly interested in the actual and prob- 
able out-put of the various mines this Is a valuable report, giving as it 
does, an account ot the location, size and condition ot each ot the mines, 
and a detailed record of the business ot each company for the past year. 
Thesubjectot accidents In mines and means of preventing them has 
been treated ably by Mr. Lawton In former reports and la mentioned 
incidentally in this one. 

The report contains very few of the facts which acommlssioner of Min- 
eral Statistics has such abundant opportunity for observing and collating, 
facts which would lead to a clearer understanding ot the origin ot the 
various ores, and their genetic relationship to the rocks In which they 
occur. These are questions which can never be too t.-aretully studied, 
and a few tacts observed at each mine, and reported merely as facts, 
even without any attempt to explain them, might result In throwing 
groat light upon some ot these unsettled problems. 

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2S2 I%e American Gedogiit. Oclism 

The report is an InteresUag and valuable one ; and Michigan seu an 
example which It would much benefit some ot her sister States to follow. 
In the creation and maintenance ot a capable commlSBloner ot mines and 
mineral statistics. 

Annual RejMrt of the Department of Hlne^, Sew Souffi WaUt, /or the 
Tear 1889. Sydney ; 1S90. This report Is a royal octavo, paper bound 
volume ot 353 pages, and Is devoted to the mlneraloglcal products and 
geological structure of the several mining districts ot New South Wales. 
Among the minerals ot the region are mentioned gold, coal, petroleum 
shale, tin, copper, silver and lead, Iron, antimony, platinum, bismuth, 
cobalt and nickel, manganese aud zinc, graphite, mica, diamonds. 

Front some ot the Interesting tables with which the report 
abounds wo learn that the annual output ol coal In New South Wales 
has increased in value from £603,348 In 1S81 to £1,033,848 In 1B89 ; 
the produce ot the gold mines for 1889 was worth £434,070, and the 
value ot all mineral products tor 1889, £4,780,365. In 1889 the Iron 
produced amounted In value to ouly £18,330, while the value ot the tin 
and tin ore toots up £415,171. 


Exploration of the iNDiAif Tbbbitokv and t 
Bed River. In company with Mr. J. S. Stone, and under the patronage 
ot the state geologist ot Texas, I have made a very thorough reconnols- 
sanco with many accurate sections and locations, In northern Tonas and 
southern Indian Territory from Tcxarkana westward this season. The 
problems studied wore (1) the westward deflection of the two Cretaceous 
embaymanta of the Arkansas-Toxaa region, and (3) the geology of the 
Interior region upon which the Cretaceous sediments woro laid down 
and from which they were derived. The latter line of investigations 
hasdeveloped much light upon the structure of the Ouachltasystem of 
mountains (i. e. the mountains of Arkansas and Indian Territory south 
ot the Arkansas). This system was found to be composed of most com- 
plicated folds ot Carboniferous rocks oast ot the Missouri, Kansas and 
Texas railway, with varying trondstromW 20° and toN 40°. From near 
the above mentioned railroad, at New Boggy depot, west to Tlshomlugo 
near the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fc road, is a suberb ridge ot 
granite forty miles in length Interspersed with dykes, and completely 
cutting through the strike of the Coal Measures, and ending the I'ort 
Smith McAllister coal field. Thin granite is o( many species and highly 
teldspathlc. Resting upon this granite north of Tishomingo, and in- 
creasing In area westward la a suberb region of folds of fossillferoua 

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Corre^>ondmee. . 253 

Sllurlftn limestones and shalea, with possibly earlier rocka, constituting 
the Arbnckle— Wichita mouataln system. 

These rocks extend north 40° In a aeries of vertical folds lorming low 
treelessrldges, asfar west as the staked plains, the Bed, Canadians, 
Washita and Arkansas rivers all belDg influenced by this trend betne«n 
the 9Tth and 100 meridians. 

The folding and great denudation of the whole region are remark- 
-able, the whole series from supposed Permian to the base of the 
Silurian occurring mostly In vertical stratification. There are clearly 
three great trends throughout the region, (1) a trend from northeast to 
southwest, as seen !□ the Klaniltia and Strlngtown mountains, which, 
west of the Tishomingo granite area Id the Silurian area is succeeded by 
(2) a northwest trend, and (3) a later trend of E. 20° N, which has clearly 
dislocated the former and older trends as shown by the remarkable S 
shaped dislocations visible all the distance across the Nation. Coocern- 
ing the age of these trends. It Is dear that they have taken place In 
part since late Carboniferous time, as the rocks of that period are In- 
volved in each. I do not mean to say, however, that earlier folding may 
not have occurred In the Silurian rocks. It is also evident that great 
disturbance has taken place even In post-CretacIc times, tor the Bed 
river flows in a fault through Upper and Lower Cretaclc rocks north of 
Denlson with a northern downthrow of nearly a thousand feet. No up- 
land drift material was found, although Red river has cut down SO feet 
below Its ancient Quaternary river sediments. I hope ta present these 
results more fully at an early day. B. T. Hill. 

Tax Texas Cbbtaceous. In your last number there was a kind 
notice of my "Check List of the Cretaceous Fossils of Texas." The 
concluding sentence may be misleading, however. It reads as follows: 
"The list proves evidently that all the Cretaceous strata In Texas are 
" more recent than the English Oault." The object of preparing this 
list was to show for the first time the stratigraphy of the numerous 
supposed Cretaceous species, and to show their faunal associates In 
-order that the world could have some bases tor comparison. No where 
In the list do I commit myself to an opinion, as to European equlval- 
■ency tor I become more and more, each year, Indisposed to correlate 
our Texan strata with those of Europe alone. I do bollove In trans- 
•occanlc correlation, when trans-oceanic faunas are the same, but, it has 
been utterly impossible heretofore to even have a basis of comparison, 
without such a list as I have endeavored to give. 

1 do believe that Che Texas alleged Cretaceous strata contain forms 
which In Europe are characteristic not only>ot the Gault, the Neoco- 
mlan, the Wcaldan, but of the Jurassic, but the stratigraphy must be 
studied and unravelled before they can be discussed. 

This is now my fifth consecutive month of field study this year upon 
the Texas Cretaceous strata north of the Colorado river, and notwith- 
standing my years of previous labor, every day yields some now and 
Important light. How then can we correlate and locate these mar- 
velous beds with European strata? 

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254 , 7S« ATneri&m Geologist. oct isoo 

I have been preparing for several years, however, a paper on the 
" Paleontologfc Position of the North American Cretaceous," which I 
hapetofiatBh(d. v.) In time tor thelnternatloaal Congress provided Iain 
permitted to present it, in which I will trr to correctly present the 
facts. Very truly yours, 

jlustin, Texas, Aug. IB, 1890. Rob't 7. Hili. 

The Wetwoodb. Between Louisville, Ky., and old Deposit Station, 
on the line ot the Louisville and Nashville R. R. there is an enenslva 
basin lying at the toot of the Knobs, Itnown as " The Wetwoods. " It 
has l>een noted not only tor its wetoeas, but tor the lawless character of 
its inhabitants. A system ot drainage, however, has not only Improved 
the laud, but the morals ot the people, aud one may now pass through lb 
in safety, although the old lawless spirit will show Itself occasionally In 
deeds of murder and violence. During a residence ot five years in 
Louisville I have taken many a weary journey through that section of 
country trying to solve the problem of its origin. At 6rst It seemed as 
It the great continental Ice-sheet, or Epura ot It, must have scooped out 
the basin in question, and also rounded out the adjoining hnobs Into 
their peculiar contour, but subsequent Investigation has led me to aban- 
don this view, although glaciers doubtless played some part In it. A 
close eiamlnatlou ot this region shows that the basin Itself is indented 
with numerous channels that seem to correspond with the breaks in the 
hills. Were these at one time connected, and If so, how was this con- 
nection broken off?— are questions which naturally suggest themselves. 

Southeast ot Louisville there are two streams — with numerous 
branches — the Beargrass and Fern creeks. The former Joins the Ohio 
River this side of the knobs, the latter penetrates through them, at least 
in part, for some of the branches seem to become lost In the Wetwoods. 
In fact they are really the cause ot the phenomenon. In pregiacial 
. times these channels had, doubtless, tree course, but during the Ice age 
they became obstructed and have remained so until set at liberty by the 
hand ot man. It has been shown in a previous letter to the Ahsbicajt 
QEOLoeiBT, on Preglaclal streams near Louisville, that the mouths of 
the Beargrass were at one time much larger than at present, which 
would be the case If they drained the region referred to. 

It seems to be evident, then, that this basin Is the result of preglaclat 
erosion, and that the Wetwoods are due to the obstruction ot these 
ancient river channels during the Glacial period. When the Ice-shceb 
lay over this region those streams were probably subglacial, and their 
channels no doubt wore greatly enlarged and flooded until partially filled 
in by the retreating glacier. The summits ot the highest hills around 
Louisville show the eSccts ot erosion; even the tops ot the knob's, both 
in Kentucky and Indiana at the bight of 400 feet are worn and eroded 
into all kinds ot fantastic shapes, and when the clay that covers them la 
removed the rock looks as smooth as [t the wator had but receded yes- 
terday. The Idea that this deposit of clay covering the rock from tour 

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Correspondence. 255 

to twenty faet In thickness, Is the result of weathering seems to the 
writer preposterous. It Is either fluvl&tlle or g1«:lal In character. 
Qalte a large number of sandstone boulders have been collected by the 
writer, and their position Id the clay seems to indicate that they are 
glacial In origin. The knobs, on both aides at the Ohio river, though 
much broken, remain as hills where streams have not been large and 
powerful enongh to wear them down to the deeper valleys, like the so 
called Collett glacial valley in Indiana, which by the way, is apreglacial 
valley, and was long in existence before the ice-sheet covered 11. Both 
arms of the knobs stretch out from the river for the distance of about 
eight or nine miles, and both break o9 in the same peculiar way, like the 
back of a dromedary between the bead and the hump. The cause of 
these breaks where the knobs disappear is the Silver creek channel on 
the Indiana side, and Fern creek and Salt river, on the Kentucky side. 
I have been unable to trace out these ancient channels In all of their 
former ramifications, and It Is doubtful If their connections can be 
exactly determined, but a close examination of this region under con~ 
slderatloD, will convince any one familiar with such phenomena, that 
preglacial streams acting with the Ice-sheet operated In the formation 
of this basin known as the Wetwoods. 

Near Old Deposit station, in the center of this depression Is a conical 
hill, perfectly round, which looks as If It might be artiSclal, but the 
sweep of the old channels around It bespeak its origin. It seems to 
have been the site of an Indian village as great numbers of broken flints 
and arrow-heads can be picked up on Its southern slope. 
XoutevUie, Ky., June Sfh, 1890. Jobs Bbtson. 

PAi.A03iToi.oaicAi, NoTBS FROM Indianapolis. (A. A. A. S.) Pteb- 
ICBTBTB — Castoboidbs — EvBVBOUA g. u. Prof. H. S. Williams of 
Ithaca exhibited a new and unique specimen of which fragments had 
been previously known. It consisted of several plates of a large fish 
from the Catsklll of New York. The first description of a fragment of 
this species was published by Prof. E., W. Claypole In 1883, in the pro- 
ceedings of the American Philosophical Society, nnder the name of 
PteriiitOiyg ruQoniH. Its most notable character Is the rugose, radial 
markings on the surface differing In this respect from any known fossil 
flsh. A second plate has since come Into possession of the author of 
the species which was evidently a lateral plate of the same animal. It 
1b deeply concava and has a similar wrinkled surface. 

Id the original description the following remark occurs : 

"The outline of the plate corresponds very closely with that of the 
dorso-medlan plate of Pterlchthys, and wore It not perfectly Bat I should 
be Inclined to refer it to that part of the exo-skeleton. But this flatness 
renders it probable that it Is the ventru-median or well known "lozenge- 
plate" of Hugh Miller, the central piece of the armour of the flsh on the 
lower aide— overlapped on all sides by the others." 

But the additional evidence now attained renders it more probable that 
the Srst impression was the correct one, and that the plate In question 

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266 The American Geolofftet. Octiew 

la really the dorBO-medlan, In spite of its perfect flatness. Prof. WII- 
Uams' specimen exhibits it with three other plates evldeally Id correct 
relationship to one another. 

It Is not well to be too confldent regarding the details of a creature 
of which we as ;et know so little, but It seems in the highest degree 
probable that the two larger plates are the post^orso-laterals and the 
fourth the post^orso-medlan. On that view It Is also almost certain 
that the additional plate above mentioned which has not yet been fig- 
ured but which came to hand about four years ago, is the dorso-latera- 
of the left side. 

On this view the following outline will represent the position and re- 
lation of all the yet known plates of this fish. 

DoTso-median (flrat described). 
DoDKvlnteral, left, (not yet described) 
Po«(-dorao-la(eral, r' ~' ' 

The plates shown In Prof. Williams" specimen are a, b', b', and d. 

Assuming that this fish was not distantly allied to Pteriehlhys, as 
seems probable from the resemblance in form between their dorso- 
median plates, the flatness of this specimen, as already said, Is very 
remarkable. In the typical Pterlclithy^ millerl the plate in question 
"rises toward the middle in a roof-Ukc ridgo." No ridge or even line 

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Corre^ondence. 257 

ftppeftrs on the correqwndtng plato In either of the (wo Toasils thus far 

Dr. Newberry, who has seen a print of the specimen, is ol opinion 
that the characters Justify a separation from FtericTithi/s and fiotfiriolepii 
^genera scarcely at present clearly distinct), and has proposed the name 
SoUmenta In allusion to the wrinkled surface. There are certainly 
great differences between this flsh and the other two genera— differences 
perhapB sufficient to justify separation — In the larger size of the former, 
the flatness of the dorso-modlan plates, and its position with the long 
*and narrow end behind. But as to the sculpture It Is doubtful If the 
difference on this point Is great enough Ut Justify another name. 
Though that of PterttiMhyi Is usually considered tubercular, yet a slight 
examination of specimens, especially those from Scaumenac Bay (Pt. 
camadentda), will show that It Is frequently rugose and that the tuber- 
cles constantly tend to run together Into wrinkles. Hence that species 
Is now often referred to Botftrto(epi». From the latter the great size of 
the fossil In question is the main point of distinction. For the present, 
however, the matter must remain undetermined, and the fossil bo called 
PteribMhyt (Both.) Tugo«u» or HoUnicma ruQotwni. It is right to add 
that the exact horizon of the tossDs is a little uncertain. They came, 
however, from either the highest beds of the Chamung or the lowest of 
the Catskill. 

Since the above note was written Dr. Newberry's admirable work on 
Carboniferous Fossil Fishes has been distributed. Among the species 
there described Is the fossil In question, several plates of which are 
figured in whole or in part. The central plate (a In diagram) Is 
referred by Dr. Newberry with hesitation, as It was in the original 
description, to the ventral surface and considered the equivalent of the 
"Lozenge-plate." It Is with difQdence that the writer ventures to differ 
from so eminent and experienced an authority, but the evidence now 
accumulated, and especially the fossil exhibited at Indianapolis, seem 
to leave little or no ground for hesitation. The form of the central 
plate, the presence of another median p1at« at Its narrow end, the form, 
size and fit of the lateral plate at Its wide end, the direction of the 
wrinkles, and the number of plates necessary to complete the shield' 
(assuming its near relationship to PterlcMiiyn and HoOiriolepgla, which 
eeems reasonable), all combine to Indicate the dorsal rather than the 
ventral aspect of the fish. The only rebutting evidence Is the flatness 
of the central plate and perhaps its position with the wide end in front, 
though the last may have little or no significance. There seems to the 
writer insufficient reason for overlooking the manifest analogy with the 
dorsal shield of PterlchXIivs. 

It Is only fair to add that Dr. Newberry's opinion above quoted Is 
merely provisional and therefore subject to revision. It was moreover 
published before the discovery of the specimen shown at Indianapolis, 
and consequently the evidouco much less complete than what we now 

Prof. Joseph Moore, of Earlham Ckillogc, of Bichmond, Ind., eslilb- 

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258 The A'merican. Geologist. . oct. i89o 

Ited part ol tbe most ne&rly complete skeleton ot the great fossil beaver 
(CattorrMea oMoentUi) tbat bas yet been discovered. Probably had the 
find been known In time or had tbe workmen who were digglns the 
ditch known the value of the bones the entire skeleton might have been 

'RwUXl* (^ Cuayiema 

ETJBTSOMA NBWLINI, g. and 8. n. 

Several skulls and numerous other bones and teeth have 
T museums as 


been discovered but ot this giant among the beavers 

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„ Google 

260 7%e American Gedoght. Oct iseo 

Iftle eudlDgs. The7are apparently two-jointed, conelBtlng ot three por- 
ttotiB or segments, but in the condition of preservation show no details 
ot structure. As in Eurypterus a fringe or stiff hairs or bristles surronnd& 
their eyes and perhaps covera the whole surface of these swimming feet. 
BrntTBosu Kswum, a. n. 

Animal measuring over all about 10 to 13 inches or even more in 
length by 4 to S Inches Id greatest breadth. The length may be allotted 
on the average thus: Head-shleld, Z In., body, 3 In., abdomen, 4 In., tall- 
spine, 2 In.; greatest breadth of body somewhat behind the middle. 

Of the appendages the foremost pair Is the smallest with about & 
spines on each; the second and largest pair have at least 12; the third 
about 8, and the fourth about 4 spines. From the second the appen- 
dages diminish graduallj in slie to the fourth. 

The large flfth pair roach only to the hind segment ot the body — about 
3 inches — and show merely the details mentioned In the general de- 

Remarha. — The peculiar form of this Crustacean differentiates It 
readily from the fallowing genera already known from North America. 
Ewyptenis. ^mphtpelMe. Ptervgotu*. 

Evfrypterella, Stylonwnu. Dolit^wyptenu. 

Wider still Is the difference between It and the family of hemioairfdf, 
. which Is strongly llmulold In appearance, whereas Ev/ryaoma In this 
respect suggests that genus but slightly. BuTwdella Is the only de- 
scribed fossil of this family from N. America. 

It Is needless to allude to the genus Slimania, apparently Intermediate 
between EuT\fptffna and PUrygotus, but of which 3« far as I am aware 
no specimen Is yet known from N. America, or to EcMnogruUhut, of 
which only a few fragments are yet known. Thedlflorencosare manifest. 

The swimming feet of Exvrysoma bear a very strong resemblance, 
however on an enlarged scale, to those of Ewrypl^rux pyguumu at Salter, 
found In the British Upper Silurian and liower Devonian rocks, In con- 
taining only three segments (two Joints) and In the unspeclaliied 
rounded form of the outer ends. 

The condition of the fossils precludes very minute details. They ore 
for the most part merely black Impressions on the surface of the gray 
limestone. In' some cases a thin scale can be seen, but It exhibits no 
structure. Hence the well known surface marks of the eurypterlda 
cannot be expected. The same remark applies to the eyes and the Joints 
of the smaller appendages. The general outline is, however, remark- 
ably sharp and distinct. The figure herewith given Is merely a reduced 
copy of a tracing from the rock Itself. 

This description has been drawn up from several tracings supported 
by examination of three specimens (all yet known) In the possession of 
Mr. C. E. NewUn, of Eokomo, Ind., after whom the species Is named. 
They were found about three years ago In the Water-lime quarries near 
that city with specimens of Eurypterus and Ceratlocarls. 

Altron, 0., SepL 1, 1890. E. W. Ci.atfolb. 

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P^mnal and Seienti^ Netm. 


Pkop. C. B. Gordon, or Keoktjs, Iowa, has taken a poeition 
at the Northwestern University, Evanston, HL Uts future work 
will be in natural history and algebra. 

Ths Foobth Annoal Session op the Iowa Academy of 
SciXNOXs was held at Des Moines, Sept. 4th and 5th. Mr. C. R. 
Keyes had the following papers : Evolution of Strophostylua, Age 
of the Iowa City sandstones and Notes on the Red Bock sand- 
stone ; Prof. R. Ellsworth Call read the following papers ; Two 
Quaternary sections near Des Moines, On a Quaternary section 
eig^t miles southeast of Des Moines (in connection with Mr. 
Keyes). Prof. J, E. Todd had the following : Further notes on 
the geology of northwestern Iowa, Exhibition of volcanic ashes 
from Omaha, Nebraska, and Shore-lines of ancient glacial lakes. 
Prof. E. H. Barbour had a paper on Varieties and structure of 

The Summer Meeting of the Geological Society op America 
was <held at Indianapolis, beginning Sept 19. The following 
papers were presented : Recognition of mineral contours in thin 
sections (abstract), A. 0. Lane, Houghton, Mich.; Geology of 
southern Indian Territorj-, R. T. Hill, Austin, Texas; The Vita 
crevasse, L. C. Johnson, Meridian, Miss. ; The Cuyahoga shale 
and the Waverly problem, C. L. Hecrick, Cincinnati, 0.; The 
geotechnic and physiographic geolt^y of western Arkansas, A. 
Winslow, Jefferson City, Mo. ; The Appomatox formation in the 
Mississippi embayment, W. J. McGee, Washington, D, C; The 
Redoncla phosphate, C. H. Hitchcock, Hanover, N. K. ; The con- 
tinent and the deep seas E. W. Claypole, A)at)n, 0.; The Ta^ 
conic iron ores of Minnesota and western New England, N. H. 
Winehell and H. V. Wincbell, Minneapolis, Minn. 

The Colorado Desert. Mr. C. R. Orcutt, San Diego, has 
lately made an exploration of the arid r^ion that forms the 
eastern portion of San Diego county, Cal. He reports the existence 
of large quantities of silicifled wood, and the discovery of a coal- 
field, which he thinks is extensive and should have the attention of 

At the last meeting or the American Association fok the 
Advancement of Science (Indianapolis), Section E was presided 
over by Prof. J. C. Branner, who delivered an address on the 
Relatiant of the United State» and State geological turveyt to each 
other, and to the geologi*t» of the country. The secretary was 
Prof. S. Calvin, of Iowa City. Following is a list of the papers 
read before the Section : 

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262 The American Geotogiti. 

Pre3«rT»tioD of fl»cist«d rock» — 15 min. — B; Homer T. Fuller. 
An old channel of the Niagsni river— 15 min. — By J. T. Scoveil. 
Niagark. A few last words In replj to Hr. G. K. Qllbert's Blstorj of 

the Niagara river.— 15 min.— By George W. Holley. 
A local deposit of glacial gravel fonnd in Fkrh coDoty, Ind. — 10 mln.— 

By John T. Campbell. 
ConcerolDg some portions at Cisioroldes ohloensls, Foster, not hereio- 

foro known. — 20 mln. — By Joseph Mooro. 
The " Barking Sands" of the Hawaiian islands.— 10 min.— b; H. Cu- 
rl ngton Bolton. 
Occurrence of sonorons sand on tbe Pftcidc Coast of the United States. 

— « min.— By Carrington Bolton. 
Florldite, a new variety of Phosphorite found in Florida. — 10 min.— 

By E. T. Coi- 
The Columbia formation In the Mississippi embapneat. — SO mln.— Bt 

W. J. McOee. 
Wh&l constitutes the Taconic mountains?- IS mla-- N. H. WInchell, 
The fonnatlans And aftesian wells of Memphis, Tenn. — 15 mln. — Jam«> 

M. SsHord. 
Pn^ress In moralnic mapping. — 15 min. — T. C. Chamberlln. 
Remarks on construction of topographic maps for geologic reporla.— 10 

min.— Arthur WInslow. 
Notc.i on the occurrence of P^m»tit« In central HiSMtirl. — 5 mln.— 

Arthur WlnsIow, 
The amount of naturml gas used In glass niuinfacture. — 10 mln.— Ed- 
ward OrtOD. 
Differentiation of subterranean water supplies. — 10 min. — J. E. Siebel. 
Some of the qualifying conditions of successful ftrt«Slan well boring In 

the northwestern states. — 10 mln. — C. W. Hall. 
A notable dike In the Minnesota river valley.— 5 mln.— C. W. Hall. 
Topographic features of the Arkansas marbles. — lOmin. — T. C. HopltiDS, 
The origin of the manganese ores of northern Arkansas and its effect 

on the associated strata.— 10 min. — B. A. F. Penrose, Jr. 
The novaculltes of Arkansas, — 15 mln.— L. S, Griswold. 
Subsidence and deposition as cause and effect.— SO mln.— E. W. ClBTpolB. 
On the paleoqtologlcal and geologicaJ relation of closely Similar foaall 

forms.- ].^ mln.— C. A. White. 
Tbe crystalline rocks of central Texas.— 10 mIn.—Theo. B. Comstock. 
The geology of the Wichita mountains, Indian Territory,- W min.— 

Theo. B. Comstock. 
Tbe Silurian system and Its geanticline in central Texas and Indiu 

Territory.— 10 min.— Theo. B. Comstock, 
Topographical evidence of a great and sudden diminution of the waUr 

supply In the ancient Wabash.— SO mln.— John T. Campbell. 
QIacial action considered as a continuous phenomenon, having sbltlad 

from ono locality to another, — 8 mln. — P. H. Van der Woyde. 
Geology of Indian Territory south of Canadian river. — 20 mln. — E- T. 

Hill and James S. Stone. 
Tbe recent explosion of natural gas In Shelby county, Ind. — 30 min.— 

H, E, Pickett and E. W. Claypole. 
Note on the stony meteorite that recently fell in Washington county. 

Kan.— 3 mln.— B. H, S. Bailey. 
The Bendlgo (Brazil) meteorite.- 13 min.— By Orville A. Derby. 
A new method of searching for rare elements in rocks. — S min. — By 

ville A. Derby. 
Observations on the genesis of certain magnetites. — 10 mln.— By Orri 

A. Eterby. 
Mcpholino-bearing rocks In Brwil.— 10 mln.— By Orville A. Derby 

)v Google 


Vol. VI. NOVEMBER, 1890. No. 5. 


Br N. H. WnfCHKLL anA H. V. WtMCHSLL, HinneairalU. 
In the course of an investigatioa aod report on the iron ores of 
Minnesota we have learned ttiat there are five principal kinds of 
ore, and that while they differ mineralogically one from the other, 
and are ftssociated with different mineral species, they also belong 
to different geological horizons. These five ores are as follows: 

1. The hematites and limonites of the "Meaabi range," the 
equivalent of the manganesic hematites of the Penokee-Oogebic 
range in Wisconsin. 

2. The gabbro titanic magnetites, whose stratigraphic place is 
near the bottom of the roclis of the Mcanbi range. 

3. Olivinitic magnetites and sometimes sulphur-bearing quart- 
zose magnetites, whose place is just below the gabbro eruptive 
rock, and in the basal portion of the Mesabi rocks. 

4. The hematites and magnetites of the "Vermilion range," 
extensively worked at Tower, belonging in the Keewatin forma- 

5. The magnetites of the crystalline schists belonging in the 
Vermilion formation. 

In our discussion of these ores we have attempted to indicate 
their probable equivalents, as to quality and stratigraphic horizon, 
in Canada and the eastern portion of the United States. We have 
little or no difilculty in designating those ores which, in strati- 

■Read beforo the Geological Socfetr of America, Indianapolis, August 
2, 1890. 


264 7*14^ Ami^icmi Oeologist. Nor. isso 

graphic position as well aa in metallurgical quality, are the prob- 
able parallels of the north-frestem ores. These discusaions and 
comparisoDB will appear in a forthcoming bulletin ( No. 6 ) of the 
Minnesota geological Burvey. 

In the consideration, however, of the ores of the Mesabi range, 
we have been led into a somewhat extended re-examination of the 
literature of the ores of eastern New York and western New Eng- 
land, and we desire to call the attention of geologists to some of 
the results. 

We have for some time considered the Mesabi hematites and 
limonites, which are the unquestioned equivalents of the man- 
ganesic hematites (with small amounts of limonite) of the Peno- 
kee-Qogebic range on the south side of lake Superior, as belong- 
ing in the primordial zone of the stratigraphic scale. It is not 
likely that any one will question this conclusion, as it has lately 
been confirmed by the discovery of primordial fossils in the Ant- 
mike rocks of this region at points a few mOes north of the inter- 
national line. The fossils have been examined and pronounced 
upon by Prof . G. F. Matthew.* It is in connection wiUi the ores 
that occur in these rocks (making the Mesabi iron range of Minne- 
sota), which we designate Taconic, that we desire to offer some 
remarks touching their probable eastern equivalents. 

We were at once struck with their general appearance ot paral- 
lelism with the Taconic ores of western New England. This gen- 
eral appearance is found to characterize them as ores, and as 
parts of their associated geological terraues. For instance, if we 
consider their quality, they are both characterized aa limonitio 
hematites, easily mined, and often mangacesic, and they have 
each been traced back to a carbonate aa their original condition. 
The early speculation of Dewey that they are of derived origin, 
was seconded by the elder Hitchcock with a designation of the 
nature of that original condition, and has been followed by Dana, 
and lately by Irving and Van Hise and J. P. Kimball, in almost 
a complete demonstration that the ore of this geological horizon, 
or of these two horizons, was at first in the form of some carbon- 
ate, which was largely carbonate of iron. The removal of the 
carbonic acid, resulting in the oxidation and concentration of the 
iron by surface waters, has caused locally lai^e deposits of rich 
iron ore. 

•Am. Jour. Scl. (3), %\x\x, 14S. 

)v Google 

Tacohie Iron Ores of Minnesota. — WineheU. 265 

If we consider further this generaf appearance of parallelism, 
in respect to their associated rock-strata^ we find also a striking ' 
similarity. We know that the western ores 6! this horizon are 
uniformly foond in close association with a dolomitic limestone, 
which is often quite siliceous, or "cherty." It often embraces 
lumps and apparently angular pieces of fiint and jasper of bright 
colors. It has been described at some length by Irving and Van 
Hise in their late discussions of the iron ores of Wisconsin.* 
They estimate that this limestone is someljmes SOO feet thick, 
and that in other places it appareutly is wanting. It has been de- 
scribed as marble where it appears at Menominee, but generally it 
is not in sufficiently laigo and even masses or beds to warrant that 
designation. It also appears at the same stratigraphic horizon in 
Canada, according to the descriptions of the Thunder Bay region 
by the Canadian geologists. In Canada, however, and in north- , 
eastern Minnesota, it has not attracted so general attention, either 
because it is not so laigely developed, or because it has not yet 
been discovered in outcrop on so large a siile. Underneath this 
limestone, in Minnesota, is a conspicuous and persistent quartzyte 
which sometimes is vitreous. This is out and intert)edded with 
gabbro, and in large tracts is iminediitel\ overlain by t!ie great 
gabbro sheet of that part of tlie state This qnartzjte has an ob- 
Ber\-ed thickness, in Minnesota, of not over 300 feet, but it may 
be over 500 feet thick. In Wisconsin it is estimated at 300 fwL 
Overlying the limestone, at least at a higher stratigraphic horizon 
(though the limestone may be wanting where this observation was 
made) are other quartzose strata, ditfering considerably from tlie 
lower quartzyte in being finer grained and often with liniouitic 
streaks. Overlying all these strata are black slates with inter- 
bedded traps, passing upward into the quartzytes and traps of the 
Cupriferous (Keweenawnn) formation of hike Superior. 

If we compare this succession of strata with that of the Taoonic 
region of western Sew England we are at once impressed with the 
close resemblance. Overlying the Archoan of the Green moun- 
tains is the great "granular quartz," which has lately been shown 
by fossils to belong in the Primordial zone,** and which Dr. Em- 
mons put at the base of his Taconic system. Above this is the 
great marble belt which Prof. Dana has tracwl from central Ver- 

)v Google 

26t! The American Geologist. kov. isbo 

moot to New York citj-, aad which at Cortland is oyerwhelmed, 
aloDg with the underlying quartzyt*, by the gabbroa of the Cort^ 
lantl seriea. This limestone Dr. Emmons styled Stoekbridge lime- 
stone, and in hip scheme he considered it as immediately superja- 
cent to the granular quartz. It is in this limestone, or in imme- 
diate proximity to it, that occur all the iron beds of western New 
England, and of Dutchess, Columbia and Rensselaer counties in 
New York. Prot Dana has called attention to this association. 
Dr. Hitchcock had done the same earlier. That this limestone, 
which furnishes large quantities of marble, which holds the 
limonites of the region, which immediately overlies a great 
quailzyte which is primordial, which has a dolomitic composition, 
and which is overwhelmed with a gabbro outburst, should have an 
exact parallel in all these respects in the northwest is certainly a 
• remarkable coincidence of geological data that demands close at- 
tention. These are the general couBiderations that impressed ua 
with the probable parallelism of the Taconic ores of Minnesota 
with those of westcm New England. 

But we meet here the obstacle, that Prof. Dana has investi- 
gated the Stockbridge limestone, has traced it into immediate con- 
'ncction with fossiliferous limestone, and that the fossils there 
found were those characteristic of the Trenton limestone. He has 
pronounced the Stockbridge limestone identical with the Trenton- 
Chazy-Calciferous. In more recent times Mr. C. D. Waicott has 
come to the same conclusion. We need not refer specifically 
to their papers. They extend in the volumes of the American 
Journal of Science from 1872 to 1889. The mainspring which 
actuates them all is, apparently, the overthrow of the Taconic 

We were forced, therefore, either to seek for some other explana- 
tion of this coincidence, or to abandon the effort to find an eastern 
representative of the western Taconic ores, or to correct the in- 
terpretation which had been put on the stratigraphy of one or the 

To attempt to explain this coincidence, on the supposition that 
the limestones and quartzytes concerned are on separate horizons, 
without an investigation of the evidence, was to traverse the man- 
ifest dictates of human intelligence. To abandon the effort to 
suggest a probable eastern representative of the Taconio ores of 
the northwest, in the presence of strongly suggested equivalents, 

)v Google 

Taconic Iron Ores ^ Minnesota. — Winchell. 267 

notwithBtandiag the necessity of a laborious reconsMeiing of the 
whole questJon, both in the west and in the east, was to make a 
hiatus in our investigation, and was to quail at the appearance of 
added work. AVe therefore decided to undertake to examine the 
problem again. It was divided into two parts and pertained to : — 

1 . Can there be any mistake in the stratigraphy of the Noith- 
west, such as would, if corrected, allow of this quartzyte and this 
limestone (and particularly this limeBtone) being put into the 
strata of the second fauna ? 

2, Can there be any mistake in the stratigraphy of western 
New England which, if corrected, would allow of the Stockbridge 
limestone being put into the primordial zone ? 

It did not require a moment to answer the former question. 
There is no geolt^st who has examined the rocks of lake Su- 
perior who would not at once scout the idea of the Trenton age of 
any limestone in northeastern Minnesota. No one has ever sug- 
gested snch a posBibility. 

We were therefore forced to seek for possible mistakes in the 
Btratjgniphy of western New England, as receutly interpreted by 
Messrs. Dana and Walcott. 

At the oatset we find great confusion in the stratigraphy of 
western New England. If there be any part of the world where 
the strata have been rariously interpreted, it is the Taconic re- 
gion. Dr. Emmons' scheme was opposed by an influential school 
during his lifetime, but was virtually accepted when Barrande and 
Billings espoused his views on pal eon to logical grounds. There 
were so many apparent irregularities and exceptions, not to say 
errors, in the stratigraphy of Emmons, that Prof. Bana rei'iewed 
the whole field on lithoiogica! and general strati graphical lines aud 
reached the conclusion that Emmons was wholly wrong, and that 
the Taconic system had no actuality as a sub-Silurian (Primorilial) 
terrane, but that all the rocks included in it were of the age of the 
Champlaiu system of New York. Again, and lastly, Mr. Walcott 
has gone over the ground, in some partes of the field, and has 
found fossils enough to cstabtish a great primordial (sub-Silurian) 
series, correcting Dana in respect to tbe quartzyte and the "great 
central slate b«lt," but approving Dana in res|)ect to the Stock- 
bridge limestone. 

Now, it is tliifi final conclusion, restiecting tlitH limestone, to 
which we wish to direct your attention. Docs it t)eloii)j chronolog- 

b, Google 

268 The American iGeoiogist. Nov. isgo 

ically immediately above the quartzyte, and thua near the base of 
' the primordial, or does it belong in the zone of the second fauna, 
tiie eqaivalent of the Trenton, or the " Trenton-Chazy-Calcif - 
eroua ? " 

It is but just to Mr. Walcott to state that he did not give much 
attention to the stratigraphy of the eastern portion of the lime- 
stone belt in Vermont and Massachusetts, but accepted, and ex- 
pressed on his map accompanying his last papers in tiie American 
Journal of Science," the conclusions of Prof. Dana, who, again, 
accepted and perpetuated the conclusion of Rev, Mr. Wing, to the 
effect that the Stockbridge and Sparry limestones are the same 
stratum, in general, and that the differences of lithology, as welt 
as the noticeable lack of fossils in the Stockbridge, or eastern 
belt, are due to greater metamorphism toward the east 

In considering the possible distinctness of these two limestones, 
there are some things that must be accepted as facta that cannot 
be questioned. Id general, all tiiose facte of observation that 
have been stated by good geologists have to be admitted. It is 
only when inferences have been drawn from the facts which the 
facts do not prove, that we are at liberty to suggest other infer- 

To begin with, then, we must admit there are sufficient facts al- 
ready published by Messrs. Wing and Walcott to prove the exist- 
ence of the Trenton limestone in the region, and we may admit 
that it seems very likely that the Spany limestone of Dr. Emmons 
is of the age of the Trenton. The question to be considered nert 
is this : Is thei-e any sufficient proof that the Stockbridge limestone 
passes into and liecomcs this Trenton limestone ? 
- We remark at once the absence of fossils from the Stockbridge 
limestone, throughout its c\teut in Massachusetts, where it is 
known to be of the same horizon. We also notice that in all the 
Taconic region, extending from the noi-them part of Addison 
county, Vermont, through Massachusetts into Connecticut (and 
farther south) there is almost a total Inck of recorded fossil locali- 
ties in the area of what may lie considered the Stockbridge lime- 
stone. The fossils that have been found are mainly along the 
western border of the Tnconie range, or are in the "mognesian 
slate" which c()n8titutes the Taconic range. 

We also notice that the line of limonite ore mines, as marked 

•<)|>. Cit. Vol. J 

)v Google 

of Minnesota. — Winchell. £ 

jrmont bj' Dr. Edward Hitchcock i 
Tertiarj' age, runs along the east 
and not far from the we8t«m edge 
nciding with the possible strike o 
. which accompanies the Taconic c 

ee, in northern A'ermont, of anot 
mished a large amount of marbl< 
According to Mr. Walcott this 11 
lus fauna, and has not yet fumisi 
He also aays it is over seven hund 
Ceet) and is overlain conformably 
and schists ; and in other places 
,000 feet, and refers them to the gr 
uer}' naturally arises — may not 
he horizon of the Winooski morb 
nd slates that make up the Taco 
companions — of the Georgia fori 
;ion, at any rate, there is a mar 
by nine thousand feet of primon 
: to the Olenellus fauna. We noi 
rd, while these schists expand int 
to make the Taconic range of mo 
tone, according to Wing, Dana i 
; and although there is a great n 
! limeatone which constituba it is, 
sr Silurian age and overlies the sa 
3 of more recent date, although oi 
.«u. .,j « .^v^..« «^..v,^ !,» >,^hist8 and slates. There is, therefore, 
no unreasonableness in suggesting that the Winooski marble may 
continue southward and deploy out on the flanks of the Green 
mountains, canning with it its conformable companion, the 
Geoi^ia slates and schists. We may go further and alBrm that, 
in the absence of proof to the contrary, the Winooski marble 
would be likely to extend southward. Its extension southward 
would be in a direction parallel with tlie folds of sj-nclinal and 
anticlinal axes. If the supposed extension were across such prc- 
primordial axes there would be reason to expect some of them 
might cut it off. We have, therefore, in addition to the cei-taiuty 
•Am. Jour. Sci. (3), xxwil, 3tj4; x\\\. 330. 


270 The Anierican Geologist. Nov. i8»o 

of the presence of the Trenton limestone in southern Venn(Hit, tbe 
probability also of the presence of the Winooski marble. 

We next proceed to consider the question in the light of posi- 
tive facts bearing on the probable existence of the Winooski tlme- 
fltone in central and southern Vermont and in Massachusetts. 

We find the earliest evidence comes from the researches of Mr. 
Wing, as presented by Prof. Dana. 

We take up first those facts that tend to prove t^e existence of 
only one limestone, and afterward those that tend to show the 
presence of two. 

]. FacU that indicate the pretence of but one limettone. All 
l^ese facta have been interpreted by Mr. Dana, and accepted by 
Mr. Walcott, as proving satisfactorily that there is but one lime- 

(a) Fotnlt at Wett Rutland. Great stress has been laid oo 
this discovery by Mr. Wing. But if the description be examined, 
in connection with its accompanying mtip,* it will be seen that 
the evidence is far from conclusive. The fossils are all in a com- 
paratively narrow limestone belt, which is isolated entirely froK 
the principal marble belt. The beds all dip eafit toward the 
quartzyte, and the appearance indicates that they pass below it. 
They cannot, however, pass below it since the quartzyte is in the 
bottom of t^e primordial, according to Walcott, and the fossils 
discovered by Mr. Wing are of the i^e of the Trenton. Th^e is, 
therefore, proof of general iTT^!;ularity at West Rntland, such tJiat 
the dip and the relative position cannot be taken as indices to 
chronol<^c sequence. Therefore the eastern belt of limestone at 
West Rutland cannot be assumed to be the same stratum as that 
GOnttuning the fossils. Indeed Mr. Wing particularly emphasizes 
the fact that after search along the strike northward the West 
Rutland limestone ceases, and the upper and lower slate l>elts 
come together in the same manner as on the south. In this re- 
spect he corrects the official geological map of Vermont. 

(b) Foisih at Sudbury. According to Dana this limestone area 
is a narrow isolated belt similar to that at West Rutland,** or has 
a narrow connection with it. The fossils indicate It is also Tren- 
ton, but there is no evidence that it is connected with the great 

a marble belt. 

)v Google 

nnesoia. — Win^hell. 271 

Vett Caelhton. These are also 
id in the midst of the "great 
Its of limestoDe, one being but 
no coDDection with the great 

The fossils identified here by 
me. But this is also on the 
1 seems to be aSected by some 
t Rutland, since the strata k11 

to pass below the quartzyte. 
nwall and Orwell, reported by 

the Trenton limestone, are too 
considered, in this inquiry, as 
ay or the other. 

iservatiODS, the limestone con- 
st Hide of the slate belt in the 
rtliward from West Rutland, 
orthem part of Sudbury, round 
nd unites with a similar lime- 
iuce passes southward through 
liaving slates above it which he 
'hether this be correct or. not, 
aestion it) the eastern belt of 

in a belt further east, and 
reek, and runs furtber north, 
lent northward prong, like that 
iod all the way by the belt of 
eological map of the Vermont 
that is described here by Wing 
-enton, overlain by the Hudson 
. correction of the late map of 
^ese slates as of the Georgia 
rate, so long as Mr. Walcott 
terpretation of this supposed 
nd his observations cannot be 
' of the two limestoneB, which 
kt this place. 

)v Google 

272 The American 

(f) Fouih in New Haven. So far as these are determined they 
depend on very imperfect specimens, and as tbej are in beds that 
underlie some quartzyte, and which appear to be of the Winooeki 
marble series (Dana) they do not have anj' affirmative bearing on 
the existence of tiie Trenton limcBtone. 

(g) Fostih diicovered by Mr. WalcoU. So far as the new local- 
ities of Trenton fossils, lately brought to light by Mr. Walcott, 
have a bearing on this question, they are those which ape nearest the 
eastern marble belt, viz. : those on Mt. Anthony and those in Pownal. 

Those fossils discovered in Pownal are taken to be from the 
Stockbridge limestone, or from the < ' eastern belt " of limestone ; 
and as they concur in testimony with thoae from farther north on 
the western side of the Taconic range, Mr. Walcott makes the un- 
qualified afflrmaUon (A. A. A. S., 1887, 213) that the Stookbridge 
limestone is of Trenton age. We cannot accept the inference, be- 
cause we find reason to believe the Stockbridge limestone Is not 
there represented. Any one examining Mr. Walcott'a map will see 
that there is at that point an abrupt jog to tlie eastward in all the 
formations. Coming from the north the belt of the quartzyte Is 
suddenly broken oQT and does not appear except at several miles 
further to the south and cast The eastern belt of limestone In 
the same manner jogs several miles abruptly to the east, while the 
western belt ceases iu the tine of its regular trend and is thrown 
into the line of strike of the eastern belt. Whether there be at 
the same time a sinking of the Stockbridge limestone so as to allow 
the Trenton to make the surface rock (as is quite probable, regard- 
less of the eastward jog ), is immaterial. It cannot be denied that 
quite suddenly and singularly all the formations are jogged out of 
their courses, a remarkable fact to which Prol Dana has called at- 
tentjou. In general the Taconic range of hills runs through here, 
and some of these hills seem to be formed of sjiiclinals of the 
Hudson-Trenton terrane, as represented, but the existence of tiie 
Stockbridge limestone in these hills is far from proven. 

Those fossils that are reported by Mr. Walcott from Mt An- 
thony, and specially those from Graylock, are subject to the same 
explanation. Those found even on the east side of Mt Anthony 
leave room still for the strike of the Stockbridge limestone along 
east of Mt. Anthony, according to the coloring of Mr. Walcott's map, 
and Dr. Hitchcock's map represents it as continuous through Ben- 
nington and Pownal, accompanied by the iron-ore belt. 

)v Google 

ig of Minnesota. — Winchell. 273 

irther iovth. Some of the limestones ■ 
by fossils to belong to the primordial, 
udson terrane. But only on vety gen- 
ther of these be claimed to be the repre- 
fe limestone. So far as this evident-e 
sistence in Dutehess county of a lime- 
^logi(!al horizon as the Winooskj lime- 
ne horizon as the West Rutland lime- 
nfer that both of these limestones con- 
etween those points. 
the pTcsinice of ttco limatonti. If we 
1 that go to show that there is another 
wer than the Trenton, running through 
dward, we get the fii-st evidence (inde- 
l Emmons) again from Mr. Wing, and 
phic descriptions of Prof. Dana. 
r. It should be home in mind that by 
the quartzyte Mr. Waleott has demon- 
bat he called middle Cambrian (Olenel- 
B later ascertained to be the lowest of 
imbrian. "• Therefore, there must In- 
Trenton, not only the Winooski lime- 
a formation, an inter\'al that measures 
feet of sedimcnte. 

leacribes the quartzyte as hiter stratified 
e. This he does not once, nor twice, 
er he speaks of the contact of the two 
■ brought out by his diagrams, and par- 
ticularly by that giving a section from East Shoreham on the west 
to Leicester on the east. Whatever maj' be the errors of strati- 
graphy farther west, which might be demonstratod res[>ecting this 
diagram, there can be no question about so simple a point as the 
interstratitication of a limestone with a sandstone, which is repre- 
sented aa occurring near lake Dunmore in Leicester. It was near 
this place (lake Dunmore) that Mr. Walcott found primordial fos- 
sils in this quartzyte. There could be no stronger evidence not 
only that these two are of one age (amj not one primordial and 

•Position oE the Olcncllus fauna in North America, Am. Jour. Si'l. 
XltJtvli, 374. 
'"'Am. Jour. Scl. xli, 340, 407, 411. 

)v Google 

274 The American Geologist. Kot. i890 

the other Trenton), but that they both belong in the primordial 

(b) Facf$ from Prof. Dana. Some of the localities described 
by Mr. Wing were visited by Prof, Dana,* who has given his own. 
diagrammatic sections of the relatione of the limestone to the 
quartzyte, and has shown the same interetratification. Some such 
sections were made in New Haven and in Monkton ; and his con- 
clusion ie to the effect that theEolian limestone** includes "even 
limestones and dolomites of the red sandrock series " — i. e., may 
contain limestones belonging in the Olenellus zone. 

(c) We might mention here the fact that an "Olenellus lime- 
stone " has recentlj- been described by Prof, Dwight, in Dutchess 
county, N. Y. , overij-ing an "Olenellus quartzyte" (Am. Jour. 
Sci. xxxiv, 30) ; and that it occupies the area which Prof, Dana had 
colored on his map as Trenton-Chazy-Calciferous. This only in- 
ferentially bears on the question of the extension of a primordial 
limestone from central Vermont to Dutchess county. 

With this we think we have shown the interesting fact that there 
is a primordial limestone in western Vermont, Hie probable equh'a- 
lent of the Stockbridge limestone, and that to it belong the numer- 
ous limonitic iron deposits of the Taconic region. There is, there- 
fore, no good reason for rejecting the idea which we first enter- 
tained, viz., that the iron deposits of the Taconic rocks in Minne- 
sota (the Mesabi ores, excepting the titanic gabbros) are on the 
same atratigraphic horizon aa the Taconic ores of western New 

There are some corollaries that spring from this teeult, to 
which we might call attention, but we will mention only one : It 
retains the Stockbridge limestone in the primordial zone as a dis- 
tinct terrane immediately overlj-ing the quartzjte, or granular 
quartz, in the exact place assigned it by Dr, Emmons in his 
Taconic system. 

Minneapolis, Avpttsl, 1890. 

*Am, Jour. Scl„ jtlil, 407-409, 411. 
**This was tbe name applied by Qitchcock lo the whole Vermont 
marble b«1t, on the ground that It was iissctitlally one (ormatfon. 

)v Google 

„ Google 

276 The Ameri&m 6e(dogist. not. iseo 

"A subdivision according to the number of basal platea ma; 
facilitate elemental; studies, but it is certainly not a natural 
clasBificatioD. " 

' ' In tbe first part of this work we have discussed somewhat 
fully the relations of the underbasals which we took to be the 
product of growth In geol<^cal time, introduced gradually by 
interpolation between the basals. It is very remarkable that al- 
though the introduction of Xiaderbasals dates back to the Lower 
Silurian, as a rule the genera in which those plates are found differ 
at DO tjme materially from those in which they are wanting." 

We have in the introduction to this work, page 17, dwelt at 
some length upon the basals or first ring of plates below the 
radiala ; and believe we have shown that the basal disk, whether 
composed of one, two, three, four or five pieces can almost inva- 
riably be reduced to five elementary pieces, and that ail devia- 
tions from this number have been produced by anchylosis of two 
or more of tbe original segments. This of itself is a strong ail- 
ment against a classification based upon the number of these 

" It is apparent from these facts that neither the existence of 
underbasals, nor the modificatioas which took place in the basal 
disk, had any such corresponding effect, upon tiie general struc- 
ture of the crinoids, as to entitle them to be considered characters 
of family importance, though in distinguishing subordinate groups 
they may possess some value. The radial and interradial plates 
are elements of far greater value. " 

They maintain that "a character in forms of the same geolc^- 
ical age may be generic in one case and only specific in another, " 
that "arm structure is of generic importance as a rule, but 
scarcely of specific value In exceptional cases. " To neither of 
which views do I subscribe. ' So many of the opinions presented 
in the first part of the Palseocrinoidea are withdrawn or declared 
to be erroneous in the third part, and in subsequent papers, that 
one cannot be certain, when quoting their expressions, tliat he is 
really giving their latest views, unless he is a constant student of 
tiieir productions. For instance, the groove in the arms of crinoids 
was almost universally covered with small plates whether the arms 
had pinnules or not^ but in tbe first part of their work they say : 

" It is here important to note that in those genera in which the 
ambulacral groove is thus covered, no regular pinnules have ever 

)v Google 

American Onnoids in Familiea. — Miller. i77 

been observed, and moreover the construction is such, that no ad- 
ditional pinnulte could have existed ; while on the other hand, no 
covering has ever been discovered in forms with true pinnulfe." 

After I described the plates covering the ombulacral grooves, 
in GiyptocriauB, notwithstanding the long flowing pinnules, I be- 
lieve they modified their views, but, at present, I have no refer- 
ence to the revised opinion. Their greatest mistakes seem to me 
to have arisen, however, from the use of the mongrel word 
'•underbatalg," and a complete misconception of the purposes 
sabeerved, in the animal economy, by the plates referred to, and 
the consequent neglect to give the basal plates the examination 
their importance demanded. They frequently discuss " rudimen- 
taiy underbasals, " when no such thing was ever found in a 
palseozoic crinoid, and from the structure of the calyx, and pur- 
poses subserved by the basal plates, " rudimentary underbasals " 
never could have had an existence in any of them. For instance, 
they say on page 7, 2d part, "Glyptocrinus was originally de- 
scribed with five basals and no underbasals. Hall afterward dis- 
covered in O. decadactylus, small pieces concealed in the basal 
cavity, so rudimentary, however, that both he and Meek hesi- 
tated to call them basals, although both authors apply that term 
to the proximal plates in all other cases. Meek distinguished 
them as ' ' subbaaals. " We have examined the plat«8 in question 
very carefully in the apecies named, and find them, although verj' 
mdimentary, placed within the basal ring ; hence they are accord- 
ing to our terminology, true underbasals, and not as Hall describes 
them a > qninquepartite ' upper joint of the column;" and again, 
on page 186, 2d pwt, ^'Gljptocrinus differs from Glj-p taster in 
having mdimentary instead of moderately developed underbasals. " 
After I had shown that there were no such plates in Glyptocrinus, 
they admitted on page 102, 3d part, that the absence of under- 
basals in tiiis genus ' ' is clearly proved. " 

They said of Heterocrinue in the first part of Paleeocrinoidea r 
" The absence of underbasals in some of the species is a good 
Uluetration of our views that the underbasals do not constitute 
elements in the structure of the Paheocrinoidea, but are merely 
the result of growth in geol<^cal time. " Again they say : "Under- 
basals, minnte, in some species almost undeveloped, and appear- 
ing externally as subtrigonal points at the lower end of the 
eutores between the basals ; in some species apparently wanting 


278 Th4i American OeologUt. Nov. isao 

entirely." But in the third part thej' state correctt; that there 
are no underbasals in Heterocrinus, and having studied the 
genera belonging to the Heterocrinidte, they defined th^n as 
monocyclic. It will be readily seen that where snch erode and 
erroneous notions exist about fjie principal plates of a crinoid, 
and the same plat«B bear two different names, the family clsasiflca- 
tion must be imperfect, and governed by the whims of the various 

P. Herbert Carpenter had an opportuni^ of studying some liv-' 
ing crinoids, after which, in his abuse of Dr. Hambach, of St 
Louis, he reaswied, through that conduit of English ignorance 
and conceit, "The Annals and Magazine of Natural History, " as 
follows ; 

" I have the strongest conviction that the would-be interpreter 
of extinct fossil forms starte at a veiy serious disadvantage, if he 
does not commence by obtaining the best possible informatioii 
about the morphology of their nearesi living representatives. 
( As I have done. ) In order to understand, even with an approx- 
imate degree of correctness, extinct groups, such as the blastoids, 
menwtomata, dinosauria, and othere, a far more extensive ac- 
quaintance with the recent members of the same subkingdom is 
necessary than for the interpretation of fossil brachiopoda, sponges, 
corals, mollusca, and fishes, the morphol<^' of which cannot 
have differed in any important respect from that of the recent 
species. Without such a preliminary study, no collector, how- 
ever zealous, can hope to arrive at any rational conclusion (as I 
can ) about the functions of the different structures which he may 
discover by the careful examination of his fossils." 

I have inserted the words in parenthesis to smooth down tlie ap- 
plication to Dr. Hambach, who was completely undone by this 
style of reasoning, for he tJiought his " extinct fossil forms" 
were living fossils, until P. Herbert Carpenter told him most em- 
phatically, in parenthesis, that "Mr. Hambach has never seen a 
living blastoid." 

As examples of the effect his study of the ' ' living represent- 
atives" has had on his "understanding" of the "extinct fossil 
forms," we may refer to his morphological statement that Hybo- 
cystites combines blastoid rather than cystidean characters, with 
those of crinoids. That Haplocrinus is a synonym for Hybo- 
crinus, notwithstanding there is only one azygous plate ia the 

)v Google 

American Orinoids in Families. — Miller. 2t& 

former, while there are two in the latter, and other important 
structural differencea, and he at once proceeded to redefine the 
latter genus so as to include the former. Speaking of Xenocilnua, 
he said ' ' I cannot help Buspecting that a better knowledge 0I this 
tj"pe (Xenocrinus) will lead to its absorption into Retiocrinus. " 
He said, "Hybocrinua is a erinoid of very embryonic tj^pe. 
The relatively large size of the basals and the retention of the 
anal plate, together with the simplicity of its arms, ^d the ab- 
sence of pinnules, all indicate its low stage of organization. " He 
regarded Beerocrinus " aB a permanent larval form, which has only 
developed three of ita five arms," and Haplocrinus is a "persist- 
ent larval form, " Wetherby illustrated and described the upper 
azygous plate of Hybocrinua aa ' ' rounded and creuulated at ita 
distal extremity aa well as much thickened ; " this the doughty 
Carpenter disposed of by saying he had received a specimen from 
Mr. Wachsmuth on which he could "make out little or no trace 
of crenulation. " 

It would not be necessary to point out his illiteracy, for he 
even uses capital letters for specific names, or lower case aa it may- 
happen, showing his want of a common knowledge of grammai*, 
and recklessness in the symmetry of nomenclature, were it not 
for the fact that a mutual admiration society sprang up between 
him and Wacharauth, and Wachsmuth adopted many of hia 
blunders and republished them, thus giving currency to them 
throughout the country and injuring the progresa of knowledge. 
It is true that Wachsmuth has refuted some of his vagaries and 
unwarranted conclusions, but he adheres to many of hia innova- 
tions in nomenclature, though unwilling to go so far as to call all 
the regular interradial and vault plates oral plates and all the 
azygous plates anals. 

The basal plates of a erinoid rest directly upon the column and 
are truncated by the columnar canal, around which the animal was 
attached by ligaments, the scars of which iixe verj- frequently pre- 
served. The subradial plates are never basala nor are they in any 
sense homologous with the basais. In 1879, P. Herbert Carpen- 
ter disregarding the original definition and illustration of Hetero- 
crinus by Hall, snd the equally plain illustration and positive 
statement of Billings, that there were no subradial plates in the 
genus, or not having the sense to understand an illustration 
and definition, aaaert«d there are subradiala in Heterocrinus 

)v Google 

280 The American 6edlogi»t. Nov. i890 

and proposed to call the Bubr&dials, which bad no exist^ice, the 
" basal " plates beconse he said tiiey were the genital plates, and 
the bosals he proposed to call the " underbasah " a mongrel word, 
part English and part Latin. This was a case of pure ignorance, 
aasnmption and conceit. Only one ovei^rown with eelf-conceit 
would propose to change the nomenclahire in any branch of Nat- 
ural History, where no change is demanded in the interest of 
science, an^- only the most illiterate would propose in science a 
mongrel word formed from two languages, and. only the most 
ignorant would select for the application of a new tenn, an object 
which has no existence in nature whatever. The asBertion that 
the snbradial plates in any palaeozoic crinoid are genital plates is 
purely gratuitous, and not warranted by any of the known facts 
relating to crinoids. It would have been equally as correct if he 
had asserted that the subradial plates were the seat of the soul, 
and be might have fortified the a^ertion by claiming that he had 
seen the blue ethereal substance floating around liiem. We were 
surprised however that he coined the word from English and Latin 
fOT he affects profound learning in the German, and like ttie poli- 
tician enamoured during a campaign of the "sweet German ac- 
cent, "he frequently quotes snatches from German authors to make 
his nsnally poor English more incomprehensible. That he did not 
propose "utUerbatah " for the basal plates of a crinoid and thus 
make himself strong with the Qermans may have been an over- 
sight, but if he had known the Indian tongue, he would have 
done himself proud by calling the basal plates ' 'hatapottlviebatalt, " 
and be could have strengthened his position bj commencing the 
word with a capital letter, as be does specific names. 

Four yews later he wrote that "Most of the leading writers on 
the crinoids " had adopted bis nomenclature for the plates of the 
crinoids, and he mentioned them. There were in all six persons, 
two of whom were from America, Wachsmuth and Wetberby, 
It must have done the souls of Wachsmuth and Wetberby good to 
team from such high authority that they, ' ' constituted most of 
the leading writers on crinoids," in this country. We learn from 
Wachsmuth and Springer's, Palfeocrinotdea pt 3, p. 8, that two 
years later, Prof. Williams had joined this host of "most of the 
leading writers on crinoids," Wachsmuth and Wetherby, It may 
be in the additional five years that have elapsed since the name 
"vrtderbcuals ' was proposed, others have used tbe word to add 

)v Google 

„ Google 

282 The American Oeologwt. Nov. i89o 

have wholly departed, so that not even a, rudimentaiy plate or scar 
is left to indicate the functions once exercised. Where progreaeioa 
has been the rule, in the development of any class of &Dimals, 
we may look to the embrj'ol<^ and the growth of the young for 
reflected light on the fossil remains of past ages, but where the 
evolution has been backward, for geological cycles of time, tiie 
study of embrj'olc^ of the degenerate descendants, sheds but 
little light, if any, on the primitive ancestry. To speak of a 
fossil crinoid as a "permanent larval form " or as an "embiyooic 
type " is, therefore, unenlightened affectation. 

The basals, in all palteozoic urinoide, were the first plates to 
become fully developed, and, after this, they retained the same 
position, respecting the column, through all further stages of the 
growth of the animal, as is shown by the uniform projection of the 
basal disk beyond the column, in all speoimens, lai^ and small, 
in the same species. It is the practice in describing the ftmn of 
the basal plates to ignore the side truncated by the columnar 
<;anal and treat the plates, in description, as if they came to a 
point at the center of the columnar canal, which of course is never 
correct, and to illustrate them by cutting off the lower end so that 
the plates united will leave a pentagonal opening, with the angles 
at the suture lines of the plates, which is never correct In fact, 
I never saw a correct diagrammatic view of the calyx plates of a 
crinoid, though the basals united are sometimes correctly illus- 
trated. The size and form of this truncation is dependent upon 
the shape of the columnar canal, but the angles of the canal never 
unite with the suture lines of the plate ; on the contrary, the rays 
or angles of the canal truncate the plates, and the suture lines of 
the plates strike the sides of the canal or extend to the body of 
the canal between the rajs. 

Wetherby described the basal plates of Pterotocrinue as ex- 
cavated for the column and thickened and corinated at the outer 
edges of the columnar excavation, and I infer, from what 
he said, that his specimens also preserved the evidences of 
ligamental attachments around the canal. In the " Description of 
some new genera and species of Ecbinodermata from the Coal 
Measures and Subcarboniferous rocks of Indiana, Missonri and 
Iowa " by myself and Mr. Gurley, it was shown that the base of 
TJlocrinus is strengthened by the thickening of the plates around 
the part to which the column attached, and by the anchylosis of 

)v Google 

Cfrinoids in Families. — Miller. 283 

the basal plates. There is an cstenial circular dcpreaaion into 
vbich the end of the column was inserted, and this depression is 
' BUTTDunded hy a rim to afford further strength to the poiut of 
onion between the column and the body of the crinoid. At least 
three plates of the column were inserted in this circular depres- 
sion, one of which had an cStende<l rim beyond -the column that 
filled a circular furrow on the interior of this depression which 
locked the column in the basal plates. The first plate of the 
column at the base of this circular depression is thin and radiately 
ridged to interlock with the second plate. The rays of the 
opening on the internal side of these plates are flanged so as to 
enlai^ the end of the columnar canal as it passes through the 
basal plates ; this enlai^ed opening is surrounded by a rim for 
some kind of muscular attachment and to give strength to this 
part of the calyx. On the outside of this rim there are radiatii^ 
ligamental furrows or vascular markings for the attachment of the 
animal sarcode. These charnctera arc well shown by the illustra- 
tions. The basal plates of Eupachycrinus magister are also illus- 
trated, showing the conical elevation in the interidr of the calyx 
pierced at the summit by a five-rayed opening for the columnar 
canal, with the rounded ends of the rays truncating the plates. 
The pentagonal opening is surrounded with ligamental scars or 
radiating ligamental Hues while the other parts of the internal 
sides of the plates are smooth. I have seen the same evidence 
in the basal plates of Delocrinus, I have the basal plates of a 
OlyptocrinuB showing the thickening of the plates internally 
around the five-raj'ed canal and bearing evidence of ligamental 
atttachment. It is well known that the end of the column, in all 
paleozoic crinoids, is so firmly attached to the basal plates, that 
it is rare to find a good specimen where the column has been 
separated from the basals, leaving the place of the columnar at- 
tachment in a goo<l state of presen-ation. I have before me a 
BatocrinuB, with a hemispherical depression at the base, which is 
radiately furrowed surrounding the pentagonal opening for the col- 
umnar canal, for the firmer attachment of the column ; and a 
PoteriocrinuB furrowed in like manner for the attachment of the 
column, and showing a rim on the basal plates suirouuding the 
point of attachment I have a specimen of Anomalocrinus show- 
ing the anchylosis of the upper joints of the column and of the 
column with the basals, and after examining specimens in diirerent 

)v Google 

284 2^ American Geologist. Not. ism 

genera, I have conclnded it ie not anoommon for the plates of the 
column, at the upper end, to be ODchylosed tc^ther. The only 
ligameatol Bcara in the ceiiyx of Any crinoid thua far discovered ' 
saiTound the oolumoar canal. It follows therefore that the basal 
plates are the moat important in claasificatjon of any of the plates 
of the calyx, because the animal was attached to them, while the 
other plat«a subserved the inferior purpose of simply enclosing 
the other parts of the animal sarcode. 

It must be appareat, therefore, that there can be no rudimeatar>~ 
basals, none that are developed fiom the upper stem-joint and 
none except they are large enough to surround the columnar canal 
and with area enough for the muscular attachment The anchy- 
losis of the basal plates is as common in genera having no snb- 
radials as it is in those having them. It would appear, that the 
attachment of tbe column to the basal plates, the passage of the 
columnar canal through them, and ligamental attachment on the 
interior, held the basal plates firmly in one position, and while, 
in their younger state, they were capable of growing and con- 
forming to the alternate arrangement of the plates of the column 
and the succeeding plates, in their more advanced state, the 
growth terminated in secreting the material that anchylosed the 

The earliest crinoids had five basal plates and such forma con- 
tinued to exist throughout paleozoic time. Those having four 
basal plates appeared in the latter part of the Lower Silurian and 
disappeared in the Devonian age. Those having three basal 
plates appeared in the Lower Silurian and disappeared with the 
Subcarboniferous, and those having only two basal plates are con- 
fined to the Subcarboniferous and Coal Measures. This statement 
also tends to prove the significance of the basal plates, in classifi- 
cation ; besides the form of the basal disk must, in all cases, 
control more or loss the number of the succeeding plates and the 
structure of the calyx and body of the crinoid. For these rea- 
sons, the number of basals and the shade of tbe basal disk are of 
the fii-st importance, and families should be so formed as to in- 
clude only genera having the same number of basals and sub- 
stantially the same form of the basal disk. 

The second charauter of family importance will be found in the 
presence or absence of subradial plates. The only known ■func- 
tion performed by the subradials is to increase the capacity of the 

)v Google 

Amerieaii Orinoida in Families. — Miller. 285 

visceral cavitj aiurounding the area of ligamental attachmeiit to 
the test In some genera tbey cover half the calj'x below ^e 
arms, and in all cases they matenally affect the form and struc- 
ture of the calj-x and body of the crinoid. Where the plates are 
large, they were supported in position by ligaments in beveled 
sutures, as in Eupachycrinus, or by peculiar denticulated or ser- 
rated edges such as occur in Poteriocrinns and in Arthracantha, 
as illustrated and defined by Hinde, or in Ulocrinus as ^ured and 
described by mj'self and Gurley. For the purposes <)f classifica- 
tion, therefore, no family should include genera having subradials 
and those in which they da not exist 

The next family character will be found in the presence or ab- 
sence of r^ular interradial plates. These plates allow breadth 
to the body, and though, in their extension over the vault and in 
Other respects, they may sometimeB sink to generic ut specific im- 
portance, yet the fact of their presence or absence is always of 
family value. The position of the first interradial is of high 
classificatoiy value, and gcnei^ supporting the first interradials on 
the baaal plates are never to be associated in the same family with 
thoee supporting the first plate between the upper sloping sides of 
the first radials. 

The next in family importance are the azj'goua plat«8. The 
Btructuie in this part of the body is frequently complicated and is 
always of generic importance and frequently of family value. 
For instance, a genus having an' azygous plate resting on t^ 
basals is not generally, to be classed in the same family with one 
having the azygous plate truncating a subradial, for the whole 
structure of the azjgous sides of the genera is different in these 
cases, commencing with the position of the first plate. 

I regard each plate, in the cal3'x of a crinoid, to which I have 
attached family importance, as an independent morphological ele- 
ment, and, except in the specimen figured from my collection iu 
Ohio Palieontolc^', by Meek, under the name of Anomalocrinus 
incurruB, where there occurs an extra basal plate below the termi- 
nation <d a suture dividing a radial, I have alwajs found the 
plates the same in each genus. 

The structure of the arms, I think, is never of family impor- 
tance, and above the brachials never of generic importance, 
though always of specific value. An illustration or two will 
sufllce for the demonstration of this opinion. Iu Dichocrinus 

)v Google 

286 The American Geologist. Nov. isso 

we have a species with Bmall subquadraDgnlar pieces fonniog sim- 
ple arms, another with arms composed of rather large cnneifcsia 
plates, and another with arms composed of tbe double series of 
interlocking plates. In Poteriocrinus, the species have arm» 
varying in number from ten to fifty, and the structure of the- 
arms varies almost as much as their number does. 

The shape of the column is probably of generic value The' 
vault and firoboecis have characters of family value but they are- 
too little unaeretood to base any general classification upon them. 
But, where they have been investigated, they afford additional' 
evidence in support of the families established on the structure of 
the calyx as herein above indicated. 


B; ROBT. T. Hu.1., A^tin, Texas. 


By J. F. KattP, Ithaca, N. Y. 

The accompanying maps and figures, with my previous article 
on this region ' illustrate an interesting occurrence of ancient vol- 
canic phenomena in the vicinity of Austin, Texas. 

This cit^ is situated upon the Colorado river, at the junction of 
the Grand and the Black Prairie regions of the state. The stream 
here emerges from the deep, rocky caflon of the Grand Prairie 
and broadens into a fertile valley of Quaternary sedimentary ter- 
races as it enters the Black Prairie. The river cuts across Xtis 
general strike of all the formations of the region and thus affords 
an admirable insight into its stratigraphic history, giving within 
fifty miles a display of rock sheets from pre-Cambrian to Qua- 

Among the varied topographic features about Austin are some 
low rounded hills which, appearing above the horizon of the Black 
Prairie seven miles southwest of the city, present a peculiar as- 
pect Upon closer study these hills are found to consist of sev- 
eral cusps of igneous rock rising from a circular depressed area of 
about 1,000 acres, and projecting through and above the chalky 
strata of the Black Prairie which surround it on every side, as 

)v Google 

A Marine Oretaceous Volcano. — Hill. 287 

seen io the cross section (Fig. 2, and the map). The hills 
have an altdtude of 750 feet above sea level and 5Q above 
above tlie smTonnding prairie. 

They are composed of a hard black rock, the exact 
lithologic constitution of which, as shown by Prof. Kemp 
in the accompanying article, is that of limburgite or nephe- 
* line basalt The basalt haa an imperfect columnar struct- 
ure nearly vertical at the south extremity of the bill, (Fig. 
2, 1 and 2 of the section) and nearly horizontal at the 
north side. The flat region between the basaltic hills 
I and the chalky perimeter of the igneous area is filled 
T « with a soft yellow amygdaloidal exfoliating material some 
of which is undoubtedly the product of basaltic decom- 
position, while in other places it resembles volcanic ash. 
The exfoliations are perfect and resemble the illustration 
\A of that structure given by G-eikie, 
^fl Proceeding in any direction from the basaltic bills 

^H*^ which form the center of the whole outcrop the average 
^H distance to its edge is about one half mile, where excel- 
^1 lent contacts ,with the chalk are found. The ciialky 
^H — stratum forming the mai^in of this area throughout its 
^B whole extent is crenulated into gently waving undulations 
and presents different aspects of hardness. In places of 
direct contact with basaltic material the chalk is con- 
verted into hard marble ; where tiie ash-like material in- 
"* tervenea between the basalt and chalk the latter retains 
its soft unaltered pulverulent nature (Fig, 2). 

The induration of the chalky sheet away from the cen- 

' tral hills and its metamorphism are clearly indicative of 

activity after the deposition of the chalk and would be a 

sufficient reason for making its period later than tiie age 

' of the Austin chalk, were it not for other evidences found 

within a radius of ten miles. Proceeding in any diree- 

'^ tion instructive outcrops are found. One mile north (at 

C on map) Onion creek has cut its way through a great 

archway of this hardened chalk to a bed of ancient debris 

which must have been deposited by an eruption previous 

to the event that marmaroaed the chalk. 

This caiion of Onion creek is from fifty to one hundred 
feet deep and is formed by undermining erosion (Figs. 1 
and 3). 

)v Google 

The American Geologist. 

Mftp ol AnsUu. Texas, imd vicinity, ibowlng Outcrops of Igneous Kocks (shaded 

Its walls consist of (a) on upper layer of massive ohalk or a meta- 
morphosed chalk-bed, and (b) a lower softer portion of thin alter- 
nations of red, green and white layers. The alternations are the 
most remarkable features of all ttie phenomena for upon closer ex- 
amination they are foond to consist of volcanic debris mixed with 
shells of oysters (0. Imviiuciila Roemer, which is but the young 
of 0. ponderosn Roemer) whose original shell matter is preserved 
without change from heat or other cause, and tJie casts of the 

)v Google 

A Marine Cretaceous Voleano. — Sill. 289 

Inocerami (/. nmhonatutf), the characteristic Inocenunus of the 
Aastin chalk ; showing that this preservation of fossil remains 
▼as by falling debris in their habitat. 

Via. 1.— Contact of Chalk Mid Irneuus HatWr, with UmestoDe inoliuion. 

Fia. 3.— Altomatioog ot Isneoiu Strata, with FoesUileroiis Chalk. 

The ashy layers are from one to six inches thick and alternate 
with layers of similar thickness of chalky but laminated material, 
showing there were alternations of deposition of volcanic ejecta in a 
molluscao inhabited ocean. Furthermore, as the species and 
chalk are deep water deposits, a rapid shallowing is inferred and 
as there is an absence of land debris and littoral fossils, the shal- 
'owing must have been insular and not continental. Hypotheti- 
»lly, this oldest record of Pilot Knob shows a rapid elevation of 
the ocean's bottom with its life from chalky depths to land, ac- 
companied by many deposits of volcanic debris. 

)v Google 

290 27te American Geologist. Not.isbo 

The knobs were probably the center of disturbance aod the 
basaltic hills of to-day represent the neck of an ancient volcano 
whose crater has long since been denuded. Proof of this hypoth- 
esis is the increasing occurrence of debris as we recede from the 
knobs for four or five miles around. As shown on the msp at E, 
F, Qi and H, the ash is found in greatest abundance towards 
the west and north. At Kunz station, four miles south of Aus- 
tin, a railroad cut gives a fine exposure of this %'olcaaic debris in 
close contact with unmetamorphoaed chalk. It is a yellow and 
brown loose material, hardening on exposure, and contains occa- 
sional bombs of limestone (metamorphosed chalk) from a pea to a 
foot in diameter. About tweut}' feet of ash are here exposed 
and the bank is cut in two by a great fault which will be ex- 
plained. Other beds of debris occur two miles west of Manchacha 
station, in Bouli^'s creek, and in Fairview Park, South Austin. 
These exposures are made by the denudation of the Cretaoeous 
chalks which covered them after their deposition. Superficial de- 
composition and the formation of zeolites followed. 

Accompanying the exposures of debris are occasional strata of 
yellow or black-yellow crystalline limestones full of the fossils of 
the chalk. Thin slices of this limestone made by Mr. B. L. Zil- 
ler show olivine specks in the calcareous mixture, hence I incline 
to think it a mixture of chalky material and debris. 

Structural Features Throwing Light upon the Age of Pilot Knob 
Activiti/.— The historic geology revealed iu the sedimentary strata 
of the adjacent region is complete and by its aid the period of t^e 
activity of Pilot Kuob can be determined. The intermingling of 
the earliest debris with the 0. l^viusculu beds and Inoceramus hori- 
zon of the Austin chalk shows that Pilot Knob was active during 
the latter half of the Austin-chalk sub-cpouh of the upper Cretan 
eeous period {about the Niobrara sub-epoch of the Northwest). 
The alternations of chalk and debris show long continuance of ac- 
tivity, while the great bed of chalk above shows a succeeding 
period of quiescence and subsidence. 

The great faulting which the whole region has undergoue since 
Pilot Knob's activity gives another proof of the age of the vol- 
canic eruptions. The system of faults extend approxinAtely north 
20° cast ; several of them cut through the igneous material, as at 
Kunz Station, Onion creek and Fairview Pork. The a^e of these 
great faults is later than the volcanic activity — is post upper Cre- 

)v Google 

^olcano.—HiU. 291 

latest Cretac«oua strata are 
e faults belong to the great 
this jouTDal, and wboae line 
in map. 

I. — It is probable that the 
d its crater-like weathering is 
itmospheric agencies and the 
th Tertiarj" and Quaternary 
ore line of the stratigraphic 
receding eastward Is a ques- 
catioQ of the dip planes and 
:at thickness of the Neozoic 
er western margin except in 
'esent position. Thus it was 
dences once covered the now 
" of Texas, while the shore 
lory subsidences leveled the 
; for, several miles west of 
: western mai^in of the upper 

scarp, as seen in Terrel hill 
rved beach of the same post 
, gravel which once covered 

Inob is but one of a score of 
»nd the Rio Grande west of 
usly given the name ol Shu- 
n to them has not yet been 
eons features of North Texas 
'al structural features indicate 
sts that together they conati- 
liich once extended from, the 
tereating to note the proxim- 
p to the Burnet granite. It is 
of intermittent activitj' since 

it is shown that Pilot Knob is 
h rose out of and deposited its 
iper Cretaceous sea (probably 
ated position remote from any 
it have been an island erup- 

)v Google 

292 J%e American Geologist. Nov.ibw 

tion. Pilot Knob probably belongs to a great chain of igneoos 
localities, eruptive and basaltic, extending from the mountains ot 
northern Mexico to the Ouachita system of Arkansas, -both of 
which r^ona abound in related features. The great Balcones 
Bystem of N. 20° E. faults of central Texas are later than upper 
Cretaceous. In late Cretaceous, Quaternary and Tertiary tim^ 
Pilot Knob was either totally submei^ed or greatly denuded. 

NciTEs ON A Nkpheline-Basalt phoh Pilot Enob, Texas. 
J. F. Kkmp, Ithaca. 

A selection of specimens representing various parts of the out- 
crop was forwarded for stufly. They are very dense, finely 
crystalline, of a dark gray or black color and resemble the usual 
run of compact basalts. Small lustrmts grains, 1. mm. and less, 
are seen scattered through the mass and are shown by the slides 
to be olivine crystals. Amygdaloidal portions are found on the 
surface whose cavities are filled with calcite and probably by 
zeolites as well. 

The rock is a difficult one to mjike transparent as the sectaona 
become merely translucent up to extreme thinness. It readily 
appears however under the microscope that the rock consists prin- 
cipally of a groundmaes in which are set the phenocrystd of 
idiomorphic olivine and much smaller, brown, prismatic augite. 
The groundmasa varies in character. At times under low powers 
it appears aa a. half opaque whitish mass which, in thin portions 
with high powers, is seen to consist largely of a very feebly 
refracting base, through which are scattered small microlltes 0. 01- 
0. 02 mm. long and a quarter as broad, with an extinction angle 
of 30''-45''. These are probably augite. One or two small plag- 
ioclase microlites could also be recognized but they are extremely 
rare. The feebly refracting base gelatinizes readily and stains a 
deep tinge witii fucbsiue. On evaporating the gelatinous mass to 
dryness abundant cubes of sodium chloride separate out. From 
this the inference is drawn that the groundmass is essentially 
nepheline in a form approximating a glass, such as was named by 
Boricky nephelinitoid. Minute grains of magnetite are distributed 
everjnrhere tiirough the sections. They average about 0.01 mm. 
The white, half opaque character of the groundmass may be due 
to partial alteration. Such a result is noted by Zirkel in vol. vi 
of the 40th Parallel Survey, p. 2&7, as occurring in the n^heline- 

)v Google 

„ Google 

294 The American Geoloffist. NoT.ieeo 

176 and 178 of tiie 40th Parallel Survey ahow them to con- 
tain from 10 to 16 per cent, more silica. Dr. Oscar Leow' has 
also determined a basalt with nepheline (nephellne-tephrite) from 
the Pelonciilo mountaina in Arizona, which like the others is far 
more acidic. The Texas rock also divei^es widely from tlie 
tephrites and balanites described from the Crazy monntaiDS, 
Mont , by J. E. Wolff' but it resembles closely so far as may be 
judged from the description, the nepheline-basalt collected by J. 
C. Branner in the Island of Fernando de N(HY>nha and described 
by G. H. Williams. ' 

Geol. Laboratory Cornell Univerrity. 

By Pbof. J. W. Spincib, Atlanta. 

The barometer was used in the measurements of the Iroquois 
beach (Trans. Koy. Soc. Can. 1889) in the region of Watertown, 
New York, also the beach was not carried far eastward in that 

Dunng last May I carried the investigation fornard and used a 
proper leveL The difficulty of following the beach was great, as 
in this region it is very frequently interrupted by the occurrence of 
rocky promontories, which existed in the body of water bounded 
by the Iroquois beach, — the result having been that no beach 
structure was pr6d.uced in the very deep water in front of those 
old rocky points. Then, f^in the boulder clay of Va& drift is re- 
placed by a stony drift sand. But with labor and the use of 
the level I have traced and measured the elevation of the beach 
to about 50 miles northeastof Watertown, and know its position for 
t«n miles farther. The rocky islands in the Laurentian country 
of the northern Adirondacks further interfered wiUi the woi^ 
The measurements were always on tiie summit of the beach barriers 
or spits, crossing the valleys between the promontories, makiqg 
the accuracy of identification certain. 

» Wheeler's Survey, 1875 ; vol. Hi, Geology, p. 647. 

■ Northern Transcontinental Survey. Notes on the Petrography of the 

Crazy Mountaina, etc.; p. 8. 
* Petrography of Fernando de Noronha; A. J. S. ill, vol. 37, p. 187. 

)v Google 

lological Survr.'ys. — Branne}'. 295 

theostward direction and, for the laat 
ed) averages bIx feet per mUe. Thus 
1 dam existed in this part of the Ad- 
le beacb to an elevation of 972 feet 
ith of Morrisbiirg (on the St. Law- 
ig is DOW BuSlcient to account for 
Br across tlie basin of lake Ontario. 
iovem6nt has been entirely since the 
'his paper is intended only as a pr^ 
the details will be eventually pub- 


4NER, Little Rock, .\rk. 

may be classilipd as follows: 

iniiocted with thi^ L'nlt«i] Htat^s Grologi- 

jtale survey. 

r thoao teaching geiilogy in otir collpgos 

making excursions into the Held, either 
in order to oarry on original investiga- 

r those doing private eoonomic work, 
uding students who do volunteer work. 
9t, or should exist, between our national 
,ho geologists of the country, in whieh- 
ill, that I propose briefly to address you. 
■rtaken largely in the course of lustruc- 
,tories, but it is rarely that individuals 
itate and national surveys have nnder- 
eologlc operations. We must except, of 
if an economic nature, 
ividuals seldom, and commeniai organl- 
is to purely scientific iuvestigations ; and 
s require large sums of monej-, and aa 
a view to Increasing human knowledge 
•ne hy the public treasury. 
1 most of the working geologists of the 
1 consulting geologists, arc connected 
ir the .*d- 

)v Google 

296 The American Geologist. no». ie» 

cllhcr as salaried assistants, permanent or teuporary, or as volunieora. 
Hut these orKanizaUoDS carrj on their work liidependGnt of each otber. 
Indeed without an; regard to one anothpr's existence, while indlTldual 
Invustlgatura go each his own way pretty much as It he had the whole 
world of geology to himself. 

If cue has cause to be surprised at this lack of concerted action 
among men working upon the same and similar problems In the same 
country, we must remember that this state of affairs Is the outcome 
partly of our democratic Institutions and of our dispoaitlun to let every 
one shift for himaell, partly of the great size of the country, and partly 
of the fact that there has never been, until recently at least, any at- 
tempt, or even any disposition, to bring all the geological material in 
the country into harmonious action and relations. 

Wo have done better In this respect of late years, but there Is still 
much room for Improvement. If there has been but little cooperation 
hitherto among geologists and between official surveys, doubtless It is 
because, as Frolessor lirice says of democracy, " It takes many cen- 
turies to form those habits of compromise, that love of order, and that 
reepcct tor public opinion which makes" good geologic work possible. 

The Untied State* Geotofflctii Suroey.—Ths early geologic work carried 
on by the government In this country was done by military exploration 
parties under the War Department, Geology was In no case the prime 
object of those explorations, work of this kind being done by geological 
attach^ of the parties. Geology came to be a more and more important 
part of them, however, until from 1867 to 1873 we had the surveys de- 
voted principally to geography and geology under Clarence King and 
Lieutenant Wheeler, both of which were carried on under the War De- 

In 1S6B the Geographical and Geological Exploration of the Terri- 
tories with Uayden as Its director was authorized under the Depart- 
ment of the Interior, and In 1870, under the same department, the Oeo- 
loglcal and Qeographical Survey of the Rocky Mountain Begion under 
Major Powell was authorized by Congress. 

The operation^ of these surveys seem to have been carried on to some 
extent without regard to each other, for a pu't of the work was dupli- 
cated, and Jealousy was aroused to such a point as to become a scandal 
to scientific work in this country. 

Looking over the evidence to-day it seems pretty clear that the United 
States engineers had resolved to drive out all other geographical work, 
and possibly all geological work, from a field which they felt to be their 
own, for they seem In all cases to have been the aggressive partlea- 
Thls issue being forced upon Congress, in 1878 the National Academy of 
Science was asked to appoint a committee "to take into consideration 
the methods and expenses of conducting all surveys of a scientific char- 
acter under the War or Interior Department, and the surveys of the 
Land Office, and to report to Congress as soon thereafter as may be 

*A lint of the commanded and the dates of these expeditions U given in Ex. 
Doo. No, 840, «rd Congtcss. iBt Session, pp. 6-8, 

)v Google 

'.wTUtl Geological Surveys. — Bi-anner. 297 

r aurveylng and mapping the Territories of the 

gCDeral system as will, in their Judgment, secure 

least possible cost." 

the National Academy of Science was appointed 
1 report. It recommended that the surveys then 

discontinued, Including the Land Office surveys. 
Id be a single national geological survey which 
Dgic problems, and that all meusurallun should be 
I Coast and Geodetic Survey, which should furnish 

be wanted. 

kI regarding the Coast and Geodetic Survey was 

iss discontinued the old geographical and geotogl- 

nited States Geological Survey was established in 

ureau ot the Department of the Interior. 

ID of the national survey after the extinction of 

if the men from all the former Institutions were 

ire we And ourselves to-day with our United States 

hat I should speak of the functions of this national 
vm, for In a general way you are all familiar with 
ess organization and general plan of carrying on 
\ In the eighth Annual Report of the Director. 
« bloTicA* to carry on geologic investigations over 
f the United States, and In every branch of scl- 
'elated to geology, such as geography, topc^raphy, 

chemistry and statistics. 

area, though limited to the states carrying them 
tral state geological surveys; while private Indl- 
nstltutlons, scientific societies and commercial cor- 
ty to carry on such investigations as they see fit, 
lach other. 

itural to expect that there would be more or less 
en organizations and Individuals working, as these 
jstlons and over the same areas. 

carried on by the federal government, however, 
(S were the specified areas to which the national 
, and now that the whole area of the United States 

a broad-minded and cooperative direction seeks to 
ne state organizations Instead of antagonizing or 

asize the fact that the classification of the geolo- 
,he work within the domain of the national survey, 
lomain of the state surveys and that which can Ix^ 
led by private institutions, corporations or indivld- 
re should be some more definite or better organized 
lation In all this work and among all these men, 
merclal and Industrial enterprises the world over 
ater or less extent to concerted action. In cduca- 

)v Google 

298 The American Geologist. iiov.iseo 

ttonal matters where action has bneii concerted and efforts aud m<^ai)s 
concentrated there have our most marked successes been. Geologists 
may disregard the advantages to be dRrlved Trom such cooperation, but 
it must be at their own expense and at the expense of the science. 

And without doubt one oF the reasons that cooperation has not been 
further practiced than it has been Is that a sort o! antagonism between 
older organizations lias been handed down to us, and also because it 
takes time to tiring Into barnionlous action a large number of men scat- 
tered over a vast territory and vftrlously interested In widely different 
phases of geologic problems. 

The statement has been made that the L'nited States Survey does co- 
operate with very nearly every state survey In the country, but the fact 
Is that the national survey does not know what the state surveys are 
doing except In a very genera! way, and that the state surveys know but 
little or nothing of what the national survey Is doing, except perhaps as 
it may happen to be picked up In private conversations and !n private 
correspondence between personal friends. 

Please bear In mind that this is not Intended as reflecting upon the 
Director of the United States Survey ; coCperatlon can only enlst by 
the common consent of all the parties concerned, and it Is quite as much 
the fault of the state surveys that there is no such coSpcratlon as It Is 
that of the United States Survey. 

I might cite the case of a state survey of which I have some knowl- 
edge where the national survey carried its topographic work forward 
without any reference to what the state survey needed, [or It didn't 
' know the state survey's needs, and when, almost by accident, tlie state 
survey learned of the government work, that work had gone loo far lo 
be modllicd to suit the needs of the state survey. 

When I found myself a state geologist and began to look afiout me. 
and when I saw the relation In which a state survey stands to the na- 
tional survey, I confess that I felt very much as the nock did who was 
put in the stable with the horse. The cock sought to get on a proper 
footing with his companion by saying, "Now, let's not step on each 
other," and if I didn't do likewise. It was not because I didn't see that I 
was as completely at the mercy of the United States Survey. 

I mention ray own case partly because I know more about it than any 
other, and partly because I am responsible to a great extent tor the ab- 
sence of Intelligent and economic cooperation in the work done in the 
state of Arkansas. 

The conclusions which I have reached, then. In regard to the relations 
that e.vist and those which should e.'sist between the surveys and the 
geologists of the country are the result of my own experience and my 
own convlciioiis, confirmed by the experience and convictions of others 
— and. that Is that we should come to some understanding about what 
each one shall do and shall not do. 

What I have to say, however, refers to the internal arrangements and 
the working of geologists as affected by our own bearing toward the 
official surv(>ys, toward each other and towards the scleiiisc, rather than 

)v Google 

Geological Survt-ys. — Bra7inei'. 299 

id toward Ipgislatloii, For these; are not 
laws would liiterfpre with tliat frcodom of 
, vigor and activity to our sfiientlflc bodies 
ley can only be dett^niilnpd by c< 

Id be some unanimity among all geologists 
[ of our government and our state surveys, 
I do and ought to do. 
Led Stat«s Geological Survey : 
the official bead or all our Jiiurvcys and of 

les the fact that science is an element of 
It is the duty of the statu to foster Just as 
lents of progress and civilization, and it 
vlth the profoundcst gratification that our 
■tauce of the general government's giving 

.y take a deep interest In the organization 
[onal survey, for the work to which It Is de- 
,ld of the government, and should that aid 
roper organization or Inefflclency, or on ac- 
' other reason, the progress of the science of 
Id be seriously impeded It it did not come to 

ngratulatc ourselves and to congratulate the 
.nization In 1BT9 there has been in the direc- 
lathy with all branches of scientific work, 
who doM not shirk his duty in the survey's 

avo false notions of tlieir personal and pro- 
I affairs crowd upon their attention. 
elves that appropriations are quite as osson- 
kers are, and that this part of the business 
lan any other part of it. 

lid have be«n If no efforts had been made to 
ors. Congressmen are busy men, too busy 
k up worthy Institutions that need support. 
ncn want to know are the needs, demands 
[id they will see that they are property sup- 
imen to get this information if some well- 
aish it? Statesmen must depend on geolo- 
9 will enable them to act Intelligently, and it 
i director of the United States Survey to in- 
ators ot the needs of geologic work In the 
lie work Itself. It is a duty he owes to the 

' and stimulates state work, and state work 

)v Google 

300 I%e American Geologist. Nov, ibso 

reacta In favor of national work, and both stimulate private enterprise 
and Investigation. The return from ail this no man can measure, for 
it is both material and intellectual, and In both these senses It la felt 
in every nook and corner of the land. 

The national survey Is thns doing a work that no other InstltutloD 
can do, and It is able to maintain an organization of geologists that no- 
other Institntlon could maintain. For nowhere, in no country, fs there, 
and at no time has there been, a corps of working geologists superior to 
that of our present national survey — a body of geologists, of which every 
scientific man and indeed every citizen of this country may well lie 

Having no connection with that organization, either present or pro- 
spective, 1 feel at liberty to express a frank, disinterested and indepen- 
dent Judgment. , 

And I take the liberty to express the conviction Just here that no 
more amazing thing can be found !n the annals of science than that 
there are geologists — men who claim to be Interested in the advance- 
ment of science — ^who would bo glad to put an end to our national 
survey, the Instltatlon that has, as It were, laid the golden eggs of geo- 
logic science in this country. 

The National Survey and the Slate Su/Tveyl. — With this splendid equip- 
ment of men and of means, what can the National Survey best do and 
best leave to state surveys and to private enterprise? The question Is 
not asked as Implying that the ofBcers of that body are not perfectly 
competent to decide these matters, but because we feel that a more ef- 
fectual cooperation can be brought about to the great advantage of 
every one concerned. So long as more than one organization must oe-' 
cupy the same field, some understanding can certainly be arrived at that 
will prevent the duplication of work and the waste of energy and of 

The appliances, libraries, laboratories, equipments and the large num- 
oer of special assistants required by a national sarvey are quite beyond 
the means of our modest state surveys. 

The great size of our country, the wide sweeping character of Its gen- 
eral geologic structure, and the limits placed by civil boundaries on state 
work must throw most of the Important general questions Into the 
hands of the national survey. Local details can and should bo worked 
out by the state surveys, and these results should be placed as soon as 
possible at the disposal of the specialists of the national survey. It is 
self-evident that problems that can be solved only after a wide experi- 
ence and acquaintance with the whole country cannot be satisfactorily 
undertaltcn by the state surveys, but that they must be solved by the 
larger and stronger organizations. 

There are certain classes of work that, of necessity, fall upon a na- 
tional rather than upon the state surveys ; such are tri angulation, pre- 
cise levels, topography, palcontologic work, almost all investigations 
tailing under the liead of what is usually known as pure iiclence, and all 

)v Google 

Geological Surveys. — Branner. 801 

Dg much time and labor and money and 
ona why stale surveys cannol do work of 
; The men with whom the national survey 
-mlndPd statesmen— men who comprehend 
f purely scientific work, while, as a mlc, 
!dlat«, and what they call practical, results. 
^A of the importance of any work that looks 
ial prosperity of the state, while they are 
), with the intellectual Income from It. 
means ol any state survey to make a topo- 
ea of the ^tate ; the best it can do Is to se- 
nap those. But maps are absolutely esaeu- 
ca! work, and map-making has come to 
laing share of the money appropriated for 
e and naltonal. The nallonal survey, how- 
ations for topographic work, and contem- 
Ing o( the entire area of the United States, 

It various demands and must therefore be 
trees of accuracy and detail every one will 
, howtver, the maps made are usually, as 
111, and upon a scale, for mapping the whole 
plan and scale may be perfect for that par- 
happens that neither the plan nor the map 

the state surveys. And certainly nothing 
maps made by a geological survey ought to 
>rk, or that, falling lo meet the demands of 
il excuse or reason for their existence, 
graphy of the glaciated area of the MIssU- 

one of but little relief, and, in order to 
xmx intervals must be very small. Hut the 
I. Survey maps is 50', one that completely 
|)hlc character of the glaciated area of tlio 

10 plan for topograiihle maps should be suf- 
! demands of those by wiiom and the pur- 

■arrlcd on by the states bee a use stales nro 
sh hut a few point's Id, geodetic iiuestlons. 
n been obliged to unify their work. In Ihe 
haracter must be left to some Institution of 

)v Google 

302 Tl\e American Ge<A4}giat. Nor. isao 

II. The investigation dem&iids a knowledge of tbe lossM fauna of not 
one 8tato alonit, but of a great many states, and often of the fanna of all 
the explored rocks of tho earth, while the observations limited to a single 
state are snre to lead to duplication and to erroneous conclusions. 

III. The worJ< can be properly done only by spcclallsta which state 
surveys cannot afford to employ. 

IV. The Illustrations necessary Id a paleontologic report are'too ex- 
pensive to be paid (or out of the modest appropriations made (or 3tat« 

It might be urged against these reasons that the states o( Illinois and 
New York afford striking examples of the fact that states may and can 
and do carry on a high grade of paleontologic work. But It should be 
remembered that tlie conditions under which these excellent rosalts 
have been obtained have passed or are about to pass away. For while 
the states o( Illinois and New York have grown In wealth and Intelli- 
gence since their surveys were begun, the legislatures o( those states 
could not to-day be induced to take up and carrjr (orward works of so 
purely a scientific nature, and if those states could have seen the end 
from the beginning, It may well be doubted whether they would have 
undertaken the great paleontologic in vesti gat ioDS carried on so long and 
so successfully by Uall and by Worthen. 

Another point which I must Insist upon Is, that it is the place of a 
stale geological survey to do what Is wanted in the state, and as a rule 
economic results are wanted. The people are entitled to what tbey pay 
for. Not that the survey must go on every wild-goose chase suggested, 
and examine every prospect and claim In the country, but the problems 
wlilcli the peojile wish to have solved should bo solved It they can be. 

These very demands doflne the work of the state surveys and separate 
it pretty sharply from that of the national survey. 

If wc are to be perfectly honest with ourselves we must confess that 
the state surveys have, as a rule, (ailed to do what the people have ex- 
pi-i'tedof them, and one of the principal reasons lor these failures is 
that the geologists have not had the counsel and the cooperation of a 
national survey. The geologists who have encouraged the loakiDg of 
appropriations for the work have Invariably held out the hope that 
these surveys would be devoted to economic geology, while members of 
legislatures who have supported such bills have invariably done so in 
the expectation that they would do something of direct economic Impor- 
tance. But there are but few exceptions to the rulo that these state ap- 
|)ropriatlons have been devoted to paleontologic problems and to pure 
science, while economic problems have been entirely lost sight of. 

Ti)ese ccouomlu problems, or such of them, or rather, perhaps, such 
phases of them as can safely he dealt with by the state, should be the 
special province of the state survey, while the broader questions which 
can be satisfactorily studied and safely discussed only over wide an>as 
should be left to the national survey. 

It is trui> that economic and purely scientific problems cannot be eu- 
lirely separated, and there is no necessity that they should be, but gco- 

)v Google 

Geological iSui'veys. — Bi-anner. 303 

ice or prominence to one or to the otlier 
aM ma; demand. 

turally precede others, and If we work fn- 
tlicse problems in their logii-al order. Kiit 
possible, for state geologists roust do their 
ssary, not by geology alone, but by some 

problems should, in so Tar as possible, be 
I cases, however, in which this cannot be 
ose which, requiring study over a wider 
single state. Those should be studied In 
ay demand, by the national survey. Take 

the country ; these ores occur tn several 
nay be under somewhat different circum- 
tho origin aod distribution of load ores 
J, and not simply as a local question, for 11 
)A and discussed in any single place, 
hould be tho student muKt be at liberty to 
s of his worlf demand. This Is not per- 
(ven If the employees of a state survey felt 
il over the country studying the questions 
, they haven't appropriations large enough 
penses required for such work. 

glaclation ; how would it ever have been 
ng his observations to any single state, to 
to have reached a conclusion regarding 
ice. And I venture to say that If there is 

before we shall fully comprehend the hts- 
Plelstocene times. It Is due to no small e\- 
irvations have not yet taken wide enough 

'ork enough on this subject and to spare, 
hole could never be comprehended, stated, 
gtc state, or indeed at all unless one had 

5marked:» What "countless, Interminable 
leal correlations in the states cast of the 
n prevented had any one geologist been 
Die extent the formation he was studying." 
|)ped by state boundaries, and the broader 
1 correlation cannot be settled or even sal- 

r as the relations between the national and 
cd the natiOJial survey should leave all that 
enterprise and to state surveys, and that It 
lems which state surveys and individuals 
lly deal with. 

y, ^'ol. IV, Ko, 4. Jiuie, 1883. P, B»8, 

i,„b, Google 

304 77ie Ajn^rican Gedogist. Not, isao 

It Is mjr opinion also that the national survey, being better Informed 
of what Is going on In the way of geologic work than the state geolo- 
glHts, and being la every respect the strongest of our organizations 
ahoulJ hold ont a helping hand to the state aurvoys, and from their 
wider and more valuable experience, give advice and encouragement to 
state work. In this way atate aid to sclentlGc work would be encour- 
aged and tbe national survey would widen Its helpful InSueace. 

It goes without saying that state and national surreys should not ride 
rough shod over each other }ust because there is no law to prevent 
their duplicating each other's work or their doing work that will Inter- 
fere with each other's plans or efflcleocy. It would be easy tor a gov- 
ernment survey to discredit and embarrass a state survey to such a point 
that the state would put a stop to Its own work. Fortunately our na- 
tional survey has been cooducted rather with a view to aiding the state 
surveys- But this aid can be made much more effectual than It ever 
has been, and I have no doubt It will be made so whenever we are ail 
ready for such co5poratlon. 

37te UrM£A States Survey and the CoUeget. — My own conception ot 
sciontlflc organlzatlonB is not that they should simply devote themselves 
to the accumulation o( sclentlHc facts — to research — but that they 
should at the same time encourage and develop scientific men. 

They should have much to do with the training of geologists in proper 
methods. It will not cost much, and It will look well, and the few ef> 
forts required by such encouragement must yield valuable results In th» 
future. Geologic Investigation should, therefore, in so tar as possible, 
aid and encourage Instruction. 

Worlc Is often needed In the vicinity of colleges in order to have It 
available In Instruction, and the national survey should see that thia 
work Is done — In other words. It should cooperate with the professor in 
charge, giving what bo needs, and obtaining In return such contribu- 
tions as he can make to local geology. 

Deologlsts are sometimes modest men. It is the duty of the national 
survey to look these modest men oui, and toencoiirage and help them and 
to make them feel that they are a part of the geological body of the coun- 
try. It should see (o It that there is no geological ground left unculti- 

Cooperation.— If a cordial cooperation could be brought about be- 
tween all the working geologists of the country there would be more 
satisfactory progress all along the line. This Is made necessary by the 
number of geologists In the country, by the country's vast area and by 
the conservation o( energy and of funds. 

Imagine a number of men working, a few under organized direction, 
but a targe number independently, and with no responsibility to any 
one, for the purpose of erecting a largo odiflce. Those who direct have 
in mind all tho specifications; they know what kind of material is 
wanted and how much, and where It Is needed. Those who bring and 
prepare this material use their best cflorts^they labor in love and with 
the inspiring hope that they are contributing something to this great 

)v Google 

State andjfational Geological Surveys. — Sranner. 305 

balldlng. What must one's feetlugs be when he brings his contribu- 
tion to find that It Is In the wrong place, or that it Is not wanted 1 Mis- 
takes of the same sort are constantljr being committed In geologic work 
and in aoundance too, all because wo have no recognized directing bead 
for the work done outside of the United Stat«a Geological Survey. 

The built of geologic literature must yearl; become great«r, and 
unless It becomes at the same time better, we must expect a dajr to ar- 
rive when geologists may well Stand appalled before it. Much of this 
literature is practically worthless; It is an encumbrance rather than a 
help to the progress of science, and we should Feel grateful to vay 
method that would deliver us and geology from an evil which Is coming 
to be a more and more serious one. 

In one of the states in which the United States Survey has been doing 
topographic work, an area of 3,000 square miles that had already been 
surveyed had to be remapped by the State survey to meet Its own de- 
mauds. Here I think no one will have any difficulty in understanding 
the necessity of cooperation between the state and the national survey. 

Take as another example the chemical analyses made for geologic 
purposes. The chemists of state and national surveys have thrown 
upon them a vast amount of heterogeneous work, while but little or no 
time Is left them for original Investigations. A great many of their 
analyses are dupllcat«d elsewhere, or may be duplicated In any number 
of laboratories, so that Investigations that might otherwise have been 
possible are prevented, and both chemistry and geology are hindered. 

The errors committed by geologists not connected with the surveys 
are mainly due to haste, or in other words, to expression of opinion 
based upon too limited observations. But only limited observations are 
possible to men of limited time for the work, and limited means to work 
with, a limited area to work in, limited acquaintance with field geolo- 
gists, and limited opportunities for publication. 

There are many young geologists and men of but little experience^ 
amateurs — whose efforts are not so directed as to be of as much service 
as they might be. They lack neither zeal nor means In many cases, but 
they do lack some one to guide their tottering footsteps. Their want of 
experience gives them but a restricted view of the field in which they 
are laboring. Their labors cannot therefore, unless directed by some 
one who hasa sufQctently broad view of the whole Held, be of any value 
to geology. Who will direct thora ? Or shall they go on piling higher 
their wasted energies, and find thcmaclvca when they have come to the 
end with the mortification of knowing that though they have worked 
hard and faithfully, they have In reality contributed nothing to the 
sum of human knowledge ? 

So our energies are not fully utlliecd; we are like a great system of 
machinery with hero a bent shaft wasting the grfsator part of its energy 
In friction, there a broken belt that has stopped a useful machine, here 
a [Imbcr caught In the wheels and beating the walls and Moors. 

If we could have some sort of eofiperatlon, a man at work upon a par- 
ticular subjc<'t would have some assurance that his field of operations 

)v Google 

306 The Aiiierican Geologist. Not. iS90 

would be. within alt reasonable limits, left to liim. As matters now 
stand a geologist Is often obliged to mount guard over his own grounds 
and ill liis own work to keep the UD3crupu)oa8 camp-foil:jwers of 
science from waliflng oft with and getting the credit for the results of 
his labors. 

Cooperation would enable each one to concentrate his efforts upon 
that line of work or that investigation In which he Is especially Inter- 
(*sted. As matters have gone heretofore no state survey and no man on 
a state survey haa been able to take up any one subject In a systematic 
and thorough manner unless it has happened that some one group of 
facts has been avsllabia in his own state alone. Take any topic you 
may choose for a test and you will (ind this to be an invariable rule. 

Do the best we may, there is not one of us who may not bo benefited 
more or less by friendly criticism. And it is of great Imporlanco to the 
science that these criticisms be made before our results or observations 
are published. In this way we may avoid adding to that vast talus of 
geologic traah beneath which the science of geology is bnried more and 
more each year. Such criticism is not possible except under conditions 
that enable us to know the lay of the land with reference to other geol- 
ogists and to what they have done and are doing. 

It should be distinctly understood from the outset that snch work Is 
to be, not subordination, but coordination and above all cooperation. 
The demands of sclentlflc worit do not require and the conditions and 
peculiarities surrounding sclontiflc ambition and devotion do not admit 
of the most successful and satisfactory work being done In a perfunc- 
tory manner. 

I would not by any means destroy the autonomy of local societies or 
of independent workers not formally connected with the public surveys. 
Certain independence of thought and action Is essential to scientific ad- 
vancement, and friendly rivalry Is not only not injurious, but It is ex- 
tremely helpful, and in many cases absolutely essential. But such an 
organization of geologists would have to allow and even encourage this 

Every man should be held responsible tor his own work, and, in this 
way, made to retain the sense of personal responsibility. This plan of 
cooperative action, in order to be successful, would require that in the 
work accomplished there should be the fullest recognition for each 
man's contribution. Workers In science will not be found willing to 
make of themselves parts of a great piece of machinery which entails 
the loss of their individuality. They must have the fullest credit for 
all they do. At the same time one must not try to get all the good he 
can without giving something in return. 

I have no idea that a " perpetual motion " sort of a geological machine 
can be devised, or that any arrangement or adjustment of parts Is possi- 
ble which will entirely do away with friction. 

It Is scarcely possible that any devise that can be made or suggested 
would be perfectly satisfactory, but it certainly Is reasonable to expect 
that some system of cooperation can be devised and put Into practical 

)v Google 

'ional Geolofflcal Suit'eys. — Branimr. 307 

ich operation should be brought about, aevoral 
mind by ua all. 
tain amount of elasticity In anjr plan that may be 
I Investigation like any other Investigation IcaJJs 
fted tangents. 

1 liavo 10 he. largely noulnal, (or those who do the 
ould have to take precedence of those who did not 

possible would have to be allowed Individuality. 
a of coal to be separated and clasHllied by sizes or 

hods devised tor sclentlUc work, like those of 
, series of compromises, and goodsenae must make 
nj system. 

ion can succeed If we do not all take a broad and 
ice and its functions ; we must work for its ad- 
lea of puttlug a caveat on this or that topic must 
'k ages of geologic science. 

) coilpprate with ua the moment they are made to 
utiona are useful and are appreciated, and that 
ended for years In tiie hands of some one not 1m- 
ness of time and of human life, 
peration each one must do, In addition to the di- 
k, what otiiers want. 

be utilized. It would In many cases save a good 
pay travelling e.'tpenses, to say nothing of tho Im- 
I the geologists of the country a<;tlvely interested 

^ if ho works intelllgontly, must know and keep 
cople are doing; and he certainly cannot do this 
:, and without any recognized relations to .other 

k can be Improved by being under the nominal di- 
eted to direct, where are we to find our directors? 
one most to popularize the science of geology In 
rofpssorial geologists, and it is not unnatural that 
m. But the teaehers of a science are not neces- 
■s of research, while they are probably In no i-aso 
t with the work being done by the various slate 
tional survey. 

rk over the whole country would be quite as Im- 
so. from the states. 

', standing as it does at the head of alt the gco- 
e country, having the whole national domain as 
d as It is, of our best geologists and having the 
cation, is, or should be, the natural head and di- 
1 work In this country. I have no doubt that the 

)v Google 

308 The American Oeologiet. Not. ism 

national aurve; would be glad to bolp in so far as It can to unify and to 
give useful direction to this work. 

I take thl3 grouDd In the face of the'Statement of the distlaguished 
Director of the United States Geological Survey who has said tliat " all 
of this scientific research under national, staM, and local patronage, 
cannot be controlled by some central autborlty, as an army by its gen- 
eral, from the fact that scientific men, competent to pursue original re- 
search, are peculiarly averse to dictation and official managemenL 
Scientific men spurn authority, but seek for coordination."* 

The function of a director or of a superior, in science at least, Is not, 
to be sure, that of a commander ordering here and there men who must 
simply obey, who must have do independent opinions or plans of their 
own ; be must rather be a helper, a man to encourage, to suggeit, to 
fire with enthusiasm those under him and to nnify the work of the or- 
ganization of which he Is the head. Scientific men do not spurn author- 
ity If there Is any reason for it, and as a proof of It we may clt« th« 
United States Qeologlcal Survey itself, as well as all the state geo- 
logical surveys in. this country, or (or that matter, In the world. Tha 
members of all these surveys submit to all reasonable authority, but 
they are also put upon congenial nork, and they are permitted to do 
that work pretty much in their own way. Now why can there not Iw 
an organization of all geologists more or less similar to this ? 

We may disabuse our minds of the thought that there is a probability 
or even a possibility of the government monopoliiing geology. It can't 
do it; geology belongs to the geologists, whether the government helps 
carry on geologic Investigations or noL 

Concliutona.'— My conclusions are : 

First: that the great and valuable contributions lo geologic know]-. 
edge must be made by our official surveys, for they alone have the 
means for producing them — for gathering the facts, giving the neces- 
sary time to philosophical thought and discussion, and tor fumishliig 
the necessary illustrations, and for making and distributing the pnbitca- 

Second : that economic problems should be left, in so far as it is pos- 
sible, to the state surveys, while the national survey should deal with 
those requiring larger means and a wider range of observations. 

Third : that all the working geologists of the country should be 
brought Into offlcial or quasl-oflScial relations with the state and na- 
tional surveys and their efforts and skill thus utilized. 

I am free to admit, however, that no plan of operation or cooperation 
can be devised that will work to the complete satisfaction of everybody. 
'We sometimes have men to deal with who are not amenable to either 
law or reason. 

In his presidential address before the American Association at Cleve- 
land professor Langley compared the advance made by sclentlfio men 
In their search after truth to that of a pack of hounds following a trail. 


)v Google 

'-ological Surveys. — Bj 

ttill further. Hounds undersiand that It 
le game, and, when left to their own 
Tollow It. Sow Imagine a bull-dog seized 

hunter and joining the pack of hounds. 
dog will, Id spite of anything that cau be 
. dozen,' or, more likely, with the whole 
I chase Is well under way. 

to remember that the groat search after 
lan ol science Is engaged, heart and soul, 
le fashion by the pugnaccous disposition 

the benefits to be derived from voluntary 
n all geologists and all geological organl- 

under the nominal direction of the lead- 
»nducted as to be of the greatest utility 

'as done by one It would be done for all, 

rs and by Individuals and the consequent 

ey would cease. 

s of ofBcialoi^aDlzatiom being better de- 

!ys and Individuals could so direct their 

I of others without neglecting their own 

□fringing upon each other's grounds. 

roys would be strengthened and local or- 

rts encouraged. 

:r geologic literature, better inalrnctloii, 

raugh specialists. 

it would put a stop to those oracles who 

I name of science. 

er of geolc^y requires us to draw upon 

ence, and successful cooperation among 

favor of those sciences, for we need not 
wjlogists of the country, but that of the 
eorologlsts, astronomers and chemists. 
ly never be brought about, but It Is none 
lid aim at It ; for the more nearly we ap- 

wlll be the progress of science, and the 
■ess of civilization. 

:rance of bishop Potter, "It would be a 
;e it any one of us were to estoem It only 
ch he was to carve his way to personal 
fton been used for just that purpose, but 

)v Google 

310 The American Geologist. not. i890 


Quebec not in Conflict with Taconic. 

In a late paper on the "Quebec Group of Logan," published in 
the July number of the Canadian Record of Science (Montreal), 
by Sir William Dawson, it is clearly pointed out that the essential 
idea of Sir William Logan in tbe creation of the Quebec Group 
was to apply a name to a series of strata having "a great devel- 
opment about tbe horizon of the Chazy and Calciferous," and 
that the name is still needed for convenience of use and because 
there is absolutely no other designation to this day that can be 
made to include them as a group. Id the group so designated 
should be placed that series of alternating magnesian limestones 
and sandstones (containing conglomerates in the eastern ^art of 
America) well known in the Mississippi valley, extending from 
the base of the Trenton limestone to the red sandstones at the top 
of the Keweenawan. In Vermont it has recently been shown by 
Brainerd and Seely that these strata have a great development. 
Mistakes which Logan, or others, may have made in defining 
the geographic extent of this group, or in supposing it to have 
been metamorphosed into crystalline or sub-crystalline terranea 
(such as the copper-bearing series of lake Superior) should be 
eliminated, but these mistakes, as argued by Sir WiUiam Daw- 
son, should not be allowed to vitiate the conception which gave 
origin to the term. 

' ' It may be said that the same arguments would necesaitatc the 
retention of the Taconic system of Kmmons. To this I have not 
the slightest objection, provided that the same rule be applied to 
it ; namely, that it be taken' on Emmons' own definition, and 
without including rocks or fossils referred by mistake, either by 
him or by others, to the horizon so defined. 

"In his American Geology, 1855, Eminons says (part II, p. 6) 
that in 1836 he had regarded the Potsdam sandstone as 'the base 
of the Silurian system, ' but that he had since found 'the same 
base resting on sediments still older. ' These he called the Ta- 
conic system, and defines this as a fossiliferous group under the 
I'otsdam, and itself ' found to rest upon Primary { that is, crys- 
talline) rocks. ' Thus his Taconic of 1855 is clearly the middle 

)v Google 

ve. 311 

fossilB which 
} age. That 

KiODic through 

rith it is most 
I to ellniiiiate 
sries in those 
rom the Qiie- 
itic series, not 


TV of Lake On- 

, Canada, 1689). 
tper concerning 
several papers 
ngthy and con- 
loes not delimit 
IS bod not been 

t the only long 
i that It became 
I ot tbe modern 
well as boulder 
treated in "An- 
:;arlng in Bull. 
about tbe lake 
t) are mostly de- 
e 3 bores or the 

at the extreme 
surface. Upon 
Trenton (about 
ni near Trenton 
d b»B boen too 
a author's roeas- 
ew York, where 

(0 the I 
direction, upon 

)v Google 

312 ThfB American GedogUt. No*, lew 

the southern side of the lake the rise Is less marked, the beach being at 
Canastota (sontheast of Oneida lakf«) 1Q3 feet above the lake. Bat 
thence northward it rises rapidly to 450 feet near Watertown. The de- 
fonnatlOD here recorded lu a large meuuro explains the rocky barrier 
acrosB the St. Lawrence outlet, compared with the depth of the lake. 

The question of connection with the sea ts considered. Combining 
the warping of the Iroquois beach with that recorded in the beaches of 
the upper lakes traced all the way to lake Michigan by the anthor, 11 is 
seen that the Ontario sheet (called lake Iroquois) was at sea level during 
the time of the formation of the beach. It is regarded as like the gulf 
of Obi, which has similar proportions with the old lake and Its contlnn- 
ation In what Is now the St. Lawrence valley, with the water probably 
fresh in the upper portion of the basin. The question of glacial dams 
for holding the water Is regarded as an impossible feature under the 
conditions, and indeed such ought not to be laid down until the eastern 
e.<Ltenslon of the beach Is proved to be absent. 

The formation of this high beach commenced at the same time as the 
Niagara river, which the author places roughly at 36,000 years, based 
upon the mean known rate of recession (which would make It 13,000 
years had the fall of water between Erie and Ontario -been that of the 
present day) and the then inferior descent of the waters of the Erie 
basin causing the ero.sion to have been less rapid than now, which 
would lengthen the time tar beyond the 28,000 years, but which would 
be reduced by various complex causes. 

The paper Is illustrated with a map and various sections. 

NiehoUon and Lyddekefg PaUEontolom- — The size and growth of this 
work arc an Index of the growth acd extent of the young science of 
palEContulogy. Dating back no farther than the epochal work of Cuvler 
on the fossils of the Paris basin it has grown so rapidly that It now pre- 
sents to us a sketch of the life-history of the globe. Recent zoSIogy, 
once its superior. Is rapidly falling into place as only a transitory stage 
in the long story of animal existence. Paleontology, however. Is di- 
vided Into two branches — pal^ozoOlogy and patceobotany, and the present 
work deals chiefly with the former In the various departments of which 
the two distinguished authors have long been persevering and success- 
ful workers. Perhaps It would have been as well if they hod yielded to 
their own suggestion and conGned their labors to this side alone, omit- 
ting altogether the subject of palatobotany. That they felt Impressed 
In this dlroction is RVldent from thPlr preface whore they say : 

"Fossil plants have been dealt with after a somewhat summary 
fashion because palaioioOlogy is of greater Importance to the general 
student than palicobotany, and because the latter subject Is one of great 
complexity and one on which neither of the authors has any Claim to 
sjieak with authority." 

In their Introduction the authors have given an excellent chapter on 
[-ontemiMranclty, pointing out the distinction that should be made be- 
twi«n It and houiotaxis. This has often been brought forward, but Is 

)v Google 

of Recent Geolvffical Literature. 313 

1. Huxley called attention to It mao]' ycaraago 

[act resemblance between two distant faunas waa 
D not contemporaneoua, inasmuch as there must 
Ictcnt time for migration from oiin place to the 
I are, however, homotaxial, because they represent 
ding eras in the Iwo regions, Tlie comparatively 
,te betomea almost inanUesfmal by the side of the 
.t sunders them both from the prosenL Ueologlst^ 
the former In their ^strong appreciation of the latter. 
aaCs of the continuity of life, a subject on which no 
,lna any doubt. The catastrophes of the earlier In- 
i. do Beaumont are as dead as their authors, and 
I the record give us no anxiety, 
.he doctrine of "colonies" Is of great Importance. 
: the late M. Barrande announced his belief that 
OS appeared In a local and transient manner at cer- 
pearlng as an established fauna. Thus he malu- 
!pecjes could be found In Hpota In Bohemia among 
llurlati) strata, and that the alternation occurred 

the permanent establishment of the later fauna 
die there Is little difticutty In accepting this doc- 
lecics dilTerlng hut little In age. It has been difliculb 
Jon or simultaneous existence of faunas sn widely 
fician and billurlan. Only the high authority of 

given It the currency that It has obtained. Our 
3 tavor of accepting the view of Mr. Marr that 
les are only results of repeated faulting-down of 
^Iclan rocks. Iti this case the seeming dlfliculty Is 
ailed "colonies" have no existence. 
;he Imperfection of the geological record the argu- 
■orward by Darwin Is developed with great force 
tuthor shows that the want of hard parts is one of 
his Imperfection and brings In evidence the fact 
oups of the animal kingdom those families are, on 
tly represented whose living species possess hard 
ong the rhiuipods, the AmcEb<;a and Monera are 
{s, but the foramlnlfers and radlolarlans (at pres- 
Iceonw) are exceedingly ahundant. So the Myxo- 
aont, but the Porlfera (hard) abound in the fos.iil 
hydras and medusas, the sea-anemones and ctcno- . 
lut the corals, graptolltes and stromatoporoids cotu- 
ock. Other .limllar cases arc dU-d. 
I ciimalc are expressed with great enution. In the 
tate of the evidence this is the only wise plan, 
nd phy^^lclals so widely differ In opinion that no 
t, In any positive stntenu'nt. 

the work has been divided between the authors In 
ir pala-Kintoioglcal pursuits f"r many years past. 

)v Google 

314 TTis American Geologist. Nov. 1890 

Prof. Nicholson takes the Invertebrates and Mr. Lyddeker the verte- 

it Is wf>H to remark at tbc outset that the arrangement Is not "strati- 
grapblcal " as in Lfeil'a " Elements." That \&, It does not toWow th« 
geological sequence of the formations. It is entirely zoSlogical. While 
this is far less convenient for the student of a special horizon, It is the 
only way of treating the subject in a biological manner and avoiding 
constant repetition. It is, of course, subject to the inconvenience that 
the fossils of the various systems are mingled In sucb a way as U> 
destroy the "f&cies" whereby a system may be readily recognised and 
Is for that reason less suited to a beginner than the other arrangement, 
Jast as a geological museum, zotil ogle ally arranged, is almost Infinitely 
pnz7llng to a young geologist. 

Coming now to the body of the work and beginning with the lowest 
class, the rhizopoda, very slight traces of the Foraminlfera have been 
met with beiow the CarbonHerous rocks, but In these they become so 
abundant that rock-masses are composed of their remains, such as the 
great Fusulina limestone of Russia. The white chalk of Europe is con- 
sidered as closely resembling the Olobigerina ooze of the Atlantic, the 
lower proportion of silica In the former being chiefly due to its segrega- 
tion as fliut — a fact bearing on some modern geological problems. 

A summary of the arguments anent Eozoon is appended in which the 
case is tery fairly stated, the author considering that the vexed ques- 
tion regarding Its nature is still Incapable of flnal solution. He adds 
the caution drawn doubtless ftvm his own large experience with corals 
that only the best specimens can fairly be employed as evidence toward 
the solution of this problem,* and also remarks that until mineralogists 
or petrologiata are able to point in some unquestionable mineral or rock 
to a structure strictly comparable with the "canal-system" of Eozoon 
they are not entitled to assort that the latter has a purely inorganic 

Eomaina of radlolarians are also very rare in the older rocks and less 
abundant than those of the preceding group in Mesozoic deposits. Id 
some of the Tertiary beds, however, they are so abundant that they con- 
stitute a great part of the mass. The well known "Barbadoes Earth" 
Is one of them, a friable, chalky marl, rising to a bight of 1,000 feet 
above tide. 

In the chapter on the sponges we find the subject brought well up to 
date, OKcept perhaps In tlie regard to Dictyophyton. Recoptaculites la 
■well discussed and illustrated by the recent investigations of Dr, Hinde.f 
Dr. Billings' figure is shown to represent lachaditos rather than Hecep- 

Spouges are found first in the Cambrian rocks of S. Wales, Proto- 
spon^^ia fenestriUa occurring at St. David's Head, and they are espec- 
ially abundant in the Carboniferous and Cretaceous formations. " The . 

■ Tu the writer's knowied^ much material haa been dittribatedby dealers and 
otiifirsaA Eoxoon viiich contains uo eozolc matter at all. 
t Fig- eoshonldbe numbered 01. 

)v Google 

f Recent Geological Ziteraittre. 315 

bite chalk have been produced br the solution of 
ipoDges and the redeposltlon of the silica In solid 

pociallr at home among the Ccelenterata which 
object of his studies for many years. Accord- 
iated at considerable but not, considering their 
ty, too great length, in 170 pages. It Is manl- 
to follow our author in any detail, but a few 
He Is apparently Inclined to regard that most 
, as of vegetable rather than of animal origin, an 
;hlnk few will agree with him. If organic, It is 
d of a zoOpbyte should have been preserved from 
than a sea-woed. The recent discovery of trilo- 
,r age In N. Wales Is rather significant In the same 

belonging (Luceriiarlda) we lind curious evidence 
one of these soft-bodied creatures may leave a 
ho rock, so that If not lt:«clf a fossil the record of 
mrvlves. From the famous quarries of smooth 
at Solenhofen has come a cast considered to rep- 
ell of a Jeliy-fish, and Naihorst, of Sweden, has 
Ing that Torell's so-called plant "Eophyton" Is 
these animals In soft mud. 

romatoporold corals, the author, In speaking of 
Bentrlcca, " Inclines to the view that Its nearest 
id that It Is allied to Labechea and Idlostroma, 
strains from any positive statement. 
i the Zoantharia are very fully and excollently 
famlllarty wlt|h this branch of his subject Is well 
it illustration here displayed, much of which Is 
1 the subjects of the first volume Is the progress 
arly shown than here. Any one who recalls the 
irds and Lonsdale commenced their labors, will re- 
.his part of our museums and treatises exhibited, 
noire" of the collector and of the student. But 
aborers In this field, among whom Prof. N. has 
east, and thanks also perhaps in an equal degree 
aatly Improved the mechanical processes of cut- 
ting specimens, the light Is beginning to dawn 
tly darkness, and before long we may hope to be 
irved fossil corals to their proper zoological posi- 

I of the monticullperolds the author confesses the 
els regarding their zoological aMnity — whether 
d as a peculiar group of corals or an equally 

Lreatod under the two heads of Echlnozoa and 
i the latter are by tar the more Important In 

)v Google 

816 Tke American 6edogi«t. kov. 18»o 

palteontology In consequence of the great numbers and exquisite beauty 
of theclassCTlnoldeawblctillcontalQS. Dr. N. adopted the classification 
of Wachsmuth and Carpenter, and divided them Into the Falsocrlnoldea 
find Neocrlnoldea, the former comprising all the knovn paleoiolc crin- 
olds, and nearly correspondlag with SIQIIer'a TeaseUU ; the latter Id- 
clndlng all' post-p^nozotc crinotd forms and nearly corresponding with 
MQller's Artlcniata and Costata. 

The distinctive characters of the first group area calyx large and 
massive compared with the arms, fnterradlal plates usually present and 
often united with the radlals so as to form part of the calyx ; and Inter- 
radlal plates specially developed rendering the calyx un symmetrical, 
and also the presence of a plated vault on the ventral surface. In these 
points they differ from the Neocrlnoldea. 

But In an appendix the author says that while the worli was passing 
through the press the discovery was made of the ventral coverings of 
Encrluus and Taxocrlnus, " the latter genus having a plated disc ex- 
actly like that of a neocrtnold " and thus bridging over the previously 
existing gap between the two groups. 

Owing to the softness of the bodies of the Annelida the palfeontologiat 
. hag usually to deal with merely the tracks which they left on the sanda. 
The reference of one of these, Scollthus, to the Clinton group is prob- 
ably an error for the Medina. Many of the so-called pisnt-fossils of the 
older rocks are attributed by Nathorst to the tracks of annelids. Curi- 
ous vermiform masses at Solenhofen are probably fosafl worm-casts. 

On the other hand the author shows that the Myrlanites of Europe 
and North America Is not a trail at all but " the edge of some vertical 
laminar oxpanalon lying at right angles to the strata." In regardto 
Orossopodla the suggestion Is mode that it may have been produced by 
a gosteropod, and the trail of PuiTiura lofAUna Is given in Illustration. 

Regarding the well known and disputed conodonts there seems to be 
some dlvergenci^ of opinion between the two authors, one of them speak- 
ing of these minute fosMIs as belonging to the invertebrata and the 
otiier apparently Inclined to favor a higher origin. See pp. 480 and9SS. 

Th(t Arthropoda occupy rather more than 100 pages, and of these the 
Crustacea are treated under fifteen orders, a few, as might be expected, 
monopolizing most of the space. These are the Ostracoda and Phyllo- 
poda, the trllobites and eurypterlds. The chapter on the former gives 
an pxcellent and very condensed summary of what Is at present known* 
with details In regard to the recent discoveries of the locomotive organs 
of this remarkable extinct order. Hither the author refers Gilmac- 
tichnltes, noting the suggestion that It may have been the track of an 
eurjpterld. No eurypterld Is, however, known from the Potsdam rocks 
where these trails occur. Eustcbnltes he considers with Dawson the 
cast of the burrow of a triloblto as it Is sometimes connected with a 
series of markings resembling Asapholdlchnus. A very useful sum- 
•Wem ~ '~~' ~ " "^ — — . - 

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'ecent Geological Literature. 817 

f tte order la appended according to Bar- 

le eur^pterlds are dismissed somewhat briefly, 
iatt«r Id four, pages. 

r late awakened great Interest In conse- 
taoeoua diacoverf of Scorpions In Gothland, 
In Silurian stratas the earliest previously 
ous age. Although the evidence of the alr- 
ilmals is not so strong as might be desired 
lielr loOloglcal relationship. Poaslbtjr thcjr 
■ says, " It Is probable that some of the more 
al In habit." He Includes all the three 
loscorplus and Proscorplus. 
»sll Insect was known except those which 
ig found in amber. But now a large Insect 
and by the labors of M. Urongnlart and Mr. 
ints have been studied and wo already have a 
ilopment of the class. "Between S,000 and 
ts have been described." 
Is Palffloblattlna douvlllel, from the Silurian 
nown till we reach the Upper Devonian of 
K>Dlferou3, both ot Europe and America, Is 
le Trias of Colorado, the Ltas and Wealden 
Switzerland, the OOllte of Solenhofen and the 
iS, have all contributed largely to the history 

Included Id the Palfeodlctyoptera of Scudder, 
apods in which metamorphosis was not com- 
I equally developed and the neuration was 
nto which thfa order Is divided — the ortbop- 
I, the hemlpteroids, and the coleopterolda, 
'n orders after which they are named. 
rly defined representatives of these orders 
iptera, in the Jnrasslc as cicadas, and In the 
j]d wuter'Scorpiona, the Orthoptera In the 
feuroptera [n the Lias as wblte ants, etc. Of 
te metamorphosis the DIptera, with a few 
the Tertiary, chiefly in amber, the Lepldop- 
retaceous, and the Uymenoptera in the Middle 
^((Bomj/TTnec of Heor, If correctly determined, 
I very few other Mesoiolc forma. The Cur- 
. Scudder, are the oldest of the Coleoptera and 
lost of the leading existing families of this 
it about the same epoch.* 

peclmens of Trlgonocarpon from the English 
I apparently been bored by the larva of aome 
This would Indicate a yet greater age for 

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318 The American Geologist. not. 1890- 

In the summary of the Polyxoa the author has made liberal use ol his- 
Canadian and American experience, and his pages exhibit a number of 
original figures of IobsIIb from the western continent. These, of course, 
belong to the Cyclostomata or older group, the Cbellostomata belng- 
almoat excloslvelf of later dat«. 

The lai^e and Important class of Brachtopoda to which belong the 

' oldest known animals on ^e globe ( Eozaon excepted ) Is well treated, 

but not at great length. The work of Davidson of course here forms 

the base. The leading characters of t))e IS famllesinto which the class 

is divided ore fully and clearly given. 

The chapter on the LameltibraDchlata contains a good sketch of the 
leading points In their structure in so far as It relates to palseontology 
and a summary of the orders and families. It is, however, so condensed 
that It Is impossible to give any brief account of iL The'nature of the 
subject also, this group having been a fhvorite topic with patteontolo- 
gists for many years, precludes the introduction of much new matter in 
a work like the present. 

In the treatment of the Gasteropoda we note that the three air- 
breathing families represented b; the genera Cyclostoma, Aclcnia and 
Eellclna are Included In the prosobranchlates In spite of their possess- 
ing a pulmonary chamber; other structural features being considered. 
of greater Importance. The latest classltlcatlon of the group according 
to the structure of the "rodula" or tongue is not applicable, as the 
author shows, to fossil forms, which are most readily arranged as 
holostomatous and slphonostomatous — the forms with entire mouth 
being the more ancient and the less specialised. Of the palffiOEolc 
gastcfopods the families Capulldte, Pleurotomarlldie, Bellerophontld» 
(type extinct) and Euomphalide are by far the most Important. Uost 
of the families (SS in all) belong to mesozoic and cxnozole time. 

The Oplsthobranchiata and Beteropoda being nearly destitute of 
hard parts have few fossil representatives. 

Among the pteropods the author includes, and we think wisely, the- 
disputed forma Conularla, Uyolltbes and Tentoculltes. Indeed it would 
be difficult to indicate any other more probable place for them. TblS- 
reference makes the pteropods nearly or quite coeval with the oldest> 
known fossils, Eozoon excepted, since Hyollthes descends even lower 
than the lowest limit here assigned (Upper Cambrian), H. danltnua 
and H. gracHia having been described by Mathew from the St. John 
group of Nova Scotia. The extinct Conulaila was the largest of all 
known pteropods, some species attaining the length of a foot. In the- 
case of Tentaculltes Prof. N. thinks it probable that some of the forms 
referred to this genus belong rather to Cornntltes and quotes Hall who. 
has pointed out Chat all the forms' from the Ordovlclan rocks of N. 
America are curved and longitudinally striated. But II all these belong 
to Cornulites It Is almost certain that some case showing marks of at- 
tachment would have been found. , 

The pulmonary gasteropods are at present of slight palceontologlcal 
importance. The earliest forms are ZonUee prtscux and Pupa vetutta 


yf Recent Geological Literature. 319 

arbODlferous of Nova Scotia, and save a tew In- 
must wait tit) the Tertlar; age for the frequent 
' abandant laud and fresh-water snails. 
he cephalopoda are the most Important, attractive 
II the (o89ll moUuscan fauna. Not however so 
typos as In their lower forma, for excepting the 
hS, oolite and Chalk, the dlbranchs now so abnn- 
ico In a manual of paleeontologT. Of the genus 
e or four hundred species are atreiuly known. A 
e coming host come up from the Trias and equally 
r on into the Miocene but as a whole the group Is 
c of Liasslc, Ofilltic and Cretaceous strata. 
lS are among the most wonderful and beautiful of 
sole rocks the nautllold type prevailed with simple 
B variable In position aud often contracted. Be- 
of. N. says : 

of the Nautiloidoa appear In the Upper Cambrian 
enera Orthoceras and Cyrtoceras are represented, 
ks an enormous number are known, no fewer than 
in recorded by Barrande from rocks of this age in 
The maximum development of the group takes 
) Silurian age, the Bohemian area having yielded 
arrande over 1,000 species. In the later paleozoic 
ixhiblt a progressive diminution in numbers and 
hoceras survive the close of this period, the latter 
6 Trias. The few known Tertiary typos belong to 
led forms, and the sole existing representatives of 
livlnf specie of Nautilus." 

this [ lat family have the septal necks directed 
3 and . Hhoceras. In all others they are as in the 

ng Into the Mesozolc age that the full glory of the 
iars. The long straight shell so frequent among 
en place to an elegant spiral, and the simple septa 
y others with plaits and folds so complicated and 
utline gives a dendritic appearance to the casts of 

les the cephalopod shell shows a tendency again to 
; spiral of the aramoulto is succeeded by the imper- 
the hamile, scaphlte and even the straight bacu- 
Q these genera we cannot do better than quote the 

e forms were grouped under a comparatively small 
a such as Ceratitcs, Ammonites, Hamltea, Turrll- 
listlngulshed mostly by the mode of growth and 
nt the shell. By far the most Important of these 
:«henslve genus AmTtuynUen embracing the great 
monly known as "Ammonites." Through the re- 


820 UTte American Ge^dogist. Kot. isw 

searches of H^att, Neumayr, Mojslsovics, Waagen, von Z<tt«l and dUi- 
ers It has now been shown that tho old genns AmmoniUa can no longer 
be rtjtalned but that the types formerly Incladed onder this name admit 
of a natural division Into a number of genera which In turn constUnte 
a number of distinct families. These modern divisions are dlstlngulahed 
by such characters as the size of the body chamber, the form of the 
sutures, the shape o( the aperture and the presence or absence of an 

In accordance with this principle the names Fhylloceras, SapUmeratt 
etc., have been Introduced in place of the old term AmmorMet. If It 
had been possible to nae a uniform termination the transition wonldbare 
been attended with little difficulty, but this was not done. It Is conse- 
qneutly usual, and. Indeed, almost necessary, to give In addition the old 
name to prevent needless trouble. Thus we read Boplites (Ammanita) 

"The earliest representatives of this vast group of the ammonoliU 
appear In the Trias. In the Mesozoic it undergoes a vast development. 
In the Cretaceous rocks new and varied types are found but at Its close 
the entire group of the Ammonites underwent an apparently sudden 
and almost complete entlnction." 

Regarding the bodies called "Aptfcbus" tbe author gives no opinion 
merely quoting the two views, viz., that they were protective plates de- 
veloped within tbe walls of the nldamental gland in which case all such 
ammonites must be females, and that they are produced by the calcifi- 
cation of the hood and served as the operculum to those species that 
possessed them. In the former case they were nearly homologous to the 
"shell"ot this argonaut. 

The author has been very careful In regard to the termlnolouT— a 
stumbling-block to many palieonlologists — sometimes In consequence of 
their want of classical knowledge, and occasionally, we fear, in conse- 
quence of Indifference to the details of the work. For this the accu- 
rate worker will feel much indebted to him. Incorrect formation of 
terms Is a great annoyance to those who realize It, especially when with 
the incorrectness comes, as is often the case, an Qnconth and nnraelo- 
dlous sound. 

At a later date we wilt follow Mr. Lyddeker through the second 
volume of this valuable manual. 

Geological anA PalcctmMoglcal Relatbrne of the Coal and Plant- 
bearing Bed» of Palaxizolc and Meaozois Age in Eastern. Avttralta and 

TfiKmnnta ; wlOi special reference (o the Fossil Fioni. Described, Ulvt- 
tniUd, and compared vrtOi Analogimg Deposit* in other C'ouniriev. By 
OttokA-b Fbistmantbl, M. D., etc., Sydney, New South Wales, 1800. 
Tills Is No. 3 of the Palffiontoioglcal series of memoirs published by tho 
<ieolog!cal Survey of New South Wales. The coal and plant-bearing 
beds of eastern Australia and Tasmania are typically represented In 
New South Wales and Include SilurUin beds with a plant, Splror^yUm, 
€tc. i the Ooortoo Qoorwo beds with Lepldodendron iwOiutn etc., 

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Beview of Recent Geological Ziierature. 321 

referred to the Devonian ; X/epldottendron btdi, rich !□ fossil plants, 
belonging to the Lower Carboniferous : Marine bed* with fntercalftted 
cofti measures of the age of the micldle and upper Carboniferous ; Neui- 
«nMle bedc, with coal, snd regarded as Permian ; and the Hmt^cettyurj/- 
Wiiuuanatta beds, with coal and numerous fossil plants, referred to the 
lower Mesozolc. Corresponding series of strata occur In Victoria, 
Queensland and Tasmania. 

A conglomerate occurring In the Marine beda of the Upper Carbon- 
iferous contains erratic blocks together with striated boulders and 
pebbles, and the Australian geologists conclude that It has been formed 
lai^el; through the agency of drifting Ico. It would thus seem that 
the southern hemisphere at Icsst'had been subjected to the rigors of a 
glacial epoch near the close of the Pal»ozolc. During this period of low 
temperature we have the beginning of a Mesozolc flora which, associ- 
ated with a Carboniferous fauna, persists In Increasing nambers of 
genera and species throughout the time represented by the Ifeu/eagtle, 
«r Pemaan strata. Dr. Felstmantel correlates the Carboniferous con- 
glomerate of New South Wales with the Bacchus Marsh beds of 
Victoria, the Talchlr group of India, and probably with the Karoo for- 
mation of Africa, all of which groups seem ta belong to the horizon of 
the upper Carbonlterons and all, according to competent authorities, 
appear to have been formed In part at least by the action of floating 
Ice. The volume contains 1B3 pages, TO pages being devoted to biblio- 
graphy, and correlation of strata, and the remainder to description of 
species. A tew species of fishes and amphibia are noted, but the work 
Is chleBy devoted to the description of fossil plants. Thirty plates 
illustrate (he species described. 

Reem-dt of the Oeological Surveu of Hem South Waies. Vol. I, Part 
III, 1889. This part of of Vol. I embraces pages 149-183 and Plates 
XXV-XXX. Thetableof contents will give an Idea of the scope of 
the publication. The articles, numbered XVI to XIX, Inclusive, are : 

On the occurrence of the Oenus Meiolainin In the Pliocene Deep Lead 
at Canadian, near Oulong ; With Plates XXV and XXVI ; by R. Bth- 
BBnraE, Jr., Paleontologist. 

The Leuclte-Basalts of New South Wales, with Plates XXVII and 
XXVIll; by T. W. Edgbwortk David and Wiluah Andebson, 
Oflologlcal Surveyors, 

On our present knowledge of the Paieeontolt^y of New Guinea, with 
Plate XXIX ; by R. Ethbridob, Jr., Palaeontologist. 

On the Mineral Spring ^t Rock Flat creek, near Cooma, Monara Dis- 
trict, with Plate XXX ; by Wii.i.iah Ani>er8o», Geological Surveyor. 

Mr. Gtherldge Introduces his Grst paper by saying, "So far as I am 
aware, neither the remains of the largo extinct Lacertlllati Megalania 
(? Fttronu*) priscn, Owen, or either species of the horned Chclonlaii 
MekiUmia have so far been found In any of the New South Wales Pllii- 
*ene or Post-Tertiary deposits. Both genera were met with In accumu- 
lations of the latter age In Queensland, and the last named at Lord 
Howe Island. " 

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The American Geologist. 

The FotM Fithet of She Haiokeabury SerUe at Qosford. By Abthitk 
Smith Woodward, F. Z. ii.,F. G, S. Sydney, 1890. This Tolnmo of 
ST pages and 10 plates Is No. 4 ol the palsontologlcal series of memoirs 
of the (Geological Survey of New South Wales. It Is devoted to the 
description and [llnstratlon of an Interesting series of fossil fishes, 
whtcb, taken with the previously described forms from the same hori- 
zon, confirm the views respecting the Triassic age of the Hawkesbnry- 
Wlanamatta series of New South Walea. 

WesUaii AuMralian FomOt. 1. Strom atoporoldea. By Pbof. H. A. 
NicHoi.soK, M, D.. P. G. S. 3. Corals and Polyioa. By Gboboe Jkh- 
KiNGfl HtNDE, Ph. D., F. G. 8. (Eitracted from the Geological Maga- 
line, Decade III, Vol. VII. May, 1890,) 

The stromatoporolds noted by Dr. Nicholson In this paper are AcHnr 
osVroma ehuhratjim and Stromaioporella eifet^nMs, species originally 
described by Kicbolson from the middle Devonian of Germany, and now 
fonnd to occur at the same horizon on the opposite side of the globe tn 
western Australia, The corals and polyzoa by Dr HInde embrace Devo- 
nian and Carboniferous forms. Seven of the species are new, and a new 
generic name, PlKrvphyllum, is proposed to take the place, probably of 
Dr. Konlnck's PenUtphyllum, a name flrsi employed In 1831 to designate 
a genus of Colooptera. 

Heinorfc* on »ome Fossil Rcnialns considered as peculiar Idnds of 
Marine Pltint^. By Leo Lesqukrevx. ( From the Proceedings of the 
United States National Museum, vol. xiil, 1890, No. 7B3, pp. 5-13, 
pi. I). We arc Cold by the editor that "this paper was prepared and 
submitted for publication some months before the death of the author," 
and It is professor Lesquereux's last contribution to paleobotany. Cer- 
tain peculiar organisms are described, which were collected by the 
Rev. U. Herzer in the Devonian rocks of Ohio. The HalymenUeg 
herzeri is from the Upper Helderberg limestone at Sandualty, while 
CylindrUes strloltM and Fhysoj^ycus Mlobatus are from the Erie shale 
(Portage) bordering lake Brie, near Cleveland. The Cyllndrltes occur 
in arenaceous shales while the Physophycus are found In flattened con- 
cretions distributed In the shale. The stem of Halymcnites Is split 
lengthwise and sliows its Inner structure, which Is hollow and bordered 
with cellular matter that Is intermixed with a largo number of round 
spores, or reproductive gemmules. " The specimen Is remarkable and 
of great value, for until now very few fossil remains of marine plants 
have been discovered with their internal texture In such a state of pres- 
ervation that Its chara(^ters were possibly discornablo." The author 
states that the specimens of Physopbycus "belong to that class of III- 
de&ned fossil remains fitly called problematic organisms by Saporta. 
By some they are regarded as the remains of marine plants of old types 
that have been gradually effaced and are now extinct others, refus- 
ing to find In them any trace of vegetable nature, regard them as 

the result oF mere mechanical mouldings produced by the movement of 
water or the tracks or burrows of different kinds of animals npon soft 
muddy surfaces." 

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Heamo of SecetU Geologic lAterature. 323 

Slolil^kaTia and Syri-ngoKphi^rlcUB : Prop. P. M. Duncan Id the Bec- 
«rds ol the Geological Survey o( India, vol. xxlll, part 2, p. BO, brings 
loTifanl undeniable proofs that his genua Stolldltaria Is quite distinct 
irom Heterattridtufm, A. E. von Beuss. According to Prot. Duncnn, 
Dr. NicbolBon has figured a section of what the 1att«r considers to 
lllnstrate the minute structure of StoIU^kaTia Dune, which Prof. Dun- 
cBn says Is not a section of his genua bat of S]fi-lrigo*phcericUB and Dr. 
Nicholson ag-aln {alls Into error by figuring SUillcjiiaria granulata Dune, 
which is clearly SifringoejiKaria porosa Dune. The paper theu contin- 
ues by describing two new species and two now varieties of Surtngo- 
•phoTlcto, S. medlicotU, S. tjitermedla sp, nov. S. pUma and S. vion- 
HeuUaia, var. 

The OeOQraphlcal Dlgtrlbution of FosM Ftana. By Lester F. Ward. 
Pages 6fl3-9S0, with map. (Accompanying the eighth annual report of 
the director of the U. S. Geological Survey.) This is a well arranged 
and practically complete review and bibliography of the literature of 
paleobotany. The published Investigations which have been made in 
all countries are noticed In geo)(raphlc and chronologic order, with Iden- 
tification of the geologic horizons as far as practicable, 114 pag<^ being 
devoted to the countries and provinces of Europe, 13 pages to those 
of Asia, 18 pages to Africa, the Sunda Islands, and Australasia, and 
the remainder to the Arctic regions and North and South America. 
Forty-Sve states and territories of the United States, Including the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, the Yellowstone National Park, and Alaska, have 
fossil plants, the richest being Pennsylvania with its great representa- 
tion of the coal flora. The accompanying map shows the localities of 
fossil plants In this country, colored to distinguish their geologic age. 
A good Index, Including more than 7,000 references, makes this work a 
most convouiout and valuable manual. 

77i« Paleoxoic FMiea of Sorth America. By Joiis Stbono NcwBeBBY. 
pp. 340; plates 53. (Monographs of the U. S. Geol. Survey, vol. xvl, 
1889). After referring to Prof. E. \V. Clafpole's discovery of Pteraapi- 
dlan fishes in the Upper Silurian rocks of Pennsylvania, the earliest 
fossil flshes thus far known. Dr. Nowberry describes. In about .'io pages. 
the distribution and the generic and specific characters of the tishes of 
our Devonian system, which, as he statos, is perhaps better represented 
In eastern North America than anywhere else. The next 150 pages 
similarly treat the fishes of our Carboniferous rocks, In which both their 
numbers and variety far surpass the preceding period. No Permian 
fishes from this country have come under the author's observation ; and 
the remainder of the volume consists of the plates, with their explana- 
tions, and the Index. In a previous monograph (xlv of this series) Dr. 
Newberry has described our Triassic fishes, gathering in these two vol- 
umes the results of many local surveys. Prominent among these In its 
wealth of Paleozoic Ichthyology is the geological survey of Ohio, for 
which Dr. Newberry, In his reports on the paleontology of that state, 
has discussed the classification of our older fossil fishes and their rela- 
tions to living forms. 

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324 7^ Atneriean Geologist. Dec. ibw> 

FomU Wood and lAgnUe of the Potonuie Formation, By Frakk Hai.l. 
Knowltos. pp. 72 ; plfttes T. (Bulletin of the U. S. a«ol. Survey, No. 
56, isee). The flrat part of this report gives a concise history of the 
progress of study of the interna) strncture of fossil wood and lignite, 
with the bibliography of this gublect. LigDlte and siliciBed wood occnr 
in the Potomac formatloD on the Potomac and James rivers, and In 
Baltimore. One of Ibe trunks of sillclfled wood, exposed by the excava- 
tion for the new reservoir In Washington, was between 30 and 40 feet 
long, with a, diameter of ncariy 3 feet. Generally the tissue of the sil- 
IciSed specimens Is very perfectly preserved, and Ave species are de- 
scribed, al! of them new, four being referred to the genus Cnprcsslnoiy- 
ion, and one to Araucarloxylon. A summary of Mr. Knowltoa's inves- 
tigation has been presented in the Ueotamist, February, 18B9. 


The OLi.ciA.rios of toe Cordillera and the Laubbntide. In the 
excellent paper on the OUccUitlon. of the Northern Part of the ConUUera 
read by Dr. O. M. Dawson before the Boyal Society of Canada at the 
meeting held In May lo^t, an abstract of which appeared In the Septem- 
ber number of the American* Uboi.ooi8t, the author proposes the ap- 
pellation LauTBiMde gUuAer for the lee-sheet which, In the Pleistocene 
period, occupied the mountains of that name, to distinguish it fram 
"Its western follow," which he had designated the Cordllleran glacier, 
further detailed study of the phenomena of these Important glacial cen- 
tres Is however, evidently required, and would, I believe, result In show- 
ing that the Ice masses referred to may not have been altogether so con- 
tinuous and massive as Dr. Dawson assumes. It Is not Improbable that 
there, as elsewhere, tho Ice-sheets may have eonsisted of a number of 
local glaciers, large and small, dependent upou the atmospheric condi- 
.tlons, precipitation, temperature, etc., of the respective regions, which, 
unless these were wholly different from what now obtain in the Interior 
of the continent, would not be favorable to the production of large gla- 
ciers, lusti^ad, tlicretoro, of designating these Ice-sheets simply as tho 
Laureutide glacier and tho Cordillerun glacier, 1 would suggest the 
names LaureiiiWe glacier si/slcm, CoTdlUeran gUicier system, or, as I pre- 
fix them, the Laurcittlde system of gUiviers, the Cordllleran system, etc. 

In the Appalachian mountain range It has been shown by Dr. Etls of 
the Oeol. Survey, Can., and the writer (Annual Reports, Geol. Surv. Can., 
vol. II. parts J and M, vol. lii. part K) that glacier.'! moved northwest- 
wardly on the St. Lawrence slope, while Hitchcock, Dana and others 
have long ago proved that they Uowcd south-eastward ly on the southern 

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Peraonal and SeiejUific NeiDs. 

or New EdkIbdiI side of the main axis. This region has therefore been 
occupied with Ice which formed separate and independent sheetB In the 
Pletetocene period, and I would prefer for them the designation of the 
ApfiOiiuMan, system of glaeierg. These seem, so far as observatlonB ex- 
tend, to have been largest on the New England slope, and formed there. 
Id some areas at least, massive, conSuent Ice-sheets, which, in their 
movemeols were compiiratlvGly Independent of minor surface features. 
Seasoning from the analc^y between existing glaciers In different parts 
of the world, and those of the PostrTcrtlary age. It seems now a pretty 
safe Inference as regards the latter, that thu largest Ice-masses must 
have accumulated at or near the borders of continents, where the con- 
ditions of moisture, temperature, ptc, as well as the topographic fea- 
tures, were most favorable for their development. It is Just possible 
too that the glaciers of the eastern and western parts of North America 
may not have been strictly contemporaneous, i. e., may not have reached 
their maximum thickness and extent at the same time, as suggested by 
Mr. Israel C. Rnssel In his valuable paper entitled NoU& on tiie Surfcwe 
Oeoio^of Alcaika (Bulletin Oeol. 8oc. of America, vol. I., pp. 9»-lgS). 
BelUduTK, New Brunswick, Can., Robert Chalmxrs. 

Sept. 8th, 1830. Geo). Surv. of Can. 


Prop. F. P. Venable enumeratea twenty-three meteorites with 
brief descriptions, which have been reported as found in North 
Carolina. Of these nearly all have passed out of the state, not 
even fra^^ents being preserved there. Considering that lor the 
entire world there have been recorded, according to Huntington's 
catalogue of 18^7, only 424 meteorites that have reached the 
earth. North Carolina may be considered to have been well re- 
ported. The list is valuable, and evinces much labor and patient 
research. It is published in the Journal of the Elisha Mitchell 
Society, vol. vii., pp. 33-52, 1800. 

Mk. I. C. Russell, op the United States Geological Sur- 
VEr, lately returned from Alaska where he made a careful exam- 
ination of the phenomena of existing glaciers, having been absent 
since the opening of the season of 18!*0. According to Mr. Rus- 
sel there is a large amount of ice-covered country, more than has 
been supposed, much of the tundra region being underlain by ice 
at the depth of a few feet or inches. There are also many moving 
glaciers. The tundra ice which underlies thousands of square 

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326 7R* American Oeolo^t. Nov. ism 

miles bears no trees, only moBH and small shnibs ; bat in the re- 
gion of glaciers ihe Buirounding 0000117 ^ ^F^ 1^ ^ forested. 

Ths Occurrence of Goniophyllith pybamidalb Hisinobr, ik 
AuERiCA. — The fact that Gomophyllum pyramidale Hiainger 
occurs in America seems to have escaped general notice, altliough 
its existence here has been known to some geologists (or a number 
of years. So far as I know, the first individuals of this species 
found in this couutrr were discovered by profosaor W. H. Norton, 
of Cornell Colli^, Iowa. They were t^en from strata of the 
Niagara period, near La Motte, Dubnque Co. , Iowa. Since the 
first discovery individuals of the same species have been found 
near Monticello, Maquoketa, and a few other places in the same 
state. The first specimens were submitted to Dr. Rominger for 
identificatioD, and casts were distributed by Prof.. Norton to a 
number of geologists, but it would seem that the fact that this 
peculiar and verj- interesting genus and species occurs on this side 
of the Atlantic has not yet found a place in geoli^cal literatore. 
Is this species known to occur in America outside of Iowa? It 
would be interesting to know ite gec^raphical range. 

The Western Societv op Naturalists will hold its annual 
meeting in the buildings of Purdue University, at LaFayette, In- 
diana, Wednesday and Thursday, November 12th and 13th, 1890. 
The President of the society, Chancellor C- E. Bessey, will de- 
liver his address on Wednesday evening. 

The Executive Committee propose that this meeting discuss (1) 
. the question of what science and how much should be required for 
entrance to college classes. Several educators have been re- 
quested to come prepared to open the discussion and have re- 
sponded favorably. (2) The relations of investigation to instruc- 
tion. (3) New processes in technique, new methods in museum 
administration, new pieces of appartus, etc The question of the 
publication of proceedings and of altering the scope of the Society 
so as to admit of the presentation of papers embodying the resulte 
of original research, will be brought up. 

In the Bulletin op the Museum op Comparative Zoology, 
at Harvard College, Vol. xx. No. 2, Prof. Alexander Agassiz 
communicates a note on the Rate of Growth of Coral*^ which has 
an interest to geologists. Corals were found attached to the cable 
laid between Havana and Key West. The cable was repaired and 
relaid in the summer of 1S81, and in June, 1388, the specimens 
tbat form the subject of the note were teken from the cable in 
Key West harbor. They therefore represent the growth of about 
seven years. OrhiccUa annularis had attained a thickness of two 
and a half inches, Manicina artolaia had made a growth of about 
one inch above the cable, while IiophylUa dipsacea equalled tbe 
Orbieella in rate of growth. 

)v Google 


DECEMBER, 1890. 


By Warrkn Upkam, Somerville. Han. 

The fascioating astronomic theory that the Glacial period was 
due to metcorologic conditions brought about by a stage of max- 
imum eccentricity of the e:irt.h'a orbit, extending from 240.000 to 
80,000 years ago, which Croll and James Geikie have so ably 
advocated, is doubted from the meteorologist's standpoint by 
Woeikof, and seems wholly untenable In view of tlie geologic 
evidences that not many thousands of years have passed since the 
departure of the ice-aheeta. 

In various localities we are able to measure the present rate of 
erosion of gorges below water-falls, and the length of the post- 
glacial gorge divided by the rate of recession of the falls gives 
approximately the time since the Ice Age. Such measui-ements 
of the gorge and falls of Saint Anthony by Prof. N. H. Winchell 
show the length of the postglacial or recent epoch to have been 
about 8,000 years;' and from the surveys of Niagara falls, 
Mr. G. K. Gilbert believes it to have been 7,000 years, more or 
loss.' From the rates of wave-cutting along the sides of lake 
Michigan and the consequent accumulation of sand around the 
south end of the lake, Dr. E, Andrews estimates that the land 
there became uncovered from its ice-sheet not more than 7,500 

' (ifiology of Minnesota, Fifth annual roport, for 1876 ; and Final 
report, vol. II, pp. 313-341. Quart. Jour. Gool. Soc, vol. Jtxxtv, 18T8, 
pp. Sftfi-SOl. 

' Proceeding's. A. A. A. S., vol. xxxv, tor 1886, p. 2S2. "The Hi.story 
of the Niagara River," Sixth An. Rep. of Com mission era of the State 
Beser^-alloa at Niagara, tor 1889, pp. 61-84. 


328 The Am^ncan Geologist Dwiisw 

yeaxa ago. ' Professor Wright obtains a aimtlar result from the 
rate of filling of kettle-holes among the gravel knolls and 
ridges called kames and osars, and likewise from the eroaloa of 
valleys by streams tributary to lake Erie ; ' and Prof. B. K. 
Emerson, from the rate of deposition of modified drift in (he 
Connecticut valley at Northampton, Mass. , thinks that the time 
since the Glacial period cannot exceed 10,000 years.* An equally 
small estimate is also indicated by the studies of Gilbert* and 
Russell ' for the time since the last great rise of lakes Bonneville 
and Lahontan, believed to have been contemporaneous with Uie 
last great extension of ice-sheets upon the northern part of our 

Prof. James Geikie maintwns that the use of palieolithic imple- 
ments had ceased, and that early man in Kurope made neolitiiie 
(polished) implements, before the recession of the ice-sheet from 
Scotluid, Denmark, and the Scandinavian peninsula;* and 
Prestwich suggests that the dawn of civilization in Egypt, China, 
and India, may have been coeval with the glaciation of north- 
western Europe. * In Wales and Yoriishire the amount of denuda- 
tion of limestone rocks on which boulders lie has been regarded by 
M. D. Mackintosh as proof that a period of not more than G,000 
years has elapsed since the boulders were left in t^eir positioos. " 
The vertical extent of this denudation, averaging about six inches, 
is nearly the same with that observed in the southwest part of 
the Province of Quebec by Sir William Logan and Dr. Robert Bell 
where veins of quartz marked with glacial striie stand oat to 
various bights not exceeding one foot above the weathered surface 
of the enclosing limestone." 

■transactions of the Chicago Actktotay of Sciencea, vol.11. Southall's 
Epoch of the Mammoth and the Apparition of Man upon the Elarth. 
1ST8, chapters xxli and xxiil. 

* Am. Jour. Scl., Ill, vol. xkI, pp. lSO-123, Feb., 1961 ; The Ice Ago 
In North America, chapter \x, p. 466. 

'Am. Jour. Sci., Ill, vol. xxxlv, pp. 4M, 5, Nov., 1887. 

• U. S. Geol. Survey, Second annual report, p. 188. 

' U. 3. Geol. Survey, Monograph xl, Geological Hlstorjr of Lake 
LahoQtan, p. 273. 

■ Prehistoric Europe, p. 360; Address to the Geological section of the 
British Association, 1989. 

•Prestwlch'a Geology, vol. If, 1888, pp. 53*, 5; Quart. Jour, Geol. 
Soc., vol. xlili, pp. 407, 8. 

'"Quart, Jour. Geol. Soc., vol. xxxix, 1883, In Proceedings, pp. 67-<9, 
Compare Id., vol, xlll, 1886, pp. 537-539. 

>> Bulletin of the Geological Society ol America, vol. 1, 1B89, p. 30ft. 

)v Google 

'the Glacial Period. — Upham. 329 

; the final melting of the ice-sheet upon 
arated by only a very short interval, 
•m the present time, is seen in the won- 
ion of the glacial striation and polishing 
re enduring locks. Of their character in 
!)r. Bell writes aa follows: — "On Port- 
ast coast of Hudson's bay, in latitude 
igh rocky hills are completely glaciated 
as fresh-lookiiig aa if the ice had left 
hen the sun bursts upon these hills after 
e rain they glitter and shine like the 
f Montreal."'* 

>rtness of the postglacial epoch from 
> the astronomic condition of maximum 
( for other causes of this extraordinary 
se seem to be found iu great uplifts of 
ich for this continent Prof, J, W. Spencer 
review in the recently published first 
if the Geological Society of America. 
xled to interpret these observations as 
levation the probable cause of the colder 
I of ice-sheets during the Glaeial period, 
^timate conclusion, and that it strongly 
long ago advanced by Lyell and Sana 
unew by WaUace. The submarine border 
. to depths of more than 3,000 feet is cut 
hich if raised above the sea level would 
ise can be no other than river-courses 
3d much higher than now ; and its sub- 
ice in a late geologic period, else the 
>me filled with sediments, 
d States Coast Sur^'ey charts, aa noted 
t a submerged valley just outside the 
i found by soundings at the depth of 
is a few miles wide and is bounded by a 
900 to 1,200 feet above its floor. It 
Qtry north of the Gulf of Mexico has 
ne to a hight of not less than 3,000 feet; 
e in passing that an equal uplift would 
I, p. 303. 

)v Google 

330 ' The American Geologist. Dec. i8»o 

wholly close the Strait of Florida, 2,064 to 3,000 feet deep, 
through which the Qulf Stream now pours into the North 

The continuation of the Hudson river valley has been traced by 
det^led hydro^raphic surveys to the edge of the steep conttneotal 
alope at a diBtancc of about 105 miles from Sandy Hook. Its 
outermost twenty-five mOes arc a submarine fiord three miles wide 
and from 900 to 2,250 feet in vertical depth measured from the 
crests of its banks, which with the adjoining flat area decline £n>m 
300 to 600 feet below the present sea level. The deepest sounding 
in this fiord is 2, 844 feet " 

An unfinished survey by soundings off the motith of Dela- 
ware bay finds a similar vallej' submerged nearly 1,200 feet, but 
not yet traced to the mai^in of the continental plateau. 

Again, the United States Coast Survey and British Admiralty 
charts, as Spencer states, record submerged fiord outlets from the 
OuU of Maine, the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, and Hudson bay, 
respectively 2, 6C4 feet, 3, 666 feet, and 2, 040 feet below sea level. 
The bed of the old Laurentian river from the outer boundary of 
the Fishing Banks to the month of the Saguenaj', a distance of 
more than 800 miles, shown by Prof. Spencer's map, is reached 
by soundings 1,878 to 1,104 feet in depth. Advancing inland, 
the sublime Saguenay flord along an extent of about fifty miles 
ranges from 300 to 840 feet in depth below the sea level, while in 
some places it^ bordering cliffs, one to one and a half miles apart, 
rise abruptly 1,500 feet above the water." 

Greenland is divided from the contiguous North American con- 
tinent and archipelago by a great valley of erosion, which is 
estimated from soundings and tidal records to have a mean depth 
of 2,510 feet below sea level for 680 mUes through Davis str^t ; 
2, 695 feet for 770 miles next northward through Baffin bay ; and 
1,663 feet for the next 55 miles north through Smith strait " 

On the Pacific coast of the United States Prof. Joseph Le 
Conte has shown that the islands south of Santa Barbara and Los 
Angeles, now separated from the mainland and from each other 

'» Report of U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, for 1884, pp. 43S-8 ; 
Am. Jour. Sci., 111. vol. xxlx, pp. 475^80, June, 1B85 ; Bulletin, G. 8. 
A., vol. I, pp. .563-7. 

" J. W. Dawson, " Notes on the Post-Pliocene Geology of Canada," 

1872, p. 41. 

>° Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, vol. xv, pp. 103, 164. 

)v Google 

On the Cfause of tlie Glacial Period. — Upham. 331 

by cbanoelB twenty to thirty miles wide and 600 to 1,000 feet 
deep, were still a part of the mainland during the late Pliocene 
and early Quaternary periods. " 

In northern California Prof. George Davidson, of the U. S. 
Coast Survey, as cited by Spencer, reports three submarine I'allej-s 
about twenty-five, twelve, and six miles south of Cape Mendocino, 
sinking respectively to 2,400, 3, 120, and 2,700 feet below the 
aea level, where they cross the 100 fathom line of the marginal 
plateau. If the land here were to rise 1,000 feet, these valleys 
would be fiords with sides towering high above the water, but still 
descending beneath it to profound depths. " 

Farther to the north, Puget sound and the series of sheltered 
channels and sounds through which the steamboat' passage is 
made to Glacier bay, Alaska, are submerged valleys of erosion, 
DOW filled by the sea but separated from the open ocean by thous- 
ands of islands, the continuation of tbe Coast Range of mountains. 
From the depths of the channels and fiords Dr. G. M. Dawsoo 
concludes that this area had a pr^lacial elevation at least about 
dOO feet above the present sea level, during part or the whole of 
the Pliocene period. " 

The general absence of Ptipcene formations along both the 
Atlantic and Pacific coasts of North America indicates, as pointed 
out by Prof. C. H. Hitchcock, that during this long period all of 
the continent north of the Gulf of Mexico held a greater altitade, 
which from the evidence of these submarine valleys is known to 
have culminated in an elevation at least 3,000 feet higher than 
that of the present time. Such plateau-tike uplift of the conti- 
aent appears to have e:certed so great influence on its metcorologic 
conditions, bringing a cooler climate throughout the j'car, that it 
finaUy became enveloped by ice-sheets to the southern limit of the 
glacial strise, till, and moraines, stretching from Nantucket and 
Cape Cod to New York citj-, Cincinnati, Saint Louis, Bismarck, 
and thence westward to tlie Pacific somewliat south of Vancouver 
island and Puget Sound. The thickness of the ice in the region 
of the White mountains and the Adirondacks was alKtnt one mile ; 
and Dana has shown, from the directions of striation and trans- 
portation of the drift, that its central portion over the Laurentian 

■" Bolletin ol the CalKorDla Academy ol Si;lenco9, vol. 11, IBST, pp. 

'»Ibtd., vol. It. pp. 3n6-8. 

■"Caasdlan Naturalist, new series, vol. vlli, pp. 341-3-13, April, 1ST7. 


333 TTie Afnerican Geologist. Dec i8»o 

highlands between MoDtreal and Hudson bay had probably a 
thickness of fully two miles. In British Columbia, according to 
Dr. G. M. Dawson's observations, it covered monntaia sommits 
5,000 to 7,200 feet above tJne sea." 

While thus heavily ice-laden, nearly the whole glaciated area 
sank below its present level, but for the most part only to a 
Blight amount in comparison with \Xa previous elevation. B^ln- 
ning at or near a line drawn northeastward through New York 
city, Boston, and Nova Scotia, the extent of the submergence at 
the land by the sea, at the time of the recession of the ice-sfacet, 
as shown by fosstliferous marine deposits overlying the till, 
increases from 150 and 225 or 230 feet on the coast of New 
Hampshire and Maine to 520 feet at Montreal ; 300 to 500 feet 
on the coontry soutiiwest of James bay ; and about 1,500 feet, 
according to Dr. Bobert Bell, at Nachoak on the eastern coaat at 
Labrador. In British Columbia, including Vancouver island and 
the Queen Charlotte islands, Dr. Dawson finds evidence of sub- 
mergence to the amount of 200 or 300 feet while the glacial 
conditions still endured. During postglacial time the Atlantic 
and Pacific coasts ha^'c been again uplifted, attaining generally a 
, somewhat greater bight than now, the latest movements being 
mostly subsidence. But in the basin of Hudson bay, as shown 
by Dr. Bell, the uplift from the glacial depression ia still in 

Northwestern Europe, also, had a much greater altitude during 
the later part of the Tertiary era, in which Scandinavia and the 
British Tsles suffered vast denudation, with erosion of fiords and 
channels that are now submerged 500 to 800 feet beneath tJie 
sea." Probably many of these submarine channels are now 
more or less filled with the glacial drift, so that valleys originally 
descending continuously toward the margin of the continental 
plateau have become in some portions changed to enclosed basins. 
The "Maximum preglaeial elevation probably exceeded the depth 
of the Skager Rack between Denmarkand Norway, which is 2,580 

'•Geological Maga?;lnc, III, vol. vl, 1839, pp. 350-3. 

'"For a more deiailod review ol tliosp postglacial oscillations, and of 
QiiHternary movcmenls of uplift and subsidence In otiior parts of the 
world, both in glaeiuli-d and un glaciated regions, eee Wright's Ice Age 
in North America, 1889, Api>eiidix by W'arrpn Upbam, pp. STS-sft.-i. 

".Tnines Colkio, Quart. Jour, (iicol. Soc., vol. xxxiv, m78, plate .txxlli; 
The Great Ice Age, sec. cd., pp. 3T1>-SS4, plates Ix-xll. 

)v Google 

On the Gauge of the Glacial Period.— Vpham. 333 

feet, with a deep Bubmerged valley ranning from it west and north 
to the abyssal Arctic oceaa ** 

Under the weight of its ice-eheet, the glaciated area of Europe, 
like that of North America, sank moBtty to a somewhat lower 
level than it now hafi, the mazimnm depresBion being on the coast 
of Norway, aboat 580 feet." From this depression Scandinavia, 
has gradually risen, with pauses during which beaches were 
f<^med ; and the upUft of that country, as of the region about 
Hudson bay, continues to the present day." 

This subject may be advantageously examined from another 
point of view, by inquiring what we may leom of the oscillations 
of the land and its climatic changes during the Quaternary era 
from the enforced m.igrations of the flora and fauna of northern 
conntries. The influence of the 61acial period on the distribution 
of plants and animals has been fruitfully investigated by Edward 
Forbes, Asa Gray, Alfred Russel Wallace and others, who hate 
thus explained many peculiarities in the geographic range of 
species, as the occurrence of Arctic plants on the summits of 
mountains in temperate latitudes, and the identity of a consider- 
able number of species found in the floras of both the United 
States and Japan, but absent from Europe, As geolc^sts are 
lately finding valuable additions to our knowledge of important 
orographic movementa of our continent during the Mesozoic, 
Tertiarj' and Quaternarj' eras, from the present conditions of its 
rivers and their relation to geolc^c formations, so the pages of 
the geologic record receive a useful side-light from the range of 
living species. Professor Gray well stated this bearing of botanic 
science upon geology, in the conclusion reached by his compari-' 
son of the floras of Japan and North America, ' < that the extant 
vegetable "kingdom has a long and eventful history, and that the 
explanation of apparent anomalies in the geographical distribution 
of species may be found in the various and prolonged climatic or 
other physical vicissitudes to which they have been subfect in 
earUer times."" 

Kie general likeness of the Arctic flora all around the globe, 
the many instances of relationship and identity in the north tem- 

*' Nature, vol, xxlli, p. 3'J3, w[tli map of siibmariiip contour. 

jjOeol. Mag., Ill, vol. vl, 18811, pp. 157, 8. Nature, vol. xxxli, p. ri,-)5. 

'' Nature, 1. e. ; and vol. xxxix, pp. 4(l8-41i2. 

>* Memoirs, American Academy ot Arts and ScfcDcn, new series, vol. 
vt, lS.^0, pp. 377-453. Am. Jour. Sti., 11, vol. sxvHl, pp. 187-200. 
Gray's Selentlfii; Papers, 1B8U, vol. li, pp. 12.">-H1. 

)v Google 

334 77ie American Geologist. Dec. 1890 

perate floras, and the tncrcajing divergence of prevailing types as 
we pass to the equatorial regioDS and the southern hemisphere, in- 
dicate that in late geologic time the northern circumpolar lands 
have been united, permitting free land communication, and caus- 
ing the same plants and animals to extend throughout the whole 
Arctic area. But glacial drift and strise show that after this a 
colder climate enveloped northwestern Europe, British America, 
and the northern part of the United States with thick accumula- 
tions of snow and ice ; and I believe that this climatic change was 
due to the increase of the northern elevation of Uic land, through 
which the continents had become united. Not only vegetation 
but all seeds upon the glaciated areas must have been destroyed, 
though the species were mostly preserved by migration southward. 
Thus various species of the preglacial cireumpolar flora whose re- 
treat from the Kuropean ice-sheet and severe cold was cut off by 
ttle Pyrenees, Alps, Carpathians, and Caucasus, so that they per- 
ished, escaped from extinction in Asia where no general ice^faeet 
existed, and in North America where no transverse ranges of 
znountains barred their retreat from the ice. The Glacial period is 
past, but the mild Arctic climate of Tertiary times has not re- 
turned ; and species whose range was formerly continuous tJirough 
the high northern latitudes are now found occupying widely sepa- 
rated temperate districts in Asia and on our own continent, Hie 
time since the Ice Age having been too brief for them to become 
changed into new forms bj' the influences of their different envi- 
ronment Many plants, however, have been changed during the 
Ice Age and the postglacial epoch, and survive in slightly unlike 
rep^e3entati^'e species, as they are called, eaeh of the three grand 
divisions of northern land, North America, Asia, and Europe, 
possessing a form thus derived from a common preglacial an- 

Professor Gray has conjectured that Asia may have lieen still 
united' by a land passage nitti Alaska during the earlier part of 
the postglacial epoch; but he believed, from the noticeable con- 
trast between the Arctic flora of North America and that of Green- 
land, that there has been no postglacial connection of land across 
BxfHn bay nor Davis strait." This contrast seems chiefly attribu- 
table te the glacial extinction of species in Europe which survived 
□ . Jour. Kcl., II, vol. xxxiv, p. 144 ; 

„ Google 

On the Cause of the Glacial Period. — Upham. 335 

in North America as before noted, aod to the extenBion of the im- 
poverished Kuropean flora to the FffirUe islands, Iceland, and 
Oreenl&nd, after the vigorous cold and glaciatJon of these lands 
had abated. The difference of the plants found on the opposite 
sides of Baffin bay, presenting a definite break, while elsewhere 
throughout the Arctic zone they are intermingled as a single con- 
tinnous flora, with gradual differentiation towani eiich end, ac- 
oords with the testimony of the raised beaches of Labrador, west- 
em Greenland, and Grinnell Laud, with recent marine shells 1,000 
to 2,000 feet alwve the sea, which show that during the Glacial 
period the Ba^n bay region, after having stood much higher than 
now, as is known by its fiords, sank far below its present level, 
and daring the postglacial epoch has been again uplift«d. But 
the derivation of the plants of the Fterues, Iceland, and Green- 
land from Europe could not have taken place through the agency 
■of sea cnrrentfl nor winds, which would the rather favor their 
ooming from America ; and therefore botany seems to contribute 
to geology the proof that the great preglacial elevation of much 
of the northeastern Atlantic region, unlike that of western Greeo- 
land and Labrador, continued through the Ice Age, the spaces 
which are now sea between Greenland and the British Isles having 
become submerged, as pointed out by James Geikie, during the 
Recent epoch, after affording a land passage for the Kuropean 

Arctic and boreal plants were driven south during the Glacial 
period to the central part of the Ignited States, and at its close 
they followed 'the receding ice-sheet and again took possession 
of the great northern region from which they had been expelled. 
Witb the restoration of a temperate climate throughout the north- 
em United States and southern Canada, the Ai-ctic species found 
themselves no longer able to sunive there, excepting on tiie cool 
hights of mountains, notably the White mounUiiiis and the Adiroii- 
dacks, and, in the case of a few species, on the cool, high northern 
shores of lake Superior and on the adjacent Isle Koyalo, These 
stations of Arctic plants are divided by several hundreds of miles 
from their general northern range ; but they all arc readily ac- 
counted for as remnants of the circumpolar flora which was forced 
to migrate alternately southward and northwani by the climatic 
changes of the Glacial and postglacial epochs. 

" Prehistoric Europe, pp. 51H-522, and p. 5G8, with plate E. 

)v Google 

336 7%e American Geologist. Dec. ibm 

Countries bordering the North Atlantic have experienced gener- 
ally warmer temperatures than now, both of the sea itself and of 
the air and winda npon the land, for a considerable time since the 
Glacial period, apparently extending, but probably in duniniabin^ 
degree, nearly to our own day. On the coast of New England 
and the Eastern ProWnces, colonies of southern Bpecies of marine 
moUusks are found in Casco and Quohog bays, Maine, and even in 
the southern part of the Oulf of Saint Lawrence, such aa are com- 
mon along the wanner shores south of cape Cod, but whose cod- 
tinuous range does not pass north of Massachu setts. These 
isolated southern species include the oyster (Ottrea virginiana 
Lister), quohog (Venn* meretnaria L.), Pecten irradiam Lam., 
llyanoMa obsoleta StimpsoD, Urotalpinx cinerea StJmpson, and 
others. Professor Verrill believes that they are " survivors from 
a time when the marine climate of the whole coast, from Cape Cod 
to Nova Scotia and the Bay of Fimdy, was warmer than at present, 
and these species had a continuous range from soathem New 
England to the Gulf of Saint Lawrence."** Furthermore, we have 
to note that oyster and quohog shells are found in abundance in the 
Indian shell-heaps on the coast of northeastern Massachusetts 
and on islands in Cssco bay, Maine, where they are thus known to 
have flourished in very recent times, though now they are rare or 
extinct in the same localities. 

A few southern plants also survive from this warmer period on 
or near our northern Atlantic coast, as the Magnolia glauca L., 
which grows on Cape Ann, but not elsewhere north of the vicinity 
of New York city, and Rhododendron maximum L'., which occurs 
rarely in damp woods, somewhat inland, from Nova Scotia to laka 
Erie, but is ver>' common through the Alleghanies in the southern 
states. Even northward to Greenland evidences of such a warmer 
postglacial climate are found, and an increase of cold seems to 
have made the shores of that land more inhospitable since its first 
colonization by Scandinavians, only about nine hundred years ago. 
On the shores of Iceland, Scotland, northwestern Europe, and 
Spitzbei^en, similar isolated southern marine shells are also found, 
either still living or fossil in postglacial deposits ; and the suc- 
cessive floras fossil in the peat-bogs of the land likewise tell of & 
formerly milder climate." 

)v Google 

e Glacial Period. — Upham. 337 

climatic alternations since the Glacial 
interior of North America, as in the 

the basin of the Red river of the 
re in numerous southern stations of 

of the gradual amelioration of the 
lacial epoch to the present day. In 
BS of mammoths show that a oontin- 
neliorating clinuite has been uninter- 
rval since the Glacial period. The 
he northern Atlantic countries, from 
Iceland, Scandinavia, and even Spitz- 
rable to formeriy greater volume of 
it than to any astronomic conditions 
that ocean and it^ shores but also the 
portion of our continent and northern 

deuce converge to the eonciusion that 
od was great uplifts of the glaciated 
tion with important changes in the 
arm oceanic currents. Elsewhere (in 
ce Age in Xorth America ") I have en- 
; remote conditions producing these 
ounted, as it seems to me satisfactorily, 
areas of Quatemar}- glaciation, both 
districts, for the recurrent advances 
ime, with warm inter^-als of recession, 
tas of glaciation in the Carboniferous 

iie Tertiary era, and at the beginning 
lands were raised higher than now; 
arine valleys indicate that, when this 
um and brought on the Glacial period, 
i-estera Europe stood 2,500 to 3,000 
it. Alaska and Siberia were probably 
lugh to Bupplj- the continous circum- 
resent community of siJccies in nortli- 
n inheritance. The great area of tlie 
N'orth America and Siberia to Spitz- 
d surface, as Sir. Howorth supposes ; *" 

1889, pp. 3(15-6, 



338 The American Geologist. Dec. ibm 

while ita deeper portion betveen Spitzbergen and tireenland would 
be a mediterranean eea, or possibly became at length a vast lake, 
with its waters freshened bj' outflow southward along the remark- 
able submerged Fteroe channel. About midway between tiie 
Hebrides and FserOe islands, this channel is crossed near ita south- 
western end by the Wyville Thomson Ridge,, which consists, at 
least superficially, of drift with gladated stones, as determined by 
dredging. In form and material this appears like an enormous 
moraine or coastal bar of shingle. ** 

The FterUe channel extends from northeast to soutJiweat some 
300 miles, with a width of 75 to 100 miles and a depth of 2,800 to 
3,800 feet along its bottom; but the soundings to the top of tiie 
Wyville Thomson Ridge are only 1,260 to 1,710 feet, and this 
ridge, varjing from five to ten miles in width, stretches com- 
pletely across the channel. An uplift supplying land conaectjon 
from France and Great Britain to the FffirBe islands and Green- 
land, such as Geikie believes to have existed, tuust have exposed 
a broad belt of what is now the sea bed on both aides of the deep 
FierOe channel, besides at least the upper part of the Wyville 
Thomson Ridge; and the depth of the Skagcr Rack makes it 
probable tliat, while the elevation of the land gradually increased, 
the channel itself was being eroded nearly to its present depth by 
its tidal currents and waves, until the sea on the north became a 
lake and the strait its outflowing river. The fresh-water moUus- 
can fossils in the oldest and highest of the postglacial shore 
deposits of the Baltic in Gotland, Oesel, and other islands, and in 
Kathonia, succeeded by marine fossils on lower levels, " would be 
explained by such lacustrine conditions, followed by advent of the 
sea throughout the Arctic area when portions of the belt connect- 
ing southwestern Europe and Greenland became submerged. 

Not only waa the Gulf Stream probably excluded from the 
the Arctic region by this land barrier, and warded off more than 
now from the North American coast by the emergence of the Fish- 
ing Banks ; but there is also considerable reason for believing 
that the lower portions of the Isthmus of Panama were contempor- 
aneously submerged, witb or without closure of the Strait of 
Florida, carrying the warm equatorial current, wholly or in part, 
right forward into the Pacific ocean. Depression and uplift in 

»' Proceedings ol the Boyal Society of Edinburgh, vol, xl, 1883, pp. 
638-677, with map. 

" Geol. Mag., Ill, vol. v, 1898, pp. 230-1. 

)v Google 

fthe Glacial Period. — Upkam. 339 

>rld bare doubtless \a a general way com- 
Vpparentlj while northern countries were 
□sive coral island area of the Pacific was 
and recently uplifted coral reefs on the 
erica and in the West Indies attest a large 
feet) of depression there during some part 
ternary periods, extending in Peru at least, 
■eater Antilles, to the postglacial epoch. " 
n ocean to ocean are found in the lake 
e Isthmus, and in the Atrato river district 
Crom I33to 300 feetabovethosealevel; ■* 
I fossils, according to Dr. G. A. Maack, 
the Panama railroad and at many locali- 
;rato, ranging in hight up to 763, feet" 
■A msX/doA, as seems worthy of inquiry, to 
ol period, allowing geologically brief sub- 
,t ice-sheets of North America and Europe 
, the climatic problem of the Quaternary 

obably been nndimiaished and practically 
from the sea in the torrid and temperate 
fflcient during the Glacial period aa now. 
^eat storms of that time, sweeping over 
inental plateaus, was snow, instead of rain, 
e year, while the ice-sheets were growing 
as Prof. W. M, Davis has stated; " and 
climate and departure of the ice appear to 
-ession of the glaciated areas, while thus 
e turning agmn of the warm oceanic cur- 
ntic and Arctic seas. 

of tlie Museum of comparative Zoology, at 
p. 3fl7-390: W, O. Crosby, "On the Mountains 
>alaulila, vol. Ill, pp. 1S!)-1'IS. J. G. Sawklns. 
of Jamaica," 1869, pp. 33, 33, 307, 311, 324-9. 
Phil. Soc, vol XV, pp. 103-111. 
le Cause of the Ulaolal Period, with reference 
. Mag., II, vol, li, 1875, py. 573-580. Thomas 
(iia, sec. cd., 1SS8, p, 35. 

Ol. xlvll, 1873. p. 813. 

■, vol. V, pp. 122-*, Feb., 1800. 

)v Google 

The American Geologist. 


By S. A. IliiABB, dncinnatt. 

We will now briefl; define the families based upon the structure 
of the calyx, without, however, undertakiiig to fully define them 
by adding all the family features that may be discoverable in the 
vault and column. 


FAMILT, Diohoorlnldee, Ootyledonoorlmis, Dichoortnofi, 

The calyx is obconoidal. Two basals form a cup slightly 
notched at the sutures. No subradials. Small regular internt- 
dials on the truncated top of the first radials. Five, long, radial 
plates in the first scries ; succeeding radiaU small and resting only 
on part of the upper side of the first radials, the rest being occu- 
pied with interradials. Azygous plates, in line with the first 
radials, of about the same size, supported in a notch at the sut- 
ures of the two basals, and followed by the plates of the vaults 
Vault more or leas convex or elevated with a subcentral opening 
on the azygous side. Column, so far as laiown, round. 
FAMTTiT, Pterotoorliddie— PterotoorinuB. 

Calyx saucer-ahaped. Two basals form an eight^ided shfdlow 
disk, notched at the sutures. No snbradial. No r^ular inter- 
radialB. First radials large, expanding from a wide base and re- 
sembling in outline the side view <'f an expanding bucket The 
top of each first radial supports two second radials and p&rt of 
two more, which rest, in part, upon the first mentioned second 
radials. Tertiar}' radials unite latterally around the top of the 
calyx. Azygous plate rests in a notch at the sutures of the ba- 
Bals, is pointed al>ove and completely embraced by ttie first radials. 
Vault pyramidal, pentagonal, the azygous side wider than the 
others, the top bearing five long, peculiar, paddle-like plates ar- 
ranged star-like and directed at right angles to the body, with the 
ends of four arms resting in each of the angles of the five-rayed 
dome or vault covering. Column round. 

)v Google 

Atneinecm Orinoids in Familios. — MUler. 341 

FAUIIi7. AorooiliildEB— AoroariniUL 
Calyx nm-shaped, composed of plates that increase in size 
from the basale up. Basals two, comparatively large, forming a 
ploygonal shallow cup, followed, in Acrocrinus worthem, by 
twelve minute, triangular plates all of which are aubradial and 
subinterradial in position ; these are followed by twelve larger 
plates, united by their lateral sides, five of which are radial in 
position and seven interradial, three of which are in the azygous 
area ; these are followed by a third ring consisting of fourteen 
plat«s all of which are subrndial and interradial in position except 
one opposite the azygous side, which is radial in position ; a fourth 
ring consists of sixteen plates, five of which are radial and the 
others interradial. Above the fourth ring there are two or more 
radials in each ray separated by interradials, all within the calyx. 
The number of plates in the calyx of different species varies from 
100 to 700. In Acrocrinus shumardi, the tj-pe of the genus, 
instead of four rings of plates, as above defined, there are four- 
teen or more rings, some of which have twentj--flve or thirty plat«s. 
Above these rings of small plates there are three to five radials, each 
series being separated by two or more series of inlerradials ; the 
azygous area being wider and containing more plates than the 
others ; there are also secondary radials. 

The numerous rings of plates, between the basals and the com- 
menement of the continuing series of radials, is peculiar to this 
genus and family, and, at once, distinguishes it. If the rings 
were united, they would occupy the position of subradials or sub- 
radials and interradials, but such is the arrangement, that we 
know of no rule, which authorizes them to be treated as if united. 
The three families, Dichocrinidas, Ptcrotocrinidie and Acrocrin- 
idffi, having only two basal plates, are widely disconnected, and 
each one is so far removed from all other families, that no one 
can be pointed out which is more nearly related to them, or either 
of them, than another. We can not infer they descended one 
from another, or that either of them was developed from any 
particular family of crinoids having three, four or Ave basals. 
We may be ever so fond of the theory of the evolution of ani- 
mals, and the doctrine that embrj-ology reproduces the images of 
the lines of descent in geological time ; but we may stop, when 
we encounter numerous plates, in the calyx of a crinoid, whose 
relation and homology with plates in other criniods, we cannot 

)v Google 

342 The American Oeologiat. . Dec ism 

ondcrstand, until " misaing links " are discovered, before profess- 
ing to have knowledge of the ancestral typ^- 



rAMILY, Synbathoorinidso.— SyubathoorfnuB. 

Calyx small, cup«baped. Sasals three, the two lai^r equal, 
pentangular, the smaller one qtiadrangnlar. No subradials. No 
regular interradials. Radials one to five, truncated and thickened 
above. Azj-goiis plates resting upon one radial and between the 
brachialB fonning a Btraight, narrow series of two or more plates. 
Brachials reaembling the first radials reversed. Am;s, five, long, 
folded together, enclosing a, slender probosc is composed of five 
rows of quadrangular plates. Column round. 

FAMIL7, Oaloeoorinidea.— Oaloeooiinus, DQltaorlnus, Hal7- 
siocrinuB. * 

Calyx laterally fiattcned and hanging down from the oolnmn. 
Basals three, two are equal and form together a lunate piece, and 
the other plate lies within the concave aide, bo as to make the 
long side of the subtriangular or half-elliptical basal disk, plates 
always anchylosed. The cicatrix for columnar attachment is in a 
lattcral position in the center of the two equal plates, and does 
not touch the other plate. No subradials. . No interradials. 
Calyx above the base consisting of five to seven plates, four of 
which are radials of unequal size and irregular arrangement 
FAMH.T, AotinocrinidES.— AotlnoorlnuB, Alloproeallooiinas,. 
Asarloocrinua, Amphoraarlnus, BatoorlnuB, Doryortnus, 
Eretmoorlnua, 0«nneeoarlnuB, Me^stocrinus, Fbyseto- 
orlnufl, Ba.oooorinu8, Steffanoorinus. StrotoorinuB, Teleio- 
Calyx varying from concave as in Agaricocrinus, to obconoidal 
as in Actinocrinus. Basals three, equal, liaving a hexagonal outline. 
No subradials. Primary radials three to five, secondary radials 
more or less numcroua, tertiary radials in some genera. Regular 
interradials more or less numerous, the first one resting upon the 
upper sloping sides of the first radials ; sometimes intersecondary 
and intertertiary radials. Azygous area lai^er than the regular 
interradial areas, the first plate resting upon the bassls, in line 
with the first radials and of similar form. Column round. 

)v Google 

American Ormoidt in Families. — MlUer. 34'3 

The learntDg in regard to the respiratory openings in this fam- 
ily is well illustxated by the statement of Wachsmith and Springer, 
on page 11, pt 1. of their work, that they had " noted the ex- 
istence of certain pores or openings located between the arm 
bases and separated from the arm passages by a thin partitioa 
Their number varies from ten to twenty or more. In Batocrinus 
where the3' were most conspicuous, there are twenty, no matter 
whether the species has more or less than twentj- arms. They are 
atwQt one-third tlie size of the arm passages, with which they are 
in Yery near the same horizontal plane. " And the statement, on 
page 511, pt 2, where they say, in this they "were evidently in 
«m>r ; the pores probably always agree id number with the arms, 
and are really neither radial nor interradial, but are placed at the 
base of the anns." 

FAUUiT, Platyorlnidss. OooooorinuB, Oordyloorinua, Euola- 
doorlnuB, Maarostylootinus, Marsuploorlnus, Platyorlnus. 

Calyx aubglobose to umshaped. Basals three, two of ttiem 
equal, the other smaller, forming a pentagonal disk or cup. No 
subradials. First radials very large, forming the greater part of 
the test of the calyx, the upper face of each bears a short or con- 
cave facet, for the articulation of the second radials. Second and 
also third radials, when they exist, small and ehort Interradials 
and azj'goin Jnterrailials rest upon the first radials and are sub- 
stantially alike, in the difTerent areas. Column round or elliptical. 

In Macrostylocrinus, there are three to five primary radials, and 
the first interradials are between the second primary radials ; 
smaller interradials occur between the third primary radials, all of 
which form part of the calyx, below the arms, and, in this respect, 
it differs from other Platycrinidffi, where the interradials do not 
connect the second and third primary radials, and approaches the 
structure of the Aetinocrinidre. It has little structural atHnity 
with the Melocrinidte which have four Ijasuia ami to which Wacbs- 
muth referred it But Wiichsmuth disroganhd tlic number of 
basala to a great extent, in arran<;iug and defining the families, 
and his definitions are so loose that crinoids belonging to distinct 
and widely disconnected families may be tlirown tiigetlior in hodge- 
podge. For example his definition of the Meluciinidie is as fol- 
lows : 

"Melocrinidte. Base monocyclic. Basals three to five. 
Neither anal nor interradial plates touching the busals ; the latter 

)v Google 

344 The Anierican Geologigt. dm. 18bo- 

in contact with radials only. Int«rradial areas composed of num- 
erous plates ; those upon the dorsal side laige, r^utarly arranged, 
those along the ventral surface frequently small and irr^rular. 
Oral plate generally surrounded by proximata. Anus subc^itial. 
Column circular rarely angular. " 

FAMILY, Dolatoorlnldro.— AlloorlnuB, Dolatoorinua, Hadro- 
orinvis, Stereooiinus. 

Calyx basin-shaped or somewhat hemi spherical, depressed at 
the base. Basals three, usually anchylosed so aa to create doubt 
as to the number. No aubradials. Primary- radiols two or three to 
fiVe ; secondarj' radiala two or more bj- ten ; tertiary i-adials some- 
times present. Azygous and regular inteiTadial areas alike. Interrn- 
dials three or more, the first, resting between the upijerslopingsidea 
of the first i-adials, the lai^er and generally the lai^st plate in 
the calyx, truncated on top for the seeon<l interradial which bears 
smaller plates. Arm oi^nings lai^e. Small subceutral probos- 
cis. Column round. 

Wachsmuth and Springer refer the genera, in this family, to the- 
Melocrinidse. Dolatocrinus was supposed by Lyon to have five 
baaal plates but Wachsmuth aud others assert it has only three, 
and it is upon their statement, in this regard, that tliis family is 
founded, for I have never seen a specimen that preserved the 
basals. though I have imperfect specimens of Dolatocrinus lacus 
and would guess from an examination of them that they have only 
three basals. 
FAMILY, Arthraoanthidee.— Arthraoantha. 

Calys eup-shapcd. Bnsals three, sul)equal, having a hes^onol 
outline. No subradiala. First r.idials subctjual, very lai^e, form- 
ing tlie greater pai't of the test of the calyx, each one thickened 
in the middle, aud having a concave, ridged facet for the articu- 
lation of the second radial, which is a short quadrangular plate, 
reaching liul little above the margin of the first ra<lial ; third 
radial short, pentagonol, and bearing the free arms. Regular in- 
terradials cousist of three zones of three or four plates each, in 
each area, resting upon the first radials and between the second 
and third interradials. The middle plate in the zone resting upou 
the first radials is the larger one, and the plates on eitaer side of 
it arc larger than those above; The first azjgous plate rests upon 
two basals in line with the first radials, and is nearly as large, but 

)v Google 

American Crinoids !n FumUieM. — Miller. 345 

a little narrower at tlie upper margin, whicb is on a level with the 
. first nutials. Above tliia plate in the azygows area there are three 
z(Hies of plates ; in the flwt zone there are aix anil In succeeding 
zones seven. Column round. All the plates of the ealyx bear 
articulating spines, the bases of which are perforated nith^miuute 
circular pits as in the Echinida, and as Hatobach determined in 
' some Blastoidee. This character alone is probably of family im- 
portance, as it is not known to exist in nnyotfaer family of crinoids 
living or fossil. Otherwise the )>asals, first radials, and first 
azygous plate, would ally it with the Actinocrinidie and the plates 
above with the Platycrinidie. 

Wachsmuth and Springer classeil this family with the Diclio- 
erinidffi and PterotocrinldiB in one family whiuh they called^Hexa- 
crinidie. There are not three families, in my opinion, farther re- 
moved from each other, in all the Palieocrinoida. Their family 
dcfinition is as follows : 

■' Hexacrinidft:. Base monocyclic. Basals two or three. First 
anal plate resting on basals, and similar in form to first radtals ; 
other plates arranged as in Platycrinidie. Calyx with similar arm- 
like extensions. Column circular. " 

Let us see what there ie in this family definition. 1. They 
say, "base monocyclic." So is the base in every crinoid tliat has 
no subradials. In other families, they include monocyclic and 
dicyclic crinoids which embi-ace nearly the whole order. 2. "Ba- 
sals two or three. " This disregards the number of basals as a fam- 
ily character, and, in another part of their work, they say the num- 
ber of basals cannot be considered as of family importance ; and yet 
crinoids having only two basals are unknown in rocks as low as 
the De\'onlAU, and Arthracantha is exclusively a middle Devonian 
genos. 3. "First anal plate I'esting on basals, and similar in 
form to first radials." It is the same in the Actinocrinidie. 4. 
"Other plates arranged as in Platycrinida;. " Such is not the cose 
in the Pterotwcrinidse, by an;- streteh of the imagination, o, 
"Calyx with similar arm-like extensions." This cannot be true, 
for they inuludc arms constructed of single smd double series, 
arms widely separated and closely compacted ; arms free flowing 
and those confined in interbrachial angles, ami, in short, almost 
every form is represented. 0. ''Column cireular. " This is the 
case in nearly every family. 

)v Google 

346 The American Geologiat. dvcibso 


JAMTTiT, lohtliyortnOidse.— Ioth7O0rinu8, Ijeoanoorinua, Mee- 

Calyx obconoidul to aubglobose. Bosals three of unequal size. 
Subracliala five, pentagonal and hexiigonai. Primiirj- radlals two, 
three or four to five. Secondarj' radials more or less numerous, oaA 
higher bifurcating series abutting laterally. No regular interradials. 
Azygous interradials usually absent in Ichthyoerinus, one sub- 
qiiadrangular and resting upon the larger basal aa in Mespilocrinus, 
or two, one of which rests obliquely in the angle formed by the 
upper sloping aides of two subradials on the nght, and the other 
truncating the subradial on the left as in Lecaoocrinua. 

FAMEL7, AinpherietoorluidGe.~Ainpherlatooriiiu8,01o8tero- 
Calyx obpyramidal. Baeals three, two truncated on top, the 
other much smaller aud angular above. Subradials five, two 
hexagonal, two pentagonal and one heptagonal, the latter the 
larger one. Primary radials one in each series, with a small cen- 
tral concavity for the reception of a aecond plate, as in Platy- 
erinua. No regular interradials. Azygous area large, having six- 
or more plates ; the first one rests obliquely upon the right upper 
sloping side of the heptagoual subradial and the under sloping 
stile of the right first radial, the second one truncates the same 
subradial and these bear smaller interradials. C losterocrinus la 
referred with some doubt to this family. Wachsmuth referred 
Ampheristocrinus to the Cyathocrinidie and did not mention Cloa- 


FAMILY, Tazoorinldes.— Forbeaoorlnus, Onyohocrinua, Taxo- 

(^alyx saucer to cup-sliaped. Basals throe of unequal alze, 
Subrailiiils five, unequal. Primaiy radials more or less numeroua, 
tlic fii'tit one sometimes reaching as low as the basnls and com- 
pletely disconnecting tlie sul)ra<liutS. Regular interradials from 
one to twenty or more. Aaj'gous area larger than the regular in- 
terradials areas aud platen more numerous ; tlic first plate in some. 

)v Google 

American Oriiwlds in Families. — Mill^. 347 

geoera truncates a subrodial, and in others rests between the 
upper sloping sides and the first radials. 

In Taxodrinua subovatus, the babuls form a pentagon extend- 
ing beyond the column, the submdials ore small triangnlar plates 
separated from each other, so as to allow the first radials to rest 
upon the baeals ot the central part, with nnder-slopiDg sides abut- 
ting the adjacent subradials. 


Calyx bowl-shaped to obcouoidal with depressed base. Basals 
four, one larger than the others, deeply sunken in the buaal cavity 
and developetl in the interior. No subradiiUs. Primarj- radials 
three to five ; sceondary railials two to ten ; tertiary nulials one to • 
twenty. Interradials three ; the fii-st one is the lai^est plate in the 
calyx and always has ten sides ; the other two are separated by a verti- 
cal suture and their upi>er ends extend to the top of the tertiarj' ra- 
dials, where they support long, flat, interbrachial plates ; inter- 
secondary radials, in form like the upper regular intermilials, in 
like manner extend to the top of the tertiary radials and support 
long, interbrachial plates. Azygoiis area like the other intcrra- 
dial areas, Interbraeial plates e.xtend from the top of the inter- 
radials as high as the arms roneli, where tiiey unite with tlie sum- 
mit plates. Column round. After a re-examination of tlic fos- 
sils, I think the genus Hypautbocrinus should be rcHt">red to re- 
ceive tliose forms with a proboscis extending beyond the arms 
and summit plates. 

■ Calyx bowl-shaped to obeonoidal. Basals four, unetjual. Xo sub- 
radials. Primary radials three to five ; seuondarj' i-aiiials more or 
less numerous, and sometimes, as in Compsocrinus, many tertiary 
rarltals. Interratlial, intcrseeondary and intertcrtiury areas more 
or less flatteneil or depresse<l. First regular interrailia! resting 
upon the upper sloping sides of the first radials, followed by two 
plates and thtse by three, above whii-h tlie plates are more or less 
numerous. Azyf{ous area wider than the regular areas, the first 
plate resting upon a basal or between the first radials, and gener- 

)v Google 

348 ITie Am^lcan 

ally followed by three plates and these by three or four, above 
which, Uiey arc more or leas numerous. Vault Tariable. Column 
round as in MclocrinuB, or quadrangular with depressed sides as 
in Compsocrinus. It is not without some doubt that Compso- 
crinus is referre<l to this family, because the azygous side, upper 
part of the calyx and the column are quite different from all 
other genera. Technocrinus is also doubtfully referred to this 
family, because in it, the az}-gous area is like the other areas, and 
the upper part of the calj-x ia widely different from Melocrinus. 
FAMILT, Xenoorlnidee.—Xenocrinus. 

Calyx obpjTamidal, aides depressed. Basals four, unequal, unit- 
ing at the angles of the column. No aubradials. Primary radials 
three to five, long, flangi'd on both sides ; secondary radiala fonr 
or more in each eeriea of the same form. Interradial and inter- 
secondary radial areas depreaaetl and covered with numerous verj- 
small plates. The first interradial generally rests upon a basal 
but in some cases it is separated therefrom by a narrow prolonga- 
tion of the flanges near the lower part of the first radials, and 
hence rests upon the lower part of and between the first radials. 
Azygous area contains a vertical series of long plates, nearly as 
toDg as radials, in its central part supported upon a basal plate 
and extending iieyond the calyx ; and on each side of it there are 
numerous very small plates, as in the regular interradial areas. 
Column quadrangular, but sometimes becoming round below. 
Columnar canal pentagonal. 


FAMILT. OrathoorinidSB.— Abrotoorinus, Araohnoorinus, 

Bursaorlnua, Oaraboorlnus.OyathoorlnuB.a'raphloorliiua, 

Calyx saucer, hemispherical or bowl-aliaped, depreasetl below. 
Baaala fine, equal, varying from a flattened diac to a cone in the 
interior of the calyx. Subradials five, large. Primary radials one to 
to five, larj<c, the one on tlic right of the azygoua aide usually the 
smaller one, truncated ou the top, and usually having a concave 
facet in the eentrel part of each for the support of the brachials ; 
tint in Abrotocrinus, Bursacriuus and Gruphiocrinus the articiila- 
lii)n is upon the whole upper horizontal face, as in Poteriocrinidie, 
v.itli an i'xtciii:il gaping suture. No regular interradials. Azy- 

)v Google 

American Orinoids in FamilUs. — Miller. 349 

-gouB plate resting upon thD upper edge of a subnutial and be- 
twi.-^D two radials. Columa round or pentagonal, 

Corabocrinua is included in this family on the supposition that 
Billings was mistaken in saying the azygouB area has three plates 
instead of one. If, however, his diapnosis was coiTCCt the genua 
would belong to another family. 

r have separated from the Cyathocrinidie the PoteriocrinidK on 
the ground of the increased numl>er of plates, and the fact that 
one of them rests upon two subradiols and auother upon one ; 
confining the Cyathoorinidee to those having a single azygous plate 
truncating a suhradial. If this distinction is uot of family im- 
portance, then the Poteriocrinidie to those having a single azygous 
plate truncating a subradial. If tliis distinction is not of family 
importance, than the Puteriocrinidte should be associated with the 
Cyathocrinidee, as most autliora have done. As a genercl rule 
the calyces of the Poteriocrinidie are obconoidal from the attach- 
ment of the column up, and the bases of the Cyathocrinidte are 
sunken, giving the calyces a bowl-shajied, but this rule has its 
exceptions, so tliat families cannot be based upon it. 

FAMIIi7, Potsrloorlnidee.— AteleBtocrinua, Barrorinus, 0<»- 
Uarlnua, Buspiroorlnas, Homoorlnus, Hydrelonoorinus, 
Potenoorlnue, Soaphloorlnus, Vaaoorisue, Zeaoiinus. 

Calyx obconoidal to bell-shaped. Basals five, equal, fortding 
a flattened disc or low pentagonal cup, with high angles between 
the subradials. Suhradials five, unojUHl. Primary radiols one to 
five, horizontally truncated upon the upjwr face for the articulation 
of brachials. So wgular internidials. Azygous interrrdials two 
or more, the ffi-st one resting between two upper sloping aides of 
subradials and below the under sloping side of the first radial on 
the right, the 9econ<t one abutting upon the first, truncating & 
subradiat and abutting upon tlic first radial on tlie left. In such 
genem as Bar\'crinus, this plate also abub) ujxtn the first radial to 
the right and extends to the top of the calyx. But in genera 
having three azygous plates, the Ihirtl one rests ujmn the first, 
abuts upon tlie second one on tlie left and the first radial on the 
right ; and if a fourth plate exists it rests upon the second, abuts 
the upper part of tlie first radial on tlie left, and the first brachial, 
and the third azygous plate on the right, l\'here three or mon> 
plates form part ol the caljx, tiiey are arranged alternately iu 


350 The American Geologist. Dec. isso- 

two rowB, and continne into, and form part of the ventral sauk or 

I have classed Hydreionocrinua and Zeacrinus in this family with 
some doubt They differ in the general constmction of the vault 
and in the arrangement of the azygous plates from other genera, and 
probably they constitute a separate and distinct family; though I 
believe all American authors have classed them with the Pot«rio-' 
FAJfflTiY, Dendroorlnldce.— Dendroorlnus, Ottawaoiinua. 

Calyx obconoidal. Baeals five, equal, forming a low pentagonal 
cup. Subradials, five, unequal. Primaiy radials one to fonr and' 
one to two horizontally truncated or having a concave facet for the 
articulation of the arms. No regular interradials. Azygoos in- 
terradial, one, truncating a subradial followed by a double series 
of plates that graduate into the proboscia. This'family is distin- 
guished from the the Cyatbocrinidse and Poteriocrinidie by having 
two primary radials on the right of the azygous plate instead of 
one. Otherwise the form of the calyx is lilce that of a Foterio- 
crinus and the azygous plate like that of a Cyathocrinus. The 
many species of Dendrocriuus and variety of forms lead to the 
separation into a family for convenience of classification, beside,, 
no PoteriocrinuB is found in the lower Silurian rocks, whefe 
DendrocrinuB prevails, and only one rare genus (Euspirocrinus) 
referred to the Poteriocriuidee exists in the rocks of that early age. 

FAMILY, BupaohyorlnidGB.— jHbIootUius, Delooriniis, Bupa- 
ohyoriiiua, Uloorinus. 
Calyx somewhat hemispherical, flattened or depressed at the- 
base, Basala five, equal, sometimes forming an interior cone. 
Subradials five, very large. No regular interradials. From one 
to three azygous interradials, when only one exisla, it truncates a 
subradial and rests Ijetween first radials, as in Cyathocrinus, but 
when two or more exist they are arranged much like they are in 
Foteriocrinus, though the first plate situate between the upper- 
sloping sides o^ the subradials and l^elow the primary radial on 
the right, may be loiter than a primary radial, which is never the 
casein the Poteriocrinidie. The primary radials are truncated at 
the upper edge, and have a straight binge line from one junction 
of the plates to another, for the articulation of the first brachial 
plates which are generally spine-bearing. The primary radials- 

)v Google 

American Ortnoida in families. — Miller. 351 

wben viewed from the interior are arched over part of the visceral 
cavity, but as seen from above, they extend beyond the articolat 
iDg biDges toward the center of the vault as a platform upon 
which the proboscis is supported. There are no vault ptat«9 in 
this family. The azygous plate at the top of the oalj'x, extends 
its flange over the visceral cavity like a. primary radial, and sup- 
ports a aeries of plates that make a azygous side to the proboscis. 
I have placed, in this family, genei-a differing in the azygous area 
and in the number of azygous plates, but the calyces are similar 
in form otherwise, and the primary radials are alike in the articu- 
lating hinge, for the brachials, and flattened surface or platform 
within for the support of the proboscis, which I consider of high 
importance in the structure of the internal anatomy. The column 
is round, the ooiumnar canal five-rayed, and in the interior of the 
ftilyx it is surrounded with muscular scars, and the basal plates 
are anchylosed in all specimens I have examined in this family. 

Wachsmuth and Springer referred this family to the Cyatho- 
crinidie in the first part of their book, but in the third part they 
refer the genera to the Poteriocrinidse. 
* FAMILY, Brisoorlnidn.— BrlaoorlnuB, Meaoorlnua, Stemtna- 

Calyx somewhat hemispherical or globose. Basals five, equal. 
Subradials five, equal. Primary radials five, equal. No regular 
interradiols. No azygous interradials. In Erisocrinus and Stem- 
matocrinuB the primary radials have the form of those in Eupaehy- 
crinidBe, but in Menocrinus they are like those in Cyathocrinus. 
This family ia distinguished from both, however, by not having an 
azygous plate within the calyx, which, T suppose, necessarily, in- 
volves important structural modifications in the internal anatomy 
of the animal. 

Menocrinus (Lecythiocrinua) adamsi, aa illustrated by Worthen, 
(III. Geo. Snr. vol. 7, pi. XXX, fig. 8, ) has five baaals, but M. olli- 
culiformis, as defined by White, possessed only three basals. 
White had only a single specimen and some imperfection may 
have misled him, for if it possessed only three basals, the two 
species are not congeneric, and the latter could have no near 
affinity with any defined family, aa Tasocrinidje is the only one 
having three basals and five subradials. 

Wachsmuth and Springer in the third part of their work refer" 
Menocrinus to the Cyathocrinidte. In the first part of their work 

)v Google 

352 The AmerwoM Geologist. Dec. i8»o 

thej' refer Erisocrinus and Stemmatocrinua to tJie Cyathocrinidie, 
but in the third part they refer them to the Poteriocriaidse. 

FAMILY, AgaselzoorinldGB.— A^aaslzoorlnus. 

Calji conical or urn-shaped. Basals five, thick, usually anchy- 
losed, very small internal cavity, in which there are ligamental 
pitts. Subradials, five, lai^e, thick. Radiala two to five. No reg- 
ular interradials. Azygoua interradials, three or four supported 
upon the basals. In the early stages of life, Agassizocrinns 
possessed a small column, but in later life even a cicatrii^ for the 
columnar attachment is obliterated. I do not use AstylocrinidK. 
bcc.anse it was founded upon Astylocrinus, which is a synonym for 
Agassizocrinua, and as a generic name falls into synonymy, so does 
the family name. Wachsmuth and Springer ase Astylocrinidte. 

FAMIL7, MeroorinidEe.— MeroorlnuB. 

Calyx verj- low, ttroad at the base, slighly expanding. Basals 
five, low, wide, Subradials, five, short, wide. Radials one to 
four, and one to two, one radial series having two plates, the up- 
per one of which is axillary and supports on its right sloping side ' 
a brachial series, and on the left a smaller series that enters into 
and forms part of a proboscis, and in this respect the arrsoge- 
ment of the plates is like an locrinus. No r^ular interradials. 
No ozygous interradials. Brachials numerous. 

FATtfUiY, Oauroorinidss. — Qauroorintie, BeUoorinus. 

Calyx obpyramidal, depressed in the tnterradiol and intersecond- 
ary radial areas, and having strong radial ridges. Basals five. 
Subradials five. Primary radials three to five. Secondarj- radials 
from two to sixteen to ton. Regular interradial areas filled with 
numerous small platos resting upon the subradials. Secondaiy 
interradials areas filled with numerous small plates. Azygous 
area larger than the regular areas, and supported by a ridge 
the middle series of plates somewhat like a radial ridge. Va 
covered by small plates which are continued as a covering ove. 
the arm fuiTows. Column pentagonal with sides more or l-^ 

)v Google 


American Orinoida in families. — Miller. t^SS 

TAMILY, Bbodoorlnlds.— ArolwoorlnuB, OooioBteroldoorl- 
nuB, LyrioorluuB, Rhaphanooiinufi, Rhodoorinus. 
Caljx Bubgloboae or liemi spherical. *asiils five, forming a 
iflutteiied di9c or developed as a cole in Qie interior. Hubradials 
five, equal. Primary radials tliiee to five. Secoiularj- ntdials 
'Oiie to four to ten. R«gular iuterradinl areas wide, plates large, 
the flret one rating upou a siibradial and between the tlrst*primary 
rodials. Azygous area lil<e the regular areas except an occaaiooal 
■extra plate or two without disturbing the general symmetry of the 

It is not without some doubt that Archieoerinus and Rhaphano- 
-criaus are referred to this family. 

J>aUIIi7, aiyptaatarldtB.— aiyptaater, LEunpteroorlnuB, 
Calyx obpjTamidal to cup or urn-shaped, linsals five, equal. 
Subradials five, four of them e<iual, the other one truncated for 
the support of the first azygous plate. Primary radials three to 
five. Secondary radials variable in number in different genera. 
Interrftdial areas flattenetl or couvex, plates laige, one in the first 
^series, resting between the upper sloping sides of the fii'st radials, 
two in the second and smaller ones above. Azygous area wider, 
the first plate resting on a subradiol is followed by three plates 
and these by three, four or more iu succeeding ranges, 

FAMILT, OlyptoorlnidsB.— OupulOorinuB, Glyptoorintts, P70- 
noorinus, Sohizoorinos, SiphonoorinuB. 

Calyx obpyramidal, Basals five, equal No subradials. Pri- 
mary radials three or four to five, the last one supporting second- 
ary radials, and si>motimeB tertiary radials exist within the calyx, 
laterradial areas more or less flatteuetl. Regular interradials more 
or less numerous, the first one resting between the upper slopingsides 
of the first primary radials; this is followe<l by two plates, and there 
arc three or more in succeeding series, .\zygous area wider and 
contiuning moi-e plates than tliefegular areas, though commencing 
with oue between the upper sloping sides of the primary radials. 

I am inclined to think that Siphonocrinus should be classed in 
another family, because the first plate rests upon the basals, and 
for other strnctni-al differences. It is jilaccd here only provision- 
all v. 

)v Google 

354 The American Geologist. Dec. ism 

FAMII>T, OleioorinidGe.—Oleloorlnus. 

Billings described CleiocriDus as having five basal plates betweeo 
the first radials, and fohnlng a belt at the eod of the colamn. I 
reproduce<l his illustration in North Americal Geologj- and Palieon- 
tolog^-. Wachsmuth correctly asserts that ' ' such a atractare haa 
never been found in any crinoid. " I belifeve with Wachsmuth, 
that the plates supposed to be basals by Billings, are interrailiala, 
but t>eyond this I cannot follow him. He believes this genus had 
three very small basals and five small subradials and he has given 
us an illustration of his views which obliterates the columnar 
canal. I am unable to understand why he should suppose 
there are three basals and five subradials when such a structure is 
wholly unknown in the Lower Silurian rocks. Indeed, three 
basals, five subradials, r^ular interradials and azygous ini«rni- 
dials are known to exist only in three genera, and they belong to 
tiie Snbcarbonilierous age. I suppose Cleiocrinus bad five basate 
and no subradials. And even with this structure, it would be so 
far removed by reason of the arrangement of the plates ctHistitnt- 
ing tlie cal}-x, that it would constitute a distinct family. 


FAMILY, Hetoroorlnldes.~Botonoorinufi, Heteroorinus, locri- 
nus, Ohloorlnua. 

Calyx obconoidnl. Basala five, unequal. No subradials. No 
regular interradials. Azygous interradials not reaching the basals, 
but resting upon the upper sloping sides of the first radials. Vri- 
mary radials irregular, and var}ing in number, in the same genus, 
the right posbTior radial, in some eases, resting upon an az;>-goas 
plate, and in Tocrinus a radial plate aurports on its right sloping 
side a series of bmchiEe plates, and on its left a series of quadran- 
gular plates that graduate into and form part of the pro-boscis 
or ventral tube. 
TAMIL7, Anomoloortnldse. — AnomaloorinuB. 

Catj-x saucer or cup-shaped. Basals five. No subradials. y" 
T^ular interradials. A subquadrangular azygous plate situate be 
tween the lateral sloping sides of the two first radials unibee wit* 
them by a serrated edge and cun-es over toward the vault On 
primary radial in three rays and two in each of the other two ray> 
The anna are wide apart, and the radials,' between the arms, cnrv 

)v Google 

American Crinoide in FcumUiee. — Miller. 365 

over tbe edge of the vault There U only one genus known. 
The calyx is low and wide, plates large, column laige, different 
from an; other known, uma also differing from all otliers and 
bearing pinnules only on one eide, from one arm biforcation to 
the next alternately. 

The diagram of Anomalocrinua inourvus, by Meek in the 111. 
Geo. Snr. toL 3, p 327, and reproduced in my work in North 
American Geology and Palseontol*^ p. 324, ia incorrect, if the 
specimen figured in the Ohio Palieontol(^ vol. 2 from my col- 
lection under the same name, belongs to the same species. The 
oolomnar canal is large and flve-rayed. The second and third 
azygouB plates form part; of the vault covering. 
PAHUi?, Belenmooiinidea.— Belanmoorlnus. 

Calyi cup-ahaped. Basale, five, large, long, narrow, and of 
irregular shape, enclosing a very email viaceral cavity. No sub- 
radiala. Badiala one to five, smaller than baaals. No regular in- 
terradiala. Azygous plate like a radial in line with them, resting 
upon a basal between two radlals and supporting a ventral aac. 
gAMILT, Oatllloorfnldse.— OatlUoorlQue. 

Calyx bowl-shaped. Basals five, forming an irregular pentagon; 
three of the sides being much the longer. Badials one to five, 
veiy irr^ular in form and size; the two larger ones constitute 
three-fourths of the circumference at the top of the radiols, but 
are narrow below, while the others diminish in width upward. 
The arms rise directly from the truncated summit of the radiole 
and are quite compact bo that some radiols support a much larger 
number of arms than others do; no regular or ozygous inter- 
FAMILY', Hybocrlnldes.—Hyboorinua. 

Calyx bulged or tumid on one side. Basals, five, large. One 
plate half subradial in position, in line with four first radials, but 
not extending quite so high, and bearing upon one upper sloping 
side a radial, and upon the other an azygous plate which is 
rounded and crennlated at its distal extremity as well as much 
thickened. No regular interradials. 
FAMUjT, HaplooriuidsB.— Allacrec^lnua Haploorloua. 

Calj-x cup-shape. Basals five. No subradials. No interra- 
dials. No azygous plates. Primary radJals two to three plus 
one to two, with small protruding concave facets in the upper 

)v Google 

356 75^ Amer^an Geologist. D<x. isw 

tiuacated Bides for the attachment of the anna; the upper face 
of these plates supports five vault plates that form a pyramid over 
the visceral cavity of the colj-x. The sutures of the vault plates 
are bevelled, shallow in the lower part, wider and deeper aboTe, 
and truncate the top of the pyramid. 

Carpenter regards Haplocrinus as ' ' permanently in the condi- 
tion of a Pentacrinoid larva with a closed tentacular vestibule. " 
Wachsmuth and Springer, fully agree with him that Haplocrinus 
ia <■ a pei-sistent larval form, but do not understand how the five 
large plates can represent the orals in a palieocrinoid. " Neither 
does any otherona The permanent larval form is equally asburd. 
Wachsmuth and Springer refer AUageerinus to the Haplocrin- 
idffi while Etheridge and Carpenter referred it to the family 
Alla^ecrinidK and I followed the latter in my work on North 
American Geology and Pal»ontol<^y; but probably the former are 
, FAMH-Y.PisoorlnidE©.— PiaoorinuB. 

Calyx globular. This family has five basal plates, forming a 
Bubequilateral triangle; in the typo species, three are triangular 
and two are quadrangular, but in the American species this is re- 
versed. In the tj-pe species, two plates unite in an angle of the 
triangle and only one aide of the triangle is formed by three basal 
plates, tlic other two sides each being formed by two sides of the 
basal plates; but in the American species, two sides of the trian- 
gle are made by the sides of three basal plates and one by the 
Bides of two basala. In the second series there arc only three 
plates which form the pi'incipal part of the calyx, and they par- 
take of the characters of both subradials and radials; one of 
them bears upon its upper sloping sides, small, radial plates, and 
ts therefore a true subradial ; the other two bear radial plates upon 
their upper lateral sides, but each is also truncated in the 
upper central part for a brachial or arm plate and therefore two 
plates are both radial and subradial in position. There are, there- 
fore, three small true radial plates and two large plates radial in 
the central part of each, so that the crinoid has only five arms. 
No radial plate is truncated entirely across the upper face, but in 
all cases the first brachial or arm plate rests in a socket with a 
point of the radial supporting it on each side. The column in 
all known species is round and the plates of the calyx remarkably 
thick, especially in the lower half. 

)v Google 

A Encent Quart^te — Hoist. 357 

There is do other American crinoiil having basals that form a 
triangle, nor having five basals followed by a second series of 
only three plates, nor having a second aeries composed of plates 
boUi radial and subradii^ in position. 
VAi/Cnsi, Bdrioorinidee.— Bdrloorinua. 

Calyx cup-shaped. The base is solid in Edriocrinns, and, 
therefore, if it ever consisted of more than one plate, the number 
is onknown, and it constitutes nearly all of the calyx. There are 
five radiala resting in depressions in the base. No regnlar interrs' 
dial. An azygous plate, in line with the radials, rests in a basal 
depression and extends as high as the radials, it is followed by a 
small plate. But little is known of this family. 

The fossil described by Hall under the name of MjTtillocrinus 
Americanus belongs to an undefined genus. The definition of the 
species is probably incorrect, for in all known paleeocrinoidea the 
rays of the columnar canal notch the basal plates, and this species 
is figured as having a four-rayed canal and described as having 
five basals. Probably other specimens will show that it has only 
fonr basals, for otherwise, it will be quite anomalous, and in 
eiUier event, it is not a Myrtillocrinus. 

Nipterocrinua was plnced by Wachsmuth in the Icthyocrinidie 
without knowing the number of basals in the genus, and Zittel re- 
ferred it to the Cyathocrinidffi upon equally as good grounds. 
Until we know whether it has three or five basals, any family ref- 
erence must be provisional and of little value, 

Canaarocrinua doubtless belongs to a family Camarocrinidse, 
bnt it is so far removed from other crinoids Uiat it may belong to 
a distinct order. Ancyrocrinus, Aspidocrinus, Brachiocrinus, 
CoronocrinuB, Cystocrinus and Pachycrinns are genera aiwut 
which very little is known. 


By N. O. HoLST,* 

While the author was reconnoit«ring in the soutliern part of the 
district of Vester-botten in 1 885, he obser%'e<l also the exposures of 
Kkholm IM. II, p. 33, 1HS9. 

)v Google 

358 The American Gedlogi»t. Dec. lem 

the Silurian along Ormsji^ (a lake) in the parish of Doratea, as 
already made known by K. Sidenbladh. The Silurian strata con- 
tinue from this point further northwest along the valley of Onus- 
jniin, as observed by me last fall. Thus were seen slates contain- 
ing "orsten " belonging to the horizon of Paradozides forchham- 
mcri, a few kilometers south of Bredsele on ArksjUto, as well as 
further soutbeast at Nyboden. At the first named place were 
found Agnostus lievigatus Dalm.,' A. planicauda Aug., as well 
as a species of Olenus and possibly still another species of Agnoe- 
tus ; at the latter named place, Agnostos planicanda Ang. and 
possibly also A. fallax Linrs. 

Of special interest are the geological relations at the rather 
steep mountain, M^nsberget, situated two Swedish miles north- 
west of the Dorat«a church. Below this mountain a small boulder- 
covered plain extends down towards Cvater-ormsjU, which coven 
the foot of the mountain. Somewhat further towards the nortti- 
weet, close to the shorea of OrmsjU, at the village Vester-OfmsjO, 
the Silnrian slate is, however, seen to predominate so lai^ely in 
the moraine that it can here be considered to be in titv..* Quartz- 
yte, with a west-northwest dip, is exposed in a precipice of about 
100 meters above the plain. The rock has much resemblance to 
the so-called Vemdols-quartzyte. It is of a dirty white or gray 
color, sometimes greenish and at times granular or like sandstone.' 
Somewhat further up the exposure it is more compact and plainly 
bedded, dipping slightly west-northwest, so that the rock in this 
direction is found continually lower down. The quartzyte was 
reported to continue north far up the mountain. 'And if it reaches 
the top of the mountain, as is probable, it is at least some two 
hundred meters in thickness. 

Between tbe exposure of the quartzyte and the boulder-covered 
plain a slope is found extending southward, characterized by its 
luxuriant vegetation. The descent of this slope is, in general, 
some 20-30 degrees, but at times as much as 50 dqjreea from tbe 
level. On tins slope, mostly covered with soil, are found pieces 
of black slate and boulders of " orsten, " of which the latter are 
not rich in fossils, but yet have in certain layers fn^ments of 
Pamdoxidea fossils, as well as those from the Olenus horizon. 

> All the fossils have been detoriniiied by Dr. G. HoIid. 

'In a pieco of schist containing "orston," brought home was 
fonnd Agnustus parvlfrons LInrs. The spitclmena from here seem to be 
smaller tban usual. 

)v Google 

An Olenua Quartsyte. — Hoist. 359 

At several places it can also be seen that the slate and the 
"orsteu," as found in the slope, have about the same dip as the 
quartzfte. The Silurian deposite here are, without any doubt, 
connected with those just menlioned at Veeter-OrmajU. 

Already in 1885 I made the observation in connection with my 
visit here " that the slate to all appearance was over-laid by the 
quarteyte." But I did not wish then alt<^ether to exclude the 
possibility of the slate being deposited cotemporaneously with 
the quartzyte, or by faulting had got a lower position in rela- 
tion to the quartzyte than what it originally bad. Although an 
extensive landslide covers the slope ta which the slate is found, 
yet the slate and the quartzyte came so close together that I 
already at that time perceived that the true relation of these two 
lOckB could readily be made out, and without very extensive digging. 

Fig. 1. 

FlO. 1. 

a. auarfzt"s><l<PPii>Kl6'* wBst. continainKQii the moanUtn. h. black, soft 
•cAiif, here and theta with thin bands of harder. greeulBh scliist, O.s m. c. 
Suarfzvt«. much broken up into imgulM pipcea, like t, somenhat like "Kiau- 
WBcke." O.T m. d. dark icAlal ( equalH b ), 0.2 in. e. bedded, greenish nuartzvtc. 
macbbtoken. both In large and small pieces. 0.3 m. /. dark echiiU 0.4 m. 
0. a compact layer of vuarttvto. mach broken. O.s m. h. black, nearl; pare 
«cAfiif,lni. i. alayer of limeeloDe. coDtaiDLnK"oriilen,'' with CKenui, probably. 
O. oibbota Wahlenb. 0.6 m. j. " Branwacke " echitt (somewhat harder than the 
faigherblackBchiat). a.em. Jt. a layer ot UnieBtone with Otenui cibfrota Wah- 
lenb..' 0.6 m. I. "graawacke"M:hist, 0.3 m. m. a layer of limestone, 1.4 m. 
n. "sraawocke" schist. 

* Specimens from tbis layer are smaller than those from layer i. 

)v Google 

360 2%e American Geologist. Dacisoo- 

Bot at that time I passed the place late in Uie day, and did not 
jiave time to return the following day. 

-Last fall, when I again passed through the Talley of OnusjO, 
I decided to make out the relation of tiie strata by digging, and 
was BorprlBed when I found how easUy this could be d<Mie. The- 
sactiou thus obtained is herewith presented. 

The slate is often compressed but appears in general to dip in 
the same direction as the quartzyte. Furthermore, it may be 
stated that layers of black slate a few decim^tera in thiokneaa are 
aeen in the lower part of the fuarteyfe (a), which reminds ooe 
strongly of the Olenus slatea 

The stiatigraphic relatione at the M&nsberget, therefore, give 
all indicatJODS of a great quartzyte depotited above the Olenmr 
itralum, and even seems to pass into it by an altem&tioti of Isyeis. 


Bt Alexakdbr WmcHBi^, Ann Aibor. 

Having recently enjoyed the opportunity to cany on some field 
iuTestigatJons in Canada, in a region almost critical in its bearing^ 
on some questions at present agitated, I desire to make a record 
of facte observed, and indicate an incidental question which pre- 
sents itself for future discussion. The r^ons chiefly studied on 
this occasion, lie between the Sault and Echo river ; ou the east of 
the head of Great Lake George, in the river Ste. Marie, and in 
the vicinity of Echo lake, especially on the west and north of that 
lake. These regions are embraced within the strike of the fomu- 
tion bordering the valley of Hbe Thessalon, and heretottnv 
studied by my brother and myself, as far as Ottertful and Sock 
lakes. The present observations therefore, serve as a connecting 
link between our former observations and the eastern shore of 
lake Superior. 

The only previous observations on the same regions which have 
come to my knowledge, are those recorded in the Report of t 
Canadian Survey for 1857, made by that sagacious, many-aid 
and indefatigable explorer, Alexander Murray.* I never fol' 

"Canadian Report for 1857, pp. 18-31. See also, Logan's remarbs . 
Murray's results, pp. &-7 ; and Otology of Canada, 1863, p. 61, and li 
Map of (he Hurotkan Roda, in tbe Atlas accompanylDg this volaine. 

)v Google 

Observaiions on Canadian Rocke.— Winckell. 3G1 

in Monay's footsteps without receiving an impreMtcnt of his tire- 
less enei^ and his quick geological intuitions in woi^ng out the 
structure of regions difficult, as these are, in the extreme. 

The wbcde of the country over which my recent observations ex- 
tended, is colored by Sir William Logan as Huronian, and reach- 
ii^ from the uppermost quartzites to the " Lower Slate Conglom- 
erates. " 

The Ste. Marie's river from lake Superior to tl»e head of Great 
Lake 0««rge, pursues a direction a little north of east ; bat it 
presents two northward curvatures shaped like an ox-yoke, in the 
centre of tbe western of which, the two Saulte — the Canadian and 
the American cities — are situated, and the centre of tbe eastern 
of which swells into Little Lake George. Great Lake George is a 
broad expansion of tbe river opening out of the eastern extremity 
of the ox-yoke, as Hay lake opens out of the middle of tbe ox- 
yoke— the two forming opposite sides of Sugar island. The immedi- 
ate Canadian shore of the river Ste, Marie ie mostly level and sandy, 
and without doubt, is underlaid by the lake Superior sandstone, 
which outcrops at tbe Sault and in tbe neighborhood of Groe Cap of 
lake Superior. At the distance of one or two miles back from the 
shore, the country becomes ru^ed, through the presence of suc- 
cessive short ranges of quartzite hills, rendered more pronounced, 
in many cases, by dykes of diorite and felsite. The quartzite 
ranges are separated by valleys of hard timber and a fertile soil ; 
and these, within twenty miles of tbe river, are cleared and culti- 
vated. These ranges continue to the east and southeast of the 
head of Great Lake George, with a general easterly trend ; but, at 
a greater distance, their trend is more Boutheasterly ; and the en- 
tire peninsula between Great Lake George and tbe ' ' Northern 
Channel " is occupied by them, as far as the Bruce mines and the 
Thessalon river. 

One who has studied the Huronian quartzites in tbe valley of 
the Thessalon, will at once rec<^nize their prolongation in the 
region east of Great I^ke George. Between Ottertail lake and 
Echo bay is only fifteen miles in a straight line, and in the direc- 
tion of the strike ; and the great white pebbly and reddish quartz- 
tes have undei^one no perceptible change. It is not necessary, 

.erefore, to give them a full description, in this place. It suf- 
oes to state that in the district referred to, they assume a very 
aassive condition, the beds when discernible, being four to eight 

)v Google 

362 S%e American Geologiet. i>»e.isM 

- feet thick, and outcropping in a succeaeion of terraces — as occdib 
alao in the Thessalon valley. But conaiderable search ia requi^te 
to discover either outcropping steps, bands of deposition or dis- 
tinct courses of pebbles — the last, though of frequent occurrence, 
l>eing generally diaseminated through the rock. 

The other remark whict may poeaess interest, concerns de- 
posits of iron ore in the quartzites. The terrane Is extensively in- 
tersected by veins and joints. A system of Jointage ti^ods nearty 
east and west, and none of these joints assume the character of 
veins. But there are many veins and quasi-veins trending 
H 45° W and N 65° W, which cany encouraging quantities of 
tiieisatite. As regards the filling of these veins, there are two 
claases. The first class consists largely of a network of veinletfl 
without gangae, diverging and reuniting with a principal vein. 
The latter, however, has not been seen to exceed four or five 
inches in diameter ; and the whole network, spreading sometimes, 
over a space ten or twelve feet wide, would scarcely aggregate two 
^eet The whole contents of the system of ramification is pure, 
often hard and brilljant, tuematite. 

The other class of iron-bearing veins is accompanied by a volum- 
inous gaogue, the whole attaining widtlis of twelve, eighteen and 
fifty feet or more. In an opening made on a twelve feet vein, the 
limiting walls are quartzite, and well defined. The gangue con- 
eists of a single material. It is light gray or faintly bluish, finely 
granular and slightly porous, with a specific gravity of 2.7. 
IJumerons pale pinkish spots are scattered through it, which are 
generally three millimetres apart and one millimetre in diameter. 
One sees, under a lens, also, a multitude of minute black parti- 
cles, sometimes dark reddish, pretty evenly disseminated. It has 
■a. hardness between calcite and gypsum, and from that upward 
one or trfo degrees. Acids produce no effect upon the substance. 
Treated for alumina, a variable quantity is eluninated. In some 
eamptes, the greater part is alumina ; in others, it is silica. No 
carbonic anhydride is present ; but with barium chloride, the re- 
action for iron peroxide is strong. In polarized light, between 
' crossed nicols, the whole mass is seen to be amorphous or feebly 
refracUng, with an occasional minute grain of quartz ; and some- 
tii&es a widely disseminated presence of quartz is evinced, but 
very much disguised by amorphous matter. Throughout are dis- 
seminated small iiregular individuals perfectly opaque, which are 

)v Google 

Observatuma on Canadian Hocks. — Winchelt. 363 

undoubtedly luematite, since a deep red color is developed in 
grinding the thin sections. This gangiie flits t^e vein-fissure 
somewhat homogeneously from wall to wall, without any indioa- 
tion of a comb structure. 

This substance is in process of change to luematite, OT perhaps- 
more properly, replacement by luemattte, though the processes^ 
wonderfully simulate transmutation, to the ordinary observer. It 
b^ins on the surface of joints or fractures, and penetratos into 
the solid interioTj In many places it has proceeded until large 
masses of htematite have lieen formed. This is occasionally rimo- 
nitic, but generally, a rich quality of heematite, often black and 
solid. The boundary between the changed and unchanged por- 
tions is generally abrupt The portion immediately contiguous to 
the heamatite ia not distinguishable from the general unchanged 
mass. The conviction arises that in course of time, the entire 
gangue would become iron ore. The change witnessed is of course, 
within a few feet of the surface ; but it does not appear to what 
extent it depends upon meteoric agencies ; nor whether the amount 
of change accomplished would increase or dimmish with depth. 

In one location a width of eighteen feet appeared to have com- 
pleted the change, though in this case, the soft red material con- 
tained only about eight per cent of iron. Along side of this, 
however, was a rich, vein-like deposit of htematite, in places 
almost specular in its lustre. It may be suggested that the rich, 
vein-like accumulation in the kaolinic substance, or along side of 
it, has been derived from the numerous minute htematitic partiolcs 
disseminated through the gray mass, and that the red<lened mass 
is the same after most of the iron has been estractcd. 

In another instance, the kaolinic gangue material extended over 
a breadth of fifty or sixty feet, though the soft argillaceous iron 
deposit was but a few inches wide. The ore is coarsely granular, 
and the grains possess flattened sides as if by mutual pressure. In 
spots, the pressure has been accompanied by sliglit motion whtcia 
has imparted a slaty structure. The kaolinic mother stuflT is simi- 
larly granular, and similarly slaty in places. The color of tlie 
stuff is pale bluJsh, The completed change is found to progress 
from point to point, and a distinct limit is quite conspicuous. In 
some portions the change is complete, except an island of tlie 
greenish gangue, which is thus surrounded on all sides by the 
completed ore. 

)v Google 

364 The Attierican Geologist. Dec. i8» 

These cnrioua deposits appear to occupy fisauies in the qiurtzite, 
and are limited by walls fdrly distinct, and trend in fixed direc- 
tions, N45''W and NeS^W. There are no indicatjons of an 
eruption, either in disturbance or metamorphism. It i» not easily 
conceivable that these deposits should hare resulted from any 
osnal conditiwi of imiptive or volatilized matter. It is equally 
difficult to oonoeire of its aA^a from the quartzite, either by 
segregatioii or decay. Nor is the case clearer if we ^ply the 
hypothesis of inflttration. I am not sufficiently acquainted with 
mining literature at lu^e to say whether the occurrence is ex- 

Another mode of occurrence of haematite in the Hurooiau 
qnartzites is in associatjoD with diorite dykes. In one instance, a 
dyke striking NZO" W, and having a width of 400 feet, and oom- 
posed of .long, smooth-faced crystals of hornblende, with a red 
plogioclase, is accompanied by norrow, irr^ulor veins of hiema- 
tite. The hannatite is asaociated with red jasper mostly in the 
condition of parallel laminie of not over an inch in thickness. I 
was not able to ascertain, with facilities for reseu^h at disposal, 
whether the iron and jasper are included in the diorite, or are 
simply adjacent to it. If inclnded, and not evidently a filled fis- 
sure of later age than the dyke, the facts would have some bear- 
ing on the possibly igneous origin of some jaspers. 

A few miles from this region occurs another diorite dyke, about 
30 feet wide, traced over a mile, with a trend N 80° E, whoUy 
granular in texture, composed of hornblende and a dusky red 
plagioclasc with much free haematite, and accompanied also, by a 
multiple vein of hematite runniug along its south flank, and, so 
far as I could Judge, wholly exterior to the dyke. The partial 
veins are here also, sheathed in laterally by thin plates of red and 
smoky Jasper, all standing vertically, as in the other case, in a 
position conformable with that of the dyke. This is a poMtion of 
nnconformity with the country quartzite. It follows that the 
lamination of the ore and Jasper has no relation to the bedding of 
the quartzite, but exists in relation to the walls of the fissure 
filled by the dyke. The ore and jasper, therefore, came into ex- 
istence subsequently to the dyke, apparently by infiltration, and it 
is nut difiicult to understand how processes of decay and solution 
may have made the dyke and the contiguous quartzite the » 
of the ore and the Jasper. 

)v Google 

Obaervations on Ccmadian. BocJa. — Wvnchdl. 865 

Bobo Iioke. 

Having received oral iuformatioa concerning the rocks about 
the head of Echo take, which produced a half-formed conviction 
that they are older than the Huronian, I followed the guartzitea 
northward from Great Lake George, across the strike, with nn- 
usoal interest. The Echo river flows for about four miles, in a 
aerpenline course, across the level and partly swampy border 
which separates the hilly interior from Great Lake Geoi^. No 
rocks are seen to outcrop along the banks, and it is obvious that 
tiie country formation is no longer qnartzite. According to Mur- 
ray, a "slate conglomerate" is seen both on the east and the 
west of the lower portion of Echo lake, at distances not exceeding 
two or three miles, and beyond. But, I found, about a mile 
north of the foot of the lake, evidently at a lower horizon than the 
«late conglomerate proper, a qnartzose range, attaining an eleva- 
tion of about 250 feet, and traversed by ramifying veins of hiema- . 
tite. From a shaft sunk to the depth of about 30 feet, it appears 
that the formation is in part, a silico^u^illaceona slate, and in 
part a fine gnuued and semi-vitreous smoky qnartzite. Litbolt^- 
cally it Is quite distinct from the white or reddish vitreo-gronular 
quartztte further souUi, and marking the upper portion of the 
Huronian. It occupies the position of th% lower part of the 
"upper slate conglomerate" noted by Murray and mapped by 
Logan. On the west shore of Echo lake, within a third of a mile 
of Limestone point, is an outcrop of dark gray, very fine or 
vitreous qnartzite, which may be an eastward prolongation of that 
last mentioned. It is not very unlike the flinty quartzite which I 
have berotofore designated the ' ' Missisagui quartzite " * and sup- 
posed to be the lowest member of the Huronian on the Missisagui 
river. But I do not announce here such an identification. That 
would necesaitate a reconstruction of Logan's map. 

A short distance beyond this is the point formed by the outcrop 
of a bed of limestone. It stands vii avi* to another point on the 
-east shore — the bearing from one to the other being 8 75° E. The 
Hlistance across the point, representing the width of the outcrop, is 
about 330 feet The beach elope of the exposuro covers about 30- 
square roda^ and the surface is amazingly, almost grotesquely, 
rough, the salient ridges of the more durable lamime standing out 
one or two inches above the general surface, being inclined with 

* Sixte«Rt)( Anrwal Report Mtnnemta, pp. 167-170. 

)v Google 

366 7^ American Geologist. Deci8»» 

the dip, and crumpled in an atmoat incredible fasliion. Freshly 
broken snrfaces of the rock reveal lighter and darker, tortuoos, 
but parallel bandings ; but the difference in durability of different 
laminae would hardly be suspected. The formation on the whole, 
is a feebly silicious limestone, very hard, fine grained, with in- 
numerable light and dark dun laminse altemating, and presenting 
on fresh fracture, a handsome appearuice. A verdcal dyke of 
flne^nuned, black dolerite intersects the formatitm, 4^ inches 
wide, striking N60° E, with a joint running longitudinally along^ 
the middle. As to dip and strike of the limestone, the observa- 
tiona are various. The dip ranges locally from 10° up to 45° ; 
but I concluded that the average dip is not far from 20° ; and I 
shall adopt this as the dip of the Huronian at this place. Such 
dip is accordant with many observations mode on the quartzites 
higher in the series. The direction of th9 dip here is about 

The outcrop on the enat side of the lake is about 500 feet wide. 
The rock is somewhat less hard. Where blasted into for testing 
its quality, it is very compact and fine grained, and in places, del- 
icately tinted. The bands are not conspicuous except on weath- 
ered surfaces, where thousands of them stand forth, as on the 
west side. The dip is here locally, 45° toward SS^'K, The 
mean dip, judging from the strike, is probably about south, on 
botL sides of the lake. The vertical thickness of this limestone 
would be about 110 feet 

In thin section, under polarizing microscope, this limestone ap- 
pears strictly fragmental, being composed of minute rounded 
grains of calcite which, separately examined, are distinctly re- 
fractive, and give extincti<»is on rotation. The dark ribbons and 
lines are formed by flows of impalpable ai^illaceous matter, 
mixed with more or less of the calcitic grains. The same char- 
acters are shown by the rock from both sides of the lake. The 
broken crystals, therefore, of which this limestone was formed, 
were rolled on the beach with gentle motion, interrupted by in- 
tervals of calm, in which the argillaceous particles, the residuum 
of attrition and solution, were deposited over the bottom. TI 
conspicuous crumpling was evidently the result of later dii 

This interesting limestone extends across the countiy westward 
in a prominent ridge ; and a little west of Garden river, ap 

)v Google 

Ohaemations on Canadian Rooks. — Winchetl. 367 

pToaches withio a, mile of Little Lake Geoi^ Ita banded fea- 
tures are here quite conspicuoua. - A Chicago company has 
opened a quarry, and is carrying on somewhat exteosive opera- 
tione. The polished surfaces of the banded and of the tinted por- 
tions Gonstitate varieties of handsome marble — not clouded like 
some of that from Vermont, but softly ribboned, and very fine 
and delicate in texture, and procurable in large blocks. 

This limestone does not fully resemble that which I have ex- 
amined in the vicinity of the old Bruce Mines, with which Murray 
supposed ita continuation. Od Logan's map, it is not connected 
vitii the Bruce limestone ; though the separation was supposed 
due to a fault existing along the valley of the Thessalon. But I 
hold in reserve my opinion respecting their identity. It more re- 
sembles the cherty limestone occurring in the vicinity of Otter- 
tail * and at Ansonia * * — perhaps Logan's ■ ' 3k, Yellow chert and 
limestone," embraced in the quartzite series, and holding a posi- 
tion above the "upper slate conglomerate" — not below, as here. 
This though In places cherty, possesses the flneness and evenness 
of texture of a lithographic atone. At the Ansonia outerop, its 
attitude is disturbed by a dyke of diabase ; but it presents the 
same delicate ashes-of -roses and creamy tints * * as on Echo lake 
and at the quarry near Garden river. The formation at Ottertail 
dips 28° toward S 58° W, and this amount of dip may be said to 
characterize the members of the Huronian generally, from the 
mouth of the Thessalon to Echo lake. 

The resemblance to the Ansonia and Ottertail limestones is fully 
borne out by microscopic characters. The Ansonia rock contains 
more silicious particles, and a little more disseminated dust of de- 
composition. But a striking resemblance is seen in delicate 
argillaceous lines of deposition, and the formation of darker 
bands, while the general aspect of the one is a faithful picture of 
the other. At one point, however, the Ansonia limestone is 
formed largely of rounded calcitic fragmenta, crossed by very 
numerous cleavage cracks; and in this condition, some lai^er 
grtdns of quartz are also enclosed. But these comparisons will be 
pursued on a later occasion. 

The very probable identity of the Ottertail, Ansonia and Echo 
lake limestones must therefore be considered, in apit« of their ap- 

)v Google 

S68 Tits Amerioan Geologist, Doc isro 

psraitly different relationa to the "upper slate oonglom«rote " — 
tbe former appearmg to hold a plac« above the " upper slate 0(«- 
glome»t«," and tiie latter now certainly holding a place helaw it. 
The position determined for the former — not to speak of Logan's as- 
signment of it to the same horizon — was based by the writer,* on 
t^e aapposed existence of a fault which had elevated it nearly to a 
level with the summit of the upper, or white qnartrite, while the 
presence of pebbles of this cherty limestone indicated a positaoo 
below the lower or red quartzite — some 9,000 feet below its actmd 
poailJOD at OttertaiL There was nothing known then, to Indicate 
that It had been uplifted from a still tower level ; but, if the Echo 
iake limestone be its equivalent, the uplift most have been from ft 
level below (he "upper slate conglomerate" — that is, an uplift of 
9,500 feet, according to my observations of the tliickness of the 
"upper slate conglomerate." So for then, as the petrc^n^hic 
similarity of the Ottertall and Echo lake limestones is admitted in 
evidence, we have reason for cbangii^ the recorded poaitioa of the 
Ottertall limestone — the "3k Yellow Chert and Limestone" of 
Logan, This change would bring it into the position of Logan's 
"3e, Limestone," immediately below the "upper slate conglom- 
erate" — a member of the Huronian which I hare not seen, unless 
the Ottertoil limestone represents it As this change would affect 
not only my own previous determinatioD, but Sir William Logan's 
as well, I will here merely suggest it for consideration, 

ftwjeeding along the west shore of Echo lake, a high hill rises, 
crowned with an escarpment, to which I did not ascend, and 
which has the appearance of quartzite. The next hill, however, I 
visited, and found the escarpment to consist of quartzite in heavy 
broken beds, dipping about 20° toward S40°W, and thos ccm- 
formable with the Huronian members. The rock is finely granu- 
lar, with minute disseminated individuals of orthoclase. The dis- 
tance from the limestone is about 2,640 feet, and this represents a 
thickness normal to the stratification, of about 900 feet 

Continuing along the northwest shore of Echo lake, we have for 
the space of three quarters of a mile beyond the last mentioned 
hill, a range of elevations by estimate about 300 feet high. I 
am not able to state the facto respecting their geotog}'. Beyond 
this, however, there is on evident cbange from the conditions of 

'Sixteen^ Aim. Rep. Minn, p. 168. 

)v Google 


Ohncfvatums on Canadian Socks. — Winchdl. 36© 

the Huronian. The talus of the high bills is made of fragments 
of hard greenish and blacldsh slates, not hitherto seen in the 
Huronian, and among them are huge fragments which lithologi- 
cally answer the description of the slate conglomerate of the east 
and north shores at lake Superior. The dips are all verj- steep. 
Sljll further on, is a mass of felsitic quartzite. Beyond this, and 
northward from the head of the lake, I found a successioD of red- 
dish and felsitic quartzite, sericitjc quartzose schist, and many 
fragmeobs of hard slate conglomerate, unlike the "npper slate 
«onglomerete " of the Huronian — the slate being here of a dark, 
greemsh color, considerably warped and twisted, the pebbles 
ranging from partly rounded to completely smooth, mostly red- 
dish with feldspar, and containing some quartz. Near tiiis, at a 
higher level, the slate conglomerate is seen in place, very ruffed 
in aspect, standing vertjcally and striking east and west. It has 
mnch the aspect of the Ogishke conglomerate of Minnesota. 
Stall beyond, and at higher levels, we find felsitic quartzite stand- 
ing vertical and striking N 75° W and N 60° W. On the summit 
of a hill about 400 feet al>ove Echo lake, the vertical knotted 
serico-ai^llitic schist is woven into meshes by half-inch tiiick 
qnartz veins. Near here are outcrops of haematite. Vertical 
strata of similar character continue growing less conglomeritic and 
more sericitic ; but pebbles do not wholly disappear, and now lie 
in coorses N 65° W. A little beyond, the slat* Ijecomea orgiUitic, 
and the formation now cioselj- resembles the Ogishke oongiomer- 
ate. The country varies by turns to more argillitic and more 
sericitic and more conglomeritic, intersected occasionally by 
diorite dykes, until we reach the highest summit, where a bed of 
interetratiiled haematite appears, beyOnd which, crossing a valley, 
we find a rugged hill of vertical, dark, slaty orgillite — the exact 
«ount«rpart of the Knife lake orgillite of Minnesota. The course 
of this traverse is directly north from the head of Kcho lake, and 
the air-line distance about a mile. 

These changed rocks, in attitudes so strange, cannot belong to 
the same system with the quartzites, the upper slate conglomerate 
tuad the limestone of the Huronian. These rugged strata stand 
vertically ; the Huronian beds dip at an angle of 20°. These 
rocks strike east, or in a direction approximating that ; the 
Huronian beds strike mostly NE and SW, though with many local 
vanatione in these parte. Here is a genuine discordance of strati- 

.Google ^ 

370 The American, Geologist. Dec. is»o 

flcation. Here are two systems, and not one, as Sir William 
Logan has mapped them. 

A Beriea of oonvictioiia now becomes rather cleM. We stand 
here on the veritable formation wbich, sweeping back of Gros Cap 
to Gonltus bay and Dort river, waa identified by Logan, witii tbe 
Huronian of lake Huron, and fully described in terms which apply 
perfectly to the rocks here under investigation. We are con- 
vinced also, of their identity with the vertical strata in Minne- 
sota and the Canadian Northwest, known as the < < Eewatin " sys- 
tem. The same observer brings the facts from remote points 
into mental juxtaposition, and seems to be in a position to certify 
to their parallelism. 

At the same time, another conviction seems equally clear. 
These gnarled^ green and pehhly slateg are the prolongation of the 
"Lower Stale Conglomerate " of the Thetialon valley. 

I toach here a question of such fundamental Importance that 
the present occasion will not suffice for its discussion. The out- 
come has been a surprise, and I desire to pursue the subject ab 
another opirortunity. 

Ann Arbor, Nov., J890. 


By N. H. WiNCHEi.1. and Jjjibb A. Ttonok, MlnneftpolU. * 
The accompanying plate (Plate VII. ) is a "half-tone " repro- 
duction of a photogi-aph made by us of the slab cut from the cen- 
tral portion of the mass weighing 211 pounds. It shows well the 
distribution of the metallic iron, the specimen having been ar- 
ranged in such a way that the light was reflected from the metallic 
surfaces, which appear light in the plate. The blackened condi- 
tion of the olivine, extending from the surface toward the center 

•The first part of this paper waa published in the Geologist, May, 
1890, vol. v., p. 309. The discovery of these meteorites waa first uotlufid 
In the Topeka Cn/pUal, Topeka, Kansas, March 10, by Prof. F. W. Cragin. 
They were noted Id vol. v., p. 256, of the Qeologiht, (April). Since th» 
publication of our first paper Mr. Geo. F. Eunz boa described then) in 
Science, vol. xv., p. 359, June 13, 1890, and from his paper some compar- 
ative facts are derived for this discuaalon. See also Trans. M. Y. 
Acad. Scl., vol. U., No. S, May-June, 1890, p. 186. 

)v Google 

The Eiowa Meteorites. — Wmehdl-Dodge, 371 

an avenige depth of about two inches, fading out gradually 
toward the center and being replaced by the unclianged oliviue, is 
not well shown, but on examiniug the natural specimen any one is 
impresBed with the great change that has talien place in the min- 
eral, and the great interval of time that muat have elapsed since 
the specimen came within the influence of our atmosphere. 

Since the specimen was cut, and while this slab has been ex- 
posed to the atmosphere of our office where no acid fumes could 
have reached it so as to hasten the procesB, there has taken place 
a noticeable oxidation all over that part of the cut surface which 
■contains the fresh olivine, viz., about the central portion, and the 
metallic iron has become rusted to such an extent that it presents 
a strong contrast witii the metallic iron which is nearer the peri- 
phery of the slab. This points directly to the nature of the 
change which has taken place in the meteoric mass. It indicates 
tiie loss of some easily oxidizing mineral originally present 
throughout the mass, or at least its partial conversion into some 
acid that rapidly attacks metallic iron. On making a closer in- 
8pecti<Hi it appears that the source of this rusting agent ia not in 
the bronzy sulphide mentioned as one of the evident minerals. 
The red iron-rast surrounds and adheres at the edges of the 
metallic areas, and even stands up in blisters or minute babbles, 
«ven where none of the bronzy mineral is present. The bronzy 
mineral is still perfectly fresh generally, and is equally fresh and 
abundant in the darkened periphery where the change has been car- 
ried to completion. In some of the cavities within the spongy iron, 
Irom which the olivine amygdules have been dislodged by the pro- 
cess of cutting the specimen, may be seen the thin black film to 
which we have alluded aa ^ving the iron matrix a botryoidal and 
specular reflection, and having, when freah, a silvery metallic lustre, 
and a hardness of about 3 or 3^. It appears to be tliis film which 
famishes the rusting agent. Some of these films are partially 
coated with red blisters of iron oxide, although depressed below the 
general surface and out of the reach of fumes that might have origi- 
nated elsewhere ; they are now either rusty or tarnished or black- 
ened, having lost the bright silvery reflection. In the peripheral por- 
tion, however, where the change was so gradual that nearly all the 
products of the alteration were retained in titu, these separating 
films still present shining surfaces wherever the olivine grains 
have been removed. The irony product of this alteration seems 

)v Google 


872 The Ameruxtn Ge(dogi»t. Decisso 

here to have entered in the peripheral portion into some of the 
grtuQB of the olivine, turning them opaque black but not render^ 
ing tbem aerpentinoua. This was accompanied by a propc^ouate 
lose of some of the magnesia, as shown by the chemical analyses 
below. This rust on the iron ia not the result of simple atmos- 
pheric oxidation, but has the appearance of iron that has been 
slowly corroded by some acid, and it indicates that the sulphnr in 
these films is in a ditTerent state of combination from that in iJie 
bronzy mineral. 

Elclied antfaca of the Kiowa meteorite. 
On polishing and etching one aide of the six-pound piece the 
distribution of the three principal ingredients ( olivine, iron, 
troilite ) were found to be about the same as in the larger mass. 
The above figure, which is an exact reproduction of that sur- 
face, also exhibits the Widmanstattian lines which the etehing 
process brought out on the surfaces of the metallic iron. The 
barred portions represent the olivine, and the dotted are those of 
troilite. Some of the metallic iron surfaces do not exhibit the 
characteristic bars. Mid generally there is a narrow marginal strip^ 
on all these surfaces that does not Show them. 

)v Google 

The Mawa Jlfeieaniei.-'Wvnchell-I>odge. 873 

For the purposes of analysis three portious of the meteoric 
mass were selected, namely : flnt, a portaoa of the metal ; sec- 
ondly, a portion of the light-colored non-metallic sabstance ; 
thirdly, a portion of the dark-colored oon-metaUic sabetaace. 
These portions were each picked oat from a mixed mass of frag- 
ments and cottingB obtained in the process of making sections of 
the meteorite by sawing. 

1. Analyaie of OieiMtallicvortion. 

Iron 00.48 percent. 

Mlckel 8.S9 " 

Cotalt 16 '• 

Copper Trace. 

Phosphorus 27 " 

Sulphnr * 05 " 

Carbon Trace. 

Silica 34 " 

Chromic Oxide 09 " 

The silica and the chromic oxide were found in the residue left 
<m diBsolving the metal with nitro-hydrochloric acid. The chromic 
oxide was in combiuation with a small amount of iron, as chrom- 
Ite. This, as well as the silica, may have been attached to the 
surface of pieces of the metal, although pains were taken to re- 
move all such attached matter before analysis. A determination 
of carboD was undertaken, by Weyl's method. The small 
amount of residue from the process of solution resembled carbon. 
But when tested qualitatively, by iguitiou on platinum foil, only 
a small part of this residue was consumed. 

2. Analj/tle of the Mffht-colorecl nonr-metolltc portion. 

Silica ■. 40.50 per cent. 

Ferrous Oilde 10.51 " " 

Ferric Oxide 1.77 " " 

Hagnesia 47,18 " " 

Phosphorus Trace. 

The chemical composition of this portion is evidently that of 

3. Anali/ti* of the dark-colored non-metallic portion. 
This portion appeared in some respects the most interesting. 
The pieces selected for analysis varied in size from about one- 
twentieth to about one-fourth inch in longest diameter. They 
were of irr^^ar shape, but mostly with rounded surfaces, as 
broken out of the cellular spaces in the metallic part of the 
meteorite. Their material appeared to bg homogeneous. They 

, Google ^^ 

374 7%s Amsruxm Oeologitt. Dec iseo 

were all of nearly the same color, almost black, surfaces of frac- 
ture showing a brilliant lustre. Some were slightly attracted by a 
magnet. The powder had a dark grey color. 

On warming the powder with moderately strong hydrochloric 
acid, partial decomposition took place, with eeparatjon of silicic 
acid and evolution of Bulphuretted hydrogen in small quantity. 
Qoalitative analysis showed the presence of snlphur, silica, iron, 
nickel, chromium, ms^esia and phosphorus. None of the 
chromium passed into the solution made with hydrochloric add. 
Id. the quantitative analysis, after digesting the powder witJi hy- 
drochloric acid and evaporating to separate silica, the insoluble 
residue amounted to 44.3 per cent This residue had a grey 
color, such as might be produced by mn-lring & mixture of ^lica 
and powdered chromite ; and this it undoubtedly was. The 
chromic oxide and the iron in this residue were found to amount 
respectively to 12.28 and 4.68 per cent. This iron is aligbtly 
in excess of the quantity required by the formula Fe 0. Cr^ 0^ 
Account of this is tak^k in the following statement of results. A 
determination of the total ferrous iron present in the powdered 
substance was undertaken, by the method of professor Cooke. 
The operation was carried through In duplicate and the two re- 
sults agreed very closely. But the powder was not completely de- 
composed by hydrofluoric acid. The insoluble residue contained 
chromium and iron, and was again undoubtedly chromite, The 
amount of iron in the ferrous form found by Cooke's process was 
10. 19 per cent Fart of this iron is regarded as being combined 
with sulphur, part with phosphorus and nickel and part, aa fer- 
rous oxide, with silica and magnesia. A determination of the 
total iron in the powder gave 21.21 per cent 
Silica S5.8B per cent 

containing Iron 

Ferrous Oilde (part). 


Ferric Oxide (part). 




Chromic Oslde 


Ferrous Oxtde (part) 

by formula Fe 0. Or, 0„ 


Ferric Oilda (part). 




Iron combined with sulphur. 

by tormnla Fa 8 






IrOD combined with phosphorus 

and nickel, by formula Ni^ Fe 

«P, 1.30 

Toial, • 


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Tke Kiowa Meteorites. — Wlnchdl-Dodge. 375 

As regards the distribution of tlie iron in the foregoing state- 
ment of the results of the analysis, it will be obscr\'ed that certain 
assumptions are made. It was. of course, necessarj' that tome 
-afieumptioDS should be made. The foregoing arrangement of the 
resntts indicates the presence in the material analyzed of four 
minerals, namely : first, a silicate of comjx)sition like that of 
olivine altered by the higher oxidation of a part of the iron, this 
mineral making np 74. 42 per cent, of the whole ; secondly, chro- 
mite, amounting to 18.31 per cent, of the whole; thirdly, triolite, 
4. 70 per cent. ; fourthly, schreibersite, 2.13 per cent. 

Yet, as previously stated, the material appeared to the eye 
liomogeneons, and a mechanical separation of the above oamed 
minerals from the portion taken for analysis would probably have 
been impossible. 

The oxidation which has been mentioned as taking place while 
the alab has stood in a room at ordinary temperatures, and which 
aeema to indicate the presence of a sulphide besides that of triolitc, 
throws additional ligiit on the probable nature of the minerals that 
are present, and paxticularlj- as to the presence of dflubri5elite, a 
sulphide of chromium ; and it is here suggested, for future inves- 
tigation, that the profound change which has taken place in the 
mass may consist in a convei-sion of daubn^elite to chromit«, in 
tlie same manner as sulphides of iron are sometimes converted tn 
^itu on a large scale to oxides. In that case it will be found that 
the scale which lines the cavities within the iron, in the interior of 
the niass, surrounding tiie olivine masses, is a sulphide of chro- 
mium, probably daubreelito, * but that in the periphery which 
shows no accumulation of iron rust since cutting, this scale con- 
sists almost entirelj' of chromite. 

The existence of daubr<^elite as a possible antecedent condition 
, of some of the chromite must remiun, for the present, wholly spec- 
ulative, and the presence of schreibersite is dependent on the 
necessities of the chemical contents and formula;. 

Microscopic Examination in T/u'ii Stcli'in. 

We have examined si.x thin sections. We can detect in them 
but three minerals, viz: 

1, Olivine, as indicated b}' t&e analysis. This shows all tlie 
usual characters of olivine, except that some of the grains do not 

•C. U. Shepard described what he considered a swsiiulsulpliurel of 
chromium and iiamed schreibersite, but daubriWite lias superseded it. 

)v Google 

376 The Amerkan Geoloykt. Deciseo 

exhibit tlie briiliant colors between crossed Nicols whicli are char- 
acteristic of this mineral. Its cracks ar« charged with limonitc, 
and thi$ becomes so abundant in some grains as to render it 
opaque entirely, in which condition its appearance approaches that 
of the chromite. When it is fresh it is nearly colorless in orduiary 

2. Ckromitr.. In making the selection of the above analyzed 
dark, non-metallic portion, it is plain that a considerable amoant 
of this mineral was included. It ia found, not only in the outer 
dark periphery of the slab, but within the fresh central area, and 
in both cases it is shining black ( like anthracite ) and brittle. Its 
fracture and imperfect cleavage are not easily distinguishable from 
those of the olivine, but it lies in the midst of the fresh oliinne 
grains and does not show any tendency to graduate into them, 
presenting sharp transitions. It is entirely opaque, but under 
reflected light its surfaces, in the section, are seen to be specked 
with numerous particles of troilite. 

3. Troilite. Throughout the meteoric mass, no less than in 
the thin sections, arc megascopic particles and films of a light- 
brassy mineral which is that characteristic of meteorites. This 
forms not onlj' individual masses, sometimes more than a quarter 
of an inch in diameter, but surrounds and separates the individual 
olivines. It is opaque, hut its ground surfaces, however polished, 
seem always to be checked and roiighcnc*! by a fine angular 

It will be noticed that our results differ somewhat from those of 
Mr. Kunz : whereas the analyses given by him show the presence 
of a small amount of manganese oxide and ours show none, our 
analyses indicate the presence of a considerable amount of chro- 
mium, and his show none. He also speaks of olivine crj'stAls that 
"break out entire, the faces on many of them being distinct: 
enough to measure the angles. The spaces from which they break 
are highly polished, showing every crystal face with a mirror-like 
polish. " We find our olivine masses in rounded forms, embraced, 
it is true, in brilliantly lined cavities within the metallic iron, but 
we do not distinguish any individual crystal faces nor exterior 
angles. We see only the surfaces of cleavages which cause the 
rapid and easy crumbling of all the olivine grains. Sir. Kunz 
gives the total weight of the masses that have been discovered 
at "alHJUt 2,rt0l) pounils." He also snggcuts that pm-ts of this 

)v Google 


Geological Survey of Nicaragua. — Ortmefwd. 377 

iroD had been made use of by the aborigiDes, or the moimd- 
builders, as pieces of meteoric ii'Oii have been found in the mounds 
of the Ohio valley. 


By J. Crawtoro, Maoagiia, Nicaragua. 

Writcra referring to the geology of Nicaragua invariably follow 
the Spanish statements of tlie fifteenth century ; and declare it to 
consist of ft heterogeneous mixtui-e of materials ejected from vol- 
canoes, Uke that of other countries of Central America. Its nat- 
ural history hiia never been specially examined. This is partic- 
niarly true of its geology. Two fonner attempts have been 
oi^anized for this purpose, but never actually commenced work. 
This was the situation when, about two years ago, I waa leisurely 
passing through Niciiragua by the usual route from Corinto on tlie 
Pacific coast to San Juan del Norte (uowAmerica) on the shore 
of the Caribbean sea. Seeing several roclts and minerals that had 
been found here, which caused me to doubt the correctness of 
opinions heretofore entertained, I ratlier gladly accepted the otfei- 
from the Nicaraguan government to superintend for it the collec- 
tion of specimens of its natural history for exhibition at Paris. 
To this duty it was soon agreed to add that of examining and 
reporting on the geology, mineralogy and botany of this countrj^. 

The government of Nicaragua gave me the use of the very few 
instruments it had suitable for my work, also such scientific books 
in the national library as I might find useful for reference. These 
books I found to be very antiquated editions of some of the works 
of Miu-chison, Lyell, and De Caudolle, and some recent publica- 
tions of Dana, J. P. Cooke and J. H. Wj-the. The latter books 
have been my sole intelligent companions during the greater part 
of the past twenty-two months. 

The belief that Nicaragua was almost all formed from volcanic 
ejecta was too firmly roote<l to warrant the expenditure necessary 
for an outfit of moilem apparatus, instruments and books. We 
knew that alxrnt one third part of the eountrj' was occupied only 
by wild animals, and liy the small remnants of three tribes of 
Bcmi-oivilized aborigines, and that the other tbinl part was, outside 
of ft few towns, sparsely settled by mind's, cuttle rancheros and 
Indians. Consequently I'esijectcil a very rough time, in a moun- 

)v Google 

378 The American Omlogiet. Decisao 

tuinoua countrj' where pathways were dim, forest dense, population 
tLin, and wild animals abundant. 

From the commencement I found the work more than usually 
jtttraclavc, and it became rapidly more and more intereating as the 
tiamination developed the goologj-. I traced the volcimic forma- 
tions, wliich form the western and Bouthwestem part, northeast- 
wardly through Quaternary, Tertiar3-, Mesozoic and Carboniferous 
eras. These in some places showed cvidenees of having be«n 
affected by volcanic forces, or streams of volcanic rock. Below 
these, with possibly Devonian and Silurian strata, I then found 
Kozoic rocke, as bare and bald to the sun as found on the coast of 
Labrador. My excavations were necessarily limited and hufried, 
but tbey revealed evidence of the existence in Nicaragua of a 
wealth of paleozoic fossils that will, when sought for with greater 
care, delight the hearts of the future paleontologists of Nicaragua. 
For twenty-two months I have been actively engagetl, almost 
daily in examining mountains, hills, defiles, valleys, dikeu, lodes, 
soils, etc. , ruins, springs, flora and fauna, and have information 
to eoablc mc to make out a general description of these features of 

Nicaragua, geologically considered, is divisible into five sections. 

Section First, 
This is the volcanic region, the materials dating from Tertiary- 
and from Quaternary age. They consist of trachytes, basalis, 
tufas, bombs, breccias, ashes and volcanic mud, the last acting as 
a cement There are here also Mesozoic and Carl>oniferouB rocks 
and minerals, which have been displacetl, fractured and .greatly 
changed in appearance by volcanic forces. This section is west 
ward and southwestward, extending to the Pacific ocean, and to 
Oosta Rica. It has a tortuous line, commencing about lat 
IS" 15' N. and long. 87° (west from Greenwich) and extending 
.toaboutlat 11° 10' N. and long. 84° 15' W., embracing the 
large lakes Managua and Nicaragua (once a pait of the Eocene 
ocean ) and many other lakes which occupy craters of extinct 
volcanoes. Such crater lakes are Masaya, Nijapa, Tistopa, Oiloa, 
Apoya, Accssosou, and others, some baviny fresh water, and 
others large pei-centages of sulphates and carbonates, borates, etc. 
This section has hills, once peaked, now rounded, formed from 
materials that were the product of volcanoes during times of regu- 
lar but feeble activity, and elevated plateaus, and long, sloping 

)v Google 

Geologieal Survey of Nicaragua. — Crawfiyrd. 379 

plaifm composed of lajge and small pieces of igaeous rock mixed 
and hardened with a lai^e quantity of ai^illaucouB sands and vol- 
canic ash. It also embraces wide valleys froo) 25 to 100 feet in 
altitude above the Pacific ocean. Thrae are formed in strata, in 
descending order of, 

1. A slightly compacted mlsUire of vegetable mold and fine-grained 
volcanic cinders and ashes, from S to irt feet thick. 

2. Calcareous materials from Iwo to three feet thick, loosely com- 
pacted, or hard, composed largely of remains of shells aud crustaceans, 
some of them being lacustrine and others of brackish- water species, but 
a large majority o( marine. 

3. A hardened mixture of sharp-angled Igneous rockii, lavas, sands, 
cinders and ashiis, of a depth not yet ascertained, but very deep.* 

In this section sulphur (sofatares). paszulnno, pumice and 
ol>9idian are abundant, an<l gold, iron ores, lignite, concrete, 
itnthracitc arc found in some quantities. The imthracite is su^)- 
posed to be formed by heat from lignite. 

The lauds in this section are very fertile, nnd during the rainy 
season capable of producing large crops. On the elevated plains, 
i,500 to Ii,500 feot above the Pacific, Isorca coffca, Cinclionea and 
other rubiaceous plants are found to perfection. 

The following is the appi-oximute altitude of some volcanoes 
and lakes in this section. 

VotamiHW. Irfiftcs. 

VIego, e.ino feet. Managua, 143 feet (fresh water). 

Momotomba,U,510fect (smoking) Tiseapa, 170 feot, ■■ 

Caseguina, 3,800 feet. Nljapa, lUH feet (saline). 

Maaaya. 3,800 feet. Qlloa, 138 feet. " 

Mombacho, 6,100 feet. Masaya. 415 feet ( fresh). 

Ometapa, 5,800 feet {hot on top). Apoyo, T85 feet. " 

Madera, ri.OOO feet. Nicaragua, ISU ft. (slightly saline). 

. None of the volcanoes ai-e active at pi-cscnt. Momotomba emits 
a little vapor, and is hot on top. Omctapo is not quite cool on 
top, and a rougb murmuring sound is heard at its base, becoming 
now almost inaudible from a very distinct and dJsagrce.ible, contin- 
uous, grating noise heard thei-e for sc\'eral mouths in the latter 
partoflSST. Tbe water in the lake Xijapa is strongly impreg- 
nated with salts, so that a light, copious hitlier is formed on the 
heads of persons bntliing there. The water of lake Nicaragua 
•Also at different depths from the surface are deposits like beds ot 
gla<'lal drift, generally found, at Intervals, from a tew leagues northwest 
of lake Managua westward to the Paclfiu ocean. 

)v Google 

3S0 The American Oedoijint. Dec. isoo 

coutaius a -siiffluiont pcrfcntagG of ciilorideH, etc.. to agree with 
tie Squaliilie, wlioae teeth arc not so lance-ahoped as are the 
marine species. The water in hike Managua contains a much 
smaller per eiMituin of saline matter than litke Nicaragua, but more 
than (Ii)uhlf the per <'entiim of salts in the waters at the mouth of 
the river Viejo which empties into this lake. Large springe of 
iMiiliiig iHineiiLl waters aie found in the valley .near the western 
hasc of Muitii'tomlia, also lielow the falls at Fuehia Tipitapa. on 
the west side of the channel, also on the north side of Pan Juan 
river — all contiiining a hu'gc per cent of sulphur, iron, magnesia 
and allialies. Mud-floods ( -'aliivions" ) liave occurred in this 
section, and sometimes the resulting stratified formation I'esembles 
aome of beds of the Tertiary so closely as to he very deceptive, 
andrequiiv very careful examination to be distinguished. 
Seoond Section. 
This divisioTi adjoius and is northeastward from tlie last, and 
extends in a northeast direction to a line from about hit. 13° 25' 
>'. and long. SC 50 ' W. to about long. 80° 35 ' W. , thence to a vcrj- 
irregular, diagonal, inclined line, to about Int. 11° 35' N. and 
long. 83° 40 ' \V. Its geological formations are, 

1. Modern siibniorgnd forests, poats. clays, marls, cavns, ptc. 

:;. Chnmitliiln tufas, raorslnea, clays, striated rocka, glacial boulder 
cliiys, drift, erratic rouks, etc. 

3. PUaccnc flluty shingk'S, loams and laminated days, lignites, etc. 

4. 3IIO0CIIC shelly sand, reddish brown, In oblliiue layers. Marly 
limestone, grcoiiisli, lignite, etc, 

5. Eocene millstonos, llmestono-'i and clay (marine) ; marly limestones 
<fi*oah water), aandstouos, etc. 

6. McanzuU?. Septarla beds, marly clays (blue), ninty llmG^tone, 
green saiidstoueH, timcstonc^ (bracklsh-water), clays, slates and con- 
glomerates, sandstones, sometimes pebbly, gypsum, bituminous earths, 

7. Pcnni/in. Magneilaii limesione. iimy magnesian marble, etc. 

a. CailioniferoiM. Coal, millstone grit, siderito. Mountain lime- 
In this sci'tion ai)ntite, jet. opala, agates, onyx, gj-p.sum, talc, 
steatite, kaolinito. and bnrite ai-e frequently found, also petrificil 
bones of animals of apparently Tertiary and Mesozoic eras, ; also 
bituminous coal in at one place, but slightly distnrl>ed. 

No voUyinic crat*rs. no lakes nor mineral springs ha\e been 
noticed in this scrliou. Large ai-eas exist in which are thickly 
<leposited fragments ()f igneous rocks. 


„ Google 

Geological Survey of Nlcarof/ua. — Crawford. 381 

In this spRtion are raanj- large valleys 250 to 750 feet above tUe 
Paoifie ocean, Bome of them well watered, but the majority not 
well watered. It also contains many forests of valuable trees. 
The average t«.'mperaturc is about 21i° Cent The fact that this 
section adjoins the great volcanic belt on the southwest, and the 
Arehean area and Silurian formations witliout volcanoes on the 
noi-theast, causes much perplexity when examining about its mar- 
gins or limits and in describing it ei'en in a general way ; espec- 
ially to distinguish between metamorphism occiisioned by heat 
from volcanic sources, anil that by heat developed on the attrition 
of particles from contractifm. 

Section Third. 

This section adjoins and lies to the northeast of section second, 
and is bounded on its northeastern side by a line northeast wai-dly 
from about lat 13" 2^ N., and long. 80° 40' W., to lat 14" 42' 
N. , and long. B4° 40 ' W. , thence southeast ward ly to about lat 
12° 40' N. and long. 84' 30' W. 

1. OiirJss, granite, protoglne, porphyry, slatex, rry stall lied lime- 
stones, and Iron eontaining titanium, of Kozoli: agi;, are abundant in 
well dpfiiK'd aruiis In this scrtlon, especially about lat. 13° 37' N. and 
long, 86° 33' W. In some plaroa, notably Co rro Lagoon Ita (a part of the 
mosas de Totnmble) giioi^ of Silurian era is found for mllna In li-nglh, 
And over 000 feet nearly perpendicular. It 1:4 Frsctiired (schialosed) in 
nearly vertical lines Intersected at nearl; right angles by other dividing 
planes that are often over 100 feel apart. In a few platjH^ those division 
lines, where Ihey intorsoct, have been expanded Into caves whleh ex- 
tend 100 feet or more into the mountain. Bones of man and other ani- 
mals are sometimes found In these caves.* 

S. Devonian, red sandstoues; coarse, gritty shales, spotted marls, 
etc., are found In and near the edges of this section. 

There are in this section a few deposits of kaolin, of an un- 
usually pure kin<i ; also veins li tJ> 12 inches wide of crystallized 
translucent quartz ; and in several places lai^e ma-sses of albite- 
porphyry, labradorite-porpLyry, orthoclase and anorthite feld- 
spars ; and in many plaees argillaceous slates, cut by dikes and 
veins, the latter sometimes rich in gold, silver, lead, antimony 
and tin. Some of these lo<lcs also eont^iin uranium ores mixed 
with those of tin — others contain nickel. There are also several 
large deix>8it8 of liematitc and limonite ; in some of the creeks ai-e 
found platinum and iridium. 


)v Google 

382 The American Gedlogiat. Dec. isso- 

In several parte of this section Eire large elev&ted pluns, and ■ 
long, gradually sloping eerros, well watered and very fertile. 
These are from 1,100 to 3,500 feet above the sea, and admirably- 
qualified for the semi-annual productioD of laige crops of wheat, 
barley, com, sugar, etc. 

None of the monntjuns exceed 5,000 feet above the Pacific 
ocean. 3,900 to 4,000 feet are the usual limits of altitude. 
There are several large mineral springs in this section, some boil- 
ing. Xo volcano^ nor evidences of seismic forces appear. The- 
average temperature of the air is about 20° Cent and the climate- 
ia delightful all the year. 

Seotioa Pourth, 

This is a strip of territory extending from north to south on- 
the east of and adjoining section third, and extending eastward to- 
within about 100 miles of the Carribean cOost Its geolc^cal 
histoiy is similar to that described in Section second, but its 
formations have not I)een so mnch disturbed. Coal, iron ores and 
marble are in laige deposits ; also, near its eastern edge, about 
the headwaters of the Princ Apulka river, are foand rich gold 
placers. The forest consists principally of mahogany, cedar, 
pine, walnut, hickory and of Cecropiaj peltata, Siphonia clastjca, 
Moras and Cassalpinia echinata. The temperature averages about 
22° Cent The soil is very fertile and watered by numerous 
creeks and rivers. This section is just west of the coast belt of 
frequent rains. 

SeotioD Fifth 

Is a strip north to south on the Caribbean sea coast, a forma- 
tion of lagoons, deltas, swamps, and brackish-n^ter estuaries, ex- 
cepting a narrow strip of sand along the sea coast 

Mounds exist on this coast containing stone implements, flint 
arrow-heads, rough flint spear-heads, and bones of man older than 
t^panish occupation. 

Managuti, Nicaragua., Dee. H, 1889. 


By E. O. Ulbich, Newport. Ky. 
No. 3. Desoriptiona of new speoies, vvlth remarks on others. 


The specimen below illustrate<l presences the charactera of th& 

hinge in a verj- satisfactory manner. There are two sharply de- 

)v Google 

'lihranchiata. — Ulrich. 383 

yiXItiCANaB0i.OOUT.Vol. VI, No. 3, p. 180. 1890. 

t Ulr., Trenton shalps. Cannon t'alls, Minn., 
[q the postero- ventral region. It la possible 
Quid be more narrowly rounded, b, cardinal 
it same to show dentition ot hinge, and In- 
hln the posterior half of bintte line. 

ed aI)out midway Ijetween the beak and 
3 narrow ilepression between them re- 
)f the right valve, while the second tooth 
itted into an elongate depression beneath 
of the left valve. A decided ridge-like 
rved beneath the posterior thii'd of the 
in strength posteriorly, and, as inter- 
i support to an internal ligament The 
igamental area is very narrow, though 
extend in front of the beaks. It is also 
dly, a feature that probahly pertains to 

le lai^e uniliones and the tumid appear- 
ral, are the most striking, and eeem to 
p to ff! umboniilaVh. (GtoLociisT, Sept. 
laed. Another point in which W. tcoJieMi 
and in which both differ from all the 
nation of the point of greatest convexity, 
Idle of the valve. In W. vmhonata the 
. the present species, it being almost ex- 
valves in the latter. A more important 
e escutcheon, which in the species um- 
5,<e<i«(« ( M. & W.), liiHdi (BWlmgB) and 
hannel extending the whole length of the 
■iiJieJdi, it is naiTow and does not extend 
aiks. The next descril)ed si>ecies ( ffl 
a that respect. 

)v Google 

384 7%e American Geoloyist. Dec. isao 

Serernl years ago I received, with a numtwr of other fossila, an 
intcrual cast of a sheli that probably belongs to this species. 
These fossila were collected at Beloit, Wis. , from the Buff lime- 
stone of the Trenton, aucl the cast in question was labeled 
Cypri':nrd!teime<iinnhnuut'Vi\Mt&<i\A. I do not think that it belongs 
to that sp-icies, the shell being more oblique, and the umbonal 
ridge more pronounced and angular, agreeing in these respects 
veiy closely with the scofieldi. Another specimen receive<l at the 
same time agrees more nearly with the figures of the former 
(Geol. of Wis. Vol. IV, PI. 5, flga. 7 and 8.) It is compara- 
tively less veutricose, but being much smaller than the figured 
specimen, it is possible that the difference is due to age. 

But botb these specimens are unquestionable Whitella and not 
€i/pricardites at all, and the question naturally arises, may not 
Whitfield's species really belong to the same genus? I am al- 
most satisfied that it does, despite the fact that Prof. 'Wliitfleld 
both describes and figures ( loc. cit. flg. 7 ) his species as having 
"two long, curved, posterior teeth." If his flg. 8, representing 
an antero-cardinal view of the same specimen, is reliable, and I 
believe it is, the impressions of the supposed posterior teeth can- 
not have been produced by teeth at all. When the valves are 
closed, as is shown to have been the cose with his specimen, the 
teeth must necessarily interlock, else they would niisa their pur- 
pose. In his figure, however, the impressions are widclj- separated. 

Now, that is just as it should be in a species of Whitella, like 
scojichli or compressu, in which the posterior internal cartilage 
support is strongly developed. In the cast this leaves a long, 
narrow impression on each side of a ridge, representing the space 
originally occupied by the ligament. 

And there are other reasons that cause me to doubt the generic 
placement of species megamhoaug. In the firet place the shell 
must have been thinner than in true Cypricarditei, and without 
that ridge-like internal thickening which leaves casts of species of 
that genus marked with a shallow groove running from the um- 
bones toward the postero- ventral margin. Nor are the muscular 
impressions nearly so distinct as is usual in Ci/prieardiiet and the 
beaks are enrolled in a fashion quite foreign to species of that 
genus. There is, furthermore a fullness and smoothness about 
the casts that is not equalled by those of any true Cypiricardile* 
known to me. On the other hand, the casts agree in all respects 

)v Google 

New LameUibranc/iiata. — Ulrich. 385 

with those of species of Whliella and until it is proven thnt the 
spei'ies really possesses ]X)stcrior hinge t«etli, I shnll refer to it as 
Whit'-Ua meg.imho,,,,. 

Wbitella trvmoata n. sp. 

Fig, 17, WhUriUi tninniUi, ii. sp , Galena Hme»totJP, Canuoii Falls, 
Minn, a, leftside iif a lnrg'< i-ast of tlio iDterlor; h, antero-cardlnal 
view of same ; i; lardiiial view of same. 

Shell small, \erk' ol)li(iue, vontriw>se, sub rhomboid al in aside 
view. Beaks nenrly terminal, prominent, of moderate size, ob- 
liquely enrolled : umhones and umltonal rulgo f nil, the latter an- 
gular and traceable to the posti'ro- basal angle. Caiilinal slope 
sharply defined, and distinctly eoncaie, anterior and basal slopes 
Hli<;l)tly convex and very rapid. Ant^-rior end t cry short, scarcely 
projecting beyond the beaks, narrowly rounded, then sloping 
rapidly backward and uniting very gradually with the gently curved 
basaf margin. Posterior end truncated, straightened, forming 
nearly a right angle witli the hinge line, and one of from 7r>" to 
80° with the ventral edge, 

Kscntcheon narrow, not extending anterior to the beaks. In 
casts of the interior, the internal cartilage support leaves two nar- 
row impressions, one on each side of the i>osterior half of the 
hinge line. Dentition of hinge not ol.>aen'ed. Muscular scars 
ven- faint. 

Dimensions of a large cast of the interior: Greatest hight, 13 
mm.; greatest convexity (near center of shell) 15 mm.; length 
from beaks to iK)Stei-o-basal angle, 19 mm. ; length from an- 
terior extremity to tipiwr portion of posterior margin 15 mm. 
In a small specimen only t> mm. high, the other dimensions 
are in proportion, except that the convexity is comparatively less. 

This species is closely related to W. smjiildi, but may be dis- 
tinguished by its smaller size, greater convexity, truncated pos- 
terior end, shorter anterior end, and more pronomiced postero-ven- 
tral angle. 

Associated with this species, I found a east of another siwcies 
of this genus, reminding one sti-ongly of W. uhllqutHn Ulr, It is, 

b, Google 

386 TSfl Atnerican Geologist. d«c. isso- 

however, not .the same as that species, being smaller, more- 
elongate, and with the postero-basal angle sharper. The impres-' 
Bions of the internal ligament supports are also mach wider and 
stronger than in that species. I conclude therefore that it rep- 
resento a distinct species which might be called Whitella pracipta, 
n. sp. 

Position and lotralHy: Shaly lajera of the Galena Kmostone, asso- 
ciated with ReceiJUiculUeg and HeinipronUcs amerlcana Whitfield. 

Whitella Bubovata, 

Pig. 18. WhU^Uta Mibovata, n. sp., Cinclnu group, Warnc^vllle 
Ohio, a, right sido of a large casl ot thp InierEor; b, profile of sarae; 
c, right sldR of a sligiitly dlstorUsd, amallor n.tample of this species, 
from tlip collection of Mr. I. H, Harris, of Warncaville. 

Shell of medium size, subovate in outline, moderately oblique, 
and unusually eompressetl for this genus. Beaks large, promi- 
nent, obliquely incurved, situated a little in front of the center of 
the hinge line. (Jmbonal ridge distinct above, but never a con- 
spicuous feature of the shell. Cardinal slope narrow and faintly 
concave ; the remainder of the surface gently convex, with point 
of greatest convexity above the center. Anterior end compara- 
tively wide and long, sharply rounded above, then sloping back- 


t Zamdliiranchiata. — Ulrich. 

md uDJformly into the basal margin ; pi 
Dnnly rounded, but oecaaionally the biu 
luced. Escutcheon ot- tigamental area d< 
I the anterior extremity of the hinge. I 
Jyprioardites BTondls, n. 8p. 

TdltcK granHU, n. sp,, Galena hnri/.on of the 

, Ky. a, right aldo of a perfett ."hell of this ., , 

( snme; e, Interior of right valvo as obtftlued from 

3Sion3 of casts ot the Interior. 

s not leaving any ai>preeial)le impreasionB on 

or. Muscular scars and pallint line unusually 

! with concentric lines of growth. , 

sembles the Minnesota Trenton shales species, 

, Google 

388 The Ai/ierican Geologist. Deciaeo 

W. comprest", rather closely, but ia distiuguishetl from it, as well 
as from all the others of the genua, by the auboval outline. The 
casta are not nearly bo vcntricose aa those of W. obUqanta and 
vmhoimta, with whicli it is aaaociated. 

Position and loi;allty ; Upper beds of the Cinclniiatf group, at 
Wuyiiesville, Ob[o, and other locallttps. 

Shell large, moderately ventricose, slightly oblique, the outline 
Biibcircular. Beaks small, projecting slightly above the hinge 
line, obliquely incurved, almost in contact; situated about in the 
middle of the anterior half of the cardinal margin. Umbona) 
ridge inconspicuous, the slope of the surface to the postero-cardi- 
nal mtu^in grtulual and slightly concave, the slope to the basal 
and anterior margins very genti}' convex ; |>oint of greatest eon- 
vexitv a little above the center of the shell. Anterior end longer 
in front of the beaks than usual in this genus, the mai^n nar- 
rowly rounded above, tlieu with a very gentle and almost uniform 
downward and bat^kward curve merging imperceptibly into the 
basal, and later into the posterior mat^in. Antero-cardiual edge 
slightly produced ; likewise the postei-o ventral, but in most eases 
BO gently as to be seareeiy appreciable. Surface smooth, with 
fine concentric lines of growth. 

Ligamental area deep but appearing narrow in a cardinal view. 
As usual, it is finely striated longitudinally. Hinge plate stixing, 
with three anterior teeth in the left, and four in the right valve. 
These teeth are short antl abruptly curved down at their posterior 
ends, terminating with a knob-like projection. In the right valve 
the first and fourth arc much smaller than the sc<:ond and third ; 
the middle tooth of the three in the left valve is also much the 
largest. Posterior teeth longer, parallel, and slightly curved, 
three in the right valve and two in the left. Anterior and pos- 
terioi' muscular scars large, sitnatetl just beneath tlie two sets of 
hinge teeth, the posterior one rather faintly impressed, the an- 
terior deep. Pallial line simple, only the anterior half sharply de- 
fined, and often emphasizetl by a series of small pits. Inner side 
of shell witli two low, subparallel ridges extending from the beaka 
two-thirds the distsmcc to the postero-basal mai^in. The furrow 
between these appears as a low ridge on casts of the interior. 
Tliese often present another but much smaller ridge running iown- 
wanl from the inner mai-gin of the anterior muscle scar. In casts 
the lieaks are tiatlened, verj- pi-ominent, and uot far apart 

)v Google 


Review of Recent Geological Literature. 3S9 

This fine species is related to C. eamidennit Billings, and 
C. ventrtcotmn Halt, particularly the former, but both those 
species are much more oblique and decidedly ovate instead of sub- 
cirenlar. C. v^ortheni L'lrieh, (III. Geol. Sun-., Vol: 3, PI. 3, 
Fig. ) is also very near, but is more vcntriooae and less oblique, 
and has the beaks (in casts of the interior) farther apart, indicating 
a more massive hinge platv. There is als^ one |x>sterior tooth less 
in each valve of that species. 

Another close relation is found in the "Buff limestone " of the 
Trenton at Beloit, Wis. It was sent to me aa C. nioia Hall, but 
is clearlj- not that specie.^, being of a more circular shape, and 
less ventricoso, with the surfai^e of the caat also more evenly 
convex. From C. graiulk it diflei's in having the beaks nearer 
the anterior extremity, and only two instetul of thi-ee posterior 
hinge teeth. The hitter are also more delicate, and the shell 

PoEilion and locality: Upper beds of Che Trenton limeslone (Galoiia 
horlzoQ), one mile south of Uurgin, Ky. It Is also to bo found at Har- 
rodsburg and other localitle^t, but good specimens are rare. 


-i Qeologlcul lieconnaUnance in unuOiwailern KatuaiH. By Rihikjit 
Hay. pp. 451 ; with 3 plates, and 2i tigurcs in the tc\t. (Bulletin iit the 
U. B. Geol. Survey, No. ;>7, 1890.) A geologic map of tiie souUiwest 
part of Kansas, ineludlng the region about Wichita and westward, 
crossed by the Arkansas river, forms (he [rontispieee of thi!< repM't 
and numerous sections are given in the second plate and in the text. 
The bed-rocks are Carboniferous shales and limestone, at Wichita and 
eastward; unfossiliterous Jura-Trias shales, clays, limestone and sand- 
stone, mainly red, estimated 550 feet in total thickness, well developed 
southwest of Wichita and on the Cimarron river: the Crelaceous series, 
of which the Dakota, Fort Benton, and Niobrara formations are recog- 
nized, extending from Wichita west along the Arkansas to Ihe tOOth 
meridian ; and Tertiary grit and marl, apparently the representatives 
of the Loup Fork and Equns beds of Cope, oeeupying most of the 
southwestern quarter of Kansas. 

In the upper part ot the Jnra-Trias is found a noteworthy bed of 
white gypsum, 13 to 15 feet thick ; and beneath the prevailingly red 
beds of this series, borings pass tlirough some 3T0 feet of gray shales, 
enclosing in their lower part several Inyenj of roiik-sait from 3 to II feet 

)v Google 

590 The American Geologist. Dec.i890 

ill Ihickncss, as desLTlbed by Mr. Hay in the QeoT.O'iTaT, February, ISM. 
The saliferous beds are referred provisionally to the Triassic system, 
giving to the Jtira-Trlas, with this addition, a tlilckDess of more than 
1,000 teet In the southern part of this state. 

The Qaaternnry deposits noted In this reconnaissance are Ave, denom- 
inated, in aHccnding order, gumbo, earlier gravel, loess, later gravel, 
and alluvium. 

On «otne Belatl>nM lietwccn. the Oeology of Eaitem Maine and Ifew 
Brunswick. By L. \V. Bailey. [ Transactions of the Royal Society 
of Canada for the year 1889, Vol. VII (Montreal, IHM) eec. IV, pp. 
S7-69.] Professor Bailey flrst gives a general review of the more Im- 
portant papers describing the geology of this region. A remarkable 
fact la noticed, which was early recognized by Billings and tat«r ha.s 
been considered by Sir Wm. Dawson, that features are presented by 
many of the lossllilerous horizons of the East which are very different 
from those of the more westerly portions of the continent, and show a 
nearer relationship with those of Europe. The rocks of Deer Island 
and Campo Bello, which professor Shaler compared with the Cambrian 
rocks about Cambridge and Boston, are still regarded as Fre-Cambrlan 
and probably Huronlan. The Perry group, the flora of which has been 
so well described by Dawson, Is considered to be true Devonian and Is 
said to most nearly resemble the Catskill of New York. It will be 
remembered that on the maps of the Canadian survey this group was 
colored as Lower Carboniferous and defined by Bailey and Matthew as 
"a group of .beds lying at or near the base of the Lower Carboniferous 
aeries, and characterized by an Upper Devonian flora." (Geol. Surv. 
Canada. Rep't. of Progress for I870-'71, p. 300). As a result of the 
explorations In northern Maine it Is shown that large tracts, which had 
been represented on the maps of Maine as Devonian, are really Silurian. 
There are, however, localities In the northern part of the state at 
which Orlskany fossils have been collected. 

This valuable paper of professor Bailey suggests the desirability of a 
field eiamlnation of the Perry group by a geologist who Is thoroughly 
(amIHar with the typical Catskill of New York and Pennsylvania. 
What might be regarded as a commencement in this work was made by 
the U. S. Geological Survey In the summer of 1889 when an assistant 
was sent into northern Maine, under the direction of Prof. H. S. 
Williams, for the purpose of collecting from the so-called Devonian of 
that region. 

ni« Oiackil Diiurultiry in Western Peimaylvanht, Ohio, Kentueky, 
Indiana, and HUnots. By Georoe Fredbbick WBinirr. With an 
Introduction by T. C. CH.\m)EitLis. pp. 113; plates 8; figures 10. 
( Bulletin of the U. S. Geol. Survey, No. 58, 1890). Professor Wright 
here reports his detailed exploration of the extreme limits of the glacial 
drift from Pennsylvania to llie Mississippi river. Morainic accumula- 
tions are not generally devcloppd along this margin of tho earlier drift, 
which Is thus remarkably contrasted with the l>oundary of the later 

)v Google 

w of Recent Geological Literature. 391 

the second glacial epoch, tound in tho MissUslppi 
ssandln part two hundred miles or more to tho 
lieaia of a glarial dam across tho Ohio at Cincinnati, 
ht had previousl> presented buforc the American 
his "Ice Ago In North America," lb here more (ully 
'esldent Chamberlin holds that ir such an iie-dam 
I back tho water of the Ohio, it was only for brief 
irahle with ice-gorges of recent spring floods, though 
cr scale. The terraces of the Ohio seem clearly 
actlOD, having slopes of descent much like tlin pres- 
ig certain slender horizontal terraces that have been 
}(■, and perhaps others reported by Prof. I. C. White, 
to the obstruction of the valley at Cincinnati by the 
' Stage of maxlmuiu advance. 


1. Si'ite and Oopernment reports. 
ninlng Bureau ; Catalogue of the State Museum, vol. 

tho territorial geologist, Wyoming, ^an., ISOO, Louis 

. Procee'Uims of ScientlH': Soolettet, 

le Colorado SclentlflcSocmy, vol. ill. part it, 1899, con- 

the plication of tho coal measures In southoastcrn 
leastcrn New Mexico, P. H. Van DIest ; Etched beryls 
I^olorado, R. C. mils ; Analyses of three dosclolzlt«s 
>, W. F. Hllk'brand ; Not<!S on the aboriginal remains 
ado, Geo. L. Cannon. .Ir. ; The plasticity of glacier 
; Stereo-chemistry, Chas. S, Palmer ; Additional notes 
;ds, R. C. Hills; Additional notes on the eruptions 
ks region, R. C. Hills ; Notes on the occurrence of 
Iron in New Mexico, Richard Pearce ; Siibllraated 

Pearce; Preliminary paper on the eruptive rocks 

and adjoining counties, Colorado, Chas. S. Palmer ; 

the retiring president (Richard Poarce) on the Par- 

i -bearing ores. 

the Tertiary fauna of Florida, with special rolorenco 

x-heds of Tampa, and the Pliocene beds of the Cal- 

W. H. Dall, (vol. IN, of the Trans, of the Wagner 


3. Papers in SeientlJIc Journals. 
uralist, Sept., 1B90. Serpentines of Canada, N.JIroux; 
leglnnlng of life, J. Ballantyne. 
.merlcan Goograpbical Society, vol. ixll. No. 3, Sept., 
nada, the land of waterways, Watson Oriffln; Modern 

)v Google 

392 The American Geologist. oev. 

Iceland, C. S. Smith ; Some notes on the upper Amazon, Courtena 
Kalb. ' 

The American Antiquarian, Sept. contains: The difference boti 
Indian and Mound-builders' relics, Stephen D. Pect ; Symbolism an 
the dolmens and standing stones of France, A. S. Paciiard. 

American Naturalist, Sept. No., Newly discovered glacial phenon 
in the Beaver valley, P. Max Foshay and R. R. Rice. 

Proceedings of the Can. Institute, Toronto, AprU, 1890. Geolog; 
the northwest of Lake Superior, Arthur Ilarvcy ; Kamanistlqula sil 
bearing bell, Herbert R. Wood. 

Am. Jour, Sci., Aug. No. : Curious occurrence of viviaiiile, W. 
Dudley ; CJassiflcation of llie glacial sediments of Maine, Geo. H. Sv 
Some Lower ijllurian graptolites from northern Maine. W. W. Doc 
Slderitc basins of the Hudson River epoch. James P. Kimball ; ' 
new meteorite Irons, F. P. Venable; Notice of some extinct testudin 
O. C. Marsh. Sept. : Rocky Mountain protaxis, and the Poat-Cretaci 
mountain-making along Its course. J. D. Dana; ChalcApyrlte eiyi 
from the French Creek iron mines, Chester Co., Pa,, L. S. Penfli 
Konlncklna and related genera, C. E. Bcecher ; Notice of two new I 
meteorites Irom Hamilton county, Tesas, E. E. Howcil ; The Cretact 
of Manitoba, J. B. Tyrrell ; On mordenite, L. V. Pirason ; Geologj 
Mon Louis island, Mobile bay, D. W. Langdo ; On Leptsenisca. a i 
genua of brachlopod from the Lower Helderberg group, Chas. 
Bcecher ; North American species of Strophalosia, Chas. E. Bcecli 
Notes on the Microscopic structure of oOIIte, with analyses, E. H. I 
hour and Joseph Torre y, Jr. 

4. ExfferplH and IndlvUlual piihUrMtUmt. 
The crystalline structure of the Coahuila irons, Oliver W, Hunt! 
ton, Proc, Am. Acad. Arts and Sciences (N. S,), vol. kvI, p. 30. 

Eruptive rocks from Montana, Waldcmar Llndgren, Proc. Cal. Ac 
Scl. series 3, vol. ill. 

Notes on the geology and petrograpliy of Baja, California. Mex 
Waidemar Llndgren. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. scries 2, vol. III. 

Bibliography of North American Paleontology tor 1SB6. John I 
knap Marcou. From the Smithsonian report tor 1880-87. 

Artesian wells, Atlantic City, N. J., Lewis Woolman. From 
annual report of the stale geologist, 1889. 

Geology of artesian wells at Atlantic City, N. J., Lewis Woolm. 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Scl. Phil. Mar. 25, 18U0. 

The Calciocrlnidai, a revision of the family, with descriptions of so 
new species. Eugene N. S. RIngucberg, M. D., Annals N. Y. Aci 
Scl., vol. iv, 18S9. 

Tho Crinoldea of the Lower Niagara limestone at Lofkport, N. ' 
with new species. Eugene N. S. Ringuebcrg. Annals N. Y. Acad. S 
July, 1890. 

A brief description of the Crelacoous roi'ks of Texas and their e- 
noniic value. Robert T. Hill. lYnin the Tirst annual report of the Tej 
(JeoiiigicHl survey. 

)v Google 

Eevitw of Recent Geological Literature. 393 

Electro-chemk-ut Analysis, Edgftr F. Smltli. 16 mo., pp. 116, P. Itlak- 
Is'tOD, Son and Co., Philadelphia. 

The persistence of plant and animal lire under changing eondltlons of 
environment. Porslfor Fra/er, The American Naturalist, June, 18B0. 

On variation, with special reference lo certain palcoi.oic genera, Jos. 
F. James, The American Naturalist, December, 188it. 

On the geology and physlogragliy of a portion of northwestern Colo- 
rado and adjacent parts of Utah and Wyoming, C. A. White, Ninth an- 
nual report of the director, V. S. (iool. Siir. 

Some metamorphofpd i-ruptive.s In the crystalline rocks o[ Maryland, 
Wm, II. Hohbs, (Trans. Wis. Acud. Scl., Arts and Letters, vol. vili, pp. 

Some Ontario magnetites, T. D. I.edyaril, (Trans. Am. Inst. All n. 

A summary of progress In mineralogy and petrography in 1H89, W. S. 
Bailey (l''rom monthly notes in the American Naturalist). 

The first oil well, the birth of a great Industry, J. -S. Newhcrry. (Har- 
per's Magazine, Oct., 18'jO). , 

Discovery of fossils in the limestones of Frederick county, Md., 
Charles E. Keyes (Johns Hopkins liuiversity circulars, No. 83). 

Description of new meteorites, by E. E. Howelt, (Proc. Rochester 
Acad. Science, vol. i ). The meteorites described arc Welland, Hamil- 
ton, Puquols, Dc Cewsvlllc. Dona Inez and Llano de! Inca, El Chanara- 
lino, La Prtmltlva and Caldcrilla. 

Barometric observations among the Itigh volcanoes of Mexico, with a 
consideration of the culminating point of the Norlji American conti- 
nent, A. Heilprin, (Proc. Acad. Nat. Scl. Phil., Oct., 1890). 

On Syringothcris, Wlnchell, and Its American species, Charles Schu- 
chert, (Ninth annual Report N. Y. state geologist, 1890). 

List of species of the American paleozoic Orthls, Hpirifera, Spirllerlna 
and Syrlngotheris, Chas. Schuchert, (Nlifth annual Hep. N. Y. state 
geologist ). 

Notes on the serpentinous rocks of Essex county, N. Y., from aque- 
duct shaft 38, Now York City, and from near Easton, Penn., Geo. P. 
Merrill (Proc. U. S. Nat. Museum, vol. sii, pp. 595-600). 

On certain Mesozoic fossils from the islands of St. Paul's and St. 
Peter's in the straits of Magellan, C. A. White, ( Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 
vol. xiil, pp. 13-H). 

Description of new forms of Upper Cambi'Ian fossils, C. D. Walcott, 
{ Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. vol. xiil, pp. 266-270 ). 

s. Forelfpi piiblieatlonf. 

Fauno du calcalre D'Erbray (Loire inf^ricurc). Par Bakrois. 
Contribution & I'ftnde du terrain Devonlen do Touest de la France. 
Mem. Soc. gOol. du Nord. Tome trolsi^me, IBSl). 

Oeologische L'ntersuchungen am Woslabhange des Urals. Von A. 
EABsiyoi'OLStiv (mlt 2 Tail. u. 15 Holzsch. im Texte). Mem. du Comit6 
gCologique, St. Petersburg, 4lo., 522 pp. 


39Jr The American Geologist. Decisao 

Bio geol. Erforsch. des ait[ d. 48-st«n Blatl der allgemeinen goolog- 
\sv\w.\i Kartc Riisxland'x (targestcllten aeb)et«s. Erystalllniscbe G«s- 
tetno. Daa Kroidcsystotii. Dm tartlaresystera. PiiocBn. Das postr 
t*rtlfiro system. Mem. d. ComiW Geol. Eusalaiids, i to. 263 pp. 

The twenty-seventh volume of the Oberhesa. Gesell. f . Natur und 
Heilkiinde contains the tollowiug geological papers: Neue Fundc von 
Mlnprallen, Qestelnen und Verstelnerungeii aus der Umgegcnd vonQles- 
sen, A. Stkbno ; UeberdenMelanophlogit, A. Stbkso ; EIne neiie Lima- 
tula ausdem Ollgocan dos Mainzer Beckeus, O. Greim; Ueber elne 
>>iKi:-n1hflinllche Siulonbildung Im Tagi;bau dcs Brauu Steinberg werks in 
der Llndoner Mark, J. Uiir. ; Ueber Regentropfenspuren cbcudaselbst, 
J. Uhi,. 

Annates do la soeii'te gfulogiquc du Kord, tome xvl, 1S3-99, contains : 
Observations sur la constitution gtologiqne do I'ouest de la Brctagne 
(III). Chas. Barrola; Les dOpols phospbai^s de Montay et de Forest, 
J. Ladrlere ; iirii dlt l*orphyre de Gognios-ehauss*'*, L. Cayeui ; 
Logons sur lea gltos do Phosphate de chaux du Nord de la France, tS. 
Gosselet ; Le bassin houiller do Valenciennes d'apres lea travaus de 
MM. A.Obry ot R. Zciller, Ch. Barrels; L'Agcdes Sables deCerfontaines 
et de Rousles, L. Cayeux : Sur la presence de Trilobitiss dandles schlst«s 
rouges-lle-do-vln dos environs de Rennes, Bt^zier; L' Ardenne, J. Gos- 
sclet ; Lea crustacta dcvonlens de I'ftat de New York, d'apres M. 
James Hall, Ch. Barrois; Sur le Panls6lien du Mont-des-uhats, A. Bona- 
itamaer i Le Faiine du Tun, extension en ^palsseur de la zone k Mlcras- 
ter brevlporus, L. Cayeux : Note sur 1' existence du terrain dfivonlen 
siipfrleur a EostcUec. Ch. Barrois:' CrOtaci'' do Chercq pr^s Tournay, L. 
Cayeii\ ; Nature et origitio dos phosphates de cbaux par R. A. R. Pen- 
rose, L. Cayeux. C*upc prise a Arques, At'hille Sis; I.efons ^Ifraen- 
talroasurla g£-ologlO du Department du Nord, J. Gossolot; Sur la 
Ciplytc, J. Orelieb ; D*;scrlptlon g(^logique du canton d' Avesnes-Nord, 
L. Cayeax ; Un cas de strati tic at Ion ontrermiss^e des litnons A Cysoing, 
L. Cayeux; Structure do la baudc de Calcafro carbonlfdredeTaisnlOres- 
sur-IIelpe, L. Cayeiix. 

Contribution ft I'^tude dea roches metamorphlques ot firuptives de I'Ar- 
ii^ge, A. Lacrolx ; Sur les enclaves acldes des rocUos volcaniquca do 
TAuvergiio, A. LacroU, (Bui. d. services. Carte Q£oI. de Prance, No. 
11, tome 11, Avril, 1890). 

Annates gSologlques do la p^ninsulc Balkanlque (dirlg^s par J. H. 
Zujovic), tome 11, contains the followlDg in French and German : Note 
sur la mttteoritc de Jellca, tonib*o IB Novembre (IDeeembro) 1889, 
J. M. Znjovic ; Die Medlterranstufe von Eakovlca, P. S. Pavolic ; Les 
lampopbyros do Serble, J. M. Zujovk ; Lea rochea ^ruptives aux envi- 
rons de Sophia, Mllos St. Dinic; Analyaos des eaux (par Slma Lozlanio) 
«t de quelques mlnSraux de Serbic (par M- Blargojevlc). 

Eclogie geological Jlelvoti^ vol II, No, I, contains: Goologischen 
MItthellungen aus der Umbebung von Lugano, C. Schmidt a. G. Stein 
mann ; Uebor ein zweltes Vorkomenen von dicbtem Yesuvlan In deiu 
Schweitzeralpen, C. Schmidt. 

)v Google 

Jieview of Secent Geological Literature. 395 

POldtanl KOzlfiny, dor ungarischen geologiMhtn GeseHsc-haft, IW. xs, 
5-7 heft, cOQt&lns. In the supplement : Spuren des HOhlcnbSren (Ursus 
speI»U8 Blum. ) in Ungarn, G. Prlmics : Dichsonla punctata Stbg. sp. 
in der foasilon Flora Ungarns, M. Staiib ; 

MUtheilungen des Verclns [Qr Erdkunde zv. Lcipzlc, 1860, contains ; 

Phyalkalische und gaologlsclie Vi^rbftltnlsse des Chlemsops, B. Bay- 

■ berger ; Stabsarzt Dr. Ludwig Wolf, Frledrich Ratzcl, with a portrait ; 

Bulletins du eomlte gfelogique, St. Pet«r3bourg, vol. vlll, Nos. 9-io, 
contains : B^hercht<s microscopltiues sur les roch^s et minerals ilu glso- 
ment SawcMllnskole (Altai), Mlhloucho-Mai^la]'. Vol. Ix, Nos. 3-3, con- 
talus : Note sur le calcaire CarbonlC^re du bassin dc Mosiiou, S. NilcUln. 
Vol. Ix. No. 5, contains : Note suf los glsements des minerals do fer 
dans le distrlctde Berdlmak du govcrnmenl de Taurlde, N. Sakolov. 
BlbliothSquo g^loglquo de la Russle, 1HS». Supplement to vol. ix. 

Neuere BreitrSge nur Eplgraphle des dacischcn ErEgeblrges und Berg- 
baues. G. Teglas. 

Mitthellungen der naturlorschenden Gesellschaft In Born, aus dcm 
Jahre ISSfl, contains: Liiss und lOssSbnIlche liilduugen in der Schwcix, 
Fr. Jenny; Dcber den Hautscblld eines Rocben »us der marinen Mo- 
lasse, A. Baltzcr ; 

Transactions ol the Edinburgh Geological Society, vol. vl. Part 1, con- 
tains: Darwin's gcotogical work, Ralph Richardson ; Thcclassiticatlon, 
distribution, origin and evolution ol the normal micas, Alexander John- 
stone ; Note on the supposed high-level shell beds In Easter Ross, Hugh 
Miller; On the succession of the Lower Carboniferous t^eries to the 
West of Edinburgh, with special reference to the district around Cra- 
mond, John Henderson ; An old man and woman, or Human bones in a. 
Scroblcularla bed at Newton Abbot, Devonshire, William Pengelly ; Im- 
provements In the methods of determining the com|K)slllon o( Minerals 
by blowpipe analysis, Alexander Johnstone ; Recent progress In paleon- 
tology as regards invertebrate animals, H. A. Nicholson. 

On composite spherulites in obsidian, from Hot Spring!^ near Llttto 
lake, California, Frank Rutley (Quart. Jour. Oeol. Soc. vol. xlvf. Aug., 

Class-book of Geology, Arch. Ueikie, 2nd edition, 13md, 404 pii. Mc- 
millan &. Co., London and New York. 

Reports of geological explorations during the years I8aH-9 (New Zea- 
land), Wellington, 1890. James Hector, director. Bosides the reiwrt 
of progress by the director, there are lengthy reports by A. McKay 
and J. Park. Large octavo, numerous illustrations and maps. 
«. ScientlfijC Lnbnratoriw and MimewnH. 

Bulletin of the scientific laboratories of Deiiison University, vol. v. 
contains: The Waverly group, W. F. Cooper; Tabulated list of fossils 
known to occur In the Waverly group of Ohio, W. F. Cooper. 

Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, vol. 111., No, 
1, contains : The Calciferous formation in the Champlain valley, Brain- 
erd and Seely ; Observations on the fauna of the rocks at Fort Cassin. 
Vermont, with descriptions of a few new species ; Observations on a 

)v Google 

396 Hie American G^ohgist. Dec. lano 

(ofsil flsb from Oie Eocene beds o( Wyoming, B. P. Whitfield ; Descrip- 
tion oF a new goiius of inarticulate bracbiopcM]ou» ahelt, R. P. Whitfield. 

ItullcUn from tite laboratories of natural history of the state univer- 
sity of Iowa, contains the conclusion of tlie paper by It. Shimek on the 
Lo';S3 and Its fossils. 

Ilulletin of tlie Mus. Corap. Zool, Cambridge, vol. kvI., No. 6, On 
keratophyrc from Marblohead neck, Mass., John H. Sears. 


Pleistoclse SUI1UKKGR^TK OF THE Ij*THMi-.s OF Pasaua. Since the 
printing of my article In this number, 1 have found the original report 
of Dr. tl. A. Maack, which forms pages l.')5-17S of Reports of Explora- 
tions for a Ship Caoal, Isthmus ot Darlen, Navy Department, Wash- 
ington, 1S74. This Strongly confirms my Huggestion that at least the 
lower parts ot the isthmus were probably submerged during the OlaclaL 
pt'Hod ; for the fossils collected by Dr. Maack are described by him as 
'■still living in the sea," and "all living up to the present time."-' show- 
ing till! forniatiuu to be of Ptelstoeeno age. He does not, however, use 
this designation, nor yet the term Pliocene, which Is applied to these 
fr.s:ill,s by aiiotlier writer In IIarpor"s Magazine ; Instead of which, Dr. 
JInar-k refers tliein to "the latter Tertiary formation," and "the latest 
Tertiary deposit," remarking tliat it "was covered by tiie tea compara- 
tively a short time ago." "This Tertiary formation seems to have a 
Vitst extent and lo spread over the dividing ridge " [ between the Tuyra 
and Alrato riverw. tributary resjiectively to the Pacific and the Atlantic], 
■• the lowest elevation ot wliich was found to be 703 (eel." It appears 
therefore almost certain that much of tliis isthmus was submerged In 
1 he Pleistocene |>orlod, which included the Ice Age ot glaciated countries. 
The part of the warm eqnatorla] current which now passes northward 
from the ('uriblH<an sea and tiuif of Mexico was then permitted to con- 
tinue wi^stward into the Pacific ; and tliis iJiango in the oceanic circula- 
tion may liave be*n largely eflicient, In conjunction with high conti- 
nental elevation, to bring about the ollninlic conditions of the Ice Age. 

S-mervUtc Nop. f?, tsuo. WAKiiEN Ui'ham. 

STcmES o.\ Mosticvlii-oua. In the August number of the Gbolo- 
(iis'r there appeaiiKl an article under tiie aliove title by Dr, C. Rominger. 
The writ<T rt'view,< the lalw>rs of Dr. H. A. Nicliolson and Mr. E. O. Ul- 
rlch upon the Monticuliporidic and gives observations and conclusions 
•if his own corroborating or contradicting thosi- of these authors. On 
Ilie wliole tiie do.:lor si^enis well satlsiied witli the work of Nicholson, 
wliile thatof Mr Ulricli gave iiim a " pros trilling giddiness,"' to use his 
own (■.■(pression, from wliicli he doi;s not seem to have entirely recovered 
when he wrole the article in question. Mr. I'Irich has but carried out 

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d call II 
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Tke American Geologist. Dec.isso 

would as tho zoarJum grew need to keep near llie surtaco and Ihc tubule 
would bo gradually abandoned behind it and filled up; and tliusthe 
originally liollow part not be sbarply deBoed. II "the splniiles are an 
lnt4>f[Tant part of the ordinary tube-walla, whose m^r^ns by exubriince 
In secretion of shell matter, form nodular prominences in certain S|h>is 
of tbeir eircumlerences, which, amalgamating with slmilac prominences 
of adjoining tubo-walU, constitute the splnules," why does It happen 
that such apparently purposeless enubprant secrotion o( adjoining walls 
Always happens at the same place so as to form a tubule. I cannot »eo 
either how these tubules would always be so regular in form and eou- 
Stant in position and numbers as observation proves them to be. 

Sections show, su tar as the nature of preservation will permit, that 
acanthopores arc built up In the same manner a,f the zocecia, 1. g., of 
laminar inverted eone-shaped layers. Furthermore Nicholson has 
shown diaphragms In the acanlhoporcs of Batostomella gracilis James 
(Genus Monticulipora, p. ISG, Bg SOE.), and Kfr. L'lrich has observed 
them in other forms. JVaagen and Wentzel consider the acanlhoporcs 
as merely young tubules. 

The doctor states that "Id parts of one and the same specimen spln- 
ules are often abundantly developed, while In other parts of the surface 
they are entirely missing or only thinly scattered," and regards this as 
a satisfactory Indication that their functional Importance cannot be 
very great, ilis observation is correct. Some specimens show them 
over part of the surface and missing on other parts. Dut this Is duo to 
a peculiar state of preservation or fossil I zation^ Tangential seetioua 
Invariably prove that originally the specimen had the spines equally de- 
veloped OQ all parts of the surface. The acanthopores are there 
though the surface projections are gone ; hundred of sei^tlona of spinu- 
lose forms demonstrate their constancy and stability ; hence the pres- 
ence or absence of aeanthopores is a character of good class! ficatary 

In the main Dr. Romlngcr approves of Prof. Nicholson's making sub- 
divisions of the genus but considers the lines very artindally drawn. 
Apparently he objects to raising the divisions to the rank of generii. 
But what differeuco does It make wbothcr we call a division a subgenus- 
or genus. Each is but an assemblage of species having certain jiolnts 
In common. And I'ertaiiily a binomial uomenclature Is preferable to a 
trinomial one. A genus Is not an entity nor is there such a thing in na- 
ture. It Is but a convention adopted for tlic easier understanding and 
discussion of nature. When Mr. Ulrich, reeogulzlng the Incongruity of 
Prof. Nicholson's assemblages, forms genera ba.><ed upon the aggregate 
of characters and attempts with success* 1o bring together species whoso 
features Indicate a natural relationship, the doctor suddenly lose^ faith 
In tho method. 

In speaking of Dekayia tho doctor holds that " a dlatlnetlon of forms 
with large and more distant spinules from those with smaller oues Is a» 
vague as the difference between large aud small, without a detinnl 
Standard of magnitude for comparison." This Is disingenuous. There- 

, Google 

„ Google 

400 The American Geologist. 

Data foii tub Detbbmination of Eartei Movbmj 
atone time tonnocted with the Pensylvannla rallro 
qualnted with the accurate methods ol their engineerii 
statement In one of our papers, during the last year, t 
corps were verifying the accuracy of certain hench 
supposed to he inaccurate, made me think that it woi 
idea for our United Slates Geological Survey to obi 
bench marks of the dozen, or more, trunk lines that ■ 
tains of the Atlantic and Pacific borders, with the di 
which they were established. If we study earth movi 
sea, we have n datum line for ready reference. A ■ 
variation iu tlie bench marks ot a deftiilte region, tha 
with tide, will indicate an earth movement with great 
careful collation of the records ot the various level sur' 
roada noted will, in time, furnish data (or a complete i 
question. Yours truly, 

EnwAKD H, 

Lehlgli Univerfily, liethlchcm, Ph., A"oi'. 13,1890. 

The Iitom'oiM Bf,acii. Jn reading Prof. Spencer 
Iroquois Jlcach, referred to in your Kovcmber numbi 
J^(^^^"^'^«>mpnrii'»i of the ancient lake tr g quo t e with the presi 
' his idcit being that these sheets of water are alike in hi 

nectlon with the sea. But Is it not true that rivers ru 
gulf of Obi, while a large river ran oi(t d/ lake I raq uo la, 
been southwestward across the state of Oiiio ? If this j 
lake t r aq uoio to the southwest Is proved, must we not s 
northeastern end of the lake was some ho.w cut off fron 
The case is the same with the ^n.-»— <.-h tal^n nninrip v 
have overflowed to tiie southeastward into the Mohawk, 

Camhriilge, Nod. 5, 1S.90. 

Carcixoroma sewuKi, Finding that the name Eur 
ill the October number of the Geolooist, was prcoccup 
1886, I desire to substitute for It the name Cardnosnma 
<'ies described from Kokomo, Indiana, will, therefore, no' 
Cardnonutna ncivHiii. B. 1 



Tiir. Oroanizino Committee of the I.vternatio 
■OF Geolooikts met at the Inatitut« of Tccbnolo 
November 13th, 1890. 

Messrs. Chamberlin, Davie, GiHrert, Hall, Haz 
Powell, Newberrj-, Phaler, Stevensor,, Winchell 
were present. 

The secretary repoi-tcci the vote o'. the London Bu 
the oliniige of place from Philade.pLia to Washin 

q,,rr:b, Google 

PeraonaZ and Scientific News. 401 

six bftllots were received; of these thirty-three were in favor of 

These represent the members from Great Britain, France, Ger- 
inau_v. Australia, Austria, Belgium, Hungarj-, India, Italj', Portu- 
gal, Ruumania, Russia, and the United States. \o ne<;ative 
votes were received from countries outside America. 

The majority of the Bureau, as well as a majority of the Ameri- 
can Committee, thus expressing their preference for Washington, 
it was voted to hold the next session of the International Congress 
of Geologists in Washiugton, during the week beginning with the 
last Wednesday (2Cth) of August next. 

The vacancy in tlie committee caused by the deatli of Mr. C. 
A, Ashbumer, was fliied by the election of Mr. S. F. Kmmons, 
Washington, D. C. 

The committee now consist* of the following members: Messrs. 
Braimcr. Chamberlin, Dana, Button, Davis, Kmmons, Gilbert, 
Hall, H^ue, Heilprin, Hitchcock, Leidy, Lesley, Le Conte, 
Marsh. Newberry, Powell, Proctor, Shalcr, St*M-onBon. A. Win- 
chell. Walcott, Whitfield and H. S. Williams. 

During this meeting vacancies were filled and the organization 
of the Committee perfected, so that the present officers and sub- 
committees are us follows: 

Chairman, J. S, Newberry, New Vork City. 

Vice-chairman, I!. K. Giltiert. Washington, D. C, 

Secretaries, II. S. Williams, Ithaca. N. Y. 

S. F. Rmmons, ^\'ashington, D. C. 

Acting Treasurer, S. F. Fmmous, Washington, D. C. 

(1) A snb-committ*'e on the •^'■knfijic I'rognimnie: 
J. W. Powell, Chairman. Washington, D. C. 

J, D. Dana. New Haven. Conn. 

T. C, (.'hamberlin, Madison. Wis. 

(3) \ sub-committee on Lougnr K.rriirniiiiis: 
Clarence Dutton, Cliairman, Washington, D. C. 

N. P. inhaler, Cambridge, Mass. 

J. J, Stevenson, New Vork City. 

(3) A local 8ub-committ<-e to make preparations for holding the 
meeting in Washington, with power to oi^aiiize and add to their 

Messrs. Dutton, (Jillieil, Hague, Kmmons, Powell, and Wal- 
<»tt. all of Washington, ]>. C. 

(4) A nominating sub-committee to nominate officers for tlie 

J. J. Stevenson, Chairman, New York Citv. 

T. C. ChamlMirlin, Madison, Wis." 

,^lex. Winchell, Anil Arbor, Mich. 

The following rewolutions were adopted; 

That the secretaries be authorized to prepare a circular of in- 
formation, atutiiig the organization, the time of meeting, and such 

)v Google 

402 , The American Geologist. Dec. isocc 

oUier iDformatioQ regaj<Iing the Congress as may be thought nec- 
esBarj', in English and in French, to be signed by the ehturman 
and Uie secretAries, and dtstributed among those likely to be in- 
terested in this country' and in foreign countries. 

It was further resolved, that the secretary be authorized to 
communicate to the editors of the AuEaicAN Geologist and the 
American Journal of Science the results accomplished by the 
committee at the present meeting. 

And it was resolvc<l, that the committee assess its members fire 
dollars each for expenses. 

At the Meetimi of the Boston Socibtv op Natural His- 
tory, Nov. 5, 1890, Mr. George H. Barton spoke of his work the 
past summer in mapping the drumlins of Massachusetts, under 
the direction of Prof. N. S. Shaler, for the U. S. Geological Sur- 
vey. The area traversed, which includes several hundred drum- 
lins, is a belt fifteeu to thirty miles wide, extending from Lowell 
w^t to the Connecticut river. 

Dakota's rich Tin uines. The Harney Peak Consolidated 
Tin Company lately sent to England 17f tons of tin ore to be 
smelted. A report from the smelters ' states that they obtained 
from this ore, 12 cwta., 1 qr., 14 lbs. of refined tin, which is 3. 48 
per cent. As the Cornish mines only yield, about 2 per cent , it 
would appear that we have superior advantages in this country for 
the production of tin, which, since we are about to enter upon 
making our own tin plate, is to our advantage. 

Valuable Pearls have been taken from the Manitowoc river 
in large quantities recently, at Chilton, Wis, They are said to bft 
of all colors, and some of the choicest have had a high value 
placed on them. 

Prop. John C, Smock has rksionf.d in the New York Stato 
Museum and has accepted the appointment of state geolt^st of 
New Jersey. 

Mr. F. J. H. Mkrrill, op New York city, has been ap- 
pointed assistant state geologist of New York, and will continue 
work on the economic resources of the state, and upon the geolog- 
ical map. 

Gatherino of Scientestw. The American Association for the 
Advancement of Science adjourned at Indianapolis to meet next 
year in Washington, probably about September 1. The next ses- 
sion of the International Congi-eas of Geologists will also he held 
at the same place about the same time. The semi-annual meeting 
of the Geolt^cal Society of America will, by its own constitution, 
hold its summer meeting at the same time and place. . Prominent 
scientific men of Canada and tlio Latin countries to the south have 
been invited by the oflScers of the Association with a view of mak- 
ing this scientific gathering a great pan-American event It w'" 
in all probability be one of the most importtmt meetings of si 
entific men ever held on this continent 

)v Google 


AowMiiit of n dtspttoil Korgn ol the 
Hi»«i!islppi neat Miniiehalia tails, Ul>' 

Aaniniz, a'., Ra.te ol Krowth of comU, 

AineriCAn Aiisoclation (or the AclTiuir«- 
lueut of Sck'iicv. August ini'CIiiiK.2(ll. 

All Ameriuan Kei>lue<cat railway suide, 

Aliiiiul Tepdd of tlip Dennrtmont of 
Miiiwi.NBwSniitli Wllle^ ■-" 

Arietidw, Qsnmm of tti«, * 

Artcninn water Iroin tli 

Armsian w«I1j< in Nortli and BouCh Da- 
kota, Wi '■-' — "■' 


B drift, 




H_Al[iPrt.'tJketch by 
. N. H. 

I', fls. 

Barlow. A. R.. Huronian and Lauren- 
Uancontactjiorthof laku Huron, 10. 

Bartiin. Geo. H., Mappmn tlie drumliiia 
of MaHsacliusett.', — , 

Branner. J. C. SprBi|«-AlagoBBba»io, 
Braxtl, 131 ; Rclalious ol tliastate and 
national geoloKical Hiirveys. ifit: 

Bryson, JoEn, Tbe Wetwooda. 2E4. 

Cantwell. Lloul. John C Ice^;liffs on 

Kowak river, 61. 
Capulus and Platyceras, Relations of, 

Car l>oi I i Futons aiea ot central Texas, 

GataloBiie o't minerals for sale by Geo. 

em Canada, 240: of the Cordillera 

and Clie fjiurentide, 334. , ^ 

Chance, H. M., Coal Meaaures of the 

Cla)i>ole. E. W-, Pnleontological notes 

from ItidianaiHilis, ZCS. 
Coal aud iilatit-lieiiriiiw beds of Aim, 

tralia and Tasmania, Feletinautel, 

Ci'ml Mensures of the Indiui Tercltotr, 

Cordillera and the laureotide, glacla- 

tioti of JJhHJnifirN, a2-t. 
CfHttiii, F. W., Clieyeutie sandstone of 

KaiiMUi, 23.). 
Crnwfonl. J., Oeolosical sarvey of 

Niraragna, 377. 
Cretaceous null TerHary of the Sersipe- 

AloBon-i basin. Branner, 121. 
CrelaoPoUB (■( TuiaH, R. T. Hill, 383. 
Crinnlduaot the lower Niairaru lime- 

HUnie al Lovkixirt. RitigiivberK, 2I>0. 
CrinoidH, lht>lr Hlructnre and arranKe- 

nieut into faiuilieB, Miller, 340. 

rtakotatin mines, . 

Datum tor dPterminlnB earth-mOTe- 
menW, B. H. WilliamB. Jr.. 400. 

Davis. W. M.. The Iroquoiit Beach, 400. 

Davis, W. M. (and Wood), GeoKraphic 
development ol northern Kew Jer- 

n, J. W., Devonian plants from 

Devonian plants from Scotland, J. W. 
Diller, J.'S.j Geolosy of the Lassen 

DodBe, J. A. (and N'. H. Winchell). The 
BrenhaiD. Kiowa county, Kausaa, 
uieteoriles, 370. 

Dnmble, E. T„ ftrst annual report. 

)v Google 

Edmobiai, Cohmbnt. 

Pre-iiaOil history o( the Geolonical 
Society □[ America, Ig] . 

Snow Hall ot natural liiBtor; at Law- 
rence, KaiiHOH, 244. 

Wlittt coimtitulps the Tocoiiio raiig^e 


■! 247. 

Quebec uot iu 
Ei^inh.^Geo. L., CaUloeae of 

Exploration of tlie Iniiian Territory 
»nil tlie nidiinl third of Rtd river. 
Bobt. T, Hill, 263. 

the iHkp Huron rpirion, 163, 

FnlsHii, A,. Iji p^riode iclfli;inire, 

FcislraBnlel. O..C"al and plniit bear- 
inn beds uf Australia and Tasmania, 

Ftlcli) Dr. Akd. Dftiiiition of the Ta- 

PlatitK from Sivitlaiid. GC: Mammalia 
of the Umtnli formntinTi. 5<1. 

CantRof ctlnoiitaaud blii-stoids, Bov- 
leT. oa 

HndioloiHii)) obloUEi. a aynonyin by 

tJIrich. (IT. 
Badinlarialiiclicrt of the lower Si- 
lurian. Hiiide. fl8. 
New Bpetien, Simpson. 123. New 

lamelliliranelilntn. E. O. Ulrich, 

173. 383. 
Carbrmir Cnlyntrirldft. KeyrH. 24g. 
PlFrichthys. Coitoroides, Eurysouia, 

Cla^-pole. 266. 
Crinoids, clamifli'-ation of, Miller.276. 
Fljdies In The Hawkesbury series, 

Woodward, 332. 
Stoliejkaria and SyrinKeGcha'ridn. 

Duncan, 333. 
Wood and llmiite of the Potomac 

formation. Knowltoii. 824. 
Goniopliyllum pyrainldale in Amer- 

ClanK'iiicniion of crinoirls. Miller, 310. 
Carciiiosoma. Claypole. 400. 

GatberlnRof soientists, 402. 

Gems and precious sujiies ot North 
America. Geo. F. Kuu^, 123. 

Oenerio relations of Platyceras aod 
CapnluB. C. R. Kcyes. G. 

GenenlRofthe Atietidffi, Urstt. 128. 

GeogMDhinal dovolopment of iiortliem 
New Jemcy, Davis and Wood, IOC. 

GeoKTaphlcal ttisMmtlon ot fosall 
plants. Leftter F. Ward. 333. 

Geologkal Society of America, pre- 
natal history of, 181 : Suuimer meet- 

" 'cnl reconnalBsaiirn in soutli- 


.. _ Hay. 3HL. 

GeoloRiral survey oi Xicaragua. J. 

Crawfonl, 377. 
GeoloRy of tli« Lassen Peak i 

Glacial Witd'ary ill western Feuusyl- 
vanla. Q. F. Wriubt, aw. 

M. DaH-son, 163; Robt.ChnlmBnsox*. 
Gladation of eoatern Canada, Bobt. 
Chalmers. 340. 

Glacial period, eanses of Upliam. 337. 
Gnniophyllum pyramldale iu America, 

Gonlflii C. H., 301. 

Qostord, Hawkesbury serieei at. Wood- 
ward. 323. 

Grant, Illy 8., Deserted Rorge of the 
MiSKissippi, 1. 

Great cinarlj:yle. more rerent (ban the 
Clleiius hchiBI, N. O. Holsl, 357. 

Groirlli of corals, A. Agassi?.. 33G. 


HawkeKlinry series at Gosford. fossil 
fishes. Woodward, 322. 

Hay. Koberi, Geological reconuaissance 
in Boutliweslem Ean.ias, 380. 

Hidden and Penfield, on a ncn- min- 
eral, hnmllulte, 12.1. 

Hill, Ktibt. T., Aimotated clieck.list of 
CretaceooH inyertebrnce tOKSiis, 134: 
Exploration of the Indian Ti-rritory 
and Bed river^362 : Tliejresaa^Cret a- 


from the loi^ 


Holm. Theodor. Notes on the leaves o 

Lirioilendron. 261. 
Oolat. N. 0.. A areat qnartiyte mor 

recent than the Oleiinn sohist, 367. 
Hnronian anil Lauren ti an i^mitac 

iiotthof lake Huron, A. E. Barlow. IS 

Iowa Academy of Sciences, ,361. 

York, Spencer. 264, 311. "^ 
Davis. 4U0. 

Kemp, J, F., notes on a nepheline ba- 
salt, 392, 

KeyPB. C. R-. Relations of Platyceras 
and Capulus, 6; Carbonic Calypti»- 

Klowa (Kansas) meteorites. Winch ell 
and DiHiBO, 370, „ 

Kowak river, Ice-cliffs on. Rnssell. 49. 

Knn?:, Geo. F.. Gems and precions 
stones of North America, 123; Me- 
teoric iroim. 249. 

Lamell1hrancUata,jiew, E, O. Ul 

La«sVii peak district, Oeoloen. ■ 

Dillon, 196, 
lawson. A. C. Microscppir char* 

of some rocks nortli ofUkeHiiro 
Lan'ton, Chas. D., Mineral 

MichiEau. 3B1. 

)v Google 

Lanrenciiui and Champlftln, aa tormB 

liig»olM[y,.'-'--" ..-■".w 

James, 133. 

•flMarcou, 64; Joe.F. 

LMqaeraui. Leo. RemarkB on sonie 
tOsail remalnn considered fts peculiar 
-kindg ot marinB pUiits. 332, 

Llriodetidton, Notes on tlie leaves of, 
TheudurHolm, 2Q1. 

Mammallii n{ tlix Uintah fonnatioD, 
ScottanilOslmrn, 56. . ^ , 

Mareon. Jule«, On t!ie use f.t the teniiit 
liarentian and Cjiampio'" '" * '-""- 

Ikr. 8. A., Beply to a crtliemm ni 
tforUi American Oeolngy aiiapnleini- 
tology, 01 ; ClassiHcBtloii of orUioids, 

Hinemf resources of Mlehiaan. Lnw- 

Tin in Uakotih 403. 
Mono valley, California. Qiwtemary 

liiHtory of, I, C. Russell. M, „, , 
Mnnnt Desert Island, K^lotfy of, Qliaier- 

Nepheline-basalt,Nole(i on, J. F. Kemp, 

New iamellibcaiicliiala, E. O. Ulricli, 
New 'SouUi Wales. Geol. Survey of. 
Nlcawana, Geologloal Survey o(, J. 

Crawlord, 377. , „ , 

Nicholson aud Lyddeker'a Faleont«!- 

NiSfqlHon! H. A., Western Australian 

" North 'American ^eolnto' and pal eon - 
tolmiy,"corr«;iicins of. W.H.Slieraer, 
BO : lUtorl by 8. A. Miller. Bl. 

Norlheastnm exiension of til e IroguoiH 
beach. J. W. Speucer, 2W. W. M. 
Davis, 400. 


Ornnixins conimictee of the Int-Cona:- 

Ofihom, Henry F., and Wm. B. Scott, 
Mammalia ot the Uintah formation. 

Paleontoloffical notes from Indianap- 
olis. E. W. Claypolp. 2r,r.. 

PalpoTjiic fixliPH of North America, J. 
a. Newberry, 333, „ . , 

Panama, istlimii.s. Fleistocene, snb- 
menteuce ot. Lpham, 301. 

pearls at Chilton, Wla., 402. 

Pe'riode (La) alaciaire, Falsnn. 62. 

Penno.CarLK>niferou8 ot Kansas, L. C. 
WooMter, e. 

I^totKitob^ a marine Cretaceous vol- 
cano, Robl. T. Hill, 38C, 

Flatyceras and Capulus, relations of, 
Keyus, 6. 

PleiMtocene snbmencence of the isth- 
mus of Panama, Upham, 391. 

Pre-natal liixturj ot the Ueolwilcal So- 
ciety ot America, 1B1. 

Primrinlial fauna In tlio British Islea, 
T, W. Salter, 80. 

PriiiCBlon scientific e«i>«dition, 184. 

ProsHcr. C. H.. rhickness of die rocks 
ot westum central New Yoric, ISO. 

Qnatemary history of tlie Mono valley. 

Qiinrtityte(ARroiit), more recent than 

the Olcniw schist, N. O, H.ilHt, 307. 
Qiieliec not iu uonHict with laconic, 



Bndiolaria from the Lower Paleozoic 

r<>ckK,G.J. HInde. 2r.e. 
Rvcent olwervatioiis on some Canadian 

rocks, A. Wind IP 1 1, .^«o, 
Bfcpnl publicaticnis, fi7, 1^4. 
KccordM of tlie (itiohiHical Survey of 

New .Soutb WalM. :t21. 
" ' ■ between the QeoioKfot enst- 

Beinarks on some peculiar kinds of 
marine planlx, Leo Leniuercnx, 323. 

RinKUPberB. E. tj. S„ Crinoidra of the 
lower Siiinani at Loekport. '2r.o. 

SlicroRcivicchanictersof. N.otLake 

Huron. 30. 
Noii-feldspatbic inlniflive. ot Mary- 

Porphyritic Lherzolyle. 3S. 

PryoiHnytl., 35. 

Eruptive, on the north shorn of I,ake 
Huron, Falri.nnkK,lB2. 
Rocky Mountain Club. 134. 
Rolfe, C. W., Artuaian water from tlio 

drift, 32. 
Roniinner. C. Studies on Moiiticulip- 

Rowley. B. R., Some olMervntioiis on 
natural mxisot crinoids and binxtoids 
from tliu burlinicton liine^itniie. OIS. 

Russell. I.e., Ice-'Tlifl'" on KciH-ak river, 
49; Quaternary history of llio Mono 
valley. 6*: Explurationti in Alaska, 

Salter, J. W.. Discoverer of the primor- 

dinliii the British isles. So. 
Scott, Wm, B. and Henry F. Oslmm, 

Manimnlia ot tlie Uintah lorma- 

Seriripe-AlaRoas basin, Brazil, John C. 

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Simpson. Qeo. B., Neif species ot tos- 132. _ 

Siiov kail of Natural HiBtorr at 

lAwrence KnnHBH. 344. 
appncer, -r, w., 68. 
Sppiicer. J. W., Nnrtheaatero eitenaioa 

of tho Iroqunis b«acli, 294. 311. 
8l. AuHiony Falls, recession of, Gtaot. 

Stnllcjkaria and SyrlnKoaphteriil^e, 

Dancon. 323. 
Structiim, cLaaaification. and Brraiure- 

inQatof AmoHcan pnleoEoLCcrinordb 

Into families. S. A. Miller, 2TS, 340. 

102; J. M. Nickles. sen. 
Synopsis o( American Carbonic Calypt- 

tH!i3». C. K. Eeyes, 24S. 

Taconic Iron ores of Mlanesola and 
western Nei* Ensland. N. U. and ±1. 

Taconic, Lower and Middle in Europe 
and North Amerira. Marcou. 78. 221. 

Taconic not in oonflict with Quebec, 

Taconic ranEe of Mountains, what con- 
stitutes them? 24T. 

Tarr, Ralph S.. Carboniferous area of 
central Texas. 14S. 

Texas. First annual report. E. T. Dum- 

Thictneiu of the Devonian and Silnr- 
ian rocks Of weslorii central New 
York.C. 9. ProssPr, 109. 

Tin Mines in Dakota. 402. 

Ulrich. E. O.. New lamellibranchlati 

Upham. Warren. Art«sian wells I 

North and South Dakota. 211. 

thecause.ot the kIscibI period. 32T. 
Pleistocene sabmetsenceot the Istb- 
mns of Panama, 301. 

Veiiftble.F. P. Meteorites of North 

Carolina, 326. 

Vo^Bs. Lieut. A. W., ea. 

Walcott. G. p.. Geological si 

Ward, Lester F., Geosrapkical' distribo- 
"—. of fossil plauts, 323. 

a. Nicholson, 

le Taconic Railge of 

Western A 


Western Society of 

Wetwoods, Tiie, Jol 

What constitutes tt 
Mountains? 247. 

WilliamB.E. H. (Jr.) Datum for deter- 
miniiiK eaath-movements, 400. 

Williams. Geo. H., Non-feldspathic in. 
trusive rocks of Maryland. 36. 

Winchell. Alexander, Becent observa- 
tions on some Canadian rocks, 360. 

Winchell. N. H.. Sketch of llichard 
Oweu. 13G, 

Winchell, N. H.. and H. V.. Taconto 
iron oreji of Minnesota and of western 
New EiiBlard, 203. _ 

Winchell n<I. H.) and Dodge, The Bron- 
ham. Kiowa county. Kansas, me- 
teorites, 370. 

Wiiislow. ■— - 

WriBhl, ( 

thnr. Sketch of C. . 

i. F.. Glacial boundary In 
wcsiem Pennsylvania, etc. 300. 

Wood and llRiiite of the Potomac 
formation. F. H. Knowllon. 823. 

Wood. J. W. (and Davis), Qeosraphio 
development of northern New Jer- 

Wooster, L. C. Penno-Carbontferoui 

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The Amapioan Oeologlat 

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HLY, 1890. 

VeL. VI. No. I. 







SaMiEI. CaT.VIN, Itnva City, loiaa. 

Edward \V. Ci.avpoi.e, Akron, Ohio. 

John Eyerman, Easlon, Pa. 
Persifor Fbazf.r, FhiladclphlB, Fa. ARTHtiR I,AKEP, Golden, Colo. 
Robert Hav, Junction City, K-imas. Andrew C. Lawson, Otiava, Out. 
Clarence L. IIerrick, Cinarmali, O. Eowabd O. Ulrich, Ne^aforl, Ky. 

Israel C. White, Morgantown, IV. Va. 

Alexander Winchell, Amt Arior, Miih. 

Newton H. Wincheli, Miimeapotis, Minn. 

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SBKic RELATIONS or Flatycbras and 
Oapulcs. Chai. R. Keyei 

lpKBiiO-C*RBoNiFERoirsor GaBKOn-ooi) 
AND Butler cocsties, Ka.vsab. [Illus- 
trated.] L. C. WooiUr 

TUB Contact op the Huronian and 
Ladrbntian kucus north ow lake 
HcROH. Alfred E. Barlow 




ALTERATION. [UluBtraled.] George H. 


:-CLtFF8 ON KoWAK mn'BR, Alaska, ob- 
BBBVKD Bi LiECT. Cantwell. Itrotl 


La P^riode gl«ciaire, 6tudi^ principal- 

ement en Fmnoe et en Knisse, A . Fal- 
lan, 52. — Qoaternary liiBtory of Mono 
valley, California, Israel C. Ruisell, 54. 
-On certain Devoniun plautf from Scot- 
land, Sir miliam Baioson, 56.— The 
mammalia of the Uinla formation, 
William B. Scott and Henry F. Osbont, 
Recent Public AT 10 US 


Some further corrections of "Korth 
American geology and paleontology," 
Will II. Sherzer, o4.— Miller's "North 
AmericRn Geology and Paleontology," 
S. A. Miller, 61.— Use of the term 
Laurentian ami Champlatn in Geology. 
Juiea ifarcou, 64. — Some observationa 
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toidR from the Burlington limestone, 
R. R. Rowley, 66. — Miidiolopsis oblon- 
ga, Joieph F. Jamei, 67. 
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ISaST, 1890. 


vet. VI. No. 2. 





Samuel Calvin, foma City, Uwa. 

Edwakd W. Clavpole, Akrm, OMo. 

John Eyerman, Eaitan, Pa. 
PbrsIFOR Fbaekb, Fhiladtlphia, Pa. Akthuk Lakes, Geldtn, Cah. 
RoBBKT Hav, Jmetiim City, /Caruat. Andrew C. Lawson, Ottawa, Ota. 
Clarence L. Herrick, Cinatmali, O. Edward O. Ulrich, Newport, Ky. 

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ind Part.] 

9 oir MoMTiouLiPOKA, C. Rmningtr. . 
' ow Rbobht Gxolooical Litbra- 

i^rataceoiu ftad TerUar^ geologjr of 
Sergipe-Alagoas baain of Brazil, 
7. Bratmtr, 121— Qoms and PtecIouB 
a, 0e0> F. Kunx, 122 — Descriptiona 
pr apeciea of foaeila, Oeo- S. Simp- 

ion, 122 — Oatalo^e of Minerals, Oeo. L. 
EnglUh&Co., 123— Firat annaal report 
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Dumhle, 123 — Hamlinite, a new mineral, 
Hiddtn & PtnJUld, 123— A preliminarj 
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Sill, 124. 

Recent Fcblicationh 

Geaesia of the Arietidie, 128 — On the 
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lEPTEMBER, 1590. 

'I 'H K 

VeL. VI. No. 3. 






Samuel Calvin, /siva City. Iim'<i. 

Edward W. Clavpoi.e, Akron, Ohio. 

John Everman, Kaston, Pa. 
Pbksifor Frazer, Philadelphia, Pa. ARTKUk I.AKt;;, Colden, Colo. 

Robert Hay, JumttoH City, Kansas. Andrew C. Lawson, Ottniiin, Ont. 
Clarbnce L. Herbick, Cindtmafi, O. Edward O. Ulrich, Nr-tfort, Ky. 

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Texas. R. S. Tarr 


or THB Cordillera, with an attkmpt to 


FRRioD IN THE Cordillera and Gbxat 
Plaini. Oeorge if. Dawtort 


KocKS OF THR Lake Hctboh Eeoion. 

Harold W. Fairbank* 

Sew Lambllibbancsiata, [ Illastratad. 1 
E.O. airick 


The pre-natal hietcry ot the Geologicnl 
Society of America 181 

Chi'raclt'riaticH of voIcanocB, with con- 
tribiitions of facte and principles from the 
HawBJian islamie. James D. Dana, 194 — 
Geology of the LaBeen Peak district, /, 
S. DilUr, 196— The (.-eographic develop- 
ment of northern New Jersey, Wm. M. 
DiitU, li)5— The foBsil bultcrliiis of Fior- 
issant, Sawvet H. ScuiUer, 197— The 
geology of the island of MouctDesert, ii. 
S. aha'Ur, 107. 


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Jl7e (Jeolo^ist for 1890. 

For the year i8go the Geologist will eontinue to 
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leireBER, isso. 

TSb. VI. 86. 4. 

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Samvbl Calvik, Iowa City, Iovh). 

EswAHD W, Ci-AYPOtK, Akron, Okie. 

John Eybkman, Eaaton, Pa. 
Peksivor Frahb, Pkiladelfkia, Pa. Arthur Lakes, Golden, Col. 
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, Dakota. TTarren ETpfutm Sll 

Thb Lower ass Middle Taoosio <w 
Ecbope ADD North America. [Ill]- 

Jule« JHarcou >31 

Om the CHKYsmrR Sandstone and Neo- 
cmfiAX Sbalxs or Eaksab. S. W. 

CroQin 23a 

Coal Mea8cre8 or the Indiax Trrri- 

tort. H. M. Chanct >38 

Ui^ciATioN or Eabtebs Canada. Robert 

CtMlmert 240 

Bditorlal Cohhrnt : 

Bnow Hal,l or Natttral History at 
Lawrence, Kansab. [ IUiiitHt«l ] ■ 214 
What Constitctbb thr Taconio 
Banur or HooNTAiNs 7 [niutrttsd] ■ i*'J 
&KVISW or Eecent Geolosicai. Litera- 

tAo American Geological railway italde, 
Jamea R. Macfarlane, US. — Synopsis 
of American Carbonic CiJyptrieliim, 

Chorlea R. Ktyes, S48. — Meteoric 
Stones, lieorge F. Kvme, 348.— Crln- 
oldea from the lower Nlsgars limestone 
at Lockport, N. ¥., E. N. 8. Rtngve- 
berg, 3S0.— Notes on Badlolaria from 
the Lower Paleozoic beds of the south 
of Scotland, Qetrrye Jennlngt iflnde, 
350.— Nol«8 on the leaves of Llrioden- 
dron, Theodor Holm, 2S1.— Mineral 
resources of Michigan, CharUe D. 
Latston, 351. — Annoal report of the 
Department of Mines, New South 
Wales, for the year 1889, 253. 


Exploration of the Indian Territory 
and the medial third of Red river, 
Bobert T. HiU, 252.— The Te«as Cre- 
taceous, Bobert T. HGl, 353.— The Wet- 
woods, John Bryevn, B63. — Paleonto- 
logical Notes from Indianapolis, E. W. 
Claypole, [lUuitnitsd], 355. 

Personal and Scientific News. 

Iowa Academy of Sciences, Fourth 
Annoal Session, 301.— Geological Soci- 
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Science, 261. 

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HSTEMBER, latOi-^ 

V8k VI. US. 8. 







Samuel Calvim, /ewa City, fama. 

Edward W. Claye^)t.k, Akron, Ohio. 

John Evermam, Baston, Pa. 
Pkrsiitoii Frazsr, Philaddpkia^ Pa. Artkuk Lakes, Golden, Col. 
Francis W. Cragin, Tofeka, Kansai. Andrew C. Lawson, Ottawa, Out. 
Clarbkce L, Herrick, Cinciniiali, O. Edward O. Ulrich, JVnvfort, Ky. 

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AND OF Western Nbw Enslanu. S. 
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Stbuctube, Clabsification asd Ab- 
bamobuent of American Pai^ozoic 
Crisoids rsTo Families. 8. A. Mit 
I*r. [I] "5 

Pilot Knob : a Marine Cbetaceous Vol- 
cano. [niaBtnted] . Robert T. Hill. 
With Noteb oh its Pbtbography, by 
/, F. Kemp 389 

T&K Nobtobasiebn Extension or the 
Iboqttois Beach in New York. J. 
W. Spencer !9* 

The Relations of thf. State and Na- 
tional Gboloqical Surveys to Each 
Other, and to the Ueolooists of 
THE Coontby. John C. Branner 295 

Editorial Comment : 

Quebec not in conflict with the Ta- 
conlc 310 

Bevibw of Recent Geological Liteka- 

The Iroquola beach : a chapter Id tha 
geological history of lake Ontario. J. 

1. — Nicholion A I/yd- 
paleontology, 313. — Coal and 
plantrbearlag beds of eastern Aus- 
tralia and Tasmania, 0. Felttmaniel, 
330. — Records of the Geological Sur- 
vey of New South Wales, 331.— The 
fossil Fiahea of the Hawltesbory aeries 
at Gostord, A. S. Woodward, 333. — 
Weatero Australian fossils, H. A. 
SichaUon, 323, — Remarks on some fos- 
sil remains considered as a peculiar 
hind of marine plants, Z>eo LesgitereuiC, 
323. — Stollcjkaria and Syringosphnr- 
Idie, P. M. Duncan, 333. — Geographi- 
cal distribution of fossil plants, Wari, 
333.— The paleozoic Sshes of North 
America, J. S. Nevoberry, 333. — Fossil 
wood and lignite of the Potomac form- 
ation, F. H. KnotoUan, 324. 


The glaclatlon of the Cordillera and 
the Laurentide, Robert Chalmers, 334. 
Personal and Scientific News. 

Meteorites of North Carolina; Mr. I. C, 
Bussell in Alaska; Gonlophfltum py- 
ramldale ; Western Society of Naiural- 
lats; The rate of growth of corals, 38;-6. 

Btiteied at the Uinneapolia i>Mt<dlca aa seoood^IaM mattaf . 

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BEGEMBER, 1890. 

'I' M K , 

veil. «. H8. 6. 





Samuel Calvin, /o-wa City, lowe. 

Edwaro W. Claypolb, Akron, Okie. 

John Everman, Boston, Fa. 
PbrsIFOR FrAzkr, PAiladelfhia, Pa. Arthur Lares, GMen, Col. 
Francis W. Craqin, Tofeta, Kansas. Andrew C. Lawson, Ottawa, Ont. 
Clarence L. Herrick; Cina'anati, O. Edward O. Ulrich, Nfvjfort, Ky. 

Israel C. White, Morganlovjn, W. Va. 

Alexander Winchell, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Newton H. Wincheli, Miniieafialis.Minii. 

)>99l^ \iomheTi, 35 Qei^ts. 

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Warren Upham 327 

: strdctube, clafisificatton and ah- 
American Paleozoic 
UULIES. a. A. Miller. 340 


THE OUENUS SCHUT. N. O. Hol^t 357 

tecEirr oBSERTATioNs on some Canadian 
BOCKS. Al^xatiAer Winchell 360 

;he Bbbnham, EiowA couNTT, Kaksas. 
" heteobttes. W. H. Wlncliea, and J. 
' A.DoAge, II. [murtittei] 370 

Ixw Lameu-ihranchiata. E. O. PlrtcA. 
111. [lUuitritod] 375 

icvixw or Keceni Ogoloqical Litbra- 

Geological Tecounalsaaiice In touth- 
weatern Kansas, Robert Hivy, 3S9.— On 
Kme relations between the Oeologr of 

eastern Maine and New Brunswick, 
L. W.BaUey, 3B0.—Tho- glacial boun- 
dary In western Pennsylvania, Ohio, 
Kentucky, Indiana, and Ililuols, Q. F. 
WrifjhU 390. 

List of Eeceht PuuLicAiioks 391 

Correspondence : 

The Pleistocene 9ubnie[genee of the 
Isthmus of Panama, Warren, Uphara, 
396.— Studies on Monticulluora, J. M. 
Nl<M€», 30C. — Data for the determina- 
tion of earth -movements, E. H. WU- 
liiimK, Jr., 400. — The Iroiiuois Beach, 
W. M. Davis, 400.— Carcliiosoma sub- 
stituted for Eurysoma, E. W. CUiypole, 

Personal and Scientitio News : 

The organizing committee of the Int. 
Cong. Geologists. 400 ; Mapping the 
drumllns of Massachusetts, 402 ; Gath- 
ering of scientists at Washington In 
1891, 402. 


Entered at the Hlnneapolts pott-offloe m secood-class matter. 

Christmas * Presents. 

Whfttiiio«accopl»blepi*soiitciui bo niAde to uny trfend or yonng; peiacoi 
than B ByittHiiiatic cullttution ul MiTuralu wilh or without a black walnat or hani 
wood case 7 We put up a xpeclnl coUectinu of 1 25 very beautifal uid Interaellne 
miueralH, size atkiut l3i by 3 IdcIihs, Id a Blac:k Walnat Case with wooden 
diviaicmH tor SIS. The siiuie collection without the case and a little larKec in 
size •12.60. Tlie boics tur the Ji inch Hiiectmeiia mentioned below, are ofhard 
wood with divi.sionsot wood. The 12G beautiful and rare minerals can be put v]> 
of a smaller sixe and nnmhereil to correspond with a prinlt'd list that will be genl 
on application, lorSU.ClO. or Ilia same iiut up in boxes tor C3.26. oi tor 60c. extra 
eacli Hpeciuieii will be labelled. Specimens 2 by 2>i inches will be put op for 
J13.60. or in Black Walnut Cases for »17.60. 

The followltuc are nnrcolli'cUons of Minerals tor Students, AmateolB, Piutet- 
GiiTS. ChemlslJi.FhysicianH etal. 

Tliecollections of too illustrate the principal species and all the Braod iub- 
diviiiioliB 111 Quia's and other MineraloRies; all die principal Ores. &c„ &c. The 
first hundred Inclndea ecCTTL.I'et/es iii the list adTiHcd in Dana's Manual, and 
Bi'mespeciealikeWulIeuite.Tivianite.Nitrattne. LAbmiloFlte. Datollte, Tltanite, 
uiid Einbollte, that are especially advised by Brush. Nason. Eiileston or other 
wrltenon SGneraloKyanu blowpipe analysis : also other species like Turquois, 
AKnrite.Microclino. and Wavellite that are iuipurlajit. The second hundred in- 
cludua the Tsmuning varieties advised by Dana, and most species advlstul In text- 
books on Mmi!ral(i|{y and blowpipe work. , . . ™™ , , , 
aur third hundred includes moFe rare niocies and varieties. Tbe 300 include 
y all mentionnl In lar^o type in Dana's and other text-books on HIneralnsT ' 
and blowpipe auali'sis, and a (ew recent species ol mnch importance not men- 
tioned in them. Tlie onllectlonM are labelled with printed labels that can only be 
removed by Hoaklnff. The labels ol the iiludenis and higher priced collections 
give Daiiu'B spedes number, the name, locnlity. and in most case.^, the composition 
or Uie Miuaral ; also accompanied by my illustrated Caialoane and table of 

Crystals and IraKmcnla, >i in. 
Student's »7.e,lsiver. IKxl! 

n 00 32 00 |1 

S2 00t4 00 
20 00140 00 


._ ^^ >:?»>» 

To speaitr a tenth of our maur l»antiful specimens suitable tiaBidiiiaii 
•sKnre til thoae already hnvlne collections would fill this Journal. 

... __ r Academy size, 2W x3» 

Bliolf tipeclmsns ■ 

Collego size, 3« x » in- S lielf BpeeJi 


.. 2B00 

e til those already buy Ine collections would fill this Journal. 

Tlie fullowin^area tew of those personally collected m Europe or America, 
StnoFKunlt AuAdOHrri!!! N':mattte, Pyrite, StniitriU ! Cinnabar Cryxtnln, 
(IvpHUin. Barite. iluoritu, Caldlo, Oilnnanltel YtmadinUtt Wul/eniltl Mho- 
di-nitn crystals and polished, Thulite, uibradorite, Cinnamon Bton& ±c.. &c. We 
have also buauMfal specimens of Ataaxoa eUine, Aznriia and Malachite. Opal 
xooKh and cut. Toarmallnis, Ac, &c. 

iVcio Arrirals i4 Sarr itiwrala. De Smiletile la an aitraordlnarily rare, new 
zinc Garulerlle. It is associated with NiccollUi. ijnialtite and Fluoriie, Specimens 
aito84. Niccolit«i,n>re,<9. Axlnite, yellon' and associated witli pink 
Kliodiinito. some small crystals. falFjjiMdspBciniensd to 83, Tbe three above 
fniinFranklin, If. J.,lntraement8Go. toCOc. Tbe^iewith AAodonifr.Franklinile. 
3Voosri[e (doubly termlnalud) and other crystAle were recently obtained by the 
purchase of rarfuus collections at Franklin. ,„, , . 

Sm/iAsonitepsHndoniorph after calcite from Mineral Point, Wisconsin, and 
many other uilnBrals have been recently received. Circulars and lists sent free. 
AlsoGitalinnifsoItheniany hundred thousand Hcicntijic Bookt and Famphleu 
curried in Ktuck. 

Removed to 4116 Elm Avenue, Philadelphia, Penna. 

(Nt^nrly Oppostle Hemarlal Hall). 


A. E. FOOTE, M. D. 


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