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(See No. 791
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Old and New
A Sketch of the Glass Industry
IN the United States
Manual for Collectors of Historical Bottles
EDWIN ATLEE BARBER, A.M., Ph.D.
Pottery and Porcelain of the United States,
Anglo-American Pottery, Etc., Etc., Etc.
Honorary Curator of the Department of American Pottery and Porcelain,
penn8ylvania museum and school of industrial art,
Philadelphia , Pa.
Pattbrson & White Company
By Edwin A. Barbbr
Collectors of antiquities have recently begun
to turn their attention to those curious old de-
signs in glassware which illustrate events of im-
portance in our nation's progress, or attempt to
portray the features of some of the personages
who were prominent in the country's history.
On account of the absence of distinguishing
marks, the origin of these quaint old flasks and
bottles and teacup plates has heretofore been en-
shrouded in doubt. Whether they were of
foreign or American production, none could posi-
Those whose interest has been aroused in this
subject have felt the need of a manual which,
while throwing some light on the factories where
these objects were produced, shall furnish a refer-
ence list of known designs. This information
could only be obtained by visiting the older es-
tablishments which are yet in existence and by
consulting the surviving members of the craft,
and such of the old mould makers as are still
living. The results of the author's investigations
in this untrodden field have been embodied in the
following pages, which are now presented as the
first contribution to this interesting study.
I take pleasure in acknowledging my indebted-
ness to Mr. E. W. Coffin, of Ashland, N. J. ; the
late Mr. Nathaniel Root, of Newington, Conn.;
Mr. W. M. Pierce, of Qayton, N. J. ; Mr. Albert
H. Parke, Mr. Henry C. Fox and Mr. J. W.
Whitney, of Philadelphia; Miss Mable E. Clark,
of West Willington, Conn.; Mr. F. H. Case, of
Guilderland, N. Y. ; Mr. C. V. Wheeler, of Little
Falls, N. Y., and Mr. Charles L. Dean, of Mai-
den, Mass., for historical data furnished.
Credit for the use of illustrations must be given
to the New York Sun and the Chicago Glass
and Pottery World. It was in these publications
that many of the engravings used here first ap-
peared, in connection with a series of articles pre-
pared by the present writer.
The end of the ninteenth century seems a par-
ticularly appropriate time to record the results
which have been attained in this interesting
branch of American industry.
Edwin A. Barber
West Chester, Pa.,
I. Early Glass Works in the United
II. Antique Flasks and Bottles 19
III. On the Identification of Old Glass-
IV. Sketches of Glass Factories Estab-
lished Before 1800, and Their Prod-
V. Sketches of Glass Factories Estab-
lished Since 1800, and Their Prod-
VI. Miscellaneous Designs of Unknown
VII. Early Mould Makers 79
VIII. Glass Cup-Plates 83
IX. Modern Political Designs 91
X. Recent Achievements in American
Glass Making 95
EARLY GLASS WORKS IN THE
EARLY GLASS WORKS
IN THE UNITED STATES.
The first industrial enterprise established in
the territory of the United States was a glass bot-
tle factory, which was erected in the Virginia
colony soon after 1607. The works stood in the
woods about a mile distant from Jamestown. A
second glass house was erected in 1622 for the
manufacture of glass beads for trade with the
Indians. Nothing is known concerning the
exact nature of these products, nor of the ulti-
mate success of the somewhat ambitious under-
taking. Glass beads have been discovered in
many parts of the United States, associated with
Indian remains, and it is possible that some of
them may have been produced at Jamestown.
In Hhe ancient graves of Florida large vari-col-
ored beads have been found. In old Indian
graves in Pennsylvania glass beads have been
discovered in large quantities, some of them
made in imitation of amber and others in simu-
12 American Glassware.
lation of Catlinke or the red pipesitone of the
Great Red Pipestone Quarry of Minnesota.
In 1639 coarse bottles and other articles were
made at Salem, Mass., and in Philadelphia a
glass house was in operation in 1683. One
Joshua Tittery, from Newcastle-upon-Tyne, came
over to Pennsylvania in June of that year as
a glass maker in the employ of the "Society of
Traders." Various attempts were made to
manufacture glass in many parts of the country
during the following hundred years. In New
York city two factories were being operated in
1732, one in Connecticut in 1747 and another in
Brooklyn in 1754. At Germantown (Quincy),
Mass., glass bottles were made in 1760, and frag-
ments of the ware which have been found on
the site of the old buildings show that the pro-
duct was coarse and thick, and of a greenish hue.
What is believed to have been the first glass
factory in New Jersey was constructed about
1739, about one mile east of Allowaystown, Salem
county, by Caspar Wistar, who brought over four
skilled workmen from Rotterdam for the pur-
pose, as shown by a deed of agreement dated
December 7, 1738, still in existence, and he and
American Glassware. 13
his son, Richard Wistar, continued to make glass
there for many years, probably until 1781, in
which year the latter died.* Caspar Wistar died
at his residence in Philadelphia in 1752. At the
Allowaystown establishment bottles and window
glass were made, and it is known that finer goods
were also produced there. Josiah Wistar, of
Salem, N. J., informs me that Caspar Wistar in
his will directs that a certain amount of window
glass of specified sizes shall be annually delivered
to one of his children. In the same instrument
reference is made to half-gallon case bottles,
pocket bottles and pint bottles. Gen. Isaac J.
Wistar, of Philadelphia, has in his possession a
goblet, one of a dozen now distributed among the
members of the Wistar family, which bears on
one side the etched monogram of Caspar Wistar,
and on the other a full-length figure of a deer
with branching antlers. These were made for
the use of the founder of the works, and have
come down to the present time by well-authenti-
*The names of these experts, as set forth in the contract, were
Simon Kreismeir, Caspar Halter, John Martin Halter and Johan
14 American Glassware.
Robert Hewes, of Boston, erected a glass
manufactory at Temple, N. H., in 1779, but this
enterprise seems to have been of short duration.
The manufacture of glass was commenced in
Boston in 1787. A factory near Albany, N. Y.,
now Guilderland, started about 1792, passed into
the hands of the Hamilton Manufacturing Com-
pany in 1797. The products were both bottles
and window glass. These works were closed
about 1815. Early in the present century glass
was made at Keene, N. H. At Columbia, N. J.,
an important window glass manufactory was
erected about 1812, and at Coventry, Conn., a
good quality of hollowware was being made in
The glass industry was commenced at Pitts-
burgh, Pa., in 1795, and it is stated that General
O'Hara, who was largely instrumental in estab-
lishing the business there, left among his papers
at his death a memorandum giving the date when
they "made the first bottle, at a cost of thirty
thousand dollars." In 1813 there were five glass
manufactories in that city, among which were
the works of Denny & Beelen. In 1826 the num-
ber of window glass factories had increased to
American Glassware. 15
eight, and in 1857 thirty-three glass houses were
in operation. At the present time Pittsburgh is
one of the most important glass manufacturing
ceniters in the United States. All varieties of glass
are produced there, from the common green bot-
tle to the best quality of plate. The Pittsburgh
Plate Glass Company is claimed to be the largest
producer of plate glass in the world.
The oldest glass establishments in the United
States that are still in operation are the Dyott-
ville Glass Works of Kensington, Philadelpliia,
founded in 1771; the Whitney Glass Works of
Glassboro', N. J., established in 1775; the Balti-
more Glass Works, started in 1790. Sketches of
these will appear in their proper places.
ANTIQUE FLASKS AND BOTTLES
ANTIQUE FLASKS AND BOTTLES.
For a period extending over half a century,
frcwn about 1808 to 1870, the manufacture of
fancy pocket flasks and bottles was much in
vog^e at many of the glass factories in the United
States. The idea was, doubtless, suggested by
the English potters, who were producing crockery
for the American market bearing printed engrav-
ings of our prominent buildings and noted land-
scapes, and portraits of our public men. The
grdat demand for local decorative subjects seems
to have offered a promising field for the more
firmly established sister industry in this country,
and our glass makers were not slow to avail them-
selves of an opportunity to increase their sales
with little fear of competition from abroad. In-
vestigation has shown that these antique objects
were the products of American enterprise. They
were blown in engraved metal moulds, prepared
by professional mould cutters. As early as the
20 American Glassware.
first-mentioned year pocket flasks were being
made by at least ont establishment in Philadel-
The coloring of glass bottles possesses no
chronological significance, since practically the
same tints have been employed from the begin-
ning of the manufacture. We find the oldest
forms in rich brown and dark blue, while some
of the later productions appear in the pale shades
of green and greenish blue which characterized
the first essays in bottle making. The ordinary
green or bottle glass used in the manufacture of
these articles obtained its color from the alumina
and iron which are present as impurities in the
sand. When desired, a greenish tint was ob-
tained by adding a small quantity of marl (gjeen
sand) to the batch or frit; emerald green was im-
parted by employing a greater proportion of
marl; blue was produced by oxide of cobalt; pur-
ple, brown or black by varying quantities of oxide
of manganese; amber and claret by oxide of iron
Neither is the capacity of bottles indicative of
their age, since nearly all of the designs occur in
a variety of sizes.
American Glassware. 21
The appearance of the base and the neck of a
bottle is the surest test of its age. In the older
forms the mouth was cut with shears while in
a plastic or soft condition. This explains the
irregular edge, which is entirely devoid of any
rim or ornament. The base invariably pos-
sessed a rough, circular scar, formed by break-
ing the bottle from the pontil or punty rod
which holds it while the workman finishes the
neck. This scar is also found on old glass pitch-
ers and other mould-blown pieces. In finer work
the punty mark was removed by grinding. Be-
tween 1850 and i860 an improvement was intro-
duced in the manufacture whereby a "snap" or
case was used to hold the bottle, which came from
the mould with a smooth, hollow base. A rim or
beading, formed by a "tool," was also added to
the mouth. At a later date flasks and bottles
were made with a plain flat bottom.
The shapes of the old designs vary consider-
ably, but those produced at different periods pos-
sess certain well-marked peculiarities. The fol-
lowing classification is suggested for convenience
of description and reference :
22 American Glassware,
SHAPES OF HISTORICAL FLASKS AND BOTTLES.
Type I. Slender and arched in form, flattened
and shallow; edges horizontally corrugated.
Elongated neck; sheared mouth; scarred base
(Sometimes more circular in form, like No.
32) See No. 33.
Type II. Oval in form, flattened and shallow;
edges ribbed vertically; sheared mouth; scarred
base. See No. i.
Type III. Almost circular in form, flattened and
shallow ; plain, rounded edges. Shortened neck ;
sheared, collared or beaded mouth; scarred or
flat base. See No. p.
Type IV. Calabash, or decanter, shape, almost
spherical; edges corrugated, ribbed or fluted
vertically. Long, slender neck, circular or
many sided; sloping collar or cap at top;
smoothly hollowed, or hollowed and scarred
base. See No. 45.
Type V. Arched in form, flattened and deep;
edges corrugated vertically. Very broad and
short neck; narrow round beading at top;
scarred or flat base. See No sy.
Type VI. Arched in form, broad at shoulder
and narrow at base; flattened and shallow
American Glassware. 23
(modem flask shape) ; plain and rounded edges.
Medium neck; single or double beading at top;
smoothly hollowed or flat base. Occasionally
sheared mouth and scarred base. See No. 64.
A collection of these curious old bottles is both
novel and attractive. Their coloring in many in-
stances is beautiful in its richness and variety,
for the same designs were made in sapphire blue,
emerald green, olive, claret, brown, opalescent
white, light green, pale blue and clear or trans-
parent white. Of the eighty or more varieties
which have thus far been discovered about fifty
have been identified; twenty-nine bear repre-
sentations of the American eagle, nineteen are
embellished with the head of Washington and
thirteen with that of Taylor. Among them all
are many which are well worth preservation, on
account of the historical interest which attaches
to them and the excellence of their workman-
ship. Divest others of their homely associations,
and still their very crud'eness of design and
roughness of finish appeal to us. They have
served their purpose and are made no more. As
representatives of a peculiar phase of one of the
infant industries of this country they should pos-
* * * * t
24 American Glassware.
sess great interest, not only for the historian, but
for the collector, the manufacturer and dealer as
There are numerous fancy designs in bottles
in the forms of men, animals, fishes, shells, vio-
lins, pistols. A wine battle which has been re-
cently seen bears around its circumference six or
eight arched panels enclosing relief figures of
apostles or priests. While these are being col-
lected by certain enthusiasts, they scarcely come
within the scope of this work, on account of their
uncertain origin and recent date.
ON THE IDENTIFICATION OF OLD GLASSWARE
k • •
ON THE IDENTIFICATION
OF OLD GLASSWARE.
Little is known of tiie early histoiy of the
glass industry in this country, and still less of
the products of the early factories. The greatest
difficulty, encountered at the outset, is the seem*
ing impossibility of procuring fully authenticated
pieces of glassware of American manufacture.
Unlike china, glass was seldom marked, and we
find little to guide us save the statements made
by owners of examples which can be traced back
to thteir original sources. In the majority of in-
stances such statements are untrustworthy, as
they are based solely on family tradition. An-
tique designs can sometimes be identified by visit-
ing those factories yet in operation which have
a history, where some of the ancient records and
moulds may still be found, or by hunting up the
few surviving glass mould makers who can throw
light upon the subject. I happen to have in my
28 American Glassware,
possession an old-fashioned globular whiskey
or molasses bottle, which bears on one side a
raised half-length figure of Louis Kossuth, the
Hungarian exile, surrounded by flags and dra-
pery, and on the reverse a representaition of a
steamship, the side wheel of which contains the
name "S. Huffsey." Beneath this design is the
inscription, "U. S. Steam Frigate Mississippi,
S. Huffsey." There appeared to be nothing on
this which would indicate where it was produced,
until some indistinct relief lettering was observed
on the base which, on careful examination,
proved to be "Ph. Doflein, N. 5th St. 84."
This was a clue which suggested a reference to
the Philadelphia City Directory, where the name
of Philip Doflein, mould maker, was found, but
with a different address. Mr. Doflein was hunted
up, however, and was found in the rear of the
address indicated. The metallic mould for this
flask proved to have been made by him forty-five
years before, on the occasion of Kossuth's visit
to America, for S. Huffsey, who was then a glass
manufacturer in Philadelphia. It will be remem-
bered that Kossuth embarked from Asia for this
country in 1851 in the "Mississippi."
American Glassware. 29
With this hint as a starting point, and the
knowledge that such pieces had actually been
made in this country, it became comparatively
easy to trace the history of other designs which
had been supposed to be of English origin. At
the Whitney Glass Works, Glassboro', N. J., an
old metallic bottle mould was unearthed which
belonged to the same period. It had been used
in 1850 and 1851 for making the same type of
bottle with a raised bust of Jenny Lind on one
side and a view of the glass works on the other.
During the unexampled furore created by the
appearance of this singer in America, in those
years, her name was largely used to advertise the
wares and productions of merchants, manufac-
turers and even fruit growers. It may be re-
membered by some yet living that the first seat
sold in New York for her first concert brought
the enormous sum of $225, and subsequently
tickets were sold at auction in Boston and Phila-
delphia for $625 each, and in Providence the
first seat brought $650. The opening series of
six concerts which she gave at Castle Garden,
New York, under the management of P. T. Bar-
num, resulted in receipts aggregating more
30 American Glassware,
than $100,000. Her tour of triumph through the
States made her name a household word, and the
people, in consequence, bought with avidity any
souvenirs which bore k.
Between the years 1840 and 1850 there seems
to have been a remarkable competition in glass
making in some sections of the Eastern States,
and Philadelphia, in particular, was an important
glass manufacturing center. Throughout the
neighboring counties, therefore, an abundance
of old designs can still be found, many of which
can be traced to their original source. In nearly
every farmhouse one may find examples of old
bottles with curious designs, patriotic, political
and Masonic, which are usually stored away in
the cupboard, filled with brandied cherries, vine-
gar, molasses, boneset tea and other medicinal
The Mexican War gave rise to many special
devices in glass bottles and other household ar-
ticles. Familiar to many, probably, are the old-
time canteen-shaped flasks bearing on one side
a head oi Washington inscribed "The Father of
His Country," and on the other a portrait of
Zachary Taylor with the words, "Gen. Taylor
American Glassware. 31
Never Surrenders." These are supposed to have
first appeared about 1848, and it has been ascer-
tained, through occasional examples which bear
the name of the factory, that they originated in
Kensington, Philadelphia, at what are now
known as the Dyottville Glass Works, which
were established in 1771.
Among things of this sort which have turned
up is a flask of rich, dark blue glass, bearing on
one side the head of Gen. Washington and on
the other an alleged portrait of Capt. Braxton
Bragg, a prominent American officer who won
distinction at the battle of Buena Vista, which
was fought in 1847 between the American army,
led by Gen. Zachary Taylor, and the Mexican
forces, headed by Santa Ana. The signal victory
of the Americans over vastly superior numbers
brought out many commemorative souvenirs of
various kinds, which were sold extensively
throughout the country. By comparing this de-
sign with the preceding, it is safe to assume that
it also was made at the Dyottville Works.
Around the relief portrait is the inscription in
raised lettering, "A little more grape, Capt.
32 American Glassware.
After a few pieces have been positively identi-
fied as having been made at certain factories,
others, by careful comparison, can be traced to
the same source. Each factory where such ob-
jects were produced had its peculiar forms, which
differed in some of thedr details from those pro-
duced at other establishments. The difference
might be in contour, in the length of the neck, in
the character of the corrugations or ribs on the
edge or in some other minor point.
Among the oldest forms of decorated glass
bottles or flasks known to have been made in the
United States is one which bears a relief design
representing the first railroad. The device shows
a horse drawing a four-wheeled car along a rail.
The vehicle is piled full of bales, lumps of coal or
packages of freight. Around the margin of the
panel is the inscription, "Success to the Rail-
road." Several of the first railroads in this coun-
try were built for the transportation of stone and
coal, and were only a few miles in length. The
cars were drawn by horses, as shown in the
moulded relief. It is probable that this very in-
teresting object was produced at the Kensington
Glass Works, Philadelphia, which preceded the
American Glassware. 33
Dyottvilk Works. The character of the glass,
the color, the shape and the peculiar mould
markingTs, as compared with named examples,
point to such an origin. The horse antedated
the locomotive as a motive power. It is said
that there is another design showing the earliest
form of steam engine, but on investigation what
was supposed to be a locomotive turns out to be
a horse, and it is quite doubtful if such a design
was ever produced. Sometimes but one side of
the flask is decorated, but frequently the pattern
occurs on both.
The earliest of the designs which are known
to us could not have been made previous to 1825.
By far the greater number were produced about
1848 to 1852. In the light of our present knowl-
edge of the subject, it is highly amusing to read
the frequently published accounts of remarkable
discoveries of Washington and Taylor flasks, and
other comparatively recent designs, embedded in
the foundations of buildings and stone walls
which were erected more than a hundred years
SKETCHES OF GLASS FACTORIES ESTABLISHED
BEFORE 1800, AND THEIR PRODUCTS
SKETCHES OF GLASS FACTORIES ESTABLISHED
BEFORE 1800, AND THEIR PRODUCTS.
Glass Works of Baron Stiegel
Among the first successful glass works in the
United States of consequence were those estab-
lished at Manheim, Lancaster county, Pa., by
Baron William Henry Stiegel, about the year
1769, and several excellent examples of his work,
consisting of richly colored bowls and goblets,
possessing the clear, resonant ring of the finest
glassware of Bohemia, are now owned by local
antiquaries. It is stated that his glass house was
built of brick, in the form of a dome whose di-
mensions were so great that a coach and six
horses could enter the doorway and turn around
in the enclosure. He brought skilled workmen
from the best factories of Europe, and the wares
produced, after the most improved methods of
the first glass makers of the period, found their
way into the homes of the wealthier men of that
Baron Stiegel came from Mannheim, Germany,
38 American Glassware.
in 1750, and twelve years later he laid out the
Pennsylvania village which bears the same name.
He was also a prominent iron master, and quaint
stoves of his manufacture are still in existence.
In 1772, at the height of his prosperity, he deeded
a plot of ground to the Lutheran congregation,
in consideration of the annual payment thereafter
of one red rose. It was demanded but twice dur-
ing the Baron's lifetime, but recently the custom
has been revived by some of his descendants.
The celebration of the Feast of Roses in the
month of June is an event of great interest which
attracts widespread attention and draws crowds
of people from the surrounding country and
neighboring towns. In his palmiest days the
Baron lived in considerable pomp and splendor.
He erected a fine, large mansion in the midst of
extensive grounds, and as he rode home at sun-
set, after spending the day in superintending his
various enterprises, he was accustomed to be
saluted at the entrance of his park by the firing
of cannon. In 1774 he failed in business, and it
is said that he was soon afterward cast into
prison for debt. The old Stiegel house, built of
red and black bricks, is still standing in the heart
of the town, and some of the hand-painted Dutch
tiles from one of the fireplaces may be seen in the
American Glassware. 39
rooms of the Pennsylvania Historical Society,
Philadelphia, Pa., Kensington.
The glass works at Kensington are claimed to
be the oldest of the kind in the United States that
are still in active operation. They were estab-
lished in 1 77 1 by Robert Towars and James Lea-
cock, and in 1783 they were taken over by
Thomas Leiper. From 1803 to 1833 they were
operated by James Rowland & Co. In the latter
year Dr. Thomas W. Dyott became the owner
and continued in possession for about four years.
Henry Seybert was the proprietor from 1842 to
1844, when the works passed into the hands of
Henry B. Benners, S. Decatur Smith and Quin-
ton Campbell, Jr. From 1870 to 1889 Mr. Ben-
ners was sole proprietor, and latterly the business
has been carried on by his estate, under the super-
intendence of Albert H. Parke, whose connection
with the establishment has extended over a
period of more than forty years. Mr. Parke is
authority for the statement that most of the fancy
bottle moulds at the Dyottville Works were made
by Stacy Wilson, and later by George H. Myers.
40 American Glassware.
Previous to 1833, when Dr. Dyott took chaise,
the factory was known as the Kensin^on Glass
Works; the name was then changed to the Dyott-
ville Glass Works, which has been retained to
the present time. The products of the works are
carboys, demijohns and flasks and bottles of
After Dr. Dyott's time, the old title, "Kensing-
ton Glass Works," appears to have been used for
another factory which was operated by Messrs.
Sheets & Duffy. Similar goods were produced
there for a time.
Kensington Glass Works.
1. Horse and loaded wagon
on rails (lengthwise). In-
scription, — "Success to
the Railroad." Reverse,
—the same. Type II.
2. Horse and loaded wagon
on rails (lengthwise). In-
scription, — "Success to
the Railroad." Reverse,
— no design. Type II,
Kensington Glass Works, Philadelphia
(See No. 5)
3. Horse and loaded wagon on rails O^ngth-
wise). Inscription, — "Success to the Rail-
road." Reverse, — American eagle and
stars. Type II.
4. "Benjamin Franklin" (bust). Reverse, — "T.
W. Dyott, M.D." (bust). Inscriptions
around edge, — "Eripuit Calo Fuimen Scep-
trumque Tyrcnnis"* (He snatches from
the Sky the Thunderbolt and the Sceptre
from Tyrants). "Kensington Glass Works,
Philadelphia." Type II.
5. "Benjamin Franklin" (bust). Reverse, — "T.
W. Dyott, M.D." (bust). Inscriptions
around edge, — "Where Liberty Dwelk
There is My Country." "Kensington
Glass Works, Philadelphia." Type II.
6. Washington (bust, front
face); "General Washing-
ton." Reverse, — Ameri-
can eagle with shield,
arrows and olive branch,
standing on oval frame
which contains fhe ini-
tials "T.W. D." (Thomas
W, Dyott). Inscriptions
around edge, — "Ken- >jo. g,
.. ri?*?Tf tT-'''" •""'?• "• ;«q«™;ly "Pl-lled to Franklin, hii been
atlributed to Taitot, ihc cdd>nitcd French iidetiiiin, who died In
42 American Glassware.
sington Glass Works, Philadelphia."
"Adams and Jefferson, July 4, A. D. 1776."
7. Washington (same busit as preceding); "Gen-
eral Washington." Reverse, — Masonic de-
vice, arch, pillars, pavement, sheaf of
wheat and tools. Type H.
8. Amwican eagle on shield. Reveise, —
United States flag. Inscription, — "For
Our Country." Type II.
Dyottvilk Glass Works.
9. Washington (bust); "The
Father of His Country."
Reverse, — ^Taylor (bust);
"Gen. Taylor Never Sur- .
renders." Inscription, — /
"Dyottville Glass Works, I
Philadelphia." Type III. \
ID. Washingfton and Taylor,
Same, without inscripticm.
Type III. No. 9.
II. Washington (bust); "The Father of His
Country." Reverse, — Taylor (bust) ; "I
American Glassware. 43
Have End€avour'd to Do My Duty."
12. Washington (bust); "The Father of His
Country." Reverse, — Taylor (bust); "I
Have Endeavour'd to Do My Duty."
Different busts from preceding, and in
large circular frame. Type III.
13. Washington (bust); "The Father of His
Country." Reverse, — "Gen. Z. Taylor,"
14. Washington (bust). Reverse, — ^Taylor (bust).
No inscriptions. Type III.
15. Washington (bust); "The
Father of His Country."
Reverse, — (bust); "A Lit-
tle More Grape Captain
Bragg." Type III.
16. "Washington" (bust). Re-
verse, — "G. Z. Taylor"
(bust). The G. preceding
Washington has evidently
been misplaced. Type III. ^°- 'S-
17. Taylor (bust) ;"Roughand Ready." Reverse,
— "Major Ringgold" (bust). Type II.
44 American Glassware,
i8. American eagle and shield, arrows and olive
branch. Reverse, — Masonic design, arch,
pillars, pavement, sheaf of wheat and tools.
No inscriptions. Type II.
Glassboro', N. J.
In 1775 the Stanger Brothers erected a glass
factory in Gloucester county, N. J., at a point
which afterwards received the name of Glass-
boro'. Messrs. Rink, Stanger & Co. established
new works on the site of the present plant in
1813, and during the next twenty-five years there
were several dhanges in ownership. In 1837
Thomas H. Whitney purchased the business and
in 1840 took his brother, Samuel A. Whitney,
into partnership under the firm name of Whitney
Brothers. A company was incorporated in 1887
under the title of the Whitney Glass Works.
For a long period of years, to the present time,
they have been one of the most important estab-
lishments of the kind in this country. During
the presidential campaign of 1840, the Whitney
Brothers manufactured large numbers of whiskey
bottles, in dark brown glass, in the form of a log
American Glassware, 45
cabin. They were made for an enterprising
liquor merchant in Philadelphia, and occasionally
one of these interesting souvenirs still comes to
One of the most characteristic shapes in flasks
is what is known as the "J^'^^X Lind," with
globular body and long, slender neck. This type
of bottle originated in the year 1850, when the
great singer came to America. At first they were
embellished with a relief portrait of the cantatrice,
but subsequently various other designs were
placed upon them, when other firms began to
make them. Among numeixxis other designs
produced by the Whitneys were inkstands in the
forms of bee-hives, log cabins and cider barrels,
all relating to the memorable Harrison campaign
For several years after the Civil War, tokens
or small metal coins were issued by
these works as advertisements, re-
\ deemable in gxxxls. One of these
bears on its face the figure ol a
wicker-covered carboy or glass
demijohn and on the back the in-
scription "Due Bearer in Mdze. at our Store One
Cent. Whitney Bros. 1869."
Mr. John P. Whitney, president of the com-
pany, has in his possession a water color painting
executed in 1847, showing the works as they ap-
peared at thaft date. The view shows tlhe two
glass houses with their adjoining batch houses,
and cord wood piled in front for the kilns. In
those days no other fuel was used for meking
glass. Back of these stood the store, the packing
house, the sand houses and other structures.
It is interesting to know that the original metal
mould, in which the "J^'^^^y Lind" botJtles were
blown, is still in existence, a valuable relic of this
era of industrial activity in the United States.
Whitney Glass Works,
19. "J^^^'^y Lind" (bust), in
wreath. Reverse, — ^viewof
giass factory. Type IV.
20. Fisherman wearing high hat;
house and windmill in oR-
tance. Reverse, — gunner*
in high hat, shooting
birds; two dogs at his feet.
American Glassware. 47
21, Log cabin whiskey bottle,
moulded in shape of
house. On one end
inscription, — "120 Wal-
nut St Philadelphia."
Date " 1840" on front of
roof. At back, — ^"E,
G. Booz's Old Cabinet
The present propriettws of the Baltimore Glass
Works, Messrs Baker Brothers & Co., are
authority for <the statement that a branch of their
establishment -was started in 1790 on an arm of
the Patapsco river, known as Spring Gardens.
These works, situated at the foot of Eutaw street,
Baltimore, are at the present time idle, but not
The Baltimore Glass Works were established
at about the same time, and are still in active
operation at Federal Hill, Hughes street. Both
factories are under one management. Many of
the designs produced at the Baltimore Glass
48 American Glassware.
Works bear a representation of the Battle Monu-
ment which stands in the center of Monument
Another glass manufactory was operated in
Baltimore by John Lee Chapman abouit 1850.
It was called the Maryland Glass Works, and
located at the comer of Lancaster and Caroline
streets. I have not succeeded in identifying any
flask designs as having been made here, but
future investigation may show that some of the
patterns credited to the Baltimore Glass Works
in the following list were produced at the Chap-
Spring Garden Glass Works.
22. Log cabin, with tree to right. Reverse, —
anchor with scroll bearing inscription, —
"Spring Garden Glass Works." Type VI.
23. Log cabin. Same design. Blank label at
bottom of both sides. Type VI.
Baltimore Glass Works.
24. ''Washington" in large letters (large bust
with queue). Reverse, — ^Taylor (large
head). Inscription, — "Baltimore Glas*
Work*." Type II.
American Glassware. 49
25. Ear of corn. Inscription, — "Corn for the
World." Reverse, — monument, over word
"Baltimore." Type III.
26. Washington (bust); "Fell's" above, "Point"
below. Reverse, — monument, over word
"Balt°." Type II.
37. Taylor (large head); "Genl
Taylor," Reverse, — monu-
ment and words "Fell's
Point Balto." Type II.
28. Taylor (bust) and words
"Fell's Point." Reverse,
— monument and word
"Balto." Type II.
29. Ship. Reverse, — monument.
SKETCHES OF GLASS FACTORIES ESTABLISHED
SKETCHES OF GLASS FACTORIES ESTABLISHED
SINCE 1800, AND THEIR PRODUCTS.
Columbia, N. J.
A WINDOW glass factory was established at
Columbia, N. J., on t!he Delaware river, about
ten miles from Belvidere, in what is now Warren
county, some time about 1812 or 1813, which ran
until about the year 1833. We do not know that
hollowware was made there, yet the factory
must have been an important one in its day, since
Thomas Birch, the artisit, considered it of suf-
ficient interest to form the subject of one of his
paintings. The view here shown is taken from
an old engraving by Strickland, after Birch's pic-
ture. On the right will be seen the glass house,
situated at the lower end of the town, while at
the left the celebrated Water Gap is shoA^1l, which
lies four or five miles to the northward. In the
foreground is introduced one of those curious old
river craft, now long extinct, known as the "Dur-
ham" boat, showing four "pikemen" braced
54 American Glassware.
against their poles or pikes, forcing the boait up
the stream, and tihe captain seated in the stem,
rudder in hand. The name was derived from the
old Durham furnace, which stood not far distant
from the bank of the river, some ten miles below
Easton, Pa., where these boats originated. They
were in use as early as about 1750 and were first
employed in transporting the products of the
furnace — its old plate stoves and other manu-
factures — ^to Philadelphia and bringing back sup-
plies. It is said that the crown glass for win-
dow lights, made at the Columbia Works, was of
a superior quality.
The following advertisement, from the files of
the Easton (Pa.) Centinel, has been sent to me by
Mr. Ethan Allen Weaver, secretary of the Penn-
sylvania Society of the Sons of the Revolution:
"The Columbia Glass Works will commence
the blast in the month of August next, when or-
ders will be received for all sizes of Window Glass
and executed by
"June 21, 1822."
American Glassware, 55
The manufacture of glass was carried on at
Rockville, Pa., as early as 181 5. It is believed
that window glass only was made there. The
following advertisement, which appeared in the
issue of "Spirit of Pennsylvania," Easton, Pa., of
September i, 181 5, has been furnished by Mr.
AT ROCKVILLE GLASS WORKS,
Eight Miles above Milforo,
On the Delaware:
Three or four steady men to drive team. Also, a num-
ber of workmen, acquainted with cutting, sawing and
splitting wood, and other work — ^to whom liberal wages
will be given. For particulars apply to the manager at
the works. Ridgway & Co.
Rockville Glass Works, September i.
A sitock company vvas organized in Coventry,
Conn., in 1813 by several residents of that place
for the manufacture of g'lassware, and Nathaniel
Root, Jr., was appointed agent. The first prod-
ucts of the factory were tumblers and decanters.
56 American Glassware.
and later pint flasks and larger bottles, snuff can-
nisters and inkstands were produced. The busi-
ness was carried on under the same management
until about 1820, when it passed into other
hands. During the following ten years the works
were operated by Thomas Stebbins and his suc-
cessors, Stebbins & Chamberlin. About the year
1830 Gilbert Turner & Co. purchased the plant
and continued in possession until about 1848,
when, on account of the scarcity of wood, the
wx^rks were closed.
Several interesting old flask designs are known
which bear the name of the town and the initials
of the manufacturers, — T. S. (Thomas Stebbins)
and S. & C. (Stebbins & Chamberlin). They are
among the earliest designs of the kind produced
in the United States. Those with portraits of
General Lafayette and De Witt Clinton, Gov-
ernor of New York, were made in commemora-
tion of the opening of the Erie Canal in 1825, on
which occasion these prominent men were pres-
ent. The flasks occur in a variety of colors, —
dark brown, emerald green, white and sapphire
blue, — ^brown being the most common. The late
American Glassware. 57
Mr. Nathaniel Root, of Newington, Conn., a son
of 'the first agent of the company, had in his pos-
session a number of interesting examples of the
ware produced at Coventry, including a straight
tumbler, square snuff bottles and some globular
decanters, all in brown glass; a tall vase with
spherical body and long, slender neck, wound
from the mouth halfway down with a spiral,
snake-like ornament, in green glass, and a curi-
ously shaped four-sided bottle with upper and
lower compartments connected by five separate
twisted tubes, which allow the free passage of the
contents. A similar vessel of Danish workman-
ship may be seen in the Pennsylvania Museum,
Philadelphia. He had also preserved examples
of phials, jars and other receptacles of various
shapes for the use of apothecaries, which were
manufactured there extensively, a spherical car-
boy of greenish color and a large brown bottle
with four oval sides, surmounted by a small
The materials used at the Coventry factory
were white and red sand, obtained in the vicinity,
wood ashes and salt,
Coventry, Conn, ("T. S/')
30. "Lafayette" (bust); initials "T. S." below.
Reverse,— "De Wiitt Clinton" (bust). In-
scription, — "Coventry C—T" below.
Edges of flask corrugated horizontally.
31. Lafayette and Clinton, same design. The
"D" in "De Witt" reversed. Type L
32. American eagle; shield on breast; scroll
above. Reverse, — same device. Edges
corrugated horizontally. Type L
Coz^entry, Conn, ("S. & C")
33. "Lafayette" (bust); ini-
tials "S. & C" below.
Reverse,---"De Witt Clin-
ton" (bust) ; "C— T" be-
low (Connecticut). Edges
34. "Lafayette" (same bust). :=
Reverse, — Masonic pave-
ment and arch, enclosing No. 33.
American Glassware, 59
emblems (Bible, square, compass and tri-
angle). Type I, without corrugaitions on
West Willington, Conn.
While Gilbert Turner & Co. were operating the
Coventry works (1830 to 1848), they also became
interested in a similar enterprise at West Willing-
ton, Conn., under the name of the Willington
Glass Co. Among those identiiSed with this ven-
ture were R. B. Chamberlin, Elisha Johnson and
Dea. Turner. On April 19, 1847, these parties
sold out to a new company composed of Harvey
Merrick, Elisha Carpenter, William Still, William
Shaffer, Frank Shaflfer and James McFarlane.
The latter concern carried on the business until
Here were made hollow wares, such as bottles,
jars, etc. The greater portion of the products
were of black and green glass, but purple, white,
brown and amber goods were also produced.
Some of the same people also established glass
works at EUenville, Ulster county, N. Y., about
6o American Glassware.
Willington Glass Co.
35. American eagle and shield with word "Lib-
erty." Reverse, — "Willington Glass Co.,
West Willington, Conn." Type 11.
36. Urn containing wheat. Type II.
Hammonton, N. J.
In 1820 a window glass factory was established
at Hammonton, N. J., by William Coffin, with
whom was associated for a year or two Jonathan
Haines. At the expiration of that time the lat-
ter sold out his interest.
In 1836 the works were taken by Bodine Cof-
fin, a son of the founder, and Andrew K. Hay,
under the style of Coffin & Hay, who operated
the factory for two or three years. They added
a hollow ware department and commenced the
manufacture of bottles and flasks. At the end
of that period, William Coffin again took charge
and for the next five or six years produced win-
dow glass only. At his death, in 1844, his two
sons, J. H. and E. W. Coffin, succeeded to tlhe
business. About three years later the latter sold
out his interest and J. H. Coffin continued the
manufacture alone until 1857 or 1858.
American Glassware. 6i
Ornamented flasks were made here only dur-
ing the years i836-'38. Mr. E. W. Coffin has in-
formed me that a number of patriotic designs
were produced, but only one has thus far come
CoMn & Hay.
37. American eagle with shield on breast, stand-
ing on elliptical medallion, with olive
branch and arrows in talons. Reverse, —
United States flag and inscription, — "Cof-
fin & Hay, Hammonton." Type II.
Waterford, N. J.
The manufacture of window glass was carried
on at Waterford, Camden county, N. J., as early
as about i825-'3o. At a later period glass bot-
tles were made here. The original proprietor of
the works was Jonathan Haines, who had pre-
viously been in partnership for a time with Wil-
liam Coffin, at Hammonton, N. J. The works
were afterwards operated by Porter, Shreve &
Co., who continued in business until some time
after 1850. After the death of Mr. Porter other
62 American Glassware.
parties carried on the manufacture until about
187s to 1880.
38. American eagle, scroll, shield and arrows;
poinlted oval beneaith. Reverse, — 'Clasped
hands in large shield, "Waterford" above ;
thirteen stars over all. Type VI.
Bridgeton, N. J.
The first glass factory in Bridgeton was built
and started in 1837, ^Y Stratton, Buck & Co., and
continued in operation until about Mardh, 1841,
when a fire destroyed a portion of the buildings.
Joel Bodine leased tihe plaint about 1848 and ran
it for several years under the firm name of Joel
Bodine & Sons. About 1855 Messrs. Potter &
Bodine purchased the works, and later Mr. Pot-
ter sold his interest to Frank Bodine and J.
Nixon Bodine. Recently a stock company has
been formed under the name of The Cohansey
Glass Manufacturing Co.
It is said that a variety of ornamental glass
flasks have been produced here from time to time.
One design is known to collectors.
American Glassware. 63
39. "Washington" (bust) in uniform. Reverse,
— Unnamed bust, probably Taylor. In-
scription, — "Bridgeton, New Jersey,"
above. Type 11.
Isabella Glass Works.
Inquiries of the older glass makers now living
have failed to elicit any information relative to
these works. The single flask design known to
collectors would indicate a period between 1840
40. Anchor. Inscription, — "Isabella Glass
Works" on scroll, and anchor. Reverse,
— view of glass factory. Type VI.
FiSLERVILLE, N. J.
(Clayton^ N. J.)
A glass factory was started at Fislerville, N. J.,
in 1850 by Jacob P. Fisler and Benjamin Beck-
ett. In 185 1 the latter withdrew and Edward
Bacon was admitted to partnership, and until
1856 the firm name was Fisler & Bacon. In the
latter year, at the death of Mr. Bacon, the works
were sold to John M. Moore. The present fac-
64 American Glassware,
tory of the Moore Bros. Glass Co. stands on the
site which the original buildings of Beckett &
J^sler once occupied.
The name of Fislerville was changed to Clay-
ton in 1867.
Fislerville Glass Works.
41. "Jc^^y Lind'' (bust), surrounded by wreath.
Reverse, — view of factory. Inscription, —
*TislervilIe Glass Works.'' Type IV.
MiLLFORA Glass Works.
I have not been able to locate these works. It
is possible that the name may have been intended
for Millford. A single design has been found of
the decanter or "J^^^y Lind" shape.
42. *'Jenny Lind'* (bust), in wreath. Reverse, —
viev/ of a glass factory. Inscription, —
"Millfora G. Works." Type IV.
The name of S. Huflfsey appears on several
flask and bottle designs of the middle of the pres-
ent century. The Philadelphia directory for
1850 shows tJha/t Samuel HulBFsey was a glass
blower, and that two years later he was engaged
in the business of selling glassware at 50 North
Fourth street, in the same city. It is said that
he was also a manufacturer about the same
period, with works at Camden, N. J. Among
the best-known designs which bear his name are
globular bottles (Type IV), with busts of Jenny
Lind and Louis Kossuth.
Jenny Lind" (bust), in wreath. Reverse, —
view of factory. Inscription, — "Glass
Works, S. HulBFsey." Type IV.
Jenny Lind*' (bust). Re-
verse, — ^view of factory.
Inscription, — "S. Huff-
sey." Type IV.
Louis Kossuitih" (half-
length figure, with hat),
above flag^. Reverse, —
— "U. S. Steam Frigate
Mississippi, S. HulBFsey."
Type IV. No. 45.
66 American Glassware.
A, R. Samuels,
Little IS known of A. R. Samuels save that he
was a manufacturer of glassware in Philadelphia
in the year 1855. A Masonic design, in two
types of bottles, bears his initials.
46. American eagle, scroll, shield and arrows.
Initials, "A. R. S.," below. Reverse, —
clasped hands. Masonic emblems and
word "Union" in large shield; thirteen
stars above. Type III.
47. American eagle (same design). Type IV.
Albany, N. Y.
At a point some seven miles from the city of
Albany, now known as Guilderland, a glass house
was built in 1792. In the following year the
State loaned the proprietors £3000 for a term of
eight years, three years without interest and five
years at five per cent. The company was exempt
from taxation for a period of five years (see
48. Washington (?) (bust), surrounded by in-
scription, — "Albany Glass Works, Albany,
American Glassware. 67
N. Y." Reverse, — sl full-rigged ship.
Shape of Type II, with vertical side rib.
Sloping collar or cap at top ?.nd hollow
Glass works were erected in 1857 at Westford,
Conn., and operated for eight years by the West-
ford Glass Co., which consisted of thirteen stock-
holders representing a capital of $18,000. The
style was then changed to E. A. Buck & Co., who
continued the business until 1873, when the
49. Double-headed sheaf of wheat, pitchfork and
rake; star beneath. Reverse, — "Wesitford
Glass Co., Westford, Conn." Type VI.
New London, Conn.
A glass factory, now out of existence, was pro-
ducing bottles in New London, Conn., about
i860. It was erected by parties from Stoddart,
68 American Glassware,
N. H., who were operating it in 1863. It was
afterward purchased by N. Y. Fish and William
Batty, who subsequently sold it to some Ellen-
ville, N. Y., people. It was known as the
Thames Glass Works.
50. American eagle with shield on breast, stand-
ing on olive branch wreath; seven stars
above. Reverse, — ^anchor and "New Lon-
don Glass Works" in scroll. Type VI.
L. F. & Co,
51. American eagle and scroll; pointed frame be-
low, with words "Pittsburg, Pa." Reverse,
— shield with clasped hands and initials
"L. F. & Co."; word "Union." Type VI.
Cuninghams & Co,
52. Indian with bow and arrow, shooting bird;
dog and tree behind. Inscription, — "Cun-
inghams & Co. Pittsburgh, Pa." Reverse,
— eagle, monument and flag, and word
"Continential" below. Type VI.
American Glassware, 69
E, Wormser & Co,
53. American eagle and shield. Inscription in
frame below, — "E. Wormser & Co. Pitts-
burgh." Reverse,— clasped hands in shield,
with word "Union"; thirteen stars above.
MISCELLANEOUS DESIGNS BY UNKNOWN MAKERS
MISCELLANEOUS DESIGNS BY
54- American eagle with
shield on breast, stand-
ing on oval panel ; rays
around head. Reverse,
— same design. Type
55. American eagle with thir-
teen stars above. Re-
verse, — grapes. Type
56. American eagle (arms of
the United States). No. 57.
Reverse, — large head of Liberty, with
thirteen stars above. Initials, "B. & W.,"
beneath, in script. Type II.
57. American eagle, star or rosette in oval below.
Reverse, -^Masonic arch and emblems,
scull, etc., below. Type V.
58. American eagle; same design. Beehive,
etc., below. Type V.
59. American eagle, "E Pluribus Unum, above.
Initials, "B. P," in oval below. Reverse, —
Masonic arch and emblems. Beehive, etc.,
below. Type V.
60. American eagle, "E Pluribus Unum," above.
Initials, "I. P./' in oval below. Reverse, —
Masonic arch and emblems. Type V.
61. American eagle, scroll and initials, "H. R.,"
in wreath of laurel leaves. Reverse, —
Masonic emblems. Type V.
62. American eagle. Reverse, — ^tree, with word
63. American eagle, scroll, shield and arrows;
pointed oval below. Reverse, — clasped
hands, squaie and compass in large shield,
"Union" above; thirteen stars over all.
64. American eagle; oval frame
Pa.," below. Reverse, —
same. Type VI.
65. American eagle with scroll
in beak. Reverse,— clasped
hands in shield, with word
"Union," surrounded by
thirteen stars and olive
branches. Type VI.
66. American eagle with shield No. 64.
on breast and outspread wings; design
American Glassware. 75
lengthwise, like No. i. Reverse, — same.
67. Cornucopia, or horn of plenty, with fruits.
Reverse, — ^vase of flowers. Type II.
68. Cornucopia with fruits. Reverse, — ^urn of
five panels with fruits. Type VI.
69. Cornucopia with fruits. Reverse, — ^urn of
seven panels with fruits. Type VI.
70. Indian with crown, shooting bird with bow
and arrow; dog behind. Reverse, — eagle
with scroll on pedestal, containing serrated
flag; small bird at each side. Type VI.
.71. "J^^y Lind" (bust), in wrealth. Reverse, —
view of glass works, wiHh words "Glass
Factory"; corrugated sides. Type IV.
72. "Jeny Lind" (bust), in wreath. Reverse, —
view of glass works; not corrugated. No
inscription. Type IV.
73. "Jenny Lind" (bust), in wreath. Reverse, —
"Kossuth" (bust), without hait. Type IV.
74. "Kossuth" (bust), without hat. Reverse, —
tree. Type IV.
75. Sheaf of wheat. Reverse, — ^bust (probably
76. Sheaf of wheat, crossed pitchfork and rake.
Reverse, — star. Type IV.
76 American Glassware.
77. Tree, with bird in branches; "Summer"
above. Reverse, — same; "Winter" above.
78. Washington (bust, front face); no wording.
Reverse, — tree bearing fruit. Type IV.
79. "Washington" (bust, in uniform) to left.
Reverse, — "Jackson" (bust, in uniform) to
left. Type II.
80. "Washington" (bust). Reverse,— "Kossuth"
(bust). Type IV.
81. Washington (bust). Reverse, — ^American
eagle with twelve stars.
82. Horse and loaded wagon on rails (length-
wise). "Railroad," above; "Lowell," be-
low. Reverse, — spread eagle (lengthwise)
with thirteen stars above. Type II.
83. "For Pike's Peak."
84. Double-headed sheaf of wheat, rake and
pitchfork. Reverse, — ^tree. Type IV.
85. Masonic arch on finely tessellated pavement,
and emblems. Reverse, — same, with dif-
ferent emblems. Type V.
86. Ship. Reverse, — large, eight-pointed star.
-'. / »r" ?.• i'ft '. H
., ^, ^ 1,. , ..
I : ' \ t ' I .
.' < ■"
- r s^ 111
J ■•'.'■•■1* :;--''^ -.ni n >)v iv.: ^.' l-'.'5^'. :'i:n" l- r^.
(S« No. 79)
EARLY MOULD MAKERS
EARLY MOULD MAKERS.
Philip Doflein, a German, began his career
as a maker of nuetal moulds in Philadelphia in
1842, and originated a large number of bottle
designs with portraits of prominent men, includ-
ing Washington, Jefferson, Jackson and Taylor.
He executed, at different times, many special
patterns for prominent Philadelphia and Camden
glass and soap manufacturers, and was one of the
best-known mould cutters in the trade. The
writer visited Mr. Doflein in 1896, and found him
actively engaged in his usual work, although he
was then eighty years of age. It is with g^eat
regret that I have learned of his recent death.
He was of an amiable disi>osition and of a retiring
nature, a conscientious and capable worker in his
special line. He was the last of the old^ime die
cutters who prepared the moulds for historical
bottle designs. One of his last portrait designs
was a bust of General U. S. Grant, made for a
New York firm for the ornamentation of perfume
8o American Glassware.
George H. Myers, and before him Stacy Wil-
son, who will, doubtless, be remembered by some
of the older members of the craft, made many of
the moulds used by the Dyottville and other
prominent glass works.
ANY of US can remember
the curious little glass
cup-plates of our grand-
mothers, on which the
partly emptied teacups
were placed to avoid
soiling the table cloth
while the tea was cool-
ing in the saucers; for in
olden times it was considered quite proper to
drink from the saucer, and the custom prevailed
in all classes of society. Then, at a later day,
when ithe good housewife began to look upon
saucer-drinking as bad form in table etiquette,
we can recall these same diminutive teacup-plates,
both in glass and china, doing duty as receptacles
for preserves, butter and pickles. Fifty or sixty
years ago every well-stocked china closet or glass
cupboard could boast of a supply of these utensils
84 American Glassware.
in a variety of designs and colors. Some were
made of plain, transparent glass, and others were
opalescent or milky, ribbed in concentric circles
and ornamented on the rims with floral designs,
scroll work and stars. About the year 1840 the
glass manufacturers introduced a new style of
decoration, which met with much favor, consist-
ing of devices of a patriotic or historical charac-
ter. To meet the increasing demand for such
wares tihe range of decorative subjects was ex-
tended to include historical monuments, noted
steamships and portrait busts of famous men.
Glass cup-plates seem to have been most in
favor about 1840, some appearing eariier and
others a few years later. One of these commem-
orates "Bunker Hill battle, fought June 17,
1775," in which engagement the gallant Gen.
Warren fell. The central design is an obelisk-
shaped structure, purely conventional, supposed
to represent the celebrated monument which was
erected on the site of the battle just sixty-eigftit
years afterward, the corner stone having been
laid on the fiftiert:h anniversary of the event, eigh-
teen years before, by Gen. Lafayette, who in 1825
was making a tour of the United States. At the
Glass Cap-Plate. 1841.
ilass Cup-Plale. 1S44.
American Glassware. 85
laying of the corn^ stone in that year and at the
unveiling of the monument in 1843, Daniel
Webster was the orator of the day.
The Harrison campaign of 1840 was responsi-
ble for at least two similar designs in glass, one
representing the Log Cabin and Hard Cider de-
vice, the other a portrait of Gen. William Henry
Harrison himself in uniform, and among other
conceits of the glass makers was an ink bottle,
or stand, made in the form of a frontier dwelling,
the birthplace of "Tippecanoe."
During or shortly after the political campaign
of 1844 a Henry Clay souvenir appeared in glass,
bearing an alleged portrait bust of the American
statesman which, with equal propriety, might
have served as a likeness of Julius Caesar; yet the
name which surrounded the profile was sufficient
to enable it to pass among the people as a satis-
factory representation of their popular leader.
There was also a series of steamboat designs, in-
scribed with the names of illustrious Americans.
One of the rarest of these shows a sidewheel ves-
sel, flying the American colors, on the paddle-
box of which appears a large "F," while from
86 American Glassware.
one of the masts floats a flag carrying the initials
"B. F.," and above the design occurs the nam-e
"Benjamin Franklin," in large letters. The bor-
der of this plate has an effective frosted appear-
ance, produced by a close setting of tiny dots,
raised on the under side, forming a ground on
which are distributed patriotic emblems, — stars,
anchors and the American eagle.
Belonging to the same set is a "Chancellor
Livingston" design witlh a similar lace effect bor-
der which is relieved with decorative details, such
as scroll work, hearts, stars and the national
shield. In the center, in capital letters, the title
is inscribed. Robert R. Livingston was Chan-
cellor of the State of New York from 1777 to
1801, and he it was who administered the oath
of office to Gen. Washington when he was in-
augurated President in 1789. Mr. Livingston
was one of the committee of five which drafted
the Declaration of Independence, and he was
afterward associated with Robert Fulton in his
steamboat enterprises. Similar series of designs
were produced by English potters in dark blue
color, bearing the words "Troy Line," "Union
American Glassware, 87
Wkh these objects may be classed the moulded
salt cellars which are occasionally found in white
and dark blue g-lass, bearing relief devices of the
American eagle and stars.
Thus it is seen that not only in china, but also
in glass, was perpetuated the memory of many of
the prominent events of history. The producers
of pottery and glassware of half a century and
more ago introduced in their decorative treat-
ment an instructive feature which might be re-
vived with profit by the manufacturers of the
These interesting little objects were pressed in
metal moulds by means of a plunger. It is be-
lieved that they were made in England, since we
have no knowledge that pressed glass designs of
this character were produced so early in this
(Probably made in England),
1. American eagle with shield on breast; thir-
teen stars above.
2. "Bunker Hill Battle Fought June 17, 1775"
(view of monument).
88 American Glassware.
3. "Bunker Hill Battle Fought June 17, 1775";
"From the Fair to the Brave"; "Comer
Stone laid by Lafayette, June 17, 1825.
Finished by the Ladies, 1841" (view of
4. "Chancellor Livingston" (steamboat).
5. "Clay, Henry" (bust).
6. "Fort Pitt" (eagle).
7. "Franklin, Benjamin" (steamboat).
8. Harrison, "President 1841. Maj. Gen. W.
H. Harrison Bom Feb. 5, 1773" (bust).
9. Hearts pierced by an arrow, and forget-me-
10. Log cabin.
11. Log cabin, flag on roof; cider barrel under
12. Bee Hive.
MODERN POLITICAL DESIGNS
MODERN POLITICAL DESIGNS.
More recent products in glass are worthy of
preservation, as illustrating the political history
of this country. During the presidential cam-
paign of 1896, several American manufacturers
issued tumblers decorated with white enamel and
etched portraits of the principal candidates, — Mc-
Kinley and Hobart, and Bryan and Sewall. One
cartoon represented Mr. Mc-
Kinley standing at the forks
of a road; one crooked, stony
way leads to free silver and de-
struction; the other, a smooth,
wide path, runs directly td
"Protection, Peace, Prosper-
ity," and to the latter the com-
ing President is directing the
typical Uncle Sam.
For the present campaign a number of similar
devices on tumblers and goblets have been pre-
92 American Glassware.
pared by enterprising glass makers. Busts of
McKinley and Roosevelt are
shown side by side, sur-
mounted by the American
eagle; and heads of Bryan
and Stevenson appear to-
gether. All four nominees
are also represented sepa-
rately. Other designs have
been issued with McKinley or
Bryan on one side and a crow-
ing rooster on the other. There are also opaque
white glass plates bearing black printed, or white
relief, portraits of the nominees.
Patriotic designs in souve-
nir tumblers have also been is-
sued, within the past year or*
two, with portraits of Admiral
George Dewey and other ce-
lebrities, living and dead.
Among the prominent pro-
ducers of campaign tumbler^
are the United States Glas^
Co., the Rochester Tumbler
Co. and Bryce Brothers, all of Pittsburgh, Pa.,
and the Seneca Glass Co., of Morgantown, W. Va.
RECENT ACHIEVEMENTS IN AMERICAN GLASS
RECENT ACHIEVEMENTS IN AMERICAN GLASS
LiBBEY Cut Glass.
A HISTORICAL sketch of the glass industry in
the United States would be incomplete without a
reference to the recent remarkable development
in ornamental glass cutting and coloring.
The Libbey Glass Company of Toledo, Ohio,
has brought the art of cutting glass to the highest
state of perfection. Its fabrications are now
world-famous for the depth and richness of their
cut designs, their simplicity and complexity of
pattern, purity of color and prismatic brilliancy.
Libbey cut glass surpasses, in mechanical and ar-
tistic qualities, the best wares of a similar nature
produced elsewhere, and it has become the stand-
ard of excellence in this difficult branch of the
art. Some of the larger pieces, in particular,
such as the punch bowl in the "Kimberly" pat-
tern, here shown, are marvels of elaborate work-
96 American Glassware.
manship and scintillating, crystalline beauty,
while in smaller forms the variety of useful and
ornamental designs is almost limitless. Wher-
LiBBEV Cur Gu^ss.
ever these products have been exhibited in com-
petition with the wares of foreign factories they
have taken itJie first honors. Other American
factories have produced and are now making cut
glass of the highest excellence, but the achieve-
American Glassware, 97
ments of William L. Libbey and Edward D. Lib-
bey must be accorded the foremost place.
Tiffany Favrile Glass.
In no branch of the glass maker's art have
greater advances been made recently than in that
of coloring, as exemplified in the celebrated
Favrile glass, perfected by Mr. Louis C. Tiffany,
of New York, and first brought to the attention
of the public in 1893. The forms of bowls, vases,
l^mps, parting cups, candlesticks, bottles and
other ornamental pieces are odd, chaste and
graceful ; the tinting of the glass is wonderfully
rich, varied and delicate ; the iridescent arid gem-
like effects are astonishingly brilliant. By means
of carving and cutting through layers of different
colors the most beautiful cameo work is simu-
lated. The texture of the agate and the onyx is
faithfully reproduced. The use and combination
of variegated metallic lustres result in exact imi-
tations of the p'rismatic hues of the pearl, the opal,
the peacock's feather and of golden sheen. The
variety of form and combination of color is only
limited by the number of pieces produced, since
• • •- •
no two are precisely alike. Such is Favrile glass
as now produced by the Tiffany Glass and Decor-
ating Co., of New York.
The word "Favrile" has been coined by the
company as a trade-mark, to distinguish its prod-
ucts from glass of other makers. It is derived
from the Latin word **fabrica,** designating some-
thing that has been fabricated through the ap-
plication of skill and expertness of working with
the hands. Favrile glass is the result of Ameri-
can genius, far surpassing the lojng-renowned
fabrics of Venice and Bohemia.
From the tentative beginnings of the industry
in the Virginia woods to the advanced condition
of the art at the close of the nineteenth century —
covering a period of nearly ithree centuries — is
indeed a gigantic stride. The days of patriotic
flasks have passed away, but in their stead we
have the finest wares of their kind that the world
has seen. Arr erica now excels in certain
branches of the art of glass making. We believe
it is only a question of a short time when sh^
will excel in all.
o w *
REFERENCE LIST OF BOTTLE DESIGNS
(Figures Indicate Number of Design).
American eagle (lengthwise) 66, 82
and anchor (*^New London") 50
" ("Coffin & Hay") 37
(horizontally corrugated sides) ... 32
and head of Liberty ("B. & W."). . 56
("Cuninghams & Co.") 52
Masonic emblems ("B. P.") . . 59
CI. P.").. 60
shield ("A. R. S.") 46, 47
Co.") .... 53
with rays 54
lor and A;
1 02 Index.
American eagle ("Success to the Rail Road") 3
" and tree ("Liberty") 62
and Washington 6, 81
('Willington Glass Co.") 35
Anchor and American eagle (**New London") 50
Isabella Glass Works" 40
log cabin 22, 23
Booz (log cabin bottle, "1840") 21
Bragg and Washington 15
Clinton and Lafayette ("T. S.") 30, 31
("S. & C") 33
Corn and monument ("Baltimore") 25
Cornucopia and fruit 68, 69
" " vase of flowers 67
Dyott and Franklin 4, 5
Fisherman and gunner 20
"Fislerville Glass Works" and "Jenny Lind" 41
Flag and American eagle 8
" " " " ("Coffin & Hay") 35
Franklin and Dyott 4, 5
Fruit and cornucopia 68, 69
Glass Factory and Jenny Lind 19, 71, 72
Grapes and American eagle 55
Gunner and fisherman 20
Horse and wagon ("Success to the Rail
Road") I, 2, 3, 82
"Huflfsey Glass Works" and Jenny Lind 43, 44
Indian and American eagle 70
("Cuninghams & Co.") 52
(( H i( «
"Isabella Glass Works" and anchor 40
Jackson and Washington 79
Kossuth and Jenny Lind y^
Lafayette and Qinton ("T. S.") 30, 31
C'S. & C") 33
Masonic arch 34
Liberty head and American eagle ("B. & W.") 56
Lind, Jenny, and "Fislerville Glass Works" 41
Glass Factory 19, 7i, 72
"Glass Works, S. Huffsey" 43, 44
'^Millfora G. Works" 42
Log cabin and anchor 22, 23
" ("Booz," "1840") 21
Masonic arch and emblems 85
Masonic emblems and American eagle, 18, 57, 58, 63, 65
" ("B. P.")... 59
" ("H. R.").. 61
" ("L P.")... 60
" " Lafayette 34
" " Washington 7
" shield *' Americaneagle("A. R. S.")46, 47
" C'L.F.&Co.") 51
" ("Waterford") 38
" ("Wormser &
"Millfora G. Works" and Jenny Lind 42
"Mississippi" and Kossuth 45
Monument and corn ("Baltimore") 25
Taylor ("Fell's Point") 27, 28
Washington " 26
Pike's Peak 83
Ringgold and Taylor 17
Ship and monument 29
" " star 86
" " Washington ("Albany") 48
Star and wheat 76
"Summer" and "Winter" 77
Taylor and monument ("Fell's Point") 27,28
sheaf of wheat 75
Washington 10, 14
("Gen, Z.") and Washington 13
("G. Z.") " " 16
and "Washington" ("Balto.") 24
("Endeavoured to Do Duty") and Wash-
ington II, 12
("Never Surrenders") and Washington ... 9
Tree and American eagle ("Liberty") 62
Urn and wheat 36
Vase of flowers and cornucopia 67
Washington and American eagle 6, 8i
ship ("Albany") 48
and Jackson 79
Masonic emblems 7
monument ("Feirs Point") 26
"Gen. Z. Taylor" 13
"G.Z." " 16
Taylor 10, 14
(**'Endeavour'd to Do
Duty") II, 12
("Never Surrenders") .... 9
Wheat and Gen. Taylor 75
Winter" and "Summer" 77
(Figures Indicate Page).
Albany Glass Works I4i 66
Allowaystown, N. J 12, 13
American Eagle Designs, Number of 23
A. R. S * 66
Bacon, Edward 63
" (Fisler &) 63
Baker Bros. & Co 47
Baltimore Glass Works 15, 47, 48, 49
Batty, William 68
Beckett, Benjamin 63
Benners, Henry B 39
Birch, Thomas (artist) 53
Bodine, Frank 62
J. 'Nixon 62
(Potter &) 62
Boston, Mass 14
Bottles of Unusual Shapes 24
Bridgeton, N. J 62, 63
Brooklyn, N. Y 12
io8 General Index.
Bryce Brothers 92
Buck (Stratton, & Co.) 62
Buck, E. A., & Co 67
B. &W 73
Campbell, Quinton, Jr 39
Carpenter, Elisha 59
Chamberlin, R. B 59
(Stebbins &) 56
Chapman, John Lee 48
Clayton, N. J 63, 64
Coffin, Bodine 60
E. W 60, 61
& Hay 60, 61
J. H 60
" William 60, 61
Cohansey Glass Mfg. Co 62
Coloring Glass 20
Columbia Glass Works 14, 53, 54
Coventry, Ct 14, 55-59
Cuninghams & Co 68
Cut Glass 95-97
Denny & Beelen 14
Doflein, Philip 28, 79
Duffy (Sheets &) 40
Dyottville Glass Works I5, 3i, 39» 40i 4^, 43, 44
Dyott, Dr. T. W 39
Ellenville, N. Y 59
Favrile Glass 97, 98
General Index, 109
Fish, N. Y 68
Fisler & Bacon 63
" Jacob P 63
Fislerville Glass Works (N. J.) 63, 64
Germantown, Mass 12
Glassboro, N. J iSi 44
Guilderland, N. Y 14, 66
Haines, Jonathan 60, 61
Halter, Caspar 13
" John Martin 13
Hamilton Manufacturing Co 14
Hammonton, N. J 60, 61
Hay, Andrew K 60
" (Coffin &) 60, 61
Hewes, Robert 14
H. R 74
Huffsey, Samuel 28, 64, 65
I. P 74
Isabella Glass Works 63
Jamestown, Va 11
Johnson, Elisha 59
Keene, N. H 14
Kensington Glass Works i5» 3ii 32, 39, 40, 41, 42
Kreismeir, Simon 13
Leacock, James 39
L. F. & Co 68
Leiper, Thomas 39
Libbey, Edward D 97
Glass Co 95-97
William L 97
no General Index,
Lind, Jenny, Flasks 29, 45
McFarlane, James 59
Manheim, Pa 37, 38
Maryland Glass Works 48
Merrick, Harvey 59
Millfora Glass Works 64
Moore Bros. Glass Co 64
" John M 63
Mould Makers 28, 39, 79, 80
Myers, George H 39, 80
New Jersey 12
New London Glass Works (Conn.) 67, 68
New York City 12
O'Hara, General 14
Parke, Albert H 39
Philadelphia, Pa 12, 39-44, 64-66
Piesch, Abraham 54
Pittsburgh, Pa 14, 15, 68, 69, 74
Plate Glass Co 15
Plate Glass 15
Political Tumbler Designs 91, 92
Porter, Shreve & Co 61
Potter & Bodine 62
Punty Marks on Bottles 21
Quincy (Germantown), Mass 12
Railroad Flasks 32
Ridgway & Co 55
Rink, Stanger & Co 44
Rochester Tumbler Co 92
Rockville Glass Works 55