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American Glassware 

Old and New 



A Sketch of the Glass Industry 
IN the United States 

AND 

Manual for Collectors of Historical Bottles 



By 

EDWIN ATLEE BARBER, A.M., Ph.D. 

AimioR OP 

Pottery and Porcelain of the United States, 

Anglo-American Pottery, Etc., Etc., Etc. 

Honorary Curator of the Department of American Pottery and Porcelain, 

penn8ylvania museum and school of industrial art, 

Philadelphia , Pa. 



PRESS OF 

Pattbrson & White Company 
philadelphia, pa. 

MCM 



.62^ 



Copyright 1900 
By Edwin A. Barbbr 



> 



1 

I 



TO 

ALL LOVERS 

OF 

THE ANTIQUE 

THE CURIOUS 

THE BEAUTIFUL 

IN GLASSWARE 



k.' 



PREFACE 



Collectors of antiquities have recently begun 
to turn their attention to those curious old de- 
signs in glassware which illustrate events of im- 
portance in our nation's progress, or attempt to 
portray the features of some of the personages 
who were prominent in the country's history. 
On account of the absence of distinguishing 
marks, the origin of these quaint old flasks and 
bottles and teacup plates has heretofore been en- 
shrouded in doubt. Whether they were of 
foreign or American production, none could posi- 
tively say. 

Those whose interest has been aroused in this 
subject have felt the need of a manual which, 
while throwing some light on the factories where 
these objects were produced, shall furnish a refer- 
ence list of known designs. This information 
could only be obtained by visiting the older es- 
tablishments which are yet in existence and by 
consulting the surviving members of the craft, 
and such of the old mould makers as are still 
living. The results of the author's investigations 



Preface. 

in this untrodden field have been embodied in the 
following pages, which are now presented as the 
first contribution to this interesting study. 

I take pleasure in acknowledging my indebted- 
ness to Mr. E. W. Coffin, of Ashland, N. J. ; the 
late Mr. Nathaniel Root, of Newington, Conn.; 
Mr. W. M. Pierce, of Qayton, N. J. ; Mr. Albert 
H. Parke, Mr. Henry C. Fox and Mr. J. W. 
Whitney, of Philadelphia; Miss Mable E. Clark, 
of West Willington, Conn.; Mr. F. H. Case, of 
Guilderland, N. Y. ; Mr. C. V. Wheeler, of Little 
Falls, N. Y., and Mr. Charles L. Dean, of Mai- 
den, Mass., for historical data furnished. 

Credit for the use of illustrations must be given 
to the New York Sun and the Chicago Glass 
and Pottery World. It was in these publications 
that many of the engravings used here first ap- 
peared, in connection with a series of articles pre- 
pared by the present writer. 

The end of the ninteenth century seems a par- 
ticularly appropriate time to record the results 
which have been attained in this interesting 
branch of American industry. 

Edwin A. Barber 

West Chester, Pa., 
September, 1900. 



\ CONTENTS 



Page 

I. Early Glass Works in the United 

States ii 

II. Antique Flasks and Bottles 19 

III. On the Identification of Old Glass- 

ware 27 

IV. Sketches of Glass Factories Estab- 

lished Before 1800, and Their Prod- 
ucts 37 

V. Sketches of Glass Factories Estab- 
lished Since 1800, and Their Prod- 
ucts S3 

VI. Miscellaneous Designs of Unknown 

Makers 'jz 

VII. Early Mould Makers 79 

VIII. Glass Cup-Plates 83 

IX. Modern Political Designs 91 

X. Recent Achievements in American 

Glass Making 95 

Index loi 



CHAPTER I 

EARLY GLASS WORKS IN THE 
UNITED STATES 



EARLY GLASS WORKS 
IN THE UNITED STATES. 



The first industrial enterprise established in 
the territory of the United States was a glass bot- 
tle factory, which was erected in the Virginia 
colony soon after 1607. The works stood in the 
woods about a mile distant from Jamestown. A 
second glass house was erected in 1622 for the 
manufacture of glass beads for trade with the 
Indians. Nothing is known concerning the 
exact nature of these products, nor of the ulti- 
mate success of the somewhat ambitious under- 
taking. Glass beads have been discovered in 
many parts of the United States, associated with 
Indian remains, and it is possible that some of 
them may have been produced at Jamestown. 
In Hhe ancient graves of Florida large vari-col- 
ored beads have been found. In old Indian 
graves in Pennsylvania glass beads have been 
discovered in large quantities, some of them 
made in imitation of amber and others in simu- 

II 



12 American Glassware. 

lation of Catlinke or the red pipesitone of the 
Great Red Pipestone Quarry of Minnesota. 

In 1639 coarse bottles and other articles were 
made at Salem, Mass., and in Philadelphia a 
glass house was in operation in 1683. One 
Joshua Tittery, from Newcastle-upon-Tyne, came 
over to Pennsylvania in June of that year as 
a glass maker in the employ of the "Society of 
Traders." Various attempts were made to 
manufacture glass in many parts of the country 
during the following hundred years. In New 
York city two factories were being operated in 
1732, one in Connecticut in 1747 and another in 
Brooklyn in 1754. At Germantown (Quincy), 
Mass., glass bottles were made in 1760, and frag- 
ments of the ware which have been found on 
the site of the old buildings show that the pro- 
duct was coarse and thick, and of a greenish hue. 

What is believed to have been the first glass 
factory in New Jersey was constructed about 
1739, about one mile east of Allowaystown, Salem 
county, by Caspar Wistar, who brought over four 
skilled workmen from Rotterdam for the pur- 
pose, as shown by a deed of agreement dated 
December 7, 1738, still in existence, and he and 



American Glassware. 13 

his son, Richard Wistar, continued to make glass 
there for many years, probably until 1781, in 
which year the latter died.* Caspar Wistar died 
at his residence in Philadelphia in 1752. At the 
Allowaystown establishment bottles and window 
glass were made, and it is known that finer goods 
were also produced there. Josiah Wistar, of 
Salem, N. J., informs me that Caspar Wistar in 
his will directs that a certain amount of window 
glass of specified sizes shall be annually delivered 
to one of his children. In the same instrument 
reference is made to half-gallon case bottles, 
pocket bottles and pint bottles. Gen. Isaac J. 
Wistar, of Philadelphia, has in his possession a 
goblet, one of a dozen now distributed among the 
members of the Wistar family, which bears on 
one side the etched monogram of Caspar Wistar, 
and on the other a full-length figure of a deer 
with branching antlers. These were made for 
the use of the founder of the works, and have 
come down to the present time by well-authenti- 
cated descent. 



*The names of these experts, as set forth in the contract, were 
Simon Kreismeir, Caspar Halter, John Martin Halter and Johan 
William Wentzell. 



14 American Glassware. 

Robert Hewes, of Boston, erected a glass 
manufactory at Temple, N. H., in 1779, but this 
enterprise seems to have been of short duration. 
The manufacture of glass was commenced in 
Boston in 1787. A factory near Albany, N. Y., 
now Guilderland, started about 1792, passed into 
the hands of the Hamilton Manufacturing Com- 
pany in 1797. The products were both bottles 
and window glass. These works were closed 
about 1815. Early in the present century glass 
was made at Keene, N. H. At Columbia, N. J., 
an important window glass manufactory was 
erected about 1812, and at Coventry, Conn., a 
good quality of hollowware was being made in 

1813. 

The glass industry was commenced at Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., in 1795, and it is stated that General 
O'Hara, who was largely instrumental in estab- 
lishing the business there, left among his papers 
at his death a memorandum giving the date when 
they "made the first bottle, at a cost of thirty 
thousand dollars." In 1813 there were five glass 
manufactories in that city, among which were 
the works of Denny & Beelen. In 1826 the num- 
ber of window glass factories had increased to 



American Glassware. 15 

eight, and in 1857 thirty-three glass houses were 
in operation. At the present time Pittsburgh is 
one of the most important glass manufacturing 
ceniters in the United States. All varieties of glass 
are produced there, from the common green bot- 
tle to the best quality of plate. The Pittsburgh 
Plate Glass Company is claimed to be the largest 
producer of plate glass in the world. 

The oldest glass establishments in the United 
States that are still in operation are the Dyott- 
ville Glass Works of Kensington, Philadelpliia, 
founded in 1771; the Whitney Glass Works of 
Glassboro', N. J., established in 1775; the Balti- 
more Glass Works, started in 1790. Sketches of 
these will appear in their proper places. 



CHAPTER 11 



ANTIQUE FLASKS AND BOTTLES 



ANTIQUE FLASKS AND BOTTLES. 



For a period extending over half a century, 
frcwn about 1808 to 1870, the manufacture of 
fancy pocket flasks and bottles was much in 
vog^e at many of the glass factories in the United 
States. The idea was, doubtless, suggested by 
the English potters, who were producing crockery 
for the American market bearing printed engrav- 
ings of our prominent buildings and noted land- 
scapes, and portraits of our public men. The 
grdat demand for local decorative subjects seems 
to have offered a promising field for the more 
firmly established sister industry in this country, 
and our glass makers were not slow to avail them- 
selves of an opportunity to increase their sales 
with little fear of competition from abroad. In- 
vestigation has shown that these antique objects 
were the products of American enterprise. They 
were blown in engraved metal moulds, prepared 
by professional mould cutters. As early as the 

19 



20 American Glassware. 

first-mentioned year pocket flasks were being 
made by at least ont establishment in Philadel- 
phia. 

The coloring of glass bottles possesses no 
chronological significance, since practically the 
same tints have been employed from the begin- 
ning of the manufacture. We find the oldest 
forms in rich brown and dark blue, while some 
of the later productions appear in the pale shades 
of green and greenish blue which characterized 
the first essays in bottle making. The ordinary 
green or bottle glass used in the manufacture of 
these articles obtained its color from the alumina 
and iron which are present as impurities in the 
sand. When desired, a greenish tint was ob- 
tained by adding a small quantity of marl (gjeen 
sand) to the batch or frit; emerald green was im- 
parted by employing a greater proportion of 
marl; blue was produced by oxide of cobalt; pur- 
ple, brown or black by varying quantities of oxide 
of manganese; amber and claret by oxide of iron 
and manganese. 

Neither is the capacity of bottles indicative of 
their age, since nearly all of the designs occur in 
a variety of sizes. 



American Glassware. 21 

The appearance of the base and the neck of a 
bottle is the surest test of its age. In the older 
forms the mouth was cut with shears while in 
a plastic or soft condition. This explains the 
irregular edge, which is entirely devoid of any 
rim or ornament. The base invariably pos- 
sessed a rough, circular scar, formed by break- 
ing the bottle from the pontil or punty rod 
which holds it while the workman finishes the 
neck. This scar is also found on old glass pitch- 
ers and other mould-blown pieces. In finer work 
the punty mark was removed by grinding. Be- 
tween 1850 and i860 an improvement was intro- 
duced in the manufacture whereby a "snap" or 
case was used to hold the bottle, which came from 
the mould with a smooth, hollow base. A rim or 
beading, formed by a "tool," was also added to 
the mouth. At a later date flasks and bottles 
were made with a plain flat bottom. 

The shapes of the old designs vary consider- 
ably, but those produced at different periods pos- 
sess certain well-marked peculiarities. The fol- 
lowing classification is suggested for convenience 
of description and reference : 



22 American Glassware, 

SHAPES OF HISTORICAL FLASKS AND BOTTLES. 

Type I. Slender and arched in form, flattened 

and shallow; edges horizontally corrugated. 

Elongated neck; sheared mouth; scarred base 

(Sometimes more circular in form, like No. 

32) See No. 33. 
Type II. Oval in form, flattened and shallow; 

edges ribbed vertically; sheared mouth; scarred 

base. See No. i. 
Type III. Almost circular in form, flattened and 

shallow ; plain, rounded edges. Shortened neck ; 

sheared, collared or beaded mouth; scarred or 

flat base. See No. p. 
Type IV. Calabash, or decanter, shape, almost 

spherical; edges corrugated, ribbed or fluted 

vertically. Long, slender neck, circular or 

many sided; sloping collar or cap at top; 

smoothly hollowed, or hollowed and scarred 

base. See No. 45. 
Type V. Arched in form, flattened and deep; 

edges corrugated vertically. Very broad and 

short neck; narrow round beading at top; 

scarred or flat base. See No sy. 
Type VI. Arched in form, broad at shoulder 

and narrow at base; flattened and shallow 



American Glassware. 23 

(modem flask shape) ; plain and rounded edges. 
Medium neck; single or double beading at top; 
smoothly hollowed or flat base. Occasionally 
sheared mouth and scarred base. See No. 64. 

A collection of these curious old bottles is both 
novel and attractive. Their coloring in many in- 
stances is beautiful in its richness and variety, 
for the same designs were made in sapphire blue, 
emerald green, olive, claret, brown, opalescent 
white, light green, pale blue and clear or trans- 
parent white. Of the eighty or more varieties 
which have thus far been discovered about fifty 
have been identified; twenty-nine bear repre- 
sentations of the American eagle, nineteen are 
embellished with the head of Washington and 
thirteen with that of Taylor. Among them all 
are many which are well worth preservation, on 
account of the historical interest which attaches 
to them and the excellence of their workman- 
ship. Divest others of their homely associations, 
and still their very crud'eness of design and 
roughness of finish appeal to us. They have 
served their purpose and are made no more. As 
representatives of a peculiar phase of one of the 
infant industries of this country they should pos- 



* * * * t 



24 American Glassware. 

sess great interest, not only for the historian, but 
for the collector, the manufacturer and dealer as 
well. 

There are numerous fancy designs in bottles 
in the forms of men, animals, fishes, shells, vio- 
lins, pistols. A wine battle which has been re- 
cently seen bears around its circumference six or 
eight arched panels enclosing relief figures of 
apostles or priests. While these are being col- 
lected by certain enthusiasts, they scarcely come 
within the scope of this work, on account of their 
uncertain origin and recent date. 



u i. 



CHAPTER III 



ON THE IDENTIFICATION OF OLD GLASSWARE 



k • • 
* 



4. • 






ON THE IDENTIFICATION 
OF OLD GLASSWARE. 



Little is known of tiie early histoiy of the 
glass industry in this country, and still less of 
the products of the early factories. The greatest 
difficulty, encountered at the outset, is the seem* 
ing impossibility of procuring fully authenticated 
pieces of glassware of American manufacture. 
Unlike china, glass was seldom marked, and we 
find little to guide us save the statements made 
by owners of examples which can be traced back 
to thteir original sources. In the majority of in- 
stances such statements are untrustworthy, as 
they are based solely on family tradition. An- 
tique designs can sometimes be identified by visit- 
ing those factories yet in operation which have 
a history, where some of the ancient records and 
moulds may still be found, or by hunting up the 
few surviving glass mould makers who can throw 
light upon the subject. I happen to have in my 

27 



28 American Glassware, 

possession an old-fashioned globular whiskey 
or molasses bottle, which bears on one side a 
raised half-length figure of Louis Kossuth, the 
Hungarian exile, surrounded by flags and dra- 
pery, and on the reverse a representaition of a 
steamship, the side wheel of which contains the 
name "S. Huffsey." Beneath this design is the 
inscription, "U. S. Steam Frigate Mississippi, 
S. Huffsey." There appeared to be nothing on 
this which would indicate where it was produced, 
until some indistinct relief lettering was observed 
on the base which, on careful examination, 
proved to be "Ph. Doflein, N. 5th St. 84." 
This was a clue which suggested a reference to 
the Philadelphia City Directory, where the name 
of Philip Doflein, mould maker, was found, but 
with a different address. Mr. Doflein was hunted 
up, however, and was found in the rear of the 
address indicated. The metallic mould for this 
flask proved to have been made by him forty-five 
years before, on the occasion of Kossuth's visit 
to America, for S. Huffsey, who was then a glass 
manufacturer in Philadelphia. It will be remem- 
bered that Kossuth embarked from Asia for this 
country in 1851 in the "Mississippi." 



American Glassware. 29 

With this hint as a starting point, and the 
knowledge that such pieces had actually been 
made in this country, it became comparatively 
easy to trace the history of other designs which 
had been supposed to be of English origin. At 
the Whitney Glass Works, Glassboro', N. J., an 
old metallic bottle mould was unearthed which 
belonged to the same period. It had been used 
in 1850 and 1851 for making the same type of 
bottle with a raised bust of Jenny Lind on one 
side and a view of the glass works on the other. 
During the unexampled furore created by the 
appearance of this singer in America, in those 
years, her name was largely used to advertise the 
wares and productions of merchants, manufac- 
turers and even fruit growers. It may be re- 
membered by some yet living that the first seat 
sold in New York for her first concert brought 
the enormous sum of $225, and subsequently 
tickets were sold at auction in Boston and Phila- 
delphia for $625 each, and in Providence the 
first seat brought $650. The opening series of 
six concerts which she gave at Castle Garden, 
New York, under the management of P. T. Bar- 
num, resulted in receipts aggregating more 



30 American Glassware, 

than $100,000. Her tour of triumph through the 
States made her name a household word, and the 
people, in consequence, bought with avidity any 
souvenirs which bore k. 

Between the years 1840 and 1850 there seems 
to have been a remarkable competition in glass 
making in some sections of the Eastern States, 
and Philadelphia, in particular, was an important 
glass manufacturing center. Throughout the 
neighboring counties, therefore, an abundance 
of old designs can still be found, many of which 
can be traced to their original source. In nearly 
every farmhouse one may find examples of old 
bottles with curious designs, patriotic, political 
and Masonic, which are usually stored away in 
the cupboard, filled with brandied cherries, vine- 
gar, molasses, boneset tea and other medicinal 
concoctions. 

The Mexican War gave rise to many special 
devices in glass bottles and other household ar- 
ticles. Familiar to many, probably, are the old- 
time canteen-shaped flasks bearing on one side 
a head oi Washington inscribed "The Father of 
His Country," and on the other a portrait of 
Zachary Taylor with the words, "Gen. Taylor 



American Glassware. 31 

Never Surrenders." These are supposed to have 
first appeared about 1848, and it has been ascer- 
tained, through occasional examples which bear 
the name of the factory, that they originated in 
Kensington, Philadelphia, at what are now 
known as the Dyottville Glass Works, which 
were established in 1771. 

Among things of this sort which have turned 
up is a flask of rich, dark blue glass, bearing on 
one side the head of Gen. Washington and on 
the other an alleged portrait of Capt. Braxton 
Bragg, a prominent American officer who won 
distinction at the battle of Buena Vista, which 
was fought in 1847 between the American army, 
led by Gen. Zachary Taylor, and the Mexican 
forces, headed by Santa Ana. The signal victory 
of the Americans over vastly superior numbers 
brought out many commemorative souvenirs of 
various kinds, which were sold extensively 
throughout the country. By comparing this de- 
sign with the preceding, it is safe to assume that 
it also was made at the Dyottville Works. 
Around the relief portrait is the inscription in 
raised lettering, "A little more grape, Capt. 
Bragg/' 



32 American Glassware. 

After a few pieces have been positively identi- 
fied as having been made at certain factories, 
others, by careful comparison, can be traced to 
the same source. Each factory where such ob- 
jects were produced had its peculiar forms, which 
differed in some of thedr details from those pro- 
duced at other establishments. The difference 
might be in contour, in the length of the neck, in 
the character of the corrugations or ribs on the 
edge or in some other minor point. 

Among the oldest forms of decorated glass 
bottles or flasks known to have been made in the 
United States is one which bears a relief design 
representing the first railroad. The device shows 
a horse drawing a four-wheeled car along a rail. 
The vehicle is piled full of bales, lumps of coal or 
packages of freight. Around the margin of the 
panel is the inscription, "Success to the Rail- 
road." Several of the first railroads in this coun- 
try were built for the transportation of stone and 
coal, and were only a few miles in length. The 
cars were drawn by horses, as shown in the 
moulded relief. It is probable that this very in- 
teresting object was produced at the Kensington 
Glass Works, Philadelphia, which preceded the 



American Glassware. 33 

Dyottvilk Works. The character of the glass, 
the color, the shape and the peculiar mould 
markingTs, as compared with named examples, 
point to such an origin. The horse antedated 
the locomotive as a motive power. It is said 
that there is another design showing the earliest 
form of steam engine, but on investigation what 
was supposed to be a locomotive turns out to be 
a horse, and it is quite doubtful if such a design 
was ever produced. Sometimes but one side of 
the flask is decorated, but frequently the pattern 
occurs on both. 

The earliest of the designs which are known 
to us could not have been made previous to 1825. 
By far the greater number were produced about 
1848 to 1852. In the light of our present knowl- 
edge of the subject, it is highly amusing to read 
the frequently published accounts of remarkable 
discoveries of Washington and Taylor flasks, and 
other comparatively recent designs, embedded in 
the foundations of buildings and stone walls 
which were erected more than a hundred years 
ago. 



CHAPTER IV 

SKETCHES OF GLASS FACTORIES ESTABLISHED 
BEFORE 1800, AND THEIR PRODUCTS 



SKETCHES OF GLASS FACTORIES ESTABLISHED 
BEFORE 1800, AND THEIR PRODUCTS. 



Manheim, Pa. 
Glass Works of Baron Stiegel 

Among the first successful glass works in the 
United States of consequence were those estab- 
lished at Manheim, Lancaster county, Pa., by 
Baron William Henry Stiegel, about the year 
1769, and several excellent examples of his work, 
consisting of richly colored bowls and goblets, 
possessing the clear, resonant ring of the finest 
glassware of Bohemia, are now owned by local 
antiquaries. It is stated that his glass house was 
built of brick, in the form of a dome whose di- 
mensions were so great that a coach and six 
horses could enter the doorway and turn around 
in the enclosure. He brought skilled workmen 
from the best factories of Europe, and the wares 
produced, after the most improved methods of 
the first glass makers of the period, found their 
way into the homes of the wealthier men of that 
day. 

Baron Stiegel came from Mannheim, Germany, 

37 



38 American Glassware. 

in 1750, and twelve years later he laid out the 
Pennsylvania village which bears the same name. 
He was also a prominent iron master, and quaint 
stoves of his manufacture are still in existence. 
In 1772, at the height of his prosperity, he deeded 
a plot of ground to the Lutheran congregation, 
in consideration of the annual payment thereafter 
of one red rose. It was demanded but twice dur- 
ing the Baron's lifetime, but recently the custom 
has been revived by some of his descendants. 
The celebration of the Feast of Roses in the 
month of June is an event of great interest which 
attracts widespread attention and draws crowds 
of people from the surrounding country and 
neighboring towns. In his palmiest days the 
Baron lived in considerable pomp and splendor. 
He erected a fine, large mansion in the midst of 
extensive grounds, and as he rode home at sun- 
set, after spending the day in superintending his 
various enterprises, he was accustomed to be 
saluted at the entrance of his park by the firing 
of cannon. In 1774 he failed in business, and it 
is said that he was soon afterward cast into 
prison for debt. The old Stiegel house, built of 
red and black bricks, is still standing in the heart 
of the town, and some of the hand-painted Dutch 
tiles from one of the fireplaces may be seen in the 



American Glassware. 39 

rooms of the Pennsylvania Historical Society, 
Philadelphia. 



Philadelphia, Pa., Kensington. 
The glass works at Kensington are claimed to 
be the oldest of the kind in the United States that 
are still in active operation. They were estab- 
lished in 1 77 1 by Robert Towars and James Lea- 
cock, and in 1783 they were taken over by 
Thomas Leiper. From 1803 to 1833 they were 
operated by James Rowland & Co. In the latter 
year Dr. Thomas W. Dyott became the owner 
and continued in possession for about four years. 
Henry Seybert was the proprietor from 1842 to 
1844, when the works passed into the hands of 
Henry B. Benners, S. Decatur Smith and Quin- 
ton Campbell, Jr. From 1870 to 1889 Mr. Ben- 
ners was sole proprietor, and latterly the business 
has been carried on by his estate, under the super- 
intendence of Albert H. Parke, whose connection 
with the establishment has extended over a 
period of more than forty years. Mr. Parke is 
authority for the statement that most of the fancy 
bottle moulds at the Dyottville Works were made 
by Stacy Wilson, and later by George H. Myers. 



40 American Glassware. 

Previous to 1833, when Dr. Dyott took chaise, 
the factory was known as the Kensin^on Glass 
Works; the name was then changed to the Dyott- 
ville Glass Works, which has been retained to 
the present time. The products of the works are 
carboys, demijohns and flasks and bottles of 
every description. 

After Dr. Dyott's time, the old title, "Kensing- 
ton Glass Works," appears to have been used for 
another factory which was operated by Messrs. 
Sheets & Duffy. Similar goods were produced 
there for a time. 

Kensington Glass Works. 

1. Horse and loaded wagon 

on rails (lengthwise). In- 
scription, — "Success to 
the Railroad." Reverse, 
—the same. Type II. 

2. Horse and loaded wagon 

on rails (lengthwise). In- 
scription, — "Success to 
the Railroad." Reverse, 
— no design. Type II, 



BENJAMIN FRANKLIN 

Kensington Glass Works, Philadelphia 

(See No. 5) 



Glassware. 41 

3. Horse and loaded wagon on rails O^ngth- 

wise). Inscription, — "Success to the Rail- 
road." Reverse, — American eagle and 
stars. Type II. 

4. "Benjamin Franklin" (bust). Reverse, — "T. 

W. Dyott, M.D." (bust). Inscriptions 
around edge, — "Eripuit Calo Fuimen Scep- 
trumque Tyrcnnis"* (He snatches from 
the Sky the Thunderbolt and the Sceptre 
from Tyrants). "Kensington Glass Works, 
Philadelphia." Type II. 

5. "Benjamin Franklin" (bust). Reverse, — "T. 

W. Dyott, M.D." (bust). Inscriptions 
around edge, — "Where Liberty Dwelk 
There is My Country." "Kensington 
Glass Works, Philadelphia." Type II. 

6. Washington (bust, front 

face); "General Washing- 
ton." Reverse, — Ameri- 
can eagle with shield, 
arrows and olive branch, 
standing on oval frame 
which contains fhe ini- 
tials "T.W. D." (Thomas 
W, Dyott). Inscriptions 
around edge, — "Ken- >jo. g, 

.. ri?*?Tf tT-'''" •""'?• "• ;«q«™;ly "Pl-lled to Franklin, hii been 
atlributed to Taitot, ihc cdd>nitcd French iidetiiiin, who died In 



42 American Glassware. 

sington Glass Works, Philadelphia." 
"Adams and Jefferson, July 4, A. D. 1776." 
Type II. 

7. Washington (same busit as preceding); "Gen- 

eral Washington." Reverse, — Masonic de- 
vice, arch, pillars, pavement, sheaf of 
wheat and tools. Type H. 

8. Amwican eagle on shield. Reveise, — 

United States flag. Inscription, — "For 
Our Country." Type II. 



Dyottvilk Glass Works. 
9. Washington (bust); "The 

Father of His Country." 

Reverse, — ^Taylor (bust); 

"Gen. Taylor Never Sur- . 

renders." Inscription, — / 

"Dyottville Glass Works, I 

Philadelphia." Type III. \ 
ID. Washingfton and Taylor, 

Same, without inscripticm. 

Type III. No. 9. 

II. Washington (bust); "The Father of His 

Country." Reverse, — Taylor (bust) ; "I 



American Glassware. 43 

Have End€avour'd to Do My Duty." 
Type III. 

12. Washington (bust); "The Father of His 

Country." Reverse, — Taylor (bust); "I 
Have Endeavour'd to Do My Duty." 
Different busts from preceding, and in 
large circular frame. Type III. 

13. Washington (bust); "The Father of His 

Country." Reverse, — "Gen. Z. Taylor," 
Type III. 

14. Washington (bust). Reverse, — ^Taylor (bust). 

No inscriptions. Type III. 

15. Washington (bust); "The 

Father of His Country." 
Reverse, — (bust); "A Lit- 
tle More Grape Captain 
Bragg." Type III. 

16. "Washington" (bust). Re- 

verse, — "G. Z. Taylor" 
(bust). The G. preceding 
Washington has evidently 
been misplaced. Type III. ^°- 'S- 

17. Taylor (bust) ;"Roughand Ready." Reverse, 

— "Major Ringgold" (bust). Type II. 



44 American Glassware, 

i8. American eagle and shield, arrows and olive 
branch. Reverse, — Masonic design, arch, 
pillars, pavement, sheaf of wheat and tools. 
No inscriptions. Type II. 



Glassboro', N. J. 

In 1775 the Stanger Brothers erected a glass 
factory in Gloucester county, N. J., at a point 
which afterwards received the name of Glass- 
boro'. Messrs. Rink, Stanger & Co. established 
new works on the site of the present plant in 
1813, and during the next twenty-five years there 
were several dhanges in ownership. In 1837 
Thomas H. Whitney purchased the business and 
in 1840 took his brother, Samuel A. Whitney, 
into partnership under the firm name of Whitney 
Brothers. A company was incorporated in 1887 
under the title of the Whitney Glass Works. 
For a long period of years, to the present time, 
they have been one of the most important estab- 
lishments of the kind in this country. During 
the presidential campaign of 1840, the Whitney 
Brothers manufactured large numbers of whiskey 
bottles, in dark brown glass, in the form of a log 



American Glassware, 45 

cabin. They were made for an enterprising 
liquor merchant in Philadelphia, and occasionally 
one of these interesting souvenirs still comes to 
light. 

One of the most characteristic shapes in flasks 
is what is known as the "J^'^^X Lind," with 
globular body and long, slender neck. This type 
of bottle originated in the year 1850, when the 
great singer came to America. At first they were 
embellished with a relief portrait of the cantatrice, 
but subsequently various other designs were 
placed upon them, when other firms began to 
make them. Among numeixxis other designs 
produced by the Whitneys were inkstands in the 
forms of bee-hives, log cabins and cider barrels, 
all relating to the memorable Harrison campaign 

of 1840. 
For several years after the Civil War, tokens 

or small metal coins were issued by 
these works as advertisements, re- 
\ deemable in gxxxls. One of these 
bears on its face the figure ol a 
wicker-covered carboy or glass 
demijohn and on the back the in- 
scription "Due Bearer in Mdze. at our Store One 
Cent. Whitney Bros. 1869." 




46 



American Glassware. 



Mr. John P. Whitney, president of the com- 
pany, has in his possession a water color painting 
executed in 1847, showing the works as they ap- 
peared at thaft date. The view shows tlhe two 
glass houses with their adjoining batch houses, 
and cord wood piled in front for the kilns. In 
those days no other fuel was used for meking 
glass. Back of these stood the store, the packing 
house, the sand houses and other structures. 

It is interesting to know that the original metal 
mould, in which the "J^'^^^y Lind" botJtles were 
blown, is still in existence, a valuable relic of this 
era of industrial activity in the United States. 

Whitney Glass Works, 

19. "J^^^'^y Lind" (bust), in 

wreath. Reverse, — ^viewof 
giass factory. Type IV. 

20. Fisherman wearing high hat; 

house and windmill in oR- 
tance. Reverse, — gunner* 
in high hat, shooting 
birds; two dogs at his feet. 
Type IV. 

No. 19. 




is: 



American Glassware. 47 

21, Log cabin whiskey bottle, 
moulded in shape of 
house. On one end 
inscription, — "120 Wal- 
nut St Philadelphia." 
Date " 1840" on front of 
roof. At back, — ^"E, 
G. Booz's Old Cabinet 
Whiskey." 

No. 21. 

Baltimore, Md. 

The present propriettws of the Baltimore Glass 
Works, Messrs Baker Brothers & Co., are 
authority for <the statement that a branch of their 
establishment -was started in 1790 on an arm of 
the Patapsco river, known as Spring Gardens. 
These works, situated at the foot of Eutaw street, 
Baltimore, are at the present time idle, but not 
closed. 

The Baltimore Glass Works were established 
at about the same time, and are still in active 
operation at Federal Hill, Hughes street. Both 
factories are under one management. Many of 
the designs produced at the Baltimore Glass 



48 American Glassware. 

Works bear a representation of the Battle Monu- 
ment which stands in the center of Monument 
Square. 

Another glass manufactory was operated in 
Baltimore by John Lee Chapman abouit 1850. 
It was called the Maryland Glass Works, and 
located at the comer of Lancaster and Caroline 
streets. I have not succeeded in identifying any 
flask designs as having been made here, but 
future investigation may show that some of the 
patterns credited to the Baltimore Glass Works 
in the following list were produced at the Chap- 
man factory. 

Spring Garden Glass Works. 

22. Log cabin, with tree to right. Reverse, — 

anchor with scroll bearing inscription, — 
"Spring Garden Glass Works." Type VI. 

23. Log cabin. Same design. Blank label at 

bottom of both sides. Type VI. 



Baltimore Glass Works. 

24. ''Washington" in large letters (large bust 
with queue). Reverse, — ^Taylor (large 
head). Inscription, — "Baltimore Glas* 
Work*." Type II. 



American Glassware. 49 

25. Ear of corn. Inscription, — "Corn for the 

World." Reverse, — monument, over word 
"Baltimore." Type III. 

26. Washington (bust); "Fell's" above, "Point" 

below. Reverse, — monument, over word 
"Balt°." Type II. 
37. Taylor (large head); "Genl 
Taylor," Reverse, — monu- 
ment and words "Fell's 
Point Balto." Type II. 

28. Taylor (bust) and words 

"Fell's Point." Reverse, 
— monument and word 
"Balto." Type II. 

29. Ship. Reverse, — monument. 

Type II. 

No. 27. 



CHAPTER V 

SKETCHES OF GLASS FACTORIES ESTABLISHED 

SINCE 1800 



SKETCHES OF GLASS FACTORIES ESTABLISHED 
SINCE 1800, AND THEIR PRODUCTS. 



Columbia, N. J. 

A WINDOW glass factory was established at 
Columbia, N. J., on t!he Delaware river, about 
ten miles from Belvidere, in what is now Warren 
county, some time about 1812 or 1813, which ran 
until about the year 1833. We do not know that 
hollowware was made there, yet the factory 
must have been an important one in its day, since 
Thomas Birch, the artisit, considered it of suf- 
ficient interest to form the subject of one of his 
paintings. The view here shown is taken from 
an old engraving by Strickland, after Birch's pic- 
ture. On the right will be seen the glass house, 
situated at the lower end of the town, while at 
the left the celebrated Water Gap is shoA^1l, which 
lies four or five miles to the northward. In the 
foreground is introduced one of those curious old 
river craft, now long extinct, known as the "Dur- 
ham" boat, showing four "pikemen" braced 

53 



54 American Glassware. 

against their poles or pikes, forcing the boait up 
the stream, and tihe captain seated in the stem, 
rudder in hand. The name was derived from the 
old Durham furnace, which stood not far distant 
from the bank of the river, some ten miles below 
Easton, Pa., where these boats originated. They 
were in use as early as about 1750 and were first 
employed in transporting the products of the 
furnace — its old plate stoves and other manu- 
factures — ^to Philadelphia and bringing back sup- 
plies. It is said that the crown glass for win- 
dow lights, made at the Columbia Works, was of 
a superior quality. 

The following advertisement, from the files of 
the Easton (Pa.) Centinel, has been sent to me by 
Mr. Ethan Allen Weaver, secretary of the Penn- 
sylvania Society of the Sons of the Revolution: 

"Notice. 

"The Columbia Glass Works will commence 
the blast in the month of August next, when or- 
ders will be received for all sizes of Window Glass 

and executed by 

"Abraham Piesch. 
"June 21, 1822." 



American Glassware, 55 

ROCKVILLE, Pa. 

The manufacture of glass was carried on at 

Rockville, Pa., as early as 181 5. It is believed 

that window glass only was made there. The 

following advertisement, which appeared in the 

issue of "Spirit of Pennsylvania," Easton, Pa., of 

September i, 181 5, has been furnished by Mr. 

Weaver: 

WANTED 

AT ROCKVILLE GLASS WORKS, 

Eight Miles above Milforo, 

On the Delaware: 

Three or four steady men to drive team. Also, a num- 
ber of workmen, acquainted with cutting, sawing and 
splitting wood, and other work — ^to whom liberal wages 
will be given. For particulars apply to the manager at 
the works. Ridgway & Co. 

Rockville Glass Works, September i. 



Coventry, Conn. 

A sitock company vvas organized in Coventry, 
Conn., in 1813 by several residents of that place 
for the manufacture of g'lassware, and Nathaniel 
Root, Jr., was appointed agent. The first prod- 
ucts of the factory were tumblers and decanters. 



56 American Glassware. 

and later pint flasks and larger bottles, snuff can- 
nisters and inkstands were produced. The busi- 
ness was carried on under the same management 
until about 1820, when it passed into other 
hands. During the following ten years the works 
were operated by Thomas Stebbins and his suc- 
cessors, Stebbins & Chamberlin. About the year 
1830 Gilbert Turner & Co. purchased the plant 
and continued in possession until about 1848, 
when, on account of the scarcity of wood, the 
wx^rks were closed. 

Several interesting old flask designs are known 
which bear the name of the town and the initials 
of the manufacturers, — T. S. (Thomas Stebbins) 
and S. & C. (Stebbins & Chamberlin). They are 
among the earliest designs of the kind produced 
in the United States. Those with portraits of 
General Lafayette and De Witt Clinton, Gov- 
ernor of New York, were made in commemora- 
tion of the opening of the Erie Canal in 1825, on 
which occasion these prominent men were pres- 
ent. The flasks occur in a variety of colors, — 
dark brown, emerald green, white and sapphire 
blue, — ^brown being the most common. The late 



American Glassware. 57 

Mr. Nathaniel Root, of Newington, Conn., a son 
of 'the first agent of the company, had in his pos- 
session a number of interesting examples of the 
ware produced at Coventry, including a straight 
tumbler, square snuff bottles and some globular 
decanters, all in brown glass; a tall vase with 
spherical body and long, slender neck, wound 
from the mouth halfway down with a spiral, 
snake-like ornament, in green glass, and a curi- 
ously shaped four-sided bottle with upper and 
lower compartments connected by five separate 
twisted tubes, which allow the free passage of the 
contents. A similar vessel of Danish workman- 
ship may be seen in the Pennsylvania Museum, 
Philadelphia. He had also preserved examples 
of phials, jars and other receptacles of various 
shapes for the use of apothecaries, which were 
manufactured there extensively, a spherical car- 
boy of greenish color and a large brown bottle 
with four oval sides, surmounted by a small 
mouth. 

The materials used at the Coventry factory 
were white and red sand, obtained in the vicinity, 
wood ashes and salt, 



58 



American Glassware, 



Coventry, Conn, ("T. S/') 

30. "Lafayette" (bust); initials "T. S." below. 

Reverse,— "De Wiitt Clinton" (bust). In- 
scription, — "Coventry C—T" below. 
Edges of flask corrugated horizontally. 
Type I. 

31. Lafayette and Clinton, same design. The 

"D" in "De Witt" reversed. Type L 

32. American eagle; shield on breast; scroll 

above. Reverse, — same device. Edges 
corrugated horizontally. Type L 

Coz^entry, Conn, ("S. & C") 

33. "Lafayette" (bust); ini- 

tials "S. & C" below. 
Reverse,---"De Witt Clin- 
ton" (bust) ; "C— T" be- 
low (Connecticut). Edges 
corrugated horizontally. 
Type L 

Coventry, Comi. 

34. "Lafayette" (same bust). := 

Reverse, — Masonic pave- 
ment and arch, enclosing No. 33. 




American Glassware, 59 

emblems (Bible, square, compass and tri- 
angle). Type I, without corrugaitions on 
edges. 



West Willington, Conn. 

While Gilbert Turner & Co. were operating the 
Coventry works (1830 to 1848), they also became 
interested in a similar enterprise at West Willing- 
ton, Conn., under the name of the Willington 
Glass Co. Among those identiiSed with this ven- 
ture were R. B. Chamberlin, Elisha Johnson and 
Dea. Turner. On April 19, 1847, these parties 
sold out to a new company composed of Harvey 
Merrick, Elisha Carpenter, William Still, William 
Shaffer, Frank Shaflfer and James McFarlane. 
The latter concern carried on the business until 
1872. 

Here were made hollow wares, such as bottles, 
jars, etc. The greater portion of the products 
were of black and green glass, but purple, white, 
brown and amber goods were also produced. 

Some of the same people also established glass 
works at EUenville, Ulster county, N. Y., about 
1848. 



6o American Glassware. 

Willington Glass Co. 

35. American eagle and shield with word "Lib- 

erty." Reverse, — "Willington Glass Co., 
West Willington, Conn." Type 11. 

36. Urn containing wheat. Type II. 



Hammonton, N. J. 

In 1820 a window glass factory was established 
at Hammonton, N. J., by William Coffin, with 
whom was associated for a year or two Jonathan 
Haines. At the expiration of that time the lat- 
ter sold out his interest. 

In 1836 the works were taken by Bodine Cof- 
fin, a son of the founder, and Andrew K. Hay, 
under the style of Coffin & Hay, who operated 
the factory for two or three years. They added 
a hollow ware department and commenced the 
manufacture of bottles and flasks. At the end 
of that period, William Coffin again took charge 
and for the next five or six years produced win- 
dow glass only. At his death, in 1844, his two 
sons, J. H. and E. W. Coffin, succeeded to tlhe 
business. About three years later the latter sold 
out his interest and J. H. Coffin continued the 
manufacture alone until 1857 or 1858. 



American Glassware. 6i 

Ornamented flasks were made here only dur- 
ing the years i836-'38. Mr. E. W. Coffin has in- 
formed me that a number of patriotic designs 
were produced, but only one has thus far come 
to light. 

CoMn & Hay. 

37. American eagle with shield on breast, stand- 
ing on elliptical medallion, with olive 
branch and arrows in talons. Reverse, — 
United States flag and inscription, — "Cof- 
fin & Hay, Hammonton." Type II. 



Waterford, N. J. 

The manufacture of window glass was carried 
on at Waterford, Camden county, N. J., as early 
as about i825-'3o. At a later period glass bot- 
tles were made here. The original proprietor of 
the works was Jonathan Haines, who had pre- 
viously been in partnership for a time with Wil- 
liam Coffin, at Hammonton, N. J. The works 
were afterwards operated by Porter, Shreve & 
Co., who continued in business until some time 
after 1850. After the death of Mr. Porter other 



62 American Glassware. 

parties carried on the manufacture until about 
187s to 1880. 

38. American eagle, scroll, shield and arrows; 
poinlted oval beneaith. Reverse, — 'Clasped 
hands in large shield, "Waterford" above ; 
thirteen stars over all. Type VI. 



Bridgeton, N. J. 

The first glass factory in Bridgeton was built 
and started in 1837, ^Y Stratton, Buck & Co., and 
continued in operation until about Mardh, 1841, 
when a fire destroyed a portion of the buildings. 
Joel Bodine leased tihe plaint about 1848 and ran 
it for several years under the firm name of Joel 
Bodine & Sons. About 1855 Messrs. Potter & 
Bodine purchased the works, and later Mr. Pot- 
ter sold his interest to Frank Bodine and J. 
Nixon Bodine. Recently a stock company has 
been formed under the name of The Cohansey 
Glass Manufacturing Co. 

It is said that a variety of ornamental glass 
flasks have been produced here from time to time. 
One design is known to collectors. 



American Glassware. 63 

39. "Washington" (bust) in uniform. Reverse, 
— Unnamed bust, probably Taylor. In- 
scription, — "Bridgeton, New Jersey," 
above. Type 11. 



Isabella Glass Works. 

Inquiries of the older glass makers now living 
have failed to elicit any information relative to 
these works. The single flask design known to 
collectors would indicate a period between 1840 
and 1850. 

40. Anchor. Inscription, — "Isabella Glass 
Works" on scroll, and anchor. Reverse, 
— view of glass factory. Type VI. 



FiSLERVILLE, N. J. 

(Clayton^ N. J.) 

A glass factory was started at Fislerville, N. J., 
in 1850 by Jacob P. Fisler and Benjamin Beck- 
ett. In 185 1 the latter withdrew and Edward 
Bacon was admitted to partnership, and until 
1856 the firm name was Fisler & Bacon. In the 
latter year, at the death of Mr. Bacon, the works 
were sold to John M. Moore. The present fac- 



64 American Glassware, 

tory of the Moore Bros. Glass Co. stands on the 
site which the original buildings of Beckett & 
J^sler once occupied. 

The name of Fislerville was changed to Clay- 
ton in 1867. 

Fislerville Glass Works. 

41. "Jc^^y Lind'' (bust), surrounded by wreath. 
Reverse, — view of factory. Inscription, — 
*TislervilIe Glass Works.'' Type IV. 



MiLLFORA Glass Works. 

I have not been able to locate these works. It 
is possible that the name may have been intended 
for Millford. A single design has been found of 
the decanter or "J^^^y Lind" shape. 

42. *'Jenny Lind'* (bust), in wreath. Reverse, — 
viev/ of a glass factory. Inscription, — 
"Millfora G. Works." Type IV. 



Philadelphia, Pa. 
Samuel Huffsey. 

The name of S. Huflfsey appears on several 
flask and bottle designs of the middle of the pres- 



American Glassware, 



65 



ent century. The Philadelphia directory for 
1850 shows tJha/t Samuel HulBFsey was a glass 
blower, and that two years later he was engaged 
in the business of selling glassware at 50 North 
Fourth street, in the same city. It is said that 
he was also a manufacturer about the same 
period, with works at Camden, N. J. Among 
the best-known designs which bear his name are 
globular bottles (Type IV), with busts of Jenny 
Lind and Louis Kossuth. 



43. 



44. 



45. 



Jenny Lind" (bust), in wreath. Reverse, — 
view of factory. Inscription, — "Glass 
Works, S. HulBFsey." Type IV. 

Jenny Lind*' (bust). Re- 
verse, — ^view of factory. 
Inscription, — "S. Huff- 
sey." Type IV. 

Louis Kossuitih" (half- 
length figure, with hat), 
above flag^. Reverse, — 
steampship. Inscription, 
— "U. S. Steam Frigate 
Mississippi, S. HulBFsey." 
Type IV. No. 45. 




66 American Glassware. 

A, R. Samuels, 

Little IS known of A. R. Samuels save that he 
was a manufacturer of glassware in Philadelphia 
in the year 1855. A Masonic design, in two 
types of bottles, bears his initials. 

46. American eagle, scroll, shield and arrows. 

Initials, "A. R. S.," below. Reverse, — 
clasped hands. Masonic emblems and 
word "Union" in large shield; thirteen 
stars above. Type III. 

47. American eagle (same design). Type IV. 



Albany, N. Y. 

At a point some seven miles from the city of 
Albany, now known as Guilderland, a glass house 
was built in 1792. In the following year the 
State loaned the proprietors £3000 for a term of 
eight years, three years without interest and five 
years at five per cent. The company was exempt 
from taxation for a period of five years (see 
page 14). 

48. Washington (?) (bust), surrounded by in- 
scription, — "Albany Glass Works, Albany, 



American Glassware. 67 

N. Y." Reverse, — sl full-rigged ship. 
Shape of Type II, with vertical side rib. 
Sloping collar or cap at top ?.nd hollow 
base. 



Westford, Conn. 

Glass works were erected in 1857 at Westford, 
Conn., and operated for eight years by the West- 
ford Glass Co., which consisted of thirteen stock- 
holders representing a capital of $18,000. The 
style was then changed to E. A. Buck & Co., who 
continued the business until 1873, when the 
manufacture ceased. 

49. Double-headed sheaf of wheat, pitchfork and 
rake; star beneath. Reverse, — "Wesitford 
Glass Co., Westford, Conn." Type VI. 



New London, Conn. 

A glass factory, now out of existence, was pro- 
ducing bottles in New London, Conn., about 
i860. It was erected by parties from Stoddart, 



68 American Glassware, 

N. H., who were operating it in 1863. It was 
afterward purchased by N. Y. Fish and William 
Batty, who subsequently sold it to some Ellen- 
ville, N. Y., people. It was known as the 
Thames Glass Works. 

50. American eagle with shield on breast, stand- 
ing on olive branch wreath; seven stars 
above. Reverse, — ^anchor and "New Lon- 
don Glass Works" in scroll. Type VI. 



Pittsburgh, Pa. 

L. F. & Co, 

51. American eagle and scroll; pointed frame be- 
low, with words "Pittsburg, Pa." Reverse, 
— shield with clasped hands and initials 
"L. F. & Co."; word "Union." Type VI. 



Cuninghams & Co, 

52. Indian with bow and arrow, shooting bird; 
dog and tree behind. Inscription, — "Cun- 
inghams & Co. Pittsburgh, Pa." Reverse, 
— eagle, monument and flag, and word 
"Continential" below. Type VI. 



American Glassware, 69 

E, Wormser & Co, 

53. American eagle and shield. Inscription in 
frame below, — "E. Wormser & Co. Pitts- 
burgh." Reverse,— clasped hands in shield, 
with word "Union"; thirteen stars above. 
Type VI. 



CHAPTER VI 



MISCELLANEOUS DESIGNS BY UNKNOWN MAKERS 



MISCELLANEOUS DESIGNS BY 
UNKNOWN MAKERS. 

54- American eagle with 
shield on breast, stand- 
ing on oval panel ; rays 
around head. Reverse, 
— same design. Type 
II. 

55. American eagle with thir- 

teen stars above. Re- 
verse, — grapes. Type 
II. 

56. American eagle (arms of 

the United States). No. 57. 

Reverse, — large head of Liberty, with 
thirteen stars above. Initials, "B. & W.," 
beneath, in script. Type II. 

57. American eagle, star or rosette in oval below. 

Reverse, -^Masonic arch and emblems, 
scull, etc., below. Type V. 

58. American eagle; same design. Beehive, 

etc., below. Type V. 

59. American eagle, "E Pluribus Unum, above. 

Initials, "B. P," in oval below. Reverse, — 
Masonic arch and emblems. Beehive, etc., 
below. Type V. 
73 



74 



American Glassware. 



60. American eagle, "E Pluribus Unum," above. 

Initials, "I. P./' in oval below. Reverse, — 
Masonic arch and emblems. Type V. 

61. American eagle, scroll and initials, "H. R.," 

in wreath of laurel leaves. Reverse, — 
Masonic emblems. Type V. 

62. American eagle. Reverse, — ^tree, with word 

"Liberty." 

63. American eagle, scroll, shield and arrows; 

pointed oval below. Reverse, — clasped 
hands, squaie and compass in large shield, 
"Union" above; thirteen stars over all. 
Type IV. 

64. American eagle; oval frame 

containing "Pittsburgh, 
Pa.," below. Reverse, — 
same. Type VI. 

65. American eagle with scroll 

in beak. Reverse,— clasped 
hands in shield, with word 
"Union," surrounded by 
thirteen stars and olive 
branches. Type VI. 

66. American eagle with shield No. 64. 

on breast and outspread wings; design 




American Glassware. 75 

lengthwise, like No. i. Reverse, — same. 
Type II. 

67. Cornucopia, or horn of plenty, with fruits. 

Reverse, — ^vase of flowers. Type II. 

68. Cornucopia with fruits. Reverse, — ^urn of 

five panels with fruits. Type VI. 

69. Cornucopia with fruits. Reverse, — ^urn of 

seven panels with fruits. Type VI. 

70. Indian with crown, shooting bird with bow 

and arrow; dog behind. Reverse, — eagle 
with scroll on pedestal, containing serrated 
flag; small bird at each side. Type VI. 
.71. "J^^y Lind" (bust), in wrealth. Reverse, — 
view of glass works, wiHh words "Glass 
Factory"; corrugated sides. Type IV. 

72. "Jeny Lind" (bust), in wreath. Reverse, — 

view of glass works; not corrugated. No 
inscription. Type IV. 

73. "Jenny Lind" (bust), in wreath. Reverse, — 

"Kossuth" (bust), without hait. Type IV. 

74. "Kossuth" (bust), without hat. Reverse, — 

tree. Type IV. 

75. Sheaf of wheat. Reverse, — ^bust (probably 

Taylor). 

76. Sheaf of wheat, crossed pitchfork and rake. 

Reverse, — star. Type IV. 



76 American Glassware. 

77. Tree, with bird in branches; "Summer" 

above. Reverse, — same; "Winter" above. 
Type III. 

78. Washington (bust, front face); no wording. 

Reverse, — tree bearing fruit. Type IV. 

79. "Washington" (bust, in uniform) to left. 

Reverse, — "Jackson" (bust, in uniform) to 
left. Type II. 

80. "Washington" (bust). Reverse,— "Kossuth" 

(bust). Type IV. 

81. Washington (bust). Reverse, — ^American 

eagle with twelve stars. 

82. Horse and loaded wagon on rails (length- 

wise). "Railroad," above; "Lowell," be- 
low. Reverse, — spread eagle (lengthwise) 
with thirteen stars above. Type II. 

83. "For Pike's Peak." 

84. Double-headed sheaf of wheat, rake and 

pitchfork. Reverse, — ^tree. Type IV. 

85. Masonic arch on finely tessellated pavement, 

and emblems. Reverse, — same, with dif- 
ferent emblems. Type V. 

86. Ship. Reverse, — large, eight-pointed star. 

Type III. 



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GENERAL JACKSON 
(S« No. 79) 



CHAPTER VII 



EARLY MOULD MAKERS 



EARLY MOULD MAKERS. 



Philip Doflein, a German, began his career 
as a maker of nuetal moulds in Philadelphia in 
1842, and originated a large number of bottle 
designs with portraits of prominent men, includ- 
ing Washington, Jefferson, Jackson and Taylor. 
He executed, at different times, many special 
patterns for prominent Philadelphia and Camden 
glass and soap manufacturers, and was one of the 
best-known mould cutters in the trade. The 
writer visited Mr. Doflein in 1896, and found him 
actively engaged in his usual work, although he 
was then eighty years of age. It is with g^eat 
regret that I have learned of his recent death. 
He was of an amiable disi>osition and of a retiring 
nature, a conscientious and capable worker in his 
special line. He was the last of the old^ime die 
cutters who prepared the moulds for historical 
bottle designs. One of his last portrait designs 
was a bust of General U. S. Grant, made for a 
New York firm for the ornamentation of perfume 
bottles. 

79 



8o American Glassware. 

George H. Myers, and before him Stacy Wil- 
son, who will, doubtless, be remembered by some 
of the older members of the craft, made many of 
the moulds used by the Dyottville and other 
prominent glass works. 



CHAPTER VIII 



GLASS CUP-PLATES 



GIAS5 CUP-PLATES. 



ANY of US can remember 
the curious little glass 
cup-plates of our grand- 
mothers, on which the 
partly emptied teacups 
were placed to avoid 
soiling the table cloth 
while the tea was cool- 
ing in the saucers; for in 
olden times it was considered quite proper to 
drink from the saucer, and the custom prevailed 
in all classes of society. Then, at a later day, 
when ithe good housewife began to look upon 
saucer-drinking as bad form in table etiquette, 
we can recall these same diminutive teacup-plates, 
both in glass and china, doing duty as receptacles 
for preserves, butter and pickles. Fifty or sixty 
years ago every well-stocked china closet or glass 
cupboard could boast of a supply of these utensils 



84 American Glassware. 

in a variety of designs and colors. Some were 
made of plain, transparent glass, and others were 
opalescent or milky, ribbed in concentric circles 
and ornamented on the rims with floral designs, 
scroll work and stars. About the year 1840 the 
glass manufacturers introduced a new style of 
decoration, which met with much favor, consist- 
ing of devices of a patriotic or historical charac- 
ter. To meet the increasing demand for such 
wares tihe range of decorative subjects was ex- 
tended to include historical monuments, noted 
steamships and portrait busts of famous men. 

Glass cup-plates seem to have been most in 
favor about 1840, some appearing eariier and 
others a few years later. One of these commem- 
orates "Bunker Hill battle, fought June 17, 
1775," in which engagement the gallant Gen. 
Warren fell. The central design is an obelisk- 
shaped structure, purely conventional, supposed 
to represent the celebrated monument which was 
erected on the site of the battle just sixty-eigftit 
years afterward, the corner stone having been 
laid on the fiftiert:h anniversary of the event, eigh- 
teen years before, by Gen. Lafayette, who in 1825 
was making a tour of the United States. At the 



PRESIDENT HARRISON 
Glass Cap-Plate. 1841. 



HENRY CLAY 
ilass Cup-Plale. 1S44. 



American Glassware. 85 

laying of the corn^ stone in that year and at the 
unveiling of the monument in 1843, Daniel 
Webster was the orator of the day. 

The Harrison campaign of 1840 was responsi- 
ble for at least two similar designs in glass, one 
representing the Log Cabin and Hard Cider de- 
vice, the other a portrait of Gen. William Henry 
Harrison himself in uniform, and among other 
conceits of the glass makers was an ink bottle, 
or stand, made in the form of a frontier dwelling, 
the birthplace of "Tippecanoe." 

During or shortly after the political campaign 
of 1844 a Henry Clay souvenir appeared in glass, 
bearing an alleged portrait bust of the American 
statesman which, with equal propriety, might 
have served as a likeness of Julius Caesar; yet the 
name which surrounded the profile was sufficient 
to enable it to pass among the people as a satis- 
factory representation of their popular leader. 

There was also a series of steamboat designs, in- 
scribed with the names of illustrious Americans. 
One of the rarest of these shows a sidewheel ves- 
sel, flying the American colors, on the paddle- 
box of which appears a large "F," while from 



86 American Glassware. 

one of the masts floats a flag carrying the initials 
"B. F.," and above the design occurs the nam-e 
"Benjamin Franklin," in large letters. The bor- 
der of this plate has an effective frosted appear- 
ance, produced by a close setting of tiny dots, 
raised on the under side, forming a ground on 
which are distributed patriotic emblems, — stars, 
anchors and the American eagle. 

Belonging to the same set is a "Chancellor 
Livingston" design witlh a similar lace effect bor- 
der which is relieved with decorative details, such 
as scroll work, hearts, stars and the national 
shield. In the center, in capital letters, the title 
is inscribed. Robert R. Livingston was Chan- 
cellor of the State of New York from 1777 to 
1801, and he it was who administered the oath 
of office to Gen. Washington when he was in- 
augurated President in 1789. Mr. Livingston 
was one of the committee of five which drafted 
the Declaration of Independence, and he was 
afterward associated with Robert Fulton in his 
steamboat enterprises. Similar series of designs 
were produced by English potters in dark blue 
color, bearing the words "Troy Line," "Union 
Line," etc. 



American Glassware, 87 

Wkh these objects may be classed the moulded 
salt cellars which are occasionally found in white 
and dark blue g-lass, bearing relief devices of the 
American eagle and stars. 

Thus it is seen that not only in china, but also 
in glass, was perpetuated the memory of many of 
the prominent events of history. The producers 
of pottery and glassware of half a century and 
more ago introduced in their decorative treat- 
ment an instructive feature which might be re- 
vived with profit by the manufacturers of the 
present day. 

These interesting little objects were pressed in 
metal moulds by means of a plunger. It is be- 
lieved that they were made in England, since we 
have no knowledge that pressed glass designs of 
this character were produced so early in this 
country. 

Glass Cup-Plates 

(Probably made in England), 

1. American eagle with shield on breast; thir- 

teen stars above. 

2. "Bunker Hill Battle Fought June 17, 1775" 

(view of monument). 



88 American Glassware. 

3. "Bunker Hill Battle Fought June 17, 1775"; 

"From the Fair to the Brave"; "Comer 
Stone laid by Lafayette, June 17, 1825. 
Finished by the Ladies, 1841" (view of 
monument). 

4. "Chancellor Livingston" (steamboat). 

5. "Clay, Henry" (bust). 

6. "Fort Pitt" (eagle). 

7. "Franklin, Benjamin" (steamboat). 

8. Harrison, "President 1841. Maj. Gen. W. 

H. Harrison Bom Feb. 5, 1773" (bust). 

9. Hearts pierced by an arrow, and forget-me- 

nots. 

10. Log cabin. 

11. Log cabin, flag on roof; cider barrel under 

tree. 

12. Bee Hive. 



CHAPTER IX 



MODERN POLITICAL DESIGNS 



MODERN POLITICAL DESIGNS. 



More recent products in glass are worthy of 
preservation, as illustrating the political history 
of this country. During the presidential cam- 
paign of 1896, several American manufacturers 
issued tumblers decorated with white enamel and 
etched portraits of the principal candidates, — Mc- 
Kinley and Hobart, and Bryan and Sewall. One 
cartoon represented Mr. Mc- 
Kinley standing at the forks 
of a road; one crooked, stony 
way leads to free silver and de- 
struction; the other, a smooth, 
wide path, runs directly td 
"Protection, Peace, Prosper- 
ity," and to the latter the com- 
ing President is directing the 
typical Uncle Sam. 

For the present campaign a number of similar 

devices on tumblers and goblets have been pre- 

91 




92 American Glassware. 

pared by enterprising glass makers. Busts of 
McKinley and Roosevelt are 
shown side by side, sur- 
mounted by the American 
eagle; and heads of Bryan 
and Stevenson appear to- 
gether. All four nominees 
are also represented sepa- 
rately. Other designs have 
been issued with McKinley or 
Bryan on one side and a crow- 
ing rooster on the other. There are also opaque 
white glass plates bearing black printed, or white 
relief, portraits of the nominees. 

Patriotic designs in souve- 
nir tumblers have also been is- 
sued, within the past year or* 
two, with portraits of Admiral 
George Dewey and other ce- 
lebrities, living and dead. 
Among the prominent pro- 
ducers of campaign tumbler^ 
are the United States Glas^ 
Co., the Rochester Tumbler 
Co. and Bryce Brothers, all of Pittsburgh, Pa., 
and the Seneca Glass Co., of Morgantown, W. Va. 




CHAPTER X 

RECENT ACHIEVEMENTS IN AMERICAN GLASS 

MAKING 



RECENT ACHIEVEMENTS IN AMERICAN GLASS 

MAKING. 



LiBBEY Cut Glass. 

A HISTORICAL sketch of the glass industry in 
the United States would be incomplete without a 
reference to the recent remarkable development 
in ornamental glass cutting and coloring. 

The Libbey Glass Company of Toledo, Ohio, 
has brought the art of cutting glass to the highest 
state of perfection. Its fabrications are now 
world-famous for the depth and richness of their 
cut designs, their simplicity and complexity of 
pattern, purity of color and prismatic brilliancy. 
Libbey cut glass surpasses, in mechanical and ar- 
tistic qualities, the best wares of a similar nature 
produced elsewhere, and it has become the stand- 
ard of excellence in this difficult branch of the 
art. Some of the larger pieces, in particular, 
such as the punch bowl in the "Kimberly" pat- 
tern, here shown, are marvels of elaborate work- 

95 



96 American Glassware. 

manship and scintillating, crystalline beauty, 
while in smaller forms the variety of useful and 
ornamental designs is almost limitless. Wher- 



LiBBEV Cur Gu^ss. 

ever these products have been exhibited in com- 
petition with the wares of foreign factories they 
have taken itJie first honors. Other American 
factories have produced and are now making cut 
glass of the highest excellence, but the achieve- 



American Glassware, 97 

ments of William L. Libbey and Edward D. Lib- 
bey must be accorded the foremost place. 



Tiffany Favrile Glass. 

In no branch of the glass maker's art have 
greater advances been made recently than in that 
of coloring, as exemplified in the celebrated 
Favrile glass, perfected by Mr. Louis C. Tiffany, 
of New York, and first brought to the attention 
of the public in 1893. The forms of bowls, vases, 
l^mps, parting cups, candlesticks, bottles and 
other ornamental pieces are odd, chaste and 
graceful ; the tinting of the glass is wonderfully 
rich, varied and delicate ; the iridescent arid gem- 
like effects are astonishingly brilliant. By means 
of carving and cutting through layers of different 
colors the most beautiful cameo work is simu- 
lated. The texture of the agate and the onyx is 
faithfully reproduced. The use and combination 
of variegated metallic lustres result in exact imi- 
tations of the p'rismatic hues of the pearl, the opal, 
the peacock's feather and of golden sheen. The 
variety of form and combination of color is only 
limited by the number of pieces produced, since 



• • •- • 



98 



American Glassware, 



no two are precisely alike. Such is Favrile glass 
as now produced by the Tiffany Glass and Decor- 
ating Co., of New York. 

The word "Favrile" has been coined by the 
company as a trade-mark, to distinguish its prod- 
ucts from glass of other makers. It is derived 
from the Latin word **fabrica,** designating some- 
thing that has been fabricated through the ap- 
plication of skill and expertness of working with 
the hands. Favrile glass is the result of Ameri- 
can genius, far surpassing the lojng-renowned 
fabrics of Venice and Bohemia. 



From the tentative beginnings of the industry 
in the Virginia woods to the advanced condition 
of the art at the close of the nineteenth century — 
covering a period of nearly ithree centuries — is 
indeed a gigantic stride. The days of patriotic 
flasks have passed away, but in their stead we 
have the finest wares of their kind that the world 
has seen. Arr erica now excels in certain 
branches of the art of glass making. We believe 
it is only a question of a short time when sh^ 
will excel in all. 






o w * 



INDEX 



I 



INDEX 



REFERENCE LIST OF BOTTLE DESIGNS 
(Figures Indicate Number of Design). 



it 



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American eagle (lengthwise) 66, 82 

and anchor (*^New London") 50 

flag 8 

" ("Coffin & Hay") 37 

grapes 55 

(horizontally corrugated sides) ... 32 

and head of Liberty ("B. & W."). . 56 

Indian 70 

("Cuninghams & Co.") 52 

Masonic emblems ("B. P.") . . 59 

("H.R.").. 61 

CI. P.").. 60 

18,57,52,63, 65 

shield ("A. R. S.") 46, 47 

("L.F.&C0.") 51 

("Waterford") 38 

("Wormser & 

Co.") .... 53 
('Tittsburgh,Pa.") 64 

with rays 54 

lOI 



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lor and A; 

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1 02 Index. 

American eagle ("Success to the Rail Road") 3 

" and tree ("Liberty") 62 

and Washington 6, 81 

('Willington Glass Co.") 35 

Anchor and American eagle (**New London") 50 

Isabella Glass Works" 40 

log cabin 22, 23 

Booz (log cabin bottle, "1840") 21 

Bragg and Washington 15 

Clinton and Lafayette ("T. S.") 30, 31 

("S. & C") 33 

Corn and monument ("Baltimore") 25 

Cornucopia and fruit 68, 69 

" " vase of flowers 67 

Dyott and Franklin 4, 5 

Fisherman and gunner 20 

"Fislerville Glass Works" and "Jenny Lind" 41 

Flag and American eagle 8 

" " " " ("Coffin & Hay") 35 

Franklin and Dyott 4, 5 

Fruit and cornucopia 68, 69 

Glass Factory and Jenny Lind 19, 71, 72 

Grapes and American eagle 55 

Gunner and fisherman 20 

Horse and wagon ("Success to the Rail 

Road") I, 2, 3, 82 

"Huflfsey Glass Works" and Jenny Lind 43, 44 

Indian and American eagle 70 

("Cuninghams & Co.") 52 



(( H i( « 



Index. 



103 



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"Isabella Glass Works" and anchor 40 

Jackson and Washington 79 

Kossuth and Jenny Lind y^ 

Mississippi 45 

Washington 80 

tree 74 

Lafayette and Qinton ("T. S.") 30, 31 

C'S. & C") 33 

Masonic arch 34 

Liberty head and American eagle ("B. & W.") 56 

Lind, Jenny, and "Fislerville Glass Works" 41 

Glass Factory 19, 7i, 72 

"Glass Works, S. Huffsey" 43, 44 

Kossuth 73 

'^Millfora G. Works" 42 

Log cabin and anchor 22, 23 

" ("Booz," "1840") 21 

Masonic arch and emblems 85 

Masonic emblems and American eagle, 18, 57, 58, 63, 65 

" ("B. P.")... 59 
" ("H. R.").. 61 
" ("L P.")... 60 

" " Lafayette 34 

" " Washington 7 

" shield *' Americaneagle("A. R. S.")46, 47 

" C'L.F.&Co.") 51 
" ("Waterford") 38 
" ("Wormser & 

Co.") 53 



tt 



St 



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*( (< 



104 Index. 

"Millfora G. Works" and Jenny Lind 42 

"Mississippi" and Kossuth 45 

Monument and corn ("Baltimore") 25 

ship 29 

Taylor ("Fell's Point") 27, 28 

Washington " 26 

Pike's Peak 83 

Ringgold and Taylor 17 

Ship and monument 29 

" " star 86 

" " Washington ("Albany") 48 

Star and wheat 76 

"Summer" and "Winter" 77 

Taylor and monument ("Fell's Point") 27,28 

Ringgold 17 

sheaf of wheat 75 

Washington 10, 14 

("Gen, Z.") and Washington 13 

("G. Z.") " " 16 

and "Washington" ("Balto.") 24 

("Bridgeton") 39 

("Endeavoured to Do Duty") and Wash- 
ington II, 12 

("Never Surrenders") and Washington ... 9 

Tree and American eagle ("Liberty") 62 

Kossuth 74 

Washington 78 

Urn and wheat 36 

Vase of flowers and cornucopia 67 



(< it 

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Index. 



105 



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Washington and American eagle 6, 8i 

ship ("Albany") 48 

Bragg 15 

General 17 

and Jackson 79 

Kossuth 80 

Masonic emblems 7 

monument ("Feirs Point") 26 

"Gen. Z. Taylor" 13 

"G.Z." " 16 

Taylor 10, 14 

("Baltimore") 24 

("Bridgeton") 39 

(**'Endeavour'd to Do 

Duty") II, 12 

("Never Surrenders") .... 9 

78 

Wheat and Gen. Taylor 75 

tree 84 

star 76 

urn 36 

("Westford") 49 

Winter" and "Summer" 77 



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GENERAL INDEX 



(Figures Indicate Page). 

Albany Glass Works I4i 66 

Allowaystown, N. J 12, 13 

American Eagle Designs, Number of 23 

A. R. S * 66 

Bacon, Edward 63 

" (Fisler &) 63 

Baker Bros. & Co 47 

Baltimore Glass Works 15, 47, 48, 49 

Batty, William 68 

Beads 11 

Beckett, Benjamin 63 

Benners, Henry B 39 

Birch, Thomas (artist) 53 

Bodine, Frank 62 

Joel 62 

J. 'Nixon 62 

(Potter &) 62 

Boston, Mass 14 

Bottles of Unusual Shapes 24 

B.P 7Z 

Bridgeton, N. J 62, 63 

Brooklyn, N. Y 12 

107 






it 
tt 

tt 



io8 General Index. 

Bryce Brothers 92 

Buck (Stratton, & Co.) 62 

Buck, E. A., & Co 67 

B. &W 73 

Campbell, Quinton, Jr 39 

Carpenter, Elisha 59 

Chamberlin, R. B 59 

(Stebbins &) 56 

Chapman, John Lee 48 

Clayton, N. J 63, 64 

Coffin, Bodine 60 

E. W 60, 61 

& Hay 60, 61 

J. H 60 

" William 60, 61 

Cohansey Glass Mfg. Co 62 

Coloring Glass 20 

Columbia Glass Works 14, 53, 54 

Connecticut 12 

Coventry, Ct 14, 55-59 

Cuninghams & Co 68 

Cup-Plates 83-88 

Cut Glass 95-97 

Denny & Beelen 14 

Doflein, Philip 28, 79 

Duffy (Sheets &) 40 

Dyottville Glass Works I5, 3i, 39» 40i 4^, 43, 44 

Dyott, Dr. T. W 39 

Ellenville, N. Y 59 

Favrile Glass 97, 98 



General Index, 109 

Fish, N. Y 68 

Fisler & Bacon 63 

" Jacob P 63 

Fislerville Glass Works (N. J.) 63, 64 

Germantown, Mass 12 

Glassboro, N. J iSi 44 

Guilderland, N. Y 14, 66 

Haines, Jonathan 60, 61 

Halter, Caspar 13 

" John Martin 13 

Hamilton Manufacturing Co 14 

Hammonton, N. J 60, 61 

Hay, Andrew K 60 

" (Coffin &) 60, 61 

Hewes, Robert 14 

H. R 74 

Huffsey, Samuel 28, 64, 65 

I. P 74 

Isabella Glass Works 63 

Jamestown, Va 11 

Johnson, Elisha 59 

Keene, N. H 14 

Kensington Glass Works i5» 3ii 32, 39, 40, 41, 42 

Kreismeir, Simon 13 

Leacock, James 39 

L. F. & Co 68 

Leiper, Thomas 39 

Libbey, Edward D 97 

Glass Co 95-97 

William L 97 






no General Index, 

Lind, Jenny, Flasks 29, 45 

McFarlane, James 59 

Manheim, Pa 37, 38 

Maryland Glass Works 48 

Merrick, Harvey 59 

Millfora Glass Works 64 

Moore Bros. Glass Co 64 

" John M 63 

Mould Makers 28, 39, 79, 80 

Myers, George H 39, 80 

New Jersey 12 

New London Glass Works (Conn.) 67, 68 

New York City 12 

O'Hara, General 14 

Parke, Albert H 39 

Philadelphia, Pa 12, 39-44, 64-66 

Piesch, Abraham 54 

Pittsburgh, Pa 14, 15, 68, 69, 74 

Plate Glass Co 15 

Plate Glass 15 

Political Tumbler Designs 91, 92 

Porter, Shreve & Co 61 

Potter & Bodine 62 

Punty Marks on Bottles 21 

Quincy (Germantown), Mass 12 

Railroad Flasks 32 

Ridgway & Co 55 

Rink, Stanger & Co 44 

Rochester Tumbler Co 92 

Rockville Glass Works 55