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or THE 



Tennessee Historical Soclj^ty 

Received January 6,1903 





Tennessee Historical Society Quarterly 



Seeretery TenneaMe Hiatoriatl 




VOLUNIE Vm, 1903 





American Historical Magazine. 


No. I —January. 

William Blount and the Old Southwest Territory i 

The Genesis of the Peabody College for Teachers 14 

Madison County 26 

The Preservation of Tennessee's History 49 

The Development of Education in Tennessee 64 

From Bardstown to Washington in 1805 91 

Editorial loi 

Tennessee Historical Society 103 

No. 2 — April. 

A Dictionary of Distinguished Tennesseans 105 

A Rebel Newspaper's War Story 124 

Sketch of Captain David Campbell 154 

Captain John Campbell 160 

Margaret Bowen Campbell to William Bowen Campbell 161 

Military Government in Alabama, 1865-66 163 

Creek War 180 

Some Franklin Documents 181 

Thomas Enunerson — The First Mayor of Knoxville 183 

Tennessee Historical Society 189 

No. 3 — July. 

Beginnings of Montgomery County 193 

Early Addresses and Messages of the Governors of Tennessee 216 

Military Government in Alabama Under the Reconstruction Acts... 222 

''Watauga Old Fields" 253 

Dunlap-Brady Correspondence 256 

Reminiscences 262 

Executive Correspondence of Governor James K. Polk 271 

James Robertson, Nashville's Founder 285 

Some Old Jackson Papers 294 

Tennessee Historical Society 296 

No. 4— October, 

Dr. J. P. Dake— A Memoir 297 

The "Old Road'' from Washington and Hamilton DistricU to the 

Cumberland Settlement 347 

Reconstruction in Sunmer Cottnty 355 

An Old Letter of the Late Cassius M. Clay 369 

Executive Correspondence of Governor James K. Polk 371 

McMinn Correspondence on the Subject of Indian Treaties, in the 

Years 1815, 1816 and 1817 377 

American Historical Magazine. 


Alabama, Military Government in, 1865-1866. By Walter L. Fleming. . 163 
Alabama, Military Government in, Under Reconstruction Acts. By 

Walter L. Fleming 222 

Bardstown to Washington in 1805. From an Unsigned Diary 91 

Baxter, Judge Nathaniel. Reminiscences 262 

Beaumont, Henry Francis. Thomas Emmerson, the First Mayor of 

Knoxville 183 

Bibliography of Some of Dr. J. P. Dake's Writings 343 

Blount, Governor William. Portrait Facing i 

Ikjunt, William, and the Old Southwest Territory. By Albert V. 

Goodpasture i 

Butler, Dr. Wm. E., Sketch of 29 

Caruthers, James, Sketch of 43 

Campbell, Captain David, Sketch of. By Margaret Campbell Pilcher. . 154 

Campbell, Captain John, Notice of 160 

Campbell, Margaret Bowen, to William B. Campbell 161 

Chester, Colonel Robert I., Sketch of 41 

Cisco, J. G., Madison County 26 

Clarksville, Sketch of 197 

Clay, Cassius M, An Old Letter of 369 

Craighead, Rev. Thomas, Sketch of 71 

Creek War. Report of Mlcajah C. Rogers 180 

Dake, Dr. J. P., Portrait Facting 297 

Dake, Dr. J. P. A Memoir. By Dr. R. A. Halley 297 

Dake, Dr. J. P. A Bibliography of Some of His Writings 343 

Dier, John, Notice of ao6 

Doak, H. M. The Development of Education in Tennessee 64 

Doak, Samuel, D.D., Sketch of 69 

Dunlap- Brady Correspondence 256 

Education in Tennessee, The Development of. By H. M. Doak 64 

Emmerson, Thomas, The First Mayor of Knoxville. By Henry 

Francis Beaumont 183 

Fisk, Moses, Notice of 76 

Fleming, Walter L. Military Government in Alabama, 1865- 1866. . . 163 
Fleming, Walter L. Mtlitanr Government in Alabama Under Re- 
construction Acts 222 

Ford, Colonel James, Sketch of 197 

Franklin Documents, Some 181 

Garrett, Dr. W. R. The Genesis of the Peabody College for Teachers 14 
Goodpasture, Albert V. William Blount and the Old Southwest 

Territory i 

Goodpasture, Albert V. A Dictionary of Distinguished Tennesseans 105 

Governors of Tennessee, Early Addresses and Messages of the 216 

Guild, Major Geo. B. Reconstruction in Sumner County 355 

Halley, Dr. R. A. The Preservation of Tennessee History 49 

Halley, Dr. R. A. A Rebel Newspaper's War Story : Being a Narative 

of the War History of the Afiemphis Appeal 124 

Halley, Dr. R. A. Dr. J. P. Dake— A Memoir 

Hays, Colonel Stokely Donelson, Sketch of 31 

Hyder, N. E. WaUuga Old Fields 253 

Jackson, Andrew. An Account of His Entertainment at Carthage 

in 1828 161 

Jackson Papers, Some Old 294 

Lewis, Major E. C. James Robertson, Nashville's Founder 285 

Lindsley, Dr. Philip, Notice of 7^ 

McElwee, W. E. "The Old Road" from Washington and Hamilton 

District to Cumberland Settlement 347 

McMinn Correspondence on the Subject of Indian Treaties, 1815-1817: 

Governor McMinn to Senators Williams and Campbell Z77 

Senators Williams and Campbell to Governor McMinn 379 

Secretary of War to Senators Williams and Campbell 380 

Governor McMinn to Senator Williams 381 

Senator Williams to Governor McMinn 381 

Governor McMinn to General Jackson 382 

General Jackson to Governor McMinn 383 

Governor McMinn to General Jackson 383 

Governor MlcMinn to General Jackson 385 

General Jackson to Governor McMinn 386 

General Jackson to Governor McMinn 387 

Governor McMinn to the Secretary of War 388 

Governor McMinn to the Secretary of War 390 

Governor McMinn to Colonel Lowry 392 

Colonel Lowry to Governor McMinn 393 

Madison County. By J. G. Cisco j6 

Ma wry, Duane. An Old Letter of the Late Casstus M. Clay 369 

Memphis Appeal, A Narrative of the War History of the. By Dr. 

FL A. Halley 124 

Montgomery County, Beginnings of. By Albert V. Goodpasture... 193 

Montgomery, Colonel John, Sketch of 209 

Nashville Female Academy, Sketch of the 76 

Peabody College for Teachers. The Genesis of the. By Dr. W. R. 

Garrett 14 

Peabody College for Teachers. View of College Hall, Facing 17 

Pilcher, Margaret Campbell. Sketch of Captain David Campbell... 154 

Polk, Governor James K., Executive Correspondence of 271, 371 

Prince, Francis, Notice of 196 

Read, Judge John, Sketch of 40 

Rebel (A) Newspaper's War Story: Being a Narrative of the War 

History of the Memphis Appeal. By Dr. R. A. Halley 124 

Reconstruction in Sumner County. By Major George B. Guild... 355 

Reminiscences. By Judge Nathaniel Baxter 262 

"Road, The Old," from Washington and Hamilton Districts to Cum- 
berland Settlement. By W. E. McElwee 347 

Robertson, James, Nashville's Founder. By Mia j or E. C. Lewis 285 

Sevier, Valentine, Sketch of 211 

Shelby, Major Evan and Colonel Moses Shelby, Notice of 211 

Snider, Dr. George S., Sketch of 45 

Stoddert, William, Sketch of 47 

Tennesseans, A Dictionary of Distinguished. By Albert V. Good- 
pasture 105 

Tennessee Historical Society, Memoranda of the Transactions of 

the 104, 190 

Tennessee History, The Preservation of. By Dr. R. A. Halley. . . 49 

Tittsworth Massacre, An Account of the 207 

Watauga Old Fields. By N. E. Hyder 253 









Prom a painting by W. B. Cooper, after Peale, in the Tennessee 
Historical Society. 

The American Historical Magazine. 

Vol. VIII. JANUARY, 1903. No. 1. 


By Albert V. Goodpasture. 

The story of the old Southwest Territory offers a most inviting 
field to the student of the romantic as well as the heroic in 
American history. Its people were a race of pathfinders ; they 
blazed their way in the woods, organized their own local govern- 
ments, settled their relations with the Indians, and, finally, opened 
the door to the sisterhood of States. Their story is sometimes 
brilliant, often tragic, always heroic. 

The first citizen of the Southwest Territory in position and 
authority, though not in point of time, was its governor, William 
Blount, who continued at the head of the government during 
the entire period of its existence, from 1790 to 1796. 

Governor Blount's earlier career had been one of unusual 
activity and interest. He was of an old English family, being 
descended from the LeBlounts who came over to England with 
William the Conqueror. The founders of the family in this 
country were three sons of Sir Walter Blount, who emigrated 
to Virginia about 1669. Of these, Thomas crossed over into 
North Carolina and settled in the country bordering on Albe- 
marle Sound. His son, Thomas, married a Miss Reading, and 
was the father of Jacob Blount, of Blount Hall, in Pitt County. 

Jacob Blount owned a considerable estate, and took an active 
and somewhat prominent part in public affairs. He was twice 
married, first, to Barbara Gray, and after her death to Hannah 
Baker Salter. By his first wife he had eight children, and by his 
second, five. Nine of his thirteen children reached mature age. 

2 Thb American Historical Magazine 

Of- these, the best known to Tennesseans are William, the subject 
of this sketch, and his half-brother, Willie, the third governor 
of Tennessee; though Thomas was a member of Congress, and 
John G. and Reading were both prominent in the politics of 
North Carolina. 

William Blount, the eldest child of Jacob and Barbara Gray 
Blount, was bom in Bertie County, North Carolina, March 26, 
1749. He was educated in a manner commensurate with the 
ample estate and high position of his family. At an early age 
he began to take an interest in public affairs, and allied himself 
with the Western people. He was an active participant in the 
Revolutionary War, and the events leading up to it. In 1780 he 
represented Craven County in the North Carolina House of Com- 
mons, and again in 1783 and 1784. 

In the session of 1783 he won, and reciprocated, the warm 
friendship of the leader and representative of the settlements 
on the Cumberland, in the new county of Davidson — Colonel 
James Robertson. He took a lively interest in the welfare of the 
new settlements, and his talents and experience in public affairs 
enabled him to render valuable assistance to their representatives. 
So much did Colonel Robertson appreciate the friendship of 
Mr. Blount, that he named a son, bom June 15, 1785, in his 
honor. I will be permitted to remark in passing, that the family 
of William Blount Robertson has added lustre to both names; 
one son, William Blount Robertson, Jr., having been a judge in 
Louisiana, and another, Edward White Robertson, having been 
for many years a representative in Congress from the same State. 

Soon after this Blount first became officially connected with 
Indian affairs, a branch of the public service in which he subse- 
quently won great applause for his tact and diplomacy. 

The Cherokee Indians having taken part with the British, 
towards the close of the Revolution, in 1783, North Carolina 
assumed title to their lands by right of conquest, and disregarding 
the boundaries established by the treaty of Holston in 1777, threw 
open to appropriation the whole of its territory, except certain 
specified reservations. William Blount was at that time a mem- 
ber of the Assembly of North Carolina. Under this act John 
Armstrong's land office was opened, and many tracts of land 
were entered within the former Indian reservation. 

Thb Old Southwbst Territory. 3 

In the meantime the United States, acting under the Articles 
of Confederation, undertook to treat with the Cherokee Indians. 
The treaty was held at Hopewell, South Carolina, in November, 
1785. By the boimdaries stipulated therein many settlers, and a 
multitude of entries under the act of 1783, fell within the Indian 
reservation. At this treaty Blount appeared as the agent of North 
Carolina and entered a formal protest against it, on the ground 
that it violated the legislative rights of his state, inasmuch as it 
assigned to the Indians territory which had already been ap- 
propriated by the Legislature of North Carolina to the discharge 
of bounty land claims of the officers and soldiers who had served 
in the Continental line during the Revolution. 

He had been a member of the Continental Congress in 1782, 
and was again a member in 1786 and 1787. As such he made 
a stout resistance to the ratification of the treaty of Hopewell. 
His championship of the frontiersmen made him many friends in 
the western district of North Carolina. 

In 1787 he was appointed by Governor Richard Caswell as a 
delegate to the convention which assembled in Philadelphia, and 
framed the Constitution of the United States. His name is 
affixed to that instrument, along with those of Richard Dobbs 
Spaight and Hugh Williamson, the other delegates from North 
Carolina. George Washington presided over the convention, and 
their intimate association gave him ample opportunity to judge 
of the character and ability of Blount 

Blount was also a member of the Convention of North Carolina 
that ratified the Federal Constitution on the part of that State. 

While engaged in these arduous labors he was not n^lecting 
his friends in the West. When the General Assembly of North 
Carolina convened in the fall of 1787, James Robertson and David 
Hays, the representatives from Davidson Gounty, presented a 
formal statement of the condition of their constituents. William 
Blount assisted them in framing their memorial. It contains two 
items which form the keynote to Blount's public life. It says : 

They and their constituents, they say, have cheerfully endured 
the most unconquerable difficulties in settling the Western coun- 
try, in full confidence that they should be enabled to send their 
produce to market through the rivers which water the country; 
but they now have the mortification, not only to be excluded from 

4 The American HisTORiCAt Magazine. 

that channel of commerce by a foreign nation, but the Indians 
are rendered more hostile through the influence of that very 
nation, probably with a view to drive them from the country, as 
they claim the whole of the soil. 

Their allusion is plainly to the Spanish claim to the exclusive 
right to navigate the waters of the lower Mississippi river. That 
sentence is immediately followed by this one : 

They call upon the humanity and justice of the State, to pre- 
vent any further massacres and depredations of themselves and 
their constituents, and claim from the L^slature that protection 
of life and property which is due to every citizen ; and they recom- 
mend, as the most safe and convenient means pf relief, the adop- 
tion of the resolves of Congress, of the 26th of October, last. 

The resolution of Congress referred to recommended to the 
several States, the cession of their Western lands to the United 
States. The memorialists represented oAe of the Western set- 
tlements of North Carolina, and the granting of their petition 
meant their separation from the mother State, immediate Federal 
protection, and ultimate admission to the Union as a State. 

From 1788 to 1790 Blount was a member of the North Carofina 
Senate, from Pitt County. It is probable that his special purpose 
in going to the Senate was to pass an act ceding the Western 
territory of North Carolina to the United States, in pursuance of 
the policy recommended by Congress, which was being generally 
adopted by the States. Such an act had been passed in 1784, 
but, after having given birth to the romantic State of Franklin, 
was repealed the same year. Franklin having collapsed in 1788, 
the subject was now being pressed again. Senator Blount was 
its earnest advocate, as was foreshadowed by the memorial of the 
Cumberland settlers in 1787. Finally, the second act of cession 
was passed in December, 1789, and the deed of cession was ac- 
cepted by the United States, April 2, 1790. The Southwest Ter- 
ritory was erected May 26, 1790. Its inhabitants were given the 
same privileges, benefits and advantages enjoyed by the people of 
the Northwest Territory, with a similar government, except as 
otherwise provided in the act accepting the deed of cession. 

The chief officer of the new territory was, of course, to be the 
governor. There were many applicants for the position. Patrick 
Henry recommended Mr. Mason, of Virginia. General Daniel 
Smith, of Davidson County, who was afterwards appointed Sec- 

The Old Southwest Territory. 5 

retary of the Territory — ^not by the Governor, but by the Presi- 
dent — recommended William Blount. The propriety of appoint- 
ing a citizen of the State which had made the cession was obvious. 
Blount's influence in causing the cession to be made; his popu- 
larity with the people of the new territory ; and President Wash- 
ington's personal knowledge of his patriotism, integrity and 
ability, turned the scales in Blount's favor. He was appointed 
Governor of the Southwest Territory June 8, 1790. In addition 
to his appointment as governor, he was also made Superintendent 
of Indian Affairs for the Southern District, a difiicult and delicate 
position, which required alertness, energy and diplomacy. 

Having received his appointment, he mot with difficulties in 
the organization of his government which seem almost incredible 
in this day of newspapers, railroads and telegraphs. He could 
not find a single copy of the ordinance for the government of the 
Northwest Territory in the State of North Carolina ! It was as 
late as August 18, 1790, before he could obtain a copy from 
Philadelphia, owing to the distance and delay of the post. He 
then set out for the territory, going by way of Governor Martin's, 
in Guilford County, North Carolina, for the purpose of procuring 
from him a proclamation announcing the acceptance by Congress 
of the deed of cession. This was considered the more important 
on account of the recent organization of the Franklin govern- 
ment under the cession of 1784, before its acceptance, and the 
unhappy consequences which followed it. 

At Governor Martin's he was met by unexpected information 
which made it necessary for him to repair again to the seat of 
government to consult the President. He, therefore, forwarded 
a copy of the ordinance and some other papers, to the territory 
by Major George Farragut, father of the distinguished Admiral 
Farragut, and changed his course towards Philadelphia. This 
was September 6, 1790. 

Having dispatched the business that carried him to the East, 
he again turned his face towards the Southwest Territory. At 
Alexandria, Va., the oath of office was administered to him by 
Justice James Iredell, of the United States Supreme Court, on 
September 30. On October ii he reached the house of William 
Yancey, in the Southwest Territory, and announced himself ready 
to proceed with the duties of his appointment. 

6 The American Historicai, Magazine. 

On October 22 he converted Washington County, North Caro- 
lina, into Washington County, Southwest Territory, and the next 
day assembled the persons holding commissions in the county at 
the court house in Jonesboro, and officially notified them of the 
various acts, ordinances and proclamations relating to the ter- 
ritory, and exhibited his appointment and qualifications as its gov- 
ernor. After reading the ordinance for the government of the 
Northwest Territory, he concluded his address as follows : 

By this ordinance, gentlemen, you are informed that the gov- 
ernment of this territory is to be administered by cheers ap- 
pointed by Congress, or by the Governor under their authority. 
The President has been pleased to appoint the judges and secre- 
tary, and I shall now proceed to appoint the necessary officers 
for the County of Washington, whose duty it will be to admin- 
ister the government according to the laws of North Carolina 
as declared in force and use by the act of cession, and the laws 
and ordinances of the Congress of the United States. 

He then appointed officers, civil and military, for the county. 
Proceeding thence to Sullivan County, he reorganized it in like 
manner, on October 25. Continuing in this way, he successively 
reorganized the counties of Green and Hawkins; and the four 
counties into Washington District, Southwest Territory. He 
then crossed the mountain, and on the 15th of December, 1790, 
reorganized the counties of Davidson, Sumner and Tennessee, 
and the District of Mero, which was composed of these counties. 

After organizing the Territorial Government in the various 
counties and districts. Governor Blount turned his attention to 
Indian affairs. The boundary line prescribed in the treaty of 
Hopewell, already mentioned, had never given satisfaction either 
to the Indians or the whites. Its violation by the latter called 
forth a vigorous proclamation by Congress, in 1788. After the 
cession of 1789, President Washington declared it his purpose 
to carry into faithful execution the treaty of Hopewell, "unless 
it should be thought proper to attempt to arrange a new boundary 
with the Cherokees, embracing the settlements, and compensating 
the Cherokees for the cession they should make." The Senate 
authorized a new treaty, and instructicms were issued to Governor 
Blount, August 11, 1790, to conclude a treaty of session with 
the Cherokees. 

The Old Southwest Territory. 7 

In pursuance of his instructions, Governor Blount convened 
the Indians at White's Fort, where Knoxville was afterwards 
laid out. The treaty was held at the mouth of the creek that 
flows at the foot of Main and Cumberland streets, and empties 
into the river at the end of Crozier street, and was concluded 
July 2, 1 79 1. So successful was Governor Blount in his negotia- 
tions, that his treaty was not only ratified by the Senate, but the 
Secretary of War, advising him of that fact, tendered him the 
thanks of the President of the United States for the able manner 
in which he had conducted the treaty, and for the zeal he had 
uniformly evinced to promote the interests of the United States, 
in endeavoring to fix peace on the basis of justice and humanity. 

Governor Blount was in equal favor with the Indians. On the 
26th of May, 1792, he visited them at Coyatee to see a division 
made of the goods for the first annual payment under the treaty. 
They built a house for his reception, and erected over it on a high 
pole the standard of the United States. As he approached the 
village the Indians desired him to halt until they should be ready 
to receive him. In a short time they announced the completion 
of their preparations. There were supposed to be two thousand 
present, who were drawn up in two lines, and the governor and 
his escort passed between them. As he rode down the lines they 
fired a salute which was kept up till he reached the stand. Then 
joyous shouts were raised from every quarter, and when he 
alighted under the standard of the United States, the whole num- 
ber surrounded him with demonstrations of the greatest pleasure. 

Governor Blount had married in 1778 Miss Mary Grainger, the 
charming and accomplished daughter of Colonel Caleb Grainger, 
of Wilmington, North Carolina. Upon his elevation to the gov 
emorship of the Southwest Territory he did not at once take his 
family to the West. He established his temporary headquarters 
at the house of William Cobb, a wealthy emigrant from North 
Carolina, of some taste and much hospitality, who had settled in 
the fork of Holston and Watauga rivers near the Watauga Old 
Fields. While here he let a contract for building his permanent 
residence at White's Fort, at the junction of the Holston and 
French Broad. This place he seems to have selected even before 
he reached the territory. James Cole Montflorence, the diplomatic 
Frenchman, who mingled much in the affairs of the Western set- 

8 Thb Ambrican Historical Magazine. 

tiers, writes General Smith on August i6, 1790, after congratu- 
lating him on his appointment as Secretary of the Territory and 
urging him to use his great influence to fix the seat of govern- 
ment in Mero District, that he '*was informed on Holston that 
our Governor had determined to reside about the mouth of 
French Broad." The town was laid oflF in 1792, and called Knox- 
ville, and the county, which he erected the same year, Knox, both 
in honor of General Knox, who was then Secretary of War. 

His wife and sons joined him at Mr. Cobb's, January 2, 1792, 
He had two sons : William Grainger, who succeeded John Sevier 
as a member of Congress from the Knoxville district ; and Rich- 
ard Blackledge, who afterwards moved to Montgomery County. 
They were also accompanied by his brother, Willie, afterwards 
distinguished as the third governor of Tennessee. His daughters 
remained at Tarboro with their aunt, Mary Sumner, wife of 
Thomas Blount, who was representing Tarboro district in Con- 
gress at the date of his death in 181 2. She was a daughter of 
the illustrious soldier. General Jethro Sumner. Governor Blount 
left four daughters, two of them, however, were not bcwn at this 
time. Ann, the eldest, married Henry T. Toole, and after his 
death, a Mr. Ehidley, both of North Carolina. Mary Louisa mar- 
ried Heasant M. Miller (who, at one time represented the Knox- 
ville district in Congress), and was the mother of a family of 
children, who have borne honorable names, and rendered distin- 
guished services to their country. Barbara, the third daughter, is 
of especial interest, because College Hill, on which the University 
of the State is now situated, at the settlement of Knoxville was 
christened Barbara Hill, in her honor. She herself was educated 
there, and received the highest mark of credit bestowed by Presi- 
dent Carrick. She married the distinguished patriot and soldier, 
General Edmund Pendleton Gaines. The fourth daughter, Eliza, 
married Dr. Edward Wyatt, a surgeon in the United States army. 

About the first of March, 1792, they opened the Gubernatorial 
Mansion, in Knoxville — a weatherboarded log house — ^which is 
said to have been considered a marvel of wealth and luxury at 
that day ; and which they made famous by their lavish hospitality 
and brilliant entertainments. Mrs. Blount has her name preserved 
in the geography of the State by the town of Maryville and the 
County of Grainger, as Governor Blount has his name com- 

The Old Southwest Territory. 9 

memorated by the town of Blountville and the County of Blount. 

It is beyond the scope of this paper to recount the Indian war- 
fare of the period ; or the constant and delicate labors of the gov- 
ernor in protecting the settlers, and at the same time keeping 
within the restrictions of the Federal government. However, he 
brought to the aid of his indomitable energy such administrative 
ability and diplomatic skill as to accomplish the very difficult 
task of rendering his services satisfactory, both to the government 
and the people of the territory. 

From the start it was his purpose and policy to give the people 
of the territory the largest measure of self-government within his 
power. Under the ordinance of 1787 the people were entitled 
to representatives in the General Assembly, as soon as the ter- 
ritory should contain five thousand free male inhabitants. In 
1791 Governor Blount caused a census to be taken, from which 
it appeared that the territory contained the requisite population. 
Accordingly he passed an ordinance October 19, 1793, for the 
election of representatives. They were called to meet February 
26, 1794, in order that the nomination of the counsellors who 
would form the upper house of the Assembly might be laid be- 
fore the Congfress then in session. They nominated ten persons 
as counsellors, as follows: James Winchester, William Fort, 
Stockley Donelson, Richard Gammon, David Russell, John Sevier, 
Sr., Adam Meek, John Adair, Griffith Rutherford and Permenas 
Taylor. Of these the President appointed Griffith Rutherford, 
John Sevier, Sr., James Winchester, Stockley Donelson and Per- 
menas Taylor. The House of Representatives was prorogued 
March i, 1794. 

The first session of the Territorial Assembly met August 25, 
1794. They at once began to take steps looking to the admission 
of the territory into the Union as a state. On September 4, the 
Legislative council passed a resolution requesting: the governor 
to cause a new census of the people to be made on the last Satur- 
day in July, 1795, similar to that he had ordered in 1791. The 
House of Representatives concurred in the resolution on the next 
day. The resolution did not declare the purpose of the census. 
But the day before the Assembly was prorogued it passed a reso- 
lution requesting the governor to direct, that when the census 
was taken the sense of the people might at the same time be 

lo Thk American Historical Magazine. 

enquired into, how far it might be their wish for admission into 
the Union as a State. 

The governor did not immediately order a census as requested, 
but he went straight to the real object of the resolution, which 
was to have the Territory admitted into the Union as a State. It 
had a right to admission as soon as it should contain 60,000 free 
inhabitants. But up to that time no territory of the United States 
had been admitted into the Union. Governor Blount's first object 
was to ascertain what Congress might consider the necessary 
steps to be taken for that purpose. One member of Congress 
thought an act might be passed providing for the admission of the 
Territory, and allowing the people to avail themselves of it or not, 
as they liked. Dr. James White, father of Edward Douglass 
White, one time Governor of Louisiana, and grandfather of 
Justice Edward Douglass White, of the United States Supreme 
Court, was the Territorial delegate in Congress. After canvass- 
ing the matter privately, he reached the conclusion that Congress 
could not be induced to act in advance of an application on the 
part of the Territory, and advised the calling of a convention to 
frame a constitution, to take effect as soon as Congress should 
pass an act of admission. 

Immediately upon the receipt of Dr. White's letter. Governor 
Bloimt called an extraordinary session of the Assembly to meet 
at Knoxville on the last Monday in June, 1795, to take the matter 
into consideration. The Assembly passed an act providing for 
the enumeration of the inhabitants of the territory, and author- 
izing the governor, in case such enumeration showed sixty thou- 
sand inhabitants, to call a constitutional convention. 

The enumeration showing the requisite population. Governor 
Blount called a constitutional convention to meet in Knoxville, on 
the nth day of January, 1796. The convention convened at the 
time specified, and Governor Blount was chosen as its president. 
It is not my purpose to detail the labors of the convention further 
than to draw attention to the fact that it was at the instance of 
Governor Blount the convention adopted that section of the Bill 
of Rights declaring the inalienable right of the citizehs of this 
State in the free navigation of the Mississippi river. This was 
aimed at the Spanish claim, and was in line with the Cumberland 
memorial of 1787. 

Thh Old Southwest Tbrritory. ii 

When the General Assembly met on the 28th of March under 
the constitution of 1796, the Territorial government ceased, al- 
though the State was not admitted to the Union until the ist of 
June. Governor Blount was elected one of the United States 
senators from the new State of Tennessee. 

Ten years before this date the Federalist party had been dis- 
posed to concede to Spain the exclusive navigation of the Missis- 
sippi river for a term of years. Now the same party opposed 
the admission of Tennessee to the Union. At the next election 
Tennessee was the ardent supporter of the Republican candidates 
for President and Vice President. In a letter to Governor Sevier, 
September 26, 1796, Senator Blount declares it his opinion "that 
it will be the true interest of Tennessee in particular, and of the 
Union in general, to promote the interest of Jefferson and Burr 
for President and vice President." The Federalist party, how- 
ever, prevailed, and Adams was elected President. 

I now approach the most unhappy period of Governor Blount's 

The United States were in imminent danger of a war with 
France. England had agreed to the free navigation of the Missis- 
sippi river in 1783; Spain had yielded it in 1795. It was now 
rumored that Spain had by a secret treaty ceded Florida and 
Louisiana, including both banks of the Mississippi river, to 
France. France had no stipulation with the United States for 
the free navigation of the Mississippi, and in the then warlike 
attitude of the two countries none could be expected. The West 
had little to hope from the party represented by President Adams* 

In this state of affairs Senator > Blount opened negotiations — 
or at least, prepared to open negotiations — ^with England, for the 
purpose of giving England and not France control of the Spanish 
possessions. Pending his scheme, he wrote his celebrated letter 
to Carey. He wished Carey to maintain his credit with the In- 
dians, and pointed out means for its accomplishment, some of 
which were at the expense of the President. At a time of great 
political excitement this letter fell into the hands of President 
Adams. He at once transmitted it to the Senate, with the result 
that Blount was summarily expelled from that body. The House 
afterwards preferred articles of impeachment against him, but the 
Senate, after mature deliberation, dismissed them for want of 

12 The American Historical Magazine. 

The details of Blount's scheme have never been disclosed. It 
is certain that it involved neither moral turpitude nor disloyalty 
to his country. He perceived more clearly, and fdt more deeply, 
than any other statesman of his time the importance of the Mis- 
sissippi river to this Western country. Jeflferson felt its impor- 
tance some years later, and was willing to strain the timbers of 
the constitution to effect the Louisiana purchase. Blount had 
agitated the question for ten years. It now locrfced like all that 
had been gained in the Spanish treaty would be lost by the French 
purchase. And distrusting the views of the Adams government, 
his impetuous patriotism led him into the error of imdertaking by 
his own diplomacy to avert the impending calamity. But of all 
the prominent men in Tennessee, who were then, and continued 
to be his perscxial and political friends, not one was taken into 
his confidence — ^a sufficient proof that he did not contemplate a 
military invasion frcmi Tennessee. 

After his expulsion he returned to Tennessee, and was received 
with open arms by his fellow citizens. Upon receiving an exag- 
gerated account of Senator Blount's prosecution. General Robert- 
son, the cool, calm, clear-headed Father of Tennessee, wrote Sena- 
tor Cocke: "I never could have judged the latter to have been 
so criminal, but suppose it has operated against my friend as a 
public man, at present. You will think right that we have one 
in Congress, and from the abilities and friendship between you 
and Jackson I think you two can better serve the State than 
others, as all hope of Blount is lost." A few months later. Gov- 
ernor Blount writes Robertson: "I cannot omit the occasion to 
acknowledge the gratitude and attention I have received, since 
my return to Tennessee, from the citizens without exception; I 
mean so far as I have seen or heard, and I have seen many of 
them, and have received many friendly letters from such as I have 
not seen. I have not words to express how much I feel myself 
their debtor for such attention, and particularly at such a critical 
period of my affairs, and I h<^)e I may with truth add that the 
charge of ing^titude will never lay against me." 

Soon after Governor Blount's return to Tennessee, Speaker 
James White, of Knox Coimty, resigned his seat in the Senate. 
Governor Blount was elected to fill the vacancy, and with g^eat 
unanimity chosen Speaker. Before the people of his State had 

Thb Old Southwest Territory. 13 

further opportunity to testify their confidence in him, he departed 
this life, March 21, 1800, at the age of fifty-three years. A plain 
marble slab marks the spot where his remains sleep in the church 
yard of the First Presbyterian Church in Knoxville. 

Dr. Ramsey describes him as "remarkable for g^eat address, 
courtly manners, benignant feelings, and a most commanding 
presence. His urbanity — ^his personal influence over men of all 
conditions and ages — ^his hospitality, unostentatiously, but yet 
el^;antly and gracefully extended to all, won upon the affections 
and regard of the pc^ulace, and made him a universal favorite. 
He was at once the social companion, the well-bred gentleman, 
and the capable officer." 

14 The American Historicai« Magazine. 



This institution was opened December i, 1875, under the 
name of "The Peabody State Nonnal School of the University 
of Nashville." It was established by the co-operation of the 
State of Tennessee, the University of Nashville, and the Peabody 
Education Board. It was organized as the State Normal Schod 
for Tennessee, although its projectors entertained from the be- 
ginning plans looking to a much wider sphere. It is the purpose 
of this sketch to lay before the reader the several steps of its 
original foundation, and its development into the leading col- 
lie for teachers in the South. 

Perhaps the first conception of converting the old University 
of Nashville into an institution for the training of teachers 
originated in the mind of Dr. J. Berrien Lindsley, Chancellor 
of the University of Nashville. As early as 1867, the year in 
which the gift of Mr. Peabody was made, he suggested to the 
Board of Trustees that correspondence should be opened with 
the Peabody Education Board, and was appointed to correspond 
with Dr. Bamas Sears, the general agent. Dr. Sears gave 
favorable consideration to the plan of establishing a normal 
school in co-operation with the university, but required as a con- 
dition that such school should be connected with a public school 
system, and should be under control of the State. January 22, 
1869, Hon. Samuel Watson, Sr., of Nashville, one of the 
trustees of the University of Nashville, and a warm advocate of 
public schools, was elected a member of the Peabody Board, and 
at once became a leader in the movement to establish a better 
system of public education and a State Normal School. 

November 7, 1871, the State Teachers' Association assembled 
in the State capitol at Nashville, the "president, ex-Gov. Neill 
S. Brown, in the chair." The powerful aid of this body was given 
in favor of the movement to establish an efficient public school 

Thb Genesis op the Peabody College. 15 

system and a State normal school. The minutes say: "Ciov. 
John C. Brown delivered an address of welcome. He spoke 
earnestly in favor of a thorough system of common schools." 
Strong speeches were made, and strong resoluticms were adopted 
in favor of public schools. A committee was appointed, con- 
sisting of J. Baldwin, S. Y. Caldwell and A. L. Mimms, to 
report on the legislation needed. 

President B. W. McDonnold, of Cumberland University ; Chan- 
cellor E. Kirby-Smith, and others, advocated a State normal 
school. Professor J. E. Scoby offered the following resolution, 
which was adopted : 

"That the chair shall appoint a committee of five, who shall 
investigate and report at the next meeting of this Association, 
any feasible plan of securing to the State of Tennessee the mani- 
fest advantages of a normal school system." Dr. B. W. Mc- 
Donnold, Hon. S. Watson, Dr. J. B. Lindsley, Supt. S. Y. Cald- 
well, and Rev. J. Braden were appointed the committee. Hon. 
S. Watson was elected president of the Association, and the 
president and the executive committee were empowered to act 
for the Association until its next meeting. 

The executive committee effected an arrangement by which 
an active agent was put in the field to advocate the establishment 
of an efficient public school system and a normal school. At 
that time the public school system was totally inefficient; there 
being no State tax, and no State supervision or control. The 
State Treasurer held, ex officio, the title of State Superintendent 
of Public Instruction, but had no duties or powers with respect 
to education. 

By arrangement between Dr. Sears and the State Treasurer, 
Wm. Morrow, it was agreed that the Peabody Fund would pay a 
salary of $1,500 to a competent assistant, who should be selected 
by the State Teachers' Association, and appointed by Dr. Mor- 
row as Assistant Superintendent of Public Instruction. Col. J. 
B. Killibrew was elected to this position by the executive com- 
mittee, and at once entered upon the duties, of the office, January, 
1872. His efficient work is set forth in his able report of March 
14, 1872. His services contributed much to the subsequent pass- 
age of the public school law of 1873. The executive committee 
continued its efficient work by appointing a committee, January 

i6 Thb Ambrican Historical Magazine. 

9, 1872, to present to the Legislature, at its approaching extra 
session, "such amendments to the present school law as will give 
it greater efficiency." This committee consisted of ex-Gov. Neill 
S. Brown, J. O. Griffith, S. Y. Caldwell, and J. Frizzell. It being 
understood that Judge Watson, president of the Association, had 
prepared a school bill, the committee, after the adjournment of 
the Association, took Judge Watson's bill into consideration, and 
in conference with the officers of the Association, matured a bill, 
which was presented to the Legislature by Senator W. P. Jones, 
but failed to become a law. This bill contained a provision for 
a State Board of Education, and the establishment of a normal 
school. The friends of public education, however, did not 
despair. A meeting of the State Teachers' Association was held 
in Nashville, January 22nd and 23rd, 1873, during the session of 
the Legislature. A committee was appointed to memorialize the 
Legislature, consisting of Hon. Samuel Watson, ex-Gov. Neill S. 
Brown, J. B. Killibrew, H. Presnell, Rev. O. Tate. The Asso- 
ciation adopted a series of resolutions instructing this committee, 
from which the following is quoted : 

"i. Resolved, That the Memorial Committee be instructed to 
memorialize the Legislature in favor of a system of public free 
schools, with the following authorities, to wit: A State Board 
of Education, a State Superintendent, a County Board of Educa- 
tion, and District School Commissioners, with the usual powers 
granted to such authorities." 

After extended discussion, the Association adjourned, leaving 
its executive committee to represent the Association in pressing 
the matter before the Legislature. 

The executive committee consisted of S. Y. Caldwell, Rev. A. 
W. Nelson, R. W. Weakley, John Frizzell, and Rev. H. S. Ben- 

The committee, after consultation with members of the Legis- 
lature, decided to separate the pending bill into two bills; the 
first a public school bill, and the second a normal school bill. 
The public school bill, drafted by Supt. S. Y. Caldwell, omitted 
the features of State Board of Education, County Board of Ed- 
ucation and the Normal school. This bill, v/ith but little change, 
was enacted into the present public school law, March 6, 1873. 

- *v f,^ 









' '^^^^^^^1 







a !■ 




















The Gekbsis op the Peabody College. 17 

The act was approved, March 15, by Governor John C. Brown, 
who had all along been its warm friend. 

The normal school bill provided for a State Board of Educa- 
tion, an appropriation of $6,000 from the State for the benefit of 
a normal school, with authority to the State board to accept a like 
amount from the Peabody Fund, and other donations. This bill 
failed to become a law. 

The members of the State Teachers' Association and the 
friends of education were delighted with this much of victory, 
and were resolute to continue the fight until a normal school 
should be established. 

In January, 1875, ^^ newly elected Legislature met, and Hon- 
orable James D. Porter was inaugurated as governor. The State 
Teachers' Association again entered the field. In acceptance of 
its invitation, Dr. Bamas Sears, General Agent of the Peabody 
Fund, again visited the State, and attended a meeting of the 
Association. He renewed his former offer to contribute $6,000 
per annum to the support of a normal school, on condition that 
the State would pass suitable laws for its establishment and gov- 
ernment, and would contribute an equal amount to its support. 
Honorable Leon Trousdale, State Superintendent of Public In- 
struction, entered cordially into the plans of the friends of the 
normal school. 

An interview was arranged with Governor Porter. Honorable 
Samuel Watson, President of the State Teachers' Association, 
and a member of the Peabody board, accompanied by Dr. J. Ber- 
rien Lindsley, the prime mover in the agitation for the normal 
school, and Dr. Bamas Sears, the General Agent of the Peabody 
Fund, called at the executive office. Governor Porter received 
them cordially. At this conference, the matter assumed its final 
shape. The visitors requested Governor Porter to send a special 
message to the Legislature, urging the passage of a normal school 
law with an appropriation of $5,0oo per annum to meet an eqdal 
appropriation from the Pteabody Fund. 

Governor Porter declined to send such a message, and assigned 
his reasons: 

The State was struggling with a debt beyond its resources, 
as a legacy of the war. There barely enough money in the 
treasury to meet the necessary expenses. The members of the 

i8 The American Historical Maoazine. 

Legislature were pledged to their constituents to institute re- 
trenchment and economy. In their present temper, they would 
not listen to any suggestion for an increase of expenditures. 

He tlien made the suggestion that proved the final solution of 
the problem. As a member of the Board of Trustees of the Uni- 
versity of Nashville, he assured them that the University would 
give to the purpose more than was asked of the State; the use 
of its valuable grounds and buildings, and its income of $6,000 
per annum, and would further turn these over to the control of 
a Board of Education, created by the State, so as fully to meet 
the requirements of Dr. Sears. This proposition was satisfactory 
to Dr. Sears. 

A bill was prepared by Dr. J. Berrien Lindsley in accordance 
with the agreements of this conference, passed the Legislature, 
March 23, 1875, and was approve! by Governor Porter the same 

The caption of this act is as follows : "An act to provide for 
the establishment, and to prescribe rules for the government of a 
normal schocrf, or schools, in the State of Tennessee, in connec- 
tion with the public school system thereof." The purpose of the 
law is further shown by the first preamble, as follows : 

"Whereas, An adequate supply of professionally trained teach- 
ers is a necessity to the maintenance of an efficient system of 
public schools." 

The act provides for a State Board of Education, which board 
shall have power to organize one or more normal schools, and 
to receive donations of money or grounds and buildings from 
the Peabody Fund, or from other sources ; empowers any incor- 
porated institution of learning to donate its grounds, buildings, 
or funds to this purpose; empowers the State board to elect 
teachers for the normal school, or schools, fix their salaries, make 
regulations for the reception of pupils, and the government of 
the sdiool, coafer professiooal dtgrets, etc No appropriation 
was made by tfie State for At support of the school. The gov- 
ernor was empowered to appoint six members to constitute the 
State Board of Education, and was added as the seventh member, 
and made, ex oMcio, the president of the board. 

The first meeting of the board was held in the governor's crffice, 
April 8, 1875 ; "present, James D, Porter, president ; J. B. Linds- 

The Gbnbsis op thb Pbabody Coixbge. 19 

ley, S. Watson, E. H. Ewing, S. G. Tarbox; absent, J. J. Reese, 
of Knoxville, and Dr. R. W. Mitchell, of Memphis." Dr. J. B^ 
Lindsley was elected secretary. The followinji^ resolution was 
adopted on motion of Judge Watson : 

"That the secretary give notice that the board is ready to re- 
ceive propositions offering the use of buildings or funds ; and that 
such offers must be sent in by the ilth of May, next." 

Messrs. Tarbox, Watson and Lindsky were appointed a com- 
mittee to prepare a plan for the organization of the normal schooL 

The next day a card appeared in all the Nashville papers from 
J. B. Lindsley, secretary, calling for contributions of grounds, 
buildings and funds, and citing the act of March 23, 1875, and 
the resolution of the Board of Education. This card was copied 
in nearly all the newspapers of the State, and received extensive 

The next meeting of the board was held May 26, all the mem- 
bers being present except Mr. J. J. Reese. Propositions were 
received from Spring Hill, Milan, Trenton and the University of 

Dr. Mitchell moved "that the proposition from the University 
of Nashville be received, and accepted, and that in view of the 
liberal offer made by the Board of Trustees, said board be re- 
quested to nominate the principal and teachers, and report to the 
State board. Adopted." 

A resolution was passed, declining, for the present, the offers 
of Fisk University, Nashville Institute and Central Tennessee 
College for the establishment of a colored normal school. Colonel 
Leon Trousdale, Superintendent of Public Instruction, and Dr. 
Bamas Sears, General Agent of the Peabody Education Fund, 
were invited to offer suggestions as to the organization of the 
school, and the course of study. A committee was appointed to 
solicit and receive subscriptions. 

The board then adjourned to await action on the part of the 
trustees of the University. The nomination of teachers had been 
committed to the University, but Would not be legal until ratified 
by the State board, as the normal school law had expressly pro- 
vided that the State board should elect the teachers. 

The next step must, therefore, be taken by the University. In 
the meantime the University had not been idle. A meeting had 

20 The Ahbrican Historical Magazine. 

been hdd May lo, at whidi Dr. Scars was present upon invita- 
tion. The minutes say: "On retiring he made a written com- 
munication to the board, as follows :" 

"Nashville, Tenn., May lo, 1875 
*'To the Trustees of the Nashville University: 

"If it shall seem to you expedient to turn over to the 5tate 
Board of Education the grounds (the sixteen-acre lot) of the 
University, with the buildings thereon (the University building, 
the dormitory, and presidential mansion), and the incotfic of your 
funds for a period of at least two years ; so that the whole estab- 
lishment, the University and the BeU Academy inav ly; converted 
into a State normal school for practice in all the grades of in- 
struction, on such terms as may be agreed on between the two 
boards, the trustees of the Peabody Education Fund will accept 
this arrangement as a substitute for the conditions stated in my 
letter to Governor Porter. Our proposed contribution will date 
from the time of the opening of the schools with a suitable corps 
of instructors. 

"Very respectfully your obedient servant, 
*^> "B. Sears, 

[ ^'General Agent of the Peabody Education Fund." 

The board referred the letter to the standing committee, and 
met again. May 13, for final action. At this meeting. May 13, 
Judge Watson reported from the committee, recommending the 
acceptance of Dr. Sears' proposition, and the tender of the 
grounds and buildings and income of the University to the State 
Board of Education, for two years from September i, 1875; 
upon certain conditions. The two most important of these con- 
ditions were: that twenty-five boys should receive free tuition 
at the Montgomery Bell Academy in accordance with the pro- 
visions of Mr. Bell's will ; and that the trustees of the University 
should have the right to elect the teachers and fix their salaries. 
The conditions, as recited above, were accepted by the State 
Board of Education, except that the State board reserved the 
right to final action on nominations of teachers by the trustees 
of the University. On motion of Mr. Foster, the thanks of the 
Board of Trustees were tendered to Dr. Sears, and he was re- 
quested, in event that the offer of the trustees should be accepted 
by the State board, "to nominate a suitable person" to take charge 
of the school. 

The Gbnksis op thb Pbaboby Collegb. 21 

The next meeting occurred June 4, 1875. Judge Watson re- 
ported that Dr. Sears had nominated Professor T. T. Bacchus, of 
Vassar College as "superintendent" of the normal school. On 
motion, the nominatic«i was confirmed, and Dr. Bacchus was in- 
vited to visit Nashville. In acceptance of this invitation. Dr. 
Bacchus visited Nashville, and after conference with the trustees, 
declined the appointment. 

After the refusal of Dr. Bacchus to accept, matters were de- 
layed until late in September. This delay was caused by the 
fact that Dr. Sears had selected Dr. Eben S. Steams as the head 
of the institution, who was then absent in Europe, and did not 
expect to return imtil December. 

September i was then the period for the opening of the schools. 
The Montgomery Bell Academy, especially, was affected by the 
delay. This school was the preparatory department of the Uni- 
versity during its former organization under General E. Kirby- 
Smith as chancellor, and enjoyed a large patronage. It had in- 
formally been designated to be the model school for the normal 
school under the new arrangement, but no definite action had 
been taken to change its organization. Nearly a month had 
passed since the usual time for its session to open. Its patronage 
was slipping away. Its former pupils applied for information, 
but no one could give them any satisfaction. Professor J. W. 
Yeatman, for many years its principal, and Professor S. M. D. 
Clark, for many years, one of its teachers, were still on the 
grounds, under an informal assurance from the trustees that their 
services would be needed. They called upwi the Executive Com- 
mittee, represented the condition of affairs, and urged that steps 
be taken to put the academy in operatiwi. 

The Executive Committee decided upon immediate action. 
They determined to elect the teachers who would be paid from 
the University funds, leaving Dr. Steams to select the additional 
teachers who would be paid from the Peabody funds. They 
immediately called a meeting of the trustees. This meeting was 
held September 28, 1875. As the action taken was important, 
being the step which subsequently led to the separation of the 
Montgomery Bell Academy and the normal school, the report of 
the committee is quoted from the minutes as adopted by the 

aa Thb American Historical Magazikb. 

"Your ccHTunittee beg leave to report, that after two disappoint- 
ments, they have engaged Professor E. S. Steams to take diarge 
of the normal and academic school of the University of Nashville, 
with the title of chancellor of the University of Nashville. The 
terms are; annual salary $3,000, the expenses of his removal to 
Tennessee to be paid, and part of the college dwelling house to 
be furnished him free of rent. Your committee have authorized 
Professor Steams to engage two female teachers for the normal 
school of superior qualifications at salaries not to exceed $1,500 
a year. We have engaged W. R. Garrett, J. W. Yeatman, and 
S. M. D. Qark as professors in the academic department of the 
University at salaries of $1,800 each. All of which is respectfully 
submitted for your ratification, September 28, 1875. 

"S. Watson, 
"W. F. CboPER, 
"W. B. Reese, 


The secretary was ordered to announce the opening of the 
Montgomery Bell school oa Thursday, October 14, for the re- 
cepticxi of pupils. 

In compliance with this order of the board, the academy was 
opened on the appointed day, by the teachers cm the ground, and 
its organization was continued as ''a school to prepare boys for 
coll^^e." At a meeting of the trustees in November, 1875, ^ 
committee on the selecticm of teachers made an additional report, 
which was adopted, setting forth that they had, upcm the recom- 
mendaticm of ChancellcM- Steams, engaged the services of Miss 
Julia A. Sears at a salary of $1,200, and of Miss Emma M. 
Cutter at a salary of $1,000^ as instructors in the normal depart- 
ment ; and had agreed to furnish Professors Yeatman, Clark and 
Garrett residences in the faculty dwelling house, free of rent, 
in addition to their salaries of $1,800 each. 

Upon the arrival of Chancellor Steams, a residence was rented 
for his use by the University, and the large faculty dwelling house 
was divided between Professors Yeatman, Clark and Garrett. 

It was now time for the State Board of Education to act, in 
order to give final ccmfirmation and legal sanction to the ar- 
rangements which had been made by the University trustees. 
This action is so important that it is quoted below in full. 

Thb Gbnbsis of thb Pbabody Coluigb. 23 

"Executive office, Nashville, Tenn., Wednesday, December i, 
1875, II a.m. 

"The board met upon call of the president : Present, His Ex- 
cellency, James D. Porter, president; S. Watson, E. H. Ewing, 
R. W. Mitchell, M.D., of Memphis; absent, L. G. Tarbox, of 
Nashville, and J. J. Reese, of Knoxville. 

"A conununication was read from S. Watson, Chairman of 
Committee on Organization, making known the nominations of 
the Board of Trustees of the University of Nashville, to the 
several positions of the normal and model schools. 

"Dr. R. W. Mitchell offered the following resolution, which 
was adopted : 

**Resolved, That the following nominations be confirmed and 
adopted by this board: Eben S. Steams, principal of normal 
and model schools; Miss Julia A. Sears and Miss Emma M. 
Cutter, assistant teachers in the normal and model schools; and 
W. R. Garrett, J. W. Yeatman and S. M. D. Clark, professors in 
the normal and model schools. 

"Dr. R. W. Mitchell moved that the president and secretary 
of this board, together with S. Watson, be constituted an Execu- 
tive Committee, and that this conmiittee in connection with 
Principal Steams, arrange the course of study, and also the rules 
and regulations of the normal and model schools; and also in 
connection with Hon. Leon Trousdale, State superintendent, make 
such publications as may be deemed advisaUe. Adopted. 

"Mr. Ewing offered the following resolutions, which were 
adopted : 

"Whereas, the normal school established under the act of the 
General Assembly of March 23, 1875, is the result of contribu- 
tions from the Peabody Education Fund, and from the Board of 
Trustees of the University of Nashville ; therefore, be it 

^'Resolved, That it shall be styled: The Peabody State Nor- 
mal School of the University of Nashville ;' and that all diplomas 
or certificates issued by it shall be signed by the president and 
secretary of the State Board of Educaticwi ; by the president and 
secretary of the Board of Trustees of the University of Nashville, 
and by the principal of the normal school. 

"Mr. Ewing moved, that during the present scholastic year, the 
Executive Committee and Principal Steams be authorized to fill 
vacancies in the county appointments, and also to admit pupils 
free of charge at their discretion. Adopted. 

"J. B. LiNDSLEY, Secretary. 

"Jas. D. Porter, President" 

The normal school opened December i, 1875. At the moming 
session, the pupils were matriculated and classified. On the 

24 Thb American Historical Maoazinb 

first day thirteen pupils were matriculated. The number in- 
creased during the year to sixty. 

At night the public opening exercises were conducted at the 
State capitol, in the hall of the House of Representatives. The 
hall was crowded to its utmost capacity by a representative as- 
semblage of citizens. Governor Porter presided, and addresses 
were made by State Superintendent Leon Trousdale, Chancellor 
Eben S. Steams, Honorable Samuel Watson, and Honorable 
Edwin H. Ewing. 

Thus, after strenuous exertions by patriotic and wise men, the 
institution was established which was destined to become the 
most important factor in the development of public education in 
the South. 

It is not the purpose of this sketch to relate in detail the 
several steps in the growth of this institution. The following 
brief summary will serve to indicate its steady expansion: 

August 6, 1876, at its meeting at White Sulphur Springs, Va., 
the Peabody Board indicated its intention of making this institu- 
tion the ultimate recipient of Mr. Peabody's donaticm, and the 
great moniunent to his memory. At this meeting, the annual 
appropriation was increased to $9,000, and the policy was in- 
augurated of granting Peabody scholarships. 

In 1878 the name of the institutic«i was changed to "State 
Normal College," and a few years later to "Peabody Normal 
College." The curriculum of study was increased, and a college 
course instituted, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Arts ; and 
the Montgomery Bell Academy was separated from the normal 

Although nominally connected, and placed under a joint 
faculty, these two schools never had any organic connection. In 
the beginning, the faculty was practically divided; three of the 
teachers being in charge of the normal school, and the other 
three in charge of the academy. The purpose of the schools was 
different ; the one being directed to the training of teachers, and 
the other to "preparing boys for college." They were different 
departments of the University of Nashville, though both schools 
were taught in the same building. The formal separation was 
an advantage to both. In 1881, the academy was removed to its 
new building on a separate lot of the University. 

The Gbnbsis op the Pbabody Collbgb. 25 

In the same year, 1881, the State of Tennessee made its first 
appropriation of $10,000, per annum. In 1891, this appropria- 
tion was increased to $15,000, and in 1895 to $20,000. The 
Peabody board, also, increased Its appropriations, from time to 
time. After the death of Dr. Sears, in 1880, Honorable J. L. M. 
Curry became general agent of the Peabody Fund. He approved 
the plans of Dr. Sears, and extended them. Under his wise 
administration of affairs, the Peabody board entered more defi- 
nitely upon the policy of making this institution a monument to 
George Peabody. 

In 1887 Dr. Steams died, and Honorable Alexander Porter 
served during the remainder of the year as chancellor, pro iem. 
In 1888 Dr. William H. Payne was inaugurated as chancellor. 
He extended the course of study so as to include the Bachelor's 
and Master's degrees. During his administration many improve- 
ments were made. The Winthrop model school was founded, and 
the attendance of pupils was greatly increased, exceeding six 

In 1901 Honorable James D. Porter was appointed chancellor. 
The name of the college was changed to "Peabody College for 
Teachers." The attendance of students, December i, 1902, is 
greater than at the corresponding date of any year in its history. 
The influence of the college has been widely extended, and its 
financial resources largely increased. Its annual income from all 
sources is now about $44,000 for current expenses, and $25,000 
for scholarships. 

All departments of the University have partaken in the general 
progress. The medical college has a new, commodious building, 
with an attendance of nearly three hundred students. The Mont- 
gomery Bell Academy has been improved in all its equipments, 
and has an attendance of about 125 pupils. The Winthrop model 
school has about 225 pupils, while the catalogue of the Peabody 
College will show for the current year, including the summer 
school, about 1,000 students; making a total in all departments 
of the University of about 1,650. 

26 Th£ American Historicai« Magazinb. 


By J. G. Cisco. 

[Continued from Vol. 7, p. 348.] 

The county's first court house was built in 1824, of hewed logs. 
In 1824-5 increasing population demanding a more commodious 
building, the old log house was removed and in its place a brick, 
30x40, two stories high, was erected. Benjamin Gholson was 
its builder. There was also built at the same time, in the north* 
west comer of the public square, a small brick <^ce containing 
two rooms, for the Circuit Court Qerk, and another in the 
northeast comer, of the same dimensions, for the County Court 
Clerk. In 1839 that court house was tom down and a new one, 
larger and more substantial, was erected by John Brown, Sr., 
who afterwards became a citizen of Memphis, and there died. 
Its brick work was done by Jdtin and Thomas Norvell* and the 
iron work by Cranberry Adamson. The cost of that building 
was $25,000, and it was not completed until 1845. In 1890 it was 
remodeled and added to at a cost of $40,000, and is now one of 
the largest and finest court houses in the State. 

In 1839^ while the court house was being built, court met in 
the old Lafayette Inn. The Federal Court met in the Presby- 
terian Church. 

The first jail in the county was built of logs in 1822, and stood 
in the public square back of the court house. Its cost was $95. 
Samuel Shannon was its builder. In 1825, when the first brick 
court house was built, the jail was sold and in its stead a new 
one of wood was erected ; in 1835 one of brick, and in 1861 the 
present one. 

Previous to 1834 the only church in Jackson was a negro 
church, near the southwest comer of what is now Riverside 
Cemetery. This was a log building; when it was built, or by 
whom, I am tmable to say. There were Methodist, Baptist and 
Presbyterian congregations in Jackson at that time, but they met 
for worship in the court house until the Presbyterian Church was 

Madison County. ay 

built in 1834. SiHnetimes services were held in the old market 
hooae on the corner of Market and College streets. Mrs. Sallie 
Taylor, a venerable lady still living, and who came here at an 
early day, remembers the first semu^i she ever heard in Jackson 
was at this latter place. It was delivered by a traveling Cum- 
berland Presbyterian preacher, and was heard by a goodly num- 
ber of Indians, who, while thus engaged, used for seats stumps 
and logs. 

The first ceipetery in Jackson was in a chestnut grove on 
Johnson street, northwest from the stone bridge on Poplar street. 
Colond Taylor and a number of die other pioneers were buried 
there. This cemetery was abandoned when Riverside Cemetery 
was given to the dty by James Caruthers. The old cemetery 
seems to have been forgotten after its abandonment, and tht 
land was laid off into lots and sold. About 1873 or 1874 there 
was a brick yard established on the ground and a large quantity 
of bones of the dead were exhumed in the excavaticms made. 

Among them were the bones of Colonel Taylor, who was recog^ 
nized by his spurs that were buried with him. The remains of a 
Mrs. Shannon were also recc^;nized by a peculiar comb in her 

Samuel Taylor, who was one of the first Justices of the Peace 
of the County of Madison, was the first postmaster of Jackson. 
His ofiice was on the east side of Liberty street, between Main 
and Lafayette. Am not able to gfive the year in which he was 
appointed but it must have been either 1823 or 1824. 

Colonel Charles D. McLean, who was in his day a notable char- 
acter, and a Virginian, came to Jackson in 1823, and, with Elijah 
Bigelow, begun the publication of the Jackson Gazette, the first 
issue of which was of date May 29, 1824. They continued the 
publication of that paper until 1830, when it passed into the pos- 
session and the management of Colonel J. H. McMahon, who 
changed its name to Truth Teller. The Gazette, in its time, was 
the only papier published in West Tennessee, and consequently 
had a wide circulation and great influence in forming public opin- 
ion. It was published in the interest of General Andrew Jackson 
and Davy Crockett. 

Colonel McLean represented Madison County in this State*s 
L^slature. Later he moved to Memphis, where he died. 

28 The Ambrican Historical Magazinb. 

The first case of horse stealing tried by a Madison County 
court was in November, 1824. The person thus circumstanced 
was Adam Lowry. He was convicted and sentenced to receive 
on his back thirty-nine lashes, and one may be sure they were 
laid on with a vigor — ^be branded H. T. on the thumb, and serve 
Airty days in the county jail, to stand in the pillory two hours 
three days out of every week, to be rendered infamous, and to 
pay the costs of the court. 

That the court of Madison G>unty was careful of its dignity 
in those days may be inferred from the fact that John Fussell 
was fined ten dollars for fighting on its ground and in contempt 
of it, with John Montgomery. 

The first trial for murder in Madison County was commenced 
in the month of October, 1826, and lasted until the end of the 
following January. Thomas Jameson, who was the subject, was 
not only found guilty, but was sentenced to hai^, as was also a 
ntgro who was his accomplice. That sentence was fully executed 
May 24, 1827. The cause of that murder was a love affair, and 
Francis Saunders was the person murdered. Jameson sought 
the hand of his daughter in marriage, was repelled, and in re- 
venge killed Saunders. 

James Wright, who was tried about the same time for killing 
West Ratliff, was convicted of manslaughter and sentenced to 
pay a fine of $25 and the costs, and to be branded "M" on his 

At the time about which I am writing, and until about 1835, 
Indians from the northern part of Mississippi came to Jackson 
to trade. It was then a common thing to see stoic red men in 
large numbers, walking on the streets, mingling with its white 
citizens, with farmers, with horse traders, with slave drivers, 
and with hunters. This last class of men then formed a con- 
siderable part of the population of Jackson. These men were 
strong, physically and intellectually, but were not communicative. 
They wore fur caps and leather leggins that reached to the mid- 
dle of their things, also moccasins and fondful linsey htmting 
shirts, and always carried rifles, a plentiful supply of ball and 
powder, and large hunting knives. They were familiar with the 
woods and knew the haunts of the game they sought Most of 
their time was spent in the woods with no companion save their 

Madison County. 29 

dogs. When night overtook them they kindled a fire by means 
of a flint and sted and made tfieir beds on a pile of leaves. 

The first religious society in Jackson was the Methodist 
Church, whidi was organized in the fall of 1826, with eight 
members. Among them were Joseph S. Douglas and his wife, 
Wyatt Epps and his wife, Robert Bums and Rev. Thomas Neely. 
They worshiped in private residences and in the court house 
until 1831, when their organization had become strong enough 
to build a house of worship, which they undertook and success^ 
fully accomplished on the lot that fronts their present beautiful 
and imposing edifice. 

Among the men who helped to build up Jackson and were 
cfosely identified with the development of Madbon County, was 
Dr. William E. Butief, who was bom in Carlisle, Pem^ylvania, 
in 1790. He first came to Madison County in 1819, where he 
locates! a large tract of land, the western boundary of which is 
the center of Market street. After a short stay he returned to 
Middle Tennessee, where he had fixed his residence when he f fst 
came South. In 1822 he moved his family, household goods and 
slaves to this county, and did so in a novel and circuitous manner, 
in a keel boat, which he procured at or near Nashville and then 
caused it to be steered down the Cumberland into the Ohio; 
thence into the Mississippi, and thence up the Forked Deer river 
to Jackson, where it arrived April 22, 1822. He built a laige 
double log house at the base of a hill, near a free and limpid 
spring, a short distance northeast of the present water works. 

Dr. Butler was in the earliest days of this county its wealthiest 
man, and was closely identified with all of the public and private 
enterprises of Jackson. He had a race track on the grounds now 
occupied by the Memphis Conference Female Institute, and 
owned many fine horses. Perhaps no man in this county dis- 
pensed more liberal hospitality than did Dr. Butier and his excel- 
lent wife. At the first electicm held for representative from this 
county after its organization, he was a candidate to represent it 
and the county of Gibson in the General Assembly of this State, 
and was opposed by Davy Crockett, of Gibson County. Butler 
was defeat^, because, it was said, he was an "aristocrat" and 
had a carpet on his floor. The f rcmtier people of that day were 
opposed to anjrthing savoring of aristocracy, and for a man who 

30 The Ambrican Historical Magazinb. 

was so high-toned as to use carpets, Aey had little use. During 
his canvass Davy Crodcett visited Jackson, in search of votes> 
just as candidates of this day do, and while so engaged received 
from Dr. Butler an invitaticm to visit the latter's house, to par- 
take of a dinner. Crockett, because he knew he would get a good 
dinner, and the best glass of whisky then to be had, accepted 
the invitation. Not only so, but seeing as he was about to enter 
the Doctor's parlor that with the exception of a small space, on 
which was a chair, it was carpeted, by the aid of an ag^le leap he 
took possession of that chair, and with his feet supported by its 
rounds, so remained until dinner was announced. Nor with his 
feet did he then touch his opponent's splendid carpet, but bring- 
ing into requisition again his ready and wcmderful agility, he 
cleared the carpet and thus accomplished his exit from Dr. But- 
ler's parlor, as he had entered it. During his canvass and with 
quaint and popular emf^asis, Crockett commented upon his op- 
ponent's luxurious habits. On divers stumps he would exclaim : 
"Fellow citizens, my aristocratic competitor has a fine carpet, and 
every day walks on truck finer than any gowns your wife or 
daughters ever wore." 

Dr. Butler died in 1882 at the age of ninety-three years. He 
had one son. Colonel W. O. Butler, now dead, who was the father 
of William E. and Thomas Butler, now living in Jackson. Dr. 
Butler came to Tennessee while quite a young man. He studied 
medicine and practiced his profession in Murfreesboro before he 
came to Tsickson. He was surgeon in Jackson's army during 
the Florida war and the war with England in 181 2- 15. After he 
left the army he married Miss Martha Hays, who was the oldest 
daughter of Captain Hays and a sister of General S. J. and 
Colonel S. D. Hays. 

Another of the pioneers of Jackson, and one of the first lawyers 
to settle in the new county, was Colonel Stokely Donelson Hays. 
Colonel Hays was bom in Virginia in 1790, came to Middle Ten- 
nessee about 1800. In 1819 he accompanied Dr. Butler, who was 
his brother-in-law, to West Tennessee prospecting, and in 1822 
with his family, returned to Jackson in company with Dr. Butler. 
Colonel Hays' mother, Mrs. Jane Hays, was also of the party. 
She settled on what was long known as "Hays Hill," late "the 
Convent grounds" in the northeast part of the city not far fron 

Madison County. 31 

the Union depot. Mrs. Hays had a double log house built, land 
cleared, and made the place her home until her death in 1833. 
She was ia good and noble woman of the old school, and was 
loved and honored by all who knew her. The place after death, 
passed into the hands of her son. General Hays, a wealthy planter, 
who built a handsome brick residence. 

Colonel Stokely D. Hays was a lawyer of ability and a gonial 
gentleman. He was said to have been the finest looking man 
in Jackson, being over six feet tall and weighed two hundred 
pounds. He was aide-de-camp to General Jackson in the war of 
1812-15, and married Miss Lydia Butler, only sister of Dr. W. E. 
Butler. Mr. S. D. Hays, a prominent lawyer of Jackson, is a 
grandson of Colonel Hays. 

After the location of its shire town, and about the year 1823, 
settlers in great numbers came into this county, and from that 
time its population and its wealth rapidly increased. Indeed, in 
1823, and in succeeding years, settlements were made in every 
part of it, but they were so detached as to engender a clannish- 
ness among the persons who constituted them. That spirit im- 
pressed itself upon the descendants of these persons, which 
existed for many years, or until the entire county was settled. 
Its different neighborhoods organized themselves into clans some- 
thing like that which formerly existed among the Scotch High- 
landers, and when rival clans met they seldom separated without 
sc»ne of them carrying home bruised heads and bloody noses. 
Among its noted clans were the Steward's, Sevier's, Cox's and 
others, with their adherents and henchmen. While they did their 
duty as good and loyal citizens, they considered horse racing and 
cock fighting as innocent sport. In fact, with them, fighting was 
a pleasant pastime. They did not fight with knives and pistols, 
as in these days, but with their hard, brawny fists, made harder 
by honest toil. They fought, made up, then fought again and 
were friends, because they had fought. Among the famous 
fighters of that day were Major Charles Sevier, nephew of the 
first Governor of Tennessee, and Colonel John Houston. The 
former was a genial, kind-hearted man and posesssed miraculous 
physical strength and courage. His home was in what is now 
the Eighth Civil District. 

Soon after the organization of this cotmty his house was made 

$2 The American Historical Magazine. 

a voting place, and he always managed to carry his box accord- 
ing to his own ideas of what was right and proper, either by 
moral suasion, or by the force of hard knock-out blows. He 
was a great admirer of General Jackson and always carried his 
b(»c for the old hero and his friends. He would not tolerate a 
single vote against him. He had a way which he called "purging 
the polls" that consisted of whipfHng any man who proposed to 
vote against Jackson and the Democratic party. 

It was said that persons who were ambitious of distinguishing 
themselves as fighting men would come some distance to test their 
powers with the old champion. To such he was always accom- 
modating; nor did he fail to give them a goodly number of scars 
as a reminder that he was "cock of the walk." There was only 
one tiling of which the old major was afraid, and that was red 
pepper. As has been said of him, on one occasion when he was 
about to engage in a friendly "bout," he, to the surprise of every 
spectator, showed evidence of weakening, because he supposed 
the hand of his antagonist contained a pinch of red pepper, but 
as soon as he saw therein an "Arkansaw toothpick" a smile spread 
over his face, and when a bystander proposed to interfere he 
said, "Never mind, boys, let him come on, knife and alL I 
thought he had pepper in his hand." Of course he whipped his 
antagonist, and did it well. 

Next to Major Sevier, as a fighter, was G>lonel John Houston, 
who for many years was the diampion of his neighborhood. At 
length a much younger man than himself, moved therein, named 
Giles. Giles was also a fighting man, and as Houston was get- 
ting dd, and had for some time been "out of the fray." Giles 
was looked upon by many of his neighbors as being the "boss 
fighter." That fact the old colonel did not like, nor did he like 
Giles, and therefore determined to take him down "a peg." One 
day he and Giles met in front of Dr. Robert Fenner's store in 
"Old Cotton Grove," and not long thereafter a fight was made up 
between them. Houston wore a pair of spurs which he neglected 
to remove before the fight began, and which interfered with his 
movements. Giles tripped, threw him down and then got on him 
and punished him terribly on his body as well as on his eyes, 
which were thereby closed, but the fight continued. The crowd 
of men which had collected, though in sympathy with Colonel 

Madison County, 33 

Hoaston, did not interfere. The etiquette which governed such an 
affair forbade anyone from so acting until one or the other said 
he "had enough." At length Dr. Fenner stooped down by the 
combatants and asked the col(»iel if he could do anything for 
him. His reply was: "Nothing, I thank you, Doctor. I am 
doing very well." About that time, Houston put his hands 
around the back of Giles, then interlaced them, and while thus 
pressing it, used his spurred feet, which at first had given Giles 
the advantage, with such impressive and painful effect upon the 
latter's flank and rear as to extort from him the confession that 
Houston had sufficiently punished him, and in the same connec- 
tions to beg the "lookers on" to come to his relief. 

That was the last battle Colonel Houston ever fought. He 
lived to be an old man and when he died was buried near the 
Mounds, a few miles from Pinson. Some of his descendants are 
still living in this county. 

The first society organization in the cotmty was called the 
"Sacrificial Club." It had thirteen members, among whom were 
William Armour, Charles Sevier, W. R. Harris, Stokdey D. 
Hays, John B. Cross, B. G. Stewart, W. R. Hess, Colonel Theo- 
bold and Adam Huntsman. The names of the others are lost. 
The origin and the object of that organization are unknown at 
this day, but it is reported to have originated on an occasion 
when those old pioneers had been for several days worshiping 
at the shrine of Bacchus. After they had reached a point 
where they b^^n to wish that they had been engaged in some 
other occupation, one of them proposed that a human sacrifice 
should be offered as a propitiation for their sins. The proposition 
was favored and they agreed to east lots to determine who should 
be the victim, each having previously bound himself, in the most 
solemn manner, to abide the result. Major John B. Cross, who 
was at that time, one of the members of the court of pleas and 
quarter session of this county, and had been an Indian fighter 
under Jackson, was the member on whom the lot fell. A pen 
of logs was then built on the comer of Lafayette and Liberty 
streets, the present situation of the Murray Block, which was 
filled with the most combustible material that could be found, 
and thus an altar having been prepared, the master of ceremony 
deprived Major Cross of his apparel, put on him a white robe, 

34 The Ambrican Historical Magazine 

and having delivered him to two high priests of the Sacrificial 
Club, they led him to the altar, put him on it in an erect position 
and then deliberately proceeded to apply to it the torch which 
was to set it aflame; but before that act could be successfully 
accomplished the Major was saved from death l^ fire through 
the timely appearance of a man, who was neither a member of the 
club nor knew that for its manifold sins one of its members had 
been selected as the propitiation. Major Cross lived for many 
years after he was thus saved from death and was one of the 
most honored citizens of this county which he represented in the 
Legislature of this State whenever he sought that honor. 

James S. Lyon came to this county from Jackson County, 
March 24, 1825, and soon thereafter bought a large tract of land 
about three miles northwest of Jackson on which he settled. 

Mr. Lyon was a man of wealth. Besides the place in question 
he owned large bodies of land in various parts of the State. 

He was sheriff of Madison County in 1842-4, but before that 
period was a deputy sheriff, and as such, had charge of the 
infamous John A. Murrell, the land pirate, whom he carried to 
the penitentiary of this State in Nashville after the latter had 
been convicted in the Circuit Court of this county. He was 
selected for that important mission because it was thought that 
the friends of Murrell might attempt his rescue, and Mr. Lyon 
being a brave and fearless man, the belief was he would allow 
no interference with his duty. Besides holding the positions 
mentioned, Mr. Lyon was a member of the State Legislature 
from this county. 

Before coming to West Tennessee Mr. Lyon married a Miss 
Woodfolk, of Nashville, a sister of the late General Woodfolk. 
She survived her husband twenty-two years, and died in 1886, 
at the ripe age of eighty-one years, beloved and honored by a 
large circle of friends. She was an educated, cultured and re- 
fined woman, a strict member of the M. E. Church, South, and 
belonged to that class of noble matrons for which the South was 
in ante bellum times so justly celebrated. 

Samuel McClanahan was the oldest of ten children, five 
brothers and five sisters, who had been left orphans in South 
Carolina, while some of them were quite young. He lived \rith 
his parents on their farm, until he was eighteen years of age, 

Madison County. 35 

when his father apprenticed him to a tailor who worked on the 
bench by the side of Andrew Johnson. After Samuel had learned 
the trade of tailor, he returned home, and because of his studious 
habits and fondness for books his father sent him to a law school 
from which he graduated in due time, and then in 1827 came to 
Jackson where he taught school a few months and then returned 
to South Carolina, from which State he brought his sisters and 
brothers to his home in the West. He then taught school in 
Jackson until 1832 when he formed a partnership with Andrew 
L. Martin in the practice of law, which occupation he followed 
until his death, which occurred in 1874. 

Of Samuel McQanahan's brothers: James was a skilled and 
popular teacher, David was a farmer, John was a journalist and 
editor, was an efficient captain of a company of volunteer soldiers 
in the war between this country and Mexico and afterwards 
owned, edited and published with distinguished success, the 
Memphis Appeal, with which he was connected in 1866, the date 
of his death. Nelson, another brother and the youngest, had 
about reached his majority when he was commissioned as a 
lieutenant in the regular army of the United States, and in that 
capacity gallantly served in the Mexican war and was raised 
to the rank of captain, and after the cessation of that war re- 
turned to Jackson, where he resided for awhile and until he 
went to Memphis, and with his brother John, was connected with 
the Appeal. Neither Nelson nor John ever married. 

The era of education in this county begins with its organiza- 
tion. The records of its earliest schools are meager. In fact, I 
might say, that of them there is no record at all, except the 
recollection of its old citizens, and the traditions which they le- 
ceived from their ancestors. I can find no record, nor even a 
tradition, of any school in Alexandria, hence I conclude that the 
time in which that settlement existed, was too short for the or- 
ganization of a school. The first schoolhouse in Jackson was 
erected in 1824 by John Harton, who taught a school in that 
house for, perhaps, two or three years, but about it no facts can 
be gathered further than that it existed. However my inference 
is, that Mr. Harton only taught the primary branches, and that 
the attendance in that school was small. 

About the same time, and on or near the lot on which W. P. 

36 The Ambrican Historical Magazine. 

Robertson's present residence is situated, a log schoolhouse was 
erected, and in it more than one {MXHninent citizen now of this 
county, studied the fundamental principles of grammar, made 
tortoise shell rings for their sweethearts, and occasionally wit- 
nessed, if they did not assist in "turning out" the school master. 
That was indeed a quaint schodhouse, and in it boys were thor- 
oughly taught, and when such act was necessary, were scientifi- 
cally dogged. In short, in it, Mr. Sloan, a Presbyterian clergy- 
man, taught boys how to think, and used the switch "decently 
and in order." He was followed by a Mr. Gist, who had been 
trained in the school of Samuel McGanahan, was truly a scholar 
and at the same time, as zealous a devotee of Maury's grammar 
and of the dictionary, as he was skilled in the use of the rod. 

Sloan and Gist were splendid teachers. But they did not alone 
render Jackson in its earliest days notable as an educational 
center. Nor was the log schoolhouse the first "academy" it had. 
Years before Sloan and Gist taught and flourished, McNutt, also 
Presbjrterian preacher, Samuel McQanahan, and a Mr. Stock- 
well, an eminent scholar from the State of Maine, had preceded 
Aem. McNutt's school was in Ae western portion of Jackson, 
and consisted of boys and girk. Stockwdl taught in a frame house 
which had been previously erected, on a hill in the center of cer- 
tain real estate which Dr. William E. Butler had donated to Jack- 
son, and in a short distance from a sprinia: which then afforded 
an abundance of clear, cool and wholesome water. I have been 
informed that Mr. Stockwell was not only learned, and physically 
a splendid specimen of manhood, but that his school in all of its 
departments was of the highest order. Among his pupils were 
Judges R. J. Hays and William T. Haskell, who afterwards 
achieved as an orator and as a politician, naticmal distinction. 
Nor in this connection will it l)e amiss to state that Judge John 
L. Brown has informed me, that Mr. Stockwell was the first 
teacher from whom he received instruction, and that on its thor- 
oughness and its solidity, is based his present education. 

While Mr. Stockwell was principal of the Jackson Academy, 
Samuel McClanahan taught a private school, and had for liis 
pupils the sons of this county and Jackson's then leading citizens, 
such as Colonel Atlas Jones,- Allen Deberry, Samuel Dickens, 
Henry Connally. 

Madison County. 37 

I now direct my readers' attention to a later period, when Jack- 
son had thrown aside its village garb, had assumed the propor- 
ticMis of a growing town, and so was induced to erect an edifice 
in which its boys might be educated, not only larger and more 
commodious than the one in which Mr. Stockwell taught, but 
of brick. That edifice came into existence about the year 1835 
on the lot on which is situated the palatial residence of Mr. 
W. P. Robertson, and in it were educated not only hundreds of 
young men, some of whom are now alive and the occupants of 
distinguished positions in this and in other States; but it con- 
tinued in its career of usefulness under the conduct of such ac- 
complished teachers as Abraham Lytton, William H. Stephens, 
Samuel Stephens, Thomas Ewell and Messrs. Wright and Rus- 
sell, until it was absorbed by the West Tennessee College, now 
the Southwestern Baptist University. 

There were no "professors" in those days, at least that title 
was not applied to the country nor to the villagfe school teacher. 
The man who taught a school was the "schoolmaster," and the 
female teacher was the "schoolmistress." The schoolmaster 
usually wore spectacles and dressed in black clothes that were 
threadbare and "slick," and his trousers from force of habit, 
bagged at the knees. School "took up" at 8 o'clock in the morn- 
ing, "let out" from 12 to i o'clock. Then "books were called" 
until 4 o'clock in the afternoon when the school was dismissed. 
The studies in the primary schools were, reading, writing, arith- 
metic, grammar and sometimes geography. The pupils were 
not required to have a uniform system of books. Any book 
would answer the purpose, though it was "dog-eared" and had 
done duty in the family for a generation or two. A big hickory 
withe was a necessary adjunct to every schoolroom, and it not 
unfrequently happened, that it was brought into use. A teacher 
who would "spare the rod" was not considered "much shakes." 

A favorite mode of pimishment was to require a boy to stand 
upon the end of a bench with a large paper cap called a "dunce 
cap," on his head. Another punishment that was common in 
those days was to make an offending boy sit between two girls. 
At this day the boys would rather enjoy that kind of punishment. 

Sometimes the "big boys" of the school would band together 
to enforce their demand on the "master" for a holiday. Their 

38 The American Historical Magazine. 

plan was to assemble at the schoolhouse early in the morning and 
then bar its doors and close its windows, thus keeping the teacher 
out, until he acceded to their demands to dismiss school, or to 
"treat" "Treating" the school by the teacher was not an un- 
common occurrence. A few pounds of stick candy, or a few 
ginger cakes and a bucket of cider, served for that purpose. 

The daily exercises of the early school were usually b^^n by 
the master reading a chapter in the Bible which was fc^owed 
by a fervent prayer. The children were given as well religious 
and moral, as mental instruction; were taught good manners, 
also to respect their elders, and to honor and obey their parents. 

The schoolhouse was built of logs 'with ptmcheon floors and 
seats. Its desks were made by boring holes in its wall into which 
long wooden pegs that supported the boards were driven; its 
firei^ces occupied about half of one of its sides and on another 
was a vrindow about two feet high and eight or ten feet long. 

In such schoolhouses some of the greatest and most learned 
men, and some of the noblest women this country has ever pro- 
duced were educated. 

Somewhat later than the period of which I have been writing, 
Jackson had other schools, in no degree of an inferior order, and 
which added much to the moral and to the intellectual culture 
of its boys and of its girls. Rev. John Finle>% who was a Baptist 
clergyman, and the possessor of much learning and a teacher of 
unquestioned skill and ability, conducted a private scho(J. He 
was succeeded by John H. Day, who was as eccentric and as 
positive in his character as he was popular and successful as a 
teacher. Besides being a thorough teacher of mathematics, he 
impressed his pupils with the importance of a thorough knowl- 
edge of grammar, and in so instructing them, steadily and with 
much force maintained, that as gender denoted a distinction of 
sex, there could be only two genders, masculine and feminine, 
and that as neuter, signified neither, such a gender was not 
authorized by true grammatical law. 

Mr. Day was a native of Virginia. After he ceased being a 
teadier he became a justice of the peace, and in that capacity 
pronounced judgments, which, because of their justness, ren- 
dered him truly popular. In 1840 he owned and conducted the 
Jackscxi hotel, which was situated on the lot which the First 

Madison County. 39 

National Bank now occupies. But preferring farming to hotel 
life, he abandoned the latter and until his death successfully cul- 
tivated the farm on the eastern limit of this city, now known as 
the James McRee place. 

Henry Vannerson about the same period also taught a private 
school in Jackson, which was largely patronized. Not only was 
he a thorough teacher but when he deemed such discipline neces- 
sary for the improvement as well of the mind as of the body of 
any of his pupils, he, without stint and with consummate skill, 
used the switch. 

Thorough and well disciplined in their earliest period, as were 
the male schools of Jackson, its citizens did not then forget its 
girls, but kept constantly employed thoroughly educated and 
skilled teachers, of whom George Bigelow and his cultured wife, 
were notably distinguished. They came from the State of Mas- 
sachusetts into this county, when its inhabitants were sparse, 
and long before McNutt, John H. Day and Rev. John Finley 
essayed to teach the girls of Jackson, had established in it a 
female school that not only became eminent as the center of 
female education in West Tennessee, but for a long series of 
years continued its successful career. Moreover, it was con- 
ducted by Mr. Bigelow and his wife, until about the year 1832, 
when he departed this life, and after that occurrence, by his wife, 
who did not discontinue it until 1857, Ae year of the 
marriage of the late Rev. A. W. Jones and her daughter, Amanda 
C Then Mrs. Bigelow relinquished the school from which she 
reaped abxmdant honor and prcrfits, and in which girls were thor- 
oughly taught, as well to write as to correctly speak the English 
language. Indeed, so prescient as a teacher was she, and so 
devoted to that profession, that she could not resist the per- 
suasion of her son-in-law. Dr. Jones, to aid him in the Memphis 
Conference Female Institute of Jackson. But she did not con- 
tinue long thus acting. The infirmity of old age compelled her 
to desist, and not long thereafter, ripe in hcxior and in useful- 
ness, she went to her eternal rest. 

The house in which she and her husband organized their 
school, and in which that school was conducted, until its discon- 
tinuance, is of brick and still occupies a prominent site on the 
east side of North Royal street. 

40 The American Historical Magazine. 

But I must proceed to give a sketch, as the same has been 
detailed to me, of a man who was one of the earliest settlers in 
this county, and in Jackson, and whose death was universally 
lamented. I allude to Judge John Read, than whom there never 
lived, nor died, in this county a man more notable, more popular 
and more grenerally respected. 

Judge Read was a successful practicing lawyer in Jackson for 
about seventeen years, before he assumed the judicial ermine, 
and during- that period had for his professional compeers Pleasant 
M. Miller, Adam Huntsman, Milton Brown, Andrew L. Martin, 
Samuel McQanahan, Alexander B. Bradford and William Stod- 
dert, whose legal achievements then added luster to this county, 
and with them before juries and judges often engaged in the 
argument of cases in which as well the property as the liberty of 
men, was involved ; and whether thus defeated or the victor, he 
never "lost his head," nor forgot his manhood. Moreover, he 
was first elected Circuit Court Judge by the General Assembly 
of this State, while Andrew L. Martin was a member of that 
body from this county, who zealously supported him. He held 
that office and was performing its functions when judges' elec- 
tion in this State was given to the people, with whom no man 
had grreater strength. His big heart, his genial manner, and his 
winning oddity, so rendered him. Thus equipped and being also 
a safe, a just and an incorruptible judge, he easily won the sup- 
port of the people, and though opposed by Samuel McClanahan, 
a Christian gentleman and a deservedly distinguished law}'er, 
they kept him in his office by a large majority, until the war 
between the States. Not only was Judge Read a fine mixer with 
the people — always heartily grasped their hands and told amusing 
events of which he was the chief hero— but during his canvass 
with Mr. McClanahan, those events were by himself and by his 
friends, very effectively used. For instance, during the course 
of a day not long after the Legislature of this State had elected 
him judge, his wife, whom he always addressed as "Polly," ad- 
vised him to abandon his slovenly habit, that Tie should put on a 
clean shirt every day, and in other particulars of dress and of 
customs emphatically charged him to imitate Wm. Armour and 
Alexander Patton, then the two leading and stylish men of Jack- 
son. The judge readily promised to comply with his wife's 

Madison County. 41 

advice and emphatic charge and so for the time being they sepa- 
rated. Nor is there proof that after she had thus charged him, 
she saw him further that day until he had retired to his bed for 
sleep. Soon after that act Mrs. Read followed the judge, and 
finding him nude, she administered to him not only a wifely 
rebuke, but to her question as to the whereabouts of his shirt, 
he meekly responded, "Polly I nicely folded it and then put it 
under the pillow of my bed. I obeyed your command. That is, 
acted as you told me was the custom of Messrs. Armour and 
Patton." Nor is this the only "shirt scrape" which befell the 
fun loving judge in his attempts to obey the commands of his 
wife as to how he should use that necessary and very becom- 
ing garment. 

It so happened that on a certain occasion he interchanged duty 
with Judge Valentine D. Barry; that is, held court for that 
eminent man in Raleigh, then the shire town of the County of 
Shelby. Before he departed from home for that place, his careful 
wife put into his valise divers shirts, and in the same connec- 
tion directed him while he was absent to don one of them every 
day, thus to keep himself neat and in an attire commensurate 
with the dignity of his office. Kissing his wife and promising 
obedience, he hastened to Raleigh, remained therein about a week 
holding Judge Barry's court, and then returned to his home and 
his good wife, who gladly welcomed him and at the same time 
carefully inspected his valise, and finding it bare of shirts, she 
questioned him as to how he had disposed of those she had put 
into it before he went to Raleigh. Being equal to the emergency, 
and with fun in his eyes, he quickly responded: "Polly, I did 
as you commanded. Donned one every day, appeared neat, and 
so maintained my judicial dignity, and now on my body are the 
whole of them." 

Judge Read was a native of Kentucky, ?.n ardent Whig and 
an admirer of Henry Qay. In short, he was a just judge, an 
honest man and so he died. 

Colonel Robert I. Chester was bom in Carlisle, Pa., July 21, 
1793, and while he was quite a youth his parents moved to Jones- 
boro, Tenn., where he grew to manhood, having meantime ob- 
tained a fair education in an "old field schoolhouse." He served 
through the war between the United States and England, known 

42 Thb Ambrican Historical Magazinb. 

as "The War of 1812," as quartermaster of the third Tennessee 
regiment, and after the close of that war, in 1816, began mer- 
chandising. In 1819 he lost a fortune in tobacco speculation. 
In 1824 he moved to Jackson and engaged in merchandising, in 
which occupation he continued until 1830. From 1825 to 1833 
he was postmaster of Jackson. In 1835 he went to Texas and 
there received an appointment as colonel under General Sam 
Houston in the war for Texas independence, and after the battle 
of San Jacinto, which virtually ended that war, he returned to 
Jackson and was again appointed post master. Shortly there- 
after he received the appointment of land register for West Ten- 
nessee. In 1837 President Van Buren appointed him United 
States marshal for the western part of this State, in which 
capacity he efficiently served the public with one intermission, or 
more, for sixteen years. Being a shrewd business man and in- 
tensely energetic he acciunulated a considerable fortime, was per- 
haps the largest land owner in the Western District. The Civil 
War brought loss to him in slaves and in .other property. In 
1870 he represented Gibson, Carroll, Henry and this county in 
the Legislature of this State and was re-elected in 1872. Colonel 
Chester's first wife was the youngest daughter of Robert Hays 
and a niece of General Andrew Jackson. Moreover, to that dis- 
tinguished man, he sustained a close and an uninterrupted per- 
sonal relation and during the whole of his manhood career was 
an xmswerving Democrat. In 18S4 he was chosen by the college 
of electors of this State, to carry the result of its vote in that year 
for President and Vice President of the United States to the 
city of Washington, and before he performed that duty, he visited 
President-elect Cleveland, by whom he was most cordially re- 
ceived and then entertained with distinguished consideration. 

In 1855 Colonel Chester married his second wife, Mrs. Jane 
P. Donaldson, whom he survived. 

He died in 1891 in his home on South Royal street at the 
advanced age of ninety-eight years. The possessor of a mind 
which was always bright and clear, and of a wonderful recdlec- 
tion especially of past events, he was not in any particular an 
ordinary man. The weight of years did not heavily oppress him, 
nor abate his interest in public affairs, nor in the welfare of this 
State, of this county and of this city. Few men have lived so 

Madison County. 43 

long, and have had an experience of this life so busy and so 
varied as was his, either in the excitement of speculation or in 
the arena of politics or in being near Andrew Jackson, while the 
latter was in the halo of a splendid military career. 

Though, as has been already stated, a positive, and before the 
Civil War in this country, a leading and influential Democrat, 
because of his pleasant manner, of his exact view of justice, and 
of hearty friendship, many of Colonel Chester's truest admirers 
were leaders of the Whig party. While he and they in heated 
political contests were manly opponents, the behests of true 
friendship were scrupulously observed. All in all, Colonel Ches- 
ter was an extraordinary man. 

One of the counties of this State bears Colonel Chester's name, 
and before he died, as the leading Mason who witnessed that 
event, he placed in its proper position the comer stone of the 
court house of that prosperous county. 

Prominent as Colonel Chester certainly was in this country, 
and in this State, James Caruthers, about whom it is my province 
now to write, was not less so. A native of the county of Rock- 
bridge, in the State of Virginia, proud of his ancestry, replete 
with adventures and animated by the push and the pluck which 
accompanied him, when he entered the threshhold of manhood; 
he not only then sought, but then became a hopeful and an en- 
terprising citizen of this State, not, however, to practice law, for 
which sphere he had been licensed, but to locate for the Univer- 
sity of the State of North Carolina land warrants in the western 
part of this State, a business for which, because of his l^al 
learning, of his practical education, and of his superior judg- 
ment, he was eminently fitted. His entrance into this State, was 
in, or near Nashville. Thence in the year 1819, when spring 
had given impetus to vegetation, when wild flowers, in all the 
glory of their luxuriant beauty, look in whatever direction he 
listed, greeted his vision; when deer in abundance and in un- 
interrupted freedom browsed and gamboled on the site now oc- 
cupied by this city, and when Indians roamed in and claimed it 
as their rightful heritage, he came into this county on a pros- 
pecting tour ; however, not on the back of a horse, or in a stage, 
or in one of the vehicles, which men who were then seeking 
new homes, were accustomed to employ; but with divers men, 

44 The American Historical Magazine. 

who like himself, were enterprising, fearless, and daringly ad- 
venturous, took a berth in a keelboat at Nashville, and thence 
was carried down the Cumberland into the Ohio river. Thence 
down that stream into the Mississippi. Thence down it to the 
mouth of the Forked Deer. Thence up that river to Jackson, 
which he adopted as the point, whence he visited various parts 
of West Tennessee, examined and surveyed some of its best 
land, and then by the authority of warrants that he had in his 
possession, located it for the benefit and in the name of the 
University to which only awhile ago I referred. While he thus 
kept himself employed, and becoming the better qualified for his 
business ; he did not forget to essay the securing for himself an 
eligible and permanent location, and in so acting he not only 
selected Jackson, but in 1821 moved into it and soon occupied 
the oosition of one of its leading citizens, and so he continued, 
imtil the date of his death. Of him moreover I might write 
much, but not of wonderful deeds that he performed, either in 
peace or in war. True, he was a soldier in the conflict of 1812 
between this couptry and Great Britain, and in that capacity 
performed his duty efficiently ; but he did so quietly, firmly, and 
in the spirit of patriotism. After that event, he was a civilian, 
quiet, good and earnest. He, however, preferred that sort of 
life to one which had about it more excitement, and which im- 
pelled men who moved in it, to be constantly on their feet. Well 
educated and the reader of books which were abundant in useful 
information, he was the campanion of, and influenced good men. 
Practically benevolent, his benefactions were many and ex- 
tensive. To the poor, who lived in his sphere, he was a com- 
passionate friend, and in ministering to their wants, spared not 
his purse. As a Christian, he was unswervingly true, and of 
the diurch of his choice, a pillar well planted, and that would 
not yield to worldly pressure. While in the long accepted sense 
of that term not a politician, nevertheless he was a positive 
Democrat, and as such, wielded much and wholesome influence 
over his party, and so materially aided it, and kept it from 
excess, but never sought from it, any of its honors, nor its 
emoluments. As already stated, the chief business which first 
engaged his attention, when he became a resident of this county, 
was the locating of land warrants, and having so acquired an 

Madison County. 45 

accurate knowledge of the position of the most eligible and fer- 
tile portions of West Tennessee, he opened in Jackson a real 
estate agency, which he soon rendered popular and lucrative, 
and thus he acquired property of no mean value. When he had 
scarcely reached his majority, he married Francis E. McCorry, 
then a girl, pretty, vivacious and brilliant, and a daughter of 
Thomas E. McCorry, who, with his wife and family, settled in 
this country, about two miles north of Jackson, in the year 1824. 
Mr. and Mrs. Caruthers resided for a long number of years, 
indeed until each died, in the brick house which he caused to be 
erected on Baltimore street of this city, near its west end, and 
therein reared four sons and three daughters, all of whom are 
dead except Stoddert Caruthers, who is now a prominent mem- 
ber of the Jackson bar, and a worthy and an enterprising resident 
of this dty. 

Dr. George S. Snider was bom in the year 1800, in Harris- 
burg, Pa., of Dutch parentage. He graduated in the study of 
medicine in 1822 and being imbued with the spirit of adventure 
so common in that day, determined to seek a home and fortune 
in the far Southwest. He traveled the entire distance from his 
native State to the then young town of Jackson, a distance of 
more than one thousand miles, on horseback. The journey oc- 
cupied several months' time, and was' not unattended with great 
danger. Dr. Snider arrived in Jackson the same year, 1822, 
and b^fan the practice of his profession, in which occupation 
he continued for many years. Moreover, he was the proprietor 
of a drug store which was located m the rear part of the large 
general store of Armour, Lake & Cromwell. He had for a part- 
ner Dr. Young, and together they caused to be built a substantial 
brick building on the east end of the lot now occupied by the 
Hurt Block, and which building was known for many years, 
and until it was torn down a few years ago, as "the Totten 
House." The building was intended by Drs. Snider and Young 
for a bachelors' hall, to be occupied by themselves, but before 
its completion they both married and then sold the house to 
Mr. Lake. 

Dr. Snider married in 1832 a Miss Owen, who accompanied 
the family of William Armour from Baltimore. Ten children 
were bom to them, most of whom are still living. There were 

46 Thb American Historical Magazine. 

three sons and seven daughters. The eldest died while in the 
Confederate army, near Vicksburg. 

In 1859 Dr. Snider moved from Jackson to Magnolia, Miss., 
where he continued to reside until the close of the Civil War, 
when he moved to Memphis. He died in Jackson while on a 
visit in 1873. 

Colonel Thomas Henderson came to this county from Raleigh, 
N. C, at which place he was the editor of a newspaper, in the 
year 1823, and settled near the Indian Mounds three miles from 
Pinson. With him came Dr. Richard Fenner and Mr. Johnson, 
who were his brothers-in-law. After the death of his wife in 
1829 Colonel Henderson moved to Simipter County, Alabama. 
He was a man of learning, a fine writer, a good speaker and of 
great influence. He was possessed of considerable wealth when 
he came to Madison County, but lost a great deal of it by being 
security for others. 

Colonel Henderson was the father of seven sons. Calvin, a 
lawyer, who died in Louisiana, married a Miss Eliza Patton, of 
this county. Richard, a graduate of West Point Military Col- 
lege, was commissioned a lieutenant in the United States army, 
was killed in the Dade massacre in Florida in 1835 when Major 
Dade was surprised marching from Fort Brooks, now Tampa, 
to a fort that stood near where Gainsville now stands, by an 
attack from Osceola, and every man save two were killed. Lieu- 
tenant Henderson was the last officer of that gallant, but un- 
fortunate band, to fall before the fury of the red men. William 
also married a Miss Patton. He was a lawyer by profession and 
was the father of Miss Corrinne Henderson, who now resides 
in Jackson. He died in Texas since the war. Thomas married, 
first a Miss Lancaster, and after her death he married Miss Mary 
Grmond Butler, daughter of Dr. Wm. E. Butler. William E. 
and Dr. Thomas Henderson, of Memphis, are the sons of this 
last union. Colonel Thomas Henderson was a gallant officer in 
the Confederate army and commanded the famous Henderson 
scouts. He died about 1876. Samuel, the fifth son, died in New 
Orleans, where he was a leading commission merchant. Alex 
was a lawyer and died in Texas. His wife was a daughter of 
Judge Turley. Nathaniel is still living on his large sugar plan- 

Madison County. 47 

tation in Louisiana, about twenty miles from New Orleans. He 
married a Miss Patterson. 

Colonel Henderson had but one daughter, Corrinne, who be- 
came the wife of Henry W. McCorry, the father of Judge H. 
W. McCorry, Miss Pet McCorry and Mrs. John H. Freeman, 
all of Jackson. 

William Stoddert was bom in 1796 in Bladenburg, Md., of 
English ancestry. He received his education in Georgetown, 
District of Columbia. In 1822 he came to Tennessee, and to 
Jackson where he decided to locate. He was a lawyer, a man of 
scholarship and greater learning in his profession than any other 
member of the Jackson bar during his lifetime. Some of his 
briefs, which are found in the State reports, attest his ability as 
a lawyer. He was a man of great purity of character, and, 
though comparatively a young man when he died, he left a 
reputation for high character as a citizen and as a lawyer second 
to none. 

Mr. Stoddert married Miss Mary J. Mason, daughter of 
Daniel Mason, of Paris, this State. She was a noble Christian 
woman, a worthy wife of a true and noble man. She survived 
him for more than half a century, honored, respected and loved 
by all who knew her. 

Mr. Stoddert died in 1839.. The following notice appeared 
in the Polar Star, a newspaper published in Trenton at that time : 

"The District Telegraph of the i8th inst. announces the death 
of William Stoddert, Esq., of Jackson, who departed this life 
on the 14th after an illness of twenty-one days, in the forty-third 
year of his age. William Stoddert emigrated and commenced 
the practice of the law in the Western District at an early day. 
He possessed a fine native intellect with a well balanced mind, 
and by industry and close application he soon elevated himself 
to the head of the bar, of which he was a member, and by his 
correct, honest and unpretending deportment gained the good 
opinion and esteem of not only those with whom and for whom 
he transacted business, but of the community at large; in a 
word, his honesty was proverbial and in William Stoddert were 
united all the virtues that adorn and ennoble the human char- 
acter, and in his death the society of Jackson has sustained a 
loss which cannot easily be repaired." 

48 Thb Ambricak Historical Magazinb. 

Mr. Stoddert's residence was on Coll^^e street at a place 
known at a later date as the Scurlock place, east of the Mobile 
& Ohio railway. His law office was on a lot east of where the 
Presbyterian Church now stands. He owned considerable prop- 
erty, consisting of lands and slaves, and was considered quite a 
wealthy man. He was liberal and charitable, public spirited and 
enterprising. He was a member of the Episcopal Church, and, 
indeed was one of the founders of the present flourishing church 
(St. Luke's) in Jackson. 

Mr. Stoddert left three daughters, Mrs. Garuthers, Misses 
Harriet C. and Willie, now residing in Jackson. He left no male 
descendants to perpetuate his honorable name. 

Thb Presbrvation op Tbnnbsshb History. 49 



It is trite to say that almost every foot of Tennessee soil is 
historic ground, but trite though it be, are the people not for- 
getting it? When we look through the streets and parks of our 
Tennessee cities, whose are the feelings of pndc when asked to 
point out the monuments and statues of the great men that 
have been remembered? Where can we find them? 

What one of our cities has even preserved the historic names 
that were given its streets in the early days in honor of the 
famous men who blazed the way to the present, or that signalized 
historic bounds or events? One man's hands contain fingers 
enough to count all such streets that remain in all the cities of 
Tennessee to-day. The next generation will not even remem- 
ber that such street ever existed if the man for whom it once 
was named be not forgotten, too. And in well-nigh every case the 
honored name of the street or avenue has gone to give way 
for the name of the latest member of the Qty Council who in- 
troduced a bill to pave the street or to put up two electric lights. 

The greatest scientist of his day in Tennessee, a man who 
gave an ineffaceable stamp to the university in which he taught, 
had a little street called in his honor after he was dead — ^the 
street on which was the house in which he lived. A recent city 
council changed the name of the thoroughfare and called it 
after a man noted for eminence in an educational way; it is a 
memento, it is true, but any other street in the city might have 
been given the latter name with as much significance ^and the old 
name preserved. Doubtless the city lawmakers wondered where 
Troost street got its name. 

But if the honors done men of fame in the history of Ten- 
nessee be so easily taken away, you might reply that their names 
are preserved in other places. Where? You would have to look 
indeed to find the answer. In the century of Tennessee's state- 
hood that ended with the formal celebration on the centennial 


50 Thb Ambrican Historical Magazinb 

grounds the first day of June, 1896, there was more that was 
worthy of remembrance and of preservation than in the history 
of any other State in the American Union for that same century 
of time. There is in the whole history of the State a record that 
is surpassed by no State in the American Union, and equalled by 
none, save Virginia and Massachusetts. It is a history of achieve- 
ment without which the history of the United States cannot be 
written. For a generation the history of the country was the 
history of the life and actions of a man who was a Tennessean. 
For decades the eye of the nation was fixed on this State to such 
an extent that even the Old Dominion ceased to be the center of 
interest. Would you know all the history of that period, where 
would you find it? You would go to the Congressional library 
and to the public libraries of the progressive Northern States. 
You would not find it in Tennessee. If you want to consult 
even the printed records of Tennessee, you will have to go to 
other States to find most of them. 

It is a fact that the preservation of the records of Tennessee, 
both printed and written, has been a matter so little thought of 
that now a part of the written record is lost, as is so great a part 
of what has been printed that but one department of the State 
government has a complete file of its own printed reports. This 
notable exception is the State Board of Health. The State library 
has not a complete set of the publications of any department. 
The archives do not contain even the original copies of the 
records in many cases, and in many more cases these records 
have been mutilated and damaged so as to make them incomplete. 
There has been such a shameful neglect of the most precious 
records of our early history as to make it a wonder that so many 
of them have escaped destruction. And we may thank the absurd 
places in which some of them lay hidden away that they were not 
made way with, so frightful the lack of care that has been shown. 

Such records as have escaped destruction and have sustained 
only damage have lain at the mercy of those who have had 
opportunity to go through them. I know of one who had had 
access to the documents stored in the State Capitol, and who 
sold to an autograph collector a full set of the signatures of the 
governors of Tennessee, all cut from official documents which 
he had found lying unprotected and to all appearances uncared 


for in the basement Some of them were taken from old papers 
which were even then, on their way to the burning pile of 
"rubbish" that was being fed with them by an employee of the 
State because some of the papers had been lying where the rain 
leaked through on them and "smelled bad." 

The work that has been done on the systematic sorting of the 
records during Governor McMillin's administration has gone far 
enough to reveal the fact that many, if not all of the records have 
been gone through systematically by some one who has removed 
many rare signatures and torn out scarce revenue stamps affixed, 
in many cases absolutely destro)dng' the value of the document 
itself by leaving not enough of the writing on the other side to 
identify the paper. Nearly thirty years ago a young man em- 
ployed in some capacity in the State library told me that he had 
gone through a "great lot of old papers at the Capitol" and had 
found hundreds of dollars worth of rare stamps and autographs, 
which he had sold to collectors. In the light orf these late dis- 
coveries it is not hard to see where he obtained them, and it is 
just as easy to see that he was probably not the only one. 

Piled in the basements and accumulating, it was not infre- 
quently the case that great piles of these records were deliberately 
taken and sold. One case of alarming proportions recurs to me. 
In these basements were stored the ledgers and books of the old 
State bank and its branches— something over three thousand 
great volumes, containing the financial records of that period of 
the State's history entire, and some day to be of great value to 
the student of finance, for study or for historic interest. A super- 
intendent of the capitol had these three thousand great books 
ripped from their leather covers and sent a score of great wagon 
loads, to the junk dealer's and received for them a good round 
sum for the heavy linen paper. The covers were burned in piles 
on the capitol grounds until the undertaking proved too great; 
because they burned with such slowness, they were hauled off 
and dumped where a fill was being made in East Nashville for 
a street This was years ago. 

Under the law the stereotype plates of the volumes issued con- 
taining the Supreme Court decisions belonged to the State. 
There were the plates of many of the volumes stored in the base- 
ments under the capitol and ready for printing as they had ever 

52 Thb Ambrican Historical Maoazink. 

been. Under a former administration tons of these plates were 
hauled away and sold by an employee of the State for old metal, 
and not a cent of the receipts ever went to the State. These 
volumes are of the greatest use to the bar of the State, and so 
much are they in demand by lawyers and libraries that a house 
in Louisville is now reprinting them and selling large editions. 
These plates could have been sold for more money than they had 
cost, hundreds of dollars for the plates of each volume, or the 
reports could have been reprinted at a cost little more than 
nominal, to the immense saving and advantage of the lawyers of 
the State and section. But they went for the few pounds of 
metal in them. 

Only the Omnipotent knows how many hundreds of thousands 
of dollars the State of Tennessee has spent in printing with the 
intention of placing records and reports where they might serve 
the people, and only the same power knows what large pr<:q)or- 
tion of the documents have been carted off at the end of each 
session and sold by the Legislative porters or others for their 
own private benefit to paper mills and junk dealers. Documents 
printed by direction of the last General Assembly, printed and 
laid before them and distributed in a measure, cannot now be 
had, although the number printed was not half exhausted by the 
members during the session or afterwards. No sooner is any 
Legislative session over than the piles of printed documents go 
to the junk dealers. I saw wagons hauling these documents 
away at the end of six or eight sessions long ago which I per- 
sonally reported for the Nashville press, and could but wonder 
over and over again if tfiere were not places and people in the 
State that would be glad to have them. It has been the same 
till now. As one instance of this wholesale destruction of every 
remaining document as soon as the session ends, a significant 
case may be mentioned. A gentleman greatly interested in the 
subject attempted to get a file of the reports of the Tennessee 
Industrial School, which had been submitted and duly printed. 
Of the half dozen reports he was able to get but a single one, the 
last, and has not since been able to locate an earlier one. And 
yet this is a new State institution, and its reports are not many. 
The fact that the selling of all this matter, which the State has 
spent thousands of dollars in printing for the public information. 

Thb Presbrvation op Tbnnbssbb History. 53 

has so lon^ been considered a perquisite of the porters or of some 
one else, is a crying shame and a reproach to the intelligence of 
the people of Tennessee, and to the watchfulness of some em- 
ployee of the State. The purpose of printing the reports seems 
to have been lost sight of so completely that they are seized and 
destroyed as quickly as possible. 

There are something like six thousand public libraries in the 
United States to-day, and not less than two hundred of them 
are trying to get sets of the reports of the various States for their 
shelves. And it is a strange fact, not creditable to all the States 
concerned, that the comparatively new State of Wisconsin has 
been so diligent in the collection of these valued reports that their 
Historical Society has in at least ten cases more nearly complete 
sets of the reports issued by other States than can be found in 
possession of the States themselves. Yet one of these ten States 
is the now fully wide-awake State of Iowa, which is trying, 
before it is too late to repair as much of this neglectful damage 
as can now be repaired. Much of it is irreparable. 

I could but wonder how the State of Tennessee had been keep- 
ing up her files of records printed by the State. I made a tour 
of investigation and asked questions. I wrote letters and asked 
questions. And the facts are as lamentable as could have been 
feared. The only manner in which the situation could be made 
worse is by total destruction. I asked Mrs. Lula Epperson, the 
State librarian, an intelligent and earnest worker in the interest 
of preserving the history of the State in its own library, if she 
had a complete file of the publications of the various depart- 
ments of the State in the library. She answered that there was 
not in a single instance a complete set of the printed reports of 
any department there. And this despite the fact that she had 
made efforts, as did her immediate predecessor, to obtain missing 
reports in the various departments. I asked if there was in the 
library a list of the reports which had been issued by the various 
departments of the State government, and was told that there 
was not. It is not even known what the State has printed, much 
less are there complete sets of the reports. Mrs. Epperson has 
examined the records existing in the office of the Secretary of 
State and elsewhere with the idea of compiling a bibliog^phy of 
the State's publications, but has failed to find the material which 

54 I^HB American Historical Magazinb. 

promised anything like full success to the undertaking. It may 
be that others have wanted to do something in this line ; I have 
not inquired. The significant fact is that the records are not in 
the library and that not even a list of the printed records is 
there. Under the law the State librarian submits a biennial 
report. With the exceptic«i of Mrs. Epperscm's report to the com- 
ing General Assembly and Miss Lauderdale's report to the last 
General Assembly, not one of these reports for the past twenty- 
five years is now known to be in existence. 

Inquiry at the various departments of State showed con- 
dusively a fact stated above, and that is that in but a single in- 
stance is there in any department a complete set of its own 
printed reports. In the ofiice of the State Board of Health there 
is a ccMnplete set. In the early days, Dr. J. D. Plunkett, the 
president, and the secretary. Dr. J. Berrien Lindsley, both always 
addicted to filing away papers and records, started out in the 
right way. Fortunately this has been kept up, and the only lack 
is of the quantity of records that should have been printed for 
this department. Not only their own reports, but those of a large 
number of other cities and States are practically comjJete, and 
need but a sufficient appropriation to enable them to be put in 
shape for affording fnuch valuable information. 

In the office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction there 
is a complete set of the school reports except for the years long 
antedating the war, when there were but a few reports issued that 
have not as yet been secured. When Superintendent Fitzpatrick 
went into <^ce there were very few of the reports in the office 
or in the capitol. The set has been filled out by purchase, and 
both the superintendent and his assistant, Mr. Rutledge Smith, 
have taken great interest in trjdng to complete the records of 
the office. But in this office as in many of the others there is 
not even a complete set of the original written reports. They 
have been stored in the basements and elsewhere as they became 
too bulky for the office^ and their fate has been the fate of many 

It has been so in almost every instance. In not another office 
is there a set of its own reports, for purposes of comparison or 
for any reference. The fault does not seem to be with any par- 
ticular incumbent of any office, but simply with the lack of system 
that has prevailed. 

Thb Prbsbrvation of Tbnnbssbb History. 55 

But even the waste of the printed records of the State has been 
eclipsed by the carelessness with which the written records have 
been treated. Originally stored in the care of the Secretary of 
State, in the room assumingly labelled above the door with the 
word "Archives," the accumulations year by year grew until 
in almost all of the offices on the main floor were of necessity 
stored parts of the papers and records of the State. As more 
room was needed to accommodate the growing business of the 
commonwealth, the records were put in one pJace and then in 
another until the need for more 100m overshadowed the proper 
regard for the safety of the papers. There was no appearance 
of designedly neglecting their care and preservatic«i, but they 
were stuck away as old papers of whatever value ar^ apt to 
be, until their importance was lost sight of. At last the records of 
the various departments found their way to the west crypt of the 
capitol and there they remained for a number of years in sup- 
posed safety, perhaps, but the crypt was damp and full of leaks, 
with the slightest ventilation, or none at all. 

In this west cr)rpt they lay piled in masses on the stone floors, 
among old paint barrels, ashes, trash of every description, dirt 
and grime. They were wet and rotting, and it was during this 
period that the janitor of the capitol burned up several cartloads 
because of the fact that they were "wet and nasty and smelled 
bad." This was the statement that the superintendent of the 
capitol made at that time to a friend of mine who asked what 
was being done with the records that were being removed. 
There are several administrations that will probably show the 
effects of this when the records are put into proper condition. 
The condition of the papers burned may have been such as to 
require or to justify this disposal of them, for, from what I have 
been able to learn of their condition, they were actually too rotten 
to handle, much less to have examined, and perhaps nothing else 
could have been done with them. For this, if it were true, more 
shame to the State of Tennessee that she did not care properly 
for the glorious past and for the written records of its own chief 

Concerning the condition of the records at this time I knew 
that Dr. R. L. C. White had knowledge, for he had occasion to 
consult them in his search for historical facts. I asked him to 

56 The American Historical Magazine. 

state to me what he knew of their condition, and the following 
reply is self-explanatory: 

''Nashville, November 23, 1902. 
"Dr. R. A. HaUey, City: 

"My Dear Sir: In response to your enquiry concerning the 
condition of the archives of the State, as observed by me, I have 
to say that I do not see how it could possibly be worse. No com- 
monwealth of all the forty-five has a more illustrious history, 
and none of them, so far as official action is involved, seems to 
have taken less pride in its annals or less care for their preserva- 
tion. Lack of interest during past years and lack of system now 
have conjoined to produce a state of affairs which it is not 
putting it too strongly to stigmatize as a disgrace to the State. 
A pertinent illustration is the fact, which you may recall, that, 
about a year ago, I accidentally found the most interesting and 
valuable single document appertaining to our history — the orig- 
inal manuscript draft of the constitution of 1796, with the auto- 
graph signatures of all the members of the convention which 
framed it — covered with dust in the back of a pigeon-hole in an 
unused closet, where it had doubtless lain undisturbed for thirty 
or forty years. 

No blame for the condition of the archives attaches to the Sec- 
retary of State or his predecessors. No official can effect an 
orderly and systematic arrangement of documents with the facil- 
ities at present afforded. 

"How much, if any, improvement has been recently made, I 
have not had an opportunity to observe. My remarks above 
apply to the condition of affairs prevailing during the period of 
my investigation of the archives— extending from about 1890 to 
the beginning of the present year. Faithfully, 

"R. L. C. White." 

Under the administration of Governor McMillin a start has been 
made toward repairing the long neglect. From the appropria- 
tion secured for repairs of the capitol the esplanade was fixed so 
as not to leak, and the records were removed from the west cr)rpt 
to the armory in the basement. There they were at least dry, but 
they lay for a time gathering dust. Still they were not rotting. 
The last session of the General Assembly made an appropriation 
for constructing a room in which to store the records, and this 
room, forty by sixty feet, was constructed above the hall of the 
House of Representatives. To this room the records have now 
been removed. They lay in confusion and unassorted, in such 
condition that no paper of any period might be found without 

The Prkservation of Tennessee History. 57 

rummaging through the whole mass of disordered documents. 
Out of the money which had been appropriated for the expenses 
of the governor's office there was a slight surplus. Believing 
that the care of the State's own records might properly be un- 
dertaken with a part of this surplus, Governor McMillin cop- 
suited* several gentlemen, State officials, and decided to act as 
they advised, and he enaployed a competent man to begin the 
arrangement and classification of the records with a view "to 
future work with them. The room in which they now repose 
is dry and well lighted, well ventilated, and eminently adapted to 
the safe-keeping of the records. Some progress has been made 
in sorting out the papers, but it is very slow, of necessity. Every 
paper has to be examined and placed where it belongs, but so 
far the attempt has been confined to getting the papers of each 
administration together. Mr. Robert T. Quarles^ who was for a 
long time connected with the State Library and employed at the 
capitol in other capacity, and who is an enthusiast in the matter 
of preserving the State history in every detail, was the man 
chosen by Governor McMillin to make the banning. Mr. Quarles 
secured boxes, a box for each administration, and so long as 
the little surplus that Governor McMillin had available lasted he 
was employed in sorting the papers. As a box would be filled, he 
would tie up and label the papers, so that the next step becomes 
the easier. Such was the mass of papers that even this initial 
step went but a little ways, comparatively. Among those wide- 
awake officials who heartily supported the governor in his effort 
to make this beginning were State Treasurer Reau E. Folk, 
State Comptroller Theo F. King and Speaker Newt White of 
the last House of Representatives. When Mr. White came into 
a true knowledge of the state of affairs, after the adjournment 
of the General Assembly, his greatest regret was that a sufficient 
stun had not been set aside to keep some competent man at work 
on the records until the coming General Assembly could meet 
again. In this Governor McMillin heartily joined, and is an ardent 
advocate of something more being done. There was not enough 
money left over to purchase the pressed steel cases so much de- 
sired for storing the records, but one section was ordered and will 
be here shortly. The great need is to keep this work going on 
steadily, even if slowly at first. But it should proceed contin- 

58 Thb Ambkican Historical Magazikb. 

But the work that is done in this manner, no matter how well 
meant and efficient, is not all that the State should have, and 
Tennessee is one of the last States to realize this fetct. What is 
needed is advanced action on this matter, some action that will 
look to the creation of a department of the State government that 
will have the systematic care of these things. The various de- 
partments have their own several duties to perform, and as a 
rule their terms of office are not extended. They go out after a 
few years and feel satisfied in having done their required work 
well. It has not been theirs to see to the care of records outside 
their own office. The thing that is everybody's care is nobody's 
care. Each leaves to his successor what he found left to him 
by his predecessor and his own accumulations. Room for the 
books and conveniences of his own office are the prime requisites 
for his own term, and they are too often provided at a cost of 
other things or other considerations. What is needed is some 
department which will be charged with the sole duty of pre- 
serving and arranging the records of the State, and keeping the 
printed books and pamphlets until they can be furnished where 
wanted ; to see that valuable matter, after being printed for dis- 
tribution, does not find its way to the junk-shop before the ink 
is dry upon it. Let us stop the selling and burning of the State's 
expensive printed matter at all events. 

A sore need of the State is the establishment of a department 
similar to that created in many States of recent years, notably 
in Alabama and Mississippi — 3. Department of Archives and 
History. This Department of Archives and History has for its 
duties the preservation and publication of the State history, the 
collection of materials bearing on the early history of the State, 
etc. The Department of Archives and History for the State 
of Alabama was established by an act of February ^, 1901, and 
was charged with the "care and custody of official archives, the 
collection of materials bearing upon the history of the State, and 
of the territory included therein, from the earliest times, the 
completion and publication of the State's official records and 
other historical materials, the diffusion of knowledge in reference 
to the history and resources of the State, the encouragement of 
historical research," etc., etc. 

This followed three years after the creation of the Alabama 

Thk Prbsbrvation of Tbnnessbe History. 59 

History Commissicm, which had been provided for in 1898 and 
charged with the duty of making a "full detailed and exhaustive 
examination of all the sources and materials, manuscript, docu- 
mentary and record, of the history of Alabama from the earliest 
times, whether in domestic or foreign archives or repositories, 
or in private hands, including the record of Alabama troops in 
all wars in which they have participated, and also of the loca- 
tion and present condition of battlefields, historic houses and 
buildings, and other places and things of historic interest and 
importance in the State," etc. Their report was ordered printed 
when c(»npiled and the first volume has appeared from the press. 

Mississippi followed closely after Alabama, and has already 
printed several volumes of the papers and records of the State. 
North Carolina has printed nearly twenty volumes of the State's 
records, and they are wonderfully rich in matters of rare his- 
toric interest. These North Carolina volimies are among the 
most cherished treasures in the Tennessee State Library and are 
also in possession of the Tennessee Historical Society. The 
work of publication is rightly regarded as of prime importance, 
because of the convenience of any printed record and because 
of the immensely greater chance of permanency. Such a printed 
bode could hardly perish entirely from the earth in these days 
of many libraries. That is what Tennessee needs. 

The creation of such a department of archives and history in 
Tennessee could be the means of bringing to the knowledge of 
the world, and putting in shape for the world to use, the great 
facts connected with our history. It would rescue from oblivion, 
into which they shall sooner or later otherwise fall, the glorious 
past and the names of the men who made it glorious. The 
duties to be assigned should be ccMnprehensive. As rapidly as 
possible the existing official archives should be arranged and in- 
dexed for ready reference, every record to be included which is 
not in present use. (Heretofore and till now the archives have 
been impossible of intelligent consultation. Chaos is the only 
word to characterize their state.) Copies should be made of any 
document at as moderate a cost as possible. This would facilitate 
the use of the records by the public. 

In collecting materials bearing on the history of the State 
special effort should be made to secure everything of a printed 

6o The Ambrican Historical Magazinb. 

and documentary character, including all books and pamphlets 
whatever relating to Tennessee, its people or any part of its 
history; all public and legislative documents and pamphlets, of- 
ficial reports, etc.; all the writings of Tennessee authors; all 
Tennessee educational and religious literature, such as journals 
of ccmventicms, conferences and associations, and catalogues or 
annoimcements of educational institutions; all old or current 
files of Tennessee newspapers and periodical publications; all 
maps of Tennessee, its counties and cities, etc., and old maps of 
America; miscellaneous historical works and publications, man- 
uscripts and documents; old private letters and correspondence; 
letter books, diaries, journals, scrap books, weather notes, man- 
uscript maps, field books and journals of participants in the 
various wars in which Tennesseans have taken part. 

It should be the special duty of the new department to cwn- 
plete as far as possible the sets of the printed State records and 
to take charge of the remainders left at the close of the legisla- 
tive sessions that may be distributed and exchanged for similar 
reports from other States. As fast as the records are classified 
they should be printed in volumes for exchange with the libra- 
ries of other States, for in this way volumes could be added to 
the State Library that would increase its value more than the 
entire cost of the department. There is no question as to room 
for this new department. The new room now provided is suffi- 
cient for a time, and when it is filled extensions can be made 
over the entire hall of the House of Representatives and over 
the Senate Chamber. Should access be desirable with greater 
ease, the provision of elevator service would benefit the entire 
capitol any way, and it could readily be made to reach these newly 
provided rooms. 

In some States the work is done through one agency and in 
others through some other. The agency is a small matter; the 
preservation and publication of the records is the important 
thing. If one way cannot be secured, let some other way be tried. 
The time will soon be past when these things can be done. 
Many of the records obtainable to-day are going fast into other 
States, where they will remain. Every progressive Northern 
State is gathering up Southern history, while the Southern 
libraries are struggling for funds. Southern States will awake 

Thb Preservation of Tennkssbb History. 6i 

to their opportunity too late. Even since the General Assembly 
last met valuable historic papers have left the State, papers which 
are indissolubly connected with Tennessee's greatness, gone never 
to return. With somt diligent and watchful department, whose 
business it shall be to secure historical materials pertaining to 
this State, this can be prevented in future in large part. Some 
of the States endow the Historical Societies as does Wisconsin; 
some have special departments. Let Tennessee do something, in 
some way, and do it before it is too late. 

The text of the Alabama act, which follows, affords a splendid 
foundation for intelligent and patriotic legislation by Tennessee: 

No. 476. AN ACT. S. 5^6. 


Alabama, to prescribe its functions and duties, and to provide 

FOR its maintenance. 

Section i. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of Alabanui, That 
there is established for the State of Alabama, a "Department of Archives 
and History" to be located in the State Capitol in apartments to be set 
aside for its use by the Governor; and the objects and purposes of the 
said department are the care and custody of official archives, the collec- 
tion of materials bearing upon the history of the State, and of the terri- 
tory included therein, from the earliest times, the completion and publi- 
cation of the State's c^cial records, and other historical materials, the 
diffusion of knowledge in reference to the history and resources of the 
State, the encouragement of historical work and research, and the per- 
formance of such other acts and requirements as may be enjoined by law. 

Section 2. Be it further enacted, (i) That said department shall be 
under the control of a board of nine trustees, one from each Congres- 
sional district, and the names of the said trustees, with their particular 
terms of service, are as follows, viz.: Peter J. Hamilton, for the First 
Congressional District, to serve two years; Jefferson M. Falkner, for the 
Second District, to serve two years; W. D. Jelks, for the Third District, 
to serve two years; J. H. Johnson, for the Fourth District, to serve four 
years; W. H. Blake, for the Fifth District, to serve four years; Henry B. 
Foster, for the Sixth District, to serve four years; Oliver D. Street, for 
the Seventh District, to serve six years; William Richardson, for the 
Eighth District, to serve six years; and Samuel Will John, for the Ninth 
District, to serve six years, the beginning of the several terms of service 
for the purposes of this act to be January i, 1901. (2) The said board 
shall have the power and authority to fill all vacancies occurring therein, 
whether by expiration of term of service, or by death or resignation, but 
the names of all newly elected members shall be communicated to the 
next ensuing regular session of the State Senate for confirmation, and 

62 Thb Ambkican Historicai. Maoazikb. 

in case it shall reject aay of the said newly elected trustees it shall proceed 
forthwith to fill the vacancy, or vacancies, by an election. (3) All trus- 
tees appointed to succeed the present members or their successors whose 
respective terms shall have fully expired, shall serve for a term of six 
years, and appointees to fill vacancies by death or resignation, shall only 
serve out the unexpired terms of their predecessors. (4) The said board 
shall within ten days after the approval of this act proceed to organize 
said department. It shall hold at the State Capitol at least one regular 
meeting during the year, and as many special meetings as may be neces- 
sary, and at said meetings five members shall constitute a quorum. (5) 
The Governor of the State shall be ex-officio a member of the said board, 
and he shall jis far as XK>8sible lend every encouragement to the success 
and upbuilding thereof. (6) The director hereinafter provided shall be 
the secretary of the board. (7) The trustees shall receive no compensa- 
tion for their services other than the amounts of their traveling expenses 
actually paid out while in attendance on the meetings of the board, or 
on the business of the department. (8) The said board is empowered to 
adopt rules for its own government, and also for the government of the 
department; to elect a director, and tc provide for the selection or ap- 
pointment of other officials, or employees, as may be authorized; to 
provide for the publication of historical material pertaining to the State 
under the supervision of the director; to have the direction and control 
of the marking of historical sites, or houses, and the exploration of pre- 
historic and Indian mounds and other remains existing in the State; to 
control and expend such appropriations as may be made for the main- 
tenance of the department; and to do and perform such other acts and 
things as may be necessary to carry out the true intent and purpose of 
this act 

Section 3. Be it further enacted, (i) That the department shall be 
under the immediate management and control of a director, to be elected 
by the Board of Trustees, whose term of service shall be six years, and 
until his successor is elected and qualified. (2) He shall take an oath of 
office as other public officials, and shall be commissioned in like manner. 

(3) He shall devote his time to the work of the department, using bis 
best endeavor to develop and build it up, so as to carry out the design of 
its creation, and shall receive for his services the sum of eighteen hundred 
($1,800) dollars per annum, payable monthly as other State c^cials, and 
a continuing appropriation for the said annual salary is hereby made. 

(4) He shall have the control and direction of the work and operations 
of the department, he shall preserve its collections, care for the official 
archives that may come into its custody, collect as far as possiUe all 
materials bearing upon the history of the State, and of the territory 
included therein, from the earliest times, prepare the biennial register 
hereinafter provided, diffuse knowledge in reference to the history and 
resources of the State; and he is charged with the particular duty of 
gathering data concerning Alabama soldiers in the war between the States. 

Thb Presbrvation of Tennbsske History. 63 

(5) He shall make an annual report to the Board of Trustees to be by 
them transmitted to the Governor, to be accompanied by such historical 
papers and documents as may be deemed of importance by him, and the 
director shall contract for the printing and binding of the said report 
which shall be paid for as other public printing and binding. (6) He 
shall prepare for the press, contract for and supervise the publication of 
volume two of the report of the Alabama History Commission, the said 
volume to be similar to volume one of said report as to printing, paper 
and binding, and to be paid for out of the public printing fund to be 
available after October i, 1901. 

Section 4. Be it further enacted, That any State, county or other of- 
ficial is hereby authorized and empowered in his discretion to turn over 
to the department for permanent preservation therein any official boc^, 
records, documents, original papers, newspaper files and printed books not 
in current use in their offices. When so surrendered copies therefrom 
shall be made and certified by the director upon the application of any 
person interested, which certification shall have all the force and effect 
as if made by the officer originally in the custody of them and for which 
the same fees shall be charged to be collected in advance. 

Section 5. Be it further enacted, That an official and statistical regis- 
ter of the State of Alabama shall be compiled every two years by the 
director, to contain (i) brief sketches of the several State officials, the 
members of Congress from Alabama, the Supreme Court Judges, the 
members of the Senate and House of Representatives of the State of 
Alabama, (2) rosters of all State and county officials, (3) lists of all 
State institutions, with officials, (4) State and county population and 
election statistics, and (5) miscellaneous statistics; and said register shall 
be published in an edition of one thousand copies for free distribution, the 
printing and binding to be paid for as other printing and binding here- 
inbefore provided. 

Section 6. Be it further enacted, That the department is charged with 
the duty of making special effort to collect data in reference to soldiers 
from Alabama in the war between the States, both from the War Depart- 
ment at Washington, and also from private individuals, and to cause the 
same to be prepared for publication as speedily as possible. 

Section 7. Be it further enacted, That in addition to the salary of the 
director hereinabove appropriated, the sum of seven hundred ($700) dol- 
lars annually is hereby appropriated for the maintenance of the said 
department, and the auditor is hereby authorized to draw his warrant on 
the State Treasurer for the whole or any part of the said amount, in 
such sums and in such manner as may be authorized by the Board of 
Trustees. All printing, blanks, circulars, notices, or forms, which may 
be needed for the use of the said department, that may be embraced in 
class four of the public printing act, shall be executed by the public 
printer, and shall be paid for as other official work done by him. 

Approved February 27, 1901. 

64 Thb American Historical Magazinb. 



[The following valuable address was prepared by Mr. Doak at the 
request of a Committee of the Tennessee Historical Society, to be de- 
livered at the Nashville Centennial of 1880. After its delivery he turned 
the manuscript over to the committee, which expected to publish all the 
addresses delivered on the occasion. The funds at the disposition of 
the committee failed, and the address was never published. 

I found the manuscript in the archives of the Tennessee Historical 
Society, without any explanation of its presence ther^ Upon com- 
municating with Mr. Doak, I ascertained that he had handed the manu- 
script to Dr. J. S. Bladde for editing. After Dr. Bladde's death he 
tried hard to find it, because he had given much time and labor to it, 
but was unable to get any information concerning it, until I called his 
attention to its presence in the Tennessee Historical Society. It is 
probable that Dr. Blackie or his administrator gave it to the Society. 

It is an able paper, prepared after discriminating and exhaustive re 
search, and I take pleasure in giving it publication.] 

Education, as a general term, comprehends all that environs 
and develops man — ^the individual, the nation, the race, the 
genus. With the individual it begins when first the infant bimdle 
of capacities, latent energies and senses is submitted to the world 
to have its dormant faculties aroused. Society passes through 
an exactly analogous experience^ From infancy to inevitable 
decay and death, society is but an individual, composed of in- 
dividuals. Nations have their periods of infancy, exuberant 
youth, ripe manhood, imbecile old age and, dying, leaves, like 
the individual, descendants to inherit the stores of wisd(xn and 
knowledge which, with frugal care, they have gathered and 

Tennessee, with one century's growth, is just emerging into 
hopeful youth, with an ample portion from the ancestral estates. 
I find my task to glance at the manner in which this patrimony 
has been used during the century of existence and chiefly as to 
that part of education which pertains to the individual and of 

Dbvklopmknt of Education in Tknnksske. 65 

that part, the portion of educational work done in schools, the 
subject naturally divides itself into state and non-state educa- 
ticMi but the two are intimately blended in our history. 

Taking our stand in imagination upon the siunmit of the 
century, which had just closed with the beginning of 1780, what 
, do we see? From the solemn solitudes of the Alleghenies to the 
rude escarpments of the Cumberland Mountains, from the west- 
em cliffs of the table land to where the Mississippi rolls, yet 
unruffled by commerce, lies the awful stillness of a land tenanted 
by the dead. The treaty of Paris has destroyed the title of 
France and the claim of Spain is just growing, like a dim shadow 
on the tenure of England, soon to darken faintly the title of our 
ancestors, and then to fade away forever. Indians from the 
North and from the South build their watch fires upon the blue 
peaks of Tennessee, thread its forested hills and valleys and 
meet in battle upon its verdurous plains. It is the theater of 
savage war, and hunt, the burial ground of a departed race, a 
lovely land of death, an unbroken solitude, save that yonder in 
the East a few rude cabins stand grimly on the picket line, the 
guard huts of advancing civilization. Standing upon the pinnacle 
of this century and looking back a million and a half of free 
men, gaze upon a sublime spectacle. At two points, in the be- 
ginning of the century, stand the Watauga and the Davidson 
settlements — society just bursting into life. In the course of the 
century these have met and overspread the intervening territory. 
The forest has been overcome; the savage driven back; duties 
laid upon the people from within and from without have been, 
for the most part, performed, foreign foes confronted in three 
wars, civil dissensions allayed, evil tendencies within success- 
fully resisted, social diseases cured. When the past century, 
with its moral, religious, intellectual, political and physical con- 
flicts, looms up through the misty veil of a^es, it will appear as 
the romance era of Tennessee, the age of Titanic conflict. 

During the century Tennessee has provided hardy population 
for the South — Southwest and West — the cradle of population, 
the nursery of soldiers. Virginia has been called the "Mother 
of Presidents." Tennessee has won the yet prouder titles of 
"The Volunteer State" and "The Mother of States ;" she is en- 
titled to the still nobler distinction of having been the center of 

66 Thb American Historicai« Magazinb. 

intellectual and religious progress in the Southwest The educa- 
tion of the young society of Tennessee was the process of im- 
bibing the learning and wisdom of the older colonies and of the 
old world, of adapting itself to new conditions and of develop- 
ing character. The population of Tennessee was at one time 
estimated as nine-tenths North Carolinian. At the last census, 
of 211,551 citizens, bom in other States, 51,110 were from North 
Carolina, 43,387 from Virginia. These two states were the chief 
sources of population; therefore the early educational progress 
of these states was the progress of Tennessee. From the be- 
ginning of settlements in North Carolina, between 1650 and 
1660, down to 1776, the proprietary councils and colonial as- 
semblies passed many acts for the encouragement of an orthodox 
ministry, for the regulation of vestries, for the building of stocks, 
pillories, jails and court houses and very few for the encourage- 
ment of learning. Down to the close of proprietary government 
in 1729, almost the only education was such as parents could 
impart to their children, or such as native intelligence could 
acquire. Sir William Berkely said of Virginia in 167 1 : "Every 
man instructs his children according to his ability; but, I thank 
God, there are no free schools or printing." The same was 
true of North Carolina. In 1700 Rev. Dr. Bray, aided by Bishop 
Compton, of London, obtained from the king twenty pounds for 
every minister and teacher who could be induced to labor in that 
field where there was little religion, little learning and no 
churches or schoolhouses. The Episcopal Church made the first 
efforts to establish churches and schoolhouses in our mother 
State. A few devoted, earnest men labored faithfully from the 
standpoint of establishment and accomplished little. In the early 
part of the eighteenth century there were perhaps a dozen school- 
houses, although there is no record of more than four. In 1784, 
Governor Johnson declared that no care had been taken "to 
inspire the youth with the least tincture of literature." Martin 
says there were but two schools in the whole province at the 
end of royal government; but Martin is notoriously inaccurate; 
there was certainly a school among the Scotch Presbyterians of 
Mecklenburg at Charlotte. The framers of the first Declaration 
of Independence must have made considerable advances in edu- 
cation, for they were, before the Revolution, sending their sons 

Dbvbi«opmbnt of Education in Tennessee. 67 

to complete their education at Princeton, N. J. Two notable 
instances were Dr. Brevard, the fiamer of the declaration and 
our own Rev. Thomas Craighead. From the first settlement 
down to 1776 there were not more than eight or ten acts re- 
lating to education. Among the acts which followed the Revolu- 
ticMi were two charters establishing schools in Tennessee. One 
was the charter of Martin Academy, 1783 ; the first school west 
of the Alleghenies, Samuel Dook, D.D., president; the other 
Davidson Academy, 1785, Rev. Thomas Craighead, president. 

A large number of our early educators and ministers came 
from Virginia, whence we derive a considerable part of our 
population. Virginia was more favored in churches and schools 
than North Carolina and especially in that higher education 
which precedes the lower. The first gleam of the torch of learn- 
ing was extinguished in 1619 in a bloody massacre. In 1660 a 
college was endowed by the Legislature and in 1690 Rev. Wil- 
liam Blair, aided by Bishop Compton and Governor Nicholson, 
established William and Mary College, except Harvard, the 
oldest and, at one time, the wealthiest and most important col- 
lege in America. In 1700 crowds came from all quarters, in 
conveyances of all kinds and even in vessels from all the seaport 
towns of the colonies to the commencement. Directly, or in- 
directly, this institution must have exercised some influence on 
a state which drew so largely on Virginia for population. From 
these two states came the germs of education. The first con- 
stitution of North Carolina made provision for schools and for 
one university. Down to 1861 the University of North Carolina 
educated yearly large numbers of Tennesseans, many of whom 
have filled, and now fill, high places, one of whom will be in- 
dissolubly linked with the material regeneration of the State. 

Of all the agencies which have operated upon Tennessee from 
distant seats, perhaps Nassau Hall, Princeton, N. J., stands 
among the first. It will not be denied that the Scotch Presby- 
terian element has been the leading power in pioneer education 
in the Southwest. The churches which have since rivaled it in 
culture and surpassed it in wealth and influence, then found their 
noble mission to labor among the masses, to lift the people to a 
higher plane. The Presbyterians drew their qualifications for 
this work from the land of John Knox and its universal educa- 

68 Thb Ambrican Historical Magazinb. 

tion. The labors of the great church, founded in Tennessee by 
Bishop Asbury, himself the founder of the first Methodist school 
in America, and of the Baptist Church, were of equal importance, 
if of a diflFerent character. The one labored from above down- 
ward ; the other from the foundations upward, until, to-day, after 
many a conflict about the color of the shidd between them, they 
stand, in Christian brotherhood, upon the same plane. 

The spirit, the sturdy character were here, but the College of 
New Jersey, as the leading Presbyterian school, through its 
alumni from Virginia and North Carolina and their descendants 
and pupils, exerted a great influence. It was the far and the 
pure spring, whence many a stream of healthful influence ran 
into Virginia and North Carolina to unite afterwards in Ten- 

While the Presbyterians furnished the pioneers in education 
and the other dencmiinations labored for the elevation of the 
masses, instilling religious sentiments and higher aspirations, it 
must be borne in mind that the rest patronized liberally the 
schools, aided with their influence; and the Methodists, Baptists 
and later, the Cumberland Presbyterians assumed a large share 
in primary, academical and especially female education, invaded 
the higher field and, to-day, stand among the first. 

The men who composed the population of Tennessee in that 
day were in the main unlettered, but not unlearned. To them 
were added as they advanced, self-sacrificingr ministers, teachers, 
ambitious young men, and thus society went on building itself, 
sufficient at each successive stage for the circumstances by which 
it found itself surrounded. It needed the axe and the rifle and 
these almost alone at first. As a place was conquered in the 
forest, higher aspirations came to develop higher things. 

It is singular that, while the constitution of North Carolina, 
from which that of Tennessee was largely drawn, made pro- 
vision for education, that of the rebel state of Franklin, framed 
by Rev. Samuel Houston, was rejected, partly on account of such 
provision, of which Dr. Doak was the reputed author, and the 
subject was not mentioned in the Constitution of Tennessee. The 
Legislature, nevertheless, engaged in the work of chartering 
schools and early charters indicate a demand for educational 
facilities. The Legislature of Franklin rechartered Martin Acad- 

Devb]x>pmbnt op Education in Tbnnbssbb. 69 

cmy; the territorial Assembly chartered Blount College in 1794, 
now the University of Tennessee and, in 1795, changed Martin 
Academy to Washington Cdlege, in honcw of the illustrious Pres- 
ident of the United States. In 1803 Davidson Academy was re- 
chartered as Davidson College. Washington, Davidson, Blount 
and Greenville were the pioneer institutions of Tennessee, each 
imder the care of a man of genius, of robust, manly, physical and 
moral qualities, each ready for duty in schoolroom, church, or 
field, each possessing the faculty of impressing himself on young 
men, of instilling moral virtues along with intellectual culture. 

Samuel Doak, D.D., a native of Augusta County, Virginia, 
was the son of Scotch parents who emigrated from north Ire- 
land, in the early half of the eighteenth century, to Pennsylvania, 
and removed to Virginia shortly after their marriage. He was 
educated by Robert Alexander at August Academy, afterwards 
Liberty Hall, then endowed by Washingfton and called Wash- 
ington College, now Washingfton and Lee. He graduated at 
Princeton in 1775, under Dr. Witherspoon, was a tutor at Hamp- 
den-Sydney for a short time and was preaching in Tennessee in 
1779. He was a member of Franklin convention, founder of 
Martin Academy, of Tusculum College, and, connected with 
church and schoolroom for a half a century, he has left the im- 
press of his learning and character upon the State, the South 
and the Southwest. He was a thorough classical scholar, a man 
of fine physique, of indomitable resolution and courage and a 
rather imperious temper in the line of legitimate authority. The 
hardships of the pioneer educators were fully illustrated in his 
life. Shortly after coming to the State, his young wife, in his 
absence, was startled by the savage warwhoop and barely escaped 
to a friendly copse. Once he dismissed his congregation with a 
brief benediction and led the male portion against the Indians; 
and at another time he led his entire school to meet an invading 
force. Washington afterward flourished under his son and 
grandson, and he is still worthily represented in the work by 
descendants at Greenville and Tusculiun Colleges, now merged 
in one. 

Greenville College was chartered in 1794 by the territorial 
Legislature. Rev. Hezekiah Balch, the first president, was a 
native of Maryland, a graduate of Princeton. He was a man of 

70 The Ambrican Historical Magazine. 

ability and endurance which enabled him to stand up for years 
against that ecclesiastical tyranny of which our early history 
exhibits so many traces. Sixteen trials before presbytery, four 
before synod and one before the General Assembly on the charge 
of Hopkinsianism, which he had imbibed while traveling in New 
England, wasted health and means, broke up his school and still 
he labored cm, preached as he thought, taught as he could and 
died at last, leaving an honored name with those who would 
hzrt destroyed him for his opinions. Bigotry in Tennessee 
was, fortunately, manifested about great questions, or it would 
be no attractive page in our history. It was the war of grants, 
but it was, for all that, ecclesiastical tyranny against individual 
judgment and that enquiry which must be met only by enquiry 
and not by ecclesiastical bulls. 

Blount College was chartered in 1794, with Rev. Samuel Car- 
rick, president. A native of Pennsylvania he came early to Vir- 
ginia, where he studied theology and labored for many years, 
married and emigrated to Tennessee in the infancy of the Knox 
settlement in 1787. I have drawn for the facts of this case, 
from a recent address before the alumni of the University of 
Tennessee, by Colonel Mose White, editor of the KnoxvUle 
Tribune, in which, with great ability and research, he has 
sketched the life of this pioneer in religion and learning and the 
progress of education under difficulties. Mr. Carrick was a man 
of ripe scholarship, adventurous spirit and broad liberality, dis- 
played in the charter of Blount College, which Colonel White 
claims to have been the first truly non-denominational school in 
America, by a little preceding Union College, which Mr. Wil- 
liam Wells claims to have been the first. Carrick, too, followed 
duty wherever it called, preaching to the scattered settlements 
in defiance of danger, teaching in Blount College and the East 
Tennessee College after the merger in 1806. Colonel White 
relates how, when the infant settlement was threatened at a time 
when death had invaded his household, he embraced his children, 
kissed the cold lips of his dead wife and sought the post of duty, 
leaving to the women of the colony the performance of the last 
sad rites. 

Rev. Thomas Craighead came of an illustrious Scotch family 
which, inheriting the learning and spirit of old Scotia, shed 

Development of Education in Tennessee. 71 

along its path the rare and subtile virtues expressed from sound 
stocks by oppression. Escaping establishment in Ireland, most 
of these people avoided establishment in New England and 
sought freedom in North and South Carolina, Pennsylvania and 
Virginia. Rev. Thomas Craighead, like most of those who came 
to New England, settled in New Hampshire. 

Rev. Thomas Craighead died in his pulpit in Pennsylvania. 
His son, Alexander, after connection with several presbytenes, 
left that State in 1749 on account of a pamphlet to which objec- 
tion Was made by his majesty's justices and which was pro- 
nounced by the synod, "full of sedition and treason." It was 
one of the earliest expressions of the growing desire for in- 
dependence. In 1755 he settled in Mecklenburg County, North 
Carolina, where he found kindred spirits, farseeing compatriots, 
in whom his views took root and bore fruit in the Declaration 
of 1775, which he almost lived to sig^. Of such descent and 
parentage was his worthy son. Rev. Thomas Craighead, the 
Nashville pioneer in education, a contemporary at Princeton with 
Dr. Samuel Doak. Mr. Craighead settled at Hillsborough, six 
miles east of Nashville, about 1785, where he presided over 
Davidson Academy and College from 1786 to 1809. 

Davidson Academy owned its origin to General Robertson, a 
man of the same Scotch stock to which belonged Jackson, Donel- 
son and most of the early settlers, founder of the colony and then 
its representative in the North Carolina Assembly — ^Robertson, 
the lawgiver and counselor of Watauga, the father of Nashville 
— 2i man of native intelligence and broad, liberal views, educated 
by circumstances, fitted to cope with all the difficulties of the 
wilderness, the first to make Tennessee soil yield its iron treas- 
ures—equal to any emergency, able in diplomacy to deal with 
Spain's ablest and most liberal New World governor — Miro, 
whose name the territory around us once bore. Such a man 
was founder of our first school and to him it was due that 
Craighead, the friend of Jackson, Donelson and Robertson, spent 
his life in Tennessee and left it the better for his coming. Mr. 
Craighead presided over the school after it was merged into 
Cumberland College in 1806, until Dr. Priestley succeeded him 
in 1809. In person he was tall and spare, with sandy hair and 
blue eyes, the regular Scotch type. He was bold and firm; in 

72 Thb American Historical Magazine 

oratory captivating. Dr. Campbell paid him a high compliment 
when, attacking his opinions in the synod as Pelagian, he said: 
"You are no Locke, no Edwards, no Butler ; but you are capable 
of being what I should covet infinitely more, a Massillon." He 
was tried on the usual ecclesiastical charge — want of orthodoxy. 
He was no Edwards with cold logic, but so happily composed 
that he occupied the golden mean between the sentimental re- 
vivalists whom he strongly opposed and whose good work he 
underrated, and the logic choppers. In the pulpit, with intellect 
and emotions in happy equipoise, he moved at equal pace the 
intelligence and the emotions of his audience. 

It is a singular fact that the three American Craigheads, father, 
son and grandson, enjoyed the honorable distinction of being 
each the subject of frequent ecclesiastical enquiry. Each, for 
progressive opinions, was called to lie upon the bed of the eccle- 
siastical Procrustes. Neither would be cut off or stretched out 
and each, without recantation, or secession, died revered in the 
bosom of his church. It is enough to say of our educational 
pioneer that he came triumphant cut of an eighteen years' strug- 
gle against the iron rule of standards and subtle theories, acquit- 
ted by the General Assembly in 1824, a year before his death. 
In that struggle, Andrew Jackson, of the same sturdy stock, 
whose mother had found a friend in the family of Mr. Craig- 
head's father, was his staunch friend. "Old Hickory" did not 
know the difference between Pelagius and St. Jerome, between 
Pelagianism and Augustinianism. Applying a simple formula as 
a test, "By their fruits ye shall know them," he knew an honest, 
earnest man of character and of value to the community. 

I would not seem to underrate the services of either side in 
these struggles. It was individual judgment earnestly laboring 
for freedom from iron rules ; on the other hand it was as honest, 
as earnest conservatism, holding fast to an old position sanctified 
by time. Between these two forces, society finds the golden mean 
of true conservative progress. If conservatism would sometimes 
stand still, progress would quicken the even step to a "Deil tak' 
the hin' most" pace and go "hurlin' down the hill withouten 
dread.". Liberalism must go forward or we stop; conservatism 
must put on the brakes, or we go too fast and too far. 

The educators of that day gave thorough training, making 

Dbvku>pmbnt of Education in Tennessee. 73 

neither great scholars, great students, nor bookish men. Ten- 
nessee, the South and the Southwest was no field for such men ; 
they would have been out of place living and seeking a place 
they would have starved. The immediate practical was always 
in sight, but it was a practical in which intelligence and a lofty 
sense of the supreme obligaticm of duty lighted the way. Edu- 
cation in the early times was the enterprise of bold, devoted men, 
imbued with religfious or the teaching enthusiasm, and generally 
both. It was often the work of young men preparing for the 
ministry, or for college, of ministers combining school with 
church. In such "old field schools" as were taught these were 
the teachers, or, they were the more advanced, and generally, 
very little more advanced, of the young men or young women 
of the neighborhood. 

I must here allude to a gentleman of national fame, whose 
twenty-five years of service in Nashville demand such reference 
as I can give to his labors in the work of education. In one 
sense Dr. Philip Lindsley was a pioneer, for he stood at the be- 
ginning of a period. His great learning, brilliant intellect and 
personal worth ; the long period of his service ; his clear and far- 
reaching view of the relations of Nashville and of Tennessee to 
the cause of Southwestern education, the principles implanted, 
the large and liberal conceptions he helped to form in others; 
the illustrious men sent forth as new centers of thought and of 
action, throughout Tennessee and the Southwest and the unfold- 
ing here of all his prophecies in our magnificent and rapidly 
developing system of education, declare him a master builder of 
that temple whose foundations only are yet laid. His illustrious 
compeers, his earnest and faithful co-adjutors, his able assistants 
and contemporaries and his noble successors, his son, Rev. J. 
Berrien Lindsley, who succeeded him, and General E. Kirby 
Smith, I leave to the historian of education in Tennessee. 
Of an illustrious English line he was another of old Nassau's 
gifts to Tennessee. That he could occupy, temporarily and 
demonstrate his fitness to be called permanently to, the presidency 
of Princeton, of itself stamps him one of the first men in the 
country. For one man, capable of administering successfully the 
affairs of a great university, a dozen may be found capable of 
administering the government of the United States. Of numer- 

74 The American Historical Magazine. 

ous calls to various collies he accepted that of Cumberland and 
was inaugurated president of the University of Nashville in 1825. 

His lectures and addresses attracted wide attention even in 
Europe and procured his election as a member of the Royal 
Society of Antiquities at Copenhagen. Those in which he con- 
tended for the high civilization of man as his primitive state, 
attracted especial attention. They have a special interest now as 
an anticipatory reply to Darwinism. With the forethought of a 
broad mind he took a serious view of Lord Monboddov holding 
that his simian theories were not mere trifling and foolery, but 
a logical deduction from certain almost universally accepted 
views. Such was the intellectual character of the man who saw 
the nature of the coming struggle between church and science, 
as he foresaw the future of Tennessee and of Nashville as the 
coming educational and intellectual center of the Southwest. 

He was scholarly in method and style, a scholar in fact and 
withal a practical man. Had he been more of the ag^essive- 
practical could he have accomplished more? With the man- 
compelling power, or the arts of the politician to attain ends by 
ways open and occult, greater temporary show might have been 
made. Short-sighted Legislatures might have been bent to fur- 
ther great aims ; but such was not die way chosen to prepare the 
field. The foundations were laid broad and deep. A less patient 
builder, a quack in education, would have reared a splendid 
structure on the sand. 

The college land controversy, growing out of the dcmation to 
education in Tennessee, afforded the demagogue a fertile field 
for his pernicious tillage. Honorable John Bell, in the first ad- 
dress to the alumni of the University of Nashville, in 1880, spoke 
of the fatal habit "of regarding slightly the obligations of good 
faith which grew up with the progress of indulgence to debtors 
of colleges and schools." There were real grievances, which Mr. 
Bell, with sound statesmanship, recognized. In the main it was 
that same fatal demagogy and disregard of obligations which has 
again returned to plague the State, perhaps, partly from that 
former teaching. The representatives irom the South of Holston, 
said Mr. Bell, became "the Swiss guard in the Legislature." 
Every election, from clerk to United States Senator, every ques- 
tion of public policy, was made to turn upon that single issue. 

Development of Education in Tennessee. . 75 

and a prejudice grew up in the popular mind against colleges 
and academies which it has taken years to eradicate. 

The right course was taken when the president, Dr. Lindsley» 
and an able corps of assistants, aided by liberal and far-sighted 
citizens, still appealing to the Legislature, using the press and 
every means to enlighten the public, went on sowing seeds to bear 
fruit in coming times, showing capacity and efficiency, turning out 
able men to bear witness in the future, building a community, 
which has attracted your Vanderbilt University, which has estab- 
lished your law and medical schools, which has drawn hither your 
normal school, built your high schools, and your female schools, 
Dr. J. E. Blackie's, Dr. Ward's, and Miss Bryan's, and drawn 
hidier your Fisk, Tennessee Central and Baptist cdl^es to do 
dieir great work amongst the African population. 

Since 1825 Nashville has grown from a turbulent trading 
station of 3,500, a backwoods town of forty-five years g^rowth 
from the stump in the wilderness, to a city of 60,000 inhabitants, 
with its gfreat school system, its colleges and imiversities, its 
numerous churches, its cultivated and refined men and women, 
to the liberality of thought and generous culture of a metrop- 
olis. Who will deny to the man who with his assistants turned 
out in twenty-five years four hundred graduates and taught 
two thousand students that they performed their part in this 
great work. The war with its evil teachings, its concomitant 
vices, enforced idleness and disorganization, interrupted the 
work in 1861, snapped many a subtle thread in the well-woven 
fabric, but the substantial warp remained. The foundation and 
framework were left standing. The strcmgest fabric of earth, 
the most enduring, defying foreign war, domestic dissensicms 
and material injuries, is the compact texture of a well-wrought 
social order whose morality is ingrained with the intellectual 
fibre. This was left, battered and defaced, in the rude convul- 
sion, but still adequate. 

The remarkable multiplication of colleges in the twenty years 
preceding the war may be fairly attributed to the labor which 
sent out near two thousand young men to teach or to encourage 
education. Twenty colleges were established within fifty miles 
of Nashville. This multiplication was diffusion, wasted energies 
and means, but it was the inevitable struggle which precedes 

76 Thb Ambrican Historical Magazinb. 

the healthful concentration now going on. For a time it re- 
tarded the work of building a great university, until it could 
be demonstrated that every village cannot be a great seat of 
learning. To the students sent out between 1825 and 1861 we 
must attribute the high position of Nashville as an educational 
center. If we build monuments to the soldier and the states- 
man, who, at best, but prepare the conditicms essential to social 
development, should we not the more commemorate those who 
labor at creating the very intellectual and moral elements of 
social growth? 

The first female schod chartered by the State was "Fisk 
Female Academy," chartered in 1806, established in Overton 
County by Moses Fisk, a native of Massachusetts, a thousand 
acres of land, each, being donated by Moses Fisk and Sampson 
Williams. For personal facts in his history I am indebted to 
an address on county history, delivered in 1876, by A. V. Good- 
pasture, Esq., of Overton. Fisk was a man of ability, a grad- 
uate of Dartmouth, an eccentric genius, a successful man and 
a teacher who planted the seeds of learning in the mountains, 
the teacher of many young men. He was made trustee of David- 
son College in 1803 and of Cumberland College in 1806. He 
was a lawyer, a compiler of statutes and a great surveyor, laying 
aside the manuscript of a Greek grammar to engage in the 
survey of the State line. Female academies were chartered at 
Knoxville and at Marjrville in 1811 and 1812, respectively. 

Nashville Female Academy was chartered in 181 7, Dr. Daniel 
Berry serving as principal down to 1820, when he was succeeded 
by Dr. William Hume, "Father Hume," as he was called, who 
died of cholera in 1833, ^^^ was succeeded by Dr. R. A. Laps- 
ley, who presided until 1838, followed by Dr. W. A. Scott imtil 
1840, after which it was under the care of Elliot and Lapsley 
until 1840. From 1840 until 1861 Dr. C. D. Elliott administered 
the affairs of the school. It was closed by war, and the supreme 
court of the State in 1878, in the case of Elliott against the 
stockholders, directed the sale of the property and distribution 
of the proceeds. To show what was lost to Nashville, what 
Nashville was capable of and what by concentrated effort it is 
still capable of, I give the statistics of its operations : 

Dbvblopmbnt of Education in Tennessee. 77 

Tear. PaiHli. Boftiden. OrAdoAtes. Teaohen. 

1820 115 ... 4 3 

1830 124 ... 8 5 

1840 198 18 8 10 

1850 305 83 14 16 

i860 513 256 61 32 

In i860 th^re were seventeen music teachers, thirteen selected 
directly from the musical centers of Europe, and four hundred 
and twenty-five music pupils. At that day Nashville was only 
surpassed in classical music by New York, New Orleans and 
Boston. Dr. Elliott, under whose care these results were 
attained, was a graduate of Augusta College, Kentucky, the first 
Methodist college with power to confer degrees. He is said to 
have been the first Methodist minister to engage in Nashville, in 
teaching as a regular profession and, therefore, a pioneer of all 
that host of able and devoted teachers of that great, progressive 
denomination, which has so many now engaged in that work in 
and around Nashville. The influence of this great school in the 
Southwest can never be fairly estimated. The alumnus lists of 
our male colleges rarely fail to tell us who among their graduates 
have been doctors, lawyers, preachers, senators, congressmen; 
but who will trace the influence of wise training and noble cul- 
ture upon the women of the land, who at last give the impulse 
which leads their sons on to success? Our colleges trained the 
sons, but the academy turned out refined and intellectually and 
morally cultivated women, the mothers of the sons. Business 
capacity, rare skill as a manager and teacher, the love and con- 
fidence of the pupils, broad, liberal and progressive ideas, the 
absence of all charlatanry and confidence that, when his name 
was set to a diploma, it was done with the same care he exercised 
in signing a note in ban|c and meant that he "endorsed" that 
scholar as graduated, gave Dr. Elliott this wonderful success. 
In a pecuniary point of view it more enriched the community 
than all the male schools here now; in a moral and intellectual 
point of view, it was a center of culture, refinement and art. The 
field is here still; the same capacity and the same concentration 
of the efforts of our present efficient laborers will attain the same 
results, in female education. 

There are many matters connected with the subject of educa- 
tion, interesting, curious and profitable, which want of time forbids 

73 Thb Ambricak Historicai. Magazinb. 

me to touch. The effect on educaticm of the Arminian and Cal- 
vinistic controversy ; the Hopkinsian controversy within the Pres- 
byterian Church, which enlisted such giants as Frederic A. 
Ross, Galaher, Anderson and others; the movement which cul- 
minated in the establishment of the Cumberland Presb3rterian 
Church would be exceedingly interesting subjects for examina- 
tion. It is a curious fact that Maryville Theological Seminary, 
established in 1819, could not obtain a charter on account of 
prejudices growing out of the conflict between the two wings 
of the Presbyterian Church and Methodist Church, a three 
cornered ccMitest, in which prejudices invaded even the legisla- 
ture. The fact shows that churches played a part in politics they 
do not play in this day. The gradual growth of the Baptist, 
Methodist and Cumberland Presbyterian churches to their pres- 
ent high place in the education of the state is an exceedingly in- 
teresting chapter in our history, as well as the growth of the 
Episc(q>al Church to a place in the educaticmal work. These 
questions belong, however, to the historian of education. There 
is the charter of Valadolid Academy, established earlier, but char- 
tered in 1805, which recites the names of the trustees and adds 
the title, "gentleman," I believe the first and last time citizens 
of Tennessee are thus referred to in our legislative history show- 
ing the last trace of respect for caste. The history of Robertson 
Academy, chartered as one of the State academies in 1806, it were 
interesting to trace. The local, personal and, from the name, 
political, conflict between Davidson Academy and Federal Acad- 
emy, with Andrew Jackson and Mr. Craighead on one side and 
the Federal judge, McNairy on die other, carried into the legis- 
lature and finally, satisfactorily compromised, would form an 
interesting chapter. The school lottery craze, when every public 
and many private schools bethought them to grow suddenly rich 
and great. Lotteries in Tennessee to-day would be a tremendous 
crime, because they would be a tremendous shock to the moral 
sense of the community. Things 'by season seascmed are ;" they 
had not demonstrated their terribly demoralizing effect in that 
day and the very prevalence of the lottery lunacy, which was 
never profitable, so far as I can learn to any school, enabled 
Tennessee to get rid of a crime which still disg^ces some of our 
sister States. 

Development op Education in Tennessee. 79 

There are many names of eminent men, such as Anderson, 
the founder of Maryville Seminary; J. N. Bryson, of Viney 
Grove, the pioneer of education in Lincoln County; and many 
others as deserving of mention as those I have mentioned. These 
I leave to the historian of education, with the remark that, per- 
haps we have not yet reached the point where that can be written, 
or if written, read. We have not passed yet the point of glorying 
most in military achievements and political struggles, nor is it 
desirable that our society shall exhibit any such unwholesome 
precocity. All things in season and in their order will be best. 

The great and conservatively progressive Catholic Church 
owes the beginnings of its educational movements in Tennessee 
to Bishop Miles, imder whom the Sisters of Charity from Naza- 
reth, Kentucky established the first school here in 1840. St. 
Agnes, Memphis, was established in 1850. St. Cecilia, under the 
care of the Dominican Sisters, whose care is the educaticMi of 
young girls for their place in society, was established in i860, 
by six ladies, members of St. Mary's Literary Institute, Perry 
County, Ohio. Its graduates number about seventy and it is 
sectarian in no sense other than Protestant schools which are 
under the special care of a particular church. St. Bernard School 
and the St. Mary's Parish free school, both under the care of the 
Sisters of Mercy, with an attendance together of about five hun- 
dred, were founded in 1866. There is none who understands 
the universality and conservatism of the Catholic Church and 
ncMie who knows the sweet and intense devotion of the sisters 
of these noble orders but will rejoice that they are worthily per- 
forming, through their influence on the young, a worthy part in 
the working out of the great problem of the development of the 
best social order from the elements of population in Tennessee. 

State education forms an interesting chapter in the progress 
of Tennessee. The tendency of the world is toward popular State 
education, and woe to the church, the party, or the man who 
stands in the way. The ablest Protestant opponent of State 
education. Dr. R. L. Dabney, of Virginia, President of Hampden- 
Sydney Presbyterian Seminary declares that it must become 
secular or nothing, and then proceeds to show that, in Scotland 
and New England education was a part of the established church 
machinery, while in Germany, the churches provide religious 

8o The Ambrican Historical Magazine. 

instruction in the public schools. This proves too much. The 
school system of Prussia is admitted to be the most efficient piece 
of machinery in the world of its kind. If State education is com- 
bined with secular State instruction in that system it is hard to 
see why they are incompatible in other systems. He also declares 
that no State, Christian, pagan, or Mahometan, ever thought of 
a purely secular education in the schools until it was attempted 
in the United States. This is a mere bugbear to frighten worthy 
people; accepting the conclusion that the inevitable tendency 
is toward purely secular education in the schools and, it is also 
true, that no country. Christian, pagan, or MahcMnetan, ever 
thought of a State without a State diurch, until it was attempted 
in the United States, to the satisfaction of all churches. If pure- 
ly secular education shall flow frcMn this system, the churches will 
adapt themselves to the new conditions, as they adapted them- 
selves to the condition of free churches in a purely secular state. 

The common school is not the peculiar growth of any people. 
Like causes have produced it in several countries. John Knox 
may be called the father of die modern free school although, as 
established by him, it was merely the right arm of the church. 
The same spirit of awakened enquiry developed a similar system 
in New EnjE^land, the basic principles of which were learned in 
Holland. While there were important diflferences between the 
Scotch and the New England Calvinists, there was the same 
clear perception, that liberty of thought and of religion, acquired 
by independent enquiry and the exercise of individual judgment, 
could only be maintained by a people educated to think and to 
enquire. Prussia also developed independently a system of com- 
mon school education. The Reformation created the essential 
conditions, but was not, as in the other cases, the immediate 
cause. The desire to recover, by intellectual superiority what 
had been lost by arms was the proximate cause, or rather the 
occasion of the growth of the system. 

Many of our citizens have joined with enthusiasts whose es- 
pecial mission it is to remodel every state after the pattern of 
New England, to extol the common school system of that country 
and criticise our own. One denounces our system because it is 
a Yankee invention, and another is equally severe because it is 
lacking in essential New England qualities. I have heard one 


recently criticising our county system and extolling the State 
system, forgetting that, in New England, the school system was 
essentially a community development, forgetting that, if they 
have a State system, they have had two and a half centuries in 
which to grow it from the townships. Local government has 
never been carried further than in New England. These enthu- 
siasts are also accustomed to compare their best with our worst. 
In Barnard's Educational Review will be found the testimony 
of eminent men, educated in early life, in the country schools, 
amongst them Noah Webster. The candid reader will conclude 
that the country schools were the exact counterpart of our old 
field schools. They are equally inefficient to-day, when compared 
with the city schools ; and the same is true of Tennessee schools, 
Such was also the conclusion reached by the French commission 
of 1876, after a thorough examination. Our own superintendent 
of public instruction, after hearing the testimony of the North- 
western superintendents at Indianapolis, came to the conclusion 
that the engrafted system of New England in the Northwest, 
exhibited the same lack of organization and of effective teaching, 
of which complaint is made in Tennessee. It is provincial weak- 
ness denies to New England her virtues and her g^eat and worthy 
part in the progress of this country. By all means let us have 
light from all quarters, but it is not necessary to believe that every 
farthing dip is an electric burner of forty candle power, just be- 
cause that is the opinion of some purblind admirer. I only insist 
that our development is in our hands. If it is not directed by a 
spirit within, it will not be guided to any good, by influence from 
without. With no servile copy, studying the systems of 
others, and receiving light from their experience, Tennessee must 
build upon her own foundations in her own way. 

The educational progress of Tennessee has been all of a piece, 
gradual development, from the ground up, and there is no reason 
to be ashamed of any_ part of the work. An apparent break 
occurs with the convulsion of 1861, but the changes made only 
brought about more rapidly logical, systematic development, the 
sequel to that which had been 'lone. The acts under which the 
State is now making substantial progress are a logical advance 
from a long: series of experiments, requiring changes, slight in 
form although important in substance. The past was not, as 

82 The American Historical Magazine 

many suppose, swept away to give place to a new system and a 
new civilization. This must be emphasized; for, now that Ten- 
nessee is beginning to take her old high place in the work of edu- 
cation, many believe that we have transplanted a system from 
New England, instead of growing one in our own soil. It is a 
common opinicxi that the debris of the past, and the wrecks the 
war left strewn over the land, were swept away and something 
entirely new set up in their place. Society is not so easily de- 
stroyed and (does not so readily adapt itself to exotic systems. 
All history shows that the primitive granite is scarcely more en- 
during than community characteristics. War cannot erase, revo- 
lution efface, tyranny crush, nor law destroy the tendencies, forms 
and methods which are an outgrowth of the thought, sentiment 
and history of a people. The progress of the Tennessee school 
system has been consistent development from within, a gradual 
unfolding, in accordance with the origin and history of the com- 
munity and the conditions by which it has been surrounded. 

The great educational movement in the United States began 
with the nineteenth century. Up to that time popular education, 
where it was at its best, at least outside the cities, was the merest 
^*old field school" business. Our statutes show that Tennessee 
participated in that movement, while isolation, sparse population, 
rapid expansion over a large territory and the circimistances sur- 
rounding a new community, deprived the movement of its full 
effect. In 1806, congress donated 100,000 acres of land for the 
establishment of two colleges, 100,000 acres for the establishment 
of academies in each county and 640 acres in each township for 
the maintenance of common schools. That act contained 
at once the germs of the school fund and of a school 
system to be worked out by a half century of experiment and a 
pregnant Question, which retarded the cause of education more 
than the school donation advanced it. The act required that the 
lands should be sold at not less than two dollars an acre, but they 
were located south of the French Broad River where the settiers 
were to receive their lands at one dollar per acre. The fund was 
thus reduced one half, interest frequently remitted, most of the 
principal lost, delays granted, and prejudices against schools 
and colleges engendered throughout the State, which have had a 
most unhappy effect upon the progress of learning. 


The first constitution did not mention the subject of education, 
but, acting within the scope of their general authority, the Assem- 
bly, in 1806, converted Blount College into the College of East 
Tennessee and Davidson College into Cumberland College, es- 
tablished twenty-eight academies, created commissiwiers to take 
charge of the school lands and funds arising therefrom, and 
directed the common school lands to be laid off. The earlier 
acts are devoted mainly to the academies. The school lands 
were directed to be leased, and various acts, altering, amending 
and repealing, show growing thought on the subject until 1817, 
exhibited an increasing interest. In 1821 Warren and Franklin 
counties were directed to have school commissioners appointed 
by the county court, for the establishment of schools and thus 
the school system of the State grew up from an act, at first local 
in its operation. In 1822 the provisions of the act were extended 
to other counties, and in 1823 the first general school act was 
passed, directing the county courts to elect a board of five com- 
missioners in each county. The commissioners were directed 
to employ teachers, to build school houses and to educate the 
poor free of charge. This was the beginning of what was known 
as the pauper system, which also existed in Virginia, and in both 
States continued down to 1861. It worked badly in some respects 
as the poor were also proud and little disposed to accept as a gift 
that for which others paid. It was regarded as a disgrace to be 
known as a recipient of the bounty. It was not that equality 
which is an essential quality of popular education, but it has been 
very unjustly criticised. The intent was good; it was the earliest 
experiment of a poor community and, inadequate as it was, it 
accomplished much good. But for the tuition collected from 
those who were able to pay, the schools could not have been 
maintained at all. Under that system, from 103,000 in 1850 and 
25,000 in 1840, there were 138,000 pupils in the schools in i860, 
and Tennessee was in a fair way to wipe away the stain of il- 
literacy. In 1827 a general system was elaborated, amended and 
re-enacted in 1830. In 1834 the constitutional convention adopted 
a provision concerning education, which showed the general in- 
terest and the demand for something, and yet, by its generality 
and vagueness, indicated strong opposition or a want of definite 
ideas on the subject. In 1835 ^ State superintendent was created. 

84 The American Historical Magazine. 

In 1838 and again in 1839 the act of 1830 was altered, amended 
and re-enacted ; but in 1842 the act creating a State superinten- 
dent was repealed and the duties devolved on the treasurer. 
Down to 1 86 1 the subject was one in which progress was con- 
tinually opposed by the fossils, and efforts to advance were ex- 
perimental. The acts relating to the subject of the schools and 
of the school fund are very numerous, but through them all runs 
the thread of continual progress, except where the fossil element 
now and then got the upper hand. Accepting for true the dicta 
of our critics all this was mere labor for nothing, time and money 
wasted, and this fifty years of continual experiment was thrown 
away. Careful study will show that it was the process by which 
society was developing a fairly well-working system, now in 

If we grant that other States had better systems they could 
not be transplanted. Borrowed legal, social and educational 
systems, "like our new garments, cleave not to their mould." 
Unless we can change the habits of thought, customs and senti- 
ments of a people, to correspond to those of the cc«nmunity 
borrowed from, we may gain light from their experience, but 
not transplant their systems. The process in Tennessee has been 
logical, systematic development: First, the Legislature char- 
tered private schools, colleges and academies; next came the 
State colleges and academies of 1806 and the nucleus of a school 
fund and system, and in 18 17 we begin to see evidences of the 
gradual unfolding of the system. 

In 1867 an act was passed which was, in many respects, a 
decided advance, containing many excellent features, and yet 
not a very radical change. It had the support of General Eaton, 
now the able and efficient naticmal superintendent of public instruc- 
tion, whose labors here were valuable, though brief. That system 
was repealed, for two good reasons, which the practical statesman 
will allow to have been good. One was political prejudice, which 
the practical statesman always takes into account ; the other was 
that the law was not the logical next step. It did not follow di- 
lectly upon the past. Naturally a reactionary law, repealing the act 
of 1867, went backward. Leaving out the pauper feature the 
act of 1870 was substantially that of the code of 1858. It has 
been amended and our present system is the act of 1858 simpli- 

Devei^opmrnt op Education in Tennessee. 85 

fied, shorn of the pauper feature, the loose district system, 
gathered into some sort of coherence under a county superin- 
tendent, a State superintendent, maintained for general direc- 
tion, and the whole system made popular education of the most 
comprehensive kind, needing, doubtless, further systematic de- 
velopment, amendment and provisions for its better working, 
but no radical change of system. 

Another fact confirms the view I have presented, that we 
have developed a system, suited at each period to our circum- 
stances and stage of process. It is that communities which 
had made more than the general progress of the State were able, 
as Nashville and Memphis, to grow thorough popular systems 
as early as 1852 in Nashville and a little earlier in Memphis. 
The schools which are the pride of Nashville, early became dis- 
tinguished for order, discipline, and useful as well as moral 
training. To them the merchants of the city went for em- 
ployees as early as 1854. These communities, centers of cul- 
ture, were already prepared for popular education and possessed 
a dense enough population to enable them to establish such 
schools successfully. Thus our years of experiment had already 
developed true popular education, at a few points, ten years be- 
fore the war, while they were drawing the rest of the State as 
rapidly as possible along on the same line. Such men as Alfred 
Hume, who studied the various systems in the Northern cities, 
and other live men, established the system and brought here 
J. F. Pearle, the first superintendent, from the North — directly 
from Memphis, where he was acting as superintendent — showing, 
amid all the prejudices of that day, a catholic willingness to 
receive light from any quarter. For all that the system estab- 
lished here, after full inquiry, was and is our own in every im- 
portant particular. 

Taking into consideration the ultramontane position of Ten- 
nessee, remote from the centers of older civilizations, her isola- 
tion from the world tmtil wise statesmanship built her great 
systems of railways in the decade preceding the war, the shift- 
ing character of her population during a large part of our his- 
tory, the sparseness of population, the candid student will admit 
that Tennessee has made substantial and comparatively rapid 

86 Thb American Historical Magazine. 

Illiteracy is a fact which must be accepted, a fact which calls 
for the efforts put forth by our able, earnest and efficient sup- 
erintendent of public instruction, aided by an enlightened public 
sentiment. Illiteracy is a lawful inheritance; if Tennessee oc- 
cupied the third place in the census reports. North Carolina was 
first and Virginia second in illiteracy. 

The statistics show what Tennessee was doing in i860. With 
thirty-five colleges in i860 and 2,932 pupils she was seventh 
in the Union; with 274 academies and 15,793 pupils she was 
seventh; with 2,966 common schools and 138,809 pupils she was 
twelfth. Taking percentage, and not mere numbers, for in that 
census Tennessee was eleventh in population, her place was 
much higher. Why then this record of illiteracy? As Ten- 
nessee was the mother of States, furnishing population to the 
Southwest and the South and West, she sent many of her best 
educated young men to seek their fortunes elsewhere. The 
ignorant residuum was left in too large proportions on our 
hands. The "spike team" and the covered wagon of the ignorant 
classes sometimes sought "the lUinoy" or "the Purchis" or "the 
Arkansaw," but, in the main, the illiterate emigrant sought the 
ultima thule in the neighboring county or, at the furthest, set his 
wagon sail and bent his prow to the "fur off Forky Deer.*' 
While the State lost many young men of education and adven- 
turous spirits, their children sought our schools, so that we were 
doing a great work for others. A large number of those who 
swell the statistics were from the Southern States. It is also 
true, however, that the schools were full of the children of the 
State and an interest and a spirit had been aroused which would 
have speedily expunged the record of illiteracy, but for the re- 
newal of darkness by the war. The war was a very necessary 
convulsion for the settlement of great questions, but it only 
wrought injury temporarily so far as education merely in 
schools is concerned. 

In comparison it must be taken into consideraticMi that ef- 
fective schools and sparse population cannot coexist. The north- 
man, in a country condenmed to perpetual sparseness of popula- 
tion, may accept the peripatetic schoolmaster; the American 
pioneer, knowing that numerical sparseness is a temporary con- 
dition, will await more favorable conditions. In 1850, Tennessee 

Development of Education in Tennessee. 87 

had a population of twenty-two to the square mile; as the 
negroes were not a part of the scholastic population and were 
nearly one-third of the population, the rate is reduced to about 
fifteen. Connecticut had seventy-eight, Massachusetts 187, New 
York sixty-seven. 

Slavery in many ways retarded the progress of education. I 
do not profess that epimethean late learning which condenms 
slavery because its time had come. With many concomitant 
evils and much temporary injury done to society, slavery was 
a blessing to America and to both races. The evils were tem- 
porary and curable, the injury done to America and the human 
race easily repaired; the good, eternal. It was incompatible 
with popular education, reducing the scholastic population, sub* 
stituting a servile class for intelligent labor, degrading labor 
and destroying the interest capital has in that popular education 
which creates an intelligent and efficient laboring class. The his- 
tory of Tennessee also exhibits an expansion of population over 
a large territory, at a rate more rapid than the process of com- 
pacting the population into a close-woven social fabric. The 
settlement of West Tennessee was not begun until 1822, and 
down to 1850 all Tennessee was shifting, restless, ever-moving, 
a condition not favorable to the growth of popular education. 
Precisely the reverse was the case in New England, where the 
process of community building and compacting, for many years 
at least, kept pace with the process of expansion. 

What do we need now in Tennessee? Let it be remembered 
that money will not build a school system. It is but the smallest 
stone in that fabric, nay it is but the cement. We most need 
a strongly supporting public sentiment and capable, efficient 
teachers. A small sum applied to the normal school, established 
here by the liberality of George Peabody and the wisdom of 
his trustees, will do more than a large sum applied in any other 
direction, and, yet, through the shortsight and niggardly policy 
of your penny-wise legislators, this institution is about to be 
lost to Tennessee. The same cheap demagogy has suspended 
taxes and curtailed the efforts of those who are laboring in the 
cause of education. 

As to higher education, upon which all at least depends, there 
is needed, first of all, concentration of means and efforts, associa- 

88 Thb Ambrican Historicai< Magazinb. 

tion, singleness of purpose, consistent, however, with the utmost 
diversity and freedom of thought We need uniformity of system, 
so that all State and national, church, public and private, shall 
be but parts of one great system, whose end is one, however 
diverse the means of reaching the end. Society, although it 
comprehends this diversity, is one; the educational system, with 
all the diversity desirable, must yet be one gjeat system of many 
parts — not in enforced units, but through harmonious co-opera- 

Many institutions have risen and flourished and fallen by the 
way in the great struggle of localities for the survival of the 
fittest, and yet the cause of education is tenfold stronger than 
ever before. There is no need to mourn revered alpKie nuUres 
which have perished. Their energies worthily exerted are a 
part of the present. The labor of the educational pioneers of 
Tennessee exists to-day in the State University at Knoxville; in 
Cumberland University of the great popular branch of the 
Presbyterian Church at Lebanon ; in the University of the South, 
the Episcopal university at Sewanee; in the Baptist University 
at Jackson ; in the Southwestern Presb)rterian University at 
Clarksville; and in the Vanderbilt University at Nashville; the 
noimal school; the city schools; the private female schools; the 
Fisk, the Tennessee Central and the Baptist college, our three 
gjeat African schools. To the labors of the pioneers in Davidson 
Academy and their successors and in the Nashville Female 
Academy are due the facilities we have in this city to-day. If 
others have worthily continued their work, they well laid the 
foundations of this future intellectual and educational center of 
the South and Southwest. 

We need conservative progress, with no step backward and 
no false step forward. Especially do we need a recognition of 
the changed conditions surrounding the South — an environment 
which requires brainful handiwork, the presence of intellect in 
the field, the mine, the workshop. Blundering, bungling igno- 
rance must learn or die, and if it will not learn, its euthanasia 
is a consiunmation most devoutly to be wished. The crowds 
who are seeking the learned professions must learn that the bar, 
the pulpit and the medical profession are overcrowded. The am- 
bitious need no longer enter there to secure respectability. Labor 

Dbvblopmbnt op Education in Tbnnbssbb. 89 

is no longer the badge of servility and degradation. I am ad- 
vising no man to court drudgery, or to hide his talents in a ditch. 
The rewards of the new times will be found awaiting those who 
bring intellect and judgment, to conquer drudgery and rise 
above that labor which all men seek to avoid, in the factory, the 
machine shop, the mine and on the farm. The highest pecuniary 
rewards will be found there and there is the field for the 
noblest humanity. In this arena the chivalry of the coming 
century will couch the lance. The openings for our young men 
are the fields which education in practical and applied science 
will point out. Some of our institutions are engaging in this 
gjeat work and others are preparing themselves to lead in the 
movement which is to take the place of the rage for the so-called 
learned professions, the place behind the counter, the thousand 
and one agencies, in which men seek to avoid hard labor and 
only embrace gnawing care, I am saying nothing against these, 
except that they are overcrowded. 

America has won her place in the commerce of the world by 
skill, in which brains have directed handiwork. The Swiss, the 
Frank, the Briton have learned from American competition that 
enlightened judgment counts for more than trained hand, the 
skill which practice gives the nerves and muscles. Taught by 
America, the British social philosopher finds a new definition 
for "technical education." It is not training in technique, handi- 
craft, manipulation, the skill a fool may acquire by repetition, 
but education in the principles of an art, in the science which 
precedes and underlies an occupation — ^that training of the mind 
which makes the laborer equal to any emergency, no longer 
chained, like the skilled laborer of the ancient guilds, to an in- 
herited routine. 

By such brain skill as well as hand skill, taught by the condi- 
tions of American life, almost unconsciously acquired, the Ameri- 
can has won his place. Europe, already taught by lost prestige, 
is consciously moving to reach the same end. Our position must 
be maintained by conscious effort and by understanding, wherein 
lies our strength. In Tennessee we have all this to acquire; the 
labor of development is all before us. With our agricultural and 
mineral resources, wonderful diversity of climate and produc- 
tions, aptitude for varied industries, and hence for indepen- 

90 Thb Ambrican Historical Magazinb. 

dence, no State has greater need for skill directed by judgment, 
for intellect applied to matter, or more to expect from education 
in the utilitarian branches. We can no longer afford to cling 
to the motive power of the backwoodsman, whose sawmill was 
"run by the force of circumstances." To keep our place in the 
world and in our own country, to keep abreast of our sister and 
neigbor States, our young men must be directed toward tech- 
nical education to acquire the principles of applied science, to 
fit themselves for the various phases of material development 
from the lowest to the topmost round. 

I am predicting for our State and for the South an era 
of material development — ^a movement which will elevate those 
falsely called the lower pursuits. Our schools and collies must 
take the lead and meet the demand. But material development 
will only be retarded; or attained, like Dead Sea apples turn to 
ashes on the lips, if the highest religfious, moral and intellectual 
development, go not iii hand with material progress. It is in- 
tellectual and moral emancipation and development that have 
conquered matter and given civilization its power over nature; 
through these that power must be maintained. For all the shal- 
low jesting, systems of philosophy still rule the world from their 
lofty and almost unapproachable seats. 

From Bardstown to Washington in 1805. 91 


an unsigned diary. 

[The following diary, k«pt in a seven and a half by four-inch blank 
book, substantially bound in boards, was presented to the Tennessee His- 
torical Society in 1877 by W. D. Horton. The author is not known, but 
he was evidently a young man of wealth and culture. He gives the 
names of his companions, who were of well known Kentucky families. 
The diary itself contains many interesting incidents of persons and places, 
and seems to me well worthy of publication.] 

April 3, 1805. I set out from Bardstown for Baltimore, in 
company with James Crutcher, G. W. Whitaker, Adam Anthony, 
and John Brethett, having four packs of silver in our company. 
The first tavern we stopped at was Wm. Edwards* in Middles- 
burg, where we fed our horses and departed from thence and 
arrived at Mr. Bridgewater's tavern and put up for the night. 
Mr. Anthony was much surprised by the horses pulling the fence 
down over his head, but he being small fortunately evaded being 
hurt, but was much alarmed. Mr. Whitaker was unfortunate 
enough when gone to bed to let the rats run away with his 
stocking. He made a long but unsuccessful search for it, and 
swore vengeance when he should catch them. This circumstance 
together with Mr. Anthcaiy's served us with fun the balance of 
the way. 

Departed from thence and arrived at Fry's tavern, where we 
breakfasted and fed our horses. Mr. Anthony and his com- 
panion turned out in about half a mile of Frankfort on the Wood- 
ford, and we never again came up with him until we arrived 
at Redstone. 

Arrived at Frankfort and put up at Mr. Weiseger's tavern and 
stayed all night. Departed from Frankfort on Friday morning, 
and arrived at William Dailey's (a free mulatto), and breakfasted 
and fed our horses. Was much pleased with our fare. De- 
parted from thence and arrived in Lexington, and put up at 
Mr. Joshua Willson's, where we stayed all night. 

92 Thb Ambrican Historicai< Magazinb. 

Saturday, April 6. Left Lexington and arrived in Paris (dis- 
tance, eighteen miles), and breakfasted and fed our horses wiA 
Mr. Hughs, with whom we were much pleased. Departed from 
thence and arrived at Mr. Buckner's tavern, where [we] stayed 
all night. 

Sunday, April 7. Departed thence and [arrived] at Mr. Wil- 
liam's, where we breakfasted and fed. Arrived at Mayslick and 
put up at Bell's and fed. Departed from thence and arrived at 
Maysville, and put up with James Chambers. At Maysville we 
had the pleasure of seeing a large vessel of four hundred tons 
burthen, owned by Messrs. Tarascon, Berthond & Co., and were 
waiting here for high water in order to go ctti. The sailors on 
board were extremely accommodating in showing us the different 
^departments of the vessel, and prevailed on me to go down in 
their cabin, but so soon as I was down I thought most prc^)er 
to return, as there were several large ugly fellows below, and 
one holding a tar bucket and brush in his hand just ready to 
receive me, and would have begun his operation had it not been 
rhat they were waiting for some more of my company. But I 
soon made my retreat and was up on deck before they scarce 
knew I was down. At this circumstance the company laughed 
extremely. The next thing that excited our attention was the 
sight of a licm, which had just been landed in a boat frcmi 
Pittsburg. This animal is formed for the lot assigned him — ^to 
be king of beasts. He had become so much domesticated as to 
suffer his keeper to hug him, and was according to appearance 
as docile as anv other animal. Even I myself can boast of having 
my hand on the fiercest beast in the world. This creature was of 
the age of about thirteen or fourteen, and was brought frcnn 
Africa. The keeper informed us that they generally lived to be 
eighty or ninety years old. The animal's name was Cairo, after 
a city in Egypt. The keeper struck him in order to make him 
roar, then "he with eyes darting fury and a countenance dis- 
torted" looked tremendous. Yet he would not gratify us with 
a yell, but growled, the sound of which was indicative of the 
mighty noise he could make. 

Departed Chambers' on Monday, April 8. Crossed in a small 
boat with many horses, which was disagreeable. Arrived at 
Robinson's and breakfasted and fed our horses, and had a very 

From Bardstown to Washington in 1805. 93 

brisk landlady, with whom were much pleased, and Crutcher let 
his horse escape in order for having an excuse to stay longer. 
Traveled from thence sixteen miles and fed. Arrived at Hahn's 
-and stayed all night. 

Tuesday, April 9. Departed from Hahn's and went sixteen 

mil€s and breakfasted at Mr. . Arrived at Mr. Accamara- 

vdons and fed our horses. Departed thence and arrived at Chil- 
licothe, much fatigued with riding, and put up with Mr. Nuham, 
at the sign of the Red Lion, where we were treated with much 
politeness and fared extremely well, both with respect to our- 
selves and horses. The dining [room] was spacious and calcu- 
lated for the reception of much company, and the table supplied 
with a gjeat variety. 

Wednesday, April 10. Was detained a considerable [time] 
by a Mr. Renick, on whom I had a draft for $500, but was un- 
fortunate enough not to have it paid. Mr. Renick informed me 
that I might exchange my silver with General Samuel Finley, the 
Receiver of Public Monies for lands sold in the State of Ohio, 
by giving him a premium of one per cent, and accordingly ex- 
changed 2,530 dollars. I also sold my pack horse to him for 
fifty dollars and paid the premium of my company with the 
balance that was due over my own (to wit) for Mr. Whitaker 
$15.65; for James Crutcher $8. Departed from Chillicothe in 
the afternoon and went fifteen miles to Craig's and stayed all 

Thursday, April 11. Arrived at Luther's (10 m.) and break- 
fasted and fed our horses. The sign was a large wood plow 
and harrow hung on a tree. Arrived at Trimble's and fed. 
Arrived at Lashy's and put [up] for the night. See three girls. 
But none possessed the charms of Venus. W. C. was extravagant 
in his praises to them and the old woman ; but he reversed it the 
next morning, for he had a long dispute (or almost a quarrel) 
about the charge and the money that he paid it with, for he said 
they had charged him the full price and then about seven-sixths 
for his compliments. This day's travel was through a diversity 
of land, and also passed through the town of New Lancaster, in 
County of Fairfield, cm Hocking Creek. This creek is small, but 
remarkable for its being extremely miry and bad ford. 

Friday, April 12. Arrived at Crook's, breakfasted and fed. 

94 Thb Ambrican Historicai< Magazinb. 

Arrived at Pryor's and fed. Arrived at Brown's, where we put 
up for the night, and will long recollect for the fun we had there. 
See two pretty girls, with whom the company was much pleased. 

Saturday, April 13. Arrived at Spear's, breakfasted and fed. 
Arrived at H. Beamer's and fed. Arrived at Wherry's (com- 
monly called "Brandy Camp") and stayed all night. Ate supper 
and went to bed. See Jo. Gordon there. 

Sunday, April 14. Went eleven miles to Casaway's and break- 
fasted and fed. Departed from thence and arrived at St. Clairs- 
ville and put up at the sign of the Golden Plough, and fed our 
horses. St. Clairville is situated on a ridge and the land ex- 
tremely poor, as is all the country around it. The number of 
houses appear to be about forty or fifty, and contains about eight 
or ten taverns. Distance from Wheeling, ten miles. Departed 
from thence and arrived at Wheeling about dark and put up at 
Knox's tavern, and left packsaddle and bags there. Wheeling 
is situated immediately at the bottom of a large mountain, and the 
buildings are extended up and down the river for some distance. 
The houses look but indifferently, as they are generally smoked 
very much with the coal that is used for their fires. A stranger 
for some distance before he enters the town can very sensibly 
smell the sulphurous matter that is generated by the burning 
of the coal. It is a town of great resort, as all those who are 
destined for the westward pass this place. 

Departed from Wheeling on Monday, April 15, and arrived 
two miles east of Alexandria (a small village), and fed and drank 
some cider. Departed from thence and arrived in the town of 
Washington, and put up at John Purviance's and stayed all night. 
Washington is a handsome inland town, situated on an eminence, 
and has a number of handsome buildings in it. It was the theater 
of the insurrection at the time when Congress laid the tax on 
distilled spirits; and the principal characters who fomented the 
minds of the people resided in this place. It was the residence 
of the celebrated Bradford, the ringleader of the band, who, after 
he had intimation of the United States army marching out to 
quell the insurgents, took opportunity to flee from his country, 
and departed for the westward. From the information of Mr. 
Purviance I learn that General Hamilton had the command of the 
army at this place, and General Washington did not come any 

From Bardstown to Washington in 1805. 95 

further than Hagerston. General Hamiltcm resided at this place 
for about two weeks and made his residence in the house of 
Bradford to prevent its bein^ plundered by his soldiers. 

April 16. Departed from Washington on Tuesday and arrived 
at Hawkin's to breakfast— distance thirteen miles. Departed 
thence and arrived on the banks of the Monongahela. Arrived 
in Brownsville and put up at Sheldon's at the sign of the black 
horse. Brownsville is situated immediately on the bank of the 
Monongahela river, and in a very broken, sidling place, as part 
of the town is situated on a hill, and the other part directly on 
the bank of the river, and the communication is cut off measur- 
ably by the hill being so steep. The inhabitants appear to be 
extremely industrious, and are very good manufacturers of what- 
ever they turn their attention to. And they particularly excell in 
the making of the implements of husbandry: such as scythes, 
sickles, etc., etc. It is the principal place where all the iron and 
castings that are brought to the western country are purchased. 
And glass in great abundance can be had at the Geneva works. 
Adjcwning the town on the opposite side of the creek is a towil 
called Bridgeport, where a number of boats are built and kept 
for sale. 

Departed from Brownsville on Wednesday, April 17, and ar- 
rived at Union Town to breakfast, and put [up] at Thos. Col- 
lin's, where we were much entertained by Mrs. Collins shewing 
us a number of elegant drawings, and the polite attention we 
received from her left an impression that never will be effaced. 
Union Town is about two miles distant from the foot of the 
Laurel hill, and is handsomely situated, and the houses are very 
compact. There is a fire engine and company in this place, and 
a great number of stores and taverns. The citizens appear to 
be extremely industrious, as is generally the case with all the 

About two miles distant from Union Town we passed through 
a small town called Woodstock, immediately at the foot of Laurel 
Mountain. But the very looks of the place indicate the extreme 
poverty of the people. Traveling thence about a mile and a half 
we arrived at the top of the mountain. And about fifteen miles 
further are the Big Meadows, celebrated for their being the 
encampment of the army of General Braddock and Washington, 

96 Thb Ambrican Historical Magazinb. 

and about one mile distant is said to be the place where Brad- 
dock was interred, directly in the wagon road and within sight 
of P. Yamel's tavern. In April last the road workers when on 
road discovered some of his bones bare. They thought proper to 
dig them up, and [they] have since been spread over different 
parts of the United States. Mr. Yamel is now in possession of 
his hip bone. 

Arrived two miles further and stopped at Steward's and fed 
our horses. We proceeded thence to the Big Crossings of the 
Yonghigheny, where we passed over a large bridge over the 
same, and immediately on the other side we put up for the night 
at Smith's tavern. 

Thursday, April i8. Departed from Smith's and arrived at 
Brown's to breakfast, etc. The Maryland and Pennsylvania lines 
intersect about two miles west of this place by the winding ridge. 
Departed from thence and arrived at Tombleston's and had our 
horses fed. Traveled thence until evening and put up at Clin- 
ton's at the foot of the All^hany Mountain, and was much 
pleased with landlady with whom we had much ftm. 

Friday, April 19. Departed from thence and arrived in Fort 
Ctmiberland to breakfast (distance, eight miles) and put up at 
T. Thistles, who kept an elegant house, and with whom we fared 
extremely well. I was much [impressed] with the situation of 
his lot, as the borders of it was washed by a canal out of Well's 
Creek, on which there are a number of good mills. The north 
bank of the Potomac passes immediately by the town, which adds 
much to the beauty of the place. Immediately on our arriving 
in town we were assailed by four elegant young ladies, who 
spoke in a low voice, though loud enough to be heard, and point- 
ing to the one she thought most handsome, said, "I will have 
that one;" another said, "I will have that one, he's the hand- 
somest," etc., etc. Which circumstance flattered us extremely, 
but more particularly me, as I thought my fair one more elegant 
than any. I was much pleased with the situation of Fort Cum- 
berland, and believe it to be a place of considerable business. 

Departed from thence and took the new road to Hancock, 
which is said to be ten miles nearer than the road by Old Town, 
and arrived at Willson's and fed our horses. Departed from 
thence and arrived at Sowder's and put up for the night. De- 

From Bardstown to Washington in 1805. 97 

parted from thence and passed through the village of Hancock, 
and arrived at Mr. Yate's to breakfast. Distance nine miles. 
Departed from thence and arrived at the Big Spring and fed our 

Departed from thence and passed through the town of Williams 
Port, which I was much pleased with, as the situation is im- 
mediately on the bank of the Potomac, at the confluence of Cono- 
cocheag^e, and has a commanding prospect of both rivers. In 
the vicinity of this town is the Manor of Sam'l Ringold, con- 
taining about thirteen thousand acres of first rate land, and the 
very meanest of which is said to be worth ten pounds an acre. 
On this valuable property is the most elegant house I ever saw 
in my life, being remarkably large, and the stone handsomely 
carved. It is situated on a small eminence, about two hundred 
yards from the road. This manor is divided into a number of 
tenements, on all of which are handsome houses. Although this 
man is blessed with an affluence that might gratify the wishes of 
the most extravagant, yet so great is his propensity for pleasure, 
and so little doth he value his honor, that he has not unfrequently 
been warranted for trivial sums. His character among [the] 
poorer class of people is so low that few of them are willing to 
credit him, or if they do, it is with an expectation of suing for 
the amount of their demand. How unfortunate that this man 
who possesses a superabundance of wealth is poor in good prin- 
ciples, and cannot be respected. Not far distant from Ringold's 
mansicMi we put up for the night, at the house of Mr. Langley, 
a man remarkable for his corpulency, as is also his wife. They 
both displayed much facility scolding, and kept the house in 
one continued uproar with their noise. 

Departed from thence, arrived at Smith's, about twelve miles 
distant, and breakfasted and fed. Departed from thence, and 
arrived in Frederick Town, and put up with Major Hall, where 
we had the pleasure of seeing seme elegant drawings. Fred- 
erick Town is elegantly situated, in a very fertile and level coun- 
try, and inhabited by very industrious citizens. There is a great 
number of elegant buildings, among which are five or six large 
churches of different denominations. The population is nearly 
as numerous as any inland town in the United States. This place 
has a superior advantage over most others on acqount of the 

98 The American Historicai. Magazine. 

number of excellent mechanics, who consist generally of Ger- 
mans, and are all versed in the different manufactories. In 
the suburbs of the town there is an old fort, which was thrown 
up in time of the Revolution, but is now evacuated. On the 
south side of the town are the barracks, in which are situated 
about two hundred troops, destined for to accompany General 
Wilkinson to upper Louisiana, so soon as he embarks for the 
government of that place. 

Departed from thence, and passed through Carroll's manor, 
being about four or five miles in length, and is composed of the 
richest land in Maryland, part of which is bounded by the 
Potomac. On this elegant property are a great number of orch- 
ards, of different kinds of fruit ; and on each tenement are hand- 
some houses. This man is considered among the wealthiest in 
the State of Maryland, as he is the proprietor of another manor 
equal in value to this, and also owns much property in the city 
of Baltimore, as well as a considerable of shares in the different 
banks in the United States. 

Crossed at the mouth of Monococy, a handsome navigable 
stream. Traveled four miles further and arrived at Mr. Whita- 
ker*s, where I stayed two nights and one day, and passed my 
time very agreeably in the company of his three daughters, who 
possessed charms enough to delight, and make every hour pleas- 
ant. Mr. Whitaker and lady treated me with much politeness, 
and gave me many solicitations to call on them again, should I 
ever pass near there. Departed from thence on Tuesday, April 
23, and arrived at Darnes' Tavern to breakfast, and was much 
pleased with Mr. and Mrs. Dames, who entertained me for some 
time by their agreeable conversation. 

Departed from thence and arrived at Montgomery Courthouse, 
and put up at Robb's tavern and fed. I delivered some letters to 
Dr. Anderson, which were sent from Kentucky by Mr. Gaither. 
Was treated with much politeness by doctor and his lady, who 
made inquiries about their friends in Kentucky. Montgomery 
Courthouse is situated on a poor pine ridge; and the buildings 
are indifferent; yet it appears to be a place which has been in- 
habited for a long time. General Wilkinson, his lady and suit, 
had just passed through this place about an hour before I arrived 
there, on his way to upper Louisiana to act in the capacity of 
Governor of the same. 

From Bardstown to Washington in 1805. 99 

Departed from thence and arrived in Washington City on 
Tuesday evening about six o'clock, and put up at Stulle's Hotel. 
This being the first city that ever I visited, and perhaps will be 
the greatest that I am destined to see, I felt many sensations of 
pleasure in being in the capital of the Western world. I was 
much in want of a companion to accompany me through the city. 
However, I solaced myself by viewing the elegant buildings that 
decorated the place. On Wednesday I thought I would enter into 
a more minute examination of the curiosities, and therefore 
thought proper to visit the capitol, and sent a servant to bring the 
key from the keeper, who conducted me through the different 
departments of the same. Immediately on going in we ascended 
a winding pair of stairs that led to the top of the house, where 
I was much amused by the elegant prospect that presented itself 
to my view, as I could have full view of the city and the 
Potomac, and could see our vessels of war lying [in] the harbor 
at the navy yard; all of which impressed on my mind a degree 
of pleasure that I never before experienced. After Satisfying 
myself in viewing the surrounding prospect, I returned to the 
inner apartments, where I had the pleasure of viewing the library 
room, and was much entertained in examining the numerous 
volumes, which composed the library, and was so fortunate as to 
be received with much politeness by the librarian, who was good 
enough to shew me all the different volumes, and also the cost of 
some of the most valuable of the books. After satisfying myself 
in examining the library, I retired, accompanied by the librarian, 
who conducted me into a number of other rooms and also to the 
Senate Chamber, where I was most gratified ; as I thought it the 
most superb and elegant room I ever saw. The seats were cush- 
ioned and lined with green baize, except the two which were 
made and set apart for the trial of Judge Chase, which were 
lined with dark purple or black, and which was, perhaps, in- 
dicative of the unfortunate situation he was in ; and served well 
to represent the important cause, which was then tried before the 
Senate, and in which every citizen of the United States appeared 
interested. On one side of this room was suspended the portrait 
of Louis XVI, of France, as large as life, and on the other was 
hung the portrait of his queen, Maria Antoinetta, which served 
as a sad spectacle [of] the misery resulting from despotic power. 

loo Thb American Historical Magazinb. 

Immediately behind the Speaker's Chair is suspended a small and 
correct likeness of Washington, which both serve for decoration 
to the room, and also serve as a silent monitor to the House, 
where they can view at one time a model to g^ide their councils ; 
or if any are aspiring after military fame, let them cast their eyes 
upon it. This room, as well as the library room, was hung with a 
number of elegant maps and engravings printed on satin, together 
with a number of portraits of men distinguished for their learn- 
ing and patriotism. After satisfying by viewing everything 
curious in the capitol, I retired and took my leave of the polite 
stranger who was so generous in showing me everything worthy 
of notice ; and I must confess it was with a considerable degree 
of regret that I was not enabled to requite his kindness. I con- 
tinued examining that part of the city on Capitol Hill ; and par- 
ticularly the south wing of the capitol (which was then raising) 
until after dinner, but being much displeased with the accom- 
modation, I removed my quarters near the President's square, 
where I put up at Rhodes' Hotel, and I was treated with kindness 
and attention the remainder part of my stay. 

Thursday, April 25. This morning I was fortunate enough 
to make a small acquaintance with an old gentleman from Fred- 
erick Town who had business in the different departments of 
State, and I thought proper fto] accompany him to the several 
offices where he went. I was much pleased with being [at] the 
secretary of the treasury's, as there were a great number of clerks, 
or petty officers tributary to the same, and [I] was enabled to 
learn practically how business was done there. I was much 
pleased in viewing a numerous collection of boxes containing the 
archives of State, and in which were deposited files of papers that 
had any relation to treasury department. 

The day I left the city I made a visit to the navy yard and had 
the pleasure of seeing a number of vessels which had lately re- 
turned from Tripoli in order to be repaired; together with a 
large collection of cannon and balls. 

On the morning of the 25th of April I had the pleasure of 
seeing Thomas Jefferson, President of the United States. He 
was sitting on the platform before his house in company with one 
of his secretaries. His dress was plain black — ^Iie had his hair 
powdered. The yard around his house was a handsome green, 
but there was a very rough railing. 

fc^^ ^ [Here the diary en4s.] 

Editoriai,. ioi 



In this issue appears a very thoughtful and pointed paper by 
Dr. R. A. Halley concerning the need of preserving the records 
of Tennessee in some form and under some system that will make 
them accessible to the student and the investigator. It is com- 
mended to the most serious consideration of all members of the 
General Assembly. The startling truth that only in a single one 
of the State departments is there a complete set of its own pub- 
lications should be enough to emphasize and bring to the atten- 
tion of every Legislator the neglect that has existed too long. 

The article does not reflect on any particular official, nor on 
the officials in general, nor is it so intended. The trouble is due, 
as is shown, solely to the utter lack of any adequate system for 
taking care of matters of this sort. The waste of the reports 
which the General Assembly orders printed at each session is a 
sad commentary on the prevailing lack of system. If these are 
intended for no other purpose than sale to the jimk dealers their 
printing is a sad waste. If they are intended to serve the pur- 
poses naturally to be inferred, then they should be given into the 
keeping of some one who has time to attend to them, who has a 
place to keep them, and who is paid by the State a sufficient sum 
to warrant him giving his time to collecting what is not now 
in hand as well as storing and caring for what may come to the 
State's care through his efforts. Tennessee has waited until much 
is irretrievably lost; let something be done while there is still 
so much that may be gathered. Every week these State papers 
and publications are going to other libraries. Every progressive 
Northern library is after them. It will be too late erelong; it is 
too late now for a gjeat deal to be secured without paying fancy 
prices for it. 

The wide-awake and growing States are providing for the 
publication of the hitherto unprinted records, and three notable 
South^m examples of this are to be found in North Carolina, 

I02 Thb Amhrican Historicai« Magazine. 

Alabama and Mississippi. It is a debt to the founders of the 
State, but more a debt due to their posterity, that Tennessee take 
up this important matter and begin the work already too long 
delayed. The cost will be but slight. The printing of these 
records will provide for exchange through the State Librarian and 
otherwise a supply of books that will enable the State library to 
show results every year worth more than the entire cost of print- 
ing, and besides will place the history of this great common- 
wealth where it may be studied and made known to the world. 
The adequate story of what Tennessee's founders did for the 
nation is yet to be written. The State should furnish the ma- 
terials, and pave the way to the preservation of her own history 
by preserving the original records in form and shape to be con- 

IhECNNEsSEE Historical Society. 103 


Pbesident : 
Judge John M. Lea. 

Vice Prebideih^: 

Col. William A. Henderson, Gen. Gates P. Thruston, 

Gov. James D. Porter. 

Secretaby : 
A. V. Goodpasture. 

Corresponding Secretary: 
Robert T. Quarles. 

Treasitrer : 
Joseph S. Carels. 

Librarian : 
Joseph S. Carels. 

Standing Committees: 

Membership — W. R. Garrett, chairman; J. A. Cartwright, 
J. P. Hunter. 

Finance — Edgar Jones, chairman; W. S. Settle, C. H. East- 

Addresses — ^W. J. McMurry, chairman; Frederick W. Moore, 
Theodore Cooley. 

History and Biography — A. V. Goodpasture, chairman; 
John Allison, F. W. Moore. 

Museiun — Theodore Cooley, chairman ; John M. Bass, R. R. 

Special Committee: 

Publication — Dr. W. R. Garrett, chairman; Dr. R. L. C. 
White, John M. Bass. 

I04 Thb Ambrican Historical Magazine. 


Tuesday, October 14, 1902. 

The Society met pursuant to adjournment Present, Vice 
President James D. Porter, presiding, and Vice President Gates 
P. Thruston, Secretary A. V. Goodpasture, and Treasurer Jos. 
S. Cards. 

The records of the Jime meeting were read and approved. 

The Committee on By-Laws not being ready to report, were 
given further time until the next meeting. 

The members then engaged in a general discussion of miscel- 
laneous matters of interest to the Society. 

The list of donations were read. 

The Society adjourned until the second Tuesday in November. 

Tuesday, November 11, 1902. 

The Society met pursuant to adjournment. Present, Vice Pres- 
ident James D. Porter, presiding, and Vice President Gates P. 
Thruston, Secretary A. V. Goodpasture, Corresponding Secre- 
tary Robert T. Quarles, and Treasurer Jos. S. Carels. 

The records of the October meeting were read and approved. 

On motion of Robert T. Quarles, the thanks of the Society 
were tendered to Robert G. McClimg, of Boston, Mass., for the 
portrait of Judge Robert J. McKinney, presented to the Society, 
and Robert T. Quarles, Edwin W. Kennedy, and W. J. Mc- 
Murry were appointed a committee to convey^ to him a suitable 
expression of the Society's appreciation of the gift. 

On motion of Gates P. Thruston, L. E. Crouch was elected an 
active member of the Society. 

The president appointed a Committee on Addresses as follows : 
W. J. McMurry, Frederick W. Moore and Theodore Cooley. 

The donations to the Society were announced. 

After a general discussion of regimental losses during the 
Civil War, the Society adjourned until the second Tuescky in 

Tuesday, December 9, 1902. 

The Society met pursuant to adjournment. Present, Vice 
President James D. Porter, presiding, and Vice President Gates 
P. Thruston, Secretary A. V. Goodpasture, and Treasurer Jos. 
S. Carels. 

On motion of Gates P. Thruston, the treasurer was authorized 
to purchase an oil portrait of Governor D. W. C. Senter, painted 
by W. B. Cooper, which has been offered the Society. 

The list of donations was read. 

The Society then adjourned until the second Tuesday in Janu- 
ary, 1903. 

yiroAJ^nrJ/ju^ f'^nyx 

The American Historical Magazine. 

Vol. VIII. APRIL, 1903. No. 2. 


By Albkbt V. Goodpabtubk. 

[The following list is both incomplete and imperfect The reader 
will no doubt discover the omission of many names that ought to have 
a place in every list of eminent Tennesseans. He cannot help notic- 
ing that the dates of birth and death of many well known Tennesseans 
are not given. I have undertaken to make the information given as 
accurate as possible. The time and labor in getting up a paper of this 
character is very great The amount of research necessary to ascer- 
tain a single date is sometimes quite out of proportion to its value. 
I have p^iven the matter what time I could, and have found it necessary 
to pubhsh the list thus incomplete, or not at all. As I have thought 
it might be useful I have ventured to adopt the former course. All 
who can add other names or supply data missing in the names herein 
contained will confer a favor by mailing them to the author for use in 
a subsequent and larger list.] 

Abercrombie, John Joseph (1802-1877), Soldier. 

Adams, John (1825-1864), Confederate Brigadier-General. 

Adams, Robert H. (1792-1830), Lawyer and Statesman 

Adams, Stephen (1804-1857), Statesman (Miss.). 

Alexander, Adam R. (1781-1848), Congressman. 

Allen, Robert (i 778-1844), Soldier and Congressman. 

Anderson, Alexander (1794-1869), Senator. 

Anderson, Isaac (1780-1857), Clergyman. 

Anderson, James Patton (1822-1872), Confederate General. 

Anderson, Joseph (i 757-1837), Jurist and Statesman. 

Anderson, Josiah M, Congressman. 

Anderson, Samuel R. (1804-1883), Confederate Brigadier^ 

Anderson, T. C. (1801-1882), Preacher, Educator and Au- 

Anderson, W. C. (1853-1902). Congressman. 

io6 The Ahbrican Historical Magazinb. 

Anderson, W. E. (1791-1841), Jurist. 

Andrews, George (1826—^)^ Jurist. 

Armstrong, Frank C, Confederate Brigadier-General. 

Armstrong, Robert (1790-1854), Soldier. 

Amell, S. M. (1833 ), Congressman and Author. 

Arnold, Thos. D. (1798-1870), Congressman. 

Ashe, Jno. B. ( 1857), Congressman. 

Atchison, Thos. A. (1818-1900), Physician. 

Atkins, J. D. C. (1825 )f Statesman. 

Avery, W. T. (^819-1880), Congressman. 

Bailey, James E- (1822-1885), Lawyer and Senator. 
B^ird, A. J. (1824-1884), Preacher and Author. 

Balch, George B. (1821 ), Naval Officer. 

Baldwin, S. D. (1818-1866), Preacher and Author. 

Ball^ntine, J. G., Congressman. 

Barksdale, Wm. (1821-1863), Soldier and Congressman 

Barnard, Edward E. (1857 ), Astronomer. 

Barringer, Daniel L. (1788-1852), Congressman (N. C). 

Barrow, Alexander (1801-1846), Lav^yer and Statesman 

Barrow, Washington (181 7-1866), Lawyer and Congressman. 

Barton, David (1785-1837), Senator (Mo.). 

Barton, R. M. (1851 ), Jurist. 

Baskerville, Wm. M. (1850-1900), Educator and Author. 

Bate, Wm. B. (1826— — ), Confederate Major-General, Sen- 
ator and 23rd Governor. 

Battle, Joel A. (1811-1872), Confederate (General. 

Baxter, Ed. (1837— — )y Lawyer. 

Baxter, John (1819-1886), Jurist. 

Bean, Tames Baxter ( 1870), Scientist. 

Bean, Russell (i 769-1839), first white child born in Tennes- 

Bean, William, first white settler west of the Alleghanies. 

Beard, Richard (1799-1880), Preacher, Educator and Author. 

Beard, W. D. (1835—), Jurist, Eighth Chief Justice, 

Bell, John (1797-1869), Statesman and Candidate for Presi- 
dent, i860. 


Bell, Montgomery (1779-1855), Pioneer Iron Manufacturer 
and Benefactor. 

Bell, Tyree H. ( 1902), Confederate Brigadier-General. 

Benton, Thos. H. (1782-1858), Statesman and Author (Mo.). 

Blackburn, Gideon (1772-1838), Pioneer preacher and Edu- 

Blackie, Geo. S. (1834-1881), Physician and Scholar. 

BlackweU, J. W., Congressman. 

Blair, John ( 1863), Congressman. 

Blake, T. C. (1825-1896), Preacher and Author. 

Bland, James (1795 ), Pioneer (living in 1897, aged 101 

years 7 months). 

Blount, Wm. (174^1800), Statesman and Territorial Gov- 

Blount, Wm. G. ( 1827), Congressman. 

Blount, Willie (1767-1835), Third and War Governor, 1812- 

Bowen, Jno. H. (1818-1872), Congressman. 

Bowling, W. K. (1808-1885), Physician and Writer. 

Boyle, Virginia Frazier, Author and Poet. 

Brabson, Reese B. ( 1863), Congressman. 

Braden, J., Educator. 

Brents, T. W. (1823 )f Preacher and Author. 

Bridges, Geo. W. (1821-1873), Congressman. 

Briggs, Wm. T. (1828^1894), Physician and Surgeon. 

Bright, Jno. M. (1817 ), Congressman. 

Brown, Aaron V. (1795-1858), Statesman and nth Governor. 

Brown, Foster V. (1854 ), Congressman. 

Brown, Jno. C. (1829-1889), Soldier and 19th Governor. 

Brown, Joseph (1772-1868), Pioneer and Preacher. 

Brown, Milton (1804-1883), Congressman. 

Brown, Neill S. (1810-1886), Diplomat and 12th Governor. 

Brown, Wm. L. (1789-1830), Lawyer and Jurist. 

Brownlow, James P. (1845 — ^)> Union Brigadier-General. 

Brownlow, Walter P. (1851 ), Congressman. 

Brownlow, Wm. G. (1805-1877), Preacher, Journalist, Au- 
thor, Senator and 17th Governor. 

Bryan, Henry H. ( 1835), Congressman. 

Buchanan, John, Pioneer. 

io8 Thb American Historical Magazine. 

Buchanan, Jno. P. (1847 )f 25th Governor. 

Buchanan, Sarah ( 183 1), Pioneer. 

Bugg, R. M., Congressman. 

Bunch, Samuel (i 786-1849), Congressman. 

Burch, Jno. C. (1827-1881), Journalist. 

Burnett, Frances Hodgson (1849 )» Novelist. 

Burnett, Peter H. (1807 )f ist Governor of California. 

Bumey, S. G. (1814-1893), Preacher, Educator and Author. 
Butler, R. R. (1830-1902), Congressman. 
Byrne, Thomas Sebastian, Bishop. 

Caldwell, A. J. (1842 ), Congressman. 

Caldwell, foshua W. (1856 ), Lawyer and Author. 

Caldwell, R. P. (1821 ), Congressman. 

Caldwell, Samuel Y, Educator. 

Caldwell, W. C. (1849 )f Jurist. 

Caldwell, W. P. (1832 ), Congressman. 

Callender, Jno. H. (1832-1896), Physician and Journalist. 

Campbell, Alexander W. (1828 ), Confederate Brigadier- 

Campbell, Brookins (1808-1853), Congressman. 

Campbell, David ( 181 2), Jurist. 

Campbell, Geo. W. (1768-1848), Jurist, Statesman and Diplo- 

Campbell, Thos. J. ( 1850), Congressman. 

Campbell, Wm. B. (1807-1867), Soldier, Congressman and 
14th Governor. 

Cannon, Newton (1781-1841), Congressman and 8th Gov- 

Carmack, E. W. (1858 ), Journalist and Senator. 

Carr, John (1773 ), Pioneer and Historian. 

Carroll, Wm. (1789-1844), Soldier and 5th Governor. 

Carroll, Wm. H. (1820 ), Confederate Brigadier General. 

Carter, J. C. (1838-1864), Confederate Brigadier-General. 

Carter, Samuel P. (1819 ), Union Major-General and 


Carter, Wm. B. (1791 ), Congressman. 

Caruthers, Robt. L. (1800-1882), Jurist, Congressman and 

Dictionary op Distinguished Tennbssbans. 109 

Caruthers, Abram (1803-1862), Jurist, Educator and Author. 

Cate, Charles T., Attorney-General and Reporter. 

Catron, John (i 778-1865), First Chief Justice of Tennessee; 
Associate Justice of United States. 

Champlin, James (1821 ), Founder of School for the 


Chase, L. B. (1817-1864), Congressman and Author. 

Cheatham, Benj. F. (1820-1886), Confederate Major General. 

Cheatham, Richard (1799-1845), Congressman. 

Chester, Robert I. (1793-1892), Lawyer. 

Churchwell, Wm. M., Congressman. 

Claiborne, Thomas (1780-1855), Congressman. 

Claiborne, Wm. C. C. (1775-1817), Statesman and ist Gov- 
ernor of Lx>uisiana. 

Clark, William M. (1826-1895), Physician and Editor. 

Qay, Clement C. (1789-1866), Jurist and Statesman (Ala.). 

Qements, A. J. (1832 ), Congressman. 

Cocke, John (1772-1854), Soldier and Congressman. 

Cocke, Wm. (1784-1828), Soldier and Senator. 

Cocke, W^m. M. ( 1896), Congressman. 

Cockrill, Mark R. (1788-1872), Farmer. 

Coffee, John (1772-1834), Soldier. 

Coffin, Charles (1775-1821), Educator. 

Coldwell, Thos. H. (1822 ), Attorney-General and Re- 

Cole, E. W. (1827-1899), Railroad President. 

Coles, Clara, Poet. 

Colyar, Arthur S. (1818 ), Lawyer, Editor and Confeder- 
ate Congressman. 

Connor, George C. (1834-1894), Scholar and Writer. 

Conway, James S. (1798-1855), ist Governor of Arkansas. 

Cooke, Grace McGowan, Author. 

Cooke, W. W. ( 1816), Jurist. 

Cooper, Edmund (1821 ), Lawyer and Congressman. 

Cooper, Henry (1827 ), Senator. 

Copper, Jos. A. (1823 ), Union Major General. 

Cooper, Washington B., Artist. 

Cooper, William, Artist. 

Cooper, Wm. F. (1820 ), Jurist and Author. 

ik6 Thb Ambaicah Historical Maoazinb. 

Cossitt, F. R. (1790-1863), Preacher Educator and Author. 

Cox, N. N. (1837 ), Gjngressman. 

Crabb, Henry (1793-1827), Jurist. 

Craighead, Thos. B. (1750-1825), Pioneer Preacher and Edu- 

Cravath, E. M. (1833-1900), Educator. 

Crawford, Robert (1836--^ — ), "Osman Pasha,** Commander 
of Ttirkish Army in Egypt. 

Crisman, E. B. (^830-1899), Preacher and Author. 

Crockett, David (i 786-1836), Pioneer, Patriot, Congressman 
and Author. 

Crockett, Jno. W. ( — -^1852), Cotigressman. 

Cross, Eidward (175^-1887), Jurist and Congressman (Ark.). 

Crozier, John H., Congressman, 

Crutchfiekl, Wm. (1826— — ), Congressman. 

CuUom, Alvin (— — 1877), Congressman. 

Cullom, Wm. (1810-18^), Congressman. 

Currin, David M. (1819-1864), Confederate Congressman. 

Currey, R. O. (1816-1865), Physician and Geologist. 

Dabney, Charles W. (1855 ), Educator. 

Dake, J. P. (1827-1895), Physician. 

Dashiell, John S. (1807 ), Steamboat Captain. 

Davidson, H. B., Confederate Brigadier General. 

Davis, Reuben (181 3-1873), Jurist and Soldier (Miss.). 

Davis, Sam (1842-1863), Patriot. 

Deaderick, James W. (1812-1890), 3rd Chief Justice. 

Deshea, Robert (- — -1849), Congressman. 

DeWitt, M. B. (1835 ), Preacher and Author. 

DeWitt, Wm. H. (1827 ), Confederate Congressman. 

Dibrell, G. G. (1822-1888), Confederate Brigadier General 
and Congressman. 

Dickinson, David W. ( — —1845), Congressman. 

Dickson, Wm. ( 1816), Congressman. 

Doak, Samuel (1749-^830), Pioneer Preacher and Educator. 

Dodd, Thos. J. (1837 ), Preacher and Educator. 

Donelson, Andrew J. (1799-1871), Diplomat and Candidate 
for Vice President, 1856. 

Donelson, John (17x8-1785), Pioneeh 


Donelson, Daniel S. (1801-1863), Confederate Major Gen- 

Donnell, Robert (i8ii-l85S>, Preacher ind Author. 
Dromgoole, Will Allen, Author and Poet. 
Dunlap, Wm. C. (1798*1872), Congre^man. 
Durry, George (1817-1895), Artist. 

Earle, R. E. W. ( 1837), Artist. 

East, E. H. (1830 ), Lawyer. 

Eastman, E, G. (1813-1859), Journalist. 

Eaton, John H. (1790-1856), Statesman, Diplomat and Author. 

Edgar, Jno. T. 1792-1860), Preacher and Editor. 

EUett, Henry T. (1812-1887), Lawyer. 

Elliott, C D. (1810-1899), Edticator. 

Emmerson, Thomas, Jurist. 

Enloe, B. A. (1848 ), Congressman and Journalist. 

Etheridge, Emerson (1819-1902), Congressman. 
Evans, H. C. (1843 — ^)» Congressman. 
Eve, Paul F. (1806-1877), Physician and Writer. 
Ewell, Richard S. (1817-1872), Confederate General. 
Ewing, Andrew (1813-1864), Lawyer and Congressman. 
Ewing, Edwin H. (1809-1902), Lawyer and Congressman. 

Fanning, Tolbert (1810-1874), Preacher, Educator and Jour- 
Farragut, D. G. (1801-1870), Admiral. 

Fitzgerald, O. P. (1829 ), Bishop, Journalist and Author 

Fitzgerald, Wm. T., Congressman. 

Fitzpatrick, Morgan C, Congressman. 

Folkes, W. C. (1845-1890), Jurist. 

I'ogg, Francis B. (1795-1880), Lawyer. 

Fogg, Mrs. Francis B., Author. 

Poote, Henry S. (1800-1880), Statesman and Author. 

Forrest, N. B. (1821-1877), Confederate Lieutenant General. 

Forrester, Jno. B. ( — —1845), Congressman. 

Foster, Ephraim H. (1794-1854), Lawyer and Statesman. 

Foster, Stephen (1798-1835), Educator. 

Fost^f, Wilbur Fisk (1834 ), Major of Engineers, C. S. A. 

Fowler, Joseph S. (1822 ), Senator. 

112 Thb American Historicai« Magazine. 

Frazer, Jno. W., Confederate Brigadier General. 
Frazier, James B., 28th Governor. 
Freeman, Thos. J. (1827-1891), Jurist. 

French, L. Virginia (1830 ), Poet. 

Fulton, Wm. S (1795-1844), Senator (Ark.). 

Gailor, T. F. (1856 ), Bishop and Educator. 

Gaines, Edmund P. (i 777-1849), Soldier. 

Gaines, Jno. W. (i860— — ), Congressman. 

Galloway, M. C. ( 1898), Editor. 

Gardenhire, E. L. (1815-1899), Confederate Congressman. 

Garland, A. H. (1832 ), Lawyer and Statesman (Aric.). 

Garland, Bettie, Poet. 

Garland, L. C. (1810-1895), Educator and Author. 

Garrett, A. E. (1830 ) , Congressman. 

Garrett, Wm. R, (1839 )* Educator and Author. 

Gattinger, A. (1812 ), Physician and Botanist. 

Gentry, Meredith P. (1809-1866), Orator and Statesman. 

Gibson, Henry R. (1837 ), Congressman and Author. 

Gilchrist, Mrs. Annie Somers, Poet and Novelist. 

Gillem, Alvin C. (1830-1875), Union Major General. 

Gilmer, Mrs. Elizabeth M., "Dorothea Dix," Author. 

Glass, P. T. (1824 ), Congressman. 

Golladay, E. I. (1831 ), Congressman. 

Goodlett, Adam G. (1782-1848), Physician and Author. 

Goodpasture, Jefferson Dillard (1824-1896), Lawyer. 

Gordon, Geo. W. (1836—^), Confederate Brigadier Gen- 

Graves, Adelia C. (1821 ), Educator and Author. 

Graves, James R. (1820 ), Preacher, Journalist and Au- 

Green, Alexander L. P. (1806-1874), Preacher and Author. 

Green, Nathan (1792-1866), Jjirist and Educator. 

Green, Nathan (1827 ), Educator and Author. 

Grundy, Felix (1777-1840), Orator, Jurist and Statesman. 

Guild, Jo C. (1802-1883), Jurist and Auhtor. 

Gwin, Wm. M. (1805- 1885), Physician and Statesman 

Dictionary of Distinguishbd Tbnnessbans. 113 

Hale, Wai T., Author and Poet. 

Hall, Allen A. ( 1867), Journalist and Diplomat. 

Hall, Wm. (1796-1874), Soldier, Congressman and 7th Gov- 

Halley, R. A. (1853 ), Journalist and Writer. 

Hankins, Cornelius, Artist. 

Harding, Wm. G. (1808-1886), Farmer. 

Hargrove, Robt. K. (1829 ), Bishop and Educator. 

Harris, Geo. W. (1814-1869), Humorist and Author. 

Harris, Isham G. (1818-1898), Statesman, and i6th and War 
Governor, 1861-5. 

Harris, J. George (1809-1891), Journalist and Naval Officer. 

Harris, Thomas K., Congressman. 

Harris, Wm. R. (1803-1858), Jurist. 

Harrison, H. H. (1829-1885), Congressman and Jurist. 

Haskell, Wm. T. (1818-1859), Orator and Congressman. 

Hatton, Robert (1827-1862), Congressman and Confederate 

Hawkins, Alvin (1821 ), Jurist and 22nd Governor. 

Hawkins, Isaac R. (181 8- ), Congressman. 

Ha3mes, Landon Carter (1816-1875), Orator and Confederate 
States Senator. 

Haywood, John (1762-1826), Jurist and Author. 

Head, Jno. W. (1821-1874), Attorney-General and Reporter. 

Heiskell, Joseph B. (1823 ), Attorney-General and Re- 
porter and Confederate Congressman. 

Heiss, Henry, Editor. 

Henderson, Bennett H., Congressman. 

Henderson, Wm. A. (1836 ) , l-awyer. 

Henry, Gustavus A. (1804-1880), Orator and Confederate 

Hill, Benjamin J., Confederate Brigadier General. 

Hill, H. L. W. (1810— — ), Congressman. 

Hogg, Samuel (1783-1842), Physician and Congressman. 

HoUoway, Laura Carter (1848- ), Author. 

Hoss, E. E. (1849 )* Bishop and Editor. 

Houk, Jno. C. (i860 ), Congressman. 

Houk, L. C. (1836-1891), Congressman. 

House, Jno. F. (1827 ), Congressman and Author. 


Houston, Geo. S. (1811-1871^), Statesman (Ala.). 

Houston, Sam (1793-1863), 6th Governor of Tennessee and 
1st President of Texas. 

Howard, M. H., Benefactor. 

Howell, Robert Boyt C. (1801-1868), Preacher and Authot-. 

Hume, Wm. (1772-1833), Educator and Preacher. 

Humes, Thos. W. (181 5 ), Preacher, Educator and Au- 

Humes, W. Y. C. (1830-1883), Confederate Major-Getieral. 

Humphreys, Parry W. ( 1839), Jurist and Congressman. 

Humphreys, West H. (1805-1882), Attorney-General, Re- 
porter and Jurist. 

Huntsman, Adam (1786— — ), Congressman. 

Inge, Wm. M. ( 1842), Congressman. 

Inman, Jno. H. (1844-1896), Financier (N. Y.). 
Isaacs, Jacob C, Congressman. 

Jackson, Andrew (1767-1845), Patriot, Soldier, Statesman aild 
7th President. 

Jackson, A. E. (1807-1889), Confederate Brigadier General. 

Jackson, Howell E. (1832-1894), Associate Justice United 
States Supreme Court. 

Jackson, Rachel (i 767-1828), wife of President Jacksort. 

Jackson, W. H. (1835-1903), Confederate Brigadier General. 

Jarnagiii, Spencer (1792-1852), Lawyer and Senator. 

Johnson, Andrew (1808-1875), 15th Governor and 17th Presi- 

Johnson, Bushrod R. (1817-1880), Cotifederate Major Gen- 
eral and Educator. 

Johnson, Cave (1793-1866), Statesman. 

Johnson, Henry (1783-1861), Senator (La.). 

Jones, Francis, Congressman. 

Jones, Geo. W. (1806-1884), Statesman and Diplomat. 

Jones, Ira P. (1829-1897), Journalist. 

Jones, James C. (1809-1859), Statesman and 10th Goremor. 

Jones, Thomas M. (1816 ), Confederate Congressman. 

Jones, W. P. (1819-1897), Educator and Alienist. 

Joynes, Edward S. (1 834 ), Educator and Author. 

Judson, E. Z. C. (1822-1866), Journalist and Author. 

Dictionary of DistiNouisHED Tenkksshans. 115 

Keatitig, Jno. M. (^830), Joufnalist and Author. 
KeeWe, E. A. (1807-1868), Confederate Congressman. 

Kennedy, D. N. (1820 ), Banker. 

Kennedy, Sara Beaumont, Author. 
Kennedy, Walker, Author. 

Ketchum, Mrs. Annie Chambers (1824 ), Poet. 

Key, David M. (1824 — -), Jurist and Statesman. 

Killebrew, J. B. (1831 ), Author. 

Kirkland, J. H. (1839), Educator. 

Lea, Benj. J. (1833-1894), 6th Chief Justice Supreme Court. 

Lea, John M. (1818 ), Jurist. 

Lea, Luke (17&2-1851), Soldier and Congressman. 

Lea, Pryor (1794 ), Congressman. 

Leftwich, John W. (1827-1870), Congressman. 

Lewis, Barbour (1824 ), Congressman. 

Lewis, Wm. B. (1784-1866), Statesman. 
Lindsley, J. Berrien (1822-1898)^ Educator and Author. 
Lindsley, Nathaniel L. (1816-1868), Educator and Scholar. 
Lindsley, Philip (1786-1855), Educator and Author. 

Link, S. A, (1848 ), Educator and Author. 

Lipscomb, David (1831 ), Preacher, Journalist and Au- 

Lipscomb, Thomas (1808-1891), Physician. 

Lofton, G. A. (1839 ), Preacher and Author. 

Lurton, H. H. (1844 ), sth Chief Justice Supreme Court. 

Lynde, Francis, Author. 

McAdoo, Mary F. Floyd (1832 ), Author. 

McAdoo, Wm. G. (1820 ), Jurist and Educator. 

McAdow, Samuel (1760-1844), Preacher. 

McAlister, Wm. K. (1850 ), Jurist. 

McAnally, D. R. (1810 — -), Preacher and Author. 

McCall, John E. (1859 ), Congressman. 

McCallum, James (1806 — — ), Confederate Congressman. 
McClain, Andrew, Jurist. 

McQellan, Abram (1788 ), Congressman. 

Mack, Robert (1772-1863), Jurist and Poet. 
McConnell, Felix G. (1810-1846), Congressman (Ala.). 

ii6 Thb Ambrican Historical Magazinb. 

McComb, Wm. (1832 ), Confederate Brigadier General. 

McCown, J. P. (1820-1879), Confederate Major General. 

McDearman, J. C. (1844 )> Congressman. 

McDonald, B. W. (1827-1889), Preacher, Educator and Au- 

McFarland, Robert (1832-1884), Jurist. 

McFarland, Wm. (1821 ), Congressman. 

McFerrin, Jno. B. (1807-1877), Preacher and Author. 

McKendree, William (1757-1835), Bishop. 

McKinney, Robt. J. (1803-1875), Jurist. 

McMillin, Benton (1845 ), Congressman and 27th Gov* 


McMinn, Joseph ( 1824), 4th Governor. 

McNairy, John (1762-1837), Jurist. 

Maddin, Thomas, Preacher and Author. 

Maddin, Thomas L., Physician. 

McTyeire, H. N. (1824-1889), Bishop and Author. 

McGowan, Alice, Author. 

Maney, George (1826——), Confederate Brigadier General. 

Marable, John Hartwell (i 786-1844), Physician and Congress- 

Marks, Albert S. (1836-1891), 21st Governor. 

Marr, Geo. W. L. (1779 ), Congressman. 

Marshall, John (1803-1863), Lawyer. 

Martin, Barclay, Congressman. 

Martin, Thomas (1799-1870), Benefactor. 

Mathes, J. Harvey, Editor and Author. 

Maury, A. P. (1761 -1848), Journalist and Congressman. 

Maury, M. F. (1806-1873), Hydrographer. 

Maynard, Horace (181 4-1882), Statesman. 

Meigs, Return J. (1801-1891), Attorney-General, Reporter 
and Author. 

Meeks, John Henderson (1814-1898), West Tennessee Pio- 

Menees, Thomas (1823 ), Physician and Confederate 


Meriwether, Lee (1862 ), Author. 

Miller, Pleasant M. ( 1850), CcMigressman and Jurist. 

Milligan, Samuel ( 1874), Jurist. 

Dictionary of Distinguishbd Tbnnbssbans. 117 

Mitchell, James C (1790-1843), Jurist and Congressman. 

Moon, John A. (1855 ), Congressman. 

Moore, Wm. R. (1830——), Congressman and Poet. 
Morgan, Wm. H. (1818-1902), Dental Surgeon. 
Morgan, S. D. (1798-1880), Merchant. 

MuUins, J. (1807 ), Congressman. 

Murfree, Fannie D., Novelist. 

Murfree, Mary N., Novelist. 

Murray, Jno. P. (1830-1895), Confederate Congressman. 

Neal, John R., Congressman. 

Neil, M. M. (1849 )» Jurist. 

Nelson, Anson (1821-1892), Author. 

Nelson, David (1793-1844), Preacher and Author. 

Nelson, Thos. A. R. (1812-1873), Jurist, Congressman and 

Nicholson, A. O. P. (1808-1876), Journalist, Statesman and 
2nd Chief Justice. 

Nunn, David A. (1832 ), Congressman. 

Otey, Jas. H. (1800-1863), Bishop and Educator. 

Overton, John (1766-1833), Jurist. 

Owen, Richard (1810 ), Soldier, Educator and Author. 

Paine, Robert (1799-1882), Bishop. 

Palmer, J. B. (1825- 1890), Confederate Brigadier General. 

Paschall, Edwin (1799-1869), Educator and Historian. 

Patterson, David T. (1819 ), Jurist and Senator. 

Patterson, Josiah (1837 ), Congressman. 

Patterson, R. M., Congressman. 

Payne, H. B., "Ariel," Author. 

Payne, Robert (1799-1882), Bishop and Author. 

Peck, Jacob (1779-1869), Jurist. 

Pettibone, A. H. (1835 )> Congressman. 

Peyton, Bailie (1803-1878), Lawyer, Congressman and Dip- 

PeytcMi, J. H. (1813-1845), Congressman. 

Phelan, James (1856-1891), Congressman and Historian. 

Phelan, John D. (1809-1879), Jurist and Educator. 

iiS Tmz Amkricak Histoeical Maga^ikv. 

Pickle, Geo. W. (i845-"-»--), Attorney-General and Reporter. 

Pierce, Rice A. (184^^^—), Congressman. 

Pike, Albert (1809-1891), Soldier, Lawyer and Author. 

Pillow, Gideon J. (1806-1878), Soldier and Lawyer. 

Polk, James K. (i 795-1845), 9th Governor and nth Presi- 

Polk, Leonidas (1806-1864), Bishop and Confederate Gen- 

Polk, Lucius E., Confederate Brigadier General. 

Polk, Sarah C (1803-1891), wife of President Polk. 

Polk, Wm. H. (1815-1862), Congressman, 

Pope, Mary C, Poet. 

Porter, Alexander (1786-1844), Senator (La.). 

Porter, James D. (1828 ), Jurist, Diplomat and ^h 


Porter, Robt. M. (1818-1856), Physician and Educator. 

Powell, Samuel, Jurist and Congressman. 

Price, George W. F., Educator. 

Prosser, W. F. (1834 ), Congressman. 

Putnam, A. W. (1799-1869), Historian. 

Quarles, James M. (1823-1900), Congressman and Jurist. 
Quarles, W. A. (1825-1S95), Lawyer and Confederate Briga- 
dier General. 
Quintard, Charles T. (1824-1898), Bishop and Educator. 

Rains, James £. (1833-1863), Lawyer and Confederate 
Rains, John (1750-1821), Pioneer. 

Ramsey, J. G. M. (1796- 1884), Historian and Physidan. 
Randolph, J. H., Congressman. 

Read, Opie P. (1853 ), Novelist. 

Ready, Charles (1802-1878), Congressman. 

Reagan, Jno. H. (i8i8— ), Senator (Texas). 

Reese, Wm. B. (1793-1859), Jurist and Educator. 

Reynolds, James B., Congressman. 

Rhea, John (i 753-1832), Congressman. 

Rhea, Samuel A. (1827-1867), Missionary to Persia. 

Richardson, James D. (1843 )> Congressman and Author. 


JUddl^, Haywood Y., Congressman- 
Rivers, Thomas, Congressman. 

Roane, Arpbihald (1760-1818), Jurist and 2nd Governor. 
Roberts, Albert, Editor. 

Robertson, Charlotte Reaves (1751-1843), Pioneer. 
Robertson, Duncan (1770-1833), Pbilfinthropipt. 
Robertson, Felix (1781-1856), Physician, first male child born 
in Nashville. 

Robertson, Jam^s (1742-1814), Father of Tennessee. 

Roseborough, Viola, Author. 

Ross, Frederick A, (1796-n — ), Preacher and Author. 

Ross, Reuben (1776), Preacher. 

Rule, William, Editor. 

Safford, James M. (1822 ), Geologist and Author. 

Sanford, James T-, Congressman. 

Sappington, John (1776-1856), Physician and Author. 

Savage, Jno. H. (1815 ), Lawyer, Soldier and Congress- 

Scott, W. A. (1813-1885), Preacher, Educator and Author. 

Sears, A. D. (1804 \ Preacher. 

Sebastian, W. K. (1812-1864X Senator, (Ark.) 

Senter, D. W. C. (1832-1898), i8tb Governor. 

Senter, W. T. (1802-1847), Preacher and Congressman. 

Sevier, Ambrose H. (1801-1848), Lawyer and Statesman 

Sevier, John (1745-1815), Pioneer, Soldier and ist Governor. 

Shackelford, J. O., Jurist. 

Shearer, J. B. (1834 ), Preacher, Educator and Author. 

Shelby, Isaac (1750-1826), Pioneer, Soldier and ist Gov- 
ernor of Kentucky. 

Shields, E. J. ( ^iS46)^ Congressman. 

Shields, John K., Jurist. 

Sbipp, Albert M. (1819 % Educator and Author. 

Simonton, C. B. (1838 ), Congressman. 

Sims, Thetis W. (1852 )f Congressman. 

Smith, Daniel (1740-1818), Pioneer, Surveyor and Senator. 

Smith, Henry G. (1807-1878), Jurist. 

Smith, E. Kirby (1824-1893), Educator and Soldier. 

I20 The Ambrican Historical Magazine. 

Smith, PrestcMi (1823-1863), Confederate Brigadier General 

Smith, Samuel A. (1822 ), Cot^essman. 

Smith, Thomas B. (1838 ), Confederate Brigadier Gen- 


Smith, Wm. J. (1823 ), Soldier and Congressman. 

Sneed, Jno. L. T. (1820—), Jurist. 

Sneed, Wm. H. (1812-1869), Congressman. 

Snodgrass, C. £., Congressman. 

Snodgrass, D. L. (1851 ), 7th Chief Justice of Supreme 


Snodgrass, H. C. (1848 ), Congressman. 

Soule, Joshua (1781-1867), Bishop. 

Spaulding, George (1834 ), Union Brigadier Greneral. 

Spears, James G. (1817 ), Union Brigadier General. 

Standifer, James ( 1836), Congressman. 

Stanton, F. P. (1814 ), Lawyer and Congressman. 

Stearns, Eben S. (1821-1887), Educator. 

Stevenson, V. K. (1812-1884), Railroad President. 

Stewart, Alexander P. (1821 ), Educator and Confeder- 
ate Lieutenant General. 

Stokes, Jordan (1817 ), Lawyer. 

Stokes, W. B. (1814 ), Congressman. 

Stout, Samuel H. (1822 ), Physician and Author. 

Strahl, O. F. ( 1864), Confederate Brigadier General. 

Strickland, Wm. (1787-1854), Architect. 

Summers, T. O. (1812-1882), Preacher and Author. 

Summers, T. O., Jr. ( 1899), Scientist and Physician. 

Swan, Wm. G., Attorney General and Reporter. 

Tannehill, Wilkins (1787-1858), Journalist and Author. 
Tatum, Howell, Jurist. 

Taylor, A. A. (1849- )$ Congressman. 

Taylor, Jno. M. (1838 — — ), Congressman and Jurist. 
Taylor, Nathaniel G. (1819-1887), Preacher and CcMigress- 

Taylor, Robt. L. (1850 ), 24th Governor. 

Taylor, Zach. (1849 )* Congressman. 

Teasdale, Thos. C. (1808 ), Preacher and Author. 

Thomas, Dorsey B. (1823-1897), Congressman. 

Dictionary op Distinguishbd Tbnkxssbans. 121 

Thomas, Isaac, Congressman. 

Thomas, James H. (1808 ), Qmgressman. 

Thomas, John W., Railroad President and President of Ten- 
nessee Centennial Exposition. 

Thomas, R. W. (1808-1876), Journalist and Author. 

Thompson, Jacob (1810-1885), Statesman. 

Thomburg, Jacob M. (1837-1890), Congressman. 

Thornton, G. B. (1835 ), Physician and Writer. 

Thruston, Gates P. (1835 )> Soldier and Author. 

Tillman, Lewis (1816-1886), Congressman. 

Tipton, John (1785-1839), Soldier and Senator (Ind,). 

Totten, A. W. O. ( 1867), Jurist. 

Trimble, John (1812-1884), Congressman. 

Troost, Gerard (1776-1850), Geologist and Author. 

Trousdale, Leon (1823-1898), Educator and Editor. 

Trousdale, Wm. (1790-1872), Soldier, Diplomat and 13th 

Turley, Thomas B., Senator. 

Turley, Wm. B. (1800-1851), Jurist. 

Tumey, Hopkins L. (1797-1857), Senator. 

Turney, Peter (1827 ), 4th Chief Justice and 26th Gov- 

Tyler, C. W., Jurist and Author. 

Tyler, Robert C ( 1864), Confederate Brigadier General. 

Vaughn, A. J. (1830 ), Confederate Brigadier General. 

Vaughn, John C. (1824-1875), Confederate Brigadier Gen- 

Waddell, John N. (1812-1894), Preacher, Educator and Au- 

Walker, Lucius M., Confederate Brigadier General. 

Walker, William (1824-1860), Soldier, Author and Adven- 

Ward, Wm. E. (1829-1888), Preacher and Educator. 

Warner, James C. (1830 ), Iron Manufacturer. 

Warner, Richard (1835 ), Congressman. 

Washington, J. E. (1851 ), Congressman. 

Watkins, A. G. (1818 ), Congressman. 


122 Thb Ambrican Historical Magazinb. 

Watkins, Samuel (1794-1880), Benefactor. 

Watson, Samuel (1813 ), Preacher, Author and Editor. 

Watterson, Harvey M. (181 1 ), Journalist and Congress- 

Watterson, Henry (1840 ), Journalist, Congressman and 


Weakley, Robert (1764-1845), Congressman. 

Weaver, Dempsey (181 5- 1880), Banker. 

Welker, A. G., Confederate Congressman. 

Wharton, Jesse (1760-1833), Lawyer and Senator. 

White, Alexander (1816— ), Congressman, (Ala.). 

White, Edward D. ( 1847), Governor of Louisiana. 

White, Hugh L. (1773-1840), Jurist and Statesman and Can- 
didate for President, 1836. 

White, Jas. (1737-1815), ist Territorial Delegate in Con- 

Whiteside, Jenkin ( 1822), Senator. 

Whitsett, James (1771-1849), Preacher. 

Whitthome, Washington C. (1825-1891), Lawyer and States- 

Whyte, Robert (1767-1844), Jurist. 

Wilcox, Cadmus M. (1826-1890), Confederate Major Gen- 
eral and Author. 

Wilkes, Jno. S. (1841 ), Jurist. 

Williams, Christopher W., Congressman. 

Williams, James, Diplomat and Author. 

Williams, John (1778-1837), Senator. 

Williams, Joseph L. (1800 ), Congressman. 

Williams, Martha McCullough, Author. 

Williams, Thomas L., Jurist. 

Wilson, S. F. (1845 )» Jurist. 

Winston, Charles K., Physician. 

Winchester, James (1752-1826), Soldier. 

Woolwine, Samuel S., Educator. 

Wright, Archibald (1809-1884), Jurist. 

Wright, John V. (1828 ), Lawyer and Congressman. 

Wright, Luke E., Vice Governor of the Philippines. 

Wright, Marcus J. (1831 ), Soldier and Author. 

Dictionary op Distinguishbd Tbnnessbans, 123 

Yandell, Lunsford P. (1805-1878), Physician and Educator. 

Yell, Archibald (1797-1847), Jurist, Statesman and Soldier, 

Yerger, Geo. S. (1801-1860), Attorney General and Re- 

Young, H. Casey (1832 ), Congressman. 

Young, R. A. (1824-1902), Preacher and Author. 

Zollicoffer, Felix K. (1812-1862), Journalist, Congressman 
and Soldier. 

124 "I^s American Histosical Maoa21Kb. 



Journalism in Tennessee has presented a great many interest- 
ing phases, but without question the most strange and remark- 
able phase of all is that to be gleaned from half a dozen thin, 
travel-worn volumes that hold between their covers the war 
files and the war history of the Memphis Appeal, They tell the 
story of the days when it still kept the name of the Memphis 
Appeal, though printed in Mississippi, Alabama or Georgia, while 
casting its lot with the South to the extent of dwelling wherever 
the chances and changes, the fortunes or misfortunes of war 
demanded, in order to remain with the people whose cause it 
had warmly espoused from long before the inauguration of 
active hostilities. These files, therefore, contain the inner his- 
tory of the war to an extent unreached by any other paper pub- 
lished in the South. The history of the Appeal is conspicuously 
unique. It was the soldier's special organ, and spoke almost 
with the voice of authority for the Army of Tennessee, whose 
fortunes it followed and with which it was identified from its 
organization to its collapse in December, 1864. With an enter- 
prise and pluck that met obstacles only to overcome them, its 
proprietors moved their types, presses, engines and boilers from 
place to place, and whether staying for a month or for a year 
were prompt in issuing a daily paper that was edited with skill 
and ability and was one of the greatest of the useful agencies 
in the life of the Confederacy. Its correspondents were found 
with every army in every State and its proprietors expended 
money freely to obtain the news from beyond the Confederate 
lines. It was a tower of strength to the Southern people and was 
indissolubly linked with their long struggle. The passing events 
are interwoven with the story of exile — though exile among 

A KiB^n, NKW9»AFj|it's Wai Story. 125 

friends— and altogether it makes a story unsurpassed if not un- 
equalled, in the annals of journalism. 

On the morning of Friday, June 6, 1862, while the gunboat 
fight was raging hotly in front of the city. The Memphis Appeal, 
being what was termed a ''rebel sheet," left Memphis and went 
to the pleasant little town of Grenada, Miss. The press and 
other machinery, its two new "dresses" of type and its working 
force accompanied it, and on the following Monday, June 9, 1862, 
The Memphis Appeal was once more issued, this time as an 
afternoon paper, bearing the Grenada date line. This issue con- 
tains a full account of the evacuation of Corinth some ten days 
previously, and also of the fall of Memphis and the destruction 
of the Confederate fleet. 

Exchanges are requested to direct their papers to Grenada for 
the future, and in an address "To Our Readers," the editor says : 
"The occupation of Memphis by the Federal forces has con- 
vinced us of the necessity of removing our office of publication 
to Grenada, Miss. In taking this step our principal motive has 
been to continue in a position wherein we may be able to render 
official service to the cause we advocate, hereafter as heretofore, 
and in accomplishing this, should we succeed, we will find our 
greatest reward. Our fate is indissolubly connected with that 
of the Confederacy. Our political action in the past is well 
understood. We cannot desert the one nor change as to the 
other. Our political ideas were not formed to be cast aside under 
any exigency that can possibly happen; and so long as two or 
three states are gathered together in the name of the Confederate 
States, so long will we be found advocating, as zealously as ever, 
a continued resistance to the tyranny ysrhich a haughty foe are 
endeavoring to establish over us. The Appeal will not swerve 
from its course, come what will, no matter how great the sacri- 
fices we may find it necessary to make. We have an abiding 
faith in the success of the South." 

And if this faith ever weakened, or doubt ever entered, not 
a line was there ever in the paper to show it Through all the 
long struggle, with its hardship? and frequent flights, with all 
the attendant vicissitudes and calamities, the editorial utterances 
breathed a hopeful spirit that the worst disasters of the w*r 
never once chilled. 

126 Thb Ahbrican Historicai« Magazinb. 

It so happened that about this very time another victory of 
General Stonewall Jackson illustrated the feeling that animated 
the Appeal all through the war, in defeat as in triumph. "The 
star of the victorious Jackson," it says, "is once more in the 
ascendant, and he is once more pushing forward after an utterly 
defeated and flying foe. General Jackson's motto is the correct 
one — fight the enemy wherever you can find him, and if he will 
not offer you battle, go after him and compel him to fight. Give 
us a little more of these tactics and the war will soon assume a 
much more favorable aspect. The Federals can be forced to 
abandon our states and cities, our people can return to their 
homes in peace, and the Confederacy take her place among the 
nations of the earth." 

In speaking of the Appeal during the three years that followed 
its departure from Memphis, it is not intended to write the 
history of the war, but only to sketch the scenes amid which 
the paper lived, by which it was necessarily affected. Its pro- 
prietors foresaw that they could not publish their paper in Mem- 
phis, and how truly they read the signs of the times was shown 
early after the surrender of the city, when papers much more 
guarded in expressing their opinions were suspended, censured 
and forced into discontinuance. Press censors were appointed 
for the papers that remained, and even then articles appeared that 
caused the publishers trouble. A bogus report brought in of the 
capture of Cincinnati by the Confederate troops, brought down 
the wrath of the authorities on two papers, and caused their 
suspension for several days. 


Colonel M. C. Gallaway, postmaster under the Confederacy, 
went to Grenada with many Memphians who left at the time of 
the capture, and acted as postmaster for the Southern people, 
handling and properly looking after the mail, particularly that 
directed to Memphis people. In the Appeal of the early days in 
Grenada, a specialty was made of news from Memphis for the 
benefit of many hundreds of exiled citizens of the Bluff City. 
The Appeal of June 13 chronicles the fact that stores were be- 
ginning to open again and business was being gradually resumed 

A Rbbbl Newspaper's War Story. 127 

in Memphis. The price of the Appeal was reduced one-half for 
all Confederate soldiers. 

In reference to the approach of Federal troops to Holly 
Springs, the Appeal of June 19 says, that "they should not be 
permitted to make any further approaches. . . . Let them at 
every advance they make, meet with a deadly volley from every 
thicket. . . . Every rifle and shotgun in the country should be 
brought into requisition, and the Federal soldiery should be taught 
that every step they make further South is made with hazard 
to themselves. Even in the absence of any army, it is within 
the power of the citizens of the country, by a judicious and well 
organized system of ambuscades and guerrilla warfare, to harass, 
terrify and hold the enemy at bay." 

This, but to show the spirit of the times. Needless to recall 
how the advice was followed. Such was the devotion of the 
people to the Southern cause that planters along the river put 
the torch to their own cotton, sustaining the loss rather than 
sell to the invader. Apropos, the Appeal remarks: "A people 
determined to be free will submit to any sacrifice and cannot be 


June 20 this fact is chronicled : "A Yankee soldier, who was 
captured by some citizens while he was picketing below Memphis, 
reached the city last evening. He gives his name as George 
Smith, of Captain Stuber's company, eleventh Illinois, and says 
he was enlisted at Peoria. If he is a fair specimen of the Federal 
army at Memphis, none of them can be said to occupy a very 
high position in the scale of animal creation." George Smith's 
subsequent history does not appear. Doubtless he or his widow 
draws a pension now. 

The fight had begun at Vicksburg, the enemy's vessels opening 
fire "at a safe distance" on the 20th of June. McQellan had been 
brought to a stand before Richmond, and the Appeal believes 
that "the fortunes of war have turned in our favor, and we will 
finally achieve our independence." 

The mention of Richmond recalls the fact that the special cor- 
respondent of the Appeal at Richmond during the war was per- 
haps the brightest of the war correspondents. His letters con- 

is8 Thr American Hi8Toricai« Magazine. 

tinue all through the fateful period of the war; being even yet 
interesting pictures of war days in Virginia, they must have 
been read when fresh from the press with the keenest interest 
He wrote under the name of ''Dixie/' and thousands of old 
Confederates remember his brilliant letters. 

The battle around Vicksburg was recognized as the determined 
banning of the contest for the undisturbed possession of the 
Mississippi; across the river the people of Arkansas were pur- 
suing the guerrilla warfare above advocated. Stonewall Jackson 
defeated McClellan before Richmond; the outlook when June 
closes is bright. 

July opens with McClellan in full retreat, and the shells still 
flying over Vicksburg. "The Success of Our Arms" is the title 
of a most hopeful editorial. 


The Memphis Avalanche having published an editorial entitled 
"Mischief Makers" in its issue of July i, General Grant notified 
them that the paper was being conducted "in an incendiary and 
treasonable spirit" and must suspend publication unless the author 
of the editorial withdrew from the paper. Mr. Jeptha Folkes 
thereupon withdrew and the paper continued, but only for a 
brief period ; it was a mere question of time and soon it suspended 
until the war was over, as did the Argus, and the latter was never 

Times in Memphis grew more troublous. Ministers who 
prayed for the Southern Confederacy were suspended and other- 
wise "effectually admonished." The constant communication be- 
tween people in Memphis and their friends to the South of them 
so annoyed the Federal authorities that an order was issued, 
banishing from the city within five days the families of all per- 
sons holding communications with any who had voluntarily en* 
listed in the Confederate army ; the families of all holding office 
or employment under the Confederate government ; of all holding 
state, county or municipal offices, who claimed allegiance to the 
Confederacy and who had gone South. The order was enforced, 
and brought no little hardship on the women and children of 
hundreds of Memphis families. All who were driven out were 

A Rbbsi. Nswspapjbr's War Stort. 139 

invited to call at the office of the Appeal, where there were many 
letters addressed by friends to the exiles. 

Despite hard times there was still a generous spirit, and on 
the night of July 25, a concert given by Mrs. Richardson's music 
class realized $258 for the sufferers at Vicksburg. 


It was hard to get news in those days, with the enemy beyond 
and interrupted communication in nearly every direction^ and a 
request is published "that gentlemen who arrive from the United 
States with late papers, leave them at the editor's rocwn, over 
George Lake's store, next door north of the Collins House. In 
these days of uncertain mail from the South and a blockade on 
the North, our facilities for furnishing the latest news from all 
quarters can be greatly increased by a little attenticm on the part 
of our friends." 

Sickness thinned the Federal ranks at Vicksburg, and August 
I, the Appeal chronicles the fact that "the infernal yankees have 
left for parts unknown." But it did not last long. 

An instance of Federal tyranny in Memphis is noted in tlie 
shooting of three white men and three negroes who refused to 
work on the fortifications. 

About this time, in response to the query, "Why is it that the 
South stands up sturdily against the superior resources and num- 
bers of the loyal section of the Union" the Cincinnati Commercial 
answered that the South had made the war a business. "The 
rebellious people have lost si^ht of ever)rthing but war, and, bend- 
ing all their energies to it, have accomplished wonders." The 
Commercial urges the people of the North to do the same, but the 
Appeal in copying the article, with evident enjoyment says that 
these appeals will have no effect; "that the people of the North 
will not make war their business until they can see more dollars 
in following the occupation than can be found in their work- 

Each success of the Southern arms is made the text of new 
encouragement, and is followed by ringing hopeful editorials that 
'must have strengthened many a weary heart and soul in the en- 
durance of the multitudinous privations that were brought on by 

I30 Thb Ambrican Historicai« Magazinb. 

the war. "Now by St. George the work goes bravely on," is 
the caption of an editorial following the reports of August vic- 
tories in East Tennessee. 


Prices fluctuated — but they "fluctuated" in one direction main- 
ly — upward. From the advertisement of J. C. McAllister in the 
Appeal of August 8-15, 1862, an idea may be formed of the cost 
of living in those days. Among the articles mentioned are cotton 
cards, $10 per pair; black calico, $1 per yard; French ginghams, 
$1.25 per yard ; Coats* thread, 60 cents per spool, or $7 per dozen ; 
Madras handkerchiefs, $9 per dozen. High though this appear, 
it is nothing to prices that later on obtained in the beleaguered 

The intense feeling shown by the Southern women, and the 
extent of their sacrifice to the cause of the Confederacy forms 
one of the most notable chapters of war history, and the story 
of their sacrifice is beyond writing. Many instances appear 
from time to time in the Appeal, one in the issue of August 12, 
1862. The Yankee gunboats were at Natchez and the Southern 
soldiers were looking for them any day at Vicksburg, Twelve 
good guns were ready to receive them — everything ready for 
action except cartridge bags for the ten-inch Columbiads. These 
bags must be made of flannel, and not a yard of flannel could be 
had at any store at the place. Messengers were sent to appeal to 
men to give their flannel shirts for use. The ladies heard of the 
appeal and of the absolute importance of the cartridge bags. In 
a few hours no less than five hundred cartridge bags were at 
the headquarters, made of the flannel petticoats of the women 
of Vicksburg. They were sent to the batteries and when the fleet 
did arrive, were used in defense of the place, throughout the 
bombardment. Every cartridge bag used by the ten-inch Colum- 
biads in the bombardment was made of the flannel petticoats of 
the women of Vicksburg. 

The "latest news" was very hard to get. Telegraph service 
was very irregular, but under the head "Improving," the Appeal 
of August 14 mentions the fact that a number of dispatches from 
the North had arrived covering events of the 9th and only a few 

A Rbbbi« Newspaper's War Story. 131 

hours after the papers containing the same intelligence. "Here- 
tofore," says the editor, "the lightning has been from two to 
four days behind, but this effort makes some pretensions towards 
furnishing the very latest news." The leading item of the news 
here referred to was General T. J. Jackson's official report of the 
late battle in Virginia. 


The North so far had been outgeneraled and public enthusiasm 
North was at a low ebb. The Northern press b^^ to call for 
a general waking up to the importance of united action. The 
Appeal meets this by a call to the South to put every available 
man into the field, to meet the enemy at the border, and save 
their homes and their country from further pillage and devasta- 
tion. Federal prospects, even to judge from the Northern papers, 
were by no means flattering in those days. Morgan's descent 
upon Gallatin and a general activity in Kentucky and Tennessee 
were followed by a report of the capture of Nashville by the Con- 
federates, and this is made the text of another hopeful editorial 
on the cheering signs of the situation. This is followed a few 
days later by further successes in Middle Tennessee, and by an- 
other editorial demonstrating that "the dark hours of the Con- 
federacy have passed, and a day of glorious successes, promising 
as the most ardent friend of Southern triumph and independence 
could desire, has broken upon us." Then came the victories at 
Manassas, at Stevenson, Ala., and at Bolivar — the dawn of 
brighter hopes and anticipations, and more roseate views of the 
situation. Indeed the chances of success crowning the Southern 
arms never looked better. 

The mails were irregular, and the Appeal contained frequent 
protests that the service could be improved and should be. The 
importance of clothing the Southern army for the winter is urged, 
and the Southern women again came to the front and loaded the 
mails with socks and other articles of wearing apparel. The 
ladies around Brooks* chapel undertook to supply Price's men, 
and every loom and wheel and knitting needle went to work, 
giving "another sample as well of the patriotism as of the un- 
conquerable spirit of our mothers and daughters." 

133 Thb Ambeican Historicai« Maoazivb. 

the prospects brighten. 

The details of the battle of Manassas began to arrive, and 
throughout the Confederacy congratulations upon the situation 
were heard. The South took hope again, and the end of the 
war was confidently expected. Apropos of the suppression of the 
Union-Appeal, of Memphis, a paper that had occupied the Ap- 
peals former quarters, the Appeal expresses the hope that "the 
authorities will keep the premises in good order, as we confidently 
expect to resume our old quarters in a short time." In a day 
or two the Memphis Argus was suspended for publishing a report 
which was imposed on it of the capture of Cincinnati by the Con* 
federate troqps. 

Jackson pushed on into Maryland; success in Tennessee con» 
tinued ; the hooe is entertained of driving the invader from Ten- 
nessee, Kentucky and Missouri, the great provision states of the 

Some enthusiastic friend remembered the editor, and a para* 
gfraph acknowledging the receipt of a bottle of old brandy says: 
"It is so old that we fear it cannot live much longer." 

The Federal troops were gradually closing in, and the destruc- 
tion of Prentiss and the capture of S^iatobia are made the text 
of an editorial urging a movement forward to drive the enemy 
out of the State. 

At an auction sale of goods in Charleston, September 17, candles 
brought $240 per pound, white shirt bosoms $95 per dozen, hoop- 
skirts $190 per dozen, and tea $10 per poimd; higher than the 
prices previously obtained. Soon after this it is noted that flour 
is declining, extra family bringing only $34 per barrel, "owing to 
the determination of the people to eat com bread rather than 
give enormous prices for flour." 

White paper is already an article of scarcity and value, and 
owing to temporary shortage the Appeal of September 26 and 27 
contained but two seven-column pages. 


A memory of home, a beautiful bouquet fr<Mn Memphis, was 
placed on the editor's table. "These fugitive flowers," he writes, 
"so tastefully arranged, have served to momentarily recall our 

A RiSBBL Ne^^papbr's War Story. 133 

teflectiofts from the busy and eventful scenes of strife to which 
the minds of all have been so long accustomed; and for this 
respite our friend who has placed the souvenir on our table has 
our thanks." 

The repulse of Price and Van Dom brought aflFairs in Mis- 
sissippi to a crisis, apparently, but With the indomitable courage 
and energy that had ever characterised the paper, the situation 
is reviewed but one day later and pronounced more favorable 
than had been supposed. But Bragg had to fall back, abandon- 
ing Kentucky, and telegraph connection was interrupted again. 

Early in November the Federal authorities in Memphis re- 
solved upon a stroke which they imagined would stop the cease- 
less firing upon their boats. An order was, therefore, issued 
that for every boat fired upon by the Southern troops, ten families 
would be exiled from Memphis. This order was carried out 
and resulted in much hardship to the defenseless women and 
children, who were driven out and left uncared for wherever 
ttiey might be sent beycmd the Federal lines. In the Appeal of 

various dates are advertisements that "Mr. *s family have 

been driven from Memphis by the Federals and are at , 

where they may be addressed by him." 

Mails became more and more irregular and a real crisis was 
approaching for Mississippi; the Federals planned a systematic 
invasion for the winter, and these plans were promptly carried 
out. Troops appeared in northern Mississippi ; their raids became 
more and more bold, and approached nearer Grenada. 

At this time an informal negotiation was opened with the 
Appeal to return to Memphis, assurances being received "that 
in the event of our removal of the Appeal office to that city, the 
publication of our paper will be permitted unmolested by the 
authorities, and our rights of person and property respected." 
The paper, however, did not return, "We have chosen our lot," 
says the editor, "and we will abide the consequences." 


The Federals were around Grenada and the supplies cut off. 
Not the least interesting of these papers appear late in November, 
after the supply of printers' ink was exhausted, common blacking 

134 Thb Ambrican Historical Magazikb. 

being for several days used instead. And though the Appeal 
did not return to Memphis, yet it left Grenada. After the issue 
of November 29, there is no other issue until the 13th of Decem- 
ber, when it appears under the Jackson, Miss., date. In the last 
days of November Grenada was in rather too close proximity 
to the headquarters of General Grant, who was seeking to make 
the acquaintance of General Pembertc«i at Abbeville, and when 
the Federal cavalry were fast approaching the north bank of the 
Tallahatchie, after Grant had driven Pemberton from Abbeville, 
the Appeal "retired," taking up its abode in the capital of Mis- 
sissippi, where it remained Until the 14th of May, 1863. Decem- 
ber 13, 1862, the initial niunber of the Jackson issue of the Appeal 
appeared, with a notice of the change of location at the head of 
the editorial column. It is asked that all mail be sent hereafter 
to Jackson, and a promise is given to make up to all subscribers 
the interval of two weeks lost in the removal of the office. In 
making their bow to the citizens of Jackson, the Appeal expresses 
regret at having to move, and pleasure in the contemplation that 
"though driven from home, we are not among strangers." 

"The Appeal," it continues, "has ever met a generous welcome 
and received a cordial support at the hands of the people of Mis- 
sissippi, and so long as we are privileged to remain within her 
borders, we shall feel that we are among friends and brethren. 
Hoping that we have been and may yet be of some service to 
the State, we have a desire verging upon ambition to keep our 
paper alive during the war. By dint of our own energy and the 
blessings of good fortune, we have thus far been able to keep in 
advance of the enemy's lines, and would fain hope that we have 
now made our last retrograde move. Should the enemy permit 
us to remain in our present location until wild war's deadly 
blast is blown, and until gentle peace shall have assumed her 
benignant sway over the land, we shall have ample cause to re- 
joice at the sacrifices we have made in keeping our office out of 
the clutches of the enemy." 


The Jackson office was on State street, a few doors below the 
post office and a meager exchange list for a time troubled the 

A Rbbbl Newspaper's War Story. 135 

paper, as papers kept on directing to Grenada, and little of the 
mail matter got to Jackson until too late for use. In the issue 
of December 15 a paragraph is published that at an election in 
Oberlin, Ohio, sixty-seven negroes were allowed to vote. The 
names of the darkies are published and the thing "proven beyond 
all doubt. It is supposed that the negroes voted in other town- 
ships, and an examination is now going on to ascertain the facts." 
The fiercest resistance is counseled to "the army of that people 
who have permitted this outrage." 

A scarcity of paper again caused a reduction in the size of the 
paper to seven, and afterwards to six colunms, for more than a 
week, though the announcement is made that "we have an agent 
at the mills in Georgia, and hope, in a short time, to be enabled 
to g^eet our readers again on a sheet of our usual size." 

Salt is advertised at $30 a bushel. 

Christmas eve comes the news that Holly Springs has been 
captured. Not a word of the holiday season. The paper is issued 
on the afternoon of Christmas, but the matter is identical with 
that of the previous day, except something less than half a column 
of fresh news. Still there is not one word of the Christmas 
season, even an indirect reference to the festival, nor an adver- 
tisement of Christmas goods for sale. What more pathetic ! The 
pinching necessities of the times left neither opportunity nor 
ability of observance. There was half a day of rest, and no doubt 
in the editor's sanctum were gathered a company of exiles who 
talked of the Christmas cheer of other days, but the memories 
were not for publication. They were but the reminiscences of 
gathered friends. 

On the 26th President Davis addressed an immense audience 
at Jackson. 


The old year passed away and 1863 dawned, but there is no 
observance or mention of it, except a hopeful editorial on the 
progress of the war, beginning "The new year breaks in upon us 
with cheering beams of hope and promise. Our arms are every- 
where successful, our troops in the main in high health and 
spirits, while the enemy are reported as disheartened and de- 

136 Thb Ambbican HisTomicAL Magazine 

On the 8th of January 24>pears a notke that the Appeal would 
like to' make arrangements for a supply of good, dry wood. 

The main question discussed at the meeting of the Southern 
Press Association about this time was the importance of scmie 
movement to diminish the constunption of white paper, the supi^y 
of which threatened to fail altogether. No decision was reached, 
however, as the problem was evidently one for which there could 
be no solution. 

In the Appeal of January 17 appears an advertisement of M. 
Stem & Co., indignantly den)dng the report that the flour sold by 
them was mixed with sand. These gentlemen assert that the only 
foundation for this damaging report was the fact that they were 
selling flour at $65 a barrel, for which other dealers were charg- 
ing $80. Good coffee is advertised at $3.75 per pound. 

The campaign in Tennessee and Mississippi was growing more 
and more a center of observation, and the food question in the 
latter State became an important one. For the coming planting 
season the advice was given to plant but little cotton and much 
grain, thus supplying the food demand at hcwne and depriving the 
Yankees of the cotton, of which they were beginning to feel the 


Times began to be stirring around Vicksburg. Fifty transports 
and three gunboats arrived, and the siege went on. Cannonading 
could be heard almost daily. January 31, after having for six 
weeks appeared on paper of varying shapes and small sizes, the 
Appeal received a supply of larger paper, and resumed its eight 
column form, discarding the nonpareil type made necessary by the 
limited space, of which there had been numerous complaints from 
its readers. 

During the early part of February the capture of the Cairo, the 
Queen of the West, and the Indianola, three Federal vessels, did 
mudi to cheer the whole Confederacy. This disposed of all the 
enemy's vessels on the Mississippi between Port Hudscm and 
Vicksburg, and added three really formidable ironclads to Con- 
federate resources. 

Refugees were still arriving from Memphis, and still adver- 
tising for missing members of their families. Mr. J. B. Elam is 

A Rbbbi; Newspaper's War Story. 137 

notified by advertisement, March 10, that he can find his family 
at the Pearce House, in Canton, Miss. 

Rapidly increasing prices of supplies, the high cost of white 
paper and the increased rate for composition, forced an advance, 
March 12, in the price of the paper from $1.50 to $2.50 per 
month, and the price to news agents was at the same time raised 
from seven to ten cents per copy. The weekly was advanced to 
$4 per year, and the express condition made that no subscriptions 
thereafter would be received for a longer period than two months 
in advance. 

By President Davis' order, March 27 was observed as a day of 
general fasting and prayer. 

The first day of April the Appeal was visited by Mr. J. S. 
Thrasher, general superintendent of the Press Association of the 
Confederate States, who was appointing correspondents and ar- 
ranging other matters connected with a better press service. He 
went from Jackson to Vicksburg to arrange for full dispatches 
from the front. Morning and afternoon or evening editions of 
the Appeal were now published. 


Letter paper is reported as selling at $5 per quire at Shreve- 
port, which occasions the editorial observation that "enough of 
the article ought to be impressed upon which to write the seller's 

passport to the other side of Jordan." A few days later is 

chronicled the burning of the largest paper mills in the Con- 
federacy, in South Carolina, near Augusta, Ga. — sl loss to the 
entire South. 

Whiskey is quoted at $2.50 a drink in Arkansas, "and the bar- 
keeper does the measuring." Strawberries at two dollars a quart 
are reported as offered for sale — ^"forbidden fruit to us" says the 

Vicksburg is now threatened by land and sea. Firing was 
heard every day, and it was recognized that the next thirty days 
were big with important events. Mississippi was going through 
with what to her was the most trying ordeal of the war. Federal 
forces were marauding over the State, and the Appeal calls in 
sbuming language upon every man in the State to rise and drive 


out the hateful foe. May <^>€iied with a Yankee raid on the New 
Orleans, Jackson & Great Northern Railroad, interrupting com- 
mttnication between Jackson and the South, and firing was heard 
along the Yaroo. The Confederate soldiers are pressed for food, 
and crying "Once more to the breach" the Appeal calls vLpaa tfie 
women and children of erery neighborhood to feed such aa are 
camped within reach. 

May 4 Jackson was fuU of rumors and canards of the most 
esccittog desciiption, but the Appeal decries the existence of a 
panic, still, however, paying close attention to Grant's movements. 
The issue of May 11 dtronicles the death of Stonewall Jackson, 
and follows with an editorial on the bright outlodc of tiie coming 
spring. Some one having drctdated the report dnt the Appeal 
was getting ready to move its office from Jackson, as the Federab 
cattle nearer and nearer, the Appeai disclaims a belief that the 
foe can take the capital of Mississippi, and expresses a hope that 
the Southern forces can drive the Federals back. "More tiian a 
week has passed, and we have every reason to be hopeful — nay, 
confident. Entertaining these views, our friends will continue 
to hear from us as before, until the evening and the morning of 
the last day of even probable security." 


And the Appeal kept its word. But it was shelled out of Jack- 
son on the 14th of May, when Grant made his famous move 
from Bruinsburg, by which he isolated Pemberton, and shut him 
up in Vicksburg, to be bagged thereafter on the Fourth of July. 
The printing press made its escape down the Southern Railroad 
to Meridian, and thence at its leisure to Atlanta. Generals Grant 
and Sherman were certain that they were about to bag the Appeal 
beyond peradventure, as their scouts had furnished them with a 
copy of that morning's issue, fresh and damp from the press — but 
they didn't. As they came in- one way the Appeal went out the 
other way, with full forty rounds of shot and shell making a 
pother over its head before it could get safely out of the way of 
those impatient commanders. The printing press went on to 
Atlanta, but with the proof press and a few cases of type, the 
Appeal for about a week kept getting out small extras daily at 

Meridkm. Ttito the paper moved oti to the pleasaftt city of At* 
latita, ^nkiiig to be well out of the way of Grant and Sherman 

In making their debut in Atlanta and expbining that they did 
not move tilt they had to, the Afp^afs editors mention with 
evident enjoyment the hict that one of the first acts of the enemy 
in Jackson was to inquire ''as to our whereabouts, and tfiey were 
not slow in expressing their rage at onr escape. We flatter our* 
sehres, our evacuation was a masterty one^^and it was aocooi'- 
plished without k>ss, notwithstanding a number of diots were 
fired across Pearl river at our rear guard by the disappointed 


In casting its \ot with the people of Georgia, the purpose is 
announced to refrain from all mterference in domestic affairs 
and dissensions in the state. "To the Confederacy we owe our 
first great duty, and when we have faithfully performed that duty, 
we shall have accomplished the object of our highest ambition 
in the present unsettled condition of the country." 

The correspondence and reporting corps were enlarged and ar- 
rangements made for publishing full and reliable information. 
All paid subscribers are notified that the time lost will be added 
to the time their subscriptions have still to run. A job oflBce was 
also opened in connection with the newspaper, which was pro- 
vided with all facilities and materials "suitable for the finest 

Despite all the trials and privations of war, there were many 
pleasant days in Atlanta. The office was located on Whitehall 
street, between Decatur street and the Atlanta and West Point 
Railroad, and was the resort of many men then or since famous 
in the annals of the South, as soldiers, editors, preachers, poli- 
ticians and business men. Among their co-workers were Albert 
Roberts, erstwhile of the Chattanooga Rebel, which had then 
gone down to Marietta to be published; and Henry Watterson, 
both at times managing editor of the Atlanta Confederacy, and 
many others, many of them exiles like Colonels Dill and McClana- 
han, of the Appeal, There was too much life and activity to 
admit of dullness, and the hard and constant work left no time, 

I40 Thb American Historical. Magazinb. 

had there been any inclination for repining. The course of 
events was closely fdlowed. Every victory brought exultation, 
and even defeat was not allowed to pass without some consola- 
tory view of the situaticai. When printer's ink gave out, black- 
ing was used to print the paper, and no doubt they were some- 
times glad to get blacking. The sacrifices on all sides had long 
been too commc«i to be made note of, men, women and children 
putting aside every interest except that of the common defense, 
and lending to that every aid in their power. Sometimes news 
was very hard to get. Tel^^ph facilities were meager at best 
and frequently, just when important news was expected from 
the front, the wires were down — but what could not be remedied 
was most philos(q)hically endured. "Dixie's" letters frcMn Rich- 
mond continued to give bright and crisp reviews of current 
events. "Shadow's" letters from Chattanooga, now a most im- 
portant seat of war, kept the reader posted on occurrences and 
movements thereabout. The "Shadow" letters were written by 
two gentlemen then, and afterwards, distinguished in journalism 
— ^Albert Roberts and Henry Watterson. 


About the middle of June the Tennessee state convention at 
Winchester nominated Caruthers for Governor, his competitors 
for nomination being Bate, Whitthome and Bailey. The con- 
gressional nominations for the several districts were Joseph B. 
Heiskell from the First, Wm. S. Swann from the Second, A. S. 
Colyar from the Third, John P. Murray from the Fourth, Henry 
S. Foote from the Fifth, Edwin A. Keeble from the Sixth, James 
McCoUum from the Seventh, Thomas Menees from the Eighth, 
J. D. C. Atkins from the Ninth, John V. Wright from the Tenth 
and David McCullen from the Eleventh. When the election was 
held, Tennesseans throughout the Confederacy voted wherever 
they chanced to be, and the poll at Atlanta showed the presence 
of a large number of exiled citizens from the Volunteer State. 
The gubernatorial nominee himself was at the time of nomination 
and election an exile from his home, as was almost, if not quite, 
every man named for Congress. 

A Rbbbl Newspaper's War Story. 141 


The emancipation proclamation had been issued, but all the 
same a Charleston broker and auctioneer is mentioned as having 
sold twenty-five n^^oes ranging from two to sixty years for the 
aggregate sum of $41,875, an average of $1,671 apiece. And yet 
these prices were low, compared with the prices of other articles, 
for among all the terrible trials that befell the Confederacy this 
year, trials the like of which have not happened to other people 
in modem days, was a currency that had become nearly worthless. 
The railway system was so worn as to be incapable of transport- 
ing supplies promptly; the most fertile regions were desolated 
and a scarcity existed in the entire crops; the blockade was so 
stringent as to practically cut off the outer world ; almost every 
man that could be spared was in the army; the Federal troops 
invaded their towns and states, freed their slaves and enrolled 
them in its army; defied their retaliation, captured their strong- 
holds, divided their territory, defeated their armies and held the 
constantly increasing number of prisoners without exchange; 
their own territory was growing less and less, themselves un- 
recognized among nations — any other people on the face of the 
earth would have succumbed, would have proposed terms of 

But the South held on. Her financial troubles came to a crisis 
and the short grain crops of the previous year brought almost a 
universal famine upon the people. In many places the starving 
women organized and burst open the government storehouses to 
obtain food. The impressment of food supplies by the govern- 
ment was but a brief and momentary relief, and even that only in 
a few localities. The price per pound of some of the articles of 
common use were as follows: Bacon $3, lard $2.10, butter $4, 
coffee $10, sugar $5. And these prices of 1863 were by no means 
the climax. 


The publishers of the Appeal had great difficulty in getting 
white paper and ink with which to get out their paper. Though 
their rates were high, they were low as compared with the prices 
they had to pay, and the price of subscription was advanced 
from $2.50 a month in June to $3 the latter part of July. In 

142 Th9 Akkeigak Historical Uaoazwz. 

January, 1864, it was increased to $4 a month» again in Mardi 
to $5, and shortly afterward the notice appears that the present 
currency would only be received at two-thirds of Ae face value. 
Agents were supplied at 18 cents per copy, the retail price being 
25 cents a copy. 

At the banning of the year, in spite of numerous reverses, 
the military power of the Confederacy was regarded by its citi- 
zens as able to cope very strongly with its adversary, and was 
far from being either shattered or broken. A hopeful aspect 
was presented until there came in quick succession the disaster 
at Gettysburg, the loss of Vicksburg and Port Hudson, the falling 
back of General Bragg, and the success of General Gilmore at. 
Charleston, When it became known that in spite of all that 
human valor and devotion could do, Vicksburg and its defenders 
became the prey of the enemy, it was realized that the tug of war, 
the political crisis had come. The Appeal sounded the absolute 
necessity of prompt and energetic action, with a view to self- 
protection, and called on every man to join in striking a decisive 
blow that should break the power of the invader. The late 
changes in Middle Tennessee had given the question a more seri- 
ous aspect than it had hitherto borne, and particularly to the people 
of Georgia, Alabama and Tennessee. July 7 throughout the State 
of Georgia according to the recommendations of the Governor, 
business was suspended and the people of every locality met and 
organized for the hc«ne defense. In calling on them to take every 
possible step, the Appeal tersely says, "they must either drive the 
Yankees out of the country or be overrun and robbed by them." 


The fall of Vicksburg, already reported and believed, was not 
confirmed by the Appeal's advices until the 9^1 of July. Then, 
in the face of this appalling calamity, and despite the irretrievable 
loss of this strategic point, the indomitable hopefulness of the 
Appeal shone out amid the dark and gloom, as bright as ever in 
the hour of victory. After taking a brief glance at the gloomy 
side of the question, the paper concludes that Ae Yankees have 
bou^t their victory at a dear price ; that even with an army <rf 
one hundred thousand men and thirteen gunboats doing police 


dutyy mvigatkin of the riva- was but a faazardoiis experiment, 
ttid the people of die Northwest would soon realize the futility 
and tlbsnrdkf of Aeir senseless cry of '4ree navigation." "Free 
nayigation is a barren privilege in the absence of commerce and 
trade, 2sid these can be restored only on the return of peace. We 
think even the dark side of the picture has its bright spots. Come 
what may, we shall not despond, or despair of the Republic." 

Again, a few days later, in an editorial on the past, present and 
future of the war, the conclusion is again reached that the enorm- 
ous cost of Vicksburg to the yankees has made it a dear victory, 
and that ^the experience of the past year teaches the important 
fact Aat we are far more able to carry on a protracted war of 
defense against our enemy than they are to wage one of aggres^ 
sion upon us. Already many of their, own statesmen and organs 
are beginning to argue and discuss the absolute necessity of the 
ulticiftte repudiatkm of their war debt, which caimot fail to bring 
upon their people and government ruin and dishonor. . . . Let 
us then not court despair, but stunnK>n courage, and with Nil 
Desper^mdum for our motto, and a merciful and just God to 
guide us, we shall evoke victory from the cannon's mouth." 


Later in July came a silence of the wires for days, "ominous 
of evil, we fear," followed by the news of the occut>ation of 
Jackson. A week later come letters from Jackson over two weeks 
in route, "too late for pubhcatiixi, the situation having entirely 

Lee retreats from Pennsylvania, and under the caption, "Never 
Despond or Despair," there is an editorial beginning, "True 
manhood and heroic courage never despair, but rise superior to 
the calamities that befall them." Then follows a determined 
eflFort to show how many stars of hope and encouragement were 
still shining through the dark clouds of gloc«n, and the people 
are called cm to rally once more while "the yankees are now in 
an admirable position to receive a severe drubbing, in the heart 
of our country, a long way from their gunboats and water 

Elsewhere in the Confederacy, many were convinced that in- 

144 Thb Ambrican Historical Magazine. 

dependence was unattainable, but if there were any such senti- 
ment in Atlanta, the Appeal did not reflect it. The last day of 
July there is another editorial, "No Cause for Despondency," 
counseling the careful husbanding of resources and declaring 
that the South might have ample cause to hope for ultimate suc- 
cess, even "though much weaker than she really is. He is more 
than doubly armed who fights in a righteous cause and on the 

These hopeful extracts are given as a marked feature of the 
Appeal's war history. It never lost hope or faith, and who can 
tell the inspiriting effect of this hopefulness upon its soldier 
readers? Is it any wonder that the South could hardly be con- 
quered when its people were animated by a spirit like this ? 


And yet the Appeal did not believe in creating a false impres- 
sion, for more than one strong editorial is directed against those 
"who are humbugging themselves and others" by belittling the 
numbers of the enemy; "if their numbers are not more than 
stated, Southern arms will be disgraced if they are not whipped 
in thirty days. Let us no longer be humbugged. To be fore- 
warned is to be forearmed." 

August was characterized by little to be mentioned here. The 
column of the enemy closed in, and September found Bragg still 
slowly backing away as the Federals advanced. Then, weeks of 
fighting around and south of Chattanooga. Want pinched closer 
and closer, and made even more rigid economy necessary. The 
Federal program for the subjugation of the South, it was be- 
lieved at this time, would terminate with the capture of Atlanta, 
and the Appeal in publishing the information calls for a defense 
that will make the city a place of political historic renown. 

Late in November and early in December there were but vague 
and indefinite reports from the front, and little to claim mention 
here directly concerning the Appeal. December 9 Blind Tom 
gave a performance for the benefit of sick and wounded soldiers. 
December 10 was observed throughout Georgia, Alabama and 
Mississippi as a day of fasting and prayer. 

The second Christmas in exile was marked by no particular 

A Rbbbl Nbwspapbr's War Story. 145 

observance. But there is an editorial on the poof, and an appeal 
for remembering the "numberless mothers and little boys and 
girls without fire, with scant clothing and naked feet." Another 
editorial on the day speaks of Christmas customs and reunions 
and concludes: "And though many of us may be absent from 
home, in the hospitals and elsewhere, let home, with all its images 
of father, or mother, or brother and sister, with its memories, its 
hopes, its joys, be intellectually, as though actually present ; and 
let the reunion of heart and mind be as complete as though we 
are not absent in the body. And, above all, let those of us who 
are at home not forget those among us who are away from home, 
in the withholding or denial of any little attention or accustomed 
civility, kindness or hospitality; for, as it is a day peculiarly of 
gifts, it is a day when gifts are twice blessed, blessed to him that 
receives, more blessed to him that gives." 

HELPING morgan's MEN. 

In January over $10,000 was raised in Atlanta by subscription 
toward mounting Morgan's men and equipping them for service 
again, and $2,500 was added to this amount by a concert given by 
the ladies of Atlanta. 

On the 19th of January the Appeal began the publication of 
both morning and evening editions, the fresh matter of the morn- 
ing edition appearing on the first page, and that of the evening 
on the second. This change was made to reach their subscribers 
on the Augusta & Macon and Western roads one day earlier than 

January 28, Mrs. S. C. Law passed through Atlanta, with 
five hundred blankets and one thousand five hundred pairs of 
socks, a contribution of the ladies of Columbus, Ga., to the needy 
soldiers of General Johnston's army. On the same day some 
other ladies are rebuked editorially for having made the roimds 
of the city soliciting contributions for putting a carpet in the 
parsonage of (Mie of the churches. "In times like these," suggests 
the Appeal, "when numbers of our soldiers in the field are suffer- 
ing for covering to shield them from the chilling blasts of winter, 
and their families at home suffering for the acttial necessaries of 
life, it is not only not commendable, but is reprehensible. If 

146 T^B AvBBicAN Hiearoiuoa Magazikb. 

any of our mimsters have carpets on dieir floors* it is thetr duty 
at once to convert them iiito blankets and send them to the army. 
Let 118 hope these no doubt weU-intentioned ladies will tldidc bet* 
ter of their enterprise aad give their charities a more deserving 
and whdesome direction*" This shows the spirit of the times* 
that all there was in the South should be devoted to the South 
and to the army diat was %hting its battles. We hear no more 
of the carpet enterprise. 

An item in the Appeal of February 8, shows that the price of 
white paper has passed $47.50 per ream, in forty ream lots. Thia 
made a newspaper an expensive thing at best, and a few daya 
later we find a notice that the cost is being wrongly increased 
by newsboys who have charged a number of gentlemen fifty 
cents a copy, when the price was rightfully but twenty-five cents 
a copy. 

An earnest appeal is made for the planting of as large crops 
of breadstuffs as possible, the intention being quite evident cm the 
Yankees' part "to starve us into submission." Attention is called 
also to a large number of idle boys in the city who "ought to be 
doing something for their country, either with a musket or a 


Quinine is quoted at $200 an ounce, and people's faces have 
grown so long that the barbers charge a dollar for a shave. The 
butchers put up the price of beef to three dollars a pound, and 
bacon was selling at the same price. Note is made of the fact that 
a man who had invested $3,300, his entire savings, in one Aou- 
sand one hundred pounds of bacon, had his smokehouse broken 
open and his entire meat supply stolen. Incendiary fires for pur- 
poses of robbery were daily reported. But with the approach of 
spring hopeful feelings returned and the Appeal declares Aat the 
gloomiest days of the Confederacy have passed. 

Mardi 25 E. M. Edwardy advertises that until April i only he 
will sell ten pounds of granulated sugar for one hundred dc^ktrs or 
six and two-third pounds of coffee for Ae same amount Mobile 
prices are said to be lower tfian Atlanta prices, as in Mobile 
com meal is only $7 a bushel; peas, $12; potatoes, $12; pork, 
$4 a potmd and butter $10 to $15 a pound according to quaUty. 

A Rhbbl NBwsPArait's Wa& StoRn. 147 

Ri€too»4 quotes per pouad: aotp* $4; cmdles, $5*25; dried 
apples^ $9»37i^ i^ni peachc6» $0.50. Mobile hotd rates are sasd 
to be $15 a day, ''an example well worthy of imitation in Atknta, 
where the rates are outrageous." Onions may be had in bunches 
of one dozen small ones f or $a a bunch. ''A love of a bonnet'' 
is described whidi may be had at $i>0(yx 

Meantime the enemy was drawing nearer. May % they were 
at Rome, and closer and closer they came to Atlanta. The 
ooovements are chr<micled daily until June 24, when an impor- 
t^t movement, ''which we cannot mention," had taken place. 
No press reports were received for three days, the wires all 
bemg cut by the army of siege around Atlanta. Tht eflFect was 
depressing on all. On the a7th and aSdi firing was heard be^ 
yond the chy, the battle of Kennesaw Ridge and at other near-by 
points. With the issue of June 30, 1864, the regular Atlanta 
issue of the Ap^eni is closed. 


Its Stay in Atlanta was nearly done. Shortly before the city 
was entered by the conquering legions, the Appeal retired from 
Aat same Gen. Sherman who a year before had chased them 
out of Jackson. The Appeal, press and type, went to Montgom- 
ery after June 30, but the paper continued issuing extra slips 
from a proof press until the evacuation. As General Somebody*s 
corps marched into Atlanta on one side, the proof press and a 
few cases of t3rpe retained to operate it went out on a dray on 
the other, and so the Appeal and Gen. Sherman parted company 
for good. Sherman went off down into Georgia and knocked 
many a printing office into "pi" there and over in South Carolina. 
The Appeal forces went on to Montgomery, where the paper 
was regularly issued again, beginning the 20th of September, 
1864, and continued to entertain and instruct the denizens of 
Dixie until about the 20th of April, 1865. 


Then another fierce military gentleman of the Federal persua- 
sion took it into his head to ride furiously down through Ala- 
bama — Major General Wilson, with nine thousand Spencer rifles 

143 Thb Ambrican Historical Magazine. 

in the hands of picked men, who knew how to ride and how to 
fight. He gobbled up Selma, using it very roughly, burning foun- 
dries, gun factories and things generally of the "C. S." brand 
of ownership. When it was definitely ascertained that he had 
fixed his eagle eye on Montgomery — that is to say, about the 
I2th of April, 1865, the Appeal became aware of the sound 
policy of an immediate evacuation of the "cradle of the rebel- 
lion," and made room for the General. The press took to itself 
wings and steam, and fled east of the Chattahoochee to Colum- 
bus, Ga. Montgomery was occupied without resistance, and 
Columbus captured after a stout but ineffectual defense. The 
press and the material, except the proof press and a few cases of 
t3rpe, had been sent to Macon in anticipation of General Wilson's 
probable visit to Columbus, and were there deposited in a place 
of safety, and were not discovered until after the armistice and 
the promulgation of orders from General Sherman to stop the 
destruction of either public or private property. The proof 
press and a few cases of type left behind in Columbus were piled 
in the streets and destroyed by order of Major General Wilson, 
who had one way and another been often engaged in the pur- 
suit of the migratory journal and the migratory journalists. 
The illness of Colonel Dill's wife had delayed his departure too 
long, and after some little search he was found by Colonel Minty 
and conducted to General Wilson's headquarters in the Perry 
House. When they came in the room. General Wilson was seated 
on the floor with his engineer, a large map spread out under 
them. Colonel Minty addressed the General with the request: 
"Allow me to introduce to you for a moment, sir, Colonel Dill, of 
the Memphis Appeal.'* "Jesus Christ," exclaimed General Wilson, 
jumping up from the floor; "have we caught the old fox at last?" 
At this there was a general laugh all round, followed by some old 
Bourbon, which Colonel Dill declared to be better than any he had 
tasted for two years. General Wilson gave Dill the choice of giv- 
ing bond not to publish another paper during the continuance of 
the war or being held as a prisoner. Dill very promptly g^ve the 
bond, and was released. 

A Rbbbi. Newspaper's War Story. 149 


But the war was now about ended, and, ironclad with am- 
nesties and paroles, the Appeal came home from its eventful ex- 
ile of three years. The old press came back, too, and as soon 
as more type could be procured, the Appeal again began its pub- 
lication on the 5th of November, 1865. It was again, in truth, 
the Memphis Appeal. 

When the war broke out and the paper went into voluntary exile 
it had been one of the wealthiest institutions in Memphis, and was 
published by McQanahan, Trousdale & Dill. McClanahan and 
Dill went with the paper when it started on its three years' flight 
through Dixie, but Col. Leon Trousdale was not with it during 
its career "on wheels." He had previously left to become a 
staff officer with some general of the Confederate Army, and 
afterwards became identified with the Chattanooga Rebel, an- 
other mig^tory journal of much reputation in those days, though 
not so long-lived as the Appeal. Other members of the Rebel's 
staff were Albert Roberts, Henry Watterson, Franc M. Paul 
and perhaps others of less note. Both McClanahan and Dill came 
back to Memphis, but before the first issue of the paper was 
printed in its old home, McClanahan was no more. He had 
been identified with the Appeal since 1847, was with it in all its 
migratory campaign and was a writer of eminent ability. He 
had been sick, and was still quite feeble. On the morning of 
June 29, 1865, he had opened the window of his room at the 
Gayoso Hotel to get the air, when he lost his balance and fell, 
crushing himself so cruelly as to die shortly in the greatest pain. 
FrcMn the Nashville Press is taken the folowing account of the 
tragedy, which will prove interesting in connection with this 
strange and eventful newspaper history. 

"On the morning of the 29th ult., Col. John R. McClanahan 
was found in the alley in the rear of the Gayoso House, Mem- 
phis. He had sometime during the night fallen from the win- 
dow of his room in the third story of the hotel, and was horribly 
mangled by the fall. Both arms and both legs were broken, the 
latter near the knees; his chin crushed, and he was otherwise 
badly bruised. He was conscious when discovered, and in the 


intensity of his agony hedged some one to kill him and put an 
end to his suflferings. He died shortly after. 

"Col. McClanahan was for many years editor of the Memphis 
Appeal, and, in i860, a warm supporter of Mr. Douglass for 
the Presidency. He subsequently supported the rebellicm, and, 
on the approach of the National troops to Memphis, removed 
with his office to Grenada, Miss. Both he and the Appeal be- 
came rather notorious at a later day for the frequency of their 
change of base, and, lastly, for losing even their base. He w^ 
a kind, warm-hearted man, a fine scholar and an able writer. 
Next to the late Elbridge G. Eastman, he was the most sagacious 
and reliable editor connected with the Democratic press of the 
State of Tennessee." 

Mr. W. P. Dill, the other proprietor, did not long survive 
him. He was sick at the Gayoso Hotel when the first issue was 
printed, and died early the following year. When the first num- 
ber was being^ printed. Major Will O. Woodson, who was con- 
nected with the paper, and had been one of its special corre- 
spondents during the war, seized the first printed sheet as it 
came from the press and rushed with it to Dill's sick room. 
Mrs. Dill seized the paper and kissed it passionately, as though 
it had been a thing of flesh and blood, and then spread it affec- 
tionately over her pale, sick husband. To her this was an em- 
blem of all the hopes and struggles and failures of the Con- 
federacy. The Colonel looked at it more practically. He picked 
it up and began counting up the number of advertisements and 
hunting for typographical errors. He was able to make but one 
visit to the office where the paper was printed, and died a fcw^ 
weeks afterwards. 

But though neither of these two brave workers long survived 
the strange episode in journalism which they created, they had 
carried out their ambition to have their paper live throughout 
the war. 

Another worker on the Memphis Appeal of the war times is 
deserving of more mention than can be given him here for want 
of the facts. Things went by rapidly then, and men stopped not 
to gather the threads of each other's lives. Linebaugh, a fluent 
arid brilliant writer, joined the force in Atlanta. He was an «c- 

A RBBBf. Nbwspaphr's War Story. 151 

ctergyman of the Efriscopal Church, very erratic bat full of fine 
traits of character. Loved Hke a brother by the exiles, he went 
with the Appeal on its last flight. While crossing the Alabama 
River he was drowned, and was ^us the first of those closely 
allied with the Appeal to pass away. 


The Appeal's war history was a subject of considerable com- 
ment among the gentlemen of the press after its return, and 
many of them wrote sketches of great or less length of the 
Memphis-Grenada-Ja^kson-Atlanta-Montgomery Appeal, as one 
of them termed it. Under the caption, "A Wanderer Returned," 
the Cincinnati Commercial said : 

"During the war the frequent removals of the Memphis Ap- 
peal caused a good deal of merriment, and journalists especially 
kq>t an account of its wanderings and amused themselves at its 
expense. The paragraphs on the subject have been innumerable, 
and it is doubtful whether the proprietors of the Appeal, though 
they were not unappreciative of a good thing, were always able 
to see where Ae hiugh came in. We received many copies of 
the Appeal when it was issued at Grenada, Jackson and Atlanta, 
and the ample extracts from its columns that may be found re- 
produced in the Commercial, are the best testimony we can offer 
that we recc^ized it as a good newspaper. We remember well 
the copy of the Appeal issued at Atlanta on the morning of the 
battle of Peachtree Creek. It was full of fight, and we should 
not be surprised if the headlong valor of HcxkI's army that day 
was due, in no small degree, to the fiery appeals addressed to the 
men to make their fight dien and there. A huge ten-column folio 
sheet made its appearance among our exchanges yesterday, and 
lo! it was the Memphis Appeal again, and it was dated Memphis, 
Sunday, November 5, 1865. . . The Appeal proceeds to say 
'that if it erred in obeying the impulse which throbbed as from 
one impassioned heart throughout the South, it may claim to 
have made some expiation in the sacrifices it has endured during 
the three years of its self-exile.' It has *no unmanly excuses to 
make,' nor 'stukifying recantations of opinions and sentiments once 
honestly entertained ;' but admits that 'the stem logic of events 
has practically compelled their renunciation. We frankly and 
truly accept the interpretation which has been stamped with the 
red verdict of war upon the Constitution, of the indestructibility 
of that Union of States and people which makes us, for all time, 
a mighty and indivisible Republic; we recognize and abide by 

152 The Ambrican Historical Magazine 

the lo^cal sequence of the late unhappy Civil War, in the de- 
struction now and forever, of the institution of African slavery. 
The real men of the land, the true fighting soldiers of both sec- 
tions, have decreed that there shall be a real peace and a genuine 
union in the great American family. Between the veteran Fed- 
eral soldier and the unflinching Confederate soldier, who have 
so often met each other in the raging conflict of battle, there is 
a feeling of respect that affords the sure foundation on which 
the restored Union will rest.' " 

So much for the other side. On this side the following may 
be given. It was written for the Nashville Republican Banner 
by Albert Roberts, himself a "traveling journalist" in those days 
with the Chattanooga Rebel, and afterwards with the Atlanta 
Confederacy, after the war at the head of the Republican Ban- 
ner, and at the head of the American in Colonel John C. Burch's 
time — the peer of any journalist of the time : 

"Do our eyes deceive us? No, it is the Memphis Appeal 
which stares us in the face ! The same old letter — ^Roman bold — 
at the head; the same antique decorations and plain captions; 
the very ink, and, as it were, the very paper. We stand, so to 
say, in our old shadow, and read it like a page of Waverly. 
Esto perpetual Here is the portly and impressive Dill, like a 
burgher of the olden time, in broad-brimmed hat and silver- 
headed cane, just as he used to pass from Whitehall to Peach- 
tree, undismayed by the shells, unmoved by the dreadful stench 
of saltpeter; here, hovering in the air, is the bleeding form of 
poor McClanahan; and here, dripping in water and wrapped 
in moss, is the brilliant and ill-fated Linebaugh 1 The history of 
this journal will be read a hundred years hence like a romance. 
It has had more adventures than a Knight of Malta, and has 
come out of the smoke and din, covered over with scars, but 
stronger and braver for the conflict. It has heard lions roar, 
and seen the sea puffed up with winds ; and its haps and chances 
by flood and field make matter for a ballad. Nothing in news- 
paperography can compare with its. strange, eventful career. 

"Ah, that old press! How well we remember itl Cliddty- 
clickl Clickity-click 1 Qickity-click 1 Through the long night it 
rattled away, defiant of the roar and storm outside; and every 
morning how bright and fiery, unfatigued and fresh it looked— 
like a war-horse ready for another charge. They carried the 
works of Peachtree street; they carried the works below Deca- 
tur; they carried the rifle pits which ran along the Macon road. 
Clickity-click! Clickity-click 1 the old press dashed along, heed- 
less of danger, a living, breathing, cognizant being, cast of iron, 

A Rbbbi. Nbwspapbr's War Story. 153 

steel and melt. Dill grew serious, Dumble's face extended and 
Mack's pen wandered vaguely across the page. Old Joe was 
down the cotintrjr and Hood was pfeying the devil. Then Stone- 
man was gobbled. Clickity-click 1 rattled the old press. There 
was a pause — an ominous lull. The bloody twenty-second of 
July was passed, the bloody twenty-eighth was lost, and Ben 
HiU knew no more about Sherman than he did about Paradise. 
Hood, like Dill, was serious, and the bws at the front were seri- 
ous. Hardee was off at Joneshoro. Boom! Boom! How the 
gmis thundered I Crash t Cra^l How the roofs, walls and 
church spires tusttUedi Whizt Whir! How the sdirapnel tore 
through the air ! Clickity-click 1 Clickity-click I 

''The city fell. Out we went, like a snuffed candle^ and dark- 
nes/ followed. It lasted long, unstudded with stars. Linebaugh 
lies at the bottom of the Alabama; McQanahan, God rest him, 
steeps on the banks of the Mississippi. D^y begins to break. 
Clidcity-cHck I the press is going again with galhnt Dill upoti 
the flat 

"It is all over now. It seems like a dream. What shadows 
we pursue! May our ancient friend never be shadowless, but 
may it bear the sun to mark its shadow. Here's your health, O, 
Dill! May you never move again, O, Appeal!— except your 


154 'I'hb Ambrican Historical Magazinb. 



Captain David Campbell's great grandfather, Alexander 
Campbell, lived in Argyleshire, Scotland ; the name of his wife is 
unknown. He had a son, William Campbell, who married Mary 
Byars. They went from Scotland to Ireland during the re- 
ligious persecutions in that country, hoping to find a place where 
they could worship God in their chosen way, but were disap- 
pointed and discontented in Ireland, and finally decided to em- 
igrate to the English colonies in America. They settled in Vir- 
ginia. Others of the same name and clan, and relations, settled 
first in Lancaster Coimty, Pennsylvania, remained some years 
and then removed to Augusta County, Virginia, about the year 

William Campbell and his wife, Mary Byars, had seven chil- 
dren. The eldest, David Campbell, married Jane Conyngham, 
a granddaughter of Colonel Patrick Conyngham, whose family 
lived in Ireland on the river Boyne. The head of the bouse was 
Sir Albert Conyngham. Colonel Patrick Conyngham com- 
manded a regiment at the battle of Boyne, 1690. 

David and Jane Conyngham Campbell had four children. 
William married Mary Ellison, and was prominent in the Indian 
and Revolutionary wars. His two brothers-in-law. Captain 
William Ellison, who married Mary Campbell, and Major John 
Morrison, who married Martha Campbell, were also patriotic 
defenders of their liberty in the same war. 

David, the subject of this sketch, was the youngest child. He 
was born in Augusta County, Virginia, August, 1753. Three 
months previous to his birth his father died, and his mother 
died when he was but six years of age. 

His brother William, being the eldest, according to the old 
English common law which was in force at that time, inherited 
the whole of his father's property, which consisted entirely of 
landed estates and slaves, so young David was forced to de- 

Skbtch op Captain David Campbell. 155 

pend upon his own resources very early in life, and bravely he 
solved the problem of making his living. He had accumulated 
some means by the time he was twenty years of age, which he 
invested in a small farm in Washington County, Virginia, to 
which he moved. This was near Abingdon. Soon after settling 
on his farm he met his cousin, Margaret Campbell (daughter 
of his mother's half sister, Mary Hamilton, and David Camp- 
bell, a distant relation). They became attached to one another 
and were married in 1774, she being about 21 years of age at 
the time of her marriage. 

Her father, David Campbell, was an officer in the Virginia 
army in 1759, when his young son, Arthur, was taken prisoner 
by the Indians and escaped after three years captivity in Can- 
ada. (See old family manuscripts and also Virginia Magazine 
of History and Biography, Vol. VH, No. 2, October, 1899.) She 
had several brothers who were distinguished in the war of 
1776. Margaret Campbell was keeping house at the "Royal 
Oak," the family seat of her two brothers. Colonel John and 
Colonel Arthur Campbell, at the time of her marriage. The 
two young people settled upon their farm near Abingdon, Vir- 
ginia. While living at this place David Campbell participated in 
a number of engagements against the Indians, one in October, 
1774, the battle of Point Pleasant. He was in the company of 
his brother-in-law. Captain John Campbell, when they were in 
the decisive battle of Long Island Flats, July, 1776, and in a 
number of other engagements against the Tories and Indians. 
He was a captain in the Colonial and Continental armies, was at 
the celebrated battle of Kings Mountain, with eight others of his 
name — brothers and cousins. About the year 1782 David Camp- 
bell, with his family, moved from Abingdon, Virginia, to Wash- 
ington County, East Tennessee, and remained there only one 
year. He then went to the "Strawberry Plains" tract of land„ 
which he then owned. 

He had a tract of land granted him for his services during the 
Revolution of 1776, situated in Green County, East Tennessee* 
He lived upon this farm about four years, then moved to 
"Grassy Valley," in Knox County, about fifteen miles from 
Knoxville, about the year 1785, and made the first settlement 
there. He built a station at this place, which was completed 

156 The American Historical Magazine. 

March 7, 1787, and others coming and settling near assisted 
m making the station a stronghold against the hostile Indians 
in the vicinity. It became known alt over the country as 
*'Campbefl Station/' was made a post office later, and is called by 
that name to the present day. 

At the time of Captain Campbelfs settlement at the "Station" 
the Indians were ver>' fierce and warlike all over that section 
of the country, and the white settlers were constantly being mur- 
dered and driven from their homes. Every station in that neigh- 
borhood was taken and destroyed except Campbell's. 

A Bttle act of kindness and clemency shown by Captain Camp- 
bell to some Indian women and children soon after he settled 
in East Tennessee was never forgotten by them, and this ac- 
counted for his station never being attacked, except once, by a 
strolling band of Indians. It indeed seems strange that the 
depraved savage, so bloodthirsty and beastKke in their revenge- 
ful nature, should possess feelings of such gratitude; yet it is 
true, as we see from the following incident : 

Captain Campbell on one occasion led a company from the 
lort on an expedition against some Indians who had been com- 
mitting depredations upon the settlers and their stock. Arriv- 
ing at one of their towns they found the warriors all absent upcMi 
some raid — none but women and children left in the village. A 
majority of the men wished to slaughter them and bum the 
village, but their commander. Captain Campbell, would not per- 
mit such an act of cruelty to be perpetrated upon the helpless 
community, and sternly ordered the men not to harm one of 
them upon peril of their own lives. One intractable fellow, see- 
ing a girl near him — Lucy Fields, the daughter of a chief — 
raised his gun to shoot her, when Captain Campbell knocked his 
piece up just in time to save her life. At this the women all 
crowded around him imploring his protection, which he kindly 
gave, marching his men off without harming them. Before 
these tribes left Tennessee for homes given them in Western 
Arkansas by the government this girl, Lucy Fields, and her 
mother went to Campbell's Station and gave a beautiful fan 
made of eagle feathers and beads, and other pieces of their 
handiwork to the wife and daughter of their protector. The 
writer has often in her chiWhood seen the fan, which was for 

Skstch op Captain David Cahpsbio^ iS7 

a long time preserved as an heirloom in the family. It was 
made of the tail fes^hers of a large eagle, the lower part being 
embroidered with many colored beads upon some substance 
that looked like birch bark. It also had a peculiar looking cord 
and tassel on the handle. 

Again, to show that this act of kindness was never forgotten 
by the Indians: Fidds and Mcintosh were the chiefs of the 
tribes saved, and long years afterward General John Campbell, 
the son of Captain Da\'id Campbell, was appointed by the gov- 
ernment as agent to the Indians in western Kansas. There he 
met the descendants of these two chiefs, and they remembered 
. and spoke to him of his father's act with much feeling and grat- 

After this expedition it is said that the warriors in all their 
councils determined that Campbell's Station should be the very 
last fort taken. They never attacked it. Peace was made and 
they were ever afterward friendly. This Station was for many 
years a frontier fort, and nearer than any other to the Cherokee 
tribe of Indians ; and it was only by the most vigilant conduct, 
tact and kindness that Captain Campbell maintained and de- 
fended his fort from the attacks of hostile Indians. He was a 
participator in the Franklin government, and after the state 
was admitted to the Union as Tennessee he was a member of the 
legislature, assisting in enacting the first laws for the state gov- 
ernment. He was afterward elector for President and Vice Pres- 
ident of the United States. He was a most patriotic, public spir- 
ited, estimable and honorable man, greatly honored by the whole 
community. During his absence with all the able bodied men 
on an expedition against the Indians, a strolling band of savages 
attacked the fort, but they were repelled by the bravery of his 
wife, Margaret Campbell. She armed all the old men and boys, 
the women also helping. Their defense was so fierce that the 
Indians concluded the fort was full of white men warriors, so 
they retired. 

On July 29, 1799, David Campbell lost his beloved wife, Mar- 
garet Campbell, by whom he had eight children, four dying in 
early youth, four living to be married, but only one leaving 
descendants. Jane, the eldest, married Colonel Wright, of the 
United States army. Mary married her cousin, David Camp- 

158 The American Historical Magazine. 

bell, who was afterwards governor of Virginia. John, his eldest 
son, entered the regular army of the United States in 1795, and 
continued in it till the close of the War of 1812. He was lieu- 
tenant colonel in the northern army, was at the battles of 
Plattsburg, Fort George and other engagements on the north- 
ern line. He was a worthy man and a brave soldier. He left 
no descendants. The youngest son, David, born March 4, 1781, 
was a most estimable man and commanded the respect of all 
who knew him. He married Catharine Bowen, a daughter of 
Captain William Bowen (a brave soldier of the Revolution) and 
a granddaughter of General William Russell, who was also a 
statesman and patriot in those "times that tried men's souls." 
This David Campbell and his wife, Catharine Bowen, were the 
parents of William B. Campbell, who was a captain in the Flori- 
da war, was in Congress six years, colonel of ist Tennessee reg- 
iment in the Mexican war, judge and governor of Tennessee. 

In 1804 Captain David Campbell, the subject of this sketch, 
married a second time. By this marriage he had three chil- 
dren, but only one lived to maturity — Margaret Lavinia Camp- 
bell, a most noble, lovely Christian woman, and one of great 
intellectual attainments. She married the Rev. John Kelly. 

Captain Campbell left Campbell's Station in 1823, went to 
Wilson County, Tenn., near Lebanon, and settled on a farm of 
600 acres, which is still owned by one of his descendants. The 
daughter of Captain David Campbell, in writing of her father, 
says, **He was a man of stern, excitable temperament, with 
strong affections." I only knew him after the public spirit of 
buoyant youth had calmed into the sober, resolute determina- 
tion of generous patriotism, when the restless ambition, 
strengthened by the rough life of an orphan boy, had drawn 
him into many a struggle with which he bravely contended, until 
his soul felt the animation of success, and upright principles were 
wrought in him destined to live forever. His country's wel- 
fare was such a fixture in his character that no changes, no 
troubles or conflicting circumstances prevented his manifesting 
an ever active interest in its prosperity. The same propensity 
that made him give his services to his country during the Rev- 
olutionary War in defense of liberty, and the hardihood to un- 
dertake the life in a frontier fort with his little family for eight 

Sketch op Captain David Campbbll. 159 

years, only changed its course when the many demands of a 
newly settled country in behalf of its civilization required his 
means and assistance in the erection of many log school houses, 
as well as bearing the greater part of the expense for teachers, 
not only for the advantage of his own children, but for those of 
his neighbors who were unable to contribute to these pioneer 

At no time in his history did I ever know him indifferent 
to the character of the man who was a candidate for office, 
whether the office was high or low ; he considered it connected 
with the interest of his country and therefore a matter of deep 
concern to him. He felt that to be a right, which he ever ex- 
ercised and kept in full force until he was near fourscore years 
of age. With pleasure and profit do I often revert to his un- 
complaining disposition. With a firm tread he walked through 
the rough scenes of life, with contentment and cheerfulness, and 
admonished his children against fretfulness and discontent, while 
with a woman's tenderness he would ever encourage them in a 
course of usefulness for themselves and others. His influence 
and fond but worthy ambition was deeply felt by his children 
throughout their lives. I only knew him after the asperity of 
a high, strong nature was softened by Christian influence. The 
fervent spirit of the true Christian never died in this patriotic 
man. The love of the land of his birth, for which he had fought 
in two wars and enjoyed a probationary existence, did not pre- 
vent his warm affections from moving toward that better coun- 
try. He was a man of truly devout religious feeling, possessed 
great integrity of character, was hospitable, social and kind to 
all who needed his aid in any way. He was slender, erect, square 
shouldered, with black hair and eyes, was five feet ten inches 
in height, a man of undaunted bravery and courage under all 

He lived on a farm seven miles from Lebanon, Tenn., until 
his death, which occurred August 18, 1832, aged 79 years. He 
was buried in the village grave yard at Leeville, Tenn., near 
Lebanon. A monument is over his grave, erected by his family. 

i6o Thb Ahbrican Hisxojucal Maoazihb. 


L3rtiian C. Draper, to Governor DaTid Catnpbeli, of Abing- 
don, Va., July 1st, 1840, says: 

"Maj. Benjamin Sharp, in speaking of your father, says: 
•In giving you my views of the character of Capt. John Camp- 
bell, my attachment to him was so strong as i)ei1iaps to render 
me blmd to defects in his character that others might dis- 
cover. He was one among the most confidential friends I ever 
had in my life. For eight or ten years that we lived neighbors, 
our political, moral and religious sentiments were precisely the 
same. He was temperate in all his liabits ; his disposition mild, 
and unassuming; his manners and address free from familiarity, 
but not obtrusive; his mind highly cukivated, and his judg^ 
ment sound and discriminating. He was dignified without 
pride^ humble without ^ererity^ religious without superstition 
or ostentation. 

" 'He was sincere in his friendships ; his disposition towards 
his enemies, I never knew tested, for I never heard he had any. 
He was the useful citizen, obliging neighbor, affectionate hus- 
band, kind father, indulgent master to his slaves, and to crown 
all, he was a true patriot, a Whig of 1776. I feel my incapacity 
to fully delineate the character of sudi a man, so noble and 
true in everything. 

" 'His descendants may well cherish and revere his mem- 
ory, and if they make his character the chart by which they 
sail through the ocean of life, they may stand a fair chance 
never to be wrecked on its rocks and quicksands.' 

"Maj. BBKJAMnr Shabp." 

J<^n Campbell was captain of a company in the battle of 
Long Island Flats, fought on July 20, 1776, against the Chero- 
kee Indians; he was afterwards an ofiicer in the Continoital 
army, organized a company from western Virginia and fought 
bravely during the Revolution; he was father of Governor 
David Campbell, of Abingdon, Va., and brother to Margaret 
Campbell, who married Captain David Campbell, of Campbell 
Station, East Tennessee, and they were the grandparents of the 
late Governor Wm. B. Campbell, of Lebanon, Tenn. 

Margaxst Campbbu* to Wujuiam Caicpsbll. l6l 


" 'Round Lick, near Carthage, TensL, July 7, 182&. 
''My Dear Soa: I delayed answenxii^ yours oi tbe 13th of 
June, which I received about two weeks since, that I mjgbt 
jpvt you some account of the parade that was agitating us. 
The inhabitants of Lebanon and Wilson County sent an invita- 
tion to General Andrew Jackson to partake of a dinner aiMl 
jQpper on the 2nd of July on his way to Carthage. A committee 
of ten men were sent to conduct htm ; they were to start from 
your grandfather's {Capt. David Campbell] to town. General 
John Campbell^ your uncle, was one of the conductors. The 
next day there were ten more sent to bring him to this county 
Ime, whidi b at Mn David Shelton's; there your lather was 
commissioned to receive him, as he belonged to the Smith 
County committee. The General said it was his wish that day 
to take a family dinner with your aunt and uncle Moore, and 
return and stay all night with us. About ten o'clock in the 
morning they arrived here, stopped and had their horses put 
up and fed, they all walked to your Uncle Moore's ; your uncle 
General John and your Aunt Emeline Campbell walked with 
them, also your little sister and brother, David and Virginia; 
they were the only children at home at that time — ^John, Mj^ry 
and Margaret had gone up to Carthage early that morning, as 
there would be trouble in crossing the river when the crowd as- 
sembled for the great parade. The General took a great fancy 
to little Virginia, led her by the hand, and at the table, when 
I wished her to wait, he took her and seated her by himself, 
and attended to her; she was quite delighted, although she 
looked rather abashed at his politeness. I wish I could de- 
scribe to you the meeting, indeed I did not think it would have 
had the effect that it did upon my feelings when the company 
rode up and dismounted at my door. I looked out and saw 
General Jackson advancing with that same gallant air that I 
had often seen in days that are now departed. I involuntarily 

i62 Thb Ambrican Historical Magazine. 

stepped from the house to meet him, and was received in the 
warmest manner by the old warrior; a mixture of feelings 
crowded upon me, reflecting on the toils, difficulties and many 
weary steps that the old hero had taken since I had seen him 
last; nearly twenty-three years had elapsed since that time. 
The next morning before his departure, he stationed himself 
near me to have a serious chat before parting, although the 
house and yard was full of men waiting to see him, and hear 
him talk. 

"I have promised to let the girls go to the Hermitage on a 
visit to him, but don't know how it will be yet. The Governor 
was here also, but I could not attend much to him when the 
General was near, for I did not know him in the days of yore. 

"John and his sisters returned from town yesterday; they 
were much pleased with their trip, and more with seeing 'Old 
Hickory.' He was very kind and attentive to them when intro- 
duced in Carthage, which was, of course, very gratifying in- 
deed to me^ who had been an old friend and neighbor of the 
Old Hero's so many years gone by. I have given you enough 
of this 4th of July parade; will write to you soon of other 
things. Adieu, my son; you have always your mother's bless- 
ings. Catherine B. Campbell." 




The Military Division of the Tennessee (1863) under 
General Grant included the Department of the Cumberland 
under the command of General George H. Thomas Several 
counties of north Alabama in the possession of the Federals 
formed a part of this department and for three years were 
governed entirely by the army, except for two short intervals 
when the Federal forces were flanked and forced to retire. An- 
archy then reigned, for the civil government had been almost 
entirely destroyed in ten of the northern counties. June 7, 1865, 
the Military Division of the Tennessee was reorganized under 
General Thomas, and included the Department of Alabama 
commanded by General C. R. Woods, with headquarters at 
Mobile. In October, 1865, Georgia and Alabama were united 
into a military province called the Department of the Gulf, un- 
der General Woods. This department was still in the Military 
Division of the Tennessee commanded by General Thomas. 
June I, 1866, Alabama and Georgia were formed into the De- 
partment of the South and were still in Thomas's Military Di- 
vision of the Tennessee. General Woods commanded with 
headquarters at Macon, Ga. Alabama was ruled by General 
Swayne from Montgomery. August 6, 1866, the Military Di- 
vision of the Tennessee was discontinued and was made a de? 
partment, General Thomas retaining the command. In this de- 
partment Georgia and Alabama formed the District of the 
Chattahoochee, with headquarters at Macon, commanded by 
General Woods. The sub-district of Alabama was commanded 
by General Swayne, who was also in charge of the Freedmen's 
Bureau at Montgomery. This organization lasted until the 
Third Military District was formed of Alabama and Georgia, 

i64 Thb American Histokical Magazine. 

in March, 1867, and General Thomas (immediately superseded 
by General Pope) was put in command (i). 

Within a month after the surrender of Lee, Alabama was 
occupied by Federal armies and garrisons were being stationed 
at one or more points in all the more populous counties. The 
military authorities were inclined at first to permit the citizens 
to reorganize the state government on the basis of the Lin- 
coln plan of restoration by assisting and encouraging a peace- 
ful revolution in the existing government under the old om- 
stitutional forms. But this was forbidden by the administra- 
tion and the army was ordered to break op the civil govent- 
ment, which was done (2). 

Officers were sent into all the counties to administer to the 
people the oath of allegiance* It is said that not many of the 
people took it and that most of them were rather indifferent about 

it (3). 

For several months there was no civil government at all and 
no government of any kind except in the immediate vicinity of 
the army posts and the towns where military officers and Freed- 
men's Bureau of agents regulated the conduct of the n^^oes, 
and incidentally of the whites, well or badly, according to their 
prejudices. Some of the officers, especially those of higher 
rank, endeavored to pacify the land, gave good advice to the 
negroes, and were considerate in their relations with the whites ; 
others incited the blacks to all sorts of deviltry and were a 
terror to the whites (4). Each official in his little district 

(i) Van Home, Life of Thomas, 153, 399, 400, 408. 

Huntsrille Advocate, June 9, t866 (for copy of otxier rtbtiiiff to De- 
partment of the South that I have not found elsewhere). 

G. O. Na I, Mil. Dtv. Tenn., June 20, 1865. 

G. O. No. 118, W. Dept., June 27, 1865. 

G. O. No. I, Dept. Ala., July 18, 1865. 

G. O. No. I, Dist Ala., June 4* 18661 

G. O. No. z, Dept. Tenn., Aug. 13, 1866 

G. O. No. 42, Dept. Tenn., Nov. i, 1866. 

The general and special orders cited in this paper are on file in the War 
Department at Washington. I consulted the original copies. 

(2) O- R. Series I, Vol. 4ft pt H, pp. 5<«, s6o. 8j6, ^i, 7^^ «54. 

(3) Report of the Joint G>nunittee on Reconstruction, Pt. III. 

(4) Miller, Alabama, 236; Acts of Alabama (1865- 1866) 598, 6oi. 

Military Government in Alabama, 1865-1866. 165 

ruled as supreme as the Czar of all the Russias. He was the 
first and last authority on most of the affairs of the community. 
So far as the pec^le could see, there was no check on his 

Early in the summer each dty and its surrounding territory 
was formed into a military district under the command of a 
general officer, who was subject to the orders of General Woods 
at Mobile. There were the districts of Mobile, Montgomery, 
Talladega and Huntsville^-each with a dozen or more coun- 
ties attached. Then there were isolated posts in each. The 
district was governed by the rules applying to a "separate 
brigade" in the army (i). The different posts, districts and 
departments were formed, tfscontinued, reorganized with 
lightning rapidity. Hardly a single day passed without some Irind 
of a change necessitated by the resignation or muster out of 
officers or troops. Commanding officers stayed a few days or 
a few weeks at a post, and were relieved or discluurged. Many 
of the officers spent much of their time puffing wires to keep 
from being mustered out. Others resigned as soon as their 
resignation would be accepted. Few or none had any adequate 
knowledge of conditions in their own districts, nor was it possi- 
ble for them to acquire a knowledge of affairs in the short time 
they remained at any one post. 

After the establishment of the provisional government the 
army was supposed to retire more into the background, leav- 
ing ordinary matters of administration to the civil govern- 
ment. This it did not do, but constantly interfered in all affairs 
of government. The army officers cannot be blamed for their 
constant n^eddfing with the civil administration, for the Presi- 
dent did the same and seemed to have little confidence in the 
govemmeets he had erected, though he gave good accounts ol 
them to Congress. 

Then, also, army officers were serving two commanders and 
a third seemed about to appear. The general-in-chief issued 
some orders, the President issued others which were in con- 

(i) That is„ the officers had the privilegres and authority of officers 
of a division. 
G. O. Nos. I, 9. i7j 29, 29, 54, Dept. Ala^ i86s 
G. O. No. I, Mil. Div. Tfenn., 1865. 

i66 Thb Ambrican Historical Magazine. 

flict with the former orders of Grant. Congress was about to 
assume control of the army. Politics divided and demoralized 
the army as well as the administration. It was simply impossi- 
ble for the ordinary officer to see any consistent course to 
follow. The wrangles at Washington confused them as to 
the proper policy to pursue. 

In August, 1865, the military commander published the Pres- 
ident's Amnesty Proclamation of May 29, 1865, and sent offi- 
cers to each county to administer the oath (i). Instructions 
were given that **no improper persons are to be permitted to 
take the oath" (2). The oath was to be signed in triplicate, 
one copy for the Department of State, one for military head 
quarters, and one for the party taking the oath. Regulations 
were prescribed for making special applications for pardon by 
those excepted under the Amnesty Proclamation. There were 
120 stations in the State where officials administered the oath 
of amnesty (3). The authorities gave the term "improper per- 
sons" a broad construction and excluded many who applied to 
take the oath. The various officers differed greatly in their en- 
forcement of the regulations. Special applications for pardon 
had to go through military channels, and that meant delays of 
weeks or months; so, after civil officials were appointed in 
Alabama, "improper persons" took the oath before them, and 
then their papers were sent at once to Washington for the at- 
tention of the President. There was some scandal about the 
Provisional Secretary of State accepting reward for pushinf,; 
certain applications for pardon. But there was no need to use 
influence, for the President pardoned all who applied. 

Soon after Parsons was appointed provisional governor, an 
order stated that the United States forces would be used to as- 
sist in the restoration of order and civil law throughout the 
State and would act in support of the civil authorities as soon 

(i) The "Amnesty Oath." The oath of allegiance had already been 
administered to all who would take it See McPherson, Reconstruc- 
tion, 9, 10. 

(2) Fourteen classes of persons were excluded from the benefits of 
the Amnesty Proclamation. These could secure pardon by special ap- 
plication to the President. 

(3) G. O. No. 13 and 14, Dcpt Ala., 1865. 

Military Govbrnmbnt in Alabama, i 865-1 866. 167 

as the latter were appointed and qualified. The military au- 
thorities were instructed to avoid as far as possible any as- 
sumption or exercise of the functions of civil tribunals. No 
arrest or imprisonment for debt was to be made or allowed, 
and depredations by United States troops upon private prop- 
erty were to be repressed, (i) 

As acting agents of the Freemen's Bureau, the army officers 
had to do with all that concerned the negroes, but some times, 
in a different capacity, they issued regulations concerning the 
colored race. It is difficult to distinguish between their ac- 
tions as Bureau agents and as army officers. On the whole, it 
seems that each officer of the army considered himself ex-officio 
an acting agent of the Bureau. 

Soon after the occupation of Montgomery, an order was 
issued to the effect that negroes were not to be permitted to 
occupy houses in the city without the consent of the owner. 
They had to vacate unless they could get permission. Negroes 
in rightful possession had to show certificates to that effect 
from the owner. All unemployed negroes were advised to go 
to work, as the United States would not support them in 
idleness (2). This order was intended to discourage the ten- 
dency of the negro population to follow the army and camp 
in the towns where garrisons were placed. The first troops 
to arrive were ahnost smothered by the welcoming blacks, who 
were disposed to depend upon the army for maintenance. The 
officers were at first almost terrified at the great crowds of 
blacks who swarmed around them and tried hard for a time 
to induce them to go back home to work. Their efforts were 
successful in some instances, but not often. 

In view of the fact that the posts and garrisons were the 
gathering places of great numbers of unemployed blacks, an 
order, issued in August, 1865, instructed the commanders of 

(i) G. O. No. 3. Dept. Ala., July 21, 1865. There was much com- 
plaint about the stealing of cotton by troops. 

(2) G. O. Na 6, Post of Montgomery, May 15, 1865. This order is 
printed on thin, blue Confederate writing paper, which seems to have 
been shaped with scissors to the proper size. Supplies had not fol- 
lowed the army. 

1 68 T&B American Historical Magazine 

posts and garrisons to prohibit the loitering of negroes around 
the posts and to discourage the indolence of the blacks, (i) 

In Mobile some kind of a civil government must have been 
set up under the direction of the military authorities, for we 
hear of an order issued by General Andrews that in all courts 
and judicial proceedings in the District of Mobile the negro 
should have the same standing as whites (2). These may have 
been Bureau courts. 

It was represented to the military commander that the ne- 
groes of Alabama had aided the Federals in April and May, 
1865, by bringing into the Knes, or by destroying, stock, pro- 
visions and property that would aid the Confederacy and that 
they were now being arrested by the oflScers of the provisional 
government for larceny and arson. It was ordered that the 
civil authorities be prohibited from arresting, trying or im- 
prisoning any neg^ for any offense committed before the sur- 
render of Taylor (3) except by permission of miRtary head- 
quarters or of the Assistant Commissioner of the Freedmen'* 
Bureau (4). When the Federal armies passed through the State 
in April and May, 1865, hundreds, perhaps thousands, of ne- 
groes had seized the farm stock and followed the array, for 
a few dajrs at least. There was more of this seizure of prop- 
erty by negroes after garrisons were stationed in the towns. 
The order was so construed that practically no negro could be 
arrested for stealing when he was setting out for town and the 
Bureau. A few weeks before the order was issued. Woods 
stated : T do not interfere with civil affairs at aH unless caBed 
upon by the governor of the State to assist the civil author- 
ities" (5). 

The most terrible stories of cruel treatment of the fiegrots 
were brought to Woods by the Bureau oftcis^, and he sent 
detadsments of soldiers to investigate tht repents. Nothkig 
was done except to march through the country and fright e n 

(i) G. O. No. 24, Dept. o£ Ala,, Aiiir. aj, Ms, 

(2) a a No. 6, Po«t of MoWl^ iH N. Y. Daify News, June 27, M5. 

(3) Taylor stinendrred oa Magr 4, 1865. 
U) G; a Na 4^ Dept. Ma., Od. 18, 1865. 

(5) Statement of Gen. Woods, Sept. 4, 1865, documert: Vo. ii; ae- 
companying the report of Schurz. 


the timid by a display of armed force, which was evidently all 
the agents wanted. One detachment scoured the counties of 
Clarke, Marengo, Washington and Choctaw, investigating the 
lying reports of the agents, (i) 

The commanding officers at some posts authorized militia 
officers under the provisional government to disarm the freed- 
men when outbreaks were threatened This coming to the 
knowledge of General Swayne, he ordered that no authority be 
delegated by officers to civilians for dealing with freedmen, but 
that such cases be referred to the assistant commissioner of the 
Freedmen's Bureau (2). 

There had been g^eat fear among some classes of people that 
the negroes would engage in plots to massacre the whites and 
secure possession of the property, which they were assured by 
negro soldiers and Bureau agents the government meant them 
to have. About Christmas, 1865, the fear was greatest. For 
six months the blacks had been eagerly striving^ to get pos- 
session of firearms. The soldiers and speculators made it 
easy for them to obtain them. In Russell County $3,000 worth 
of new Spencer rifles were found hidden in negro cabins (3). 
There were few firearms among the whites, for all had been 
used in war and were seized by the United States government. 
Sonte feared the negroes were preparing for an uprising, but 
it is more probable that they merely wanted guns as a mark of 
freedom. The purchase of firearms by whites was discour- 
aged. The sale of arms and ammunition into the interior was 
forbidden, but speculators managed to sell both. General 
Smith, at Mobile, had one of them — Dieterich — arrested and 
confined in the military prison at Mobile (4). The Mobile Daily 
Register was warned that it must not print articles about im- 
pending negro insurrections (5), a very good regulation, but 
the violent negro sheet in Mobile was not noticed. It was a 
cause of excitement among the blacks. 

In the fall of 1866 it was reported to the Secretary of State, 

(i) Sec statenwrnt of Woods, Sept. 4, 1865. 

(2) G. O. No. 4, Jan. 26, 1866, Dept Ala. 

(3) N. Y. Daily News, Sept. 7, 1865. 

(4) Statement of Gen. T. K. Smith, Sept. 14, 1865, in Schurz report. 

(5) Statement of General Woods, Sept. 4, 1865. 

lyp TpE Aif^EiCAir ^ISTO9lCiL|, MA9A2|I^9* 

Mr. Sewar^, by some friend >f the blacks that negroes were 
being induced tq go to Peru on promise of higher w^es. Sev- 
^rd induced Howard^ thf cpirimissioner of the Fre^dmen'i; bu- 
reau, to have the Bureau annul or disapprove all eontr?ets of 
freedm^n to go beyond the limits of the United State?. Gen- 
eral Swayne, who was now both assistant commissioner and 
military commander, wa^ directed to enforce Howard's order 
ill Alabama, (i) 

A)l commerce and tra^i^c had to go on by permission and 
under the regulations of the military authorities. Genen^l 
Wood forbade the planters to remove eotton from plantations 
apd warehouses (2). Later, cotton and other farm produce 
cpuld be shipped under the same regulations as before the 
war, but subject to the tw of 25 per ceiit imposed by the treas- 
\xry department (3). 

Before this, cotton was smuggled past the military authori- 
ties and treasury agents. It cost $^5 a bale to get cotton to 
Mobile from up the rivers (4). 

Petacbments of soldiers were sent out with treasury agents 
9lid cottpn spies to search for cotton apd protect the cotton 
agents when they seized it. There were several conflicts be- 
tween the sojdiers and citizens over the confiscation of cotton. 
There w^ts much complaint by the citizens that some of the 
officers and soldier? were engaged in looting the plantations of 
the Black Belt (5). 

It was ordered that civilians guilty of stealing government 
cofton should be punished, after trial by military commission, 
according to the statutes of Alabama in force before the war. 
(6), General Woods stated at the same time that he had in- 

(1) G. O. No. S. ?«<>. Pi^t. Ala., Oct 13. i8». 

(2) N. Y. Herald, Aug. 26, 1865. 

(3) G. O. Na 26, Dcpt Ala., Aug. 29, 1865. Sec McPherson, Recon- 
struction, 9. 

(4) N. Y. Daily News, Aug. 21, 1865. 

(5) See letter of F. S. Lyon in report of the Joint Committee on 
Affairs in the Late Insurrectionary States, ^d testimony of Lyo^ and 
Herr in the testimony relating to Alabama. Also testimony of Col 
Hunter Brooke in the report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruc- 
tion, pt. in. Ii3^"6. 

(6) G. O. Na 30, Dept of Ala., Sept 4> 1865. 

Military Qovernic^nt in Ai-abama^ i8fe-i866. 171 

stnictipiftft fiont^ QepenU ThoQ^s to try all cases of stealing 
government property by military commission, on account of 
the failure of the civil authorities to prosecute such cases, (i) 

Thomas C. A. Dexter, bonded agent of the U. S. Treasury, 
was indicted by the United States grand jury for stea^ling cot- 
toiv Dexter wasi ^rr^sted by General Woods, and his counsel 
sued out a writ of habeas corpus before Busteed, the Federal 
judge. The writ was served on General Woods and Colonel 
Hunter Brooke, who presided over the military commission. 
Tl>e officers declined to obey, saying tl^t a military commis- 
sion had been convened tq try Dexter, and that no interfer- 
ence oi the civil authorities would be permitted. Busteed or- 
dered Dexter to be discharged and Woods to appear before 
him and show why he should not be prosecuted for contempt 
of court. Woods paid no attention to this or^er Jmd Puste^^ 
$^pt th^ United 3t^tes q[iarsh?il tp arrest \im. The m«^rs|ial 
reported that he was unable to get into the presence of Woodp 
because the military guard was instructed not to allow him to 
pass. Woods sent a message to Busteed that the vnrit had not 
been restored in Alabama. Busteed ma4e 9 protest to the 
President and asserted that the trial could not lawfully proceed 
except in the civil courts. President Johnson sustained the 
course of General Woods and thereby gave a blow to his pet 
government, for Busteed at once adjourned his court — ^the only 
Federal court in the state. The sentin^ent of tl^e people yjras 
with Busteed in spite of his own notorious character and that 
of the defendant. All wanted the civil governmept to take 
charge of affairs (2). 

Several cases were tried by military commission before the 
reconstruction acta were passed in 1867. Many c^es do pot 
appear in the records. No records have been found of the cases 
tried by summary courts in the summer of 1865. ^ partial list 
of the cases, with charges and sentences are given her^ : 

Wilson H. Gordon (i), ciriliap, qiiiFder of negro, V^y 14, 1865. 

(1) Slatomtnt. Sept. 4* 1865, Schur< report. 

(2) N. Y. Herald, Nov. 26 and Dec 15, iSfe. 
N. Y. News, Dec. 7. iSfe. 

N. Y. Times, Nov. 27, iH^. 

172 Thb Amb&ican Historical Magazinb. 

Samuel Smiley (i), civilian, murder of neg^o, 1865. Acquitted 

T. J. Carver (2), cotton agent, stealing cotton. Fined $90,000 and 
one year's imprisonment. 

T. C. A. Dexter (3), cotton agent, stealing cotton (3,321 bales) and 
selling appointment of cotton agent to Carver for $25,000. Fined $250,- 
000 and imprisonment for one year. 

William Ludlow (4), civilian, stealing United States stock. Four 
years' imprisonment. 

L. J. Britton (5), civilian, guerrilla warfare and robbery. Fined 
$5,000 and imprisonment for ten years. (Fine remitted by reviewing 

Georg« M. Cunningham (6), late Second Lieutenant 47th 111. Vol. 
Inf., stealing government stores. Fined $500. 

John C Richardson (7), civilian, guerilla warfare and robbery. Im- 
prisonment for ten years. 

Owen McLamey (7). civilian, assault on soldier. Acquitted. 

Wm. B. Rowls (7), civilian, guerilla warfare and robbery. Imprison- 
ment for ten years. 

Samuel Beckham (7), civilian, receiving stolen property. Imprison- 
ment for three years. 

John Johnson (8), civilian, robbery and pretending to be United 
States officer. Fined $100, "to be appropriated to the use of the 
Freedmen'c Bureau." 

Abraham Harper (8). civilian, robbery and pretending to be United 
States officer. Fined $100, "to be appropriated to the use of the Freed- 
men*s Bureau." 

Most of the civilians tried by the military commissions were 
camp followers and discharged soldiers of the United States 
army. Those charged with guerilla warfare were unjustly 
tried, since they had been regularly enlisted Confederate sol- 
diers and were accused by the tory element who were guilty of 
most of the guerilla warfare. It was impossible to punish 

(i) Document No. 19, accompanying Schurz's report. 

(2) G. O. No. SSf Dept. Ala., Oct. 30, 1865. 

(3) G. O. No. 8, Dept. Ala., Feb. 17, 1866. 

(4) G. O. No. I, Dept. Ala., Jan. 5. 1866. 

(5) G. O. No. 13. Dept. Ala., 1866. 

(6) G. O. No. 17. Dept. Ala., 1866. 

(7) G. O. No. 20, Dept. Ala.,1866. 

(8) G. O. No. 23. Dept. Ala., 1866. 

There were other trials, but the records are missing and the names 
of the parties are unknown. 

A large number of cases were prosecuted before military commissions 
convened at the instance of the Freedmen's Bureau. 

Military Govbrnmbnt in Alabama, 1865-1866. 173 

outlaws for any depredations committed during the war and 
for several months after the surrender if they would claim to 
be "loyalists," which they usually did. The civil authorities 
were forbidden to arrest, try and imprison discharged soldiers 
of the United States army for acts committed while in service, 
(i) A similar order withdrew all "loyal" persons from the juris- 
diction of the civil courts so far as concerned actions during or 
growing out of the war (2). The negroes had already been 
withdrawn from the authority of the civil court so far as sim- 
ilar offenses were concerned (3). 

The clergy of the Episcopal Church refused to pray for the 
President of the United States, no such praver beiner provided 
for, and Bishop Wilmer refused to order such a prayer, as he 
had the power to do, while the state was ruled by the army. 
For this offense the bishop and all the clergy of the state were 
suspended and forbidden to preach or perform service of any 
kind, and the churches were closed for several months until 
the President was induced to interfere and direct Thomas to 
revoke the orders closing the churches and suspending the 
clergy (4). 

Upon the complaint of United States officials collecting taxes 
and revenues of the refusal of individuals to pay, the military 
commanders over the state were ordered to arrest and try by 
military commission all persons refusing or neglecting "to pay- 
these just dues" (5). 

Numerous complaints of arbitrary arrests and of the un- 
warranted seizure of private property^ called forth an order 
from Thomas which directed that the persons and property 
of all citizens must be respected. There was to be no inter- 

(i) G. O. No. 29, Mil. Div. of the Tenn., Sept. 21, 1865. 
G. O. No. 42, Dept. Ala., Sept. 26, 1865. 

(2) G. O. No. 3, H. Q. A., Jan. 12, 1866. 
G. O. No. 7, Dcpt. Ala.. Feb. 12. 1866. 

(3) G. O. No. 48, I>cpt. Ala., Oct. 18, 1865. 

(4) G. O. No. 38, Dept. Ala., Sept 20, 1865. 

G. O. No. 40, Mil. Div. of the Tenn., Dec 22, 1865. 

G. O. No. 2, Dcpt. Ala., Jan. 10, 1866. 

See Gulf States Hist. Magazine, September, 1902. 

(5) G. O. No. 6, Feb. 21, 1866, Mil. Div. of the Tenn. The cotton 
tax of three cents a pound was the most obnoxious one. 

174 'I^HE Aksilicam Historical MagaziK]^. 

ference with or arrests of any citizen unless ut>on proper au- 
thority from the district commander, and then only after well 
supported complaint, (i) 

The local military authorities were directed to arrest all per- 
sons who had been or might be charged with offenses against 
officers, agents, citizens and inhabitants of the United States, 
in cases where the civil authorities had failed, neglected or been 
unable to bring the offendmg parties to trial. Persons so ar- 
rested were to be confined by the military until a proper tri- 
bunal might be ready and willing to try them (2). This was 
another one of many blows at the civil government permit- 
ted by the President. It allowed the army to judge for itself 
as to when it should interfere. 

These are the more important orders issued by the military 
authority relating to public affairs in Alabama during the ex- 
istence of the provisional or "Johnson" state government. It 
will be seen from the scope of the orders that the local military 
officials had the power of constant interference with the civil 
government. A large part of the popul^ion was withdrawn 
from the jurisdiction of the civil administration. The officials 
of the latter had no real power, for they were subject to fre- 
quent reproof and their proceedings to frequent revision by 
the army officers. Both Governor Parsons and Governor Pat- 
ton wanted the army removed, confident that the civil govern- 
ment, if let alone, could do better than both together. PAt- 
sons appealed to Johnson to remove the army and stop its 
interference (3). He complained that the military officials had 
caused and Were still causing much injustice by deciding grav^ 
questions of law and equity upon e^ patte statements. Persona! 
rights were subject to captious and uncertain regulations. The 
tenure of property teas tmcertain (4), and citizens felt inse- 

(i) G. O. No. 25, Mil. Div Tenn., Sept. 13, 1865. 

(2) G. O. No. 44. H. Q. A., July 6, 1866. 

G. O. No. 13, Dept. of the South. July 21, 1866. 

(3) Sen. Ex. Doc No. 26, 39 Cong., i Session. 

(4) A military commission at Hutitsville, acting under direction of 
General Thomas, had assumed to decide questions of titl\e to property, 
and in one case, a widow was alleged to have been ttimed out of her 
home. P. M. Dox. to Govemot- Parsons, Sen. Ex. Doc. No. 26, 39 
Cong., I Sess. 

Military OovBKNitANT in Alabama, 1865-1866. 1^5 

cure when the army decided complicated cases of title to land 
and questions of public morals. The citizens, he said, were 
indigtiant because the military authorities had issued licenses 
for the sale of liquor, and had permitted prostitution by licens- 
ing houses of ill repute (i). 

The restaurant of Joiher & Co., at Stevenson, was closed by 
order of the post commander because two negro soldiers were 
refused the privilege of dining at the regular table (2). Admiral 
Semmes, after pardon by the president, w^s elected tnayor of 
Mobile, but the President interfered and refused to allow him 
to serve. Many arrests and many tnore investigations were 
made at the instigation of the tory or "Union" element, and 
ott charges made by negroes, who spent much of their tim^ 
confessing the sins of their white neighbors. But most of the 
arrets for mihor causes was done by the Freedmen's Bureau, 
tod not by the army, though, as has beeh stated, it is hard to 
separate the two (3). 

The white voltinte^t^ were early mustered out, leavtiig ortly 
a few reguliLrs and several regiments of neg^ro troops to garri- 
son of the country (4). These hegro troops were a source of 
much disorder among the blacks, and were under slack disci- 
pline. Outrages and robberies by them were of frequent oc- 
currence. There was much ill feeling betweeh the white and thi6 
black troops. Even when the freedmen utterly refused to go 
to work, they behaved well, as a rule, except where negro 

(i) Circular No. i, Dist. of Montgomery, Sept. 9, 1865, required thai 
ill public women hitist register at the office of the orovost marshal; 
that each head of disorderly house must pay a license tax of $25 a w6ek 
in additioh to $5 1 we^k for each inhiat^, and that medical inspection 
should be provided for by military authority. In case of violation of 
thicse regulations a fine of $100 would ht imposed for each offense, and 
ten to thirty days* imprisonment. 

(2) Selina Times, Feb. 3, 1866. 

(3) There were really three governments in Alabama based on the 
war powers of the President: (i) The army ruling throiigh its com- 
manders; (2) the Frcedmen's Bureau, with its agents; (3) the provision- 
al civil government. 

With thit great mass of people th^ most and only effective govehi- 
itleilt Was the invisible one of public opinion. 

(4) Circular No. i, August — , 1865. 

G. O. No. 21, Dcpt. Ala.,. April D, ittS. 

176 Thb Ambrican Historical Magazine. 

troops were stationed. There is no reason to believe that it 
was not more the fault of the white officers than of the black 
soldiers. Blacks as soldiers are amenable to discipline when 
they have respectable officers. Truman reported to the presi- 
dent that the negro troops should be removed because ''to a 
great extent they incite the freedmen to deeds of violence and 
encourage them in idleness" (i). The white troops, most of them 
regulars, behaved better, so far as their relations with the cit- 
izens were concerned. The general officers were as a rule 
gentlemen, generous and considerate. So much so, that some 
rabid newspaper correspondents complained because the West 
Pointers treated the Southerners with too much consideration. 
(2). In the larger posts discipline was fairly good, but at small, 
detached posts and under certain circumstances the soldiers, 
usually, but not always, the black ones, were a scourge to the 
country. They ravaged the country almost as badly as during 
the war (3). The numerous reports of General Swayne show 
that there was no necessity for garrisons in the state. He 
wanted, he said, a small body of cavalry to catch fugitives 
from justice, not a force to overcome opposition. The pres- 
ence of the larger forces of infantry created a great deal of 
disorder. The soldiers were not amenable to civil law, there 
were no refining restraints of home, and discipline was re- 
laxed (4). 

Of the subordinate officers some were good and some were 
not, and the latter, when away from the control of their superior 

(i) DeBow, Review, 1866. DeBow made a trip through the South. 
Nation, October 5 and 26, 1865. 

Truman, report to President, April 9, 1866. See also Grant, Letter 
to President, Dec. 18, 1865. 

(2) Colonel Herbert says that the relations between the soldiers and 
the ex-Confederates were very kindly. They hoped the army would 
soon be removed, when civil government was established — Solid South, 

(3) Miller, Ala., 242. 
Reso. Leg., Jan. 16, 1866. 

(4) Testimony of Swayne, Report Joint Com., 1866, Pt III, 159. 
Various reports of Swayne as Asst. Com. of Freedmen's Bureau. It 

was noticeable that when Swayne was placed in command of the army 
in the state there was less interference and better order than befo'e, 
though he never obtained the cavalry. 


officers and leading lawless men, ravaged the back country and 
acted like brigands. For ten years after the war the general 
orders of the various military districts, departments and divi- 
sions are filled with orders publishing the results of court 
martial proceedings, which show the demoralization of the 
class of soldiers who remained in the army after the war. The 
best men clamored tor their discharge when the war ended and 
went home. The more lawless men remained, for whom life in 
garrison in time of peace was too tame, and all sorts of disor- 
der resulted. Finally "Benzine" boards had to take hold of the 
matter, and men who had done good service during the war 
were discharged by wholesale because they were unable to 
submit to discipline in time of peace. 

The rule of the army might have been better, especially in 
1865, had there not been so many changes of local and district . 
commanders and headquarters. Some counties remained .in 
the same military jurisdiction a month or two, others a week 
or two, several for two or three days only. The people did not 
know how to proceed in order to gfet military justice. Orders were 
issued that business must proceed through military channels 
This cut off the citizen from personal appeal to headquarters, 
unless he were a man of much influence. Often it was difficult 
to ascertain just what military channels were. Headquarters 
and commanders often changed before an application or a pe- 
tition reached its destination, (i) 

The President deserved to fail with his plan of restoration 
because he showed so little confidence in the government he 
had established. He was constantly interfering on the slightest 
pretexts. He asked Congress to admit the States into the 
Union and said that order was restored and the State govern- 
ments in good running order, while at the same time he had 
not restored the writ of habeas corpus, had not proclaimed the 
rebellion at an end, and was in the habit of allowing and di- 
recting the interference of the army in the gravest questions 
that confronted the civil government. In this way he discred- 
ited his own work, even in the eyes of those who wished it to 

(i) For instance: In the city of Mobile a petition of some kind 
might be made out in proper form and given to the commander of the 
Post of Mobile. The latter would endorse it with his approval or dis- 

t7S ThA AMBMCAH HtSTOKICAlk Maga^eikb. 

succeed His intentiotis were good, bat his judgment was cer^ 
taftily at fauh. 

Hie afmy authorities went on in their accustomed way until 
Swajme was placed in command, June i, 1866, when a more 
sensible policy was inaugurated Yet the civil administratioft 
was still subordinate to the military, though there was less fric- 
tion. Swayne aspired rather to control the governor and legis- 
lature by advice and demands than to rule through the army. 
There were few soldiers in the state after the summer of 
1866. Order was good, except for the disturbing influence of 
negro troops and individual Bureau agents. There were in 
remote districts outbreaks of lawlessness which neither the 
army nor the state government could suppress. The infantry 
could tiot chase outlaws; the state government was too Weak 
to enforce its orders or to command respect as long as the 
army should stay. At their best the army and the civil admin- 
istration neutralized the efforts and paralyzed the energies of 
each other. There were two governments side by side, the au- 
thority of each overlapping that of the other completely (i). The 

approval and send it to the commander of the District of Mobile, who 
likewise forwarded it with his endorsement to the commander of thfc 
Department cf Alabama at Mobile or Montgomery. In iini>oltaM 
cases the t>aper had to go on tmtil it reached headquarters ia Macon, 
Nashville, Louisville, Atlanta or Washiagtoii, and it had to retmn tile 
same way. 

The following orders relate to the changes made so often: 

G. O. Nos. 1, 9* 10, 12, 17, 19, 20, 27, of the Dept. of Ala., from July 
f8 to Sept. f , 1865. 

G. O. No. 18, Dept. Ala., March 30, 1866. 

G. O. No. I, Dist AfaL, Jane f , 1866. 

O. O. No. I, Sub-dis. Ala., Oct. — > 1866. 

G. O. No. I, Mil. Div. of the Tenn., June 20, 1865. 

G. O. Nos. I and 42, Dept. of the Tenn., Aug. 13 and Nov. i, 1866. 

G. O. No. 1, Dept of the South, June i, 1866. 

G. O. No. I, Dept. of the Gulf, , 1865. 

G. O. No. I, Dist. of the Chattahoochee, Aug. , i866l 

There were numerous general orders from local headquarters of 
the same nature. See also Van Home, Life of Thomas, 1$$, 399, 400, 
418, and Sen. Ex« Docs. No. 13, 38 Cong., s Seas. 

(i) The Freedmen's Bureau was a third g o ve rnm ent, with fewer and 
better defined powers but more inclined to use them. 

Military OoVBRKAJtw* in Alabama, 1865-1866. iy^ 

result was that the people governed themselves, so far as there 
was government. 

On the 28th of March, 1867, the policy of Johnson came to 
its logical end in failure. The order was issued by General 
Grant which overturned the civil government established by 
the president. In Alabama, which was to form a part of the 
Third Military District, all elections for state and county oflS- 
cials were disallowed until the arrival of the commander of the 
district. All persons elected to oflSce during the month of 
March (after the passage of the reconstruction acts) were or- 
dered to report to military headquarters for the action of the 
new military governor, (i) Military government then entered 
into a new phase. 

(I) G. O. No. I Sttb-dU. Ala., March ^ 1867. 

i8o Thb Ahbrican Historical Magazine. 



(From the OoUeotion of N. B. Hyder, Boq., BUaabethton, Tenn.) 

Vicinity of Fort Montgomery, Dec. 21, 1814. 

Sir : I have just this moment arrived from the scout that you 
ordered to be taken. I have vigilantly reconnoitered the road from 
here to the headwaters of Escampia, and have made no dis- 
coveries of the enemy or their sign. 

The only intelligence I am in possession of is, that Major Blue 
and his army was nine miles above Pensacola on the i8th inst 
on the other side of Yellowwater Bay — ^had killed three or four 
Indians — ^had made sixty Indian prisoners on the other side of 
the bay, and had been in Pensacola and had taken eight more 
of the red sticks. This intelligence I received of two men that 
were furloughed from Major Blue's and were going on to Fort 
Jackson. I am respectfully your 

Obt. Hie., Srvt, 

MicAjAH C. Rogers. 



(From the Colleotloin of B. H. Orookeit, Boq., Fnuiklin, Tenn.) 

State of Franklin. To the SheriflF of Greene County. 

We command you to take the body of Amos Bird, Esq., and 
him safely keep so that you have him before some one of the 
justices of our peace for our said county then and there to enter 
into recognizance to us our heirs and successors with condition 
to appear at our next Court of Pleas and quarter sessions to be 
held for said county on the second Monday in November next 
then and there to abide by the judgment of our said court. 
Herein fail not and have you then there this writ. Witness 
Daniel Kennedy clerk for said court at office the second Monday 
in August, 1785, and tenth year of American Independence. 

Dan Kbnnbdy, C. C. 


Ca. on presentment. 

The State 


Amos Bird, Esq , 

To February, 

Term, 1786. 

Issued 25th August, 1785. 

Not found, Richard Woods. 

Executed per Richard Woods. 

Bound before Joseph Harden, Esq. 

State of Franklin. To the SheriflF of Greene County. Greeting: 
We command you to summon George Hayworth to appear 
at our next Court of Pleas, etc., to be held for the County o'f 
Greene at the court house in said county on the second Monday 
in November, next, then and there to testify and the truth to 
say in behalf of the State in a certain matter of controversy in 
our said court depending and then and there to be tried between 
the State plaintiflF and Amos Bird defendant and this he shall in 


nowise omit under penalty of fifty pounds specie. Witness Daniel 
Kennedy clerk of our said court at oflSce the second Monday m 
August, 1785, and tenth year of American Independence. 

X^ K^NXEBY, C. C. 

The State 


Amos Bird. 


G«o. Hayworth, 


February term, 1786. 

Issued ^gdi August, 1785. 

Not lound, Richard Woods. 

Executed, Richard Woods. 

TsonAa BxHBxsoN, 185 



The nucleus of the city of Knoxyille was established in 1786 
by Colonel James White when he built a log cabin between 
what are now Union and Commerce avenues^ and in 1792 the 
county of which Knoxville is the capital was formed from 
parts of the earlier established counties of Greene and Haw- 
kins, the new county being christened Knox, in honor of Gen- 
eral Henry Knox, Secretary of War in President Washington's 
cabinet. The building of a town where Knoxville now stands 
was immediately begun and that it has been executed, with a 
greater degree of success than ordinarily attained by man, is 
shown by the city of to-day — the Marble City of the South 

Who will have the audacity to deny, in the light of the city's 
present prosperity, that the pioneers of Knoxville and the men 
trained in the same school, who followed in their footsteps and 
controlled the city in its early days, are due a great deal of 
credit for having ruled so wisely and so well as to make the 
development of to-day possible ? The preliminary events of the 
city's history are all engraven in type. The corporate ex- 
istence of the city, only once broken afterwards, begins with 
the gubematCMial inctunbency of Joseph McMinn, whq is now 
buried at Calhoun, McMinn County, on October 27th, 181 5, an 
act being passed by the State legislature incorporating the in- 
habitants of ''the town of Knoxville," and about three months 
l«ler the first meeting of the seven aldermen, including Thomas 
Emmeraon, James Pardis, Thomas McCorry, Rufus Morgan, 
James P^k, Thomas W. Humes and John M. Cullen, con- 
stituting the first board of city councillors, was held on Janu- 
ary 13, 1816. 

J^mes Park, who was himself the second mayor of the city, 
was 4 justice of the peace and he swore in the six other mem- 
bers of the fir^t bo^rd, James Dardis later administering the 

i84 Thb Ambrican Historicai« Magazine 

oath to 'Squire Park. At the subsequent election held by the 
board, Thomas Emmerson, whose name is often incorrectly 
spelled "Emerson," was chosen mayor, John M. CuUen was 
appointed treasurer, Anderson Hutchinson recorder and David 
Nelson "high constable/' 

On the twentieth of the succeeding February it was decided 
to erect a city market and Rufus Morgan, James Dardis and 
Thomas W. Humes, author of "The Loyal Mountaineers of 
Tennessee," and afterward president of the University of Ten- 
nessee, were appointed a committee of three to contract for 
and superintend its construction, the structure to be eighteen 
feet wide and twenty-six feet long. Thursdays and Saturdays 
of each week were set apart as "market days," and the city 
market was completed and thrown open for their observance 
the following December. This structure stood until 1823, when 
it was sold and demolished, on Main avenue, between Prince 
and Walnut, though in those days Main was called Market 
avenue, and Walnut went by the name of Crooked street. 

In the same year, 1816, a board of tax assessors was devised, 
and William Park, Calvin Morgan and John Crozier were ap- 
pointed upon it, their duties to be the creation of funds for the 
work of the city. The tax on real estate was set at .0025 by this 
board and other city licenses were set as follows: 

Tippling license, $5. 

Retail Merchandise, $5. 

Billiard rooms license, $20. 

Poll tax, $1. 

This poll tax was for "both white and slave polls, $1 each." 

With the proceeds from these and other assessments in 
June, 1817, $340 was appropriated for street improvements, 
"$120 to be exi>ended on Cumberland avenue, $80 on State 
street, $60 on Water street," now Hill avenue, "and the re- 
maining $80 on less important thoroughfares." At that time 
the city had no fire department of any kind and the water which 
the citizens used was obtained from near-by springs and creeks 
by pails and buckets. 

Where Thomas Emmerson, the first mayor of Knoxville, 
was born, does not seem to be known in this latter day, though 
that he was an extraordinary character is well borne out by 

Thomas Bmmbeson. 185 

what is known of him. In the short time in which he resided 
in this city, for he was not raised in Knoxville and did not long 
remain there after he retired from the Supreme Court in 1822, 
he left an indelible impression on the annals of this city, as a law- 
yer and judge, as a business man and one of scholarly attain- 
ments and culture and as a man with broad and liberal views 
on educational matters. 

That he was a judge of the superior court of the State pre- 
vious to his term as mayor attests the statement that he was a 
man of high character and standing and of matured mind when 
he assumed the municipal office. Edward Terry Sanford, in 
his pamphlet upon "The Presidents and Trustees of the Uni- 
versity of Tennessee," says that even previous to his position 
upon the bench of the superior court he had been elected a char- 
ter trustee of East Tennessee College, the predecessor of the 
present University of Tennessee, and at that time the immediate 
successor to Blount College. This was in 1807, when Judge 
Emmerson had as his associates on the charter board of trus- 
tees of the institution some of the most prominent men in the 
State's history. 

The full board was composed of : 

From Hawkins County, Richard Mitchell and Andrew Gal- 
breath; from Sullivan County, John Rhea and James King; 
Greene, Augustus P. Fore and John Gass ; Washington, Mat- 
thew Stephenson and John Kennedy ; Carter, George DuflSeld ; 
Jefferson, James Rice and Joseph Hamilton; Grainger, John 
Cocke and Major Lea; Cocke, Alexander Smith; Sevier, Hop- 
kins Lacy; Blount, Joseph B. Lapsley and Dr. Robert Gaut; 
Claiborne, William Graham ; Anderson, Arthur Crozier ; Roane, 
Thomas L Van Dyke; Knox, George Washington Campbell, 
John Sevier and Thomas Emmerson, twenty-three in the above, 
with an additional seven, selected from the close vicinity of the 
institution for obvious reasons, the latter seven including 
Archibald Roane, the second governor of Tennessee, John 
Crolier, John Williams, Francis Ramsey, David Deaderick^ 
who was afterwards associated with Judge Emmerson at Jones- 
boro, John Lowry and George Doherty. 

This list of Judge Emmerson's associates is of biographical 
value itself because first it proves by its personnel that Judge 

i86 Thb Ambrican HI6T0RICAI« Magazinb 

Enunerson, the first mayor of Knoxville, was a roan of recog- 
nized ability; it also establishes his residence at that time as 
being in Knox County and conveys interesting information as 
to the earlier management of the most famous educational in- 
stitution in Tennessee. This and other similar incidents which 
follow prove that Judge Emmerson was not only a man actively 
interested in educational matters, but was a scholar himself of 
broad learning. 

He was appointed a trustee of East Tennessee College in 1807, 
the same year being appointed a judge of the State superior 
court and serving until 1809 in that capacity. Without exception 
those Tennesseans who served upon the bench of this court 
prior to its abolition by an act which authorized the formation 
of the State Supreme Court of Errors and Api>eals, passed on 
November 16, 1809, ^re among the most noted men in the 
history of the Volunteer State. Hon. David Campbell served 
from 1797 to 1807; Hon. Andrew Jackson, "Old Hickory," 
from 1798 to T804; Hugh Lawson White from 1801 to 1807; 
and contemporaneously with Hon. Thomas Emmerson served 
Parry W. Humphreys, 1807 to 1809; Hon. Samuel Powell, 
1807 to 1809, and Hon. John Overton, first mayor of Memphis, 
1804 to 1809, again establishing Emmerson's character and 
public standing by his assodates in public life. 

Thomas Emmerson was secretary of the East Tennessee 
College from 1812 to 1820, a period of eight years, and in 
i8n he became a trustee of Hampden-Sidney Academy of 
Knox County. He was a charter trustee of the Knoxville Fe- 
male Academy in the same year and was one of the commis- 
sioners appointed to superintend subscripticMis to the Bank of 
Knoxville in 181 1. This "Bank of Knoxville," as Edward 
Terry Sanford calls U, in his pamphlet on the university, was in 
reality the first bank established in Knoxville, known as the 
;j Bank of Tennessee and chartered as "The Bank of the State 
iKbf Tennessee" on November 11, 181 1. 

>' > i"Its charter provided that the capital stock of the company 
-'^hotild not exceed $400,000, the shares to be $50 each. Sub- 
scriptions were opened in Knoxville on January i, i3i2, and 
f'.atbpfii^ Anderson, Blount, Carter, Campbell, Claiborne, Cocke, 
\jBklddO€^ Grainger, Hawkins, Jefferson, Greene, Rhea, Roctne, 

Thomas Kmmbkson. 187 

SulUvan aixl Washington Counties. To each of these counties 
440 shares were allotted and the State became a shareholder 
to the extent of $20,000, reserving the right to withdraw at the 
end of ten years. The subscriptions were payable either in 
scrip or in gold and were divided into eight annual install- 
ments," says Captain Wm. Rule, editor of the Journal Tribune, 
in his "History of Knoxville." 

Upon the receipt of $25,000 from these subscriptions the 
stockholders met in Knoxville and organized, electing a full 
board of of&cials, with the exception of one director, who was 
appointed by the State to guard its interests. This director 
was Thomas Emmerson. Hugh Lawson White was elected 
president and Luke Lea cashier, while the first board of di- 
rectors was composed of Emmerson, John Crozier, James 
Park, David Campbell, Calvin Morgan, John Hillsman, Robert 
King and James Dardis, two of whom, James Dardis and James 
Park, were associate members of the first city council with 
Judge Emmerson. This institution, the bank, closed its ex- 
istence in 1828. 

During his term of mayor of Knoxville, from' 1816 to 1818, 
Judge Emmerson was also serving as judge of the First Circuit 
Court, and from the year following his retirement from the 
municipal office, 1819, to 1822, he was a judge of the Supreme 

A unique distinction bestowed upon him is that he and David 
A. Deadericky after he had returned to Jonesboro, introduced 
the first cast iron plow into East Tennessee, in 1825, histihie 
evidently being given to some extent to agricultural pursuits 
in the neighborhood of Jonesboro. From 1833 to 1837 he is 
next heard of as editor of the Washington Republican and 
Fanners^ Journal, published at Jonesboro, the first town or- 
ganized in Tennessee, during the first three years of this en- 
terprise having Hon. S. W. J. Lucky, who was afterward, from 
1845 to 1847, JiJdge of the Circuit Court, associated with him as 
business manager. 

Judge Emmerson's career closed at Jonesboro and there he 
is buried, though the date of his death is not known. From a 
picture of Judge Emmerson printed in Crozier's "Directory of 
Knoxville" for 1891-2, which contains a number of portraits 

i8S Thb Amb&ican Historical Magazine. 

of the mayors of Knoxville, it is evident that Judge Emmerson 
was a man of as fine physical carriage as of mental character. 
This picture, possibly the only one in existence, shows him to 
have been a man of large build, with honest and penetrating 
eyes, set beneath a prominent brow, the lines of his mouth and 
chin betokening strength and firmness of mind and character, 
while his apparel warrants the assertion that his taste was equal 
to that of any other prominent man of that time. 

Judge Emmerson was succeeded in the mayoralty office by 
Hon. James Park, father of Rev. James Park, the Nestor of 
Knoxville preachers, who had not only been associated with 
him for several years as charter trustee of Hampden-Sidney 
and the Knoxville Female Academy, appointed in 1811, but 
also a member of the first town council. There is little doubt 
but that Judge Emmerson retired with comf^isance from his 
municipal duties, as he not only anticipated his appointment 
to the supreme bench, which came the following year, but he 
also felt that he had left the helm of Knoxville's aflFairs in the 
hands of a man who was capable of executinq^ its duti-^s with 
exactness and ability. 

Where was he born ? Who were his parents ? Where was he 
educated? What other things did he accomplish before he re- 
tired to newspaper work at Jonesboro, and when did his death 
occur? All are questions the answers to which will be read 
with interest. That this imperfect sketch of "The First Mayor 
of Knoxville City" may have the effect of obtaining the an- 
swers suggested is my hope. 

Tbnnbssbb Historicai^ Society. 189 


Judge John M. Lea. 

ViOB Pbbbidentb: 

Col. William A. Henderson, Gen. Gates P. Thruston, 

Gov. James D. Porter. 

Sbcbetary : 
A. y. Goodpasture. 

C0BBB8PONDINO Seobetaby: 
Robert T. Quarles. 

Tbbasubeb : 
Joseph S. Carels. 


Joseph S. Carels. 

Standing Committees: 

Membership — W. R. Garrett, chairman; J. A. Cartwright, 
J. P. Hunter. 

Finance — Edgar Jones, chairman ; W. S. Settle, C. H. East- 

Addresses — ^W. J. McMuny, chairman; Frederick W. Moore, 
Theodore Cooley. 

History and Biography — A. V. Goodpasture, chairman; 
John Allison, F. W. Moore. 

Museum — Theodore Cooley, chairman ; John M. Bass, R. R. 

Spboial Committbb: 

Publication — Dr. W. R. Garrett, chairman; Dr. R. L. C. 
White, John M. Bass. 

I90 Thb Ambkicak HteroRicAL Maoazikb. 

[Memoranda af the Transactions of the Tennessee Historical 


Tuesday, January 13, 1903. 

The Society met pursuant -to adjournment. Present, Vice 
President Gates P. Thruston, presiding, Secretary A. V. Good- 
pasture, Corresponding Secretary Robt. T. Quarles and Treas- 
urer Jos. S. Carels. 

The records of the December meeting were read and ap- 

Captain W. R. Garrett presented the Society with a key to 
the secret cipher of the Ku Klux Klan, and, upon his motion. 
Dr. R. L. C. White was requested to explain to the Society at 
its next meeting the meaning and use of said key. 

On motion of Jos. S. Carels, the following resolutions, after 
haying been amended on the motion of Colonel J. B. Kille- 
brew, were adopted: 

Whereas, the preservation of the archives of the State of 
Tennessee is a matter in which the Society takes great inter- 
est, and 

Whereas, it is very much to be regretted that the original 
papers relating to every period of the State's history have been 
so long neglected and allowed to go to destruction ; and. 

Whereas, the last legislature made an appropriation looking 
to the preservation of these historic papers and has caused a 
room to be built in which to deposit them ; therefore, be it. 

Resolved, that this Society heartily indorses the work so 
far done and urges that a sufficient sum be appropriated by the 
present General Assembly for its prosecution to completion. 
Be it further 

Resolved, that we resi>ectfully request his Excellency, Gov- 
ernor J. B. Frazier, to call the attention of the legislature to 
this matter in his forthcoming message. Be it further 

Resolved, that a copy of these resolutions be presented to 
Governor Frazier by the Secretary of the Society. 

Major E. C. Lewis then read an interesting paper on "J^^*"^* 
Robertson," and, upon invitation of the President, was followed 
by Bishop E. E. Hoss in an entertaining discussion of the same 

On motion of S. A. Cunningham, the following resolutions 
were adopted, to wit: 

Tbnnbssbb Historical Socibty. 191 

Resolved, that the thanks of the Society be returned to Major 
£. C. Lewis for the able and instructive paper read before us 
this evening, and that we hereby place upon record its hearty 
and unreserved indorsement of the proposed plan to erect a 
monument to the memory of James Robertson. 

Resolved, that the hearty thanks of the Society are due to 
the Centennial Park Commission for inaugurating this monu- 
ment, and the Society will co-operate in its dedication. 

Dr. R. L. C. White offered the following resolution, which 
was adopted: 

This Society, during all the years of its history, has not had 
so many members who have been alert, intelligent, unselfish 
and zealous in the conservation of its interests and the pro- 
motion of its welfare, always and under all circumstances, that 
it can afford to lose one of them without placing upon record 
an expression of its profound regret that his active connec- 
tion with us has ceased. It is, therefore. 

Resolved, by the Tennessee Historical Society that the re- 
moval from Nashville of Bishop E. E. Hoss, and the conse- 
quent severance of his personal association with us, causes us 
sincere sorrow ; and that going from among us he carries with 
him our heartfelt and cordial esteem and our unfeigned and 
continuing affection. We shall bear him always in our hearts — 
we hope to retain a permanent place in his. 

The donations to the Society were then announced. 
The Soaety then adjourned until the second Tuesday in 


The American Historical Magazine. 

Vol. VIII. JULY, 1903. No. 3. 



Montgomery is one of the northern counties of Middle Ten- 
nessee. It is traversed by the Cumberland River, which divides 
it into two sections ; the south side being largely a mineral and 
timber region, while the north side is a rich agricultural county, 
producing a superior quality of that type of tobacco peculiar to 
the Clarksville Tobacco District, of which it is the center. One 
of the principal tributaries of the Cumberland, on the north, is 
Red River, a considerable stream which has its mouth at Qarks- 
ville, the county seat of Montgomery County. 

The Cumberland valley was first settled in 1780. The chief 
station was established by James Robertson at the bluff near the 
old French Lick, now Nashville. Robertson and some of his 
companions came through from the Holston valley by land. 
Their families fdlowed in the famous river expedition con- 
ducted by Colonel John Donnelson. Colonel Donnelson kept a 
diary of his voyage, which is still preserved in the Tennessee 
Historical Society. His journal notes, on the 12th day of April, 
1780, that they "came to the mouth of a little river, running in 
on the north side, by Moses Renfroe and his company called 
Red River, up which they intended to settle." Here they took 
their leave of the main expedition, which proceeded on its way 
up the Cumberland to join Robertson at the Bluff. 

Renfroe and his companions now began the ascent of Red 
River. They did not stop "at the point" where Qarksville is 
now situated, as supposed by Putnam, but ascended the river to 
the mouth of Person's Creek, in the neighborhood of Port 
Royal where they erected Renfroe's, or, as it is frequently called, 

194 'I'hb Ambrican Historical Magazine. 

Red River Station. This was the first settlement in Montgomery 
County. The names of the settlers cannot all be now ascertained ; 
many oi them are remembered for their subsequent misfortunes. 
Among them were Moses, Isaac, Joseph, and James Renfroe, 
Nathan and Solomon Turpin, Isaac Mayfield, James Hollis, 
James Johns, and a Mrs. Jones, who was a widow. 

While the stationers at Renf roe's were engaged in the arduous 
work of establishing a frontier settlement — clearing away the 
dense cane that gprew luxuriantly around them, hewing down 
the forest, and erecting their primitive log cabins — the Chickasaw 
and Choctaw Indians, ostensibly on the ground that General 
George Rogers Clark had erected Fort Jefferson, eighteen miles 
below the mouth of the Ohio, on the east side of the Mississippi 
River, had begun a savage war against the settlers on the Cum- 
berland. The first immigrant killed was near Robertson's Station. 
We do not know when intelligence of this event reached Ren- 
froe's Station. It was not long, however, before they were aware 
of their perilous ccmditions. In June or July Nathan Turpin 
and another of their own stationers were killed and scalped 
near the station. 


These evidences of Indian hostility seriously alarmed the 
stationers at Renfroe's. Their position being isolated, and their 
means of defense feeble, they determined to withdraw to the 
stronger stations near the Bluff. Accordingly they made hasty 
preparations for their departure, concealing such of their goods 
as they did not intend to carry with them. Their arrangements 
being completed, they commenced their retreat. 

Ramsey, following Haywood, says they arrived safely at the 
Bluff, and afterwards a part of them returned. But I think the 
account given by Putnam is more probably correct. According 
to his account, after traveling a day's journey they encamped 
for the night. Here, a part of them, reproaching themselves for 
having left so much of their property in their hasty flight, deter- 
mined to return for it. That night they cautiously approached 
their deserted cabins, and by break of day, had gathered up the 
property they had left behind them in their first flight, and re- 

Beginnings of Montgombry County. 195 

sumed their march. At evening they encamped about two miles 
north of Sycamore Creek, upon the bank of a small stream since 
called Battle Creek. In the night, or early next morning, they 
were attacked by the Indians. The firing was sudden and de- 
structive. About twenty persons were killed, including women 
and children. The women and children had probably awaited 
the return of the party with the recovered gooils, and were thus 
involved in the general massacre. Those of the party who con- 
tinued their journey on the second day reached the upper stations 
in safety. 

Mrs. Jones was the only survivor of Battle Creek massacre. 
By following the tracks of the first party of fugitives she reached 
Eaton's Station, after a wild flight of nearly twenty miles. As 
soon as information of this horrible affair reached the stationers 
at the BluflF, they sent a party to rescue any possible survivor, and 
to bury the dead. The Indians had made off with the horses 
and such property as they wanted, and destroyed what they 
could not take. They ripped up the feather beds to get the ticks. 
Hugh F. Bell, who was one of the relief party, said the whole 
country was white with feathers. 

This was the first massacre of its magnitude which had oc- 
curred in the Cumberland settlements ,and with it Renfroe's Sta- 
tion was temporarily abandoned. 


The evacuation of Ren f roe's Station encouraged the Indians 
in their efforts to destroy the entire settlement on the Cumber- 
land. All the more fjeeble stations were abandoned, and their 
occupants took refuge with the stronger ones. For a time only 
Robertson's and Eaton's stations held out. But the close of the 
Revolutionary War, in April, 1782, seemed, for a time, to check 
the hostilities of the Indians. At the same time the Legislature 
of North Carolina passed an act setting apart certain lands, in- 
cluding the Cumberland settlements, to be reserved for the officers 
and soldiers of the Continental line, granting pre-emptions to 
the Cumberland settlers, and appointing commissioners to lay 
off the former, and grant certificates to the latter. Absalom 
Tatum, Isaac Shelby and Anthony Bledsoe, the commissioners 

196 The American Historical Magazine. 

appointed, accompanied by a guard of one hundred men, and 
also several families of immigrants who came under their cover, 
reached the Cumberland settlements m January, 1783. These 
additions, both to their numbers and means of defence, were soon 
followed by others, and the settlements continued to gain 
strength and confidence, even through the Indian wars that were 
soon renewed. 

prince's station. 

The earliest permanent stations within the limits of Mont- 
gomery County, were Prince's, Clarksville, and Nevill's. Some- 
time in the year 1782, a company including Frances, William 
and Robert Prince, emigrated from the Spartanburg District, in 
South Carolina to the Cumberland settlements. They probably 
stopped for a while at Kilgore's or Maulding's Station, near what 
is now Cross Plains, in Robertson County. At any rate, a short 
time after their arrival they erected Prince's Station, about a 
hundred yards from the Cave springs, where Felix Northington 
formerly lived, near Port Royal. This station was also on Red 
River, and not far from the abandoned station of Renfroe's. The 
wife of William Prince having died soon after his arrival, he 
returned to his original State, where he collected a second com- 
pany of immigrants, whom he conducted to Prince's Station. 
Of this company were James Ford, and his brother-in-law Wil- 
liam Mitcherson. The settlers in the neighborhood several times 
found it necessary to retire to the station for safety, but the 
station itself was never attacked by the Indians. 


Among the leaders at Prince's Station, were Francis Prince 
:and James Ford ; the former inclined more to civic duties, while 
the latter was a leader in th6 frontier militia. Prince was a man 
of attractive presence, and great personal magnetism. In 1783 
he was elected captain of the company at Maulding's Station. A 
little later in the same year, he was commissioned one of the four 
magistrates who organized the first County Court of Davidson 
County, and was himself elected Register. He refrained from 
voting in the election, so there were only three votes cast, two 

Beginnings of Montgomery County. 197 

for Prince and one for Andrew Ewin. This position he held 
until after the establishment of Tennessee county. After his resi- 
dence had fallen in the new county of Tennessee, the County 
Court of Davidson County gravely mooted the question, whether 
the accident of the Register's being cut off in another county 
would vacate his office, and held that it would not, provided 
he kept a deputy in Nashville. This decision was subsequently 
reconsidered and reversed, and Prince went out of office. Upon 
the organization of Tennessee County, he became the first chair- 
man of its County Court, which position he held for a number 
of years. 


Perhaps the most striking character in the county, in the 
pioneer days, was Colonel James Ford. He was above six feet 
tall, rather fleshy, and of commanding appearance. He sat a 
horse perfectly, and in the saddle he was the admiration of all 
the settlements. Personally he was kind and affable, as well as 
bold, outspoken and independent in his sentiments. He was 
thrifty and successful in his business affairs. Fourth captain in 
the Davidson County militia in 1784, he became a colonel in the 
militia of Tennessee County, and had command in both the Cold 
Water expedition of 1787, and the Nickojack campaign of 1794. 
He was the representative of Tennessee County in the Legislature 
of the Southwest Territory from 1793 to 1796; was a member of 
the Constitutional convention of 1796; and represented Mont- 
gomery and Robertson counties in the Senate of the first and 
second General Assemblies of the State of Tennessee. He died 
in May, 1808. 


Clarksville was located on the east bank of the Cumberland 
River, just above the mouth of Red River. It was the judicious 
eye of John Montgomery that first discovered in the rugged hills 
that lie in the fork of these tw;o streams a superior site for the 
location of a town.^ He and Martin Armstrong entered the land 
in January, 1784. In the fall of the same year they had it sur- 
veyed, and Armstrong laid off the plan of a town on it. They 
named the town Clarksville, in honor of General George Rogers 

198 Thb American Historical Magazinb. 

Clark, the distinguished Virginia soldier, who was personally 
known to many of the early settlers of Tennessee. A fort or 
block house was erected at the spring near the present foundry, 
and a number of lots were sold. The purchasers being desirous 
that the town should be established by Legislative authority, in 
November, 1785, the General Assembly of North Carolina estab- 
lished it a town and a town common, agreeable to the plan. What 
became of the town common I do not know. The ccwnmissioners 
named in the act were John Montgomery, Anthony Crutcher, 
William Polk, Anthony Bledsoe, and Lardner Clark. It was the 
second town established in Middle Tennessee, Nashville, estab- 
lished in 1784, being the first. It has had a slow but substantial 
and steady growth, maintaining all along, as it does to-day, its 
position as the second city in Middle Tennessee. 

In 1788 a tobacco inspection was established at Clarksville by 
the North Carolina Legislature, being the first established in the 
State. The fact is remarkable as showing how early the culti- 
vation of tobacco came to be an important industry around 
Clarksville, and as marking the inception of a tobacco market 
which continues to be one of the most important in the West 

In the same year Tennessee County — later called Montgomery 
County — was established. The first and second sessions of the 
Court of Pleas and quarter sessions were held at the house of 
Isaac Tittsworth, on Person's Creek; the third at the house of 
William Grimbs; and the fourth and all subsequent sessions in 
the town of Clarksville. A rude log courthouse was erected 
on the public square, with the most primitive conveniences. In- 
deed I do not know that it had so much as seats for the jurors 
to sit on, until 1793, when the court ordered James Adams to 
make them. 

The public square, which was then called the "public lot," and 
the streets were "cleared out" and "worked" just as the country 
roads were. Down on Spring street there was a prison and 
stocks, and five acres surrounding the same known as the "prison 
bounds," beyond which the unfortunate prisoner for debt was not 
permitted to go. 

The earliest sketch of Clarksville I have seen is in the United 
States Gazetteer, a book published m 1795. It describes the place 

Beginnings of Montgomery County. 199 

as the "principal town in Tennessee County, in the territory of 
the United States, south of the River Ohio. It is pleasantly 
situated on the east side of Cumberland River, at the mouth of 
Red River. It contains about thirty dwellings, a courthouse and 

The earliest inhabitants of Qarksville were John Montgomery, 
Anthony and William Crutcher, Amos Bird, George Bell, the 
father of William and Hugh F. Bell, Robert Nelson and Aeneas 
McAllister; and in 1794 and 1795, we find the names of John 
Easten, Daniel James, James Adams, William Montgomery, son 
of John Montgomery, who was killed by the Indians in 1794, 
Philip Gilbert, Robert Dunning, Hugh McCallum, Benj. Hawkins 
and Andrew Snoddy. 

There was no church house in the place for a number of years. 
When the people met for public worship, it was usually in the 
courthouse, or in a private residence. The Rev. Green Hill, a 
Methodist minister who afterwards settled in Williamson County, 
kept a journal of a "trip from North Carolina to Tennessee, com- 
menced May, 1796," in' which he records that on Sunday, tht 
24th of July, he "went to Qarksville, and preached from Mark 
1 : 15 to an attentive people. Here I met Brother Stephenson, 
who also preached ; he is a Republican Methodist, so called. We 
lodged together at Robert Dunning's and conversed freely." 

nevill's station. 

About the time Clarksville was settled, George and Joseph B. 
Nevill, who were natives of South Carolina, immigrated to the 
Cumberland settlements, and built a fort on Red River between 
Prince's and Clarksville, at the Thomas Trigg old place. 


As I have said, the earliest settlements in Montgomery County 
were along Red River, on the north side of Cumberland. It was 
ten or twelve years later before any permanent settlements were 
made on the south side of Cumberland. The earliest and most 
important of these was Palmyra, situated on the south side of 
Cumberland River at the mouth of Deason's Creek. It has the 


The American Historical Magazine. 

singular distinction of having been the first port of entry in the 
West. It was laid out by Dr. Morgan Brown, and established 
by legislative authority in 1796. About 1802, Dr. Brown built in 
this neighborhood the first iron works operated in Montgomery 
County. He also kept a general store, as well as a water mill. 
He removed to Kentucky in 1808. At that time his account 
books showed the name of many of the settlers in that part of 
the country. I take the list from an unpublished diary of Will 
L. Brown: 

Francis Tompkins, 
John B. Thompkins, 
James Bowers, 
John Brigham, 
Joseph Penrice, 
John Burgan, 
James Boyd, 
Martin Wells, Sr., 
John Hubbert, 
Etherington Rochell, 
Thomas Smythe, 
Edmund Cooper, 
David Robertson, 
Sterling Mays, 
John May, 
Robert Searcy, 
William Clements, 
George Teal, 
James Dunbar, 
Tapply Maddux, 
Brice Jackson, 
David Outlaw, 
John McBee, 
Wright Outlaw, 
John Harmon, 
Robert Prince, 
Thomas Lankford, 
William Black, 
Stephen Thomas, 

George Westner, 

James Edwards, 

Yancy Thornton, 

James Fentress, 

David Ross, 

Elisha Ellis, 

John Hughes, 

Robert Drake, 

Charles Teal, 

Henry Wyatt, 

Sarah Smythe, 

Edward Teal, 

James Baggett, 

Jesse Tribble, 

Joseph Edwards, 

Peter Hubbert, Jr., 

Stewart Parks, 

James Adams, 

Samuel Tyner, 

Col. William Lyons, 

Col. [P. W.] Humphreys, 

Benjamin Adams, 

Hanse Hambleton, 

Absalom Tribble, 

John DuflF, 

Robert Tygert, 

Gully Moore, 

Jacob McCarty, 

Solomon Scott, 

Beginnings of Montgomery County. 201 

John P. Vaughn, David Hunty, 

Mann Phillips, Lavinia Stallions, 

William Moon, Thomas Morse, 

John Cooper, Falkner Elliott, 

Isaac Shelby, George Outlaw, 

Widow Brinson, William Lyons, Jr., 

Richard Cocke, Ezekiel Norris. 
John Bayless, 


The great extent of Davidson County having rendered it in- 
convenient for its inhabitants to attend courts, general musters, 
and elections, in 1788, the General Assembly of North Carolina 
erected the northern and western portion of its territory, extend- 
ing from the Sumner County line on the east to the Tennessee 
River on the west, and from the Virginia line on the north to 
35 degress 50 seconds north latitude on the south, into a new 
and distinct county by the name of Tennessee. 

In pursuance of this act, the County Court of Tennessee 
County, composed of the worshipful Francis Prince, chairman, 
Brazel Boren, John Philips, Jacob Pennington, John Mont- 
gomery, Benjamin Hardin, George Bell and George Nevill, 
esquires, met at the house of Isaac Tittsworth, on the hill where 
Willie Pickering now lives, about two and a half miles south of 
Port Royal, on the 20th day of April, 1789, and completed the 
organization of the county by electing the following officers, to 
wit : Barkley Williams Pollock, derk ; Joseph B. Nevill, sheriff ; 
Benjamin Hardin, register; John Philips, ranger; and Joseph 
Martin, "crowner." The word "coroner" in the original bond is 
erased, and "crowner" interlined. 

Putnam states as the impression of some aged citizens, that 
the complete organization did not take place until January, 1791, 
under the territorial government, and adds that they "seem to 
be confirmed in their recollections, when informed that there are 
no records to be found of a date earlier than 1791." It is un- 
fortimately true that the record books prior to 1791 could not 
then be found, and since he wrote that from which he quoted 
has been lost. But there are now in the office of the County 

202 Thb American Historical Magazine. 

Court Clerk original papers, such as bonds of officers, admin- 
istrators, etc., and the usual court processes and pleadings, 
which leave no doubt as to the regular organization of the county 
and opening of the County Court, April 20, 1789. 


At this time the court system consisted of a "Superior Court 
of Law and Equity" and an "Inferior Court of Pleas and Quarter 
Sessions," commonly called the Superior Court and the County 
Court. The Superior Court of Mero district, which embraced 
the counties of Davidson, Sumner, and Tennessee, held its ses- 
sions at Nashville. The County Court had jurisdiction of all 
questions involving the life, liberty or property of the citizen, 
as well as certain legislative functions. 

The first law suit brought in the County Court of Tennessee 
Cotmty was instituted on the 20th day of April, 1789, the day 
the court was organized. The parties were Andrew Jackson, 
plaintiff, and Philip Alston, defendant; and the subject matter 
of the litigation was a "sorrel horse, about fourteen hands high, 
known by the name of Samuel Martin's Sorrel," for which An- 
drew Jackson paid £100. 

Upon the same day Sarah Stewart gave bond, with William 
Borin and Elkin Taylor as her securities, in the sum of £2,000, 
as administratrix of John Stewart, deceased. A copy of this 
bond is also found among the papers, endorsed : "This bond is 
only a form to draw other bonds by." Mary Jones and Thomas 
Lidle, administrators of John Jones, deceased, likewise gave bond 
in the sum of £500, with George Nevill and Joseph Martin as 
their securities. 

The court ordered the following jurors to be summoned to its 
next term, to be held on the third Monday in July, 1789, at 
Isaac Tittsworth's, to wit: Thomas French, William Williams, 
Stephen Borin, Isaac Wilcox, Robert Edmonston, Charles Mc- 
intosh, William Grimbs, Jesse Cain, Daniel Floumoy, Samuel 
Hanley, Jacob McCarty, Josiah Ramsey, William Gales, Caleb 
Winters, Francis Prince, James Stewart, William McClain, Isaac 
Pennington, James McFarland, John Wilcox, Hugh Lewis, John 

Beginnings of Montgomery County. 203 

Codra, Archibald Mahon, John Tittsworth, William Conner, John 
Stonley, Richard Dodge, James Boyd, James HoUis, Sr., Charles 
Thompson, James Elliott, and John McFarland. 


In respect of its antiquity Tennessee was the seventh county 
in the State of Tennessee ; Washington, Sullivan, Green, David- 
son, Sumner, and Hawkins only preceding it in order of time. 
In 1796 the Southwest Territory was admitted into the Union as 
the State of Tennessee. At the first session of the State Legis- 
lature, in 1796, the new county of Robertson was erected out of 
a part of the territory of Tennessee County, and the name of 
the old county, which consisted of the remaining territory, was 
changed from Tennessee to Montgomery, its public buildings, 
officers, and courts remaining unchanged. 


Prior to 1801 the country had been much annoyed and em- 
barrassed from the fact that criminals as well as debtors took 
refuge within the territorial limits allotted to the Indians, so that 
the law could neither restrain nor punish them. To remedy this 
evil the State took jurisdiction of the Indian reservations, and 
partitioned them among the adjacent counties. The Wilderness 
was included in Jackson County. Smith, Wilson, Davidson, Wil- 
liamson, and Robertson counties were extended due south to the 
southern boundary of the State. All of West Tennessee and the 
southwestern portion of Middle Tennessee were attached to 
Montgomery County. 


The Cumberland settlements were not entirely free from In- 
dian depredations, from the time of their first arrival in 1780, 
till the year 1795. Tennessee County suffered most in the years 
1792, 1793 and 1794. Following the treaty of Hopewell in 1785, 
there was such a lull in Indian hostilities as to lead the settlers 
to hope for entire exemption from their incursions. Enterprising 
immigrants busied themselves exploring, locating, and surveying 
lands, sometimes at remote distances from the settlements. 

204 The American Historical Magazine. 

Early in the year 1786, the Indians killed Peter Bamet on 
Blooming Grove Creek, several miles below Clarksville. This 
was followed by the killing of David Steele and wounding of 
William Crutcher, in the same section of country. Crutcher 
was one of the first settlers of Clarksville, and was sheriflF of 
Tennessee County in 1792- 1793. He was desperately wounded. 
Besides two gunshot wounds, the Indians had stabbed him and 
left him for dead, with an old hunting knife sticking in his body. 
He revived, reached the station and, finally, recovered. 

In 1787, the stationers invaded the Indian country, and de- 
stroyed the town of Cold Water. 

Haywood, Ramsey, and Putnam all state that Isaac and John 
Tittsworth were killed near the mouth of Sulphur Fork of Red 
River, in 1789. This is an error. The Tittsworths were mas- 
sacred in November, 1794, and the event is noted by each of 
these authors. At the time mentioned, however, a hunting party 
consisting of Colonel Hugh Tinnon, Evan Shelby, Jr., Abedn^o 
Lewellen and Hugh F. Bell, while in pursuit of game, fell into 
an ambush, when the Indians fired upon them, killing Shelby 
and Lewellen ; Tinnon and Bell narrowly escaped. 

In July, 1 791, the Indians killed Thomas Fletcher and two 
other men near Clarksville, and in November, a Mr. Grantham 
near the same place. 

In January, 1792, the Seviers, Rice and Curtis were killed, 
as hereafter described, at Seven-mile Ferry, and a Mr. Boyd, in 


The murders and depredations committed by the Indians were 
all the more harassing to the settlers on Cumberland, because 
instigated by the Spanish, who had already shut up the naviga- 
tion of the Mississippi against them; moreover, the policy of 
the government forbade them to invade the Indian country for the 
purpose of punishing them for their outrages. 

In view of these facts, a meeting of the Committee of Tennessee 
County was held February i, 1792, Captain William Prince pre- 
siding. The following address was adopted and forwarded to 

Beginnings of Montgombry County. 205 

General Robertson, which illustrated the state of public feeling 
in the County in that time : 

That your petitioners, having convened together at the request 
of the distressed part of Tennessee County, in order to set forth 
their grievances, and to pursue some method for their relief, 
beg leave to represent to you, sir, that they have much to dread 
from the Indians as the spring season approaches. The recent 
murders and ravages committed by them on our frontiers, too 
evidently prove their intentions on this quarter. We already 
feel the effects of the navigation of the river being shut up, by 
which means we shall be deprived of the very necessary article, 
salt ; that article having already raised in its price. Immigration 
to this country by water must frequently cease. We also beg 
leave to assure you that the frontiers will break up unless some 
speedy method is taken to secure them from the inroads of the 
savages, which must be followed by the most fatal consequences. 
We are much afraid, sir, that Government has not vested their 
oflBcers in this country with authority to carry on an expedition 
against any nation or village of Indians. Yet we are confident 
that something must be done with the Indians that do the mis- 
chief on our frontiers. We are willing to pursue every lawful 
means to procure peace and tranquillity among us. Therefore, 
we beg leave to suggest to you the idea that an express be sent 
to the Commandant at New Madrid, setting forth that it is his 
people that do the mischief in our country, and whatever else 
you may think proper. . . . We have confidence that you will 
do all in your power to relieve the distresses of the people un- 
der your command. 


Other settlers were killed in the spring and summer of 1792, 
notable among whom was Isaac Pennington, a member of the 
first jury empanelled in Tennessee County. In September, open 
war was declared by the five Lower Towns of the Cherokees, 
and the Cumberland settlements sustained terrible ravages. Ten- 
nessee County, however, escaped until the first of the next year. 
In January, Colonel Hugh Tinnon was dangerously wounded 
while building a fence around his cabin; many horses were 
seized and carried off; six men were killed on the Cumberland 
River, and Robert Wells and John Milligan were wounded. 
WeUs' wife and two children were murdered during the suc- 
ceeding August. Milligan's brother had been killed on the 

2o6 The American Historical Magazine. 

15th of the preceding July, at the time of Isaac Pennington's 
death. Many depredations were committed in August; among 
them the widow Baker and all her numerous family of children, 
except two, were killed, at her home on the creek where her 
husband had commenced his improvements, still known as 
"Bakers Creek." 


The last names recorded among those who were killed in the 
year 1793, are those of John Dier and Benjamin Lindsey, who 
were killed near the mouth of Red River. Dier's history, from 
the very slight glimpse we have of it, is one of more than com- 
mon interest. Hunting was his profession; by it he made his 
living. He did not care to till the soil; the wild life of the 
hunter had more charms for him. His contracts were made 
payable in the fruits of his trusted rifle. Perhaps his last busi- 
ness transaction was the execution of a note of this character 
to John Edmonson, for which a claim was filed against his es- 
tate in the County Court. It is as follows : 

Estate of John Dier 

To John Edmonson Dr. 

To your note of hand for 35 Hundred Weight of Buffalo 
Beef, dated October 4, 1793, and payable the first of November 
ensuing, at Two Dollars per Hundred. 

70 Dollars. 

Nor was hunting his only accomplishment. He spoke the 
Creek and Chickasaw languages perfectly, and, perhaps, that 
of the Choctaws. For this reason General Robertson endeavored 
to get him to live at his house, in Nashville, but could not do 
so without paying him $100 a year, in money. He offered him 
a hundred bushels of com per year, and as much cleared land 
as he chose to cultivate, but he declined the offer on the ground 
that he supported his family by hunting, and could not undertake 
General Robertson's employment for other than money considera- 
tions. Failing in this General Robertson, in a letter to Governor 
Blount, tried to induce the government to employ Dier. " Would 
it not be reasonable," he said, "that the United States paid 
such a person, as the Creek will be much here, as well as the 

Beginnings of Montgomery County. 207 

Chickasaws and Choctaws, whenever they may be at peace? 
Sir, will you be so condescending as to write me on this sub- 
ject? I would pay half myself sooner than be without him." 


I have mentioned that the Commissioners to lay off the Military 
Reservation, in 1783, were accompanied by a guard of one hun- 
dred men. Of this number was Isaac Tittsworth, who settled 
on Person's Creek about two miles and a half south of Port 
Royal. He remained there through the trying scenes of the 
decade from 1784 to 1794. He had risen to the rank of colonel 
in the county militia. It was at his house the County Court of 
Tennessee County was organized, in 1789, and held its first 
sessions. But as the year 1794 drew to its close, for some rea- 
son, perhaps for the safety of their families, he and his brother 
John Tittsworth determined to remove to Logan County, Ken- 
tucky. On Wednesday, the 5th day of November, they com- 
menced their journey. The caravan contained the wives, chil- 
dren and servants of the Tittsworth brothers, but neither of 
them is known to have been with the train. They journeyed 
all day through the shady forest, and as evening drew on, 
they had passed the uttermost limit of the settlement. Night- 
fall found them, weary with the day's journey, four miles further 
in the forest. Here they were glad to make their encampment 
for the night. During the night they were surprised by a party 
of about fifty Indians, and massacred in the most savage man- 
ner. Seven persons were killed and scalped on the spot. A 
white man, three children, a young girl, the daughter of Colonel 
Tittsworth, and a negro man were taken prisoners. The Indians 
immediately made oflf with their prisoners and such of the goods 
as they could carry. 

Next day pursuit was made by the neighboring settlers. The 
Indians, by keeping a good lookout in the rear, discovered their 
pursuers, but declined to risk an engagement. However, the in- 
furiated frontiersmen pressed hard upon them. They retook the 
Tittsworth property, and considerable other property the Indians 
had with them. Finally the three little children, who had been 

2o8 The American Historical Magazine. 

carried off prisoners, were retaken, but their captors had first 
tomahawked and scalped them, holding on and dragging them 
along till their heads were entirely skinned. One of them died 
the next day, and the lives of the others were despaired of, but 
whether they died or recovered is not now known. They 
reached the nation with their other prisoners. 

For ten months Miss Tittsworth remained captive in the Creek 
nation. In the meantime peace had been made with the Indians, 
and in August, 1795, Colonel Tittsworth obtained a passport to 
the nation, which had then desisted from war, and his daughter 
and negro man were delivered up to him without price. 


Most of the pioneers of Montgomery County were industrious, 
thrifty, prosperous men; many were men of character and in- 
fluence in their native countries; and some were from even 
distinguished families. Geographically they were chiefly from 
North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia and Pennsylvania, in 
the order named. Prominent among those who came from 
North Carolina were Heydon Wells, one of the first immigrants 
to the Cumberland and a member of the committee for its gov- 
ernment under the Cumberland compact, who lived on McAdoo 
Creek; James, Charles, and Duncan Stewart, who were all 
prominent, both in this State and the State of Louisiana to which 
they subsequently removed ; Anthony and William Crutcher, and 
Robert Nelson. Among those from South Carolina, James Ford, 
Francis, William and Robert Prince, George Bell, George Nevill, 
Joseph B. Nevill, and Dr. Morgan Brown, were all men of mark 
among the pioneers of Cumberland. Evan and Moses Shelby, 
brothers of Governor Isaac Shelby, of Kentucky, and Valentine 
Sevier, brother of Governor John Sevier, of Tennessee, were im- 
mediately from the Watauga settlement, but were natives of 
Virginia, as was also John Montgomery, the founder of Clarks- 
ville. John H. Poston was sent to Clarksville from Abingdon, 
Va., to engage in the mercantile business, by Mr. King. James 
Elder, the first postmaster at Clarksville, who received for his 
compensation from October i to December 31, 1800, the sum of 

Beginnings of Montgomery County. 209 

$2.09, was a Pennsylvanian. Aeneas McAllister, a blacksmith, 
migrated from Pittsburg, taking with him a number of mechanics 
who were practical operatives in wood and metal, the chief de- 
mand being for guns, knives, and tomahawks, and set up a shop 
in Clarksville. 


When Tennessee County gave up its beautiful name to the 
State — ^tradition says at the suggestion of Andrew Jackson — ^it 
was called Montgomery in honor of John Montgomery, a brave 
and patriotic citizen of the county, who had then but lately met 
a tragic death at the hands of the Indians. Montgomery was 
a native of Virginia, and like most of the pioneers, was bold, 
restless, and adventurous. He explored the Cumberland country 
as early as 1771 in company with Mansker, Drake, Bledsoe and 
others, and was one of its first immigrants. He was one of the 
signers of the Cumberland Compact, and upon the organization 
of their court in 1783, was elected sheriflf of the district. He did 
not give his personal attention to the duties of the office, and 
the committee, whose proceedings were generally summary, a 
few months later annulled the "deputation of Thomas Fletcher 
to the sheriffalty," and themselves appointed him sheriff. At 
this time the relations between the Americans and the Spanish 
were strained, and required the most delicate management. The 
Cumberland settlements were most of all interested in the main- 
tenance of peace and tranquillity. Certain lawless men were 
fomenting trouble by "treasonable and piratical proceedings car- 
ried on in the Mississippi against the Spaniards." Montgomery 
was exploring the country and locating land down the Cumber- 
land. Rumors became current on the Cumberland, and ultimately 
reached the governor of North Carolina, that he was connected 
with these unlawful proceedings. These rumors no doubt led 
to his dismissal from the sheriffalty. They certainly caused 
Governor Martin to issue a proclamation charging him with 
aiding and abetting in such proceedings. Upon the appearance 
of this proclamation Montgomery appeared before the County 
Court and gave bond for his appearance at the next term. Put- 
nam, in his History of Middle Tennessee, says, "We believe the 

2IO Thb Ambrican Historical Magazine. 

records do not show that Montgomery appeared and stood his 
trial, but fled or kept dark for a time." It is true he did not 
appear at the next term and forfeiture was taken against his 
sureties, but a subsequent entry in the case seems to make the 
matter clear. After reciting the proclamation under which he 
was arrested, it says, "the said proclamation being afterwards 
countermanded, the court considered that the said recognizance 
of course had become void." Without this explanation, Put- 
nam's statement is calculated to do injustice to the reputation of 
Colonel Montgomery. 

In January, 1784, he and Martin Armstrong entered the land 
on which he founded the town of Clarksville, and in 1785 be- 
came a commissioner of the town. Upcwi the formation of Ten- 
nessee County he became one of its justices of the peace, which 
position he continued to hold until his death. He was a colonel 
in the County militia, and, in 1794, was in immediate command 
of the troops raised in the Southwest Territory in the Nickojack 
campaign, in which the Indian towns of Running Water and 
Nickojack were completely destroyed. This was the last public 
service of his life. 

When he returned he led a hunting excursion to Eddyville, Ky. 
On the 27th day of November, 1794, his party was attacked in 
their camp by the Indians. It seems to have been a surprise. 
Colonel Hugh Tinnon was wounded so he could not run fast, 
and asked Colonel Montgomery not to leave him. With the 
courage and devotion so often found among the pioneers, he 
put himself between Colonel Tinnon and the Indians, until a 
bullet from one of their guns took effect in his knee, when the 
savages rushed upon him with their knives. While returning 
from Fort Massac, where he had served a tour of duty, John 
Rains found Julius Sanders, one of the party who had escaped, 
though shot in four places. Sanders said the last he saw of 
Colonel Montgomery an Indian was stabbing him repeatedly with 
a huge knife. Rains went with a party, including a son of 
Colonel Montgomery, the next day, and found his body, which 
they buried where a tree had been torn up by the roots. 

Beginnings of Montgomery County. 211 

the shelbys. 

Major Evan Shelby (1754-1793) and Colonel Moses Shelby 
(1756-1828) were brothers of Governor Isaac Shelby, of Ken- 
tucky, and sons of General Evan Shelby, of King's Meadows. 
They inherited much of the military and patriotic spirit of their 
father, whose services at the desperate battle of Point Pleasant 
have always been highly commended. Both of them served with 
him in his Chickamauga campaign in 1779. Both took conspicu- 
ous parts in the decisive battle of King's Mountain. Moses was 
the trusted messenger between his brother Isaac and Colonel 
Campbell, two of the leaders in the campaign against Colonel 
Ferguson, and, in the battle, was severely wounded while storm- 
ing the enemy's works. The honor of receiving Colonel DePey- 
ster's sword at the surrender of the British, is claimed for Evan, 
who was major in his brother Isaac's regiment. 

When their brother came to Cumberland as commissioner of 
bounty lands and pre-emptions in 1783, they came with him. 
Evan settled on West Fork of Red River, some distance to the 
west of Clarksville. As he was returning on the i8th of Janu- 
^T> ^793 f from the falls of the Ohio, in a large canoe laden 
with salt and other supplies, he was fired upon and killed by a 
party of Indians, near the mouth of Casey's Creek, in Trigg 
County, Kentucky. His gun, sword and other property were 
taken by the Indians. 

Moses lived many years after this event. He moved from 
Clarksville to New Madrid, Mo., where he died September 17, 


Among the early settlers of Montgomery County was Colonel 
Valentine Sevier (1747-1800). His father was a Virginian of 
French extraction, from whom he inherited something of the 
cavalier spirit, so prominent in the character of his brother. 
Governor John Sevier. Spare of flesh, with an erect, command- 
ing, soldierly presence, a bright blue eye, and quick ear, he was 
at once ardent, brave, generous and aflfectionate. 

He had served his country faithfully, both in the Indian wars, 
and the War of Independence. He was sergeant in Captain Evan 

212 The American Historical Magazine. 

Shelby's company at the battle of Point Pleasant, and was dis- 
tinguished for vigilance, activity and bravery. He entered the 
Revolutionary War as a captain, and commanded a company at 
Thicketty Fort, Cedar Springs, Musgrave's Mill, and King's 

He was the first sheriff of Washington County; a justice of 
the peace ; and colonel of the County militia. He took an active 
interest in the establishment of the State of Franklin, and soon 
after its fall in 1788, he emigrated to Cumberland, and created 
a station near the mouth of Red River, opposite the town of 
Qarksville, where the extinct town of Cumberland was after- 
wards established, between Clarksville and New Providence. 

At the beginning of the year 1792 the Cumberland settle- 
ments were much alarmed at the warlike demonstrations of the 
Cherokees. General Robertson, who had been the early friend 
and comrade in arms of Colonel Sevier, called for volunteers for 
spies and rangers. Colonel Sevier had three g^own sons with 
him, Robert, William and Valentine. When they asked his per- 
mission, notwithstanding the weakness of his own station, he 
gave them leave to join General Robertson at Nashville. 

On the 7th day of January, 1792, these young men, together 
with John Rice, John Curtis, and two or three others, started 
up the river in canoes. They were induced to make the journey 
by water on account of the scarcity of horses at the station. The 
Cumberland River above Clarksville makes a horseshoe curve to 
a place called Seven-mile Ferry. When the party left Qarks- 
ville they were discovered by a Cherokee chief called Double 
Head, who rapidly crossed the country to Seven-mile Ferry, 
and secreted his party in the bushes near the shore. Here they 
remained until the boats came around the bend, when they fired 
a volley into them, killing the three Seviers, Curtis and Rice. 
The remainder of the party got their boats across the river, and 
•commenced a retrograde movement, hugging the opposite shore. 
Seeing all the party were not killed. Double Head again crossed 
the isthmus made by the river, intending to intercept them again 
on their return. The boats had been abandoned before Double 
Head found them. The Indians boarded them, scalped the young 
men, and carried away whatever they desired of the goods and 

Beginnings of Montgomery County. 213 

provisions. They took the hat, coat and boots of Curtis which 
were afterwards identified by a trader. 

It was a day or two before the news reached Colonel Sevier's 
station. It was distressing news to him. Deprived now of all 
his grown sons who had come with him to Cumberland, he 
wrote to his brother, Governor John Sevier, in language ex- 
pressive of the deepest grief, asking him to send his son John 
to come and see him, "as," said he, "I have no other sons but 
small ones." 

Hardly three years after this sad bereavement, a still more 
terrible calamity befell the inhabitants of Sevier's station. About 
II o'clock on the morning of the nth of November, 1794, when 
the men were all away from the station, except Colonel Sevier 
and Charles Snyder, a party of Creek Indians, from a town 
called Tuskeya, made a furious assault upon the station. The 
scene can be better described by those who saw it. 

Anthony Crutcher writes his brother William, under date: 

Clarksville, November 12, 1794. 
Dear Brother : Yesterday I was spectator to the most tragical 
scene that I ever saw in my life! The Indians made an attack 
upon Colonel Sevier's station, killed Snyder, his wife and child, 
one of Colonel Sevier's children, and another wounded and 
scalped, which must die. On hearing the guns four or five of us 
ran over. We found the poor old Colonel defending his house, 
with his wife. It is impossible to describe this scene to you. 
Mr. James, who goes to you, and was an eyewitness, can give 
you the particulars. The crying of women and children in town, 
the bustle and consternation of the people, being all women and 
children, but the few that went to Colonel Sevier's, was a scene 
that cannot be described. This is a stroke we have long ex- 
pected, and from intelligence, we hourly expect this place to be 
assailed by the enemy. Colonel Sevier is now moving, and the 
town will not stay longer than Mr. James' return. My wife now 
lies on her bed so ill that it would be death to move her; thus 
are we situated. This place will, without doubt, be evacuated 
in a day or two unless succor is given by the people of the interior 
part. Pray ask the influence of Major Tatum, Douglass and 
all our friends, with General Robertson, to guard us, or, at least, 
help us away. 

214 The American Historical Magazine. 

John Easten wrote Brigadier-General Robertson : 

Clarksville, November 12, 1794, 
Dear Sir : I flatter myself that the contents of this letter will 
be as seriously considered as the premises demand. Yesterday 
about II o'clock in the morning, a heavy firing commenced at 
Colonel Sevier's by a party of about twelve or fifteen Indians. 
The Colonel bravely defended his own house, and kept the savage 
band from entering ; but they cruelly slaughtered all around him. 
Three of his own children fell dead. Charles Snyder and two 
small children also fell. Unfortunately for us in this place, we 
were not prepared to go to their assistance, for the want of men. 
However, I was on the ground the first man, and was the first 
spectator to the horrid sight — some scalped and barbarously cut 
to pieces ; some tomahawked very inhumanly, and the poor help- 
less infants committed to the torturing flames. , However, with- 
out entering further into the horrors of this barbarous massacre, 
suffice it to say that, we consider ourselves in most imminent 
danger. Indian signs almost in every quarter, which lead us to 
think we stand in great need of protection. This is the object 
of this letter, favored by Mr. Daniel James, who comes mostly 
on this particular business, and I hope his journey, or the cause 
of his journey, will be attended to; if not, I am confident that 
Clarksville will be evacuated ; but I flatter myself a protection will 
be willingly and speedily granted. 

I will be permitted to add the letter of Colonel Sevier to his 
brother, the governor, written a month later : 

Clarksville, December 18, 1794. 

Dear Brother: The news from this place is desperate with 
me. On Tuesday, nth of November, last, about 12 o'clock, mv 
station was attacked by about forty Indians. On so sudden a 
surprise, they were in almost every house before they were dis- 
covered. All the men belonging to the station were out, only 
Mr. Snyder and myself. Mr. Snyder, Betsy, his wife, his son 
John, and my son Joseph were killed in Snyder's house. I saved 
Snyder so the Indians did not get his scalp, but shot and toma- 
hawked him in a barbarous manner. They also killed Ann King, 
and her son James, and scalped my daughter Rebecca. I hope 
she will recover. The Indians have killed whole families about 
here this fall. You may hear the cries of some persons for their 
friends daily. 

The engagement commenced by the Indians at my house, con- 
tinued about an hour, as the neighbors say. Such a scene no 


man ever witnessed before. Nothing but screams and roaring 
of guns, and no man to assist me for some time. The Indians 
have robbed all the goods out of every house, and have destroyed 
all my stock. You will write our anaent father this horrid news ; 
also my son Johnny. My health is much impaired. The remains 
of my family are in good health. I am so distressed in my mind 
that I can hardly write. Your affectionate brother till death. 

Only two of Colonel Sevier's children were killed in this mas- 
sacre : Betsy and Joseph. Rebecca was knocked down, scalped, 
and left for dead, but revived, and finally recovered. Old Mr. 
Needham told W. R. Bringhurst, Sr., that he had danced with 
her many a time after her recovery. Besides these he lost his 
son-in-law, Charles Snyder, and his grandson, John Snyder. 

Valentine Sevter died at Clarksville, February 23, 1800. His 
wife survived him for more than forty years. After his death 
his personal property was sold by his administrator. His wife 
bought only one article. The report of sales of personal property 
shows this item : 

Bought by the widow— one large Bible, 50 cents. 

2i6 The American Historical Magazine. 



Inauguration of Governor John Sevier, March 30, 1796. 

Both Houses having convened in the Representatives' Cham- 
ber, the several oaths prescribed for the qualification of tlie 
governor, were duly administered to his excellency, John Sevier, 
after which he presented to both Houses of the General As- 
sembly an address which was read, and ordered inserted in the 
journals, as follows : 

First Inaugural Address of Governor Sevier, March 30, 1796. 

Gentlemen of the Senate and House of Representatives: 

The high and honorable appointment conferred upon me by 
the free suffrages of my countrymen, fills my breast with grati- 
tude, which, I trust, my future life will manifest. I take this 
early opportunity to express, through you, my thanks in the 
strongest terms of acknowledgment. I shall labor to discharge 
with fidelity the confidence reposed in me; and if such my exer- 
tions should prove satisfactory, the first wish of my heart will 
be gratified. 

Gentlemen, accept of my best wishes for your individual and 
public happiness: And, relying upon your wisdom and patriot- 
ism, I have no doubt that the result of your deliberations will 
give permanency and success to our new system of government, 
so wisely calculated to secure the liberty and advance the happi- 
ness and prosperity of our fellow citizens. John Sevier. 

Message of Governor Sevier, April 11, 1796, 

Mr. Speaker and Gentlemen of the General Assembly: 

Permit me to remark to your honorable body, that our senators 
are about to oroceed to the Federal Legislature. It may not be 
inexpedient to remind them of the necessity of taking under con- 

Early Addrbssbs and Mbssagbs. 217 

sideration, the embarrassed situation claimants of land are under, 
to those lying south of the line concluded on in the treaty of 
Holston, and now within the Indian boundary. 

In my humble opinion, it is a matter of great public importance 
and particularly interesting to the State and to individuals, to 
either have the Indian claims extinguished, or the adventurers 
compensated for those lands. 

I have no doubt that you will take the premises under due 
deliberation, and give your senators such instructions as you, in 
your wisdom, may deem necessary and advisable. 

John Sevier. 

Message of Governor Sevier, April 22, 1796. 

Mr. Speaker and Gentlemen of the General Assembly : 

Your session is now near a close, the safety and protection of 
the frontiers requires your serious consideration. Tranquillity, 
amity, and mutual friendship with the neighboring tribes, is the 
principal means of securing the same. 

Permit me to remind your honorable body of the deplorable 
condition our frontier citizens would be , plunged into, should 
this country unhappily again be involved in war with a savage 
nation. The calamities of the last, are recent in our memory, and 
the spoils and ravages occasioned thereby, are daily presented 
before us. 

The rapid immigration into our State is truly flattering; but 
a single hostility might be the means of occasioning the prospect 
wholly to vanish and cease. Many thousands have moved to 
our government, not many are wealthy, their resources small 
and their wants great ; and were they reduced to the melancholy 
dilemma of entering into forts and blockhouses, I am assured 
their condition would be distressing and painful in the extreme. 

Let me remark to you, gentlemen, and I make no doubt you 
will coincide with me in opinion, that a few years peace would 
be the most legal and eligible mode to reduce our neighboring 
tribe to reason and good order. 

The present appearances of Indian affairs have a pacific color, 
and should proper measures be adopted by your legislative inter- 

2i8 The American Historical Magazine 

position, so as to prevent violation and encroachment, I have no 
doubt that peace will abound throughout the government. 

One thing more, I beg leave to observe. It is well known to 
you that the brave officers and privates, that composed the army, 
who performed the last campaign, are still unpaid, from which 
circumstances many of our citizens are much embarrassed and 
disappointed on the occasion. 

I have lately been advised to go forward to the war office 
personally, to state the expediency and authority that caused and 
produced the campaign. Now, if the present session of Cong^rcss 
should fail to make provision for the payment, I wish to know 
the sense of the Assembly, whether I might be permitted, or not, 
to go forward at the time of the next session, to lay the same 
before Congress. It will be a journey attended with much 
fatigue and expense; but nevertheless, I feel it my indispensable 
duty to give every aid and assistance in my power, to have the 
officers and privates duly compensated for their hazardous and 
toilsome services. 

I have the honor to be, gentlemen, with due respect, 

Your obedient servant, 

John Sevier. 

Answer of the Legislature to the Message of Governor Sevier, 

April 23, 1796. 

Sir: The General Assembly are, with you, fully sensible that 
every attention ought to be paid to the preservation of peace 
between the frontiers and the neighboring Indians, and that 
mutual amity and intercourse should be preserved. It is the hope 
of this General Assembly, that no hostilities will by any of the 
citizens of this State be committed against the Indians. And 
should the Indians again offer violence, and commence war 
against the people of this State, the General Assembly declare 
their confidence in the general government, that the people will 
be protected. 

This General Assembly are of opinion, that although the pay- 
ment of the officers and soldiers alluded to, is of importance, jet 
the absence of the governor from this State might be attended 
with consequences not pleasing, and think that it will be the duty 

Early Addresses and Messages. 219 

of the senators and representatives from this State in Congress, 
to whom the governor will write on that subject, to procure 
an adjustment and payment of what money may be due on ac- 
count of that expedition. 

With you we join in saying, that peace is a most desirable 
object for the people of this State; their safety and population 
on it do depend. With you it is to take care, that the citizens 
of this State commit no encroachments upon the Indians; that 
tlie conditions of the Treaty of Holston be preserved inviolate 
<» the part of this State: And should the Indians be so far 
tost to a sense of their own good and happiness, as to commence 
hostilities, we have the greatest confidence that you will do those 
things agreeably to the laws of the Union necessary for the 
general welfare. 

Proclamation of Governor Sevier Convening the General Assem- 
bly, July 4, 1796. 

Whereas, I have lately received authentic information, that an 
act of the Congress of the United States, passed at their last 
session, involved several acts of this State in difficulty, and ren- 
ders the same incomplete to answer the purposes and salutary 
uses and effects intended to he obtained therefrom, by the honor- 
able [legislature] of this State : 

I have thought it necessary and highly expedient, to summon 
the members of the General Assembly, to convene on the last 
Saturday of the present month. And do strictly request and 
enjoin them and each of them, to be pimctual and particular in 
giving their attendance accordingly,, in order to take under their 
due deliberation such matters as may be laid before them. 

Given under my hand and seal, at Knoxville, this fourth day 
of July, one thousand, seven hundred and ninety-six, and in the 

twenty-first year of American Independence. 

John Sevier. 

Address of Governor Sevier to the General Assembly, July 

30, 1796. 

Gentlemen of the Senate and of the House of Representatives : 

The short time in which I conceived it was necessary to con- 
vene the Legislature, compelled me to call you together on so 

220 The American Historical Magazine. 

short a notice. In the first instance it was necessary to give all 
the time the emergency of the occasion would admit of, and in 
the second from a circumstance that the election to be held for 
i;epresentative, was approaching so near at hand, made it neces- 
sary as I conceived, for the Assembly to have it in their power, 
by a timely meeting (should they in their wisdom deem it proper) 
to make an alteration in the act directing the mode of electing 
representatives to represent this State in the Congress of the 
United States, before the day of the election should arrive, as 
directed in the aforesaid act; otherwise it might be attended 
with disputes and contentions of a disagreeable nature, for by a 
late act of Congress the intended number of our representatives 
is diminished; of course, it proportionally lessens our nimiber 
of electors, for President and Vice President of the United States. 
Thus such a derangement will necessarily require an alteration 
in our acts passed for such purposes. 

Our senators not being recognized in the Senate of the United 
States, is another matter for your consideration and attention, 
and for your more ample information, the several acts and com- 
munications accompanying this address, will elucidate unto you 
the propriety of my calling the Assembly together at this time. 

I hope, I may be permitted to observe, that it is of importance 
and conducive to public happiness, to arrange our acts con- 
formable with those of Congress so far as they shall respect 
this State. 

The foregoing are the reasons why I thought proper to con- 
vene the Assembly in session on the present day ; and I make no 
doubt you will, through your paternal care, wisdom, and patriotic 
deliberations, adopt such measures as will tend to produce the 
public interest and general utility of the State. 

I have the pleasure of announcing to you, gentlemen, the ad- 
mission of the State of Tennessee into the Federal Union, a 
circumstance pregnant with every flattering prospect of peace, 
happiness and opulence to our infant State. The period has at 
length arrived when the people of the Southwest Territory may 
enjoy all the blessings and liberties of a free and independent 

Early Addresses and Messages. 221 

Permit me to wish you public, domestic and individual happi- 
ness while I have the honor to be, very respectfully. 
Your devoted and obedient servant, 

John Sevier. 

Answer of the General Assembly to the Address of Governor 
Sevier, August 6, 1796. 

To his Excellency, John Sevier, Esquire, Governor of the State 
of Tennessee : 

Sir: — ^We are fully sensible, that the important objects by you 
laid before this General Assembly, made it necessary for you to 
convene the Legislature at this time. 

We rejoice with you in the event of this State being firmly 
admitted into the Federal Union; and our minds are filled with 
the most pleasing sensations, when we reflect on the prosperity 
and poUtical happiness to which we view as a certain prelude. 
Be assured, sir, it will be our first and greatest care to adopt 
such measures as will promote the true interests of this State, 
as connected with the American Union. 

With respect to our representation, in the Senate of the United 
States, in particular, we flatter ourselves, such steps have been 
taken, that no reason now remains sufficient to justify that body 
in refusing any longer to recognize our Senators. 

We view it as essentially necessary to the preservation of peace 
and harmony with the Indian tribes, that the Constitutional 
treaties and laws should be duly observed; and we have the 
fullest confidence that the executive of this State will take proper 
measures to enforce their due execution. 

(To be continued.) 

222 The American Historical Magazine. 



West Virginia University. 


The Military Reconstruction Bills, — The Radicals in Congress 
triumphed over the moderate Republicans, the Democrats and 
the President, when on March 2, 1867, they succeeded in passing 
over the veto the first of the notorious Reconstruction Acts. This 
act reduced the Southern States to the status of military provinces 
and established the rule of martial law. After asserting in the 
preamble that no legal governments or adequate protection for 
life and property existed in Alabama and other Southern States, 
the act divided the South into five military districts subject to 
the absolute control of the central government, that is, of Con- 
gress.* Alabama, with Georgia and Florida, constituted the Third 
Military District. The military commander, a general officer, ap- 
pointed by the President, was to carry on the government in his 
province. No State interference was to be allowed, though the 
provisional civil administration might be made use of if the 
commander saw fit. Offenders might be tried by the local courts 
or by military commissions, and except in cases involving the 
death penalty there was no appeal beyond the military governor. 
This rule of martial law was to continue until the people should 
adopt a State constitution providing for enfranchisement of the 
negro and for the disfranchisement of all whites who would be 
excluded by the proposed fourteenth amendment to the United 
States Constitution. As soon as this constitution should be 
adopted by the new electorate, a majority voting in the election, 
and the constitution approved by Congress, and the legislature 
elected under the new constitution should ratify the proposed 

* The President and the Judiciary now being powerless. 

MiwTARY Government in Alabama. 223 

fourteenth amendment, then representatives from the State 
were to be admitted to Congress upon taking the "ironclad" 
test oath of July 2, 1862. And until so reconstructed the present 
civil government of the State was provisional only and might 
be altered, controlled, or abolished, and in all elections under it 
the negro must vote and those who would be excluded by the 
proposed fourteenth amendment must be disfranchised.^ 

The President at once (March 11, 1867) appointed General 
George H. Thomas to the command of the Third Military Dis- 
trict, with headquarters at Montgomery, but the work was not 
to General Thomas' liking and at his request he was relieved 
and on March 15 General Pope was appointed in his place.^ 
Pope was in favot* of extreme measures in dealing with the 
Southern people and stated that he understood the design of the 
Reconstruction Acts to be "to free the Southern people from the 
baleful influence of old political leaders." ^ 

The act of March 2 did not provide for forcing reconstruction 
upon the people. If they wanted it, they might initiate it through 
the provisional governments, or if they preferred they might re- 
main under martial law. While all people were anxious to have 
the State restored to its proper place in the Union, most of them 
soon saw that to continue under martial law even when ad- 
ministered by Pope was preferable to reconstruction under the 
present terms. Consequently the movement toward reconstruction 
was made by a very small minority of the people and had no 
chance whatever of making any headway. 

Therefore, in order to hasten the restoration of the States and 
to insure the proper political complexion of the new regime 
Congress assumed control of the administration of the law of 
March 2, by the supplementary act of March 23, 1865. "To 
facilitate restoration" the commander of the district was to cause 
a registration of all men over twenty-one not disfranchised by the 

*Text of the Act, McPherson, Reconstruction, 191, 192. G. O. No. 2, 
3d M. D., April 3, 1867. For criticism, Burgess, Reconstruction, 1 12-122. 
Dunning, Civil War and Reconstruction, 123, 126-135, 143. 

'G. O. Nos. 10 and 18. H. Q. A., March 11 and 15, 1867. McPherson, 

* Report of Secretary of War, 1867, I, 321. 

224 The American Historical Magazine. 

act of March 2, who could take the prescribed oath^ before the 
registering officers. The commander was then to order an election 
for the choice of delegates to a convention. He was to apportion 
the delegates according to the registered voting population. If 
a majority voted against holding the convention it should 
not be held. The boards of registration, appointed by the com- 
manding general, were to consist of three loyal persons. They 
were to have entire control of the registration of voters, and the 
elections and returns which were to be made to the military 
governor. They were required to take the "ironclad" test oath, 
and the penalties of perjury were to be visited upon official or 
voter who should take the oath falsely. After the convention 
should frame a constitution it should submit it to the people for 
ratification or rejection. The same board of registration were 
to hold the election. If the constitution should be ratified by 

*The oath was: "I, , do solemnly swear (or affirm), in the pres- 
ence of Almighty God, that I am a citizen of the State of Alabama; that 

I have resided in said State for months, next preceding this day, 

and now reside in the county of in said State; that I am twenty- 
one years old; that I have not been disfranchised for oarticipation in anv 
rebellion or civil war against the United States, nor for felony committed 
against the laws of any State or of the United States; that I have never 
been a member of any State legislature, nor held any executive or judi- 
cial office in any State and afterward engaged in insurrection or rebel- 
lion against the United States or given aid and comfort to the enemies 
thereof; that I have never taken an oath as a member of Congp-ess of 
the United States, as an officer of the United States, or as a member of 
any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any 
State, to support the Constitution of the United States and afterwards 
engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the United States or given 
aid and comfort to the enemies thereof; that I will faithfully support the 
Constitution and obey the laws of the United States, and will, to the 
best of my ability, encourage others to do so, so help me God!*'— 
McPherson, Reconstruction, 192, 205. G, O, No. 5, Third Military Dis- 
trict, April 8, 1867. 

Note. — Speaking of the situation in Alabama in the fall of 1867. 
Governor Seymour, of New York, said: "The Southern people have to 
deal with political problems more bewildering than the theological dog- 
mas which are set forth in the verse: 

*"You can and you can't. 
You will and you won't. 
You'll be damned if you do, 

And you'll be damned if you don't.* " 

New York Herald, October 4, 1867. 

Military Governmbnt in Alabama. 225 

a majority of the votes cast in the election where a majority of 
the registered voters voted, and the other conditions of the act 
of March 2 having been complied with, the State should be 
admitted to representation in Congress.^ 

Pope Assumes Command. — On April i, 1867, General Pope 
arrived in Montgomery and assumed command of the Third 
Military District. General Swayne was continued in command 
of Alabama as a sub-district. Pope announced that the officials 
of the provisional government would be allowed to serve out 
their terms of office, provided the laws were impartially admin- 
istered by them. Failure to protect the people without distinction 
in their rights of person and property would result in the inter- 
ference of the military authorities. Civil officials were forbidden 
to use their influence against reconstruction under the acts of 
Congress. No elections were to be held unless negroes were 
allowed to vote and the whites disfranchised as provided for 
in the act of March 2. However, all vacancies then existing or 
which might occur before registration was completed would 
be filled by military appointment. The State militia was ordered 
to disband.^ General Swayne proclaimed that he, having been 
entrusted with the "administration of the military reconstruction 
bill" in Alabama, would exact a literal compliance with the re- 
quirements of the Civil Rights Bill. All payments for services 
rendered the State during the war were peremptorily forbidden.* 
The Herald correspondent reported that Pope's early orders 
were favorably received by the conservative press of Alabama, 
and that there was no opposition of any kind manifested. The 
people did not seem to realize what was in store for them. The 
army thought necessary to crush the rebellious State was increased 
by a few small companies only, and now consisted of fourteen 
companies detached from the Fifteenth and the Thirty-third In- 
fantry and the Fifth Cavalry, amounting in all to 931 men, of 
whom eight companies were in garrison in the arsenal at Mt. 

*McPherson, Reconstruction, 192-194. Burgess, Reconstruction, 129- 
135. Dunning, Civil War and Reconstruction, 124, 125. 

"G. O. Nos. I and 2, 3cl M. D., April i and 3, 1866. N. Y. Her^d. 
April 6, 1867. Annual Cyclopedia, 1867, p. 19. McPherson, 201, 205. 
Report of Secretary of War, 1867, I, 322. Herbert, Solid South, 38. 

•G. O. No. I, District of Alabama, April 2, 1867. McPherson, 206. 

226 The American Historical Magazine. 

Vernon and the forts at Mobile.* The rest were stationed at 
Montgomery, Selma and Huntsville. 

Writing to Grant on April 2, Pope stated that the civil officials 
were all active secessionists and would oppose reconstruction. 
But the people were ready for reconstruction which he predicted 
would be speedy in Alabama. Five days later, he wrote that 
there would be no trouble in Alabama, that Governor Patton and 
nearly all the civil officials and most of the prominent men of 
the State were in favor of the Congressional reconstruction and 
were canvassing the State in favor of it.* He was evidently of 
changeable opinions. However, he was so impressed with the 
goodness of Alabama and the badness of Georgia, that, in order 
to be near the most difficult work, he asked Grant to have head- 
quarters removed to Atlanta, which was done on April 11.* 

The Georgia people were evidently so bad that they caused 
a change in his former favorable opinion of the people in general, 
or rather of the whites, for in a letter to Grant, July 24, 1867, we 
find a frank expression of his sentiments in regard to recon- 
struction. He thought the disfranchising clauses were among 
the wisest provisions of the reconstruction acts; the leading 
rebels should have been forced to leave the country and stay 
away; all the old official class were opposed to reconstruction 
and were sure to prevail unless kept disfranchised ; it was better 
to have incompetent, loyal men in office than rebels of ability, 
in fact the greater the ability the greater the danger ; in order to 
retain the fruits of reconstruction the old leaders must be put 
beyond the power of returning to influence. He had by this 
time become somewhat disgusted with the reconstructionists — 
for he intimated that none of the whites were fit for self-govern- 
ment, and was strongly of the opinion that in a few years, in- 
telligence and education would be transferred from the whites 
to the negroes. He predicted ten thousand majority for recon- 
struction in Alabama, but thought that in case reconstruction 
succeeded in the elections, some measures would have to be taken 

* Report of Secretary of War, 1867, I, 466. N. Y. Herald, April 6, 1867. 

* Ho. Ex. Doc. No. 20, 40 Cong, i Sess. 
•G. O. No. 52, H. Q. A., April 11, 1867. 

Military Government in Alabama. 227 

to free the country of the turbulent and disloyal leaders of the 
reactionary party, or there would be no peace.^ 

Control of the Civil Government, — Pope instructed the post 
commanders in Alabama to report to headquarters any failures of 
civilian tribunals to administer the laws in accordance with the 
Civil Rights Bill or the recent acts of Congress. They were, 
above all, to watch for discrimination on account of color, race 
or political opinion. While not interfering with the functions of 
civil officers they were instructed to give particular attention to 
the manner in which such function3 were discharged.* Civil 
officials were warned that the prohibition against their using 
influence against reconstruction would be stringently enforced. 
They were not to g^ve verbal or written advice to individuals, 
committees or to the public unless in favor of the reconstruction. 
Officials who violated this prohibition were to be removed from 
office and held accountable as the case demanded.' District and 
post commanders were ordered to report to Pope all State, county, 
or municipal officials who were "disloyal" to the government of 
the United States, or who used their influence to "hinder, delay, 
prevent or obstruct the due and proper administration of the 
acts of Congress."* Later, Grant and Pope decided that the 
paroles of soldiers were still in force and that any attempt to 
"prevent the settlement of the Southern question would be a 
. violation of parole." ° 

In May, Pope issued an order and an explanatory order in- 
forming the officials of Alabama of their proper status. There 
was no legal government in Alabama, they were told, and Con- 
gress had declared that no adequate protection for life and prop- 
erty existed. The military authorities were warned that upon 
them rested the final responsibility for peace and security. Con- 
sequently when necessary they were to supersede the civil officials. 
In towns, the mayor and chief of police were required to be 
present at every public meeting, with sufficient force to render 
disturbance impossible. It would be no excuse not to know of a 

* Report of Secretary of War, 1867, I, 353. 

* G. O. No. 4, 3d M. D.. April 4. 1867. 

* G. O. No. 10, 3d M. D., Aoril 23, 1867. 

* G, O. No. 48, 3d M. D., A"ugust 6, 1867. 
•Annual Cyclopedia, 1867, 17. 

228 The American Historical Magazine. 

meeting or not to apprehend trouble. Outside of towns, the 
sheriflF or one of his deputies was to be present at such gather- 
ings, and in case of trouble was to summon a posse from the 
crowd, but must not summon officers of the meeting or the speak- 
ers. It was declared the duty of civil officials to preserve peace, 
and assure rights and privileges to all persons who desired to 
hold public meetings. In case of disturbance, if it could not be 
shown that the civil officials did their full duty, they would be 
deposed and held responsible by the military authorities. When 
the civil authorities asked for it, the commanders of troops were 
to furnish detachments to be present at political meetings and 
prevent disturbance. The commanding officers were to keep 
themselves informed in regard to political meetings and hold 
themselves ready for immediate action.^ 

From the beginning, Pope, supported and advised by General 
Swayne, pursued extreme measures. There were many com- 
plaints of his arbitrary conduct after a few weeks. In his cor- 
respondence with General Grant he complained of the attitude 
of the Washington administration toward his acts, and largely to 
support Pope (and Sheridan in the Fifth District) Congress 
passed the act of July 19, 1867, which was the last of the recon- 
struction acts, so far as Alabama was concerned. This law 
declared that the civil governments were not legal State govern- 
ments and were, if continued, to be subject absolutely to the mili- 
tary commanders and to the paramount authority of Congress. 
The commander of the district was declared to have full power, 
subject only to the disapproval of General Grant, to remove or 
suspend officers of the civil government and appoint others in 
their places. General Grant was vested with full power of re- 
moval, suspension and appointment. It was made the duty of 
the commander to remove from office all who opposed recon- 
struction.2 Pope had already been making use of the extremest 
powers and the only effect of the act was to approve his course. 

*G. O. No. 25, 3d M. D., May 29, 1867. (This was to favor radical 
meetings. There were many stump speakers sent down from the North 
to tell the negro how to vote, and it was feared they might excite the 
whites to acts of violence.) N. Y. Herald, June 4, 1867. Explanatory 

*McPherson, Reconstruction, 335, 336. Dunning, 153, 154. 

Military Government in Alabama. 229 

Pope gave the laws a very broad interpretation. He believed 
that reconstruction should be thoroughly done in order to leave 
no room for future trouble and embarrassment. Grant, on 
August 3, wrote to him^ approving his sentiments and went on 
to say: "It is certainly the duty of the district commander to 
study what the framers of the reconstruction laws wanted to 
express, as much as what they do express, and to execute the 
law according to that interpretation."^ This was certainly a 
unique method of interpretation and would justify any possible 
assumption of power. 

There had been several instances of prosecution of soldiers and 
officials for acts which they claimed were done under military 
authority. Pope disposed of this question by ordering the civil 
courts to entertain no action against any person for acts per- 
formed in accordance with military orders or by sanction of the 
military authority. Suits then pending were dismissed. The 
military authorities were to enforce the order strictly and report 
all officials who might disobey.^ A few weeks later a decree 
went forth that all jurors should be chosen from the lists of 
voters registered under the acts of Congress. They must be 
chosen without discrimination in regard to color and each juror 
must take an oath that he was a registered voter. Those who 
could not take the oath were to be replaced by those who could.* 
So much for the general regulation and supervision of the civil 
authorities by the army. There were but a few hundred troops 
entrusted with the execution of these regulations which were of 
course enforced only spasmodically. The more nrominent of- 
ficials were closely watched but the only effect in country dis- 
tricts was to destroy all government. Many judges while willing 
to have their jurors drawn from the voting lists, refused to accept 
ignorant negroes on them or to order the selection of mixed 

* As long as Pope was in command at Montgomery and Atlanta, he and 
Grant kept up a rapid and voluminous (on the part of Pope) corre- 
spondence. They were usually agreed on all that pertained to recon- 
struction, both being extreme in their views. 

*Ho. Ex. Doc. No. 30, 40 Cong. 2 Sess. Ho. Ex. Doc. ino. 20, 40 Cong. 
I Sess. MicPherson, 312. 

•G. O. No. 45, 3d M. D., I. Auj^ust 2, 1867. McPherson, 319. 

*G. O. Nos. 53 and 55, 3d M. D., August 19 and 23, 1867, report 
of the Secretary of War, 1867, I, 331. McPherson, 319. 

230 Thk American Historical Magazine. 

juries, and many courts were closed by military authority. Judge 
Wood, of the city court of Selma, had a jury drawn of whites. A 
military commission, sitting in Selma, refused to allow cases to 
be tried unless negroes were on the jury. Pope's order was 
construed as requiring negroes on each jury and so he meant it^ 
Later, Pope published an order requiring jurors to take the "test 
oath," which would practically exclude all the whites.* Prison- 
ers confined in jail undei sentence by jurors drawn under the old 
laws were liberated by the army officers or by Freedmen's Bureau 
officials. Twice in the month of December, there were jail de- 
liveries by military authorities in Greene County.' 

Removal and Appointment of Civil Officials, — Within the first 
month Pope began to remove civil officials and appoint others. 
Mayor Joseph H. Sloss, of Tuscumbia, was the first to go. Pope 
alleged that the election had not been conducted in accordance 
with the acts of Congress and forthwith appointed a new mayor. 
No complaint had been made, the removal being caused by out- 
side influence.* At this election, negroes for the first time in 
Alabama had voted under the Reconstruction Acts. Sloss had re- 
ceived two-thirds of all votes cast. Evidently the blacks had 
been controlled by the whites, which was contrary to the spirit of 
the Reconstruction Acts. 

Immediately after a riot in Mobile following an incendiary 
speech by Judge Kelly, of Pennsylvania, one of the visiting ora- 
tors. Colonel Shepherd, of the Fifteenth Infantry, assumed com- 
mand of the city. The police were suspended. Breach of the 
peace was punished by the military authorities. Out-of-door 
congregations after nightfall were prohibited. Notice of public 
meetings had to be given to the acting mayor in time to have a 
force on hand to preserve the peace. The publication of in- 
cendiary articles in the newspapers was forbidden. The provost 
guard was directed to seize all large firearms in the possession 
of improper persons and to search suspected persons for smaD 

* See Selma Messesger, January 17, 1868. 

* See McPherson, 312. 

*Eutaw Whig and Observer, December 12 and 24, 1867. 
*S. O. No. 2, 3d M. D., April 15, 1867. Annual Cyclopedia, 1867, 
20. Montgomery Mail, April 30, 1867. 

Military Government in Alabama. 231 

arms. The ^)ecial police, when appointed, were ordered to restrict 
their duties to enforcing the city ordinances. All offences against 
military ordinances would be attended to by the military authori* 
ties. A later order prohibited the carrying of large firearms 
without special permission. Deposits of such arms were seized. 
Persons walking peaceably along the street were not to be 

Pope declared vacant all offices in Mobile and filled them anew,* 
in the face of a report by Swayne that reasonable precautions had 
been taken to prevent disorder. The blame for this action of Pope 
fell upon Swayne, who had to carry out the orders of Pope. The 
officers appointed by Pope refused to accept office and then he 
seems to have oflFered to reappoint the old officials and they de- 
clined. Thereupon he lost his temper and directed Swayne to fill 
the vacancies in the city government of Mobile "from that large 
class of citizens who have heretofore been denied the right of suf- 
frage and participation in municipal affairs and whose patriotism 
will prevent them from following this disloyal example." He was 
referring to the refusal of the former members of the city govern- 
ment to accept reappointment after suspension, and meant that 
negroes should now be appointed. Swayne offered positions to 
some of the most respected and influential negroes, 'who declined, 
saying that they preferred white officials. Negro policemen were 
appointed.' In October a case came up in Mobile which caused 
much irritation. The negro policemen were troublesome and 
insolent anyway, and one day a little child ran out into the 
street in front of a team driven by a negro who paid no attention 
to the mother's call to him to stop his horses. Some one snatched 
the baby from under the heels of the horses, and the scared and 
angry mother relieved her feelings by calling the driver a "black 
rascal." The negro policemen came to her house, arrested her, 
and on her refusing to go, with great brutality dragged her from 

*G. O. Nos. 35, 38, 40, Post of Mobile, 1867. Annual Cvclopedia, 
1867, 20-23. N. Y. Times, May 21, 1867. 

"New York World, May 28, 1867. S. O. No. 34, 3d M. D., May 31, 
1867. Herbert, Solid South, 40. N. Y. Times. May 21, 1867. 

•S. O. No. 38. 34 M. D., June 6, 1867. S. O. No. 27, 3d M. D., 
May 22, 1867. N. Y. Tribune, June 11, 1867. Selma Messenger, June 18, 
1867. Evening Post, May 1867. Annual Cyclopedia, 1867, 20-25. Mobile 
Register, October — , 1867. 

232 The American Historical Magazine. 

the house and along the street. Another woman asked the 
negroes if they had a warrant for the arrest of the first woman. 
She was answered by the polite phrase: "What the hell is it 
your business?" Mayor Horton, Pope's appointee, fined the 
woman ten dollars^ — for violation of the Civil- Rights Bill, it is 
to be presumed, since that was considered to cover most things 
pertaining to negroes. 

This Mayor Horton had a high opinion of his prerogatives as 
military mayor of Mobile. The Mobile Tribune had been pub- 
lishing criticisms on his administration and also of Mr. Brom- 
berg, one of his political brethren. Archie Johnson, a crippled, 
half-witted, negro newsboy was, it is said, hired to follow the 
mayor about, selling his Tribune papers, much to the annoyance 
of Mayor Horton. On one occasion Archie cried : "Here's yer 
Mobile Tribune, wid all about Mayor Horton and his Bromberg 
rats." This was too much for the military mayor, and, con- 
sidering the offense as one against the Civil Rights Bill, he sen- 
tenced the negro to banishment to New Orleans. Archie soon 
returned and was again exiled by the mayor. Here was an op- 
portunity for the people to get even with Horton, and suit was 
brought in the Federal Court before Busteed, who was now 
somewhat out with his party. Horton was fined for violation 
of the Civil Rights Bill, and there was much rejoicing in Mobile 
because "the trap made to catch Southerners has first gobbled 
up a Yankee official." ^ 

Many officials were removed and many appointments made 
by Pope. His removals and appointments included mayors, 
chiefs of police, tax assessors and collectors, school trustees, 
county commissioners, justices of the peace, sheriffs, judges, 
clerks of courts, bailiffs, constables, city clerks, solicitors, super- 
intendent of schools, aldermen, common councils, and in two 
cases all the officials of a county (Jones and Colbert counties).' 

* Mobile Register, October — , 1867. 

" Herbert, Solid South, 40, 41. N. Y. Times, December 27, 1867. 

• S. O. Nos. 9, 10. 16, 18, 19, 20, 22, 24, 25, 26, 27, 31, 32, 35, 36. 37» 38. 
39, 3rd M. D., 1867. Report of the Secretary of War, 1867, I, 327. 
(Some of the persons appointed were: B. T. Pope and David P. Lewis. 
Judges; George P. Goldthwaite, Solicitor; B. F. Saffold, Mayor of 

Military Government in Alabama. 233 

Pope was roundly abused by the newspapers and by the people 
for making so many changes. I have been unable to find the 
names of more than thirty-four officials of any consequence who 
were removed by Pope. He made 224 appointments to such 
offices, besides minor ones. A clean sweep of all officials from 
mayor to policemen were made in Mobile and again in Selma. 
Most vacancies were secured by expiration of term of office or by 
forced resignation.^ 

As there was need of money to pay the expense of the con- 
vention soon to assemble, and as the tax payers were beginning 
to understand for what purposes their money was to be used 
and were in many instances refusing to pay, Pope issued an order 
to the post and detachment commanders directing them to fur- 
nish military aid to State tax collectors.^ The bitterest recon- 
structionists were heartily in favor of aid to the tax collecting 
branch of the "rebel" administration. They needed money to 
carry out their plans. When the terms of the tax collectors 
expired they were ordered to continue in office until their suc- 
cessors were duly elected and qualified,^ which, of course, meant 
to continue the present administration until the reconstructed 
government should take charge. Pope was very careful not to 
allow the civil government to spend any of the money coming in 
from taxes. He said that he thought it proper to prohibit the 
State treasurer from paying out money for the support of families 
of deceased Confederate soldiers, for wooden legs for Confed- 
erate soldiers, etc., since the convention, soon to meet, would 
probably not approve expenditure for such purposes.* Later 
the treasurer was ordered to pay the per diem of the delegates 
and the expenses of the convention, though Pope expressed 
doubt, for once, of his authority in the matter.*^ 

General Swayne, at Montgomery, who had long been at the 
head of the Freedmen's Bureau in the State and also military 
commander of the district of Alabama since June i, 1866, found 

* Report of the Secretary of War, 1867, I, 364. 

*G. O. No. ^7, 3d M. D., October 19, 1867. McPherson, 319. 
*G. O. No. 10% 3d M. D., December 21, 1867. 

* Report of the Secretary of War, 1867, I, ZZZ- McPherson, 316. 
•S. O. 254, 3d M. D., November 26, 1867. Pope to Swa3me, Novem- 
ber 20, 1867. N. Y. World, December 14, 1867. 

234 Thk American Historicax Magazine. 

himself relegated to a sc^newhat subordinate position after Pope 
assumed command in the Third District. The latter took charge 
of everything. If a negro policeman were to be appointed in 
Mobile Pope made the appointment and issued the order. Not 
always did he send his orders to Swayne to be republished. In 
consequence, Swayne dropped out of the records somewhat, but 
he had to bear much of the blame that should have fallen on 
Pope, though he was in full sympathy with the views of the 
latter. He was, however, a man of much more ability than 
Pope, of sounder judgment, and had had a good legal training. 
Consequently, Pope relied much upon him for advice in the 
many knotty questions that came up. He often came from At- 
lanta to Montgomery to see Swayne, and as a rule none of his 
familiar proclamations were ever issued when under the in- 
fluence of Swayne. The orders written for him or outlined by 
Swayne were stringent, of course, but clear, short and to tfic 
point. Pope's own masterpieces were long, rhetorical and threat- 
ening. His favorite valedictory at the end of an order was a 
threat of martial law and military commissions. 

General Swayne was still at the head of the Freedmen's Bureau, 
and in this capacity he made his authority felt. In April, 1867, 
he ordered probate judges to revise former actions in apprenticing 
minors to former owners and to revoke all indentures made since 
the war if the minors were able to support themselves. Though 
the vagrancy law had never been enforced and had been repealed 
by the legislature, he prohibited its execution. The chain-gang 
system was abolished, except in connection with the penitentiary.* 
In the fall, in order to secure pay for negro laborers, he ordered 
a lien on the crops grown on the farm where they were employed. 
This lien was to attach from date of order and to liave preference 
over former liens.^ 

Pope and the Newspapers, — When Pope first assumed com- 
mand it was reported that the conservative papers were, at the 
worst, not hostile to him,* but within a few weeks he had aroused 
their hostility and the battle was joined. Pope believed that the 

*G. O. No. 3, Sub-District Alabama, April 12, 1867. MIcPherson. 319. 

*McPherson, 319. 

• N. Y. Herald, April 6, 1867. 

Military Govkrnmknt in Alabama. 235 

papers had much to do with inciting hostility against the visiting 
orators from the North, resulting in such disturbances as the 
Kelley riot in Mobile. Consequently, instructions were issued 
prohibiting the puUication of articles tending to incite to riot, 
etc. This order was aimed at the conservative press. No one 
except the negro^ paid much attention to the Radical press. 
However, after the Mobile trouble the military commander was 
somewhat nervous and wanted to prevent future troubles. The 
negroes, now much excited by the campaign, were supposed to 
be much influenced by the violent articles appearing in the 
Radical p^per of Mobile — ^the National ReptU)lican. On May 30, 
an article was printed in that paper instructing the freedmen 
when, where and how to use firearms. It went on to state : "Do 
not, on future occasions [like the Kelley riot], waste a single 
shot until you see your enemy^ be sure he is your enemy, never 
waste ammimition, don't shoot until necessary and then be sure 
to shoot your enemy. Don't fire into the air." Fearing the 
effect upon the negroes of such advice the commanding officer 
at Mobile suppressed the edition of May 30, and prohibited future 
publication unless the proof should first be submitted to the 
commandant according to regulations of May 19, issued by Pope. 
Instead of approving the action of the Mobile officer, Pope 
strongly disapproved of and revoked his orders. The Mobile 
commander was informed that it was the duty of the military 
authorities not to restrict but to secure the utmost freedom of 
speech. No officers or soldiers should interfere with newspapers 
or speakers on any pretext whatever. "No satisfactory execution 
of the late acts of Congress is practicable unless this freedom is 
secured and its exercise protected," Pope said. However, "trea- 
sonable utterances" were not to be regarded as the legitimate 
exercise of the freedom of discussion.^ 

The conservative papers managed to keep within bounds and 
Pope was unable to harm them. Finally, he decided to strike 
at them through the official patronage. By the famous General 

*N. Y. Tribune, June i, 1867. N. Y. Herald, June 4, 1867. G. O. 
No. 28, ard M. D., June 3, 1867. Report of the Secretary of War, 1867, 
I, 326. 

236 The American Historical Magazine. 

Order No. 49/ he stated that he was convinced that the civil 
officials were obeying former instructions* only so far as their 
personal conversation was concerned, and were using their of- 
ficial patronage to encourage newspapers which opposed recon- 
struction and embarrassed civil officials appointed by military 
authority by denunciations and threats of future punishment 
Such use of patronage was pronounced an evasion of former 
orders and was an employment of the machinery of the State 
government to defeat the execution of the reconstruction acts. 
Therefore it was ordered that official advertising and official 
printing be given to those newspapers which had not opposed and 
did not then oppose reconstruction or embarrass officials by threats 
of violence and of prosecution as soon as the troops were with- 
drawn.* This order affected nearly every newspaper in the 
State. There were sixty-two counties and each had public print- 
ing and advertising. On an average, at least one paper for each 
county was touched in the exchequer and as Pope reported, "a 
hideous outcry" arose from the press of the State.* There were 
only five or six reconstruction papers in the State, and a modi- 
fication of the order in practice was absolutely necessary. Pope 
was so roundly abused by the newspapers, North and South, 
and especially in Alabama and Georgia, that he seems to have 
been affected by it. He endeavored to explain away the order 
by saying that it related only to military officials and not to civil 
officials. He did not say that in the order, though he may have 
meant it, and was now using the remarkable method of interpreta- 
tion suggested to him by Grant in regard to the reconstruction 
acts. Several accounts of newspapers for public advertisements 
were held up and payment disallowed. The best known of these 
papers were the Selma Times and the Eutaw Whig and Ob- 
server} The order was strictly enforced until General Meade 
assumed command of the Third Military District. 

Trials by Military Commissions, — The newspapers state that 
many arrests of citizens were made by military authorities, and 

* August 12, 1867. 
*G. O. Nos. I and 10. 

• G. O. No. 49, 3d M. D., August 12, 1867. 

* Report of the Secretary of War, 1867, I, 325. 

• Selma Messenger, December 25, 1867. 

Military Government in Alabama. 237 

in the spring of 1868 the newspapers generally remarked that 
the jails were filled with prisoners arrested by the military of- 
ficials who were still awaiting trial. Most of these were probably 
arrested under the Pope regime since Meade, his successor, was 
not so extreme. However, Pope, in spite of his threats, had but 
few persons tried by military commissions. D. C. Ballard was 
convicted of pretending to be a United States detective and of 
stealing ninety-five bales of cotton. He was sentenced to eight 
years' imprisonment.* One David J. Files was arrested for in- 
citing the Kelley riot at Mobile. Pope said he was the chief 
offender and had him imprisoned in Fort Morgan until he could 
be tried by a military commission. He was fined $100.* Wm. 
A. Castleberry was convicted by a military commission, fined 
$200 and imprisoned for one year for purchasing stolen property 
and for assisting a deserter to escape. Jesse Hays, a justice of 
the peace in Monroe County, was sentenced to five months im- 
prisonment and fined $100 for prescribing a punishment for a 
negro that could not be prescribed for a white, that is, fifty lashes. 
Matthew Anderson and John Middleton, who were tried for 
carrying out the sentence imposed on the negro, were acquitted.' 
These are all the cases that I have been able to find of trial of 
civilians by military commission under Pope. In one case there 
was an interference with the administration of justice. Daniel 
and James Cash had been indicted in Macon County for murder 
and had made bond. They were later indicted and arrested in 
Bullock County. Pope ordered that they be released and that 
all civil officials let them alone.* 

Registration and Disfranchisement. — But the prime object of 
Pope's administration was not merely to carry on the government 
in his military province but to see that the reconstruction was 
rushed through in the shortest possible time, and in the most 
thorough manner, according to the intentions of the Congres- 
sional leaders as he understood them. As already stated he had 

* G. O. No. 25, 3d M. D., 1867. 

"S. O. No. 53, 3d M. D., June 27, 1867. G. O. No. 44, 3d M. D., 
August I, 1867. Ho. Ex. Doc. No. 30, 40 Cong. 2 Sess. 

• G. O. No. 94, 3d M. D., 1867. 

*S. O. No. 96, 3d M. D., August 5, 1867. Ho. Ex. Doc. No. 30. 
40 Cong. 2 Sess. 

238 The American Historicai, Magazine. 

very clear ideas of what should be done and from the first was 
hampered by no doubts as to the limits of his power. The re- 
construction laws were given the broadest interpretation. In the 
liberal interpretation of his powers Pope was surpassed only by 
Sheridan in the Fifth District. 

A week after his arrival in Montgomery Pope directed Swayne 
to divide the State into registration districts. Army officers 
were to be used as registrars only when no civilians could be 
obtained. In order to encourage registration the registrars were 
to be paid in proportion to the number of voters registered. 
They were required to instruct all persons as to their political 
rights under the acts of Congress. General supervisors were to 
look after the working of the registration, and there was to be a 
general inspector at headquarters. Violence or threats of 
violence against registration officials would be punished by mili- 
tary commissions.^ May 21, 1867, the State was divided into 
forty-two (later forty-four) registration districts, so arranged 
as to make the most effective use of the black vote.* A board 
of registration for each district was appointed, each board con- 
sisting of two whites and one negro. Since each had to take the 
"ironclad" test oath, all native whites were practically excluded, 
those who were on the lists being men of doubtful character 
and no ability. There was a number of Northerners. For most 
of the districts the white registrars had to be imported. It is 
not saying much for the negro members to say that they were 
much the more able and respectable part of the boards of regis- 
tration.* Again it was stated that in order to secure full regis- 
tration, the compensation would be fixed at so much for each 
voter — fifteen to forty cents, the price varying according to 
density of population. Five to ten cents mileage was paid in 
order to enable the registrars to hunt up voters. . They were 

'G. O. No. 5, 3d M. D., April 8, 1867. 

* In this way, white majorities in ten counties were overcome by blade 
majorities in the adjoining counties of the district. 

*0f the registrars who later became somewhat prominent in politics, 
the whites were: Horton, Dimon, Dereen, Sillsby, Wm. M. Buckley, 
Stanwood, Ely, Pennington, Haughey — all being Northern men. Of the 
negro members of the boards: Royal, Finley, Williams, Alston, Turner, 
Rupier, King (or Godwin) rose to some prominence, and their records 
were much better than those of their white colleagues. 

Military Government in Alabama. 239 

directed to inform the negroes what their political rights were 
and how necessary it was for them to exercise those rights. 
Voters were to be registered in each precinct, and later, in order 
to register those missed the first time, the board was to sit, after 
due notice, for three days at each county seat. Any kind of inter- 
ference with registration, by threats or by contracts depriving 
laborer of pay, was to be punished by military commission. The 
right of every voter under the acts of Congress to register and 
to vote was guaranteed by the military. In case of disturbance 
the registrars were to call upon the civil officials or upon the 
nearest military authorities. If the former refused or failed to 
protect the registration they were to be punished by a military 
commission.* May i. Colonel James F. Meline was appointed 
inspector of registration for the Third Military District," and 
Wm. H. Smith was appointed general supervisor for Alabama.* 
Boards of registration were authorized to report cases of civil 
officials using their influence against reconstruction.* When a 
voter wished to remove from his precinct after registration he 
was to be given a certificate which would enable him to vote 
an)nvhere in the State. If he should lose this certificate, his 
own affidavit before any civil or military official would suf- 
fice to obtain a new certificate.'^ 

On the first of June Pope issued pamphlets containing instruc- 
tions to registrars which were especially definite as to those former 
State officials who should be excluded from registration. The 
list of those who were to be disfranchised included every one 
who had ever been a State, county or town official and later aided 
the Confederacy;* former members of the United States Con- 
gress, former United States officials, civil and military, members 
of State legislatures and of the convention of 1861 ; all officials 
of State, county and towns during the war; and finally judicial 

' G. O. No. 20, 3d M. D., May 21, 1867. 

* G. O. No. 12, 3d M. D., 1867. 

"Smith was later the first reconstruction governor of Alabama. 
*G. O. No. 41, 3d M. D., 1867. 

• G. O. No. 50, 3d M. D., August 15, 1867. 

"Governor, secretary of state, treasurer, comptroller, sheriff, judicial 
officers of every kind, and all court clerks and other officials, commission- 
ers, tax assessors and collectors, county surveyors, treasurers, mayor, 
councilmen, justices of the peace, solicitors. 

240 Thb American Historical Magazine. 

or administrative officials not named elsewhere.^ I fail to find 
that any officials were not excluded from registration except the 
keepers of poorhouses, coroners and health officers. Instruc- 
tions issued later practically repeated the first instructions and 
placed former officials of the Confederate States on the list. The 
registrars were reminded to enforce the disfranchising clauses 
of the acts both as to voters and candidates.* 

The stringent regulations of Pope caused much bitter com- 
ment and the Washington administration was besought to revoke 
the orders of Pope. Complaints were coming in from other dis- 
tricts, and on June i8, 1867, at a cabinet meeting the questions 
in controversy were brought up point by point and the cabinet 
passed its opinion on them. A strict interpretation of the re- 
construction acts was arrived at which was much more favorable 
toward the Southern people. Stanton alone voted against all 
interpretation favorable to the South. The interpretation of the 
acts thus obtained was issued as a circular, the opinion of the 
attorney-general, through the War Department and sent to the 
district commanders on June 20.' As soon as Pope received 
a copy of the opinion of the attorney-general he wrote to Grant 
protesting against the enforcement of the opinion as an order, 
so far as it related to registration. If enforced, his instructions 
to registrars would have to be revoked. According to all rules 
of military obedience it was his duty to consider the instructions 
sent him through the adjutant-general's office as binding, but he 
expressed doubt if it was to be considered as an order to him. 
Grant telegraphed to him to enforce his own construction of the 
acts until ordered to do otherwise.* 

In order to remove all doubt in the matter, Congress in the 
act of July 19, 1867, sustained Pope's interpretation of the acts 
and made it law. The construction placed upon the laws 
by the cabinet was directly repudiated, and officers acting: under 
the reconstruction acts were not to consider themselves bound 

* Special Instructions to Registrars in Alabama. Report of the Sec- 
retary of War, 1867, I, 339. 

'Registration Orders, June 17, 1867. 

•Record of Cabinet Meeting, June 18, 1867, in Ho. Ex. Doc. No. 34, 
40 C. I Sess. Burgess, 136. Ho. Ex. Doc. No. 20, 40 Cong, i Sess. 

*Ho. Ex. Doc. No. 20, 40 Cong, i Sess. McPherson, 311. 


by the opinion of any civil oflScer of the United States.^ This 
was aimed at the attorney-general and the cabinet. The law 
also gave the registrars full judicial powers to investigate the 
records of those who applied for registration. Witnesses might 
be examined touching the qualifications of othera. The boards 
were empowered to revise the lists of voters and to add to or 
strike from it such names as they thought ought to be added or 
removed. No pardon or amnesty by the President was to avail 
to remove disability.* 

The Elections and the Convention. — After the passage of this 
law it was smooth sailing for Pope. Registration went on with 
such success that on August 31 he was induced to order an elec- 
tion to be held on October i to 4 for the choice of delegates to a 
convention. An apportionment of delegates among the various 
districts was made at the same time. In the distribution the 
black counties were favored at the expense of the white counties.* 

The work of the registrars was thoroughly done. The negro 
enrollment was enormous ; the white enrollment was small. The 
r^stration of voters before the elections was : Whites, 61,295 ; 
blacks, 104,518; total, 165,813.* For the convention and for 
delegates 90,283 votes were cast. Of these 18,553 were those of 
whites and 71,730 were negro votes. Against holding a con- 
vention, 5,583 white votes were cast, and 69,947 registered voters 
failed to vote — ^37,159 whites and 32,788 blacks.* The names 
of the del^;ates chosen were published in general orders and the 
convention was ordered to meet in Montgomery on November 5.* 
During the session of the convention Pope took a rest from his 
labors and spent some time in Montgomery. He was a great 
favorite with the reconstructionists and was accorded special 

* McPherson, 335, 336. Burgess, 138-142. 
*McPhcrson, 335, 336. 

•G. O. No. 59^ 3d M. D., August 31. 1867. Journal of Convention 
of 1867, 3-5. Report of the Secretary of War, 1867, I, 356, 357. Tribune 
Ahnanac, 1868. 

* Sen. Ex. Doc. No. 53, 40 Cong. 2 Sess. Tribune Almanac, 1867, 1868. 
Report of Col. J. F. Meline, Inspector of Registration, January 27, 1868. 
These figures are based on the latest reports of 1867. According to the 
census of 1866. there would be in 1867 108,622 whites over twenty-one 
years of age, and 89,663 blacks. 

*MeIine's Report, January 27, 1868. 

•G. O. No. 76, October 18, 1867. Journal of Convention of 1867, pp. 1-3. 

242 Thb Ambrican Historical Magazine. 

honors by the convention. He did not think as highly of recon- 
structionists as when he first assumed command, and the antics 
of the "Black Crook" convention made him nervous. After a 
month's session he was glad to see it disband.^ 

One of the last important acts of Pope's administration was to 
order an election for February 4 and 5, 1868, when the Con- 
stitution should be submitted for ratification or rejection and 
when by his advice candidates for all offices were to be voted for. 
Two weeks beforehand the registrars were to revise their lists, 
adding and striking off such names as they saw fit. Polls were 
to be opened at such places as the board saw fit. Any voter might 
vote in any place to which he had removed by making affidavit 
before the board that he was registered and had not voted before.* 

Removal of Pope and Swayne. — Both Pope and Swayne had 
been charged with being desirous of representing the States of 
the Third Military District in the United States Senate. Pope 
had made himself obnoxious to the President, and the people also 
were demanding his removal. So, on December 28, 1867, an 
order was issued by the President relieving Pope and placing 
General Meade in command of the Third Military District. Gen- 
eral Swayne was at the same time ordered to rejoin his regiment,* 
and a few days later his place was taken by General Julius 
Hayden.* The people were greatly relieved and much pleased 
by the removal of Pope and Swayne. The former had become 
obnoxious on account of the extreme measures he had taken in 
carrying out the reconstruction acts, on account of his irritating 
proclamations, his attitude toward the press, etc. General 
Swayne had long enjoyed the confidence of the best men. His 

*McPherson, 319. Journal of Convention, 1867, no, in, 276. N. Y. 
World, December 14, 1867. 

Note. — ^yhen the Convention passed a resolution indorsing the "firm 
and impartial, yet just and gentle," administration of Pope, three dele- 
gates voted against it because they said Pope had not done his full duty 
in removing disloyal persons from office, but after being informed had 
left them in office. Journal of the Convention, 1867, no, in. 

*G. O. No. loi, December 20, 1867. McPherson, 319. Journal of 
Convention, 267. 

•The Forty-fifth United States Infantry, a negro regiment. 

* McPherson, 346. G. O. No. 104, H. Q. A. (A. G. O.), December 
28, 1867. G. O. No. I, 3rd M. D., January i, 1868. 

Military Government in Alabama. 243 

influence over the negroes was supreme and had been used to 
promote friendly relations between the races. But as soon as 
the reconstruction was taken charge of by Congress and party 
lines were drawn, all his influence, personal and official, was 
given to building up a ladical party in the State and to securing 
the negroes for that party. He was high in the councils of the 
Union League and controlled the conventions of the party. The 
change of rulers is said to have had a tranquilizing effect on 
disturbed conditions in Alabama.^ But the people of Alabama 
would have been pleased with no human being as military gov- 
ernor invested with absolute power. 


Registration and Elections, — On January 6, 1868, General 
Meade arrived in Atlanta and assumed command of the Third 
Military District.* His first and most important duty was to 
complete the military registration of voters and hold the election 
for the constitution and for officials under it. Registration had 
been going on regularly since the summer of 1867, and after the 
convention had adjourned there was a rush of whites to register 
in order to defeat the constitution by refraining from voting on 
it. As the time for the election drew near the friends of the 
reconstruction, much alarmed at the tactics of the conservative 
party, brought pressure to bear upon Grant, who suggested to 
Meade that an extension of time be made. Consequently, the 
time for the election was extended from two to five days in order 
to enable the remotest negro to be found and brought to the polls. 
At the same time the number of voting places was limited to 
three in each county.' 

General Meade was opposed to holding the election for State 
officials at the same time. He thought it would be difficult to 
carry the constitution on account of the proscriptive clauses in 
it, but in his opinion the candidates nominated by the convention 

'Herbert, Solid South. N. Y. Times, January 24, 1868. 

* G. O. No. 3, 3d M". D., January 6, 1868. 

•G. O. No. 16, 3d M. D., January 27, 1868. Annual .Cyclopedia, 1868, 
15. Report of Major-General Meade's Military Operations and Admin- 
istration of the 3rd M. D., etc. (pamphlet). N. Y. Times, January 24, 

244 '^^^ American Historical Magazine. 

were even more obnoxious to the people than tfie constitution, 
and many people would refram from voting on that account 
Swayne, who seems to have still been in Montgomery, admitted 
the force of the objection, but Grant objected to any change 
imtil too late.^ 

The election took place on February i to 5, and passed oflf widi- 
out any disorder. Meade reported that the charges of fraud 
made by the Radicals were groundless, aod that the constitution 
had been defeated on its merits, or rather demerits. Both the 
constitution and the candidates were obnoxious to a large num- 
ber of the friends of reconstruction. He reported that the con- 
stitution failed of ratification by 13,550 votes, and advised that 
the convention assembled again, revise the constitution of its pro- 
scriptive features, and again submit it to the pei^le.* But no one 
listened to his advice. 

Administration of Civil Affairs. — Pending the cecision of the 
Alabama question by Congress, Meade carried on the military 
government as usual. He thoroughly understood that his power 
was unlimited. No more than Pope did he allow the civil gov- 
ernment to stand in the way. There was, however, a vast dif- 
ference in the administrations of the two men. Meade was less 
given to issuing proclamations but was firmer and more strict. 
He was not under the influence of the Radical politicians in tfie 
slightest degree. He was abused by both sides, especially by the 
Radical adventurers. It was a thankless task for which he had 
no liking, but his duty was done in a soldierly manner, and his 
administration was probably the best that was possible. 

He made it clear to the civil authorities that he was the source 
of all power and that they were responsible to him and must 
obey all orders coming from him. If they refused, he promised 
trial by a military commission, fine and imprisonment. They 
must under no circumstances interfere, under color of State 

'Report of Meade, etc., 1868. Telegrams of Meade to Grant, January 
II, 12, 18, and of Grant to Meade, January 13, 18. 

'Report of Meade, etc, 1868. Herbert, Solid South, 48, 49. In his 
first report Meade estimated that the Constitution failed of rati- 
fication by 8,114 votes (Herbert, Solid South, 49). In his report it 
the end of the year, based on the official report of General Hay den, whidi 
was made a month after the election, he changed the number to 13,55a 

Military Govbrnmbnt in Alabama. 245 

authority, with the military administration. He had no admira- 
tion for the "loyal** element, and when a bill was before Con- 
gress providing that the oflScials of the civil government be re- 
quired to take the "ironclad" test oath or vacate their offices, 
Meade made a strong protest and declared that he could not 
fill half the offices with men who could take the test oath.^ 
After the February elections political influence was brought to 
bear to force Meade to vacate the offices of the civil government 
and to appoint certain individuals of the proper political beliefs. 
These persons voted for in the elections were clamorous for their 
places. Grant suggested that when appointments were made, the 
men recently voted for be put in. Meade resisted the pressure, 
made few changes, and these only after investigation. Removals 
were made for neglect of duty, malfeasance in office, refusing to 
obey orders, and "obstructing reconstruction." Many appoint- 
ments were made on account of the deaths, resignations, etc., 
of the civil officials." Few of the officials appointed by him could 
take the test oath, and he was much abused by the Radicals for 
saying that it would be impossible to fill half the offices with 
men who could take the oath. He was constantly besought to 
supersede the civil authority altogether, and rule only through 
the army. In this connection, he reported that he was greatly 
embarrassed by the want of judgment and of knowledge on the 
part of his subordinates and by the great desire of those who 
expected to profit from military intervention. So he issued an 
0''der informing the civil officials that as long as they performed 
their duties they would not be interfered with. The army officials 
were informed that they could in no case interfere with the civil 
administration before obtaining the consent of Meade. That the 
military were to act in subordination to and in aid of the civil 
authority f and that no soldiers or other persons were to be tried 

'G. O. No. 42, 3d M. D., March 12, 1868. McPherson, 320. Meade's 
Report, 1868. 

'In one case he reinstated Giarles R. Hubbard, Gerk of the District 
Court, who had been removed by Swayne. This was contrary to instruc- 
tions from the War Department, which forbade the reappointment of 
an officer who had been removed. Annual Cyclopedia, 1868, p. 15. 

♦Report of Meade, etc., 1868. G. O. 10, 3rd M. D., January 15, 1868. 

246 The American Historical Magazine. 

in court for acts done by military authority nor having charge 
of abandoned land or other property.^ 

Courts and Juries, — ^There was much disorder by thieves and 
roughs on the river boats during the spring of 1868. To facilitate 
trials of those law breakers, Meade directed that they be arrested 
and tried in any county in the State where found, before any 
tribunal having jurisdiction of such offences.^ 

The courts were not interfered with as imder Pope's rule. 
The judges continued to have white jurors chosen and the army 
officers, as a rule, approved. In one case, however, in Calhoun 
County, there was trouble. One Lieutenant Chas. T. Johnson, 
Fifteenth Infantry, attended the court presided over by Judge 
B. T. Pope. He found that no negroes were on the jury, and 
demanded that the judge order a mixed jury to be chosen. The 
judge declined to comply and Johnson at once arrested him. 
Johnson found that the clerk of the court did not agree with 
him and he arrested the clerk also. Pope was placed in jail 
until released by Meade.' The conduct of Johnson was con- 
demned in the strongest terms by Meade, who ordered him to be 
court-martialed. A general order was published reciting the facts 
of the case and expressing the severest censure of the conduct 
of Johnson. Meade informed the public generally that even had 
Judge Pope violated previous orders, Johnson had nothing to do 
in the case except to report to headquarters. Moreover, Johnson 
was wrong in holding that all juries had to be composed partly 
of blacks. This order stopped interference with the courts in 

Meade and the Newspapers, — Meade did not approve of Pope's 
policy toward newspapers, and on February 2, 1868, he issued 
an order stating that being satisfied that General Order No. 49 

*G. O. No. 7, January 11, 1868, republishing G. O. No. 3, War De- 
partment, 1866. 

*G. O. No. 47, 3d M. D.. March 21. 1868. 

•Pope was in feeble health, and this treatment hastened his death, 
which occurred shortly after being released from jail. Brewer, Alabama. 

. * G. O. No. 53, 3d M. D., April 7, 1868. N. Y. Herald, April i, 1868. 
Judge Pope was arrested for violatin*^ Pope's G. O. Nos. 53, 55, which 
certainly provided for mixed juries. Meade was simply putting his own 
interpretation on these orders. 

Military Government in Alabama. 247 

had in its operations proven embarrassing, it was, therefore, 
modified. In the future, official publication was to be prohibited 
to such papers only as might attempt to intimidate civil officials 
by threats of violence or prosecution, as soon as the troops were 
withdrawn, for acts performed in their official capacity. How- 
ever, if there was but one paper in the county, then it was to have 
the county printing regardless of its editorial opinions. "Op- 
position to reconstruction, when conducted in a legitimate man- 
ner, is," he said, "not to be considered an offence." Violent and 
incendiary articles, however, were to be considered an offense,^ 
and newspapers were warned to keep within the bounds of 
legitimate discussion. The Ku-Klux movement, especially 
after it was seen that Congress was going to admit the State, 
notwithstanding the defeat of the Constitution, gave Meade some 
trouble. Its notices were published in various papers, and Meade 
issued an order prohibiting this custom. The army officers were 
ordered to arrest and try offenders. Only one editor came to 
grief. Ryland Randolph, the editor of the Independent Monitor, 
of Tuscaloosa, was arrested by General Shepherd and his paper 
suppressed for a short time. After trial by a military commis- 
sion he was acquitted.^ 

The Freedmen. — General Meade was no negrophile, and hence 
under him there were no more long oration orders on the rights 
of "that large class of citizens heretofore excluded from the 
suffrage." He set himself resolutely against all attempts to stir 
up strife between the races and quietly reported at the time, and 
again a year later, that the stories of violence and intimidation, 
which Congress accepted without question, were without foun- 
dation. He ordered that in the State institutions for the deaf, 
dumb, blind and insane, the blacks should have the same priv- 
ileges as the whites. The law of the State allowed to the sheriffs 
for subsistence of prisoners, fifty cents a day for white and forty 

*G. O. No. 22, 3d Mu D., February 2, 1868. Report of Meade, etc., 

•Report of Meade, etc., 1868. Independent Monitor, April and May, 
1868. The Independent Monitor was a long-established and well-known 
weekly paper. F. A. P. Barnard, who was afterwards President of 
Columbia College, New York, was, when a professor at the University 
of Alabama, the editor of the Mbnitor, and under him it won a reputa- 
tion for spiciness which it did not lose under Randolph. 

248 Thb Ambrican Historical Magazine. 

cents a day for negro prisoners. Meade ordered that the fees 
be the same for both races, and that the same fare and acccMn- 
modations be given to both. Swayne had abolished the chain- 
gang system the year before because it chiefly affected n^^o 
offenders. Meade gave the civil authorities permission to restore 

Stay Laws. — The conventiai had passed ordinances which 
amounted to stay laws for the relief of debtors. In order to 
secure support for the constitution, these ordinances were to 
go into effect with the constitution. Complaint was made that 
creditors were expressing their debtors in order to secure pay- 
ment before the stay laws should go into effect. Though exposed 
in principle to such laws, Meade considered that under the cir- 
cumstances some relief was needed. The price of cotton was 
low and the forced sales were ruinous to the debtors and of little 
benefit to the creditors. Therefore, in January, he declared the 
ordinance in force to continue unless the constitution were 
adopted. A later order, in May, declared that the ordinance 
would be considered in force until revoked by himself.* 

Quarantine regulations were frequently issued from military 
headquarters. The law of the State permitting crippled Con- 
federate soldiers to peddle without paying taxes, was extended 
to include all crippled persons.' 

Trials by Military Commissions, — When the ghostly night 
riders of the Klan began to frighten the carpet-baggers and the 
negroes, Meade directed all officials, civil and military, to organize 
patrols to break up the secret organizations. Civil c^ficials neg- 
lecting to do so were held to be guilty of disobedience of orders. 
Where army officers raised posses to aid in maintaining the peace, 
the expenses were charged to the counties or towns where the 
disturbance occurred.* 

Nearly all prisoners arrested by the military authorities were 

'G. O. No. 3h February 28, 1868. G. O. 44» March 18. 1868. G. O. 
No. 69, April 24, 1868. McPherson, 320. Report of Meade, etc, i868w 

*G. O. No. 6, January 10, 1868. G. O. No. 79, May 20, 1868. Mc- 
Pherson, 320. Report of Meade, 1868. 

• G. O. No. 67, April 22, 1868. G. O. No. 81, May 22, 1868. 

* Report of Meade, 1868. 


turaed over to the civil courts for trial. Military commissions 
were frequently in session to try cases when it was believed the 
civil authorities would be influenced by local considerations. 
The following list of such trials is nearly complete : H. K. Quil- 
Ian, of Lee County, and Langdon EUlis, justice of the peace of 
Qiambers County, were tried for "obstructing reconstruction" 
and were acquitted; Richard Hall, of Hak County, tried for 
assault, was acquitted;^ Joseph B. F. Hill, Wm. Pettigrew, T. 
W. Roberts and James Steele, of Greene County, were sentenced 
to hard labor for five years, for "whipping a hog thief and threat- 
ening to ride him on a rail;" Samuel W. Dunlap, Wm. Pierce, 
Charles Coleman and John Kelley, implicated in the same case, 
were fined $500 each and sentenced to one year's imprisonment ; 
Frank H. Munday, Hugh L. White, John CuUen and Samuel 
Strayhom, charged with the same offense, were each fined $500 
and sentenced to hard labor for two years;* Ryland Randolph, 
editor of the Monitor, was tried for "obstructing reconstruction" 
in his paper and for nearly killing a negro, and was acquitted. 
During the trial Busteed granted a writ of habeas corpus and 
Meade and Grant both were prepared to submit to the decision of 
the court but Randolph wanted the military trial to go on.' 
Meade was much irritated by the careless conduct of officers 
in reporting cases for trial by military courts which were unable 
to stand the test of examination. After frequent failures to 
substantiate charges in cases sent up for trial, strict orders were 
issued that subordinate officials must exercise the greatest caution 
and care in preferring charges, and in all cases must state the 
reasons why the civil authorities could not act. Sworn state- 

*G. O. No. 6d, 3d M. D., April 19, 1868. Selma Times and Mes- 
senger, April 29, 1868. 

"These were the "Eutaw cases," and were tried at Selma. Meade 
commuted some of the sentences at once. The prisoners were sent to 
Dry Tortugas, and were later pardoned by Meade. The officials spoiled 
the eflFect of his leniency by putting the pardoned prisoners ashore at 
Galveston, Texas, without money and almost without clothes, while some 
of the party were ill. Annual Cyclopedia, 1868, 17. Selma Times and 
Messenger, May 5, 1868. N. Y. World, May 28, 1868. G. O. No. 80, 
3rd M. D., May 20, 1868. 

•Independent Monitor, April and May, 1868. Report of Meade, 1868. 
G. O. No. 78, 3rd M. D., May 13, 1868. 

250 The American Historical Magazine 

merits of witnesses must accompany the charges, and the accused 
must be given an opportunity to forward evidence in his favor.^ 

The Soldiers and the Citizens, — ^The troops in the State during 
1867 and 1868, though sadly demoralized as to discipline, gave 
the people little trouble except in the vicinity of the military posts. 
The records of the courts-martial would seem to show that the 
negroes were the greatest sufferers from the outrages of the 
common soldiers. The whites were irritated chiefly by the ar- 
rogant conduct of a few of the post commanders and their sub- 
ordinates. At Mount Vernon, Frederick B. Shepard, an old man, 
was arrested and carried before Captain Morris Schoff, who 
shot the unarmed prisoner as soon as he appeared. For this 
murder Schoff was court-martialed and imprisoned for ten years.* 
Johnson, the officer who arrested Judge Pope, was cordially 
hated in Middle Alabama for his brutal conduct. He arrested 
a negro who refused to vote for the constitution; in a quarrel 
he took the crutch of a cripple and struck him over the head with 
it; hung two large United States flags over the sidewalk of the 
main street in Tuscaloosa and when the school girls avoided 
walking under them, it being well understood that Johnson had 
placed them there to annoy the women, he stationed soldiers 
with bayonets to force the girls to pass under the flags. For his 
various misdeeds he was court-martialed by Meade.* 

Most of the soldiers had no love for the negroes, carpetbag- 
gers and scalawags, and at a Radical meeting in Montgomer\% 
the soldiers on duty at the capitol gave three groans for Grant, 
and three cheers for McClellan and Johnson. For this conduct 
they were strongly censured by Major Hartz and General Shep- 

* G. O. Nos. 64 and 65, 3d M. D.. April 19 and 20, 1868. 

Note, — During the €ight months of Meade's administration in the 
Third District, there were thirty-two trials by military commission in 
Georgia, Florida and Alabama. Only fifteen persons were convicted. 
The sentences in four cases were disapproved, in eight cases remitted, 
and two cases were referred to the President, leaving only one person 
confined in prison. Report of Meade, 1868. 

' Selma Messenger, October 25, 1867. 

* Montgomery Mail, June 17, 1868. Independent Monitor, June 16, 

* Annual Cyclopedia, 1868, 17. Montgomery Advertiser, June 5. 1868. 

Military Government in Alabama. 251 

The soldiers sent to Hale County knocked a carpet-bag Bureau 
Agent on the head, ducked a white teacher of a negro school in 
the creek, and cuffed the negroes about generally.^ 

From Martial Law to Carpetbag Rule. — The act providing for 
the admission of Alabama in spite of the defeat of the constitu- 
tion was passed June 25, 1868.^ Three days later Grant ordered 
Meade to appoint as provisional governor and lieutenant-governor 
those voted for in the February elections, and to remove the 
present incumbent.'^ So Smith and Applegate were appointed 
as governor and lieutenant-governor, their appointments to take 
effect on July 13, 1868, on which date the legislature said to 
have been elected in February was ordered to meet.* 

Until the State should comply with the requirements of the 
reconstruction acts all government and all officials were to be 
considered as provisional only. The governor was ordered to 
organize both houses of the legislature, and before proceeding 
to business beyond organization each house was required to 
purge itself of any members who were disqualified by the Four- 
teenth Amendment."^ A few days later, Congress having ad- 
mitted the State to representation, Meade ordered all civil officials 
holding under the provisional civil government to yield to their 
duly elected successors. The military commander in Alabama 
was directed to transfer all property and papers pertaining to the 
government of the State to the proper civil authorities and for 
the future to abstain from any interference or control over 
civil affairs. Prisoners held for offences against the civil law 
were ordered to be delivered to State officials.^ This was, in 
theory, the end of military government in Alabama, though, in 
fact, the army merely retired into the background to remain for 
six years longer the support and mainstay of the so-called civil 

• Ku-Klux report. Alabama testimony, 1285- 1286. 

• Mlcf'herson, 337, 

• Report of Meade, 1868. 

*G. O. No. 91, 3d M. D., June 28, 1868. 

• G. O. No. 100, July 9, 1868. 
•G. O. No. loi, July 14, 1868. 

^The volume of orders numbered 598 in the Adjutant-general's 
office at Washington contains the General Orders of the Third Military 
District Volume 599 relates to civil affairs in the same district. 

252 The Ambkican Historical Magazinb. 

The rule of the army had been intensely galling to the people, 
but it was infinitely preferable to the regime which followed, and 
there was general regret when the army gave way to the carpet- 
bag government. In January, 1868, a day of fasting and prayer 
was observed for the deliverance of the State from the rule of 
the negro and the alien. 

** Watauga Old Fields/' 253 


By N. E. Hyder, Elizabethton, Tennessee. 

"Watauga Old Fields," Carter County, Tennessee, made fam- 
ous as being the first permanent settlement of the Anglo-Saxon 
race west of the Allegheny Mountains ; the place where the first 
self-constituted court of five was organized and exercised its 
power; where the first courthouse and jail were erected, and 
the rendezvous at Sycamore Shoals of the heroes of King's 
Mountain, has a history that antedates all this by perhaps thou- 
sands of years. Judge Andrew Greer, an Indian trader and the 
first settler in these "Old Fields" (attracted by their beauty and 
fertility), asked the Cherokee chiefs about them and was told 
that they were always there." They had neither knowledge nor 
tradition of when or by whom they had been occupied. It is 
the intention of this paper to record a few things concerning 
these "Old Fields" and their inhabitants as gathered by per- 
sonal observation and investigation. The land embraced in and 
surrounding the "Watauga Old Fields" is as old as any in the 
United States as evidenced by forests of fir, pine, stunted oak 
and tamarack such as are now found in latitudes much farther 
north. Petrified wood is found in abundance. Through these 
forests must have roamed the reindeer and elk. 

That it was inhabited at a very early period is proven by the 
stone tools, ornaments and w-eapons both of the paleolithic and 
neolithic ages. The "Watauga Old Fields" proper extended 
from the mouth of Stony Creek down the river to the mouth 
of Buffalo Creek at the bend of the river, about eight miles. And 
wherever there was a level or bottom piece of land along any 
river or creek in Carter County, there was an old field or deserted 
village, as proven by findmg stone implements, broken pottery 
or kitchen-middens and stone mills of various sizes from one- 
half bushel down to one-half pint. A large cemetery was known 
to be about one-half mile northeast of Elizabethton from which 
had been taken beads, stone axes, arrow points, pottery (whole) 

254 The American Historical Magazine. 

and a few copper implements. But the high water of 1901 ex- 
posed other cemeteries in these "Old Fields" with like deposits 
in them and rough stone knives, or scrapers, "pear shaped." Two 
peculiar stones have been found, one a rough sandstone about 
twenty inches long and five inches in diameter with a groove 
around the center polished like the groove around the stone 
axe; the other is the tool that was used in cutting these 
grooves and polishing stone implements of utility, war 
and ornament. It is in the shape of a common oil stone 
used by carpenters to sharpen their plane bits and other tools 
and is about six inches long by three-fourths of an inch thick 
and so hard that tempered steel will scarcely scratch it. From 
the careful burial of their dead we are led to believe that they 
had knowledge of the Oriental world either through history 
or tradition, for in all Oriental countries peculiar honors have 
always been paid to the remains of the dead. These graves that 
have been washed open in the "Watauga Old Fields" where 
tradition made no mention of a grave have all been placed east 
and west, a perpetual monument to Masonic integrity. Their 
burial custom according to Masonic usage shows that they 
were civilized and practiced the ancient and "mystic rites" of 
the Masonic order. In these graves are found clay coffins near- 
ly two inches thick and curved to fit the dead body (many frag- 
ments as large as the hand are yet to be seen). From the 
depth of the implements, pieces of bone and clay coffins we infer 
that the dead body was placed near the surface of the earth 
and the coffin constructed around and over them either of moist- 
ened or baked clay and then mounded with dirt or sand. 

There is no evidence here of forts, houses or places of wor- 
ship. Ashes and coal have been dug out several feet below the 
surface of the earth. That the country was densely populated 
is proven by the number of these "Old Fields" and the large 
cemeteries already exposed. That they were an agricultural 
race is shown by the "Old Fields" themselves and the rude im- 
plements of husbandry found. The inhabitants are industrious 
for they had the rough implements and material of nearly every 
craft of ancient times. That they were warlike is shown by 
their weapons. That they had tribal organization is shown by 

'* Watauga Old Fields." 255 

the large cemeteries. A few tumuli foimd in the gaps of the 
higher mountains show that they were superstitious. Who they 
were and from whence they came and what became of them 
will perhaps remain a mystery — for all ages to come. They 
are as completely lost as the "lost tribes of the children of Israel" 
unless they are a part of these tribes. Reasoning from his gre- 
garious customs, implements of husbandry, pottery, etc., we may 
connect him with either the Incas of South America, the Toltecs 
of Central America or the Aztecs of Mexico. This is a reason- 
able inference, but not conclusive. Whether he was a white or 
a colored man is a matter of mere conjecture. 

Whether the paleolithic man was driven out by the neolithic 
man or each absorbed or exterminated by the other is a matter 
for future investigation, but that each existed here is as clearly 
proven from the age of the land and remains found as any 
archaeological fact can be. 

256 The American Historical Magazine. 


[The family to which General Richard G. Dunlap belonged was one 
of the most noted in the early history of Tennessee. The father, Hugh 
Dunlap, was a native of Ireland, and was one of the pioneer settlers of 
Knoxville. In 1794 he married Susannah Gilham, of Virginia, who bore 
him fifteen children. The brothers of General R. G. Dunlap were: Wil- 
liam C. Dunlap, of Bolivar, Judge and Congressman, and his twin brother. 
General Hugh Dunlap, of Louisiana; James T. Ehinlap, of Nashville, 
Comptroller of the Treasury of Tennessee; General John H. Dunlap, of 
Paris, and Ripley Dunlap, of Humboldt. 

General R. G. Dunlap was the first white child bom in Knoxville. He 
was educated in East Tennessee schools by Professor S. G. Ramsey and 
Rev. Isaac Anderson; served in the War of 1812, and the Seminole 
campaign in Florida in 1817; was a member of the Tennessee Legislature, 
representing the counties of Knox and Anderson, in 1829-31. He re- 
moved to Texas, and was a member of the Cabinet of President Lamar, 
Secretary of War, and Minister from the Republic of Texas to the 
United States. He died in New Orleans in 1841. 

General Brady was several times a representative in the General As- 
sembly of Tennessee from Rutherford County.] 


I write this not from vanity but for my family and friends. 

In December, 1817, I was with my father in Middle Tennessee, 
when I heard that General Jackson was then on the eve of leav- 
ing Nashville to take command of the Southern army and carry 
on the war against the Seminole Indians in Florida. I insisted on 
going forthwith to Nashville and joining the General's life guard, 
being then just grown and not having yet commenced the study 
of my profession. My father said: "My son, you go home 
and raise a company and overtake General Jackson's army ; this 
will give you more power to do good to your country than to 
be a mere life g^ard. And moreover, the life guards rarely 
ever have an opportunity to distinguish themselves and I know 
you will not like the place. Return home and I will help you 
raise a company, which will give you an opportunity to show 
your merit as a soldier and officer. We left your mother in bad 
health and she will be unhappy to hear that you have gone 
among strangers. She will no doubt ag^ee that you should serve 
your country with neighbors and friends as companions and 

Duni<ap-Brady Corrbspondbncs. 257 

allow at least dne of your brothers to go with you." When I 
passed through Nashville the General was gone. I applied to 
Colonel Williamson, one of his old and valiant colonels, who 
gave me an order to raise a company. The day of the first 
rendezvous of the company at Kingston I was afraid that my 
youth would defeat the enterprise and Went to two gentlemen 
and offered not to oppose them if they would agree to join and 
head the company. They refused, as no call had been made on 
East Tennessee by General Jackson. This produced much un- 
easiness among the soldiers, as they were told that I was too 
young and hot-headed and that the General would not receive 
them. I paraded the men, told them what I had offered the gen- 
tlemen, that I would hold an election for every officer in the com- 
pany, that if any gentleman who had the character of an officer 
would say that he would serve as captain, I would not oppose 
him but would vote for him. I was the only one voted for as 
captain and the other officers were elected. The same evening 
I called them together and told them what I would do as their 
captain, that I would defend their rights but they must and 
should obey me, that we were then about entering into a proud 
service and that obedience was necessary and due. I presented 
to them as well as my youth and inexperience would allow, the 
glories and honors awaiting the faithful discharge of the soldiers* 

Envious persons clandestinely excited in their minds the fear 
that I would be cruel and tyrannical, as I had never had muth 
to do with the people. They clustered around in the tavern and 
commenced with their tales of fear, both as to my conduct and 
the probability of being rejected by General Jackson. I tried 
to appease them arid demanded the names of these envious par- 
ties. I became enraged and in the presence of the troop, tore 
the muster roll in pieces, saying, "I want no timid or reluctant 
soldiers — you are released from your voluntary enrollment: I 
then said, "On this night I camp on General Brown's old field 
and will remain there alone until this day week, when I shall 
set out to meet the army alone ;" and invited all cowards to go 
home and soldiers who did not fight for pay to join and march 
with me to the army and aid to redress our country's wrongs. 

258 The American Historical Magazine. 

Seven of the company marched with me to the place of encamp- 
ment and there remained a week. On this day I had a genteel 
company. As I was leaving town, Governor McMinn, at my 
request, addressed the company and gave me a letter to General 
Jackson. After this, had I remained a week, I could have raised 
a regiment. Mr. Samuel Martin and Mr. Gideon Morgan, mer- 
chants, both opened their purses and stores to me and took orders 
on the Government, which were promptly paid. 

"Representative Hall, Nashville, January 13, 1830. 

"Dear Sir : This will be handed to you by my friend, General 
(Richard) Cheatham, and I hope you will give me a speedy re- 
ply, as our labors are about to close and we will again be separated 
by a return to our homes. 

"In 1818, I commanded a company of East Tennessee volun- 
teers during the Florida campaign, as you will remember, as 
you were the adjutant of the regiment to which I belonged and 
at the close of the campaign commanded as Lieutenant-Colonel. 
You commanded the detachment ordered from the first regiment 
at the battle of Barancaz. You were present when I volunteered 
myself and company to meet the enemy, and heard our gallant 
and lamented Colonel Dyer give me the right of battalion, with 
the emphatic language that when his soldiers wished for the 
dangers of battle, he would never withhold from them the oppor- 
tunity to prove their valor. I marched at the head of the bat- 
talion to the scene of action, with you at my side. After twenty- 
four hours the battle was over, we returned for food and rest, 
with victory to the army. The next morning you came to my 
quarters and informed me, that as commander of the detach- 
ment, you had made a report of my conduct to General Jackson, 
and in the kindness of your heart, said I had gained immortal 
honor and would be distinguished in the official report. You 
said you had informed General Jackson that we would have been 
driven from the field, disgraced, had it not been for my prompt- 
ness and energy. I replied that I felt very grateful for your 
good opinion but I thought your kindness was disposed to do 
me over justice. I said, 'Colonel Brady, I want no single honors 
but it would be very gratifying to have my company distin- 

Dunlap-Brady Correspondence. 259 

guished, as they met every danger like true soldiers/ You re- 
plied, as I recollect, that you had given them due credit as they 
deserved. I informed my soldiers of your flattering report and 
they went home speaking of the matter, more to my praise, 
perhaps from what you said, than from the merits of my con- 
duct. But when I saw the report, no name from the detachment 
under your command was mentioned. The hopes of a youthful 
soldier were blighted and my conjectures were consequently not 
favorable to you. In May, 1826, I visited General Jackson and 
during my stay informed the General of what you had informed 
me you had reported to him. I told the General that I wanted 
no honors at this distant day for my past conduct, but that I 
had a right to the truth. He said he had no recollection that 
you had ever mentioned my name to him and further said, that 
until his return to Nashville did he know that I commanded a 
company in said detachment, that his aide. Colonel Gadsden, then 
informed him that injustice had been done me. I have given 
you in a hasty manner the facts and hope that you will be good 
enough to give me a candid and prompt reply through my friend. 
This course is as much due to yourself as to me. I care but lit- 
tle at this day for the honor that has passed away but I want 
the truth or an explanation. 

"I am very respectfully yours, 
"General William Brady. R. G. Dunlap." 

Murfreesboro, October 10, 1830. 
"Dear Sir: Your letter of the 15th of January, 1830, at the 
close of the session of the Legislature would have been answered 
sooner, but the hurry and bustle incident upon such occasions 
rendered it inconvenient at that time. After my return to 
Rutherford, I searched among my papers for your letter and could 
not find it. I have since discovered that I left it in one of the 
drawers of the table in the Representative Hall with other papers 
of much importance. The letter is now before me and it is a 
source of regret that so much delay has taken place in the ex- 
planation of a matter which only requires to be told to be under- 
stood. You commanded a company as stated in the Florida 
campaign, and so far as your individual conduct or that of your 

26o The American Historical Magazine. 

officers or soldiers under your command came Within my cog- 
nizance, it was deserving of praise. I Was adjutant of the first 
regiment to which your company was attached and lastly com- 
manded as Lieutenant-Colonel, and therefore opportunity was 
offered me of observing the deportment of officers and men be- 
longing to the regim«it. At the particular point to which your 
letter more immediately refers, Barancaz, I have a distinct recol- 
lection of the occurrence on that occasion. A detachment was 
ordered from the first regiment comrtianded by Colonel Dyer 
to be put in readiness to attack the fort at its lower or southern 
angle. Dyer did not select for the service any particular portion 
of his command but called for volunteers. I believe the whole 
regiment would have marched to the front, had so many been 
wanted. I well recollect you not only volunteering yourself and 
company, but soliciting as a special favor the post of responsi- 
bility and danger in the contemplated assault. It was granted 
to you with marks of pride and feeling for your patriotism. Wc 
went to Barancaz and so far as I observed or was advised, all 
did their duty, and I well recollect that I then told you that your 
command had signalized themselves and that I should mention 
you favorably to the commanding general ; this I did on the next 
day after our return to the encampment, in as strong or stronger 
terms than you have repeated them in your letter. I could have 
no riiotive in withholding merited praise from any individual 
associated on that occasion. By a recurrence to the official re- 
port, detailing the movements of the troops under General Jack- 
son in that period, it will be seen that but a passing notice is 
taken of the affair of the Barancaz, and if I am not mistaken, 
the names of but two individuals are spoken of in connection 
with the transaction — Captains Gadsden and Call ; from the tenor 
of the report I presume that the General did not think the affair 
of great moment, however deserving the conduct of individuals 
in achieving the surrender. The subject being military, I have 
spoken with the frankness of a soldier and trust it will be satis- 
factory. With considerations of highest respect. 

"Yours Ob't. 

"William Brady." 

Dunlap-Brady Correspondence. 261 

"Nashville, September 6, 1832. 
"Dear Sir: Our mutual friend, Judge (Hugh L.) White, 
will hand you copy of my letter to General Brady, stating the 
substance of what passed between him and myself the morning 
after the surrender of Fort Barancaz. In this you will see that 
I gave the substance of a conversation between you and myself 
in 1826, while I was on a visit to the Hermitage. I enclose you 
^Iso General B's answer. I informed him that at some suit- 
able time I intended to lay before him a copy of my letter and 
his answer. I am aware that this may seem a small matter, yet as 
the only East Tennessee company in the Seminole campaign 
in 1818 was commanded by me, I deem it due them that the 
aifair be fairly adjusted by their commanding general. I am 
urged more to this from the fact that my company performed 
most of the work during the siege of the fort, the circumstances 
of which I have detailed to Judge White. I forbear to detail 
them to you as I am so connected with the circumstances that 
a relation of all the facts would force an appearance of egotism 
or desire to attain praise. My command, I know, prevented the 
detachment from being unprepared to meet the artillery of the 
enemy after the dawn of day. We erected the battery during 
the night, under the sounds of the cannon, as you know, and 
we remained on the ground twenty-four hours without food or 
water. When we returned to the army, we carried the news of 
the surrender of the fort. Small as the affair may seem to one 
whose military career has been marked by such a brilliant scene 
of conquest and glory, as has fallen to your happy fortune, 
ought I not, nevertheless, to see that my soldiers who were my 
neighbors and friends, shall have justice? This is all I ask and 
I ask nothing less. 

'*I am very respectfully your friend, 


"General Jackson, President United States, Nashville." 

262 Thk American Historical Magazine. 



[The following paper was prepared with much care by the late Judge 
Nathaniel Baxter, for the Round Table, a journal of high literary order 
established in Nashville in February, 1890. The Round Table was not a 
business success, and suspended publication before the appearance of 
Judge Baxter's contribution. After the discontinuance of the Round 
Table, Judge Baxter's article appeared in a local paper of very limited 
circulation, a copy of which could hardly be found now. We reproduce 
it here because of its great historic interest, being written by a man who 
was the contemporary and peer of the great men about whom he wrote. 
Moreover, his description of Governor Polk is a fitting introduction to 
his executive correspondence, published in this issue.] 

You ask me to give you some reminiscences of lawyers when 
fl first came to the bar. The request may be an ungenerous 
method of yours to prove by me perhaps what it would be diffi- 
cult to prove by any one else, and that is, my age. But what- 
ever the motive, I do not object occasionally to recall the recol- 
lections of those by-gone days and by-gone friends. 

In the years 1836 and 1837, I was a student at law under 
Judge Edmund Dillahunty near Columbia, and it was there and 
then, I made my first acquaintance with lawyers and legal pro- 
ceedings. ,At that time the population of Columbia, I presume, 
did not exceed fifteen hundred or two thousand souls. The 
Columbia bar was then an ornament to the state and in all my 
subsequent experience, I have never found so many lawyers of 
equal ability in any village of the same size. And never have I 
found a Bar anywhere that surpassed it for high toned honor 
and integrity. 

In 1836-7, the Columbia Bar included the following members 
on its roll : 

James K. Polk, afterwards President of the United States. 

A. O. P. Nicholson, afterwards Senator in Congress and Chief 
Justice of the Supreme Court of Tennessee. 

Gideon J. Pillow, afterwards Major General in the United 
States army of volunteers in the war with Mexico. 

Reminiscences. 263 

Terry H. Cahal, member of the Constitutional ConveAtion 
of 1834, and afterwards Chancellor. 

Samuel Davis Frierson, Chancellor. 

James H. Thomas, afterwards member of Congress for two 
or three terms. 

Barkley Martin, member of Congress for a like period of time. 

William P. Miller, afterwards Circuit Judge. 

Edmund Dillahunty, Circuit Judge. 

William H. Polk, afterwards charge d'affaires to Naples, Mex- 
ican Commissioner and member of Congress. 

John H. Dew, who served several times in the Legislature. 

Robert L. Cobbs, author of Haywood and Cobbs* Revisal of 
the Laws of Tennessee. 

Russell Houston, afterwards a resident of Nashville and mem- 
ber of the Legislature from Davidson County and still later a 
resident of Louisville, Ky., and Attomey-in-Chief for the L. 
& N. R. R. Co., which position he still retains. 

This list does not include a brood of law students and young- 
sters then pressing the shell but not yet hatched or fledged, who 
afterwards developed into ornaments to their profession. 

Mr. Polk was not eminently distinguished for his legal at- 
tainments, not for want of natural ability but because his popu- 
lar manners made the temptation to enter the field of politics 
irresistible to so young a man, and once in the maelstrom, there 
was no escape — politics was his destiny and the legal profession 
was measurably abandoned. 

From his first entrance into politics in the year — he never was 
out until his Presidential term expired except the four years 
that James C. Jones was governor, that is, from 1841 until he 
was elected President in 1844. 

I first saw Colonel Polk in 1832, in the afternoon of a hot 
sultry day, in Franklin. It was at a house there known as 
"Robertson's Tavern" — afterwards, and for many years known 
as "Ravishes Hotel." On the front of the tavern was a long 
piazza, perhaps fifty feet in length. Colonel Polk was walking 
to and fro, apparently absorbed in thought, when presently a 
travel-worn, dust covered gentleman rode up on horseback, with 
an umbrella over him, and a pair of saddle-bags under him. 

264 The American Historical Magazinb. 

He let down his umbrella and dismounted at a "hitching post" 
that stood in front of the tavern — hitched his horse, took off 
his saddle-bags, and walked into the piazza without ceremony. 
Colonel Polk met him, offered him his hs^nd and with a smile 
looked him in the face with an expression of uncertainty and 
inquiry which seemed to ask the question, "Am I mistaken?" 
The traveler returned the gaze, with the reply, "You are mis- 
taken. You don't know me." Said Colonel Polk, "I was in doubt. 
Sir, until you spoke; but now I am sure I know you — this is 
Colonel Holman, of Lincoln County." "That is my name," re- 
plied the traveler, "and I can tell you the time, place and cir- 
cumstance of our first and only meeting that I now recall." He 
then proceeded to mention the time, place and occasion, which 
was at a Fourth of July barbecue, somewhere, I think, in Lincoln 
County, and mentioned a conversation they had on that occa- 
sion. They then reckoned the time that had elapsed, and it had 
been ten years. Colonel Holman then said, "I have seen you 
Colonel Polk, and heard you speak twice since then, but had no 
conversation with you on either occasion, and I am sure you 
did not know that I was one of your auditors, either time. You 
must have a most remarkable memory." To which Colonel 
Polk made this reply: "Colonel Holman, I don't think I was 
ever introduced to a man and talked with him ten minutes, that 
I ever afterwards forgot him." 

He was then 37 or 38 years old. His person was handsome 
and attractive. From memory I should guess he was about five 
feet, ten inches, erect :n his carriage, symmetrical in form, ex- 
cellent constitution, with unusual muscular strength and activ- 
ity, with great capacity for physical labor and endurance. I 
should judge him to have weighed 155 or 160 pounds. His hair 
was coal black, the complexion a little dark, with a keen pair 
of steel grey eyes, set well back in his head. His mouth was 
handsome and expressive, his lips were neither thick nor thin, 
but inclined to thin. He never wore beard. His forehead was 
rather broad than high. There was no surplus flesh about his 
face nor any want of flesh. His chin was well proportioned 
with his face. The whole face, taken together, was clear cut, 

Rbminisc^nces. 265 

flexible and' expressive, with aristocratic consciousness of su- 
periority to the common mass. He dressed well. 

The first time I ever heard him spealc was in 1834. It was 
at the viils^ge of Moor^vill^, then in Maury County, now in 
Marshall Judge Grundy spoke on the same occasion. 

Colonel Polk's speech was mainly in defense of General Jack- 
son's policy in regard to what was known in that day as the 
"French Indemnity" question. During the Napoleonic wars, 
the French had depredated upon American commerce and in 
violation of the laws of nations, for which the French Govern- 
ment conceded its liability to make reparation but did not con- 
cede the amoqnt claimed by the United States, and up to that 
time the United States Government had never been able to get 
a settlement and payment of what was due. General Jackson 
determined to have it settled and paid. France continued to 
interpose one dilatory plea after another until General Jackson 
lost patience and in a message to Congress on the subject, used 
some threatening language toward France at which France 
flashed up and displayed a good deal of temper, and for a time 
it looked very much as if we might have war. 

The political enemies of General Jackson took sides with the 
French and greatly abused General Jackson for what they styled 
a g^oss breach of international courtesy and an uncalled-for of- 
fense to the honor and pride of a gallant nation who had been 
our best friends in the days of our greatest trouble. Such denun- 
ciations had been so thundered into the ears of the people by 
the orators and newspapers of the day opposed to General Jack- 
son, that quite an excitement had been gotten up against him, 
and the object of Colonel Polk and Judge Grundy on that occa- 
sion, was to present the historical facts to the people and justify 
the course of General Jackson. 

The schoolboys had got to discussing the subject in their de- 
bating clubs in Columbia and one of them had gone so far as 
to say he hoped that if war did result from General Jackson's 
policy, the first ball fired from a French cannon might strike 
General Jackson's head and cut it off close to his shoulders. 
Colonel Polk, referring to this speech said: "Do you know, gen- 
tlemen, what I think ought to be done with a boy who would utter 

266 The American Historical Magazine. 

such a sentiment against that brave old Hero and Patriot, who 
stood like a wall of fire when England hurled her avalanche of 
brutal myrmidons upon the ramparts of New Orleans, yelling 
like demons, their beastly watchword — "Beauty and Booty," 
and when the lives and honors of our fair women had no shelter 
from the storm but his gallant heart, his wise head, his strong 
arm and indomitable courage? I don't know how other fathers 
feel, but if I had a boy, and he were to utter such a sentiment, 
I think I should take him out behind the house after dark and 
I would anoint him with hickory oil and rub it in until it pro- 
duced such a glow that he would feel all next day like he had 
been sitting on an oven lid heated to a cherry red." 

His style of oratory was peculiarly his own. It was singu- 
larly popular. It was sufficiently grave and dignified to meet 
the demand of the cultured and refined. It was sufficiently wag- 
gish and humorous to bring the shouts and huzzas from the 
"wool hat b'hoys." There was something in his manner and de- 
livery that suggested the idea of labor, effort, power — of a giant 
defending himself against the onslaught of a thousand assail- 
ants, deliberate yet vehement, and he won the sympathy of his 
auditors by the gallantry and strength with which he downed 
each foeman with whom he grappled. He was a tribune, and 
his style, forensic. His gestures, though not too frequent, were 
vigorous and nervous, and though not theatrical in the ordinary 
sense of that term, yet the features were exceedingly flexible, 
and he often expressed more with his eyes and the contortions 
of his face, than he uttered with his tongue. His innuendoes 
expressed more than he uttered. His powers of ridicule were 
prominent, and but few men excelled him in the art. His anec- 
dotes were sufficiently numerous and always well selected and 
happily applied as well to the subject as to the audience. He 
was not very imaginative. He generally kept below the clouds. 
He seldom indulged in flowers of speech but sometimes he did, 
and in my boyhood days, I thought some of them were grand 
and sublime. And so did the crowd to whom they were ad- 
dressed. It was a promiscuous crowd. One of them so im- 
pressed me with its sublimity, I have never forgotten it. He 
was defending General Jackson against his wicked maligners 

Reminiscences . 267 

and wound up his defense with a glowing eulogy upon his char- 
acter and the heroic service he had rendered his country, and 
when he came to speak of the battle of New Orleans, he said — 
"he grappled with the British lion on the plains of New Orleans 
and when he rose victorious from the bloody field, he shook 
from his gory locks the blood of his country's enemies." The 
discription may seem unique but expressed with his peculiar 
emphasis and manner, it made the groundlings howl. It was 
the proper thing to say to those to whom it was addressed. 

There was much sameness in Mr. Polk's speeches during the 
years I used to hear him, that is from 1834 to 1844. It was 
mostly during the formation period of the old Whig party in 
Tennessee, and embraced the period when John Bell, Hugh L. 
White and other leading politicians in Tennessee, split off from 
General Jackson and refused to support Mr. Van Buren. I 
don't know, but I don't believe Mr. Van Buren was a great 
favorite with Mr. Polk. In this conjecture, however, I may do 
him injustice, for I was not in Mr. Polk's political confidence 
and never knew anything of his views, either of men or measures, 
beyond what he proclaimed from the housetops, or at least from 
the stump, or through the newspapers. 

But Mr. Polk was a partisan in politics, was a Democrat and 
a member of the Democratic party, and nothing but treason to 
his country could ever have shaken his loyalty to his party ; and 
without stopping to weigh the consequence to his future fort- 
unes, he threw himself into the breach, ranged himself by the 
side of General Jackson and hoisted the Van Buren flag and 
fought the battle most gallantly. In his speeches, he dealt but 
little in the abstract, philosophy or in explaining the reason 
which led through settled principles from cause to effect. In 
gliding a constituency of plain, uncultured men, he found it 
much more easy to reach their hearts than their heads. If a 
measure was obnoxious to him and he desired to defeat it, he 
always felt sure of his game, if he could connect it with some 
man or political party who had already become odious to his 
constituents. And vice versa, if he desired to sustain a meas- 
ure, he would if possible, connect it in some way with some man 
or party known to be popular with his constituents. Hence, 

268 The American Historical Magazine. 

in fighting the uprising Whig pj^rty of that day, he sought to 
connect it with the Old Blue Light Federal party that became 
so odious during the war of 1812 and whose infamy had been 
kept fresh and green in the memory of his constituency; and 
contrasted the Democratic party by associating it with General 
Jackson who had vs^nquished the British Lion and whom they 
all knew and worshipped and with Thomas Jefferson who had 
vanquished the Federalist party and Aaron Burr, and drove them 
from the councils of the nation into the shadows of shame and 

He would then go back to Alexander Hamilton and enlarge 
upon his idea of royalty and strong government. From Hamil- 
ton's head he would step over Washington's in silence on to the 
head of John Adams the elder, and expatiate upon the alien and 
sedition laws of his administration. From Adams the elder, 
he would pay his respects to the Hartford Convention ; he would 
then leap over to John Q. Adams, the son of the old autocrat, 
and then dwell upon the '^bargaining, intrigue and corruption," 
between him and Henry Clay by which General Jackson had 
been cheated out of the Presidency and their people out of their 

And then there was Henry Clay, the head and leader of the 
Whig party, which fixed the descent of the new light Whig party 
by direct line from the Old Blue Light Federal Party. This 
was the skeleton sketch of the pedigree of the new Whig party; 
but the skeleton of the family tree was filled out with collateral 
branches of abolitionists like clusters of grapes overhanging the 
whole tree — and what true Southern man could afford to be found 
in company with such a family ? 

After thus paying his respects to the Whig party, he would 
then turn to his "labor of love" and deraign the Democratic 
party from Thomas Jefferson, through Madison, Monroe and 
down to Jackson, the Ajax of all that was great and good. His 
eulogy upon Jackson was the conclusion of his speech. This 
was the general tenor of every speech I ever heard him make, 
from the first outcropping of the Whig party down to his elec- 
tion to the Presidency. True he would sometimes spice it with 
a short discussion of the tariff, then again with a discussion of 

Reminiscences. 269 

the United States Bank, or sometimes with the Sub-treasury 
and other political topics of the day. But I don't think he ever 
neglected to deraigti the pedigree of the Whig party. 

But notwithstahdihg his speeches were, to some extent, "a 
twice told tale," they were so spiced with sarcasm, anecdote, 
wit, humor and manner and the undefinable magnetism of the 
man, if you ever came within sight of him and in hearing of 
his voice, you could never leave until he finished, and this, 
whether you were Whig or Democrat. 

James C. Jones was greatly admired as a stump speaker, and 
certainly he had but few superiors, but to an intelligent and 
cultivated audience, his speeches compared to Mr. Polk's like 
the cheap tinsel of an actress' stage costume to the royal robes 
of the legitimate Queen. Jones excelled him in repartee — he 
excelled all the men I ever heard. In anecdote he was fully Mr. 
Polk's equal, if not his superior. But when he came to the dis- 
cussion of subjects requiring general intelligence and accurate 
historical information, he was deficient in quality and it was 
manifest, that what he had, had been newly and imperfectly ac- 
quired — in other words, he spoke as if he had crammed for the 

Nor yet was Mr. Polk distinguished for his intelligence except 
ih the political history of the United States. In that, he had 
few, if any, superiors. 

Mr. Polk was the youngest man who had occupied the presi- 
dential chair, up to the date of his election, and he looked quite 
as young as he was. His hair was crow black, and if any gray 
hairs had made their appearance, they were so few as not to be 
noticeable. He was springy, active and energetic in all his 
movements, and was to all appearance a young man. 

Mrs. Polk was some eight or ten years his junior, and had been 
even less impressed with the scars of time than he had. Though 
a very handsome woman, she never passed as a belle or a beauty 
* — her ambition never sought or valued that sort of distinction. 
She was her husband's wife and monopolized his affections as 
fully as any wife ever did, and with that, the measure of her 
ambition was full. But she had more elements of attractiveness 
^nd popularity — more of that nature which draws upon the ad- 
miration and sympathy of men and women, and make every 

270 The American Historical Magazine. 

body, regardless of party politics, desire her success and happi- 
ness in life, than is often found in her sex ; and beyond all ques- 
tion much of her husband's success in life was due, or at least 
was helped on largely by, the kindly feelings and admiration that 
every one felt for her who had the honor of her acquaintance. 
I never saw a Whig so vile that he would not have been pleased 
to see her in the White House, if she could have gotten there 
without her husband. 

I resided in Columbia at the time Mr. Polk was elected Presi- 
dent. Though opposed to him in politics, I always admired him 
as a man, and just before he left for Washington I called on 
him at his office to pay him my respects, and in the course of 
conversation remarked to him, *'I suppose you will visit us oc- 
casionally during your term." In reply he said: "We never 
know what is in the future, but at present I don't think it prob- 
able I shall be in Tennessee again until my term expires. There 
is always enough that requires the personal attention of a Presi- 
dent to occupy all his time, and you know it is not my habit to 
turn over to agents what my duty requires I should do myself." 
And I don't think he was in Tennessee during his term. 

It was. during this time that I removed from Columbia to 
Nashville. Business called me back to Columbia. As I was 
returning home again, in company with Chancellor Cahal, whom 
should we meet on the road but the ex-President and his wife 
traveling alone, in a private carriage. They were returning 
from Washington to their home in Columbia. Mrs. Polk looked 
as natural as life, with scarce a perceptible change in the four 
years of absence. But Mr. Polk had changed until I scarcely 
knew him. From a pure black, his hair had become perfectly 
white. It did not change to a silver g^ay, but to a milk white. 
In his face was a sensatorial gravity more sedate than when 
he left Columbia. He looked care-worn and tired. But upon 
meeting old acquaintances from his old home he brightened up 
and resumed his quondam cheerfulness. When we parted Chan- 
cellor Cahal said to me: '*You have now seen the difference be- 
tween the rising and the setting sun. When he left for Wash- 
ington, his escorts were thousands. Now that his power and 
patronage is gone, his faithful wife alone remains by his side, 
and doubtless he is glad they are gone." 

Executive Correspondence. 271 


[Georg« Bancroft's estimate of President Polk, that he was "pru- 
dent, far-sighted, bold, exceeding any Democrat of his day in his un- 
deviatingly correct exposition of Democratic principles," needs, in my 
opinion, to be supplemented by the statement that he was the most 
laborious, painstaking and exact of all our public men. It is now well 
known that he kept a diary during his administration as President, which, 
when typewritten, fills twenty-four volumes, averaging about one hun- 
dred large octavo pages. 

During his administration as Governor of Tennessee, he kept in his 
office a large blankbook, in which he transcribed, in his own well known, 
neat and accurate handwriting, all his official correspondence, and elab- 
orately indexed the same, both under the subject matter and the name of 
the correspondent. The book is among the archives of the Secretary of 
State's office.] 

"Executive Department, Nashville, November 4, 1839. 
"Capt. Jas. S. W. Hawkins. 

'*Sir: Your letter of the nth ult. addressed to my predecessor 
has been received. By reference to the Militia law of 1825, ch. 
69, sec. 112, it will be seen, "that in order to entitle any com- 
pany to the use of a portion of the public arms, it shall be 
necessary for the commandant of the regiment to certify that 
such company consist of not less than forty rank and file, and 
that it is a uniform volunteer company, and that every member 
of the same is in complete uniform" — and the captain of the 
company is required to execute his bond with sufficient security 
to be approved by the Governor and payable to him and his 
successors in office, conditioned that the arms he may receive, 
shall be kept in a soldierlike manner, and free from injury, and 
that they will be delivered whenever called on for the use of 
the State. Upon the receipt of the certificate and bond as re- 
quired by the act referred to, the arms will be delivered to your 
order. Very Respectfully, 

"Your Ob't. Sev't., 

"James K. Polk." 

272 The American Historicai. Magazine. 

"Executive Department, Nashville, November 4, 1839. 
"R. G. Douglas, Esq. 

"Sir : Your letter of the 14th ult. has been received. The 
Certificate of the Directors of the Gallatin and Cumberland Turn- 
pike Company which you enclose is deficient in not specifying 
the amount actually paid in by the stockholders. The certifi- 
cate sets forth "that stock to the amount of two thousand dol- 
lars has been paid to the treasurer of said company" but docs 
not state whether it be in addition to the amount previously 
paid in or not. By reference to the act of 1838, ch. 107, sec 
23, you will see what is required in order to authorize the issu- 
ance of the bonds of the State in such cases. 

The certificate required by the act cannot be too full and ex- 
plicit. When the requisitions of the law are complied with the 
bonds will be promptly issued. 

"I have the honor to be 
"Your Ob't. Sev't., 

"James K. Polk." 

"Nashville, November 6, 1839. 
"Frederick R. Smith, Esq. 

"Sir: I have received your letter of the 21st ult. covering 
the Certificate of the President and Directors of the Big Hatchie 
Turnpike and Bridge Company, setting forth that "there has 
been paid in on the part of the individual stockholders the sum 
of fourteen thousand dollars" being the sum of eight thousand 
dollars in addition to the sum of six thousand heretofore certi- 
fied to have been paid in, and upon which the bonds of the State 
for six thousand dollars were issued on the 14th of June, 1839. 
Deeming the certificate forwarded by you to be a compliance 
with the law on the part of the individual stockholders; I have 
caused the bonds of the State to the amount 6i eight thousand 
dollars to be issued for the benefit of your company, and have 
in pursuance of law ddivered the same to the bank of Tennessee. 
"I am very Respectfully, 
"Your Ob't. Sev't., 

"James K. Polk." 


"Excctitivc Department, Nashville, November 12, 1839. 
"To the President and Directors of the Clarksville and Russell- 
ville Turnpike Company. 
•^Gentlemen: I have received your letter of the 2nd Inst, 
notifying me that 'the stockholders of your company have paid 
to the treasurer of said company the sum of ten thousand d<rf- 
lars, in addition to the sum of five thousand dollars, on which 
bonds have heretofore issued' and requesting that the bonds 
of the State to the amount of ten thousand dollars may be issued. 
Before any action can be had on your application, it will be 
necessary that the act of 1838, ch. 107, sect. 22, should be com- 
plied with on the part of the directors of your company. By 
the act referred to, it is required that *two-thirds of the entire 
board' of directors, shall certify that *in their opinion^ the 
'payment of the stock subscribed by individual stockholders' 
is well secured, 'or that the individual stockholders are good 
and solvent persons, and fully able to pay the amount of stock 
subscribed by each of them.' Uppn examining the records of 
the office of Secretary of State, no such certificate appears to 
have been made by your company. As soon as the certificate 
shall be made, the law having been in other respects complied 
with, the bonds of the State will be issued as requested. 
"I am very Respectfully, 

"Your Ob't. Sev't., "James K. Polk.'* 

"Executive Department, Nashville, November I4, 1839. 
'*W. I. Anderson, Agent and Keeper of the Penitentiary. 

"Sir: Your letter of the Sth Inst, stating, that Lewis D. 
St. Legier, a convict in the Penitentiary 'has conducted him- 
self with the utmost propriety' — ^and recommending that his 
sentoKe be commuted, is not in strict conformity with the act 
of 1835, ch. 63, sect. 4. If you are enabled, (conforming to the 
language of the law,) to certify that the 'conduct of the pris- 
oner has been exemplary and unexceptionable' during the whole 
period of his confinement, and feel it to be proper to make such 
a certificate, I will promptly consider of his case. 
"I am very Respectfully, 

"Your Ob't. Sev't, "James K. Polk." 


274 The American Historical Magazine. 

''Executive Department, Nashville, November 23, 1839. 
"Dear Sir: Your letter of the 19th Inst enclosing the Cer- 
tificate of the Directors of the Nashville and Kentucky Turn- 
pike Company, has been received. The certificate forwarded 
being in conformity to law, the subscription on the part of the 
State has been made and forwarded to Mr. Turner, the Presi- 
dent of the company, as requested by you. Bonds of the State 
to the amount of nine thousand dollars have been issued in 
favor of the company, and deposited in the Bank of the State 
as required by law. 

"I am very Respectfully, 
"Your Ob't. Sev't., 

"James K. Polk. 

"Mr. George A. Wylie, Secretary of the Nashville and Kentucky 
Turnpike Company, Gallatin, Tenn." 

"Executive Department, Nashville, November 26, 1839. 
"Hon. J. R. Poinsett, Secretary of War. 

"Sir: I have had the honor to receive your letter of the 14th 
Inst, informing me, that a draft drawn some weeks since for 
the interest due on the ist of July last, on $250,000, in Tennessee 
State bonds, held by the Government of the United States in 
trust for the Cherokee Indians had been protested in the Girard 
Bank in Philadelphia, with the reason assigned, that nothing 
but current Philadelphia funds would be paid for it, and re- 
questing that such instructions may be given to the agent of 
the State as will ensure the prompt payment of the amount in 
question ($1,250), as well as the interest to fall due subsequent- 
ly. The Union Bank of Tennessee has heretofore acted as the 
agent of the State, in making the payment of the semi-annual 
interest on these bonds, and has uniformly made provision for 
its payment at the Girard Bank in Philadelphia, as it fell due, 
that being the place stipulated for the payment of the interest, 
when the bonds were negotiated. 

"In regard to this interest due on the ist of July last ($1,250), 
the president of the Union Bank informs me, that as the agent 
of the State, that bank in the latter part of June, 'deposited 
the amount due on the ist of July, in the Girard Bank in 

Executive Correspondence. 275 

Philadelphia, to the credit of the commissioner of Indian af- 
fairs' and that the secretary of the treasury was advised of 
the fact by the Union Bank under date of the 2nd of July last. 
The President of the Union Bank insists, that the bank has 
discharge her duty by making the deposit in specie at the 
Girard Bank to meet the payment which fell due on the ist 
of July, and that the loss, or inconvenience which may be suf- 
fered, by the subsequent suspension of specie payment by the 
Girard Bank in October following, should be borne by the hold- 
ers of the bonds who failed to call on the day for the amount 
due. Without undertaking to give an opinion as to the cor- 
rectness of the views presented by the President of the Union 
Bank, I am informed by him that he has addressed you on the 
subject, and that he has also addressed the agent of the bank 
at Philadelphia with a view to make a proper arrangement with 
the Girard Bank for its payment, and I have every reason to 
believe from what he informs me, that the payment will be 
made at an early day. 

"If it should not be paid by the bank upon being informed 
of the fact, by you, I will take such measures as may seem 
to be proper, with a view to ensure its payment and preserve 
the credit of the State. The interest on those bonds which 
shall hereafter fall due, will be promptly paid in specie. 
**I have the honor to be • 
"Very Respectfully, 
"Your Ob't. Serv't., 

"James K. Polk." 

"Executive Department, Nashville, November 26, 1839. 
"Gideon J. Pillow, Esq., President of the Columbia Central 
Turnpike Company. 
"Sir: Your letter of the 20th Inst., requesting the appoint- 
ment of three discreet and disinterested persons to view that 
part of the Columbia Central Turnpike road which is repre- 
sented to be finished, with a view to the erection of toll gates 
thereon, was not received until yesterday. Your certificate 
as president of your company has not been made with such pre- 
cision as to conform to the act incorporating your company. 

276 The Ahbkican Historical Magazine. 

The 8th section of the act to incorporate the Lebanon and Nash- 
ville Turnpike Company which is made a part of the act in- 
corporating your company requires that 'the road should bi 
finished* in the manner prescribed by the act for the distamce 
of seven miles from Nashville or Lebanon, those being the ter- 
minations of the road, 

**In the case of the Columbia Central Turnpike Company, the 
terminations of your road are Cohimbia and the Tennessee River. 
In your certificate as President of your board you do not state 
that seven miles from either Columbia or the Tennessee River, 
being the two points of termination of your road under the 
charter— have been finished. You certify that about nine miles 
of the Cohimbia Central Turnpike are completed. The terms. 
*about nine miles' are vague and indefinite, nor is it stated in 
your certificate whether the part of the road which is finished 
is at the termination of the road commencing at Cohnnbia or 
on the Tennessee River. As your certificate as president of yoor 
board is the only official document upon which the Executive 
can act in appointing the persons contemplated by the act of 
your incorporation to view the road and make report, you will 
perceive the necessity which exists of conforming in your cer- 
tificate strictly to the requisitions of the act of incorporation. 

"It should be stated that seven miles of the road commenc- 
ing at one of the points of termination of the road, and dis- 
tinguishing which are finished. When this is done, it will be 
the duty of the Executive to make the appointments as requested 
by you. "I am very Respectfully, 

"Your Ob't. Sev't., 

"James K. Polk." 

"Executive Department, Nashville, November 29, 1839. 
*'R. G. Douglas, Esq., Secretary and Treasurer of the Gallatin 
and Cumberland Turnpike Company. 
"Sir: Your letter in astswer to mine of the 4th Inst, has 
been received, and I regret to inform you, does not contain such 
a certificate under the law, as to authorize the further issue of 
State bonds to your company. By reference to the act of 1838, 
ch. 107, sect. 22 and 23, you will perceive, that before the 

Executive Correspondence. 277 

Governor is authorized to issue the bonds of the State to any 
Internal Improvement .Company, he must be notified by 'the 
President and Directors of such company' that the individual 
stockholders have paid it as required by the act. The letter 
which you have addressed to me, is signed by yourself alone 
as secretary of your company, and not by *the President and 
Directors of the company,' as required by the act. This defect 
would of itself be sufficient to prevent the further issue of bonds 
to your company; but it is proper to apprise you, that it is not 
the only obstacle which would Ije interposed under the existing" 

"By the act to incorporate your company, it is provided that 
'the capital stock of said corporation shall consist of one thou- 
sand shares of twenty-five dollars each,' being $25,000. The 
State on the loth day of July, 1839, became a subscriber for 
one-half the capital stock of said company, being $12,500. Be- 
fore the Governor is authorized to issue any bonds of the State, 
to any Internal Improvement Company, it must be certified 
to him by ^the President and Directors of such company,' 
that fifteen per cent on one-half the capital stock as fixed by 
the charter, owned by the individual stockholder has been paid 
by them. Upon this certificate the Governor is authorized to 
issue bonds of the State for an equal amount, being fifteen per 
cent on half the capital stock owned by the State. The act of 
1838, ch. 107, sect. 23, then goes on to provide, that *upon the 
further payment of fifteen per cent upon the stock of individual 
stockholders, in any of said companies, the Governor shall issue 
the bonds of the State for fifteen per cent more of the stock 
of the State, in the same manner, and under the same rules, 
regulations and restrictions as before provided.' In issuing 
the bonds of the State reference must constantly be had to the 
amount of the capital stock as fixed in the charter, which, in 
the ease of the Gallatin and Cumberland Turnpike Company 
is $25,000. In order therefore to entitle your company to a 
further issuance of the bonds of the State, it must be certified to 
the Governor by, *the President and Directors of the company^ 
that fifteen per cent, in addition to the fifteen per cent hereto- 
fore paid, by the individual stockholders on the half of the 

278 The American Historical Magazine. 

capital stock of the company has been paid, viz., fifteen per 
cent on $12,500, that sum being half the capital stock of your 
company. Such are the requisitions of the law. It appears, 
however, that the length of the Gallatin and Cumberland Turn- 
pike Road, is but a little more than three and a quarter miles, 
and that the capital stock of the company being $25,000, as Axed 
by the charter is much larger than is necessary to build the 
road, (unless the company should "extend" the road as they 
are authorized to do by the 7th section of their charter) and 
in this consists the whole difficulty. If the capital stock of 
your company instead of being $25,000, as fixed by the charter, 
was reduced to the sum actually required to make the road, all 
difficulty would be removed. The Legislature alone possess 
the power by an amendatory act to reduce the capital stock 
as authorized and fixed by your charter. 

"The Governor possesses no such power; and I take the 
liberty to suggest to you (if your company desire to have the 
amount of the capital stock reduced to the sum which will be 
required to build the road), the propriety of making applica- 
tion to the Legislature to pass a law for that purpose. 
"I am very Respectfully, 

"Your Ob't. Sev't., 

"James K. Polk." 

"Executive Department, Nashville, December 10, 1839. 
"Hon. C. C. Trabue, Mayor of Nashville. 

"Sir: In answer to your letter of the 9th Inst., transmitting 
to me a copy of a resolution passed by the Mayor and aldermen 
of the corporation of Nashville on the 12th of November, 1839, 
and requesting for the use of the city authorities, a portion of 
the public arms of the State to be returned on demand, I have 
to state, that I do not find any law which authorizes the Execu- 
tive to make such a disposition of the public arms, as that 
which you request. 

"I have the Honor to be 
"Very Respectfully, 
"Your Ob.t Sev^t., 

"James K. Polk." 

Executive Correspondence. 279 

"Executive Department, Nashville, December 10, 1839. 
"Thos. W. Barksdale, Esq., Secretary of the Clarksville and 
Russellville Turnpike Company. 
"Sir: I have received your letter of the 4th Inst, trans- 
mitting a certificate of the President and Directors of the Clarks- 
ville and Russellville Turnpike Company, dated 15 ult., setting 
forth, that the payment of the individual subscriptions, are in 
their opinion well secured. I have this day issued for the bene- 
fit of your company ten bonds of the State for $1,000 each, 
amounting in the whole to $10,000, and have deposited the 
same in the Bank of Tennessee. 

"I am very Respectfully, 
"Your Ob't. Sev't., 

"James K. Polk." 

Executive Department, Nashville, December 10, 1839. 
"To the President and Directors of the Nashville and Charlotte 
Turnpike Company. 
"Gentlemen: I received a few days ago your communica- 
tion addressed to my immediate predecessor in office, setting 
forth the proceedings of your board at a meeting held on the 
7th of September last, in which it is stated, that the whole 
amount subscribed for by individual stockholders, to wit, $30,- 
000, is paid either in cash, or work upon the road, and request- 
ing the Governor *to issue the remaining $1,000 of State bonds, 
which with the $24,000 heretofore issued, will make the total 
amount.' The act of 1838, ch. 107, sect. 22 and 23, provides 
that the Governor shall be, 'authorized and required to issue 
the bonds of the State, only in cases when it shall be certified 
to him by the President and Directors, that the individual stock- 
holders have paid in a given percentum of their capital stock 
as provided in the act. There is no authority vested in the 
Governor to issue the bonds of the State upon a certificate made 
to him that *work has been done on said road,' Your certificate 
is in the alternative, to wit, that the individual stockholders 
have paid 'either in cash, or work upon said road' and is not 
such a certificate under the law, as will authorize the Governor 

26o Th£ Amb&ican Historical Magazine. 

to issue the bonds of liie State to your compainy as requested 
in your conununication. 

"I am very Respectfully, 
"Your Ob't. Sev't., 

"James K. Polk." 

"Executive Department, Nashville, January, 6, 1840. 
"To the President and Directors of the Nashville and Charlotte 
Turnpike Company. 
"Gentlemen: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt 
of your communication of the 28th ult., certifying that the in- 
dividual stockholders of your company, have paid in fifty per 
cent of the capital stock of said company, amounting to $30,000, 
being one-half of the capital stock of the company, and have 
this day issued and deposited in the Bank of Tennessee, for 
the benefit of your company, six State bonds of one thousand 
dollars each. 

"I have die Honor to be 
"Very Respectfully, 
"Your Ob't. Sev't, 

"James K. Polk." 

"Executive Department, Nashville, January 17, 1840. 
"General G. J. Pillow, President of the Columbia Central 
Turnpike Company. 
"Sir: In answer to your letter of the loth Inst. I have to 
state that upon a careful examination of the records and papers 
on file in the office of the Secretary of State, the certificate 
of your board, of payment of stock by the private stockholders, 
which you state was made on the 9th of March, 1839, cannot 
be found. If such a certificate reached this office it cannot be 
found, and I cannot of course respond to your interrogatory. 
"The Internal Improvement bill is under discussion in the 
House of Representatives to-day; various modifications and 
amendments of the existing law have been proposed and are 
pending. What will be done is uncertain. 
"I am very Respectfully, 
"Your Ob't. Sev't, 

"James K. Polk." 

Executive Correspondence. 2S1 

"Executive Department, Nashville, January 20, 1840. 
"To the President and Directors of the Gallatin Turnpike Com- 
"Gentlemen: I have received your communication of the 
6th Inst, requesting me to issue $9,000 of State bonds for the 
benefit of your company, in addition to the $99,500 heretofore 
issued. The certificate which your board have made, from the 
phraseology employed, leaves doubt as to what its true purport 
and meaning might be. In the first part of your certificate 
you state, 'that there has been of the $112,500 subscribed by 
individuals to the capital stock of the Gallatin Turnpike Com- 
pany, the sum of $108,500 in cash, paid into the hands of the 
treasurer of said company, and that the whole amount and 
upwards has been paid out by the treasurer to contractors on 
said road, for work and labor actually done on the same.' Had 
the certificate stopped here there would have been no difficulty 
in ascertaining its true intent and meaning; but you proceed 
to specify in what manner 'the payment on the part of the indi- 
vidual stockholders has been made.' In the paragraph imme- 
diately following the clause above quoted you say *to wit, the 
sum of $15,000 which the company have borrowed of the banks 
of Tennessee, together with $75,500 of State bonds has been 
paid to contractors, of $99,500 received in bonds on behalf of 
the State subscription to said road.' This specification of the 
manner of 'payment' by the individual stockholders, is suscepti- 
ble of the construction (though it may not have been so in- 
tended) that $75,000 of State bonds heretofore issued in pay- 
ment of the State's subscription, have been used to pay up that 
much of the subscription of the individual stockholders. If 
that be the construction of your certificate, it is not such a 
^paymenf as will authorize of the State bonds which you re- 
quest. If the true construction of your certificate be that $108,- 
500 has been paid in by the individual stockholders, and that, 
that amount as well as $75,500 of State bonds together with 
the $15,000 borrowed of the Bank of Tennessee, have been paid 
out to contractors, you are requested so to state in an amended 
certificate. Before the Governor is authorized to issue the bonds 
of the State to any Internal Improvement Company, it must be 

282 The American Historical Magazine 

certified to him by the president and directors of such company 
in a manner to admit of no doubt, that the individual stock- 
holders have 'paid in* a given percentum on the amount of their 
capital stock. Under the doubt which exists of the true con- 
struction of the certificate which you have forwarded to me, 
I have suspended action upon it until the company can make 
out a new certificate or furnish an explanation of the one al- 
ready forwarded. 

"I have the honor to be 
"Very Respectfully, 

"Your Ob't. Sev't., 

"James K. Polk." 

"Executive Department, Nashville, February 6, 1840. 
"Moses H. Henry, Esq., Sheriff of Sumner County. 

"Sir: I have received your letter of the 4th Inst, requesting 
me to offer a reward for the apprehension of Richard Gillespie, 
charged with the murder of Ira Strother. Before I can deter- 
mine upon the propriety of offering a reward it will be necessary 
that I should be furnished with a copy of the proceedings had 
at the coroner's inquest, with the verdict of the jury, or some 
other evidence of record of the commission of the oflFense. If 
a bill of indictment has been found in court, a copy should be 
furnished. When such evidence is furnished I will act on the 

"I am very Respectfully, 
"Your Ob't. Sev't., 

"James K. Polk." 

"Executive Department, Nashville, February 15, 1840. 
"Moses H. Henry, Esq., Sheriff of Sumner County. 

"Sir : Since writing you on the 6th Inst. I have received 
through Mr. Trimble, the official certificate of S. H. Tdmer, the 
committing Magistrate, before whom Richard Gillespie was ar- 
raigned on a charge of having murdered Ira Strother; and 
have this day, issued a proclamation offering a reward of two 
hundred dollars for the apprehension of the said Gillespie. 

"I have directed the proclamation to be published in the Nash- 
ville Union; and have to request that you will cause it to be 

ExBCUTivK Correspondence. 283 

inserted for three successive weeks, in the Gallatin Union, pub- 
lished in Gallatin. I am very respectfully, 

"Your Ob't. Sev't., 

"James K. Polk." 

"Executive Department, Nashville, February 19, 1840. 
"To the President and Directors of the La Grange and Memphis 
Railroad Company. 

"Gentlemen: I herewith transmit to you the official cer- 
tificate of subscription on behalf of the State, for twelve hun- 
dred and fifty shares of the capital stock of the La Grange and 
Memphis Railroad Company, made this day, in pursuance of 
the provisions of an act passed at Nashville, on the 27th day 
of January, 1840, entitled *An act supplementary to the acts to 
incorporate the La Grange and Memphis Railroad Company.' 

"By the 7th section of the act of 27th January, 1840, to which 
reference is made in the letter of the President of your company, 
of the 13th Inst., it is provided, that upon the acceptance of 
the conditions specified in the act, by your company, the Gov- 
ernor shall appoint an additional number of directors on the 
part of the State, which will make the State's directors equal 
in number to those elected by the private stockholders. My 
opinion is that the appointment of State directors must be made, 
in reference to the general law of 1838, upon that subject, there 
being nothing in the special act relating to your company which 
is repugnant to its provisions. By the act of 1838, the Governor 
is directed to appoint a number of directors, not to be stock- 
holders, equal to the number elected by individual stockholders, 
and the settled practice imder it (in case where the State has 
subscribed for half the stock) has been to appoint a number 
of State directors, equal to the number which the private stock- 
holders of the several companies, under these respective charters 
were authorized to elect. On referring to the charter of your 
company I find, that the number of directors, which the stock- 
holders are authoriz,ed to elect is nine, and awarding to the con- 
struction of the law which has heretofore been given, in similar 
cases, the State is entitled to appoint nine directors, to represent 
the State's interest in company. 

a84 Thb Ambkican Historical Magazine. 

"If the stockholders of your company, acting under the act 
of 1836, when the State was a subscriber for one-tfiird only 
of the stock, have not elected as many as nine directors for the 
present year, they may under the 7th section of the original 
charter of your company, still do so. If suitable selections can 
be made; I would prefer to appoint the State directors, resid- 
ing in the vicinity of the work, and would be pleased to re- 
ceive such suggestions, in regard to persons proper to be ap- 
pointed, as you may think proper to make. 
"I am very Respectfully, 

"Your Ob't. Sev't., 

"James K. Polk." 
(To be continued.) 

Jambs Robbrtson, Nashvii,i,b's Foundbr. 285 



[Read before the Tennessee Historical Society, January 13, 1903.] 

A short time ago I was requested to address the Tennessee 
Historical Society. Probably without the society's knowledge, 
I have long been interested in its work, and value its undertak- 
ing beyond measure. It is an honor to appear before it. 

When I was told that I might choose my own subject for the 
paper, I confess I was deeper in the mire of thought than at 
the first step in conjecture as to what I was going to say, and 
the few times that I was able to give the matter attention, I 
was not able to extricate myself. A fortunate circumstance 
that transpired only a few days ago gave me the cue. 

For the first time in all its history, Nashville has park ground 
worthy of the Capital of Tennessee. The title to the Centennial 
Grounds, upon which the city has already contributed a large 
sum of money toward the adornment thereof, is now in the city 
of Nashville. 

The Park Commission, to whom is assigned the duty of the 
further adornment of this and other park property, have so far 
determined upon but one measure, and that, the erection in Cen- 
tennial Park of a monument to James Robertson, the founder 
of Nashville. The purpose of this paper is to revive interest 
in the founder of the city we live in and suggest the co-opera- 
tion of the Historical Society and other organizations and the 
public in the unveiling of this monument. 

The first mention of this man in the annals of Tennessee is 
the brief record that "early in 1770 James Robertson appeared 
upon the scene." He was destined to appear often and to ac- 
complish much. Robertson was bom and raised in Brunswick 
County, Virginia. He left Virginia when he was about 15 years 
of age and landed in Wake County, North Carolina. He reached 
the Watauga Settlement when he was 28; with him, then, the 
flowering years (as of all men's lives) was in the bud. 

286 The American Historical Magazine. 

Robertson soon became a man of note. He was further 
destined to be the most conspicuous figure connected with the 
upbuilding of Middle Tennessee. 

When we contemplate the work Robertson had before him, 
and look back and know what he did, we are interested at the 
outset in the personnel of the man. Let us recall his appear- 
ance and some of his characteristics. 

His age was 28; his height 5 feet, 9 inches, (right high); 
heavy built (still right), not fat (right) ; he had blue eyes; he 
was uncommonly quiet and thoughtful. . He had strong features 
and a square, full forehead — his head was full, too, of brains. 
He was earnest, taciturn and self-contained, and had that quiet 
consciousness of power usually seen in "born leaders of men" — 
it appears everything about him was right. Some Indian chief 
has said, "he has winning ways and makes no fuss." Who 
could better the model this man presents ? 

Judge Haywood, in his history, said of Robertson : 

"He appears by his actions to have merited all the eulogium, 
esteem and applause which the most ardent of his countrymen 
have ever bestowed upon him. Like almost all those in America 
who have attained eminent celebrity, he had not a notable line- 
age to boast of nor the escutcheoned armorials of a titled ances- 
try; But he had what was more valuable — a sound mind, a 
healthy constitution, a robust frame, a love of virtue, an intrepid 
soul, and an emulous desire for honest fame." 

Accompanying Robertson on his first visit to Tennessee, in 
1770, was the intrepid and famous Boone. 

Reaching the Watauga Settlement, Robertson, to quote him- 
self, "felt he had reached the promised land." Not so Boone — 
certainly he determined to see more and go furtlier, and f!id. 

Robertson went immediately to work, cleared his patch, and 
planted his crop; which having yielded well and been housed 
after some sort of fashion, Robertson returned for his family, 
then consisting of his wife, Charlotte (born Reeves), and one 

On this trip, traveling as he did alone and without the aid of 
the apparently unerring Boone, Robertson lost his way in the 
mountains, among which he wandered for two weeks.. He was 

James Robertson, Nashville's Founder. 287 

finally, under circumstances as fortuitous for this country as 
remarkable in the fact, considering the extent of the country 
and the scarcity of men, found by two hunters on the western 
slope of Yellow Mountain. 

Who these hunters were has never been known. Robertson 
himself, generally a considerate and grateful man, though over 
modest, appears to have left no record of their names, or even 
the deed that saved his life. 

Having been steered into plain sailing by his new-found and 
new-finding friends, with that spirit and will characteristic of 
the man, Robertson continued his journey as he originally in- 
tended. He returned in a few months to the neighborhood 
where Elizabethton, in Carter County, now stands. 

About eighty people accompanied him — men, women and 
children. The arrival of Robertson and his contingency was 
hailed with delight by the settlers on the Watauga. 

The first act of Robertson to justify the expectations of his 
friends for the after great career of the man was that of peace- 
maker, to be plain, but really diplomat, with all the merit and 
more of honor for his intrepidity and good sense that comes 
to those who now so often play their petty parts before the 
pompous courts of the world. 

A young brave had been killed by one of the settlers, because 
of a personal grievance. The Indians immediately showed dis- 
turbance, and left their camp to rendezvous where they could 
reinforce their numbers. Then what had become a peaceful com- 
munity was thrown into turmoil and fear that the probability 
of renewed hostilities would, at least, delay the further settle- 
ment of this promised land, if not annihilate the settlement. 

Robertson, with that determination and grit that to him made 
all things possible, volunteered to seek the Indians and under- 
take to induce them to make no hostile move against the settle- 

He desired no body guard and asked no help. Single-handed 
he set out upon this most momentous mission, on this perilous 
journey of 150 miles, full of danger of attack from both man 
and beast, and hazardous more yet because of the untramped 
and unexplored way. Was ever courage more sublimely mani- 
fested ? 

288 Thb American Historical Magazink. 

He was gone but a lew weeks. He succeeded m convinckig 
the Indians that the act for which they were aggprieved was the 
fault of the one man, and that the settlement should not be 
held responsible. 

Ye who contemplate the act of a peace mission of to-day, 
and compare with that remarkaMe one in 1772, among die 
Chicamauga Indians, must needs comnwnd beyond tfie means 
of man to estimate the courage, the will, the intelKgence, the 
power to do that this man ever embraced, and always properly 

History recites many tnpcidents of the almost continual wars 
with the tribes, in which Robertson played his part, and alwajrs 

♦ 3|c 4c 

The war of the Revolution had begun ; the battle of Lexington 
had been fought, The iiow famous settlement on the Watauga, 
always anxious to do their part and "carry their end of the log," 
desired to be taken into the confederation, under the name of 
"Washington District." They further expressed a willingness 
to send their proportion of men and money. They, poor, noble 
creatures, who daily held their very lives in their hands, as it 
was, and could only till the soil and hunt and live, were willing 
to further risk their lives and contribute their mite toward the 
establishment of the great confederation of the United States 
of America. 

However, James Robertson, too, appears to have seen other 
visions than the first promised land — probably when he made 
that long journey of peace alone he saw yet a further land of 
promise. Certain it is, that, in February, 1779, Robertson, with 
only a half score of men, set out for the French Salt Licks. This 
was our old Sulphur Spring Bottom. 

Could it have been that tlie simple mineral, chloride of sodium, 
alone determined the settlement of Nashville? It appears so. 
The salt about Watauga first stopped the settlers there. Many 
a bloody battle was fought over this same salt during the Civil 
War — showing the further importance of this simple mineral 
The big spring, now known as Cockrill Spring, then as now, 
led the way to the river through the licks. The first clearing 
appears to have been made about this spring and branch. 

James Robertson, Nashville's Founder. 289 

Happily enough, the site selected by the Park Commission in 
Centennial Park for the monument to James Robertson may be 
where Robertson staked his (to him) Garden of Eden, in the 
new promised land, the Big Basin of Tennessee. 

Down below the sulphur spring the seed com they brought 
with them was planted. Gradually all the big bottom further 
below was made into fields, all full fertile with the silty soil, 
soft with alluvia, and therefore easy to cultivate, even with the 
crude utensils of the day. 

Starting his men to clearing the cane and brush of the bot- 
toms for such an area as would maintain a large settlement of 
people, Robertson himself went back to East Tennessee for his 
friends and followers. The women and children were yet to 
remain with the Watauga settlers. Robertson drew heavily upon 
the resources of the East Tennessee settlement. Confidence in 
Robertson was the keynote to the following he enlisted and the 
success of the venture. 

Soon all about here, and for miles around, there were built 
up "stations," as they were called. At each some half dozen 
or more log houses, and likely brush, were the first protection 
from the winter. 

Protection from hardships for the female has ever been the 
distinctive feature in the make of man. 

This being now assured, Robertson sent back for the women 
and children. To Colonel John Donelson was given this impor- 
tant charge. Down the Holston, down the Tennessee, up the 
Ohio, up the Cumberland, in the crudest of boats, fashioned 
with but sorry tools, likely mostly dugouts, made by burning 
into the center of the log with live coals, to lessen the labor 
with the few and poor tools. In these boats the women, frail 
as women must ever be, with their offspring, tender in years, 
yet all stout of heart, made this perilous journey of more thai^ 
a thousand miles; thus nobly playing their part in the great 
drama, "The Winning of the West." 

It was u severe winter ; the boats made the miles but slowly ; 
the journey was long; the streams treacherous; hostile Indians 
lined the river for many miles. The current of the Cumberland, 
our Cumberland, was against them. Think of it all! Every- 
thing against them! 

290 The American Historical Magazine. 

Gilmore says : 'The voyage has no parallel in history." Don- 
elson heads his journal of the journey, which he appears to 
have kept in a most commendable manner, with this caption: 
"By God's permission." It seems so. On Monday, April 24, 
1780, they came to Big Salt Lick, to James Robertson and to 

The arrival of the passengers of Donelson's fleet increased 
the population of the Cumberland settlement to such an extent 
as to justify the formation of an association and the 'adoption 
of laws and a name. 

This code of laws was prepared, submitted and adopted in 
the summer of 1780. The language contained therein, the laws 
themselves, the thoroughness of the whole, indicate that the 
average of intelligence and education and determination of these 
two hundred and fifty-six men who signed their names to the 
compact, as it came to us, was never equaled by any community 
in any young country — it is somewhat a doubt that the superior 
could be demonstrated to exist even now — and when we con- 
sider the one sentence that appears to have been the motive of 
the entire code of laws as well as each man's bond, must we not 
acknowledge that we have not advanced, after one hundred and 
twenty-two years of civilization, in either the language of or 
the respect for the law? 

Here is the keynote to the code : 

**We do most solemnly and sacredly declare [not swear, mind 
you, no oath about it — as there is now, only to be forsworn^ 
and promise each other, that we will faithfully and punctually 
adhere to, perform and abide by the laws of this our association, 
and at all times, if need be, compel by our united force a due 
obedience to these our rules and regulations." That is all there 
was of it. Every man a policeman and a patriot. 

The laws having been adopted, a name was selected. 

* * * 

Gen. Francis Nash, of North Carolina, a friend to Robertson 
and to many of the settlers, had been killed at the battle of 
Germantown, Pa., three years before. Gen. Nash was a soldier 
of rare qualities, a man of cultured mind, and a most exemplar) 
citizen. His death was greatly deplored. His friends showed 

James Robertson, Nashville's Founder. 291 

their appreciation by giving their settlement his name — Nash- 

Twelve years after Robertson himself was made a Brigadier 
General of the United States Army. He entered vigorously 
upon his duties, which were incidental to the interest of the 

In November, 1780, deprivation, through destruction of crops 
by high water, destruction and starvation, tried the courage of 
even the bravest of the settlers. The less courageous deserted. 
Not so with the heroes of hallowed memory. One hundred and 
thirty-four, with Robertson in the lead, determined to remain. 
Here we rest or die, said Robertson, and Donelson said amen! 

For the first ten years their hardships continued, but lessened 
year by year, except that the Indians were ever bobbing up and 
poking their rifles through the surrounding cane and killing the 

The Happy Hunting Grounds of the Kentucky purchase, and 
the Big Basin of Tennessee, contain the bones of many a brave, 
some buried, no doubt, long before Robertson and his band ever 
came to Nashborough. 

For a long time the historian could not account for the out 
of proportion of graves in this country — there were too many 
bones for the tribes known to have abided here. This finally 
was the solution. This territory, the blue grass region of Ken- 
tucky and of Middle Tennessee, was favored above all others 
in wild productiveness, and consequently was overrun with game 
of all kinds; buffalo, deer, turkey, bear and the smaller game 
had a perpetual feast on the fertile hills and valleys. So the 
Indians coming here to hunt the game, the tribes would clash 
and fight. The fittest survived and abided and hunted 'till the 
fitter came in and fought them out. Along the banks of the 
Harpeth, in Sulphur Spring Bottom, on the Edgefield side, over 
on Eaton's Creek, on Sycamore — all valleys famed for richness, 
and all affording natural walls of protection against possible 
intruders, the numerous gfraves at each place attest that here 
many a battle was fought. This section was then all supposed 
to be in Kentucky. Boone said it was — so that is why Ken- 
tuckv c^me to be the "Dark and Bloody Ground" in history. 

292 The Amsrican Historical Magazine. 

Robertson and his men had now held their own a^inst the 
constant attacks of the Indians for ten years. It had long been 
his hope that the Indians would let them alone. The title to the 
lands they occupied was not questioned. Yet the attacks were 
kept up, because of the rich hunting field. Robertson had been 
wounded repeatedly. His kindred and friends had been killed. 
He determined to crush the offending tribes. He did. The 
Secretary of War censured Gen. Robertson, and he resigned 
his command in the United States Army in order that he might 
fight in his own way. 

(It may be added that our Secretaries of War have not re- 
covered from the habit of censuring those who prosecute the 
country's wars vigorously, except in the one case of failure to 
censure brutality practiced in the period from i86i to 1865, and 
especially on Sherman's march to the sea). 

About the time of Robertson's resignation, he formed an 
alliance with the Chickasaws, and with their aid he gave Middle 
and West Tennessee and North Mississippi, a vast and rich 
domain, to the young Republic, whose Secretary of War had 
censured him for fighting its battles too rigorously. 

In 1784, the Legislature of North Carolina changed the name 
of Nashborough to Nashville; and three Town Commissioners 
were appointed. Two hundred acres were laid off into town 
lots of one acre each. These lots were to be sold with the one 
condition that the buyer should agree to build a brick or stone 
house, at least sixteen feet square on each lot. James Robertson 
bought the lots on the west side of the Square, between Deaderick 
and Cedar streets. A tablet placed on the wall of the transfer 
station of the Nashville Railway commemorates the fact that 
James Robertson owned that property from 1784 to 1807. He 
who rides may read. 

Robertson now seeing the town of Nashville organized, pro- 
cured from the Legfislature of North Carolina a charter for 
Davidson Academy, with an endowment of two hundred acres 
of land, to be free from taxation for ninety-nine years. 

This was the nucleus of Nashville University and the Peabody 

Jambs Robbrtson, Nashvili^b's Founder. 293 

Normal, and it may be said the starting of Nashville as an 
educational center. 

Charlotte Robertson, wife of James Robertson, in 1781 gave 
the first male child to Nashville. This son many here knew as 
Dr. Felix Robertson. He lived until 1865, a most interesting 
character and excellent citizen — a worthy son of a worthy sire 
— thrice Mayor of the city of Nashville. 

The Constitutional Convention of the State of Tennessee was 
called to meet in 1796. Davidson County was represented by 
James Robertson, John McNairy and Andrew Jackson — an illus- 
trious trio. Not for forty years was this Constitution changed. 

James Robertson, a most worthy citizen, both of Virginia 
and North Carolina, a pioneer patriot and patriarch in Tennessee, 
diplomat, Indian fighter, maker of remarkable history. Brigadier 
General of the United States Army, founder of Nashville, Gov- 
ernmental Agent to the Chickasaw Nation, died at the Agency 
in West Tennessee, September i, 18 14. 

The body of Robertson was buried at the Agency, and there 
remained until 1825, when, by act of the Legislature of Tennessee, 
his remains were removed to Nashville and reinterred, and yet 
lie in what is now known as the old City Cemetery, in South 
Nashville. A visit to Robertson's grave on Christmas Day dis- 
closed a neglected spot. 

This simple inscription is placed on the slab of native stone 
now fast going to decay, that overlies the body of this remark- 
able man : 


The Founder of Nashville. 

Was bom in Virginia, 

28th June, 1742. 

Died 1st September, 18 14. 

His wife, Charlotte Reeves, lies by his side. 
Fifty years ago Ramsey said: 

"The people of Tennessee have reason to venerate the memory 
of James Robertson, alike for his military and civil services, 
and the earnest and successful manner in which he ccmducted 
his negotiations for peace and commerce. His probity and 

294 The American Historical Magazine. 

strength of character secured to his remonstrances with Indian 
and Spanish agents respectful attention and consideration. His 
earnest and thoughtful manner was rarely disregarded by either." 
Again Ramsey concludes: "Relative to Gen. James Robert- 
son, it is proper to state that this father of Tennessee, this 
patriarch of the Settlement of Watauga and founder of that of 
the Cumberland, this most successful negotiator between his 
countrymen and their Indian neighbors ; this citizen who so well 
united the character of the patriot and the patriarch, continued 
to the close of his career an active and useful friend of his 
country, and possessed in an eminent degree the confidence, 
esteem and veneration of all his contemporaries; and his mem- 
ory and services to the western settlements, in peace and in war, 
are ever remembered with pride, and held in grateful regard." 

And now after one hundred and twenty-two years, what of 
us? Ramsey wrote that eulogium in 1853. What have we 
written? What have we thought — what have we who have en- 
joyed in peace and in plenty that which this man won for us 
through war and deprivation, with sacrifice of his own sons, 
and the shedding of his own blood — what have we of Nashville 
done to honor this man's memory? Has even the memory of 
all the good Robertson did been interred with his bones? 

Shall the youth of this great Commonwealth, because of the 
lack of knowledge on their part, born of the failure on ours to 
commemorate the commendable deeds of this heroic character 
in the State's early history, be deprived of the incentive to 
emulate the splendid example he so surely set? 

Are we a grateful people? Is a neglected grave, in an aban- 
doned cemetery, evidence of gratitude? 


State of North Carolina, Davidson County, November Term, 


The Jurors for the State upon their oath present that George 
Gibson, late of the County of Davidson and State of North 
Carolina, yeoman, on the thirtieth day of July, in the year of 
cur lord one thousand seven Hundred and Eighty — ^in the 
night of the same day, with force and arms in the Count\ afore- 
said the House of William Barr there situated, feloniously 

and Burglariously did Break and Enter and one Bever Skin cA 

Some Oi<d' Jackson Papers. 295 

the value of Thirty Shillings of the goods and Chatties of the 

said William Barr in the same House then and there 

Feloniously and Burglariously did steal, take and carry away 
to the great damage of him the said William and against the 
peace and dignity of the State. Andrew Jackson, 

Atto. for the State. 
Endorsed : 

State vs. G. Gibson. Indtm. G. B. November Term, 88. 
Wils Barr, prosecutor. Moses Shelby, David Hay, John Nich- 
ols Sworn and sent. Andrew Jackson, 

Atto. for the State. 

State of North Carolina, Mero District. Superior Court, May 

Term, 1789. 

The Jurors for the State upon their oath present that James 
Lanier, late of the county of Davidson and District of Mero, 
Merchant, not having the fear of god before his Eyes nor 
weighing the duty of his allegiance to the State, but being 
moved and seduced by the instigation of the Devil and con- 
triving and intending our said State and all its people, craftily, 
falsely, deceitfully and feloniously to deceive and defraud on the 
Eleventh day of January, in the year of our Lord One Thousand 
Seven Hundred and Eighty-six, with force and arms at the 
county aforesaid in the District aforesaid; one Bill Number 
Eighteen Hundred and Thirty-six in the likeness and similitude 
of a forty Shillings Bill of the good, lawful and current money 
of this State Emitted at Hillsboro seventeenth day of May, One 
Thousand Seven Hundred and Eighty-three; then and there 
knowingly; falsely; deceitfully and feloniously; did emit coun- 
terfit utter and pass contrary to the form of the act of the Gen- 
eral Assembly passed at Hillsboro the seventeenth day of May, 
one thousand seven Hundred and Eighty-three against the 
peace and dignity of the State. A. Jackhon, 

Atto. for the State. 
Endorsed : 

State vs. James Lanier. Felony. May Term, 89. Thomas 
Hickman, prosecutor. Zacaria Green, Saml. Barton, Charles 
Campble and Danl. James Sworn and sent. Teste, David 
Allison, Ck. A. Jackson, 

Atto. for State. 
No Bill. Thos. James, forman. 

296 The American Historical Magazine. 


Pbbsidknt : 
Judge John M. Lea. 

Vice Presidents: 

Col. William A. Henderson, Gen. Gates P. Thruston. 

Gov. James D. Porter. 

Seorktary : 
A. V. Goodpasture. 

Corresponding Secretary : 
Robert T. Quarles. 

Treasurer : 
Joseph S. Carels. 

Librarian : 
Joseph S. Carels. 

Standing Committees: 

Membership — W. R. Garrett, chairman; J. A. Cartwrigbt, 
J. P. Hunter. 

Finance — Edgar Jones, chairman : W. S. Settle, C. H. East- 

Addresses — W. J. McMurry, chairman; Frederick W. Moore, 
Theodore Cooley. 

History and Biography — A. V. Goodpasture, chairman; 
John Allison, F. W. Moore. 

Museum — Theodore Cooley, chairman ; John M. Bass, R. R. 

Special Committbb: 

Publication — Dr. \\\ R. Garrett, chairman; Dr. R, L. C 
White, John M. Bass. 


• -I . , L I •I''./ ^ :. w ; . .1 

The American Historical Magazine. 

Vol. VIII. OCTOBER, 1903. No. 4. 



Thursday night, October 25, 1894, Sousa's Band was playing 
a concert in the Tabernacle at Nashville, Tenn. The audience 
that had gathered was as large and representative as Nashville 
could furnish, for, in addition to the great band that was per- 
forming, there were also two soloists in whom the people of 
Nashville were interested — one of them Miss Estella Mann, a 
former Nashville girl, whose fine mezzo soprano voice had won 
her honor and compliment. I sat about half way back in the 
audience next the aisle, and immediately in front of me sat Dr. 
J. P. Dake. When Miss Mann sang deliciously the *Tage Song*' 
from "The Huguenots," and was encored so vigorously that she 
responded with "Some Day,'* I saw that Dr. Dake applauded as 
with peculiar pleasure. Always fond of good music as he was. 
he told me during the intermission which followed that he had 
had a fatiguing day, and had come mainly to hear Miss Mann 
sing, having long been friend and physician to the family. 

Dr. Dake had in 1892 made a visit to Japan, and as I was 
talking to him I noticed that he had brought with him to the 
concert a curiously carved cane of bamboo which he bought 
while in that country. I had seen it before, but during one of 
the intermissions I asked him to let me have it until I could 
show it to my wife. He handed it to me and turning round 
told us some interesting little incidents connected with the pur- 
chase of the cane and with his journey to the Orient. He com- 
mented on the low cost in Japan of hand-made articles of great 
beauty, and on the strong artistic temperament of the people 

298 Thb Ambrican Historical Magazinb. 

of Japan, he having become very much interested in both coun- 
try and people. He spoke highly of the Japanese and ex- 
pressed faith in their ultimate high rank among nations. 

Then the appearance of Mme. Guthrie-Moyer, the soprano 
soloist, drew the attention of the audience and we gave our- 
selves to the enjoyment of the music. Mme. Moyer's "Tann- 
hauser'' aria was followed by a demand for an encore, to which 
she graciously responded with 'The Old Folks at Home." Dr. 
Dake smiled his appreciation to a friend near him, and joined 
in the applause of this old favorite. 

After the next number he turned to me and said: "I have 
had two strokes of paralysis, the last while I was away during 
the summer, and just now I feel something very like the 
symptoms that preceded those attacks. If I should be correct, 
call Dr. Duncan Eve, who is sitting just in front of us." I said 
that I would do so, and suggested that we leave the building, 
but he said he would wait, as the concert was nearly over, and 
he was not sure. During the following number, however, when 
it had been about half played, I saw that the danger was in- 
creasing and started to rise. As I did so, he turned and said: 
**Get Dr. Eve." I went quietly and stated the condition to 
Dr. Eve, who came and sat down by his side. That he had cor- 
rectly foreseen his trouble was evident, but it was hoped that it, 
like the previous attacks, would be light. The remedies which 
Dr. Eve wanted were secured as hastily as possible, though 
with such quiet that not half a dozen people knew anything 
was the matter. While out I telephoned Dr. W. C. Dake and 
informed him of his father's condition. When I returned the 
remedies were administered and seemed to effect a slight re- 
lief. Dr. Dake looked at me as if he wished to speak. I bent 
over, and he said : "Send for Will." I went at once, but just as 
I turned into Church street from Summer I met Dr. W. C 

When the crowd dispersed friends assisted Dr. Dake to the 
vehicle in waiting. He was taken to his home and every care 
that science suggested or love could devise was given him; but 
he never rallied, and never spoke after making the request to 
send for his son. The paralysis was total as to his left side. It 

Dr. J. P. Dake— A Memoir. 299 

was at first hoped that the paralysis had resulted from conges- 
tion of the brain, and not from cerebral hemorrhage, but this 
hope was dispelled with the passage of time. He died at his 
home at 12.25 o^ ^^^ morning of October 28, 1894. 

With the death of Dr. Dake there passed away one of the 
most prominent figures in the world of medicine. For over 
forty years he had been a leading spirit in many a fierce fight 
concerning medical and sanitary matters, and he had accom- 
plished as much as any other man who ever took part in the 
battle for homeopathy. Not only as a physician, but as a citi- 
zen, his life was full and well rounded, and he had accomplished 
many things that well deserve to be remembered. 

In him the artistic temperament was always strong, and in 
this he was a notable exception to the hosts of professional 
men who have succeeded in their chosen calling. Few geniuses 
in one thing attain distinction in others, and, save in purely 
artistic callings, few indeed of the world's workers have the 
strong artistic temperament. This is particularly true with the 
medical profession. By their sympathy for mankind and by 
their very modesty the physicians have made the world a more 
habitable place, and have set aloft noble ideals for future gener- 
ations, but rarely does art for art's sake form any part of their 
creed. Some of us can remember kindly the country doctor of 
long ago, with his unceremonious ways and gentle heart, while 
knowing that the doctor of to-day, if he succeed, must be the 
polished gentleman — liberally educated in the universities. And 
yet, with all this change, we also know that the artistic tem- 
perament is growing even less common to the profession. A 
notable example of the artistic temperament in conjunction 
with medical genius was shown in the life and work of Dr. 
Dake. Whatever was elevating and refining appealed to that 
part of his nature most keenly, and he fostered it in every way 
he could. He founded the Nashville Art Association and be- 
gan filling its walls with fine paintings ; but the Association has 
been inactive since his death. Two years and a half before the 
Centennial Exposition he proposed as a feature of that expo- 
sition the plan for a permanent museum and art gallery that 
should also preserve for posterity an old and honored home. 

300 Thb Ambrican Historical Magazinb. 

and he had secured pledges of more than half the fund for pur- 
chasing the building when he died; and no one took- up the 
work and carried it on. 

When busied with his practice in the earlier years, his 
devotion to his profession and to its arduous duties left him 
less time for the satisfaction of the artistic side of his nature 
than he desired. During the later years of his life, however, 
when he had retired from general practice, he gave a g^eat 
portion of his time to art and literature, and to patriotic en- 
deavor. Around him, he had the walls of his office hung with 
beautiful pictures, and on the shelves of his bookcases he had 
thousands of volumes, comj^rising the best literature as well as 
medical lore. He became one of the leaders of The Round 
Table and drew its members to him by his courtly manner, by 
his gentle, honest firmness in the maintenance of his views, and" 
by his intelligence and his zeal. A patron and friend of the Old 
Oak Club, a younger brother of The Round Table, he won its 
members by his fatherly interest, and bound them to him in 
never-dying affection. As founder and promoter of the Art 
Association and long its honored president, he labored un- 
ceasingly to advance its interests and to place it on a firm basis, 
thereby winning the gratitude of local artists and lovers of art. 
As a member of the Tennessee Historical Society he was al- 
ways in his place, willing- either to learn or to instruct. In the 
first Board of Directors of the Tennessee Centennial his serv- 
ices were great, and his place was never completely filled. As a 
citizen discharging all the duties of citizenship, he was an ex- 
ample worthy of many followers ; and as a physician holding the 
lives and the confidences of thousands, to them his memor\- 
will always be inexpressibly dear. In the various and many 
charitable institutions of Nashville, i!i the cottages of the poor 
where he was a welcome and familiar figure, there above all 
other places he was missed and there his name will always be 
held in loving remembrance. So long a citizen of Nashville, 
faithful to every interest and to so many interests, always gen- 
tle and useful, it is not surprising that all during the day on 
which he died — a mild, beautiful Sunday — a stream of sorrow- 
ing friends should have found its way to the family residence 

Dr. J. P. Dakb— A Memoir. 301 

for the purpose of paying respect to the dear dead friend and 
showing sympathy with his afflicted household. 

One of Dr. Dake's dominant characteristics, a willingness to 
help, is to be found in the modest introductory paragraph pre- 
ceding a brief autobiographical sketch furnished by him at the 
request of the Hahnemanman Monthly in June, 1892. **If 1 
have done anything/* he writes, "or had anything happen to 
me in the course of life, the record of which may be of use to 
others, I suppose modesty should not forbid my furnishing the 
brief sketch that is asked for." That autobiography, all too 
brief, has formed the basis of this sketch of his medical career, 
but it has been at every point found necessary, in order to do 
scant justice to his splendid record, to enlarge greatly upon the 
compact summary he had given. 

Jabez Philander Dake was born in Johnstown, New York, 
April 22, 1827. He was the son of Dr. Jabez and Sophia 
(Bowen) Dake. His father and two of his brothers were physi- 
cians and in his early life all turned from the old school to the 
new. The father, Dr. Jabez Dake, was bom at Saratoga, N. 
Y., and was a soldier in the war of 1812. The paternal grand- 
father, William G. Dake, was born at Bennington, Vt., serving 
as a soldier in the Revolutionary War, and taking part in that 
famous conflict between the patriots and the British at his home 
town, the battle of Bennington. Dr. Dake's mother was born 
at Smithfield, R. I., as were also her ancestry for generations 
before. The paternal stock was English, but the family came 
originally from Hungary, the first of the name locating at 
Hopkinton, R. I., in 1639; ^^e name up to the beginning of the 
nineteenth century was spelled Deake, but to make the spelling 
and the Americanized pronunciation correspond it was changed 
to Dake. The maternal side was Welsh, first entering the col- 
ony of Rhode Island with Roger Williams. Dr. Jabez Dake 
emigrated to what was in his time called "the West," and lo- 
cated in the fertile valley of the Genesee about the year 1830. 
In the town of Portage and in the village of Nunda, Livingston 
County, there was quite a large settlement of relatives, as there 
had been for two generations before at Greenfield in Saratoga 
County. His mother's maiden name was Sophia Bowen, and 

302 The Ambkican Historical Magazinb. 

the Bowens, like the Dakes, were numerous and well known in 
Saratoga County. The Dakes and Bowens of Chicago, Pitts- 
burg and Michigan all come from the Saratoga stock. 

J. P. Dake inherited from his father the sturdy enterprise of 
the English, and from his mother the untiring industry and 
perseverance of the Welsh. If such things might be, he also 
inherited the gift of healing from his father, who was so suc- 
cessful as to be regarded almost as a natural healer, despite the 
limited educational advantages he had enjoyed in those days. 
The two brothers who were physicians were David M. and 
Chauncy M., the former graduating at Castleton, Vt., and the 
latter at Philadelphia. The fourth brother, William H., was 
also a graduate in medicine, but followed dentistry when that 
art was new, as a specialty. Of these brothers, David M. Dake, 
M.D., was well known as a most successful physician and 
surgeon at Pittsburg, Penn., near which city he resided in re- 
tirement with an accumulated competency. He passed the 
latest years of his life at DeFuniak Springs, Fla., where he died. 
Chauncy M. Dake, M.D., was one of the earliest practitioners 
of homeopathy in this country, having settled at Geneseo, N. 
Y., when there were scarcely a dozen physicians of that faith 
west of. New York City. He died at Rochester, N. Y., several 
years ago. 

Besides these brothers there was another, Abram B., who 
died at Nunda while yet a young man. There were three sis- 
ters, the eldest married to James McClellan, the second to 
Lyman Hoppins, and both couples had several children, mostly 
now residing in Michigan. One son of this second sister left 
a son, Chauncy I. Hoppins, who was long a successful physi- 
cian at Geneseo, 111. 

Dr. Dake's youngest sister was married to James D. Crank, 
a prominent merchant for many years at Geneseo, N. Y. She 
died several years ago at Cincinnati, Ohio, leaving six children. 
Mr. Crank then went to Pasadena, Cal., where his eldest son 
had become interested in orange groves and vineyards, and 
there he passed the remainder of his life. This son, Hon. J. F. 
Crank, some time a member of the California Legislature, is 
one of the leading capitalists of the Los Angeles region. His 

Dr. J. P. Dake— A Memoir. 303 

second son, Charles D. Crank. M.D., is practicing medicine at 
Cincinnati, and holds a professorship in the Pulte Medical Col- 
lege, of that city. His youngest son is also a physician and is 
located at Pomona, Cal. 

Dr. D. M. Dake*s only son was long an eminent physician 
at Belleville, 111., where he died, and his son-in-law, F. W. 
Skiles, M.D., till the time of his retirement was in a large and 
lucrative practice in the city of Brooklyn, N. Y. The only son 
and child of Dr. C. M. Dake was a well-known practitioner of 
the healing art in New York City, until his death in 1902. 

It is a noteworthy fact that every member of this numerous 
family of medical men has adopted the views of Hahnemann, 
including the father of the subject of this sketch, as well 
as his sons, hereinafter to be mentioned. And it must 
be added that Dr. Dake's mother was one of the earHest and 
most active advocates ot temperance, urging its claims per- 
sistently when social custom and fashion were all in favor of 
the free use of intoxicants. She favored moral reforms, de- 
nounced shams, and urged independence and vigor of action 
in all good measures, evincing the spirit of her Roger Williams 
Quaker Baptist ancestry. While her husband was a mild- 
mannered and good man, distinguished among his friends as a 
great peace-maker and benefactor, she was independent of 
thought, resolute of purpose and uncompromising in her efforts 
for what she deemed best. If her sons and her grandsons have 
shown little regard for the orthodox and the authoritative, the 
germ of it must be traced to her as the parent and the ex- 

J. P. Dake applied himself diligently to study for several 
years in the Nunda Academy and then at Madison University, 
at Hamilton, N. Y., being kept at school continuously, with 
the exception of one year, till he graduated under the celebrated 
President Eliphalet Nott from Union College, Schenectady^ 
N. Y., in July, 1849. The one year to the time of his graduation 
that he had not been at school, 1845-46, was spent as a peda- 
gogue in Tennessee. He was principal of Bethany Institute, 
about twenty miles east of Memphis. While in Tennessee his 
father died and this necessitated his return at once for the set- 

304 The American Historical Magazine. 

tlement of the estate and the care of his mother. Finding- his 
patrimony only sufficient to start him in some modest business, 
or to put him through the balance of his college course, he de- 
termined to use it for the latter purpose, much ag^nst the 
urgings of his family, who thought he was too frail to undergo 
the rigorous course of study. Because, also, of his being the 
youngest and only child left unmarried, his mother would have 
kept him with her at home. But she yielded to his earnest 
purpose to finish his education. His decision was finally reached 
one day when he was on his way to Hamilton. Having allowed 
the stage coach to go on while he stopped to call on an old 
friend five miles short of that place, he was walking the distance 
alone. On gaining an eminence, he caught a first view of the 
old university buildings three miles away across the valley, and 
halted suddenly to take in the scene. He looked long and 
earnestly, but despite his interest and desire as he made his 
earnest survey, the recollection came strongly upon him of 
the doubts expressed at home as to his physical ability to con- 
tinue so long at study. When all liad passed through his mind, 
when he had weighed the fears and wishes of his family, he 
said to himself, aloud: "There I will go through or lose my 
life in the attempt." This resolution being finally made he went 
down the road and across the beautiful valley to that battle- 
ground of college hopes and fears. Such was her anxiety on 
his account that for one year his mother took a house and re- 
mained with him at Hamilton, that she might be with him and 
care for him. 

The student foreshadowed the man. Having decided what 
to do, he did it. He was obedient to college rules, but there 
came a time when he refused to yield to a requirement of the 
faculty which he and nine-tenths of the students considered an 
imposition. The faculty were inflexible. Seeing their de- 
termination to enforce the obnoxious measure, and not desiring 
to put himself in open rebellion, he asked for and received an 
honorable dismission to Union College. The other students 
remained and when the storm broke a hundred and fifty young 
men were suspended for insubordinatk>n, while he was peace- 
fully pursuing his studies at Schenectady. At Union College 

Dr. J. P. Dakb— A Memoir. 305 

the independent way of thinking and the high resolve gained 
by inheritance were greatly fostered by the teaching and ex- 
ample of Dr. Eliphalet Nott. At that time no American insti- 
tution was turning out larger classes, or better or more cour- 
ageous thinkers, destined to make an impression on the world, 
than was Union College. All his life Dr. Dake stoutly main- 
tained that no college president and no college system in Amer- 
ica or elsewhere had been, or ever will be, superior to those 
of Union in her halcyon days, from 1820 to i860. The list ot 
her graduates during that period contains the names of men 
who adorned and still adorn almost every walk in American 

Graduating from Union College in 1849 ^s a Bachelor of 
Arts, at the age of twenty-two, the world was before him. His 
choice of the medical profession as a calling had not been made 
early in life. Indeed, 'at sixteen years of age he thought of 
studying law and began to read Blackstone in the office of an 
eminent lawyer. Deciding that his education was inadequate 
to the requirements of a learned profession, he determined to 
return to school, and did so. Before he had reached the end of 
his course he had been strongly impressed with the feeling that 
he ought to preach. Discouraged from this by a throat affec- 
tion, and troubled with dyspepsia, a natural inclination to the 
professicwi of his father and elder brothers finally determined 
him to study medicine. After graduation at Union College, 
therefore, he left Schenectady and went to Pittsburg, where his 
eldest brother, Dr. D. M. Dake, was engaged in medical prac- 
tice. Here he studied medicine under the preceptorship of Dr. 
Gustavus Reichhelm, a distinguished graduate of the Univer- 
sity of Halle, Prussia, who was the first man to carry homeop- 
athy west of the AUeghenies, in 1837. He attended one course 
of lectures at the Geneva College (old school), at Geneva, New 
York, and at this institution made himself popular by an essay 
in defense of homeopathy, rather a daring undertaking in an 
oW school college. After this he attended the Homeopathic 
Medical College of Pennsylvania (now the Hahnemann), at 
Philadelphia, which was the first fully organized homeopathic 
college in the world. From this institution he graduated in the 

3o6 Thb Ambrican Historical Magazinb. 

spring of 1851, and was from the first a fearless and active dis- 
ciple of the new school of medicine. His thesis, or graduating 
essay, was afterwards published in the Aimrican Journal of 
Homeopathy y and also in several of the foreign medical jour- 
nals. While in Philadelphia he enjoyed the friendship of Drs. 
Hering and Williamson, and especially of Dr. Neihard, with 
whom he spent many hours of profitable conversation, and who 
was the latest survivor of the old faculty. Dr. Neihard died a 
few years later crowned with honors as with years. 

Returning to Pittsburg after his graduation. Dr. Dake be- 
came associated with his former preceptor. Dr. Reichhelm. In 
1853 Dr. Reichhelm removed to Philadelphia, leaving the young 
physician a large and desirable clientele. Despite the demands 
on his time made by his large practice, however, he found time 
from the beginning of his career to defend the medical faith 
that he had espoused. Indeed, he had begun that before gradu- 
ation, as his first writing on the merits of the new system of 
therapeutics was an essay read before the senior class at Union 
College in 1848, and afterwards published in a Schenectady 
paper by Dr. Swits. It was entitled "Generalization in Medi- 
cine,*' and was written to illustrate logical methods. 

The city papers of Pittsburg printed numerous vicious attacks 
upon the new school of medicine, written, of course, mainly by 
physicians; and these attacks found in Dr. Dake a ready dis- 
putant. As he expresses it in his autobiography, he was so 
imbued with a high conception of the scientific character of a 
system of therapeutics based on a natural law that he was 
ready to contend with the biggest allopathic Goliath, however 
mighty he might be in wielding the lancet or the pen. Files of 
the leading daily papers of Pittsburg, from 1849, show these 
controversial articles from his pen which notably proved the 
truth of his readiness, and which led his opponents to recognize 
in him a literary as well as a medical scholar of no ordinary 
rank. It was in 1849, while yet a student, that he took a hand in 
the fight with Asiatic cholera at Pittsburg, and particularly in 
the controversy that sprung up in the newspapers in regard to 
its treatment. And such was the force of these articles that 
Dr. Dake was solicited to become associate editor of the Pfcito- 

Dr. J. P. Dakb—A Memoir. 307 

delphia Journal of Hotneopathy, which he did in 1852; after- 
ward he was associate editor of the North American Quarterly 
Journal, of New York. Both these journals printed articles 
which show the ability he possessed as a writer even at that 

In April, 1855, Dr. Dake was invited to deliver one of the 
orations at the celebration in Philadelphia of the centennial an- 
niversary of Hahnemann's birth. At that celebration he met 
as his fellow orators Dr. Joslin, the senior, and Dr. Bayard, of 
New York, both fellow alumni from Union College. Such was 
the force and effect of this oration and such the impression 
made on the profession, not only on those who heard it deliv- 
ered, but on those who afterward read it as printed in the medi- 
cal journals, that he was in the autumn of the same year called 
to the chair of materia medica in his alma mater. In view of his 
youthfulness he took the chair, as he records, with no little mis- 
giving, and this misgiving was not lessened by the importance 
of the teaching which was demanded. To his difficulty, much 
was added when he subjected the literature of his branch to 
critical examination. His urgent and thorough investigation 
of the matter led to the preparation of a paper on the need of a 
better condition of things, and this paper, read before the meet- 
ing of the American Institute of Homeopathy at Chicago in 
1857, was the beginning of the work that was afterward finally 
accomplished largely by his own labors. For two winters Dr. 
Dake left his practice to his partner. Dr. J. C. Burgher, and 
delivered these lectures on materia medica and therapeutics in 
Philadelphia, and here his faithful earnestness as a teacher im- 
pressed every pupil. "He was not a stern, pedantic instructor, 
whose erudition lifted him far above the level of those whom 
he taught," says a pupil of that year ; "he was kind, considerate 
and helpful, bearing patiently with those who were slow to learn, 
and appreciating those who were gifted beyond their fellows, 
yet withal conscientiously careful to display no favorites. His 
sincerity gained respect, his urbanity and dignity held their re- 
gard, while there was an attraction in his cultivated voice and a 
winning warmth in his smile that won affection from the pupils 
at first acquaintance." He found, however, that his health was 

3o8 The American Historical Magazine. 

impaired by the exactions of this double work, so that he re- 
luctantly withdrew from the lecture room and returned to 
Pittsburg. There he resumed his practice, to which he devoted 
his entire time, except in so far as he continued to write for the 
press and for the medical journals. 

It was at the Chicago meeting m 1857 that he was elected 
president of the American Institute of Homeopathy. He had 
first seen the Institute in session at New York in 1848, when it 
was but four years old. That year there were present Drs. 
Jeans, Williamson, Kirby, Cator, McManus, Wells, Payne, 
Gregg, Marcy, Paine, and others then distinguished in their 
profession but now long gone to their rest. In 1855 he was 
elected general secretary of the Institute, and by persistent 
notices in the journals and by circulars he succeeded in greatly 
increasing beyond anything that it had ever been the attendance 
ill 1856 at Washington. At this Washington meeting he pro- 
posed a startling innovation when he moved to hold the next 
meeting in Chicago, but after a warm debate of an hour he suc- 
ceeded in carrying his proposition. Many of the leading prac- 
titioners present expressed their fear that in holding the meeting 
so far West, where there were comparatively few to attend, 
and where even that few were so scattered in the woods and 
over the prairies, the meeting and even the society would in- 
evitably be ruined. But the result was most surprising and the 
Chicago meeting was large and lively. Chicago was then a 
young city, but a vigorous one, with an active local committee, 
and the meeting was an unqualified success. As a result of the 
prominence he had now gained, and in recognition of his past 
services as secretary and as a writer. Dr. Dake was elected 
president of the Institute in which he had from the first been an 
active, fearless and conscientious worker, and in. which he re- 
tained his interest to the last. This meeting was also noted 
for having the first regular banquet with toasts and music that 
had been known in the history of the Institute. 

The resignation of his professorship in Philadelphia, which 
came during the year 1857, was a source of genuine regret to 
him, because he was fond of teaching and fond of being among 
the students, even though his branch was at that time the 

Dr. J. P. Dakb— A Mbmoir. 309 

least exact and the most trying of all taught in the college. 
But despite the growing practice and the demands on his time 
made by public duties, he found time to continue his writing. 
He was a careful and voluminous writer upon many medical 
subjects, and the journals and magazines printed his writings 
gladly. In 1859 he published a small work on "Acute Diseases," 
which has appeared in several large editions since that time and 
has acquired a wide reputation for usefulness. This work was 
chiefly for domestic use. In i860 he became one of the editors 
of the United States Journal of Homeopathy, Chicago, and in 
this journal he wrote powerfully of the universality of the 
homeopathic law. 

The pressure of much work had its inevitable effect upon a 
constitution never robust, and his impaired health obliged him 
to relinquish his practice. He retired to his* farm near Salem, 
Ohio, leaving the choicest clientele that had ever been gathered, 
at that time in the city of Pittsburg. There, and on the south 
shore of beautiful Lake Erie, he turned his mind and worn-down 
energies to the cultivation of fine fruits, especially the grape. 
As in every other pursuit in which he ever engaged, he suc- 
ceeded; he succeeded so notably that he was soon at the head 
of the Grape Growers' Association of Ohio. Pomology inter- 
ested him intensely, while it restored him to health. During his 
administration as the head of the Grape Growers' Association 
he also wrote upon topics connected with his new pursuit, the 
Ohio State Reports of those years containing papers from his 
pen. During this time also Mr. Charles Downing, Mr. Barry, 
and other distinguished pomologists. were brought to the south 
shore of Lake Erie to see the wonderful display of grapes there. 
As a result of the experiments in grape growing at that time, 
and as a direct result of the discovery that this soil and climate 
were peculiarly adapted to the vine, this section of Ohio is now 
one of the greatest grape growing sections of the United States. 

But even in the midst of this success, there was a shadow on 
the home. The climate was rigorous, and the declining health 
of his wife led him again to think of Tennessee. In a matter so 
vital, to think was to act, and to secure for her the advantage of 
a milder climate he removed to Nashville in June, 1869. Feel- 

3IO The Ambrican Historicax Magazikb. 

ing fully recovered, he determined to return to the practice of 
his chosen profession. He announced himself as a practitioner 
of the new school, and opened his office July i, 1869, among 
strangers. Homeopathy had just fairly begun to make its way 
in the South when the war had come to place a barrier in the 
way of its progress and to discourage for the time the incoming 
of more of its practitioners. When he came, therefore, he found 
himself almost a pioneer again, but in an attractive field and 
among a hospitable people who received him gladly. His repu- 
tation made at Pittsburg followed him to Nashville and soon 
business began to pour in upon him — ^not because of adroit ad- 
vertising, not because of any other thing than because he had 
earned it by study and by his attention to medicine for many 
years. A notable illustration of Dr. Dake's modesty, and of his 
even over-scrupulous avoidance of anything that looked like 
using outside influences to acquire practice may be found in 
this: He was a Mason, Past Master of his lodge in Pittsburg, 
and had been a Royal Arch Mason for twenty-five years when 
he came to Nashville. On his arrival in Nashville he refrained 
from affiliating with the order here, determined that no one 
should even accuse him of making use of such introduction to 
gain business. But the business came. 

Becoming a citizen of Nashville from necessity in part, with 
his characteristic enthusiasm he became a citizen without any 
superior. Nor, despite the pressure of business, was his pen 
idle. He soon issued an enlarged and revised edition of "Acute 
Diseases," a pamphlet on **The Remedies We Use," and a larger 
one on '^Therapeutics in Outline," the latter being a display 
of the leading principles and methods of therapeutics of the 
law Similia similibus curantur. During his busy life he not 
only wrote for the journals and magazines, but contributed a 
multitude of articles for the daily papers and wrote many pam- 
phlets on medical and sanitary topics, besides numerous papers 
and reports for the American Institute of Homeopathy. Not 
a volume of the transactions of the American Institute since 
his earliest connection with the national society but contains 
papers from his pen or reports from important committees 
of which he was chairman or a leading member. As chair- 

Dr. J. P. Dakb — ^A Memoir. 311 

man of the bureau of materia medica in that society he con- 
ducted important investigations for several years touching drug 
attenuation and materia medica improvement, matters which 
he had first broached at the national gathering in 1857. On the 
former subject he submitted an important paper at the World's 
Convention in Philadelphia in 1876; on the latter he again pre- 
pared an able paper which he read at the World's Convention 
in London in 1881. By his efforts in this country and those of 
Dr. Richard Hughes in England a "Cyclopedia of Drug 
Pathogenesy'' was prepared and issued in four handsome octavo 

Indeed, one of the two monumental works of a professional 
character to be attributed to Dr. Dake was the preparation in 
conjunction with Dr. Hughes of this cyclopedia of drug 
pathogenesy. It is now, and will for generations, if not forever, 
be, the standard of the medical school to which they belonged. 
Dr. Hughes in the British Homeopathic Society and Dr. Dake 
in the American Institute of Homeopathy had been ardently 
advocating the necessity of the thorough revision of the materia 
medica, and the work had been inaugurated. At the session 
of the American Institute held in Deer Park, Md., in June, 
1884, the committee to select the American editor reported 
that in the selection of a man to fill this position they should 
have a representative man, an able man, one thoroughly versed 
by long experience in this peculiar form of work ; that he should 
be a man whose heart is in his work ; a man who could not be 
suspected from his connection with any institution of learning 
of having any interests at stake but the advancement of the 
great and important enterprise in hand. The report then con- 
tinued : "There is such a man in this institute, whose name ap- 
pears in every volume of the transactions for over a quarter of 
a century in connection with able literary work; a former 
professor of materia medica — perhaps the oldest professor of 
that branch now living in America. The man with whom the 
idea of a revision of the materia medica, so far as America is 
concerned, originated ; who for years has been chairman of the 
Bureau of Materia Medica in this institute ; who is always at his 
post ; who has never defaulted in the presentation of a good re- 

312 The American Historical Magazine. 

port — showing hard and original work — a man, a representative 
man, possessing from long experience the necessary ability; a 
man whose heart is in this enterprise, and who of all men should 
work in harmony with him who is our unanimous choice as 
foreign editor; an ex-president of this institute, who is con- 
nected with no college ; who is respected, admired, beloved by 
all. That man, the unanimous choice of the committee, is J. P. 
Dake, M.D., of Nashville, Tenn." 

What was said of the man named to represent the American 
practitioners of homeopathy was deserved before it was said 
but the amount of work entailed by the appointment and the 
manner in which the work was done make the deservedn^ss of 
it multifold. To do this work it was not only necessary to con- 
sult every existing authority so far as reliable, and to sift from 
all the chaotic mass of the then existent material the small 
amount of available accurate information, but by far the greater 
part of the work had to be done de novo, and the facts gathered 
from practitioners themselves, and from the voluminous facts 
hitherto collected by these distinguished workers for their own 
use. It involved a tremendous and almost world-wide corre- 
spondence for the next seven years. It required the digesting 
of a vast amount of gathered material and the freeing of it 
from unimportant or unproven facts. It necessitated the read- 
ing and re-reading of many thousands of pages of proofs and 
revises which must be read on both sides of the Atlantic ; being 
read and marked by one of the two editors, it was then sent 
across the waters to his confrere. No. matter how filled with 
the labors of his practice the days might be, large portions of 
the nights, and many an hour of the days, must be g^ven to this 
work for years. And it was given freely and ungrudgingly. 
Neither Dr. Dake nor Dr. Hughes received a dollar of com- 
pensation, nor did they expect it. But the work was done, and 
appeared beginning with the first volume in 1886 as rapidly as 
could be with the necessary care, until the last of the four 
handsome books was finished, with the date 1891 on the title- 
page. Both the editors have now gone to their reward. But 
the work lives and marks the degrees of their love for their 
profession. Its appearance marked an epoch in the history of 

Dr. J. P. Dake— A Memoir. 313 

homeopathy, an era in medical science ; and the work will always 
be historical, whatever may be added in the future to the knowl- 
edge the worid now possesses of drug pathogenesy. 

The "Pharmacopeia of the American Institute of Homeop- 
athy" is another standard with which the name of Dr. J. P. Dake 
is indissolubly linked. As early as 1868 a committee was ap- 
pointed by the institute to prepare such a work, and from time 
to time made reports of progress, down to 1874, when the 
chairman, Dr. Carroll Dunham, said that that was the last time 
the committee would have to report progress ; that before the 
next annual meeting the work would be ready for circulation. 
But the continued illness of a leading member of the committee 
kept the manuscript from being ready for the printer, and prep- 
arations continued for the two following years for the World's 
Homeopathic Congress at Philadelphia. This and the death 
of Dr. Dunham soon after prevented publication. Efforts were 
vainly made to secure the manuscript of the committee. So, 
in 1886, Drs. J. P. Dake, C. Wesselhoeft and A. C. Cowper- 
thwaite were named as a committee to consider the matter of 
having a pharmacopeia issued by the authority and under the 
auspices of the institute. The committee reported in favor of 
the project, suggesting a conference with a view of making the 
work international in character. They critically examined the 
British pharmacopeia and suggested needed alterations. A 
committee of twelve was decided upon to undertake the task, 
and Dr. Dake was made chairman of that committee. From 
convention to convention reports were made and the work pro- 
ceeded, not, however, being finished until after Dr. Dake's 
death, though he remained chairman of the committee until he 
died and did a vast amount of work on it. When he died the 
bulk of the labor had been performed, though the work did 
not appear in its complete printed form until 1897. 

Dr. Dake's long connection with the American Institute of 
Homeopathy and his active interest gave him a peculiar promi- 
nence in its proceedings. When he had been connected with 
the institute continuously for twenty-five years, he became by 
virtue of that service a member of the Senate of Seniors. To 
the Senate of Seniors were referred for arbitration and settle- 

314 The Ambhican Historical Magazine. 

ment all differences between members of the Institute and all 
questions requiring special delicacy and diplomacy in their con- 
sideration. The year after his entrance, always ready for a little 
humor, Dr. Dakc prepared and printed a form of comic initia- 
tion that was used for several years in taking into the Senate 
of Seniors those whose twenty-five years' membership in the 
Institute had been attained. It was the occasion of a great 
deal of fun among the dignified physicians. 

m 1873 Dr. Dake was in a hard fight with his old enemy, the 
Asiatic cholera, and when the smoke cleared up and a count 
was had, he found in his list of cases less than two per cent of 
deaths. It will be remembered that the epidemic of 1873 in 
Nashville was practically confined to the month of Jime, but the 
discussion it engendered waxed warmer and warmer till the 
summer was over. Dr. Dake took his part in the discussion. In 
the Republican Banner of August 21, 1873, there is a review of 
the cholera in Nashville, its character, treatment and resuks, 
which forms one of the ablest contributions he ever furnished 
to medical knowledge. The subject is wonderfully well covered 
in about four or five thousand words, and this little treatise on 
cholera is in exact line with what medical science has since ad- 
mitted to be the facts. The success of his own treatment is 
summarized in his brief biography as a victory for homeo|>- 

But in the midst of discussion and battle, the many-sidedness 
of the man appears, familiar only to those who had known and 
loved him. Those were days of deepest care and earnest 
thought — that cholera epidemic of 1873 and the summer that 
followed that fatal June. But there was a time for all things. 
In that same issue of the paper containing his treatise on the 
cholera, the Republican Banner of August 21, 1873, there is an- 
other contribution from Dr. Dake that emphasized that truth 
as much as it is possible for it to be emphasized. During: the 
summer he had been contributing to the paper at irregular 
times a series of articles suggested by a visit to Beersheba, 
which he signed "Hugh Bedam.'' In the article of August 21 
he gives a humorous account of a journey familiar to all who 
have visited Beersheba, a trip to the Stone Door. It is toil 

Dr. J. P. iDAKE— A Memoir. 315 

of incident, and so full of life that those who have taken the 
trip must know instinctively that he has based it on a real visit, 
and that the humorous incidents are not all imaginary. 

Dr. Dake was a member of the Royal Arcanum, and was the 
first State Examiner for that order in Tennessee. Through his 
hands for m^my years passed every application for membership, 
to be approved or disapproved by him as a safe or unsafe risk. 

But growing business and other heavy duties cheerfully as- 
sumed bore him down, and overwork brought about a broken 
state of health that compelled him early in 1875 ^^ leave his 
work and go across the ocean. May 26 of that year he had a 
slight stroke of paralysis, and after his recovery he left, Jime 
26, for JEurope, where he remained until November. Travel 
and new scenes restored him to vigor during these few months 
in Europe. He visited the British Islands, Holland, Belgium, 
Germany, Switzerland, Italy and France. His active brain found 
work of a most agreeable and refreshing character in those old 
countries with cathedrals, palaces and visiting collections of 
art. On his return he decided to give up his general practice, 
and confined himself to the office practice and to consultations 
with his sons. He found much more time thereafter to devote 
to literature and art and to charitable and humane enterprises. 

At one of the annual meetings of the friends and man^^rs 
of the Nashville Woman's Mission Home, the late Rev. A. J. 
Baird moved the appointment of Dr. Dake as chairman of the 
Advisory Board, in order, as he said, to secure the building of a 
hospital, an addition greatly needed by that institution. Very 
soon thereafter the chairman had each manager supplied with a 
small subscription book bearing his own signature and that of 
his wife for a considerable sum each, and by the time the archi- 
tect had his plans and specifications made, money enough was 
subscribed on the little books to warrant the giving out of the 
contracts for the building; and in less than a year the hospital 
addition was ready to use. 

In the National Centennial year one of the great gatherings 
that signalized the holding of the commemorative exposition at 
Philadelphia was the World's Homeopathic Congress, where, 
in obetdience to the programme. Dr. Dake read a paper intended 

3i6 The American Historical Magazine. 

to be a discussion of an essay by Dr. Hering on "Materia 
Medica as a Science." This attracted wide attention in the 

In 1876 he was also called again to a chair in his alma mater — 
this time the Chair of Principles and Practice. He accepted 
this work, but continued in it for a single year oply. Owing 
to his wife's inability to remain so far North during the winters 
and to his own unwillingness to be away from her, he tendered 
his resignation, so that he could remain with her in Tennessee. 

In 1878 Dr. Dake was appointed as a member of the Ho- 
meopathic Yellow Fever Commission, organized to inquire into 
the treatment as well as ])reventive measures resorted to 
during the great epidemic along the lower Mississippi and in 
Tennessee. This commission, it will be remembered, was ap- 
pointed at the original suggestion of a lady. During the sum- 
mer of 1878 an epidemic of almost unprecedented malignity 
visited a portion of the Southern States, its fury seeming to 
concentrate itself at Memphis, Tenn. Differing in many points 
from the disease as it had been known in former years, the 
malady was still classified by the vast majority of physicians 
as yellow fever. Theories to explain its malignancy abounded, 
and medical faculties discussed but could not explain satisfac- 
torily to each other the vagaries of the disease. Mrs. Elizabeth 
Thompson, a New York lady, suggested a commission of phy- 
sicians to investigate the character of the disease, accompany- 
ing the sugestion with an offer to defray the expenses, and a 
commission of allopathic physicians was appointed. Their re- 
port to the American Public Health Association being very un- 
satisfactory to a large part of the medical profession, a Ho- 
meopathic Yellow Fever Commission was appointed, and when 
Mrs. Thompson was informed by Dr. Verdi, of Washington 
Qty, of its appointment, she volunteered to pay-its expenses 
also. This commission went into the matter as thoroughly 
as possible. They submitted their report to the American In- 
stitute of Homeopathy in 1879, and dealt with the treatment 
called for more than with prevention or prophylactic measures. 
The Hues of this report were far-reaching and included prac- 
tically all that is yet known about the management of the yel- 

Dr. J. P. Dakb — A Mbmoir. 317 

low fever. Such was the impression made by the thoroughness 
of this report, that the secretary of the commission, Dr. T. S. 
Verdi, was shortly afterward appointed a member of the Na- 
tional Tk>ard of Health, appointed a little subsequently. 

The second World's Congress of Homeopathic Physicians 
was held in London in 1881, and by appointment Dr. Dake read 
a paper before that body on **Drug Attenuation." He was de- 
Hghtfully entertained during his stay, his extensive services to 
medicine as well as his strong personal attractions serving to 
secure him great attention. He had great pleasure in meeting 
and mingling with his English confreres at their elegant and 
hospitable homes, as well as at the sessions of the Congress. 
To the writers in Great Britain he regarded the English-speak- 
ing countries as indebted in a large way for their eminent serv- 
ices. **Dudgeon's Lectures,'* he says, **and the writings of 
Drysdale, Black, and other wise and learned associates in the 
British Journal, at an early day, saved our cause from the de- 
struction imminent by reason of transcendentalism (nihilism of 
dose) and the indiscriminate gathering and remorseless dis- 
membering of all reported drug symptoms." In London he 
visited Dr. Roth, the great translator and writer on the 
"Swedish movement cure," and **massage," into both of which 
he particularly inquired. After the adjournment of this con- 
gress, in company with his friends. Dr. and Mrs. Talbot, of 
Boston, he traveled through Holland, North Germany, Den- 
mark and Sweden, and then with a medical friend across into 
England and Russia, and afterward through Finland and Nor- 
way and back into England. While in Amsterdam he and Dr. 
Talbot and another medical friend called upon Dr. Metzger, 
celebrated as having cured the Queen of Sweden and the Queen 
of Spain after the failure of the physicians of their respective 
countries. Dr. Metzger received the visitors cordially and 
showed and explained to them his mode of treatment in the two 
celebrated cases. On inquiry he stated that he had depended 
little upon drugs ; chiefly on massagfe and Ling movements, as 
called for by the pathology of each case, and a knowledge of 
vital mechanics. Patients were then flocking to Dr. Metzger 
from all parts of Europe. 

3i8 The Ambrican Historical Magazine. 

In 1881, while standing at the grave of Galileo, Dr. J. H. Mc- 
Clelland, of Pittsburg, who had also attended the World's Con- 
gress of Homeopathic Physicians, first formed the idea of a 
national nlonument to the memory of Samuel Hahnemann, the 
founder of the Homeopathic School of Medicine. Eleven years 
later the time seemed propitious and he proposed the erection 
of the monument to the American Institute of Homeopathy. 
A committee of five, Dr. McClelland being chairman and Dr. 
Dake a member of the committee, was named to carry the 
project through, two other members being added some years 
later. Over a thou^fcd dollars was raised almost instantly. It 
was resolved that t^ memorial should be of bronze and gran- 
ite, and that it should stand in the city of Washington. The 
cost was figured at from $50,000 to $75,000. The following >-ear 
progress was reported and the Institute pledged $3,000. In 
their report in 1896 the committee noted the steady growth of 
the monument plan from a vague and indefinite idea to a 
superb conception from which a model was already selected- 
Models had been submitted by artists representing American, 
German, French, Spanish and Italian sculpture and were ex- 
hibited at the American Academy of Fine Arts in New York 
City, being the first public exhibition of competitive models 
held in this country. Congress was asked to grant a site, and a 
resolution authorizing the selection of any site that was suitable 
and unoccupied passed both houses; but President Cleveland, 
believing the resolution too broad in its terms, failed to sign it, 
and a two-years' wait was necessary. Plans for raising $75.- 
000 were adopted, and two years later President McKinley 
signed the resolution adopted by the Fifty-fifth Congress within 
a few hours after its adoption. The commission appKMnted by 
Congress to select the site recommended Scott Circle, prob- 
ably the best site that could have been had. In 1899 efforts 
were redoubled and during that year and the first half of 1900 
the rest of the money was raised. June 21, 1900, the monument 
was dedicated with elaborate and fitting ceremonies in the pres- 
ence of President McKinley and many high government offi- 
cials. This memorial is one of the most beautiful in Washing- 
ton, being attractive from every point of view. Three of the 

Dr. J. P. Dakb— A Mbmoir. 319 

original committee did not live to see the work completed — 
Drs. Dake, Talbot and Mitchell. To the monument fund Dr, 
Dake and his sons were among the largest contributors, 
and his interest in the undertaking was keen to the last. On 
the day after his death a letter came from Dr. McClelland ask- 
ing his advice upon the matter of requiring a uniform scale in 
the models for the monument, and upon other matters con- 
nected with it. 

His passionate love of art strengthened by the fine pictures 
he saw in the great galleries abroad, Dr. Dake desired to unite 
the artistic elements of Nashville in an attempt to build up art 
interests at home, and so he took the initial step in the matter 
of organization. Under date of January 17, 1883, he sent 
to the artists and art lovers of Nashville postal cards inviting 
them to a meeting at his own house on the following Friday 
evening at eight o'clock, "called foi the purpose of organizing 
an Art Association for Nashville, to be composed of artists and 
friends of art." The meeting was largely attended by the in- 
vited parties and the Nashville Art Association was formed, 
an organization made up of the best people of the commvmity, 
with Dr. Dake as president. The society grew into unques- 
tioned success while he was at its head. Aided in the manage- 
ment of the Association's affairs by the active art element of the 
city, Dr. Dake saw many of the hopes partly realized. The As- 
sociation accomplished splendid results* in the upbuilding of 
art interests in Nashville. Miss Annie Tavel, from before the 
organization a strong and efficient worker in the cause, was 
financial secretary of the Association and secretary of the 
Art School established by the Association's efforts. The pur- 
pose of organization had been not only to foster an interest in 
art, but eventually to create and encourage an advanced School 
of Fine Arts. The school was established and George W. 
Chambers made director. Mr. Chambers will long be remem- 
bered for the notable pictures he painted while here. The in- 
fluence of his work was strongly felt, but after his departure 
the school waned and was finally discontinued, its career ex- 
tending from 1886 to 1892. One of the most fMDtent factors in 
encouraging the art taste of the city was the holding of mer- 

320 Thk American Historical Magazine. 

itorious exhibitions. Three exceptionally good ones were held 
by the Association. The first was in the rooms now used by 
the Carnegie Library in Watkins Building, from March 30 to 
April 25, 1885. The second was a black-and-white and water 
color exhibition at the same place, from May 8 to May 22. 
1886. The third and most successful one was held in the Broad 
Street Amusement Hall March 18 to April 15, 1890. It was 
during this last exhibition that the controversy over "The Girl 
in Blue" was waged long and vigorously, resulting in attracting 
about all the reading public of Nashville to the exhibit. Dr. 
Dake originated the contest. Mr. Chambers was sick and un- 
able to leave his room. The exhibition was so slimly attended 
that failure looked certain. Something must be done. A 
chance discussion between two visitors suggested it. Taking 
a friend into the secret, Dr. Dake wrote an article savagely as- 
sailing "The Girl in Blue" as a work of no merit. His friend 
replied in hot defense of the picture. Herman Justi wrote also, 
under the name of "Drummer." As Managing Editor of the 
Evening Herald, I was a party to the conspiracy. The contro- 
versy waxed hot and a score of others innocently wanted to 
take a hand. People began pouring into the hall to see the pic- 
ture, and the day was saved. The exhibition resulted in a profit, 
allowing the purchase of a number of fine pictures which were 
the nucleus of the proposed art gallery. It is still but a nucleus. 
Many who saw "The Girl in Blue" at the Centennial Exposition 
recalled the animated controversy, but few ever knew how the 
controversy started. 

An organization in which Dr. Dake took a peculiar and es- 
pecial pride was The Round Table, of which he was one of the 
founders. Such was his devotion to it that this organization 
was given entire charge of the funeral services. It was or- 
ganized January 28, 1884, at the original suggestion of Dr. 
James H. Worman, then Professor of Modern Languages at 
Vanderbilt University. Thirteen responded to the call for a 
meeting to organize, this first meeting being held at Mooney's 
restaurant an Church street. The object of the club was social 
intercourse and the discussion of important current topics — 
social, economic and literary — ^and it has always been the idea 

Dr. J. P. Dake— A Mbmoir. 321 

to cultivate good talking rather than .the reading of papers, 
though many excellent papers were presented. The name 
Round Table was taken at the suggestion of Herman Justi, and 
a good supper was always a part of the programme. Founding 
the rule on the custom of the old Greeks, with whom a ban- 
quet was not a banquet without plenty of good talk, and with 
whom not over twelve or fifteen was considered best for intelli- 
gent conversation, the membership of the Round Table was 
limited to twenty, on the estimate that two-thirds of the num- 
ber would be about the usual attendance. Strangely, the usual 
number in attendance was thirteen, though ill fortune has not 
seemed to pursue the club. Many of the members became, or 
were already, well known in politics, education and other fields 
of activity. Dr. Dake was president in 1888-89 ^^^ was frequently 
assigned to lead in the discussions. As indicating the range of 
subjects discussed and the active part taken by him, it may be 
of interest to print the topics discussed by him. It will be sug- 
gestive also in showing that his work was not confined to 
professional matters altogether in a literary way. Two leaders 
were appointed for each discussion. The subjects discussed 
when he was one of the leaders and the gentlemen taking the 
opposite view, as per appointment, were as follows : 

December 15, 1884. With W. M. Baskervill: "Ought the 

Universities be Opened to Women?" 
November 11, 1886. With Charles Foster Smith: "Suffrage." 
February 10, 1887. With George W. Chambers: "The Duty 

of the State to Encourage Fine Arts." 

December 3, 1887. With George W. Chambers: "Dangers 

to Government Through Popular Suffrage." 
January 28, 1888. With Dr. T. A. Atchison : "Heredity." 
October 26, 1889. With Dr. D. M. Harris: "The Modem 


February 2, 1889. With H. M. Doak: "Mind Reading." 
February 15, 1890. With Dr. T. A. Atchison: "Influence of 

Republicanism on Society." 
January 10, 1891. With George W. Chambers: "Greek Art 

and Its Influence." 

3ia Thb American Historicajl Magazine. 

February 6, 1892. With Nathaniel Baxter, Jr. : "The Char- 
acter and Influence of Napoleon Bonaparte." 

March 4, 1893. With G. M. Fogg : '*Restrictions Upon Im- 

December 2, 1893. With Dr. D. C. Kelley : "The Partition of 
Africa, and What is Its Promise ?" ^ 

April 7, 1894. With J. M. Dickinson: "The Tennessee Cen- 

It may be said without fear of contradiction that no other 
such strongly literary body of men has ever been in existence 
in Nashville, and that no member sustained a better part of it 
than Dr. Dake. 

Early in 1885 Dr. Dake again crossed the Atlantic, this time 
in company with his son J. P. Dake, Jr., whom he took to 
Wiesbaden in the vain hope of benefit from the thermal and 
saline waters. These trips abroad were utiHzed by Dr. Dake in 
the careful observation of the best hospitals, their outfits and 
modes of management. After close observation and study he 
was impressed with the fact that the best American hospitals 
did not suflfer by comparison with the best of those abroad. 

The reputation of Dr. Dake as a teacher was as widespread 
as his reputation as a practitioner, and several offers to assume 
work in leading medical schools were received by him. Perhaps 
the most flattering of all was the call unanimously extended him 
in October, 1885, to take the chair of Theory and Practice in the 
Medical Department of the University of Michigan, at Ann 
Arbor. The inducements held out were such as are seldom 
held out to a man to accept an honor tendered, and the formal 
proposition was reinforced by personal letters from many warm 
friends in that State. In addition to whatever practice he might 
choose to do, the income promised him from the university 
work would have been a good living salary. As an example of 
how the appointment was regarded, one friend may be quoted: 
"I say that your appointment would be received with more 
earnest words of commendation than it is possible for any 
other man in this country to receive. Come and crown the end 
of an active, well-spent professional life by moWing your years 

Dtt. J. P. Dake— A Memoir. 523 

erf experience into a volume that would be more gratefully re- 
ceived than I can tell you in words." 

The letter tendering the position says : "We wish to select 
a man of ripe experience and possessing the confidence of the 
profession of the entire United States. In you we see that man, 
and think that it would be a fitting end to a useful life to take a 
position where your ripe attainments and long experience will 
diffuse themselves and elevate the standard of education among 
our young men." 

The tender, however, attractive as it was, had to be declined. 
He had grown too much attached to Nashville, and had built 
up too many strong ties that held hiiti in Tennessee. Of all the 
honors tendered which he could not accept, this was perhaps the 
most appreciated. 

In the American Institute Dr. Dake did work on several bu- 
reaus, chiefly on that of materia medica and pharmacy. There 
he brought forward criticisms upon the inexact and insufficient 
provings of drugs, and the consequent unreliable character of 
the homeopathic pathogenesy, and recommended plans for its 
improvement. As chairman for two successive years, he had 
the whole bureau at work upon the objects and results of drug 
attenuation, and these results were embodied in the paper read 
at the London Congress of 1881. In pursuance of this work, 
also, and despite his practice and the work progressing along 
other lines, Dr. Dake found time during the latter part of 1885 
and early in 1886 to prepare for publication his book on 
"Therapeutic Methods," a book that was his own in every part. 
It contained the substance of his brilliant course of lectures on 
the history and principles of medicine delivered at Hahnemann 
Medical College ten years before. The work was calculated, 
without tedious detail, to show the medical student the exact 
place in therapeutics occupied by the homeopathic method, the 
scientific character of homeopathy, the exact meaning and 
domain of the homeopathic law, and the value of a universal 
law in therapeutics. It was the mature result of thirty-five 
years devoted to the careful application of these principles, 
Among the ccwnments on it from ex-presidents of the American 
Institute and others high in the school are : "One of the most 

324 The American Historical Magazine. 

remarkable books of the decade ;" "Solved many knotty prob- 
lems that have harassed me for years;" "Will answer more 
medical questions than a cyclopedia ;" "The finished production 
of one of our most able, conscientious and classical writers." 
The book was such a success as to demand the issuance of a spe- 
cial college edition three years after ts first appearance. 

October lo, 1837, homeopathy had been first introduced west 
of the Allegheny Mountains by Dr. Gustavus Reichhelm, and 
the fiftieth anniversary of this event was celebrated at Pitts- 
burg on the afternoon of September 20, 1887. ^ significant 
programme was prepared for the meeting, and the historic ad- 
dress ol: the occasion was delivered i>y Dr. Dake. In his address 
he reviewed the circumstances that led to the coming of the 
new healing west of the mountains, "on a bright October day, 
when the fields of living green were becoming bronzed, and the 
woodland decorated with tints of purple and gold. As the 
softening haze on hillside and valley, peculiar to the season, hid 
from view the rugged and forbidding features of the distant 
landscape and cast a charm over all, so did the influences of 
youthful vigor and buoyancy, and the enthusiasm of a free and 
expanded son of the old Fatherland hide from anticipation all 
thought of the frowning prejudice and many annoyances that 
were awaiting him." Reichhelm worked alone for eight years, 
when another practitioner of homeopathy located across the 
river. In 1847 came Dr. D. M. Dake, the eldest brother of Dr. 
J. P. Dake. The sixth homeopathic physician to locate in Pitts- 
burg was Dr. J. P. Dake himself. This address is of the utmost 
historic value to the profession; it is a story of fifty years of 
medical progress, and bristles with evidence of deep study and 
wide-ranging knowledge. ' It is a veritable history of homeop- 
athy in the West in the early days. The past of medicine was 
reviewed and some justifiable boasting indulged in at the in- 
crease in the number of homeopathic physicians from a single 
one in 1837 to over five thousand in 1887 west of the mountains. 
The address was handsomely printed in the volume commemor- 
ating the occasion. 

One of the many enterprises in which Dr. Dake took an 
active interest was the erection of a commodious and comfort- 

Dr. J. P. Dakb—A Mbmoir. 325 

able home for the poor and insane poor of Davidson County. 
When the erection of modem buildings had been decided upon, 
the County Court, at its April term, in 1891, appointed a com- 
mittee to determine plans and to supervise the construction of 
the buildings. This committee consisted of John Overton, 
chairman; Dr. J. P. Dake, secretary; Dr. W. P. Jones, B. A. 
Phillips, Dr. J. H. Jordan, Dr. D. F. Banks and Judge R. R. 
Caldwell, ex-oflScio. This committee met on the 15th of the 
month in which they were appointed and at once organized by 
electing the chairman and secretary as above stated. Judge 
Caldwell, Dr. Dake and Dr. Jones were named as a sub-com- 
mittee to draft and formulate the information on which the 
architects should proceed in making competitive plans for the 
buildings. The minutes of this meeting made twenty-four lines 
in a little memorandum book in which Dr. Dake kept the rec- 
ords of the committee's work from this time until the final ac- 
ceptance of the completed buildings and the final report of the 
committee submitted to the County Court, that is to say, on 
the loth of January, 1894. These records are models of com- 
|>actness and completeness. All the acts of the committee, all 
the reports of sub-committees, all the bids and all the require- 
ments and all the instructions to the architect, as well as his 
action on the same, are set forth in brief space and so as to 
form a complete record of the committee's life until discharged 
by the court after their work was done. Every item of infor- 
mation that came before the committee, all the troubles with 
contractors and the entire workings of the committee are cov- 
ered, and yet the book could be carried in the breast pocket. 
The full attendance at meetings is a noticeable feature of this 
committee, all of whom were working from their interest in 
the poor and helpless, and not for compensation. Sometimes 
the meetings were held from day to day, and not infrequently 
more than once a day. The splendid results of the work will 
long stand a monument to the members of this committee, and 
especially to him whose repeated visits to the hospitals of 
Europe and America and careful and intelligent study of their 
methods and management had well fitted him for this duty. 
When the work had been completed the County Court voted to 

326 The Amexigan Historical Magazine. 

each member of the committee one hundred dollars, which was, 
iand was intended to be, within the amount of actual expense 
incurred by the members in their numerous visits to the site 
of the buildings, etc., but this repayment, or compensatioo, was 
decHned by some members of the committee, of which number 
Dr. Dake was one. 

At the great World's Congress at Atlantic City in 1891 Dr. 
Dake took an active part in the proceedings. One of the lead- 
ing addresses was delivered by him, his subject being "Civil 
Government and the Healers of the Sick." Of all the large 
gatherings he had attended, he thought that none ever came 
up to this Congress of 1891 at Atlantic City. The topic dis- 
cussed was one that was near to him. Dr. Dake always con- 
tended against legislative enactments for the regulation of the 
practice of medicine by boards of censors, and wrote much on 
the subject for the daily papers and for the journals, as well as 
some pamphlets. He objected to the drawing of a line basing 
a license to practice on the possession of a diploma, since, as he 
^.ontcnded, the most dangerous medical impostors and quackf 
have diplomas. He was an advocate of a law requiring each 
practitioner to write a personal history on a register kept for 
the purpose and open to public inspection, in the office of the 
County Clerk, under oath, telling what he has done to qualify 
himself for practice and to merit the confidence of the sick. 
His motto was, "Light for the people and freedom for the 
physician." Though possessed of as many and as good diplo- 
mas as any medical man in the State, he says : **Let every man 
stand on his practical merits, not on the small gatherings of 
his schoolboy days." His own expression on this subject is 
given in his autobiography. In the concluding part of this 
autobiography he chronicles the fact that he has written a great 
deal in his time on medicine, beginning when an undergraduate 
at a literary college, and continues : 

"The files of our leading journals and the transactions of our 
national society covering a period of more than forty years 
show much of my work, as well as my views on current medical 
topics. In conclusion of my outline narrative, submitted with- 

Dr. J. P. Dakb— A Memoir. 327 

out embellishment, 1 must make mention of some of the lead- 
ing thoughts and purposes that have generally led me on : 

**i. In the first place I deemed it important to bring to my 
professional studies a mind well trained and properly stored 
with classical and scientific information, to enable me to deal 
critically with the great problems of the healing art. 

**2. To me it seemed wise to avail myself of the best ways and 
means, the best helps devised, to prepare me for professional 

**3. In practice I adopted, and have constantly adhered to, 
a plan for the recording of my cases, as more than thirty portly 
volumes of records on my shelves will testify. 

"4. In my writings I have seldom ventured to display cases 
and prescriptions for the very reason that prevented Hahne- 
mann's doing so, namely, the faith one should have in the 
homeopathic law applied to a pure pathogenesy, a knowledge 
of drug effects in the healthy, and a faithful comparison of them 
with the symptoms of each case presented for treatment, has 
seemed to me of infinitely more importance in practice than a 
reliance upon the revelations of clinical experience, a source 
fruitful of ail manner of empiricism and uncertainty. My medi- 
cal logic has had the law as one. premise, a pure pathogenesy 
as the other, and a safe cure as the conclusion. To me my 
clinical experience has by no means been useless, however. It 
has widened and also rendered more definite my views of dis- 
ease on the one hand, while it has familiarized me, by many 
comparisons, with the characteristics of medicines on the other. 
It has made my work more expeditious and satisfactory— es- 
pecially has it enabled me better to determine if a case calls for 
the homeopathic remedy, or rather for some hygienic, mechani- 
cal or chemical, or simply palliative measure. It lias surely 
helped me to judge between doses variously attenuated, and 
as to the proper frequency of repetition. 

**5. My writings have not abounded in observations intended, 
from my clinical experience to stamp the essential value upon 
drug symptoms, rating some as key-notes or characteristics; 
nor have I dared to gather symptoms from the sick room and 
publish them as positive drug effects, worthy of a place in the 
materia medica. In my judgment the characteristic and sure ef- 
fect of various drugs must be distinguished from the personal 
or casual in the prover, in one safe way only — that of repeated 
and thorough trials upon the healthy. 

**6. As a busy practitioner, often physically weary and men- 
tally worried, exposed to all manner of disturbing influences, I 
have never regarded myself or others similarly situated as 

328 The American Historical Magazine 

proper provers of drugs; and hence I have most strenuously 
advocated a college of drug provers, where students of medi- 
cine, male and female, under skilled supervision and with all 
needed means for observing and noting symptoms, may be 
gathered for a few months each year and employed in originat- 
ing material for a new materia medica. It affords me great 
pleasure to find the profession, at last, moving in the desired 
direction, as shown at the last World's Homeopathic Congress. 

**7. 1 have always favored medical journalism. For years I 
took every homeopathic medical journal published in this coun- 
try and in England ; but the number has become so great I am 
obliged to select out those I consider the best. 

**8. I have been a 'society' man; not in the common accepta- 
tion of that term, but as in favor of social medical organiza- 
tions. In our early history it was plainly necessary for our 
practitioners to come together, not only for mutual improve- 
ment, but, as well, for mutual encouragement and defense. I 
am proud of the American Institute of Homeopathy ; what it is 
and what it has done ; and I hold that no physician in the coun- 
try, who professes to practice homeopathically, can afford to 
miss its meetings and the reading of its transactions. 

"9. Besides my other writings, in 1886 I gave to the world 
a volume entitled *Therapeutic Methods,' embracing the sub- 
stance of my course in Philadelphia on the principles of medi- 
cine, and showing especially the scientific character of the 
homeopathic therapeutics. 1 am quite willing to be judged by 
the teachings of that work in all the years to come. 

"10. I have been an earnest advocate by pen and tongue of the 
rights of our school practice, as against unfair legislation in- 
stigated by members of the old school. And more — I have 
been unalterably opposed to State censorship as to modes and 
means of healing, denying the right of the civil power to dic- 
tate in the premises. I believe in the utmost freedom oi the 
citizen while not a soldier, a convict, a lunatic, or a pauper, to 
choose his own minister and means of relief from physical suf- 
fering, without governmental restriction or interference ; and 
equally do I believe in the impossibility of any legally fixed 
standard of qualifications to be erected and enforced by police 
government. Each college and each society, or all the colleges 
and all the societies of any particular school, may have require- 
ments and regulations to govern their own members, and to be 
respectfully regarded by their adherents ; but let any or all for- 
ever abstain from a seizure of the legal arm, the governing 
power, to coerce and limit human efforts for the cure of the 

Dr. J. P. Dakb — A Memoir. 329 

"11. Among the greatest contributions made by me, aided 
by a faithful wife, to the cause of htunan healing, had been in 
four sons, graduates in medicine — namely, William C, Walter 
M., Charles, and Frank B. . . . all members of the American 
Institute of Homeopathy." 

The closing paragraph given above is a just tribute to the 
members of his family, who were as devoted to him as he was 
to them. Dr. Dake's marriage was a peculiarly happy one, his 
wife being Miss Elizabeth Church, daughter of Dr. William 
Church, a prominent physician of Pittsburg, who died in 1829. 
The marriage was solemnized April 3, 1851. Mrs. Dake's 
paternal grandfather was also a physician. Her father's brother, 
Samuel Church, was a prominent manufacturer and merchant 
at Pittsburg, a bosom friend of Alexander Campbell and a great 
promoter of the doctrine taught by Campbell. Mrs. Dake's 
brother, William Irwin Church, was also a physician, having 
studied with Dr. Dake and afterwards becoming his partner. 
Ho died in Pittsburg in 1862. Though early left an orphan and 
possessed of a delicate constitution, Mrs. Dake received a good 
education in her girlhood. Possessed of a natural fondness for 
literary work, she has written many lines of great merit, but 
which are words of confort and consolation addressed to friends 
in affliction and are chiefly known by them. With a strong re- 
ligious bias and inspiration, she has always been devoted to 
her church and the interests of the poor and distressed. Since 
her children have grown up so as to engross less of her atten- 
tion, she has been a manager of the board of the Woman's Mis- 
sion Home and of the Protestant Orphan Asylum at Nashville. 
A more devoted wife and mother and a more faithful dispenser 
of charity, all without ostentation, cannot be found. 

By his marriage with Miss Church Dr. Dake had five children, 
all sons. One of these, J. P., Jr., known to his family and 
friends as Percy, died in his thirtieth year in 1886. He was 
bom September 15, 1857, and educated chiefly at Nashville. 
He attended lectures at the Medical Department of the Uni- 
versity of Tennessee, and graduated from the University of 
Michigan, taking his degree in 1879. He located at New 
Albany, Ind., but the failure of his health forced him to give up 

3SO Thb American Historical Magazine. 

Ws practice. Visits to Hot Springs and other health resorts in 
this country and to the saKne and thermal springs at Wie sfcadcn 
failed to restore his health, and the inevitable followed. 

The four surviving sons are all practitioners of medicine af- 
ter the ideals which their father had set for them. The eldest 
son, named William Church for his maternal grandfather, was 
born in Pittsburg, January 28, 1852. His literary education was 
received at Ypsilanti, Mich., and at Nashville, where he com- 
pleted tke course in the High School. After studying medi- 
cine in his father's office he graduated in 1872 from the medi- 
cal department of the University of Nashville. He also attended 
lectures at the New York Homeopathic Medical College, the 
College of Physicians and Surgeons of New York City, and the 
clinks at Bellevue Hospital. After 1872 he was connected with 
his father in practice, and since his father's death has taken his 
place as the head df the firm of J. P. Dake & Sons. His wife 
wa« Miss Adelaide Wiggin, daughter of Richard Wiggin, of 
Pittsburg, Pa., and later of Janesville, Wis. They have two chil- 
dren, Richard W., and Bessfe C. The son has just graduated 
at the Medical Department of Vanderbih University and en- 
tered upon the practice of his profession in Nashville. 

The second son, Walter M., was bom January 16, 1855, re- 
ceived his literary education at Nashville, and attended lec-r 
tures at the Medical Department of the University of Tennes- 
see, at the Pulte Medical College in Cincinnati and at the Hahne- 
mann Medical College at Philadelphia, taking a diploma at the 
last named in 1877. Inheriting a strong Hterary tendency from 
his father, he hesitated s<Mne time before entering upon the 
pursuit of his profession of medicine, but finally began at Jack- 
son, Tenn. He was building up a large practice when he was 
called to Nashville to assist in taking care of the rapidly grow- 
ing practice of his father and elder brother. The two brothers 
now constitute the firm of J. P. Dake & Sons. He married 
Miss Fanny G. Ward, the eldest daughter of a wealthy Texas 
planter, at Jefferson, Texas, and has by her two children, Walter 
M., Jr., and a daughter. Woody. 

The fourth son, Charles, was born July 13, i860, receiving 
bis literary education at Nashville and in the Southwestern Bap- 

Dr. J. P. Da«e— A Memoir. 331 

list Universky at Jackson, Term. Attending lectures at the 
Univer'Sfty of Tennessee, he graduated therefrom in 1881. He 
apemt the summer of ^that year at Mot Springs in charge of the 
business of a practitioner who had ^one to Eurc^. Locating 
then at LovrissviHe, he was building up a practice there -when his 
friend removed from Hot Springs and urgent calls from other 
friends catised him to return to that place in the autumn of 
1883. The reward of his work there has been success of the 
most pronounced sort. 

The youngest son, Frank B., was born at Salem, Ohio, Sep- 
tember 10, 1^4. He was educated at Nas^hville, and then tocfk 
a business c(Mirse vnth. a view of entering active business, but 
finally conduded to follow the example of his brothers, attend- 
ing lecttH-es at the University of Tennessee. He graduated 
from the medical department of that university and is associated 
with his brother Charles in a large and remunerative practice 
at Hot Springs. 

After his retirement froni active practice one of Dr. Dake's 
pleasures was in responding to any call by which he could talk 
wilh or to youi^ men. Several of the little printed announce- 
ments lay among his papers, among them one announcing a 
talk on "The Secret of True Strength," at the Young Men's 
Christian Association rooms, Sunday afternoon, May 8, 1890. 

When the project of a Tennessee Centennial Exposition be- 
gan in the later months of 1893 to be talked of in the active 
organizations of Nashville favoring such an exhibition. Dr. 
Dake was one oi the very first to be actively enlisted in the 
campaign for holding it. In the Art Association and in the His- 
torical Society he ardently advocated it, and by both these so- 
cieties was placed on responsible committees charged with aid- 
ing the movement. He was a member of the General Commit- 
tee from the Art Association. It will be remembered that the 
General Committee arranged the plans for calling the State 
Coftvention of June 19, 1894, to formulate definite plans for the 
exposition. At the meeting of the Art Association of March 3, 
1894, Dr. Dake urged the need of greater activity by the Asso- 
ciation in view of the approaching exposition, and May 23, at a 
meeting of the Tennessee Historical Society, he addressed them, 

332 Thb Ambrican Historical Magazinb. 

by their request, upon the proper observance of the centennial 
anniversary. He favored eight departments, including one of 
Fine Arts and History, and he advocated locating this building 
in a centra] part of the city, so that it might after the dose of the 
exposition be made permanent and preserved as the Tennessee 
Academy of History and Fine Arts. 

He also urged upon the latter society the golden opportunity 
this celebration offered for collecting documents relating to the 
early history of the State, by which its possessions could be 
vastly enriched and the materials gathered for the future his- 
torian. His plan was for the committee on History and Fine 
Arts to furnish paper of uniform size to those who would un- 
dertake to supply historical matter, and that the contributions 
be displayed at the exposition in bound volumes, and, there- 
after be kept in the society's rooms. Future writers of history 
would seek these volumes with avidity. Such a collection 
would forcibly answer the questions of future generations as 
to what Tennessee had done in her first hundred years. Every 
event, association, society, school, denomination, county, should 
be written up as fully and as accurately as possible. He di- 
vided his plan into six parts, embracing the Indians and their 
territory, wars and treaties ; pioneer settlements and when and 
by whom ; organization of the State government ; forming and 
naming of counties; different surveys of lands and fixing of 
lines; the judiciary of the State, beginning and development. 
Newspapers, schools, railroads, manufacturing establishments, 
etc., could be included and should be. As a result of his address 
a committee was appointed to carry out his plans, and he was 
made a member of the committee, being elected chairman by a 
unanimous vote. He spent the summer away from Nashville, 
traveling to the Northwest with Judge Howell E. Jackson and 
a party of friends in a private car. While at Manitou, Colo., 
August 25, he suffered another stroke of paralysis, but recov- 
ered and returned with the party to Nashville. Very shortly 
thereafter a four-page circular was issued containing full in- 
formation as to the plans, and giving under eleven heads a list 
of forty-seven classes of topics to be covered. The circular 
was dated September 28, and one month later he was dead. The 

Dr. J. P. Dakb — A Memoir. 333 

project came to little, save that it stirred some of the papers ol 
the State to the printing of historical matter prepared for them 
— a thing which they had hitherto been very chary about ad- 
mitting to their columns, with a few rare exceptions. 

After the convention of June 19, 1894, had formally launched 
the enterprise, proclaiming the inauguration of the exposition 
movement, a charter was taken out and one of the first board 
of directors was Dr. Dake, who was also elected chairman of 
the Executive Committee. At a meeting of the Executive Com- 
mittee held September 6, 1894, the committee on site was ap- 
pointed, and Dr. Dake was chairman. The afternoon of the 
day on v/hich he was stricken he spent riding about the city 
and making personal examination of the sites offered for the 
exposition. But in all of this work he never lost sight of his 
proposition to acquire a permanent museum of Fine Arts, and 
went on quietly perfecting his plan. He secured an option on 
Polk Place and had had pledged by private subscription almost 
the amount necessary to complete the transaction when he was 
stricken down. 

He was always for Nashville, and keenly alive to ever}thing 
that promised good to her. An illustration of this was the fact 
that Dr. Dake was a member of the Chamber of Commerce, 
then the only commercial organization of the city, because he 
felt, and taught by his every action, that the duty of every man 
who can is to help the commercial organizations of the city in 
their work for the general good. As the American said the 
morning of his death: **No man in Nashville will be more 
missed." And after his death there were places that remained, 
and till to-day remain, unfilled ; plans of work that have never 
yet been carried out. Had he lived, it would have made a vast 
difference, because failure had never been known to come to 
an enterprise in which he had engaed. His life was a record of 
successes achieved. 

The funeral services were in charge of the Round Table, and 
never was a funeral more largely attended than on that dreary 
Monday afternoon, when the First Baptist Church was filled to 
overflowing. The active pallbearers were members of the Old 
Oak Club, and the entire membership of the Round Table, to- 

334 'I'hk Ambrican Historical Magazine. 

gether with a committee from the Tennessee Historical So- 
ciety, constituted the list of honorary pallbearers. During the 
services a strikingly beautiful and suggestive thing happened. 
The solo, "L^ad, Kindly Light," by Mr. Frederic Farrar, was 
the first number of the sad programme. Then a Scripture read- 
ing by Rev. J. R. Winchester, the hymn, "Abide With Me," by 
the choir, and a prayer by Rev. Dr. D. C. Kelley, followed by 
the solo, "Some Sweet Day," by Mrs. G. P. Thruston, and Dr. 
I. M. Frost's funeral discourse. The day had been dark and 
gloomy, rain pouring while the funeral cortege entered the 
church. During the singing of the solo "Lead, Kindly Light," 
the rain ceased and the clouds were slowly clearing away. Mrs. 
Thruston rose to sing, and as the first sweet notes were heard, 
the sun burst suddenly from behind the clouds, and through the 
large transom over the west door of the church the stm thrust 
one broad beam of golden light that fell upon the cofiin and 
the flowers about it ; it touched nowhere else in all the church. 
It stayed until the song was done, reminding those who still sal 
in the shadow that their friend had only passed over into the 
eternal light. The incident was one of those striking coinci- 
dences that are never forgotten when once witnessed, and 
brought to every mind the promise, "It shall be Kght at the 
eventide." After the services the long funeral pwocession made 
Its slow way to beautiful Mount Olivet. 

The thought of this funeral recalls the fact that after the 
death of Dr. Dake the family found in the pocketbook which 
he carried a poem he had cut from the Nashville Banner oi 
August 5, 1890, over four years before his death, and which, 
from the worn folds, he had evidently carried ever since. It was 
William Cullen Bryant's poem, "The Future Life." 

The last letter written by Dr. Dake went twice across the 
ocean, through many lands, and twice half around the workl, 
but is now in the possession of his family, a valued reminder 
of his last day of life with them. October 24, one day preceding 
his fatal stroke, he was in company with Rev. J. P. Farrelly, 
formerly of Nashville, but then and since the secretary of the 
American College in Rome. They had a delightful time to- 
gether, being old friends and of congenial tastes, and that 

Dm. J. P. Dake— A Mbmoir. 335 

night Father Farrelly left for Rome. While with him Dr. Dake 
recalled the fact that Lieutenant C. C. Rogers, of the United 
States Navy and of Nashville, had been commissioned to take 
charge of the Columbus relics which had been loaned to the 
World's Columbian Exposition, and had been assigned the duty 
of returning those relics to the Vatican and to Spain on board 
the United States steamship Detroit He told Father Far- 
relly of this mission, sa3dng that he would like to send a letter 
of introduction to him to Lieutenant Rogers. Father Farrelly 
expressed his pleasure, which was the greater because he had 
been instrumental in getting the articles from the Vatican when 
the exposition ccHnmissioner went to Rome. Indeed, but for 
bis efforts so much could not have been secured. On the 
morning of October 25, Dr. Dake asked his son, Dr. W. C. 
Dake, to secure from Lieutenant Rogers' mother the address 
to which a letter should be sent, and during the day this was 
done. After suffer on that day the letter of introduction was 
written and enclosed with one to Lieutenant Rogers to New- 
port, R. L, to be forwarded to the United States steamship 
Detroit, He addressed the letter in Dr. W. C. Dake's presence 
as he was leaving the office and mailed it on his way to the 
Tabernacle that night. It went to Newport, thence to Lon- 
don, and finally reached Lieutenant Rogers at Cadiz, Spain. 
By almost the same mail came another letter from the lieuten- 
ant's mother, in which she told him of the death of Dr. Dake. 
Arriving at Rome, Lieutenant Rogers presented the letter to 
Father Farrelly and found it of the greatest use. Owing to the 
strained relations existing between the Vatican and the 
Quirinal since the war between Italy and the Papal States in 
1870, and owing to the fact that the United States ambassador 
in Rome was accredited to the Quirinal, while there was no rep- 
resentative at the Vatican, Father Farrelly acted as the spon- 
sor, so to speak, for Lieutenant Rogers, and was in position to 
be most helpful. Lieutenant Rogers found, as do all who meet 
him, that Father Farrelly was "a jnan of remarkably broad 
culture, and ranks high among the learned men of Rome." In 
speaking of Dr. Dake, Lieutenant Rogers pronounced him "one 
of those men who are conspicuous for the good they diflfuse 

336 The Ambrican Historical Magazine 

through their own high standards and noble examples." Father 
Farrelly himself wrote the bereaved widow "a most beautiful 
tribute to the worth of her departed husband. 

Subsequently Lieutenant Rogers wrote from Hong Kong, 
whither the Detroit went from Italy, and gave an account of 
the incidents connected with the presentation of the letter to 
Father Farrelly. The delicate situation of the officers repre- 
senting the United States was realized by both the Quirinal 
and the Vatican, and the American College was for that reason 
designated as the neutral medium through which the delivery 
of the relics should be made. The attendant ceremonies arc 
briefly described, as well as the many pleasant events that 
crowded the rapidly passing hours in the Eternal City. Christ- 
mas day, with its dinners and luncheons and receptions, the 
visft to the Papal residence in the Vatican, the Pope's ccwdial 
reception of the officers, his expressed love for America, and all 
the attendant ceremonies; court functions and the meager 
salaries of American representatives abroad as compared with 
those of the representatives of other nations; visits to all 
Rome's more notable places of beauty and historic interest — 
these are only some of the topics covered in this letter. Lieu- 
tenant Rogers writes, he says, as he would have written to 
Dr. Dake himself, had he been alive, to tell of the events con- 
nected with a visit in which he had shown such deep interest. 

Though the enfeebled constitution and precarious health of 
Dr. Dake had been known to his intimate friends for some 
time, yet the announcement of his death caused a painful shock, 
and brought to them with great distinctness the delightful as- 
sociation of the past. The mind realizes more cleariy the 
evanescence of the present state of being and the certainty of a 
future development when death comes to those bound to us bv 
ties of sincere affection or respect. When death comes sud- 
denly upon them this truth is the more forcibly brought home. 
Dr. Dake early in life had united with the Baptist Church, to 
which his wife also gave her adherence after marriage, and 
until his death he was a worker there as elsewhere, while Mrs. 
Dake gave a great portion of her time to works of charity and 

Dr. J. P. Dake— A Mbmoir. 337 

From every quarter came expressions of sincere regret. 
From medical bodies at home and abroad, national, state and 
local; frcMn his alma mater and colleges which had bestowed 
honorary degrees upon him ; from scores of journals and maga- 
zines to which he had contributed; from personal friends in 
Europe and America, from art associations, literary 6rganiza- 
tions and historical societies, came resolutions of regret and 
evidences of sincere sorrow. Among others came resolutions 
of regret from the Homeopathic Medical Society of Mexico, 
of which he had been long an honorary member, and from the 
Western Academy of Homeopathy, of which he was also a 

From all these notices it is hard to select, but all spoke 
words containing praise for the dead and inspiration for the 
living. A few sentences from a small number may indicate the 
universal tenor: 

Faculty of Cleveland Homeopathic Medical College: "He 
hac a loyal heart, a character tmblemished, and with willing 
hands faithfully discharged all trusts in and out of the profes- 
sion that were assigned to him." 

Homeopathic News, November, 1894: "His life was a suc- 
cess — a continuous triumph. Directly and indirectly homeop- 
athy is largely what it is in America through his efforts." 

5*/. Louis Journal of Homeopathy, December, 1894: "His 
strong intellectual power, his broad, varied culture and long 
life gave him a range of usefulness and activity enjoyed by few 
favored ones in human experience. 

Dr. Pemberton Dudley, elected Greneral Secretary of the 
American Institute of Homeopathy in 1895, writes to Dr. W. 
C. Dake, thanking him for his congratulations on election, and 
saying: "Had your honored father been spared to us, I know 
that I should have had his warm support as well as his wise 
counsel. I had been accustomed to lean my whole weight upori 
him in times of doubt and self-distrust." 

Among the State societies of which he was an honorary mem 
ber, and which adopted resolutions of respect, were the 
Homeopathic Medical Societies of New York, Pennsylvania, 
and Ohio, as well as numerous others. 

338 Thb Ama&ican HisiroRiCAL Magazine. 

l>r. Lucius D. Morse, of Atlanta, Ga., a man who knew Dr. 
Dake well ami who was a student under kinrt in learning the 
profession of medicine, thus tersely summarized his charactcrisr- 
tics for the biographical record of his alma mater : 

Strong in his convictions, he was outspoken and fearless in 
their defense; public spirited, ardent in the discharge of all 
duties ; sociable, winning m address, generous, cheerful, sympa- 
thy tic, young of hear^ to the end ; Ic^^l in mind, a patient and 
systematic investigator, tireless in l;us favorite pursuits; an 
intense and discriminating lover of literature and art, an en- 
thusiastic traveler, a keen and witty observer of the world at 
large; modest and charitable in all things, an earnest and con- 
scientious Christian. Possessed for many years a large and 
lucrative practice. As a writer, lecturer and physician, was 
eminently successful. Admired and respected by his students, 
beloved by his patients, esteemed and honored by the com- 

How the death of Dr. Dake was viewed by that medical worlo 
to which he belonged, and of which he had been for more than 
forty years so large a part, can best be judged from the manner 
in which it was officially made known to and received fay the 
American Institute. The president, Dr. C. E. Fisher, of Chi- 
cago, was delivering his general address and referred in touch- 
in^'' words to tliose who had died during the year. As he 
reached that part of his address referring to Dr. Dake, accord- 
ing to a previous arrangement made, but unexpectedly to the 
members of the Institute, the lights were turned low and Dr. 
George B. Peck threw on a screen at the back of the speaker 
a Kfe-size portrait that was instantly recognized by everyone 
present. Despite the solemnity of the occasion, there was an 
outburst of applause when the likeness appeared upon the can- 
vas, though it was quickly hushed. The organist played a 
tremulo while Dr. Fisher delivered his tribute, and at its con- 
clusion Dr. Fisher rested with his right elbow on the desk in 
front of him and the choir sang a couple of stanzas of "God 
he With You Till we Meet Again," while the portrait slowly 
faded away. 

Those who knew Dr. Dake best were aflFected to tears. Much 
of the asperity that had existed in the Institute in recent years. 

Br. J. F. Dakb— A Memoir. 339 

espedally toward Dr. Fisher himself during the year then 
ctosing, was softened away by the occasion. Antagonisms 
which were sharp and unpleasant melted away, and not a few 
said that Dr. Fisher's tribute did more than anything else to 
soften the feeling which certain members were believed to 
cherish against the president. It was evident throughout this 
meeting that the address had touched a chord to which every 
heart had responsively thrilled, and as Dr. Peck expressed it 
in a letter to Dr. W. C. Dake shortly after, "that gentle, cour- 
teous spirit which ever characterized your father pervaded 
thereafter the entire session of the Institute. It afforded me 
unbounded satisfaction to contribute, though in a very indirect 
and humble way, to the honoring of his memory, the perpetua- 
tion of his influence. The incident will never be forgotten by 
anyone who was present." 

The tribute paid by Dr. Fisher, thus representing the feeling 
of the entire Institute, was worthy of the occasion. When he 
had I ef erred to all the others who had gone before, and while 
many were doubtless wondering with some sharpness of feel- 
ing why reference to Dr. Dake had not been made, he paused, 
and then began again as the portrait of Dr. Dake came out 
strongly on the canvas : 

"And one other endeared remembrance whose life was of 
enduring beauty, so enrooted in the love of us one and all that 
1 need not tell you of his incomparable service to the Institute 
he loved so well, need not recall the whole of his devotion to 
its every weal, of his sorrow for its woe. As you look upon the 
reflection of his kindly face I need not dwell upon the works 
of his life. They cluster unbidden about you. They pass in 
fair array before you without quickening word from me. From 
year to year since 1852 the name of him whom the Institute 
has delighted to honor has been set jewel-like in her crown. 
From meeting to meeting, through every meeting, from the 
moment the opening gavel was struck until its fall declared the 
session ended, he labored untiringly for that meeting's suc- 
cess. By hira more than by any other man have the Institute's 
policies been mended, its course been shaped, its helm been 
guided. As early as 1857 he was honored with the presidency ; 
in 1884 he was chosen American editor of the "Cyclopedia of 
Drug Pathogenesy," published jointly under the auspices of the 

340 Thb American Historical Magazinb. 

American Institute of Homeopathy and the British Homeo- 
pathic Medical Society, and for a number of years past he has 
been president of the Senate of Seniors. Examination of the 
volumes of this Association for twoscore years will show the 
presentation of more pages from his pen than from any other 
worker in the rank and file of the Association. His life is in- 
separably connected with our history. The imprint of him is 
so indelibly stamped upon our record that it can never be 
effaced. Of all his colleagues who gathered with him year by 
year to build tliis Institute to a mighty national association to 
stand for liberty in medicine and progress in science, not one 
encompassed in his nature the wisdom, the culture, the gentle- 
ness and the forcefulness that enriched this noble character. 
As an able defender of the cause of truth, he was ever for peace 
without and within. An earnest student of science in aU her 
departments, he was a faithful exponent of a liberal homeop- 
athy. Conservative in some things, he was true in all. Liberal 
in many things, he was just in all. I need not speak his name, 
though you knew him none too well. In the death of Dake a 
hero has fallen who is mourned of his family, his friends, of us, 
as one of those exemplars of manhood of whom be it said: 
*Take him for all in all, we shall not look upon his like 
again.' As we recall his life with us, as we remember the 
kindly light that beamed from the windows of his soul, as we 
bespeak again his many acts of generous import, as we remem- 
ber his gracious intellect in its beautiful setting of quiet de- 
meanor, sturdy action and outspoken purpose, as we dwell 
withal upon his tenderness and loveableness and broad hu- 
manity — need we wonder that Nashville mourns her loss, his 
family and friends their sore bereavement, homeopathy its ir- 
reparable affliction?" 

Concerning the effect of his address, which had not been an- 
ticipated by him, Dr. Fisher wrote afterwards : 

*'The eulogy and the affection that it carried with it won 
many friends for me. Some of the elder colleagues have mis- 
understood me. They have mistaken earnestness, enthusiasm 
and firm convictions for antagonism. They have believed me 
a dangerous man in the Institute. They have made it very un- 
pleasant for me, and, to tell you the truth, I went to Newport 
with a heavy heart, many misgivings, and a half resolve not to 
go at all. This deserved though feeble tribute to the memor}- 
of my friend was to them a revelation and dispelled doubts and 
misgivings that were deep-rooted and firm." 

Dr. J. P. Dake— A Mbmoir. 341 

At one of the night sessions of the Institute the formal me- 
morial service was held, at which some friend and close ac- 
quaintance of each one of the deceased members read a me- 
morial paper. The memorial on Dr. Dake was read by Dr. 
Bushrod W. James, of Philadelphia, who had traveled with 
him in 1881 after the adjournment of the World's Congress in 
London. The entire paper was eloquent with the tributes of 
friendship, and particularly referred to their travels together. 
In part Dr. James said: 

"He was faithful and untiring in every undertaking, and as a 
traveler he was one to drink in and enjoy with the most soul- 
ful delight. I think in no other relation was he more truly ad- 
mirable than as a traveling companion. I recall him now as 
wandering with me in the valleys and mountains of Russia, 
Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Great Britain ; in the gardens 
and among the churches of the noble cities of London, Quis- 
tiana, Stockholm, and St. Petersburg, and in the medieval 
towns of Europe ; his glowing appreciation of every new scene, 
his love for nature in mountain, valley and river added new de- 
light to the enjoyment already stirred in my own heart by their 
ever-changing beauty. 

"In Copenhagen, Stockholm, Christiana, Abo, and other 
cities, we visited churches, castles and public institutions, my 
warm friend always discovering the rarest beauties in archi- 
tecture and paintings, always pausing to drink in the very soul 
of the artist's ideas, whether in the one or the other. 

"While visiting Norway, we made an excursion from Chris- 
tiana to several spots of historic interest in the neighborhood, 
among them being Krongkleven — meaning a rocky cliff about 
1,300 feet above the level of the city. After stopping to look 
at each change in the wonderful panorama on our way, we rode 
cm and up to a spot called Kongen Udsigt, or King's View. 
There we sat upon a rock, hewn by nature into, the semblance 
of a rude chair, and gazed in speechless delight at the glorious 
view which opened upon our vision. Away to the northwest we 
saw the Tyrifjord, its many islands resting like gems in the 
sparkling water; beautiful, quaint, little towns and hamlets, 
with arms of the Tyrifjord glinting here and there through 
verdant valleys, and forests of bright green trees waving in the 
gentle wind. In the west we saw in the distance Gausta and 
other snow-clad mountains, making strong, cool contrast with 
che lovely beauty of the country at their feet. 

342 Thb American Histoucai. Maoazinb. 

"Only one who has thus been comparatively alone with na- 
ture in her untrammelled beauty, with neither art nor sdence 
to improve or mar, can realize how closely one is drawn to an 
enthusiastic companion whose enjoyment, too full for mere 
words, finds expression in souKul breath and sparkUf^ eyes. 
So Dr. Dake and I sat side by side, gazing in wondering a- 
lence at the exquisite loveliness of islands, water, valleys and 
mountains, and I doubt not he as well as I thought of how 
|B:lorious the land must be that is more beautiful that this fair 
earth. And now he beholds that other country, that perfect 
land, while my heart swells with grief for the loss of my dear 
Iriend in whose companionship I took such pleasure. 

"I can recaU most clearly another scene in winch we found 
food for many a thought. We took the steamer from Stock- 
holm to Abo in Finland and then to St. Petersburg ; and never 
will I forget that beautiful sail ! It was about four o'clock m the 
afternocn when we started and the voyage extended into the 
next day. But we were near the Land of the Midnight Sim, 
and no darkness came to shut out the view as we saiied around 
and among a myriad of verdant islands. Some were but tii^^ 
knolls above the shimmering waters, others were merely rocky 
spaces for the most part, but many were larger and covered 
with bright green grass and shrubbery. As we steamed thvougfa 
that lovely highway in the Baltic, now from i^and to idaod, 
then for hours through the broad sweep of waters with no land 
m sig^t, and again within touch of emerald islands, before we 
reached Finland's rocky coast, the sun set and rose again, 
leaving the earth so small a space of time that even, midnght 
was not dark, but clear and bright. The grsnd old orb seemed 
to make a long, graceful sweep from west to east, the light from 
his wake meeting the promise of the new morning in a soft 
twilight which touched water, sky and island with the most 
tenderly beautiful shadow, and then the morning burst forrii, 
in rose and pink and gold, exquisite in its greeting to the sanl- 
ing earth. 

**We were compankms then — brothers ; heart answering heart 
in responsive joy at the splendor of the world and the majesty 
of that globe of light which glorified all things in its generous 

*' And he is gone ! The friend who stood with me and watched 
the midnight sun scarce bid the world bood-bye ere it re- 
lumed in its tinted beauty to illuminate the lovely islandte of 
the Aaland group in the upper Baltic Sea and the chamnng 
waterways and quaint old villages of Sweden and Finlaad 
ile is gone ! And the loveliness (rf this world was faded in the 

Dit. J. P. Dakb— A Memots. 543 

transcendant splendor of the deathless day. To hkn the sol- 
emn beauty of the rtorth and the sprightly glowing beauty of 
the south are as nothing to the majestic view upon which his 
eyes have opened in thai; other country where no care shall 
ever disturb his rest and no pain shall dim his vision of the per- 
petual, fadeless loveliness of his eternal home." 

The author of this beautiful tribute has since joined his com- 
panion ot old, in the beautiful land beyond. Dr. James died 
January 6, 1903. During his life he had founded and su|> 
ported the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, and at his death 
left almost his entire estate to the support of a library to be 
known as the Bushrod Library. 

For ttty years Dr. Dake was a ready and valued writer for 
the journals and magazines, as well as a writer of books and 
pamphlets, so that it would take many pages to make a list of 
his writings. In the following the attempt has been made to 
give a list of the books and pamphlets, without listing the arti- 
cles contributed to the magazines. Of these latter many are of 
high value and deserving of remembrance, but a complete 
bibliography has yet to be prepared. Such a bibliography would 
contain not less than four hundred titles. 

Some of Dk. Dakb's Writings. 

1851. "Medical Forces." A thesis published while in college. 
See M'edical Investigator, February, 1875. This was also pub- 
lished in a city paper in Schenectady, N. Y. (Reprinted in 
pamphlet form.) 

1852. "Homeopathy and Allopathy." Correspondence be- 
tween Drs. Dake and King, in Pittsburg, Fa. 8vo, pp. 22. 
(Originally published in Pittsburg Daily Gazette, 1852. Repub- 
lished in Philadelphia Jot^mal of Homeopathy. Vol. II, pp. ^5.) 

1853. "Orthodoxy vs. Homeopathy." Published in Putnnm's 
Magazine. Vol. II, pp. 639. (Reprinted in pamphlet form.) 

1855. "The Sources of the Materia Medica." An introductory 
lecture to the class of the Homeopathic Medical College of 
Pennsylvania, delivered October 10, 1855. Philadelphia: 
Glessoer, 1855. 8vo, pp. 18. 

1857. Valedictory address delivered at the Ninth Annual 
Commencement of the Homeopathic Medical College of Penn- 
stylvania, February 27, 1857. Philadelphia: King & Baifd, 
1857. 8vo, pp. 16. 

344 'I'hb Ambrican Historical Magazink. 

1859. "Acute Diseases and Their Homeopathic Treatment; 
Also Directions for the Treatment of Injuries Received by Ac- 
cidents and From Poisons." Pittsburg: J. G. Backofen & 
Son, 1859. i8mo, pp. yj, 

1867. "The Origin and Character of Homeopathic Life In- 
surance in the United States.'' Cleveland, Ohio. 1867. 

1870. "The Remedies We Use." An impartial view of the 
present state of materia medica, with suggestions for its im- 
provement. Nashville, Tenn. : Fall & Sons. 1870. 8vo, pp. 20. 

1871. "Acute Diseases and Their Homeopathic Treatment; 
Also Directions for the Treatment of Injuries Received by Ac- 
cidents and From Poisons." Nashville, Tenn. : William Gam- 
ble & Co. 1871. i8mo, pp. 130. (This is an enlarged edition 
of the pocket manual of 1859.) 

1873. "Credulity and Incredulity Affecting Progress and Cer- 
tainty in Medicine." Reprint from the United States Medical and 
Surgical Journal, January, 1873. 8vo, pp. 14. 

1874. **Special Report of a Plan for a More Thorough and 
Proper Proving of Remedies, and Notation of Symptoms." 8vo, 
pp. II. 

1875. "State Medicine and a Medical Inquisition." A dis- 
cussion of legislative measures designed for the erection of an 
authoritative medical standard in Tennessee and in the several 
States, showing their injustice and futility. Nashville, Tenn.: 
Tavel, Eastman & Howell. 1875. 8vo, pp. 15. 

1876. "Medical Legislation." Report of the Committee on 
Legislation to the American Institute of Plomeopathy at its 28th 
session, held at Put-in-Bay, June 15, 16, 17, 18, 1875. Phila- 
delphia: Sherman & Co. 1876. 8vo, pp. 14. (Reprint from 
the Transactions.) 

1877. "Medicinal Forces as a Distinct Class in Natiu-e." 8vo, 
pp. 9. (Reprinted from the Transactions of the American In- 

1878. "The Science of Therapeutics in Outline. A Syste- 
matic Arrangement of Principles Concerned in the Care of Hu- 
man Health, Showing Their Several Departments." Nashville, 
Tenn. : Tavel, Eastman & Howell. 1878. 8vo, pp. 46. 

1878. "The Yellow Fever and the American Public Health 
Association. What Shall We Expect From the Investigation ?" 
Nashville, Tenn. : Mayfield, Patton & Truett. 1878. Pp. 8. 

1880. "The Regeneration of Materia Medica." 8vo. pp. 8. 
Reprinted from the British Journal of Homeopathy, January, 

1880. "Drug Attenuation, Its Objects, Modes, Means and 
Limits in Homec^athic Pharmacy and Posology." By the Bu- 

Dr. J. P. Daxk— A Mbicoir. 345 

reaa of Materia Medica, Pharmacy and Provings in the Amer- 
ican Institute of Homeopathy, 1879 and 1880, J. P. Dake, chair- 
man. Phibulelphia : Sherman & Co. 1880. 8vo, pp. 189. 
Reprint from the Transactions of the Institute, 1879-1881. 

i88i. ''Materia Medica as a Science." A discussion at the 
World's Homeopathic Convention, under the auspices of the 
American Institute of Homeopathy. Philadelphia: Sherman 
Sl Co. 1881. 8vo, pp. 25. 

1881. "Quarantine: When and by What Authority, and for 
What Purpose Maintained." Answers to the leading ques- 
tions submitted by State Board of Health of Louisiana to the 
Quarantine Convention at New Orleans, December 8, 1880. 
Philadelphia: Sherman & Co. 1881. 8vo, pp. 6. Reprint from 
the Hahnemannian Monthly, Vol. XVI, pp. 144. 

1881. "Fermentation as a Process in the Disinfection of 
Rooms After Small-pox." Philadelphia : Sherman & Co. 1881. 
8vo, pp. 4, Reprint from Hahnemannian Monthly, Vol. XVI, 

pp. 34. 

1881. "Medical Legislation. A Discussion of the Two Senate 
Bills Now Before the General Assembly at Tennessee." 8vo, 
pp.7. Nashville, Tenn. : Tavel, Eastman & Howell. 1881. 

1881. "Drug Attenuation; Its Influence Upon Drug Matter 
and Drug Power." Nashville, Tenn. : Haynes & Camp. 1881. 
8vo, pp. 35. Reprint from Transactions of the International 
Homeopathic Convention, London, 1881. 

1883. "Introductory to the Report of the Bureau of Materia 
Medica, with Synopsis of Papers Presented at the Thirty-sixth 
Annual Session of the American Institute of Homeopathy." 
8vo, pp. 20. Pittsburg: Stevenson & Foster. 1883. 

1883. "Susceptibility to Malaria ; or. Personal Predisposition 
to Malarial Fevers." A paper read at Niagara Falls during the 
Thirty-sixth Annual Session of the American Institute of 
Homeopathy. Pittsburg: Stevenson & Foster. 1883. 8vo, 
pp. 9. Reprint from the Transactions. 

18B3. "Medical Legislation in the General Assembly of Ten- 
nessee, 1883." 8vo, pp. 7. Nashville, Tenn.: C. R. & H. H. 
Hatch. 1883. 

1884. "Medical Legislation in the United States." 8vo, pp. 
14. Reprint from the Hahnemannian Monthly. Vol. XIX, p. 65. 

"Medical Legislation. No State Medicine, and no Sectarian 
Health Boards." Nashville. 8vo. No date. 
"Cyclopedia of Drug Pathogenesy." A circular. No date. 

1885. "A Cyclopedia of Drug Pathogenesy." Issued under 
the auspices of the British Homeopathic Society and the Amer- 
ican Institute of Homeopathy. Edited by Richard Hughes and 

54^ Thb Ambrican Historical Magazinb. 

J. P. Dake, with the aid of the following consultative commit- 
tee : Great Britain — ^J. Drysdale, R. E. Dudgeon, A. C. Pope ; 
United States — Conrad Wesselhoeft, E. A. Farrington, H. R. 
Arndt. London. 1885. 8vo. Dr. Dake was the American 
editor. Published first in paper parts. All parts but the first 
bear the imprint of Boericke & Tafel. 

1886. "Therapeutic Methods. An Outline of Principles Ob- 
served in the Art of Healing." Boston and Providence : Otis 
Clapp & Son. 8vo, pp. 195. $2.00. 

1886. **A System of Medicine Based Upon the Laws of 
Homeopathy." Edited by H. R. Arndt, M.D. London. 1886. 
Three Vols., 8vo. Dr. Dake contributed articles on Asiatic 
Cholera, pp. 22, and other portions. 

1887. "The State and the Medical Profession. A Discussion 
of the Principles That Should Govern Medical Legislation in 
the United States." Nashville, Tenn. 1887. 8vo, pp. 22. (This 
address was delivered before the Southern Homec^)athic Medi- 
cal Association, at New Orleans, La.) 

1889. "Therapeutic Methods. An Outline of Principles Ob- 
served in the Art of Healing." Boston and Providence. Otis 
Clapp & Son. 1889. 8vo, pp. 195. College edition. 

1891. "Medical Legislation by Law." To the Honorable, the 
Members of the General Assembly of Tennessee. (See also 
Hahnemannian Monthly, Vol. XXVI, April.) 

1891. "Civil Government and the Healers of the Sick." An 
address delivered before the World's Congress of Homeopathic 
Physicians, at Atlantic City, N. J., June 18, 1891. An author- 
ized reprint. Philadelphia: Tht Hahnemannian Monthly, 1891. 
8vo, pp. 19. (Reprint from Hahnemannian Monthly^ July, 1891.) 

1892. "J. P. Dake, M.D., Nashville, Tenn." (An autobiogra- 
phy.) Reprinted from the Hahnemannian Monthly for June, 1892. 
8vo, pp. 8. 

1893. "The Future of Homeopathy." 8vo, pp. 12. Re- 
printed from the Hahnemannian Monthly, June, 1893. 

1897. "Pharmacopeia of the American Institute of Homeop- 
athy." Published for the Committee on Pharmacy of the Amer- 
ican Institute of Homeopathy. Boston: Otis Qapp & Son. 
agents. No. 10 Clark Square. 1897. Dr. Dake was one of the 
editors and chairman of the committee in charge until his 

*The Old Road." 347 


From Washington and Hamilton Districtb to thb Cumbbb- 
LAND Settlement. 


The Appalachian Mountains had formed the background and 
boundary line of the first settlers along the Atlantic Coast for 
more than one hundred and fifty years. It is true that a few 
hunters and trappers had been on the head waters of the Ten- 
nessee and explored the valleys, as far west as the Qinch and 
Powells rivers, but no pioneer had located west of the great 
Smokies till William Bean and others, in the year 1768 or 1769, 
built cabins on the Watauga, and the settlement of the State of 
Tennessee began. 

After the North Carolina Regulators had been defeated at Al- 
amance Creek by the loyalists, they fell back, taking final refuge 
in the Watauga settlement, on the western frontier. As the 
settlement grew in numbers it became the parent hive of ad- 
venturous hunters, who began to cross the mountains westward 
and hunt on the waters of the Cumberland. The settler soon 
followed, forming what was termed "The Cumberland Settle- 
ment." The first emigrants, following the hunters' trail, passed 
through Cumberland Gap and, crossing the Cumberland river, 
kept down on the north side to the vicinity of where Nashville 
now stands. The greatest obstruction to a rapid immigration 
was the want of a more open and direct road. 

In the year 1787 the legislature of North Carolina provided 
for a lottery to be held at Hillsboro, the proceeds to be applied 
to cutting a way from the south end of Qinch Mountain (now 
in Hawkins County) to Beans "lick." 

A company of men was organized in Washington district, as 
provided for in the Act, and with Peter Avery, a hunter well 
skilled in woodcraft, as a guide, a blazed "trace" was marked 

54^ Thb Ambrican Historical Magazinb. 

out through the "Wilderness," as it was then called, between 
the two points designated. 

This "trace" crossed Clinch river at or near the place since 
known as I-ows Ferry, and entered the Cumberland Mountains 
through Emory Gap (where the town of Harriman is now lo- 
cated). On ascending the Crab Orchard Mountain, it passed 
over a large area of uncovered stone called the "Flat Rock," 
since famous for the battles fought in its vicinity. Near the 
western escarpment of the Wilderness the road markers 
passed a tall stone, set up like a monument, and gave the place 
the name of "Standing Stone." This place and name became 
historic, but a railroad engineer (who afterward committed 
suicide) changed the name to "Monterey," a name without his- 
toric meaning, but by which name it is now known. 

The Cherokee Indians claimed the territory between the 
Clinch river and a certain line of treaty west of Standing Stone, 
and disputed the right of the white people to use this trace 
through their country, and it became one of the sources of a 
long and bloody war between the whites and the lodians. 

When the whites began the use of the trace the Indians de- 
manded a toll. Those who refused to pay took the risk of their 
lives in their own hands. The legislature of North Carolina, 
therefore, provided that the militia officers of the two districts 
should raise a company of fifty men each, and when notified that 
a sufficient number of emigrants had assembled at Clinch river, 
they were to be escorted across the mountains, or the "wilder- 
ness,'' as it was then called. It was ordered that "the trace be 
made ten feet wide, so as to allow wagons to pass." Wbea com- 
pleted, Colonel Robertson gave notice in the North Carolina 
papers. He further stated that on the 25th of September (1788) 
<i company of soldiers had escorted the first body of emigrants 
from Clinch river to the Cumberland settlement, among whom 
were the family of General Davidson, the family of Judge John 
McNairy, and others^ and that on the first day of October a 
guard would attend at the same place for the same purpose. 
Twenty-two families in all crossed that year. The protest of the 
Indians against the use of this road, unless upon the paymeat of 
toU^ was ignored when emigrants were accompanied by troops. 

"The Old Road." 549 

Jitdge McNairy returned a few months afterward, accom- 
panied by a number of men and some friendly Chickasaw In- 
dians. At, or near. Standing Stone a party of Indians, under 
the chief Takrtiskee, demanded toll, which was refused. After 
the party had passed, the Indians decided to follow and attack 
them. When the Judge and his party reached the Qinch river 
they went into camp on the west bank, not intending to swim 
their horses over till the next morning. 

The Indians came up in the night, but waited till after day- 
light to make their attack. In the fight that followed, the In- 
dians kifled a man by the name of Stanley, and two of the friend- 
ly Chtckasaws — one of whom was a chief, called Longhair, and 
the other his son. The remainder made their escape by swim- 
ming but lost their horses and all of their equipments. 

Numerous encounters occurred on this road, and the danger 
to emigrants and cost of troops became so great that Governor 
Blount called a council of Indian chiefs to try to settle the mat- 
ter. The meeting took place on the north bank of the Holston, 
where the city of Knoxville* now stands. Governor Blount pro- 
posed to acknowledge the perfect title of the Indians to the 
territory from the west bank of the Clinch river to a line to be 
run from a point on Cumberland river, southwest, to the ridge 
that divides the waters of that river from the waters of the Ten- 
nessee river, and to pay the Indians an annual bounty of one 
thousand dollars in goods ; the Indians to allow a free and un- 
obstructed road from Washington district to the Mero district 
(Cumberland settlement) and the free navigation of the Ten- 
nessee river. 

The hiajority of the chiefs signed the agreement. Those who 
refused to sign sent a deputation to Philadelphia to protest and 
lay the matter before President Washington. The conference 
began with the President December 28th (1791) and ended 
January nth (1792). 

Chief "Nenetooyah," or Bloody Fellow, was the speaker. He 
made an exhaustive "talk," laying all matters pertaining to the 
treiaty of the Holston before the President in a most exhaustive* 
manner. After the return of the delegation. General Wash- 
ington informed Congress of the Indians' complaint and ad- 

350 Thb Ambrican Historical Magazine. 

vised that they be paid an annuity of fifteen hundred, instead of 
one thousand dollars. To this Congress gave its assent, 
but too late to pacify the dissatisfied Indians. War had com- 
menced before the Indians were informed of the action of the 
government. The Creeks had been induced to join the dis- 
satisfied Cherokees. 

In February there was a dance at the Lookout Towns at which 
the chiefs 'Turtle at Home" and **The Glass" took some sca^ 
of white men and tore them with their teeth in a most savage 
manner, which boded no good to the whites. 

Trying to prevent the war spirit from spreading to other 
tribes, Governor Blount arranged a "talk" with the Choctaws 
and Chickasaws, and on the 15th of July set out from Knox- 
ville for the Cumberland, escorted by Captain Baird's company 
of cavalry. In crossing through the Wilderness they found a 
horse grazing in the woods with two feather beds and a trunk 
tied on him. He had been lost two weeks before by a party 
crossing through, but because of danger from the Indians no 
effort had been made to recapture him. The horse was left at 
Dixon Springs, past which place the road ran. 

The "talk" was held eight miles below Nashville. The Chick- 
asaws and Choctaws gave pledges of friendship to the whites. 
There were a few of the headmen of the Creeks and Cherokees 
present, but they took no part in the proceedings. Governor 
Blount, however, made an earnest effort to get the Cherokees 
to accept the provisions of the treaty of the Holston, but with- 
out effect. They entered several protests regarding the use of 
the road through their territory. 

First. Only a part of the chiefs signed the treaty and the 
whole tribe was not bound by the act of a few. 

Second. The treaty provides that the United States Govern- 
ment should lay out the road ; it had not done so : yet the whites 
were constantly crossing the territory in violation of all former 
usages and agreements. 

Third. That they were using the road made by the State of 
North Carolina from the south end of Qinch Mountain and 
were also using another trail from Southwest Point. 

They demanded that toll should be paid on all roads and trails 

"The Old Road." 351 

till the government laid out the road and confined travelers to 
its use. To this Governor Blount would not consent. The 
"talk'' began on the 7th and ended on the loth of August (1792). 

The dissatisfied Indians called a council to meet at Wills 
Town. The Spaniards encouraged the Creeks to join them, and 
furnished guns and ammunition. At the council John Watts 
and his uncle, Talotiskee (who lived where the town' of Rock- 
wood now stands), the White Owl, the Glass and the Standing 
Turkey made speeches for war. Nenetooyah made two speeches 
for peace. War was declared and war parties immediately 
started out, some of them crossing the Tennessee river and 
waylaying the Cumberland road. 

In the war which followed numerous battles were fought 
along this road, an account of which will be given hereafter. 

A territorial legislature was convened at Knoxville in Sep- 
tember, 1794, and, among other acts, passed an act, on the 7th 
of the month, for "cutting and clearing a wagon road from 
Southwest Point to the settlements on Cumberland river in 
Mero district." The act appointed Colonel James White, Col- 
onel James Winchester, Colonel Stockley Donelson, Colonel 
William Cocke, Colonel Robert Hays and Captain David Camp- 
bell commissioners for the purpose, with authority to proceed 
in the execution of their trust "as soon as a sufficient fund shall 
be raised for that purpose." 

In order to provide a fund, a lottery was authorized to be 
drawn at Knoxville by the commissioners. They were to issue 
three thousand one hundred tickets, three thousand to be sold 
at five dollars each, and one hundred were to be held by the 
commissioners and placed in the drawing in the name of the 
territory ; and any prize drawn by any of these tickets would go 
to the territory for the use of the commissioners in the con- 
struction of the road. Besides this, the territory was to retain 
one-tenth of all prizes drawn. The lottery proved a failure and 
the work of the commissioners was not commenced. General 
Robertson, however, relying on the success of the lottery, did 
considerable work in the Mero district, for which he did not 
receive pay for several years afterward. At the next session 
of the legislature an act was passed, July loth, 1795, appropri- 

352 The Ambrican Historical Magazine. 

ating moneys arising from the sale of certain salt-licks, here- 
tofore reserved from entry, to defraying the expenses of "cot- 
ting and clearing a wagon road from Southwest Point to Bled-r 
soe's Lick, in the Mero district. 

This road did not comply with the letter of the treaty of the 
Holston, in that it did not begin in Washington, bnt in Hamil- 
ton district, and was to be laid out by commissioners of the 
territory, and not by the United States. The Indians, there- 
fore, continued to resist the passage of emigrants over it, unless 
by the payment of toll. 

In order to comply literally with the treaty, the legislature on 
the 26th of October, 1799, passed an "Act respecting the road, 
as stipulated by The Treaty of The Holston," and set out that : 

"Whereas, By the Treaty of Holston, made and entered into 
on the 2nd day of July, 1791, between the United States and 
the Cherokees, by the 5th article of which it is stipulated and 
agreed, that the citizens and the inhabitants of the United 
States shall have the free and unmolested use of a road from 
Washington district to Mero district, whereby a power became 
vested in the United States to mark out and open up a road 
for the use and benefit of their citizens through the lands 
clahned by the Cherokees, the levelest and most direct way, 
having regard to the most convenient passage of mountains 
and fords and rivers, and, 

"Whereas, The road in the present use through the Cherokee 
country was not opened or marked by the United States, and, 

"Whereas, The said road is not the most direct, nor the most 
level and free, and unmolested to the citizens of the United 
States, inasmuch as one of the contracting parties, the Chero- 
kees, exact and receive to their use a toll upon all travelers 
crossing the Clinch river, which forms a part of said road, in 
violation of the stipulation of said article : 

"Now to the end that the violation and non-execution of the 
said article may be made known and the execution thereof en- 
forced; be it, 

"Resolved, etc., That the Governor lay the matter before the 
President of the United States and request him to have marked 
out, a road, and as soon as it is done, that William Walton and 

" T»« Old Roab/' 553 

WifUam Martin, of Smith County ; and Robert Koyle, of Haw- 
kins County, be authorized to have the same cleared out at the 
expense of the State." 

At the same session the legislature provided money to do the 
work. The United States then authorized the same commis- 
sioners to act for the United States in laying out the road. 

The road began at the fort near Southwest Point, at the big 
spring, since known as the Qark spring, where a ferry had been 
established by Norris Qark. The road passed through the val- 
ley of Post Oak Springs and ascended the mountain at what has 
since been known as Kimbroughs Gap. Near the present town 
of Crossville it intersected with the old North Carolina road, 
which it practically followed to a fork, where one road led to 
Fort Blount and the other to Cumberland river. Walton took 
the road leading to the river, where he established a ferry, 
known as "Walton's ferry." The road then kept on the north 
side of the Cumberland to near Nashville, where he established 
another ferry. 

Peace had now been established with the Indians and danger 
on this road no longer lurked in every cleft of rock and laurel 
thicket. Because of the part acted by Captain Walton, the road 
was called the Walton road, which distinguished it from the 
old North Carolina road, sometimes called the "Avery trace." 
A heavy emigrant travel began over the road and a bi-monthly 
mail was established. "Stands," afterward called "taverns," 
were soon located at convenient distances for the traveler. The 
first one was at Hugh Dunlap's, where the town of Rockwood 
is now located. Across the Wilderness they were located as 
follows : David Haleys, at Piney Creek ; John Burk, near Crab 
Orchard ; Mr. Graham, at Obeys river ; Johnson's Stand, Stand- 
ing Stone, and Cookeville. 

The Treaty of Holston having been literally complied with 
and peace having been established with the Indians, the legis- 
lature, at the October session, 1801, passed an act creating the 
Walton road into a turnpike. The incorporators were required 
to measure and milepost the road, dig and leyel the sides of 
hills and mountains, over which the said road may pass to the 
width of twelve feet, and bridges and causeways were to be 

354 I'hb Ambrican Historical Magazinb. 

twelve feet, but on all other ground it was to be cut fifteen feet, 
the work to be completed on or before the 5th day of Septem- 
ber, 1802. 

The act established the rate of tolls, but provided that no toll 
be collected of any Indian whatever, this being a reserved right 
to the Indians in their conveyance to the whites. 

This road soon became known as "The Great Stage Road/* 
over which for many years an almost continuous stream of 
travel rolled to people "The Great West." 

It is a rather remarkable fact that modern science has lo- 
cated the Tennessee Central Railroad practically on the same 
line selected by the old hunter, Peter Avery, through the 
Wilderness and Indian territory, while guarded by soldiers, 
in 1787. 

Rbcokstruction Timbs in Sumnbr County. 355 



I am glad to see that some record is being made of the state 
of things that existed throughout the Southern States for some 
years after the Civil War — in other words, of the Reconstruction 
Period in the Seceded States. 

Nelson Page in "Red Rock," and Doctor Dixon in the ^^heop- 
ard's Spots" have truly and graphically told the story of what 
existed and was enacted in certain portions of Virginia and 
North Carolina. Every town and hamlet in the Southern States 
has experienced similar scenes. It seems incredible to the gen- 
eration that has grown up since the war — they can't imagine 
how such things could have existed in a civilized country. But 
we know whereof we speak when we say "the one-half will never 
be told." Both Page and Dixon have doubtless embellished 
their story in some respects, but in substance and fact it is true. 

When the Southern soldier returned to his home after the 
surrender in 1865 — ^in many instances the charred and burned 
remains of what was once his home — stock gone, fences burned 
up, the whole country an open waste, farming implements de- 
stroyed ; a helpless family without food and no means to obtain 
it, and, worst of all, the country occupied by a vagabond militia, 
as was the case in Tennessee, whose high occupation was still to 
plunder and destroy and to drive away the owners, thus blot- 
ting out every obstacle to their free occupation of the soil, for 
everything else had been destroyed or appropriated by them. 
A darker picture was never spread before human vision. Could 
it have been anticipated, there would have been no Appomattox, 
as war and death itself were more preferable. Yet, wonderful 
to state, the remnant of Southern citizenship lived through it 

For three years this state of things existed, and in some of 
the States for a longer period. The ex-Confederate soldier or 
a Southern sympathizer was not permitted to vote, sit upon a 

35^ The Ambkican Historical MAGACnns. 

jury — much less to hold office. A man may have been known to 
be a consistent Union man and to have done nothing in aid oi 
the rebellion ; still, if he did not fully sympathize with and co- 
operate fully in all of the nefarious schemes of the radical black 
Republican party he was numbered with the rebels and suffered 
accordingly. Extermination was the battle cry. We read with 
horror of crimes committed in the dark ages, but have been 
convinced that there is no limit to the demoralization a state of 
civil war can produce, even in the light of advanced dvifea- 

The Freedmen's Bureau was the principal judicature in the 
land. These courts were presided over in most instances by 
some camp follower of the meanest character, and seems to 
have been selected for his known meanness and hatred of Hic 
Southern people. His principal associates and adviseiis wtre 
the meanest negroes in the neighborhood, and their testimony 
was sufficient to rebut any evidence that could be produced; 
and the militia stood ready to execute any judgment his lioiiCfT 
would make. Almost daily white men, women and children 
were arrested, torn from their homes and brou^t by igoard 
before the presiding officer of this august tribunal to atiswer 
some information filed by negroes, and frequently to face as 
witnesses his fcwmer slaves. In every instance, I might say, tke 
resuh was a judgment for money or other penalty imposed, attt 
not infrequently ending by sending the accused to a kntthsooie 
and vermin-infested jail to await the "law's delay." If afi the 
meanness enacted by the Freedmen's Bureau and BrowiiloMr's 
ntiKtia in Sumner County could be reduced to writing, it woyM 
form a library more extensive than Mr. Carnegie has ever 
conceived. The militia companies were made up chiefly of 
negroes and were officered by white men^he off-scouring 61 
the Northern States, who had really done no service in the Sdd, 
but their chief recommendation being a well-established dispo- 
sition to commit crime and never to grow weary of their occu- 
pation. After this maner the black Republican radical party 
subordinated to their vile purposes courts and juries atid l^gis- 
ktures and held in hand the power to enforce their olxftrs 
tlirotigh the military arm of their service. 

Rbconsti^uction Tihbs in Sumwb* County. 357 

What was an unarmed and helpless conynunity to do in the 
face of such a state of things ? Self-preservation is said to be 
the first law of nature. But how, and in what manner could this 
he brought about ? Open rebellion would have been certain ex- 
termination. Quietly to submit was a slower, but as sure, de- 
struction. In such a dilemma the Ku Klux Klan was inaugurated 
and set on foot, its sole object being to protect and preserve 
the lives and property of the unoffending citizen by mild and 
harmless means if possible ; if not, by drastic means if necessary. 
The lives and sacred honor of its members were pledged to 
this. The negro is a pliant tool in the hands of bad men — 
"forty acres and a mule" had alienated him from former friends 
and he was quick to subserve the wishes of these pretended 
friends. But the Southern citizen knew too well his character 
arid disposition and the exact remedy to apply to his case. His 
known superstition must be appealed to. Raw Head and Bloody 
Bones, SkuUs and Graveyards, white sheets and grave clothes, 
orders made and announced in sepulchral tone of voice — ^these 
were known to be preventives where all else would fail, and 
most eflEectively it was resorted to. The offending neg^o would 
first get a written notice from the Grand Cyclops of the order, 
notifying him ':n unmistakable words of his offense and inform- 
ing him of the penalty if he did not desist. The written notice 
was surmounted by the mystic insignia of the order — Cross 
Bones and SkulL In some mysterious way this notice would 
fall into his possession, and if he could not read himself he was 
not slow to find someone who could. If this did not have the 
desired effect (which it generally did), he was paid a midnight 
visit by a uniformed company of the order at his home ; riders 
and horses disguised beyond recognition, with hoods, sheets 
and other graveyard paraphernalia. At this meeting he was 
informed again and more impressively of what he might expect 
from another visitation, and after the performance of some of 
their mystic rites they silently and in due order moved away, 
suddenly disappearing from the face of the earth. 

The legislature of the State had passed laws making it a 
death penalty against the members of the order, and, of course, 
it was a desperate undertaking, requiring the most profound 

358 Thb Ambrican Historical Magazinb. 

secrecy. Rarely was it the case that a third visitation was neces- 
sary, but some did occur, ending in whipping the individual, 
burning his house, and occasionally in killing the party. When 
resort had to be made to such measures as taking the hfe, the 
body was hung up in a conspicuous place with a placard at- 
tached, stating the offense and giving due warning to all who 
did likewise. 

This is a general outline of the object and operation of the 
Ku Klux order. It was intended for good and the protection 
of the unoffending citizen ; and that it did have this effect there 
can be no doubt. It was the last and only remedy. Some of 
the best citizens of the State were members of the order. Their 
leaders and captains were selected from among our most con- 
servative, influential and leading citizens. There was a branch 
of the order in every county composing Middle and West 
Tennessee. The powers in existence soon recognized the ef- 
fect of such an organization. It was destructive of the means 
they were using to annihilate and destroy what was left of a 
brave and helpless people. Hence, tfte most radical measures 
were enacted for the punishing of its members — ^they were to be 
hung, shot down without the benefit of judge or jury; still it 
went on having its good results. Experienced detectives from 
other States were sent for to ferret out offenders. In several in- 
stances this ended by the detective being found in the river, with 
a rock tied around the neck — with no clue to the mystety. The 
Ku Klux had their day and accomplished their object. After it 
had existed so long a time, some bad men and indiscreet boys 
got into the order and committed excesses in their unauthorized 
raids. This caused the withdrawal of the better element and 
in a little while the order ceased to exist. 

Unintentionally, the foregoing will have to be taken as a pre- 
lude to what follows, and what we started out to tell about. 

An election had been ordered in the State for Representatives 
to the State Legislature. A law had been passed by some pre- 
vious and self-constituted legislature that none but loyal men 
or known Union men should vote. This act disfranchised 
tiineteen-twentieths of the white population. The negro per se 
was a qualified voter. The election machinery was in the hands 

Reconstruction Timbs in Sumnbr County. 359 

of the governor and his chosen pals at Nashville, the capital. 
A registration of voters was to be made previous to the elec- 
tion and the governor sent out his chosen lieutenants to do 
this work in the different counties, with full instructions as to 
how the work was to be done — his interpretation of the law be- 
ing that none were loyal who did not endorse and support all 
the disfranchising and confiscating measures that had been 
adopted and were in contemplation. 

Sumner County was one of the first and strongest secession 
counties in the State. The entire male population went into 
the Confederate Army, leaving none at home but boys under 
fifteen years of age and decrepit old men. Its geographical 
position, being a border county and cut off from the South by 
Cumberland river, made it an enviable locality for carpet-bag- 
gers and refugee negroes. It was occupied by Federal troops 
soon after they came to Nashville in 1862, and was securely 
held during the entire war, except from an occasional raid by 
John Morgan and his gallant troopers. One McKinley — by the 
way, no kin to our late President — a carpet-bagger of the vilest 
type, had been representing the county in the legislature and 
was a leader in all the measures that had been enacted. He was 
a candidate for re-election. The conservative Union men had a 
candidate in a well-known Union man to the manor bonu He 
was opposed to the radical rule of the Brownlow regime, and of 
course he secured the endorsement and support of the better 
element of the county. The constituted authorities at Nash- 
ville sent to Gallatin, the county seat of Sumner County, a 
cadaverous-looking individual to register the "loyal" votes of 
the county. He was an entire stranger to the people, but his 
looks alone indicated that he was a good selection for the dirty 
work he was sent to do. This was a few weeks before the elec- 

He opened his shop on Main street in the town, and set 
his machine to work, enrolling only such as he was assured 
would vote for McKinley and endorsed all the radical measures 
that had been passed by the legislature and that were contem- 
plated by the gang; refusing to enroll the conservative black 
and white, though they were qualified voters under the strictest 

36o Thk Amaiocan Histqkical Maoazinb. 

interpretation of their own laws, for the reason alone that they 
would not vote their way. This action of the registrar was 
soon known to the Klan. Silently and secretly a meeting was 
called and measures taken to meet the situation. About the 
third day of his sittings, and when he had concluded that he 
had registered the requisite number of the "truly loyal" to meet 
his purposes, he closed the doors of his shop, shut hts books 
and prepared to take his leave for headquarters at Nashville 
that evening, dreaming doubtless of the joyous wekome that 
awaited him there. The railroad train passed Gallatin for Mash- 
ville about half past seven in the evening. When the registrar 
took his seat in the coach in a self-satisfied way, it could be ob- 
served two other passengers followed him closely and took 
seats immediately behind him. There was nothing unusual in 
their appearance or demeanor, and seemed to be the ordinary 
citizens of the neighborhood. To keep a watchful eye upon 
their man and shut off outside communication, one of the 
strangers engaged him in a general conversation. As they 
neared the next station, which was old Sandersville, and seven 
nailes from Gallatin, the second stranger proposed a question 
for the first time, asking him if he was not the man who had 
been registering voters at Gallatin. While this question was 
somewhat "wakening," he replied that he was. "Then," said 
the stranger, "we have been deputized to take you back to 
Gallatin, as you have failed to register the loyal vote of the 
county" — ^intentionally, he presumed, failed to register some 
v^ho were entitled under the law. He assured the strangers 
that he had done his full duty in the premises and said further 
that to satisfy the public he would come back to Gallatin to- 
morrow to investigate the cases and to enroll such as were 
qualified ; that it was absolutely necessary for him to be in Nash- 
ville to-night on important business. In response to this, he 
was told that their orders were peremtory to take him back to 
Gallatin and that they were going to perform their duty ; no 
excuse could be accepted. The poMtive way in which this an- 
nouncement was made was still more "wakening" in its effect, 
and the registrar commenced to plead; and as visions of the 
Ku KIux flitted across his intagination his pleas became prayers. 

Rbconstruction Timbs in Sumnbr County. 361 

piteously growing whiter and paler in appearance. He was 
told not to become alarmed, and assured that not a hair of his 
head should be touched, as all they asked and intended to 
exact was that he should return to Gallatin with them and per- 
form the legal duties of his office. The engine having blown for 
Sandersville Station, he was taken by the arm and escorted to 
the entrance by the strangers. When the train stopped, he was 
led down the steps. A spring wagon was waiting near by and in 
sight, in charge of two other strangers, to which point the regis- 
trar was conducted, given a seat in the wagon and rapidly 
driven up the pike towards Gallatin, escorted by the four 
strangers. He was taken to a private room in the town, con- 
tiguous to his office, and securely guarded, as the success of the 
bold undertaking depended upon its secrecy and preventing of 
all outside communication. Comfortable lodgings were pro- 
vided and at an early hour a good breakfast was furnished, af- 
ter which he was taken to his office, books opened and doors 
thrown open for business. All day long the office was crowded, 
dealing out certificates to the "loyal" — notice of which must 
have been mysteriously given to them the day before. The 
sharp eyes of the faithful men were present, looking over the 
list of voters and taking note of what was necessary to be done. 
At a late hour that evening they became satisfied that every- 
thing was to their liking, and that, too, without enrolling a 
single voter who was not qualified under the law. The registrar 
was informed that he could close his books and return to Nash- 
ville. That evening he was escorted to the train by a back way, 
quietly put aboard without communicating with anyone, and 
left for Nashville. Everjrthing was done in such order and se- 
crecy that not a riffle was made upon the surface. As mysteri- 
ously as the chief actors had come upon the scene they disap- 
peared, believing that the next news they were to hear would 
be orders from headquarters for their arrest. Satisfactorily to. 
them, no orders came the next day nor the following, but a few 
days before the election was to be held they were informed that 
the white carpetbagger captain of the negro militia company, 
had been instructed to have his company at the polls and see 
that none but "the loyal" should vote. This unmistakably 

362 The Ahbrican Historical Magazine. 

meant that their action had become known and the foroed reg- 
istration was to be expunged ano not counted. A call was at 
once issued for a meeting of the Klan to devise means to meet 
the emergency. The sage advice of the coolest heads was 
sought and obtained. The mayor of the town of Gallatin was 
William Wright, an old citizen to the manor bom. He was a 
well-known and pronounced Union man during the whole war. 
He was a man of courage, determination and nerve. The out- 
rageous acting and ruling of the carpetbag government had 
been too much for him, and he was willing to side with his 
fellow citizens of the county when it became a matter of life and 
death, involving the liberties and property rights of the peo- 
ple. A committee of leading members of the order was ap- 
pointed to wait upon the mayor and see to what extent his 
power and authority could be enlisted in the behalf of right aad 
justice. The result was that the mayor issued his proclamation, 
informing the captain of the company that under the laws of 
the State his company would not be permitted to come to the 
polls armed and in a body ; and that if they did so he would see 
that they should be ejected. This brought no official response 
in writing from the captain, but it was fully known that he h»d 
said that he would obey his instructions to the letter and at 
any cost of life. This but served to further enrage the mayor 
and he at once app)ointed Colonel J. J. Turner chief of p<riice, 
with a carte blanche to appoint as many deputies as he wanted. 
This was good news to the boys, for they had been longing for 
the opportunity this offered to wipe from the face of the earth 
the Brownlow militia. Word was sent far and near of the aa- 
ticipated fight, and all night before the election the next day 
they were coming in singly and in squads armed with shot 
guns, rifles, pistols, with a sprinkle of army guns that tbey had 
managed to get hold of. Under the supervision of the chief of 
police, they were organized into companies and squads with 
trusted c^Hcers in command, and assigned to different localities 
in the town ; in the upper stories of the houses on the square and 
along the streets it was supposed the militia would move on 
their route to the polls, were placed men, all well armed. Full 
instrnctions were given and no one was to shoot or inaugurate 

Rbconstbuction Timbs in Sumnbr County. 363 

the battle till word was given by the chief. All were to act with 
discretion and to be as far as possible on the defensive. About 
two hundred men were under the immediate charge of the chief 
on the street. Spies and videttes were sent out in every direc- 
tion to watch and report the movements of the enemy. Every- 
thing looked ominous and a trembling suspense seemed to be 
in the ver>' air that was breathed. 

This was the feverish condition of things in the town till 
about midday ; and at any time from 9 o'clock in the morning 
till 4 o'clock in the evening if a gun had accidentally been dis- 
charged or a door slammed right hard, it would have been taken 
as the signal to commence an indiscriminate slaughter. During 
the morning messages had been received Irom members of the 
order at Nashville, Murfreeshoro, Franklin, and other places, 
probably, stating that they were ready to come to their as- 
sistance upon notification. No response was made to this, as all 
fek that they were masters of the situati(Mi. About the hour 
above named, the sound of the drum was heard from the fort 
where the militia was stationed. This fort was situated just 
across from the railroad station on the first high ground. They 
were seen to form line and move out with their guns gleaming 
in the sunlight. They soon wheeled to the right and marched 
10 the south, intending to reach the Square of the town from its 
southern approach. Every step and movement was closely 
watched and dispositions made to meet it. They marched slow- 
ly and cautiously, stopping at intervals to note the situation, 
and were an hour marching, when they reached and were slowly 
moving up the back street that runs parallel to Main street 
aad were about two hundred yards from South Water street, 
that leads up to the Public Square. At this juncture of affairs, 
Colonel Turner, chief of police, moved his men rapidly down 
and covered the mouth of the street where it enters Water 
street, the naen presenting their guns in position to fire as they 
did so. The miUtia were moving in coltm:ms of fours. This 
sudden development in the situation seemed to paralyze them 
and brought them to a staggering halt. The captain threw up 
his hands as if to surrender, and the big, burly neg^o sergeant 
was heard to cry out, "Don't shoot," as they scattering^y 

364 The Ambrican Historical Magazine. 

rushed into the old brick livery stable that stood upon the south 
side of the street. Some of the men rushed forward to follow 
them, but Colonel Turner threw himself in front and with great 
difficulty induced them to return to the line. Soon a parley was 
asked for by the captain by means of a white flag. The mayor 
was consulted as to the terms of the capitulation, and it was 
finally agreed that the company should be marched back to their 
quarters by the route they had come, and the militia company 
permitted to come to the polls two at a time and without their 
arms, and as they voted by twos they were to retire to their 
quarters ; none were permitted to linger about the polls. 

So far the battle had been fought and won, but the fearful ex- 
citement still lingered and the point was to restrain the men, for 
ihey loathed the idea of a failure to execute their fixed purpose 
to kill every Republican radical about the town, leaving none 
to tell the tale. All of that evening and up to 4 o'clock, when 
the polls closed, this tremulous fever raged; and it was with 
great efforts that individual attacks could be prevented. Affairs 
stood in statu quo till the poll was counted and it was seen that 
McKinley was defeated- -a satisfactory, conservative triumph 
all along the line. When this was done the detail was thanked 
by the chief of police for their efficient work and called upon to 
disperse and repair to their respective homes. Soldiers who 
had passed through the great battles of the Civil War will tell 
you that their experience at Gallatin that day was more ex- 
citing and threatening than an)rthing they have ever encoun- 
tered. All who witnessed this are impressed to this day with 
the cool and conspicuous bravery of Colonel Turner ; under such 
a state of excitement nothing save his wise discretion, judgment 
and coolness could have prevented a massacre in which many 
of our best citizens would have lost their lives. He had been 
the brave colonel of the Thirtieth Tennessee Regiment of In- 
fantry during the entire war ; had led them in all the great bat- 
tles in which the Army of Tennessee had fought ; had been des- 
perately wounded, but in none of them did he bear himself 
with more conspicuous coolness and bravery than he did at the 
bloodless battle of Gallatin a year after the surrender of the 
Confederate Army. He is dead now, but it can be truthfully 

Reconstruction Timbs in Sumnbr County. 365 

said of him that he possessed all the requisites necessary to 
command men under the most trying circiunstances. 

The next day an alarming state of quietude "reigned in War- 
saw." It was expected that arrests would follow and the direst 
punishment meted out at once. But nothing was learned until 
Brownlow's Returning Board at Nashville had blotted out the 
conservative vote at Gallatin and declared the carpetbagger 
McKinley the legally elected representative in the legislature. 

Thus was love's labor lost at last. It was apparent, however, 
that the radicals were weakening in their aggressive meanness. 
This was encouraging and active warfare continued to be raged 
in one shape and another. After some considerable time Brown- 
low's bogus legislature elected him to the United States Senate. 
This was acceptable news to the body of the people and nothing 
could have given more satisfaction, except the announcement 
of his assassination. DeWitt C. Senter, from East Tennessee, 
being speaker of the State Senate, was by virtue of his office 
the successor of Brownlow as governor. To use a common 
phrase, he had been a consistent Union man throughout the 
war and up to that time. He had no personal grievances to set- 
tle individually or generally, like Brownlow, nor did he have 
Brownlow's boldness or excessive and unremitting propensity 
to persecute and destroy. Soon after he took his seat he was 
seized with the desire to succeed himself as governor of the 
State. The people were not slow to see the opportunity pre- 
sented, and at once seized upon it. General Bill Stokes, who 
was a graduated disciple of the Brownlow school of politics 
and altogether fully equipped to wear successfully his robes of 
office, was the logical successor of Brownlow. Stokes had 
been a colonel of cavalry in the Federal Army and his troops 
had won a lasting reputation, not in legitimate warfare, but in 
their propensity to loot and destroy property of unoffending 
citizens. He was a man of fair ability and more than ordinary 
stumper. Senter could not defeat him with the rank and file as 
it was then constituted. More voters were a necessary ingre- 
dient to his success. Hence he was willing enough to extend the 
franchise. Before the election came off this was done indis- 
criminately by the machine, then under control of the governor. 

366 The American Histoeical Magazine. 

The "vilest" rebel was given the franchise. Really, I thought 
the world was coming to an end, when upon entering my office 
I found upon my table a sealed envelop containing a certificte 
that I was a loyal citizen and entitled to vote. I had asked for 
none, and was afraid for a time that it was some device to en- 
trap me, but I soon found that it was the way and that numbers 
of my "cut and bib" had received the same honorable recogni- 
tion. The result was a triumphant election of Senter as gov- 
ernor, and, holding in hand the necessary machinery, it was 
made to stick. 

After this manner reconstruction days were ended in the 
State of Tennessee. This was soon followed by the carpet- 
bagger hastily folding his tent and moving away, if not to a 
more congenial clime, to one that gave immunity for the crimes 
and felonies he had committed against a helpless people. Poli- 
tics rocked along satisfactorily enough through Senter's guber- 
natorial term. Daytime had unmistakably begun to break — 
though it took some time to rid the State of its objectionable and 
corrupt office-holders, in many instances from the highest to the 
lowest of these, as well as the many bad laws that had been 
enacted and were to be repealed. A constitutional convention 
was called and our best and ablest men were elected to it. The 
constitution of 1870 was formed, and in due time ratified by the 
people of the State. 

It is said that we owe a debt of gratitude to Governor Senter 
and the conservative Union voter, who came to our assistance 
in the darkest hours of our need. Probably we do, but I am 
inclined to think that there was a little of self-interest in the ac- 
tion. The handwriting had been made upon the wall — a brave 
people had determined to be free. 

It is but proper to mention here that some of the Northern 
people whom the war brought South remained ; many of them 
are numbered to-day among our best citizens. 

The history, of Sumner County, and I might add of the en- 
tire South, can never be complete till the tale is told of its 
reconstruction period. Material abounds everywhere and needs 
but the pen of a Page or a Dixon to create "Red Rocks" and 
"Leopard Spots" in every community. 

Reconstruction Timbs in Sumnkr County. 367 

I will close this brief and imperfect paper by repeating a 
pathetic story that was told some time after the war : 

About the beginning of the war there lived some six miles 
north of Gallatin a young farmer, who was a substantial, in- 
telligent and industrious citizen. By his energy he had accu- 
mulated means to buy a small, hilly farm and erected upon it 
a plain but neat cottage, where he and his young wife lived. He 
had no farm help but a younger brother. In the fall of i86i he 
and his brother enlisted in the Confederate Army. His aged 
father and mother came to live with the wife, and in a short 
time the Tennessee regiment to which they were attached was 
ordered to the Army of Northern Virginia. The younger 
brother was killed the day General Bob Hatton fell at Seven 
Pines, near Richmond, in 1862. The old mother died in a short 
time after hearing of the death of her baby boy, as she affection- 
ately called him. In 1863 the older brother was desperately 
wounded at Gettysburg in the charge of Archer's Brigade on 
Cemetery Hill and taken a prisoner by the enemy. He was re- 
ported killed in action by his comrades, and as such reported on 
the rolls of his company during the balance of the war. In fact, 
his leg had been shattered by a cannon ball and hastily ampu- 
tated above the knee and he was sent to Rock Island prison. 
The shock from the wound, exposure and want of attention im- 
paired his health, making him a patient of the prison hospital 
during the war. His wife, on learning of his death, sickened 
and died of a broken heart, it is said. The old father, having 
been left alone, went off to Kentucky to live with a married 
daughter. Marauding parties burned and destroyed the fences 
around the little farm and the house was ruined and broken 
down, with nothing to remind one of the happy home it once 
had been. The soldier was not discharged from Rock Island hos- 
pital until some three months after the surrender of the Confed- 
erate Armies, when he was paroled and permitted to return to 
his home. Upon reaching the Gallatin depot in the first days 
of September, 1865, good-hearted Tom Day furnished him a 
horse to go out home. We will not attempt to depict his feelings 
on seeing the devastation that was spread before him upon 
reaching home. He sought the house oi a neighbor, where he 

368 The Ambrican Historical Magazinb. 

was told in sympathetic words the sad, sad story. He had not 
been able to write himself during his year or more as a prisoner, 
and confiding it to others they had failed either wilfully or 
negligently to do so. He listened in a dazed state of mind to the 
information imparted to him by his friend, but spoke not a 
word, remaining silent during the evening. As the lengthening 
shadows of the setting sun grew longer, he arose, saying that 
he would go down home again. He was asked to wait till morn- 
ing and take a good night's rest, to which he gave no heed, 
hobbling off on his crutches in that direction. He did not re- 
turn that night, and in the morning at the breakfast table the 
neighbor announced that he would go down and see if he could 
hear anything of his friend. On approaching the house, he 
found the door slightly ajar. Pushing it open, to his horror he 
beheld the soldier stretched upon the bare floor — dead. He, 
too, had died of a broken heart. The next day he was buried by 
a few sorrowing friends and laid to rest by the side of his wife 
at the Old Salem Camp Ground, where his rude forefathers 

The wrecks created along its pathway by a state of war are 
indeterminable. The destruction of property, public and |mi- 
vate, is its natural consequence. Nor does its blighting effect 
end upon the battle field, but drags into its maelstrom of death 
the innocent, the helpless, the unprotected. Truly can it be 
said that war makes countless thousands mourn. 

These two young men were a type of the soldiery of which 
the Confederate armies were composed. They had no particu- 
lar property rights to fight for; they owned no slaves. Espe- 
cially they were not personally interested in the slavery ques- 
tion. The doctrine of State rights had been the policy of the 
government since its existence. The constitution and the laws 
made thereunder recognized it. The Supreme Court of the 
United States in numerous decisions had sustained them. These 
were to be set at naught by force of arms — their country invaded 
and their people to be subjugated. To prevent this they risked 
their lives and their all. Rebels they were in the sense that their 
forefathers had been, but patriots in the cause of freedom and in 
their efforts to preserve the inalienable rights of the citizen. 

An Old Lbttkr op Cassius M. Clay. 369 



It has occurred to the writer that the following bit of andenc 
history may have an interest for some of the readers of the 
Amsbicak Histobioal Magazine. The letter is evidently writ- 
ten by Mr. Clay on an ordinary sheet of note paper, and the 
chirography indicates that there was little method or system to 
his penmanship. The letters and words are greatly cramped. 
The composition, however, would be generally voted as ex- 
cellent. The letter was discovered among the private writings 
and papers of the late ex-Senator James R. Doolittle, of Wis- 
consin. At the date of the writing of the letter Judge Doolittle 
was a United States Senator, and at the same time Mr. Qay 
represented this government at St. Petersburg as its Minister. 
In view of Mr. Clay's misfortunes during his later life, there is 
a pathetic as well as an historical interest which is closely re- 
lated to the letter. It follows : 

St. Petersburg, Ra., Oct. 17, 1861. 
My Dear Mr. Doolittle : 

Your favor of the last "August,." inclosing Mr. Griffith's let- 
ter suggesting a railroad, &c., to the Pacific, is duly received. 
The Emperor has had all sorts of schemes for railroads for 
years under consideration : and the one to the Pacific has been 
often mentioned, especially by Mr. Collins, our American trav- 
eler. Of course, it would now be out of place to present Mr. 
G's letter. 

I am glad to see your gallant state taking so active and hon- 
orable part in the War, and in defence of that Union which 
has built her up to greatness, as it were, "in a night." 

We are all here for Fremont's position in his proclamation : 
and trust Congress will enable "honest old Abe" to take that 
step this winter. It is surely the true ground. Ky. stands 
where I have so long labored to place her — ^where her true 
interests and honor could have a fair ventilation — her choice 
of ends was, of course, in the direction of Liberty and Justice 
and Union. 

370 Thb Aherxcah Historicai. MAOAZmB. 

My dear sir, I am subjected here to numerous mortifications 
in consequence of the poor salary in this expensive place : the 
table has ran down 15 per cent. — which depreciation falb mostly 
upon residents here. I have asked that my salary be raised to 
the same as those in France and England — it is just : and due 
to the Emperor here : where the salary is regarded as a mark 
of superior honor conferred upon them. Will you aid me in the 
matter in the senate this winter, as the subject of salaries will be 
before you.** I was promised at least the additional sum of 
$3000 by leading Republicans before I would consent to ac- 
cept the Mission. Your friend, 

C. M. Clay. 
Hon. J. R. Doolittle, Wis., &c. : 

N. B. Don't let them by any means reject our treaty here 
in the senate. C. 

P. S. Please ask Senators Chandler, Durkee and Bingham 
to aid you in my behalf. I have sent half of my family home, for 
economy's sake. C 



[Continued from page 284.] 

Executive Department, Nashville, Feb. 20th, 1840. 
lo Gideon J, Pillow, President of the Columbia Turnpike Com- 
Sir: I have received your letter of the 13th inst., requesting 
the issuance of forty-five thousand dollars in State bonds to 
your Company, or for its use. After a careful examinaticm of 
the subject, and of the questions involved in your application, I 
am of opinion, that before any further bonds of the State can 
be issued, your Ccmipany must comply with the provisions of 
the Act passed at Nashville on the 25th day of January, 1840, 
entitled, "An Act to repeal all laws authorizing the governor 
of this State, to subscribe for stock in any Internal Improve- 
ment Company, on behalf of the State, and for other purposes." 
If your Company desire to have commissioners appointed in 
pursuance of the provisions of that Act, upon being notified by 
you of that fact, the appointment will be made. 
I am very respectfully, 

Your Ob't Serv't, 

James K. Polk. 

Executive Department, Nashville, Feb. 28th, 1840. 
To John W. Goode, Esq., Secretary of the Columbia, Pulaski, 
Elkton and Alabama Turnpike Company. 
DV Sir: I send you herewith a commission for Edward D. 
Jones and Andrew Gardner as commissioners to examine and 
inspect the work done on your road, and to perform the other 
duties required by law, vice James Patterson and Chas. C. Aber- 
nathy, heretofore appointed, and who are, as you inform me in 
>'our letter of the 24th inst., incompetent to act as such. Alex- 
ander Johnson, the other commissioner, resides near Col. 
Joseph Brown's, in Maury County, and is well qualified to dis- 

372 The Ambkican Historical Magazinb. 

charge the duties of commissioner. He is not, I am informed, 
interested, as a stockholder or otherwise, in the road. 
I am very respectfully. 

Your Ob't Serv't, 

Jambs K. Polk. 

Nashville, March 27th, 1840. 
Hon. Levi Woodbury, Secretary of the Treasury. 

Sir: I have received your letter of the 19th inst., with the 
papers inclosed, and have the honor to inform you that the sum 
of $1,750, being the semi-annual interest due on $66,666 2-3 oC 
Tennessee State bonds, assigned to your department by the 
President of the Nashville, Murfreesboro and Shelbyville Turn- 
pike Company, has this day been paid by the Company in 
specie, and placed to the credit of your Department in the 
Union Bank at this place. 

I have the honor to be, 
Very respectfully. 

Your Ob't Serv't, 

Jambs K. Polk. 

Executive Department, Nashville, March 28th, 1840. 
John Bell, Esq., Sheriff of Coffee County. 

Sir: I have received your communication of the 14th inst., 
informing me that James Sartin, Isaiah Brown and Moses 
Sweden, who were severally charged with the commission of 
offenses against the laws of the State, had made their escape 
from the jail of Coffee County, where they had been confined, 
and requesting me to offer a reward for their apprehension. 
Before acting on the subject I desire to obtain more specific in- 
formation in regard to the several offenses with which they 
stand charged. It is not stated in your letter when or where 
the alleged offenses were committed. If bills of indictment have 
been found against either or all of them, capiases should be 
furnished. If no bills have been found, the proceedings had be- 
fore the committing magistrate, or coroner's inquest, as the 
case may be, together with a statement of the degree of aggra- 
vation attending their respective cases, should be forwarded, 
that I may be enabled to judge of the propriety of offering a re 


ward, and of its amount. When the more specific information 
required is received, I will act promptly upon the application. 
I am very respectfully, 

Your Ob't Serv't, 

James K. Polk. 

Executive Department, Nashville, March 28th, 1840. 
Mr. Richard Hall, Marshall County: 

Sir: I have received a communication from yourself and 
others, bearing date of the 20th of February last, requesting 
me to offer a reward for the apprehension of Richard M. Hall, 
charged with the murder of his mother in Marshall County in 
the month of June last. Before acting on the subject, I de- 
sire to obtain more specific information in regard to the com- 
mission of the offense with which he stands charged than is 
given in your communication. The time and place of com- 
mitting it, and the circumstances attending it, whether aggra- 
vated or not, should be particularly set forth. If a bill of in- 
dictment has been found against him, a copy should be fur- 
nished. If no bill has been found, the proceedings had before 
the committing magistrate, or coroner's inquest, if one was 
held, should be furnished, that I may be enabled to judge of the 
propriety of offering a reward, and of its amount. When the 
more specific information desired is furnished, I will act prompt- 
ly on the application. 

I am very respectfully. 

Your Ob't Serv't, 

James K. Polk. 

Nashville, March 28th, 1840. 
Wm. Fitzgerald, Esq., Paris, Tenn. 

D'r Sir: I have received your letter of the 4th inst., caUing 
my attention to the application made in November last, for the 
pardon of Simpson W. Alexander, now confined in the Peni- 
tentiary upon a conviction for petit larceny. The case had not 
escaped my attention, but was considered at the time it was 
first laid before me. Though from the facts set forth in the 
petition, his sentence would seem to have been disproportioned 
to the offense charged, and his guilt possibly doubted, yet it ap- 

374 The Amswlicax Historical Magazinb. 

peared that tii£ same facts, and doubtless given muiii 
circumstantially and in detail, were before the court and inry 
who convicted him. No new fact has been communicated to 
me, which was not before the court and jury who tried and 
convicted him ; and it is not in my judgment such a case as will 
justify the executive interposition. When a fair trial has been 
had (as seems to have been the case in this instance) and no 
newly discovered fact or circumstance in mitigation or ex- 
tenuation of the offense charged is presented to the executive, 
as a general rule, the good of society requires that the law should 
take its course. From this rule there may be excepticxis, and 
thinking it possible that this may be such a case, my final ac- 
tion upon it was for some time suspended, and until in con- 
versation with a gentleman from that part of the country, of 
whom I made inquiry, the impression left on my mind was that 
it was not a case proper for the executive interposition. 
I am very resi>ectfully, 

Your Ob't Serv't, 

JjLMBS K. Polk. 

Executive Department, Nashville, March 30th, 1840. 
George W. Thompson, Esq., President of the Pelham and 
Jasper Turnpike Company. 
Sir: In reply to your two letters of the 29th ult. and 14th 
inst., I herewith transmit to you a copy of an Act passed at the 
last session of the General Assembly, entitled, **An Act to re- 
peal all laws authorizing the governor of this State to sub- 
scribe for stock in any Internal Improvement Company on be- 
half of the State, and for other purposes," which will furnish 
you with all the information in my possession upon the point 
to which your inquiry is directed. By reference to the Act you 
will find the cases, and the terms and ccmditions upon wfaidi the 
several Internal In^provement Companies may, '^by deed filed in 
the office of the Secretary of State, surrender the charter id 
such companies,*' or release the State from her subsariptioii 
therein. No provision seems to have been made in the Act to 
authorize a surrender of a part of the work, or a release of tlie 
State from a part of her subscription, but on the contrary k is 


expressly provided in the 8th section ''that nothing contained 
herein shall be construed to authorize the company to diminish 
the extent of the work, for which the company was incorpor- 
ated to make according to the charter." In one or two cases, 
the last legislature by a special Act authorized a partial sur- 
render, and in a proper case made out would probably do so 
in your case. As the law now stands a surrender of a part of 
your road does not seem to be authorized. 
I have the honor to be, 

Very respectfully, your Ob't Serv't, 

James K. Polk. 

Executive Department, Nashville, March 30, 1840. 
Messrs. A. B. Carr and Buckley Kimbrough, Shelby County, 
Gentlemen: I have received your letter of the 13th inst., re- 
questing me to make a demand of his excellency, the governor 
of Louisiana, for the body of Chester Streeier and D. Root, 
charged by yovi to have been guilty of feloniously stealing, tak- 
ing and carrying away from your possession in the County of 
Shelby in this State, in the month of February last, two negro- 
men-slaves, named Nelson and Edwin, of which you are the 
owner, and further representing that said felons have fled from 
justice, and are now within the limits of Louisiana. Before I 
can be authorized to make the demand which you request, of his 
excellency the governor of Louisiana, it will be necessary ac- 
cording to the provisions of the Act of Congress, in such case 
made and provided, that I should be furnished with a "copy of 
an indictment found," or if no indictment has been found, with 
"an affidavit made before a magistrate" — "charging the person 
or persons so demanded with the offense committed." It will be 
necessary that the demand made of his Excellency the Governor 
of Louisiana, should be accompanied with a copy of the indict- 
ment, if one has been found, or an affidavit taken before a 
magistrate, duly authenticated with the certificate and seal of 
the Clerk of the County Court. You are requested further to 
give me the name of the agent whom you desire to have ap- 
pointed to receive the said Streeter and Root in the event of 

37^ Thb Ambrican Historical Magazinb. 

their delivery by the Governor of Louisiana. Upon receiving 
cither the copy of an indictment, or an affidavit, such as is re- 
quired by the act of Congress, I will act promptly on your ap- 
plication. I am very respectfully, 

Your Ob't Serv't, 

Jambs K. Polk. 

Executive Department, Nashville, March 31st, 1840. 
To G. lalcott, Lt. Col. Ordnance, Washington City. 

Sir: In answer to your letters of the 15th of November and 
27th of November last, requesting me to inform you what de- 
scription of arms will be required by the State of Tennessee, 
for the quota of arms due from the United States for the years 
1838, 1839 2ind 1840, 1 have the honor to request that the quota 
of arms which may be due this State, may be forwarded in 
muskets with the usual accouterments and equipments. You 
will be pleased to cause the arms due this State to be forwarded 
to ''Nashville, Tennessee,'* to the address of ''General Julian 
Frazer, Quarter-Master General of the State of Tennessee/* and to 
my care. 

I have the honor to be. 
Very respectfully, 

Your Ob't Serv't, 

Jambs K. Polk. 
[To be continued,] 




1816 AND 1817. 

[From the Tennessee State Archives.] 

Governor McMinn to Senators Williams and Campbell. 

Executive Office, Nashville, Dec. 16, 181 5. 
John Williams, George W. Campbell, Esquires: 

I have been informed that a deputation, consisting of the 
chiefs of the Cherokee nation, have it in contemplation to visit 
the city of Washington in the course of this winter, have there- 
fore thought it my duty to bring the subject of a Treaty to their 
view and for that purpose take the liberty of appointing you as 
commissioners on the part of the State of Tennessee, by virtue 
of an Act making provision for the extinguishment of the In- 
* dian claim to lands within the limits of this State. 

Colonel Meigs, whose absence may probably operate against 
our views, was originally appointed with standing power to act 
in behalf of the United States in conjunction with such com- 
missioners as should be appointed by the State of Tennessee, 
who has stated to me since my arrival at this place that the 
Cherokee Indians were anxious to sell their claim below the 
mouth of Highwassey on the mouth of Tennessee river, but ex- 
pressed an unwillingness to dispose of any other lands. 

This tract, it is stated, contains upwards of i,ooo/xx) acres, and 
of this quantity, not more than from 150,000 to 200,000 acres 
are fit for cultivation, owing to its being situated immediately 
in the bend of Cumberland Mountains, and on being thus in- 
formed with respect to the views of the Cherokees I have de- 
termined to leave the subject of a treaty entirely at rest until I 
could ascertain whether the Highwassey country could not be 
included in the same purchase, within the bounds of which there 

373 The Ambricak Historical Magazine. 

are about 2,250,000 acres, and taking soil water and commercial 
advantages into view will surpass the average value of the land 
forming the Holston Settlements (or mcwe recently called East 
Tennessee) and. will. adaiit of being divided into two cooatifis. 

The aggregate amount of those two tracts is computed by 
William B. Lewis, Esq.,. at 3,382,250 acres, and when purchased 
from the Indians will certainly be an acquisition of very con- 
siderable importance to this State, particularly to the citizens 
of its eastern section, whose surplus products will have to pass 
through the tract of country last described, the safety and fa- 
cility of whi^h would be much promoted by extending the set- 
tlement on our southern boundary as near as possible to those 
which I trust will shortly be established in the Territory ceded 
to the United States by the Creek nation of Indians. 

The present prospects of discussing the subject of a Treaty 
(provided the chiefs possess a competent power to dispose at 
their lands) seems to favor our limited resources in a. verj- 
great degree, and I feel much flattered Math a favorable *resait 
even if .you shoqld only be able to purchase the tract first men- 
tioned, and should it not be in your power to purchase a sin^ 
acre the small expense which will necessarily accrue will be 
infinitely more than balanced by opening an esoamination into 
a subject which has been for many years to me a source of 
raiKh regret that it has been thus long delayed. 

The description I have given you of the land desired to be 
purchased, as well the quality as the quantity, has been obtained 
from the best authorities I could procure, aided by my own lim- 
ited knowledge. You have also the gross amount of the means 
vested by law, over which you and myself have a right to- claim. 
You are clothed with all the power which the State of Tennes- 
see can confer upon you, and it is confidently expected and be- 
lieved that you will make such dis|x>sition of both the power 
and the means as under existing circumstances will produce the 
greatest possible good, and as no preceding arrangement had 
taken place between the State of Tennessee and the chiefs of 
the Cherokee nation whereon to form any systematic instruc- 
tions, you will please consider the remarks which I have made 
as being the only materials with which I could furnish 3rou, and 


I hope you will not question my sincerity when I assure you 
that 'nothing can give me' greater satisfaction nor lessen more 
my refepdnsibility than to know that my communications are 
made to those whose judgment is competent to detect their 
errors and friendslyp sufficient to cover their foibles. 
Very respectfully, your 

Ob't. servant, 

Jos. McMiNN. 

Senatobb Campbell and Williams to Governor McMinn. 

Washington, i8th April, 1816. 

Sir: The' undersigned, with a view to executing tW trust re- 
posed in them by your Excellency, considered it their duty to as- 
certain in the first place, the extent of the powers possessed, by 
the deputation of Cherokee chiefs sent here, in relation to the 
deposal <^f lands claimed by their nation in the State 9C Ten- 
nessee. For this purpose application was made to Meigs, 
United States Agent for that nation and also the Secretary of 
War, to whom their general powers had been communicated. 
1 he resuh of this enquiry was to ascertain that they had no 
authority to dispose of any of those lands: as af^eared by .the 
written instructions given them by the principal chief of the 
nation, a copy of which is herewith enclosed. And when ap- 
plied to by the Secretary of War, at the instance of the under- 
signed, to include a cession of that tract in our State north of 
the Tennessee river and west of the mouth of Hiwassee, in a 
general arrangement proposed to them on the part of the gen- 
eral government, they refused to deviate from their instructions, 
declaring they had no authority to treat on the subject, as will 
appear by the Secretary of War's letter to the undersigned 
herewith also enclosed. 

They were also equally pertinacious in refusing a cession of 
those reserves held by them in the settled parts of our State 
as is shown by their communication to the war department on 
the subject. It was not therefore deemed advisable to pursue 
the subject further at this time or incur expenses which prom- 
ised no advantageous result to the State. 

3So The Ambrican Historicai« Magazine. 

The undersigned have to regret that owing to the drcum- 
stances above stated it has not been in their power to prosecute 
with more success the objects your Excellency had in view so 
very important to the interest of the State. 
With very great respect, 

They have the honor to be. 

Your most Ob't., 

G. W. Campbkll, 
His Excellency, Jqhn Whjjamb, 

Joseph McMinn. 

Sbcbetaby of Wab to Sexatobs Campbell and Willlajis. 

Department of War, 4th April, 1816. 
Gentlemen: I have the honor to enclose a copy of the in- 
structions given to the deputation of the Cherokees who came 
on to this place during the present session of Congress. From 
these instructions they would not consent to deviate. In the 
course of the negotiation they were offered a perpetual an- 
nuity of six thousand dollars for the lands lying south of the 
Tennessee, to which the Chickasaws also have some claim. 
This proposition was rejected without hesitation as was another 
for the cession of all their lands north of the Tennessee River. 
Inclosed you will also receive a communication from the 
deputation on the subject of several reserves within the settled 
parts of the State of Tennessee. Should the State be disposed 
to obtain the cession of those reserves. Colonel Meigs will be di- 
rected to make the proposition to the nation in conjunction 
with such persons as may be appointed by the State of Ten- 

I have the honor to be respectfully, 
Your most obed't and 
Very humble servant, 

Wm. H. Cbawfobd. 
Geobob W. Campbell and 
John Williams, 

Senators of the United States for the State of Tennessee, 



Knoxville, 14 July, 1816. 
Colonel John Williams. 

Sir: I am notified by Colonel Return J. Meigs, United States 
agent for Indian affairs, that a treaty will be held by order of 
the Secretary of War, to commence on the 20th inst. at the 
Cherokee agency. 

The object of the treaty is to obtain from the Cherokee na- 
tion a cession of the land north of Tennessee River, which I 
deem of vital importance to the State of Tennessee, and, hav- 
ing commissioned you to negotiate with the Cherokee chiefs 
last winter at Washington City, I deem unnecessary to invest 
you with additional authority. Will therefore take the liberty of 
asking you to attend in character of commissioner on behalf 
of the State of Tennessee. For myself, I will attend in person, 
and should it become necessary will open a correspondence 
with you as to my opinion of the course most proper to be pur- 
sued in effecting the object in view. 

Very respectfully, 

Your obedient Serv't, 

Jos. McMiNN. 

Senatob Williams to Govkbnob McMinn. 

Knoxville, 15 July, 1816. 

Sir: Your communication of yesterday's date is received. 

Agreeable to your request, I will set out to-morrow for the 

Cherokee Agency. It affords me singular pleasure to learn 

that I shall have the pleasure of your company and the benefit 

of your council in the contemplated negotiation with the Chero- 


I have the honor to be. 

With great respect. 

Your Ob't. Serv't., 

John Williams. 


382 Thb American Historical Magazine. 


[Extracts from a copy of letter writter to General Jackson.] 

Kingston, August 6th, 1816. 

Dear Sir : Your esteemed favor of the 2nd inst. came to hand 
yesterday evening, and in reply have to state that I attended at 
the Cherokee agency from 20th until 3rd inst., during which 
time I became so well acquainted with the character of the Cher- 
okees and their white countrymen as to assure that the former 
evinced a much stronger disposition to dispose of their land 
than the latter; and at one period I did suppose we h^ ob- 
tained their full consent, but to my great mortification they an- 
nounced on the morning of the 3rd inst., in full council of the 
whole nation (two chiefs excepted), that they had declined giv- 
ing their final sanction to the sale of the land in question, as 
welf those on the north as those on the south side of Tennessee 
River, in support of which they introduced many argiunents, 
not only destitute of reason, but unworthy of communication. 
The convention was closed by the chiefs promising to instruct 
their deputation to renew it at the Chickasaw treaty, where they 
are bound to attend. 

I have therefore to ask you to be good enough to bring this 
promise to their recollection under the authority of a commis- 
sion which I will forward to you for that purpose; provided, 
you advise me of your willingness to accept it, in which case I 
will forward you a copy of the President's instructions and 
such other documents as will prove useful to you in the nego- 
tiation. As the treaty last alluded to will commence on the 
1st September next, I have to express a ^^Hish that you advise 
me in relation to my request as early as possible, for should it 
not be consistent with your convenience or views of propriety, 
I certainly will attend myself. Though for the interest oif my 
country and my own personal engagements at this time, I 
should very much prefer your acceptance. 

Very respectfully, your Ob't Serv't., 

Jos. McMiNN. 
General Andrew Jackson. 


Gbnebal Jackson to Governor McMikn. 

Nashville, 12th August, 1816. 
Sir : In reply to your communication from Kingston, I have 
to state that I will with pleasure undertake any negotiation 
with the Cherokee and Chickasaw nations in behalf of the State 
of Tennessee consistent with my appointment from the general 

You will therefore forward me your power to act and in- 
structions for my guidance as early as practicable. 

I shall leave Nashville for the Chickasaw nation on the 20th 

With respect, your Ob't. Serv't., 

Andrew Jackson. 
Governor McMinn. 

Governor McMinn to General Jackson. 

Knoxville, 30th August, 1816. 
Sir: Your esteemed favor of the 12th inst., in answer to 
mine of the 30th ultimo, never came to hand until last evening, 
when I had evor3rthing in readiness to set out for the Chicka- 
saw Treaty. But assure you, sir, I never was more gratified 
than to find myself disappointed, particularly from your frank 
acceptance of the commission for holding treaties with the 
Cherokee and Chickasaw Indians. With respect to the CWcka- 
saws, I am not perfectly satisfied how far I am authorized to 
enter into arrangements with tbem for an extinguishment of 
their claim to lands within the State, more particularly as I am 
apprised of the extent of your power, derived from the general 
government, or of the views of the President of the United 
States. The result of my opinion on this subject shall form a 
part of my next letter to you ; nevertheless, I do not hesitate in 
af^roving the justice and policy of the measure. For, sir, it 
seems to me a monstrous abuse of justice for our govemmefit 
to transfer the possession of the lands of those who perhaps 
ha:iue fallen in support of its dearest rights, to a set of vagrant 
hunters ; and, as regards the Che?rokees, once an unprincipled 
foe, and whose only interest in the soil was forfeited by ad- 

384 Thk Ambrican Historical Magazinb. 

hering with Great Britain. Such was not the case with the 
Chickasaws. They have- not in any instance engaged in open 
war against the United States ; yet that fact is not sufficient to 
entitle them to claim, at this time, from seven to eight millions 
ot acres within the limits of Tennessee and from two to three 
millions of which is located, and great part of that granted 
very many years ago. 

I will in the next place proceed agreeable to your request in 
laying down the following as your guidance in relation to the 
Cherokee claim: 

You will propose to give them twenty thousand dollars for 
their entire claim north of Tennessee river, to include all islands 
opposite thereto; five thousand dollars to be distributed as 
presents to the nation in general; five thousand dollars to be 
given as an equivalent for improvements, to be divided by lots, 
Lowry and Major Brown amongst the occupants; though I 
submit whether the better policy would not be to recede from 
the disposition of the first named five thousand dollars, and at- 
tach it to the sum designated for the improvements, which in 
the whole would make $10,000. I propose this alteration for 
the following reasons: First, from witnessing a general dis- 
position of sympathy in the council in favor of settlers on; and, 
secondly, I believe that sum placed in the hands of the men 
just named will insure their consent to remove, upon which our 
success very materially depends, for it is to be remarked that 
those men form a part of the population on the land in ques- 
tion. This plan will also, as I hope, remove another difficulty 
out of your way, by putting to rest a favorite desire for holding 
separate claims by reservations, which I conceive not only in- 
consistent with our interest, but it is at variance with the in- 
structions from the war department. However, in continuation 
on the subject of reservations, I will submit whether we ought 
not to prefer making a few to the principal men on those 
lands to a total rejection of the treaty. But if made, limit their 
duration to a definite number of years, say, five or ten, whidi 
principal may be urged as the time given for improving lands 
amongst the whites. And if asked, "Why fix on any particular 
time ?*' would it not be correct to say that those lands have been 

McMiNN Correspondence. 385 

granted long ago by the State of North Carolina to our fellow 
citizens, who cannot be longer restrained from their occupation ; 
that if they were the property of the United States perhaps a 
diflFerent policy might be pursued? Though I beg you to con- 
sider those remarks on the transfer of five thousand and on im- 
provements as subjects for your own discretion. 

Should you be able to conclude a treaty under the terms pro- 
posed, you will make the amount given chargeable on the 
Treasury of the United States in sixty days after the treaty 
receives its ratification, as well by the State of Tennessee as 
the United States ; the mode of payment being thus expressed 
by the Secretary of War, who has also directed that the expense 
shall be divided between the United States and the State of 
Tennessee, according to the quantity of land each may receive — 
for adjusting which you will please appoint some person to 
act with Colonel Meigs. In case the Cherokees should feel in- 
disposed to enter into treaty with you, I beg you to state dis- 
tinctly the proposals and obtain an explicit answer from them 
if you can. With high consideration. 

Your obedient, humble, etc., 

Jos. MoMiNN. 

Gbvbkal Jackson. 

Governor McMinn to General Jackson. 

Knoxville, 3rd Sept., 1816. 

Dear General: Having stated in my letter of the 30th ult. 
that I would communicate my views in relation to the Chicka- 
saw claim, now come to the following conclusion, by stating 
that I entertain a hope that you are authorized by the general 
government to negotiate a treaty for the whole of their claim, 
or, at least, to that lying north of Tennessee River. 

Butj sir, if I knew the fact to be otherwise, I should feel a 
strong disposition to invite you to enter into treaty. There 
never was a moment equally auspicious with the present for 
purchasing those lands, so highly important to the interest of 
the State of Tennessee. First, the consideration of expense in 
assembling those Indians being defrayed by the United States, 
who will also be bound in the first instance for payment of the 

3%S ; The Ambiucah BUdTORiCAx Magazikb 

lai)da With this view of the subject, all other conskleratioos 
to the contrary notwithstanding^ I feel perfectly satiafied :in 
taking an equal share of the responsibility with you, either bjr 
your acquinng from them in the form of a conditional coo- 
tract the price they would ask for their land, on the north of 
Tennessee River, or by your entering into an absolute stiptilfr' 
tion conditioned only for its ratification by the general gov- 
ernment, and also of the State of Tennessee ; if you succeed in 
the latter of these cases, I feel very confident that the dtizees 
of Tennessee would derive benefits of the most essential .and 
important character. And if such be your views and prospects 
of this, all-important object, I propose that you and myself, in 
the name of the Supreme and in behalf of the whole people of 
Tenn/essee^ unite our hearts and utmost exertions in endeftYor- 
ing to. execute a work which will not only be to the highest in* 
terest to the present, but to succeeding generatioiis. And 
as. time will not permit us to consult the wishes of th^ pco^ 
plQ, you will please act according to circumstances under the 
best convictions of your own mind, not only in the sum you wiU 
propose to give for these lands, but in everything that relates 
to the transaction, and leave our motions, as well as actions, to 
the decision of a magnanimous people, whom you- and myeeif 
have always found for these thirty years past to be extremely 
profuse of their favors and prone to be content with the acts of 
their public servants. 

With very great respect, I am 

Your Ob't and humble Ser't, 

Jos. McMnQb 

GfiK£RAL Jackson to Governor McMinn. 

Chickasaw Agency, September I5th,'i8i?6.. 
Sir: On the evening of the 13th your instructions reached 
me* Before I received them we had made propositions ta tfie 
Cherokees and Chickasaws for their claim on the south, and 
on,. the north side of Tennessee. Every argument was ussd 
that our minds could suggest, both on the score of interest • 
and policy.. On the south side the Cherokees at last coosented 
to yield. On the north they said they could not, the whole na* 

tio^ wi^s opp<;>aed to it, and when they jgave up on th^^qutb if 
ihi^y also yi.elded their, land on the north side they would be too 
mugK confined; and if. they would agree to such surrei^der they 
would be put to death by the nation. 

On last evening we concluded a treaty with the^.for the. 
cession of their claim on the south side, conditioned that, the 
natio;n in council at Turkey Town, to be convened on, th^ 28th 
inst., ratify the same, and if the national council do not there 
me<et us^ that it is to be taken as a full ratification by the nation, 
and sent to the President as such. I hope we will get a final 
ans)yer. from the Chickasaws tq-day, and hope we will, get m. 
surreiidei; of all th^ir claim on the south side included within the 
line, as run by (jenej;al Coffee, and a complete surrender pi all 
their claim on the north side. This will be a valuable acquisi- 
tion, both as it respects th^ strength and defense of our country 
by uniting it with the lower country, as well as bringing, into 
the treasury large sums, and giving peaceable possession to 
many of our citizens who have been too long kept out of their 
just rights by the blinded and mistaken policy of our govern- 

A§ soon ^s the Chickasaws give }xs a fipal. answer I shall com- 
mimicate the result to you, jand in the arrar^j^ment. >viy pufsuej, 
your instructions as they relate to the interes;t of the St^p^ over 
which you preside. 

I am respectfully 

Your piost Ob't Serv't, 
His Excellency, Andeew Jaokson. 


Genehal Jackson to Governor MoMinn. 

Nashville, Oct. 16, 18x6. 
Dear Sir: I reached this place the 12th instant and received , 
your letter from. New Canton of the 25th ultimo. I have only a 
moment to spare to say to you that we have obtained from the 
Cherokees and Chickasaws. all disputed territory on the south 
of Tennessee and all the Chickasaw claim north, of that river. 
The Cherojcees would not cede their claim north of the Ten- 
nessee, but are inclined, and, as I believe, will shortly feeder 

38S Thb Ambrican Historical Magazine. 

to the United States their whole territory where they now live 
for lands west of the Mississippi. They say if they sell the land 
north of the Tennessee they will not have sufficient area left to 
obtain by barter a sufficient country west oi the Mississippi 
for their whole nation. We offered them at Turkey Town an 
annuity of four thousand dollars for two years for their claim 
on the north side, and five thousand dollars for improvements, 
or a reservation of them, to which they would not accede. 

The land ceded by the Chickasaws is of g^eat importance, that 
lying within the State being within the Congressional Dis- 
trict. The commissioners were of opinion that the annuity 
should be paid by the United States, and have thus stipulated. 
When leisure presents, I will write you more fully. 

I am re'pectfuUy, 

Yr. Mo. Ob't Serv't, 
His Excellency, Andrew Jackson. 

Joseph McMinn. 


Executive Office, Knoxville, 20th Oct., 1816. 

Sir : I do myself the honor of addressing you on the subject 
of a treaty with the Cherokee Indians, authorized by your or- 
der of the 27th May last, for extinguishing their entire claim 
to land on the north side of Tennessee River. 

According to existing statutes Tennessee was called upon to 
participate in the expense, and by the same authority became 
vested with a qualified power to aid in the formation of treaties 
within a given space. 

Colonel John Williams was therefore appointed, who, with 
myself, attended at the Cherokee Agency in the latter part of 
July, when your instructions were read and explained, and the 
sum total ordered by you to be given was distinctly proposed 
by Colonel Williams, in the precise manner contained in your 

The negotiation notwithstanding resulted contrary to our 
earnest wishes, and even to our expectation, which was gener- 
ally entertained in the latter stage of the business. The close 
took place on the 3rd of August, or rather the adjournment, as 


the Indians proposed that we should have another talk prior to 
Colonel Williams setting out for Washington City, and for the 
result of which I beg leave to refer you to that gentleman. 

In the meantime, however, I determined to make one other 
experiment with them at the Chickasaw Agency, and for that 
purpose I obtained the favor of General Jackson under a special 
commission to renew your proposition of the 27th May, to 
which General Jackson made the following report : "The Cher- 
okees would not sell their claim north of Tennessee, but 
are inclined, and, as I believe, will shortly tender to the United 
States their whole territory where they now live, for lands west 
of the Mississippi. They say if they sell our land north of 
Tennessee River we will not have sufficient area left to obtain 
by barter a sufficient country west of the Mississippi for their 
whole nation." Thus, it seems, that part of the negotiation is 

Since the policy of the Cherokees appears to be in favor of ex- 
changing territory, I would beg leave to be indulged in sug- 
gesting to your Honor the propriety of renewing to them a 
proposition made during the administration of Mr. Jefferscm 
for an exchange of land in the Arkansas country for land in 
their nation, with such modifications as you may deem expe- 
dient. And I will here ask your permission to offer one or two 
lor your consideration. 

First, that each able-bodied male Cherokee embracing the 
plan of exchange shall be furnished with a good, new rifle gun, 
with sufficient powder, lead, etc., and say to those who choose 
to remain where they now reside, that the head of each family 
shall have 640 acres of land, to them, their heirs, etc*, during 
their continuance thereon ; and each Cherokee Indian being the 
head of some family shall be considered as entitled to all the 
rights of free citizens of color, and subject to the payment of 
taxes for land, etc. 

And if any of the Cherokees to whom lands have been thus at- 
tached, their heirs or legal representatives, shall incline to dis- 
pose of the same with its improvements, they shall be at liberty 
to sell, but to no other person than an American citizen, and 
that on a lease of five years, and at the expiration of which 

390 Thb AkBRicAN&is^OKiCAx'' magazine. 

lease the land shall revert to the United States, unless it shckild 
lie withm the liftiits of some individtlal State, the legisla'ttire of 
which feliall dispose of such lands' at discretion. 
Very respectfully, I remain, 

Sir, your ob't serv*t, 

Jos. MclMiNN. 


Executive Office, 26th Oct., i8t6. 

Sir : I t^ke the liberty of forwarding o'ne other extract from 
General Jackson's letter to me of the i6th instant, in the fol- 
lowing words : 

*^We have obf^ned from the Cherokees' and Chickasaws 'all 
the dis^^uted territory on the sbuth Side of Tennessee and all 
the Chickasaw claim north of* that river. This tract of country 
is the one which excited so much sensibility within the State of 
Tennessee through the course of last summer, and it was hot 
until the vi^ws of the General Government were in some meas- 
ure disdbsed that its fury could be repelled; but, sir, at the 
present the most zeak>us and turbulent are hushed into a pleas- 
ing silence, and the former high confidence reposed by the citi- 
zens in the executive and head of departments, so far as I see 
and hear, is entirely restored, and, for myself, I most'arrfehtly 
regret its absence for a moment. 

*'l presume I stand enrolled in your offiibe as one of the dis- 
contented, and I becanle so from having a very ancient and 
tolerably accurate knowledge of the country, iand the vast im- 
portance it would be to the nation at a period perhaps not very 
remote itotn the present, and this opinion will be d^moti^tfated 
should a state of war render it necessary to march an arniy to 
Mobile or its neighboring points of defense. To have the pos- 
session Sve now enjoy of this country will not only facilitate, 
but will render secure the transportation of military stoics to 
a more satisfactory extent than if taken through the dominions 
of ahy fiation, however well disposed. 

"Rut tliere is a sound reason of at least equal weight with flie 
preceding one. This immense territory will enable us to con- 
solidate our settlements from Lake Erie on the north to the St. 


Marys and Mobile on the south. These being the two extremes 
of the nation and liable to attack by our late as well as our an- 
tidpilted enemy, renders the acpuisition of this country valuable 
almost beyond description. 

*^My' third and last reason why I feel so very solicitous that 
the I<nidian claim should be extinguished to the country in ques- 
tion ^'as for the special benefit of my fellow citizens of Tennes- 
see. The possession of that country will enable not only the 
citizens of Tennessee, btlt also those of the western counties 6f 
Virginia, to find a market for their surplus produce and domes- 
tic mamifactures infinitely nearer home than any other which 
hsis or ever will be discovered.'' 

My object in addressing this letter was, in the first place, 
to-pohlt out to your view some of the national and special ad- 
vantages which I have supposed would result, and if you con- 
ceive the position to be founded in truth and national policy, 
Tpray you to have the goodness to believe that this formed the 
only motive from which I acted; and the cc^y of my letter ad- 
dressed to General Jackson, which I have already presumed is 
in your office, is the only paper in existence written on this sub- 
ject to which my signature does appear, except what I have 
previously written to General Jackson; and on the score ot 
private interest in relation to this subject, I have not now, ndr 
do 1 ever expect to possess to the amount of one cent. 

•In the second place, I beg leave to tender to the President of 
the United States, and to you as the head of the war depart- 
ment, my grateful obligations, my entire approval of, and my 
high esteem for the able, frank and friendly manner in which a 
period 'was placed to the first and only transaction through tlie 
whole of Mr. Madison's administration which did not receive 
the warm and decided approbation of the citizens of Tennes- 
see, whose cheerful acquiescence in the present instance I beg 
leave to enroll with that of. 

Sir, your very humble and 

Most devoted servant, 
HonoKible, Jos. MoMinn. 

WiujAM H. Grawfobd, 

Secretary Department of War. 

392 The American Historical Magazine. 

govbbnob mcminn to colonbl lowbby. 

Knoxville, 30th Dec, i8i6. 
Colonel John Lowery. 

Sir : The ill state of my health at present prevents me from 
calling on you upon the subject of a visit to the Cherokee na- 

In order to give you as little trouble as was consistent with 
the nature of the enterprise, I have written to a considerable 
number of the chiefs, whose letters are open for your perusal, 
and will explain my views in relation to effecting an exchange 
of lands on the Arkansas River for lands in the Cherokee na- 
tion as fully as though I had written you separately on that 
subject. I wish you to proceed without loss of time to hand 
those letters addressed to the chiefs, with the one written to 
Colonel Meigs, who I know will confer freely with you, and 
render you every aid in his power. It is my particular desire that 
you should have a public audience with the chiefs in their as- 
sembled capacity, which would stamp a character upon the 
measure and g^ve scope and weight to your influence with them. 
It must be distinctly stated that those who choose to remove will 
be furnished with rifles, etc., as well as the means of removing ; 
that a tract of country will be laid off for them on the Ar- 
kansas River, but they must surrender to the United States an 
equal quantity of land where they now live ; and to those who 
choose to remain where they are now settled 640 acres of land 
will be laid off for each family, but it must be understood that 
they will become citizens of the United States, and instead of 
following the chase for their support they will pursue habits of 
industry and civilized life ; and in conclusion, assure the whole 
community that their Great Father, the President of the United 
States, will continue to hold them fast by the hand, and provide 
for their wants and comforts, as well those who remain as those 
who remove. 

I will calculate with certainty on hearing from you so soon as 
you accomplish the object which I have committed to your 
discretion and care, and should we not succeed at the present, 
I shall console myself imder a hope which cannot be shaken, 


that as the cause is strongly supported by humanity as re- 
gards the Cher<rfcees, and interwoven with the best interests 
of our country, no failure in the ultimate means for its accom- 
plishment has a right to be looked for. 

Very respectfully, 

Your Ob't Serv't, 

Jos. MoMiNN. 

Colonel Lowely to Governor McMinn. 

Maryville, 13th January, 1817. 
Sir: Agreeable to your request of the 30th December ult., 
I carried the letter to the different Cherokee chiefs, to whom 
they were directed, all except the Ridge, who was absent. I had 
but little trouble in delivering them, having the good fortune to 
meet with them at the Agency, where we had a council which 
lasted several days. The Subject you had in view was laid before 
them by Colonel Meigs, together with what assistance I could 
render him, and they took time to deliberate on the matter, and, 
vi^hile they had it under adjustment, considerable industry was 
used to assist them in their deliberations, and prepare their 
minds for the much wished for result. Mr. John Rogers, who 
had lately returned from the Arkansas, was of much service 
amongst them; he is determined immediately to remove with 
all his substance and connection, and will take a number with 
him. The terms proposed were, "Make the exchange, and then 
go who will, and you shall be provided for there ;" or, "Remain 
who will, provided you will become citizens and be under our 
laws." The terms appeared so fair to them that they presently 
in a great measure accorded with it. I can at least assure you 
with safety that all the old chiefs present, before they left the 
ground, were very much enraptured with the proposition, in so 
far that the old Glass, Toochelor, the old King and Tesstipkee 
solicited my aid to help them bring it about ; the Pathkiller and 
Charles Hicks were absent, sick, but I am apprehensive the 
matter will be viewed so important as to make it impossible to 
close it before the rise of Congress, nor do I believe the gov- 
ernment is quite ready on her part ; the rifles and utensils are not 
ready to deliver to them. I think Congress ought to pass a law 

394 The Ambucah Hisiobical Magazine. 

making the necessary appropriations, appointing commissioners, 
etc., in advance, for the Indians have appointed another meeting 
ajt the rising of grass, when I do most confidently believe the 
thing can be accomplished. Some pains must be taken with 
Charles Hicks. I am tcrid he rather was against the measure, 
but if some person of his acquaintance would converse with 
him on the subject, it would, in my opinion, set matters to right. 
You requested me to come to Knoxville on my return, but on 
that ground you must excuse me. My domestic affairs made it 
necessary for me to be at home this week, of which I can con- 
vince you when I see you. I shall give Colonel Williams my 
ideafi on this subject also, as I hope you will in like manner. 

I am yours with esteem, 

John Lowbisy. 

Tknnbssbb Historical Socibty. 395 


Prbsidbnt : 
Judge John M. Lea. 

Vice Presidents: 

Col. William A. Henderson, Gen. Gates P. Thruston. 

Gov. James D. Porter. 

Secretary : 
A. V. Goodpasture. 

Corresponding Seoretary: 
Robert T. Quarks. 

Treasurer : 
Joseph S. Carets. 

Librarian : 
Joseph S. Carels. 

Standing Coicmittbes: 

Membership — W. R. Garrett, chairman; J. A. Cartwright, 
J. P. Hunter. 

Finance — Edgar Jones, chairman ; W. S. Settle, C. H. Fast- 

Addresses — ^W. J. McMurry, chairman; Frederick W. Moore, 
Theodore Cooley. 

History and Biography — A. V. Goodpasture, chairman; 
John Allison, F. W. Moore. 

Museum — Theoidore Cooley, chairman ; John M. Bass, R. R. 

Special Coinarm: 

Publication — Dr. W. R. Garrett, chairman; Dr. R. L. C. 
White, John M. Bass. 



. . . AND ... 

Tennessee Historical Society Quarterly 

VoL Vm. JANUARY, 1903 No. \ 




American Historical Magazine. 

Secretary Tennasee Historical Society. 

General Agfents^ Goodpaiture Book Co., 
Church Stt NMshrSict Teniu 


William Blount and the Old SoutUwest Territory 1 

The Genesis of the Peahody CoUegre for Teachers 14 

Madison County 26 

The Preservation of Tennessee's History 49 

The Development of Education in Tennessee 64 

From Bardstown to Washingfton in 1805 91 

Editorial •. . 101 

Tennessee Historical Society 103 

4- THE 


AND ., 

Tennessee Historical Society Quarterly 

VoLVUL OCTOBER, 1903 No* 4- 





American Historical Magazine^ 

SccstUry Teonessee Historical Society* 

General Ag^entSy^ Goodpasture Bo(^ Co^ 
Church Sin Nashville, Tenn* 


Dr. J. P. Dake — A Memoir. , ; 297 

The **01d Road" from Washington and Hamilton Districts to the 

Cumberlajid Settlement , 3^ 

Reconstruction in Sumner County , , . 355 

An Old Letter of the Late Cassius M. Clay 369 

Executive Correspondence of Governor James K. Polk , 371 

McMinn Correspondence on the Subject of Indian Treaties, in tht 

Years 1815, 1816 and 1817 377