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Full text of "American Historical Magazine and Tennessee Historical Society Quarterly"

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- 




HARVARD UNIVERSITY 






/^^\ 






LIBRARY 

OF THl 

PEABODY MUSEUM OF AMERICAN 
ARCHAEOLOGY AND ETHNOLOGY 

GIFT OF 

Tennessee Historical 
Society 

Rccebed X904 








■X 




THE 

AMERICAN HISTORICAL 

MAGAZINE 

AND 

Tennessee Historical Society Quarterly 



EDITOR : 

A. V. GOODPASTURE 

Secretary Tennessee Historical 
Society. 



PUBLISHED QUARTERLY BY 

A. V. AND W. H. GOODPASTURE 

AT NASHVILLE, TENN. 



VOLUME IX, J904 



GOODPASTURE BOOK COMPANY, QBirKRAL Aoints, 
Church Stbsbt, NASHTiLiiS, Tbnn. 



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American Historical Magazine. 

GENERAL INDEX VOLUME IX, 1904. 



Beard, W. E., Sketch of Mrs. Anne Royall, by 343 

Beaumont, Henry Francis, Biography of Thomas Emmerson, by 141 

Bell, Hon. John, of Tennessee. Letter to Hon. James R. Doolittle, of 

'^^consin 274 

Bilbro Family 353 

Blakey Family, the. Sketch of 119 

Blakey Family of Kentucky 374 

Bowling, Dr. W. K., Tribute of, to Dr. Paul F. Eve 307 

Breathitt Family, The, Sketch of 114 

Breathitt Family of Kentucky 392 

Chickasaw Treaty of 1818, The. By James D. Porter 252 

Doolittle, Hon. James R., of Wisconsin, letter from Hon. John Bell, 

of Tennessee 274 

Dunlap, Hugh, Letter on the Foimding of KnoxviUe, by 179 

Dunlap, Hugh, Sketch of. By John S. Dunlap 179 

Dunlap-Jackson Correspondence 83 

Editorial 279 

Emmerson, Thomas, Biography of. By Henry Francis Beaumont 141 

Eve, Paul Fitzsimons, A.M., M D., LL.D. Portrait. Facing 281 

Eve, Paul Fitzsimons, A.M., M.D., LL.D., Sketch of. By R. A. Halley . . 281 

Eve, Dr. Paul F., Bibliography of the Writings of 313 

Ewing Family of Kentucky 383 

Franklin, Constitution of the State of 399 

Garrett, Dr. William Robertson. Portrait. Facing 105 

Garrett, William Robertson, A.M., Ph.D., Sketch of. By A. V. Good- 
pasture 105 

Gattinger, Dr. Augustin. Portrait. Facing 153 

Gattinger, Dr. Augustin, Sketch of. By R. \, Halley. ..., 15a 



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George Family, the Sketch of 123 

Goodpasture, Albert V., Sketch of William Robertson Garrett, A.M., 

Ph.D., by 105 

Goodpasture, Ernest W., Sketch of Gen. Nathaniel Taylor, by 193 

Halley, R. A., Sketch of John McCormick Lea—The Ideal Citizen, by. . 1 

Halley, R. A., Sketch of Dr. Augustin Gattinger, by 153 

Halley, R. A., Paper Making in Tennessee, by 211 

Halley, R. A., Tennessee Archaeology at St. Louis. (Illustrated.), by. . . 257 

Halley, R. A., Sketch of Paul Fitzsimons Eve, A.M., M.D., LL.D., by 281 

Ham Family 373 

Historical Teaching and Investigation in the South, The Recent Revival 

of Interest in. By Dr. Frederick W. Moore 201 

Houston, Samuel, Some of the Main Features of His Trial for Contempt. 

By Gov. James D. Porter 187 

Jackson's Attitude in the Seminole War. By David Y. Thomas 145 

Jackson-Dunlap Correspondence 83 

Jackson's Ch-ation at the Tomb ol Mary Washington 277 

Killcbrew, Col. J. B., Remarks on the Death of Judge John M. Lea, by. . 56 

Knoxville, Foimding of. Letter of Hugh Dunlap 179 

Lea, Judge John M. Portrait. Facing i 

Lea, John McCormick— the Ideal Citizen. By R. A. Halley i 

Lea, Judge John McCormick — An Eulogy. By Dr. Frederick W. Moore. . 31 

Lea, Judge John M., Remarks on the Death of. By Col. George C. Porter. 47 

Lea, Judge John M., Remarks on the Death of. By Gen. G. P. Thruston. 53 

Lea, Judge John M., Remarks on the Death of. By Col J. B. Killebrew. . 56 

Lea, Luke, Sketch of i 

Lewis, Meriwether, The Death of. By J. H. Moore 218 

McFarland Family 352 

McFarland Genealogy 356 

Marr, Major George W. L., Sketch of 350 

Menees Family, of Nashville 352 

Menees Family, of Robertson County 373 

Menees, James, Sr., Sketch of 70 

Menees, John, Family of 365 



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Mill Creek Church, Career of -. . . 235 

Moore, Dr. Frederick W., An Eulogy on Judge John McCormick Lea, by. . 31 
Moore, Dr. Frederick W., Sketch of the Recent Revival of Interest in 

Historical Teaching and Investigation in the South 201 

Moore, J. H., The Death of Meriwether Lewis 218 

Paper Making in Tennessee. By R. A. Halley 211 

Polk, Mrs. James K., Genealogy of 239 

Porter, Col George C, Remarks on the Death of Judge John M Lea, by . . . 47 
Porter, Gov. James D., Some of the Main Features of Samuel Houston's 

Trial for Contempt, Narrated by 187 

Porter, Gov. James D., The Chickasaw Treaty of 1818. 252 

Rodes Family, The. By Frank Rodes 183 

Rodes, Frank, Sketch of the Rodes Family, by 183 

Rose, Dr. Wickliffe, Estimate of Dr. Gatt^lger's Character and Charac- 
teristics, by 174 

Royall, Mrs. Anne, Sketch of. By W. E. Beard 343 

Scotch-Irish Family, Annals of a. By Dr. William H. Whitsitt 

58. "3» 231, 352 

Taylor, Gen. Nathaniel, and Some Papers Relating to his Service in the 

War of 181 2. By Ernest W. Goodpasture 193 

Tennessee Archaeology at St. Louis. By R. A. Halley. (Illustrated.) .... 257 

Thomas, David Y., Jackson's Attitude in the Seminole War 145 

Thruston, Gen. G. P., Remarks on the Death of Judge John M. Lea, by. . . 53 

Washington, Mary, Jackson's Oration at the Tomb of 277 

Whitsitt Family of Nashville, Tenn., The. By Dr. William H. Whit- 
sitt 58, "3, 231, 352 

Whitsitt Family of Kentucky 380 

Whitsitt, James (Menees), Family of 243 

Whitsitt, Reuben Ewing, Family of 249 

Whitsitt, Samuel Dawson, Family of 247 

Whitsitt, William, Family of 246 

Whitsitt, WilUam, the third. Sketch of 67 

Whitsitt, Dr. William H., Annals of a Scotch-Irish Family: The Whit- 

sitts of Nashville, Tenn., by 58, 1 13» 231, 352 



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American Historical Magazine. 

CONTENTS VOLUME IX, 1904. 



No. I. — January. 

John McCormick Lea — ^The Ideal Citizen i 

Judge John McCormick Lea — An Eulogy 31 

Remarks of Colonel George C. Porter before the Tennessee Historical 

Society, November 10, 1903, on the Death of Judge John M. Lea. . . 47 
Remarks of General G. P. Thruston before the Lea Memorial Meeting 

of the Tennessee Historical Society, November 10, 1903 53 

Remarks of Colonel J. B. Killebrew before the Lea Memorial Meeting 

of the Tennessee Historical Society, November 10 56 

Annals of a Scotch-Irish Family: The Whitsitts of Nashville, Tenn 58 

Dunlap-Jackson Correspondence 83 

No. 2. — April. 

William Robertson Garrett, A.M., Ph.D 105 

Annals of a Scotch-Irish Family: The Whitsitts of Nashville, Tenn 113 

Biography of Thomas Emmerson 141 

Jackson's Attitude in the Seminole War 145 

Dr. Augustin Gattinger 153 

Founding of Knoxville 179 

The Rodes Family 183 

Samuel Houston 187 

General Nathaniel Taylor and Some Papers Relating to His Service 

in the War of 1812 193 



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No. 3. — JUhY. 

The Recent Revival of Interest in Historical Teaching and Investigation 

in the South 201 

Paper Making in Tennessee 211 

The Death of Meriwether Lewis 218 

Annals of a Scotch-Irish Family: The Whitsitts of Nashville, Tenn 231 

The Chickasaw Treaty of 1818 252 

Tennessee Archaeology at St Louis 257 

Interesting letter of Hon. John Bell, of Tennessee, to the Hon. James 

R. Doolittle, of Wisconsin 274 

Jackson's Oration at the Tomb of Mary Washington 277 

Editorial — 

Announcement 279 

A Correction 279 

No. 4. — October 

Paul Fitzsimons Eve, A.M., M.D., LL.D 281 

Mrs. Anne Royall 343 

Majo^ George W. L. Marr 350 

Annals of a Scotch-Irish Family: The Whitsitts of Nashville, Tenn 352 

Constitution of the State of Franklin 399 



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HARVARD UNIVERSITY 




LIBRARY 



OF THE 



PEABODY MUSEUM OF AMEEIOAN 
AEOEEOLOGYAND ETHNOLOGY. 



GIFT OF 






^UirrtC^ ^(TUaJa/ 



Received 



(J't/fr. fo ■ / f 



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The American Historical Magazine. 

Vol. IX. JANUARY, 1904. No. 1. 



JOHN McCORMICK LEA— THE IDEAL CITIZEN. 



BY R. A. HALLEY. 



John McCormick Lea was born at Knoxville, Tenn., on Christ- 
mas Day, 1818, and di?d at Monteagle, Tenn., on the 19th day 
of September, 1903, being thus very near the end of his eighty- 
fifth year. For two-thirds of a century he had been a resident 
of Nashville, a citizen who honored the city of his choice by his 
residence in it. His life was not one of adventure or one filled 
with strange events, nor could he tell of many such startling 
things as make matter for a ballad. He lived a quiet life, placid 
and little ruffled, marked with such characteristics as belong to 
the highest type of manhood and good citizenship. He played 
his part in the drama of life and left the world better for his 
having been in it. 

The father of John M. Lea was Luke Lea, a man well known 
and favorably mentioned in the annals of the State; who held 
positions of honor and trusty and who served his country in 
many capacities. Luke Lea's wife was Miss Susan Wells 

McCormick, a daughter of McCormick and Nancy 

Tevis Armstrong. Luke Lea was the son of Major Lea, who 
married Elizabeth Wilson. Nancy Tevis Armstrong was the 
daughter of James Armstrong and Miss Wells, whose father 
was the founder of Wellsburg, W. Va. Major Lea was a Baptist 
minister, who came from England and settled in Virginia. From 



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2 The American Historical Magazine. 

Virginia he removed to the Yadkin River section in North Caro- 
hna, and thence to the State of Franklin while that short-lived 
governmental experiment was in existence, and, therefore, be- 
fore Tennessee was admitted into the Union. He located near 
Knoxville, where the family remained. There Luke Lea grew 
up, and from that place he went to serve as a soldier in the 
Indian wars. Returning from the wars, he was for many years 
the cashier of the old State Bank, at Knoxville. He afterwards 
represented the Knoxville district in Congress, and was later 
Land Agent for East Tennessee, at which time he removed the 
Cherokee Indians to the Indian Territory. He was thrown from 
his horse and killed near Independence, Mo., whither he had 
gpne as Special Indian Commissioner at the request of President 
Fillmore. 

James Armstrong, who was better known to people of his 
time as "Trooper" Armstrong, was so-called from his having 
been an officer in the famous Enniskillen Dragoons, and migrated 
to this country from Ireland shortly after the close of our Revo- 
lutionary War. But his days of fighting were not done, for he 
served in the American army with distinction in the War of 1812. 

On both sides, therefore, John M. Lea's ancestors had shown 
themselves to be men of action, men who took their parts in 
the world's struggles and triumphs. 

Luke Lea was bom in 1792 and lived until 185 1. He had a 
large family, but cared for them well and gave them all the 
advantages of education that were available to the better class 
of citizens in those days. 

John M. Lea at an early age showed a strong desire for knowl- 
edge and a fondness for learnmg, and fortunately had both the 
means and the capacity for obtaining them. Indeed, he was 
always peculiarly fortunate in his pursuit of an education. 
Naturally fond of study from his earliest years, and eagerly seiz- 



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John McCormick Lea— The Idea.l Citizen. 3 

Rock, near Wytheville, Va. Mr, Piper was a very accomplished 
and successful teacher, and a man of great force of character 
and strength of mind. When a young man, Mr. Piper was the 
hero of a story that was in the school readers of fifty years ago ; 
he was the youth who nearly lost his life by climbing up the 
precipice at the Natural Bridge in Virginia in order to carve 
his name higher than that of George Washington. Mr. Piper 
impressed himself very strongly on John M. Lea, who never 
failed to attribute much of his success to him. Mrs. Piper sur- 
vived her husband very many years, and to the time of her death 
Judge Lea would invariably remember her at Christmas time, and 
always sent her some token of that remembrance. 

From the time that he went to Virginia to school, John M. Lea 
never lived at his father's home again except for brief intervals. 
He came to Nashville and entered the University of Nashville 
in 1834, and was so attentive and absorbent of learning there 
that he graduated in 1837, having completed the prescribed 
course in the summer of that year. He was then nineteen years 
old, and had made good use of his time. Coming to Nashville 
when the University of Nashville was under the guidance of 
Dr. Philip Lindsley, he had again enjoyed exceptional oppor- 
tunities, and in all his after years was accustomed to attribute 
his success in life to Doctor Lindsley. The distinguished president 
of the University forcibly impressed upon his mind the fact that 
he should study for the pleasure of knowing, and for the power 
that knowledge gave him. He emphasized the value of habits 
of punctuality, and the strictest observance of all obligations. 
These teachings became potent factors in shaping Lea's after 
career, for never did student more faithfully heed the admoni- 
tions of a teacher than he heeded these. 

Returning to East Tennessee after graduation at the Univer- 
sity, he decided on the law as a profession, and began reading 
at Athens in the office of Spencer Jarnegan, a legal giant of 
those times, eminent in law and politics and afterwards in the 
United States Senate from Tennessee. Jarnegan was a distin- 
guished lawyer and was connected with many cases, but was 
especially noted as the counsel for the Cherokee Indians in the 
celebrated case of Foreman against the State. In this case he 



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4 Thb American Historical Magazink. 

won undying reputation. It involved the right of the Cherokees 
to make their own laws, as opposed to the right of the State 
to enforce obedience of the Indians to the statutes made by 
the State. The Indians were victorious in the United States 
Supreme Court, but the States of Georgia and Tennessee dis- 
regarded the decision, the Georgia officials hanging the Indian 
they had been directed to release. Subsequent inevitable clashes 
between the States and the Indians were avoided by removing 
the Indians to the west of the Mississippi River. 

John M. Lea had before this time begun to think for himself. 
When a mere youth of fifteen years he did not hesitate to ex- 
press his convictions. At that time, in 1833, his father was in 
Congress from East Tennessee. About the time that his father 
was expected home John had been thinking of the slavery ques- 
tion, and wrote and sent to the Maryville, Tenn., weekly an 
article which he signed "Amicus Libertatis," advocating the 
abolition of slavery. He hesitated about letting his father know 
that he had written the article until he could find out what he 
thought of it. So he placed the paper conspicuously on his fath- 
er's desk, or table, and left it there. When he came into the 
room some time after his father had had an opportunity to read 
the article, his father said to him: "John, I see some fool 
has been writing an article to the Maryville paper advocating the 
abolition of slavery. If he raises a discussion on that subject he 
is going to defeat me for Congress when I run again." He 
thereupon, decided that he would not be justified at that time 
m letting his father know the authorship of the article so criti- 
cised. His father did not, in the slightest degree, ever suspect 
him of writing it, and not for many years afterwards did he 
reveal the fact that he had written it. 

He studied law with the ambition of becoming a profound 
jurist, and his knowledge of the higher principles of law was 
unusual. To what rank he might have in time attained had he 



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John McCormick Lba— The Ideal Citizen. 5 

From about this time, also, John M. Lea began to meet and 
know personally almost every man in public life, not only in 
Tennessee, but in the country at large, and this knowledge con- 
tinued for two-thirds of a century. He not only knew them in 
the sense of having met them, but enjoyed a close acquaintance 
with them, and for many years carried on an extensive corre- 
spondence with a large number of the leaders in politics. He 
thus gained also that wide knowledge of public events which 
characterized his after life, and by his personal efforts he fre- 
quently did much to mould public opinion. From the time he 
was fifteen years old he knew the judges, senators and repre- 
sentatives in Congress from practically the entire State. His 
father's position as Congressman and afterwards as Indian 
Agent, and his own connection with the office gave him many 
opportunities, and his natural inclmation for their acquaintance 
made many more. And so, in after years. Presidents, Senators, 
Governors and men in every walk of life listened to him with 
the strong belief that he was a safe counsellor and a man whose 
opinion was entitled to consideration in any matter concerning 
which it was expressed. His father kept open house at Knox- 
ville, and there he met many men then and afterwards famous 
in the annals of Tennessee and of the country. He was an in- 
timate friend of Samuel Houston, and well acquainted with 
Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, John C. Calhoun, Hampton, the 
father of Wade Hampton, Haynie, Andrew Jackson and a host 
of others. 

Judge Lea and John C. Gaut, who died several years before 
Judge Lea, read law together when young men, and those who 
remember Judge Gaut, will recall what a close student he was 
and what a retentive reader. One day he was sitting in the 
room reading Coke when Lea suggested that water was needed. 
Gaut said that he would get it, and carefully laid a slip of paper 
in the book, marking the exact place where he was when he 
had been interrupted. He took the bucket and went for the 
water. While he was gone Lea took out the slip and placed it in 

the book some twentv nap-es in frnnt ni fVip cnrrecf nlare. When 



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6 The American Historical Magazine. 

marked by the slip. After reading a few minutes he stopped, 
looked back at the preceding page, and then looked up and said : 
'*John, I have read every word of this somewhere before.'* 

After being admitted to the bar John M. Lea assisted his father 
for a time in the Land Office for East Tennessee. At one time 
his father had in his possession something over three hundred 
thousand dollars with which to settle the claims of the Indians, 
who were then about being removed to the Indian Territory. 
This large sum was kept locked up in a little iron safe at 
Athens, and was considered, and was, absolutely secure. Such 
were the morals of those times. After staying in the Land 
Office one year he gave up his position with the purpose of be- 
ginning the practice of his profession. Before he left home his 
father reminded him that he had a large family to care for, and 
that his means were moderate; he had sent him to school and 
educated him, and now all he could do was to give him fifty 
dollars and his blessing, with which he must make his own way 
in the world. 

Leaving East Tennessee, he went first to Arkansas with a view 
of possibly locating in Little Rock to practice law. He was not 
pleased with the outlook, and was especially displeased with the 
climate, because he had contracted chills. He, therefore, returned 
to Nashville, having spent most of his money, and reached this 
city with fifteen dollars in his possession. He decided to locate 
here, and rented an office in a brick building on Cherry street 
near Cedar, just opposite where the Duncan now stands. He 
then went to the old Nashville Inn and engaged board, putting 
up his remaining fifteen dollars as part payment in advance. 
The old Nashville Inn was then a place of famous resort for 
prominent men of that day, and stood on the northeast comer 
of the Public Square and Market street. 

Lea soon established a reputation for being a scholarly and 
«;iirrpssful lawver. and acauired a eood practice for a voune man. 



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John McCormick Lka— The Ideal Citizen. 7 

always spoke with special gratitude of having in those days so 
won the confidence of Doctor McNeill that in a short time after 
their acquaintance began he was made executor of Doctor Mc- 
Neill's wdl by that gentleman. Doctor McNeill died soon after 
making the will, and the large estate was settled up by Lea in a 
manner most satisfactory to all concerned. 

He was soon recognized as a leader among the younger men 
at the bar, and in 1842, when but twenty-three years old, he was 
appointed by President Tyler to be United States District At- 
torney, then the most responsible and important judicial position 
in the State, and he discharged the duties of the office with in- 
creasing credit to himself and with entire satisfaction to the 
government. He had entered upon the practice of his profession 
the same year that Andrew Jackson left the White House for 
the Hermitage, and the two were firm friends. In 1845 ^^ ^^^ 
city of Memphis, John M. Lea married Miss Elizabeth Overton, 
the second daughter of Judge John Overton, famous in the 
early history of Tennessee; a man who was perhaps closer to 
General Jackson than any other — his life-long friend, associate 
and admirer, and his immediate successor on the bench — one of 
the patriarchs of Tennessee. Mrs. Lea was the sister of Colonel 
John Overton of our day, the generous and hospitable owner of 
Travelers' Rest, the historic country seat located a few miles 
south of Nashville. She was also the sister of the first Mrs. 
Robert Brinkley, of Memphis. Tenn. They are all dead now. 
and thus the second generation of that noted family have all 
passed away. But the memory of their many deeds of kindness 
and love will long remain. Three children were bom of this 
marriage — Overton, Robert and Luke — only one of whom, 
Overton Lea, is living. Mrs. Lea was an invalid for the greater 
part of her life; she died September 13, 1890. 

Shortly after his marriage, wearied by the exactions of 
official life and pressed for time to attend to his growing private 
practice and by his increasing personal interests, Mr. Lea resigned 
his office as District Attorney. His servFces had been so emi- 
nently satisfactory to his superiors in the Department of Justice, 
that he received from the Department when he resigned a letter 
Expressing deep regret that he had given up the office. 



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8 The American Historical Magazine. 

His fine executive and administrative ability had been made 
known to the people of the city, and in September, 1849, Mr. Lea 
was elected Mavor by a practically unanimous vote. During 
his tenure of this office he was a factor in many matters affecting 
the future growth and welfare of the city. In this year of 
service he was, as ever, able, upright and efficient. It was in 
those twelve months that the contract was let for the building of 
the reservoir on Rolling Mill Hill, which held the city's reserve 
water supply until the present reservoir was constructed to take 
its place; it was Mayor Lea who signed the contract under 
which the Nashville Gas Light Company began operations, and 
by the terms of which contract, terms no doubt dictated by him- 
self in large measure, or at least suggested by him, the city was 
the gainer when the fifty years life of the corporation had run 
its course ; and it was he who signed the bonds issued by the city 
to aid in the construction of the Nashville & Chattanooga Rail- 
road. 

Throughout the summer of 1850 and within Mayor Lea's term 
of office, an epidemic of Asiatic cholera which had raged in 
Nashville during the preceding summer, again prevailed violently. 
Mayor Lea took an active part in aiding the sufferers. Often duty 
called him to the bedside of strangers who had been stricken 
with the fatal disease, but he always discharged that duty to 
the fullest degree. He sent his family to the country and re- 
mained alone in his city residence from the time the epidemic 
was declared until it was regarded as altogether safe for those 
who had left the city to return. He instituted and supervised 
sanitary measures devised to rid the city of the epidemic; he 
helped nurse those sick of the pestilence, and to bury those who 
had fallen victims to its malevolence. It was during this time 
that he first formed the acquaintance of Father Skatts, then 
stationed at St. Mary's Cathedral, and between the two, who 
were constantly thrown together in their work for the stricken, 
a strong attachment grew that was never weakened. The sor- 
rows and troubles of those times of dread are still remembered 
by the oldest citizens of Nashville. One prominent lawyer vividly 
recalls a burning summer day in June, 1849, ^^ which ex-Presi- 
dent James K. Polk had died. As a barefooted boy, wearing a 



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John McCormick Lea — Thb Ideal Citizen. 9 

large straw hat, he was standing on the comer of Cherry street 
and Union, then known as Union Alley, watching the seemingly 
endless procession of people passing southwardly on Cherry 
street, their families and household goods piled high in every 
conceivable form of vehicle or conveyance that was procurable 
or susceptible of construction. That is the one picture of that 
cholera period that stands out distinctly in his mind to-day, and 
the scenes were also characteristic of the summer of 1850. 

When not absolutely busied with his office duties Mayor Lea 
spent all his time in counselling and encouraging the well, in 
visiting and cheering the sick, and in personally assisting in 
burying the dead. The duties of the Mayor were not then so 
manifold as now, and he was the choice of the whole city of less 
than ten thousand people, rather than of any party. The manner 
in which he discharged the duties of this office won the hearts 
and affections of all, and established his reputation as an official 
and as a friend to the distressed in time of need. He was ever 
thereafter held in the highest esteem and regard by the people, 
who would at any time have gladly bestowed upon him any 
position of honor or emolument in their power. 

In those days the newspapers did not feel called upon to ex- 
press themselves in a particularly complimentary manner at each 
recurring change in the office of mayor, declaring the retiring 
officer the best ever occupying the office, and when they did 
speak out they voiced the public sentiment concerning the official, 
waiving those times when the office was a political one. The 
office of Mayor was non-political. And when Mayor Lea retired 
from office of his own volition, both the Nashville papers ex- 
amined in that regard, without qualification commended the work 
that Mayor Lea had done. His term expired October i, 1850. 

Said the Daily Center-State American, of October 2, 1850, in 
an editorial headed "Mayor Lea:" "It is not our purpose to 
attempt to enumerate his commendable economy, untiring ex- 
ertion, etc., as his works, labors and improvements speak for 
themselves. But we feel bound to say we never have witnessed 
his equal as a public officer or private individual in administering 
to the wants of the afflicted, sick and dying during the prevalence 
of the cholera in our city. No one was more constantly on the 



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lo The American Historical Magazine. 

move than he, day or night, administering to their wants. None 
that we knew of came nearer filling the oflScc of the *Good 
Samaritan :' he tarried not for funds to be appropriated by our 
city fathers, but drew largely on his own private resources, 
thereby rendering timely aid to the needy, which succor was 
appreciated at the time by tears of gratitude, which was all they 
had to give, and which seemed entirely to repay him. Such 
facts coming under our own observation we feel constrained to 
.give them publicit>% as they deserve to be treasured up and re- 
membered by all." 

In its issue of October 5, 1850, the Nashville Gazette said in 
the course of an editorial on ex-Mayor Lea: "He has, during 
his services in office discharged the very arduous and responsible 
duties of his station with remarkable faithfulness and ability. 
He has retired with the commendation and good wishes of all 
classes, until his ability and zeal shall be demanded again for 
the public service." 

It is worthy of mention here that the Cit>- Digest of 1850 was 
prepared by John M. Lea and by John Hugh Smith, his imme- 
<liate successor in the office of Mayor. 

At the end of his one year's service. Mayor Lea declined to 
ajSfain be voted for, and confined himself thereafter to his chosen 
profession, until the demands of an increasing private business 
compelled him to retire from active practice. He b^^ in 1853 
to improve his coimtry place, where his family and he had been 
spending the summers, but still kept their residence in the city 
until 1863. Even to the time of his death he retained his town 
house, though his family had ceased to occupy it. At his coun- 
try home he spent many years of life, alternating his private 
business duties with his voluntar>' labors in behalf of the various 
institutions with which he was connected officially and in which 
he felt an interest. There were many days of leisure, but they 
were never days of idleness. It was his pleasure still to keep up 
the habits of his early life and to acquire knowledge for the 
pleasure it gave. He studied the habits of all the domestic ani- 
mals, as well as those of the wild beasts and of the birds that 
lived and sang in the forest about him. He knew them all, theit 
names, their characteristics and their ways. He never felt the 



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John McCormick Lea— The Ideal Citizen. ii 

need of other mental recreation and amusement while he was in 
the midst of his flowers and birds and trees and animals. He 
studied the geology of the State until he was fairly familiar with 
the formations of Tennessee and knew where to find the deposits 
of almost every mineral in the State. 

But it was in botany that he most delighted. In the forty 
acres of lawn attached to his country home he planted every tree, 
with probably half a dozen exceptions, and those exceptions can 
all be pointed out now. He had a really magnificent arboretum 
there. It was one of his chief pleasures to have a tree planted 
by a friend who was visiting him, and to call that tree by the 
name of the friend who planted it. Most of his life-long friend* 
have been so honored, and it was always his added pleasure to 
inform each one of those who had planted a tree how their 
namesake progressed. He took a special interest in the collection 
of Tennessee woods which Colonel J. B. Killebrew made for the 
Tennessee Centennial Exposition, and was of much assistance, 
giving information of one Tennessee tree of which few others 
had ever heard. This was the chittim wood, otherwise called 
yellow wood, a very ornamental tree and one of the prettiest in 
the forests of the State. He wrote a full description of the tree, 
its habits and the localities where it might be found, and fur- 
nished it to Colonel Killebrew, who secured some fine specimens 
for his collection. The tree is exceedingly rare and of very 
weak vitality, growing in the rich woods of the central basin and 
in eastern Kentucky. The delicate fragrance of its creamy white 
flowers makes the tree most noticeable in May and June. Rare 
as it was, Judge Lea knew of it, though there were few others 
who did. 

There was little relating to Tennessee that he did not learn. 
Its productions were most familiar, its history an open book, its 
prominent families well known to him for generations. In this 
beautiful country home, when tired with outdoor pursuits he 
had his splendid library for his indoor amusement and recreation. 
There he added to the store of his knowledge even to the very 
tiiile of his departure for Monteagte, from which he was never 
to return alive. Not only could he speak or write of any subject 
pertaining to Tennessee, but he was a man of the most varied 



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12 Thb American Historicai. Magazine. 

general accomplishments. Considering the wide range of his 
knowledge, his information was nothing less than wonderful, 
and was remarkably accurate. To the last he maintamed his 
familiarity with the ancient classics, with the principles of law, 
with mathematics, particularly astronomy ; his reading in Enghsh 
was very wide, and he was almost a critical philologist. 

Judge Lea's carefulness in the use of language was illustrated 
in the last letter he ever wrote to his grandson, Overton Lea, Jr., 
who was then in Europe. In this he mildly took his grandson 
to task for having used a word in an inaccurate way in his pre- 
vious letter. He gave a full explanation of the word used and 
showed its origin, meaning and exact significance. 

This care was a characteristic of the man. When he was in 
doubt as to the exact meaning, or as to any point connected with 
a word, he would never rest until he had looked it up and satis- 
fied himself fully. Mr. Norman Farrell was a frequent visitor 
to Judge Lea, being a very intimate friend of the family. On 
one occasion he and Mr. Farrell had had a diflFerence of opinion 
about a word just as they were about to retire. After some little 
argument on the matter they separated. Judge Lea saying that 
he would look it up in the morning. The following morning 
Mr. Farrell was awakened by Judge Lea tapping on his door and 
calling to him. On his asking what was wanted the Judge re- 
plied : "Farrell, you were right about that word." He had gotten 
up before daylight, as was his habit, and had gone straight to his 
library to look up the word that had been under discussion. It 
was his habit to satisfy himself at once. When he would get to 
thinking about a quotation or any fact in bed where he could not 
recall it to his own satisfaction, he would frequently get up in 
the middle of the night, go and look it up and then return to his 
sleep. It was his invariable rule to verify his opinion when he 
was not absolutely certain about it. 

In the prime of life Judge Lea had a role to perform that was 
most trying, and which few could have filled as he did— certainly 
no one else in Nashville — and he succeeded where others would 
have failed, because it was hardly a role in the ordinary sense; 
it was a tremendous duty that faced him and which he might 
easily have escaped without criticism. Yet he willingly and 



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John McCormick Lka— Thb Ideal Citizen. 13 

cheerfully assumed it. He never believed in the right or the 
expediency of secession, and during the inception of the war, as 
well as throughout the existence of that great conflict, was known 
and regarded as a Union man; yet even in those days, when 
passion ran high, when families were hopelessly divided and 
friends of a hfetime fell asunder, there was no man who did 
not know his sincerity or who did not thoroughly respect him. 
When, early in the conflict, the city of Nashville was captured 
by the Union forces, his duty began, and he became the mediator 
between the vengeful and arrogant conqueror and those who, 
though conquered, were still unsubdued. Open conflict between 
the two forces thus opposed could have but one result, when one 
was weak and helpless and the other mighty. Judge Lea's neigh- 
bors came to him for aid, for intercession, because they had abso- 
lute confidence in him and knew his influence and weight with 
those in power; and that weight and influence were exercised 
whenever occasion demanded. The federal authorities also knew 
of his high character and that he was a man with no personal 
purpose to serve or private ends to gain, and they placed entire 
confidence in him. By this he was enabled to secure many in- 
dulgences and perform many acts of kindness for his less fortu- 
nate fellow citizens and their families-. Instances of material 
aid and assistance rendered by him during that period are abun- 
dant. Day after day he bore the burdens of his neighbors to the 
seat of authority, and not in vain. Many are still living who 
profited by his intervention in those troublous times. Nor were 
these services performed alone for his friends and intimates. 
His was in every way a public service ; his neighbors, his fellow 
townsmen and his fellow citizens throughout this commonwealth 
received benefit from his unselfish labors. His living in the com- 
munity was a blessing to it, because those in authority respected 
his voice. 

It had been because of Judge Lea's well known sentiments 
that he had represented the city at the formal surrender. The 
news of the fall of Fort Donelson had reached Nashville Sun- 
day morning, February 16, 1862, and caused the utmost con- 
sternation. The Legislature speedily adjourned to Memphis 
with the money and archives of the State. General A. S. Johns- 



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14 Thk American Historicai, Magazine. 

ton's army began passing through the city on its way Soittb, 
and the march continued day after day, even night after night, 
until the entire body had passed through, leaving General Floyd 
to cover the retreat. A genuine panic reigned. The two bridges 
across ttie Cumberland River were destroyed by the troops, 
against the protests of the citizens, and one week after the sur- 
render of Fort Donelson the rear guard of the Confederate army 
marched out to the South, as General D. C. Buell came in on 
the other side and occupied East Nashville, then Edgefield, with 
the Federal troops. 

Mayor Cheatham and a committee of citizens previously ap- 
pointed by the City Council went out to meet the commanding 
general, make a formal surrender of the city to him, and nego- 
tiate for the best terms they could, in regard to the protection 
of the property and rights of the citizens. What transpired at 
this meeting with Generals Buell, Mitchell and Nelson, is a part 
of the war's unwritten history, but the course pursued by the 
army of occupation indicated that it was not devoid of result. 
Of all those participating in that conference on both sides, about 
fifteen in number, Judge Lea was the last survivor. 

This was the first errand undertaken by Judge Lea for the 
amelioration of existing conditions, and was but the precursor 
of a long list of others. Judge Lea continuously used his in- 
fluence, warm protest and personal solicitation to prevent harsh 
treatment of Southern people. He used this influence notably 
when Andrew Johnson became Military Governor of Tennessee. 
Before the war Lea had been a Whig and Andrew Johnson a 
Democrat, but on some points, particularly on the tariff and on 
the subject of banking, they had similar views and had come 
to know each other very well. This friendship was especially 
grateful to Mr. Johnson because of the fact that during his resi- 
dence in Nashville as Governor from 1853 to 1857, he had been 



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John McCormick Lea— The Ideal Citizen. 15 



I 



barked upon a vigorous policy with the avowed purpose of crush- 
ing out all resistance and restoring Tennessee to the Union at 
the earliest possible time. This policy was very severe against 
all who S3mipathized with the Confederate cause. Public officers 
and persons suspected of such sympathy were forced to take a 
test oath, and citizens were heavily fined for being suspected of 
sympathizing with the Southern cause. Members of the City 
Council, teachers, ministers of the gospel and prominent citizens 
who would not take the test oath were banished or imprisoned 
on the charge of treason. To try public sentiment Governor 
Johnson ordered an election for Judge of the Criminal Court, 
and when Johnson's candidate was defeated the successful can- 
didate was arrested and imprisoned. 

Under conditions such as these the importance of a neighbor 
^nd friend like Judge Lea could hardly be over-estimated. When 
Johnson came to Nashville Lea called upon him and renewed the 
former acquaintance. He pointed out to Johnson the great op- 
portunity that lay before him ; that he was in a position where he 
should throw aside all feelings of bitterness and vindictiveness 
and mitigate as far as possible the acerbities of war. In doing 
this, Judge Lea insisted, Johnson would make easier the position 
of the State and that of the citizens after the end of the war. 
however it might terminate. Whatever influence this may or 
may not have had upon Johnson's general course of procedure, 
there is no question but, with all the harshness practiced, in 
particular instances, at the request of Judge Lea, he very often 
softened the conditions. 

March 4, 1865, ^^^ day that Andrew Johnson was inaugurated 
as Vice President, of the United States, was also the day desig- 
nated for the election of a Governor and General Assembly of 
Tennessee. At an election held two weeks prior thereto, on 
February 22, two amendments to the State Constitution were 
ratified, the one abolishing slavery and the other prohibiting the 
General Assembly from making laws recognizing the right of 
property in man. The amendments abolishing slavery had been 
submitted to the people by Governor Johnson at the original sug- 
gestion of Judge Lea, who hoped that the voluntary abolition of 
slavery by the State would brinj^: about the easier rehabilitation 



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i6 The American Historical Magazine. 

of Tennessee at the close of the war. Tennessee had been ex- 
cepted from the Emancipation Proclamation of President Lin- 
coln through the direct influence of Judge Lea, who assured the 
President that if left to herself Tennessee would take this action. 
The result showed the good foundation for his belief. Tennes- 
see was thus, through Judge Lea's influence, the only State in 
the South to free the slaves within its own borders. 

At this election of March 4, 1865, William G. Brownlow was 
elected Governor, and Johnson, the former Governor, being then 
the Vice President, an interregnum existed in Tennessee until 
the 5th day of April of that year, when Governor Brownlow was 
inaugurated by the General Assembly, which met on that day. 
Then was Tennessee again under civil government. 

After the death of President Lincoln in April, 1865, Andrew 
Johnston became President, and he so highly esteemed Judge Lea 
that he made a practical tender to him of a position in his cabinet 
— that of Attorney General of the United States. But this honor 
was declined. 

Later in 1865, however, when the State Government had been 
reorganized. Governor Brownlow wished to appoint him Judge 
of the Circuit Court of Davidson County, and in response to 
urgent solicitations Judge Lea accepted the position. The ap- 
pointment was asked by the bar of the county, and it was only 
from a strong sense of duty that it was accepted. There were 
indeed few in those days competent to hold the office who could 
take the oath required, and fewer still who for policy's sake could 
aflford to accept it. A man who would discharge the duties 
faithfully and with satisfaction was required. Judge Lea's long 
rest from active practice, the new questions that had arisen re- 
quiring settlement, the strained relations existing between neigh- 
bors and between those who had been separated in opinion by 
the war, the smouldering passions of men at that time, made 



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John McCormick Lea— The Ideal Citizen. 17 

accuracy of an experienced jurist. But he did show himself a 
jurist of the highest int^^ity, and won additional laurels. 

It is a significant tribute to these few months of service on the 
bench that this short tenure of the office gained him the title of 
Judge, by which the people knew and have honored him, and by 
which he will ever be known and distinguished. No litigant ever 
complained that he had received from Judge Lea aught but the 
most even-handed justice. He was a conspicuous example of a 
rich man unspoiled by his riches. Never seeking office, yet he 
realized that the duty of the good citizen was sometimes to give 
service in an official capacity. Where he believed that he could 
fittingly render that service he never hesitated to assume official 
responsibilities, and when he believed that the services for which 
he had been needed had been performed he as unhesitatingly laid 
aside his official cares. 

Judge Lea resigned the office of Circuit Court Judge in 1866, 
and the manner in which he had discharged his official duties 
had been such that Governor Brownlow shortly afterwards ap- 
pointed him to a place on the Supreme Bench. Judge Lea care- 
fully considered this appointment and came to the conclusion 
that his services were not then imperatively demanded by the 
public needs. Having also a predilection for private life, he 
declined the appointment. 

Though never seeking and but once holding political office, 
Judge Lea always had decided views on all public questions, and 
ever exhibited the liveliest interest in the political welfare of 
his fellow citizens. He was an active spirit in the re-enfranchise- 
ment of the Confederate soldiers, it being really through his ef- 
forts that the Confederates of the State were again given the 
power to vote as early as they were. He was greatly exercised at 
the discontent consequent upon the disenfranchisement of all ex- 
Confederates after the war, and urged unceasingly upon the then 
State authorities their re-enfranchisement. Such was the success 
of his insistence that a special message from Governor Brown- 
low to the General Assembly in 1867 recommended their re- 
enfranchisement. And thus, it may be said, was taken the initial 
step in a policy which under the succeeding administration of 
2 



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iS Thb American Historical Magazine. 

Governor Senter resulted in the removal in Tennessee of all 
political disabilities aitailed by t^ wftr. 

Npr was aoy of this done for effect^ for the purpose of advanc- 
ing himself m the estinjation of others, or to make himself a 
pix)minent figure in affairs. Judge Lea was not only the typical 
Southern gentleman, hospitable and courteous, but he was in aJl 
things sincere. His politeness, cordiality and sympathy came 
from the heart. Familiar with books, he was also familiar with 
men and events. Broad-minded, cultured and acquainted with 
the widest range of literature, he was still mterested intensely in 
the life which surrounded him, and was always buoyant and hope- 
ful of the future. His was a most thoughtful and positive optim- 
ism. Busy as he always was with important affairs of his own, 
yet he devoted his time unsparingly to whatever work he could 
do for his friends or for the public at large. 

It was in pursuance of this devotion to the public welfare that 
he exerted his influence with the powers at Washington in 1869, 
when a bill was pending in Congress to place Tennessee under 
the military government provided in the Reconstruction Act. 
Tennessee's statehood had been explicitly recognized in 1866, and 
bad as it was for the other States affected by the act, it would 
have been a gjeat deal worse under all the circumstances for 
Tennessee. In accordance with the request of a public meeting 
held in Nashville, Judge Lea headed a delegation that went to 
Washington to oppose the passage of the measure, so far as Ten- 
nessee was concerned. This delegation did a most valuable work 
in dissuading the leaders at Washington from their course. Ap- 
pearing before the committee to whom the bill had been referred, 
Jiidg« Lea made a very strong and successful argument against 
k. He read a carefully prepared statement admitting the ex- 
istence of pditical disorders and race troubles in the State, but 
at the same time showing that reconstruction would only maike 
matters worse iBSteani of mending them. The point was used 
with tellins: effect that there was in fact a fully organized State 



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John McCokmick L»a— The Idbal Citizen. 19 

the bill w?LS .not recommended for paswge. The failure of the 
committee to report th^ bill fj^vorably, according to statem^ts 
pf members of the committee, was largely owing to the effect 
produced by Judge t^ea's statement and argumept. 

The only political oflice ever held by Judge Lea was that of 
member of the House of Representatives of the General Assembly 
in 1875. To this position Judge Lea and Judge E. H. East were 
elected in 1874, both being nominated without having be«i con- 
sulted, and Judge Lea beii;^ absent from the gtate at the time- 
As a matter of fact both were out of the city, and they were 
nominated by the political friends of Andrew Johnson, then a 
ipandidate for election to the United States Senate. Both were 
elected by overwhelming majorities, but Judge Lea did not con- 
strue his election under the circumstances as binding him to 
support Johnson throughout, apd he did not do so. 

It was during this session of the General Assembly that Judge 
Lea secured the passage of a general law for the organization of 
corporations, a law which has now been on the statute book$ for 
more than a quarter of a century, and which has every year gon/c 
on adding to the public benefits. This one act would hav§ mcMJe 
his legislative career memorable, for it is a momim^t to his 
forethought, skill and industry, and has worked admira)>ly in 
practice^ resulting in the saving of mudi time and expend, tx)th 
to the applicants for charters and tp succeeding sessions of the 
General Assembly. He suggested to Judge East the desirability 
of some tmiform and standard method of incorporation, and to- 
getber they prepared the measure. Judge Lea introduced it and 
it S009 passed. Before that time it had been necessary to go 
before the General Assembly for a charter of any kind, and i$Qi 
infrequentiy applicants for charters were there met by rival oom- 
paiiies# each seeking more favors than the other obtained, and 
sometimes willing to pay (or the privil^es sought. One good 
Ceature of the present law is that it spares the legislator tbe 
temptation of demanding iavors for bis support of such a meas- 
^iTf. This law not only saves the time and expense incident to 
waiting on a session of the General Assembly and avoids the 
delay, but reduces the chance of fatal errors to a minimum. It 
fldsQ makes unnecessary the flood oi litigation formerly possible. 



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20 The American Historical Magazine. 

because a decision on any point in a litigated corporation case 
now construes the law finally for every other charter under the 
same law. While the need was evident and the remedy not hard 
to devise, yet it remained for a man who never sought public 
favor to propose the law. In no way was his intelligent, thought- 
ful, sincere and unselfish interest in the public welfare better 
shown than in this one conspicuous incident. To understand it 
one must take into account Judge Lea's high ideals of the duties 
of citizenship in a Democratic republic. 

During the same session he also advocated the payment of in- 
terest upon the entire debt owed by the State of Tennessee, say- 
ing that the credit of the State would be improved by this course 
and that as a matter of right the interest should be paid whether 
the State were in a bad financial condition or not. He believed 
that the resources of the State, already great, would be increased 
by such fidelity to public obligations. 

Withdrawing from public life at the end of this term in the 
General Assembly, Judge Lea yet continued to interest himself in 
legislative matters, and there has scarcely been a session of the 
General Assembly since his term of office during which he has 
not, by request and for the assistance of members and others, 
drawn up important measures that became the law. 

Judge Lea had one of the finest libraries in the South, especially 
rich in Tennessee material, and his mind was a most fertile field 
of information about the history of the State. When Theodore 
Roosevelt was engaged in preparing his great work "The Win- 
ning of the West," he was greatly aided 'by Judge Lea in 
many ways. Much of the material for the parts of that work 
relating to this section was obtained from Judge Lea, who 
also gave helpful suggestions in its preparation. Judge Lea 
was recognized as an authority on many branches of knowledge, 
particularly on Tennessee history, and had written many articles 
^^ v.;efi-it^/«<il ciiKiprfQ TT#* was one of the best re^d and most 



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John McCorhick Lba— The Idbal Citizen. 21 

of a century; and added to these was a personal acquaintance 
and correspondence with almost every prominent American of 
that long period. It is interesting to know that he remembered 
back of the time when the railroads were built, and that the first 
time he went to New York he rode all the way on horseback. 
Nor did he forget the people he met later in life. As a matter of 
fact his memory of people was simply wonderful. After meeting 
a man he might not see him for a long time, for five or six years, 
but when he did meet him again he would call his name just as 
easily as he would had he been in the habit of seeing him and 
talking with him daily. His memory was unfailing to the last. 
It is usual with people of advanced age that they can remember 
things and people of the long ago better than those of a more 
recent date. Their memory of the later things becomes very in- 
distinct, while all that happened in theii younger days comes back 
with clearness and exactness. It was not so with Judge Lea. 
His memory of persons and things of recent date was clear to 
the last, and his mind perfectly poised even on the last day of 
his life. 

Judge Lea always took an active interest in everything that 
concerned the cities of Nashville and Memphis, where he had 
large interests for himself and for his wife, as well as in every- 
thing that affected the good and growth of the State. Much of 
the l^slation framed for Memphis and Nashville was framed 
or assisted by him. When the Memphis people were anxious to 
repudiate the great debt accumulated by the building of the rot- 
ten pavements for which such heavy damages were assessed 
against the city by the courts, Judge Lea, though an extensive 
property owner and a heavy tax payer, advocated paying the debt 
in full. He believed that this would have been best for the city, 
and that it would have called more attention to Memphis than 
any or all other things could, and that the attention drawn by the 
assumption of such a burden could have been only immensely 
beneficial in its results. 



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21 Tas Aii^mtAK BistoiiiCAi Magas^i?^^. 

sewefing, and this work Wft» zitttii/Afdi utidei'takeii at M efiof- 
fflous cost. It was the rejtiveftation and the redemption of Mem- 
phis. 

Jftidge Lea was a Hbetal siAs^rtber to charitable uitdertakin^ 
and projects. He Was a philaflthfopist who tiot ofrty did good 
work in fields which the State left to private enterprise to occupy 
and manage, but public instittrttons as well received the reward 
0* his foresight, and the benevolent institlrtiotts of the State feW 
the effect of his philanthropy. No worthy cause, whether a 
reftige for the fallen, a home for aged and helpless women, a 
school for blind chiMren, a struggling institution of learning, a 
destitute family, an unfortunate defbfor, btit received proofs of hh 
sympathy. And yet he was not an indiscriminate giver, never 
hesitating to decline wliJere his judgment did not approve. Giv- 
ing liberally of his own means to charitable undertakings, he 
was also the faithful trustee of the benefactions of others. 

Judge Lea and his wife made a donation of the site of the 
present Tennessee School for the BRnd, and tipon this site the 
State erected the present buildings. For the last thirty year^ 
of his life he was a member of the Board of Trust of that in- 
stitutton, in which he naturally felt the greatest possible interest. 
Afterwards, together with Sa?muel Watkins, Judge Lea gave the 
firs! site of the Home for Old Women. 

Judge Lea purchased and donated to the County of t)avidsofi 
the Nashville and Middle Franklin Turnpike, the first turnpike 
owned by the County. 

Through the instrumentality of others, as through Samtiel 
Watkins in the case of Watkms Institute, and through M. H. 
Howard in the case of Howard Library, he aided in conferring 
great benefits on the city. The manner in which these two dona- 
tions first took shape is of interest, the first step being a refusal 



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JOHK MCCOHMIGK L«A— ThB IJWAL ClTlZHN. 2^ 

•port their bounty. Judge Lea himself neter received a ceiit, 
eWier for the services referred to or for carrying' out the testa- 
rmttuty benefactions. The suggestion he originally n«ide lot 
what^ he thooght would be a small benefactiwi grew up<m the 
redpicms of the suggestion until they derided to make a very 
substantial gift^ and they did so. Both these bequests were ma^ 
on <he condition that Judge Lea act as trustee, and he did so act 
to the time of his death. Thus was Watkins Institute created, 
nsefut to the chy as a home for the Howard Library, as quarters 
lot the Tennessee Historical Society ; and above all as the home 
of the Night School, which^ by subsequent benefactions has been 
enabled to do incalculable good wotlc among those of the city's 
people who cannot attend school in the day time. By the gift of 
M. H. Howard a valuable ftmd was left to the Tennessee His- 
tcHical Society, and the means also provided that made possible 
the founding of Howard Library, now the Carnegie Library. 

Judge Lea's o«vn benefactions were made from a fortune not 
too large to have been nsed by one man, and they were made 
wJth no desire to gain populaf favor. They were made to the 
suffering and to those without political power. What he did for 
the institutions mentioned above, what he did for his ahna mater, 
the University of Nashville, was known, but no one ever knew 
what he did for these institutions beyond the part he took in 
their managemem and supervision. Much of his work, especially 
Jn the case of the Tennessee School for the Blind, has had results 
rea«hiflg fat beyond the borders of the State. He was public 
sphited in every true sense of the word, giving liberally of his 
means and of his time to the amelioration of society. 

Descended from men prominent in the organization and subse- 
qtfent history of the State, related by blood and marriage to others 
who had taken an active part in State and National affairs. Judge 
Lea enjoyed exceptional facilities for knowing men and events, 
and that knowledge was a source of pleasure all his Kfe to hhn- 
s^ and to his friends. To his predecessor as president of the 
Tcflfnessee Historical Society, Doctor J. G. M. Ramsey, he was 
probably indebted for much of his interest in historic matters, an 
hicerest he cultivated long and never outlived. He knew the his- 
lory of all pubHc men, and knew the history and effects of every 



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24 The American Historicai* Magazine. 

public measure or policy that has arisen for the past seventy-five 
years. The death of all who had been his associates and con- 
temporaries in early life did not abate his interest, nor did his 
advanced age dim the pleasure he felt in speaking of them. 
Never, perhaps, was Judge Lea more interesting and entertaining 
than at a meeting of the Historical Society, when some chance 
question or reference awakened his memory and started a chain 
of recollections. He was always purely informal and conversa- 
tional in these reminiscences, and always delightful. No man 
ever had a richer fund of anecdote and reminiscence than he, 
and no one ever had the gift of narrating it more charmingly. 

Judge Lea joined the Tennessee Historical Society in 1858, 
and became its vice president in 1878, acting as president until 
Doctor Ramsey died, in 1884. He was then elected president and 
has been re-elected to that office every year since that time, many 
times of late years over his own protest. In the society he has 
ever taken great interest, and he has frequently made valuable 
historical contributions to its archives. His interest in the history 
of his country and his State being great, it was his sincere desire 
that the store of historical knowledge should be increased through 
the agency of the Tennessee Historical Society. Putnam, Ram- 
sey, Nelson and Lea did much for the society. 

The Tennessee Historical Society wanted to make a creditable 
showing of its treasures at the Tennessee Centennial Exposition, 
but the treasury was empty; Judge Lea provided the fund that 
made it practicable. When it became necessary to make a cata- 
logue of the books, papers, letters and manuscripts of the society. 
Judge Lea aided most liberally in paying for the work, and indeed 
made it possible. The spacious quarters in Watkins Institute 
occupied by the society so long without expense in great measure 
resulted from his foresight in enlisting the active interest of Mr. 
Watkins. 

Judge Lea from his early youth cherished deep religious con- 
victions and from the time of his marriage was a regular at- 
tendant of the First Presb)rterian Oiurch, Nashville, of which 
his wife was a devoted member. After his wife's death he was 
baptized and confirmed in the Episcopal Oiurch. In his whole 
life he exemplified the Christian virtues. Among the most 



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John McCormick Lba— -The Ideal Citizen. 25 

prominent traits of his character were kindness of feeling towards 
all and unfaltering loyalty to his friends. He considered the 
descendants to the very latest generation of those who befriended 
him when he was a struggling young lawyer the objects of his 
special interest. 

The bare recital of the positions which Judge Lea held, and 
even the story of the deeds he has left to his credit, give no 
definite conception of his character, or of his ability. Many men 
have held more numerous public positions and more exalted 
places, and many have made larger gifts — and yet there was 
more in his life which might be taken as a model than can be 
found in the lives of a dozen men more prominent. He' was the 
soul of Southern culture, chivalry and gentleness. His name was 
never spoken save with respect, both for the man and for his 
ability. His word was a bond. He lived above pettiness, and 
his years of quiet rest were beautiful. Calm by nature, reposeful 
and purposeful in all his actions, he took part in none of the bitter 
political controversies of his day; he cherished no personal ani- 
mosities and stood ready ta forgive almost any injury. Even 
and philosophic in temperament, he had a simple, modest way and 
a kindly feeling for everyone. After deliberation, he took one 
side or the other of all debated questions, and after espousing a 
cause he held to it with firmness ; yet had he no feeling of un- 
friendliness for those who did not think as he thought. He 
favored or opposed a cause as he deemed best, and allowed to 
others the same privilege. His name was the s)monym of honor 
and duty, of unfailing courtesy. His charming personality, his 
sympathetic and friendly manner, his love of justice, his high 
ideals of the duties of a citizen — ideals to which he so thoroughly 
attained — marked him as a man who belonged to the head of 
Nashville's eminent and useful citizenship. He was a Christian 
gentleman of the highest type, a living testimonial to the fact that 
the highest reputation and honor may come to the private citizen 
as fully as to the most exalted official. He would have won 
honor and reputation and the love of men in any sphere of life. 

Safe and conservative as he was in counsel, wise in the admin- 
istration of public and private affairs, quick and discerning in 
intellect, pure in morals and temperate in everything, bad not his 



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^6 TdB Ambkican HlSl^OAlCAt Maoazine. 

aA&«Mdh(i65d and devotion to dtfty far exceeded his^ ambition and 
nil? 4t^ite for self-aggtandizemtnt he could easily have filled 
msoft condpktfOti», thoagh hardly more useffil posHion^. Many 
Mve wondered why he did not enter politick, where the rtchefirt 
rewards undoubtedly awaited him, and why he scrupulously al- 
most entirely avoided any part whatever in public affairs. Tlie 
reason is on€ which adds to his glory ad a citizen. Shortly aftar 
th€ birth of her third and youngest child, Mrs. Lea became an 
invalid, and Judge Lea would assume no responsibility that would 
take him much from her side. But for that it is hardly U> h€ 
doubted that he could and wotAd have beconie a prominent figure 
in the political world. Through nearly half a century he devowd 
himself to caring for Hs wlfd with affectionate solicitude, plan- 
ning the education of his children and with pride watching thdf 
growth in stature and intelligence^. He outlived all those soni 
save otie, in the bosctfft of whoie family he passed the last years 
of his life. 

John M. Lea belonged by birth to East Tennessee, and was the 
contemporary of a distinguished coterie of Nashville gentleman 
who came from East Tennessee in the early part of the ninetee^iftb 
century and attained prominence in their respective walks of life. 
Only a few years ago the late Doctor R. A. Young, of Nashville, 
entertained at his home a dozen or fifteen resident ttleittbrt-fr of 
East Tennessee circle, limiting the attendance to those who were 
bom in East Tennessee, and had reached or passed seventy years 
of age. Every one present had won prominence in his adopted 
home. Of this circle, which included lawyers, doctors, mer- 
chants and men in other callings. Judge Lea was the oldest one 
present. Of all who met at that dinner perhaps the only 
survivor to-day is Colonel A. S. Colyar, between whom and Judg^ 
Lea there was but a little difference in age. 

Tiidcri* T.fta'jt ksit davs were narticularlv hannv ones. Htf had 



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JO«» McCORM^CK lyftA— tHB IDBAI/ Cltl^EN. ^7 

th« t^ried fehttiofift 6^ life. An exMiple of this i& fouitd in the 
^drctimstance^ under which fh^ don, Overton Lea, and membtt-s 
6i hid family left home for £ur<>f)e in the sumfnef andl wefe 
across the ocean when Judge Lea died. Mr. Lea did not want 
to I^Ve his iitihet, tealia^ing that ftt his advanced age a very little 
tMn^, * ieettiftrtgly dHgfht attack, might be the pi*eeursor of the 
e«d. But after Judge Lea was taken to Monteagle his health 
sh<iwed sudh improvement, and he became apparently so much 
stronger that he insisted on them going. Me was especially 
sCflieitotis because of the unsitisfaetory state of hcakh of his 
grandson, Overton Lea, Jr., on whose account largely the trip 
Tiad been suggested.* It was at Lucerne that the news ot Judge 
Lea's death was received. Several letters there awaited the trav- 
-elers, one from Judge Lea himself, and others telling of his sick- 
ness and death. 

By his friends in Nashville the announcement that Judge Lea 
was very sick was received With a foreboding that he would not 
recdter. The fact that he had so materially improved while 
spending the summer at the Monteagle home did not oftset the 
knowledge that his health was not strong for some time before 
he left Nashville, and that he was advanced in age. A severe 
€old contracted Friday, the day preceding his death, superinduced 
ttrfcmic poisoning, which prostrated him. His physician, Doctor 
W. C. bake, was summoned by telegraph and responded prompt- 
ly, but all the care and attention possible could not stay the rapidly 
approaching end. Judge Lea died late Saturday night, attended 
by those of his grandchildren who were in America and by Doctor 
Dake. 

The body was brought to Nashville and taken to his town 
liouse, 306 North Vine street, where the funeral services were 
held cm the following Tuesday. The biirial was at Mount Olivet. 
These services were attended by a large number of friends, in- 
cfading the Tennessee Historical Society in a body. 

On the night of the loth of November, 1903, a full meeting of 
the Tennessee Historical Society was held which was in the 



♦OvertWi Lea, Jr., died in KaslivUte of pneumonia Pecetnber 39, 
1903, in his twenty-sixth year. 



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28 The Ambrican Historical Magazine. 

nature of a memorial meeting to honor the deceased president. 
The attendance, both in niimber and personnel, typified the esteem 
in which Judge Lea was held. Ex-Governor James D. Porter 
presided over the meeting. 

A committee which had been previously appointed presented 
their report, which embraced a memorial and accompanying reso- 
lutions. A paper on Judge Lea's life and character was read by 
Professor Frederick W. Moore, and remarks of a pertinent and 
interesting character were made by Colonel George C. Porter^ 
General G. P. Thruston, Colonel J. B. Killebrew, and Doctor R. 
R. Freeman, all of whom referred to the good deeds and the 
useful life of the departed member and friend. 

The memorial and resolutions were then unanimously adopted 
by a rising vote and a copy was directed to be furnished to the 
family of the deceased. The memorial and resolutions were as 
follows : 

John McCormick Lea was bom December 25, 1818, at Knox- 
ville, Tenn., and died at Monteagle, Tenn., September 19, 1903. 
He became in early life a pupil of Rev. Stephen Foster and Rev. 
Doctor Coffin, well known educators of East Tennessee, and 
later entered the University of Nashville, where he was graduated 
in 1837. He studied the law. In 1840 he was licensed to practice, 
and selected Nashville as his residence. In 1842, when twenty- 
three years of age, he was appointed United States Attorney for 
the district of Middle Tennessee, and discharged the duties of 
this office until his resignation in 1845. I" 1850 he was elected 
Mayor of Nashville ; declined re-election at the expiration of his 
term and resumed the practice of his profession. 

When Andrew Johnson, in 1865, became, by the death of Mr. 
Lincoln, President of the United States, Judge Lea declined the 
position of Attorney General of the National Government, which 
was practically tendered him. Later in 1865, he became, by ap- 
pointment from Governor Brownlow, Judge of the Circuit Court 
of Davidson County, and in 1868 declined an appointment as 



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John McCormick Lea— The Ideal Citizen. 29 

This bare recital of the official' stations to which Judge Lea 
has been called, conveys no definite conception of his character, 
or of his ability. Many men have held a greater number of 
public positions and more exalted ones. But, although many of 
these events in his life antedated our acquaintance with him, we 
know that while he discharged the duties of the office of District 
Attorney satisfactorily and creditably, no man was prosecuted for 
the sake of a lawyer's victory, or for the paltry official fee which 
depended upon conviction; that when he was Mayor there was 
no municipal maladministration or dishonesty of which he was 
aware, or which he could prevent; that when he sat a Judge, 
there was no litigant but what received the most even-handed 
justice, and, that when engaged in the practice of his profession, 
no client could purchase his aid in perpetration of fraud: for 
such was the integrity of the man. And we know there was no 
worthy cause, whether a place of refuge for the fallen, a home 
for poor and aged women, a school for blind children, a strug- 
gling institution of learning, a destitute family, an unfortunate 
debtor, but received practical proofs of his sympathy: for such 
was the benevolence of the man. 

And we know that he participated in none of the bitter political 
controversies of his day ; that he cherished no personal animosi- 
ties, but stood ready to forgive almost any injury; and that he 
spoke ill of no man : for such was the charity of the man. 

And we know that he discharged his full duty when it called 
him during the epidemic of 1851 to the bedsides of persons, even 
strangers, who were stricken with fatal and contagious disease; 
and again from 1862 till 1866, when the continuously used warm 
protest, personal solicitation and all of his influence to prevent 
harsh treatment of Southern people: for such was the kindness 
of the man. 

Those of us who knew his domestic life, knew with what affec- 
tionate solicitude he cared for his wife ; with what forethought he 
planned the education of his children, and with what pride he 
watched their development and growth toward intelligence: for 
such was the humanity of the man. 

Descended from ancestors prominent in the organization of the 
State and its previous and subsequent history; related by blood 
and connected by marriage to others who had taken active part 
in the administration of both State and National affairs, he en- 
joyed exceptional opportunities to obtain that knowledge of public 
men and public measures which all his life was a source of 
pleasure to him and to his friends. 

He was probably indebted to his early preceptor, some of whose 
manuscripts are in the archives of this society, for his interest 



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y> Thb American Histokical Magazine. 

IP historical subject^; an interest which be cultivated so long^ 
and so assiduously that there has hardly been a public man in 
the State with whose career he was not familiar and not a pubUc 
measure or pcdicy of which he did not know the history and the 
effects. It was, therefore, to be expected that^ beyond the pro- 
found regret which pervaded the entire city when the death of 
Judge Lea was announced, the members of this society should 
feel a deeper sense of grief in the loss of its honored and beloved 
president. For forty-five years he had been active in its affairs 
as member, and for nearly twenty years its head, its adviser and 
in times of pecuniary trouble, its supporter. His interests in 
its dt^jects were not abated by his advanced age, or by the death 
of nearly all those contemporaries who had been associated with 
him in its commendable work. This society has sustained an al- 
most irreparable loss, and by the death of Judge Lea, who during 
a residence of sixty-three years in this community proved himself 
a useful citizen, a faithful officer, a pure patriot, a stainless gen* 
tleman. The whc^ community has lost an example worthy of its 
emulation and its remembrance ; therefore, it is 

Resolved, That this society place on its minutes this evidence 
of its appreciation of the services and the character of John M. 
Lea; and that the society extend to his surviving family the as- 
surance of its deepest sympathy in their great affliction. 

G. P. Thruston, 
Jno. M. Bass, 
Robert T. Quarles, 
Jos. S. Carels, 
FREDERICK W. Moore, 

Committee. 



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JUDGB John McCormick Lba— An Euxjogy. 31 



JUDGE JOHN McCORMICK LEA— AN EULOGY. 



{Detivered before the Texmeasee Historical Society, Tuesday eve- 
ning, November K), 1903, by Frederick W. Moore, Ph.D , Profeaaor of 
History and Economics in Vanderbilt University.] 

Judge Lea was a ooble man. Does it not stir high and pa- 
triotic impulses within us to hear and know of his life and work ? 
As one member of this Society I beg leave publicly to thank 
the Committee on Resolutions for the discriminating sketch 
of his career which it has prepared, and to second the resolu- 
tioa that it be adopted and spread on the minute^ as the sense 
of this Society regarding its iate honored president. 

Judge Lea did good in the public service and he averted ill. 
His neighbors, his fellow townsmen, his fellow citizens through- 
out this Commonwealth have received the benefits of his un- 
selfish services. Governors and generals and imperious sena- 
tors have at his appearance stayed the hand that was raised to 
$trike in unwisdom and prejudice. Our laws and our public 
institutions contain concrete examples of his public s{urited 
wisdom and foresighL Our benevolent institutions breathe 
out the spirit of his gentle philanthropy. 

TWs whole community is better because John McCormick 
Lea lived his Jisfe in it. It can ill spare him ; the world would be 
better if there w^^ more in it like him. There would be more 
love and les^ hate ; more helfrfulness and less selfishness ; more 
kindness and iess cruelty ; more confidence in our fellow men 
^d less of the spirit of jealousy, envy, and suspicion; more 
fouity and le^ justice, justice which is impartial because it is 
blind, and merciless because it h urwympathetic. 

But I wonder sometimes how many men like Judge JUea the 
world really wants and how well it wotdd appreciate them if it 
h^d them. To judge by actions it would co^nt them an expen- 
sive kixury. They would be in the way of bufiiness and prog- 
ress. It would reftHy be tbought to entail very considerable 



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32 Thb American Historical Magazinb. 

sacrifice to have them about. There might be more ease and 
contentment; but there would be less wealth and less ambi- 
tion. There would be less of that pernicious spirit of covetous- 
ness and avarice which seeks to obtain even at the expense of 
others, and there would be more leisure and taste to enjoy what 
was possessed, but the spirit of competition would not be so 
keen and the aggregate of trade and manufactures would not 
mount up to quite so many millions. We should have to sacri- 
fice some of that rivalry in trade and craft and profession which 
drives us on and on, ever faster, with a speed that accelerates 
like the speed of a falling body; and are we willing to do it? 
Men rush ruthlessly on, sometimes to their own destruction, 
but always leaving a pathway unsightly with the wreckage of 
those whom they have borne down, some of whom they have 
unscrupulously crushed and used to help them on in their own 
mad courses. How we pay honors to the genius and ambition 
of a Vanderbilt, a Gould and a Morgan as master organizers ; 
or the ability of Bell and Edison to invent and exploit their in- 
ventions; or the business acumen of a Carnegie and a Rocke- 
feller, though some of them have accumulated more in a life- 
time than they can either use or give away without public 
harm. Though at times they have despoiled the man of small 
capital and have given the laborer only that share of the product 
which in his weakness he could exact, how, over against this, 
we magnify the fact that millions upon millions of capital have 
been put to productive uses and thousands upon thousands 
have been provided with remunerative employment as the result 
of their industrial activities. They have developed our systems 
of transportation and increased our facilities of communication 
and promoted our industries enormously. They and others 
with them and like them, on smaller scale, have opened to us 
the vast agricultural and mineral resources of our country and 
directed the erenius and skill of our artisans into productive 



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JUDGB John McCormick Lea— An Eulogy. 33 

haY€ lo6t their balance going down hill. And if some economic 
disaster should overtake us or some natural calamity over- 
whelm us the catastrophe would be proportionately great. Af- 
ter the panic of 1893 Nashville lost i6/xx> of its population in 
a year. In 1888 New York City was visited by a winter storm of 
wind and snow, extreme cold and ice. For four days it was 
cut off from the mainland, and for four days thousands of its 
vast population stared wild-eyed into the very face of hunger. 
We are business mad and notwithstanding the risks we run 
the giants of finance and industry are the men whom we follow 
after and honor. And as in business so also in statecraft : there 
is a Caesar and a Frederick and a Napoleon for every Alfred ; a 
Bismarck and a Metternich for every Gladstone ; Websters and 
Blaines, consumed by their own ambitions, in great numbers. 
But rarely a Washington, serving only when called to serve 
and then unreservedly offering life and talents in his country's 
cause, unselfishly, faithfully, efficiently, patriotically. 

Judge Lea was not one of the madly rushing throng. He 
stood to one side in peace and repose, quite apart from the 
tumult. But in time of trouble, when catastrophe had fallen, 
when things were all in wreck and there was suffering to be al- 
leviated or worse things still to be warded off, then he took 
hold and did a man's part out of the love he bore his fellow 
men. Rare indeed are such men as he. 

Judge Lea was a gentleman. So are we all, to be sure, and 
it is not presumption on our part to call ourselves gentlemen in 
the usual honorable sense of the word. But when applied to 
Judge Lea, the word takes on a fullness of meaning, far, far 
greater than it ever bears in common usage. He was not sim- 
ply a typical southern gentleman, courteous and hospitable: 
nor merely a gentleman of the **old school,'* polished and ur- 
bane. He was this and something more. Polite, cordial, 
thoughtful for others, cultured, his politeness was not super- 
ficial, his cordiality was not patronizing; his sympathy was 



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34 The American Historical Magazine. 

future, these were his characteristics. Nor was his gentlemanli- 
ness a parlor accomplishment. He took time to be gentlemanly 
everywhere. His gentlemanliness dominated his business habits 
even. Men in high and responsible public position owe their 
time and strength to the g^eat duties with whicli they are com- 
missioned and they must not waste them on either little men 
or little things. The pursuit of personal ambitions, the demands 
of private business absorb most men so completely that with 
respect to other men and things they are literally absent- 
minded. Little thought or consideration for them that is not 
directly or indirectly selfish ever gets lodgment in their minds. 
Judge Lea was not so. Yet he was a busy man. Of public 
affairs he was always an interested and attentive observer ; and 
he had a large private estate in the management of which he 
exercised g^eat care. Most men would have taken such a trust 
for their five talents and with it would have felt commissioned 
to go and make yet other five. They would have bought and 
sold, bargained and traded, planned and schemed, taking every 
legitimate advantage of the market, even manipulating it to their 
own ends, and we would have praised their business acumen 
and done honor to their successes. But the opportunity did 
not tempt Judge Lea to pursue such a business life. That is one 
of the conspicuous differences between him and other men. 
Because of this trait men never saw him struggling in the un- 
dignified melee of business rivalry. They never saw him dally- 
ing with the meretricious temptations that present themselves 
there ; they never saw him grasping and sordid and selfish. Men 
were conscious that upon his gentlemanliness no discount or 
deduction was to be made ; there was no shadow of stain upon 
it. They did not look askance, or with surprise, at his acts of 
philanthropy. They did not sneer or shrug the shoulder when 
people called him good. They believed in him unreservedly and 
looked upon his goodness as unadulterated and without flaw. 
He was a gentlernan unexcelled and unequalled, a gentleman 
without a peer. 

I have heard it said that Judge Lea was too rich to make a 
good lawyer, but I hold that his greatness was nobler even than 
any greatness achievable at the bar. It is said that professional 



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Judge John McCormick Lea— An Eulogy. 35 

success in the law requires hard work and drudgery and unre- 
mitting application such as a man in affluent circumstances will 
not undergo. But I never heard it said, and I know it is not 
true, that Judge Lea ever set an example of idleness before the 
generation of younger men who g^ew up about him. He was 
not harnessed to the treadmill of necessity, nor was he driven by 
the lash of inordinate ambition. Is it well for the world when 
men are the victims of either such misfortunes or such follies? 
Judge Lea took time to cultivate those refinements of gentle- 
manly character which few have either the desire or the ability 
to cultivate. Wealth does tempt some men to idleness and 
selfish indulgence. Honor to the rich man who is industrious 
and public-spirited in spite of his riches. Honor, double honor, 
to the rich man who not only uses his time well, but uses it in 
the pursuit of those rare accomplishments which, since they 
cannot coexist with the spirit of rivalry and ambition and greed 
of gain, are so rarely acquired by men. 

Suppose Judge Lea had been a poor man, suppose necessity 
had forced him to drudgery until the nobler part of his aesthetic 
nature had been all but starved out, what a misfortune it would 
have been for him and how much "sweetness and light" would 
have been lost to the world. Suppose that with the success^ 
which industry and perseverance brought, there had come am-^ 
bition, ambition for those things lying right at hand, profes- 
sional advancement and political preferment. I doubt not that 
Judge Lea would still have been a man of uprightness and in- 
tegrity, faithful to every trust, public or private, which was put 
in his keeping. He would have lived a life full of usefulness 
and he would have died full of honor. But circumstances gave 
him an opportunity of another kind, and he made use of it as few 
men are capable of making use of such an opportunity. To me, 
and I hope to others, it is a great inspiration, a genuine source 
of hope and courage. It gives me faith in the ultimate virtues 
of mankind to see a man living the exalted life which he lived, 
above the smoke and dust and din of battle, exemplifying such 
rare degrees of virtue as he exemplified. 

Judge Lea was not only a gentleman in an unusually high 
sense of that word, he was also an ideal citizen of a democratic 



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36 The Ambrican Historical Magazine. 

republic. He did not seek office, he even shunned office-hold- 
ing, but he did not evade the duties of citizenship. At the very 
sunset of life, with failing sight and trembling hand, writing to 
a member of this Society, he said : *'It pains me that I can no 
longer be of service to my country." There is a difference be- 
tween office-seeking, there is even a vital distinction between 
office-holding and duty-doing in matters political; and Judge 
I-ea exemplified it to a high degree. Society needs no organiza- 
tion to constrain men lo dress respectably and to practice good 
manners in public and private. Some organization is necessary 
to promote the ends of religion, charity, and social improvement ; 
but even here, in many well-defined classes of cases, the compul- 
sion and restraint of law is unnecessary and impolitic. The 
voluntary organization of intelligent citizens for public service 
ir. these fields is sufficient and preferable. There is, however, 
a large and increasing group of functions, too numerous and too 
familiar to need recital, the performance of which is necessary 
to the public welfare, but the certain and orderly performance of 
which can be assured only by governmental organs endowed 
with authority and power. Thus government exists as a neces- 
sary and important agency for promoting public welfare. But 
government is not an end in itself nor is public office a proper 
sphere for the exercise of merely personal ambitions. Every 
citizen of a democracy ought so to conceive it. The duty of the 
officers deputed to run the affairs of government is simply and 
solely and seriously to attend to public duties. To be sure,it is 
not dishonorable to seek office or public employment ; it is not 
dishonorable to expect deserved promotion and emolument ; it 
is a modest and honorable ambition to look for life-long tenure 
of certain classes of offices in the civil service. But when politi- 
cal parties organize to perpetuate themselves in office, when 
office is sought to be used for the satisfaction of personal ambi- 
tion and as a stepping-stone to higher honors and greater 
*»mnliimpnts and when the office-seeker. as is so often the case. 



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JUDGB John McCormick Lba— An Euw>gy. 37 

when it should be primary ; the incumbent becomes selfish when 
he should be public-spirited. We all realize how far short of 
the ideal the actual conditions arc. However, it is not my pur- 
pose here and now to preach reform, though there is crying 
need of a genuine revival of public spirit among public office- 
holders. Let us admit that ideal conditions are beyond our im- 
mediate attainment. Let us recognize that we get along toler- 
ably well under conditions that fall considerably short of per- 
fection ; let us recognize it and be thankful that not every short- 
coming in our political system is fatal. But let us beware of the 
weakness from which all governments suffer and the danger 
to which notably all democracies are exposed when selfish dema- 
gogies prostitute public office for private gain. The regard 
which citizens pay to public affairs averages low. But Judg^ 
Lea was one among a thousand in the degree of approximation 
to the ideal which he attained. Surely, observing such men as 
he, we may reflect that the ideal of citizenship in a democracy 
is not superhuman ; we may take courage and put faith in the 
perfectibility of man. 

In 1842, while still in his twenty-fourth year, Mr. Lea was ap- 
pointed United States attorney for the Middle District of Ten- 
nessee. He was reckoned a Whig, not a party worker who 
owed his vote to the party; but a party voter because he ap- 
proved of the principles for which it stood. The Whigs were at 
that time in the majority in the State and his friends had suffi- 
cient influence with President Tyler, not yet soured by political 
disappointment, to secure his nomination. He performed the 
duties of the office thoroughly and conscientiously until 1845, 
when he resigned. In 1849, while barely thirty, he was Mayor 
of Nashville. This office was not then what it is now, when the 
city has millions of dollars invested in streets, sewers, water 
and light service, and public schools and all the costly and ex- 
tensive apparatus and organization for carrying on the mani- 
fold and growing functions of municipal government in a city 
of almost lOOyOOO people. Then Nashville contained only one- 
tenth of that number. Still, it was a thriving town, which in- 
creased in population from 7,000 in 1840 to 10,000 in 1850; 
and it had municipal needs of no little moment. In those days 



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38 Thb Ambrican Historical Magazine. 

the office of mayor was not considered political, as it is now. 
The tax-paying citizens then exercised a more exclusive influ- 
ence upon municipal affairs and the property-holders of the 
city, it seems, thought the young man not unworthy to be 
charged with the safeguarding of their property and the pro- 
motion of those public interests which plainly must lie as a 
burden to be borne out of their private incomes. 

In the promotion of the young Lea to both of these posi- 
tions there is, so far as I can determine, a very happy instance 
of a practice not uncommon with the people of many com- 
munities, viz., the practice of putting their rising young men 
early into public office to test them, as it were, to give them a 
chance to win their spurs if the talent is in them. Both op- 
portunities were well used. Indeed, the year of Mr. Lea's 
mayoralty witnessed an epidemic of cholera in Nashville; and 
in that time of panic and undeniable danger with firm courage 
and tender sympathy he devoted himself to the needs of a 
stricken people. How many men there were who could have 
done as well but who have remained unknown because untested, 
I do not pretend to say. Not often are we subjected to the su- 
preme test. But did you ever reflect how many men have 
passed with success and honor through life because by happy 
accident they were not tested beyond the little which they were 
able to withstand ; and what sad havoc of character and reputa- 
tion and happiness is caused by the fact that upon many trials 
have fallen which crushed them ? All honor to those who, hav- 
ing met the extreme test, stand approved. 

But the most exacting test which Judge Lea stood in the pub- 
lic service came to him between i860 and 1870, while he was in 
the very prime and vigor of life — barely past forty years of age 
when the Cival War broke out, barely past fifty when the period 
of sorest trial for the people of Tennessee came to an end. You 



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JUDOH John McCormick Lba— An Eulogy. 39 

invited the popular participation in governmental affairs normal 
in democratic republics only to repudiate it, set it aside, and 
wantonly and vindictively to affront it when it manifested its 
wishes contrary to the ideas of the men in power, men some of 
whom — such is the rarity of great talents and sound discretion — 
were peculiarly unsuited to discharge the responsible and deli- 
cate positions which they held. In those times there were few 
men who were not partial and prejudiced because clearly com- 
mitted to the one side or the other. Most of those who posed as 
impartial were so because they were too weak in character and 
too insignificant in influence to count either way. How for- 
tunate that a man so capable as Judge Lea and so influential in 
the community could pass through that period of passion, bemg 
in it but not of it. It was due to his temperament and to his 
character that he could do so. What a tribute to the rarity and 
uniqueness of the man; not another his equal in this respect 
in the community, scarcely in the State, few in the whole South. 
He was a Unionist and well known as such. In some northern 
community he might have been a sound and helpful public coun- 
sellor, in office or out, when passion ran high, when military 
defeats caused panic, when counsels of moderation in victory 
were sorely needed. But the early capture of Nashville by the 
Federal Army gave him another role to perform. He was 
mediator between conqueror and conquered. The conqueror 
was vindictive; the conquered was unsubdued in spirit, proud 
of his principles and untractable. Friction and trouble arose 
which could end only one way, for the one party was strong and 
the other disarmed. Judge Lea's neighbors and fellow citizens 
came to him in their straits for counsel and to implore his inter- 
cession in their behalf. The Federal authorities recognized that 
they could place implicit confidence in his judgment and recom- 
mendations. They knew that he was not a man with ulterior 
ends to serve or private advantage .to be sought. Day by day 
he went to the seat of civil and military authority bearing the 
burdens of many people, and not in vain. 



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40 Ths Ambrican Historical Magazine. 

from which he derived the title by which the public knows hltn 
and will distinguish him so long as the annals of Tenness^ 
shall be known and read. The bar of the city had asked for his 
appointment. Few who in character, intellect and training wer^ 
capable of holding the office could have taken the oath required ; 
and these declined for policy's sake to accept it. How distaste- 
ful and laborious the task to which Judge Lea was thus called 
may well be imagined. From long neglect of active practice 
he was unfamiliar with the law. The duties of the office, bur- 
densome at best, would be doubly so to him. Moreover the 
long period during which the courts had been closed had caused 
the accumulation of much litigation ; and the strained artd dis- 
turbed condition of society caused much more and involved new 
principles and raised strange and difficult questions to be set- 
tled without the guidance of precedent. Above all men's pas- 
sions were smouldering and it needed only the slight breath Of 
distrust to fan them into flame. Under these critical circum-^ 
stances, and only under these, Judge Lea took office and held it 
a few months until conditions were so much improved that the 
office could be entrusted to other hands. Then he resigned. 
This was not egotism, it was greatness. 

Lawyers still at bar have told me how Judge Lea would come 
to them for assistance and suggestion in cases on which they 
were not engaged as counsel. They have told me how he 
would decide cases on which they were engaged — not always 
with the accuracy of an experienced and learned jurist. But 
nobody doubted the rectitude of his mind nor impugned the 
honesty of his motives. Everybody accepted in good faith the 
decision when and because it was made by Judge Lea. In fact^ 
it was then and it always is more important that litigation should 
be concluded by the decision of an authority which is respected 
than that it should be decided with the refinement of justice; 
1 rue, the decision cannot be far and often wrong without under- 
mining the respect for the court ; but exact justice rendered by 
a judge whose integrity is doubted and whose partiality is itior^ 



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JuDOB John McCormick Lba— An Eulogy. 41 

Time fails to speak in detail of the many public services and 
private acts of kindness performed by Judge Lea during this 
(^riod. No more than a bare reference can be made to his In- 
fiaence at Washington where he appeared with other citizens 
of the State to ward oflF an impending blow in 1869. Those were 
times when, though the war was over, the ship of state was 
tossed on stormy seas and when the constitution strained and 
creaked in rib and keel as though it would be wrenched asunder. 
Questionable as it was in point of constitutional law and as a 
tnattef of policy for Congress ever to have put any of the States 
under the miltary government provided in the Reconstruction 
Acts, it would have been infinitely worse from both points of 
view to reduce the State of Tennessee, whose rights of equal 
statehood had been explicitly recognized in 1866. It was for- 
tunate for the nation as well as for the State that men of wisdom 
and moderation and judgment, citizens of the State and others, 
amofig whom Judge Lea is by common consent accorded high 
standing, could successfully dissuade the leaders at Washington 
from persisting in their vindictive course. 

In 1874 Judge Lea and Judge East were elected to represent 
Davidson County in the Lower House of the State Legislature. 
The nomination was made without consultation with either of 
them — ^indeed, when both were temporarily out of the city. 
It was made in a convention controlled by the political friends 
erf Andrew Johnson, who was a candidate for election to the 
United States Senate. Because of the movement which they 
represented, which influenced some, and because of the character 
of the men, which influenced many others, both were elected. 
Yfet Judge Lea did not construe the circumstances of his nomi- 
nation as a binding obligation to support Mr. Johnson, as his 
wavering vote showed. But statesmanship is a far higher calling 
than politics ; and it is as the author of the general corporation 
]kWy which has now been on our statute books more than a 

Otiarter of a centnrv and whi<>Vi pnrh vear ha 5 crnri<* /vn and will 



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42 Thb American Historical Magazine. 

stone in one end of the sack to balance the meal in the other, 
divided the meal and relieved his beast of the unnecessary bur- 
den of the stone. Compare the good roads, straight and level, 
paved and kept in good repair, with the old roads with which we 
Have so long put up patiently. They involve no principle and no 
material which has not been familiar for generations. They re- 
quire more capital outlay, but at a better rate of interest than 
government bonds bear. To be sure, we have horses and steam 
power enough to carry half loads of stone and to drag heavy 
loads over the hills instead of around them till doomsday if need 
were. But it is unnecessary and no one would hesitate to call it 
idiotic if we were not all more or less guilty of some analogous 
practice. These are two homely and familiar illustrations of a 
well-known class of improvements which are notable because 
such great and almost universal advantage has come from a 
simple little device that it seems almost anyone should have 
thought of. But, such is the force of inertia, men have gone on 
hearing their little burdens year in and year out, failing to com- 
prehend the advantage that lay easily at hand. How many are 
now lying right at hand, and no one has the initiative to devise 
and execute the change. Judge Lea suggested the desirability 
of a uniform and standard method of incorporation to Judge 
East and together they prepared it. Judge Lea introduced it 
and it was soon passed. It occupies many pages in the statute 
book. It provides a standard form of charter for the incor- 
poration of every variety of enterprise, public and private, indus- 
trial and eleemosynary, which could be anticipated. It saves 
the incorporators the delay and expense and risk incidental to 
procuring a charter by special act of legislature. It frees the 
legislature from the necessity of consuming the time needed to 
care for the public business in attending to matters of private 
interest. It prevents the rivalry, often the illegitimate and per- 
nicious rivalry, of companies, each seeking by hook and by crook 
to get more favors from the legislature than a competitor ob- 
tained ; and it spares the legislator the temptation to accept or 
xo demand favors in consideration of his influence. It further 
benefits the incorporators in that the chance of fatal error in the 
form and substance of the charter is reduced to a minimum and 



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JUDGB John McCormick Lba — An Eui^ogv. 43 

in that one litigated case construes the law finally for every 
other charter under the law. Its benefits are inestimable be- 
cause they are preventive. We can only faintly comprehend 
how g^eat they are when we enumerate the number of per- 
sons and variety of enterprises and millions of capital which it so 
beneficently safeguards. 

The need was a perfectly patent one ; the device was simile to 
conceive and not difficult for a lawyer to execute. Yet with 
all the men earnestly and diligently seeking to win public 
recognition by public service, it remained for a man who never 
sought office at the hands of the people and held the office of 
representative in the legislature but once, to prove his knowl- 
edge of public needs and show his intelligent, thoughtful, sin- 
cere and unselfish interest in public welfare and to distinguish 
for all time his brief period of legislative service by getting this 
law upon the statute book. It was not by accident that it hap- 
pened so. No explanation will account for it that does not take 
account of Judge Lea's high ideals of the duties of citizenship 
in a democratic republic. Let this one conspicuous instance 
stand in place of not a few that could be enumerated did time 
permit. If, yielding to his modest disinclination for public office 
and his love for the quiet of private life, he withdrew from the 
halls of legislation after one short term and left his place vacant 
for others to fill who were only too ambitious to be in the pub- 
lic service, let them, not him, answer if they have failed after 
due opportunity to do some such service for the State jis we 
might have expected from him had he consented to serve 
longer. 

Not only did Judge Lea exhibit unusually honorable marks 
of broad statesmanship ; he was also a philanthropist, doing so- 
cial service in those fields and through those channels which 
the State has left to private enterprise to occupy and manage. 
Other philanthropists sought his advice in choosing the manner 
and form of their benefactions. He was a faithful trustee of 
the benefactions of others; and in certain directions he gave 
liberally of his own abundant means to charity. His connection 
with the University of Nashville (his alma mater), with Watkins 
Institute and Howard Library, with the Old Woman's Home, 



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44 Thb American Histokicai^ Magazine. 

the Blind School and other like institutions is well known and 
need not be repeated here. These beneficiary gifts and services 
were not made out of a fortune too large to be used by one 
man; nor were they made to win notoriety, nor even to buy 
indulgence with the public for a life notorious for its selfishness. 
They were made to relieve suflFering and do good. Well have 
they served their simple and noble end. They have awakened 
joy and gratitude in many a sad and lonely heart. Unprotected 
old age has been robbed of the sting of poverty and friendless- 
ness ; and though there are eyes from which physical defects, 
like clouds, must ever shut out the rays of the sun's light, the 
cloud of ignorance has been dispelled from the minds of the 
blind children of Tennessee through his beneficence and the 
rays of knowledge and art, science, literature and music, have 
been made to shine in and gladden aching hearts and give joy 
to dark lives. Indeed, the Blind School, for which he did so 
much, has not been a blessing to the State of Tennessee alone. 
Through its methods and through the men and women it has 
trained its influence has gone out to the ends of the earthy 
wherever there is a civilization in which philanthropy is a watch- 
word. Perhaps others might have done, and, now that he has 
gone, others must attempt to continue to do, what he did ; but 
who can do it so sweetly and lovingly as he ? He not only bene-' 
fited others, but glorified his own gentle character in so doing. 
De mortuis nil nisi bonum, it is often said. But in the present 
case it is inapt. There is nothing else to say. Few men have 
ever lived in whom the carping critics and the slanderers have 
found so little to feed their disgusting appetites. I have not 
heard them utter a word, and if I had I should not have lis- 
tened. It is not by dwelling on other people's faults, but by 
imitating their virtues that we may hope to benefit. Indeed, 
Judge Lea was too good to be belittled. The physicists have fet 
law to the effect that a body once set in motion tends to mOve 
in the given direction indefinitely with the initial speed. We 
know that no body has ever been made to move indefinitely, or 
even in a straight line for any great distance, on account of the 
resistance of the atmosphere and the force of gravity. But, 
accepting the law as stated, we are able to compute the amount 



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JUDOB JOHV McCORMICK LBil— ^An EULOGY. 45 

of energy necessary to give to a body in order that it may so 
overcome the forces retarding its (n-ogress as to reach a given 
p<rint. How much innate goodness, how much freedom from 
the temptations that ordinarily beset men, and how much of the 
fundamental principles of our Christian civilization did it take 
to project one man through ei^y-five years of life in this 
world with so little deviation from the ideal line? How much 
in the life of Judge Lea we may safely take as a model for our- 
selves and as an example for those whom we are set to in- 
struct ! 

Reverence for the past, at least for the good in the past, is an 
important dvic virtue. It is by learning to know the past and by 
profiting by the teachings we can draw from it that we learn to 
comprehend the present and anticipate the future, providing for 
the needs of the times. Our institutions, political, religious or 
of whatsoever social kind they may be, are not innovations. 
They are inheritances, or at least variations and developments 
of former institutions, adjusted to meet new conditions. We 
must know their origin before we can understand their uses and 
guard against their weaknesses and abuses. Judge Lea recog- 
nized this and cherished history, particularly the history of this 
coimtry and this State. He sought while he lived to perpetuate 
and increase our historical store, through the agency of the Ten- 
nessee Historical Society more particularly, and it was his desire 
that we after his death should do likewise. What he, with Putnam 
and Nelson and Ramsey, and other worthies, living and dead, have 
accomplished need not be recited in this presence. Look about 
and see. It was much and it must incite us to more. And it is 
eminently fitting that we should first of all show our veneration 
for his noble character and civic virtues. 

The world rushes on like a raging torrent. His life was like 
a quiet pool above a bubbling spring. With men in civilized 
communities the common social relations have been reduced to 
conventional forms which make life in society tolerable and pos- 
sible. But in too many cases with too many men these forms 
are but a veneering, an outward polish. We strongly suspect 
that they are not even as good as they seem to be. Judge Lea 
stood above such suspicion, enjoying the unlimited confidence 



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46 The Ambrican Historicai< Magazink. 

of all. Many men have been more active in the public service ; 
there are many who have accomplished more. But few have 
served more earnestly, or more unselfishly or exhibited the 
sublimer virtues of citizenship, fellow citizenship, to a higher 
degree than he. He avoided public service through political 
channels. He avoided the turmoil and struggle, the rivalry and 
ambition of the common business life and was saved from un- 
numbered temptations thereby. But in private philanthropy he 
found a safe and inconspicuous sphere for exercising his talents 
and for performing real social service. He cherished the past 
for the good men did in it and for what it taught him about the 
means of promoting public welfare. He was in the world, but 
not absorbed by it. Its ills did not drag him down. On the con- 
trary, he took hold of those who had been crushed down and 
helped to lift them up. Unlike the world with its excess of 
grossness, he exemplified refinements of character which cause 
the sublime ideals of human conduct to appear real and attain- 
able among men. 



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Remarks of Coi^onbl Gborgb C. Porter. 47 



REMARKS OF COLONEL GEORGE C. PORTER BE- 
FORE THE TENNESSEE HISTORICAL SOCIETY, 
NOVEMBER 10, 1903, ON THE DEATH 
OF JUDGE JOHN M. LEA. 



Mr. Presidmt: Allow me to add a few words in the further 
consideration of the resolutions of your committee just sub- 
mitted on the life and character of our deceased friend and asso- 
ciate, Judge John. M. Lea. The events and incidents of his his- 
tory are neither rugged nor startling. His manly bark, well 
built and tall, was launched on a clear and placid stream, with 
no reefs nor shallows beneath its surface, nor rocks, nor whirl- 
pools on either side. Guided by a strong and skillful hand, it 
was never cast ashore from pleasure's boisterous surge, nor 
stranded by the angjy waves of selfish ambition, but glided even- 
ly and safely into port with keel and cordage all intact, and 
laden with the rich products of many lands. The whole voyage 
of his life was one continued circumnavigation of all the virtues 
that exalt and adorn the character of man. 

The city of Knoxville has the honor of being his birthplace. 
There he was born on the 2Sth day of December, 1818. He 
was the son of Luke Lea, a man well and favorably known and 
mentioned in the annals of the State. In early life he evinced a 
strong desire for knowledge, and having both the means and the 
capacity for its attainment, its acquisition by him was full and 
complete. At a suitable age he was matriculated at the Univer- 
sity of Nashville, at that time one of the best institutions of 
learning in the South. He graduated in 1837, with the highest 
honors of his class. He chose the law for his profession, and 
entered assiduously upon the work of qualifying himself for its 
high and arduous duties. To become a profound jurist was the 
acme of his ambition, and doubtless he would have attained the 
end proposed had there been no intervention of ease and for- 
tune, the inveterate and unrelenting foes to legal eminence. He 
began the practice of his profession in Nashville in 1840 and 



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4^ Thb American Historical Maoaxivb. 

must have made satisfactory advancement, for in 1842 he re- 
ceived from President Tyler an appointment as United States 
attorney for the Nashville District — ^at that time the most re- 
sponsible judicial appointment in the State. The duties of thijs 
office he discharged with ability and credit till the change of ad- 
ministration in 1845. 

His fine executive and administrative ability being known and 
appreciated by* the citizens of Nashville, he was elected to the 
mayoralty in the year 1849. He served one term, and, though 
strenuously urged, refused the offer of a second one. It was 
during his period of service that the city was visited by an epi- 
demic of cholera, and the way and manner in which that fear- 
ful scourge was combated by him and his co-laborers won the 
hearts and affections of all, and established his reputation both 
as an official and friend to the distressed in times of need. He 
was ever thereafter held in the highest esteem and regard by 
his people, who would at all times gladly have bestowed upon him 
any position of honor or emolument in their power. This was 
the only position he could be induced to accept from this time 
to the close of the war between the States. He never believed 
in the right nor the expediency of secession, and during the e^f- 
istence of that conflict was known and regarded as a Unipn 
man. Owing to his high character and standing he had great 
influence and weight with parties in power, both civil and mili- 
tary, which was always gladly exercised in behalf of his coun- 
trymen and fellow citizens when necessity or occasion de- 
manded. Instances of materia! aid rendered by him during that 
unhappy period are abundant, and many might be found whp 
could testify to them. 

At the close of the war in 1865, he was induced by Governor 
Brownlow to accept the position of Judge of the Circuit Court 
of Davidson County, which he held for one year, declininff fur- 



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Remarks of Colonel George C. Porter. 49 

emoluments of official station. He was a member of the Lower 
House of the General Assembly of 1875, and took an active' and 
leading part in the deliberations of that session. He was the 
author of the general law for the formation and organization of 
corporations without special legislation. This is one of the 
most useful and salutary laws in the civil code of the State. 
This was the last public office he would ever accept at the hands 
of his fellow citizens. 

In the year 1845, in the city of Memphis, he married Miss 
Elizabeth Overton, the second daughter of Judge John Over- 
ton, famous in the early history of the State — the friend, associ- 
ate and adviser of General Jackson, and his immediate successor 
on the bench — one of the patriarchs of Tennessee in land and 
law. She was the sister of Colonel John Overton of our day and 
time, the generous and hospitable owner of "Travelers' Rest," 
the old historic country seat located a few miles south of Nash- 
ville. She was also the sister of the first Mrs. Robert C. Brink- 
ley, of Memphis, Tennessee. They are now all dead, and thus 
the second generation of that noted family have passed away, 
but their impress upon our community will long be seen and 
felt, and the memory of their many deeds of charity and love 
will long remain with us to brighten and to cheer. The result 
of this union was three children — Overton, Robert and Luke 
Lea — only one of which number now remains, Mr. Overton 
Lea, a worthy son of a noble sire. 

Macaulay, in his essay on Bacon, says : "It is a pleasure to 
turn from the contemplation of Bacon the man to Bacon the 
philosopher; the one comprehended so much glory, the other 
so much shame." There is no dualistic perspective in the per- 
sonality of John M. Lea. There are no phenomenal elevations, 
nor corresponding depressions. The many and varied elements 
of character and the good and generous qualities of nature were 
so mixed and blended in him that his life constituted one com- 
plete, consistent and harmonious whole. It is therefore both a 
pleasure and a profit to contemplate and reflect upon the dis- 
tinctive and distinguishing features of his life and character. 

He was a just man — ^just in the truest and most comprehen- 
sive sense. One little incident will illustrate and justify this 
4 



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50 Thb American Historical Magazine. 

statement. While the Income Tax law was in force, I was en- 
gaged in that branch of the Revenue Service. All parties having 
an income over a certain amount had to appear before the Dis- 
trict Collector or Deputy and report the same for assessment. 
Among this class was Judge Lea. After his return was made, 
it showed that quite a large sum would be due from him to the 
Government as the result of his annual income from his various 
investments and property holdings. After the matter was con- 
cluded and the papers signed and delivered, he said that this 
was a most just, fair and equitable law; that he heartily en- 
dorsed and approved the same, and that he would gladly and 
Willingly pay whatever sum was due from him to the govern- 
ment by reascm of its existence ; that the $80,000,000 expected 
to be realized by its enforcement could be raised more easily 
and with less hurt and oppression to the great masses of our 
people than by any other method; that only those would be 
affected by it who were abundantly able to pay, and who ought 
to pay, and that its operation would be effective in bringing 
about harmony and good feeling among all classes of our peo- 
ple. After the law was annulled by the Supreme Court he ex- 
pressed deep regret, and was amazed at the reasons assigned 
by the court in their final adjudication and disposition of the 
matter. Out of the hundreds making returns of their incomes 
he was the only one affected by it that ever spoke in ccwnmen- 
dation of the law. Decrial and reprobation came from all the 
rest. 

Now, this may seem, and in reality be, a little thing; but it 
takes little things to disclose high and noble elements of char- 
acter. Great actions and striking occurrences, having excited 
a temporary admiration, may pass away and be forgotten, but 
little ones exhibiting a high degree of virtue and excellence find 
a lodgment in the hearts of men, and remain as though in- 
scribed on adamant. The hero of New Orleans lugging the 
lender new lamb from the cold, damp meadow, and laying it 
gently down on the hearth before a blazing fire in his private 
chamber at the Hermitacre: the ereat Isaac Newtrvn milHIv 



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Remarks of Colonel George C Porter. 51 

— which had cost him the toil and labor of many years, entail- 
ing a loss almost, if not quite, irreparable — saying, "Oh, Dimon, 
Dimon, thou little knowest the mischief thou hast done'' — were 
object lessons, and exhibitions of a grandeur of heart and 
soul as worthy of remembrance and exaltation as the overthrow 
of Pakenham and his army by the one, or the invention of the 
Binomial Theorem by the other. 

"Our acts, our angels are, or good, or ill, ^' 

Our fatal shadows that walk by us still." 

Judge Lea was at all times governed by reason and judg- 
ment; he was even and philosophic in temperament, safe and 
conservative in counsel, and wise in the administration of public 
and private affairs. In fact, he was the full and perfect exempli- 
fication of ideal republican citizenship. He had great decorum 
of deportment, a quick and discerning intellect, purity in mor- 
als, and such moderation, temperance and virtue in everything 
that it is a grateful and a pleasing task to look back upon such 
elevation and beauty of personal character. His parts were 
not shining, but solid ; he may have lacked genius, but he had 
judgment, associated with an acute and penetrating mind. Had 
environments and incentives been other than those by which 
he was surrounded and impelled, he might have reached a posi- 
tion of eminence in the realm of useful and practical statesman- 
ship, possessing as he did in no small degree Dean Swift's five 
essentials — knowledge, good intentions, diligence, judgment and 
will. He was social in the intercourse of life, simple in his 
tastes, his manners cordial, unaffected and affable, never at any 
time being actuated by a sinister motive, a selfish calculation or 
an unbecoming aspiration. To his practical, independent and 
utilitarian disposition and mentality, the "pride of place" — ^the 
tinsel and glamour of political station, the cares and responsi- 
bilities of office were neither alluring nor attractive. He spent 
as much time in the declination of office as many do in its 
search. Yet withal he was not without ambition. He may not 
have possessed that sort or kind which the old cardinal, "worn 
out by the cares and storms of state," charged his faithful serv- 
ant Cromwell to fling away, but that higher and nobler sort, 



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52 The American Historical Magazine. 

the end and aim of which is to elevate and ameliorate the con- 
dition of mankind — he possessed and encouraged in an eminent 
degree. The dismal vaticination embodied in that magnificent 
stanza from *'Childe Harold" — 

**He who ascends the mountain tops shall find 

The loftiest peaks most wrapt in clouds and snow ; 
He who surpasses, or subdues mankind, 

Must look down on the hate of those below. 

Though high above the sun of glory glow, 
And far beneath the earth and ocean spread 

'Round him are icy rocks, and loudly blow 
Contending tempests on his naked head, 

And thus reward the toils that to those summits led." 

may with truth be applied to those who have reached the sum- 
mit of fame's dread mountain through seas of blood and car- 
nage ; those who have trampled in scorn upon the rights and 
properties of the weak and the poor; those who have trans- 
gressed that cardinal law handed down to us through the thun- 
ders and lightnings of Sinai — "Thou shalt covet nothing that is 
of thy neighbor's" — to those styled by Jeffrey as "the curses of 
mankind" — the Alexanders, the Caesars, the Tamerlanes, the 
Saladins, the Alvas, Humayuns, and Napoleons, to these and such 
as these — but to those who have attained a safe and solid emi- 
nence in the temple of Fame, by being a help and a benefaction 
to their kind — surely to these and such as these — this wonder- 
ful conception of the part has no application. And in this tem- 
ple I know of no one more worthy to occupy a lofty and com- 
manding niche than our deceased friend and brother, John Mc- 
Cormick l^a. To such a character how applicable is that beau- 
tiful sentiment — "The drying up of a single tear has more of 
honest fame, than shedding seas of gore." 



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Remarks of General G. P. Thruston. 53 



REMARKS OF GENERAL G. P. THRUSTON BEFORE 
THE LEA MEMORIAL MEETING OF THE 
TENNESSEE HISTORICAL SOCIE- 
TY, NOVEMBER 10, 1903. 



I presume there is no member of our Society present to- 
night who would not be pleased to testify to his affectionate re- 
gard for Judge Lea and his exalted character as a man and 
citizen. My long years of association and intimacy with him 
created a friendship of more value to me than I can express in 
words. We served together as officers of this Society for more 
than a quarter of a century. My term of service I think dates 
from 1874-75 and Judge Lea's from 1878. It is a rather pain- 
ful reflection that I am the only survivor of the Board of In- 
corporators of the Tennessee Historical Society. 

Outside of a circle of a dozen or more devoted members, 
Judge Lea's usefulness and interest in our Society can scarcely 
be appreciated. When we desired to make a creditable exhibit 
at the Tennessee Centennial, and our treasury was empty, he 
provided the means that made it practicable. When we found it 
necessary to make a complete catalogue of our books, manu- 
scripts and letters, he aided us most liberally. This handsome 
and costly building, the Watkins Institute, and these spacious 
and elegant quarters, so long occupied by our Society without 
expense, are in some measure at least the result of his foresight 
and influence. 

Si monumentum requiris circumspice. They are in part his 
monument. Judge Lea was the intimate friend and adviser of 
Mr. Watkins, and wrote his will creating this perpetual benefac- 
tion, so useful to our city, giving a home for our public librarj' 
and a night school now enrolling and educating over four hun- 
dred students unable to attend our public day schools. 

He was also the friend and adviser of Mr. Howard, the phi- 
lanthropist, who, through Judge Lea's influence, gave a valu- 
able fund to the Tennessee Historical Society, and provided the 



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54 The Ambrican Historical Magazikb. 

means that made possible the founding of the Howard Library, 
our first public library, now the Carnegie Library. 

Judge Lea was generous in his public and private charities. 
He was not an indiscriminate giver. He did not hesitate to 
decline to give when he did not fully approve. I recall one inci- 
dent in the life of our old friend, Mr. Watkins, which shows 
how we sometimes unjustly criticise those who have their pe- 
culiar way of being liberal and charitable. Mr. Watkins occu- 
pied the pew immediately in front of me in the First Presbyte- 
rian Church for years. I noticed that it was his custom to 
place but a quarter of a dollar in the collection basket each Sun- 
day. I remarked to my wife that it seemed a very small con- 
tribution for a man of his means. She replied that Sam Watkins 
knew his own mind and perhaps was giving liberally in other 
directions. After a time he passed away and when his will was 
read we found that he had saved $130,000 for this splendid pub- 
lic charity, the Watkins Institute, and thus the economy and 
simplicity of his life was well explained. 

A just estimate of Judge Lea's life and character must place 
him at the head of the list of Nashville's eminent citizens. Had 
he desired political preferment he coiild have obtained its high- 
est honors, but he sought only the modest and sometimes more 
useful honors of citizenship and private life. He was gifted with 
personal characteristics that would have won him honors and 
the affection of his friends in any sphere of life. 

In my youth I thought public station and political office the 
most desired objects in life. Clement L. Vallandigham, the dis- 
tinguished politician and lawyer of Ohio, lived in my city, and 
when I was but a boy he took me out with him in a local politi- 
cal campaign and let me air my ignorance, as an embryo politi- 
cal speaker, but when I settled in Nashville I had to give up 
my political aspirations. This was perhaps fortunate, as I 



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Remarks of Gbntbrai^ O. P. Thruston. 55 

honor and duty marked him as one of nature's noblemen, a 
Christian gentleman of the highest t)rpe. Extreme age did not 
lessen his efforts to be faithful and useful in the varied rela- 
tions of life. 

I had a letter from him written but a short time before his 
death. "Alas," he says, "I have lived my life and that which I 
have done may He within Himself make pure. Thank God my 
memory and my mental faculties seem to outlive my body. I 
have had much for which to be thankful. My friends I love and 
I do not hate or wish evil to my enemies. God forgave them 
and give me the charity to forgive them, too." 

It is impossible to estimate the value and good influence of 
such a life. It is a lesson to us all. 



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56 The Amebican Historical Magazine. 



REMARKS OF COLONEL J. B. KILLEBREW BEFORE 
THE LEA MEMORIAL MEETING OF THE 
TENNESSEE HISTORICAL SO- 
CIETY, NOV. lo, 1903. 



Colonel Killebrew said : 

While the distinguished speakers that have preceded me have 
done full justice to the mental capacity, benevolence and public 
spirit of Judge Lea, and also to his vast knowledge concerning 
the military, civil and political history of Tennessee, they have 
said nothing about his familiarity with the natural history of 
the State. He had a correct knowledge of all the trees and 
shrubs of Tennessee, was an excellent botanist and on one oc- 
casion, while I was employed in collecting samples of the vari- 
ous woods of Tennessee for exhibition at the Centennial Ex- 
hibition, he mentioned one tree of which I knew nothing. This 
was the Chittim wood, otherwise called Yellow wood, and bo- 
tanically known as Cladrastis tinctoria. He spoke of this tree 
as being very ornamental and one of the handsomest and neatest 
in the forests of Tennessee. At my request, he wrote out a de- 
scription of it and told me where I could get samples of the 
wood. Upon investigation, I found this tree to be a very rare 
one and with a comparatively feeble vitality. It gjows in the 
rich woods of the central basin of Middle Tennessee, and also 
in Eastern Kentucky. It has a close bark like the beech, and 
the leaves are three or four inches in length, smooth and with 
parallel veins. It has hanging panicles a foot long or more and 
has delicate creamy and fragrant white flowers that appear in 
May and June. 

Judge Lea had spent many leisure but profitable hours in 
the country and it gave him great pleasure to study the habits 
of all the domestic animals, as well as those of the wild beasts 
and birds of the forest. He knew them all and never felt the 
want of mental recreation and amusement while he had about 
him so many flowers and trees and beasts and other natural 



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Rbmarks of Colonel J. B. Killebrew. 57 

objects. He was also fairly well acquainted with the geological 
formations of Tennessee and could point out where the deposits 
of the various minerals were to be found. 

In a word, Judge Lea was one of the best informed men on 
all questions relating to the State of Tennessee that has ever 
Mved in it. He was an all-round man, able to write and speak 
in an intelligent manner upon any subject that concerned Ten- 
nessee. 



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53 Thb Ambrican Historical Magazinb. 



ANNALS OF A SCOTCH-IRISH FAMILY: THE WHIT- 
SITTS OF NASHVILLE, TENN. 



BY WILLIAM H. WHITSITT, RICHMOND COLLEGE, RICHMOND, VA. 



Nobilis hie, quocumque vcnit dc gramine, cujus clara fu^ja ante 
alios ct primus in aequore pnlvi^—/mvena/ VIII, 60-1. 



Preliminary. — ^The Whitsitt family is widely extended. Per- 
sons bearing their name and blood may be found in nearly every 
portion of the United States and Canada, as also in Ireland and 
Scotland. To treat of them all would be beyond my powers 
and learning. I shall therefore confine my attention to that 
small section of the family with which I chance to be most ac- 
quainted, namely, the Nashville Whitsitts. The best records of 
these have been kei^ by the Blakey family, of Russellville, Ky. 
They rest upon the industry and authority of three persons, 
namely, Mrs. Margaret (Whitsitt) Blakey; her son. Doctor 
George Douglas Blakey, and her grandson, Honorable Churchill 
H. Blakey, all of whom are now deceased. They were industrious 
chroniclers, and the family owes them a debt of gratitude. 

First Entry, — ^The opening entry of the Whitsitt annals is ex- 
pressed in the following words : 

"William Whitsitt, the son of William Whitsitt, the son of 
Samuel Whitsitt (all of Ireland), married Elizabeth Dawson, of 
Ireland. William Whitsitt, son of the aforesaid William, mar- 
ried Miss Ellen Menees, daughter of James Menees, who mar- 
ried the widow of Ranney Breathitt, formerly Miss Ellen Card- 
well ; died at the residence of his son, the Rev. James Whitsitt. 
in the vicinity of Nashville, Tennessee, July 14, 181 1. Ellen 

Menees Whitsitt, his wife, was bom , and died at Rural 

Choice, Kentucky, the home of her son-in-law, George Blakey, 
September 13, 1818." 

Here are four generations of the family. Of these the first 
two died in Ireland. William Whitsitt the second was the im- 



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Annai^s op a Scotch-Irish Famii^y. 59 

migrant, and shortly after the year 1731 he came over the sea 
with his wife, Elizabeth (Dawson) Whitsitt, and their son, 
William Whitsitt the third, who had been bom in their Irish 
home on the 20th of August, 1731. 

The name Samuel, which was borne by the first father of the 
Nashville family, has persisted to some extent among his de- 
scendants. William Whitsitt the third called the second of his 
three sons by that name, but he died without issue. The Rev. 
James Whitsitt, of Nashville, called one of his sons Samuel 
Dawson, in honor of his grandmother and his great-grand- 
father. 

It is assumed that the Nashville Whitsitts landed in Penn- 
sylvania along with the other Scotch-Irish immigrants ; but the 
ship that bore them and the precise date of its arrival are as 
yet unknown. If William Whitsitt, the immigrant, had other 
children besides his son William the third, the family records 
take no account of them ; nor does any tradition of them survive 
in the memories of the family. 

Nomenclature, — The Whitsitts are a numerous tribe in Ireland, 
where they bore and still bear the name of Whiteside. Mr. 
Hanna in his important work entitled 'The Scotch-Irish ; or the 
Scot in North Britain, North Ireland and North America," New 
York and London^ 1902, does not mention the name Whitsitt 
as occurring in Ireland, but there is quite a force of the White- 
sides there. In Appendix I, Vol. II, he undertakes to indicate the 
location of Scottish families in Ireland, and on page 527 makes 
the following entry : "Whiteside 18-16 Antrim and Armagh," 
which certifies that during the year 1890 there were eighteen 
children bom to the Whiteside family throughout Ireland, and 
that sixteen of them belonged to the counties of Antrim and 
Armagh. Mr. Hanna affirms (vol. ii, p. 519), that the average 
iHrth rate for that year throughout Ireland was one child to 44.7 
of the population. Multiplying this figure by the number of 
births it would indicate that in the whole of Ireland there was in 
1890 a Whiteside population of 806, of whom 716 were inhab- 
itants of Antrim and Armagh. The fact that Antrim is placed 
first in this enumeration would appear to signify that the White- 
-sides are more numerous in that county. 



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6o The American Historicai^ Magazine. 

Scattered notices demonstrate that they are also found in 
other sections of the island. Lippincott's "Pronouncing Bio^ 
graphical Dictionary" gives an account of "James Whiteside, 
LL.D., an Irish jurist and conservative statesman bom in the 
county of Wicklow about 1806. He studied at Trinity College, 
Dublin, and subsequently obtained a high reputation as a lawyer 
and orator. He was one of the leading counsel in the defense of 
O'Connell in 1843, ^^^ ^ilso defended Smith O'Brien in the trials 
of 1848. He was elected to pariiament in 185 1 for Enniskillen, 
and in 1859 was returned for the University of Dublin. He 
became about 1866 Lord Chief Justice of the Court of Queen's 
Bench in Ireland. He has published a work entitled Italy and 
the Nineteenth Century, 1849." 

In their Scottish home the Whitesides appear to have been a 
sept of the Bell clan of Annandale. Mr. Hanna in the work 
above cited supplies (vol. ii, p. 438) a couple of lists of Border 
clans, one for the year 1547 and the other for the year 1597, 
in both of which the Bell clan appears. In the year 1685 John 
Bell, of Whiteside, seertis to have been at the head of this clan, 
and the following notice is taken of his death: "Sir Robert 
Grierson, of Lagg, having the command of a party of Qaver- 
house's troop, and Strachan's Dragoons, surprised John Bell, of 
Whiteside ; David Halliday, portioner of Mayfleld ; Andrew Mc- 
Crabit, James Clement and Robert Lenox, of Irlintoun, and 
barbarously killed them after quarter, without time allowed to 
pray. When John Bell, of Whiteside, begged a little time ta 
pray, Lagg answered: *What the devil have ye been doing? 
Have ye not prayed enough these many years in the hills ?' and 
so shot him presently in the Parish of Tongland in Galloway,. 
February, 1685." (Hanna, II, 258.) 

Into whatever regions and perils the Scotch-Irish of America 
went abroad the Whitesides and the Whitsitts have traveled 
with them. Owing to the fact that they made their advent first 
in Pennsylvania, they are jperhaps more numerous in that State 
than in any other, but they are represented in almost all the 
States of our country and in Canada likewise. One is liable to- 



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Annals of a Scotch-Irish Family. 6i 

named in honor of General Samuel Whiteside, who led the 
troops of the commonwealth in the campaigns of 183 1 and 1832 
against the Indian chief, Black Hawk. The United States Pos- 
tal Guide shows the following list of post offices that have been 
named in honor of the various members of the tribe : 

Whitsett, Fayette County, Pennsylvania; Whitsett, Guilford 
County, North Carolina; Whitsett, Dooley County, Georgia; 
Whitsett, Crawford County, Missouri; Whitsitt, Hale County, 
Alabama; Whiteside, Marion County, Tennessee; Whiteside, 
Lincoln County, Missouri; Whiteside Cove, Jackson County, 
North Carolina; Whiteside Comers, Saratoga County, New 
York. 

In addition to the above, Mt. Whiteside is a distinguished 
feature of the Sapphire country in North Carolina. 

In the "Official Register of the United States, Containing a 
List of the Officers and Employees in the Civil, Military and 
Naval Service," two vols., Washington, 1901, one may observe 
that they are scattered in all sections of the country, and fond 
of the public service, as also successful at finding positions in it. 
There likewise appears in this Register a considerable diversity 
in the spelling of the name. Most of the employees of the 
Government spell it Whiteside, but Colonel Samuel Marmaduke 
Whitside, of the regular army, illustrates one of the processes 
by which it must have been shortened to Whitsitt, and Mr. W. 
H. Whitesitt, postmaster at Paragon, Morgan County, Indiana, 
illustrates another. Nearly all of those who have contracted 
the name from Whiteside prefer to spell it Whitsett, but the 
Nashville family have always insisted upon the form Whitsitt. 

II. 

Albemarle Period. — I have no definite knowledge of the 
Whitesides in Scotland and Ireland, or even in Pennsylvania. 
My researches begin with their advent to the colony of Vir- 
ginia in the spring of 1741. Following is a list of the Royal 
Patents issued to persons of the Whiteside name in Virginia: 

I. William Whiteside, March 15. 1741, 400 acres. Vol. XX, 
p. 162. 



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62 Thb Ambrican Historical Magazine. 

2. Thomas Whiteside, December i, 1748, 400 acres. Vol. 
XXVII, p. so. 

3. William Whiteside, April 4, 1753, 300 acres. Vol. XXXII, 

p. 55. 

4. William Whiteside, July 25, 1768, 181 acres. Vol. XXXVII, 
p. 272. 

5. William Whiteside, April 6, 1769, 160 acres. Vol. 
XXXVIII, p. 517. 

Except the last, all of the above estates lie within the present 
limits of the county of Albemarle, and in that section of it which 
was occupied by the Scotch-Irish settlers. The last named was 
entered across the Blue Ridge in what was then Augusta, but is 
now Rockbridge County. It is capable of proof that the first 
and fourth Patents were issued to William Whiteside, the immi- 
grant founder of the Nashville Whitsitts. Nothing is known of 
the degree of relationship that existed between this William 
Whiteside and Thomas Whiteside. 

The early records of Albemarle County were destroyed by the 
British Colonel Tarleton, who raided the town of Charlottes- 
ville in June, 1781. In his valuable work on Albemarle County, 
Charlottesville, 1901, Rev. Edgar Woods, D.D., says: "The 
gap thus occasioned reaches from 1748 to 1783, a period of 
thirty-five years, and one intensely interesting in the history of 
the county at large. . . .Many references to this event are met 
with in subsequent proceedings of the County Court. In 1794 
it recommended John Key, George Divers, Thomas Garth, 
Thomas W. Lewis, Garland Carr, Thomas Bell, Robert Jouett, 
W. W. Hening and Cornelius Schenk as Commissioners to rein- 
state such records as had been lost or destroyed." P. 25. 

These gentlemen did their best, no doubt, but there were 
necessarily some defects in their work. For example no account 
was supplied by. them of any transfer of Patent Number 2 by 



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Annals op a Scotch-Ikish Family. 63 

and in due course of time the land was probaWy allowed to 
return to the possession of the Crown. These conditions were 
not burdensome under ordinary circumstances, but in the con- 
fusion and peril of the nine years conflict, he may have found 
that it required all his energies to retain possession of the home 
place where he resided with his family. 

The Surveyor's Book of Albemarle County, Vol. i, page 340, 
shows that Patent Number 4 was surveyed for William White- 
side by John Staples, Assistant Surveyor, on the 19th of Novem- 
ber, 1755, but he did not find himself in a situation to take out 
the Patent until luly 25, 1768. These dates and items will supply 
a pathetic suggestion of the embarrassments that overtook the 
dwellers in these deep forests during the weary season of strife 
with the savage enemy. 

William Whiteside the third, who, it will be remembered, was 
bom in Ireland on the 20th of August, 1731, had attained his 
majority before that great struggle began, and the Surveyor's 
Book of Albemarle, Vol. I., page 258, likewise shows that on 
the 29th of March, 1754, Assistant Surveyor William Cabell, Jr., 
surveyed for him a tract of sixty acres "on the South Branch of 
the North Fork of Davis* Creek." But the storm and stress 
were so great that the young man was never able to take out the 
anticipated Patent. The above survey indicates that the land 
selected by young Whiteside was situated in the neighborhood 
of the estate of one John Wade. In the year 1763 when the 
war had finally closed and he was casting about to begin life 
in earnest, Whiteside returned to the North Fork of Davis' Creek, 
which, by that time had come to be embraced in Amherst County, 
and instead of taking out a Patent for the original survey of 
sixty acres, he purchased two hundred acres from the aforesaid 
John Wade and his wife, Elizabeth. One might raise the inquiry 
whether the young man was previously connected with the Wade 
family by blood or by any other relation. 

The fifth of these Patents appears to have been issued to an- 
other William Whiteside, who resided in the present limits of 
Rockbridge County. In the year 1753 Timber Ridge Church 
extended a call to the Rev^ John Brown, a graduate of Prince- 
ton and a licentiate of New Castle Presbytery. The list of 



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64 The American Historical Magazine. 

signers contains many of the noblest names in Virginia, and 
among the rest was William Whiteside, to whom the fifth of the 
above Patents appears to have been issued. 

It may be found in Foote's "Sketches of Virginia," Philadel- 
phia, 1855, Second Series, pp. 95-96, and constitutes a desirabk 
monument of the Whitsitt family. On the loth of February, 1890. 
I received a letter from Mr. Joseph G. Whitsitt, of Belton, 
Texas, in which he inquires regarding a tradition existing in his 
family to the effect that his ancestors came to America in the 
same ship with the ancestors of General Samuel Houston, of 
Texas. I was unable to supply the information that he requested. 
But in this list the names of five of the Houstons occur in con- 
nection with that of William Whiteside, and it seems not im- 
probable that the Whitsitts of Belton were derived from him. 
In the same list (p. 96), is also found the name of Moses White- 
side. Among the Whitsitts of northern Georgia the name 
Moses has been often used, and it seems possible that they may 
have derived their origin frcwn these worthies of Timber Ridge, 
in Rockbridge county. 

Whiteside Creek. — ^William Whiteside, the immigrant, found a 
home in the midst of the stout Scotch-Irish colonists, who, com- 
ing down the Valley of Virginia, had crossed the Blue Ridge 
into Albemarle at and after the year 1737. His entry called for 
"^four hundred acres lying and being in the county of Goochland, 
on both sides the South Fork of Mechums River." He occu- 
pied that place from the 15th of March, 1741, until the 7th of 
July, 1767, when he sold it to Adam Dean for £250 "current 
money of Virginia.*' The most important memorial of his resi- 
dence of six and twenty years in this home appears in the fact 
that the "South Fork of Mechum's river" that ran through his 
farm acquired the name of Whiteside Creek, which it has car- 
ried ever since on the maps of Albemarle. Dr. Wood, the 



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Annals op a Scotch Irish Family. 



been diverted in recent years by the celebrated Miller School ot 
that neighborhood, and conveyed into a reservoir whence is 
supplied the power for running their large electric plant and 
various other kinds of machinery. 

Religion, — ^The character of the community in which William 
Whiteside and his family resided in Albemarle will be sufficiently 
indicated by the following call which he united with his neigh- 
bors in extending to the Rev. Samuel Black. The names of the 
signers are retained to show the personnel of the community : 

Ivy Creek, March 29, 1747. 
Whereas it is agreed or proposed that ye Inhabitants of Ivy 
Creek and ye Mountain Plain Congregation joyn together with 
ye Congregation of Rockfish to call and invite ye Reverend 
Samuel Black, now Residing in ye bounds of ye Rev. Mr. 
John Craig's Congregation, to administer ye ordinances of ye 
Gospel among us : All we whose names are hereunto affixed, do 
promise and oblige ourselves to pay yearly and every year ye 
several sums annexed to our names, for ye outward support and 
Incouragement of ye said Mr. Samuel Black during his abode 
and continuance among us, for ye one half of his Labor in ye 
Administration of Gospel Ordinances to us in an orderly way, 
according to ye Rules and practice of our Orthodox Reformed 
Presbyterian Church : as Witness our hands. 

i. s. 

Michael Woods i 10 

William Woods i 10 

Archibald Woods i 5 

William Wallace i 5 

Andrew Wallace 10 

John Woods, Sr 15 

John Greer ro 

Thomas Lockhart 10 

Peter Hairston 8 

Adam Gaudylock 10 

Michael Woods, Jr 10 

William McCord 10 

John Gamble 10 

Davis Stockton i . . 



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66 



The American Historicai. Magazine. 



L s. 

John Monday 5 

Thomas Evins 5 

John Woods, Jr 5 

John Jameson 10 

Benjamin Wheeler 5 

W. Bucknall 5 

John Burrisse 5 

Robert Stewart 5 

James Kincaid 10 

Andrew McWilliams 10 

George Dawson 5 

Thomas Wright 5 

William Little 10 

Nathan Woods 10 

Samuel Jameson i 

John Lockhart 15 

Henry Burch 10 

Thomas Alexander 10 

Patrick Woods 8 

John McCulloch 10 

William Ogans 12 

William Chamberlain 5 

Thomas Craig 5 

John Thompson 5 

John Corban 6 

Henry Carr 5 

James Weir 12 

Robert McNeilly 6 

John Dicky 6 

William Norris 6 

John Kincaid 5 

Joseph Kincaid i .. 

John McCord i 

Archibald Woods 10 

William Whiteside 10 

William Bustard 6 

Thomas Whiteside 10 

Matthew MuUins 5 

Richard Stockton 12 



d. 



2 

5 

2>4 

254 

2J4 

3 



2 
2 



2 

2J4 

2 

2 

I 

I 



The Battle Church. — A building called by that name still stands 
on the banks of Whiteside Creek, just above Batesville in Albe- 
marle. Everybody in the neighborhood appeared during my 
recent visit to be familiar with the structure, but nobody was 



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Annals of a Scotch-Irish Famii^y. 67 

able to explain the origin of the name. Churchill H. Blakey, 
of Kentucky, used to speak of a tradition widely prevalent in 
the family to the effect that the Rev. George Whitefidd once 
preached in the tobacco bam of William Whiteside. As the 
Battle Church stands apparently upon the farm of William 
Whiteside it is possible that this was the place where Mr. White- 
field preached. It may have been used at certain seasons for 
agricultural purposes and at other seasons for purposes of re- 
ligious worship. 

The title "Battle Church" has most likely descended from the 
period of the French and Indian War, that raged from 1754 to 
1763. The Commonwealth of Virginia has borne the brunt of 
three great trials of war, namely, the Confederate War, the 
Revolutionary War and the French and Indian War. Owing to 
the poverty of resources and the length of the struggle the French 
and Indian War was one of the most trying. The country was 
exposed to countless incursions of ruthless barbarians. If the 
bam of William Whiteside had previously served as a place of 
religious worship, where the neighbors who found it difficult to 
journey as far as Mountain Plain Church might assemble to hear 
the word of God, it was now likely made to serve the additional 
uses of a blockhouse. I am not informed of any serious conflict 
with the Indians at this point, but one or two minor engagements 
may have conspired to win for it the designation of Battle Church, 
After the war it retumed to its former uses, and still does service 
as a barn. 

When in the year 1788, long after the departure of the original 
owners, a Baptist church was established in the immediate vicinity 
of the so-called Battle Church, it was called Whiteside Church, 
apparently in honor of William Whiteside. But in 1806 when 
a new edifice was erected on the opposite side of the road the 
name of Whiteside was discontinued and the church has since 
been known as Mt. Ed Church. — (Semple's History of Virginia 
Baptists, B cole's edition, p. 225.) 

William Whiteside the Third. — Several of the Whitesides are 
mentioned in connection with this long war. William Whiteside, 
of Augusta County, to whom reference was made above, was 
likely too far advanced to render military service, but he is said 



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68 Thb Ambkican Historical Magazine. 

to have perfonned some work for the Colony which paid him 
IIS. 6d for his services. (Hening Statutes at Large, 7, 194.) 
Moses Whiteside was a member of the Augusta militia. (Hen- 
tng, 7, 195.) There was likewise a William Whitesite in Bed- 
ford who furnished provisions to the militia of that county and 
received compensation for it. (Hening, 7, 206.) William White- 
side the second was already an aged man, but his son, William 
Whiteside the third, was a member of the Albemarle militia. 
(Hening, 7, 203.). George Washington commanded the forces 
of Virginia in this long and painful struggle, which served as an 
excellent preparation for the great deeds which he was destined 
to acccwnplish in the War of the Revolution. 

Return of Peace, — ^The Peace of Paris, which closed the war 
of nine years against the French and Indians, was concluded in 
February, 1763. William Whiteside the third almost immediate- 
ly afterwards quitted his father's house in Albemarle and estab- 
lished himself in the new county of Amherst. On the 5th of 
September, 1763, he purchased from John Wade and his wife, 
Elizabeth, two hundred acres of land "on both sides of Davises 
Creek, a branch of Rockfish River." This estate is at present 
situated in the county of Nelson. The indenture declares that 
the purchaser is already a resident of the county of Amherst, and 
In it his name is uniformly spelled Whitsitt, but in one or two 
instances the "i" of the last syllable has been left without any 
dot above it. 

Marriage of William Whitsitt, — ^The date is unknown. It may 
have occurred sometime before the Treaty of Paris had been 
duly signed by the Powers in February, 1763. He was united 
to Ellen Menees, the only daughter of James Menees, Sr., who 
resided near Amherst Courthouse. Possibly Whitsitt may have 
remained on his Davis Creek estate until the 7th of September, 
1767, when he purchased a farm of three hundred acres from 
Itt* father-in-law. 



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Annals of a Scott:H-lRiSH Family. 69 

denture he is already described as "William Whiteside, of Am- 
herst." His wife, Elizabeth, takes part in the conve3rance and 
signs the deed. 

But on the 25th of July, 1768, more than a year later, William 
Whiteside patented one hundred and eighty-one acres lying 
alongside of his former estate on Whiteside Creek, and on the 
19th of September, 1769, himself and his wife Elizabeth united 
in conveying it also to Adam Dean for £50. In this second deed 
he is again said to be a citizen of Amherst. 

The last glimpse that appears of this now venerable couple 
was on the 6th of August, 17^, when a commission was for- 
warded from Albemarle to Amherst to the effect that Elizabeth 
should be examined "privately and apart from the said William 
her husband" as to whether she freely consented to this transfer. 
How long they survived is unknown. It seems certain, however, 
that the immigrant who established the Nashville family of Whit- 
sitts passed away in Amherst County, shortly after the year 1770. 

But the name was not yet extinguished in Albemarle. Thomas 
Whiteside is supposed to have been still alive and an occupant 
of the estate which he had patented on the ist of December, 1748. 
It is likewise possible that William and Elizabeth Whiteside had 
other children besides their son William, and that some of these 
may have remained behind in Albemarle. The records of Albe- 
marle show that on the nth of May, 1768, one William White- 
side, who claims to be of that county, conveyed to George David- 
son for £14, one pacing mare and divers other commodities. But 
neither of the William Whitesides in the Nashville line was at 
that date a resident of Albemarle. It is possible that this Wil- 
liam Whiteside may have been a son of Thomas Whiteside. 

List of Albemarle Documents. — The entries under the name 
of Whiteside are not numerous in the records of Albemarle 
County : there are none at all tmder the name of Whitsitt. Some 
of the documents may have been lost in the burning of the books 
by Colonel Tarleton. Following is a list as they now appear : 

I. July 7, 1767, William and Elizabeth Whiteside to Adam 
Dean, three hundred and seventy-three acres or thereabout. Wit- 
nessed by William Winston, William Grayson, William Stockton 
and Maryan Winston. 



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70 The Ambrican Historical Magazinb. 

2. May II, 1768, William Whiteside, bill of sale of mare, etc., 
to George Davidson. Witnessed by Michael Woods, Jr., and 
Samuel Davison. 

3. September 19, 1769, William and Elizabeth Whiteside to 
Adam Dean, one hundred and eighty-one acres. Witnesses: 
Samuel Stockton, John Davis, James Walker and Prudence 
Stockton. 

4. August 6, 1770, writ dispatched from Albemarle to Amherst 
to examine Elizabeth Whiteside as to whether her consent was 
freely given to the last mentioned transfer. Commission executed 
by Timothy Riggs and John Robinson, Esquires, of Amherst, and 
their return ordered to be recorded by Albemarle Court at the 
session for March, 1771. 

James Menees, Sr. — Having set forth the history of William 
Whiteside, the immigrant who founded the Nashville Whitsitts, 
it will now be in order to give some account of James Menees, 
Sr., the immigrant who established the female line of the house. 
After a careful review of the deeds given during the Amherst 
period it seems clear that the name was originally McNees, since 
it is repeatedly spelled that way in the body of a number of docu- 
ments, although the members of the family commonly sub- 
scribed it Menees. The name appears to have been in a state of 
transition at Amherst, precisely as in the case of the Whitsitt 
name. 

McNees or McNeese is a well-known name in Ireland, while 
the name Menees is not mentioned there. According to the tables 
of Mr. Hanna, in his work on the Scotch-Irish, there were born 
in the year 1890 seventeen McNeese children in the whole of 
Ireland — sixteen in County Antrim and one in County Down — 
which shows according to the calculations given above that there 
were seven himdred and fifteen people of that name in Antrim. 

But it will be remembered that Antrim was the chief home of 
the Whitesides in Ireland. Is it possible that William Whitsitt 
went from Albemarle to Amherst to woo and wed Ellen Menees 



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Annals op a Scotch-Irish Family. 71 

James Menees, Sr., is supposed to have been born about the 
year 1710, and to have made his way to America with the Scotch- 
Irish migration shortly after the year 1730. Arrived in America 
he married Mrs. Ellen Breathitt, whose maiden name was Miss 
Ellen Cardwell. The Cardwells are likewise a Scotch-Irish 
family. The tables of Mr. Hanna show that in the year 1890 
nine children of that name were bom in Ireland, all of them in 
County Antrim, the home of the McNees family. Had James 
Menees been acquainted with Ellen Cardwell already in County 
Antrim, where the Cardwells are now represented by three hun- 
dred and ninety-six people? Supposing that he may have felt 
an early attraction for her, he was unsuccessful in his suit, since 
she first gave her hand and heart to Ranney Breathitt. The 
name appears to have been originally Braithwaite, which would 
indicate Danish or Norman extraction, though he may have been a 
native of Antrim in Ireland. At any rate the Breathitts were 
fond of Scotch-Irish lasses. John Breathitt, of Franklin County, 
Pennsylvania, a brother of the aforesaid Ranney, about 1740 
went to Maryland, and not far from Hagerstown married Miss 
Jane Kelley, a daughter of William Kelley, a wealthy Scotch- 
Irishman, and carrying her back to his home brought up a large 
family of sons, one of whom was named Ranney with reference 
to the maiden name of his mother, but perhaps especially with 
reference to his brother Ranney, who some years previously had 
married Miss Ellen Cardwell and shortly afterwards passed away. 
It is supposed to have been about the year 1738 when James 
Menees married the widow, perhaps in Franklin County, Penn- 
sylvania, where the Breathitts appear to have been then estab- 
lished. 

The strongest objection to the above construction of the history 
of the family lies in the circumstance that the Breathitts retained 
an uncommon degree of affection for Ellen Cardwell, and have 
continued for generations to call their children Cardwell, ap- 
parently in her honor. Cardwell Breathitt, a son of Governor 
John Breathitt, passed away only recently in the State of Mis- 
souri. Is it conceivable that the Breathitts were also Scotch-Irish 
people, and that intimate relations had been maintained between 
them and the Cardwells already for generations in Antrim ? 



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7« Thb Ambricak Historical Magazinb. 

Ellen Cardwell must have been a person of singular foroe and 
sweetness, if one may judge from the impression she left ttp<ni 
the Menees family, who still delight to name their children in 
honor of this, their first mother in America. After the birth of 
three children, Ellen, James and Benjamin, she was carried away 
apparently after only a few years of married life. In the year 
1767 James Menees, Sr., had a second wife named Margar^ 
who bore him no children. She was much respected and belored. 
William Whitsitt appears to have called in her honor his third 
dat^hter Margaret, who was bom on the 26th of October, 1767. 

Upon the distribution of his estate to his children in 1767, the 
elder James Menees reserved a sufficient amount to maintain 
himself in comfort and credit. He was always a provident and 
successful economist. It would be hard to find a more worthy 
specimen of the stout Scotch-Irish race. He lived in Amfauenst 
until February, 1782, when he went with his wife to reside in 
Pittsylvania G>unty, near his son Benjamin, who then owned a 
farm on Turkey Cock Creek, not far from the border of Henry. 
In November, 1783, he took up his residence with the Whitsitts 
near Martinsville, in Henry County, and remained with them 
until their removal to Tennessee in October, 1790, when he found 
a home with his grandchildren, Mr. and Mrs. William Breathitt, 
until his death, in 1792. The Breathitt home in which he died 
has long since been removed, but its site is still pointed out, 
about two hundred yards in the rear of the present residence of 
Mr. William H. Wells, near Martinsville, in Henry County. 

Changing the Name. — The responsibility of changing the name 
of the Nashville family from Whiteside to Whitsitt appears to 
rest with William Whitsitt. His father always signed himself 
Whiteside, and the name of the son was written Whiteside in the 
records of the Albemarle militia. But M^ien he went to live in 
Amherst he began to call himself Whitsitt. However, this 



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Annals op a Scotch-Irish Family. 73 

herself in the deed as "Elliner his wife." Possibly he returned 
to the name Whiteside in this instance at the suggestion of Mar- 
tin, who may have conceived that the land would be more secure 
in his possession if it were conveyed by the ancient name of 
Whiteside in preference to the modem name of Whitsitt. 

It is fair to add that in all the other Amherst documents the 
name is written Whitsitt. Likewise, during the period of his 
residence in Henry County, he uniformly employed the form 
Whitsitt. But at Nashville on the 7th of July, 1795, he entered 
six hundred and forty acres in Neely's Bend under the name of 
William Whitsitt, and on the 24th of February, 1801, after having 
removed to Logan Cotmty, Kentucky, he sold one hundred and 
ten acres of this tract to Tyree Harris under the name of William 
Whiteside. It seems clear, therefore, that while he commonly 
called himself Whitsitt he would occasionally recur to the original 
name. 

If Whitsitt yielded to the preferences of his wife in adopting 
the shorter form of the name, it seems clear that this shorter 
form had not been originated by her. On the contrary the right 
of choice between the two forms appears to have been already 
widely recognized, and large numbers of the family both in the 
Northern and Southern section of the country had adopted the 
shorter form. 

Indeed, the change seems to have been begun already in Ire- 
land. Attention is requested to the following letter in proof of 
that point : 

Pbbth Amboy, May 15, 1893. 
Doctor Wm. H. Whitsitt, Louisville, Ky. : 

Dear Sir: Your name and address like mine is found in the 
Book Record of the Scotch-Irish Society. My people were of 
that class, and among those of them who left Ireland in 1747 
I find the name of a collateral, Thomas Whitesett, who was in 
Indian Run, Del, in 1766. A brother William was living near 
Dublin in 1783, at Ballyhough Bridge, now a part of that city. 
Are you of the same family ? I trouble you because names some- 
times are changed very much in the course of time. My object 
is genealogical and biograf^ical. 

Yours respectftiUy, 

William Paterson. 



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74 'I'hb American Historical Magazinb. 

III. 

The 'Amherst Period. — ^The Whitsitts had hoped to find rest 
and peace in Albemarle, but nine years of their stay there were 
occupied by a fierce and trying Indian war. If they looked for 
peace and rest in Amherst they were doomed to still more serious 
disappointment. Hardly had they become established in their 
new home before the clouds which foretokened the struggle of 
the Revolution began to show themselves above the horizon. 
William Whitsitt was already forty-five years of age when that 
great trial began, and so far as I know was not enlisted in the 
military service. He had a young and growing family about him. 
The following is believed to be a correct list of his children : 

1. Elizabeth, named perhaps after her grandmother Elizabeth 
Dawson Whiteside, and bom about 1763. 

2. Frances, bom about 1765, and died without issue. 

3. Margaret, named apparently after her stepgjandmother, 
the second wife of James Menees, Sr., and bom October 26, 1767. 

4. Jane, died without issue. 

5. James, named in honor of his grandfather James Menees, 
Sr., and bom January 31, 1771. 

6. Samuel, died without issue. 

7. Nancy, died without issue. 

8. Ellen. 

9. William, bom 1780, and named in honor of his father. 

10. Sarah. 

11. Susan, died without issue. 

Amherst Neighbors, — After the 7th of September, 1767, the en- 
tire family of James Menees, Jr., was settled about him on Rut- 
ledge's Creek, about a mile south of Amherst Courthouse. Wil- 
liam Whitsitt had purcliased three hundred acres from his fath- 
er-in-law for £30, while the sons, James Menees, Jr., and Ben- 
jamin Menees, obtained the like amount for the nominal sum of 

fivp shillinoTQ parli TVip HiflFprpnrp Hptw*»*»n tli*»m miicf Viovp 



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Annals op a Scotch-Irish Family. 75 

to have been the eldest child. James Menees, Jr., was the sec- 
ond in age, and Benjamin the youngest. The wife of James 
was named Elizabeth, and that of Benjamin was called Ann, but 
I have not been able to discover the family name of either. 

The nearest neighbor appears to have been Stephen Ham, 
whose wife, Milly, must have been a daughter of James Nowlin. 
who, on the same 7th of September, 1767, conveyed to Ham 
one hundred and six acres of land for three pence. Mr. Ham 
achieved a comfortable fortune. His will was dated September 
I, 1810, and recorded February 17, 1812. He left a large estate 
and a family of twelve children, as follows : John Ham, Mrs. 
Frances Plunket, James Ham, Ambrose Ham, Lucy Turner, 
Elizabeth Knight, William Ham, Samuel Ham, Susannah 
Douglass, Polly Douglass, Bartlett Ham and Sally Turner. 
Among the other neighbors, the Ruckers — Anthony, Ambrose, 
Benjamin and Isaac — and the McDaniels — John and George — 
are most frequently mentioned. General Daniel Gaines, who 
subsequently went to Georgia and established the town of 
Gainesville, was on a friendly footing. David Woodroof, Isaac 
Wright, Josias Gilbert and W. Pollard also appear among their 
associates. 

Religion. — In his "History of the Baptists in Virginia" Doctor 
Semple publishes the "Minutes of the First Separate Baptist 
Association" (Beak's Edition, pp. 69-74). This meeting, styled 
"an occasional association," was held at "Craig's meetinghouse 
in Orange county, second Saturday in May, 1771." In the list 
of the churches, "Amherst Church, a new church," is found, and 
it was represented by Thomas Hargitt and James Menees. 

This was James Menees, Jr., and not James Menees, Sr. Doc- 
tor R. B. C. Howell, who, in 1850, published an elaborate biog- 
raphy of the Rev. James Whitsitt in The Christian Chronicle, a 
Baptist journal in the city of New York, represents that James 
Menees, Sr., did not join the Baptists before the year 1789, at 
^hich time he was residing in Henry County, Virginia. 

Mr. Thomas Hargitt, the other representative of the Amherst 
Church at this initial Association, was a minister. The Rev. 
John Williams, likewise a minister, who was present as a repre- 
sentative of the Amelia Church, enters in his manuscript journal 



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76 Thb Aksrican Historicai« Magazine. 

the following reference to Mr. Hargitt : "Went for the Associa- 
tion about i8 miles, Saturday morning, May 1771. Got to the 
Association about one o'clock. Brother Hargitt was then about 
to preach to about 1,200 souls from 40th chapter Isa., nth 
verse." (Semple, Beale's Edition, p. 489.). 

The forbears of James Menees, Jr., had been Presbyterians 
ever since the establishment of the Protestant Reformation of 
the Church; had likely applauded and supported Knox in his 
conflicts with Queen Mary ; had also been harried by the troop- 
ers of Claverhouse ; and had stood against King James at the 
Battle of the Boyne. That such a man should depart from his 
Church was no slight proposition. Yet the step was not taken 
in any spirit of passion or pride. He indulged no flippant con- 
tempt for the faith of his fathers. There was a great revival of 
religion in Virginia and he found in the communion of the Bap- 
tists better satisfaction for his religious needs and aspirations. 

The Rev. John Williams supplies this additional account of 
the transactions at Craig's meetinghouse in May, 1771 : ''Brother 
Burrus got up immediately [after Mr. Hargitt] and preached 
from Isa., Ch. 55 3d verse . . . with a good deal of liberty, and 
set the Christians all afire with the love of God ; Assembly prais- 
ing God with a loud voice; Brother Waller exhorting till he 
got spent; Brethren Marshall and E. Craig both broke loose 
together, the Christians shouting and they speaking for the 
space of half an hour or more ; then ceased." (Semple, Beak's 
Edition, p. 489.) Brother Marshall was an uncle of John Mar- 
shall, who later was appointed Chief Justice of the United 
States. 

The Amherst Church founded by Hargitt and Menees was 
situated some miles distant from the courthouse. No traces of 
it now remain, but it is reported to have survived as late as the 
year 1830. Owing to the fact that it was surrounded by the 



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Aknals op a Scotch-Irish Family. 77 

Ifinia. Most of the Baptists of Virginia were of that type, and 
it was they who bore the brunt of the conflict for relipous Kb- 
erty in the commonweahh. The Rev. John Williams, in his 
manuscript journal above cited, thus refers to an item of 
business that came up for discussion at the Association : 'Then 
I thought we had gotten over our difficulties, but what appeared 
dreadful, shocking — query concerning preachers getting license 
— a dreadful contention about it, and once I thought that every 
one that had obtained license would absolutely be censured. 
But the majority was in our favor. After a g^eat debate we 
agreed to refer it to the next association." {Semple, Beale^s 
Edition, p. 492.) 

Regular Baptist ministers almost uniformly sought and ob- 
tained frcmi the Governor and Council at Williamsburg license 
to open places of dissenting worship according to law. But the 
Separate Baptists, maintaining that they had received a com- 
mission from a higher court, nearly all disdained to apply for a 
license from any earthly authority. The issue was thus dis- 
tinctly drawn. The ministers of the Separate fraternity, in 
preaching without license, acted in plain violation of the letter 
of the law, and when they were taken by the constituted author- 
ities they were often cast into jail. It was not long before the 
prisons of Virginia were crowded with Separate Baptists, but 
no account has yet been supplied of a Regular Baptist minister 
who was confined on this account. These avoided the danger- 
ous issue by procuring a license wherever it was required. 
Sympathy for the suffering Separate Baptists soon became very 
active and gained them multitudes of adherents. They rapidly 
outstripped the Regular Baptists in numbers, and led all the 
forces of Virginia in the long and stubborn struggle for re- 
Itgknss freedom. In the year 1787, after they had won their 
battle in the commonwealth, the Regular body proposed a 
union with them. The proposition was accepted and after that 
date the two parties were long known as United Baptists. 
James Menees, Jr., was one of the earliest fathers and most in- 
fluential promoters of the Separate Baptists of Virginia; 

At his death in 1837 he had been for a period of nearly sev- 
enty years the leader of his family. The dignity of his bearing, 



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78 Thb Ambrican Historicai* Magazine. 

the serenity of his temper, the strength of his understanding, the 
breadth of his culture, the vigor of his initiative and the sanity 
of his judgment combined with a certain patriarchal simplicity 
to render him a beautiful and engaging figure. But it is not 
apparent to what extent his example in quitting the Presbyte- 
rians and joining the Baptists was applauded and imitated by his 
family. According to Doctor Howell, his father assumed an 
observant and waiting attitude ; but it is likely that the members 
of his own household were from the outset in hearty accord with 
him. Probably the family of William Whitsitt were also fav- 
orably inclined during the Amherst period. If Benjamin 
Menees and his household ever united with the Baptists no 
proofs of the fact have come to my attention. 

Though he has been dead for almost seventy years James 
Menees, Jr., is still a great force in his family, and those who 
know where to look for it may also find his hand among the 
Baptist people of Nashville. Likewise it will be apparent to all 
who rightly understand the current of events that he yet holds 
a fair and honorable position in the life and business of the 
State of Tennessee. 

Revolutionary War. — Though the trial of Albemarle had been 
very g^eat, the trial of Amherst was to be still greater. Wil- 
liam Whitsitt was too far advanced in life and too much bur- 
dened by the cares of his family to take any active part in the 
toils of military defence. James Menees, Jr., was a younger 
man, having been bom about the year 1741. However, he was 
the father of eight living children, all of them girls but one. 
His youngest child, Jane Cardwell Menees, was bom on the 21st 
of January, 1776. It could hardly be expected that such a per- 
son should quit his home for any lengthy period of time. How- 
ever, he was willing to do what lay in his power, and so he en- 
tered the army and fought at the battle of Guilford Courthouse, 
on the i«;th of March. 1781. For that service he received a 



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Annals of a Scotch-Irish Family. 79 

season it was presented to Samuel and Elizabeth Ham, the 
latter being a daughter of Mr. Menees. 

Slavery. — ^The ownership of slaves appears to have been in- 
troduced into the family by James Menees, Sr. On the i8th of 
December, 1778, he gave to Benjamin and to his daughter 
Elinor, after the decease of Benjamin, a negro boy named 
Caesar, and on the 20th of January, 1779, he loaned to James 
Menees, Jr., during his natural life a negro boy named Isaac^ 
providing that after the death of James the boy should belong 
to Jane, the daughter of James. No slave was received by the 
Whitsitt family in this distribution apparently for the reason 
that William Whitsitt felt a prejudice against the institution. 

A second distribution was begun in Pittsylvania County April 
4, 1783, when James Menees, Sr., gave to his son Benjamin a 
negro fellow named Sam, and sixty pounds of hard money, 
with the proviso that after the death of Benjamin the negro 
should belong to his oldest son, James Menees. Benjamin must 
have had other sons besides James, but he and Elinor are the 
only children of that family whose names have yet come to my 
notice. 

If William Whitsitt entertained a prejudice against the insti- 
tution of slavery in the years 1778 and 1779 he had gotten over 
it by the year 1783, as will appear from the following entry in 
the records of Henry County : 

To all people to whom these Presents shall come: James 

Menees send Greeting. 

Know Yb I the said James Menese, of the County of Pittsil- 
vania and State of Virginia for and in consideration of the Love 
and Good & AflFection I bear towards my Daughter Elener 
Whitsitt of Henry County & the aforesaid state of Virginia, 
have given granted and by these presents do freely give and 
grant unto the said Elener Whitsitt (at my Decease and my 
wife's) one negro woman named Beck to have and to hold the 
said Negroe to the said Elener Whitsitt her heirs executors or 
administrators from henceforth as her and their property ab- 
solutely without any manner of condition. And further I give 
and bequeath unto my aforesaid Daughter Elenorer Whitsitt 
at my Decease and my wife's fifty pounds specie and my desk 
to her the said Elenour Whitsitts her Heirs Exors. Admrs. or 
assigns and to no other intent or Purpose whatsoever. In Wit- 



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8o Thb Ambricav Histokicax Magazinb. 

ncss whereof I have bcreunto s^ mj hand and afixed my seal 
this 1 2th day of Novr., 1783. Jambs Mbkebs, L.S. 

Signed sealed and Delivered 

in Presence of us : 

Joseph Anthont, 

Jacob Ferris, 

William Whitsitt. 

At a Court held for Henry County on the 27th day of May, 
1784, the within Deed of Gift was acknowledged by the within 
named James Menees to be his act and Deed and tfie same was 
ordered to be recorded by the Court. 

Teste : John Cox. 

Perhaps William WWtsitt had persuaded himself that the 
negro woman Beck was not given to himself, but to his vnfe, 
and that he was not entitled to stand in the way of her rights 
and interests. James Menees, Jr.. was present at Amherst 
Courthouse as a visitor from Nashborough on the Cumberland 
on the 7th of August, 1783, at which time he gave a power of 
attorney to John McDaniel that was witnessed by Ambrose 
Rucker and George McDaniel, both residents of Amherst. He 
might have obtained his share in this second distribution of 
slaves, but I have met with no record of the fact. 

Close of the Amherst Period. — ^The first break was made by 
Benjamin Menees, who sold his farm of three hundred acres to 
William WTiitsitt on the ist of November, 1779. Whitsitt paid 
him £700, which seems to indicate the extent to which the cur- 
rency of Virginia was deranged through the war. On the ist 
of October, 1781, just eighteen days before the surrender of 
Lord Comwallis, William Whitsitt in his turn disposed of his 
possessions, one hundred acres going to Charles Stewart for £60 
in specie, and five hundred acres to Joseph Crews for £500 in 
Virginia currency. Next followed James Menees, Sr., who, 00 
the 13th of February, 1782, sold the one hundred acres that re- 
mained in his hands to Benammi Stone for £160 "current money 
of Virginia in specief* which seems, all things considered, to be 
the best sale that was made. Last of all came James Menees. 
Jr., who in the papers is described as James Menees, of Henry 
County, and on the 5th of August, 1782, sold one hundred and 
eighty-five acres to John McDaniel for £200, and one hundred 



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Annals of a Scotch-Irish Family. 8i 

and fifteen acres to James Pendleton for iioo, both sums being 
in current money of Virginia. Thus ended the second chapter 
in the experience of the Nashville Whitsitts on American soil. 
List of Amherst Documents. — ^The following list of entries is 
found among the records at Amherst Courthouse : 

1. September 5, 1763, John and Elizabeth Wade to William 
Whitsitt, 200 acres on the north fork of Davis' Creek, a branch 
of Rockfish River, for £40. 

2. September 7, 1767, James Menees to William Whitsitt, 300 
acres on the branches of Rutledge's Creek, for i30. 

3. September 7, 1767, James Menees, Sn, to James Menees, 
Jr., 300 acres for 5 shillings. 

4. September 7, 1767, James Menees to Benjamin Menees, 
300 acres for 5 shillings. All three of the above are witnessed 
by David Woodroof and Isaac Wright. 

5. September 7, 1767, Steven Ham to James Menees, 29 acres 
for 5 shillings. ' 

6. September 7, 1767, James Menees to Steven Ham, 23 acres 
on a branch of Rutledge's Creek, for 5 shillings. ' 

7. June 4, 1770, William Whiteside and Elliner, his wife, to 
William Martin, 200 acres on the North fork of Davises Creek, 
a branch of Rockfish River, for i40. Witnesses : Joe Majann, 
Martin Dawson and James Menees. (Same farm as No. i 
above.) 

8. July 15, 1775, Deed of Trust for £66 from Hugh Gilliland 
to James Menees, Jr. Witnesses : James Menees, Sr., Benja- 
min Menees and John Brown. 

9. December 18, 1779, James Menees, Sr., Deed of Gift of 
Negro Caesar to Benjamin Menees, and to his daughter Elenor 
upon the death of Benjamin. 

10. January 20, 1780, James Menees to James Menees, Jr., 
and after his death to his daughter Jane, Deed of Gift of negro 
fellow Isaac. Witnesses of both the above: Daniel Gaines, 
Josias Gilbert and Ambrose Rucker. 

11. November i, 1779, Benjamin Menees, of Pittsylvania 
County, to William Whitsitt, 300 acres for £700. 

12. October i, 1781, William Whitsitt to Charles Stewart, 
6 



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82 Thb American Historical Magazine. 

lOO acres for £60 in specie. Witnesses : Benammi Stone, Ben- 
jamin Rucker and Isaac Rucker. 

13. October i, 1781, William Whitsitt to Joseph Crews, 500 
acres for £500. Witnesses: Benjamin Rucker, Isaac Rucker, 
Charles Stewart, John Turner and Benammi Stone. 

14. October 6, 1783, Return of writ sent from Amherst to 
Abraham Penn and John Salmon, Gentlemen Justices of Henry 
County, to examine Elenor Whitsitt privily and apart from her 
husband touching her cxmsent to the conveyance mentioned in 
the preceding number. It was forwarded August 7, 1783; ex- 
ecuted by Penn and Salmon August 29, and returned to Am- 
herst October 6. 

15. February 13, 1782, James Menees, Sr., to Benammi Stone, 
100 acres for £160 in specie. Witnesses : A. Rucker, John Mc- 
Daniel, W. Pollard, Joseph Crews and John Stewart. 

16. August 5, 1782, James Menees, of Henry County, to John 
McDaniel, 185 acres for £200. 

17. August 5, 1782, James Menees, of Henry County, to 
James Pendleton, 115 acres for £100. 

18. August 7, 1783, Power of Attorney from James Menees, 
of Nashborough, on the Cumberland, to John McDaniel. Wit- 
nesses: Ambrose Rucker and George McDaniel. 

(To be continued.) 



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DtJNLAP- Jackson Corrkspondknce. 83 



DUNLAP- JACKSON CORRESPONDENCE. 



DUNLAP TO JACKSON. 

Lea Spbings, Tbnnbbseb, June 30th, 1831. 

Dear Sib : This week affords me leisure from our courts and 
our elections to visit these valuable springs. My health is feeble 
& has been for this season. 

This gives me a favorable opportunity to give you some plain 
hints. 

Seated at the head of power, but few will say anything to 
you calculated to have any other effect but to please your pride 
or feed your vanity. All men have both. 

My motive for first and last wishing you at the head of our 
great & happy nation, was that I believed you to be the best 
instrument to correct the growing evils & to bring back to 
first principles the wandering action of the Federal govern- 
ment. As this is and was my motive, I feel a deep solicitude in 
preserving unimpaired the whole usefulness of your publick 
station, which is the most honorable & responsible within the 
range of human power. 

Mr Eaton leaves the War Dept. by the common consent and 
wish of all parties — while the nation may admire the firm 
friendship by you manifested for Mr Eaton, they can not but 
rejoice at the hope of his retirement. Mr W. B. Lewis, almost 
too small to write about, occupies a position before the nation 
alone from his presumed and assumed intimacy with you, which 
merits a little attention. Send him home and no longer hold 
yourself accountable to a free and enlightened people for the 
arrogant follies of such a small but busy man as he is. 

His only importance is that by his hinting impudence, when 
out of your presence, of being in the Prst's confidence, he as- 
sumes the mask of an adviser. This holds you responsible for 
his silly conduct. 

To speak plain, the opinion prevails at large that W. B. Lewis 
is one of your most confidential councillors. This fact does, 
whether it be true or false, seriously affect the public, it raises 



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84 The Akerican Historical Magazine. 

a suspicion of your fitness to rule ; it paralizes every noble feel- 
ing of your friends, when it is said Billy Lewis is your Prests. 
councillor. As I have as little to ask as any other of your 
friends, I write this letter, which I know speaks the voice of 
Tennessee, as well as of every fragment of any party in this 
union. Your connection with Messrs. E & L have injured you 
more in publick opinion, than all the acts of your friends & 
enemies combined. 

The nation looked not to these feeble ministers for aid in di- 
recting the glorious destiny of the American people — ^when by 
the noblest feelings of patriotism they rallied on you to sus- 
tain the brightening prosperity of their country. The nation 
will be pleased to learn that Mr VanBuren will go to England, 
this will quiet the fears of conflicting aspirants and give the 
country some peace. 

If Judge White's daughter, Mrs. Alexander, should change 
her situation as it is more than probable that she will, I am in- 
duced to believe that he would accept the War Dept., as it is 
urged on him by public feeling as well as by your wishes. I 
am satisfied that he would not like to take any step that would 
have an unhappy effect on our elections. If he were to accept 
during the canvass, it would no doubt have some influence on 
the elections, as the claims of aspirants for his place would be 
before the people — and our people are peculiar and not like 
any other. 

For one, I believe it is important to your administration to 
have Judge White in the War Dept. It will silence the runwrs 
that you have discarded your old friends and sought counsel 
amongst your new converts. 

It will do still more for the country. The dignity of White's 
character, blended with talents and integrity acknowledged by 
all parties, will give strength and confidence to his opinions and 
official acts. 



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DUNLAP-jACKSON CORRESPONDENCE. 85 

magnificence, that enabled him to command the whole energies 
of the nation to a preparation for war after the war was over 
and thus beguiled republicans from republican duties. 

I understood that Governor Floyd wrote to a certain gentle- 
man in E. Tenn., urging him and the Clay people to drop Mr 
Qay and take up Mr. Calhoun. I did not hear the eflfect of the 
letter. A highly respectable gentleman of Charleston (Mr. H. 
W. Conner) wrote me a few weeks since that the nullifiers had 
determined to run Mr Calhotm for the Pres'y. He thinks it 
would be a hard battle in S C, but believes that the victory would 
be awarded to Tennessee's chief. 

The union of the American system and nullification, if Mr Cal- 
houn be a nullifier, will almost be a demonstration of the old 
maxim that two extremes very nearly approach each other. 
This will certainly require a yankee patent to make them stick, 
unless it be that two absurdities have an affinity for each other. 

Unless usurpation be put down by the weight & influence 
of your administration, we may bid farewell to the lawful and 
peacful action of the govt. Hence it becomes indispensible to 
have all the influence that can be arrayed ready for action. I 
received a letter a few days since from our friend Maj. (Jesse) 
Egnew of New Orleans, in which he writes that Mr Clay spent 
the winter in the City & that he was not invited to eat or speak. 
The correspondence troubled the Clay men but at last they said, 
Old Hickory before Calhoun. 

I would open emigration to the Arkansas next fall for the 
Cherokees. They will not treat yet — ^Their subject will go and 
thus drain the nation. Your friend, 

To Prest. Jackson, Washington City. R. G. Dunlap. 

JACKSON TO DUNLAP. 

(Address) Andrew Jackson Free 

Stamp mark. 

Genl. R. G. Dunlap, attorney at Law, Knoxville, Tennessee. 

(Letter) 

private Washington, July i8th, 1831. 

My Dk Sib : I have just received your letter of the 30th ult. 
and snatch a moment from publick duty to reply to it. 



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86 Tbb Ambrican Historical Magaziitb. 

I am hapf>y to learn that your hfiakh is improving, whibt I 
re^et to hear that it has been feeble ; if my good wishes for your 
vigorous heakh will give it» I send them with great sincerity. 

As I have but a moment to write, you will excuse my brevity 
on the various points of your letter. 

Wliilst it is plea^g to hear that the reoi'ganisation of my 
Cabinet meets with the approbation of Temiessee, as well as 
the whole union, I cannot omtt a passing nc^ce on your re- 
marks as it respects Major Eatofi — ^it is tlus — Major Eatoa 
leaves the War Dept. by the consent "of all parties." In this 
you are badly informed, he leaves it with the great regret of a 
large majority of the army and cttiaens of this place, who, with- 
out regard to pofitics, tendered him a dinner which he declined 
This was not offered to any other of the resigned Cabhiet. 

Great regret has been expressed by many pf the citizens of 
PennsyNania, New York, Ohio & Indiana, to winch you may 
add my own — whilst all approve the high honorable feefings 
that gave rise to Mr VanBuren's and Major Eaton's resigna- 
tions, when they found harmony in the Cabinet could not be 
maintained. 

I fear my friend you have been reading, and giving too much 
credence to the slang of Genl Duff Greens, and other opposi- 
tion papers, to be correctly informed as to facts here — ^the plan 
of Duff Green & Co are to slander, and if they could, drhre 
from me every honest man in whom I ought to have confidence 
— ^and it is now well known here that if Major Eaton could have 
been made the supple tool of Mr Calhoun, and become the en- 
emy of Mr. VanBuren, without cause, he with Major Lewis, 
would have been ranked with the first and best men of our coun- 
try ; they, however, were too honest to be bought, and too vir- 
tuous to do injustice to Mr VanBuren, who, permit me to say, 
has more honestv and candor, talent and frankness than a hun- 



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Dunlap-JaCkson Corrbspondsncb. 87 

done, I will give you some facts — but before I do, one passing 
word as to Major Lewis, and first I must sincerely regret the 
language used with regard to him, without pointing to some 
tect that would justify it — I have seen such slang in opposition 
papers, I have heard it from Mr Calhouns tools in Nashville, 
but coming from Genl Dunlap, without detailing some facts 
that would justify it, has really astonished me — I have known 
him long, I have known him well — he is honest, & faithful, as 
far as I know and believe, and attends to his own, without in- 
terfering with others business — you must surely have been tak- 
ing the slang of Duff Green, the Hiiladelphia Continent ( ?), & 
the City Journal for your proof, without looking to the positive 
refutation of the whole, in the Globe, & Philadelphia Enquirer : 
if I am right in thi^ then you might as well beKeve all that 
Arnold says about Judge White & Mr Lea and I am sure you 
do not believe one word of Arnolds slander — ^the others are as 
fool — for I assure you, of my own knowledge, I do know several 
instances wherein Genl Duff Green has wilfully stated false- 
hoods. 

But suppose I was to "send Major Lewis home ;" do you think 
this would appease my political, unprindided enemies ; no, no, I 
must send home Major Barry, Col Campbell, Mr Kendall and 
eveiy other friend of mine that will not become the pliant, & 
stif^^ tool of Mr Calhoun, and the open enemy of the un- 
offending VanBuren, who it is pleasing to Duff Green to decry 
as a plotter, without proof, and who is as innocent of the plots 
charged, as you are — Genl Dunlap could not ask me to bend to 
sueh humility — and if he was, I assure him, I never part with 
wen tried friends, to gratify my enemies, or for hew ones. 

Therefore, for the present will neither part with Barry, Camp- 
bell, Smith, Kendall or Major Lewis — when any of them de- 
parts from the paths of honesty, propriety, or truth, & it is 
made manifest to me, I will '*send them home*' not before — Many 
of tny real friends under a great dehtsion have done me more 
u^jnry than all my enemies could do, and many who have pro- 
ie0sed irietidship (Calhoun like), under the mask of friendship 



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88 The American Historical Magazine. 

Eaton, so necessary to me, when Judge White declined, all was 
wrong; & where was there a man who had laboured so much 
and burnt the midnight taper so often as he did in my behalf. 
Such a friend as Major Eaton is hard to find, & is worthy to be 
hugged to the bosom as a pearl beyond price — I have & will 
so cherish him. The extracts of sundry letters, being a cor- 
respondence between Mr Calhoun & a gentleman in West Ten- 
nessee, explains all this matter — ^too much credence are given to 
the slang of Duff Green & his coadjutors in the opposition with 
regard to my friends — if the Globe was read it would shew all 
these tales put down, by positive denials and proof — Clerks have 
been engaged here, who has written to Nashville some of the 
most positive falsehoods that ever has been told (?), by the 
most depraved of the opposition, they are just discovered, & 
some of them will "go home" soon; one fact is now well ascer- 
tained, that Duff Green nor Mr Calhoun never supported me — 
They opposed Mr Adams under my name to put him down, and 
now wish to put me down to open the way to the Presidency 
for Mr Calhoun^ — Mr Calhoun first tried to crush me by his 
secret move in the Cabinet — He prostrated Crawford, and now 
wishes to crush Mr VanBuren, lest he may be in his way here- 
after, & will unite with Mr Clay, or any other, to effect his 
views — as to myself, I leave these things to the people, they 
have the right to select their agents, and I hope ever will exer- 
cise it — ^and if they prefer another, I am sure I will be satisfied 
with my sweet retirement at the Hermitage, which I was draged 
from, contrary to my wishes, and now am complained of, be- 
cause I selected a few well tried friends around me and will not 
abandon these for newcomers, to gratify one of the most wicked 
depraved conspiracies that ever disgraced any Christian coun- 
try. I would loathe myself, if any earthly influence could bend 
me to so vile a purpose. 

It is well known the high confidence I once had in Mr Cal- 
houn — I was taught to believe him a high minded and honor- 
able man, capable of friendship, free irom duplicity, or false- 



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DuNLAp- Jackson Corrrspondrnce. 89 

journals, that there had been a cabinet council held which had 
decided on the subject of my arrest, for transcending my orders 
in Florida, I could not believe that Mr Calhoun was appro- 
bating such a movement. 

The Nashville paper ascribed it to Mr Crawford and that Mr 
Calhoun was my shield and support against this movement for 
my destruction ; because I knew, that Mr Calhoun & Mr Mon- 
roe, could not think so, because my public orders were a chart 
blank, and my confidential letter had been reed, my views fully 
made known, and Mr Rhea instructed to write me, that my 
views were fully approbated — I therefore believed Mr Crawford 
was the secret agent of my destruction — for how could that 
Mr Calhoun, who had said to Govr Bibb, "that I had orders to 
carry on the war as I pleased" who had read the confidential 
letter, had approved it, and said to Mr. Monroe it required his 
answer, who knew that Mr J Rhea had been instructed & had 
answered it, who, in all his letters and those of confidential 
friends, had breathed their full approbation of my conduct, I say 
after all this, how could I suppose that Mr Calhoun was this 
secrete person, who had endeavoured to destroy my reputation 
by his movement in the secrete cabinet council where he be- 
lieved his acts never could become public & who had laid it 
upon another — it is true, in 1824-5, Mr Rankin (?), member of 
congress, did tell me, Mr Calhoun and not Mr Crawford, had 
made this movement against me — I did not, nay I could not be- 
lieve he could be so base, nor did I when I sent him Mr Craw- 
fords statement, believe it, until I received his acknowledgement 
under the sanction of his name, in his reply to my note alluded 
to— you may ask me why I was so incredulous — I will tell you 
—You have read the correspondence, you have seen in it pub- 
lished my confidential letter to Mr Monroe in which Mr J Rhea 
is referred to, as a confidential friend thro whom the wishes of 
the Executive could be communicated & in sixty days I would 
carry into effect these wishes of the Executive — you have seen 
that Mr Calhoun read that letter, drew Mr Monroes attention 

fi\ if on/1 ca«r1 i%A ^mm^^^j. «^> :x T 1 ^ ^^... 4.^ ^^11 _.^.. 4.Ua4. 



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90 Thb Ahbricak Historical Magazine. 

to Ft. Scott. Mr Calhoun knew that this letter was answered 
by Mr. Rhea, and that I had complied with the public orders 
and confidential wishes to a tittle — ^he knew I had not, nay could 
not transcend my orders, and how could I believe that any man, 
however depraved, could act as it had been stated Mr Calhoun 
had, by secretly moving my arrest or punishment — I was mis- 
taken — he was the mover — ^and I now ask you, if a man thus 
depraved, who could move my arrest & punishment, and pub- 
Hckly lu^d forth to me his friendship and support, what is it he 
would not do, to prostrate those he might conceive to be in his 
way to his views of ambition. Think ye, he would not sever the 
union rather than not reach the point of hi« ambition — ^think 
ye, would not such a man rather rule ih the lower regions than 
serve in heaven. His intrigue did not stop here — ^when I was 
in this city in 1819, attending to the Seminole campaign, Mr. 
Rhea was sent, to request me, to burn this letter. Having full 
confidence in all I agreed, that as soon as I got home I would 
btuii it. I did so burn it. Mr. Calhoun knowing this, when I 
furnished him with Mr. Crawfords statement, he acknowledged 
his guilt & adds insult to injury, by urging that I did transcend 
my orders. Providence has permitted Mr Rhea still to Kve, 
and one month before Mr Monroes death, he wrote him fully, 
stating all the facts I have mentioned, a copy of which I hold, 
with Judge Overtons statement of the contents of Mr Rheas 
letter, which was confidently submitted to him with others when 
he wrote the defense ''of the Executive & the Commanding Gen- 
eral," in the Seminole war. 

Therefore, a man who can thus act, can subsidies presses^ and 
procure slanderers to villify me, & all friends who are near me, 
who will not fall down & worship him. I therefore have to re- 
quest, that you will state one instance, wherein Major Lewis 

"hoc itnf\rrkr>Ar1v infprfArpH in anv mafrfri»r ^if ht^r ruiKlin ru- run- 



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DuNULF-jACKSON COEiUtSPONDBNCB. 9' 

presses at five dollars a week to fnck up all slander of the most 
base and vulgar kind, & communicate it by letter, cme of these 
papers til New York assumes the character of a religious 
IM*ess. I ask what chance has innocense & virtue under such a 
S]rstem ol morals, there is no safety for any one — ^and let me 
ask you, is not he that pirates (?) on private character worse 
than the pirate on the high seas, and ought not every one who 
sets valine on character to put his face against the villians that 
practice it — rumor, recollect, has a hundred tongues & every 
tongue a thousand lies and if such a system of morals is adopted 
that rumor is to destroy character, then will a virtuous and 
morale course of life, be no protection to the vile traducer, who 
can for a dollar set rumor afloat which will destroy the char- 
acter of father, mother, sister & daughter. 

I trust Genl Dunlap will not subscribe to such a dangerous 
system of morales — all, in the eye of the law, are viewed inno- 
cent, until proved guilty. 

I sincerely regret that the multiplied bereavements of my 
friend. Judge White, has prevented me from his able aid in the 
Dept of War — ^all my influence was exerted but has failed — and 
I have appointed Governor Cass to fill that Dept. I trust my 
present Cabinet will harmonise — it must I cannot permit such 
scenes as Mr Mcmroe suffered in his. 

One word & I must close — you may rest assured that all 
the arts of Mr Calhoune & his satelites cannot coerce me to 
send ( ?) my old and well tried friends without cause, to gratify 
my enemies, and Tennessee was the last place in this union, that 
I expected a combination to injure me & promote the views of 
my most vindictive enemies — it is now clear that the vile at- 
tempt against Eaton was not to injure him, but me, through 
him. 

No objections were taken to others, which on the score of 
rumor as much had been said as against him, still when he has 
resigned, it is kept up to injure me, be it so, they have fell in 
the pitt they dug for Eaton & myself. Inghram is prostrate, 
whil^ Eaton lives in the heart of his country, & when his 
traducers are buried in forgetfulness, his name will be hailed 



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92 The American Historical Magazine. 

by the good & great as one of the best & most virtuous pa- 
triots of his day. 

1 shall expect to hear from you on receipt of this, & hope you 
will pardon the haste in which it has been written, and any im- 
perfections it may have and ascribe it to haste. Remember 
this is not for the public it is for you. 

Your friend, 

Andrbw Jackson. 
Genl. R. Dunlap. ^ 

P. S. — Preserve this, I keep no copy as it is to a friend. 

A. J. 

P. S. — It would have been a source of great consolation to 
me to have had Judge White in the Dept. of war, my whole in- 
fluence was used to effect this object, it failed from the situa- 
tion of his family. 

In Major Eaton I have had a faithful and confidential friend 
— had it not have been for the intrigues of Calhoun, & part of 
my Cabinet falling into his views, & aiding him in operating on 
the Senate to defeat my nominations, such as Hill &c, & pre- 
vent those national measures I had recommended from being 
acted upon, thereby to lessen my standing in the nation, I would 
have had a harmonious and successful administration. I will 
still have it. 

Who is it that are making the serious charges that I have 
discarded my old friends — ^who are they I have parted with. I 
would like to hear their names. It can not be possible that 
Calhoun is meant as one of my old friends. I thought him so, 
but his own declarations shews that he was lukewarm between 
Mr Adams & me — and his secrete attempts against me in the 
Executive Cabinet shews that altho he was my open professed 
friend, he was my secrete and deadly enemy. Was it meant any 



^t-_i t-_ 



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Dunlap-Jackson Correspondbnce. 93 

No country holds men of purer patriotism, or talents of 
higher order — particularly VanBuren & Barry, and Major 
Eaton is one of the best men with talents far above what his 
enemies, or many of hii friends would yield him. His talents are 
far above mediocrity — and I repeat, he is one of the best men 
on Earth, excelled by none in the purity of his morales. 

You have seen the disgraceful flight of Ingham. The Scrip- 
ture says, "The wicked flee, when no one pursueth." He is per- 
fectly prostrated in his own state — and the various reports in 
the several states will shew you, the standing of Major Eaton — 
his has increased, whilst Ingham has fallen, never to rise again 
— the fate of all slanderers. A. J. 

N. B. — You say if Mr Calhoun is a nuUifier, &c &c. I have 
positive proof of that fact, that he is & I have this day received 
a letter from a high source in So. Carolina, that he is secretely 
encouraging hostilities to the republic "which in their character 
are not less unnatural than destructive to the union of these 
states, it is high time to direct (says the writer) the attention of 
the chief magistrate to this novel and dangerous state of things." 
This is the conduct of the 2nd officer of this happy country, that 
he is endeavouring to plunge into a civil war, by his secrete 
admonitions & contrivance. If true, I will meet the crisis firmly. 
Mark me, I never state any thing not founded on proof. 

DUNLAP TO JAOKSON. 

Knoxvillb, Tennessee, August lo, 1831. 

Dbak Sir: Your letter of the i8th of July reached me on 
the eve of our elections — my engagements forbade me to take 
time to answer sooner. 

It now gives me pleasure to write in full and in so doing, I 
frankly confess that the kind feelings of your heart, so gener- 
ously & openly avowed for your friends, which are charac- 
teristic of the whole tenor of your life, merits and calls up all 
my admiration for such noble friendship. Yes, this display of 
inflexible kindness almost disarms my objections to the con- 
tinuance in office of the people alluded to — and were I to con- 
sult my own heart alone, and not your usefulness to my country, 



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94 Thb Ambrican H18TOUCAX Magazikb. 

I would not murmur longer, but cherish the indulgence of your 
fidelity to friends that holds them around you. 

I presume Major Eaton is a gentleman with a good heart 
and much better attainments and talent than his friends gener- 
ally award him. 

But publick opinion seemed to rise in judgment against his 
continuance in the War department, and this was the reason I 
supposed he retired by the consent of all parties. Major Eaton 
may not have merited the mvitation, nor shall I pretend he did — 
but as the ruler of a free people I believe it to be better for you 
to obey the publick voice and have men around you, who could 
and would not only discharge the several duties of the different 
departments but at the same time strengthen by their relation 
to the country, the h<^>es of every patriot. 

Fitness for responsible station, with capacity to act out all 
encumbent duties, are not the only requisites in popular gov- 
ernments — the publick must have confidence to ensure that 
support so essential to any administration. I wish Major Eaton 
all the joy and happiness that fall to the lot of any man. I am 
for my country and not against him. 

As for Major Lewis, I am well advised that his connection 
with you does and will affect you in Tennessee, whether it be 
true or false (for one I do not believe that he has the influence 
attributed to him) the consequences are the same in publick 
opinion, and it is due to your own fame, to your friends and 
country, to dispell the suspicions of the times. Mr. Lewis is too 
feeble a man to have this station before the American people, 
suppose his heart to be as pure as an Angel. His friendship 
for you none will doubt. His supposed influence in elections, all 
must, to say the least, doubt. This is the publick opinion that 
prevails that Major Lewis is your confidential friend & the 
fact that he lives with you, gives countenance to the charge that 
what he does is by your advice. You can readily, my dear sir, 
see the awful effect of such suspicions, no less than a desire on 
the part of the executive to control the elective franchise. No 
man in the nation, I am satisfied, would denounce and abhor 
such interference more than yourself. 

I will quit this unpleasant theme with the assurance that my 



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DUNLAP-JACKSON CORRSSPONDBNCB. 95 

confidence is not the least impaired in your unwavering pa- 
triotism, or in the final result of the publick usefulness of your 
administration. Yet, sir, these little matters have had their 
eflfect & I fear beat Mr Lea by a second Benedict. 

I thank you for submitting to me new evidence in your un- 
fortunate difficulty with Mr Calhoun, I say unfortunate, as it 
was so at least in point of time. Mr Rhea's letter will cer- 
tainly vindicate you as acting under the orders and wishes of the 
govcmmcnt in the Seminole campaigfn of 1818, to suppose any 
other was required than the force of your discretionary orders. 
When I joined your army in Florida & at the time I reported to 
you, after the usual civilities, you said to me, that you would 
furnish me with a copy of your orders — ^which would shew that 
you were justified in entering neutral territory in fresh pursuit 
of an enemy who obtained protection there, by the discretionary 
orders and wishes of your government — ^this was after the tak- 
ing Fort Gadden (?). I replied that I was satisfied to obey my 
Genl., believing that he knew his duty. You said : Yes, sir, 
but I want all my officers to be satisfied that what I have done 
in Florida was done by the directions of my government — you 
said the government wished you to take such a course as would 
bring the war to speedy termination, and that nothing less than 
wresting the Spanish forts from the Indians would enable you 
to do so, as the Indians were sheltered and protected by these 
forts. These are facts that I can not forget & none can doubt 
who shared the privations of that campaign, that the Indians 
did receive aid & succor from the Spanish forts. 

Yet, my dear sir, with all the justification that the enlightened 
judgment of your country has long since passed upon these 
transactions, I would not stir them any more, let them sleep. 

However desirable it was to explain any misunderstanding be- 
tween you and Mr Crawford and unite personal feeling with 
political principles, still you can not be a stranger to the fact 
that Mr Crawford loved none less than he did Mr Calhoun. 
He, in opening the facts of Mr Monroes Cabinet council to 



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96 Thb American Historical Magazinb. 

None can doubt but that the explosion of your cabinet, with 
the precursor, the correspondence with Mr Calhoun, will bring 
new & spirited adversaries in the field against you. How to 
meet them can be better ascertained by searching out the true 
cause which first agitated the harmony of your own household 
and friends. 

As I was a member of your suite in 1828 to celebrate the an- 
niversary of the victory of New Orleans, I have an opinion. 
While passing down the river, Major Lewis's mind seemed to 
be filled with suspicions about impending and projected injuries 
awaiting your fate. He was as usual busy and apparently kind 
to you. I believed either that he was alarmed at the phantoms 
of his own fancy of that he desired to ing^tiate himself deep 
in your favor, by his officious acts toward your election. 

Major Hamilton mentioned to me after we left Natchez that 
he designed to return to New York through the Southern 
states — that he wished to visit that country & at the same time, 
believed that he could conciliate Mr Crawford toward Genl 
Jackson, which would have a very happy effect on the Craw- 
ford party and partictdarly in New York. I replied, that how- 
ever desirable it was to explain personal misunderstandings and 
unite personal feelings with political predilections, that I en- 
tertained a better opinion of the Crawford party than to think 
that they could be turned by a nod or smile from their leader — 
that they were pledged by principle and political consistency to 
unite against the latitudinous doctrines avowed by Mr. Adams 
in his first message to the Congress of the United States. 

He seemed to acquiesce in the propriety of my remarks but 
said that leaders of parties always had influence with them. He 
then stated that it was believed that Genl Jackson was to be as- 
sailed either by Mr Adams or Mr Monroe in relation to the af- 
fairs of the Seminole war in Florida, and that some of the Genl's 



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DuNLAP-JaCKSON CORRKSPONDRNCfi. 97 

son's conduct in Florida — that I believed he viewed it as the 
nation did, as one of the happiest incidents in his life. 

And as for Mr Monroe, I said, "my dear sir, can any one be so 
reckless of his own fame as to sully one of the brightest acts of 
his administration, for such Mr Monroe believed Genl. Jack- 
son's conduct in Florida, with its consequences to be the ces- 
sion of that country by Spain. Mr Hamilton remarked, as 
strange as it may seem, there was no calculation to be made 
about high party conflicts & then intimated a doubt of Mr. Cal- 
houn's fidelity to you. I remarked that I cared not whether Mr 
Calhoun hates or loves Genl Jackson, if he would only act for 
his country, as I believed he and his friends were doing & thai 
I hoped never to see the day when the support or opposition to 
any man or administration would be based on personal feelings, 
that the principles of our government placed the political action 
of our people on higher grounds. To speak candidly, I felt a 
contempt which I had tried to suppress for several days for the 
conduct of some of your suite, whom I believed, were feeding 
your fears and passions with a view exclusively to fasten them- 
selves on your kindness. 

I immediately informed Col Martin and Genl Smith, two of 
your suite, of my contempt for the servility and sycophancy of 
part of your suite & that I intended to quit the company. Genl 
Smith, Col Martin & myself agreed to take separate lodgings in 
the city but to appear with you in public. 

Governor Houston heard of this determination, so did Doctor 
Shelby and by this argument prevailed on us to remain, to pre- 
vent the rumor that your suite had quarrelled. I told Doctor 
Shelby that I was annoyed at the meddling of such busy little 
men, who deserved not the rank of your advisers & who were 
doing more harm than good, even on the supposition that their 
motives were good. Mr. Calhoun's fidelity to you was alluded 
to before we left Nashville as being questionable and after what 
subsequently happened, Mr Calhoun refusing to associate his 
family with Major Eaton's, it was easy to discover the means 
in Mr E. power to annoy him, suppose Mr Crawford's evidence 
was desired for other objects in the first place; & this was, I 
believe, the clue to the whole difficulty in your cabinet & with 
7 



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98 The American Historical Magazine. 

Mr Calhoun, without stopping to justify Mr Calhoun's motives 
to you in the Cabinet council. 

You say you have evidence that Mr Calhoun is a nuUifier — 
be it so — I suppose he is, if the report of the conduct of the 
South Carolina legislature be correct in relation to this sub- 
ject. Yet would it not be better to leave this to the nation 
than for you or your friends to interfere, not with the question, 
but with the advocates. You had & the country had & I hope 
now has some of the best friends misled by an honest zeal on 
this subject & would it not be better to win them back by hon- 
orable means than to press them to the wall. It is conjectured 
that an attempt will be made in our legislature to affect Mr Cal- 
houn in your nomination. I shall deem this not only arrogant 
but malignant in Tennessee, should it succeed, still I believe it 
can not. We should let other states make the Vice-President 
and be Avilling to act in harmony with the great body of the Re- 
publican party. 

Virginia and East Tennessee held a convention at Abingdon 
on the 25th instant on the subject of connecting the waters of 
the James River with the Holston by railroads ; I expect to at- 
tend. This work is expected to be done by Chartered Com- 
panies in which the States may take stock — and this is the only 
mode to check the growing rage for internal improvements by 
the Federal power. The people are awake to the high utility of 
such improvements and will act, either through the State or the 
National government. 

You will please pardon the carelessness and haste with which 
I write, as well as the freedom of my opinions. 

I am very respectfully, 

your friend, 

R. G. DUNLAP. 

Andrew Jackson, Prest U States, Washington City. 

JACKSON TO DUNLAP. 

(Address). General R. G. Dunlap, Knoxville, Tenn. 

(Letter). Washington, August 29^ 1831. 

Dear Sir : Your letter of the loth instant is just reed., and 
perceiving that you are in error, as I presume for the want of 



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DUFLAP-jACKSON CORRBSPONDBNCE. 99 

correct information on two points, I am induced, notwithstand- 
ing the press of business with which I am surroimded, to give 
you a reply. I thank you for the expression of your "admiration 
for such noble friendship" as you are pleased to assert has char- 
acterised my conduct towards my friends. But when you accord 
to me the justice of preserving "fidelity to friends," and applaud 
me for it, I must confess that I am somewhat surprised, on the 
expression of the intimation that I should attempt to "dispell 
the suspicions of the times" by driving from me individuals who 
have been sincere in their friendship for me, and by whom, I 
have never been deceived. I however, indulge in the hope, that 
when correctly advised of facts, your opinions and consequently 
your wishes on this subject, will be changed. The connection 
which exists between Major Lewis & myself, when truly under- 
stood, can do no injury with true friends, and you are sufficiently 
acquainted with my character to know that I am always re- 
gardless of my enemies. 

Every term of the Presidency, there are $14,000 appropriated 
by Congress for the renewal, and repairs of furniture for the 
Presidents House. An honest and faithful agent is necessary to 
disburse this money, and having full confidence in Major Lewis, 
I have constituted him this agent. If I had not him, to whom 
else could I entrust it? My son is too young, and, if he were 
not, it would be improper that he or any of my connections, 
should have the agency. Major Lewis, I know to be honest, 
faithful and true to me, and therefore it is, myenemis abuse him, 
and complain that I have him near me. Why were these com- 
plaints not made before I left the Hermitage, where he was for 
fifteen or twenty years an intimate in my house, had at pleasure 
the perusal of my papers, and enjoyed my full confidence? And 
shall I now, after the efficient services he has rendered, drive 
him from me because his enemies slander, and abuse him? It 
would be but a short time, if I was to persue this course, before 
I should have to seperate myself from all my friends? It is 
then, my dear sir, not the best evidence of friendship which can 
be given, to insist on the adoption of such a course. 

I have been, for sometime aware of the fact, that Ingham, 
Berrien, Branch, Duff Green & Co. — the agents of Calhoun — 



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loo Thk American Historical Magazinb. 

have been secretly at work with their note books &c &c, to 
prejudice Major Lewis in the estimation of the public, and my 
friends. I had supposed that my true friends would, be on 
their guard, and not adopt the sentiments & slang of these men, 
without giving some attention to the facts that stand opposed 
to all their operations ; and it pains me to learn that the conduct 
of some, who have long professed to cherish the strongest at- 
tachment for 4ne, shews that they have too willingly imbibed the 
opinions of my enemis. You correctly suppose that there is "no 
man" in this union would sooner denounce any interference, on 
the part of the Executive, with state elections, than myself; but in- 
justice is done to truth, when it is supposed that I, by the con- 
duct of Major Lewis, have evinced the least desire to control the 
elections. Major Lewis has positively denied any interference 
with state elections, since he has been here, and in the absence 
of proof to support the allegations against him, would it not be 
unjust, ungrateful in me to determine him guilty? If any proof 
exists against him, the rancour with which the feelings of his 
enemies have been characterised, induces the positive conclusion 
that they would long since have adduced it. I have too long 
felt the injustice done by the slander of enemies to give a be- 
lieving ear to the mere assertions of the enemies of any individual. 
I confidently believe that the suspicions, which you say exist 
as to Major Lewis interfering in elections, are as groundless as 
Calhouns plots against VanBuren (of which VanBuren is as 
innocent as a babe) and are entirely imaginary. But I will close 
this subject with the remark that if I am to drive away and dis- 
card my friends without cause, to obtain popularity, I will not 
have it on such terms, and would despise myself if I thought, or 
even suspected, that I was capable of purchasing it by such dis- 
honorable means. But I must ask, where is the patriot, that I 
have near, or around me, who is not made the target for the 
vilest slander and detraction? and when that upright man and 
incorruptible patriot — H. L. White — has been made the subject 



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DUNLAP-jACKSON CORRBSPONDBNCB. lOI 

not only be unjust, as I have before intimated, but a dangerous 
system to abandon friends, without sufficient cause, merely be- 
cause they become the object of abuse by our enemies. 

The other point which I propose noticing has reference to the 
relations which existed between Mr Calhoun, Mr Crawford and 
myself, and some suspicions which you inform me, you enter- 
tained in respect to "the conduct of (my) suite" to New Orleans 
in 1828. Every who has known me, knows full well the high 
regard I once entertained for Mr Calhoun. Mr Crawford was 
my political enemy, and Mr Calhoun and he, at the time of the 
Seminole campaign, and long after the decision of the subject 
which grew out of it, were bosom friends, and so remained up 
to 1821 or 1822. 

I had frequent, full, and free conversations with Mr Cal- 
houn on the subject of the Seminole campaign, and denounced 
Mr Crawford for the course which I understood he was pur- 
suing against me in the Cabinet. Ought not Mr Calhoun to 
have frankly told me, that he was not, as I supposed him, my 
advocate in the secrete cabinet council, and that I did injustice 
to his friend, Mr Crawford, in respect to his conduct, on that 
occasion ? It does seem to me that an high minded and honorable 
man would have done so. 

Mr Calhoun at all times and on all occasions, so far as I was 
then advised, professed to be my uniform and stedfast friend, 
and throughout the canvass for President, was regarded as my 
undeviating friend, and not until he shew to the contrary, in 
his correspondence with me, which he choose to publish, was the 
sincerety of his professions ever Questioned by me, nor did I even 
suspect that any of my friends indulged in the slightest suspicion 
that he was not sincerely the warm and decided advocate of my 
election. I am perfectly confident that Major Lewis never did 
hold the least suspicion of Mr Calhouns duplicity to me, until 
late in 1829. You say "none can doubt but that the explosion 
of my Cabinet with its precursor, the correspondence with Mr 
Calhoun, will bring new and spirited adversaries in the field 
against" me; and that '*how to meet them can be better ascer- 
tained by searching out the true cause which first agitated the 
harmony," &c &c. I have the pleasure to inform you, on this 



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I02 The American Historical Magazine. 

subject, that the task you recommend has already been per- 
formed, and you will find the result of my labours in the re- 
organization of my Cabinet proper. I am now relieved from 
an intercourse with Ingham, Branch & Berrien, who have shown 
that they were unworthy of the confidence reposed in them, and 
regarded the interest of a certain aspirant to the Presidency more 
than they consulted the harmony of my Cabinet, and the conse- 
quent prosperity of my administration, and the country. By the 
change I have secured the service of those who are competent 
and true, and it affords me pleasure to learn that my fellow citi- 
zens approbate the course which their best interests imperiously 
demanded at my hands. You remark that "while passing down 
the river (Mississippi) Major Lewis' mind seemed to be filled 
with suspicions about impending and projected injuries awaiting 
(my) fate" and "that he was as usual busy and apparently kind 
to" me, and that you "believed either that he was alarmed at 
phantoms of his own fancy, or that he desired to ingratiate him- 
self deep in (my) favor by his officious airs towards (my) elec- 
tion." I must confess that I am not a little surprised to find 
that you thus "believed" & am willing to suppose that, if you 
had been aware of the character of the intercourse with Major 
Lewis, and the then attending circumstances, that you would 
not have been the subject of such suspicions I would suppose 
from the tenor of your letter that you have forgotten the nature 
of the correspondence between Mr Monroe and my friend Judge 
White in respect to a speech delivered by the latter in reply to 
a toast in honor of me, given, by a company, on the 8th of 
January 1827 in this city. If you did not then I now inform you 
that this correspondence was commenced by Mr Monroe, and 
that he and Southard had threatened to write a Book. It was 
charged, or rather asserted, that the controversey growing out 
of the Seminole war was again to be agitated, that my violation 
of the constitution & my orders was plainly to be shewn, and 
indeed, that I had deserted my post, left the army, and was re- 
turning home, and would not have saved New Orleans, but that 
Mr Monroe had met me with a peremptory order to return. It 
was this threatened attack, not by Mr Adams, but by Mr Monroe 
to Judge White, and by Mr Southard through the public journals, 
which Major Lewis & Col Hamilton, I suppose, were preparing 
to meet. 



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Duni^p-Jackson Correspondence. 103 

to obtain all the facts necessary to my defence — he was one of 
my most efficient friends in collecting information and preparing 
documents for the Nashville committee in my defence. 

Now my dear sir, as light as you have made of this matter, 
Mr Monroe did intend to write (as Mr Calhoun has done) a 
Book. If the impression could have been made that Mr Monroe, 
in order to save New Orleans, had to order me to retrace my 
steps after I had started home &c &c, it would have added greatly 
to his reputation. Notwithstanding Mr Monroe knew that Mr 
Rhea' letter to me was burned, he perceived from my letter to 
Mr Southard that I was prepared at every point, and therefore 
the project of the Book was abandoned. You seem to have for- 
gotten that Mr Monroe had charged me with transcending my 
orders — we were at issue on this point, notwithstanding he ap- 
proved my conduct, as he professed, on a knowledge of the cir- 
cumstances which attended it. 

You say that Mr Calhouns fidelity to (me) was alluded to 
before we left Nashville as being "questionable." This is new 
to me, and I have said enough already to satisfy you on this 
subject, and will only add that, as early as 1824:25, I was in- 
formed on high authority that it was Mr Calhoun and not Craw- 
ford who had moved my arrest. Because of the circumstances 
to which I have alluded in connection with others not necessary 
to mention, I did not, nay could not, give credence to the infor- 
mation unless I had come to the conclusion that he was one of 
the most depraved — I could not believe that any man, possessing 
the standing he then held in society, could be so depraved as to 
practice such duplicity. Aside from his repeated assurances of 
friendship, I knew that he had not only issued my orders; but 
had so explained them himself as could leave no doubt of my 
correct interpretation of them, and, therefore, could not suppose 
that he would secretely attempt to destroy me for acting in 
obedience to my orders, and accomplishing the wishes of Mr 
Monroe and himself as confidentially expressed to me thro' Mr 
Rhea. I regard the sentiments contained in Mr. Rhea's letter as 
expressive of Mr Calhoun's wishes as well as those of Mr Mon- 
roe, because, Mr C, as I believe, was well advised in re- 
spect to the confidential letter which Mr Rhea wrote me under 
the directions of Mr Monroe. I am truly astonished at the con- 
tempt you now express for "the conduct of several of my suite" 
on my tour to New Orleans — according to my recollection, I had 
but Major Lewis and Mr Earle, who w^ere especially invited to 
take charge of my family, — circumstance which would, in my 
opinion, have rendered any "officious airs towards (my) election" 
by Major Lewis, unnecessary, in order "to ingratiate himself," 



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I04 Thb American Historical Magazine 

if, he had wished it "in my favor;" Governor Houston & staff 
(consisting of yourself, Genl Smith, & Col Martin, as I under- 
stood) Judge Overton, Doctor Shelby & Major Donelson. I 
am sure that I perceived nothing to which I should take ex- 
ceptions in the conduct of any of my "suite," or Col Hamilton, 
who was not one of it but acted in a higher sphere, being one 
of the representatives chosen by the Republicans of New York, 
to meet, and congratulate me on the plains of New Orleans on 
the 8th of January. I discovered no attempt on the part of any 
of my suite, or Col Hamilton, to obtrude upon me. With them 
or Col Hamilton I had but little or no conversation on the subject 
of politics from the time we embarked untill we returned — I have 
no recollection of having had any conversation on the subject 
of Mr Monroes Book during the trip, nor at any time on that 
subject with Col Hamilton — he was for the first time introduced 
to me at the Hermitage a few days before we set out, and I had 
no secrete conversation with him on any subject, and I assure 
you that the matters you now detail, were unknown to me. 
Neither of these gentlemen attempted to arouse my fears on the 
subject of my election, either then or at any other time and you 
judge very incorrectly of me, if you suppose that my fears can 
be aroused on any occasion & particularly on the subject of the 
Presidency, for you, as well as all my friends know, that I am 
here, not by my own wishes, but the will and wishes of the people 
— The Hermitage is my choice. I am, however, at all times pre- 
pared to defend myself or friends when unjustly assailed — ^and 
I assure you that you have done great injustice to my suit on 
that occasion in ascribing to them the acts & motives which you 
have. I have written in my usual frankness and hope that the 
facts developed will convince you of your error. I have not time 
to notice the other parts of your letter. I thank you for the 
assurance "that your confidence is not in the least impaired in 
mv unwavering patriotism or the final result of the public useful- 
ness of my administration" and beg you to accept my best wishes 
for your health and happiness. Andrew Jackson. 

Genl R. G. Dunlap. 

P. S. — It seems strange that my friends in Tennessee should 



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William Robertson Garrett, A.M., Ph.D. 
Founder of Uie American Historical Magazine. 



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The American Historical Magazine. 

Vol. IX. APRIL, 1904. No. 2. 



WILLIAM ROBERTSON GARRETT, A.M., PH.D. 
Founder of the American Historical Magasine. 



BY ALBERT V. GOODPASTURE. 



The sudden death of Captain W. R. Garrett, on the afternoon 
of February 12, 1904, removes a prominent figfure from the 
literary and educational work of the South. At the time of his 
death he was in the midst of his most important historical work, 
a history of the Civil War from a Southern standpoint. He 
had peculiar qualifications for the work, which his broad mind, 
sound judgment and discriminating research could not have 
failed to illuminate. He had also undertaken to edit an important 
biographical work. His death at this time is a distinctive loss 
to the South, and to the whcJe country. 

He was a typical Virginia gentleman of the old school. Bom 
in a colonial mansion that had been the home of his family for 
three generaticms, in the ancient capital of the Old Dominion; 
and reared in the classic precincts of its first college, he inherited 
the open hospitality, the loyal friendship, the punctilious honor, 
and the generous courage that have distinguished the first fami- 
lies of Virginia. He was the son of Robert Major and Susan 
Comfort (Winder) Garrett, and was bom in Williamsburg, the 
oldest incorporated town in Virginia, April 12, 1839. His father 
was mayor of Williamsburg, and superintendent of the Virginia 
Eastern Hospital On his mother's side he was descended from 
Governor George Yeardley, the father of representative govem- 
ment in America. 

After a preparatory course in the Williamsburg Military 
Academy, at the age of fifteen he entered. William and Mary 
Cbn^e, the oldest college, next to Harvard, in the United States. 
He was a member of the Phi Beta Kappa fraternity, and gradu- 
ated from the coll^fe with the d^^ee of A.M. in 1858. In 1891 



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io6 The American Historical Magazine 

the honorary <iegree of Ph.D. vras oonferred on hfan by the Uni- 
versity of Nashville. The traditions surrounding old William 
and Mary were of the richest and mo«t inspiring. It wa§ iounded 
in 1793, and stood but a few yards from the old Raleigh tavern, 
where Patrick Henry delivered his famous philippic against 
George III. It numbered Washington among its Chancdlors, 
and among its graduates Jefferson, Monroe, Tyler, and John 
Marshall. In colonial times it presented a copy of Latin verses 
to the governor every "sennight," and took an interest in all 
affairs of church and State. This curious letter to Governor 
Dunmore has been preserved : 

We, his majesty's dutiful and lawful subjects, the Pjieaident 
and Professors of William and Mary College, moved by an im- 
pulse of unqualified joy, cannot help congratulating your Excel- 
lency on such a series of agreeable events as the success of your 
enterprise against the Indians, the addition to your famijiy by 
tht birth of a daughter, and your safe as well as glorious return 
to the capital of tlus Dominion. 

After completing his course at William and Mary College, 
Captain Garrett studied law in the University of Virginia, and 
entered upon the practice at Williamsburg. He had not been 
at the bar long when die Civil War l)roke out in i86i. He was 
then a handsome young man, full of spirit, proud of his State, 
and eager to defend it. He volunteered as a private in tJie Th5fty- 
second Regiment, commanded by his old preceptor, Benjamin 
S. Ewell, in April, 1861. He was soon elected captain oi an 
artillery company raised in Williamsburg, which was mustered 
into the service as Company F, First Virginia R^ment of Ar- 
tillery. He commanded this company throughout the campaign 
of the peninsula of Virginia, in which he received the commenda- 
tion of both General Longstreet and General Stuart. 

Being a superb horseman lie had a strong preference for 
cavalry service, and the term of his enlistment having expired. 



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William Robertson Garrbtt, A.M., Ph.D. 107 

no difSculty in raiskig a battation of partisan rangers, aMiough 
within the Federal Unes. Of this battalion Major Dooglass was 
adonel and Captain Garrett adjtitant. After the repeal of the 
partisan ranger law, they were mustered into the regular cavalry, 
and consolidated with Holman's battalion, forming the Eleventh 
Tennessee R^fiment of Cavalry. The Eleventh Tennessee Cav- 
alry served under General Forrest until his removal to Missis- 
sippi, and tiien under General Wheeler. It was selected by Gen- 
eral J<dinson as provost guard of his army, and continued in 
that duty until Hood's retreat from Tennessee, when it was again 
ordered to report to General Forrest. It remained with General 
Forrest until the dose of the war, surrenderingf witii him at 
Gainesville, Ala. Captain Garrett was with the Eleventh Cavalry 
during the whole of its career, first as adjutant, and subsequently 
as captain of Company B. Colonel D. W. Holman, in his sketch 
of the Eleventh Tennessee Cavalry* pays the following tribute 
to Captain Garrett : 

The prc^notion of Captain Garrett to the captaincy of this com- 
pany was most richly deserved and truly won, and was but a 
feeble recognition of his merits as a soldier and a man. A native 
erf Vii^nia, he served with distinction the first twelve months of 
the war as captain of artillery in the Army of Virginia. In their 
officidl reports of the battle near Williamsburg, Va., May 5, 1862, 
both Generals Lcxigstreet and Stuart allude, in terms of com- 
mendation, to his efficiency as an officer. Referring to him and 
his battery of four guns. General J. E. B. Stuart, in his report, 
says : **I will here pay a merited tribute to the excellence of the 
execution done by them, commanded by Captain W. Robertson 
Garrett, who, notwithstanding* the haibtorm of bullets and tdielk, 
kept up an accurate and incessant fire upon the enemy's battery 
until it was silenced, and then upon- his, Une after the brigade erf 
infantry in the woods on the right had driven the enemy to the 
edge of the woods near the Telegraph road. . . . The artillery 
thus gave most essential aid to our infantry in their advance of 
triumph over every position the enemy took, until he was entirely 
routed.^' A gentleman of ability, culture, and intelligence, al- 
ways loyal to principle, brave in action and faithful m the dis- 
charge of duty, his services to the regiment had been invaluable, 
and won for him the unbounded confidence and esteem not only 
of the regiment but of all who knew him. 



* Lhidsley 'ft MUltary AaaaU of TeaneMce. 



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After the war Captain Garrett returned to Williamsburg with 
the imrpose of resuming the practice of the law. But his old 
commander, Colonel Ewell, then president of William and Mary 
Collie, oifered him the position of master of the grammar school 
of the college, which he accepted and held until January, 1868, 
when he removed to Giles County, Tennessee. By this circum- 
stance his career was diverted from the law, in which he would 
undoubtedly have succeeded, and directed towards education, in 
which he became eminent. November 12, 1868, he married Julia 
Floumoy Batte, daughter of Doctor William Batte, of .Pulaski. 
Tenn., and made that place his permanent home. From 1868 to 
1873 he was president of Giles College, and principal of Comers- 
vilk Academy, the latter being the institution in which another 
distinguished educator and author, Doctor John W Burgess, of 
Columbia University, New York, received his earliest training. 
In 1873 he was dected Superintendent of Schools of Giks 
County, and held the office for two years. He organized the 
public schools of the county under the law of 1873. Prior to 
that time the county had been under a system of private schools. 
The public schools were substituted for the private schools almost 
without a jar. This substitution supplied the public schools with 
seventy-one schoolhouses, and left but two private schools in the 
county.* 

In the meantime he was rapidly gaining prominence in school 
circles. He identified himself with the Tennessee State Teachers' 
Association in 1870, and was afterwards its president. This as- 
sociation was the earliest and most efficient mover in the matter 
of public education in Tennessee. He also became president of 
the Tennessee Public School Officers' Association, and was the 
first secretary of the Inter-State Teachers' Association. In 1873, 
the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, through the co- 
operation of the State Teachers' Association, and with funds sup- 
plied by the agent of the Peabody Fund, organized Teachers' 
Institutes, for the better instruction of teachers in the theory and 



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William Robbrtson Garrxtt, A.M., Ph.D. 109 

with the institute work in the State until two years ago, when 
the University of Nashville began holding summer sessions which 
fully occupied his time. 

In 1875 the Normal University (Peabody College for Teach- 
ers) was established at Nashville, by an arrangement between the 
State, the agent of the Peabody Fund, and the trustees of the 
University of Nashville, under which Montgomery Bell Academy 
was to be continued in operation, and maintained as a model 
school to the Normal University. A corps of professors were 
appointed, which included Captain Garrett* who became associate 
principal and professor of mathematics in Montgomery Bell 
Academy, and moved his family to Nashville. In 1887 he or- 
ganized the Watkins Night School, an institution founded upon 
the bequest of Samuel Watkins to the State, of a fund valued at 
$200,000, for the benefit of laboring men, and continued as its 
principal until his death. His administration of the school was 
eminently successful, and the results acccwnplished have been 
far-reaching. 

Captain Garrett was also a prominent figure in the National 
Educational Association, acting repeatedly as vice president and 
manager for Tennessee. When the association was called to 
meet at Nashville in 1890, he was president of the local executive 
ccxnmittee organized to prepare for thdr reception. At the Nash- 
ville meeting he was elected president of the association, and 
presided at their international meeting in Toronto, Canada, in 
1891. 

When John P. Buchanan was elected governor of Tennessee 
in 1 89 1, Captain Garrett's eminent success as an educator, and 
wide prominence in the school affairs of the State and nation 
clearly marked him as a suitable man to hold the office of State 
Superintendent of Public Instruction. Still, in his modest, self- 
unconsciousness, it had not occurred to him. When a friend 
asked him how he would like the position, he replied that he had 
never thought of it. His friend assured him if he would make 
application to the governor he could have the place. He did so 
and was promptly appointed. When he called on the governor 
to thank him for an honor he thought he had so little reason to 



* Report of State Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1875, pp. 36-7. 



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expect, he was renuiuled qf the foUowing characteristic tnddent: 
''Do yoa remember/' said the governor, naming a certain ti«e 
and place, "when a boisterous party of soldiers were amusing 
themselves at the rough sport of tossing their victim in the 
blanket, a green, awkward^ country boy, goaded almost to 
desperation was standing with his back to a tree, defying his 
tormentors? You happened to pass at the time, and took the 
young volunteer tmder your protecti(Mi dispersing his persecutors 
with threats of the guardhouse. I was that boy, and have al- 
ways sought an opportunity to repay your kindness." 

His administration of the Department of Public Instruction 
was thorough, systematic, energetic and progressive. It was 
largely through his instrumentality that the act of 1891, provid- 
ing for secondary schools in the puUic school S3rstem of the 
State, was passed. His two reports to the governor are ex- 
haustive, and are of ttnusual interest and value. In the first 
(1891) he g^ves a carefully prepared history of early education 
in Tennessee. At the conclusion of his term, he organiased Gar- 
rett Military Academy, of which he was principal until his ap- 
pointntent to the Chair of American History in Peabody Normal 
College in 1875. He held this position at the time of his death, 
having been Dean of the Faculty since 1899. 

The act of the legislature establishing the Chair of American 
History in Peabody Normal College, provided that a part oi 
the fund a{^ropriated should be devoted "to historical pufaiicar 
tions." Under this provision Captain Garrett established and 
edited The American Historical Magazine, tiie first number 
of which appeared January i, 1896. He took great pride in, its 
publication, and had a strong convicticm of its historical im- 
portance. When, in January, 1902, the college decided to discon- 
tinue it, he manifested great anxiety that its publicaticm should 
not be abandoned ; and it was through his intervention and active 
interest that it was finally turned over to A. V. and W. H. Good- 
pasture, and made the quarterly of the Tennessee Hbtorical 
Society. 

He was a member of the Tennessee Historical Society, the 



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WlUJAM R06BRT30N GarRBTT, A.M., Pb.D. I SI 

CoBunittte on History of the United Confederate Veterans. He 
waa also president of the Tennessee Division of the United Con- 
federate Veterans^ and one of the Trustees of the Confederate 
Memorial Association. 

When the Spanish-American war came on in i898» his old 
milkajy ardor was again aroused. He raised a volunteer regi- 
ment of cavalry and tendered their services to die President He 
was so hopeful of being accepted that it was arrai^ed that the 
writer should occupy his chair in the college while he was in the 
field. But the government, finding it could not utilize more 
cavalry, declined his services. 

All the historical work Captain Garrett did was thorough and 
accurate. He was painstaking with the most unimportant fact 
to be set down as history. He verified every statement before 
it was passed to the printer to be made permanent. He had a 
wonderful capacity for work, and turned it off rapidly when 
his other engagements or his social duties did not interrupt him. 
He never let business interfere with the demands of hospitality 
or friendship. When a guest entered his door, no matter hew 
pressif^ the work in hand, it was laid aside. His opinion may 
have been wanted on a manuscript — at one time he read an 
American epic, at another a history of the Qvil War, then tales 
from Tennessee history, and again an historical romance; or it 
may have been for an endorsement or recommendation, scores 
of which he prepared for his former pupils ; but whatever it was 
it received his cheerful attention, without a hint — I might almost 
say a thought — of pressing work or fleeting time. Then he 
would resume his task with redoubled diligence until the small 
hours of the morning to make up his lost time. 

Since his death many of his old comrades have paid touching 
tributes to his memory. General Stephen D. Lee, commander in 
chief of the United Confederate Veterans, writes : * "Truly our 
greatest and best are falling rapidly. Gordon just the other day ; 
now the modest, true-hearted, hard-working> k>yai, conservative 
Garrett has followed him. I leaned on my friend in all historical 
matters^ and felt what he wrote I could sign without hesitation." 
Colonel A. G. Dickinson, a native of Williamsburg, whom Captain 



^Confederate Veteran, 



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112 Thb Ambrican Historical Magazinb. 

Garrett loved very dearly, says : * "I regarded Cclonel Garrett 
as one of the purest men I ever knew. I felt at all times perfect 
confidence not only in his honesty and integrity but in his desire 
to do at all times what was right and just. I sincerely grieve at 
the sad loss we all have sustained who 'knew him but to love 
him.' He was a good man and an honor to his race Manly, 
dignified, and noble, but gentle and modest as a woman." 

Captain Garrett was one of the editors of The Southwestern 
Journal of Education from 1886 to 1891, and editor of The 
American Historical Magazine from 1896 to 1902. Among 
his published writings are : 

Complimentary Squares. By W. R. Garrett. Nashville, 
Tenn. 1883. 

History of the South Carolina Cession, and the Northern 
Boundary of Tennessee. By W. R. Garrett, A.M. Nashville, 
Tenn. 1884. 

Education in the South. By Honorable W. R. Garrett. Ad- 
dress in Proceedings of the Department of Superintendence of 
the National Educational Association, at its meeting in Washing- 
ton, March 6-8, 1889. Pp. 280-296. 

Annual Report of the State Superintendent of Public In- 
struction for Tennessee, for the Scholastic Year Ending June 
30, 1891. W. R. Garrett, State Superintendent. Nashville, 
Tenn. 1892. 

Public School Laws of Tennessee, together with leading 
decisions of the Supreme Court, and explanatory notes. Com- 
piled by W. R. Garrett, State Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion. Nashville, Tenn. 1892. 

Annual Report of the State Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion for Tennessee, for the scholastic year ending June 30, 1893. 
W. R. Garrett, State Superintendent. Nashville, TemL 1893. 

The South as a Factor in the Territorial Expansion of tfie 
United States. By William Robertson Garrett, A.M., Ph.D. 
Captain of First Virginia R^fiment Artillery — subsequently in 
Forrest Cavalry — Professor of American History. Peabody 
Normal College, Nashville, Tenn. In "Confederate Militany 
History," edited by C. A. Evans (12 vols.) Vol. I, pp. 59-246. 

Geography of Teraiessee. By W. R. Garrett, A. M., Ph.D. 
Supplement to Frye's Geography. 1896. 



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Annals of a Scotch Irish Family. 113 



ANNALS OF A SCOTCH-IRISH FAMILY: THE WHIT- 
SITTS OF NASHVILLE, TENN. 



BY WILLIAM H. WHITSITT, RICHMOND COLLEGE, RICHMOND, VA. 



^'quis enim generosum dizerit huiic,qui indignus genere et praeclaro 
nomine tantum insifirnis ? ^^ --Juvenal VI IL 30-32. 

IV. 

Henry County Period. — It will be remembered that on quitting 
Amherst Benjamin Menees had settled on Turkey Cock Creek, 
in Pittsylvania, where, on the 20th of July, 1779, he had pur- 
chased five hundred acres from John Stockton for £700. When 
James Menees, Sn, sold out on the 13th of February, 1782, he 
followed his youngest son to Pittsylvania, where a deed of gift 
made by him on the 4th of April, 1783, describes him as being 
"of the County of Pitselvania." Another deed of gift recorded 
in Henry County, November 12, 1783, describes him as still a 
resident of Pittsylvania. 

When William Whitsitt sold out his property at Amherst on 
the 1st of October, 1781, he passed by Pittsylvania and sought a 
home in Henry County, where he purchased from Colonel Abra- 
ham Penn and his wife Ruth thirteen hundred and fifty acres 
near the present town of Martinsville, on the ist of April, 1782, 
for £500. Colonel Penn was a direct descendant of William 
Penn's, and a devoted member of the Quaker community. Never- 
theless, he was active in maintaining the patriot cause, and served 
as County-Lieutenant of Henry during the Revolutionary War. 
Quakers were often numerously represented in the centers of 
Virginia life at this period, and they appear to have been qUite 
influential at Martinsville. Colonel Penn had nine sons and one 
daughter, and some of the most honorable families of the Com- 
monwealth arc derived from him. 

James Menees, Jr., was present at the battle of Guilford Court 
House on the 15th of March, 1781, and it is likely that he was 
still detained with his command throughout that year, but when 



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114 "^^^ AliXRlCUl^ HlSTOXICAL Magazinb. 

he disposed of his Amherst property on the 5th of August, 1782, 
he is described in both the deeds as "James Menees of Henry 
County." It is supposed that after the surrender of Comwallis 
at Yorktown, the hopes of returning peace became so definite 
that some of the soldiers were permitted to returns to their fami* 
lies. Possibly he may have removed with his brother-in-law, 
Whatsitt, from Amherst to Henry in the springy ol 17&2 wi^ the 
fixed intention of becoming a citizen of that county. But that 
purpose was not fulfilled. He remained in Henry, perhaps, dur- 
ing the summer of 1782, but when the crops had been gathered 
in the autumn of that year he appears to have joined a company 
that was bound for the newly opened Cumberland Country, and 
was so mudt pleased with the prospects in Tennessee that he 
soon decided to make it his home, and returned to Vk-^^iia for 
the piUTX)se of carrying his family to the Western country. He 
was present at Amherst on the 7th of August, 1783, where he 
gave a power of attorney to John McDaaiel, in which he de* 
scribes himself as "Jaines Menees of Nashburrough on Cumber- 
land River.** 

The removal of his immediate family from Henry County to 
Tennessee is believed to have occurred in the autumn of 1783. 
The departure of their natural leader must have produced a 
marked impression upon those members of the Menees connec- 
tion who remained behind. James Menees, Sr., tiie father ot 
the family, was now far advanced in years, and could not think 
of undertaking such a long and perilous journey ; but Benjamin 
Menees, the younger brother, was eager to depart On the i6th 
of August, 1784^ he sold his farm on Turkey Cock Creek to 
EU^a Walker for i350, just half the amount he had paid for it 
in July, 1779, and bade farewell ta Virginia. The Whitsitts, 
however, kept their place in Henry County until October, 1790^. 
when they also turned their faces towards the setting sun. 

The Breathitt Family.— Tht first marriage took place in the 
Whitsitt family during the year 1783, when Elizabeth (Dawson), 



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Anhaxs of a ScaTCArlRisH Pamii;y. 115 

Miss Raiine3r, and she appears to have calfed one of her own 
chddrcD in honor of that name. Her son, John Breathitt, in his 
tten did likewise. About the year 1740 John Breathitt married 
Mias Jane Kelky, a daughter of William Kdley, a well-to-do 
Scotch-Irishman, and perhaps also a Presbyterian, who resided 
near Hagerstowni, Md. This couple had twelve dnldren, of 
wiiom eight were boys and four were girls. The nam» of the 
sons were : William (apparently called in honor of his grand- 
iblher, William Kell^, of Mar}4and), Edward, James, Ranney, 
Francis, Jctfin, George, and Isaac Of these only two are said 
to have married and left issue, namely, William and Isaac. The 
latter married Miss Kitty Lyles, a daughter of Dr. Richard Lytes, 
and these were the parents of Judge John W. Breathed, founder 
o£ the town of Breathedville in Washington County, Maryland. 
Judge Breathed had a number of children, one of whom was the 
famous Major James Breathed, commander of Stuart's Horse 
Artillery; and another is Mrs. Robert Bridges, of Hancock, 
Washington County, Md., the correspondent who has kindly sup- 
plied much of my information regarding the Maryland and Penn- 
sylvania branch of the family. 

Why should William Breathitt of Pennsylvania have traveled to 
Henry County, Virginia, to find a wife ? And why on reaching 
there should he have selected Miss Elizabeth Whitsitt? It may 
have fallen out by accident, but Mrs. Robert Bridges says, "I 
have always been told that Miss Elizabeth Whitsitt was a second 
cousin of William Breathitt's," and therefore it may have resulted 
from a well established family relationship. But the question 
recurs as to how that relationship could have been established. 
It seems most likely, all things considered, that it was established 
through the Cardwell family. It has been suggested that there 
was an intimate family relation between the Breathitts and the 
Cardwells already before the time when Ranney Breathitt mar- 
ried Ellen Cardwell ; and this marriage may have been celebrated 
in Ireland before the parties sailed for America. Such a condi- 
tion of facts seems to be suggested by the circumstance that 
Williasn Breathitt called one of his sons by the name of Cardwell, 
and that Governor John Breathitt in his turn did the same. 

The above marriage occurred in the year 1783^ but no record 
has been preserved regarding the month. It was likely solemn- 



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ii6 The Ambrican Historicai^ Magazinb. 

nized by the Rev. Robert Stockton who lived on the adjoining- 
farm. On the 26th of February, 1784, William Whitsitt con- 
veyed three hundred acress of the land that he had purchased 
from Abraham Penn "in consideration of the Love and Goodwill 
that I have for my Daughter and son-in-law William Brethead," 
and that estate became their home during the period of their 
residence in Henry County. It is owned and occupied at the 
present time by Mr. William H. Wells, who is glad to point out 
what he believes to be the site of the Breathitt house about two 
hundred yards in the rear of his homestead, and on the opposite 
side of Little Beaver Creek. 

Nomenclature. — ^The orthography of the Breathitt name was 
in a state of great disorder when William Breathitt came to 
Henry County. It had apparently just slipped its nworing by 
the original English name and was on the high seas of change. 
In some of the documents it was written both Brethead and 
Breathead ; in others it appears as Breatheart and Bretheart ; in 
still others as Brethart and Brethett. In Kentucky it finally came 
to be written Breathitt, but the Maryland branch have steadily 
preferred Breathed. That is an unfortunate diversity since both 
of these branches were derived from one and the same immigrant 
ancestor, John Breathitt. There can be little question that the 
original name was Branthwaite, which by degrees became short- 
ened into Brathwaite, and finally for the sake of euphony was 
softened into Braithwaite. In Fairbaim's "Crests of tiie Families 
of Great Britain and Ireland" the following entries appear: 

1. Branthwaite and Braithwaite, Lond., on a rock, ppr., an 
eagle rising, ar. Plate 61, crest i. 

2. Brantwayte, on a rock, ppr., an eagle rising, ar. Plate 79, 
crest 2. 

3. Brathwayte, Westm., a greyhound couehant, ar. (collared 
and lined, gu., studded and ringed, or.). Plate 6, crest 7. 



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Annals op a Scotch-Irish Family. 117 

These entries are presented to show tiie present distribution 
of the family in England as well as the diversities of usage in the 
spelling of the name. The word "thwaite" is defined in the 
Century Dictionary as "a piece of ground reclaimed and con- 
verted to tillage. Thwaite chiefly occurs as the second element 
of local names especially in the lake district of the north of Eng- 
land, as in Bassenthwaite, Crossthwaite and Stonethwaite." 

The word "bran" is also declared by the same authority to be 
''a dialectical form of 'bren/ 'bum.' " Putting these two mean- 
ings together I should conclude that Branthwaite would signify 
a piece of land reclaimed and converted to tillage by burning the 
logs and shrubs that were found upon it. If that is a just con- 
clusion it would indicate that the Branthwaites or Braithwaites 
were among the pioneer settlers of the Lake District of England, 
where the word *'thwaite" appears to have been chiefly employed. 
It not unfrequently occurs as a family name, and is Aen written 
in the form "Thweat." 

Origin of the American Breathitts, — ^A considerable body of 
material regarding the Braithwaites may be consulted in the dif- 
ferent volumes of Burke's "Commoners," as also of Burke's 
''Landed Gentry," but I have not yet been able to derive from it 
any fixed conclusion as to the particular branch from which the 
American family were descended. However, the names George 
and Isaac and James seem to be about as popular in the West- 
moreland branch of the family as among the Breathitts of Ken- 
tucky and Maryland. Could it be possible that these were orig- 
inally derived from Westmoreland County? May it be supposed 
that some of the Westmoreland people had emigrated to Ireland, 
where the American branch must have been settled for a season 
before their departure for their new homes ? 

Burke's "Landed Gentry of Great Britain and Ireland," Lon- 
don, 1847, p. 22, supplies an account of the Armitage Family of 
Coole and Driunin in County Louth. The Armitages are said to 
have belonged originally to Yorkshire, but they became estab- 
lished in Ireland in the time of Queen Elizabeth, upon grants of 
land situated at Atherdee, Coole, Cardiston and Drumin, all in 
the County of Louth. In the course of time they wearied of Ire- 
land, and returning to England established themselves as absen- 
tee landlords at Kensington in Middlesex. But, apparently be- 



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tiB Tbb Aacbricak HISIK>&ICA^ Maqazikb. 

fore leaving Itefamd, Robert Anmtage, then the head of the 
family, "married, in 1766, CaroUne, ddest daughter of Gcdonel 
Braitfawaite, by Sylvia Cole his wife, a descendant of the famihr 
of Cole of Colchester. Colonel Braithwaite returning foooi 
America in 1740 with his wife and duldren, was killed in an 
action with a Spanish juivateer in the Channel. He left one son, 
the late General Sir John Braithwaite, Bart., commander-^in- 
cfaief at Madras; and two daughters, CaroKne (Mrs. Annitage), 
and Sylvia wife t>f Bonnet Thornton, Esq." But 1740 is the 
identical date which Mrs. Bridges has assigned for the arrival 
of John Breathitt the immigrant in America, and therefore one 
is tempted to fancy that he came with the aforesaid Cbknd 
Braithwaite, and that he may have been a near relative of die 
colonel's. But there is tio grotmd for dogmatic confidence in 
such conclusions. Here is much room for adcHtional reseaixh. 

Prosperity. — ^William Breathitt appears to have been a pros- 
perous economist during the period of his residence in Henry 
County. In almost every business transaction he was distinctly 
fortunate. The tendency to travd westward, especially ater 
the Cumberland Country in Middle Tennessee had been opened, 
was very active, and some families must have made sacrifice of 
their possessions in Virginia on account of their anxiety to join 
the caravans that were constantly moving into the wilderness. 
Breathitt resisted this Western fever, and exhibited the singular 
spectacle of a man whopreferrcd the East to the West ; for after 
^sposing of his home in 1793, instead of journeying towards 
Nashville he returned and quietly estahfisbed himself in Campbell 
County, Virginia, on the highway betweai Lyndiburg and the 
then famous center of New Lonckxi, where his distinguished son. 
Governor John Breathitt, was bom. Finally, about the close of 
the eighteenth century, the influences of his wife's f jHnily pre- 
vailed, and disposing of his remaining possessions in Virginia, he 
set out for Tennessee. On the i6th of July, 1795, he had pur- 
chased military land warrants from William and Joseph Porter 
for one thousand acres in Maury County on the north side of 
Duck River between Cedar and Fountain Creeks. The jmce paid 



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AiwAW 09 A Scotch-Irish Famii^y. 119 

ReKgion. — Doctor Howdl in his biography of Rev. James 
Whitsitt affirms that Winiaan Breathitt was by rdigioas profes- 
sion an Episcopalian, This may be correct, but as the Breathitts 
had likely come from the north of Ireland, and as the family of 
John Breathitt of Pennsylvania were probaWy at that period 
PreAyterians, it is more reasonable to conclude that William 
Breartritt was a Presbyterian, in his sympathies tf not by actual 
member^ip in the Oitirch. 

The Blakey Family. — ^The second marriage that occurred tn the 
lamiily of William Whitsitt was that of his daughter Margaret 
to George Blakey. The following notice of the marriage is found 
in Ae records of the family: "George Blakey, eldest son of 
Thomas and Ann Haden Blak^, bom in Culpeper [Albemarle] 
County, Virginia, November 22, 1749, was married to Mai^ret 
Whitsitt in Henry Couirty, Vii^nia, January 10, 1787, and died 
Bt Rural Choice, Ky., September 8, 1842. Just as the sun was 
peeping over the snowy hills of Trenton, h6 entered the city with 
Washington. He first settled in Davidson County, Tennessee, 
and afterward removed to Rural Choice, Ky.^' In the month of 
October, 1788, Whitsitt gave to his daughter, Margaret, five hun- 
dred acres of land, more or less, and in the deed her name is 
spelled once Blakey and four times Blakley. 

Nomenclature: The name Blakey has been spelled and pro- 
nounced in many different ways. In Fairbaim's "Crests of tfic 
FamiUes of Great Britain and Ireland," the following two entries 
may be found : 

1. "Bladde and Blackley, Lane, a dragon's head, vert, ducally 
gorged, or, Plate 36, <:rest 7. 

2. ^'Blackley or Blakey, Blackley Hall, Lane, a dragon's head, 
vert, ducally gorged, or. Plate 36, crest 7." 

These, which both refer to one and the same coat of arms, 
are set down in this place merely to show some of the variaticms 
that may be cited in the speHing* of the name. The Blakeys of 
this country as in England appear to have used considerable 
liberty in that direction. Sometimes they write it Blakey or 
BbK*ey or Blackie, and it is possible that all these forms were 
pronounced in the same way, and at other times they write it 
BlackSey or Blakley or Blacklee. The earliest mention of the im- 
migrant ancestor of the Blakeys of Logan County, Kentucky, that 



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I20 Thb Ambrican Historical Magazine. 

has come to nvy^ notke is found on page 29 of "The Parish R^;is- 
ter of Christ Church, Middlesex County, Virginia. From 1663 
to 1812. Richmond, 1897." I^ reads as follows: ''Thomas 
Blackby & Margaret Jones both of this parish marryed 4th Octo- 
ber, 1686." Here the form Blackby seems to be a mistake of 
the cop3rist for Blackley. On page 33 the same statement is 
given in a slighdy different form as follows: ''1686. Married. 
4 Octob. Thomas Blackey of Cumberland in England & Margt. 
Jones of Clamoiiganshire in Wales." 

In the "Military Census of Middlesex County, November 23, 
1687," the Commissioners, as reported in the Virginia Magazine 
of History, vol. viii., p. 190, "say Upon further Examination 
that the persons underwritten are thought by this Court Capable 
to Serve as footmen and to finde themselves with Armes &c," and 
Robert Blakey is the fourteenth name in the list; but when the 
name of Robert Blakey appears in the Christ Church Register it 
is written almost uniformly as Robert Blackley. It has been 
suggested that the distinguished Judge Bleckley, of Atlanta, Ga., 
may have been descended from this Robert Blackley of Middle- 
sex. 

It seems likely that the name was originally Blackleigh or 
Blackley or Blacklea. According to the best authorities "leigh" 
and "ley" are but different methods of spelling "lea," meaning 
pasture or meadow, and often used as a sufiix in English place- 
names, such as Chumleigh, Chudleigh. The Blakeys appear to 
have taken their name from living on or near a black, rich meadow. 
Some of them, as the family of Robert Blakey of Middlesex, Va., 
preferred the ancient usage, while others found the "1" when 
coming after "k" to be diflScult of utterance and so elected to 
elide it and employ the form Blakey, which was later shortened 
to Blackey. Possibly the pronunciation of Blackey and Blakey 
may have been the same, but it has now been gradually modified 
much in the fashion as Blackley has in some instances changed 
to Blaikley or Blakeley. 

Churchill Blakey of Wales. — ^A slight amount of confusion has 
crept into the opening statements of the Blakey family records. 
The first of these affirms that "Churchill Blakey of Wales son 
of Churchill Blakey of Wales married Miss Sally George;" but 
the Raster of Christ Church Parish does not sustain that item. 



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Annals of a Scotch-Irish Family. 121 

Thomas Blakey, of Cumberland, England, was the immigrant 
ancestor, and not Churchill Blakey. The tradition of a Welsh 
connection arose from the fact that Margaret Jones, the first wife 
of Thomas Blakey, and the mother of Churchill Blakey, was 
derived from Glamorganshire in Wales. The precise date of the 
arrival in Virginia of the Blakeys has not yet been determined. 
The Christ Church Register, p. 22, says that "Robert Blakley and 
Jane Kidd was married 29th of January, 1683-4." If Thomas 
arrived as early as Robert we may suppose that they landed 
somewhere about 1680. 

William Blackey, Gentleman, who figured in York (later New 
Kent) County, Virginia, was a man of worship and a member 
of the House of Burgesses in 1657-8, but I cannot make out that 
he was connected with the Blakeys of Middlesex. On the 29th 
of July, 1647, he patented 300 acres "in the County of Yorke 
opposite the pamunkee Landing place," in consideration of the 
transportation of six persons into the colony. On the 29th day 
of Jtme, 1655, he patented one thousand acres adjoining the for- 
mer entry in consideration of the transportation of twenty per- 
sons into the colony. On the 28th of November, 1656, there 
was another entry of one thousand acres for a similar con- 
sideration, and on the 12th of February, 1662, the above entries 
were all confirmed by Sir William Berkeley, Governor of the 
colony. This last entry seems to indicate that the restoration 
of the Stuarts in England had rendered the titles of lands in 
Virginia to a certain extent insecure. 

The Immigrant Ancestor, — The following notices of Thomas 
Blakey, the immigrant ancestor of the Blakey family of Ken- 
tucky, have been collected from the above mentioned Register 
of Christ Church Parish, Middlesex, Virginia : 

1. "Thomas Blackhy & Margaret Jones both of this parish 
marryed 4th Octob. 1686" (p. 29), 

2. "i68i5. Married. 4 Octob. Thomas Blackey of Cumber- 
land in England & Margt. Jones of Glamorganshire in Wales" 

(p. 33). 

3. "Churchhill Blake the Sone of Thomas and Margaret Blake 
baptiz. at ye Upper Chap'U 27th febry 1686" (p. 31). 

4. "Margrett Blakey dyed November ye 14 & was hurried 
November ye 16, 1714" (p. 84). 



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122 Thb Ahbrican Historical Magazinb. 

5. "Thomas Blakey and Mary Meacham married Deccmbr. 

ye 5, J715" (p. 83). 

6. "Thomas Blakey dyed May ye 17, 1732" (p. 188). 

7. "Mary Blakey died Janry. ye i6th, 1745" (p. 196). 

The Roger Jones Family, — ^Thomas Blakey, the immigrant 
ancestor, is supposed to have contracted a fortunate marriage 
alliance. Captain Roger Jones had come to Virginia in i860 with 
Lord Culpepper, and was commander of a ship in the service 
of the government. He became the founder of a large and 
powerful family, and an account of them may be read in a work 
entitled Descendants of Roger Jones, by Judge L, H. Jones, of 
Louisville, Ky. Margaret Jones, the first wife of Thomas Blakey, 
appears to have been a sister of Captain Roger Jones and an aunt 
of his son, Roger Jones, Jr. This Roger Jones, Jr., about the 
year 1690 had married Mary, the daughter of Colonel William 
Churchill. Being a person of some consideration and position 
Mrs. Blakey was apparently appreciated by the family of Colonel 
Churchill with whom she had thus become allied by marriage, 
and her first and only living child was called Churchill in honor 
of them. 

The children of Roger Jones, Jr., that were bom after he came 
with his wife to reside in Christ Church Parish are duly recorded 
in the Register as follows : 

I. "Susannah Jones Daughter of Roger & Mary Jones was 
borne the 19th of November and was christened the same day 
at Mr. Churchhiirs house by Mr. Samuell Gray 1695" (p. 44). 

2."Churchhill Jones the Sone of Roger & Mary Jones was 
borne the isth of Janr and baptz 13th of March 1697-8" (p. 45). 

3. "Susannah Churchhill Jones the daughter of Roger & Mary 
Jones was baptized the 14th of August, 1700" (p. 47). This is 
apparently the same child as No. i, above. It had likely received 
a baptism of necessity at the hands of Mr. Gray in 1695, which 
was permitted to stand as long as he remained in office, but when 
Mr. Robert Yates became Rector a second, provisional, baptism 
appears to have been conferred, while the name was altered irom 
Susannah to Susannah Churchhill." 

4. "Thomas Jones ye Sone of Roger Jones & Mary his wife 
was born the 23d of August Anno Domini 1704" (p. 56). 



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Annals of a Scotch-Irish Family. 123 

5. "Juddh the Daughter of Roger & Mary Jones was born 
the 26th day of December 1702" (p. 59). 

6. ''JsLtnes ye Son of William & Mary Jones his wife was 
baptized April ye ist 1705" (p. 66). 

7. "Mary ye Daughter of Mr. Roger & Mdm. Mary his wife 
was Baptized March ye 23rd 1706-7" (p. 69). 

8. "Roger ye Son of Mr. Roger Jones & Mrs. Mary his Wife 
was Baptized December ye i8th Anno Domi 1709" (p. 73). 

9. "Roger Jones, Jr. dyed October ye 29th, 1720 26 and was 
buried October ye 29th, 1720" (p. 177). This was the head of 
the family. 

A well informed writer in W. & M. Q. vol. ix ix. 41 says that 
Judah, Number 5, above, whom he calls Judith married Paulin 
Anderson on January 9, 1723, and that is perhaps the way in 
which the names of Paulin and Churchill became so well estab- 
lished in the Anderson family of Lebanon, Tenn. 

The George Family. — ^The descent of Churchill, the only 
son and child of Thomas and Margaret Blakey having been 
set forth from the Register of Christ Church Parish above, 
it may now be in order to indicate from the same source 
the descent of his wife, Sarah George. They were an ancient 
family of Middlesex, and may have been on the ground in ad- 
vance of the Blakeys. David and Mary George are mentioned 
as early as 1671, but there is no sufficient proof that they were 
connected with the family of Sarah George. The following 
notices are copied from the Parish Register : 

1. "Mary Elliott ye Daughter of Thomas & Sarah Elliott 
baptiz. at ye Upper Chap'll 27th febry 1686" (p. 31). 

2. "March 4 1686. Buried Thomas Elliott of Chipping Orgur 
in Essex" (p. 32). 

3. "Robert George & Sarah Elliott both of this parish was 
married 6th of July 1687" (p. 35). 

4. "Christened at ye Upper Chappell ye nth day of Xember 
1689 Catharine Daughter to Robert George & Sarah his Wife" 
(p. 40). 

5. "Sarah Daughter of Robert & Sarah George baptz. 12 of 
March 1692-3" (p. 51). 

6. "Jane the Daughter of Robert & Sarah George baptz. 19th 
of April 1702" (p. 55). 



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124 The American Historical Magazine. 

7. "J^Ji" George ye Son of Robert & Sarah George was Bap- 
tized ye 3d day of September 1704" (p. 62). 

8. "Richard Son of Robert & Sarah George baptized ye 29th 
day of May 1709" (p. 79). 

The Third Generation, — ^The history of the third generation of 
American Blakeys in this line is set forth as follows by the 
Parish Register of Christ Church : 

1. "Churchill Blakey & Sarah George married 30th of Novem- 
ber 1710" (p. 82). 

2. "Thomas Son of Churchhill & Sarah Blacky baptized Aprill 
61712" (p. 86). 

3. "Margarett daughter of Churchill & Sarah Blakey baptized 
the i8th day of April! 1714" (p. 88). 

4. "George son of Churchhill & Sarah Blakey bom Ap : 3 bap- 
tized May 6 1716" (p. 94). 

5. "John Son of Churchhill & Sarah Blakey born DecemV ye 9, 
baptized Janry 25 1718" (p. loi). 

6. "Robert Son of Churchhill & Sarah Blakey born March ye 
7 1720. Baptized Ap. 2 1721" (p. 107). 

7. "Betty daughter of Churchhill & Sarah Blakey born Novemr 
ye 20 baptized Decemr 15 1723" (p. 113). 

8. "Jane daughter of Churchhill & Sarah Blakey bom Febry 
24 1725. baptized April ye 3 1736" (p. 119). 

9. "Sarah daughter of Churchhill & Sarah Blakey bom Novmr 
28. baptized Decemr 22 1728" (p. 125). 

10. "Susanna Daughter of Churchhill & Sarah Blakey bom 
Janry 13th Baptized Feb. 16 1734" (p. 140). 

11. "Catherine Daughter of Churchhill & Sarah Blakey bom 
July ye 2d. baptized July ye 16 1738" (p. 147). 

12. "Churchill Blakey dyed May ye 8th 1738" (p. 192). 

No record of the death of his wife, Sarah George Blakey, could 
be found in the Register. 

The Fourth Generation, — The history of Thomas the oldest 
son of Churchill Blakey the first will be discussed in the suc- 
cpedtner section of this oaoer. Of Marearet the oldest dauehter 



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Annals of a Scotch-Irish Family. 125 

by th€ William and Mary College Quarterly vol. ix. 41, which 
says : "Among the Middlesex marriage bonds are the following : 

"George Blakey of Spotsylvania county, bond to marry Clara 
Daniel, widow, 28 April, 1745. Security, Robert George. 

"George Blakey, bond to marry Catherine Shelton, December 
31, 1743. Security, Robert Daniel." 

Perhaps he was still a resident of Middlesex though not of 
Christ Church Parish when he married Catherine Shelton. In 
the Register of the Parish, p. 104, the following entry appears 
to refer to her : "Catherine daughter of Ralph & Mary Shelton 
born January 26, baptized March ye 13th 17 19." When his 
first wife died in Spotsylvania he returned to Middlesex for an- 
other and this time selected the Widow Daniel. An entry on 
p. 155 of the Parish Register appears to relate to her: "Abn 
daughter of Garritt & Clary Daniel bom February 21st I742"< 
A second entry, p. 195, seems to indicate the death of her first 
husband : "Garret Daniel died January ye 28th 1744-5." It was 
exactly fifteen months afterwards when the second marriage was 
celebrated. 

In the records of Culpeper county the will of a John Blakey 
is found who appears to have been the third son of Churchill 
who was bom on the 2Sth of Jan. 171 8. By the will it appears 
that he died on the 30th of December 1781. His children were 
John, Churchill, Frances m. Bush, Martha wt. Morris, Sarah w. 
Eddins and Ellizabeth m. Davis. (Green, notes on Culpeper 
Co. Va., Culpeper 1900. Pt. II. p. 44). The daughter Martha 
in this list is supposed to be the one mentioned on p. 150 of the 
Parish Register as follows : "Martha Daughter of John & Jane 
Blakey was born Jan. 4th 1739-40.'* In his notes on Culpeper 
Pt. 11. p. 58, Mr. Green also mentions that Churchill Blakey 
married Mary Clark in 1781, and William Blakey married Polly 
Gaines in 1799. This Churchill was perhaps the son of John 
Blakey as cited above. 

The names of the children of George Blakey have not yet 
been recovered. The territory of Spotsylvania county was later 
divided so as to make six counties, namely Spotsylvania, Orange, 
Culpeper, Madison, Greene and Rappahannock counties and it 
is not clear in which of the six his lot may have fallen. 



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126 The American Historical Magazine. 

Robert thfe fourth and youngest son of Churchill Blakey, bom 
March 7, 1720, seems to have been the only one of them all that 
remained in the Middlesex home, but as he early removed from 
the limits of Christ Church Parish the Register makes no further 
mention of him. It is not known who he married, or how many 
children he left behind. The name of only one of his children, 
Churchill, has yet been recovered. The Middlesex Records 
show that on the isth of October 1773, Churchill Blakey 
gave a bond to marry Ann Chowning (W. & M. Quar- 
terly vii. 193). His will was proved in Middlesex Court June 
27 y 1814, and the names of his children were as follows: i. Jane 
Healy Blakey, 2. Robert, 3, Henry, 4. Ann, wife of Thomas Kidd, 
5. Elizabeth, 6. Catherine Chowning, 7. Frances, 8. Lucy. (W. & 
M. Q. ix.41). 

Christ Church Register supplies a number of additions to the 
above information. For example it says, p. 199: "William 
Chowning, Son of Churchill and Ann Blakey was bom January 
30th 1775." Again on p. 303 it says: William C. Blakey & Jane 
Healy [married] January 28th 1802." These two items com- 
pared with the list given just above must render it clear that 
Jane Healy Blakey was the widow of William Chowning Blakey 
deceased. The Register contains the following statements re- 
garding other children whose names are found in the above will 
of Churchill Blakey : 

2. "Robert Blakey & Frances D. Roane [married] October 
12, 1808" (p. 304). 

3. "Henry Blakey & Frances O. George [married] August 
29, 1802, (p. 308). 

4. "Robert Blakey Kidd Son of Thomas & Nancy Kidd bom 
June 23, 1800, baptized Januy ist 1805." 

"Mary Anne Kidd Daughter of the same parents bom Deer 
loth, 1806 baptized January ist 1808" (p. 289). 

5. "Matthew Major & Elizabeth Blakey [married] Jany 



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Annaw of a Scotch-Irish Family. 127 

Roane, daughter of Thomas Roane of Middleberry in Middlesex 
county on October 12, 1808. He was the father of John Chown- 
ing Blakey (died in 1859), who was the father of Hon. Thomas 
E. Blakey, of Essex county, member of the present State Senate 
of Virginia. The latter writes that his 'grandfather Robert 
Blakey had a brother named Churchill Blakey who died in in- 
fancy, and he named one of his sons Churchill Blakey who 
likewise died in infancy.' " 

While it has been possible to recover the above notices of the 
sons of Churchill Blakey the first I have not had the fortune to 
discover any items concerning his daughters Betty, Jane Sarah, 
Susanna and Catherine. They were among the younger children 
and apparently none of them had married prior to the date when 
their mother Sarah George Blakey removed with them out of 
the limits of Christ Church Parish. Here is a wide field for re- 
search. There must be many people in Virginia and other States 
who bear the blood but not the name of these Blakeys. 

Thomas Blakey the Second. — ^The Blakey records make the fol- 
lowing statement regarding him: "Thomas Blakey of Virginia, 
son of Churchill and Sally George Blakey, married Miss Ann 
Haden daughter of Anthony Haden of England, who married 
Miss Margaret Douglas of Scotland." The records of Albemarle 
County, Virginia (Deed-Book i, p. 33), show that on the 8th 
of September, 1748, Thomas Blakey, of the county of Goochland, 
purchased of William Noland for £50, two hundred acres of 
land on Arthur's Creek of Slate River. The Surveyor's Book of 
Albemarle, i, p. 107, shows that on the 5th of December, seven- 
teen hundred and forty-nine, Thos. Turpin, assistant surveyor, 
had surveyed for him two hundred acres additional, which lay 
adjacent to the purchase made from Noland, and he took out a 
Patent for this tract on the loth of Sept., seventeen hundred and 
fifty-five. In 1761 Buckingham County was formed from Albe- 
marle, and thenceforth embraced his residence. 

Conflict with the Wise Family. — ^The assertion that Ann. 
Haden was the daughter of Anthony Haden, who had married 
Mai^ret Douglas, of Scotland, seems to be irreconcilably op- 
posed by the genealogical records of the family of Governor 
Henry A. Wise, of Virginia. The Wise family represent their 
case as follows : 



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128 The American Historical Magazine. 

"Major John Wise, one of the old clerks of Accomac County, 
was the oldest son of Colonel John Wise, and his wife Marg^et 
Douglas. This Colonel John Wise died in the year 1770, five 
years before the Revolutionary War began. He was a commis- 
sioned colonel of the King's militia, one of the King's justices for 
Accomac, and also a county-lieutenant, a kind of deputy to the 
colonial Governor, which each of the counties of Virginia had 
at that time. He was a g^eat-g^andson of still another John 
Wise, a native of England, who sailed from Gravesend in that 
coimtry July 4th 1635, and settled in Accomac, then Northampton 
County; and afterwards when Accomac was formed in 1662 
he was appointed amongst the very first of the King's justices 
for that county. . . . 

"Margaret Douglas, the wife of Colonel John Wise, and the 
mother of Major John Wise, was a daughter of Colonel George 
Douglas, a native of Scotland who had settled in Accomac, was 
a lawyer by profession and a descendant of the famous Earls of 
Angus, whose family name was Douglas, and who figured so 
conspicuously in Scottish history. One of them. Sir George 
Douglas, Earl of Angus, married Mary, Daughter of Robert HI, 
King of Scotland; and from this Sir George Douglas and his 
wife Mary was descended through Archibald Douglas the 'great' 
Earl of Ang^ (as he was called) Colonel George Douglas, the 
Scotch lawyer who settled in Accomac, and whose daughter Mar- 
garet became the mother of Major John Wise. Some of the law 
books which belonged to Colonel George Douglas are now in 
the possession of the HonoraWe John S. Wise, of Richmond, Va., 
having come to him by inheritance through Major Wise. They 
include some old English Reports, a ^Natura Breviunt! of the 
first edition, and a Coke upon Littleton printed in 1629." 
(Johnston, Memorials of Old Virginia Clerks, Ljoichburg 1888, 
pp. 10, II, 12). 

Was Margaret Douglas the wife of Anthony Haden before 
she became the wife of Colonel John Wise ? Was she the wife of 
Anthony Haden and not the wife of Colonel John Wise, or vice 
versa? I have no material that would enable me to reach a 
definite conclusion regarding these questions. It is worthy of 



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Annals of a Scotch-Irish Family. 129 

discussion cannot fail to do good and to clear up the historical 
situation. I suppose that both the Wise and Blakey family will 
continue in the future as in the past to perpetuate the memory of 
Colonel George Douglas by naming their children in his honor. 
There has not been a generation since the death of Margaret 
Douglas in which each of these tribes have not possessed mem- 
bers bearing that name. Perhaps Colonel George Douglas Wise, 
of Richmond, is at present the most prominent George Douglas 
on either side. 

Family of Anthony Haden and Margaret Douglas Haden, — 
According to the Blakey records the sons were, (i) John, (2) 
William, (3) Joseph, (4) Thomas, and (5) Zechariah; and the 
daughters, (i) Jane, (2) Anne, (3) Elizabeth, and (4) Ruth. 
Jane is said to have married Mr. Hensley : Aim married Thomas 
Blakey as above recited, and Ruth married Jacob Harris. 

Children of Thomas and Ann Haden Blakey, — ^The date of the 
marriage of Thomas Blakey the Second to Ann Haden has not 
been preserved, and notes of time in connection with the birth 
of their children are not numerous. Their daughter Sally, bom 
February 15, 1747, may have been the eldest child. George, who 
is said to have been their ddest son, was bom November 22, 
1749, in Albemarle (later Buckingham) County. In the deed of 
William Noland conveying two hundred acres in September, 
1748, he is described as "Thomas Blakey of Goochland county." 
With the purchase of that home he became a resident of Albe- 
marle until 1761, when his place was included in the newly 
formed county of Buckingham, where be continued to reside 
until his death. It was situated near Muddy Creek of Slate 
River, and it is possible that the family carried that name with 
them to Lc^an County, Kentucky, where a Muddy Creek was 
likewise found near their residence. There are said to have been 
seven sons and three daughters, namely (i) George, (2) 
Thomas, (3) John, (4) William, (5) Reuben, (6) Churchill, 
(7) Joseph, (i) Sarah, (2) Catharine, and (3) Ann. 

Records of the Above Children. — Reuben met an untimely end, 
having been drowned in the Kentucky River on his way to the 
West Sarah, who was bom, as already recited, on the 15th of 



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I30 Thb Ambrican Historical Magazine. 

ber 4, 1822. Catharine married Rev. Robert Stockton, of Albe- 
marle County. Later they removed to Henry County, whence 
in the year 1800 they removed to Barren County, Kentucky, 
where he died in 1825. Ann married Joseph Oglesby and died in 
Kentucky. 

Thomas Blakey the Third, son of Thomas and Ann Haden 
Blakey, married Miss Frances Perrow and left an only daughter, 
Sally, who married Price Perkins. Thomas Blakey the Third 
died in Buckingham County, Virginia. It is supposed that Miss 
Frances Perrow belonged to the ancient Virginia family of Per- 
rott. Of one of these the following quaint account is found in 
the Register of Christ Church Parish, Middlesex: "Richard 
Perrott the Sone of Mr. Richard Perrott dec'd was Borne the 
24th of february 1650 Being the first Man Child that was gott 
and Borne in Rappahannock River of English Parents" (p. 41). 

William Blakey, brother of Thcwnas, married Miss Spencer, of 
Virginia, and died in Cumberland County, Kentucky, in the year 
1813, leaving an only daughter, who married Robert Stockton. 

Churchill, the sixth of the brothers named above, was married 
to Miss Agnes Anthony, daughter of Joseph Anthony, of Henry 
County, Virginia, and died in Wilkes County, Georgia. Follow- 
ing is a copy of the marriage bond of Churchill Blakey as found 
recorded at Martinsville, Va. : 

"Know all men by these Presents that we Churchill Blakey and 
Robert Stokton of the County of Henry are held and firmly bound 
imto the Commonwealth of Virginia in the Sum of Five Thou- 
sand Pounds to be paid to the said Commonwealth we bind our- 
selves and each of our heirs Exors and Admrs firmly by these 
Pre'nts sealed with our Seals and Dated this 2d Augt 1780 
Whereas there is a Marriage dependii^ and by Gods permission 
sudenly intended between the above bound Churchill Blakey 
and Agness Anthony. Now the Consideration of the above Obli- 
gation is such that if there is no lawfull Cause to Obstruct the 
said Marriage, Then the above Obligation to be void or Else 
Remain in full force Power and Virtue." 
"Signed Sealed & Delivered 
in Presence of "Robert Stockton Seal. 

"Churchill Blakey Seal/' 



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Annals of a Scotch-Irish Family. 131 

died in Wilkes County, Georgia. Winifred Anthony and her sis- 
ter Agnes, who had married Churchill Blakey, were daughters of 
Joseph Anthony, a wealthy and excellent citizen of Henry County. 
He was the father of fourteen children, of whom Agnes was the 
eighth and Winifred the eleventh. It is clear from his will, dated 
September 24, 1785, that Joseph Blakey must have married 
Winifred Anthony after the death of her father. The following 
provision in the will is worthy of mention : "And it is my will 
that if any of my children should refuse to keep the negroes 
which I will to them, that they be returned to my estate and 
equally divided amongst the rest of my children." 

Conscientious scruples about the ownership of slaves were very 
customary at that period in Virginia; but in the family of this 
Joseph Anthony it is claimed that they were reinforced by Quaker 
sentiments and proclivities. Indeed, it has been reported that 
Elizabeth, his wife, removed to Georgia after the death of Joseph, 
where she was much esteemed as an able and effective Quaker 
preacher. 

There was another and very different Joseph Anthony in 
Henry County at this time, who attained distincticm and success 
as a Baptist minister, but no proof has ever been twx>ught to show 
that there was any kind of connection or relation between the 
two. 

It has already been related that George, who is marked as 
Number i in the family of Thomas Blakey the Second, married 
Margaret Whitsitt on tfie loth of January, 1787, but the Blakey 
records so far as I can discover give no account of the marriage 
of John, the third son. 

Rectors of Christ Church, Middlesex. — For the benefit of those 
who may care to know the clergyman who officiated at the bap- 
tism or marriage or burial of any of the Blakeys of Middlesex, 
Va., the following list is supplied of the rectors of Christ Church 
Parish: 

Rev. Mr. Morris, A. D. 1663-6; Rev. John Shepherd, A. D. 
1668-83; Rev. Duell Pead, A. D. 1683.90; Rev. Matthew Lid- 
ford, A. D. 1692-3; Rev. Samuel Gray, A. D. 1693-9; R^v. 
Robert Yates, A. D. 1699-1704; Rev. Bartholomew Yates, A. D. 
1704-34; Rev. John Klug, A. D. 1767-95- 

Religion, — ^The Blakeys had been members of the Church of 



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132 The American Historical Magazine. 

England for hundreds of years, and the family of Thomas 
Blakey were perhaps still in that communion when he established 
himself in Albemarle in 1748. It is hardly possible to trace at 
this distance of time the process by which they were induced to 
quit the Church of England and attach themselves to the Baptist. 
It is probable, however, that David Patterson, who had married 
Sarah (George) Blakey in April, 1763, may have been the means 
of bringing about this change of views. The Pattersons appear 
to have come from New Kent County, and they may likewise 
have been members of the Church of England. The records of 
Royal Patents show that David Patterson, who must have been 
the father of the man who married Sarah Blakey, entered three 
htmdred and thirty-seven acres on the north side of James River, 
in Henrico County, ou the 22d of June, 1722. On the 27th and 
28th of September, 1730, he entered three more tracts, two of 
them containing each four hundred acres, and the third three 
hundred and forty-two acres, in Goochland County, but yet ad- 
joining the fwevious entry in Henrico. This was made possible 
by the fact that in the year 1727 Goochland had been formed 
from Henrico. These lands were situated on the waters of Great 
and Little Licking Hole Creeks within the present limits of 
Goochland. 

On the loth of September, 1755, David Patterson had also 
entered twenty-nine hundred and eleven acres in Albemarle on 
the north side of A^xxnattox River, near its headwaters, and 
on the 4th of July, 1759, he had entered four htmdred acres in 
Albemarle on the branches of North Creek, near Piney Mountain. 
The last two of these tracts fell within the limits of Buckingham 
when that county was duly organized in 1761. David Patterson, 
son of his father of the same name, must have inherited these 
and shortly set up his residence near the home of the Blakeys. 
When the marriage with Sarah (George) Blakey occurred all 
parties were in the full odor of Church of England orthodoxy. 
But Doctor Semple ("History," Beale's ed., p. 283) reports that 
Patterson was "part of the first fruit of the Gospel in these 
parts." The conversion of Mr. Patterson could hardly have 
occurred before the vear 1767 or later than 1770. • He is believed 



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Annals of a Scotch-Irish Family. 133 

ship that Robert Stockton was invited to Buckingham, where he 
met and married Catharine Blakey. 

Stockton was a Scotch-Irishman throughout and throughout, 
and one of the noblest men of that blood. He came from Albe- 
marle, and probably from Stockton's Fork, where his great and 
honorable family had established themselves as early as 1737'. 
He was bom there December 12, 1743, and had become a devout 
member of the Presbyterian Qiurch when he was baptized bv 
the Rev. Samuel Harris in the year 1771 in Henry County. It 
is not known how long he had been married to Catharine Blakey 
before that time. By these two alliances the Blakeys became 
connected with two of the strongest and worthiest families of 
Virginia. According to the standards of that age both of them 
were reckoned to be wealthy men (Semple, ubi supra, p. 283 and 
p. 346), but they were both distinguished for steady zeal and ex- 
emplary piety. 

When William Whitsitt was purchasing his farm of thirteen 
hundred and fifty acres from Abraham and Ruth Penn on the 
first of April, 1782, it was declared in his deed to He adjoining 
the lands of John Cooper, Thomas Cooper, Robert Stockton and 
Peter Copland, and he was thus brought into dose connection 
with one of the most active and important Baptist ministers of 
Virginia. If he had been converted to the faith of the Baptists 
already in Amherst there was now brought nigh to him an oppor- 
tunity to become strengthened and settled in it. 

And there is some reason to believe that he had already be- 
come allied to the Baptists in Amherst. Allusion may be had 
in this connection to the fact that the Baptist minister, Joseph 
Anthony, had subscribed his name as one of the witnesses to the 
deed of gift made by James Menees, Sr., to his daughter, Ellen 
Menees, on the 12th of November, 1783. This would seem to 
indicate that the family were at least on friendly terms with Mr. 
Anthony. Moreover, in the year 1785 Mr. Anthony found it 
desirable to take out license empowering him to solemnize the 
rites of matrimony, and William Whitsitt became one of his sure- 
ties. Following is a copy of the bond of Mr. Anth(my : 

"We Joseph Anthony, James Anthony, Wm. Hunter & Wm. 
Whitsett are held & firmly bound unto the Governor of Virginia 



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134 'I'hb Ambrican Historical Magazinb. 

the sum of five hundred pounds current money of Virginia to 
which payment well & truly to be made, we bind ourselves our 
joint and several heirs Exrs. Adrs. the condition of the above 
obligation is such that if the above bound Joseph Anthony shall 
well and truly perform the solemnization of Marrage according 
to law then the above obligation to be void & none eflFect, other- 
wise remain in full force & Virtue. Given under our hands this 
twenty seventh day of July one thousand seven hundred & 
eighty five. "Joseph Anthony [l. s.] 

"James Anthony [l. s.] 
"Wm. Whitsitts [l. s.]" 

It was therefore no merely accidental occurrence that George 
Blakey, who was a brother-in-law of the Baptist minister, Robert 
Stockton, should have been accepted as the husband of Margaret 
Whitsitt on the loth of January, 1787. It has not been possible 
to recover his marriage bond at Martinsville, but it is more than 
likely that the ceremony of marriage was solemnized by the Rev. 
Robert Stockton. 

The Great Revival — It began in the year 1785 and continued 
to spread until the year 1792 (Semple, p. 58). It was out of 
sight the most important movement of the kind that was ever 
enacted in the State of Virginia. It revolutionized aflFairs and 
altered the face of religious society. The estimate of Doctor 
Semple is very sober and worthy of careful study. He says: 
"Thousands were converted and baptized, besides many who 
joined the Methodists and Presbyterians. The Protestant Epis- 
copalians, although much dejected by the loss of the Establish- 
ment, had nevertheless continued their public worship and were 
attended by respectable congregations. But after this revival 
their society fell fast into dissolution." 

The changes which it produced among the Baptists are likewise 
worthy of careful attention. Doctor Semple (p. 59) adds: 
"From this revival g^eat changes took place among the Baptists, 
some for the better and others for the worse. Their preachers 



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Annals of a Scotch-Irish Family. 135 

spectable. Besides, they were joined by persons of much greater 
weight in civil society ; their congr^;ations became more numer- 
ous than those of any other Qiristian sect, and in short they 
might be considered from this period as taking the lead in mat- 
ters of religion in many places of the State." 

It is plain that the Baptists were established upon new and 
better foundations by this revival According to the report of 
Doctor Howell it struck Henry County in the spring of the year 
1789. The fire was first lighted by the Rev. James Anthony. 
Though he was a man of slight abilities, he possessed a fervent 
spirit, and the halo of a confessor, derived from the fact that he 
had been confined in the jail of Qiesterfield County for preach- 
ing the Gospel. It has been shown that already as early as the 
year 1783 he was an intimate friend of the Whitsitt family. Mr. 
Anthcmy had a church on Beaver Creek (Semple, \\ 
339), and the farm of William Whitsitt was situated on Little 
Beaver (alias Red Bank) Creek, extending down almost to the 
point where it emptied into Beaver Creek. The church was there- 
fore well suited for the convenience of his household, and they 
seem to have attended its services with regularity. Indeed, 
James Menees, Sr., although he was far advanced in years often 
found it possible to be present, and in the year 1789 he is said 
to have quitted the Presbyterians to join Mr. Anthony's church 
on Beaver Credc. 

Fortunes of James Whitsitt. — The experience of James Whit- 
sitt in connection with this revival is narrated by Doctor Howell 
with a great amount of interest and detail. He had reached his 
eighteenth birthday on the 31st of January, 1789, and was absent 
in Richmond on business for his father when the revival appeared 
at Beaver Creek. Upon his return he was much disgusted to 
hear of the excitement that prevailed in the community, and in 
his own family circle. Before the week was out, however, he 
attended an evening meeting and was greatly impressed by what 
he saw and felt A short while afterwards he had occasion to 
return to Richmond in charge of a number of wagons and had 
much conference with one of the drivers who had lately embraced 
religion imder the labors of Mr. Anthony. He was enabled dur- 
ing the course of the journey to reach a decision, and shortly 
after his return home he applied for admission to the community 



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136 The American Historical Magazine. 

on Beaver Creek. He was baptized in due time by Mr. Anthony 
and in a short while applied for license to become a minister. 
It was granted and he entered upon his work with much en- 
thusiasm. His affairs prc^pressed very satisfactdrily till the 
month of October, 1790, when a large colony, consisting of sev- 
eral himdred people, left Henry County for Nashville on the 
Cumberland. In that colony were found the families of George 
Blakey and William Whitsitt, with the exception of James Whit- 
sitt, the young minister, who had been left behind to wind up 
some of the business affairs of his father. 

After the departure of his father's household James Whitsitt 
became an inmate of the home of his brother-in-law, William 
Breathitt, where he also had the company of his gp-andfather, 
James Menees, Sr., until the latter passed away. The young 
man had great respect for the character and abiUties of Mr. 
Breathitt, and they conferred together about many questions. 
Among other things Mr. Breathitt persuaded him that he had 
acted under excitement and with imdue haste in departing from 
the church of his fathers and uniting with the Baptists. He 
became so well convinced on that point that Doctor Howell says : 
"He instantly relinquished preaching, stated his case to the breth- 
ren without disguise and, since nothing short of this could satisfy 
him, sought and obtained prompt exclusion from the church." 

The famous John Leland says in his "Virginia Chrcmicle" that 
"upon the first rise of the Baptists in Virginia they were very 
strict in their dress. Men cut off their hair like Cromwell's 
roundheaded chaplains, and women cast away all their super- 
fluities; so that they were distinguished from others merely by 
their decoration. Where all were of one mind no evil ensued; 
but s<Mne did not choose to dock and strip, and where churches 
made it a matter of discipline, it made great confusion; for no 
standard could be found in the Bible to measure garments by." 

The church oa Beaver Creek dcmiu-red to James Whitsitt's 






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Annals of a Scotch-Irish Family. 137 

James Whitsitt remained under the influence of Mr. Breathitt 
until the autunm of 1791, when his uncle, James Menees, made 
a visit from Nashville to several points in Virginia for the pur- 
pose of closing up his business affairs. When he was prepared 
to return home the young man embarked with him and shortly 
rejoined his kindred in Tennessee. There can be little question 
that James Menees, Jr., rather than William Breathitt, was the 
leader of the family; but his influence was highly seconded in 
this instance by his daughter, Jane Cardwell, whose beauty and 
charms formed an irresistible appeal. Her cousin James shortly 
preferred his suit and was accepted, but the marriage was de- 
ferred, according to Doctor Howell, until he should find time to 
make a journey to Virginia in order to adjust certain business 
affairs of his father's. The autumn of 1792 was a dangerous 
season to go abroad in that portion of the country, since the 
Creeks, Cherokees and Shawnees were making preparations for 
the notable incursion upon the Cumberland settlements, in which 
they met defeat at Buchanan's Station. But his life was spared 
from every peril. He returned in safety from Virginia, and on 
the 13th of December the nuptials were duly celebrated. 

I am indebted to the kindness of Major John W. Thomas, 
of Nashville, for the following copy of the Marriage Bond : 

"Territory of the United States of America South of the 
River Ohio. 

"Davidson County SS. 

"We James Whitsitt & James Menees Acknowledge Ourselves 
our heirs &c Jointly & Severally firmly bound unto his Excellency 
Wm. Blount Esq. Governor of the sd. Territory in the Sum of 
five hundred pounds Current money &c. To be paid to his sd. 
Excellency his Successors in Office or Assigns — Cc«iditioned to 
be Void, If there Shall not hereafter Appear any Lawfull Cause 
why James Whitsett & Jenny Menees Should not be Joined to- 
gether in holy Matrimony. Witness our hands and Seals this 
10 Day of Deer. 1792. "James Menees [l. s.] 

^ "James Whitsitt [l. s.]" 

It is supposed that the above marriage was solemnized within 
the limits of the Fort at Nashville, since, according to Phelan, 
"the repulse of the Indians by the Buchanan Station people failed 
to cause even a temporary cessation of their hostilities, and scat- 
tered in small bands through the settlements they wrought more 
3 



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138 The American Historical Magazine. 

mischief than when organized." (History of Tennessee, p. 157.) 
Nevertheless, it is possible that the ceremony may have taken 
pls^ce at the home of James Menees, which was situated on the 
hill just north of Menees's Spring near Flat Rock in Davidson 
County. Menees's Spring was a customary designation a 
century ago for the bold spring that rises near the former seat 
of Flat Rock Academy, and Menees's Branch for the brook that 
flpws thence into Mill Creek near Hall's Mill. It would be a 
desirable thing if these ancient names could be restored. 

By d^rees Mr. Whitsitt's sympathy for Baptist truth and 
interests began to return, and Doctor Howell declares that in the 
course of time he forwarded a letter to Rev. Joseph Anthony in 
which he made satisfactory acknowledgments to Beayer Creek 
Church and was restored to its fellowship and to his station as a 
licensed minister. He then went to work and shortly collected 
a church in Tennessee which was formally recognized in 1797. 
In the first edition of his "History of the Baptists," Boston, iSr^. 
Doctor David Benedict says : "The church on Mill Creek was the 
second one raised on the ^outh side of the Cumberland River: 
it is Uke that on Richland Creek in the neighborhood of Kash- 
ville. The same day the church was constituted, Mr. James 
Whitsitt, who is a native of Virginia, was ordained as their 
pastor, in which office he still continues" (Vd. ii, 221). Though 
the church on Richland Creek preceded Mill Creek in the order 
of time it has long since become extinct. Mill Creek appears 
to be the oldest living Baptist organization in that vast r^on 
bounded by the Cumberland on the north, the Cumberland Moun- 
tains and the Georgia line on the east, the Gulf of Mexico on the 
south and the Pacific Ocean on the west. It seems to have been 
constituted at the house of James Menees near Menees's Spring, 
and to have been removed at a later period to its present site. 

List of Pittsylvania Documents. — 

1. John Stockton to Benjamin Menees, July 20, 1779, 500 
acres for £700. 

2. James Menees, Sr., Deed of Gift to Benjamin Menees, April 
4, 1783. Witnesses: Peter Field Jefferson, Zeckarias Fuller, 
Field Jefferson. 

3. Benjamin Menees to Elisha Walker, August 16, 1784, for 
^350/ 500 acres. 



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Annals of a Scotch-Irish Family. 139 

List of Henry County Documents. — 

1. Abraham and Ruth Penn to William Whitsitt, April i, 
1782, 1,350 acres for £500. Witnesses: John Cox, John Staples, 
William Lynet. 

2. James Menees, Sr., Deed of Gift to Elenor Whitsitt, Novem- 
ber 12, 1783. Witnesses: Joseph Anthony, Jacob Ferriss and 
Wmiam Whitsitt. 

3. William Lovell to William Breatheart, January 28, 1784, 
1,000 acres for £100. Witnesses: John Cox, George Hairston, 
Jdtm Newman. 

4. William Whitsitt, Deed of Gift of 300 acres to William 
and Elizabeth Breathhead, February 26, 1784. Witnesses: 
Robert Stockton, William French, John Watson. 

5. Bond of Joseph Anthony as Minister of the Gospel, dated 
July 27, 1785. Subscribers: Joseph Anthony, James Anthony, 
William Whitsitt. 

6. William Whitsitt to Margaret Blakey, Deed of Gift to 500 
acres of land, October, 1788. 

7. Abraham Penn and William Whitsitt to Benjamin Jones, 
550 acres for £275, dated April 27, 1790. 

8. Commission from Henry Court to examine Mrs. Whitsitt 
about relinquishing dower rights in the above. Issued September 
23, 1790, and returned September 25, 1790. 

9. George Blakey to Markham Lovell, 300 acres, more or less, 
January 21, 1790, for £100. Witnesses: Joseph Anthony, 
William Whitsitt, James Anthony. 

10. Commission from Henry Court to examine Mrs. Blakey 
about relinquishing dower rights in the above. Issued September 
23 and returned September 25, 1790. 

11. David Watson to William Brethett, 450 acres on Leather- 
wood Creek for £60, November 9, 1792. Witnesses: John Wat- 
son, Samuel Elliott, Henry Laurence. 

12. William Brethett to Zachariah Philpott, November 20, 
1792, 1,000 acres, for $150. Witnesses: Shadrick Dent, James 
MurjAy, Charles T. Philpott. 

13. William Brethett to Charles Thomas Philpott, July 9, 1793, 
300 acres for £300. Witnesses: John Read, James Howard, 
Saml. Watson. In the body of this deed Mr. and Mrs. Breathitt 
are said to be "of the County of Cambell and State of Virginia." 



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I40 The American Historical Magazine. 

14. Commission sent from Henry to Campbell Court to examine 
Mrs. Breathitt about relinquishing her dower rights in the above. 
Issued February 24, 1794, and returned September 16, 1799. 

15. William Breatheart to John Dowdie, August 10, 1799, 
450 acres on Leatherwood Creek for iioo. 

[To be continued.] 



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Biography op Thomas Emmerson. 141 



BIOGRAPHY OF THOMAS EMMERSON. 



BY HENRY FRANCIS BEAUMONT. 



Situated on the highest point in the little mountain town of 
Jonesboro— distinguished by being the first township organized 
in the Commonwealth of Tennessee — ^is the "old cemetery/* the 
first established in that section; and therein, neglected and for- 
gotten, a matted veil of ivy and other creepers almost entirely 
obscuring it, is a monument of sandstone upon which is inscribed 
in letters nearly indecipherable : 

Sacred 

to the memory of 

Thomas Emmerson. 

born at | 

Lawrenceville Courthouse, 
Brunswick County, Virginia, 
June 23, 1773, 

died 
July 22, 1837. 

Though lamentably brief this inscription contains facts of high 
value, by means of which the life of a man, who, in his day was 
one of the most honorable and prominent in East Tennessee, is 
preserved from sheer oblivion — in that it supplies the alpha and 
omega of his biography upon which other less important facts, 
though more interesting, may be hung. This man, Thomas Em- 
merson, a native of Virginia and an adopted son of the Volun- 
teer State, was a member of the first board of aldermen of 
Knoxville, was the first mayor of that city, was a charter trustee 
of the East Tennessee College, which is the University of Ten- 
nessee to day, was afterwards its secretary for eight years, was 
a charter trustee of Hampden-Sydney Academy, and of the Knox- 
ville Female Academy also, was a commissicmer for the establish- 
men of the original Bank of Knoxville, was a menxber of the 



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142 Thb Ambrican Historical Magazinb. 

State Superior Court, thence sat upon the bench of the Supreme 
Court and in addition bore other honors and distinctions, in 
many ways having won title to rank amid the great men of 
Tennessee. Judge Thomas Emmerson came to Tennessee in 
1800, and the fact that he was a man of extraordinary character 
is borne out by his having been a member of the District Court 
of Virginia, his native State, before he came to this State, even 
though he was then only twenty-seven years of age. Bom of 
the landed gentry of the Old Dominion State, with the red blood 
of the Cavalier coursing through his veins, better educated than 
the ordinary man of that day, his seeking for recognition of his 
talent and ability was quickly rewarded. 

Knoxville, Knox County, Tennessee, was founded in 1786 by 
Colonel James White. The town was incorporated on October 
27, 18x5, and on January 13, 1816, about three months later, the 
first meeting of the board of aldermen of the new township was 
held. Thomas Emmerson, James Dardis, Thomas McCorry, 
Rufus Morgan, Tames Park, Thos. W. Humes, and John M. 
Cullen composed the board — from that body and by its action the 
first named beine: chosen as mayor. Thomas Emmerson had been 
appointed a trustee of the East Tennessee College, the immediate 
successor to Barbara Blount College and the immediate prede- 
cessor to the University of Tennessee, in 1807; and the same 
year had been aopointed to a seat upon the bench of the Superior 
Court of the State — in the latter capacity serving until the 
abolition of the court by the enactment, dated November 16, 1809, 
which established the State Supreme Court of Errors and Ap- 
peals. He had also been serving as secretary of the East Ten- 
nessee College, from 181 2, his service lasting eight years; and in 
1811 had become trustee for both the Hampden-Sydnev Academy 
and the Knoxville Female Academy, demonstrating the prominent 
part taken by him in the affairs of the community. His appoint- 
ment to a commissionership for the foundation of the Bank of 
Knoxville, chartered as "the Bank of the State of Tennessee," in 
the same year, further establishes his public character; hence 
there is little doubt but that his election to the mayoralty of 
Knoxville was a popular and wise choice. While filling this 
office Judge Emmerson was also serving upon the bench of the 



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Biography op Thomas Emmbrson. 143 

First Circuit Court, 1816-1818, and in 1819 he became an as- 
sociate justice of the Supreme judiciary, serving for four years 
and thence, at the ag'e of forty-nine, retiring and establishing 
his residence in Jonesboro, then a village of much importance 
in that section. 

With a large legal practice and with a fine farm near-by the 
town, Judge Emmerson lived a life of activity, though one of 
which there is no record in detail, until 1833, when he purchased 
the Washington Republican and Farmer's Journal, which was 
being published at Jonesboro. He acted as editor of this paper 
from 1833 t^ ^837, associated with him being Honorable S. W. J. 
Lucky, who was afterward, from 1845 ^^ i847> judge of the 
Circuit Court. Mr. Lucky acted as business manager of ,the 
paper. Previous to his entrance upon editorial duties Judge Em- 
merson had taken much interest in the improvement of the 
agricultural methods and resources of East Tennessee — he and 
Honorable David A. Deaderick having introduced the first cast- 
iron plow to that section — ^and Judge Emmerson devoted much 
attention to such topics in the publication, with the result that the 
Washington Republican and Farmer's Journal was very suc- 
cessful at the time of his death, July 22, 1837, the sixty-fourth 
year of his age. 

In the April, 1903, number of the American Historical Maga- 
sine, an article by myself was printed bearing upon this same 
subject — ^Judge Thomas Emmerson — in which additional infor- 
mation as to his birth and death, his people and his life, were 
besought. That article inspired such correspondence as to de- 
velop the new facts embodied in this, and with which are woven 
practically all that is known of the man by the men of to-day. 
Colonel John S. Mathes, author of "Governors of Tennessee," 
said, in a letter : 

"The inscription upon the grave of Judge Emmerson [as 
quoted already] is almost illegible and one without knowledge 
of what should be there could not decipher it. Beside the grave 
of Judge Emmerson is that of his estimable wife, who was born 
in Wilks County, North Carolina, and who died in Jonesboro 
in 1858, at the age of sixty-nine. The marble monument above 
her grave is of Italian stone and is almost perfect in contour 
and lettering. There in that silent city of the dead, the "old 



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144 'I'hb Ambrican Historical Magazine. 

cemetery" of Jonesboro, are buried others known to fame, among 
whom are Colcmcl John A. Aiken, gifted and eloquent, who made 
the race against Andrew Johnson for Congress in 1843 > General 
A. E. Jackson ; brilliant W. E. Munsey ; Chief Justice J.W. Deade- 
rick. Congressman John Blair and Samuel Cunningham Blair — 
the latter the first president of the East Tennessee and Virginia 
Railway, now the Southern System — are also buried there." 

Judge Thomas Emmerson left a son, Thomas Emmerson II, 
who married a Miss Green, of Washington County, and by whom 
there are one or two of the name living to-day. Ada Emmerson, 
granddaughter of Judge Emmerson, married E. A. Broyles, of 
Knoxville; and John L. Davis, a wealthy coal operator of the 
same place, is a cousin of hers, but with these exceptions there 
are no descendants of Judge Emmerson — the man whose schol- 
arship and wisdom won such high honors in a period when such 
qualities were not fully recognized — living to-day. 



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Jackson's Attitude in the Seminole War. 145 



JACKSON'S ATTITUDE IN THE SEMINOLE WAR. 



BY DAVID Y. THOMAS, CONWAY, ARK. 



The Seminoles were a nation of Indians composed chiefly of 
Creeks who had left their own tribes in Georgia, many of them 
as refugees, to mingle with other tribes in Florida. These, to- 
gether with runaway negroes from Georgia and South Caro- 
lina, were employed by British officers in their operations on 
our Southern border in the War of 1812. Even after the restora- 
tion of peace with England some British officers, without war- 
rant from the British government, continued to foment trouble. 
At the close of the war they abandoned a fort which they had 
built about fifteen miles above the mouth of the Appalachicola 
river, leaving it well stocked with arms and ammunition. This 
the negroes seized upon and made it their headquarters. In 
;8i6 this "Negro Fort," as it came to be known, became a 
source of great anxiety to the American military authorities 
and to the citizens of Georgia, consequently it was invested and 
destroyed. During the year 1817 collisions between whites and 
Indians were frequent on the frontier. Spain was engaged in was 
with her revolted colonies at the time and could do but little in 
the way of policing the country, which she had promised to do^ 
In November General Gaines summoned the suspected Seminole 
chief of the village called Fowltown, which was situated on 
lands claimed by the United States, to appear before him that 
he might know "whether his hostile temper had abated."* Upon 
his refusal a detachment was sent out which captured the vil- 
lage, killing four Indians. Proof being found that the Fowl- 
town chief was in league with the Florida filibusters, the vil- 
lage was burned by order of General Gaines. This was said by 
cx-Govemor Mitchell, of Georgia, to have been the cause of 
the Seminole war.* In nine days it was followed by a terrible 

'See Treaties and Conventions, p. 1007. 

* Sumner's Andrew Jackson, p. 55; Schouler, His. of U. S., Ill, 60. 

*Niles' Register, XVI, 85. 



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146 The American Historical Magazine. 

act of retaliation. A large, open boat, containing about forty 
soldiers and several women and children, was attacked from 
ambush while ascending the river and all its occupants but five 
were killed. 

As to the party on whom rested the chief blame, there was, 
as is usual, "somet;hing to be said on both sides." Ex-Governor 
Mitchell says that acts of violence were committed by the whites 
as well as by Indians, and that a spirit of retaliation mutually 
prevailed, but believes that the first outrage was committed by 
n band of outlaws who had taken refuge on both sides of St. 
Mary's River.^ The British General Nicholls had taught the 
Creek refugees that under the Treaty of Ghent the lands which 
their people had surrendered to the United States as a penalty 
for the war they had waged were to be restored to them. Sum- 
ner* says that there was so much room for this construction 
that diplomatic measures were necessary to set it aside, but the 
writer has not been able to find any support for this statement. 
There were some oral communications with the British gov- 
ernment in regard to the matter, but they did not arise from any 
misunderstanding of the treaty ; they were protests against the 
arbitrary conduct of Nicholls, whose acts were promptly dis- 
avowed. Moreover, it does not appear that the interpretation 
put upon the treaty by the British government, so far as it re- 
lated to this matter, ever differed from that of our own.* But, 
granting that the Indians were the dupes of Nicholls, who put 
this construction on the treaty, and of other adventurers who 
infested the borders, especially in East Florida, the United 
States could not, for that reason, allow their raids to go un- 
punished. Keeping in mind the part played by these instigators 
and the fact that Spain could not fulfill her treaty obligations in 
restraining the Indians will, I think, help us to find an explana- 
tion, I will not say justification, of Jackson's later conduct. It 
must also be remembered that he was not at all averse to in- 
vading Spanish territory.** 



•NUes' Regristcr, XVI. 85. 
'Andrew Jackson, o. 59. 



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Jackson's Attitude in the Seminoi,e War. 147 

Upon receipt of the news of the capture of Fowltown and of 
the attack on the open boat, the administration ordered Gen- 
eral Jackson to take command in Georgia. Before he had re- 
ceived his marching orders he wrote to President Monroe: 
**Let it be sig^fied to me through any channel (say Mr. J. Rhea) 
that the possession of the Floridas would be desirable to the 
United States, and in sixty days it will be accomplished."^ His 
orders, now on the way, were to proceed to the seat of war and 
take command, observing the restrictions already imposed on 
his predecessor, General Gaines. He might cross the Florida 
line, if necessary, in pursuit of his flying enemy, could they be 
reached in no other way, but on no account was he to molest 
a Spanish post without further orders from the War Depart- 
ment. Jackson's letter is said not to have been read by the 
President for a year or more after its receipt, owing to the fact 
that he was sick at the time.* 

In obedience to orders Jackson hastened to Georgia, taking 
with him about 1,000 Tennesseans whom he had enlisted on his 
•own responsibility in the absence of the governor, and by March 
1818, was on the frontier of Florida, driving the Seminoles be- 
fore him. In the neighborhood of Tallahassee he burned a few 
Seminole villages, and appearing before St. Mark's, the only 
Spanish post in the vicinity, demanded the right to garrison it 
with his own troops while the war lasted. The Spanish com- 
mandant replied that he would write for authority to admit the 
troops, but Jackson seized it at once and went on with his work. 
After remaining there two days, during which time he captured 
by stratagem and hung two Redstick chiefs, he proceeded to the 
Sewanee River where he captured another village, but the In- 
dians escaped to the swamps. This ended the war. 

But it was not the end of trouble over the war. At St. Mark's 
Jackson captured a Scotchman named Arbuthnot, and at Sewa- 
nee an Englishman named Ambrister, both of whom were tried 
for complicity in the war, condemned and executed. After leav- 
ing St. Mark's Jackson repaired to Ft. Gadsden, where he heard 
that about five hundred and fifty Indians had gathered at Pen- 



' See Sumner's Andrew Jackson, p. 56 ; Schouler, IV, 68. 
'Schouler, III, 69. 



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148 Thk Ambrican Historical Magazinb. 

sacola, were fed by the governor and had murdered and plun- 
dered citizens of the United States.* He immediately set out 
against Pensacola, paying no attention to a warning from the 
governor to quit West Florida or "meet force with force." With 
only a show of resistance he entered Pensacola May 24, and the 
next day attacked Fort Barrancas, where the governor had 
taken refuge. This was captured in two days and the officers 
of the government, civil and military, were transported to Ha- 
vana. General Jackson then set up a new government, pro- 
claimed the revenue laws of the United States as "more favor- 
able to our commerce,"^ appointed Captain Gadsden collector, 
and left for Nashville. 

Sumner says that "Jackson's proceedings were based on two 
positive but arbitrary assumptions : (i) That the Indians got aid 
and encouragement from St. Mark's and Pensacola. (2) That 
Great Britain kept paid emissaries in Florida to stir up trouble 
for the United States. This latter assumption was a matter of 
profound belief generally in the United States."* 

Neither assumption has anything to do with Jackson's illegal 
enlistment of troops and appointment of officers in Tennessee.*^ 
But this is readily explained when we consider that it was a 
characteristic of Jackson to act on his own responsibility in 
emergencies, disregarding legal forms where they crossed his 
purpose. Nor do they apply to his execution of the two Indian 
chiefs. "They had tortured and massacred prisoners after the 
Indian fashion, but no one has ever explained by what law or 
usage known in the service of the United States they were put to 
death, when thus captured by stratagem, and not even on the 
field of battle."' But the bearing of these assimiptions on his 
other acts is close. 

In the first place, it required no very lax interpretation of the 
orders he had received to justify an invasion of Spanish ter- 
ritory. His capture of the Spanish posts may possibly be viewed 
as carrying out his plan to get possession of Florida which he 



-TkiT 4.-.— T»l_ TT 



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Jackson's Attitude in thb Sbminole War. 149 

had suggested to President Monroe and which he supposed was 
supported by the administration.^ But this cannot be pressed 
far. He did not take St. Mark's until he had evidence that it 
was aiding the Indians,* or at least was unable to resist them. 
Nor does he appear to have had any designs on Pensacola until 
he heard that Indians were sheltered there.* But he had no 
orders to interfere with these ; on the other hand he was ex- 
pressly forbidden to do so. The proper thing to do then was to 
report conditions and await further orders. But Jackson does not 
seem to have thought of such a thing ; indeed, it was altogether 
inconsistent with his temper. In his memorial of justification 
addressed to the Senate he plead wide discretionary powers;* 
but it is probable that only his success and the fact that he was 
an old hero enabled him to get off so easy. 

As to the execution of Arbuthnot, Sumner says that there was 
no evidence at all against him on any of the charges on which 
he was condemned.* He accuses Niles, who published an ac- 
count of the trial, of being an extreme partisan of Jackson. We 
may with equal fairness accuse Mr. Sumner of being a hostile 
critic. He even goes to the extent of saying that there never 
was any proof that anybody incited the Indians.' This sounds 
strange, not to say contradictory, after he had said, just three 
pages before, that Ambrister was tried for 'inciting the Indians 
and crying war," and that he threw himself on the mercy of the 
court. To say that a general arrested and executed two men 
without the slightest proof of guilt and that his action went un- 
rebuked by the authorities is a serious charge and should have 



» Jackson afterward claimed to have received such a letter from Mr. 
Rhea, but it was never produced. Sumner's Jackson, p. 56. 

■ Amer. S. Papers, Mil. Af., I, 755. 

3 For chsLTf^es and proof against the Spanish the reader is referred to 
Jackson's letter to Governor Macot, and to other attested letters in 
the Amei:. 8. Pap., MU. Af., I, 7l2ff. See also McMaster, IV, 450. In 
bis reply to ours, Secretary Adams said: ''The charges aUeg-ed by 
General Jackson ag-ainst the commandant at St. Mark's are not known 
to have been denied. The Grovemor of Pensacola has partly^ and but 
partly, contradicted those which applied to himself." a 

a Amer. S. Pap., Foreigrn Relations, IV, 499. 

♦ Andrew Jackson, p. 59. 

5 Ibid., p. 63. 



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I50 The American Historical Magazine. 

its basis in fact. It is probable that the most guilty man, Nich- 
oils, escaped ; but there is some evidence, though somewhat cir- 
cumstantial, against Arbuthnot. 

It is generally agreed that a letter to his son warning him of 
Jackson's approach was read to the Indians at Sewanee and 
caused their escape.^ This action was not criminal in itself, 
but this question, which the writer has not seen referred to else- 
where, naturally arises : If he was not hostile to the Americans, 
w'hy should he warn his son to be off with his property ? A man 
captured at Sewanee swore that Arbuthnot had supplied the In- 
dians with munitions of war. This evidence was given by a 
former clerk and may or may not have been prompted by 
malice. However, a perusal of Arbuthnot's letters* rather in- 
clines one to regard him simply as a friend of the Indians who, 
in his opinion, were being mistreated. Certainly the evidence 
against him does not seem to have warranted his execution. 

The case against Ambrister is stronger. The details of his 
capture vary somewhat. Jackson says that he "was actually 
taken in arms against the forces of the United States."* Mc- 
Master says that he and three other men came upon the camp 
unexpectedly in the night, being ignorant of the presence of 
troops in the vicinity.* But whatever the manner of his cap- 
ture, he plead guilty to the charge of leading the Indians and 
alleged justification, but was condemned to be shot. Upon mo- 
tion, the tribunal commuted this to fifty lashes and a year of 
hard labor. But Jackson disapproved of this and ordered the 
original sentence to be carried out.* 

The law laid down by Jackson in his order for the execution 
was to the effect: "It is an established principle of the la\s»s of 
nations that any individual of a nation making war against the 
qitizens of another nation, they being at peace, forfeits his al- 
legiance, and becomes an outlaw and pirate ; this is the case of 
Robert C. Ambrister, clearly shown by the evidence adduced"*^ 



» Amer. 8. Pap., Mil. Af., I, pp. 722ff ; 15 Nilcs' RegUtcr, 270f. 
•Ibid., p. 758. 



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Jackson's ArriTUDE in the Seminole War. 151 

By what law Arbuthnot was hung does not appear, for he is 
not specifically mentioned in this as was Ambrister. 

Such a proposition is too monstrous to te discussed. The 
proper thing to do was to settle tlie status of the Indians, for 
those taking part with them certainly shared their rights and 
privileges, whatever they were. The majority report of the 
House Committee to which was referred that part of the Presi- 
dent's message bearing on the trials declares : "It is admitted, 
as a maxim of the law of nations, that 'where the war is with a 
savage nation, which observes no rules, and never gives quar- 
ter, we may punish them in the persons of any of their people 
whom we may take (these belong to the number of the guilty) 
. . .' "^ To this the minority report adds : "... and the citizens 
or subjects of any civilized nation, by engaging in their warfare, 
. . . thereby identifying themselves with the savages . . . and are, 
by the true and acknowledged principles of the laws of na- 
tions, subject to the same treatment."^ What were their rights 
and privileges ? 

Sumner admits that the Creeks were not a nation, that there 
had been no declaration of war; "yet they were," says he, "not 
rebels against the United States, and it could not be denied that 
they had some belligerent rights." It is very hard to see what 
belligerent rights those who had made marauding expeditions 
across the border had, for by that act they became outlaws. 
However, those who had not crossed the border deserved some 
consideration. In the case of Indians it might have been hard 
to draw distinctions, but in the case of white men found among 
them, but not actually engaged with those who had made depre- 
dations, there certainly was need of caution. In the words of 
the Lacock report, "Humanity shudders at the idea of a cold- 
blooded execution of prisoners [white or. Indian, we may add] 
disarmed and in the power of the conqueror."' 

But Jackson was not the man to trouble himself about line 
distinctions. When satisfied of a man's guilt he seems to have 
sought only evidence to convict, not to clear. When his pas- 



' Amer. 8. Pap., Mil. Af., I, p. 735. 

"Ibid., p. 738 ; see also Lacock Report, p. 743. 

3 Andrew Jackson, p. 63. 



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152 Thb Ahbrican Historical Magazinb. 

sions impelled him to a certain course of action, points of law, 
civil or moral, were not likely to prove strong barriers. Schouler 
sums up his attitude in the Seminole War in a single sentence : 
"Jackson adopted the course of seizing and punishing first, leav- 
ing to the administration only the choice of releasing from the 
indignity inflicted."^ But alas, there was no release for a dead 
man. 



«His. U. S., III., 75. 



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.^>^i^^4^£yz6^ jL/^r^C?:^l^^-^T^ ^)utJt. y^ 



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Dr. Augustin Gattingbr. 153 



DR. AUGUSTIN GATTINGER. 



Nearly sixty years ago two German youths, students at the 
University of Munich, were making a tour of the surrounding 
country during their vacation with a view to learning in a prac- 
tical manner the science of botany that was being taught them 
in their university. They were walking, as the manner is and 
was with students of the great German schools, and found much 
to enlist their attention. Traveling day by day they constantly 
found plants new to them, and gathered specimens for their her- 
baria. As they journeyed together and studied the seemingly 
innimierable forms of plant life, one day they stopped at an 
ancient moss-covered milestone which was coated with hchens 
of many varieties. As they were removing specimens and com- 
menting on their size, one of them said to the other : "Botany is 
too large a science for one man ; let us divide the work while we 
go along, and each give attention to one part." This was agreed 
to, and the youth known as Ferdinand decided that he would 
study the mosses and lichens, while the other plant forms should 
be studied by Augustin, his companion. So the vacation was 
spent. 

After returning to the university circumstances separated the 
two companions, and one came across the wide Atlantic to 
America, while the other remained at the university, lived all his 
Hfe in Germany and died in Munich. His choice of the mosses 
and lichens as a special field in botany was retained, and year 
by year he studied and collected. He lived many years, dying in 
Munich August 8, 1901, and when he died a book was written 
telling of his life, and especially of his achievements as a botanist. 
In the special field of mosses and lichens he had become the 
acknowledged authority of all countries, had the largest and 
nearest to completion of all the collections in the world of mosses 
and lichens. His life work had been with these two forms of 
plant life, and he had won the highest place. That man was 
Ferdinand Arnold. 

It was in telling me of this that the other of the two who had 
4 



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154 The American Historical Magazine. 

been fellow students together, Doctor Augiistin Gattinger, said, 
and said without regret that I could trace in tone or manner: 
"See what I also might have accomplished had I remained in 
Germany." But Doctor Gattinger's was no empty or unfruitful 
life. He was a botanist of distinction and so acknowledged by 
leading botanists and botanical societies throughout the world- 
He was the first State Botanist of Tennessee, and the last till 
now. He did much for his adopted State in this direction, and 
his work will some day receive the recognition which it deserves 
— recognition as yet given in a very imperfect degree. And as 
a physician, which was his real life work, he left a good namd 
with all who knew of him. 

The man of science does not pursue science wholly for the 
remuneration there is in it. Were it so, he would scarcely pursue 
it at all. Few of the great scientists of the world have made 
any splendid financial success of their pursuit. And many of 
thJem, as did Doctor Gattinger, have pursued their scientific bent 
in hours when they could take brief respite from the struggle for 
the material benefits of life. Doctor Gattinger was a botanist for 
the love of it; he was a physician by profession, and in that 
vocation fortunately attained such rank and income as allowed 
him time and means for botany. 

Augustin Gattinger was bom in Munich, Bavaria, on the third 
day of February, 1825, and spent his youth in his native land. 
He was the son of August and Rosa Gattinger, both of Munich. 
His father was an important official of the Government, being the 
receiver of the moneys due the Crown from the States or prin- 
cipalities. Of that father he retained but the memories of a boy 
of seven, his father dying in 1832. Yet his memories were of 
the happiest. On his seventh birthday anniversary his father 
gave him a handsome silver spoon, and this memento he kept to 
the last day of his life. Such was the tenderness with which he 
clung to his father's memory that from the time when he received 
the gift in February, 1832, till the last time he appeared at his 
own table in July, 1903, a i>eriod of over seventy-one years, he 
would never eat a meal unless that spoon were by his plate. His 
father died just after Augustin reached the age of seven, and 
that birthday gift was the last event in his father's life that he 
remembered. 



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Dr. Augustin Gattingkr. 155 

The widowed mother took pains to educate him to be of use 
to himself and to the community ; at an early age Augustin was 
sent to school, and after the Latin school and the gymnasium, he 
went to the University of Munich to study medicine. He had 
attended at the university during the middle of that decade which 
proved most disastrous to the German patriots. Liberty and 
progress were sought by them in ways not approved by the 
government, and meetings of discontented citizens were frequent, 
the purpose being to deliberate on joint action to secure safer 
and better means of emigration to the United States of America. 
In 1849 one meeting was held in Munich which was attended by 
two hundred substantial citizens, artists, professional men, 
mechanics, farmers, people of good standing in society and 
amply provided with means, as a result of which many during 
that year came to America. Another meeting shortly after was 
fateful to young Gattinger. 

Washington's Farewell Address had been translated into Ger- 
man, and had then attracted unusual attention among the edu- 
cated and thinking men. The students at the German universities 
were particularly fond of speaking parts of it, and declaiming 
it whenever the occasion offered. Their enthusiasm fanned by 
what they believed to be the popular feeling, the students of the 
University of Munich resolved on a grand celebration of the 
twenty-second of February, a solemn fete in honor of Washing- 
ton's birthday. Such a proceeding had never been heard of be- 
fore in Munich, but it was so fully in accord with the prevailing 
sentiments of the liberal party among the students that it was a 
tremendous success. Washington's Farewell Address was read; 
there were speeches and eulogies on Washington, Jefferson, 
Franklin and other American heroes, who were lauded fervently 
and unreservedly. It was the sensation in Munich, and else- 
where in Bavaria, as well. 

This open avowal of admiration for republican institutions and 
republican thinkers was too conspicuous to be passed over in 
silence by the government; nor was it ignored. The university 
authorities first considered it, and summoned the leading student 
participants before them. In anticipation of what was forthcom- 
ing a number of them left the city without appearing before the 
university authorities. Those who did appear were punished 



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156 The Ambrican Historical Magazine. 

according to the part they had played in the celebration. Among 
those requested to withdraw from the university without delay 
was Augustin Gattinger. He had barely left the university when 
the Government notified him that since he was so ardent an 
admirer of George Washington and the other Americans v^hc«n 
he had lauded at the celebration he would be given seven days 
in which to leave Bavaria for America or for whatever other 
part of the world he should prefer, so that it be beyond the con- 
fines of Germany. 

He made his preparations instantly. His sweetheart lived in 
Munich and to her he went with the question whether she would 
marry him and go witl\ him to America. She consented to do so. 
This brave and loyal woman was Josephine Dury, a daughter of 
Nicholas and Augusta Dury, of Munich, and a sister of George 
Dury. then a young artist of ability, and rising in the esteem 
of the art world. When Gattinger and Miss Dury had agreed to 
unite their destinies and come to the great American republic, 
George Dury also sought out his sweetheart and asked her to 
come with him to the new world, as companions for his sister and 
her husband. She too consented, and so love mitigated the dis- 
tress of leaving the ancestral home. The four met at the Ameri- 
can Consulate of Havre, were married by the American Consul 
on the 24th of April, 1849, suid sailed on the day of their wedding 
for America. 

A little more than three months later, then, the party of four 
came to Dalton, Ga., then the terminus of the Georgia & South 
Carolina Railroad, and thence rode to Chattanooga, Tenn., by 
stage, arriving there in July, 1849. They were fascinated by the 
scenery, but Chattanooga then was but a small town with a few 
inferior houses, and so they went further on. Taking passage 
on a little steamboat they rode three days and came to Kingstcwi, 
on the Qinch River. The clean and airy little place delighted 
them no less than the friendliness of the people, and so they 



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Dr. Augustin Gattinger. 157 

ment because they haxi not calculated the chances of deriving 
any income from it. They found it impossible to make the place 
yield returns for their labor and sold it at a considerable loss. 

During the stay at Cave Spring", however, the transition from 
the bustling German metropolis to such a quiet retreat had been 
a stimulus to the scientific tendency of Doctor Gattinger's mind, 
and all the time that he could take from professional duties and 
horseback riding in pursuit of those duties, he gave to the study 
of the botany and geology of the country surrounding him. He 
had had to give two years to these studies at Munich, where it 
was obligatory to take a course of natural sciences — chemistry^ 
mineralogy, and botany — before being admitted to the medical 
department. This two years' course in general and medicinal 
botany initiated him, so to speak, into the science; but he had 
from his earlier school years been a botanical collector, and had 
already given a great deal of time to the study of botany before 
entering the university. 

After the reluctant but enforced abandonment of Cave Spring 
Doctor Gattinger acquired some property in Charleston, Bradley 
County, Tenn., where he still practiced medicine and studied 
botany. There he remained until he accepted, in 1858, the posi- 
tion of resident surgeon at the copper mines at Ducktown, Tenn. 
Situated in the high mountains of East Tennessee, adjoining 
North Carolina and Georgia, this new situation was socially very 
agreeable, and moderately remunerative ; it also possessed for the 
botanist and geologist so many and so diversified points of in- 
terest that the lifetime of a competent investigator could not 
exhaust the possibilities, could not solve all the problems and col- 
lect all the various plants, minerals and rocks. A prominent 
member of the United States Geological Survey, who was ac- 
quainted with this r^on, assured Doctor Gattinger in a letter 
received shortly before his death that in the entire area of the 
United States he knew of no part which in an equal territory 
possessed so great a diversity and complication of structure. 
Here, then, Doctor Gattinger utilized industriously his great op- 
portunity, although with great diffidence, as he stated in an 
autobiographical sketch prefixed to his last work, for want of 
scientific botanical literature, especially of the American literature 
bearing on this science. But he spent practically fifteen years 



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158 Thb American Historical Magazine. 

in the saddle ; he traversed more than one-half of East Tennessee, 
including the Cumberland Mountains and all the valleys between 
Walden's Ridge and Smoky Mountain, and held in his mind a 
wdl connected panorama of the natural vista at every season of 
the year. He was entirely happy, because he loved the work he 
was doing. Placed as he was among unfamiliar modes of life, 
without access to libraries, with no information about the con- 
dition and advance of scientific affairs, his progress was neces- 
sarily slow and tedious, but he kept up the pursuit which had 
from his schoolboy days been a source of pleasure and consola- 
tion. 

But when he had grown to believe himself possessed of a 
permanent occupation conjoined with moderate recompense and 
quiet enjoyment of intellectual and useful pursuits, it came sud- 
denly to pass that he had to assume his share of the turmoils 
and convulsions of the Civil War. Doctor Gattinger, like nearly 
every one who came to America during the three decades im- 
mediately preceding the war, was bitterly opposed to the dis- 
ruption of the Union; he had observed the troubles of a great 
nation split into petty principalities as Germany was for centuries, 
and believed that he saw in the growing greatness of his adopted 
country, and in its form of government, the future liberation of 
all nationalities through its prfiysical power and moral influence. 
He advocated the cause of the Union with such vigor as to cause 
great displeasure to his former friends — so great displeasure fliat 
he found it advisable to leave his home and part with his family. 
On a cold, starry March night, with no money, with a small 
satchel as traveling outfit, he made his way on foot through the 
Ocoee gorge, and reached the town of Cleveland, forty miles 
distant, without an accident^ and uncertain of his ultimate desti- 
nation. 

Claiming the protection of the Government in which he had 
placed his faith, that Government took him under its care, sent 
him to Nashville, and put him into service as an assistant sur- 
geon, after he had passed a rigid examination before the Board 
of United States Medical Examiners. He disposed of his prop- 
erty in East Tennessee and brought his family to Nashville in 
1864. After the expiration of his term of service as assistant 
surgeon, and after recovery from a severe malarial fever^ which 



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Dr. Augustin Gattingbr. 159 

temporarily disabled him for army duties, he accepted from An- 
drew Johnson, then military gfovemor of Tennessee, the positi(Mi 
of State Librarian. This position he held five years, and thereby 
found opportunities for greatly improving his acquaintance with 
American scientific literature. He added to the library many 
scientific works of the higher character, both in English and 
German, particularly in botany, geology and philosophy. He 
also found such helps in making collections as he never before 
or afterward^ enjoyed, visiting all portions of the State. The 
military superintendent of the Nashville & Chattanooga Railway, 
General William T. Innes, granted to Doctor Gattinger the 
privilege of using all trains, both passenger and freight, at all 
points, for travel. This permit continued for four years, until 
the administration of the railroad was changed, and when Doctor 
Gattinger was also succeeded by another State Librarian. He 
made good use of this opportunity of becoming more familiar 
with the flora of Tennessee, and became a figure in the botanical 
world. He was State Librarian until 18^9, during which year he 
had erected the house in which he passed the remaining years of 
his life. 

In 1869, while watching the workmen blasting out for the 
cellar of the house he was erecting, and in which he spent the 
remainder of his life, a blast threw out almost at Doctor Gat- 
tinger's feet a rare and beautiful fossil which he had never before 
seen and which has so far proved unique. It was a shell belong- 
ing to the subdivision Pteropoda, and when shown to Doctor 
J. M. Safford, then State Geologist, he gave it the name of the 
discoverer, calling it Conularia Gattingeri, This fossil much re- 
sembles Conularia Trentonensis, but is very much larger than 
any specimen before seen by Doctor Safford, the original being 
about ten inches long. The tapering end of the fossil for an inch 
or more was broken off, and Doctor Gattinger's diligent search 
among all the fragments of rock that had been blasted out from 
the bed was unavailing ; the longed-for missing end could not be 
found. Owing to the very unusual beauty of the specimen and 
the fact that it was unique many requests for casts were made 
by scientific museums and societies and they were furnished. 
One of these casts is in the Smithsonian Institution at Washing- 
ton. The original fossil is still in possession of the family. 



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i6o Thb American Historical Magazinb. 

Doctor Gattingfer carried on correspondence, which he gradu- 
ally enlarged, during his service as State Librarian, with promi- 
nent botanists in all parts of the United States, and so was get- 
ting in touch with the great scientific world of which he had at 
first felt the need. His collections were always much in request 
for exchange, as they contained many novelties and were well 
prepared. By these exchanges he rapidly built up a magnificent 
herbarium. Middle Tennessee was an unexplored r^on botani- 
cally and to Doctor Gattinger belongs the honor of being the 
pioneer in this rich field. From the time of his removal to this 
section of the State he had paid special attention to the explora- 
tion of the vicinity of Nashville and the adjoining counties. At 
the meeting of the American Association for the Advancement 
of Science held in Nashville in 1877, Doctor Gattinger took an 
interested part and entertained the visiting botanists by taking 
them on many enjoyable little excursions in this vicinity. Im- 
pressed by his earnestness and learning and by the rich collec- 
tions he had already made, the botanical division of the Associa- 
tion encouraged him to prepare a catalogue of plants or flora 
of Tennessee, which he was assured would be received favorably 
by all American botanists. They assured him that a botanical 
survey of the then unexplored r^on of Tennessee would be 
much appreciated by them, and that it would also be a most valu- 
able contribution to science. He consented to undertake the 
work, and at once redoubled his exertions. It was but a con- 
tinuation of his work after all, but a continuation towards an 
end which he had not previously hoped to reach. He took added 
pains to make the work true and reliable, with the ultimate hope 
of making worthy of general acceptance the one contribution to 
American science that he felt was possible to him. 

After ten more years of work and study he fulfilled his obliga- 
tion in 1887 by publishing a small volume of 109 pages, contain- 
ing a systematic enumeration of seventeen hundred and eight 



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Ds. AuGUSTiN Gattingbs. i6i 

Professor J. W. Chickering, Jr., and Professor Lester F. Ward, 
both of Washin^on, D. C, whose advice and attention Doctor 
Gattinger always said had put him under lasting obligations to 
them. This meeting was also the beginning of his acquaintance 
with Doctor Asa Gray, of Cambridge, to whom he enjoyed the 
privilege of sending doubtful specimens for his decision. Doctor 
Engelmann, Doctor Chapman and Doctor Vasey also accorded 
him the privilege. 

Before the publication of Doctor Gattinger's "Tennessee Flora" 
authentic published records bearing on the flora of the State had 
been but few. The number was possibly limited to two— Ekxtor 
Asa Gray contributed to Sullivan's Journal during 1841 a sketch 
of a botanical tour through the Alleghenies and Roan Mountain, 
and in the Botanical Gazette of December, 1880, Professor J. W. 
Chickering had printed an article descriptive of "A Summer on 
Roan Mountain." It was an often-expressed regret of Doctdr 
Gattinger that Doctor Rugel, who about the middle of the nine- 
teenth century resided in the vicinity of Greeneville and made 
valuable collections and discoveries in that vicinity and through 
the mountains of East Tennessee and North Carolina, died with- 
out leaving a record of his work. Doctor Rugel's collections 
went into the possession of a Mr. Shuttleworth, of England. 
Senecio Rugelii Gray, Plantago Rugelii Decaisne, Siphonychia 
Rugelii Chapman commemorate the name of this able botanical 
worker and investigator. 

The publication of Doctor Gatting^r's first book, therefore, 

was in reality an important scientific event. It naturally helped 

Doctor Gattinger very much in the furtherance of his ultimate 

purpose, as it brought together all persons within the State who 

had an interest in botany, and had collected more or less. With 

this catalogue in hand, every collector in Tennessee was enabled 

to see Mrhether or not it contained all the species which he had 

found himself, and he could then report to Doctor Gattinger his 

own discoveries. Many of those who were thus aided by the 

publication of the "Tennessee Flora" in their turn aided Doctor 

Gatting-er in completing the botanical record of the State as set 

down in his final edition. 



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i62 The Ambrican Historical Magazine. 

culture of the State, in the publication of his work on the T^- 
nessee grasses and forage plants; for this he furnished the list 
of grasses actually collected by himself, and revised the manu- 
script. In the same year he prepared a publication on the trees 
and shrubs suitable to the soil and climate of Nashville, this 
work- having been undertaken and carried out at the request of 
the Board of Health of the city of Nashville. 

For the census of 1880 Doctor Gattinger collected for Pro- 
fessor Sargent, the superintendent of the botanical division of 
the census, specimens of the timbers of Tennessee. He also col- 
lected for the mineral division of the same census the building 
stones of the State, with the exclusion of the marbles. This col- 
lection consisted of forty pairs of cubes, all of different char- 
acter, each cube measuring four inches. This was the first time 
that the granites of Tennessee had ever been brought to notice in 
beautiful specimens. The same collection contained the sand- 
stones of the State — including the beautiful white sandstones 
from the Hiwassee Valley — and the argillites, conglomerates, 
slates, and limestones ; among them the oolitic or Bowling Green 
stone, which is used in the construction of the Custom House at 
Nashville. 

In 1883 Doctor Gattinger was engaged by Captain A. J. 
McWhirter, then Commissioner of Agriculture for the State, as 
an assistant in his office, in collecting minerals, building stones 
and plants for the Louisville Exposition and other exhibitions. 
This appointment was the occasion of some editorial discussion 
in certain newspapers of the State, the claim being made that 
Doctor Gattinger, on account of his being a Republican, was not 
the proper man to appoint. The action of Commissioner 
McWhirter was defended on the high ground that in naming 
Doctor Gattinger the purpose had been to get a man likely to 
render the most efficient service to the State. As was correctly 
pointed out in the Nashville World of June 9, 1883, Doctor Gat- 
tinger was "one of the most scholarly and learned men in the 
State, and possessed of a most wonderful fund of learning and 
information. As a geologist he has no superior anywhere, and 
he is moreover an enthusiastic botanist and a skilled and learned 
physician. It was these eminently lofty qualifications which in- 
duced the commissioner to make the appointment, and the fact 



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Dr. Augustin Gattinger. 163 

that the doctor was a Republican and formerly an office-holder 
under Brownlow did not deter Commissioner McWhirter from 
obtaining the services of the eminent savant for the benefit of 
the State. It is a most worthy example of the manner in which 
non-political offices should be filled and reflects on the cc«nmis- 
sioner the highest credit for having disregarded everything but 
the interest and scientific advancement of the State in all that 
regards his department." 

After the close of these exhibitions Doctor Gattinger again 
retired from office. He was most industrious in the work as- 
signed him, and fully justified the confidence that had led to his 
appointment. Among many things be wrote in connection with 
this work was one particularly entertaining two-column article 
printed in the Nashville World of September 23, 1883, descriptive 
of the exhibit of Tennessee marbles at the Louisville Exposition. 

F. Lampson Scribner, of the United States Agricultural De- 
partment, was one of the many warm botanical friends who took 
great interest in Doctor Gattinger, and he paid him high tribute 
for his effective work in a lecture on Southern Botanists which 
he delivered in Knoxville in May, 1889. He afterwards wrote 
that his reference to Doctor Gattinger had been greeted with 
indication^ of enthusiastic approval. 

Doctor Gattinger believed it the duty of every good citizen to 
do all in his power to advance the interests of his home city. 
In the line of his own work as geologist he gave especial exami- 
nation to the stones of the State with the purpose of finding those 
best suited to paving the city streets. In 1881 he had done much 
of this investigation, and continued it for several years after- 
wards. He labored diligently and made a report to the city 
imder date of August 13, 1881, of the stones which he had found 
best adapted to paving purposes. While nothing then resulted 
from the time and labor thus expended^ it showed the disposition 
he always manifested to lend his influence to the improvement of 
conditions existing around him. 

Believing in absolute correctness in all things, he did not hesi- 
tate to call attention to whatever he thought incorrect. An in- 
stance of this is his objection to the Latin inscription placed on 
the cornerstone of a Catholic Church erected years before his 
death. He copied the Inscription and printed it in a Nashville 



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i64 Thb Ambrican Historicai« Magazine. 

daily paper, followed by the same inscription with the changes 
which to his mind should have been made before the words were 
cut into the stone. The errors he ascribed to the present day 
faulty teaching of Latin. 

In a letter written to a friend something over a year before 
his death. Doctor Gattinger spoke of the years he had spent in 
Tennessee, saying they had not been years of favor, but rather 
of endurance : '' My life has been a school of endurance. My 
bad luck culminated in 1892, when a Nashville savings bank 
succeeded in robbing me of the meager earnings of a meager 
practice, which might have alleviated the end of my days, and 
would have given me a chance to review my former work." 

In 1894 Honorable T. F. P. Allison, Commissioner of Agricul- 
ture, entrusted Doctor Gattinger with the preparation of a pub- 
lication on the medicinal plants of Tennessee. The work was 
completed to the satisfaction of all concerned, and is a most valu- 
able addition to the State's literature. It is now very rare, and 
will every year be more valuable as a work of reference and a 
manual of preparation, as well as on account of its scarcity. 

In 1897 Doctor Gattinger was connected with the Tennessee 
Centennial Exposition as a member of the Department of Min- 
erals and Mines, of which Doctor J. M. SaflFord was chairman. 
He procured among other things a rich collection of the copper 
ores and smelting products of the Ducktown mines and smelting 
works, inclusive of a rich display of ingots. He also exhifcitod 
a large collection of Tennessee granites in blocks, with one side 
polished, from Wolf Creek, Carter County, and from near Eliza- 
bethton on the line of the railroad which extends from Johnson 
City to the Cranberry mines in North Carolina. These were 
among the most attractive exhibits in the Minerals and Forestry 
Building. 

The Centennial Exposition was an enterprise in which Doctor 
Gattinger was intensely interested. He was in attendance almost 
without missing a day when the pressure of his professional 
duties wotdd permit. He was a student of it as a whole, and 
saw many of the higher lessons which it should have taught to 
all. Not long before his death he wrote a letter to the Director 
General of the Exposition, Major E. C. Lewis, in which he ex- 
liressed some of the convictions resulting from the Exposition^ 



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Dr. Augustin Gattingbr. 165 

in the light of subsequent thought. He particularly referred to 
the subject of parks. In this connection he expressed regret that 
the amount appropriated by the General Assembly for the publi- 
cation of his latest edition of the "Flora" was not sufficient to print 
the whole work as he had designed it, but that to come within 
the limits of the appropriation he had had to omit his treatise on 
"Parks and Gardens : Their Ethical Influence on Public Life and 
Their Sanitary Effect." The Centennial Exposition had really 
inspired him to the completion of this portion of his work, which 
he had already long had in contemplation, and on which he had 
previously done some work. 

In this letter he gives some interesting facts concerning the 
city of Munich, which has one of the most beautiful city parks 
in the world, a park designed, and planted with American trees 
in the eighteenth century by Count Rumford. This rerrmrkable 
personage was a citizen of Massachusetts, where he was known 
by the prosaic name of Thompson, but emigrated to England 
and became the founder of the Royal Academy of England. Ac- 
cepting the call of the Prince Elector of Bavaria, he reconstructed 
there the financial and military systems of Bavaria and became a 
great benefactor to the people in making them acquainted with 
many then new improvements. 

In this same letter Doctor Gattinger also recalls the fact 
that his earliest plant collecting as a little child was the gathering 
of violets at the foot of a great monument erected by the grateful 
citizens of Munich in memory of Court Rumford. 

It was no doubt to this time of his life that his memory 
wandered back one day in June, 1902, when he came into the 
office of Mr. Morton B. Howell, a long-time friend of Doctor 
Gattinger, and said that he felt much depressed. Seating himself 
by the desk he took one of Mr. Howell's letterheads and a pen 
and wrote the following lines : 

Saltans quondam inter flores ; 

Pugnans nunc contra dolores 

Et seniles horrores. 

O, quae mutatio rerum 

Et f ugax sors dierum ! 

Patet orcus, jam mi tent sorores. 

This may be translated to read 



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i66 The American Historical Magazine. 

Walkh.g onc€ among the flowers; 

Fighting now against sorrows 

And the troubles of old age. 

O, what a change of things 

And a passing of the days ! 

The under world opens ; now the Fates appear. 

"I have relieved my mind," he said to Mn Howell, "by drop- 
ping into Latin verse." And then he turned his attention to the 
business on which he had come to the office. 

Doctor Gattinger loved the trees and flowers. Among. his 
papers months after his death they found a slip of paper on which 
was written: "Wandering along lonesome paths I could hear 
whispering voices telling from the over-arching trees and from 
the g^sses bending at my feet that my love of the floral world 
is in some way returned. Ethereal waves — ^they tell me of uni- 
versal consciousness — flood the realms of space, seizing upon all 
living things, imparting some mode and degree of consciousness 
to all of them, to each after its own kind, binding the infinite 
divinity to a harmonious unity, possessing divine cwnniscience." 

At the time of publication of the work on medicinal plants of 
the State, Doctor Gattinger's botanical collections had so far 
progressed that he felt satisfied that within a limited time not 
many more additions could be made, and he had very nearly 
reached the limits of the record. The aid extended since the ap- 
pearance of the first book had been very material, and he had 
himself added much. Others helped him liberally. Among those 
making most valuable contributions and additions were General 
Kirby-Smith, at Sewanee; Professor T. M. Bain, afterwards of 
the Agricultural College at Knoxville ; Professor A. Ruth, super- 
intendent of the public schools in Knoxville ; the late Mrs. Lydia 
Bennett, of Fisk University, Nashville ; Doctor G. Egeling, phar- 
macist, Memphis; and Professor Lampson F. Scribner and Mr. 
Kearney, both connected with the botanical division of the Agri- 



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Dr. Augustin Gattingbr. 167 

K. Hall and Anna Murray Vail, c«i the flora of Southwestern 
Virginia. Both these areas extending to the geographical bor- 
ders of Tennessee, along mountain ranges and water courses 
which continue into the upper border counties of Tennessee with- 
out any difference in the nature of the soil or elevation, the flora 
were necessarily identical. Doctor Gattinger therefore added to 
his list such species as had not yet been collected within the ad- 
joining boundaries of the State. The most recent information 
he received was from the botanists of the Biltmore Botanical 
Institute — Messrs. C. D. Beadle, F. E. and C. L. Boynton, and 
T. C. Harbison — ^published in "Biltmore Botanical Studies," 
Vol. I, No. I ; William Wesley & Son, London. From all these 
sources and from his own continued collecticms, Doctor Gat- 
tinger was able to add to his last published list over four hundred 
soecies not contained in the first edition. He made many changes, 
besides amending and correcting many errors that had occurred 
in the original publication. 

The nomenclature adopted in the last book Doctor Gattinger 
explained as follows : 

"One of the greatest burdens and causes of confusion in sys- 
tematic botany has . been the constantly increasing synonyms 
for the same species. Much of it resulted from the disjointed 
labors of distant botanical writers describing the same plants ; often 
from the imperfect specimens, while unacquainted with the past 
or contemporaneous labors of others in the same field; and in 
not a few instances it resulted from the abuse of personal promi- 
nence and disregard of the merits of others. This disturbing 
condition would never have come to an end, if the great majority 
of naturalists had not recognized the necessity of accepting the 
name given by the discoverer of the plant, whenever the name 
is conformable to preestablished rules. Priority should be a fixed 
and positive limitation, which admits of nothing arbitrary or 
partial. 

"On the invitation of Alphonse de CandoUe, an International 
Botanical Congress was held in Paris in 1867, to which botanists 
from all countries were invited, and the most important subject 
discussed was botanical nomenclature. M. A. de Candolle, 
author of the "Prodromus," presided. He had drawn up a most 
carefully considered code of rules to govern botanists in their 



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i68 The Ambrican Historical Magazine. 

writings, and this code was submitted to the assemblage of 
botanists, each rule being formulated and modified as the majority 
deemed wise. Finally the whole was printed and circulated. 
The fundamental principle of these laws was priority of publica- 
tion, with adequate descriptions. Unfortunately it was made 
retrospective, without any sufficiently defined statute of limita- 
tion. 

"Among zoologists the Stricklandian code governs — known as 
the 'Rules of the British Association.' It was signed by Charles 
Darwin and Professor Hensley. A revision was made in i860 
by Mr. A. R. Wallace, P. L. Clayton, Professor Balfour, Pro- 
fessor Huxley, Doctor J. D. Hooker, and Mr. George Bentham. 
A still further revision of the same occurred in 1865. In the 
preface to this code occurs this sentence: *No one person can 
subsequently claim an authority equal to that possessed 1^ the 
person who is the first to define a new genus or describe a new 
species.' 

"The adoption of the Paris code did not meet an immediate 
and universal acceptance. The conflict with the interests of 
authors and publishers of works of great value, the issue of 
which had been commenced and was still progressing, was a 
matter of some consideration. The non-attendance of English 
botanists at the Paris Congress was perhaps due to this cause. 
The annoyance created by such radical changes is a very great 
one, and a burden pressing heavily upon the older botanists, who 
are not so well fitted to recast their memories as the younger 
generations, who will reap the benefit of the movement. There 
was also some friction with us, even after the meeting of the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science, held in 
August, 1892. The botanical division adopted at this meeting 
the Paris code of 1867, with some modifications. At the follow- 
ing meeting, in Madison, Wis., in 1893, ^^ additional amendment 
was adopted, and a committee of the association was appointed 
to elaborate a list of Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta, growing 
without ctdtivation in Northeastern North America. This work 
was subsequently nublished in 1894 as the fifth volume of the 
"Memoirs" of the Torrey Botanical Club. The synonyms given 
under each species in this work include the recent current names, 
and thus avoid any difficulty in identification." 



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Dr. Axjgustin Gattikgsr. 169 

In 1890 Doctor Gattinger's entire collection, the second largest 
herbarium in the South, was secured by the University of Ten- 
nessee, at Knoxville, and the ardent collector, knowing that he 
could not, by reason of his advanced years, expect to add much 
to its enlargement, was happy to know that the result of his 
labors was in hands under whose care it will be well preserved 
and utilized. It gives to this institution by far the finest collec- 
tion of Tennessee flora in existence, as well as the largest her- 
barium in Tennessee. 

Doctor Gattinger's valuable botanical library he presented to 
the University of the South at Sewanee, Tenn. Among the one 
hundred and eighty-seven volumes in the collection were the 
government surveys, proceedings of numerous scientific associa- 
tions, academies, and the botanical works of Sereno Watson, 
Gray, Torrey, Vasey, Bailey, Coulter, Engelmann and other 
American botanists, with a valuable collection of reports and 
pamphlets. They were much appreciated as an addition to the 
large botanical library already gathered at the University of the 
South, and to place them there was a genuine pleasure to the 
donor. He wanted them to be useful. 

While the pursuit of botany never brought Doctor Gattinger 
any financial advantages, he always regarded it as a mighty in- 
fluence for good, profitably occupying his time. He often said 
that it gave him many hours of the purest enjoyment of life, and 
brought him into friendly relations with many excellent men and 
women whom he might not otherwise have known. People who 
love nature love each other most. 

The enlarged edition of the "Flora of Tennessee" came out in 
1901, the money for its publication being provided by the L^s- 
lature. This book was the sum of his life-work as a botanist, 
containing the full results of all his investigation into the flora 
of this State. It included a chapter on the philosophy of botany 
and other matters allied with the science, stnd gave a perfect 
classification of more than twenty-one hundred species. It was 
warmly received by botanists in America and in other countries, 
who wrote him enthusiastically concerning the value of his con- 
tribution to botanical knowledge. The press of the State, as well 
as the botanical press of the world, gave it words of the wannest 
5 



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lyo Thb Ambrican Historical Magazine. 

cominendation and showed an appreciation of the great results 
attained by him. 

A letter from Lester F. Ward, of the United States Geological 
Sm^ey, and one of the inspirers of the original midertaking, 
refers to the merit of the book and adds : "I have often thought 
of you and the delightful time that we had with you in Nash- 
ville in 1877. I do dearly hope that I may meet you again before 
long, but somehow I never seem to have anything that seems to 
call me to Nashville." A later letter promises aid in distributing 
the book to people who would appreciate and value it 

Doctor A. W. Chaoman, the noted Florida botanist, calls the 
book "the most remarkable catalogue I ever received from any 
quarter — ^the whole State of Tennessee recorded as the result 
of your sole personal exertions." In a subseauent letter the same 
writer says, "It will ever stand as a mcmument to show us what 
tmassisted perseverance is able to accomplish by one with eyes 
always open." 

Another old friend of Doctor Gattinger wrote: "I am not a 
technical botanist, but the philosophy I can comprehend and I 
wish to tell you how much I have enjoyed that and how glad I 
am that in the evening of your life you are finding such con- 
genial and profitable work to occupy your mind. I often reveit 
in memory to the time when you were so kind and helpful to 
me and when such things had a meaning and sig^ficance they have 
never had since." 

The "Flora of Tennessee" was used by Doctor William D. 
Duane, of St. Louis, in compiling his "Flora of the Mississippi 
Valley," and he foimd many things in its wonderfully c(Hnplete 
list. Among others of the author's corresxKWidents who were 
pleased with the book, and with the most of whom he had cor- 
responded for years, were Annie Chambers Ketchum (Sister 
Amabilis). F. Lampson Scribner, Asa Gray, William M. Canby, 
John M. Coulter, David F. Day, Wm. R. Dudley, John Eaton, 
S. B. Parrish, J. L. M. Curry, Charles E. Bessey, S. W. CoUett, 
Edward L. Rand, Harlan P. Kelsey, C. S. Sargent, C. P. Ambler, 
Roland M. Harper, L. H. Bailey, Frank E. McDonald and J. M. 
Safford. 

The "Flora" was the last printed work of Doctor Gattinger, 
and practically closed his labors in that field, because he realized 



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Dr. Augustin Gattinger. 171 

that even if his years permitted there was little more to add. He 
was willing to rest his reputation up<Mi it, so far as botanic 
achievement was concerned. 

But he continued the practice of medicine, his profession, and 
continued taking an interest in the things to which he had de- 
voted his life. Almost to the last he kept his usual health. In 
July, 1903, he had an attack of pneumonia which was not con- 
sidered of consequence, and for several days was slightly ill 
from it. No serious consequences were feared. About noon of 
Saturday, July 18, he was taken much worse and his condition 
became rapidly alarming. Within two hours he was dead. His 
wife had preceded him by about twelve years. Three daughters 
survive. 

Concerning his own early life and experiences Doctor Gat- 
tinger had usually very little to say to any one, even to his close 
friends. He did not seem to live in the past. Few matters re- 
lating to himself did he consider worthy of preservation — few 
indeed, save the work that he had done in the interest of his 
favorite science. The books and pamphlets he wrote are not 
numerous nor large, though they contain the fruits of more than 
half a century's study and work. It takes a great deal of inves- 
tigation and research to fill a small book like the *Tlora." A list 
of his writings is appended to this sketch. 

This reticence in speaking of his past arose from one of the 
strongest traits of his character — one that was pronounced even 
in his old age. The burning questions of the present and the 
prospects of the future interested him so intensely that he seemed 
entirely, to forget the personal experiences of the past. Thus it 
came about that few, even of the intimate friends of Doctor Gat- 
tinger, ever learned any of the events of his own past career that 
were not well known to others by virtue of the positions he had 
held and the place he occupied as a physician and a botanist. 

But, although primarily a physician and a scientific student 
of botany, his chief interest in his latter years seemed to center 
in broad philosophical questions. Books dealing with such 
problems in a critical aggressive spirit he purchased at once and 
read with the greatest eagerness. When he published the second 
edition of his "Flora," the real scientific value of which unques- 
tionably rests on the strictly botanic portion, it was especially^ 



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172 The Ambrican Historical Magazine. 

the supplementary chapters of the origin of life and kindred 
topics of which he was above all proud. For, with all his love 
for it, he was no thoroughly trained student of philosophy, but 
he always dealt with the broad philosophical and religious 
problems that attracted him in the spirit of an amateur, though 
an amateur of high intellectual endowment. His interest in these 
matters was not the dispassionate search for truth that charac- 
terizes the scientific investigator, but rather the practical enthu- 
siasm of the would-be reformer. He properly considered the 
average level of philosophical thinking in this country as very 
low. He had enough of the spirit of the moi of '48 in him 
still to object bitterly to all interference of ecclesiastic (H^niza- 
tions in matters of higher education, and as a scientist he was 
deeply concerned in popularizing the results of modem scientific 
investigation. To contribute his share to the advancement of en- 
lightened thinking on the broad questions of life was the burning, 
though not always conscious desire of his last years, and the 
feeling that in the relative solitude in which he lived he could 
not do more in that direction often filled him with keen dis- 
appointment. 

Despite this, however, his interest in the world's intellectual 
life never flagged. It always filled younger thoughtful men with 
admiration and served as an incentive to their own efforts to see 
this old man, who was almost entirely cut loose from those circles 
in which he would have felt thoroughly at home, try to keep him- 
self abreast of the latest developments in science and speculative 
thought. The absence of the facilities for being more intimately 
associated with others of like wishes and impulses was the only 
regret that any of his best friends ever heard him express at his 
early expatriation from his native Germany. 

In the last letter Doctor Gattingcr ever wrote to Professor A. 
R. Hohlfeld, now of the University of Wisconsin, who knew 
Doctor Gattinger from 1895 to ^Q^i, and to whom I am endebted 
for the substance of this estimate of his character and mind, he 
gave indications of this ever-present desire to keep abreast of 
the times. The latter was dated Januarv 13, 1903, half a year 
before he died, and in it he wrote of his interest in tfie park 
movement at Nashville and that he hoped to complete soon a 
treatise on "Parks and Gardens," treated historically, botanically 



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Dr. Augustin Gattinger. 173 

and ethically. He closed with the characteristic words : "On the 
third of February I shall enter upon my seventy-ninth year! I 
have to be in a hurry if I yet want to do something.*' 

In all of his strong qualities, as well as in his foibles, he was 
thoroughly German; in fact too much and too brusquely so to 
gain that influence on his American surroundings that he was 
highly qualified to exercise. He was deeply interested in every- 
diing that promised to spread the knowledge of the German lan- 
guage and, thus, of German thought and science. He was in 
many respects ah admirable type of the German idealist of the 
old school. 

He was well versed in the classics, but nevertheless had little 
interest in literature per se. Of poetry he often said in a semi- 
serious way, that he had no use for it. When he was far past 
the age of seventy he again became interested in the study of 
French of which his early scholastic training had given him little 
or no knowledge. When seventy-nine years old he pondered 
the question whether he had not better take up the study of the 
calculus, so as to be better able to follow certain lines of work 
in mechanics and physics. Professor Hohlfeld knew Doctor Gat- 
tinger intimately and they had many tastes in common. He 
writes me that he has never been privileged to see at such an ad- 
vanced age such an intensity and versatility of the highest intel- 
lectual interests as Doctor Gattinger exhibited. Indeed, he 
seemed to feel his age less than most men. To the last his mind 
was clear, his handwriting smooth and even as it was fifty years 
before his death. 

Doctor Gattinger was not a voluminous writer. The science 
of botany requires concentration of thought, and the work of 
fifty-four years of his life is in his last book so far as botanical 
study is concerned. It is a complete and perfect work. The list 
of his writings, except those hidden in the files of daily news- 
papers, is as follows : 



A^ ^£. "VT-.-! ill- ?„ Tfc_l_Ar .- xr. 1 c* . A_ 1 -i-fc-.l-i:-. 



1878— "On Trees and Shrubbery Adapted to the Soil and 

* ■"■ — - - __ - _ , — i_i:^ 

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174 The Ambrican Historical Magazine. 

Exposition." A. Gattinger, Geologist and Botanist to the Bureau. 
(Newspaper article of two columns in the Nashville Daily World, 
of September 23, 1883.) 

1884 — ^"Botanical Frae^ments : Notes on the Flora of Tennessee 
And a Sketch of the History and Problems of Botany. (A Lecture 
Addressed to the Agricultural, Dairy and Live Stock Convention 
at Nashville, Tenn., May 15, 1884.) By Doctor A. Gattinger. 
Large 8vo. Pp. 12. N. d. 

18B7 — "The Tennessee Flora, with Special Reference to the 
Flora of Nashville; Phaenogams and Vascular Cryptogams." 
By Doctor August Gattinger, Member of American Association 
for Advancement of Science. Published by the Author. Nash- 
ville, Tenn. 1887. 8vo. Pp. 109. (Printed by Carlon & Hoi- 
lenbeck, Indianapolis, Ind.) 

1894 — ^The Medicinal Plants of Tennessee. Exhibiting their 
Commercial Value with an Analytical Key, Descrii>tions in Aid 
of their Recognition, Time and Mode of Collection, and Prepara- 
tion for the Drug Market. Arranged and published under the 
direction of T. F. P. Allison, Commissioner of Agriculture. By 
A. Gattinger, M.D. Nashville, Tenn.: Franc M. Paul, Printer 
to the State. 1894. 8vo. Pp. 128. 

1901 — "The Flora of Tennessee and a Philosophy of Botany." 
Respectfully Dedicated to the Citizens of Tennessee. By Augustin 
Gattinger, M.D. Published by Authority of the State Through 
the Bureau of Agriculture. Press of Gospel Advocate PuWish- 
inp- Company. Nashville, Tenn. 1901. 8vo. Pp. 296. (Por- 
trait and illustraticms.) 

Among those who best knew and understood Doctor Gattinger 
was Professor Wickliffe Rose, now of the University of Ten- 
nessee at Knoxville. He has kindly made for me the following 
estimate of Doctor Gattinger's character and characteristics : 

"Doctor Gattinger was already an old man in years when I 
came to know him; but his bouyancy, his fine enthusiasms, his 
keen interest in life — all life — defied ap^e. It was his perennial 
youth that first attracted me to him. This I found thoroughly 
infections. It called me to seek him at his home, where I usually 
found him with his books or his *^lants. But, however busily 



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Dr. Augustin Gattinger. 175 

occupied his consciousness and furnished the topics of discussion 
into which he would enter in the most animated way. This posi- 
tive, hopeful attitude toward life was a source of inspiration to 
me and could not fail to awaken an enthusiasm akin to that which 
sparkled in his own eye. 

"I soon discovered one source of this mental freshness and 
vi^or in the fact that he kept himself in touch with modem 
scientific thouerht and achievement. Eckermann gives an in- 
spiring picture of Goethe in his eighty-first year discussing the 
possibilities of a world-commerce through an Isthmian Canal; 
the universal literature that is to be, showing by keen criticism 
his familiarity with the young scientists and artists of his day, 
with their achievements and their promise; then going out into 
the park to learn archery and clapping his hands like a boy 
whenever he drives the mark. In his scientific interests Doctor 
Gattinger was to me a living embodiment of this picture. I shall 
never forget the merriment which he provoked one evening in 
his family circle as he entertained us for an hour spinning a new 
top on his library table. He had just returned from the Tennessee 
Centennial Exposition, where he had found this new toy and had 
bought it, in part perhaps for its novelty as a toy, but chiefly for 
the scientific principle upon which it was constructed. In the 
announcement of liis purchase and the exhibition which followed, 
both the boy and the scientist were evident. It was an hour 
of fun mingled with keen scientific interest. 

"On my second visit to his home, one evening in the autumn 
of 1895, I found him poring over a large map almost covering 
his library table. As I entered he looked up with a gleam of 
triumph in his face, and before I was seated he began speaking 
with lively admiration of this new publication of the Geoloc^ical 
Survey. After an appreciative statement of its strong points, he 
called my attention to an error in the classification of a ro<*k in 
East Tennessee. It was given as a conglomerate. 'That,' he said, 
*is not quite accurate ; and yet the mistake is such a natural one. 
But/ he continued, locating the rock on the map before him, T 
have been all over this field many a time and have examined 
this rock with great care. The original rock underwent a process 
of disintegration, the more soluble elements being removed and 
leaving the elements here reported as composing the conglom- 
erate. But these elements, you see, have simply &en recemented 
without having been displaced. So that while the present rock 
has all the appearance of a conglomerate, genetically it is not one. 
The point was interesting enough on its own account, but what 
interested me most was that a man of his years should be follow- 
ing the detail work of the Geological Survey, keenly alive to its 
achievements and sufficiently alert to catch the staff napping. 



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176 Thb Ambrican Historical Magazinb. 

"On another occasion I called to find him in possession of the 
first volume of the Brittcxi and Brown 'Flora/ which had just 
come from the press. 'Here/ he said, slapping the book with his 
hand, 'is a great triumph of modem botany. 'Hie fine illustrations 
alone make the book indispensable to every student.' Then he 
turned to the clematis which he had discovered and which had 
received his name. And this reminds me of how he burst a 
bubble for me on a later occasion. It was in the early spring of 
1900. I had found in a pond near West Nashville a beautiful 
sigsi. Attracted both by its beauty and by its novelty, I had 
spent the leisure of five or six weeks over the microscope in its 
study. I had traced out its complete life history and made draw- 
ings of the various forms through which it passed. None of the 
special treatises on algae in the university library gave any ac- 
count of this one. Feeling auite confident of a discovery, I took 
my drawings to show them to Doctor Gattinger, wondering as 
I went along whether he had kept up with the newer botany and 
were as familiar with the work being done in the morpholc^y 
of these lower forms as he was with his flora. I had never heard 
him speak of the algae. He took great interest in my drawings 
and the descriotions which I added. Then turning to his library 
he took down a recent German book on algae, in which was given 
a full description with accompanying illustrations of my plant. 
My bubble was gone, and with it a bit of conceit. 

"A little later in the season I had the pleasure of a little ex- 
cursion with him into the woods. He had often referred long- 
ingly to the wild woods, regretting his lack of physical strengSi 
to take the long tramps which he had so much enjoyed in former 
years. I had found a spot near the road where the spring flowers 
were out in all their glory. He was eager to go. Taking a 
basket and trowel we drove out. It was. a joy to see this meeting 
with his old friends from whom he had been long separated. 
Every tree and grass and flower had its kindly greeting, often 
provoking a tender, loving caress. As he led me around among 
the company, introducing me to those that I had never met, he 
entertained me in the most lively manner with family relation- 
ships and individual idiosyncrasies of plants. Here was an illus- 
tration of development and triumph through struggles with dif- 
ficulties, there one of degeneration as a result of luxurious ease. 
Thus the bit of wildwood on the hillside was, when seen through 
his eyes, a life colony, a veritable teeming city like unto the one 
which we had just left — ^the same subjects of family gossip, the 
same stories of individual failures and successes, the same life 
drama being played out under simpler conditions. And with all 
this my venerable friend was at home both in knowledge and in 
sympathy. Nothing could be more beautiful in human fellowship 



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Dr. Augustin Gattingbr. 177 

than the tender affection displayed in his caress of the delicate 
erethronium, then in full bloom at the edge of the bluff. A few 
of those not in bloom he toc^ with him, and the following season 
I saw them bounding into larger life under his s)mipathetic care. 

"This love and intimate knowledge of nature lay at the basis 
of the broad catholicity which characterized his attitude toward 
the whole problem of human life. No subject engaged his at- 
tention more than that of social progress. And this he, like Walt 
Whitman, insisted upon viewing as the peculiar prerogative of no 
race nor nation nor class nor party or clique, but as a fact 
universal and democratic. This social prc^aress with universal 
welfare as its end furnished the criterion by which he measured 
all social institutions. Their efficiency as instruments in the 
service of this end was the measure of their value. 

"I shall never forget one evening in particular when he spoke 
on this subject at great leng[th and with peculiar earnestness and 
force. We were speaking of the German Gymnasium, He illu.^ • 
trated the thoroughness of its instruction in Latin by taking um 
his Virgil and reading a page or two at random, then giving me 
the imagery in detail and thus assuring me of his keen apprecia - 
tion of its beauties of style. He contrasted this teaching of Latin 
which makes the language an instrument of service in life with 
that more superficial teaching which takes much of the boy's 
valuable time while giving him but little and sometimes almost 
nothing in return. He then took up the larger question of German 
education, and showed, among other things, how the development 
of pure science in the universities had made possible Germany's 
remarkable industrial development. Then he referred with much 
feeling to the great handicap which Germany suffers from her 
military system, pointing to the fact that the most gifted young 
men are drawn away from lines of constructive activity to be- 
come not only unproductive members of society, but a tremendous 
burden to be carried on the shoulders of those who were left to 
carry on the work. The peace proposal of the Czar he thought 
in the end must triumph because its principle was in line with 
social progress. In the same vein he discussed many features of 
American life, from the tendency of football in the American 
college to the gambling on Wall street, finally drawing a serio- 
comic picture of the whole tribe of social parasites. 

"When in Nashville last May I called to see him. He had just 
been reading Franceschini's Woher und Wohin, This was the 
occasion for a discussion of philosophic themes. He referred 
with special emphasis to Franceschini's Vor und nach dem 
Einschlafen, and brought to bear upon the problem of sleep his 
own theory of mind conceived as a cosmic energy. To this 
theory of a cosmic mind which is clearly stated 'in his Flora of 



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ITS Thb Amekicah Historicax Magazikb. 

Tennessee and Philosophy of Botan3r' (pp. 244-245), he returned 
daring the last two years of his Uf e witfa increasing freqnenqr 
and interest I first heard him state it as a working h3rpotbesb 
some three years ago in connection wiA a discussion of Haedcd's 
tfaecHy of protoplasm. Soon after the appearance of Spencer's 
last volume, he read me a marted passage one evening giving as 
he interpreted it, support to his tfieory of the relation of the 
cosmic mind to the individual consdousness. 

"I found him one evening woridn^ on his 'Philosophy of 
Botany :' he read me this paragraph, whidi, I take it, he had just 
written: 'It [the cosmic mind] may affect protoplasm in incon- 
ceivable paths to some kind of sensations in the plant, to emotions 
in the lower animals, and uhimatdy guide die intricate process 
of reasoning and light up die highest spheres of our ideal aspira- 
tions. It stands in the same relation to the whole of the cosmos 
as self-consdousness, representing divine omniscience.' 

''As I came away on this, my last visit, he walked out with me 
to die gate, where I took my leave. As I walked up the street, 
with a merry ring in hb voice he bade me Godspeed in mj new 
field." 



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Founding op Knoxville. 179 



FOUNDING OF KNOXVILLE. 
Letter of Hugh Dunlap. 



[Httg-h Dunlap, son of Harry Dunlap, was bom in Londonderry 
•County, Ireland, November 5, 1769 ; died at Paris, Tenn., October 10, 
1846. Came, with his Brother William, to America at an early 9,ge and 
•enf^aged in business in Tennessee. In 1794 married Susannah Hard- 
ing^ Gilliam ; born in Henrico County, Virginia, May 19, 1775 ; died in 
Shelby County, Tennessee, January 6, 1859; daugrhter of Deyereux 
Crilliam, of Bucking^ham County, Virginia, who built Gilliam Station 
at the confluence of the Holston and French Broad Rivers, in 1785-8, 
and wife, Edith Ellis, daughter of Captain Charles Ellis, of Red Hill, 
Amherst County, Virginia. Hugh Dunlap and wife were the parents 
of Richard Gilliam Dunlap, the first male white child bom in Knox- 
viUe. About 1809 he removed to Roane County and occupied a farm 
which now includes the town of Rockwood. In 1821-2 he removed to 
West Tennessee and in 1825 settled at Paris. Was in active service in 
the later Indian troubles in East Tennessee.— John S. Duni^p.] 



Paris, Tenn., January 19, 1842. 
Mr. Eastman. 

Dear Sir: In your paper of the 22nd ult. and the 5th inst. 
I observed arrangements making for the celebraticm of the semi- 
centennial anniversary of Knoxville. I am the only man, whom 
I know to be alive, who was living there when the lots were 
laid off. It would be a source of unmixed pleasure to be present 
at the celebration, if my health and the weather permitted. I 
could not conceive a higher gratification than to meet at the 
festive board the childr^ of those adventurous and worthy me» 
who first settled Knoxville, and who were the more endeared to 
me by the very perils incident to its settlement. 

At the treaty of Holston, in 1791, there were no houses except 
shantees put up for the occasion to hold Government stores. 



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i8o Thb Ambrican Historical Magazinb. 

General White, in a jest, to let him have the lot including^ the 
spring when a town was laid off; and when the town was laid 
off the general preserved the lot and made him a deed to it — } 
these facts were told me by General White himself, for I was not 
present at the treaty. I left Philadelphia, with my goods, in 
December, 1791, and did not reach Knoxville until about the first 
of February, 1792. I deposited my goods and kept store in the 
house used by the Government at the treaty, although I believe 
the treaty itself was made in the open air. At the time I reached 
•Knoxville, Samuel and Nathaniel Cowan had goods there. John 
Chisolm kept a house of entertainment, and a man named 
McLemee was living there. These men, with their families, con- 
stituted the inhabitants of Knoxville, when I went there. Govern- 
or Blount lived on Barbary Hill, a knoll below College Hill, and 
between it and the river. 

The principal settlements in the county were on Beaver Creek. 
All the families lived in forts pretty much in those days: and, 
when the fields were cultivated, there was always a guard stationed 
around them for protecticm. There was a fort at CampbelVs 
Station, which was the lowest settlement in East Tennessee. The 
next fort and settlement were at Blackburn's, west of the Cum- 
berland Mountains ; the next at Fort Blount, on the Cumberland 
River; and then the French Lick, now Nashville. 

The land on which Knoxville is built belonged to General 
White. In February, 1792, Colonel Charles McQung surveyed 
the lots and laid off the town ; I do not recollect on what day of 
the month. It excited no particular interest at the time. The 
whole town was then in a thicket of brushwood and g^ape-vines, 
except a small portion in front of the river, where all the busi- 
ness was done. There was never any regular public sale of the 
lots: General White sold anybody a lot who would settle on 
it and improve it, for eight dollars ; and in this way and at this 
price, the lots were generally disposed of. 



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Founding of Knoxvillb. i8i 

ierocious character toward the whites, and his turbulence among 
his own people. 

They marched as far as Cavet's seven miles from Knoxville, 
and made an attack upon his house. After resisting for some 
time the assaults of the Indians, Cavet, his son, and a militia 
man, the only men in tfie blockhouse, capitulated under promise 
that the family should be spared. After they surrendered, they 
were murdered, and the mother, two grown daughters, and per- 
haps some smaller children, were brutally despoiled and butchered. 
This massacre, though horrid and heart-rending, was the salva- 
tion of Knoxville, and the whole circumjacent country, for their 
force was powerful enough to have overrun and depopulated the 
white settlements. The Creeks- committed the murder, against 
the wishes of the Cherokees ; a dispute arose among them about 
it. Watts refused to proceed further, and the whole army of 
savages was virtually disbanded, and they returned to their vil- 
lages and wigwams. A child of Cavet was not killed at the 
blockhouse. It was taken prisoner. Two Creeks claimed it ; they 
had their tomahawks drawn on each other, when a third party, 
to quiet the rival claims, tomahawked the child. It was thought 
for scHne years the child was living, but the Indians afterwards 
told all the circumstances. 

In 1793, the first Government troops were stationed in Knox- 
ville, under the command of Captain Carr, a Revolutionary officer ; 
his lieutenant, Ricard, had him arrested, a few months after their 
arrival, for drunkenness. Carr was chagrined at the efforts of 
his lieutenant to supplant him and resigned, and Ricard was pro- 
moted to Carr's office. They built their barracks where Etheldred 
Williams has since erected a brick house, opposite the courthouse. 
I believe the Convention of 1796 sat in it. 

In 1793 Colonel Christy, who was commanding the United 
States troops at Knoxville, died, and was buried with martial 
and Masonic honor on what is now CoUep-e Hill. It was a mag- 
nificent procession, by far the most splendid funeral that had 
ever been witnessed in the territory. In the same year died 
Titus Ogden, a merchant, and paymaster to the troops and of the 
Indian annuities, which Governor Blount was superintendent of, 
the four tribes of Creeks, Cherokees, Chickasaws and Choctaws. 
I mention the death and burial place of these two men, as I have 



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1 82 Thb American Historical Magazinb. 

been told that in digging the foundation for the college, two- 
skeletons were exhumed, and supposed to have been those of 
Indians buried there. They were no doubt the bones of Colonel 
Christy and Titus Ogden. I was at the burial of both, and did 
not suppose that the graves of two men, so noted in their day, 
and buried with all the pomp and circumstance of war, would 
have been so soon forgotten. Colonel King and myself were at 
the time, and for several years afterwards, commissaries for all 
the troops stationed in East Tennessee. 

After the county had increased in population sufficiently to pro- 
tect itself, in a great measure, from the incursions of the Indians, 
it was kept in constant alarm for some time by the depredations 
of the Harps, two men who were fugitives from their native 
State. They made a crop on Beaver Creek, and furnished the 
butcher in Knoxville, old John Miller, for some months with 
hogs, sheep and cattle they had stolen from their neighbors. 
They afterward secreted themselves and made marauding expedi- 
tions against the lives and prooerty of the citizens. One of them 
had two wives, sisters by the name of Rice. The first man they 
killed in Knox County was young Coffee, on Beaver Creek. 
Johnson was their next victim, murdered within two miles of 
Knoxville. I had attempted to take them on several occasions 
and they killed Bullard under the impression it was me. They 
killed Bradbury afterwards, who, I believe, was the father of 
General Bradbury of the Senate. They left Knox County in 
1797 or 8, and their villianies made their subsequent history 
notorious. 

I beg you to excuse the length of this letter. I cannot think of 
those early times without in some degree living them over again. 
I understand a distinguished literary gentleman of your county 
is collecting the materials to write the early history of Tennessee. 
I hope he may not falter in an undertaking where the materials 
are so rich and the fame so certain. 

Verv resoectfullv. 



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The Rodes Family. 183 



THE RODES FAMILY. 



BY FRANK RODES, OF ST. LOUIS, MO. 



RODES.— The English pedigree of the Rodes family, which 
appears in Volume II of Hunter's "Familiae Minorum Gentiiun," 
Harlaean Society, publishers, London, states that Sir John Rodes, 
of Comhill, London, had two sons who emigrated to America: 
Francis Rodes, who settled in Maryland, where he married twice, 
but eventually returned to England j and Charles Rodes, who set- 
tled in Virginia, where he married in 1695, and remained. For 
above suggestion, and one or more other items, I am indebted to 
the Virginia Magazine. 

(i) John Rodes, traditionally regarded as a son of Charles 
Rodes, the emigrant, and whose place of birth is traditionally at- 
tributed to the lower end of the present Hanover County, was 
bom November 6, 1697 (family Bible), and died May 3, 1775. 
He married Mary Crawford, bom in March, 1703, daughter of 
Captain David Crawford (1662-1762), and his wife Elizabeth 
(Smith), of Amherst County, Virginia. John Rodes removed to 
Louisa County, and in September, 1765, was appointed vestry- 
man of Fredericksville Parish. He eventually settled in Albe- 
marle County, where he was a justice, and made a will February 
12, 1774, referring to four sons and five daughters. 

Descendants were: Clifton, who married Sarah (Waller), 
daughter of John and Agnes (Carr) Waller, of Spottsylvania 
County, Virginia. (This Clift<Mi was a soldier in the Louisa 
County militia, French and Indian wars, and was high sheriflf 
of Albemarle County. Charles, who married Amy Duke, sister 
of General Robert Duke, and settled in Nelson County, Virginia, 
and has descendants in Kentucky and Tennessee. John, who 
married Sarah (Harris), bom May 24, 1736, and died January 
31, 1803, daughter of Major Robert Harris and his wife Mourn- 
ing (Glenn). (This Robert Harris was a burgess from Han- 
over County, 1743-1744. David, who married, first Mary (Mills), 
and secondly Susannah (Anderson), leaving many descendants. 



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l84 ThB AmBRICAN HlSTORICAI* Magazinb. 

Ann, who married William Thompson and removed to Lexing- 
ton, Kentucky. Henrietta, who married Bemice Brown, of 
Albemarle County. One daughter married a Crawford. Of the 
other two daughters of John Rodes, I have no record. 

(2) John Rodes (2nd), of Albemarle County, Virginia, bom 
November i, 1729, and died July 15, 1810 (family Bible) ; mar- 
ned September 9, 1754, Sarah (Harris) ; was also Justice of Al- 
bemarle County. His will was dated July 6, 1804. 

Descendants: Mary, bom February 14, 1757, who died young, 
unmarried. Robert, bom May 11, 1759, died November 20, 1818; 
married Eliza (Delaney), daughter of John Delaney, of Amherst 
County, Virginia; removed to Madison County, Kentucky; was 
captain in militia for coast defences, War of Revolution; after- 
wards judge of Circuit Court of Madison County. Henrietta, 
bom May 26, 1761 ; married James Brown, of Virginia. Ann, 
born July 22, 1763; married Tohn Garth and settled in Scott 
County, Kentucky. John, born June 2, 1766; married Jesena 
(Brown), daughter of Bemice Brown, of Albemarle County. 
Clifton, bom August 8, 1768; married his cousin, Elizabeth Jouet, 
daughter of John Jouet, of Albemarle, and settled in Warren or 
Barren County, Kentucky. Tyree, bom December 24, 1771 ; re- 
moved to Giles County, Tennessee; married April 25, 181 1, Cyn- 
thia (Holland), daughter of Major James Holland (Revolution- 
ary soldier and congressman of North Carolina) and his wife 
Sarah (Gilbert), who had removed to Maury County, Tennessee. 
James Holland was son of William Holland and his wife Mary 
(Harrison). This Tyree Rodes was a commissioner under act 
of legislature 1809, to lay out the town of Pulaski. He died while 
traveling near Somerville, Tennessee, July 17, 1827, and was 
buried at his home near Pulaski. Charles, bom February 22, 
1774, died in 1814, at Oswego, N. Y., while a surgeon in the 
army. Sarah Harris, bom July 3, 1777, and died January 25, 
1880 ; married Micajah Woods, of Albemarle County. 

(3) Descendants of Tyree Rodes (1771-1827) and his wife, 
Cynthia (Holland), of Giles County, Tennessee, were: Sarah 
Myra, bom October 18, 1812; died March 12, 1865; married, 



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Thb Rodbs Family. 1S5 

Robert, bom June 24, 1816; died October 23, 1887; married 
Sarah Elizabeth (Carter), October 20, 1841, daughter of Dr. 
Benjamin Carter (soldier in Creek war) and his wife, Elizabeth 
Kinchin (Lindsay), of Pulaski. (Dr. Benjamin Carter was a 
son of Daniel Carter, of South Carolina, (b. 1761), Lieutenant 
of Cavalry, War of Revolution, whose brother, Benjamin Carter, 
was at same time captain, remaining in the army till his death.) 
Sophia Selina, bom October 28, 1818, died October 24, 1829. 
Tyree, bom July 18, 1821 ; died Tuly 28, 1858, south of Pulaski ; 
married Jane Elizabeth (Murrell), daughter of Colonel Hezekiah 
P. Murrell (at one time in Kentucky State Senate) and his wife, 
Mary (daughter of Qifton Rodes, of Kentucky). 

(4) Descendants of John H. Rivers and his wife, Sarah Myra 
(Rodes) : William, bom July 19, 1831 ; died December 26, 1891 ; 
married Martha Julia (Floumoy), daughter of William Flour- 
noy, of Pulaski. Cynthia, who married, April 6, 1857, Major 
B. F. Carter, of Pulaski, (scm of Dr. Benjamin Carter). Mary 
Elizabeth, who married, first, George Sykes, of Mississippi, and 
second, Dr. William Batte, of Pulaski ; no descendants. 

(4) Descendants of Robert Rodes (1816-1887) and his wife, 
Sarah E. (Carter), of Giles County. Inez, bom Febmary 4, 
1842; married Rev. George H. Hunt, of Nashville, now of St. 
Louis, Mo. Cynthia, bom May 15, 1844; married Captain F. 
R. R. Smith, of Nashville. Tyree, bom August 18, 18^; mar- 
ried May Gordon, daughter of Wallace W. Gordon, of L)mn- 
ville, Tennessee. May, born October 20, 1849 J died January 16, 
1871, result of railroad accident; unmarried. Frank, bom Jan- 
uary 17, 1852. Robert, bom May 2, 1854, (since deceased) ; 
married Lulie (Horton), of Nashville. Benjamin C, bom Octo- 
ber 17, 1858; died July 22, 1863. Sallie L., bom June 17, 1861 ; 
died July 13, 1867. James Holland, bom November 14, 1863. 

(4) Descendants of Tyree Rodes (1821-1858), of Giles Coun- 
ty, and his wife, Jane Elizabeth (Murrel) : Qifton, bom Sep- 
tember 13, 1852 ; died June 13, 1887 ; unmarried. Myra Ophelia, 
bom November 7, 1856; died March 7, 1858. This branch is 
now extinct. 

(5) Descendants of William Rivers and his wife, Martha Julia 
(Floumoy) : Floumoy, attomey at Pulaski. Tyree Rodes, offi- 
cer in United States army. John H., died in childhood. William 

6 



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i86 Thb American Historical Magazine 

C, o£ficer in United States Army. Myra (now deceased) ; mar- 
ried Captain Horn, United States army, leaving d^cendants. 
Julian died young, unmarried. 

(5) Descendants of Major B. F. Carter and his wife, Cynthia 
(Rivers): Myra Bell, who married G. A. Pope, of Pulasld; 
Rivers ; Lizzie, who married a Thatcher, and died shortly after- 
wards ; Benjamin ; Cynthia ; Margaret, who died young. 

(5) Descendants of Rev. George H. Hunt and his wife, Inez 
(Rodes) : Sallie R., who died young, unmarried; Fanny, May, 
Henry W., Ethel B., Inez and Roberta. 

(5) Descendants of Captain F. R. R. Smith and his wife, 
Cynthia (Rodes) : Samuel G., Sarah Elizabeth, Cynthia R., El- 
linora H. and Annabel. 

(5) Descendant of Tyree Rodes (1848) and his wife. May 
(Gcn'don) : Sara Louise. 

(5) Descendants of Robert Rodes (1854) and his wife Lulie 
(Horton) : Alice, Elizabeth and Robert 



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Samuel Houston. 187 



SAMUEL HOUSTON. 



Some of the Main Features of His Trial for Contempt Before the 
House of Representatives Interestingly Narrated in a Let- 
ter from Governor James D. Porter to His Son. 



Santiago de Chili, January 16, 1894. 
To Charles D. Porter, Esq. : 

I redeem the promise to write a brief account of the trial of 
ex-Governor Samuel Houston for "contempt" before the House 
of Representatives at Washington. 

On March 31, 1832, Mr. Stanberry, a representative in Con- 
gress from the State of Ohio, in a public debate, alleged that 
General John H. Eaton, recently retired from the cabinet of Pres- 
ident Jackson, had fraudulently attempted to give to Governor 
Houston a contract for supplying rations to such Indians as might 
emigrate to their lands west of the Arkansas and Missouri ; Mr. 
Stanberry loosely assumed a personal knowledge of the facts, 
denying the credit of the discovery of Duff Greene's newspaper, 
the Telegraph, and referred to it in a spirit of hot partisanship, 
making it evident that his action was more of a desire to injure 
the President than to uncover the alleged corrupt administration 
of subordinates. There was no foundation for the charge. 

RESIGNED His OFFICE. 

Governor Houston had been a Representative in Congress 
from Tennessee, and a few years before the event referred to, 
had resigned the office of Governor of that state under peculiar 
and distressing domestic conditions, and was at this time so- 
journing with the Indian tribes west of Arkansas. On this ac- 
count he was under a social and political doud, and was game 
for a class of politicians, then and now, ready to pluck a man who 
had lost influence and prestige, but had not lost that manly spirit 
which in days gone by had made him the idol of thousands of 
Teinnesseeans. No one of his friends could, therefore, feel sur- 
prised that he should resent this wanton attack, especially as its 



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i88 Thb Ambrican Historical, Magazinb. 

publication was nrade in the Intelligencer in anticipation of its 
regular place in the proceedings of the House, evidently with the 
purpose that the imputation should do its work at once. 

A NOTE WAS SENT. 

So a note was sent by the Honorable Cave Johnson, then a 
Representative in Congress from the Qarksville district of Ten- 
nessee, asking if the remarks printed were correctly reported. 
Mr. Stanberry made no reply to this respectful inquiry, but ad- 
dressed a note to Mr. Johnson, in which he stated that he did not 
"recognize the right of Mr. Houston to make this request," and 
feeling that this act was an insult that must be noticed, he stated 
that he at once armed himself with a pair of pistols and a dirk 
and attended the next session of the House with his pistols 
cocked, having heard from a busybody of a man named McCar- 
thy that he had heard a gentleman say that he had heard Gov- 
ernor Houston say that he would shoot him on the street ; but no 
such thing seems to have been contemplated by Houston ; certain- 
ly he was unarmed. 

USED A CANE. 

Some days afteward, at about eight o'clock^ in the evening, 
Mr. Stanberry left his lodgings at Mrs. Queen's, crossed Penn- 
sylvania Avenue and stepped on the sidewalk, and Houston stood 
before him carrying a walking cane not larger than a man's fin- 
ger, with which, without ceremony, he belabored his adversary, 
knocking him down and bruising and beating him with lusty 
blows. During the affray Mr. Stanberry presented his pistol and 
pulled down on Houston, but it missed fire, when the latter seized 
the weapon and walked off. A curious feature of this affair was 
that in a day or two Mr. Stanberry stated publicly that in his 
reference to Governor Houston it was no part of his intention 
to impute fraud to him. It would have been a manly action to 
have promptly said as much so soon as he ascertained that his 
words and acts had given affront ; it would have saved both from 
humiliation and himself from degrading punishment. The morn- 
ing after the assault Mr. Stanberry addressed the following note 
to the Speaker, which was laid before the House. It was dated 
the 14th of April, 1832 : 



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Samubl Houston. 189 

mr. stanberry^s note. 

To the Hon. Andrew Stevenson, Speaker of the House of Repre- 
sentatives. 

Sir: I was waylaid in the streets near to my boarding house 
last night about eight o'clock and attacked, knocked down by a 
bludgeon and severely bruised and wounded by Samuel Houston, 
late of Tennessee, for words spoken in my place in the House 
of Representatives, by reason of which I am confined to my bed 
and unable to discharge my duties in the House and attend to the 
interest of my constituents. I communicate this information to 
you and request that you will lay it before the House. 

Very respectfully yours, 

William Stanberry, 
Member of the House of Representatives from Ohio. 

MR. Vance's resolution. 

Immediately Mr. Vance, of the same state, offered the follow- 
ing resolution: 

Resolved, that the Speaker do issue his warrant, directed to 
the Sergeant-at-Arms, commanding him to take in custody, wher- 
ever to be found, the body of Samuel Houston, and the same in 
his custody to keep, subject to the further order and discretion 
of the House. 

The adoption of the resolution was advocated by able men 
from the North and South. The opposition to it was led by 
James K. Polk, then a Representative from Tennessee, supported 
by William Fitzgerald, of Henry County; Mr. Bell, and the en- 
tire delegation from that state, except Mr. Thomas D. Arnold, 
who, in speaking to the resolution, made himself conspicuous by 
the virulence of his declamation against the accused and the 
President. The resolution was adopted by a vote of yeas 106, 
nays 64. The arrest was made, and the following day a resolu- 
tion was adopted on the motion of John Davis of Massachusetts, 
providing that Governor Houston be brought to the bar of the 
House to answer the charge made against him by William Stan- 



\\ikrrv A^4-A«> 4.t«<M « ^^aav^A ^t ^^^^^^Jil^^^ »..«« ^ Ja«*.4.a^ . 4.t«^ 



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I90 ThB AmBRICAN HiSTORlCiLL MAGAZINE. 

GOVERNOR HOUSTON APPEARS. 

Governor Houston appeared by permission in person and by 
attorney. That accomplished lawyer and eloquent advocate, 
Francis Scott Key, of Maryland, known to all Americans as the 
author of the words of the national hymn, "The Star Spangled 
Banner," was his counsel ; the prosecutor was the principal wit- 
ness for the majority of the House. The defendant called Judge 
Grundy and others, besides Senator Buckner of Missouri, who 
was present when the assault was committed. The latter, as 
well as the prosecutor, proved that the meeting was purely acci- 
dental. 

MR. key's argument. 

The argument of Mr. Key was a very able and logical one, 
worthy of his fame and worthy of his distinguished client, but 
without being in "contempt," I hope, I must say that the court 
was organized for conviction. The air was full of prejudice ; the 
members gave open expression to feelings of hostility before 
hearing the evidence; the accused was referred to in the de- 
bate as a man of violence and blood, guilty of lying in wait, in 
personal vigor as a Hercules. Mr. Key, in referring to this, said, 
"He had once, indeed, an arm fit to execute the strong impulses 
of a brave heart, but that arm he had given to his country; on 
the field of one of the most perilous battles it had been raised 
in her defence, and on that field it had fallen, crushed and man- 
gled to his side." The prosecutor claimed that he had been 
beaten with a "bludgeon." Alluding to this, the eloquent advo- 
cate said, "Hercules, too, could not be painted without his club, 
and langus^e could hardly be found to convey an adequate idea 
A the terrific weapon with which this assassin was armed; I 
thought it proper that instead of the picture the club itself should 
be exhibited. The House had seen it, and it could not hdp re- 
membering, on seeing' an honorable ge^jtleman measuring it and 
comparing it with his finger, the veneraUe judge who is said to 
have presented his thumb to show the dimensions of the stick 
with which in diose strange old times, the law aflow^d a man to 
chastise his wife." 



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Samuel Houston. 191 

governor houston speaks. 

Governor Houston followed in his own defence. He bore him- 
self with modesty and great dignity. Mr. Key's argument had 
exhausted the question of the power of the House to punish ; still 
the accused made an able argument and covered the points of his 
case with great force. His references to himself were abound- 
ing with tender pathos. Noticing the cruel allegaticm that he 
was broken in fortune and outlawed by society, he said, "Though 
the ploughshare of ruin has been driven over me, and laid waste 
my bright hopes, yet I am proud to think that under all circum- 
stances I have endeavored to sustain the laws of my country and 
to support her institutions. Whatever may be the opinion of 
gentlemen in relation to these matters, I am here to be tried for 
a substantive offence, disconnected with my former life or cir- 
cumstances. I have only to say to those who rebuke me at the 
time when they see adversity sorely pressing upon me, for my^ 
self, I seek no sympathies, nor need; the thorns which I have 
reaped are of the tree which I planted ; they have torn me and 
I bleed." He was "convicted" and brought to the bar of the 
House and reprimanded; it was a comical conclusion, but even 
this result would have been impossible but for the fact that it 
was in proof, that when the charge of corruption was made by 
Mr. Stanberry, Governor Houston was on the floor of the House 
and heard it, and remarked to his friend. Cave Johnson, that he 
would right the wrong wherever given, "e'en 'twere in the Court 
of Heaven." The political threat was beyond the limit of par- 
don; no poetic license could be tolerated. Some affected g^eat 
alarm at it, and one gentleman seemed fearful that "the soicred 
temple of the people," as he called the House, would be invaded 
and the holy men who officiated therein would become victims of 
the "bludgeon"; and one gentleman, Mr, Arnold, of Tennessee, 
in a delirium of denunciation, said, "I shall not be surprised if 
he should undertake to pistol me — ^to dirk me — to bludgeon me," 
and seemed greatly disappointed at Houston's neglect to bestow 
upon him the corporal chastisement he courted, evidently believ- 
ing that the notoriety of it would create another martyr. 



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192 The American Historical Magazine. 

greatly magnified. 

This purely personal incident was magnified by a partisan 
press, and by violent partisan Representatives, as the initial move- 
ment of President Jackson (who was in no sense privy to it) to 
silence oppositicm, if not to destroy the men who opposed his 
will. Numerous gentlemen lost their heads ; Mr. Stanberry him- 
self was in a few days the victim of House resolutions of cen- 
sure for grossly insulting the temporary Speaker. 

TIME BRINGS COMPENSATION. 

But for the indignities offered Governor Houston and suffered 
by him, a little time brought him compensation. In April, 1836, 
just four years after his "trial," as general in chief of the Army 
of Texas, at a village not far from Galveston Bay, near the 
mouth of a little river, he met and overwhelmed with defeat a 
largely superior force of Mexican troops, commanded by Gen- 
eral Santa Anna, and made San Jacinto an inunortal name. His 
victory thrilled the hearts of the American people and made 
Texas an independent state. The name of Houston was on the 
lips of all men ; he was made President of the Republic of Texas. 
Ten years later Texas became a state of the American Unibn, 
and the soldier of San Jacinto became her first Senator, as he 
was already her foremost citizen. 

Another time I will give you my personal recollections of 
Governor Houston, and tell how he impressed a schoolboy. 

James D. Porter. 



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Gbnbrai^ Nathaniel Taylor. 193 



GENERAL NATHANIEL TAYLOR AND SOME PAPERS 

RELATING TO HIS SERVICE IN THE WAR 

OF 1812. 



BY ERNEST W. GOODPASTURE* 



N. E. Hyder, Esq., of Elizabethtown, Tenn., has presented 
to the Tennessee Historical Society, through The American 
Historical Magazine, a collection of papers of General Nathan- 
iel Taylor, pertaining to his military service, a number of which 
are printed at the end of this sketch. These papers, discolored 
and cnmibling with age, are the more interesting owing to the 
wide prominence of the Taylor family. 

Andrew Taylor originally lived in Rockbridge County, Vir- 
ginia. He married two sisters, the latter of whom, Annie Wil- 
son, was the mother of an only child, Nathaniel, the subject of 
this sketch, who was born in Rockbridge County, February 24, 
1 77 1. When Nathaniel had reached the age of five, his father 
emigrated to the Watauga settlement, where he took his part 
among the pioneers of Tennessee. 

Little is known of General Taylor's early life, though it is 
thought he was educated at Washington College, under Pres- 
ident Doak. His father being a man of small means, Nathaniel 
started out in life with but small capital. He was, though, a 
man of fine business capacity and prospered in business from the 
start. 

In the year 1791, having exchanged sixty-five acres of the rich- 
est farming land on Buffalo Creek for a black pony, he started 
out to Virginia for a wife. On the 15th day of November of 
that year he was married to Miss Mary Patton, daughter of 
James and Sarah Patton, of Rockbridge County. His wife rode 
the black pony, with her baggage strapped across its back, to her 
new home on the Watauga. The duties which fell to the lot 
of a wife in that day included milking the cows, cooking, and 
the other domestic affairs of a pioneer household. Nevertheless, 
Mrs. Taylor proved herself equal to all these, and was entitled to 
much credit for the success her husband achieved. They reared 
a family of eight children, viz. : 

General James P., bom November 5, 1792. Married Mary 
C. Carter. The Carter family was one of the most prominent in 
East Tennessee. Carter County was named in honor of General 
Landon Carter, the father of Mary C, and Elizabethtown for 
his wife, Elizabeth. Rev. Nathaniel G. Taylor, the son of James 



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194 'I'hb Ambrican Historical Magazinb. 

P. and Mary (Carter) Taylor, a graduate of Princeton, an emi- 
nent divine and member of Congress, was the father of Governor 
Robert L. and Honorable A. A. Taylor. Governor Robert L. 
Taylor was a member of Congress, three times Governor of Ten- 
nessee, and is a lecturer of national reputation. Honorable A. A. 
Taylor was also a member of Congress and a lecturer. Bob and 
All, as they were familiarly called, were opposing candidates for 
governor of Tennessee, as nominees of their respective political 
parties. 

Ann. Bom April lo, 1794. Married Thomas D. Love, of 
North Carolina. 

Elizabeth. Bom October 4, 1796. Married Thomas Taylor, 
May 16, 1816. 

Alfred W. Bora July 10, 1798. Married Elizabeth Dufl5eld, 
October i, 1822. Miss Duffield was a daughter of Major George 
Duffield, originally from Philadelphia, Pa. He was a highly 
educated man, with elegant manners. He was a Major in the 
United States army, and for a time on the staff of General Na- 
thaniel Taylor. This circumstance probably led to the union of 
the two families. 

Lorena. Bom May 2, 1800. Married General Jacob Tipton. 
The Tiptons were also a prominent East Tennessee family. Tip- 
ton County was named for General Jacob Tipton. 

Seraphina C. Bom June 23, 1808. Married General A. E. 
Jackson. General Jackson was a distinguished Confederate offi- 
cer in the Civil War, in which he took an active part botfi in Vir- 
ginia and Tennessee, serving from 1861 to the end of the war. 

Mary C. Married W. R. Dulaney, M.D. 

Nathaniel John Kennedy. Bom Febmary 2, 1813. Died De- 
cember 7, 1847. 

After his marriage. General Taylor accumulated property very 
rapidly. Besides owning a considerable number of slaves and 
thousands of acres of land, he was extensively engaged in the 
manufacture of bar iron, flour, gunpowder, etc. Owing to hit 
remarkable business ability he soon became one of the wealthiest 
men of Carter County. He was also active in public life, having 
been the first sheriff of Carter County, and was also one of the 
Justices of the Peace, and Chairman of the County Court, and 
member of the legislature in 1809. 

Long pronrinent in military affairs, as Brigadier General, he 
was ordered into service August 4, 1814, though his brigade was 



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General Nathaniel Taylor. 195 

cral Jackson. After Jackson's election to the Presidency he spent 
a day in Bk)iuitviUe to see his old friends. When Martin heard 
he would be there, "Please, ma'am," he said to Mrs. Taylor, "I 
wants to j3fo over to Blountville to see Gineral Jackson once more 
'fore I die, kase we fit together. Miss; I can walk and only M 
gone two days, and then I'H work mighty hard." "Martin," she 
replied, "you can't walk, but you can ,ride the best horse on this 
farm, and dress in a full military suit, and your young master, 
Alfred, shall go with you to take care of you." When Martin 
met General Jackson^ tears are said to have flowed freely, and 
the General himself was visiUy affected.* 

His papers show his brigade to have been in the service around 
Montgomery and Mobile, during the winter of 1814-15. He 
was not with General Jackson at the battle of New Orleans, as 
state<J by some of the Taylor biographers. A general order is- 
sued from his headquarters January 8, 1815, which is published 
below, shows him to have been at Fort Qaiborne at that date. 

Soon after this, March 20, 181 5, the term of his engagement 
having expired, he returned to his home in Carter County, where 
he died in 1816, at about 46 years of age. After his death, his 
widow was almost as successful in business as he had been. She 
died on the 2nd of August, 1853, having survived him thirty- 
seven years. 

THE TAYLOR PAPERS. 

(i) Kingston, September 30, 1814. 

Agreement of Capt Joseph Kirk to permit Jacob M. Baley to 
join Capt. Child^s troop of horse. 

(2) Adjutant General's Office, 

Nashville, Tenn., Oct. 2, 1814. 
Sir: I have received several letters from Gen. Jackson, urg- 
ing me to hasten on the Tennessee troops to his assistance as soon 
as possible. 

I hope you will use every effort to get forward the detachment 
under your command to Gen. Jackson's headquarters or to such 
point or place as he will direct its march. 
I have the honor to be 

Very respectfully, 

Your obt. servt.. 

And. Hynes, Adj't Genl. 
of Tennessee. 
Brig. Gen, Taylor 
Comdg. Tenn* Troops. 

♦ Hyder. — ^I am indebted to Mr. Hyder for many of the facts con- 
tamed m this sketch. 



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196 The American Historicai. Magazine. 

(3) Camp Duffield, 

13th October, 1814. 
Brigr. GenL N. Taylor: 

Sir : — ^Your order of the 12th inst for the army to march this 
morning at 8 o'clock we fear, sir, was issued under the impres- 
sion that provisions for the army could be obtained on our march 
to Port Jackson, but in report of Maj. Spoor who is just from 
Fort Strother this appears not to be the fact. Provisions are not 
to be had at Fort Strother, Fort Williams or the probability of 
any at Fort Jackson. Considering these circumstances we hum- 
bly represent that we think it highly imprudent to march an 
army with only nine days' provisions for a distance of two hun- 
dred and forty miles through a country where nothing can be 
had for its supply, and beg that you would devise means for sub- 
sistence before we leave the place where it can be had. 

And we also humbly represent that we think it would be best 
to remain at this place a few days until wagons can be procured 
for the transportation of a sufficient quantity of rations to sup- 
ply us to Fort Jackson. We are willing, however, to submit to 
any order that you may think proper to dictate. 

Respectfully yours &c. 

C. T. Spoor, In. Ant. 

Geo. Duffield, A. D. C. 

John Russell, R M. 

John Anderson, In. Colo. 

Saml C. Magee, Major, 

Thomas I. Van Dyke, R. Surgeon. 

(4) Camp Misery, Nov. 14, 1814. 

(General Order). 

The Ccmtractor's Agent at Fort Qaibome, will without the 
least delay forward on to meet the Tennessee troops on their line 
of march, fifteen hundred ccmiplete rations and tiiree barrels of 
whiskey, for the hospital department 

(By Command) 

Geo. Duffield, 
Aid de camp to the Brigr. Gen. Commdg. 

(e) Camp Ross, Oct. 14, 1814. 

To His Excellency Genl. Taylor: 

Your petitioners himibly prayeth that your Excellency will 
see our accounts honorably and satisfactorily adjusted betwixt 
the contractor Mr. McKey and your petitioners, as a considerable 
quantity of back rations is now due us which he the contractCH* 



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Gbkkral Nathanibl Taylor. 197 

is only disposed to give his due bill, not stating the value thereof. 
Your petitioners are of the opinion that contractor has it in his 
own power to either give us the rations or what he may be pleased 
in money, not giving your petitioners any say in the price what- 
ever. And your petitioners as in duty bound will ever pray, &c. 

James Tunnell^ Capt 
Benj. PowELLy Capt 
James Stewart^ Capt 
Andrew Lawson, Capt 
Elike Millikan, Capt 
Joseph Scott, Capt. 

(6) Washington Post Office, 15th Oct. 1814. Receipts of Post 
Master for letter by express from Gen. Taylor's Headquarters to 
Maj. Gen. James Winchester. 

(7) Camp ReHef 23rd Oct. 1814. Asst. Adj. Gen. R. W. 
Hart to Gen. Taylor with reference to provision train. 

(8) Fort Jackson loth Nov. 1814. P. Pipkin C. C. ist R. T. 
M. to Gen, Taylor, on lack of a pubHc horse. 

(9) Mr. Lord: 

You will store your goods in a safe place and pro- 
ceed to Mobile and there enter them in the revenue office accord- 
ing to law. If you wish to return to Pensacola it is necessary that 
you should satisfy me of the purity of your designs in passing 
to and from a port used and frequented by the enemies of the 
United States. Your obedient servant 

Fort Montgomery, J. Winchester. 

25th Nov. 1814. 

(10) Fort Montgomery, Dec. 15, 1814. 
Brigad. Genl. Nathl. Taylor: 

Sir : I request that Dr. H. Chambers, Hospital Surgeon, Har- 
ry Cage, Asst. Depy. Tur. Master Genl., and D. Qement Nash 
Reed, Regimental Surgeon be immediately arrested, as I con- 
ceive it necessary for the public service. The charges and spec- 
ifications will be made out immediately. 

Yrs 
with respect 

Thos. C. Clark 
Lut. C. C. 

(11) Fort Claiborne, Dec. 20, 1814. 
Sir : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your or- 
der handed me by express forty miles in the rear of this place 



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ig$ The Ambrican Historical Maoazinb. 

yesterday lo ock. a.m. Rest assured Sir every exertion shall 
be made on my part. I think accidents excepted we -will reach 
Fort Montgomery the 23rd this inst. 
I have the 

honor to be 

very respectfully — 

F. W. Armstrong, 
Brig. Genl Taylor Majr. 2nd Infy. 

Fort Montgomery 

(12) Fort Montgomery, Dec. 23rd, 1814. 
Sir : Agreeable to your order I have made a rough calculation 

of the Indian goods at this place. The Quarter Master not being 
present and I not being furnished with an inventory I have cal- 
culated there is — 
Four hundred blankets 
Four ditto knives 
One thousand white shirts 

Six hundred check shirts Geo. W. Thompson 

Acting as A. D. Q. Master 
for Harry Cage. 

(13) Mobile, 3rd January, 1815. 
General Taylor: 

Sir : This is to apprise you that the balance of General Cof- 
fee's mounted men serving with Major Blue as well as such who 
remained at and in the vicinity of the cut off, are ordered by 
forced marches to the Mississippi to join Major General Jackson. 
You will give this detachment every possible facility to get in 
motion. It will march without baggage, a blanket and the wear- 
ing and necessary clothing for men excepted. If the horses of 
this detachment are weak it may be recollected there are plen- 
ty of forage on the Mississippi, and that it is far preferable that 
the owners of horse, not able to carry them should walk and 
drive their horses to a place where is plenty for them to eat ; than 
to remain where they are without forage. All must go that are 
able to march, and without loss of time. 

Your obedient servant 

J. Winchester, B. Genl 
Com. Eas. Sect 7th Dist* 



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Gbnbral Nathakibi^ Taylor. 199 

(irade of Officers. Osiyt. Lent. Bnsign. Bergt. Oorp. Private. TotaL 

Present fit for duty 1 2 1 1 2 28 45 

Sick present 1 26 27 

Waiters on the sick 27 27 

On command 1 2 3 

Total 1 3 1 2 2 93 102' 

(15). General Orders. 

Fort Claiborne, 8th Jany. 181 5. 
Colo, William Johnson: 

Sir : You are hereby commanded and I hereby strictly enjoin 
it on you that you use every vigilence in your power, to intercept 
all and every pers<m who may be found driving or conveying of 
stock of any species, to Pensacola unless you are conscious that 
said stock is for the use of the citizens of the United States at 
present in that place. A crisis has arrived when it behooves every 
officer and citizen of the United States to be on the alert, and ail 
those found in the habit of conveying stock or provisions to the 
enemy shall be dealt with as the laws of the United States in 
that case hath made and provided. Nathl. Taylor 

B. G. C 

(16) Jany, 29, 181 5. Geo. W. Thompson to Gen. Taylor 
with reference to lack of boats. 

(17) Camp Mandeville, Mch. 7, 1815. Expressing thanks 
of Grten. Taylor, Col. Perkins and the cheers and men to Mr. 
Pollard. 

(18) Camp Mandeville, Mch. 4, 1815. Geo. Duffield to 
John Alker, with reference to board, showing that Gen. Taylor 
left Fort Montgomery, Feby. 2, 181 5. 

(19) Muster Roll of the General and Staff of a Brigade 
of Infantry called into the service of the United States from 
Tennessee under the laws of the 28th Feby. 1795 and i8th April 
1814 commanded by Brigadier General Nathaniel Taylor from 
the 20th Sept. 1814 to 20th March, 1815. [The roll is in tabular 
form but shows the following] : 

1. Nathaniel Taylor, Brigr. General, ordered into service on 
4th Aug. 1814, present. 

2. George Duffield, Aid de camp, engaged 23rd Sept. 1814, 
present. 

3. John Russell, Brigade Major, engaged 21st Sept., 1814, ab- 
sent on command by order of Gen. Winchester. 

4. Robert W. Hart, Asst. Adjt. Genl., engaged 20th Sept. 1814, 
present. 



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200 The Ambrican Historicai, Magazine. 

5. Allen JcAnson, Brigade Qr. Master, engaged 3odi Sept 
1814, resigned on the 28th Nov., 1814. 

6. Thomas P. Winn, Brigade Qr. Master, absent on command 

7. James H. Peck, Asst Topogi. Engineer, engaged 20th Sept, 
1814, present 

8. Spencer E. Gibson, Hospital Surgecwi, engaged 20th Sept 
1814, present 

9. William B. Carter, Forage Master, engaged 20th Sept 1814, 
resigned 17th Oct. 1814. 

10. Joseph Trotter, Forage Master, engaged 17th (Dct J814, 
present 

11. John S. Fulton, Asst Forage Master, engaged 14th Dec, 
1814, present 

12. John Durgan, Asst Forage Master, engaged 14th Dec 
1814, absent on command. 

13. David G. Vance, Wagon Master, engaged 20th Sept 1814, 
present. 

14. Joseph McCorkle, Asst. Wagon Master, engaged 2odi 
Sept, 1814, present 

15. David W. Hailey, Asst Wagon Master 14th Dec 1814, ab- 
sent on ccxnmand. 

16. Samuel Bruff, Asst. Toj^l Engineer, engaged 9th Nov. 
1814. Absent on command at Fort Jackson. P. Martin, Private 
Waiter, engaged 20th Sept 1814, present A private waiter to 
Gen. Nathl. Taylor. The foregoing muster roll exhibits a true 
statement of the General and Staff of a Brigade of Infantry 
called into the service of the United States from Tennessee, and 
mustered by me at [ends here]. 

There are ten other papers in the lot, but they are generally 
of less interest than those referred to or printed. One of them, 
from General Winchester, without date, is as follows : 

Brig. Gen. Taylor: I find the advance picquet on the Dog Run 
road withdrawn. By whose order was it done. 

J. Winchester B. G. 



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The American Historical Magazine. 

Vol. IX. JULY, 1904. No. 3. 



THE RECENT REVIVAL OF INTEREST IN HISTORI- 
CAL TEACHING AND INVESTIGATION IN 
THE SOUTH. 



BY DR. FREDERICK W. MOORE, OF VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY. 



[Read before the Tennessee Historioal Society, Febmary 9, 1904.1 



The last twelve or fifteen years have witnessed in the South 
a revival in the field of historical instruction and research of such 
considerable dimensions and marked characteristics that I may 
claim your attention to the presentation of a summary account of 
what has been accomplished. 

This revival is a part of a general movement, the whole 
country over, in which the South, though a little tardily, is now 
coming to have its full share. In the middle of the nineteenth 
century the study of American history was just coming into 
prominence. Story, Sparks, Bancroft, Woolsey and Lieber and 
the Virginia Tuckers — George and H. St. George — are repre- 
sentative names from that period which indicate that the move- 
ment, though new and small in comparison with recent activi- 
ties in the same field, was yet a general one. In the North the 
movement went on uninterruptedly until the period of the eigh- 
ties, since which time it has grown with wonderfully accelerated 
rapidity. In the South it was interrupted by the war. 

Compare the situation in the two sections. In the North the 
development of historical interest and the improvement in meth- 
ods of research and instruction went on uninterruptedly after 
the war, it has been said. Indeed, it was greatly promoted by 
the war. The North had won a victory, it had preserved the 
nation undivided. It was very proud of its achievement, and it 



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202 Thb American Historical Magazine. 

gloried in the history of the government which its efforts and 
sacrifices had maintained. This was but the common experience 
the whole world over, and perfectly in accord with universal hu- 
man nature. War, especially a successful war, will not fail to 
arouse the patriotism of its participants to the highest pitch. 
They will glorify; they will sometimes idealize the war, its re- 
sults, and the fatherland or government in whose behalf it has 
been fought. Critics may belittle the War of 1812 and pro- 
nounce it a dismal failure from a military and diplc«natic point of 
view. But to the average American it was and it is the second 
and definite war of independence against England. The Span- 
ish-American War, brief as it was, and little as it jeopardized the 
national existence, was, at the time and since, frequently re- 
marked for the effect it had in arousing the patriotism of the 
people. North and South, East and West, and fusing them into 
a nation, one and indivisible, as thirty-seven years of peace and 
growing amity had not succeeded in doing. No wonder that 
the Civil War served to stimulate the interest of the North in 
history, national and general. 

Now the results of that war had an obverse and a reverse side ; 
and the very same results which in the North stimulated an in- 
terest in history served in the South to dampen the patriotic 
ardor of the people for nearly a generation. Only of late has 
interest in history revived ; only in late years have the old Declar- 
ation of Independence and the Fourth of July returned some- 
what to popular favor. The government, which stood for the 
nation with the peopJe of the North, and the government in which 
they gloried, was the very government which had humiliated the 
people of the South. They could not exult in its glories. It 
was asking too much of human nature to expect it. 

For years the South lay under the dark shadow of this bitter 
war, and felt the pressure of an administration less regardful 



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Southern History. 203 

pie kq)t, for the most part, wisely silent. American political his- 
tory was tabooed. Out of that period we have, almost an isolated 
exception, Alexander H. Stephens' "Constitutional View of the 
War between the States. Its Causes, Character, Conduct and 
Res-ults, Presented in a Series of Colloquies at Liberty Hall," 
(2 vols. 8vo, Philadelphia, 1868). Jefferson Davis's **Rise and 
Fall of the Confederate States" (2 vols., 8vo.. New Y<>rk) did 
nut appear until 1881. 

But the times have changed, and it is no longer so. The vet- 
eran still feels deeply, but has better control of his feelings He 
is sensitive, but no more so, occasion for occasion, south of 
Mason and Dixon's line than north of it. He is growing old and 
his ^ellows are passing away, and it peculiarly behooves the 
Southern veterans, as self-respecting parents of children and 
grandchildren who hold them in filial regard, to see to it that 
their names go down to history untarnished by false accusation 
and unclouded by misrepresentation. To this end they have 
grown bold, and have become very active in challenging every 
statement that is untrue or colored by bias! and in putting to rec- 
ord everything that can serve to vindicate them in the eyes of 
posterity. Though defeated in war, they are determined not to 
suffer the common lot of the defeated who do not write their 
own history. If their activities have embarrassed the writing and 
teaching of history somewhat, it is a circumstance that was very 
natural and that by nature must be reckoned temporarily. More- 
over the embarrassment has been felt chiefly in the common 
schools. In the colleges it has scarcely been felt at all. More- 
over we must set over against it the influence thus exerted upon 
historical study and investigation. 

Battlefields, haye been marked and monuments erected. Rec- 
ords have been and are being gathered and preserved. Military 
histories have been written: biographies of notable leaders, his- 
tories of regiments and brigades, stories of campaigns. Confed- 
erate Bivouacs and Camos and the organizations of the Sons and 
Daughters of the Confederacy have each and all had a part. 
With this movement, which has especial reference to the Civil 
War, compare the general national interests represented by the 
organizations of Daughters of the American Revolution and the 



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204 The Ambrican Historical Magazine. 

Colonial Dames, whose fields of interest have been those com- 
mon and undivided national fields of colonial immigration and 
revolutionary enterorise. That nation is strong for grood works 
and g'lorious in its achievements indeed in which the elory of the 
fathers is the ambition of the sons — in which the great ambition 
of the present generation is to honor the former by emulation. 
But the sentimental aopeal to filial reverence, good as it is, is 
not the only occasion of the present revival. The industrial de- 
velopment of the South, with the outward look upon the world 
that comes with it, the remnai\ts of the old culture, the very lapse 
of time and rise of a new generation, curious to know the very 
things the old generation was trying to forget, are others which 
must be mentioned, but need not be developed here. It is more 
imTX)rtant to take the time to point out that the proper scientific 
bent and crowning touch was given to the movement by Johns 
Hopkins University. Founded more than twenty-five years ago 
on border ground and under circumstances which identified it 
with no sect, section or political philosophy, pervaded from the 
first by a thoroughly scientific atmosphere, the stimulus it gave 
to graduate work in literature and philology, science and philos- 
ophy, the whole country over, has put the American people un- 
der a great and lasting obligation. Its work in the field of his- 
tory and political science suffers nothing in comparison with the 
magnitude of its contributions in other fields, and the whole 
country, the North and the South alike, has felt its influence. 
Unusual inducements were held out to Southern men to be- 
come students in Johns Hopkins University. They went there 
and entered all departments and, graduating, returned, many of 
them, to wield an influence at home. The contribution of Johns 
Hopkins has been a very considerable one. Its students from the 
South are to be counted by the scores. Its g^duates who are 
teaching in the South may be counted by the tens. Within the past 
twelve or fourteen years one-third of the institutions of collegiate 
grrade in the South have materially extended their departments 
of historv and put them in charee of men who have had the best 



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Southern History. 205 

ticHi of like character in America or abroad. Indeed^ with two 
or three exceptions, these men are young Southern men. Pro- 
fessors Riley, of the University of Mississippi ; Bassett, of Trin- 
ity College, North Carolina; Latane, of Washington and Lee in 
Virginia; Petrie, of Alabama Polytechnic; Ramage, of Sewanee; 
McPherson, of the University of Georgia, are examples of young 
men. Southern bom, and bred in history at Johns Hopkins. 

Typical of the str<Mig impression which the demands of history 
have made on those interested in colleges and responsible for 
their management, is the action of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, regarding the church schools. The board of ed- 
ucation of this Church, which was established in 1894, and given 
ample authority to that end, has decreed and is carrying out a 
systematic and exacting classification and grading of the in- 
stitutions supported by the Church. Among other things it is 
piTOvided that an institution, in order to be recognized as a col- 
lege giving reputable degrees, must have a faculty of at least 
seven members of the gjade of professor or adjunct-professor — 
positions which are expected to attract men who have made them- 
selves specialists in some particular line, and one of whom must 
have had such special training in history. As a result the status 
of history in the faculty and in the curriculum of these insti* 
tutions has been materially raised within the last half dozen years. 

Early in the history of Johns Hopkins, Doctor Herbert B. 
Adams led off with a study of Southern conditions, viz. : "Jeffer- 
son and the University of Vii^nia," the first of a series of studies 
in the history of education by States which was carried on by* 
Doctor Adams as long as he lived, the volumes being printed 
by the national government. In nearly every case the study of 
education in a Southern State was committed to a SoutKemer, 
and frequently to a native of the State. Nbt only educational, 
but institutional and political studies followed, imtil the Johns 
Hopkins series of Studies in Political Science abounds in articles 



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2o6 The Ambrican Historical Magazinb. 

merate, I mention Houston's "History of Nullification in South 
Carolina," Garner's "History of Reconstruction in Mississippi," 
and Phillips's "Georgia and State Rights," which won the Justin 
Winsor Prize awarded by the American Historical Association 
in December, 1900. 

While the amount of work in administration and instruction 
which falls to the lot of the professor in the small college, like 
those of the South, occupies much of his time and exhausts most 
of his surplus energy, some few are finding time to conduct orig- 
inal and valuable pieces of investigation. Professor Ficklen, of 
Tulane, is working on the reconstruction of Lx)uisiana. Profes- 
sor Fleming, now of the University of West Virginia, has well 
in hand a very thorough study of Alabama in post-bellum times, 
a work beg^n under Doctor Petrie and continued at Columbia. 
Professor Wallace, now of Wofford College, S. C, began while 
at Vanderbilt a study of the constitutional history of South Car- 
olina during the Colonial period and the period of early state- 
hood, which has yielded valuable results, supplementing the not- 
able work of McCrady. Professor Thomas, now of Hendrix Col- 
lie, Arkansas, has ready for the press a study begun at Vander- 
bilt and continued at Columbia on "The Military Governor," be- 
ing a study of the precedents for an office and for functions 
which became so prominent in the process of reconstructing the 
governments of the seceded States. Doctor Phillips, now holding 
a position at Wisconsin which gives him much time for investi- 
gation, is stud)dng the party divisions and industrial conditions 
of the ante-bellum South in relaticm to each other. Professor 
Bassett, of Trinity, has in hand a biography of Andrew Jackson, 
in the preparation of which he is having advantage of the original 
collection of papers deposited by General Jackscm with Mr. Blair 
for biographical purposes, as well as other large collections of 
Tackson oaoers which were until verv recentlv either unknown. 



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SouTH«RN History. 207 

Garrison, is closely associated with the State archives and the 
State Historical Society. The archives of the State, including 
some documents never removed by the Spaniards, and various 
collections secured by cift, loan, or purchase, are at the service 
of Professor Garrison. He requires of his advanced students that 
they shall be able to read Spanish and their tasks are set in some 
field of undeveloped Texan history. The results are appearing 
in the successive numbers of the Quarterly published by the State 
Historical Society, in the "History of Texas" in the Common 
wealth Series, by Professor Garrison, which came out last sum- 
mer, and in McCaleb's recent study of "The Aaron Burr Con- 
spiracy," a work which was conceived at the University of Tex- 
as, and completed at the University of Chicago. The author 
fotmd much new material and has produced the completest and 
most illuminating study of the Burr conspiracy and the part of 
the Middle West in it which is anywhere extant. 

The work of Professor Franklin L. Riley in Mississippi is 
worthy of a special paragraph. In addition to his classroom 
instruction in history at the State University, he has breathed 
the breath of life into the State Historical Society. He won the 
enthusiastic support of eminent citizens and has enlisted a large 
number of collaborators throughout the State. At the seventh 
annual meeting of the Society, January 7 and 8, 1904, a program 
was offered containing thirty-six titles. Most of the papers were, 
of course, read by title. But all were submitted for publica- 
tion and the annual publication has grown into an octavo of 800 
or 1,000 pages, for the publication of which the State appropriates 
annually $1,000. There is also a "Department of Archives and 
History," with a salaried curator, with means to preserve and 
to make some additions to the State's collection of historical treas- 
ures. 

In the matter of the exercise of official interest in and care for 
State history the Southern States are now beginning to come to 
their own. Alabama may head the list. With Peter J. Hamil- 
ton, author of "Colonial Mobile," and the enthusiastic, persistent, 
efficient and genial Thomas M. Owen, State Archivist, leading 
the movement, and others co-operating, the State legislature has 
created what there is every reason to expect will remain a per- 



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2o8 The Ambkican Historical Magazinb. 

manent State "Department of Archives and History," with $6,000 
akinually for printing, enlarg^ement, and salaries and sup{^es. 
Mississippi appropriates $3,750 annually to the support of the 
Department of Archives and History, and the Mississippi His- 
torical Society, as stated. In Missouri the State Historical So- 
ciety gets $2,500 annually. In Maryland $2,000 is annually ap- 
propriated to carry on the work of the compilation and publica- 
tion of the State archives under the direction of the State His* 
torical Society. Tennessee has made a beginning by preparing 
a small archives room and appropriating $600 per annum for the 
compensation of a custodian and cataloguer. Several other States 
appropriate small sums annually and nearly every State has at 
some time made appropriations of considerable size for specific 
objects, as when North and South Carolina procured manuscript 
copies of the records relating to their colonial history in England, 
or. somewhat similar, when the Legislature of Tennessee in- 
creased its annual appropriation to the Peabody College for 
Teachers to establish a chair of American history and a mag- 
azine of American history. 

Permit me, in conclusion, as a member of the Tennessee His- 
torical Society, to suggest that it is high time the Society should 
be up and doing, emulous to have its share in the movement. 
The removal of the Society into new and safe quarters — which 
should be fully consummated within the next eight or ten months 
— will furnish the occasion and the opportunity. We can then 
cease to apologize for the risks to which the treasures in our 
care are exposed. We can go much further and commend our 
rooms as places of safe deposit exempt frcwn the ravages of fire 
and other disasters liable to befall private residences. We shall 
find, too, that people who hesitate to place documents of per- 
manent historical value in the hands of a moribund organization 
will be glad to commit them to one which shows evidence of 
indefinite life and activity. 

We should make an effort to secure not original material but 



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Southern History. 209 

experience that the procuring of more and better papers is possi- 
ble. It will require the efforts of some one who is enthusiastic, 
energetic, patient, and persistent, and who, withal, will take the 
time that is necessary to turn failure into success. I have 
spoken to one gentleman who has a valuable document which 
ought to be edited and presented to this Society for publication 
and preservation. The same gentleman bears the name of an 
ancestor whose life should be sketched. The gentleman is pe- 
culiarly able to do the editing in the one instance and to write the 
sketch in the other, and he will be glad to do so— when he has 
time. He is a type of a score and more of others in this city 
and throughout the State, with whom an eflficient chairman of 
Committee on Program or other officer, should keep in close 
touch until by his persistency and importunity there begins to 
pour in a stream not large, but steady, of papers of which by 
reason of their value we shall be proud to become the custodians 
and puUishers. 

I would even suggest that once a year, at some convenient 
season, a special prog^m, extending over more than one day, 
be prepared, providing an occasion on which we could ask and 
expect the attendance of members from distant parts of the State. 

It is difficult for us to maintain an active membership. Indeed 
it must seem to many an act of charity worthy of much praise 
to contribute a fee annually for the safeguarding of collections 
which they never see and rarely hear of otherwise than by in- 
ference from the annual duns of the faithful treasurer. If the 
Society were more active and gave its members some substantial 
evidence of its activity in the shape of proceedings comparable 
in quality with those of other societies of like character it would, 
I have confidence to believe, get a more generous hearing from 
a much larger membership. This would contemplate an arrange- 
ment by which quarterly, the American Historical Magazine, 



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2IO Thb American Historical BiAOAziNB. 

Society would maintain its financial strength by its functional 
activity. 

I venture to commend these suggestions to your attention. 



NOTB. 



1. In pages 202 to 207 inclusive the writer has followed close- 
ly, though with omissions here and elaborations there, the lan- 
guage used by him in a report written by him and published 
in the "Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Meeting of the As- 
sociation of Collies and Schools of the Southern States, held 
with the University of Mississippi, November, 1902," entitled: 
'The Teaching of History in the South— A Report." 

2. "Historical Work in the South under the Influence of State 
Aid and Support," by Thomas M. Owen, State Archivist of 
Alabama, a paper read before the American Historial Asso- 
ciation, New Orleans, December 30, 1903. 



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Papbr Making in Tennbssbb. 211 



PAPER MAKING IN TENNESSEE. 



BT R. A. HALLEY. 



An art most intimately connected with literature and the 
making of books, and consequently with the preservation of 
history, is the art of the paper maker. In this day of speed 
in making enormous quantities of paper and its lavish, even 
wasteful, use it is hard to realize how precious a commodity 
it once was, when each sheet was treasured as many a valu- 
able document is to-day. Though some paper is still made 
by hand, yet the process has been vastly improved, and the 
hand maker of paper now turns out in a day what would once 
have been a vast product for a fortnight. 

Paper was an invention made necessary by the growing de- 
sire to preserve the record of things done. Preservation 
through tradition was followed by the inscription of records 
on stones ; then inscribed bricks were burned and laid away 
in the most ancient of libraries. The obelisk took the place 
of stones and rough bowlders, and pictured stories were 
graven on tablets and placed in the temples. Monarchs used 
stone; the common people used clay, and baked it. Assyria 
and Chaldea recorded daily events on clay tablets, which now 
furnish us a picture of the home life and public character of 
the people, since we have learned to read them again. Baby- 
lon and Nineveh used terra cotta for bank notes, deeds, let- 
ters, and public records ; on one ancient tablet is inscribed the 
earliest love letter known to us, dating back thousands of 
years. In the British Museum is a tablet of Nile clay, on 
which is a proposal of marriage written forty years before 
Moses engraved the Ten Commandments on stone. In it a 
Pharaoh asks the hand of a daughter of the Babylonian king. 
Plates of metal were used, and then the skins of animals. 
Homer's works in the days of the Ptolemies were preserved 
in one of the great Egyptian libraries, written on serpents' 
skins. Ivory was used; and in Rome wooden tablets were 
used for the daily record, which was exposed in the public 



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212 The Ambrican Historical Magazine. 

places — an early newspaper enterprise. Leaves of the olive, 
palm, and poplar were prepared and used. Then came the 
papyrus; and when a primitive trust controlled the papyrus 
and confined its sale to Egypt, parchment was made service- 
able. 

The papyrus was the original paper, but the Chinese made 
the first actual paper from mulberry bark by methods similar 
to the hand method of making paper which followed; and 
when the Arabs conquered Samarkand in 704, they brought 
the secret home with them. Western Europe learned it from 
the Arabs during the crusades and introduced it into France 
in 1189. John Tate, probably the first man to make paper in 
England, died in 1498. 

From the earliest Egyptian papyrus to the paper of to-day 
the predominant characteristic of paper has been that it con- 
sists of the enduring portion of vegetable growth known as 
" cellulose," or pure fiber, though leaves, blossoms, and stems 
have, in turn, furnished the raw material. By the old hand 
method, rag fiber, after being beaten to pulp, was formed into 
a sheet in a mold, or wire sieve, which was dipped from the 
pmlp vat by hand, the water drained off, and the pulp left in 
a wet layer in the mold. These sheets were turned out on a 
felt, pressed, and dried by exposure to the air in single sheets. 
These mills employed but a few hands, and their product was 
limited. 

As early as 1690 paper was made at Roxboro, near Phila- 
delphia, by William Rittenhouse, the first American paper 
maker. In 1729 the Ivy Mills were built on Chester Creek, 
in Delaware County, Pa., by Thomas Wilcox ; and here hand- 
made paper was produced up to 1866. This mill made the pa- 
per for Benjamin Franklin and during the Revolution sup- 
plied the paper for the Continental currency. Paper is still 
made by hand for books printed in special editions, and is in 
such demand that a number of hand mills are kept busy sup^ 
plying it. 

Paper-making machinery was invented by Louis Robert, 



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Papbr Making in Tbnnbssbb. 213 

used until after the middle of the nineteenth century, when 
wood was introduced, the first wood pulp bein^ made in the 
United States by the alkali process in 1854; but the mechan- 
ical grinding of the pulp was introduced at Stockbridge, Mass , 
in 1867, the pulp so ground being used in a paper mill at Lee. 
A small proportion of pulp was at first introduced into the 
paper stock, and this quantity was increased as progress was 
made in the art of making pulp, until now all the news paper, 
and by far the larger part of book paper, contains nothing else 
but wood pulp. The progress from the early days to now 
can be best appreciated by two illustrations of the methods. 
An old-fashioned establishment at Sunnydale, N. Y., in which 
the proprietor prepares the stock, operates the machine, fin- 
ishes and sells the product, makes about 1,000 pounds of tis- 
sue a week ; a new plant at Millinocket, Me., probably having 
the largest tonnage in the world, turns out 250 tons of finished 
paper every twenty-four hours. Spruce and poplar furnish 
the pulp for paper, with very small quantities of other woods. 
Except for higher or special grades, wood-pulp paper has 
driven all other kinds out of the market. 

The enormous increase in paper making in fifty years is 
shown by these figures: From 443 paper mills in 1850, with 
6,785 wage eamers,the growth was to 763 mills in 1900, with 49- 
646 wage earners. Wages paid in a year increased from $1497,- 
792 to $20,746426; the value of the product increased from 
$10,187,177 in 1850 to $127,326,162 in 1900. In the ten years 
from 1890 to IQOO the capital invested showed an increase of 
86.7 per cent, or nearly double, representing, nearly all of it, 
enlargement of old plants rather than the construction of new 
ones. Two-thirds of the total horse power is, and has been 
for many years, developed by water wheels. Seventeen mills 
use no power at all. 

Tennessee has now no paper mill in operation. In the past 



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214 "I^HB American Historical Magazine. 

making paper and came to Knoxville very early in the 
nineteenth century — probably in 1806— and married there. 
Many years previous to 1837 (the date cannot be ascertained 
accurately) he built a paper mill on Middle Brook Creek, 
about four miles from Knoxville, and successfully operated 
it until his death, in 1840. The machinery for this mill, which 
was exceedingly primitive, though fully up to that date, was 
hauled in wagons from Philadelphia, there being at that time no 
other means of transportation from Philadelphia to Knox- 
ville. At his death the mill was sold; and a paper mill at or 
near the same site was long operated by Gideon Hazen, after 
whose death or retirement the mill ceased to operate. 

The son of W. S. Whiteman I., W. S. Whiteman II., grew 
up with a thorough knowledge of the business of making pa- 
per, and was a g^reat mechanical genius, as well as a first-class 
man of business. About 1838 he came .to Nashville, with 
means which was considered a fair amount of capital in that 
time, and interested John A. McEwen, O. B. Hays, and John 
M. Hill, all of whom were leading pioneer citizens of Nash- 
ville, in the building of a paper mill where the city work- 
house now stands, on the Cumberland River. This was about 
1838. The operation of this mill continued for about eleven 
or twelve years under this j6int ownership; and at the end 
of that time Mr. Whiteman purchased the interests of the 
other parties interested and afterwards interested in his en- 
terprise Mr. W. O. Harris, the chief owner and manager of 
the Banner, in building another up-to-date mill on the White's 
Creek Pike about eight miles from Nashville, to which the 
machinery of the Nashville mill was at first removed; but 
this was afterwards disposed of and improved machinery sub- 
stituted. These gentlemen also built a pulp mill at what was 
afterwards known as " Loggin Springs," on Paradise Ridge, 
simply for preparingr pulp for use at the White's Creek mill. 



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Paper Making in Tennessee. 215 

were able to increase the output of the mill on the White's 
Creek Pike. The business grew to be very profitable. 

In a few years, however, Mr. Harris sold his interest to 
Mr. Whiteman, who operated the mill successfully in the man- 
ufacture of news, book, Manila, and wrapping* paper until 
the fall of Fort Donelson. The product of this mill was first- 
class in every respect, and was shipped to every quarter of 
the United States. During the Civil War, up to the fall of 
Fort Donelson, this mill never stopped running, night or day 
or Sunday, except to clean the scales from the boilers. The 
Confederate bank notes were printed almost altogether on 
paper made in this mill, as well as other government securi- 
ties. The output was the largest of any mill in the South. 
In the meantime Mr. Whiteman's mechanical genius came to 
his aid and enabled him to perfect many valuable improve- 
ments in the existing modes of paper manufacture, one of 
which was the diamond-shaped plates for beating pulp, which 
he, unfortunately, did not patent, but which were generally 
substituted for the plates formerly used by all the mills 
throughout the country. The invention would have brought 
him greater returns if patented than he ever received from 
the uniformly successful operation of his mills. 

About the beginning of the war Mr. Whiteman built an- 
other mill in the old Stone Fort, near Manchester, in Coffee 
County, to which he removed the machinery of the White's 
Creek mill. He also built a powder mill there. The powder 
mill was blown to " kingdom come " by the Federals. The 
paper mill was afterwards burned, but was rebuilt by Judge 
W. P. Hickerson several years after the war had ended, he 
having bought the property in the meantime. 

During the war there were not many paper mills in the 
South, and one of the most serious problems confronting the 
printer was to procure white paper. The burning of the big 
paper mill at Augusta, Ga., the largest in the South, about 
the middle of the year, was regarded as a national calamity 
for that reason. Other paper mills of the period were located 
at Richmond, Va. ; one in South Carolina, probably at Bath ; 
and one at Marietta, Ga., the latter operated by James Byrd, 
an uncle of W. S. Whiteman III., of Nashville. As the South 



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2i6 The American Historical Magazine. 

could not, or did not, manufacture wires and felts, which the 
paper mills required, they were brought through the lines, 
like many other necessary articles, by blockade runners, be- 
ing hauled in wagons through the mountains of Virginia, Ken- 
tucky, Tennessee, and Georgia. 

After these events and after the war, W. S. Whiteman III., 
the present bearer of the name, who had also grown up in 
the paper business, organized a stock company and ineffectu- 
ally tried to rehabilitate the old Nashville Paper Mills, which 
had been built by Sam. Scott and others and operated by vari- 
ous parties during the few years of its existence. Mr. White- 
man bought the property and started the enterprise, with fair 
promise of success ; but it failed, because of the fact that prog- 
ress in paper making had been rapid in the years immedi- 
ately following the war, and the machinery in the mills and 
the methods employed were much out of date. But the chief 
reason which contributed to the failure of the enterprise was 
the fact that the water of Brown's Creek was muddy for a 
gjeat part of the time and unfit for washing stock, and this 
trouble could not be obviated. Mr. Whiteman advised his 
associates in the business to wind up the affairs of the com- 
pany; but they leased the mills to Northern manufacturers, 
who thought they could remedy the trouble with the water. 
Three more ineffectual efforts were made by others skilled in 
paper making. They all met with failure, owing mainly to 
the water, and had to abandon their efforts. Mr. Whiteman 
bought out the other stockholders and dismantled these mills, 
selling the machinery piece by piece as occasion offered. 

Despite the failure of these efforts, there is no better place 
than Nashville for the manufacture of paper in an up-to-date 
paper mill. The raw material is here in abundance, the de- 
mand for the product of every grade is here, the capital is 
here, and all that is lacking is the skill and the enterprise. 
When W. S. Whiteman II. manufactured where the city 
workhouse now .stands, Nashville consumers and dealers 
would not purchase the product, there being a fixed belief 
among them that manufacturing could not be carried on suc- 
cessfully by the Southern people. The product was shipped 
North, sold by commission houses there, and returned to the 



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Paper Making in Tennbsseb. 217 

Nashville people, who used it and pronounced it far superior 
to the homemade paper, not knowing that it was made almost 
within their sight. This spirit has not yet entirely disap- 
peared, and stands greatly in the way of many commendable 
and worthy local enterprises in Tennessee. Even in that day 
homemade goods were not thought to be as good as those 
made North ; neither was it considered as honorable by many 
people to manufacture as it was to plant cotton and raise ne- 
groes. That latter feeling has passed, though the prejudice 
against the home article is still to be found. The people are 
moving to the front in many manufacturing enterprises, and 
should ultimately make this the manufacturing section of the 
country, under the changing conditions. 

The original mill built by W. S. Whiteman, the grandfa- 
ther of W. S. Whiteman, of Nashville, was also the distributer 
of, and largest wholesale dealer in, the old blue-back spelling 
book, which will be remembered by many now living. One 
of the greatest difficulties experienced in those days when lit- 
tle manufacturing was done in the South was the lack of 
skilled labor, which had to be brought from the North alto- 
gether at first. The employees were, in consequence, always 
ready to make unreasonable demands and exactions, which 
had to be provided against by training home mechanics. Both 
white and black were thus trained, Mr. Whiteman himself 
owning several negroes who were fully trained to the busi- 
ness of paper making. 



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2i8 The Ambrican Historical Magazine. 



THE DEATH OF MERIWETHER LEWIS. 



BY J. H. MOORE. 



The inauguration a few weeks ago of the Exposition at St. 
Louis to commemorate the acquisition by the United States 
Government of that magnificent area included in the Louisi- 
ana Purchase has revived interest in the two men, Meriwether 
Lewis and William Clark, selected by Mr. Jefferson to explore 
it and to obtain for him and for the country information of 
the value and possibilities of the new territory. This inter- 
est is deepened to readers of history by the proposed publi- 
cation in the immediate future of the original journals of the 
Lewis and Clark expedition, with maps showing the route of 
the explorers, portraits, facsimiles of pages of the manuscripts, 
diaries, memoranda, etc., which, in their entirety, have not 
heretofore been accessible to the public. 

The distinguished career of Captain Clark subsequent to the 
expedition is well known. He was, successively, Indian agent 
and brigadier general for Upper Louisiana, Governor of Mis- 
souri from 1813 to 1821, and superintendent of Indian affairs 
at St. Louis until his death, in 1838. 

Meriwether Lewis, the actual head of the expedition, was 
first a lieutenant in the American Army, later a captain, and 
had earnestly solicited Jefferson for an appointment as leader 
of an expedition to the Northwest, which the American Philo- 
sophical Society contemplated long before the Louisiana Pur- 
chase. The project took no shape until later, when Lewis 
received the appointment he had sought. 

Returning from the expedition, Lewis resigned his commis- 
sion as captain in 1807, becoming immediately Governor of 
Louisiana, which office he held from March 3 of that year until 
his tragic death — October 11, 1809. 

It is to be noted here that Lewis, prior to the expedition, 
had been for two years private secretary to President Jeffer- 
son, who states in his " Memoir of Lewis " that he had " op- 
portunities of knowing him intimately." They were, besides. 



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Thb Dbath op Mbriwbthbr Lbwis. 219 

residents of the same county in Virginia (Albemarle), and, it 
has been said, were related. 

Many accounts of Lewis* death have from time to time been 
published, nearly all based upon tradition, upon the alleged 
contemporaneous sentiment of the community in which the 
tragedy occurred, upon an absence of a motive for suicide, 
or the existence of motive for murder, etc. Many of these 
accounts have been inaccurate and highly colored,, and in 
some cases without any foundation whatever. 

On account of my long residence in a town not far distant 
from where Lewis died; my intimate professional connection 
with the descendants of Griner, who has been charged with 
the murder of Lewis ; and my frequent discussion of the sub- 
ject, not only with them, but with many of the oldest citi- 
zens of the locality, particularly the old negroes, Pete and 
Lindy (slaves in Griner's family and present at Lewis' death), 
I deem it proper to submit the information I have obtained. 

These facts will be conceded : That Lewis, while Governor 
of Louisiana, with his seat of office at St. Louis, smarting 
under an actual or imagined injustice done him at Washington 
(said to have been the refusal to honor his drafts for money 
to meet the necessities of the organization and government 
of the new territory), started down the Mississippi River by 
boat, carrying with him many vouchers and public documents 
and expecting to take a vessel from New Orleans to the East. 
At Chickasaw Bluffs (Memphis) he was led to believe that 
war with England was imminent. Fearing capture and, 
above all, the loss of the papers, on which he relied for his 
vindication, he procured horses at Chickasaw Bluffs and 
started over the Natchez Trace for Nashville, intending prob- 
ably to go thence to Washington by way of Lexington or 
Louisville, Ky. He had two servants— one, a foreigner named 
" Pemey " or " Pemea ; " the other, a negro. 

Major Neely, Indian agent at Chickasaw Bluffs, accompa- 
nied the Governor until the loss of two pack horses. He 
stopped to search for them, agreeing to join Lewis at the next 
white man's house on the road, which was Griner's.* Lewis 

•The correct spelling' of the name is ** G-r-i-n-c-r," but it is usually 
pronounced ** Grinder.** 



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220 The Ambrican Historicax Maoazinb. 

reached the place during the afternoon of October lo, 1809, 
and that night received two or more gunshot wounds, which 
caused his death early the next day — whether inflicted by his 
own hand, as I believe, or by that of another, as many writ- 
ers have claimed, is the question which has been discussed at 
intervals ever since. 

One of the earliest statements of the details of the death 
of Ciovernor Lewis was given to the public by the great sci- 
entist. Dr. Alexander Wilson, who, passing through Nashville 
on his way to Natchez, Miss., stopped at the Griner Stand, 
where Lewis died, and obtained from Mrs. Griner an account 
of the tragedy, which was printed in the Portfolio (a maga- 
zine published in Philadelphia, Pa.) for January, 1812. His 
letter was dated "Natchez, May 28, 181 1" — about eighteen 
months after Lewis' death and about two years before the 
date of President Jeflferson's " Memoir of Lewis," prefixed to 
" The History of the Lewis and Clark Expedition." I have 
seen the letter in print only in the Portfolio, though it is 
quoted freely by Dr. Elliott Coues in his edition of the his- 
tory of the expedition (1893) ; and I, therefore, copy in full 
that part which refers to Governor Lewis' death. Its chief 
value lies in the fact that it came from an aBle and highly in- 
telligent man, a personal friend of Lewis, and, therefore, in- 
terested in all that concerned him, who received his informa- 
tion directly from an eyewitness of the tragedy, in the room 
where it occurred, and not very long afterwards. 

Another remarkable fact is that the account g^ven by Dr. 
Wilson in 181 1 should be so nearly identical in its material 
details with the story told me, possibly seventy-five years later, 
by the neeroes, Pete and Lindy Griner, who, of course, had 
never heard of Dr. Wilson's letter. 

"May 6, 181 1. 
" The next morning (Sunday) I rode six miles to the bouse 
of a man named ' Griner,' where our poor friend, Lewis, per- 
ished. In the same room where he expired I took down from 
Mrs. Griner the particulars of the melancholy event, which 
affected me extremely. This house, or cabin, is seventy-two 
miles from Nashville, and is the last white man's house as 
you enter the Indian country. Governor Lewis, she said, 
came there about sunset, alone, and inquired if he could stay 



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Thk Dbath of Meriwether Lewis. 221 

ior the night, and, alighting, brought his saddle into the house. 
He was dressed in a loose gown — ^white, striped with blue. 
On being asked if he came alone, he replied that there were 
two servants behind, who would soon be up. He called for 
some spirits and drank a little. When the servants arrived, 
one of whom was a negro, he inquired for his powder, saying 
he was sure he had some powder in a canister. The servant 
gave no distinct reply; and Lewis, in the meanwhile, walked 
backward and forward before the door, talking to himself. 
Sometimes, she said, he would seem as if he were walking up 
to her, and would suddenly wheel around and walk back as 
fast as he could. Supper being ready, he sat down, but had 
eaten but a few mouthfuls, when he started up, speaking to 
himself in a violent manner. At these times, she said, she 
observed his face to flush, as if it had come on him in a fit. 
He lighted his pipe, and, drawing a chair to the door, sat 
down, saying to Mrs. Griner, in a kind tone of voice: * Madam, 
this is a very pleasant evening.' He smoked for some time, 
but quitted his seat and traversed the yard as before. He 
again sat down to his pipe, seemed again composed, and, cast- 
ing his eyes wistfully toward the west, observed what a sweet 
evening it was. Mrs. Griner was preparing a bed for him; 
but he said he would sleep on the floor, and desired the serv- 
ants to bring the bearskins and buffalo robe, which were 
immediately spread out for him ; and it being now dusk, the 
woman went off to the kitchen, and the two men went to the 
bam, which stands about two hundred yards off. The kitchen 
is only a few paces from the room where Lewis was ; and the 
woman, being considerably alarmed by the behavior of her 
guest, could not sleep, but listened to him walking backward 
and forward, she thinks, for several hours, and talking aloud, 
as she said, ' like a lawyer.' She then heard the report of a 
pistol and something fall heavily on the floor and the words : 
* O Lord ! ' Immediately afterwards she heard another pistol 
shot, and in a few minutes she heard him at her door calling 
out : ' O, madam, give me some water and heal my wounds ! * 
The logs being open and unplastered, she saw him stagger 
back and fall against a stump that stands between the kitchen 
and the room. He crawled for some distance, raised himself 
by the side of a tree, where he sat about a minute. He once 
more got to the room. Afterwards he came to the kitchen 
door, but did not speak. She then heard him scraping the 
bucket with a gourd for water, but it appears that this cooling 
element was denied the dying man. As soon as day broke, 
and not before, the terror of the woman having permitted him 
to remain for two hours in the most deplorable situation, she 



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222 Thb American Historical Magazinb. 

sent two of her children to the barn, her husband not being 
at home, to bring the servants. On going in, they found him 
lying on the bed. He uncovered his side and showed them 
where the bullet had entered. A piece of the forehead was 
blown off and had exposed the brains, without having bled 
much. He begged that they would take his rifle and blow 
out his brains and he would give them all the money he had 
in his trunk. He often said : * I am no coward ; but I am so 
strong, so hard to die.' He begged the servant not to be 
afraid of him, for he would not hurt him. He expired in about 
two hours, or just as the sun rose above the trees. 

" He lies buried close by the common path, with a few loose 
rails thrown over his grave. I gave Griner the money to put 
a post fence around it to shelter it from the hogs and from 
the wolves, and he gave me his written promise that he would 
do it. 

" I left this place in a very melancholy mood, which was not 
much allayed by the prospect of the gloomy and savage wil- 
derness which I was just entering alone." 

Dr. Wilson appended to his letter a poem which he had 
written and dedicated to the memory of Lewis, and in which 
these stanzas occur: 

" The anguish that his soul assailed. 

The dark despair that round him flew. 
No eye, save that of Heaven, beheld. 
None but unfeeling strangers knew. 

" Bereaved of Hope's sweet angel form, 
Griefs rose on griefs, and fears on fear ; 
Poor Reason perished in the storm. 
And Desperation triumphed here." 

Among my particular friends prior to his death was Elijah 
Walker, of Savannah, Tenn., but a native of Hickman County, 
a lawyer distinguished alike for his uprightness and his abil- 
ity. Chief Justice Nicholson pronounced him, in conversa- 
tion with me, one of the purest men and one of the best 
lawyers he had ever known. He was judge of the Fourteenth 
Judicial Circuit of Tennessee from 1849 until 1861 and of the 
Tenth Circuit from 1870 until 1873. He knew not only the 
Griners, at whose house Governor Lewis died, but practically 
all of the old people living in the country at the time. He 
had given the death of Lewis a thorough investigation, and 
was a firm believer in the innocence of Griner. 



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Thb Death of Mbriwbthbr Lewis. 223 

Nearly all of the accounts of the death of Lewis ag^ee in 
saying that there were present at the house, besides the Gov- 
ernor and his servants, Mrs. Griner and her very young daugh- 
ter, and two negro children — Pete, aged about thirteen years, 
and Lindy, aged about twelve years. Probably the last two 
were too young to be of any aid to Griner in gathering the 
crop on the Swan Creek farm, some miles away, where he 
had gone, and were left to assist Mrs. Griner at the tavern. 
Pete, before the emancipation, was the servant of Judge 
Walker; and I have frequently heard him tell the story of 
the tragedy, which he remembered perfectly. It differed in 
no material way from the account given by Lindy, except 
that, negrolike, each claimed to have seen and heard more 
than the other; but the story of the one is the story of the 
other. 

When Pete died, Judge Walker suggested to me that Lindy 
was the last living witness of the death of Lewis; that my 
father had been a member of the Legislature which author- 
ized the erection of the monument to Lewis, was instrumental 
in securing the appropriation for it, and was chairman of the 
committee appointed to build it ; and that, as the descendants 
and relatives of Griner had long been my neighbors, friends, 
and clients, it was almost my duty to see that the true story 
of the deplorable tragedy was preserved. I, therefore, vis- 
ited Lindy and took full notes of the conversation with her, 
which I still have. Upon these notes I based a communica- 
tion to the Maury County Sentinel, and it was also published 
later in the Hickman Pioneer in a condensed form. I have 
these two, but have been unable to secure a copy of the paper 
furnished to the Sentinel. 

Lindy stated that late in the afternoon the Governor rode 
up to the house alone and asked Mrs. Griner if he could stay 
for the night. She replied : " Yes ; but there is no man here to 
care for your horse." He replied : " That makes no difference, 
as my servants will be on in a short time." Soon thereafter 
two servants, one white and one black, came up on horses, 
with one or two pack horses. She says that the white man's 
name was " Pemey " and that he was a Spaniard or some 
sort of a " furiner." The servants, after removing the packs, 



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224 "I^HB AmBRICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINB. 

took charge of the horses and repaired to the stables. The 
Governor at once began to walk up and down the yard, talk- 
ing to himself and muttering. His conduct was so peculiar 
and his appearance so strange and unusual that Mrs. Griner 
became alarmed, so much so that she went, carrying all the 
children — that is, her child and Pete and Lindy — to the 
kitchen, which was several yards from the " big house," as 
she called it. Soon after, Mrs. Griner and Lindy went up to 
arrange the beds for the night. The Governor said they need 
not prepare any bed for him, as he preferred to sleep on his 
buffalo robe on the floor (which he had done on the entire trip), 
and they spread the robe down for him. The servants said 
they were afraid to stay in the house with him, as he had been 
acting strangely for the last two or three days, and went off 
to the barn to sleep. 

The Governor did not lie down; he continued to walk — 
sometimes in the house and then in the yard— continually 
talking to himself and repeating : " They have told lies on me 
and want to ruin me." 

The children soon went to sleep, but Mrs. Griner could not 
and sat up all night. Just before day all were aroused by the 
report of firearms. Two shots were fired in rapid succession. 
Immediately Pemcy came running to the house, and the ^Gov- 
ernor crawled to the door and called for water. They all went 
together to the house, and found the Governor writhing in 
pain on the floor. Mrs. Griner asked : " Why in the world 
did you do this ? " He replied that if he had not done it, some 
one else would. " They are telling lies and trying to ruin 
me." He was bleeding profusely frcwn a wound in the body 
near the heart. He drank great quantities of water, and would 
immediately throw it up. He lingered in great agony until 
twelve o'clock, when he died. He was buried just outside of 
the inclosure where the monument stands. 

The next fall, Lindy said, two of the sisters of the Governor 



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Thk Death of Mbriwbthbr Lewis. 225 

property, I think she said, from the house of Mr. Albert 
Griner's son, who was at the time in the Confederate Army. 
Old Lindy said the Lewis visitors were " fine ladies," and 
seemed very thankful for the kindness and attention shown 
their relative in the last hours of his life. 

Mrs. Griner, the widow of Capt. Robert Griner, who was 
a son of the owner of the Griner Stand, was present at the 
interview with Lindy, and said the story was substantially the 
same as she had heard it often told by her mother-in-law. 

While not in the language, this is the substance of what 
Lindy said. 

The idea that Governor Lewis was murdered by Griner was 
given wide circulation by an article which appeared in the 
Nashville American of September 6, 1891, over the signature 
"John Quill," and which was reprinted in the same paper on 
January 4, 1903. The communication, as it originally ap- 
peared, was illustrated with a picture of Lewis and probably 
the first photograph ever made of his monument. It was 
written by Mr. James D. Park, the regular correspondent of 
the American at Franklin, Tenn., and a gentleman of the best 
character. While the communication contained many inac- 
curacies, no blame attaches to its writer, other than he per- 
mitted himself to be imposed upon by a garrulous and sensa- 
tional old woman. His information was based entirely upon 
the story of Mrs. Christina Anthony, who, when Mr. Park 
saw her, was seventy-seven years of age and kept a little tav- 
ern in the town of Newburg, Lewis County, Tenn. So far 
from living all her life near the scene of the tragedy, as repre- 
sented to Mr. Park, she spent most of it in Lawrence County. 
I knew her well. One of her daughters had eloped with one 
of the Griners, which she never forgave. Here is one of her 
statements : 

" Griner soon afterwards [i. e., after the death of Lewis] re- 
moved to the western part of the State, and, it was reported 
in his old neighborhood, had bought a number of slaves and 
a farm, and seemed to have plenty of money. Before this 
he had always been quite poor." 

The following is taken from Spence's " History of Hickman 
County, Tenn.," pages 49, 50: 



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226 Thb American Historical Magazinb. 

"About 1807 the upper end of the bend [Shipp's] was set- 
tled by Robert Griner, Sr. . . . The next year he moved 
out on the Natchez Trace, and had an inn where the Lewis 
monument now stands. This was then in Hickman County, 
but is now in Lewis County, named for Meriwether Lewis, 
who committed suicide here in 1809. . . . The regularity 
of some of Lewis' official transactions was being questioned, 
and he was hastening along the Natchez Trace en route to 
Washington City for the purpose of demanding an investi- 
gation, when one night in 1809 he came to Griner's Stand, 
accompanied by two servants — one white and one black. One 
of these was named ' Perney.' When Lewis reached the 
Stand, he had been drinking, and was in such a highly excited 
state that his servants feared him and would not sleep in the 
room with him. During the night three shots were heard; 
and when Lewis' room was entered, he was found lying near 
the door, begging for water. He lived until noon of the fol- 
lowing day, and was buried near by, where a monument to 
his memory was erected by the State. This account of Lewis' 
death is substantiated by a statement made in 1879 by Linda, 
a negro woman who was born in 1797. She was a slave of 
Robert Griner, Sr., and was present on the night of Lewis' 
death, and saw him before and after his death. A few years 
later Griner returned to the north side of Duck River and set- 
tled where he had fi/st located." 

Professor Wilson's letter shows that Griner was living at 
the Stand in May, 181 1. The Register's books in Hickman 
County show that he bought a tract of one hundred acres of 
land in that county in 1814 for $250, and another one hundred 
acres adjoining the first in 1824. 

As a matter of fact, the family has lived in Hickman County 
for nearly one hundred years. While few of the name have 
been prominent, they have been substantial and respectable 
people. Robert E. Griner, son of the owner of the Stand, was 
the senior captain in the Thirty-sixth Regiment of Tennessee 
Militia in 1834; another son, Albert S. Griner, was captain 
in the Ninety-seventh Regiment in 1837, lieutenant colonel 
in 1839, ^"d colonel in 1840. Others of the name served in 
the Mexican War of 1845 and the Civil War of 1861-1865; 
others have intermarried with the Shipps, Easons, and other 



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Thb Dbath op Mbriwbthbr Lewis. 227 

" The conduct of Mr. Neeley, the Indian agent, as mentioned 
in Mr. Jefferson's account, seems to have been very strange. 
. . . They had servants and horses in their train, yet the 
recovery of two horses that had strayed from the camp was 
deemed by Mr. Neeley of more importance than the welfare 
and safety of his friend. The accounts do not show that he 
ever found them or ever caught up with Governor Lewis and 
saved his priceless records and papers after his death." 

It is safe to say that Neeley did in the premises what Lewis 
wanted him to do. If the strayed pack horses bore the re- 
ceipts and documents on which Lewis relied for vindication 
from slander and injustice, their recovery was imperative. 
Without these, his journey to Washington was naught; his 
vindication, impossible; his character as a high and trusted 
official, jeopardized, if not ruined. Neeley knew the country — 
its roads and its inhabitants ; Lewis and his servants did not. 
What is strange in Neeley's undertaking to find the missing 
property? But the papers were recov^ed. In the "Con- 
quest," a rather highly-colored story of the Lewis and Clark 
expedition, by Eva Emery Dye (1902), occurs this passage 
(page 344) : 

" When at last the trunks arrived at Washington, they were 
found to contain the journals, papers on the protested bills, 
and the well-known spyglass used by Lewis on the expedi- 
tion ; but there were no valuables or money." 

In the Preface to the story the author acknowledges her 
obligations to many persons of the families of both Lewis 
and Clark — ^and names, among them, C. Harper Anderson, of 
Viriginia, the nephew and heir of Meriwether Lewis — for let- 
ters, documents, family traditions, etc. ; and the statement in 
an article from Mr. W. J. Webster, of Columbia, in the Nash- 
ville American of May 23, 1904, that the servants had never 
been accounted for, is met by a paragraph from the " Con- 
quest " that Pernea visited Charlottesville, Va., subsequent to 
Lewis' death; that Lewis' mother refused to see him; and 
that years afterwards Lewis' sister and her husband obtained 
from Pernea, in Mobile, Ala., the Governor's watch and rifle. 
Surely Mrs. Dye did not make these assertions without good 
authority. 



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228 The American Historical Magazine. 

All through the article of Mr. Park and the more recent 
ones in the American by Mr. Webster and Maj. E. C. Lewis 
runs the idea that the sentiment of the neighborhood at the 
time was that Governor Lewis had been murdered, and in 
most of the articles the guilt is charged to Griner. 

The committee appointed by the Legislature of Tennessee 
to erect the monument to Governor Lewis — composed of Ed- 
ward Dillahunty, Barclay Martin, Robert A. Smith, and Sam- 
uel B. Moore — uses this language in its report to the Legis- 
lature of 1849-1850: 

" The impression has long prevailed that, under the influ- 
ence of disease of the body and mind— of hopes based upon 
long and valuable services, not merely deferred, but wholly 
disappointed — Governor Lewis perished by his own hand. It 
seems more probable that he died by the hands of an as- 
sassin." 

The place at which he was killed is even yet a lonely spot 
It was then wild and solitary and on the borders of the Indian 
Nation. 

Maj. C. L. Clark, a son of Governor Clark, of Missouri, in 
a letter to Rev. Mr. Cressey, of Maury County, says: 

" Have you ever heard of the report that Governor Lewis 
did not destroy his own life, but was murdered by his serv- 
ant, a Frenchman, who stole his money and horses, returned 
to Natchez, and was never afterwards heard of? This is an 
important matter in connection with the erection of a mon- 
ument to his memory, as it clearly removes — ^from my mind, 
at least— the only stigma upon the fair name I have the honor 
to bear." 

The legislative committee clearly indicates that the theory 
of suicide was general up to 1848; and while it does not say 
so, it no doubt got its impression of murder from the letter 
of Major Clark, and it does not mention Griner in connec- 
tion with it. 

After a residence in Hickman County of more than three- 
score years and after practicing law in that county and the ad- 
joining counties from the termination of the Civil War until 
a few years ago, I have yet to find in any of them any con- 
siderable number of persons who thought Governor Lewis 



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Trk Drath of Mbriwkthbr Lbwis. 229 

had been murdered; and a letter recently received from Mr. 
Claggett, of Hickman County — a very old and highly respected 
gentleman — states that the murder theory is comparatively 
new. 

I have no doubt it originated in Major Clark's letter pub- 
lished by the legislative committee in 1849. Maj. E. C. Lewis' 
unbelief that a man who lived in the open as much as Gov- 
ernor Lewis ever had occasion or disposition to take his own 
life carries no weight in view of the fact, as shown by statis- 
tics, that " the rate of suicide for soldiers is enormously in 
excess of that for any other occupation." 

Mr. Jeflferson, in his " Memoir of Governor Lewis," says : 

" Mr. Neeley, agent of the United States with the Chick- 
asaw Indians, arriving [at Chickasaw Bluffs] two days after 
Lewis, found him extremely indisposed and betraying some 
symptoms of a derangement of mind. . . . 

" He [Lewis] stopped at the house of a 'Mr. Griner, who 
not being at home, his wife, alarmed at the symptoms of de- 
rangement she discovered, gave him up the house and re- 
tired to an outhouse." 

This is substantially the account given by Mrs. Griner to 
Dr. Wilson and by the negroes, Pete and Lindy, to Judge 
Walker and to me. 

A very much more significant passage occurs in the " Mem- 
oir of Governor Lewis ; " and while it is worded delicately 
and charitably, as a man would speak of a dead friend whom 
he had esteemed and admired, it is easy to see what Mr. Jef- 
ferson meant: 

" Governor Lewis had from early life been subject to hypo- 
chondriac affections. It was a constitutional disposition in 
all the nearer branches of the family of his name, and was 
more immediately inherited by him from his father. They 
had not, however, been so strong as to give uneasiness to his 
family. While he had lived with me in Washington, I ob- 
served at times sensible depressions of mind; but knowing 
their constitutional source, I estimated their course by what 
I had seen in the family. During his Western expedition 
the constant exertion which that required of all the faculties 
of body and mind suspended these distressing affections ; but 
after his establishment at St. Louis in sedentary occupations, 
they returned to him with redoubled vigor and began seri- 



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230 Thb American Historical Magazine. 

ously to alarm his friends. He was in a paroxysm of one of 
these when his affairs rendered it necessary for him to go to 
Washington." 

If Governor Lewis was insane, as is clearly indicated by 
these various statements, the question of motive for suicide 
is not worth consideration. Insanity furnishes its own mo- 
tives. 

I believe that Governor Lewis, predisposed by heredify to 
insanity, having borne for years the trying responsibilities of 
the expedition, had assumed, with the governorship of the 
new territory, responsibilities far greater and problems in- 
finitely more perplexing ; he had started down the Mississippi 
River for Washington with the object of justifying official 
acts which had been repudiated by the government, no doubt 
chafing with impatience through every mile of the slow and 
wearisome voyage; he had found at Chickasaw Bluffs all his 
plans overthrown by the possibility of capture and the loss of 
his papers; physically exhausted and mentally depressed and 
disappointed, he had undertaken a most exhausting journey, 
on horseback, of hundreds of miles, when, at the end of a few 
days' travel, there fell upon him the worst of all misfortunes — 
the loss of the receipts and documents which constituted the 
means of his vindication at Washington. The cord broke 
which had been stretched so tensely for years ; his mind gave 
way; and, with his own pistol, he ended his troubles and his 
life. 



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Ann AM OP A Scotch-Irish Family. 231 



ANNALS OF A SCOTCH-IRISH FAMILY— THE 
WHITSITTS, OF NASHVILLE, TENN. 



BY WILLIAM H. WHITSITT, RICHMOND COLLEGE, RICHMOND, VA. 



erg'O ut miremur te, non tua, privum aliquid da, 
quod possim titulis incidere praeter honores, 
quos illift damns ac dedimus, quibut omnia debes. 

--Juvenal VIII, 68-70. 

Corrigenda et addenda, — On page 121 above, four lines from 
the bottom, instead of " Churchhill Blake the Sone of Thomas 
and Margaret Blake, baptiz. at ye Upper Chap'll 27th ffebry 
1686" (p. 31), please read "Churchhill Blake the Sone of 
Thomas and Margaret Blake was borne 30th of November 
1690" (p. 42). 

On page 138 above, lines 3 and 4 from the top, it is de- 
clared that in the year 1792 the home of James Menees was 
situated on the hill just north of Menees' Spring, near Flat 
Rock, in Davidson County. But James Menees did not make 
the improvement near Menees' Spring until the year 1796. 
In a deed of gift dated August i, 1796, conveying to his daugh- 
ter, Jane, and his son-in-law, James Whitsitt, a tract of 640 
acres, he adds : " I reserve 160 acres of said land in the south- 
west corner, where I am note improving, as long as I live." 
This seems to fix the date of the said improvement. From 
1782 to 1784 Menees must have kept his residence within the 
fort at Nashville. The first land he obtained was lot No. 32, 
in the original plan of Nashville, containing one acre, which 
was deeded to him on the i6th of August, 1784. The next 
purchase that he made was a tract of 100 acres in Scott's pre- 
emption, Neely's Bend. This land was conveyed to him on 
the 7th of April, 1789, for £60, lawful money of North Car- 
olina, and seems to have been his earliest home outside of 
Nashville. This date is of some importance. If, as Phelan 
says ("History," p. 234, footnote), "James Menees opened a 
private school at French Lick during the eighties," he must 
have done it between the years 1782 and 1789. It seems likely 



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232 Thb Ambrican Historical Magazinb. 

that he began the work of teaching as early as 1784 and con- 
tinued it until 1789, because in the former year he first ac- 
quired a house of his own, where students might be ac- 
commodated; and in the latter year he is supposed to have 
removed to the country. Rev. Thomas B. Craighead be- 
gan the work of teaching at Haysborough in 1786, and it was 
some years afterwards before his school was removed to Nash- 
ville. The honor of being the earliest schoolmaster of Nash- 
ville appears to belong to Mr. Menees. 

He was living at the home purchased from James Scott in 
Neely's Bend as late as 1795, for in that year he made an addi- 
tion to it by purchasing thirty-eight acres from Robert Hays. 
The point seems, therefore, to be established that James Me- 
nees was living in Neely's Bend, and not at Flat Rock, in 
December, 1792, when his daughter, Jane, was married to 
Mr. Whitsitt. 

On page 118 above I incautiously followed the tradition 
which affirms that Gov. f John Breathitt was bom in Camp- 
bell County, Va., not far from New London. This was bor- 
rowed from L. Collins' " Historical Sketches of Kentucky," 
Maysville, 1847, P- 211. But if John Breathitt, as this author 
affirms, was born on the 9th of September, 1786, he must 
almost certainly have opened his eyes first on Henry County, 
Va., since the Breathitts did not leave Henry for Campbell 
County before the year 1793, at which time John Breathitt 
was about seven years of age. Furthermore, Governor 
Breathitt was not the eldest child of his parents, as Collins 
reports. Jane (Kelley), who married Dr. Sappington, ap- 
pears to have been the eldest ; Cardwell, the second ; and John, 
the third child of the family. 

On page 125 above I was unable to specify the county in 
Virginia in which the lot of the George Blakey there men- 
tioned had fallen. In the Virginia Magazine of History, 
Vol. IV., p. 105, is given a list of persons holding slaves in 
Spottsylvania County in the year 1783, and George Blakey is 
credited with five. It seems likely that he is the George 
Blakey in question. 

On page 79 above it was said that James and Ellinor were 



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^ 

^ 



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Annals of a Scx)Tch-Iri8H Family. 233 

the only children of Benjamin Menees whose names had been 
recovered; but in the American Historical Mag^ine, Vol. 
v., p. 314, mention is made of Isaac Menees. On the i8th 
day of July, 1796, Benjamin Menees was appointed justice 
of the peace for Robertson County, and Isaac Menees was 
appointed constable. It seems likely that Isaac was a son 
of Benjamin. Not long afterwards the name " Isaac Me- 
nees " is enrolled as a member of Mill Creek Church, in Da- 
vidson County. It is supposed to be the same Isaac Menees 
who had figured in Robertson County. 

Triumph of James Menees. — He had succeeded in leading the 
entire family from Virginia to the Cumberland country. In 
1782 he came in person; in 1783 he brought his own house- 
hold; in 1784 Benjamin Menees followed, with his family; 
in 1790 came the Whitsitts and the Blakeys, traveling in a fa- 
mous, large company that departed from East Tennessee in 
the month of October; and in' the autumn of 1799 the Breath- 
itts brought up the rear of the procession. The Whitsitts 
arrived at the most perilous season of all. They had scarcely 
established themselves in their new homes before the Indians 
won two victories over the fixces of the government. Gen- 
eral Harmer was defeated in 1790; General St. Clair, on the 
4th of November, 1791. The courage and ferocity of the 
Northern Indians were enhanced by these successes, and the 
Southern Indians also concluded to undertake a general cam-- 
paign. This befell in the autumn of the year 1792, when they 
encountered a serious repulse at Buchanan's Station. But 
they were not yet defeated, and the entire section was filled 
with roving bands of bloodthirsty savages. They were not 
reduced until the summer of 1794, when the Nickajack expe- 
dition was sent against them. 

Dr. Howell reports that in this trying period the families 
of William Whitsitt and James Menees repaired to the set- 
tlements on the Red River, in Robertson County, where it is 
supposed they enjoyed the company and support of Benja- 
min Menees and his family. It is not known how long they 
remained there, but they had returned home before the mid- 
dle of December, at which time James Whitsitt and Jane 
Cardwell Menees were married. 
3 



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234 Thb American Historical Magazine 

Left Behind. — During their sojourn upon Red River the 
Whitsitt family appear to have obtained a view of the land of 
Kentucky and to have found it fair to see. Shortly after the 
stress of the Indian assault, in September, 1792, had passed 
away, they returned to Nashville ; but the charms of the Green 
River country were hard to forget. For a season it appeared 
as if they were content with the Cumberland region. As 
late as the year 1795 William Whitsitt acquired a section of 
640 acres in Neely's Bend, which was almost as fertile as the 
valley of the Nile. It bordered the estate of James Menees, 
and it appeared that they were to resume here the conditions 
that had prevailed at Amherst, in Virginia ; but on the 13th of 
September, 1800, in conveying a portion of this land to Tyree 
Harris, Whitsitt describes himself as a resident of the county 
of Logan and State of Kentucky; and he had carried to that 
country all his children, married and unmarried, except his 
son James. 

But James Menees was much at home in Tennessee. His 
youthful and charming bride was greatly devoted to him, as 
well as the entire Menees family and many other people. In 
August, 1796, his father-in-law, James Menees, deeded him 
an entire section of land upon Mill Creek, although he g^ve 
to none of his other children more than half a section. To 
be sure, he reserved 160 acres of the land bestowed upon Whit- 
sitt, but it was for the purpose of building a house where 
he might reside in the immediate neighborhood of his hon- 
ored son-in-law. The desire to be near the church, where 
he might regularly enjoy the means of grace, appears to have 
been a ruling passion with him. 

It was within the walls of this dwelling at Menees* Spring, 
on the 15th day of April, 1797, that the existence of Mill Creek 
Church was formally recognized by other Baptist Churches. 
Dr. Howell, in his history of these occurrences, plainly af- 
firms that this church had been organized as early as the au- 
tumn of 1794, and that Mrs. Whitsitt, together with several 
members of her father's family, had at that time united with 
it. If that is true, it was the earliest Baptist interest formed 
south of the Cumberland River, since the church formed by 
Mr. Dillahunty in the earlier portion of 1797 had come with 



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Amnai^ of a Scotch-Irish Family. 235 

him from North Carolina in the month of March, 1796. (Bo- 
rum, " Tennessee Baptist Ministers," p. 214.) 

Mr. Whitsitt, having been restored to the fellowship of the 
Baptists and to his position as a licensed minister, had been 
preaching for the church ever since the autumn of 1794; but 
he was formally ordained to the ministry on the 15th of April, 
1797, in the house of James Menees. Dr. Howell suggests 
that the service of ordination was performed by Rev. John 
Dillahunty, of Richland Creek Church, and Rev. Joseph Dor- 
ris, of Sulphur Fork Church, in Robertson County. Thus 
the fire that James Menees brought with him from Amherst, 
Va., in 1782 had kindled into a new flame among the giant for- 
ests of the Cumberland Valley. So far as history takes any ac- 
count, Menees was the first person holding and teaching the 
faith of the Baptists to enter the land of Middle Tennessee. 
It seems to have been due to his interest and exertions that 
the cause of the Baptists was first established in this far West- 
em country. 

Career of Mill Creek Church, — From the beginning it was a 
famous and honored seat of religious influence, Mr. Menees 
had been a schoolmaster, and was a person of unusual intel- 
ligence. Both his character and accomplishments gave tone 
and respectability to the struggling enterprise. In my child- 
hood many of his writings were preserved in the library of 
our home, and I have distinct recollections of a bulky ledger 
containing calculations in astronomy and other branches of 
mathematics; but I was unable to appreciate the value of 
these things, and during the Confederate War they passed out 
of sight. 

Various prominent and cultivated families were attracted 
to the services of the church. Notable among these were the 
Fosters, Robert C. and Ephraim H., father and son, who were 
both distinguished figures in the life of the State. It seemed 
to be a custom of Ephraim H. Foster, whenever he should 
make an important speech in the Senate at Washington, to 
send a bound copy of it to Mr. Whitsitt for his library. Mrs. 
Dickinson and her daughter, Mrs. John Bell, wife of the states- 
man of that name, were for a long period pillars of the church ; 
and it was the custom of Mr. Bell himself to worship with his 



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236 The American Historical Magazine. 

family whenever his duties to the public would permit him to 
spend a season at home with his neighbors. 

The Hardimans, Perkinses, Ewings, Ridleys, Buchanans, 
Topps, Everetts, Goodwins, and many others held an hon- 
ored place in the house of God. The Baptist Churches of 
Nashville have nearly all been derived from Mill Creek, either 
in the direct or indirect line of succession. In the rural dis- 
tricts also, such churches as Concord and Antioch, in David- 
son, and Rock Spring and Providence, in Rutherford, owed 
their origin to Mill Creek. For long years Mill Creek held, 
by tacit consent, a sort of hegemony among the Baptists 
west of the Cumberland Mountains, in Tennessee; but in 
1834 Dr. Howell arrived from Virginia, and the First Church, 
of Nashville, was then advanced to the foremost position, and 
has held it ever since. The last enterprise which Mill Creek 
undertook in the work of leading the Baptist Churches of 
Tennessee was in the month of October, 1833, when the Bap- 
tist State Convention of Tennessee was organized by a body 
that assembled there. 

Some of the ministers with whom Mr. Whitsitt was on in- 
timate terms were : John Dillahunty, father of Judge Edmund 
Dillahunty, of Columbia; John Wiseman, Jeremiah Varde- 
man, Richard Dabbs, Peter S. Gayle, Gamer McConnico, and 
Robert B. C. HoweH. In the earliest portion of his ministry 
he stood nearest to Mr. Dillahunty ; in middle life Gamer Mc- 
Connico was his principal associate; and in his later years, 
Robert B. C. Howell. On Sunday, the 14th day of April, 
1849, which lacked one day of being the fifty-second anni- 
versary of his ordination, his funeral discourse was preached 
by Dr. Howell. It was the first sermon of which I have re- 
tained any distinct recollections. 

Other Tennessee Whitesides and Whitsitts- — In Maury 
County the names " Samuel Whitesides," " Thomas White- 



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Annals of a Scx>tch-Irish Family. 237 

may have been a sort of transition from " Whiteside " to 
" Whitsitt." 

A recent able work, entitled " Some Virginia Families," by 
Hugh Milton Mcllhany, Jr., M.A., Ph.D., Staunton, Va., 1903, 
thus refers to William Whiteside I., who was the founder of 
the Whitsitt family, of Nashville : 

" William Whitesides, evidently of English parentage, pat- 
ented two tracts of land in Albemarle County— one, of 400 
acres, March 15, 1741 ; the other, of 181 acres, July 20, 1768. 
He and his wife, Elizabeth, afterwards sold both of these 
properties and removed to Amherst County. They had a fam- 
ily of several children, one of whom was unquestionably James 
Whitesides, who married Ann Kinney. See Section 4." 

(P. 2^.) 

Referring to Section 4, as requested, you will find the fol- 
lowing : 

"Ann Kinney, usually called 'Nancy' — b. Albemarle County, 
Sept. 22, 1766; d. Port Republic, Rockingham County, June 
26, 1845; iw* Amherst County, Aug. 7, 1792, James White- 
sides, of the county of Amherst. 

" Mrs. Nancy Whitesides was always considered a remark- 
able woman. She was possessed of a vigorous intellect, with 
agreeable and entertaining conversational powers, ever en- 
livening her companions with original humor, and happily 
told anecdotes, of which she had an unabating fund. She re- 
membered with historical accuracy and narrated with inter- 
est facts and incidents of the eventful era in which she was 
reared, recalling particularly the raid of the British under 
Tarleton, when the army passed before her father's house. 

"About 1795 James Whitesides went with his brother, Sam- 
uel, from Amherst County to purchase land in Tennessee. 
They obtained land near Bean's Station, in Grainger County, 
where his brother remained ; but as he was returning for his 
family he was drowned in crossing the Tennessee River. His 
brother stayed in Tennessee and prospered, but died unmar- 
ried. After her husband's death, Nancy Whitesides removed, 
with her infant daughter, Sarah, from Amherst to Augusta 
County, and lived near Tinkling Spring Church until her 
daughter's marriage, and thereafter with her son-in-law, Jo- 
seph Trout." (P. 5.) 

The points above recited are every way worthy of re- 
spectful consideration. The fact that the Whitsitts, of 



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238 The American Historical Magazine. 

Nashville, have retained no records or traditions concerning oth- 
er children of their founder, William Whiteside, the immigrant, 
besides their own immediate ancestor, does not prove that 
there were no such children. On the contrary, the word of 
other Whitesides claiming their descent from him may be as 
valid as our own, in case it can be supported by documentary 
evidence ; and the name " Samuel " is especially significant 
as applied to the son who is said to have settled in Grainger 
County, Tenn., for *' Samuel " is an ancient and orthodox 
Whitsitt name. 

The Whitesides still abide in Grainger County. In the 
Official Register of the United States, published July i, 1901, 
Vol. II., p. 1000, "James R. Whitesides, of Tate Springs, 
Grainger County, Tenn.," is set down as one of the rural letter 
carriers. It seems entirely possible that he may be related 
to the Nashville family, to say nothing of the eminent and 
worthy fraternity of the Trouts in the Valley of Virginia. 

There are likewise Whitesides in Marion and Haftiilton and 
Bedford, and perhaps in other, counties; but the most impor- 
tant man of the Whiteside name in Tennessee seems to have 
been Jenkin Whiteside. He first appeared at Nashville on 
the 17th of December, 1802, as Jenkin Whiteside, of Knox 
County, and purchased of Francis May lot No. 51, in the orig- 
inal plan of the town, for which he paid $220. In all subse- 
quent entries (and there were many of them) he uniformly 
describes himself as Jenkin Whiteside, of Davidson County. 
He was a Senator in Congress from 1809 to 181 1, and, so far 
as I am aware, is the only man of the name who ever held a 
seat in that august assembly. Jenkin Whiteside died on the 
24th of September, 1822. 

Sumner County Whitsitt a, — ^There are Whitsitts in Shelby 
County who figured among the early settlers of Memphis, 
and the name of one of them may be found recorded upon 
a mural tablet affixed to the walls of the First Cumberland 
Presbyterian Church in that city. But the most important 
Whitsitts of Tennessee are the Whitsitts of Sumner County. 



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Annals of a Scotch-Irish Family. 239 

" Know all men by these presents, that I. Moses Shelby of 
Tenesee County. &. State of No. Carolina, am held &. firmly 
bound unto John Whitsitt of the County of Sumner & State 
Aforesaid in the penal Sum of Five Hundred pounds of the 
Cury. Aforesaid, to which payment well &. Truly to be made 
I. bind Myself my heirs. Executors &c. &c. firmly by these 
presents. In Witness Whereof I. have hereunto put my hand 
& Seal the ist day of November 1790 — 

" The Condition of the above Obligation is such, that if the 
above Bound Moses Shelby Shall on Demand Execute. & 
Make a Deed in Fee Simple to the Said John Whitsitt for 
Three Hundred &. Forty acres of Land in Sumner County. 
Being the tract of Land Whereon the Said Whitsitt now lives 
&. formerly the Property of Isaac Shelby, then this Obligation 
to be void, Else to remain in full force & Virtue. Witness 
my hand seals the date before mentioned. Moses Shelbv. 

"Teste 

"Ed. Gamble. 

" Wm. Taitt. 

" In Lieu of the Words on Demand in the fifth line from 
the bottom on the other Side say as soon as Moses Shelby & 
John Whitsitt can possibly have the lines run so as to Com- 
plete that Quantity of Land. Moses Shelby 

" Ed. Gamble. John Whitsitt. 

" Wm. Taitt." 

Mrs. James K, Polk, — Mrs. Sarah Polk, a granddaughter of 
the above John Whitsitt, was the mistress of the White House 
and the first lady of the land from the year 1845 to 1849. No 
other person of the Whitsitt blood, so far as I am aware, ever 
reached so lofty a station or was so worthy of the honors be- 
stowed upon her merits. She was always most gracious in 
claiming kinship with me, and I used invariably to call and pay 
my respects to her whenever I went to Nashville. We often 
talked together regarding the details of family history; but 
being afraid to trust my memory, and likewise unwilling to 
tax her strength too far in writing down her reminiscences, 
I adopted the expedient of preparing a list of questions, which 
was forwarded to a mutual friend, Mrs. Anson Nelson, of 
Nashville, with the request that she would embrace a suitable 
opportunity to discuss with the eminent lady all the points 
suggested and then set down her replies. The result was 
highly satisfactory. Mrs. Nelson sent me an important his- 



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240 Thb American Historical Magazine. 

torical document in return. Inasmuch as it was originally 
obtained for the very uses to which I am now putting it, I will 
humbly ask her pardon for inserting the material portions 
of it in this place : 

" Nashville, 146 North Summer Street, 
" September 16, 1890. 

" Mrs. Polk listened with lively interest to your letter, and 
took evident pleasure in talking of the family, seeming pleased 
to answer your inquiries. In those early times concerning 
which you are asking there was not so much appreciation of 
the relation of current events to history as there is now, and 
it was seldom that note was made of those events. This coun- 
try was then a comparative wilderness, with little opportunity 
for recording occurrences or for keeping such records. Mrs. 
Polk does not know of any register of her ancestry, unless 
there may be a few names and dates in an old family Bible 
which was left to another branch of her mother's family and 
which she supposes is lost. She knows nothing of her an- 
cestors in Scotland or Ireland or of any relatives living in 
those countries at the present time. The interesting items of 
tradition about the Whitsitt family in the seventeenth century, 
given in your letter, were entirely new to her. Mrs. Polk 
thinks that Mr. Jenkins, the historian, probably had access 
to sources of information unknown to her and that his state- 
ment is correct that her parents were married in Campbell 
County, Va. She has no record oi the date of their marriage. 

" The name of Elizabeth Whitsitt's father was 'John ; ' her 
mother's name was * Sarah.' The family name is not remem- 
bered by Mrs. Polk. It was for her that the future Mrs. Polk 
was named ' Sarah.' Mrs. Polk's only sister was named for 
her father's mother, Susan Childress. John and Sarah Whit- 
sitt lived in Sumner County, Tenn., and were plain country 
people, but were independent — owned their home, had slaves, 
and enjoyed the comforts of life. While Mrs. Polk was a 
child, they were carried to Alabama by their son, Lawrence 
Whitsitt, where they died at an advanced age. They had a 
son named 'James Whitsitt.' 

" Mrs. Polic says there was no Episcopal Church in the place 
where her grandparents lived, and she thinks that they must 
have been Presbyterians, from the fact that her mother, Eliz- 
abeth Whitsitt Childress, was a devoted Presbyterian. She 



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Annals op a Scotch-Irish Family. 24i 

much older than herself, living in Davidson or Sumner County. 
Her descendants — the Waltons, of Sumner County — have 
claimed kin with Mrs. Polk, and she had a namesake, Sarah 
Polk Walton." 

From the first of the above documents it appears that the 
Sumner County Whitsitts had arrived in Tennessee as early 
as the year 1790. In the office of the Register of Davidson 
County, at Nashville, Book B, page 136, there is another docu- 
ment that also serves to fix the date. It shows that on the 
8th of November, 1790, John Whitsitt, of North Carolina, as 
assignee of the heirs of William Cane, a soldier of the Revo- 
lutionary War, entered a section of 640 acres of land on both 
sides of Smith's Fork, a branch of Caney Fork. 

Notwithstanding the fact that both the Nashville document 
cited above and the bond of Moses Shelby speak of him as 
John Whitsitt, of North Carolina, there is reason to believe 
that he had originally come from Virginia. The statement 
of Mr. Jenkins, the biographer of President Polk, to the effect 
that Elizabeth Whitsitt was married to Mr. Childress in 
Campbell County, Va., is worthy of attentive consideration. 
They were hardly married elsewhere than in the home of the 
bride's parents. If search could be made for these Whitsitts 
in the records of Campbell County, it is not likely that it would 
prove fruitless. It is not unreasonable to suppose that they 
may have been connected in some way with the Whitsitts of 
Rockbridge or of Albemarle County. 

In the journal of Gov. William Blount it is reported that 
Isaac Walton was appointed a lieutenant and James Whitsitt 
was appointed an ensign in the Regiment of Infantry of Sum- 
ner County on the 26th of December, 1794. (American His- 
torical Magazine, Vol. II., p. 269.) The first was appar- 
ently the husband of the elder sister of Elizabeth Whitsitt 
Childress, and the second was her brother, both of whom are 
mentioned in the above letter of Mrs. Nelson. With the lights 
now before us we may conclude that the family of John Whit- 
sitt, of Sumner County, was composed of himself and his wife. 
Sarah; a daughter (name unknown), who married Isaac Wal- 
ton, and another named " Elizabeth," who married Mr. Chil- 



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242 T£LE AmBRICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

dress ; tc^ether with two sons, who were named, respectively, 
"James " and " Lawrence." 

Isaac Walton was a man of worship in his generation. He 
was a member of the convention that formed the State Con- 
stitution of 1796, and also that of 1834. (Caldwell, " Consti- 
tutional History of Tennessee," pp. 166, 168.) If the record 
were complete, it is likely that we might discover various other 
public stations in which he was employed. 

James Whitsitt, who was appointed ensign in the closing 
days of December, 1794, rose to the dignity of lieutenant 
shortly afterwards. In the Tennessee Historical Society there 
is preserved, in his own handwriting, a provision return for 
a detachment of infantry under the command of Lieutenant 
Whitsitt, and it is added that it was " in the Servis of the 
United States." The return covers the period between the 
1st and 30th of April, 1795. 

A Puzzle, — In the office of the Register of Davidson County, 
Book E, page 220. is found a record of a conveyance made by 
Thomas Molloy, of Davidson, to James Whitesides, of David- 
son, and dated August 12, 1800. Was this James Whitesides, 
of Davidson County, the Rev. James Whitsitt, pastor of Mill 
Creek Church ? Did he ever write his name as " White- 
sides ? " Could it be possible that this James Whitesides, of 
Davidson, was the same person as Lieut. James Whitsitt, of 
Sumner County? Did Lieutenant Whitsitt remove from 
Sumner to Davidson prior to the year 1800? The main cir- 
cumstance that seems to favor the conclusion that this was 
Lieutenant Whitsitt is the fact that the document is witnessed 
by William Taitt, and it will be remembered that. he was one 
of the witnesses of the bond given by Moses Shelby to John 
Whitsitt, which has been copied in full above. Whether the 
party involved was Lieut. James Whitsitt or Rev. James Whit- 

-•.A •. 1 i1-_A \t- ^ i( tTTt'j. -'j^A tf 1 i A. 1 



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Annals of a Scotch-Irish Famii^y. 243 

*' W-h-i-t-s-i-t-t-s " instead of " W-h-i-t-s-i-t-t." The same 
usage appears on page 134 of this magazine,' where he sub- 
scribes the bond of Rev. Joseph Anthony. It seemed im- 
possible for him to forget that the name had once been 
'' Whiteside " or " Whitesides.'' 

(}€n€alogical Notices. — ^James Whitsitt and Jane Card well 
Menees were married at Nashville on the 13th of December, 
1792. They were both born in Amherst County, Va. — ^he, 
upon the 31st of January, 1771 ; she, upon the 21st of Jan- 
uary, 1776. They spent their whole married life on a farm 
of 640 acres, on Mill Creek, that had been presented to them 
by her father, James Menees. The name of their residence 
was " Solitude," which seems to have been a case of It^cua a 
noil lucendo, since there were few houses where less of soli- 
tude could be obtained. An overflowing hospitality was ex- 
tended; crowds of guests came and went for many years to- 
gether. Mrs. Whitsitt died on the loth of June, 1840, and 
was buried from Mill Creek Church the following day; Mr. 
Whitsitt died on the 12th of April, 1849, ^^^ was buried from 
Mill Creek Church on Sunday, the 14th of April. The funeral 
discourse in each case was pronounced by Rev. R. B. C. How- 
ell, D.D., pastor of the First Baptist Church of Nashville. 

Dr. Howell reports that eleven children were born to this 
couple. Of that number, four died in infancy ; and three oth- 
ers reached adult age, but died without issue. The four re- 
maining children who married and had issue were the sons — 
James (Menees), William, Samuel Dawson, and Reuben 
Ewing Whitsitt. 

James (Menees) Whitsitfs Family, — He married Miss Mar- 
tha Anthony, of Williamson County. The oldest child of this 
union was Rev. William Anthony Whitsitt, who was born 
on the 25th of July, 1816. The names of the other children 
are also given here, but the order of their succession may not 
be strictly accurate. They were: Ellen, Jane, Martha, Jo- 
seph, Margaret, Ursula, Henry, and Priscilla. 

Rev. William Anthony Whitsitt in the year 1839 married 
Miss Nancy Jane Morton, a daughter of Dr. Samuel Morton, 
of Williamson County. She died in 1849, leaving one child, 
Sarah Whitsitt, who married Mr. Thomas Buford, of Thomp- 



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244 The Ambricaj^ Historicai. Magazine. 

son's Station, Williamson County. These had one daughter, 
Mary Buford, who married Mr. William Mallory. He resided 
about four miles north of Franklin, Tenn., on the line of the 
Louisville and Nashville Railroad. To this union three chil- 
dren were born, one boy and two girls — namely, Buford, 
Louisa, and Willie Mallory. After the death of Mr. Mallory 
she married Mr. McFadden, and to this union one child was 
bom. 

In the year 1850 Rev. William A. Whitsitt married a sec- 
ond wife — namely, Miss Malinda Weatherly; but to this 
union no children were born. Mr. Whitsitt died several years 
ago, but Mrs. Whitsitt still survives in great age and feeble- 
ness. She resides at the old Whitsitt homestead, near Con- 
cord Church, in Williamson County. 

The second child, Ellen, married Mr. D. Fletcher Thomp- 
son, who resided in the neighborhood of Thompson's Chapel^ 
on the Nolensville Pike. Two children were born to this^ 
union — namely, Margaret and Mary. Of these, the former 
married Mr. Joseph W. Bigley, who lived on the Mill Creek 
Valley Pike. Two children were born to this union — namely, 
Ida and Eugenia Bigley. The first of these died unmarried,, 
and the second married Mr. William Cooper. They live in 
New York City, and are reported to be in prosperous circum- 
stances. I have no definite information regarding their fam- 
ily. 

Mary, the other daughter of Mr. D. Fletcher Thompson 
and his wife, Ellen Whitsitt, was married to Mr. William 
Alexander, and they have three children — namely, Shepherd^ 
Thompson, and Lucy. The family have removed to Sumner 
County. 

Jane Whitsitt, the third child of James and Martha Anthony 
Whitsitt, married Mr. John Thompson, a brother of the aforesaid 
D. Fletcher Thompson. Their children were : Emma, Charles, 



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Annals of a Scotch-Irish Family, 245 

ters, Jessie and Ann Elizabeth. The latter married Dr. Da- 
vidson, and is now deceased. 

Andrew Jackson Thompson married Miss Anderson, and 
they have no children. 

Martha James Thompson married Mr. Blount Allston, and 
their children are : Samuel, Atwell, Tulloss, and Mary. 

Morgan Thompson, mentioned above, died without issue. 

Martha Whitsitt married Mr. William Carothers> of Will- 
iamson County, and they had two sons, James Robert and 
William Whitsitt Carothers. Of these, the elder married his 
cousin. Miss Pallie Jordan, and they had two sons, William 
and Robert. The latter was killed by being thrown from a 
horse in the year 1897. James Robert Carothers is dead, and 
his widow, with her surviving son, William, is residing at 
the old James Whitsitt homestead, north of Mill Creek 
Church. 

William Whitsitt Carothers, the younger brother of James 
Robert, married a Miss Turner, and they had ten children, 
l^hose names are unknown to me. He was murdered some 
years since by an unknown man, whom he permitted to ride 
with him at night in his wagon on the Nolensville Pike. 

Margaret Whitsitt, the next child, married Mr. Farrar, of 
Williamson County. They had one child, James William 
Farrar, who died at an early age, a victim of consumption. 

Joseph Whitsitt, son of James and Martha Whitsitt, mar- 
ried Miss Barbara Pettus. They had one child, Elizabeth, 
who married Mr. Allen McCord. They live at Lewisburg, 
Tenn., and have several children. Joseph Whitsitt died in 1857. 

Ursula Whitsitt married Mr. Archer Jordan, of Williamson 
County. He died of smallpox in the prison at Camp Douglas, 
near Chicago, 111., during the Confederate War. They had 
three children — Anna, Martha, and James. The last named 
was a station agent on the railroad at Bumsville, Miss. His 
mother died there, and his sisters are residing in that part 
of the country. 

Henry Whitsitt, the jroungest son, married Miss Ellen Gam- 
bill, and they had seven children — Katharine, Sarah, Nellie^ 
Johanna, Ada, Robert, and William. Katharine married a 



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246 The American Historical Magazine. 

Mr. Sherrill, and they have four children ; Robert married Miss 
Shook, and they have one child ; William is a dentist. 

Priscilla, the youngest child of James and Martha Anthony 
Whitsitt, married Mr. Walter Thomas, of North Alabama. 
They have a large family, but I have not learned the names of 
any of the children. 

WUUam Whitsitfs Family. — ^The second son of Rev. James 
Whitsitt, of Nashville, married Miss Slaughter, a daughter of 
Thomas Coleman Slaughter, Esq., of Corydon, Ind. He was 
descended from Francis Slaughter, of Culpeper County, Va. ; 
and the family removed to Nelson County, Ky., shortly after 
the War of the Revolution. Miss Slaughter was on a visit 
to her aunt, Mrs. Robert C. Foster, of Nashville, when she 
met her husband. After their marriage, William Whitsitt dis- 
posed of his possessions in Davidson County and removed to 
Kentucky, where members of the family of his wife were 
established. He lived for a season at Bardstown and also at 
Brandenberg, Ky. 

Ellen, the oldest daughter of William Whitsitt, married 
Mr. Spink, of Corydon, Ind. They had a family, but the names 
of none of the children are known to me. 

Jane Whitsitt married Col. William Hugley, of Wilson 
County, Tenn. This name is sometimes spelled " H-e-w-g- 
1-e-y," but it is supposed to have been originally a French 
name and may have been written " H-u-g-e-1-e-t." The chil- 
dren of Colonel Hugley were: Ann Eliza, Breathitt, Henri- 
etta, and William. 

The next child was Thomas Coleman Slaughter Whitsitt, 

who married Miss Mary , of Ozark, Mo. He was a 

physician, and practiced with success in Arkansas. He died 
at Jonesboro, Ark. This couple had several children, but only 
one of them arrived at adult age. His name was " William." 
He was educated at the University of Virginia, and later took 
a degree in medicine, but before he could establish himself in 
business he had passed away. 

Another son of William Whitsitt was named " Washington 
Lafayette." 

The youngest child of William Whitsitt was Augusta. She 



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Annau op a Scotch-Irish PAMitv. 247 

married a Methodist minister named " Stewart," but I have 
no knowledge of her subsequent history. 

Samuel Dawsot^ Whitsitfa Family. — The third son of Rev. 
James Whitsitt, of Nashville, was Dr. Samuel Dawson Whit- 
sitt. After graduating in the Medical Department of Transyl- 
vania University, at Lexington, Ky., he removed to Paris, 
Tenn., where he married Miss Jean Porter, whose father was 
a brother of the father of Gov. James D. Porter. From Paris 
he removed to Yalobusha County, Miss., and established him- 
self in the neighborhood of Grenada. 

The eldest child of this marriage was James, who was torn 
about 1829. In the year 1847 he was killed in a great storm 
at Grenada. He was at school, and the house was blown 
down upon him and several others of the scholars. He was 
eighteen years of age and of great promise. Shortly after his 
decease the family returned to Nashville. 

The second child was Sarah Margaret, who married Capt. 
John L. Porter, a relative of her mother's, from Woodford 
County, Ky. He was a captain of cavalry, and was killed 
in a gallant charge at the battle of Oak Hill, not far from 
Springfield, Mo., during the first year of the Confedarate War. 
He left two children, Ethel and James L. Porter. Of these, 
the former married Mr. William Moore, and had three chil- 
dren, named, respectively, " Margaret," " Katharine," and 
" Francis." James L. Porter married Miss Fannie Blanton. 
They have five children, and are residing at present in Dallas, 
Texas. The names of the children are : " Peari," "John Bell," 
"Allene," " Margaret," and " Francis." 

The third child of Dr, Samuel D. Whitsitt was John Bell 
Whitsitt. He graduated at Franklin College, near Nashville, 
and afterwards studied law. He was engaged in the practice 
of his profession at Napoleon, Ark., and, when the Civil War 
broke out, in 1861, enlisted in a company of artillery, and was 
killed in battle at Pond Lake, Ark. He was never married. 
His death was much deplored, since he was the most brilliant 
and promising of the rising generation among the Whitsitts. 

Samuel Porter Whitsitt, the third son and fourth child of 
Samuel Dawson Whitsitt and Jean Porter Whitsitt, was born 
on August 13, 1836. After the Civil War, upon his return 



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248 Tun American Historicai* Magazine. 

home and discharge from the Confederate Army, in the year 
1865, August 10, he married Seluda Harriett Harvey, the 
second daughter and fifth child of John William Harvey and 
Mildred Bailey Harvey, both formerly of Virginia, Charlotte 
Courthouse being their address at the time they left Virginia, 

Of the union between S. P. Whitsitt and Seluda H. Whitsitt 
there were ten children — six girls and four boys — ^all now liv- 
ing, except one boy : 

Mildred Bailey Whitsitt — ^bom, 1866, September 3. 

Samuel Dawson Whitsitt — bom, 1868, September 4. 

Mary Green Whitsitt — born 1870, September 20. 

Nettie Harvey Whitsitt — ^born, 1873, April 18. 

Jean Porter Whitsitt — bom, 1875, July 25. 

John Harvey Whitsitt — ^bom, 1877, October 25 ; died, 1887, 
September 26. 

Annis Rains Whitsitt — ^bora, 1880, May 27, 

Thomas Elizabeth Whitsitt — bcmi, 1882, June 10. 

Foster Gray Whitsitt — bom, 1884, September 6. 

Robert Allen Whitsitt— born, 1888, August 6. 

Mildred, the eldest child, was married to James Henry Webb 
on September 29, 1887, and to them two children have been 
bom — ^James H. Webb, Jr., born on September 3, 18^, de- 
ceased, and William Francis, bom on September 21, 1891. 

Samuel Dawson Whitsitt married Nettie Rebecca Edwards 
on December 24, 1893; an(J of this union there is one child, 
deceased. 

Mary Green Whitsitt married Philip E. Dunnavant on Au- 
gust 24, 1888 ; and to them were born Barbara Lucile Dunna- 
vant on June 6, 1889, and John J. Dunnavant, deceased. 

Annis Rains Whitsitt married Albert William Higley on 
August 18, 1902 ; and they have one boy, Albert William Hig- 
ley, Jr-, born on October 13, 1903. 

Thomas Elizabeth Whitsitt married Eugene Davis Page on 
June 4, 1902 ; and they have one daughter, Mildred Elizabeth 
Page, bom on July 21, 1903. 

Jennie Whitsitt, the fifth child of Dr. Samuel and Jcait 
Porter Whitsitt, married Mr. Turner G. Moore. They bad 
three children, two daughters and one son. The daughters 
both died without issue. The son, Samuel A. Moore, married 



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Annals of a Scotch-Irish Family. 249 

Miss Lula Watson, and lives at Gadsden, Ala. They have 
two children, named, respectively, "J^'^^ic " ^^^ " Lucy." 

Henry Clay Whitsitt, the youngest child of Dr. Whitsitt, 
died without issue in the spring of 1868. 

Reuben Etoing WhUsitt's Family, — ^The youngest son of Rev. 
James Whitsitt was born in the year 1813 and died on the 12th 
of February, 1853. His Christian name was unusual in the 
family, having been given in honor of Judge Reuben Ewing, 
of Russellville, Ky., who had married Ellen, a sister of Mr. 
Whitsitt's. Tlie Ewings were also Scotch-Irish people. Robert 
and Char^es Ewing, who were brothers, are said to have come 
from Ireland to Virginia and settled in the county of Prince Ed- 
ward about the year 1740. Robert Ewing married Mary Baker, 
who is supposed to have been a daughter of Caleb Baker, a well- 
known Presbyterian elder of that region. He died in Bedford 
County, Va., in June, 1787, leaving issue as follows: Robert, 
Baker, Reuben, Chatham, Young. Urban, John, and Finis; 
Polly, Patsy, and Sidney Ann. The entire family are said to 
have removed to Kentucky and settled in Logan County. 
Finis, the youngest child, attained distinction as one of the 
founders of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. Judge 
Reuben Ewing was a man of position and influence, and was 
often employed in the public service. He held a seat in the 
convention which formed the first Constitution of the State of 
Kentucky, in the year 1792. 

In the ^ year 1839 Reuben Ewing Whitsitt married Miss 
Dicey Ann McFarland, of Wilson County, who was a great- 
granddaughter of James Menees. John McFarland had mar- 
ried Nancy, the second daughter of James Menees, in the fort 
at Nashville during the year 1783, and had later established 
himself on a section of land not far from Rutland Church, in 
the southern portion of Wilson County. Dicey Ann McFar- 
land was a daughter of James, the eldest son of the aforesaid 
John McFarland, who resided on Spencer's Creek, about seven 
miles west of Lebanon. The children of Reuben E. and D. 
A. Whitsitt were: 

James Menees — born, August 16,^ 1840; died without issue 
in 1868. 

William Heth — ^born, November 25, 1841. 

4 



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aso Th;b Ambsican Historical Magaziwb. 

John Berryman — born, May 27, 1844. 

Margaret Blakey — born, June 8, 1847. 

Reuben Ewing-— born, 1849 ; d^^ without issue in 1868. 

William Heth Whitsitt married, on October 4, 1881, Miss 
Florence Wallace, daughter of Capt. Samuel Baker Wallace, 
of Woodford County, Ky., and his wife, Anne Mary (Taylor) 
Wallace. The genealogy of Samuel Baker Wallace and Anne 
Mary Taylor may be found in a v<rfume by the present writer, 
entitled "Life and Times of Judge Caleb Wallace ;" Louisville, 
John P. Morton Company, 1888. It is interesting to observe 
that while the Ewings, of Logan County, were derived from 
Mary Baker, the Wallaces, of Woodford, are derived from 
Esther Baker, daughter of Caleb Baker, the aforementioned 
Presbyterian elder, of Prince Edward County, Va. By con- 
sulting pages 65, 66 of the present volume of the American 
Historical Magazine it will be perceived that the Wallaces and 
Whitesides were both members of Rev. Samuel Black's Pres- 
byterian Church at Mountain Plain, in Albemarle County, Va., 
during the year 1747. It is capable of proof that some mem- 
bers of this family of Wallaces settled in Charlotte County, 
Va., and there became allied with the Baker family. Subse- 
quently they removed from Virginia and established them- 
selves in the blue-grass region of Kentucky. The children 
of William Heth Whitsitt and Florence (Wallace) Whitsitt 
are: 

William Baker Whitsitt — born. May 27, 1883. 

Mary Taylor Whitsitt— born, July i, 1886. 

William B. Whitsitt is a mechancial draughtsman, and 
works in the shops of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad at 
Mount Clare, in Baltimore; Mary T. Whitsitt graduated at 
the Woman's College, Richmond, Va., on the 8th of June, 
1904. Both are unmarried. 

John Berryman Whitsitt returned from the Confederate War 



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Aknau of a Scotch-Irxsh Pamii^y. 251 

she was married to Mr. John L. Wright, principal of one of the 
Nashville schools. 

Their children are : 

Florence Elizabeth Wright — ^born November 30, 1889, d^^d 
August 21, 1890. 

John L. Wright, Jr. — bom November 29, 1892. 

Bennie Corinne Wright — born May 4, 1895. 

Charles Brower Wright — bom October 26, 1903. 

William H. Whitsitt, Jr., married Miss Martha Palmyra Ezell 
— ^bom, January 27, 1877. Then- children are : 

William H. Whitsitt — ^born August 31, 1897. 

Anna Lucile Whitsitt — bora April 24, 1900. 

Alma Rebecca Whitsitt — ^born October 23, 1902. 

Reuben Ewing, John Bell, Charles L. and James McFarland 
Whitsitt are still unmarried. 

Margaret Blakey Whitsitt has never married. 

It was my purpose to set forth in this number of the Ameri- 
can Historical Magazine the genealogy of the Meneeses, of 
Nashville, from whom was derived Jane (Menees) Whitsitt, 
the wife of Rev. James Whitsitt, but the materials are not at 
present accessible. I also desire to include the record of the 
Whitsitt, Blakey, Breathitt, and other families of Southern 
Kentucky. These tasks will render it necessary for me to re- 
quest the indulgence of the reader for another issue. 



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252 Thb American Historicai^ Magazine. 



THE CHICKASAW TREATY OF 1818. 



BY JAMBS D. PORTER. 



This treaty, by the terms of which the Chickasaw Indians 
ceded that part of the States of Tennessee and Kentucky lying 
west of the Tennessee River to the United States, was nego- 
tiated in the year 1818 by Gen. Andrew Jackson, of Tennes- 
see, and Gov. Isaac Shelby, of Kentucky, commissioners on 
the part of the United States. It was ratified by the United 
States Senate in January, 1819. Years before this date, citi- 
zens of the State heard from hunters and trappers that there 
was a great salt mine on one of the tributaries of the Tennes- 
see River, and efforts had been made to acquire the privilege 
from the Indian owners of working it. They had been led to 
believe that a salt mine was located on the territory of which 
they were proprietors; and when negotiations were inaugu- 
rated for its cession, the Indians demanded a reservation that 
should embrace it. Their wishes were met by the fourth arti- 
cle of the treaty in these words : 

" The commissioners agree, on the further and particular 
application of the chiefs and for the benefit of the poor and 
warriors of said nation, that a tract of land containing four 
miles square, to include a salt lick, or springs, on or near the 
River Sandy — a branch of the Tennessee River — and within 
the boundaries of the land hereby ceded, be reserved and to 
be laid off in a square or oblong so as to include the best tim- 
ber, at the option of their beloved chiefs, Levi Colbert and 
James Brown, or either of them, who are hereby made trus- 
tees for the nation to lease the said salt lick, or springs, on the 
following conditions — ^viz, : For the benefit of the reservation, 
as before recited; the trustees, or agents, are bound to lease 
said reservation to some citizen or citizens of the United States 
for a reasonable quantity of salt to be paid annually to said 
nation for the use thereof ; and that from and after two years 
after the ratification of this treaty no salt made at the works 
to be erected on this reservation shall be sold within the lim- 
its of the same for a higher price than one dollar per bushel 
of fifty pounds weight, on failure of which the lease shall be 
forfeited and the reservation revert to the United States." 



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The Chickasaw Theaty of 1818. 253 

The treaty was negotiated at the treaty ground, east of Old 
Town. 

The day following its ratificaticm, and months before its 
ratification by the Senate, the two chiefs, Colbert and Brown, 
leased the reservation to Maj. William B. Lewis, of Nash- 
ville, for the benefit of himself and R. P. Currin, of Franklin, 
Tenn., for the term of 199 years for the consideration of 750 
bushels of salt per annum. The contract provided that in case 
the salt water on this reservation and above-recited prem- 
ises, upon a fair experiment being made, shall be found not 
to be of quality and quantity sufficient to justify the working: 
thereof, then and in that case the aforesaid agreement to be 
void and of no effect. 

The value of the reservation for the production of salt was 
greatly exaggerated. It was supposed to be equal to the Ka- 
nawha Salt District, of Virginia. The hunters proclaimed it 
far and wide that its lease to Major Lewis was made for 
the enrichment of the commissioners and that he was a mere 
tool used to blind the country and to deceive the unlettered 
Indian. It gave rise to an unfounded scandal involving the 
honor of General Jackson. The only color for it was the fact 
that Major Lewis was conveniently present and was a wit- 
ness to the treaty. He had been Jackson's aid-ie-camp at 
New Orleans, and was his closest friend. He secured the 
lease the day following its execution; and his associate, Mr. 
Currin, at once entered upon the work of developing the salt 
mine. General Jackson never suspected wrong from any of 
his friends; it was next to impossible to shake his confidence 
in them. He would rather have suffered injustice than to 
believe that in a pecuniary transaction they would connive 
at his injury. 

Mr. Currin, at an expense of $3,000, bored the great artesian 
well of Henry County, the first of its kind known to the writer. 
He introduced salt workers from the Kanawha District and 
fixtures for the conversion of salt. The salt mine did not 



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254 Thb Amb&ican Historicai. Magazine. 

inaccessibility and location near the bottom of Big Sandy 
River, one of the affluents of the Tennessee River and subject 
to an annual overflow, destroys the value of this great arte- 
sian well. 

This reservation was situated in what is now Henry County, 
and, upon the settlement of the county, was entered and 
granted and occupied according to the laws of the State. No 
cognizance was taken of any right acquired under the lease 
from the Chickasaws to Major Lewis; but in the year 1830 
interest in the reservation was renewed, and the scandal of 
1818 was revived, to the injury of General Jackson, now Pres- 
ident of the United States. The old hero could well have 
prayed : " Save me from my friends." It was now that CJen. 
John Coffee, of Alabama, and Maj. John H. Eaton, of Ten- 
nessee, Secretary of War in the Cabinet of President Jack- 
son, were appointed commissioners on the part of the United 
States to negotiate treaties with the Choctaw and Chickasaw 
Indians for the purpose of extinguishing their title to the ter- 
ritory occupied by them in Alabama and Mississippi and to 
prepare for their removal to the territory provided for^hem 
west of the Territory of Arkansas. 

The commissioners met a delegation of chiefs and head 
men at Franklin, Tenn., at which General Jackson was pres- 
ent, and agreed upon a treaty. It was agreed that Lewis and 
Currin should have an estate in the reservation for the period 
of 199 years, which was equivalent to a title in fee simple. 
The lease would run to the year 2029. The lessees were to 
pay the Indians $2,500 in cash and four bushels of salt per 
annum. Without waiting for the ratification of the treaty. 
Lewis and Currin had it recorded as an ordinary title paper; 
and, as stated by Hon. Cave Johnson, of the Clarksville Dis- 
trict, on the floor of Congress, " possession of the reservation 
was demanded of citizens residing on it and suit threatened 
in case of refusal." 

The scandal continued ; color was again given to it. Major 



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^n Chickasaw Treaty o^ x8i8. ^55 

for farming purposes. Discussion of the sale was transferred 
from the people and press to Washington. Mr. Ellsworth, a 
distinguished Representative in Congress from Connecticut, 
attacked it in a speech, in which he said: 

" The transaction was suspicious, and needs explanation. 
What had the commissioners to do with the matter of Mr. 
Lewis? They were sent to buy land from the Indians, not 
to sell land to white men. They must have known that Mr. 
Lewis had no title before, and here for $2,000 at a blow he 
acquired 10,000 acres of valuable land." 

This is a forgotten incident; but at the time interest in it 
was so widespread that Hon. Edward Everett, of Massachu- 
setts, then a Representative in Congress, offered this resolu- 
tion: 

"Resolved, That the President of the United States be re- 
quested to communicate to this House a copy of the treaty 
negotiated with the Chickasaw tribe of Indians in the year 
1830." 

This was in January, 1832 ; and the treaty was then in the 
hands of President Jackson. Representative Isaacks, of Ten- 
nessee, opposed the adoption of the resolution, " because it 
was an invasion of the constitutional prerogatives of the Ex- 
ecutive and his advisers." Mr. Everett consented to the post- 
ponement of the resolution for a day. On resuming its con- 
sideration, he delivered himself with force and power, and, 
referring to the commissioners and their action, said : 

" It is essentially corrupt, and the parties concerned in it 
have laid themselves under a responsibility which no Act of 
the Senate can remove." 

Hon. John Bell, of Tennessee ; Mr. Wickliff e, of Kentucky ; 
Mr. Mitchell, of South Carolina ; Mr. Huntington, of Connec- 
ticut; James K. Polk, of Tennessee; Mr. Clay, of Alabama; 
George Evans, of Maine ; Cave Johnson and William Fitzger- 
ald, of Tennessee ; Mr. Pendleton, of New York ; IMr. Clayton, 
of Georgia; and others, participated in the discussion. Dur- 
ing a debate continuing for several days Mr. Everett dis- 
avowed a purpose of making any imputation on General Jack- 
son. The resolution was adopted and referred. Mr. Bell 
made remarks in defense of Mr. Lewis ; Mr. Johnson, of Mr. 



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256 The American Historical Magazine. 

Currin ; Mr. Clay, of Alabama, of General Coffee ; but no one 
of the distinguished Representatives uttered a word in behalf 
of his cocommissioner. Manager Eaton. 

General Jackson never submitted the treaty for ratification 
or rejection. 

In due time Congress passed an Act admitting the reserva- 
tion to entry and grant, according to the laws of Tennessee, 
with a provision in favor of all " who were seated down and in 
the actual possession of any part of same prior to 1830." No 
other 10,000-acre tract in Tennessee has such a history, no 
other was the subject of such heated debate, and no other 
single community was defended by so many able men who 
in a few years became illustrious. 

General Jackson was not privy to the lease of 1818, and 
Mr. Everett's disavowal makes it clear that he was not re- 
sponsible for the attempted purchase of 1830, made by indis- 
creet friends. The subject was finally referred to the House 
Committee on Public Lands, and through its chairman, Mr. 
Wickliffe, of Kentucky, a report was made reciting the facts 
herein named. The substantial one was that Messrs. Lewis 
and Currin had acquired no title to the reservation and that 
it was subject to entry and grant upon the same terms and 
conditions as other territory acquired under the treaty of 1818. 
Mr. Wickliffe moved to communicate the report and accom- 
panying documents to the Senate. Under the leadership of 
John Bell, the motion was denied. Mr. Wickliffe's purpose 
was to defeat the ratification of the treaty by furnishing Sen- 
ators with the facts ; but it died in the President's office, and 
that was the extinguishment of the title of Messrs. Lewis and 
Currin. 



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TenNKSSEK ARCHiftOLOGY AT ST. LOUIS. 257 



TENNESSEE ARCHEOLOGY AT ST. LOUIS. 



BY R. A. HALLEY. 



At the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, now in progress at 
St. Louis, Mo., there is an archaeological exhibit from Tennes- 
see that is unequaled by any similar exhibit within the grounds. 
It may be added that, with the exception of the wonderful 
flint implements belonging to the Missouri Historical Society, 
the finest specimens of which came from Tennessee originally, 
there are no other such flints in existence as those to be found 
in the Tennessee collection. 

The credit of arranging for this exhibit of the prehistoric 
Tennessee is due to a few workers of the Tennessee Historical 
Society, to the society, and in particular to Gen. G. P. Thrus- 
ton, who was an earnest advocate and worker from the incep- 
tion of the proposal to have Tennessee fitly represented in the 
department to which these relics belong. General Thruston 
has long been an active worker along these lines of investiga- 
tion. By personal investigation and digging into the ancient 
graves of the primal Tennesseans and by a study of every 
specimen which came to his hands he has acquired the deserved 
reputation of being the authority to which other Tennesseans 
turn when in doubt on any of the matters connected with the 
strange and interesting Stone Grave race of Tennessee and 
on any other topic connected with the prehistoric period of 
the State's existence. 

The Tennessee Historical Society has a large and fine col- 
lection of these relics; other collections are in possession of 
General Thurston and others ; a large and extremely valuable 
collection, which belonged to E. H. Hicks; and from 
these three collections the great exhibit at St. Louis was 
formed. The Tennessee Historical Society appropriated an 
amount sufficient to induce the services of that enthusiastic 
and well-informed antiquarian, Robert T. Quarles, and agreed 
to make an exhibit of its treasures on condition that Mr. 
Quarles and General Thruston would assume charge of the 



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2SS ThB AkSSICAN HISTORICAL MAOAZINB. 

arrangement of the specimens and that they would be on hand 
at the end of the Exposition period and would see to their 
return. The society felt that under this arrangement the spec- 
imens would be both properly displayed and safely returned. 

These gentlemen went to work, and soon gathered the select 
specimens of the three collections named, as well as a few 
other pieces ; and they are at the Exposition for the entertain- 
ment of all who are in any way interested in the subject. 
Probably never in the history of the world has such a collec- 
tion been gathered for any purpose. Of course the immense 
collections of the Smithsonian Institution contain many more ; 
but taking the average quality and fineness of this Tennessee 
collection, it stands without an equal, and without even a 
rival. It was made up with the purpose of showing only the 
very finest in existence, and well was that purpose carried 
out. To particularize would require more pages than can be 
devoted to the subject, but a glance may be given the two col- 
lections into which the exhibit naturally divides itself — ^the 
flints and the pottery. 

In the selections made for the flint exhibit there are rough 
and polished implements, discs, copper, arrows, shell and horn 
implements, every one of which is a choice specimen of its 
kind, and, in some cases, the finest of its kind as well. Par- 
ticularly is this the case with some — indeed, with all — of the 
specimens of ceremonial flints resembling scepters, and un- 
doubtedly used for some such purpose. On a carved shell or 
gorget is the representation of an evident ruler of the olden 
time, holding in his hand, as it were, a scepter of the identical 
pattern of the finest piece in this collection belonging to Gen- 
eral Thruston. The eight or ten specimens shown are all ex- 
ceptional — notably the one in the form of a lobster claw, 
which came from the Hicks collection; but there are others 
almost as fine and fully as interesting. One belonging to the 
Tennessee Historical Society is in the shape of a sickle, or 
reaping hook, which appears in modified form in several other 
pieces; others are in the shape of large spearheads; but the 
evidently more appreciated form was that of the scepter, with 
its beautiful and artistic symmetry. These vary in length from 
twelve to twenty inches. 



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TSKKSBSVB ASCHJVOLOGY AT ST. LOFIS. ^59 

In large flints the collection is especially rich — great spear- 
heads, spades, hoes, axes, battle-axes, and formidable weapons 
of a fineness and finish rarely seen in even smaller specimens; 
chisels, with edges almost keen enough to use for shaving; 
knives and scrapers and fleshers. Several curious specimens 
have a rounded handle and a widened extremity that is in 
the closest resemblance to the modem round-pointed shovel. 
A dozen discoidal stones present perhaps the finest array of 
these curious creations that has ever been assembled, each 
being a magnificent one in form, color, and finish. The ban- 
ner stones are few, but splendid, and show the best work of 
the ancient artist. What are called "spindle wheels" are 
present in number, a dozen or more; and near them in the 
cases are horn handles that once served to shield the hand 
grasping the knives of flint or the tools which wrought in 
leather or wood. There are also other implements of horn, 
arrowheads of perfect texture and make, frail rings cut from 
the brittle stone, and one fine knife chipped from a perfectly 
black piece of flint. The very large round disc from the Hicks 
collection, a conch shell found in a child's grave, a breast- 
plate, and other pieces make up the most interesting assort- 
ment that could have been brought together from this State. 

The pottery display is one of varied interest, and contains 
many pieces that are absolutely unique. Images in the form 
of human beings, animals, fishes, and fowls, plainly finished 
or painted in red and white by the ancient artist, with a nice 
regard for effectiveness, take the first place. In all the cre- 
ations of pottery the images of people, animals, or fishes pre- 
dominate. In the bowls the two handles on either side are 
frequently contrived with cunning view to the effect. One 
very large bowl has on one side the neck and head of a dragon 
of fine workmanship ; on the other side, a flattened sort of 
handle that might be taken figuratively for the tail of the 
dragon. A smaller bowl has the neck and head of a woman 
for one handle, and the lower limbs and feet project on the 
other side. Bowls have the head of a fish on one side and 
the tail fins on the other. In the case of the fish bowl, the 
bowl part is shaped like the body of the fish, making the re- 
semblance so strong as to enable the beholder to know the 



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26o Thb Ambrican Historical Magazikb. 

kind of fish represented. Around some of the small bowls 
a frog will sprawl, his head projecting enough above the edge 
of the bowl to form a handle. The heads of bears, the forms 
of turtles, the heads of ducks (with the flattened bills), and in 
one case the long neck and head of a goose, make a con- 
venient handle by which the ancient inhabitant held the vessel. 
Often in a grave is found a shell made of clay, and rarely a 
double shell joined as in nature. Bowls or dishes of vary- 
ing sizes are ornamented with a rough imitation of beadwork 
around the outer edge, and sometimes more elaborately. Cu- 
riously, these beads around the edges are almost invariably 
arranged in groups of three or seven. So often is this the 
case that the thought suggests itself that with these old peo- 
ples, too, there was some sort of belief in magic or lucky num- 
bers. Lamps of the old Roman pattern, with long and delicate 
projections for the wick, are also represented in the collec- 
tion by one choice piece. 

One of the best and most suggestive pieces in the collec- 
tion is the terra-cotta image of a child strapped to a board 
with leather thongs^ cleverly imitated in the clay. This piece 
was found near Nashville by George T. Halley, and was after- 
wards acquired by General Thruston, and throws a flood of 
light on at least one of their customs. Interesting fragments 
of this strange pottery are shown, containing the heads of 
animals and of people. From the general resemblance of 
these faces we may be fully justified in believing that they 
truly represent the faces and features of the people amon^ 
whom they were made. All nations copy the features of their 
own people in their art and copy the features of other nations 
with but indifferent success. These heads show the manner 
of the hair dressing then in vogue and give some graphic pic- 
tures of customs among the first Tennesseans. 

The fact is remarked upon bv everv visitor to St. Louis who 



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Tennessee ARCHiEOLOOY at St. Louis. 261 

manufacture reached the point of excellence attained by these 
old-time Tennesseans. Nor has there been found in any other 
section such a wealth of form and finish in the prehistoric 
pottery as can be seen in this Tennessee collection. It well 
may lead us to inquire into something of the probable history 
of these people — where and how they lived and when and how 
they passed away. 

It is little enough we know or can know about those pre- 
historic Tennesseans, and the sum total of our information 
is due more than to any other — ^perhaps it might well and 
truly be said, as much as to all others — to the study and inves- 
tigation made by General Thruston himself. The result of 
his collection and study of these relics has been a consider- 
able enlargement of previous information and the addition of 
much unknown or unappreciated before. Many of the pieces 
which he has added to his early collection have each a chap- 
ter of the primitive life suggested in themselves, suggested 
by the unmistakable evidences inherent in the article. Due 
also to General Thruston was the stimulation of interest among 
a number of younger collectors, who, while unable to give the 
time and money that were given by the General, gave much 
thought to it and made creditable collections of relics that 
liave in them some remarkable specimens. Such was the Gen- 
eral's enthusiasm, however, when he saw a new specimen, 
that, sooner or later, if that specimen were particularly a fine 
one, it found its way into his own collection. The finder of a 
novel and interesting piece of pottery or flint soon found out 
where to go if he wished to dispose of it, and a number of men 
living on farms near these primitive burying places made a 
pretty regular habit of unearthing something desirable from 
the graves. They g^ew expert in the work, and sometimes 
brought to Nashville for sale collections numbering forty or 
fifty pieces. But most of these were comparatively common ; 
the finer pieces were always in the minority. 

This interest which he stimulated by his example was fur- 
ther stimulated by the publication of General Thruston's work 
on "The Antiquities of Tennessee," which surprised even 
the author by rapidly exhausting the first edition and demand- 
ing a second. This volume was not originally intended by 



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262 ThB AmBRICAN HiSTOftlCAX Magazinb. 

the author. It grew out of a request from the Tennessee 
Historical Society that he prepare a pamphlet on the subject 
of these Stone Graves and the strange people, based on what 
he had learned by his study of them. The first idea was to 
illustrate some of the finer types of the pottery found in the 
Nashville cemeteries; but when he attempted to enlarge his 
collection as it then existed so that it might portray as many 
types as possible, the magnitude of the undertaking grew 
upon him, and the material accumulated so rapidly that the 
proposed pamphlet grew into formidable proportions and then 
assumed shape in a magnificently illustrated octavo volume 
of nearly 400 pages. In this is found the most adequate study 
yet made systematically of the prehistoric graves of Tennessee. 

The simple monuments and the implements this race left 
behind them show us that they were a peaceful people, not 
warlike, with such weapons only as could aid them in cap- 
turing game for their daily needs. One of the plainest of the 
few lessons to be learned is that they had a religion which 
was evidently a great part of their life and which was full of 
ceremonials if we may judge from the fact that the finest flints 
they left us are those used for those ceremonies — ^long cere- 
monial flints, banner stones, scepters of strange design, maces, 
totems. That they were a strongly religious people is also 
shown by the preponderance among all their works in clay 
of images undoubtedly intended for worship. These idols 
and images took the form of vessels of clay, well burned or 
sun-dried, and were of a variety of shapes almost innumerable. 
This pottery in Tennessee attained a rank above any other 
pottery found north of Mexico, and occasionally a piece gives 
evidence of some Indian master of his art. Quaintness and 
grace of outline characterize the images in particular, though 
the majority of them are rude. 

That these images were idols seems to be conclusively 
proven by the discovery of a curious specimen plowed up in 
the Sequatchie Valley, in Tennessee. This specimen is a small 
nude human figure in kneeling position, modeled rudely in clay, 
and placed in a large tropical shell, from which the interior 
whorls were removed, from which the front was taken away, 
and the whole evidently fashioned into a sort of shrine or 



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Tbnnbsseb Archeology at St. Louis. 263 

sanctuary. The point of the shell had been taken off and the 
surface smoothed so as to form a pedestal on which it might 
rest in upright position. The image was inside the shell when 
they were found many years ago. The worship of idols, or 
images, by the ancient people of Tennessee is clearly evidenced 
by this find. Certainly the images were regarded with ven- 
eration, and thus we may understand why they were placed 
in the graves of the dead ; why they took the form of human 
beings, birds, or beasts ; and why these images so largely out- 
numbered all other forms of pottery found. 

We may infer that they were idols also— if further inference 
were needed — by analogy, since both Mexicans and Central 
Americans are known to have worshiped similar objects just 
as rude as these. Not only did these vessels appear as idols, 
but they were made to serve the purpose of holding food and 
water for the dead, thus commingling with their idol worship 
an undoubted belief in the future state. It has been denied 
that the Southern Indians of later times were idolaters, most 
of them worshiping the sun, the moon, and other material 
divinities; but there was an almost universal belief among 
them in the future state, as typified by the " happy hunting 
grounds " in the other world. They knew neither heaven nor 
hell in their creed, which was, at best, a very indefinite one. 
The Natchez unquestionably worshiped idols, since we have 
it set down by Father Petit that they had " a temple filled 
with idols." He also says that " their idols are images of 
men and women, made of stone and baked clay, heads and tails 
of extraordinary serpents, stuffed owls, pieces of crystal, and 
the jawbones of great fishes." This statement is not at vari- 
ance with the strange mythology and religious beliefs of the 
Indians. 

That the home arts were fairly well advanced is shown by 
many mechanical and agricultural implements in stone and 
bone — needles, hide scrapers, vessels for holding food, beads 
and engraved jewelry of shells, spck>ns made of shells, lamps 
of the old Roman pattern. Idols, or images, of clay and stone 
suggest the worship of visible gods ; and an infinite variety of 
pipes would seem to speak of long hours spent in contem- 



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264 Thb Ambrican Historical Magazinb. 

plative repose, soothed, as is the white man of to-day, by the 
pleasant fumes of his tobacco. 

It was a strange people with a strange history, no doubt, 
and is interesting to the student of archaeological remains as 
furnishing useful and fascinating material for historic — or, 
rather, for antiquarian — research. The attention of the stu- 
dent cannot fail to be attracted to aught that relates to the 
history of the human race — its progress, its destiny, its strug- 
gles from barbarism toward civilization ; but it is not always 
those nations that have farthest progressed that are most in- 
teresting or attractive. The very confusion in which the an- 
cient history of Tennessee has been involved, our almost ab- 
solute ignorance of any of the conditions of life or of the state 
of society existing among the primitive Tennesseans, has un- 
til recently been the incentive to its study by such trained 
minds as that of General Thruston and by others. To-day 
the results of the researches made are sufficiently substantial 
to induce further investigation by the student. 

History cannot be reconstructed with exactness from the 
ruins of buried villages and temples or from the debris of 
ancient mounds, but the life of the people may be made plainer 
by the systematic exploration of those remains. By com- 
paring the relics and remains of different sections the life of 
the ancient peoples can almost be reproduced in detail, and 
the most interesting of stories can be gleaned from bits of 
broken pottery, fragmentary ornaments of shells, and the 
trinkets of bone or stone that have long lain in the graves of 
the dead. 

To this knowledge of the past no State has contributed more 
largely than Tennessee, whose fertile archsBological field is 
not equaled by any other State, and is approached by the State 
of Ohio alone in its wealth of prehistoric treasures. More 
images and engraved gorgets have been discovered in Ten- 
nessee than in all the other Southern States combined. In 
flints the State is likewise very rich, as was shown in 1895 
by the discovery of a remarkable collection of forty-seven flints 
in a single deposit in an ancient cemetery in Humphreys 
County. In this collection all the rare forms of ceremonial 
flints and totems were represented, many being of the long. 



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Tbhnbsssb Arch^^ology at St. Louis. 265 

narrow, delicate tjrpes. One specimen was the longest flint 
of its class in the world, so far as is known, measuring twenty- 
seven and one-half inches in length. Other specimens were 
twenty-two, twenty, nineteen, and eighteen inches long. 
While Missouri, Arkansas, and Florida are yielding treasures 
of prehistoric pottery, the remains found in Tennessee are 
more varied and more useful and suggestive for study than 
any east of the Pueblos of New Mexico. 

The age of these relics can scarcely be computed with exact- 
ness ; but it was three centuries or more ago when Tennessee 
teemed with an energetic and industrious race that tilled its 
valleys, fished in its waters, hunted in its forests, and lived 
their quiet and contented lives ; and when they had lived these 
lives, they were laid to rest in the curious and remarkable 
resting places, the prehistoric cemeteries made up of what 
are known as the Stone Graves of Tennessee. 

These box'-shaped graves were often constructed with such 
care that till now they have defied the surrounding earth, and, 
when opened, are found devoid of contents, save the skeletons 
and strange vessels. There are no more interesting memo- 
rials than these cemeteries, many of which contain thousands 
of the stone graves — all rudely built, perhaps, but showing a 
skill in handling unhewed stone that has never been surpassed. 
These rude coffins were built of slabs of stone, covered vrith 
other slabs ; and no less than 25,000 of them have been opened 
by relic hunters, archaeologists, and curiosity seekers. Once 
a cemetery is discovered, the location of the graves is easy. 
They are close to the surface, and by means of a steel probe 
the grave can be located with as much exactness as if it were 
above the ground. When the probe strikes a stone, it is 
thrust into the ground at other points until the exact shape, 
position, and location of the grave is clear. This ease in lo- 
cating graves of the prehistoric people is nowhere else so 
noticeable as in Tennessee; nor can archceological inves- 
tigation be carried on under such favorable conditions any- 
where else in the United States. It presents almost the cer- 
tainty of a modem graveyard marked with headstones. In 
the grave will be found the skeleton, often in'surprisinely good 
condition of preservation, and sometimes the skeletons of 
5 



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266 Thb Ambrican Historicai. Magaxxnb. 

two— man and woman; more frequently the skeletons are 
those of woman and child. There are also in many of the 
graves the vessels placed beside the dead — vessels once filled 
with food and water to supply them until they reached the 
spirit land. These vessels are of an almost infinite variety 
of shapes, and, when thus sealed up, have been kept as per- 
fectly as the fragile vessels in the elaborate tombs oi Cuma 
and Pompeii. Besides the vessels, there are other treasures 
found — ^jewelry, toys, images, and sometimes the most inter- 
esting bowls, dishes, and water bottles ever recovered from 
ancient graves. In one child's grave near Nashville was found 
the unique little figure in clay of a child strapped to its board, 
before referred to. This interesting piece is about four by 
nine inches; the head, flattened; the thongs that fasten the 
child to the board, very plainly made to represent leather 
strips. This custom of fastening infants to boards was com- 
mon among the Indians of North America, and the finding of 
this image discovered another link in the chain of evidence 
that the modem Indians were the descendants of the prehis- 
toric race of mound builders or of kindred tribes. Sets of 
toy plates, dainty little vessels, and toys were found in other 
graves. They tell strikingly of child life in Tennessee five 
or six hundred years aga 

One of the largest and richest of the aboriginal cemeteries 
ever found is four cw five miles from Nashville, south of the 
city and lying along the sides of Brown's Creek, above the dan- 
ger of overflow. It is in one of the most beautiful, fertile, 
and well-watered sections of the State. Here mcwe than 4,000 
graves have been opened, yielding several hundred pieces of 
well-burned pottery, many unique in form and finely finished. 
In form this pottery is patterned after nearly every familiar 
object — ^animals, birds, fish, the human figure, shells, and im- 
aginary figures. Many of the human figures are those of 
hunchbacked men and women, the faces beyond doubt illus- 
trating tjrpes of the race. 

The Stone Graves in Middle Tennessee are usually from one 
foot to three feet below the surface, but rarely more than two 
feet, except when found in tiers. Sometimes a hundred or 
more of them are found in a single burial mound, l3ring in tiers 



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Tennbsseb Archmomgy at St. Louis. 267 

four or five graves deep; but usually they are found in sin- 
gle layers, buried with some regularity, as if the dead had 
been placed in a potter's field. The stone boxes are jf enerally 
from four to six feet in length, about two feet wide, and eight- 
een inches deep. When with the aid of the probe the stone 
lid of a cist is discovered, the explorer calls upon his helper 
or diggers to uncover it The overlying earth is excavated, 
the covering stones are carefully removed; and he can then 
proceed to work cautiously with a small trowel, with every 
prospect of a successful find. Usually it will be found that 
the earth has filtered into the cist and filled it, but now and 
then a grave is discovered so carefully constructed that the 
remains within it lie uncovered and in open view. The fortu- 
nate explorer can then observe all the details of the burial, 
and perhaps may be rewarded by finding a vessel or two of 
pottery, a gorget of shell, or a necklace or earrings in their 
original position, without the necessity of using his trowel 
in searching for them among the debris or compact earth that 
fills other graves. 

It is sealed up in these cists that are found the relics of the 
ancient life. Deposited in these graves were the objects that 
had been most appreciated by the dead during life — their hum- 
ble tributes of affection, the playthings of the children, their 
personal ornaments, their implements and utensils — and the 
vessels containing the provisions for their lonely journey to 
the " happy hunting grounds." It is here that we find what 
is known of the status of the race in the scale of civilization. 
To one unfamiliar with this subject it is a revelation to see 
the remarkable collection of antiques and curios gathered from 
these old graves, even when the collection is a miscellaneous 
one; but when he sees the selected specimens shown at St. 
Louis, the wonder is the more. In an ordinary collection 
many things are to be seen. In such a large collection as that 
of General Thruston are to be seen enough specimens to give 
a fair view of the whole home life of the people. Sets of pot- 
tery ware ornamented with heads and grotesque figures— com- 
mon characteristics of the wares of Peru and Central Amer- 
ica — are found; water vessels, hanging bowls, drinking cups 
of clay and shell, well-shaped images of terra cotta, shell 



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268 The American Historicai, Maoazinb. 

gorgets or breast ornaments engraved with remarkable skill 
in curious and very exact designs, showing the particular 
badges or totems of the clan they represent; earrings and 
pendants of stone, of terra cotta, and of well-preserved wood, 
skillfully plated with thin layers of native copper; flint and 
bone implements and the knives and needles of the ancient 
artisans, discovered beside the remains of the dead, preserved 
to give us an idea of the people long passed away. The col- 
lection belonging to General Thruston has also numbers of 
pipes, of clay and stone; beautiful discs, symmetrical, uni- 
form, and finely polished; delicate objects of polished stone 
and chipped flint, fifteen or twenty inches long ; and a wealth 
of various forms of all the flint and clay implements that have 
been found in Tennessee and adjacent States. 

General Thruston's private collection contains the choicest 
of the treasures found in the cemetery near Nashville and 
embraces many which are unique. Many erf the images and 
vessels have been colored with considerable artistic skill. 
There are cooking vessels, drinking cups, and sets of wares 
so numerous as would suggest a well-stocked aboriginal 
cuisine. They undoubtedly belonged to the ancient' aristoc- 
racy of the Cumberland Valley. There are all the tools and 
implements for shaping pottery, besides miscellaneous tools, 
made of clay, stone, and bone. From one grave came five 
implements of varying sizes, which were possibly trowels 
used by a plasterer, as they bear a resemblance to the modem 
trowel ; in another grave were found eight finely-ground chis- 
els of chipped flint, probably the lifetime equipment of some 
old artisan in wood; in still another grave were found five 
peculiar implements, probably constituting a set of little spat- 
ulee, or paddles, which might have been used to mix medi- 
cine in some aboriginal medicine shop. 

There are also in the same collection some other objects 
obtained from the same cemetery — an engraved disc of stone 
of some significance ; small, symmetrical wheels of terra cotta 
and stone that look like little pulleys, skillfully plated with 



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TjSNNESSQK ARCHi^OI^OGY AT SX. LOUIS. 269 

must have been imported from far-distant sections of the coun- 
try — the marine shells, from the Atlantic or Gulf Coasts ; the 
native copper, from the Lake Superior region; the red pipe 
stone, from Western Minnesota; the mica, from North Car- 
olina or Virginia. A number of pieces of obsidian, or volcanic, 
glass from Mexico, on the Rocky Mountain section of the 
West, have also been discovered, indicating that in prehistoric 
times the Stone Grave people must have had communication 
or trading relations with these distant countries. The mate- 
rial for the beautiful implements of steatite, hematite, 
porphyry, jasper, and cannel coal must have come from other 
distant sections. A red pipe found was of the brilliant red 
catlinite that has been found nowhere but in Western Min- 
nesota. 

Throughout the surrounding country there are numerous 
other smaller cemeteries, in whose graves are found vessels, 
ornaments, and implements, showing that the ancient dwellers 
had lived as comfortably probably as those now dwelling along 
Brown's Creek, and having not only the conveniences of their 
time, but many of the luxuries. The truth of the belief that 
it was a peaceful race is further emphasized by the fact that, 
notwithstanding the large population that occupied the cen- 
tral city and the adjacent country, no ancient defensive or 
military works or earthworks of magnitude have been found 
in the immediate vicinity of Nashville. One large artificial 
mound half a mile northeast of the large cemetery, about 
twelve feet high, is found ; but it does not appear to have been 
a place of burial or to have been connected with any system 
of earthworks. It was probably intended for some public or 
religious purpose; it may have been intended for observation 
purposes, or it may have been the residence site of some old 
diieftain. 

Some distance from these settlements, however, forts did 
exist; and a string of fortified points probably protected the 
thickly settled district, and thus enabled its people to live in 
peace and security for the time. There were two forts in Sum- 
ner County, north; in Wilson County, thirty miles east, was 
one ; and there were three or four in Williamson County, the 
adjoining county on the south, distributed along the waters of 



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270 Thb AmnticAH Histoucai, liAGAznni. 

Harpcth River. Dawn the Cumberland River and on the 
northwest, as General Thruston points out, they needed no 
defense works, because there dwelt their kindred of the same 
race. 

Beyond the bounds of this central district- there were other 
settlements of this strange Stone Grave race — in the valleys of 
East Tennessee, in Northern Geogia, in the lower valley ot the 
Cumberland, in Southern Kentucky, in Southern Illinois, and 
perhaps in other sections; but the most populous center ap- 
pears, without doubt, to have been in the vicinity of Nashville, 

Who were the Stone Grave race? Who were the mound 
builders ? The answer is not easy. They were essentially prim- 
itive and Indian in their character, yet the remains of these 
" fort builders " of the Cumberland Valley indicate that they 
belonged to a more advanced tjrpe of the North American In- 
dians than the wandering tribes of the early historic days. 
They should properly be classed with the sedentary or vil- 
lage Indians of New Mexico and Arizona. Their development 
was favored by the temperate climate ; by the healthful, fer- 
tile, well-watered valleys; and by the less rigid struggle for 
the necessities of life. No native American north of Mexico 
in the prehistoric period came nearer the confines of semiciv- 
ilization. 

What became of them? Their quiet, peaceful life was un- 
doubtedly the immediate cause of their undoing. A nation 
or a people that g^ows unused to war becomes an easy prey. 
These magnates of the Stone Grave race attended to their 
families and to their religious ceremonials. Industrious and 
progressive, they were working their way along toward a 
higher state. It was then, at an unknown date, that the war- 
like people came down upon them — maybe the ancestors of 
the fierce and vindictive Iroquois of the North, the Goths and 
Vandals of the Western World. They swept down upon the 
simple homes of these humble villagers and their kindred and 
either destroyed or absorbed them, leaving only the remains 
of their forts and mounds and cemeteries to tell of their former 
existence and primitive, peaceful life. 

The career of the North American Indians is shadowed with 
painful reflections and illustrates the infinite pathos of human 



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Tbnnbssbb ARCHiqsoi«oGY AT St. Louis. 271 

life. Living on this great, fertile continent for thousands of 
years, yet in all the centuries of toil and hardship they made 
slow progress toward civilization. Its history was a succes- 
sion of advances and relapses, their systems of life and govern- 
ment seemingly tending to decay. Even the ancient semiciv- 
ilization of Mexico and Central America was rude and primi- 
tive when compared with that of the ancient races of Europe 
and Asia. 

The exact relation of the Stone Grave race of Tennessee and 
that section generally to the historic red Indian is difficult to 
ascertain. When the Europeans were settling the Atlantic 
Coast, the Indians of the interior were involved in constant 
and exterminating warfare, and it seemed to be a time of tri- 
bal reconstruction. These ancient settlements of the Stone 
Grave race were probably full of life when Columbus came 
to America. A traveler to the interior would probably have 
been able then to learn the story of the mounds and graves from 
their own builders. But three centuries passed after America 
was discovered before the white man came to Tennessee. 
About 1540, it is true, De Soto and his army passed near the 
southern border of Tennessee, alarming the quiet natives, but 
probably never touched the present territory of the State. One 
hundred and thirty-two years passed away before any Euro- 
pean, so far as known, stepped foot within Tennessee. The 
first explorer, Marquette, in 1673, floated down the Missis- 
sippi River in his shallow bark, atnd La Salle came later ; but 
they saw only the forests and swamps along the river. 
Nearly another century then passed before the sturdy pio- 
neers from Virginia and North Carolina came over the moun- 
tains to make their home in the valley of the Watauga or 
Daniel Boone started on his " Wilderness Trail." 

Thus isolated for centuries, Tennessee was as unknown to 
the outside world as was Central Africa. France, Spain, and 
England claimed the territory; but neither took possession 
of it. The Indian claimants were fighting over it. While 
Vincennes, in Indiana; Kaskaskia, in Illinois; and New Or- 
leans were being founded ; while Texas and Missouri were col- 
onized ; while Santa Fe, in New Mexico, more than 1,000 miles 
to the west, had become an old Spanish town, still Tennessee 



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272 The American Historical Magazine. 

was without name or description on the maps, save when des- 
ignated as " the unexplored land of the ancient Shawnees." 
These things show how little history can tell us of the an- 
cient Tennesseans of the Stone Grave race, even while for four 
hundred years Spanish, French, and English travelers were 
writing and printing stories of their travels among th^ tribes 
of the South Atlantic and Gulf Coasts, neighbors and allies 
of the Tennessee tribes. These printed chronicles tell of peo- 
ples presumably akin to the ancient Tennesseans in race and 
manner of life; of populous, fortified towns surrounded by 
cornfields. The common ancestry of all the Indian tribes is 
to be presumed from these reccM-ds made, a common inherit- 
ance of savagery and barbarism, though some of the writers 
state that those tribes in the South and Southwest lived in 
larger towns and seemed more advanced in the primitive arts 
than the tribes of the North. 

The darkness of thousands of years cannot be dispelled by 
delving in the ashes of burned villages and cemeteries, yet 
from these we find the greater part of all that we can rescue 
from the long night of oblivion resting over the earlier cen- 
turies of aboriginal life. To no other continent can the an- 
cestry of the native races of America be traced. Not only are 
their years shrouded in darkness, but the widely scattered 
remains, the large number of languages and dialects spoken 
by them, the varying stages of development among the tribes, 
make the systematic study of the questions involved one of 
the greatest difiiculty. 

Prof. Cyrus Thomas, of the Bureau of Ethnology, insists 
that recent investigations establish the fact that the Stone 
Grave builders of Tennessee were the ancestors of the Shaw- 
nees ; and the claim seems plausible, though not well substan- 
tiated. The history of the Shawnees is a pathetic one. These 
" Gvosies of the Forest." as thev have been called, perplex the 



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§ 

9 

? 

? 
? 



§ 




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TBNNBS8BB ARCHi«OW)GY AT ST. LOUIS. ^73 

from home, and for sixty years before the whites came Ten- 
nessee was an uninhabited wilderness. 

Dr. D. G. Brinton claims that the Chatta-Muskogee tribes 
were probably the original mound-building stock, embracing 
the Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Natchez. 

Research may yet develop the truth, and further discov- 
eries may add to our knowledge of the curious people. It is 
an entertaining field of inquiry at least. It is matter for con- 
gratulation that there has been sent to St. Louis an exhibit 
that is so clearly and so closely related to the early history of 
the country — an exhibit that, it is to be hoped, may stimulate 
further research and investigation. 



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274 'I'hb Ambrican Historical Maoazinb. 



INTERESTING LETTER OF HON. JOHN BELL, OF TEN- 
NESSEE, TO THE HON. JAMES R. DOOLITTLE, 
OF WISCONSIN. 



[OoBtribated bj Doane Mowrj, of the MUwAokee (Wis.) Bar.] 



A letter, like the one which follows, will not fail to enlist con- 
siderable interest among the readers of the American Histori- 
cal Magazine. This is so because the author of it occupied a 
close and prominent relation to the subject discussed, a sub- 
ject of burning interest to every inhabitant of Tennessee, and 
also for the reason that the gentleman was in the public con- 
fidence of a large constituency, not only in his own state, but 
also in the country at large. It is not necessary here or now 
to discuss these two men, or the views which they may have 
entertained at the time which called forth the correspondence. 
It is easy to believe that both of them were sincere, patriotic, 
and high-minded. It is even doubtful if either of them was 
mistaken in the views which they entertained upon the subject 
under discussion by Mr. Bell in this letter. But we pass that. 

The original letter from which this copy is made is written 
in a running hand, and while every character is clearly discerni- 
ble, the writing itself is extremely difficult to decipher. This 
is owing to Mr. Bell's peculiar penmanship. Many letters arc 
run closely together. Omitting to dot the i's or cross the t's 
is also quite noticeable. And some words, particularly those 
italicized, are submitted as not surely the words used by the 
author. Nevertheless, enough of the letter is copied correctly 
to make it interesting reading to the student of history. 

The letter covers a little more than three full pages of a pur- 
ple colored, letter-note size writing paper. The ink is but slight- 



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J<«ir BSXX TO JAMM &• D O OU TT U t S75 

Nashville, October i8, 1859. 
My dear sir: Your letter of the aoth Aug. was rec'd 
in due course of mail, and every week (I cannot say every day) 
I have laid oflf to answer it, but such have been my engage- 
ments — ^principally, of a private, business nature, that I have 
found no time that I could devote to the important subject of 
your letter — nor have I now the leisure to say a tenth part of 
what I would desire to say, & I must postpone a full com- 
munication of my views to some other day, or week, or, per- 
haps, nK>nth. 

You know from me already that I concurred in your views 
generally, as proposed in your speech upon the subject of the 
importance of providing some more eligible & practicable a 
retreat for the free colored inhabitants of the U. S. — the 
South being quite as much, indeed, far more interested 
than the North, in the accomplishment of this object. I have 
no sympathy with the schemes of those, who would be part of 
any further policy of Mexico or of Central America with the 
states of the Union — or the armyy I am most decidely opposed 
to any such policy, as unavoidably fatal to the true success of 
our system, as many of my paralell speeches will show. 

You suggest that upon this platform, to wit ; the acquisition 
of some territory South, by the U. S., which may be 
made the asylum or exclusive possession of the emancipated 
or free Africans in our midst, and of those who may hereafter 
be emancipated, can be made the way of harmony between the 
opposition elements North & South — and you ask me what 
objection could be made to such a policy by the conservative 
parties of the South? I answer none, or I think (none) what- 
ever. But do you mean that the conservative opposition North, 
would or could be got to drop all other opinions, or party ties 
— I mean sectional opinions, or such as have been so regarded 
as — & agree to accept this one — a country set apart for the 
African race on this continent — ^as the only condition of con- 



.J o r '^.^ ...IaI. a,1.^ C^^^4. 



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276 The American Historicai, Magazine. 

than the North. But I fear, my dear Sir, that you cannot carry 
your Northern friends, flushed as they are with the hope of 
victory, with their personal platform. I pray that I may be 
mistaken; but you will let me know further what you meari 
or think upon this point. 

I will say before I conclude, that in my opinion, from what 
I have seen & heard of your patriotic & statesmanlike views, 
from your own lips, that if you and I were duly empowered 
upon the subject, we could adjust all the grounds of difference 
& discord between the conservative opposition North & 
South, in twenty four hours. 

I shall be most happy to hear from you further at an early 
day upon the subject of our correspondence, when I promise 
more promptness in my reply. 

With great respect & esteem, 
Yours &c., 

Jno. Bell. 

Hon. J. R. Doolittle. 



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Jackson's Oration. 277 



JACKSON'S ORATION AT THE TOMB OF MARY 
WASHINGTON. 



[From the Nashville American,'} 



In a book called "Reports of Curious Law Cases/' to which 
our attention has been called by Hon. John Ruhm, of the local 
bar, there is an account of a very interesting case decided only 
a few years ago by the Supreme Court of Virginia. The point 
at issue was whether a firm of real estate agents had authority 
to- sell the grave and monument over it of Mary Washington^ 
mother of George Washington. 

On the date of the inauguration of Benjamin Harrison, March 
4, 1888, there was circulated in the crowd in Washington this 
handbill : 

"Gen. George Wasihingfton. — ^The Tomb and Unfinished 
Monument of Mary, His Sainted Mother. — ^Tuesday, the 5tH 
instant, at 4 o'clock p.m., at the capitol of the United States 
of America, under authority vested in us by the 'real' owners 
of the property, we will offer for sale, at public outcry, about 
twelve acres of land, situate within corporation of Fredericks- 
burg, embracing the grave of Mary, the mother of Gen. George 
Washington, and also the material of her unfinished monument; 
at the same time and place we will offer to the highest bidder 
the house in which she lived and died, and within eight squares 
of the tomb. 

"Colbert & Kirtlby, 
"Real Estate Agents, 
"Fredericksburg, Va." 

The advertisement also appeared in the Washington Post. 
Not much attention was paid to it in Washington, but it aroused 
great indignation at Fredericksburg. The alleged real owner 
of the property promptly disavowed any claim to it, and stated 
that he could not dispose of that to which he had no title, but the 
real estate agents asserted they had authority from him to sell 
the property, and the case was taken into court and finally 
reached the Supreme Court. 

The Judge, in delivering his opinion, in which he, with great 



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278 Thb American Historicai* Magazine. 

vigor, denounced the agents for their attempt to make capital 
and pecuniary profit out of sacred property, quotes the follow- 
ing portion of the speech, which he says was made by Andrew 
Jackson, then President of the United States, at the laying of 
the comer stone of the monument: 

"It is to me a source of high gratification that I can speak 
of him from personal knowledge and observation. I witnessed 
the public conduct and private virtues of Washington, and I 
saw and participated in the confidence which he inspired when 
probably the stability of our institutions depended upon his 
personal influence. In the grave before us lie the remains of 
his mother. Long has it been unmarked by any monumental 
tablet, but not unhonored. You have undertaken the pious 
duty of erecting a column to her memory, and of inscribing 
upon it the sample but affecting words. *Mary, the Mother 
of Washington.' No eulogy could be higher; and it appeals 
to the heart of every American. Fellow citizens, at your re- 
quest and in your name, I now deposit this plate in the spot 
destined for it, and when the American pilgrim shall, in after 
ages, come up to this high and lofty place and lay his hand 
upon this sacred column, may he recall the virtues of her who 
sleeps beneath, and depart with his affections purified and his 
piety strengthened, while he invokes blessings upon the mem- 
ory of the mother of Washington." 

We believe this speech of Gen. Jackson is not included in 
any of the lives which have been written of him, and is another 
indication of the deep feeling and lofty motives which marked 
his career. 

The book to which we allude is well termed "Curious Cases," 
for it contains many of interest. But it is indeed surprising 
that at this late day anyone should have the hardihood to at- 
tempt to dispose of property which for so long a time has been 
regarded as set aside as a hallowed spot. 



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Bditoriai;. 279 



EDITORIAL- 



ANNOUNCEMENT. 

The management desires to announce to patrons and pub- 
lic that the publication of this magazine will be brought to a 
close with the forthcoming October number. 

The magazine has published a great deal of the most im- 
portant unpublished manuscripts of the Tennessee Historical 
Society, the Robertson correspondence of the Peabody Col- 
lege for Teachers, the Polk and other valuable genealogies 
of our most distinguished men of the past, and has preserved 
in permanent form much other historic matter of the highest 
value that might otherwise have been lost forever. To our 
patrons we wish to return our thanks for enabling us to make 
this valuable addition to historic literature. The patronage 
has been sufficiently generous to enable this to be done with- 
out any great loss to the owners and managers. 

The nine years' issues, which will be ended in October,, 
should be preserved in permanent, bound form by those who 
have them, as they are not only indispensable to any one writ- 
ing Tennessee history, but the issue was a very limited one,, 
and it will be almost impossible to get copies in the future. 



A CORRECTION. 

Mr. Frank Rodes writes us, under date of May 26, as fol- 
lows: 

" Referring to your April issue and Rodes family, folio 184, 
I stated in line 17 that John, born on June 2, 176(5, married 
Jesena Brown, daughter of Bernice Brown. A direct descend- 
ant writes that this John married Francisca, a daughter of 
Bernard Brown. 

" On folio 185, line 14, William (Rivers) is entered as bom 
in July, whereas he was born in June; in line 16 Cynthia is 
entered as having married in 1857, whereas it should have 
been in 185 1." 



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28o The Ahbrican Historical Magazinb. 

TENNESSEE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Pre6II>skt : 
Gov. James D. iPortcr. 

Vice Pbesidsnts: 
Col WiUiam A. Henderson, Gen. Gates P. Thniston, 

Thomas J. Latham. 

Sbobstabt: 
A. V. Goodpasture: 

CORmifiPOKDIKO SECRtilTABT: 

Robert T. Quaries. 

Trbasxjrsr: 
Joseph S. Careb. 

LlBBABIAK : 

Joseph S. Carels. 

Stakdikq ComaTTRSB: 

Membership , chairman; J. A. Cartwright, 

f . P. Hunter. 

Finance — Edgar Jones, chairman ; W. S. Settle, C. H. East- 
man. 

Addresses— W. J. McMuny, chairman; Frederick W. Moor^ 
Theodore Cooley. 

History and Biography — ^A. V. Goodpasture, chairman; 
John Allison, F. W. Moore. 



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PAUL FITZSIMONS EVE. A.M.. M.D., LL.D. 



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hAAM^ 



The American Historical Magazine. 

Vol. IX. OCTOBER, 1904. No. 4. 



PAUL FITZSIMONS EVE, A.M., M.D., LL.D. 



BY R. A. HALLEY. 



On the morning of Saturday, November 3, 1877, there died in 
the city of Nashville, Tenn., a man whose death not only car- 
ried sadness to many Nashville households, but cast a shadow 
over every circle where the higher surgery was known and ap- 
preciated — a man by whose decease the South lost its brightest 
medical light and one of its most eminent and successful educa- 
tors. 

When the news that Dr. Paul F. Eve was dead became gen- 
erally known the regret was universal, for not only the city of 
Nashville, but the country and the world sustained a loss. 
Among those renowned in his profession there had been since 
the earliest days of American surgery none more deserving of 
honor than this gifted son of the South. So, the grief was 
general. The loss was keenly realized by his family, by his 
friends, and by the country. Dr. Eve was known as a man 
whose whole life had but one visible purpose, the practice of 
his profession — no other ends or aims or desires but progress 
in that profession. He had no pursuit to which he gave any 
part of his time save that of surgery, which received from him 
all the love and all the care and all the study that he had to 
bestow. To benefit humanity was his one thought, and the 
night was never too dark and dreary, nor the distance too long 
and rough for him to go to the bedside of the most humble and 
poverty-stricken sufferer. He was the type, so far as humanity 
could be the type, of the Great Physician. His was a life not 
uneventful ; it was filled with events that were quiet blessings to 



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282 Thb American Historical Magazinb. 

humanity and filled with benediction to the doctor. A man of 
single purpose, he was an illustration of what a man of single- 
ness of purpose can accomplish. Read the roll of his honors : 

Bearer of the Golden Cross of Honor, of Poland; President 
of the American Medical Association, 1857-58; President of the 
Tennessee State Medical Society, 1871-72; Centennial Repre- 
sentative of Surgery to the Medical Congress of Nations at 
Philadelphia, 1876; Professor of Surgery in the Medical Collie 
of Georgia from 1832 to 1849; Professor of Surgery in the 
University of Louisville in 1850; Professor of Surgery in the 
Medical Department of the University of Nashville from 185 1 
to 1868; Professor of Surccry in the Missouri Medical College 
at St. Lx)uis in 1868-69; Professor of Surgery in the Medical 
Department of the University of Nashville and of Vanderbilt 
University from 1870 to 1876; and Professor of Surgery in the 
Nashville Medical College in 1877. 

This brief record of positions of honor filled successively 
throughout a long and useful life, is in itself a comprehensive 
biography. Yet it is well to preserve a fuller record concerning: 
this most distinguished of all the citizens of Tennessee in the 
annals of medicine and surgery. It is well, in the language of 
the preamble to the resolutions adopted by the faculty of which 
he was last a member, to perpetuate "a name which must endure 
forever in the annals of American surgery, which thousands of 
affectionate and grateful hearts — patients, students, colleagues 
and friends — will cherish through life as one of their dearest 
memories; which multitudes of Christians of all denominations 
will remember with thanksgiving in their prayers ; which untold 
numbers yet unborn will revere as that of a pre-eminently grand 
and wise apostle of the healing art ; a man who, during a life of 
seventy-one years of usefulness, was a constant messenger of 
peace and love, never weary, never faint, always forgetful of 
himself and never forgetful of his calling." 

HIS EARLY YEARS. 

Paul Fitzsimons Eve was bom at Forest Hall, on the Savan- 



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Paul Fitzsimons Eve. 283 

and Aphra Ann Eve, and youngest of the eleven children of 
these parents who reached their majority. On the father's side 
he was of English descent, and on the mother's side was of the 
Scotch-Irish blood. His father had been captain of a Pennsyl- 
vania company before the War of the Revolution, as may be 
seen recorded in the Pennsylvania archives, and to this day the 
house is occupied on Frankfort Creek, near Philadelphia, where 
he manufactured gunpowder for the troops. At school Captain 
Eve had been a schoolmate of Dr. Rush, Dr. James and Dr. 
Shippen, of Philadelphia, and of others who afterwards became 
known in their country's annals for achievement in their various 
professions. 

In his very early childhood Paul F. Eve was taught his letters 
by his widowed sister, Mrs. Sarah Adams, relict of Mr. John 
Adams who died in Ireland about the year 181 2. In this same 
room where he had been an infant, and where he had been taught 
these first lessons by his sister. Dr. Eve slept when he last visited 
Augusta and the old home, in May, 1874. His first school days 
were at Richmond Academy, in Augusta, and his next at Mount 
Zion, in Hancock County, under Dr. Brennan. He had been 
from birth nearsighted, but did not discover this fact until a 
student at Franklin College, in Athens, Ga., where he next at- 
tended school, and even there was unconscious of it until in his 
senior year. He graduated from Franklin College, now the 
literary department of the University of Georgia, in August, 
1826, receiving the degree of A.B., and the second honor in a 
class of twenty-four. Rev. Moses Waddel then presided over 
this institution, which had acquired at that time a widespread 
reputation for the excellence and thoroughness of its training. 
Paul F. Eve was a student of Franklin College for four years, 
and during this time he never missed attending a single recita- 
tion. This institution later conferred upon hin the degrees of 
A.M. and LL.D. 

AS A STUDENT OF MEDICINE. 

He left Georgia immediately after graduating at FrankKn 
College and went to Philadelphia, where he commenced the study 
of medicine as a private pupil of Dr. Charles D. Meigs, the dis- 



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284 The American Historical Magazine 

tinguished author and teacher, in September, 1826. He attended 
two full courses in the Medical Department of the University 
of Pennsylvania, and received his degree of Doctor of Medicine 
in the spring of 1828. His diploma bears the names of many 
of the most celebrated teachers of that day — ^Drs. Hare, Cox, 
Jackson, James, Dewees, Chapman, Gibson, Homer and Physick; 
under all of these he attended lectures and from all of them he 
received instruction. His graduating thesis was on Uterine 
Hemorrhage, a subject on which his renowned preceptors, Drs. 
James and Dewees, were amply proficient to impart ideas that 
are standard even at the present day. 

His original intention had been to remain in Philadelphia after 
completing the course of study, and to practice his profession 
there. He changed this plan because about the time of his 
graduation his aged father was seriously ill. Returning at once 
to Georgia, he gave his careful and unremitting attention to his 
father, and this act of filial devotion shaped his coming life for 
greatness. It was during this illness of his father that he first 
conceived his preference for surgery, his attention being turned 
in this direction by the necessary and frequent use of the catheter 
for an enlarged prostate gland. He had in the meantime beg^n 
the practice of medicine in Augusta, in June, 1828, in the office 
of Dr. Watkins, who was his brother-in-law and who died in 
Lexington, Ky., the same year. His father. Captain Eve, died 
in August, 1829. 

Fired with enthusiasm over the possibilities of surgery, and 
with the desire to progress in his profession, Dr. Eve left for 
Europe in November, 1829, sailing in the ship Perfect, cotton 
laden, from Charleston, S. C. He arrived in Liverpool in De- 
cember after a passage of twenty-eight days; he visited Dublin 
and Belfast, returning to Liverpool and going thence to London. 
After a brief sojourn in London, where he had letters to Sir 
Astley Cooper, Abemethy and others, and where he became 



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Paul Fitzsimons Eve. 285 

Larey, Dupuytren, Roux, Lisfranc, Cruvielhier, Trousseau, Re- 
camier, Andrae, Ricord, Louis, Velpeau, and others. He had 
aU-eady made use of his visit to London by attending the hospital 
courses of Sir Astley Cooper, Abemethey and other famous 
surgeons. 

HIS SERVICES FOR POLAND. 

Dr. Eve was, therefore, in Paris in May, 1831, when all Europe 
was ablaze with turmoil and political excitement. He witnessed 
the dethronement of Charles X, in Paris, and professionally par- 
ticipated in the revolution of the three days (July 27, 28 and 29, 
1830). Then he went to Poland and offered his services to that 
unhappy country in its resistance to Russian oppression. Re- 
membering how the gallant Pulaski had fallen at the siege of 
Savannah during the Revolutionary struggle of 1776, he earnestly 
desired to aid in paying that debt to distressed Poland. He was 
detained in Berlin for a time, until with the assistance of letters 
from Lafayette and the Polish committee at Paris, but especially 
through the intervention of Dr. Graffe, himself a Pole, and his 
own indomitable energy and untiring will, he at length reached 
Warsaw, and was assigned immediately to hospital service ir. 
that city. For his evident ability and his conspicuous devotion 
to duty he was soon promoted from the hospital department to 
be field surgeon of the Fifteenth Regiment of Infantry and Sur- 
geon of Ambulances attached to General Turno's division. The 
Golden Cross of Honor was also conferred on him on the reconi 
mendation of Count Placa, Chief of the Medical Bureau. During 
the storming and capture of Warsaw on the 7th and 8th of Sep- 
tember, 1 83 1, he was fortunately out of the city on duty. He 
was subsequently taken prisoner, however, and confined at 
Werichaw for thirty days, after which he was released under 
the plea of cholera. He reached Paris in October, and thcrt» 
rested and recuperated for several weeks. Sailing from Havre 
for New York on the first day of January, 1832, he reached 
America after a tedious voyage of fifty-three days. 

For more than two years he had been gone from his native 
land, and in that time had had a more varied experience than 
falls to most men in a lifetime — experiences which filled his 



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286 The American Historical Magazine. 

retentive mind with information bearing" on his chosen profes- 
sion of surg-ery. Not only had he come in contact with men 
whose enlarged ideas he had come to know and appreciate^ but 
he had had actual experience that could not have been gained 
elsewhere at the time or in any other manner. From New 
York to Augusta he traveled by stage all the way except from 
Annapolis to Norfolk, and again commenced to practice in that 
city. While passing through Washington he saw Andrew Jack- 
son as President of the United States, and Mr. Foster, member 
of Congress from Georgia, the latter of whom urged Dr. Eve to 
solicit the President to appoint him surgeon in the United States 
army. Dr. Eve was also urged to come to New Orleans to 
practice, but disregarded all these persuasions and located in 
Augusta. 

AS a teacher of medicine. 

In June, 1832, Dr. Eve was elected Professor of Surgery in 
the Medical College of Georgia, just then organized in Augusta, 
and was there engaged in teaching for seventeen years, these 
seventeen consecutive courses of lectures bringing the college 
great reputation and prestige, and establishing Dr. Eve's fame 
as a teacher and a surgeon. When this college was organized, 
Dr. Ducfas had the Chair of Anatomy, Dr. J. A. Eve the Chair 
of Obstetrics, Dr. Dent the Chair of Practice, and Dr. Ford that 
of Chemistry. 

On the 2 1 St of December, 1832, Dr. Eve married Miss Sarah 
Louisa Twiggs, of Richmond County, Georgia, the daughter of 
Major George Twiggs, who lived near Augusta. She died in 
May, 185 1, in Augusta, and was buried at that place. By this 
marriage Dr. Eve had two children, George Twig^ Eve, who 
died in 1897, leaving a widow and three daughters, and a 
daughter, Anna Lou, who married Colonel V. K. Stevenson, 
the first President of the Nashville & Chattanooga Railway, and 
who is now a resident of New York. Mrs. Stevenson has three 
children — two sons and a daughter. The daughter married Mr. 



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Paul Fitzsimons Eve. 287 

In 1849 Dr- Eve had been chosen Professor of Surgery in the 
Medical Department of Louisville University to succeed the 
celebrated Dr. Samuel D. Gross, who went to New York. He 
delivered one course of lectures in the Louisville school, but in 
March, 1850, he resigned the chair of his own will because he 
had heard indirectly that Dr. Gross was not satisfied with his 
j)osition in New York. As to how he had filled the chair vacated 
by his worldwide-known and eminent compeer, it is amply 
evidenced by the fact of the utmost regret with which the faculty 
of the Louisville University received his resignation. They 
finally accepted it because of the positive terms in which it was 
insisted upon, though he was solicited by the unanimous vote 
of the trustees, the faculty and the students to remain. But he 
believed, in addition to his consideration for Dr. Gross, that his 
wife's health was failing and that the locality of Louisville did 
not agree with her. Therefore, urged by this double considera- 
tion, he determined to return to Augusta. 

REMOVAL TO NASHVILLE. 

In 1 85 1 the Medical Department of the University of Nash- 
ville was organized, and in response to a most cordial invitation 
Dr. Eve accepted the chair of surgery in the new college. This 
he occupied until the fall of Nashville, in 1862, and again after 
the end of the war until 1877, with the exception of two years 
spent in St. Louis. When Dr. Joseph Nash McDowell died in 
1868 Dr. Eve was chosen his successor by the faculty of the 
Missouri Medical College, and accepted the position in the belief 
that the great city of St. Louis would give him a larger field 
of usefulness and success. But the greater rigor of the more 
Northern latitude was too severe for his family, and for his 
advancing years. He could not be contented away from the 
South, and so in 1870 he resigned his position and accepted the 
Chair of Surgery in the Medical Department of the University 
of Nashville, and lectured to the medical classes of the University 
of Nashville and of the Vanderbilt University, which then held 
joint sessions in the same halls. This was in the old Medical 
College Building then standing between Market and College 
streets, now torn away. He had finally determined to make 



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288 The American Historical Magazine. 

Nashville his permanent home in 1852, and from that time he 
spent the remainder of his life in Nashville, except during^ tiie 
days of the war and the two years in the St. Louis school. After 
his return to Nashville from St. Louis he remained with the 
Medical Department of the University of Nashville and Vander- 
bilt University until 1877, when he withdrew to aid in the up- 
building of a new school — the Nashville Medical College, after- 
wards the Medical Department of the University of Tennessee. 
His death occurred during the beginning of his second course of 
lectures in this institution. 

He was eng^ed in teaching medicine nearly half a century 
— ^about forty-six years — and it is remarkable that during this 
entire time, in his lectures at the five institutions where he taught, 
he had never lost a single lecture, and but once was he forced 
by indisposition to exchange hours with a colleague. He had, 
of course, to exchange hours on frequent occasicms by reason of 
unexpected or unavoidable professional duties, but always repaid 
them promptly. 

His success as a teacher and the fame of his teaching may be 
shown by the records. From the time of its organization in 
1832 with twenty-eight students, the Medical College of Georgia 
increased to one hundred and ninety-five students in the session 
of 1849-50, the last year of Dr. Eve's connection with the institu- 
tion. This number exceeded the highest ever before or since 
attained. While he was with the institution its growth was 
steady, and every year showed the vastly increasing reputation 
of the college. So in the Medical Department of the University 
of Nashville the number of students increased from one hundred 
and thirty-six in the first year of its existence to four hundred 
and fifty-four for the last session before the war — the largest 
class then assembled in any medical college in this country out- 
side of New York and Philadelphia. So in the newly org^ized 
Nashville Medical College, the fact of his connection with it drew 
many students to its doors. 

Summed up briefly his connection with medical colleges was 
as thus given, always as a teacher of surgery: In the Medical 
College of Georgia from June, 1832, to October, 1849; Medical 
Department of the Louisville University from October, 1849, ^^ 



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Paul Fitzsimons Eve. 289 

March, 1850; Medical Dqjartment of the University of Nash- 
ville from July, 185 1, to October, 1868; Missouri Medical Col- 
lege from October, 1868, to June, 1870; Medical Department of 
the University of Nashville (and of Vanderbilt University) from 
1870 to 1877; Nashville Medical College, 1877. This was his 
forty-third regular course of lectures. 

But all this time Dr. Eve had been steadily taking a more 
advanced place in his profession, and acquiring wider personal 
reputation. This reputation was as a teacher and as a surgeon, 
a combination not as common as might appear. But he seemed 
pre-eminent in both. The five colleges in which he taught were 
not the only institutions that wanted his services and offered 
ample recompense for them. Frequent offers came to teach in 
other institutions. At various times in his life he was called to 
the Philadelphia Medical College, when its founder, Dr. McQin- 
tock, died; to New Orleans, Memphis and Columbus, Ohio; to 
the New York University, through Dr. Draper, when Professor 
Granville Sharp Pattison died in 1851. 

Dr. Eve's early experience in the war for Polish independence 
was not his only military experience. In a list of surgeons and 
assistant surgeons appointed in the United States army for the 
volunteer service in the war against Mexico, in 1846, Dr. Eves 
name ranks first. In 1859 he left for the seat of war in Europe, 
going direct to the battlefields of Solferino and Magenta, and 
communicating to the profession on his return to this continent 
his valuable observations, through the pages of the Nashville 
Medical and Surgical JouniaL And his longest service of this 
character was with the armies of the South. 

WITH TUE ARMY OF TENNESSEE. 

When war between the North and the South became an as- 
sured fact. Dr. Eve again offered his services to those wounded 
in battle. Among the first to place himself at the disposal of 
his State, he was, in November, 1861, appointed Surgeon-General 
of Tennessee and later Chief Surgeon of General Joseph E. 
Johnston's army; he was also President of the Army Medical 
Board for the examination of those who desired to be appointed 
surgeons and assistant surgeons in the army. When the fall of 



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290 The American Historical Magazine. 

« 
Nashville became a certainty, and sudden evacuation was deter- 
mined upon, he went away from the city of his adoption leaving 
everything he possessed. Fort Donelson had fallen. On the 
night of Sunday, February i6, 1862, he left the city at eleven 
o'clock at night. His family servants went with him, although 
he advised them to remain. Colonel V. K. Stevenson was with 
him, nearly blind from inflamed eyes. His whole family was 
out of the city, having gone to Augusta to bury his infant child, 
Oswell Bones. By this forced flight he lost all his property. 
But he went with his own people into exile, his instrument case 
under his arm almost his sole possession — sore-hearted and tried, 
but willing to do all in his power to aid and comfort those who 
were giving up all they held dear except their faith in that coun- 
try whose fortunes they were determined to espouse. 

After a hurried visit to Augusta to see his family. Dr. Eve 
returned to Chattanooga and was ordered to organize a hospital 
service at Atlanta. He went, and remained in charge of the 
(jate City Hospital there until just after the battle of Shiloh, 
April 6, 1862, when he was ordered to the front. He did able 
and valiant service with the army there, and subsequently at 
Columbus, Miss., where he was stationed for several months. 
Then he was ordered again to Atlanta, thence in 1863 to Augusta, 
and for a time to Richmond, Va. And so. throughout the war 
he was busy wherever duty called him. Wherever stationed, his 
eminent and varied attainments amply met and sustained the 
daily, even hourly, demands made upon him. After the sur- 
render, he returned to Nashville. 

Of the toils and trials of those years of battle, who can speak 
save the man who was in the midst of them ? The story of want 
and deprivation extended even to the hospitals, and the medical 
corps suffered with the rest. But it ended at last, and after the 
long night day again dawned upon the land. When the cross 
of St. Andrew went down forever in defeat and men returned 
again to take up life where they had left off years before. Dr. 
Eve went first to Augusta, and thence came back to Nashville 



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Paul Fitzsimons Eve. 291 

after the war. 

He began life anew, but with enlarged opportunities for use- 
fulness to his fellow beings, gained from his tireless devotion 
to duty while with the army. When the South at once sought 
to restore the arts of peace to their former position, and began 
to resume all the avocations of life as far as possible, the Medical 
Department of the University of Nashville was one of the first 
educational institutions to announce the resumption of studies. 
Dr. Eve was at once engaged for his former work, and the 
college moved on in its new career. His standing as a teacher 
became continually more pronounced, and his reputation spread 
throughout the world. Popular confidence was even increased, 
because he had given additional evidence of his tireless energy 
and indomitable courage, on the battlefield and by his conscien- 
tious service in the cause of medical education. 

In his family relations Dr. Eve was most happy, possessing at 
all times the unbounded love and devotion of wife and children. 
But while he most happily blended his social nature and his 
professional life, no claim of home indulgence ever interfered 
with his well remembered punctuality — one of the main springs 
of his great success. 

After the death of his first wife Dr. Eve had married, January 
19, 1852, Sarah Ann, daughter of Rev. H. D. Dimcan, of Barn- 
well District, South Carolina, who survived him by nearly twenty 
years, dying June 29, 1897. His first year with the Medical 
Department of the University of Nashville having determined 
then to make the city of Nashville his permanent home, he re- 
moved to the capital of Tennessee in 1852, a few months after 
his second marriage. By his second wife Dr. Eve had three 
children — Duncan, Sarah and Paul F., all still living. The 
daughter married Edward Drane, of Qarksville, Tenn., and now 
lives in New York City. 

HIS LEGACY TO THE PROFESSION. 

Dr. Duncan Eve, the eldest son by the second marriage, was 
bom in Augusta, Ga., May i, 1853. He was educated at the 
Kentucky Military Institute and the University of Nashville, 



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292 The American Historical Magazine. 

receiving the B.S. degree from the latter in 1872 ; had the degree 
of A.M. conferred on him by Greeneville and Tusculum College 
in 1882 ; he graduated in medicine at Bellevue Hospital Medical 
College of New York City in 1874. He has been President of 
the Davidson County Medical Society; President of the Ten- 
nessee State Medical Society ; President of the Mississippi Valley 
Medical Society, and First Vice President of the American Medi- 
cal Association. For eighteen years he was Dean and Professor 
of Surgery of the Medical Department of the University of Ten- 
nessee, but is now and has been since 1895 Professor of Surgery 
in the Medical Department of Vanderbilt University. Besides 
being the Chief Surgeon of the Nashville, Chattanooga & St. 
Lx>uis Railway, and surgeon to the Louisville & Nashville Rail- 
road, and to the Nashville Street Railway, he is president and 
member of the medical and surgical staff of the Nashville City 
Hospital, Fellow of the American Surgical Association and of 
various other societies. While he has devoted himself to the 
exacting demands made on him as a teacher and to the duties 
of his large and remunerative practice, having attained eminence 
as a teacher and practitioner of surgery, Dr. Duncan Eve has 
also found time for a limited amount of work in the way of 
medical literature. Besides other writings he is among the con- 
tributors to "Park's Surgery by American Authors" and the 
"American Reference Hand Book." He married Miss Alice Hor- 
ton, daughter of Colonel J. W. Horton, and they have two chil- 
dren — z daughter, Bessie, and a son also named Duncan, who 
graduated from the Medical Department of Vanderbilt Univer- 
sity in the spring of 1904 and at once began the practice of his 
profession as office assistant to his father and uncle. 

Dr. Paul F. Eve (Jr.) the youngest son of Dr. Paul F. Eve. 
was born in Nashville, Tenn., July 13, 1857. He was educated 
at Montgomery Bell Academy and Vanderbilt University, and 



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Paul Fitzsimons Eve. 293 

sity of Tennessee. He is surgeon of the Nashville, Chattanooga 
& St. Louis Railway, of the Louisville & Nashville Railroad and 
of the Nashville Street Railway; member of the surgical staff 
of the Nashville City Hospital, and member of prominent medi- 
cal bodies and societies. He married Miss Jennie Brown, daugh- 
ter of Mr. William M. Brown, and they have two children, Mary 
Brown and Paul F. 

EUROPEAN TRIPS. 

It was in 1873, with all of his family, that Dr. Eve made his 
seventh and last trip to Europe, where they spent the summer 
of 1873. The record of these seven voyages abroad is interest- 
ing, and they may be summarized in point of time, companion- 
ship, etc., as follows: 

1829 — Sailed in the ship Perfect (cotton laden) from Charles- 
ton, in November; in December arrived in Liverpool after a 
passage of twenty-eight days. Returned to New York in the 
Rhone, in fifty-three days, in 1832. 

1839, May — In the ship Duchess Orleans, nineteen days to 
Havre, with his wife. In August returned in the Garrick, thirty- 
three days to New York. 

1847, July — In steamer Caledonia from Boston to Liverpool in 
eleven days. In September returned by the steamer Union, 
French line, from Cherbourg to New York, in sixteen days. 

1852, May — Steamer Franklin to Havre, in twelve days. Re- 
turned in the Atlantic from Liverpool to New York in ten days. 
Accompanied by his second wife, son George and daughter Anna 
Lou. 

1859, July — Steamer Persia to Liverpool from New York in 
nine days, four hours. Returned by the Persia to New York 
from Liverpool in sixteen days. Accompanied by his wife, 
daughter Anna Lou and Miss McEwen. 

1867, July — From New York to Liverpool in the Boston in ten 
davs. In Aug^ust from Liverpool back to New York in the Ant- 



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294 'The American Historical Magazine. 

EDITORIAL WORK. 

Dr. Eve was one of the editors of the Southern Medical and 
Surgical Journal for five years, that journal being then a monthhr 
publication of sixty-four pages; of these sixty numbers appear- 
ing during his connection with it not one ever failed to appear bj- 
the prescribed date of publication, the first day of the month. 
This editorship lasted through the years 1845 ^^ 1849, ^^oth in- 
clusive, Dr. Eve being called at the latter date to Louisville, Ky. 
For a part of the time of his editorship Dr. Garvin was the 
associate editor, but the issuance of the magazine from the press 
was looked after by Dr. Eve. Dr. Eve was also one of the editors 
of the Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery from its estab- 
lishment in 1 85 1 by Dr. W. K. Bowling to 1873, with one or 
two interruptions. 

Not only was he for many years editorially connected with 
medical journalism in Nashville and elsewhere in the country, but 
he was the author of hundreds of monographs on surgery and 
surgical operations of an unusual kind. He also contributed to 
''Johnson's Cyclopedia" sketches of distinguished physicians of 
the South and Southwest to the number of two hundred and fifty- 
seven, a wonderful accomplishment in itself, had he during his 
busy life done no other literary work. Yet these sketches are 
less numerous than his distinct contributions to the literature of 
American surgery and medicine. For writing these biographical 
sketches he was peculiarly well fitted — ^possibly no other man 
could have written so many or could have performed the work 
so well. But he kept pace with men as well as with matters. 
He knew almost every man in the profession who had acquired 
fame beyond his own neighborhood, and was familiar with the 
leading events in the lives of those who had earned their right 
to a place in such a work. 

The available list of his contributions to medical literature is 
a long one and will be found appended to this sketch. It shows 
an active mind, a trenchant pen, and the ever-present desire to 
record for the benefit of others all that was new or noteworthy 
in his large and comprehensive reading and practice. 

Among all his appointments to positions of honor and amoi^ 
all the contributions which he made to medical literature, how- 



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Paul Fitzsimons Eve. * 295 

ever, the one he most highly esteemed was his selection to take 
part in the International Medical Congress held at Philadelphia 
in 1876. This honor he declared to be "one without a precedent, 
one to which no living man could succeed." When the cen- 
tennial year of the nation approached, a Medical Commission 
had been organized to select the most able men for special de- 
partments to place before the world the achievements of one 
hundred years of American medicine. The great men of his 
profession singled out Dr. Eve for a public address covering the 
entire history of surgery in the South and Southwest. This 
address he delivered September 6, 1876, in Philadelphia. It was 
prepared with great care and deliberation and was the best effort 
of his life in that direction. It was delivered before the as- 
sembled medical and surgical wisdom of all parts of the globe, 
and was pronounced by all who listened to it to be one of the 
finest addresses they had ever heard. The greatest surgeons in 
America declared that no medical man in America was so com- 
petent as Dr. Eve for this great work, as it demanded a com- 
bination of all the qualities necessary to the accurate statistician, 
the trained historian, the author and the orator. It was his last 
contribution to the cause of medical literature — the closing as it 
was the crowning literary effort of a life filled with working and 
writing for his profession. The volume containing the printed 
proceedings of the Congress, including this address, was lying 
in the express office at the time of Dr. Eve's death, having just 
arrived, so that he never saw it in print. 

TWO SIGNIFICANT EXTRACTS. 

Among the fragments of his writing found with his papers 
after his death were two that seemed to have especially im- 
pressed Dr. Eve, inasmuch as he had copied them out in full and 
had them laid away with some memoranda relating to his life- 
work which he had started to prepare at the request of his friend. 
Dr. J. Berrien Lindsley, who wished to write a sketch of him. 
One of these is an extract which he credits to Dr. Samuel Henry 
Dickson, and which reads as follows: 

"My mind finds rest in this position, to which, indeed, I have 
been so frequently driven that it is now habitual and fixed. I 



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296 The American Historical Magazine. 

question no man's veracity, as I will not submit my own to be 
questioned. I take the facts as presented by the reporter for 
what in good faith they seem to him. But I am looking upon 
them from a different standpoint, and see them in a different 
light. In my analysis I judge for myself of his competency to 
observe, to distinguish, to record. I note critically the manner 
and spirit of his communication; I weigh cautiously and make 
allowance for any detected bias from preconceived opinions — the 
warpings of his vanity, his interest, his ambition ; and, after all, 
I decide according to reason and my best judgment. For, as 
no amount of evidence can establish or prove what is impossible, 
so it is not in me to believe what is incredible." 

The second extract is as follows: 

'*The late Professor Godman's contrast between the surgeon 
and the mere operator has ever been considered unique and com- 
plete. The difference between them may be estimated by con- 
trasting them. The surgeon,' says he, 'inquires into the causes 
and removes the consequences of constitutional or local disease, 
the operator inquires into the willingness of his patient to sutxnit 
and resorts to the knife; the surgeon relies on the restoration 
of healthy actions by regimen and medicine, the operator relies 
on himself and cuts the diseased parts; the surgeon reflecting 
on the comfort and feelings of his patient uniformly endeavors 
to save him from pain and deformity, the operator considers his 
own immediate advantage and the notoriety he may acquire 
regardless of other considerations; the surgeon reluctantly de- 
cides on the employment of instruments, the operator delays 
no longer than to give his knife a keen edge; the surgeon is 
governed by the principles of science, the operator most generally 
by the principles of interest ; one is distinguished by the number 
he has saved from mutilation and restored to usefulness, the 
other by the number of cripples he has successfully made; the 
surgeon is an honor to his profession and a benefactor of man- 



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Paul Fitzsimons Eve. 297 

medical education, medical literature and medical journalism, it 
was as a surgeon that he was greatest ; it was as a surgeon that 
he held pre-eminent rank, and acquired a name which must for- 
ever endure in the annals of American surgery. It was because 
he was devoted to his profession — ^kind, energetic, brave and 
noble — that he was enabled to do such deeds for the suffering 
that thousands of affectionate and grateful hearts will cherish 
his name through life as one of their dearest memories. 

EARLY WORK AS A SURGEON. 

The first years of his practice were fruitful years. In the 
Transactions of the American Medical Association for 1849 Dr. 
Eve received a merited compliment on the work that he had 
already accomplished. In the report of the Committee on Medi- 
cal Literature, by Dr. J. P. Harrison, there is this statement: 
** Professor Eve in the Southern Journal in the July, November 
and January numbers has communicated the following cases of 
operative surgery — lithotomy; successful amputation at the 
shoulder joint, patient under chloroform ; operations on the jaws, 
with results in fourteen cases, and four minor operations of the 
first day's clinic in the Medical College of Georgia. An elevated 
position in our profession has been won by this accomplished 
surgeon." 

In the same volume, in the report of the Committee on Sur- 
gery, by Professor Nathan R. Smith, chairman, it is said : "Dr. 
Paul F. Eve, the distinguished Professor of Surgery in the 
Medical College of Georgia, furnishes a table of fifty-four cases 
in which chloroform was exclusively employed, with most grati- 
fying results. Four of the cases were of lithotomy. In some 
the anesthetic influence was insufficient, and in others too pro- 
found, but nothing otherwise untoward occurred." 

In 1 85 1 he was the reporter on surgery to the American Medi- 
cal Association, sufficient indication of his acknowledged rank as 
a surgeon. It was also in the year 1851 that he removed the 
Christa Galli in a fracture and the patient survived six days, 
and also among the very first to make a successful hystorectomy. 
It was in the same year that he removed successfully by trache- 
otomy and forceps a nail from the left bronchus, after several 
2 



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298 Thb American Historical Magazine. 

European as well as American surgeons had failed. Altogether 
there were fourteen difficult operations in surgery which were 
performed for the first time by him, among them the successful 
trephining of the skull over the right lateral sinus of the brain 
and removal of a foreign body. 

At the annual meeting in Nashville in 1857 of the American 
Medical Association, the association elected Dr. Eve President, 
the highest honor that the medical profession can bestow upon 
one of its members. 

In Circular No. 7, issued by the War Department in 1867 
under the direct charge of the Surgeon General of the United 
States, is published the fact that in collecting the history for the 
report on Amputations at the Hip-Joint, "the most cordial and 
intelligent co-operation has been received from the distinguished 
Professor of Surgery at Nashville, Tenn. — ^Dr. Paul F. Eve." 

AS A LITHOTOMIST. 

In 1867 Dr. Eve reported to the American Medical Associa- 
tion at its annual meeting in San Francisco the synopsis and 
analysis of one hundred cases of lithotomy, performed by the 
bi-lateral method, and, for their identification, the name of the 
patient, residence, state, age, sex, race, where performed, number 
of calculi removed, their weight and composition, together with 
the final result of each operation. This communication has been 
declared to be chief in value of all the contents of this volume 
of the "Transactions." The bi-lateral method was his favorite 
plan of operating.- Professor Hamilton, in his "Principles and 
Practice of Surgery," published in 1870, says: "In regard to 
the bi-lateral method of lithotomy, especially is it proper to men- 
tion that this operation has been performed one hundred times 
in persons of all ages by Dr. Paul F. Eve, of Nashville, Tenn., 
of whom only eight have died ; a success which has rarely if ever 
been attained by any other operator, and which justly entitles 
him to the position he has so long occupied as one of the most 
skilled of American surgeons." 

Uo to the time of his death Dr. Eve had performed two hun- 



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Paul Fitzsimons Eve. 299 

fully. He was always remarkable in his profession, and as a 
lithotomist he was perhaps without an equal in this or in any 
other country. Of all his bilateral operations for stone in the 
bladder, eleven only terminated fatally. Of all the applicants that 
came for relief to him not one did he ever refuse. In all things 
he left a record on which the profession in every land can look 
with feelings of pride, a record insuring that the name of Paul 
F. Eve will live in the annals of the profession which he hon- 
ored and that his memory will be cherished not only by those 
who knew him but by all who know of his standing in the medical 
world. He published the successful performance of amputations 
of all classes without losing one case up to the fifty-fourth, the 
statistics of the major operations comprising seven of the leg 
and seven of the thigh. He reported as "Contributions to the 
HipHjoint Operations" twenty amputations, and eighteen re- 
sections performed in the Confederate service. He reported 
three cases of gunshot wounds, in which the ball lodged in the 
vertebral column, two patients still living, with remarks on 
"Division of the Spinal Cord without Death." He performed a 
safe and effectual operation for varicocele, and invented a canu- 
lated needle for applying ligatures and sutures. He relieved 
extroversion of the female genital organs. He was among the 
first to dir^t the attention of American surgeons to Esmarch's 
bloodless method in amputations. 

AN ENDURING MEMORIAL. 

As a specialist in the field of lithotomy Dr. Eve never had an 
equal. The calculi removed he always preserved, and they grew 
into a splendid collection before he died. Shortly before his 
death the Medical Museum of the United States Army, in the 
Surgeon-general's oflSce in Washington, sought to acquire the 
collection by gift or purchase but Dr. Eve was unwilling to part 
with the specimens. Finally he allowed the Surgeon-general to 
split the specimens in half, and they mounted each set of halves 
handsomely, placing one set in the museum and returning the 
other set to Dr. Eve. The set belonging to Dr. Eve was kept 
in the museum of the medical college with which he was last 
connected, and were destroyed when that building burned. That 



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300 Thb American Historical Magazine. 

the other set is still in existence is matter for congratulation to 
the surgical profession, for they form a collection unequalled in 
the world as the contribution of a single man — 2l collection that 
will in all probability never be equalled by any other. 

In Professor Samuel D. Gross' "History of American Medical 
Literature from 1776 to 1876" he says that "Professor Eve's col- 
lection of 'Remarkable Cases in Surgery' as a book of reference 
possesses great value," and the same eminent author and sur- 
geon, in his report to the American Medical Association in 1857 
declared that this book "reflected much credit upon the industry 
and researches of the author." This work is a handsome octavo 
in which Dr. Eve took great pleasure, and in the compilation of 
which he exhibited deep learning and wide research. It will 
always rank high among books of this character. 

SUCCESS UNDER DISADVANTAGES. 

When he was in his seventy-first year Dr. Eve wrote : "I may 
say that though reared on a swamp then converted into a rice 
field yet I never had a chill or fever and never took a dose of 
quinine. Went through Franklin College, afterwards better 
known as the University of Georgia, at Athens, a four years' 
course, and never missed a recitation. Took two full courses in 
the University of Pennsylvania, at Philadelphia, never was tardy 
once or missed a lecture. 

"While I dare not say that I have done all that I could have 
done with the means afforded, as a medical professor said in 
Paris when dying, yet I hope I can truly declare that I have 
tried to do so. If I have acquired reputation in the medical 
profession, whatever that may be, it has ever been with a serious 
defect in two intellectual faculties, sight and hearing. I was 
bom near-sighted and defective in distinguishing colors. I have 
worn near-sighted glasses from the time when I was twenty 

_i? 1 A £ L A_i-- _j _A i:_j J.1 1- 4.u..^ 



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Paul Fitzsimons Eve. 301 

to me a sealed book ; so has auscultation. My hearing is acute, 
but I never could distinguish one note from another. I know 
little or nothing of diseases recognized by differences in sounds 
or colors. What I have done in or for medicine has been with 
these serious defects. 

"I know not the value of a single card in the pack. I leave also 
on record for my children and grandchildren and my country- 
men the fact that I never took a drink of liquor in my life. To 
this day I know not the difference between brandy, gin, rum, 
whiskey, etc." 

Dr. Eve's daily habit had been to retire about nine o'clock, 
never later than ten p.m., and to rise at daylight in winter and at 
simrise in summer. To regular habits of eating, sleeping and 
labor, together with his total abstinence from alcoholic stimu- 
lants and tobacco, he attributed much of his good health, health so 
excellent, indeed, that for nearly half a century he had not lost 
a day by sickness, and had reached his sixty-eighth year before 
he felt any influence of age. Even in his sixty-eighth year he 
believed that the feeling, rather than being due to age, was 
caused by injuries received from falls on his head. The first 
of these falls was down the stairway, in October, 1872; the 
second in his office in February, 1873, and the third from a mule 
at two o'clock in the morning while going to see Dr. Buchanan's 
son in August, 1874. 

Dr. Eve crossed the Atlantic fourteen times in the interest of 
his profession, adding immeasurably by his studies abroad to 
his rich store of medical and surgical information. He was a 
man distinguished far above his fellows in the walks of medi- 
cine — a man who through the incessant activities of a long life 
was an example to his fellows of what useful and distinguished 
positions true merit may attain; who left his impress upon all 
contemporaneous medicine. He was just as truly illustrious in 
the private paths of medical life. With him it made no dif- 
ference whether his patient dwelt in a palace or an humUe cabin. 
He was always ready to go among the afflicted; and that they 
were afflicted was enough to enlist his most ardent efforts. He 
died in the discharge of his duty — died as he would have chosen 
to die — ^while ministering to the suffering who needed his at- 
tenticMi. 



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302 The American Historical Magazine. 

A DISTINGUISHED TYPE. 

Of noble stature and commanding presence, with a splendid 
head and refined features illumined by the light of genius, Dr. 
Eve would have been a distinguished type in any group of the 
most intellectual of his fellowmen. Large of frame and strong 
of muscle, he seemed and was the embodiment of tireless energy 
and persistence. To mental qualifications with which he was 
plenteously endowed by nature, he added the ripe scholarship 
of a close student and the culture of extensive travel and large 
experience. He was a great surgeon, but he was also a con- 
genial, entertaining and instructive companion. Perhaps his 
most notable characteristic socially was his kindly sympathy and 
charitable consideration for the younger members of his pro- 
fession. He was always anxious to help them either by word of 
encouragement, or by the more efficient aid of well-timed advice. 
His zeal in his profession was unswerving, and his self-sacrific- 
ing devotion to its duties — ^his quick sympathy for suflFering 
humanity, and his ever-ready ministrations to its alleviation were 
proverbial throughout his career and were even more conspicu- 
ously marked in the closing hours of his long, useful and blame- 
less hfe. 

Blameless ? Yes ; so far as it can be said of any mortal. For 
above all Dr. Eve was a devoted Christian, and adorned the 
church as he adorned the medical* profession. He had been for 
many years a ruling elder in the First Presbyterian Church of 
Nashville. He was always in his place, a pillar of strength, a 
bright and shining light. 

A NOBLE EXIT FROM LIFE. 

His death was surrounded by dramatic circumstances no less 
than his life was filled with them. A more noble exit from this 



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Paui. Fitzsimons Eve. 303 

Dr. Eve had some time previously predicted the manner of 
his death, saying: "When I die it will be a sudden shock; it 
will commence at my head and end at my feet." On the day 
before his death he said to Dr. Duncan Eve: "My son, I don't 
feel well." "Father, what is the matter?" asked the son. "I 
don't know," he responded; "I am tired; I feel a little sick at 
the stomach." He then told his son that he had better go and 
see a patient upon whom both had been attending. He wished 
to acompany his son, but Dr. Duncan Eve objected, taking oc- 
casion to remonstrate with his father for overtaxing his strength, 
which had failed perceptibly in consequence of overwork. Dr. 
Eve's reply was characteristic of the man and of his whole life. 
He said: "My son, I would rather wear out than rust out." 

About dusk the same day he insisted on going to see Thomas 
Lafferty, a yard man who had been that afternoon crushed at 
the switch on one of the railroads, but was finally dissuaded and 
the son went alone. Dr. Eve was much interested in this case, 
and when the younger doctor returned made close inquiries about 
Lafferty's condition, being informed that he would live till day- 
light. During the night Dr. Duncan Eve had two calls to sec 
the patient, and the second ringing of the bell awoke the elder 
Dr. Eve, who said he thought he ought to go down with his son, 
but was with difficulty persuaded not to go. He said, however, 
that he would go down at any rate before breakfast. Against 
this the son also protested and departed. 

THE LAST DAY. 

In accordance with Dr. Eve's lifelong habit, he had retired 
at nine o'clock. Despite his interrupted sleep, the next morning 
he awoke at five, dressed, and went down to see LafTerty. Out 
of that earthly paradise, where wife and children arose to give 
him the reverence of love; up from the soft pillows of rest, 
giving his last strength to professional duties, he went forth for 
the last time — to die; and he who so long had ministered to 
countless others died unattended by those who would have 
soothed his passage to the grave. In that brief moment between 
full life and sudden death his last expressed wish was to return 
in death to his kindred dust, to be laid by his father and mother. 



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304 Thb Ambrican Historical Magazinb. 

He had made the visit to his patient, and on his return met a 
friend of Lafferty's at the depot on Church street near the switch. 
This friend asked about the injured man's condition and was 
told: "He is doing very well, sir; but I feel very sick myself." 
Walking up as far as the Depot Hotel, he stopped to see a lady 
patient upon whom an operation had been performed the day 
previous — the removal of a tumor from her neck. His strength 
failed him as he reached the hotel, and he sat down for a mcxnent 
on the porch floor at the entrance. 

Mr. Kellogg, the proprietor of the hotel, went to him and 
inquired if anything was the matter. He replied: "I am very 
sick." He was invited and assisted into the hotel and into the 
public parlor, where his patient at her own request had been 
permitted to remain. Seated here, Dr. Eve again spoke of his 
illness and requested Mr. Kellogg to send a messenger for his 
buggy, and the proprietor left the room to carry out the wish. 
Almost immediately he was recalled by a cry of alarm from the 
lady, who exclaimed: "Dr. Eve is falling from his chair; come 
to him at once." Mr. Kellogg rushed into the room, but was too 
late to give much assistance. Dr. Eve had fallen upon his face 
and lay doubled up in a heap. Mr. Kellogg threw water on his 
face, thinking it was a fainting spell, but it did not avail; the 
end was coming fast. He bent over the dying man and caught 
his last whispered words: "Send for Duncan — take me to 
Augusta." He died at 6.25 o'clock. 

Another message was sent hastily to Dr. Duncan Eve, and 
just as he was hurrying into the buggy to go to his father he 
received the news of his death. The body was removed to Dr. 
Eve's residence on the comer of Church and Vine streets and 
laid out. There was on the face of the dead man no expression 
of pain, but only that same placid benignant smile that marked 
it during life. 

And so, at the bedside of a patient, and "with harness on," in 
the language of a former colleague, he passed into the unknown 



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Paul Fitzsimons Evb. 305 

THE GENERAL GRIEF. 

The sad event was at once bulletined at the newspaper offices 
and occasioned general grief, such was the deep hold he had 
gained on the hearts of the people. As soon as they heard of 
his death many physicians hastened to the family residence to 
oflFer their condolences and their assistance. When the news be- 
came known at the medical college where he taught the entire 
student body formed and marched to the residence to indicate 
their respect. 

It has often been the case that distinguished men die in clus- 
ters ; that in a single week more notable men will pass away than 
in a year before or after. He who was esteemed the greatest of 
Southern surgeons died on the last day of the week in which 
died Adams, the actor; Morton, the statesman, and Forrest, the 
noted Confederate cavalry leader. Each of these men had the 
widest of reputations in his own sphere. 

Owing to the fact that the burial was to be at Augusta in 
accordance with his wish, the funeral services in Nashville were 
held on the afternoon of Saturday, the day of his death, at his 
late residence. Rev. Thomas A. Hoyt, the pastor of the church 
where he belonged, and Rev. T. G. Jones, of the First Baptist 
Qiurch, of which Mrs. Eve was a member, conducted the services. 
The scene was very impressive, as the members of the medical 
piofession and the students of the medical colleges passed in 
procession by the coffin to take a last look at the face of the 
departed teacher and associate, the Nestor of Southern surgery. 

Colonel E. W. Cole, who was then president of the Nashville 
j& Chattanooga Railway, furnished a special Pullman for the 
party accompanying the remains to Augusta, and the train to 
which this was attached left Nashville Sunday morning. A 
large number of friends and acquaintances, the session and mem- 
\)tTS of the First Presbyterian Church, the faculties of the Nash- 
ville Medical College and the Medical Departments of the Uni- 
versity of Nashville and Vanderbilt University and students of 
these institutions assembled at the residence and escorted the 
body to the depot. The pallbearers were Dr. W. P. Jones, Dr. 
J, J. Abemathy, Dr. J. B. Stephens and Professor W. G. Brien, 



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3o6 Thk American Historical Magazine. 

from the faculty of the Nashville Medical College, and Messrs. 
R. G. Throne, J. M. Sinclair, A. G. Adams and R. S. Cowan, 
elders of the First Presbyterian Church. The students formed 
in line in front of the hearse, then the family, physicians and 
citizens, the students opening ranks at the depot and allowing 
the hearse to pass throujfh. The casket was placed on the train, 
and the funeral party took the Pullman coach. Besides the 
family there were the pallbearers and representatives of the stu- 
dents and faculty of the Nashville Medical College; also Colonel 
Cole and his sister-in-law, Miss Russell. The old family serv- 
ants, too, were with the party. At almost every large station 
there were eager and sorrowful inquiries from citizens who knew 
the distinguished deceased and had come to see the passing of 
the funeral train. 

BURIED NEAR HIS BIRTHPLACE. 

Arriving at Augusta Monday morning, the party was met at 
the depot by many citizens and physicians, who escorted the body 
to the residence of Dr. Joseph Eve, his cousin, where relatives 
and friends took a last view of the deceased. Rev. Dr. Irvine 
held a brief service and the remains were taken to the old family 
burying ground six miles in the country, nestling among the 
sighing pines. In a grave walled with brick the body was laid 
and covered with the shining sand within fifty yards of the spot 
where Dr. Eve was bom. His request that he be buried not in 
an iron coffin but in a wooden one, was complied with, as was 
every other request he had previously in life made concerning 
his burial. 

On the following Sunday, as a tribute from his Nashville 
friends and from his own church, memorial services were held 
at the First Presbyterian Church, and that afternoon the church 
was filled with sorrowing friends and acquaintances. Many of 
the medical profession were present. Rev. T. G. Tones read a 



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Paul Fitzsimons Evk. 307 

father, a true Christian ; he paid tribute to the indomitable energy 
that characterized him to the last, to his womanly gentleness 
and childlike faith. Dr. T. G. Jones also delivered a short 
eulogy, and Dr. Summers added to these tributes some things 
which intimate association with Dr. Eve for many years had 
revealed to him of his kindly nature and gentle disposition. 
The hymn "Asleep in Jesus,'* and the benediction closed the 
service. 

Dr. Eve's death was regarded as a national loss, and of the 
many tributes to his memory it is possible to give but a few. 
In the memorial meetings held by the physicians of Nashville 
and the various faculties, it may safely be said that hardly a 
well known physician of Nashville failed to take part. The 
faculty of the college with which he was at the time of his death 
connected, the Nashville Medical College; the faculty of the 
Medical Department of the University of Nashville and Vander- 
bilt University, then a joint institution; the Nashville Medical 
Society, and a general meeting of the physicians of Nashville 
all met and expressed their regret at the loss to Nashville and 
to the world of medicine and surgery. Physicians of almost 
every other Southern city, and medical societies of not only the 
South but of almost every State in the Union gave expression 
to their esteem for the dead surgeon and their regret at his 
decease. Students and faculties of every medical institution with 
which he had ever been connected united in the general expres- 
sion of grief. All these institutions knew what he was as a 
teacher, and knew what the world had lost when he died. 

DR. W. K. bowling's TRIBUTE. 

At a meeting of the faculty and students of the Medical De- 
partment of the University of Nashville and Vanderbilt Univer- 
sity held to do honor to his memory, the venerable and life-long 
friend of the deceased. Dr. W. K. Bowling, was called to the 
chair, and made a short address in commemoration. 



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3o8 The American Historical Magazine. 

moned him. He obeyed the call as he had uniformly obeyed all 
calls, promptly and imhesitatingly. We need not say here how 
grandly he stood before the profession of his country as the 
journalist and the lecturer for nearly half a century or how in 
the beginning of his medical career he left his studies in the 
French metropolis to assist struggling Poland in her last effort 
for national existence, or how among the last acts of that d)ring 
government was the decoration of the young surgeon with the 
Golden Cross of Honor. These things are known to all of us 
as are the familiar faces of our households. Twenty years after 
his achievements in Poland the young surgeon accepted a call 
to the Medical Department of the University of Nashville, not 
asking that anything be secured to him for the risk of fame and 
fortune in lending his energy to the infant enterprise. From 
this stand he addressed the first class ever assembled in this hall. 
We remember as well as if it were but yesterday with what grace 
and dignity he arose and approached the rostrum, and how his 
splendid presence and lofty eloquence held the large assenAly 
spellbound. At the end of his address the reporter for our chief 
daily paper came to me and said: "That Georgian in the be- 
ginning swept me off my feet and I touched ground no more 
until he was through. Will you write a synopsis for our paper?" 
We told him that we too had been tenants of the air for the 
last half-hour. Of all men we have heard lecture, in force and 
presence he was the grandest. To a rising college he was a 
host of sleepless energy and perseverance that no obstacle could 
appal or weaken. And too as a journalist nothing escaped him, 
and as a paragraphist he exceeded every American medical 
writer. Of all men the promptest, so much so, indeed, as to 
earn the sobriquet of 'the old town clock,' and yet so method- 
ical that he was seldom absent itom his pew when called to 
church business or devotions. He was amcMig the earliest of 



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Paul Fitzsimons Eve. 309 

Other speakers also paid tribute to Dr. Eve while the resolu- 
tions were being prepared. They recommended the address of 
Dr. Bowling as the preamble, and affixed resolutions declaring 
the r^fret of the meeting. 

At the Nashville Medical College, with which Dr. Eve was 
connected, the grief was deep and sincere. After it had been 
announced that Dr. Eve was dead the students formed a line 
and marched to the residence where they looked upon the re- 
mains of their deceased professor. Upon their return to the 
college appropriate resolutions were adopted, and a large portrait 
of Dr. Eve on the wall of the lecture room was draped in mourn- 
ing. A committee was also appointed to attend the remains until 
the time of the funeral, and another committee to accompany 
the remains to Georgia as the special representative of the class. 

DR. S. D. gross' friendship. 

When Professor S. D. Gross, the famous surgeon, came into 
the lecture room at Jefferson Medical Cdlege on the morning 
of November 13, he said: "Gentlemen: Before I begin my 
lecture I have a word to say to you of my warm personal friend. 
Dr. Paul F. Eve, whose death at Nashville has very lately oc- 
curred. Dr. Eve's name has been for many years a household 
word and veneration in the many homes where his kindly sym- 
pathy and tender skill have brought him, while his honest, un- 
selfish friendship gives him affectionate remembrance in more 
than one country." Professor Gross then gave a short sketch 
of the professional career of Dr. Eve, and said : "When I went 
from Louisville to New York Professor Eve took my chair in 
Louisville, but upon hearing at the end of a year that I was dis- 
satisfied with New York, he nobly resigned his place in Louis- 
ville in my favor. In later years he labored in Nashville with 
great honor and in her service he died. His name is honorably 
connected with the most brilliant operations in the annals of 
surgery. The history of my whole life presents no warmer 
friendship and regard than that which it held for this great and 
good man. Let us each one, gentlemen, keep his name ever fresh 
in memory, and drop a tear of reverence as we stand in imagina- 



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3IO Thb Ambrican Historical Magazinb. 

tion by his grave." A committee of five was appointed to draw 
up resolutions expressing the regret of the class. 

OTHER TRIBUTES. 

The St, Louis Republican cc^ied the notice from one of the 
Nashville dailies and added: "Dr. Eve will be remembered by 
former students of the Missouri Medical College as a tall and 
exceedingly handsome old man with snow-white beard and hair, 
and a magnificent physical development of which he was exceed- 
ingly proud.. He came here in 1868 to fill the vacancy caused by 
the death of Dr. Joseph N. McDowell, the founder of the in- 
stitution. He was one of the best of teachers, and was never 
so much at home as in the lecture room. Notwithstanding his 
advanced years, he retained at that time a remarkable degree of 
vigor. Standing before the class he on one occasion said: 'You 
think Tm growing old. Fll show you.* And suiting the action 
to the word he took a cambric needle and holding it at extreme 
arm's length, threaded it without difficulty. He remained here 
only about two years, his return to the South being due mainly 
to the strength of his associations there and to climatic influences 
which he wished to cultivate." 

The Southwestern Kentucky Medical Association, in session 
at Hickman, upon the announcement of the death of Dr. Eve 
named a committee which prepared suitable resolutions and they 
were adopted unanimously. In part this tribute read: "A long 
and eventful career in peace and war was his lot. Dr. Paul F. 
Eve was a remarkable man. While he occupied one of the 
highest positions in the temple of scientific medicine and surgery 
on the Western continent and was known and honored as a 
medical man throughout the world, he was as plain and simple 
in his manners as a child, always approachable by the humblest 
as well as the greatest, and literally carried his heart in his hand 
for the good of his day and generation. In his chivalric sense 

r 1 1 1- _ _i i_ l: ir t- _i 1 1 t I 



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Paul Fitzsimons Eve. 311 

of the laborious duties of his calling; his last act being an act 
of kind and benevolent attention to the sick under his charge. 
Such men as Dr. Paul F. Eve never die. They may breathe their 
last breath and their bodies may be consigned to the silent tomb, 
there to remain until the trumpet of the final resurrection shall 
sound, but their beneficent acts and teachings still live among 
men as parts of the immortal minds that gave them birth." 

Dr. Eve was an honorary member of the Pulaski, Tenn., 
Academy of Medicine, which met on the 6th of November and 
adopted resolutions of the most appreciative character concerning 
the great loss to the medical world sustained by his death. 
Among other things the resolutions recite that "we recognize in 
him a surgeon of the very highest order of intellect — cautious, 
though bold and prompt enough when the occasion demanded, 
and successful in the highest degree ; a man of pure moral habits, 
a conscientious Christian and of incorruptible honesty; added to 
all these fine and glowing sensibilities which at once excite our 
respect and win our affection." 

IN THK AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION. 

Dr. Eve*s death was known to the profession at large long 
before the meeting of the highest medical body with which he 
was connected, the American Medical Association, which did 
not convene until the following June, 1878. Notwithstanding 
the time that had elapsed, the formal announcement of the decease 
of this distinguished member was received with silent manifesta- 
tions of grief. An admirable sketch of Dr. Eve had been pre- 
pared by Dr. T. Qialmers Dow, and was spread upon the minutes 
of the meeting in full. This sketch is a touching tribute, and 
brings out some of the prominent characteristics of the departed. 
After an appreciative citation of the leading events in his career. 
Dr. Dow says: "In person Dr. Eve was large and commanding, 
being over six feet in height. On the occasion of his visits to 
Paris the great Velpeau was used to introduce him as "the tall 
American surgeon." He was frank, open-hearted and open- 
handed. He was emphatically the students' freind, and excelled 
as a lecturer, always commanding the strictest attention from his 
classes ; embodying in the fullest d^^ee the idea of Demosthenes 



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312 The AifBitiCAN Historical Magazinb. 

in action ; impulsive, yet most graceful in his gestures, and pos^ 
sessing the most unbounded popularity with his numerous stu- 
dents. His manners were unassuming, his friendships warm, 
constant and sincere. Hijs intercourse with his professional 
brethren was noted for its ethical purity and kindness. His 
learning, wisdom and skill were all enhanced by the beautiful 
illustration reflected from his private life, for he was honorable, 
truthful, pure and lovely. 'The noblest workers of the world 
bequeath us nothing so great as the image of themselves. Their 
task, be it ever so glorious, is historical and transient ; the majesty 
of their spirit is essential and eternal.' " 

PRESENTATION OF HIS PORTRAIT. 

A committee which had been appointed to gather together the 
portraits of the ex-presidents of the association reported at the 
meeting of the American Medical Association held at Saratoga 
Springs in 1902, through the chairman of the committee on por- 
traits, Dr. J. Rawson Pennington, a number of fine portraits 
secured, and among them the portrait of Dr. Paul F. Eve. The 
portrait of Dr. Eve was formally presented to the association 
by Dr. Lewis S. McMurtry, of Louisville, Ky., who said : 

"It has been a custom of our profession since the earliest 
times to preserve some personal memento of those whose labors 
have enriched medical science. In the archives of the medical 
societies of London, Edinburgh, Paris and other centers of medi- 
cal learning will be found the portraits and papers of the im- 
mortals of our profession. It is a most worthy custom. In our 
American Hall of Fame it is eminently appropriate that a con- 
spicuous place be conceded to the portrait of Paul F. Eve, of 
Nashville, Tenn. A great teacher and practitioner of surgery, 
he advanced the knowledge and molded the practice of the 
American profession in the middle decades of the nineteenth 



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Paul Fitzsimons Eve. 313 

dent of the American Medical Association and had presided over 
its deliberations in 1857 and 1858. Of his numerous and valuable 
contributions to medical literature his work entitled "Remarkable 
Cases in Surgery," will ever remain among the choicest of medi- 
cal classics. His life was an unbroken series of laborious years. 
His name and fame are perpetuated in his old home by his two 
distinguished sons, Drs. Duncan and Paul F. Eve, of Nashville, 
Tenn., both eminent teachers and practitioners of surgery." 

Hearty applause followed the delivery of this eloquent tribute 
to the memory of a man who was well remembered despite the 
fact that a quarter of a century had elapsed since his death. And 
both the man and his name are long to be remembered in this 
association — remembered till all who knew him are gone, when 
the pages of medical history will still chronicle his meritorious 
works. 

DR. EVE'S WRITINGS. 

Dr. Eve began at an early period of his life to give attention 
to the literary end of his orofession, even before he had gradu- 
ated from college, and the list of his contributions is a lengthy 
one. The first work in this direction was purely clerical in its 
nature, but was in connection with an address of note. In the 
North American Medical and Surgical Journal, Volume IV, 
page 26, 1827, then edited by Drs. Hodge, Bache, Meigs and 
Coates, all well known to the medical profession, will be found 
an article bearing the title "Introductory Lecture to a Course 
of Clinical Lectures in the Pennsylvania Hospital, delivered on 
the 3rd of December, 1766. By Thomas Bond, M.D., one of the 
physicians of the hospital." This was the first formal clinical 
lecture ever delivered in the United States to the profession, and 
in presenting it in the journal of which he was one of the editors, 
its first publication, despite its age. Professor Charles D. Meigs, 
M.D., stated: "We are indebted to Mr. Paul Eve, student of 
medicine, who obligingly copied it from the minute book of the 
Pennsylvania Hospital, where it had been preserved since the 
original entry, made in obedience to the vote of the managers." 

His first original contribution was on the probability of the 
cholera reaching America, dated on the packet ship Rhone, 
3 



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314 The American Historical Magazine. 

December, 1831, frcttn Havre to New York City. This was 
published in the New York City Journal of Commerce in Janiiar> , 
1832. 

The second contribution was on Asiatic Cholera Morbus, 
written by request of the editor of the American Journal of the 
Medical Sciences, and printed in Volume X, page 524, 1832. 
Dr. Eve had then just returned frolii the war that resulted in 
the fall of Poland, and the disease had prevailed in the armies 
there. 

Subsequent contributions may be summarized as follows: 

3. Introductory lecture on the occasion of opening the first 
course of lectures in the Medical College of Georgia, delivered 
in Augusta, Ga., October, 1832, and published in pamphlet form. 
This lecture advocated the importance of establishing such an 
institution in the state, and the extension of the term of lectures 
to six months. 

4. A Case of Compound Comminuted Fracture of the Cranium, 
successfully treated by the removal of three pieces of the external 
table of the bone. American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 
Volume Xn, page 549, 1833. 

5. Case of Spontaneous Rupture of the Uterus During De- 
livery. Southern Medical and Surgical Journal, Volume III, 
page 117, 1838. 

6. Medical Education in Georgia. Communicated to the 
American Journal of the Medical Sciences, Volume XIV, page 
523, 1834. (Communicating the fact that four students gradu- 
ated after the first course of lectures, and fifteen the next, in the 
Medical College of Georgia. ) 

7. Observations on the Treatment of Gunshot Wounds, Ul- 
cers, etc. American Journal of the Medical Sciences, Volume 
XV, page 120, 1834. (Advocating the use of the chlorides of 
lime and soda. ) 

8. Successful Amputation of the Thigh, AflFected by Trau- 



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Paul Fitzsimons Evk. 315 

Cranium; patient doing well twenty years afterwards, though 
the palate, soft and hard, remained opened. Southern Medical 
and Surgical Journal, Volume I, page 78, 1836. 

10. Review of Dr. Heber Chase, Member of the Philadelphia 
Medical Society, etc., on the Radical Cure of Hernia. Southern 
Medical and Surgical Journal, Volume II, page 469, 1837. 

11. Amputation of Both Legs, though not simultaneous, yet 
about two hours apart ; patient rode out on the tenth day and 
was carried out by his own suggestion on the fourteenth day. 
Southern Medical and Surgical Journal, Volume I, page 261, 
1836. 

12. Review of Dr. Doane's **Surgery Illustrated." Southern 
Medical and Surgical Journal, Volume I, page 297, 1836. 

13. Injuries of the Fore Finger, proving that the same may 
be saved, yet remain useless to the patient. Southern Medical 
and Surgical Journal, Volume I, page 385, 1836. 

14. Report of a Case of Dysentery to the Augusta Medical 
Society, Caused by Morrison's Hygienic Pills. Southern Medical 
and Surgical Journal, Volume I, page 443, 1836. 

15. Review of Dr. Chase's Treatise on the Radical Cure of 
Hernia. Southern Medical and Surgical Journal, Volume I. 
page 469, 1837. 

16. Account of a Youth Born Without Arms, substituting his 
toes for fingers. Southern Medical and Surgical Journal, Vol- 
ume I, page 522, 1837. 

17. Essay on the Question, Ought not the Use of Pessaries 
to be Abandoned? (Advocating the affirmative.) Southern 
Medical and Surgical Journal, Volume I, page 641, 1837. 

18. Injuries to the Cephalic and Abdominal Contents; death 
*m ten minutes from a blow of the fist on the head, and in 
another case within twenty-four hours from the kick of a horse 
lacerating the liver. Southern Medical and Surgical Journal, 
Volume TT. na^yp 7n 1^1*7 



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3i6 Thb Ambrican Historical Magazinb. 

two hundred biliary calculi had passed, "Could Surgery Afford 
Any Possible Relief Under these Circumstances?" Reply nega- 
tively. Southern Medical and Surgical Journal, Volume II, page 
i95» 1837. 

21. Obituary Notice and Resolutions on the demise of the 
venerable and distinguished Professor Philip Syng Physick, 
M.D. Southern Medical and Surgical Journal, Volume II, page 
322, 1837. 

22. Essay on What are the Characteristic or Diagnostic Symp- 
toms of Cancer. (Read before the Medical Society of Augusta, 
Ga.) Southern Medical and Surgical Journal, Volume II, page 
462, 1838. 

23. Excision of Schirrous Tumor near the Tonsil ; Injury to 
Scalp; Compound Comminuted Fracture of both bones of the 
Forearm — ^amputated; Piece of Percussion Cap in the Eye for 
Two Years — Sympathetic Affection of the Sound One; Gunshot 
Wound of Wrist — Limb Saved; Aneurism by Anastomosis on 
the Head — Destruction of Tumor by Excision. Southern Medi- 
cal and Surgical Journal, Volume II, page 643, 1838. 

24. Successful Exsection of nearly one-half of the Lower Jaw 
Bone, including one of its angles, for Osteo-sarcoma. Southern 
Medical and Surgical Journal, Volume II, page 720. Reprinted 
in American Journal of the Medical Sciences, Volume XXtll, 
page 261, 1838. Also, in the Philadelphia Medical Examiner, 
Volume I, page 306, 1838. Also noticed in the Eclectic Journal 
of Medicine, page 66, 1839. Also in the Philadelphia Medical 
Examiner, September 12, 1838. 

25. Introductory Lecture to the Class in the Medical College 
of Georgia, October, 1838. (History from Its Organization.) 
Southern Medical and Surgical Journal, Volume III, page i, 
1838. 

26. Spontaneous Rupture of the Uterus During Delivery- 
Patient died in twenty-four hours. Southern Medical and Surg- 
ical Journal, Volume III, page 117, 1838. 

27. Successful Division of the Abductor Longus Femoris 



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Paul Fitzsimons Eve. 317 

cal Sciences, Volume XXV, page 129, 1838. In Reese's Ameri- 
can Edition of Samuel Cooper's Surgical Dictionary, 1859, it is 
stated that the honor of beini^ the first surgeon of America who 
performed myotomy, as it may be contradistinguished from 
tenotomy, for the removal of deformity, belongs to Dr. Paul F. 
Eve. Concerning this operation, however, later in life Dr. Eve 
placed on record his belief that whatever may have been his 
own opinion and that of his friends when the operation was 
performed, they were all mistaken in attributing the result to 
the operation. He said that it had not at the time he spoke, 
August, 1875, been repeated, and he was inclined to the con- 
clusion that the relief in the case should have been attributed 
to the extension, etc., applied after the treatment. 

28. An Essay on the Question, "Are there any signs or Symp- 
toms by which Worms can be Inferred certainly to exist in the 
Alimentary Canal?" (Position assumed that there is none.) 
Read before the Medical Society of Augusta. Southern Medical 
and Surgical Journal, Volume III, page 321, 1839. 

29. Professional Letters from Europe to the Southern Medical 
and Surgical Journal, Account of M. Velpeau at La Charite. 
Case of Fractured Ulna by muscular contraction, probably the 
first on record. Pins under varicosed veins most successful. 
1839. 

30. Same. Simple Gunshot Wounds Treated by the Roller. 
No tetanus in the hospitals of Paris, but much erysipelas. Ivory 
probes, canules and bourgies introduced into Paris hospitals 
prepared by removing the earthy salts. Magendie's lecture and 
experiments on the fifth pair of nerves. Excision of large tumor 
from axilla. 1839. 

31. Same. Civiale at Necker Hospital — Hthotrity, also by Le 
Roy and Amusat. Lisfranc at La Pitie. Roux at Hotel Dieu, 
successor to Dupuytren. Met also Sickel, Alibert and Trousseau. 

32. Extraction of a Tailor's Thimble Impacted from the right 
posterior nares. American Journal of the Medical Sciences^ 



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3i8 The American Historical Magazine. 

34. Successful Operation for Strangulated Hernia under 
Peculiar Circumstances — Sloughing of the Caecum — ^patient re- 
covered. American Journal of the Medical Sciences, Volume 
XXVn, page 263, 1841. 

35. Lithotomy — Bilateral Operation with cases. American 
Journal of the Medical Sciences, Volume XXXHI, page 504, 
1844. 

36. Bilateral Operation of Lithotomy. Southern Medical and 
Surgical Journal. 1845. 

37. Notice of the death of Dr. Forry, editor of the New York 
Journal of Medicine, Southern Medical and Surgical Journal. 
1845. 

38. A Lecture on Mesmerism, Delivered by Request of the 
Class in the Medical College of Georgia. (Denying its Avail- 
ability in Surgery.) Southern Medical afvd Surgical Journal. 
1845. Reprinted in the New Orleans Medical Journal, Volume 
I' page 594. 

39. Review of the Gazette Medicale de Paris, Journal des Con- 
naissances Medico-Chirugicales, and Bulletin General de Thera- 
peutique Medicale et Chirugicale. Southern Medical and Surg- 
ical Journal. 1845. 

40. Bibliographical Notice of the First Lines of the Theory 
and Practice of Surgery, etc., by Samuel Cooper, Senior Surgeon 
University College Hospital, London. Southern Medical and 
Surgical Journal. 1845. 

41. The Principles of Surgery. By James Miller, F. R. L, etc. 
Professor Surgery in the University of Edinburgh, etc. Southern 
Medical and Surgical Journal. 1845. 

42. Reply to Professor Dugas on the Subject of Mesmerism. 
Southern Medical and Surgical Journal. 1845. 

43. A Case of Hydrocele twenty-three and a half inches in 



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Paul Fitzsimons Evk. 319 

45. Case of Acute Traumatic Tetanus Treated with Cannabis 
Indica (Indian Hemp) unsuccessfully. Southern Medical and 
Surgical Journal. 1845. 

46. Treatment of Tertiary Symptoms of Syphilis by Hydrio- 
date of Potash, with cases. Southern Medical and Surgical 
Journal. 1845. 

47. Gunshot Wound — patient shot at ten paces had nineteen 
buckshot lodged in his person, yet survived eleven days. South- 
em Medical and Surgical Journal. 1846. 

48. An Account of Lithotrity and Lithotripsy in the United 
States, with a successful case. Southern Medical and Surgical 
Journal. 1846. 

49. Strangulated Inguinal Hernia of a large portion of the 
Omentum Relieved by an Operation. Southern Medical and 
Surgical Journal. 1846. 

50. Review and Notice of New Elements of Operative Surger}-. 
By Alf. A. L. M. Velpeau, Prof., etc. With Additions by Dr. 
Mott. Southern Medical and Surgical Journal. 1846. 

51. Remarks on the Statistics of Amputation, with fourteen 
consecutively successful amputations of the inferior extremity 
and fifty-one in general, without losing a case. Southern Medical 
and Surgical Journal. 1846. 

52. Cases of Foreign Bodies in the Air Passages: Water- 
melctfi seed ejected by exciting a paroxysm of coughing; half- 
dime, in the larynx removed by inversion of the body and ex- 
citing cough ; watermelon seed in the larynk, child two years old 
— laryngotomy was performed successfully. Southern Medical 
and Surgical Journal. 1846. 

53. Successful Removal of a Portion of Bone, probably of the 
Pubis, with a large calculous mass, from the Female Bladder. 
Southern Medical and Surgical Journal. 1846. 

54. Fracture of Cranium with loss of Brain — Recovery. 
Southern Medical and Surgical Journal. 1846. 

55. A Case of Probable Absence of the Uterus. Southern 
Medical and Surgical Journal. 1846. 

56. A Fatal Case of Mechanical Obstruction in the Intestines 
above a Reducible Hernia, with Post-Mortem Appearances. 
Southern Medical and Surgical Journal. 1847. 



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320 Thb Ambrican Historical Magazinb. 

57. Insensibility During Surgical Operation Produced by In- 
halation. Southern Medical and Surgical Journal, 1847. 

58. Gunshot Wound (bird shot), Carrying away a Portion of 
the right Qavicle and Passing Through the Summit of the right 
Lung and Scapula — Patient recovered. Southern Medical and 
Surgical Journal. 1847. 

59. New Prescription for Bums and Blisters. Southern Medi- 
cal and Surgical Journal. 1847. 

60. Amputation of the Forearm, Lacerated by Machinery in 
motion — ^Death of patient. (This was Dr. Eve's first fatal case 
in fifty- four amputations.) Southern Medical and Surgical 
Journal. 1847. 

61. Gunshot Wound; Portion of Qavicle Carried away and 
the Buckshot passed through lungs and scapula, with remarks. 
Southern Medical and Surgical Journal. 1847. 

62. Insensibility to Pain from Inhalation of Sulphuric Ether 
in Surgical Operations. Southern Medical and Surgical Journal. 

1847. 

63. Inhalation of Sulphuric Ether in Surgical Operations. 
Southern Medical and Surgical Journal. 1847. 

64. Notice of the Medical and Surgical Reports from the 
Army in Mexico. Southern Medical and Surgical Journal. 
1847. 

65. Milk a Purgative. Southern Medical and Surgical Jour- 
nal. 1847. 

66. Review of T. Wharton Jones' Principles and Practice of 
Ophthalmic Medicine and Surgery. Southern Medical and Surgi- 
cal Journal. 1847. 

67. Remarks on the Monthly Report of the Sick and Wounded 
of the Army in Mexico, for the month of February, 1847. (Bat- 
tle of Buena Vista included.) By C. M. Hitchcock, M.D., Medi- 
cal Director. Southern Medical and Surgical Journal. 1847, 

68. Remarks on Becoming Sole Editor of the Southern Medi- 
cal and Surgical Journal. 1847. 



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Paul Fitzsimons Eve. 321 

Our Only Quarterly, Southern Medical and Surgical Journal 

1847. 

71. Letter from Paris by the Editor, August, 1847. Case of 
Epilepsy; case of Extra-Uterine Conception, issue established 
through the abdomen, death ; Aneurism at Bend of the Elbow : 
patient never having been bled, a puncture revealing its true 
character, ligature to brachial artery by Velpeau, tumor dimin- 
ished. 

J2. Review of the London Lancet. Southern Medical and 
Surgical Journal. 1847. 

73. Adulterations on Medicine. Southern Medical and Surgi- 
cal Journal. 1847. 

74. Obituary Notice of Dr. James A. Washington, of New 
York City, an Intimate Friend and Associate while students in 
Paris. Southern Medical and Surgical Journal. 1847. 

75. Gallantry of the Medical Staff, U. S. A. Southern Medi- 
cal and Surgical Journal. 1848. 

76. The Nature of General Shields' Wound. Southern Medi- 
cal and Surgical Journal. 1848. 

yy. Medical Intelligence — La Grippe, Cholera, Chloroform. 
Southern Medical and Surgical Journal. 1848. 

78. Reduction of the Dislocated Ulna and Radius backwards, 
more than seven months, but fracturing the elecronon process: 
with good use of limb. Southern Medical and Surgical Journal. 
1848. 

79. La Grippe, Cholera and Chloroform, the Engrossing Medi- 
cal Subjects in Europe. Southern Medical and Surgical Journal. 
1848. 

80. The Protective Influence of Vaccination. Southern Medi- 
cal and Surgical Journal. 1848. 

81. Death of the Great Prussian Surgeon, Dieffenbach. 
Southern Medical and Surgical Journal. 1848. 

82. Exsection of four and a half inches of the Qavicle, in- 
cluding one of its articulations — Recovery. Southern Medical 
and Surgical Journal. 1848. 

83. Chloroform, the Great Discovery, and Blessing of the Age : 
with report of Eight Cases. Southern Medical and Surgical 
Journal. 1848. 



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322 Thb American Historical Magazinb. 

84. Lithotomy Under the Influence of Chloroform; reported 
by Dr. Eve's Student, Dr. John D. Twiggs. Southern Medical 
and Surgical Journal, 1848. 

85. Notice of Qielius' System of Surgery. Southern Medical 
and Surgical Journal 1848. 

86. Remarks on Chloroform Applied to Obstetrics as well as 
in Surgery in Augusta, Ga. Southern Medical and Surgical 
Journal. 1848. 

87. Notice of the death of Dr. Harden, of Liberty County, 
(ieorgia. Southern Medical and Surgical Journal. 1848. 

88. Unsuccessful Cases in Surgery — Amputation of the Penis, 
Comminuted Fracture of the Patella, Failure to Ligate the 
Femoral artery for diffuse aneurism, Trephining the Antrum of 
Highmore, Failure of a plastic operation for Cancerous Manrnia, 
and Removal of a Fibrous Tumor weighing over five pounds 
from the thigh. Southern Medical and Surgical Journal. 1848. 

89. Collodion a Substitute for Adhesive Plaster. Southern 
Medical and Surgical Journal 1848. 

90. Another Operation of Lithotomy Under Chloroform. 
Southern Medical and Surgical Journal. 1848. 

91. Report, with Comments, of the First Annual Meeting of 
the American Medical Association. Southern Medical and Surgi- 
cal Journal 1848. 

92. Gunshot Wound, pistol ball, opening the Gravid Uterus; 
death in twenty hours. Southern Medical and Surgical Journal. 
1848. 

93. Reply to Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes' Letter Respecting 
National Medical Literature. Southern Medical and Surgical 
Journal 1848. 

94. Reply to Dr. Green's Diagnosis of Aneurism. Southern 
Medical and Surgical Journal. 1848. 

95. Bibliographical Notice of Principles and Practice of Surg- 
ery, by the late George McClelland, M.D. Southern Medical 
and Surgical Journal 1848. 



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Paul Fitzsimons Eve. 323 

98. Comments on Dr. Green's Letter Relative to Article on 
the Diagnosis of Aneurism. Southern Medical and Surgical 
Journal. 1848. 

99. Successful Amputation at the Shoulder Joint for Gun- 
shot Wound ; Patient Under Chloroform. Southern Medical and 
Surgical Journal. 1848. 

100. Comments on the Position of the Medical Examiner on 
Sectional Medicine. Southern' Medical and Surgical Journal, 
1848. 

loi. Operations on the jaws, with the results in fourteen 
cases. Southern Medical and Surgical Journal. 1848. 

102. Report of the First Day's Qinic in the Medical College 
of Georgia — Exsection of a large gland from the axilla; Ex- 
cision of a congenital tumor from the hand ; Application of the 
actual cautery to callous ulcer of leg of five years duration: 
Relief to urethral stricture. Southern Medical and Surgical 
Journal. 1849. 

103. Review of Transactions of the American Medical As- 
sociation for 1848. (Two articles.) Southern Medical and 
Surgical Journal. 1849. 

104. Death from a Foreign Body (bone), cutting from the 
Pharynx into the Larynx. Southern Medical and Surgical 
Journal. 1849. 

105. Lithotomy — One hundred and seventeen calculi weighing 
four and a half ounces successfully removed. Southern Medical 
and Surgical Journal. 1849. 

106. Notice of the State Medical Convention of Georgia. 
Southern Medical and Surgical Journal. 1849. 

107. Report of Operations Performed Lender Anesthetic 
Agents, including eleven amputations, four lithotomy cases, six 
dislocations, four excisions of the mamma, eight other tumors, 
in all sixty-four cases. Southern Medical and Surgical Journal 
1849. 

108. Notice of a Dissertation on the Practice of Medicine by 
Tomlinson Fort, M.D. Southern Medical and Surgical Journal. 
1849. 

109. Deaths from the Inhalation of Sulphuric Ether, two 
cases. Southern Medical and Surgical Journal. 1849. 



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324 The Ambrican Historical Magazinb. 

no. Notice of the Mineral Springs of Georgia. Southern 
Medical and Surgical Journal. 1849. 

111. Notice of a proposed Specific for Cholera — Sulfrfiur. 
Southern Medical and Surgical Journal. 1849. 

112. Removal of a large Pol)rpus from the Nose, through the 
Pharynx. Southern Medical and Surgical Journal, 1849. 

113. Successful Amputation at the Shoulder Joint; it anchy- 
losed. Southern Medical and Surgical Journal. 1849. R^ 
printed in the American Journal of the Medical Sciences. 1849. 

114. Notice of the New Orleans Medical and Surgical Journal. 
Southern Medical and Surgical Journal. 1849. 

115. Lithotomy in Boy ten years old — calculus weighed three 
ounces, one dram, and measured six, and seven and three-fourths 
inches in circumference. Southern Medical and Surgical Journal. 
1849. 

116. Medical Miscellany. Southern Medical and Surgical 
Journal. 1849. 

117. Case of Natural Anesthesia; patient loses life because of 
it ; feeling no pain he would not believe that he had erysipelas. 
Southern Medical and Surgical Journal. 1849. 

1 18. Farewell as Editor of the Southern Medical and Surgical 
Journal. 1849. 

119. Introductory Lecture on the Present Position of the 
Medical Profession in Society, delivered in the Medical College 
of Georgia, November, 1849. Published by the Qass. Reviewed 
in the American Journal of the Medical Sciences, Volume XIX, 
page 471, 1850. Also in the Southern Medical and Surgical 
Journal, Volume VI, page 84, 1850. 

120. Report of Surgical Clinic in the Medical College of 
Georgia for the session 1849-1850. Of forty-eight cases thirty- 
nine were operated on and not one proved fatal. Southern 
Medical and Surgical Journal. 1850. Noticed in the Trans- 
actions of the American Medical Association, Volume 3. 

121. A Hydrocele weighing forty ounces; relieved by iodine. 
Southern Medical and Surgical Journal. 1850. 

122. Removal of a large Haematocele from the Spermatic 
Cord successfully. Southern Medical and Surgical Journal. 
1850. 



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Paul Fitzsimons Evb. 325 

123. Fungus Haematodes, with a Report of twelve cases, 
three affecting the neck and shoulder, two of the face, two of 
the trunk, three of the inferior extremity and one of the upper, 
and one of the mamma. In eight of the twelve cases death oc- 
curred within a few months and the remaining four were too 
recent to decide the result. Southern Medical and Surgical 
Journal. 1850. Noticed in the Transactions of the American 
Medical Society. 185 1. 

124. Notice of the Doctrine of the Unity of the Human Race 
Examined on the Principles of Science, by John Bachman, D.D., 
Professor of Natural History in Charleston, S. C. Southern 
Medical and Surgical Journal. 1850. 

125. Case of Excision of the Uterus. Preceded by Remarks 
from Professor Charles D. Meigs, M.D. American Journal of 
the Medical Sciences. 1850. Also noticed in Ranking' s Abstract 
of the Medical Sciences, July to December, 1850. Also Southern 
Medical and Surgical Journal. 1850. Also Transactions of the 
American Medical Society. 1850. 

126. Report as Chairman of the Standing Committee on Surg- 
ery to the American Medical Association for 185 1. Transactions 
of the Association. 1851. 

127. Introductory Lecture Defining Position with the Univer- 
sity of Nashville, Tenn. Published in pamphlet form; also in 
the Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1851. 

128. Supposed Wound of the Internal Mammary Artery; 
recovery. Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1851. 

129. Notice of Maclise's Surgical Anatomy. Nashville Journal 
of Medicine and Surgery. 1851. 

130. Report of Cases Operated Upon During the Opening 
Week in the Medical .Department of the University of Nashville 
— Successful Exsection of the Parotid Gland; Removal of a 
large Polypoid Tumor from the left naris; Ligature to left 
Brachial artery for false Aneurism and extraction of a piece of 
glass; Removal of a Fibro-cartilaginous Tumor with the Pala- 
tine Process of the Superior Maxillae. Nashville Journal of 
Medicine and Surgery. 1852. 

131. Bilateral Operation in a Girl for Calculus, cutting only 



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326 The Ambrican Historicai^ Magazinb. 

the Internal Portion of the Urethra; patient well in five days. 
Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1852. 

132. Report of the Annual Meeting of the Medical Society 
of Georgia. Nashznlle Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1852. 

^33- Synopsis of Twenty-five Cases of Lithotomy. NashvilU 
Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1852. 

134. Report of Twenty-five Cases of Urinary Calculus, in 
twenty-three of which the Bilateral Operation was performed. 
American Journal of the Medical Sciences. 1852. Also Nash- 
lille Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1852. 

135. Operation by pins and a truss for the radical Cure of 
Hernia. Transactions of the American Medical AssocuUian. 
1852. 

136. Professional Letters from Europe — Published in the 
Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery, and afterwards, 
with additions, in pamphlet form — An Account of VeI|>eauV 
Operations at La Charite Hospital, etc. 

137. Same — Nelaton's Clinics, Costello's Surgical Encyclo- 
pedia, etc. 

138. Same — Velpeau's Clinic on Cancer, etc. 

139. Record at the Midi Hospital on Syphilis; Traumat»o 
Gangrene, etc. 

140. Same — ^Nelaton on Pott's Disease, Strabismus, etc. 

141. Removal of the Crista Galli for Fracture of the Cranium : 
Patient lived six days. Nashville Journal of Medicine and 
Surgery. 1852. 

142. Letters from Europe. Enlarged edition of the Letters 
Before Printed Separately, with Additions relating to the Visit 
to England and Scotland. Nashville. 1852. 

143. Dislocation of the Os Humeri on the Dorsum Scapulae: 
reduction after five weeks. Nashznlle Journal of Medicine and 
Surgery. 1853. 

144. Synopsis of the Surgical Clinic of the University of 
Nashville, including aneurisms, cataract, necrosis, fractures, 
wounds, etc. Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery, 1853. 

145. Treatment of Strictures of the Urethra by rapid and free 
Dilation. (Read at the meeting of the Medical Society of 



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Paul Fitzsimons Eve. 327 

Georgia, April, 1853, ^^ Savannah.) Nashville Journal of Medi- 
cine and Surgery. 1853. Also reprinted in pamphlet form. 

146. Notice of Benique's Metallic Bourgies. Nashville Jour- 
nal of Medicine and Surgery, 1853. 

147. Extraction of a Nail from the left Bronchus by Trach- 
aeotomy ; the patient then five years old, grew to robust man- 
hood. Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1853. Also 
Complimentary Notice in Philadelphia Medical and Surgical 
Journal. 1853. 

148. Introductory to the Course of Lectures in the Medical 
Department of the University of Nashville, on the Claims of 
Medicine to be Regarded as a Science. November, 1853. Pub- 
lished by the Class. Complimentary Notices by the Boston Med- 
ical and Surgical Journal and the New York Scalpel. 

149-158. Medical Items. Nashville Journal of Medicine ami 
Surgery. 1854. (Contributions to ten of the twelve issues of 
the year.) 

159. Letters from Europe. Nashville Journal of Medicine and 
Surgery. 1854. 

160. Unsuccessful Cases in Surgery. Additional to those 
Published in 1848. Retention of urine from permanent stricture ; 
Relief by a false passage to the bladder and death of patient in 
eleven days. Nashville Journ^il of Medicine and Surgery. 1854. 

161. Synopsis of Tennessee Medical Society. Nashville Jour- 
nal of Medicine and Surgery. 1854. 

162. The State of the Pupil in Cataract. Nashville Journal 
of Medicine and Surgery. 1854. 

163. Abstract of the Proceedings of the American Medical 
Association held in St. Louis, Mo. Nashville Journal of Medicine 
and Surgery. 1854. 

164. Contributions to the History of Surgery in Tennessee. 
A paper read before the Tennessee Medical Society in April, 
1854. Nashville J ouriial of Medicine and Surgery. 1854. (Em- 
bracing cases coming under Dr. Eve's own notice, some of which 
have been treated in articles before mentioned.) 

165. Notice of The Science and Art of Surgery, by John 
Erichsen, Professor of Surgery in University College, etc. 
Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1854. 



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328 Thb American Historical Magazinb. 

1 66. Account of a Child's Cranium thirty-four inches in cir- 
cumference, from ear to ear over the vortex twenty-nine and a 
half inches, and in whose skull there are over four hundred 
ossawormiana, or accessory bones; the patient never walked, 
though he lived sixteen years. Specimen deposited in the col- 
lege museum. Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 
1854. 

167. Notice of an Attempt at Lithotomy in London and failure 
to open the Bladder. Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery, 

1854. 

168. Epidemic (yellow fever) in Savannah, and Hc«ior to the 
Medical Profession by unacclimated professional gentlemen. 
Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery, 1854. 

169. Comments on Dr. Dudley's Rebuke of a Pretended Can- 
cer Cure. Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1854. 

170. Surgical Clinic for October, 1854, embracing numerous 
cases of interest. Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 

1854. 

171. Reorganizing the Philadelphia College of Medicine. 
Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1854. 

172. Report of the Surgical Qinic of the first week of the 
preliminary course in Nashville University. Nashville Journal 
of Medicine and Surgery, 1854. 

173. Practical Observations on the Operation of Lithotomy 
of John Crichton. Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery, 

1855. 

174. A Dictionary of Medical Terminology, Dental Surgery 
and the Collateral Sciences. Nashville Journal of Medicine and 
Surgery. 1855. 

175. Proposed Convention of the Medical Colleges. Nctsh- 
ville Journal of Medicine and Surgery, 1855. 

176 to 187. Medical Items. Contributions to every number 
of the Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery issued during 



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Paul Fitzsimons Evb. 329 

be published.) Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 

1855. 

189. The Use of Arsenic by Cancer Doctors. Nashville Jour- 
not of Medicine and Surgery. 1855. 

190. Professional Remuneration. Nashville Journal of Medi- 
cine and Surgery. 1855. 

191. Valedictory to the Graduating Qass of 1855 on the sub- 
ject that Public Opinion being Unenlightened in Medicine, Physi- 
cians should not be Influenced by it. Published by the Faculty 
and Class, in pamphlet. 

192. A Calculus weighing only eight grains removed by the 
Lateral Operation. Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 

1855. 

193. Calculus weighing six hundred grains removed by the 
high (supre-pubic) operation; patient well in three weeks. 
Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1855. 

194. Foreign Body, grain of com, in right Bronchus, Ejected 
in a Paroxysm of Coughing. Nashville Journal of Medicine and 
Surgery. 1855. 

195. Notice of the Virginia Medical and Surgical Journal. 
Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1855. 

196. Notice of Surgical Reports and Miscellaneous Papers on 
Medical Subjects, by George Hayward, M.D., President Mas- 
sachusetts Medical Society. Nashville Journal of Medicine and 
Surgery. 1855. 

197. Notice of the American Journal of Pharmacy. Nashville 
Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1855. 

198. Successful Operation for a Fractured Rib. Nashville 
Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1855. 

199. Remarks on Dr. Hayward's Article on Deaths from Sul- 
phuric Ether. Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 

1855. 

200. Surgical Qinic for the First Week of the Session of 
1855-56 in the University of Nashville. (Embracing numerous 
interesting operations.) Nashville Journal of Medicine and 
Surgery. 1855. 

201. Obituary Notice of the First Medical Student, John W. 



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S30 Thb American Historical Magazinb. 

Pettus, who died in the University of Nashville. NaskvUU 
Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1855. 

202. Removal of a Cockle Burr from the Glottis with Forceps. 
Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery, 1856. 

203. Removal of a Fish Bone from the Duct of Steno. Nask- 
ville Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1856. 

204 to 214. Medical Items. CcMitributions on Various Sub- 
jects to the Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery during 
1856. 

215. Notice of the Proceedings of the Medical Society of 
Georgia. Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1856. 

216. Notice of the Meeting of the American Medical Asso- 
ciation at Detroit. Nashville Journal of Medicine cmd Surgery. 
1856. 

217. Notice of the Death of Professor John C. Warren, M.D. 
Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1856. 

218. History of the Ligature Applied to the Arteria InncMiii- 
nata. (Read before the Tennessee State Medical Society.) 
Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1856. Also noticed 
in the Philadelphia Medical Examiner. 1856. Also in Rankings 
Abstract of the Medical Sciences for 1856. 

219. Dr. Robert Lee's Opinion of Ovariotomy. NaskvilU 
Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1856. 

220. Aneurism of the Femoral Artery Cured by Compression. 
Reported by E. E. Finney, M.D. Nashzille Journal of Medicine 
and Surgery. 

221. The Clerical versus the Medical Profession. Nashville 
Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1856. 

222. Remarkable Cases in Surgery. Published by J. B. Lip- 
pincott & Co., Philadelphia. 8vo. Pp. 858. 1857. Noticed 
favorably in the Nashville and Richmcmd medical joumak. Dr. 
Palmer in his report on Medical Literature to the American 
Medical Association states that it reflected mudi credit upon 
the researches and industry of the author. The Charleston 
Medical and Surgical Journal gave a favorable notice of the 
work, saying that it "richly deserves what it will doubtless have. . 
an extensive circulation." 



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Paul Fitzsimons Eve. 331 

223. Report of Clinic for the First Month of the Session of 
1856-7 in the Medical Department of the University of Nash- 
ville. Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery, 1857. 

224. Notice of the Oldest Medical Journal in the South. 
NashTjille Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1857. 

225. Notice of the Southern Medical and Surgical Journal. 
Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery, 1857. 

226. Report as Dean of the Medical Faculty to the Trustees 
of the Medical Department of the University of Nashville. 
Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery, 1857. 

227 to 237. Medical Items. Contributions to the Nashville 
Journal of Medicine and Surgery during the year 1857 under the 
title given. 

238. Did Congressman Brooks Die of Croup? Nashville Jour- 
nal of Medicine and Surgery. 1857. 

239. Report of the Proceedings of the Medical Society of Ten- 
nessee. Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1857. 

240. Address on Being Elected President of the American 
Medical Association. Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surg- 
ery. 1857. Also in the Transactions of the American Medical 
Association, 

241. Transactions of the Twenty-eighth Annual Meeting of 
the Tennessee State Medical Society. Nashville Journal of 
Medicine and Surgery. 1857. 

242. Statistical Report of Forty-six Operations for Stone in 
the Bladder. Read before Tennessee State Medical Society. 
Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1857. Reprinted 
in the North American Medico-Chirurgical Revietv, July, 1858. 
Also in Rankings Abstract of the Medical Sciences, July and 
December numbers, 1858. 

243. Priority of Qaim between Sir Marshall Hall and Pro- 
fessor Henry F. Campbell, M.D., of Augusta, Ga., of the Excito- 
Secretory System — in which the noted Englishman says to the 
latter "it is indisputably yours." Nashville Journal of Medicine 
and Surgery, 1857. 

244. Removal of a Piece of Tin by Lar)mgo-Tracheotomy. 
Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery, 1857. Reprinted 
in the American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 1858. 



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332 The American Historical Magazine 

245. Rebuke to Mrs. Crawford for Denouncing Professors 
Velpeau, Nelaton, Desmarres, Sichel, Sir William Lawrence 
and Professor Gibson for not curing her husband. Nashville 
Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1857. 

246. Popular Ignorance in Regard to Anatomy. • Nashville 
Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1857. 

247. Reply to the Editors of the American Medical Monthly, 
charging me with injustice to Dr. Mott and Dr. Camochan in 
ray CoUecticMi of Remarkable Cases of Surgery. Nashville Jour- 
nal of Medicine and Surgery. 1858. Reprinted in the Ameri- 
can Medical Monthly. 1858. 

248. Bilateral Operation for Stone— death. Nashville Journal 
of Medicine and Surgery. 1858. 

249. Account of a Patient Killed by a Fencing Foil Penetrat- 
ing the Orbital Plate of the Os Frontis. Nashville Journal of 
Medicine and Surgery. 1858. 

250. Report as Dean of the Faculty for 1857-58. Nashville 
Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1858. 

251. Account of a Patient who Swallowed a Set of Artificial 
Teeth. Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1858. 

252. Report of Transactions of the Tennessee State Medical 
Society. Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1858. 

253. Report of Cases to the State Society. Nashville Journal 
of Medicine and Surgery. 1858. 

254. Address Before the American Medical Association, 1858. 
Published in the Transactions; also in the Nashville Journal of 
Medicine and Surgery. 1858. 

255. Qinical Surgical Report for the First Month's Service 
in the State Hospital. Embracing operations on sixty-three 
patients. Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1858. 

256. Amputation Repeated for the Third Time. Nashville 
Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1858. 

257. Abdominal Tumor in a Girl of Eighteen Years. To- 
gether with Other Interesting Surgical Cases. Nashville Journal 
of Medicine and Surgery. 1858. 



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Paul Fitzsimons Eve. 333 

259. Lateral Operation — Death from Facial Erysipelas on the 
Twelfth day ; loose gravel with Calcareous Deposit, some as large 
as buckshot, no calculus having been removed. Nashtnlle Jour- 
nal of Medicine and Surgery. 1858. 

260. Lithotomy under Unfavorable Circumstances; hemor- 
rhage secondary ; death (mi the Eighteenth Day. Nashville Jour- 
nal of Medicine and Surgery. 1859. 

261. Case of Lithotomy; Three Calculi of Unusual Size and 
Shape. Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1859. 

262. Biographical Notice of Professor George M. Newton, 
M.D., of Augusta, Ga. Nashville Journal of Medicine and 
Surgery. 1859, 

263. Straightening a Limb by Brainard's Method — Drilling 
the Bone. Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1 859. 

264. Outlines of a Lecture on Irritation. Nashville Journal of 
Medicine and Surgery. 1859. 

265. Outlines of a Lecture on inflammation. Nashville Jour- 
nal of Medicine and Surgery. 1859. 

266. Letters from Europe. Second Series. Published in the 
Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1859. Passage 
Across the Atlantic, etc. 

267. Same. Paris. 

268. Same. Paris, continued. 

269. Same. Paris, continued. 

270. Same. Paris, concluded. 

271. Same. Turin, etc. 

272. Same. Solferino and the Hospitals of Milan. 

273. Same. Paris, Hotel Dieu, etc. 

274. Same. Paris. 

275. Same. London, its Hospitals, etc. 

276. Successful Removal of a Bleeding Tumor from the In- 
ferior Lip of an Infant by the Ecraseur. Nashville Journal of 
Medicine and Surgery. 1859. 

277. An Aneurism Congenital Involving the Right Side of the 
Face and Head; Several Operations, Including Ligature to the 
Carotid. Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery, i860. 

278. Comments on a Letter from Dr. Mettsuer on the Above 
Case. Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery, i860. 



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334 I'hb Ambkican Historical Magazine. 

279. A Suggestion by a Screw Clamp to Close Vesico-Vagfinal 
Fistula. Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery, i860. 

280. Lithotomy in a Girl Four Years Old ; Calculus Measured 
Five Inches in Circumference, and weighed one Ounce. Nash- 
ville Journal of Medicine and Surgery, i860. 

281. Decapitatio Humeri for Gunshot Wound. Nashvttte 
Journal of Medicine and Surgery, i860. 

282. A Canula Needle for Sutures. Nashville Journal of 
Medicine and Surgery, i860. 

283. Staphyloraphy, Successful; the First Attempt with the 
Curved Canula Needle. Nashville Journal of Medicine and 
Surgery, i860. 

284. Surgical Clinic for October, i860, thirty cases, twenty- 
three operations ; no deaths. Nashville Journal of Medicine and 
Surgery. 1 861. 

285. Instrument Designed to Arrest Hemorrhage after Lithot- 
omy. Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1861. 

286. Health in the Camp. Nashville Journal of Medicine and 
Surgery. 1861. 

287. Supposed Wound of the Femoral Artery, Relieved by 
Bandage. Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1861. 

288. Gunshot Wound of the Popliteal Artery; Aneurism; 
Ligature to Femoral; Amputation; Patient Saved. NashxHlle 
Journal of Medicine atid Surgery. 1861. 

289. Removal of a Large Glass Bead by Tracheotomy. Nash- 
ville Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1861. 

290. Position of the Hand in Fractures of the Forearm. Con- 
federate States Medical and Surgical Journal, Richmond, Va. 
1864. 

291. Report of Eighteen Cases of Lithotomy, Operations Per- 
formed During the Past Four years. American Journal of the 
Medical Sciences, April, 1866. 

292. Report of Eighteen Cases of Lithotomy Performed Dur- 



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Paul Fitzsimons Evb. 335 

States Sanitary Commission. Nashville Journal of Medicine and 
Surgery. 1866. 

294. Mortality of Cholera in Nashville. Nashville Journal of 
Medicine and Surgery, 1866. 

295 to 300. Monthly Medical Excerpta. Contributions month- 
ly to the Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery, 1866. 

301. Reply to the Question : What Effect had Whiskey and 
Tobacco on the Physical Endurance and Health of the Soldiers 
in the Southern Army? Nashville Journal of Medicine and 
Surgery. 1866. 

302. Introductory Lecture to the Class, session of 1866-67, ^^ 
Hygiene. Published in pamphlet form. 

303. Removal of a Large Cauliflower Elxcrescence by the Ecra- 
seur. Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1866. 

304. Surgical Clinic for. the Third Week of November, 1866. 
Reported by a Student. Nashville Journal of Medicine and 
Surgery. 1866. 

305. Surgical Clinic for the 6th and 8th of December, 1866. 
Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery, 1866. 

306. Lecture on Extroversion of the Bladder. Nashville Jour- 
nal of Medicine and Surgery, 1867. 

307 to 310. Medical Excerpta. Contributions to the Nash- 
rnlle Journal of Medicine and Surgery during 1867. 

311. Fracture of the Patella Treated by a Ring. Nashvilh 
Journal of Medicine and Surgery, 1867. 

312. Seven Cases of Gunshot Wounds. Nashville Journal of 
Medicine and Surgery. 1867. 

313. Report of the Medical Department of the University of 
Nashville for the Session of 1866-67. (About one hundred 
operations had been performed, including five for stone, six 
amputations, etc.) Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery, 
1867. 

314. Report of Seven Operations for Stone in thirty-three 
davs, all successful. Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 
1867. 

315. Statistics of Ninety Operations for Urinary Calculus, 
seventy-eig^t Bilateral, three Lateral, three Lithotritv, two High, 
two Vaginal Sections, one Urethral, and one Dilation. Nashville 
Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1867. 



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336 Thb Ambrican Historicai« Magazinb. 

316 and 317. European Letters. Third Series. From Paris 
and London, respectively. Nashville Journal of Medicine and 
Surgery. 1867. 

318. Notice of the Death of Velpeau. Nashville Journal of 
Medicine and Surgery. 1867. 

319. Gunshot Wound in the Perineal and Gluteal R^ons, 
Followed by Urinary Fistula ; Qosed by Urethotomy. Nashville 
Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1867. Reprinted in the 
Half-Yearly Compendium of the Medical Sciences. 1867. 

320. Account of an Infant, J. Myrtle Corban, of Tennessee, 
having Four Legs, two Distinct External Female Organs of 
Generation, etc. Prepared by Professor Joseph Jones, M.D., and 
Dr. Eve. Richmond and Louisville Medical Journal. 1868. 

321. Contributions to the Hip Joint Operations Performed 
in the Confederate Service During the Civil War. (Twenty 
amputations and thirteen resections at the joint.) Transactions 
of the American Medical Association. 1867. Noticed in the 
Hebdomidaire Medicate et Chirurgie, October, 1868. Also in the 
Half-Yearly Compendium of the Medical Sciences. 1868. 

322. Report of Three Cases of Gunshot Wound in Which the 
Ball Lodged in the Vertebral Column, two patients still living; 
with Remarks on the Divisiwi of the Spinal Cord without Death. 
Prepared by Appointment and Read Before the Tennessee Medi- 
cal Society, and Ordered Published. American Journal of the 
Medical Sciences. 1868. 

323. Gunshot Wound Resulting Fatally Forty-four Years 
After its Infliction. 5*^ Louis Medical Reporter. 1868. 

324. Extensive Colloid Cancer in the Abdomen. Nen Orleans 
Journal of Medicine. 1868. 

325. Severe Case of Trichiasis. Richmond and Louisville 
Medical Journal. 1868. 

326. The Siamese Twins: Can They be Safely Separated? 



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Paui. Fitzsimons Evb. 337 

328. Account of Three Cases Taken from the Caisson of the 
Bridge at St. Louis. Richmond and Louisville Medical Journal 
1868. 

329. Reply to the Review of Dr. Eve's Contributions to the 
Hip Joint Operations During the Late War. Buffalo Medical 
and Surgical Journal. 1868. 

330. Introductory Lecture in the Missouri Medical College at 
St. Louis, October, 1868. 

331. Reply to Dr. Otis' Rejoinder on the Hip Joint Operations. 
Buffalo Medical and Surgical Journal. 1868. 

332. Safe and Effectual Operation for the Radical Cure of 
Varicocele. Transactions of the American Medical Association. 
1868. Reprinted in the American Journal of the Medical 
Sciences. 1869. Also in the Half -Yearly Abstract of the Medi- 
cal Sciences. 1869. 

333. Canula Needle for Applying Ligatures and Sutures. 
Transactions of the American Medical Association. 1869. 

334. The Sutures for Vesico- Vaginal Fistula Inserted by 
Means of a Canula Needle, with a case. Richmond and Louis- 
ville Medical Journal. 1869. 

335. Violent Case of Sporadic Cholera; Death in About 
Eighteen Hours. Notwithstanding Heroic Treatment. Rich- 
mond and Louisville Medical Journal. 1869. 

336. Dislocation of the Thumb Backwards ; ReducticMi. Rich- 
mond and Louisville Medical Journal. 1869. 

337. Report of Tennessee State Medical Society, Thirty-sixth 
Annual Meeting. Richmond and Louisville Medical Journal. 
1869. 

338. Account of a Family with Wens. St. Louis Medical 
Reporter. 1869. 

339. Large Enchondroma of the Metacarpus. St. Louis Medi- 
cal and Surgical Journal. 1869. 

340. Intrcjluctory Lecture in the Missouri Medical College 
on Some of the Many Popular Errors in Medicine. St. Louis 
Medical Archives, October, 1869. Also noticed in the Richmond 
and Louisville Medical Journal. 1870. 

341. Case of Popliteal Aneurism Cured by Digital Compres- 



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33^ The American Historicai^ Magazine. 

sion and Dupuytren's CcMiipressor. Reported to the St. Louis 
Medical Society. St. Louis Medical Archives. 1870. 

342. The Unusual Dislocation of the Head of the Humerus 
with Rupture of the Long Tendon of the Biceps Muscle. Read 
before the St. Louis Medical Society. St. Louis Medical 
Archives. 1870. 

343. A case of Scleriasis of Left Parietal Bone after Gunshot 
Wound. Read before the St. Louis Medical Society. St. Louis 
Medical Archives. 1870. 

344. Gunshot Wounds of the Brain, Portion of the Ball Found 
Seven Years Afterwards chi the Tentorium Cerebdli. Read be- 
fore the Tennessee State Medical Society, April, 1867. Rick- 
mond and Louisville Medical Journal. 1870. 

345. A New Suture in Blepharoplastis. NashvUle Journal of 
Medicine and Surgery. 1870. Reprinted in Half -Yearly Com- 
pendium of Medical Sciences, July, 1870. 

346. Most Remarkable Case of Gunshot Wound, in which 
a Disk of Bone was Found Within the Cranium, but no Ball. 
Richmond and Louisville Medical Journal. 1870. 

347. An Apparently Black Urinary Calculus. Nashville 
Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1870. 

348. Eulogy of Baron Dupuytren, Translated^ with Reminis- 
cences. Read by President Manlove before the Tennessee State 
Medical Society, April, 1870. Richmond and Louisville Medical 
Journal. 1870. 

349. Researches on Lumbar Hernia. Translated from Baron 
H. Larvey, Surgeon to the French Emperor, etc. Read to the 
St. Louis Medical Society, May, 1870. Nashville Journal of 
Medicine and Surgery. 1870. 

350. Contributions to Surgery for 1869. Read before the St. 
Louis Medical Society, April, 1870. Nashville Journal of Medi- 
cine and Surgery. 1870. 

351. One Dressing after Operation for Fistula in Ano. Nash- 
inlle Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1870. 



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Paul Fitzsimons Evb. 339 

352 to 357. Surgical Extracts. Contributions to the Nashville 
Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1870. 

358 to 365. Surgical Extracts. Contributions to the Nashville 
Journal of Medicine and Surgery during 1871. 

366 to 370. Medical Extracts. Contributions to the Nashville 
Journal of Medicine and Surgery during 1871. 

371. Wound of the Peritoneum from a Stab; Successfully 
Treated. Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery, 1871. 

372. Exsection of the Clavicle; Death on the Sixth Day. 
Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1871. 

373. Extensive Fracture at the Base of the Cranium by a 
Flail Down a Common Stairway, with Post-Mortem Appear- 
ances. Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1871. 

374. Address before the Tennessee State Medical Society on 
Being Elected President of the Society at the meeting in Pulaski, 
April, 1 87 1. (In Proceedings.) 

375. Valedictory of the Graduating Class of 1871 on the Word 
Energy. (Unpublished.) 

376. Amputation at the Hip Joint Complicated by Complete 
Anchylosis; Death in Twenty-five Hours. Read before the State 
Medical Society. Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 
1871. Also Richmond and LouisiMle Medical Journal. 1871. 

377. Successful Application of the Trephine over the Right 
Lateral Sinus of the Brain. Nashville Journal of Medicine and 
Surgery. 1871. 

378. Synopsis and Analysis of One Hundred Cases of Lithot- 
omy, Lithotrity, etc. Of these six died from the effects of the 
operation, and five from intercurrent disease or unusual events. 
Transactions of American Medical Association. 1871. Re- 
printed or noticed in several professional journals. 

379. Case of Extroversion of the Female Organs — Complete 
of the Womb, partial of the Vagina, with Cystocele and Rec- 
tocele; Oeprations and Restoration of the Prolapsed Parts. 
Richmond and Louisville Medical Journal. 1871. 

380. Notice of Surgical Cases Treated in the Army of the 
United States from 1865 to 1871. Nashville Journal of Medicine 
and Surgery. 1872. 

381. Obituary of the Distinguished Professional Dead — Par- 



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340 Thb American Historical Magazinb. 

ticularly Dr. Samuel Dickson. Nashville Journal of Medicine 
and Surgery, 1872. 

382 to 323. Surgical Extracts. Contributions to the Nash- 
ville Journal of Medicine and Surgery during the year 1872. 

394. The Proper Definition of the Word "Cure" as Applied to 
Medicine. Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1872. 

395. Fracture of the Three Bicuspid Teeth Longitudinally by 
G)ntrecoup. Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery, 1872. 

396. Remarks cm the Case (the only one on record) of Dr. 
Smythe's Successful Application of Ligature to the Innominate 
Artery. Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1872. 

397. Annual Address as President of the Tennessee State 
Medical Society, April, 1872. Being an Historical Sketch of 
that body from its organization. Referred to Committee on 
Publication. Suoplement in Richmond and Louisville Medical 
Journal. 1872. 

398. Notice of a Collection of Remarkable Cases in Surgery. 
Richmond and Louisville Medical Journal. 1872. 

399. The Inhumanity of Capital Punishment by Hanging. 
Richmond and Louisville Medical Journal. 1872. 

400. Wiring the Clavicle for Fracture, with a Case. NashviUe 
Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 1872. Also in Richmond 
and Louisville Medical Journal. 1872. 

401. The Entire Penis Denuded and Nearly Half of the Scro- 
tum Cut off in Circumcision. Richmond and Louisville Medical 
Journal. 1872. 

402. Successful Application of the Trephine Over the Right 
Lateral Sinus of the Brain. In pamphlet form. Also reprinted 
in the Richmond and Louisville Medical Journal. 1872. 

403. Removal of a Calculous Mass Deposited on a Piece of 
Bourgie by Lithotomy. Richmond and Louisville Medical Jour- 
nal. 1873. Also issued in pamphlet form. 

404. to 408. Surgical Extracts. Contributions during the 
year 1873 to the Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery. 

409, 410. Contributions during 1873 to the Richmond and 
Louisville Medical Journal. 



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Paul Fitzsimons Evk. 34^ 

From the steamship Egypt. Advantages of the Sea Air to 
Health. 

412. Same. From London. The Hospitals. 

413. Same. From Vienna. Noted professional gentlemen 
met in that city. 

414. Same. From Paris. Notable operations. 

415. Same. From Paris. Notable operations. 

416. From Edinburgh. Lister's Dressings in Surgery. 

417. Groove versus Canula Needle for Suture. Richmond and 
Louisville Medical Journal. 1874. 

418. Contributions to the January number of the Richmond 
and Louisville Medical Journal, 1874. 

419. Transactions of the Medical Society of West Virg^ia — 
Comment on the Common Canula Needle with the Long Handle 
Added by Dr. Eve as All that is Needed in Such an Instrument. 
1874. 

420. Amputation of the Thigh by Professor Esmarch's Blood- 
less Operation. Richmond and Louisville Medical Journal. 
1874. 

421. Dr. Esmarch's Bloodless Operation, with Cases. Pre- 
pared for and read before the Tennessee State Medical Society, 
April 7, 1874. Richmond and Louisville Medical Journal. 1874. 

422. Annual Address Before the Tennessee State Medical 
Society, April, 1872; being a Synopsis of its History. Published 
by request of the society in pamphlet form. 1874. 

423. Gunshot Wound Over the Left Frontal Sinus, Fractur- 
ing the Cranium, etc.. Followed. by Epilepsy; Death a Week 
after Trephining. Richmond and Louisville Medical Journal. 
1874. 

424. A Suggestion to Benefit both Patient and Physician. 
Richmond and Louisznlle Medical Journal, June, 1874. 

425. What the Southwest has Done for Surgery. Paper pre- 
sented to the American Medical Association at its meeting in 
May, 1874. Published in the Transactions. Also in the Ameri- 
can Medical Weekly, 1874. Also republished in the Virginia 
Medical Monthly for August, 1874. 

426. Loss of an Arm from Cellulitis, or Rather from Dermato- 
Cellulitis. American Medical Weekly. 1874. 



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342 Thb Akbrican Historical Magazine. 

427. Biographical Sketch of Professor Thomas Reed Jennii^pi. 
American Medical Weekly. 1874. 

428. Preparing" Professor Esmarch's Repcwt on Surgery, with 
Dr. Sandck's assistance, at the Third Annual Meeting of the 
German Surgeons, with Remarks. American Medical tVeekiy. 
1874. 

429. Surgery of the West and South. American Medical 
Weekly, 1874. 

430. Notice of Bic^^phical Sketches of Distinguished Physi- 
cians of the West and Southwest. American Medical Weekly. 
1874. 

431. Notice of Professor Esmarch's Bloodless Operation. 
American Medical Weekly, August i, 1874. 

432. Gunshot Wound of Knee Joint Ciu-ed by Prolonged 
Warm Baths. American Medical Weekly, April, 1875. 

433. Malignant Disease of the Bladder; Operaticm; Death. 
American Medical Weekly, November, 1875. 

434. Sclerosis with Ebumaticm or Exostosis of Humerus: 
Death in the Attempt to Amputate Above the Shoulder Joint 
from Hemorrhage. American Medical Weekly, July, 1875. 

4J5. Review of Cooper's Dictionary of Practical Surgery and 
Encyclopedia of Surgical Science. Richmond and LouisviUe 
Medical Journal, May, 1875. Also reprinted in pamphlet form. 

436. Address on the History and Achievements of Surgery 
in the South and Southwest. Delivered before the Intematioaal 
Medical Congress at Philadelphia, September 6, 1876. Published 
in the volume of proceedings of the congress. 



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Mrs. Annb Royall. 343 



MRS. ANNE ROYALL. 



BY W. E. BBABD. 



The reproduction of the historic home of Andrew Jackson 
as Tennessee's building at the St. Louis World's Fair will un- 
doubtedly recall to the mind of many visitors there the days 
of Old Hickory when the Volunteer State was at the zenith 
of its political glory — a period as prolific of stalwart public 
men as any other in the country's history and also productive 
of Mistress Anne Royall, one of the most extraordinary in- 
dividuals in the political traditions of the nation. 

That Mistress Anne should have achieved a reputation of 
national proportions in such a period is evidence of the force 
of her individuality, but does not even suggest the life story 
of unusual interest, the first event of which occurred in her 
infancy, when she was stolen by Indians, and whose denounce- 
ment was before the bar of the Circuit Court at Washington, 
where Judge William Cranch, adjudged her guilty of being a 
common scold and decreed that she be ducked though she was 
let off with a fine. This, however, did not come to pass before 
Mrs. Royall's pen had become of more terror to Congressmen 
and office holders of Washington than was Davy Crockett's 
rifle to the bears of West Tennessee and Mississippi. 

It was during the administrations of Jackson that Mrs. Royall 
became most conspicuous and it was during his first term in 
the White House that she paid her visit to Nashville that was 
memorable for the reason that she took offense at being ignored 
by the Nashville newspapers while here and at not being called 
on by Senator Felix Grundy, Congressman John Bell and by 
the Mayor of the town. 

The biographers of Anne Royall give Virginia as the place 
of her nativity, though she herself claimed the distinction for 
Maryland, and the date of her birth as June 11, 1764. Fifteen 
years of her infancy and girlhood were spent among the Indians 
who had stolen her. She married Captain Royall, who had fought 



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344 'I'hs American Historical Magazine. 

in the Revolution, and became a resident of Alabama, where 
she learned to read and write. She was past middle life when 
she found her calling and shied her castor into public affairs 
at Washington. 

Securing an old fashioned press and a font of battered type 
she went to work with an energy not surpassed by even her 
eccentricity. From her modest establishment on Capitol Hill 
she issued a small weekly called the Washington Paid Pry, 
and afterwards the Huntress. Tradition says she wrote the 
copy, set the type, worked the press and delivered the papers 
herself. She wrote several books among which were a series 
significantly named the "Black Books." John Quincy Adams 
described her as going about "like a virago-errant in enchanted 
armor, redeeming herself from the cramps of indigence by the 
notoriety of her eccentricities and the forced currency they 
gave her publications." In traditions of Washington she is 
depicted as an attenuated person, of long, sour features and 
garbed in an outlandish fashion. Her unusual attire and queer 
headgear in the early days of her residence in Washington 
attracted a train of small boy followers. In answer to their 
merrymaking at her expense on one occasion, it is related, 
she stopped, took off her shoe and hurled it at the head of 
the nearest offender. This incident may be purely legendary, 
but that she was equal to it, one can readily believe. Writing 
of herself in 1827, in a letter to the Cassette, of Little Rock, 
Arkansas, she said: "I am a little old woman, with a very 
keen pen (it is said), 'fearless character and frank manners.' 
1 am the widow of a Revolutionary hero, who left me independ- 
ent, but was stript of my all by villains, and had no resource 
at my advanced age, (then fifty), but to take up my pen and 
have received the patronage of Presidents, Governors, Gen- 
erals, Judges and statesmen, and without one cent of money 
or one chanee of raiment when I sat out, I have done this." 



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Mrs. Annb Rotall. 345 

to take care of herself and ever ready to put her lance in rest 
and have a sharp tilt with any of the stalwarts of her day, who 
offended her, or possibly who failed to buy her books. She 
traveled everywhere and interviewed all notables, Joseph Bona* 
parte being among the number. In New York she invaded 
all the newspaper offices on one of her visits and on being re- 
ceived with scant courtesy by Chas. King, of the New York 
American she retaliated by putting him in her Black Book, roast- 
ing him with modem newspaper aptitude. In Boston she called 
on Jared Sparks, editor of the North American Review, and 
inquired why he had never noticed her books. "Ah," said he, 
with his softest smile, "you know, Mrs. Royall, I was afraid 
of you." 

Mrs. Royall in her "Sketches" by eulogizing DeWitt Qin- 
ton, incurred the animosity of the Bucktails, which found vent, 
according to her report, in no very genteel fashion. In conse- 
quence she waited upon Martin Van Buren, the leader of the 
opposition to Qinton, in Albany to discover the cause of the 
ill Reeling. She chronicled the interview with womanly atten- 
tion to detail. She wrote of it: "It was on this my second 
visit to Albany that I became acquainted with the Hon. M. 
Van Buren, the head of the opposition in the State of New 
York. It is understood that the state is divided into Qinton- 
ians and Bucktails. Finding myself assailed, not very genteely, 
by these selfsame Bucktails, I sat myself to learn the natur* 
of those distinctions and how I came to incur their displeasure 
in the publication of my book, which, it appeared, gave offense. 
I was much surprised to find that my 'Sketches' should have 
made no enemiesi, but those Bucktails ; and the more so as my 
book was an impartial representation of men and things, with- 
out regard to parties, of which I might well be supposed to 
be totally ignorant. Upon inquiry, I found that the Bucktails 
were opposed to Qinton, and the description I gave of him 
in the travels or sketches, displeased them. As my remarks 
on Governor Clinton were confined to an unequivocal descrip- 
tion of his person, I was naturally led to suspect that envy must 
be at the bottom of the case; and being told that Mr. Van 
Buren was at the head of the party and withal a very gentle- 
5 



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34^ The Ambrican Historical Magazine. 

manly man, I waited on him to come to a further understand- 
ing on the subject. He received me very politely indeed; and 
after our greeting, I informed him of the hostility of hi^ party 
toward my book; and as none of them seemed to understand 
the meaning of the word Bucktail, I was come to him for an 
explanation. With the greatest good humor in the world he 
explained the meaning and rise of the term, their political tenets 
and the cause of their dislike to Clinton. The Bucktails, as he 
stated, were the old Republican party, and were called Buck- 
tails from the Tammany Society. St. Tammany, of Indian race, 
gave rise to the society, who on certain days, such as anniver- 
saries wore bucktails in their hatsi From the word old, I asked 
if there were any new Republicans? I thought Mr. Van Buren 
seemed at a loss and at length he said that those who opposed 
the Bucktails were generally esteemed Federalists; (meaning 
the Qintonians). 

" 'Well, but why,' said I, 'should any man in New York dis- 
like Clinton, as he has proved himself the greatest friend to 
the State of any other man?' 

"He admitted that Clinton was a man of talents, and seemed 
to regret that the Bucktails had treated me with disrespect. 

"Mr. Van Buren is quite a young man, of middling height, 
and slight make ; his countenance open and benevolent ; in his 
manner he is affable and very pleasing; he is said to be a g^en- 
tleman of learning and uncommon talents. Since my inter- 
view with him, I have understood, that amongst the Bucktails, 
(the opposition to Qinton), are to be foimd Federalists as well 
as Republicans, and the same of the other party; and in faa 
if I were to judge of them by what I saw myself, I would say 
that many of them do not know what they are, and that their 
opposition to Qinton is merely the effect of envy. I do not, 
however, think so of Van Buren, as his talents must place him 
above reproach." 

Those of the present generation of Masonic connection will 
remember with keen interest the fireside stories of youthful 
days of the mysterious disappearance of William Morgan at 
the hands of the order, for revealing its secrets, the stories ran. 
It was during these times that the excitement over the disap- 



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Mrs. Anne Royaj^l. 347 

pearance of the man rose to the dignity of a political issue and 
the papers of the day teemed with the subject. It did not escape 
the notice of Mrs. Anne Royall. Her opinion upon the subject 
is interesting, though it can hardly be considered in the way 
of expert testimony. Despite the fact that she was a woman 
and opposition to secret orders in which they may not partici- 
pate is supposed to be innate in womankind, Mrs. Royall speaks 
of the Masons in the very highest terms. What Mrs. Royall 
had to say was as follows : 

"Apropos, speaking of the Masons, my opinion has often 
been asked of the Morgan affair. Since the public is pleased 
to honor me so far, I say that I believe the Morgan affair is a 
vile speculation to make money, and not only to make money 
but further designed as a political engine. The story, like the 
Juggernaut, operates upon the weak and ignorant; and the 
crafty and designing use it to their advantage. If Morgan was 
murdered, what of it? How many men are murdered daily 
without ascertaining by whom ! You cannot open a newspaper 
but you find a late murder. If the same fuss was made about 
every man murdered, of which no account can be given, it 
would exclude everything from the papers; the presses would 
fail. Why is Morgan, if he be murdered, more than any other 
man? If he be murdered, it was a wicked deed, and why not 
hang the murderer, if he can be found, and say no more about 
it than other murders ? But, say they, Morgan is certainly mur- 
dered, but we cannot find his body, or the murderer; nor can 
we obtain positive proof who was the murderer. Then, how 
can you say he is certainly murdered? The face of the thing 
proves its absurdity. Will any sober man say that, taking into 
view the number engaged in this farce, bitter and enraged as 
they pretend to be, with every civil officer in the United States 
at their service, if they thought proper to call on them, the>; 
could not in all this time detect the murderer? But there were 
more than one murderer — then it is the easier detected. If 
the murderers cannot be found, it proves either that there are 
none to find, or that you have not done your duty in search- 
ing for him. This Morgan story is exactly like the witches 
of Salem; and nothing keeps those fanatics from cutting the 



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348 Thb Ambrican Historical Magazinb. 

throats of every Mason in New York, but the laws; it is not 
their goodness keeps them from it. This Morgan plan is a 
match for the missionary scheme to raise money; and like 
them, they are now aiming at power. But the Masons — ^they 
are heretics too. Was not General Washington a good man? 
He was a Mason. Was not General La Fayette a good man? 
He was a Mason. Was not Doctor Franklin a good man? He 
was a Mason. Was not DeWitt Clinton a good man ? He was 
a Mason. These are enough. Now all these are not only the 
best, but the greatest men in the world. 

'These silly men might as well attempt to pluck the sun and 
moon out of the heavens, as to destroy Masonry, as old as the 
deluge. And to give my opinion of it in a few words, if it were 
not for Masonry, the world would have become a herd of sav- 
ages. Like the fire on the altar, they are the only class of 
men that have preserved charity and benevolence alive; that 
sacred spark which came down from heaven, has been pre- 
served by Masons. What more it consists of, I know not, 
(for I have never looked in Morgan); this was enough, and 
more than any other human institution can boast. Masonry 
can boast of the best men, and best Christians, since the world 
began. My husband, well known to have been one of the most 
respectable men, and descended from one of the most respect- 
able families in America, uniformly told me, it was the great- 
est institution in the world, and that if I should ever happen 
to be in distress, to call on them. This I have found to be 
true; when Christians, so called, the godly missionaries, shut 
their doors on me, the Masons opened theirs." 

It was in July, 1830, that Mrs. Royall paid her respects to 
Nashville being in the Southwest then gathering material for 
.another Black Book, and she got it. At that time Nashville 
was a place of no small importance in the Southwest and sup- 
norted two oaoers. one edited bv Allen A. Hall, who later be- 



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Mrs. Annb Royau. 349 

in the interval, Dr. Nye was occupying the Republican's tripod. 
Commenting on the omission she said, "As for Mr. Hunt I 
saw at once he was bought up; but the RepMican, I ex- 
pected, would have more indef>endence, yet to my astonish- 
ment Dr. Nye, who edits the paper in Hall's absence, came 
to my room the evening before his paper came out and said: 
*I have been so unwell this week I have not been able to write 
any editorial article/ I saw through him, and handing him 
a dollar, requested him to say, 'Mrs. Royal is in Nashville ;' that 
my friends might know where I was. He refused. Doubtless 
he got more on the other side." The editors subsequent to 
Mrs. Royairs departure for Cincinnati and Louisville did chroni- 
cle her visit as Dr. Nye had promised at the time of the tender 
of the dollar when he observed, "we are not in the habit of 
flattering people to their faces," reserving the good things the 
paper had to say until her departure. 

In high dudgeon, Mrs. Royall took her pen in hand and 
wrote a letter to the Murfreesboro Courier, pronouncing Nash- 
ville in the hands of the aristocrats and done for until the 
aristocracy was put down. She declared the editors bought 
up and hoped that every honorable man in Tennessee would 
withdraw his patronage from men who no longer were de- 
serving of support. The letter was a characteristic one, such 
a philippic as tradition says Mistress Anne was wont to pour 
upon the offending heads of those failing to accord to her the 
distinction which she felt was her due. 



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350 The American Historical Magazine. 



MAJOR GEORGE W. L. MARR. 



[Contributed]. 

**Died — On the 5th inst., Major George W. L. Marr, aged 
about 75 years. He served and was wounded in the Creek 
war under General Jackson, and in 181 5 was elected to Congress 
from the Clarksville district. In 1821, he removed to Obion 
county, where he has ever since lived and several times repre- 
sented that county in the Legislature." — Memphis Bulletin, 
Septetmber 25, 1856. 

This brief notice, of which the above is a copy, is perhaps 
the only published record of a man of wealth and prominence 
in his day and deserves reproduction for the purpose of pres- 
ervation. 

Major Marr was probably a native of Virginia, was a rela- 
tive of the Perkins, Hardeman and other pioneer families of 
Middle Tennessee. He lived in or near Clarksville in early 
life, was Attorney-General for West Tennessee, 1807-1809; 
Attorney-General for the Fifth District, 1809-1813 ; Representa- 
tive for the Sixth Tennessee District in the Fifteenth Congress 
1817-1819; member of the Constitutional Convention for Weak- 
ley and Obion, 1834; Representative for Weakley and Obion 
in the Tennessee General Assembly, 1845. (Miller's Manual 
of Tennessee). 

He died at his residence on Island Number 10 in the Missis- 
sippi river, leaving an estate in lands and personalty amount- 
ing to over two hundred thousand dollars, the division of which 
among his children resulted in the noted Marr will case, re- 
ported in 5th Sneed. The case was warmly contested and the 



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Major Gborgb W. L. Marr. 351 

peal prayed from the verdict of the jury and the ruling of the 
trial judge, Hon. William Fitzgerald, the veteran who defeated 
?.nd was in turn defeated by Davy Crockett for Congress. It 
is tradition that Hon. J. D. C. Atkins of Paris, a member of 
the Federal and Confederate Congresses, refused a retainer of 
$1,000 to engage in the case, feeling that the offer sprung more 
from a belief in his popularity and influence with the jury in 
the case than from his knowledge and skill in the law, which 
profession he never followed beyond securing license to prac- 
tice, motives of delicacy suggesting that a lawyer should be 
prepared to represent his client at every point before engag- 
ing himself. 



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352 The Ambrican Historical Magazinb. 



ANNALS OF A SCOTCH-IRISH FAMILY: THE WHIT- 
SITTS, OF NASHVILLE, TENN. 



BY WILLIAM H. WHITSITT, RICHMOND COLLEGE, RICHMOND, VA 



esse quam yideri bonus tnalebat. Sallust, Catiline, Cap. LIV. 

Menees Family of Nashville, — ^The Nashville pioneer James 
Menees lived to a great age. He died in Neely's Bend, and 
his will that had been made on the third of September, 1833, 
was recorded on the 6th of November, 1837. It was witnessed 
by Alexander Walker and Samuel Neely, and the executors 
were James Whitsitt, Samuel Whitsitt, John Menees, J. R. 
Dabbs and James Thomas. His children are mentioned as 
follows, namely, Elender Cochran, Nancy McFarland, Margaret 
Wray, Susan Stanley, John Menees, Mary Wray, Elizabeth 
Ham and Jane Whitsitt. I have already given some account 
of the descendants of Jane Whitsitt, and it remains to record 
such items regarding the other children as may be in my pos- 
session. 

The will indicates that three of the children had passed away 
before it was made in 1833, namely, Elender Cochran, Susan 
Stanley and Elizabeth Ham. Elender Cochran seems to have 
been the wife of John Cochran, and both of them were raeni- 
bers of Mill Creek Church in the year 1800. The fact that 
they left heirs is mentioned in the will, but I have no knowl- 
edge whatever regarding these. Margaret Wray had three chil- 
dren, and Susan Stanley had heirs, but their number and names 
are not recorded. The document does not declare whether 
Mary Wray had issue or not. 

McFarland Family, — The third itemf of the will reads as fol- 
lows: "I give to my daughter Nancy McFarland, one-eighth 
of the above money, except three hundred dollars, two of which 
hundred I give to Elizabeth Davis, my granddaughter, the other 
hundred I pve to James M. Davis, my G. g^ndson." Since 
Nancy McFarland was my maternal great grandmother I wish 



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Annai,s op a Scotch-Irish Family. 353 

to set down here a few items regarding her descendants, John 
McFarland the husband of Nancy Menees was a Scotch-Irish- 
man, and they were married in the fort at Nashville during the 
year 1783. Their oldest child, James McFarland, seems to have 
been named in honor of James Menees,, and was born in the 
Nashville fort on the loth of January, 1784. The other chil- 
dren were Elizabeth, John, Andrew, Anne, Jane, Nancy and 
Benjamin Menees McFarland. 

Family tradition declares that John McFarland was a son of 
a certain Duncan McFarland of Ireland, who married a Miss 
Porter, daughter of a sea captain of that name, but it is not 
certain whether he belonged to the naval or to the merchant 
marine. However, the McFarlands have been very proud of 
this connection, and in all subsequent generations the name 
Porter has been freely employed. Thomas McFarland, a brother 
of John's, was also a pioneer settler of Nashville, and had a 
son named Robert Porter McFarland. The name is often found 
among the descendants of John McFarland. 

Bilbro Family, — ^James McFarland, the oldest son of the afore- 
said John McFarland, married Miss Dicey Bilbro. The first 
of that name in America seems to have been William Bill- 
brough, who appeared in James City County, one of the eight 
original shires of the Colony of Virginia, in the year 1634, 
(Va. Hist. Mag., vii, 192). The records of the County of James 
Qty were removed from Williamsburgh, the county seat, early 
in the Confederate war, and carried up to Richmond for safe 
keeping, where they were all destroyed in the great fire that 
swept over the capital city after its evacuation in April, 1865. 
For this reason it appears impossible adequately to trace the 
history of the Bilbros in the State of Virginia. By some process 
the ancestors of Dicey Bilbro became established in Surry, 
the county opposite James City, on the south side of James 
river. In the Surry County records Book i, page 344, is found 
an indenture that was made on the 20th of July, 1669, between 
Thomas Bilbrough, of Virginia, Planter and James Elson, of 
the county of Surry, Joyner, in which Bilbrough conveys to 
Elson one hundred acres of land "for Ever in as full & Ample 
manner as I my Selfe have hold possess & Enjoy by virtue of 



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354 I'hb American Historical Magazine. 

my Godfather Wm. Aybrough's will wherein he made me heire 
of the aforesaid hundred Acres of Land." 

The relation between this Thomas Bilbrough and John Bil- 
bro of Surry County, the grandfather of Dicey Bilbro, is un- 
known to me. The will of John Bilbro is recorded in Will 
Book No. lo of Surry County, page 277 (annis 1768-1779). It 
was signed and acknowledged on the 5th of February, 1773, 
and proved before the court after his decease on the 23d of 
March, 1773. John Bilbro was a more than usually wealthy 
citizen. He held a large landed estate in Surry County, and 
in the year 1769, had begun to branch out and purchase land 
in Warren County, North Carolina. His personal property was 
appraised at about six thousand dollars in our present currency, 
the largest item of it being 27 valuable negro slaves. It was 
perhaps less than ten miles from his home to Jamestown, the 
first permanent settlement by white men on the American con- 
tinent; and less than twenty miles to Williamsburgh, at that 
time the capital city and center of the highest life in the Ancient 
Dominion. 

By his will John Bilbro had directed that after his youngest 
son Thomas should reach the age of fourteen years, his land 
on Shocco Creek in Warren County, N. C, should be sold and 
the proceeds divided between his five sons, Benjamin, Berry- 
man, Burwell, Barnett and Thomas. He also directed that 
after the death of his wife, Betty Bilbro, the plantation in Surry 
should be sold, and the proceeds of it, together with the negroes 
and other personal property should also be divided between 
them. Betty Bilbro, the widow, Drury Barker and Benjamin 
Bilbro, the eldest son, were named as executors. 

The War of the Revolution broke out shortly afterwards 
greatly disturbing values and expectations. But a still worse ca- 
lamity, if possible, befell the children. Betty Bilbro, the wife and 
mother, was induced to take a certain Mr. Howard for a second 
husband. If provision had been made to remove her from 
her functions as executrix after that event, much injury might 
apparently have been avoided. At any rate, there is room for 



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Annaw of a Scotch-Irish Famii^y. 355 

found it possible to rescue very little from the wreck of their 
father's once ample estate. 

Berryman Bilbro, the second son, married Dicey Charles, 
about the close of the Revolutionary War and went to reside 
on Shocco Creek in Warren County, N. C, where his father 
had owned lands. Dicey Bilbro was his oldest child, and the 
family tradition reports that she was born there in the year 
1784. Two years later, on the nth of February, 1786, when 
it is supposed that Thomas Bilbro had reached the fourteenth 
year of his age, Berryman Bilbro, who is now declared to be 
of Warren County, and the State of North Carolina, purchased 
two hundred acres of his father's land on the south side of 
Great Shocco Creek, paying therefor the sum of £160, current 
money of Virginia, to Betty Howard and Benjamin Bilbro, 
executors of John Bilbro, deceased. Special reference is made 
in the deed to the will of the testator under the conditions 
of which the sale had been made. 

Dicey Charles, the wife of Berryman Bilbro, is supposed to 
have been derived from a family of that name, that was early 
established in James City County. On the 8th of April, 1655, 
Philip Charles obtained from Governor Edward Digges a patent 
for 140 acres of land "lying upon the Southermost branch of 
Warreny Creek on the east side of Chickahominy river," said 
land being due unto him for the transportation of three per- 
sons into the colony. (Virginia Royal Patents, vol. 4, p. 28). 
Likewise on the 7th of March, 1658, he obtained from Governor 
Samuel Mathews another patent for 1550 acres, also situated 
upon Chickahominy river in the County of James City. (Vir- 
ginia Patents, Vol. IV, p. 358). The given name Dicey, which 
appears to have been a favorite name in the Charles family, 
was once widely employed in the State of Virginia. It is sup- 
posed to have been derived from the classic name Eurydice 
that was so popular among the Greeks. A woman of that 
name was the wife of Nestor, king of Pylos ; another was the 
wife of Orpheus, and for her sake he descended into the lower 
world; another was the wife of Acrisios and the mother of 
Danae from whom Perseus sprang. Certainly it is a name of 



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356 Thb American Historical Magazine. 

excellent origin, distinction and significance, and it would seem 
a pity that it should have gone out of style. 

Benjamin Bilbro had signed the deed to his brother Berry- 
man, first in the name of Betty Howard, his mother, and sec- 
ondly in his own name, since both of them were executors of 
John Bilbro. (Warren County Deed-Book ix, 96). 'Nearly 
two years later, however, on the 31st of January, 1788, Benja- 
min Bilbro, of the County of Surry and Colony of Virginia, sells 
Peter Cox, of the County of Warren and State of North Caro- 
lina, one hundred acres of land, and the deed was witnessed 
by Berryman Bilbro and John Lanier. (Warren Deed-Book 
xiv, 81). The fact that this land, which had cost John Bilbro 
the sum of i8o in 1769, should have been sold to Cox for £30 
in 1788, and that it was conveyed by Benjamin Bilbro alone, 
without any reference to Betty Howard, seems to indicate a 
sort of struggle on the part of the Bilbro heirs to rescue a 
portion of their father's estate. Whether Berryman Bilbro 
was enabled to bring his share of the slaves and other property 
of his father out of Virginia is not known to me. 

Finally on the 24th of November, 1795, Berryman Bilbro 
sold to Thomas E. Sumner, of Warren County, the 200 acres 
of land that he had obtained from his father's estate by pur- 
chase in the year 1786. (Warren Deed-Book xvii, 46), and 
shortly afterwards turned his face toward the western coun- 
try. The amount obtained for the land was five hundred dol- 
lars "current money of the United States," an expression that 
introduces a new note in financial transactions. It is supposed 
that this sum represented the bulk of the property at that mo- 
ment found in the possession of the family. They appear to 
have made strong exertions to obtain something more from 
the wreck of their fortunes in Surry County, Va., but without 
avail. They must have arrived in Tennessee about the close 



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Annals op a Scotch-Irish Family. 357 

that James, the eldest son of John McFarland, was united in 
marriage with Dicey, the eldest daughter of Berryman Bilbro. 
Here the Scotch-Irish blood of the Menees and McFarland 
families flowed together with the old English blood of the Bil- 
bros. The men of the Menees tribe have often been prudent 
and fortunate in the selection of wives, but it may be questioned 
whether any woman has ever entered the family by marriage 
who contributed so much to its dignity and prosperity as Dicey 
Bilbro. 

The children of this couple were John, Nancy, William 
Heath, Dicey Ann, James Porter, Sarah^ Jane Rachel, Frances 
E. and Martha. The only one of these who failed to marry 
and found a family was William Heath. He was born on the 
25th of March, 1817, and died on the 17th of September, 1838, 
being 21 years, 5 months and 22 days old. His mother, Dicey 
Bilbro McFarland, always cherished the warmest affection and 
veneration for her uncle, William Heath, of Virginia. He had 
visited the family of her father in Warren County, North Caro- 
lina, and had commended himself in a sf>ecial manner by s)rm- 
pathy and counsel in connection with their misfortunes in the 
ancient Surry home, and she could never forget his worth and 
kindness. 

The Heaths are an ancient family in America and seem to 
be derived from Sir Robert Heath, who in 1629 obtained a 
charter for a grant of land to the southward of Virginia, known 
as the Province of Carolina, which has been copied in full in 
the Colonial Recordsi published by the State of North Carolina 
(vol. I, pp. S-13). This vast territory occupied all the country 
l)dng between the 30th and 36th degrees of north latitude, and 
has been pronounced the most extensive possession ever owned 
by an individual subject. So far as I can perceive the family 
were not known in Surry County before 1681. In June of that 
year a list of tithables was taken by Benjamin Harrison in the 
district "from Sunken Marsh upwards," and Adam Heath was 
one of them, but it is not in my power to trace the descent 
from him down to the William Heath in question; nor is it 
clear whether the relationship with the Heaths had been estab- 
lished through the Bilbro or the Charles family. However, 



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358 Thb American Historicai. Magazine. 

it existed, and Dicey Bilbro was very pleased to name her 
second son in honor of her beloved uncle, William Heath. But 
William Heath McFarland found an untimely death, being car- 
ried off by an attack of typhoid fever, and the name William 
Heath was shortly afterwards bestowed upon me. I have 
sought to wear it with the respect and dignity that belong to 
it ; but since it has been written in various ways, as Heath, and 
Heeth, and Heth, I selected the shortest form, but have not 
altered the mode of prontmciation, for the vowel "e" always 
receives the long sound. 

John McFarland, M.D., the tallest as well as the oldest mem- 
ber of the family, measured six feet and seven inches in stature. 
He was a versatile, brilliant man, and enjoyed much success 
in his profession at Paris in Henry County. On several oc- 
casions he was a member of the State Legislature. He mar- 
ried Miss America S. Cook, a daughter of Judge Cook of Paris, 
who was greatly esteemed, and from her the name "America" 
has been widely adopted in the family. Dr. McFarland passed 
away in early life, leaving one child, John Porter McFarland 
who was bom after the decease of his father. John Porter Mc- 
Farland also chose the medical profession after the example of 
his father. He married Miss Pauline Anderson, a daughter of 
Churchill Anderson, Esq., of Lebanon, Tenn. I have already 
indicated, page 123, above, the manner in which the name 
Churchill became established in this family. They had two chil- 
dren, Pauline Porter and Churchill. The former married Mr. 
Gilruth, of Yazoo City, Miss., and the latter married Miss Linda 
Johnson. No issue in either case. 

On the 14th of August, 1856, Mrs. America McFarland mar- 
ried A. R. Davis, Esq., a merchant of Lebanon, as her second 
husband. 

James Porter McFarland likewise began his career as a doc- 
tor of medicine in West Tennessee. In 1849 he was seized 
with the gold fever and made his way to California, where he 
acquired a large property and returned to Middle Tennessee 



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Annals op a Scotch-Irish Family. 359 

They had six children as follows : Jamie, John Downey, Craig, 
Charles, Hayes and Lonsdale. 

Jamie McFarland, the only daughter of the family, married 
Mr. William Cantrell. No issue. 

John Downey, named in honor of Governor Downey, who 
was long his father's business partner in California, died without 
issue. 

Craig McFarland married Miss Priscilla Cunningham. Issue : 
Eulalie and Elizabeth. 

Charles is a prosf>erous business man in Texas, where he 
married Miss Eloise McAfee. Issue: eight children, of whom 
the names of only six are known to me, namely ; James, Porter, 
Eloise, Charles, Eulalia, Frederick and Emily. 

Hayes McFarland married Miss Caroline Edelman. No issue. 
Both of the above reside at Weatherford, Texas. 

Lonsdale McFarland married Miss Elizabeth Crow, and has 
two children, Lyon Childress and Lonsdale Porter. 

Nancy, the oldest daughter of James and Dicey (Bilbro) Me- 
Farland, married Harvey Peyton, Esq., who resided near 
Hebron Church, four miles west of Lebanon. The children 
of this union were Fanny, Lafayette, Jane, Elizabeth, James and 
John. 

Fanny Peyton married Mr. Green White. Issue: Harvey, 
John Porter and other children. 

Lafayette Peyton married a Miss Clayton, of Rutherford 
County. No issue. 

Jane married Mr. Westbrook, who was a student from 
Mississippi, in the faculty of law at Cumberland University. 
Issue : Nancy and Charles Westbrook. Nancy Westbrook mar- 
ried Mr. Eddins and has issue. Charles married Miss Lucy 
Winfrey. Issue: Leon, Charles and Erin. 

Elizabeth Peyton married Rufus Anderson, Esq., of Lebanon, 
Tennessee. They removed to Arkansas, where Mr. Anderson 
died leaving behind three children, namely; Rufus, Stonewall, 
and a daughter. Stonewall is a highly esteemed Methodist 
minister. 

James Peyton married Miss Mary Price, and they have sev- 
eral children, whose names are unknown to me. Both James 



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36o Thk American Historical Magazine. 

and Lafayette Pe)rton and also Green White, reside in Rockwall 
County, near Dallas, Texas. 

John Peyton was a member of the Seventh Regiment of 
Tennessee Infantry, commanded by Colonel Robert Hattotk 
He entered the Battle of Seven Pines, near Richmond, Va., 
with his regiment in June, 1862, and has never been heard of. 

After the death of her first husband Mrs. Nancy Peyton mar- 
ried Captain William Major. 

Sarah McFarland married Mr. John G. Swingley, who was of 
German extraction and whose forbears had belonged for ages 
to the Reformed German Church of the Rhenish Palatinate. 
The Swingleys are numerous in Maryland, and this family may 
have come from that State. The issue of this marriage were 
six children, namely : James, Martha, William, Thomas, America 
and George Swingley. 

James Swingley was a soldier in the Confederate Army. Af- 
ter the war he married Miss Dora Owen. Issue : Guy, Leon, 
John and Pearl Owen. 

Martha Swingley married James Harrison. Issue : Answorth, 
Henry and Eulalia. 

Answorth married Miss Hattie Powell; Henry married Miss 
McConnell; and Eulalia married Richard Dew. 

William Swingley married Miss Atkinson, and his brother 
Thomas married Miss Owen. 

America Swingley married Gardner Guill. Issue : Sarah, Ed- 
ine, Stella, Eugene. Of these Sarah married Samuel Wright, and 
they have two children ; Edine married Wiley Williams ; Stella 
and Eugene are still unmarried. 

George, the youngest child of the Swingley family, is like- 
wise married, but the name of his wife isi unknown to me. 

Jane Rachel, the fourth daughter of James and Dicey Bilbro 
McFarland, married Colonel James Hamilton, one of the most 
prominent and useful citizens of Wilson County. He was re- 



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Annals op a Scotch-Irish Family. 361 

Nancy Porter married Rev. Wesley G. Miller, D.D., who 
was for a whole generation a distinguished figure in the Meth- 
odist Church. He held prominent charges in many cities, and 
died at Louisville, Ky., where he was pastor of the Broadway 
Methodist Church. The issue of this marriage were Minnie, 
William, Jennie, America, Wesley Corprew and Nancy. 

Minnie Miller married Captain Ernest Hines of the United 
States Army. Issue : Margery and John Hamilton Hines. 

William is a successful physician in Little Rock, Ark., 
where his mother resides with him. Jennie Miller is not mar- 
ried. America Miller married Mr. Frank Cochran of Mem- 
phis. Wesley Corprew and Nancy Miller are unmarried. 

America Hamilton married Mr. Charles Perry, of St. Joseph, 
Missouri. Issue: America, John and Robert Perry. 

America Perry married Rev. H. E. Truex, a prominent and 
successful Baptist minister of Mexico, Mo. Issue : Eldon, Rachel 
and Aubrey Truex. 

John Perry married Josephine Seay. Issue: America, John 
and Charles. 

Robert Perry is also married and resides in California. 

John Hamilton married Miss Nellie White. Issue: Roger 
and Courtney Hamilton, both of whom are unmarried. 

James Hamilton married Miss Ruth Powell. Issue: James, 
Robert, Porter Price, John Perry, Samuel Stratton and Finney 
Hamilton, all unmarried. 

Emma Hamilton married John L. Jones, of Columbia, Tenn. 
Issue: James, John L., Emma, Hattie, Horace and Eliza- 
beth Jones. James and John L. are both married; the others 
are unmarried. 

Robert Hamilton, named in honor of Colonel Robert Hatton, 
who fell at the Battle of Seven Pines, near Richmond, Va., 
married Miss Olie Hundley. They have two children and reside 
at Kansas City, Mo. 

Frances E., the fifth daughter of James and Dicey (Bilbro) 
McFarland, married Thomas E. Williamson, of Green Hill, 
Wilson County. Several of my happiest years were passed 
under his roof as a pupil of the Academy at Mount Juliet. 
I owe much to this noble uncle and aunt. Their children were 
6 



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^ ThB AjfSUCAN HlSTCMLICAI. MAGAZmt. 

John ^Ainiain, Martha Hanoah, Dkey Aline, GecM-ge, Fraaces 
Emihg, Sarah America and LeUa Pearl. 

John William, bom August jo, 1848, studied for several 
years at the University of Virginia, where I had the honor to 
be his roommate during the session of 1866-1867. He married 
Miss Talitha WiUiamscm. Issue: William, George, OKria. 
Frances, Thomas. 

Martha Hannah, bom At^^ust 27, 1850, was first married to 
C^tain Andrew Baird. Issue : Andrewna. Her second fansband 
was Mr. W. W. Shute. Issue : Ewing and Jeanette. All of them 
are unmarried. 

Dicey Aline married John Stroud. Issue : Katherine, Frances, 
Lilian, Johnnie and Helen Stroud. 

Katherine married Bishop Dorris. No issue. Frances married 
Thomas Grizzard and died without issue. Lilian married Charia 
Cartwright. No issue. Johnnie married Dr. Thaxton GuiH 
No issue. Helen is unmarried. 

George Williamson died unmarried 

Frances Ewing Williamson married Granville Johnson. Issue : 
Granville and Sophia Johnson. 

Sarah America Williamson married Dr. Edgar Blair. Issue : 
Julian, Frank, lone and Edgar. 

Lelia Pearl Williamson is unmarried. 

Martha McFarland, the youngest and cheeriest member of 
the family of James and Dicey McFarland, married Mr. James 
H. Scales, a merchant of Triune, in Williamson County, who 
later removed to Gibson County, Tenn. Mr. Scales was 
a widower and had one daughter, Lavinia Kelley Scales, br 
a former marriage. She married Mr. Calvin Ferrell, a banker 
at Humboldt, and both of them have been greatly honcM-ed and 
loved by the members of the family. It is a sincere satisfactk>n 
to record their names in this connection. 

The children of James and Martha McFarland Scales were 
Fanny, Sarah, Elizabeth, Theophilus Gentry, William and Mar- 
tha Lee. 

Fanny Scales married Mr. Edward Fox and had issue. Sarah 
Elizabeth married Mr. Pearcy, of Jackson, and has two dat^^ 
ters. Theophilus Gentry married and has one child, a dat^ter. 



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AwXAhS OF A SCOTCH-I&ISH FAMILY. 563 

WflUam is an oculist of distinction at Pine Bluff, Ark., and has 
been married twice. Martha is unmarried. 

Only two of the nine diildren of the McFarland family are 
still alive, namely, Mrs. Jane R. Hamilton and Mrs. Frances E. 
Williamson. 

John and Nancy (Menees) McFarland had a daughter named 
Elizabeth whose existence was unknown to me until I read 
the will of James Menees. She had married a Mr. Davis, and 
James Menees app)ears to have regarded her with kindlier solici- 
tude than was bestowed by him upon any other of his grand- 
children, reserving two hundred dollars out of the share of Nancy 
McFarland for her especial benefit, and one hundred dollars 
for the benefit of her son, James M. Davis. Mrs Susan Curd, 
of Wilson County, is said to have been descended from Eliza- 
beth Davis. I remember Dr. John Curd and his brother, William 
Curd, as also two of his sisters, one of whom married Mr. 
Harvey Freeman, and the other Mr. William Dodson, of the 
Hermitage neighborhood. 

John, the third child of John and Nancy (Menees) McFar- 
land, married Sarah, a sister of Dicey Bilbro. His daughter, 
Dicey McFarland, married Mr. Alanson W)aine, and James Mc- 
Farland, M.D., who resided east of Lebanon, was his son. Dr. 
William McFarland, a son of the aforesaid James McFarland, 
M.D., is at present practicing his profession in Lebanon, Tenn. 

Arthur, the next child of John and Nancy (Menees) McFar- 
land, married Miss HoUen Brinson, daughter of Rev. James 
Brinson, a Baptist minister of Davidson County. The Brin- 
son family are said to have come to Tennessee from Soutli 
Carolina. Their oldest child, James Brinson McFarland, was 
bom in 1816; their second child, John Porter McFarland was 
bom in 1818 ; William Arthur McFarland in 1820 ; Nancy Jane 
McFarland, who married Mr. Graves, was born in 1822, and 
Joseph Friend McFarland in 1824. The above five children 
ivere all bora in Tennessee, but in the year 1826 Arthur Mc- 



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364 Thb Ambkican Historical Magazinb. 

bom in 1828; Haywood Alford McFarland was born in 1833; 
Hollen Laura McFarland, who married Mr. Simmons, and died 
at Homer, La., in 1894, was born in 1835; Roselma McFar- 
land, who married Mr. Hardy and died in 1892, was bom in 
1840. Besides the above ten children who all founded families, 
there were three others, George Washington, Talitha C. and 
Patrick Henry McFarland, who died without issue. 

The above was a family of decidedly Baptist tendencies in 
religious belief. Mr. James Brinson, the father-in-law of 
Arthur McFarland was an ordained Baptist minister before 
he removed from Tennessee to Louisiana in the year 1820. 
(Faxton, History of the Baptists of Louisiana, St. Louis, 1888, 
page 238). There he became the earliest teacher of Baptist 
tmth in the vast Ouachita region, and his family were in 
hearty sympathy with him. The historian mentioned above 
affirms that Arthur McFarland came to Louisiana in company 
with Mr. Brinson in the year 1820, but the McFarland family 
of Louisiana are stout in the affirmation that they did not 
arrive before the year 1826. James Brinson, who had induced 
Ihem to remove passed away on the 5th of September, 1831, 
(Paxton, page 515), and in 1843, his son-in-law, Arthur McFar- 
land is mentioned as having entered the Baptist ministry (Pax- 
ton, page 51). Mr. Brinson had settled at what is now known 
as Vienna. James Brinson McFarland, Joseph Friend McFar- 
land and Elizabeth Ann McFarland resided at Athens, and 
Haywood Alford McFarland at Mt. Lebanon, La. John 
Porter McFarland was a Methodist minister and passed away 
in 1873, leaving behind him a beloved and venerated name. 

Anne, the fifth child of John and Nancy (Menees) McFarland, 
married Mr. Somers and shortly afterwards removed to West 
Tennessee. Their children were Ann, James and John Somers. 
Mrs. Anna M. Gilchrist, of Nashville, was derived from this 
branch. It is matter of regret that I should have so little to 
relate conceminer a family that is held in sincere respect by 



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Annals op a Scotch- Irish Family. 365 

land, married the Rev. Lewis Lindsey, a Baptist minister of 
Wilson County. Their children were James and John and 
Susan and Nancy. James Lindsey went early to Texas, where 
he established himself at Gainesville, and rose to opulence and 
dignity. He is married and has a family. His brother, John, 
also went to Texas where he married and had two children. One 
of the daughters married her kinsman, John Menees, and resides 
in Neely's Bend, but I have not learned what became of the other. 

Nancy, the seventh child of John and Nancy McFarland, mar- 
ried William Bilbro, a brother of Dicey Bilbro. Their daughter, 
Eliza, married Mr. Jarman, near Murfreesboro. One of her sons 
is the Rev. L. B. Jarman. Dr. Bilbro, of Murfreesboro, also 
belongs to this family. 

The youngest child of John and Nancy (Menees) McFar- 
land was Benjamin Menees, who married Miss Young, a sis- 
ter of 'Squire William Young of Wilson County, and removed 
to West Tennessee. His children were John, Ann, Jane and 
Benjamin Menees. 

John was a merchant at Como, and died before the war be- 
tween the States. He left issue, but I have no informatiton 
regarding them. 

Ann McFarland married first Mr. Joseph William Qark, 
who passed away in early Hfe, leaving behind a son. She af- 
terwards married a Mr. Seat, residing near Humboldt, by whom 
she has issue. 

Her sister, Jane McFarland, married Dr. Bethshares, of Hmn- 
boldt, and had issue. Likewise the youngest brother, Benja- 
min Menees, Jr., married and had issue. 

Family of John Menees. — He was the only male heir of James 
Menees, all the other s^ven children being daughters. John 
Menees also kept to the original seat of the family in Neely's 
Bend. He married Miss Elizabeth Coffee, who came from South 
Carolina into Tennessee. The children of this union, were a 
daughter, whose name has not been recovered, but who mar- 
ried a Mr. Anthony and removed to Indiana, then John, Ellen, 
Henry, Eliza, James and Benjamin Menees. 

Having no information regarding the Anthony family, who 
went early to Indiana, and have now almost lost touch with 



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36d TffB Ambrican Historical Magazixe. 

their kindred in Tennessee, I will set down such notices re*- 
garding the other children as I have been enabled to collect. 

John, the oldest son, married his cousin, Mary Ham, daugh- 
ter of Samuel and Elizabeth Ham of Mill Creek Valley. He 
died early leaving behind a daughter, Minerva Menees. This 
daughter married first Mr. John Going: no issue. After the 
Confederate War she became the second wife of the Rev. E. D. 
Stephenson. Issue: two sons and one daughter. One of the 
sons is named Eaton Stephenson. 

Mrs. Mary (Ham) Menees, the mother of Minerva Menees 
above, also married a second time, her husband being Joseph 
W. Dabbs, a son of the Rev. Richard Dabbs, of Virginia, who 
went to Nashville in the year 1821 and died as pastor of the 
First Baptist Church of that city on the 21st of May, 1825. 
The issue of this marriage were Eliza John, who died at Columbia, 
Tenn., where she had been entered as a student in a female 
academy, and Lucy Dabbs. Joseph Dabbs resided on the estate 
of Samuel Ham, after the decease of the latter in the year 1856; 
and after the war between the States, his daughter Lucy mar- 
ried Alfred Gregory. One of Mr. Gregory's children. Miss 
May Belle Gregory, was pronounced the most beautiful woman 
in America. She married Silas Brackin of Murfreesboro, and 
was accidentally burned to death at her home on the 25th of 
November, 1903. 

Ellen, the next child of John and Elizabeth (Coffee) Menees, 
married James Thomas. The first father of the Thomas family 
is supposed to have come from Virginia to Tennessee. About 
the year 1800, he established himself on a farm a few miles 
west of Lebanon in Wilson County, where he passed away, 
leaving a widow and three sons, James, Wilson and William 
Thomas. The mother of these children in due season married 
a second husband, who removed with her to the State of Illi- 
nois ; but before her departure she apprenticed the lads to learn 
the saddler's trade in Nashville. Though they had been thus 
left tt) their own resources the sons appear to have retained 
sincere respect and affection for their mother. She was still 



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Annals of a ScotchJw»h Family. 367 

horseback to Illinois, to visit her and solaqe her declining agne. 
Doubtless she was thankful for the affection of her children, 
and proud of their strength and valor; but if she could have 
foreseen the eminence and usefulness to which their posterity 
should attain, her heart would have been thrilled with still 
higher joys. 

The children of Ellen and James Thomas were William J., 
John W., James and Ellen. 

William J. Thomas married Miss Helen Caney, of Bowling 
Green, Ky. Issue: Anna, Ellen, James A. and Lily Thcwnas. 

Anna married Mr. Oscar Hundley of Huntsville, Ala., and 
died without issue about ten years ago; Ellen died without 
issue; Lily married Mr. Trabue of Nashville, a civil engineer 
on the N. & C. R. R. ; James A. Thomas married Miss Baxter, 
a stepdaughter of Judge Edward Baxter, and resides in Atlan- 
ta, Geor^a. 

John W. Thomas was educated at the University in Mur- 
freesboro and married there Elizabeth, the only daughter of 
his uncle, Wilson Thomas. To this union were bom two chil- 
dren, John W., Jr., and Ellen. The latter died unmarried. John 
W. Thomas, Jr., is sup)erintendent of the N. C. & St. Louis 
Railroad, and married Miss Dilla Duncan, daughter of a former 
wholesale merchant of Nashville. They have one son and three 
daughters. Tlie oldest of the daughters is named Ellen. 

After the death of his first wife. Major Thomas married Miss 
DeBow of Nashville. For more than a generation John W. 
Thomas has been in charge of the Nashville, Chattanooga and 
St. Louis Railroad, and in many other ways a leading force and 
figure in the affairs of Tennessee. In the spring of 1845, he 
went with his grandfather, John Menees, across the Cumber- 
land from Neely's Bend to visit General Jackson at the Hermit- 
age, where he was reported to be suffering with what might 
prove his last illness. The boy was thrilled with a strong emo- 
tion as the old hero lifted up his hand, now become thin and- 
bony from wasting disease, and laid it in reverent benediction 
upon his head. If the mantle of leadership then fell upon the 
patriarch's successor, it was a kindlier leadership than General 
Jackson himself had ever borne. . The gfreat Tennesseean who- 



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36S Thb Ambrican Historical Magazine. 

succeeded him, has carried a military title it is true; but he 
never held a military office of any rank. And the only civil 
office that he ever adorned was that of justice of the peace, 
to which he was promoted by the sovereigns of Rutherford 
County at the beginning of his career. But though he has 
abstained from public office and governmental promotion few 
have equalled him in power and usefulness. 

James Thomas, Jr., married first Miss Lucy Garrett, who 
died after eleven months. Seven years later he married Miss 
Mary Ross, whose father was once a leading dental surgeon 
of Nashville. Issue: a daughter, who married Mr. Robert 
Robinson, of Nashville. 

Ellen, the only daughter of the Thomas family, married in 
1857 Samuel Louis Demoville. The name indicates that Mr. 
Demoville was of French extraction and noble blood. It seems 
probable that he was of a Huguenot strain. He was bom in 
Virginia in 1825, presumably in Fairfax County, as that appears 
to be the place where the family was established in Virginia. 
In the Statutes at Large, Vol. VII, pp. 1-20, Mr. Hening recites 
a Statute that was enacted by the House of Burgesses on 
Thursday, March 25, 1756. It relates to the French and Indian 
war, and to the part played in that disturbance by the militia 
of Prince William, Fairfax and Culpeper counties. Section xxii 
declares that "whereas divers companies of the militia of the 
several counties of Prince William, Fairfax and Culpeper were 
lately drawn out into actual service for the defense and pro- 
tection of the frontiers of this colony against the incursions 
and depredations of the French and their Indian allies : whose 
names and the time they respectively continued the said service 
are contained in a certain schedule to this act annexed, and 
it is just and necessary that they should be paid for such their 
service, by the public." (Hening, ubi sup., p. 20). 

The schedule of the County of Fairfax is recorded first oi 
all, and in the roster of the first company from Fairfax it is 
certified that Sampson Demovill, Corporal, was due to be paid 
1,100 pounds of tobacco. In the character of a citizen of Fair- 



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Annals op a Scotch-Irish Family. 369 

above service was likely rendered. The time was shortly after 
the defeat of General Braddock, and Washington, who was 
stationed at Winchester, was employing every energy and re- 
source to protect the people of Virginia against the victorious 
enemies who were then swarming in all sections. 

I regret that there has been no opportunity to study the 
records of Fairfax, and to determine if possible the date when 
the Demovilles first appeared in Virginia, or to trace the line 
of descent from Sampson down to Samuel Louis Demoville; 
but it seems likely that the Demovilles of Nashville might be 
entitled to the benefits of membership among the Colonial 
Dames of America. 

Louis Demoville was one of the most successful and valu- 
able citizens of his generation in Nashville. His wife passed 
away in 1883, and he survived until the i8th of January, 1904. 
The children of this couple are Mary Ellen, who married Mr. 
W. P. Rankin, by whom she has issue; Loulie, who married 
Mr. James H. Campbell (no issue), and James L., who is un- 
married. 

Henry, the fourth child of John and Elizabeth (Coffee) 
Menees, married Miss Norman. Issue: John, James, Henry, 
Edward, Joseph and two daughters, Eliza and Ellen. 

John, the eldest of these sons, married his cousin Miss Lind- 
sey, and is an honored and valuable citizen of Neely's Bend, 
but I have never been brought into personal relations either 
with him or his brothers. They are the only people in the line 
of James Menees who bear the ancient family name in Mid- 
dle Tennessee. The dignity of the family rests in a special 
sense in their keeping. I should be thankful for their better 
acquaintance. 

Eliza, the first of the daughters of Henry Menees mentioned 
above, married Mr. Frank Mcintosh. After her death in 1862 
he married her sister Ellen, who is still living. Issue: several 
children, but the names are unknown to me. 

Eliza, the fifth child of John and Elizabeth (Coffee) Menees, 
married John R. Dabbs, an older brother of the Joseph W. 
Dabbs who married Mrs. Mary (Ham) Menees. The Dabbs 
family, so far as my information goes, made their first appear- 



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370 Thb American Historical Maoazinb. 

ance in Virginia in the year 1731. On the 22d of December, 
^73^ » Joseph Dabbs, who seems to have been the immigrant 
founder of the family, instituted an action for debt against 
one Stephen Hughes in the Court of Goochland County, Va, 
(Goochland Order Book No. 3, p. 30). It was brought forward 
from time to time, and in September, 1732, was brought to 
a settlement. The court "considered that the Pit. do recover 
against the Deft, five hundred and two pounds of tobacco widi 
the costs of this Suit and a Lawyers fee." (Order Bode 3. 

p. 113.) 

On the 20th of July, 1738, Joseph Dabbs and Thomas Walker 
for ii2, 10 sh. patented 2,500 acres of land in the County of 
Goochland (now Cumberland) on both sides of Willis river, 
near Randolph Creek. This appears to have been the Dr. 
Thomas Walker who in 1747 gained celebrity through an ex- 
ploring expedition in Kentucky, during which he had the hoHor 
to affix the name Cumberland, selected in compliment to the dukt 
who had just triumphed at CuUoden, to a mountain range and 
a great river. Not long after the above patent was taken oat 
Mr. Dabbs purchased the moiety of Walker and thus became 
the sole owner of the land. 

On the i6th of July, 1740, Dabbs bought of Peter Brook* 
for iioo a tract of land containing by estimation 2,100 acres. 
It was situated on the south branch of Willis river in Gooch- 
land (now Cumberland) County. On the 17th of November, 
1 741, "in Consideration of the Natural Love, good will and 
Affection which he hath and doth bear to his Brother-in-law 
Charles Lee and his Sister Anna his Wife," Dabbs conveys to 
them 200 acres of the land purchased from Peter Brooks. 

On the 7th of December, 1743, he sold to Thomas Bassett 
for iifo sixteen hundred acres of land that himself and Walker 
had patented in 1738. On the 24th of September, 1747, Dabbs 
sold to Thomas Bassett for £220 the tract containing 2,100 
acres formerly purchased by him from Peter Brooks, and upon 
which himself and his brother-in-law Lee were then residing. 
After that sale he removed to Luncnburgh County, where I 
have not been permitted to investigate his history. On the 
13th of August, 1748, this Joseph Dabbs of Lunenburgh ctftt^ 



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Annals op a Scotch-Irish Family. 371 

vcyed to Anne Mayo of Goochland, for five shillings, a tract of 
1,000 acres in Goochland, This Anne Mayo was his sister, who 
had formerly been the wife of Charles Lee, and the gift of 1,000 
acres was intended to hold the place of the 200 acres which 
hid been taken from her and sold to Thomas Bassett. 

I have no record of the decease of this first Joseph Dabbs* 
in Lunenburgh. His home was apparently in that section of 
the county which was later included in Charlotte. When Char- 
lotte was constituted in 1764, he had apparently passed away, 
but was represented by two sons, namely, "Joseph Dabbs of 
the Province of South Carolina and Richard Dabbs of the 
Parish of Cornwall, Charlotte County." I have no informa- 
tion respecting the fortunes of "Joseph Dabbs of the Province 
of South Carolina," but Richard Dabbs of Charlotte became 
a prosperous and prominent citizen. His will was signed and 
acknowledged on the i8th of July, 1809, and proved in court, 
after his decease, on the 4th of September, 1809. He men- 
tions his eldest son Joseph, his sons George, Richard, William, 
Josiah and James. His daughter Polly had married James 
Lampkin, Nancy had married Mitchell Gill, Sally Vaughan 
seems to have been already a widow. The youngest daughter, 
Elizabeth, was the wife of William Mitchell. As executors 
of the estate were named Richard Dabbs, Jr., Josiah Dabbs 
and William Mitchell. 

This Richard Dabbs, Jr., the third son of Richard Dabbs, 
Sr., entered the Baptist ministry about the year 1804. Appre- 
ciative biographical notices of him may be found in Semple's 
History of the Baptists in Virginia, and in Taylor's Virginia 
Baptist Ministers, First Series, pp. 380-6. These do not men- 
tion the fact that about the year 1795, he had married Eliza- 
beth Mitchell, but in the records of Charlotte County is found 
an indenture made on the 2d of September, 1795, which estab- 
lishes that point. In that document Elizabeth Mitchell of the 
County of Lunenburgh in consideration of five shillings and 
of the natural love and affection which she bears to Richard 
Dabbs, Jr., "who hath intermarried with her daughter, Betsey 
Mitchell,*' conveys to him 150 acres of land situated on the 
headwaters of Meherrin river in Charlotte . County. I have 



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yj2 Thb Ambrican Historical Magazinb 

thus brought forward four several generations of the Dabbs 
family in the State of Virginia, namely, the immigrant, Joseph 
Dabbs of Goochland and Lunenburgh, his son Richard Dabbs, 
Sr., of Lunenburgh and Oiarlotte, next his son the Rev. 
Richard Dabbs, Jr., of Charlotte, and lastly, John R. and Joseph 
W. Dabbs, who formed marriage alliances with the Menees 
family of Nashville, Tenn. 

There were six children of John R. and Eliza (Menees) Dabbs, 
namely, Ellen, John, Elizabeth, James Polk, Mary and William 
Dabbs. 

Ellen, the oldest of these children, married Rev. E. D. Steph- 
enson, a native of Alabama, who graduated at Union University 
in Murfreesboro, and was a popular and influential Baptist 
minister. They had several children, but I can recall the name 
of none except Ellen, the oldest daughter. It was this daugh- 
ter, Ellen Stephenson, who later became the second wife of 
Alfred Gregory, and the mother of May Belle Gregory, who 
was reputed to be the most beautiful woman of her day in 
America. Mrs. Ellen Stephenson died in the year 1865, and 
Mr. Stephenson later married Mrs. Minerva Going. 

Elizabeth Dabbs married John, a son of 'Squire King, an 
honored citizen of Nubbin Ridge on the Murfreesboro Pike. 
Issue : one child, a daughter. 

Mary, the youngest daughter, married Mr. Huggins and had 
issue. I am not in possession of any facts regarding the sons of 
John R. Dabbs, except that William Dabbs married and had 
a daughter, who later became the wife of Mr. Whitworth. 

James, the sixth child of John and Elizabeth (Coffee) Menees, 
married a great while ago and removed to Memphis, Tenn. 
I have sometimes observed that name at Memphis, but had 
no suspicion that those who bore it might be nearly related 
to me. Some of them, if I remember correctly, have returned 
to first principles and write the name McNees instead of 
Menees. 



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Annals op a Scotch-Irish Family. 373 

dren, and in 1848, left Neely's Bend and removed to Brook- 
ville in Noxubee County, Miss. It has been many years since 
they had much intercourse with their relations in Tennessee. 
The youngest daughter of Benjamin Menees is Mrs. Hattie 
Nuckols of Brookville. 

Ham Family. — Item No. 8 of the will of James Menees reads as 
follows: "I give to the heirs of my daughter Elizabeth Ham, 
dec'd. one eighth of the above money, to be equally divided 
among each of them, and do hereby charge my granddaughter, 
Mildred Nunley, of having received seventy-five dollars of her 
part of the above eighth, and also charge Stephen Ham of 
receiving seventy-five dollars of the above eighth." I possess 
no information regarding the exact number of the heirs of 
Elizabeth Ham. It is clear that there was a daughter named 
Mildred Nunley and a son named Stephen. There was another 
daughter named Mary of whom I have given some account 
above in treating John Menees and Joseph Dabbs. 

Elizabeth Ham had died before the will of James Menees 
was made in 1833, but Samuel Ham survived until the year 
1856, a venerated figure and an ornament to human nature. 
He was buried at Mill Creek Church. The Hams are an ancient 
and widely extended family. I have traced their earliest con- 
tact with the Menees family on page 75 above. 

Menees Faintly of Robertson County, — I beg leave to set down 
here a sketch of Dr. Thomas Menees, a descendant of Benjamin, 
the younger brother of James Menees, that was kindly com- 
municated to me by Mr. A. V. Goodpasture, the honored editor 
of this Magazine : 

"Benjamin Menees settled at Sulphur Fork of Red river in 
the present County of Robertson — then Tennessee County. 
Was justice of peace as early as 1790. Built a block-house 
for protection against the Indians, in which he died in 181 1. 

"James Menees, son of Benjamin Menees, married Rebecca 
Williams, a graduate of the Moravian Female College at Salem, 
North Carolina, who died when their only child, Benjamin Wil- 
liams Menees, was an infant. 

"Benjamin W. Menees married Elizabeth Harrison, a daugh- 
ter of Thomas Harrison of Davidson County. They had seven 
children, four of them sons and three daughters. Four died 



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374 Thb Akbiucan Historical Magazikb. 

in infancy or youth. The survivors were Dr. Geor^ W. 
Menees, of Springfield, Tenn., Mrs. Emily E. Dunn, of Tumers- 
ville, Tenn., and Thomas Menees, of Nashville, the eldest of 
the three, who was born on Mansker's Creek, Davidson County, 
June 26, 1823. 

"Dr. Thomas Menees married Elizabeth Hooper, a daugh- 
ter of Claiborne V. Hooper, of Davidson County, and they 
had four children: Mary Rebecca died in infancy in 1854; 
Thomas Williams bom January 15, 1855, died September 15, 
1878 (he married Mollie Loftin of Nashville and left one son, 
Thomas Williams); Young Hooper born August 15, 1857 and 
died December 12, 1883 (he married Alma W. Bunch of Spring- 
field, and had one daughter, Elizabeth) ; Orville Harrison bom 
April IS, 1859. 

"Dr. Thomas Menees married a second wife, Mrs. Mary Jane 
Walker, widow of Hiram K. Walker, editor of the True Whig 
and Republican Banner of Nashville, August 14, 1868. They 
have one child, Mary Elizabeth, born December 14, 1873. 
Dr. Thomas Menees was a member of the Confederate Con- 
gress from Tennessee." 

Reference is also invited to Isaac Menees, page 233 above, 
who may have been a son of Benjamin Menees. Isaac and 
Nancy Menees were both members of Mill Creek Church in 
the year 1800. It is possible they were husband and wife. 
It is also possible that they may have been brother and sister. 
On page 79 above, it was also proven that Benjamin had a 
daughter named Elinor. James Menees, whose name is men- 
tioned above as the son of Benjamin Menees, was known as 
James Menees, Jr., perhaps with reference to his uncle, James 
Menees of Nashville. He was the sheriff of Robertson County 
from 1798 to 1804. (American Hist. Mag, vol. 5, page 323). 

Blakey Family of Kentucky, — On page 234 of this magazine 
attention was called to the fact that the Whitsitt family had 
migrated from Tennessee to Logan County, Kentucky, leaving 
behind none but James Whitsitt, the oldest son of William. 
It seems likely that this removal was initiated by George 
Blakey, the husband of Margaret (Whitsitt) Blakey. The 
Blakey family records affirm that George Blakey emigrated 
from Davidson County, Tennessee, to Logan County, Kentucky, 
April, 1795. There was as yet no suggestion of the removal of 



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Annajls op a Scotch-Irish 1?auii^. 375 

described as a citizen "of the County of Logan and State ot 
Kentucky," occurs in an indenture made on the 30th of Sep- 
tember, 1800, conveying a tract of land to Tyree Harris. 

The* children of George and Margaret (Whitsitt) Blakey were 
Pamelia, Reuben, William Whitsitt, Thomas, Elizabeth, 
Churchill Haden, James Whitsitt, Sally P., Nelly Ann and 
George Douglas. 

The first of these, Pamelia born 1788 in Henry County, Va., 
married William Haden. They lived near Auburn, Log^n 
County, Kentucky, and had one daughter, an only child, who 
married a Mr. Hopkins. To that union were bom two sons, 
George Samuel and William Haden Hopkins, who both died 
without issue. Mrs. Pamelia Haden died in 1871. I have a 
distinct recollection of Mr. William Haden during a visit I 
made to his house in 1852 in company with my father and 
mother. He was a stout and worthy gentleman, and made a 
striking impression upon his boyish guest. His appearance 
recalled his noble ancestor "Anthony Haden of England, who 
married Margaret Douglas of Scotland," and I would have 
fought for his claim against Colonel John Wise or any other 
comer. In fact it is a sincere regret that I have never been 
able to visit the County of Accomac, Virginia, and study the 
records in regard to Anthony Haden. The devotion that exists 
between the Blakeys and Hadens is ancient and beautiful. 

Another pleasant memory is connected with my visit to the 
seat of the Hadens. Margaret (Whitsitt) Blakey had then 
been a widow for ten years and was living in great age and 
honor with her eldest daughter and child. She made a vener- 
able and impressive figure. I was brought forward in fear and 
trembling to be introduced to her, and shall never forget her 
kindly, courtly bearing as she rose up from the wheel where 
she was spinning flax, and received my childish greeting. She 
imparted to me a new sense of the majesty and sweetness of 
human nature. 

The next entry in the Blakey records reads as follows: 
"Reuben died in infancy, and was buried in Buckingham 
County, Virginia." Possibly this incident relates to the first 
and only visit that the young wife made to the home of her 
father-in-law, Thomas Blakey, in Buckingham County. It may 
have been her farewell visit in preparation for the journey they 
were shortly to make to the boundless western country. Hon. 
Churchill H. Blakey once spoke to me of the unutterable pang 
that seized upon her, as the wagon in which she was traveling 
reached the summit of the Blue Ridge and began to descend 



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376 Th9 American Historicai. Magazinb. 

on the farther side, and she thought of that lonely child's 
grave far away in Old Virginia. 

The next child, William Whitsitt Blakey, was named in honor 
of his maternal grandfather, and when he was making his will 
on the 15th of March, 1805, the grandfather acknowledged 
the honor with a bequest of one hundred pounds. William 
W. Blakey married Susan, the youngest sister of Governor 
John Breathitt. She died in 1830. The issue of this union were 
George Thomas and Ann Eliza Blakey. 

George Thomas Blakey exhibited some of the Breathitt 
traits, in that he was a decided favorite in political life. He 
was for several years sheriff of Logan County, and sometimes 
represented it in the Legislature. Born in 1821, he died in 
March, 1904. He was a man of weight and worth. 

George Thomas Blakey married his cousin Sarah Ellen Mc- 
Lean, and their children were Susan, who married General 
Heard of Washington, Ga., and left issue ; William, whose first 
wife was Miss Taylor, and his second wife Miss Carrie Mc' 
Donald of New Albany, Ind., but there was no issue by either ; 
George Davidson, who married a daughter of General Heard 
by a former marriage, without issue, and Lucile, who married 
Dr. Thomas Whitsitt Blakey. They have one daughter, Sally 
George Blakey, bom March, 1885. 

Ann Eliza Blakey, the daughter of William W. and Susan 
(Breathitt) Blakey, married Dr. Waller Bowyer and removed 
to Saline County, Missouri. They have several children. The 
marriage is supposed to have taken place in 1845, since a con- 
tract made on the 7th of February of that year (Logan County 
Deed-Book Z, page 643) refers to it. 

So far as I am aware, Thomas is the only member of the 
family of George and Margaret (Whitsitt) Blakey, who was 
a native of Tennessee. He was born in Davidson County on 
the 17th of June, 1794; married his cousin Ann Haden Whit- 
sitt on the 28th of January, 1823, and died April 30th, 1856. 
His wife, who was bom in Tennessee on the 7th of September, 
1803, died on the 31st of January, 1857, in RusscUville, Ky. 
Their children were Churchill Haden and Mary Ellen Blakey. 

Churchill Haden Blakey was born August 26, 1829, and mar- 
ried Mary Catherine Becker, daughter of Theodore and 
Minerva Becker, on the 26th of March, 1855. Marv Catharine 
Becker was born on the 26th of March, 1836. The children 
of this couple were a son, still-born January 11, 1857; Thomas 



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Annai^s of a Scotch-Irish Family. 377 

April 9, 1869; George Douglas, born October 20, 1871; twin 
daughters, born July 11, 1873; ^^^ named Anna, died July 29, 
1873, and the other, Eva, died May 5, 1874; Lou B., bom July 
16, 1876; Mary B., born April 2, 1878, and died in 1889. 

Churchill H. Blakey was a man of light and leading, and 
made a fine career in Southern Kentucky. He was often chosen 
to the Legislature of the State, and was an enlightened and 
capable public servant. Through his agency the State of Ken- 
tucky erected a monument to Governor John Breathitt in the 
Cemetery at Russellville. 

Mary Ellen Blakey, the sister of Churchill H., was born 
September 15, 1841, and married J. Monroe Hall, June 24, 
i860. Their children were Whitsitt Hall, bom November 5, 

1867 ; W. Scott Hall, born and Thomas 

Churchill Hall, bom May, 1873. All of them are married and 
have families. 

Elizabeth, the fifth child of George and Margaret (Whitsitt) 
Blakey, married John M. Hogan, of Olmstead, Logan County. 
Their children were John W., Margaret Douglas, Raleigh T., 
Virginia M., Henry Harrison, Georgia Ann, Elizabeth P. and 
Sarah Ellen Hog^an. 

John W. Hogan married Virginia Jains. They had one 
daughter, who married Bennett Harris, and these in turn had 
a daughter named Pearl Harris. 

Margaret Douglas Hogan married Benoni Dawson, and their 
children were Mary, who married B. Columbus Jenkins ; Helen, 
who married Benjamin Turner; Prof. T. J. Dawson, of Nash- 
ville, who married Miss Amelia Bourne. 

Raleigh Thomas Hogan died without issue in the year 1852. 

Virginia M. Hogan married Dr. Thomas Churchill Blakey, 
and their children were James M., Lillian Whitsitt, Susan 
Breathitt and Nettie Maggie Tilden. After the death of his 
lirst wife Dr. Blakey married as his second wife, Martha Ellen 
Roach, and their children were Charles Roach and Fanny Heard 
Blakey. 

Henry Harrison Hogan married Miss Mary Conway, 
and they had a son George S. Hogan, a civil engineer resid- 
ing in Louisville. 

Georgia Ann Hogan married first A. F. Haskins, by whom 
there was no issue. Her second husband was T. R. Wyatt, 
by whom she had a son named Thomas. 

Elizabeth P. Hogan married W. L. Thompson and they emi- 
grated to Green County, Missouri. 

Sarah Ellen Hogan married Dathan Darby. Issue: one 
daughter, Corinne Darby. 
7 



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37^ Thb American Historical Magazine. 

Churchill Haden, the sixth child of George and Margaret 
(Whitsitt) Blakey, married Sallie Haden. They removed to 
Georgia, where he died without issue. In the records of Logan 
County, Kentucky, Deed-Book P, page 141, is found a docu- 
ment which recites that Churchill H. Blakey had intermarried 
with Sallie I. Haden, who was possessed of certain negroes; 
that said Churchill had died without issue, and thereby said 
negroes became the property of George Blakey, the father of 
Churchill; whereupon George Blakey states that justice re- 
quires that the negroes aforesaid should belong to Sallie, and 
on account of love and affection he conveys the same to her. 
This document belongs to the year 1827, and indicates thati 
Churchill H. Blakey had died in that year. On the 3d of 
August, 1829, the Haden heirs of divers names united through 
the commisrfoner in conveying a tract of land on Caspar river 
to the aforesaid Sallie Blakey, formerly Sallie Haden, who 
had married Churchill H. Blakey (Logan Deed-Book Q, p. 122). 
This is a valuable monument of family history and genealogy. 
Among other items it renders clear the fact that after the death 
of Churchill H. Blakey, his wife returned from Georgia and 
established herself among her kindred in Kentucky. 

James Whitsitt, the seventh child, married Nancy Haden and 
emigrated to Springfield, Mo., in 1839, where he was much 
respected, and was known as Judge Blakey. Their children 
were William H., Reuben Ewing, Margaret, George Douglas 
and Dr. Thomas Churchill Blakey. 

William H. Blakey, the oldest of the above children, mar- 
ried Sarah T. Prunty, and their children were James Thomas, 
George aud James Whitsitt. James Thomas^ the oldest of 
these, died in infancy. After the death of his first wife, Wil- 
liam Blakey, married Miss Louisa Yarborough, to which union 
there were three children, Wesley Douglas, Sarah C. and Nel- 
lie Ann. ^ 

Reuben Ewing Blakey, the second brother, married Miss 
Epenetus Mason, who died without issue in 1859. 

Margaret, the only daughter of the family, married Colonel 
John H. Miller, who had emigrated from Tennessee, and they 
had an only child, Mary Douglas Miller. They live at Ritchie, 
Mo. 



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Annaw of a Scotch-Irish Family. 379 

and the names of his children have been recorded in connec- 
tion with the Hogan family above. 

Sally P. Blakey, the eighth child of George and Margaret 
(Whitsitt) Blakey, was a woman of remarkable beauty, and 
retained her charms even down to old age. Her first husband 
was James Proctor, and the issue of this marriage were Blakey, 
James, Adolphus Young, Mary and Margaret Proctor. 

Dr. Blakey Proctor married Miss Josephine Grider, of War- 
ren County, and their children were Robert, George, William, 
Qarence, Alma and Tilden. They reside six miles north of 
Auburn, in Logan County, Kentucky. 

James Proctor married Miss Belle Patterson, of Gallatin, 
Tenn. Their children are Sarah, who married Mr. Kinnerly, 
a Baptist minister of Henderson County, Kentucky, Henrietta, 
who married Mr. Dunn, of Russellville, and Annie, Samuel, 
Churchill and John Proctor. 

Adolphus Young married Miss Johnson, of Warren County, 
and they have one son, Thomas Proctor. 

Margaret Proctor married Frank Patterson, of Warren 
County, and they have issue. 

Mary Proctor is unmarried. 

After the death of her first husband, Sally (Blakey) Proctor 
married Edmund Duncan, a native of -Virginia, who had settled 
in Warren County, Kentucky. Their children were Sally, Mary 
and Thomas Duncan. 

The oldest daughter, Sally Duncan, married Mr. Carpenter, 
of Smith Grove; Mary Duncan married Mr. James Felts, of 
Logan County, and Thomas Duncan is unmarried. 

Nelly Ann Blakey, the ninth child of George and Margaret 
(Whitsitt) Blakey, married Rezin Haden, and emigrated with 
him to Springfield, Mo. They had one child, Douglas Haden. 

The youngest child of George and Margaret (Whitsitt) 
Blakey, was George Douglas Blakey, who resided at Rural 
Choice, the paternal seat near Russellville, a man of mark in 
various directions, and one of the chroniclers of the records 
of the Blakey and Whitsitt families. He married Miss Lucy 
Thomas, of Wilson County, Tennessee, and their children were 
Sally George, Pamelia and Thomas Blakey. 

Sally George married first Mr. McAuley, and they had a 
daughter, Lucy, who married the Rev. Mr. Julian, a Methodist 
minister of Indiana. Her second husband was Dr. Samuel 
Porter, to which union there was one child, Sally George, who 
married Captain Samuel Adams, of Bowling Green. They have 
issue, but the names of the children are unknown to me. 



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38o Thb American Historical Magazine. 

Pamelia Blakey married Mr. Samuel Duncan, of Logan 
County, Kentucky. Their children are James, William, George, 
Minnie, and several other daughters. 

Thomas Blakey married Miss Fanny Cundiff, of Muhlenburg 
County, Kentucky. Issue: several children, whose names are 
unknown to me. 

Dr. George D. Blakey was a vigorous man in many direc- 
tions. He was always interested in State and national politics. 
When, in the year 1849, Cassius M. Clay was a candidate few: 
gubernatorial honors in Kentucky, on the Abolition ticket. Dr. 
Blakey was his running mate, as an aspirant for the office of 
Lieutenant-Governor. Echoes of that incident are preserved 
in the records of Logan County. In Deed-Book xxix, p. 153, 
under date of February 26, 1849, George D. Blakey sets free 
and emancipates a negro girl. In the same book, p. 166, under 
date of March 12, 1849, George D. Blakey asserts that the 
slaves brought by him from Georgia to Kentucky, and in- 
herited from R. B. Patterson, were not brought for the pur- 
pose of sale. The aforesaid R. B. Patterson, of Georgia is sup- 
posed to have been a son of the Rev. David Patterson, of 
Buckingham County, Virginia, who had married Sally, a daugh- 
ter of Thomas Blakey, on the 15th of April, 1763. He was 
therefore closely related to Dr. Blakey. 

IVhitsitt Family of Kentucky.— Whtn William Whitsitt, the 
head of the family, emigrated from Tennessee to Kentucky in 
the year 1800, he carried with him his wife, Ellen (Menees) 
Whitsitt, his son William Whitsitt, Jr., who was then twenty 
years of age, and his three daughters, Nancy, Ellen and Sarah 
Whitsitt. There is a Deed of Gift in the office at Russellville 
(Deed-Book C, p. 530) dated the 2d of July, 1811, just twelve 
days before his decease, in which William Whitsitt bestows 
upon his three daughters, Elenor E., Nancy H. and Sally P, 
Whitsitt, a negro woman named Rachel and her two children, 
Penina and Melvina. This document has just been brought 
to my knowledge through the kindness of Clayton B. Blakey, 
Esq., of Louisville, and it seems to establish the fact that four 
♦children still remained in his household in the year 1800. 

William Whitsitt, Jr., married Miss Emily Haden, daughter 
of Captain William Haden, in the year 1800. Issue : Ellen, Ann 
Haden, Sally and William C. Whitsitt. 



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Annaxs op a Scotch-Irish Family. 381 

the mill, for $2,000. About the year 1830 the Ccwnforts re- 
moved to Mississippi and settled at Canton. The issue of this 
family were Elmily, John W. and Daniel Benjamin Comfort. 

Emily married Dr. Lewis, of Vicksburg ; John W. was a doc- 
tor of medicine and settled in New Orleans, where he mar- 
ried and some time afterward perished in a scourge of yellow 
fever. I have no record of the children in either of the above 
families. 

Daniel Benjamin Comfort, who lived in Kosciusko, Miss., 
married Miss Durham, a half sister of Senator George, of Mis- 
sippi. They had one daughter, who married Mr. Leonard, 
of Memphis, Tenn. After his first wife had passed away Mr. 
Comfort married her sister, another Miss Durham. Issue: 
Edgar, Catharine, Daniel B., Georgia, William, James, Lida, 
Hugh, Elizabeth and Eugene Comfort. 

The record of Ann Haden Whitsitt, who married Thomas 
Blakey on the 28th of January, 1823, has been given above in 
connection with the Blakey family. 

Sally Whitsitt married George Stalcup, of Sumner County, 
Tennessee. No issue. They removed to Bonham, Texas, and 
died about the year 1870. 

William C. Whitsitt, M.D., married Miss Edmunds, of Glas- 
gow, Ky. Issue: Mary Jane, Elizabeth, William E. and 
Churchill H. Whitsitt. 

Mary Jane married Major J. M. Collins. I have no informa- 
tion regarding the issue of this union. Major Collins removed 
to Arkansas and settled at Fort Smith. 

Elizabeth married Mr. Smith, of Fannin County, Texas, but 
I have no record respecting their family. 

William E. Whitsitt married an Indian girl, and lived at 
SaUsaw, not far from Fort Smith in the Indian Territory. Some 
years ago when I chanced to be on a visit to Fort Smith I heard 
gratifying accounts both of himself and his family, but I 
had no knowledge of the fact that he was of blood relation 
to me; otherwise I should have journeyed to Salisaw to visit 
him. 

Churchill H. Whitsitt, the youngest child of this union, died 
without issue. 

William Whitsitt, Sr., had a memorable career. Born in 
Ireland on the 20th of August, 1731, he came to Albemarle 
County, Virginia, with his father about the year 1741 ; served 
under Major Washing^ton in the French and Indian war, which 



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382 Thb Ahbrican Historical Magazine. 

Revolutionary War in October, 1781 ; removed frcMn Henry 
County, Virginia, to Nashville, Tenn., in October, 1790; left 
Nashville for Logan County, Kentucky, in the autumn of 1800, 
where according to Dr. Howell "he settled on the spot where 
Russellville now stands," and thus became ohe of the founders 
of an important city. On the 14th of July, 1811, he closed his 
eyes at Nashville, in the home of his son, the Rev. James Whit- 
sitt. Certainly he had been a wanderer in the earth. 

His last will, which was dated on the 15th of March, 1805, 
is of record in the office at Russellville. It devises to his son 
William Whitsitt 300 pounds ; to William Whitsitt Blakey, son 
of George and Peggy Blakey, 100 pounds ; to William D. Whit- 
sitt, son of James Whitsitt, a negro boy ; to William Whitsitt 
Ewing, son of Reuben and Ellen Ewing, 100 pounds. He ratifies 
the gift that he had made to his daughter, Sally Porter, of land 
in Neely's Bend, and directs that the remainder of his estate 
shall belong to his wife, Ellen, during her lifetime, and that 
after her death it shall be divided equally between his four 
children, James Whitsitt, Betsy Breathitt, Peggy Blakey and 
Ellen Ewing. 

Another war with England broke out the year after he had 
passed away, and his son, William Whitsitt, Jr., entered the 
United States Army, and departed for the scene of hostilities 
on the Northwestern frontier about the 12th of September, 
1812. He remained in the field under the command of General 
William Henry Harrison apparently until December, 1814, dur- 
ing which period he formed a strong attachment to the per- 
son and fortunes of the American commander. In subsequent 
years he was connected with the Democratic party in Kentucky, 
and was especially proud of the success of his nephew, John 
Breathitt, who was chosen by that party to be governor of 
Kentucky in 1832. But in 1837 he left Kentucky to spend his 
closing days with the Comfort family in Mississippi, and when 
in 1840 General Harrison was nominated by the Whigs to be 
President of the United States, he forsook his allegiance to 
the Democrats and rallied to the standard of his beloved leader. 
So much noise was made about this change that he was em- 
ployed to stunip the State of Mississippi in favor of Harnson, 
in the autumn of the year 1840. 

He was honored with the title of general, though he did not 
attain that rank in the service of the United States, but after 
the War of 1812 he was active in the militia of Kentucky, and 



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Annals op a Scotch-Irish Family. 383 

on the field. He died near Canton, Miss., on the 21st of March, 
1842. 

His son, Dr. William C. Whitsitt, was chosen to the Ken- 
tucky Legislature from Barren County, Kentucky, and later 
removed to Texas, where he settled in Fannin County, and 
became very popular, being repeatedly chosen to the Legisla- 
ture in both the Lower and Upper House. It is not known 
whether any of his descendants remain in Texas. The Smith 
family of Fannin County would perhaps be the only representa- 
tives of his blood. 

I had supposed that Nancy, the daughter of William and 
Ellen (Menees) Whitsitt, whose name was recorded on page 74 
above, had passed away long before the 2d of July, 181 1, at 
which time she is mentioned by her father in a document that 
is of record in the office at Russellville. So far as my informa- 
tion goes this name does not occur in any other document 
issued before or after the date in question. I have no further 
record concerning her. 

Ewing Family of Kentucky. — Genealogists of the Ewing family 
of Kentucky have reported that "Robert Ewing with his broth- 
er Charles came from Ireland to Prince Edward County, Vir- 
ginia, about the year 1740; and that Robert married Mary 
Baker, a daughter of a Presbyterian minister, and died in Bed- 
ford County, Virginia, in June, 1787." The children of Robert 
Ewing are said to have been Robert, Baker, Reuben, Chatham, 
Young, Urban, John, Finis, Polly, Patsy and Sidney Ann. All 
of these settled in Logman County, Kentucky, about the year 
1796. 

Reuben, the third son of Robert Ewing, of Prince Edward, 
married Ellen Whitsitt, and for that reason I have felt an inter- 
est in the history of the family. The County of Prince Edward 
was not organized until the year 1753, but that is a trifling 
inaccuracy. It was taken from Amelia County (Johnston, Old 
Virginia Clerks, Lynchburg, 1888, p. 313), and the two Ewings 
may have journeyed from Ireland to Amelia in 1740, instead 
of to Prince Edward, as was reported above. That would 
amount to a distinction without a difference. 

But there were Ewings in Amelia from an early date. In 
May, 1744, Edward Brifwate "of Reighlif Parish in Amelia 
County" conveyed to "Samuel Ewing of the Parish and County 
aforesaid," 238^^ acres on Fort Creek in Amelia, for £100. 
The name Braithwaite or Brathwaite has gotten itself into manv 
peculiar shapes in America, but none of them is more striking 
than Brifwate. When Edward Brifwate and his wife came to 
make their mark in subscribing the above deed their names 



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3S4 The American Historical Magazine. 

were recorded as Edwd. X. Brafford and Bridget X. Brafford, 
but the Qerk of the Court in his certificate refers to theni as 
"Edward Brathwit and Bridget his wife." 

On the i6th of May, 1746, James Alexander, of Amelia, con- 
veys to James Ewing, of the same county, 300 acres on the 
north side of Fort Creek for i6o, and one of the items in the 
description refers to Samuel Ewing's corner. 

On the 1 8th of May, 1750, Bartholomew Zachary conveys 
to William Ewing, of Amelia, 800 acres lying on both sides of 
the Mill Fork of Vaughan's Creek in Amelia. 

On the isth of June, 1750, James Ewing, of Amelia, gives to 
Joshua Ewing, of Cecil County, Maryland, a power of attorney 
to sell one-half acre of land that belonged to him in Cecil 
County. 

On the 5th of May, 1753, Samuel Wallace and Esther his 
wife, of Amelia, convey to Alexander Ewing, of the same county, 
300 acres of land lying betwixt Fort Creek and Falling Creek 
in Amelia, for £$0, 

The question arises whether Robert and Charles Ewing 
might have been children of some of the persons above men- 
tioned, or whether they were themselves immigrants from Ire- 
land as has been suggested above. So far as I am informed 
their names do not appear in the records of Amelia County; 
and I have discovered them in no other place in the records 
of Prince Edward, except in the last will of Martha, the wife 
of Caleb Baker, which I copied from Will-Book Number I, 
p. 24, in the office at Farmville, Va. 

The will of Caleb Baker was the second recorded in Prince 
Edward after the opening of the office, and is found on p. 3 
of Will-Book Number i. It is a clear and informing docu- 
ment, and is worthy of careful study. In every instance in 
the will, and sometimes in the deeds recorded in Amelia, he spells 
his name, not Baker, but Beaker. That appears to have been 



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Annau op a Scotch-Irish Family. 385 

Ihe same as the Latin word bacar, and the English word 
besUcer, and signifies a vessel for drinking wine. The ancestcM-s 
of Caleb Beaker were probably cupbearers at some court of 
high or low degree and took their name from the func- 
tion which they there fulfilled. The well known family name 
of Blankenbaker seems also to refer to the same origin, those 
who bore it feeling a special pride in maintaining their beaker 
in a condition of immaculate whiteness. But many a Blanken- 
baker has found by experience that people in general have 
small appreciation of the nicer points in philology. The de- 
scendants of Caleb Beaker made a like discovery, and were 
compelled to submit when their name also should be pro- 
nounced and written Baker instead of Beaker. They might 
have saved themselves in a measure if they had Anglicized 
the name in the form of Beecher; but few of those who em- 
ployed it in that form would be enabled to make out its original 
meaning. It would be well, however, if all who bear the name 
of Caleb Beaker could be informed of these simple facts in 
connection with it. History is worth preserving for its own 
sake, and the truth of it should be duly honored. 

The will of Caleb Beaker was made on "the 24th day of 
November, Anno Dom., 1750," but it was not presented for 
probate until the 9th of April, 1755. His executors were his 
wife Martha and his two oldest sons Samuel and Henry Beaker. 
To Samuel he gave 463 acres of land on Spring Creek in Amelia 
(now Prince Edward), to which he had already made him a 
formal deed, charging him the price of £100, on the 15th of 
August, 1746. To his son Henry, he bequeathed 400 acres, 
"joining the foregoing peace of land," which he had likewise 
conveyed to him for £100, on the 15th of August, 1746. To 
his son Abraham Beaker, he gave 200 acres "joining the fore- 
going pieces of land." To his son Caleb Beaker, he bequeathed 
307 acres, "joining the foregoing tracts of land," but since this 
was his place of residence, he reserved it for his wife during 
her lifetime. 

The next bequest went to his daughter, Ruth Johnston, and 
consisted of twenty pounds current money of Virginia. The 
same amount was bestowed upon his daughter Martha Ewing, 



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386 The Ambrican Historicai. Magazine. 

and in the next place upon his daughter Mary Ewing. His 
youngest daughter was Easter Wallis, and unto her, he says, 
I give and bequeath "one shilling sterling and no more." The 
last item of the will directed that "three hundred acres of land 
joining Patrick Galaspas land on Puffelow Creek" should be 
reserved to help toward raising the legacies which he had granted 
to his three daughters. 

But on the 6th of February, 1754, he added a codicil in which 
he provided "that three hundred acres which I desired to be 
sold to help the Legases my Mind is Altered I give it all to 
my son, Henry Beaker and his airs forever." This change 
was unexpected. The three daughters, Ruth, Martha and Mary, 
were thereby deprived of their legacies almost as effectively 
as Esther had been deprived of hers. But there was no help 
tor it, because in the same codicil he had declared "I will that 
my executors may settle it to themselves without any trouble 
or goin to law." Meanwhile Henry Beaker proceeded to 
sell the three hundred acresi in question for his own use and 
benefit; on the 8th of October, 1754, this tract became the 
property of Robert Hannah, Jr., of Prince Edward, but the 
consideration for which it was purchased was left a blank in 
the record (Prince Edward Deed-Book i, p. 23). 

When Martha Baker was making her will on the 20th day of 
April, 1759, she was careful to make no mention of her sons, 
Henry and Abraham, and her daughter, Esther Wallace. After 
conferring upon Caleb, with whom she had resided since the 
death of her husband, the bulk of her estate, her chief concern 
was to provide that the legacies should now at last be discharged. 
Some of the provisions of the will are as follows: "Item: I 
leave to my son-in-law, Charles Ewing, my still to discharge a 
legacy of twenty pounds left him by my husband, Caleb Baker, 
deceased, to him and his heirs forever." "My will and desire is 
that my executors, hereafter mentioned, let my son-in-law, Rob- 
ert Ewing, have as much of my stock of cattle and hogs and of 
mv household furniture at full orice. as will be of value sufficient 



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Annai^s op a Scotch-Irish Family. 387 

of twenty pounds left him by my husband, Caleb Baker, be not 
discharged that whatsoever balance appears to be justly due to 
him be paid out of the residue of my stock and household goods 
before they are divided." "My will is that if there is a balance 
due to Samuel Johnston that what ready money I have and Is 
coming to me go towards discharging the same." 

In the inventory of her assets were found certain bills re- 
ceivable amounting to £26, I4sh. 4d. The descendants of Robert 
and Mary Ewing removed to Logan County, Kentucky, but I 
have no certain knowledge concerning the descendants of Charles 
Ewing or of Samuel Johnston. The last named apparently be- 
longed to the Johnston family of Prince Edward County, of 
which Joseph E. Johnston, of Confederate fame, was one of the 
most distinguished ornaments. It is not inconceivable that Sam- 
uel Johnston may have been the same man who figured as govern- 
or of North Carolina in the year 1789. 

I have never come upon any facts that tended to support the 
conclusion that Caleb Baker was a Presbyterian minister, but I 
should not oppose the suggestion that he might have been a 
ruling elder in the Presbyterian Church. However, I am not 
aware of any definite historic records in support of that position. 
His daughter Esther, with whom he seems to have been in un- 
friendly relations, was the mother of Judge Caleb Wallace, one 
of the earliest justices of the Court of Appeals of Kentucky, and 
when he was born in the year 1742 he was named in honor of 
Caleb Baker. Likewise in honor of him my own son, who is 
one of his descendants, has assumed as a middle name the name 
Baker. The Wallaces hold him in as g^eat reverence as any of 
his other descendants. It would be a splendid achievement if all 
of his descendants might be worthy of him. 

Caleb Baker, the son of the immigrant-founder, Caleb Beaker, 
married Miss Catherine Kennon, daughter of William Kennon, 
Jr., of the parish of Dale and County of Henrico, and on the first 
of October, 1743, Colonel Kennon sold to his son-in-law for the 
consideration of five shillings sterling, "a tract of land containing 
four hundred acres lying and being, in the County of Amelia on 
the north fork of Buffalo river," and situated adjacent to the lands 
of Caleb Baker, Sr. By that union the young man obtained a 



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388 Thb American Historical Magazine. 

footing in polite society, supposing that he had not previously 
possessed it. 

Samuel Baker's will was recorded in Prince Edward Will- 
book I, pages 295-6. It was oresented on the i6th of March, 
1782, and was witnessed by Richard Sankey, William Ewing 
and James Gillaspie. His wife was named Christian Baker; his 
sons were Samuel, John Glover, Robert and Caleb ; his daughters 
were Martha Ewing, Elizabeth Campbell and Sarah Crockett. 
I have no informati(Mi regarding the families of Henry and 
Abraham, the other two sons of Caleb Beaker, the immig^rant 

It would be unnecessary to speculate about the reasons that 
induced Samuel and Esther Wallace to dispose of their posses- 
sions and remove their home some miles away from the seat of 
the Baker family in Prince Edward. They chose their new 
home in that portion of the country which was subsequently in- 
cluded in the County of Charlotte. The representations made 
by me in my volume on the "Life and Times of Judge Caleb 
Wallace, Louisville, 1888," were somewhat imperfect, owing to 
the fact that few records of Charlotte County were then obtain- 
able. Judge Wallace was bom in the year 1742, and his birth- 
place was Amelia and not Charlotte Coimty, as there suggested. 
But it was not in the Amelia of the present day. On the con- 
trary, he is believed to have been born on Fort Creek in the 
present County of Prince Edward. 

The first sale was made by Samuel and Esther Wallace on 
the 20th of September, 1750, when for £100 they conveyed to 
John Caldwell four hundred acres on both sides of Fort Creek. 
Witnesses, Hugh Challes, George Ewing and William Crockett 
(Amelia Deed-Book 3, p. 254) . This was nearly two months before 
the making of the will of Caleb Beaker on the 24th of November, 
1750. On the 5th of May, 1753, for the sum of £50 they con- 
veyed to Alexander Ewing three hundred acres between Fort 
Creek and Falling Creek. Witnesses : Samuel Ewing, John Ful- 
ton and George Ewing (Amelia Deed-Book 4, p. 256). On June 
II, 1754, for £50 they sold to Robert Byrd six hundred and 
eighteen acres now in the tenure and occupation of Byrd, and 



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Annals of a Scotch-Irish Family. 389 

page 20). The last transaction that has come to my notice was 
made on the nth of January, 1762, when Samuel Wallace sold 
Philip McTagart for £13 two hundred acres on Spring Creek in 
Prince Edward (Prince Edward Deed-Book 2, page 67). In 
this last conveyance Esther Wallace was not mentioned, and it 
is possible that she had died before it was made. 

The life of Samuel Wallace in Charlotte County was prosper- 
ous. His son Caleb graduated at Princeton in October, 1770, 
and entering the Presbyterian ministry, had charge of Cubb 
Creek Church, and took a large part in the struggle for religious 
freedom in Virginia. The following notice of him belongs to 
the darkest period of the Revolutionary War: 

"The Rev. Caleb Wallace, a minister licensed to preach ac- 
cording to the rules of his sect, came into court and took the 
oath of fidelity to the Common Wealth of Virginia which, on his 
motion is ordered to be certified" (Charlotte Order-Book 4, page 
102). The above action was taken at the session of the court 
held on the ist of September, 1777. 

The first wife of Caleb Wallace had passed away in the year 
1776, and on the nth of May, 1779, he married Miss Rosanna 
Christian, of Botetourt County, and immediately removed from 
Charlotte to Botetourt. In preparation for that removal Caleb 
Wallace, on the 9th of January, 1779, conveyed to William Brown 
for £1,000 the tract of land containing two hundred and forty 
acres upon which he resided on the north side of Louse Creek 
in Charlotte County. Witnesses : Edward Keeling, James Thorp, 
Richard Hilyard, William Lawson, Paschal Greenhill (Charlotte 
Deed- Book 4, page 136). 

Samuel Wallace had now become an old man, and was much 
devoted to the company and fortunes of his children. It was not 
long before he followed his son Caleb from Charlotte to Bote- 
tourt. The latest transaction in real estate in which I have dis- 
covered him to be concerned is recorded in Charlotte Deed- 
Book 4, page 235, and occurred on the 9th of October, 1780, 
when for £9,000 Samuel Wallace, of Botetourt, conveyed to Joel 
Rarmer, of Charlotte, two hundred acres in Charlotte County. 
The currency of the country must have been in much disorder 
when such prices as these could be obtained. The records of the 



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390 Thb Ahbrican Historicai. Magazins. 

Wallace family declare that Samuel Wallace followed his son to 
Kentucky in the year 1782, and that he died in that State at the 
age of ninety-one ^ears. 

In my boyhood at Mt. Tuliet Academy, in Wilson Onrnty, I 
became acquainted with Paschal Greenhill Williamson, who was 
a brother of my uncle, Thomas E. Williamson, and I beg leave 
to raise the question whether this Mr. Williamson may have 
derived his name from Paschal Greenhill, of Charlotte County, 
who was one of the witnesses to the deed of Caleb Wallace on 
the 9th of January, 1779, referred to above; and whether the 
name Green Hill, which has been given to a station on the rail- 
road between Nashville and Lebanon, can be traced back to that 
family. The Greenhills appear to have been allied to the Wil- 
liamsons, and the station of that name is situated in a Williamscwi 
community. 

The Wallace and the Ewing descendants of Caleb Beaker, of 
Prince Edward, have both been prominent in the legal fraternity 
of Kentucky. Caleb Wallace held a seat for many years on the 
bench of the Court of Appeals ; and Ephraim M. Ewing did like- 
wise. Other members of the two families have adorned the pro- 
fession with brilliant talents and achievements. It is somewhat 
singular that they should have lived so long together within the 
limits of the same Commonwealth, and yet should have cultivated 
so little intimacy and friendship. Granting that family bicker- 
ings may have occurred a century and a half ago in Virginia, it 
is not likely that these should at present influence the sentiments 
of any living being. 

Genealogical Notices, — Reuben, the third son of Robert and 
Mary (Beaker) Ewing, of Prince Edward County, Virginia, 
married Ellen Whitsitt, daughter of William and Ellen (Menees) 
Whitsitt, at Russellville, between the years 1800 and 1804. Issue : 
William Whitsitt, James Whitsitt, Sarah, Mary B., Ellen and 



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Amnals op a Scotch-Irish Family. 391 

William Whitsitt Ewing married Sarah Proctor. Issue : Mary 
Ellen, who married a Mr. Perry and removed to Missouri. 

James Whitsitt Ewing married Lucille, a daughter of Card- 
well Breathitt, who was a brother of Governor John Breathitt. 
Issue : Ellen, who married Mr. F. C. Dunnington, of Columbia, 
Tenn. Mr. Dunnington resided for many years at Nashville, 
where he was connected with the Union and American, a leading 
Democratic journal. The Dunningtons had two daughters, Lucile 
and Cobie. Lucile is unmarried. Cobie married E. W. Car- 
mack, who is at present the junior Senator from Tennessee. 

Mary B. Ewing married Ephraim Love McLean, whose father, 
George McLean, had married Pamelia, a daughter of General 
William Lee Davidson, a general of the Revolutionary War, 
after whom was named Davidson County, Tennessee. Mrs. 
Davidson came to the Cumberland country with her family In 
the year 1788, traveling from Qinch River under the protection 
of a company of soldiers, who began their journey on the 25th 
of September (American Historical Magazine, Volume VIII, 
page 348). 

The issue of the marriage of Mary B. Ewing and Ephraim 
Love McLean were Sarah Ellen and Davidson McLean. Sarah 
Ellen McLean married George Thomas Blakey, and an account 
of their children was given above in connection with the Blakey 
family. Davidson McLean went to California where he acquired 
a great fortune and died without issue in San Francisco on the 
4th of November, 1897. 

Ellen Ewing married Robert D. King, who lived near Nash- 
ville, Tenn. They have one daughter, now living in Dallas, Texas. 

Elizabeth Ewing married Andrew J. McLean. Issue : Pamelia, 
who married Rev. J. S. Grider, of Bowling Green, Ky., an hon- 
ored minister of (iie Cumberland Presbyterian Church. 

Religion, — It has been asserted by genealogists of the Ewing 
family that about the year 1796 all the children of Robert 
Ewing emigrated from Bedford County, Virginia, to Logan 
County, Kentucky. About the same time the Rev. James Mc- 
Cready, of the Presbyterian Church, came from North Caro- 
lina to Logan County, and was settled in charge of the congre- 
gations on Caspar River and Little Muddy River. The Ewings 



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392 Thk American Historicai, Magazinb. 

had been Presbyterians in Virginia, but Here they found and 
entered into the great revival. It was in full swing when the 
Whitsitts and Blakeys and Breathitts appeared upon the scene 
from Nashville, in the year 1800. 

William Breathitt could not be moved by the gjeat revival 
that swept over Henry County, Virginia, in 1789, and there is 
no evidence that either himself or any member of his household 
was accessible to the influence of Mr. McCready. Mrs. George 
Blakey was a Baptist, and it has not appeared that she was in 
any special sympathy with the awakening at Caspar River. 
William Whitsitt, Sr., was likewise a Baptist. William Whitsitt, 
Jr., had a farm and likewise a paper and grist mill on Caspar 
River, but his inclinations were hardly friendly to the movement 

The Ewing^, however, entered into it with genuine zest and 
conviction, and in time Finis Ewing, their youngest brother, be- 
came one of the founders of the Cumberland Presbjrterian Church. 
Reuben Ewing was of that faith, and his wife, Ellen, united 
with him in it. Her sister, Sarah Whitsitt, the youngest daughter 
of the family, found pleasure in attending the grest meetings, 
both at Caspar River and Little Muddy River, and before the 
month of March, 1805, she had married Rees Porter, one of the 
ministers of the new church. Sarah Whitsitt also became a Cum- 
berland Presbyterian. Mr. Porter came from Ciles County, Ten- 
nessee, and was in every way a respectable .and worthy man. 
The children of Rees and Sarah (Whitsitt) Porter were a son 
named Rees Whitsitt, and two daughters, one of whom married 
a Mr. Smith, and resided in Columbia. Tenn. After the death 
of her first husband she married Con. Ewing, who is reported to 
have been a brother of Reuben and Finis Ewing, but I can find 
no such name in the list. One of their brothers was named 
John Ewing, and it is possible that he may have been her second 
husband. 

Rees Whitsitt married Miss Elizabeth . Issue: 

Elizabeth, who married Mr. Sweeny and now lives at Calveston, 



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Annals of a Scotch-Irish PamiItY. 393 

118, above, that William Breathitt sold out his possessions in 
Henry and removed to Campbell County, Virg^ia, in the year 
1793. There he purchased an estate of one hundred acres, more 
or less, on the road leading from L)mchburg to New London, 
and about two miles from the latter place, which is at present 
known as Bedford Springs on the maps of Virginia. That 
property he held until the 14th of October, 1799, when he sold 
it for £90 to Andrew Thompson. The deed, which may be con- 
sulted in Deed-Book No. 5, page 8, of Campbell County^, is notable 
for the fact that in it the name Breathitt is written in four several 
forms. It provided that his wife, Elizabeth, should unite with 
him in the transfer, but she failed to accomplish it, an omissicm 
that may have been occasioned by the cares of preparation for 
her removal to the Western country. 

The family made a halt in Nashville for several months during 
the winter of 1799-1800. William Whitsitt, Sr., then residing 
in Neely's Bend, was making preparations for his removal to 
Russellville in the early springtime. Moreover, they were solicit- 
ous to visit their brother, the Rev. James Whitsitt, in his home 
on Mill Creek, and James Menees at his new residence near 
Menees' Spring. As a Marylander through long residence, if 
not by birth, William Breathitt was glad to consort with the 
colony of Maryland people in Nashville. One of the foremost 
men of the young city was Dr. John Sappington, of Maryland. 
He had appeared in the year 1786, and on the loth of October 
made an indenture with Tames Robertson by which he purchased 
from him for iio one-half of Lot No. 24 in the original plan of 
the city. (Davidson County Deed-Book A, pagfe 64). He was 
a man of large business, apparently, in the line of drugs and 
medicines, and of much ability and energy. 

In the winter in question he had with him another John Sap- 
pington, a son of Mark Sappington, of Havre de Grace, in Har- 
ford County, Maryland. It is presumable that Mark Sappington, 
of Havre de Grace, was a brother of Dr. John Sappington. If 
that supposition is correct, the younger John Sappington, who 
had been bom in the year 1776, was j^ nephew of the Nashville 
merchant. Whatever may have been the facts in this case, there 
can be no question that the younger John Sappington became 
8 



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394 'I^B American Historical Magazine. 

much enamored of Elizabctfi, the oldest child of William Breathitt, 
who was then in her seventeenth year, and that the twain were 
married before the dawn of springtime when the Breathitts should 
depart for Russellville. I have previously spoken of the pros- 
perity that attended the enterprises of William Breathitt, but it 
may be doubted whether he ever experienced a happier stroke 
of fortime than that which procured him such a son-in-law. 

Arrived in Logan Coimty^ Mr. Breathitt found a settlement a 
short distance from Russellville where he reared a noble 
family. The town of Russellville was in that period an important 
center, and he was desirous to find a home within its limits. 
This purpose was accomplished when cm the 23d of February, 
1 816, he purchased the shares of James Whitsitt, George Blakey 
and Reuben Ewing in two hundred acres in Russellville that had 
formerly been the seat of William Whitsitt, Sr. (Logan Deed- 
Book E, page 424) ; but death overtook him near the close of the 
following year. On the 17th of December, 1817, Cardwell, Ed- 
ward and John Breathitt conveyed to their sisters, Elizabeth and 
Susan, and to their brother, George Breathitt, all the interest that 
they possessed in their father's estate, a fact which shows that 
he had passed away, and that the elder brothers were generous 
men. 

Of the nine children of the Breathitt family John was the most 
promising and prosperous. He seems to have begun his career 
as a schoolteacher, and while engaged in that business to have 
employed all manner of diligence to become an adept in the art 
of surveying. Possibly he had studied the early life of General 
Washington and had become emulous to adopt his methods. 
Washington was only sixteen years of age when he began the 
task of surveying the immense tract of Lord Fairfax in Virginia. 
John Breathitt was hardly more than sixteen years of age when, 
having been appointed a deputy-surveyor, he began to survey the 
public d<Mnain in the territory of Illinois. In this business he 
earned money rapidly, and his eccntomy was equal to his in- 
dustry. 



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Aknai^ of a Scotch-Irish Famii^y. 395 

question is the production of John Breathitt. He does ncA in 
express terms claint his work, but the relation fits his character 
and circumstances so aptfjr that it is difficult to conceive that it 
could have been composed by any cdxer hand. It seems to have 
been a. journey of the surveying party at the head of which the 
young man was placed, made partly for business- and partly for 
pleasure, and presents a fair specimen of the art and quatt^ of 
the son of William Breathitt between the eighteenth and nine- 
teenth year of his age. I have never inspected the original, which 
was presented to the Tennessee Historical Society by Mr. W. D. 
Horton, but I should be happy if the handwriting in which it ap- 
pears could be compared with the acknowledged chirography of 
Governor Breathitt. 

The arguments in favor of young Breathitt, as the author, are 
too numerous and extensive to be recited in this place. The 
document constitutes an excellent monument to his memory and 
supplies an engaging picture of life and manners in our coimtry 
at the opening of the nineteenth century. The fact that it has 
preserved this paper and submitted it in the pages of this Maga- 
zine to the inspection^ of students is not one of the smallest serv- 
ices that has been rendered by the Historical Society of Ten- 
nessee. 

The author of the sketch of the life of Governor Breathitt, 
found in Collins' "Historical Sketches of Kentucky." reports that 
"he acquired property rapidly, consisting mostly in lands, which 
were easily obtainable under the acts of the Assembly appro- 
priating the public domain." The $2,530 which he carried with 
him on his journey to Washington appears to have been in- 
vested in that way at Chillicothe, Ohio (American Historical 
Magazine, Volume VHI, page 93). But sometimes he felt in- 
clined to invest his surplus at home in Kentucky, and on the 
i8th of March, 1808, he paid his uncle, William Whitsitt, Sr., 
for three lots in Russellville $2,500 in cash (Logan Deed-Book B, 
page 43). 

About the time when this last investment was made he decided 
to lay aside the appointment of deputy surveyor, which he had 
held so long under the government, and give himself to the study 
of law. That work \^'as prosecuted under the instruction of Judge 



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396 The Ambkican Historicai« Magazinb. 

Caleb Wallace, of the Court of Appeals in Frankfort, Ky., and he 
was admitted to the bar as a qualified attorney in February, 1810. 
The author of his biography as found in Collins' "Sketches of 
Kentucky" affirms that in the legal profession "his industry and 
capacity for business soon secured him a lucrative practice, and 
from this time he rapidly advanced in public estimation." He 
was almost immediately chosen to represent the County of Logan 
in the Legislature and filled that office for a number of years in 
succession. 

A singular triumph came to him in the month of August, 1828, 
when he was elected lieutenant-governor of Kentucky, notwith- 
standing the fact that Mr. Metcalfe, of the Whig party, was 
chosen to be governor. It was a significant circtunstance that 
a majority of the Legislature was also of the Democratic party 
and when the Presidential election was held in November, 1828, 
General Jackson carried the State by an overwhelming vote 
against John Q. Adams. 

The matter was tried out again in August, 1832, when, after 
a tremendous conflict, Breathitt was elected governor by more 
than a thousand majority. But Mr. Qay was himself in that 
year a candidate for the Presidency against General Jackson, and 
it was to him an eminent concern that his own State should sus- 
tain him. Every possible exertion was made on both sides, and 
when the Presidential election was had in the month of Novem- 
ber it was found that Clay had been successful by more than 
seven thousand votes. After that victory the Whig party held 
the reins for a number of ^ears in the State, but it seems likely 
that if Governor Breathitt had not been carried away by death 
in February, 1834, Mr. Qay would have found much greater 
•difficulty in maintaining his ascendency. 

General Jackson recognized his obligations to Governor 
Breathitt in Kentucky politics. It was especially g^teful to 
Tiis feelings that on February 2, 1833, Breathitt should have in- 
duced the Legislature to pass a series of resolutions expressly 
<iisavowine^ the doctrine that had been contained in the famous 



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Aknai^ op a Scotch-Irish Family. 397 

due to the intimacy that he cultivated with Breathitt, that General 
Jackson should have conceived the idea of inviting George, the 
youngest brother of the governor, to act as his private secretary. 
George Breathitt was employed in that capacity when he died 
in the year 1833. 

Genealogical Notices, — It has been signified on page 115 above 
that William Breathitt married Elizabeth Whitsitt in the year 
1783. The issue of this marriage were Jane (Kelley), Card well, 
John, James, Edward, Ellen, Elizabeth, Susan and George 
Breathitt. 

Jane, the oldest child of this union was born in 1783 in Henry 
County, Virginia, and died at "Fox Castle," the seat of her hus- 
band, in Saline County, Missouri, on the 14th of December, 1851, 
in the sixty-ninth year of her age. She was the eldest and also 
the last surviving member of her father's family. She married 
John Sappington at Nashville, Tenn., in the winter of 1799- 1800. 
He subsequently took a medical degree at Philadelphia and be- 
came an eminent physician in Central Missouri, where he had 
established his home. For many years Dr. John Sappington was 
the intimate friend and supporter of Senator Thomas H. Benton, 
of Missouri. The children of the Sappington family were Eliza, 
Lavinia, Erasmus D., William B., Jane, Louisa, Catharine, 
Sarah and Mary Ellen Sappington. 

Eliza, Jane and Louisa Sappington were all three at different 
times wives of Governor Claiborne F. Jackson, of Missouri, but 
I have no information regarding the issue of these marriages. 

Lavinia married Governor M. M. Marmaduke, of Missouri. 
Issue : John S. Marmaduke, who in the year 1889 was also gov- 
ernor of Missouri. One of the daughters of Governor M. M. 
Marmaduke married her cousin, Mr. Lev. Howard, of Russell- 
ville, Ky. 

Erasmus Darwin Sappington married Miss Penelope Breathitt, 
the eldest daughter of Governor John Breathitt, who was bom in 
1822 at Russellville, and died on the 26th of June, 1904, at Pueblo, 
Col., whither she had gone a few days previously to visit her 
daughter, Mrs. Gamett. Mrs. C. Lester Hall, of 2720 Troost 
avenue, Kansas City, Mo., is another daughter of this marriage. 

William B. Sappington married Mildred, another daughter of 



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393 The American Historical Magazine. 

Governor Breathitt^ but I know nothing r^^arding the issue o{ 
that union. Sarah died without issue. I have no information 
concerning Catharine and Mary Ellen, the two remaining Sap- 
pington children. 

Cardwell, the oldest son of William and Elizabeth Breathitt, 

was a merchant in Russellville, and married . Issue : 

Lucile, who married James Whitsitt, a son of Judge Reuben 
Ewing, and an account of their family was recorded above in 
connection with the Ewing family. Cardwell Breathitt died in 

1834. 

John Breathitt, who was governor of Kentucky, married first 
Miss Penelope Whitaker. Issue: Cardwell, Penelope and Mil- 
dred. Cardwell, married Mary E. Slaughter, of Russellville, in 
1843, 2i^d removed to Saline County, Missouri, about the year 
1850, where he has lately died. Issue: John, Elizabeth and 
Philip Breathitt. 

The second wife of Governor Breathitt was Miss Harris, a 
daughter of Richard Harris, of Chesterfield County, Virginia. 
His biographer in Collins' "Historical Sketches" affirms that 
Governor Breathitt had a daughter by his second marriage. 

James, the next child of William and Elizabeth Breathitt, was 

a lawyer in Hopkinsville. He married first . Issue: 

Major John W. Breathitt, at present and for many years past 
post master of the City of Hopkinsville. Major Breathitt mar- 
ried Miss Webber, of Hopkinsville. Issue: Pe3rton, Harvey, 
James, Gus., Elizabeth, Caroline, John and Katherine. 

Pe)rton Breathitt, son of Major Breathitt, married . 

Issue: Fanny, James, Catherine and Webber. 

James Breathiit married a second time, his wife being Miss 
Harvie, of Frankfort, Ky. No issue. James Breathitt died in 

^837. 

Ellen, the second daughter of William and Elizabeth Breathitt, 
died unmarried at eighteen years of age in the year 1813. 

Edward Breathitt, a physician, who resided at Nashville, Tenn., 
died in 1837. Elizabeth, the next child, married Mr. Howard, 
of Russellville. Issue: Mary Ellen, who married Anthony 
Long, of Russellville, and Lev. Howard, mentioned above, who 
married his cousin, one of the daughters of Governor Marma- 
duke, of Missouri. Elizabeth Breathitt died in 1834. 



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Constitution of thb State of Fhankwn. 399 



CONSTITUTION OF THE STATR OF FRANKLIN. 



[A conTeation assembled at Jonesboro in December, 1784, adopted 
a temporary Ck>n8tltutloii for the State of Franklin, which was re- 
ferred to a subsequent convention, to be held not earlier than six 
months nor later than twelve months from that date, for final action. 

This second Convention met at Qreeneville, November 16, 1785. 
There was a great diversity of sentiment among the delegates to 
this Convention. Finally, a committee was appointed to prepare a 
Form of Ck>vemment, which should be reported to the whole Con- 
v«ition. The report of this committee having been laid before the 
OonventioQ, was rejected in the lump, and the Constitution of North 
Carolina, with such amendments as appeared necessary, was adopted. 

In the January number, 1896, of the American Historical Magazine 
(Volume I, page 48), we published in full the report of this committee, 
of which only an imperfect fragment was known to be in existence 
until 1880. In the introduction to that publication we stated that 
"No copy of this provisional (Jonesboro) Constitution is extant, and 
its features can only be conjectured." 

We are delighted to be able, in this issue, to give our readers a 
complete copy of the lost Joneeboro Constitution. It was found tied 
up In a little paper box in the office of the Insurance Commissioner 
OQ the third floor of the capitol at Raleigh, and is printed in the 
Charlotte Daily Observer of September 25, 1904. As printed it contains 
verbal inaccuracies, but in the main is no doubt substantially correct. 
Such glaring errors as printing the date of the Convention "17th 
Deer. Anno Dom. 1787" we have corrected so as to make it read 
*'1784," the date when the Convention actually met 

The instrument is interesting and also unique in that it contains, 
in addition to the Constitution and bill of rights, a Declaration of 
Independence.] 

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE. 

Your committee appointed to collect and adjust the reason 
which impels us to declare ourselves Independent of North 
Carolina Report as follows (to wit) Whereas we the freedmen 
inhabitants of part of the Country included in the limits of an 
Act of North Carolina Ceding certain vacant Territory to Con- 



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4dO ThB AhBSICAK HiSTOKICAIr Magazinb. 

First. That the Constitution of North Carolina declares that 
it shall be Justifiable to erect New States Westward when ever 
the Consent of the Legislative shall Countenance it, & this Con- 
sent is implied we conceive in the Cession act which has thrown 
us into such a citation that the influance of the Law in common 
cases became almost a nullity & incriminal Jurisdiction had in- 
tirely seased which reduced us to the verge of anarchy. 

2nd. — ^The Assembly of North Carolina have detained a Cer- 
tain quantity of Goods, which was procured to satisfy the Indians 
for the lands we possess which detainure we fully conseive has 
so exasperated them that they have actually committed hostilities 
upon us & we are alone impeled to defend ourselves from these 
raviges. 

3rdly. The resolutions of Congress held out from time to time 
incouraging the erection of New States have appeared to us 
ample incouragement. — 

4thly. Our local situation is such that we not only apprehend 
that we should be seperated from North Carolina; but almost 
evrry sensible disinterested traviler has declared it incompatible 
with out Interest to belong in union with the Eastern part of 
the State for we are not only far removed from the Eastern 
part of North Carolina. But seperated from them by high & 
almost impasable mountains which naturally divide us from them 
have proved to us that our interest is also in many respects dis- 
tinct from the inhabitants on the other side & much injured by 
an union with them. 

5th. And lastly we Unanimouslv agree that our lives, liberties 
and Prosperity can be more secure & our happiness much better 
propagated by our separation & consiquently that it is our duty 
and unalienable right to form ourselves into a new Independent 
State—. 

DECLARATION OF RIGHTS. 

A Declaration of rights mads by the representatives of the 
Freemen of the State of Franklin — 

1st. That all Political power is vested in & derived from the 
people only — 

2nd Sec. That the people of this State ought to have the sole 
& exclusive right of regulating the Internal Government thereof — 

3d. Sec. That no man or set of men, are in titled to exclusive 
or seperate Emoluments or Privileges from the community. But 
in consideration of Public services — 



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Constitution of thb Statb op Franklin. 401 

5th Sect. That all powers of suspendincr laws or the execution 
of laws, by any authority without tfie consent of the Representa- 
tives of the People is injurious to their Rights & ought not to 
be exercised. — 

6th Sect. That Elections of Members to serve as representa- 
tives in General Assembly ought to be free. — 

Sect. 7th. That in all prosecutions every man has a right to 
be informed of the accusation against him^ and to confront the 
accusors & witnesses with other Testimony & shall not be com- 
'peld to give Evidence against himself. 

8th Sect. That no freeman shall be put to answer any criminal 
Charges, but by indictment Presentment or Impeachment. — 

9th Sect. That no freeman shall be convicted of any Crime but 
by the unanimous verdict of a Jury of good & Lawfull men in 
open Court as heretofore used. — 

loth Sect. That excessive Bail should not be required nor 
excessive fines imposed nor crewel Punishments inflicted. — 

nth Sect. That General Warrants, whereby any officer or mes- 
singer may be commanded to search suspected places without 
Evidence of the fact Committed, or to seize any person or per- 
sons not named whose offiencies is not particularly discribed & 
supported by evidence, are dangerous to Liberty, & ought to be 
granted. — 

1 2th Sect. That no freeman ought to be taken imprisoned, or 
dismissed of his freehold Liberties or Privileges, or outlawed or 
exiled, or in any manner but by the Laws of the land. — 

13th Sect. That every freeman restrained of his liberty is 
entitled to a remedy to inquire into the lawfulness thereof & to 
remove if unlawful! & that such remed^' ought not to be denied 
or delaied. — 

14th Sect. That in all Controverces at law respecting property 
the Ancient mode of tryal by Jury is one of the best securities 
of the rights of the people & ought to remain sacred & inviolable. 

15th Sect. That the freedom of the press is one of the great 
Bulwarks of liberty, & therefore ought never to be restrained. — 

i6th. That the people of this State ought not to be taxed, or 
made Subject to the payment of any impost or duty without the 
consent of themselves or their Representatives in General As- 
sembly freely given. — 

17th. That the people have a right to bear arms for the de- 
fence of the State ; and as Standing- armies in times of peace are 



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402 Thb American Historicki, Magazinb. 

i8th. That the people have aright to Assemble together, to 
consuh for their common good to instruct their Representatires, 
& to apply to the Legislature for Redress of Grievances. — 

19th. That all Men have a natural and unalienable right to 
worship God Almighty according to the dictate of their own con- 
science. — 

20th. That for redress of Grievances and for amending and 
strengthening the laws, Elections ought to be often Held. — 

2 1 St. That a freguent recurrence to a Fundimental principles 
is absolutely necessary to preserve blessings of liberty. 

22nd. That no hereditary Emoluments privileges, or honours 
ought to be granted an Conferred in this State. — 

23rd. That perpetuties & Monopolies are Contrary to the 
genius of a free State and ought not to be allowed. — 

24th. That representative laws punishing Facts committed be- 
fore the existence of such laws and by them only declared crim- 
inal, are oppressive unjust and incomoatible with Liberty, where- 
fore no ex post facto law ought to be made. — 

25th. That the people have aright by the Representatives to 
enact laws to encourage Virtue & Suppress vice and immorallity. 

CONSTITUTION. 

The Constitution, or form of Government agreed to and Re- 
solved upon by the representatives of the freedom of the State 
of Franklin, elected and chosen for that particular purpose in 
convention Assembled at Jonesborrough the 17th Deee. Anno 
Dom. 1784. — 

Sect. 1st. That the legislative authority shall be vested in two 
distinct branches, both dependent on the people (to Wit.) a 
Senate and house of commons. — 

Sect. 2nd. That the Senate shall be composed of the Represen- 
tative Annually chosen by ballot from each County until] be ten 
Counties in the State after that period one from each coimty. — 

3rd. That the house of Commons shall be composed of Repre- 
sentatives annually chosen by Ballot four for each County untill 
there be ten Counties within the State and after that period two 
for each County. — 

Sect. 4th. That the Senate and house of Commons Assembled 
for the purpose of legislation shall be denominated the General 
Assembly. — 

Sect. 5th. That each Member of the Senate shall have usually 



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Constitution of thb Statb of Franklin. 403 

Sect. 6th. That each Member of the house of Commons shall 
have usually resided in the County in which he is chosen for one 
year immediately preceeding his Election. — 

Sect. 7th. That all Freemen of the age of twenty one years 
who have been inhabitants of any One County within the State 
twelve Months preceeding the day of any Election, & possessed 
of a freehold within the same County of fifty acres of land for six 
months before and at the day of Election shall be intitled to vote 
for a Member of the Senate. — 

Sect. 8th. That all fremen of the age of twenty one years, who 
have been. Inhabitants of any County in this State twelve Months 
inmiediately preceeding the day of any Election & shall have paid 
public taxes, shall be intitled to vote for Members, for the house 
of Commons for the Coimty in which he resides. — 

Sect. 9th. That all persons possessed of a freehold in any 
Town in this State having a rieht of representation & also all 
freemen who have been Inhabitants of any such Town twelve 
Month next before & at the day of Election & shall have paid 
public taxes Shall be intitled to vote for a Member to represent 
such Town in the house of Commons provided always That this 
Sect. Shall not Intitle any inhabitant of Such Town to vote for 
Members of the house of Commons for the County in which he 
may reside nor any freeholder in such County who resides with- 
out or beyond the limits of such town to vote for a Member for 
said Town. — 

Sect. loth. That the Senate & house of Commons when met 
shall each have power to chose a speaker and other there officers 
be Judges of the quallifications and Elections of there Members 
set upon there own adjournment from day to day & prepare bills 
to be passed into laws. The two houses shall direct writs of 
Election for supplyine intermediate vacances and shall also 
Jointly by Ballot adjourn Themselves to any future day & place. — 

Sect. nth. That all Bills shall be r«ad three times in each 
house before they pass into laws & be signed by the Speaker of 
Both houses and Motion and seconded the yesjs & nays, shall be 
taken on the passing of any act and printed with the same. — 

Sect. 1 2th. That every person who shall be chosen A Member 
of Senate or house of Commons or appointed to any Office or 
place of Trust before taking his Seat or entering upon the execu- 
tion of his office Shall Take an Oath to the State and all Officers 
also shall take an Oath of Office.— 

Sect. 13th. That the General Assembly shall by a Joint Ballot 



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404 Thb Ambrican Historical Magazinb 

Sect. 14th. That the Senate and house of Commons shall have 
power to appoint the General and field Officers of the Militia 
and all Officers of the regular Army of the State. — 

Sect. 15th. That the Senate and house of Commons Jointiy 
at their first meeting after each annual Election Shall by ballot 
shall Elect a Governor for one year who shall not be Eligible to 
the Office longer than three years in Six successive years, that no 
person under thirty years of age and who has not been a resident 
in this State above one year and shall, and having in the State 
a freehold in land & Tenements above the Value of two Hun- 
dreds & fifty pounds shall be Eligible as a Governor. — 

Sect. 1 6th. That the Senate and house of commons Jointly at 
their first meeting after each annual Election shall by Ballot 
Elect five persons to be a Council of State for one year, who shaD 
advise the Governor in the Execution of his Office & that three 
Members Shall be a quorum dieir advice and proceedings shall 
be entered in a Journal to be kept for that purpose only and 
signed by the Members present to any part of which any Mem- 
ber present may enter his dessent and such Journal shall be laid 
before the General Assembly, when called for by them. — 

Sect. 17. That there shall be a Seal of this State which shall 
be kept by the Governor and used by him as Occation may Re- 
quire and shall be called the Great Seal of the State of Franklin 
& be affixed to all Grants and Commissions. — 

Sect. i8th. The Governor for the time being shall be Captain 
General & Commander m Chief of the Militia & in the recess of 
the Genl. Assembly shall have power by & with the advice of the 
Council of State Imbody the Militia for the Public safety. 

Sect. 19th. That the Governor for the time being shall have 
power to draw for & aooly such sums of money as Shall be voted 
by the General Assembly for the Contingencies of Government 
& be accountable to them for the same and he also may by & with 
the advice of the Council of State lav Embargoes or prohibit the 
Exportation of any Commodities for any term not exceeding 
thirty days at any one time in the recess of the General Assembly 
and shall have the power of granting the pardons and reprieves 
except where the prosecutions shall be carried on by the General 
Assembly or the law shall otherwise direct in which case he may 
in the recess grant a repreive Untill the next sitting of the Genl 
Assembly & may exercise all other executive powers of Govern- 
ment limited & restrained as by this Constitution is Mentioned 
and according to the laws of the State and on his death inability 
or absents from the State the Speaker of the Senate for the time 
being & in case of his death Inability or absents from the State. 
The Speaker of the house of Commons shall exorise the powers 



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Constitution of thk Statb of Franklin. 405 

of Govemmait after such death or during* such absents or In- 
ability of the Governor or Sneaker of the Senate or untill a new 
nomination is made by the General Assembly. — 

Sect. 20th. That in every case where any officer the Right of 
whose appointment is by this Constitution vested in General As- 
sembly shall during their recess die, or his Office by their means 
become vacant, the governor shall have power, with the advice 
of the Councill of State to fill up such vacancy by granting a 
temporary Commission which shall expire at the end of next 
Session of the General Assembly.^ 

Sect. 2 1 St. That the Governor Judges of Supreme Courts of 
Law and Equity and Attorney general shall have adequate Sala- 
ries during their continuence in Office. — 

Sect. 22st. That the General Assembly shall by Joint Ballot 
of both houses annually appoint a Treasurer or Treasurers for 
this State. — 

Sect. 23rd. That the governor and other officers offending 
against the State by violating any part of this Constitution Malad- 
ministration or Corruption may be prosecuted on the impeach- 
ment of the General Assembly, or presentment of the grand Jury 
of any Court of Supreme Jurisdiction of this State. — 

Sect 24th. That the general assembly shall by Joint Ballot of 
both houses, Triannially appoint a Secretary for this State. — 

Sect. 25th. That no persons who heretofore have been or here- 
after may be receivers of publick Money's, shall have a seat in 
either house of General Assembly, or Eligible to any office in this 
State untiU such persons shall have fully accounted for & paid 
into the Treasury all sums for which they may be Accountable 
& liable if legally caled upon. — 

26th Sec. That no treasurer shall have a Seat in either Senate 
house of Commons or Council of State during his Continuance 
in that office, or before he shall finally setled his accounts with 
the public for all moneys which may be in his hands at the ex- 
piration of his office belonging to the State and have paid the 
same into the hands of the Succeeding Treasurer. — 

Sect. 27th. That no officer in the reg^ular army or Navy in 
the Service & pay of the United States Nor any Contractor or 
agent for supplying such army or Navy with Clothing or provi- 
sions shall have a seat in either Senate house of Commons or 
Council of State or be Eligible thereto any member of the Senate 
house of Commons or Council of State beino* apoointed to and 
accepting of such office shall thereby Vacate his Seat. — 

Sect. 28th. That no member of the Council of State shall have 
a Seat either in the Senate or house or house of Commons pro- 
vided nevertheless that the governor & Council shall attend the 



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4o6 Thb Ambrican Historicai. Magazikb. 

General assembly during the sittng of the same and that it shai 
be a part of there official duty to revise all bills before they caa 
be passed and recommend such amendments as they may tfamk 
proper. — 

Sect. 29th. That no Judge of the Supreme Court of Law or 
Equity shall have a seat in Senate house of Commons or Coundi 
of State- 
Sect. 30th. That no Secretary of this State Attorney General 
or Clerk of any Court of Record shall have a seat in the Senate 
house of Commons, or Council of State. — 

Sect. 31st. That no Clergyman or preacher of the gospell 01 
any denomination shall be Capable of being a Member of either 
the Senate or house of Commons while he continues in the service 
the pastoral function. — 

Sect. 32nd. That no person who shall deny the being of a 
God or the truth of the protestant religion or the divine authority 
either of the old or new Testament or who shall hold religious 
principals in Compateable with the freedom & safety of the State 
shall be capable of holding any office or place of trust or profit in 
Civil department within this State. — 

Sect. 33rd. That the Justices of the Peace witfiin tfidr re- 
spective Counties in this State shall in future be reconmiended to 
the Governor for the time being by the representatives in General 
Assembly and the Governor shall Comition them accordingly, and 
the Justices Commissioned shall hold their offices during good 
behavior & shall not be removed from office by the General As- 
sembly, unless for misbehavior Absence or inability. — 

Sect. 34th. That ther shall be no Establishment of any one 
religious Church or denomination in this State in preference to 
any other, neither shall any person on any pretense whatsoever 
be compelled to attend any place of Worship contrary to his own 
faith or judgment nor be obliged to pay for the purchase of any 
Glebe or the building of any worship house or for the maintain- 
ance of any Minister of Ministry Contrary to what he believes 
rigrht or has voluntarily and personally engaged to perform : but 
all persons shall be at liberty to exercise their own mode of wor- 
ships provided that nothing herein contained shall be construed 
to except preachers of treasonable or Seditious discourses from 
legall trial or punishment — 

Sect. 35th. That no person in the State shall hold mcMe than 
one lucrative office at any one time provided that no app(nntment 
in the Militia or the office of a Justice of the Peace shall be con- 
sidered as a lucrative office. — 

Sect. 36th. That all Commissions & Grants shall run in the 
name of the State of FrankHn & bear test & be signed by the 



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Constitution op thb State op Franklin. 407 

Govemor, all writs shall run in the same manner & bear test and 
be signed by the Clerks of the respective Courts Indictments shall 
oHiclad against the peace & dignity of the State. — 

Sect. 37th. That the deligate for this State to the Continantal 
Congres while necessary, shall be chosen annually by the General 
Assembly, by ballot but may be superseded in the mean time in 
the same manner, and no person shall be Elected to serve in that 
capacity for more than three years successively. — 

Sect. 38th. That there shall be a sheriff coroners or coroners 
& Constables in Each County within this State. — 

Sect. 39th. That the person of a debtor where there is not a 
strong presumption of fraud shall not be Continued in prison 
after delivering up bona fide all his Estate real and personal for 
the use of his Creditors, in such manner as shall be here after 
regulated by law all prisoners shall be bailable bv suffitiant securi- 
ties unless for Capital offence is when the proof is Evident or 
presumption great. — 

Sect. 40th. That any foreigner who comes to settle in this 
State having first taken an oath Allegiance to the Same may 
purchase or by other just means acquire hold and transfer land 
or other real estate and after one years residence shall be deemed 
a free Citizen. — 

Sect. 41st. That a School or Schools shall be established by 
the legislature, for convenient instruction of youth with such Sal- 
leries to the masters paid by the public as may enable them to 
instruct at low prices : and all learning shall be duly encouraged 
& promoted in one or more Universities. — 

Sect. 42nd. That no purchase of Lands shall be made of In- 
dians natives, but on behalf of the publick by authority of the 
General Assembly. — 

Sect. 43rd. That the future legislature of this State shall regu- 
late intails in such a manner as to prevent perpetuties. — 

Sect. 44th. That the declaration of the rights is hereby de- 
clared to be part of the Constitution of this State, & ought never 
to be Violated, on any pretence whatsoever. — 

Sect. 45th. That any member of either Houses of General 
Assembly shall have liberty to discept from & protest against 
any act or resolves which he may think injurious to the public, 
or any individual & have the reasons of his dissent interred on the 
Journals. — 

Sect. 46th. That neither house of the General Assembly shall 
proceed upon public business unless a Majority of all the mem- 
bers of such house are actually present, & that upon motion made 
& seconded the yeas & Nays upon any question shall be taken & 
entered on the Journals & that the Journals of the proceedings 



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4o8 Thb American Historical Magazine. 

of tx>th houses of the General Assembly shall be printed & made 
public immediately after their adjournment. 

This Constitution is not Intended to preclude the present Con- 
vention from making: a temporary provision for the well ordering 
of this State untill this General Assembly shall establish Govern- 
ment agreeable to the mode herein discribed. Resolved, — 

That this Convention Recomend this Constitution for the Scrc- 
ous Consideration of the people during: Six Ensuine Months after 
which time Before the Expiration of the Year that they Choose 
a Convention for the Express purpose of Adopting it in tfie Name 
of the people if Agreed to By them or altering it as Instructed 
By them. 



THE END OF THE "AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE/ 



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AMERICAN HISTORICAL 
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Tcriric5see Historioil Societv Quiirierlv 



VultX. 



OCTOBER, 1904, 



No, 4. 




?rn 9^T^P,i4.KhhY TO THE MlATiJijy '^^^ TT,>t?.-itf.^f P. 






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Amcriean Historical Magaiinc. 

PDITOR. A. V. GOODPASTURE. 
ScocUrr TcaatM* HMnHcal Se«W4v. 



Gcacral A{cnti, Goodpasture Soolc Co,^ 
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