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STEPHEN Bo WEEKS 

CLASS OF 1886: PH.D THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSffY 

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SECOND EDITION. 



The first edition of this number, published Janu- 
ary ', iSg6, being- entirely exhausted by an unexpected 
demand, this second edition is issued, March 10. i8q6, 
and is a reprint of the former edition. 







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THE 



AMERICAN HISTORICAL 
MAGAZINE. 



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PUBLISHED QUARTERLY. 

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Vol. I JANUARY, 1896. No. 1 



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American Historical Magazine. 



Vol. I. JANUARY, 1896. No. 1. 

THE FATHER OF REPRESENTATIVE GOV- 
ERNMENT IN AMERICA., 



It is not the purpose of this article to set forth any 
new discovery, nor to present any reflections which are 
especially startling - or original. 

The purpose is, to emphasize a neglected fact of 
American historty; a fact attested by ancient records, nar- 
rated in historical works, and familiar to historians; yet 
a fact the full significance of which is not generally re- 
cognized. 

On the 30th day of July, 1619, the first Legislative 
Assembly in America convened at Jamestown, Virginia. 

This Assembly marked the first victory of popular 
rights in the Western Hemisphere, and was in some re- 
spects, the most remarkable Assembly that ever con- 
vened. It was, not only the beacon ligdit of freedom in 
America, but it, also, exercised an important reflex influ- 
ence on the constitution of England, and is entitled to be 
included among - the decisive events of history. 

The facts connected with this important event have 
been sketched by Bancroft, Cooke, and other historians, 
but they have not taken the hold which thej r deserve upon 



4 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

the popular heart, and are not treasured, as they should 
be, in the memory of every American. 

The most g-raphic picture which has been painted of 
this Assembly and its members will be found in the Vir- 
ginia Magazine of History for July, 1894. In this maga- 
zine is given the address delivered before the Virginia 
Historical Society by Hon. William Wirt Henry, to whose 
researches I am indebted for many of the facts narrated 
in this paper, and from whose graphic description, I have 
obtained permission to quote several extracts. 

This Assembly was not so much a victorv in itself, 
as it was the reward or first fruits of a victory already 
achieved. The battle for representative government in 
Virginia had been waged since the foundation of the Col- 
ony. The battlefield had been transferred from James- 
town to London, and the Council Chamber of the Vir- 

" Mi H. , j > ' 

ginia Company of London was the scene of the conflict. 
The victory was won, not by the sword, but by peaceful 
and manly resistance to oppression, and by appeal to jus- 
tice and reason. Had it been won by force of arms, and 

'lUi-f til! 

lighted up by the gdare of war, it would have occupied a 
more dramatic place in history, and possibly its incidents 
would have been depicted in more gdowiug colors on the 
imagination and memory of posterity, yet its beneficial 
effects would, perhaps, have been lessened. 

, This was a victory of peace, and like the victories of 
peace,, was far-reaching" and creative in results, rather 
than resplendent in imagery. 

Clearly to understand the contest which culminated 
in. this peaceful victory of liberty, let us glance briefly, at 
the previous condition of the Colony. When Virginia 
was settled in 1607, the colonists brought with them the 
civilization, the customs, and the instincts of English- 
men. They claimed, also, by charter, the rights of Eng- 
lishmen; yet, the most valuable of these rig'hts, the right 



it ,n 



of self-g'overnment, was denied them for twelve years. 



& 



This right, however, cannot long" be withheld from anv 



REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT IN AMERICA. 5 

people of Ang-lo-Saxon blood. It was first won by Vir- 
ginia simply for the reason that Virginia was the first 
settled colony. It would have been won by Massachu- 
setts, though perhaps in a different form, had Massachu- 
setts been first settled. But the Pilgrims did not land at 
Plymouth Rock until more than one year after Virginia 
had won the first battle of freedom in America, and had 
paved the way for according representative goverhtnent 
to the future colonies of England. 

As soon as the colonists began to feel that their resi- 
dence in America was permanent, the} r began to grow 
restive under the S3 r stem of government which placed 
them under the absolute control of King James I. ' Find- 
ing the Colony a source of annoyance rather than profit, 
James I. in 1009, issued a second charter, nominally yield- 
ing to the requests and petitions of the "Virg-inia Com- 
pany of Adventures," the right of self-government. 

This charter transferred to the Company the powers 
which had heretofore been reserved to the King. The 
colonists hailed this charter as a triumph, and flattered 
themselves that they had secured self-government. They 
soon found, however, that the powers of government 
were intercepted at London, and the}^ had secured only a 1 
change of masters. 

The Virginia Company of London consisted of a 
treasurer, who was, ex-officio, the presiding officer, and 
who would be styled in modern organizations, "The 
President" ; a council, who would now be called a "Board 
of Directors;" and a large number of "subscribers ," or 
stockholders. It was this commercial company to which' 
James I. granted the power to control America 

It is needless to recite that the colonists grew more 
and more dissatisfied with a system by which laws for 
their government were made without their knowledge or 
consent, and were administered by a governor, a council 
and other officers who were often the agents of tryanny 
and oppression. The demand for self-government first 1 



6 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

took the form of muttered discontent; growing" stronger 
and better organized, it assumed the bolder form of peti- 
tion for the redress of grievances. Those who know the 
Angdo-Saxon race, know that this is the precursor of rev- 
olution. 

Fortunately for the colonists, they found, at this 
juncture, among the rulers placed over them by the Lon- 
don Company, a steadfast and influential friend, whose 
heart beat in sympathy with popular rights, and who 
was destined in a few years to be the instrument for es- 
tablishing" representative government in America. 

Capt. Georg"e Yardley* came to Virginia on the ship, 
"Deliverance," in 1609. "He was," says a distinguished 
writer, "a man of wealth and of well deserved influence." 
He was descended from a Staffordshire famil}% known as 
the "Lords of Yardley." One of his ancestors was a wit- 
ness to the signature of King" John to the first Mag-na 
Charta, June 15, 1215. Capt. Georg"e Yardley was a sub- 
scriber, or stockholder in the London Company. He had 
served with distinction in Holland, in the war against 
Spain. A contemporary said of him , that he was "a soldier 
truly bred in the University of War in the Low Countries." 
He served as President of the Colonial Council until 
1616, about which time he was married to Temperance 
West. In this year, Governor, Sir Thomas Dale, depart- 
ing" for Kng"land in company with John Rolfe and his wife 
Pocahontas, left Capt. Yardley as Deputy Governor. 
He was thus enabled by actual residence, and by official 
relations with the colonists, to form a just estimate of 
their needs, and a true conception of their rig-hts. His 
character and modes of thougdit made him the friend and 
supporter of popular rights at the time when the colonists 
needed a judicious and faithful friend. 

The storm was even then brewing 1 amont>" the com- 
mons of Kng'land which was destined in the next reign to 
deluge the island in blood, and to briny" a king to the 



*See Genealogical Notes. 



? 



REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT IN AMERICA. I 

scaffold. The English people were beginning- to mutter 
against royal prerogatives, and they listened with sym- 
pathy to the complaints of the colonists. 

The Virginia Company was divided into two factions. 
The ruling" party, known as the Court party was led by 
the President, or Treasurer, Sir Thomas Smith. This 
party looked upon the colonists as servants of the Com- 
pany, employed to do its bidding", as entitled to no politi- 
cal rights, and as instruments to be used for the pecu- 
niary benefit of the Company and its officers. It was, 
therefore, the policy of this party to g"overn the Colony 
by rigid regulations, and to permit the colonists no voice 
in the control of affairs. 

The continued complaints of the colonists, and the 
evident justice of their cause, had aroused the sympathy 
of the more liberal members, and, had broug'ht to their 
aid a few powerful friends who looked beyond the griev- 
ances of the colonists to the effect which the assertion of 
Virginia rig'hts would produce on public sentiment in 
England. In addition to this the mismanag"ement of the 
Company's affairs by the Court party, and the tyranny of 
its agents had injured the value of the Company's prop- 
erty, had retarded and almost stopped immigration, and 
was beginning" to drive many immig"rants back to Engdand. 

A strong party known as the Virginia party was 
formed within the London Company, at the he id of 
which were Shakespeare's friend, the Earl of Southamp- 
ton, Sir Edwin Sandys, and Mr. Nicolas Ferrar. 

It is not surprising that the principles and qualities 
which made Yardley beloved by the colonists, made him 
distasteful to the President of the London Company, and 
to the Court party. Capt. Samuel Arg-all, a relative of 
President Smith, and his commercial ag"ent, was appoint- 
ed to supersede "the mild and popular Yardley." This 
action was received by the colonists as a public calamity, 
and their indignation was freely expressed. In the end, 
however, it was fortunate for their interests. 



8 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

The tyranny and rapacity of Argall soon became 
notorious, and hastened the overthrow of the Court party. 

Yardley repaired to London, and presented to the 
Company the condition of affairs in the Colony. The 
cause of reform was warmly espoused by Sir Edwin 
Sandys, the Earl of Southampton, and other leaders of 
the Virginia party. A severe conflict ensued within the 
Company, which was eagerly watched by the people of 
England. The meetings of the Company were thronged 
with visitors. The Virginia remonstrances and the de- 
bates at the sessions of the Company became the theme of 
conversation in all parts of Eng-land. 

When the matter came to a vote, the Court party was 
completely overthrown. The colonial policy was radi- 
cally changed. Argall was recalled. The right of local 
self-government was accorded to Virg-inia. Capt. George 
Yardley was elected Governor-General of the Colony. A 
little later, Sir Thomas Smith was forced to resign with 
damage to his reputation, and Sir Edwin Sandys was 
elected President, or Treasurer. 

A remarkable circumstance connected with these 
proceedings is the fact that they received the assent of 
the suspicious tyrant, James I. Gondomar the Spanish 
minister warned him: "The Virginia Courts are but a 
seminary for a seditious Parliament/ ' Many contempo- 
raneous expressions show, that the reflex influence which 
this Virginia House of Burgesses would exert upon the 
institutions of England, was foreseen by the thinkers of 
that da}\ 

In addition to this James was personally favorable to 
the Court party, and disliked the leaders of the Virginia 
party. He especially detested Sir Edwin Sandys, and is 
reported to have said: "Elect the devil if you will, but 
not Sir Edwin Sand} T s." Yet the effect of these meas- 
ures so far escaped the microscopic vision of the cunning 
tyrant, that he not only assented to the new polic}\ but 
even gave it a quasi approval. 



x 



REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT IN AMERICA 9 

He sent for Capt. Yardley, the Governor-elect, re- 
ceived him graciously, admitted him to a leng-th\ r inter- 
view, and finally as a signal mark of the favor of the sov- 
ereign, conferred on him the honor of knighthood, Novem- 
ber 22, 1618. 

A great victory had been achieved when Sir George 
Yardley, successful in his mission, honored by the Lon- 
don Company, favored by his sovereign, and secure of 
the love of the colonists, sailed from Eiigdand, January 
29, 1619, bearing his commission and instructions to con- 
fer on Virginia the right of local self-g-overnment. 

After reaching Jamestown, he entered upon the 
duties of his office as Governor-General, April 19, 1619. 

"From the moment of Yardley's arrival," says Ban- 
croft "dates the real life of the Colony. He made pro- 
clamation 'that those cruell lawes, by which the ancient 
planters had been soe longe governed, were now abrogated, 
and that they were to be governed by those free lawes, 
which his majesties subjectes lived under in Englande.' 
Nor were these concessions left dependent on the good 
will of administrative officers. 'That the planters migmt 
have a hande in the governinge of themselves, yt was 
graunted that a generall assemblie shoulde be held yearly 
once, whereat were to be present the Governor and Coun- 
sell, with two burgesses from each plantation, freely to 
be elected by the inhabitantes thereof, this assemblie to 
have power to make and ordaine whatsoever lawes and 
orders shoulde by them be thought good and profitable 
for their subsistence;' 

Early in June, Sir George Yardley "sente his sum- 
mons all over the countrv, as well to invite those of the 
Counsell of Estate that were absente, as also for the 
election of the burgesses." 

Then came the first general election. Let us pic- 
ture in imagination the pride and pleasure with which 
our ancestors assembled in their respective precincts to 
elect their first representatives. There were some old 



10 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

English prejudices, but no organized parties. Possibly, 
there may have been some artful dodging of issues, but 
this had not been reduced to the science of a party plat- 
form. There were no political bosses, no election ma- 
chinery, no ballot boxes. Proud of the exercise of the 
elective franchise, the colonists voted, as freemen should 
be proud to vote, viva voce. 

From each of the eleven boroughs, or hundreds, or 
plantations, two delegates, called burgesses, were elected. 
These names should live in the history of all Americans, 
for this Assembl} T represented all of the English race 
then in America. I quote their names from the list given 
by Mr. Henry, as follows: 

For James City: Captain William Powell, and En- 
sign Win. Spence. 

For Charles Cit} T : Samuel Sharp, and Samuel 
Jordan. 

For the City of Henricus, (Dutch Gap;: Thomas 
Dowse and John Polentine. 

For Kiccowtan, (Hampton): Capt. William Tucker, 
and William Capp. 

For Snu'the's Hundred: Capt. Thomas Graves, and 
Walter Shelley. 

For Martin's Hundred: John Boys and John Jackson. 

For Argall's Guifte: Capt. Thos Pawlett, and 
Mr. Gourgaing". 

For Flouer dieu Hundred: Ensign Rosingham, and 
Mr. Jefferson. 

For Lavvne's Plantation, (Isle of Wight i: Capt. 
Christopher Lawne and Ensig-n Washer. 

For Ward's Plantation: Capt. Warde, and Lieut. 
Gibbs. 

For Martin's Plantation: Thos Davis and Robert 
Stacey. 

Man}" of these names will be recognized as household 
words. Among- them, many deserve comment, but the 
limits of this paper will permit mention of only one. 



REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT IN AMERICA. 11 

The name of Capt. Thomas Pawlett is conspicuous 
in Virginia history. He was a brother of Robert Pau- 
lett, who was appointed one of the Concillors of Virginia, 
but declined the office, and also of Lord John Powlett. 
The name was spelled in three different ways, and the 
three brothers seemed to have adopted three different 
modes of spelling- it. In 1623, Capt. Thomas Pawlett 
received a grant for the famous estate of Westover on 
James River, which was bequeathed at his death to his 
brother, Lord John Powlett, and which subsequently be- 
came the property of Col. William Byrd, the author of 
the Dividing- Line. From this family is descended Maj. 
John W. Paulett, now a citizen of Knoxville, Tennessee. 

On the 30th da}^ of July, 1619, the burg-esses assem- 
bled at Jamestown, and representative g-overnment in 
America was an accomplished fact. 

Let us use our imagination to depict the scene in 
which these actors with simplicity unaffected, and with 
g-randeur all unconscious, shaped intuitively and accur- 
atelv the model of American Legislation. 

Says Mr. Henry: "On the memorable morning- of the 
30th of July, 161 ( ), the Governor went in state to the 
church. He was accompanied by the Councillors and 
officers of the Colony, with a g-uard of Halberdiers dressed 
in the Governor's livery. Behind them walked with be- 
coming- dig-nity, the twenty-two newly elected burg-esses." 

"In the contemporaneous account sent to England by 
the Speaker we are told: 'The most convenient place we 
could finde to sitt in was the Quire of the Church, 
where Sir Georg-e Yardley, the Governor, being- sett 
down in his accustomed place, those of the Counsel of 
Estate sate nexte him on both handes, except only the 
Secretary, then appointed Speaker, who sate rig-ht before 
him. John Twine, Clerke of the General Assembly, be- 
ing placed nexte to the Speaker, and Thomas Pierse, the 
Serg-eant, standnig- at the barre, to be ready for any ser- 
vice the Assembly should command him. But foras- 



12 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

muche as men's affaires doe little prosper where God's 
service is neglected, all the burgesses took their places 
in the Quire till a prayer was said by Mr. Bucke, the 
minister, that it would please God to guide and sanctifie 
all our proceeding's to his owne glory, and the good of 
this plantation. Prayer being ended, to the intente that 
as we had begun at God Almighty, so we might proceed 
with awful and due respecte towards the Lieutenant, 
our most gratious and dread soveraigne, all the Bur- 
g'esses were intreated to retyre themselves into the body 
of the Churche, which being done, before they were freely 
admitted, the\ T were called to order and by name, and so 
every man (none staggeringe at it) tooke the oath of Su- 
premacy, and then entered the Assembly." 

Let us g'lance at the Councillors, who sat on either 
side of Governor Yardley. Says Mr. Henry: "They 
were all Englishmen of high type, and following ancient 
customs, they sat with their hats on." * * * 

"Among them was Sir Francis West, the son of Sir 
Thomas West, the second Lord De La Warr. He was 
subsequently to become Governor of Virginia. He was a 
direct descendant of William, the Conqueror." 

"Captain Nathaniel Powell had come to Virginia 
with the first colonists; had been with Newport when he 
explored York River, and with Smith when he explored 
Chesapeake Bay. He was a man of culture, and kept an 
account of occurrences in the Colon}", which had been free- 
ly used by Capt. Smith in his histor} 7 of Virginia." 

"John Rolfe had come to Virginia with Sir Thomas 
Gates. In 1612, he introduced the systematic culture of 
tobacco in Virginia. In 1614, he had married the Prin- 
cess Pocahontas, whom he carried to England in 1616." 

"The Rev. William Wickham was of a prominent 
family. He added the diguity of the clergy to the Assem- 
bly in which he sat." 

"Captain Samuel May.cock was a Cambridge scholar, 
and a g'entleman of birth, virtue, and industry." 



REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT IN AMERICA. 1 



<■> 



"John Pory, Secretary of the Colony, sat as the 
Speaker of the Burg-esses. He had been educated at 
Cambridge, and was an accomplished scholar. He was a 
disciple of the celebrated Hackluyt, who left the higfhest 
testimonials to his learning - . Having- served in Parlia- 
ment, he was able to g'ive order to their proceeding's, and 
proper form to their acts." 

"The Rev. Richard Bucke, the officiating- minister 
was educated at Oxford, and was an able and learned 
Divine. He married in Virginia, was the minister at 
Jamestown, where in 1614, he performed the marriag"e 
ceremony between Rolfe and the Indian Princess Poca- 
hontas. The church in which the Assembly met had 
been built for him, wholly at the charge of the inhabi- 
tants of James City." 

The first act of the Burg-esses was to purge their roll. 
They excluded the two Burg-esses from Martin's planta- 
tion on the ground that this plantation, by the terms of 
its patent, was exempt from the g-eneral form of govern- 
ment prescribed for the Colony, and they petitioned the 
Loudon Company to amend the patent, so that there 
mig-ht be no grant whereby "the uniformity and equality 
of lawes and orders extending- over the whole Colony 
mig-ht be impeached." Says Mr. Henry: "Thus early did 
Virgfinia insist upon the equality of her citizens before 
the law, a principle reasserted in her Declaration of Rig-ht, 
in 1776, when she became a State." 

The next step was to call upon the Speaker to read 
the commission creating- the Assembly. 

"He read unto them the commission for establishing- 
the Counsell of Kstate and the General Assembly, 
wherein their duties were described to the life. Having- 
. thus prepared them, he read over unto them the great 
Charter or commission of priviledg-es, orders, and lawes, 
sent by Sir Georg-e Yardley, out of Eng-land." The 
next step was to appoint committees. The Assembly was 
then ready for business. 



14 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

They adjourned at the end of five days, having - trans- 
acted a greater amount of business, more novel in charac- 
ter, and more far-reaching in effects, than has, perhaps, 
ever been transacted by any subsequent Legislature in 
the same length of time. 

Let us examine some of the features which this re- 
markable Assembly, with no precedent or guide, except 
the experience of their Speaker as a member of Parlia- 
ment, has, spontaneously and permanently stamped upon 
the organization of legislative assemblies and the forms 
of American legislation. 

1. The organization, Speaker, Clerk, Sergeant-at- 
Arms. 

2. The opening with prayer. 

3. The swearing-in of members. 

4. Purging- the roll. 

5. The appointment of committees. 

It is to be regretted that the example of the rapid 
dispatch of business which was so conspicuously set by 
this model Assembly, has not likewise decended to pos- 
terity. In noting the proceedings, one remarkable fact 
strikes the reader, viz: Matters referred to the commit- 
tees were' usually reported the next day. 

Six petitions were sent by the Assembly to the Lon- 
don Compan} 7 . These related, for the most part, to the 
allotment, tenure and descent of lands, and to regulations 
for immigTation. One petition deserves especial notice, 
being the first movement in favor of education in Amer- 
ica. The Compaii} T is entreated, that ''towards the 
erecting of the university and colleg'e, the}' will sende, 
when they shall think it most convenient, workmen of all 
sortes, lit for the purpose." The plans for the establish- 
ment of the "university and colleg'e" were frustrated by 
the Indian massacre of 1(>22, but the effort many years 
later culminated in the establishment of William and 
Mary Colleg'e. 

Next, came the report of the committee to whom had 



REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT IN AMERICA. 15 

been referred "the great Charter of lawes, orders, and 
priviledges," brought by Sir George Yardley. This 
committee had been cautiously instructed to report 
whether it contained anything "not perfectly squaring 
with the State of the Colony, or any law pressing- or 
binding too hard, because this great Charter is to bind us 
and our heirs forever." After receiving the report, 
"there remaining no further scruple in the mindesof the 
Assembly touching the great Charter of lawes, orders, 
and priviledges, the Speaker putt the same to question, and 
so it hath the general assent and applause of the whole 
Assembly." 

Then followed a number of laws of both public and 
private nature, relating to taxation, agriculture, religion, 
crimes, misdemeanors, intercourse with the Indians, and 
many other matters. The Assembly then sat as a crimi- 
nal court. 

It would be interesting", did not the limits of this pa- 
per prohibit, to note the quaintness of some of these laws, 
as well as the shrewdness and sagacity of this primitive 
legislation. 

I cannot forbear to mention three acts which bear 
witness to the foresight of these legislators, and the orig"- 
inal character of the statutes which they crowded into 
their five-days' session. (1) They passed a law to provide 
for taking a census of the inhabitants, this being" the first 
legislation for a census. (2) They passed laws for re- 
cording births, marriages and deaths. (3) They passed 
a law fixing the price of tobacco at three shillings a 
pound for the best, and eighteen pence a pound "for the 
second sort." 

The importance of this last provision will be appar- 
ent when it is remembered that tobacco was the currency 
of the country, and that fluctuations in its value affected 
our ancestors as disastrously as we are now affected by 
fluctuations in the relative value of Q-old and silver. The 
committee of this model Assemblv, however, was able to 



16 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

report on the currency question in one day, and the Assem- 
bly solved the problem on the next. The intermeddling 
of the English government with the value of tobacco as a 
currency, at a later date, prompted by the supposed in- 
terests of EngTish merchants, caused much discontent in 
the Colony, and g-ave rise to the famous Parson's Case, 
in which the eloquence of the "forest-born Demosthenes" 
"first burst into name. 

The Assembly closed its labors with a petition to 
the London Company to amend the "Great Charter of 
lawes, orders, and priviledges" by confirming- a grant 
which the charter merely held out as a promise for the 
future. I quote the words of the petition: 

"Their last humble suite is, that the said Counsell and 
Company would be pleased, so soon as they shall finde it 
convenient, to make g"ood their promise sett down at the 
conclusion of their commission for establishing- the Coun- 
sell of Estate and the Generall Assembly, namely, that 
they will g'ive us power to allowe or disallowe of their 
orders of courts, as his Majesty hath given them power 
to allowe or reject our lawes." 

This petition has been styled "The First Declara- 
tion of Independence." It is not, however, a declaration. 
It is a petition for independence. Its lang-uag-e is not de- 
fiant and assertive, like the famous declaration of 1776; 
yet, it evinces, in the weaknes of infanc} 7 , the same spirit, 
which strengthened with the growth of the Colony; 
which, in 1()7(), blazed out in Bacon's Rebellion: which 
found stern utterance in the resolutions of 17(>5: 

"TrV.Wrrc/, That the General Assembly of this Col- 
ony have the sole rig"ht and power to lay taxes and impo- 
sitions upon the inhabitants of this Colon\ r ; and that an} T 
attempt to vest such power in any person or persons, 
whatsoever, other than the General Assembly aforesaid, 
has a manifest tendency to destroy British, as well as 
American freedom." 

This sentiment found its g-randest expression in the 



REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT IN AMERICA. 17 

words spoken before a Virginia Convention, in 1775, 
"Give me libert}^ or give me death," words second 
in sublimity onlv to the divine fiat, "Let there be light"; 
and which reached its culmination in 1776, when a Virg-inia 
delegate moved: "These united colonies are, and of 
right, ought to be, free and independent States," and a 
Yiginia statesman penned the immortal Declaration. 

The limits of this paper will not permit me to trace 
in detail the subsequent history of those connected with 
this first Legislative Assembh* in America. The peti- 
tion of the House of Burg-esses was g-ranted by the Lon- 
don Company. On the 24th of Juh T , 1621, the Company 
amended its previous liberal grants of power to the col- 
onists by formulating a written constitution, embracing" 
nearly all the features contained in the several petitions 
of the House of Burgesses, and especially the feature 
granting the Burgesses a veto on the orders of the Corn- 
pan}-. The following quotation from Bancroft sketches 
the provisions of this constitution: 

"Its terms were few and simple; a governor to be 
appointed by the Company; a permanent council likewise 
to be appointed by the Company; a General Assembly to 
be convened yearly, and to consist of the members of the 
council and of two burgesses to be chosen from each of 
the several plantations by the respective inhabitants. 
The Assembly might exercise full legislative authority, 
a neg-ative voice being- reserved to the governor; but no 
law or ordinance would be valid unless ratified b} r £he 
Compan} T in England. It was further agreed that after 
the government of the Colonv should have once been 
framed, no orders from the Court in London should bind 
the Colony, unless they should in like manner be ratified 
by the General Assembly." 

These concessions show the complete ascendency of 
the Virginia party in the London Company. This liberal 
policy continued during the existence of the Compan\ T , 
but the time of reaction was at hand. 



18 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

James I. began to awaken to the significance of these 
proceedings. He recalled the words of the Spanish Minis- 
ter, and repented of his acquiescence in the new colonial 
policy. The fever of a tyrant's hatred began to swell in 
his veins against the London Company. He called to his 
councils the former President, Sir Thomas Smith, and the 
rapacious Capt. Samuel Argall, on the latter of whom he 
conferred the honor of knighthood. Lending a ready ear 
to these malcontents, he entered upon a crusade against 
the leaders of the Virginia party. 

His active hostility forced Sir Edwin Sand\ T s from 
office, and finally caused his imprisonment. George San- 
dys was elected by the Company to succeed his brother. 
Sir Edwin. Later, the office devolved upon the Earl of 
Southhampton. Yardle}" was forced by ill health, and the 
hostility of the King to decline re-election. At a meeting 
of the Company held January 29, 1621, the Earl of South- 
hampton stated that "he had received advertisement of 
Sir George Yardle} T 's importuning desire to relinquish his 
said office at the expiration of his said commission." He 
accordingly nominated Sir Francis Wyatt to succeed him. 
The Court took time to consider the matter, and at its 
next session, elected Sir Francis Wyatt as Governor- 
General ot Virginia. 

The hostility of James, however, did not drive the 
Company from its liberal policy. They proceeded to en- 
act the written constitution above recited, and sent it to 
the Colon}' b} T the new governor, Sir Francis Wyatt. 
The persistence of the Company in this liberal policy so 
exasperated James that he demanded the surrender of the 
charter, to which demand the Company returned a digni- 
fied refusal. The King then proceeded by judicial process. 
On the 10th day of June, 1624, the Court of King's Bench, 
whose jugdges sat at the royal pleasure, pronounced 
judgrnent against the Company, and its charter was de- 
clared "forfeited." 

The dissolution of the London Comapany, seriously 



REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT IN AMERICA. 19 

endangered the liberties of Virginia. The Company had 
been an anomaly in government. It had been an inter- 
mediate link between the King and the Colony. Under 
the control of the Virginia party, it served the purpose 
of substituting the public sentiment of the Engdish peo- 
ple in place of royal despotism in the colonial policy of 
England. It had acted a noble and patriotic part. It 
had confirmed to the Colony the priceless and irrevocable 
gift of representative government, and had given to the 
English people a lesson and an example. Its dissolution 
left the people of England to profit by the lesson, and the 
people of Virginia to guard the gift. How well the Eng- 
lish people learned the lesson may be read in the history 
of the Stuarts. The sagacity, firmness and boldness 
with which the Virginians guarded the gift, excites the 
admiration and gratitude of posterity. 

The temper of the colonists was subjected to an im- 
mediate test. The crafty King had sent a commission to 
Virginia, consisting" of Sir John Harvey, afterwards a 
ro} 7 al governor, Mr. Samuel Matthews and John Por}\ 
It is to be regretted that the name of John Pory is found 
in such company, for he had been Secretary of the Colonv 
under Yardley, and the ex-officio Speaker of the first As- 
sembly. He had now been brought over to the royal in- 
terest. These commissioners were sent to investigate 
the condition of the Colony. They had, also, a secret 
mission. They were instructed to procure by promises, 
threats or artifice, from the House of Burg"esses an ex- 
pression of approval of the King's policy, a petition for 
the dissolution of the London Company, and a surrender 
of the Yardley charter and the subsequent constitu- 
tion. 

The commissioners found to their surprise and 
chagrin, that the colonists were too firm and wary to be 
cajoled. Instead of the compliance expected of them, the 
House of Burgesses sent by a messenger of their own a 
protest against the proceeding's of the King", a defence of 



20 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

the London Company, and a refusal to surrender either 
the Yardley charter or the constitution. 

The King- now entered upon the task of framing a 
system of government for Virginia, in accordance with 
the purpose which he had previously announced to Par- 
liament, as follows: "That he would hereafter take the 
affairs of the Virginia Company into his own serious con- 
sideration and care; and that, by the next Parliament, 
they would all see that he would make it one of his mas- 
terpieces." Death, however, interrupted his plans, and 
spoiled the "masterpiece.'' 1 

When Charles I. ascended the throne of his father, 
March 27, 1625, he manifested indifference to the political 
questions relating- to Virginia, and seemed to be interest- 
ed onl}* in measures of securing- a revenue from the indus- 
tries of the colonists. He seemed not to comprehend the 
principles involved in the contest, and showed some de- 
sire for popularity. 

Now came the second triumph of the "Father of 
Representative Government' ' in America. Sir Georg-e 
Yardley was recalled from retirement, and as a love offer- 
ing - from the King" to the colonists, he was appointed Gov- 
ernor-General of Virg-inia. His commission was dated 
April 19, lb27, being* the seventh anniversary of his for- 
mer entrance upon office. This commission conferred on 
him the unusual power of filling- by his own appointment, 
all vacancies existing- in the "Counsell of Kstate." He 
entered upon the duties May 17. 1(>2(>. and continued in 
office until his death. The early historians who recorded 
the events of this period did not seem to comprehend the 
sig-nificance of the "'First Legislative Assembly." Thev 
ignored the important part taken by Yardley, and the love 
which was felt to him by the colonists. Posteritv svm- 
pathizes with the colonists, and accords to Yardley his 
rightful place in history. 

We close this sketch with a quotation from Bancroft: 
''The reappointment of Yardley was in itself a guaran- 



REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT IN AMERICA. 21 

tee that representative government would be maintained; 
for it was Yardle}' who had introduced the system." 

"Virginia rose rapidl} T in public esteem; in 1627 a 
thousand immigrants arrived, and there was an increas- 
ing demand upon the products of the soil.' 1 

"In November, 1627, the career of Yardley was 
closed by death. The colonists in a letter to the privy 
council, gave a eulogy on his virtues. Posterity retains 
a grateful recollection of the man who first convened a 
representative assembly in the Western Hemisphere." 

W. R. Garrett. 



22 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



THE BATTLE OF KING'S MOUNTAIN. 

BY REV. STEPHEN FOSTER. 



This battle followed the battle of Enaree. From 
the latter it appeared that Col. Isaac Shelby carried off 
200 prisoners beyond the pursuit of the English troops. 
Major Ferg-uson with a small party of regulars had been 
detached by Lord Cornwallis, to the upper section of the 
Carolinas, to g-ather troops to the nryal standard and 
support the interest of His Majesty there. In this ser- 
vice he proved himself a man of energy and skill; mus- 
tered a force of a thousand men, resenting- the affront of 
Shelby, and addressed to the latter a threatening- mes- 
sage, that if he would not cease from such depredations, 
he would march over the mountains and burn those vil- 
lages which supplied him with men. Shelby, residing- at 
his father's dwelling-, in Sullivan County, East Tennessee, 
on receiving- this message repaired to the settlements on 
AVataug-a River forty miles distant. He there had ample 
opportunity of communicating- its import to Col. John 
Sevier, who joined him in a sentiment of congenial hero- 
ism for forming- a deserving- and respectable army. The 
message before them told them of the foe. It represented 
to them an enterprise of a new and daring - kind. The 
object of this enterprise was singde and distinct. This 
was Ferg-uson, the whole of Ferg-uson, and nothing" but 
Ferguson. 

The force which these gentlemen were able to muster 
in the two settlements was little over 4<M) men. The 
army they were to attack was double in number, and 
headed by the ablest partisan leader in the land. Shelby 
therefore addressed a letter to Col. "William Campbell, 
Washing-ton County, Va., to come over and join in the en- 



THE BATTLE OF KING'S MOUNTAIN. 23 

terprise. Campbell at first refused, from a desire to 
march in a different direction, and unite his troop with 
those which were then struggling- in the lower section of 
his own State. A second message from Shelby was suc- 
cessful. Campbell's division amounted to 400 men. 
The place of meeting - was the Sycamore Flats on Wa- 
tauga River, at the foot of the Yellow Mountains. 

They ascended this mountain on horseback about the 
first of October, 1780. They encamped the same night 
in a gap of the mountain on the opposite side. The as- 
cent of the mountain was not very difficult. It was a 
road travelled before, but was impassable for wag-ons. 
No provisions were taken but such as each man could 
carry in his wallet or saddlebag-. The sides and top of 
the mountain were covered with snow "shoe-mouth deep." 
On the top of the mountain the troops paraded — here 
were one hundred acres of beautiful table land. A spring- 
issuing" through it ran over into the Watauga. On reach- 
ing- the plain beyond the mountain, they found them- 
selves in a country covered with verdure, and breathed an 
atmosphere of summer mildness. The second nig-ht they 
rested at Cathy's plantation. The third day they fell in 
with Gen. McDowell and that night held a general con- 
sulfation of the officers. Gen. McDowell was without 
troops; yet his rank and former services could not easily 
be overlooked. And at the same time these young- and 
daring- officers, impatient to inflict a decisive blow on 
Ferguson, were unwilling- to brook the delay that might 
ensue from entrusting the command to him. It was ac- 
cordingly stated in council that they needed an expe- 
rienced officer to command them; they knew Gen. Morgan 
was the man they wanted; they were unacquainted with 
Greene and feared that their request to him for Morgan's 
services would be little attended to, coming- as it necessarily 
must from strang'ers. To obviate this difficulty so ap- 
parently perplexing-, McDowell very generously offered 
to be their messenger, being personally acquainted with 



24 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Greene and Morgan; his offer was gladly and promptly 
accepted. It was a matter of immediate consultation 
who should lead them to the intended attack. Col. 
Campbell, having - been nominated b} T Col. Shelby, both 
from a principle of courtesy and the superior number of 
men in his regiment, was elected accordingly. 

The fourth night they rested at a rich Tory's where 
they obtained abundance of every necessary refreshment. 
On passing near the Cowpens they heard of a large body 
of Tories about eight miles distant. And, although the 
main enterprise was not to be delayed a single moment, a 
party of eig'hty volunteers under Ensign Robert Camp- 
bell was permitted to go in chase of them during the 
night. These had removed before our party came to the 
place, who accordingly after riding" all night came up 
with the main body the next day. On the next night a 
similar expedition was conducted by another officer with- 
out success, but without adding any delay to the march 
of the army. At Gilberton, about two or three days 
march from the enemy, our troops fell in with Col. Wil- 
liams (who was able to select the best pilots) together 
with Colonels Cleveland, Tracy and Brandon, each com- 
manding a body of men, and the whole amounting - to 300. 
These were retreating- before Fergmson and were glad to 
join their forces to ours. On the night before the day of 
action, a misunderstanding" arose in the attempt to cross 
a river. Two fords were taken and the army had sepa- 
rated and was crossing" at both. When this was perceived 
by the officers, a halt was ordered, and the men rested on 
this side until morning". Two roads were here, and to 
prevent spies from passing and repassing' they were both 
gmarded by appointed watchmen. The least public of 
these was guarded by Lieut. Sawyers I since Col. Saw- 
yers) and twent} T -live men were here taken in this single 
night. Our officers and men were so bent upon their ob- 
ject — so anxious to take Fergmson by surprise, and so 
apprehensive of his possible escape, that they could not 



THE BATTLE OF KING'S MOUNTAIN. 25 

brook the delay of footmen. Four hundred of them were 
on foot — the other seven hundred were mounted riflemen. 
It was proposed for the sake of dispatch that these should 
move in the speediest manner, and thoug-h the whole 
force was already too small, it was determined to risk 
the fate of the enterprise on the bravery and address of 
the 700 men. While preparations were made by the 
officers for this division, many of the troops in the mean- 
time thought it a fit opportunity for refreshment. Beef 
was spitted at the fire, and mixed dough was in the very 
process of baking- when the order was gi veil for the troops 
to march. The hot meat without roasting- and the hot 
dough without baking', was rudely thrust by every man 
into his saddlebag-s or wallet and the men g-alloped off 
without a murmur. This was in the dead of nig-ht. 
They were forty-five miles from the enemy and nothing - 
but the very best riding - over such roads as the country 
afforded, would bring - them the next day to his quarters 
in season to terminate the action by daylight. They 
were accordingly there by two o'clock in the afternoon. 
Here a few intervening - circumstances may be mentioned. 
Capt. Craig's and some other companies on crossing - a 
river (probably Broad River) were made to believe by 
their commanding" officers, for the sake of trying- the 
courage of their men, that the enemy were upon the op- 
posite bank. The enemy, accordingly, which was noth- 
ing - else than the advanced guard of our own troops, 
made his appearance for their reception, retiring - a little 
as. they approached the river; They crossed the river, 
dismounted from their horses and advanced to the pro- 
posed attack on the enemy. But finding- no enemy there 
to meet them, they returned to their horses and proceeded 
without further delay. 

Not far onward they were to pass a house on the 
right. This house formed a corner in the road. They 
turned it and bent their course to the right hand. Here 
stood a man in the decrepitude of old ag - e, leaning- on a 



26 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

staff and watching- our men with great earnestness of 
visage. He called out "God bless you" till his voice died 
in the distance of the way, and in the noise and hurry of 
the forward march. They now began to meet with scat- 
tered notices of the enemy's encampment in the burnt 
fences and trodden ground. As the afternoon advanced, 
some began to talk of an encampment for our troops and 
to give up the hope of meeting" the enemy to-day. They 
had now travelled about forty-live miles and during much 
of this time had been wet with rain. It was about two 
o'clock when, coming* to a place within two or three miles 
of the enemy, they intercepted two of his pickets and cap- 
tured the same without firing a g'un. Ferguson may 
have had some notice of our troops, though not immedi- 
ately before their arrival. A deserter from Col. Cleve- 
land's division, who will be mentioned again in the sequel 
of the narrative, had arrived at the British quarters a 
day or two before and told Ferg"uson of the approaching 
attack. His appearance was said to be so shabby and 
unpromising - as to detract much from any high regard to 
his statement. Yet so wary and vigilant an officer as 
Ferguson, was not to be taken altogether by surprise. 
He had his chosen position and assumed a vigorous de- 
fence. He was confident in his own measures, yet to se- 
cure every precaution he sent a message to Cornwallis 
desiring aid, at the same time stating he had named the 
place of his encampment, King's Mountain, in honor of 
the King-, and was so strongly fortified here, that if all 
the rebels in hell were rained down upon him, they could 
not drive him from it. The message was intercepted by 
our men and Cornwallis knew nothing" of the danger till 
Ferguson was no more. 

King's Mountain is a ridge running" east and west in 
York District, South Carolina, about ten miles north of 
the Cherokee Ford, of Broad River. A ledg"e of rock 
skirts the summit of this mountain on the south side. 
This formed a natural breastwork for theenemv, behind 



THE BATTLE OP KING'S MOUNTAIN. 27 

which they could lie with their heads only exposed, and 
leisurely take aim at our troops on that side. And it is 
a remarkable fact that does credit to the rifles of our men, 
that an unusual number of the enemy who fell, were shot 
through the head. Before the action, Col. Shelby re- 
marked to the army that he had been twice likely to be 
killed for an enemy by his own men: he, therefore, recom- 
mended, as an expedient of safety, that every man first 
strip off his coat and hat, and go to battle without them. 
This was done by himself and reg'iment, but not by 
others. Col. Campbell also was induced to lay off his 
coat, which being" very peculiar in its color and form, 
would have rendered him signally conspicuous from others. 
Kings's Mountain now emerg-ed to the view of our 
men, and the British and Tory troops were seen through 
the forest, rising* from dinner. The battle line was 
quickly formed. The main attack was to be made by 
Campbell and Shelby's division, up the east and steepest 
side of the mountain. Sevier was to ascend the left side 
of the mountain from these and Cleveland on his rig-ht. 
Of the main body, Campbell's division was on the rig-ht 
and Shelby's on the left. Capt. Elliot, in Shelby's divis- 
ion, occupied the extreme left, Lieut. Sawyers next to 
him, Capt. Maxwell's company next, and Capt. Webb, 
the extreme right. The order of march in the companies 
composing- Col. Campbell's division was as nearly as the 
hurr} r of the transaction would admit, the order of the 
battle line from rig-ht to left, the following: Capt. Dy- 
sart, Capt, Coloil, Capt. EMmonston, Capt. Beatie, Lieut. 
Bowen, Capt. Craig. But the movement forward was 
made with so much ag-ility and the retreat so hurried and 
abrupt, that these companies not only became intermixed 
with one another, but also with Col. Shelb} T 's. The 
troops were ordered to shout the Indian war whoop, as- 
cend the mountain and attack the enemy. This was done 
with great vig-or, when the enemy advanced in firm pla- 
toons, fired their muskets, charg-ed with fixed bavonets 



28 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

and obliged them to give way. In the mean time Cols. 
Williams, Tracy, Brandon, Cleveland and Sevier, who 
were to march from the left of the main body and com- 
pass the south and west side of the mountain, in the space 
of fifteen minutes arrived there and assailed the enemy 
in that direction. This gave our troops an opportunity 
to rally and return to the charge. 

In the early part of this action, Col. Shelby was cm- 
ployed, at some distance from his regiment, to reconnoitre 
the enemy by a movement around the north side of the 
mountain to the right of our troops. Here he discovered a 
spacious opening between the right of Campbell's division 
and the left of Sevier's. He viewed it to be an advanta- 
geous position for directing a constant and effectual fire 
upon the. backs of a body of Ferguson's troops which lay 
guarded in front by the ledge of rocks. He detached En- 
sign Robert Campbell with about forty men for this ser- 
vice, and returned to the support of his own division. He 
found Col. Campbell's men in great disorder from the 
first shock of the British platoons, and called Lieut. 
Sawyers and some others who assisted to rally and bring 
them back. In a short time after the rallying- began, 
Col. Campbell's horse became exhausted; the Colonel 
dismounted and fought througdi the rest of the action on 
foot. This was a bay horse of thin appearance, and had 
been nearly overcome by the fatig-ue of the march. The 
horse which Col. Campbell ordinarily rode was a bald 
face black horse. After the first retreat, Col. Shelby, it 
is said, saw this horse and some rider on him whom he 
mistook for Col. Campbell at the distance of some 200 
vards from the scene. 

Ensig-n Campbell, as above directed by Col. Shelby, 
occupied a spur of the mountain forty yards from the 
enemy. When leading- his men to that place, one of them, 
from a view of its exposed localit\ T , exclaimed to his com- 
mander: "What! are you taking- us there to be marks for 
the enemy?" "No," said the other, "to make marks of 



THE BATTLE OF KING'S MOUNTAIN. 29 

the enemy." And this proved to be actually the case. 
For after this detachment had plied their rifles in the suc- 
cessive discharge of several rounds to a man, Ferguson 
perceived their fire to be so fatal that he gave orders to 
his adjutant, McGinnis, to dislodge them. McGinnis 
marched his party to the charge. Campbell heard him 
order them to make ready, and he commanded his own 
men to stand fast, that is to stand behind the trees. Mc- 
Ginnis then ordered them to fire on Campbell, who, from 
the narrowness of the tree that shielded him, expected to 
be shot through by several bullets at once. And he es- 
caped this fate, not by the protection of the tree, but by 
the horizontal aim of the British muskets, which converg- 
ed their bullets to a place above him, cracking- the bark 
and splinters from the tree and shattering them down 
upon his head. Campbell had now a load in his gun 
which he discharged with aim at the shoulders of Mc- 
Ginnis, and the latter instantly fell. The party now 
emerg-ed from behind their trees, discharged their peices 
with similar exactness, and the survivors of the British 
party retired to the main body. Campbell inspected the 
body of McGinnis and saw a shot throug'h the part of 
the shoulder he had aimed at. And his party resumed 
their galling fire upon the backs of Ferguson's men. 

On all sides now the fire was brisk. Our men had 
become cool from the first panic of the British charg - e, 
and were plying their rifles with steady effect. The mat- 
ter was come to a desperate crisis. Ferguson was still 
in the heat of battle with characteristic coolness and dar- 
ing. He ordered Capt. Dupoister with a body of regulars 
to reinforce a position about 100 yards distant. But be- 
fore they arrived at this short distance, they were thinned 
too much by the American rifles to render any effectual 
support. He then ordered his cavalry to mount, with a 
view of making a desperate onset at their head. But 
those only presented a better mark for the American 
rifles, and fell as fast as thev could mount their' horses. 



30 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

He, then perceiving - the thinnest line that surrounded him 
to be that of Fnsigm Campbell's riflemen, proceeded on 
horseback with two malitia colonels, with the apparent 
desigm to force his passag-e throug-h them and make an 
attempt to escape, but before reaching- the line of battle, 
he was shot and expired. He had held out with inflexi- 
ble resolution beyond even the hope of resistance. His 
men once raised the white flag - of surrender and he pulled 
it down. He had a shrill sounding- silver whistle, whose 
sig-nal was universally known throug-h the ranks, and was 
of immense service on many occasions, and gave a kind of 
ubiquity to his movements. Who shot Fergfuson remains 
in uncertainty; several have claimed it, but the honor 
seems distinctly accorded to none; nor does it appear to 
universal satisfaction whether he was shot on horseback 
or sitting upon a stone. 

The Americans were now in reg'ular column ap- 
proaching the British. A larg-e section of Col. Campbell's 
troops advanced with too much rapidity, when a reserved 
fire from the British breastworks did more fatal execu- 
tion there than in the whole action besides, because this 
forward movement brought them to a level with the 
British muskets, which in most instances overshot their 
heads. Lieut. Sawyers to this moment kept his men to 
this station, from which they had been firing- throug-h 
most of the battle, at the distance of about twenty-five 
steps from the enemy. Seeing- the reserved fire discharg'- 
ed. he ordered his men to advance, in order to increase 
the enemy's confusion. The same was done bv the other 
companies on this side of the mountain; and Col. Sevier. 
who had gallantly borne his share in the conflict, was 
resolutely crowding- upon the other side. The British 
Regulars and American Tories were not only surrounded, 
but crowded close tog-ether, cooped up in surprising-lv 
narrow spaces, by the surrounding- pressure of the Amer- 
ican troops, and fatally galled by an incessant fire. Du- 
poister, who succeeded in the place of Ferguson, per- 



THE BATTLE OF KING'S MOUNTAIN. 31 

ceived but too plainly that any further struggle was in 
vain. He raised the white flag - and exclaimed for quar- 
ter. Quarter was g-iven by a g-eneral cessation of 
the American fire, but this cessation was by no means 
complete as some did not understand the meaning- of a 
white flag - ; others who knew its meaning- very well, 
knew that this flag- had been raised before, but quickl} T 
pulled down ag-ain by the British commander. Andrew 
Evans was one of these. He was standing - near to Col. 
Campbell and in the very act of shooting - , when Campbell 
jerked his g - un upwards to prevent its effect, exclaiming - : 
"Evans, for God's sake don't shoot! it is murder to kill 
them when they raise the white flag-." 

Col. Campbell seems not to have been distinguished 
as the American commander, for, having- foug'ht as a foot 
soldier during- most of the action, having- climbed over the 
rocks of the enemy's breastworks with his men, who 
drove them away from it, he was standing- in the front 
ranks of his soldiery, his coat off and shirt collar open 
like a sturdy farmer. Dupoister came riding- on a gray 
horse not far from the place and inquired, "Where is 
your General?" Mr. Beatie and another pointed to the 
place where Col. Campbell was standing-, and Mr. 
Crow, who was not a gfun's lengfth from Campbell, heard 
Dupoister exclaim twice, "Col. Campbell, it was damned 
unfair," alluding- to the above mentioned continued fire, 
to which Campbell made no answer but the order to dis- 
mount. He dismounted accordingly and held his sword 
for deliverance to his captors, which was in the first 
place received by Evan Shelby and handed to Col. Camp- 
bell. The arms were now lying - in front of the prison- 
ers without any orders how to dispose of them. Col. 
Shelby, from the part of the line which he commanded, 
rode out of the ranks with the apparent desig-n of finding- 
Col. Campbell. Returning- without success he exclaimed. 
"Good God! what can we do in this confusion?" "We 
can order the prisoners from their arms," said Sawyers. 



32 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

"Yes," said Shelby, "that can be done." The prisoners 
were accordingly marched to another place, and there 
surrounded by a double guard. 

This action was on the 7th of Oct., 1780. The loss 
of the enemy was 225 killed, 130 wounded, 700 prisoners 
and 1,500 stands of arms. The American loss was 30 
killed and 60 wounded. About 700 men achieved this 
victory. Sevier led about 240, Shelby 200, Campbell 400. 
the Carolina Colonels 300, making' in all about 1,140, of 
which it has been stated that about 400 were left be- 
hind for want of horses. These were met the next day 
and reunited with the victors in their march from the 
scene. 

So sig'nal an exploit could not long - remain a secret 
to Lord Cornwallis, and numerous rumors soon reached 
our men that he was in pursuit to recover his prisoners. 
Our troops, therefore, moved from the battleground with 
as little delay as possible, to make sure of a victory so 
happily won. And here let us pause for a moment to 
answer the following- question: Why were so many kill- 
ed in the American ranks, when the British platoons so 
g'eneralh' overshot them? First, because the great body 
of Ferguson's troops were Tories, as g'ood marksmen 
as our own, who alwa} 7 s sought an object for their rifles. 
Lieut. Kdmonston was standing a moment seeking a 
view of an enemv to lire at among' Ferg'uson's men be- 
hind the breastworks and was shot by a rifleman from 
the very place he was inspecting'. This incident was an 
example of many, for the rocks, which formed a part of 
this breastwork, shielded the enemy and enabled them to 
leisurely lire at our men. Second, the eagerness of our 
men for action. This was so great that it led them to 
exposure both dang'erous and useless. Their surest and 
most effectual mode of fighting' was to stand at the dis- 
tance of a proper g'unshot and tire with deliberate aim at 
their enemy, but many of them were too impatient for 
this delav. Moses Shelby, Fagan and some others leaped 



THE BATTLE OF KING'S MOUNTAIN. 33 

upon the wagons of the enemy's breastwork in the use- 
less attempt to storm his camp, but they were soon car- 
ried off wounded from the scene. Some were wounded 
by the charge of the British bayonets before they could 
retire from the first assault. The death of Col. Williams 
was a signal instance of this intemperate eagerness for 
action. He spied Ferguson, toward the close of the action, 
on horseback, and made for him with the full determina- 
tion of a personal encounter. William Moore was close 
to him and heard him exclaim, "I will kill Ferguson or 
die in the attempt-" He spurred his horse to a speed}^ 
movement, when a rifle bullet ended his career. He sur- 
vived till the white flag told of the enemy's surrender, and 
said, "I die content." 

Thirdly, from the enemy's reserved fire at the end 
of the action. Lieut. Sawyers saw the companies 
around him, after a general discharge from the British, 
go too hastily forward, and checked his own men from 
doing so. This movement forward, near the place of the 
wagons, brought many of our men on a level with 
the British, and their reserved fire, which was then dis- 
charged in its usual horizontal direction, did fatal execu- 
tion in our ranks at that place. The number killed in 
Col. Campbell's division during the action was 13. The 
action was on Saturday. 

On the next Saturday a Court Martial was held by 
our officers to try from the ranks of the Tory prisoners 
some offenders of a notorious kind. Thirty-two persons 
of this description were condemed to die, of which 23 
were pardoned by the commanding officer; the remaining 
nine were executed the same night. This summary pro- 
cedure was thought necessary; first, from the unsettled 
condition of affairs, which precluded all hope of trial 
by jury; secondly, from the flagitious nature of the of- 
fences, one of which was the following: A man went to 
his neighbor's house and inquired of a little boy, "Where 
is your father?" to which the lad answered, "He is not 



34 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

at home," and the man shot him without further ceremony, 
though fortunately the }'outh recovered of his wound; 
thirdly, to deter others from similar offences, and pre- 
vent these very men from doing" them again. 

The prisoners and their captors proceeded on their 
march. The prisoners were every night obliged to sit 
upon the ground on pain of being- shot by the guard which 
surrounded them. One night about two weeks after the 
battle, a boy was acting" for one of the sentries. One of 
the prisoners, taking- notice of this, contrived to move 
himself gradually and without rising- near to the place 
where the boy kept guard. As soon as he was near 
enough to take the requisite advantage, he started with 
a quick jump and was making" off with speed when the 
boy wheeled upon his heel, levelled his rifle and shot the 
fugitive through the kidneys. The man was now dis- 
abled from flight, and was drawn back ag-ain into the 
ranks of the prisoners. In the morning it was ascertain- 
ed, by the testimony of Col. Cleveland, that he was a 
deserter from the troops of the latter, and was the very 
man who had gone to tell Ferguson of our approach. 
This man, therefore, though in imminent hazard of his 
life through his wound, must be tried by the laws and 
usages of war. The Court Martial was equally divided, 
and Col. Shelby, who had been absent on a visit for the 
night, was called on his arrival to decide the life or death 
of the culprit by a single vote. The march was now de- 
layed nearly two hours, and Shelby, though apparently 
of a rough and careless exterior, was deeply concerned 
with his own responsibility, that while some were teas- 
ing- him for an immediate decision, he would not give it 
in less than half an hour. He finally gave it for the man's 
execution, and preparations were made for it accordingly. 
Two stakes were put in the ground, converging toward 
each other at the top, for him to stand upon, while his 
neck was fast from above by a rope, ready to hang him 
when the under support should be drawn away. He was 



THE BATTLE OF KING'S MOUNTAIN. 35 

permitted to stand in this attitude an hour, during - which 
time he was constantly entreating- Col. Cleveland with, 
"Oh, Col. Cleveland, I pray you pardon me, and I will 
be a orood and faithful soldier ever after!" In the mean- 
time Col. Campbell came up and asked, "Are you the 
deserter who left our troops to inform the enemy?" 
"No," said the other. "Now," added Col. Campbell, 
"you are quickly to stand before your Maker in judgment; 
tell me, in truth, if you are that deserter?" "Yes," said 
the other, ' 'I am, ' ' and his execution took place accordingd\ T . 

So many of our troops as were judged needful for 
safety, accompanied the prisoners a journey of three weeks 
from King's Mountain to Mulberry Fields, now Wilks- 
borougm, in the State of North Carolina. Here they 
were met by a detachment of some hundreds of Carolina 
Militia, and with these the prisoners were left in custody. 
Cols. Campbell, Shelby and Sevier attended the prisoners 
to this place, then left them and returned home. 

In this expedition the exposure and privations were 
extreme. Four hundred or more were on foot, but these 
had kept up with the horses some distance beyond the 
Yellow Mountain. The speed of their march required 
bodies inured to the hardest service. The last day they 
rode forty-five miles, and encountered a disciplined enemy, 
posted on a high and advantageous position. Having" no 
baggage waggons nor public stores, every man was, from 
necessity, his own provider. His fare was the plainest, 
the coarsest and the scarcest. His resources of provi- 
sion, like the Sidonian widow's, was "a handful of meal." 
This, placed in his saddlebags, furnished the amount of 
his luxuiw, and when this was exhausted he was left 
at the mercy of fortune for the rest. The sick and 
wounded were hurried from the battlefield with all 
imaginable speed to avoid the assault of the pursuing" 
enemy. The softest accommodation that could be made 
ready for conveyance was the fresh hides of the slaugh- 
tered cattle, fastened to two poles, these attached to two 



36 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

horses, one before and one behind, and thus the sufferer 
was carried off in safety. 

To specify particulars would spin this narrative to a 
tedious prolixity. Two instances only will here be in- 
serted. Alexander McMillin rode all night preceding the 
action, of course was without sleep. The second nig-ht. 
that is the nig-ht after the action, he was attending- with 
Henry Dickerson to the wants of James Laird and Charles 
Kilg-ore, the latter was shot with two balls through the 
side, and the former, one, near the middle. They were 
constantly in need of water. Water was of very dfficult 
procurement, and the effort to keep them in constant 
supply employed these men with very little intermission, 
and without allowing - them a moment of rest. The next 
nig-ht McMillin was on g-uard. Here were three nig-hts 
without a wink of sleep. The fourth night he was on 
g-uard every two hours, with intervals of rest of the same 
leng-th of time. The g-uard stood so thick around the 
prisoners as to be able to touch each other's hands by 
reaching-. Here stood McMillin, firmly braced, with his 
g-un in his rig-ht hand, resting- upon the ground. Some 
time in the nig-ht, Maj. Evan Shelby, g-oing* the rounds of 
the watch to observe its order, came to him and asked. 
"Where is your g-un?" The latter, supposing- it to have 
fallen at his feet, busily moved them without stooping- 
down, in order to find it lying- beneath him, but not find- 
ing- it there, he felt constrained to reply to the unwelcome 
interrog-atory, "Really, I cannot tell." Shelby stepped 
aside, took it from ag-ainst a tree where it was leaning-, 
and handed it back to the owner with these words, "Re- 
member it is death to sleep on g-uard." McMillin ac- 
knowledged that this was law, but added in apology 
that he had been four days deprived of sleep from the 
above mentioned causes. Shelby rejoined, "You must 
sleep no more upon g-uard, but never divulge the secret," 
and for this g-enerous forbearance on the part of the in- 
.specting- officer, McMillin ever afterwards cherished for 



THE BATTLE OF KING'S MOUNTAIN. 37 

him a sense of high personal regard, though if measures 
had been taken against him, and death adjudged for neg- 
lect of duty, the circumstances of the case would have 
been seen to urge so strong a plea in his own justification 
as to secure a reprieve from the designated punishment. 

The day after William Campbell was chosen to the 
command, he proposed to Robert Campbell to lead off a 
detachment of men b} r night and fall upon a party of 
Tories, eight miles distant. The offer was gladly ac- 
cepted, and a body of about eighty volunteers set off for 
the attack. The Tories had retreated, so our party had 
no fighting; the} T returned and joined the main body at 
daj'light. The next night Robert Campbell was on a 
similar expedition, under the command of another officer. 
On the next night they begun the above mentioned march 
of forty-five miles previous to the action. Here were 
three successive days and nights of the hardest service, 
without a moment of sleep. The next day he was re- 
quested to take charge of some part of the guard, but he 
stated to an officer that this was impossible from the 
above mentioned incessant vigils. He then sunk down by 
a tree and knew nothing more until daylight; he awoke 
shivering in the frost. Col. Shelby that night, being 
officer of the guard, was now seen with others sitting at 
the guard fire. Campbell arose, approached the fire and 
was presented by Shelby with a bottle of rum for imme- 
diate relief. He drank of this, sat down by the fire and 
undoubted^ felt the justice of the Old Testament pre- 
scription, "Give strong- drink to him that is ready to per- 
ish, and wine to those that be of heavy hearts." 

These two instances may perhaps suffice. For how 
can it be requisite to give publicity here, even if the 
writer's information were adequate, to the individual suf- 
fering of the sixty wounded; to tell of broken limbs 
and mangled bodies, of bullet holes through the body, 
probed b\ T sympathizing fellow-soldiers, with a smothed 
twig of sassafras, of mortification spreading from one 



38 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

limb to another; of the want of all kinds of relief from a 
surg*eon, when none was present but a wrathful swear- 
ing* British doctor, to prove that the privations and suf- 
ferings of these men were extreme? Nor does it seem 
any more necessary to specify cases of individual valor. 
Two instances only of faltering- courage have been men- 
tioned to the writer from Col. Shelby's division. One 
was of a captain lying* flat upon his back in the begin- 
ning" of the action. Another was of a captain who ex- 
claimed for bullets to a comrade, who was passing - him 
to g*o up the mountain, "bullets, bullets, my dear sir, I 
have not a bullet in my pouch!" "Here is enough of 
them," said his friend, reaching* out a handful to g*ive 
him. "Oh, they will not fit my g*un," said the other who 
was accordingdv left to this bloodless dilemma. The rest 
of these men were eag*er for action, and determined on 
victory and seemed to have answered well to the senti- 
ment of their commander, who told them before leaving* 
the waters of the Wataug*a that he wanted no man to 
join the enterprise, who did not wish to fig-ht the enemy. 
The troops of the other Colonels appear to have been 
actuated by a similar spirit. 

The whole history of the enterprise demonstrates 
that our men were led to espouse it, not from a fear that 
the enemy would execute his vain threats upon their vil- 
lages; for to these mountaneers nothing" than such a 
scene, would have made prettier game for their rifles; 
nothing - more desirable than to entice such an enemy from 
his pleasant roads, rich plantations and g*entle climate, 
with his ponderous lug*gfag*e and valuable armory, into 
the very centre of their own fastnesses; to hang* upon his 
flank, to pick up his strag*g*lers, to cut off his forag'ers, 
to make short and desperate sallies upon his camp, and 
finally to make him a certain prey svithout a strug*g*le and 
without loss. Nor was it the authority or influence of a 
State which led them to eng*ag*e in this hazardous service. 
The}* knew not whether to any or to what State they be- 



s 



THE BATTLE OF KING'S MOUNTAIN. 39 

long-ed. From the rude circumstances of their early set- 
tlement, the difficulty of passing- the wide ridges of 
mountains, and their cousequent seclusion from their east- 
ern friends, they were living- in a state of primitive inde- 
pendence, and it was not till several years after this, 
that from the apparent and urgent necessity of the case, 
the}' created a temporary government of their own, the 
Franklin Government. Nor can it be expected that 
gratuitous patriotism, from which this enterprise evi- 
dently sprung-, so different from that of a paper victory, 
a scramble for office and for gain, can be fully compre- 
hended by modern politicians. In those days of different 
principles, to know that American liberty was invaded 
and that the only apparent alternative in the case was 
American independence or subjugation, was enough to 
nerve their hearts to the boldest pulsation of freedom, 
and ripen their purposes to the fullest determination of 
putting down the aggressor. The success at King-'s 
Mountain was fraught with signal advantage to America; 
it broke up the royal interest in the upper section of Car- 
olina; it enabled our Generals to concentrate their forces 
upon great objects, and was one in that series of happy 
incidents which conspired in the progress of the next year, 
to consummate the splendid achievement at Yorktown. 

NOTE. 

The above paper was written previous to 1835. It 
was taken from a certified copy: the original is in posses- 
sion of a descendant of the Campbell family, T. W. Pres- 
ton of Vicksburg, Miss. It came into possession of the 
Tennessee Historical Society, May 1895, in the following- 
manner: 

The first attempt at the organization of a Historical 
Society in Tennessee took place at Knoxville about the 
year 1831, Judg-e W. B. Reese, Dr. Ramsey, Dr. James 
King-, and the Rev. Stephen Foster, all of whom have 
passed away, being- the most efficient members. The 
life of the Society was of short duration, but during- that 
time several admirable addresses touching- the history of 



40 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

the State were delivered and printed. Hon. John M. Lea, 
President of the Tennessee Historical Society, while on a 
visit to Memphis, a few months ago, was informed that 
an elderly lady, a descendant of Gen. Campbell, had in 
her possession an account of the battle of King's Moun- 
tain, written by a soldier who participated in the con- 
flict. After diligent inquiry, the name and localit} r of 
the lady was ascertained, and the services of a t} 7 pe- 
writer engaged to copy the paper, which turned out not 
to have been written by a soldier. Judge Lea recog- 
nized the document as an old friend, he having- heard the 
paper read by the Rev. Stephen Foster about sixty years 
ago at a meeting- of the East Tennessee Historical Society 
in Knoxville. 

Dr. Foster was a professor in the University of Ten- 
nessee, a native of Connecticut. The President of the 
Historical Society, who was one of his pupils, on present- 
ing the paper, paid a tribute to his memory. His early 
death was a great loss to the cause of education in Ten- 
nessee. He was the first prominent advocate of the tem- 
perance cause in this State, taking - the ground that the 
sale of ardent spirits should be prohibited or regulated 
by law. A sermon on that subject b\ r him was printed 
and extensively circulated, an extract from which can be 
found in Field's Scrap Book. During- his last illness, 
the Doctor prescribed a stimulant, but the patient said, 
"No, I have preached all my life against the effects of ar- 
dent spirits, and now that I am d} T ing- I shall not get 
drunk." 



ANOTHER ACCOUNT OF THE BATTLE OF 

KING'S MOUNTAIN. 



The following- account of the battle of King's Mountain was found 
among- the papers of James Campbell, deceased. It was written by 
Robt. Campbell, a participant in the battle, and an ensign in Capt. 
Dysart's Company, who when Capt. Dysart was wounded early in the 
action, commanded the company afterwards. It was presented to the 
Tennessee Historical Society by Juo. R. Eakin in 1848. It differs in 
some points from the account of Dr. Foster. 

king's MOUNTAIN. 

Iii the fall of the vear one thousand seven hundred 

and eighty, when the American Cause wore a very g-loomy 



THE BATTLE OF KING'S MOUNTAIN. 41 

aspects in the Southern States, Cols. Arthur and William 
Campbell, hearing" of the advance of Col. Ferg-uson along- 
the mountains in the State of North Carolina, and that 
the Whig's were retreating* before him, unable to make 
3.nj effectual resistance, formed a plan to intercept him, 
and communicated it to the commanding' officers of Sulli- 
van and Washing-ton Counties in the State of North Car- 
olina. They readily agreed to co-operate in any expedi- 
tion ag'ainst Col. Ferg-uson. Col. Arthur Campbell im- 
mediately grave orders to the Militia of Washing' ton 
County, Va., amounting to near four hundred, to make 
read} T to march, under the command of Col. William 
Campbell, who was known to be an enterprising' and 
active officer. Cols. Shelby and Sevier raised a party of 
about three hundred, joined him on his march, and moved 
with forced marches towards Col. Ferg-uson. At the 
same time Cols. Williams, Cleveland, Tracy, and 
Branon, of the States of North and South Carolina, each 
conducted a small party towards the same point, amount- 
ing' to near three hundred. Col. Ferg'uson had notice of 
their approach, by a deserter that left the army on the 
Yellow Mountain; and immediately commenced his march 
for Charlotte, despatching - at the same time different 
messeng"ers to Lord Cornwallis with information of his 
dang-er. These messengers being - intercepted on their 
way, no movement was made to favor his retreat. 

These several corps of American volunteers, amount- 
ing- to near one thousand men, met at Gilbert-town, and 
the officers unanimously chose Col. Campbell to the com- 
mand. About seven hundred choice riflemen mounted 
their horses for the purpose of following' the retreating- 
army. The balance, being- chiefly footmen, were left to 
follow on and come up as soon as they could. The pur- 
suit was too rapid to render an escape practicable. Fer- 
g'uson finding- that he must inevitably be overtaken, chose 
his ground and waited for the attack, on King-'s Moun- 
tain. On the seventh of October in the afternoon, after a 



42 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

forced march of forty-five miles on that day and the night 
before, the volunteers came up with him. 

The forenoon of the day was wet, but they were for- 
tunate enough to come on him undiscovered, and took his 
piquets, they not having- it in their power to give an 
alarm. They were soon formed in such order as to attack 
the enemy on all sides. The Washington and Sullivan 
reg'iments, were formed in the front, and on the rig'ht 
flank. The North and South Carolina troops under 
Cols. Williams, Sevier, Cleveland, Tracy, and Branon, 
on the left. The two armies now in full view, the centre 
of the one nearly opposite the centre of the other, the 
British main guard posted nearly half way down the 
mountain, the commanding - officer gave the word of com- 
mand to raise the Indian war whoop and charge. In a 
moment Kingf's Mountain resounded with the shouts, and 
on the first fire the guard retreated leaving- some of their 
men to crimson the earth. The British beat to arms and 
immediately formed on the top of the mountain behind a 
chain of rocks that appeared impregnable, and had their 
wagons drawn up on their flank across the end of the 
mountain, by which they made a strong breastwork. 

Thus concealed the American army advanced to the 
charge. In ten or fifteen minutes, the wings came round, 
and the action became general. The enemy annoyed our 
troops very much from their advantageous position. Col. 
Shelby, being- previously ordered to reconnoiter their po- 
sition, observing- their situation and what a destructive 
fire was kept up from behind those rocks; ordered Robt. 
Campbell, one of the officers of the Virg-inia line to move 
to the rig'ht with a small company, to endeavour to dis- 
lodge them; and led them on nearly to the ground to 
which he had ordered them, under the fire of the enemies 
line and within forty steps of the same, but discovering" 
that our men were repulsed on the other side of the 
mountain, he g"ave orders to advance and post themselves 
opposite to the rocks, and near to the enemy; and then 



THE BATTLE OE KING'S MOUNTAIN. 43 

returned to assist in bringing up the men in order, who 
had been charged with the bayonet. These orders were 
punctually obeyed, and they kept up such a galling fire, 
as to compel Ferguson to order a compan}* of regulars to 
face them with a view to cover his men that were posted 
behind the rocks. At this time a considerable fire was 
drawn to this side of the mountain by the repulse of 
those on the other, and the loyalists not being permitted 
to leave their posts. This scene was not of long dura- 
tion; for it was the brave Virginia Volunteers, and those 
under Col. Shelby, on their attempting rapidly to ascend 
the mountain, that were charged with the bayonet. 
They obstinately stood until some of them were thrust 
through the body, and having nothing but their rifles by 
which to defend themselves, they were forced to retreat. 
They were soon rallied by their g*allant commanders 
Campbell and Shelby and other brave officers, and by a 
constant and well directed fire of their rifles, drove them 
back in their town, strewing" the face of the mountain 
with their assailants, and kept advancing until they 
drove them from some of their posts. Ferguson being* 
heavily pressed on all sides, ordered Capt. Dupoister to 
reinforce some of the extreme posts with a full company 
of British Reg'ulars. He marched, but to his astonish- 
ment, when he arrived at the place of destination, he had 
almost no men, being exposed in that short distance to 
the constant fire of their rifles. He then ordered his cav- 
alry to mount, but to no purpose. As quick as the\ T were 
mounted they were taken down by some bold marksman. 
Being driven to desperation by such a scene of misfor- 
tune, Col. Ferguson endeavored to make his escape, and 
with two Colonels of the loyalists, mounted his horse and 
charged on that part of the line which was defended by 
the party who had been ordered round the mountain by 
Col. Shelby, it appearing too weak to resist them; but as 
soon as he got to the line he fell, and the other two offi- 
cers, attempting* to retreat, soon shared the same fate. 



44 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

It was about this time that Col. Campbell advanced in 
front of his men and clomb over a steep rock close by the 
enemy's line, to get a view of their situation, and saw 
they were retreating- from behind the rocks that were 
near to him. As soon as Capt. Dupoister observed that 
Col. Ferg'uson was killed, he raised a flag- and called for 
quarter. It was soon taken out of his hand by one of our 
officers on horseback, and raised so hig"h that it could be 
seen by our line, and the firing- immediately ceased. The 
loyalists at the time of their surrender, were driven into 
a crowd, and being - so closely surrounded, they could not 
have made any further resistance. 

In this sharp action, one hundred and fifty of Col. 
Ferg-uson's party were killed, and something - over that 
number were wounded; eig - ht hundred and ten (of whom 
one hundred w 7 ere British Regulars) surrendered them- 
selves prisoners, and one thousand five hundred stands of 
arms were taken. 

The loss of the American armv on this occasion 
amounted to thirty killed, and something - over fifty 
wounded, among - whom were a number of brave officers. 
Col. Williams, who has been so much lamented, was shot 
throug'h the body, near the close of the action, in making - 
an attempt to charge upon Ferguson. He lived long" 
enough to hear of the surrender of the British army; he 
then said, "I die contented since we have grained the 
victory," and expired. 

The third nigfht after the action the officers of the 
Carolinas complained to Col. Campbell that there were 
among - the prisoners a number who had, previous to the 
action on King-'s Mountain, committed cool and deliberate 
murder, and other enormities alike atrocious, and re- 
quested him to order a Court Martial to examine into the 
matter; the} T stated that if they should escape, the} T were 
exasperated, and they feared they would commit other 
enormities worse than they had formerly done. Col. 
Campbell complied, and ordered a Court Martial immedi- 



THE} BATTLE OF KING'S MOUNTAIN. 45 

ately to sit, composed of the field officers and captains, 
who were ordered to inquire into the complaints which 
had been made. The court was conducted orderly, and 
witnesses were called and examined in each case. The 
consequence was that there were thirty-two condemned; 
out of these, nine, who were thought to be the most dan- 
gerous, and who had committed the most atrocious crimes, 
were executed; the others were pardoned by the com- 
manding officer. One of the crimes proven against a 
Captain that was executed, was, that he had called at 
the home of a Whig and inquired if he was at home; be- 
ing informed by his son, a small boy, that he was not, he 
immediately drew out his pistol and shot him. 

The officers on that occasion acted from an honorable 
motive to do the greatest good in their power for the 
public service, and to check these enormities so frequently 
committed in the States of North and South Carolina at 
that time, their distress being almost unequalled in the 
annals of "The American Revolution." 



A LETTER RELATIVE TO THE BATTLE OP 

KING'S MOUNTAIN. 



The "Campbell Manuscript," relative to this battle 
being now deposited in the State Historical Society, and 
having recently been published or republished in one of 
the city papers, I deem it time and highly proper that 
some letters and publications, relative to that affair, 
which have long been in my possession, should no 
longer be withheld from the same depository, or from 
such use as the Society may see proper to make of them. 

That Col. Win. Campbell was entitled to much credit, 
that he acted a prominent, noble, and patriotic part on 
that occasion, we most readily grant. 

It is an ungracious office to me, who greatly admire 



46 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

all the actors, to question any praise that has ever been 
bestowed upon any one who acted either a prominent or 
inferior part on that eventful day. In the estimation of 
some persons, and according' to the "Campbell Manu- 
script," Col. Campbell was the master spirit and actual 
commander at King's Mountain. His superior office and 
merit has been questioned, not his patriotism, nor his 
bravery, but the chief honor arrogated to him. 

We know that Col. Wm. Campbell Preston, a grand- 
son of Col. Campbell, has on more than one occasion, in 
most gdowing terms, advocated these claims of honor for 
liis worthy kinsman. Preston, the elegant gentleman, 
the learned scholar, the eloquent orator and distingnished 
statesman, could well be expected to make use of hap- 
piest words upon such a theme. He has claimed for his 
noble ancestor pre-eminent distinction in devising and 
conducting- that enterprise and battle; others were en- 
titled to a full share, an equal honor with Col. Campbell. 
It detracts nothing- from his just meed to place others in 
as eminent a niche of fame. 

We present these letters and publications that they 
may be preserved for reference and use by any enquirer 
or the future historian. 

We shall not attempt to point out any discrepancies 
in the statements. We will not detract from the merits 
of any of the actors in an affair which was so reputable 
in itself and so beneficial in its results. 

It was fought at the most critical time of the Ameri- 
can Revolution; it sent a cheering ray of light through 
the gloom; it turned the tide of war in our favor, and the 
noble deeds of these mountain boys should never be 
forgotten. 

We present eight original letters from Gov. Isaac 
Shelby. Seven of these are addressed to Gov. John Sevier, 
dated respectively, Jan. 1. Feb. 24, Aug. 12, Aug. 24. 
Oct. 3, 1810; Jan. 26, Feb. 20, 1814, and one addressed to 
Col. Georg'e W. Sevier. Jan. 8, 1823; authentic copies of 



THE BATTLE OF KING'S MOUNTAIN. 47 

five letters from Gov. Sevier to Gov. Shelby; sundry 
letters to A. W. Putnam from Maj. Thos. H. Shelby; a 
■pamphlet of twenty-four -pages published in April, 1823, 
by Gov. Shelby, containing - a statement of the "Battle of 
Kino-'s Mountain," to which are added extracts from va- 
rious letters and statements furnished him by persons 
engaged in the battle and acquainted with the contempo- 
raneous accounts of the parts there enacted; "The Battle 
of King"'s Mountain," as published by Lyman C. Draper, 
Esq., in the "Farmer's and Mechanics Journal," of New 
York, July 17, 1839; "A Legend of King's Mountain," 
published in a New York paper; "A Memoir of the Ser- 
vices of Gov. fo/iu Sevier,'''' by his son, Maj. James Sevier, 
written in 1839. This is an interesting" and reliable bi- 
ographical and historical sketch. Maj. Sevier was in 
the battle of King's Mountain. He gives his own version 
of the affair. 

It will be noticed that in the "Detailed Account of 
this Kng'ag'ement," sigmed b} T the Colonels, the name of 
Gov. Sevier does not appear, nor do the names of Col. 
McDowell and Col. Williams. Sevier was then (as may 
be seen in this statement) only a Lieutenant Colonel: that 
might have 'been reason sufficient, but the "Account," al- 
though dated "at camp," was not prepared and sigmed 
immediately after the battle and on the battlefield. 

Col. Sevier and his troops hastened home, where 
their presence was g-reatl}" needed. He did not tarry to 
see whether or not due honor should be g"iven him and his 
troops for their services. Thev rejoiced in the victory; 
he greatl\ T rejoiced at it, though it had cost the lives of 
his sons. No men acted more bravely or shed more fam- 
ily blood on that battlefield, than the Seviers and the 
Kdmistons. 

During" all of his after life. Gen. Sevier preserved 
•some of the trophies of that battle; of some of these we 
liave heretofore made mention. A. W. Putnam. 

Januarv 4, 1858. 



48 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



THE PROVISIONAL CONSTITUTION OF 

FRANKLAND. 



When the eastern counties of Tennessee, in the sum- 
mer of 1784, beg"an the movement for forming - an inde- 
pendent State, they were unable, for a time, to agree 
upon the form of a constitution. A provisional govern- 
ment was put into operation without a constitution. At 
a convention held in Jonesboro December, 1784, a consti- 
tution ''was submitted and agreed to, subject to the rat- 
ification or rejection of a future convention to be chosen 
by the people, and to meet on the fourteenth of November 
at Greeneville." 

No copy of this provisional constitution is extant, and 
its features can only be conjectured. At the convention 
held at Greeneville, November 14, 1785, a committee was 
appointed to report a constitution or form of government. 
This committee reported a Bill of Rig"hts and a Consti- 
tution, which, it is believed, coincided in the main, with 
the provisional constitution; perhaps introducing- modifi- 
cations and additions. A printed edition of this report 
was issued in 1786, in pamphlet form. 

One of these pamphlets is now among - the treasures of 
the Tennessee Historical Society, and is believed to be 
the only complete record of this remarkable document now 
in existence, and the only printed record of an}' kind of 
the State of Frankland or Franklin. It is printed on a 
larg-e sheet of paper, numbered and pag"ed to be folded 
into a pamphlet of twenty-four pagfes. It is doubtless a 
copy laid aside by the author for his own use, after the 
remainder of the edition had been folded and issued as 
pamphlets. It is yellow with ag"e, torn and worn, but 



PROVISIONAL CONSTITUTION OF FRANKLAND 49 

every word is legible, except in a few torn places, easily 
supplied from the context. 

It seems to have been a campaign document edited by 
Rev. Samuel Houston, one of the members of the Conven- 
tion, and the author of manv of the leading- features of 
the Constitution. He secured an accurate copy of the 
Bill of Rights and Constitution, attested by Francis A. 
Ramsey, Clerk of the Convention. To this he prefixed 
the preface, which is an argument in favor of its ratifica- 
tion by the people. Francis A. Ramsey, the attesting 
clerk, was the father of Dr. J. G. M. Ramsey, the 
historian. 

This pamphlet was presented to the Tennessee His- 
torical Society by its former President; the venerable his- 
torian, Dr. J. G. M. Ramsey, April 9, 1880. The fol- 
lowing extract from his letter of presentation gives a 
succinct history of its origin: 

The history of this ancient Franklin paper is a peculiar one. It 
was the presentation of Rev. Samuel Houston, an influential member 
of the Convention of 1784, from Washing-ton County. His constitution 
was rejected. He repaired to Philadelphia and had a number of copies 
of it printed and on his return home it was circulated through the coun- 
try of Franklin. But the Constitution of North Carolina had been pre- 
viously adopted by the people, and of course Mr. Houston's could not 
be acted on and was considered as rejected. In 1846 or probably earlier 
I wrote to Mr. H. inquiring- for the printed document. He died soon af- 
ter this in Rockbridge, Va., to which he had long since removed. I re- 
opened my correspondence with his son and executor in search of the 
lost document. The son afterwards died. A daughter, Miss Serona 
Houston, renewed the search, and last year after a more minute exami- 
nation of her grandfather's papers, she found the lost paper and sent 
it to me. You will perceive that it is attested by the Clerk of the Con- 
vention, Francis C. Ramsey, is almost illegible from age and expo- 
sure. I send it now to the Tennessee Historical Society for preservation. 
It ought to be bound and well taken care of, as perhaps, the last and 
only printed document now in existence of that ancient Commonwealth. 

Dr. Ramsey's Annals of Tennessee was published in 
1853. A.t that time he had been able, after diligent 
search, to procure only a mutilated copy of this pamphlet. 
He republished the Bill of Rights and a portion of the 



50 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Constitution, breaking off about the middle of section 45 
with the following- note: "[Remainder of Constitu- 
tion Lost]." He alluded to the preface, but did not re- 
publish it. This preface is g-iven below, and is hardly 
less interesting" and curious than the Constitution itself. 
In the reprint below, the Constitution is continued in 
italics from the point where Dr. Ramsey breaks oif . This 
document is given in full, and every word will be inter- 
esting - to the student of history. Its length may deter 
the general reader, who is referred to sections 3, 12, 32, 
42, 45. Below is g'iven a reprint of the title pag'e, which 
is very nearly a facsimile. 

A 

DECLARATION of RIGHTS, 

A L SO, T H K 

CONSTITUTION, 

O R 

FORM of GOVERNMENT, 

Agreed to, and refolved upon, by the Represen- 

t a t ives of the Freemen of the 

STATE of FRANKLAND, 

Elected and chofen for that particular purpofe, in 
Convention affembled, at Greenevi lle, the 

14th of November. 17S5. 



PHIL A D E LPH.IA. 
Printed by F r a n c i s F> a i l e v, nt Yoriek's Head. 

M DCC l.XXXVI. 



PROVISIONAL CONSTITUTION OF FRANKLAND. 51 

PREFACE. 



That the readers may more easily and fully understand the follow- 
ing- publication, it is proposed that, by way of Preface, he should be 
informed of its rise, and of the reasons why it appears so unfinished 
and inaccurate from the Press. 

In December 1784, at Jonesborough, in this State, a Convention 
held, and having - agreed to a Constitution, recommended and held it 
out to the people for their consideration, signifying to the people, that 
before the expiration of one year they should choose a Convention, for 
the express purpose of adopting it in the name of the people, or alter- 
ing it, as instructed by them; which is attested by the Resolve itself, 
and a Resolve of the Assembly which sat August 1786. 

Well, accordingly, the late Convention met at Greeneville, Novem- 
ber the 14th, 1785; and from different parts of the State, the people laid 
in instructions, which shewed that there was a great diversity and con- 
trariety of sentiments amongst them. However, the Convention, after 
some debate, agreed to appoint a Committee of their members, who 
should prepare a Form of Government to lay before the whole Conven- 
tion, that it might be examined, altered, amended, and added to, as 
the majority should think proper; and thus be perfected and finished 
in as accurate a manner as the united wisdom of members of the Con- 
vention could do. 

After the Committee retired, the first thing o* account they agreed 
upon, was, to proceed upon business by taking the Constitution of 
North Carolina for their groundwork or foundation, and together with 
it. all political helps that the thirteen Constitutions, the instructions of 
the people, and any other quarter might afford, to prepare a report to 
lay before the Convention. In this manner the Committee proceeded, 
adhering strictly to the groundwork, viz. North Carolina Constitu- 
tion, retaining of it whatever appeared suitable, and to it collected 
pieces out of their other political helps, till thty had just conformed 
their plan, that it might be laid before the whole Convention, that, as 
has been said, it might be examined, altered, amended, and added to, 
as the majority should think best. 

The whole house having met, the Report of the Committee was laid 
before them, and rejected in the lump; in consequence of which, the 
whole house took up the North Carolina Constitution, and hastily read- 
ing it off, approved of it in the general, whilst the friends of the Report 
of the Committee strove to introduce, but all in vain, some material 
parts of their plan, viz., a single house of Legislation, equal and 
adequate representation, the exclusion of attorneys from the Assembly, 
etc., and failing in these most important points, they, by the unani- 
mous consent of the whole Convention, obtained leave to enter upon 
the Journals, their dissent to what had been carried in Convention. 
andaho to hold out to the people, for their consideration, the Report of 
the Committee, except the greater part of the thirty-second section 



52 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

which upon second thought they objected to. And, for the people's 
greater satisfaction, following is a true copy of the Dissent, taken from 
the Journals of the Convention. 

"A dissent entered by the following members to what has been 
agreed to in Convention: 

"Because we deem the Report of the Committee, excluding- that 
part of the thirty-second Article, which fixes a tax upon certain 
articles, as indigr>, tobacco, flour, etc., to be the sense of a majority of 
the freemen of Frankland, and more agreeab e to a Republican Gov- 
ernment: which Report so amended we hold out for the consideration 
of the people." 

David Campbell. David Looney, 

Samuel Houston, John Blair, 

John Tipton, James White, 

John Ward, Samuel Newell, 

Robert Love, John Gilliland, 

William Cox. James Stuart, 

David Craig, George Maxwel. 

James Montgomery, Joseph Tipton, 

John Strain, Peter Parkison. 

Robert Allison. 

Candid Reader, when you consider all these things, you will very 
readily account for the inaccuracies of the Report, and see full room to 
pass them over without critical or severe remarks; for it is certair, 
from the nature of things, and the declarations of many of those who 
entered the above Dissent, that they did not look upon the above Report 
by any means as a finished and perfect piece, as its warmest advocates 
themselves said in Convention, and, therefore, that they, as well as 
they who were its enemies, meant to inspect every paragraph narrow- 
ly, and what, upon mature deliberation, appeared good, to receive, 
and by a majority of votes confirm, and what did not, reject; for the 
true light in which it should be viewed is, that every sentence was a 
mere proposal, unfinished, unconfirmed, and not to be established till 
the whole house, after due examination and debate upon it, had ap- 
proved it. Hence, it must appear evident to the impartial reader, 
that the loud and bitter outcry that has been raised against the Report 
and its friends, is not like the friendly criticism of loving citizens, but 
resembles the advantages enemies take of one another, and the use they 
make of them when excited by malice and bitter enmity. 

To conclude; dear reader, lay aside prejudice, and search honestly 
for truth, and not for catches and quibbles, patiently weighing every 
part in connection with the whole, and very probably you will clearly 
see, that the general part and the substance of the Report of the Com- 
mittee contains principles, provisions, and restrictions which secure 
the poor and the ruled from being trampled on by the rich and the 
rulers: also their property' and money from being taken from them to 
support the extravagance of the great men — and that it is full of that 



PROVISIONAL CONSTITUTION OP PRANKLAND 53 

which tends to free them from prevailing- enormous wickedness, and to 
make the citizens virtuous, also, that it is well calculated to open the 
eyes of the people to look in upon the proceedings of the public, and 
know and judge for themselves when their rights and privileges are 
enjoyed or infringed; and therefore suitable to remove ignorance from 
the country, which is as beneficial to men who wish to live uron the 
people, as ignorance is in the Church of Rome to support the tyranny 
of the Pope and his clergy. 



A DECLARATION OF RIGHTS, 



MADE BY THE REPRESENTATIVES OF THE FREEMEN OF THE STATE OF 

FRANKLAND. 



1. That all political power is vested in and derived from the people 
only. 

2. That the people of this State ought to have the sole and exclusive 
right of regulating the internal government and police thereof. 

3. That no man, or sett of men, are entitled to exclusive or separate 
emoluments or privileges from the community, but in consideration of 
public services. 

4. That the Legislative, Executive and Supreme Judicial powers of 
government ought to be forever separate and distinct from each other. 

5. That all powers of suspending laws, or the execution of laws, by 
any authority, without the consent of the representatives of the people. 
is injurious to their rig-hts and ouyht not to be exercised. 

6. That elections of members to serve as representatives, in Gen- 
eral Assembly, ought to be free. 

7. That in all criminal prosecutions, every man has a ri^ht to be 
informed of the accusation against him, and to confront the accusers 
and witnesses with other testimony, and shall not be compelled to g-ive 
evidence against himself. 

8. That no freeman shall be put to answer any criminal charge but 
by indictment, presentation, or impeachment. 

9. That no freeman shall be convicted of any crime but by the 
unanimous verdict of a jury of good and lawful men in open court, as 
heretofore used. 

10. That excessive bail should not be required, nor excessive fines 
imposed, nor cruel nor unusual punishments inflicted. 

11. That general warrants, whereby an officer or messenger may be 
commanded to search suspected places, without evidence of the fact 
committed, or to seize any person or persons not named, whose offences 
are not particularly described and supported by evidence, are dangerous 
to liberty, and ought not to be granted. 

12. That no freeman ought to be taken, imprisoned, or disseized of 
his freehold, liberties, or privileges, or outlawed, or exiled, or in any 



54 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

manner destroyed or deprived of his life, liberty, or property, but by 
the law of the land. 

13. That every freeman, restrained of his liberty, is entitled to a 
remedy, to enquire into the lawfulness thereof, and to remove the same, 
if unlawful; and that such remedy ought not to be denied or delayed. 

14. That in all controversies at law, respecting- property, the ancient 
mode of trial by jury is one of the best securities of the rights of the 
people, and ought to remain sacred and inviolable. 

15. That the freedom of the press is one of the great bulwarks of 
liberty, and, therefore, ought never to be restained. 

16. That the people of this State oug-ht not to be taxed, or made 
subject to payment of any impost or duty, without the consent of them- 
selves, or their representatives, in General Assembly, freely given. 

17. That the people have a right to bear arms for the defence of the 
State; and as standing armies, in time of peace, are dangerous to lib- 
erty, the}' ought not to be kept up; and that the military should be kept 
under strict subordination to, and governed by, the civil power. 

18. That the people have a right to assemble tog-ether, to consult 
for their common good, to instruct their representatives, and apply to 
the Legislature for redress of grievances. 

19. That all men have a natural and unalienable right to worship 
Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences. 

20. That, for redress of grievances, and for amending and strength- 
ening the laws, elections ought to be often held. 

21. That a frequent recurrence to lundamental principles is abso- 
lutely necessary to preserve the blessings of liberty. 

22. That no hereditary emoluments, privileges, or honours, ought 
to be granted or conferred in this State. 

23. That perpetuities and monopolies are contrary to the genius of a 
free State, and ought not to be allowed. 

24. Tnat retrospective laws, punishing acts committed before the 
existetice of such laws, and by them only declared criminal, are oppres- 
sive, unjust, and incompatible with liberty; therefore no ex post facto 
law ought to be made. 



THE CONSTITUTION OR FORM OF GOVERNMENT 

Agreed to and resolved upon by the Representatives of the 
Freemen of the State of Franki,and, elected and chosen for 
that particular purpose, in convention assembled at greene- 
ville, the 14th November. 1785. 

This State shall be called the Commonwealth of Frankl 'and and shall 
be governed by a General Assembly of the representatives of the free- 
men of the same, a Governor and Council, and proper courts of justice, 
in the manner following, viz: 

Section 1. The supreme legislative power shall be vested in a sin- 



PROVISIONAL CONSTITUTION OF FRANKLAND. 55 

gle House of Representatives of the freemen of the commonwealth of 
Frankland. 

Sec. 2. The House of Representatives of the freemen of this State 
shall consist of persons most noted for wisdom and virtue, to be chosen 
equally and adequately according - to the number of freemen in the com- 
monwealth; provided when the number amounts to one hundred it 
shall never exceed it, nor be ever afterwards reduced lower than eighty, 
and every count}' shall annually send the number apportioned to it by 
the General Assembly. 

Sec. 3. No person shall be eligible to, or hold a seat in the House of 
Representatives of the freemen of this commonwealth, unless he actually 
resides in, and possesses land in the county to the quantity of one hun- 
dred acres, or to the value of fifty pounds, and is of the full age of twen- 
ty-one years. And no person shall be eligible or capable to serve in 
this or any other office in the civil department of this State, who is of 
an immoral character, or guilty of such flagrant enormities as drunken- 
ness, gaming, profane swearing, lewdness, Sabbath breaking, and such 
like; or who will, either in word or writing, deny any of the following 
propositions, viz: 

1st. That there is one living and true God, the Creator and Govern- 
or of the universe. 

2nd. That there is a future state of rewards and punishments. 

3rd. That the scriptures of the Old and New Testaments are given 
by divine inspiration. 

4th. That there are three divine persons in the Godhead, co-equal 
and co-essential. 

And no person shall be a member of the House of Representatives, 
who holds a lucrative office either under this or other States; that «has 
a fixed salary or fees from the State, or is in actual military service 
and claiming daily pay, or minister of the gospel, or attorney at law, or 
doctor of physic. 

Sec. 4. Every free male inhabitant of this State, of the age of 
twenty-one years, who shall have resided in this State six months im- 
mediately preceding the da} r of election, shall have a vote in electing 
all officers chosen by the people, in the county where he resides. 

Sec. 5. The House of Representatives of this commonwealth shall 
be styled the General Assembly of the Representatives of the Freemen of 
Frankland ; and shall have power to choose their own Speaker, and 
all other officers, Treasurer, Secretary of State, Superior Judges, Au- 
ditors, members to Congress. The} T shall have power to sit on their 
own adjournments; to prepare bills, and to enact them into law; to 
judge of the election of, and qualifications of, their own members. 
They may expel a member, but not the second time for the same cause; 
they may administer oaths on the examination of witnesses, redress 
grievances, impeach State criminals, grant charters of incorporation, 
constitute towns, cities, boroughs, and counties, and shall have all 
other powers necessary for the Legislature of a free State or common- 



56 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

wealth. But they shall have no power to add, alter, abolish, or infringe 
any part of the Constitution. 

Two-thirds of the whole members elected shall constitute a House, 
(and the expense from the appointed time 'til they make a House, 
shall be laid on absentees, without a reasonable excuse,) and having 
met and chosen their Speaker, shall, each of them, before they proceed 
to business, take and subscribe, as well the oath of fidelity and alle- 
giance hereafter directed, as the following- oath — 

"I, A. B., do swear, That, as a member of this Assembly, I will not 
propose or assent to any bill or resolution, which shall appear to me in- 
jurious to the people, nor do, nor consent to any act or thing whatever, 
that shall have a tendency to lessen or abridge the rights and privileges 
as declared in the Constitution of this State; but will in all things con- 
duct myself as a faithful honest representative and guardian of the 
people, according to the best of my judgment and abilities. So help 
me God." 1 ' 

The doors of the house in which the representatives of the freemen 
of this State shall sit in General Assembly, shall be and remain open, 
for the admission of all persons who shall behave decently: except 
when the good of the commonwealth requires them to be shut. 

Sec. 6. The votes and proceedings of the General Assembly shall 
be printed weekly, during their sitting-, with the Yeas and Nays on 
any question, vote, or resolution, (except when the vote is taken by 
ballot,) when any two members require it; and every member, shall 
have a right to insert the reasons of his vote upon the Journals, if he 
desires it. 

Sec. 7. That the laws, before they are enacted, may be more ma- 
turely considered, and the danger of hasty and injudicious determi- 
nations as much as possible prevented, all Bills of a public and 
general nature shall be printed for the consideration of the people, be- 
fore they are read in the General Assembly the last time, for debate 
and amendment; and, except on occasions of sudden necessity, shall 
not be passed into laws before the next session of the Assembly: And, 
for the more perfect satisfaction of the public, the reasons and motives 
for making such laws shall be fully and clearly expressed in the 
preambles. 

Sec. 8. The style of the laws of this commonwealth shall be. Be it 
enacted, and it is hereby enacted, by the Representatives of the free men of 
the Commonwealth of Frankland, in General Assembly, and by the author- 
ity of the same. And the General Assembly shall affix their Seal to 
every Bill as soon as it is enacted into a law; which seal shall be kept 
by the Assembly, and shall be called the Seal of the Laws of Frankland, 
and shall not be used for an) r other purpose. 

Sec. 9. As in every free government the people have a right of free 
suffrage for all officers of government that can be chosen by the peo- 
ple, the freemen of this State shall elect Governor and Counsellors, 
Justices of the Peace for each count v, and Coroner or Coroners, Sheriffs, 



PROVISIONAL CONSTITUTION OF FRANKLAND. 5/' 

and all other such officers, except such as the Assembly are empowered 
to choose. 

Sec. 10. All the able bodied men in this State shall be trained for 
its defence, under such regulations, restrictions and exceptions as the 
General Assembly shall direct by law, preserving always to the people, 
from the age of sixteen, the right of choosing their colonels, and all 
other officers under that rank, in such manner and as often as shall be 
by the same laws directed. 

Sec. 11. The Governor of the State shall be annually chosen by 
the free suffrages of the people on the day of general election for Rep- 
resentatives for the General Assembly, and the returning officers for 
each county shall make a fair return to the House of Representatives, 
of the persons voted for, and the number of votes to each, which the 
Assembly shall examine, and the highest in votes shall be declared- 
constitutionally elected; but no person shall be eligible more than three 
years out of seven, nor hold any other office at the same time. 

Sec. 12. This State shall be divided into six grand divisions, each 
of which, as in the above mentioned sections, shall choose a Counsellor; 
And these divisions shall be thrown into three classes, numbered 1st, 
2nd and 3rd, which shall change their members in Council by rotation, 
beginning with the first class the first year after they have served one, 
and the second the second year, and so on forever; by which means 
some acquainted with business will be always in Council. And no 
person shall be eligible more than three years in seven, nor shall hold 
any other office in the State. 

Sec. 13. The Governor and Council shall meet annually at the 
same time and place with the General Assembly; The Governor, or, in 
his absence, the Lieutenant Govenor, who shall be one of their num- 
ber, chosen with the rest, with the Council, (two-thirds of whom shall 
make a board), shall have power to correspond with other States; to 
transact business with the officers of government, civil and military; 
to prepare such business as may appear to them necessary to be laid 
before the General Assembly: They shall also have power to grant 
pardons and remit fines, in all cases whatever, except in case of 
murder, impeachment, and treason, which they may reprieve 'til the 
end of the next session of Assembly; but there shall be no mitigation 
of punishment on impeachment, unless by act of the Legislature; 
They are to take care that the laws be faithfully executed; to expedite 
the execution of such measures as may be resolved upon by the General 
Assembly: They may draw upon the Treasury for such sums as shall 
be appropriated by the House of Representatives — they may also lay 
embargoes, or prohibit the exportation of any commodity for any time 
not exceeding thirty days, in the recess of the General Assembly only: 
They may grant licenses, as the laws shall direct, and shall have power 
to convene the House of Representatives, when necessar}% before the 
day to which they were adjourned. The Governor shall be command- 
er-in-chief of the forces of the State; but shall not command in person. 



58 AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

except advised thereto by the Council, and then only for so long as 
they shall approve of. The Governor and Council shall have a Secre- 
retary, and keep fair books of their proceeding's, wherein any Counsel- 
lor may enter his dissent, with his reasons in support of it. 

Sec. 14. All commissions and grants shall be in the name and by 
the authority of the freemen of the commonwealth of Frankland, sealed 
with the State seal, signed by the Governor, or, in his absence, the 
Lieutenant Governor, and attested by the Secretary; which seal shall 
be kept by the Council. 

Sec. 15. No justice of the peace shall receive any fee, gratuity or 
reward for his services as a justice; but all other officers of this State 
shall be allowed as moderate fees or salaries as possible, to be an ade- 
quate compensation for their services. And if any officer shall take 
otheror greater fees than the laws allow, it shall ever afterwards dis- 
qualify' him to hold any office in this State. 

Sec. 16. Every officer of government shall be liable to be impeached 
by the General Assembly, or presented by the grand jury of any of the 
superior courts, either in office, or after his resignation or removal, for 
mal-administration. All impeachments shall be before a temporary 
court composed of the Governor or Lieutenant Governor, and two 
members of the Council, to be chosen by the Council; the three senior 
Judges of the Supreme Court, and three members of the General As- 
sembly, to be chosen by the Assembly, who shall, or any five of them, 
hear and determine the same. 

Sec. 17. The Treasurer of State shall be annually appointed, and 
no person eligible more than three years successively. The Secretary 
of State, Attorney-General, Auditors, and such like officers, shall be 
appointed triennially; but removable for misconduct. And any officer, 
representative in General Assembly, or in the Congress of the United 
States, who is convicted of a second violation of any part of this consti- 
tution, shall be forever afterwards disqualified to hold any place or 
office in this State. 

Sec. 18. That in every case, where any officer, the right of whose 
appointment is, by this constitution, vested in the General Assembly, 
shall, during the recess, die, or his office, by other means, become 
vacant, the Governor shall have power with the advice of the Council 
of State, to fill up such vacancy, by granting a temporary commission, 
which shall expire at the end of the next session of the Assembly. 

Sec. 19. That no Treasurer, until he shall have finally settled his 
accounts with the public, and paid the money remaining in his hand to 
the succeeding Treasurer, nor any person who heretofore has been, or 
hereafter may be, a Receiver of public monies; under this or any other 
State, until he has fully accounted for and paid into the treasury all 
monies for which he may be accountable and liable, shall have a seat in 
the General Assembly, or be eligible to any civil office in this State. 

Sec. 20. The freemen of each county shall, for the purpose of ease, 
justice and convenieuey in holding elections, and other public affairs, 



PROVISIONAL CONSTITUTION OF FRANKLAND. 59 

be divided into districts, as near one hundred in each as local circum- 
stances will admit. 

Sec. 21. The freemen of each district shall meet upon the second 
Tuesda) r of February forever, and, at their first meeting-, elect three of 
their own members, who shall be called Registers, and who shall keep 
a fair alphabetical roll of the freemen of their district. Any two of 
them agreeing, or upon advice of any five freemen, shall have power to 
assemble the freemen of their district to consult for the common good, 
give instructions to their Representatives, or to appl} r to the Legislature 
for redress of grievances by address, petition, or remonstrance. They 
shall preside in all civil district elections, shall meet twice, or oftener, 
in the year, to deliberate upon and prepare to lay before the people such 
matters as may be necessary for them to consider. And, to keep up a 
rotation of the members, the person who shall have fewest votes at the 
first election, shall continue in office one year, the second two, and the 
highest three. And no Register shall be eligible for two years after he 
has served his term. 

Sec. 22. That elections may be free, and corruption prevented as 
much as possible, the Registers of each district shall summon the free- 
men of their district to meet at some convenient place, upon the first 
Tuesday of March forever, where they shall elect by ballot, all the offi- 
cers for their district, which shall be hereafter directed, and the number 
of persons, indiscriminately, out of the county, appointed to represent 
it in the General Assembly, in the following manner: the Senior Reg- 
ister shall call each freeman by name, in the order of the roll, who shall 
give his ticket or tickets to the second Register, and the highest in 
votes for district officers shall then be declared constitutionally 
elected; but the names of the persons to represent the county in Gen- 
eral Assembly, and their respective numbers of votes, shall, by one of 
the Registers, be laid before a meeting of one from each district, within 
ten days after the election; and when all are examined, the highest in 
votes shall be declared constitutionally elected, and certified by the 
same Register. No freeman shall have, in this commonwealth, more 
than one annual vote for any officer of government, and the Legislature 
hereafter to be appointed, shall, from time to time, enact and keep in 
force such laws as may appear necessary to prevent and remedy every 
species of corruption, and to oblige freemen to attend upon elections. 

Sec. 23. Justices of the peace shall be elected for each count}', ten 
or, more by the freemen, as shall, by the General Assembly, be thought 
necessary for each, of those residing within the same, and qualified as 
mentioned in Section 3, who shall be commissioned during good beha- 
viour, by the Governor or Lieutenant Govenor in Council; and no jus- 
tice of the peace, or any other commissioned officer, shall hold his com- 
mission who misbehaves, or is found guilty of such things as dis- 
qualify; nor shall any one be chosen who is not a scholar to do the 
business, nor, unless acquainted with the laws of the country in some 
measure, but particularly with every article of the Constitution. 



bO THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Sec. 24. To prevent the civil power usurping' spiritual supremacy, 
the establishing- of professions, denominations, or sects of religion, or 
patronizing ecclesiastical hierarchies and dignitaries, also to secure 
religious liberty and the rights of conscience forever inviolate, every 
citizen of this commonwealth shall forever have full and free liberty 
to join himself to any society of Christians who may judge most for 
his edification, and shall experience no civil or legal disadvantages for 
his so doing: And every society or congregation shall have full liberty, 
without any restraint from law, to choose any minister they think best 
suited for their Christian instruction, and to support him as they think 
best: And every such society or congregation shall have full right to 
hold all lands given to, or purchased by them, for the use of their so- 
ciety, or any other property they may possess for religious purposes: 
and the society, or any description of men chosen by (hem, with power 
to act in their name, shall have power to receive, or to make and exe- 
cute deeds, and enter into such other specialties as the society may 
direct them to make; and shall have full power, by their agent, treas- 
urer, or collector, to receive, recover and retain all property and money 
justly due to them, in as full a manner as any other collector or agent 
in this commonwealth. And the future Legislature of this State shall 
have no power to make any law, act, or resolve whatsoever respecting 
religion, or the spiritual service we owe to God; but shall confine them- 
selves wholly to matters purely civil. 

See. 25. Laws for the encouraging of virtue, and preventing and 
suppressing of vice and immorality, shall be made and constantly kept 
in force, and provision shall be made for their due execution. 

Sec. 26. That no person in the State shall hold more than one lucra- 
tive office at any one time, provided that no appointment in the militia, 
or the office of a justice of the peace, shall be considered as a lucrative 
office. 

Sec. 27. xVll writs shall run in the name of the State of Franklaud, 
and bear test, and be sigmed by the clerks of the respective courts. In- 
dictments shall conclude, against the peace and dignity of the State. 

See. 28. That the delegates of this State to the Continental Con- 
gress while neces-sary, shall be chosen annually by the General Assem- 
bly, by ballot, but may by superseded, in the meantime, in the same 
manner; and no person shall be elected to serve in that capacity for 
more than three years successively. 

Sec. 29. A Sheriff and Coroner shall be annually elected, on the 
da}', and in the manner, for electing Representatives in General As- 
sembly, who shall be commissioned as before mentioned; and no per- 
son shall be eligible more than two years out of five. Also Commis- 
sioners, Assessors, Overseers of the Poor, Surveyors of Roads, and 
all such officers as each district may require, at the same time aud in 
such number as in future may appear necessary to the Legislature. 

Sec. 30. That the person of a debtor, where there is not a strong 
presumption of fraud, shall not be continued in prison, after delivering 



PROVISIONAL CONSTITUTION OF FRANKLAND. 61 

up, bona fide, all his estate, real and personal, for the use of his credi- 
tors, in such manner as shall be hereafter reg-ulated by law. All pris- 
oners shall be bailable by sufficient sureties, unless for capital offences, 
where the proof is evident or the presumption great. 

Sec. 31. That every foreigner, who comes to settle in this State, / 
having first taken an oath of allegiance to the same, may purchase, or. 
by other just means, acquire, hold, and transfer land or other real 
estate, and, after one year's residence, shall be deemed a free citizen. 

Sec. 32. All kinds of useful learning shall be encouraged by this 
commonwealth, that is to say, the future Legislature shall erect, before 
the year seventeen hundred and eighty-seven, one University, which 
■shall be near the centre of this State, and not in a city or town: And 
for endowing the same, there shall be appropriated such lands as may 
be judged necessary, one-fourth of all the monies arising from the sur- 
veys of land hereafter to be made, one halfpenny upon every pound of 
inspected indigo, that shall be carried out of the State, by land or water; 
threepence upon ever3 r barrel of flour, and one shilling on every hogs- 
head of tobacco, forever.* And, if the fund thence arising shall be 
found insufficient, the Legislature shall provide for such additions as 
may be necessary. And if experience shall make it appear to be useful 
to the interest of learning in this State, a Grammar School shall be 
erected in each county, and such sums paid by the public as shall en- 
iible the trustees to employ a master or masters of approved morals 
and abilities. 

Sec: 33. That no purchase of lands shall be made of the Indian na- 
tives, but on behalf of the public, by authority of the General Assembly. 

Sec. 34. That the future Legislature of this State shall regulate en- 
tails in such a manner as to prevent perpetuities. 

Sec. 35. That the Declaration of Rights is hereby declared to be a 
part of the Constitution of this State, and ought never to be violated, 
on any pretence whatsoever. 

Sec. 36. No tax, custom or contribution shall be imposed upon, or 
paid by, the people of this State, nor any appropriation of public mo- 
nies made by the Legislature, except by a law for that purpose; and 
the purposes for which the money is raised, and to which it is appro- 
priated, shall be clearly expressed in the preamble. And, annually, 
the General Assembly shall publish a full account of all money paid 
into the Treasury, and by whom; also of all paid out of it, to whom, 
and for what. 

Sec. 37. If any dispute or difference shall arise betwixt citizens, in 
matters of debt, property, character, or such things, the parties, agree- 
ing to state their dispute, and leave it to arbitration, shall proceed in the 
following manner: — they shall apply by joint petition to the Registers 
of the district where the case exists, or the defendant lives, unless they 
shall otherwise agree, who shall name, in writing, twenty-four substan- 
tial freemen residing in the same, and the parties shall alternately 



^Dissented, to as is mentioned in the Preface. 



62 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

strike out one until one half are struck out; then the parties shall draw 
by lot such an odd number as they shall agree upon, out of the re- 
mainder, who, after taking- an oath to try the case in dispute without 
favor, affection, or partiality, shall hear and finally determine the same. 

Sec. 38. The printing presses shall be free to every person who un- 
dertakes to examine the proceedings of the Legislature, or any person 
or part of government; and no prosecution shall commence against a 
printer for printing anything whatsoever, provided he gives up the 
person's name. 

Sec. 39. The Legislature shall take care to proportion punishments 
to the crimes, and may provide houses for punishing, by hard labour, 
those convicted of crimes not capital, wherein the criminals shall be 
employed, for the benefit of the public, or for the reparation of injuries 
done to private persons. All persons at proper times, shall be admit- 
ted to see the prisoners at their labour. 

Sec. 40. The inhabitants of this State shall have liberty to fowl 
and hunt in seasonable times, on the lands they hold, and all others 
therein, not enclosed, and in like manner to fish in all boatable waters, 
and others,- not private property. 

Sec. 41. The Legislature hereafter to be chosen, shall provide that 
marriages, in this commonwealth, be regularly and solemnly celebrat- 
ed, between one man and one woman, before free and single. 

Sec. 42. That this Constitution may be the better understood by 
the citizens of this commonwealth, and be more effectually kept invio- 
late to the latest ages, the future Legislature shall employ some person 
or persons, at the public expense, to draw it out into a f amilar catechet- 
ical form, and the Registers shall take care that it be taught in all 
the schools within their respective districts; and shall further provide, 
that a sufficient number of the Constitution be printed, that each citi- 
zen may have one, as the inviolable charter of his privileges. 

Sec. 43. The future Legislature shall choose and keep a chaplain 
during their session, if to be obtained, and shall annually invite some 
minister of the gospel to open their first session, after the annual elec- 
tion, with a sermon. 

Sec. 44. The privileges and benefit of the writ of Habeas Corpus 
shall be enjo} r ed in this commonwealth, in the most free, easj-, cheap, 
expeditious and ample manner, and shall not be suspended by the 
Legislature, except upon the most urgent and pressing occasions, and 
for a limited time, not exceeding twelve months. And, in all cases, 
every person shall enjoy the liberty of being heard by himself and his 
counsel. 

Sec. 45. In order that the freedom of this commonwealth may be 
preserved inviolate forever, there shall be chosen by the free suffrage 
of the freemen of the State, on the day of in the year one 

thousand seven hundred and ninety, and in every succeeding fifth year 
forever, twenty-four freeholders, two-thirds of which shall constitute a 
Board in everv case, and known bv the name of a Council of Safety, 



PROVISIONAL CONSTITUTION OF FRANKLAND. 63 

and shall meet on the day of next ensuing- their elec- 

tion, who, during- one year after said daj r , shall have full power, and 
their dut3 r shall be, to inquire whether the Constitution has been pre- 
served inviolate in every part ; whether Legislative, Executive Judiciary 
and Military branches of government, and public servants have faithfully 
performed their several duties, or whether they have assumed to them- 
selves, or exercised, greater or other powers than they are entitled to by 
this Constitution, or neglected to exercise those with which they were 
invested. 

They are to enquire whether the public taxes have been justly laid and 
collected in every part of this commonwealth; in what manner the public 
money and property have been disposed of, and whether the laws have been 
duly exercised: For these, they shall have power to send for papers and 
records, to recommend impeachments, and the repealing of such laws as 
shall appear contrary to the principles of Constitution; they shall fix and 
regulate the salaries and fees of all civil officers: And no other powers 
shall they be invested with, or attempt to exercise, and no person shall be 
eligible as a member of this Council, who, has held any civil office, {except 
a Justice of the Peace and subaltern in the militia) for the space of two im- 
mediately preceding years, nor shall he hold any other office in govern- 
ment, whilst he is a member of Council. 

Sec. 46. Estate shall not be entailed, and when a person dies intestate, 
his or her estate shall be equally divided among their children, consider- 
ing the part every child before received in his or her portion, the widow 
shall have a child's share, or her dower, at her option. All other intes- 
tate estate, as may be directed by the future Legislature. 

Sec. 47. This form of government shall be enrolled on parchment, 
and be deposited in the Secretary's office, and be a part of the laws of the 
land; and printed copies thereof shall be prefixed to the book containing 
the laws of the commonwealth, in all future editions of the said laws. 

A true copy from the original. 

Attested: per Francis A. Ramsky, Clerk. 

After the rejection of the above Constitution, John 
Sevier proposed the Constitution of North Carolina, 
which was adopted with a few amendments. The name 
of Franklin was adopted for the State. 



64 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



EARLIEST AMERICAN LITERATURE — CAP- 
TAIN JOHN SMITH. 



The last true knight-errant of the world was Cap- 
tain John Smith, of Virginia. A French soldier at seven- 
teen, three years in the Dutch army, shipwrecked at 
twenty-one, granted a patent of nobility in Austria for 
courage in battle against the Turks, taken prisoner and 
sold as a slave, having escaped and traveled through 
Europe, the battle-scarred veteran of twenty-seven re- 
turned to. England in time to join with Gosnold and others 
in gathering a Colony to settle Virginia. Arrested on 
shipboard, he is not allowed to take his seat in the Coun- 
cil on landing, yet as a public necessity he became Gov- 
ernor in a short time. Nor is authority enforced with a 
slack hand. The Governor works himself, and forces all 
recalcitrant idlers to do the same, sons of gentlemen 
though most of them were. 

That restless spirit which had driven him to hunt 
the earth over for wars in which to take part, would not 
leave him without adventure in these American wilds. 
This was a virgin field for wonderful exploits, and none 
of his have been discredited in that they seem too marvel- 
ous for belief. Despite all, he was a shrewd man of 
affairs, and knew how to manag-e men, whether the dis- 
affected at Jamestown or the savages of the forest. So 
skillful was he in dealing with the latter, that his pres- 
ence was often of more avail than an army. A true En«"- 
lishman in his devotion to duty, Captain Smith never 
hesitated to put his life in jeopardy to carry out the di- 
rections of the London Company in exploring the country. 
His skillful direction of affairs so often saved the Colom T 
from ruin, and the influence of his courage and determi- 



EARLIEST AMERICAN LITERATURE. 65 

nation was so long - felt, that we hardly think of his hav- 
ing remained there only two years. Neither is he thought 
of as a writer, yet nearl} r a dozen volumes come from his 
pen. The pioneer of all American literature was "A 
True Relation of Virginia, " this is not half of its title. 
This book, says Moses Coit Tyler, was published and 
sold in London near the time and place of John Milton's 
birth, thus bringing- into juxta-position the first book of 
free America, and the great expounder of political and 
religious freedom. 

Raleigh had been in turn soldier, sailor, diplomat, 
man of the world, bookman, penman, why should not 
Smith have the same ambition? Raleigh was better fit- 
ted to shine at Court and had greater facility in the use 
of lang"uag"e than Smith, but had Raleigh been in charge 
at Jamestown during the critical period, then not even 
"Croatan" would have remained to puzzle the chance en- 
quirer. Little as Smith's books smack of true literary 
form, they accomplished more in turning a tide of settlers 
toward America than all that Raleigh had ever done. 
Bancroft sa} T s of Smith, "He was the Father of Virginia, 
the true leader who first planted the Saxon race within 
the borders of the United States." "A True Relation" 
faithfully describes the country as far as explored. Time 
has justified his maps and shown the correctness of his 
observations. The manuscript for this work was sent to 
England for publication within thirteen months after the 
founding" of Jamestown. Disturbed by sickness, faction, 
and destitution in the Colony, exposed to constant danger 
from savages, can we imagine an author plying his voca- 
tion under greater difficulties? Yet within three months 
the first book was followed by a much more trenchant 
piece of writing. Certain complaints from the home 
Company were sent over. Smith answers these in what 
Tyler calls "Hotspur Rhetoric." He warns them ag-ainst 
expecting" immediate results, and shows them the necessity 
of work. Captain Newport had broug"ht over an add!- 



()6 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

tioiial number of settlers, mainly gentlemen, goldsmiths, 
gdass-makers, soap-boilers, — men fitted to consume rather 
than produce supplies. Smith wrote: "When you send 
againe I entreat you rather send but thirty Carpenters, 
husbandmen , gardiners, fishermen, blacksmiths, masons, 
and dig-gers vp of trees' roots, well provided, then a thou- 
sand such as we have." This was America's first expe- 
rience in talking - back at Kngland, an embryo Declaration 
of Independence. 

No man foresaw the possibilities of the country so 
clearly as Smith, at the same time none knew better than 
he that it was not a land where Ivotus-E}aters mig"ht dream 
away the golden afternoons. 

The same ship which carried the letter to the home 
Company bore the manuscript of the author's third pro- 
duction. "The True Relation" g-ave a faithful descrip- 
tion of the country and inhabitants between the Potomac 
and the James. The third work written iii America is 
described by its title: "Map of the Bay and the Rivers, 
with Annexed Relation of the Countries, and Natives 
that Inhabit Them." Natives, plants, animals, soil, 
climate; all were described with a wonderful minuteness. 
Of his map of Virginia the Narrative and Critical History 
of America says: "A work so singularly exact that it has 
formed the basis of all like delineations since, and was 
adduced as authority as late as 1873 towards the settle- 
ment of the boundary dispute between the States of Vir- 
g-inia and Maryland." To gather this material the Ches- 
apeake with numberless inlets and rivers had been trav- 
ersed in an open boat. If Smith drew a long' bow in nar- 
rating - personal exploits, no trace of this appears when 
he comes to record the results of his observations. Ban- 
croft says, "He had nothing - counterfeit in his nature: 
but was open, honest, and sincere." 

Not only did he g'ive faithful descriptions, but these in 
a rude way often showed the taste and genius of a poet. 
The country was full of marvelous beauty which so won 



EARLIEST AMERICAN LITERATURE. 67 

the heart of this bold adventurer that he never forgot his. 
first, and perhaps only love, Virginia. "Heaven and 
earth," he said, "never agreed better to frame a place for 
man's habitation." Continues he in his quaint spelling - : 
"Here are mountaines, hils, plaines, valleyes, rivers, and 
brookes, all running" most pleasantly into a faire Bay,, 
compassed but for the mouth, with fruitful and delight- 
some laud." "These waters wash from the 

rocks such glistering tinctures that the ground in some 
places seemeth as guilded, where both the rocks and the 
earth are so splendent to behold, that better judgments 
then ours mig'ht haue beene perswaded, they contained 
more then possibilities." 

His language seems to flow as readily as the 
streams of that newly discovered country. Of the Pow- 
hatan, or James, we find this charming - description: "The 
river is enriched with many goodly brookes, which are 
maintained by an infinit number of small rundles and 
pleasant springs, that disperse themselues for the best 
service, as do the veins of a man's body." With great 
particularity, the rivers, "Salvages," animals, and plants 
were noted. Hardly anything was too unimportant to be 
e xamined. Among the plums he finds "Puchamins, 
red when it is ripe: if it be not ripe, it will draw a man's 
mouth awry, with much torment, but when it is ripe, it is 
as delicious as an apricot." Some of the descriptions of 
natives might seem to be notes for a painter. Of the long 
journeys to complete the "Mappe," Smith says: 

"Thus haue I walkt a wayles way, with vncouth pace, 

Which yet no Christian man did ever trace: 

But yet I know this not affects the minde, 

Which eares doth heare; as that which eyes doe finde." 

Accidentally wounded beyond the help of local surgery,, 
at the end of two years Smith returned to England never 
to revisit Jamestown. He had been met with opposition 
and envy on the part of those whose lives he had often 
been the means of preserving: he had received no reward. 



68 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

from the London Company, not even the house which he 
had built with his own hands, yet during* the remainder 
of his life, America was the theme of the numerous books 
which he wrote. What had been his value was soon ap- 
parent. At his departure the Colony numbered five hun- 
dred, and was in a prosperous condition; in six months 
only sixty were left, and they were in the throes of "the 
starving- time." 

Smith remained in Emgdand until 1614, when he made 
avoyag-eto "North Virginia." In the map which he made 
with his own hand that region was called New England, 
a name which the world immediately adopted. 

In 1624 Smith published "The Generall Historie of 
Virginia, New England, and the Summer Isles." Two 
years before his death, which occurred in 1631, this was 
incorporated in "The True Travels, Adventures, and Ob- 
servations." This last includes all his works except "A 
True Relation." 

Did Pocahontas save the life of Smith? This storv 
told by Smith was included in almost all historical works 
until 1866. Since that time it has been omitted by Ban- 
croft and some others. The republication of "A True Re- 
lation," by Deane, of Boston, has provoked considerable 
discussion. Some account of this will be given in another 
article. Of Captain John Smith as a man and writer 
Moses Coit Tyler says: "Over all his personal associates 
in American adventures he seems to tower, by the natural 
loftiness and reach of the perception with which he grasped 
the significance of their vast enterprise, and means to its 
success. As a writer his merits are really great — clear- 
ness, force, vividness, picturesque and dramatic energy, 
a diction rae\ r and crisp." 

During- the first two decades of the struggle to plant an 
English settlement in America, Smith did more than any 
other man to make an American nation and an American 
literature possible. During- that twenty years of encoun- 
ter with almost ever} T kind of difficulty and dang-er, besides 



EARLIEST AMERICAN LITERATURE. 6 C > 

Smith there were five other writers of more or less merit. 
Georg-e Percy wrote a vivid account of the arrival in Vir- 
ginia, and the horrible suffering's of the colonists during" 
that first year in which there were "pitiful murmuring^ 
and outcries of our sick men, without relief, every nig"ht 
and day, for the space of six weeks; some departing- out 
of the world, many times three or four in a nig"ht, in the 
morning" their bodies trailed out of their cabins like dog"s. 
to be buried!" William Strachey wrote a work containing" 
one of the strongest delineations of a storm at sea known 
to literature. It is thoug-ht by some to have suggested 
to Shakespeare the idea of "The Tempest." 

Alexander Whitaker, the "Apostle of Virginia, " left 
g"ood property and influence at home "to bear the name of 
God unto the heathen." His heart was full of compas- 
sion for the Indians. To stir up the people at home, he 
g"ives a well-written and clear sketch of the country and 
climate of Virginia. "Good News from Virginia" was 
published in London in 1613. 

The Secretary for the Colony under Governor Yard- 
ley was John Pory, a man of rare attainments. The most 
sprigfhtly of his writing's was a letter to Sir Dudley Carle- 
ton, in which were racy descriptions of the country, min- 
gfled with amusing" accounts of the savagfes as well as the 
colonists themselves. Pory had been a man of the world, 
and of somewhat convivial habits before coming" to Vir- 
ginia. After telling" how he managed to pass the time 
with pen and book, he says: "Besides among" these crystal 
rivers and odoriferous woods I do escape much expense, 
envy, contempt, vanity, and vexation of mind." Among" 
those who thus added to the world's store of knowledge dur- 
ing" the first years at Jamestown there was only one pro- 
fessed man of letters. This was Georgfe Sandys, who had 
already translated five books of Ovid before leaving" for 
the New World. Ten books were translated here in the 
wilds of North America in such style as to meet the ap- 
probation of literary men in England. One of the most 



70 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

terrible Indian massacres happened soon after his arrival, 
by which Jamestown was overrun with panic-stricken, 
half-fed settlers from adjacent settlements. In such an 
atmosphere, and without books, the poet went on with 
his work. Sandys continued amid surroundings which 
would have appalled most men, and produced a work 
which speedily ran through eight editions. This morn- 
ing star of American poetry was one of whom we need 
not feel ashamed. Dryden speaks of him as "the best 
versifier of the former age." The settlement of Virginia 
seemed a re-enactment of the old romances. Jason, 
^Eneas and Ulysses had become realities. No people 
ever underwent greater hardships to found a new nation. 
With six writers such as Smith, Percy, Strachey, Whit- 
aker, Pory and Sandys, surely American literature had 
an auspicious beginning. S. A. Link, 

Nashville, Tenn. 
Dec. 13, 1895. 



CORRESPONDENCE OF GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 7l 



THE CORRESPONDENCE OF GEN. JAMES 
• ROBERTSON. 



James Robertson has been styled "the Father of 
Tennessee," and also "the Father of Middle Tennessee." 

The first title was derived from the fact that he was 
one of the early pioneers in Tennessee, and was, during 
the nine years of his residence the leader of the first set- 
tlement at Watauga. The second title is the one which 
"befits him best," and around which the uost affectionate 
memories cluster. From the time of his removal to Cum- 
berland in 1779, to the time of his death in 1814, a period 
of thirty-five years, he was the motive power, the bul- 
wark of the Cumberland settlements, and the idol of its 
people. A sketch of his life would be the early history 
of Middle Tennessee. 

Descended from a Scottish family, he was born in 
Brunswick County, Virginia, June 28, 1742. He removed 
to Wake County, North Carolina, while quite a youth, 
and thence removed to Watauga in 1770, and to the Cum- 
berland settlements in 1779. 

He was active in framing the Articles of the Wa- 
tauga Association, adopted in 1772, by the settlers on 
the Watauga, which was the first compact for civil 
government west of the Alleghany Mountains, and the 
first by native born Americans. May 1st, 1780, the fa- 
mous "Articles of Agreement, or Compact of Govern- 
ment," was entered into by the settlers on the Cumber- 
land River, and signed by two hundred and fifty-six 
settlers, nearly all of whom wrote their own names. 

This valuable document has been preserved, and is 
published in Putnam's History of Middle Tennessee. It 
is accurate, practical, and suited to the condition of the 
settlers — a g-em of legal literature, sparkling in the 



72 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

wilderness. It was largely the work of James Robertson. 

Frag-ments of the correspondence of this remarkable 
man, consisting" of copies of letters written by himself, 
and preserved among his papers, the orig-inal letters 
written to him by correspondents, and copies of impor- 
tant contemporaneous documents, have been preserved. 
They are bound in manuscript in two larg-e volumes, and 
are among - the treasures of the library of the "University 
of Nashville and Peabody Normal College." Most of 
the copies of his own letters and of contemporaneous doc- 
uments are in Gen. Robertson's own handwriting". A 
few of the letters were injured before being- bound in 
book form, and are worn in the folds, so as to be, in some 
places, nearly illegible. In many of the letters, the ink 
has faded so much that some words are indistinct. An 
examination of the correspondence shows that the Span- 
iards used better ink than the Cumberland settlers. In 
editing- this correspondence, no liberty is taken with the 
orig-inals, except in a few instances, to make them con- 
form to the rules of modern punctuation and spelling - , 
and to supply from the context a few words which are 
illegible. 

These letters have been invaluable to the historians 
of Tennessee. They supply pictures of social, political 
and military life, drawn by the leading- actors in the 
events to which they relate. Yet only two or three of 
them have ever been published. They will be given suc- 
cessively in the issues of this mag'azine. 

The first selection g'iven below, includes the corre- 
spondence from 1784 to 1790, at which latter date Ten- 
nessee became the Southwest Territor\'. 

Beginning- with Vol. I., the manuscript title-pag'e 

reads as follows: 

Correspondence of Gen'l. James Robertson. 

Extending- from November 4, 1784 to July 30, 1814. 

Bound in Two Volumes. 

Presented to the Library of The University of Nashville by Dr. Felix 
Robertson, and bound and deposited by Nathaniel Cross. 1840. 



CORRESPONDENCE OF GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 73 
[Then comes the following- certificate:] 

The Correspondence etc., of Gen. James Robertson, 
who has been styled the "Father of Tennessee." was ob- 
tained from his son, Dr. Felix Robertson of Nashville, 
with permission to select from it such papers as mig-ht be 
considered worth preserving-; inasmuch however as many 
of those, that were of a private nature, contained the 
allusions to political occurrences and Indian border troubles 
of the day, it was deemed best to preserve the correspond- 
ence entire. I accordingly arranged them in chronologi- 
cal order and had them bound in these two volumes. 

Nathe. Cross. 
Nashville University Library. 
18+0 



[Then comes, as a preface, the following extracts from the early 
Cumberland records, certified by the historian, A. W. Putnam. This 
preface is intended to supply some historical facts for the purpose of 
explaining certain allusions in the Robertson correspondence.] 

Under the Government and Rules adopted at "Nash- 
borougfh, 1st May 1780" —(revived 7th January 1783), 
many interesting measures were adopted and acts per- 
formed; — and we note here in connection with the letter 
of Gov. Estevan Miro dated "New Orleans 20th April, 
1783," and which is bound as of a later date and by some 
person in dorso "1789" — that among* the proceeding's of 
the Provisory Government aforesaid, there is an entry of 
record to the following- effect: 

"May 6th, 1783." 

"Committee met according - to adjournment, Present, 
Col. James Robertson, Thomas Malloy, Geo. Freeland, 
Saml. Barton, David Rormsevall, Isaac Linsey, E}benezer 
Titus, James Shaw and Capt. Isaac Bledsoe. 

When Thomas Malloy informed the Committee that 
he had since the last meeting*, at ye request of some of ye 
members sent letters to ye agrnt for ye State of Virginia 



74 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

residing - at Illenois, and likewise to ye Spanish Governor, 
informing- them that some of our people had gone down 
the river this spring - upon pretence of trading with ye 
Chickasas Indians. But by ye report of some latel} r come 
from ye Illenois, who met with ym on their way here, we 
are afraid that their design was to assist in plundering - 
of some of the trading - boats; and that if any such thing 
should be committed or effected by or with } r e assistance 
of any belonging - to us, that it was contrary to the prin- 
ciples and intentions of ye generality of people here; as 
we detest and abhor such practices, and that we would 
endeavor for ye future to prevent any such proceedings. 

Which information and conduct of Mr. Malloy was 
unanimously approved and acceded to by the Committee. 

On motion made, Resolved & agreed by this Commit- 
tee that from and after the 6th of May 1783, no person 
or inhabitant of this settlement shall trade, traffick or 
barter with any Indians, nor resort unto them on ye 
other side of ye Ohio or ye dividing - ridge between Ten- 
nessee and Cumberland waters, nor go down these West- 
ern waters upon pretence of trading - to } r e Illenois or 
elsewhere, — without permission first had and obtained of 
the Committee; and likewise g*ive Bond with approved 
security, in any sum at ye discretion of ye Committee, 
payable to ye Chairman thereof and his successor as such, 
conditioning that their conduct shall not directly or in- 
directly, in any wise prejudice the interests of this our 
settlement." 

And agfain at the first Session of the Court of Quar- 
ter Sessions (when fully organized) January, 1784, pro- 
ceeding's of the following - nature took place. 

"On motion made to the Court concerning - allega- 
tions against James Montgomery as an aider and abettor 
in the treasonable piratical proceeding's carried on in the 
Mississippi against Spaniards it is the opinion of the 
Court that the said Montgomery be holden in security in 
the sum of £150 for his appearance at the next Court." 



CORRESPONDENCE OF GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 75 

He gave Bond, and we believe, fled Another indi- 
vidual was somewhat implicated, but producing creditable 
letters, was acquitted. 

I make these notes here to show the true and earnest 
zeal of the leaders in the Cumberland settlement to pre- 
serve amity with their neighbors, and to prevent any 
act of robbery & wrong being committed by those of 

their community 

1850. A. W. Putnam. 



[The following- letter addressed to Gen. Robertson by Mons. Cruzat, 
the Commandant at St. Louis, is in reply to a letter written by Gen. 
Robertson, disclaiming- participation in the depredations of "Colbert 
and his gang of pirates." The original is in French. A translation 
has been published in Putnam's "History of Middle Tennessee," from 
-which the translation below differs in a few immaterial points.] 

Monsieur : 

I have had the honor to receive your letter by which 
you evidence to me the pain you experience from the hos- 
tilities & robberies that Colbert & his people have com- 
mitted upon the Spaniard on the Mississippi & that if 
you had certain proofs by which the slaves & other effects 
could be identified, you repeat you would endeavor if pos- 
sible to have them returned & that you would seize them 
as property justly to be restored to your allies — Such a 
proceeding on your parts so analogous to the just idea 
that the Spaniards have always had of the Equity of the 
American States proves to me Sir, that not only the peo- 
ple of Cumberland have not co-operated with those bri- 
gands; but that they are very sensible to all that human- 
ity has suffered from the evils which we have sustained 
from those vagabonds — In consequence I thank you Sir, 
for the information which you have had the complaisance 
to give me, that two negroes the one taken at Mattattock 
& the other on the Arkansas are with the Chicachas in 
the hands of the whites & that if you knew their masters 



,7(j THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

you would undertake to withdraw them from the Indians- 
but it is impossible for me to procure for you the proof 
because Colbert & his people are scattered into several 
bands & are carrying-on a war by robbery & pillag-e every 
where & has so larg-e a number of persons, that the proofs 
of property served every difficulty & motive in the con- 
test between those who have been the victims of those at- 
tentions — Very g'rateful for the thanks of yourself & the 
people of the Cumberland for the answer which I g-ave to 
the Indians on our part who had come to demand of us 
land to establish themselves, I assure you Sir, as on this 
occasion so in all other cases we act to maintain the 
friendship, the union, the g-ood correspondence estab- 
lished between our two nations, that I shall listen to no 
plans, which would injure my honor or my duty or the 
pacific intentions of my sovereign & if in the country 
under m} 7 command I can be useful to you & to those who 
may merit your recommendations — I declare to you that 
I shall exercise my utmost zeal to convince you of the 
gratitude & hig-h consideration in which I have the honor 
to be, Sir, Your very humble & very obedient 

Servant, 

Fran c " Cruzat. 
St. Louis in Illinois, 

4th Nov., 1784. 
To Col. fames Robertson, Cumberland. 



[The following- letter bears no date. It is in the handwriting - of 
Gen. Robertson, and is in some places nearly illegible. It must have 
been written in the year 1787.] 

Brothers : 

I hear you are settling- on the Malissippi where I 
wish you to live and enjoy peace, provided your young- 
men do not lose their senses and distress our country, as 
that will compell us to retaliate; which will be a great 
prejudice to your nation and us; but I hope we shall 



CORRESPONDENCE OF GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 77 

think more of our children. We will be very particular 
in doing - you no harm and we hope you will caution your 
young" people, as we may live brothers. The Chickasaws 
tell us you wish to be friends to us. We desire to be 
friends with all the Red people and to make no encroach- 
ment on any, war has come this two years past from 
towards the Mussel shoals. We thought it mig-ht only 
be some rog-ues and that they would stop, but we were 
obliged to.g"o ag'ainst a Cherokee Town that talked two 
tong"ues, as the} T said some were for peace and we tracked 
others from our country, that had killed our people and 
had their scalps then in the town: if any gr>od people 
suffered, they may blame themselves for it, as we cotild 
not tell the bad from the gxx>d. I never would keep com- 
pany with any persons that would kill my friends. We are 
sorry that some French were so imprudent as to put 
themselves among- our enemies, and suffered before we 
knew who the\ T were. It was not because they were 
French. We love them as ourselves. We know they 
are a gfood people. Had it been Americans, it would 
have been the same case: we agree all that country be- 
longs to the Red people and that if they let us alone in 
ours we will not interrupt them in theirs: they may have 
what traders they please and we should all be friends. 
Capt. Dickerson sent me word he would come and see me, 
I should be fond to have a talk with him. I am, Your 
friend and Brother, James Robertson. 
To the Delezuares &• * 



[The following- letter is addressed to Gen. Robertson by his per- 
sonal friend, Mr. Thomas Purson, and relates to immigration, land 
surve3 r s. and personal matters.] 

Goshen, 23th May 1787. 

Colo. Since I saw you last I have been ver} T well un- 
til about four weeks past, I am now very unwell & un- 

*Illeg-ible. 



78 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

less I mend soon I expect I shall scarcely ever see you 
again. Should I mend I fully intend to be with you in the 
West Assembly we will then do the best we can to open 
the land office once mo're & Grant out all the Western 
Country leave Congress no further hopes of obtaining it 
from us to whom it justly belongs that is to say the state. 
If God spares me next Spring - I shall be with you both 
in your own New Country. I am clear you must soon be a 
separate State for which you will have my harty Con- 
curance as soon as you can act for yourselves & in the 
meantime we will aid }^ou ag'ainst your enemies & sup- 
port you to the utmost of our powers as you are a part 
of ourselves & have conducted yourselves as Brothers & 
friends. Since you emigrated and explored that valuable 
Country in which you are now resident, our Delig'ates 
who were elected to goe forward to form a federal Con- 
stitution or goe forward what they are to do we know not 
but as we have some very good men they will not injure 
us I hope & what they do will be laid before the Next 
Genl assembly for their approbation in that case I hope 
we shall not be injured. 

Pray Genl, any part of my land yet not surveyed or 
returned I hope and trust you will cause the Surveyors to 
make return of as soon as possible. I have never as yet 
g'ot more that 6 or 7 grants upon any of my Surveys nor 
are the\r by the Surveyers yet returned as I can find out 
by the Surety. I heard last fall that some Surve\ T er in 
Davidson County did survey on Water or Red River or 

poison Creek a part of lands for , Surveyed for 

some person & that his answer was I had land enough. 
I expect that the person who had part of this then sur- 
veyed will Indeavor to g-it his Grant before I git mine, 
in that case he may think himself safe but he ma}- rely 
upon it I shall shurely stick by his ribs & If I knew the 
surve} r or I would attack Instantly, be him who he will 
notwithstanding he is at such a distance, mv own I mean 
to have & not anothers. If I am spared to see you both, 



CORRESPONDENCE OF GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 79 

lie assured I shall make you ample amends for your ser- 
vices in my favor. 

I am Genl with the Greatest Esteem 

Your affectionate servant, 
Thos. Purson. 
To Messrs. James Robertson, 
W. Phillip Alston. 



[The following letter has no address or signature. It is supposed 
to have been the copy which Gen. Robertson retained of a letter writ- 
tea to Mons. Cruzat at St. Eouis, in explanation of the destruction of 
the Indian town of Coldwater, (now Tuscumbia, Ala). On this occa- 
sion several Frenchmen were killed, and some French merchandize 
captured. The manuscript is in Gen. Robertson's handwriting, and 
was evidently written in 1787.] 

Sir: 

For some years past a trade has been carried on b}^ some 
Frenchmen from Wabash to the Indians on the Ten- 
nessee. I've been told that this trade was formerly man- 
aged by a Mr. Veiz — and while he practised it those In- 
dians were peaceable to us. But for two or three years 
past those Indians have been extremely inimical to us, at 
all seasons killing - our men, women & children, and steal- 
ing our horses. I have it also from such authority that 
I must believe it, that those Indians were excited to war 
ag-ainst us by those Traders' suggestions; both in advis- 
ing - them to war and in giving- them goods for so doing. 
My authority for this is from the Chickasaws who tell 
me that they have been offered g-oods by the traders if they 
would go to war ag'ainst us, and one John Rog"ers told 
me he saw a Creek fellow have on a pair of arm bands 
which that fellow said were given to him by the French 
Traders for going" to war against us. Their incursions 
upon us this spring- have been more severe than usual, 
and I determined to distress them. 

For this purpose I took out a party of the Militia of 
this County, followed the tracks of one of their scalping 



80 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

parties who had just been doing- murder here, and fol- 
lowed them to a Town on the Tennessee at the mouth of 
Cold water destroyed the Town and killed I suppose 
about 20 of the Indians. The scalps of two of our men 
who they had lately murdered were in the Town. Un- 
fortunately for some of the French they had been impru- 
dent enough to put themselves along- with the Indians 
in the action and some few of them fell. From that 
place I sent a party around to this river by water. In 
the Tennessee they found five Frenchmen with two boats 
having- g-oods to trade with those very Indians. The 
Commander of the party took the boats with the men and 
brougdit them around into this river and g-ave them then 
their choice to come up to the settlement and stand trial 
for what they had done, thereb}" to try to regain their 
g-oods — or else they mig-ht g'o home at once without their 
g-oods. They chose the latter. The taking- these boats 
was without my knowledg-e and approbation. I am now 
endeavoring- to collect the property which was in them 
tog-ether, and would thank you to notif} r these men that 
if they can make it appear they were not g-uilty of a 
breach of the laws, and did not intend to furnish our 
enemies with powder, lead and other g-oods for our de- 
struction — on applying- here they may g*et their property 
ag-ain. 

I am very sorry that necessity has driven us to take 
the measures we did of destroying" the Indians. If those 
Indians would be peaceable we should never think of de- 
priving- them of any trade they can procure. But while 
they continue at war, any Traders who furnish them 
with arms and ammunition, will render themselves very 
insecure. 



[The following- letter has g-iven occasion to severe and undeserved 
criticisms against Gen. Robertson. Yet it was a wise piece of diplo- 
macy, and fully justified by the circumstances.] [See Editorial notes.] 



CORRESPONDENCE} OF GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 81 

NashvielE, August 3d, 1783. 
Sir : 

I received your favors by Messrs. Hog-gatt & Ewing* 
which have given great satisfaction to the country in 
general. I transmitted copies to Govenor Caswell and 
have since seen them published in the Kentucky Gazette. 

The Indians still continue their incursions in some 
measure tho' trifling- to what we experienced in the 
Spring - . I imagine it must be Cherokees or some out-ly- 
ing Creeks who are not acquainted with your orders; 
Colo. Anthony Bledsoe was killed by a small party about 
two weeks ago. 

It is reported that the inhabitants of Holston and 
the Cherokees are at war but we have not received any 
account that may be depended on, nor whether you and 
the Georgians are likely to terminate your dispute. 

From Mr. Hoggatt's Account we have expected some 
of the Creeks in from you but none have yet arrived. I 
have provided a g _ un which Mr. Hoggatt thinks will 
please you. I have caused a deed for a lot in Nashville 
to be recorded in your name, and beg you will let me 
know whether you will accept of a tract or two of land in 
our young Country. I could say much to you respecting- 
this same Country but am fully sensible you are better 
able to judge what may take place in a few years than 
myself. In all probability we cannot long' remain in our 
present state, and if the British or any commercial na- 
tion who may be in possession of the mouth of the Missis- 
sippi would furnish us with trade, and receive our pro- 
duce there cannot be a doubt but the people on the west 
side the Apalachian mountains will open their eyes to 
their real interest. I should be very happy to hear your 
sentiment of this matter. 

Myself and the Inhabitants of this Country return 
you our most grateful thanks for your very polite treat- 
ment of Messrs. Hoggatt and Kwing and shall always be 
happy to render you any services in our power. 



82 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

I hope you will honor me with a correspondence and 
shall do myself the pleasure of writing- by every oppor- 
tunity. I am Sir, 

with the greatest Esteem 
Your most Obed. Servt. 

James Robertson. 
To Hon. Alexander McGillivray . 
Creek Nation. 






[The following- letter is in Gen. Robertson's handwriting-. The 
date is illegible. It was written three days after the murder of his 
son by the Indians. It is addressed to Alexander McGillivray, the 
treacherous Creek Chief. Portions of this letter are eloquent and 
pathetic] 

Nashvieee on Cumberland. 

I am not able to express my pain and surprise when 
I view the hostile operations carried on agfainst the in- 
habitants of this country. I am well assured from the 
earliest intellig'ence I ree'd from you that every precau- 
tion has been used to prevent anything that migfht incur 
3-our displeasure or in an}^ manner irritate the minds of 
your people. In the letter which I first had the pleasure 
of receiving" from you, you loudly complained of the ill 
treatment you received from the Americans together with 
their incroachments on vour territories which had com- 
pelled you to take protection under the Court of Spain, a 
circumstance which gfave me much uneasiness. But those 
aggressors live in a different State and are governed b\' 
different laws, consequently are not culpable for their 
misconduct; nor had we the most distant idea b\ T our 
making' settlement here, that we should incur the displeas- 
ure of an} T tribe of Indians, as we only claim those lands 
that the Cherokees in the year 1775 ceded to Colonel Hen- 
derson & Company in open treaty, who paid them a valu- 
able consideration for the same. 

The small expedition which necessity compelled me 
to carry on against a people living below the Mussel 



CORRESPONDENCE OF GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 83 

Shoals, I ever flattered myself would meet with your ap- 
proval. As we were repeatedly informed by the Chero- 
kees, also by Mr. Curnal a half breed from the Creek 
nation, that those were a refractory people who refused 
to be governed by the laws or customs of other nations. 
We should have deputed two men agreeable to your 
requisition to lot in convention with the warriors of the 
Creek nation in April last, but in my absence to the 
grand council of this State, an unhappy dispute arose be- 
tween some unguarded persons and some of the Cherokees 
which rendered a passage from this country to yours very 
precarious. I have just returned from the Assembly and 
find that honorable bod} T tog-ether with the Continental 
Congress disposed to see the strictest justice done to all 
the Red people and as much disposed to see that perpe- 
trations on either side should not pass with impunity. 
The information I received from Doct. White gave me 
pleasure, as he informed our Assembly that he had in the 
most public manner declared a suspension of hostilities 
for all people but those who are daily endeavoring- to take 
your last and natural right. Since Colonel Bledsoe and 
myself wrote } t ou I had the mortification to see one of my 
children killed and uncommon^ massacred. From my 
earliest youth, I have endeavored to arm myself with a 
sufficient share of fortitude to meet anything that nature 
might have intended me, but to see an innocent child so 
uncommonly massacred by people who ougdit to have both 
sense and bravery, has in a measure unmanned me. 
There was a neighbor's child at the same time taken 
prisoner — a boy about thirteen years old. 

I am persuaded that humanity will induce you to ex- 
tend your influence through the Creek nation and adopt 
every means in your power, to protect the boy and send him 
by Mr. Hackett, as he will be of but little service to the 
person who captured him when compared to the consola- 
tion it must give a fond father & a tender mother whose 
grief is at this time beyond expression, and the only thing" 



84 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

that seems to give relief is that you will adopt every meas- 
ure in your power for the safety and preservation of the boy. 
I have for many years past exerted myself on every 
occasion to see the strictest justice done to all the Red 
people. Last fall, when a formidable army was about to 
march to lay the Cherokee nation desolate, from informa- 
tion I received from Doct. White tog-ether with the friend- 
ly dispositions which the Cherokees had declared, with 
the utmost difficulty I prevented their march, by which 
means I incurred the displeasure of my best friends. 
Since that time the treatment which I have received from 
that kind of people is very inadequate to the services I 
have rendered them. Last summer thev killed an affec- 
tionate brother and three days ag-o an innocent child, but 
let me hope, Sir, for the future, you will put a stop to 
depredations of the kind, and if disorderly persons will 
act repug-nant to your orders that you will bring- them to 
condig'n punishment. This is my own determination, for 
if measures of this kind are not immediately adopted, 
common sense declares to the world that we must shortly 
be embroiled in a war. It is a matter of no reflection to a 
brave man to see a father, a son, or a brother fall on the 
field of action, but it is a serious and melancholy incident 
to see a helpless woman or an innocent child toma- 
hawked in their own houses. Inclosed I send you a tran- 
script of a late Law by which you will find we are 
enabled to bring- to immediate punishment such refractory 

persons. I do not consider the of a g-eneral 

value. You will, I hope ultimateh' that 

nation this settlement or 

I am Sir, with much esteem 

Your very humble 

& obedient servant, 

James Robertson. 

To Ho)i. Alexander McGillivray, 
Chief of Creek Nation. 



CORRESPONDENCE OE GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 85 

[McGrillivray's Heply to the foregoing letter] 

Little Taeeassie 1" December, 1788. 
Sir: 

I received a letter from vou broug-ht here from the 
Chactaws & and left there by Bob Thompson & I have 
lately received amounts from Gen'l Pickens & Colo. 
Moore, Commissioners from Virginia to treat with the 
Cherokees who sent me a proclamation issued by Con- 
gress for uniting to the Cherokees the land encroached 
upon since the Treaty of Nepoleon in 85 and which ex- 
tended near to Chotee. The Cherokees had asked assist- 
ance which we grave them the past fall but since I have 
seen the proclamation I've spoke to the Ivittle Turkey, 
chief of the Cherokees & the Bloody Fellow who appears 
to be satisfied with the intentions of Congress to right 
them & have promised to refrain from all hostilities in 
general against the whites. The leader called Drag-ging 
Canoe was on the point of setting - out with above one 
hundred warriors but is stopt on this affair. 

As to our affairs with Georgia, I do not yet know 
how Congress have decided but am given to understand 
that the Superintendent has received instructions concern- 
ing" it which he has not communicated to me, tho' I expect 
that we shall have the motive which they have given the 
Cherokees to put an end to our wars. Meantime, I will 
continue to persist in measures most proper to keep off the . 
Nation from further hostilities against Cumberland, & ex- 
cept a few mares & colts brought in by hunters, there 
has been no other mischief done your settlement this past 
summer & fall by my people. 

The question which you put to me concerning any 
prospect of changes of Government in the Countries bor- 
dering on us I cannot say anything- of any such matter 
likely to take place. Some reports of such a thing had 
gone abroad, & it rose from the appearance of a man 
among us offering assistance to our war, but as I expect 
the coming spring will terminate our dispute with Geor- 



86 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

gia agreeable to our desires, nothing- further will proceed 
& if it should not be so, there will be another kind of war 
than that which we have hitherto carried on. 

I remain with great regard, 
Your most obed. servant, 

Alex. McGillivray. 



[The following General Order, bound with the letters, gives an idea 
of the half agricultural, half military life of the Cumberland settlers.] 

Gen'l Orders, April 5th 1789. 

The repeated depredations of a savag'e enemy makes it 
necessary to put the District in the best posture of defence 
our situation will admit of. The Commanding - officers of 
the counties in the district are therefore call'd upon to 
have the militia of their respective counties in readiness 
to march at a minute's notice. Barely to g-ive orders to 
their subalturn officers to have their soldiers in this readi- 
ness is really insufficient. Every officer must be vigilant 
and attentive that every order is executed properl}-. The 
Militia Law must be strictly enforced. The subalterns 
who g^ive notice to the militia of their respective Compa- 
nies of the time and place of rendezvous are to be particu- 
lar to notify every man; by which means delinquents will 
be barred from the plea of the want of notice and at 
court martial will be fin'd accordingly. 

Frequent private musters should be call'd, and 
among- other requisites, enquire into the state of the arms, 
and quantity of ammunition each soldier has ready for serv- 
ice. The law requires each non-commissioned officer and 
private to have a g'ood serviceable g-un with nine charg-es 
of powder and ball, a spare flint, a worm and picker &c, 
all in g-ood order. The feeling's of Nature must surely be 
roused .at the many horrid murders committed on the 
frontier — let us gxwern these feeling's by reason which 
dictates that these necessarv orders for our defence should 



CORRESPONDENCE OE GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 87 

be strictly executed — and with determined resolution, let 
us follow every party of savages which annoy us, whose 
trail can be followed — by often doing- this, many may be 
overtaken and made examples of to deter others from do- 
ing - us mischief. 

By order of the Gen'l, 

H. Bradford. 



[The date of the following letter has been questioned. Putnam and 
Roosevelt, both give the date as 1783. Mr. Cross, in arranging the man- 
uscripts, places this letter as of 1789, which is undoubtedly the correct 
date. The heading of the letter, the expression "of 29th January last" 
in the first paragraph, and the signature, are facsimiles obtained by 
photographic process.] 

(See Editorial Notes.) 



e*v ey^awSyt-e, 2o*'tft>™Z/7%S> 



Sir : -/ 

I received yours ^r <&s Cfcxs?T4<&vy , jK*xsg, and am 

hig-hly pleased in seeing - the good intention of the people 
of that District, and knowing the falsehood of the report 
we heard they are willing to attack this Province. You 
oug"ht to make the same account of the news you had that 
the Indians have been excited in their Province against 
you, since I wrote quite the contrary at different times to 
Alexander McGillevray to induce him to make peace, & 
lastly he answered me that he gave his word to the Gov- 
ernor of North Carolina that the Creeks would not trouble 
again those settlements: notwithstanding after the letter 
I received from you, and other from Brigadier General 
Daniel Smith, Esqr., I will writte to him, engaging him 
to be not more troublesome to you. 

I have not any connexion with Cheroquis & Mascuten, 
but as they go now an then to the Illinois, I will give ad- 



88 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

vice to that Commander to induce them to be quiet: in re- 
spect to the former, in the Month of Ma} T of last year, 
they asked the permission of settling themselves on the 
west side of Mississippi River, which is granted and they 
act accordingly, you plainly see you will be quite free 
from their incursions. 

I will give you the passport you asked for your son- 
in-law, & I will be highly pleased with his coming - down 
to settle in this Province, & much more if you and your 
family should come along - with him, since I can assure 
3^ou that you will find here your welfare, without being - 
either molested on religious matters or paying' any duty, 
& with the circumstance of finding - allwais market for 
your crops, which makes every one of the planters settled 
at Natchez, or elsewhere to improve even' day, much 
more so than if they were to purchase the Lands, as they 
are granted gratis. 

I wish to be useful to you being" with reg-ard. 
Sir, 



Dup 



Q^ 



Colonel James Robertson, Esqr 



[The following' is a friendly and business letter, but mentions poli- 
tics, and announces a meeting- to be held with the Cherokees and 
Chickamaugas for the purpose of making a treaty.] 

Hieesboro, March 10th, 1789. 
Sir, 

I make no doubt but that before this day you have 
safely arrived to your family; you fatigfue thro' the moun- 
tains in so inclement a season must have been intolerable. 
I have the pleasure to inform you with certainty that a 
treaty is to be held on the 25th of May next, at the Up- 
per Warford on French' Broad, with the Cherokee and 



CORRESPONDENCE OF GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 89 

Chicamogg Indians, which if well conducted, I hope will 
render a singular service to your Country; when the 
treat} T will be held with the Creeks, neither time nor 
place is fixed. I must request the favor of you to g-ive 
me the amount of my neg^roes with McShaw, to whom I 
have wrote on that occasion, I will also be much obliged 
to you for some information about Colo. Moore's Negroes. 
Have you seen Mrs. Bledsoe and gotten from her the 
papers I g-ave you a memo: to procure from her. My 
brother is ver} T much pleased that you have undertaken 
his business in that Country, resting" satisfied that the 
utmost justice will be done him. I shall be very happy 
to receive a letter at any time from you and must request 
the particular favor to be informed of the politics and 
other occurrancies of your Country, whether the Indians 
are more friendly, or whether they continue hostilities. 
We have no foriegn News, therefore can relate nothing 
from abroad. I am much pleased to find that Judge 
McNairy gives such general satisfaction in that impor- 
tant office he has the honor to fill. Please to make my 
compliments to Mrs. Robertson and all my other acquaint- 
ances. ■ I am Dear Colo., 

Your obedt. Servt., P. Loton. 
To Jas. Robertson, Esq., 
Cumberland. 



[The following- letter announces that the President (Washington) 
had appointod a Committee to treat with the Indians, and discusses 
the peculiar position of North Carolina, which State had not, at that 
time, joined the Union.] 

New York, 31st August, 1789. 
Dear Sir: 

Commissioners are just appointed by the President 

of the United States to treat with the Southern Indians, 

they are to sail in a few days for Georgia with a g-uard 

of Continental Soldiers. Genl. Lincoln, Cyrus Griffen & 



90 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Colo. Humphries, formerly one of General Washing-ton's 
Aids, are appointed. It is conceived that Genl. Lincoln 
having- commanded in the Southern States being - some- 
what lamed by a wound he received in an Action with 
Burg-oine, & having- a g-eneral Character of a soldier & 
Statesman will impress the Southern Indians with an idea 
that trilling- is at an end, and that they must seriously 
treat and faithfully abide by what they promise. It is 
possible that the troops will be left as a barrier on the 
frontier to see thit neither parties break the treaty. 
This I believe is the beg-inning- of g-eneral Peace and 
security ag-ainst the Indians. North Carolina not being- 
in the Union, the Commissioners will be most hampered 
in any neg-otiations with the Cherokees. I have however 
handed • them a long- Memorial representing- the interest 
of our State and praying - that in all neg-otiations they 
would have an eye on the safety of our Citizens and not 
encourag-e the Indians to expect the removal of any set- 
tlers off the lands they hold. Thoug-h we are not in the 
Union, our State is respected and g-entlemeh in public 
office do me the favor in g-eneral to suppose that I am 
pretty well acquainted with the interest of my consti- 
tuents. I hope the representations I have made will be 
of use to our Western Friends, and I may safely venture 
to say that no man living- is more constantly anxious to 
secure the inhabitants of Davidson & the adjoining- Coun- 
ties than myself. 

Genl. Morg-an continues to try to pursuade People to 
remove themselves across the Mississippi and become 
Spanish Subjects on lands for which the}' can have no 
title, and in a place where in 24 hours they may be com- 
pelled to become Roman Catholics or leave the Country. 
Such a settlement if it should be made, may do you some 
g'ood, it can do you no Harm. If you have seen any 
News Papers you may have observed that Congress Havt 
established a Post on the Ohio, not with much hope as 
you must be assured, of collecting- many Duties on Goods 



CORRESPONDENCE OF GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 91 

brought up the Mississippi, but to part fair and let Spain 
see that the new Government is resolved to maintain its 
Claim to the Navigation of that River. This you see 
augurs well. Since the resolve I had the good fortune 
to obtain in Congress on the last Summer in favor of the 
Mississippi Claim, no Doubts have ever been hinted on 
that subject. As I hold a public office under the State, 
I could not offer myself to represent our County or Town 
in the Assembly, I shall nevertheless have an agent to 
attend some part of the time while the Assembly is sit- 
ting. Hope for the pleasure of seeing you there. I am, 
Dear Sir, Your most obedt. servt. 

I. H. Williamson. 
Colo. Robertson. 

P. S. Be so good as to present my respect to my 
Aunt Davidson. I would have written to her but have 
nothing to say that is interesting more than you can in- 
form her. Be pleased also to present my respects to your 
Brother, to Major Hays and to Mr. Robert lowing. Ask 
Mr. Ewing whether he has ever been able to cover any 
land under my Warrant of which I requested him to take 
the Charg*e. I shall be glad to hear that Mrs. Davidson 
is in a good way to provide for her Small Family. 
To Col. James Robertson. 



92 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



GENEALOGICAL NOTES, 



YARDLEY, OR YEARDLEY. 



Three emigrants of this old Engdish family settled in 
America at different dates, viz: 

1. Sir George Yardley, in Virginia, 1610. 

2. William Yardley, in Pennsylvania, 1682. 

3. Thomas Yardley, in Pennsylvania, 1704. 
Relatives of the family, not bearing - the name of 

Yardley, were also among- the early settlers. 

In 18S1 Mr. Thomas W. Yardley, of Chicago, 111., 
published a handsome volume of 257 pages, giving - the 
pedigree of the Yardley family of County Stafford, Eng - - 
land, up to the time of the emigration of Thomas Yardley, 
and thence following* the line of the Pennsylvania emi- 
grants to the present generation. 

From this work, which is a model for genealogical 
style and arrangement, we take the annexed chart, show- 
ing - the pedigree of the family in England, and also quote 
several extracts below. 

"The first record we have is that of 'William Yard- 
ley, L. M.,' a witness to the signing of the first Magma 
Charta given by John I. to England, dated June 15, 1215. 
'The great charter was executed in the presence of many 
of the clergy and nobles.' It is possible his ancestors 
first made their appearance in Eng'land as followers of 
William the Conqueror; but, from the time of this invasion 
to the year 1215, and from this date to 1400, we have 
not obtained any well-connected trace of the name. From 
1400 to 1682, when the emigrant William Yardley came 
to America, the records found are complete." 



GENEALOGICAL NOTES. 



93 



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94 AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

"In the 'Patronymica Britannica' we find the family 
is spoken of as an ancient one, with residence in Stafford- 
shire, England, and whose heads were called 'lords of 
Yardley.' Their coat of arms are 'ardent, on a chevron 
azure three g-arbs or, on a canton gfules, a fret or,' Crest, 
'a buck, courant, g*u. attired or.' " 

"In the absence of reliable information previous to 
the year 1400, we commence with the descendants of John 
Yardley, of County Stafford, England, who married a 
daugfhter of Marburry, of Dadesburry, and had one son." 

It will be seen from the annexed chart, * that William 
Yardley, of County Stafford, married Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of William and Alice Brererton Morton, County Ches- 
ter, and had five sons — William, Ralph, John, Georgfe, 
and Randell. Of these, the fourth son, Georg-e, was the 
Virginia emigrant, and the eldest son, William, was the 
ancestor of the two Pennsylvania emigrants. In another 
place, Mr. Yardley states that there were seven children, 
but does not give the names of the other two, and follows 
the line of the eldest son, William. 

William Yardley, the father, or his wife must have 
had a sister, who married a Yerwood. This is inferred 
from the fact that Richard Yerwood, the step-father of 
John Harvard, the founder of Harvard University, was 
first cousin to Sir Georg*e Yardley. fSee "Genesis of 
United States.") 

1. Sir George Yardeey, Virginia, 1610, was a 
captain in the British army, served with distinction in 
Holland; sailed for America June, 1009, was wrecked on 
the Bermuda Isles, landed at Jamestown, May, 1610, was 
a subscriber to the Virginia Company, and a member of 
the Council till 1616. Was acting" Governor from April. 
1616, to May, 1617. About that time married Temper- 
ance West. Sailed for England in 1618, and represented 
the cause of the colonists to the Virginia Company of 
London. Was elected by the Company as Governor of 

*See pag-e 93. 



GENEALOGICAL NOTES. 95 

Virginia, and was knig-hted by Kino- James I., 1618. En- 
tered on office as Governor of Virginia, April 19, 1619. 
In June, 1619, issued orders for the election of "Bur- 
g-esses" or delegates to the First Legislative Assembl}'-, 
known as "The House of Burgesses." Summoned this 
Assembly to meet at Jamestown, July 30, 1619. Served 
as Governor until Nov. 18, 1621. Continued as a mem- 
ber of the Council until April 19, 1626, the seventh anniver- 
sary of his first appointment, when he was appointed, for 
the second time, Governor ot Virginia. Died in office in 
November, 1627. His administration was popular, and 
he was beloved by the colonists. In a letter to the 
Privy Council announcing - his death, the colonists paid a 
tribute to his virtues.""" 

2. William Yardley, Pennsylvania, 1682. Was 
the grandson of William Yardley, the eldest brother of 
Sir George Yardley, the Virginia emigrant. He came 
to America with his wife, Jane, and his servant, Andrew 
Heath "in the good ship Friend's Adventure," and 
reached the Delaware River, July 20th, 1682, He settled 
in Bucks County, Pa., near the present town of Yardley, 
on a tract of live hundred acres of land, now called Pros- 
pect Farm, which was purchased from William Penn for 
i,~10. "He represented Bucks County in the first Colo- 
nial Assembly, and was afterwards an active member of 
the Provincial Council.'" 

3. Thomas Yardley, Pennsylvania, 1704. Was 
the nephew of William Yardley, the emigrant. It seems 
that an epidemic of smallpox had been fatal to William 
Yardley's family. "William Yardley, the emigrant, 
his wife, children, and grandchildren all being- dead, his 
property in America reverted to his heirs-at-law in Fng-- 
land, who were his brother Thomas and nephew Samuel. 
In 1704 we find Thomas, the younger son of Thomas, and 
brother of Samuel, in Philadelphia, Pa., with power of 

*Sir George Yardley's descendants will be given in a future issue. 



% THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

attorney from his father and brother for the sale of the 
property and settlement of the estate of William, the 
emigrant, deceased. Prospect Farm was sold to Joseph 
Janney for three hundred and fifty pounds, current money 
of Pennsylvania." 

About one month later, Thomas Yardley purchased 
the same farm from Joseph Janney for the same considera- 
tion. He married Ann, daughter of William Biles, of 
Pennsbury, Bucks County, Pa., and had ten children. 
The descendants of Thomas Yardley, have now become nu- 
merous, and are found in various States. A full account 
of them is given in the excellent work of Mr. Thomas W. 
Yardley. This book is valuable for the information it 
contains; and in point of st} T le and arrangement is a model 
for genealog-ical writing - . It is for sale by Sower, Potts 
& Co., 330 Market Street, Philadelphia. 



ENGLISH DOCUMENTS RELATING TO YARDLEY. 



[The following- extracts from English records were obtained through 
the researches of Miss Mary Winder Garrett, of Williamsburg, Vir- 
ginia, one of the descendants of Sir George Yardley.] 



COLONIAL PAPERS VOL. 4, DOCUMENT No 34. 



Right Hono hl " : 

Vppon soe greate an alteracon happening in this Col- 
ony as \ T e death of our Gournor, Sir George Yeardly, wee 
thought ye part of our humble dutye in our Service to his 
Ma tie b} r the first departure of these Shipps to certifie ye 
same vnto yor Lordpps, by whose imediate cares & extra- 
ordinary favours, wee and ye whole plantacon receave our 
supportation & subsistance, And therfore wee hope y* ye 
losse sustayned by his decease as being- a maine pillar of 
this our building & therby a weakenig to ye whole bod}~e 
will in good tyme be repaired, both in ye full settling of 
our affairs in many points vncertaine & ambiguous, and 
by a supply of Soldiours or some other meanes from his 



GENEALOGICAL NOTES. 97 

Ma ties Ro} T all hand mouecl and inclined toward vs by 
yor mediations & Counsells; Wee haue according- to our 
Instructions in his Ma ties Comission by ye maior part 
of ye Counsell elected, and chosen Capt: ffrancis West to 
succeed in ye place of ye deceased Gournor, uppon whom 
as ye burden and Charg-e therof will lye no easier then ye 
full waig-ht of soe eminent a place doth euery way require, 
soe ye present dificultyes & doubtfull occurrences of ye 
Colony increasing" dayly uppon vs, add a heavier presse 
vnto ye same; there neither remaineing- now any present 
meanes to ye perticuler place or any other as heretofore to 
inable him thervnto, neither can ye publique charges in 
ye tymes of warr, alwayes incident and necessary, be de- 
frayed wth out a greater supply releiveing- us, then our in- 
abilities and fortunes can beare: And therfore wee doe 
most humbh* desire a fauorable Construction from yor 
Ivordpps in } T e superintending - of our affaires, if any thing* 
appeare lesse, then others perhapps in their expecta- 
tions migflit foresee, 

[Remainder of letter concerns the Tobacco Contract.] 
And soe recomending- yor Lordpps to ye protection of ye 
Almig-htye, wee humbly take our leaues and rest, & re- 
maine 

yor Lordpps very humble 

Servants, 
Frans: West 

John Pott 
James Citty the 20th Roger Smyth 

of december 1627. Sam: Mathews 

WlLLM CLAYBOURNE 

William Tucker 

[Endorsed] 

To the Right hoi^ie the 
Lords of his Ma ties 
most hon ble -privie 
Coaucell. 

Decemb 1 ' 2o tJl 1627 

ffrom the Goner nor an 

Councell in \ r irginea. 
7 (Sic.) 



98 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

SIR GEORGE YARDLEY'S WILL. 
P C C Ridley ( ). 



In the name of God Amen. The Twelfe daie of Oc- 
tober One thousand Six hundred twenty-Seaven. I Sir 
George Yardley, &c, weake and sicke in body yet in per- 
fect minde and memory God bee praised, doe make this 
my last will and testament in manner and forme followinge. 
ffirst and principally I render and comend my soule into 
the hands of allmightie god my Creator and Redeemer 
hopeing assuredly throug'h the only merritts of Jesus 
Christ my Saviour to bee made ptaker of euerlasting life 
And I comend my body to the Earth whereof it was made 
and formed, in full hope and assurance of the resurrection 
of the Same at the last daie of Judgment And as con- 
cerninge my temporall estate wch the Lord of his great 
goodnes hath bestowed on me I giue devise and bequeath 
the Same in manner followinge And as touching my wife 
Temporance, I give and bequeath unto her all and euy 
pte & pcell of all such houshold stuffe plate linen wool- 
len or any other goods moueable or imouable of what 
nature or quality soeuer as to me are belonging and wch 
now at the tyme of the date hereof are beinge & remayne- 
ing" wthin this house in James Citt} r wherein I now dwell. 
Item as touching" and concerninge all the rest of my whole 
estate consisting of g'oods debts chatties Servants neg'ars 
Castle or any other thinge or things comoditye or profitts 
whatsoeuer to me belonging* and appteyning" either 
here in this Cuntry of Virginia in England or elsewhere 
togeather wth my plantacon of one thousand acres of 
land at Stanly in Warwicke River, ni} T will and desire is 
that the Same be all and euery pte and percell thereof sold 
to the best advantage for Tobacco and the Same to bee 
transported as soone as maie bee either this yeare or the 
next as mv Said wife Shale hnde occasion into England 
and there to bee Sold and turned into mony, the wch 



GENEALOGICAL NOTES. 99 

money togeather wth all such mony or moneyes as is or 
shalbe due unto me in England to be ioyned and put into 
one full and totall stocke or Some and the Same to be de- 
uided into three Equall parts or portions whereof one Equall 
parte thereof I giue and bequeathe unto my said wife, and 
one other Equall parte thereof unto my Eldest Son Argoll 
Yeardley and the other Equall parte thereof unto my 
Sonne Francis Yeardley and Elizabeth Yeardley to 
bee Equally deuided betwixt them both And if it Shall 
fortune the Said Argoll to die before he come to the age 
of one and twentie yeares then the Said Francis and Eliz- 
abeth to enioye his the Said Argolls part and portion 
Equally betweene them but if otherwise it shall please 
god either the Said Francis or Elizabeth to depart this 
life before the age of one and twenty yeares Then my 
Will is that the said Argoll shall SoleW Enjoye his or 
her part or porcon, And if in case it should Soe happen 
all of them to dye as aforesaid, Then my will is that my 
said wife shall have and Enjoye all their said parts & por- 
cons And my will is that my said sonne Argoll shall 
have & hold all such lands & deindents of lands (Except 
my plantacon before menconed) in any Sort or by any 
right or title to me belonging- or appertayneing either 
here in Virginia or elsewhere & to have & to hold the 
Same to him & his heires for evr And I will & my minde 
and desire further is that my said wife Shall have the 
Custody & Keeping- of the Said Arg-oll & Francis & of 
their porcons untill they bee of the age of one & twenty 
yeares or untill the tyme of her marriage, desiring- that 
great care maie be had for the g-ovrnance, educacon & 
bringing upp of the Said Children in the feare of god (of 
wch I make noe doubt) And if it shall soe happen that 
my Said wife shall marry after my decease then my will 
& intent is that She doe first finde sufficient security to be 
bound in the double value of the Said Childrens portions 
unto such as bee of my Kindred in England for the true 
payment of the Said porcons accordingly as they shalbe due 



100 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

And lastly I make & ordeyne my said wife full & sole 
Executrix of this my last will & Testament In witnes 
whereof I have hereunto sett my hand & Seale the daie & 
yeare first aboue written George YardlEy. 

SeaeE This will was read openly by the Said Said Sr 
George Yeardley whereunto he subscribed & sealed it & 
declared the Same to bee his last will & testament in }^e 
presence of us Abraham Peirsey Susanna Hall William 
Clayborne Scr. 

Bee it knowne that whereas I Sr George Yardley 
Knight have made my last will & testament in writing 
beareinge date the 12th daie of October &c. And by the 
Same have g'iven unto my Son ArgT>ll Yeardle}^ all such 
lands & deindents as are belonging- unto mee in this Col- 
ony of Virginia (excepting - my plantacon at Stanley) as 
by the Same do the further appeare. Now forasmuch as 
I have changed my minde touching - those lands & houses 
to me apperteyning & being - & situate within the Island 
of James Citty, my will now is that my wife Shall make 
sale of all the said lands & houses wth in the Island of 
James Citty to the best advantage & profitt & the Same 
to be added unto the whole some of my Estate as is in my 
said will devised And for & concerninge all other things 
in my said will menconed. I doe b} T this present Codicill 
continue & Ratine the Said AVill In witness whereof to 
this present Codicill I have subscribed my name the 29th 
of October 1027 George Yeardley signed in psence of 
me William Claybourne. 

14 Feb. 1028 [0] Commn granted to Ralph Yardley 
brother of deed to admr goods &c. according to effect 
of above will & codicil during' the minority of Flizth 
Arg'oll & Francis Yardley, children of the deed, on 
account of the death of Temperance Yardle} T , widow 
of the deed & Ex x named in the will; before She had 
taken upon herself the duties of execution Lts of 
Admon having alread}^ been granted to said Ralph Yard- 



GENEALOGICAL NOTES. 101 

ley in March""' 1627, on acct of the absence of S d Tem- 
perance, the widow, then dwelling - in Virginia. 



(P. C. C. Admon Act-Book. 1628-30) fol. 73(a) 
TEMPERANCE YARDLEY als WEST, 



Deed abroad. 14th February 1628,0, commission 
issued to Ralph Yardley, uncle of Elizabeth Yardley, 
Argall Yardley & Francis Yardley, natural & legiti- 
mate children of Dame Temperance Yardley als West, 
late of parts beyond the seas, widow, deed, to administer 
the goods of deed, during" minority of the aforesaid Eliz- 
abeth, Argall, & Francis Yardley. 

Inventory of deed & also of Sir Georg"e Yardley, her 
husband exhibited 28th Inst- 



Correspondeuts are now at work, preparing" for this 
mag"azine genealogical statistics of the Sevier, Robertson, 
Tipton, Polk, and Grundy families. Work of this char- 
acter has been so much neglected in the South, that the 
progress is necessarily slow. 

It is hoped to enlist the services of contributors who 
are competent and willing to undergo the labor of making 
researches to establish the pedigrees of other families who 
are part of the history of Tennessee, and of the South. 

What we want, is reliable information, a record and 
not a treatise. Personal incidents, public services, offi- 
cial positions may be stated briefly. Nothing should be 
stated as certain but that which rests on demonstration. 
Inferences or suppositions should be either discarded, or 
stated as doubtful. 

In this work we invite the co-operation of competent 
investigators and writers. We are rapidly losing the 

* [There must be some mistake, Sir George Yardley died November, 1627.1 



102 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

traces of the early settlers. Their families are becoming 
scattered, and are losing- sig"ht of the family tie. 

To honor the memory of our ancestors and to preserve 
the trace of family connections, is a duty which the pres- 
ent owes alike to the past and to the future. To in- 
scribe within the circle of family and friends, the names 
and lives of noble men and women, which history has not 
found room to record, is a duty of personal affection, more 
tender and sacred than the duty of the historian. 

In our young - country, our children cannot be ad- 
dressed with the inspiring- words of Napoleon to his sol- 
diers at the battle of the Pyramids: "Forty centuries 
are looking* down on you." Yet, they can be made to feel 
the sublimity of the sentiment, and their hearts and char- 
acters will be ennobled and strengthened by the conscious- 
ness of the honorable record of their ancestors and kindred. 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 10 



'j 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 



THE MAGAZINE OF AMERICAN HISTORY 



The Tennessee State Teachers' Association and the 
Public School Officers' Association, the two representa- 
tive educational bodies of Tennessee, passed resolutions, 
petitioning the General Assembly of Tennessee to estab- 
lish in some suitable institution, the Chair of American 
Histor} T . The two Associations appointed Committees 
to urge the matter upon the General Assembly. 

These Committees appeared before the Joint Com- 
mittee of Education of the last General Assembly which 
met in Nashville in January 1895. Whereupon, the Joint 
Committee appointed a sub-committee of which Represen- 
tative James H. Bate was chairman. This Committee 
submitted the following - report. 

REPORT OF SUB-COMMITTEE. 

As a suitable preface to the recommendation which your commit- 
tee present below, and which they earnestly urge the General Assem- 
bly to adopt, it may not be out of place to refer to the great store of 
historical wealth which lies hidden in tradition, in scattered records, 
in unpublished manuscripts, and in the memories of a few old pioneers 
who still linger here and there in the beautiful valleys and majestic 
mountains of Tennessee. It may' be truly said that her sons have been 
grand factors in making the history of this country, but have been too 
modest to record their own heroism. 

We, their posterity 7 , owe it to the memory of our heroic ancestors, 
to rescue their memories from oblivion. Many of her sons who entered 
upon the national arena, have performed deeds which will live forever 
upon the pages of general history r ; those who have devoted their lives 
and talents to the service of the State deserve from their own people 
the preservation of their great deeds. 

Besides, the State is interested in preserving the proud history of 
the achievement of its masses. The people make the State. Shall 
such events as the Indian wars and King's Mountain be longer ig- 
nored? Shall we sit idly by r and see our children grow up without 
ever knowing the great part taken by their ancestors in the Floridian 
and Mexican wars? Shall they have no instruction in the events and 
causes which moulded the character and developed the institutions of 
Tennessee? 



104 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



Our children should know more than what may be gleaned from 
the meagre accounts of the school histories about the heroism of the 
"Rear Guard of the Revolution," which, under Sevier and Shelby, 
foug-ht at King's Mountain one of the decisive battles of the world, re- 
sulting in the subsequent capture of Cornwallis at Yorktown. They 
should know that John Sevier fought thirty-five battles and was thirty- 
five times a conqueror; they' should know about Andrew Jackson's 
struggles as a boy, about his noble and patriotic mother, and how she 
moulded his character to the highest style of citizenship and heriosm. 
They should learn how he secured for the United States, Alabama, 
Mississippi and Florida, and defeated the veterans of Wellington at 
New Orleans, and placed on the page of history the most successful 
administration of the United States. 

They should be familiar with the names and deeds of Houston. 
Coffee, Armstrong, Carroll, Trousdale, Pillow, Polk, Jones, Felix 
Grundy, John Bell and our long list of heroes and statesmen. 
Thucydides wrote of Pericles, otherwise the matchless oratory of that 
princely Athenian would not now survive to charm our age and 
time. Yet who shall perform a like office for our orators and statesmen? 

Take away from the map of the United States all that territory 
acquired by Tennesseans, Jackson, Polk and Johnson, and the re- 
mainder will be "a pent up Utica." Boone's movement to settle Ken- 
tucky originated with the settlers of Wautauga, and the purchase of 
the Transylvania Company was made of the Cherokees upon Tennes- 
see soil. 

In Athens, it is said, there was a law making" it obligatory upon 
the States to set up in the public groves and along the highways, 
statues of her eminent men. The youths of Athens looked to these as an 
incentive to stimulate them to emulate the actions of her great men. 
This was an impressive way to teach history, and as a result. Athens 
became illustrious. 

Tennessee should profit by this example. Our schools do much 
teaching- by precept. Let us do some teaching by example; let us, be- 
fore it is too late, gather the jewels of our history and put them in our 
own setting. Let us make the precious casket which contains them an 
object lesson for our children. 

There are three thing-s necessary to the greatness and glory of a 
State. These are: First, to make history; second, to write history, 
third, to teach history'. Our ancestors have made history; our people 
are still making history. Let us write it and teach it: let us use it as 
an object lesson to elevate and ennoble our children. 

The State is spending over ^2,000,000 for education in the public 
schools. Is it not wise to spend a small amount to give that education 
a direction which will be useful and valuable to the State? The thing 
now most needed in our educational system is to give more attention 
and judicious direction to the study r of American history, and especially 
to the study of Tennessee history. 

In their recent visit to the Peabody Normal College, your com- 
mittee was strongly impressed when they saw before them more than 
five hundred intelligent young men and women, of whom over ninety 
per cent, are Tennesseans, preparing themselves to enter upon the 
work of teaching-. They will go into every part of the South to engage 
in this noble work. If each of these shall secure a school of fifty- 
pupils, their work will reach annually 25,000 children, and will be 
widely distributed over the entire South, and especially, will reach 
every portion of Tennessee. No means can be found which will more 
rapidly and effectively reach the coming generation. 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 105 

Examining- into the financial management, 3 r our committee was 
struck with the economical and wise administration, and were espe- 
cially pleased to note that Chancellor Payne, although pressed for 
money, and with an annual deficit of 32,000 pending, had decided, on 
account of the stringency of the times, not to ask for an additional 
appropriation. 

Chancellor Payne makes the following summary of the situation: 

1. With the continued growth of the college, and the correspond- 
ing increase of expenditures, there will be an annual deficit of $2,000. 

2. If the present appropriation of $15,000 be continued, and an ad- 
ditional appropriation of $5,000 per annum be given, I could establish 
the Chair of American History at $3,000 and meet the deficit that is ac- 
cruing at present rate of expenses. 

3. If 310,000 additional per annum is allowed, we could have what 
is embraced in proposition 2, and add two or three additional teachers 
to the faculty, and increase the salaries of three or four of our teach- 
ers, who are teaching for comparatively small salaries, and who have 
been offered largely increased salaries elsewhere, and whom we 
will lose sooner or later, if we do not add something to their present 
salaries. 

In the opinion of the committee there is an opportunity to carry 
out a plan which has long been urged and cherished by many of the 
best men in Tennessee, viz: To place the teaching of the history of 
Tennessee upon a judicious and sure foundation. 

Your committee therefore recommend and urge, 

1. That the usual appropriation of $15,000 per annum be given to 
the Peabody Normal College. 

2. That an additional appropriation of $5,000 per annum be appro- 
priated to the Peabody Normal Colleg-e, which shall be used as follows: 
$2,000 for the general expenses of the colleg-e, and $3,000 for the support 
of the Chair of American Histoiw, to be applied to the salar}- of the oc- 
cupant of the chair and to the expenses of original investigation, the 
accumulation and care of historical material, and the purchase of man- 
uscripts and books; said chair to be devoted to the history^of the United 
States, and of the American continent, and to give especial attention 
to the history of Tennessee. Bate, 

Chairman, Sub-Committee. 

This report was unanimously approved by the Joint 
Committee, and was reported to the General Assembly 
and adopted b} T both Houses. 

The recommendations of the Committee were carried 
into effect by inserting" in the general appropriation act, 
a clause granting* to the Peabody Normal College an ad- 
ditional appropriation for the purpose of establishing - and 
maintaining* the Chair of American History. 

This chair was organized June, 1895, to be devoted 
to the following* objects: 

I. To the instruction of students in the History of 
Tennessee, in the History of the United States, and in 
the General History of American Nations. 



106 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

2. To collecting- and preserving historical records, 
and material for history. 

3. To pursuing- original historical investigations. 

4. To historical publication. 

THE OBJECTS OE THE MAGAZINE. 
This magazine will serve as the medium for dissemi- 
nating- the information obtained throug-h the researches 
which have been instituted by the Chair of American 
History, and which will be directed to reviving- neglected 
facts of history, to correcting- misrepresentations of his- 
torical writers, and to presenting- historical facts hitherto 
unpublished. While the work of this chair will extend 
to the entire field of United States History, and to the 
history of the various nations of America, especial atten- 
tion will be devoted to the rich mine of Tennessee history. 
In this field the co-operation of the Tennessee Historical 
Society, and valuable documents in the library of the Col- 
lege will enable the Mag-azine to offer to its readers 
much valuable and interesting- information never be/ore 
published. 

THE ROBERTSON PAPERS. 

A collection of the letters and papers of Gen. James 
Robertson, the Father of Middle Tennessee, bound in 
manuscript and filling- two larg-e volumes, is among- the 
treasures of the Colleg-e library. These letters contain 
much valuable historical information, and very few of 
them have been published. 

GENEALOGY. 

Special attention will be devoted to the gfenealog-y 
of the men and women who have contributed to the de- 
velopment of Tennessee and other states of the Union. 

SOUTHERN LITERATURE. 

The pag-es of the mag-azine will be enlivened by 
g-ems of literature which have heretofore lain dormant in 
manuscript, or have received only local circulation. 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 107 

OUR CONTRIBUTORS. 

Among" those who have engaged to contribute arti- 
cles to the magazine are many of the ablest and best- 
known writers of the South. 

THE TENNESSEE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

This Society during its many years of existence has 
accumulated a vast amount of historical material, which 
lies unpublished and unnoted in its archives. 

The following - letter from Hon. John M. Lea, Presi- 
dent of the Tennessee Historical Society, shows the feel- 
ing - with which the publication of this magazine is re- 
garded by those interested in the development of histori- 
cal study in the South. 

Nashville, Tenn., Sept. 9, 1895. 
To the Editor of the American Historical Magazine. 

Dear Sir: The establishment of a Professorship of American His-. 
tory in the Peabody Normal College, shows that a step has been taken 
towards the development of a real university, not to be disparaged 
hereafter in comparison with Eastern or European institutions of a 
similar character. Chancellor Payne leads the advance-guard of edu- 
cation in the South. I am particularly pleased that investigation and 
publication of historical facts form a part of the plan of instruction. 
There are many interesting manuscripts in the archives of the Ten- 
nessee Historical Society which have never been published for want of 
means — our Society, } r ou know, being a private association supported 
by a few members. Your magazine will enable the Society to have an 
avenue for the publication of these manuscripts, of which, be assured, 
we shall gladly, and with thanks, avail ourselves. We consider the 
magazine as a help — a great help to us. and we hope quarterly to get 
the attention of the people through its columns. 

Jchn M. Lea, 
President Tennessee Historical Society. 



THE LETTER OF ROBERTSON TO McGIL- 

LIVRAY. 



Gen. Robertson has been blamed for his corre- 
spondence with McGillivray and Miro, and especially for 
his letter to McGillivray written August 3rd, 1788, and 
found on pag'e 81. It is known that he wrote one or 



? See pag-e 81. 



108 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

more letters to Miro, but no copies of them can be found. 
We can only infer their tenor from Miro's letters. 

McGillivray was a half-breed Indian, Chief of the 
Creek Nation, and known to be in the pay of the Spaniards. 
He was a man of education, and ability, with remark- 
able power of combination. He was thoroughly unscrupu- 
lous and crafty. A few years before the date of this 
letter, he had addressed a communication to Col. O'Reilly 
the Spanish Commander at Pensacola, which was ap- 
proved by the Spanish authorities, and made the outline 
of their policy. Soon afterwards, Don Kstevan Miro, at 
that time Govenor ad interim of Louisiana had assembled 
the Southern Indians in Council, and had united them in 
the service of Spain, under the leadership of McGillivray. 

The Spaniards then pursued the policy of inciting 
the Indians secretly to hostilities against the Cumber- 
land settlements. Under the skillful direction of McGil- 
livray, the attacks of the Indians were insidious and dis- 
astrous. It was impossible for the Cumberland settle- 
ment to prosper in face of these continued attacks. Their 
very existence was at stake. They could not destroy 
either McGillivray or the Spaniards. The}' turned for 
assistance to North Carolina and to Congress, in vain. 
Conciliation was the only hope. 

Gen. Robertson began with McGillivray. His let- 
ter of August 3rd, 1788, was evidently intended to be 
conveyed to the Spanish authorities, and bears the ap- 
pearance of opening- the door to negotiations with Spain. 
No one has ever accused Gen. Robertson of seeking a 
negotiation for private g*ain. He was acting for his peo- 
ple and not for himself. The reader is referred to the 
histories of Ramsey and Putnam and to Roosevelt's "Win- 
ning - of the West," where this matter is fullv discussed 
and the circumstances connected with it g'iven in detail. 
It was simply a diplomatic ruse to parley with the enemy 
and g-ain time for defence. It contains no currupt offer. 
It proposes conciliation and holds out the inducement 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 109 

that the Western settlers might enter into neg-otiations 
independently of the Congress of the Confederation, from 
whom they had heretofore received no assistance. In 
this they were fully justified by circumstances, and b}^ 
the necessity of self-protection. 



THE DATE OF MIRO'S LETTER. 



The date of Gov. Miro's letter to Gen. Robertson is 
a matter of some interest. The date of 1783 would con- 
nect it with one train of historical events, and the date, 
1789, would connect it with a train of very different sig- 
nificance. 

Mr. A. W. Putnam, who was a grandson of Gen. 
Israel Putnam of Revolutionary fame, and who was the 
President of the Tennessee Historical Society, and the 
author of the "Histor}^ of Middle Tennessee," published 
in 1859, alludes to this letter in his histor}^, under the 
date "1783." Previous to the publication of his work, 
he wrote in 1850, an introduction or preface on the fly 
leaves of the first volume of the Robertson Correspond- 
ence, in which he states this date to be 1783, and endeav- 
ors to connect the letter with certain proceeding's of the 
Cumberland Committee of that date. [See pag'e 73.] 

Mr. Theodore Roosevelt, in his great work, the 
"Winning of the West," adopts the same view, and al- 
ludes to this letter, g-iving the date as "April 20, 1783." 

On the other hand, Mr. Nathaniel Cross, in arrang- 
ing the manuscripts, placed them, as he states, in chro- 
nological order, and he has collated this letter among- the 
letters of 1789. Mr. Cross, or some one else, took the 
additional precaution to endorse on this letter "1789." 
At a later period, Mr. Putnam made an endorsement on 
the letter, stating that it was written in 1783, and refer- 
ring to his preface on the fly leaf. 

*See page 87. 



110 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

A careful examination leads to the conclusion that 
the two eminent historians, usually so accurate, are in 
this case, mistaken, and Mr. Cross is right. 

1st. An examination of the manuscript itself shows 
that it is written in the English language, but not in an 
E)nglish handwriting-. It is in a good state of preserva- 
tion. The ink retains its color, and the writing- is as leg- 
ible as on the day it was written. The letters and fig- 
ures are distinct, but peculiarly shaped. "New Orleans, 
20th April" is plain. Of the figures denoting the year, 
1, 7, 8 are unmistakable. The last figure is peculiarly 
shaped, and might pass for either 3 or 9, but it more 
nearly resembles 9. In the body of the letter the same 
character is used ag-ain, where it is plainly Januar} T 29, 
and not January 23. In the second use of this character, 
we have Mr. Putnam's authority for pronouncing it to be 
< ). He says History of Middle Tennessee, page 205, Rob- 
ertson wrote to Miro, "under date of January 2g. He 
thus construes the character used in the bod} T of Miro's 
letter to be 9 and not 3, thus making January 29, and not 
January 23. 

2nd. The historical facts connected with the letter 
prove that it was written in 1789. 

Miro was not Governor of Louisiana in 1783. Galvez 
was Governor at that time. Miro was Governor ad in- 
terim during that year, 1783, but did not become Govern- 
or until a later period. In this letter, Miro states that 
he had written to McGillivray "at different times'" to in- 
duce him to make peace, which would seem to indicate 
that he had himself been in office for some length of time. 
Mr. Roosevelt makes this expression the basis for accus- 
ing Miro of treachery, and adduces letters from Miro in 
178b, showing- that he had incited McGillivray to hostili- 
ties. This charg-e would hold if the letter to Robertson 
had been written in 1783, but would not apply to a letter 
written in 178 ( ). 

Again: In this letter, Miro invites Robertson and his 



EDITORIAL NOTES. Ill 

family to settle in Louisiana, and offers freedom from 
molestation on account of religion, a market free from 
duty, and lands "gratis" This accords with the policy 
adopted- by Miro's administration in 1788, and actively 
urged in 1789, but it does not accord with the Spanish 
policy of 1783. 

Still again: Miro says in this same letter, "after the 
letter I received from you, and Brig-adier g-eneral Daniel 
Smith, Esqr., I will write to him again, " (McGillivray). 
Here we have again Putnam's testimony. He says, His- 
tory of Middle Tennessee, page 323, under Chapter XIX., 
which is headed "1789," alluding- to a correspondence 
between Gen. Robertson, Miro, and other Spanish officers: 
"At this time we find Gen. Daniel Smith connected with 
Gen. Robertson in conducting- the correspondence." 
There is no evidence that Gen. Smith was connected with 
Robertson in conducting correspondence in 1783, but there 
is evidence in addition to the testimony of Putnam, that 
he was so connected in 1789. Miro's allusion to Gen. 
Smith would seem to indicate that his letter was written 
in 1789. So much for the evidence on the face of the let- 
ter itself. 

Confidential letters written by Miro about the same 
time to other persons seem to place the date of this letter 
beyond doubt. He writes to Gen. Wilkinson, April 23, 
1789, as follows: 

"I have just received two letters, one from Brigadier 
General Daniel Smith, dated on the 4th. of March, and 
the other from Colonel James Robertson, with date of the 
11th. of January, both written from the district of Miro. 
The bearer, Fagot, the confidential agent of General 
Smith, informed me," etc. * * * "" "I have replied 
to both in general terms, referring them to my answer to 
White, who carries my letters to these g-entlemen." 

This letter is dated April 23, just three days after 
the date of the letter to Robertson. He gives the date 
•of the letter from Robertson as Jan'v 11, whereas in 



112 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

acknowledging* to Robertson the receipt of his letter, he 
gives the date as Jan'y 29, a discrepancy which might 
easily arise in writing- from memory. The terms of this 
letter to Wilkinson in connection with the letter in ques- 
tion to Robertson, show that the letter to Robertson was 
written in answer to a letter from Robertson in January. 
1789, and in connection with Gen. Daniel Smith, and 
that Doct. White was connected with the delivery and 
also "Fog*at" or Hog-g-att. Such a letter could not have 
been written in 1783, or at any time previous to 1789. 

But Miro wrote to Spain, April 30, 1789, and alludes 
to information received from McGillivray of propositions 
from Kentucky, Frankland, and Cumberland, and states 
that he had returned conciliatory replies, but had refrain- 
ed from committing' the Spanish Government until the 
pleasure of the King" should be known. All this coincides 
with the tenor of the letter to Robertson. The whole 
correspondence forms a chain. The date of Robertson's 
first letter to McGillivray is August 23, 1788. His sec- 
ond letter to McGillivray was provoked by a sudden in- 
cursion of the Indians. The date is illegible. McGilli- 
vray waits to correspond with Miro, and replies Dec. 1. 
1788. It does not appear when Robertson received McGil- 
livray's letter. Communications were very precarious 
and slow. He found the opportunity in January, 1789, to 
write to Miro by Hoggatt, and dated his letter either the 
29th or the 11th— most probably the 29th. It was not 
immediately conveyed. Hog'g'att, also carried a letter 
from Gen. Daniel Smith, dated March 4. To this Mire 
replied April 20, 1789, his letter being- the sequel to the 
diplomatic correspondence with McGillivray. The ex- 
pressions of Robertson to McGillivray were conveyed, as 
he expected, to Miro, and produced the expected result, 
the cessation of Indian invasions, and the change of Span- 
ish policy from hostility to conciliation. This wise diplo- 
macy saved the Cumberland settlements from invasion. 
and perhaps from destruction. 



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MAGAZINE. 




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Single Number, 85 Cts. 



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American Historical Magazine. 



Vol. I. APRIL, 1896. No. 2. 

thf "MEro district." 

BY JOHN ALLISON. 



In November, 1784, the General Assembly of North 
Carolina, at Newbern, divided the district of Morg-an, 
which had heretofore included all of North Carolina 
"west of the mountains," and by the same act, Washing- 
ton, Sullivan, Greene and Davidson Counties were erected 
into a "Superior Court of Law and Equity" district, by 
the name of "Washington." 

From 1784 to 1788, all of the territory and settle- 
ments west of the Cumberland Mountains, were included 
in Davidson and Sumner Counties — then the only organ- 
ized counties in what is now Middle and West Tennessee. 

The population of Davidson County had so increased 
and extended westward from Nashville, by the fall of 
1788, that the General Assembly of North Carolina, at 
Fayetteville, in November of this year, (1788) divided 
Davidson County by a line "beginning on the Virginia 
line, (now Kentucky) thence south along Sumner County 
to the dividing ridge between Cumberland River and Red 
River, thence westwardly along said ridge to the head of 
the main south branch of Sycamore Creek, thence down 
the said branch to the mouth thereof, thence due south 
across Cumberland River to Davidson County line;" all 



116 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

that part of Davidson County west of this line was erected 
into a new county, which was named Tennessee. Ten- 
nessee County, therefore, included all the territory now 
within the limits of Montgomery, Robertson, Dickson, 
Houston and Stewart, and parts of Hickman, Humphreys 
and Cheatham. The county seat of Tennessee was fixed 
at Clarksville. 

By another act passed by the General Assembly of 
North Carolina, at Payetteville, in November, 1788, the 
counties of Davidson, Sumner and Tennessee were created 
into a new district for the holding - of "superior courts of 
law and equity" therein. When this act forming" the 
new district, west of the Cumberland Mountains, was on 
its third and final reading", the Speaker called on the 
author of the bill for the name with which the blank left 
for that purpose was to be filled. 

James Robertson and Robert Hays were the members 
from Davidson and one or the other of them was, there- 
fore, the author of the bill providing" for the new district. 

It is said that Col. James Robertson, in answer to 
the Speaker's call for the name of the new district, arose 
and suggested "Mero." 

Col. Robertson evidently g"ave the name as it is pro- 
nounced, without spelling" it (if he knew how) for the 
clerk, and the clerk wrote it M-e-r-o instead of "M-i-r-o," 
as it should have been. The name is pronounced as if 
spelled "M-e-r-o," thoug"h spelled correctly "M-i-r-o." 

The name as suggested, either by Col. Robertson or 
Capt. Robert Hays, was adopted without open objection, 
some of the leading" spirits in the Assembly probabh T hav- 
ing" been made acquainted with the motives that dictated 
this name, while others without any knowledg-e, opinion 
or preference, simply followed the leaders in accepting" it. 

There were, however some members who knew some 
thing's, but not ever} r thing\ in connection with this name, 
and on reflection, after the name had been adopted, they 
took offense at it, and it was discussed, not in the Gen- 



THE "mero district." 117 

eral Assembly, but at the taverus and boarding- houses 
with spirit and much feeling - . They said it was strange 
and unexampled, that the name of an officer of a foreign 
g-overnment, who was not and never had been in our ser- 
vice, should be g-iven to a political section of our country 
and perpetuated upon our public records. They wished 
to know what this meant. 

They knew, they said, that Don Kstevan Miro was a 
Colonel in the Spanish army, that he was also, as they 
said, "Governor of Orleans," and they had also heard 
that he was a very kind-hearted, benevolent, agreeable gen- 
tleman, but so were hundreds of other foreigners, not to 
mention the names of many distinguished, loyal citizens 
of the United States who had not been honored with 
any such mark of peculiar esteem. 

Why, said they, select a Spaniard already very dis- 
tinguished, at the very time when that nation unjustly 
withholds from us the free navig-ation of the Mississippi 
River, and when this very Don Kstevan Miro was the in- 
strument chosen by the Spanish King- and court to guard 
the waters and mouth of the Mississippi and exclude us 
from its use? And this is not all. Why, said they, 
should a Spanish official be so honored during- the very 
same year when Spain demanded, and was then demand- 
ing- of the Congress, that the United States should re- 
linquish the navigation of the Mississippi for a period of 
at least twenty-five years, a measure which, if acceded to, 
would completely break up aud ruin all of the settlements 
in Kentucky and on Cumberland. And still more, this 
mark of respect and consideration was shown a Spanish 
soldier and Governor at a time when the flat-bottom boat- 
men from the upper Mississippi, Ohio and Cumberland, 
on daring- to float down the Mississippi to Natchez or New 
Orleans with their tobacco and other products, were sub- 
jected by the Spanish to the most outrag-eous fines and 
extortions in the way of duties imposed for the use of a 
great river, and also to seizures and sometimes to im- 



118 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

prisonment; and last, but not least, said they, this very 
Don Estevan Miro is at this very time negotiating* and 
intriguing with certain persons in Kentucky and Cum- 
berland with a view of coming" to terms upon which Ken- 
tucky and Cumberland country would become a part of 
and submit to the government of Spain. 

These various phases of the subject and the situation 
of affairs at that particular time, gave to the tavern- 
talkers a wide field for speculation and conjecture, as 
well as alarm. 

The truth is that the correspondence and communi- 
cations alleg'ed to have passed between Gov. Miro and 
certain citizens of Kentucky and Cumberland country 
about this time would read rather curiously if offered in 
court to vindicate the Kentucky and Cumberland citizens 
from a charg-e of dislo}-alty to the United States. 

It is suggested, and this is probably the correct view, 
that the purpose of these persons in the main, in Ken- 
tuck} 7 and Cumberland, who were in correspondence with 
Gov. Miro, was, in view of their unanswered appeals to 
Congress for help and protection, "if the Federal Union 
cannot give aid and protection to us in life, liberty and 
property, and also secure to us the free and peaceable 
rig-ht to navig-ate the Mississippi River with our products, 
why, then Spain, having promised all this, we will unite 
our fortunes with the Spanish." They knew that who- 
ever could keep the Indians at peace with them, and at 
the same time control New Orleans and the navigation of 
the Mississippi, was the absolute arbiter of their destiny, 
inasmuch as without the right to use the Mississippi 
there was no market they could reach with their products. 

On August 26, 1779, Galvez, then Governor, civil 
and military and intendant of Louisiana, appointed as 
third in command (in the campaign which he was about 
to undertake ag'ainst the British) Don Estevan Miro, 
with the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. Congress observed 
with satisfaction the rupture between Great Brit- 



THE "MERO DISTRICT." 119 

ain and Spain, and in the fall of 1779 sent a Minister to 
the Spanish court with instructions to negotiate a treaty 
of alliance, and particularly to insist on the free naviga- 
tion of the Mississippi River. To this the court of Spain 
responded: "We are disposed to acknowledg-e the in- 
dependence of the United States, and to enter into a 
treaty of alliance and commerce with you, but if you wish 
us to consent to your admission into the great family of 
nations you must subscribe to the right of Spain to the 
exclusive navigation of the Mississippi, and consent to 
our taking possession of both the Floridas and of all the 
territory extending from the left bank of that river to the 
back settlements of the former British provinces, accord- 
ing to the proclamation of 1763. " In this position, strange 
as it may seem, Spain was supported by France, and up 
to 178S, and, indeed, on up to October 27, 1795, Spain did 
control the Mississippi. On this latter date, Octo- 
ber 27, 1795, and about six months before Tennessee was 
admitted into the Union, after long and tedious negotia- 
tions, a treaty was formed between the United States and 
Spain, a part of the Fourth Article of which reads as 
follows: "And his Catholic Majesty has likewise agreed 
that the navigation of the said river Mississippi, in its 
whole breadth from the Source to the Ocean, shallbe free 
to only his subjects and the citizens of the United States, 
unless he shall extend this privilege to the subjects of 
other powers by special Convention." 

The Spaniards, constantly haunted by the fear of 
their restless neighbors in Kentucky and Cumberland 
country, spared no means to conciliate the Indians. The 
chief military officer of the Spanish in 1786, in writing - 
to the Spanish government of Alexander McGillivray, 
said: "So long as we shall hold this chief on our side we 
will have a barrier between the Floridas and Georgia. 
The Indians are convinced of the ambition of the Ameri- 
cans; past injuries still dwell in their minds, with the 
fear that these greedy neighbors may one day seize upon 



120 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

their lands. It ought to be one of the chief policies of 
this government to keep this sentiment alive in the breasts 
of the Indians." Alexander McGillivray was a noted 
Tory during the Revolution and had taken refuge amongst 
the Creek Nation. He was a man of great courage and 
intelligence, inveterate hostility to the whites, and pos- 
sessed of an insatiable ambition for personal promotion, 
was in the Spanish pay as a Colonel, as agent of that 
government amongst the Indians, had usurped regal 
authority, and was the Chief also of the Talapouches. 
It is said that he cherished the hope of having his nation 
admitted into the federal compact, although he was in 
Spain's pay, with the rank of Colonel, afterward pro- 
moted to Commissary General. 

This dangerous man was under the absolute control of 
Gov. Miro in 1788, when Robertson named the Superior 
Court District after Miro. 

Miro having control of the Mississippi River and at 
the same time almost absolute command over the Indians 
(in the South) furnishes, it is believed, the explanation of 
the motives that prompted Robertson and Hays in giving 
the new court district the name of Miro. 

In 1788 Miro was made Governor — civil and military 
— and intendant of Louisiana and West Florida. 

In this year Alexander McGillivray wrote Miro that 
two delegates from the district of Cumberland had just 
visited him, with proposals of peace; "that they were in 
extremities by the incursion of his (McGillivray's) war- 
riors, and would submit to whatever conditions he might 
impose; and presuming that it would please him, the\ T 
added, that they would throw themselves in the arms of His 
Majesty as subjects, and that Kentucky and Cumberland 
are determined to free themselves from Congress; that 
they no longer owe obedience to a power which is in- 
capable of protecting them. They desired to know m} 7 
sentiments on the propositions, but as it embraces im- 



the "mero district." 121 

portant political questions, I thought proper not to divulge 
my views." 

Miro, commenting on this letter says: "I consider as 
extremely interesting the intelligence conveyed to Mc- 
Gillivray by the deputies on the fermentation existing in 
Kentucky, with regard to a separation from the Union. 
Concerning the proposition made to McGillivray by the 
inhabitants of Cumberland to become the vassals of His 
Majest}- I have abstained from returning any precise 
answer." 

In April, 1789, in writing to Brig. -Gen. Wilkinson, 
of Kentucky, who was his confederate in the undertaking 
to separate Kentucky, Miro says: "I have just received 
two letters, one from Brig. -Gen. Daniel Smith, dated on 
the 4th of March, and the other from Col. James Rob- 
ertson, with date of the 11th of January, both written 
from the district of Miro. The bearer, Fagot, a con- 
fidential agent of Gen. Smith, informed me that the in- 
habitants of Cumberland, or Miro, would ask North 
Carolina for an act oi separation the following fall, and 
that as soon as this should be obtained other delegates 
would be sent from Cumberland to New Orleans, with 
the object of placing that territory under the domination 
of His Majesty. I replied to both in general terms." 
On the next day after writing this letter, Gov. Miro wrote 
to Gen. Daniel Smith and Col. James Robertson, saying 
among other things, "The giving of my name to your dis- 
trict has caused me much satisfaction and I feel myself 
highly honored by the compliment. It increases my desire 
to contribute to the development of the resources of that 
province and the prosperity of its inhabitants. I am ex- 
tremely flattered at your proposition to enter into corre- 
spondence with me, and I hope that it will afford me the 
opportunity of being agreeable to you." These letters, 
messages, and communications, passing between Gov. 
Miro and leading citizens of Miro District are more simple, 
and straightforward than diplomatic. The reader, how- 



122 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

ever, of this part of our history, must keep in mind the 
precarious condition of the citizens of the Miro District at 
this period; a vast wilderness of more than two hundred 
miles behind them, savage Indians on both sides and the 
Spanish in front of them; with their State Government, 
and Congress both so weak, as that neither was able to 
extend them the slightest aid or protection; thus situated, 
thev very naturally turned in the direction that not only 
had the power, but gave promise of protection and aid. 
Miro in acknowledging the compliment of giving his name 
to the New Court District says: "It increases my desire 
to contribute to the development of the resources of that 
province and the prosperity of its inhabitants/ 1 In the 
year 1790, the Spanish Court, contrary to the advice of 
Gov. Miro, made a formal order levying a tax, or duty, 
of fifteen per cent, on all produce of freight, that was 
taken down the Mississippi River. This order so shocked 
and inflamed the people of Kentucky, and Miro District, 
that it had the effect, (^feared b}^ Miro), of practically 
breaking off, and forever endingf further negotiations 
between the citizens of Miro District and Gov. Miro, on 
the subject of Cumberland Country becoming- a Spanish 
province. 

Judge Martin, in his history of Louisiana, says there 
were five parties in the Western country. One in favor 
of the formation of a new republic unconnected with the 
United States and a close alliance with Spain; another 
wished the western part of the United States to become 
a part of the province of Louisiana and to submit to the 
laws of Spain; a third desired war with Spain and an 
open invasion of Louisiana, the seizure of the Mississippi 
and New Orleans; a fourth was b} T a show of war, to 
prevail on Congress to extort from Spain the right to the 
free navig-ation of the Mississippi; the fifth, as unnatural 
as the second, was to solicit France to procure a retro- 
cession of Louisiana and extend her protection to Ken- 
tucky and Cumberland, or Miro District. The adminis- 



THE "MERO DISTRICT." 123 

-fcration of Miro in Louisiana terminated with the year 
1791. In a letter written the previous year, to the Span- 
ish Court for permission to return to Spain, he says: "I 
have now had the honor of serving- the King - , always 
with distinguished zeal, for thirty years and three months, 
of which twenty-one years and eight months in America, 
until the state of my health requires my return to 
Europe." He returned to Spain where he continued his 
militar} T career, being" promoted from the rank of Briga- 
dier to that of Lieutenant-General. 

"He carried with him," said Judge Martin, "the 
good wishes and regrets of the colonies." 

Miro's character was that of a kind-hearted, benevo- 
lent, upright gentleman. 

Leprosy prevailed in Louisiana, and one of Miro's 
first acts on being promoted to the g-overnorship was to 
erect a hospital for these unfortunates, on a ridge lying 
between the Mississippi River and Ba} T ou St. John, 
which was called "Lepers' Land." Instances were re- 
lated of Miro in which he would intercede with a creditor 
to g'ive further time to a debtor, and on failing to obtain 
the indulgence for an honest debtor he would satisfy the 
debt out of his individual funds. 

In April, 1786, the King of Spain issued a royal 
order, approving the course and conduct of Miro, who the 
preceding year had granted the former British subjects 
in Baton Rouge and Natchez (which had been conquered 
by the Spanish) ample time to sell their property, collect 
their debts and remove their persons and effects. 

He left his name on Tennessee and her judicial re- 
cords and reports, where it remained until November 4th, 
1809, when, by act of the General Assembly, the state 
was divided into five judicial circuits, numbers b} 7 this act 
being - substituted for names. 

Miro District, in addition to Davidson, Sumner and 
Tennessee, included at one time the counties of Smith, 
Wilson and Williamson. When the territorv south of 



124 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

the Ohio River was admitted into the Union as the State 
of Tennessee, the county of Tennessee at the first session 
of the General Assembly, and on April 9th, 1796, was 
divided into Montgomery and Robertson Counties, and 
thus, "Miro District" and "Tennessee" County, appear- 
ed on, and then disappeared from the face of the map and 
the public records of the State of Tennessee. 

The Superior Courts of Iyaw and Kquity for the Miro 
District, were held in Nashville. An act of the first ses- 
sion, of the first General Assembly of Tennessee passed 
April 22nd, 1796, recites that the Court House, or the 
"office of the Clerk and Master, of the district of Miro, 
was lately destroyed by fire, and the books, records, and 
papers thereof lost," etc., and then provides for setting- 
up the records. 

While the Capitol and State Treasury were located 
at Knoxville, there was a branch Treasury of Tennessee 
kept in the Miro District at Nashville. 

On October 26th, 1799, the General Assembly of 
Tennessee passed an act providing "That the sum of 
four hundred dollars shall be and the same is hereby ap- 
propriated for the payment of the sum due Andrew Jack- 
son, as a full compensation for his services as attorney 
general for the District of Miro under the territorial 
government." 

The present Chief Justice of the United States, Mel- 
ville W. Fuller, in an opinion, on the Constitutionality of 
of a recent law of the State of Michigan, providing for 
the selection of presidential electors, by a vote of each 
Congressional District separately taken, refers to an Act 
of the General Assembly of Tennessee, which appointed 
a Committee of citizens in the District of Miro, and em- 
powered it to elect presidential electors — the Chief Jus- 
tice as I understand him approving' both methods — as a 
compliance with the Constitution. The Act referred to, 
by the Chief Justice, is one worthy of an acquaintance, 
and I therefore embody the substance of it in this paper, 



the "mero district." 125 

as I presume there are but few persons familiar with its 
provisions. 

The Act was passed August 8th, 17% and is as fol- 
lows: "Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the 
State of Tennessee, that three electors shall be elected, 
one in the district of Washington, one in the district of 
Hamilton, and one in the district of Mero, as directed by 
this Act, to elect a president and vice-president of the 
United States, and that the said electors may be elected 
with as little trouble as possible to the citizens." 

Sec. 2nd, "Be it enacted that John Carter, John Ad- 
ams and John McCollester of the County of Washing-ton; 
John Rhea, John Spurg'eon and Robert Allison of Sulli- 
van County; Daniel Kennedy, Joseph Hardin and James 
Stinson of the County of Greene; and Richard Mitchell, 
John Young - and Bartlet Marshall of the County of Haw- 
kins are appointed electors to elect an elector for that 
purpose for the district of Washington; John Adair, 
Charles McClung and Samuel Flonnagan of the County 
of Knox; Andrew Henderson, Josiah Jackson and Chris- 
topher Hains of the County of Jefferson; Samuel Mc- 
Gahey, Joshua Gist, Alexander Montgomery of the Coun- 
ty of Sevier; and Robert Boid, William Lowry and David 
Caldwell of Wells Station of the County of Blount, are 
appointed electors to elect an elector for the purpose 
aforesaid, for the district of Hamilton; Thomas Molloy, 
William Donelson and George Ridley of the County of 
Davidson; Kasper Mansco, Edward Douglass and John 
Hogan of the County of Sumner; George Nevill senior, 
Josiah Fort and Thomas Johnson of the late County of 
Tennessee, are appointed electors to elect an elector in 
the District of Mero, for the purpose aforesaid." 

Sec. 4 — "That the electors in this Act before named, 
shall convene, those for the District of Washington at 
Jonesborough, those for the District of Hamilton at 
Knoxville, and those for the District of Mero at Nash- 
ville, on the Second Monday of November in the year 



126 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

1796, and being - so convened, they, or so many of them as 
shall attend on said day, proceed to elect by ballot an 
elector qualified as by this Act directed, for the purpose 
aforesaid." 

The Act provides further that "if two or more per- 
sons shall have the same number of votes, it shall be de- 
cided in the same manner as grand Jurors are drawn for, 
in the Superior Courts," that is, the names of such per- 
sons as received the same number of votes were to be 
written on slips of paper and put in a box, or hat, and a 
boy under twelve years of age, was to draw one of the 
names from the hat or box, the person so drawn to be 
given the certificate of election. 

The electors chosen by ballot received certificates of 
election signed by the Committee, and the three electors 
thus chosen, were directed by the Act "to convene at 
Knoxville on the First Wednesday in December, 1796, 
and proceed to elect a president and vice-president of the 
United States." 

This Act, or method of selecting presidential elec- 
tors, was re-enacted by the General Assembly of Ten- 
nessee on October 26th, 1799, for the presidential election, 
to occur in the vear 1800. I am not aware of the foreero- 
ing method of selecting presidential electors having ever 
been adopted by any other State. 

This seeming digression, from the main subject, will 
be pardoned in view of the fact that the Chief Justice, as 
I understand him, refers to the Act as applicable onl_y to 
the Miro District. 

The method, for electing- presidential electors, as 
provided in this Act, shows how implicitly the people at 
that time trusted their representative, and also the confi- 
dence the representatives reposed in the judg'ment and 
patriotism of the citizen, as well as the confidence the 
people then had in the honor and patriotism of each other. 

It should be a source of profound regret, that in this 
present ag~e of advanced civilization and christian intelli- 



THE "mero district." 127 

g-ence no such mutual confidence exists, that instead of it, 
the people distrust their representatives, the representa- 
tives in turn doubt and suspect the citizen, while the peo- 
ple at large seem to have lost faith in the integrity and 
patriotism of each other. 

If it were possible for those people, who laid the 
foundations of "Cumberland Country" and "Miro Dis- 
trict" to come back and spend a few weeks with us, they 
would doubtless be heard to declare, that they were glad 
they were not cultured statesmen and great financiers. 
[See Gayarre's History of Louisiana, vol. 3; Martin's 
Histor\ T of Louisiana; Haywood's History of Tennessee.] 



128 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



MEMOIR OF DANIEL BOONE. 

BY COE. A. W. PUTNAM. 



[A paper found among the Archives of the Tennessee Historical 
Society.] 

Was born in Bucks County, Pa. 11. Feby. 1731. 
moved to the Yadkin, No. Carolina, when a boy and re- 
sided there until in his fortieth year. In 1760, he cut his 
name upon a-tree, yet standing, nearthe road leading- from 
Jonesboro' to Blountsville where he "cilled a Bar,," — 
thus furnishing - the earliest specimen, in Tennessee of 
'phonetic orthography,' and hunters' skill. 

We believe that Boone had not hunted beyond the 
regions of East Tennessee; but that when Findley re- 
turned from the Cumberland country in 1767 and reported 
what he had seen of its rich lands and thousands of wild 
animals, he gave fresh impetus to the spirit of adventure 
and exploration, then already rife in Virginia and N. 
Carolina. 

Boone resolved to go with Findley and revisit the 
country. They took with them four others, good marks- 
men and still hunters. In the fall of 1769, they had 
passed the Cumberland mountain and encamped upon the 
head waters of Red River, (so they named it,) within the 
limits of Virginia — now Kentucky. 

At this same time the 'Long Hunters' commenced 
their hunt upon the Cumberland, on the east side of the 
river. Many of their names are perpetuated and familiar 
to our citizens: Mansker, Stone, Baker, Gordon, Bledsoe, 
Drake, Suggs, Montgomer}^, Neelly. 

We doubt not that Boone was much of the time with 
these hunters, traversed the rich lands of Sumner, and of 
Davidson, east of the river, — and probably gazed admir- 



MEMOIR OF DANIEL, BOONE. 129 

ingly upon this eminence now crowned by our beautiful 
capitol. His range however was generally on the borders 
of Kentucky. 

Dec. 22, 1769, Boone and Stuart were hunting - at some 
distance from their camp, and were surprised and cap- 
tured by Indians, who came from the other side of the 
Ohio to hunt in these boundless and well-stocked parks. 
After seven days captivity, they escaped, — and found 
their camp deserted. Findley and the two hunters 
who had remained with him were never more seen or 
heard of. It is presumed they were killed by the In- 
dians, and were thus the first white men killed west of 
the Cumberland mountains. 

Soon after this Boone and Stuart were again attacked, 
and Stuart killed. 

Squire Boone (a brother of Daniel) and another hunter 
had recently come to these hunting grounds upon Red 
and Barren rivers, but after the death of Stuart, the 
two Boones remained alone, the other hunter having 
started home, with his packs of choice skins. The 
Boones finding their stock of ammunition reduced, Squire 
set out to procure supplies. 

July 27, 1770, he returned with powder and lead and 
pack horse, and they continued hunting till March '71, 
and then returned to North Carolina. Thus Daniel 
Boone was out for less time than Mansker and his party, 
for these remained until August. 

They all were "without bread or salt for the whole 
period," and "without a sick stomach, or back-ache," as 
one of them said. 

25. Sep. 1771, Boone started with his family to find a 
home beyond the mountains. In Powell's valley they 
were joined by five other families and by hunters without 
families, in so much that they mustered forty gunmen. 
When passing through a gorge of the Cumberland moun- 
tain they were attacked by Indians in large force. 
Boone's son and several others were killed, and the whole 

2 



130 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

of the survivors hastened back to Clinch river where 
they remained till 1774. 

Boone was, in the mean time, appointed by Gov. 
Dunmore to the command of the forts or stations in that 
border of Virginia. He attended at the Watauga treaty, 
being - employed by Col. Richard Henderson and his Land 
Company as a land hunter or explorer, and through him 
and others, we have no doubt, Col. Henderson first had 
his attention and ambition turned to this rich land, where 
he was surveying in the winter and spring of 1780. 
Boone however left not his name upon any tree, or to desig- 
nate any of our numerous licks or creeks, as he did in 
ICast Tennessee. 

In 1775, Boone, leaving his family at the settlements 
on Clinch river, adventured again into the distant hunt- 
ing grounds of Kentucky. 

On 22d March, the party under his guidance selected 
a spot deemed favorable for permanent settlement. It 
was about 15 miles from the place where Boonesborough 
was subsequently built. They were soon attacked by In- 
dians and four of these pioneers were killed, one or two 
wounded. The next day, the attack was renewed and 
five white men were killed. Boone then removed to the 
site of Boonsboro' and earnestly commenced and prose- 
cuted the erection of a strong fort. This was in March. 
On 4th of April another man was killed; but, keep- 
ing out spies, day and night, they worked at their de- 
fences and completed them on the 14th, 1775. "Boone then 
returned for his family"* and thus introduced into Ken- 
tucky the first white woman, wife and daughter. The 
family of Col. Calloway, and of others, came at the same 
time in the fall. Talk boastingly of the "First Fami- 
lies of Virginia! Here the} 7 are in Kentucky, beyond all 
question as to precedence: And Miss Boone and Miss 
Calloway were the first girls captivated, west of the Al- 
leghanies or in the great valley of the Mississippi, July, 

* Collin's History of Kentucky, — sustained by others. 



MEMOIR OF PANIEL, BOONE. 131 

1776. But Boone scorned the idea of Pocahontas poster- 
ity, and he pursued the wild Indians who had abducted 
his daughter and Miss Calloway, until he killed two of 
their captors, released the girls and restored them to their 
mothers, and lived to see them happily united to worthy 
men whom they loved — the mothers of First Families. 

Apl. 15, 1776, a regular investment of the fort was 
made, but the besiegers suffered most, and departed. 

July 4th — Notable Day! Again the Indians, 200 in 
number, surround the fort, closely investing it and de- 
stroying all the stock of the whites which remained out- 
side the palisades and some within. On this day these 
beleaguered people resolve upon one bold effort to rid 
themselves of their enemy, and to secure independence 
and safety. Not knowing the great Resolve that day to 
be adopted at Philadelphia, they determined for them- 
selves to act, and act decisively. They saw the moment 
propitious, and rushed forth upon the besiegers putting 
them to flight and slaughter. 

For a year and a half the immigrants in Ky. suffered 
but little interruption from the savages, and received 
strong accessions. 

In Jany. 1778, Boone was captured the second time. 
He was making salt at the Blue Licks. His captors 
marched with him to their chief town, Old Chillicothe, on 
the Scioto, north of the Ohio river. In March he was 
taken to Detroit; but the Indians not receiving such an 
offer for their prisoner or his ransom (from the British offi- 
cers there,) as they demanded, they determined to return 
with him to their settlements on the Scioto. 

June 16th — He made his escape and incurred much 
peril and suffering before he reached his home at Boones- 
borough. 

After remaining with his friends a short time, he in- 
duced nineteen brave fellows to accompany him in an ex- 
pedition to attack a defenceless Indian town on Paint 
creek, not far distant from the chief town, Old Chilli- 



132 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

cothe: In this he was very successful. But the Indians 
soon followed their invaders to retaliate. 

But now they came under lead of British officers 
and thoroughly armed. They laid siege once more to the 
fort, but the defences having- been so well prepared and a 
much larger force to man the place at all points, the ene- 
my gained no advantages, and the result was quite fatal 
to them. 

It is very noticeable that at this attack the British 
colors were for the first and the last time, unfurled on 
the soil of Kentucky. That flag never was displayed upon 
any flagstaff held in an enemy's hands in Tennessee. 
The nearest point to our borders at which it was ever 
seen, was on King's Mountain, where the King's min- 
ions yielded to the mountain boys. 

In our State Historical Society may be seen some of 
the trophies of that day and victory — a day and victory 
which gladdens the hearts of the pioneers in Kentucky 
and the patriots throughout the colonies, the chief actors 
in which were well known to Daniel Boone 

"It was in 1780, in the summer, that Boone came 
back to Ky. with his family" and settled at Boonesboro': 
In Oct. his brother was killed and himself narrowly es- 
caped. 

In August, 1782, he was in the disastrous defeat at 
Blue Licks, where he lost a son. He was also with Genl. 
George Rog-ers Clark in an expedition against Indian towns 
north of the Ohio, undertaken to avenge losses at Blue 
Lick. 

In 1779, having been robbed of near $20,000 in 
paper money, which he had accumulated to secure lands 
from Commissioners then attending to sales and pre-emp- 
tions, he received such a disgust of civil societ\ T and of 
the law's delays and uncertainties, that he sought refuge 
once more in the wilderness, even under Spanish rule, 
in Missouri. 



MEMOIR OF DANIEE BOONE. 133 

In 1820, lie died at the residence of his son-in-law, in 
Calloway county, Missouri. 

It is a little singular that the name of his earliest 
and most intimate companion in the first settlement in Ky. 
should have been perpetuated in that of the county where 
he breathed his last, and was first interred. 

Sept. 13, 1S45, the remains of Boone and his wife were 
removed under authority of the State of Ky. and re-in- 
terred at Frankfort, the capital of the great State with 
the settlement and early history of which his name is 
forever to be identified. 

At those interesting- solemnities we find that distin- 
guished citizens now in our own city or State, partici- 
pated, and we feel the more pleased and interested to 
conclude this brief sketch by the insertion of their names: 
Revd. Mr Goodell, Baptist Church, read the Hymn: 
Bishop Soule, Methodist Ch. opening- Prayer: Hon. J. J. 
Crittenden, The Oration: Revd. J. J. Bullock, — Presby- 
terian Ch. closing- Prayer: Revd. Philip S. Pall, Chris- 
tian Ch., Benediction. 



134 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



STATEMENTS OF HISTORIANS CORRECTED. 

BY E. D. HICKS. 



[A paper found among the Archives of the Tennessee Historical 
Society.] 

I conceive it to be the duty of the Tennessee Histori- 
cal Society to correct as far as possible errors which have 
found their way into the different histories of the State, 
and this paper is not written in a spirit of captious fault- 
finding - , but as nearly as possible to arrive at facts. I 
shall quote from Gilbert Imlay's Topographical Descrip- 
tion of the Western Territorv of North America first 
published in London in 1702. Imlay was evidently a 
scholar, and his book must have attracted much attention, 
for in that early day a third edition, with additions was 
published in 1797. It contains an autobiography of Dan- 
iel Boon written in 1784. As to Boon, Francis Baily, 
subsequently President of The Royal Astronomical Socie- 
ty of Great Britain, says, that descending - the Ohio river, 
he met Boon on 9th April 1797, and having - a copy of Im- 
lay with him, he read to Boon the autobiography, and 
Boon said it was correct. (Baily's Journal). Imlay's 
book seems to have been unknown to Haywood, Ramsey 
or Putnam, although it is evidently the earliest book of 
any note describing - this Western country; their quota- 
tions from it seem to have been taken at second hand from 
Monette and Butler. Without entering" into the details 
of Boon's various adventures, I only make extracts suffi- 
cient to fix dates. Boon says "On the first of Ma} T 1769, 
I resigned my domestic happiness for a time (Boon evi- 
dently intimates by this that he was not in the habit of 
leaving - home) and left my home on the Yadkin in quest 
of the country of Kentucky, in company with John Finley 



STATEMENTS OF HISTORIANS CORRECTED. 13b 

and others. On the 7th of June following - we found our- 
selves on Red river where John Finley had previously 
been, and from the top of an eminence saw the beautiful 
level of Kentucky." The Red river referred to by Boon 
is undoubtedly the branch of the Kentucky river, but the 
Clinch was called Red river, see Imlay pages 113 & 494 
where it is referred to as a branch of the Cuttawa in one 
place and Cherokee in the other, both of which are origi- 
nal names of the Tennessee, as Ouasioto (the French Ou 
for W) or Wasioto was the original name for Cumberland 
river and mountains. Boon describes his adventures in 
Kentucky, where he remained part of the time alone un- 
til some time after March 1771, when he returned to his 
family on the Yadkin, determined to remove them to Ken- 
tucky, which he considered "a second paradise." Boon 
makes no mention of leaving home, and from the tenor of 
his narrative remained on the Yadkin until, as he says, "I 
sold my farm on the Yadkin and such goods as we could 
not carry with us. I left the Yadkin 25th Sept. 1773, and 
proceeded on our journey to Kentucky with 5 families 
more and 40 men that joined us in Powel's valley. We 
had passed over two mountains, Powel's and Walden's 
and were approaching Cumberland mountain, when on 
10th October, 1773, we were attacked by Indians who killed 
6 and wounded 1 man. We repulsed the enemy but were 
so discouraged that we retreated 40 miles to the settle- 
ment on Clinch river." "I remained with my family on 
Clinch until June 6th 1774 when I and one Michael Stoner 
were solicited by Gov. Dunmore of Virginia to go to the 
Falls of the Ohio. This we did, completing the tour of 
800 miles under many difficulties in 62 days. Soon after 
I returned home I was ordered to take command of three 
garrisons during the war that Gov. Dunmore carried on 
against the Shawanese Indians, after the conclusion of 
which and I being relieved of my post, was solicited by 
some North Carolina gentlemen, who were about purchas- 
ing the lands lying on the South side of Kentucky river 



136 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

from the Cherokee Indians, to attend their treaty at Wa- 
taga in March 1775, to negotiate with them and mention 
the boundaries of the purchase. This I accepted." This 
was the Henderson purchase, and this is the first that 
Boon has to say in regard to Henderson. Within a few 
months from this time Boon had built the fort at Boons- 
boro and removed his family to Kentucky. From these 
dates given by Boon it is certain that from June 1769 to 
April 1771 he was in Kentucky. He then returned to the 
Yadkin; there is no evidence from his narrative, that from 
this time until 25th September 1773, that he ever left the 
Yadkin, all the probabilities are that he remained there, 
having- no business on Watauga, his intention being to 
settle in Kentucky. 

Ramsey followed by Putnam tells the story of the 
beech tree in the valley of the Watauga with the inscrip- 
tion of "D. Boon cilled a bar on tree in the year 1760" as 
sufficient authority to date the arrival of Boon in Tennes- 
see in 1760. Ninety years is a very, very long time for 
an inscription to remain legible on a beech tree, and when 
I hear of one of our highland terrapins being found with 
John Smith neatly engraved on his shell and dated 1750, 
I do not believe that the terrapin and 1750 have anything 
in common. That the inscription is on the tree is proba- 
ble, but that D. Boon put it there, is too doubtful to be 
believed. Haywood and Ramsey bring Boon to Abingdon, 
Va. in 1761 . Haywood and Ramse} T put him in Kentucky 
in 1764 at Crab Orchard, as Haywood says in the employ 
of Henderson & Co to be informed in the geography and 
to use Haywood's quaint word tocography of the country. 
It seems a little strange that Boon should have said noth- 
ing in his narrative about all of these trips and that Hen- 
derson had a company formed for more than ten years 
with Boon in his pay in the then unsettled condition of the 
country. Both Haywood and Putnam have Boon on Wa- 
tauga in 1770, when his own narrative says he was in 
Kentucky. Putnam has him in Kentucky in 1769 and 



STATEMENTS OF HISTORIANS CORRECTED. 137 

1770 examining - lands for Henderson and Co, Boon says 
nothing - of all this, but says he "hunted with success." 
If sent to examine lands he would not have taken two years 
to do it, but would have made his examination and gone 
back to report. Putnam has Boon on Watauga in 1771, 
not with intention to remain, but "bent on seeing- regions 
beyond.' 1 Boon says in 1771, he returned to the Yadkin 
and says nothing - about a conference with Robertson which 
related to the formation of the Watauga Compact, with 
which Putnam credits him. Strange that Haywood after 
having - Henderson's Co. formed as early as 1764, should 
state that the failure of Robertson's Co. to make a pur- 
chase in 1772 eventuated in the formation of a company by 
Henderson who actually made a purchase in 1774 and 1775. 
Boon never says a word about Henderson, but at the close 
of Lord Dunmore's war in the latter part of 1774 or be- 
ginning - of 1775, says he was solicited by some North 
Carolina gentlemen to attend a treaty, negotiate and 
mention the boundaries of the purchase. I seriously 
doubt if Boon had ever had any connection with Hender- 
son until the treaty of March 1775, for it is shown by his 
narrative, that he was on his way to make a settlement 
in Kentucky when he was attacked October 10th 1773 
nearly two years previous and retreated as he says to the 
Clinch, as Putnam says to the Watauga and Holston set- 
tlements. 

Putnam says that Andrew Jackson was appointed 
Judge of the Superior Court of law and equity, the first 
session of which was to be held in Davidson County May 
1784 and declined; without ever pausing to think that 
Jackson was born in 1767 and was then just 17 years old 
and a rather rude boy. How or where he got such an 
idea I cannot conceive. The facts are that the act estab- 
lishing the court was passed at the Session beginning 
November 19th and ending 29th December 1785 and the 
court was to be held May 1786. Haywood says "They 
appointed a young man of the age of twenty four years to 



138 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

be judge of this court, who, upon mature reflection be- 
coming - fearful that his small experience and stock of legal 
acquirements were inadequate to the performance of those 
great duties which the office devolved upon him, chose 
rather to resign than to risk the injustice to suitors, which 
others of better qualifications might certainly avoid." 
Judge Haywood is evidently modestly speaking of him- 
self, he was just 24 years old, having been born 16th 
March, 1762. (I know that it is casually stated in the 
biography of Haywood prefixed to the reprint of his Civil 
History of Tenn. that he was born in 1753; but an elabo- 
rate sketch of his life given in Southwestern Law Journal 
and Reporter June, 1844, gives the date as I have and states 
that he died 22nd December, 1826, in his 64th year.) Had 
Jackson been the appointee and declined for the reasons 
given, Haywood would certainly have no reasons for not 
giving his name; for the action was certainly honorable. 
Haywood, Ramsey and Putnam all state that Edwin 
Hickman, for whom Hickman County was named was 
killed in 1785 on Piney river. There is in the Collection 
of this Society a sketch giving the details of the expedi- 
tion which went to bury Hickman, as narrated by Capt. 
John Davis who was one of the party. Capt. Davis came 
to Nashville in 1788 and he helped bury him, his death 
could not have been earlier than this date, Capt. Davis 
states that it occurred in 1791 and pointed out to me the 
place where it occurred, not on Piney but on Defeated 
Creek of Duck river. The records show that Hickman 
was appointed one of the Magistrates of Davidson County 
in 1791. 

Mr. Putnam states that John Sevier was appointed 
Major General for the District of Washington, and Jas. 
Robertson for the District of Mero. This is an error. 
Gov. Blount as Territorial Governor had authority to ap- 
point all Field officers of the militia, but not the General 
officers. He recommended to the President Sevier and 
Robertson in 1,790 and their commissions were issued in 



STATEMENTS OF HISTORIANS CORRECTED. 139 

1791 as Brigadier Generals. Robertson signed the order 
for the Nickajack campaign in 1794 as Brig. Genl., re- 
signed as Brig. Genl. in 1795, and in 1796, the Tennessee 
Legislature elected Jas. Winchester Brig. Genl. to succeed 
him. Robertson was censured by the Sec'y of War for or- 
dering - the Nickajack campaign, and this censure in fact 
was the cause of his resignation. The Congress of the 
United States, however, had a more correct idea of Rob- 
ertson's wisdom and patriotism, for in 1798, in the face of 
an adverse and decidedly hostile report from the then 
Secv. of War, Congress ordered that the soldiers engaged 
in the Nickajack campaign should be paid. 

I find another curious error in the Chronological Ta- 
ble in Official Manual of Tennessee. Under the date of 
1790 "John Donelson was appointed Major General of the 
United States army by President Washington." As a mat- 
ter ofTennessee history this could only refer to Col. John 
Donelson the ancestor of the Tennessee family of that name, 
for his son John Donelson Jr. was a young man, and 
as late as 1792 was only captain, or possibly major 
in the militia of Mero District. Col. John Donelson 
if alive, would have been in 1790 an old man over sev- 
enty years of age, but unfortunately for the truth of this 
bit of history, he had been killed in January 1786, on his 
return from Virginia and Kentucky to join his family in 
Tennessee. 



140 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



THE CAPTURE OF AARON BURR. 



[The trial of Aaron Burr is historic. The circumstances attending 
his capture are not, however, so well known. They have been sketched 
by Parton in his "Eife of Aaron Burr." Parton's account differs, in 
several respects, from the account given by the captor, Maj. Nicholas 
Perkins. 

The papers given below are taken from the originals in the posses- 
sion of the Tennessee Historical Society. These papers were presented 
to the Tennessee Historical Society by Mrs. Wm. O'Neil Perkins of 
Franklin, Williamson County, Tennessee. Mrs. Perkins is the daughter 
of Col. A. W. Putnam, for many years President of the Tennessee Histor- 
ical Society, and is a descendant of Gen. Israel Putnam of Revolution- 
ary fame, and also a descendant of Gen. John Sevier, the first Governor 
of Tennessee. 

Her deceased husband, Hon. Wm. O'Neil Perkins was the son 
of Maj. Nicholas Perkins, the captor of Aaron Burr. For many years 
these papers were retained in the family as heirlooms, and have never 
been published. After the death of Col. Perkins they were presented 
by his widow to the Tennessee Historical Society. 

They include an account of the capture, in manuscript, in the form 
of a letter addressed by Maj. Perkins to C. A. Rodney; an extensive 
correspondence with various persons in relation to the capture; official 
communications from Eieut. Gaines (afterwards Gen. Gaines); Sec'y of 
State, James Madison; Sec'y of War, Gen. Dearborn, and others; finan- 
cial statements, receipts, etc. 

From these papers, the following selections will be sufficient to 
present a clear picture of the circumstances connected with the capture. 

The following letter from a friend, perhaps, conveyed to Maj. Per- 
kins the information which led to the capture.] 

Washington M. T., the 9th of February, 1807. 
Sir: 

I must acknowledge myself under peculiar obligation 
to you as being - the only friend who misses an opportunity 
(on the main subject) Col. Burr surrendered to the Civil 
Authority and on Wednesday last the Grand Jury sworn 
to enquire for the District of the Mississippi presented 
that they found that Col. Burr had not committed any of- 
fence against the Laws of the U. S. either within this 



THE CAPTURE OP AARON BURR. 141 

District or elsewhere. The court however did not dis- 
charge him from recognizance but he made his exit with- 
out leave. 

Expresses were sent in every direction after him, 
two thousand dollars are offered to deliver him here by 
the present Executive, Governor Williams. I this moment 
came in town from Judge Lewis' who last night returned 
from New Orleans, and states that, that place is in great 
confusion. The mail is now starting. The Legislature 
adjourns to-day. I shall set out the latter end of this 
week and amuse } r ou for a week. Judge Lewis and fam- 
ily are well. 

Yours as usual, 

Lemuee Henry. 
Nicholas Perkins, Esq. 



[The following- statement from the manuscript of Maj. Perkins 
bears no date.] 

C. A. Rodney, Esq. 

Sir: At your request I have committed to writing the 
circumstances of the arrest of Aaron Burr Esq. on the 
Tombigbee River in the Mississippi Territory. 

I believe it was on the 18th day of February last, 
about 12 o clock in the evening or after, I was at the 
Court House for the County and District of Washington 
in the Mississippi Territory in company with Thomas 
Malone, Clerk of Said District Court, and Theodore 
Brightwell, Sheriff of the County of Washington, when I 
heard the sound of horses' feet as if coming on the road 
that passed near the house in which we were. The Sher- 
iff was in bed. I asked Mr. Malone what could people be 
after, riding at that time of night, he answered it was not 
uncommon at that place, the moon shone very bright. I 
resolved to see them, as they would pass the house, for 
which purpose I went to the door when a man rode by in 



142 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

a brisk trot without making- any stop, or saying- a word, 
altho' he passed within 20 feet of the door, in which I 
stood. I observed another person, coming- on at a small 
distance behind, who stopped when he came opposite the 
door and beg-an inquiring- the road to Maj. Hinson's, of 
which I informed him, and telling- him that it would be 
very difficult to g-et there in the nig-ht, the bridg-es were 
broken and a part of the way was a path onty, and that 
they had better stay at the Tavern which I pointed out 
to him that was in the town. He replied they had come 
from the Chickasaws, and had lost their horses up the 
country that evening - , which had detained them, but that 
he believed he could find the way and would g-o to Maj. 
Hinson's, and then rode on after the one who passed first 
and had made no stop. I then turned to the gentlemen in 
the room, and observed that those men were very extraor- 
dinary men indeed, riding- at that late hour of the nig-ht 
in a strang-e country, determined to g-o on to Maj. Hinson's 
at the distance of seven or eig-ht miles on a bad road, over 
broken and dang-erous bridges, passing- by a public house 
to a private one, and that they must either have some bad 
design upon Hinson or his property, or that it was Col. 
Burr making- his escape through that country. I then 
requested one of the gentlemen to accompany me, for I 
was resolved to follow him, and if possible to discover 
who they were or what was their business. The Sheriff 
Mr. T. Brightwell agreed to go with me. He got out of bed, 
dressed himself, and taking our horses we pursued them to 
Maj. Hinson's whither they had arrived before we over- 
took them. We rode up to the fence there and going- 
into the yard met the gentleman who had inquired of me, 
the road at the Court House, whose name was Ashley. I 
could not see the other, who I afterwards discovered had 
got into the kitchen for the benefit of the fire, there being 
none in the room that was opened for the strangers. 
After being there some time the Sheriff was out giving 
some directions to the servant about the horses, Mr. Ashley 



THE CAPTURE OF AARON BURR. 143 

and myself, in the house when the person who had been 
at the kitchen fire came in. I observed his dress and every 
appearance to be extraordinary. As well as I can recollect 
he had on a white hat with a brim rather broad than other- 
wise. He wore a long beard, a checked handkf round his 
neck, a great coat belted around him to which was hanging 
a tea cup on the one side and a butcher knife on the other. 
I began to think he must be Col. Burr, and watched an op- 
portunity of seeing - his eye by which I expected to know 
him. At length I got a glance of his eye as he looked aside 
at me, upon which I became confident that this was Col. 
Burr. Soon after, I got my horse and left the house, as if 
going back to the Court House. But after pursuing- that 
road I turned and took the road down to Fort Stoddart 
where I arrived before sunrise and informed Lieutenant 
Gaines of what I had seen and heard the preceding - even- 
ing - , and of my suspicions that the person in the white 
hat was Col. Burr. He then agreed to go with me, and 
selecting, as he said, a confidential Sergeant and three sol- 
diers, we set out on horse back up the country towards 
Maj. Hinson's. 

When we came within two or three miles of Maj. 
Hinson's, we met Col. Burr in company with the Sheriff, 
Mr. Brightwell. We did not see them until we approached 
very near each other. They were ascending a small hill. 
When we rode up to them Lieutenant Gaines asked if he 
was not Col. Burr, he answered in the affirmative, and 
then Lieutenant Gaines arrested him. Some conversation 
passed between Lieut. Gaines and Col. Burr on the sub- 
ject of the arrest. At length, Col. Burr asked Lieutenant 
Gaines if he had authority to arrest any person with him. 
Lieutenant Gaines said he had not; then Col. Burr re- 
quested that Mr. Ashley should be informed that he 
wished him to come to Fort Stoddart which I agreed to 
do if I should see him, and then Col. Burr, Lieutenant 
Gaines and the soldiers rode off towards Fort Stoddart, 
leaving Mr. Brightwell and myself at the place. 



144 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

After they had got some distance from us, I began to 
interrogate Mr. Brightwell about Col. Burr, he said when 
Col. Burr saw us, he asked Mr. Brightwell who was that, 
or what did that mean, (I do not recollect which). Mr. 
Brightwell replied, that is Perkins and you are gone, the 
Col. then clasped the bridle in both his hands saying, Lord 
have mercy, or God have mercy (I do not remember 
which). This is as well as I can recollect what Mr. Bright- 
well told me was the expression of Col. Burr on our ap- 
proach. 

I then asked Mr. Brightwell what was Col. Burr's 
conversation about me after I left Maj. Hinson's. He said 
Col. Burr told him he was confident that I either knew 
him, or suspected him, and had pursued him that night to 
Maj. Hinson's. Mr. Brightwell then acknowledged what 
had passed between him and myself. He then inquired of 
Mr. Brightwell if he thought there was any person in the 
country that would arrest him, and I think Mr. Brightwell 
said his answer to him was, he did not know of any one. 
He then asked if he, Mr. Brightwell thought I could not be 
softened. I believe Mr. Brightwell told me that Col. Burr 
was going to Mr. Mimms's, which is on the East side of 
of the Alabama (but of this I am not certain), and that he, 
Mr. Brightwell, was to show him the way to the ferry. 

I then left Mr. Brightwell and pursued the road or 
path towards the Court House, and before I reached that 
place overtook Mr. Ashley, and we rode together to the 
Court House. I then wrote a letter to Col.' Callier inform- 
ing him of the circumstance, requesting that he would 
meet me the next evening at the Court House. Mr. Ashley 
went with the messenger to Col. Callier. I had not told 
Mr. Ashley of Col. Burr's arrest, but that Col. Burr re- 
quested him to come to Fort Stoddart, he observed the 
Col. had changed his place or route (I don't remember 
which). 

When I came to the Court House the next evening I 
found Col. Callier and Mr. Ashlev there; the Col. told me he 



THE CAPTURE OF AARON BURR. 145 

had not told Mr. Ashley of Col. Burr's arrest but that he 
pretended to approve of Col. Burr's conduct in order to 
sound Ashley. He said Ashley told him that Col. Burr's 
schemes were'ag-ainst the Floridas and Mexico. Col. Cal- 
lier asked if Col. Burr had a sufficiency of money to carry 
on his plan. Ashley said he had about one hundred and 
fifty thousand dollars. This is, as well as I can remember, 
the conversation that Col. Callier told me had passed be- 
tween him and Mr. Ashley. Col. Callier and myself then 
walked to where Ashley was, and then the Col. arrested 
him. Mr. Ashley asked what he was arrested for, I told 
him it was for being- one of Col. Burr's party, he then de- 
nied that he knew an}^thing- of Col. Burr's plan. He had 
met with C'ol. Burr by accident, found him a pleasant 
travelling- companion and had come with him to that place. 
I then told him that Col. Callier had related to me the 
conversation they had had on that subject and it was un- 
necessary to deny what he had told the Col. Ashley 
said he had told the Col. that he believed so, but never 
had told him that he knew anything- about Col. Burr's 
plan. Col. Callier contradicted him. Soon after which I gr>t 
my horse and started to Fort Stoddart. I did not arrive at 
Fort Stoddart until the next day. Not long- after my ar- 
rival at that place Lieutenant Gaines introduced a gen- 
tleman to me, saying- he was a Spanish Officer, who I think 
he said commanded a Spanish armed vessel called Louisa, 
and who had been up the river, as I was told, to purchase 
sea stores or some thing-s that were necessary for a cruise 
that he was about to undertake, and that he would not 
leave that place until next evening-. The Spanish Officer 
spoke no Eng-lish, as I had but conversed by means of an 
interpreter. In the evening- after dinner the. Spanish Offi- 
cer requested to seethe prisoner, (Col. Burr). Soon after 
which, Lieutenant Gaines asked me whether it was proper, 
I told him I thoug-ht not, but that I supposed Col. Burr 
himself would object, and that he had better gr> and see him. 
Lieutenant Gaines went into the room where Col. Burr 



146 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

was, and ag-ain returned into the room where the Spanish 
Officer and myself were, holding- a piece of paper in his 
hand, on which was some writing-, but who it was written 
by I do not know. He said to the officer it was improper he 
should see Col. Burr, as he was then a prisoner of the 
United States, and Lieutenant Gaines then said, as well 
as I can recollect, Col. Burr sends his compliments to Mo- 
rates and his daug-hter and requests that he would send 
him some wine, and I think some other articles but do not 
remember what, and then g-ave the paper to the Spanish 
Officer who started off down the river toward Mobile in 
a short time, at which Lieutenant Gaines appeared to be 
alarmed, and told me he was suspicious that the Spaniard 
would endeavor to rescue Col. Burr, and that he was una- 
ble to defend himself, as his pickets were pulled down and 
some of his men were unfit for duty, and then I consented 
to convey him to the City of Washington. 

As to the affair at Chester Court House, South Car- 
olina: When we came to the edg-e of the town, I rode on one 
side of Col. Burr and one of my party on the other. When 
we arrived near the middle of town, as I suppose, Col. 
Burr leaped from his horse, and asked if there was any 
Mag-istrate there, and g"oing- in among- several g-entlemen, 
that were standing- tog-ether in the street, requested them 
to protect him from us; that we were taking- him along- 
without any authority. Col. Burr was seated on his horse 
ag-ain and conveyed off immediately. 



[Copy of a letter addressed to General Wilkison and Governor 
Williams.] 

Fort Stoddart, Mobile River, 
Febry. 19th, 1807. 
Sir: 

I have the honor to inform your Excellency that at 
day break this morning- I was advised b}' Major Perkins 
that a strang-er who he supposed to be Col. Burr had 



THE CAPTURE OF AARON BURR. 147 

passed throug-h the upper part of this Settlement last 
evening - whereupon I . set out with a Serg'eant and three 
men of my detachment and reconnoitering- with Major 
Perkins about 14 miles up the country, met with the Col- 
onel and escorted him to this place. He is now in one of our 
best rooms with a Sentinel at his door. He shall receive 
every accommodation this place will afford, and until lam 
furnished with instructions from the proper authority he 
shall receive from me and mv g-uards the most vig-ilant 
attention. 

Whether there is not a communication between this 
gentleman and our Spanish neighbors seems a matter of 
doubt; if there is, this is by no means a suitable place for 
him, and should I discover any g-round for such a connec- 
tion I must immediately start him for the Cit}^ of Wash- 
ing-ton as my force (40 men), is too small to secure him. 
Permit me sir, to solicit your instruction on the subject. 

I have the honor to be 
Very Respectfully 

YourObdt. Servt. 
Edmund P. Gaines 
1 Lt. 2nd. Infty. 
Commdo-. 



■■&• 



[The following- letter is from Lieut. Edmund P. Gaines, afterwards 
Gen. Gaines, and is marked "Private."] 

Private. 

Fort Stoddart, 

Pebry. 0th, 1807. 
Dear Perkins : 

In addition to the conversation I had with you to-day 
on the subject of a trip to Washington City, or other 
proper means of disposing- of our Great Prisoner, suffer 
me to solicit a full development of your ideas on the fol- 
lowing points. 

Whether would it be most advisable to detain him at 
this place until I receive orders from the Commander in 



148 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Chief, from the seat of the general government, or advice 
from Gov. Williams, or to send him immediately to Wash- 
ing-ton City or to Natchez? I wish you to write freely 
and fully as a friend — and at the same time inform me 
whether it would be in your power to command the escort 
either way — if not I wish you to consult your brother 
Captain Perkins and Mr. Murray, and should either of 
them find it in their power to undertake the arduous task, 
they will, I doubt not, secure the grateful thanks of their 
country and a full compensation for their time and trouble, 
should either conclude to go. I think the tour should 
not be put off many days. It strikes me as an indispen- 
sable step for the security of this settlement and the 
tranquility of the Western Country generally, to send the 
Col, direct to Washington City and leave this place at all 
events by the 22nd of the present month. 

If your opinion coincides with the one just expressed, 
one of you, above mentioned must g'o and whoever it be, 
let him get four active, sober, confidential } r oung men (one 
or two of whom should know the route) with good horses, 
pistols and swords, with one or two good light shot guns— ^ 
no bag'g'age save a blanket and &c, and come to this place 
on the 21st inst. I cannot spare soldiers, unless a few 
to accompany the escort out of the settlement. 

I apprehend something - is brewing below, and I must 
secure this place. The party may get fresh horses and 
&c, on their arrival at the Ochmulg'ee Fort. It will be well 
to settle the terms on which the young men will eng-age. 
If they are allowed nothing extra by Government, the 
2000 dollars reward shall be applied to the adjustment 
of these expenditures as far as necessary. I cannot now 
advance 100 dollars in specie, the arrangements must be 
made accordingly. You can show this hasty scrawl to 
Mr. Maney and whatever you write to me shall, if you 
wish, be held as private and confidential. 

Yours Sincerely. 

IOdmd. P. Gaines. 



THE CAPTURE OF AARON BURR. 149 

Maj. Perkins : 

Please send the enclosed pr first opportunity. 

P. S. I think you and myself may with safety incur 
the necessary expenses to get the men to the City of 
Washington if we have no other dependence than the 2000 
dollars which on his delivery shall be equally distributive. 

But surely the Govt, will not hesitate to meet ex- 
penses. Edmd. P. Gaines. 



[In accordance with the advice of Lieut. Gaines, Maj. Perkins se- 
cured the services of four reliable men to serve as a guard for the pur- 
pose of conveying Col. Burr to Washington. The party entered into 
the following contract:] 

February 23rd, 1807: We, whose names are hereto 
subscribed, do pledge our lives, our honor, each to the 
other, for the safe conducting - and delivery of Aaron Burr, 
a United States prisoner, to the President of the United 
States, under the direction of Nicholas Perkins. 

Nicholas Perkins. 
John Mertes, 
Sam'l McCormack. 
John Jay Henry, 
H. B. Slade. 



[Copy of letter addressed to Major Perkins. | 

Tensaw, near Fort Stoddert. 
Sir : 

You will receive herewith a passport for yourself and 
party thro' the wilderness, with a general instruction rel- 
ative to the removal of A. Burr, Fsq., to the seat of Gov- 
ernment, together with a letter to the Hon b1 ., the Secre- 
tary of War, which you are hereby authorized to open in 
case it becomes necessary to make known the particular 
circumstances attending the arrest of the said A. Burr, 
Esq., before your arrival at Washington Cit} r . In addi- 
tion to the above mentioned instructions, permit me to re- 



150 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

quest your particular attention to the strictest (economy 
in the expenditures of your expedition, taking- duplicate 
accounts and receipts for all thing's you may find it nec- 
essary to purchase for the use of the party. It is my de- 
sire that you furnish the prisoner, Aaron Burr, Esq., 
with whatever his convenience, accommodation and com- 
fort may require consistently with such measures for the 
security of his person as you may deem expedient. 

Sergrant Harris and Cyrus Jones, of my detachment, 
Second U. S. Infantr\ r , will form a part of the escort and 
are to be under your direction. 

Wishing" you health and happiness, 

I am sir, yours, &c, 

Edmund P. Gaines, 

Lieut. Second U. S. Infantrv. 



[Passport and instructions for Major Perkins.] 

Edmund P. Gaines, First Lieutenant Second Regi- 
ment of United States Infantrv and Commandant of Fort 
Stoddert: To all who shall see these presents, greeting - : 

Be it known, that by virtue of the proclamation of 
the President of the United States, dated November 27th, 
1806; and more especially by virtue of the proclamation of 
Robert Williams, Governor of the Mississippi Territory, 
dated the sixth day of the present month of Februan~; I 
did, on the 19th of said month, arrest Aaron Burr, Esq., 
and have this day committed him to the charge of Major 
Nicholas Perkins with a suitable g;uard whom I have 
authorized and instructed by these presents to convey the 
said Aaron Burr, Esq., in the most perfect safety and by 
the most eligible route overland, to the Executive of the 
United States at Washington City, in the District of Co- 
lumbia. And I hereby request all military officers and 
other officers of the United States, or any one of same, and 
all citizens of the same, who shall see these presents, to 
give all necessary aid to the said Maj. N. Perkins and 



THE CAPTURE OP AARON BURR. 151 

his party in the execution of the above mentioned duties. 
Given under ray hand at Tensaw, near Fort Stod- 
dart, in the Mississippi Territory, this, twenty-seventh 
day of February, A. D., one thousand eigdit hundred and 
seven. Edmund P. Gaines. 



[Order from James Madison, Sec'y of State.] 

To Mr. Lewis Ford: 

It being - understood that certain persons having- in 
their custody Aaron Burr, charged with offenses ag-ainst 
the United States, are proceeding- with him to this city 
with the view to deliver him to the proper authority for 
trial, you will please, agreeably to the direction of the 
President, on falling" in with the said persons to require 
that instead of bring-ing- the said Aaron Burr to this 
place, they proceed by the shortest route to the City of 
Richmond without delay and there dispose of him as they 
shall be advised to be leg"al and most proper by Georgfe 
Hay, Esq., the Attorney of the the United States for 
that District. You may inform the said persons that any 
just claims they may have ag-ainst the United States on 
the occasion will not be affected by this ehang-e in their 
journey, and that such claims will be settled at Rich- 
mond by Mr. John Hay. 

James Madison. 

Department of State, ) 
March 23, 1807. f 



[Order from Sec'y of War.] 

War Department, March 23, 1807. 
Sir: 

On receipt of this you will direct your course with 
your prisoner to Richmond, in the State of Virginia, 
and there call on Georg-e Hay, Fsq., District Attorney 
for the United States, and receive his direction in relation 
to the prisoner under your charge, and will punctually 



152 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

follow such instructions as you may receive from Mr. 
Hay or from C. A. Rodney, Esq., Attorney General of 
the United States. Mr. Rodney will take the necessary 
measures for furnishing" you with money sufficient for your 
journey to the City of Washington, where you will re- 
port yourself to this Department. The bearer of this, 
Mr. Ford, will accompany you to Richmond. 

I am very respectfully, your 
Obt. Servt., 

H. Dearborn. 

To the ofhcer who has charge of Aaron Burr 
as a prisoner, charged with treasonable practices 
against the Government and laws of the United 
States. 



[Front District Attorney G. W. Hay. | 

Maj. Nicholas Perkins. 

Sir: Having received no communication from the 
Executive in relation to Mr. Burr, and not being - furnish- 
ed at this moment with any evidence or document tending" 
to prove a criminal act on his part, I cannot g"ive you any 
instructions as to an immediate surrender of his person to 
the civil authority. From the information, however, g"iven 
to me this evening" by Mr. Ford, and from the letters of 
the Secretaries of State and of War, shown me b} r your- 
self and Mr. Ford, I have reason to believe that by the 
next mail I shall be furnished with all the papers which 
may be in the possession of the Executive. As soon as I 
hear from Washington on this subject, I will take the 
proper measures to relieve } 7 ou from the duty in which 
3'ou are eng"ag"ed. I am, sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 

G. W. Hay. 



[There is nothing to show to whom the following letter is ad- 
dressed. It was evidently written to some official of the United States, 
most probably to the District Attorney, G. W. Hay. Subsequent let- 



THE CAPTURE OF AARON BURR. 



153 



ters show that the United States received the horses and equipments, 
and directed Maj. Perkins to proceed to Washington for the settle- 
ment of his accounts.] 

Richmond, Va., March 29, 1807. 

Sir: 

I have here in m} 7 possession nine horses and a 
double chair that have been purchased on account of the 
United States, and employed in transporting - Aaron Burr, 
Esquire, from the Mississippi Territory to this place. 

The horses are so much reduced by the journey that 
I do not suppose they will be fit for service in a short 
time, and the daily expense of feeding" them here is very 
considerable, in consequence of which by the advice of 
Mr. Rodney, I make this statement to } t ou and shall await 
your direction. My party consists of seven persons be- 
sides myself, two of whom are soldiers of the United 
States Army, the others are gentlemen that have been 
engaged on the public account, as men of that description 
only could be trusted on that business, and as I have not 
the means of discharging - them, whether we shall take 
the stage to Washing-ton or Indiana or go there upon 
these worn down horses, will depend on what orders I 
ma}' receive from you. Your Obt. Servt. 



[It seems that some difficulty was encountered and much delay ex- 
perienced in the final settlement of the accounts for the expenses of the 
expedition. The correspondence on this point includes a number of 
letters, statements, receipts, certificates, etc. The final settlement 
was made in accordance with the following- "Acc't Curr't."] 

Dr. THE UNITED STATES IN ACC'T CURR'T WITH NICHOLAS PERKINS. Ck. 



1807 i 
Apl.tiTo o Horses furnished 

transporting A. Burr 
to Richmond 
I " Arms furnished for 
the above 
•" One sulkey and harness 

as above 95 

" Wasres of 5 men and 
their sustenance 
as a jruard 1014 

I " Travelinjr Expenses 
to Washington 






91 



Bv cash rec'd 



3331 



91 



154 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



PEDIGREE OF THE POLL, OK OR POLK FAM- 
ILY FROM FULBERT THE SAXON 
(A. D. 1075) TO THE PRES- 
ENT TIME. 

BY MISS MARY WINDER GARRETT. 

A. D. 1075. — Fulbert, born in the reign of Malcolm 
III. of Scotland. In the reign of David I. of Scotland, 
the vast feudal barony of Pollok in Renfrewshire was 
held by Fulbert the Saxon, a great noble, territorial 
king*. Fulbert died in 1153, the beginning- of the reign 
of Malcolm IV., and was succeeded by his son Petrius. 

Petrius, the son of Fulbert, succeeded his father in 
1153. Petrius, assumed as a surname (which at this time 
came into use) instead of a patronymic, the name of his great 
hereditary lands of Pollok. The Lieut. Baron of this 
feudal kingdom was a man of g^reat eminence in his time, 
and a benefactor of the Monastery of Paisle} T , which do- 
nation was confirmed by Joceline, Bishop of Glasgow, 
who died A. D. 1199. Petrius was a law unto himself, 
and equaled the Sovereign in wealth, rank and power. 
He was the ancestor of many brave warriors and Crusade 
knig-hts. Petrius de Pollok was greatly distinguished 
for "valor in arms and prowess in the chase," and his 
exploits are the subject of many a minstrel lay. Besides 
his vast estates in Renfrewshire (the chevron of which 
barony is still borne upon the shield of arms of the Prince 
of Wales) he held the great barony of the Roths, in Ab- 
erdeenshire, which he gave to his only daughter, Mauri- 
cle, who married the celebrated Sir Norman de Lesley. 
Mauricle de Roths was the ancestress of the great Earls 
of Roths and Lords of Lesley. The eighth earl was con- 



PEDIGREE OE THE POEK PAMIEY. 155 

stituted after the restoration of Marquis Ballenbrieck, 
Duke de Roths, President of the Council and Lord High 
Chancellor of Scotland. The "State Records" show that 
many intermarriag-es have taken place between the Les- 
leys, Polloks and the Royal Stuarts. On the death of 
Petrius de Pollok his ancient patrimonial estates of Pollok 
being- settled on heirs male, passed to his brother Robert 
de Pollok, and it is noticeable how the name of Robert 
has been handed down from father to son to the present 
time. 

Robert I. — Robert de Pollok was succeeded by his 
son Robert. 

Robert de Pollok II. was a contemporary of Alexan- 
der II. of Scotland, who reigned from A. D. 1214 to 1249. 
Robert II. was succeeded by his son Thomas. 

Thomas, A. D. 1249.— Thomas de Pollok was wit- 
ness to sundry charters of donations to the Abbey of 
Paisley. He was a contemporary of Alexander III. of 
Scotland, who reigned from 1249 to 1286, and was suc- 
ceeded b}^ his son Petrius de Pollok. 

Petrius de Pollok was one of the persons of rank in A. 
D. 1296, who gave a forced submission to Edward I. of 
England, in the Bond known as "Ragmans Roll."" He 
was succeeded by Roburtus. 

Roburtus de Pollok married Agnes, daughter of Sir 
John Maxwell, Lord of Caerlaverok, and was succeeded 
by his son John. 

John de. Pollok, who, in A. D. 1372, obtained from his 
grandfather, the said John, Lord Maxwell, a charter of 
certain lands dated at Caerlaverok, was succeeded by 
Brucius or Brucis de Pollok. 

Brucius de Pollok left a son John de Pollok. 

John de Pollok, designated in a charter by James II. 
of Scotland, dated December 12, 1439, as "nobilis vir 
Johannes de Pollok filius et heres Bricii de Pollok.'" 
From this famous noble sprang the illustrious line of 
Pollok of that ilk. His successor w r as Charles de Pollok 



156 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

of that ilk. John de Pollok had a second son, named Rob- 
ert de Pollok, who received from King" James II. the 
great land grant in Ireland. 

The following- notes are mostly taken from a written 
communication to W. R. Polk, from Mrs. W. H. Polk, 
wife of W. H. Polk, brother of ex-President Polk. 
John de Pollok, last mentioned, had another son be- 
sides his oldest son Charles, named Robert de Pollok. 

Robert de Pollok, became Sir Robert de Pollok. 
of Ireland, who received the grant from King James 
II. in Ireland. 

1440. — This Sir Robert's oldest son, Sir John, in- 
herited the hereditary estate in old Scotland. Sir Rob- 
ert, the younger son of Sir Robert, inherited the estate 
in Ireland, and he became Sir Robert. 

Robert II. — Sir Robert de* Pollok, of Ireland, inher- 
ited the estate in Ireland and became the founder of the 
family in Ireland, where the name is to this day often 
pronounced, P-o-l-k, as of ones3~llable, by the natives, 
and whose American descendants, the Polks, still pre- 
serve the "lineal memorial of their noble and knightly 
ancestry." 

In 1640, Sir Robert, of Ireland, ioined the. Scotch 
Covenanters, whose Commander-in-Chief and Governor 
of Dumbarton Castle was a relative o£G.eneral, Sir Alex- 
ander Leslie, one of the most famous soldiers of the time. 

1640.— In 1646, Sir George Maxwell, of Nether Pol- 
lok, was married to Lady Annabella Stuart, lineal de- 
scendant of King Robert III. and their granddaug-hter, 
Annabella, married her cousin, Sir Robert Pollok, of 
"Upper Pollok," grandnephew of Sir Robert, of Ire- 
land, whose nephew, Kzekiel Stuart, married Debora 
Annely. 

Sir Robert was succeeded by his son Thomas; he 
also had a second son, Robert Bruce Pollok. Thomas 
Pollok, oldest son of Sir Robert, succeeded to the Irish 
estates. 



PEDIGREE OF THE POLK FAMIEY. 157 

Robert Bruce Pollok, the second son of Sir Robert 
II., married the widow of Col. Porter. Her maiden name 
was Mag-daline Tasker. She was of Freneh descent, 
and heiress of the estate of "Mowning or Morning- Hall" 
in the Barony of Ross, County of Donegal, Parish of De- 
ford, Ireland. She was related to the Countess of Morn- 
ing-ton and her sister Prudence, aunts of the Duke of 
Wellington. It is said that the marriag-e of Robert Bruce 
Pollok or Polk, and Magdaline Porter, nee Tasker, was 
a runaway match. She lived to be nearly 92 }^ears of 
age, and died at her home place, "White Hall," in Som- 
erset County, Maryland, between April 7, 1726, and 
March 20, 1727. In her will of record in the office of 
the register of wills for Somerset County, Mel., she be- 
gins: "I, Mag-daline Pollok," but signed "Magdaline 
Polk." She bequeathed and willed Mowning Hall in 
Ireland to her sixth son, Joseph, and he returned to Ire- 
land. 

Robert Bruce Pollok, last named, with his wife 
Magdaline and six sons and two daugditers, left Ireland 
and came to America, arriving- and landing at "Dames 
Quarter," in Somerset County, Maryland, in the }^ear 1680, 
1683 or 1687, according to different authorities, where his 
descendants were long known as the Republican or Dem- 
ocratic family. At that time the two names were used 
to represent the one party as opposed to the Tories. The 
children of Robert Bruce Pollok and Magdaline were: 
1 John, 2 William, 3 IDphraim, 4 James, 5 Robert, 6 
Joseph, 7 Margaret, 8 Ann. 



THE JOHN POLK BRANCH. 

John Polk or Pollok, eldest son of Robert Bruce Polk 
or Pollok and Mag-daline, his wife, married twice — -first 
wife Joanna Knox; second wife, Jugga Hugg. By his 
first marriage with Joanna Knox he had two children, 



158 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

William Polk, the elder, and Nancy Polk the younger 
child. Nanc} 7 Polk married Edward Roberts. William 
Polk, only son of John Polk, married twice — first wife, 
Priscilla Roberts; second wife, Margaret Taylor,"' of 
Pennsylvania. (Priscilla Roberts was a sister of Edward 
Roberts, who married Nancy, the sister of William Polk.) 

William Polk, when his sons were nearl} r grown, re- 
moved with his children and second wife, Margaret, to 
Carlisle, Penn., then to Mecklenburg County, North 
Carolina. 

William Polk settled and died west of the Yadkin. 
He left eight children, viz.: William Polk, the eldest child, 
Charles Polk, Debora Polk, Susan Polk, John Polk, 
Margaret Polk, Ezekiel Polk and Thomas Polk. 

William Polk, eldest son of William Polk, Sr., mar- 
ried and removed to Tennessee. (I can trace his branch 
no further.) He left descendants. 

Charles Polk, second son of William Polk, Sr., mar- 
ried in 1750, Polly Clark; had five children, viz.: Charles 
Polk, Thomas Polk, Shelby Polk, Mike Polk, William 
Polk. 

Debora Polk, third child of William Polk, Sr., mar- 
ried Samuel McCleary and died without issue. 

Susan Polk, fourth child of William Polk, Sr., mar- 
ried Benjamin Alexander and had six children, viz.: 
Charles Alexander, Thomas Alexander, Susan Alexan- 
der, William Alexander (a Captain and brave and distin- 
guished soldier in, the Revolutionary Army), Benjamin 
Alexander and Taylor Alexander. 

John Polk, fifth child of William Polk, Sr., married 
Eleanor, the daughter of Col. Isaac Shelby,. and had four 
children, viz.: Charles Polk, Taylor Polk, John Polk, 
and Eleanor Polk. 



*From the information that I have been able to procure, I would be 
inclined to think that Margaret Taylor was mother of (certainly) the 
three last children, but the family claim descent from Priscilla Roberts 
in all eitrht branches. 



PEDIGREE OF THE POLK FAMILY. 159 

Margaret Polk, sixth child of William Polk, Sr., 
married Robert McKree and had eleven children, viz.: 
William McKree, Debora McKree, James P. McKree, 
Susan McKree, Dinah McKree, Margaret McKree, 
Thomas McKree, Harriet McKree, Rachael McKree, 
William McKree, Mary McKree. 

William McKree, eldest son of Robert McKree and 
Marg-aret Polk, his wife, married and had eight children, 
viz.: William McKree, David McKree, James McKree, 
Margaret McKree, Banks McKree, Richard McKree, 
Robert McKree and Josephine McKree. 

Debora McKree, second child of Robert McKree and 
Marg*aret Polk, his wife, married Mr. Campbell and had 
nine children, viz.: Mary Campbell, Jane Campbell, De- 
bora Campbell, Robert Campbell, Margaret Campbell, 
William Campbell, Harriet Campbell, John Campbell, 
Andrew Crmpbell. 

James P. McKree, third child of Robert McKree and 
Marg-aret Polk, his wife, married and removed to Tennes- 
see. He had ten children, viz.: Maagaret McKree, Rob- 
ert McKree, Sarah McKree, Mary A. McKree, Adam 
McKree, James McKree, William McKree, Eug-ene Mc- 
Kree, Rebecca McKree and Julia McKree. Sarah, the 
third child of James P. McKree, of Tennessee, married 
Mr. Clay, and left seven children, viz.: Margaret Clay, 
James Clay, William Clay, John L. Clay, Leonidas Clay, 
Sarah Clay and Martha Clay. 

Susan McKree, fourth child of Robert McKree and 
Margaret Polk, his wife, married William Barnett, and 
had seven children, viz.: William Barnett, Susan Barnett, 
Margaret Barnett, Ann Barnett, John Barnett, Jane Bar- 
nett and Robert Barnett. 

Dinah McKree, fifth child of Robert McKree and 
Margaret Polk, his wife, married Mr. Hart, and had five 
children, viz.: Mary Hart, Margaret Hart, Isabella Hart, 
William Hart, David Hart. 



160 THE; AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Marg-aret McKree, sixth child of Robert McKree and 
Marg-aret Polk, his wife, married Mr. Spratt; had eight 
children, viz.: Thomas Spratt, Robert Spratt, Margaret 
Spratt, Susan Spratt, James Spratt, Elizabeth Spratt, 
Martha Spratt and Leonidas Spratt. 

Thomas McKree, seventh son of Robert McKree and 
Margaret Polk, his wife, married; had three children, 
viz.: William McKree, Robert McKree and Margaret 
McKree. 

Harriet McKree, eighth child of Robert McKree and 
Marg-aret Polk, his wife, married Mr. Taylor and had 
three children, viz.: Mary Taylor, Robert Taylor and 
John Taylor. 

Rachael McKree, ninth child of Robert McKree and 
Marg-aret Polk, his wife, married Mr. Vance, and had 
two children: Robert Vance and James Vance. 

William McKree, tenth child of Robert McKree and 
Margaret Polk, his wife, never married. 

Mary McKree, eleventh child of Robert McKree and 
Margaret Polk, his wife, married Mr. Barnett, and had 
two children: Mary Barnett and William Barnett. 

Ezekiel Polk, seventh child of William Polk, Sr. , mar- 
ried twice according to some authority, according- to others 
three times. His first wife was Mary Wilson; his last 
wife was Mrs. Lennard. He lelt twelve children. By 
his first marriag'e with Mary Wilson he had certainly 
four of the twelve children; the other eight were proba- 
bly the children of his last marriag'e with the widow 
Lenuard, for if he married three times there are no living- 
children of his second wife. 

Ezekiel Polk was sheriff of Tryon County in 1763, 
and was highly respected. By his first marriage, with 
Mary Wilson, he had four children, viz.: Thomas Polk, 
William Polk, Matilda Polk and Samuel Polk. By his 
last marriage with Mrs. Ivennard he had eight children, 
viz.: John Polk, Louisa Polk, Clarissa Polk, Mary Polk, 



PEDIGREE OF THE POLK FAMILY. 161 

Charles Polk, Benig-na Polk, Eugenia Polk and Edwin 
Polk. 

Thomas Polk, eldest son of Col. Ezekiel Polk and 
Mary Wilson, his wife, married and had seven children, 
viz.: Thomas Polk, Mary Polk, Irwin Polk, Ezekiel Polk, 
Adelina Polk, and Amelia Polk and Lecie, who married 
Mr. Lennard and had two children, Lucius Lennard and 
Eliza Lennard. 

William, the second child of Col. Ezekiel Polk and 
Mary Wilson, his wife, married Elizabeth Dodd, and had 
eight children, viz.: Clarissa Polk, Laura Polk, Mary 
Polk, Olivia Polk, Jackson J. Polk, Caroline Polk, 
Thomas Polk and Sarah Polk. 

Clarissa Polk, eldest child of William Polk and Eli- 
zabeth Dodd, his wife, married Mr. Taylor, and had live 
children, viz.: Isaac Taylor, Laura Taylor, Thomas 
Taylor, Caroline Taylor and Clarissa Taylor. 

Laura Polk, second child of William Polk and Eliza- 
beth Dodd, his wife, married twice; first Mr. Manlv, 
second Mr Taylor. B} r her first marriag'e there were 
three children: William Manly, Elizabeth Manlv and 
Clarissa Manly; by her second marriage she left three 
Taylor children. 

Mary Polk, third child of William Polk and Eliza- 
beth Dodd, his wife, married Mr. Howard, and had two 
children: William Howard and Sarah R. Howard. 

Olivia Polk, fourth child of William Polk and Eliza- 
beth Dodd, his wife, married Mr. D. D. Berry, and had nine 
children, viz.: Elizabeth Berry, Laura T. Berry, Cla- 
rissa C. Berry, Louisa M. Berry, Mary E. Berry, Olivia 
P. Berry, John T. Berry, William B. Berry and Daniel 
D. Berry. 

Jackson Polk, fifth child of William Polk and Eliza- 
beth Dodd, his wife, married and had four children, viz. : 
Ann Polk, William Polk, Oscar Polk and Virginia Polk. 

Caroline Polk, daughter of William Polk and Eliza- 



162 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

beth Docld, his wife, married John Wirt, and had two 
children (twins): Caroline Wirt and Catherine Wirt. 

Thomas Polk, son of William Polk and Elizabeth 
Dodd, his wife, never married. 

Sarah Polk, the young-est child of William Polk and 
Elizabeth Dodd, his wife, married Mr. Kent, and had 
one child, Joseph Kent. 

Matilda Polk, third child of Col. Ezekiel Polk and 
Mary Wilson, his wife, married Mr. Campbell, and had 
nine children, viz.: Robert Campbell, Mary Campbell, 
Madison Campbell, Eliza Campbell, William Campbell, 
Matilda Campbell, Junius Campbell, Caroline Campbell 
and John Campbell. 

Robert Campbell, eldest child of Mr. Campbell and 
Matilda Polk, his wife, married and had six children, viz.: 
Harriet Campbell (who married Mr. Kirby and left two 
children), John Campbell (who left one child, Mary 
Campbell), Jane Campbell, Bruce Campbell, Elizabeth 
Campbell and one other child. 

Mary Campbell, third child of Robt. Campbell and 
Matilda Polk, his wife, married Mr. Miller. 

Elizabeth Campbell, daug-hter of Robert Campbell 
and Matilda Polk, his wife, married Mr. Alexander. 

Samuel Polk, fourth child of Col. Ezekiel Polk and 
Mary Wilson, his wife, married Jane Knox, great, great 
niece of John Knox, of Scotland. She was the daughter 
of Col. James Knox, great nephew of the Scotch reformer. 
She was a strict Presbyterian. 

The Polk family in Scotland many times intermar- 
ried with the House of Suart. Now we find that they 
also inherit the descent of the Knox family. I cannot 
find in what degree Joanna Knox and her sister Nancy 
were related to the famous John Knox, whose integrit}' 
knew no compromise, and whose truth was stronger than 
royalty and resisted the charms of the most beautiful and 
fascinating - woman of that ag^e. 

"Col. James Knox was one of the prime movers in es- 



PEDIGREE OF THE POLK FAMILY. 163 

tablishing American Independence, and was one of the 
first members of the order of Cincinnatus." (Ramsey's 
Annals of Tennessee, page 97). Col. Knox, father of 
Jane, was an officer in the Revolutionary War. 

Samuel Polk married Jane Knox in 1806, and re- 
moved with his family to Tennessee. He died in 1827. 
To Samuel Polk and Jane Knox, his wife, were born ten 
children, viz.: James Knox Polk, Jane Maria Polk, Eliza 
Polk, Marshall Polk, John L. Polk, Franklin Polk, 
Naomi Polk, Ophelia Polk, William H. Polk and Samuel 
Polk. 

James Knox Polk, eldest child of Samuel Polk and 
Jane Knox, his wife, was born in North Carolina, Nov. 
2, 1795; died in Tennessee, June 15, 1849. "He became 
a member of the Tennessee bar in 1820, and soon took 
first rank among- his colleagues. He was elected mem- 
ber of Congress in 1825, where he was distinguished for 
his firmness and industry, and where he was chosen 
Speaker for three successive terms. His opinions coin- 
cided with those of the Democratic party, by which in 
1844, he was chosen President of the Republic. It was 
during- his administration that the war against Mexico 
was successfully terminated and the general Democratic 
policy maintained." (Putnam's Cyclopedia, page 694). 

President Polk was elected by the Democratic party 
eleventh President of the United States and inaugurated 
March 4, 1845. He was a man of the greatest purity 
and uprightness of character and tenderly beloved by 
those who knew him best — the members of his family and 
household. His public honors show the regard in which 
he was held by his fellow man. He married Sarah 
Childress and left no descendants. Mrs. JaneBarnett, of 
Tennessee, niece of President Polk, has a valuable col- 
lection of portraits, representing - five generations, begin- 
ning - with Jane Knox, wife of Samuel Polk, and mother 
of President Polk; second generation, President James 
K. Polk and his sister Maria, wife of James Walker; 



164 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

third g-eneration, the daughter of Maria Walker, Jane, 
who married Major I. N. Barnett, and her children are 
the fourth generation, and their children the fifth "fenera- 
tion. 

Jane Maria Polk," second child of Samuel Polk and 
Jane Knox, his wife, married James Walker, and lived to 
be 79 years of ag-e. James Walker was a native of Ken- 
tucky. He and his wife, Jane Maria Polk, had nine 
children, viz.: Samuel P. Walker, James H. Walker, J. 
Knox Walker, Jane Walker, Mar) 7 Walker, Sarah Walker, 
Annie M. Walker, L. Marshall Walker and Andrew 
Walker. 

Samuel P. Walker, eldest son of James Walker and 
Jane Maria Polk, his wife, married ,and had eig*ht chil- 
dren, viz.: Maria Walker, Catherine Walker, James 
Walker, John W. Walker, Samuel P. Walker, William 
Knox Walker and Ellen Walker. 

James Walker, the third child of Samuel P. Walker, 
was killed in C. S. A. service at Bellmond. His regi- 
ment was commanded by Col. J. Knox Walker, his uncle. 

James H. Walker, second child of James Walker and 
Jane Maria Polk, was an old soldier in 1860, having" 
served in the Mexican war. 

J. Knox Polk was Private Secretary to President 
Polk, and Colonel in the C. S. A. He was the third 
child of James Walker and Jane Maria Polk; he married- -; 
had four children, viz.: Maria Walker, Henry Walker.. 
Samuel W T alker and James K. Walker. 

Jane Walker, fourth child of James Walker and Jane 
Maria Polk, married Mr. I. N. Barnett; he was in the 
Confederate service and rose to the rank of Major. 
Major I. N. Barnett and Jane Walker, his wife, had four 

"A touching "In meinoriain" poem was written of Mrs. Maria Wal- 
ker by the gifted Mrs. Naomi H. Moore (nee Hays), who is widely known 
for her talent and life full of good works and many charities. Her 
large contribution to the erection of a monument to th^ Confederate 
dead, and her last work, the erection of The Ophelia Polk Moore Home 
for orphan girls, will ever be remembered by a grateful public. 



PEDIGREE OE THE POLK EAMILY. 165 

children, viz.: Maria Barnett, Mary Barnett, Rosa Bar- 
nett and Walker Barnett. 

Maria Barnett, eldest child, married General George 
D. Johns, of Alabama. She lived only two years after 
her marriage. 

Mary Barnett, second child of Major I. N. Barnett 
and Jane Walker, his wife, married Mr. W. J. Hine, has 
two children. 

Miss Rosa Barnett resides in Columbia; Mr. Walker 
Barnett is unmarried and lives in Nashville. 

Mary Walker, fifth child of James Walker and Jane 
Maria Polk, married Mr. Pickett, and had two children: 
Jane Pickett and Hays Pickett. 

Sarah Walker, sixth child of James Walker and Jane 
Maria Polk, married Mr. Green and had one child. 

Annie M. Walker, seventh child of James Walker 
and Jane Maria Polk married Mr. L. M. Philips, had one 
child that died young . 

L. Marshall Walker, eighth child of Jane Maria 
Walker and her husband, James Walker, was a graduate 
of West Point and was Major General in the Western 
Division of the Confederate Army. 

Andrew Walker, ninth child of James Walker and 
Jane Maria Polk, resides in St. Louis, Mo. 

Eliza Polk, third child of Samuel Polk and Jane Knox, 
his wife, married Mr. Caldwell and had two children: 
Samuel P. Caldwell and James Caldwell. 

Marshall Polk, fourth child of Samuel Polk and Jane 
Knox, his wife, married, had two children: Marshall Polk 
and Roxana Polk. 

John L. Polk, fifth son of Samuel Polk and Jane 
Knox, his wife, never married, and Franklin Polk, sixth 
son, never married. 

Naomi Polk, seventh child of Samuel Polk and Jane 
Knox, his wife, married Mr. Harris, and had four chil- 
dren, viz.: Amelia Harris, Maria Harris, Laura Harris 
and Melvina Harris, 



lf>6 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Ophelia Polk, eighth child of Samuel Polk and Jane 
Knox his wife, married Mr. Hays and had two children, 
viz.: Naomi Hays and Virginia Hays. 

William H. Polk, ninth child of Samuel Polk and 
Jane Knox, his wife, married Mary Williams, had two 
children: William H. Polk and Tasker Polk. 

Samuel Polk, tenth child of Samuel Polk and Jane 
Knox, his wife, never married. 

John Polk, fifth child of Col. Ezekiel Polk, was child 
of his last marriage, with Mrs. Lennard. John Polk 
married- -; had two children: Angelina Polk, whomarried 
Mr. Crawford, and Olivia Polk, who married Mr. Prior 
and left three children, Mary Prior, who married Mr. 
Moore, and John Prior and Elizabeth Prior. 

Louisa Polk, sixth child of Col. Kzekiel Polk and 
the widow. Lennard, his wife, married twice, first Mr. 
Neely, then Dr. C. C. Collier. She left seven children, 
viz.: Mary Neely, Rufus P. Neely, Adela Neely, Jack- 
son J. Neely, and by second marriage: Thomas Collier, 
William Collier and Fann} T Collier. 

Mary Neely, eldest child of Mr. Neely and Louisa 
Polk, his wife, married Mr. x\tvvood and had two children: 
Josephine Atwood and Adela At wood. 

Rufus P. Neely, second child of Mr. Neeky and 
Louisa Polk, his wife, married Miss Lea, and had eight 
children, viz.: William Neely, Harriet Neely, Louisa 
Neely, Kate Neely, Prudence Neel}\ Charles Neeh% James 
Neely and Mary Neel}\ 

Adela Neely, third child of Mr. Neely and Louisa 
Polk, his wife, married Mr. Bell. 

Jackson J. Neely married and left descendants. 

Thomas Collier, son of Dr. C. C. Collier and Louisa 
Polk, his wife, married and left descendants, one of whom 
was William Collier. 

Clarissa Polk, seventh child of Col. Ezekiel Polk, 
was a child of his last marriage, with Mrs. Lennard. 
Clarissa Polk married Thomas McNeal and had eight 



PEDIGREE OF THE POLK FAMILY. 167 

children, viz.: Jane McNeal, Ezekiel P. McNeal, Mary 
McNeal, Prudence McNeal, Albert T. McNeal, Evelina 
McNeal, Samuel L. McNeal and Wallace W. McNeal. 

Jane McNeal, eldest child of Thomas McNeal and 
Clarissa Polk, his wife, married Mr. Brown and had six 
children: Mary A. Brown, James Brown, Clara Brown, 
Albert Brown, Cordelia Brown and Lycurg^us Brown. 

Ezekiel P. McNeal, second child of Thomas McNeal 

and Clarissa Polk, his wife, married , and had a 

daughter: Priscilla McNeal. 

Mary McNeal, third child of Thomas McNeal and 
Clarissa Polk, his wife, married Mark R. Roberts, and 
had fourteen children, viz.: Clara Roberts, Thomas F. 
Roberts, Jane Roberts, Mary Roberts, Prudence Roberts, 
Thadius Roberts, Evelina Roberts, Maria Roberts, Na- 
poleon Roberts, Ann Roberts, Samuel Roberts, Eliza 
Roberts, Albert Roberts, Mark Roberts. 

Clara Roberts, eldest child of Mark R. Roberts and 
Mary McNeal, his wife, married Mr. Fulton. 

Jane Roberts, third child of Mark R. Roberts and 
Mary McNeal, his wife, married Mr. Jewett, left two 
children. 

Mary Roberts, fourth child of Mark R. Roberts and 
Mary McNeal, his wife, married Mr. Baker, had two 
children. 

Prudence Roberts, fifth child of Mark R. Roberts 
married Mr. McRay, left descendants. 

Prudence McNeal, fourth child of Thomas McNeal and 
Clarissa Polk, his wife, married John H. Bills; had six 
children, viz.: Ophelia Bills, Leonidas Bills, Mary Bills, 
Wilson Bills, Clara Bills, Evelina Bills. 

Ophelia Bills, eldest child of John H. Bills and Pru- 
dence McNeal, his wife, married Horace M. Polk, had 
five children, viz.: Mary Polk, John Polk, Evelyn Polk 
Thomas Polk (twins,), and another child. 

Mary Bills, third child of John H. Bills and Pru- 



168 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

dence McNeal, his wife, married Mr. Wood, had one 
child: Fanny Wood. 

Albert T. McNeal, fifth child of Thomas McNeal 
and Clarissa Polk, his wife, married, had two children, 
viz.: Albert T. McNeal, Irene McNeal. 

Evelina McNeal, sixth child of Thomas McNeal and 
Clarissa Polk, his wife, married Mr. L. Peters and had 
five children, viz.: Arthur Peters, Thomas Peters, 
Clara Peters, George W. Peters and another child. 

Samuel McNeal, seventh child of Thomas McNeal 
and Clarissa Polk, his wife, never married. 

William W. McNeal, eighth child of Thomas McNeal 
and Clarissa Polk, his wife, married, and had a son: 
Thomas McNeal. 

Thomas Polk, eighth child of William Polk, Sr., 
married Susan Spratt, daughter of Thomas Spratt. He 
was very prominent in the Mecklenburg Declaration, was 
with Washington at Brandywine and Valley Forge, and 
conveyed the "Liberty Bell" to Bethlehem. He was a 
very distinguished man, and was General in the war of 
the Revolution. To Thomas Polk and his wife, Susan 
Spratt, were born eight children, viz.: Thomas Polk, 
William Polk, Ezekiel Polk, Charles Polk, Martha Polk, 
Margaret Polk, Mary Polk and James Polk. 

Thomas Polk, eldest child of General Thomas Polk 
and Susan Spratt, his wife, never married, was killed at 
the battle of Eutaw. 

William Polk, second ch'ld of General Thos. Polk and 
Susan Spratt, his wife, was a Colonel in the Revolution- 
ary Army and fought in several battles in the South dur- 
ing" the war of the Revolution. He welcomed LaFayette 
in 1824. Col. William Polk married twice, first Grizelda 
Gilchrist, second Sarah Hawkins. He had ten children; 
by his first marriage he had two children, and eight chil- 
dren bv his second marriage. The children of Col. 
William Polk and Grizelda Gilchrist were: first Thomas 
G. Polk, second William Polk. The eight children of Col. 



PEDIGREE OF THE POLK FAMILY. 169 

William Polk and Sarah Hawkins were: Lucius Junius 
Polk, Leonidas Polk, Mary Polk, Alexander Polk, Ham- 
ilton Polk, Rufus King- Polk, George Washing-ton Polk, 
Susan Polk and Andrew Jackson Polk. 

Thomas G. Polk, eldest child of Col. William Polk, 
was General Thomas G. Polk, married Mary Trotter. 
They had eight children, v\z.: Mary (who married Mr. 
Davis and had three children: Mary Davis, Jane Davis 
and Funius Davis , second child, Jane Polk (who mar- 
ried Mr. Bouchelle), Richard Polk, William Polk, Emily 
Polk, Margaret Polk, Thomas Polk and Gilbert Polk. 

William Polk, second child of Col. William Polk and 
Grizelda Gilchrist, his wife, was a physician. Dr. Wil- 
liam Polk married Mary Jones and had seven children, 
viz.: Grizelda Polk 'who married Mr. Houston and left 
descendants;, Allen Polk, Thomas Polk, Mary Polk (who 
married Mr. Jones), Lucius Polk, Cadwalida Polk, and 
Rufus Polk. 

Lucius Junius Polk, eldest child of Col. William 
Polk by his second marriage, with Sarah Hawkins, mar- 
ried Mary Eastin and had eight children, viz.: Sarah 
Polk, Emily Polk, Mary Polk, William Polk, Eliza Polk, 
Fanny Polk, George Polk and Susan Polk. Second wife 
was Mrs. Ann Pope, who had two children: Lucius and 
Ella. 

Leonidas Polk, second child of Col. William Polk' by 
his second marriage with Sarah Hawkins, married Fran- 
ces Devereux. Leonidas Polk went through West Point, 
graduated at Alexandria Theological Seminary, and was 
elected Bishop of Louisiana. It was through his enthusi- 
astic efforts that the University of the South was estab- 
lished at Sewanee Tennessee. He was General in the 
Confederate Army and was killed on Pine Mountain, in 
the fifty-eighth year of his age. The life of 'Bishop 
Leonidas Polk has recently been given to the public in 
the charming volumes of his son. Dr. William M. Polk, 
of New York. To Bishop Leonidas Polk and his wife 

4'., 



170 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

were born eight children, viz.: Hamilton Polk, Frances 
Polk, Katherine Polk, Sarah Polk, Susan Polk', Eliza- 
beth Polk, William M. Polk, Lucia Polk. 

Hamilton, eldest son of Leonidas Polk, Bishop and 
General, and Frances Devreux, his wife, married Emily 
Beach, and died leaving five sons, viz.: Frank Polk, Le- 
onidas Polk, Hamilton Polk, George Polk and Beach 
Polk. 

Frances Polk, second child of Leonidas Polk, Bishop 
and General, and Frances Devereux, his wife, married 
Peyton Skipwith, died leaving - two children: Kate Skip- 
with and Frank Skipwith. 

Katherine Polk, third child of Leonidas Polk, Bishop 
and General, and Frances Devereux, his wife, married 
William D. Gale and had six children: viz.: Frances Gale. 
William Dudley Gale, Katherine Gale, Leonide Gale, Jose- 
phine Gale, Ethel Gale. The last four died unmarried. 

Frances, eldest child of William D. Gale and Kath- 
erine Polk, his wife, married Dr. Frank W. Ring". 

Wni. Dudley Gale, second child of Wm. D. (rale and 
Katherine Polk, his wife, married Meta Orr Jackson. 

Sarah Polk, fourth child of Leonidas Polk, Bishop 
and General, and his wife, Frances Devereux, married 
Frank Blake, and has one son: Frank Polk Blake. 

Susan Polk, fifth child of Leonidas Polk, Bishop and 
General, and Frances, his wife, married Joseph Jones; 
had three children: Hamilton Jones, Fanny Jones, Laura 
Jones. 

Elizabeth Polk, sixth child of Leonidas Polk, Bishop 
and General, and his wife, Frances Devereux. married 
Mr. W. E. Hug'er and had six children, viz.: Frances 
Hug'er, Lucia Hug'er, Emily Hug'er, John Hug'er, Arthur 
Hug'er and William Hug'er. 

Frances Hug'er, eldest child of Mr. W. K. Hug'er 
and Elizabeth Polk. his. wife, married Air. H. Labouisse. 

Lucia Huger. second child of Mr. W. E. Hug'er and 
Elizabeth Polk', his wife, married Mr. Joseph Hardy. 



PEDIGREE OIT THE POEK FAMILY. 171 

William M. Polk, seventh child of Leonidas Polk, 
Bishop and General, and Frances Devereux, his wife, 
married Ida Lyon, and has four children: Frank Polk, 
Metcalf Polk, Leonidas Polk, Serena Polk. 

Lucia Polk, eighth child of Leonidas Polk, Bishop 
and General, and Frances Devereux, his wife, married 
Edward Chapman. No children. 

Mary Polk, third child of Col. William Polk by his 
second marriage, with Sarah Hawkins, married Mr. 
George Badger, had two children: Sarah Badger and 
Katherine Badger. 

Alexander Hamilton Polk, fourth child of Col. Wil- 
liam Polk, by his second marriage, with Sarah Hawkins, 
died unmarried. 

Rufus King Polk, fifth child of Col. William Polk, by 
his second marriage, with Sarah Hawkins, married Sarah 
Jackson had a daughter, Sarah Polk, who married Gen. 
Lucius C. Polk. 

George Washington Polk, sixth child of Col. William 
Polk, by his second marriage, with Sarah Hawkins, mar- 
ried Sallie Hilliard; had eight children, viz.: James Polk, 
Rufus Polk, Mary Polk, George Polk, Sarah Polk, Hil- 
liard Polk, Ivucius Polk, Susan Polk. 

Susan Polk, seventh child of Col. William Polk by 
his second marriage, with Sarah Hawkins, married Ken- 
neth Rayner and had two children: Sallie H. Rayner and 
Hamilton Rayner. 

Andrew Jackson Polk, eighth child of Col. William Polk, 
by his second marriage, with Sarah Hawkins, married 
Rebecca Van Leer and had three children: Antoinette 
Polk, Anthony Van Leer Polk, and Rebecca Polk. 

Antoinette Polk married Baron Charette, of France, 
and has one son: Anthony Van Leer Charette. 

Fzekiel Polk, third child of General Thomas Polk 
and Susan Spratt, his wife, died at sea unmarried. 

Charles Polk, fourth child of General Thomas Polk 
and Susan Spratt, his wife, married the daughter of 



172 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Hezekiah Alexander, and had two sons: Thomas J. Polk 
and Charles Polk. 

Thomas J. Polk", eldest son oi Charles Polk and 
Miss Alexander, his wife, was Capt. Thomas J. Polk-, 
who married Sarah Moore, and moved to Tennessee. 
They had six children, viz.: Charles Polk, Mary Polk, 
Horace M. Polk', Thomas Polk, Emma Polk' and Napoleon 
Polk. 

Charles, eldest son of Capt. Thomas Polk and Sarah 
Moore, his wife, married Tv— EeXair and had eight 
children, viz.: John Polk, Eugene Polk, Emma Polk, 
Napoleon Polk, Ella Polk, Sarah Polk. Sarah Ella Polk 
and Charles Polk. 

Mary Polk, second child of Capt. Thomas J. Polk 
and Sarah Moore, his wife, married Mr. Potts, had four 
children, viz.: William Potts, Thomas Potts, Edgar Potts 
and Horace Potts. 

Horace M. Polk, third child of Capt. Thomas. J. 
Polk, married Ophelia Bitts and had five children, viz.: 
Mary Polk, John Polk. Evelyn and Thomas Polk, twins , 
and one other child. 

Thomas Polk, fourth child of Capt. Thomas J. Polk 
and Sarah Moore, his wife, married - — ; had two children: 
Leonidas Polk and Clarence Polk. 

Emma Polk, fifth child of Capt. Thomas J. Polk 
and Sarah Moore, his wife, married Mr. Bouchelle, had 
two children, a son, Julian Bouchelle, and another child. 

Napoleon Polk', sixth child of Capt. Thomas J. Polk 
and Sarah Moore, his wife, I cannot trace. 

Charles Polk, second son of Charles Polk' and Miss 
Alexander, his wife, married M- - James, had live chil- 
dren: Mary Polk, Emma Polk, Charles Polk. Prances 
Polk and Henrietta Polk. 

' Mary Polk, eldest child of Charles Polk and Miss 
.lames, his wife, married Air. Hunt and left two children: 
.Mary P. Hunt and Ella D. Hunt. 

Henrietta Polk, fifth child of Charles Polk and Miss 



PEDIGREE OF THE POLK FAMILY. 173 

James, his wife, married Mr. Avery, had a son: Walter 
Avery. 

Martha Polk, fifth child of General Thomas Polk 
and Susan Spratt, his wife, married Dr. Brevard, and 
had a daughter, Martha Brevard, who married Mr Dick- 
erson, of South Carolina, left one son, Col. James Dick- 
erson, killed in. the Mexican war. 

Margaret Polk, sixth child of General Thomas Polk 
and Susan Spratt, his wife, married Governor Nathaniel 
Alexander, left no children. 

Mary Polk, seventh child of General Thomas Polk 
and Susan Spratt, his wife, married Daniel Browne, a 
distinguished lawyer of South Carolina, had three chil- 
dren, but none of them came to maturity. 

James Polk, eighth child of General Thomas Polk 
and Susan Spratt. his wife, married the daughter of Col. 
Moore. 

[ To be continued in next issue, beginning with the William Polk branch ] 



174 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



THE FAMILY OF GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 

BY LAVINIA R. (HILL; BROWN. 



(Ten. James Robertson was the son of John rind Mary 
(Gower Robertson, born in Brunswick County, Va., June 
28, 1742. Nothing - certain is known to the writer con- 
cerning the forefathers of John and Mary (Gower) Rob- 
ertson. There is a legend that the family is of Royal 
Scottish descent, and investigations are now going" on, 
that may link a chain of Robertson ancestry several cen- 
turies back. There were other sons, and one daughter 
born to John and Mary (Gower) Robertson, and genealo- 
gists are now engaged in tracing the lineage of some of 
them. James, the eldest son, went to Wake County, N. 
C; there married Charlotte Reeves, daughter of George 
and Mary Reeves, October 20, 176^. He moved to Wa- 
tauga, 1770, was instrumental in laving foundations for 
civil government, and spent about eight or nine years 
there lending all his energy to the upbuilding- of this set- 
tlement; he was looked upon as a leader, and as a diplo- 
mat, had no equal. James Robertson's was a progres- 
sive mind, he desired to know more of the country west 
of the mountains, and with other pioneers decided to go 
as the "advance guard of western civilization" to Cum- 
berland, arriving in the spring of 177'), made prepara- 
tions for his family, who joined him the following winter. 

History has recorded his wonderful Indian encounters, 
his courage, braverv, and energy, his unswerving nature, 
and high sense of right. There was no undertaking too 
great for the advancement and welfare of his beloved 
country. Gen. James Robertson firmly believed in the 
rulings of an all-wise Providence, and unselfishness was 



THE FAMILY OF GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 175 

the chief characteristic of his nature, which was proven, 
when he left his beautiful home, ''Traveler's Rest," to 
spend his last days with the Chickasaw Indians, in the 
interest of the government; deprived of the comforts of 
home, and the care of loved ones, he died after a few days' 
illness, September 1st, 1814, and was buried in the 
Agency, where his remains rested until removed to Nash- 
ville, Tennessee, about 1825, and reinterred beside his 
wife, Charlotte, in the City Cemetery. A simple tomb 
marks the last resting place of General James Robertson, 
the pioneer of Tennessee and father of Nashville. 

(No. 1.) 

• lames Robertson, son of John and Mary (Grower) Robertson, 
married Charlotte Sleeves, daughter of George and Mary 
Reeves, -Ian. 21, 17GS, in Wake County. X. C; she was born in 
Xorth Hampton County, X. C, -Jan. 2, 1751; eleven children. 
i First Generation from James Robertson.) 

2. Jonathan Friar, horn Juno 13, 1700. died Oct. U. 1811. 

•'!. James Randolph, born Doc 11. 1771, killed by Indians. 

A. Delilah, born Nov. JO. 177J. 

.*). Peyton Henderson, born July 11, 1775, killed by Indians. 

0. Charlotte, born July 11, 1778, died in infancy. 

7. Felix, born Jan. 11. 1781, died July 10, 1865. 

s. Charlotte :2ml. born .March 11, 1783. 

!>. William Blount, born June 15, 1785, died Oct. 23, 1837. 

10. Peyton, horn Dec. 8, 17S7. 

11. Lavim'a. horn Feb. 2J, 1700, died Dec 31, 1866. 

12. John McNairy, horn April 26, 1792. 

(No. 2.1 

(Second ( 5-enerat ion.) 

Jonathan Friar Robertson, son of James and Charlotte 
(Reeves) Robertson, married Ciddy Davis, daughter of Frede- 
rick and Fanny Davis, December, 1791; she died in Nashville, 
Tex.. 1ST)!): ten children. 

13. Susanna, horn Dec. S, 1702, died in infancy. 

11. .lames Randolph, hern March 7, 1704, died 1850. 



17() THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



1.5. Elizabeth Davis, born Jan. Hi. 1796, died December, 

1881. 
1('». Benjamin Franklin, bom March I. L798, died Nov. 1, 

1821. 
17. Frederick Davis, born June 2-*:. 1800, died L866. 
is. Eenry Villars. bom April 18, 1803, died L856. 
1!). Peyton Henderson, bora Aug. 19, 1805, died young. 

20. Felix; born Aug. 10, 1807. 

21. Jonathan Friar, Jr., bora .March L5, L810, died ls44. 

22. Francis Greves, born .June 30, 181.'!, never married, died 

1864. 

(No. 4.) 

Delilah Robertson, oldesi daughter of .lames and Charlotte 
(Reeves) Robertson, married John Bosley, Aug. 12, 1789; eleven 
.children, 

2:;. -lames R, born -Ian. 15, 1791. 

24. Rachel, born Nov. 19, 1792, died in infancy. 

25. Charlotte, bora Feb. 28, 1794. 
2G. .Mary, born -July 20, 1700. 

27. Eliza II.. born Sept. 25, 17!)S. 

28. John Beck, bora Sept. 2::. 1800. 

29. Peyton R., born Oct. 1, 1801. 
-.0. Maria, bom October, 1806. 

31. Lavinia Beck, bora Dec. 22, 1808. 

32. Delilah, born Feb. 28, 1811. 

33. Rachel 2nd. born May 14. 1814. 

(Xo. 7.) 

Dr. Felix Robertson, son of James and Charlotte (Reeves) 
Robertson, married Lydia Waters, of Maryland. Oct. 9, 1808; 
eighl children. 

:!4. James \Y.. born Feb. IS. 1812, died 1836. 

35. Elizabeth Anderson, born July 23, 1813, died Dec. 1!t. 

1891. 
JO. Benjamin Barton, born 1815, died 1815. 
.".7. Mary Jordan, born 1816, died 1871. 

38. Elenora Reeves, bora 1818, died 1880. 

39. John E. Beck, born 1820. 

10. Felix Robertson, born 1820. died 1827. 



THE FAMILY OF GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 177 

41. Felix Randolph, born 1827, died 1862. 

(No. 7) Dr. Felix Robertson was the first white child born in 
Nashville. He graduated in Philadelphia, at the Pennsylvania 
Medical College; was eminent in his profession, and was a be- 
loved physician, philanthropist and cultured gentleman. He 
donated the "Correspondence" of Gen. James Robertson to the 
University of Nashville. 

(No. S.) 

Charlotte Robertson, daughter of James and Charlotte 
(Reeves) Robertson, married Col. Richard Napier in Nashville, 
1798; eight children. 

42. James R., born Aug. 21, 1800, died 1880. 

43. William Claiborne, born Feb. 17, 1804, died 1804. 
41, Tennessee 1st, born June 16, 1806, died 1812. 

45. Madison C, born June 0, 180S. 

46. William P., born June 1, 1810, died dan. 15, 1814. 

47. Tennessee 2nd, born Feb. 3, 1818, died 1814. 

48. Leroy G. W., born Nov. 23, 1817, died July 18, 1866. 

49. Charlotte M., born Aug. 20, 1820, died 1844. 

(No. 9.) 

William Blount Robertson, son of James and Charlotte 
(Reeves) Robertson, married Leodocia Erwin April 5, 1807; he 
died in rberville Parish, La.; eight children. 

50. Tennessee, born Aug. 15, 1808. 

51. James Erwin, born Aug. 19, 1810, died April 8. 1854. 

52. William Blount, Jr., born Dee. 17, 1813. 
58. Lavinia, born March 24, 1821. 

51. Edward White, born June 18, 1823. 

55. George S., born May 3, 1828, died 1831. 

56. Charles Dickinson, born Feb. 5, 1880, died July 12, 1831. 

57. Charles Dickinson 2nd. born June 24, 1838, died Dec. 

26, 1888. 

(No. 40.) 

Dr. Peyton Robertson, son of James and Charlotte (Reeves) 
Robertson, married Ellen Davis in 1820. He was an eminent 
physician; six children. 

58. Flavins Josephus, born 1824, died 1862. 

59. James Peyton, born 1828, died 1846. 

5 



178 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

60. Alexander Campbell, born L831, died 1853. 

61. George Frederic, born is:::;, died 1833. 

62. Alice, born 1837. 

03. John Blount; no dates given. 

(No. 11.) 

Lavinia, youngest daughter of James and Charlotte (Reeves) 
Robertson, married John E. Beck (an eminent lawyer) Oct. 9, 
1803; then James B. Craighead, leaving no issue by the last 
marriage; two children. 

64. Susanna Beck, born Nov. 5, 1807, died June, 1836. 

65. Greorgiana Beck, born June 24, 1811, died Aug. 6, 1881. 
(No. 11) Lavinia Robertson rode horseback to Philadelphia 

from Nashville to complete her education, accompanied by her 
brother Felix, who attended Medical College. 

(No. 12.) 

John McNairy Robertson, son of James and Charlotte 
(Reeves) Robertson, married Lucy Scales; nine children. 

66. Charlotte. 

67. Martha Allen. 

68. John; no information. 

69. Lucy Ann. 

70. Joe; dead. 

71. James, died from an old wound, 1874. 

72. Elizabeth. 

73. B. Franklin ; dead. 

74. Ellen. 

(Third ( reneration.) 

(No. 14.) 

James Randolph, son of Jonathan Friar and Ciddy Robert 
son, married Susan Oldham; nine children. 

75. Fannie H., born Nov. 30, 1820. 

76. Frederic, born about 1821, died unmarried. 

77. Eliza, born about 1824. died about 1846. 

78. Medora, born about 1826, died about 1848. 
70. Hays H., born about 1828, died about 1800. 

80. Susanna, born 1830, died 1S42. 

81. James B., born 1832, died 1S50. 

82. B. Franklin, born 1S40, died young. 

83. Jimmy Jackson, born 1S44, killed in C. S. A. 



THE FAMILY OF GEN, JAMES ROBERTSON. 179 

(No. 15.) 

Elizabeth Robertson, daughter of Jonathan Friar and Ciddy 
(Davis) Robertson, married Leonard Cheatham Sept. 11, 1817;. 
eleven children. 

84. Medora Charlotte, born Jan. 10, 1819, died Feb. 8, 1880. 

85. Benjamin Franklin, born Oct. 20, 1820, died Sept. 4, 1880. 
80. Sarah Pope, born March 0, 1822, died Feb. 19, 1840. 

87. Felix Eobertson, born April 30, 1824, died Jan. 22, 1893. 

88. John Anderson, born June 0, 1820. 

89. Martha Eliza, born Jan. 21, 1828. 

90. Maria Louise, born Aug. 17, 1829, died Jan. 15, 1894. 

91. Leonora, bom March 25, 1831, died Feb. 24, 1803. 

92. Ada Byron, born Dec. 11, 1833, unmarried. 

93. Alice B., born Jan. 20, 1830, died April, 1893. 

94. Samuella, born Jan. 30, 1839, died Jan. 15, 1800. 

(No. 10.) 
Benjamin Franklin Robertson, son of Jonathan Friar and 
Ciddy D. Robertson, married Martha Goodloe, of Maury County, 
Tenn. ; one child. 

95. Mary Eliza, born Aug. 23, 1824. 

(No. 17.) 
Dr. Frederic Davis Robertson, son of Jonathan Friar and 
Ciddy (Davis) Robertson, graduated in Philadelphia Medical 
College, lost his hearing, became a dentist, and lived in Plaque- 
mine, La.; was greatly beloved by his relatives and friends. 

(No. 18.) 
Henry Villars Robertson, son of Jonathan Friar and Ciddy 
(Davis) Robertson, married Rebecca Oldham Dec. 28, 1828. at 
Brunswick, Va.; she died in Texas; ten children. 

90. John Davis, born June 20, 1830, died Aug. 8, 1830. 

97. Wm. Howard, bom Nov. 8, 1832. 

98. D. Hardeman, bom July 18, 1834, died Nov. 10, 1800. 

99. Henry Oldham, bom Sept. 11, 1830. 

100. Benj. Franklin, born June 11, 1840. 

101. Louise Francis, born Sept. 10, 1841, died Sept. 13. I860. 

102. Bettie R., born Feb. 11, 1843. 

103. James R., born Feb. 13, 1810. 

104. Susan Fee, born Oct. 23, 1847, died July 15, 1872. 



180 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

105. Leonora Rebecca, born June 2, 1850, died Aug. 10, 1867. 

(No. 20.) 

Felix, son of Jonathan Friar and Ciddy (Davis) Robertson, 
married a Miss Cannon, and was living in Texas; no other 
information. 

(No. 21.) 

Jonathan Friar. Jr., married Miss Dunn; no other informa- 
tion. 

(No. 28.) 

James R., son of John and Delilah (Robertson) Hosier, mar- 
ried Elizabeth Scales; six children. 

106. Elizabeth; no dates given. 

107. Charles; no dates given. 

108. Adaline; no dates given. 

109. Sarah Ann; no dates given. 

110. James; no dates given. 

111. Eliza;, no dates given. 

(No. 25.) 

Charlotte, daughter of John! and Delilah Robertson Bosley, 
married George Witt Feb. 14, 1815; married second to John 
Drake Sept. 3, 1818; married third to John Wilkerson; issue by 
first; one child. 

112. Georgetta Witt. 

(No. 20.) 
Mary, daughter of John and Delilah (Robertson) Bosley, mar- 
ried William Drake Oct. 31, 1817; eight children. 

113. Benj. F., born Sept. 10, 1818, died January, 1894. 

114. John B., born Jan. 10, 1820. 

115. William II., born Aug. 20, 1823. 
11.6. Josiah E., born Jan. 25, 1825. 

117. Susanna F., born Nov. 1, 1828. 

118. James R.. bom April 1. 1826. 
110. Elizabeth D., born Aug. 30, 1831. 
120. Harriett E., bora Oct. 9, 1834. 

(No. 27.) 
Eliza II. Bosley. daughter of John and Delilah (Robertson) 
Bosley. married John McAllister, then Benjamin Neblett, May 
25. 1824, in Nashville; six children. 



THE FAMILY OF GEN. JAMEvS ROBERTSON. 181 

121. Eliza Ann McAllister, first marriage. 

122. John Neblett, second marriage, dead. 

123. Charlotte, second marriage. 

124. Marietta, born Oct. 12, 1833, second marriage, died April 

2, 1886. 

125. Rachel, second marriage. 

126. Benjamin, killed in C. S. Army. 

(No. 20.) 

Peyton Randolph, son of John and Delilah (Robertson) Bos- 
ley, married Catherine Sanders Oct. 31, 1831; two children. 

127. John, born Sept. 22, 1832. 

128. Hub; no dates. 

(No. 30.) 

Maria Rosier, daughter of John and Delilah Bosley, married 
Henry Neblett Oct. 22, 1822; five children. 
' 120. John; no dates; never married. 

130. Lavinia ; no dates. 

131. Roberf ; no dates. 

132. William. 

133. Maria Henry; no dates. 

(No. 31.) 

Lavinia Beck, daughter of John and Delilah Bosley, married 
McNairy Newell June 25, 1827; six children. 
131. John McNairy, born April 26, 1830. 

135. Robert Stothart, born Sept. 15, 1832. died 1810. 

136. Jane Delilah, born Dec. 13, 1833, died. 

137. Mary Eliza, born April 30, 1835, unmarried. 

138. Tennessee, born Sept. 20, 1837, died in infancy. 

130. Charlotte Robertson, borniSept. 12, 1839, unmarried. 

(No. 32.) 

Delilah, daughter of John and Delilah Bo'sley, married Jere- 
miah Scales; four children. 

110. Mary Eliza, born April 1, 1834. 

111. Joseph Henry, born Sept. 1, 1836. 

112. Martha, born 1838. 
143. Ann Delilah, born 1840. 



182 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

(No. 33.) 

Rachel, daughter of John and Delilah Bosley, married Jere- 
miah Scales (her brother-in-law); five children. 

1.44. William, married; no information. 

145. James, dead; no other information. 

14G. Adaline, dead; no other information. 

1.47. Charlotte, dead; no other information. 

148. George, dead; no other information. 

(No. 34.) 

James W. Robertson, son of Dr. Felix and Lydia (Waters) 
Robertson, left descendants; they settled in Louisiana; have 
no information of them. 

(No. 35.) 

Elizabeth Anderson, daughter of Dr. Felix and Lydia 
{Waters) Robertson, was married July 17, 1834, to Thomas 
Smith; three children. 

140. Samuel Granville, born April 15, 1835, unmarried. 

150. Mary Lydia, born June 17, 1836. 

151. Felix R. Robertson; no date. 

(No. 37.) 

Marv Jordan Robertson, daughter of Dr. Felix and Lvdia 
Robertson, married Frank Sullivan in 1840; one child. 

152. Felix R. 

(No. 38.) 

Elenora Reeves Robertson, daughter of Dr. Felix and Lydia 
(Waters) Robertson, married Duncan Hennen in 1836; two chil- 
dren. 

15:'.. Anna Barker, born 1837, died 1879. 

154. Lydia, born 1840, died 1869. 

(No. 39.) 
John E. Beck Robertson, son of Dr. Felix and Lydia (Waters) 
Robertson, married Mary L. Oldham in isii^; eight children. 

155. Elenora, born 1845. 

156. Felix, born 1847, died L894. ) .„ 
lo7. Thomas. ) 

158. Frank L., born 1S4!». unmarried. 

159. Mary L.. born 1851, died 1867. 

160. William R., born 1853. 



THE FAMILY OF GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 183 

161. Minnie R., bom 1855. 

162. Neppie, born 1857. 

(No. 41.) 

Felix Randolph Robertson, son of Dr. Felix and Lydia Rob- 
ertson, married Mary McKenzie in Arkansas in 1858; two 
children. 

168. James H., born 1849. 

164. Mary Lydia, born 1851. 

(No. 42.) 
•James R. Napier, son of Col. Richard and Charlotte (Rob- 
ertson) Xapier, married Hannah Van Leer in Nashville Jan. 20, 
1820; six children. 

165. James Blount, born Oct. 3, 1821. 
170. Margaret, born Nov. 13, 1832. 

166. Richard, born June, 1823, died in infancy. 
107. Charlotte E., born April 22, 1825. 

168. Morgiana, born Feb. 0, 1827. 

169. Richard C, born Oct. 23, 1829, died March 10, 1834. 

170. Margeret, born Nov. 13, 1832. 

(No. 45.) 

Madison C. Xapier, son of Col. Richard and Charlotte R. 
Xapier, married Mary Eliza Burch March 3, 1831; second mar- 
riage to Louise Davis (no other information of this family); 
eight children. 

171. John Burch, born Aug. 5, 1833, died Oct. 8, 1834. 

172. Francis, born Jan. 9, 1835, died. 

178. Eugenia Ella, born Sept. 1, 1836, died. 

174. Julia Elizabeth, born March 22, 1838, died. 

175. Ophelia A., born Nov. 1, 1839, died. 

170. Ann Eliza, born May 4, 1842, died June 11, . 

177. William, second marriage. 

178. Ada, second marriage. 

(No. 48.) 
Leroy C W. Xapier, son of Col. Richard and Charlotte 
Xapier, married Fannie Robertson (daughter of James Ran- 
dolph Robertson) Aug. 27, 1837; she died April 17, 1888; twelve 
children. 

179. Fenno Robenia, born Nov. 10, 1889. 



184 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

180. Randolph R., bora July 23, L841, died L865. 

181. Baby girl, bora May 7, L843, died L843. 

182. Samuel Bowland, bora April 1. 1*4<;, died 1865. 

1S3. Silena Johnson, born March IT, 1*4*, died January, 1879. 
1X4. Robert Emmet, born Oct. ::. !*!!>. died November, 1857. 

185. r cl I Corinne, born .July 30, 1*51. 

186. Fannie Lorena, born -July L3, 1853. 
1X7. Baby boy, born May 21, 1855. 

188. Hazel, born .Juno 21, 1857. 
1S9. Frederick, born July 27, 1859. 

190. Baby girl, born May 21, 1862. 

(No. 4!).) 

Charlotte Mary, daughter of Col. Richard and Charlotte i Rob- 
ertson) Napier, was married to James L. Riggs Aug. 10, IS'M. - 

(Xo. 50.) 
Tennessee Robertson, daughter of William Blount, Si-., and 
Leodocia (Erwin) Robertson, married George Sharp; three chil- 
dren. 

191. William .J.; no dates. 

192. Leodocia; no dates. 

193. Elizabeth; no dates. 

(Xo. 51.) 
Col. James Erwin Robertson, son of William Blount, Sr., and 
Leodocia (Erwin) Robertson, married .Miss Schlater, of Iber- 
ville Parish, June 10, ix::i); eight children. 

194. T. Amelia, born Sept. ::, 1*::::. died 1838. 

195. Leodocia. bora So] it. 1. 1837, died 1881. 

196. Tennessee, bora Oct. 5, 1839. 

1!)7. James Michael, born .May !), 1*4:!. 
198. Frederic I>avis. born Nov. 2."), 1*44. 
19!). Mary -Jane, bora Aug. 1*. 1846. 

200. William Blount, born Nov. 2."), 1*47. 

201. Edward White, born Sept. 1*. L849, died April 22. 1875. 
(No. -"ill Col. James Erwiu Robertson was a member of the 

Legislature (1851) of Louisiana. 

(No. 52.) 
Judge William Blounl Robertson, Jr., son of William B. and 
Leodocia (Erwin) Robertson, married Mary -Jane Chinn, dangh- 



THE FAMILY OF GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 185 

ter of Judge Chinn, of West Baton Rouge, April 10, 1838; thir- 
teen children. 

202. William Blount, born 1839. 

203. Elizabeth Johnson, bom Oct. 31, 1810. 
201. Thomas Chinn, born May 13, 1812. 
205. Benjamin Collins, born July 20, 1811. 
200. James p]rwin, born Aug. 1, 1815. 

207. Leodoeia Erwin, born Dec. 3, 1817. 
20S. Mary Chinn, born Jan. 1. 1850. 
200. Tennessee, born Oct. 12, 1852. 

210. Ernestine Schlater, born Oct. 11, 1855. 

211. Boiling Chinn, bom June 10, 1858. 

212. Frauds Conrad, bom Dec. 19, 1800. 

213. Catherine Lyle, born Feb. 13, 1801. 
211. Alexander Roth, bom Aug. 7. 1807. 

(Xo. 52.) 

Judge William Blount Robertson was a distinguished lawyer 
and cultured gentleman. He was elected Judge of the Sixth 
Judicial District of Louisiana, which place he filled with honor, 
and died at the homestead, "Limerick" Plantation. Jan. 2, 1881. 

(No. 53.) 

Lavinia Robertson, daughter of William Blount and Leo- 
doeia (Erwin) Robertson, married Adolph Legendree; no issue; 
second marriage to Augustus Tolbot; three children. 

215. Edward B.; no age given. 

210. Leodoeia; no age given. 

217. Augustus; no age given. 

(No. 51.) 
Edward White Robertson, son of William Blount and Leo- 
doeia (Erwin) Robertson, married Mary lane Pope April 15, 
1817; twelve children. 

218. Nathaniel Blount, born Jan. 28. 1818. 

219. Martha Johnson, born March 12, 1819. 

220. Samuel Matthews, born Jan. 1, 1852. 

221. Ernestine, born May 21, 1S53. 

222. James Erwin. born May 8, 1855, died September. 1800. 
228. Caroline, born Nov. 28, 1850. 

221. Edward White, Jr.. born July 12, 1858, died in infancy. 



186 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

225. Charles William, bom Sept. 26, 1859. 
220. Marshall Pope, bora April 20, 1861. 
227. Cabal Breckinridge, bora Aug. 5, 1862. 
22S. Frederick Conrad, bora Fob. 12, 1865. 
220. Mary Lillian, bora June 19, 1867. 

(No. 54.) 

Hon. Edward White Robertson completed his education at 
the Nashville University, Tenn.; he returned to Louisiana, chose 
law as a profession; served several terms as a legislator; was 
State Auditor from 1857 to 1862. In the year 1876 was 
Representative from the Sixth Congressional District of Louis- 
iana, and was elected to the Forty-fifth Congress; was re- 
elected to the Forty-sixth. Forty-seventh and Fiftieth Con- 
gresses. 

(No. 57.) 

Charles Dickinson Robertson, son of William Blount and 
Leodocia (Erwin) Robertson, married Laura Lncinda Klein- 
peter; five children. 

230. Peter R. Ventress, born Aug. 12, 1855. 

231. Anna, born Dec 12, 1857, died young. 

232. Lucinda, bora Nov. 2, 1861. 

233. Laura, born March 23, 1870. 

234. Mary, born July 22. 1877. 

1X0. 57) Charles Dickinson Robertson was educated at a Vir- 
ginia college; was proficient in both English and French. iThis 
information is from his children). 

Dr. Flavins Josephus, son of Peyton and Ellen ; Davis) Rob- 
ertson, married Laura Brown, daughter of Cow Aaron Y. 
Brown, Postmaster General under Buchanan, in 1850; three 
children. 

235. Nellie. 
2^0. Medora. 

2.*!7. Aaron, unmarried. 

I No. 58.) 
Dr. Flavins Josephus Robertson entered the Mexican War 
as a private, but his skill as a surgeon soon brought him rank 
and fame. His untiring devotion to duty as a surgeon in 
charge of hospitals, and utter disregard for his own health, 
caused his death in 1862, during the Civil War. 



THE FAMILY OF GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 187 

(No. 60.) 
Dr. Alexander Campbell Robertson, son of Dr. Peyton and 
Ellen (Davis) Robertson, married M. E. Vaulx in 1852; he fell a 
martyr to duty in fighting an epidemic of yellow fever in New 
Orleans in 1853; no issue. 

(No. 62.) 

Alice Robertson, daughter of Dr. Peyton and Ellen (Davis) 
Robertson, married Dr. Joseph Huddleston in 1858; two chil- 
dren. 

238. Mary Ellen. 

239. Josephine. 

(No. 63.) 

Judge John Blount Robertson, son of Dr. Peyton and Ellen 
(Davis) Robertson, married Adelaide Gordy in 1857 in Louis- 
iana; six children. 

210. Adelaide; no date. 

211. John Blount; no date. 

212. Annie; no date. 

213. Nellie; no date. 
211. Pevton; unmarried. 

215. Laura Brown; unmarried. 

(No. 63.) 
Judge John Blount Robertson became eminent in his chosen 
profession of law. He was the author of a History of the Mex- 
ican War; also other works preserved in the archives of Louis- 
iana as books of value 

(No. 64.) 

Susanna Beck, daughter of John E. and Lavinia (Robertson) 
Beck, married Robert Paine, Bishop of the M. E. Church, 
South; was married about 1827; two children. 

216. James G, born Feb. 27, 1829, died June 1, 1887. 

217. John, dead. 

I No. 65.) 

Creorgiana Beck, daughter of John E. and Lavinia (Robert- 
son) Beck, married John T. Hill, wholesale merchant in Nash- 
ville, Tenn.; twelve children. 

218. Lavinia, born 1829. 

219. Ann Eliza, born Aug. 13, 1830. 



188 • THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

250. Susanna 1 si. died in infancy. 

251. John Heck, bora Feb. 17. 1834. 

252. Susanna 1!.. bora 1836. 

253. Roberl P., bora 1838, died 1800. 

254. Carrie T., bora May, 1840, died December, 1873. 

255. Felix, bora March 20. 1843. 

256. Mary, died in infancy. 

257. Lavinia. bora dime 15, 1848. 

258. William, born about 1851. 
2.1!). < 'harlotte, born dan. 2, 1856. 

(No. 6.7.) 

Martha Robertson, daughter of John McNairy and Lucy 
(Scales) Robertson, married William Bell; perished in a storm 
in 1856 in Louisiana; she left six daughters and one son; have 
no other information. 

(No. 66.) 

('harlotte Reeves Robertson, daughter of McNairy and Lucy 
(Scales) Robertson, married H. Waller; left one daughter, who 
married, and is dead. 

(No. 69.) 

Lucy Ann Robertson, daughter of McNairy and Lucy (Scales) 
Robertson, married Harman Matta; left a son. who died with 
yellow fever in 1855. 

(Xo. 72.) 

Elizabeth, daughter of McNairy and Lucy i Scales) Robert- 
son, lirst married Jackson; second married Pickot; left a son. 
who lives in Texas. 

No other informal ion in regard to flu- McNairy Robertson 
descendants. 

[To be continue J in the next issue, beginning with the fourth generation 

from James Robertson. ] 



CORRESPONDENCE OF GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 18 c > 



THE CORRESPONDENCE OF GEN. JAMES 

ROBERTSON. 



[Gov. Blount's official announcement.] 

At Wtn. Yance} T, s in the ceded Territory of the 
United States South of the River Ohio October 11th 
1790.— 

My dear Sir, 

I am at length arrived qualified to 

proceed on the duties of my appointment. I shall stay 

on this Side of the Cumberland Mountain untill I get the 

Government Organized that is untill I appoint the civil 

officers of the Government and then shall come on to 

Nashville as fast as possible to fill the Appointments for 

the Counties of Davidson, Sumner and Tennessee — I 

cannot say with Certainty when you may expect me but 

you may rely no unnecessary delay will take place. — If 

Major Farrag-ut is with you he may wait my Coming- or 

not as is most convenient and agreeable to himself. I am 

dear Sir with very sincere esteem 

Your obedient Servant 

Wm. Blount 



[John Sevier writes the news from Congress.] 

Philadelphia, 10th January, 1791. 
Dear Sir, 

THE news of this place is not very material. Manv 
things are before Congress, but not much finished- A 
land office bill is before the house, and 30 cents per acre 
is proposed to be the price of our Federal lands. An ex- 
cise bill is also on the carpet, for imposing duties on dis- 
tilled spirits, stills, &c, though this, I hope, will not 



190 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

reach us. The news from Europe is, that Britain and 
Spain continue indefatigably their preparations for war; 
and it is thought, by many, that blows will inevitably 
follow. I am of opinion, should the excise bill be passed, 
we shall derive great benefits from it; proviso; we can 
keep clear ourselves, as it would have a direct tendency 
to encourag"e emigration into our country, and enable us 
to sell the production of our own distilleries, lower than 
our neighbors. 

General Harmer's expedition is much reprobated by 
many here, and it is generally believed, that the North- 
ern Indians will be very troublesome the ensuing" sum- 
mer. A very cold winter here, which in ag'reat measure 
prevents the sending" of letter; but shall do myself the 
honor of communicating" to you, everything of importance 
that occurs, on every suitable opportunity. Kentucky 
is to be admitted a member of the union in June, 1792. 

I have the honor to be, Sir, 
with sentiments of esteem 
and much reg"ard, your 
most obedient and humble servant, 

John Sevier. 



[To Gen. James Robertson from Piaming-o. Chief of the Chickasaw-.] 

Chickasaw Nation Long Town august the 9th 1795 

My Dear friend (Did brother 

The bearer of this is a man that has had three of his 
horses stolen by } T our people and it is my request that 
you will try to g"it them for Him as Air Peachlen can tell 
you the names of the people that stole them and if you 
canot git them for him ; f you should think that you will 
be no looser give him other horses in their place — but try 
all that you can to find them out and have them returned 
to the owner for he is a very g'ood man and I hope you 
will git his horses fen" him for you Know that there is 
mad people among" your people as well as mine so that 



CORRESPONDENCE OF GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 191 

the owner of the horses caries this and is very uneasy 
about them and I hope you can git them for him — it seems 
that the people that stole them had lost horses on the 
Road by the Chactaws but its hard for our people to loose 
horses for that and as the man that owns the horses has 
come to see you Not on the beging line I hope you will 
give him some trifel to Remember you — from } 7 our friend 
and Humble Servant Piamingo. 



[This letter has no signature. Its tenor would indicate that it was 
written by Gen. James Robertson to Gov. Blount, or to some officer of 
the United States. It is not in Gen. Robertson's hand writing. It was 
probably copied b\' a clerk, and filed among Gen. Robertson's papers.] 

Nashville 25th of August 1791.- 
Sir, 

With this letter you will receive the Memorial of the 
Officers civil & Military in the Districts of Mero, In ad- 
dition to the representa- in it, and Since the date 
thereof the Indians have killed two men, one at his own 
house, the other horse hunting-, and have stolen a number 
of horses. — 

I have taken the liberty, knowing your particular 
anxiety for our wellfare, to forward the business to your 
hands, fully expecting that thro you, it will meet with 
the most speedy passage. 

I am well assured that our not having- received ade- 
quate protection, is owing - to our silence, and remote sit- 
uation, a full proof of which we have in our neighbors, 
the Kentuckians, who are most amply protected. It is 
my belief that the Indians entertain an opinion, that the 
United States are not warmly interested for our wellfare, 
the fixing a few garrisons by the Authorit} 7 of the United 
States would convince, and most incredibl} 7 deter them. 

The Indians who committed those depredations have 
been followed, and their course was for the Creek Nation. 



192 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

| From Gov. Blount on Indian Treaty and matters of Government.] 

McCobb's (or Mr. Cobb's) September 3d 17 ( )1 

Dear Sir, 

I have obtained leave of Absence from the Territory 
after the 15th Instant for about two Months to remove 
my family from the Territory.- I shall be living at 
Knoxville by the 10th December at farthest. - The 
President acknowledges by the Secretary' at War the Re- 
ceipt of the Treaty but makes no Observations on it, I 
suppose it will be ratified as soon as the Senate meets 
which is on the 4th day of October.- By Major Mount- 
farence I forwarded a Plan of Defence of Cumberland bv 
stationing' of regular Troops which I have Hopes will be 
ag-reed to.- The Treaties with Indians passed unob- 
served inviolate and it is the duty of every officer so to 
speak and act for they have sworn to support the Gov- 
ernment and the Government will support them— All 
Treaties made or to be made shall be the supreme Law 
of the Land— hence all Treaties with Indians are the 
Law of the Land.- The Grand Jury would - 
the bill ag'ainst Cox and others which has g-iven the Com- 
panv a sort of triumph in the Eyes of ignorant People 
over Government but be assured the United States have 
other means in store to prevent them from forming* a set- 
tlement at the Muscle Shoals or on any Indian Lands 
and altho' they cannot succeed I foresee they will yet 
give more trouble— Take care that none of your igno- 
rant People are mislead.— I hope your Grand Jury it 
occasion offers will do better.- Judge Anderson will 
be at your Court, I am highly pleased with him both as 
a man and as a Judge; he has been a Major in the Conti- 
nental Service continued to the end of the War, has sup- 
ported since the Character of a good Citizen, is a g*enteel 
man and a learned Judge and a very agreeable open Com- 
panion.— I have made Judge Campbell acquainted with 



CORRESPONDENCE OP GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 193 

the Presentment of the Grand Jury and I think he will 

accompany Judge Anderson. — 

I am dear Sir with much esteem 

Your obt Servant 

Wm. Blount 
General Robertson. 



[Gov. Blount to Gen. Robertson on Government affairs.] 

McCobb's (or Mr. Cobbs) September 21st 1791. 
Dear Sir 

I received your letter by General Smith and return 
you my Thanks for the particular manner you have re- 
lated the Conversation with Brown — I need not inform 
you that I wished much to have pleased him and am very 
sorry that I failed. I wish you had mentioned your Son 
to me before for I have already recommended the three 
officers for the Company which I have advised the rais- 
ing- of in this Territory but I much doubt whether any of 
them will be appointed because it is my opinion that some 
of the Troops now over the Ohio in Service will be sent 
to this Territory and none raised here. — Should any- 
thing- of the kind happen in future I will attend to him. 
I have forwarded a Plan of Defence of Cumberland to the 
Secretar} 7 of War by Mountfarence which I hope will be 
adopted— Mr. Jackson has sent it and can communicate 
the contents to you. — I have informed the Secretary of 
War of all the Depredations committed by the Creeks 
and have been able to give him Proofs of seven Murders 

and by his I have written to McGillivray on the 

subject. — Cherokee Chiefs admit the young- 
White was killed by a Party of their Nation but say it 
was a Party that had been to the Northward and did not 
Know of the peace this being" the case which is probable 

from the it cannot be construed into a violation of 

it. This will be handed to}-ou by Judg-e Anderson whose 
Conduct here both as a Man and as a Judg-e has met the 



r>4- THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

approbation of the People in general as well as of myself 

and I recommend him to your warmest attention. 

On my return from North Carolina which shall be in 
two Months or thereabouts I will bring" a full Power from 

Blount to settle all matters respecting" their 

Lands but in the meantime you may rely on having the 
Peace conveyed to you that you wrote about on my return 
and may act accordingly. I set out in the Morning to 
visit my family and dear Sons. With very sincere regard 
and esteem Your obedient servant 

Wm. Blount. 
The Judge brings your 
Commissions 
Brigadier General Robertson 

Mero District 



LExtract of a letter from General Knox to Governor Blount dated 
Philadelphia. Nov. 19th, 1791.] 

"Your reasons for appointing three deputies to re- 
side with the Cherokees, Chickasaws and Chaetaws are 
conclusive, and the business will probably be acted upon 
decisively by the President of the United States, as soon 
as a law shall lie passed, ascertaining their duties and 
compensations." 

"The closing pargraph of this letter affords me 
pleasure— lam authorized by the President of the United 
States, to tender you his thanks for the able manner in 
which you conducted the Treaty, and for the zeal } T ou 
uniformily evinced to promote the interests of the United 
States, in endeavoring to fix a peace on the basis of jus- 
tice and humanity.— and I beg leave to add Sir, that in 
pursuance of so good a work, you will never want the 
firm support of the Supreme executive of the United 
States. 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 195 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 



THE FIRST CONSTITUTION. 



Below is reproduced from Stith's History of Virginia 
the famous "First Constitution." This constitution was 
enacted by the London Company in 1621 in response to 
the petitions of the First Legislative Assembly in 1619. 
These petitions were quoted, in part, in the January num- 
ber of this magazine. 

This remarkable document is the first, and with the 
exception of Locke's Grand Model is, perhaps, the only 
leg'al instrument emanating- from Fngdish authority for 
the government of any American colony which was de- 
nominated a "constitution." The term "charter" indi- 
cates an instrument granted by superior authority. The 
term, constitution, at least in its modern sense, indicates 
an instrument adopted by a free people for their own 
government. 

The use of the word, constitution, would seem to in- 
dicate a sentiment in the London Company, that they re- 
garded the colonists as an integral part of "The Virginia 
Company of Adventurers," and that the instrument was 
intended to reg"ulate the relations between the Engdisli 
and the American branches of the Company, and was, in 
itself a great step towards acknowledging' that the colo- 
nists possessed inherent rigdits. But whatever construc- 
tion may be placed upon the use of the word, it is inter- 
esting - to find it employed at this early date of our colo- 
nial history. We feel instinctively that the term was grat- 
fying" to our ancestors. 

This constitution, as g'iven b}^ Stith, is an authentic 
copy of the original, except that Mr. Stith evidently took 



196 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

the libert) 7 of editing- it to conform to the standards of 
1747. In the 126 years which intervened between the ex- 
ecution of this document in 1621 and the publication of 
Stith's History in 1747, the English language had under- 
gone important changes, and the voluntary and variable- 
spelling of the 17th century had begun to give place to 
more conventional and permanent forms. 

The following extract from the preface to Stith's 
History shows that the historians of that day encountered 
difficulties similar to those which embarrass the efforts of 
modern writers. ' After collecting valuable records for 
the appendix, he thus explains his reasons for omitting 
many which would now be valuable: 

"/ once intended to have added fevera I other very curious 
Papers and original Pieces of Record. But I perceive, to 
my no f mall Surprife and Mortification, that fome of my 
Countrymen (and thofc too, perfons of high Fortune and 
diftinction) feemed to be much alarmed, and to grudge, 
that a complete Hiftory of their ovjn country would run to 
more than one Volume, and coft them above half a Piftole. 
I was therefore obliged to reft rain my Hand, and only to 
infert thefe few mo/7 neceffary Inftruments, for fear of en- 
hancing the Price, to the immenfe Charge and irreparable 
Damage offuch generous and publick-fpirited Gentlemen. 

Among the important documents given in the appen- 
dix, he includes the Constitution as follows: 

NO. IV. 

An Ordinance and Conftitution of the Treafurer, Council 

and Company in England, for a Council of State and 
General Affembly. Dated July 24, 1621. 

I. TO all People, to whom thefe Prefents fhall come, be 
| feen, or heard. The Treafurer, Council and Corn- 
pan}' of Adventurers and Planters for the City of London 
for the firft Colony of Virginia, fend Greeting. Know 
YE, that we the faid Treafurer, Council and Company, 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 197 

taking - into our careful confideration the prefent State of 
the faid Colony of Virginia, and intending - , by the Divine 
Affiftance to fettle fuch a Form of Government there, as 
may be to the greateft Benefit and Comfort of the People, 
and whereby all Injuftice, Grievances, and Oppreffion 
may be prevented and kept off as much as poifible from 
the faid Colony, have thought fit to make our Entrance, 
by ordering and eftablifhing fuch Supreme Councils, as 
may not only be affifting" to the Governor for the time 
being - , in the Adminiftration of Juftice, and the Execu- 
ting of other Duties to this Office belonging", but alfo by 
their vigilant Care and Prudence, may provide, as well 
for a Remedy of all Inconveniences, growing" from time 
to time, as alfo for advancing" of Increafe, Strength, Sta- 
bility, and Profperity of the faid Colony: 

II. We therefore, the faid Treafurer, Council, and 
Company, b) T Authority directed to us from his Majefty 
under the Great Seal, upon mature Deliberation, do here- 
by order and declare, that, from hence forward, there 
fhall be two supreme Councils in Virginia, for the 
better Government of the faid Colony aforefaid. 

III. The one of which Councils, to be called The 
Council of State (and whofe Office fhall chiefly be 
affifting", with their Care, Advice, and Circumfpection, 
to the faid Governor) fhall be chofen, nominated, placed, 
and difplaced, from time to time, by Us the faid Treaf- 
urer, Council and Company, and our Succeffors: Which 
Council of State fhall confift, for the prefent, only of 
thefe Perfons, as are here inferted, viz. Sir Francis Wy- 
att, Governor of Virginia, Captain Francis Weft, Sir 
George Feardly, Knigdit, Sir William Ncuce, Knigfht 
Marfhal of Virginia, George Sandys, Treafurer, 
Mr. George Thorpe, Deputy of the College, Captain 
Thomas Neace, Deputy for the Company. Mr. Paxvlet, 
Mr. Leech, Captain Nathaniel Powell, Mr. Chri/topher 
Davifon, Secretary, Doctor Pots, Phyfician to the Corn- 
pan)", Mr. Roger Smith, Mr. fohn Berkeley, Mr. John 



1 ( )8 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Rol/e, Mr. Ralph Hamer, Mr. John Pounds, Mr. Michael 
Lap-worth, Mr. Harwood, Mr. Samuel A/acock. Which 
faid Counfellors and Council we earneftly pray and defire, 
and in his Majefty's Name ftrictly charge and command, 
that (all Factions, Partialities, and hnifter Refpect laid 
afide) they bend their Care and Endeavours to affift the 
faid Governor; iirft and principally, in the Advancement 
of the Honour and Service of God, and the Enlargement 
of his Kingdom amongft the Heathen People; and next, in 
erecting of the faid Colony in due Obedience to his Majefty, 
and all lawful Authority from his Majefty's Directions; 
and laftly in maintaining - the faid People in Juftice and 
Chriftian Converfation amongft themf elves, and in 
Strength and Abilitv to withftand their Enemies. And 
this Council, to be always, or for the moft Part, refiding 
about or near the Governor. 

IV. The other Council, more generally to be called 
by the Governor, once Yearly, and no oftener, but for 
very extraordinary and important Occafions, fhall confift, 
for the present, of the faid Council of State, and of two 
Burgesses out of every Town, Hundred, or other particu- 
lar Plantation, to be refpectively chofen by the Inhabi- 
tants: Which Council fhall be called The General As- 
sembly, wherein fas alfo in the faid Council of State all 
Matters fhall be decided, determined, and ordered, by the 
greater Part of the Voices then prefent; referving to the 
Governor always a Negative Voice. And this General 
Affembly fhall have free Power to treat, confult. and 
conclude, as well of all emergent Occalions concerning 
the Publick Weal of the faid Colony and every Part 
thereof as alfo to make, ordain, and enact fuch general 
Laws and Orders, for the Behoof of the faid Colony, and 
the good Government thereof, as fhall, from time to time, 
appear neceffary or requifite; 

V. Whereas in all other Things, we require the 
faid General Affembly. as alfo the faid Council of State, 
to imitate and follow the Policv of the Form of Govern- 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 199 

ment Laws, Cuftoms, and Manner of Trial, and other 
Adrainiftration of Juftice, ufed in the Realm of England, 
as near as may be, even as ourfelves, by his Majefty's 
Letters Patent, are required. 

VI. Provided, that no Law or Ordinance, made in 
the faid General Aifembly, fhall be or continue in Force 
or Validity, unlefs the fame fhall be folemnry ratified and 
confirmed, in a General Quarter Court of the faid Com- 
pany here in England, and to ratified, be returned to them 
under our Seal; It being- our intent to afford the like 
Meafure alfo unto the faid Colon\ T , that after the Govern- 
ment of the faid Colon}- fhall once have been well framed, 
and fettled accordingly, which is to be done by Us, as by 
Authority derived from his Majefty, and the fame fhall 
have been fo by us declared, no Orders of Court after- 
wards fhall bind the faid Colony, unlefs they be ratified 
in like Manner in the General Affemblies. In witness 
whereof we have hereunto fet our Common Seal, the 24th 
of July 1621, and in the Year of the Reign of our Sover- 
eign Lord, JAMES, King of England, &c. the **** and 
of Scotland the ****. 



SPENCER— THE EFFECT OF A COMMA. 



There has been some uncertainty as to the Christian 
name of Spencer, one of the early pioneers of Tennessee, 
and the only one around whose exploits linger legends 
which partake of the marvelous. Maii} T American pio- 
neers were heroes, but modern heroes, performing brave 
deeds, great deeds, but invested with none of the extrav- 
agant attributes which render Ancient History ludi- 
crous. A few legends, mildly romantic, still within the 
bounds of possibility, linger around Spencer. It is said 
that he was a man of immense stature, and wonderful 
strength. He came to the Cumberland country, before 
its settlement, in company with a partv of hunters. 



200 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

When his last comrade concluded to return home, Spencer 
decided to remain. He accompanied his comrade a short 
distance, and in parting", divided with him his scanty 
store, and broke in half the only knife in the Cumber- 
land country, giving" the comrade one part, and himself 
retaining* the other. He then returned to the camping" 
ground, and lived alone in a largfe hollow tree. This 
ma}* have been true. At least, this much proof exists: 
The place is marked, and is still pointed to, as the spot 
where the tree formerly stood. It is related that Spencer 
had an immense foot. Upon one occasion a part}* of In- 
dians, seeing* Spencer's footprints in the mud, immedi- 
ately fled from the country in terror. 

That Spencer was an early pioneer, and that he was 
a man of remarkable strength and courage, is undoubted. 
Many interesting* facts concerning" him are historic. He 
has descendants still living* in Tennessee, and "Spencer's 
Choice" in Sumner County still bears his name. 

The earliest historian of Tennessee, Judg*e John 
Haywood, alludes to ''Thomas Sharp, Spencer, and 
others." In another place, he alludes to "Thomas Sharp, 
Spencer and John Holliday." In all other allusions, he 
calls him simply "Spencer." The comma after Thomas 
Sharp, would indicate that there were two men, one 
named "Thomas Sharp," and the other named "Spencer." 

Ramsey follows Haywood, with the identical ex- 
pression, and the same commas. Other historians give 
the name simply as "Spencer." Phelan g*ives the name 
as "James Spencer." 

Mr. John Carr, himself a pioneer, in his pleasant 
work, "Early Times in Tennessee," claims to have 
known Spencer personally, and devotes one chapter of 
his book to an interesting* sketch of him. He gives the 
name as "Thomas Sharpe Spencer." Putnam, in his 
History of Middle Tennessee, also, gives the name as 
"Thomas Sharp Spencer." 

This is undoubtedly the correct name. The doubt 
originated with Judye Haywood's comnia . 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 201 

The following letter from Prof. Brunner, strengthens 
the pioneer legends: 

Hiwassee CoLLEG-E, Tenn., February 24, 18%. 
Editor Historical Magazine : 

Some people are slow to believe the statement that 
Tennessee pioneers sometimes lived in hollow trees. 
Such persons should remember that there were giant 
trees in those days. When I was a boy there stood in 
my father's meadow a hollow stump of a sycamore or 
buttonwood tree, that measured eleven feet in diameter, 
inside the shell." Your Geometry will show you that 
this shell enclosed a space of ninety-five square feet — a 
space a little short of that afforded by the silken tent of 
Dr. Nansen and party in search for the North Pole. We 
can safely credit the statement that hunters often lived 
in hollow trees. Very truly, 

J. H. Brunner, . 

(Ex-President.) 



GOWER GENEALOGY.— A QUERY 



Mary Gower, wife of John Robertson, of Brunswick 
County, Va., was mother of Gen. James Robertson. 

Marriage bond, Davidson Count}'. Tenn., Nov. 20, 
17 c )7, to John Miller and Prudence Gower. 

Marriage bond, July 8, 1800, James Reeves and Polly 
Gower, signed by James Reaves and James Robertson. 

Russell Gower was living in Davidson County in 1783; 
Wm. Gower in 1805. 

Alex. K. Gower died 1815 leaving Ephraim, Tiba, 
Minerva, and David. His wife was Edith. Who can 
throw light on this genealog'y? 

Granville Goodloe. 

Arkadelphia, Arkansas. 



'-I stood by and saw it measured. 



202 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Mr. F\ A. Winder of Southsea, Portsmouth, Eng- 
land, has furnished this magazine with valuable tran- 
scripts from English records. Although a surveyor by 
profession, he seems to get through a considerable quan- 
tity of genealogical work for his American cousins, as he 
is pleased to call them. He stands as high authority, and 
is the author of several genealogical works, and has 
traced the pedigrees of a number of American families of 
English descent. 



The following announcement from the Daily News, 
London, may be of interest to historians: 

"A document of the highest interest for those who 
are concerned in the history of the early settlement of 
North America is about to be published by Messrs. Ward 
and Downey. It is a facsimile by a photographic process 
of Governor Bradford's autograph manuscript account of 
the voyage of the Mayflower, and the foundation of the 
Plymouth 'Plantation' or colony, as we now say. It is 
in a small and singularly neat and legible hand, without 
erasures or interlineations, and has, it is believed, never 
been published before in this country in any form. It 
extends altogether to 280 folio pages, and contains an ac- 
count of the settlement in Holland, first at Amsterdam, 
and afterwards at Leyden, of the community of Puritan 
Separatists, commonly known as Brownists; of their de- 
parture from Holland and embarkation at Southampton 
in 1620 in the ship Mayflower; of the voyage of the Pil- 
grim Fathers in the Mayflower to America, of the foun- 
dation by them there of 'Plimoth Plantation,' and of the 
history and government of the Plantation until 1646. It 
contains also 'the names of those which came over first, 
in the year 1(>20, and were the founders of the colonies in 
New England, and their families." The manuscript be- 
longs to the library at Fulham Palace. It has been con- 
jectured that it was brought to England at the time of 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 203 

the American War; but there is no reference to its exist- 
ence in America later that 1767. Up to 1854 American 
students of the history of their country failed to trace it, 
and Dr. Young - , in his 'Chronicles of the Pilgrim Fath- 
ers' (published in 1841) refers to it as k hopelessl} T lost." 
Attention was, however, in 1854, directed to its resting- 
place b}^ passages and citations in 'A History of the Pro- 
testant Episcopal Church of America/ by Samuel Wil- 
berforce, Bishop of Oxford. Leave was obtained to tran- 
scribe the MS., and it was published by the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society in their 'Collections' in 1856. 
The facsimile will be accompanied by an Introduction by 
Mr. J. A. Dovle, Fellow of All Souls, Oxford. " 



A very interesting - and instructive paper on Southern 
Literature was read by Prof. T. S. Minter, of Bryan, 
Texas, before the Educational Association, and is pub- 
lished as one of the series of leaflets by B. F. Johnson 
and Company, Richmond, Va. 



Studies in the Constitutional History of Tennessee 
by Joshua W. Caldwell. Cincinnati: The Robert Clarke 
Company, 1895. 

This is an interesting' and valuable treatise of 173 
pagfes on the political institutions of Tennessee. The 
author alludes to it, in the preface, as "a series of short 
studies of certain political aspects of the political life of 
Tennessee." "It does not aspire," he says, "to the dig-- 
nity nor to the completeness of a constitutional history of 
the State." The author's modest estimate does injustice 
to the value of his work. 

To the general reader, or to the student of history, 
it is more valuable and far more interesting than a min- 
ute and consecutive rehearsal of all the legislative and 
political phases througdi which the State has passed. 
The work is partly leg'al, and partly historical, present- 



204 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

ing- the salient features of Tennessee institutions, with 
their changes and gradual evolution, as developed by the 
social characteristics of the people and the peculiarities of 
their environment. 

The social life, and the characteristics of the people 
at successive stages are vividly portrayed, and the por- 
traits of the several leaders and representatives find ap- 
propriate place in the picture. 

The subject is treated in chronolog-ical order: 

I. The Wataug-a Association. The Watauga Com- 
pact, the first constitution framed by native Americans. 
The Coming - of the Scotch, Irish, etc. 

II. The Cumberland Association. The Cumberland 
Articles, and their similarity to the Watauga Compact. 

III. The State of Frankland. Its constitution, and 
its political relations. 

IV. The Cessions. Territorial government, and steps 
towards Statehood. 

V. The Constitution of 1796. Its feature, peculiar- 
ities and defects. The political and social developments, 
etc. 

VI. The Constitution of 1834. Its features. Move- 
ment to locate the capitol on the "center of gravity of the 
State." Social and political developments. 

VII. The Constitution of 1870. Peculiar circum- 
stances under which it was adopted. Not representative 
of existing" conditions. Its defects. Social and political 
developments. Need of anew Constitution. 



The Southern States of the American Union, Con- 
sidered in their Relations to the Constitution of the 
United States and to the Resulting' Union. By J. L. M. 
Curry. Richmond, Va.: B. F. Johnson Publishing" Co. 
New York and London: G. W. Putnam's Sons. 

This book is the strong-est presentation of the sub- 
ject which has been written on either side since the Civil 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 2(b 

War. An} 7 attempt to present a short summary of its 
contents would be futile. Its 248 pages condense an his- 
torical review of the operation of the centrifugal and cen- 
tripetal forces of the United States in such graphic and 
simple form, that the book is at the same time, both a 
summary and a treatise. 

Besides being- a complete defence and vindication of 
the South, the work is eminently patriotic. It illustrates 
the relations between the geographical sections of the Un- 
ion as the several factors of its greatness. It shows their 
mutual dependence, and points out how each in turn, at 
different periods of history, has been restrained from 
separation by the rulings of an all-wise Providence. 

It defends the Southern people from unjust incrimi- 
nation. It defends them in their own eyes, in the eyes of 
the other sections, and before the world. No foreigner 
can arise from its perusal without a clear comprehension 
of the relations between the geographical sections of the 
United States, and a feeling" of respect for the Southern 
section. No Northern man can read this work without a 
conviction of the patriotism and manliness of Southern 
character. Ever} 7 Southern man who reads it must feel 
a throb of pride, and a glow of patriotism. 

For these reasons, it is an excellent work to be used 
in our educational institutions. 

We belong to a proud race. Peoples of Anglo-Saxon 
descent can love no countr} 7 which humiliates them. 
Their patriotism must be founded upon love and pride. 
To make our children patriots, we must make them 
proud of their country, proud of the part their ancestors 
took in building it, and in developing' it. There has been 
too much of the miserable fallacy, that the South has 
been a drone in the hive, a dissatisfied hang-er-on in the 
Union. 

Dr. Curry's work effectually dispels this view, and 
while devoted especially to the South, yet paints a true 
picture of the several sections. 



20«) THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

BOOKS RECEIVED: 



Southern Literature from 1579-1895. A Compre- 
hensive Review, with Copious Extracts and Criticisms 
for the Use of Schools and the General Reader, Contain- 
ing - an Appendix with a Full List of Southern Authors. 
By Louise Manly. Illustrated. Richmond, Va.: B. F. 
Johnson Publishing- Company, 18%. 



A School History of The United States. By Mrs. 
Susan Pendleton Lee, author of "Life of General Wil- 
liam N. Pendleton," with Questions and Summaries for 
Reviews and Essays, by Louise Manly, Teacher of Lit- 
erature and Lang"uag'e, and author of "Southern Litera- 
ture." Richmond, Va. : B. F. Johnson Publishing- Com- 
pany, 1895. 



History of Our Country. A Text-book for Schools. 
By Oscar H. Cooper, LL.D., Superintendent of Schools, 
Galveston, Texas, and Ex-Superintendent of Public In- 
struction for the State of Texas; Harry F. Estill, Pro- 
fessor in the Sam Houston State Normal Institute, 
Huntsville, Texas; and Leonard Semmon, Superinten- 
dent of Schools, Sherman Texas. Boston, U. S. A., and 
London: Ginn and Company, Publishers, 1895. 



The Winders of Lorton. By F. A. Winder, Southsea, 
Portsmouth. Reprinted from Vol. XIV of the Transac- 
tions of the Cumberland and Westmoreland Antiquarian 
and Archaeological Society. Kendal: Printed by T. 
Wilson, 28, Hio-hgate, 1896. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE TENNESSEE HISTORI- 
CAL SOCIETY. 

The Tennessee Historical Society met at Watkin's 
Institute, Tuesday nisrht March 10, with President John 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 207 

M. Lea in the chair. Prof. J. T. Williams was elected 
an active member. 

Prof. Fred K. Moore offered a resolution that in 
order to avoid misunderstanding as to the title to prop- 
ertv in possession of the Society, the Secretary be in- 
structed hereafter to receive no book, manuscript, picture 
or relic unless absolute ownership thereof be vested in 
the Society, irreclaimable either by the donor or his rep- 
resentatives, except where the article is lent to the So- 
ciety, in which case it shall be entered in a loan book to 
be kept for that purpose. 

The following" resolution was offered by Mr. S. A. 
' Cunning-ham and adopted: "That the Societ} T cordially 
greet the American Historical Magazine, published 
at the capital of Tennessee by Prof. W. R. Garrett, and 
that it be regarded as the special representative of this 
Society." 

Gen. Thruston reported that the Centennial manage- 
ment had agreed to construct a suitable fire-proof build- 
ing - upon a good site on the Centennial grounds as an His- 
torical Hall, in which the exhibit of this Societ\ T can be 
safely placed, giving- it such prominence as its collections 
deserve; also that the Historical Committee of the Cen- 
tennial was alread\ T actively at work; that all interesting" 
historical relics and exhibits belonging" to other org-aniza- 
tions would be justly provided for in this building". 

The following" resolution was offered by Mr. R. L. 
Morris and adopted: 

"Whereas, this Society has, from time to time, re- 
corded its intention of duly celebrating" the Centennial of 
Tennessee's Statehood, by appropriate ceremonies and ad- 
dresses, such intention having" been made manifest by the 
adoption of suitable resolutions and appointment of com- 
mittees, at a time, prior to the inception and organization of 
the present Exposition Company; and. 

"Whereas, it having" come to the knowledge of this 
Society that the managers of the Exposition have deter- 



208 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

mined to have a like celebration, and not desiring" that 
there should be any conflict of interests in that matter; 
therefore be it 

"Resolved, that a committee, to be named by the Pre- 
sident, be appointed to confer with the Committee on Pro - 
g-ramme and Arrangements of the Exposition Company 
to agree upon a joint celebration or tha.t suitable place 
and recognition be accorded this Society in such cele- 
bration." 

The President appointed on this committee Messrs. 
Morris, Thruston and Ouarles. 

On motion of Gen. Thruston a committee, consisting- 
of Messrs. Quarles and Goodpasture, was appointed to 
consider the question of devising- a new seal for the So- 
ciety and of preparing- a certificate of membership which 
would conform to the corporate name of the Society. 

Mr. S. A. Cunning-ham made a statement reg-arding- 
the Samuel Davis Monument Fund. The amount re- 
ceived is about $800, and interest in the erection of the 
monument is very general. Mr. Cunning-ham stated that 
he wished the Society should undertake the execution of 
the trust should he become incapacitated from doing - so. 



THE 



AMERICAN HISTORICAL 
MAGAZINE. 




PUBLISHED QUARTERLY. 



S3. 00 per Annum. 



Single Number, 85 Cts. 



-*H %H <M *M 



Vol. I. 



JULY, 1896. 



No. 3 



<M -<H 06 -J< 



Nashville, Tenn.: 
PRINTED BY THE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 

208 N. College Street. 



THE 



American Historical Magazine. 



Vol. r. JULY, 1890. No. 3. 

ANDREW JACKSON, TENNESSEE AND THE UNION. 

BY ALBERT V. GOODPASTURE, A.M., NASHVILLE, TENN. 



For more than a quarter of a century, dating from the 
close of President Monroe's second administration, the influ- 
ence of Tennessee was unrivaled by that of any other State in 
the Union. She was the third State to furnish a President to 
the United States, and, outside of the original thirteen, was the 
very first to enjoy that distinguished honor. Her people were 
bold, independent and self-confident, and entertained a democ- 
racy at once the most loyal to the people and the most devoted 
to the Union that has yet been exemplified in the republic. An- 
drew Jackson was the greatest leader this country has ever 
produced, and his political opinions and sentiments were 
thoroughly in accord with those of his countrymen. In his 
first race for the presidency, he received nearly ninety-nine 
and in each of his second and third races, he received more 
than ninety-five per cent, of the popular vote in Tennessee, a 
degree of unanimity rarely equalled, and to be accounted for 
only in the light of The conditions that obtained in the settle- 
ment of the State. 

The first settlers of Tennessee were practically cut off 
from communication with the older settlements of the country. 
The great mountains lay between them and the mother State, 
on the east; the South was still in the possession of their sav- 
age enemies; the far ^^'^ J st was but an unexplored French 



21<> THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

province; and the neighboring North was ye1 the "dark and 
blood}' ground" where "death was in almost every bush, and 

every thicket concealed an ambuscade. " 

In I his isolated condition, for nearly a quarter of a cen- 
tury, her undaunted sons defended her scattered settlements 
against the assaults of a powerful savage foe. aided and en- 
couraged, as they often were, by the emissaries of both Spain 
and Great Britain. 

I venture the assertion that no other settlements, however 
remote, within the territorial limits of any State of the Union, 
were ever suffered to defend alone so unequal a war — some- 
times threatening the very existence of the settlements, and 
a merciless extermination of their people — for so long a period, 
without once receiving armed assistance from their mother 
State. Not only did they defend their own settlements, but in 
the most critical period of the revolution, they won for them- 
selves imperishable fame, in the service of the Union, east of 
the mountains. Utterly impotent to grant any relief to these 
settlements in the beginning, North Carolina appears to have 
been criminally indifferent to their necessities after the exi- 
gencies of the revolution had passed and left her more able 
to provide for their safety. 

Tt can hardly be said that Tennessee fared better, in this 
respect, as a Territory of the United States, from 1789 to 1700. 
After North Carolina had freed herself of a responsibility she 
had never met. by ceding her western settlements to the 
United States, no Federal troops ever marched to its defense, 
even in its most dire extremity. The battles of the Northwest 
were fought by the National Government, and the story of its 
settlement is linked with the names of the great commanders 
who were sent to defend it. The only Territory of the United 
Stales that has ever been denied the protection of Federal 
arms was this cast-away child of North Carolina. Not mil;, 
did its brave pioneers tight its battles alone, but they were 
misunderstood and chided by the Federal Government when 
they were forced, in their necessary defense, to pursue the 
enemy into his own country and administer to him the chastise 
nieiit his merciless cruelties so richlv merited. 



ANDREW JACKSON. TENNESSEE AND THE UNION. 211 

This absolute and complete self-reliance, while it made 
the tragic story of her settlement more touching and more 
heroic than that of any other State of the Union, produced in 
the first settlers of Tennessee a singularly bold, hardy and 
patriotic people. They were, in the main, either pioneers or 
soldiers; that indomitable race of men who planted civilization 
in the wilderness — the heroes of the ax and the rifle — or the 
patriotic officers and soldiers who constituted the continental 
line of Xorth Carolina in the revolutionary war. 

Tennessee received a curious compensation from North 
Carolina for the painful n- gleet she had suffered. It prov- 
ed, indeed, a ricli heritage. With a bankrupted treasury 
and an impoverished people, it was the policy of Xorth Caro- 
lina to constitute her western territory a fund to reward the 
"signal bravery and persevering zeal" of her officers and 
soldiers in the revolutionary war. The act of cession provided 
that the land laid off to the officers and soldiers of her conti- 
nental line should still enure to their benefit; and if it should 
prove insufficient to make good the several provisions for them. 
The deficiency might be supplied out of any other part of the 
Territory. And so liberally did she compensate her war-worn 
veterans out of this •'fund," that more than 12.000.000 acres 
of the choice lands of the State were consumed in their pay- 
ment. Xot only was the military reservation exhausted, but 
practically all her other lands supposed to be fit for cultiva- 
tion that had not already been taken up on the occupancy and 
pre-emption claims of the hardy pioneers, whose rights were 
equally protected by the act of cession, were likewise con- 
sumed in satisfying warrants issued for military services. The 
result was that the great body of the land in Tennessee was 
originally granted, either under the occupancy claim of the 
pioneer settler, or upon the military warrant of the revolu- 
tionary soldier.* 

Could there be a more favorable foundation for the devel- 
opment of the high degree of martial spirit and patriotic senti- 



■ The Memorial of the Oeneral Assembly of the State of Tennessee 
tn the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States in 
Congress assembled— Acts of 1837-38, p. 443 et seq. 



212 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

ment than Ilial which has won for Tennessee the proud appel- 
lation (if " Volunteer Stale?" 

Tennessee was the first Territory of the United Slates to 
be admitted into the Union as a State, and so far as I know, is 
the only one to assume that relation with any degree of* reluc- 
tance. The vote of the Territory was. perhaps, two to one in 
favor of admission, but the expression of those counties bor- 
dering on t lie Cumberland River was nearly five to one against 
it.* This grew out of the question concerning the free naviga- 
tion of the Mississippi River. As it appeared to the Cumber- 
land settlements, their country was hardly worth the priva- 
tions, toil and suffering it had cost to win it, if the claim of the 
Spanish Government to the exclusive right to navigate the 
Mississippi River was to be tolerated. And only less mon- 
strous than the Spanish claim itself was its proposed conces- 
sion for a period of twenty years, in the treaty negotiated by 
Mr. Jay. The Mississippi River furnished the only practicable 
means by which they could reach the markets of the world: 
and the possibility of that way being closed, even for a limited 
time, produced the highest degree of political discontent. 
Some idea of their sentiments on this subject may be obtained 
from the Constitution adopted in 1700, after the Mississippi 
River had been opened by the treaty of the preceding year. It 
declares, "That an equal participation of the free navigation 
of the Mississippi is one of the inherent rights of the citizens 
of this State; it cannot, therefore, be conceded to any prince, 
potentate, power, person or persons, whatever." 

The sentiment of Kentucky on this question was not dif 
ferent from that of Tennessee. 

Two of the most romantic characters who figured in tin- 
early history of Tennessee, whose names and wdiose fame are 
inseparately linked together, were John Sevier (1745-1815) and 
Isaac Shelby (1750-1826). Bound together by the closest ties 
of friendship, they were also united in the patriotic service of 
their country. Together they had planned the campaign and 
shared the glorious victory of Kings Mountain. Together, and 
by name, t hoy were called on by the mother State, to lead their 



See tabulated vote in Ramsey's History of Tennessee, p. 648. 



ANDREW JACKSON, TENNESSEE AND THE UNION. 213 

brave followers again across the mountain. And together 
they received the thanks of North Carolina, for their services 
to the common cause, at a time when less brave and resource- 
ful men, with even greater means, might well have feared for 
the safety of their own firesides. Isaac Shelby was appointed 
i»ne of the commissioners to lay off the land reserved by the 
State of North Carolina, for the officers and soldiers of her 
continental line, in 1788. and the work of the commission hav- 
ing been completed, he moved to the State of Kentucky, and 
was elected the first Governor of that Commonwealth. Even 
Gov. Shelby refused to interpose his authority, in 1794, to pre- 
vent an armed expedition against New Orleans and the Spanish 
possessions. 

It may be that the large vote against the application by 
the State of Tennessee for admission into the Union, is to be 
accounted for on the same theory, upon which, some years 
afterwards, Gov. Shelby explained his position — that is. that 
it was intended to hasten the action of the Government in 
effecting a treaty for the navigation of the Mississippi River.* 
If so. their purpose was soon accomplished, as Spain conceded 
the free navigation of the Mississippi that very year. In the 
meantime, however, upon this question, as well as upon tin,' 
ever present Indian problem, which meant their very existence 
to the people of the Southwestern Territory, the administra- 
tion of tin- Government under the Federalist party, if not posi- 
tively antagonistic, was certainly very unfavorable to their 
views. 

But with the admission of the State into the Union, the 
control of the Federal Government passed into the hands of 
the Republican or Democratic party, whose political principles 
were entirely in accord with the sentiments of the people of 
Tennessee. They were prepared, therefore, to support Mr. 
Madison in the second war with Great Britain; and at the first 
sound of the tocsin, Gen. Andrew. Jackson and 2,500 Tennessee vol- 
unteers offered their services to the Government. The martial 
spirit of the heroic old pioneers and soldiers was on fire, and 
Gen. Jackson but expressed their sentiments when he offered 



^Butler's History of Kentucky (Ed. 1834), page 22S. 



214 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

in march, if necessary, "to the line of Canada, and there offer 
liis aid to Mi»' army of his country, and endeavor to wipe <>f!' 
the stain to our military character, occasioned by the recent 
disasters." 

The massacre of Fort Mims touched another responsive 
chord in the hearts of the old pioneers who had suffered so 
much at the savage hands of their Indian foes. The feeling 
was expressed by Gov. Sevier, then in Congress, when he 
wrote: "5 hope in God, that, as the rascals have begun, we 
shall now have it in our power to pay them for the old and 
for the new." At this juncture, the State of Tennessee, upon 
its own responsibility, made a call for 3,500 volunteers, in ad- 
dition to the 1,500 men already enlisted in the service of the 
United States. 

On the whole, {In- war of 1812-15 met the hearty approval 
of the people of Tennessee. This is a condition worthy of note, 
as it had an important influence on the conduct of the State 
and the history of the Union. The first effect was, that the 
disunion sentiments of the Federalists of New England, that 
culminated in the celebrated Hartford convention, became 
the most unpopular and odious that the loyal people of Ten- 
nessee could conceive. At this very time Willie Blount ilTi'.T- 
1835), then Governor of Tennessee, predicted that "that con- 
vention will never act with open doors; neither will they let 
the world know anything of their proceedings"* — a singularly 
accurate prophecy. Hut whatever else it may have done, ii 
performed the funeral obsequies of the old Federalist party. 
As soon as Gen. Jackson and his Tennessee volunteers had 
"wiped off the stain to our military character"' at \ew Orleans, 
which was almost simultaneous with the treaty of peace with 
Greal Britain, the Federalist party was dead. 

The army that enlisted under Gen. Jackson in this war 
contained the very flower of Tennessee chivalry, and was. 
beyond doubt, the grandest body of volunteers that over took 
the field in America. Their commander became President of 



-yianuscript letter in my possession. 



ANDREW JACKSON, TENNESSEE AND THE UNION. 215 

the United Stales, and three* others of them were afterwards 
prominent and worthy aspirants for that distinguished honor. 
Of Governors and Senators and Congressmen, the number is 
absolutely astounding. It is not my purpose to speak of \Yliif<\ 
and Grundy, and Polk, and Bell, and Carroll and the other 
illustrious contemporaries of Jackson, who won their fame in 
Tennessee, and who would have made her eminent under any 
conditions. I wish rather to give prominence to the great num- 
ber of their comrades, neighbors and friends, who. carrying 
like opinions into the Southern and Southwestern States, gave 
Tennessee a commanding influence in those quarters. The first 
two Senators from Missouri were Tennesseans. The first Gov- 
ernor, the first two Senators, and the first Congressman from 
Arkansas; the liberator of Texas, who was the tirsl President 
of the Republic, and one of her first United States Senators 
after she was admitted into the Union; the first Governor of 
Louisiana, and the first Governor and one of the first Senators 
from California, were all Tennesseans. 

Thomas H. Benton (1782-1858) began the practice of the 
law at Franklin. Tenn., and was a member of the Senate of 
that State in 1809. He was one of The earliest friends and 
supporters of Gen. Jackson, Inning been aide-de-camp on his 
staff, and also the Colonel of a L-egimen1 of Tennessee volun- 
teers in the war of 1812. In 1815 he moved to the Territory of 
Missouri, and became one of her first United States Senators 
when she was admitted into the Union in 1820. His associate 
in the Senate was David Barton (1785-1837), who was also a 
Tennessean. 

In 1828 there was still but one political party in the 
United States. Jackson, Clay, Crawford and Adams all adher- 
ing, nominally, to the Republican or Democratic party. In 
this situation Mr. Benton, whose wife was a niece of .Mrs. Clay, 
supported Henry Clay for the presidency. But when the elec- 
tion was thrown into the House of Representatives he became 
the ardent supporter of Gen. Jackson, in which he never 
wavered or faltered afterwards until the day of his death. 
Even as late as 1856 he supported James Buchanan for the 



'Hugh L. White, Thomas H. Benton and Sam Houston. 



216 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

presidency againsl his own son-in-law, John C. Fremont, oil 
the ground of his confidence thai it' Mr. Buchanan were elected 
he would restore the principles of the Jackson administration. 

Sam Houston (1793-1863) grew to manhood in Blounl 
County, Tennnessee, and in L813 enlisted ;is a volunteer in the 
service of the United Stales, was promoted to be an ensign, 
and distinguished himself in the battle of Horseshoe Bend, 
under Gen. Jackson. He began the study of law at Nashville 
in 1818, was elected District Attorney in L819, was a Repre- 
sentative in Congress in 1823 and 1825 (in which position he 
had the honor of appointing Matthew F. Maury (1806-1873), one 
of his constituents, to a cadetship in the National Naval Acad- 
emy), and was Governor of the State in tsiiT. In 1829 he re- 
signed the office of Governor and retired to the greal West in 
the most dramatic manner. In the West he became the great 
liberator of Texas, the hero of San .Jacinto, the first President 
of the Lone Star Republic, and when she was admitted into 
the Union in 1847, was one of her first United States Senators. 
lie was always a devoted personal and political friend 
of Gen. Jackson, whom he saw laid to rest at the Hermitage. 
He was elected Governor of Texas in 1859, but had his office 
declared vacant when the State seceded from the Union in 
1861. 

Clement C. Clay (1789-1866) grew up in Grainger County, 
Tennessee, was educated at the old Blount College (University 
of Tennessee) at Knoxville, studied law under the distin- 
guished statesman and jurist, Hugh L.White, and was admitted 
to the bar in 1809. In 1811 he removed to Alabama, and was 
Chief Justice of the State at the age of thirty years. From 
1829 to 1836 he was a Representative in Congress, ami was ,i 
conspicuous defender of the leading measures of Tien. -lack- 
son's administration. In 1835. Avium the Democratic party 
split on the election of Jackson's successor. Clay was elected 
Governor on the Van Huron ticket, in opposition to the ticket 
headed by his old friend. Judge ^ 'hite. His opponent was 
another distinguished Tennessean. Enoch Parsons (1776-1846), 
who, as a member of the Tennessee Legislature, had drawn 
and introduced the bill calling for 3,500 volunteers for tin 1 



ANDREW JACKSON, TENNESSEE AND THE UNION. 217 

relief of the Mississippi Territory, on the massacre of Fort 
Mims in 1813, and who, with others, had indorsed Governor 
Blount's note for $20,000 to equip them. In 1839 Mr. Clay was 
elected to the United States Senate, and served to the close of 
the extra session of 1841, when he resigned on account of ill 
health. 

What Mr. Hallum calls the reigning family in Arkansas 
was composed almost wholly of Tennesseans. The Conway 
and Sevier families were among the early pioneers of Tennes- 
see. Thomas Conway was Speaker of the Senate, while John 
Sevier was Governor of the short-lived State of Franklin, while 
his brothei', George Conway, was the first Major General of the 
Tennessee State Militia, and was the immediate predecessor in 
that position and intimate personal friend of Gen. Andrew 
Jackson. 

James Sevier Conway (1798-1855), a son of Thomas Con- 
way, went to Arkansas about 1820, and upon the admission of 
the State into the Union, became her first Governor. 

Ambrose H. Sevier (1801-1848) was the son of John Sevier 
ahd Susan Conway. His father was the only son who survived 
the distinguished old hero of Point Pleasant and Kings Moun- 
tain, Valentine Sevier, whose career closed in so much sadness 
and pathos. He went to Arkansas with his cousins, the Con- 
ways, where he was first Clerk and then a member and Speaker 
of Territorial House of Representatives. 

His cousin, Henry NY. Conway (1793-1827), a native Ten- 
nessean and protege of Gen. Jackson, who, as a mere boy had 
served under him in flu- war of 1812, after having been elected 
in 1823 Territorial Delegate from Arkansas to Congress, and 
re-elected in 1825 and 1827. was killed in a duel with Robert 
Crittenden, and Mr. Sevier was elected as his successor, a 
position he continued to hold until the admission of the State 
into the Union in 1830. 

In that year he was elected one of the first United States 
Senators from Arkansas, and continued in that office until 
1848, when he resigned his seat, and under appointment of 
President Polk, negotiated, in connection with Judge Clifford, 
the Treaty of Gandaloupe Hidalgo, by which we acquired our 
vast possessions from Mexico. 



218 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

The <>l her Senator elected by t he State of A rkansns in 1 836 
was William S. Fulton (1795-1844). In 1810, Gov. Fulton weni 
into the law office of the celebrated Tennessee advocate and 
statesman, Felix Grundy, and the following year began the 
practice of his profession in Gallatin. In 1818 he was 
appointed Secretary to Gen. Jackson, and served in that 
capacity during the Seminole war. By appointment of Presi- 
dent Jackson, he was Governor of the Territory of Arkansas. 
and upon her admission into the Union was elected one of her 
first Senators, and held the position until his death in 1844. 

Archibald Yell (1797-1847) was the first member of Con- 
gress from Arkansas. He was a typical Tennessean. As a boy 
he was a Captain under Gen. Jackson in the Creek war. where 
he bore himself so gallantly as to attract the attention of his 
great commander. lie also served through the Seminole war. 

He was practicing law in Fayetteville, Tenn., when, in 
1832, President .Jackson appointed him a Territorial Judge in 
Arkansas. He cherished an ambition to be the first Governor 
of the State, but was shut out by a provision of the Constitu- 
tion requiring a four years' residence to make him eligible. 
Bui he was elected her first Representative in Congress. He 
declined a re-election to Congress, and was elected Governor 
in 1840. At the requesi of the State Democratic Convention, in 
1S44, he resigned the office of Governor to enter the contest 
against .Judge Walker for Congress. He was elected. bn1 in 
184(; he resigned his seat in Congress to take command of the 
Arkansas troops in the Mexican war. and fell, gallantly leading 
his men, at Buena Vista, closing his career, as he had begun 
it, in the military service of his country. 

Bui I cannot give even a brief account of all the distin- 
guished statesmen sent out from Tennessee. Among them I 
will mention Wm. C. C. Claiborne (1775-1817), an old pioneer of 
Tennessee, who served with Andrew Jackson in the convention 
that framed the Constitution of the State, and succeeded him 
as a Representative in Congress when the latter was elected 
to the Senate. He was the first Governor of the Mississippi Ter- 
ritory, and was elected Governor of Louisiana when that State 
was admitted into the In ion in 1812, and was one of her Inited 
States Senators elect when he died, in 1817. He was succeeded 



ANDREW JACKSON, TENNESSEE AND THE UNION. 219 

by Henry Johnson (1783-1864), a near relative of Uen. Thomas 
Johnson, a distinguished officer in the Creek war, who had him- 
self held a minor office in Davidson County, Tennnessee, before 
his removal to Louisiana. He was a Senator in Congress from 
1818 to 1S24. and again from 1843 to 1849; a Representative 
from 1835 to 1830; and Governor from 1824 to 1828. Alexan- 
der Porter (1780-1844). a Senator from Louisiana, was a mem- 
ber of the Nashville bar while Thos. H. Benton attended her 
courts. He moved to Louisiana at the urgent solicitation of 
Andrew Jackson. < hi his death his remains were brought back 
to Nashville for interment, and now rest in the old City Ceme- 
tery. Alexander Barrow (1801-1846), was a native Tennessean, 
and a half-brother of Washington Barrow, a Representative in 
Congress from Tennessee. He began the practice of law in 
Nashville, and afterwards moved to Louisiana, where he was 
elected to a seat in the United States Senate. 

Robert H. Adams (1792-1830) was one of the most gifted 
men this country has produced. He was a native of Kasi Ten- 
nessee, who moved to Nashville, and thence to Mississippi, 
where, after attaining the highest eminence in his profession, 
he was elected to the United States Senate, but died the same 
year. Stephen Adams (1804-1857) came to Tennessee with his 
parents when he was three years old, and was a member of the 
Senate of that Stale in 1830, and moved to Mississippi in 1834, 
where, after being a Circuit Judge and member of Congress 
from the State at large, in 1852, he defeated Jefferson Davis 
for a seat in the United States Senate, made vacant by the 
resignation of Henry S. Foote. who was elected Governor that 
year. He now sleeps in Elmwood < Vmetery at Memphis. 

Teter H. Burnett (1807- t was a native of Davidson 

County, Tennessee, but his early manhood was spent in the 
County of Hardeman. He moved to Missouri, and thence to 
California, where he was elected the first Governor of the 
State. William McKendree Gwin (1805-1885) moved from Sum- 
ner County, Tennessee, to the State of Mississippi, where he 
was appointed United States Marshal by President Jackson; 
was elected to Congress; was appointed to superintend the 
erection of the custom-house at New Orleans by President 
Polk; went to California, was a member of her Constitutional 



220 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

< '(invent ion, and when she was admitted to the In ion. was one 
of her first Senators, which position he continued to hold up 
to 1 lie war. 

Edward Cross (1798-1887) began the practice of law at old 
Monroe, then the county site of Overton County, and the home 
of thai staunch old Democrat, Adam Huntsman, lie moved to 
Arkansas, and succeeded Archibald Yell as a Representative in 
Congress from that State. 

Edward Douglass White (....-1847), Judge, member of 
Congress and Governor of Louisiana, was a native Tennessean, 
and a graduate of the University of Nashville. 

The distinguished soldier. Win. Barksdale (1821-1863), a 
native of Rutherford County; Judge H. S. Dennett (1807-. . . . t, 
who was born in Williamson County; the great criminal law 
yer. Reuben Davis (1813-1S73); W. S. Featherstone (1821- . . . .); 
Wm. M. <!w*in, afterwards United States Senator from Cali- 
fornia; Benj. D. Nabers, and Daniel B. Wright, were all mom 
bers of Congress from the State of Mississippi. 

From Alabama there was Ceo. S. Houston (1811-1879), a 
native of Williamson County, who was eighteen years a mem- 
ber of the Federal House of Representatives, and Chairman, 
successively, of the Ways and Means and Judiciary Commit- 
tees of that body; Gen. Geo. W. Crabb ( . . . .1817), a brother of 
Judge Henry Crabb, of the Supreme Court of Tennessee; 
Felix G. MeCoimell (. . . .-1846); Sydenham Moore and Alexan- 
der White. Rut I will not pursue the list further.* 

The old Federalist party having died, as I have said, in 
1815. James Monroe was elected and re-elected President, prac- 



■■See "Parton's Jackson,'' "Roosevelt's Benton." "Bruce's Houston." 
"Foote's Bench and Bar of the South and Southwest."' "Garrett's Public 
Men of Alabama," "Lanman's Dictionary of Congress." "Sparks' Memo- 
ries of Fifty Years," "Elm wood Cemetery," "Hallum's Biographical and 
Pictorial History of Arkansas," "Picturesque Clarksville," and "Burnett's 
Recollections and Opinions of an Old Pioneer." 

The Tennessee influence was never so pre-eminent in the Northwest 
as in the States I have mentioned, though she furnished many distin- 
guished sons to the Northwestern States among whom were Governor 
John Reynolds, of Illinois, and Senators John Tipton and Edward A. 
Hannegan and Congressman Tilghman A. Howard and George L. Kin" 
naird. of Indiana. 



ANDREW JACKSON, TENNESSEE AND THE UNION. 221 

tieally without opposition. In the meantime Jackson began to 
be spoken of for his successor. But lie was not then at the 
head of any political party. All the candidates were professed 
Republicans or Democrats. Jackson received a plurality of 
the popular and electoral yotes. but was not elected. The 
House of Representatives chose John Quincy Adams, and 
Henry Clay was appointed his Secretary of State. 

At the very beginning of his administration, in his inaugu- 
ral address, and in his first message to Congress, President 
Adams manifested his predilections for the old Federalist doc- 
trines. Clay's fortune's were cast with his. Crawford was an 
invalid. Andrew Jackson, from that time, became the 
acknowledged leader of the Democratic party. Thenceforth 
the old Tennesseans, wherever found, with few exceptions, ral- 
lied to his support. There was never a division in Tennessee 
until 1836, when the Democratic party split on President Jack- 
son's successor. Jackson favored Van Buren, and Hugh L. 
White, one of the grandest men, take him all in all, this State 
has ever produced, ran in opposition, and carried the State 
The breach was permanent. The State was never again carried 
by the National Democracy until she developed, in Andrew 
Johnson, another great Democratic leader, second only to 
Andrew Jackson, who utterly routed the Whigs in 1855, and 
opened the way for the victory of Buchanan in 1856. 

Tn 1829 Jackson was elected President by an overwhelm- 
ing majority, and commenced the most important administra- 
tion this country has ever witnessed, to only one event in which 
it is my purpose to allude. 

I have already contrasted the loyalty of Tennessee with 
the disunion sentiments of the Eastern States in 1815. At tin- 
threshold of his administration President Jackson was con 
fronted with similar conditions in the South. T refer to the 
doctrine of nullification, of which John C. Calhoun was the 
great exponent. Calhoun had not broken with the President 
at this time, and Robert V. Hayne was one of his most intimate 
friends and partisan supporters. 

Put President Jackson was equal to the emergency. As 
early as April 13, 1830. at the Jefferson banouet, he electrified 
the country with this toast: "Our Federal Union: it Must be 



222 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Preserved." And this was the feeling of all his old Tennessee 
friends, who had expressed with him their horror of tin- dis- 
loyalty of the East in 1815. 

I do not care to go into the question of nullification, as i; 

a lose in 1832. But we owe it to Jackson and the Tennessee 
influence that disunion sentiments, although springing up this 
time among a rlass of his own supporters, were again silenced, 
and the doctrine of nullification forever put to rest. 

I believe I quote the venerable President of our State His- 
torical Society correctly, in substance, in the statement That it 
Avas Andrew Jackson who made possible the preservation of 
the Union in 1861-65. And why may it not be so? Were not 
his most devoted followers the warmest friends of the Union? 
Where was Thomas H. Benton when the dark clouds began to 
appear above the political horizon? After an honorable 
service of thirty years he lost his seat in the United States 
Senate; and when elected to Congress from his own district 
lie was defeated for a re-election, as he was likewise, in 1856, 
defeated for Governor of Missouri on account of his bold, out- 
spoken Union sentiments. And he died still proclaiming the 
same devotion to the Union he was wont to applaud in Andrew 
Jackson. 

Then, there was Sam Houston, the idol of the State of 
Texas, who, even at her behest, refused his assent to her sepa- 
ration from the Union. He had been elected Governor in 1850, 
and when his State seceded he was deposed from his office 
because he still adhered to the Union. 

When the war came on but two Southern members kept 
their seats in the United States Senate. They were both Ten- 
nesseans. Wm. K. Sebastian (1812-1864) was born in Hickman 
County. Tennnessee, and was educated at Columbia College. 
He went to Arkansas in ls::r>, and was elected District Attor- 
ney. Circuit Judge, Supreme Judge and in 1848 was appointed. 
and subsequently three times elected, to the Tinted States 
Senate. lie was expelled in 1861. But the act of expulsion 
was rescinded in 1878. The other was Andrew Johnson (1808- 
isTtii. of Tennessee, the disciple of Andrew Jackson, who. in 
February. 1861, said from his place in the Senate: -J believe 
thai if Andrew Jackson were President of the United States 



ANDREW JACKSON, TENNESSEE AND THE UNION. 223 

this glorious Union of ours would be still intact. Perhaps it 
might be jarred a little in some places, but not sufficiently to 
disturb the harmony and general concord of the whole. That 
is my opinion. I do not say it to disparage others, but I believe 
that this would have been the case if he had been President, 
pursuing the policy which I feel certain he would have pursued 
in such an emergency." He was more fortunate than Sebas 
tian. in that his sincerity and honesty of purpose were never 
questioned. He not only served out his term, but was elected 
Vice President of the United States while his State was stilt 
our of the Union. 

Tennessee herself went out of the Union in 1861, as she 
went- into it in 1796, with great reluctance. Her leading public 
men, those who had grown up under the influence that sur- 
rounded Andrew Jackson, such men as Cave Johnson, John 
Bell and Andrew Ewing, earnestly opposed secession in I860, 
and an overwhelming majority of her people voted for the 
Union when the question was first submitted to them in Febru- 
ary. 1861. and it was only when war became flagrant, when 
blood had been shed, when armies were in the fields, when 
there was no other alternative left but to fight, either for their 
own section againt the Union, or for the Union against their 
own section, that thev chose- the former course. 



224 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



WILLIAM COCKE— BORN 1T4S, DIED 1828. 



BY WILLIAM GOODRICH, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



The State of Tennessee at this time celebrates the one 
hundredth anniversary of its entrance into the Union as a 
sovereign State, and while with hearty co-operation the entire 
community is striving to do honor to their State, there art- 
yet many who, in these busy times, have little opportunity to 
acquaint themselves with that part of the State's history 
coincident with one hundred years ago. Nor do they but 
vaguely connect the names of those prominent in 170(5 with 
the greatness and prosperity of the State as it is in 1896. 

Many names can be chosen for special mention from the 
list of hardy, brave and earnest pioneers, who, leaving behind 
them in the older settlements, kindred, friends and comfort, 
were willing to accept the privations incident to the establish- 
ment of new homes in the wilds of the Watauga and Holston. 

Of those prominent in the early settlement of Tennessee 
and identified witli every step of its advancement towards 
sovereignty, the name of William Cocke calls for special men- 
tion. (Jen. William Cocke was a member of the Cocke family 
of Virginia, known there as the Malvern Cockes, from the fact 
that Malvern Hills (on which was fought the famous battle of 
that name during the late war) was owned by them for many 
years. 

The first of the family mentioned in The records of Vir- 
ginia was Richard ( locke, who came into the colony about 1632, 
presumably from Devonshire, England. He brought over 
three-score persons, thereby entitling him to a patent of 3,000 
acres of land, which, on March 6, 1636, was granted to him by 
Sir John Harvey. Kt. Richard Cocke was prominent in the 
early history of Virginia, as later on have been many of his 
descendants, lie was County Lieutenant for Henrico County, 
and represented ii many years, from 1634 to 1654, in the House 



WILLIAM COCKE. 225 

of Burgesses. Gen. William Cocke's descent is from Richard, 
through his eldest son, Thomas Cocke, of Pickethorne Farm, 
whose second son, Stephen Cocke, inherited Malvern Hills, 
whose only son. Abraham Cocke, located in Amelia County. 
Va., where his sun. William Cocke, the subject of this memo- 
rial, was born, in 1748. 

( )f William < Locke's early history there is little known, save 
that he received an English education, studied law, and moved 
to the western part of the State, where from what is now Wash- 
ington County, he served as a member of the House of Dele- 
gates of Virginia, and was an officer in the State Militia. 

His more than ordinary ability was recognized, even at 
the age of twenty-seven, when the Colonial Governor of Vir- 
ginia (Lord Dunsmore) sent a special messenger to him re- 
questing his presence at Williamsburg. Cpon his arrival 
there. Lord Dunsmore told him that it was highly probable 
there would be a conflict between Great Britain and the Colo- 
nies, that he regarded him as a young man of high character 
and great promise and that if he would espouse the cause of 
the King against the Colonies he should have the highest com- 
mand in the army save that of Commander-in-Chief. Mr. 
Cocke, in reply, told him that the King did not have money 
enough to bm him. that the cause of the Colonies was right 
and just, and that he would devote his life to their cause. 

Somewhat previous to this time he had, in company with 
Daniel Boone, explored what is now Eastern Tennessee and 
Western Kentucky, being absent about a year. His wife 
(Sarah, nee Maclin.) had accompanied him to the settlements 
on the Watauga, but being without tidings from him for- sev- 
eral months, and giving him up for dead, she returned to the 
Eastern part of Virginia, where his son, John Cocke (after- 
wards Major General, 1812), was born. Upon his return front 
Kentucky, he followed his wife to Virginia, bringing her and 
their child back to the Watauga settlement. 

The above summary brings us to the year 177<>, when, to 
quote from Ramsey's History of Tennessee, "the Cherokee 
Indians invaded the settlements bordering upon the Watauga 
and Holston Rivers. Against them was raised four small com- 
panies, principally Virginians, who marched to Heaton's Sta- 



226 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

tion, where a fort had been built by the advice of Capt. William 
Cocke, and named after him, 'Cocke's Foil.' Through his 
advice, that the Indians would be more apt to pass by the 
fort and attack the settlement, it was determined to anticipate 
any movement of the hostiles, who, to the number of between 
three and four hundred, were approaching from a northerly 
direction, and an equal force under the Raven were hastening 
by a longer and more southerly route along the mountains. 

"With knowledge of these movements, the small force of 
one hundred and seventy men marched out towards what is 
known as Long Island, where they encountered the Indians, 
under Dragging Canoe, and administered such a crushing 
defeat that they retreated. 

"The memory of this warm reception doubtless made more 
easy the later expedition against the Cherokees by Col. Chris- 
tian, which was accomplished without the loss of a man." 

Shortly after these events, the country towards the South 
was opened up by the settlers from Virginia and Eastern 
North Carolina, who established themselves in what is now 
known as East Tennessee, but at that time was part of the 
State of North Carolina. Prominent among these settlers was 
Capt. William Cocke, who participated in the formation of 
the Counties of Sullivan and Washington. 

The operations of Cornwallis and his subalterns were 
viewed with alarm by these "over the mountain men." who, 
recognizing their obligations to the parent State, from their 
resources, raised a body of men, and, under Cols. Sevier and 
Shelby, joined a force under Col. Clarke, of Georgia, and pro- 
ceeded to attack Col. Patrick Moore at Thicketty Fort. Hero 
Capt. Win. Cocke was sent forward to demand the surrender 
of the fort, which was at first refused, but after reconsidera- 
tion by Col. Moore, the fort was surrendered and the garrison 
paroled. 

Smarting under the sting of this repulse, Cornwallis 
resolved to administer severe punishment upon these hardy 
mountaineers, and at the same time regain the lost prestige, 
delegating Col. Patrick Ferguson to accomplish his purposes, 
who. as a preliminary, sent word over the mountains "thai if 
they did not lay down their opposition to the British arms, he 



WILLIAM COCKE. 227 

would march his army over, burn and lay waste their country 
and hang their leaders. 

Upon receipt of this message, the mountain men rallied, 
and with an addition to their number of four hundred and 
eighty, joined the forces from Virginia and South Carolina, 
making their total force about eleven hundred. 

Ferguson had advanced as far as Kings Mountain, where 
he was caught up with and surrounded, his force being also 
about eleven hundred. Here took place the severest conflict of 
that period of the war, resulted in complete victory over and 
entire capture of the British force and the death of Col. Fergu- 
son. 

The success of this expedition (in which Capt. Wm. Cocke 
took part), in time of greatest depression, was hailed with joy 
in all parts of the country, and was made the subject of special 
orders to the army of Gen. Washington in terms of highest 
praise for those who accomplished it. It gave renewed spirit 
to the armies in the Fast, and was the forerunner of the end 
in the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown. 

After their success at Kings Mountain they returned to 
their homes and busied themselves in the development of their 
new settlement, which was rapidly becoming stronger by im- 
migration from both Virginia and North Carolina. 

It is interesting to follow the rapid growth of this section. 
County after county Avas formed and officers of court duly 
appointed. Militia organized and all steps taken to insure 
safety and permanency. During these times Gen. \\ m. Cocke 
is constantly mentioned as filling offices of trust and impor- 
tance, both civil and military. His appointment in 17X(i as 
commissioner to negotiate treaties with the Cherokee Indians 
shows with what esteem he was held by his fellow citizens. 

In the effort to withdraw from the jurisdiction of the 
State authority of North Carolina and establish a separate 
State of Franklin, (Jen. Cocke's name is most prominent, and 
his speech before the House of Commons of North Carolina 
asking to be absolved from allegiance to that State or else 
receive the support duo them, is most pathetic and brilliant, 
evidencing a mind of greatest ability. 

In their efforts to establish themselves as a separate State, 



228 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

the citizens of Franklin seni Gen. Cocke to Philadelphia with a 
memorial to Congress applying for admission to the Fnion. 
The time, however, was not at band when they were to obtain 
their desired release, and not until 17!Mi did they succeed in 
severing the bond uniting them to the old Stale; then recog- 
nizing the untiring efforts and unceasing devotion in their 
behalf, the new State of Tennessee crowned with glory the 
patriotism of (Jen. Cocke by sending him as Senator to Con- 
gress to represent them, and upon the expiration of bis first 
term re-elected him to that distinguished office. 

He bad been a member of the first Legislature of Tennes- 
see, representing Hawkins County, was one of the committee 
to draft the new Constitution and had, in 171)3, represented 
Person County, North Carolina, in its General Assembly. 

Tennessee additionally honored him in 1 71)7, by laying off 
a new county and calling it Cocke County, after him. 

Returning to his home after twice serving as Senator, he 
was, in 1809, appointed as Judge of the First Circuit. 

Removing to Mississippi, he entered its State Legislature 
and was, in 1814, appointed by President Madison agent for 
the Chickasaw Nation. 

When the war of 1X12 was in progress he was not content 
to rest quietly; the old military spirit was strong within him, 
and though at that time above sixty-live years of age, he volun- 
teered as a private and served bravely and usefully, receiving 
especial commendation from (Jen. Jackson. 

He died in Columbus, Miss.. August 22, 1828, in the eighty- 
first year of his age, and is buried there, under a tombstone 
erected to bis memory by the State of Mississippi, who have 
tonored him by inscribing upon the stone this epitaph, reciting 
his many worthy deeds and attributes: 

"Here lie the remains of William Cocke, who died in 
Columbus, Miss., on the 22d of August, 1828. The deceased 
passed an eventful and active life. Was Captain in command 
during the war of 1770. Was distinguished for bis brave din- 
ing and intrepidity. Was one of the pioneers who first crossed 
the Alleghany Mountains with Daniel Boone into the wilder- 
ness of Kentucky. Took an active part in the formation of the 
Franklin Government, afterwards the Slate of Tennessee. Was 



WIIylylAM COCKE. 229 

the delegate from that free limit to the Congress of the United 
States. Was a member of the convention which formed the 
first Constitution of Tennessee, and was one of the first Sena- 
tors from that State to the Congress of the United States for a 
period of twelve years, and afterwards one of the Circuit 
Judges. He served in the Legislatures of Virginia, North 
Carolina, Tennessee and Mississippi, and at the age of sixty- 
five was a volunteer in the war of 1S12. and again distinguished 
himself for his personal bravery and courage. He departed 
this life in the eighty-first year of his age, universally 
lamented." 

Tennessee has cause to remember him gratefully for many 
efforts in its behalf, perhaps not the least one of which may 
be mentioned in the fact that in 1794, at the session of the 
House of Representatives south of the Ohio, he presented 
a bill for the establishment of a college in the vicinity of Knox- 
ville, which bill was, on Sept. 10, 1794, made a law, and Blount 
College, now the University of Tennessee, was established. 

In speaking of this act, Ramsey says: "Next to Mr. White, 
the friends of learning are indebted to one of the Representa- 
tives from Hawkins County, Mr. William Cocke, for his early 
care and provident foresight in laying broad and deep a 
foundation for the intellectual improvement of the young men 
of the Territory." 

Though a reiteration, it is not the least remarkable cir- 
cumstance of his life that he served in the Legislatures of four 
different States, viz.. Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee and 
Mississippi, as well as the Senate of the United States, and 
that he fought in the Indian war previous to 177(1, and in the 
wars of the revolution and of 1812. 

Few of us ever think of the trials of those early days of 
Tennessee's history. None of us know what supreme efforts 
were made by the heroes who from a wilderness succeeded in 
establishing a sovereignty, and defended it from all attacks, 
literally annihilating its enemies. The example of such men as 
William Cocke and his associates is worthy of emulation in 
these days, and the State of Tennessee does well to do them 
honor. 



230 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



THE ADMISSION 7 OF TENNESSEE INTO THE UNION. 



BY PROFESSOR NATHANIEL (ROSS. 



[This paper was found among the archives of the Tennessee Histori- 
cal Society, and is given below as read before the Society, April 2, 1850. 
Prof essor Cross did not have the opportunity to refer to authorities now 
easy of access His paper will be interesting to students of Tennessee 
History] 

The following extract from Mr. Calhoun's speech on The 
slavery question, delivered iu the United States Senate, March 
4, 1850, contains an allusion to an incident in the history of Ten- 
nessee that is new, not only to the undersigned, but to others 
with whom he has conversed about it. In answer to the inquiry 
what shall be done with California, should she not be admitted, 
Mr. C. says: "Remand her back to the territorial condition, 
as was done in the case of Tennessee, in the early stage of the 
Government. Congress in her case had established a territo- 
rial government in the usual form, with a Governor, Judges 
and other officers, appointed by the United States. She was 
entitled, under the deed of cession, to be admitted into the 
Union as a State as soon as she had sixty thousand inhabi- 
tants. The territorial government, believing it had that num- 
ber, took a census, by which it appeared it exceeded it. She 
then formed a Constitution and applied for admission. Con- 
gress refused to admit her, on the ground that the census 
should be taken by the United States, and that Congress had 
not determined whetler the territory should bo formed into 
one or two Slates, as ii was authorized to do under the cession. 
She returned quietly to her territorial condition. An act was 
passed to take a census by the United States, containing tin- 
provision that the Territory should form one State. All after- 
wards was regularly conducted and the Territory admitted in 
due form as a State." 

The presumption would seem to be That Mr. Calhoun 
should be correct in regard To the history of The admission of 
Tennessee into The Union; and vet the little investigation I 



THE ADMISSION OF TENNESSEE INTO THE UNION. 231 

have been able to give to the subject, since his speech has been 
received here, would appear to lead to the contrary result, and 
to indicate that our Statt is not entitled to the credit he gives 
her "of returning quieth to her territorial condition," when 
remanded bach by Congi ss, if she was thus remanded; and 
that this example, so far fi un sustaining the position taken by 
Mr. Calhoun in regard to California, is rather against it. 

In Roulstone's Statutes of Tennessee, pages 51, 52 and 53. 
is an act, passed July 11, 1705, at the second session of the 
Territorial Legislature, providing for the taking of the census 
of the Territory, preparatory to application for admission into 
the Union. The schedule, according to which the Sheriffs of 
the counties are to make their returns, consists of six columns, 
to contain, heads of families, free white males of l(i years and 
upwards, free white males under 10 years, free white females, 
all other free persons, and slaves; and what is remarkable, as 
indicating in advance something of that independent spirit 
that had already prompted the creation of the short-lived 
State of Franklin, the Sheriffs and their deputies are directed 
to add an additional column to the schedule, containing the 
answers given by each free male person, 18 Tears of age and 
upwards, to the following question: Is it your wish, if upon 
taking the enumeration, there should prove to be less than 
00,000 inhabitants, that this Territory shall be admitted as a 
State into the Federal Union with such less number, or not?" 

"And il shall be the duty of the Sheriffs," the act goes on 
to say, "and of their deputies, lit. make due returns of the yeas 
and nays upon that question, to the Governor; and if the num- 
ber be less than 60,000, and the question be determined in the 
affirmative, the Governor is requested to call the General As- 
sembly into session as early as may be." If the population 
should prove to be 60,000, the act directs that the 'Governor 
shall order an election of five members from each county, to 
meet in convention at Knoxville, at such time as he shall judge 
proper, for the purpose of forming a Constitution. If the popu- 
lation had been less than 60,000, the Territorial Legislature 
was to have been convened, if the people desired it; but what 
measures the Legislature could have taken to have 



232 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



brought about an admission into the Union, without the 
requisite number of inhabitants, it is not easy to conceive; bui 
from what was actually done, and what was con 
templated to be done, had the necessity occurred, as 
appears from the provisions of the act, it appears that there; 
was presented, or would have been presented, a condition of 
things quite as anomalous as that of California. I>ut a re- 
markable fact in the history of the admission of Tennessee re- 
mains to be noticed, and which proves, as before hinted, that 
Mr. Calhoun, unless there is some mistake in my authorities, 
has been very unfortunate in citing the case of Tennessee as 
a precedent for remanding California back to her territorial 
condition. And here it may be proper to state that I would 
not be understood as opposed to this remanding, or in favor of 



admitting this golden Territory into the Union; only if the 
alternative is between admission with disunion, and remand- 
ing with union, few, 1 presume, would hesitate to adopt the 
latter. 

But to return to the subject. I went to the office of the 
Secretary of State last Saturday to see if I could verify Mr. 
Calhoun's statement; but found the books in the library, as is 
Avell known, in great confusion, and in saying this, I would not 
be understood as imputing anything like negligence to the ex 
cellent and very gentlemanly incumbent of that office; for it 
is next to an impossibility to keep the books in order in their 
present exposed locality. Though I found there the Journals 
of Congress for the first and second sessions, for 1 T! Hi. and for 
other years, I did not succeed in finding those for IT!).") and 
17!Mi. In Peters' Statutes at Large, however, extending from 
ITS!) to March :i, 1845, in Vol. I., pages 491-2, is the ael of Con- 
gress admitting Tennessee into the Union, and approved June 
1, 1796, but there is nowhere in Peters' in the Acts of 1795 or 
1796, any allusion to any remanding, or any previous applica- 
tion, or, what might certainly be expected there, the ad which 
Mr. Calhoun says Congress passed for taking the census in the 
regular manner. 

Again, the Sheriffs under the act of the Territorial Legis- 
lature, were required to make their returns to the Governor 



THE ADMISSION OF TENNESSEE INTO THE UNION. 233 

by Xov. 30, 1705. The Governor, it must be presumed, then 
ordered elections to be held in the several counties, as required 
by the act; the members elected then met in convention at 
Knoxville, framed a Constitution, sent it on to Philadelphia, 
where Congress then met, with a petition to be admitted into 
the Union; this petition, according to Mr. Calhoun, is rejected; 
Tennessee remanded back to her territorial condition; an act 
passed by Congress to take the census anew, and the whole 
process of organization gone over again, it is to be presumed, 
as he assures us, "that all afterwards was regularly conducted, 
and the Territory admitted as a State in due form." And yet 
all these things connected with the birth of our glorious State, 
were done in Tennessee and undone in Philadelphia, and done 
over again in Tennessee and at last confirmed at Philadelphia, 
between Dec. 1, 1795, and June 1, 1796, and this before the 
introduction of telegraphs, railroads, steamboats or even 
stages. 

Put the most suspicious and mysterious and almost comi- 
cal part in the history of Mr. Calhoun's precedent for remand- 
ing California back to her territorial condition is yet to be 
noticed. According to Peters' Statutes, the act for the admis- 
sion of Tennessee was approved, as before stated, June 1, 1700; 
but according to Koulstone's Statutes of Tennessee, the first 
session of the First General Assembly of Tennessee was "be- 
gun and held at Knoxville on Monday, March 28, 1796," and 
adjourned April 20, 1796. That is, the first session of the State 
Legislature began more than three months, and closed more 
than two months, before Congress invested her with the at- 
tributes of sovereignty. While the Conscript Fathers on the 
other side of the mountains were telling her messenger, Mr. 
McMinn, and her Representative, Mr. White, that she must re- 
main a while longer in 1km- pupilage and mend her manners 
and then come back and knock again for admission more 
civilly, this young cismontane sister seems to have flouted 
their paternal counsel and without further ceremony to have 
taken her place in the sisterhood of republics, and gone to 
work in the exercise of sovereignty, in organizing her courts 
of justice, appointing her State officers, chartering seminaries 



234 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

of learning and providing for the election of members of Con- 
gress, and Presidential Electors. II is true that at the next 
session of the Legislature, begun July .">0, 17!m;, after the act of 
Congress admitted her into the Union had passed, now acts 
for the election of members of Congress and of Presidential 
pealed, but there is no record, so far as I have been able to 
Electors were enacted and those of the previous session re- 
examine the matter, either of a new census of the Territory, or 
of a new election of members of a convention, or of a second 
meeting of the old convention, or any other act indicating a re- 
organization of the government; or that "all things were regu- 
larly conducted and the Territory admitted in due form as a 
State," as Mr. Calhoun says, after she was remanded back into 
her territorial condition. 

An edition of Hume's History of England, with Lingard's 
variations, was published a few years since in Philadelphia; 
and such are the uncertainties of history, as is very well known 
by all that are conversant witli either ancient or modern 
authors, that similar editions could be published of the history 
of almost every country or important event that has been 
treated of by more than one person. Among these uncertain- 
ties may be classed, it would seem, some of the particulars 
connected with the admission of Tennessee into the Union. 
Mr. Calhoun, it lias been seen, lias given a statement or version 
of the matter that appears to be new to most, if not all persons, 
in our community. Monette, in liis History of the Valley of 
the Mississippi, says the census was taken by the Territorial 
Legislature, and application made to Congress for authority in 
frame and adopt a Constitution. The convention thus author 
ized, assembled at Knoxville on -Jan. 11. 1796, and after a ses- 
sion of four weeks, adopted a Constitution, which, having been 
submitted to Congress, Tennessee was admitted into the Union 
•Tune 1. 1796. Mr. Morris, in his Gazetteer, says it was ad- 
mitted June (i; and then goes on to state that "writs of election 
were awarded immediately to eleel Representatives to the 
General Assembly, and a Governor of the State. Elections 
were held pursuant to notice, and (Jen. John Sexier was elected 
the first Governor of Tennessee. The first General Assemblv 



THE ADMISSION OF TENNESSEE INTO THE UNION. 235 

of the State of Tennessee, under the Constitution, convened 
at Knoxville on Monday, March 28, 1796;" but Mr. Morris has 
forgotten to tell us by what species of legerdemain these 
worthy fathers were elected after June 0, 1790. and yet held 
their first meeting March 28 in the same year. I have not been 
able to procure a copy of Haywood's History of Tennessee, 
and consequently do not know whether he agrees, and how 
far, with Mr. Calhoun, Mr. Monette or Mr. Morris, but his repu- 
tation is, I believe, much greater as a jurist than as an his- 
torian. 

In review of the whole matter, it seems pretty evident that 
Tennessee assumed and exercised the attributes of sovereignty 
before they were duly conferred upon her; but that Congress, 
either not knowing this in those ante-telegraph and ante-rail- 
road days; or else dreading another State-of-Franklin affair or 
something worse, prudently opened the door and let her into 
the Union, though she did knock somewhat rudely. 

If. however, the 3d section of the 4th article of the Con- 
stitution of the United States, is the only directory in regard 
to the admission of new States into the Union, no general law 
on the subject having been passed by Congress, it would seem 
that great latitude is allowed in regard to the formalities in 
the process of organizing a government in the transition from 
the condition of a Territory to that of a State. So far as the 
creation of a State out of a Territory is concerned, the constitu- 
tional provision is contained in one brief clause: "New States 
may be admitted by the Congress into the Union," the other 
part of the section being designed to protect the sovereignty 
of States already existing, and to give Congress the general 
power to dispose of and to make all needful rules and regula- 
tions respecting the territory of the United States. It would 
seem then, unless, as said above, some general law has been 
passed on the subject, that it is not necessary that the applica- 
tion for admission should be preceded by any congressional 
action. All that Congress has to do, when the application is 
made, is to satisfy themselves that the census has been fairlv 
taken and that there is the requisite number of inhabitants, 
and that the Constitution has been ordained bv their will and 



23() THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

is noi inconsistent with the Constitution of the Tinted Stales. 
Everything else, such as particular provisions of the Consti- 
tution, boundaries, etc., has to be determined by general con- 
siderations of justice and expediency, the power of Congress 
being. absolute to adniil or rejed the application. Thus, Iowa 
was kepi out of the Union some two years, because the inhabi- 
tants would not agree to circumscribe her boundaries as Con- 
gress directed. 

In accordance with these views, it seems that the practice 
of governmenl in the admission of new States lias been by no 
means uniform, nor does it appear at all necessary that it 
.should be so. According to a New York paper (New York "Ob- 
server'' for .March !), 1850), Mr. Hamlin, advocating in the 
I nited Stales Senate the admission of California, affirmed that 
"of the seventeen States admitted into the Union since its for- 
mation, eight were formed after previous action by Congress, 
and nine without such action; and that the rule was therefore 
against those who contended that States could only be formed 
in accordance with previous congressional action.'* In regard 
to California, it may be remarked in closing this hasty essay, 
that perhaps the only thing in the history of her application 
that is wifhoui a precedent, is the election of members of Con- 
gress previous to her admission; but this may be excused on 
account of her great distance from the seat of government, 
and needs only an act of Congress to <4ive it validity. 

Since writing the above, I have consulted Haywood's His- 
tory of Tennessee and find il stated there that Mr. McMinn. 
who carried the Constitution to Philadelphia, "was instructed 
to stay long enough to ascertain whether the members of Con- 
gress from this State would be received; and he instructed Mr. 
A\ 'lute, the Territorial Representative in Congress to have an 
act passed as soon as possible for the admission of this State 
into the 1'nion. which act accordingly passed on .June 6, 1796."' 

"Writs of election issued from the convention on Feb. 6, 
1796, for the election of Senators and Representatives to repre- 
sent their counties in the General Assembly, the session where- 
of was to commence on the last Monday of March ; and also for 
tin- election of a (iovernor of the State of Tennessee. The 



THE ADMISSION OF TENNESSEE INTO THE UNION. 237 

members of the Assembly were elected pursuant to the mode 
which the Constitution prescribed; and the people elected 
John Sevier Governor. At the appointed time the Assembly 
met at Knoxville, and the State of Tennessee there assumed 
the rank and exercised the authorities of a free and independ- 
ent State." But the historian either did not notice the dis- 
crepancy of dates that he has recorded, viz.. that the State was 
not admitted into tin- Union till June 6, but assumed the rank 
and exercised the authorities of a free and independent State 
from the last Monday of March, i. e., three months before her 
majority — or else aware of this irregularity, from prudential 
considerations, chose to pass it over in silence. 



Intelligence was received this morning by telegraph that 
the Hon. John C. Calhoun died April 1. 1850. 



238 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



BEGINNINGS OF LITERATURE IN THE SOUTHERN 

OHIO VALLEY. 

BY PROFESSOR S. A. LINK, NASHVILLE, TENN. 



Iii a paper read at Michigan I'niversity in 1880, Charles 
Dudley Warner speaking of the western man, said: "He is the 
insatiable mover, with him it is always the first of May. He al- 
ways builds his house to sell. When it is finished, that is the 
signal for him to move. His ancestors must bury themselves, 
his posterity are heirs of the future. He has time neither to in- 
herit nor make his will. It is always in his plan to settle down, 
but never in the place where he is. He pays his debts by in- 
curring new ones. He is the great laborer and hardship en- 
durer of the nineteenth century, but he always expects to reach 
a spot to-morrow where he will have nothing to do." This may 
have been true of many of those called "western men" by 
Warner, it may have been true wherever vigilance committees 
took the place of law, but it does not apply to the men who set- 
tled Kentucky and Tennessee. They came to establish homes. 
They had examined the field and knew its hardships and dan- 
gers. They came not merely to hunt in the vast forests, but to 
convert those forests into farms. With the ax came the rifle, 
since these pioneers well knew the fierceness of the wily savagp 
who must sooner or later be encountered. Not only were per- 
manent homes established, but the problem of government en- 
gaged these settlers at the earliest possible moment. Kentucky, 
recognized from the start as a part of Virginia, found the mat- 
ter of government less difficult than her southern neighbor. 
Early settlers of Tennessee supposed themselves in Virginia 
while really in North Carolina. 

Both colonies were represented upon the Watauga, but 
neither offered her sons protection or a government. These 
were thrown upon their own resources as hardly any other peo- 
ple had been on the American Continent. It has been sug- 
gested that the evolution of government can be studied in Ten- 



BEGINNINGS OF LITERATURE. 239 

nessee as in no other instance. With little prospects of he]p 
from beyond the Alleghanies, with the mouth of the Mississippi 
held by hostile Spaniards, here was a fertile country to be sub- 
dued and peopled with no outside help — cut off in fact from 
the world beyond. In this unique situation our fathers did not 
hesitate. The government of the Tennessee portion of this 
western region was made on the spot to suit the exigencies of 
the case. There was no proper model at hand, since Virginia 
had not freed hers altogether from royal fetters and aristo- 
cratic privileges, and many of those same pioneers had left 
North Carolina to get rid of what seemed an ill arranged sys- 
tem, only a little more practical than the first wild scheme of 
impractical Locke. Thus Tennessee took independent lessons 
in statecraft early in her history. With almost matchless dis- 
cernment and shrewd common sense, a system was formulated 
and put in operation— a system which took away the necessity 
for "Regulators" and Judge Lynches, found in so many new 
settlements. A written constitution — the first west of the 
Alleghanies — was adopted by the Watauga Association in 1772 
three years after the first cabin had b 'en built. Then the peo- 
ple were enabled to give themselves wholly to the work of build- 
ing houses, clearing lands, fighting Indians, thus making rapid 
advances in extending and developing their settlements. To the 
civil system thus evolved, was added a military spirit and or- 
ganization which was to make itself felt at King's Mountain, 
New Orleans, and on a hundred fields besides. 

A thousand years scarcely creates an empire, but what 
was done west of the Appalachians in a single century will ever 
remain a marvel to mankind. In 185 L Carlyle wrote to Emer- 
son of a book of travels just one hundred years old. Bossu 
had traveled in Louisiana and "Oyo." Carlyle thought the 
book as compared with the change of the country which it de- 
scribed, older than Balbec or Nineveh. It had for him on that 
account a curious fascination. The intellectual activity of the 
world has expressed itself along different lines at various times. 
At one period the mightiest intellects have grappled in war; at 
another brick and marble have taken shape under dreams of 
immortality ; in the older and more settled stages of society liter- 
ature has crystallized the highest aspirations of the mightiest 
minds. 



240 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Before the days of the printing presp, the science of gov- 
ernment was thought fit only for a favored few. The alchemist 
alone was thought to have right and power to wrest a few of 
nature's stern secrets from his ghostly pots and kettles. With 
the sudden expansion of intellect which came from the discov- 
ery of new continents, and from the rapid dissemination of 
human thought, was developed greater activity along material 
lines. Man had conquered the great spaces of the globe, why 
should he not conquer the storm upon the deep, and direct the 
lightnings of the elouds. The air was rife with marvels when 
the flood tide of time produced a Shakespeare, and a Newton. 
With larg^ knowledge, and wider outlook to human activity 
and human thought, came an unconquerable desire for larger 
freedom. Old ideas had suddenly become obsolete; the divine 
right of one man to oppress another had become a figment of 
the past. "A man's a man for a' that, and a' that" had not been 
sung by the ploughman poet, but it had begun to be felt by 
many an Englishman. That was a fortunate conjunction of 
events which opened a new world for settlement at the time 
when mankind was stirred upon the subject of human rights 
and larger possibilities. Naturally men's minds would, be di- 
rected towards obtaining larger liberty under well guarded 
charters which, as the right of self-government was enlarged, 
would develop into constitutional forms. Men who wrote would 
write of government. Thus in the first half century of the 
American Republic, the greatest thinkers of any age poured 
forth many volumes pertaining to the new organization of so- 
ciety. There was no time for poetry; there was no time for 
romance. The world was living romance, stranger than the 
dreams of the Lotus Eaters, the ideals of Plato, or the Utopia of 
More. Stern men were confronted by conditions before which 
their ancestors would have quailed. In fact men became their 
own ancestors as never before in the world's history. 

Heredity was obsolete. The man of the hour was the man 
of action. The colonies of the Atlantic Sea board brought 
over some of the environments of the Old World. Men were 
to be free, but not altogether free. Past social conditions still 
held sway in some of the southern colonies. Religious free- 
dom was not intended to be absolute among Pilgrims and Puri- 
tans. All shackles, social, religious, and political were not 



BEGINNINGS OF LITERATURE. 241 

left behind until men crossed the Alleghanies. This region be- 
came at once the newest, the most original, and the most revo- 
lutionary of the New World. Every freeman was a king in his 
own right. Government was by agreement — the agreement of 
Sovereigns. This government was for the g^od of the people — 
not of the officials — and was to be administered without need- 
less coercion, or expense. It was subject to change by consent, 
hence became the highest subject of all for discussion. Lack 
of large cities, and hence of printing presses, developed the ora- 
tors of the west. Their history has never been written. In the 
freer days of Greece and Rome a few great orators existed. 
Constitutional government and the great trials of England, to 
some extent, fostered public speaking; the fiery throes of the 
French Revolution loosed men's tongues as unchained demons; 
in the discussion of colonial rights, patriotism found tongue as 
well as pen, from Massachusetts to South Carolina; but on the 
western slope of the Appalachians the orator alone — ready 
often with sword as with tongue — voiced the hour. The coun- 
try schoolhouse became the meeting place of the debating club, 
and the cross roads and county seat, the battleground of the 
stump speakers. Great crowds gathered to these joint discus- 
sions. Federal and Republican differences hardly moved the 
waters of this western land, but the coming of two such men as 
Jackson and Clay, with the great questions of Bank, Tariff, and 
Internal Improvements, divided every community — some very 
nearly into equal numbers — for each Chieftain. For a quarter 
of a century these contests largly absorbed other interests. 
The preacher came almost with the first settlers. 

The sweeping revivals of 1800 with the system of camp 
meetings which soon came into vogue brought together immense 
crowds which hung upon the lips of the preacher, thus by their 
fervid interest, arousing the speaker to higher flights of oratory. 
Great men arose under such inspiration, men whose eloquence 
will hardly ever be surpassed. The county court management 
of county business accustomed men to go to the county seat 
with much regularity. 

The magistrates, often unlettered men, would discuss busi- 
ness in the people's own vernacular. By force of habit men 
were drawn to the courthouse to hear the great lawyers speak 
on important cases. A large part of the lawyer's best back- 



242 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

woods humor was passed over the jury to the crowd beyond, 
since any lawyer might go into politics, and must learn to en- 
tertain his auditors as well as influence the jury. There were 
great orators at the bar in those days, many of their raciest 
anecdotes continue to do duty. It is not strange that those 
men did not write books. The man of destiny was the one who 
could exert immediate influence. The newspapers were small 
weeklies, and their movements were too slow. A few corners 
had verses — some good — by women chiefly. The editor had his 
opinion, and gave it from time to time, but news went by word 
of mouth. Mark Twain in Gilded Age represents the people as 
sitting around all the morning awaiting the coming of the 
mail, that they might get the news from the mail boy. But 
these papers all alike at first as one pea is like another, became 
differentiated. They became centers of thought, and of local lit- 
erature. The county press published the statesman's pamphlets, 
as well as the amateur's songs. Some of the more ambitious 
towns started magazines. Specimens of these are yet to be 
found in out of the way places, mournful relics they are of 
buried hopes and ambitions. Sometimes they served their pur- 
pose in getting the editor called to greater prominence. Many 
good things were put forth in these embryo efforts. A collec- 
tion of fugitive pieces by our own Fields seems destined to be 
immortal. First and last a great many books were written by 
outsiders concerning this country, some of them were books of 
travel, others of scientific value as giving descriptions of In- 
dians, animals, and plants, together with the topography of 
the country, or as Judge Haywood says, tocography. Some of 
these more or less influenced immigration. Filson's Kentucky 
was issued as early as 1784, and had very good maps of the 
country. Filson is the original biographer of Boone. Captain 
Gilbert Imlay published a work on the Western Territory of 
North America, in London in 17V)2. The second edition pub- 
lished 1793 had incorporated in it Filson's Daniel Boone. This 
is the work to which E. D. Hicks referred in a paper published 
in the American Historical Magazixe for April. Description 
of Kentucky, and Thoughts on Immigration were two works 
published in London in 1792 by Henry Toulman, a young Eng- 
lishman, who afterwards immigrated to Kentucky, and became 
President of Transvlvania Fniversitv and finallv Secretarv of 



BEGINNINGS OF LITERATURE. 243 

State. Isaac Weld Baily, who visited Knoxville, in 1797, 
Schults, Ashe, Bradbury, Timothy Flint, Cuming, and many 
others wrote books upon this western country which are said to 
hold the reader's attention with all the excitement of romance. 

The first printing done on the Western Continent was by 
Spanish priests in Mexico. Stephen Daye brought from Eng- 
land the first press used by Englishmen, and set it up at Har- 
vard in 163S. The first printing done in the limits of what is 
now the United States, was the Freeman'' $ Oath in 1639. The 
first book was the Bay Psalm Book in 1640. The first news- 
paper west of the Alleghanies was the Pittsburg Gazette, founded 
by John Scull, a printer, July 29, 1786. The paper still sur- 
vives. One year later, (1787), the second paper west of the 
Mountains was issued at Lexington, Ky. The third press was 
put into operation at Rogersville, East Tennessee, 1791. The 
fourth was at Cincinnati, 0., 1793. One of the first books 
printed west of the Alleghanies was Judge Brackenbridge's 
Modern Chivalry, issued from the press of the Pittsburg Gazette 
in 1793. This was one of the first works of fiction produced in 
America, and was a semi-humorous, satirical novel. 

The Lexington paper was called the Kentucky Gazette, and 
was edited by Wm. Bradford. The paper at Rogersville was 
called the Knoxville Gazette, since it was to be moved to that 
place in a short time, Gov. Blount having determined to fix the 
seat of government at Knoxville. The paper was founded and 
edited by George Roulstone, whom Ramsey calls a man of 
rather more than ordinary capacity. The Cincinnati paper was 
called The Sentinal of the North West Territory, was edited by Wil- 
liam Maxwell. Of course none of these were dailies, but were 
of more importance in their day than some dailies are now. 

In 1797, four years after the first issue of The Sentinal at 
Cincinnati, Henke of Kentucky printed at Nashville the first 
number of The Tennessee Gazette and Mero District Advertiser, 
which was sold the following year to Benjamin J. Bradford, 
and by him called The Clarion. Knoxville's second paper was 
The Knoxville Register founded by the same George Roulstone in 
1798. When The Register had continued about two years, Roul- 
stone and John Rivington Parrington published another paper 
called The Genius of Liberty. Thus Knoxville had three week- 
lies at an early date. A larger paper than any of these was 



244 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

started in 1804 by George Wilson, This was known as Wilson's 
Gazette, and was continu*-d.until 1818 when Wilson removed to 
Nashville to publish The Nashville Gazette in the interest of 
Gen. Jackson. The Kaoxville Register which lasted until 1863 
was established in 1816 by F. S. Heiskill and Hu. Brown, the 
latter being something of a literary character. This was a Whig 
paper for many years. 

The first daily ever published in Knoxville was The Daily 
Morning Plebeian, started as a weekly in 1850, and changed to a 
daily in 1851. Bro willow's Tennessee Whig was started at Eliza- 
bethton in 1839. At the end of a year it was moved to Jones- 
boro, afterwards to Knoxville, where in 1849 it became Brown- 
low" s Knoxville Whig and attained fame beyond the limits of the 
State. The record seems not quite clear in regard to Nashville. 
Benjamin J. Bradford sold the Clarion to his cousin Thomas G. 
Bradford. The name of the Clarion was changed again, or else 
another paper had been started and was merged into the Clar- 
ion. At any rate, the paper was enlarged and called The Clarion 
and Tennessee Gazette. In 1821 the name Clarion was again re- 
sumed. The Impartial Review and Cumberland Repository was 
started by Thomas Eastin in 1805. The Nashville Whig was 
established in 1812 by Moses and Joseph Norvell. After vari- 
ous changes in 1826 it was consolidated with The Nashville Ban- 
ner which had been first issued in 1822. The new paper was 
called The National Banner and Nashville Whig. It was first 
semi-weekly, then tri weekly. In 1831 the name having been 
changed to National Banner and Nashville Advertiser, the paper 
was issued as a daily — the first ever in Nashville. As before 
said, George Wilson started The Nashville Gazette in 1819. This 
was announced as a Republican (Democratic) newspaper, 
though Wilson claimed to be independent. Mr. Allen A. Hall 
and S. Nye issued a daily in 1837, under the name of The 
Republican Banner. This was, in a way, the successor of the old 
Clarion. The paper was subsequently edited by Felix K. Zolli- 
coffer and other men of prominence. In 1835 that staunch ad- 
vocate of Gen. Jackson, The Nashville Union was founded. This 
was afterwards edited by Col. J. George Harris. The first num- 
ber of The American appeared in 1848, and was united with The 
Union in 1853. The third Gazette was established in 184-1. 
Anson Nelson and Judge James T. Bell were subsequently con- 



BEGINNINGS OF LITERATURE. 245 

nected with The Gazette which continued until Nashville was 
occupied by Federals. The lint is too long to continue. The 
first weekly paper was issued in Memphis in 1827, and was 
called The Memphis Advocate and Western District Intelligencer. 
The first number of The Memphis Appeal appeared April 21, 
1841, edited by Henry Van Pelt. M. C. Gallaway founded The 
Avalanche in 1858. The Hamilton Gazette was published at 
Chattanooga, or Ross 1 Landing, in 1888, but did not become a 
daily until 1864. The first newspaper in Columbia was pub- 
lished, in 1S11, by James Walker, who progressed well enough to 
marry Miss Jane M. Polk, sister of James K. Polk, in two years 
after starting his paper. Among those who have held the tripod 
at Columbia may be mentioned Hon. A. 0. P. Nicholson, Hon. S. 
D. Frierson, Gen. Fel'X K. Zollicoffer, William Fields the com- 
piler of the Scrap Book, Judge Stanley Matthews of the United 
States Supreme Court, John E. Hatcher, with many other note- 
worthy names. This is only a sample of other smaller towns, 
many of the most intellectual men of the State having tested 
their powers in the field of newspaperdom, before seeking emi- 
nence in other pursuits. Clarksville is said to have had The 
Chronicle as early as 1808 or 1809, but not to have kept this up 
continuously. The Courier first made its appearance in Mur- 
freesboro June 16, 1814. The Gazette was established by Messrs. 
Ford and Womack at Lebanon in 1818. The Banner of Peace 
was first published at Lebanon in 1842, but afterwards removed 
to Nashville. As early as 1815 W. L. Barry seems to have con- 
ducted The Tenvessean at Gallatin, though the history is not 
clear. The Cumberland Presbyterian was removed from Nash- 
ville to Springfield in 1839, conducted six months and sus- 
pended. Franklin possibly had a paper as early as 1820, 
though no record is left earlier than 1831. Some of these 
were edited by printers with little information, some were for 
the time being in charge of bright young men who were, as said, 
preparing for the law and afterwards became more or less emi- 
nent. Some were conducted by men of considerable literary 
taste and aspirations, who loved letters and would have won 
fame therein in older communities. Take a file of old papers 
and one is surprised at the high order of writing found here 
and there. Sketches, essays, and snatches of song — not all 



246 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

poor — are found in addition to such news as could be had 
Says Roulstone's paper, The Knoxville Gazette, for 1773, "A news- 
paper is like a feast. Some dish there is for every guest." 

In the file of this same Gazette is found poetry translated 
from the Spanish, the French, poetry selected from standard 
English poets, as well as original verse, often with no mark to 
show that it is original. 

[To be continued in next issue.] 



/ 



BLOCK HOUSES. 



247 



BLOCK HOUSES. 



BY -MR. RADFORD, NASHVILLE, TENN. 



The early settlers of Tennessee were engaged in almost 
daily contests with the Indians. The Creeks and the Chero- 
kees, although they had sold their lands to the white settlers. 
continued, for many years, their utmost efforts to drive them 
from the country. 

They kept up a ceaseless and murderous warfare with the 
settlers on the Cumberland. No week passed without the 
treacherous killing- and scalping of some settler b} r a skulking 
Indian, shooting from the concealment of the canebrake. 




* <- 



ridley's block house in 1835. 



The constant liability to such attacks drove the settlers 
to build rude log forts, to which, when in danger, they could 
flee with their families for refuge and defense. Such block 
houses were built in every neighborhood, and one of the 



24S THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

largest stood on the bluff in Nashville, near where the court- 
house now stands. There was one elected by Mr. Ridley, which 
was still standing, although badly dilapidated, in 1835. As few 
persons have any accurate idea of how these rude fortifications 
of our ancestors looked, I give a ropy of the one Mr. Ridley 
built, from a picture taken in 1835. 

This fort of Mr. Ridley's, near Buchanan's Fori, on Mill 
Creek, was twenty feet square, and was built thus: Next the 
ground were six round logs, about twenty-one feet long, laid 
one upon another, and well morticed; next came a log twenty- 
four feet long, and a similar one on the other side, all well 
mint iced. In this way a projection even with the Moor that 
divided the upper chamber of the block house from the lower 
one. was formed beyond the ground tier of logs, upon which an 
upper wall of round logs was built, after which the building 
was roofed in. Upon the roof, pieces of wood were fixed for 
the garrison to step on and put out any fire the Indians might 
succeed in setting to it with their arrows. Loopholes were 
made in the logs of the upper room, to enable them to Are at 
any Indians who ventured to show themselves. There were 
other loopholes in the projecting part of the floor, from 
whence they could fire down upon their besiegers, if they 
should attempt to run up to the block house to set fire to it. 
These bloc!-; houses were surrounded by strong picket fences, 
consisting of stout posts set firmly in the ground, the upper 
ends of the posts being sharpened, to prevent scaling. 

Mr. Ridley was still living in 1835, was over ninety-five 
years of age, and he and his old wife were then living in a house 
near their old fort. 

Mrs. Ridley thus describes an at lack made by the Indians 
in 1702 upon the adjoining fort of her son-in-law, Mr. Buch- 
anan (at Buchanan's Fort), on Mill Creek. 

The Indians had been gathering for some time, and the 
white settlors had been told that the attack was first to be 
made on Buchanan's Fori, then on Ridley's Fort, and after- 
wards on the Cumberland Fort (now the Court Mouse Square). 
Four hundred settlers assembled and wailed at Buchanan's 
Fort for several days, but it was rumored that the Indians had 
given up their intentions. Almost the whole of them then went 



BLOCK HOUSES. 249 

to their homes, the insecurity of their families keeping them 
in constant uneasiness; so that only nineteen remained, who 
lived near. On Saturday evening a Frenchman and a half- 
blood Indian ran into the fort, and said that the Indians were 
coming and would soon be there. They were not believed, and 
the half-breed told them they might cut off his head if the sav- 
ages did not reach the place in an hour. Two men went out to 
reconnoiter, but, walking along heedlessly, fell into an ambush, 
and were killed and scalped. As they did not return, it was 
supposed that the Frenchman and half-blood had lied, and 
that they had come among them to take white wives. They 
were now looked upon with suspicion. In this state of things 
all the men of the fort retired to rest, leaving Sallie Buchanan 
to sit up in the kitchen. 

While she was listening in the dead of night to a noise 
in the distance, which she at first supposed indicated the 
approach of the messengers, suddenly she heard the horses 
and cows struggling and running about in the enclosure in 
great agitation (for, as Mrs. Ridley said: "Cows is mortal 
feared, as well as horses, of them parfect devils, the Indians), 
and knowing the signs, she aroused the men with the cry, 
^Indians, boys, Indians!" Instantly arming themselves, they 
flew to the gate, which 900 warriors of the Choctaws, Chero 
kees and Chickasaws were trying to force open. The gate was 
thoroughly well secured. The Indians fortunately making 
no diversion at any other point, the brave men inside had but 
this to defend. They answered the Indian yells by a shot at 
them when a chance occurred to kill. 

In the meantime, it was found that those who had left 
took almost all the bullets with them. The heroic Sally Buch- 
anan undertook the task of supplying them at the kitchen fire, 
and actually cast all the bullets that were fired, while a female 
relative, who was staying with her, assisted. As fast as they 
were ready, Sally would run out with them and cry aloud: 
"Here, boys, here's bullets for you, but mind you don't serve 
them out till you are sure of knocking some of those scream- 
ing devils over." 

So much were the men encouraged by the indomitable 
spirit of Sally that liny foughl with the confidence (if victory. 



250 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

The Indians, after a fruitless attempt to force their way in, 
which lasted several hours, becoming apprehensive that the 
report of the rifles and uproar, which Mrs. Ridley heard very 
distinctly two miles off, would bring succor to the garrison, 
drew off before daylight, losing several of their number. 
And so this garrison, not only saved itself, but all the other 
forts, which the Indians intended capturing. 

In 1781 the Indians made an attack on Nashville (then 
called Nashborough) at the stockade on the bluff. During the 
night of April 1, 1781, a numerous body of Cherokees came and 
lay in ambush near the fort. In the morning three of them 
approached the fort, tired and ran off, yet not out of sight. 
They were seen reloading their guns and occasionally waving 
their hands to attract notice. This was evidently a banter of 
defiance, and it was so regarded by the whites, who resolved to 
go out. to battle. A party of some twenty or more mounted 
their horses and rode through the gate. They dashed down the 
hill towards Broad street and the branch (Wilson Spring 
Branch) in pursuit of the retreating foe. The few Indians, who 
had kept out of sight, made a stand near the bank of the creek. 
The position is near the corner of College and Demonbreun 
streets. The men dismounted at Broad to give battle. A con 
siderable body of Indians was concealed in the bed of the 
creek and among the thick bushes, and suddenly fired on the 
men as they dismounted. The fire was returned with alacrity 
and with some effect. The horses tied up the hill towards the 
fort. At this moment another party of Indians, with a yell, 
dashed forth from their hiding places on the side of the hill 
near what is now Cherry street. They attempted to catch the 
retreating horses, which, going to the fort and finding the gate 
closed, ran down towards French Lick. Had the Indians main- 
tained their position or extended their line to the river, not a 
white man could have got back to the fort. 

The horses passed through the Indian line and drew after 
them many who preferred a horse to discipline or the com- 
mands of the chiefs. At this moment the dogs of the fori . see- 
ing the confusion and hearing the tiring, ran down the hill. 
These dogs were trained to hostility to the savages, and they 
made a most furious onset and kept the Indians busily 



BLOCK HOUSES. 251 

employed in self-defense. The pursub of the horses and con- 
test' with the dogs so occupied the Indians that a way was 
opened for the escape or retreat to the fort. The Indians 
greatly outnumbered the whites. Five of the whites were 
killed and two disabled by wounds. They resolved to escape 
to the fort. Taking with them their two wounded companions 
they ran, and were pursued by their enemies. There was no 
time to reload their guns. To have stopped would have been 
to encounter an overwhelming force. So they reached the 
fort. One of the women said : "Thank God that he gave the 
Indians a fear of dogs and a love for horses." In the retreat, 
Isaac Lucas was hot down whilst running and reloading his 
gun as he ran. He did not lose his presence of mind, primed 
his gun, took aim, and shot dead in his tracks the foremost 
Indian. The people in the fort saw Lucas fall and that he was 
alive, but in danger of being killed and scalped. He lay within 
the range of the guns of the fort. After he had killed his near- 
est foe and crawled to a more secure place, he was prompt to 
reload his rifle and look to the position of his hatchet and 
butcher knife. After the repulse and retreat of the Indians. 
Lucas was rescued from his perilous position. He was 
brought into the fort, and recovered after a few weeks' con- 
finement. There was one contest almost under the walls of 
the fort. Edward Swanson was one of the retreating party. 
He was pursued and overtaken by a big Indian within twenty 
yards of the fort. The Indian gained upon Swanson and struck 
him with his gun on the shoulder, causing Swanson to drop his 
gun. Swanson turned upon his pursuer and grabbed the 
Indian's gun. Then commenced a life and death struggle for 
its possession. The blow had disabled Swanson; the superior 
strength of the Indian wrested the gun from him and knocked 
him down on all fours. The men at the fort could not fire at 
the Indian, lest they should shoot their friend. At this 
critical moment John Buchanan rushed out of the gate to 
Swanson's relief. He killed the big Indian on the spot, took his 
gun and kept it as long as he lived. 

This ended the day's fight on the part of the whites. The 
Indians, however, continued their efforts to secure the fright- 
ened horses, but with little success. The animals wore so 



252 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

much scared by the yelling Indians, the firing of guns and the 
barking of dogs that but few were caught. Several days later, 
most of them came to the entrance of the fort and were gladly 
admitted. 

The Indians stripped and scalped such whites as they had 
slain and slightly covered up their own dead. They gained 
five good guns. At night other Indians arrived before the sta- 
tion and fired repeatedly at it, but did no harm. Quite a num- 
ber of (hem were seen a few hundred yards from the fort. 
There was one swivel in the fort, but no cannon balls. It was 
proposed to fire this swivel at the Indians. To this, objection 
was made by some persons, saying: "There are too many trees 
in the way, and we have not the powder to waste." The gun 
was loaded, several of the men contributing powder, pieces of 
lead, pieces of horse shoes and other bits of iron. The cannon 
was placed in position and fired. It made a big noise, but 
whether it did the Indians any mischief or not was never 
known. When the smoke cleared away, so that a view could 
be obtained, the Indians were gone. 



THE OLD STONE FORT NEAR MANCHESTER. 



156 



THE OLD STONE FORT NEAR MANCHESTER, TENN. 



* [The editor received from Miss Susie Blakele3 r an interesting- and 
valuable communication upon this subject, written by Mr. Robert Wil- 
son Green. It was referred to Gen. G. P. Thruston with the request 
that he would prepare a paper for publication upon the Old Stone Fort.] 

The ancient fort situated in the forks of Duck River, in 
Coffee County, is one of the largest and most elaborate pre- 
historic fortifications to be found in Tennessee. It has long 
been an object of special interest to persons making a study of 
the remains of the ancient races of America. 




STONE FORT, 
Contents, 54 A. 3 R.I 3 P. 



™wiiwp^ 



'%///!-„. 



Figure I. Plan of Stone Fokt. 
(From Thruston's Antiquities of Tennessee. Page 41.) 

The fort differs from other prehistoric works in Tennessee. 
It was probably not merely a stockade or palisade defensive 
work, enclosing a village settlement, gardens and burial 
grounds. It was doubtless used as a fort, into which the people 



254 



THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



of that immediate section could assemble, and protect them 
selves in limes of war or danger, as there seem to l>e no evi- 
dences of a permanent settlement within the lines of the fortifi- 
cation. 

There is a large ancient mound 20 to 25 feet high, ahoul 
one mile north of the fort, and there are other evidences of a 
populous aboriginal settlement in that neighborhood. A plan 
of the fort is shown in Figure. I. 

There has been a great deal of speculation as to the age, 
and origin of this work, but archaeologists are now quite cer- 
tain that it was erected by the ancient people, popularly known 
as the Mound Builders, who were doubtless village Indians of 
a somewhat more advanced type than the modern Indians of 
the early Western frontier. 

The fortification does not differ in its general construction 
from some of the prehistoric works found in the Ohio Valley. 
The most remarkable feature of the fort is its entrance at the 
northeast end. On both sides of the opening the general defen- 
sive line was strengthened by mounds or supports of stone 
about three feet higher than the main walls. 

Towers or lookout stockades were doubtless located upon 
these mounds. Strong parallel walls exteuded inwardly from 
the entrance, with but one opening at the interior end, as shown 
in Figure II. 

This interior walled way was probably sur- 
mounted with towers at both ends. The larg- 
est of these tower-foundation mounds was. 
up to a recent date, not less than sixteen feet 
high. The front openings from the entrance 
walls were also narrow and so constructed 
that not more than two persons could enter 
the fort abreast, at one time. An attacking 
party, forcing its way through the main en- 
trance, would have been caught between 
these narrow walls, and destroyed before it 
could enter the fort. The entrance, as is well 
shown by the plan, and remains, was a re- 
Antiquities of Ten- markable piece of military engineering' 

nessee. Pa^.) ^^ () , fl Qmre ^IteA race. 






# 



% 



y 



."3 



Figure II. 
Plan- of Entrance. 

(From Thrnslon 



THE OLD STONE FORT NEAR MANCHESTER. 255 

Messrs. Squire and Davis, in their valuable publication, 
"The Mounds of the Mississippi Valley," illustrate a number 
of ancient earthworks in Ohio, with entrances showing similar 
defensive works and engineering skill. They were doubtless 
erected by the same aboriginal race. 

The walls of the old fort, now from four to ten feet high, 
are formed of rock and earth. They do not show evidences of 
masonry or careful rock construction, the rocks and earth being 
simply heaped up, doubtless as a support to the general stock- 
ade line. Along the steep bluffs, as shown in the plan, there 
was no earth or rock wall, the high precipitous natural elevation 
forming an ample defense against attack there. At the base of 
the bluffs on the south a deep ditch must have formerly connect- 
ed the two branches of the river, forming an additional defense. 
The ancient walls have evidently been partly washed away and 
lowered by the action of time. Some portions have almost 
disappeared. 

The fort is a very ancient structure. The modern Indians 
seem to have had no knowledge or tradition regarding it. 

Haywood tells us that in 1823 it was covered with large 
forest trees. In 1819 Col. Andrew Erwin, who owned the land 
upon which the fort was located, cut down a white oak tree, 
which grew upon the top of the fort wall. He counted 357 
"annulars." or annual circles upon the cut of the trunk, indi- 
cating its great age. 

According to this estimate, the tree was seventv-eiehf 
years old when DeSoto landed in Florida, and thirty years old 
when ( 'olumbus discovered America. How much older the fort 
may have been we cannot tell. This disproves the theory that 
tlie fort was erected by DeSoto's men. What a story these 
interesting remains could tell, if their history could be 
revealed! 

The mound building and stone grave building Indians 
doubtless inhabited the fertile valleys of Tennessee through 
a number of centuries. 

Their remains are found throughout almost the entire Mis- 
sissippi Valley. They extend to Central Georgia and South 
Carolina in the Southeast. The impression prevails among 
archaeologists, that not long before the advent of Columbus 



256 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

and DeSoto, the ruder Northern tribes overrun the territory 
occupied by more peaceful and industrious village Indians of 
the Ohio Valley and the South, and destroyed their towns and 
humble homes. 

Perhaps the ancestors of the warlike Iroquois Indians, the 
Goths and Vandals of their time, were the authors of these 
disasters. For nearly two hundred years before Middle Ten- 
nessee and Kentucky were occupied by the pioneer white set- 
tlers, this beautiful section seems to have been the hunting 
ground of the Northern and Southern tribes, and was not per- 
manently occupied by its Indian claimants. 

GK P. THRUSTON. 



GOVERNOR LEVIN WINDER. 257 



GOVERNOR LEVIN WINDER, OF MARYLAND, AND THE 

FAMILY OF HIS ELDEST SON, EDWARD 

STOUGHTON WINDER. 

[Written from records in the family Bibles of Mrs. E. T. Winder, and from papers 
in the possession of his granddaughter, Mrs. Elizabeth Tayloe Pennington, nee Winder, 
Baltimore, Md., 1896.] 



[Levin Winder, Governor of Maryland in 1812, was descended from 
ancestors who were among the first settlers of Maryland. He was born 
September 14, 1757. in Somerset County, and at the age of eighteen en- 
tered the Revolutionary Army. He was promoted successively through 
the grades of Lieutenant, Captain, Major, and Lieutenant Colonel in the 
Colonial Army. At the time of his death he was Senior Major General 
of the Maryland militia. At different times he served with distinction 
in the Legislature of the State. In 1790 he married Mary Stoughton 
Sloss. In 1812 he was elected Speaker of the House, and in the same 
year was elected Governor, occupying the latter position until 1815. 

He was a devoted Mason, and was twice elected Grand Master of 
Masons in his native State. 1 

He died in the city of Baltimore, July 1, 1819, universally respected 
and beloved.] 



At the death of Got. Levin Winder, who died in Baltimore, 
July 1, 1819, aged sixty-three years, his estate, on Monie Creek, 
two miles from Princess Ann, in Somerset County, Md., was 
left to his widow during her life. Her name was Mary Stough- 
ton Winder, nee Sloss. She lived a few years longer. At her 
death the estate was sold by the trustees, and divided between 
Levin Winder's three children. The eldest son was Edward 
Stoughton Winder, their second son William Sydney Winder 
and their daughter Marianna Stoughton Winder. Edward 
Stoughton Winder was married on June 1, 182(1, at "Wye 
House." to Elizabeth Tayloe Lloyd, eldest daughter of Hon. 
Col. Edward Lloyd, fifth of that name of "Wye House," Talbot 
County, Md. Col. Lloyd bought the farm of "Knightly," adjoin- 
ing his own estate, and built a brick house there for his daugh- 
ter, Elizabeth Tayloe Winder, nee Lloyd. At his mother's 
death, Edward Stoughton Winder moved his family to 
"Knightly," from "Monie," his sister Marianna remaining with 
him until her marriage, on Feb. 22, 1831, at "Knightly," to 
Thomas Emory. Esq., of Queen Ann County, Md. 



258 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

William Sydney Winder moved i<> Baltimore. He died 
Feb. 9, 1844. His wife, Araminta, died Feb. 13, 1845, leaving 

four daughters. 



Edward Stoughton Winder wns born in Maryland Sept. 
21, 1798. Was appointed from Maryland Captain Second 
Dragoons, June 8, 1836, and served through the Indian war in 
Florida, and died at "Knightly," from the effects of the cam- 
paign, March 1, 1840, aged forty-one years. Is buried at the 
Lloyd burying ground, at "Wye House." 



Elizabeth! Tayloe Winder, nee Lloyd, his wife, was bom 
at "Wye House," Sept. 23, 1800. and died in Baltimore, March 
29, 1881, and is also buried at the Lloyd burying ground, at 
"Wye House," Talbot County, Md. 



Edward Stoughton Winder and his wife, Elizabeth Tay- 
loe Winder, nee Lloyd, had born to them eight children. 
Edward Lloyd Winder, their eldest son, born Feb. 18, 1821; 
died May 19, in the sixty-fourth year of his age. He graduated 
at the Naval Academy, in Philadelphia, aud served through the 
Mexican war; resigned at the breaking out of the civil war. 
joined the Confederacy and served until the end of the war. 
He married Helen Thorban, Oct 19, 1848, in Norfolk. They 
had no children. 



Levin Winder, their second son, born Nov. 13, 1822. Died 
at Louisville, Ky., March 21, 1843, in the twenty-first year of 
his age. He was a young man of high promise, and much 
beloved bv his familv and friends. 



James Murray Winder, born Feb. 15, 1825. Died Sept. 7. 
1X47, aged twenty-two years, seven months. An obituary 
notice of his death reads: Lieut. Winder, of the Voltigeurs, 
serving in Ferno's Battery, who was wounded at the National 
Bridge, was buried yesterday, with the honors of war. He 
was shot on the bridge, almost at the first fire, an escopet hall 
passing through his body, carrying away his left lung. He 
was a gallant and gentlemanly officer, whose loss will be 
severelv felt. 



GOVERNOR LEVIN WINDER. 259 

Sallie Murray Winder, bom Oct. 7, 1826. Died Jan. 10, 
1891. She married at "Knightly," Oct. 3, 1850, Robert C. Buch- 
anan, son of Andrew Buchanan, of Baltimore. The notice of 
her funeral reads: The funeral of Mrs, S. M. Buchanan, widow 
of the late Gen. R. C. Buchanan, U. S. A., will take place from 
St. John's P. E. Church, corner Sixteenth and H streets, Wash- 
ington, D. C, Tuesday morning, Jan. 13, at 11:30 a. m. They 
are both buried in one grave at Rock Creek Cemetery, Wash- 
ington, D. C. They had no children. 



Charles Sydney Winder, born Oct. 18, 1820. Was killed in 
battle on Aug. 9, 1862. Graduated at West Point. 

From Army Register: Born in Maryland. Appointed 
from Maryland. Brevet Second Lieutenant Fourth Artillery, 
July 1, 1850. Second Lieutenant Third Artillery, July 21, 1851. 
First Lieutenant, April 5, 1851. Captain Ninth Infantry, 
March, 1855. 

Notice from the papers read : First Lieut. Charles S. Win- 
der, of Maryland, First Lieutenant April 5, 1854, Third Artil- 
lery. Soldierly conduct on the wreck of the steamer San 
Francisco. Now on frontier service. First commissioned, 
1850. 



Lieut. Charles S. Winder, of Maryland, has, we learn, been 
appointed a Captain in the Ninth Regiment instead of a First 
Lieutenant. He graduated at West Point, and distinguished 
himself for his gallant conduct on board the ill-fated steamer 
San Francisco. 

Resigned April 1, 1861. At the breaking out of the civil 
war he joined the Confederate army. The Richmond Enquirer 
of the day says : Brig. (Jen. Charles S. Winder, who was killed 
in the battle of Southwest Mountain on Saturday, was pro- 
moted from a colonelcy a few months ago for distinguished 
conduct, and was one among the most meritorious young offi- 
cers, we learn, in the Confederate army. The battle of South- 
western Mountain, Ya., (Jen. Stonewall Jackson's official 
report : 

Richmond, Aug. 12. — The following official dispatch was 
received here to-day: 

Headquarters, Valley District, Aug. 11, 6:15 a. m. — The 



260 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

battle was on Aug. !>, near Cedar Run, about six miles from 
Culpeper Courthouse. We have to mourn the loss of sonn 
of our best officers and men. Brig. Gen. Charles S. Winder 
was mortally wounded whilst ably discharging his duty at the 
head of his command, which was the advance of the left wing 
of the army. 



After peace was declared, the remains of Charles S. Win- 
der were brought home and interred at the Lloyd family bn 
ground, at "Wye House." 

Capt. Chas. S. Winder, CJ. S. A., married Alice Lloyd, sec- 
ond daughter of Col. Edward Lloyd, sixth of that name of 
ve House," Talbot County, Md., on the evening of Aug. 7. 
1855, at ''Wye House," the ceremony being perforated by the 
Rev. Dr. Joseph Spencer. 



Their three children are: The eldest son, Charles Sydney 
Winder, born at Fort Vancouver, Oregon, W. T., Aug. 18, 1850. 
Second sen, Edward Lloyd Winder, born at "Wye House" dun - 
4, 1858. Married Mary Parker, Oct. 15, 1884. Their children 
are Alice Lloyd Winder, born July 8, 1886. Mary Parker 
Winder, born Nov. P.), 1889. 



Elizabeth Lloyd Winder, born Aug. 4, 1860, at "Wye 
House.'* Pied Nov. S, 1862, at "Presquile." 



Elizabeth Tayloe Winder, born Aug. 1. is:', 1. at "Knightly." 
She was married to Charles -Josiah Pennington, of Baltimn 'i . 
.Md.. April 14, 1853, at "Knightly." They had three children 
born to them. The supplement to the obituary record of prad- 
•tes of Yale College, 1870-80, says: Charles Josiah Penning- 
ton, eldest son of Josiah and Sophia C. "Olaphani" Pennine 
was born in Baltimore, Md., Oct. i!!». 1826, and died in the same 
city March 27, 1877, aged fifty years. He married April 14. 
1853, Elizabeth T. Winder, of Talbol County, Maryland, who 
witli his children, two sons and a daughter, survives him. 



Their (ddest son is a well-known architect of Baltimore, 
Josiah Pennington, born dan. 21, L854, in Baltimore. He mar- 



GOVERNOR LEVIN WINDER. 261 

ried Nov. 21, 1883. Margaret Riggs Pleasants, at St. Paul 
Church, Baltimore. Their sou is Hall Pleasants Pennington, 
born May 24, 1888. 

Elizabeth Lloyd Pennington, born Nov. 22, 1855, in Balti- 
more. 

Edward Winder Pennington, born Aug. 31, 1857, at 
"Knightly." Died Nov. 1, 1891. The notice of his death in the 
Sun reads: Edward Winder Pennington, in the thirty-fifth 
year of his age, suddenly on Nov. 4, at the residence of his 
mother. 

The funeral of Mr. Edward AY. Pennington took place 
from his late home. The interment was made at Greenmount 
Cemetery. Mr. Pennington was one of the best-known civil 
engineers in Baltimore. He was one of the first to arrive at 
Johnstown after the flood, and was presented with a hand- 
some gold watch for his valuable services rendered in getting 
trains through. 

Mary Winder, born Oct. S, 1833. Died March, 1882. Is 
buried at the Lloyd burying ground, at "Wye House." 



William Sydney Winder, fifth son, born Oct. 1, 1835. Mar- 
ried Oct. 4, 1882, in Baltimore County, Alice Stum].. Their 
children are Elizabeth B. Winder, born Sept. 11. 1883. Ella 
S. Winder, born Aug. 5, 1885. 



NOTES. 

(Special Dispatch to the Baltimore Sun, 1804.) 
Princess Ann, April 0. — The tomb of Wm. Stoughton, who 
was buried at "Almodington," the Elzey estate, on the 
Monokia River, in Somerset County, was removed on Satur- 
day to tlie cemetery of All Saints' Church, "Monie." The fol- 
lowing inscription appears on the old marble slab marking the 
grave: Here lyeth the body of Wm. Stoughton, Esq.. born in 
the year 1692, and departed this life the 12th day of March, 
1759, aged sixty-three years. Col. Stoughton married a daugh- 
ter of John Elzey, of Manokin, who settled in Somerset in 1603, 
and was the great-grandfather of the wife of Gov. Winder, of 
Maryland. Col. Stoughton presented to Somerset Parish an 
elegant silver communion service, which is now used in St. 



262 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Andrew's Church, Princess Ann. and All Saint's Church, 
"Monie," and is the admiratioD of ;ill who have ever seeD it. 



This account in the paper had Gov. Wm. Winder, of Mary- 
land. We cannot be wrong in saying it should be Gov. Levin 
Winder, who married Mary Stoughton Sloss, on May 13, 1790, 
and who was Governor of Maryland in 1812, and who was the 
onlv Gov. Winder, of Maryland. 



A book plate with the name and coat-of-arms of Wm. 
Stoughton, Esq., and a seal with the coat-of-arms, besides the 
name in the family, are the only records in my possession, and 
a copy of the coat-of-arms on a silver urn, which belonged/to 
Gov. Levin Winder and his wife, and which, family tradition 
says, was Sloss, and was brought from England. 



PEDIGREE OF THE POEK PAMIEY. 26 



o 



PEDIGREE OF THE POLLOK OR POLK FAMILY FROM 

FULBERT, THE SAXON, (A. D. 1075) TO THE 

PRESENT TIME. 



BY MISS MARY WINDER GARRETT, WILLIAMSBURG, VA. 

[Continued from April number J 

William Polk, the second son of Robert Bruce Polk, or 
Pollok, and Magdaline, his wife, inherited "White Hall," the 
home place in Somerset County, Maryland, and remained in 
Maryland. His descendants are mostly in that State, but a 
few in Delaware. William Polk married Nancy Knox (but 
when she married him she was the Widow Owens). She was 
the sister of Joanna Knox, the first wife of his brother John, 
thus making the descendants of these two brothers doubly 
related, through Polks and sisters Knox. William Polk had 
two sons, David Polk and James Polk. David Polk, the elder 
son. inherited "White Hall" from his father. He was Colonial 
Judge for the Comity of Somerset, Maryland. The commission 
of Judge David Polk, one of his Lordship's Justices of the 
Peace, was dated June 8, 1763. The last term of court he acted 
as Judge was June term, 1766. Commission on page 223. 
Judgments of court, Somerset County, commencing March 
court, 1760, and ending June 1, 1763. 

He married Betsey Gillis, and had five children, (1) Will- 
iam, (2) Esina, (3) a daughter who married Hamden Haney, (4) 
Gillis, (5) a daughter who married Judge Davie. 

William Polk, the oldest son of Judge David Polk, was 
Judge of the Court of Appeals of Maryland; he was born 1752, 
died 1814. He was married three times and has left numerous 
descendants. First, he married Esther, the daughter of Judge 
Win. Winder. She was, when she married him, the widow of 
Isaac Handy. His second wife was the Widow Dennis, nee 
Purnell. His third wife was Mary Hubble. By bis first mar- 
riage, with Esther Handy, he had five children: (1) Elizabeth, 
(2) Esther. (3) Gertrude, (4) William, (5) Josiah Polk. Eliza- 



264 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

beth, the eldesl child, married Judge Troraentine, tirst L'nited 
States Senator from Louisiana. No descendants from this 
marriage. Esther, the second daughter of Judge William Polk 
aud Esther, his wife, married three times: First, May King, 
one son, Henry King; second time she married Charles H. 
Winder, no children; third, Alexander Stuart, son of Alexan- 
der Stuart, surgeon in the revolution; no children. Gertrude, 
third child of Judge William Polk and Esther, his wife, mar- 
ried, in 177!), her cousin, Gen. William Henry Winder. He 
was a member of the Maryland Legislature. In the war of 
1812, he was Colonel, Brigadier General and Adjutant General. 
Schaf, in the "Chronicle," of Baltimore, speaks of (leu. Will- 
iam Henry Winder as "one of Baltimore's brilliant lights/' 
and one of the most eminent lawyers in the city. Schaf states 
that at the time of his death Gen. Winder had the largest 
practice of any man at the bar in Baltimore, and one of the 
largest in the United States Supreme Court, (leu. William 
Henry Winder and Gertrude, his wife, had leu children. Of 
these, five died in infancy. Those who gained maturity were 
John Henry Winder, born Feb. 21, 1800. William Henry Win 
der, born 1S07. Charles Henry Winder, born 1809. Gertrude 
Winder, Aurelia Winder. William Henry Winder and Ger- 
trude Winder never married. John Henry Winder, son of ( leu. 
William Henry Winder and Gertrude, Ins wife, was horn in 
Somerset County in 1800. Graduated at West Point; entered 
the artillery; resigned in L861 ; entered the Confederate States 
army as Brigadier General. Died at Florence. S. C. Feb. 0. 
1865. He was twice married. First wife. Elizabeth Shepherd; 
second wife, Caroline Cox. By his first marriage, with Eliza- 
beth Shepherd, lie had one son. William A. Winder, Dr. of 
Marine, in charge of .Marine Hospital, San Diego, Cal.; Cap- 
tain in the United States army. Appointed, 1894, United 
States Special Agenl for settlement of Indians at Covelo, 
Bound Valley Agency, North California. He married Abby 
K. Goodwin and has one son. William Winder, Lieutenant \ja 
the United States Xavy. I>y the second marriage of < Jen. John 
Henry Winder and Caroline < 'ox he had two children. John C. 
Winder and William Sidney Winder. William Sidney is un- 
married and resides in Baltimore. John C. Winder, the older 



PEDIGREE OE THE POLK FAMILY. 265 

brother, married Octavia Bryan. He was Major in Confederate 
service. Was Vice President of Seaboard Air Line Railway 
miles). He has fire children: Mary. Caroline, John H., Ger- 
trude. Octavia. Mary Winder married Washington Bryan; 
issue, Octavia Winder, Annie Washington and Mary Winder, 
James West and John Winder Bryan. Caroline Winder mar- 
ried Dr. F. W. Hughes; issue, Octavia Winder Hughes, Annie 
Smallwood, Isaac Hayne, Mary Winder, John Winder and 
James Betner Hughes. John H. Winder (son of John C.) is 
< reneral Manager of Seaboard Air Line. He married Florence 
Tucker; two children, John C. Winder and William S. Winder. 
Gertrude A. Winder (daughter of John A. Winder) married 
W. R. Tucker; issue, Marie, Octavia and Gertrude A. Tucker 
and Rufus. Octavia Winder, fifth child of John A. Winder, 
married Ludlow S. Kinner. 

Charles H. Winder (son of Gen. William Henry Winder! 
married Mary Sterrett; had two children. Josephine and Mary 
Winder. Mary died 1S64, aged seventeen years. Josephine 
married Stewart Darrell, of Bermuda, but they reside in Balti- 
more; children. Cavendish Darrell, Marie Josephine Barrel!. 

Aurelia Winder, daughter of Gen. William Henry Winder, 
married Mr. James Townsend. She was born, 1820. Died at 
Ovster Bav, Long Island, X. Y., in 1885. She left no children. 
She was the author of a volume of poems. 

William Winder Polk, oldest son, and fourth child of 
Judge William Polk, by his first marriage, with Esther Handy, 
was born Aug. 0, 1787; died, Feb. 13, 1850. He married Alniy 
Townsend, daughter of William Townsend. of Long Island, N. 
Y. From this marriage seven children; first. William Winder 
(who died unmarried i. Mary Townsend, Margaret Hoffman, 
Gertrude Winder (died in infancy). Francis James (died in 
infancy), James Black (died unmarried). Louisa Dorsey. Miss 
Margaret Hoffman Polk resides in Baltimore. Mary Town- 
send Polk, second child and oldest daughter of William Win- 
der Polk and Almy, his wife, married twice; first, Victor Mon- 
roe, of Kentucky, and second. Judge Alfred Iverson, of Geor- 
gia. Victor Monroe was a cousin of President James Monroe, 
and son of Thomas Bell Monroe, who was born in Albemarle 
County, Virginia. At an early age he married Eliza Palmer 



266 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Adair, daughter of Gen. .John Adair, then Governor of Ken- 
tucky. He was appointed by President Jackson. Judsre of the 
United States District Court for District of Kentucky, and 
held the office until the election of President Lincoln, when 
he resigned and came South, and represented thej^tate of Ken- 
tucky in the Confederate Congress. Died after the war at Pass 
Christian, Miss. Victor Monroe, his son, who married Mary 
Townsend Polk, was appointed Judge of the United States 
Court, for the Territory of Washington, upon the organization 
of that Territory, during the presidency of Pierce. He went 
across the plains with the hist Territorial Governor, Stephens. 
His family did not accompany him. He died out there a few 
years later, about 1858, leaving three childreu, William Win- 
der Monroe, Frank Adair Monroe and Mary Eliza 
Monroe. William Winder Monroe, the eldest son of 
Victor Monroe (and Mary Townsend Polk), commanded Mor- 
gan's advance guard in the raid through Ohio; was captured 
and kept in Camp Douglas eighteen months; exchanged and 
recaptured with President Davis and party, and sent to Fort 
McHenry, where he was kept in solitary confinement for sev- 
eral months after the war. He married Lavinia Berry, and is 
now a railroad man, at present residing at Danville, Ky., and 
has two children, Catherine Berry Monroe and Anna Prudell 
Monroe. Frank Adair Monroe, brother of William Winder 
Monroe and second son of Victor Monroe and Mary Townsend 
Polk, was in the freshman class at the Kentucky Military In- 
stitute, when the war broke out, went into the army, joined 
Company E, Fourth Kentucky Regiment, "Breckinridge 
Brigade/' In 1861 was discharged as under age. In March, 
1862, joined First Louisiana Cavalry; was wounded and cap- 
tured in March, 1803, near Somerset, Ky. ; was exchanged 
December, 1863. When the war closed, he settled in Louisiana 
and studied law. Was recommended by members of the bar 
for judgeship ami was elected by the Democratic party Judge 
of the Third District Court, parish of New Orleans. In 1870. 
Louisiana had a new ( Constitution, and the several civic and 
probate courts in the city and parish were constituted one 
court, having five judges, to be appointed by the Governor. 
He went in with the first Nicholls administration. Judge 



PEDIGREE OF THE POLK FAMILY. 267 

Monroe has been reappointed many times and since 1888 has 
been presiding Judge; and since 1880 a member of the law 
faculty of Tulane University, of Louisiana; professor of com- 
mercial law and the law of corporations; and is President of 
ried Alice Blanc and they have nine children, viz.: Adele, 
the Association of the Army of Tennessee, Louisiana Division; 
Camp No. 2, United Confederate Veterans. Judge Monroe mar- 
Marion. "Winder Polk. Alice, Frank Adair, Jules Blanc, Kate 
Adair, Gertrude, William Blanc Monroe. 

Mary Eliza Monroe, only daughter and third child of Victor 
Monroe and Mary Townsend Polk, his wife, married George 
A. Vincent and resides in New Orleans. They have two chil- 
dren. Winder Monroe Vincent and William Germaine Vincent. 

Louisa Dorsey Polk, daughter of William Winder Polk 
and Alniy Townsend, his wife, married J. Banister Hall, of 
Baltimore, Md., and had five children, viz.: William Winder 
Polk Hall, died an infant; Anne Galbraith Hall, J. Banister 
Hall, Louisa Polk Hall and Marguerite Almy Hall. Anne 
Galbraith Hall, second child of J. Banister Hall and Louisa 
Dorsey Polk, his wife, married Francis King Carey, of Balti 
more. Md., and has three children, viz., Louisa Carey, Francis 
James Carey and Margaret Townsend Carey. 

Josiah Polk, fifth child of Judge William Polk, by his 
first marriage, with Mrs. Isaac Handy, nee Esther Winder, 
married Rebecca Troup, of Baltimore County; two children, 
Henry Troup, Mary C. Troup. 

Judge William Polk, son of Judge David Polk, son of 
William, son of Robert Bruce Polk and Magdaline, his wife, 
married the second time the widow of Henry Dennis, nee Ann 
Purnell (granddaughter of (Jen. William Arbuckle); to them 
were born an only child, a son, and this son was Col. James 
Polk, who died 1808. He was register of wills for Somerset 
County, Marvland. Inherited the family estate, "WJiite Hall," 
was a naval officer under the administration of James Knox 
Polk, for the port of Baltimore, in the year 1845. He married 
Ann Maria Stuart, daughter of Alexander Stuart, surgeon of 
the Continental troops in the war of the Revolution. To James 
and his wife were born fourteen children, seven of whom died 
in infancy, the remaining seven were William L. Polk, James 



268 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Polk, Lucius C. Polk, JosiaL B. Polk, Esther Winder Polk, 
Mary Aim Polk, Ariana P. S. Polk. William L. Polk, son of 
Col. .James Polk and Aim Maria Stuart, liis wife, married Miss 
Eslis, of Kentucky, and lias three children, Win. Polk, Ksiis 
Polk and dames Polk. The second son of Col. James Polk and 
his wife (Ann Maria Stuart) was .James Polk, who married 
Nannie Maddox and has live children, viz.: Anna Polk, Katie 
Polk, dames Polk, Mary Polk and Willie Polk. Lucius Polk, 
the third son of Col. .fames Polk and Ann Maria Stuart, his 
wife, married Mary (Mark, and has one child, Clark Polk. 
Josiah B. Polk, fourth son of Col. James Polk and Ann Maria 
Stuart, his wife, married -Julia Parker. Esther Winder Polk, 
eldest daughter of Col. . Janus Polk and Ann Maria Stuart, his 
wife, married Gov. E. Louis Lowe, of Maryland, ami has seven 
children, viz.: Adelaide Lowe, who married Austin Jenkins: 
Anna Maria Lowe, Paul E. Lowe, Vivian V. Lowe, Mary 
Gorter Lowe, married Frank .Jenkins; Esther W. Lowe. Vic- 
toire Y. Lowe. 

Mary Ann Polk, second daughter of Col. James Polk and 
Ann Maria Stuart, his wife, married Gope Omer Gorter, of 
Amsterdam, Holland; six children, viz.: Omer Cope Gorter, 
who married Alice Edmonson; Albert Lucius Gorter, married 
Mary E. Thompson; James Polk (loiter. Nathan Ryno Gorter, 
Meta E. Gorter, Maria A. Gorter. Ariana E. S. Polk, youngest 
child of Col. -James Polk land his wife. Ann M. Stuart), mar- 
ried L. Briscoe; one child. Martha W. Briscoe. 

Judge William, son of Judge David Polk, married the 
third time, Mary Hubble, and had one child by this marriage, 
Am; Promentine Polk. This only child was twice married; first 
to Robert Walker, of Georgia. They had two children. Will- 
iam and Ephraim. William married, but died shortly after- 
wards, leaving no children, and Ephraim died quite a young 
child. Ann Promentine Polk married second, Gov. Herschel 
V. Johnson, of Georgia; issue, nine children. The two oldest 
died in infancy; those who gained maturity were Emmet John- 
son. Winder Polk Johnson, Tallulale Johnson. Anne Johnson. 
Gertrude -Johnson. Herschel V. Johnson and Tomlinson John- 
son. Emmet Johnson married Ceraldine Griffin; died, leaving 
no children. Winder Polk Johnson married Leonora Johnson; 



PEDIGREE OF THE POLK FAMILY. 269 

lived at the old Johnson homestead, in Jefferson Comity; died 
a few years ago, leaving five children: Emmet Johnson, Annie 
Johnson, Leonora Johnson, Hersehel Johnson, Rosa Johnson. 

Tallulale Johnson, daughter of Gov. Hersehel V. Johnson 
land Ann, his wife,), married Capt. Pearce Home, February. 
1862; twelve children. Three died in infancy. The nine who 
sained maturitv were Michael Home, Gertrude Home, Ara- 
bella Home, Annie Home, Tallulale Home, Pearce Home, 
Caroline Home. William Home. John Beckwith Home. 
Michael Beckwith Home married Mary Marsh; has five chil- 
dren: Addie Home, Annie Ruth Home, Michael Home, Marsh 
Johnson Home and an infant. Gertrude Home, second child 
of Capt. Pearce Home land Tallulale Johnson, his wife,), mar- 
ried Frank Baker; has one child, Frank Baker. Arabella 
Home, third child of Capt. Pearce Horn, married William 
White Johnson; two children, Herchel Y. Johnson and Jane 
('arvor Johnson. Tallulale Home, daughter of Capt. Pearce 
Home and Tallulale Johnson, his wife, married Henry Augus- 
tus Russell ; no children. 

Annie Johnson, daughter of Gov. Hersehel V. Johnson and 
Ann. his wife, married Charles Hardwick, of Savannah, Ga.; 
no children. Gertrude Johnson, daughter of Gov. Hersehel 
V. Johnson and Ann, his wife, married Col. John Stubbs, of 
Dublin, Ga.; they have no children. Hersehel V. Johnson, son 
of Gov. Hersehel Y. Johnson, married Caroline Roberts. Both 
dead. Xo descendants. Tomlinson Johnson, son of Gov. Her- 
sehel V. Johnson and Ann, his wife, married Emma Ark- 
wright; four children, Emma Johnson. Cora Johnson, Tomlin- 
son Johnson, Annie Johnson. 

James Polk, brother of Judge David and son of William, 
son of Robert Bruce Polk and Magdaline, his wife, married 
Mary Cottman; five children: Virginia Polk, Benjamin Polk, 
a daughter who married Mr. Whittington, Nancy Polk. Will- 
iam Polk. Virginia never married. Benjamin married; had 
eleven children, viz. : Benjamin Polk, Justina Polk. Ellenora 
Polk; Jane Polk, who married her cousin, William Polk; Mary 
Collins Polk, Sarah Polk, Betsey Polk, Isaac Polk, David 
Polk. Whittington Tolk. James Polk. Whittington Polk, son 
of James, married his cousin, E. G. Polk, of Pocomoke Citv; 



270 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

seven children: Whittington Polk, Sarah Polk, Carrie II. 
Polk, Ann 1). Polk, Emerson W. Polk, Rebecca Polk, 
William Stevens Collins Polk. Whittington, the eld- 
est son, married and had three children, Upshur, Marion 
and Jane. Sarah Polk, sister of Wittington Polk and 
daughter of Whittington Polk, married William Whittington; 
two children, girls. Rebecca, sixth child of Whittington Polk, 
married Thomas Whittington. William Stevens Collins Polk, 
youngest son of Whittington Polk, married and had four chil- 
dren, viz.: Joshua Polk, Florence Polk, William Lee Polk". Eva 
Polk. 

William Polk, brother of Benjamin and son of -James 
Polk (and Mary Cottman, his wife,) married and had seven 
children, viz.: William (who died young), James Polk. Josiah 
Polk, Betsey, who married Mr. Harcum, of Westmoreland 
County, Va.; Nancy, who also married Mr. Harcum, of West- 
moreland County, Va.; John Polk, who married Jane, his 
cousin, and had four children, Harriet Polk, Clarissa Polk, 
Margaret Polk, who married Mr. Stuart; William T. Polk, who 
married Mary Ann Harcum, and Louisa Harcum, her sister, 
had a daughter, Mary, who married Mr. Braughton. 

Samuel Polk, seventh son of William Polk, son of James 
Polk and Mary Cottman, his wife, married Miss Grillis, and had 
seven children, viz.: Pollen G. Polk, married John Woolford; 
Joseph Grillis Polk; Lyttleton Polk; Caroline Polk, second wife 
of John Woolford; Eliza Ann Polk, married Dr. James 
Dashiel; Mary W. Polk, married John Belle; William T. G. 
Polk married, first. Miss Elizabeth Woolford, second wife, 
Mary Henry, of Princess Anne County, Maryland.; ten chil- 
dren, viz.: John W. Polk, Lemuel Polk. Sarah A. Polk. Eliza- 
beth W. Polk. Addie H. Polk, Caroline W. Polk. Samuel Polk 
and William T. G. Polk. 
[To be continued in next issue, beginning with the Ephraim Polk branch.] 



THE FAMILY OF GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 271 



THE FAMILY OF GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 



BY LAVINIA R. (HILL) BROWN. 
[Continued from April number.] 

(Fourth Generation.) 
(No. 75.) 
Fannie H. Robertson, daughter of James Randolph and 
Susan (Oldham) Robertson, married Leroy Napier, Aug. 27, 
1837. (12 children.) See extended, Napier line. 

(No. 77.) 
Eliza H. Robertson, daughter of James Randolph and 
Susan (Oldham) Robertson, married Gen. E. Sterling C. Rob- 
ertson, July 29, 1816, in Robertson County, Texas. She died 
March 25, 1852, at Austin, Tex.; they had three children, two 
died in infancy, a son and daughter. 

200. Sterling 0. Robertson, born April 20, 1810. 

(No. 78.) 
Medora Robertson, daughter of James Randolph and 
Susan (Oldham) Robertson; married Mr. Van Iron, 1843; two 
children. 

201. Son; names unknown. 

202. Son; names unknown. 

(No. 79.) 
Hays H., married and died in San Antonio; no issue. 

(No. 81.) 
James B. Robertson, son of James Randolph and Susan 
(Oldham) Robertson, was in Fourth Texas. Hood's Brigade, 
and was killed at "Gaines' Mill," Va. 

(No. 83.) 
Jimmy Jackson left widow and several children in Texas. 

(No. 84.) 

Medora Charlotte Cheatham, daughter of Col. Leonard 

and Elizabeth (Robertson) Cheatham, married Samuel Riggs 

(wholesale merchant of Philadelphia), Sept. 21, 1835; he died 

July 5, 1817; no issue. Second marriage was to James S. 



272 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Thayer, of New York. May, 1851, who died Jan. 1!). 1881; two 
children. 

263. Medora; no dates given. 

* 

264. Ada; no dates given. 

(No. 85.) 

Benjamin F. Cheatham, son of Col. Leonard and Elizabeth 
(Robertson) Cheatham, married Anna Bell Robertson, March 
15, 1800; slie died in 1888; five children. 

205. Benjamin Franklin, born May 20, 1867. 

266. Pal ton Robertson, born Dec. !). ISO!). 

2<>7. Joseph Johnston, born Feb. 11, 1872. 

268. Medora, born May 20, 1878. 

269. Alice, born Nov. 23, 1880. 

(Xo. 85.) 

Benjamin Franklin Cheatham raised a company for Mexi- 
can war; was Captain one year; then, recruited a regiment at 
Nashville and became its Colonel, serving with it to the end. 
He went to California, but on the breaking out of the war, 
tendered his services to the Confederacy and was commis- 
sioned Brigadier General, and later was promoted to Major 
General; serving with distinction; 1885 was appointed post- 
master of Nashville, Tenn. 

(Xo. 86.) 
Sarah Pope Cheatham, daughter of Col. Leonard and 
Elizabeth (Robertson) Cheatham, married Dr. John L. Chap- 
man, Dec. 10, 1814. Xo issue. 

(Xo. 87.) 
Felix R. Cheatham, son of Col. Leonard and Elizabeth 
Cheatham, was a prominent citizen of Nashville, Tenn.. a suc- 
cessful real estate agent, and greatly beloved by his relatives 
and friends; lie married Ophelia ( !. McGavock Feb. 17. 1857: she 
died April 21, 1805; three children. 

270. Felix Robertson, born 1858, died Oct. 28, 1883. 

271. Frank James, born Dim-. 20. 1800. died February, 1896. 

272. Carrie, died in infancy. 

(No. 88.) 
John A., son of Col. Leonard and Elizabeth (Robertson) 
Cheatham, married Mrs. Lottie Cheatham, Jan. 17, 1882. 



THE FAMILY OF GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 273 

(No. 89.) 

Martha Eliza Cheatham, daughter of Col. Leonard and 
Elizabeth (Robertson) Cheatham, married Dr. George S. 
Blackie, Jan. 28, 1858. He died June 9, 1881; four children. 

273. Elizabeth, born Jan. 15, 1859, died Oct. 24, 1891. 

274. Berrien Lindsley, born Sept. 1!). 1860, died December, 

1893. 

275. Marion Greve, born Nov. 24, 1867. 

276. George Frederick, born Dec. 22, 1869. 

(No. 89.) 

Dr. George S. Blackie was a native of Scotland*, educated 
in the University of Edinburgh, where his brother, John 
Stewart Blackie, was for many years professor of Greek. In 
1857 Dr. Blackie came to America, where he became pro- 
fessor of botany in the University of Nashville. He was a man 
of great all round ability, which he lavished on enterprises for 
public good. He was distinguished for his high literary attain- 
ments, and filled many important places as an educator in 
Nashville, Tenn., where he died June 19, 1881. 

(No. 90.) 

Maria Louise Cheatham, daughter of* Col. Leonard ami 
Elizabeth (Robertson) Cheatham, married Dr. John Chapman, 
June 17, 1847; four children. 

277. Leonora. 

278. Frank. 

279. Maria Louise. 

280. Ophelia; dead. 

(No. 92.) 
Ada Byron Cheatham, daughter of Col. Leonard and Eliz- 
abeth (Robertson) Cheatham, was bora in Nashville, Tenn.; 
finished her education in New York City, where she afterwards 
resided, and received the advantages of extended travel in 
Europe. 

(No. 93.) 

Alice B. Cheatham, daughter of Col Leonard and Eliza- 
beth Cheatham, married -Tames ^\Vbb Smith, who died Sept. <\, 
1869 ; three children. 



274 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

281. .James Thayer. 

282. James Webb; dead. 

283. Leonard Pope, born Feb. 23, 1870. 

(No. 95.) 
Mary Eliza, daughter of Benjamin Franklin and Martha 
(Goodloe) Robertson, married Dr. John Martin Taylor, in Union 
County, Kentucky. 1N4:S. Dr. J. M. Taylor was from the old 
distinguished presidential family of Taylors, which produced 
two Presidents of the United States. President Madison, 
through his grandmother, Frances Taylor, and Zachary Tay- 
lor; ten children. 

284. Frank, born 1S47. 

285. Henry R., born L849. 

286. Samuel M., born 1851. 

287. Jonathan (J., born 1853. 
2SS. .John Martin, born 1855. 
28!). Robert, born 1S57. 

290. Eliza Mildred, born 1859. 

291. Benjamin H., born 1863. 
2!>2. Goodloe Rives, born 1868. 

293. Daughter; died an infant. 

(No. !I7.) 
William H. Howard Robertson, son of Henry Villars and 
Rebecca (Oldham) Robertson, married Mary Emma (adopted 
daughter of ('apt. Felix Robertson, of Independence, Tex.): 
second marriage to Miss Annie Martin; seven children. 

294. Henry V.; no dates. 

295. Thomas B.; no dates. 

296. Mary; no dates. 

297. Courtney; no dates. 

(Second Marriage.) 
20s. James; no dates. 
29!). Frank; no dates. 
.*!()(). Julia ; no dates. 

(No. 98.) 
Dr. 1). Hardeman Robertson, sou of fienry Villars and 

Rebecca (Oldham) Robertson, was a physician and partner of 



THE FAMILY OF GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 275 

Dr. Jerome B. Robertson. He was in the C. S. A.; lived in Inde- 
pendence, Tex.; unmarried. 

(No. 99.) 
Henry Oldham Robertson, son of Henry Villars and 
Rebecca (Oldham) Robertson, married Sept. 11, 1866, to Sallie 
Edney, born in Tennessee, 1846; five children. 

301. James E.; died in infancy. 

302. Fernando E., born Nov. 6, 1868. 

303. Leonora A., born Feb. 26, 1871. 

304. A dele, born Dec. 1, 1876. 

305. Sallie B., born Sept. 21, 1879. 

(No. 100.) 
Benjamin Franklin Robertson, son of Henry Villars and 
Rebecca (Oldham) Robertson, married Agnes Cooper; one 
child. 

306. Irene; no data. 

(No. 101.) 

Louise Frances Robertson, daughter of Henry Villars and 
Rebecca (Oldham) Robertson, married G-eorge S. Seward, of 
Lott, Tex., July 3, 1800; two children. 

307. Henry B.; no dates given. 

308. Bettie; no dates given. 

(No. 102.) 
Bettie Robertson, daughter of Henry Villars and Rebecca 
(Oldham) Robertson, married Thomas E. ('lay, Nov. 28, 1866. 
He was Captain of Terry's Rangers, from Kentucky; seven 
children. 

309. Tacitus. 

310. Sue. 

311. James R. 

312. Seth Shepard. 

313. Edward F. 

314. David Jones. 

315. Nettie Louise. 

(Xo. 103.) 
James Randolph, son of Henry V. and Rebecca (Oldham) 
Robertson, married Annie Thornbill, of New Orleans, and lives 
at Brenham, Tex.; eight children. 



276 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

316. William T. 

317. Rebecca. 

318. Pauline. 

319. Emma. 

320. D. H. 

321. Attrius. 

322. George C. 

323. Clay. 

(No. 104.) 

Susan F. Robertson, daughter of Henry V. and Rebecca 
(Oldham) Robertson, married Attrius M. Clay, brother of 
Thomas Clay. No issue. 

(No. 112.) 

Georgetta Witt, daughter of Charlotte and Georgetta 
Witt, married William Wilkerson; no dates given; six chil- 
dren.. 

324. Jack; no dates given. 

325. Marietta; no dates given. 
320. Eugenia; no dates given. 

327. William; no dates given. 

328. Fannie; no dates given. 
320. Inez; no dates given. 

(No. 113.) 

Benjamin F. Drake, son of William and Mary Drake, mar- 
ried Julina Green, dan. 22, 1850; nine children. 

330. Albert J.; no information given. 

331. Susanna; no information given. 

332. Robert; died. 

333. Clinton; never married. 

334. Boyd; no dates. 

335. Millie; no dates. 

336. Elvis; never married. 

337. Blanch; never married. 

(Note) Tennessee omitted hy mNtakp. 

(No. 114.1 

John 1». Drake, son of Mary and William Drake, married 
Chloe B. Reed. Jan. 10. 1851 ; seven children. 

338. William H.; no information uiven. 



THE FAMILY OF GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 277 

t 

339. Clara; no information given. 

340. Sarah Ann; no information given. 

341. Mary; no information given. 

342. Maud M.; no information given. 

343. Joseph H. ; no information given. 

344. John; no information given. 

(No. 117.) 

Susanna Drake, daughter of William and Mary Drake, 
married Timothy Walton, Oct. 2, 1849; five children. 

345. William J.; died young. 

346. Lizzie; no dates given. 

347. Ella S.; no dates given. 

348. Earnest T.; no dates given. 

349. Eugenia; no dates given. 

(No. 118.) 

James R. Drake, son of William and Mary Drake, mar- 
ried Nancy Wilkerson, Sept. 12, 1849; four children. 

350. Fannie M. 

351. Laura. 

352. William. 

353. Robert. 

(No. 119.) 

Elizabeth D., daughter of William and Mary Drake, mar- 
ried Allen Ledbetter. No issue. 

(No. 120.) 
Harriet Drake, daughter of William and Mary Drake, 
married Allen Ledbetter (her brother-in-law), Dec. 4, 1854; two 
children. 

354. Sudie D. 

355. Mary E.; not married. 

(No. 121.) 
Eliza Ann McAllister, daughter of John and Eliza Mc- 
Allister, married Solomon D. Kainey Aug. 21, 1S34; five chil- 
dren. 

356. Robert; no other information. 

357. Mary E.; no other information. 

358. James; no other information. 



278 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

359. William; no other information. 

360. Dora ; no other information. 

(No. 122.) 

John Neblett, son of Benjamin and Eliza (Bosley) Neblett, 
married Martha West; three children. 

361. Benjamin; no dates given. 

362. Drew; no dates given. 

363. Althia; no dates given. 

(No. 123.) 

Charlotte Neblett, daughter of Benjamin and Eliza 
(Bosley) Neblett, married John Jones; four children. 
304. Hugh; dead. 

365. John; not married. 

366. Mollie. 

367. Sterling; not married. 

(No. 124.) 

Marietta Neblett, daughter of Benjamin and Eliza (Bosley) 
Neblett, married John McNairy Newell, Jan. 2<i, 1854; six 
children. 

368. Robert McNairy; no dates. 

369. John B. ; no dates. 

370. Willie Bell; no dates. 

371. Felix Rainey; no dates. 

372. Rotie; no dates. 

373. James R.; died in infancy. 

(No. 130.) 
Lavinia, daughter of Henry and Maria (Bosleyi Neblett, 
married Dr. Christopher Brodie; five children. 
•*!74. Amanda; married; dead. 

375. Henry; dead— 0. S. A. 

376. Laura ; no dates. 
."!77. William ; no dates. 
378. diaries; dead. 

(No. 131.) 

Robert, son of Henry and Maria i Bosley) Neblett, married 
Josephine Anient; five children. 
.">70. Samuel; no dates given. 



THE FAMILY OF GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 279 

380. Alice; no dates given. 

381. Lavinia ; no dates given. 

382. Julia; no dates given. 

383. Georgians ; no dates given. 

(No. 132.) 

William Neblett, son of Henry and Maria (Bosley) Neblett, 
married Miss Ware; two children. 

384. John; no dates. 

385. William; no dates. 

(No. 134.) 

John McNairy, son of McNairy and Lavinia Beck Newell, 
married Marietta Neblett. (See No. 124.) 

(No. 140.) 

Mary Eliza, daughter of Jeremiah and Delilah (Bosley) 
Scales, married her cousin, Horace Scales; four children. 

386. Mary E.; no dates given. 

387. Joe; no dates given. 

388. Martha ; no dates given. 
380. Ann; no dates given. 

(No. 141.) 
Joseph Henry, son of Jeremiah and Delilah I Bosley) 
Scales, married Jennie Potts. (No other information.) 

(No. 142.) 
Martha, daughter of -Jeremiah and Delilah (Bosley) Scales, 
married Sam Hopkins; three children. 

300. Willie; dead. 

301. Charlie. 

302. Joe. 

(No. 134.) 

Ami Delilah, daughter of Jeremiah and Delilah (Bosley) 
Scales, married Mr. Connor; two children. 

303. Mary; no dates given. 

304. Sam; no dates given. 

(To he continued in nest issue.) 



280 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



THE CORRESPONDENCE OF GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 



[Gov. Blount to Gen. Robertson.] 

Mr. Cobb's January 2d 1792 
Dear Sir, 

General Smith having a few days past wrote you respecting 
the Ratification of the Cherokee Treaty and enclosed you a copy 
I shall say nothing on that Head except to ask of you to do 
what I am sure you will gladly do if in your power that is to 
have it preserved inviolate and if this can not be done I beg 
you to make examples of the first violators of it. It will be the 
Duty of the Attorney of the District Mr. Jackson to prosecute 
on Information in all such cases and I have no doubt but that 
he will readily do it. — I am glad to learn the good Treatment 
you gave the Creek Chief and I have heard of some Cherokees 
being seen at the Crossing of Cumberland with a Letter to you 
from the Little Turkey begging you to supply them with Powder 
and Lead- These things are trifling and had certainly better be 
given if asked than refused but they are too much for an Individ- 
ual to give.- You will please keep an exact amount of what you 
have or shall give taking care to give nothing unnecessarily and I 
have no doubt but I shall be able to procure you Payment. Where 
you purchase any Thing to give take care to have an amount 
stated in a good fair Hand between yourself and the Person 
from whom you purchase & a Receipt for the Payment. — No 
amount will be allowed by the United States without good 
Vouchers- This unfortunate affair with General St. Clair has 
in my opinion made attention to the Indian more indispensably 
necessaiy than heretofore. 

Previous to the Meeting of Congress I forwarded your ac- 
count of former supplies to the Indians to your Friend Doctor 
Williamson to be presented for auditing and Payment to the 
proper officers as you requested but I have not heard what is 
yet done with it- 



CORRESPONDENCE OF GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 281 

Your email Cetificate for £13.0.0 proved to be Counterfeit 
and is returned to me. 

Geueral Moore's Twelve Thousand acre Tract of Land is 
purchased of his Heirs for me so you may have the Survey 
completed as soon as you please. You will please recollect all 
Surveys and Grants too must be completed by the 22d day of 
December next or the warrants will be lost and as no alteration 
of the Indian Lines is like to take place for many years to come 
they may as well be done before that Time as at a more distant 
one. I wish all my warrants laid within the Time and I am 
sure Doctor Williamson has the same with resp* ct to his I mean 
the large one in his own Name but I suppose Nothing will be 
done in the surveying Business untill after the Superior Court 
in February and by the Return of Judge McNairy. I will again 
write you on that head if any Thing else should occur to me 
and when he comes in I should be glad to know your Sentiments 
on that Subject. — The Suit of Armstrong against Ben. Smith is 
not yet determined but Smith intended to petition again the 
General Assembly which began in Session on the first Monday, 
in the last month for leave to withdraw them and Davie who is 
his Lawyer and a Member speaking on the Subject with me 
seemed to be of opinion that they would be withdrawn. Prob- 
ably I shall be able to give you further advice on this Head by 
the Return of Judge McNairy- Mrs. Blount and two of my 
sons are here (my daughters are at Tarboro with their aunt) 
and here we shall stay until the first of March and then move 
down to Knoxville. The reason we do not move sooner my 
Houses there are not done. 1 write Sampson Williams by this 
Conveyance respecting some men which he will be authorized to 
raise to be stationed at the present crossing of Cumberland for 
six Month to commence on the 15th March and I intend to order 
more to be raised and stationed according to the Plan I recom- 
mended to the President and if any are raised your son Jona- 
than will be appointed an Ensign. One of my Brothers, Willie 
is also out with me. John Wray Blount desired me to present 
his most respectful Compliments to you and I am dear Sir, 
with great Respect and Esteem, 

Your obedient Servant, 

Wm. Blount. 



282 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

General Robertson 

Mero District. 
P. S. In the Return of the Census of Davidson County 
one Company is reported to have been wanting which I don't 
know : I beg you to inquire, obtain it and forward it to me by 
Judge McNairy or some early opportunity.- The NameB of the 
Captains who did make Returns are Shannon, Nash, Marshall, 
Maxwell, Parker, Walker, Murray and Smith. 



[Gov. Blount to Gen. Robertson. Efforts to secure peace, and prepara- 
tions for war.] 

Knoxville, January 5th 1792 
Sir, 

Watts has sent me a peace talk and a string of white beads. 
I believe he is in earnest and I have sent him an invitation to 
meet me on the 9th of February at So. West Point to agree on 
the terms of peace- A number of Chiefs are now with me and 
I shall propose a general meeting and propose a more distant 
day- A large and general meeting of the Creeks has just been 
held by Mr. Seagroves with the Creeks on St. Mary's from which 
much is expected by the Federal Government as great presents 
have been given Congress have not determined yet whether war 
or not with the Cherokees. It is said that body will refer this 
business to the President to act as he thinks best. Finnelson 
has returned but Mr. Allison has not- I expect him in ten days. 
Be very particular in all your orders and accounts; send me by 
the return of Donnelson, Kellems, and Evans (who came with 
Phillips) all your accounts stated up to the First day of Janu- 
ary in the manner as directed in my letters by Mr. Jackson. 
They are to return when you shall direct them. Part of the 
arms have arrived the remainder with the Brass cannon & am- 
munition may be expected in ten days- some regular Troops 
are also expected- The Cavalry must find their own Rations 
& Forrage for which they will be paid. Col. King writes to Hays 
& Jackson about supplying the Company of Infantry. 

I am Sir, 

Your Obedient Servant 

Wm Blount. 
Brig. Gen'l Robertson. 



CORRESPONDENCE OF GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 283 

[Invoice and Memorandum. Gov. Blount to Gen. Robertson. 1792.] 

Goods necessary to be given the Chickasaws and Choctaws 
in presents in the proposed Treaty at Nashville the ensuing 
summer 

50 good Rifle guns for the Mountain leader and those who 
joined General St. Clair's Army and some other Chiefs. 

10,0 lb Powder 

2000 1b Lead 

500 three point blankets. 

500 Two & One half Do 

500 two Do 

100 pieces blue Strouds 

500 yards Calico 

1000 yards Linen 

1500 yards Lincey 

100 pieces binding blue red & yellow 

50 Suits of clothes & hats for Chiefs 

One piece good Scarlet for legging &c 

Needles and Thread 

500 Scalping Knives 

This is a copy of the Invoice of Goods which I have recom- 
mended to be sent for the proposed Treaty with the Chickasaws 
and Choctaws from Philadelphia and I expect will be sent By 
Mr. Allison except the Powder and lead and those articles I count 
on obtaining either here or at Cumberland, You say in one of 
your Letters you can contract for a quantity of lead to be de- 
livered at Nashville at a given Price and Time neither of which 
do I just now remember and I have not Time to look your Let- 
ter-But I wish you to if you can a Conditional Bargain for as 
much Lead as is mentioned say 2000 lb or under, for perhaps 
1000 lb might answer the Purpose if the whole quantity can't 
be got on good Terms to be delivered by the 15th day of July, 
the condition I mean is that the Merchant or Seller should be 
bound to deliver at a certain price in Case you choose to take 
it and you not bound to take it unless you please. The proba- 
bility that I shall be forced to take some lead at Cumberland is 
very great and so you may hold out to induce some Body to 
make provision for supplying me and it will be a good Bait for 
a Conditional Bargain. Lead is to be had very cheap at the 



284 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

French Broad Mines but I fear the want of water. Indeed I 
fear the want of water so much that I have been making calcu- 
lations for Packing the Goods through the Wilderness to Cum- 
berland River and if there is not water in the Tennessee this 
must be done and then down the Cumberland in Canoes. Ob- 
stacles of this Sort must prevent the Treaty. I write to A. 
Moore to come to me, pray should he have any difficulties in his 
way use your Interest to remove them- I can't do without him. 



[Petition of Tennessee County to Gen. Robertson. Navigaton of the 
Mississippi River and Indian Affairs ] 

Honble, Briyr. Genl. James Robertson 

The petition of a Committee held for the County of Ten- 
nessee on the first Day February 1792. Mo3t Humbly Sheweth 

That your petitioners having convened together at the re- 
quest of the Distressed part of Tennessee County in order to set 
forth their grievances, and to pursue some method for their re- 
lief- Beg to represent to you Sir, That they have much to Dread 
from the Indians as the Spring Season Approaches ; The Re- 
cent murders & ravages Committed by them on our Frontiers, 
too evidently proves their Intentions on this quarter. We al- 
ready feel the effects of the navigation of the river being Shut 
up by which means we shall be Deprived of the very necessary 
article Salt; That article having already raised in its price to 
the one fifth part than the Common price. Immigration to this 
Country by water must Consequently Cease. We also beg leave 
to assure you that the Frontiers will break unless some speedy 
method is Taken to secure them from the Inroads of the Sav- 
ages which must be followed with the most fatal Consequences. 
We are much afraid Sir, that Government has not vested their 
officers in this Country with Authority to Carry on Expedition 
against any Nation or Village of Indians,- yet we are confident 
that something must be done with the Indians that do the 
mischief on our Frontiers. We are willing to pursue every 
Lawful means to procure peace and Tranquility among us ; 
Therefore we beg leave to suggest to you the Idea that an Ex- 
press from you to the Commandant at New Madrid Setting forth 
to him that it is his people that does the mischief in our Coun- 



CORRESPONDENCE OF GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 285 

try, and what ever you think most proper, might answer some 
good purpose. We also think that a full representation of our 
grievances, & Situation had better be immediately laid before 
Governor Blount; We have the greatest Confidence that you 
will immediately do everything in your powe~ to relieve the Dis- 
tresses of the people under your command. 

Let us hope Sir that we shall receiv-s some answer of Con- 
solation by our Trusty friends Mr. McCallester & Capt Thoe. 
Johnson. And your petitioners as in duty bound will ever 

pray &c. 

William Prince, Chm. 



[Instructions from Gov. Blount to Gen. Robertson as to forms for ac- 
counts and vouchers. It would seem that Gov. Blount is endeavoring to 
introduce a more accurate system in public accounts ] 

General Robertson will please state his account as to the 
Caption agreeably to the Form inclosed herewith. The articles 
he charges it is presumed the General has purchased he will 
then have a regular account stated between himself and Person 
of whom he purchases signed by such Person as a voucher to 
support the General's own account against the Superintendent. 
It is wished that every voucher should be made out in a fair 
hand and on half a sheet of paper that every one may have th« 
same fold, that is to be folded as this sheet is. All this is nec- 
essary to the General's account being passed and paid by the 
Superintendent and its necessary to the Passage of the Super- 
intendent's own accounts at the Treasury. 

Upon this being done the Superintendent will furnish 
General Robertson with money to pay for the articles to the 
amount of his account or give Bills at any Time to such Mer- 
chants as prefer them in Payment. If the General should fur- 
nish Horses or any other article from his own Stock except 
Provisions he will have it valued by some two men. People in 
public Appointment will be best not because th^y have better 
Jugt because their names will be known as being in office to 
those who are to pass on the accounts. Have you not made a 
mistake in charging a horse more than you intended. 



286 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

[The following account is interesting, with respect to prices of com- 
modities, form of keeping the Government accounts, and dealings with 
the Indians.] 

Dr. The United States In Account with James Robertson 

17'.>2 Dollars Cents 

March 28 To 1 horse Bridle & Saddle furnished the 
Chickasaw Indians on their way to the 

President 55 

To 1 horse Bridle and Saddle Ditto 

Ditto 50 

To 1 horse Bridle and Saddle Ditto 

Ditto 55 

To 600 lb of beef at 2 Dollars pr Hund 
furnished the Chickasaws on their way 

to Join Gen. Sinclear 12 

To 10 Bushels of Corn A: meal Ditto 

Ditto 2 50 

To 320 lb of Pork at 3 Dollars pr Hund 

furnished Ditto on Return 9 25 

To 10 lb of powder for Ditto Ditto 7 50 

To 1 Rifle Gun furnished a Creek Chief 
sent to this country under the Recom- 
mendation of Mr. Alexander McGilvery 25 
To 7 lb of powder for Ditto & Six others 

of his nation 5 25 

To 20 lb of lead Ditto Ditto 5 

. To mending Guns 2 

To 350 1b of beef Ditto Ditto 7 

To 3 blankets furnished the Chickasaws 
on their way to the President at 4 

Dolrs * 12 

To 12 yards of linen at 1^ 15 

To U yds of cloth at 2^ 3 14 

To 1 penknife | S thread £ 1 

To tin Cup and Looking Glass 75 

To 1 horse Saddle & Bridle 55 



On the 2nd Day of April 1792 Brigadr Genl James Robert- 
son made Oath that the within account is Just. 

Sworn to before me 
John McNairy 

One of the Judges of 

the Ceded territory South of 

the River Ohio. 



CORRESPONDENCE OF GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 2S7 

[Extract of a letter from the Secretary of War, dated 31st of March, 
1792, to Governor Blount.] 

I have received your favour of the 2d of March, with its 
enclosures ; all of which I have submitted to the President of 
the United States. 

He approves the calling the Chickasaws and Choctaws to 
Nashville, the first of June next for the purpose of conciliating 
and attachiug them cordially to the Interest of the United 
States. 

You will therefore take the necessary steps, to carry into 
full execution, the objects Contained in your letter, particular- 
ly the contracting for the necessary quantity of Provisions. 

Mr. Allison will stay here until the goods are prepared, 
which shall be done as soon as possible, although it is doubtful, 
whether, until the arrival of the Spring Ships from Europe, a 
sufficient quantity of goods may be obtained 



[An interesting letter from Governor Blount to Gen. Robertson.] 

Kxoxville, April 1st, 1792. 
■Sir, 

Your Letter of the 11th Ult. was handed to me by James 
Donnelson and Robert Shannon Express to whose care this is 
committed. The Depredations committed by the Indians as 
mentioned in your letter of the above date and in Colonel Rob- 
ertson's of the 28th of February on the peaceable Inhabitants 
of the District of Mero and which I most sincerely lament will 
certainly justify with the President the calling a part of the 
Militia into actual Service for the Defense and Protection of the 
Frontiers and I have no doubt but they will be allowed for their 
Services the Pay of the United States and eight cents for each 
Ration (as I presume they found themselves) upon proper Pay 
Rolls being returned by the Captains upon Oath with a Certifi- 
cate from you signed in your official Capacity that the Service 
was performed and by your Order in Defense of the Frontiers 
when the danger was imminent. For the form of a Pay Roll I 
refer you to a form forwarded by Mr. Allison to Colonel Elijah 
Robertson and I hope great Neatness and Exactness will be ob- 
served in making them out by some good clerk who writes a fair 



288 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Hand upon a sheet of Paper each. I observe you say speaking 
of the Determination of the Council of officers "ordered out a 
Party of about one hundred men to scour the woods between 
this District and the Tennessee." I hope it is meant no further 
than the dividing Ridge, the dividing line according to the 
Treaty of Holston, further might lie considered as offensive 
being on the Indian's own hunting Grounds and you are to un- 
derstand that the calling of the Militia into Service is only for 
Protection and Defense. You have not informed me what 
length of Time you have ordered the Militia into Service for 
nor how many and both were necessary for me to have known. 
Then I will presume you have ordered them inlo Service until 
my order on that Head is known to you and my order to you is 
that you call into Service one hundred and fifty-two noncom- 
missioned Officers and Privates by voluntary Inlistments or 
otherwise to be formed into two Conipauies to continue in Serv- 
ice for three months after they shall appear at the Rendezvous 
by you appointed for the Protection and Defense of the 
Frontiers against the Hostile attacks of Indians. These Troops 
to be called into Service under the Militia law of North Caroli- 
na passed at Fayette in 1786 and to be governed while in Serv- 
ice by the Rules and Articles of war two copies of which are 
herewith sent you and will be allowed the Pay and Rations of 
the United States agreeably to the enclosed Schedule. You will 
station these two Companies on the Frontiers for the Defense 
and Protection there, or at such Place or Places or direct them 
to range under the Limitation of not crossing the Indian Bounda- 
r} T as you shall judg3 will best secure that object. These 
Companies are to be regularly mustered upon going and com- 
ing out of Service by a Person by me appointed and I have ap- 
pointed and requested Colonel Hays to perform that Duty and 
immediately after the Service is performed the Muster Rolls, 
Returns and Abstracts with proper Documents must be forward- 
ed to me that I may forward them to the War Officer for Exam- 
ination and Payment. This Order to be carried into effect 
without delay and upon its being so far executed as that the 
two Companies have actually commenced the three Months 
Tour you are to understand that all Militia in Service in your 
District prior to that Event are no longer to be continued. 



CORRESPONDENCE OF GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 289 

These two Companies only to be in Service unless there should 
be an indispensable necessity for more. There must be a Ter- 
mination of the Service performed under your Order prior 
to the Receipt of this Order and a Commencement under this 
Order and Pay Rolls &c must be made accordingly even if the 
same men perform the same Services. As it is impossible for 
me to make arrangements at this distance for supplying these 
Companies with Rations, I must beg of you the favour to form 
a contract with some fit Person for supplying them on the lowest 
Terms you can observing that the highest Price for Ration 
must not exceed eight Cents and each Ration is to consist of the 
component Parts mentioned in the inclosed Paper No. 1. But 
should you not be able to get a Contract for supplying the Ra- 
tion at or under eight Cents and the men called into Service will 
find themselves at that Price then and in that Case thpy 
may find themselves Rations and receive eight cents when they 
receive Pay for their Services. I trust two Companies will be 
found sufficient for the Protection and Defense of the Fron- 
tiers until I can send on an additional one from this District 
which is now about raising under the command of Captain Cooper 
but should you find they are not you will occasionally call out 
such additional Numbers as you shall judge indispensably neces- 
sary to that Object and discharge them as soon as the Necessity 
shall cease. And you will on all Occasions give me the Earliest 
and particular Information and the earliest Pay Rolls and other 
documents come forward the better ; a delay even for a short 
time may postpone the day of Payment more than a year as 
every Sum of money for any Service is now paid only by Appro- 
priation previously made by Congress. And you will please 
give me the earliest Information of the Destination you shall 
make of these two Companies and their Operations. These 
Troops being called out as Militia must be furnished with arms 
as the Militia law or North Carolina requires but Powder and 
Lead must be found them which must be purchased by the 
Person who shall contract to supply the Rations at the lowest 
possible Terms which shall be paid for as soon as the accounts 
are audited and paid and in order to secure the Payment at the 
the Treasury the Contractor must produce Vouchers agreeably 
to the "Regulations of Supplies in the Qr. Mr. Department" &c. 



290 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

herein inclosed marked No. 2, in Case there should be no Con- 
tractors then you will please purchase the Powder and Lead 
yourself and observe the directions of the said Paper No. 2 in 
order to secure a Payment at the Treasury. When Captain 
Cooper comes on I will send forward a small supply as it can 
be had cheaper here than with you but as to arms I have none 
nor authority to purchase any. There is no national war with 
the Creeks nor Cherokees but the Information I have received of 
Numbers of Creeks going towards Cumberland across the Ten- 
nessee about the 20th February declaring they were for war as 
many as eighty in one body warrant a Belief that you are right 
in your Suspicions, that is they who have done you the mischief 
on the Frontiers and I am sorry to say it is quite certain that 
the Cherokees of the Running Water aud Lookout Mountain 
have lately brought in several scalps and Prisoners taken on the 
trails leading to Cumberland from Kentuckie and the Natchez 
and that on their Return home they have held Scalp and other 
Dances in which they have exulted over the unhappy Victims 
of their Cruelty and boasted as is their Custom of their war 
Feats and that there is too much reason to fear that they too 
have had a Hand with the Creeks in the late Mischief. But from 
the arrangements I have made to obtain Information as to 
which or who it is I shall know to a certainty in a few weeks. 
The Little Turkey has addressed a Talk to the lower Towns 
saying he had heard and disapproved of their late conduct, that 
he should come to them no more to hold Talks that if they 
wanted to go to war go and he would sit still and look at 
them but they must not mix with the other Parts of the Nation, 
that he would inform me where they lived and what they were 
for and they and I might settle the matter as we could. And 
he has also given me Notice by the Path Killer (he who was 
wounded at Chota) of his having sent them this Talk. Since this 
Talk John Wates whose Friendship may be depended upon and 
his Exertions too in favor of Peace, has gone down to these Towns 
by Invitation to take the Place of the Dragging Canoe who is 
dead and it is believed he will soften if not altogether alter 
their Conduct. All this is or will be known to the President as 
well as the Sufferings of your District in a few days and you are 
not to doubt but he will Measures proper on the Occasion. I 



CORRESPONDENCE OF GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 291 

shall decline making any demand of Satisfaction until I know 
how to act in Case of a Refusal. True it is the Order to Captain 
Roberts to march to the place was countermanded and he has 
marched to the Rouk landing in Georgia but be assured it 
was because the greater danger appeared in that quarter at that 
Time. I have not heard of Brown, Perry and Captain George 
since Capt. Spring passed on to Kentuckie but as I cannot be- 
lieve any fatal accident has happened to them I daily, as I long 
have, look for their coming to this Place by whom I shall 
write to the Mountain Leader in the meantime what you have 
or shalhwrite on the Subject of Friendship will be proper. If 
my Representation by Mr. Allison is attended to by the Presi- 
dent I shall hold a Treaty with the Chickasaws and Choctaws 
the approaching Summer at Nashville. The Cherokee Chiefs 
who went to Philadelphia are on their Return by Laud to 
the place loaded with presents for themselves and the annual 
Payment to the Nation according to the Treaty and I expect 
them here in the Course of ten days. All money due to any 
officer or Soldier will be paid to themselves only and not to 
their Order. This is mentioned that the Holders of Orders may 
not in future complain as they have in a late Instance respect- 
ing the Treaty Guard. 

I am Sir with great Respect & Esteem 

Your most obedient 

humble servant 
Wm. Blount 

Brig. Gen. Robertson 
District of Mero. 

P. S. I am just informed by a message from the Old Slave of 
Coyatee that he has received a Talk from WaHs saying he is on 
his way to me from the lower Towns with Twenty stolen Horses 
and one Prisoner. I had like to have omitted to inform you 
that I had engaged Mr. Lackie and Mr. McCoy to come to you 
Express with Orders for raising two Companies to have started 
on the Thursday after Donnelson arrived. — (He arrived on 
Monday.) You will not fail to send me an Express whenever 
one is necessary and I will pay them. 



292 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



GENEALOGICAL QUERIES. 

Aside from his inquiries into the ramifications of the 
Flournoy family of Virginia, the historical genealogy of which, 
both in Europe and America, Mr. Rivers has been publishing 
for two years in the Virginia Magazine of History and Biog- 
raphy, Mr. Flournoy Rivers, of Pulaski, Teim., is interested 
in and would be glad to correspond about and pay for colonial 
and revolutionary and historical data of the following names 
and families: 

RIVERS.— Antecedents of William Rivers, of Brunswick 
County, Va., w 7 ho married a sister of the late Gov. Aaron 
V. Brown in Brunswick Countv; died in March, 1809, tes- 
fate; will now of record at Law r renceville, Va. The name 
existed in Lunenberg and Greensville Counties, both off- 
shoots of Brunswick. 

BROWN. — Aaron Brown, father-in-law of the foregoing. Wil- 
liam Rivers, executor of his will and testamentary guar- 
dian of his sons, John and William, whom he brought from 
Virginia to Tennessee in 1813. He was born in 1757, died 
1830. Also his father, Lewis Brown, said to have been n 
Scotch immigrant. Both Lewis and Aaron were soldiers 
of the Revolution. 

CAMP.— Capt. John Camp, father of Dr. John Hamlin Camp, 
who- was Speaker of Tennessee House of Representatives, 
pro tempore, 1821, and regular, 1827; a soldier of rli«- 
Revolution; removed to Middle Tennessee from Brunswick 
(or Greensville?) County, Va., 1807; died at Elkton, Giles 
County, 1820, aged 66 years. 

CANNON— William Cannon, of "ML Ida." Buckingham Coun- 
ty, Va.; came to Tennessee 1807-12. and removed to Cald- 
well County, Ky.. about 1820; died, and is buried near- 
Princeton, Ky., on the Bennett or Catlett place. His first 
wife was Sarah Mosbv (below). 



GENEALOGICAL QUERIES. 293 

RODBS. — Tyree Bodes, one of the founders of Pulaski, Term. 
(See Act of Tennessee Legislature, Nov. 14, 1809); was son 
of John Rodes (2), son of John Rodes (1st), of Albemarle 
and Hanover Counties, Va. 

XETHERLAND.— The Xetherland family of Goochland Coun- 
ty. Ya., where John Xetherland was Sheriff, Captain of 
Militia, etc. (See Mosby, below.) 

MOSBY. — Benjamin Mosby, supposed to be immigrant, lived 
at what is now "Cumberland Old Court House," Pow- 
hatan County, Ya.; died testate 1774; father of (among 
others) Littleberry Mosby, of "Font Hill," Powhatan 
County, who was member of Cumberland Committee of 
Safety 1775 76, and in the first Commission of the Peace 
Powhatan, June, 1777, and County Lieutenant 1780-81, 
Sheriff 1707; died testate 1800. His first wife (1748) was 
Elizabeth Xetherland. 

HARRIS. — The Harris family of Louisa, Albemarle and Han- 
over Counties' Ya. Sarah Harris married John Rodes (2d). 
She had a brother, Tyree Harris, who removed from the 
parish 1758. Is he the Tyree Harris w T ho was in the Com- 
mission of the Peace for Orange County, X. C, 1759, in As- 
sembly 1760, and Sheriff 1766-67? (See Johnson vs. Dew, 
5 Haywood's Tenn. Rep., p. 225.) This Harris family is 
supposed to be different from that of Capt. Thomas Har- 
ris, of the London Company. Is this true? 

TYREE. — The Tyree family, of Virginia, of whom I have no 
data. 

AYIRETT.— The Avirett family, of Onslow County, X. C. 
John Alfred Avirett, Sr., lived at "Richland," Onslow 
County. His son, J. A. A., Jr., wounded at Xew Hope 
Church, Georgia campaign, died soon after; Captain Fifty- 
eighth Alabama. C. S. A., 18(54. Supposed to have been a 
Huguenot name — possibly they were of the seceders from 
the Huguenot colony at Manakin Town, Ya., whom De- 
Richebourg led to North Carolina in 1707-9. 

MARKHAM. — John Markham, said to be the immigrant, 1717. 
Dr. James Bernard Markham removed from Amherst(?) 
County, Ya.. to Hale (Green?) County, South Alabama, 



294 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

many years ago. Lived many years in Perry County, Ala. 

MASSENBUKG.— Is this family of Prussian descent? The 
wife of Dr. James Bernard Markham was Eliza Massen- 
berg, of Virginia. 

HOLLAND.— James Holland, of Rutherford County, N. C.; 
was Sheriff of old Tryon County before its division in 
1770, from July, 1777 to July. 1778; Second Lieutenant 
Hardin's Company, Locke's Regiment, North Carolina 
Militia; after the war was in the State Senate 1783, 1797, 
in the House 1786, 1789; in Congress, March, 1795, to 
March, 1797, and 1801 to 1811. (See Childress vs. Holland. 
3 Haywood Tenn. Rep. 274; his will construed, 2 Yerger 
Tenn. Rep. 341 in case of Tyree Rodes and wife vs. Hol- 
land.) He died 1823. 

GILBERT.— William Gilbert, of "Gilbert-town," near pres- 
ent Rutherfordtown, N. C; said to have been immigrant. 
Scotch-Irish. In Commission of Peace of old Tyron up 
to April. 1770; Tax Assessor, in Commission of Peace of 
new County of Rutherford: in House 1780, 1782, 1783. His 
daughter, Sarah Gilbert, married above James Holland 
in January, 1780. His wife said to have been Sarah Mc- 
Candless, of Philadelphia. She died at the Holland place 
in Maury County, Tenn., 1822. Gilbert is called "a loyal- 
ist" in Draper's "King's Mountain," which absurd error, 
I have ascertained, is due solely to the fact that Maj. Fer- 
guson camped several weeks at Gilberttown. in Septem- 
ber, 1780, and the historian, or rather his collector of tra- 
ditions, for he never visited Gilberttown, imagined from 
this fact that Gilbert was a Tory. Armies do not generally 
quarter on their friends in an enemy's country, and the 
British army camped on Gilbert because he was a promi- 
nent Whig and was, in fact, then absent in the Assembly 
at Hillsboro. 

POINDEXTER.— The wife of Benjamin Mosby (above) was 
a Poindexter. What of them? 

FLGIRNOY. — The American and European ramifications 
from Laurent Floumoy, the Huguenot of lo02-72. See 
Agnew's "French Protestant Exiles" and -La France 



GENEALOGICAL QUERIES. 295 

Protestante," including- the progeny of both his descend- 
ants, Jacob, the immigrant of 1700, and Jacob's nephew, 
John James, 1717-20; "Huguenot Emigration to Vir- 
ginia.'' 

The questions indicate but a mere outline of the data, 
dates, records, I myself have on these subjects. Not so much 
tradition is desired as record evidence. 

FLOURNOY RIVERS. 

Pulaski, Tenn. 



2% THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 



AN INTERESTING LETTER OF THOMAS JEFFERSON. 



The following letter from the Sage of Monticello, has been 
preserved in the archives of the Tennessee Historical Society. 
It is written in the well-known handwriting of Mr. Jefferson, 
and was folded in the olden style, and sealed with wax. It is 
directed : 

Free "Mr. Hugh L. White, 

Th. Jefferson. "Knoxville, 

"Tennessee." 

It was called forth by a communication from Hon. Hugh 
L. White and others, inviting the co-operation of Mr. Jefferson 
in behalf of the East Tennessee College, now the University of 
Tennessee. 

This letter gives Mr. Jefferson's views on lotteries, which 
were at that time considered a legitimate means of raising 
money for public purposes. He also makes valuable sugges- 
tions with regard to college buildings and grounds. 



Monticello, May 6. 10. 
Gentlemen : 

I received sometime ago your letter of Feb. 28, cover- 
ing a printed scheme of a lottery for the benefit of the East 
Tennessee College, and proposing to send tickets to me to be 
disposed of. It would be impossible for them to come to a more 
inefficient hand. I rarely go from home, and consequently see 
but a few neighbors and friends who occasionally calJ on me; 
and having myself made it a rule never to engage in a lottery 
or any other adventure of mere chance, I can, with the less can- 
dor or effect, urge it on others, however laudable and desirable 
its object may be. No one more sincerely wishes the spread 
of information among mankind than I do, and none has greater 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 297 

confidence in its effect towards supporting free and good govern- 
ment. I am sincerely rejoiced therefore to find that so excel- 
lent a fund has been provided for this noble purpose in Tennes- 
see. 50,000 dollars placed in a safe bank will give 4,000 dollars 
a year, and even without other aid must soon accomplish build- 
ings sufficient for the object in its early stage. I consider the 
common plan, followed in this country, but not in others, of 
making one large and expensive building as unfortunately 
erroneous. It is infinitely better to erect a small and separate 
lodge for each separate professorship, with only a hall below 
for his class, and two chambers above for himself; joining 
these lodges by barracks foe a certain portion of the students 
opening into a covered way to give a dry communication be- 
tween all the schools. The whole of these arranged around an 
open square of grass and trees would make it, what it should be 
in fact, an academical village, instead of a large and common 
den of noise, of filth, and of fetid air. It would afford that 
quiet retirement so friendly to study, and lessen the dangers of 
fire, infection and tumult. Every professor would be the police 
officer of the students adjacent to his own lodge, which should 
include those of his own class of preference, and might be at 
the head of their table if, as I suppose, it can be reconciled with 
the necessary economy to dine them in smaller and separate 
parties rather than in a large and common mess. These sepa- 
rate buildings too might be erected successively and occasion- 
ally, as the number of professorships and students should be in- 
creased, or the funds become competent. I pray you to pardon 
me, if I have stepped aside into the province of counsel, but 
much observation and reflection on these institutions have long 
convinced me that the large and crowded buildings in which 
youths are pent up, are equally unfriendly to health, to study, 
to manners, morals and order; and believing the plan I suggest 
to be more promotive of these and peculiarly adapted to the 
slender beginnings and progressive growth of our institutions* 
I hoped you would pardon the presumption in consideration of 
the motive, which was suggested by the difficulty expressed in 
your letter of procuring funds for erecting the building ; but on 
whatever plan you proceed, I wish it every possible success, and 
to yourselves the reward of esteem, respect and gratitude due to 



298 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

those who devote their time and efforts to render the youths of 
every successive age fit governors for the next. To these, accept 
in addition, the assurance of mine. 

Th. Jefferson. 



AN OLD DOCUMENT OF THE STATE OF FRANKLIN, 



This manuscript was presented to the Tennessee Historical 
Society, September 20, 1875, by Dr. J. G. M. Ramsey, author of 
the Annals of Tennessee. It is explained in the following letter 
of presentation : 

Report of Committee on Privileges and Elections. — As 
to the election of W. Aimes as member of the Legislature from 
Hawkins County, N. C, or from Spencer County, State of 
Franklin, submitted Friday November 23, 1787, by Isaac Greg- 
ory, Chairman. It also contains, as is believed, a list of mem- 
bers of the Committee. This I expect is the only official paper 
of the Legislature of Franklin the Historical Society of Ten- 
nessee has in its collections, and should therefore be preserved 
with great care by our Secretary or Librarian. 

Presented to the Society, September 20, 1875, by 

J. G. M. Ramsey, President. 

Mecklenburg Place, Knoxville, Tenn., September 20, 1875. 



Friday Nvem 23rd 1 i 87 

The Committee of privileges cVr Elections beg leave to re- 
port that they have examined the papers of evidence relative to 
the election of Thomas Amis and Stokeley Donaldson Esqrs to 
represent the County of Hawkins in the honble the House of 
Senate, by which it appears to your Committee, that John Hunt 
Esquire Sheriff of said County hath granted to Mr. Donaldson a 
certificate setting forth that he was on the third Friday & Sat- 
urday in August last duly elected. That George Ridley, Francis 
Maybury & Daniel Hamlin inspectors of the poll at the elec- 
tion held in said County have jointly granted to Mr Amis a Cer- 
tificate specifying that he was duly elected, on said third Friday 
& Saturday in August it further appears to your Committee 
that said Inspectors have respectively sworn to & signed separate 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 299 

certificates, setting forth that the Election was during both days 
conducted without commotion or interruption (except by one 
man who in the deposition) of George Ridley is set forth to have 
said in the hearing of the deponent whilst the poll was open 
that if the people were all of his mind he would have his vote 
or a blow and he did not care which he gave first until the close 
of the second day of Election at which time the poll was closed, 
that the Sheriff nor his deputy did not attend on said last men- 
tioned day but that the election was conducted under the in- 
spection of the deponent. — Your Committee further report that 
it appears from the testimony of W. N. Henderson taken on 
oath before your Committee that Mr Peter Turney said to be the 
Sheriff of a County called Spencer which interferes with the 
present existing County of Hawkins did, as well as the real 
Sheriff of said County of Hawkins publicly advertise that an 
election would be held at the House of Mr Joseph Rogers on 
the Third Friday & Saturday of August aforesaid then & there 
to elect three persons to represent them in the General Assem- 
bly of North Carolina, that said Mr Turney was present at the 
opening of the Poll on the first mentioned day, but that the poll 
was opened by the Sheriff of Hawkins, that said sheriff did 
make proclamation that no person would be allowed to vote but 
such as had paid Tax and was qualified otherwise according to 
Law, that when about three votes were taken Col Cock appeared 
with a number of Men some of whom were from Greene County, 
that the deponent had undoubted information tho these men 
had come part of the way arm'd, in consequence of which he 
was apprehensive a riot would ensue, that he advised the sheriff 
to adjourn the election until the next day which he accordingly 
did, that the deponent, the sheriff and some other friends 
dispersed by different routes having previous thereto agreed to 
meet the ensuing day at the House of Mr Carmack, that 
they met according to said agreement, but from intelligence re- 
ceived that the opposite party threatened to route them, they 
adjourned to a third place, where the poll was opened by the 
sheriff and there being but a small number of voters present it 
was again closed in haste, it further appears to your committee 
from the information contained in the deposition of Benoni 
Perriman had before John Long Esq J. P. of Hawkins Co 



300 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

that Mr Peter Turney aforementioned, when asked by the depo- 
nent who was to open the election, the Sheriff of the Old State 
or the Sheriff of the new, answered by both agreeable to a Re- 
solve of Convention, that said Turney asked the deponent how 
they intended to take in the votes who answered that those only 
would be allowed who had given in their Taxable property and 
complied with the Law, that said Mr Turney replied if that was 
the case, the strongest party should take the House, and that 
said Turney also told the deponent before & since the Election 
that it was not the intention that the members should take their 
seats but to disconcert the election. Your committee therefore 
of opinion from the facts contained in the foregoing testimony, 
that neither of the parties is entitled to a seat, as the Testimony 
of Mr Henderson, corroborated by that of Mr Berry man fully 
evinces that the party who fled from the first appointed place of 
holding the election had real cause for bodily fear, consequently 
the election there carry'd on was disorderly and illegal, and that 
the Election carry'd on by the party who dispersed and assem- 
bled at different places is illegal, as they have neglected to re- 
turn a state of the poll, with the names of voters according to 
Law, which is also neglected by the opposite party. 

Your committee therefore recommend that a new writ of 
election be issued for the election of a member to represent said 
County of Hawkins in the House of Senate all of which is 
humbly submitted. 

Isaac Gregory C 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 301 



EXTRACTS FROM "THE CLARION AND TENNESSEE 
STATE GAZETTE," VOL. VI. NO. 359, PUBLISHED 
AT NASHVILLE, TENN, THURSDAY, SEP- 
TEMBER 8, 1814. 



This old paper is the memorial issue of the "Clarion." Its 
columns are in mourning on account of the death of Gen. James 
Robertson. It was presented to the Tennessee Historical So- 
ciety by Miss Leonora Cheatham, April 6, 1858. 

It contains many interesting articles, among which is a 
proposition for bids for furnishing rations to the war Depart- 
ment. 

Its advertising columns are printed inverted, giving the 
paper a peculiar appearance. 

It also contains news of the defense of Fort Erie, during 
the War of 1812-'15. 

War Department, July 14, 1814- 

notice is hereby given. That separate proposals will be 
received at the office of the secretary for the department of war? 
until 12 o'clock at noon of Saturday, the last day of December 
next, for the supply of all rations that may be required for the 
use of the United States from the first day of June, 1815, to the 
first day of June, 1816, inclusive, within the states, territories 
and districts, following, viz. 

1st. At Detroit, Michilimackinack, Fort Wayne, Chikago, 
and their immediate vicinities, and at any place or places where 
troops are or may be stationed, marched or recruited, within the 
territory of Michigan, the vicinity of the Upper Lakes and the 
state of Ohio. 

2d. .It any place or places where troops are or may be sta- 
tioned, marched or recruited within the states of Kentucky and 
Tennessee. 

3d. ^lt any place or places where troops are or may be 
stationed, marched or recruited within the Illinois, Indianna 
and Missouri territories. 



302 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAE MAGAZINE. 

4th. At any place or places where troops are or may be 
stationed, marched or recruited within the Mississippi territory, 
the state of Louisiana and their vicinities of the Gulph of 
Mexico. 

5th. At any place or places where troops are or may be 
stationed, marched or recruited within the district of Maine 
and states of New-Hampshire and their northern vicinities. 

6th. At any place or places where troops are or may be 
stationed marched or recruited within the state ; Vermont and 
its northern vicinity. 

7th. At any place or places where troops are or may be 
stationed, marched or recruited within the state of Massa- 
chusetts. 

8th. At any place or places where troops are or may be 
stationed, marched or recruited within the states of Connecticut 
and Rhode Island. 

9th. At any place or places where troops are or may be 
stationed, marched or recruited within the state of New York 
and its northern vicinity and western. 

10. At any place or places where troops are or may be 
stationed, marched or recruited within the state of New-Jersy. 

11th. At any place or places where troops are or may be 
stationed, marched or recruited within the state of Pensylvania. 

12th. At any place or places where troops are or may be sta- 
tioned, marched or recruited within the states of Maryland, 
Delaware and District of Columbia. 

13th. At any place or places where troops are or may be 
stationed, marched or recruited within the state of Virginia. 

14th. At any place or places where troops are or may be 
stationed, marched or recruited within the state of North- 
Carolina. 

15th. At any place or places where troops are or may be 
stationed, marched or recruited within the limits of the state of 
Georgia and its southern vicinity. 

A ration to consist of one pound and one quarter of beef, 
or three quarters of a pound of salted pork, eighteen ounces of 
bread or flour, one gill of rum, whiske} r or brandy, and at the 
rate of two quarts of salt, four quarts of vinegar, four pounds of 
soap, and one pound and a half of candles, to every hundred 
rations. The prices of the several component parts of the ra- 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 303 

tions shall be specified, but the United States reserve the right 
of making such alterations in the price of component parts of 
the ration aforesaid, as shall make the price of each part there- 
of bear a just proportion to the proposed price of the whole 
ration. The rations are to be furnished in such quantities, that 
there shall, at all times, during the term of the proposed con- 
tract, be sufficient for the consumption of the troops for six 
months in advance, of good and wholesome provisions, if the 
same shall be required. It is also to be permitted to all and 
every of the commandants of fortified places or posts, to call for, 
at seasons when the same can be transported, or at any time in 
case of urgency, such supplies of like provisions in advance, as 
in the discretion of the commander shall be deemed proper. 

It is to be understood that the contractor is to be at the ex- 
pense and risk of issuing the supplies to the troops, & that all 
loses sustained by the depredations of the enemy, or by means 
of the troops of the United States, shall be paid by the Uuited 
States at the price the article captured or destroyed as aforesaid 
on the deposition of two or more persons of credible characters, 
and the certificate of a commissioned officer, stating the cir- 
cumstance of the loss, and the amount of the articles for which 
compensation shall be claimed. 

The privilege is reserved to the United States of requiring 
that none of the supplies, which may be furnished under any of 
the proposed contracts, shall be issued, until the supplies which 
have been, or may be furnished under the contract now in force 
have been consumed. JOHN ARMSTRONG. 

August 8, 2m. 



EXTRACT OF A LETTER FROM R. LAMBERTON ESQ., NOW AT BUFFALO, 
TO HIS FRIEND IN CARLISLE, DATED : 

Buffalo, Aug. 15. 

"A boat arrived this morning with the pleasing intelligence, 
that about 1000 or 1200 of the enemy were killed, wounded and 
prisoners, in the attack on Fort Erie — our loss trifling. 

"The enemy got posession of the upper bastion, which was 
by some means blown up, and destroyed 200 of the enemy. 
After which our troops sallied out and took about 200. Colo, 
(not General) Drummond was killed." 



304 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Richmond, August 20. 

VIRGINIANS ! PREPARE. 

"The enemy, who has been desolating the Northern Neck, 
has received a fresh supply of ships and troops. Are *ye ready 
for them? Ask your constituted authorities if every thing has 
been done which ought to be done? How long will it be before 
these buccaneers will fly at higher game than what they have 
attempted — how long before they will extend their ravages from 
our fields to our cities? 

Does this idea arouse you, my countrymen? Then gird on 
your swords. Fly to meet an enemy that lays all before him 
in ruins. Proud (Virginians!) you have a character to support 
— a character which your fathers bequeathed you during the 
war of the Revolution — a character which your brothers on the 
fields of Hampton and of Chippeway have washed brighter with 
their blood. — Let the enemy come when he may, meet him with 
the resolution that becomes you — and he will rue his rash en- 
terprize in blood. 

If there are not troops enough to defend those points which 
the enemy may attack, let them be immediately called out. 
Let no expence be spared to save the honour of our country. 
Peace ! talk not of Peace, when we have such an enemy in our 
Bay. If there were to be Peace in a fortnight the cost of the 
troops would soon be over — but how should we relish a peace, 
which would be ushered in by dames of our cities? If peace is 
not to return so soon, there is no surer way of making your 
enemy disgusted with such enterprizes than by repelling him at 
first with vigour and success. To arms, then! to arms!" 

Enquirer. 



"We are happy to state that the gallant Captain Porter has 
been appointed to the command of the new 44 gun frigate now 
building at Washington." 



"The frigate Java, rated 44 guns, was launched at Baltimore 
on Monday 8th inst, amidst the plaudits of 20,000 admiring 
spectators. She is to be commanded by Capt. Perry the gal- 
lant Hero of Lake Erie" 



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OCTOBER, 1896. 



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American Historical Magazine. 



Vol. I. OCTOBER, 1896. No. 4. 



THE RECONSTRUCTION PERIOD IN TENNESSEE. 



BY R. L. m'dONNOLD, NASHVILLE, TENN. 



The Reconstruction Period in the History of the United 
States is understood to comprise the time from the regaining 
of the Confederate States by the Federal armies to the over- 
throw of the military governments and the repossession of 
power in those States by the Southern whites. The period 
of reconstruction in Tennessee conforms in general to these 
limits. In this State, however, the history of that time pre- 
sents some features so entirely different from that of anv other 
State as to make it a period absolutely unique. To show 
these peculiar features, and to give an outline of this period 
of Tennessee history, is the purpose of this paper. 

For a proper understanding of all that follows, it is neces- 
sary briefly to review the events that immediately preceded 
the period. In January, 1861, after the election of Lincoln 
and the secession of South Carolina, the legislature of Ten- 
nessee submitted to the voters the question of calling a con- 
vention to dissolve the connection between the State of Ten- 
nessee and the United States. The people voted against the 
convention. But on the 12th of April, 1861, Fort Sumter was 
fired upon, and President Lincoln called for volunteers to de- 
fend the Union. The Secretary of War telegraphed to Gov. 
Harris that Tennessee would be expected to furnish her quota, 



308 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

but the Governor wired back a spirited refusal. a These start- 
ling - events aroused the people, and wrought a complete 
change of sentiment. The legislature was again called in 
extra session, b and by its authority the Governor entered into 
a military league with the Confederacy. June 8th, following, 
the question of secession was again submitted to a popular 
vote. Many who had before opposed it, including John Bell 
himself, now favored secession, and the proposition was car- 
ried by a vote of more than two to one. The members of the 
United States Congress from the seceded States withdrew, 
with the exception of Andrew Johnson and a few others. 

During the war which followed these events this State 
was one great battle field. This portion of history is well 
known, and need not be retold. Tennessee was the first State 
to succumb to the Union army. Fort Henry was captured on 
the 6th of February 1862, and Fort Donelson ten days later. 
These forts had been relied upon to protect the capital, and 
their fall compelled the Governor and the Legislature to re- 
tire to Memphis. In March Generals Smith and Buell arrived 
in Nashville, and the Union flag again floated over the cap- 
itol. 

Even for the short time covered by this resume, there are 
some points of difference worthy of emphasis. The Tennessee 
ordinance of secession 11 itself bears the stamp of that independ- 
ence which is characteristic of Tennesseans. This document 
waives the constitutional right claimed by most of the other 
ordinances, and declares for secession as a revolutionary right, 
needing no other justification than the natural privileges of 
free men. 

Another peculiarity marked the difficulties which lay in 
the way of Governor Harris after his State seceded. Tennes- 
see had neither arms nor organized troops. She was exposed 
to invasion along her northern boundary which stretches 
nearly four hundred miles, and was open to attack from the 
Mississippi river on the west. A large portion of her citizens, 



a - Seethe original telegrams, Tennessee Historical Society Library. 

b. Acts of Tennessee 2d extra session, 1861. 

c- Miller's Manual of Tennessee. 

d. See Tennessee papers, 1861, and Acts of Tennessee, 1861. 



THE RECONSTRUCTION PERIOD IN TENNESSEE. 309 

moreover, especially in East Tennessee, were firm Union men. 
Harris met all these difficulties with promptness and ability. a 

A third point to be noted, lies in the fact that Tennessee 
furnished a larger proportion of troops, counting- both Union 
and Confederate soldiers, than any other State. b The number 
of Tennessee troops in the southern army was about 115 000; 
in the northern army 31,000 whites and 20,000 colored. There 
are other minor peculiarities, but these serve to show the spirit 
of the people and the time. 

The history of reconstruction in Tennessee begins in 1862 
with the capture of the State by the Federal armies, and ends 
with the regaining of full control by the Democrats in 1870. 
It is the intention of this paper to relate the main facts of this 
period, and to show that the unique features which character- 
ized it may be grouped around three distinctive peculiarities, 
viz: that Tennessee escaped executive emancipation and con- 
gressional reconstruction; that at the hands of a controlling 
minority of her own citizens she suffered compensating evils 
for all these privileges; and that the problem of regaining con- 
trol with which the Democrats of the State were confronted 
was different from that in any other State. 

The first executive action which separated Tennessee 
from the other Confederate States, was the omission from the 
Emancipation Proclamation issued by President Lincoln Jan- 
uary 1, 1863.° Parts of Louisiana and Virginia were expressly 
excepted as not being in a state of rebellion, but no mention 
was made of Tennessee. This was done, not for the purpose 
of permitting the continuance of slavery in the State, but in 
order to allow the citizens to abolish it themselves. The 
omission was made at the request of Andrew Johnson. d The 
President had unbounded confidence in Johnson, and yielded 
to his views respecting the best method of restoring Tennes- 
see to the Union. It is possible that in urging this action, 
Johnson was actuated by an ambition to have for himself the 
credit of abolishing slavery in his own State. 



a - Three Decades of Federal Legislation, S. S. Cox. 

b - Ms. letter of Gen. Marcus J. Wright and official records. 

c - See newspapers and histories for copies of the proclamation. 

d. Blaine, Twenty Years of Congress. 



310 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

This was not the only privilege extended to Tennessee. 
It was Lincoln's intention to restore all the seceded States as 
soon as possible to full relations. His death prevented the 
accomplishment of this plan in the other States; but since 
Tennessee fell under Federal control so earl}- in the war, 
the President's generous design was so far carried out before 
his death that the State was enabled to escape congressional 
reconstruction entirely. 

November 3, 1862, after the capture of Nashville, Presi- 
dent Lincoln appointed Andrew Johnson military governor 
of Tennessee, with full instructions to take such steps as 
might be necessary to restore a republican form of govern- 
ments Johnson had fought secession from the first, and when 
his State left the Union, he remained in the Senate. b His 
course and his speeches attracted the attention of the entire 
North, and led to the honors afterwards bestowed upon him. 
His term as governor was mainly occupied in restoring order 
and establishing, as far as possible, the authority of the gov- 
ernment. 

There was a large number of citizens in this State who 
had always been loyal to the United States Government, and 
these men were anxious to have Tennessee readmitted to the 
Union. In September 1863, a delegation of these called upon 
the President and urged him to proceed with all possible dis- 
patch in restoring the State to its former relations. He ac- 
cordingly instructed Johnson to exercise such powers as might 
be necessary to enable the loyal people of Tennessee to frame 
a Republican form of government, such as could be recog- 
nized by the United States. d In December of the same year, 
the President issued a proclamation offering amnesty and par- 
don to all Confederates who would lay down their arms and 
take the oath of allegiance, except certain prescribed class- 
es. e He also declared that when in any of the States in re- 
bellion a number not less than one-tenth of the voters should 
establish a government, Republican in form, it would be ree- 



a. Introduction to Acts of Tennessee, 1865. 

b - Three decades of Federal Legislation. 

c. Nashville Dispatch, September IS, 1863. 

d. Acts of Tennessee, 1865, (Introduction.) 
e - Three Decades of Federal Legislation. 



THE RECONSTRUCTION PERIOD IN TENNESSEE. 311 

ognized as the true State Government, and would receive the 
protection of the United States. 

Acting upon this proclamation, the executive committee 
of the loyal citizens in Tennessee called a convention to be 
held in Nashville, December 19, 1864, to take steps for restor- 
ing- Tennessee to the Union. a The presence of Hood's army 
around Nashville prevented the convention from assembling 
at the appointed time so it met the 9th day of January. 13 This 
convention proposed amendments to the State constitution as 
follows: 

Article 1, Section 1, Abolishing slavery. 

Article 2, Section 2, Forbidding the legislature to make 
any laws recognizing the right of property in man. 

Schedule: Repealing section 31, which declared that the 
General Assembly should have no power to emancipate slaves; 
repealing the ordinance of secession; declaring the military 
league between Tennessee and the Confederate States dis- 
solved; suspending the statute of limitations; declaring all 
acts of the State government since May 6, 1861, null and void, 
except decisions of courts; submitting the amendments to the 
people, and providing that the qualification of voters and lim- 
itations of the franchise might be determined by the first leg- 
islature which should assemble under the new constitution. 

Appended to the above was a resolution directing that all 
voters who voted on the amendments should take the "iron 
clad oath" to the effect that they would henceforth support 
the Constitution of the United States; that they rejoiced in 
the downfall of the Confederacy, and the victories of the Un- 
ion armies; and in general that they would aid loyal men in 
every way possible in the attainment of these ends. 

Governor Johnson authorized the opening of polls and the 
holding of the election, as provided by the convention. The 
amendments were ratified. On the 28th of February the Gov- 
ernor declared them adopted, and authorized an election on 
March 4, for Governor and Assemblymen, he himself having 



a. Introduction to Acts of 1865. 

b - It was intended to hold it on January 8th, the anniversary of 
the battle of New Orleans, but that day fell on Sunday, 
c. Introduction to Acts of 1865. 



312 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

been chosen Vice President of the United States the preceding 
November. At this election William G. Brownlow, a celebra- 
ted as a Whig- editor for his powers of vituperation, was elect- 
ed Governor. 

The new legislature assembled in April, 1865. It prompt- 
ly ratified the 13th amendment to the United States Constitu- 
tion, b which was then pending - . The members, feeling that 
the}'- had complied with all reasonable conditions for restora- 
tion, adopted a resolution requesting the Governor to commu- 
nicate to the President the fact that the loyal people of Ten- 
nessee had amended their constitution in accordance with his 
requirements, and that they were anxious to have their rights 
restored. 

But in the meantime, Lincoln had been assassinated, and 
Congress, having taken affairs into its own hands, was not 
disposed to be so liberal toward the seceded States as he had 
been. Some members favored the immediate reinstatement of 
Tennessee, but others violently opposed it, and readmission 
was delayed more than a year. d The senators and representa- 
tives who had been sent to Washington were refused admis- 
sion. Some of the Radicals, as the extremer Republicans 
were called, wished to force upon Tennessee a military gov- 
ernment like that which the other Southern States suffered. 
At length, however, in May, 1866, Thaddeus Stevens intro- 
duced a bill to admit Tennessee provided that she enfranchise 
every class of her citizens by January 1, 1867. e This bill was 
so amended that the only condition finally prescribed was the 
ratification of the 14th amendments 

Accordingly, on the 19th of June, Governor Brownlow 
called the legislature in extra session to consider the amend- 
ment. A proposition to submit it to the people was defeated, 
and the amendment was promptly ratified.- A joint resolu- 



a - See sketches of his life in newspapers of the time, 

b. Acts of 1865. 

c Acts of 1865. 

d. Congressional Globe, 1865. 

e. Congressional Globe, 1866. 
f - Congressional Globe, 1866. 

?r. Acts of Tennessee, extra session 1866. 



THE RECONSTRUCTION PERIOD IN TENNESSSEE. 313 

tion restoring- Tennessee to the Union was thereupon passed 
by Congress, July 23, 1866. a It reads as follows: 

Whereas, in the year 1861 the government of the State of 
Tennessee was seized upon and taken possession of by persons 
in hostility to the government of the United States, and the 
inhabitants of said State in pursuance of an Act of Congress 
were declared to be in a State of insurrection against the Uni- 
ted States; and whereas, said government can only be restored 
to its former practical relations in the Union by the consent 
of the law-making power of the United States; and whereas, 
the people of said State did on the 22nd of February, 1865, 
by a large popular vote, adopt and ratify a constitution of 
government, whereby slavery is abolished and all ordinances 
and laws of secession and debts contracted under the same 
declared void; and whereas, a State government has been or- 
ganized under said constitution which has ratified the amend- 
ment to the Constitution of the United States abolishing sla- 
very, also the amendment proposed by the 39th Congress, and 
has done other acts denoting loyalty: Resolved, That the 
State of Tennessee is hereby restored to her proper relations 
to the Union, and is again entitled to be represented by sena- 
tors and representatives in Congress. 

President Johnson, though not recognizing the right of 
Congress to pass laws preliminary to the admission of quali- 
fied representatives from any State, signed the bill, b for he 
did not wish to let any obstacle prevent the admission of the 
Tennessee delegation. The senators and representatives took 
their seats, and Tennessee became once more a recognized 
member of the Union. 

These facts show that Tennessee, first to enter the Union 
from new territory, 1 -" justly called "Volunteer" State in the 
Indian and Mexican wars, leading all others in the proportion 
of troops furnished both sides, and last to secede, sustained 
her reputation for originality and independence by her man- 
ner of re-entering the Union. As stated above, she abolished 
slaver}- by a voluntary amendment to her State Constitution. 



a. Acts of Congress, 1866. 

*>. S. S. Cox, Three Decades, etc. 

c . See article by Dr. W. R. Garrett, in Nashville American, 1895. 



314 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

The election at which this and the other amendments were 
adopted is remarkable for the almost unanimous vote cast in 
favor of them by the loyal citizens. The Emancipation Proc- 
lamation controlled the action of the other Southern States. 
While it did not affect them directly so long- as they were in 
the Confederacy, it did emancipate the slaves as fast as those 
States were regained by the Union army. But Tennessee, 
omitted from the proclamation, before the adoption of the 
13th amendment, and under no compulsion, manumitted her 
slaves of her own free will. It has also been shown that this 
was the only State voluntarily to renew her allegiance to the 
United States before the war closed. Virginia was the only 
other Confederate State that contained any considerable por- 
tion of Union men. But that portion of Virginia which ad- 
hered to the United States government was separated from 
the rest and brought into the Union as a new State. This 
distinction is therefore justly claimed by Tennessee. 

But these special privileges which Tennessee enjoyed 
were more than counterbalanced by the evils which she suf- 
fered at the hands of a controlling party of her own citizens. 
These evils were, mainly the results of arbitrary and oppress- 
ive acts of the legislature. The ex-Confederates had no voice 
in the government for several years after the war closed, and 
the affairs of the State were in the hands of the extremer 
wing of the Republican party, generally known as the Radi- 
cals. The leading spirit of this party was Governor Brown- 
low. He favored severe treatment for the ex-Rebels. A large 
majority of the legislature were in full accord with his opin- 
ions, and nearly always followed any course he might sug- 
gest. Through his influence many acts were passed which 
were considered by the Confederates to be unjust and tyran- 
nous. 

Most of these acts were outlined in Brownlow's first mes- 
sage. a This document strongly condemned secession and re- 
cited the evils it had inflicted; called attention to the proposed 
13th amendment and recommended its ratification; called at- 
tention to the ravages of guerrillas, and proposed increased 
severity of laws for their punishment; suggested organizing a 



a. Acts of 1865. Introduction. 



THE RECONSTRUCTION PERIOD IN TENNESSEE. 315 

force of militia to be placed in the hands of the executive; 
called attention to the decrease of revenue and the great debt 
of the State, yet, curiously enough, favored an increase of sal- 
aries; recommended reorganizing - the common schools and es- 
tablishing- an Agricultural College; favored winding up the 
affairs of the state bank, and establishing the national bank 
system; called attention to the necessity of restricting the 
suffrage; and recommended electing senators and representa- 
tives to Congress. This remarkable message was almost an 
exact outline of the course actually pursued by the Brownlow 
government. a Space will permit nothing more than a brief 
outline of the most important of these acts. 

From the beginning of his administration, it was the de- 
clared intention of Governor Brownlow and his party to dis- 
franchise all that disagreed with them in their political 
views. b Among the first acts of the legislature of 1865 was 
one restricting the franchise. Under this law, the right to 
vote was limited to unconditional Union men, including those 
from other States who had been in Tennessee six months;' 1 to 
white citizens conscripted by force into the Confederate army; 
and to voters in the elections of 1864-5, who were known to 
be true friends of the United States Government. Rebels, and 
all who had aided them in any way, office holders or agents 
under the Confederate Government, and refuges from Federal 
lines into the Confederate States were debarred from voting 
for fifteen years. All other persons were excluded for five 
years. Any voter might be challenged by an admitted voter, 
in which case the judge of the election should administer the 
iron-clad oath. Registration certificates were to be issued by 
the County Court Clerks. 

The elections which took place under this act were not 
satisfactory to the controlling party, e and steps w r ere taken to 
make the law still more stringent. It was claimed that the 



a. Many other recommendations were made which are not given 
here; nearly all his recommendations were carried out. See his mes- 
sages and the Acts of Tennessee '65 to '68. 

b. See various signed communications in the papers of the time. 

c. Acts, 1865. 

d. This admitted the class called "carpetbaggers. " 
e- See files of Nashville "Press and Times" 1865-6. 



316 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

first law worked imperfectly, and that in some places it was 
practicall}- a dead letter. Governor h>rownlow a declared that 
the extraordinary events which had taken place showed that 
the public safety required a thorough revision of the suffrage 
laws. He stated that the deliberations of the Assembly at its 
first session had been broken up by the action of some mem- 
bers, (who resigned, thus breaking- the quorum;) and that 
those members had been re-elected. As a proof of the im- 
perfection of the law he declared that in Davidson County, 
where it was claimed the Act of 1865 disfranchised three- 
fourths of the voters, the total vote exceeded by one thousand 
the vote before the passage of the Act. 

The principal feature of the proposed new law was the 
provision that the Governor should appoint a Commissioner of 
Registration for every county to issue certificates in place 
of the County Court, and that all applicants for registration 
certificates should be required to prove their loyalty by two 
competent witnesses, and to take the test oath. The Demo- 
crats and conservative Republicans generally opposed this 
bill, but it was nevertheless enacted. The Nashville Republi- 
can Banner b said that in passing this law, the Assembly met 
without a quorum, overruled the decisions of their presiding 
officer, selected from a number of members, elected at the same 
time and in the same manner, four to suit their purpose and 
admitted them, but excluded the others; all against the will of 
a majority of the Union men in the State. 

In February, 1867, the franchise was again revised. => 
Charges of fraud committed by Democrats were frequent, and 
Brownlow was determined to prevent them. The new act en- 
franchised negroes and revoked all certificates of registration 
issued by County Court Clerks under the former law. The 
Commissioner of Registration was authorized to take contra- 
vening testimony concerning the competency of voters, and 
was to be himself the sole judge- of conflicting evidence. In 
March, 11 the registration in Davidson Count}-, reported fraudu- 



a. Messages, 1866. 

b. April, 1866. 

c- Acts of Tennessee. 1867, and Miller's Manual. 

d . Acts of Tennessee. 1867. 



THE RECONSTRUCTION PERIOD IN TENNESSEE. 317 

lent, was declared null and void; the same provision was made 
for any other counties whenever it appeared to the satisfac- 
tion of the Governor that frauds had been committed. 11 These 
measures put all elections completely under the Governor's 
control, and in effect accomplished the desired end of dis- 
franchising- all but Radicals. 

The legislation concerning negroes, and the progress of 
civil rights are interesting. Slavery having been abolished, 
all felt that something must be done for the freedmen, or with 
them. Brownlow in his first message favored providing for 
them a separate territory and settling them down as a nation 
of freedmen. In the South, not even the Radicals at first 
favored negro suffrage. Brownlow b declared that Congress 
had no right to fix the qualification of voters within a State, 
and that the time had not come for negro suffrage in Tennes- 
see. But the adoption of the 14th amendment accustomed 
them to the idea. Under pressure of Northern sentiment, the 
ruling party became more and more inclined to give the ne- 
groes equal rights. The Assembly of 1866 defined "persons of 
color" and granted them the right to sue and be sued, to make 
and perform contracts, to be parties and to give evidence, to 
inherit, and to have full benefit of all laws for the security of 
persons and property. Their blind and insane were given the 
benefit of all laws and asylums and the issue of slaves was 
legalized, but the right of sitting on juries was withheld. 
The franchise act of 1867 gave negroes the ballot. Penal- 
ties, also, were inflicted upon common carriers for making 
among their passengers distinctions based upon race, color or 
previous condition. In 1868, d freedmen were given the right 
to sit on juries and to hold office, the last disabilities being 
thus removed. These acts gave the negroes an exagerated 
idea of their own privileges, and this caused friction between 
the races. Unscrupulous men were not wanting, moreover, 



a. In this year Emerson Etheridge announced himself a conserva- 
tive candidate for Governor, in opposition to Brownlow; but after the 
passage of the franchise law of that year, and the stationing of troops 
in various localities, he withdrew. 

b. Miller's Manual under 1865. 

c Acts of 1867-8, chapter LXVI. 
d. Acts of 1867-8, chapter XXI. 



318 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

who for political reasons endeavored constantly to increase 
the ill feeling- between the freemen and their former masters. 
These efforts were only too successful, and much trouble re- 
sulted. 

We come next to the Militia Law. To assist him in 
maintaining- control of the State, it was part of Brownlow's 
policy to organize bodies of partisan troops. Hence originat- 
ed the celebrated Brownlow Militia Law of 1866 and 1867. 
This was claimed by the Brownlow party to be necessary for 
the purpose of protecting loyal citizens, especially negroes, 
from violence at the hands of rebels, and of guarding against 
frauds in elections. The Governor was authorized to enlist 
and equip a body of troops to be known as the State Guard a . 
Any or all of the Guard were subject to the Governor's order 
whenever in his opinion the safety of life, liberty, or property 
demanded it. The troops, when organized, were composed 
largely of negroes, and this rendered them especially obnox- 
ious to the Southern whites. The Democrats declared that 
the real purpose of the militia was to harass and intimidate 
the conquered Rebels, and to confiscate their property under 
pretense of protecting the negroes. Numerous acts of wan- 
ton violence were attributed to the Brownlow militia 1 ', and 
the facts place it beyond doubt that many of the charges were 
true. 

Notwithstanding the resentment felt by the ex- Confeder- 
ates on account of what they thought to be the plan of the 
Brownlow party to give the negroes political and military 
control over their former masters, there were comparatively 
few instances of violent resistence on their part. There were 
however, occasional outbreaks. On the 1st and 2nd of May, 
1866, riots between whites and negroes occured at Memphis c . 
General Runkle, Superintendent of Freedom at Memphis, tes- 
tified that at the beginning the negroes were to blame' 1 . But 
the Legislature placed the blame upon the whites, and made 
these riots the occasion for passing the Metropolitan Police 



a. Acts of 1866-7, Chapter XXIV. 

t>. See files of Tennessee papers. 1866-7-8. 

c . Nashville Rep. Banner, 1866. 

d. Nashville Rep. Banner, 1866. 



THE RECONSTRUCTION PERIOD IN TENNESSEE. 319 

Law. a By this act, the control of city affairs in Memphis was 
taken out of the hands of the Mayor and Council, the office of 
Recorder was abolished, and the city government was given 
to three Commissioners appointed by the Governor. 

A clause stated that the act should apply to Nashville 
and Chattanooga. The Mayor and Council, and many conser- 
vative Union men of Nashville petitioned the Legislature not 
to include Nashville. b General Thomas, Judge Lawrence of 
the Freedmens Bureau, and others, testified to the trustworthi- 
ness and efficiency of the Nashville police. Notwithstanding 
these protests, the bill passed including Nashville in its pro- 
visions. The citizens of all the cities obstructed the act by all 
kinds of litigation, and the courts made no appropriation for 
the support of the commissioners. Not to be outdone, the 
Legislature directed the State Treasurer to advance sums as 
they were actually needed for carrying out the provisions of 
the act, and provided for fining and imprisoning refractory 
officials who should refuse to levy and collect the assessment. c 
The history of this act thus briefly outlined illustrates the 
feeling which existed among the Radicals, the ex-Confederates 
and the negroes. 

In 1866, when the special session of the Legislature had 
been called to consider the fourteenth amendment, some of 
the members opposing it refused to attend, and when the As- 
sembly met, the House had no quorum. d Warrants were issued 
for the arrest of absent members. On July 17th, Representa- 
tive Williams of Carter County was arrested by the Sergeant- 
at-arms and brought before the House. A petition for a writ 
of habeas-corpus for his release was granted by Judge Frazier 
of the Davidson County Criminal Court. The Legislature 
declared by resolution that the Criminal Court had no right 
to interfere with their proceedings, 6 and refused to obey the 
writ. The House decided that as Williams, and Martin 



a. Acts of 1866, 1st Session, Chapter XXV. 

b. See letter of Gen. Thomas, and other communications, Banner; 
May 9, 1866. 

c. Acts of 1866. 

d. See Nashville Banner, April 1866, Brownlow's messages, 1866, 
and resolutions of the Assembly, 1866. 

e. Resolutions of Assembly, extra session, 1866. 



320 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

another arrested member, were present, although they did 
not vote, it had a quorum, and in this manner the amendment 
was adopted a . 

Williams' attorney denied the legality of the called ses- 
sion, 1 ' and, moreover, denied the right of the House sitting 
without a quorum to arrest a member 100 miles away. 
Judge Frazier issued a writ of attachment to compel the re- 
lease of Williams, and also a warrant for the arrest of Heydt, 
the Sergeant-at-arms. When the deputy sheriff went to the 
Capitol, he found the doors locked. Calling assistance, he 
forced the members to open them, but Heydt was not to be 
found. He released Williams who had been confined in the 
Capitol ever since his arrest . 

Forced to yield in this instance, the Legislature in re- 
venge appointed a committee to investigate the conduct of 
Judge Frazier. This committee reported that he deserved 
impeachment. He was therefore brought to trial before the 
Senate, was found guilty of exceeding his powers by disobey- 
ing the demands of the Legislature, and was removed from 
office. d The Democrats condemned this verdict severely, and 
it made the Brownlow Government many new enemies. 

No account of this government is complete without men- 
tioning the large appropriations made by every General As- 
sembly. Notwithstanding the impoverished condition of the 
country and the bankruptcy of the Treasury, salaries of pub- 
lic officials were increased and millions of dollars in bonds 
were appropriated to aid railroads and various other corpora- 
tions. 6 The State debt was greatly increased, and the ex- 
penses of the State Government exceeded those of the last 
Democratic administration before the war. f Tennessee has 
not yet recovered from the burden of this debt. 



a . Acts of Tennessee, extra session, 1866. 
t>. Report of the Frazier Independent trial. 

c. Banner, April, 1866. 

d. Report of Frazier Imp. trial. 

e. $14,393,000 to railroads alone— see Phelan, p. 293, (c)_ See a de- 
tailed statement in the Nashville "Union," June 14th, 1867. Harris' ad- 
ministration 1859-60 $1,721,851.52, Brownlow's 1865-7 $2,460,311.21. 

f. Report of Ku Klux committee, and Lester and Wilson's "Ku Klux 
Klan," p. 42, et. seq. and p. 56. 



THE RECONSTRUCTION PERIOD IN TENNESSEE. 321 

The other acts, considered by the opponents of the Radi- 
cal party to be tyrannous and oppressive, cannot be enumer- 
ated here. There is along- list of such laws. These measures 
were among- the causes which led to the organization of the 
Ku Klux Klan. a 

This celebrated order originated in Pulaski, Tennessee in 
the summer of 1866. It was organized by some young men of 
that town, and was at first intended merely for amusement e . 
Its mystery and its unique ceremonies attracted much atten- 
tion and the order spread rapidly. As the membership in- 
creased, it was noticed that in localities where Klans existed 
there was a decided improvement in the behavior of the ne- 
groes and of certain classes of whites who had been making 
themselves obnoxious. No attempts had been made by the 
Ku Klux purposely to frighten these people into good be- 
havior; 13 this result was due to the terror naturally inspired in 
the superstitious negroes by the grotesque costumes and by 
the strange ta]es circulated by members of the Ku Klux in 
fun. The members realized that they had a powerful means 
for controlling the ignorant. There were many evils which 
demanded correction. The negro militia had been growing 
more and more insolent; neither property nor life were consid- 
ered safe under the existing government; the condition of so- 
ciety had come to the point where it was no longer endur- 
able. The members of the Klan perceived that by a change 
in its nature that order would serve to remedy those evils. 
Thus the Ku Klux gradually became a band of regulators, 
trying to protect life and property and to restore order. 

In the summer of 1867 a convention of delegates from 
Tennessee and other Southern States was held at Nashville 
under the very eyes of the Radical administration/ This con- 



a . This statement is likely to be challeng-ed, but it is indisputably 
true. A Ms. letter from one of the original founders is in the possession 
of the writer. This letter claims, and old inhabitants of Pulaski assert 
just what is affirmed above. See also Lester and Wilson's K. K. K. 
pp. 10-34. 

b. "Ku Klux Klan," p. 38, 39, etc. 

c. Testimony of various Southerners before the Ku Klux Commit- 
tee. See report. 

d. K. K. K. p. 51, and testimony given verbally by members of the 
convention. 



322 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

vetition perfected a most complete organization and devised a 
perfect system of machinery for its operation and government. 
The whole territory covered by it was called the Invisible 
Empire, and its chief officer the Grand Wizard, with al- 
most autocratic power. The empire was subdivided, and the 
subdivisions were put under the direction of subordinate of- 
ficers. a 

The most note worthy action of the convention was the 
prescribing of an oath and the fixing of limitations to keep 
members within proper bounds and to prevent lawlessness. b 
Everyone joining the order was required to take oath to pro- 
tect and defend the Constitution of the United States^ and 
all laws passed in conformity thereto, and to protect the 
states and people thereof from all invasion from any source 
whatever. This does not sound like the declaration of a set of 
outlaws defiantly continuing in rebellion against the United 
States. 

For sometime the Ku Klux proved of vast usefulness, re- 
storing order, preventing crime, and filling the negroes with 
wholesome awe. Their methods are well-known, and need no 
description here. In the main, the members adhered to their 
principles. d Toward the last they took some desperate steps, 
but they were hardly to blame, considering the willful misrep- 
resentation and unjust legislation to which they were sub- 
jected. The enemies of the Ku Klux Klan, in order to bring 
it into disrepute, otten assumed its paraphernalia and com- 
mitted outrages in its name. e The negroes, encouraged by 
this example, began to arm chemselves and to threaten, f but 
even then, while warning them of the vengeance that would 
attend any such attempt, the Klan declared that it was not 



a . K. K. K. p. 52. ( b .) K. K. K. p. 54, and verbal statements from 
reliable men. 

c. K. K K. p. 54 and 55. Also printed copy of the constitution 
still exist. 

d. K. K. K. p. 57. 

e. K. K. K. p. 77, and testimony of Gen. Gordon and others before 
the Investigating Committee. 

f . The negroes formed military companies, and drilled by night. 
with the avowed purpose of exterminating the Ku Klux. on several oc- 
casions the Klan was fired into. (See Lester and Wilson, p. 81 ) 



THE RECONSTRUCTION PERIOD IN TENNESSEE. 323 

an institution of violence; it was not lawless, aggressive, or 
military; it proposed to execute law instead of resisting - it; 
it was not the enemy of the black so long as they behaved 
themselves, and did not attack or interfere with the Klan. a 

In 1868 the Tennessee Legislature passed a most severe 
and stringent anti-Ku Klux law, b providing heavy fines and 
imprisonment for being connected with the order in any way. 
The Governor was also authorized to equip and call into ser- 
vice additional regiments of the State Guard. In February 
following the Grand Wizard issued a proclamation reciting 
the good accomplished by the Klan; but, he stated, some of 
the members had violated positive orders, and other men dis- 
guised as Ku Klux had committed outrages for which the Klan 
had been held responsible; he also mentioned the bloody anti- 
Ku Klux law, and gave it as the principal cause of his action. 
Therefore, in the exercise of his power the Grand Wizard de- 
clared the order disbanded. The command was promptly 
obeyed. Thus ended one of the most remarkable organiza- 
tions in the history of this country. 

The Ku Klux Klan has been entirely misunderstood, and 
maliciously maligned. It cannot be too stongly emphasized 
that it was mainly composed of the best men of the South, d 
and every member was required to take an oath to support the 
Government and Constitution of the United States. It accom- 
plished what nothing else could have done in that trying time. 
Some excesses were doubtless committed by members of the 
Klan, but these were comparatively few, and were without 
the authority of the order 6 . It is a remarkable fact that even 
after the passage of the anti-Ku Klux law, not a single per- 
son, when arrested and stripped of his disguise ever proved to 
be a KuKlux. f Many arrests were made, but in every in- 
stance the offenders proved to be outsiders, frequently Radi- 



a . See a General Order of the "G. D." published in Pulaski, in 1868. 

b. Acts of Tennessee, 1868. 

c . See Lester and Wilson, p. 112. 

d . See Lester and Wilson, p. 73, and testimony before Committee. 

e . See Lester and Wilson, page 76, 78, and testimony before Com- 
mittee. 

f. Testimony of Gen. Gordon, and K. K. K. p. 78. 



324 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

cals themselves. a Most of the crimes usually charged to the 
Klan occured in the years 1870 to 1873, b although as has been 
shown, the order disbanded early in 1869, and was therefore 
in no degree responsible for them. While all admit that evils 
attended its operation, } r et impartial history will decide that 
the good the Ku Klux Klan accomplished was ample to justify 
its existence. 

The Ku Klux, then organized for self protection; but pre- 
vious to the Klan's beginning, and in some degree causing 
the change in the character of that order, another society, 
fully as secret and far more lawless, had been operating 
throughout the South. The Union League, or Loyal League, 
was composed, in the South, of negroes and the lowest class 
of whites. Carpet-baggers organized leagues for political 
purposes, and incited the negroes to crime. d The outrages 
committed by these ruffians became intolerable and is is not 
wonderful that the whites executed summary vengeance. The 
Loyal League, however, suffered no arrests under the law. e 
In the opinion of the State Government, the Ku Klux was 
the only "secret oathbound" order in the State. The League 
naturally outlived the Klan, and its lawless operation contin- 
ued several years after the latter disbanded. 

The severe measures adopted by the governing faction, 
of course, aroused opposition. The Democrats being disfran- 
chised, there were but two parties in the State, the Radical 
and the Conservative. The latter steadity gained strength, 
while the former continually grew weaker. Seeing this they 
made every effort possible to entrench themselves permanent- 
ly in power. In 1868 still further restrictions were thrown 
around the franchisee Instead of the sheriffs, the commis- 
sioners of registration were to hold the elections. The Gov- 
ernor was authorized to set aside the registration whenever 
he believed it to be fraudulent. The State Guard was still 



a. Testimony of Gen. Gordon, and K. K. K. p. 77. 

b. Testimony of Gen. Gordon and others, and files of Tennessee 
papers 1870-72. 

c. Three Decades of Legislation, S. S. Cox. 

d. N. Y. Times, 1868. Nashville Union. 1867-8, etc. 

e. K. K. K. p. 108-9, and Nashville Union and Dispatch, 1867. 

f. Acts of Tennessee, 1868. 



THE RECONSTRUCTION PERIOD IN TENNESSEE. 325 

further increased. The Legislature took the control of af- 
fairs in several counties away from the county courts, gave it 
to a board of three commissioners appointed by the Governor, 
and provided means to enforce obedience. 

Notwithstanding these extreme measures, the power of 
the Radicals was evidently diminishing. This was inevita- 
ble. Even if their administration had been mild and benefi- 
cent, they could not have retained possession of the State 
Government, for they were but a faction of a party which 
was itself hopelessly in the minority. But as has been shown 
their course was the opposite of beneficent. Their acts, 
whether justified by conditions or not, rendered them unpop- 
ular with the conservative Republicans, and odious to the 
disfranchised Democrats. It was an open question whether 
Tennessee would not have fared better under Military Gov- 
ernment like that set up in the other Southern States. 

The Democrats were determined to regain control. But, 
as stated at tbe outset, this was, in Tennessee, a problem of 
peculiar difficulty. They had to wrest a State Government, 
already established, from the hands of their opponents, who 
were citizens of the State, and at the same time they had to 
avoid provoking the intervention of Congress, which kept a 
close watch upon all proceedings in the late Confederate 
States. It was a time which demanded patience, caution and 
wisdom. 

The turning point came in 1869. In that year Brownlow 
was elected United States Senator, and resigned the Gover- 
norship. a D. W. C. Senter, speaker of the Senate, according 
to law, became Governor for the remainder of the term. Sen- 
ter soon found that he was distrusted by the Radicals, and 
he was, therefore, inclined to favor the more liberal ele- 
ment. He desired to be re-elected, but the Radicals did 
not dare to entrust a man of liberal proclivities with power. 

The nominating convention failed to agree, b the Conser- 
vative wing naming Senter for re-election, the Radicals, Wm. 
B.Stokes. The Democrats saw here their opportunity. They 



a. House and Senate Journal. 1869. 

b. See proceedings of the Convention in the Nashville papers. 



326 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

promised Senter their support if he would allow them to vote.a 
Preferring- personal success to party advantage, he consented, 
and instructed commissioners of registration to give certifi- 
cates to the Democrats. In consequence, Senter was elected, 
and for the first time since the war the Assembly was Demo- 
cratic in both branches. 

The new legislature lost no time in remedying as far as they 
dared, the evils of Brownlow's administration. 1 ' The Metro- 
politan Police system in Nashville was abolished; Judge Fra- 
zier was restored to office, his disqualifications having been 
removed, the acts appointing commissioners for various cities 
and counties, the acts creating the militia and State Guard, 
the Ku Klux law, all laws granting aid to internal improve- 
ments, the law requiring candidates to take an oath, and num- 
erous others of similar nature, were repealed. Thee 15th 
amendment submitted to this Legislature, was rejected. 

The Democrats were determined to get rid of the other 
obnoxious laws, yet they felt that the safest plan would be to 
revise the constitution. Accordingly, all male citizens were 
authorized to assemble on the 3rd of December, 1869, to vote 
for or against calling a constitutional convention. d No regis- 
tration certificates or test oaths were required. Under these 
conditions, a convention largely Democratic was elected. 

This was one of the most able bodies ever convened in 
Tennessee. 6 A heavy responsibility la} r upon it, and the peo- 
ple sent the best men as deleg-ates. Its main object was to re- 
store to citizenship and mastery the majority of the whites. 
This was not an easy task. The Radicals, whose power 
was to be destroyed by the new constitution, naturally op- 
posed it. The agents of the Federal Government, which 
was controlled by the same party, kept a vigilant watch 
upon the proceedings. Indeed, in this year, an effort was 



a. Miller's Manual, under 1869. 
to. Acts of Tennessee, 1869-70. 

c. It was, however, adopted by a sufficient number of States with- 
out Tennessee. 

d. Acts of 1869-70, chapter CV. 

e . See Caldwell's Constitutional History of Tennessee, under 
"Constitutional Convention of 1870." 



THE RECONSTRUCTION PERIOD IN TENNESSEE. 327 

made at Washing-ton to overthrow the Tennessee Government 
and to reconstruct the State, and it was only through the 
efforts of D. B. Thomas and W. O'N. Perkins that the at- 
tempt failed. a That the convention produced a constitution 
which accomplished the design of the Democrats, yet was per- 
mitted to stand, is greatly to the credit of the members. 

The greatest difficultv was in adjusting the suffrage. 
After much debate the result was the re-establishment of the 
anti-bellum law, with the addition of negro suffrage, and lim- 
ited by a poll-tax qualification. b This constitution also for- 
bids a political test as a qualification for office, prohibits 
slavery, forbids State aid to corporations, and provides 
against calling the militia into service except in cases of 
rebellion or invasion, and then only when the legislature 
shall declare that the public safety requires it. c Several 
other changes were made in order to prevent the recurrence of 
such measures as had been adopted by the Brownlow govern- 
ment. But the chief work was the restoring of ex-Confeder- 
ates to their rights. 

The legislature which met in May, 1870, was mainly oc- 
cupied with putting these provisions into effect by law. d The 
Radical franchise laws were repealed and an act was passed 
in accordance with the new constitution. New counties were 
erected, the state was divided into judicial circuits, the time 
of electing officers was fixed, and, in general, the constitu- 
tion was put into operation. In the first election which fol- 
lowed, John C. Brown, Democrat, was elected over W. H. 
Wisener, Republican, by a heavy majority, and the Southern 
whites were once more in entire control. 

This ended the Re-construction Period in Tennessee. 
The facts which have been briefly outlined are believed suffi- 
cient to prove that it forms in every way claimed by this 
paper, a unique chapter in American History. But, however 
remarkable these events, the rapid recover}' of the State from 
their evil effects is still more remarkable. With their prop- 



a. Miller's Manual, under 1870. 

b. See Caldwell's Constitutional History. 

c . See Caldwell's Constitutional History. 

d. See Acts of 1870. 



328 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

ert v destroyed, their slaves freed, their whole social system 
overturned, the brave Tennesseans set their faces toward the 
future. The history of the succeeding- quarter of a century is 
the story of their struggles, their renewed prosperity, and 
the restoration of good feeling between them and their late 
enemies. 

LIST OF AUTHORITIES CONSULTED. 

Phelan's History of Tennessee. 
Caldwell's Constitutional History of Tennessee. 
S. S. Cox's Three Decades of Federal Legislation. 
Blaine's Twenty Years of Congress. 
Miller's Manual of Tennessee. 
"Parson Brownlow's Book." 
Lindsley's Military Annals of Tennessee. 
Herbert's Noted Men on the Reconstruction Period. 
Humes' Loyal Mountaineers. 

Report of the Reconstruction Committee to Congress. 
Reports of the Ku Klux Committee. 
Lester and Wilson's Ku Klux Klan. 
Congressional Globe, 1860 to 1870. 
Acts of Tennessee, 1861 to 1870. 

Proceedings of the Constitutional Convention of 1870. 
Report of the Frazier Impeachment Trial. 
Report of the Johnson Impeachment Trial. 
Reports on Outrages in the Southern States. 
Life of Andrew Johnson. 
Southern Historical Society Papers. 

Files of the Nashville Republican Banner, 1866 to 1869. 
Files of the Nashville Dispatch, 1862 to 1866. 
Files of the Nashville Union and American, 1867 to 1870. 
Miscellaneous Documents in the Library o; the Tennessee 
Historical Society. 



BEGINNING OF SOUTHERN LITERATURE. 329 



BEGINNING OF LITERATURE IN THE SOUTHERN 

OHIO VALLEY. 



BY S. A. LINK, NASHVILLE, TENN. 



[Continued from July Number.} 

In the early settlements west of the Alleghany Mountains 
almost as soon as a town was fairly started, a paper was con- 
sidered necessary. Several were started in Kentucky before 
the dawn of the nineteenth century, notably at Washing-ton, 
and Frankfort. The first paper was issued at Louisville in 
1801, and had the cumbersome name, Farmer's Library or 
Ohio Intelligencer. Like Louisville's great editor, Prentice, 
Vail, the founder of this first paper, came from New England. 
To follow the historj- of newspapers is not the intent of this 
paper, but it may be remarked in passing that this can be done 
in the case of either of the States mentioned far better than in 
the case of Tennessee. In the territory under consideration 
there was developed quite early a disposition to attempt some- 
thing more ambitious and permanent than ordinar}- newspaper 
work. So far as discovered, the pioneer of literary monthlies 
in the Ohio Valley was "The Medley, or Monthly Miscellany," 
printed by Daniel Bradford, in Lexington, from January to 
December of 1803. A part of the announcement ran as follows: 
"It is expected that Literary Characters will accept the oppor- 
tunity this work will afford them of rendering the result of 
their lucubrations useful to the public." The "Medley" con- 
tained two articles on the character of Thomas Jefferson, by 
Allen Bowie Magruder, once a lawyer in Kentucky, after- 
wards United States Senator from Louisiana. This was copied 
in several European papers. 

More than twenty semi-literary periodicals had spent their 
ephemeral lives in Kentucky previous to 1820. But the second 
magazine of note published west of the Alleghany Mountains 
was edited by Mr. William Gibbs Hunt, and was first issued 



330 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

August, 1819. The periodical was published at Lexington for 
four years and was entitled, "Western Review and Miscella- 
neous Magazine, a publication devoted to Literature and 
Science." This contained much of permanent value and called 
into activity many who would otherwise have made no attempt 
at literary effort, and did much to bring out the history of 
those times. Great space was given to original poetry, but 
only one piece attained note — "The Boat Horn," by Wm. O. 
Butler. This was a melodious lyric given to the public as 
"Boatman's Horn" in "Poetry of the West." 

For some time there was a strong rivals between Lex- 
ington and Cincinnati, hence in three months after the first 
issue of "Aunt's Magazine" at Lexington, Dr. Joseph Buch- 
anan issued at Cincinnati the "Literary Cadet," the forerun- 
ner of great things, since Ohio has produced some of the fore- 
most literary folks of the nation. The "Cadet" was soon 
merged into the "Western Spy." A competitor arose in 1821 
called "The Olio." Writers from Kentucky contributed 
largely to all these. To follow these would take us too far. 
Prominent among the literary characters at Cincinnati, was 
James H. Perkins, author of "Annals of the West," president 
of the Cincinnati Historical Society- from 1844 to 1849. He 
was the author of a stirring lyric once well known, which 
begins: 

"Oh, were ye ne'er a school boy? 

And did you never train, 
Nor feel that swelling of the heart 

You ne'er can feel again?" 

Coates Kinney's "Rain on the Roof" one of the finest pro- 
ductions of the Ohio Valley, was at first rejected by the editor 
of the Great West, as perhaps not being quite up to the Indian 
tales of the times. It has been often quoted and sung since 
that rejection. Books were printed from newspaper offices. 
The first book appeared in Kentucky in 1793, and grew out of 
a church quarrel as to whether the Psalms of David or the 
Hymns of Watts should be sung. The following year a reply 
was printed. About the same time the first law books were 
printed. The century was hardly well begun until numbers 
of books had been issued at Lexington, which now had more 
printing offices than one, and was quite a center of books and 



BEGINNING OF SOUTHERN LITERATURE. 331 

learning - . Frankfort came on later. In the first fifteen years 
of the century perhaps twice fifteen books aiming- to be am- 
bitious efforts were put forth. Numerous works of historical 
interest went along with books of quite a transient nature. 
One of the most notable histories was "The History of the 
American Revolution," by David Ramsey, published in 
1815. 

Humphrey Marshall, and later Lewis Collins, made them- 
selves lasting places by their histories of Kentucky. "Histo- 
ry of the Late War in the Western Country," was published 
by Worsley and Smith, Lexington, Ky., in 1816. The author 
was Robert B. McAfee. This book is concise and readable to 
a degree not attained by some later histories. 

"Poets and Poetry of the West" was published by William 
T. Coggeshall in 1860. Coggeshall jointly with Coates Kin- 
ney edited for a time Genius of the West, a magazine of consid- 
erable pretentions started at Cincinnati, and largely supported 
by Kentucky. During this time the material in large part 
was gathered for the book, though the author was appointed 
State Librarian for Ohio in 1856, and continued the collection 
of material. More than one hundred and fifty western poets 
are represented by poems and biographic sketches. Cogge- 
shall died United States Minister to Ecuador in 1865. 

Of the writers, ninety-seven were men, lawyers, preach- 
ers, business men; some men of national reputation in other 
pursuits. Fifty-seven were women. Most of the matter was 
evanescent, but George D. Prentice had come into Kentucky 
to write a campaign life of Clay, and had been induced to re- 
main and start a paper in his behalf. The first number of 
the Louisville Journal was issued in 1830. Prentice found 
time to be poet as well as fierce political writer. Not only 
that, but he fostered literature in the columns of the Journal 
as few editors have done in an}' merely political paper. Some 
of Prentice's poems, "The Rainbow," by Amelia Welby, 
"The Stab," by Will Wallace Harney, will not float as drift- 
wood on the tide of time, but are among the immortal snatches 
of song. In leaving Kentucky one other poem must be men- 
tioned, "Bivouac of the Dead," by Theodore O'Hara, a man 
Kentucky born. Although he became a Confederate soldier, 
yet lines from this poem on soldiers who fell in the Mexican 



332 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

war, became the inscription over the gate of the National 
Cemetery at Arlington. 

What of Tennessee as to books and larger literary effort? 
In Coggeshall's work of the one hundred and fifty-two entitled 
to fame, three were born in Tennessee. In Ida Raymond's 
'"Southland Writers,' 1 published in 1870, five names are men- 
tioned from Tennessee, viz: Mrs. L. Virginia French, Anne 
Chambers Ketchum, Mrs. Clara Coles, Adelia C. Graves, and 
Mrs. Mary E. Pope. It should be mentioned that Southland 
writers are all women. Miss Manly's recent work on Southern 
literature has Crockett, Houston, Maury, and Miss Murfree, 
and Houston is, of course, credited to Texas. 

In 1888 Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography 
was published in six large volumes. This contains over four- 
teen thousand names of those who are supposed worthy of 
some fame. Henry Cabot Lodge took the trouble to count 
and classify these according to States. Massachusetts leads 
with nearly three thousand who have raised themselves above 
the common level. New York is a close second. Ohio has 
three hundred and sixty-four. Kentucky follows with three 
hundred and twenty, while Tennessee can show but one hun- 
dred and thirty-six forherroll of fame. However, the Volun- 
teer State is not worst off since Alabama has thirty-four, and 
Mississippi twenty-six, while Arkansas has only three and 
Texas one. It must be remembered, however, that it is not 
on account of literary merit alone, or chiefly that these names 
got into the work, but distinction in civil, militar} T , or scien- 
tific directions is included as well, though one's chances of 
mention are very greatly enhanced by having written one or 
more books. 

It may be that Tennessee was too far away from the com- 
piler of the Cyclopedia to attract attention. It may be that 
what has been done was not of sufficient importance to be in- 
corporated. Any way, let us hope that we are to receive new 
impulses towards intellectual and artistic activity by means of 
the Centennial Exposition. Let us hope the State dear to us 
will be stirred with life and power as never before. Then 
may we both make and write history. Men may think as they 
please, but only he influences the future who puts his thoughts 
to record. In 1813 the entire number of newspapers in the 



BEGINNING OF SOUTHERN LITERATURE. 333 

United States was recorded as three hundred and fifty-nine, 
of which seventeen were published in Kentucky, fourteen in 
Ohio, and six in Tennessee. Eleven years later, Kentucky 
had only increased two, but Tennessee had gone to fifteen. 
East Tennessee, as we have seen, had the first paper, and as 
in Kentucky, the same presses turned out books as occasion 
demanded. 

One thing- is remarkable; East Tennessee had an Abolition 
paper nine or ten years before the advent of Garrettson's pa- 
per. As early as 1814 or 1815 an Abolition Societ} 7 , perhaps 
the first in the United States, had been formed in East Ten- 
nessee. 

In March, 1819, The Manumission Intelligencer was issued 
at Jonesboro. This, as said, was some years before Garrett- 
son's first effort in that direction. This gave place the next 
year to The Emancipator, by Elihu Embry. The first paper 
was a weekly, the second a monthly. After the death of Em- 
bry The Genius of Universal Emancipation was published at 
Greenville by Benjamin Lundy. This lived until 1824. Lundy 
induced Garrettson to enter the field of editorial effort in be- 
half of emancipation. Hence Tennessee had, perhaps, the 
first Abolition Society and the first Abolition paper in the 
world. While upon the subject of Abolition, this writer hap- 
pened recently upon a volume of poems by Robert Mack, Esq. 
The book is not overly strong in its poetry, but has a long in- 
troduction upon social and religious subjects, in which slavery 
is attacked. It was published at Columbia by Felix K. Zoli- 
coffer in 1834. It is hard to ascertain just what papers, mag- 
azines, and books were published in East Tennessee during 
the first quarter of this century. Tennessee, as said, was one of 
the last States to prepare a history of the Press. Some school 
books and quite a number of religious works were published 
at different points — Jonesboro, Greenville, Knoxville and 
Athens. 

Of religious books of some note, Dr. David Nelson's 
"Cause and Cure of Infidelity" was probably published about 
1815 or 1820. Pearson's Analysis belongs to the same class 
and was published at Athens. Henderson's sermons were 
published at Knoxville in 1823, though he was then at "Mur- 
freesborough," as the spelling went. Some novels were 



334 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

among - the number of transient publications, notably Wood- 
ville, but as said before, Field's Scrapbook lives on. It seems 
to have been brought out about 1S32, to have been revived 
and republished after the Mexican war. Recently other 
changes have been made, and the book sent forth from Phila- 
delphia. Fields published this with other books at Knoxville. 
Among the books published by Fields may be mentioned 
"The Savage," ostensibly by an Indian Chief, but really by 
Jack Robinson. Fields thought this a great book. Passing 
over others, the most noteworthy publications of East Ten- 
nessee were the two histories of Judge John Haywood. 
Without his "Civil and Political History" the early records of 
the State would be largely a blank. Both his works were 
published at Knoxville in 1823. The Christian Advocate, now 
little known, is thought by some to have been a more remark- 
able work than either of the histories. The first book pub- 
lished in Nashville was compiled by the same indefatigable 
Judge Haywood. It was entitled "Tennessee Justice," and 
was for the guidance of J. P.'s. This was in 1810, though it 
is not clear as to whether "Haywood's Revisal of Public 
Laws" was not a year earlier. 

About 1816 "Clark's Miscellany in Prose and Verse" was 
published, perhaps the first purelj r literary work produced in 
the State. But in 1827 on Deaderick Street, a book was pub- 
lished by John S. Simpson, which would even now do credit 
to Boston. The book "History of Literature from the Earli- 
est Period to the Revival of Letters in the Fifteenth Century," 
was by Wilkins Tannehil. He published "The Portfolio" 
about 1848. This was devoted to Masonry and general liter- 
ature, and bore some semblance to a magazine. Nashville 
has had many papers devoted to many interests, but little of a 
purely literary nature has been attempted. The location of 
the M. E. Church South Publishing House here, the organ- 
ization of the C. P. Church in this State, and the prominent 
position assumed by various churches at this point, have given 
rise to much printed matter, some of which is of great impor- 
tance to many people, and while it ma}* serve to quicken intel- 
lectual life and hence produce literature, yet all have felt the 
dearth of anything like a spontaneous literary effort. 

Our historv has been written in snatches, and while much 



BEGINNING OF SOUTHERN LITERATURE. 335 

of great value has been recorded, yet if one would possess the 
historv of Tennessee, he must prepare to purchase a library. 
Starting- with Haywood, we have Ramsey, Putnam, Carr, 
Guild, Carpenter, Paschal, Draper, Gilmore, Roosvelt, Phelan, 
Lindsley, and last, but not least, Gen. Thurston's antiquities. 
Besides, it is necessary to wade through numerous biographies 
to get all the facts and catch the spirit of the times in which 
these men moved. It is not meant to come this side of the 
war at many points in this paper, hence our bright novelists 
of recent years by whose genius all true Tennesseans feel 
greatly honored, must be considered at another time, or by 
other pens. Among those who made effort in those years 
when less was said of literature may be mentioned: Mrs. L. 
Virginia French, Mrs. Ketchum, Mrs. Graves, Mrs. Jane T. 
Cross, Miss Zoda Stith, of Kentucky, and quite a number of 
others, chiefly women. Quite a number of valuable biograph- 
ical works have been written by both men and women. As 
said before, a large part of the histor}^ of the State is locked 
up in these biographies. One thing is greatly to our lasting 
shame, the principal biographies of our most noteworthy 
characters have been written by other than natives of Ten- 
nessee. We ought to shake off our lethargy even at this late 
date, and use the abundant material about us. 

In literary magazines the chief efforts have been made by 
the churches, while Nashville and Memphis have had some 
able partisan political editors of papers there has been no 
Tennessee Prentice to woo the Muses, and invite others to do 
so through the columns of the political journals. Man}^ of 
the editors of papers have been ready to publish literature, if 
furnished, but few have sought it out, or been in a position to 
offer any suitable incentive to its production. The Museum, 
a literary magazine was started in Nashville in 1809 but ran 
only six months. The Kaleidescofte, a weekly literary paper 
was established in 1833 by W. Haswell Hunt, but lasted per- 
haps not more than a year. In 1844 The South-western Liter- 
ary Journal and Monthly Review was published by A. Billings 
and Co., and edited by K. Z. C. Judson and H. A. Kidd. Less 
than a year sufficed. The Southwestern Monthly by Wales 
and Roberts was a venture of which any State might be proud, 
and which oug-ht to have been sustained. This was a sixty- 



336 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

four page quarto published monthl}', and had steel engravings 
with much valuable matter. The first issue was January, 
1852, the last in a year. The South has many thing's in which 
to have pride, but not in the self-sacrificing efforts of some of 
her people to build up a literature. The Naturalist, The 
Southern Homestead, and other short lived publications were 
devoted in .part to literature. As before said, some of the 
churches have made effort to combine literature with religion. 
It is of some interest to note how many religious papers were 
started in the thirties. Rev. David Lowry edited the first 
Cumberland Presbyterian paper published in the United 
States. This was The Religious and Literary Intelligencer, 
issued at Princeton, Ky., in 1830. The paper was transfered 
to Nashville in 1832, and was called The Revivalist, edited by 
Revs. James Smith and David Lowry. In 1834 The Western 
Methodist was started by Rev. Lewis Garrett, and Rev. John 
Newland Maffatt. The Tennessee Baptist had its origin in 
1835, with Rev. Robert BoyteC. Newell as editor. The Amer- 
ican Presbyterian with Dr. J. T. Edgar as editor began also in 
1835. The Old Baptist Banner was edited by the Rev. Wash- 
ington Lowe in 1838. In 1848 The Christian Magazine was 
founded by J. G. S. Fall, Jesse B. Furgerson, and J. K. 
Howard. The Gospel Advocate was begun by Tolbert Fan- 
ning and William Lipscomb, in 1854. All these papers were 
at first individual enterprises. Some were eventually adopted 
by the churches which they represented. Some were soon 
discontinued, others survive after various changes. Efforts 
have been made all along by the various churches to raise the 
literary tone of their people by efforts other than the usual de- 
nominational organs. The most noteworthy efforts in that 
direction were The Home Circle issued first as The Southern 
Ladies' Companion, and a Methodist enterprise, and The 
Ladies' 1 Pearl managed by Cumberland Presbyterians. The 
Southern Ladies Companion was issued first as an individual 
enterprise in 1847 with M. M. Henkle and J. B. McFerrin as 
editors. The M. E. Church South took charge of the publica- 
tion in 1855, changed the name to The Home Circle and elected 
Rev. L. D. Huston editor. It was issued until the beginning of 
the war. The Ladies' Pearl with S. P. Chestnut as editor was 
established in 1852. With various changes and editors, with a 



BEGINNING OF SOUTHERN LITERATURE. 337 

suspension during- the war and one or two removals this mag- 
azine was continued until 1884, and "did more," says one 
writer, "to develop the talents of women of the Cumberland 
Presbyterian Church than all other agencies put together.'" 
With Quarterlies and Sunday School publications the church 
literature makes quite a long list. As said before, the list of 
Tennessee books is made up largely of church publications. 
The Cumberland Presbyterian Church having its origin in 
Tennessee naturally found its historians here, hence Smith 
and McDonold have written histories of the church, Smith in- 
cluding in his work the general Christian Church. The C. 
P. University being located in Tennessee with a faculty of 
earnest, self-denying men has produced a number of books. 
The location of the M. E. Church South Publishing House in 
Tennessee has given a long list of books, Historical, Theolog- 
ical, and Biographical. In the beginning of the century some 
school books locally popular were published in East Tennes- 
see. Such as Blount's Catechetical Exposition of the Con- 
stitution of Tennessee, Fowler's Arithmetic, Wilkinson's 
Biblical and other Knowledge. "Gunn's Family Medicine" 
comes from Knoxville in 1830. There have been various 
periodicals in the State from time to time— some very promi- 
nent — representing Medicine, Law, Masonry, Science, Me- 
chanics, Agriculture and various interest. When the war 
broke out there were at least twenty publications in Nash- 
ville. 

This imperfect sketch must be brought to a close on ac- 
count of length. None of these and the many other ventures 
here and elsewhere, — for even Gallatin attempted a magazine 
— produced any great, pre-eminent writers. 

Tennessee, over whose free hills and vales no royal mas- 
ter ever waved his banner; Tennessee, that set the world a 
new lesson in founding government; Tennessee, whose shield 
ought to be blazoned with King's Mountain and New Orleans 
— -two decisive battles of the world; Tennessee, the fame of 
whose orators can never die, and whose men are brave, and 
whose women are passing fair; Tennessee, with her Sevier, 
Robertson, Jackson, Overton, Coffee, Grundy, Benton, Crock- 
ett, Houston, Polk, Bell, Johnson, — but the roll is too long 
to call. May the children of Tennessee gather honor untold 



338 



THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL, MAGAZINE. 



and unsullied to lay at the Mother's feet in the century to 

come. 

Thou land of women fair 
And men of honor rare — 

Old Tennessee: 
Each modest flower that blows, 
Each mountain stream that flows, 
Each blade of corn that grows 
Is dear to me. 



THE FAMILY OF SIR GFORGF YEARDLEY. 339 



SIR GEORGE YEARDLEY OR YARDLEY, GOVERNOR 

AND CAPTAIN-GENERAL OF VIRGINIA, AND 

TEMPERANCE, LADY YEARDLEY, AND 

SOME OF THEIR DESCENDANTS. 



BY THOMAS TEACKLE UPSHUR, NASSAWADOX, NORTHAMPTON 

COUNTY, VIRGINIA. 



Sir George Yeardley was one of the ablest and most pop- 
ular of Virginia's Colonial Governors. His public acts are mat- 
ters of history, and as many of them have been published and 
commented upon in several magazines during the past few- 
years, I shall confine myself in this article to giving a list of 
as many of his descendants as the limited time at my disposal 
has allowed me to trace. If simply a matter of mentioning 
those who have borne Yeardley as a surname my list would be 
short and easy of compilation, for the name became extinct in 
his line of descendants, in the fourth generation, and only one 
son and one grandson lived to have issue, and the surviving 
children of the latter were three daughters, neither of whom 
married a Yeardley, and after their marriage the name of Yeard- 
ley, except as a baptismal name, disappeared from Virginia so 
far as I have discovered. It is only recently that the maiden 
name of Temperance, Lady Yeardley, has again become known 
in this country. For many years, historians and genealogists 
have sought it in vain. She came to Virginia in the "Falcon," 
Capt. Nelson Martin, Master, in 1609 (See Hotten's Original 
List of Immigrants, February 16, 1632, and also N. E. Hist., 
and Gen. Reg. Vol. xxx. p. 415), and was Temperance "West 
when she married Sir George. Her parentage is still unde- 
cided. 



340 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Ralph Yeardley, a brother of Sir George, was granted 
letters of administration upon the estates of Sir George and 
Temperance, ' in behalf of Elizabeth, Argall, and Francis 
Yardley, "lawful and legitimate children of Dame Temperance 
Yardley (alias West.) 1 ' She survived him but a short time, 
for, although the Executrix of his estate, she had not appar- 
ently had time to qualify as such, and died intestate. (See 
American Historical Magazine, Vol. I., p. 101, January 
No., 1896.) 

Although the name of Yeardley became extinct upon the 
marriage of their three great-granddaughters, yet the num- 
ber of their descendants is legion and to trace them all will 
require considerable time and labor. Very many alliances 
have added new names to the list of their descendants, which 
will doubtless reach thousands, and very many persons in 
various parts of the United States, to-day, are lineal descend- 
ants of this distinguished pair, some of whom are probably ig- 
norant of the fact. 

Sir George Yeardley was born between 1577 and 1580. 
(See Va. Mag. of Hist, and Biog., Vol. II., 154). They were 
married about 1618 (See Brown's Genesis of the U. S., p. 1065), 
and he died in Nov. 1627. 

There are two depositions and subsequent oiders in the 
Northampton County Virginia Records, indicating that Tem- 
perance was not Sir George's first wife, but that she was the 
mother of his children is shown above. 

1. Elizabeth Yeardley 1 . The Court Records of Virginia 
and other authorities examined, mention nothing of her. If 
she ever married, she probably did not live in America, or some 
trace of her descendants would have been found. 



1. John Yardley — 1402 — County Stafford, England, married daughter of 

Marbury of Dadesbury, and had: John Yardley of Kedlingworth Co. Warwick, mar- 
ried daughter of Tickens, and had: Margaret Yardley, who married John 

Yardley, of Yardley, son of John Yardley, of Yardley, contemporary of Henry VI, 
and had: John Yardley, of Yardley, who married Elizabeth, daughter of William 
Birkes, County Stafford, who had: William Yardley, living in 1583, who married 
Elizabeth, daughter of William and Alice Brereton Morton, of Morton, County Chester, 
who had: a. William, who married Margery Lawton, and had issue — grandfather of 
William 1632, and who emigrated to Penn. 16S2, and great-grandfather of Samuel, who 
emigrated to America 1704 — Bucks County, Pa. branch of the family. William, last 

mentioned, married Jane and came from Ransclough, near Leake, in the 

County of Stafford, England, to Pennsylvania, in "Friend's Adventure'" and arrived in 



THE FAMILY OF SIR GEORGE YEARDEEY. 341 

2. Colonel Argall Yeardley, the eldest son and heir of 
Sir George and Temperance, was born about 1621 and married 
first about 1640; the name of his first wife is at present un- 
known. She died in 1648. In 1649, during- a visit to Europe, 



Delaware River, July 28, 1682,— Pa. Mag. Vol. IX. part 2, July 1885, p. 223. b. Ralph, 
who married Elizabeth Dodd — Druggist in London. See Neil's Va. Co. p. 173;Neil's Va. 
Carolorum p. 48, SO; Neil's Va. Vetusta p. 111. He was administrator of the estate of his 
brother, Sir George Yeardley, and that of Lady Temperance (West) Yeardley — men- 
tioned hereafter, c. John, who married Mary Dodd. d. Randall, e. George Yeard- 
ley, who in 1618 married Temperance West. He came to Virginia in the "Deliverance," 
in 1609; See Hotten's Lists. He was a member of Virginia Company, 1609; Member of 
Her Majesty's Council for Virginia; Deputy Governor of Virginia in 1618, and in the 
latter part of the year was appointed Governor of Virginia, and subsequently, viz: 
November 22, 1618 knighted. He left England January 29, 1619, in the '-Gift'' (N. E. 
Hist, and Gen. Reg. Vol. XXX., p. 415), reached Jamestown April 19, 1619, and early in 
June he summoned the first Legislative Assembly that ever assembled in America, to 
meet at Jamestown on July 30, 1619. (Neil's Va. Vetusta p. 110; Hening I. p. 119, 121 
128; Winsors N. & C History U. S. Vol. III., p. 143; Bancroft's History TJ. S. Rev. Ed., 

1888, Vol. I., p. 110.) He built in 1621 the first windmill that was ever erected in Amer- 
ica. Bruce, II., p. 487; Neil's Va. Co. p. 283. His commission as Governor expired in 1621. 
but he continued a member of the Council. He was one of the "Council of State" under 
"An Ordinance and Constitution of the Treasurer, Council and Company in England, 
for a Council of State and General Assembly," dated July 24,1621 — otherwise termed the 
First Constitution." See Amer. His. Mag. Vol. I., No. 2, April, 1896, quoting Stith's 
History of Virginia. He was appointed Deputy Governor in the absence of Wyatt, 
September 18, 1625, and on April 19' 1626, was again appointed Governor. He held 
that office until his death, November, 1627. See Amer. His. Mag., Vol. I., No. 1, 
p. 21, quoting from Bancroft. His will is dated October 12, 1627. He left a large 
estate. An abstract of his will is given in N. E. His. and Gen. Register. January, 
1884, Vol. 38, p. 69. and also in Amer. His. Mag., Vol. I., p. 98. See Hening I. 
p. 119, 121, 128 etc.; Va. Mag,, Vol. I., p. X5; Amer. His. Mag., Vol. I., p. 1-21, 94; 
Brown's Genesis of U. S.. p. 417, 796, 1065; Winsor's N. and C. His. U.S , Vol. III., p. 141, 
143, 146; Va. Mag., Vol. II., p. 57, etc.; (as to First Legislative Assembly in Virginia) 
Va. Mag., Vol. II., p. 154, etc.; Amer. His. Mag., pp. 1-21, Vol. I., No. 1; (as to instruc- 
tions from the Lords in Privy Council, etc., etc., to Gov. Yeardley 1618) p. 219; (as to in- 
structions to Gov. Yeardley, 1626) p. 293, and McDonald papers, Vol. I., p. 408, Sec. 8, 
Va. State Library, etc., etc.; Wm. and Mary Quarterly, Vol.3, p. 65, Vol. 4, p. 169, etc.; 
Smith's His. of Va., p. 567, 569, etc.; Bruce Economic His. of Va. (See Index); Neil's Va. 
Vetusta, (See Index); Neil's Va. Carolorum (See Index); Neil's Va. Co. (See Index); 
See also the numerous histories of Virginia and of the Va. and London Companies; the 
numerous Biographical Dictionaries, etc. Temperance West, wife of Sir George Yeard- 
ley, came to Virginia. in the "Falcon" in 1609; Capt. Nelson Martin, Master, (See Hot- 
ten's Original lists of emigrants to America (3-16-1623) 1600-1700; N. E. His. and Gen. 
Reg. Vol. XXX., p. 415). In January 1625 both Sir George and Temperance were living at 
Jamestown with their three children, viz: Elizabeth, Francis, and Argall. (See Hot- 
ten's Lists.) She released her dower right to a certain 2200-acre tract of land on Nov. 16, 
1627, See Hening I., p. 145. She was one of the witnesses of the will of John Rolfe, 1621 — 
Neil's Va. Vetusta, p. 141; N. E. Hist. Gen. Reg , Jan., 1884. She died in Virginia, and let- 
ters of administration were granted on her estate to Ralph Yeardley, of London, (brother 
of Sir George). See P. C. C. Adm., Book 162S-30, Folio 730, quoted in Amer. His. Mag., Vol. 
I., p. 101. See Harlian Manuscripts in British Museum, Eng, Nos. 1077, 1171, 6128 (Brit- 
ish Museum, May, 1881); "Yardley Family," by Thomas Yardley, 257 pp. published 

1889, Phila., Pa.; Vol. I., No. 1. "American Historical Magazine," Jan., 1896, Nash- 
ville, Tenn.; Brown's Genesis of IT. S., p. 1085 — except as to paternity of Sir George 
Yardley; and authorities above quoted. 



342 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

he married Ann Custis, ' ! a daughter of John and Joane Custis, 
who were then living- in Rotterdam, but were born in England, 
and not in Ireland as stated by Bishop Meade. 3 

He left children as follows: a. Argall; b. Edmund; 
c. Rose; d. Henry; e. Francis. The names of Henry 
and Edmund disappear from the records on the Eastern Shore 
of Virginia after 1657 — they were then onl} T boys. No trace 
of them or any of their descendents has been found, and they 
probably died without issue. The Colonel was a very promi- 
nent man. He was a member of the Council of State Dec. 20, 
1643, and was appointed Commander of "Accomac" (North- 
ampton), then comprising the whole of the Eastern Shore of 
Virginia, June 30, 1642, by Sir William Berkeley. (See Vol. 
II., p. 84, 88 and 172, Northampton County Records). He 
died intestate. 

3. Captain Francis Yeardley, youngest son of Sir George 
and Temperance (West) Yeardley, was a brave and dashing 
officer. He and also Col. Argall Yeardley, his brother, sided 
with the Royalists during the parliamentary troubles in Eng- 
land and openly expressed their sentiments, thereby getting 
into difficulties. Once during an argument with Captain 
Richard Ingle concerning the King and parliament, Ingle 
being a pronounced Cromwellite, the argument becoming too 
warm for Ingle's temper, he left the cabin of his ship and go- 
ing down the hold, returned to the deck with a pole axe and 
cutlass. 

"For whom do } r ou wait?" said Col. Argall Yeardley. 
"For my brother? I arrest 3'ou in the name of the King." 

"If you had said in the name of the King and Parliament, 



2. See Col. Norwood's Voyage to Assateague, in Force's Hist. Tracts. Vol. III. p. 49. 
After the death of Col. Argall Yardley, his widow married John Wilcox, (See will of 
John Wilcox, May 25, lot>2, Northampton Co. Records; also Deed of Gift of Anna 
Wilcox, widow, 7 & S p. 15, to her two sons Henry and Edmond Yardley. etc.). 
Col. Argall Yardley died in 1655 (See Brown's Genesis of the U. S., p. 1065, which is 
corroborated by Northampton County Records). See Griffin Clay Callahan's article in 
the Richmond Times of January 21st, 1805. which was subsequently republished in a 
number of newspapers; See Wm. and Mary Quarterly, Vol. III., p. 261: Meade. Vol. 1.. 
p. 263; G. W. P. Custis' Reminiscences, etc. ("Custis Genealogy" will shortly be pre 
pared, embodying- considerable original historical and genealogical matter heretofore 
unpublished). See "'Agreement between John Custis and Frances (Parke) Custis. his 
Wiie" in Va. Mag., July 18%, pag-e 64. 

3. See naturalization papers of Captain William Custis granted by Howard. Lord 
Effingham, May 13, 1686, Vol. 1076-00 Accomac Co.. Records. 



THE FAMILY OF SIR GEORGE YEARDLEY. 343 

I would have obeyed," said Ingle, and ran at Col. Yeardley with 
the pole axe in his hand and thrust his cutlass at his breast as 
though he would pierce his body, and ordered all present to 
leave his ship. 

"Wait until he comes on shore," said the Colonel to Cap- 
tain Francis Yeardle} T ; and they, together with a few of those 
present, left the ship, which immediately hoisted anchor and 
sailed for Maryland, carrying- about twenty of the colonists 
away. Ingle there bragged that he 

"Had 'steazed' the Commander of Northampton and his 
brother over the side of his ship." 

His glory was short-lived, he was captured, sent an hum- 
ble letter of apology to Col. and Capt. Yeardle} r , returned all 
the colonists he had taken away, and was sent a prisoner to 
James City for trial before the Governor and Council. His 
next appearance on the Northampton County Records was as 
a witness to a legal document in London. (See Vol. II., 
Northampton County Records, in 1645.) 

Captain Francis Yeardley was appointed Captain of Mili- 
tia during the Indian scare on the Eastern Shore; although 
scarcely 21 years of age, the Governor and Council, as well as 
the Court in Northampton and the inhabitants generally held 
him high in their esteem and placed great confidence upon his 
bravery and ability. He married Sarah Offley, of London, 
whose mother was a Miss Harris, a sister of Alexander Harris, 
of Town Hill, (See Extract from will of Captain Adam 
Thorowgood, Virginia Carolorum, p. 134). She was first 
the wife of Capt. Adam Thorowgood and bore him four chil- 
dren: Adam, who became Lt. Colonel; Ann, who married Job 
Chandler of Maryland; Sarah who also married a Maryland 
gentleman; and Elizabeth, who married John Michael, Sr., a 
member of the Board of Commissioners of Northampton 
County, Virginia. Her first husband died before August 15, 
1642, (See Records of Lower Norfolk, Vol. I., D. W. &C.,p. 6.) 
and she soon afterwards married Capt. John Gookin, but he 
died without issue, so far as is known. About 1645, she mar- 
ried her third husband, Capt Francis Yeardley, who is after- 
wards mentioned as Col. Francis Yeardley. If he left issue 
they have not been traced bj T the writer. Brown's Genesis of 
the United States, says that it is not believed he left issue. 



344 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

She died in 1657. (See William and Mary Quarterly Maga- 
zine, Vol. IV., No. 3, page 170.) 

From the foregoing it appears that of the three children 
of Sir George and Temperance (West) Yeardley, only Colonel 
Argall Yeardley left issue to perpetuate the name. Of the five 
children of Col. Argall Yeardley, above mentioned, Edmund 
and Henry died apparently without issue, leaving the descend- 
ants: Argall Yeardley, who married Sarah Michael; 4 Rose 
Yeardley, who married, first, Thomas Ryding, second, Robert 
Peale; and Frances Yeardley, who married Lt. Col. Adam 
Thorowgood. 5 

A. Captain Argall Yeardley, the eldest son and heir of 
Col. Argall Yeardley, married Sarah Michael, the eldest 
daughter of John Michael, Sr., of the Commission of North- 
ampton, and Elizabeth Thorowgood, his wife. 4 They were 



4. The Michael family came from Graft. Holland, but were supposed to be origi- 
nally from England. Captain John Michael was the first of the family who came to 
the Eastern Shore of Virginia. He was prominent colonist and a man of wealth. The 
Records of Northampton County. Virginia, mention his name a number of times in 
ways indicating his prominence. He was a Commissioner of Accomac: a Justice of the 
Peace, etc., 1665, and subsequent dates, (Vol. IX., p. 3, Northampton County Virginia 
Records). He came to Virginia from Graft, Holland, having been a merchant at that 
place; see agreement between the "Master of the Farewell and Rowd — from Amster- 
dam of the one part, and John Johnson and John Makule. both of Graft, of ye other, 
part, that the vessel now (1652) lying at Accomac shall go to Holland and load, etc.," 
(Northampton County Virginia Records, Vol. 1651-4, July 3, lt.52, p. 95, quoted by 
Bruce's Virginia, Vol. 1, p. 351; Power of Attorney dated April 12, 1649. Vol. 3, p. 1*4. 
Northampton County, Virginia Records). He married Elizabeth Thorogood, daughter 
of Capt. Adam Thorogood and Sarah Offley, and niece of Sir John Thorogood, of Ken- 
sington. (See extract of will of Adam Thorowgood, quoted in Va. Carolorum, p. 134, 
previously quoted. See deed of exchange dated April 9, 1866, Vol. 1657-66, p. 124 
Northampton County Records; Richmond Critic. Sept. 21, 1889, quoting land patents 
162-163, etc.) Their children were, so far as are known: a. Adam, who married Sarah, 
(born 1655, died 1720) daughter of Southey Littleton, and left descendants. Sarah 
subsequently married John Custis, of "Wilsonia." 6. Margaret, who married John 
Custis, of "Wilsonia," and left descendants. (See will dated March 13. 1713. Vol. XIV, 
p. 57, etc., Northampton Co. Va. Records.) See inscription on his tombstone at "Wil- 
sonia," Northampton Co. Virgitiia. He was a son of Major General John Custis. of 
Arlington, c. Sarah, who married Argall Yeardley, son of George Yeardley and 
Temperance West. d. John Michael, Jr. e. Simon Michael. He subsequentl.v mar- 
ried Mary, the widow of John Culpepper. (Vol. X- p. 107 Northampton County Va. 
Records) and had: /. Yeardley Michael. I See deed of gift Angust 27, 1672, D. B. 10,- 
p. 35; deed of gift, August 29, 1678, D. B. 10, p. 167; will dated Jan. 28, 1678-9. W. B. 10, 
p. 336). See note No. 5. 

5. John Thorogood, of Chelston Temple, Com. Hertford, who married and had: 
Nicholas Thorogood and John Thorogood, the latter married, and had: John Thoro- 
good, of Pelsted in Co. Essex, who married Luckin. and had: William Thorogood 

of Gumstone in Norfolk, official with diocese of Norwich, etc.. who married Ann 
Edwards, of Norwich, and had: ff. Sir Edward Thorogood. b. Sir John Thorogood, 
Kt., one of the pensioners to his Majesty. ( See note Va. Carolorum. p. 134.) Married 



THE FAMILY OF SIR GEORGE YEARDEEY. 345 

married in 1678 about the 23d of January (Vol. X., D. W. &C., 
p. 23, Northampton Co. Records). They left no son to reach 
manhood. (See deed of partition Vol. XII., p. 201, North- 
ampton Co. Records). He was Hig-h Sheriff of Northampton 
at the time of his death, which occurred in 1682. He, like his 
father, left no will on record on the Eastern Shore of Vir- 
ginia. After the death of her first husband, Sarah (Michael) 
Yeardley married John Watts, and had a son John Watts, 
and subsequently married Thomas Maddox, (See will of Sarah 
Maddox, March 20, 1694, Book XIII., p. 419, etc., Northamp- 
ton County Records.) 

Arg-all Yeardley and Sarah Michael's children were: 

a. Argall, who apparently died young-. 

b. John, who also apparently died young. 

c. Elizabeth Yeardley married George Harmanson — See Part II. 

d. Sarah Yeardley married John Powell — See Part III. 
e Frances Yeardley married John West — See Part IV. 



Frances Meantes (Brown's Genesis, etc., 948). c. Thomas Thorog-ood. d. Edmund 
Thorog-ood. e. William Thorog-ood. /. Capt. Ad dm Thorogood, who married Sarah 
Offley : (See Va. His. and Biog. Mag., Vol. II, p. 415, etc., p. 422, etc; Va. Carolorum, p. 
134.) He was born 1603 and came to Virginia in 1621 in the "Charles," in his eighteenth 
year,) Va. Carolorum p. 74), was patentee of large body of lands, (Bruce, Vol. II, p. 252). 
He represented Elizabeth City in the Assembly: 1629, 1631, 1632, etc. (Hening I., p. 149, 
170, 179, 187, etc.; Va. Carolorum p. 71.); was a member of the Monthly Court of Eliza- 
beth City, 1632, (Va. Carolorum p. 90.), and a member of the Virginia Council, 1637, and 
President of the Court of Lower Norfolk. (Wm. & Mary Quarterly, Vol. III., p. 65, 
etc.; Va. Carolorum, s, 133, etc). He was one of the principal figures in History of 
Virginia in 17th Century. (Bruce's Va., Vol. It., p. 576), and left a large estate in lands 
and cattle — among the cattle being 107 goats. (Bruce Economic Hist, of Va., Vol. II., 
p. 299; Norfolk Co. Records 1642-3, p. 38). His will is dated February 17, 1639-40, and 
probated April 27, 1640. Among other items is this: "My will and desire is that my 
beloved friend Captain Thomas Willoughbie and Mr. Henry Seawell here in Virginia, 
and my dearly beloved brother, Sir John Thorogood, of Kensington, near London, 
and Mr. Alexander Harris, my wife's uncle living on Town Hill, shall be overseers of 
this, my last will and testament." (Neil's Va. Carolorum, p. 134). He named Norfolk' 
Va., after Norfolk in England: (Forrest's Hist, of Norfolk, Va., p. 44, 45). His children 
were: a. Capt. Adam Thorogood (afterwards Lieutenant Colonel) who married about 
1648, Frances Yeardley: (See index Norfolk County Records; Va. Mag., Vol. I., p. 85, 
86; index to Bruce Economic History of Va.; Va. Carolorum p. 318). b. Ann, married 
Job Chandler, Maryland Councillor. (As to Thorogood and Chandler, see Va. Mag., 
Vol. III., p. 91 and p. 321). c. Sarah, (See note Va. Carolorum, p. 134). d. Elizabeth 
Thorogood, who married Captain John Michael from Graft, Holland, and had issue. 

(Visitations of Essex, published by Harlian Society, p. 607.) 

(Ryley's Visitation of Middlesex.) 

(Harlian Mss. 1083, 29 b. 1094-1096-1184-1234-1468-1474-1476-1504-1546-1547-1553-6147 ad- 
ditional Mss. No. 5533 in British Museum.) 

Arms: Sable on a chief argent three buckles lozengj- of the first. 

Crest: A wolf's head argent, collared sable. 

The Arms and Crest were confirmed to William, son of John, March 24th, 1620. 

(See rote No. 4). 



346 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

See deed of partition, Vol. XII., p. 201, Northampton Co. 
Records. 

See Vol. XII. , p. 284, Northampton Co. Rec. 

B. Rose Yeardley, eldest daughter of Col. Argall Yeard- 
ley, married, first, Thomas Ryding, January 4, 1062. See Mar- 
riage Register Vol. 1657-'66, p. 68, Northampton. Co. Records. 
She, therefore, must have been a child of his first wife, as we 
may suppose she was more than 12 or 13 years old when she 
married. How long- Thomas Ryding lived, or whether he left 
issue, I am uninformed. He lived near Nassawadox, in North- 
ampton Co., Va., and probably died there; and as no mention 
of any of her children either by him or b}- Robert Peale, her 
second husband, have been seen by your Correspondent, upon 
the Eastern Shore Records, we will, for the present, have to 
leave the matter in doubt. She had been sometime the wife 
of Peale on September 30th, 1684. (See Vol. II.. D. W. & C, 
p. 106, 207, Northampton Co. Va., Records.) 

C. Frances Yeardley, youngest daughter of Col. Argall 
Yeardley, married Lt. Col. Adam Thorogood, eldest son and 
heir of Capt. Adam and Sarah (Offiey) Thorogood, previousfy 
mentioned. (See Note 4. ) They lived at Lynnhaven Bay in 
Norfolk Co., Virginia, where he became prominent, was Bur- 
gess for the County in 1666, and Justice in 1669. He died in 
1685. (See his will, Vol. IV., p. 217, Lower Norfolk Co. 
Records.) They had issue: 

Adam (afterward Col. Adam), who married Mar}- Mosely. and died 

in 1719, s. p. 

Robert, who married Blandina , and left a son Robert. 

William (afterwards Capt. William), married Patience — , and 

died in 1723, leaving- Argall, Mary, and Adam. 
Francis, who married Amy , and died Feb. 14. 1740. 

See Va. Mag. of Hist. & Biog., April No., 18 l )5, p. 41b. 

Elizabeth Yeardley, eldest surviving child of Capt. Ar- 
gall and Sarah (Michael) Yeardle}-, above mentioned, married 
George Harmanson. They lived at the home place called 
"Yeardley." He died in 1734. (See his will, Vol. XVIII., 
p. 123, Northampton Co., Va., Records. ) Their children were: 

1. Argall Harmanson. who married Barbara . and left two 

sons, Benjamin and George, who are mentioned in their 
grandfather's will, and possibly other children. 



THE FAMILY OF SIR GEORGE YEARDLEY. 347 

2. Margaret Harmanson, who married Arthur Robins. 

3. Alicia, who married Hillar3 r String-er. 

4. Isabel, who married Harmanson. 

5. Bridgett, who married Littleton E3 r re. 

6. Rose. 



/. 



Henrietta. 



See II. 

Sarah Yeardley, second daughter of Capt. Arg-all and 
Sarah (Michael) Yeardley, above mentioned, married John 
Powell,' 1 and had issue: 

1. Sarah, who married John Haggoman. 

2. Yeardley. 

3. Marg-aret, who married Clark Jacob. 

4. Mary. 

5. Rose, who married Dr. Michael Christian, first, and after his 

death William Dig-by Seymour. 

See III. 

Frances Yeardley, youngest daughter of Capt. Arg-all 
and Sarah (Michael) Yeardle}^, married John West, Jr., who 
afterwards became Major John West. After her death he 

married Josepha Maria , and died in 1718, about one 

year after his second marriage. Their children were: 

1. Argall Yeardley, who married . 

2. John, who married — . 

3. Charles, who married , 

4. Thorogood. 

5. Ann, who married Nathaniel Holland. 



6. Thomas Powell, born prior to 1579, (See deposition May 25, 1659, Book S, p. 17, 
Northampton Count3' Va. Records, in which he stated that his age is "four score and 
odd). He came to Virginia in the "Sampson" 1618, and was on Eastern Shore of Vir- 
ginia, 1624. Hotten, p. 263). (See Vol. I., p. 115, Northampton Co. Va. Records). He was 
alive in 1662. (See deed of gift to Johnson & Hope, book 1657-'66, p. 96, Northamp- 
ton Co. Va. Records).. He married Elizabeth . (See book 1, p. 150, Northampton- 
County Va. Records), and had issue: John Powell, who married and had 

issue: John Powell, who married Frances Wilkins, daughter of Nathaniel Wilkins, 
(See deed of gift, Nathaniel Wilkins to his daughter Frances Powell, Februao* 7, 1698, 
9, Vol. XII., p. 214, 1692-1707, Northampton'Co. Va. Records, in which he mentions his 
grandsons, Nathaniel Powell and John Powell), and had issue: a. Nathaniel Powell 
married Sarah , (See will, W. B. 17, p. 326, recorded October 10, 1732, which men- 
tions children. John, George, Nicholas, Joseph, Ann and Jonathan), and (6) John Powell, 
who married Sarah Yeardley, daughter of Argall and Sarah (Michael) Yeardlej-. See 
deed of partition January 28, 1701, Northampton Co. Va. Records, (Vol. XII., p. 295.) He 
waS'Sheriff and Justice of Peace of Northampton County Va. 1702, and at later dates, 
(See Order Book 14, p. 534, May 30, 1710, Records Northampton Count v, Va.; etc., Va. Mag-., 
Vol. II., p. 10), and had issue. See will of John Powell, dated June 1, 1718, book 14, p. 
144, Northampton Co. Va. Records. See division of estate of John Powell and Sarah 
Will Powell, Book 17, p. 3, etc., p. 10, etc.. Northampton County, Va. Records. 



348 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

6. Jemima, who married . 

7. Matilda, who married . 



8. Sarah, who married Isaac Smith. 

9. Joseph. 

All were children of Frances, except possibly Joseph. (See will 
of Major John West, Vol. XVI., p. 31, Northampton County Records, 
February 6th, 1718.) 

See IV. 

We have now followed out the Yeardley name in Virginia 
as a family name until it became extinct. The following will 
give the lines of descent of such of the descendants of Sir 
George and Lady Yeardley, as have been either traced by me 
or placed at my service. That this list will be very far from 
complete may be easily imagined. 



ELIZABETH YARDLEY AND SOME OF HER DE- 
SCENDANTS. 



II. 

Elizabeth Yardley married Col. George Harmanson. The 
Harmanson family is a very old and highly respected one on 
the Eastern Shore. Its members have allied with the best 
families always, and the traditional "black sheep" has appeared 
conspicuous by its absence. The family of Dr. Charles Har- 
manson, of Onancock, Va., are the sole representatives of the 
name here now so far as I know. Thomas Harmanson, the 
first of the name on the Eastern Shore of Virginia, was a 
German, born in the Dominion of Brandenburg, and of the 
Protestant religion. His naturalization papers were signed 
by Howard, Lord Effingham, 8th of June, 1680, and recorded 
24th October, 1684, (Vol. 1680 to 1692, No. 11, Northampton 
Co. Records.) His first wife is believed to have been an Elk- 
ington, a sister of Ann Elkington, who was the first wife of 
Capt. John Savage. His widow, Elizabeth, was "the heir 
and executrix of John Daniel." He died in 1690. (Vol. II. 
D. W. & C. p. 278, Northampton Co. Records). 

Col. George Harmanson was a lineal descendant of old 
Thomas. By his marriage to Elizabeth Yardley he acquired 
considerable property, in addition to his own, and purchased 



THE FAMILY OF SIR GEORGE YEARDLEY. 349 

other land. He survived his wife and in his will mentions 
his son Argall and Argall's wife Barbara, and grandsons, 
Benjamin and George Harmanson, sons of Arg-all and Barbara. 
He also mentions his daughters, Margaret, the wife of Arthur 
Robins; Bridget, the wife of Littleton Eyre; Isabel, who 
married a Harmanson; Leshe (Alicia) wife of Hillary Stringer; 
Rose and Henrietta, and his granddaughter Sarah Har- 
manson, who was a daughter of Isabel, and grandson, Ken- 
dall Harmanson, (who subsequently appears to have been a 
son of Isabel, although it is not so stated in his will.) They 
had: 

I. Arg-all Harmanson, who married Barbara and had issue 
hereafter mentioned. 
II. Marg-aret Harmanson, who married Arthur Robins. 

III. Bridget Harmanson, who married Eittleton Eyre. 

IV. Isabel Harmanson, who married Harmanson and had: 

a. Kendall Harmanson, who married Anna and 

had (See his will, Vol. 21 D. W. & C. p. 86, North- 
ampton County Records), (1) John, (2) Isabel and 
(3) Elizabeth. 
V. Alicia Harmanson, who married Hillar_y Stringer. 
VI. Rose Harmanson. 
VII. Henrietta Harmanson. 

Argall Harmanson and Barbara, his wife, above men- 
tioned, had: 

1. Benjamin Harmanson, who married Elizabeth , 

and had: 

a. Katherine, who married Justice. 

b. Elishe, who married Kendall. 

c. Elizabeth, who married Kendall. 

d. Esther, who married Respress, and died before her mother. 

e. John Kendall. 

He left a grandson, John Harmanson. Benjamin died 
before his wife. See will of Elizabeth Harmanson, Vol. 21, 
D. W. & C, p. 292, 3rd August 1757, Northampton Co. Records. 

2. George Harmanson, who married Hanna and 

had: (See his will, Vol. 22, p. 398, Dec. 15, 1761, Northampton 
Co. Records.) 

a. Elizabeth. 

b. Mary. 

c. Susanna (was born in 1755) married Dr. John Winder, of Som- 

erset County, Maryland, (17th July, 1783) and left a numerous 



350 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

posterity as appears hereafter. He died 19th June. 1799. 
She was his second wife — his first wife having- been Bettie 
Jones, of Somerset County, Maryland, by whom he had two 
children — William, who died s.p., and Dr. Thomas Winder, 
who married Miss Harriet Handy, of Maryland, and re- 
moved to Natchez, Miss., and were the ancestors of numerous 
descendants in the far South. 
d. John Harmanson. 

Barbara Harmanson survived her husband Argall. 
Susanna Harmanson and Dr. John Winder above men- 
tioned had: 

1. John Harmanson Winder, born June 2, 1784. He 
married first: Comfort Quinton Gore, of Maryland, who bore 
him (1) Lauretta Anne, who married Thomas Littleton Sav- 
age and died s.p. 2. Charlotte Louisa, who married Wm. 
P. Nottingham and had one child, Comfort Quinton Gore 
Nottingham, a woman of great culture, who married Rob- 
inson Nottingham, of Northampton County, Virginia, and 
has no children, and (3) Susan Comfort Winder, who married 
June 3, 1835, Dr. Robert Major Garrett, Mayor of the 
city of Williamsburg, and Superintendent of the Virginia 
Eastern Hospital, and had children as hereafter mentioned. 
John Harmanson Winder subsequently married Sarah Snead, 
and had Rose C. Winder, who became the second wife of 
Judge George Seth Guion, of Louisiana, and died s.p., and 
Lieutenant John Edward Winder of the Confederate Army, 
and who is yet unmarried. 

2. Mary Harmanson Winder, born October 21, 1785, died 
March, 1862, s.p. 

3. Dr. George Harmanson Winder, born February 9, 
178 ( », died December 18, 1823, married Mrs. Haller nee Hudgins, 
and had issue hereafter mentioned. 

4. Nathaniel James Winder, born December 6, 1794, and 
died August 2, 1844. He was a Barrister and for many years 
Clerk of both Superior and Inferior Courts of Northampton 
County, Va. He married Sarah Upshur Bayley (daughter of 
Richard D. Bayley and Sarah Upshur, his wife) on October 8, 
1826, and had issue hereafter mentioned. 

Susan Comfort Winder and Dr. Robert Major Garrett, 
above mentioned, had: 

1. Robert Major Garrett, Jr., who died in infancy. 



THE FAMILY OF SIR GEORGE YEARDLEY. 351 

2. William Robertson Garrett, who was a Captain in the 
Confederate States Army, formerly Superintendent of Public 
Instruction for Tennessee, President of the National Educa- 
tional Association, and now Professor of American History 
in the Peabody Normal College at Nashville, Tennessee, and 
editor of the American Historical Magazine. He married 
Miss Julia Flournoy Batte, of Pulaski, Tenn., and had: 

Robert Major, deceased; William Batte; Edward Feild, 
deceased; Van Winder; Susan Mildred, deceased; Julia Flour- 
noy; John Flournoy; and Lauretta Yardley. 

3. Comfort Anna Garrett, deceased. 

4. Susan Winder Garrett, deceased. 

5. Henry Winder Garrett, a lawyer, died s.p. 

6. Dr. Van Franklin Garrett, Professor of Chemistry at 
William and Mary Colleg-e, Williamsburg-, Virginia, who 
married April 29th, 1896, Miss Harriet Nicholls, daughter of 
the Hon. Francis Tillou Nicholls, of New Orleans, La. 

7. Charlotte Gore Garrett. 

8. Mary Winder Garrett. 

9. Susan Comfort Garrett. 

Dr. George Harmanson Winder and Mrs. Haller, nee 
Hudgins, had: 

1. John Holden Winder, who married Margaret Har- 
wood, of King and Queen CoUnt}', Va., and had issue: 

a. Sarah Winder. 

b. Mary Winder. 

c. Anna Winder. 

d. George Winder, whose descendants, if any, are unknown. 

e. Julia Winder, who married Swift, for her first husband 

and had issue, Winder. Carter, Sarah, Mar3% Alma and 
George. Winder, Mary, Alma and George are all dead, 
and Sarah is unmarried. After the death of Mr. Swift, 
his widow married James Wingfold, but left no issue by 
him. 

2. Levin Yeardley Winder, (an officer in Confederate 
States Army) who married Anna Decormis, (now dead) and 

had: 

a. Anna Glanville, who married Joseph Barrett and had Annie, 

Eugenia, Nellie and Ruth. 

b. Mary Sue, who married Arthur Segar and had Arthur. 

Charlotte, Missouri, Campbell and Winder. 



352 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

c. Eaura Penelope, married C. N. Campbell and had Mary, (died 

s.p..) Eaura and Charles. 

d. Levin Yeardley died 1878, unmarried. 

e. Cornelia Hampton, unmarried. 

f. Frank, unmarried. 

g. Kate, | 

//. Henry / diedin infanc y- 

z. Rosalie Hildegrave (now dead) married George Lindsay, and 
had Georgia, Robert Winder dead, Cornelia, Ellen and 
Rosalie. 

Of the above, Anna Glanville and Mary Sue; and Kate and 
Henry were twins. 

3. Penelope Winder, married Richard Roper Garrett, a 
brother of Dr. Robert Major Garrett, and had, George Rich- 
ard Garrett, who married Mary Chisman, of Hampton, Va., 
and had Penelope and Eliza. 

4. Laura Winder, who was the second wife of Richard 
Roper Garrett, and had: 

a. Penelope. 

b. Mary Louisa, who married Moses T. Hughes and had one child, 

Richard, who married Mary Atkinson and died leaving two 
children, viz: Richard Marshall and Mary Lou. 

c. Florence, who married Dr. Mallory Shield, of Little England, 

Va., and had Mary Shield, born 1873, Florence Mallory 
Shield, born 1875. 

d. Laura, who married George S. Booker, of Hampton, Va., and 

had, George Selwyn Booker, born 1876, Mary Louise Booker, 
born 1879, Anna Booker, born 1882, Florence Shield Booker, 
born 1889. 

e. Alexander, who married Laura Slaughter. 

5. Mary Susan Winder, married Decormis, of Vir- 
ginia, and had issue, Mary Winder Decormis. who married 
Thomas Hughes and had Mary Susan who married Samuel 
Dowdy, Annie Winder Hughes (dead), Nannie Hughes mar- 
ried Burros, Sarah Hughes and Jane Hughes. 

Nathaniel James Winder and Sarah Upshur Bayley, above 
mentioned, had: 

1. Dr. Richard Bayley Winder, D.D.S., of Baltimore, 
Md., who was Major in the Confederate army and afterwards 
Dean of the College of Dental Surgery of Baltimore, Md., 
and one of the founders of that Institution. He married 
three times: (the first two wives being sisters) 

First, Elizabeth Custis, and had no issue. 



THE FAMILY OF SIR GSORG-E YEARDLEY. 35i 

Second, Sarah Custis, and had two children: 

a. Richard Bayley Winder, married Catherine Street, of Mary- 

land, and has one son, Richard Bayley Winder. 

b. Mary Custis Winder, married H. A. Miller, of Baltimore, Md., 

and has one son, Henry A. Miller. 

Third, Kate Dorsey, of Maryland, and had no issue. 

2. Sarah Caroline Winder, married Dr. George Ker, of 
Eastville, Va. , recently deceased, and had: 

a. Ella Kerr, unmarried. 

b. Georg-e Kerr, recently killed in a railroad accident. 

3. Mary Catherine Winder married Major Charles How- 
ard, of Baltimore, Md., who became a Major ir, the Con- 
federate Army on General Elzer's staff and had: 

a. Charles Howard. 

b. Elizabeth Key Howard, who married Mr. James Tyson, of 

Baltimore, Md., and has a daughter, Evelyn. 

c. Ruth Howard, unmarried. 

d. Nannie Howard, who married Captain Orris A. Browne, of 

Northampton County, Va. , who was an officer in Confeder- 
ate States Nav} r and on board of the Confederate States 
Steamer Shenandoah. They have one daughter, born Aug-. 
13th, 1896. 

e. Rose Howard, unmarried. 

The mother of Major Charles Howard was a daughter of 
Francis Key, who wrote "The Star Spang-led Banner." 



For the above descendants of Elizabeth Yardley and Col. 
George Harmanson see the Winder pedigree owned by Miss 
Mary Winder Garrett, of Williamsburg, Va. 



SARAH YEARDLEY AND SOME OF HER DESCEND- 
ANTS. 



III. 
Sarah Yeardley, second daughter of Captain Argall and 
Sarah (Michael) Yeardley, married John Powell, who was the 
son of John Powell and Frances Wilkins, his wife, 7 and had 
issue: 



7. See deed of gift, Nathaniel Wilkins to his daughter Frances Powell, Vol. XII., 
p. 214, Northampton Co. Records; deed of partition, Vol. XII., p. 294. He was Sheriff 
and Justice of the Peace in 1702, and at later dates. 
4 



354 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

1. Sarah Powell, who married John Haggotnan, (See Order Book 

17, p. 88, Northampton County Records.) 

2. Yeardlej- Powell. 

3. Margaret Powell, who married Clark Jacob. 

4. Mary Powell. 

5. Rose Powell, who married Dr. Michael Christian, December 7, 

1722. See Marriage Bond, December 3, 1722, on file, North- 
ampton County Records. After Dr. Christian's death, she 
married William Digby Seymour. See Marriage Bond, Feb- 
ruary 10, 1736, on file in Clerk's Office at Eastville, Va. She 
left issue by both husbands. 8 

Rose Powell, and Michael Christian, last mentioned, had; 

a. Michael, who married Patience Michael, December 30, 1747. 

See Marriage Bond on file at Eastville, Va. The)- left de- 
scendants. 

b. William, who married Kesiah Blair (widow) June 7, 1750. They 

left descendants as below. 

c. Sarah, who married. 

d. Elizabeth who married Robert James, December 15, 1753. They 

left descendants. 

e. Susannah Christian, who married about Sept. 8, 1755, Luke 

Luker. 9 See Marriage Bond and Consent, dated Sept. 8, 1755; 
see will of Luke Luker, December 17. 1773, W. B. 1772-77, p. 
18 s , Accomac County Records. 

On the death of her husband she married James Coxe, of 
the town of Shelbourne, Nova Scotia — See deed July 24, 1784, 
to Edward Kerr, of Accomac Co., Va., Book 1783-88, p. 145. 
Accomac County Records. And on death of Susannah, which 
was prior to July 24, 1784, he (Coxe) married Elizabeth Bay- 
ley, daughter of Charles Bayley, of Pungoteague. Va. See 
last mentioned deed. The division of the estate of Luke 
Luker, Sept. 25, 1781, mentions widow of Luke Luker. as Susan 
Coxe. See W. B. 1780-84, p. 188, Accomac County Records. 
She left numerous descendants by her first husband, but only 



8. See division of John and Sarah Powell estate, Will Book XVII., p. 3, 10. North- 
ampton County, Va., Records; will of Michael Christian, dated December 20, 1735, W.B, 
XVIII., p. 137; appraisement estate of same, W. B. XVIII., p. 155; division of estate of 
same, July 2, 1745, W. B. XIX., p. 204, Northampton C, Va., Records. 

<i. Luke Luker lived in "St George's Parish.'* in the lower end of Accomac County, 
Va. He was a Vestryman of that Parish, February 23, 1763, to the day of his death, 
about October 24. 1774. On the latter day the following' entry was made on Vestry Book 
of the Parish: "At a Vestry held at the house of William Grotteu for St. George's Par- 
ish, October 24, 1774 * * * * This day the Vestry elected Thomas Bayley as a Ves- 
tryman in the room of Luke Luker, deceased." ( See Vestry Book, p. 1-22, on file at Ac- 
comac C. H., Va.) This Church has irreverently been termed "'Ace of Clubs" Church, 
on account of the peculiarity of its original construction — the interior being (prior to 
its partial destruction by the Federal troops during 1861-65, who used it as a stable) in 
the shape of an "Ace of Clubs." He was a Tobacco Inspector at Addison Landing, in 
Accomac, and Nassawaddox, in Northampton. See bond on file at Eastville, dated 
April 12. 1757. 



THE FAMILY OF SIR GEORGE YEARDLEY. 355 

one daughter by her second husband, viz: Catherine, who 

married first, Moore, and second, Fennell, who 

left one daughter, Susan, who married Levin Coxe, the 
latter died without issue. 

William Christian, married Keziah Blair (widow) and 
had issue: a. Catherine: b. Edward, drowned in Chesa- 
peake Bay; c. Captain William. 

a. Catherine — Married Rev. Richard Ames and had: 

1. George Christian Ames, who married Hester W. Milby. 

2. John Ashbury Ames, who married Adelade Hack. 
c. Captain William married Catherine Ker and had: 

1. Col. William Armistead, who married Elizabeth Seymour. 
George Christian Ames and Hester, his wife, had three 
sons and one daughter: 

a. Rev. Alfred Augustus H. Ames married Ann Upshur Bayley 

Seymour — see Seymour line — and had: 

1. Ann Seymour Ames, unmarried. 

2. George Christian Ames. 

b. George E. W. Ames died unmarried. 

c. John C. Ames died unmarried. 

d. Lizzie M. Ames married Rev. C. H. Hall, D.D., of Brooklyn 

N. Y. and had issue. 

John Ashbury Ames married Adelade Hack and had a 
daughter, Charlotte, who married Thomas H. Perrie, of 
Prince George Co., Va., and had several children. 

Capt. William Christian and Catherine (Ker) had: Col. 
William Armistead Christian, who married Elizabeth Seymour 
and had three children. 

1. George. 

2. Lizzie. 

3. William Seymour. 

George Christian married Elizabeth Henderson and left 

one son William Seymour Christian, Jr., who married Sarah 

Core and left five children: 

Rupert (dead), George Seymour, (dead), Gertrude, who married Mr. 
Core, Florence, who married Mr. Hutchinson, and Orion (dead). 

Lizzie Christian died young and unmarried. 

William Seymour Christian Sr., married Susan Wilkins, 

and had a daughter Lizzie, who died in childhood. 

Note. — The parents of Elizabeth Se3'tnour, wife of Col. William A. Christian, are 
unknown to the writer, but she was a descendant of Wm. Digb3' Seymour and Rose 
(Powell) his wife. 



356 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Susannah Christian and Luke Luker (last mentioned) 
had: 

1. Elizabeth, who married Thomas Custis, and had but one daugh- 

ter, Susan, who married John Evans, and died without chil- 
dren. See her will Jan. 26, 1820, Book Cir. Ct. Records, Ac- 
comac Co., p. 301. 

2. Rose, who married Dr. John C. Martin, of Snow Hill, Maryland, 

and left issue. 

3. Anne, died unmarried. 

4. Sarah, who married Tully Wise and left issue. 

5. Susan Euker, who married Rev. Griffin Callahan, and left issue: 

Rose Luker and Dr. John C. Martin, above mentioned, 
left among their children a daughter, Susan C, who married 
James Upshur, of Northampton Co., Va., being- his second 
wife. She was born March 6th, 1785, and died May 13th, 1823. 
She bore her husband five children, viz: 

a. Rosina Martin Upshur, born April 6th, 1811, who mar- 
ried Wm. W. Johnston, a merchant of Princess Anne, Mary- 
land, and left issue: 

1. Ellen, who married Dr. George R. Dennis, who was afterwards 

a United States Senator from Maryland, and had: a. Wil- 
liam, who married , and left issue; b. Rose, who 

married Mr. Ake,of Philadelphia, Pa.; c. George, unmarried; 
d. James, unmarried; e. Ellen, who married Mr. Jones, of 
Somerset Co., Maryland. 

2. Emily, unmarried. 

3. Sarah, died s. p. 

4. Upshur, died s. p. 

5. Dr. Samuel, who is now a celebrated physician in Baltimore, 

Md., a specialist on lung and throat diseases, who married 
Miss Banny Stewart, of Baltimore, and has no descendants. 

6. Maggie, died s. p. 

7. Hobart, died s. p. 

b. Ann Emmerson Upshur, died s. p. 

c. Elizabeth Mary Upshur, died s. p. 

d. Dr. Georg-e Martin Upshur, born October, 10th, 1817, 
died June 27th, 1877. He married first, Priscilla Townsend, 
of Maryland, and second, Sophie . 

He had by his first wife: 

1. James Upshur, died s. p. 

2. George Martin Upshur, a lawyer, of Baltimore, Md., late of 

Snow Hill, who was a few years ago Speaker of the Maryland 



THE FAMILY OF SIR GEORGE YEARDLEY. 357 

House of Delegates. He married Miss Emma Franklin, of 
Maryland, and had a daughter, Priscilla, and other children. 

3. Levin Upshur, who married and left issue: 

4. Rosina Upshur, who married Pope, and lives in Bal- 

timore, Md. She has children. 

5. John Upshur, died unmarried. 

6. Susan Upshur, who also married. 

He had by his second wife: 

7. Francis Upshur, who married . 

8. William Upshur, who died s. p. 

e. Wilmer Martin Upshur, died s. p. 

Sarah Luker and Tully Wise, above mentioned, had issue: 

a. Susan Wise, who married W. O. Parker, and had issue: 

1. John W. H. Parker, who married Sarah A. Topping, of Onan- 

cock, Virginia, and had: 

a. Susan Parker, who married D. D. Fletcher. 

b. Phoebe Parker, who married Robt. P. Custis, and had issue. 

c. Tully Parker, who married Agnes Parker, and had issue. 

2. Tully Parker, who married first, Margaret Evans, and had: 

a. Susan Parker, who married Edward H. Custis, and have 

issue. 

b. Margaret Parker, who married Thomas H. B. Corbin, 

and have issue. 
And married second, Susan Neely, and had: 
c Charles Parker, of San Francisco, Cal. 

d. Mary Parker, who married Augustus Dodge. 

b. Tabitha Wi^e, and Edmund R. Custis had issue: 

1. Mar} r Wise; 2. Sarah Wise, both of whom married Dr. W. S. 
Horsey, and left no issue. 

c. Martha Wise, who married Henry T. Riley, had no 
issue. 

d. Tully R. Wist , who married Margaret Doug-las Pet- 
tit Wise (a sister of the late Ex-Gov. Henry A. Wise, of Vir- 
ginia) and left issue; 

1. Peyton Wise, who married Laura Mason Chilton, of Richmond, 

Virginia, and have issue. 

2. Sarah Elizabeth Wise died unmarried. 

3. Tully R. Wise. 

4. John Henry W r ise, of San Francisco, Cal., married Sarah Ann 

Merker, and have issue. 

5. James Madison Wise, who married Ann DentDunlap, and have 

issue. 



358 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

6. George Doug-lass Wise, ex-member of Congress, from 3rd Con- 

gressional District of Virginia, not married. 

7. Franklin Morgan Wise, married Ellen Tompkins, and has issue. 

8. Eewis Warrington Wise, of Durham, N. C. 

e. Sarah Wise, who married Dr. Thomas P. Bagwell, and 
had issue: 

1. Anna Bagwell, who married Dr. Dennis Claude Handy, An- 

napolis, Md., and had: 

a. Anna Handy; b. Elizabeth Handy; c. Claude Handy. 

2. George H. Bagwell, who married Rose Dix Twyford, and had: 

a. Adele Bagwell, b. Werner Bag-well, c. Thomas Bagwell, 
d. Hattie Bagwell, e. Eddie Bagwell, /. Faith Bag- 
well, g. George McDonald Bagwell, and h. Katherine 
Bagwell. 

3. Edmond R. Bag-well, who married Margaret Douglas Bag-well, 

and had: 

a. Catherine, who married Thomas B. Quinby, and have: 

Edmund, Upshur, and Richardson. 

b. Margaret, who married Edward R. Leatherbury, and has 

a son, Douglas. 

c. lyily, who married Mr. Capehart, from North Carolina. 

and have: Ashburne, Douglas, and Margaret P. 

4. Sarah Bagwell, married Thomas R. Joynes, and have: 

a. Alice, and b. Marnie, who married Mr. Griffith, and has: 
Ruth, Helen, and Virginia. 

5. Thomas H. Bagwell never married. 

6. Elizabeth Bagwell, married Edward Leatherbury, and have: 

a. Sarah, b. Thomas, and c. Eva. 

f. Elizabeth Wise never married. 

g. John R. Wise, who married Eliza Coward, and had: 

1. Sarah Wise, who married George Powell. 

2. Catherine Wise, who married Hugh Powell. 

Susan Luker and Rev. Griffin Callahan, 10 mentioned above, 
had: 



10. Rev. Griffin Callahan was born 1759, and was a minister of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, being- admitted into the Travelling- Connection of that Church at the 
Baltimore Conference, September 10, 1788. (Minutes of Conference, at Methodist His- 
torical Rooms, Tenth and Arch Streets, Philadelphia, Pa.) He preached in Frederick^ 
Maryland Circuit, 1788, and afterwards on the Eastern Shore of Maryland and Virginia. 
He lived for a considerable time at a place called "Mockhorn'* a short distance above 
Drumraoudtown; subsequently on Folly Creek and afterwards at Locust Mount, Acco- 
mac Co.. Virginia. He was a popular minister. His record of marriag-es of record at 
Accomac C. H. is unusually larg-e. (see Marriag-e Record Book, 1800 etc., Accomac C. 
H., Va.l He died August 22nd, 1833, age 74 years. He was buried in the churchyard of 
old "Burton's Meeting House," near Locust Mount, Accomac County, Va. 



THE FAMILY OF SIR GEORGE YEARDEEY. 359 

a. Elizabeth Euker Callahan, who, January 23d, 1842, married Dr. 

Gustavus Henry Kreegar, of |Germany, at St. Paul's M. E. 
Church, Catherine Street above Sixth, Philadelphia, by Rev. 
Thomas J. Thompson . See original of marriage record at St. 
Paul's M. E. Church, Catherine above Sixth Street, Philadel- 
phia. Pa. He died April 9, 1872. She died April 16, 1888, 
without issue. Both were buried in the churchyard of St. 
Paul's Church. 

b. Griffin Wesley Callahan, who, December 28th, 1828, married 

Leah Ashby, daughter of Thomas and Margaret (Beach) 
Ashby, and granddaughter of Thomas and Susan (Heath) 
Ashby, and of Kendal and Rosina (Nock) Beach, of Accomac 
County, Virginia, by Rev. Joseph Burton, at Locust Mount, 
Accomac County, Va. (See Record of Marriages at Accomac 
C. H. — not paged or indexed). They left issue, hereafter 
mentioned. He died March 1st, 1841, and was buried at the 
Ashby homestead at Locust Mount, Accomac Co., Va., in the 
private burial ground of the Ashby family. She died Feb- 
ruary 26th, 1895, and was buried at Craddockville, M. E. 
Church, in the lower end of Accomac County, Virginia. 

c. Susan Christian Callahan, who married, July 29th, 1839, George 

Osborne Sneath, of Philadelphia, at Ebenezer M. E. Church, 
Christian Street above Third, Philadelphia, Pa., by Rev. 
Levi Scott. Original record at Church, Third and Christian 
Streets, Philadelphia, Pa. He died June 2nd, 1842. She died 
Novemher 3rd, 1892, and left no issue. Both were buried in 
St. Paul's M. E Church yard, Philadelphia, Pa. 

d. Sarah Callahan, who married William Farson, of Philadelphia, 

Pa. She died young and without issue. She was buried in 
Ebenezer M. E. Church yard. 

e. John Wesley Callahan, died a young man and unmarried. 

f. Ann Luker Callahan married, December 15, 1830, Joseph 
Michael Doran, n by Rev. B. Weed, at St. George's M. E. 
Church, Fourth Street, below Vine, Philadelphia, Pa. Orig- 
inal records at Church, copy at Pennsylvania Historical Soci- 
ety. They had issue, hereafter mentioned. He died June 6th, 
1859. She died April 30, 1883. Both were buried in St. Mary's 



11. Joseph Michael Doran. was born in Philadelphia, November 10, 1800. He was 
the son of Michael Doran, of Mountreath, Queens County, Ireland, and of Mary Lalor, 
of King's County, Ireland. Michael Doran arrived in Philadelphia, Januao* 5, 1795, 
where he resided until his death. Joseph M. Doran, graduated at the University of 
Pennsylvania in 1820, studied law in the office of Joseph R. Ingrersoll, and was admitted 
to the Philadelphia Bar, April 3, 1824. He was Solicitor for the District of Southwark in 
1835, a member of the Pennsylvania Constitutional Convention of 1837, and Judge of the 
Court of General Sessions, 1840-43. He was President of the Repeal Association of 
Philadelphia. He died June 6, 1859, and was buried in St. Mary's Church yard, Fourth 
Street, above Spruce. (See "Biographical Encyclopaedia of Pennsylvania," p. 76. Also 
Campbell's History of Hibernian Society, pp. 395-6). 



360 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

R. C. Church yard, Fourth Street above Spruce, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

Griffin Wesley Callahan and Leah CAshb; ) Callahan, his 
wife, above mentioned had: 

a. Margaret Susan Callahan, born February 27th, 1830, 
married, March 24, 1847, George Scarburg West, of Accomac 
County, Va., by Rev. Joseph Burton. See Register of Mar- 
riages, Accomac C. H., 1847, p. 48. Died November 22nd, 
1893, and had children: 

1. George Edris West, died in infancy. 

2. Thomas Mitchell West, born September 2nd, 1849, rxarried No- 

vember 22, 1870, Anna I. Johnson, and had: 

a. Annie Susan West, born December 4, 1871, married John 

C. Finney, April 27, 1892. and had a daughter. Alice 
Leah Finney, born January 7, 1893. 

b. Lillian May West, born November 22, 1874. 

c. Ethel Margaret West, born January 2, 1880. 

d. Mary Ellen West, born December 7, 1884. 

3. Margaret Rogers West, born April 23, 1853, married. April 16, 

1869, Benjamin F. Davis, and had: 

a. George West Davis, born October 13, 1871. 

b. Frank Hudson Davis, born June 11, 1879. 

c. Warner Hyslop Davis, born December 16, 1888. 

4. George Griffin West, born June 23, 1855, married, December 9, 
.... 1876, Lena E. Ames, and had: 

a. Vernetta Susan West, born January 17, 1878. 

b. George Levin West, born March 31, 1880. 

C. Mitchell Scarburg West, born September 13. 1884. 

d. Margaret Rogers West, born August 16, 1886. 

5. John Edris West, born October 22, 1S57, married, October 19, 

1876, Florence B. Sucker, and had: 

a. Emma Sue West, born December 9, 1877. 

b. Roger Sucker West, born April 30, 1880. 

c. Edgar Allen West, born September 18, 1885. 

d. John Earle West, born May 17, 1892. 

6. Susan Elizabeth West, born February 22, 1869, married, Decem- 

ber 6, 1887, Arthur P. Martin, and had issue: 

a. Margaret Susan Martin, born January 4. 188 ,: >. 

b. Marion E. Martin, born April 10, 1891. 

c. Arthur P. Martin born October 17. 1893. 

d. Margaret Rog r ers Martin, June 10, 1895. 

b. John Wesley Callahan, born October 22, 1833, mar- 
ried, January 20, 1856, Prudence Ann Sweeney, daughter of 



THE FAMILY OF SIR GEORGE YEARDLEY. 361 

James Sweeney, of Philadelphia, Pa., and Prudence (Sisom) 
Sweeney, of Burlington, N. J., and had children, hereafter 
mentioned. 

c. Ann Elizabeth Callahan, born October 5, 1833, died 
October 5, 1842. 

d. Mary Rose Callahan, born August 11, 1836, married 
James Floyd, of Northampton Co., Va., and has one son, John 
Floyd, of Marionville, Northampton Co., Va., who married a 
Miss Justice, and had issue. 

e. Thomas Griffin Callahan, born June 3, 1838, died Sep- 
tember 17, 1842. 

John Wesley Callahan and Prudence (Sweeney) Callahan, 
above mentioned, had: 

a. Annie Maryland Callahan, born November 6, 1856, 
married, July 19, 1878. Charles T. Graham, of Philadelphia, 
Pa., by Pastor of Third Baptist Church, and have: 

1. Annie May Graham, born Nov. 29, 1880. 

2. Lillian Graham, born Sept. 1, 1885. 

b. Leah Virginia Callahan, born July 19, 1859, married, 
February 20, 1886, Thomas Auner, of Philadelphia, Pa., by 
Rev. Snyder B. Simes, of Old Swedes ( Gloria Dei) Church. 
Thomas Auner died August 23rd, 1896, and had: 

Edmund Cadwalader Auner, born March 10, 1890. 

c. Griffin Clay Callahan, born November 29, 1861, mar- 
ried February 6, 1883, Ida Virginia Williams, born March 4, 
1864, daughter of Charles and Bella ( Reisner) Williams of 
Philadelphia, Pa., by Rev. J. R. Miller, Pastor of Holland 
Memorial Presbyterian Church, at Parsonage, No. 420 South 
Fifteenth Street, Philadelphia, Pa., and have: 

1. Griffin Ellwood Callahan, born August 1, 1884. 

2. Albert Clay Callahan, born October 12, 1885, died June 22, 1887. 

3. Doran Sisom Callahan, born April 17, 1892. 

d. John Wesley Callahan, born March 11, 1864. 

e. Kate Eliza Callahan, born April 11, 1866, died January 

9, 1885. 

f. Lillie Sisom Callahan, born March 7, 1868, died March 

10, 1880. 

g. George West Callahan, born December 16, 1868, mar- 
ried, December 4, 1895, Renta Louise Glenz. 



3b2 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

h. Mary Susan Callahan, born August 19, 1873. 
i. Florence Selby Callahan, born January 8, 1877. 

Joseph Michael Doran and Ann Luker (Callahan) Doran, 
above mentioned, had: 

a. Alice Ealor Doran, born February 28, 1842, died February 10, 

1861. 

b. Joseph Ing-ersoll Doran, born January 17, 1844, hereafter men- 

tioned. 

c. Virginia. Doran, born April 9, 1846, died March 18, 1857. 

d. John Ashley Doran, born March 23, 1848, died December 31, 1855. 

There were four other children who died in infancy. 

Joseph Ingersoll Doran, 12 above mentioned, born January 
17, 1844, married, December 12, 1876, Ida Warner Erwin, 
daughter of Joseph Warner Erwin and Caroline (Borden) Er- 
win, of Philadelphia, Pa., and granddaughter of Henry Er- 
win and Rebecca Ashton (Warner) Erwin. of Philadelphia, 
Pa., and of Samuel Borden and Catherine D. Upjohn Borden, 
of Cincinnati, Ohio, and have: 

1. Marie Louise Doran, born September 16, 1877. 



12. Joseph I. Doran, a prominent lawyer of Philadelphia, and for many years past 
associated in practice with Hon. John C. Bullitt, was born in Philadelphia, January 17, 
1844. He received his preliminary education in private schools, principally that of John 
W. Faires, by whom he was prepared to enter the University of Pennsylvania. He re- 
mained, however, at the University but a short time, and in the fall of 1860 he entered 
the office of John C Bullitt, first as a clerk, then as a student of law. He was admitted 
to the bar in April, 1805. Two years subsequently he was admitted to practice in the 
Supreme Court of Pennsylvania. Mr. Doran's practice has been confined to that of 
railroad and general corporation law. He is Consulting' Counsel of many corporations, 
and has been General Solicitor of the Norfolk & Western Railroad since the organiza- 
tion of that company. Like his honored father, he has devoted himself with great zeal 
and earnestness to his chosen profession, and his business, during- his many years of 
busy practice, has grown to largre, laborious and exacting proportions. Preserving- his 
habits of industry, study, and close application, he has also brought to the discharge of 
the manifold duties of his calling, a clear and conscientious conception of every obliga- 
tion, and an ability as unquestioned in degree as it has been prolifi • in emolument. 
From about 1880 he has been closely identified with the development — which started at 
that time, and which has since been so rapid and successful — of the coal and iron dis- 
tricts or Virginia and West Virginia. In 1876, he read an ioteresting and suggestive 
paper before the American Social Science Convention, on the subject of "Building As- 
sociations," which attracted much attention. His pamphlet on "Our Fishery Rights in 
the North Atlantic," published in 1888, was an exhaustive investigation of this intricate 
and important subject, and was received generally as a forcible argument, and the best 
statement of the American side of the fisher}- question. The Philadelphia Ledger 
spoke of it as a "brief, pungent and able pamphlet," and the Boston Evening Tran- 
script considered it "one of the most satisfactorj- contributions to the literature of the 
fishery controversy." These studies were diversions from Mr. Poran's close attention 
to the details of his larg-e and extending practice, which almost exclusively occupies 
his time and thoughts. 



THE FAMILY OF SIR GEORGE YEARDEEY. 363 

2. Joseph Warner Doran, born November 1, 1878; died February 

24, 1887. 

3. Alice Theresa Doran, born March 16, 1881. 

4. John Henry Doran, born May 31, 1883. 

5. Caroline Borden Doran, born September 24, 1884. 

6. Josephine Ealor Doran, born March 31, 1886. 

7. Warner Erwin Doran, born December 18, 1887. 

Rose Powell, widow of Michael Christian, above men- 
tioned, married second, William Dig-by Seymour (born about 
1738) and had one son: 

1. Rev. William Seymour, born October 1, 1773, who 
married twice: 

1st. Elizabeth Revell Ker, July 9, 1795. 

2nd. Isabella Bowman, August 29, 1811 and had a daugh- 
ter, Leah, who married Covington Cropper, son of Gen. John 
Cropper, and had a daughter Isabella, who died without issue; 
also a son George Seymour, who married Margaret Rogers, 
and has descendants, among them a daughter, Elizabeth, who 
married Col. Win. A. Christian and had George, Wm. Seymour, 
and Elizabeth. For further particulars see the descendants 
of Dr. Michael Christian in this article. 

His children by first wife were: 

a. Dr. Hugh Gordon Seymour, married Elizabeth Custis (Fisher), 

and left no issue. He was born 1797. 

b. Wm. Digby Seymour, born September, 1800. married Ann Up- 

shur Bayley, October 10, 1826, and had: 

1. Elizabeth Corbin Ker Seymour, who married Chas. W. 

Carrigan, and had : 

a. William Seymour Carrigan, who married Clara Mc- 

Clellan, and had: 

WilliamSeymour, Robert McClellan. and Chas. W. 

b. Eliza F. Carrigan, who married Isaac Scott Smyth, 

Jr , and have Isaac Scott Smyth, 3rd. 

c. Hugh Gordon Seymour Carrigan, who married Eliz- 

abeth Crawford Eove and had a daughter Eliza- 
beth Love Carrigan, died minor. 

d. Charles W. Carrigan, Jr. , died minor. 

e. Stokes Boyd Carrigan, who married Reba Blanche 

Fitler. 
/. Ann Bayley Carrigan died minor. 

2. Anne Upshur Baylev Seymour, who married Rev. Alfred 

H. H. Ames, and have: (See George Chrestean Ames 
and Hester Wilby — preceding pages.) 



364 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

a. Ann Seymour Ames. 

b. George Christian Ames. 

3. William Dig-by Seymour, unmarried. 

4. Edmund Bayley Seymour, who married Anne Barney 

Robinson, and have: 

a. Edmund Bayley Seymour. 

b. William Percival Seymour. 13 



FRANCES YEARDLEY AND SOME OF HER DESCEND- 
ANTS. 



IV. 

Some of the descendants of Frances Yeardley who mar- 
ried Major John West. 

Their children, as before stated, were Argall Yardley, 
John. Charles, Thorowgood, Ann, Jemima, Matilda, Sarah 
and Joseph. 

1. Arg-all Yardley West, who married and left 

issue. 

2. John West, (dec'd. 1729) who married and 

left a son, Jonathan. 

3. Charles West, who married Sallie Custis, and had: 

a. Ann Custis West, who married first John Bundick and 
had no issue, and second Samuel Taylor and had issue: Eliza- 
abeth Sarah Taylor and Mary Ann Taylor. 

b. Tabitha Susan West, who married Dr. Thomas J. L. 
L. Nottingham and had issue: Peggie Jonna, Samuel Baker, 
Thomas William, Elizabeth. Sarah Bundick, Charlotte Susan, 
and Clara West Nottingham. 

c. Sallie West, who married Col. John Leatherbury and 
had issue, William, Elizabeth, Edward, George, Sallie, Kath- 
erine, John, (Col. John Leatherbury subsequently married 
Vienna, (Godwin) widow of William West, hereafter men- 
tioned, and had a son,- Thomas). 



13. For the above information concerning Christians, Lukers, Callahans, Dorans, 
Wests, Parkers, Wises, Baewells, and Seymours, I am indebted to the Record of Griffin 
Clay Callahan, Esq.. of Philadelphia, Pa., a member of the Virginia Historical Society, 
and the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, and who is interested generally in histor- 
ical matters relating to the Eastern Shore of Virginia, and its people, and who has been 
collecting historical and genealog-ical material from the Court Records. Family Bibles, 
etc., for several years, and kindly trave me the use of the above. 

Note. — The descendants of Sarah Powell, Yeardley Powell, Marsraret Powell, and 
Mary Powell — the brothers and sisters of Rose — I have not attempted to trace. 



THE FAMILY OF SIR GEORGE YEARDEEY. 365 

d. William West married Vienna Godwin and had a 

daughter, Clara Joanna West, who married Edward Holland 

and left issue: 

I. Nathaniel Littleton Holland, who married his cousin, Juliet 
Fisher Holland, a daughter of Dr. Griffin Holland and his wife, Mar- 
garet Cotton Whittaker, of Tallahassee, Florida, and had: 

1. Florence Rowena Holland, who married Otto F. Mears, and has 

Cecil Mears and Benjamin Mears. 

2. Edward Holland, 1 * who married Eva Vandegrift, of West Vir- 

ginia, and has a son, Edward Littleton Holland, Jr. 

3. Dr. Griffin William Holland, unmarried. 

4. Clarence Whittaker Holland, minor. 

5. Marcus Whittaker Holland, dead. 

6. William West Holland, minor. 

7. Nathaniel Littleton Holland, dead. 

8. Nathaniel Littleton Holland, minor. 

II. Harriet Juliet Holland married Preston E. Trower, and has 
Edward Holland Trower, Robert Smith Trower, Preston Bryan Trow- 
er and Clara West Trower. 

e. Charles J. D. West married Elizabeth Pitts and left 
issue: 

I. William Mayor West, who married Sarah Windsor Shelton, of 
Petersburg, Va., and had: Alfred Seabur} r West, Fannie West and 
Charles West. 

II. Margaret Catherine West married John Leatherbury and had: 
Margaret Catherine Leatherbury, Emory Pitts Leatherbury, Chauncey 
Leatherburg, and Virginia West Leatherbury. 

III. Mary Isabella West married John Addison and had: Elizabeth 
Addison, John White Addison, and Sallie Fisher Addison — all unmar- 
ried. 

IV. Elizabeth Robinson West. 

V. Joanna Tabitha West married Thomas E. Leatherbury, (young- 
est son of Col. John Leatherbury by his last wife Vienna (Godwin), the 
widow of William West as shown above) and had Edward West Leath- 
erbury, Vienna Goodwin West Leatherburg, and John Neely Leather- 
bury. 

VI. Emor} r Washington West married Edward D. Pitts, son of 
Judge Edward Pitts, of Accomac County Va., and has Mary Pitts, 
Edward Pitts, Charles Pitts, Margaret Pitts and Emma Pitts. 



14. Dr. Griffin William Holland, his brother, Edward Holland, and their sister, 
Susan, who married Myers W. Fisher, descended from Nathaniel Holland, who mar- 
ried Ann West, daughter of Major John West and Frances Yardley before mentioned, 
and also from Nathaniel and Susan (Bryan) Holland, of "Poplar Hill" Northampton 
Co., Va. Margaret C. Whittaker, second wife of Dr. Griffin Wm. Holland, was a daugh- 
ter of Gen. Eli B. Whittaker of North Carolina. 



366 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

VII. Ella Sarah West married Henry Powell, of Accomac County, 
Va., and has Cecil Powell, Ella Powell, Emory Powell and Ada Powell. 

VIII. Charles Edward West. 

4. Ann West, who married Nathaniel Holland. Her 
line has not been traced out as yet. Her descendants of the 
name are now represented by Nathaniel L. Holland and his 
wife Juliet. Nathaniel L. is a son of Edward L. and Clara 
Jonanna (West) Holland, and his wife Juliet is a daughter of 
Dr. Griffin Holland and his wife, Margaret Cotton Whittaker, 
late of Tallahassee, Florida — Edward L.and Dr. Griffin were 
brothers. Edward L. Holland had a daughter Hattie who 
married Preston Trower, Esq., and has children. 

Dr. Griffin Holland married twice and had three children, 

all daughters. , Mary and Juliet. married 

Leroy F. Oldham first and left no issue by him. She then 

married . Mary married Bull, of Norfolk, Va., 

and had issue: 

Juliet Fisher Holland married Nathaniel L. Holland 
and had: 

a. Florence Holland, who married Otto F. Mears and has two 

children, Cecil and Benjamin. 

b. Edward E. Holland, who married Miss Eva Vandegrift, of 

West Virginia, and has a son, Edward Littleton Holland. 

c. Griffin William Holland, unmarried. 

d. Clarence Whittaker Holland, minor. 

e. Marcus Whittaker Holland, dead. 
_/, William West Holland, minor. 

g. Nathaniel Littleton Holland, dead. 
//. Nathaniel Littleton Holland, minor. 

5 Sarah West married Isaac Smith, he died in 1760, left 
John, Isaac, Sarah, Anne, Betty, Thorogood, and Bridget. 

a. John Smith married Keziah — maiden name unknown, and de- 

scendants not known. 

b. Sarah Smith married West, descendents not traced. 

c. Ann Smith married Jonathan West, descendants not traced. 

d. Betty Smith. 

e. Thorowgood Smith, alliances and descendants not traced. 

f. Bridget Smith. 

g. Isaac Smith (born November 4, 1734. died March 23, 1813). mar- 

ried, March 4, 1759, Elizabeth Custis Teackle (born December 
13, 1742, died August 19, 1822), and had issue: I. Charles: II. 
Elizabeth; III. Sarah: IV. Margaret; V. Isaac: VI. Thomas; 
VII. Mary Ann: VIII. Susan; IX. Anne Teackle: X. John 
Thorogood; and two children who died in infancy. 



THE FAMILY OF SIR GFORGE YEARDEEY. 367 

I. Charles Smith, who married Katherine Teackle, lived 
at Moratico, Richmond Co., Va., and had issue: 

a. Maria Smith, who married Dr. Buckner and moved to 
Missouri. They had nine children of whom Dr. Charles Buck- 
ner, of Charles Street, Baltimore, Md., is one. The others 
have not been traced. 

b. Elizabeth Teackle Smith, married William Neale, and 
had: 

1. William T. Neale, who never married. 

2. Hamilton S. Neale, who married Elizabeth Bowdoin Smith, and 

had issue: 

William Gilmer Neale, died s. p. 

Catherine Neale, married Clement L. Shaver, of Fairmount, 

West Virginia. 
Grace Neale, unmarried. 
Mary Neale, unmarried. 
Walter Neale, unmarried. 
Ruth Neale, died infant. 
Ellen Neale, unmarried. 

Ethel Neale, who married Dr. Demorest of Washington, D. C. 
Hamilton Smith Neale, minor. 
Elizabeth Neale, minor. 
Henry Neal, died infant. 

3. Walter Neale never married — killed at battle of Malvern Hill. 

4. Catherine Neale married William Brown Upshur — no issue. 

c. Charles Smith, who married , and has issue: 

1. Marianna Smith, who married Joseph Chinn. of Tappahannock, 

Va., and have a son Joseph and daughter Gertrude. 

o 



II. Elizabeth Smith, who married first, Griffin Stith and 
had issue. She m-irried second, Judge George Parker and had 
one son who died young - . 

III. Sarah Smith, who married, first, William Stith, and 
had: 

a. Drury Stith married , in Surry Co., Ya., and 

left no issue. 

b. Mary Stith married John Brown Upshur, and had: 

1. Elizabeth Ann Brown Upshur, who married Hon. Abel P. Up- 
shur, Secretary of Navy and Secretary of State, under Presi- 
dent Tyler, she being his second wife. They had one daughter 
Susan, who married Et. Ringgold, who had a son James T. 
Ringgold, a lawyer now living in Washington, D. C. — the lit- 
ter married Mrs. Minnie Bordley nee Egerton, and has issue. 



368 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

2. William Stith Upshur married Ann Wilson of Richmond, Va., 

and had: 

a. Mary Jane Stith Upshur married Josiah R. Sturgis, of 

New York — issue not traced. 

b. Catherine Bullock Upshur, died s. p. 

c. John B. Upshur married Ann M. Andrews, of Louisiana. 

d. Thomas Wilson Upshur married (first) Mary Eliza Up- 

shur and had no issue; and (second) Mary Ellen Dun- 
ton, widow of W. J. F Peed and had no issue. 

e. Harriet Saltontall Upshur died s. p. 
/'. William Stith Upshur died s. p. 

g. Charles Wing-field Upshur died s. p. 

3. Caleb Upshur married: 

1st. Ann Pinner, of Nansemond County, Va., and 2nd. Mar- 
tha Simmons. 
By first wife he had: 

a. Pauline Upshur, died s. p. 

b. John Upshur, died s. p. 

c. Caleb E- Upshur, married Anna G. Riddick, and left 

Annie, Eucy and Littleton. 

d. Elizabeth Upshur. 
/. Nannie Upshur. 

g. Hampton Stith Upshur, died s. p. 

By his last wife he had three children: 

h. Sally Upshur, married John R. Young-. 

i. Robert Upshur, married •. 

j. , died in infancy. 

4. Abel Brown Upshur, married Columbia Williams, and left no 

issue: 

5. Robert Stith Upshur married Pauline Lafferandr}', and lived in 

New Orleans. Line not traced. 

6. Mary J. Upshur; never married. 

7. Hampden Upshur; never married. 

8. Sallie Upshur; never married. 

9. John D. Upshur married Elizabeth Faulcon and left a daughter, 

Mary Elizabeth, who married Thomas W. Upshur, and died 
without issue. 

Sarah Smith, widow of William Stith, married second, 
George Savage, and had issue; not traced. 

IV. Margaret Smith, who married Peter Bowdoin (she 
being his first wife), and had: 

a. Dr. James Bowdoin, who married Zeporah Simpson, 
lived in South Carolina, and left one daughter. 

b. Louisa Bowdoin, who married St. George W. Tucker, 
Professor at the University of Virginia, and left issue. 



THE FAMILY OF SIR GEORGE YEARDEEY. 369 

c. Peter Smith Bowdoin, who married Susan Jacob, and 
had two sons, viz.: Dr. John and William; the latter died s. p. 

1. Dr. John married three times; first, a Miss Custis, who bore 
him no children. Second, Miss Hinman, who bore him three 
children. His last wife bore him no issue. 
His children by second wife were: 

a. Virg-inia Bowdoin married Mr. Johnson, and died in Washing- 

ton, D. C, leaving- issue not traced. 

b. Margaret Bowdoin married , and is living in North- 

umberland County, Va., and has children not traced. 

c. Dr. John Bowdoin, Jr., married Miss Flora Himal, of Louisiana, 

has a daughter, Margaret. He is a very prominent and influ- 
ential citizen of Accomac County, Va. 

Peter Bowdoin married (second) Leah Teackle, by whom 
he had also three children, who, not being - descendants from 
Sir George Yardley, will not appear here: 

V. Isaac Smith, who married (first) Maria Hopkinson, 
daughter of Judge Francis Hopkinson, of Philadelphia, Pa., 
by whom he had: 

a. Maria Hopkinson Smith, who married Temple Nelson 
Robins, and had issue: Susan, Emily S., Isaac Smith, John 
Edward, Maria H., Elizabeth T., all of whom died s. p., ex- 
cept Susan and Emily, both of whom are unmarried. 

b. Francis Smith, who married Susan Teackle, and had: 

1. Eavinia Teackle Smith married Mr. Haviland. of Poughkeepsie, 

N. Y., and had two children, Annie and Pierson. Annie 
married Wilbur Gilbert, Esq., and has children. They 
live at West Superior, Wisconsin. Pierson married Miss 
Evelyn Teackle Smith, and lives at Mankato, Minnesota 
(hereafter mentioned) and have a daughter Eavinia. 

2. Joseph Hopkinson Smith married Annie H. Handy, and left two 

daughters, Fanny and Lily, neither of whom are married. 
They live in Baltimore, Md. 

3. Francis Smith, died in infancy. 

4. Marshall Pike Smith, married Mary Crawford, and left; 

a. Crawford Smith, who married Fanny Albert, of Bal- 
timore, Md., and has issue, not traced. 

h. Chester Smith, who married Dora Albert, of Baltimore, 
and has issue, not traced. 

c. Lela Smith, who died, unmarried. 

d. Mary Smith, married Rev. Mr. Smith, and lives in New 

York, and has issue, not traced. 

e. Zenie Smith. 



370 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL, MAGAZINE. 

/. Josephine Smith 

g. Francis H. Smith. The last three unmarried. 

5. Ann Teackle Smith, unmarried. 

6. Francis Hopkinson Smith, married Josephine Vandeventer, of 

New York, and has (a) Berkeley and (b) Marian, both un- 
married. 

7. Susan Teackle Smith, married Thomas S. Moore, of New York, 

and has (a) Ethel and (b) David Thomas, both unmar- 
ried. 

c. Dr. William Gilmor Smith, who married Elizabeth 

Upshur Bowdoin, daughter of Peter and Leah Teackle Bow- 

doin, and had issue: 

1. Peter Bowdoin Smith, who married Kate Cropper, of Rock 

Island, 111. He returned to Northampton County , Va. , and had 
issue: 

a. Elton Cropper Smith, who married Marian Godwin; he 

died in 1894, leaving a daughter, Mar}\ a few years old. 

b. William Gilmor Smith, who married Nannie Wilson, and 

had a son, now dead. 

c. Minnie Cropper Smith, unmarried. 

d. Annie Wells Smith, married Daniel Parker, and had one 

child, now dead. 

e. Charles Cropper Smith, unmarried. 

f. Peter Bowdoin Smith, died in infancy. 

2. Dr. Charles Smith, who married Margaret W. Jacob, have: 

a. Elizabeth Bowdoin Smith, who married Wm. K. Robin- 

son, of Philadelphia, who died, April, 1895 leaving her 
with two sons, William Kane and Charles Edward Rob- 
inson. 

b. Teackle Jacob Smith, unmarried. 

c. Bertha Bayley Smith, unmarried. 

d. Charles Smith, unmarried. 

3. Elizabeth Bowdoin Smith married Judge Hamilton S. Neale. 

(S^e issue under descendants of Elizabeth Teackle Smith and 
William Neale preceding.) 

4. Maria Hopkinson Smith, who married Col. Ellison L. Costin. 

and has Captain James and Henrietta, unmarried. 

5. Louisa Smith, died young. 

6. Margaret Susan Smith, married Rev. James Craighill, and has 

issue: Susan, Frank, Rutherford and Bowdoin. none of 
whom are married. 

7. Louisa B. Smith married (1st. Charles T. Bowdoin; 2nd. Judge 

Theodore S. Garnett. B}- the first husband she had Elizabeth 
Bowdoin and Charles Teackle Bowdoin. both of whom are 
unmarried. She has no issue by the second husband. 



THE FAMILY OF SIR GEORGE YEARDEEY. 371 

d. Emily Hopkinson Smith, died unmarried. 

Isaac Smith married, second, Ann Teackle, daughter of 
John and Ann Upshur Teackle, of Accomac county, Va., and 
had: 

e. Ann Teackle Smith, who married William Satchell 
Floyd, and had: a. James Frederick, unmarried, b. William 
Stockley, unmarried, c. Lavinia, died young - , d. Nannie 
Teackle, unmarried. 

f. Dr. Isaac Smith, died unmarried. 

g. Elizabeth Teackle Smith, married Thomas Teackle 
Upshur, and had: 

1. John Upshur, died s. p. 

2. Thomas Teackle Upshur, who married Caroline D. Blanding, of 

Sumter S. C, and had issue: a. Elizabeth, died s. p. b. James 
Blanding-, died s. p., c. Leonora McFaddin, d. Wm. Brown, 
e. Florence Irving-, f. Anne Floyd, g. Caroline De Saussure, 
//. Thomas Teackle, i. Henry De Saussure Blanding-, /, Sa- 
rita Reed, all minors. 

3. Florence Upshur married Judge Levin T. H. Irving, of Som- 

erset County, Maryland. He died in 1892, leaving no children. 

4. Ann Elizabeth Upshur, unmarried. 

5. Sallie Brown Upshur, married Wm. H. Dashill, of Princess 

Anne, Maryland, and died without issue. 

h. Thomas Teackle Smith, married Sallie Guest, of Bal- 
timore, Md., and had Annie, Levin Irving-, and Augustus 
Webster, twins, and Evelyn Teackle, who married Pierson 
Haviland, before mentioned. All the above children died in 
infancy except Evelyn. 

VI. Thomas Smith, died s. p. 

VII. Mary Ann Smith, married 1st. Dr. Drisdale, who 
died, leaving no issue. 2nd, She married Wm. Gilmor, of 
Baltimore. Md., and had issue. 

a. Jane Gilmor, who married Gen. Benjamin C. Howard, 
had twelve children, viz.: 

1. Louisa T. Howard married George B. Hoffman, and had: 

Howard Hoffman and George B. Hoffman. They both died 
without issue. 

2. Sophia Howard, 3. Marian G. Howard, 4. Anne W. Howard, 

have never married. 

5. Jane, married Joseph King - ; has no issue. 

6. Julia, married Richard Tyson, and have three children: 

a. Sophia, married Edward A. Marshall, and has: 



372 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

1. Julian Howard Marshall. 

2. Jean Howard Marshall. 

3. Henry Bartholl Marshall. 

b. Benjamin Chew Tyson married Virginia Cabell, and has 

two children. 

1. Virginia Tyson, unmarried. 

2. Juliette Tyson, unmarried. 

c. Jesse Tyson, unmarried. 

7. Ellen Gilmor Howard married Richard B. Bayard, and has: 

a. Ellen Howard Bayard, unmarried. 

b. Richard Howard Bayard, unmarried. 

c. Jean Gilmor Bayard, unmarried. 

8. William Gilmor Howard married , and has: 

a. Benjamin Chew, unmarried. 

b. Marian Gilmor, unmarried. 

Four children of Gen. Benjamin C, and Jane Gilmor Howard 
died s. p. 

b. Ann Gilmor married 1st. Mr. Williams, and had one 
daughter, who married the Rev. Campbell White and she had 
one daughter. 2nd. John Donnell, and died, leaving- one 
daughter, Anne. 

c. Mary Ann Gilmor, married Spear Nicholas, of Rich- 
mond, Va., and left no issue. 

d. Louisa Gilmor, married Owens Hoffman, of Balti- 
more, Md., and had issue. 

e. Robert Gilmor, married Miss Ellen Ward, and had 
nine children, among them: Judge Robert Gilmor, of Balti- 
more, Md. ; Col. Harry Gilmor, of Confederate States Army. 

f. William Gilmor, married Miss Louisa Hoffman, and 
left issue. 

g. Charles Gilmor, married Miss Patterson, and had one 
daughter. 

//. Sarah Gilmor, married Dr. Charles Buckner, and has 
issue. 

i. Susan Gilmor married Lattimer Hoffman, and had 
issue: Lattimer and William. 

VIII. Susan Smith married 1st. William B. Savage and 
left one daughter, Mary Ann, who married John C. Wilson, 

Note. — The foregoing' names of descendants of Gen. Benjamin C, and Jane Gilmor 
Howard have kindly been sent in by Miss Marian G. Howard. 914 North Charles Street. 
Baltimore, Md. 



THE FAMILY OF SIR GEORGE YEARDLEY. 373 

and left no issue; and 2nd. Judg-e George Parker, and left no 
issue. 

IX. Ann Teackle Smith, married John Donnell, an Irish 
gentleman and merchant of Baltimore, Md. They had: 

a. Elizabeth Donnell, who married Gen. John Swan, 
of Baltimore, Md., and had: 

1. Ann Elizabeth Swan, who married William Frederick Frick, of 

Baltimore, Md. , and had: 

a. James Swan Frick, who married Elise Dana, and has 

issue. 

b. Mary Frick, who married Robert Garrett, of Baltimore, 

Md., Ex-President of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad 
Company, recently deceased, and has no issue. 

2. John Swan. 

3. Daughter. 

b. Ellen Donnell married Samuel W. Smith, of Balti- 
more, and had issue: 

1. Anne Donnell Smith married Frederick von Kapff, and had: 

a. Bernard von Kapff, unmarried. 

b. Frederick von Kapff, married Annie Brown. 

c. Ellinor von Kapff, married James W. Wilson, and has: 

1. Ellinor Wilson. 

2. James T. Wilson. 

2. Major Robert H. Smith, was a gallant officer in the Confederate 

States Army. He married Mary Hall, and have: 

a. Robert, married Margaret Clark, and has: 

1. Robert; 2. Mary; 3. Nannie Smith. 

b. Nannie Smith married Chapman Clark, and has a 

daughter, Margaret Clark. 

c. Julian Smith, unmarried. 

d. J. Donnell Smith, unmarried. 

3. J. Donnell Smith, unmarried. 

4. Samuel S. Smith, married Nina Levering, and has a son, Wil- 

son Smith. 

5. William H. Smith, unmarried. 

6. Ellen D. Smith, married Walter Blair, and has Ellen Codlington 

Blair. 

c. Anna Donnell married Kemp, of Baltimore, Md., 

and had two daughters, not traced. 

Note — The names of the foreg-oing descendants of Samuel W. Smith and Ellinor 
Donnell have been kindly sent me by Mrs. Frederick von Kapff, SOS Park Avenue, Bal- 
timore, Md. 



374 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

d. Frances Donnell married Gustav W. Lurman, of Ger- 
man birth, a merchant of Baltimore, Mel. They had children: 

1. John S. Lurman, unmarried. 

2. Gustav Wilhelm Lurman, married Elizabeth Cooke Powell, and 

has issue. 

3. Theodore Gerhard Lurman married Nannie Allen Tilgham, and 

has issue. 

4. Fannie Donnell Lurman (died Aug. 29, 1S89) married Frank 

Frick, and has issue. 

5. Anna Donnell Lurman, died young-. 

6. Elizabeth Swan Lurman, died, unmarried. 

7. Josephine Lurman married C. Morton Stewart, a merchant of 

Baltimore, Md., and has issue: 

a. Frances Lurman Stewart married Mr. Edward Living-ston 

Coster, of New York, and has a daughter, Josephine, 
born Feb. 6, 1894. 

b. Mary Morton Stewart, died in infancy. 

c. Charles Morton Stewart, married Sophia Howard Mc- 

Henry. 

d. John Lurman Stewart, ) Twins, born April 29, 1871. The 

e. Gustav Lurman Smith - latter married Ann Gilmor, 

Stewart, ) Oct. 3, 1894. 

/. Redmond Conyngham Stewart, born Oct. 4, 1873. 
g. Priscilla Pinkney Stewart, married John McHenry, Oct. 

23, 1894. 
h. William Plunket Stewart, born January 4, 1878. 
i. Ellinor Donnell Stewart, born Aug, 17, 1879. 
j. Dorris Lurman Stewart, born May 7, 1881. 
k. Stephen Lurman Stewart, born Oct. 29, 1882. 
/. Donnell Stewart, died in infancy. 
in. William Donnell Stewart, born Jan. 27, 1889. 

8. Ellen Stewart, died in infancy, 

9. Minna Stewart, unmarried. 

10. Gustav Wilhelm Stewart, died in infancy. 

e. Mary Ann Donnell, died unmarried. 
/". John Donnell, married Ann Gilmor. 
g. James Donnell, married . 

h. William Donnell married , and had issue. 

X. John Thorowgood Smith, died s. p. 

Thomas T. Upshur, 
Nassawaddox, Northampton Co., Virginia, 
September 19th, 18%. 



THE FAMILY OF GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 375 



THE FAMILY OF GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 



BY LAVINIA R. (HILL) BROWN. 



[Continued from fuly number. .] 
(Fourth Generation.) 
(No. 150.) 
Mary Lydia Smith, daughter of Thomas and Elizabeth (Rob- 
ertson) Smith, after receiving her education both in this 
country and Europe, married Dr. R. J. Farquharson, a surgeon 
of nine years' standing in the United States Navy. He was 
descended from a prominent Scottish family, whose records for 
four hundred years are in his widow's possession. He was a 
most learned man, and master of several languages. At the 
time of his death was Secretary of the State Board of Health of 
Iowa; they had nine children. 

395. Robert, born and died 1857. 

396. Elizabeth, born 1858, died 1868. 

397. Thomas, born 1860. 

398. Lydia, born 1862, died 1864. 

399. Mary S., born 1864. 

400. Rebecca, born 1866, died 1866. 

401. Howard, born 1867. 

402. Annie, born 1869. 

403. Rebecca, born 1874, died 1874. 

(No. 151.) 
Felix R. Robertson Smith, son of Thomas and Elizabeth 
(Robertson) Smith, married Cinthia Rodes in 1866; five chil- 
dren. 

404. Samuel Granville Smith. 

405. T. Elizabeth. 

406. Cynthia. 

407. Ellenora Hennen. 

408. Annabel. 



37() THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

(No. 151.) 

Felix R. R. Smith, attended the Western Military Institute, 
of Nashville, Tenn., took a course at the Collegiate and Com- 
mercial Institute, New Haven, Conn.; also "Rensselaer's Polr- 
technic Institute," Troy, N. Y. He was in the employ of the 
Confederate service, as civil engineer, and is now practicing 
his profession in Nashville, Tenn. 

(No. 152.) 

Felix R. Sullivan, son of Frank and Mary (Robertson) Sul- 
livan, married Miss Buchanan. They reside in Baltimore; four 
children. 

400. Frank; no dates given. 

410. Mary; no dates given. 

411. Felix; no dates given. 

412. Annie; no dates given. 

(No. 153.) 

Anna Barker Hennen, daughter of Duncan and Ellenora 
(Robertson) Hennen, married Gen. J. B. Hood, of C. S. A., 1869. 
She spent many years in Paris and Italy, completing her edu- 
cation, accompanied by her mother; eleven children. 

413. Lydia H, born 1870, died 1870. 

414. Annabel, born 1871. 

415. Ethel, born 1871. 

Twins. 
410. Duncan H., born 1872. 

417. John B., born 1873. 

418. Lillian, born 1874. 
410. Marian, born 1874. 

Twins. 

420. Odel, born 1870. 

421. Ida, born 1870. 

Twins. 

422. Oswald, born 1878. 

423. Anna C, born 1870, died 1880. 

(No. 155.) 
Ellenora Robertson, daughter of John E. and Mary (Oldham) 



THE FAMILY OF GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 377 

Robertson, married Dr. W. C. Poe (cousin of the poet), 1867; 
eight children. 

424. Nora; no dates given. 

425. William; no dates given. 

426. Emilie; no dates given. 

427. Miriam; no dates given. 

428. Frank; no dates given. 

429. Violet; no dates given. 

430. Annabel; no dates given. 

431. Gertrude; no dates given. 

(No. 160.) 

William Robertson, son of John E. Beck and Mary (Oldham) 
Robertson, married Jennie Killum ; one child. 

432. William. 

(No. 161.) 

Minnie Robertson, daughter of John E. Beck and Mary (Old- 
ham) Robertson, married Mr. Norton; second marriage, A. B. 
Jones; (one child given). 

433. Louise Jones. 

(No. 162.) 

Neppie Robertson, daughter of John E. B. and Mary (Old- 
ham) Robertson, married Mr. Simpson; second marriage (to 
her brother-in-law), A. B. Jones; five children. 

434. Mary Simpson. 

435. John D. Simpson. 

436. Zoe Simpson. 

437. Chloe Jones (second marriage); no dates. 

438. Ruth Jones (second marriage); no dates. 

(No. 163.) 
James H. Robertson, son of Felix R. and Mary (McKenzie) 
Robertson, married Miss A. Thedford, 1874, in Arkansas; six 
children. 

439. Felix R., born 1875, died 1878. 

440. Daisy, born 1878. 

441. Mary R. ; no dates given. 

442. James H.; no dates given. 

443. Bessie T. ; no dates given. 



378 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

444. Joe Garrett; no dales given. 

(No. 164.) • 
Mary Lydia Robertson, daughter of Felix R. and Mary iMc- 
Kenzie) Robertson, married Samuel Seay Roche, of Nashville, 
Tenn., in 1874, whose ancestor was a friend and comrade of 
George Washington in the Revolutionary war; five children. 

445. Lydia Smith, born 1874. 

446. Elizabeth R., born 1876. 

447. Nellie Jennings, born 1880. 

448. Felix Robertson, born 1887. 

449. Samuel Seay, born 1890. 

(Xo. 167.) 

Charlotte E. Napier, daughter of James E. and Hannah 
(Vanleer) Napier, married Chas. B. Hale, Sept. 9, 1841, by Rev. 
A. L. P. Green; one child. 

450. Ada, born Nov. 9, 1845, died 1846. 

(No. 168.) 
Morgiana, daughter of Col. James E. and Hannah (Vanleer) 
Napier, married Col. William Johnson, Sept. 9, 1846. near 
Nashville, Tenn; one child. 

451. Granville, born Oct. 7, 1847. 

(No. 170.) 

Margaret, daughter of Col. James E. and Hannah i Vanleer) 
Napier, married John Stacker Vanleer, December, 1848 ; second 
to Dr. Henry Sheffield; no issue by last marriage; three chil- 
dren. 

452. Minnie, born 1849, died April 15, 1886. 

453. Samuel. 

454. Frederick Terrass. 

(No. 179.) 
Fenno Robenia Napier, daughter of Leroy and Fannie i Rob- 
ertson) Napier, married Jones W. Christian, Sept. 14, 1857; 
seven children. 

455. Ianthus, born Nov. 14, 1858. 

456. Luona. A., born June 6, 1862. 

457. Morgia Adelee, born June 12, 1866. 

458. Kittie Fenno, born June 7. 1867. 



THE FAMILY OF GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 379 

459. Jones G, born Jan. 25, 1870. 

460. Myrtle E., born Aug. 1, 1878. 

461. Carlos J., born Aug. 14, 1885. 

(No. 183.) 
Salena J. Napier, daughter of Leroy and Fannie (Robertson) 
Napier, married Jeff J. Curry, March 5, 1887; (no issue). 

(No. 185.) 

Idi Corinne, daughter of Leroy and Fannie (Robertson) 
Napier, married T. L. Ransom, Dec. 22, 1888; (no issue). 

(No. 186.) 
Fannie Lorena, daughter of Leroy and Fannie (Robertson) 
Napier, married Lewis N. Campbell, Oct. 16, 1887; (no issue). 

(No. 189.) 
Frederic Napier, son of Leroy and Fannie (Robertson) Napier, 
married Mary E. Nottgrass, Dec. 23, 1881; (no issue). 

(No. 191.) 

William J. Sharp, son of George and Tennessee (Robertson) 
Sharp, was an inventor of a sugar evaporator; had a family; 
no other information given. 

(No. 192.) 

Leodocia Sharp, daughter of George and Tennessee (Robert- 
son) Sharp, married Oliver P. Davis; three children. 

462. William Sharp; no dates given. 

463. Oliver Perry; no dates given. 

464. Ernestine; no dates given. 

(No. 193.) 

Elizabeth Sharp, daughter of George and Tennessee Robert- 
son Sharp, married Samuel Matthews; three children. 

465. Edwin; no dates given. 

466. Elizabeth; no dates given. 

467. Jervis; no dates given. 

Samuel Matthews, Sr., graduated from the University of 
Nashville with A. M., took LL. D. at Harvard, and lived in 
Iberville Parish. 

(No. 195.) 

Leodocia Robertson, daughter of Col. James E. and Ernes- 



380 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

tine (Schlater) Robertson, married Nathaniel Pope, June 23, 
1858, He was a lawyer, a member of the Louisiana Legisla- 
ture, and died in 188G; eight children. 

468. Kate Lyle Pope, born 1859, died 1859. 

469. David, born 1860, died 1864. 

470. Virginia Lee, born 1861, died 1886. 

471. Hunter Collins, born 1863, died 1867. 

472. Nathaniel, born 1867, died 1868. 

473. Henry Allen, born 1871. 

474. Clarence, born 1875. 

475. Irvin, born 1879. 

(No. 196.) 
Tennessee Robertson, daughter of Col. James E. and Ernes- 
tine (Schlater) Robertson, married Samuel Matthews (lawyer), 
Nov. 12, 1862; he died June 11, 1895; eight children. 

476. Annie, about 1866, died 1889. 

477. Crusoe, about 1867. 

478. Mary, about 1869. 

479. Harley, about 1871. 

480. Essie, about 1872, died 1878. 

481. Schamyl, about 1875, died 1878. 

482. Ernestine, about 1877. 

483. Samuel, about 1879. 

(No. 197.) 

James Michael Robertson, son of Col. James E. and Ernes- 
tine (Schlater) Robertson, married Ernestine Kleinpeter, Oct. 
12,1870; five children. 

484. Albert Sidney, Aug. 22, 1871. 

485. Frederick James, July 17, 1873. 

486. Randle McGee, Aug. 27, 1874. 

487. Archie Edward, Feb. 17, 1876. 

488. Ernestine, Oct. 3, 1879. 

(No. 198.) 

Frederic Davis Robertson, son of Col. James E. and Ernes- 
tine (Schlater) Robertson, married Regina Weissinger in 1881 ; 
she died in 1889; one child. 

489. Freddie, born Jan. 16, 1884. 



THE FAMILY OF GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 381 

(No. 199.) 

Mary Jane Robertson, daughter of Col. James E. and Ernes- 
tine (Schlater) Robertson, married T. G. B. Weissenger, 1866; 
(no issue). 

(No. 200.) 

William Blount Robertson, son of Col. James E. and Ernes- 
tine (Schlater) Robertson, married Mary Debleiux; ten chil- 
dren. 

490. Ernest, born Feb. 4, 1875. 

493. Wm. R., born Sept. 4, 1876, died Feb. 7, 1877. 

494. Edward White, born July 1, 1878, died unmarried. 

495. Mary E., born Feb. 26, 1880. 

496. Mary Essie, born Aug. 19, 1882, 

497. William Blount, born Dec. 1, 1883. 

498. Henry Allen, born March 11, 1885. 

499. Arthur R,, born June 14, 1887. 

500. Mary L., born June 22, 1888, died July 4, 1888. 

501. Agnes Gwendoline, born May 28, 1890. 

(No. 202.) 

William Blount Robertson, son of Judge William B. and 
Mary (Chinn) Robertson, was educated at Nashville Military 

Institute and University of Virginia; he was First Lieutenant. 
First Regiment, Louisiana Volunteers; served at batteries of 
Fort Jackson, fired first shot upon the Union fleet; commended 
for bravery; after the war went to Texas; later to California; 
unmarried. 

(No. 203.) 

Elizabeth Johnson Robertson, daughter of Judge William B. 
and Mary (Chinn) Robertson, married John Bronaugh Here- 
ford. March 19. 1862; six children. 

502. Mary Chinn Hereford, born 1864. 

503. John Bronaugh, born 1866. 

504. Anna Lobdell, born 1868. 

505. James Stirling, born 1870. 

506. Felix Senette, born 1877. 

507. Catherine Stirling, born 1880. 



38? THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

(No. 20.°,.) 

Mrs. J. B. Hereford graduated at Patapsco Institute, Mary- 
land, with honors and medal; lives in Dallas, Tex. She is an 
authoress of distinction and wrote ''Rebel Rhymes," a volume 
of poems; she is a woman of rare literary tastes and acquire- 
ments. 

(No. 204.) 

Thomas Chinn Robertson, son of Judge William B. and Mary 
(Chinn) Robertson, was educated at the University of Nashville, 
Tenn., Virginia University, and Centenary College, La.; served 
in C. S. A. with distinction; commended for gallantry; married 
Emilie M. Hiltzheim, who died June 12, 1806. 

(No. 206.) 

James Erwin Robertson, son of Judge William B. and Mary 
(Chinn) Robertson; was educated at Centenary College, La.; 
served with distinction in C. S. A., and took part in two famous 
battles in Louisiana, "Mansfield" and "Pleasant Hill;" lives at 
Limerick Plantation, La.; unmarried. 

(No. 207.) 

Leodocia Erwin Robertson, daughter of Judge William 
Blount and Mary (Chinn) Robertson, married Felix Senette (a 
planter), Sept. 27, 1870; he died of yellow fever, Oct. 9. 1870; 
second marriage to Judge William C. Harris, of New Orleans, 
La.; two children. 

508. Regina Senette; no dates given. 

509. Thomas Robertson Senette; no dates given. 

(No. 208.) 

Mary Chinn Robertson, daughter of Judge William B. and 
Mary (Chinn) Robertson, married Edward Desoby. of Plaque 
mine, La.; five children. 

510. Charles E.; no dates given. 

511. William Robertson; no dates given. 

512. Mary Henrietta; no dates given. 

513. Linus H.; no dates given. 

514. Minerva H. ; no dates given ; 

515. Lewis; no dates given. 

516. Henrv L. ; no dates given. 



THE FAMILY OF GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 383 

517. Elmer C; no dates given. 

(No. 209.) 

Tennessee Robertson, daughter of Judge William B. and 
Mary (Chinn) Robertson, was educated at Ann Arbor, Mich.; 
lives at Limerick Plantation, Parish of West Baton Rouge, La. 

(No. 210.) 

Ernestine Schlater, daughter of Judge Win. Blount and 
Mary (Chinn) Robertson, resides at Limerick Plantation, La. 

(No. 211.) 

Boiling Chinn Robertson, son of Judge William Blount and 
Mary (Chinn) Robertson, was educated at Louisiana State Uni- 
versity, married Roselle Smoote, of Oakland, Cal.; is a mem- 
ber of the firm of Price, Berlin & Co., of San Francisco, Cal.; 
three children. 

518. Carl; no dates given. 

519. William B.; no dates given. 

520. Alexander Roth; no dates given. 

(No. 212.) 

Frances Conrad, daughter of Judge William B. and Mary 
(Chinn) Robertson, resides at the family homestead, "Limer- 
ick." 

(No. 213.) 

Catherine Lyle, daughter of Judge William B. and Mary 
(Chinn) Robertson, married Charles D. Lavallee; she is literary 
and is a contributor to leading periodicals; two children. 

521. Hilda Van Ness. 

522. James Kenneth. 

(No. 214.) 

Dr. Alexander Roth Robertson, son of Judge Wm. Blount 
and Mary (Chinn) Robertson, graduated at Tulane University, 
of New Orleans, La,; married Alice Louise Ainsworth, of Pass 
Christian, Miss.; is now practicing medicine in the Parish of 
West Baton Rouge, La.; is a talented, successful and beloved 
physician; though young, he stands in the front rank of his 
profession. 



384 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

(No. 215.) 

Edward B. Talbot, son of Augustus and Lavinia (Robertson) 
Talbot, was Judge of the Fourth Judicial District of Louisiana 
several terms; no other information given. 

(No. 216.) 

Leodocia Talbot, daughter of Augustus and Lavinia (Robert- 
son) Talbot, married Thomas Archer; no issue; second marriage 
to Andrew Roland; one child. 

523. Lavinia. 

(No. 219.) 

Martha Johnson Robertson, daughter of Edward White and 
Mary (Pope) Robertson, married Sept. 1, 1870, to C. J. Barrow, 
merchant in Baton Rouge; six children. 

524. Leila M., born Nov. 5, 1871. 

525. Wylie Micajah, born Feb. 19, 1873. 
52G. Mary Jane, born June 21, 1870. 

527. Edward Robertson, born June 21, 1878. 

528. Martha Johnson. 

529. Cordelia J.; died in infancy. 

(No. 220.) 

Samuel Matthews Robertson, son of Edward White and 
Mary (Pope) Robertson, married Georgie Blanchard Sanford. 
Dec. 30, 1875. He is serving his fourth term in Congress from 
the Sixth Congressional District of Louisiana. The mantle of 
the father fell on the son, which he has worn with honor; two 
children. 

530. Edward White, Jr., born Jan. 28, 1877. 

531. John Sanford, died in infancy. 

(No. 223.) 
Caroline Robertson, daughter of Edward White ami Mary 
(Pope) Robertson, married Elijah S. Robertson, Nov. 11. 1880; 
he died Jan. 21, 1891; five children. 

532. Thomas W., born Aug. 7, 1882. 

533. Lula Ernestine, born June 28, 1881. 

534. Elijah Sparks, born Sept. 10, 1886. 

535. Edward White, born Aug. 13, 1888. 

536. Rhoda Jane, born Aug. 25. 1890. 



THE FAMILY OF GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 385 

(No. 226.) 
Marshall Pope Robertson, son of Edward White and Mary 
(Pope) Robertson, married Olive C. Smith; he is a civil engineer 
and lives in Baton Rouge, La.; three children. 

537. Georgia, born June 19, 1890. 

538. Olive C, born Sept. 13, 1892. 

539. Frances G., born Jan. 28, 1894. 

(No. 228.) 
Frederick C. Robertson, son of Edward White and Mary 
(Pope) Robertson, is a lawyer, and United States Assistant 
Attorney. Tacoma, Wash.; married Amelia Agnes DeSion; two 
children. 

540. Steven O'Brien, born June 20, 1894. 

541. Frederic. 

(No. 229.) 

Mary L. Robertson, daughter of Edward White and Mary 
(Pope) Robertson, married John Munroe Sherrouse, July 10, 
1889, President of the Sherrouse Medicine Co., New Orleans. 
La.; two children. 

542. Julian Monroe, born Jan. 12, 1892. 

543. Marrieda Lilian, June 23, 1893. 

(No. 235.) 

Nellie Robertson, daughter of Dr. Flavins Joseplms and 
Laura (Brown) Robertson, married R. W. Jennings, Principal 
of Jennings Business College, Nashville, Tenn. ; three children. 

544. Maud. 

545. William Erskine. 

546. Evelyn Medora. 

(No. 236.) 

Medora Robertson, daughter of Dr. Flavius Joseplms and 
Laura (Brown) Robertson, married A. W. Hogin; two children. 

547. Laura. 

548. David Kelly. 

(No. 238.1 

Mary Ellen Huddleston, daughter of Dr. Joseph and Alice 
(Robertson) Huddleston, married W. R, Chambers; three chil- 
dren. 



386 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 

549. Horace C. 

550. Paul. 

551. Watson. 

(No. 239.) 
Josephine Huddleston, daughter of Dr. Joseph and Alice 
(Robertson) Huddleston, married R. E. Andrews; two children. 

552. Russell. 

553. David. 

(No. 242.) 

Annie Robertson, daughter of Judge John Blount and Ade- 
laide (Gordy) Robertson, married 0. B. Murphy; four children. 

554. Robert. 

555. Adelaide. 

556. Charles B. 

557. Annie C. 

(No. 243.) 

Nellie Robertson, daughter of Judge John Blount and Ade- 
laide (Gordy) Robertson, married C. B. Cannon; one child. 

558. Peyton. 

(No. 244.) 

Peyton Robertson, son of Judge John Blount and Adelaide 
(Gordy) Robertson, married Minnie Wharton, April 15, 1890; 
she is the daughter of Prof. Wharton, of Nashville. Tenn. 

(No. 245.) 

Laura B. Robertson, daughter of Judge John Blount and 
Adelaide (Gordy) Robertson, of New Orleans, received her edu- 
cation at Wartrace and Nashville, Tenn. 

(No. 246.) 
James G. Paine, son of Bishop Robert E. and Susanna (Beck) 
Paine, was Clerk of the House of Representatives at Washing- 
ton eight years; married Fannie Graves. Nov. 6. 1849; she was 
born July 4, 1829; her mother was a great-granddaughter <>f 
Lord Bedford, of England; Mr. Paine died at Social Circle, 
Ga.; seven children. 

559. Lilly S. Paine, born Nov. 5. 1850. 

560. John, born Dec. 4, 1852, died 1857. 

561. Iverson S., born Sept. 22, 1855. 



THE FAMILY OF GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 387 

562. James G., bora June 4, 1860. 

563. Robert S., born July 6, 1862. 

564. Sarah E., born Jan. 22, 1865. 

565. Francis L., born Nov. 23, 1866, died 1887. 

(No. 248.) 

Lavinia Hill, daughter of John T. and Georgiana (Beck) Hill, 
married John W. Terrass; one child. 

566. James; died 11 years of age. 

(No. 249.) 

Ann Eliza Hill, daughter of John T. and Georgiana (Beck) 
Hill, married Henry Nelson Snyder, February, 1848; eight chil- 
dren. 

567. Romulus Harrison, born Nov. 9, 1848. 

568. Georgiana Beck, born Aug. 6, 1853. 

569. Mary Fannie, born Aug. 6. 1857, died 1863. 

570. Hughetta McCrea, born Aug. 9, 1859, died 1860. 

571. Washington Barrow, born Aug. 7, 1861, died 1863. 

572. Henry Nelson, Jr., born Jan. 14, 1865. 

573. Hugh Mac, bora Nov. 26, 1867. 

574. Amelia Vanleer, born July 12, 1871, died 1875. 

(No. 249.) 

Mrs. Ann E. Snyder is the authoress of "My Scrap Book," 
"Civil War From a Southern Standpoint," "On the Wautaga 
and the Cumberland," She was educated at the Nashville Fe- 
male Academy. 

(No. 250.) 

Dr. John B. Hill, son of John T. and Georgiana (Beck) Hill, 
married Louisiana Mays, Oct. 12, 1854; eight children. 

575. Lavinia R., bora Dec. 4, 1855. 

576. Nina Fowler, bora Sept. 18, 1857. 

577. Georgia Beck, bora July 5, I860. 

578. Sammie Felix, born March 27, 1863. 

579. Carrie Talliaferro, born Aug. 27, 1865. 

580. Annie Sue, born Nov. 26, 1867. 

581. John William, born Sept. 19, 1871; unmarried. 

582. Lottie Lou, bora Oct. 20, 1876; died in infanov. 



388 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

(No. 251.) 

Dr. John Beck Hill graduated with honors at the University 
of Nashville Medical Department, and has followed his pro- 
fession forty-one years, near Bellevue, Tenn. His skill as a 
physician and noble Christian character has won for him the 
confidence and esteem of the community in which he lives. 

(No. 252.) 

Susanna B. Hill, daughter of John T. and Georgiana (Beck) 
Hill, married Miles Atkeison, March 23, 1856; second marriage 
to Robert Atkeison (dead); three children. 

583. James; died in childhood. 

584. Osmond Summers, born 1858. 

585. James Paine, born 1863. (Second marriage.) 

(No. 254.) 

Carrie T. Hill, daughter of John T. and Georgiana (Beck) 
Hill, married Capt. Samuel Mays, Jan. 24, 1866, in Nashville; 
three children. 

586. William Wright, born April 13, 1868; unmarried. 

587. John Robert, born July 11, 1869. 

588. Ordalia, born July 7, 1873, died 1886. 

Samuel Mays was Captain commanding Co. G, C. S. A.. 
Fiftieth Regiment Tennessee Volunteers, Gregg's Brigade; 
served from 1861 to 1865; now Capt. Co. B, ex-Confederate Vet- 
erans, Nashville, Tenn. 

(No. 255.) 
Dr. Felix Robertson Hill, son of John T. and Georgiana 
(Beck) Hill, married Ordalia Mays, in Courtland, Ala., July 10, 
1864; seven children. 

589. John Summerfield, born May 26, 1865. 

590. Mattie Sue, born Nov. 25, 1866, died 1873. 

591. Felix Robertson, Jr., born Oct. 21, 1869. 

592. Emma Wendle, born Oct. 4, 1872, died 1873. 

593. David Spence, born Dec. 14, 1873; unmarried. 

594. Lafayette B., born Sept. 28, 1879; unmarried. 

595. Edward Gay, born Aug. 17, 1883. 

(No. 255.) 
Dr. Felix Robertson Hill has served as pastor of Southern 



THE FAMILY OF GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 389 

Methodist churches in Nashville, Mobile, New Orleans, St. 
Louis, Baltimore and Kansas City. 

(No. 257.) 

Lavinia Robertson Hill, daughter of John T. and Georgiana 
(Beck) Hill, married Isham Fielding Davis, May 17, 1868. Mr. 
Davis was born at Bowling Green, Ky.,; died at Rosedale, La., 
Aug. 10, 1892. He served in the C. S. A. with distinction, from 
beginning to end; was in Morgan's command, and he was com- 
mended for gallantry and self-sacrifice. Mr. Davis was an in- 
telligent, Christian gentleman, a useful citizen, and highly re- 
spected throughout the parish. 

(No. 258.) 

William Hill, son of John T. and Georgiana (Beck) Hill, mar- 
ried Emma Willson, Oct. 22, 1887, in Texas; seven children. 

596. Lottie, born Sept. 8, 1876. 

597. Walter, born Oct. 29, 1878. 

598. Felix, born July 13, 1881. 

599. Robert, born Sept. 10, 1888. 

600. Louise, born Oct. 7, 1886. 

601. John Beck, born March 4, 1889. 

602. Edward Lee, born July 11, 1891. 

(No. 259.) 

Charlotte Robertson Hill, daughter of John T. and Georgiana 
(Beck) Hill, married Dr. Manuel M. Hayden, July 29, 1879; he 
died June, 1892 ; two children. 

603. James Francis, born Jan. 7, 1881. 

604. Isham Davis, born Jan 22, 1882. 

[To he concluded in next issue.] 



3% THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



CORRESPONDENCE OF GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 



[From Gov. Blount on Indian affairs.] 

Knoxville, April 27th 1792. 
Sir, 

Your Son, T. R. Robertson will inform you in what man- 
ner I have treated the confidant of the mountain leader and 
his two companions Thompson and Tom. 

I have engaged your Son and Mr. Foster to accompany 
them to their nation and I have also engaged them to proceed 
on to the Chactaw nation. 

They have letters for both from the Secretary of War and 
myself with unclosed Seals and I have directed them to let 
you read them before they are closed, and they have also my 
directions to show you my instructions to them. 

This will explain to you why the Chickasaws have re- 
turned. I return enclosed your own and Mr. Dead rick's ac- 
count with explanatory notes informing you how they shall 
be made anew. 

Those four men you call Spies which you say you have 
engaged at a dollar per day of whose use and worth you speak 
so highly and which I do not doubt, I am sorry to say are not 
within the description of the people intended by my order nor 
can I order such on duty. 

Such as I order out will be allowed pay agreeably to the 
ac't forwarded to you and no more. I cannot indulge my 
wishes not even to promise you to use my endeavours to ob- 
tain payment as it now appears to me that the government 
will by no means agree to any such thing lest it should grow 
precedent. The nine men you have ordered out to protect the 
frontiers in addition to the two companies I approve and you 
will please continue them on duty for the term for which the 
two companies are ordered on duty. 

I make no doubt you have heard of the murder of Harper 
Ratclif's wife and children, and about the same time there 
were several other alarming circumstances on the frontiers of 



CORRESPONDENCE OF GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 391 

Hawkins County, and it was from it had ordered the company 
to be raised for the protection of the frontiers of Mero Dis- 
trict. This has obliged me to issue an order for that com- 
pany to range upon the frontiers of Hawkins for the protec- 
tion of the Inhabitants. 

I hope the two companies you have turned out will be suf- 
ficient for your protection as I have hopes hostilities will cease 
founded on the friendly disposition with which the Cherokee 
Chiefs have returned into their nation from Philadelphia, for 
further particulars of which I refer you to General Smith to 
whom I have written more fully on that head, and Mr. Bowles 
being- obliged to leave the Creeks. But should the danger 
still continue, you will please give me information, and I 
shall certainly order a company from Washington, Sullivan, 
or Greene to your aid and protection. 

With respect to powder and lead, buy no more than is 
necessary for the militia on duty, and that on the best terms 
you can obtain it. 

At present lead is obtained here at the twelfth of a dollar 
.per pound. 

This afternoon since the Chickasaws left me, I have re- 
ceived a letter from David Allison dated Philadelphia, Sunda} 7 
March 25th, informs me that he had arrived there on the Fri- 
day night before, that on Saturday he had laid my letters be- 
fore the Secretary of War, who after reading them and asking 
many questions, observed "that Governor Blount's plans were 
certainly founded on policy as well as the true principles of 
Justice and that he would venture to assure me every part 
should be complied with, and that I might write Governor 
Blount to that purport, which I have now done nearly as I can 
recollect the words." 

This promises well but as the President himself nas not 
seen my letter and Plans, I do not count that a Treaty with 
Chickasaws and Chactaws at Nashville this Summer is quite 
certain. 

This has induced me to wish that the returning Chicka- 
saws may not leave your house in less than fifteen days, hop- 
ing that I shall get certain information on that head so as to 
give it to your son and Mr. Foster with additional instruc- 
tions, then one visit would answer both purposes. If goods 



392 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

should come forward for these Treaties to go down the Ten- 
nessee, I shall want Alexander Moore to take the command of 
the Boats, will you ask him if he can come and the price he 
must have per day, and inform me by Judge Campbell. The 
thanks of your District are very acceptable and grateful, and I 
beg you and the District to believe that no man (nonresident) 
can participate in whatever affects them more than I do, that 
I am ever mindful of their welfare and happy in promoting it. 

I am your most Obedient 

Humble Servant, 

Wm. Blount. 



[From Gov. Blount on Military Warrants.] 

April 29th 1792. 
Lest you should by some means have mislaid or omitted 
the laying some of our Military Warrants, my Brother has 
thought it best to forward to you a list of all the Military 
Warrants we ever sent to you. I beg you to examine if you 
have located them all; for all that are not passed into grants 
by the 22d of December will be lost. The enclosed letter to 
William Reasons is on the subject of those four delivered to 
him to locate, which I beg you to forward to him by some safe 
hands. Lay as many of the Warrants within the present In- 
dian Bounds as you can, taking Care to avoid disputes in the 
Titles, but in case you cannot find good land within the 
Boundary and have got Surveys without the Bounds already 
made, then let such locations rest as they are. Should you 
need money to complete the locating- or Surveying Business, 
let me know, and you shall have it and finish the Business in 
the best manner you can, and as speedily as you can. I be- 
believe I before informed you that a second warrant had is- 
sued to Nathaniel Lawson, and that he had obtained his Grants. 
You will therefore decline returning works on the warrant in 
his name in your hands. I do not see the name of Francis 
Child among the warrants, and surely I gave you his warrant. 
Pray inquire. He is a good friend of mine, and is very desir- 
ous to have his Grant. Enclosed is an additional warrant 
which you will please have laid in due time. If a guard is 
necessary to you to insure safety in laying our warrants with- 



CORRESPONDENCE OF GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 393 

in the Boundary, you must procure one, and I will pay for it, 
for the Grant must be completed, and it is in vain to stop now 
at a trifling- expense. 

I need not say observe economy, but be sure don't expose 
yourself too much to save a little expense. A Mr. John Bush, 
late an officer, has a tract of land he wishes me to purchase 
as he owes me money. I will thank you to inform me where 
it lays and the quality of it. Dr. Colman Tract belongs to my 
Brother Willie, the Grant is not yet out, who undertook the 
Survej ing 1 don't know. Pray inquire and urge the completion 
of the Title. If it is detained for the want of necessary Cash, 
it shall be forwarded on demand. I think of no more at pre- 
sent. I hope Judge Campbell will be attended to. 

You will think of Judge Anderson as you find him, and 
not count anything on my former Recommendation. 

Wm. Blount. 



[From Thomas Cortell, Spanish Commandant, on Indian affairs.] 

Nkw Madrid, 7th May, 1792. 
Sir, 

I had the honor of receiving your favour, bearing date the 
13th Feb. last, which indicates that all good neighbors ought 
to preserve one with another, strict union and sincere har- 
mony, which in the Genial System of my Nation uniformly 
joins with the purest ties of humanity, to which only we were 
accustomed. 

By virtue of what you mentioned, I called in a Delaware 
Indian named Raccoon, which you pointed out to in your let- 
ter, having interrogated him, for what raison he had gone to 
Cumberland River to commit any depredations, knowing it 
was a place where only resided our friends and Brothers. He 
returned for answer, that for above those two years past, he 
had not gone from this place, only to go a Hunting and then he 
never went out of the Jurisdiction of this post. His raison 
for so doing was, that he might have no dispute with any per- 
son, and live in tranquillity with the world in General, but at 
the same time was not Ignorant that some of his Nation had 
done mischief, particularly at Cumberland, but those Indians 
did not live under the Government of this place, it was a band 



394 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

of Delewares Settled on the other side of the Mississippi upon 
a small River, he also mentioned the Indian that headed the 
party, he is commonly called by the name of the great Capot. 
This I believe from the sincerety of Raccoon's answers to my 
interrogations. Nevertheless, I made him promise by the 
name of hi* Catholic Majesty my Master, that he shall live in 
friendship with everyone that is at peace with his Majesty's 
Subjects, and in consequence ought to take many citizens of 
the United States by the hand, as it was my particular desire 
which he should observe with punctuality. 

Notwithstanding these injunctions to Raccoon, I ordered 
him two Chiefs, the one a Shawanee, the other a Cherokee, 
which has promised the same as the other had done, but as an 
Indian, is not to be depended on, it is necessary to be on your 
guard, as I cannot be responsible for their conduct when away 
from this place. 

I have been informed that a certain Mr. Morris and some 
other citizens of the United States has stole horses from the 
Indians at different times. Most probably those men have 
been the means of exciting- the Indians to do the same thing. 
The said Morris has also tasted the fruits of his Robberies. 
He passed here last fall on his way to New Orleans having al- 
most lost the use of his right leg, owing to two wounds he re- 
ceived by the Indians when a hunting, besides the loss of all 
his property. 

You may be assured that all Indians that come to this 
place of whatever nation they may be, I will do my indeav- 
ours to keep them peaceable and make them promise to live 
in peace and friendship with the citizens of the United 
States. 

Should they have any complaint against said citizens, I 
will write on that subject, in consequence of the offer you 
make to me, as it may be the means of rendering justice to 
both parties. 

I have a thorough sensibility of the honor you confer on 
me, in desiring a continuation of my corresp jndence, to which 
I submit with the greatest pleasure; at the same time you will 
excuse any omission I may have made in this. 

I request it as a favour, if you should choose to come and 
pass some days in this solitary place, it will give me the great- 



CORRESPONDENCE OF GEN. JAMES ROBERTSON. 395 

est pleasure, to receive you into my Lodging- where you may 
expect every good reception due to your merit. 

I have wrote you in the language of your Nation, my rai- 
son is having more confidence in the person that writes it, 
than in anyone have that writes the French. 

I am Sir with Esteem your most 

Obdt & very Humble Servt, 

TOMAS CORTELL. 

General 

James Robertson. 



[Copy of a letter from Dr. Thos. Cortell Commanding- officer for 
his most Catholic Majesty at New Madrid to Mr. Andrews Fagot at 
Nashville, May 7th 1792.] 

Sir, I received your favour bearing date, the 13th, Feb- 
ruary last, wherein you mention the depredations committed 
by the Indians, supposed to be Shawanos and Delewares. If 
it is them, I assure you it has never come to my knowledge, I 
have called in the chiefs and spoke to them on that head, 
which they all deny, but lays the blame on another band of 
their nation that lives on the other side of the Mississippi a 
great distance from this post and entirely out of my command. 
Such acts of inhuman cruelty touches me most sensibly. It 
has always been my study to use every method with the In- 
dians to keep them quiet. This I look upon myself oblig'd to 
by the ties of humanity, as also the duty I owe to mankind in 
general. Every influence that I am possessed of with regard 
to the Indians shall be applied to keep them from committing 
ravages upon the peaceable inhabitants of Cumberland. But 
you know all I can do is only by the force of persuasion, as 
they are not subjected to any laws. I thank you most kindly 
for your attention. If I can be of any utility to you in this 
place you may freely command me. 

I am Sir your 

Most obedt humb. Servt, 

Thomas Corteel. 

Mr. Fagot. 



3% THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

[From Gov. Blount on a fiscal matter.] 

May 8th, 1792. 

Should Mr. McCabe need money to bear expenses as I am 
able just now to give him but little and my Merchant will ad- 
vance it to him, I will pay his Bills on Sight and I suppose 
any Merchant will do it, as they will all send them Money 
through the Wilderness for Philadelphia. 

I am 

Your obt Servt, 

Wm. Blount. 
Gen. Robertson. 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 397 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 



"The Pedigree of the Polk Family" has been unavoid- 
ably omitted from this issue. The manuscript has been with- 
drawn for the purpose of incorporating- some additional infor- 
mation recently obtained by the author. It will be continued 
in the January, 1897, number. 



The July number of the William and Mary College Quart- 
erly Historical Magazine is full of valuable and interesting 
reading - . This excellent magazine is largely devoted to gene- 
alogy, and is tracing many of the old Virginia families. It 
contains extracts from the "Journal of the Meetings of the 
President and Masters of William and Mary College." and 
other matter, "quaint and curious." Its editor, Mr. Lyon G. 
Tyler, President of William and Mary College, is doing a work 
which is of special interest not only to Virginians, but also to 
the descendants of Virginia families, now so widely scattered, 
and is, likewise, of great value to all students of history. 



A curious and interesting manuscript is the Diary of John 
Lipscomb, a merchant of Halifax, N. C, who emigrated to 
Tennessee, and settled in Williamson County in 1784. This 
manuscript was presented to the Tennessee Historical Society 
October, 1891, by Mr. James D. Park. Much of the. original 
manuscript is illegible, and leaves are missing in many places. 
A copy of portions of this diary has been made by the Secre- 
tary, Mr. John M. Bass, and is transcribed in a bound volume. 
The diary gives the events of the journey of an emigrant party 
who traveled by way of Cumberland Gap through the south- 
ern part of Kentucky. It records the adventures, buffa- 
lo hunts, and deer hunts, and the means used to supply the 
party with subsistence on the way. It recounts some rough 
jokes on fellow travelers, and gives a vivid picture of frontier 
life. It was evidently not intended for publication, and like 



398 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

other diaries of the period, remained in seclusion among- the 
family papers, until rescued from oblivion by Mr. Park. Ex- 
tracts from this diary will be given in future issues of this 
Mag-azine. 



A very interesting - book recently published by the Robert 
Clarke Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, is The Life of Gen. Na- 
thaniel Massie. This book is written by David Massie, a de- 
scendant of Gen. Massie. It is a work of unusual interest, 
giving - an account of the settlement of the Virginia Military 
District, which covered about one-sixth of the area of the pre- 
sent 'State of Ohio. The leading - pioneer in this settlement 
was Gen. Nathaniel Massie, who founded Manchester and 
Chillicothe. 

The contests between Gen. Massie, and Governor St. 
Clair for political control of- the territory, and which finally 
resulted in winning Ohio to the political party of Jefferson, 
and its' admission as a State in 1802, are told in a manner 
which illustrates the conflict between the Federalist and Re- 
publican parties for control of the new State. Three Virgin- 
ians, Thomas Worthington, afterwards United States Senator, 
and Governor of Ohio. Judg-e Charles Willing Byrd, and Gen. 
Nathaniel Massie, were the Southern leaders. Their contests 
with St. Clair, and their political victory have never before 
been adequately related. The following - extract from the 
work is interesting - , as it shows the feeling in 1802 which was 
developed in the debate and vote of the constitutional 
convention on the clause for permitting - negro suffrag-e. This 
clause was finally lost by the casting vote of the chairman, 
the vote of the Convention being seventeen ayes to seventeen 
noes. 

"This Convention was controlled by men from the slave- 
holding States of Virginia and Kentucky, yet we find them 
badly divided on this question. One of their leaders, Charles 
AVilling - Byrd, a Virginian of the Virginians, standing - steadily 
for the rig-ht of the negro to vote. On the other hand, Messrs. 
Huntington, of Trumbull County, and Mclntire, of Washing - - 
ton Count} 7 , scions of New England stock, were with Massie 
and Worthington against negro suffrage. 1 ' 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 399 

The Fourth Volume of Mr. Theodore Roosevelt's great 
work, The Winning of the West, has been recently issued 
by G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York, 27 West Twenty-third 
Street. 

This volume is devoted to Louisiana and the Northwest, 
and extends from 1791 to 1807. It is in keeping- with the 
previous volumes, which have been so interesting to the gen- 
eral reader, and so valuable to the student of history. 

Skillfully preserving the charm of entertaining narration, 
illustrated by graphic pictures of pioneer life and character, 
the discussion of the political and social questions involved, 
glides naturally and gracefully along the current of the narra- 
rative. The author has, thus, given to the public the most 
entertaining, instructive, and philosophical treatise which has 
been presented by any writer who has treated the subject. 

The author's opinions, expressed freely and frankly, are 
always clear, sometimes emphatic, but never bitter; thus giv- 
ing 1 to his work the tone of candor, and judicial fairness, 
which attracts confidence and respect. Like all who announce 
positive opinions, he expresses sentiments from which some of 
his readers must dissent. For instance, those who believe 
that Thomas Jefferson was the most profound political phil- 
osopher, and the most skillful party leader that America has 
ever produced, cannot concur in the estimate which Mr. 
Roosevelt places upon him, and upon his public acts. 

Yet, the discussion, upon the whole, is so admirable and 
frank, that the admirer of Jefferson, will arise from the peru- 
sal with undiminished esteem for Jefferson — and for the author. 



The Economic History of Virginia in the Seventeenth 
Century, bv Philip Alexander Bruce, recently issued by Mac- 
millan & Co., is the most remarkable of recent historical pub- 
lications. 

It is an "inquiry into the material condition of the people, 
based upon original and contemporaneous records."' It treats 
of such topics as the following: 

The Reasons for the Colonization, Indian Economv, Ag- 
ricultural Development, Acquisition of title to Land, System 
of Labor, Domestic Economy of the Planter, Relative value 
of Estates, Manufactured Supplies, Money, The Town. 



400 THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Tiie originality of Mr. Bruce's conception, and the excel- 
lence of its execution, have lifted his work out of the ordinary 
ruts of historical composition, and have made it truly what its 
.^e imports, an Economic History. 

The work has everywhere been received with strong- com- 
mendation, and is not only an entertaining and instructive 
book, but is, also, a monument to the research and scholar- 
ship of the author. 



Among the most valued of our exchanges are the publica- 
tions of the Bureau of Ethnology. The 13th Annua) Report 
of this Bureau to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 
by J. W. Powell, Director, issued from the Government Print- 
ing Office, at Washington, 1896, is an admirable report. It 
gives a sketch of the operations of the Bureau, together with 
illustrated articles on Ethnological topics, prepared by ex- 
perts. Among these articles are: 

Prehistoric Textile Art of Eastern United States by Wil- 
liam Henry Holmes. 

Stone Art, by Gerard Fowke. 

Aboriginal Remains in Verde Valley, Arizona, by Cosmos 
Mindeleff. 

Omaha Dwellings, Furniture, and Implements, by J. 
Owen Dorsey. 

Casa Grande Ruins, by Cosmos Mindeleff. 

Outlines of Zuni Creation Myths, by Frank Hamilton 
Cushing. 



An excellent treatise, entitled The Government of the People 
of the State of Tennessee, by T. C. Karns, A. M., Professor of 
Philosophy and Pedagogics, University of Tennessee, has re- 
cently been published by Eldridge & Brother, Philadelphia. 

This book is intended as a text- book for the use of schools, 
and is well suited for the purpose. It will, also, be valuable 
to the citizens of Tennessee not only as affording- reading: mat- 
ter of interest, but also as an accurate, reliable, and conven- 
ient reference book on points connected with State Govern- 
ment. 

The book bears evidence throughout of the research, 
good judgment, and scholarship of its accomplished author. 



TENNESSEE BOOKS. 



CALDWELL, (Joshua W.) STUDIES IN 
T HE CONSTITUTIONA L HISTO R Y 

OF TENNESSEE: The Watauga As- 
sociation; the Cumberland Compact; 
the State of Franklin; and the Con- 
stitutions of 1796, 1831, and 1870. Por- 
traits, 12mo., cloth $2.00. 

THRUSTON, (General Gates P.) ANTIQ. 
UITIES OF TENNESSEE. AND THE 
ADJACENT STATES. The state of 
Aboriginal Society in the scale of 
civilization represented by them A 
series of historical anil ethnological 
studies. Illustrated with 18 fine iull- 
page plates, and 216 wood cuts in the 
text. 8mo., cloth $4.00- 

RAMSEY, (J. G. W.) ANNALS OF TEN- 
NESSEE, comprising i's settlement 
as the Watauga Association 1769- 
1777; Part of North Carolina 1777- 
1781; State of Franklin 1781-1788 ; Ter - 
ritory of the United States 1790 1796; 
State of Tennessee 1796-1800. Map. 
8vo., cloth $3.00. 

PUTNAM, (A. W.) HISTORY OF MID- 
DLE TENNESSEE, or, Life and 
Times of Gen. James Robertson. 8to., 
cloth. (Scarce, we have on y a few 
copies) $6.00. 

OLD TIMES IN WEST TENNESSEE. 
Reminiscences, semi-historical, of 
pioneer life, and the early emigrant 
settler in the Big Hatchie country. 
By a descendant of one of the first 
settlers. 12mo.,cloth $1.25. 

PHELAN, (James) HISTORY OF TEN- 
NESSEE. The Making of a State. 
12mo., cloth. *2.00. 



HAYWOOD, (John) THE CIVIL AND 
POLITICAL HISTORY OF TEN- 
NESSEE, from its earliest settlement 
to the year 1796, including the bound 
arie^ of the State. Exact reprint of 
the edition of 1823, with a biograph- 
ical sketch of Judg-e Haywood by 
Colonel A. S. Colyar. 8vo., sheep. 
$1.00. 

GILMORE, (James R.) THE ADVANCE 
GUARD OF WESTERN CIVILIZA- 
TION, (James Robertson and his 
Times). 12mo., cloth $1.50. 

GILMORE, (James R.) THE REAR 
GUARD OF THE REVOLUTION. 

12mo., cloth $1.50. 

GILMORE, (James R.) JOHN SEVIER, 
THE COMMONWEALTH BUILD- 
ER 12mo., cloth $1.50. 

ROOSEVELT, (Theodore) THE WIN- 
NING OF THE WEST. Vol. I. and 
II.: From the Alleghaniesto the Mis- 
sissippi 1769-1783. Vol. III. : Founding 
of the Trans-Alleghany Common- 
wealth 1781-1790. Vol. IV: Louisiana 
and the Northwest 1741-1807. Each 
volume complete in itself. Sold sepa- 
rately, per volume $2.50. 

HAYWOOD'S NATURAL AND ABO- 
RIGINAL HISTORY OF TENNES- 
SE E. Nashville, 1823, in original sheep 
binding, slightly spotted as usual. 

$75.00. 

Brinley's copy in same condition sold 
for $100.00. 



Any of the above sent by mail prepaid on 
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THE ROBERT CLARKE CO., 

CINCINNATI, OHIO.