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AMERICAN HISTORY: 



COMPRISING 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF THE INDIAN TRIBES ; 



A. DESCRIPTION OF 



AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES, 

WITH AN INOUIRT INTO THEIR ORIGIN AND THE ORIGIN OF 
THE INDIAN TRIBES ; 

HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES, 

WITH APPENDICES SHOWING ITS CONNECTION WITH EUROPEAN HISTORY t 

HISTORY OF THE PRESENT BRITISH PROVINCES ; 

HISTORY OF MEXICO; 

AND HISTORY OF TEXAS, 

BROUGHT DOWN TO THE TIME OF ITS ADMISSION INTO THE AMERICAN UNION. 



BY MARCIUS WILLSON, 



NEW YORK: 

PUBLISHED BY MARK H. NEWMAN & CO., 
No. 199 BROADWAY. 



1847. 




Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1646, by 

MARCIUS WILLSON, 

In the Clerk's OflSce of the District Court of the United States, for the 

Northern District of New York. 



E^-if 



^ 



■TBRMOTCTBD BT THOMAS B. SMITH, •»• »■ BEDFORD. rRINTER, 

21« WILLIAM STR«T, N«W TORE. ^^S FtLTO.N STKl ET. 



6> 



^' 



INTRODUCTION. 



The design of the following work is to present the histories of all those coun- 
tries of North America that are now of sufficient political importance to demand 
the attention of the scholar, and awaken the interest of the general reader. As 
an appropriate introduction to such a work, we have given the most important, of 
what little is known, of the history of the Al)origines of America, together with 
descriptive sketclies of those rude memorials of a former civilization that were once 
so numerous throughout our own territory ; and of others, magnificent even in 
their desolation, which now strew the plains, and crown the hill-tops, of Mexico, 
Yucatan, and Central America. The probable origin of these antiquities, and of 
the Indian tribes, has long been a subject of the antiquarian researches of the 
learned. 

Of the histories of the several political divisions of North America, that of our 
own country claims our first attention, and to it we have given an appropriate space in 
the present work, commensurate with its importance. Its relations with European 
history, and with the history of England in particular, have been dwelt upon in the 
several appendices, at considerable length. To the article explanatory of the char- 
acter and design of those appendices, see page 107, the reader is referred for our 
farther views on this subject. 

The third part of the volume, or, as it is called. Book III., gives the history of 
the present British Provinces in North America, from their earliest settlement to 
ttic present period — both under the French and under the English dominion ; — the 
early history of Louisiana, previous to the purchase of that territory by the United 
States in 1803 ; — the history of Mexico, from the conquest by Cortcz, to the com- 
mencement of the war with the United States in 18 IG; — and the history of Texas, 
from its first settlement, to the time of its admission into the American Union. 

In relation to other features in the Plan of the work, farther than the general 
divisions to which we have referred, a few remarks may not be inappropriate. — 
It is a fact, not universally known, that all the French writers on Canadian his- 
tory — the writers upon Blexican history — and generally, all Catholic writers, give 
dates according to the New, or Gregorian Style, subsequent to the year 1582; 
while cotcmporary English writers of American and European history retain the 
Old Style so late as the year 1751.* Hence discrepancies in dates, almost innu- 
merable, are found in the works of those compilers who have either been ignorant 
of this fact, or have disregarded it. In the following work the author has endea- 
vored to give the dates, uniformli/, in New Style. 

A minute Marginal Analysis has been carried throughout the entire work — • 
each subject being opposite that portion of the text to which it refers, and num- 

* See this subject examined in a " Critical Review of American Uistorie!?," by the author of 
this work, published i;i tlie Biblical Repository of July, 18-1-5. 






IV INTRODUCTION. 

berecl to correspond with similar divisions of tlip text. The design of this arrango- 
mcnt is to give the work a better adaptation to the purposes of instruction — being 
better than questions for advanced pupils ; while the teacher may easily convert 
each subject, or head, in the analysis, into a question if thought desirable. It is 
believed that this feature in the plan of the work will also prove highly acceptable 
to the general reader. 

The marginal Dates and References are numerous, carrying along a minute 
chronoloiiy with the history. This plan avoids the necessity of cncuiiiberiNg the 
text with dates, and at the same time furnishes, to the inquiring reader, a history 
far more minute and circumstanti;*! than could otherwise be embraced in a volume 
much lai-ger than the present. The supposed utility of the Chart, (pages ](> and 
17,) may be learned from the explanation of the same on page 18. 

The Phogressive Series of the three Large Maps, on pages 20, 432, and 502, 
shows the state of the country embraced in the present United States at different 
periods. The First represents it as occupied by the Int'ian tribes, fifty years after 
the settlement of Jamestown, when only a few bright spots of civilization relieved 
the darkness of the picture. The Second as it was at the close of the Revolution, 
when almost the entire region west of the .VHrix'i^nics Vi-as a wilderness — showing 
how slowly settlements had advanced during the long period that the colonics were 
under the dominion of Great Britain. The Third represents the country as it now 
is, and as it has become under the influence of republican institutions. In place 
of the recent wilderness, we observe a confederacy of many states, each witli its 
numerous cities, towns, and villages, denoting the existence of a great and happy 
people. 

The Geograpihcal and Historical Notes and Small Maps, at the bottoms 
of the pages, give the localities of all important places mentioned, and furnish that 
kind of geographical information respecting them, without which the history can 
be read with little interest or profit. i\Iaps of important sections of the country, 
the vicinities of large towns, plans of battle grounds and sieges, &c., are here given 
on the same pages with the events referring to them, where they necessarily catch 
the eye of the reader, so that they can hardly fail to arrest his attention, and in- 
crease tlic interest that he feels in t!ie history. The map of Mexico, page 558, has 
been drawn witii care, .ind being little more than an outline of the political divi- 
sions of that extensive country, is probably sulTicienlly accurate. Our Icnowledgc 
of the geography of jMexico, however, is yet exceedingly imperfect, and little reli- 
ance can be placed upon map;; for the distances between places. Tli.e map of Texas, 
page 620, and the several small maps of particular sections of that country, will bo 
round a great aid to the reader in perusing the history of that portion oi' oiir Re- 
public. In addition to what are properly " embellishments," nearly ninety maps 
and charts, large and small, have been introduced, seven of which occupy entire 
pages ; and nearly six hundred localities, mentioned in the history, have been des. 
cribed in the geographical notes. And unless the reader has as much knowledge 
of these lot-alities as can be derived from the notes and map.-, his knowkdixe of the 
history will be exceedingly vague and unsatisfactory. For if the names of places 
mentioned in history convey to our minds no moaning, tliey might as well be omit- 
ted enliivlv, and fictitious names would answer equally well. A fimiliarity with 
localities is indispensable to the ready acquisition, and the subsequent retention, of 
historical knowledrrc. 



CONTENTS AND PLAN OF THE WORK. 



BOOK I. 

.NDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA, AND AMERICAN 

ANTIQUITIES. 



CHAPTER I. 

INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

Skction I. Northern Tribes. Esquimaux and Athapaseas. — Jurisdiction over their territory. 
Tribes in the interior and on the coast. 

Section II. Algonquin Tribes. Montagnars. — Algonquins. — Kniijteneaux. — Ottawas. — Pon- 
tine. — Mississaguies. — Micmacs. — Etchemins. — Abenakes. — New England Indians, (Massa- 
chusetts, Pawtuckets, Nipnmcks, Pokanokets, and N.arragansetts.) Massasoit. — Caimbi- 
tnnt.-Canniiiriis.-Miantoiiomoli. — Ninis^t.— Sassamon. — Philip .- Canonchet. — Annawon. 
Mohegan Tribes, (I'equods, Montauks, Manhattans, Wabingas, &c.) Xlnras. — Sassariis. — ■ 
Lenui Lenapes, (Miusi and Delawaivs,) — Wiiite E'jrs. — Cnptain Pipe. — Nautiookes. — Sus- 
quehannocks. — Jlannahoacks. — Powhatan tribes. — Poichntan — Pocahontas — Shawiiees.— 
Cornstalk. — Ttciimseh. — Miamis and Pinckisliaws.— Li«/f Turtle. — Illinois. — Kickapoos. — • 
Sacs and Foxes. — Black Hawk. — Potowatomies. — Menonomies. 

Section III. Iroquois Trfses. Ilurons, (Wyandots, Neutrals, Erigas, Andastes,') — Aclario. — 
Five Nations, (Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas.) Garangula. — 
Henrlrick. — Logan. — Tliaiienrlanega. — Shenanr/oa. — Red Jacket. — Farmer's Brother. — 
Corn Planter. — Half Town- — Big Tree. — Tuscaroras 

Section IV. Catawbas. — Cherokees. — Seqiwynk. — Speckled Snake. — tTchees. — Natches. 

Section V. Mofilian Tribes. Mu.'icogees or Creeks, (Seminoles, Yamassees, &.c.)—Mc- 
Gillirrai/. — Weathtrford. — Mcintosh. — Osceola. — Chickasau. — Moncatchtape. — Choctas. — 
Muslialatubee. — Pusluimata. i 

Section A'I. D.i^ncor.iH or Sioux Tribes. AVinnebagoes. — Assiniaoins, and Sioux Proper. — 
Minetaree Group, (Minetarees, Mandans, and Crows.) — Southern Sioux Tribes, (Arkansas, 
Osages, Kanzas, lowas, Missouries, Otoes, and Omahas.)— Other Western Tribes, (.lilaclc 
Feet, Kapids, and Pawnees.) — Petalesharoo. — Oregon Tribes. 

Section TII. Physical Character, Language, Government, Religion, and Traditions of the 
Aborigines. ....-...---- Pages, 21—62 

CHAPTER 11. 

AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. 

Section T. Antiquities found in tue United St.vtes. Ornaments. — Warlike instruments 
Domestic utensils. — Earthen ware. — Pitcher found at Na.sliville.— Triune vessel. — Idols. — 
Medals. — Mirrors. — Mural remains, &c., found at Marietta.^At Circleville. — Near Newark. 
Near Somerset.— Near Chilicothe.— At the mouth of the Sciota K.— In Missouri, &c. — 
Mounds in various places. 

Section II. Antiquities found in other portions of the Continent. Mexican Pyr.amid8, 
Ruins, &c. — Ruins of Palenque. — Of Copan. — Of Cfaichen. — Of Uxmal. — Of Labna and 
Kewick. Pages, 62— 87. 

CH^APTER III. 

SUPPOSED ORIGIN OF THE ANTIQUITIES, AND OF THE INDIAN 

TRIBES. 

The Mural Remains, ISIounds, &c., found in the United St.ates ; and the ruined edifices of 
Mexico, Yucatan, Central America, &c., attributed to tlie Aborigines.— Evidences of a Com- 
mon Origin of all the American Tribes. — The subject of the acquaintance of the Ancients with 
America examined. — Probable Asiatic Origin of all the American Tribes.^ — Conclusion — Early 
jjuerican civilization. — Reason aad Nature vtrsus Revelation. - - Pages, 87 — 85, 



6 CONTENTS AND PLAN OF THE WORK. 

BOOK II. 

HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES. 

INTRODUCTORY. 

I. The Public Seals or Coats of .\niis of tlio several Uuited Sfjites. — EngraTcd oopioa, anj 
descriptions of the sumo. II. Oluiraoter and design of the several Appendices to the History 
of the United States. III. Geography of the United States. - - - Pages, 97—110. 



PART I. 

VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. 
CHAPTER I. 

VOYAGES, CONQUESTS, AND DISCOVERIES, IN THE SOUTHERN PORTIONS 

OF NORTH AMERICA. 

Divisions. T. Discovkry op Ameuic.\ bv Oolumhus. Other claims to the DiscovcTy.— Ice- 
lamlic Claim. — Superior merit of tlie claims of Columbus. — Long a prevalent en-or respect- 
ing the Discovery. — Extent of the discoveries of CoUmibus.— The West Indies.— Yucatan. 
Di.<covery of the Pacific. — II. .li'.VN PoxoE pe Leon. Tradition of the Fountain of Life. 
Discovery of Vlorida by Do Leon. — TIT. Ds Avli.hn. Discovery of Carolina.— Ilospitivlity 
of the Natives, and Perfidy of the Spaniards. — IV. CoNijUEsr oP Mexico. Yucaian ex- 
plored. — Discovery of Jle.\ico. — Invasion by Cortcz. — Final cou^^uest of the Country. — 
Magellan —First cin.-umnavig!ition of the Ctiobe. — V. P.vMi'nil.io pk N.mivaez. Uis inva- 
sion of norida. — VI. Fekimnani) de S.ito. His landing in Florida.— Wanderings of tho 
Spaniards. — Battles with tho Natives. — Death of De Soto. — Fate of his Companions. 

Pages, 111—125 

CHAPTER II. 

NORTHERN AND EASTERN COASTS OF NORTH AMERICA. 

Drvisioxs. I. Jon's .\st> PEn.xsii.VN C.vnoT. Their first voyage to America and discovery of 
Labrador and Newfoundland. — Second voyage of Sebastian. — His subsequent A'oyages. 
II. t;\si".^ii Cokteue.vl. His voyages. — 111. Yerr.\z.\xi. .Explores the cojist from Wil- 
iiiinKton, N. C. to Newfoumlland.— Names the country JWic Frnnct'. — IV. J.vmes C.\rtier. 
His voyages to America.— Explores the St. Lawrence. — V. Koi>erv.\l. Appointed Viceroy 
of New France.- Sends Cartier on his third voyagtv — The two Toyagi>s of Koberval. — VI. 
VoY.tGES OF UiB.vi'LT, L.u'DoxxiEUE, .\>D Melexdez. — Founding of St. .\ugustine. — A'll. 
GiU'.EKT, U.\LEmu. .\Nn Orenville. Auiidas and Rarlow. — Attempted settlements at 
Roanoke — YIII. !\I.\Ri>uis De t.v UocirK. Attempts to form a Settlement. — IX. B.VK- 
THOLOMEW OosNOLli. Attempted settlement at Jlartlia's Vineyard.— Martin Pring. — X. 
Dk Monts. Extensive grant to him. — Founding of Port Royal. — Chaniplain sent to New 
France. — ^Founding of Quebec. — XI. Nourii AM> South Viriuxi.v. Plymouth and Lon- 
don Companies.— Attempted settlement .tt Kennebec. — Settlement of .)aine»town.— 

Pages, 125— ISS. 

APPENDIX TO THE PERIOD OF VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. 

Importance of examining English History in connection with our own. — Henry the Seventh. 
English claims to American territory. — Cabot — I^irly relations of F^ngland with .\inerica. — 
Character of Henry the Seventh. — St;ite of England at this Period. — Political policy of Henry 
and its Effects. — Feudal System. — Power of the Ilai-ons.— The Clergy, Religious Sanctuaries, 
&e. — Morals, Criminal Statistics, &e.— Attempts to regulate Commerce. Agriculture, Manufac- 
tures, S:c. — I'sury — Jlonopolie.-i. — Army and Navy of England. — Population — .ludicial Tri- 
bunals.— Arbitrary Powers of the Tudor Princes. — Liberties of tlu" People. — Mode of Living. 
lUiildings. — Domestic Economy, &c.— Indebtedness of America to Eui-ope.- The Afric.vn 
Sl.^ve Tr.vde. History of the origin of the English branch of It. The Reform.\tiox. Luther. 
Zninglius. — Spivad of Profestantisnt. — The Reformation in England, as connected with English 
Literature.— Connection of Henry the F.ighth with the Keformation. — The Reformation com- 
pleted under Edward the Sixth. — Intolerance of the Relbrmcis.— Papacy reestablished under 
Queen Mary.— Persecution of the Reformers. — Supremacy of the Royal I'lvrogativeat this perio<.l. 
Elizabeth. — Protcstjintism restored.- tirowingoppo.sition to Epi.-icopacy. — The Scotti.^h Clergy. 
The Two Parties among the Reformers — The Pi i:iT.\x Party. Its Chanicter. — Political aspei-t of 
the controversy. — The Puritans in Parlianicnt. — The Rivwnists.- Treatment of the I'urit.nns un- 
der Elizabeth.- I'nder.lames the First.— Emigration of the Puritans.— The Puritans in Holland. 
Political principles of the Puritans. — The Coin/mct entered into by them at Plymouth.— In- 
ilebteduess of England to the Puritans. — Their Intolerance. — Object in Emigrating. — Ths 
Quiikers.— Conclusion. - Pages, 138—101- 



CONTENTS AND PLAN OF THE WORK. 7 

PART II. 
EARLY SETTLEMENTS AND COLONIAL HISTORY. 
CHAPTER I. 

COLONIAL HISTORY OF VIRGINIA. 

&rvi8ioN8. — I. ViRQiNiA UNDER THE FiRKT CHARTER GoviTiinient. — Dissensions. — Charactet 
of the Emigrants. — The Natives. — SulTeriii(j;sof the Colony. — Con.spiracy. — Government of 
Smitli. — Smith taken I'ri.soner by tlie Indians.— Uis life saved by Pocahontas. — Conditiou 
of tlio Colony.— Exploration of the Country by Smith. — 11. VnuiiNiA under the Seoiind 
CiiARTEK. Changes in the Government. — Shipwreck of Emigrants.— Smitli's Adminihtra- 
tion.— His lU^turn to England. — The " Starving Time." — Lord Delaware. — Sir Thomas Dale. 
Sir Thomas Gates. — 111. Virginia under tub Third Charter. Changes in the Govern- 
meut.— Pocahontas. — Argall's Expeditions. — Sir Thomas Dale's Administration. — Argall's. 
Yeardloy's.— llouso of Burgesses. — Slavery. — Transportation of i'emales to Virginia. 
Written Constitutiun. — Indian Conspiracy and Massacre. — Dissolution of the London 
Company. — Uoyal Government. — IV. Vikoinia from the Dissolution oi' the London 
Company to the Commencement or the French and Indian War— The new Govern- 
ment of the <!olony.— Administration of Harvey. — Of Berkeley. — Second Indian Miissacre 
and War. — Virginia during the Civil War in England.— During the Commonwealth. — After 
the llestoratiou of Charles II. — Commercial Uestrictions. — Liberties of the People Abridged. 
Indian AVar. —Bacon's Kebellion. — Cruelty of Berkeley. — Proprietary Government. — 
BoyiU Governmeut llestored. ........ Pages, 161—178. 

CHAPTER II. 

COLONIAL HISTORY OF MASSACHUSETTS. 

Bbotion I. Massachusetts, from its earliest history, to the union op the New England 
Colonies in 1043. — 1. Earlij History. Exploration of the Country.— Smith's attempts to 
establish a Colony. — The Plymouth Company, and the Council of Plymouth. — Charter of 
tuo Latter. — II. i'lymouth Company. The Puritans. — Emigration to America. — Sufferings. 
Samosct. — Massasoit. — Canonicus. — Weston's Colony. — The London partners of the Puri- 
tans.— III. Massn<-hii.\eCts Hay Colony. Attempted Settlement at Cape Ann. — Settlement 
of Salem. — Government — ('hanges in 1C34. — Roger Williams. — Peters and Vane. — Emigra- 
tion to the Connecticut. — Mrs. Hutchinson. — Pequod War. — Attempts in England to pre- 
vent Emigration.— Education. — IV. Union of lite New Eni;lanit Colonies. Causes that led 
to it. — Terms of the Confederacy. V. Early Laws and Cuatoms. 

Section II. Massachusetts from the union of the New England Colonies to the close 
OF Kino William's War in 1H!J7. — I. Events from tlie Union to King Philip's War — 
Massachusetts during the Civil War in England. — During the CommonweiUth. — Early 
History of Maine. — Persecution of Quakers.— Restrictions upon Commerce. — Royal Com- 
missioners. — II. Kini; Philip^s War. Causes of the War. — Attack upon Swanzey. — -The 
Narragansetts. — Events at Tiverton. — Urookfield. — Deerlield.— Hadley. — Bloody Brook.— 
Springfield.— Hatfield. — Attack upon the Narragan.sett Fortress.— Death of Philip. — III. 
Controversirs anil lioynl Tyntnny. Antiros. — IV. Ma.'isnchusi'tlt (lirrim^ King U'(W(V««'s 
War. Causes of the War. — Inroads of French and Indians.— Expedition against Canada. 
New Charter, and Royal tiovernmcnt. — Salem Witchcraft. — Concluding Events of the War. 

Section 111. Massachusetts from the close of King William's War, to the commence- 
ment OF THE French and Indian War in 1754.— I. Massachusetts during Queen Anne^s 
War. Cau.sesof the ^Var. — Indian Attack on Deerfield. — Conquest of Acadia. — Attempted 
Conquest of Canada. — Treaty of Utrecht. — II. Kins; George's War. Causes that led to 
it. — Expedition against, and Conquest of Louisburg. — Treaty of Aix La Chapclle. 

Pages, 178—205. 

CHAPTER III. 

COLONIAL HISTORY OF NEW HAMPSHIUB. 

History of New Hampshire intimately connected with that of Massachusetts. — Grant to 
Gorges and ^lason. — First Settlements. — Union with Miissacluvsetts. — Separ.Uion. — First Legis- 
lature. — Union. — Separation. — Union again. — Masonian Controversy. — Final Separation from 
Massachusetts — Indian Wars. .-.--... Pages, 205 — 208. 

CHAPTER IV. 

COLONIAL HISTORY OF CONNECTICUT. 

DmeiONS.— T. Early Settlements.— ^Yin(\soT, Hartford, Wetliersfield, and Saybrook.— II. Pe- 
quod War. Aliiance of the Pequods and Narragansetts. — Destruction of the Pequod Fort, 
and Dispersion of the Tribe. — III. New Haven Colony. Settlement of New Haven.— Go- 
vernment. — IV. Connecticut under her own Constitution. The Connecticut Towns with- 
drawn from the .lurisdiction of Massachusetts.— The Constitution adopted by Tlx^ni. — Pur- 
chase of Saybrook.— V. Connecticut nniler the Royal Charter. Liberality of' the Charter. — 
Connecticut during King Philip's AVar.— Andros in Connecticut. —Events during King Wil- 
JiuB'B War.— Flctcker'i; Vibit to Hartford.- Yale College. — Laws, Manners, Customs, &r. 

Pages. 208-215 



;J. CONTENTS AND PLAN OF THE WORK. 

CHAPTER V. 

COLONIAL HISTORY OF RHODE ISLAND. 

Roger TVilUams. — Founding of Proridence.— Religious Toleration. — Mr. Williams's Mediation 
with the Pequods and Narragausetts. — Providence during the Pequod War. — Portsmouth and 
Newport. — Charter from Parliament. — Government and Early Laws of Rhode Island. — Charter 
from the King. — Andros. Pages, 215—218. 

CHAPTER VI. 

COLONIAL HISTORY OF NEW YORK. 

Sbction I.— New Netherlands, previous to its Conquest by the English in 1C64. Voyages of 
Uenry Hudson.— Dutch settlements at New York and Albany. — Dutch. — New Jersey. — 
" Charter of Liberties." — Colony of De Vriez in Delaware. — The Dutch in Connecticut. 
On Long Island.— Swedish Settlements in Delaware. — Indian Wars. — Kieft. — Stuj'vesant. 
Subjugation of the Swedish Colony by the Dutch. Conquest of New Netherlands by the 
English. 

Sbction II. New York, from the Conquest of New Netherlands, to the Commencement of 
the French and Indian War. — Administration of Nichols. — Of Lovelace.- Reconquest of 
the Country by the Dutch. — Restoration to England. — Administration of Andros. — Of 
Dongan. — The French and the Iroquois. — Andros Again. — Leisler and Milborne — Destruc- 
tion of Schenectady. — Expedition against Montreal. — Execution of Leisler and Milborne. 
Sloughter. — Fletcher. — Bellamont. — Lord Cornbury. — New York during Queen Anne's 
War. — The Tuscaroras. — French Forts, &c. — Administration of Got. Cosby.— Negro Plot. 

Pages, 218—236. 

CHAPTER VII. 

COLONIAL HISTORY OF NEW JERSEY. 

Early Settlements.— Constitution of the Colony.— DiSkulties with the Proprietors, and the 
Duke of York. — Division of the Province. — Government. — Conflicting Claims of the Proprietors. 
New Jersey under the Royal Government. ---... Pages, 236 — 240. 

CHAPTER VIII. 

COLONIAL HISTORY OF MARYLAND. 

Early Exploration of the Country. — Settlements. — Lord Baltimore. — His Charter. — Settle- 
laent of St. Mary's. — Difficulties with Clayborne. — Laws. — Indian War. — Insurrection. — Religi- 
ous Toleration.— Dissensions, and Civil War. — A Royal Government in Maryland. — Restoration 
of the Proprietor. -.... Pages, 240—245. 

CHAPTER IX. 

COLONIAL HISTORY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

Settlements of the Swedes. — Grant to AVm. Penn. — His Regulations for the GoTernment of 
the Colony. — •' The Territories." — Indian Treaty. — Founding of Philadelphia. — A '■ Charter of 
Liberties." — Withdrawal of Delaware. — Death of Penn, and subsequent History of the Colony. 

Pages, 245—250. 

CHAPTER X. 

COLONIAL HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

Raleigh's attempted Settlements. — Grant to Sir Robert Heath. — To Clarendon and Others. 
Albemarle Colony. — Clarendon Colony. — Locke's Constitution.— Dissensions. — Sothel. — Arch- 
dale. — French and German Emigrants. — Indian Tribes. — War with the Tuscaroras. — Separa- 
tion of the two Carolinas. Pages, 250—255^ 

CHAPTER XI. 

COLONIAL HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

Charter of Clarendon. — Cartaret County Colony.-Foundingof Charleston.— Indian War.-Port 
Royal. — French Ifugenots. — Colleton's Administration. — Sothel's. — Ludwell's. — Archdale. — Ex- 
pedition against St. Augustine.— Indian War. — Religious Dissensions. — Spanish Invasion- 
War with the Yamassees — Domestic Revolution. — Royal Government. - Pages, 255—261. 



CHAPTER XII. 



COLONIAL HISTORY OF GEORGIA. 



Oglethorpe. — First Charter of Georgia. — Settlement of Savannah — Indian Treaty. — Regula- 
tions of the Trustees. — Preparations for War with the Spaniards. — Wesley. — Whitefield. — Ex- 
pedition against St. Augustine. — Spanish Invasion. — Changes in the Government. — Slavery 

Pages, 261— 26& 



CONTENTS AND PLAN OF THE WORK. 9 

CHAPTER XIII. 

THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. 

Divisions. — I. Causes op the war, and events of 1754. English Claims to the Country. 
Trench Claims. — The Ohio Company.— Washington's Embassy. — Jumonville. — I'ort Ne- 
cessity. — Albany Convoution, and Plan of the Union. — 11. 1755 : Expeditions of Moiickton, 
Braddock, Shirley and Johnson. lieJuction of Nova Scotia. — Braddock's Defeat. — Failure 
of the Expedition against Niagara. — Expedition against Crown I'oiut. — Defe it of Dieskau. 
III. 1756 : Delays ; Loss of Oswego ; Indian Incursions. Plan of the Campaign. — Aber- 
crombie and Lord Jjoudon, — Alontcalm reduces Oswego. — Armstrong's Expedition. — IV. 
1757: Designs against Louisburg, and Loss of Fort W>n. Henry. Plan of the Campaign. 
Montcalm reduces Fort \Vm. Henry. — V. 1758: Reduction of Louishurg ; Abercrornbie^s 
Defeat; The Taking of Forts Frontenac ami Du Quesne. The Pitt Ministry. — Siege and 
Conquest of Louisburg. — Abercrombie's Repulse at Ticonderoga. — Expedition against Fort 
J'rontenac. — Against Fort Du Quesne. — VI. 1759 to 1703 : Ticonderoga and Crown Point 
Abandoned; Niagara Taken; Conquest of Quebec ; Of all Canada; War with the Cheto- 
kees; Peace 0/1763. Pages, 260—285 

APPENDIX TO THE COLONIAL HISTORY. 

Design of the Appendix. — James I. 1603— 1625.— Political Aspect of Religious Controversies 
at this Period. — The Puritans. — Policy of James. — Ilis Character. — American Colonization. 
Virginia Charters. — Popular Liberty. — The Plymouth Company. — Charles I. 1625 — 1649. His 
CharacttT.— Controversies with Parliament. — His Arbitrary Measures. — Hampden. — Ecclesias- 
tical Policy of Charles. — Commotions in Scotland. — Stratford.— Civil War. — Execution of the 
King. — Relations of England with her Americm Colonies during this Reign.— The Common- 
wealth. 1649 — 1660. The Character of Religious Parties. — Supremacy of the Independents. 
Oliver Ciomwell. — War with Holland. — Overthrow of the Long Parliament. — Barebone's Par- 
liament. — Cromwell installed as Lord Protector.^\V'ar with Spain.— Cromwell's Administra- 
tion and Death. — Richard Cromwell. — Restoration of Monarchy. — Relations with the American 
Colonies during the Commonwealth.— Charles II. 1660—1685. Character of Charles II. — 
Change in the Sentiments and Feelings of the Nation. — War with Holland.— Treaty of Breda. 
Another Mar. — Treaty of Nimeguen. — Domestic Administration of Charles. — Whigs and To 
ries. — The various Navigation Acts. — Bold Stand of Massachusetts in Defence of her Liberties. 
Rhode Inland and Connecticut.— Controversy with the Royal Commissioners. — With the ICing. 
Subversion of the Dutch Power in America. — Pennsylvania. — Origin, Practices, and Principles 
of the Quakers.— Quaker Colonization in America. — James II. 1685—1688. General Character 
of his Reign. — Monmouth's Rebellion. — Landing of William in England, and Flight of James. 
Relations of James with the American Colonies.— William and Mary. 1688— 1702. Character 
of the Revolution of 1688.— Rebellion in Scotland —War with France.— Treaty of Ryswick. 
Policy of AV'illiam towards the Colonies. — Colonial Relations during His Reign. — Anne. 1702^ 
1714. AVar of the Spanish Succession. — Treaty of Utrecht.- The Slave Trade.— George I. 
1714—1727. Rebellion in Scotland.— George II. 1727—1760. Walpole.— War with Spain. 
War of the Austrian Succession.— Treaty of Aix la Chapelle.— The " Seven Years War." 
Conclusioa. Education; Manners; Morals; Religion, &c., in the American Colonies 

Pages, 285—335, 



PART III. 

AMERICAN REVOLUTION. 

CHAPTER I. 

CAUSES WHICH LED TO THE REVOLUTION. 

Long Series of Aggressions upon the Colonies.— Design of Taxing the Colonies.— The Stamp 
Act of 1765. — Its Effects upon the Colonies. — First Colonial Congress.- Repeal of the Stamp 
Act.— New Scheme of Taxing America.— Excitement produced by it.— British Troops sent to 
America.— Affray in Boston.— Royal Regulation of 1772.— Destruction of Tea at Baston. — Bos- 
ton Port Bill. — Massachusetts Charter subverted. — Second Colonial Congress. — Determined 
Oppression. — Determined Resistance. Pages, 335—347. 

CHAPTER II. 

EVENT.S DURINR THE YEAR 1775. 
Battle of Lexington. — Expedition of Allen and Arnold. — Battle of Bunker's Hill.— Con- 
gress.— Washington appointed to the Command of the Army.— The Royal Governors.— Inva- 
sion of Canada.— Surrender of St. Johns.— Of Montreal.— Assault of Quebec— Repulse.— Re- 
trmt of the Army Pages, 347—355. 

CHAPTER III. 

EVENTS DURING THE YEAR 1776. 
The Siege of Boston continued. — Boston evacuated by the British. Attack on SulliTan's 

2 



10 CONTENTS AND PLAN OF THE WORK. 

Island. — Formidable Warlike Preparations of England.— Declaration of Independence. — Battle 
of Long Island. — Of White Plains. — Capture of I'ort Washington. — Retreat of the Americans 
through New Jersey. — Capture of General Lee. — Battle of Trenton. — Situation of the Armien 
at the Close of the Year. Pages, 355-366. 

CHAPTER IV. 

EVENTS DURING THE YEAR 1777. 

Battle of Princeton. — Other Successes of Washington. — Congress. — French Assistance. — La- 
fayette. — British Expedition up the Hudson. — Tryon's Expedition to Danbury. — Sag Harbor. 
Movements of the Armies in New Jersey. — Capture of General Prcscott. — Battle of Brandy- 
wine. — AVayne surprised. — Battle of Germantowu. — Burgoyne's Expedition. — Battle of Ben- 
nington. — Siege of Fort Schuyler. — Battles of Stillwater and Saratoga. — Burgoyne's Surren- 
der. — Forts Mercer and MiftUn, on the Delaware.— Valley Forge. — Articles of Confederation. 

Pages, 366-380. 

CHAPTER V. 

EVENTS DURING THE YEAR 1778. 

Conciliatory Pleasures of the British Government. — Treaty with France. — Count D'Estaing. 
Battle of Monmouth. — The Hostile Armies in Rhode Island. — The French and English Fleets. 
Expeditions of Grey and Ferguson. — Attack on Wyoming. — On Cherry Valley. — Loss of Savan- 
nali. — Result of the Campaign. Pages, 380 — 385 

CHAPTER VI. 

EVENTS DURING THE YEAR 1779. 

The War at the South.— Defeat of the Tories under Col. Boyd.— Defeat of General Ash. 
Battle of Stono Ferry. — Tryon's Expedition against Connecticut.— Capture of Stony Point. 
Faulus Hook. — Penobscot. — Sullivan's Expedition against the Six Nations. — Siege of Savannah. 
Spain Involved in the War. — Paul Jones. — Result of the Campaign. - Pages, 385—891. 

CHAPTER VII. 

EVENTS DURING THE YEAR 1780. 

Siege of Charleston. — Americans surprised at Blonk's Corner. — Surrender of Charleston. 
Other Successes of the British. — Sumpter and Marion. — Battle of Sanders' Creek. — Defeat of 
Sumpter. — Battle of King's Mount^iin. —Other Successes of the Americans. — ICnypUausen's 
Expedition into New Jersey. — Admiral do Ternay. — Treachery of Arnold. — Fate of Andre.— 
Holland involved in the War. Pages, 391—397. 

CHAPTER VIII. 

EVENTS DURING THE YEAR 17S1. 

Kevolt of the Pennsylvania Troops.— Robert Morris. — Arnold's Depredations in Virginia. — Bat- 
tle of the Cowpens. — Cornwallis's Pursuit of Morgan — Defeat of a Body of Loyalists. —Battlo 
of Guilford Court House.— Of Hobkirk's Hill.— Assault of Ninety Six.— Fate of Colonel Hayne. 
Battle of Eutaw Springs.— Close of the Campaign at the South. — Arnold's Expedition to Con- 
necticut.— Siege of Yorktown. — Surrender of Cornwallis. ... Pages, 397 — 407. 

CHAPTER IX. 

CLOSE OF THE WAR, AND ADOPTION OF THE CONSTITUTION. 

Changes in the Policy of the British Government. — Peace concluded with England.— Dis- 
banding of the American Army. — Retirement of Washington to Private Life.— Condition of the 
Country. — National Convention. — Adoption of the Present Constitution. — Washington elected 
First President. Pages, 407--411. 

APPENDIX TO THE REVOLUTION. 

The Struggle between England and her Colonies — how viewed by European Nations, gene- 
rally.— By the People, of England, &c. — Effects produced in London by Intelligence of tha 
Battle of Lexington. — Discontents in the English Army. — H'higs and Tories. — Duke of Grafton. 
Marquis of Rockingham. — Violent Debates in Parliament. — Lord JIanstield. — Mr. Fox. — German 
AuxUiaries. — Dukes of Richmond and Cumberland. — Perseverance of the Ministry. — American 
Privateers. — Opening of Parlisiment in Oct., 1776. — King's Speech. — Ministerial Address. — Pro- 
test of the Peers. — Motion of Lord Cavendish. — War Expenses. — Lord Chatham's Motion. 
Arrogance of the Court Party. — Opening of I'iirliament, Nov., 1777. — King's Speech. — Ministe- 
rial Addresses. — Earl of Chatl\am's Remarks. — Intelligence of the Defeat of Burgoyne. — New 
Measures for supplying the Army. — Mr. Fox. — Conciliatory Measures of Lord North. — Ameri- 
can Treaty with France. — Divisions among the Whig Opposition. — Last Public Appearance of 
tlie Earl of Chatham. — Commencement of War between France and England. — War in tlin 
"West Indies. — In the East Indies. — War with Spain. — With Holland. — Armed Neutrality of the 
Northern Powers.— Siege of Gibraltar.- Surrender of Cornwallis. — Attack on Gibraltar —Arti- 
cles of Peace. — Remarks on the Character of tlie War. - - Pages, 411—4312 



CONTENTS AND PLAN OF THE WORK. U 

PART IV. 

THE UNITED STATES. 

FROM THE ORGANIZATION OF THE GOVERNMENT UNDER THE FEDERAL 
CONSTITUTION, IN 1789, TO THE YEAR 1845. 

CHAPTER I. 

Washington's administration. 

Washington's Inaugural Address.— Measures of the First Session of the Congress. — Of the 
Second Session. — Indian War. — Harmer's Defeat. — National Bank. — Vermont. — St. Clair's De- 
feat. — Kentucky. — The French Minister Genet — General Wayne. — Whiskey Insurrection. 
Jay's Treaty.— Treaty of Greenville.— Treaty with Spain. — With Algiers. — Washington's Fare- 
weU Address. Pages, 432-439. 

CHAPTER II. 

ADAMs's ADMINISTRATION. 
Difficulties with France— Death of AVashington.— Uis Character. — Seat of GoTernment. 
Mississippi Territory. — Treaty with France. — Alien and Sedition Laws. Pages, 439-443. 

CHAPTER III. 

Jefferson's administration. 

Changes Introduced.— Ohio.— Purchase of Louisiana. — War with Tripoli. — Death of Hamil- 
ton. — Michigan. — Burr's Conspiracy. — Difficulties with England and France. — American Em- 
bargo. Pages, 443—447. 

CHAPTER IV. 

Madison's administration. 

Section I. 1809-10-11 : — Continued Difficulties with England.— Battle of Tippecanoe. 

Section II. 1812 :— Declaration of War Agiiinst England. — The Army. — General Hull — Loss of 
Mackinaw. — Colonel Miller. — Surrender of Detroit. — Battle of Queenstown. — The Consti- 
tution and Guerriere. — Wasp and Frolic. — United States and Macedonian. — Constitution 
and Java. 

Section III. 1813 : — Positions of the American Forces. —Battle of Frenchtown. — Siege of Fort 
Meigs. — Defence of Fort Sandusky. — Battle of Lake Erie. — Of the Thames. — Fort Mims. 
Tohopeka. — Capture of York. — Attack on Sacketts Harbor. — Events on the Niagara Fron- 
tier.— On the St. Lawrence. — Naval Battles. — Hornet and Peacock — Chesapeake and Shan- 
non. — Argus and Pelican. — The Boxer. — The Essex. — War on the Sea-board. 

Section IV. 1814 :— Fort Erie.— Battle of Cbippewa.— Of Lundy's Lane.— Of Plattsburg.— Of 
Bladcnsburg. — Burning of the Capitol. — Events near Baltimore. — At Stonington. — Cap- 
ture of Pensacola.— Battle of New Orleans.— Hartford Convention. — War with Algiers. 
Second National Bank. - • - - - - _ - - _ - Pages, 447--470. 

CHAPTER V. 

Monroe's administration. 

State of the Country.— Difficulties with the Creeks and Seminoles.— Capture of St. 
Marks and Pensacola. —Purchase of Florida.— The Missouri Question.— Lafayette's Visit. 

Pages, 470-473. 

CHAPTER VI. 

J. Q. adams's administration. 
Controversy with Georgia.- Deaths of the Ex-Presidents, Adams and Jefferson.— The Elec- 
tion of 1828. Pages, 473—474. 

CHAPTER VII. 

Jackson's administration. 

Removal from Office.— United States Bank.— Winnebago War.— Tariff, and State Rights, 
The Cherokecs.— Seminole War. Pages, 474— 478. 

CHAPTER VIII. 

VAN buren's administration. 

Condition of the Country.— Specie Circular.— Independent Treasury.- Seminolo War Con- 
tinued.— Electiou of 1S40. . . - Pages, 479—482. 



12 CONTENTS AND PLAN OF THE WORK. 

CHAPTER IX. 

Harrison's administration. 
Harrison's loauguial Address.— His Oabiuet.— Uis Sudden Death. - Pages, 482, 483 

CHAPTER X. 

Tyler's administration. 

Kepeal of the Independent Treasury Bill. — North Eastern Boundary Treaty.— DifiBculties in 
Khode Island. — Annexation of Texas. ---.-.. Pages, 483, 484. 

APPENDIX TO THE PERIOD SUBSEQUENT TO THE REVOLUTION. 

The Government of the Dnited States as Compared with Other Federal Governments. — The 
Early Federalists and Anti-Federalists. — Final General Approval of the Constitution. — The 
French Revolution. — Aggressions on the Part of England in 1(J93. — Jay's Treaty. — Kenewed 
Aggressions of England. — Excited State of PubUc Feeling — French Berlin Decree. — British 
Decree of Jan. 1807. — Pinckney and Monroe's Treaty. — British Orders in Council. — Milan 
Decree. — American Embargo. — Xon-Intercourse Law. — The Erskine Treaty.— Repeal of the 
Orders in Council. — Extent of British Depredations on American Commerce.— The '' Peace 
Party" of 1812. — Declaration of War — Federal Opposition— Hartford Convention. — The Sub- 
ject of Commercial Restrictions. — Imports and Exports. — The Different Eras of FederaUsm. 
Its Principles. — Political Questions Since the War of 1812. — Ultimate Destiny of the American 
Confederacy. - - -.-...... Pages, 485—501. 



BOOK III. 

EARLY FRENCH SETTLE3IENTS IN NORTH AMERICA; PRESENT 
BRITISH PROVINCES ; MEXICO ; AND TEXAS. 



PART I. 

EARLY FRENCH SETTLEBLENTS, AND PRESENT BRITISH PROVINCES 

IN NORTH AMERICA. 

CHAPTER I. 

HISTORY OF CANADA UNDER THE TRENCH. 

Introduction to the History of Canada. — Champlain's Discoveries, and Relations with the 
Hurons and Algonquins. — Various Expeditions Against the Iroquois. — De Caen Governor. 
Champlain Restored. — Conquest of New France by the English in ltj29. — Peace of 1632. — Mis- 
sionary Establishments. — Wars Between the Algonquins and Iroquois, involving the French. 
Administration of De Tracy.— Of De (^'oureelles. — Of Frontenac. — De La Barre and De Non- 
ville. — Second Administration of Frontenac. — Canada During King William's AVar. — During 
Queen Anne's War. — Encroachments of the French on the Territory of the Enslisli. — Con- 
quest of Canada. Pages, 505—517 

CHAPTER II. 

EARLY HISTORY OF LOUISIANA. 

Jes\iit Missionaries. — Discovery of the Mississippi. — Expedition and Discoveries of La Salle 
and his Companions. — La Salle's Colony in Texas. — Death of La Salle. — Settlements in Upper 
Louisiana. — In Southern Louisiana. — Crozat. — The Mississippi Company. — Destruction of the 
French Post at Natchez.— War with the Natches. — With the Chickasas.— The Treaty of 1703. 
Louisiana during the American Revolution. — Treaty of 1795. — Violated by the Spaniards. 
Treaty of San Ildephonso. — Purchase of Louisiana by the United States. Pages, 517—529. 

CHAPTER III. 

HISTORY' OF CANADA UNDER THE ENGLISH. 

The Change of Dominion. — Canada During the American Revolution. — Division of Canada. 
Government of the two Provinces.— Canada during the War of 1S12-14. — Administration of 
Sir Gordon Drummond.— Sir John Sherbrooke.— Duke of Richmond. — Lord Dalhousie.— Con- 
troversies with the Assembly. — Sir James Kempt. — Lord Aylmer. — Increasing Dissensions. 
liOTd Gosford.— Sir Francis Bond Head. — The Crisis. — Casadiaa' Rebellion. — Union of the 
two Canadas. Pages, 529—642. 



CONTENTS AND PLAN OF THE WORK. 13 

CHAPTER IV. 

NOVA SCOTIA. 

Its Early History. — Domestic Dissensions. — Il^eated Conquests of the Country by the Eng. 
lish.— Final Conquest in 1710. — Nova Scotia duriug; King George's War.— English Colonization. 
Kebellion of the French Inhabitants. — Their subjugation, and banishment. — Nova Scotia du- 
ring and subsequent to the American Kevolution. ... - Pages, 540—548. 

CHAPTERS V, VI, AND VII. 



PART II. 

HISTORY OF MEXICO. 

CHAPTER I. 

ABORIGINAL MEXICO. 



History of the Toltecs — The Chiehomecas.— The Aztecs or Mexicans. — Their Knowledge of 
the Arts. — Political Institutions. — The Court of Montezuma. — Wars, and Human Sacrifices. 

Pages, 557—566. 

CHAPTER 11. 

COLONIAL HLSTORY OF MEXICO. 

The Spanish Conquest. — Condition of the Aborigines.— General Policy of the Spanish Colo- 
nial Government. — Abuses Perpetrated under it. — Condition of Mexico at the Beginning of tha 
Present Century. .--.--..... Pages, 567—572. 

CHAPTER III. 

MEXICO DURING THE FIRST REVOLUTION. 

Situation of Spain in 1808. — General Situation of the Spanish American Colonies at this Pe- 
riod. — Dissensions in Mexico. — Commencement of the Revolution. — Successes of Hidalgo. 
His Reverses and Death. — Rayon. — Career of Jlorelos. — Other lasurgent Chiefs. — Victoria. 
Mina\s Invasion.— Close of the First Revolution in 1819. ... Pages, 573—588. 

CHAPTER IV. 

BIEXICO, FROM THE CLOSE OF THE FIRST REVOLUTION, TO THE ADOPTION OF 
THE FEDERAL CONSTITUTION OF 1821. 

Divisions emoiWf the Mexican Spaniards. — Designs of the Viceroy. — Revolt of Iturbido and 
Plan of Ij)r>i:i\ft -Success of the Revolution.— Parties in the Congress. — IturbiJe Proclaimed and 
Klecteii jmpcror. — Overthrow of his Government. — Constitution of 1824. — Fate of Iturbido. 

Pages, 589—595. 

CHAPTER V. 

MEXICO. FROM THE ADOPTION OF THE FEDERAL CONSTITUTION OF 1824, TO 
THE CO.MMENCEMENT OF THE WAR WITH THE UNITED STATES IN 1846. 

The Presidency of Victoria. — The Scotch and the York Lodges. — Presidential Election of 1820 
'^ivil War. — Election of 1S28. — Santa Anna, heads a Rebellion. — Success of the Revolutionists. 
Pillaging of Mexico. — Guerrero becomes President. — Spanish Invasion.— Bustamcute's Re- 
bellion, and Overthrow of Guerrero. — Bu.stamente's Admiiiistr.ation. ^Rebellion and Death of 
Guerrero. — Santa Anna overthrows Bustamente's Administration.— Pedraza. — Santa Anna's 
Presidency. — Daran.^:?auta Anna Overthrows the Federal (.\)nstitution. — The Texans Refuse 
to .-Submit to hii Usurpation. — Mexi.i. — .-^anta Anna's luvasiou of Texas. — Bustamente's Presi- 
dency.— Mexia's t'econd Rebellion. — French Blockade of the Cosist. — Insurrection in the Capi- 
tal. — Yucatan. — I'aredes at the head of the Revolution of 1841 — " Plan of Tucubaya." — Santa 
Anna at the head of the Government. -His Government Overthrown by I'aredes. — His Ban- 
ishment. — Difficulties with the United States. — Ilevrera's Administration. — Revolt of Paredes, 
and Overthrow of llerrera — Commcncemeof of W.ir between the United States and Mexico 
Santa Anna Restored to Power. —Concluding Remarks on Mexican History. Pages, 595—617 



14 CONTENTS AND PLAN OF THE WORK. 

PART III. 

HISTORY OF TEXAS. 

CHAPTER I. 

l-EXAS, AS A TART OF MEXICO, WHILE UNDER THE SPANISH DOMINION. [1521-1821.] 

Indian Tribes.— La Salle's Colony at Matagorda.— De Leon's Expedition.— First Spanish Set- 
tlements. — Hostilities between tiie French and Spaniards.— \\'estern LouLsiana. — Spanish Mis- 
sions. —Texas during the Mexican Revolution. — Expedition of Toledo and Guttierez.— Mina 
and Perry. — General Long's Expedition. — French Colony in Texas. - Pages, 619—628. 

CHAPTER II. 

EVENT.S FROM THE TIME OF THE ESTABLISHMENT OF MEXICAN INDEPENDENCE, TO THE 
TIME OF THE DECLARATION OF THE INDEPENDENCE OF TEXAS. [1S21-1836.] 

The Spanish Treaty of 1819.- The Founding of Austin's Colony.— Texas Annexed to Coa- 
huila. — State Constitution.— Colonization Laws. — Character of the Texan Population. — The 
" Fredonian War."— Mexican Garrisons in Texas.— Propositions of the United States for the 
Purchase of Texas.— Mexican Decree of 18.30.— Arbitrary Acts of Mexican Officers.— Diffi- 
culties at Anahuac and Velasco.— Blexia sent to Texas.— Garrisons Withdrawn.— Convention 
at San Felipe.— Austin's Imprisonment in Mexico.— The Two Parties in the State Legislature. 
Among the Americans of Texas.— Dissensions.— Disturbances at Anahuac. — Adherence of 
Texas to the Mexican Constitution of 1824.— Affair at Gonzalez.— Capture of Goliad by the 
Texans.— Engagement near Bexar.— Convention at San Felipe and Declaration of Rights.— Pro 
■visional Government.— Capture of Bexar by the Texans.— Santa Anna's Invasion.— i^a« of the 
Alamo. 'Pages, 628-650. 

CHAPTER III. 

EVENTS FROM THE DECLARATION OF THE INDEPENDENCE OF TEXAS, TO THE 
ANNEXATION OF TEXAS TO THE AMERICAN UNION. [1836-1845.] 

Convention.— Declaration of Independence.— Organization of the Government.— President's 
Address.- Advance of the Mexican Army.— Murder of King and his Party.- Fannin's Battle. 
Surrender.— Massacre of Him and his Party. — Santa Anna Advances from Bexar.— £a«^e of 
San Jacinto, and Capture of Santa Anna — Retreat of the Mexican Forces. — Final Liberation 
of Santa Anna.— Recognitions of Texan Independence by the United States, France, and Eng- 
land.— Relations with Mexico.— The Santa Fe Expedition.— Departure from Austin.— Sufferings 

of tiie Party. Surrender to the Mexicans. — Sent to Mexico and Imprisoned.— Invasions of 

Texas in 1842.— Account of the Mier Expedition.— Admission of Texas into the American 
Union.— Concluding Remarks. Pages, 651-672. 



EMBEILISHIENTS, MAPS, CHARTS, PLANS, &C., 

CONTAINED IN THE FOLLOWING WORK. 



Pages. 

1 Chart op American History 16-17 

2 Map of the Indian Tribes - - 20 

3 Plan of Ruins at Marietta, Ohio - 66 

4 Ruins at Circleville - - - 66 

5 Ruins near Newark . - . 67 

6 Ruins near Somerset - - - 67 

7 On the North Branch of Paint Creek 67 

8 On Paint Creek, nearer Chilicothe - 69 

9 At the Mouth of the Sciota River - 70 

10 Map of Yucatan and the Adjoining 

Provinces ----- 74 

11 Plan of the Ruins of Palenque - 74 

12 Building called the Palace - - 75 



Pages. 

20 Doorway of a Building at Kewick 87 

21 Landiko op the Pilgrims - - 96 

22 Ilcraldric Colors - - - - 97 

52 (30) Seals of the States and Territo- 

ries 98,106 

53 Seal of the United States - 106 

54 Valley of Mexico - - 116 

55 Vicinity of Pensacola - - 122 

56 Vicinity of Montreal - 128 

57 Port Royal Island and Vicinity - 129 

58 Vicinity of St. Augustine - - 130 

59 Harbor of St. Augustine - 1.30 

60 Roanoke Island and Vicinity - 131 



13 Plan of the Ruins of Copan - - 7>; 61 Vicinity of Jamestown - - 136 

14 Stone Altar found at Copan - - 7^, 62 Pocahontas saving the life 

15 Plan of the Ruins of Chichen - , si of C.^I'tain Smith - - 161 

16 Plan of the Ruins of Uxmal - , .i 63 Plymouth and vRinity - - - 181 



17 The '' House of the Governor' 

18 Ground Plan of the Same - - 84 

19 Stone Building at Labna - 88 



64 Vicinity of Boston - - - 184 

65 Valley of the Conn. River, in Mass. 194 

66 Narragansett Fort and Swamp - 19c 



CONTENTS AND PLAN OF THE WORK. 



15 



67 Vicinity of Pemaquld Fort - 

68 Vicinity of Portland 

69 Louisburg and Vicinity, in 1745 

70 Island of Cape Breton - 

71 Vicinity of Portsmouth - 

72 Vicinity of Hartford 

73 New Haven and Vicinity 

74 Vicinity of Providence - 

75 New York and Vicinity - 

76 Albany and Vicinity 

77 Northern part of Delaware 

78 Vicinity of Annapolis 

79 Philadelphia and Vicinity 

80 Vicinity of Wihnineton, N. C. 

81 Charleston and Vicinity 

82 Savannah and Vicinity - 

83 Vicinity of Frederica, Geo. 

84 Death of General Wolfe 

85 Forts in New Brunswick 

86 Vicinity of Lake George 

87 Forts at Oswego 

88 Vicinity of Quebec 

89 Battle of Bunker's Hill 

90 Plan of the Siege of Boston - 

91 Battle of Long Island 

92 Westchester County 

93 Forts Lee and Washington 

94 Seat of War in New Jersey 

95 Trenton in 1776 

96 Places West of Philadelphia - 

97 Vicinity of Ticonderoga - 

98 Fort Schuyler on the Mohawk 

99 Towns of Saratoga and StUlwater - 
100 Camps of Gates and Burgoyne at Sa- 
ratoga . - - . - 



Page. 
198 
198 
203 
203 
206 
208 
211 
215 
220 
221 
223 
240 
248 
251 
256 



101 
102 
103 
104 
105 
108 
107 
108 
109 
110 
111 
112 
113 

114 



2611115 
262 116 



267 
272 
273 
275 
280 
335 
349 
359 
362 
362 
363 
364 
372 
374 
376 
376 

376 



117 

118 
119 
120 
121 
122 
123 

124 
125 
126 
127 
128 



129 



Forts on the Hudson 

Plan of Fort Mercer 

Battle of Monmouth 

Seat of Wax in South Carolina 

Battle of Sander's Creek 

Surrender of Cornwalus - 

Battle of Guilford Court House 

Battle of Hobkirk's HUl - 

Plan of the Siege of Yorktown 

New London and Vicinity 

Vicinity of Gibraltar 

The Fortress of Gibraltar 

Map op the Country at the close 
OP THE Revolution 

Vicinity of New Orleans 

District of Columbia 

Vicinity of Detroit 

Niagara Frontier - - - 

Seat of the Creek War in Alabama 

Vicinity of Niagara Falls 

Vicinity of Baltimore 

Seat of the Seminole War in Florida 

Map op the United States in 1845 

Map of British America - 

Forts in New Brunswick - 

Map of Mexico - . . - 

Vicinity of the Capital 

Map op Texas . - . . 

Vicinity of Bexar - . - . 

Map of the Bays of Matagorda, Espi- 
ritu Santo, Aransas, Copano, and 
Corpus Christi and their Vicinities 

Galveston Bay and Vicinity 



Page. 

377 
378 
381 
392 
393 
397 
401 
401 
404 
405 
429 
429 

432 
438 
442 
449 
451 
456 
462 
465 
478 
502 
504 
547 
558 
569 
620 
624 



644 

669 




ENGLISH 
HISTORY. 
Henry Vll. 

■ ■ 1509 
Henry VIU. 



1547 
^dward'lV. ' 

1553 
Mary" " "1558 

Elizabelli. 



_ _ 1603 
Jamea L 

1625 

Charles I. 
(Beheaded.) 

1649 
Cromweil.' 
R. Cromwell. 

1660 

Charles II. 

1685 
Jam'es'll'. 1689 
William aod 
Mary. 1702 
Anne. 

1714 

George I. 

1727 

George II. 

1700 



George 111. 



1811 

Pr. Wales' 
Regent, 1820 
Gicorge IV. 

1830 
Will'iam'lV. 

1837 



Victoria. 



O 

r 

>■ 
z 
o 



EXPLANATION OF THE CHART. 



The '■ MiNiATiTRE Chaut of American History,"' found on the two preceding 
pages, is a mere outline of a larger chart measuring about four feet by five and 
a half. The design of the small chart is, principally, to furnish, by its conve- 
nience for reference, additional aid to those pupils who may be studying the 
outlines of the history from the larger one; for as the small chart wants the 
coloring of the other, and many of its important features, it will be found, 
separately, of comparatively little importance. A brief explanation of the 
" Miniature Chart." however, may, in this place, be useful. 

The two divisions of the chart should be considered as brought together, so 
as to present the whole united on one sheet. The chart is arranged in the 
'• downward course of time," from top to bottom, embracing a period of nearly 
350 years, extending from the di.scovery of America by the Cabols, in 1497, to 
the year 1845. The dark shading, extending entirely across the chart at the 
top, represents all North America as occupied by the Indian tribes at the time 
of the discovery ; and following the chart downwards, the gradually increasing 
light portions represent the gradual increase of European settlements. The 
darkest shading represents the country as unexplored by the whites; — the 
lighter shading as having been explored, but not settled. Thus, Vermont wa.s 
the last settled of the New England States; Upper Canada was settled at a 
much later period, and some of the Western United States still later. 

On the right is a column of English history ; then a column of dates, cor- 
responding with which the events ure arranged on the chart from top to bot- 
tom; then follows the history of the present British Provinces north of the 
United States; then the histories of the several United States as their names 
are given at the bottom of the chart; after the territories, at the left, and ad- 
joining Oregon, appear Texas, Mexico, and Central America. The large chart, 
of which this is a very imperfect outline, gives the prominent features, in the 
histories of all the settled portions of North America. 

The utility of well-arranged charts is very much the same as that of histori- 
cal maps. Although maps give the localities of events, they cannot give their 
sequences^ or order of succession ; but as the eye glances over the chart^ and fol- 
lows it downwards in the stream of time, there is presented to the mind, 
instead of one local fixed picture, a moving panorama of events. In the map, 
the associations are fixed upon the proximity of locality ; in the chart, upon the 
order of succession : and the two combined, in connection with the written his- 
tory, give the most favorable associations possible for the attainment and 
retention of historical knowledge. One prominent advantage of the chart, 
however, separately considered, is, that it presents at one view a Comparative 
History., of which books alone can give only a very inadequate idea, and that 
only to a well-disciplined memory of arbitrary associations. A view of the chart 
makes upon the mind as lasting an impression of the outlines of a countrj^'s 
history., as does the map of its topography., when the plans of both are equally 
understood ; and the prominent Matures in a country's history nvdy be recalled 
to the mind, after a study of the chart, with the same facility that the geogra- 
phical outlines may be recalled, afler a studj' of the map; for the principles 
upon which the mind acquires the knowledge, through the medium of the eye, 
are in both cases the same. The chart, the map, and the written history, 
should be used together; the chart, presenting at one view a comparative 
chronology of the events, being considered the frame-work of the structure ; 
and the map, giving the localities, the basis upon which it stands. 



BOOK I. 



INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA, 

AND 

AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. 



" They ■waste us ; ay, like April snow 
In the warm noon, wc shrink away ; 
And fast they follow as we go 

Towards the setting day, — 
Till they shall fill the land, and we 
Are driven into the western sea." 

Bryant. 



J J 













W'l^^^d:^ 



'1 



_^^^> 










f ^ 






Y fit 



\ !:;. .-■ 
It: „i 



';;i>' 






'il'. 






>-x -- 






r:?-.r;-,^:^vN:nr<^-i' 










'1 



^1 



A- 



:s^.iS^,* 






-^ ;^ 

X -" / MAP 

\ ^^'^ Of the Country 

^/z' KASTOf THE MIS XSSIPPI, 

( For the \( ir 1850; 

/ Fony-sevpu years nt't^r the 

— — Settlement of Jamestown ; 
showing the Localities of the 
INDIAN TRIBES, 
sntl the comnienremenl of 

%,uro~pean Settlements. 



^iLonr;. West -fi-om ^^■^^^'all?lLnt/U>rl 




CHAPTER I. 

INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA. 

[The brief notice, here given, of the Indian tribes of Nortli America, is confined principally 
to those formerly and at present found within the United States and their Territories. For a 
more -extended account the reader is referred to the numerous works ou Indian History and 
liiography, found in the public Ubraries of our cities ; and especially to the able work of the 
Hon. Albert Gallatin, published in volume .second of the " Transaetions of the American Anti- 
quarian Society," and to Drake's '' Biography and History of the Indian Tribes of Nortli 
America," Edition of 1841. The History of the more civilized tribes of early Mexico will be 
found under the head of Mexican History, see p. 659.] 

SECTION I. 
NORTHERN TRIBES. 

•The northern tribes of North America, embracing the analysis- 
great divisions known as the Esquimaux and the Atha- , xkeNort/i- 
pascas, and some small tribes bordering on the Pacific ^ThJr'itcir 
Ocean, are found north of the fifty-second parallel of lati- *'y- 
tude. ^The Esquimaux* Indians encircle the whole north- ^ Locality of 
ern portion or the continent, irom the southern point oi maux. 
Alaska on the west, to the Gulf of St. Lawrence on the 
east. ^The only Indians found in Greenland are Esqui- 3- Indian} of 
maux. *A tribe of the same family is likewise found on 4 Esquimaux 
the western shore of Behring Straits ; and it is believed »«•'*«'«• 
to be the only Asiatic tribe belonging to the race of any 
North American Indians. '•The Esquimau.x are not found s&'/uimaus 
far in the interior, but are confined mostly to the shores fhe cuast^ 
of the ocean, and of large gulfs and bays. 

*There are two divisions of these people, the eastern e. Divisimi 
and the western Esquimaux. Tlie dividing line is a little Esfjuinmux. 
west of Mackenzie's River. ''The western Esquimau.x 7. oiaiectg. 
.speak a dialect so different from the eastern, that it is, at 
first, difficult for them to understand each other, ^fije g 3.^^^^ 
two divisions have for some years past carried on consid- 
erable trade with each other ; the western Indians dealing 
in iron tools and other articles of Russian manufacture, 
■and the eastern in seal skins, oil, and furs. 

'In the interior, extending from Churchill River and 9. Tnbetm 
Hudson's Bay to within about one hundred miles of the 
Pacific, is a large number of tribes speaking kindred lan- 
guages. •'"They have been grouped in one division, and grouped. 
are called Athapascas, from the original name of the lake 

V » From " Eskimantick," Eaters of raw fish. 



22 INDIAN TRIBES. [Book I. 

ANALYSIS, since called " Lake of the Hills." 'They are the hered- 
1. riieir itary encinios of the Esquimaux, and are in a state of per- 
s. Tilbes OH P*^^"^^^ warlare with thcni. =^W est of the Athapascas, on 
thecoait. the sea-coast and islands, are several tribes which speak 
dialects ditfereut both from the Esquimaux and the Atha- 
pascas. 
8 jwisdic- ^Tlie extensive territory occupied by the Esquimaux 
territory i\f and the Athai)ascas is claimed by the English, and the 
tnauxami'ihe wholo is uudcr the jurisdiction of the Hudson's Bay Con>- 
Athapa^cas. p;^,iy^ whoso trading posts extend from James Bay, west, 
to the Pacific Ocean, and north, nearly to the Polar Sea. 
\.S^^L"".'^ *The l^isquimaux are a dwarfish race, and obtain a preca- 
tioniiftht rious livelihood mostly bv iishin<i;. The Athapascas, and 
Tubes, some 01 their southern neiglibors, are almost entirely em- 
ployed in obtaining furs, for the purpose of selling them 
to the Company, or in conveying the provisions and stores 
of the Company to the dilferent posts, and bringing back 
tlie furs there collected. 



SECTION II. 

ALGONQUIN TRIBES. 



5. Montag- *At the firet settlement of Canada, the St. Lawrence 

I. Won laiig- Indians were generally designated by the name of Moii- 

>■'"■• Uignars,'- or ftlountain Indians, from a range of hills or 

e. Aigon- mountains west of Quebec. "The tribes found on the 

Ottawa River, however, speaking a diftcrent dialect, were 

T.vnuttction called Aliionquins. "The distinction between the Mon- 

between these ^ili»i i» c *• 

names, end taguars and tho Algonqums was kept up tor some tmie, 

'^mcrur'it^ until the latter term tinally pivvailcd, and was applied, 

by the French, to that great family of tribes extending 

throughout the eastern portions oi North America, and 

e. orisrinai speaking dialects of a common lauiruage. *lt is dithcult 

application » f^ . » , ' '^ , , i 

<if the term, to ascertain whetlier the term Algonquin belonged, origi- 
nally, to any particular tribe, or was used as a generic 
appellation. 
i.ThtKnis- "The Knist emu fx^ Indians, the most northerly division 
iia'ns"a>m"t/u of the Algonquin family, are a numerous tribe, and are 
b^ft'i^to'^iTo. still found throughout a large tract of country, extending 
from Labrador to the Rocky Mountains. The Chippcicas, 
likewise a numerous Algonquin tribe, are now found on 
the western shores of Lake Superior. 
10. TheOua- ">The Ottaicas, found on the river of that name, were an 
Algonquin tribe, formerly residing on the western shores 
i\. Their ju- of Lake Huron. "Their claims to the right of sovereignty 
""^ over the Ottawa River were generally recognized, and 
they exacted a tribute from all the Indians going to or 



Chap. I. INDIAN TRIBES. 23 

coming; from the country of the Ilurons. 'The Algon- analysis. 
quin tribes oi" the Ottawa lliver were allied with the i Their ai- 
Ilurons in their wars with the Five Nations; and after /^^",y^;^^',* 
the almost total destruction of the liurons in 1650, a part dispersion' 

,, , ,, -11 /. TT ,• war witit the 

OI the Oltawas, accompanied by a tew liurons, alter .some BniiUsh, and 

, . ..,,.,.,•, .. . , p wander ini^t. 

wandcruigs, jomeu tlieir kniurea tribes at the souui ol 
Lake Superior. 

The (jtlawas subsequently, in 1671, removed to the 
vicinity of Michilimackinac, and fnially returned to their 
original seats on the west side of Lake Huron, and until 
recently have continued to occupy a great portion of the 
Michigan peninsula. Under Pontiac, their chief, they 
were al the head of the great Indian confederacy of 1763, 
which in a short time captured nearly all the British posts 
on the western frontier. At the time of their dispersion, 
in 1650, portions of the Ottawas sought refuge among the 
French, and their descendants still reside in several vil- 
lages of Lower Canada. 

Pontiac, a chief of the Ottawa nation, was one of tlie most famous Indian warriors ever 
known to the Knglisli, not cxceptin-; even King Philip or Tccumseh. 

lie is iirst brought to tlie notice of the English after the fall of Quebec in 17G0, wlien Major 
llogers was tent into the western country to take possession of the posfs stipulated to be sur- 
rendered by the French. Pontiac had previously been warmly attach(!d to the French, and 
had assisted them in their Indian wars. Ou his way Ulajor Ko;4ers was met by ambassadors 
from Pontiac, desiring Iiim to halt vnitil their chief could see liim with his own eyes, and lilce- 
wmc iuforniing him that Pontiac was the king and lord of that country. 

Pontiac soon met the English officer and demanded his business, and havightily asked him 
how he dared enter the country of the Indians without jjermLssion from their chief. Finally, 
liowever, lie smoked the pipe of peace with the ofTicer, and gave him permission to pass 
through the country unmolested, with the assurance that he should be protected from the 
fury of those Indians who were hostile towards him and wished to cut him off. Major Iloger* 
observes, tliat, during sever,al conferences wliich he had with liini, '• Pontiac discovered great 
strength of judgment, and a thirst after knowledge." 

Soon after this Pontiac became hostile to the English, probably because he observed in them 
a design to (extend their sovereignty over his coiuitry. Ho was willing to allow tliu English to 
settle in Lis dominions if they would acknowk',l;;e him as tlieir sove/eign ; but he ded.arcd, 
that if they did not conduct themselves according to his wishes, " he would shut up the way" 
and keep them out. He continued, however, with Inilian craft and cunning, to express his 
friendship for the English until he had united tlie strengtli of many tribes to his own. Thft 
Miamis, Ottawas, Chippewas, AVyandots, Pottowattomies, Jlississaguies, Shawnees, Outagamics 
or Foxes, and Winnebagoes, constituted his power, as they di J, in after fiincs, that of Tocumsoli, 

With such secrecy and adroitness were the plans of Pontiac developed, that he dissipated the 
fears of the commandants of all the Western posts until tlie very moment that the blow was 
struck ; .and within lifteen days, in the summer of ITii.'J, .all the English garrisons and posts in 
the West, but three, fell into his hands. At Michilimackinac, the Ottawas, to whom the as- 
Bault was intrusted, got into the fort by stratagem, while engaged in a great game of ball, t« 
which the officers were invited. Only Niagara, Pittsburg, and Detroit escaped. Pittsburg 
was saved by the expedition of Colonel IJoquet, who dispersed the besiegers at the point of 
the bayonet. 

Detroit w:is saved by information conveyed to the commandant by an Tndl.in woman, tlic 
night before the premeditated attack, which was to be made while Pontiac and his warriors 
should be holding a friendly council with the garrison. Tlie Indians continued the siege ot 
tha place until the spring of ITtJl, when Cicneral Pr.adstreet arriving with rcenforcements, 
the different tribes came in, and peaoo was established. I'outiac, however, took no part 



24 INDIAN TRIBES. [Book 1 

in tho nogooiations, but abandoned the country and repaired to Illinois, where he wai 
uot long after assassinated by a Peoria Indian — but for what cause has not been satisfac- 
torily shown. 

It is said that in the war of 1763, usually called " Pontiac's War," this chief appointed & 
conimissiiry, and began to make and issue bills of credit, whicli wore received by the Frencn 
iuhabitiints, and punctually redeemed by Pontiac. Ilis bills, or notes, were made of bark, on 
which was drawn tho figure of the commodity which he wished to obtain in exchange, with 
the sliape of an otter, tho insignia or arms of his nation, di-awn under it. 

ANALYSIS. ^Thr Mississagitics, ti tribe found soutli of the River 

1. The Missis- Ottawa, and adjoining the Hurons, appear to have sepa- 

sastiics. rated their cause from that of their kindred tribes, and to 

have been either in alliance with the Five Nations, or 

permitted to remain neutral. Remnants of this tribe are 

still found in Canada. 
a.3jiomcs. '^Tkc Micmacs, first called by the French Souriquois, 

held possesssion of Nova Scotia and the adjacent isles, 

and were early known as the active allies of the French. 
z. Etchemiiis. ^Tlic jE/c/temms, or " Canoemen," embraced the tribes 

of the St. John's River, and extended westwardly along 

the sea-shore as far as Mount Desert Isle. 
*. Ahenakes. ''Abenakes. Ncxt to the Etchcmins were found the 
~Jpai'tnbcs. Abeuakcs, extending to the Saco River, and coiTsisting of 

several tribes, the principal of which were the PenobscotSy 

5. converfd the Norridgcwocks, and the Androscoggins. *The Mic- 

^^utached'to iiifics, the Etclicmins, and the Abenakes, were early con- 

theVrcnch. yerted by the French Jesuits. They remained firmly 

attaclied to the French until the conquest of Canada in 

1760, and were almost constantly in a state of hostilities 
«. Withdraw- '^vith tlio British Colonies. "In the year 1754, all the 
alto Canada. Abeuakes, witli the exception of the Penobscots, who still 

reside on the river to which they have given their name, 
7. Neuti-aiity. withdrew to Canada. ''Tlie Penobscot, the Passamaquoddy, 

and the St. John Indians, remained neutral during the war 

of the Revolution. 
8 \ew En'-- *New England Induns. The New England Indians, 
iand Indiana, ^s they have genertilly been called, embraced the tribes 

from the Saco River to the eastern boundary of Connec- 

9. Principal ticut. "Their principal tribes were, 1st, The 3Iassachu- 
'i^caii'tu"s^ sefis, adjoining the Bay of that name: 2d, The Paw- 

tuckcl.s\ nortii east of the Massachusetts, and embracing 
the Penacooks of New Hampshire : 3d, The NipmuckSy. 
north of the JMohegans, and occupying the central parts 
of Mixssachusetts : 4tli, The Pokaiiokcts^ to whom tho 
Wampanoags belonged, extending from the shores of 
Massachusetts Bay to Bristol in Rhode Island : and 5th, 
T/ie Narraganseits, in the remaining portion of Rhode 
Island. 

10. siibdivi- '"These divisions, however, were subdivided into a 
number of petty cantons, or small tribes, each having its 



tions. 



Chap. I. INDIAN TRIBES. 26' 

own sachem, or chief, who was in a great degree inaepen- analysis. 
dent of the others. 'Thus, the Pokanokets were divided 'ZExmnpiT 
into nine separate cantons or tribes, each having its 
petty sagamore or chief, but all su[)ject to one grand 
sachem, who was also chief of the Wampanoags. 

'■'The population of the New England Indians had ^.population. 
been greatly diminished by a fatal epidemic which pre- 
vailed a short time before the arrival of the Puritans; but 
their number is supposed to have been nmch greater, in 
proj)ortion to the extent of territory occupied by them, 
than was found elsewhere on the shores of the Atlantic. 
For this, two causes have been assigned. 

'First ; — The New England Indians were supported 3. cawes of 
mostly by fishing ; and the supply of food thus obtained is Imp'uiatfua^uf 
greater, and more uniform than that affiirded by hunting. It ^TandZ^es.' 
was found, accordingly, that the Narragansetts were, in 
proportion to their territory, the most populous of the New 
England tribes. In the second place ; — it appears probable 
that the New England Indians had been obliged to concen- 
tratc themselves along the sea-coast, in order to be able to 
resist the attacks of the Five Nations, with whom they 
were almost constantly at war. *The Maquas, or Mo- 4. riie mo- 
hawks, were the most formidable of their adversaries, 
and so great was the terror which they excited in the 
less warlike tribes of New England, that the appearance 
of four or five Mohawks in the woods, would often frighten 
them from their habitations, and drive them to seek shelter 
in their forts, for safety. 

^The Indians east of the Connecticut River never were, 5. jnaiam 
however, actually subjugated by the Five Nations; and conntcilcut. 
in 1671 a permanent peace was established between them, 
through the interference of the English, and the Dutch 
at Albany. 'After the termination of King Philip's 6. The sunt- 
war,* in 1676, which resulted in the defeat of the hostile "pm^s^waf. 
Indians, most of the survivors either joined the eastern a. seep. igs. 
tribes, or sought refuge in Canada, whence they con- 
tinued to harass the frontiers of New England, until the 
final overthrow of the French, in 1763. •> 'Since that b. seep.ass. 
period, the eastern Indians have remained friendly, but lEatttrnin- 

L • I -1 1 /> I dians since 

their numbers are said to amount now to only a few hun- I'es. 
dred, and their languages, with the exception of the Nar- 
ragansett, are nearly extinct. 

For the purpose of giving some farther information about the New England tribes, we sub. 
join a brief notice of several of their principal chiefs. 

The first chief with whom the people of Plymouth became acquainted, was Massasoit, 
grand Sachem of the Wampanoiiga, whose principal residence was at Pokanoket, now Bristol, 
Khodo Island. It appears that, at one time, before he was known to the whites, Massasoit 
carried on successful wars " against many nations of Indians" whom he made tributary to 
him ; and yet, with such kind paternal authority did he rule over them, that all appeared to 

4 



26 INDIAN TRIBES. [Book I 

reyere him, and to consider themsolves happy in being under his authority. So long as he 
lived he was a friend to the English, although they committed repeated usurpations upou his 
lands and hberties. Before his death, which is supposed to have occurred in 16G2, he had 
been induced to cede away, at different times, nearly all his lands to the English. 

One of the most reno^vned captains, or war-chiefs, within the dominions of Massasoit, was 
Caunbitant, whose residence was at a place in the present town of Swanzey. The EngUsh 
■were always viewed by him as intruders, and enemies of liis race ; and there is but little doubfe 
that he intended to wrest the country out of their hands on the first opportunity. 

IIoBOMOK, another of the chief captains of Massasoit, and greatly beloved by him, was a firm 
friend of the EngUsh, and also a professed Christian. 

The gi-eat Sachem of the Narragunsetts at the time of the settlement of New England, w>i3 
Canonicus ; who ruled in great harmony, in connection with a younger Sachem, his nephew, 
MiANTONOMon. It was Canonicus who, in 1622, sent into Plymouth a bundle of arrows wrappKl 
in a rattlesnake's skin, as a challenge for war. Although the people of Plymouth and Bost^n 
were at times jealous of Canonicus, yet he is often mentioned with great respect by lloger Wil- 
liams, who says, " Were it not for the favor that God gave me mth Canonicus, none of these 
parts, no, not Rhode Island, had been purchased or obtained ; for I never got anything (»f 
Canonicus but by gift." 

Under Canonicus and Miantonomoh, the Narragansetts assisted the English in the Pequo^ 
war ; but, soon after, Miantonomoh was accused of plotting against them, and he was repeat- 
edly obliged to visit Boston, to free himself from the suspicion excited against him by his ene- 
mies, and chiefly by Uncas, Sagamore of the Mohegans, against whom he finally declared war. 
In this war, Miantonomoh was taken prisoner by Uncas, and being delivered into tho hands 
of the English, the commissioners of the United colonies decided that " he ought to be put to 
death," and that his execution should be intrusted to Uncas himself, by whom he was accord- 
ingly slain. From all the accounts that we have of the relations between the English arxl 
Miantonomoh, we are forced to the conclusion, that, in the conduct of the former, there was 
much deserving of censure. 

NiNiORET, a cousin of Miantonomoh, also a distinguished chief, was Sachem of the NUmtids, 
a Narragansett tribe. As he was an enemy of Uncas and the Mohegans, the English were ev-<!r 
jealous of him ; and it is believed that he once endeavored to organize a plan for their exte'*- 
mination ; yet he took no part in Philip's war, being at that time very old, and having with- 
drawn himself and tribe from the nation to which they belonged. 

John Sassatnon, a Pokanoket Indian, and subject of Philip, became a convert to Chris- 
tianity, — learned the EngUsh language — was able to read and write — and translated some of 
the Bible into the Indian tongue. On account of his learning he was at one time employed 
by PhiUp as his secretary or interpreter. He was afterwards employed by the English, as an 
instructor and preacher among the converted Indians. When he learned that his country- 
men were plotting a war against the English, he communicated his discovery to the latter. 
For this he was considered by his countrymen a traitor and an outlaw, and, according to the 
laws of the Indians, deserving of death. Early in the spring of 1675, Sassamon was found mur- 
dered. Three Indians were arraigned for the murder, by the English, convicted and executed. 
Some authorities, however, state that Sassamon was murdered by his countrymen for teaclt- 
ing Christian doctrines ; — that the English tried and executed the murderers, — and that Philip 
■was so exasperated against the English for this act, that, from that time, he studied to be rti- 
venged on them. By some this has been assigned, erroneously we beUeve, as the principal 
cause of King PhiUp's war. 

Philip of Pokanoket, whose Indian name was Pometacom or Metacomet, was the most re- 
nowned of all the chiefs of the New England tribes. He was a son of Massasoit, who is sup- 
posed to have died early in 1662, and who was succeeded by his eldest son Alexander : but the 
latter dying a few months after, PhiUp himself became, by the order of succession, head chief 
of the Wanipanoags. We find the following account of the origin of the names of these chiefs . 
" After Massasoit was dead, his two sons, called Wamsutta and Metacomet, came to the court 
at Plymouth, pretending high respect for the English, and therefore desired that EngUsh 
names might be given them ; whereupon the court there named Wamsutta, the elder brother, 
Alexander ; and Metacomet, the younger brother, Philip.'" Of the celebrated war which Philip 
waged against the New England Colonies, an account has elsewhere been given.* With the 

* See page 192. 



Chap. I.] INDIAN TRIBES. 27 

soul of a hero, and the genius of a warrior, he fought bravely, although in vain, to stay the 
tide that was fast sweeping to destruction the nation and the race to which he belonged. 

Canonchet, or, as he was sometimes called, Nanuntenoo^ a son of Miantonomoh, took part 
in Philip's war against the English ; although, but a short time previous, he had signed a 
treaty of peace with them. He is described by the early historians, as " the mighty sachem of 
the Narragansetts," and " heir of all his father's pride and insolence, as well as of his malice 
against the iinglish." When taken prisoner, in April, 1676. it is said that " his carriage was 
strangely proud and lofty," and that, at first, he would make no other reply to the questions 
put to him, than this, — ' that he was born a prince, and if princes came to speak wi:h him he 
■would answer, but none present being such, he thought himself obliged, in honor, to hold his 
tongue.' AVhen it was announced to him that he must be put to death, he is reported to have 
said, " / like it well ; I shall die before my heart is soft, or have said any thing unworthy of 
myself." 

One of Philip's most famous counsellors or captains was Annawon., a Wampanoag chief, who 
had also served under Massasoit, Philip's father. He was taken prisoner by Captain Church, 
through the treachery of some of his o\Tn company. It is said that Annawon confessed ' that 
he had put to death several of the English that had been taken alive, and could not deny but 
that some of them had been tortured.' Although Captain Church entreated hard for the life 
of the aged chief, yet he was remorselessly executed 

'MoHEGANS. To the many Independent tribes extend- analysis. 
ing from the eastern New England Indians to the Lenni TlwoAeffonT 
Lenapes on the south, the term Mohegan, the name of a 
tribe on the Hudson, has sometimes been applied ; 
although all these tribes appear to have differed but 
little, in their languages, from the more eastern Indians. 
*The Pequods were the most important, and, until the 2.PeqiMids. 
revolt of Uncas, the ruling tribe of this family, and their 
sovereignty was once acknowledged over a portion of 
Long Island. It is said that they, " being a more fierce, 
cruel, and warlike tribe than the rest of the Indians, came 
down out of the more inland parts of the continent, and 
by force seized upon one of the goodliest places near the 
sea, and became a terror to all their neighbors." The 
peace of the New England colonies was early disturbed 
by a war with this tribe. 

'There were thirteen distinct tribes on Long Island, 3. Long b- 
over whom the Montauks, the most eastern tribe, exer- '<"^ ^"''^'»*- 
cised some kind of authority ; although the Montauks 
themselves had been tributary to the Pequods, before the 
subjugation of the latter by the English. 

*From the Manhattans, Xhe Dutch purchased Manhattan 4. The Man- 
Island ; but they appear to have been frequently in a '»''"<'««• 
state of hostility with those Indians, and to have been 
reduced to great distress by them in 1643. In 164.5, 
however, the Manhattans and the Long Island Indians 
were defeated'' in a severe battle, which took place at a. see p. . 
Horseneck. ^In 1663, the Wabingas, or Esopus Indians, 5. jkoJwi^o.. 
commenced hostilities against the Dutch, but were soon 
defeated. °Many of the Mohegan tribes were reduced s wars be- 
to subjection by the Five Nations, to whom they paid an "h!g2^J^ 
annual tribute; but the Mohegans proper, or <' River ^''''*^'<"*'^ 



28 INDIAN TRIBES [Book I. 

ANALYSIS. Indians," carried on war against the Five Nations as late 

' as 1673, when peace was established between them, 

through the influence of the Governor of New York. 

1. Remnant 'In 1768 the remnant of the Mohegans was settled in the 

gam".^ north east corner of New London, about five miles south 

of Norwich, at which place they had a reservation. 

When the Mohegans were first known to the EngUsh, Uncas waa the head chief of that 
nation. He has received no very favorable character from the historians of New England, 
being represented as wicked, wilful, intemperate, and otherwise vicious, and an opposer of 
Christianity. He was originally a Pequod chief, but, upon some contentions in that ill-fated 
nation, he revolted, and established his authority in opposition to his sachem Sassacus, thus 
causing a division in the Pequod territories. Uncas early courted the favor of the English, 
doubtless o\ring to the fear he entertained of his other powerful and warUke neighbors. He 
joined the English in the war against the Pequods, his kindrea ; but, after the war, he relented 
his severity against his countrymen, and endeavored to screen some of them from their more 
vindictive enemies, the English. 

He was often accused, before the EngUsh commissioners, of committing the grossest insults 
on other Indians under the protection of the English, but the penalties adjudged against him, 
and members of his tribe, were always more moderate than those imposed upon the less favored 
Narragansetts, for which, the only reason that can be assigned is, that the safety of the English 
seemed to require that they should keep on friendly terms with the Mohegans, the most pow- 
erful of the tribes by which they were surrounded. Uncas Uved to a great age, as he was a 
sachem before the Pequod war of 1637, and was alive in 1680. His grave, surrounded by an 
inclosure, may be seen at this day in a beautiful and romantic spot, near the falls of Yantic 
River, in Norwich. 

The first great chief of the Pequod nation, with whom the Engli.sh were acquainted, was 
Sassacds, whose name was a terror to all the neighboring tribes of Indians. He had under 
him, at one time, no less than twenty-six sachems, and 4000 men fit for war, and his dominions 
extended from Narragansett Bay to the Hudson River. Sassacus was early involved in difii- 
culties with the English, and also with the Narragansetts, and others of his Indian neighbors. 
When one of his principal forts was attacked and destroyed by the English in 1637, Sassacus 
himself destroyed the other, and then fled to the Mohawks, who treacherously slew him, and 
eent his scalp to the English. 

a. Tu Lenni "Lenni Lenapes. Next south and west of the Mohe- 

frib&^ gans were the Lenni Lenapes, consisting of two tribes, or 

divisions, the Minsi and the Delmvares. The term Lenni 

Lenape has sometimes been used as a generic term, and 

3.Their local- applied to all the tribes of the Algonquin family. 'The 

uies. Minsi occupied the northern portion of New Jersey, north 

of the Raritan, extending across the Delaware into Penn. 

sylvania ; and the Delawares the southern portion of New 

i.Bywhat Jersey, and the entire valley of the Schuylkill. *Both 

icnowifand divisious are best known in history by the name of Dela- 

hoio fUuated. wares. When they were first known to the English they 

were found in subjection to the Five Nations, by whom 

they were distinguished by the scornful epithet of " wo- 

6. Their final men." ^Their final subjection is supposed to have taken 

anif^sai- place about the year 1650, when they were reduced to a 

'^*' state of vassalage, being prohibited from carrying on war, 

or making sales of land, without the consent of their con- 

querors. 



Chap. I.] INDIAN TRIBES. 29 

'The increase of the white population soon drove the analysis. 
Delawares from their original seats, and compelled them , i-heoeia- 
to take refuge on the waters of the Susquehanna and '«'?''«* ^"^«'» 

11 1 11-1 from t/uir 

Juniata, on lands belongmg to their conquerors, the Five original 
Nations. "Many of the Delawares removed west of the o Tkeremo- 
Alleghany Mountains between 1740 and 1750, and ob- '"^l^{l^Z! 
tained from their ancient allies, the Hurons, the grant of a ^ii^si>anit$. 
tract of land lying principally on the Muskingum. ^The 3 xhecoune 
great body of the nation, however, still remained in Penn- pursued by 

fc . • 11, ., 11 those wfw re- 

sylvama, and, encouraged by the Nvestern tribes and by matned. 
the French, they endeavored to shake off the yoke of the 
Five Nations, and joined the Shawnees, against the Eng- 
lish, in the French and Indian War. *Peace was made 4. Peace with 
with them at Easton, Pennsylvania, in 1758 ; and in 1768 th^f/ji^iS^re- 
they removed altogether bevond the Alleghanies. movai. 

'Although a portion of the Delawares adhered to the 5. Their con- 
Americans during the warof the Revolution, yet the main mKevoiu- 
body, with all the western tribes, took part with the British. "''"■ 
^The Delawares were at the head of the western confede- s ^-^"^f^ 
racy of Indians which was dissolved by the decisive vie- nu great 
tory of General Wayne in 1794 ; and by the treaty of dianconfed- 
Greenville, in 1795, they ceded to the United States the Yi^'^fulse- 
greater part of the lands allotted them by the Wyandots or ^/f^r'to^" 
Hurons, receiving in exchange, from the Miamis, a tract 
of land on the White River of the Wabash. "They re- 7. Their con-^ 
mained quiet during the second war with the British, and the' last war, 
in 1819 ceded their lands to the United States. Their prese"ni?itua.'- 
number was then about eight hundred. A few had pre- '"*"' ^'^' 
viously removed to Canada : most of the residue have since 
removed Avest of the Mississippi. The number of these, 
in 1840, was estimated at four hundred souls. 

A prominent chief of the Delawares, distinguished at the tame of the American Eevolntjon, 
nas Captain White Etes, called, by way of distinction. '• the first captain among the Delawares."' 
He became chief sachem in 1776. having previously been chief counsellor to Netawatweex. the 
former chief. He belonged to that portion of the Delawares who adhered to the Americans 
during the war. He wiis a firm friend of the missionaries, and it is said that he looked forward 
with aniiety to the time when his. countrymen should become Christians, and enjoy the benefits 
of civilization. He died of the small pox, at Philadelphia, in 1780. 

Another Delaware chief, who lived at the same time with AVhite Eyes, was Captain PrPE, who 
belonged to the Wolf tribe. He secretly favored the British on the breaking out of the Revo- 
lution, but his plans for inducing his nation to take up arms against the Americans were for 
some time defeat* 1 by the vigilance of 'White Eyes ; but the Delawares finallj- became divided, 
most of them, under Captain Pipe, taking part with the Briti.sh. From a speech which Captain 
Pi;>e made to the British commandant at Detroit, it is believed that he regretted the course that 
he had taken, perceiving that the Indians, in taking part in the quarrels of their whit« neigh- 
bors, had nothing to gain, and much to lose. He remarked that the cause for which he was 
fighting was not the cause of the Indians — that after lie had taken up the hatchet he did no! 
do with it ail that he might have done, for his heart failed him — he had distinguished between 
the innocent and the guilty — ^he bad spared Eome, and hoped the British would not destroy 
what he had saved. 



30 



INDIAN TRIBES. 



[Book L 



ANALYSIS. 

1. Locality (if 
tfie Nanli- 

cokes. 
2. The. Co- 

noys. 

3. Their sub- 
jugation- 
i. Their remo- 
vals and con- 
duct during 
the Revolu- 
tion. 



5. Their pres- 
ent situation. 



6. First dis- 
covery of tlie 
Susque/ian- 
tiocka. 

7. Their situ- 
ation and pos- 
sessions. 



8. Their siib- 

jugation and 

subsequent 

history. 



9. The Man- 
nahoacks, 

and their lo- 
calities. 

10. Name of 
the confed- 
eracy. 

11. Their sup- 
posed origin. 



12 The local- 
ities of the 
Monacans, 

their suppo- 
sed origin, 

and their his- 
tory. 



13. Extent 
and locality 
of the Pow- 
hatan na- 
tion. 
14. The Acco- 
hannocks, 
and Acco- 
macs. 



'Nanticokes. The Indians of the eastern shore of 
Maryland have been embraced under the general designa- 
tion of Nanticokes. ^The Conoys were either a tribe of 
the Nanticokes, or were intimately connected with them. 
^The whole were early subdued by the Five Nations, and 
forced to enter into an alliance with them. ''During the 
early part of the eighteenth century they began to remove 
up the Susquehanna, where they had lands allotted them 
by the Five Nations, and where they remained until the 
commencement of the war of the Revolution, when they 
removed to the west, and joined the British standard. 
^They no longer exist as a nation, but are still found 
mixed with other tribes, both in the United States and in 
Canada. 

SusQUEHANNOCKS. ''The Susquehannock, or Canestagoe 
Indians, were first discovered by Captain Smith, in his ex- 
ploring expedition up the Chesapeake and the Susquehanna 
in 1608. 'They were found fortified east of tlie Susque- 
hanna, to defend themselves against the incursions of the 
Five Nations. They possessed the country north and west 
of the Nanticokes, from the Lenni Lenapes to the Poto- 
mac. ^They were conquered by Maryland and the Five 
Nations in 1676, when it appears that a portion were car- 
ried away and adopted by the Oneidas. What became of 
the remainder is uncertain. There is no remnant what- 
ever of their language remaining. 

"Mannahoacks. The Mannahoacks were a confede- 
racy of highland or mountain Indians, consisting of eight 
tribes, located on the various small streams between the 
head waters of the Potomac and York River. '"The most 
powerful of these tribes gave its name to the confederacy. 
"They are supposed to have been an Algonquin tribe, 
although no specimen of their language has been pre- 
served. 

Monacans. '^The Monacans were situated principally 
on the head waters of James River. The Tuscaroras 
appear likewise to have been early known in Virginia un- 
der the name of Monacans, and it is uncertain whether the 
latter were of Iroquois or Algonquin origin. It is not 
improbable, however, that those embraced under the gene- 
ral designation of Monacans, were Algonquin tribes, and 
tributaries of the Tuscaroras ; but as no remnant of theii 
language remains, their origin cannot be satisfactorily de- 
termined. Of their history little is known. 

Powhatans. "The Powhatan nation embraced a con- 
federacy of more than twenty tribes, extending from the 
most southern tributaries of James River, on the south, to 
the Patuxent on the north. "''The Accohannocks and the 



Chap. I.] INDIAN TRIBES. 31 

Accomacs, on the eastern shore of Chesapeake Bay, have analysis. 
also been considered a part of this nation. 'Powhatan i. The great 
was the great chief of this confederacy, at the time of the con^dfr^y. 
first settlement of Virginia. ^Soon after his death the In- 2. Their wars 
dians made an attempt, in 1622, to destroy the infant imte^.and 
colony, in which they nearly succeeded, but were finally subjujiaton. 
defeated. In 1644 they made another effort, which termi- 
nated in a similar manner; and in 1676, during "Bacon's 
Rebellion," their total subjugation was effected. ^From 3. r;,e?r smj- 
that time they had lands reserved to them, but tliey have ^^Tory. ^ 
gradually dwindled away, and it is believed that not a 
single individual now remains who speaks the Powhatan 
lan";uage. 

■■South of the Powhatans, on the sea-coast, were several \ Algonquin 

' 111 tribe-i soutn 

petty Algonquin tribes, whose history is little known, o/thepow 
The principal were the Corees, and Cheraws, or Cora- 
mines, in the vicinity of Cape Fear River, which was 
probably the southern limit of the Algonquin speech. 

When Powhatan was first known to the English, he was about sixty years of age, of a grave 
aspect, tall, and well proportioned — exceedingly vigorous — and capable of sustaining great 
hardships. His authority extended over many nations or tribes, most of which he had con- 
•luerrtd. The English at first erroneously supposud that his was the name of the country ; 
but the error has prevailed, and his people have ever since been called the Powhatans. Ac- 
cording to the law of succession in his nation, his dominions did not fall to his children, but 
first to his brothers, then to his sisters, the eldest having precedency. 

He usually kept a guard of forty or fifty warriors around him, especially when he slept ; 
but after the English came into the country he increased the number of his guard to about 
two hundred. Powhatan at first practiced much deception towards the English, and his 
plans for their destruction manifested great cunning and sagacity. But he found in Captain 
Smith an adversary even more wily than himself, and failing in all his plans to overreach 
him, he finally concluded to live in peace with the English, especially after the friendship of 
the two people had been cemented by the marriage of his favorite daughter Pocahontas. 

When Pocahontas accompanied her husband to England, Powhatan sent with her one of his 
favorite counsellors, whom he instructed to learn the state of the country — to note the number 
of the people — and, if he saw Captain Smith, to make him show him the God of the English, 
and the king and queen. When he arrived at Plymouth, he began, accordingly, to number 
the people, by cutting in a stick, a notch for every person whom he saw. But he was soon 
obliged to abandon his reckoning. On his return, being questioned by Powhatan about the 
numbers of the EngUsh, he gave the following well known answer, " Count the stars in the 
sky, the leaves on the trees, and the sands upon the sea-shore, for such is the nutnber of the peo- 
ple of England.'''' 

Of the descendants of Pocahontas, the following is believed to be a correct account. — The 
Fcn of Pocahontas, whose name was Thomas Rolfe, was educated in IjOndon by his uncle, Mr. 
Uenry Rolfe. He afterwards came to America, where he became a gentleman of considerable 
distinction, and possessed an ample fortune. He left an only daughter, who having married 
Colonel Robert BolUng, died leaving an only son, Major John Boiling, who was the father of 
Colonel John BoUing and several daughters ; one of whom married Colonel Richard Randolph, 
from whom were descended the distinguished John Randolph, and those bearing that name in 
Virginia at this day.— (Drake's Ind. Hist.) 

Shawnees. ^The history of the Shawnees previous to 5 Eariinm- 
the year 1680 is involved in much obscurity, and the dif- snifni^. 
ferent notices of them are difficult to be reconciled. "Their « T'^f ^ <»* 

gmal seats. 



32 



INDIAN TRIBES. 



[Book L 



ANALYSIS. 



1. Their dis- 
persion. 



2. War with 

the Five A'a- 

tions, and 

their defeat. 



3. Their set- 
tlements 
aiiionii' the 
Catawbai, 

and Creelcs. 



4. The Penn- 
sylvania 
Uliawnccs. 

5. Their re- 
moval west 
qf t/ie Atle- 
ghanies. 



e. Their con- 
duct during 
tlie French 
and Indian 
War. 



a. See p. 23, 

account ol 

Pontiuc. 

7. Tluir lios- 

tilities 
against the 
western set- 
tlements. 

b See pp. 32, 

S3, Cornstalk 

and Logan. 

8. Their 

conduct 

during and 

subsequent to 

the tear of tlie 

Revolution. 

9. During the 

second war. 

10 Their 
present local- 
ities and 
numliers. 



original seats, according to the French accounts, were be- 
tween the Ohio and the Cumberland River, but it is sup- 
posed that they were driven away by the Chickasas and 
theCherokees early in the seventeenth century. 'Tlience 
some of them penetrated as far east as the country of the 
Susquehannocks, while others crossed the Ohio and occu- 
pied the country on and adjacent to the Sciota. "Here 
they joined the neighboring tribes, the Eries and the An- 
dastes, in the war against the Five Nations; but, with 
their allies, they were defeated and dispersed in 1672. 
'Soon after, a considerable portion of them formed a set- 
tlement in the vicinity of the Catawba country, but be- 
ing driven away by the Catawbas, they found an asylum 
in the Creek country. 

^The Pennsylvania Shawnees, although not reduced to 
the humiliating state in which the Delawares were found, 
acknowledged the sovereignty of the Five Nations. ^They 
preceded the Delawares in removing west of the Allegha- 
nies, and received from the Wyandots the country about 
the Sciota, where their kindred had formerly resided, and 
who now returned from the Creek country and joined 
them. 

"The Shawnees were among the most active allies of 
the French during the "French and Indian war;" and 
even after its termination, by the conquest of Canada, in 
connection with the Delawares they continued hostilities, 
which were terminated only after the successful campaign'' 
of General Bouquet in 1763. 'The first permanent settle- 
ments of the Americans beyond the Alleghanies were im- 
mediately followed by a new war with the Shawnees, 
which ended in their defeat, in a severe engagement at the 
mouth of the Kanhawa, in 1774.'' *They took an active 
part against the Americans during the war of the Revolu- 
tion, and also during the following Indian war, which was 
terminated by the treaty of Greenville in 1795, "A part 
of them also, under Tecumseh, fought against the Ameri- 
cans during the second war with England. "Most of the 
tribe are now located west of the Mississippi. The num- 
ber of these, in 1840, was estimated at fifteen hundred 
souls. 



CoKNST.viK was a noted Shawnee chief and warrior, who, although generally friendly to the 
Americans, and at all times the advocate of honorable peace, united with Logan in the war 
of 1774, which was terminated by the great battle of Point Pleasant, on the Kanhawa, in Oc- 
tober of ihe .same year. During that battle the voice of Cornstalk was often heard above the 
din of strife, calling on his men in these words, " Be strong 1 be strong I'' His advice had been 
against hazarding a battle, but when the other chiefs had decided agamst him, he said his war- 
riors should fight, and if any one should flinch in the contest, oi attempt to run away, he 
would kill him with his own hand. And he made good his word. For when some of his war- 
riors began to waver, he is said to have sunk liis tomahawk into the head of one t\ ho waa 



Chap. I.J INDIAN TRICES. 33 

cowardly endeavoring to escape from the conflict. After the battle, which was unfortunate 
to the Indians, Cornstalk himself went to the camp of the wliites to solicit peace. 

This chief was remarkable for many great and noble qualities, and it is said that his powers 
of oratory were unsurpassed by those of any chief of his time. His death was most nu'laiicholy 
and deplorable. He was barbarously murdered by some infuriated soldiers, while he wiia a 
hostage at the fort at Point Pleasant, to wliich place he had gone voluntarily, for the )iurpose 
of preserving peace between the whites and some of the tribes that were desirous of continuing 
the war. As he saw the murderers approaching, and was made acquainted with their object, 
turning to his son, who had just come to visit him, he said, " My son, the Great Spirit has 
seen Jit that we should die together, and has sent you to that end. It is his will, and let 11s 
tubmit." Turning towards the murderers he met them with composure — fell — and died with- 
out a struggle. His son was shot upon the seat on which he was sitting when his fate was 
first discJosed to him. 

While our histories record with all possible minuteness, the details of Indian barbarities, 
how seldom do they set forth, in their true light, those " wrongs of the Indkin" that made him 
the implacable foe of the white man. 

Tecumseh, another celebrated chief of the Shawnee nation, whose name is as f.imiliar to the 
.\mericau people as that of Phihp of Mount Hope, or Pontiac, and which signifies a tiger 
crouching for liis prey, was born about the year 1770, on the banks of the Sciota, near the 
present ('hilicothe. His fatlicr was killed in the battle of Zvanhawa, in 1774. 

The superior talents of Tecumseh, then a young chief, liad made him conspicuous in Oio 
ivestern war which terminated in the treaty of Greenville in 1795, and he appears soon after, 
In conjunction with his brother tlic Prophet, to have formed the plan of a confederacy of all 
the western tribes for the purpose of resisting the encroachments of the whites, and driving 
them back upon their Atlantic settlements. In this plan the Prophet was first distinguished, 
and it was some time before it was discovered that Tecumseh was the principal actor. 

Tecumseh addressed himself to the prejudices and superstitions of the Indians — to their 
love of country — their thirst for war — and their feelings of revenge ; and to every passion that 
could unite and influence them against the whites. Ho thus acquired, by perseverance, by 
asauminp; arts of popularity, by dispatching his rivals under charges of witchcraft, and by a 
fortunate juncture of circimistanccs, a powerful influence over his countrymen, which served 
to keep tlie frontiers in constant alarm many years before the war actually commenced. 

In 1807 messengers were sent to the tribes of Lake Superior, with speeches and tlio usual 
formalities, urging them to repair immediately to tlie rendezvous of the Prophet. Tiiey were 
told that the world was approaching its end ; that that distant part of the country would soon 
be without light, and the inhabitants would be left to grope their way in total darkness, and 
tliat the only spot where they would be able to distinguish objects, was the Prophet's st.ation, 
on the Wabash. Many cogent arguments were also used to induce them to refrain from the 
use of civilized manufactures, to resume the bow, to obtain fire by the ancient method, to re- 
ject the use of ardent spirits, and to live as in primitive times, before they were corrupted by 
the arts of the white man. 

Numerous bands of the credulous Indians, obeying this summons, departed for tlu; Pro- 
phet's station, and the whole southern shore of Lake Superior was depopulated. Mucli suffer- 
ing was occasioned, and numbers of the Indians died by the way ; yet in 1808 the Proi)het had 
collected around him more than a thousand warriors from different tribes — designed as the 
nucleus of a mighty nation. It was not .•■■o easy a matter, however, to keep the.so motley bands 
together, and they soon began to stray away to th(^ir former hunting grounds, and tht; plan 
of the brothers was partially defeated. 

In 1809, during the absence of Tecumseh, General Harrison, by direction of the government, 
held a treaty with several tribes, and purchased of them a large and valuable tract of laud on 
the Wabash. Wheu Tecumseh, on his return, was informed of this treaty, his indignation knew 
no bounds. Another council was called, when Tecumseh clearly and undisguiacdly iii.arkcd 
out the policy he was determined to pursue. He denied the right of a few tribes to sell their 
lands — said the Great Spirit liad given the country to his red children in common, for a per- 
petual inheritance — that one tribe had no right to sell to another, much less to strangers, unless 
all -the tribes joined in the treaty. " The Americans," said he, " have driven us from the sea- 
coast— they will shortly push us into the lake, and we arc determined to make a stanil where 
■we are." He declared tliat he should adhere to the cht hoandary, and that unless the latuls 

5 



34 INDIAN TRIBES. [Book I. 

purchased should be giTon up, and tlio wliites should agree nerer to make another trcatj-, 
without the consent of all the tiibos, his unaltovable resolution was vnr. 

Sevenil ehiet's of ililTcivnt tribes,— ^\'_^aIutots, Kickapoos, I'otowatoniies, Ottawas, anil AVin- 
nebagoi'S, tlieu arose, eaeh ileehirini» liis deterinination to stand by Tocuniseli, wiiom they 
had elioseu their leader. M'heu asked, finally, if it were his determination to make war unless 
his teniis were eoniplied with, ho said, " It is my deterniinatiou ; nor will I give rest to my feet, 
wntil I have united all the red men in the like resolution." \\'Iien Harrison told hnn thero 
was no probability that the Presidt'ut would surrender the lands purchased, he said, " Well, 
1 hope the tireat t-pirit will put sense enough into the head of your great chief to induce hiiu 
to diix'Ct you to give up the land. It is true, he is so far off he will not be injured by the whr 
llo may sit still in his town, and drink his wine, whilst you and 1 will have to fight it out." 

The following circuinst.i\nce, characteristic of the spirit which actuated the haughty chief, 
occurred during the council. After Tecuniseh had nnide a speech to General Harrison, and 
was about to seat himself, it was observed tliat no chair had been placed for him. One was 
inuuediatcly onlercd by the General, and a.s the intei-proter handed it to him he said, '• Yonr 
father ivqui'sts you to take n chair."' ^^ My fatlur?'^ .said Tecuniseh, with gre.vt indignity of 
e.xpression, •' The sun j> vii/ father, and the earth is my vtolher, ami on her hosoiit wi!t I 
rej>ose ;" luid wrapping his moutlc around him, he seated himself, in the Indir.n manner, upon 
the ground. 

The exertions of Tec<imseh, in pivparing for the war which followed, were conuneusui-ate 
■with the vastness of his plans ; and it is believed that he visittd, in person, all tlui tribes from 
liake Superior to Georgia. — The detiiils of that war have beou given in another part of this 
work. (See p. 32.) 

It is believed that Tecumseh never exercised cruelty to prisoners. In a talk which he had 
with Governor Harrison, just before hostilities conunenced, the latter expressed a wish, that, 
if wiu' must follow, uo unuecessary crnelties should be allowed on cither side ; to which 
Tecumseh coiilitilly assented. It is known that, at one time, when a body of the Americans 
were defeated, Tecumseh exert<'d himself to put a stop to the massacre of the soldiers, and 
that, meeting with a Chippewa chief, who would not desist by persuasion nor threats, he 
buried his tomahawk in bis head. 

When 'rccunisch fell, the spirit of independence, which for a while had animated the western 
tribes, sccmcil to perish with hiu\ ; and it is not probable that a chief will ever agtiin arise, to 
unite them in another cont'cdcracy equally powerful. 

ANALYSIS. ]\Ii.\Mis AND PiNCKisn.vws. 'Tlio PiiickishaAvs arc not 

1 Miamis nicntiotuHl bv the French missionaries, who probably con- 

and fiiic'^i- sidercti tlioin as part of the Miamis. The territory claimed 

ghaws. niid r , , ,- i ^r 'i^ • ,. 

the lenitoru bv these {WO tribes extended troiu tlie ivlauniee luver or 

t/iein. Lake brie to the high lands whicti separate tiie waters ol 

the Wabash from those of the Kaskaskias River. The 

Miamis occnpied the northern, and the Pinekishaws the 

8. TAcfr re/a- southern portit)u of this territory. "The Miamis >vei"e 

tlie'Five'sa- Called Tu'iglttccs by the Five Nations, against whom they 

tioiis ciirried on a sanguinary war, in alliance with the French. 

s. With the ^They have been one of the most active western tribes in 

Sillies. the Indian wars against the United States. ''Tliey have 

4. Treir ccdcd niost of their lands, and, including the Pinekishaws, 

numtera. Were Said ti^ number, in 1840. about t>\o thousand souls. 

Lrrxi.K Turtle was a distinguished chief of the Sliamis dviring the western Indian wars 
whith followed tljo .Vmerican Uevolution. lie was the son of a Miami cliicf and Jlohegan 
woman, and as, according to the Imlian law, the condition of tlio woman adheres to the off- 
fpring, he was not a chief by birth, but was r.iised to that standing by his superior t-iilcnts. 

Possessing gtvat iutlueuce with the western tribes, as one of their leaders, he fought the 
ftnnies of (General llarmar, St. t'lair, atul General A\'ayue, and, at least in one of the battles, 
the lUsastrous defeat of St. Clair, he had the chief command. It is sjiid, Iiowever, that ho was 



Chap. I.] INDIAN TRIBES. 35 

not for fighting General AVayno at the rapids of the Maumcc, and that in a council held the 
night before the battle he argued as follows : " We have beaten the enemy twice under separate 
commanders. Wo cannot expect the same good fortune always to attend us. The Americans 
are now led by a chief who never sleeps : the night and the day are alike to him. And during 
all the time that he has been marching upon our villages, notwithstanding the watchfulness 
of our young men, we have never been able to surprise him. Think well of it. There is some- 
thing whispers me it would be prudent to listen to his offers of peace." The other chiefs, 
however, decided against him, and he did his duty in the day of battle : but the result proved 
his anticipations correct. 

From his irresistible fury in battle the Indians sometimes called him the JBig- Wind, or Tor- 
tiaiJo ; and also Sukachgook, or the Black Snake, because they said he possessed all the art 
and cunning of that reptile. 15ut he is said to have been as humane as he was courageous, 
and that " there have been few individuals among the aborigines who have done so much to 
aboli.sh the rites of human .sacrifice." 

When Little Turtle became convinced that all resistance to the whites was vain, he induced 
his nation to consent to peace, and to adopt agricultural pursuits. In 1797 ho visited Phila- 
delphia, where the celebrated traveler Volney became acquainted with him. lie gives us some 
interesting information concerning the character of this noted chief. 

Little Turtle also became acquainted, in Philadelphia, with the renowned Polish patriot 
Kosciusko ; who was so well pleased with him, that on parting, he presented the chief a pair 
of beautiful pistols, and an elegant and valuable robe made of sea-otter skin. LitMe Turtle 
died at Fort Wayne, in the siunmer of 1812. 

Illinois. 'The Illinois, formerly the mast numerous analysis. 
of the western Algonquins, numbering, when first known, TT'AenMw^ 
ten or twelve thousand souls, consi-sted of five triljes ; the ^^If^"' «"^ 
Kaskaslcias, Caliokias, Tamaronas, Peorias, and MUchiga- unnoisin- 
mias ; the last, a foreign tribe from the west side of the 
Mississippi, but admitted into the confederacy. ''The 2. Their hu- 
Illinois, being divided among themselves, were ultimately "^^' 
almost exterminated by the surrounding hostile tribes, and 
the Iroquois; and when, in 1818, they ceded all their lands 
to the United States, their numbers were reduced to about 
three hundred souls. 

KicKAPOOs. 'The Kickapoos claimed all the country 3 The Kick- 
north of the mouth of tiie Illinois, and between that river "^'""'' 
and the Wabash, the southern part of their territory having 
been obtained by conquest from the Illinois. In 1819 they 
made a final cession of all their lands to the United States. 

Sacs and Foxes. ''The Sacs,* and the Foxes or Outa- 4. identity of 
gamies, arc but one nation, speaking the same language. "^Poxm*"^ 
■^They were first discovered by the French, on Fox River, 5. Their ori- 
at the southern extremity of Green Bay, somewhat far- ^^"'''**""- 
ther east than the territory which a portion of them have 
occupied until recently. "The Foxes were particularly e Their hm- 
iiostile to the French, and in lil2, in conjunction with 'tuFrench!: 
some other tribes, they attacked'' the French fort at De- a. see p. . 
troit, then defended by only twenty men. The French 
were however relieved by the Ottawas, ITnrons, Potowato- 
mies, and other friendly tril>es, and a great part of the 
besieging force was either destroyed or captured. 

* Or Sawks. 



36 INDIAN TRIBES, [Book I. 

ANALYSIS. ^The Foxes, united with the Kickapoos, drove the Illinois 

1. With the fi'o'"" their settlements on the river ot" that name, and com- 

iiiinoa. pellcd them, in 1722, to take refuge in the vicinity of the 

i. With the French settlements. "The lowas, a Sioux tribe, have 

lotcas. ijegjj partly subjugated by them and admitted into their 

alliance. During the second war with Great Britain, a 

part of the Sacs, under their chief Black Hawk, fought 

3. Their against the Americans. 'In 1830, the Sacs and Foxes 



lands. 



■*» 



ceded to the United States all their lands east of the Mis- 
sissippi, although portions of these tribes, as late as 1840, 
were still found east of that river, and west of the terri- 
tory of the Chippewas. The treaty of 1830 was the cause 
of a war with a portion of the Sacs, Foxes, and Winne- 
a. Seep. 474. bagoes, usually called "Black Hawk's war."» 

One of the moat prominent chiefs of the Sacs, with whom we are acquainted, was Black 
Hawk, the leader in what i.s usually called " Black Hawk's war." From the account which 
he has given in the narrative of his life, dictated hy himself, it appears that he was born on 
Kock River, in Illinois, about the year 1767 ; — that he joined the British in the second war 
with Great Britain ; and that he fought with them in 1812, near Detroit ; and probably was 
engaged in the attack on the fort at Sandusky. 

The war in which ho was engaged in 1832, was occasioned, hke most Indian wars, hy dis- 
putes about lands. In July, 1830, by treaty at Prairie du Chien, the Sacs, Foxes, and other 
tribes, sold their lands east of the Mississippi to the United States. Keokuck headed tiie party 
of Sacs that made the treaty, but Black Hawk was at the time absent, and ignorant of the pro- 
ceedings. He said that Keokuck had no right to sell the lands of other chiefs, — and Keokuck 
even promised that he would attempt to get back again the village and lands which Black 
Hawk occupied. 

In the mnter of 1830, while Black Hawk and his party were absent, on their usual winter's 
hunt, the whites came and possessed their beautiful village at the mouth of Kock River. AVhen 
the Indians returned they were without a home, or a lodge to cover them. They however de- 
clared that they would take possession of their own property, and the whites, alarmed, said 
they would live mid plant with the Indians. 

But disputes soon followed, — the Indians were b.adly treated, the whites complained of 
encToackments, and called upon the governor of Illinois for protection, and a force was ordered 
out to remove the Indians. Black Hawk, however, agreed to a treaty, which was broken the 
game year by both parties. War followed, and Black Hawk was defeated and taken prisoner. 
{See p. 475.) The following is said to be a part of the speech which he made when he surren- 
dered himself to the agent at Prairie du Chien : (Pra-re doo She-ong.) 

" You have taken me prisoner, with all my warriors. I am much grieved, for I expected, if 
I did not defeat you, to hold out much longer, and give you more trouble before I surrendered. 
I tried hard to bring you into ambush, but your last general understands Indian fighting. 
The first one was not so wi.se. 'HTien I saw that I could not beat you by Indian fighting, I 
determined to rush on you, and fight you face to face. I fought hard. But your guns were 
■well aimed. The bullets flew like birds in the air, and whizzed by our cars like the wind 
through the trees in the winter. My warriors fell around me ; it began to look dismal. I saw 
my evil day at hand. The sun rose dim on us in the morning, and at night it sunk in a dark 
cloud, and looked like a ball of fire. That was the last sun that shone on Black Hawk. His 
heart is dead, and no longer beats quick in his bosom. He is now a prisoner to the whito 
men ; they will do with him as they wish. But he can stand torture, and is not afraid of death. 
He is no coward. Black Hawk is an Indian." 

4. The Poto- PoTOWATOMiES. *The Potowatomics are intimately con- 
^Tmi7e i^scted by alliance and language with the Chippewas and 
foundin Ottawas. ^In 1671 they were found by the French on 



Chap. I.] 



INDIAN TRIBES. 



37 



the islands at the entrance of Green Bay. 'In 1710 they 
had removed to the southern extremity of" Lake Michigan, 
on lands previously occupied by the Miamis. ''The Chip- 
pewas, Ottawas, and Potowatomics, numbering more than 
twenty thousand souls, are now the most numerous tribes 
of the Algonquin family. ^All the other Algonquin 
tribes were estimated in 1840, not to exceed twenty-five 
thousand souls. 

Menonojiies. ■'The Mononomies,* so called from the 
wild rice which grows abundantly in their country, are 
found around the shores of Green Bay, and are bounded 
on the north by the Chippewas, on the south by the AVin- 
nebagoes, and on the west by the Sacs, Foxes, and Sioux. 
When first visited by the French Jesuits, in 1G99, they 
occupied the same territory as at present. 'They are 
supposed to number about four thousand two hundred 
souls. 



ANALYSIS- 

1. In 1710. 

2 Numbers 
uf the Chip- 
pewas, Otta- 
was, and Po- 
towalomies. 

3. Of the other 

Algori'/uin 

tribes. 



4. The Me- 
oiotiomies, 
and their 

country, 710V}, 
and when 

Jirst visited. 



5 Theirnum- 
ben. 



SECTION III. 



IROQUOIS TRIBES. 

'On the shores of the Lakes Ontario, Erie and Huron, 
were found the Hurons and the Iroquois, speaking a lan- 
guage different from the Algonquin ; and, in the northern 
part of Carolina, bordering on Virginia, were found the 
Tuscaroras, also speaking a dialect of the same language. 
'These several divisions have been classed as the " Iroquois 
Tribes," although the term Iroquois has been generally 
restricted to tlie Five Nations, who resided south of Lake 
Ontario, in the present state of New York. 

Hurons. *The Hurons, when first known to the French, 
consisted of four nations : — the Wyandots, or Hurons, con- 
sisting of five tribes, who gave their name to the confed- 
eracy ; the AtUouandirons, or Neutral Nation ; the Erigas, 
and the Andastcs. "The former two possessed the terri- 
tory north of Lake Erie, and adjoining Lake Huron ; and 
the latter two, a territory soutii of Lalce Erie, in the 
present state of Ohio. "When the French arrived in 
Canada, the Wyandots were found at the head of a con- 
federacy of Algonquin tribes, and engaged in a deadly 
war with their kindred, the Five Nations. 

After a long .series of wars, in 1649 the Five Nations, 
with all their forces, invaded the Huron country, — suc- 
cessively routed their enemies, and massacred great num- 
bers of them. In the following year the attack was re- 



«- Localities 

of the Iro- 

qtiois tribes. 



7 The term 
" Iroquois." 



8. The divi- 
sions of the 
IIur07is. 



9. LocaUti£» 
uf the tribes. 



10 Wars be- 
tween the 
Wyand'tts 

and thf, Fivs 
Nations. 



* From Monomo7iick, " wild rice." 



38 INDIAN TRIBES. [Book I. 

ANALYSIS, newed, and the Wyandots were entirely dispersed, and 
many of them driven from their country. The result of 
the same war occasioned the dispersion of tlie Wyandot 

i.Dtspenion allies, the Algonquin tribes of the Ottawa Iviver. 'A part 

andocs"' of the Wyandots sought the protection of the French at 

Quebec ; others took refuge among the Chippewas of 

Lake Superior, and a few detaciied bands surrendered, 

and were incorporated among the Five Nations. 

2. The Tio- ^\mong the Wyandots who fled to the Cliippcwas, the 
ihtir history, tribe ot tlio 1 lonoutatcs was the most poweriul. Alter an 

unsuccessful war witli the Sioux, in 1671 they removed 
to the vicinity of Michilimackinac, where they collected 
around them the remnants of their kindred tribes. They 
soon removed to Detroit, where they acted a conspicuous 
part in the ensuing conflicts between the French and the 
Five Nations. 

3. Influence ^Tlie Wyaudots, although speaking a ditlerent language, 
%>'i'1>ver"he fxcrted an extensive influence over the Algonquin tribes. 

^^r'S" Even the Delawares, A\ho claimed to be the elder branch 
of the Algonquin nation, and called themselves the grand- 
fathers of their kindred tribes, acknowledged the superiority 

4. Theirsoi'- of the Wyandots, whom they called their uncles. ''Even 
'^Ihl'cfhT'' after Uieir dispersion by the Five Nations, the Wyandots 

countrt/. jvssumed the right of sovereignt}' over the Ohio country, 
where they granted lands to tlie JDelawares and the Sliaw. 
nees. 

5. Over apart ''Even Pennsylvania thought it necessary to obtain from 

vaii^a." ' the Wyandots a deed of cession for the north-western part 
of the state, although it was then in the actual possession 

6. Cession qf of the Algouquius. "Although the treaty of Greenville, in 

iaiitis at the -mr^r- • i i hi- i •* i i i i 

treat!/ nf 1795, was Signed by all the nations which had taken part 
Qreciiviue. j^^ j,^^^ ^^..^^.^ ^.^^ j^ ^^.-^^ ^.^.^^^^^ ^l^^ Wyaudots that the United 

7. TAeu-ynn- States obtained the principal cession of territory. 'About 

five hundred and seventy Wyandots were still remaining 
in Ohio in 1842. A still snviller part of the nation, which 
joined the British during the last war, resides m Canada, 
a. Locaiui/ "South of the ^^'yandots, cui the northern sJiore of Lake 
i!?"t'"*S-_ Erie, ^vas a Huron tribe, which, on account of tlie strict 
trai Sation." neutrality it preserved during the wars between the Five 
Nations and the other Hurons, was called the " Neutral 
Nation." Notwithstanding their peaceful policy, how- 
ever, most of them were finally brought under the subjec- 
tion of the Five Nations not long afler the dispersion of 
the Wyandots.* 



* Xote. — \VTi,it little is kiiowm of the " Noutrtvl Nation" is poculiarly int^rosting. " The- 
Wyandot trailition ri'pn'sonts thorn aji having separtitvd from the parent stock ilnrins; tha 
'blooil.v wjvrs iH'tweeu tlieir o-wn tribe and the Iroquois, and having; fled to the Sandusky Uivcr, 
ia Ohio, for safety. Ueix- tliey eivcted two fortes witUiu a short dist;uicc of each citlu;r,aii(J 



Chap. I.] INDIAN TRIBES. 39 

'The Engas, or Eries, a Huron tribe, were seated on awalysis. 
the southern shores of the Lake which still bears their T'TheEriZ. 
name. They were subdued by the Five Nations in 1655, 
but little is known of their history. *The Andasies, another 2. Locality 

• 1 /> • 1 I 1 ii xi T^ • 1 i J arul ttiitiiry Of 

Huron tribe, more formidable than the hries, were located iheAndma. 
a little farther south, princi|>ally on the head waters of the 
Ohio. The war which they sustained against the Five 
Nations lasted more than twenty years, but although they 
were assisted by the *Shawnees and the Miamis, they were 
finally destroyed in the year 1672. 

Of the chiefc of the Ilurons, whose history is known to us, the most distjnguiHhed in Adaeio, 
«r Kondiaronk ; or, as he was called by the whites, The Rat. Charlevoix speaks of hira as " a 
man of great mind, the braTcst of the brave, and possessing altogether the best qualities of any 
chief kno>vTi to the French in Canada." During the war which De Nouvillc, the French 
governor of Canada, waged against the Irorjuois, during several years subsequent to 108.5, 
A'lario, at the head of the Ilurons, rendered him efficient assistance, under the pvomi.se that 
the war should not be terminated until the Iroquois, long the inveterate enemi(!S of the Hurong, 
were destroyed, or completely humbled. Yet such were the successes of the Iroquois, that, ia 
1688, the French governor saw himself under the necessity of concluding with them terms of 
peace. Adario, however, perceiving that if peace were conclmled, the Iroquois would be able 
to direct all their power against the Ilurons, took the following savage means of averting the 
treaty. 

Having learned that a body of Iioquoia deputies, under the Onondaga chief Dekanisora, 
were on their way to Montreal to conclude the negotiation, ho and a numVjer of his warriors 
lay In ambush, and killed or captured the whole party, taking the Onondaga chief prisoner. 
The latter, asking AdarLo, how it happened that lie could be ignorant that the party surprised 
oa-s on an embassy of peace to the French, the subtle Huron, subduing his angry passionB, 
expressed far greater surprise than Uekanisora — protesting his utter ignorance of the fact, and 
declaring that the French themselves hiid directed him to make the attack, and, as if struck 
with remorse at having committed so black a deed, he inimcdiateiy set all the captives at 
liberty, save one. 

In order farther to carry out his plans, he took his remiiining prisoner to Miehilimackinac, 
and delivered him into the hands of the French commandant, who was ignorant of the pending 
negotiation with the Iroquois, and who was induced, by the artifice of Adario, to cause his 
prisoner to be put to death. The news of this affair the cunning chief caused to be made 
known to the Iroquois by an old captive whom ho had long held ia bondage, and whom he 
now caused to be set at liberty for that purpose. 

The indignation of the Iroquois at the supposed treacliery of the French knew no bounds, 
and although De Nonville disavowed, in the strongest terms, the allegations of the Huron, j ct 
the flame once kindled could not easily be quenched. The deep laid stratagem of the Huron 
succeeded, and the war was carried on with greater fary than ever. The Iroquois, in the fol- 
lowing year, txvice laid waste the island of Montreal with fire and sword, carrying off several 
hundred prisoners. Forts Frontenac and Niagara were blown up and alisjidont'd, and at one 
time the very existence of the French colony was threatened. (.Soe page .01.3.) 

Adario finally died at Montreal, at peace with the French, in the year 1701. He had-accom- 



assigned one to the Iroquois, and the other to the Wyandots and their allies, where their war 
parties might find security and lio.<pit:ility, whenever tljey entered this neutral territory. 

•" Why BO unusual a prt)positjon was mad«! and acceded to. tradition dix^s not tell. It is prob- 
able, however, thit superstition lent its aid to the institution, and that it may have been in- 
debted, for its origin, to the feasts, and dreams, and juggling ceremonies, which constituted 
tbe religion of the aborigines. No other motive was sufficiently powerful to stay the hand of 
violence?, and to counteract the threat of vengeance. 

■" But an intestine feud finally arose in this neutral nation ; one party espousing the cause 
of the Iroquois, and the other of tlitir enemi(^^. .-uid like mo.<t civil wars, this was proniicuted 
with relentless fury.'^ Thus the n.ition was finally broken up, — a part uniting with the vic- 
torious Iroquois, and the rest escaping westward with the fugitive Wyandots. — Sc/wolcra/t. 



40 INDIAN TRIBES. [Book I. 

panied thither the heads of sereral tribes to make a treaty. At his funeral the greatest display 
■was made, and nothiag was omitted which could inspire the Indians present with a conyictioo 
of the great respect in wliich he was held by the French. 

ANALYSIS. The Five Nations. (Iroquois Proper.) 'The confede- 
" , Yhe dif- ^^^y generally known as the " Five Nations," but called 
HTthefocai- ^y ^'^° French "Iroquois;" by the Algonquin tribes "Ma- 
iiitsof the^ quas" or " Mingocs ; "* and by the Virginians, "Massawo- 
meks;" possessed the country south of the River St. Law- 
rence and Lake Ontario, extending from the Hudson to the 
upper branches of the Alleghany River and Lake Erie. 
a.The.severai ^Thcy Consisted of a confederacy of five tribes; the Mo- 
confcderacy. hau'ks, the Oiiddas, the Onondagas, the Caijugas, and the 
Scnccas. The great council-fire of the confederacy was 
in the special keeping of the Onondagas, and by them was 
always kept burning. 
^t/K^cfJfed^ "'It is not known when the confederacy was formed, but 
eruci/- it is supposed that the Oneidas and the Cayugas were the 
4. Thenu- youui^er mcmbcrs, and were compelled to ioin it. ''When 
carried on bij the r ivc N ations wcrc first discovered, they were at war 
tiom. with nearly all the surrounding tribes. They had already 
carried their conquests as lar south as the mouth of the 
Susquehanna ; and on the north they continued to wage a 
With the iiur vigorous Warfare against the Hurons, and the Algonquins 
torn, ^c. ^j. ^j^^ Ottawa River, until those nations were finally sub- 
Tht Eries. dued. The Erics were subdued and almost destroyed by 
them ia 1655. 
5. warstPith ^As early as 1657 thev had carried their victorious arms 

the Miainis . it.i. ■ I'l.r^ .-th--!- t. 

end uttawas. against the Miamis, and the Ottawas ot Michigan ; ana m 
TheAndastes. 1672 the fiaal ruin of the Andastes was accomplished. In 
1701 their excursions extended as far south as the waters 
of Cape Feair River ; and they subsequently had repeated 
The chero- wars with the Cherokees and the Catawbas, the latter of 
lawbas. whom Were nearly extCfrminated by them. When, in 1744, 
they ceded a portion of their lands to Virginia, they abso- 
lutely insisted on the continued privilege of a war-path 
through the ceded temtory. From the time of the first 
settlements in the country they uniformly adhered to the 
British interests, and were, alone, almost a counterpoise to 
the general influence of France over the other Indian na- 

«. nvycaJi- lions. "In 1714 they were ioined by the Tuscaroras from 

td ''fit' " si's J J J 

Nuiions.'' North Carolina, since which time the confederacy has been 

called the Six Nations. 

T. Th'ir Tela- ''The oait they took durins; the war of the Revolution is 

turns 101th ■ ^ ^ '-s~\ \tT- l'\^■ rnT l J n 1 

the United thus uoticed by iJe Witt Clinton: — " ihe whole confede- 
racy, except a little more than half of the Oneidas, took up 
arms against us. They hung like the scythe of death upon 

• The term " Ma(xuas" or " Mingoes" was saorc jiarticularly applied to the Mohatrks. 



Chap. I.] INDIAN TRIBES. 41 

the rear of our settlements, and their deeds are inscribed, analysis. 
with the scalping-knife and the tomahawk, in characters 
of blood, on the fields of Wyoming and Cherry-Valley, 
and on the banks of the Mohawk." Since the close of 
that war they have remained on friendly terms with the 
States. 'The Mohawks, however, were obliged, in 1780, ^■^l'^^^' 
to abandon their seats and take refuge in Canada. *In the 2. The num- 
beginning of the seventeenth century the numbers of the p^^sZiUMai- 
Iroquois tribes amounted to forty thousand. They are now ^'Irlquol^ 
reduced to about seven thousand, only a small remnant of '"***• 
whom now remain in the State of New York. The re- 
mainder are separated, and the confederacy is broken up, 
a part bemg in Canada, some in the vicinity of Green Bay, 
and others beyond the Mississippi. 

^For the ascendency which the Five Nations acquired 3 caumcf 

, ,. •;, , 1 • 1 the ojicenden- 

over the surroundmg tribes, several causes may be assigned, cy which the 
They were farther advanced in the few arts of Indian life acqumdover 
than the Algonquins, and they discovered much wisdom in "fngZibes ' 
their internal policy, particularly in the formation and long Their inter- 
continuance ot their confederacy, — in attacking, by turns, ^ ^^ ^^' 
the disunited tribes by which they were surrounded ; and 
instead of extending themselves, and spreading over the 
countries which tliey conquered, remaining concentrated 
in their primitive seats, even at the time of their greatest 
successes. 

■•Their geographical position was likewise favorable, for 4. Their geo- 
they were protected against sudden or dangerous attacks, ^'^'^aitim.^°' 
on the north by Lake Ontario, and on the south by exten- 
sive ranges of mountains. ^Their intercourse with Eu- s. Their in- 
ropeans, and particularly with the Dutch, at an early ■wuh^tro- 
period, by supplying them with fire-arms, increased their ^"'"*' 
relative superiority over their enemies ; while, on the other 
hand, the English, especially in New England, generally 
took great precaution to prevent the tribes in their vicinity 
from being armed, and the Indian allies of the French, at 
the north and west, were but partially supplied. 

One of the earliest chiefs of the Five Nations, with whom history makes us acquainted, was 
Gaeangula, who was distinguished for his sagacity, wisdom, and eloquence. He is first 
brought to our notice by a manly and magnanimous speech which he made to the French 
governor-general of Canada, M. De La Barre, who, in 1684, marched into the country of the 
Iroquois to subdue them. A mortal sickness having broken out in the French army, De La 
Barre thought it expedient to attempt to disguise his designs of immediate war ; but, at the 
same time, in a lofty tone he threatened hostilities if the terms of future peace wliich he offered 
were not complied with. Garangula, an Onondaga chief, appointed by the council to reply to 
him, first arose, and walked several times around the circle, when, addressing himself to the 
governor, he began as follows : 

" Yonnondio ;* I honor you, and the warriors that are with me likewise honor you. Yonr 



* The Iroquois gave the name Yonnondio to the governors of Canada, and CorUar to the 
governors of New York. 

6 



42 NDIAN TRIBES. [Book L 

interpreter has finished your speech. I now begin mine. My words make haste to reach youi 
ears. Hearken to them. 

" Yonnondio ; you must havebelieTed, when you left Quebec, that the sun had burned up 
all the forests, which render our country inaccessible to the French ; or that the lakes had so 
far overflown their banks, that they had surroimded our castles, and that it was impossible foi 
us to get out of them. Yes, surely, you must have dreamed so, and the curiosity of seeing so 
great a wonder has brought you so far. Now you are undeceived, since that I and the war- 
riors here present are come to assure you that the Senecaa, Cayugas, Onondagas, Oneidas, and 
Mohawks, are yet alive. I thank you in their name for bringing back into their country the 
calimiet, which yovir predecessor received at their hands. It was happy for you that you 
left under ground that murdering hatchet that has so often been dyed in the blood of the 
Indians. 

" Hear Yonnondio; I do not Bleep ; I have my eyes open ; and the sun which enlightens 
me, discovers to me a great captain at the head of a company of soldiers, who speaks as if he 
were dreaming. He says that he came to the lake, only to smoke the great calumet with the 
Onondagas. But Garangula says that he sees the contrary ; that it was to knock them on the 
head, if sickness had not weakened the arms of the French. I see Yonnondio raving in a camp 
of sick men, whose Uves the Great Spirit has saved by inflicting this sickness on them." 

In this strain of indignant contempt the venerable chief continued at some length — disclos- 
ing the perfidy of the French and their weakness — proclaiming the freedom and independence 
of his people — and advising the French to take care for the future, lest they should choke the 
tree of peace so recently planted. 

De La Barre, struck with surprise at the wisdom of the chief^ ajid mortified at the result of 
the expedition, immediately returned to Montreal. 

One of the most renowned warriors of the Mohawk tribe was a chief by the name of Hen- 
DRICK, who, with many of his nation, assisted the English against the French in the year 1755. 
He was intimate with Sir WUliam Johnson, whom he frequently visited at the house of the 
latter. At one time, being present when Sir WUliam received from England some richly em- 
broidered suits of clothes, he could not help expressing a great desire for a share in them. He 
went away very thoughtful, but returned not long after, and with much gravity told Sir Wil- 
liam that he had dreamed a dream. The latter very concernedly desired to know what it was. 
Hendrick told him he had dreamed that Sir William had presented him one of his new suits 
of uniform. Sir William could not refuse tne present, and the chief went away much delighted. 
Some time after the General met Hendrick, and told him he had dreamed a dream. The chief, 
although doubtless mistrusting the plot, seriously desired to know what it was, as Sir WiUiam 
had done before. The General said he dreamed that Hendrick had presented him a certain 
tract of valuable land, which he described. The chief immediately answered, " It is yours ;" 
but, shaking his head, said, " Sir WiUiam, me no dream with you again." 

Hendrick was killed in the battle of Lake George in 1755. When General Johnson was 
about to detach a small party against the French, he asked Hendrick's opinion, whether the 
force were sufiScient, to which the chief replied, " If they are to fight, they are too few. If 
they are to be killed they are too many." When it was proposed to divide the detachment 
into three parties, Hendrick, to express the danger of the plan, taking three sticks, and put- 
ting them together, said to the General, " You see now that it is difficult to break these ; but 
take them one by one and you may break them easily." 

When the son of Hendrick, who was also in the battle, was told that his father was killed, — 
putting his hand on his breast, and giving the usual Indian groan, he declared that he was 
still alive in that place, and stood there in his son. 

Logan was a distinguished Iroquois (or Mingo) chief, of the Cayuga tribe. It is said, that, 
" For magnanimity in war, and greatness of sovd in peace, few, if any, in any nation, ever 
surpassed Logan." He was uniformly the friend of the whites, until the spring of 1774, when 
aU his relatives were barbarously murdered by them without provocation. He then took up 
the hatchet, engaged the Shawnees, Delawares, and other tribes to act with him, and a bloody 
war followed. The Indians however were defeated in the battle of Point Pleasant, at the mouth 
of the Great Kanhawa, in October 1774, and peace soon followed. "When the proposals of 
peace were submitted to Logan, he is said to have made the following memorable and well 
known speech. 

" I appeal to any white man to say, if ever he entered Logan's cabin hungry, and he gave 
}<\m no meat ; if ever be came cold and naked, and he clothed him not. 



Chap. I.] INDIAN TRIBES. 43 

" During the course of the last long and bloody war, Logan remabied idle in his cabin, an 
BdTocate for peace. Such was my love for the whites, that my countrymen pointed as they 
passed, and said, ' Logan is the friend of white men.' 

" I had even thought to have lived with you, but for the injuries of one man. Colonel 
Cresnp, the last spring, in cold blood, and unprovoked, murdered all the relations of Logan, 
not even sparing my women and children. 

" There runs not a drop of my blood in the veins of any living creature. This called on me 
for revenge. I have sought it. I have killed many. I have fully glutted my vengeance. 
For my country, I rejoice at the beams of peace. But do not harbor a thought that mine is 
the joy of fear. Logan never felt fear. He will not turn on his heel to save life. Who is 
there to mourn for Logan? — Not one !" 

Of this specimen of Indian eloquence Mr. Jefferson remarks, " I may challenge all the ora- 
tions of Demosthenes and Cicero, and of any more eminent orator, if Europe has furnifihed 
more eminent, to produce a single passage superior to the speech of Logan." 

Thatendanega, known to the whites as Colonel Joseph Brant, was a celebrated Iroquois 
chief of the Mohawk tribe. He was born about the year 1742, and at the age of nineteen was 
sent by Sir AV'ilham Johnson to Lebanon, in Connecticut, where he received a good English 
education. It has been said that he was but half Indian, but this is now beUeved to be an 
error, which probably arose from the known fact that he was of a lighter complexion than his 
countrymen in general. 

He went to England in 1775, and after his return took up arms against the Americans, and 
received a Colonel's commission in the English army. " Combining the natural sagacity of 
the Indian, with the skill and science of the civilized man, he was a formidable foe, and a 
dreadful terror to the frontiers." He commanded the Indians in the battle of Oriskana, 
which resulted in the death of General Herkimer :* he was engaged in the destruction of 
Wyoming,! and the desolation of the Cherry Valley settlements, t but he was defeated by tha 
Americans, under General Sullivan, in the " Battle of the Chemung. "§ 

Notwithstanding the numerous bloody scenes in which Brant was engaged, many acts of 
clemency ai-e attributed to him, and he himself asserted that, during the war, he had killed 
but one man, a prisoner, in cold blood — an act which he ever after regretted ; although, in 
that case, he acted under the belief that the prisoner, who had a natural hesitancy of speech, 
was equivocating, in answering the questions put to him. 

After peace had been concluded with England, Brant frequently used his exertions to pre- 
vent hostiUties between the States and the Western tribes. In 1779 he was legally married to 
an Indian daughter of a Colonel Croghan, with whom he had previously lived according to 
the Indian manner. Brant finally settled on the western shore of Lake Ontario, where he 
lived after the English fashion. He died in 1807. — One of his sons has been a member of the 
Colonial Assembly of Upper Canada. 

An Oneida chief of some distinction, by the name of Shenandoa, was contemporary with 
the missionary Kirkland, to whom he became a convert. He lived many years of the latter 
part of his life a believer in Christianity. 

In early life he was much addicted to intoxication. One night, while on a visit to Albany 
to settle some affairs of his tribe, he became intoxicated, and in the morning found himself 
in the street, stripped of all his ornaments, and nearly every article of clothing. This brought 
him to a sense of his duty — his pride revolted at his self-degradation, and he resolved that he 
would never again deliver himself over to the power of strong tvater. 

In the Revolutionary war this chief induced most of the Oneidas to take up arms in favor 
of the Americans. Among the Indians he was distinguished by the appellation of ' the white 
man's friend.' — He lived to the advanced age of 110 years, and died in 1816. To one who 
visited him a short time before his death, he said, " I am an aged hemlock ; the winds of a 
hundred mnters have whistled through my branches, and I am dead at the top. The genera- 
tion to which I belonged has run away and left me : why I Uve, the great Good Spirit only 
knows. Pray to the Lord that I may have patience to wait for my appointed time to die." — 
From attachment to Mr. Kirkland he had often expressed a strong desire to be buried near 
him, that he might (to use his own expression,) ' Go up ivith him at the great resurrection.'' 
His request was granted, and he was buried by the side of his beloved minister, there to wait 
the coming of the Lord in whom he trusted. 

* Sec page 376. t Page 383. t Page 384. f Page 389. 



44 INDIAN TRIBES. [Book L 

One of the most noted chiefs of the Seneca tribe was Sagotewatha, called by the whites 
Red Jacket. Although he was quite young at the time of the Revolution, yet his activity and 
intelligence then attracted the attention of the British officers, who presented him a richly 
embroidered scarlet jacket. This he wore on all public occasions, and from this circumstance 
originated the name by which he is known to the whites. 

Of his early Ufe we have the following interesting reminiscence. When Lafayette, in 1825, 
was- at Buffalo, Red Jacket, among others, called to see him. During the conversation, he 
asked the General if he recollected being present at a great council of all the Indian nations, 
held at Fort Schuyler in 1784. Lafayette replied that he had not forgotten that great event, 
and asked Red Jacket if he knew what had become of the young chief, who, in that councU, 
opposed with such eloquence the burying of the tomahawk. Red Jacket repUcd, ^^He is be- 
fore you. The decided enemy of the Americans, so long as the hope of successfully opposing 
them remained, but now their true and faithful ally unto death." 

During the second war with Great Britain, Red Jacket enlisted on the American side, and 
while he fought with bravery and intrepidity, in no instance did he exhibit the ferocity of the 
savage, or di.'grace himself by any act of inhimianity. 

Of the many truly eloquent speeches of Red Jacket, and notices of the powerful effects of his 
oratory, as described by eye-witnesses, we regret that we have not room for extracts. One 
who knew him intimately for more than thirty years speaks of him in the following terms. 

" Red Jacket was a perfect Indian in every respect ; in costume, in his contempt of the dress 
of the white men, in his hatred and opposition to the missionaries, and in his attacliment to, 
and veneration for the ancient customs aad traditions of his tribe. He had a contempt for the 
English language, and disdained to use any other than his own. lie was the finest specimen 
of the Indian character that I ever knew, and sustained it with more dignity than any other 
chief. He was second to none in authority in his tribe. As an orator he was unequalled by 
any Indian I ever saw. His language was beautiful and figurative, as the Indian language 
always is, — and delivered with the greatest ease and fluency. His gesticulation was easy, 
graceful, and natural. His voice was distinct and clear, and he always spoke with great ani- 
mation. His memory was very retentive. I have acted as interpreter to most of his speeches, 
to which no translation could do adequate justice." 

A short time before the death of Red Jacket there seemed to be quite a change in his feelings 
respecting Christianity. He repeatedly remarked to his wife that he was sorry that he had 
persecuted her for attending the religious meetings of the Christian party, — that she was right 
and he was wrong, and, as his dying advice, told her, " Persevere in your religion, it is the 
right ■way.'''' 

He died near Buffalo, in January, 1832, at the age of 78 years. 

Another noted Seneca chief was called Fakmer's Brother. He was engaged in the cause of 
the French in th» " French and Indian war." He fought against the Americans during the 
Bevolution, but he took part with them during the second war with Great Britain, although 
then at a very advanced age. He was an able orator, although perhaps not equal to Red 
Jacket. 

From one of his speeches, deUvered in a council at Genesee River in 1798, we give an ex- 
tract, containing one of the most sublime metaphors ever uttered. Speaking of the war of the 
Kevolution he said, " This great contest threw the inhabitants of this whole island into a great 
tumult and confusion, like a raging whirlwind, which tears up the trees, and tosses to and fro 
the leaves, so that no one knows from whence they come, or where they will fall. At length 
the Great Spirit spoke to the whirlwind, and it was still. A clear and uninterrupted sky 
appeared. The path of peace was opened, and the chain of friendship was once more made 
bright." 

Other distinguished chiefs of the Senecas were Corn Planter, Half Town, and Bia Tree ; 
all of whom were friendly to the Americans iifter the Revolution. The former was with the 
English at Braddock's defeat, and subsequently had several conferences with President Wash- 
ington on subjects relating to the affairs of his nation. He was an ardent advocate of tempe- 
rance. He died in March, 1836, aged upwards of 100 years. 

ANALYSIS. TuscARORAS. 'The southem Iroquois tribes, found on 
„ , ~ the borders of Pennsylvania and North Carolina, and ex- 

I. EttTly seats, ,. /. , , •■, pi 

names, aud tending irom the most northern tributary streams ot the 



ways. 



Chap. L] INDIAN TRIBES. 45 

Chowan to Cape Fear River, and bounded on the east by analysis. 
the Algonquin tribes of the sea-shore, have been generally aivmans of 
called Tuscaroras, although they appear to have been "te southern 

, . ,r- ■ ■ ■ 1-1 I n Iroquois 

known ni Virgniia, ni early tunes, under the name or cnbes. 
Monacans. The Monacans, however, were probably an 
Algonquin tribe, either subdued by the Tuscaroras, or in 
alliance with them. Of the southern Iroquois tribes, the 
principal were the Chowans, the Meherrins or Tuteloes, the 
Notkiways and the Tuscaroras ; the latter of whom, by far 
the most numerous and powerful, gave their name to the 
whole group. 

'The Tuscaroras, at the head of a confederacy of south- 1. war of the 
ern Indians, were engaged in a war with the Carolina wm'ih7car- 
settlements from the autumn of 171 1 to the spring of 1713. ^^ "''"""**„;, 

i^ o - a. See p. 254, 

'They were finally subdued, and, with most of their allies, 2 neirre ' 
removed north in 1714, and joined the Five Nations, thus ^"'"^wrlV^ 
making the Sixth. ^So late as 1820, however, a ^ew of 3. Tke^Notta- 
the Notiaways were still in possession of seven thousand 
acres of land in Southampton County, Virginia. 



SECTION IV. 

CATAWBAS, CHEROKEES, UCHEES AND NATCHES. 

Catawbas. ^The Catawbas, who spoke a language 4. i,ocaz«yo/ 
different from any of the surrounding tribes, occupied the '^ camMJio*. 
country south of the Tuscaroras, in the midlands of Caro- 
lina. ^They were able to drive away the Shawnees, who, 5 Their hm- 
soon after their dispersion in 1672, formed a temporary 'fhe%haw!^ 
settlement in the Catawba country. In 1712 they ^yg ^cakrT^^tite' 
found as the auxiliaries of Carolina against the Tuscaroras. souikern 
In 1715 they joined the neighboring tribes in the confede- theCherokees. 
racy against the southern colonies, and in 1760, the last 
time they are mentioned by the historians of South Caro- 
lina, they were auxiliaries against the Cherokees. 

"They are chiefly known in history as the hereditary 6. wars lom 
foes of the Iroquois tribes, by whom they were, finally, '^" iroguois. 
nearly exterminated. 'Their language is now nearly ex- 7 Their lan- 
tinct, and the remnant of the tribe, numbering, in 1840, ^""ra.'S"' 
less than one hundred souls, still lingered, at that time, on vresent seats. 
a branch of the Santee or Catawba River, on the borders 
of North Carolina. 

Cherokees. ^Adjoining the Tuscaroras and the Cataw- s. Locality of 
bas on the west, were the Cherokees, who occupied the ''''fcS^"^"' 
eastern and southern portions of Tennessee, as far west as 
the Muscle Shoals, and the highlands of Carolina, Georgia, 
and Alabama. 'They probably expelled the Shawnees from 9. Their ex- 
the country south of the Ohio, and appear to have been ^'tlha'w,"{^'!* 



the English. 
a. Doo Kane. 



46 INDIAN TRIBES. [Book I. 

ANALYSIS, perpetually at war with some branch of that wandering 
1. Their con- nation. 4n 1712 they assisted the English against the 
'^oniins'* Tuscaroras, but in 1715 they joined the Indian confede- 
racy against the colonies. 
% Hostilities ^Their long continued hostilities with the Five Nations 
Nation!, and Were terminated, through the interference of the British 
aitfancewi'th government, about the year 1750 ; and at the commence- 
the British, nientof the subsequent French and Indian war, they acted 
as auxiliaries of the British, and assisted at the capture of i 

3. uiarwiih Fort Du Quesnc." 'Soon after their return from this ex- 
pedition, however, a war broke out between them and the 
English, which was not effectually terminated until 1761. 

4. Their cm- ''They joined the British during the war of the Revolution, 
the Revoi'u- after the close of which they continued partial hostilities 

Sw^^w'ith until the treaty of Holston, in 1791 ; since which time they 
Q. urttam. Jiave remained at peace with the United States, and during 
the last war with Great Britain they assisted the Ameri- 
cans against the Creeks. 

5. Theircivii- 'The Cherokccs have made greater progress inciviliza- 
tauori,^^] tion than any other Indian nation within the United States, 

and notwithstanding successive cessions of portions of their 
territory, their population has increased during the last 
fifty years. They have removed beyond the Mississippi, 
and their number now amounts to about fifteen thousand 
souls. 

One of the most remarkable discoTeries of modern times has been made by a Cherokee In- 
dian, named George Guess, or Sequoyah. This Indian, who was unacquainted with any 
language but his own, had seen English books in the missionary schools, and was informed 
that the characters represented the words of the spoken language. Filled with enthusiasm, ho 
then attempted to form a written language for his native tongue. lie first endeavored to have 
a separate character for each word, but he soon saw the impracticability of this method. Next 
discovering that the same syllables, variously combined, perpetually recurred in different 
words, he formed a character for each syllable, and soon completed a syllabic alphabet, of eighty- 
five characters, by which he was enabled to express aU the words of the language. 

A native Cherokee, after learning these eighty-five characters, requiring the study of only a 
Jeio days, could read and WTite the language with facility ; his education in orthography being 
then complete ; whereas, in our language, and in others, an iiuliviJual is obliged to learn the 
orthography of many thousand words, requiring the study of years, before he can write the 
language ; so different is the orthography from the pronunciation. The alphabet formed by 
tills uneducated Cherokee soon superseded the English alphabet in the books published for the 
use of the Chcrokees, and in 1826 a newspaper called the Clierokee Fkcenix, was established in 
the Cherokee nation, printed in the new characters, with an English translation. 

At first it appeared incredible that a language so copious as the Cherokee should have but 
eighty-five syllables, but this was found to be o\ving to a peculiarity of the language — tho 
almost uniform prevalence of vocal or nasal terminations of syllables. The plan adopted by 
Guess, would therefore, probably, have failed, if applied to any other language than tho 
Cherolcee. 

We notice a Cherokee chief by the name of Speckled Sn.vke, for the purpose of giving a 
epeech which he made in a council of his nation which had been convened for the purpose of 
hearing read a talk from President Jackson, on the subject of removal beyond the Mississippi. 
The speech shows in what light the encroachments of the whites were viewed by the Cherokees. 
Speckled Snake arose, and addressed the council as follows : 






Chap. I.] INDIAN TRIBES. 47 

" Brothers.' We hare heard the talk of our great fether ; it is very kind. He says he loyes 
his red children. Brothers .' ^Vhen the white man first came to these shores, the Muscogees 
gave him laud, and kindled him a fire to make him comfortable ; and when the pale faces of 
the south* made war upon him, their young men drew the tomahawk, and protected his head 
from the scalping knife. But when the white man had warmed himself before the Indian's 
fire, and filled himself with the Indian's hominy, he became very large ; he stopped not for 
the mountain tops, and his feet covered the plains and the valleys. His hands grasped the 
eastern and the western sea. Then he became our great father. He loved his red children ; 
but said, ' You must move a little farther, lest I should, by accident, tread on you.' With 
one foot he pushed the red man over the Oconee, and with the other he trampled down the 
graves of his fathers. But our great father stUl loved his red children, and he soon made them 
another talk. He said much ; but it all meant nothing, but ' move a little farther ; you are 
too near me.' I have heard a great many talks from our great father, and they all began and 
ended the same. 

" Brothers .' when he made us a talk on a former occasion, he said, ' Get a little farther ; go 
beyond the Oconee and the Oakmulgee ; there is a pleasant country.' He also said, ' It shall 
be yours forever.' Now he says, ' The land you Uve in is not yours ; go beyond the Mississippi ; 
there is game ; there you may remain while the grass grows or the water runs.' Brothers .' 
will not our great father come there also ? He loves his red children, and his tongue is not 
forked." 

UcHEES. 'The Uchees, when first known, inhabited the analysis. 
territory embraced in the central portion of" the present i. Locality of 
State of Georgia, above and below Augusta, and extend- "** vcfiees. 
ing from the Savannah to the head waters of the Chata- 
hooclie. ^They consider themselves the most ancient in- ^.Theiroptn- 
habitants of the country, and have lost the recollection of ^anuquuij. 
ever having changed their residence. ^They are little 3. Their us- 
known in history, and are recognized as a distinct ""^'iuasJ."^' 
family, only on account of their exceedingly harsh and 
guttural language. ^When first discovered, they were 4. suppost- 
but a remnant of a probably once powerful nation ; and "fng'^mfm,- 
they now form a small band of about twelve hundred wuiir'Jsmi 
souls, in the Creek confederacy. ntuatum. 

Natches. ^The Natches occupied a small territory on 5 Locality (if 
the east of the Mississippi, and resided in a few small vil- '* - ° '^ '^■ 
lages near the site of the town which has preserved their 
name. "They were long supposed to speak a dialect of ^- Their lan- 
the Mobilian, but it has recently been ascertained that 
their language is radically different from that of any other 
known tribe. 'They were nearly exterminated in a war 7. Their war 
with the French in 1730," since which period they have Frencu'ltp- 
been known in history only as a feeble and inconsiderable ^7iry"an'd' 
nation, and are now merged in the Creek confederacy, ^"^je's""'"' 
In 1840 they were supposed to number only about three a. see p. 524. 
hundred souls. 



* The Spaniards from Florida. 



48 [Book L 

SECTION V. 

MOBILIAN TRIBES. 
ANALYSIS. 

i.Theconfed- 'With the exception of the Uchees and the Natches, 
icnmcn'as the and a few small tribes west of the Mobile River, the 
^TribeT whole country from the Mississippi to the Atlantic, south 
of the Ohio River and the territory of the Cherokees, was 
in the possession of three confederacies of tribes, speak- 
ing dialects of a common language, which the French 
called MoBiLiAN, but which is described by Gallatin ag 
the Muscogee Chocta. 
^.Thecoun- MuscoGEES OR Creeks. ^The Creek confederacy ex- 
i^thTcZ^. tended from the Atlantic, westward, to the dividing "ridge 
which separates the waters of the Tombigbee from the 
Alabama, and embraced the whole territory of Florida. 
3. The Semi- ^Thc Scmiiioles of Florida were a detached tribe of the 
Muscogees or Creeks, speaking the same language, and 
considered a part of the confederacy until the United 

4. Supposed States treated with them as an independent nation. ''The 
°ft"cj'elfcs. Creeks consider themselves the aborigines of the country, 

as they have no tradition of any ancient migration, or 
union with other tribes. 

5. Origin of ^Thc Yamassces are supposed to have been a Creek 
tee3,and their tribe, mentioned by early writers under the name ot oa- 

"""^^' vannas, or Serannas. In 171.5 they were at the head of 
a confederacy of the tribes extending from Cape Fear 
River to Florida, and commenced a war against the south- 
ern colonies, but were linally expelled from their terri- 
tory, and took refuge among the Spaniards in Florida. 

6. Wars of the "p^j. j^garly fifty years after the settlement of Georgia, 
iheAmeii- no actual War took place with the Creeks. They took 

'^""^ part with the British against the Americans during the 
Revolution, and continued hostilities after the close of the 
war, until a treaty was concluded with them at Philadel- 
phia, in 179.5. A considerable portion of the nation also 
took part against the Americans in the commencement of 
the second war with Great Britain, but were soon reduced 
1. Seminole to submission. 'The Seminoles renewed the war in 1818, 
and in 1835 they again commenced hostilities, which 
4nfnd4?7. were not finally terminated until 1842. » 
8. Treaties, 'The Creeks and Seminoles, after many treaties made 
'^Iflands!^ and broken, have at length ceded to the United States the 
whole of their territory, and have accepted, in exchange, 
i.Thepres- lands wcst of the Mississippi. "The Creek confederacy, 
ionfSeracy. which now includes the Creeks, Seminoles, Hitchitties, 
Alibamons, Coosadas, and Natches, at present numbers 



Chap. l.J INDIAN TRIBES. 49 

about twenty-eight thousand souls, of whom twenty-three analysis. 
thousand are Creeks. 'Their numbers have increased 1 increase qf 
during the hist fifty years. 7iu>nbers. 

One of the most noted chiefs of the Creek nation wag Alexander M'Giliiveat, son of an 
Englishman by that name, who married a Creek woman, the governess of the nation. He waa 
born about the year 1739, and at tlie early age of ten was sent to school in Charleston. Being 
very fond of books, especially histories, he acquired a good education. On the death of his 
mother he became chief sachem of the Creeks, both by the usages of his ancestors, and by the 
election of the people. During the llevolutionary \Var he was at the head of the Creeks, and 
in the British interest ; but after the war he became attached to the Americans, and renewed 
treaties with them. lie died at Pensacola, l-'eb. 17, 1793. 

Another distinguished chief of the Creeks, conspicvious at a later period, was Weatberpohd, 
who is described as the key and corner-stone of the Creek confederacy during the Creek war 
which was terminated in 1814. llis mother belonged to the tribe of the Seminoles, but he waa 
born and brought up in the Creek nation. 

In person, M'eatherford was tall, straight, and well proportioned ; while his features, har- 
moniously arranged, indicated an active and disciplined mind. lie was silent and reserved in 
public, unless wlien excited by some great occasion ; lie spoke but seldom in council, but 
when he delivered his opinions, he was listened to with delight and approbation. He was 
cunning and sagacious, brave and el0(iuent j but he was also extremely avaricious, treacher- 
ous, and revengeful, and devoted to every species of criminal carousal. He commanded at 
the massacre of Fort Mims* wliich opened the Creek war, and was the last of his nation to 
tubmit to the Americans. 

AV'hcn the other chiefs had submitted. General Jackson, in order to test their fidelity, or- 
dered them to deliver Wcatlierford, bound, into his hands, that he might be dealt with ;is he 
tleserved. But Weatherford would not submit to such degradation, and proceeding in dis- 
guise to the head-quarters of the commanding ofQccr, under some pretence he gained admis- 
Bion to his presence, when, to the great surprise of the General, he announced himself in the 
following words. 

" I am Weatherford, the chief who commanded at the capture of Fort Mims. I desire peace 
for my people, and have come to ask it." AVhen Jackson alluded to his barbarities, and ex- 
pressed his surprise that he should thus venture to appear before him, the spirited chief re- 
plied. " I am in your power. Do with me as you please. I am a soldier, I have done the 
whites all the harm I could. I have fought them, and fought them bravely. If I had aa 
army I would yet fight. — I would contend to the last : but I have none. My people are all 
gone. I can only weep over the misfortunes of my nation." 

■VVlien told that he might still join the war party if he desired ; but to depend upon no 
5[uarter if taken afterwards ; and that unconditional submission was Ms and his people's only 
safety, he rejoined in a tone as dignified as it was indignant. " You can safely address me ia 
such terms now. There was a time when I could have answered you : — there was a time 
when I had a choice : — I have none now. I have not even a hope. I could once animate my 
warriors to battle — but I cannot animate the dead. Their bones are at Talladega. Tallus- 
hatchcs, Emucfau, and Tohopeka. I have not surrendered myself without thought. While 
there was a chance of success I never left my post, nor supplicated peace. But my people are 
gone, and I ask it for my nation, not for myself. You are a brave man, I rely upon your gen- 
erosity. You will exact no terms of a conquered nation, but such as they should accede to." 

Jackson had determined upon the execution of the chief, when he should be brought in 
bound, as directed ; but his unexpected surrender, and bold and manly conduct, saved 
his life. 

A Creek chief, of very different character from Weatherford, was the celebrated but unfor- 
tunate General William McIntosh. Like M'Gillivray ho was a half breed, and belonged to 
the Coweta tribe. lie was a prominent leader of such of his countrymen as joined the Ameri- 
cans in the war of 1812, 13, and 14. He likewise belonged to the small party who, in 1821, 23, 
and 25, were in favor of selling their lands to the Americans. In February, of the latter yo.ir, 
he concluded a treaty for the sale of lauds, in opposition to the wishes of a large majority of his 

* Sec page 4£6. 

7 



50 INDIAN TRIBES. [Book I- 

tation. For this act the laws of his people denounced death upon him, and in May, his house 
was surrounded and burned, and Mclutosh and one of his adherents, in attempting to escape, 
were shot. His son, Chilly Mcintosh, was allowed to leave the house unharmed. 

Among the Seminolcs, a branch of the Creek nation, the most distinguished chief with whom 
Hie whites have been acquainted, was Powell, or, as he was conmionly called, Osceola. Ills 
mother is said to have been a Creek woman, and his father an Englishman. He was not a 
chief by birth, but raised himself to that station by his courage and peculiar abilities. 

He was opposed to the removal of his people west of the Mississippi, and it was principally 
through his inHnence that the treaties for removal were violated, and the nation plunged iu 
war. He was an excellent tactician, and an admirer of order and tliscipUnc. The principal 
events known in his history will be found nan-ated in another part of tlus work.* 

Other chiefs distinguished in the late Seminole war, were Micanvpy, called tlie king of the 
nation, Sam Jones, Jumper, Coa-Hadjo (AUigator), Charles Emathla, and Abraham, a negro. 

ANALYSIS. Chickasas. 'The territory of the Chickasas, extending 

1. The lerri- Dorth to the Ohio, was bounded on the east by the country 

lonjof the of the Shawnees, and the Cherokees ; on the south by the 

Chickasas. ' i tm- • • • n- "'X'l 

2 Character Choctas, and OH the west by the Mississippi Kiver. "ine 
qf the nation. Qhjckasas Were a warlike nation, and were often in a state 
3. Their reja- of hostility with the surrounding tribes. ^Firm allies of 
^EnViisilami the English, they were at all times the inveterate enemies 

the French. ^^ ^^^ French, by whom their country was twice unsuc- 
cessfully invaded, once in 1736, and again in 1740. 

4 n7«( the ^They adhered to the British during the war of the Revo- 

U. hiates. J 1 1 ■ 1 • I 

lution, since which time they have remained at peace with 
s.Theirnum- the United States. ^Their numbers have increased during 
the last fifty years, and they now amount to between five 
and six thousand souls. 



bers. 



Du Tratz, in his History of Louisiana, gives an account of a very intelligent Chickasaw In- 
dian, of the Yazoo tribe, by the name of Moncatchtape, who travelled many years for the pur- 
pose of extending his knowledge, but, principally, to ascertain from what country the Indian 
race originally came. 

He first journeyed in a northeasterly direction until he came upon the ocean, probably near 
the Gulf of St. Lawrence. After returning to his tribe, he again set out, towards the northwest, 
— passed up the Jlissouri to its sources — crossed the mountains, and journeyed onwards until 
he reached the great Western Ocean. He then proceeded nortli, following tlie coast, until the 
days became very long and the nights very short, wlien he was advised by the old men of the 
country to relinquish all thoughts of continuing )iis journey. They told him that the land 
extended still a long way between the north and the sun setting, after which it ran directly 
west, and at length was cut by the great water from north to south. One of them added, that, 
when he was young, he knew a very old man who had seen that distant land before it was cut 
away by tlie great water, and that when the great water was low, many rocks still appeared iu 
those parts. — Finding it therefore, impracticable to proceed any farther, Moncatchtape returned 
to his own country by the route by which he came. He was five years absent on this second 
journey. 

This famous traveller was well known to Du Pratz about the year 17C0. By the French he 
was called the Interpreter, on account of his extended knowledge of the languages of the In- 
dians. " This man," says Du Pratz, " was remarkable for his solid understanding, and eleva- 
tion of sentiment ; and I may justly compare him to those first Greeks, who travelled chiefly 
Into the cast, to examine the manuers and customs of different nations, and to communicate to 
their fellow citizens, upon their return, the knowledge which they had acquired." 

The narrative of this Indian, which is given at considerable length, in his own words, appears 
to have satisfied Du Pratz that the aborigines came from the continent of Asia, by way of 
Behring's Straits. 



* See pages 477 and 481. 



Chap. I.] INDIAN TRIBES. 51 

Choctas. 'The Choctas possessed the territory border- analysis. 
ing on that of the Creeks, and e.xtending west to the Mis- i. rht tern- 
sissippi River. °Since they were first known to Europeans ^%la%^ 
they have ever been an agricultural and a peaceable 2 peaceabu 
people, ardently attached to their country ; and their wars, f/lfchm^ 
always defensive, have been with the Creeks. Although 
they have had successively, for neighbors, the French, the 
Spanish, and the English, they have never been at war 
with any of them. 'Their numbers now amount to nearly 3 Their 
nineteen thousand souls, a great portion of whom have 
already removed beyond the Mississippi. 

"We notice Mushalatubee and Pcshamata, two Choctaw Chiefs, for the purpose of giving the 
speeches which they made to Lafayette, at the city of Washington, in the winter of 1824. 
Mushalatubee, on being introduced to Lafayette, spoke as follows : 

" You are one of our fathers. You have fought by the side of the great Washitigton. We 
•will receive here your hand as that of a friend and father. AVe have always walked in the pure 
feelings of peace, and it is this feeling which has caused us to visit you here. We present you 
pure hands — hands that have never been stained with the blood of Americans. We live in a 
country far from this, where the sun darts his perpendicular rays upon us. We have had the 
Trench, the Spaniards, and the EngUsh for neighbors ; but now we have only the Americans ; 
in the midst of whom we live as friends and brothers." 

Then Pushamata, the head chief of his nation, began a speech in his turn, and expressed 
himself in the following words : 

" Nearly fifty snows have passed away since you drew the sword as a companion of Washing- 
ton. With him you combated the enemies of America. You generously mingled your blood 
vrith that of the enemy, and proved your devotcdness to the cause which you defended. After 
you had finished that war you returned into your own country, and now you come to visit 
again that land where you are honored and loved in the remembrance of a numerous and 
powerful people. You see everywhere the children of those for whom you defended liberty 
crowd around you and press your bands with filial affection. M'e have heard related all these 
things in the depths of the distant forests, and our hearts have been filled yni\\ a desire to be- 
hold you. We are come, we have pressed your hand, and we are satisfied. This is the first 
time that we have seen you, and it will probably be the last. We have no more to add. The 
earth ivill soon part us forever." 

It was observed that, in pronouncing these last words, the old chief seemed agitated by some 
sad presentiment. In a few days he was taken sick, and he died before he could set out to 
return to his own people. He was buried with military honors, and his monument occupies a 
place among those of the great men in the cemetery at Washington. 

^Of the tribes which formerly inhabited the sea-shore 4. Tribes he- 
between the Mobile and the Mississippi, and the western mMu'a'ii 
bank of the last mentioned river, as far north as the Ar- "'^^,%^"^' 
kansas, we know little more than the names. ^On the 5. The nume- 
Red River and its branches, and south of it, within the ?ribefnnm 
territory of the United States, there have been found, until anif'outh 
recently, a number of small tribes, natives of that region, '^^'' 
who spoke no less than seven distinct languages ; while, 
throughout the extensive territory occupied by the Esqui- 
maux, Athapascas, Algonquins, and Iroquois, there is not 
found a single tribe, or remnant of a tribe, that speaks a 
dialect which does not belong to one or another of those 
families. 



52 INDIAN TRIBES. [Book I. 

ANALYSIS . 'To account for this great diversity of distinct languages 

1 The diver- ^" *^^^ suiall territory mentioned, it has been supposed that 

sitijqfjan- tjjp impenetrable swamps and numerous channels bv wliich 

g^ua^'ts foil lid , , ^ , T n 1 ■ .ji "iTiJ 

in thisrt- the low lands of that country are nitersected, have aiiorded 

^dcwunted places of refuge to the remnants of conquered tribes ; and 

it is well known, as a peculiarity of the Aborigines of 

America, that small tribes preserve their language to the 

last moment of their existence. 



SECTION VI. 

DAHCOTAH, OR SIOTTX TRIBES. 

2. Exretit of ^On the west of the Mississippi River, extending from 
'^JPS^'ff/r*' lands south of the Arkansas, to tlie Saskatchewan, a 

or oivuj ' ^ ^ 

tribes. stream which empties into Lake Winnipeg, were tound nu- 

mei"ous tribes speaking dialects of a common language, 

and which have been classed under the appellation of 

xTheeM-ii- Diihcotas or Sioux. 'Their country was penetrated by 

J^wThL'rc French traders as early as 1659, but they were little 

of them, known either to the French or the English colonists, and it 

is but recently tliat they have come into contact with the 

4. sittintion Americans. ''One comnmnity of the Sioux, the Win- 
'^jyjj"" nehagoes, had penetrated the territory of the Algon- 

tribe. quins, and were found on the western shore of Lake 
jMichigan. 

5. ciastifiea- 'The nations which speak the Sioux language have been 
"fwrioH** classed, according to their respective dialects and geogra- 

^vl^uux' phical position, in four divisions, viz., 1st, the "Winneba- 
Utnguagt. goes ; 2d, Assiniboins and Sioux proper ; 3d, the Minetaree 

group ; and 4th, the southern Sioux tribes. 

t.EarUjMs- 1- WixNEBAGOES. ^Little is known of tlic early history 

'mtmJIa- ^^ ^^^ Winnebagoes. They are said to have formerly oc- 

«««»• cupied a territory farther north than at present, and to have 

been nearly destroyed by the Illinois about the year 1640. 

They are likewise said to have carried on frequent wars 

7. The umns agaiust the Sioux tribes west of the Mississippi. 'The 

''^"'mv'.^'^' limits of their territory were nearly the same in 1840 as 

they were a hundred and til'ty years previous, and from 

this it may be presumed that they have generally lived, 

during that time, on friendly terms with the Algonquin 

tribes, bv which thev have been surrounded, 

I. Their con- ,_, - , •• , , t-. • • i • i > 

duct during ^They took part with the British against the Americans 

war icith during the war of 1812-14, and in 1832 a part of the na- 

foirf; and tiou, incited by the fomous Sac chief. Black Hawk, com- 

a^ainsfthe mcnccd ail indiscriminate warfare against the border set- 

'difsli* tlements by which they were surrounded, but were sooc 



Chap. I.] 



INDIAN TRIBES. 



53 



obliged to sue for peace. 'Their numbers in 1840 were 
estimated at four thousand six liundred.* 

2. AssiNiBoiNS, AND Sioux PROPER. ''The Assinibolus 
are a Dahcota tribe who have separated from the rest of 
the nation, and, on that account, are called " Rebels" by 
the Sioux proper. ^They are the most northerly of tne 
great Dahcota family, and but little is known of their his- 
tory. ■'Their number is estimated by Lewis and Clarke 
at rather more than six thousand souls. 

''The Sioux proper are divided into seven independent 
bands or tribes. They were first visited by the French 
as early as 1660, and are described by them as being 
ferocious and warlike, and feared by all their neighbors. 
•The seven Sioux tribes are supposed to amount to about 
twenty thousand souls. f 

3. MiNETAREE Group. 'The Minetarees, the Mandans, 
and the Crows, have been classed together, although they 
speak different languages, having but remote affinities 
with the Dahcota. *Tlie Mandans and the Minetarees 
cultivate the soil and live in villages; but the Crows are 
an erratic tribe, and live principally by hunting. ^The 
Mandans are lighter colored than the neighboring tribes, 
which has probably given rise to the fabulous account of 
a tribe of white Indians descended from the Welch, and 
speaking their language. '"The Mandans number about 
fifteen hundredf souls ; the Minetarees and the Crows 
each three thousand."}" 

4. Southern Sioux Tribes. "The Southern Sioux con- 
sist of eight tribes, speaking four or five kindred dialects. 
Their territory originally extended from below the mouth of 
the Arkansas to the present northern boundary of the State 
of Missouri, and their hunting grounds westward to the 
Rocky Mountains. '"They cultivate the soil a,nd live in 
villages, except during their hunting excursions. "The 
three most southerly tribes are the Quappns or Arkansas, 
on the river of that name, the Osagcs, and the Kanzas, all 
south of the Missouri River. "The Osages are a nume- 
rous and powerful tribe, and, until within a k\v years 
past, have been at war with most of the neighboring tribes, 
without excepting the Kanzas, who speak the same dialect. 
The territory of the Osages lies immediately north of that 
allotted to the Cherokees, the Creeks, and the Choctas. 

"The five remaining tribes of this subdivision are the 
lowas, the Mlssouries, the Otoes, the Omahas, Und the 
Puncahs. "The principal seats of the lowas are north of 
the River Des Moines, but a portion of the tribe has joined 



ANALYSIS. 

\. Their num- 
bers in 1840. 

2. The Assin- 
iioins. 



3. Locality 
and history. 

4. Numbers. 



5 Divisions 

and character 

of tlie Sioux 

•proper 



6. Numbers. 



7. Minetares 
group. 



8. Character 
of the differ- 
ent tribes. 

9. Peculiarity 
of the Man- 
dans. 



10. Numbers 
of the tribes. 



U.The South- 
ern Sioux; 
their terri- , 
tonj, and 
hunting 
grounds. 



12. Their 
character. 

13 The three 

Southern 

tribes. 



14. The Osa- 
ges, tlieir 
wars, territo- 
ry, §-c. 



15. The 
names of the 
other tribes. 

IS. The 

loioas. 



* Estimate of the War Department. 



t Gallatin's estimate, 1833 



54 INDIAN TRIBES. [Book L 

ANALYSIS, the Otoes, and il is believed that both tribes speak the 

1. The Mis- Same dialect. 'The Missouries were originally seated at 

aouries. \\^q niouth of the river of that name. They were driven 

away from their original seats by the Illinois, and have 

since joined the Otoes. They speak the Otoe dialect. 

2. ^'*^'^^' ^The Otoes are found on the south side of the Missouri 

River, and below the mouth of the River Platte ; and the 

3. The Pun- Omahas above the mouth of the Platte River. ^The Pun- 
cahs, in 1840, were seated on the Missouri, one hundred 
and fifty miles above the Omahas. They speak the Oma. 
ha dialect. 

4. The nu7n- ''The residue of the Arkansas (now called Quappas) 

bevs of tliB ^'11/ 

jiouthcrn number about five hundred souls ; the Osagcs five thou- 
sand ; the Kanzas fifteen hundred ; and the five other 
tribes, together, about five thousand.* 



cahs. 



Sioux tribes. 



OTHER WESTERN TRIBES. 

5. The Black ^Of the Indian nations west of the Dahcotas, the most 
territoiijl uumerous and powerful are the Black Feet, a wandering 

'''a^ndwarl'. ^^d hunting tribe, who occupy an extensive territory east 
of the Rocky Mountains. Their population is estimated 
at thirty thousand. They carry on a perpetual war with 
the Crows and the Minetarees, and also with the Shoshones 
or Snake Indians, and other tribes of the Rocky Moun- 
tains, whom they prevent from hunting in the bufialo 
country. 

s. The Rapid ''The Rapid Indians, estimated at three thousand, are 

ih^Amm^. found north of the Missouri River, between the Black 
Feet and the Assiniboins. The Arapahas are a detached 
and wandering tribe of the Rapids, now intimately con- 
nected with the Black Feet. 

7. The Paw- 'The Paicnees proper inhabit the country west of the 
"^"' Otoes and the Omahas. They bestow some attention upon 
agriculture, but less than the southern Sioux tribes. 
They were unknown to the Americans before the acqui- 
sition of Louisiana. 

One of the latest attempts at human sacrifice among the Pawnees was happily frustrated in 
the following manner : 

A few years previous to 1821, a war party of Pawnees had taken a young woman prisoner, and 
on their return she was doomed to be sacrificed to the " Great Star," according to the usages 
of the tribe. She was fastened to the stake, and a vast company had assembled to witness the 
scene. Among them was a young warrior, by the name of Fttaksharoo, who, unobserved, had 
stationed two fleet horses at a small distance, and was seated among the crowd as a silent spec- 
tator. All were anxiously waiting to enjoy the spectacle of the first contact of the flames with 
their victim ; when, to their astonishment, the young warrior was seen rending asunder tha 
cords which bound lier, and, with the swiftness of thought, bearing her in his arms beyond tha 

* Gallatin's estimate 

aCHvU,i f:*"^ "^-^ :^'- ^ ^^_ :^:^ (J 



Chap. I] INDIAN TRIBES. 5& 

amazed multitade ; where, placing her upon one horse, and monnting himself upon the other, 
he bore her o£f safe to her friends and coimtry. The act would have endangered the life of an 
ordinary chief ; but such was the sway of Petalesharoo in his tribe, that no one presumed to 
censure his interference. 

AVhat more noble example of gallant daring is to be found among all the tales of modem 
chivalry ' 

'Of the Other western tribes within the vicinity of the analysis. 
Pvocky Mountains, and also of those inhabiting the Oregon ^ other j^est- 
territory, we have only partial accounts ; and but little ^rn triba. 
is known of their divisions, history, language, or num- 
bers. 

''It is a kno^vn fact, however, that the Oregon tribes 2. ore^o*. 
have few or no wars among themselves, and that they do 
not engage in battle except in self defence, and then only 
in the last extremity. Their principal encounters are 
with the Blackfeet Indians, who are constantly roving 
about, on both sides of the mountains, in quest of plun- 
der. 

SECTION VII. 

PHYSICAL CHARACTER, LANGUAGE, GOVERNMEXT, RELIGION, 
AXD TRADITIONS OF THE ABORIGINES. 

Physical Character. 1. 'In their physical charac- 3. oretu uni- 
ter — their form, features, and color, and other natural zhTluiturai 
characteristics, the aborigines, not only within the boun- '^'^IST 
daries of the United States, but throughout the whole con- anfth^eVC- 
tinent, presented a great uniformity ; exhibiting thereby ^"^jiued!* 
the clearest evidence that all belonged to the same great 
race, and rendering it improbable that they had ever in- 
termingled with other varieties of the human family. 

2. *In form, the Indian was generally tall, straight and ^,JH^V^^ 

o. ' o_ the. Indian, 

slender; his color was of a dull copper, or reddish /zwcotor. eyes, 
brown, — his eyes black and piercing, — his hair coarse, «p», 'cheek- 
dark, and glossy, and never curling, — the nose broad, — forehead, du- 
lips large and thick, — cheek bones high and prominent, — *"***' ** 
his beard light, — his forehead narrower than the European, 
— he was subject to few diseases, and natural deformity 
was almost unknown. 

3. ^In mind, the Indian was inferior to the European, 5. The mind 
although passessed of the same natural endowments ; for " compared'* 
he had cultivated his perceptive faculties, to the great tl^Eu^emi. 
neglect of his reasoning powers and moral qualities. 

The senses of the Indian were remarkably acute ; — he 6 h/» >tntes 

. i • .^ ^. ii ^1 • i- I- memory, imr 

was apt at imitation, rather than invention ; his memory a^'inanon, 

was good : when aroused, his imagination was vivid, but knmrfedg*, 

wild as nature : his knowledge was limited by his expe- tr'uths!%i. 
rience, and he was nearly destitute of abstract moral 



c 



5G INDIAN TRIBES. [Book I 

ANALYSIS, truths, aiid of general principles. ^The Indian is warmly 
I The. attach- attached to hereditary customs and manners, — to his an- 
menisufthe. cient liuutino; £rrounds and the graves of his fathers; he 

Indian, Ins . , ^ P ,,. . /• • i i ^ n 

oppusijion to IS opposed to Civilization, for it abridges his freedom ; and, 
rcpul-nanc'e naturally indolent and slotliful, he detests labor, and thus 
"' '^' advances but slowly in the improvement of his condi- 
tion.* 
g.Tiicpnn- Language. 1. ^The discovery of a similarity in some 
h^^glvernld of the primitive words of different Indian languages, 
%]oiiVf"iii£ showing that at some remote epoch they had a common 
tfif^Vnta origin, is the principle wliich has governed the division of 
^"'I'atfSns' ^^^^ different tribes into families or nations. ^It must not^ 
3 Caution therefore, be understood, that those which are classed as 
*owapiHi(:a- belonging to the same nation, were under the same 
*friniij)ie^. government ; for different tribes of the same family had 
usually separate and independent governments, and often 
waged exterminating wars with each other. 
t.i>!ve.Tsity 2. *There Were no national affinities springing from a 
^noiig'mse common language : nor indeed did those classed as be- 
'%Tfing^to lo'igi^g to tlie same flimily, always speak dialects of a 
*%miiij'. common language, which could be understood by all; 
for the classification often embraced tribes, between whose 
languages there was a much less similarity than among 
many of those of modern Europe. 
a. T?ie mffer- 3. ^Although the Indian languages differ greatly in 
^^mihiritlcs their words, of which there is, in general, a great profu- 
"^the'indi'an"' sfo^ j a^d although cach has a regular and perfect sys- 
lansuaaes. ^^^.^ ^j^ ^^g own, yet ill grammatical structure and form, a 
great similarity has been found to exist among all the lan- 

6. Conclusion guagcs froui Greenland to Cape Horn. *These circum- 
tiicsc circiim- staiiccs appear to denote a common but remote origin oi 
a'sofroinrhc all the Indian languages ; and so different are they from 
tffh'e''in'd'i'an fuiy aucient or modern language of tlie other hemisphere^ 
VopJanian- ^^ ^0 afford conclusive proof that if they were ever deri- 

guages. ved from the Old World, it must have been at a very 
early period in the world's history. 

7. Character- 4. 'The language of the Indian, however, although 

istics of the o o ' ' o 

language, of posscsscd of SO much svstem and regularity, showed but 
and its de^' little mental cultivation ; for although profuse in words to 
'stracnenns.' cxpress all his desires, and to designate every object of his 
experience ; although abounding in metaphors and glow- 
ing with allegories, it was incapable of expressing abstract 
and moral truths ; for, to these subjects, the Indian had 



* Labor, in every aspect, has appeared to our iTidlaiis to be degraiiing. " I have never," 
naid an Indian chief" at Michilimackinac, who wished to concentrate the points of his honor, 
" 1 have never run before an enemy. I have never cut wood nor carried water. I have neves 
fceeu dl-^graced with a blow. 1 ani ;vs fieo as my Jathcrs wers bvfore m«."" — Sclioolefafi. 



Chap. I.] LXDIAN TRIBES. 57 

never directed his attention ; and he needed no terms to analysis. 
express that of which he had no conception. ' 

5. 'He had a name for Deity, but he expressed his at- i-niuncTa- 
tributes by a circumlocution ; — he could describe actions, 
and their effects, but had no terms for their moral quali- 
ties. 'Nor had the Indian any written language. The 2. Theabsence 
only method of communicating ideas, and of preserving tfn'ianguail 
the memory of events by artificial signs, was by the use °'"t/ui^f^ 
of knotted cords, belts of wampum, and analogous means ; ^'"''^j'^*"^" 
or by a system of pictorial writing, consisting of rude im- 
itations of visible objects. Something of this nature was 
found in all parts of America. 

Government. 1. 'In some of the tribes, the govern- 2. The gov- 
ment approached an absolute monarchy; the will of the wn^the 
sachem being the supreme law, so long as the respect of "^"'**' 
the tribe preserved his authority. "The government of i- Among the 
the Five Nations was entirely republican. ^In most of 5 individual 
the tribes, the Indians, as individuals, preserved a great ^^^^' 
degree of independence, hardly submitting to any re- 
straint. 

2. ^Thus, when the Hurons, at one time, sent messen- e. illustration 
gers to conclude a treaty of peace with the Iroquois, a npu!^'^ 
single Indian accompanied the embassy in a hostile char- 
acter, and no power in the community could deter him. 

The warrior, meeting one of his enemies, gratified his 
vengeance by dispatching him. It seems the Iroquois 
were not strangers to such sallies, for, after due explana- 
tion, they regarded the deed as an individual act, and the 
negotiation was successfully terminated.* 

3. ^The nominal title of chief, although usually for r Thetuu 
life, and hereditary, conferred but little power, either in "'ofTcMefy 
war or in peace ; and the authority of the chieftain de- 
pended almost entirely on his personal talents and en- 
ergy. 'Public opinion and usage were the only laws of » Y'^a^ 
the Indian. "j" laws of the, 

4. 'There was one feature of aristocracy which ap- 9 prevalent 
pears to have been very general among the Indian tribes, ^rutocrm/ 
and to have been established from time immemorial. This adtviMon' 
was a division into clans or tribes, the members of which 

were dispersed indiscriminately throughout the whole 10. principal 
nation. '''The principal regulation of these divisions, was, "ff^fdivu^ 
that no man could marry in his own clan, and that every *"*"*• 
child belonged to the clan of its mother. ''The obvious tins system. 



o 



* ChampUun, tome ii., p. 79 — 89. 

t In an obituary notice of the celebrated M'GiUirray, emperor of the Creeks, who died in 
1793, it is said :— " This idolized chief of the Creeks styled himself king of kings. But alaa, 
he could neither restrain the meanest fellow of his nation from the commission of a crime, nor 
punish him after he had committed it I He might persuade or advise, all the good an Indian 
king or chief can do." 

8 



58 INDIAN TRIBES. [Book I. 

ANALYSIS, design of this system was the prevention of marriages 
among near relations, — thereby checking the natural ten- 
dency towards the subdivision of the nation into independ- 
ent communities. 
1. Ordinary 5. 'Most of the nations were found divided into three 
elans, and clans, or tribes, but some into more, — each distinguished 
^iLh^"' by the name of an animal. ^Thus the Huron tribes were 
2 ^^J^"'o^ divided into three clans, — the Bear, the Wolf, and the 

3. Theiro- Turtle. °The Iroquois had the same divisions, except 
'"*"'' that the clan of the Turtle was divided into two others. 

4. The Deia- *The Delawares were likewise divided into three clans ; 
*"'shaumee^' the various Sioux tribes at present into two large clans, 

praams, which are subdivided into several others : the Shawnees 
are divided into four clans, and the Chippewas into a lar- 
ger number. 
s.oftrwpun- 6. 'Formerly, among some of the southern tribes, if 
crintes among an individual committed an offence against one of the 
''%'out'hern Same clan, the penalty, or compensation, was regulated 
tribes. j^y ^j^^ other members of the clan ; and in the case of 
murder, the penalty being death, the nearest male relative 
of the deceased was the executioner. If an injury was 
committed by a member of another clan, then the clan 
of the injured party, and not the party himself, demanded 
reparation ; and in case of refusal, the injured clan had 
the right to do itself justice, by inflicting the proper pen- 
alty upon the offender. 
9.peeuiiarin- 1. *An institution peculiar to the Cherokees was the 
among the Setting apart, as among the Israelites of old, a city of re- 
rokees. ^^^^^ ^^^ peace, which was the residence of a few sacred 
" beloved men," in whose presence blood could not be 
shed, and where even murderers found, at least a tempo- 
•7. Aninstitu- rary asylum. 'Of a somewhat similar nature was once 
tDhat similar the division of towns or villages, among the Creeks, into 
'^reeica. White and Red towns, — the former the advocates of peace, 
and the latter of war ; and whenever the question of war 
or peace was deliberately discussed, it was the duty of 
the former to advance all the arguments that could be sug- 
gested in favor of peace. 
8. unifmmty RELIGION. 1 . *The religious notions of the natives, 
ui^.^^ throughout the whole continent, exhibited great uniformity. 
%uwMic^m- 'Arooiig ^ the tribes there was a belief, though often 
ing. and in vague and indistinct, in the existence of a Supreme Being, 

the unmortal- ^ . , . ' - , , i • r- 

ityoftiiesoui. and in the immortality oi the soul, and its tuture state. 
w. Numerous "But the Indian believed in numberless inferior Deities :^ 

detnesavd . , p , , , , l- ^ 

spirits be- m a god ot the sun, the moon, and the stars ; ot the ocean 

Uteindum. and the storm; — and his superstition led him to attribute 

spirits to the lakes and the rivers, the valleys and the 

mountains, and to every power which he could not fathom, 



Chap. I.] INDIAN TRIBES. 59 

and which he could neither create nor destroy. 'Thus analysis. 

■ the Deity of the Indian was not a unity ; the Great Spirit 1 T/wmiiure 

that he worshipped was the embodiment of the material ofhu-mtiom 

t /> 1 TT • 1 /> 1 • of the Great 

laws 01 the Universe, — the aggregate of the mysterious S'pmt. 
powers by which he was surrounded. 

2. ^Most tribes had their religious fasts and festivals ; h^'^'%1'^ 
their expiatory self punishments and sacrifices ; and their '^c. 
priests, who acted in the various capacities of physicians, 
prophets, and sorcerers.* ^The Mexicans paid their chief ^'^rslt^ 
adoration to the sun, and offered human sacrifices to that 
luminary. ''The Natches, and some of the tribes of {■ Religious 
Louisiana, itept a sacred fire constantly burning, m a ship of the 
temple appropriated to that purpose. The Natches also 
Avorshipped the sun, from whom their sovereign and the 
privileged class claimed to be descended ; and at the death 
of the head chief, who was styled the Great Sun, his 
wives and his mother were sacrificed. *Until quite re- ^.PrMticeof 

.■I .-, ^- c 11 • r- • • the Missoit- 

cently the practice of annually sacrificing a prisoner pre- nesandpaio- 
vailed among the Missouri Indians and the Pawnees. f ^^' 

* 3. ®A superstitious reverence for the dead has been e. Reverence 
found a distinguishing trait of Indian character. Under riaioft/w 
its influence the dead were wrapped and buried in the 
choicest furs, with their ornaments, their weapons of war, 
and provisions to last them on their solitary journey to 
the land of spirits. Extensive mounds of earth, the only 
monuments of the Indian, were often erected over the 
graves of illustrious chieftains ; and some of the tribes, 
at stated intervals collected the bones of the dead, and in- 
terred them in a common cemetery. 'The Mexicans, and J^o^^*^"". 
some of the tribes of South America, frequently buried rioL 
their dead beneath their houses ; and the same practice 
has been ti'aced among the Mobilian tribes of North 
America. *One usage, the burial of the dead in a sitting s. Buriaiina 
posture, was found almost universal among the tribes from ^"lufe^'^' 
Greenland to Cape Horn, showing that some common su- 
perstition pervaded the whole continent. tnmm>Sa 
Traditions. 1. 'As the graves of the red men were "'^Ihe're^ 
their only monuments, so traditions were their only his- '"^■ 
tory. "By oral traditions, transmitted from father to son, ^^'auiMd^'^ 



* The Indians possessed some little skill in medicine, but as all diseases of obscure origin 
were ascribed to the secret agency of malignant powers or spirits, the physician invested him- 
self with his mystic character, when he directed his efforts against these invisible enemies. 
By the agency of dreams, mystical ceremonies, and incantations, he attempted to dive into the 
abyss of futurity, aiid bring to light the hidden and the unknown. The same principle in hu- 
man nature, — a dim beUef in the spirit's existence after the dissolution of the body, and of nu- 
merous invisible powers, of good and of evil, in the universe around him, — principles which 
wrap the mind of the savage in the folds of a gloomy superstition, and bow liim down, the 
tool of jugglers and knaves, — have, under the light of Revelation, opened a pathway of hope 
to a glorious immortality, and elevated man in the scale of being to hold converse with hij 
Maker. 

t Archaslogia Americana, toI. ii., p. 132. See also p. 54, notice of Petaleskaroo, 



60 INDIAN TRIBES. [Book I. 

ANALYSIS, they preserved the memory of important events connected 

with the history of the tribe — of the deeds of illustrious 

chieftains — and of important phenomena in the natural 

i.impoTtance world. 'Of their traditions, some, having obvious refer- 

%(m°elpt}ie cnce to events recorded in scripture history, are exceed- 

tradznom. jngly interesting and important, and their universality 

throughout the entire continent, is conclusive proof that 

their origin is not wholly fabulous. 

2.Aprem- 2. '^Thus the wide spread Algonquin tribes preserved a 

oTthl'Aigm- tradition of the original creation of the earth from water, 

*"'"*• and of a subsequent general inundation. ^The Iroquois 

qmis. tribes likewise had a tradition of a general deluge, but 

from which they supposed that no person escaped, and 

that, in order to repeople the earth, beasts were changed 

4. Tradition into men. ■'One tribe held the tradition, not only of a del- 
qf an age of ^^^^ ^^^ ^j^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ which destroyed every 

human being except one man and one woman, who were 
saved in a cavern. 

5. Peculiar 3. ^The Tamenacs, a nation in the northern part of 
lke\anK,- South America, say that their progenitor Amalivica, arri- 



nacs. 



ved in their country in a bark canoe, at the time of the 
great deluge, which is called the age of water. This 
tradition, with some modifications, was current among 
many tribes ; and the name of Amalivica was found 
spread over a region of more than forty thousand square 
miles, where he was termed the " Father of Mankind." 
e.oftiie 4. *The aboriginal Chilians say that their progenitors 
Chilians, gg^^ped from the deluge by ascending a high mountain, 

which they still point out. 
7. Of the 'The Muyscas of New Grenada have a tradition that 
Hew Gran- they were taught to clothe themselves, to worship the sun, 
"^ and to cultivate the earth, by an old man with a long flow- 
ing beard ; but that his wife, less benevolent, caused the 
valley of Bogota to be inundated, by which all the na- 
tives perished, save a few who were preserved on the 
mountains. 
%meefnin^ 5. ^A tradition said to be handed down from the Tol- 
thfvyramid tecs, concerning the pyramid of Cholula, in Mexico, re- 
lates, that it was built by one of seven giants, who alone 
escaped from the great deluge, by taking refuge in the 
cavern of a lofty mountain. The bricks of which the 
pyramid was composed were made in a distant province, 
and conveyed by a file of men, who passed them from 
hand to hand. But the gods, beholding with wrath the 
attempt to build an edifice whose top should reach the 
clouds, hurled fire upon the pyramid, by which numbers 
of the workmen perished. The work was discontinued, 



iff Cholula. 



Chap. I.] INDIAN TRIBES. 61 

and the monument was afterwards dedicated to the ' God analysis. 
OF THE Air.' " 

6. 'The Mexicans ascribed all their improvements in i.ofm 
the arts, and the ceremonies of their religion, to a white of the Mext- 



^- cans. 



and bearded man, who came from an unknown region, 
and was made high priest of the city of Tula. From the 
numerous blessings which he bestowed upon mankind, 
and his aversion to cruelty and war, his was called the 
golden age, and the era of peace. Having received from 
the Great Spirit a drink which made him immortal, and 
being inspired with the desire of visiting a distant coun- 
try, he went to the east, and, disappearing on the coast, 
was never afterwards seen. "In one of the Mexican pic- 2. Tradition 
ture writings there is a delineation of a venerable looking ^omlf thT 
man, who, with his wife, was saved in a canoe at the time ^^rTmn-"' 
of the great inundation, and, upon the retiring of the "'"^^' 
waters of the flood, was landed upon a mountain called 
Colhuacan. Their children were born dumb, and re- 
ceived different languages from a dove upon a lofty tree. 

7. "The natives of Mechoacan are said by Clavigero, 3. important 
Humboldt, and others, to have a tradition, which, if cor- thf.natwesof 
rectly reported, accords most singularly with the scrip- -Mec^ioacan. 
tural account of the deluge. The tradition relates that 

at the time of the great deluge, Tezpi, with his wife and 
children, embarked in a calli or house, taking with them 
several animals, and the seeds of different fruits ; and 
that when the waters began to withdraw, a bird, called 
aura, was sent out, which remained feeding upon carrion ; 
and that other birds were then sent out, which did not 
return, except the humming bird, which brought a small 
branch in its mouth. 

8. ^These traditions, and many others of a similar a. Nature of 
character that might be mentioned, form an important nyfurnm- 
link in the chain of testimony which goes to substantiate \iMiitinf. 
the authenticity of Divine Revelation. 'We behold the 5. The sim- 
unlettered tribes of a vast continent, who have lost all Jhichmy 
knowledge of their origin, or migration hither, preserving «^^«*«'- 
with remarkable distinctness, the apparent tradition o. 

certain events which the inspired penman tells us hap- 
pened in the early ages of the world's history. *We ^ coincident 

. Jo ^ of th&s& trd- 

readily detect, in several of these traditions, clouded dttiom tmtii 
though they are by fable, a striking coincidence with the '^'^twr'ai^a"^ 
scriptural accounts of the creation and the deluge ; while '^""'*- 
in others we think we see some faint memorials of the 
destruction of the " cities of the plain" by " fire which 
came down from heaven," and of that " confusion of 
tongues" which fell upon the descendants of Noah in the 
plains of Shinar. 



62 AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES, [Book I 

ANALYSIS. 9. 'If the scriptural account of the deluge, and the saving 

1 mmcuity ^^ Noah and his family be only a " delusive fable ;" at 

^■'"^^MuiU ^^hat time, and under what circumstances, it may be asked, 

scriptural ac- could such a fable have been imposed upon the world for 

de/v^e, ^c, a fact, and with such impressive force that it should be 

u a fable, universally credited as true, and transmitted, in many 

languages, through different nations, and successive ages, 

2. The alter- by Oral tradition alone ? ^Those who can tolerate the 

nativeof those ... p , . , i i-, i i. 

w/io tolerate Supposition 01 such universal credulity, have no alterna- 

'^'sitim^°' tive but to reject the evidence derived from all human 

experience, and, against a world of testimony weighing 

against them, to oppose merely the bare assertion of 

infidel unbelief. 



CHAPTER II. 

AMERICAN ANTiaUITIES 
SECTION I. 

ANTIQTTITIES FOUND IN THE UNITED STATES. 

3. Antiqiniies 1- ^The Antiquities of the Indians of the present race 
qfr^t praerai are neither numerous nor important. *They consist 
. J"^*', f chiefly of ornaments, warlike instruments, and domestic 

4. Consist of J ' ,11. 

xohat. utensils ; such as rude stone axes or tomahawks, knives 
and chisels, pipes, flint arrow-heads, an inferior kind of 
earthenware, and mortars that were used in preparing 

5. Where maize or corn for food. ^These specimens of aboriginal 
evidlruxsof art and ingenuity are frequently discovered in the cultiva- 

*" '■ tion of new lands, in the vicinity of old Indian towns, and 
particularly in the Indian burying places ; but they pre- 
sent no evidences of a state of society superior to what 

6. Modem is found among the Indians of the present day. "Some 
huriai; how ti'ibes crectcd mounds over the graves of illustrious 
Jrvm°thTan^ chieftains ; but these works can generally be distinguished 
aent tumult. fj-Qm those ancient tumuli which are of unknown origin, 

by their inferior dimensions, their isolated situations, and 
the remains of known Indian fabrics that are found with- 
in them. 

7. Modern 2. ''As articles of modern European origin, occasionally 
sonie^n^ found in the Western States, have sometimes been blended 

^"^ancienf'"' "^^i^^^ thosc that are really ancient, great caution is requi- 

reiics. gj^g j^ receiving accounts of supposed antiquities, lest our 

credulity should impose upon us some modern fragment 



CiiAF. II.] AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. 63 

for an ancient relic. 'As the French, at an early period, analysis. 
had establishments in our western territory, it would be x.impiementt 
surprising if the soil did not occasionally unfold some "£^^^0:-'' 
lost or buried remains of their residence there ; and '^^^ill^'^nd 
accordingly there have been found knives and pickaxes, Roman coins. 
iron and copper kettles, and implements of modern war- 
fare, together with medals, and French and English 
coins ; and even some ancient Roman coins were ibund 
in a cave in Tennessee ; but these had doubtless been 
deposited there, and perhaps in view of the exploration of 
the cave, by some European since the country was 
traversed by the French. ^But, notwithstanding some 2. Reported 
reported discoveries to the contrary, it is confidently be- (^lemmins, 
lieved that there has not been found, in all North Amer- ^'^' 
ica, a single medal, coin, or monument, bearing an in- 
scription in any known language of the Old World, which 
has not been brought, or made here, since the discovery 
by Columbus. 

3. ^There are, however, within the limits of the United \i^^^^: 
States, many antiquities of a remarkable character, which ties, confess- 

, •' . , ^, . , T^ , edly ancient. 

cannot be ascribed either to Europeans or to the present 
Indian tribes, and which afford undoubted proofs of an 
origin from nations of considerable cultivation, and ele- 
vated far above the savage state. ""No articles of me- 4. Preserva- 

, . , , , . ^ 1 • xu ^ 4. tion of earth- 

chanical workmanship are more enduring than fragments enware. 

of earthen ware, specimens of which, coeval in date with 

the remotest periods of civilization, have been found among 

the oldest ruins of the world. 'Numerous specimens, s specimens 

moulded with great care, have also been discovered in the umted 

westera United States, and under such circumstances as "*"■ 

to preclude the possibility of their being of recent origin. 

4. "Some years since, some workmen, in digging a well fi^^^f^^ 
near Nashville, Tennessee, discovered an earthen pitcher, at Nasiivuie. 
containing about a gallon, standing on a rock twenty feet 

below the surface of the earth. Its form was circular, 
and it was surmounted at the top by the figure of a female 
head covered with a conical cap. The head had strongly 
marked Asiatic features, and large ears extending as low 
as the chin.* 

5 'Near some ancient remains on a fork of the Cum- 7. The"Tn- 

,,,„. . . „ nil w"« Vessel" 

berlana lliver, a curious specimen 01 pottery, called the found on a 
" Triune vessel," or "Idol," was found about four feet Cumberland 
below the surface of the earth. It consists of three hol- 
low heads, joined together at the back by an inverted bell- 
shaped hollow stem or handle. The features bear a strong 
resemblance to the Asiatic. The faces had been painted 

* Archaelogia Americana, vol. 1. p. 214. 



Nashville. 



64 AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. [Book I. 

ANALYSIS, with red and yellow, and the colors still retained great 
brilliancy. The vessel holds about a quart, and is com- 
posed of a fine clay, which has been hardened by the 
action of fire. 

1. Idol of clay 6. ^Near Nashville, an idol composed of clay and gyp- 
'^%undn"dr sum has been discovered, which represents a man without 

arms, having the hair plaited, a band around the head, 
and a flattened lump or cake upon the summit. It is said 
in all respects to resemble an idol found by Professor 
Pallas in the southern part of the Russian empire.* 

2. Ashes and 7. "In an ancient excavation at the State salt works in 
yjumi'aYslu Illinois, ashes and fragments of earthen ware were found 

Springs. ^^ great depths below the surface ; and similar appear- 
ances have been discovered at other works ; which ren- 
ders it probable that these springs were formerly worked 
by a civilized people, for the manufacture of salt. f 

3. Remains ^Remains of fire-places and chimneys have been dis- 
andchini^ covcrcd in various places, several feet below the surface 

'^^*" of the earth, and where the soil was covered by the hea- 
viest forest trees ; from which the conclusion is probable 
that eight or ten hundred years had elapsed since these 
hearths were deserted.:}: 

4. Medals re- 8. ^Medals, representing the sun, with its rays of light, 
thesunfcop- have been found at various places in the Western States, 
'siivei^mp,' together with utensils and ornaments of copper, some- 

^"^ times plated with silver : and in one instance, in a mound 
at Marietta, a solid silver cup was found, with its surface 

5. variMisar- smooth and regular, and its interior finely gilded. § °Arti- 
'u'^ef. ^^^^ °^ copper, such as pipe-bowls, arrow-heads, circular 

medals, &c., have been found in more than twenty 

6. Mirrors of mounds. ^Mirrors of isinglass have been found in many 
"'^»r*' pl'^ces. Traces of iron wholly consumed by rust have 

7. Articles of been discovered in a few instances. 'Some of the articles 
pottery, of pottery are skilfully wrought and polished, glazed and 

burned, and are in no respects inferior to those of modern 
manufacture. II 

8. These ex- 9. *These are a few examples of the numerous articles 
'^orfgin. "'^ of mechanical workmanship that have been discovered, 

and which evidently owe their origin to some former race, 

of far greater skill in the arts, than the present Indian 

vorfaManti- tnbes possess. °But a class of antiquities, far more inte- 

?i'!l'i!?^i'lt!'"; resting than those already mentioned, and which afford 

character and ^, . . n r 

extent. more decisive proof of the immense numbers, and at least 

* Archrelogia Americana, vol. i. p. 11, and Pallas's Travels to!. 2nd. 

t Some of the Indian tribes made use of rock salt, but it is not known that they understood 
the process of obtaining it by CTaporation or boiling. 
J Archa^logia Am. toI. i. p. 202. 
^ Schoolcraft's View, p. 276. 
II Schoolcraft's Mississippi, vol. i. 202, and Archselogia Am. to!, i. p. 22". 



Chap. II.] AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. 65 

partial civilization of their authors, consists of embank- analysis. 
ments of earth, trenches, walls of stone, and mounds, 
which are found in great numbers in the states bordering 
upon the Mississippi and its branches, — in the vicinity of 
the Great Lakes and their tributaries, — and in the South- 
ern States and Florida. 

10. 'Although upwards of a hundred remains of what i Rudnan- 
were apparently rude ancient forts or defensive fortifica- '^'t^Uei. 
tions, some of which v/ere of considerable dimensions, 

have been discovered in the state of New York alone, yet 
they increase in number and in size towards the south- 
west. Some of the most remarkable only can be de- 
scribed. 

11. ^At Marietta, Ohio, on an elevated plain above the 2 utiimat 
present bank of the Muskingum, were, a icw years since, 

some extraordinary remains of ancient works* which ap- a. see no. i, 
pear to have been fortifications. ^They consisted, princi- "1^''"'.°f,, 

11 ,• 1 11 -1 1 ^ . . 3 Consist of 

pally, or two large oblong mclosures, the one contammg wimc. 
an area of forty, and the other of twenty acres, together 
with several mounds and terraces, the largest mound being 
one hundred and fifteen feet in diameter at the base, and 
thirty feet in altitude. 

12. *The fortresses were encompassed by walls of a. Description 
earth, from six to ten feet high, and thirty feet in breadth, "^i^ilsme^ 
On each side of the larger inclosure were three entrances, 

at equal distances apart, the middle being the largest, es- 
pecially on the side towards the Muskingum. This en- 
trance was guarded by two parallel walls of earth, two 
hundred and thirty feet apart, and three hundred and 
sixty feet in length, and extending down to the former 
bank of the Muskingum. 

13. ^Within the inclosed area, near the northwest 5 Aprear- 
corner, was an oblong terrace, one hundred and eighty °'the]nciosea 
eight feet in length, and nine feet high, — level on the sum- °'*'*' 
mit, and having, on each side, regular ascents to the top. 

Near the south wall was another similar terrace ; and at 
the southeast corner a third. Near the centre was a cir- 
cular mound, thirty feet in diameter, and five feet high ; 
and at the southwest corner, a semicircular parapet, to 
guard the entrance in that quarter. 

14. "The smaller fort had entrances on each side, and ^-Tjieinrger 

' fort or inclo- 

at each corner ; most of the entrances being defended by ""'^s 
circular mounds within. 'The conical mound, near the 7. conicai 
smaller fort, was surrounded by a ditcli, and an embank- '"""^J^ «^'"' 
ment, through which was an opening towards the fortifi- 
cation, twenty feet in width. This mound was protected, 
in addition, by surrounding parapets and mounds, and out- 

liona. 



works of various forms. "Between tlie fortresses were 



66 



AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. 



[Book L 



ANALYSIS. 

1. Their prob- 
able design. 



found excavations, one of which was sixty feet in diame- 
ter at the surface, witli steps formed in its sides. 'These 
excavations were probably wells that supplied the inhabit- 
ants with water. 



4 



No. 2. ANCIliNT WORKS 

AT CIRCLEVILLE, OHIO. 




o 



M<nmd\ 



Om. O" '/!b|| 
Squarz mcUMUrt- 

SSrodsmlent/tii. |: 
Oni. 7iiO 



No. 1. ANCIENT 

iT MARIETTj* 

References. 



^^ ^iSife**** ^.-^WORKS AT MARIETTA. 

flfcS?^i:«jrr'*r"'%\%s '»• Mounds. 

§:^^S^\ ^AoS^cS \ "Cm earth. 

%. 



; Mound, on 
a hill. 




8 Works at 
CircleviUe. 
b. See No. 2. 



3. The square 
inclosure. 

4 The circu- 
lar inclosure. 



5 Central 
mound. 



6. Senucir- 
Cular pave- 
ment, and 
inclined 
plane. 



7. Contents 
Ijfthe mound 



15. "At CircleviUe, near the Sciota River, were two 
earthen inclosures'' connected with eacli other ; one an 
exact circle, and the other an exact square ; the diameter 
of the former beinjr sixty nine rods, and eacli side of the 
latter fifty nine. "The wall of the square inclosure was 
about ten feet in height, having seven openings or gate- 
ways, each protected by a mound of earth. ''The circu- 
lar inclosure was surrounded by two walls, with a ditch 
between them ; the heiglit from the bottom of the ditch to 
the top of the walls being twenty feet. ^In the centre of 
the inclosure was a mound ten feet high, thirty feet in di- 
ameter at the summit, and several rods at the base. "East 
of the mound — partially inclosing it, and extending five 
or six rods, was a semicircular pavement, composed of 
pebbles, such as are found in the bed of the adjoining 
river, — and an inclined plane leading to the summit. 

16. ''On removing the earth composing the itiound, tiiere 
were found, immediately below it, on the original surface 
of the earth, two human skeletons partially consumed by 
fire, and surrounded by charcoal and ashes, and a few 
bricks well burnt ; — also a large quantity of arrow-heads, 
— the handle of a small sword or knife, made of elk-horn, 
having a silver ferule around the end where the blade had 
been inserted, and showing the appearance of a blade 
which had been consumed by rust, — a large mirror of 
isinglass three feet in length and eighteen inches in widthj 
and on the mirror the appearance of a plate of iron which 



Chap. II.] 



AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. 



67 



had likewise been consumed by rust. ^A short distance 
beyond the inclosure, on a hill, was another high mound, 
which appears to have been the common cemetery, as it 
contained an immense number of human skeletons, of all 
sizes and ages. 

17. "Near Newark, in Licking County, on an extensive 
and elevated plain at the junction of two branches of the 
Muskingum, were the remains of ancient works of a still 
more interesting character.* At the western extremity of 
these works was a circular fort containing twenty two 
acres, on one side of which was an elevation thirty feet 
high, built partly of earth, and partly of stone. This cir- 
cular fort was connected, by parallel walls of earth, with 
an octagonal fort containing forty acres, the walls of which 
were ten feet high. To this fort were eight openings or 
gateways, about fifteen feet in width, each protected by a 
mound of earth on the inside. 



ANALYSIS. 

1. Mound be- 
yond tfie in- 
closure. 



2. Ancient 

works near 

ISewark, 

Ohio. 

a. See No. 3, 
below. 




18. Trom the fort, parallel walls of earth proceeded z.Paraiui 
to the former basin of the river : — others extended several eartk: other 
miles into the country ; — and others on the east to a square closure"-' 
fort containing twenty acres, nearly four miles distant.* ''"'""''*■ *^- 
From this latter fort parallel walls extended to the river, 
and others to a circular fort a mile and a half distant, 
iontaining twenty six acres, and surrounded by an em- 
bankment from twenty five to thirty feet high. Farther 
north and east, on elevated ground protected by intrench- 
ments, were mounds containing the remains of the dead. 
It has been supposed that the parallel walls, extending 



* The proportionate lenith of the parallel walls of earth in the engraved plan, has been dj 
minished, for want of room. 



68 



AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. 



[Book I 



ANALYSIS. 



1. Ancient 

ruin near 

Sotnerset, in 

Ohio. 

a. ?ee No. 4, 

preceding 

page. 



2. Works on 
the North 

Branch of 

Paint Creek. 

b. See No. 5, 

preceding 

page. 



3. The largest 
inclosure. 



4. The small- 
er one. 



5. Ruins at 
Paint Creek. 
c. See No 6, 

next page. 

6. Inclosures 
on the north 

side the 
stream. 



7. Motinds, 
wells, eleva- 
tions, ^c. 

d. See a in 
the engraving. 



s. Other 
works. 

e. See b. 

{ See c. 



south, connected these works with others thirty miles dis- 
tant. 

19. 'Near Somerset, in Perry County, is an ancient 
ruin," whose walls, inclosing more than forty acres, were 
built with rude fragments of rocks, which are now thrown 
down, but which were sufficient to construct a wall seven 
feet in height, and five or six in thickness. The inclosure 
has two openings, before one of which is a large and high 
rock, protecting the passage. Near the centre of the 
work is a circular conical mound, fifteen or twenty feet in 
height ; and in the line of the wall, and forming a part of 
it, is one of smaller dimensions. Near the southern ex- 
tremity of the inclosure is a small work, containing half 
an acre, whose walls are of earth, but only a few feet in 
height. 

20. *A short distance west of Chilicothe, on the North 
Branch of Paint Creek, there are several successive nat- 
ural deposites of the soil, called river bottoms, rising one 
above the other in the form of terraces. Here are an- 
cient works'* consisting of two inclosures, connected with 
each other. ^The largest contains an area of one hun- 
dred and ten acres, wholly surrounded by a wall of earth, 
and encompassed by a ditch twenty feet wide, except on 
the side towards the river. Within this inclosure, and 
encompa.ssed likewise by a wall and ditch, were two cir- 
cular works, the large.st of which contained six mounds, 
which have been used as cemeteries. *The smaller in- 
closure, on the east, contains sixteen acres, and is sur- 
rounded by a wall inerely, in which are several openings 
or gateways. 

21. ^On Paint Ci-eek, also, a few miles nearer Chili- 
cothe, in the same state, were extensive ruins' on opposite 
sides of the stream. ^Those on the north consisted of an 
irregular inclosure, containing seventy seven acres, and 
two adjoining ones, the one square and the other circular, 
the former containing twenty seven and the latter seven- 
teen acres. 'Within the large inclosure were several 
mounds and wells, and two elliptical elevations, one of 
which"^ was twenty five feet high and twenty rods long. 
This was constructed of stones and earth, and contained 
vast quantities of human bones. 

22. *The other* elliptical elevation was from eight to 
fifteen feet high. Another workjf in the form of a half 
moon, was bordered with stones of a kind now found about 
a mile from the spot. Near this work was a mound five 
feet high and thirty feet in diameter, composed entirely 
of red ochre, which was doubtless brought from a hill at 
a great distance from the place. 



Chap. II.] 



AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. 



69 



23. 'The walls of the ruins on the south side of the analysis 
stream were irregular in form, and about ten feet 



high. 



1 



_ Ruins on 

The principal inclosure contained eisjhty four acres, and the muth side 

',...' K ^^ • -i • "J the Stream- 

the aujommg square twenty seven. A small rivulet, ris- 
ing without the inclosure, passes through the wall, and 
loses itself in an aperture in the earth, supposed to have 
been originally a work of art. 



ANCIENT WORKS 

ON PAINT CREEK. No. 6, 

Wat 





24. 'East of these works, on the summit of a rocky 
precipitous hill, about three hundred feet in height, rises 
a wall of unhewn stone, inclosing an area of one hundred 
and thirty acres. The wall was on the very edge of the 
hill, and it had two gateways, one opening directly towards 
the creek. ^A large quantity of ashes and cinders, sev- 
eral feet in depth, was found within the inclosure, adjoin- 
ing the wall on the south side. ''Below tlie hill, in the 
slate-rock which forms the bed of the creek, are four wells, 
several feet in depth. Each was found covered by a 
large stone, having an aperture through the centre. It is 
believed that the stream has changed its channel since the 
wells were excavated. 

25. ^At the mouth of the Sciota R,iver, on both sides of 
the Ohio, are ruins of ancient works several miles in ex- 
tent." On the south side of the Ohio, opposite Alexan- 
dria, is an extensive inclosure, nearly square, whose walls 
of earth are now from fourteen to twenty feet in height. 
At the southwest corner is a mound twenty feet in height, 
and covering about half an acre. Both east and west of 
the large inclosure are walls of earth nearly parallel — 
half a mile or more in length — about ten rods apart — and 
at present from four to six feet in height. 

26. "On the north side of the river are similar ruins, 
but more intricate and extensive. Walls of earth, mostly 
parallel, commencing near the Sciota, after running a dis- 
tance of nearly four miles, and ascending a high hill, ter- 
minate near four mounds, three of which are six feet in 
height, covering nearly an acre each. The fourth and 
largest is twenty feet high, and has a raised walk asccnd- 



2. Stone loall. 



3 Ashes and- 
cindeis. 



4. Wells. 



5. Ruins typ- 
posiie the 

mouth of the 

Sciota River. 

a .See No. 7, 
next page. 



6. Similar 

ruins B' the 

tiioiith of the, 

Sciota, on tilt 

niirth side of 

the Ohio ; 

parallel 

trails of 

earth. 



70 



AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. 



[Book I. 



ANALYSIS, ing to its summit, and another descending from it. 'Near 



1. Mounds, 
wells, ^c. 



Parallel 
walls. 



a mound twenty five feet in height, containing 
remains of the dead ; and about a quarter of a mile 



this was 
the 

nortliwest another mound had been commenced. On the 
brow of the hill is a well now twenty feet deep, and two 
others near, of less depth. From the summit of the hill 
are parallel walls, nearly two miles in length, extending 
eastwardly to a bend in the Ohio, and thus embracing an 
area of several square miles within the circuit of the 
works and the river. 




2. Ruins 
throvghmit 
the Mississip- 
pi Valley. 



3. Stone walls 
in Missouri. 



4. Ruins far- 
ther west. 



%. Movnils 

throughout 

the United 

States. 



5. Their uses. 



27. "Ruins similar to those already mentioned are found 
in great numbers throughout almost the entire valley of 
the Mississippi, but those in the State of Ohio have been 
the most carefully surveyed, and the most accurately de- 
scribed. Hn Missouri are the remains of several st07ie 
works ; and in Gasconade county are the ruins of an an- 
cient town, regularly laid out in streets and squares. The 
Avails of the ruins were found covered with large cotton 
trees, a species of poplar, of full growth. ^Similar re- 
mains have been discovered in the territory west of the 
State of Missouri, and also on the Platte River, the Kan- 
zas, and the Arkansas. 

28. ^Mounds, likewise, of various forms, square, ob- 
long, or circular at the base, and flat or conical at the 
summit, have been found in great numbers througliout 
the United States; sometimes in isolated positions, but 
mostly in the vicinity of the mural remains. ^Some were 
used as general cemeteries, and were literally filled with 
human bones: others appear to have been erected as 
monuments over the ashes of the dead, their bodies having 



Chap. H.] 



AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. 



71 



I. Mounds at 
Cincinnati. 



2 Mound at 

Lancastet-, 

Ohio. 



3 Mound* 
near WhetU 
ing, Vir- 
ginia. 



first beei* burned, a custom not usually prevalent with analysis 
the Indians of the present day. The object of others is ~ 

not certainly known, but probably some were designed 
for defence, and others for religious purposes. 

29. 'There were several extensive mounds on the site 
of Cincinnati. One of these, first described in 1794, had 
then on its surface the stumps of oak trees several feet in 
diameter.* Beneath it were found the remains of a human 
body, and various ornaments and instruments of lead, 
copper, and of stone. 'Beneath an extensive mound in 
Lancaster, Ohio, was found a furnace, eighteen feet long 
and six wide, and upon it was placed a rude vessel of 
earthenware, of the same dimensions, containing a num- 
ber of human skeletons. Underneath the vessel was a 
thick layer of ashes and charcoal. f 

30. ^Near Wheeling, Virginia, was a mound seventy 
feet in height, and sixty feet in diameter at the summit. 
Near it were three smaller mounds, one of which has 
been opened. It was found to contain two vaults, built 
of pillars of wood supporting roofs of stone ; and within 
them were human bones, together with beads of bone or 
ivory, copper wristlets, plates of mica, marine shells, and 
in one a stone marked with unknown characters. ^Nearly 
opposite St. Louis, in Illinois, within a circuit of five or six 
miles, are upwards of one hundred and sixty mounds ; 
and in the vicinity of St. Louis they are likewise numer- 
ous. 

31. ^About eleven miles from the city of Natehes, in 
Mississippi, is a group of mounds, one of which is thirty- 
five feet hiorh, embracing on its summit an area of four 
acres, encompassed by an embankment around the mar- 
gin. Some, however, have supposed that this is a natural 
hill, to which art has given its present form. On the 
summit of this elevation are six mounds, one of which is 
still thirty feet high, and another fifteen.^ 

32. "Upon the north side of the Etowah River, in 
Georgia, is a mound seventy-five feet high, and more 
than three hundred in diameter at its base, having an 
inclined plane ascending to its summit. § 'The mounds 
of Florida are numerous and extensive, many of tliem 
near the sea coast being composed of she'ils. 

33. *Such is the general character of the numerous 
ancient remains that have been found in so great num- 



4. MotwiA 

opposite St. 

Louis. 



5 Mounds 
mar Nato'itt, 
in Missis- 
sippi. 



6. Mound i» 
Georgia. 



7. Mounds of 
Fiorida. 

8. Character 
<ind extent of 

tite vwjiinds 

in the Unitod 

Stales. 



* Transactions of the Amer. Philo. Soc. vol. iv., p. 178. 

t SilUman's Journal, vol. i., p. 428. { Bradford's American Antiquities, p. 58. 

§ Silliman's .Tournal, vol. i., p. 322. It appears that some mounds of this de.«cription were 



tonstructed by the ancestors of the present Indians. 
348, 149. 



See T. Irving's Florida, vol. i., pp. 



72 



AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. 



[Book L 



ANALYSIS. 



! The work 

qf a n umer 
oits, and par- 

liallif civil- 
ized, but vn- 

known peo- 
ple. 



bers throughout the United States. 



West of the Allegha- 



». T.vidence 
tf the anti- 
quity of the 
tuins de- 
sci ibed. 



nies, the number of the viural remains alone has been 
estimated at more than five thousand, and the mounds 
at a much greater number. "^That they were the work 
of multitudes of the human family, who were associated 
in large communities, who cultivated the soil, and who 
had arrived at a degree of civilization considerably beyond 
that of the present Indian tribes, cannot be doubted. But the 
names and the history of these people we shall probably 
never with certainty learn. Curtained by the hand of 
tiine, which has left no written records, if any ever existed^ 
their all but a few earth-embosomed relics have passed 
into obHvion. °At the period of the first discovery of the 
continent, not only had this unknown but nume/ous peo- 
ple passed away from their ancient dwelling places, but 
ages mast have elapsed since their " altars and their fires" 
were deserted ; for over all the monuments which alone 
perpetuate the knowledge of their existence, the forest had 
already extended its shades, and Nature had triumph- 
antly resumed her empire, clieating the wondering 
European v/ith the belief that her solitudes had never 
before been broken but by the wild beasts that roamed 
here, or the stealthy footsteps of the rude Indian. 



SECTION 11. 



ANTIQUITIES FOUND- IN OTHER PORTIONS OF THE CONTINENT. 



3 Increasing 

tvMence.s of 

eiviliztttion 

a.1 tec p? oceed 

farther south. 



t. Mexico and 
Peru at the 
time of their 
discovery by 
the Span- 
iards. 



1. 'Although the deserted remains that have been 
described, and others of a similar character — the work of 
a people apparently long extinct, were the only evidence 
of a former civilization within the limits of the United 
States ; yet a far different spectacle was presented on 
entering the regions farther south, where, instead of the 
buried relics of a former greatness, its living reality 
was found. 

2. nVlien the Spanish invaders landed on the coast of 
Mexico and in Peru, they found there, instead of feeble 
wandering tribes, as at the north, populous and powerful 
agricultural nations, with regular forms of government^ 
established systems of law and religion, immense cities, 
magnificent edifices and temples, extensive roads,* aque- 
ducts, and other public works ; al! showing a high degree 
of advancement in many of the arts, and rivalling, in 



* " At the time when the Spaniards entered Peru, no kingdom in, Europe could boast o4 
any work of public utility that could be compared with, the great roads formed by the Ineas..' 
— Hohertsoii's America 



CuAP. n.] AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. 73 

many respects, the regularly organized states of the Old analysis. 
World. 

3. 'The Mexicans constructed pyramids and mounds VrawtS^nd •-- 
far more extensive than those which have been discovered mounds: 

in the United States. Within the city of Mexico alone, mid in the 
were more than two thousand pyramidal mounds, the '^'''^ tio. **" 
largest of which, in the central square of the city, was 
constructed of clay, and had been erected but a short time 
before the landing of Cortes. It had five stories, with 
flights of stall's leading to its superior platform ; its base 
was three hundred and eighteen feet in length ; its height 
was one hundred and twenty-one feet, and it was sur- 
rounded by a wall of hewn stone. This pyramid was 
dedicated to one of the Mexican gods, and sacrifices were 
offered upon its summit. 

4 . ^In Tezcuco was a pyramid constructed of enormous 2. Pvramid, /^ 
masses of basalt, regularly cut, and beautifully polished, works in 
and covered with sculptures. There are still seen the "'^"'^ ' 
foundations of large edifices, and the remains of a fine 
aqueduct in a state of sufficient preservation for present 

use. — 'Near the city of Cholula, was the largest pyramid s. pyramid of 
in Mexico. This also was designed for religious purposes, 
and was sacred to the " God of the Air." It was con- 
structed of alternate layers of clay and unburnt brick, 
ana vvas one thousand four hundred and twenty-three feet 
in length, and one hundred and seventy-seven feet in 
height. 

5. ^Such was the character of some of the Mexican 4. General 

. , ^, . c r ^ • ^ • • i j Characterand 

pyramids, the ruins or many of which, imposingly grand extent of the 
even in their desolation, still crown the hill-tops, and ^in'uexico. 
strew the plains of Mexico. The remains of extensive 
public edifices of a different character, devoted to the pur- 
poses of civil life, and many of them built of hewn and 
sculptured stone, are also numerous. ^The soil of Mexico s. Agricui- 

tUTC CttZAS 

vvas under a rich state of cultivation, and the cities were and'popuia- 
not only numerous, but some of them are supposed to have '^"'tco. **' 
contained one or two hundred thousand inhabitants. The 
city of Tezcuco, which was even larger than that of 
Mexico, was estimated by early writers to contain one 
hundred and forty thousand houses. 

6. "Extensive ruins of cities, containing the remains of s- Natureand 

• 1 11 11 f • 1 •! T 11 extent of the y 

pyramids and the walls of massive buildings, broken ruinsfmnd 
columns, altars, statues, and sculptured fragments, show- and central 
ing that their authors had attained considerable knowledge ^"^"*^ 
of the arts, and were a numerous, although an idolatrous 
people, are likewise found in great numbers throughout 
Chiapas and Yucatan ; and in the neighboring Central 
American provinces of Honduras and Guatimala. Only 

10 



74 



AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. 



[Book L 



Yucatan, and flie adjolnina Provinces. 



35 IW.Lonj 91) 







TAUASCO 

""■'•"""'x^^-t " 




a few of these structures, and 
perhaps those not the most 
interesting or important, can 
be described here ; but this 
brief notice of them will con- 
vey a knowledge of their gen- 
eral character.* The annex- 
ed map shows the localities of 
the ruins that are described, 
the most important of which 
are those of Palenque in Chi- 
apas, of Copan in Honduras, 
and of Uxmal and Chichen in 
Northern Yucatan. 



I 



ANALYSIS. 



RUINS OF PALENQUE. 



them. 



1. Ruins of 1 . 'The ruins of Palenque, in the province of Chiapas, 
paietique. i,Qj.^Qy.i^g upon Yucatan, are the first which awakened 

attention to the existence of ancient and unknown cities 

2. Our first in America. "They were known to the Spaniards as 
' ° early as 1750 ; and in 1787 they were explored by older 

of the King of Spain, under a commission from the gov- 
ernment of Guatimala. The account of the exploration 
was however locked up in the archives of Guatimala until 
the time of the Mexican Revolution. In 1822 an English 
translation was published in London, which was the first 
notice in Europe of the discovery of these ruins. 



PLAN 

OF THE RUINS OF 

PALENQUE. 







No. 51 

No. J 



No. 3. 



o zio 400 ooo &10 iooo 

I I I I I I 



n. seeNo.i. 2. ''The principal of the structures that have been 
cimonto7i^k described, »• stands on an artificial elevation, forty feet 



* For the description of the Ruins of Palenque, Copan, Chichen, Uxmal, &c., we are mainly 
indebted to the valuable works of Mr. Stephens. The illustrative engravings are likewise 
taken, by permission, from the same works, to which the reader is referred for the fullest de- 
ecription which has yet been published of the Ruins in this portion of America. See Stephens' 
'^Central America, Chiapas, and Yucatan," 2 vols. 1841 ; and Stephens' " Incidents of Trayel 
Mt Yucatan," 2 vols. 1843. 



Chap. H.] 



AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. 



79 



high, three hundred and ten feet in length, and two hun- analysis. 
dred and sixty in width. This elevation was formerly ^^^^^ ^^ 
faced with stone, which has been thrown down by the principal of 
growth of trees, and its form is now hardly distinguisna- paienque. 
ble. "The building itself, which is called by the natives i.Thebut^ 
" The Palace," is about twenty-five feet high, and meas- -"The pair 
ures two hundred and twenty-eight feet front, by one hun- *"*" 
dred and eighty feet deep. The front originally contained 
fourteen doorways, with intervening piers, of which all 
but six are now in ruins. 




Pun op Palbnque, No. 1, called the Palace. The dark parts represent the walls that 
are still standing. The other walls are in ruins. 



3. "The walls are of stone, laid with mortar and sand, 
and the whole is covered by a fine plaster, or stucco, 
nearly as hard as stone, and painted. 'The piers are 
covered with human figures, hieroglyphics, and orna- 
ments. *The building has two parallel corridors, or gal- 
leries, running lengthwise on all four of its sides, the 
floors of which are covered with an exceedingly hard 
cement, and the walls ornamented. ^In the eastern part 
of the building, a range of stone steps, thirty feet long, 
leads from the inner corridor to a rectangular court yard, 
eighty feet long by seventy broad, now encumbered by 
trees, and strewed with ruins. 

4. 'On each side of the steps are the forms of gigantic 
human figures, nine or ten feet high, carved on stone, with 
rich head-dresses and necklaces; and on the farther side 



2. IValls of 
the building. 

3. Piers. 



4. Corridors. 



5. Stone step* 

and court 

yard. 



6 Sculptured 
human Jig- 
urea. 



76 



AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. 



[Book L 



ANALYSIS. 

1. Stone 
tower. 



S. Ornaments, 
and plan o 
the romm. 



8. Description 
of the build- 
ing called 
the " Tribu- 
nal of Jus- 
tice" 
a. See No. 2, 
page 74. 



4. Other 
buildings. 



5. Extent of 

the ruins of 

Falenque. 



of the court yard, on each side of a corresponding flight 
of steps, are similar figures. 'In one part of the building 
is a substantial stone tower of three stories, thirty feet 
square at the base, and rising far above the surrounding 
walls. ''The ornaments throughout the building are so 
numerous, and the plan of the rooms so complicated, as 
to forbid any attempt at minute description. 

5. ^Immediately adjoining the building above described 
is another," but of smaller dimensions, although placed on 
a more elevated terrace. Both terrace and building are 
surrounded by trees, and completely overgrown with them. 
The front of the building is richly ornamented in stucco, 
the corner piers are covered with hieroglyphics, and the 
intervening ones with human figures. The walls are 
very massive, the floors are paved with large square 
stones, and in one of the corridors, projecting from the 
wall, are two large tablets of hieroglyphics, each thirteen 
feet long and eight feet high. This building has been 
called, by the Spaniards, the "Tribunal of Justice;" and 
the tablets of hieroglyphics, the " Tables of the Law." 

6. ^The remaining buildings of Palenque are likewise 
placed on elevated terraces, and in their general character 
are similar to those already described. 

^Although it has been repeatedly asserted that these 
ruins cover a space of from twenty to sixty miles in ex- 
tent, and although it is possible that in the dense sur- 
rounding foiest other ruins may yet be discovered, yet it 
is believed that all those which have been explored are 
embraced within an area of less than an acre. 



RUINS OF COPAN. 

V $. Situation 1. 'The ruins of Copan, in the western part of Hondu- 
(^c<mn. ras, adjoining the province of Guatimala, are on the east. 



Elevated terraces. 





i Statues and Altars 



PLAN 

OF THE RUINS OF 

COPAN. 



Chap. II.] AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. 77 

em bank of a small stream that falls into the Bay of lion- analysis. 
duras. 'A wall of cut stone, from sixty to ninety feet JTh^ohTsmT 
hio;h, runninor north and south along the margin of the roundtni; the 
stream, — its top covered with furze and shrubbery, — is yet 
standing in a state of good preservation ; and other walls 
of a similar character surround the principal ruins. 
■^Within these walls are extensive terraces and pyramidal 2. Character 
buildings, massive stone columns, idols, and altars, cov- loithmthe 
ered with sculpture ; some of which are equal in work- 
manship to the finest monuments of the Egyptians, and all 
now enveloped in a dense and almost impenetrable forest. 

2. ^The description given by Mr. Stephens, of the im- 3. Thade- 
pressions made upon him by the first view of these ruins, gi^n^byMr. 
is so graphic, that we present it here, although in a con- ^'^p'^'^- 
densed form, yet as nearly as possible in the language of 

the writer. * After working his way over the walls and ^, interior qf 

, 1 I 1 • 1 1 ° , • •^. r. 1 ■ 1 '^^ mclosure. 

through the thick wood to the interior 01 the mclosure, 
" we came," he says, " to an area so covered with trees, 
that at first we could not make out its form, but which, on 
clearing the way, we ascertained to be a square, with 
steps on all the sides, almost as perfect as those of the 
Roman amphitheatre. 

3. ^" These steps, ornamented with sculpture, we as- 5. Broad and 
cended, and reached a broad terrace a hundred feet high, ^"fi^ ^^''^'^• 
overlooking the river, and supported by the wall which 

we had seen from the opposite bank. The whole terrace 
was covered with trees ; and even at this height from the 
ground were two gigantic cotton trees, about twenty feet 
in circumference, extending their half naked roots fitly or 
a hundred feet around, binding down the ruins, and shad- 
ing them with their wide spreading branches. 

4. "" We sat down on the edge of the wall, and strove 6."whpbut» 
in vain to penetrate the mystery by which we were sur- '^''"^^" 
rounded. Who were the people that built this city ? His- 
torians say America was peopled by savages ; but savages 

never reared these structures — savages never carved these 
stones. We asked our Indian attendants who erected these 
works, and their dull answer was, ' Who knows V There 
were no associations connected with the place, none of 
those stirring recollections which hallow Rome, and 
Athens, and 

' The world's great mistress on the Egyptian plain :' 

but architecture, sculpture, and painting, — all the arts its departed 
(vhich embellished life, — had flourished in this overgrown ^''"^^" 
forest. Orators, warriors, and statesmen, — beauty, am- 
bition, and glory, had lived and passed away, and none 
could tell of their past existence. 



78 



AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. 



[Book I. 



ANALYSIS. 

1. Its desola- 
tion and mys- 
tery. 



2, Extent of 
the ruins. 

a. See p. 76. 

3. Terraces, 
sculptured 
fragments, 

carved heads, 

'"idols," 
" altars," ij-c. 



5. '" The city was desolate. It lay before us like a 
shattered bark in the midst of the ocean, her masts gone, 
her name effaced, her crew perished, and none to tell 
whence she came, to whom she belonged, how long on 
her voyage, or what caused her destruction. All was 
mystery, — dark, impenetrable mystery ; and every cir- 
cumstance increased it. An immense forest shrouded the 
ruins, hiding them from sight, heightening the impression 
and moral effect, and giving an intensity and almost wild- ' 
ness to the interest." 

6. *The ruins extend along the river more than two 
miles, but the principal portion of them is represented on 
the annexed Plan."- 'The numerous terraces and pyra- 
mids are walled with cut stone ; and sculptured fragments 
abound throughout the ruins. Remains of carved heads, 
of gigantic proportions, ornament many of the terraces ; 
and numerous colossal statues, or " idols," of solid stone, 
from ten to fifteen feet in height, are found ; some erect, 
others fallen. There are likewise many " altai's," all of 
a single block of stone, — some richly ornamented, but 
each differing from all the rest, — many of them now much 
faded and worn by their long exposure to the elements. 
Some are in their places before the idols ; others are over- 
thrown, and partially or wholly buried in the earth. 




SouD Stone Altar, found at Copan ; six feet square and four feet high, the 
top covered with hieroglyphics. 

4. Bescrip- 7. ''One of these sculptured altars, standing on four 
^^Vieaitars"^ globes cut out of the same stone, was six feet square and 
four feet high, with its top covered with hieroglyphics, 
and each side representing four individuals. The figures 
sit cross-legged, in the oriental custom ; — the head-dresses 
are remarkable for their curious and complicated forms ; — • 
all have breastplates ; and each holds some article in his 



Chap. II.] 



AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. 



79 



1. Quarries. 



hand. The absence of all representations of weapons of analysis. 
war, and the natui-e of the ornaments, induces the belief 
that the people were not warlike, but peaceable, idola- 
trous, and probably easily subdued. 

8. 'Two or three miles from the ruins, there is a stony 
range where are quarries from which the stones for the 
walls and buildings of Copan were evidently taken. 
There are huge blocks of stone of different degrees of 
finish ; and others are found on the way to the city, where 
they were probably abandoned when the labors of the 
workmen were arrested. 



RUINS OF CHICHEN. 



p. 74. 



1. °The ruins of Chichen, in the central part of north- ^suuatwn 
ern Yucatan,'' are about thirty miles west of Valladolid ; the rums of 
and as the high road passes through them, they are proba- ^ gg^ M^p 
bly better known than any other ruins in the country. 
The buildings which are still standing are laid down on 
the annexed "Plan." The whole circumference occupied 
by them is about two miles, although ruined buildings ap- 
pear beyond these limits. 



,^:r>" 










r^m 



j-^. 









r\^ 






'3 






2. 'Followinij the pathway from the " Modern Build- z.pe.'^cription 

fit hiii'iLdfTt'* 

ings," as denoted on the annexed Plan, at the distance of No. i. ' 
thirty or forty rods we arrive at the building represented 
as No. 1. This building faces the east, and measures 
one hundred and forty-nine feet in front, by forty-eight 
feet deep. The whole exterior is rude and without orna- 
ment of any kind. In the centre of one side, a grand 
stairca.se, forty-five feet wide, now in ruins, rises to the 
roof of the building. The whole number of apartments 
is eighteen ; one of which, from its darkness, and from 
the sculpture on the I'ntel of its doorway, has given a 



80 



AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. 



[Book I 



ANALYSIS. 



1. The 

" Hmtxe of 
Vw Nuns." 

t. See No 2, 

preceding 

liufe'e. 

2. Exterior 
buildings. 



3. The prin- 
cipal pile of 

buititin^s, 
with its seve- 
ral staircases, 

platforms, 
and rafii;es. 



4. Circumfe- 
rence and 

height of ihe 
structure. 

5 Upper plat- 
form, ai>art- 
iiienls, inner 
teulls, paint- 
ings, $-c. 



C. The Car- 
acal. 

b. See No 3, 

preceding 

page. 



7. Staircase 
end balus- 
trades 



8. Seetmd 
staircase. 



name to the whole building, — signifying, in the Indian 
language, the " Writing in the dark." 

3. 'Leaving this building, and following the pathway 
about thirty rods westward, we reach a majestic pile of 
buildings, called the "House of the Nuns;"" remarkable 
for its good state of preservation, and the richness and 
beauty of its ornaments. °0n the left, as we approach, is 
a building measuring thirty-eight feet by thirteen ; and 
on the right is another which is twenty-six feet long, four- 
teen deep, and thirty-one high. The latter has three 
cornices, and the spaces between are richly ornamented. 

4. ^The principal pile of buildings consists of three 
structures, rising one above another. On the north side, 
a grand staircase, of thirty-nine steps, fifty-six feet wide 
and thirty-two feet high, rises to the top of the first range, 
upon which stands a second range of buildings, with a 
platform of fourteen feet in front extending all round. 
From the back of this platform, on the south side, the 
grand staircase rises again, fifteen steps, to the roof of the 
second range ; which forms a platform in front of the 
third range. These several buildings rest on a structure 
solid from the ground, the roof of the lower range being 
merely a platform in front of the upper one. *The cir- 
cumference of the whole structure is six hundred and 
thirty-eight feet, and its height is sixty-five feet. 

5. ^The upper platform Ibrms a noble promenade, and 
commands a magnificent view of the whole surrounding 
country. The apartments are too numerous to be descri- 
bed. The inner walls of some had been covered with 
painted designs, now much defaced, but the remains of 
which present colors, in some places still bright and vivid. 
Among these I'emains are detached portions of human 
figures, well drawn, — the heads adorned with j^lumes of 
feathers, and the hands bearing shields and spears. 

6. *At the distance of four hundred feet northward from 
the " House of the Nuns," stands a circular building,* 
twenty-two feet in diameter, upon the uppermost of two 
extensive terraces. On account of its interior arrange- 
ments, this building is known as the Caracol or " Wind- 
ing staircase." 'A staircase forty-five feet wide, and con- 
taining twenty steps, rises to the platform of the first ter- 
race. On each side of this staircase, forming a sort of 
balustrade, were the entwined bodies of two gigantic 
sculptured serpents, three feet wide, — portions of which 
are still in their places. 

7. ^Tlie platform of the second terrace is reached by 
another staircase, and in the centre of the steps are the 
remains of a pedestal six feet high, on \\iuch probably 



Chap. U.] AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. 81 

once stood an idol. 'The innci- walls of the building are analysis. 
plastered, and ornamented with paintings now much de- j j^ner 
faced. ''The height of the buildino;, includino; the terraces, '"""*• , 

o n ' o '2 Height of 

is little short of sixty feet. t/ie building. 

8. ^A few hundred feet northwest from the building 3 onier 
last described, are two others,^ each upon elevated ter- a. see 4 & 6, 
races. *The most interesting object in the first of these, I'^ff. ^^ 
wincli IS yet m a state ot good preservation, is a large siypMo^- 
stone tablet covered with hieroglyphics. The farther ter- 
race and building are fast going to decay. — ^These are 5. munds, 
the only buildings which are still standing on the west side Inen^s, $•'<?. 
of the high road, but the vestiges of extensive mounds, 

with remains of buildings upon them, and colossal stones, 
and fragments of sculpture, strew the plain in great pro- 
fusion. 

9. ^Passing from these ruins across the high road, we __ e The 
come to the Castle or Tower,'* the grandest and most con- 5. seeNo' 6. 
spicuous object among the ruins of Chichen. 'It stands ^^'^'^ "• 
upon a lofty mound faced with stone, measuring, at the on which u 
base, two hundred and two feet, by one hundred and *'""'^- 
ninety-six, and rising to the height of seventy-five feet. 

^On the west side is a staircase thirty-seven feet wide ; s. staircases. 
and on the north is one forty- four feet wide, and contain- " heads.""' ^ 
ing ninety steps. At the foot of this staircase are two 
colossal serpents' heads, ten feet in length, with mouths 
open and tongues protruding. ®The platform on the top of s. upper piat- 
the mound measures sixty-one feet by sixty-four, and the 
building forty-three by forty-nine. 

10. "Single doorways face the east, south, and west, w. Doorways. 
having massive lintels of wood covered with elaborate 
carvings, and jambs ornamented with sculptured human 
figures. The principal doorway facing the north is twenty 

feet wide, and has two massive columns, eight feet eight 
inches high, with large projections at the base, entirely 
covered with elaborate sculpture. "The building itself is 11 Height of 
twenty feet high, forming, in the whole, an elevation of '"« *"*''^^'^- 
nearly a hundred feet. — '^A short distance east of this 12 Groups of 
structure is an area of nearly four hundred feet square, 
inclosed by groups of small stone columns from three to 
six feet high, each consisting of several separate pieces, 
like millstones. 

11. '^Several hundred feet northwest is another struc- iz. immense 
ture,'= consisting of immense parallel walls, each two hun- ^wa/h'' 
dred and seventv-four feet long, thirty feet thick, and one c. f'eeivo 7. 
hundred and twenty feet apart. "One hundred feet from 14 isuHding-s 
each extremity, facing the open space between the walls, "" Inw.'^^'"" 
are two buildings considerably in ruins, — each exhibiting 

the remains of two columns, richly ornamented, rising 

11 



and their 
uses. 



82 AMERIC^VN ANTIQUITIES. [Book L 

ANALYSIS, among the rubbish. 'In the centre of the great stone walls, 
1. Massive exactly opposite each other, and at the height of twenty 

isoneriit^. f^p^ from the ground, are two massive projecting stone 
rings, four feet in diameter and thirteen inches thick, hav- 
ing on the border two sculptured entwined serpents. 

t- Importance 12. ^These stone rins;s are hisrhly important, as a ray of 
historic light gleams upon them, showing tlie probable 

3.nerreras object and uses of this extraordinary structure. ^Herrera, 

stSar'rhigs. in his account of the diversions of Montezuma, in describ- 
ing a game of Ball, has the following language : '• The 
place where they played was a ground room, — long, nar- 
row, and high, but wider above than below, and higher on 
the sides than at the ends ; and they kept it very well 
plastered, and smooth, both the walls and the floor. On 
the side icalls they fixed certain stones like those of a mill, tcitk 
a hole quite throuij^h the middle, just as big as the ball ; and 

4 Important jie that could Strike it throuirh there won the o-ame.'"' ''If 

/act eslablisff ^ • i • i • i i m 

ed from this the objects ot this structure are identical with the iennis 
stance. Court, or Ball Alley, in the city of Mexico, the circum- 
stance establishes, with little doubt, an affinity between 
the people who erected the ruined cities of Yucatan, and 
those who inhabited Mexico at the time of the conquest. 
af^f'^ihiin" ^^' '-^^ ^^^ southern extremity of the most eastern of 
adjoining' thcsc parallel walls, and on the outer side, is a building 

one (tf these • ■ f . -^i ^i j j 

paraitei Consisting 01 two ranges ; one even with the ground, and 
the other about twenty-tive feet above it, — the latter being 
in a state of good preservation, and having conspicuous, 
on the cornice, a procession of tigers or lynxes. The 
rooms of both divisions abound with sculptures, and de- 
signs in painting, representing human figures, battles, 
houses, trees, and scenes of domestic life. 



RUINS OF UXMAL.* 

! of Uxmal are about lift 
Merida, the principal city and tlie capital of Yucatan. 



s.Rmnscf I eT^e ruiiis of Uxmal are about liftv miles south of 

Uxfnat. 



"n'T'^fth 'Til*? i""-^^^ conspicuous building among the ruins is 
Governor." called the " House of the Governor,"' so named by the 
*n?x?i'S^.'' Indians, who supposed it the principal building of the 
e.uoirsuiia- aiicioiU city, and the residence of its ruler. ^This build- 
ing stands on the uppermost of three ranges of terraces, 
9. The jfrsr cacli wallcd with cut stone. *The fii-st terrace is five 
'^erra^s.^ hundred and seventy-five feet in length, and three feet 
higli. Above this, leaving a platform fifteen feet wide, 
rises a second terrace, twenty feet high, and five hundred 
forty-five feet long,— having rounded corners instead of 

* Prcmounced Oos-mal. The m, in Spanish, when sounded, is pronounced like double o. 



Chap. II.l 



AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. 



83 




->- 



PLAN » 

OF THE IIUINS OF " 

UXMAL. 

SiMile ol' Feel. 
100 300 500 600 

— I I I I 1-^ ^ 













i?? 



c 






sharp angles. 'The several terraces were found covered 
with trees, which have been cleared away since the ex- 
ploration of the ruins. 

2. ''In the middle of the second terrace is an inclined, 
broken, round pillar, five feet in diameter and eight feet 
high. ^Two hundred and fifty feet from the front of this 
second terrace, rises a grand staircase, one hundred and 
thirty feet broad, and containing thirty-five steps, ascend- 
ing to a third terrace nineteen feet above the second. 
^This uppermost terrace is three hundred and sixty feet 
long, and nearly a hundred broad ; and on its platform 
stands a noble stone building, of elegant proportions, three 
hundred and twenty-two feet in length, thirty-nine feet 
broad, and twenty-four feet high. The front view of a 
portion of this building is represented in the annexed en- 
graving. (See next page.) 

3. ^This front has thirteen doorways, the principal of 
which is in the centre, opposite the range of steps leading 
up the terrace. The centre door is eight feet six inches 
wide, and eiijht feet ten inches hich. The others are of 
the same height, but two feet less in width. "The walls 
of the edifice are of plain stone up to the mouldings that 
run along the tops of the doorways ; above which, to the 
top of the building, are ornaments and sculptured work 
in great pVofusion, without any rudeness in the designs, 
but of symmetrical proportions, and rich and curious 
workmanship. 'The building is divided into two ranges 
of rooms from front to rear."^ The floors are of cement, 
and the walls are of square stones smoothly polished, and 
laid with as much regularity as under the rules of the 
best modern masonry. 



ANALYSIS. 

1. Terraces, 
how covered. 

2. Proken 
pillar. 

3. Staircase. 



4. Uppermost 

tcrrac- : and 

buildins un 

its platform. 



5. Thefront 
doorways of 
tiK building. 



6. Walls of 
the edifice. 



7. T!ie roomx 

a. See the 

' Plan,' next 

page. 



84 



AMERICAN ANTIQI iTIES. 



[Book I 




Frost Vitw of Part op Bchdixq No I, Uxmal. 



V 




ANALY?!?. 
1. r/i« rw/. 



S. UnMs (tf 
Xhe doortoaya. 



3 Pf.icription 
tlfthi" Hoiife 
t>f the Tur- 
tles." 

a. See tho 

' Plan.' piige 

S3. 



4. TsporKin- 
tded{ticei far- 
ther north- 



Ciuoc^'l> Plas of Blildisi; Ko. I, Vxmal. 

4. 'The roof, like those of most of the niiiis iii Yuca- 
tan, forms a triangidav arch, constructed vith stones over- 
lapping, and covered by a layer of flat stones. A thick 
vegetable mould has aocunuilated on the roof, and the 
whole is overgrown with shrubbery. "The lintels of all 
the doorways are of sapotc wood, many of them still hard 
and sound in their places, but others perforated by worm- 
holes, cracked, and broken, and to the decay of which the 
falling of the walls may be attributed. Had the lintels 
been of stone, as they are in most of the ruins of Yucatan, 
the principal buildings of Uxmal would be almost entire 
at this day. 

5. 'At the northwest corner of the second terrace,* there 
is a building which has been called the " House of the 
Turtles," a name which originated from a row of turtles 
sculptured on the cornice. This building is ninety-four 
feet in front, and thirty-four feet deep. It wants the rich 
and gorgeous decorations of the " House of the Governor," 
but it is distinguished for the justness and beauty of its 
proportions, and the chasteness and simplicity of its orna- 
ments. This noble building is, however, flist going to 
decay. The roof has fallen, and the walls are tottering, 
and with a few more returns of the rainy season the whole 
will be a mass of ruins.* 

6. *A short distance north of this building are two rum- 
ed edifices, seventy feet apart, each being one hundred 



♦ Stephens. 1S41. 



Chap. II.] AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. 85 

and twenty-eight feet long, and thirty feet deep. The analysis. 
sides facing each other are embellished with sculpture ; 
and there remain, on both, the fragrneuts of entwined 
colossal serpents, which once extended the whole length 
of the walls. 

7. 'Continuing still farther north, in the same direction, i rnur 
we arrive at an extensive pile of ruins,"- comprising four cdijicca. 
great ranges of edifices, placed on tlio uppermost of three ''• p,f f^'^s"' ^' 
terraces, nineteen feet high. '•'The plan of the buildings is s. piano/ the 
quadrangular, with a courtyard in the centre. Tho en- The eii"/ance 
trance on the soutii is by a gateway ten feet eight inches ^^ "'« »<'""'• 
wide, spanned by a triangular arch. ^The walls of the 3. omamen- 
four buildings, overlooking tlie courtyard, are ornamented, 

from one end to the otlier, with rich and intricate carving, 
presenting a scene of strange magnificence. 

8. *The building on the western side of the courtyard z" ^."'''^'"l, 

i' -1 . • Oft flirts IV&Hl OT 

is one hundred and seventy-tliree feet long, and is distm- "'« cry«n- 

,-' . , ° . yard, with itn 

guished by two colossal entwined serpents, runrung cuimmucutp- 
through and encompassing nearly all the ornaments %lnt^' 
throughout its whole length. These serpents are sculp- 
tured out of small blocks of stone, which are arranged in 
the wall with great skill and precision. One of the ser- 
pents has its monstrous jaws extended, and within them is 
a human head, the face of which is distinctly visible in 
the carving. "The whole number of apartments opening s. Apart- 
upon the courtyard is eighty-eight. inents. 

9. ''East of, and adioininfj; the ranrje of buildings just e- Another 

, -ii-i • J • Pi courtyard, 

described, is anotiier extensive courtyard ; passmg through mound, and 
which we arrive at a lofty mound'' faced with stone, eighty- the Dwarf." 
eight feet high, and having a building seventeen feet high ''p^e'g'i^' 
on its summit; making, in the wiiole, a height of one hun- 
dred and five feet. This building is called the " House 
of the Dwarf," and the Indians have a curious legend 
concerning its erection. It jjresents the most elegant and 
tasteful arrangement of ornaments to be seen in Uxmal, 
but of which no adequate idea can be given but in a large 
engraving. 

10. ''There arc several other extensive buildings at 7. other 
Uxmal ; but a sufficient number have been described to "uxvml 
give an idea of their general character. They cannot bo 

fully understood without elaborate engravings accompany- 
ing the descriptions, for which the reader is again referred 
to the highly valuable works of Mr. Stephens. 

11. ^Another interesting feature of these ruins, liow- s. SM*f«rro- 
ever, should not be overlooked. Subterraneous chambers "ber^in"t/te 
are scattered over the whole ground covered by this ruin- '"tiMTilirvL 
ed city. They are dome-shaped — from eight to ten feet 

deep, and from twelve to twenty in diameter, — the walis 



86 



AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. 



[Book I. 



ANALYSIS, and ceilings being plastered, and the floors of hard mor- 
tar. Their only opening is a circular hole at the top, 
barely large enough to admit a man. The object of these 
chambers is unknown. Some have supposed them in- 
tended as cisterns, or reservoirs ; and others, that they 
were built for granaries, or storehouses. 
1. Ruins. 12. 'South and south-east of Uxmal is a large extent of 

south and ,.,.,. ,, i • i • i c n 

smithwest of countrv which IS literally covered with rums, but tew oi 
which have yet been thoroughly explored. '^At Labna"" 
there are several curious structures as extraordinary as 
those of Uxmal, one of which is represented by the fol- 
lowing eniiraving. 



Uxmal. 

3. At Labna. 

a. See Map, 

page 74. 




BtilLDiNO AT L.\B>'.\, 40 feet high, placed on an artificial eleyation 45 feet high. 



3 Descriplirfti 
of the build- 
ing. 



i. Ruins at 
Ketaick. 

b See Map, 
page 74. 



13. ^This building, which stands on an artificial mound, 
faced with stone, forty-five feet high, rises nearly forty 
feet above the summit of the mound, making in all a 
height of inore than eighty feet. The building is forty 
three feet in front, and twenty in depth ; and the exterior 
walls were once covered with colossal figures and orna- 
ments in stucco, most of which are now broken and in 
fragments. Along the top, standing out on the wall, is a 
row of death's heads ; and underneath are two lines of 
human figures, of which scattered arms and legs alone 
remain. 

14. ■'At Kewick,*' a short distance south of Labna, are 
numerous ancient buildings, now mo.stly in ruins, but re. 
markable tor the neatness and simplicity of their archi- 
tecture, and the grandeur of their proportions. An en- 
graving of the principal doorway of one of these builds 
ings is glvea on the opposite page^ 



Chap. III.] 



AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. 



87 




Peincipal Doorway of a Building at Kewick. 



CHAPTER III. 

SUPPOSED ORIGIN OF THE AMERICAN ANTiaUI 
TIES, AND OF THE INDIAN TRIBES. 



ANALYSIS. 



1, *We have now closed our descriptive account of 
American Antiquities, and shall proceed, in the same 
brief manner, to consider the question of their origin, and 
the origin of the Indian tribes. 

*With regard to most, if not all, of the ruined structures 
found in Mexico, Yucatan, and Central America ; and 
also in Peru ; there appears now but little difficulty in 
satisfactorily ascribing their origin to the aborigines who 
were in possession of those countries at the time of their 
discovery by Europeans. 'It is 'known that, at the time 
of the conquest of Mexico and the adjacent provinces, 
edifices, similar to those whose ruins have been described, 
were in the possession and actual occupation of the native 
inhabitants. Some of these structures already bore the 
marks of antiquity, while others were evidently of recent 
construction. 

2. *The glowing accounts which Cortez and his com- 
panions gave of the existence of extensive cities, and 
magnificent buildings and temples, in the actual use and 
occupation of the Indians, were so far beyond what could 
be conceived as the works of '•'ignorant savages,'' that 
modern historians, Robertson among the number, have 
been inclined to give little credit to their statements. 



1. Object of 
this Chapter. 



2. Theruined 
edifices found 

in Mexico, 
Yucatan, <$•€■ 
attributed to 

the aborig- 
ines. 



3. Knoton to 
have been in 
their posses- 
sion at the 
time of the 
conquest. 



4 The ac- 
counts siverx 
by Cortez 
and his com- 
panions ; 
iphy discreA 
iled by 9noA 
ern writers. 



88 



A3IERICAN ANTIQUITIES. 



[Book I. 



ANALYSIS. 

1. Evidences 
infanor of 
those ac- 
counts. 



2. F/rs? dis- 
coveries in 
Yucatan. 



3. TTerrera's 
account of 
Yucatan. 



4. The ac- 
count given 

by Bernal 
Diaz, of the 

natives of 

Yucatan. 



5. Of the 
buildinsrs 
which he 
saw there. 



6. Of the 
country near- 
er Mexico. 



7. Of the city 
of Cholula. 

8. General 

character of 

the accounts 

given by tha 

Spanish 

writers. 



9. The con- 
clusion ani- 
ved at. 



10. Supposed 
common ori- 
gin of all riie 
Amrricaii 
tribes. 



'But the wrecks of a former civilization which now strew 
the plains of Yucatan and Central America, confirm the 
accounts of the early historians ; for these buildings, whe- 
ther desolate or inhabited, were then there, and at least 
more perfect than they are now ; and some of them were 
described as occupying the same localities where they 
have since been found. 

3. '^WJien the Spaniards first discovered the coast of 
Yucatan, they observed, along its shores, " villages in 
which they could distinguish houses of stone that appeared 
white and lofty at a distance." ^Herrera, a Spanish his- 
torian, says of Yucatan, — " The whole country is divided 
into eighteen districts ; and in all of them were so many 
and such stately stone buildings that it was amazing ; and 
the greatest wonder is, that having no use of any metal, 
they were able to raise such structures, which seem to 
have been temples ; for their houses were always of tim- 
ber, and thatched." 

4. ^Another writer, Bernal Diaz, who accompanied the 
expeditions of Cortez, speaks of the Indians of a large 
town in Yucatan, as being " dressed in cotton mantles," — 
and of their buildings as being " constructed of lime and 
stone, with figures of serpents and of idols painted upon the 
walls." ^At another place he saw " two buildings of lime 
and stone, well constructed, each with steps, and an altar 
placed before certain figures, the representations of the 
gods of these Indians." ^Approaching Mexico, he says, 
" appearances demonstrated that we had entered a new 
country ; for the temples loere very lofty ; and, together 
with the terraced iuildings, and the houses of the caciques, 
being plastered and whitewashed, appeared very well, and 
resembled some of our towns in Spain." 

5. 'The city of Cholula was said to resemble Vallado- 
lid. It " had at that time above a hundred lofty white 
towers, wliich were the temples of their idols." *The 
Spanish historians speak repeatedly of buildings of lime 
and stone, painted and sculptured ornaments, and plastered 
walls ; idols, courts, strong walls, and lofty temples, with 
high ranges of steps, — all the work of the Indians, the in- 
habitants of the country. 'In all these accounts we easily 
recognize the ruined edifices which have been recently 
discovered ; and cannot doubt that they owe their origin to 
the ancestors of the Indians who now reside there — subdued 
— broken in spirit — and degraded, and still held in a sort 
of vassalage by the Spanish inhabitants. 

6. "Nor indeed is there any proof that the semi-civil- 
ized inhabitants of Mexico, Yucatan, and Central Ameri. 
ca, were a race different from the more savage tribes by 



Chap. III.] AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. 89 

which they were surrounded : but, on the contrary, there analysis. 
is much evidence in favor of their common origin, and in 
proof that the present tribes, or at least many of them, are 
but the dismembered fragments of former nations. 

7. 'The present natives of Yucatan and Central Amer- \. Their aim- 

„^ c ^ ^\ ^ ■ n .!• «'<"■ natural 

ica, after a remove oi only three centuries from their capacities. 
more civilized ancestors, present no diversities, in their 
natural capacities, to distinguish them from the race of 
the common Indian. ^And if the Mexicans and the Peru- 2. supposed 
vians could have arisen from the savage state, it is not im- 'through 
probable that the present rude tribes may have remained ^^^^uhave 
in it ; or, if the latter vi^ere once more civilized than at ?««««<*• 
present, — as they have relapsed into barbarism — so others 
may have done. 

8. ^The anatomical structure of the skeletons found ^jf^ifSf*' 
within the ancient mounds of the United States, does not and present 

,,», r /•! TT 1-1 n physical ap- 

difler more from that oi the present Indians than tribes oi pearawes. 
the latter, admitted to be of the same race, differ from each 
other. In the physical appearance of all the American 
aborigines, embracing the semi-civilized Mexicans, the 
Peruvians, and the wandering savage tribes, there is a 
striking uniformity ; nor can any distinction of races here 
be made. 

9. ''In their languages there is a general unity of struc- i- Great ami- 
ture, and a great similarity in grammatical forms, which permdofpeo- 
prove their common origin ; while the great diversity in ^ica'and^ihi 
the words of the different languages, shows the great an- '^"^fnofm 
tiquity of the period of peopling America. *In the gene- sfoZnly^he 
rally uniform character of their religious opinions and ''°''l^^rfbes°'^ 
rites, we discover original unity and an identity of origin ; 5. By their 
while the diversities here found, likewise indicate the very IfHSrS. 
early period of the separation and dispersion of tribes. 
^Throughout most of the American tribes have been found %^^,^^Jj. 
traces of the pictorial delineations, and hieroglyphical sym- uneation^. 
bols, by which the Mexicans and the Peruvians communi- 
cated ideas, and preserved the memory of events.* 

10. 'The mythological traditions of the savage tribes, 7.vythesim- 
and the semi-civilized nations, have general features of oieir^fradi- 
resemblance, — generally implying a migration from some ""^^ 
other country, — containing distinct allusions to a deluge 

— and attributing their knowledge of the arts to some fabu- [^ 

lous teacher in remote ages. ^Throughout nearly the s. By theii 
whole continent, the dead were buried in a sitting pos- ■nwdeof'iu- 
ture ; the smoking of tobacco was a prevalent custom, o^hcrkrmng 
and the calumet, or pipe of peace, was everywhere deemed '^"^'•"si^- 
sacred. And, in fine, the numerous and striking analogies 

* See Mexican History, page 662. 

12 



^0 AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. [Book L 

ANALYSIS, between the barbarous and the cultivated tribes, are suffi- 
" cient to justify the belief in their primitive Relationship 

and common origin. 
ofihTfJ'ife% ^^' '^"^ whether the first inhabitants were rude and 
inhabiiaiirs barbarous tribes, as has been jrencrally supposed, or were 

of America ' i nr . i i t^ 

unknown, more enlightened than even the Mexicans and the reru- 
vians, is a point which cannot be so satisfactorily deter- 
s.Aciviiiza- mined. 'But, whichever may have been the case, it is 
to that of the Certain that these nations were not the founders of civiliza- 
Ttupfm"^ tion on this continent ; for they could point to antiquities 
^"»««- which were the remains of a former civilization. 
3. A)Kiem^ 12. 'The Incas of Peru, at the time of the conquest, ac- 
througiwut knowledged the existence of ancient structures, of more 
^Uca"^^ remote origin than the era of the foundation of their em- 
pire ; and these were undoubtedly the models from which 
they copied ; and throughout an extent of more than 
three thousand miles, in South America, ancient ruins 
have been discovered, which cannot be attributed to the 
Peruvians, and which afford indubitable evidence of the 
previous existence of a numerous, agricultural, and highly 
civilized people. 
A.Anaented- 13. ■'The Mexicans attributed many ancient edifices in 
^icoVt'trib'u- their country to the Toltecs, a people who are supposed to 
'touccs.^ have arrived in Mexico during the latter part of the sixth 
5 May not ccnturv- ^It is Said that the Toltecs came from the north ; 

the Toltecf * 

have bei'ti /he and it is highly probable, although but mere conjecture, 
Voar^l found that they previously occupied the valley of the Missis- 
'" '^atesT^^ sippi and the adjacent country, as far as the AUeghanies 
on the east, the Lakes on the north, and Florida on the 
south, and that they were the authoi's of the works whose 
remains have been found in the United States. 
*l«1fm^ 14. *But still another question arises: when, how, and 
\no first set-^ \,y whom was America first settled ? — and who were the 
ancestors of the present Indian tribes ? We shall notice 
the most prominent of the many theories that have been 
advanced upon this subject, and close with that which ap- 
pears to us the most reasonable. 
. Believed by 'It is believed by many that the ancients were not un- 

niany that . i i i » " • • . i .i 

theaiiciints acquainted with the American continent ; ana there are 
gtMintedwith indeed some plausible reasons for believing that an exten- 
Amenca. ^j^^ island, or continent, once existed in the Atlantic 
Ocean, between Europe and America, but which after- 
wards disappeared. 
8. A diaio^ie 15. »Jn a dialogue written by Theopompiis, a learned 
p'vi historian who lived in the time oi Alexander the ureat, 
one of the speakers gives an account of a continent of very 
9. The Car- great dimensions, larger than either Asia or Africa, and 
navigoMr. situated beyond these in the ocean. 'It is said that Hanno, 



Chap. IH.] AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. -gj 

the great Carthaginian navigator, sailed westward, from analysis. 
the Straits of Gibraltar, thirty days ; and hence it is " 

inferred by many that he must have visited America, or 
some of its islands. ^Diodorus Siculus says, that "to- iTheac- 
wards Africa, and to the west of it, is an immense island 'b^mm^ua 
in the broad sea, many days' sail from Lybia. Its soil is *'''"="'"*• 
very fertile, and its surface variegated with mountains 
and valleys. Its coasts are indented with many navigable 
rivers, and its fields are well cultivated." 

16. Tlato's account, however, is the most full, and ''^ ^^'^'f "*' 
more to be relied on than that of any other of the ancients. 

The most important part of it is as follows : " In those 
early times the Atlantic was a most broad island ; and 
there were extant most powerful kings in it, who, with 
joint forces, attempted to occupy Asia and Europe. And 
so a most grievous war was carried on, in which the 
Athenians, with the common consent of the Greeks, op- 
posed themselves, and they became the conquerors. But 
that Atlantic island, by a flood and earthquake, was in- 
deed suddenly desti'oyed ; and so that warlike people 
were swallowed up." 

17. ^Again he adds, " An island in the mouth of the 3. cmtinua- 
sea, in the passage to those straits, called the pillars of '^'^^untf* 
Hercules, did exist ; and that island was larger than Lybia 

and Asia ; from which there was an easy passage over to 
other islands, and from those islands to that continent, 
which is situated out of that region." Plato farther re- 
marks that " Neptune settled in this island, and that his 
descendants reigned there, from father to son, during a 
space of nine thousand years. They also possessed several 
other islands ; and, passing into Europe and Africa, sub- 
dued all Lybia as far as Egypt, and all Europe to Asia 
Minor. At length the island sunk under water, and for a 
long time afterwards the sea thereabouts was full of rocks 
and shoals." 

18. *These accounts, and many others of a similar 4. TVwiwpw- 
character, from ancient writers, have been cited, to prove "^Tbifvmny 
that America was peopled from some of the eastern conti- cw^lTnd 
nents, through the medium of islands in the Atlantic, '^rlS^nT 
which have since disappeared. Various writers have trwutedtoth* 
thought that they could perceive in the languages, cus- '■^*'^' 
toms, and religion of the Indians, analogies with those of 

the Greeks, the Latins, the Hindoos, and the Hebrews ; 

and thus the Indians have been referred, by one, to a 

Grecian ; another, to a Latin ; a third, to a Hindoo, and 

a fourth, to Hebrew origin. Others, with equal show 

of argument, deduce their origin from the Phosnicians ; ; 

and thus almost every country of the old world has claimed i 



92 AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. [Book I. 

ANALYSIS, the honor of being the first discoverer of the new, and 

■ hence the progenitor of the Indians. 

i.Therheory J 9, 'Others, again, amonor whom may be numbered 

of VoltttU'ti ' o ' o •/ ^ 

and Lord Voltuirc and Lord Karnes, finding a difficulty in recon- 
ciling the varieties of complexion and feature, found 
among the human family, with the Scriptural account that 
all are descended from the same pair, have very summarily 
disposed of the whole matter, by asserting, that "America 
has not been peopled from any part of the old world." 
a.Noneees- 20. ^We believe, however, that in order to account for 
im'Ilenmn- the peopling of America, there is no necessity for resorting 
edthet/ry. ^^ ^j^^ supposition that a new creation of human beings 
3. Noeri- may have occurred here. 'And, with regard to the 
%"miff^fJi' opinion entertained by some, that colonies from different 
^'^fww'^ver^ European nations, and at diflerent times, have been estab- 
iutietiu.ri lished here, we remark, that, if so, no distinctive traces 
of them have ever been discovered ; and there is a uni- 
formity in the physical appearance of all the American 
tribes, which forbids the supposition of a mingling of differ- 
ent races. 

4. Navi^atioji 21 ^There is no improbability that the early Asiatics 
a'Snw.^ reached the western shores of America through the is- 
lands of tlie Pacific. There are many historical evi- 
dences to show that the ancients were not wholly ig- 
norant of the art of navigation. In the days of Solomon, 
the navy of Hiram, king of Tyre, brought gold from 
Ophir ; and the navy of Solomon inade triennial voyages 
to Tarshish.* 

5. Commerce, 22. ^The aromatic productions of the Moluccas were 
*^7mngnie" known at Rome two hundred years before the Christian 

c'amlsl ^^^ J ^^^ vessels of large size then visited the ports of the 
Sow Perm- ^^^ Sea.f The British islands were early visited by the 
gueae, ^c. Phoenicians ; and the Carthaginians are believed to have 
circumnavigated Africa. The ancient Hindoos had ves- 
sels, some of great size, but the commerce of the Indies 
was principally in the hands of the Arabians and the 
Malays. When the Portuguese first visited the Indian 
Archipelago they met with large Malay fleets, some of the 
vessels of which were large galleys. 
e.Adventi- 23. ^But without attributing to the Asiatics any greater 
viayjtave maritime knowledge than the rude South Sea islanders 
Afmtics/o were found to possess, yet, by adventitious causes, such 
*'^ ^Smu'^"' as the drifting of canoes, and adventurous voyages, it is 
highly probable that the people of Asia might, in progress 
of time, have reached the western shores of the American 



* 1 Kings, ch. 10. \ Crichton's Hist. Arabia. 



Chap. II.] AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. 93 

continent. 'But the extensive distribution of tlie Red or analysis. 
Mongolian race,througliout nearly all the habitable islands .. xheexten- 
of the Pacific, however distant from each other, or far re- ^'ttono/j^' 
moved from the adjoining continents, presents /ac<5 which YatiLtmrn 
cannot be disputed, and relieves us from the necessity of proimbuitij oj 
arguing in support of probabuities. ""«■ 

24. 'That some of the northern, and rudest of the %^f*'^^'/ 
American tribes, early migrated from Siberia, by Behring's '^f ^^"^'J-'^ 
Straits, is not at all improbable. The near approach of Behring'» 
the two continents at that point, and the existence of inter- 
vening islands, would have rendered the passage by no 
means diihcult. "But should we even trace all the 3 TJutjieory 

. , 1 . , . not affected 

American tribes to that source, we still ascribe to them an bi/ this sup- 
Asiatic origin, and include them in the Mongolian race. 3* « » • 



CONCLUSION. 

1 , ■'From the circumstances which have been narrated, 4. Probability 

1 1 1 1 r> J of the early 

It seems reasonable to conclude that the Ked race, at an aiuuxten^we 
early period, and while in a state of partial civilization, t/ieredrac*. 
emerging from Oriental Asia, spread over a large portion of 
the globe ; and that through the archipelagos of the Pacific, 
and, perhaps, also by way of Behring's Straits, they reached 
the western continent, — leaving in their way, in the nume- 
rous islands of the sea, evident marks of their progress ; 
and bringing with them the arts, the customs, the religion, 
and the languages of the nations from which they sepa- 
rated, — traces of which, faint, indeed, through the lapse of 
ages, it is believed could still be recognized among the 
Mexicans and the Peruvians at the time of the discovery 
of those people. 

2. 'Whatever may have been the origin and history of s. Tiieprob- 

^1 •! /> 1 1 • • 1 T 111 ableradia- 

the more savage tribes of the north, it is believed that the ting points of 
western shores of this continent, and perhaps both Mexico ^cancivliiza- 
and Peru, — equally distant from the equator, and in regions """■ 
the most favorable for the increase and the support of 
human life, were the radiating points of early American 
civilization ; from which, as from the hearts of empire, 
pulsation after pulsation sent forth their streams of life 
throughout the whole continent, ^But the spread of civili- %/'t'iuir/ivii^ 
zation appears to have been restricted, as we might reason- izatmijuno 

I , ' ' ^ , . . PI • restricted, 

ably expect to find it, to those portions of the continent ana the evi- 

u .1 1 /. • 1 11 , dences there- 

Where the rewards of agriculture would support a numer- of. 
ous population. Hence, following the course of this civ- 
ilization, by the remains it has left us, we find it limited by 
the barren regions of Upper Mexico, and the snows of 



94 



AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. 



[Book I. 



ANALYSIS. 



1 . The specii- 

lotions Into 

which the 

extent and 

grandeur of 

these remains 

lead lis. 



2. Moral 

Tejlections : 

SEASON 

and 

NATURE 

versus 
SSySLAIION. 



Canada on the north, and the frosts of Patagonia on the 
south ; and while in Mexico and Peru are found its grand- 
est and most numerous monuments, on the outskirts they 
dwindle away in numbers and in importance. 

3. 'Considering the vast extent of these remains, spread- 
mg over more than half the continent, and that in Mexico 
and South America, after the lapse of an unknown series 
of ages, they still retain much of ancient grandeur which 
" Time's etfacing fingers" have failed to obliterate, it is 
certainly no wild flight of the imagination to conjecture 
that in ancient times, even coeval with the spread of 
science in the east, empires may have flourished here 
that would vie in power and extent with the Babylonian, 
the Median, or the Persian ; and cities that might have 
rivalled Nineveh, and Tyre, and Sidon ; for of these em- 
pires and these cities, the plains of Asia now exhibit 
fewer, and even less imposing relics, than are found of 
the former inhabitants of this country. 

4. ''It appears, therefore, that on the plains of America, 
surrounded by all that was lovely and ennobling in nature, 
the human mind had for ages been left free, in its moral 
and social elements, to test its capacity for self-improve- 
ment. Let the advocates of reason, in opposition to 
REVELATION, behold the result. In the twilight of a civ- 
ilization that had probably sprung from Revelation, but 
which had lost its warmth while it retained some por- 
tion of its brightness, mind had, indeed, risen at times, 
and, under favoring circumstances, to some degree of 
power ; — as was exhibited in those extensive and enduring 
structures, which were erected for amusements and plea- 
sure, or worship, or defence ; but, at the time of die dis- 
covery, the greater portion of the continent was inhabited 
by savage hordes, who had doubtless relapsed from a 
former civilization into barbarism. Even in the brightest 
portions, deep ignorance brooded over the soul ; and, on 
temples dedicated to the sun, human sacrifices were made, 
to appease the wrath of otlended gods, or propitiate their 
favor. The system of natizre had been allowed the 
amplest field for development ; its capacities had been 
fully tried ; and its inadequacy to elevate man to his 
proper rank in the scale of being, had been fully proved. 
It was time, then, in the wisdom of Providence, for a new 
order of things to arise ; for Reason to be enlightened by 
Revelation, and for the superstitions of a pagan polytheism 
to give place to the knowledge of one God, the morality 
of the Gospel, and the religion of the Redeemer. 



BOOK II. 



HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES. 



" Westward the star of empire takes its way ; 
The first four acts already past, — 
The fifth shall close the drama with the day ; 
Time's noblest empire is the last." 

Beekelet 



THE PUBLIC SEALS, OR COATS OF ARMS, 

OF THE SEVERAL UNITED STATES. 



As the engraved copies of the Public Seals, or Coata of Arms of the sereral United States, 
■would possess little interest without the appropriate Descriptions or Explanations accompany- 
ing theui, and as the latter cannot be fully understood without a knowledge of the Heraldric 
terms, in which those descriptions are often worded, we deem it important to give a brief ac- 
count of the origin, nature, and design, of these and similar emblematical devices. 

In the early ages of the world, and even among the rudest ))eople, various devices, signs, 
and marks of honor, were used to distinguish the gi-eat and noble from the ignoble vulgar. 
Thus we find in the writings of Homer, Virgil, and Ovid, that their heroes had divers figures 
on their shields, whereby their persons were distinctly known. Nations also adopted sym- 
bolical signs of distinction, which they displayed on their banners and arms. Tlius the na- 
tional emblem of the Egyptians was an Ox, of the Athenisms an Owl, of the Goths a Bfar, of 
the Romans an Eagle, of the Franks a Lion, and of the Saxons a Horse. Even the North 
American savages had their distinctive emblems. Thus the Otter was the emblem of the Ot- 
tawas ; and the W^lf, the Bear, and the Turtle, of the divisions of the Iroquois tribes ; — and 
these devices were often ]>ainted on the bodies of their v^arriors. 

It is supposed that, in Europe, the Crusades and Tournaments were the cause of method- 
izing and perfecting into a science the various national, family, and individual emblems, to 
which was given the name of HeraUlnj ; a term which embraced, originally, not only all that 
pertains to Coats of Arms, but also to the marshallhig of armies, solemn processions, and all 
ceremonies of a public nature. 

The term " Coats of Arms" probably originated from the circumstance that the ancients 
embroidered various colored devices on the coats they wore over their armor. Also, those who 
joined the Crusades, and those who enlisted in the tournaments, had their devices depicted on 
their arms, or armor — as on their shields, banners, &c. ; and as the colors could not here be 
retained, particular marks were used to represent them. 

All coats of arms, formed according to the rules of Heraldry, are delineated on S/tiel/Js or 
Escutcheons, which are of various forms, oval, triangular, heptagonal, &c. The parts com- 
posing the escutcheon, or represented on it, are Tinctures, Fui's, Lines, Borders, and Charges. 
The description of the first and last only, is essential to our purpose. 

By Tinctures is meant the various colors used, the names and marks of whicli are as 
follow— 

Or, (golden or yellow,) is represented by dots or points. . . . (See No. 1.) 



( 



( 



Argent, (silver or white,) is plain. 

Azure, (or blue,) is represented by horizontal lines. 

Gules, (or red,) by perpendicular lines. ..... ( 

Vert, (or green,) by diagonal lines from the upper right comer to the lower left.* ( 

Furpure, (or purple,) ftora upper left to lower right. . . . ( 

Sable, (or black,) by horizontal and perpendicular lines crossing each other. ( 

For the use of these, and other heraldric terms, see the copies of the recorded descriptions 
of the seals of Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Missouri. 



No. 2.) 
No. 3.) 
No. 4.) 
No. 5.) 
No. 6.) 
No. 7.) 



No 1. 



No. 2. 



No 3. 



No. 4. 



No. .5. 



No. 6. 



No. 7. 




i'm. 






TELLOVr. 



WUITE. 



BLUE. 



Sometimes, although seldom, the names of the precious stones are used to represent colors. 
See the recorded description of the seal of Massachusetts. 

Ch.irgeb are whatever are represented on the field of the escutcheon ; the principal of 
which, in addition to natural and celestial figures, are the Chief, the Pale, the Bend, the Fess, 
the Bar, the Cheveron, the Cross, and the Saltier ; each of which, although occupying its ap- 
propriate space and position in the escutcheon, and governed by definite rules, admits of a, 
great variety of representations 

The external ornaments of the escutcheon are Crowns, Coronets, Mitres, Helmets, Mantlinga, 

• In all heraldric descriptions, that which is called the ri^ht side, is opposite the spectator's left 
hand ; and vic& versa. 



98 



THE PUBLIC SEALS, OR COATS OF ARMS, 



[Book IL 



Caps, Wreaths, Crests, Scrolls, and Supporters. Some escutcheons have none of these orna- 
menfcs, and otliors nearly all <il" thcui. The last mentioned are placed on the side of the es- 
cutcheon, stjuiding; on a scroll, and are thus named because they ajipear to support or hold up 
the shield. (See the seals of Maine, New York, New .lersey, Arkansas, Missouri, and Blichitcan.) 

It will bo seen that the Coats of Arms of many of the States do not strictly follow the rules 
of Heraldry, inasmuch as they are not represented on sitieltls. or tscntc/ii-oiis, unless the cutiru 
circular seals be deemed the escutcheons, of which there would be no impixipriety, except that 
some would thcu contain the figures of shields within shields. The design and the effect how- 
ever are tlie same in both cases, whether the shield be or be not used. AVhere the her.aldric 
terms are used in the recorded descriptions of the .«eals, we have written the descriptions anew, 
giving tlieir purpm-t in our own language, with the exception of the descriptions of the seals 
of Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Missoui'i, whicli, for the purpose of illustration, we have 
given in both forms. 

Tlie seals of the several States, on which are delineated the Coats of Arms which they have 
adopted, are used by the proper authorities to attest and give validity to public records and 
documents ; and to many public writings the '• Great Seal of State"' is an es.<ential requisite. 
In addition, these Coats of Arms of the States are interesting historical records, all having 
some peculiar significancy of meaning — being emblematical of what each State deemed ap- 
propriate to expiess the pceuUar circumstances, ch;u\acter, and prospects of its people — and 
many of them <niforcing, by significant mottoes, great moral and political truths, and shadow- 
ing forth, by their various representatives of agriculture, commerce, and the art.> — liberty, 
justice, and patriotism, the future greatness and glory of the nation. Viewed in this Bght, 
these devices convey many useful lessons, and are interesting and approjiriate embellishments 
lor a History of our Country. Such is our apology for introducing them here. 

The engr.ivings of most of the seals will be found dirterent, in many respects, from those 
hitherto presented to the public. In this matter we have studied .\ccur.\CY, disregarding 
those additions and chatii^is which the fancy of artists has substituted in the place of the 
original designs. In order to obtain correct copies, we have been at the trouble of procuring 
impressions from the original stnh ; and also, where they have been preserved, the recorded 
descriptions., tbuiid iu the offices of the secretaries of state. 

MAINE.— The Coat of Arms of the State of Maine, as 
delineated on tlie seal of the State, consists of a white or 
silver shield, on which is lepreseuted a Pine Tree ; and 
at the foot of the same a Moose Deer, in a recumbent pos- 
ture. The Shield is supported, on the right, by a Hus- 
bandman resting on a scythe, and on the left, by a Sea- 
man resting on an anchor. The m.istsofa ship appear 
11 in the distjince on the left. In the foreground are re- 
presented sea and land ; and under the shield is the 
name of the State, in large lloman capit^ils. Above the 
shield, for a " Crest," is the North Star ; and between 
the star and the shield is the motto, Pirigo, '• 1 direct." 

The Pine Tne, repi-esentcd on the escutcheon, called 
the Mast Pine — an evergreen of towering height and 
euormons size — the largest and most u.-eful of American 
pines, and the best timber for mast.s, is one of the staples 
of the comuierco of Jlaine,as well .is tlie pride of her forests. 
The Moose Deer, the largest of the native animals of the State, which retires before the ap- 
proaching steps of luiinau inhabitancy, and is thus an emblem of liberty, is here represented 
quietly reposing, to denote the extent of uncultivated lauds which the StJlte po.-^sesses 

As in the Aruis of the United States a cluster of st,ars represents the States composing the 
Nation, so the North Star may be considered particularly applicable to the most northern 
member of the confederacy, and as it is a directing point in navigation, (Dirigo,) and is here 
lised to represent the State, so the latter may be considered the ciiizen's guide, and the ob- 
ject to which the patriot's best exertions should be directed. 

The ■■ Supporters'" of the shield— a Husbandman on one side representing Agriculture, and 
a Seaman on the other representing Conuuerce and Fisheries — indicate that the State is sup- 
ported by these primary vocations of its inhabitjints. 



NRU' IIAMPSHIKIi:.— The seal of the State of New 
Hampshire contains the following devic- ard inscription. 
Around a circular field, encompa.«sed P» a wreath of 
liiurels. are the words iu liomau capitals, Sigilu.m Uei- 
I'l'Tu.u'.c Neo Hantomexsis, •• The Seal of the State of 
New Hampshire."' with the diite '• 1Tn4," indicating the 
jieriod of the adoption of the State Constitution. On the 
held in the foreground, are represented land and water — 
on the verge of the distant horizon a rising sun. (the ri- 
sing desti!iy of the State, "i and a ship on the stocks, with 
the American banner displayed. 





Part I.] 



OF THE SEVERAL UNITED STATES. 



99 




TEUMONT. — We are informed by the Secretary of State 
of Vermont that there are no records in the secretary's 
office giving a description of tlie State Seal, or tsliowng 
the time of establishing it. Ira Allen, howcvor, the his- 
torian of Vermont, and her first .secretary', states that the 
seal was established by the Governor and Council in 
1778 — that the tree on the seal was an evergreen with 
fourteen branches, thirteen of them representing the thir- 
teen original States, and the small branch at the top repre- 
senting the State of Vermont supported by the others. 
In the distance is seen a range of hills representing the 
(ireen Mountains; and in the foreground a Cow and 
sheaves of wheat, indicating an agricultural and grazing 
country. Around the border of the si-al, in Jtoman cap- 
itals, are tlie words, Vermo>(t. i'liEEDOM and Unity. 



MiASSACnUSETTS.— The following is a copy of the re- 
corded description of the Coat of Arms of Massachusetts, 
as adopted December 13th, 1780. 

Sapphire : an Indian dressed in his .fhirt, moccasins, 
belted, proper : in his dexter liand a bow, topaz : in his 
sinister an aiTow, its point towards the base. On the 
dexter side of the Indian's liead a star, pearl, for one of 
the United States of America. Crest, on a wreath, a dex- 
ter arm, clothed and rutHed, proper, grasping a broad- 
sword, the pommel and hilt topaz, with this motto, " Euse 
petit placidam, sub libertate quietem," and around the 
seal, " Sigillum ileipublica; Massachusettensis." 

We give the following as a free translation of the same, 
with a few additions. 

Cn the blue ground of an irregularly formed escutch- 
eon, an Indian is represented, dressed with belted hunt- 
ing shirt and moccasins. In his right hand is a golden 
bow, and in his left an arrow, with the point towards the base of the escutcheon. On the 
right side of the Indian's head is a white or silver star, denoting one of the United States of 
America. For the crest of the escutc^heon is a wreath, from which extends a rigiit arm, 
clothed and ruffled, (the natural color,) grasping a broadsword, the pommel and liilt of which 
are of gold. Around tlie escutcheon, on a waving band or label, are the words Ehsk petit pla- 
cidam sub liherlatp. ijuietem : " By the sword she seeks peace under liberty." Around the bor- 
der of the seal are the words, SiaiLLUM Keipublio^ Massachusettensis — " The seal of th» 
State of Massachusetts." 

RHODE ISLAND.— The Arms of the State of Rhode Is- 
land, as represented on the Seal of the State, consist of 
a white or sUver shield, on which is an anchor with two 
flukes, and a cable attached. Above the shield, in l{o- 
man capitals, is the word IIOl'E ; and from each upper 
corner of the shield is suspended an unlettered label. 

The white escutcheon, and the symbol represented on 
it, are designed as an allusion to those principles of civil 
and religious liberty wliich led to the founding of the col- 
ony of i{hode Island, and in which the faith of the citizens 
of the StJite is still deeply annhored. The motto Hope, above 
the escutcheon, directs the mind to the uncertain future, 
anticipating the growing prosperity of the Sttrte, and the 
)ierpetuity of its free institutions ; while the unlettered 
i ibcis, denoting that events arc still progressing in the 
march of Time, wait the completion of History, before 
the destiny of the State sliall be recorded on them. 

CONNECTICUT. — The Seal of Connecticut is of an 
oval form, plain, and without any ornamental devices, 
two inches and three-eighths in length, and one inch and 
seven-eighths in breadth. On it are delineated three 
Grape Vines, each winding around and sustained by an 
upright support, the whole representing th(! three set- 
tlements, Hartford, Windsor, and ^Vether.sfield, whicli 
formed the early Connecticut colony. In the lower part 
of the seal is the motto, Qui TRAJJgTtJLiT sustinet — " He 
who transjilanted still sustiins." Around the bonier are 
the words Sigii.lum Reipubi.ioje (Jonnecticutensis — " The 
Se.al of the State of (loiniecticut." Formerly the seal had 
a hand on the left, pointing witlj the forefinger to the 
vines ; but th.at seal has been broken, and the present 
Real substituted in its place. 




100 



THE PUBUC SEALS, OR COATS OF ARMS, [Book II. 




NEW yORIC — The following is a description of the 
prcsont seal of the t'wto of Xew York, construct^l ac- 
eonling to Act of March 27,1809. A shield, or esoutch- 
oou, on which is represented a rising sun, with a range 
of hills, ami wat<?r in tlie foreground. Above the shield 
for the Crest, is represented, on a wreath, a half globe, on 
whicli rests a startled eagle, with outstretched pinions. 
For the supporters of the shield, on the right is repit- 
sented the figure of Ju.':tice, with the sword in one hand, 
and the scales in the other ; and on the left the liodd<»3 
of Libtrtij. with the wand and cap* in her left hand, and 
the olive branch of p«>ace in the right. Below the shield 
is the motto. Excelsior, "Wore elevated," denoting that 
the course of the State is onward ani hig/trr. Around the 
border of the seal is the iusciiption, Tee Great Seal op 
THE State of New York. 





NEW JERSEY.— The Arms of the Stat* of New Jer- 
sej", as represented on the Seal of the State, consist of a 
white sliield or escutcheon, bearing three ploughs — re- 
presenting the agricultural interests of the State. The Crost 
is a horse"s head, supported by a full faced, six barred 
helmet, resting on a vase — the latter resting on tlie top of 
the escutcheon. The Supporters arc Liberty on the right, 
with her wand and cap, and Ctrts, the goddess of corn 
and harvest, on the let^, her right hand resting on the 
esoutchiK>n, and her left supporting the Cornucopia, or 
horn of plenty, tilled witli fruits and flowers. Around 
the border of "the seal are the words. The Great Seal op 
THE State op New .Ierset, and at the base the date of its 
adoption in numeral letters, JIDCCLXXYI. (1776.) 



DELAWARE.— The Arms of the State of Delaware con- 
sist of an azure shield or escutcheon, divided into two 
equal parts by a white band or girdle. On the base part 
of the escutcheon is represented a Oow,and in the upper 
part are two symbols, designed probably to represent the 
agricultural interests of the State — the one appearing to 
be a sheaf of wheat, and the other a stjilk of tobacco. 
The Crest consists of a wreath . supporting a ship under 
full sail, having the American banner displ.iyed. Sur- 
rounding the escutcheon, on a white field, are wreaths of 
flowers, branches of the OUve, and otlier symbols. At 
the bottom of the se.al is the date of its adoption, 
JIDCCXCIII. (1793.) and around the border the words 
Gre.\t Seal of the St.vte of Del,\ware. (No description 
of the seal can be found in the Secretary's office, and we 
have been obliged to describe it from a wiUi impression.) 




PENNSYTiVANTA.— The following is a copy of the re- 
corded description of the Seal of Pennsylvania, 

• The shield is parted per Jess. Or : charged with a 
Plough, pixiper. In Chief, on a sea wavy, proper, a ship 
under full s.ail, surmounted with a sky, azure ; and in 
base, on a field vert, three garbs. Or : on the dexter a 
stalk of maize, and on the sinister an olive branch : and 
for the Crest, on a \\Teath of the flowers of the s,ame, a bald 
E;igle, proper, perched, with wings extended. Motto — 
•• Virtue, liberty, and ludependence." Around the mar- 
gin, •• Seal of tlie State of IVunsylvania." The reverse, 
liberty, trampling on a Lion, gules, the emblem of Tj-- 
ranny. Mottiv— ■• Both can't survive." ' 

We give the follo^ving as a free translation of the 
same. 

The shield is parted by a yellow or golden band or girdle, 
on which is represented a Plough in its natural color. In the upper part of the escutcheon, 
cm the waves of the sea, is represented a ship under full sail, surmounted by an azure sky. 



* The wand or rod, and cap. are symbols of indepemicnce : because, amon? the ancients, the fof- 
loer was used by the magistrates in ilio ceremony ul mouvmiitung slaves ; and the latter was worn by 
the slaves who were soon to be set at liberiy. 



Part I.] 



OF THE SEVERAL UNITED STATES. 



101 




At the base of the escutcheon, on a green field, are three golden sheaves of wheat. On the 
right of th(! (escutcheon is a stalk of maize, and on the left an olive branch, and for the Crest, 
on a wreath of the howcra of the olive, is i>crchc(l a Bald Uagle, in its natural color, with 
wings extended, holding in its boak a la)x-I,* with the motto, '■ Virtue, Liberty, and Inde- 
pendence." Around the marj^in of the seal are the words, Seal op the State or Pennsylvania. 
(The reverse side of the so;vl represents the (joddess of Liberty trampling i>n a lied Lion, tho 
•emblem of Tyranny Motto, " liotli can't survive.") 

VIRGINIA.— On the Seal of Virginia, tho Goddess of 
'Virtue^ the genius of the (Commonwealth, is represented 
dressed like an Amazon, resting on a sp<!ar with one hiind, 
and holding a sword in the other, and treading on Tij- 
rannij, represented by a man prostrate, a crown fallen 
^rom his head, a broken chain in his left liand. and a 
Bcourge in his right. Above Virtue, on a label, is tho 
word ViiiGiNLV ; and underneath, the words, Hie ieitiper 
tyrnnnis, " Thus we serve tyrants." 

(This seal also has a reverse side, on which is repre- 
eented a group, consisting of three figures. In the cen- 
tre is Liberty, with her wan<l and cap ; on the right side 
Ceres, with the cornucopia in one hand, and an ear of 
wheat in the other ; and on her left side Klertiitij, holding 
in one hand the Globe, on which rests the Flifr.nir, the 
fabulous bird of the ancients, that is said to rise again 
from its own ashes. ) 



MARYLAND.— The device on the Seal of the State of 
Maryland, consists of the American Eagle with wings dis- 
played, having on its breast an escutcheon, the chief or 
upper part of which is azui'e, the remaining portion being 
occupied by vertical stripes of wliile and red. In the def- 
ter talon of the Eagle is tlie olive branch of peace, and in 
the sinister a bundle of thrc(e arrows, denoting the three 
great branches of government, the Executive, the Legis- 
lative, and the Judiciary. In a sinnicircle, over the head 
of the Eagle, are thirteen stars, representing tlie thirteen 
original States. The inner border of tl;e seal contains the 
words, Seal of tue State op Maeylanu. The outer bor- 
der is ornamental, as seen in the engraving. 



NORTH CAROLINA.— The figures represented on the 
Seal of North Carolina are the Goddess of Liberty on the 
right, and on the left, Ceres, the goddess of corn lunl harvest. 
Liberty is represented standing, with her wand and cap in 
her left hand, and in her right hand the scroll of the Dec- 
laration of American Independence. Ceres is rei)resented 
sitting beneath a canopy, on a bank covered with flowers, 
having in her right hand three ears or heails of wheat, and 
in her left the cornucopia, or horn of plenty, filled with 
the fruits of the earth. 



SOUTH CAROLINA.- We have not been able to ob- 
tain any '■ recorded description" of the Seal of South Car- 
olina. The device appears to be a Date Tree, or the Great 
Palm, liere emblematical of the State, and supported or 
guarded by two cross-pieces, to which is attached a scroll 
or label, branches of the Palm were! worn by the an- 
cients in token of victory, and hence the ci:iblcm .signi- 
fies siiperiority, victory, 'triit»i/)/i. On tile border of the 
neal is the motto, Ani.mis opiiius^iue I'akati, ■' Ready (to 
defend it) with our lives and property." This seal h;is a 
reverse side on which is tiu! motto, Du.y Sl'iRo, SpEiio ; 
"while I live I hope." 





• The label and motto were never put on tho original sohI 
for want of room The seal of this state is KcMicrally repre- 
senled with a Hor.«e on each side of Ihi; escutcheon nssii;)- 
fX/rters, but there is oolhins of the kind on the original seal. 




102 



TI ■; PUBUC SEALS, OR COATS OF ARMS, [Book II- 




GEORGIA.— Ou tho Seal of the State of Gcorjria ar« 
represoutvd throo pillare supporting au Arch, on which is 
tugraTon the wonl Constitution. The three pillara 
which support the •■ Con.-'tilulioii,-'' are cmhlematicjil of 
the three departmeiits of the State Government — the Leg- 
islature, the .huUciary, and the Kxecutive. On a wreaUi 
1 of tJie first pillar, on the right,* representing the Legisla- 
ture, is the word Wh'loDi ; on the second, representing 
the .Tudiciary, is the word Justice : and ou the third, re- 
presenting the Kxecutivo, is tlio wonl Mniliraliim. ' Ou 
the right of the last pillar is a man standing with a drawn 
sword, representing the aid of the niilitjiry in defence of 
the OoJistitutiou. Around the border of the seal ai'e thi# 
words State op Georgia, 1799. 

(On the reverse side of the seal is the following device. 
On one <ide is a view of the sea shore, with a ship riding at 
anchor near a wharf, hearing the flag of the United States, and receiving on hixird hogsheads 
of toh'icoo and hales of cotton— enibleuiatieal of the exports of the State. At a small lUstancc 
is a loaded boat landing fi-om the interior, and representing the internal traffic of the State. 
In tho background a man is represeuttnl ploughing, and a tioek of sheep reposing in the 
shade of a tree. Around the border is the motto, AgriatlUire and Commerce, 1799.) 



FLORIDA.— In the centre of the Seal of Florida is re- 
presented the American Eagle, " the bird of liberty," 
grasping in tho left talou an olive branch, suid in tho right 
a bundle of three arrows. In a semicircle above arc thir- 
teen stars, representing the thirteen original Stat<-s. while 
the ground is repre.seutcd as covered witli the Prickly 
Pear, a fruit common to the country, and which, from its 
being ai-med at all points, must be handled with great 
care. The appropri.'ite motto of the Prickly Pear is " Let 
me nlonc.'^ 

(This is the description of the Seal of the Territory of 
Floriila, which is nnule the Seal of the State, until a new 
one shall be adopted ) 




ALAB.\MA. — The Seal of Alabama contains a neatly 
engraved map of the State, with tho names of the rivers, 
and the localities of the principal towns that existed at 
the time of the establishment of the Territorial govern- 
ment in 1817. Around the border of the -seal are tho 
words Alaisa.ma Kxecutive Office.— (This was the Ter- 
ritorial Seal, which has been adopted by the State Gov- 
ernment.) 



MISSISSIPPI.— In the ccntr» of the SetU of Mississippi 
is reproseuted the American Eagle, grasping an Olive 
branch in the left talon, and a bundle of four arrows iu 
tho right, .\round the border of the seal are the words, 
The Okeat Seal of the St.vtk of Mississippi. 



* Fronting the spectator, as usual. 



Part 1.] 



OF THE SEVERAL UNITED STATES. 



103 



LOUISIANA.— On the Seal of Louisiana is represented 
*, Pelican Btanding by Ivcr nest of yount; ones, in the atti- 
tude of " protection and defence," ani in the act of feed- 
ins; tlieni. All share alike her maternal assiduity. The 
mother bird is here emblematic of the general government 
of the Union, while the birds in the neat represent tlie 
several titates. Above are the scales of .Iustick, emblema- 
tic of the device below, and denoting that such is the 
watchful care and guardiaushi]) wliich the g»vennnent of 
the Union is bound to bestow alike upon all the members 
of the confederacy. 

The semi-circlo of eighteen stars represents the number 
of States at the time of the admission of Louisiana. In 
the upper part of the border of the Seal ai-e the words, 
State op Lodisiana, and ia the lower part, the words, 
Union and Confidence. 



TEXAS.— The Great Seal of Texas consists of a Wliite 
Star of five points, on an azure field, encircled by branches 
of the Live Oak and the Olive. ISefore the annexation of 
Texas to the United States, tlio Seal bore the device, Kk- 
PUBLIC OF TEXA8- The Live Oak, ( Quercus virens,) wliich 
abounds in the forests of Texas, is a strong and durable 
timber, very useful for ship-building, and forming a most 
important article of export. 



ARKANSAS.— The Arms of Arkansas, as represented 
on the Seal of the State, consist of a shield or escutcheon, 
the base of which is occupied by a blue field, on which is 
a white or silver Star, representing the State. The " fess" 
part, or middle portion, is occupied hy a, Bt'e- Hive, the 
emblem of industry, and a Plough, representing agricul- 
ture ; while the " chief,"' or upper part of the escutcheon 
is occupied by a Steam-Boat, the representative of the 
commerce of the State. 

For the " Crest" is represented the goddess of Liberty, 
holding in one hand her wand and cap, and a wreath of 
laurel in the other, surrounded by a constellation of stars, 
representing the States of the Union. 

The " Supporters" of the escutcheon are two Eagles ; 
the ono on the left grasping in its talons a bundle of ar- 
rows, and the one on the right an olive ))ranch — and ex- 
tending from the talons of the one to those of the other is a 
label containing the motto. Regnant Po/uili, " The People rule." 
point of the escutcheon is a cornucopia filled with fruits and flowers. 

Around the border of the seal are the words. Seal op the State op Aekansas. At each ex- 
tremity of the word Arkansas are additional emblems : on the left a shield, wand, musket 
with bayonet, and cap of Liberty ; and on tlie right a sword, and the scales of Justice. 

MISSOURI. — The following is a copy of the »ecorded 
description of the Great Seal of Missouri. " Arms parted 
per pale ; on the dexter side, gules, the \\liite or Grizzly 
Bear of Missouri, passant, guardant, proper : on a Chief, 
engrailed, azure, a crescent, argent : on the sinister side, 
argent, the Arms of the United States ; — the whole within 
a band inscribed with the words, ' United we stand, divided 
wo fall,' For the Crest, over a helmet full faced, grated 
with six bars, or, a cloud proper, from whicli a.scends a 
star argent, and above it a constellation of twenty-tlirec 
enialler stars argent, on an azure field, surrounded by a 
eloud proper. Supporters, on each side a AV'hito or Grizzly 
Bear of Missouri, rampant, guardant, proper, standing on 
a scroll iniscribed ■\vitlj the motto, Salus popiili, suprema 
lex esto, and under the scroll the numerical letters 
MDCCCXX, — the whole surrounded by a scroll inscribed 
with the words. The Great Seal op the State op Mis- 
SOUKI."— The following is a free translation of the above. 




On each side of the base 




104 



THE PUBLIC SEALS, OR COATS OF ARMS, [Book II 



The Anns of Missouri are represented on a circular escutcheon, divided by a perpendicular 
line into two equal portions. On the right side, on a red field, is the \Vhite or Grizzly Bear of 
Missouri, in its natural color, walking guardedly. Aboye this device, and separated from it by 
an engrailed* line, is an azure field, on which is represented a white or silver crescent. On 
the left side of the escutcheon, on a white field, are the Arms of the United States Around 
the border of the escutcheon are the words, " United we stand, divided we fall." For the 
" Crest," over a yellow or golden helmet, full faced, and grated with six bars, is a cloud in its 
natural color, from which ascends a silvery star, (representing the State of Missouri,) and 
above it a constellation of twenty-three smaller stars, on a blue field surrounded by a cloud. 
(The twenty -three stars represent the number of States in the Union at the time of the admis- 
sion of Missouri.) For " Supporters," on each side of the escutcheon is a Grizzly Bear in the 
posture of attack, standing on a scroll inscribed with the motto, Salits populi , supre7na lexesto 
— " The pubUc safety is the supreme law ;" and under the scroll the numerical letters mdcccxx, 
the date of the admission of Missouri into the Union. Around the border of the seal are the 
words, The Qee.\t Seal of the State of Missouri. 




TENNESSEE.— The Seal of Tennessee contains the fol- 
lowing device. The upper half of the seal is occupied by 
a stalk of Cotton, a Sheaf of Wheat and a Plough, below 
which is the word AGRICULTURE. The lower half is oc- 
cupied by a loaded Barge, beneath which is the word 
<( ).MMEUCE. In the upper part of the seal are the numer- 
ical letters xvi, denoting that Tennessee was the sixteenth 
State admitted into the Union. Around the border are 
the words. The Great Se.il of the State of Tennessee, 
with the date 1T96, the period of the formation of the 
state government, and admission into the Union. 



KENTUCKY.— On the Seal of Kentucky is the plain 
and unadorned device of two friends embracing, with this 
motto below them — " United we stand, divided we fall." 
In the upper portion of the border are the words, Seal 
OF Kentucky. 



OHIO. — On the Seal of Ohio appears the following de- 
vice ; In the central portion is represented a cultivated 
countrj', with a bundle of seventeen Arrows on the left, 
and on the right a Sheaf of Wheat, both erect, and in the 
distance a range of mountains, skirted at their base by a 
tract of woodland. Over the mountain range appears a 
rising sun. On the foreground are repri sented an ex- 
panse of water and a Keel-Boat. Around the border are 
the words, The Gre.at Seal op the State of Ohio, with 
the date, 1802, the period of the admission of Ohio into 
the Union. The biindle of sei'enteen arrows represents 
the number of States existing at that time. 



' An engrailed line is a line indented with curves, thus 



Part I.] 



OF THE SEVERAL UNITED STATES. 



105 



INDIANA. — On the Seal of Indiana is represented a 
scene of prairie and woodland, with the surface gently 
undulating — descriptive of the natural scenery of the 
State. In the foreground is a Buliiilo, once a native animai 
of the State, apparently startled by the axe of the Woodman 
or Pioneer, who is seen on the left, telling the trees of the 
forest — denoting the advance of civilization westward. In 
the distance, on the right, is seen the sun just appearing 
on the verge of the horizon. Around the upper portioa 
of the seal are the words, Induna State Seal. 




ILLINOIS.— In the centre of the Seal of Illinois is re 
presented the American Eagle, gi-asping in its left talon a 
bundle of three arrows, and in the right an olive branch, 
and bearing on its breast a shield or escutcheon, the lower 
half of which is represented of a red color, and the upper 
half blue, the latter bearing thi-ee whiw or silvery stars. 
From the beak of the Eagle extends a label bearing the 
motto, " State Sovereignty ; National Union.'''' Around 
the border of the seal are the words, Seal op the State 
OF Illinois, with the date, " Aug. 26, 1818." 




MICHIGAN.— The Arms of the State of Michigan, as 
exhibited on the Seal of the State, consist of a shield, or 
escutcheon, on which is represented a Peninsula extend- 
ing into a lake, with the sun rising, and a man standing 
on the peninsula, with a gun in his hand. Below the 
escutcheon, on a band or label, are the words. Si qucEris 
peninsulam amcenam, circumspice — " If you seek a de- 
lightful country, (perdnsula,) behold it." On the upper 
part of the escutcheon is the word Tiiebor — " I will defend 
it." The " Supporters" of the escutcheon are, a Moose 
on the left, and on the right, the common Deer, both na- 
tives of the forests of Michigan. For the " Crest," is re- 
presented the Eagle of the United States, above wliich is 
the motto, E pliiribus unvm. Around the border of the 
seal are the words. The Great Seal op the State op 
Michigan, with the numerals, a.d. mdcccxxxv, the date 
of the formation of the State government. 




IOWA. — The Seal of Iowa contains the following sim- 
ple device ; An Eagle in the attitude of flight, grasping in 
its dexter talon a Bow, and holding in its beak an arrow. 
Around the border of the seal are the words. Seal op 
THE Territory op Iowa. (No State Seal haa yet been 
adopted.) 




14 



106 



THE PUBLIC SEALS, OR COATS OF ARMS- 



[Book IL 



WISCONSIN. The Seal of 'Wisconsin presents a Tiew 
of land and water scenery, designed to represent the 
agricultural, commercial, and mining interests of the 
State. In the foreground is a man ploughing with a 
span of horses : the middle ground is occupied by a 
barrel, a cornucopia, an anchor, a sheaf of wheat, a 
rake, and a pile of lead in bars — the latter, the most im- 
portant of the mineral products of the State. The two 
great lakes that border the State — Lakes Michigan and 
I Superior, have their representatiyes ; on one of which is 
seen a sloop, and on the other a steamboat — and on the 
shore an IncUan pointing towards the latter. In the dis- 
tance is a level prairie, skirted, on the horizon, by a 
range of woodland, and having on the left a Light-house 
and School Building, and in the centre the State-house 
of Wisconsin. In a semicircle above are tiie words : 
" Civiiitas Suecessit Barharmn," Civilization has suc- 
ceeded Barharism. 
At the bottom of the Seal is the date of the formation of the Territorial Government, Fourth 

OP July, 1836, and around the Seal, in Roman capitals, the words, The Great SE.iL of the 

Territort op Wisconsin. 




UNITED STATES. 

The following is the recorded de 
scription of the device of the Seal of 
the United States, as adopted by Con- 
gress on the 20th of June, 1782. 

" Arms : Paleways of thirteen 
pieces, argent and gules ; a chief 
azure ; the escutcheon on the breast 
of the American Eagle displayed, 
proper, holding in his dexter talon 
an olive branch, and in his sinister 
a bundle of thirteen arrows, all pro- 
per, and in his beak a scroll inscribed 
with this motto, ' E pluribus unum ' 
" For the Crest : Over the head of 
the Eagle, which appears above the 
escutcheon, a glory, or, breaking 
through a cloud, proper, and sur- 
rounding thirteen stars forming a 
constellation, argent, on an azure 
field." 

This seal has a Keverse side, of 
which the foUomng is the descrip- 
tion. 

" Reverse : A Pyramid unfinished. 
(Representing the American Confed- 
eracy as still incomplete, — the struc- 
ture to be carried upwards as new 
States are admitted into the Union.) In the zenith an Eye in a triangle, (representing the All- 
seeing Eye,) surrounded by a glory proper. Over the eye these words, ' Annuit coeptis,' (God 
has favored the undertaking.) On the base of the pyramid the numerical letters mbcclxxvi, 
(1776,) and underneath the following motto, ' Novus ordo seclorum,' " (A new series of ages ; 
— denoting that a new order of things has commenced in this western world.) 




_ Note: — Although we have made all the engraved copies of the Seals of the States of uniform 
eize, yet the original seals are of different sizes. We give their diameters in inches, com- 
mencing with the smallest. 

Rhode Island and Texas, 1 1-2 inches ; Iowa, 1 5-8 ; Kentucky, Tennessee, Louisiana, Ar- 
kansas, and Maryland, 1 3-4 ; New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Ohio, Indiana, Florida, South 
Carolina, and BUssissippi, 2 ; New York and Vermont, 2 1-8 ; Pennsylvania, North Carolina, 
Georgia, Illinois, and the Seal of the United States, (which is engraved the full size.) 2 1-4 ; 
Connecticut, (oval,) 2 3-8 long, and 1 7-8 broad ; Delaware, Alabama, Maine, and Missouri, 
2 3-8 ; New Jersey and Michigan, 2 1-2 ; Virginia, 3 inches. 



CHARACTER AND DESIGN OF THE SEVERAL APPEN- 
DICES TO THE HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES. 



1. iThe mere detail of such events as most attract public atten- analysis. 
tion "wliile they are occurring, embi'aces but a small portion of the 



instruction which History is capable of affording. The actions of In^ruction! 
individuals do not occur without motives, nor are national events National 
ever attributable to chance origin ; and the latter are as much the ertubjeasof 
i:)roper subjects of philosophical inquiry as the former. ■philosophical 

2. 2Could we ascertain the causes of all the prominent events iT-T^'^^/afl 
which history relates, history would then become what it has been been styled, 
Btyled by an ancient writer, ' philosophy teaching by examples." \^ac^ff^^^ 
Much may doubtless be done to make history accord more truly example." 
with this definition, for too often is this view of its design neglected fis'^J/Sngf 
even in our more prominent and larger works; and wars, and revo- ten neglected. 
lutious, and all great public events, are described with minuteness, 

while the social, moral, and intellectual progress of the people, 
and the causes that are working these changes, receive too little of 
that attention which their importance demands. 

3. 3The former plan, however, that of narrative principally, is s.properplan 
essential in an elementary work, the object of which should be to a«<i object of 
interest the youthful mind by vivid representations of striking faryhSmi- 
characters and incidents, and thereby to render the great events (■"'>■ work. 
and divisions of history familiar to it. ^The mind will thus be 4. whatfar 
prepared to dei'ive benefit from any accidental reading that is in tiier is expect- 
any manner associated with the same subjects : it will have a ground- compiished by 
work to build upon ; for these familiar localities, like points of mag- the plan. 
netic attraction, will gather around them whatever comes within 

the circle of their influence. 

4. sBeing thus prepared by a familiarity with our subject, we 5. what ad- 
may advance a step, and enter upon the field of philosophical in- vance might 
quiry. ^Let us suppose, for example, that for every law found in 5 jj„jj, ^^j^^l 
the history of a people, we should attempt to ascertain the reasons trated. 
which induced the legislator to give it his sanction, and its proba- 
ble effects upon the community. ''The entire social relations of a 7. What 
people might thus be developed, their manners, customs and opin- ;e^;jf^'/ro»j 
ions, their ignorance and their knowledge, their virtues and their this system. 
vices ; and the national progress would be traced far more clearly 

in those silently operating causes, than in the spectacle of the 
merely outward changes produced by them. Indeed, a mere nar- 
rative of the ordinary events of history can be justly regarded 
as of utility, only so far as it furnishes the basis on which a 
more noble superstructure, the '• philosophy of history," is to be 
reared. 

5. 8The importance of historical knowledge should be estimated s. importanes 
by the principles, rather than by the facts with which it furnishes "^nof^fgjig^ 
us; and the comparative value, to us, of the histories of different and value oj" 
nations, should be estimated by the same standard. ^Therefore a '''•^Xr/es*"" 
mere narrative of ancient dynasties and. wai's, which should throw 9 certainhis- 
no light upon the character and circumstances of the people^ would jg^^^^/^^. 
furnish no valuable information to reward the student's toil. He parativky of 
may be moved by a curiosity, liberal indeed and commendable, to ''"'« value. 
explore the uncertain annals of fabulous ages, and attempt to trace 



108 



INTRODUCTORY. 



[Book II. 



ANALYSIS. 



1. Compara- 

tioe values 
of different 
portions of 
modern his- 
tory. 

2. Important 
Changesabout 
the time of 
the discovery 
of America. 



3. Causes that 

render Amer- 

can history 

peculiarly 

important- 



t. Why the 
study of 
American his- 
tory claims 
oni first re- 
gard. 
5. Period of 

the com- 
mencement 
of American 
history. 



6. To what 

this view of 

the subject 

leads us. 



7. Why the 
term ''^Uni- 
ted States" 
is applied to 
thefolloioing 
history. 

8. Part First 
qfthis his- 
tory. 



9. Character 
of the first 
appendix. 



out the liistories of the early Egyptians, the Chinese, the Persians, 
and the Hindoos ; but from them he may expect to derive few prin- 
ciples applicable to the present state of the world. 

6. 'And indeed, after passing over the days of Grecian and Ro- 
man glory, we shall find little that is valuable, even in modern his- 
tory, until we come to the period of the discovery of America, when 
various causes were operating to produce a great revolution in hu- 
man affairs throughout the world. 2The period of the dark ages 
had passed, and literature and science had begun to dawn again 
upon Europe : the art of printing, then recently invented, greatly 
facilitated the progress of improvements ; the invention of gun- 
powder changed the whole art of war ; and the Reformation soon 
began to make such innovations in religion as changed the moral 
aspect, not only of the states which embraced its principles, but of 
those even that adhered to the ancient faith and worship. 

7. 3Among modern histories, none is more interesting in its de- 
tails, or more rich in principles, than that of our own country ; nor 
does any other throw so much light on the progress of society, the 
science of public affairs, and the arts of civil government. In this 
particular we claim an advantage over even England herself, — the 
most free, the most enlightened of the states of the old world. For, 
since our destiny became separate from hers, our national advance- 
ment has been by far the most rapid ; and before that i^eriod both 
formed but separate portions of one people, living under the same 
laws, speaking, as now, the same language, and having a common 
share in the same history. 

8. 4The study of American history, therefore, in preference to 
any other, claims our first regard, both because it is our own his- 
tory, and because of its superior intrinsic importance. sBut here 
the question arises, as we were colonies of Great Britain, when and 
where does our history commence 1 We answer, that although the 
annals we can strictly call our own commence with our colonial ex- 
istence, yet if we are to embrace also the philosophy of our history, 
and would seek the causes of the events we narrate, we must go so 
far back in the annals of England as we can trace those principles 
that led to the founding of the American colonies, and influenced 
their subsequent character and destiny. ^ viewing the subject in 
this light, some acquaintance with English history becomes neces- 
sary to a proper understanding of our own ; and this leads us to a 
development of the plan we have adopted for the more philosophi- 
cal portion of our work. 

9. ^Although the history of the " United States" does not pro- 
perly extend back to the period when those states were dependent 
colonies, yet we have adopted the terra " United States" for the title 
of a work embracing the whole period of our history, because it is 
more convenient than any other term, and because custom sanctions 
it. sThis History we have divided into Four Parts. The first 
embraces the period of Voyages and Discoveries, extending from 
the discovery of this western world to the settlement of Jamestown 
in Virginia. We have given in this part a narrative of the i^romi- 
nent events that preceded the founding of the English American 
colonies, and this is all that could be given of what is properly 
American history during this period. 

10. Hn the " Appendix to the period of Voyages and Discoveries," 
we have taken up that portion of the history of England contained 
between the time of the discovery of America, and the planting of 
the first English colonies in the New World, with the design of 
examining the condition of the people of England during that pe- 



Part I.] INTRODUCTORY. 109 

ribd, the nature of their institutions and laws, and whatever can analysis. 
throw light upon the character and motives of those who founded 
the American colonies, and who, we should naturally suppose, 
brought with them, to this then wilderness world, the manners, 
customs, habits, feelings, laws, and language of their native land. 
iBut it is the social, rather than the political history of England — i- To what 
the internal, rather than the external, that is here important to us, £ngtmh^- 
and it is to this, therefore, that we have mostly confined onr atten- tory ive have 
tion. 2"VV"e hope thus to have prepared the advanced student to fined ourat- 
enter upon the study of our colonial history with additional inter- tention. 
est, and with more definite views of the nature and importance of ^'^^pedtol'e^ 
the great drama that is to he unfolded to him. gained by 

11. 3At the close of Part Second, embracing the period of our t^^ cottrse. 
colonial history, and also at the close of Part Third, embracing the % p^f sec' 
period of the Revolution, we have given, in an Appendix, some far- ond and Part 
ther account of such European events as are intimately connected ^fard. 
with our own history, and which serve to give us a more compre- 
hensive and accui-ate view of it than we could possibly obtain by 
confining ourselves exclusively to our own annals ; in connection 

with which we have examined the policy of England towards her 
colonies — the influences exerted by each upon the other — the difii- 
culties of our situation — the various peculiarities exhibited among 
ourselves, and the germs of our subsequent national character. 
*As, during the fourth period of our history, our relations with 4. At the close 
England were those of one independent nation with another, Eng- pounh. 
land no longer claims any special share of our attention, and at the 
close of this period we have examined briefly the character, ten- 
dency, and influences of our national government, and have also 
given an historical sketch of some important political questions that 
have been but briefly noticed in the narrative part of the work. 

12. 'The design of the several Appendices is, therefore, to ex- s. General 
plain the influences which operated in moulding the character of '^^tn'^ofme 
our early English fathers, to develop the causes which led to the sei'erai ap- 
planting of the American colonies, and to illustrate the subsequent v&ndicea. 
social and political progress of the American people ; or, in other 

words, to give a simple and plain, but philosophical history of 
AitEKicAN Civilization. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE COUNTRY EMBRACED 
WITHIN THE UNITED STATES AND THEIR TERRITORIES. 

The United States and their territories, occupying the middle division of 
North America, lie between the 25th and the 54tli degrees of North latitude, 
and the C7th and the 125th degrees of West longitude, extending from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, and containing anareaof about 2,600.000 square 
miles. They have a frontier of about 10,000 miles ; a sea coast of 3,C00 miles ; 
and a lake coast of 1200 miles. 

This vast country is intersected by two principal ranges of mountains, the 
Alleghany and the Rocky Mountains, — the former in the East, running nearly 
parallel to the Atlantic coast, from Georgia to New York ; and the latter in 
the West, crossing the territory in a direction nearly parallel to the coast of 
the Pacific. The AUeghanies run in separate and somewhat parallel ridges, 
with a breadth of from 60 to 120 miles, and at a distance from the sea coast of 
from SO to 250 miles. The general height of the AUeghanies is only from 1000 
to 2000 feet above the adjacent country, and from 2000 to 3000 feet above the 
level of the ocean. The highest pe-ixk in this i-ange is the Black Mountain, in 
the western pai-t of Noi-th Carolina, which is 6,476 feet high. The Rocky 
Mountains, which may be regarded as a part of the great chain of the Cordille- 
ras, are at an average distance of about COO miles from the Pacific Ocean, and 
have a general height of about SOOO or 9000 feet above the level of the sea, but 
not more than 5000 feet above the surrounding countrj'. Some of their most 
elevated peaks rise to the height of 10.000 or 12,000 feet. 

East of the Alleghany Mountains the rivers flow into the Atlantic : West 
of the Rocky Mountains they centre mostly in the Columbia, which flows into 
the Pacific : while between these great mountain ranges, the many and large 
streams centre in the valley which lies between them, and through the channel 
of the Mississippi seek an outlet in the Gulf of Mexico. 

The Atlantic coast is indented by numerous bays, and has a great number 
of excellent harbors. The soil of New England is generally rocky, and rough, 
and better adapted to grazing than to grain, with the exception of the valleys 
of the rivers, which are highly fertile. South of New England, and east of the 
AUeghanies generally, the soil has but moderate fertility, being light and sandy 
on the coast, hut of better quality farther inland. Throughout the extensive 
valley of the Mississippi the soil is generally of excellent quality, the middle 
section, however, being the most fertile. West of Missouri, skirting the base 
of the Rocky Mountains, are extensive sandy wastes, to which has been given 
the name of the '• Great American Desert."' 

Oregon Territory, lying west of the Rocky Mountain.^, is divided into three 
belts, or sections, separated by ranges of mountains running nearly parallel 
to the coast of the Pacific. The western section, extending from the ocean to 
the Cascade Mountains, embracing a width of from 100 to 150 miles, is gener- 
ally fertile, and near the foot of the Cascade range the climate and soil are 
adapted to all the kinds of grain that are found in temperate climates. The 
soil of the second or middle section of Oregon, embraced between the Cascade 
range and the Blue Mountains, is generally a light sandy loam, the valleys only 
being fertile. The third or eastern section of Oregon, between the Blue and 
the Rocky Mountains, is a rocky, broken, and barren country. 

More particular Geographical descriptions of the several states embraced in 
the Amei"ican Union, and of the most important lakes, bays, rivers, towns, k.c., 
will be found in the Geographical Notes throughout the work. The Geo- 
graphical description of Texas, now a part of the Republic, will be found on 
pages 621, 622. 



HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES. 



PART I. 

VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. 



ANALYSIS. 

EXTENDING FROM THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA, BY COLUMBUS, IN ■ 

1492: TO THE SETTLEMENT OF JAMESTOWN, VIRGINIA, IN Subject qf 

1607 ; EMBRACING A PERIOD OF 115 YEARS. 



CHAPTER I. 

EARLY SPANISH VOYAGES, CONQUESTS, AND DISCOVERIES, <^f Chapter I. 
IN THE SOUTHERN PORTIONS OP NORTH AMERICA. 

DIVISIONS. 

I. Discovery of America by Colum/ms. — II. Juan Ponce de Leon in ^j^^ nivis- 
Florida. — ///. De Ayllon in Carolina. — IV. Conquest of Mexico. — ionsof ciiap- 
V. Pamphilo de Narvaez. — VI. Ferdinand de Soto. ^^^ ' 

I. Discovery of America by Columbus. — 1. 'The i- Discovery 
discovery* of America by Christoplier Columbus, may be lycoumibua. 
regarded as the most important event that has ever re- ^^^j"; qij- 
suited from individual genius and enterprise. '^Although J^[^]^{'^^^^ 
other claims to the honor of discovering the Western hemi- style. 
sphere have been advanced, and with some appearance ciaiwm^the 
of probability, yet no clear historic evidence exists in Discovery. 
their favor. =It has been asserted that an Iceland* bark, 3. Jc^tendic 
in the early part of the eleventh century, having been 
driven southwest from Greenlandf by adverse winds, 
touched'' upon the coast of Labrador ;;}: — that subsequent b. looi. 
voyages were made ; and that colonies were established 
in Nova Scotia,§ or in Newfoundland. |j 

* G;:0QRAPniCAL notes.— l. Iceland is an island in the Northern Ocean, remarkable 
for its boiling springs (the Geysers), and its flaming Tolcano, Mount Ilecla. It was discovered 
by a Norwet;ian pirate, in the year 861, and was soon after settled by the Norwegians ; but it is 
supposed tliat the Kuglish and the Irish had previously made settlements there, which were 
abandoned before the time of the Norwegian discovery. 

t Greenland is an extensive tract of )ia,rven country, in the northern frozen regions : sepa- 
rated from the western continent by Eaftin's Bay and Davis's Strait. It was discovered by tho 
Norwegians thirty years after the discovery of Iceland, and a thriving colony w.as planted there ; 
but from 14i)ti until after the discovery by Columbus, all correspondence with Greenland was 
cut off, and all knowledge of the country seemed to be buried in oblivion. 

t Labrador, or New Britain, is that part of tho American coast between the Gulf of St. Law- 
rence and Hudson's Bay ; a bleak and barren country, little known, and inhabited chieOy by 
Indians. 

§ Noi-n Scotia is a large peninsula, southeast from New Brunswick, separated from it by the 
Bay of Fundy, and connected vrith it by a narrow isthmus only nine miles across. 

II Newfoundland is a hilly and mountainous island on tho east side of the Gulf of St. Law- 



112 VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. [Book n, 

ANALYSIS. 2. ^But even if it be admitted that such a discovery 

1. Superior was made, it does not in the least detract from the honor 
*"cZfm{!^^ so universally ascribed to Columbus. The Icelandic dis- 
coiumbus. covery, if real, resulted from chance, — was not even 

known to Europe, — was thought of little importance, — 
and was soon forgotten ; and the curtain of darkness 
again fell between the Old world and the New. The 
discovery by Columbus, on the contrary, was the result 
of a theory matured by long reflection and experience ; 
opposed to the learning and the bigotry of the age ; and 
brought to a successful demonstration, after years of toil 
against opposing difficulties and discouragements. 

2. Prevalent 3. 'The nature of the great discovery, however, was 
%ng I'fwd^is-' long unknown ; and it remained for subsequent adven- 
""Yumbm^"' turers to dispel the prevalent error, that the voyage of 

Columbus had only opened a new route to the wealthy, 
but then scarcely known regions of Eastern Asia. 

3. Extent of ^During several vears,"" the discoveries of Columbus were 
tries. confined to the islands of the West Indies ;* and it was 

^"hm' ° "°^ nn\\\ August,'' 1498, six years after his first voyage, 

b.Aug. loih. that he discovered the main land, near the mouth of the 

Orinoco ;f and he was then ignorant that it was any thing 

more than an island. 

*The 4. *The principal islands of the West Indies, — Cuba,:f 

St. Domingo,§ and Porto Rico,|| were soon colonized, 

5.Discover7j aud Subjected to Spanish authority. ^In 1.506 the eastern 

anlfirsfcoi'o- coast of YucatanlT was discovered ; and in 1510 the first 

coru'iiietit. colouy ou the continent was planted on the Isthmus of 

t.Diicovery Darien.** 'Soon after, Vasco Nunez de Balboa, governor 

'^cm/'^ of the colony, crossed the Isthmus, and from a mountain 

a. 1513. on the other side of the Continent discovered"^ an Ocean, 

which being seen in a southerly direction, at first received 

the name of the South Sea. 

f.DeLem. H. JuAN PoNCE DE LeON IN FLORIDA. — 1. 'In 1512 

Juan Ponce de Leon, an aged veteran, and former gov- 
enor of Porto Rico, fitted out three ships, at his own ex- 

rence ; nearly a thousand miles in circumference, deriving all its importance from its extensive 
figheries. 

* The West Indies consist of a large number of islands between North and South America, 
the most important of which are Cuba, St. Domingo, Jamaica, and Porto Rico. 

t The Orinoco is a river on the northeast coast of South America. 

t Cuba, one of the richest islands in the world, is the largest of the West Indies, being 760 
miles in length from southeast to northwest, and about 50 miles in breadth. Its northern 
coast is 150 miles south from Florida. 

4 St. Dojningo, or Haytj, formerly called Hispaniola, is a large island, lying between Cuba 
and Porto Rico, and about equ.ally distant from each. 

II Porto Rico is a fertile island of the West Indies, 60 miles southeast from St. Domingo. It is 
140 miles long from east to west, and 36 broad. 

IT Yucatan, one of the States of Mexico, is an extensive peninsula, 150 miles S. W. from Cuba, 
and lying between the Bays of Honduras and Campeachy. 

**"The Isthmus of Darien is that narrow neck of land -which connects North and South 
America. It is about 300 miles in length, and, in the narrowest part, is only about 30 miles 
across. 



Part I.] 



VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. 



113 



pense, for a voyage of discovery. 'A tradition prevailed 
among the natives of Porto Rico, tiiat in a neighboring 
island of the Bahamas* was a fountain which possessed 
the remarkable properties of restoring the youth, and of 
perpetuating the life of any one who should bathe in its 
stream, and drink of its waters. '^Nor was this fabulous 
tale credited by the uninstructed natives only. It was 
generally believed in Spain, and even by men distin- 
guished for virtue and intelligence. 

2. ^In quest of tins fountain of youth Ponce de Leon 
sailed" from Porto Rico in March, 1512; and after cruis- 
ing some time amontj the Bahamas, discovered'^ an un- 
known country, to which, from the abundance of flowers 
that adorned the forests, and from its being first seen on 
Easterf Sunday, (which the Spaniards call Pascua 
Florida,) he gave the name of Florida.:}: 

3. ^After landing"^ some miles north of the place where 
St. Augustine^ now stands, and taking formal possession 
of the country, he explored its coasts ; and doubling its 
southern cape, continued his search among the group of 
islands which he named the Tortugas :|| but the chief 
object of the expedition was still unattained, and Ponce 
de Leon returned to Porto Rico, older than when he 
departed. ^A few years later, having been appointed 
governor of the country which he had discovered, he 
made a second voyage to its shores, with the design of 
selecting a site for a colony ; but, in a contest with the 
natives, many of his followers were killed, and Ponce de 
Leon himself was mortally wounded. 

in. De Ayllon m Carolina. — 1. "About the time of 
the defeat of Ponce de Leon in Florida, a company of 
seven wealthy men of St. Domingo, at the head of whom 
was Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon,"* judge of appeals of that 
island, despatched* two vessels to the Bahamas, in quest 
of laborers for their plantations and mines. 'Being 
driven northward from the Bahamas, by adverse winds, 
to the coast of Carolina, they anchored at the mouth of 
the Cambaheell river, which they named the Jordan. The 
country they called Chicora. 



1512. 

1. Tradition 
of the. Foun- 
tain uf Life. 



2. liy whom 
credited. 



3 Acmunt of 

the di.'ia/very 

of Florida. 

a. March 13. 

b April 6. 



4. Extent of 
De Leon's 

discoveries. 

c. April 18. 



5- Result of 

the second 

voyage. 



6. Enterprise 

of 

De Ayllon. 



d Pronoun- 
ced Ailyon. 

e. 1520. 
7. Discovery 
of Carolina. 



* The Bahamas are an extensive proup of islands lying east and southeast from Florida. 
They have been estimated at about 600 in number, most of them mere cliffs and rocks, only 14 
of them being of any considerable size. 

I Easter day, a church festival ob.served in cemmemoration of our Savior's resurrection, is 
the Sunday following the first full moon that happens after the ■20th of March. 

X Flnrirla, the most southern portion of the United States, is a large peninsula about two 
thirds of the size of Yucatan. The surface is level, and is intersected by numerous ponds, 
lakes, rivers, and marshes. 

§ See note and map, p. 180. 

II The Tortugas, or Tortoise Islands, are about 100 miles southwest from the southern cape 
of Florida. 

IT The Cnmhahee is a small river in the southern part of South Carolina, emptying into St 
Helena Sound, 35 miles southwest from Charleston. (See map, p. 129.) 

15 



114 VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. [Book II. 

ANALYSIS. 2. 'Here the natives treated the strangers with great 
^Hospitality kindness and hospitality, and being induced by curiosity, 
uJeTand freely visited the ships ; but when a sufficient number 
rerfidvqfthe -^yfis below the decks, the perfidious Spaniards closed the 
2. Remit of hatches and set sail for St. Domingo. ^One of the return- 
'%rue'" ■""§ ships was lost, and most of the Indian prisoners in 
the other, sullenly refusing food, died of famine and 
melancholy. 
3. Account of 3. ^Soon after this unprofitable enterprise, De Ayllon, 
irina^c^'ami having obtained the appointment of governor of Chicora, 
us remit, sailed with three vessels for the conquest of the country. 
Arriving in the river Cambahee, the principal vessel was 
stranded and lost. Proceeding thence a little farther 
north, and being received with apparent friendship at 
their landing, many of his men were induced to visit a 
village, a short distance in the interior, where they were 
all treacherously cut off' by the natives, in revenge for 
the wrongs which the Spaniards had before committed. 
De Ayllon himself was surprised and attacked in the 
harbor ; — the attempt to conquer the country was aban- 
doned ; — and the few survivors, in dismay, hastened back 
to St. Domingo. 
i.Yimita^i IV. Conquest OF Mexico.* — 1. ^In 1517 Francisco 
a. "rte p! 112. Fernandez de Cordova, sailing from Cuba' with three 
b. March, Small vcssels, explored"-' the northern coast of Yucatan. 
^As the Spaniards approached the shore, they were sur- 



1517. 



Wonder of 



the prised to find, instead of naked savages, a people decently 

\xGited. clad in cotton garments ; and, on landing, their wonder 

was increased by beholding several large edifices built 

« Character of stonc. ®The natives were much more bold and war- 

tives. like than those of the islands and the more southern 

coasts, and every where received the Spaniards with tlie 

most determined opposition. 

7 Re-mitof 2. 'At one place fifty-seven of the Spaniards were 
'^'^uorL * killed, and Cordova himself received a wound, of Avhich 

8 Discovery he died soon after his return to Cuba. *But notwithstand- 

i *-^"^°' ing the disastrous result of the expedition, another was 

planned in the following year ; and under the direction 

of Juan de Grijalva, a portion of the southern coast of 

0. May, June, Mexico was explored, '= and a large amount of treasure 

obtained by trafficldng with the natives. 
9.Desitnsof 3. ^Vclasquez, governor of Cuba, under whose aus- 
conguest. pj^^g ^j^g voyage of Grijalva had been made, enriched by 
the result, and elated with a success far beyond his ex- 



* Mexico is a large country southwest from the United States, bordering on the Gulf of Mex- 
ico on the east, an(l the I'.aoific Oce.in on the west. It is about two-thh-ds as large as the United 
States and their territories. The land on tiotli coasts is low, but in the interior is a large trad 
of table lands 6 or 8000 feet above the level of the sea. (See also page 5o9.) 



Part I.] CONQUEST OF MEXICO- 115 

pectations, now determined to undertake the conquest of 15 1§. 
the wealthy countries that had been discovered, and 
hastily fitted out an armament for the purpose. ^Not .. Account "f 
being able to accompany the expedition in person, he IfYuximby 
gave the command to Fernando Cortez, who sailed with co^^-^. 
eleven vessels, having on board six hundred and seven- 
teen men. In March, 1519, Cortez landed in Tabasco,* 
a southern province of Mexico, where he had several 
encounters with the natives, whom he routed with great 
slaughter. 

4. ^Proceeding thence farther westward, he landed^ at a. April is. 
San Juan de Ulloa,"j" where he was hospitably received, ceipZ'bylhe 
and where two officers of a monarch who was called Monte- j^i^^^uma 
zuma, come to inquire what his intentions were in visit- 
ing that coast, and to offer him what assistance he might 

need in order to continue his voyage. ^Cortez respect- 3 Assurances- 

/» 11 11 1 1 -11 /• ■ 11 given, and 

lullv assured them that he came with the most iriendiy request 7nwie 

htf CoTtsz 

sentiments, but that he was intrusted with affairs of such 
moment by the king, his sovereign, that he could impart 
them to no one but to the emperor Montezuma himself, and 
therefore requested them to conduct him into the presence 
of their master. 

5. ■'The ambassadors of the Mexican monarch, know- *\^.°^J^f 
ing how disagreeable such a request would be, endeavored the Mexican 
to dissuade Cortez from his intentions ; at the same time 
making him some valuable presents, which only increased 

his avidity. Messengers were despatched to Montezuma, 
giving him an account of every thing that had occurred 
since the arrival of the Spaniards. ^Presents of great 5. bi/ Monte- 

^ ^ zuma. 

value and magnificence were returned by him, and re- 
peated requests were made, and finally commands given, 
that the Spaniards should leave the country ; but all to 
no purpose. 

6. ^Cortez, after destroying his vessels, that his soldiers e- bv conez. 
should be left without any resources but their own valor, 
commenced'^ his march towards the Mexican capital, b. August ze. 
'On his way thither, several nations, that were tributary 7 Events 
to IMontezuma, gladly threw off their allegiance and joined on the march 
the Spaniards. Montezuma himself, alarmed and irreso- towarl'^he 
lute, continued to send messengers to Cortez, and as his ^capmi.' 
hopes or his fears alternately prevailed, on one day gave 

him permission to advance, and, on the next, commanded 
him to depart. 

7. "As the vast plain of Mexico opened to the view of \ff^e7/a"n' 
the Spaniards, they beheld numerous villages and culti- „°^^^'cuy. 

* Tnbasro, one of the southern Mexican States, adjoins Yucatan on the southwest. 

t San Juan rle Ulloa is a sm.all island, opposite Vera Cruz, the principal eastern seaport of 
Mexico. It is 180 miles south of east from the Mexican capitiil, and contains a strong fortress. 
The old Spanish fort was built of coral rocks taken from the bottom of the sea. 



116 



VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. 



[Book IL 



ANALYSIS. 



1. Monte- 
zwna's recep- 
tion of the 
Spaniards. 

a. Nov. 



5 Emharrass- 

ing situation 

of Cortez. 



3- Seizure 
and treat- 
ment of 
Montezuma. 

b. Dec. 



1520. 



4 Cortez 
calledfrmn 
the capital, 

and the 
Mexicans rise 

in arms. 

c. May. 



5. Good for- 
tune of 
Cortez. 

a. July 4. 



6. His treat- 
ment of the 
Mexicans— 
what fol- 
lowed. 



vated fields extending as far as the eye could reach, and 
in the middle of the plain, partly encompassing a large 
lake, and partly built on islands within it, stood the city* 
of Mexico, adorned with its numerous temples and turrets ; 
the whole presenting to the Spaniards a spectacle so novel 
and wonderful that they could hardly persuade them- 
selves it was any thing more than a dream. 'Montezuma 
received* the Spaniards with great pomp and magnifi- 
cence, admitted them within the city, assigned them a 
spacious and elegant edifice for their accommodation, 
supplied all their wants, and bestowed upon all, privates 
as well as officers, presents of great value. 

8. 'Cortez, nevertheless, soon began to feel solicitude 
for his situation. He was in the middle of a vast empire, 
— ^shut up in the centre of a hostile city, — and surrounded 
by multitudes sufficient to overwhelm him upon the least 
intimation of the will of their sovereign. ^In this emer- 
gency, the wily Spaniard, with extraordinary daring, 
formed and executedi> the plan of seizing the person of 
the Mexican monarch, and detained him as a hostage for 
the good conduct of his people. He next induced him, 
overawed and broken in spirit, to acknowledge himself a 
vassal of the Spanish crown, and to subject his dominions 
to the payment of an annual tribute. 

9. *But while Cortez was absent," opposing a force that 
had been sent against him by the governor of Cuba, who 
had become jealous of his successes, the Mexicans, in- 
cited by the cruelties of the Spaniards who had been left 
to guard the capital and the Mexican king, flew to arms. 
^Cortez, with singular good fortune, having subdued his 
enemies, and incorporated most of them with his own 
forces, returning, entered* the capital without molesta- 
tion. 

10 ^Relying too much on his increased strength, he 
soon laid aside the mask of moderation which had hitherto 
concealed his designs, and treated the Mexicans like con- 
quered subjects. They, finally convinced that they had 







* The city of Mexico, built by the Spsuniards on the ruins of 
tlie ancient city, was lonfr the largest town in America, but is 
now inferior to New Yorli and Philadelphia. It is 170 miles 
from the Gulf of Mexico, and 200 from the Pacific Ocean, and 
is sihiated near the western banlc of Lake Tezcuco, in the de- 
lightful Vale of Mexico, or, as it was formerly called, the Plain 
of Tenochtitlan, which is 230 miles in circumference, and elevated 
7000 feet above the level of the ocean . The plain contains tliree 
lakes besides Tezcuco, and is surrounded by hills of moderate 
elevation, except on the south, where are two lofty volcanic 
mountains. Two of the lakes are above the level of the city, 
whose streets have been frequently inundated by them ; but in 
1689 , a deep channel, 12 miles long, cut through the hiUs on the 
north, was completed, by which the superfluous waters are con- 
veyed into the river Tula, and thence to the Panuco. 



Part I-I 



CONQUEST OF MEXICO. 



117 



nothing to hope biit from the utter extermination of their 
invaders, resumed tlieir attacks upon the Spanish quarters 
with additional fury. 'In a sally which Cortez made, 
twelve of his soldiers were killed, and the Mexicans 
learned that their enemies were not invincible. 

11. ''Cortez, now fully sensible of his danger, tried what 
effect the interposition of Montezuma would have upon 
his irritated subjects. At sight of their king, whom they 
almost worshipped as a god, the weapons of the Mexicans 
dropped from their hands, and every he^d was bowed 
with reverence ; but when, in obedience to the command 
of Cortez, the unhappy monarch attempted to mitigate 
their rage and to persuade them to lay down their arms, 
murmurs, threats, and reproaches ran through their 
ranks ; — their rage broke forth with ungovernable fury^ 
and, regardless of their monarch, they again poured in 
upon the Spaniards flights of arrows and volleys of 
stones. Two arrows wounded Montecuma before he 
could be removed, and a blow from a stone brought him 
to the ground. 

12. ^The Mexicans, on seeing their king fall by their 
own hands, were instantly struck with remorse, and fled 
with horror, as if the veugenee of heaven were pursuing 
them for the crime which they had committed. ^Mon- 
tezuma himself, scorning to survive this las^Jiumiliation, 
rejected with disdain the kind attentions of the Spaniards, 
and refusing to take any nourishment, soon terminated 
his wretched days. 

13. ^Cortez, now despairing of an accommodation with 
the Mexicans, after several desperate encounters with 
them, began a retreat from the capital ; — ^but innumerable 
hosts hemmed him in on every side, and his march was 
almost a continual battle. On the sixth day of the re- 
treat, the almost exhausted Spaniards, now reduced to a 
mere handful of men, encountered,' in a spacious valley, 
the whole Mexican force ; — a countless multitude, ex- 
tending as far as the eye could reach. ®As no alternative 
remained but to conquer or die, Cortez, without giving 
his soldiers time for reflection, immediately led them to 
the charge. The Mexicans received them with unusual 
fortitude, yet their moet numerous battalions gave way 
before Spanish discipline. and Spanish arms. 

14. The very multitude of their enemies, however, 
j"wessing upon them from every side, seemed sufficient to 
overwhelm the Spaniards, who, seeing no end of their 
toil, nor any hope of victory, were on the point of yielding 
to despair. At this moment Cortez, observing the great 
Mexican stnndard advaneinsr, and recollectina; to have 



1520. 



1 . Loss suf- 
cred by tlie 
Spaniards. 



2. Interposi- 
tion ofMun- 
teztiiua. and 
treatment 
tohich he 
received. 



3 Remorse 
and flight oj 
the Mexicans. 



4. Montezu- 
ma's death. 



5 Retreat oJ 
tfie Spaniards 
from Mexico. 



a. July 17. 



6.Greatbatt!4 
with the 
Mexicans. 



118 



VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. 



[Book It 



ANALYSIS. 



1. Final am- 
guest of 
Mexico. 



1521. 



a. Aug. 23. 



heard that on its fate depended the event of every battle, 
assembled a few of his bravest othcers, and, at their head, 
cut his way through the opposing ranks, struck down the 
Mexican general, and secured the standard. The mo- 
ment their general fell and the standard disappeared, the 
Mexicans, panic-struck, threw away their weapons, and 
fled with precipitation ta the mountains, making no farther 
opposition to the retreat of the Spaniards. 

15. 'Notwithstanding the sad reverses which he had 
experienced, Cortez still looked forward with confidence 
to the conquest of the whole Mexican empire, and, after 
receiving supplies and reinforcements, in December, 
1520, he again departed for the interior, with a force of 
five hundred Spaniards and ten thousand friendly natives. 
After various successes and reverses, and a siege of the 
capital which lasted seventy-five days — the king Guate- 
mozen having fallen into his hands, — in August, 1521, 
the city yielded ; » the fate of the empire was decided ; 
and Mexico becantie a province of Spain. 

16. ° Another important event in the list of Spanish 
and one which is intimately connected with 



2. Other im- 
portant event i • 
reqnirins dlSCOVCriCS 

mirnottcc. ^\i;,^erican history, being the final demonstration of the 
theory of Columbus, requires in this 



passmg 



Columbus, requires in this place a 
notice. 

17. Terdyiand Magellan, a Portuguese by birth, who 
liad served his country with distinguished valor in the 
East Indies,* believing that those fertile regions might be 
reached by a westerly route from Portugal, proposed the 
scheme to his sovereign,'' and requested aid to carry it 
into execution. ^Unsuccessful in his application, and 
having been coldly dismissed by his sovereign without 
rcoeiving any reward for his services, he indignantly 
renounced his allegiance and repaired to Spain. "= 

18. ^The Spanish emperor'' engaging readily in the 
scheme which the Portuguese monarch had rejected, a 
squadron of five ships was soon equipped at the public 
charge, and Magellan set sail<^ from Seville^ in August, 

«. Account of 1519. "After touching at the Canaries,:}: he stood south, 

'^racifis ci'ossed the equinoctial line, and spent several months in 

^malign- exploring the coast of South America, searching for a 

''"Giobl'" passage which should lead to the Indies. After spending 

tlie winter on the coast, in the spring he continued his 



3. Magellan, 
and kin plan 

of a new 

route- to tite 

Indies- 



b. Emanuel. 

4. His first 

application 

jar aid. 



c. 1517. 

5. Sails on 
his expedi- 
tion. 

d. Charles V. 

e. Aug. 20, 
1519. 



* Ea^t Indies is th? name given to the islands of the ludiiin Ocean south of Asia, together 
■with that portion of the main l.md which is between Persia and China. 

t Stville is a large city beautifully situated on the left bank of the Guadalquiver, iu the 
southwestern pai-t of Spain. It was once the chief market for the commerce of America and 
the Indies. 

t The Canaries ai-e a group of 14 islands belonging to Spain. The Peak of Teneriffe, on ono 
of the more distant islands, is about 250 miles from the northwest coast of Africa, and 800 
miles southwest ftom the Straits of Gibraltar. 



Part I.] 



PAMPHILO DE NAllVAEZ. 



IIQ 



voyage towards the south, — passing through the strait* 
which bears his name, and, after sailing three montlis 
and twenty-one-days tlu'ough an unknown ocean, during 
which time his crew suffered greatly from the want of 
water and provisions, he discovered* a cluster of fertile 
islands, which he called the Ladrones.j* 

19. The fair weather and favorable winds which he 
had experienced, induced him to bestow on the ocean 
through which he had passed the name of Pacific, which 
it still retains. Proceeding from the Ladrones, he soon 
discovered the islands now known as the Philippines. X 
Here, in a contest with the natives, Magellan was killed,'' 
and the expedition was prosecuted under other comman- 
ders. After arriving at the Moluccas§ and taking in a 
cargo of spices, the oidy vessel of the squadron, then fit 
for a long voyage, sailed for Europe by way of the Cape 
of Good Hope, II and arrived'' in Spain in September, 
1522, thus accomplishing the first circumnavigation of the 
globe, and having performed the voyage in the space of 
three years and twenty-eight days. 

V. Pamphilo de Narvaez. — 1. 'In 1526, Pamphilo 
de Narvaez, the same who had been scnf^ by the gover- 
nor of Cuba to arrest the career of Cortez in Mexico, 
solicited and obtained from the Spanish emperor, Charles 
v., the appointment of governor of Florida,^ with permis- 
sion to conquer the country. ''The territory thus placed 
at his disposal extended, with indefinite limits, from the 
southern cape of the present Florida to the river of 
Palms, (now PanucoH) in Mexico. ^Having made exten- 
sive preparations, in April, 1528, Narvaez landed^ in 
Florida with a force of three hundred men, of whom 
eighty were mounted, and erecting the royal standard, took 
possession of the country for the crown of Spain. 

2. "Striking into the interior with the hope of finding 



1520. 



0. March K. 

15M. 



b May 6. 



1522. 



c 17th Sept. 



1526. 

d Seo p. 116. 

1. De Nar- 
vaez, and hU 

sciimiR of 

comiuest. 

e. Note, p. 113. 

2. Territory 
•placed at his 

disposal. 

3. His land- 
ing in 
Florida. 

1528. 

f. April 22. 

4. The route 
and wander- 
ings of the 
Spaniards. 



* The Strait of Magellan is at the southern extremity of the American continent, separat- 
ing tlie islands of Terra del Fuego from the ui.iiii land. It is a dangerous passage, more than 
300 mile.i in length, and in .some places not more than a mile across. 

+ The Ladwiies., or the Islands of Tliieves, thus named from the thievish disposition of the 
natives, are a cluster of islands in the Pacific Ocean al)mit 1(M) miles southeast from the coast 
of China. When first discov(!red, the natives were ignorant of any country but their own, and 
imagined that the ancestor of their race was formed from a pii^ce of the rock of one of their 
islands. They were utterly unacquainted with tire, and when Magellan. provo1;ed hy repeated 
thefts, burned one of their villages, they thought that the fire ^7a3 a beast that fed upon their 
dwellings. 

X The Philippines, thus named in honor of Philip IT. of Spain, who subjectt^l tliem 40 year.s 
after the voyage of Magellan, are a group of more than a thousand islands, the largest of wliich 
is liUzon, about 400 miles southeast from the coast of (!hina. 

§ The Moluccas, or Spice Islands, are a group of small islands north from New Ilolland, dis- 
covered by the Portuguese in 1.511. They are distinguished chiefly for the production of spices, 
particularly nutmegs and cloves. 

II The Cape of Good Hope is the most important cape of South Africa, although Cape Lagnl- 
lus is farther .south. 

H The Paniico is a small river which empties into the Gulf of Mexico 210 miles north from 
the Mexican capital, and about 30 miles north from Tampico. 



120 



VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. 



[Book II. 



ANALYSIS. 



1. Their dis- 
appointed 
hopes. 
a. Jun«. 



2. Kesnlt of 
tlie expedi- 
tion. 



b. Oct. 



C. 1536. 

3. Prevalent 

belief with 

regard to the 

richfs of 

Florida. 



4. Ferdinand 

de Soto, and 

/lis design qf 

conquering 

Florida. 



1538. 



5. JIU appli- 
cation to the 
Spanish 
Monarch. 



some wealthy empire like Mexico or Peru,* during two 
months the Spaniards wandered about through swamps 
and forests, often attacked by hordes of lurking savages, 
but cheered onward by the assurances of their captive 
guides, who, pointing to the north, were supposed to de- 
scribe a territory which abounded in gold. 'At length 
they arrived* in the fertile province of the Apallachians, 
in the north of Florida, but their hopes of finding gold 
were sadly disappointed, and the residence of the chief- 
tain, instead of being a second Mexico, which they had 
pictured to themselves, proved to be a mere village of two 
hundred wigwams. 

3. ^They now directed their course southward, and 
finally came upon the sea, probably in the region of the 
Bay of Apallachee,"j" near St. Marks. Having already 
lost a third of their number, and despairing of being able 
to retrace their steps, they constructed five frail boats, in 
which they embarked,'' but being driven out into the 
gulf by a storm, Narvaez and nearly all his companions 
perished. Four of the crew, after Avandering several 
years through Louisiana,:}: Texas,§ and Northern Mexico, 
and passing from tribe to tribe, often as slaves, finally 
reached'^ a Spanish settlement. 

VI. Ferdinand de Soto. — 1. 'Notwithstanding the 
melancholy result of the expedition of Narvaez, it was 
still believed that in the interior of Florida, a name which 
the Spaniards applied to all North America then known, 
regions might yet be discovered which would vie in 
opulence with Mexico and Peru. Terdinand de Soto, a 
Spanish cavalier of noble birth, who had acquired distinc- 
tion and wealth as the lieutenant of Pizarro in the con- 
quest of Peru, and desirous of signalizing himself still 
farther by some great enterprise, formed the design of 
conquering Florida, a country of whose riches he had 
formed the most extravagant ideas. 

2. ^He therefore applied to the Spanish emperor, and 
requested permission to undertake the conquest of Florida 
at his own risk and expense. The emperor, indulging 
high expectations from so noted a cavalier, not only 



* Peru is a oountry of South America, bordering on the Pacific Ocean, celebrated for its 
mines of gold and silver, the annual produce of which, during a great number of years, was 
more than four millions of dollars. Pern, when discovered by the Spaniards, was a powerful 
and wealthy kingdom, considerably advanced in civilization. Its con<iuest was completed by 
Pizarro in 1532. 

t Apallachee is a large open bay on the coast of Florida, south of the western part of Georgia. 
St. Marks is a town at the head of the bay. 

X Louisiana is a name originally applied to the whole valley of the Mississippi and the coun- 
try westward aa far as Mexico and the Pacific Ocean. The present Louisiana is one of the 
United States, at the southwestern extremity of the Union. 

§ Texas, embracing a t<?rritory as ext<'nsive as the six New England States together with 
New York and New Jersey, adjoins Louisiana on the west. (See also page 621.) 



Part I.] FERDINAND DE SOTO. 121 

granted his request, but also appointed him governor- 153$. 

general of Florida for life, and also of the island of Cuba.* 

'De Soto soon found himself surrounded by adventurers \^aTte/Jr^ 
of all classes, and in April, 1538, sailed for Cuba with a C"**- 
fleet of seven large and three small vessels. 

3. °In Cuba the new governor was received with great 2 uisrecep- 

~. , ^ ■ r '""* "^ Cuba, 

rejoicmgs ; — new accessions were made to his lorces ; and his land' 
and after completing his preparations, and leaving his ^'%m. 
wife to govern the island, he embarked for Florida, and 
early in June, 1539, his fleet anchored'' in the Bay of 1539. 
Espiritu Santo,* or Tampa Bay. ^His forces consisted 3*^^^}^^, 
of six hundred men, more than two hundred of whom 
were mounted, both infantry and cavalry being clad in 
complete armor. ^Besides ample stores of food, a drove ,* ;'."^'?"f* 

- ," , , , . Ill -1 1 ■ ^ -r\ c^ for his army, 

of three hundred swine was landed, with which De Soto 
intended to stock the country where he should settle ; 
and these were driven with the expedition throughout 
most of the route. 

4. ^After establishingr a small garrison in the vicinity 5. Aimutu 0} 
of Espiritu Santo, and sending most of his vessels back to ingso/ihe 
Havanna.f he commenced his march into the interior, ' ths'iTUerior. 
taking with him, as interpreter, a Spaniard found among 

the natives, who had remained in captivity since the time 
of Narvaez. After wandering five months through un- 
explored and mostly uncultivated regions, exposed to 
hardships and dangers and an almost continued warfare 
with the natives, during which several lives weij^' lost, 
the party arrived, ■= in the month of November, in the more '^- Nf.e. 
fertile country of the Apallachians, east of the Flint 
river,:]: and a few leagues north of the Bay of Apallachee, 
where it was determined to pass the winter. 

5. ^From this place an exploring party discovered the B.Djscovtry 

r r o 1 v* of the Occun* 

ocean in the very place where the unfortunate Narvaez and other 
had embarked. De Soto likewise despatched thirty ^fiuowed. 
horsemen to Espiritu Santo, with orders for the garrison 
to rejoin the army in their present winter quarters. The 
horsemen arrived with the loss of but two of their number, 
and the garrison rejoined De Soto, although with some 
loss, as, during their march, they had several desperate 
encounters with the natives. Two small vessels that had 
been retained at Espiritu Santo reached the Bay of Apal- 
lachee, and by the aid of these the coast was farther 



* Espiritu Santo, now called Tampa Bay. is on the western coast of Florida, 200 miles goath* 
east from St. Marks. There is no place of anchorage between the two places. 

t Havanna, the capital of Cuba, a wealthy and populous city, is on the north side of the 
island. It has the finest harbor in the world, capable of containing a thousand ships. The 
entrance is so narrow that but one vessel can pass at a time. 

t The Flint river is in the western part of Georgia. It joins the Chattahoochee at the north- 
•m boundary of Florida, and the two united form the Apalachicola. 

16 



122 



VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. 



[Book U. 



ANALYSIS. 



a. 1539 40. 

I. Manner in 

lohich the 

Spaniards 

•passed their 

jirst vrinter. 



1540. 

b. March 13. 

2. Course 
taken by tlietn 
in the spring. 

3. Orders 
given by 

De Soto to 
his ships. 



i. Disap- 
pointed 
expectations. 



5. Route of 
De Sotb 
through 
Georgia. 



c. Map, p. 20. 

;6. Why the 

country of 

the Cherokees 

1 was visited, 

and t>ic 

result- 



t. Wander- 
ings of the 

Bpaniards in 
Alabama. 



explored during the winter,* and the harbor of Pensacola* 
discovered. 

6. 'The Spaniards remained five months in winter quar- 
ters at Apallachee, supplying themselves with provisions by 
pillaging the surrounding country ; but they were kept in 
constant alarm by the never-ceasing stratagems and as- 
saults of the natives. °At length, in the month of March, 
they broke up their camp, and set out'' for a remote coun 
try, of which they had heard, to the northeast, governed, 
it was said, by a woman, and abounding in gold and sil- 
ver. ^De Soto had previously despatched his ships to 
Cuba, with orders to rendezvous in the following October 
at Pensacola, where he proposed to meet them, having, in 
the mean time, explored the country in the interior. 

7. •'Changing his course now to the northeast, De Soto 
crossed several streams which flow into the Atlantic, and 
probably penetrated near to the Savannah,"}" where he 
indeed found the territory of the princess, of whose wealth 
he had formed so high expectations ; but, to his great dis- 
appointment, the fancied gold proved to be copper, and the 
supposed silver only thin plates of mica. 

8. ''His direction was now towards the north, to the 
head waters of the Savannah and the Chattahoochee,:}: 
whence he crossed a branch of the Apalachian§ chain 
which runs through the northern part of Georgia, and 
came upon the southern limits of the territory of the 
Cherol^es.'= ^Hearing that there was gold in a region 
farther north, he despatched two horsemen with Indian 
guides, to visit the country. These, after an absence of 
ten days, having crossed rugged and percipitous moun- 
tains, returned to the camp, bringing with them a iew 
specimens of fine copper or brass, but none of gold or 
silver. 

9. 'During several months the Spaniards wandered 
through the valleys of Alabama, obliging the chieftains, 
through whose territories they passed, to march with them 
as hostages for the good conduct of their subjects. 



PEN8AC0L.A. AND VICINITY. * Pensacola i.s a town on the northwest side of Pensacola Bay, 
near the western extremity of Florida. The bay is a fine sheet of 
water upwards of 20 miles in length from N.E. to S.AV. (See Map.) 

t The Savannah river forms the boundary line between South 
Carolina and Georgia. 

t The Chattahoochee river rises in the northeastern part of 
Georgia, near the sources of the Savannah, and, after crossing the 
State southwest, forms the boundary between Georgia and Ala- 
bama. 

§ The Apalachian or Alleghany Mountains extend from the 
northern part of Georgia to the State of New York, at a distance 
of about 250 miles from the coast, and nearlj- parallel to it. They 
divide the waters which flow into the Atlantic from those whicb 
flow into the Mississippi. 




Part I] FERDINAND DE SOTO. 123 

'In October they arrived* at Mauville,* a fortified Indian 1540. 

town near the junction of the Alabamaf and the Tom- • 

beckbee. Here was fought^ one of the most bloody ^'^'j^jauvuie 
battles known in Indian warfare. ^Durinjr a contest of "■"dji^^ ' 

1 11 ITT , • 11- events that 

nme hours several thousand Indians were slain and their occurred 
village laid in ashes. 2. Account of 

10. The loss of the Spaniards was also great. Many ^afMomt. 
fell in battle, others died of their wounds, — ^they lost 

many of their horses, and all their baggage was consumed 

in the flames. ^The situation of the Spaniards after the 3 situation 

battle was truly deplorable, for nearly all were wounded, ^rarLafl'^ 

and, with their baggage, they had lost their supplies of ''** *"'*■ 

food and medicine ; but, fortunately for them, the Indian 

power had been so completely broken that their enemies 

were unable to offer them any farther molestation. 

11. 'While at Mauville, De Soto learned from the }.■ Worrm- 
natives that the ships he had ordered had arrived at %Rf.^'"°' 
Pensacola.'' But, fearing that his disheartened soldiers imvements. 
would desert him as soon as they had an opportunity of **■ ^°'^' p- ^^ 
leaving the country, and mortified at his losses, he deter- 
mined to send no tidings of himself until he had crowned 

his enterprise with success by discovering new regions 
of wealth. He therefore turned from the coast and again 
advanced'^ into the interior. His followers, accustomed c. Nov. 28. 
to implicit obedience, obeyed the command of their leader 
without remonstrance. 

12. ^The following \vinter<i he passed in the country d. 1540-41. 
of the Chickasas, probably on the western banks of the 1541. 
Yazoo,:j: occupying an Indian village which had been ^offhTspm- 
deserted on his approach. Here the Indians attacked ''ff^fr'l'ecmd 
him at night, in the dead of winter, and burned the vil- winter, and 

1 1 r- ^^ iii -ii losses suffered 

lage ; yet they were finally repulsed, but not till several hythem. 
Spaniards had fallen. In the burning of the village the 
Spaniards lost many of their horses, mo^t of their swine, 
and the few remaining clothes which they had saved from 
the fires of Mauville. During the remainder of the win- 
ter they suffered much from the cold, and were almost 
constantly harassed by the savages. 

13. °At the openincr of sjSring the Spaniards resumed* s. Tiiey cross 

the I^issts- 

their march, continuing their course to the northwest sippi. 
until they came to the Mississippi^ which they crossed, "■ ^^^ '■ 



* Pronounced Mo-veel, whence Mobile derives its name. 

t The Alabama river rises in the N.W. part of Georgia, and through most of its course is 
called the Consa. The Tombeckhee rises in the N.E. part of Mississippi. Tlie two unite 35 
miles north from Mobile, in the State of Alabama, and through several channels empty into 
Mobile Bay 

t The Yazoo river rises in the northern part of the State of Mississippi, and running south- 
west, enters the Mississippi river 65 miles north from Natchez. 

§ The Mississippi river, which, in the Indian language, signifies the Father of Waters^ rises 
190 miles west from Lake Superior. Its source is Itasca Lake, in Iowa Territory. After a 



124 



VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. 



[Book IL 



probably at tlie lowest Chickasaw bluif, one of the ancient 
crossing places, between the thirty-fourth and the thirty- 
fifth parallel of latitude. 'Thence, after reachin'g the 
St. Francis,* they continued north until they arrived in 
the vicinity of New Madrid, in the southern part of the 
State of Missouri. 

14. '■'After traversing the country, during the summer, 
to the distance of two or three hundred miles west of the 
Mississippi, they passed the winter" on the banks of the 
Wachita.f 'In the spring they passed down that river to 
the Mississippi, where De Soto was taken sick and died.'' 
To conceal his death from the natives, his body, wrapped 
in a mantle, and placed in a rustic coffin, in the stillness 
of midnight, and in the presence of a few faithful follow- 
ers, was silently sunk in the middle of the stream. 

15. ''De Soto had appointed his successor, under whom 
the remnant of the party now attempted to penetrate by 
land to Mexico. They wandered several months through 
the wilderness, traversing the western prairies, the hunt- 
ing grounds of roving and warlike tribes, but hearing no 
tidings of white people, and finding their way obstructed 
by rugged mountains, they were constrained to retrace 
their steps. 'In December they came upon the Mississippi 
a short distance above the mouth of the Red:}: river, and 
here they passed the winter,* during which time they 
constructed seven large boats, or brigantines. °In these 
they embarked on the twelfth of July, in tlie following 
year, and in seventeen days I'eached the Gulf of Mexico. 
Fearing to trust themselves far from land in their frail 
barks, they continued along the coast, and on the twenti- 
eth of September, 1543, the remnant of the party, half 
naked and famishing with hunger, arrived safely at a 

d.Noto.p. 119. Spanish settlement near the mouth of the river Panuco'' 
in Mexico. 



ANALYSIS. 



1. Course 
then take/u 



2. The follow- 
ing sumnur 
and winter. 

a. 1541-2. 

1542. 

3. Death qf 

De Soto. 

h. May 31. 



4. Attem/pt of 

the Span- 
iards to reach 
Mexico 
l"j land. 



5. Thsir 
fourth win- 
ter. 

c. 1542-3. 

1543. 

6. Their sub- 

sequent 

course until 

t)iey reach 

Mexico. 



winding course of more than 3000 miles in a southerly direction, it discliarges its vast flood of 
turbid waters into the Gulf of Mexico. It is navigable for steam-boats to the Falls of St. An- 
thony, more than 2000 miles from its mouth by the river's course. The Mississippi and its 
tributary streams drain a vast valley, extending from the Alleghanies to the Kocky Mountains, 
containing more than a million of square miles of the lichest country in the world ; — a terri- 
tory six times greater than the whole kingdom of France. 

* The St. Franci.'i river rises in Missouri, and running south, enters the Mississippi 60 miles 
north from the mouth of the Arkansas. 

t The Wnchita river rises in the western part of the State of Arkansas, and running S.E. re- 
ceives many tributaries, and enters the lied river 30 miles from the junction of the latter with 
the Mississippi. 

t The Reil river rises on the confines of Texas, forms its northern boundary, and enters th« 
Mississippi 160 miles N.W. from New Orleans. 



Part I.] JOHN AND SEBASTIAN CABOT. 125 

1497. 



CHAPTER II. 

'northern and eastern coasts of north AMERICA, FROM 1- Subject nf 

Cliaftcr II. 
THE DISCOVERY OF THE CONTINENT BY THE CABOTS, IN 

1497, TO THE SETTLEMENT OF JAMESTOWN, IN VIRGINIA, 

IN 1607. 110 YEARS. 

DIVISIONS. 

I. iJohn and Sebastian Cabot.— II. Gaspar Cortereal.—IIL Ver- ^^^'^°l"^^^_ 

razani. — IV. Jamr:s Cartier.^ — V. Roberval. — VI. Ribmilt^ Lau- b Kebo. " 

(lonnkre.c and Mdendez.— VII Gilbert, Raleigh, Grenville, S,-c.— •=■ ^M"""'^' 

VIII Marquis de la RocheA — IX. Bartholomew Gosnold. — X. De d. RouBh ) 

Monts. — XI. North and South Virginia. 2 DivMom 

of Cfiapcer II. 

I. John and Sebastian Cabot. — 1. 'Shortly after the s. Account of 
return of Columbus from his first voyage, John Cabot, a amiducov- 
Venetian by birth, but then residing in England, believ- ^Ucattts':' 
ing that new lands mi^ht be discovered in the northwest, 
applied to Ilenry VII. for a commission of discovery. 
Under this commission' Cabot, taking with him his son e Dated 

_, , . , •! 1 r> 1 f March 5th, 

Sebastian, then a young man, sailed Irom the port oi (o. s ) im. 
Bristol* in the spring of 'l497. 1497. 

" 2. On the 3d of July following he discovered land, 
which he called Prima Vista, or first seen, and which 
until recently was supposed to be the island of Newfound- 
land, *■ but which is now believed to have been the coast 
of Labrador.'' After sailing south a short distance, and f- Note, p. m. 
probably discovering the coast of Newfoundland, anxious 
to announce his success, Cabot returned to England with- 
out making any farther discovery. 

3. *In 1498 Sebastian Cabot, with a company of three 1498. 
hundred men, made a second voyage, with the hope of ^'^ya^'"^^ 
finding a northwest passage to India. He explored the sebasuan ca- 
continent from Labrador to Virginia, and perhaps to the 

coast of Florida;' when want of provisions compelled e Note, p. 113. 
him to return to England. 

4. ^He made several subsequent voyages to the Ameri- 1.500. 
can coast, and, in 1517, entered one of the straits which 5 subsequenc 
leads into Hudson's Bay. In 1526, having entered the "TdZ"^ 
service of Spain, lie explored the River La Plata, and 

part of the coast of South America. Returning to Eng- 
land during the reign of Edward VI., he was made Grand 

* Bristol, a commercial citj" of "England, next in importance to London and Liverpool, is on 
the River Avon, four miles distant from its entrance into the river Severn, where commences 
the Bristol Channel. It is 115 miles west from London and 140 south from Liverpool. 



126 VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. [Book EL 

ANALYSIS. Pilot of the kingdom, and received a pension for his ser- 
" vices. 

1. Account^ II. Gaspar Cortereal. — 1. 'Soon after the success- 
ofcortereai. ful Voyage of the Cabots, which resulted in the discovery 

1500. of North America, the king of Portugal, in the year 1500, 

1501. despatched Gaspar Cortereal to the coast of America, on 
a voyage of discovery. After exploring the coast of 

a.Note, pin. Labrador* several hundred miles, in the vain hope of 

b Note, p. US. finding a passage to India,'' Cortereal freighted his ships 
c. Aug. with more than fifty of the natives, whom, on his return,"^ 
he sold into slavery. 

2. The second 2. ^Cortereal sailed on a second voyage, with a deter- 
mination to pursue his discovery, and bi'ing back a cargo 
of slaves. Not returning as soon as was expected, his 
brother sailed in search of him, but no accounts of either 
ever again reached Portugal. 
1504. III. Verrazani. — 1. ^At an early period the fisher- 

mnd^heiii' ^^^ °^ Newfoundland began to be visited by the French 
and the English, but the former attempted no discoveries 

i. Accoiini of in America until 1523. ^In the latter part of this year 

the voyage of ^ -x^i i n i> i • i 

Verrazani. T rancis 1. fitted out a squadron oi tour ships, the com- 
mand of which he gave to John Verrazani, a Florentine 
navicator of great skill and celebrity. Soon after the 
iD^^i. vessels had sailed, three of them became so damaged in a 
storm that they were compelled to return ; but Verrazani 
proceeded in a single vessel, with a determination to 

d. Jan. 27. make new discoveries. Sailing'^ from Madeira,* in a 

westerly direction, after having encountered a terrible 

e. March, tempest, he reached* the coast of America, probably in 

the latitude of Wilmington. f 
5. His first 2. ^After exploriufj the coast some distance north and 

landing and ^ ^ f i ^ ^ ^ ^• -, 

intercourse south, without beuio; able to find a harbor, he was obli2;ea 

With the ^ o ' o 

natives, to send a boat on shore to open an intercourse with the 

natives. The savages at first fled, but soon recovering 

their confidence, they entered into an amicable traffic 

with the strangers. 

6. Events thai 3. "^Proceedinij north alonfr the open coast of New 

occurred on ^ , ~ . , V- i i • i • i 

thecoastof Jersey, and no convenient landing-place being discovered, 
eisey. ^ gjjjiQj. attempted to swim ashore through the surf; but, 
frightened by the numbers of the natives who thronged 
the beach, he endeavored to return, when a wave threw 
him terrified and exhausted upon the shore. He was, 
however, treated with great kindness ; his clothes were 



* The Madeiras are a cluster of islands north of the Canarie."!, 400 miles west from the coast 
of Morocco, and nearly 700 southwest from the Straits of Gibraltar. Madeira, the principal 
island, celebrated for its brines, is 54 miles long, and consists of a collection of lofty mountains 
on the lower slopes of which vines are cultivated. 

t Wilmington. (See Note and Map, p. 251.) 



New York. 



Part I.] C ARTIER. 127 

dried by the natives ; and, when recovered from his 1524. 

fright and exhaustion, he was permitted to swim back • 

to the vessel. 

4. 'Landing again farther north, probably near the i- Near 
city of New York,* the voyagers, prompted by curiosity, 
kidnapped and carried away an Indian child. ^It is sup- 
posed that Verrazani entered^ the haven of Ne\vport,f a. May 1. 
where he remained fifteen days. Here the natives were ofmTnatlSL 
liberal, friendly, and confidinp; : and the country was the *» thevidm- 
richest that had yet been seen. port. 

5. 'Verrazani still proceeded north, and explored the 3. Farther 
coast as far as Newfoundland.'' The natives of the b.N^I.p.m 
northern regions were hostile and jealous, and would 

traffic only for weapons of iron or steel. ^Verrazani t. The name 
gave to the whole region which he had discovered the ^^^^^°'"^- 
name of New France ; an appellation which was after- 
wards confined to Canada, and by which that country 
was known while it remained in the possession of the 
French. 

IV. James Cartier. — 1. ^After an interval of ten 1.534. 
years, another expedition was planned by the French ; 5. Account qf 
and James Cartier, a distinguished mariner of St. Malo,| myl^elf 
was selected to conduct a voyage to Newfoundland. '^<^>''■^^■ 
After having minutely surveyed'' the northern coast of *^ •'^^• 
that island, he passed through the Straits of Belleisle into 
the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and entered the mouth of the 
river of the same name ; but the weather becoming bois- 
terous, and the season being far advanced, after erecting 
a cross,"* — taking possession of the country in the name d At the bay 
of the king of France, — and inducing two of the natives 
to accompany him, he set sail' on his return, and, in less e. Aug. 19. 
than thirty days, entered^ the harbor of St. Malo in safety, f- Sept. 15. 

2. "In 1535 Cartier sailed- with three vessels, on a 1535. 
second voyage to Newfoundland, and entering; the gulf on ^- Mayas. 

^ ^ 6 Of th& 

the day of St. Lawrence, he gave it the name of that semrid 
martyr. Being informed by the two natives who had ^"^"=*- 
returned with him, that far up the stream which he had 
discovered to the westward, was a large town, the capital liaibor see° 
of the whole country, he sailed onwards, entered the river '""^sept/zg! 
St. Lawrence, and, by means of his interpreters, opened 7. Expiora- 

c • ^^ • ■ -,1 .1 .,• tionoftheSt. 

a iriencily communication with the natives. Lawrence, 

3. 'Leaving his ship safely moored,'' Cartier proceeded' tfmfmppen- 
with the pinnace and two boats up the river, as far as the ^''' 'winter'.'^ 

* Neiv York. (See Note and Map, p. 220.) 

t Newport. (See Note, p. 215, and .Map, p. 217.) 

t St. Miiln is a small seaport town in the N. \Y. part of France, in the ancient province of 
Brittany, or ISretagne, 200 miles west from Paris. The to\vn i.s on a rocky elevation called St 
Aaron, surrounded by the sea at high water, but connect.ed with the mainland by a causeway. 
The iiibabitauts were early and extensively engaged in the Newfoundland cod fishery 



12S 



VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. 



[Book H. 



ANALYSIS, principal Indian settlement of Hochelaga, on the site of 
the present city of Montreal,* where he was received" in 
a friendly manner. Rejoining his ships, he passed the 
winter'' where they were anchored ; during which time 
twenty-five of his ci'ew died of the scurvy, a malady until 
then unknown to Europeans. 

4. 'At the approach of spring, after having taken for- 
mal possession*^ of the country in the name of his sove- 
reign, Cartier prepared to return. An act of treachery, 
at his departure,'' justly destroyed the confidence which 
the natives had hitherto reposed in their guests. The 
Indian King, whose kind treatment of the French merited 
a more generous return, was decoyed on board one of the 
vessels and carried to France. 

V. RoBERVAL. — 1. "Notwithstanding the advantages 
result from founding colonies in America, the 



1. Oct. 13. 
b. 1535-6. 

1536. 

c. May 13. 
1. An act of 

treacliciy. 

d. May 16. 



2. Prevalent 
opinion with 

regard to the hkelv tO 
valtte of new - •' 
countries. 



French government, adopting the then prevalent notion 
that no new countries were valuable except such as pro- 
duced gold and silver, made no immediate attempts at 
colonization. 

'2. ^At length a wealthy nobleman, the Lord of Rober- 
val, requested permission to pursue the discovery and 
form a settlement. This the king readily granted, and 
Roberval received' the empty titles of Lord, Lieutenant- 
general, and Viceroy, of all the islands and countries 
hitherto discovered either by the French or the English. 

3. ■'While Roberval was delayed in making extensive 
pi'eparations for his intended settlement, Cartier, whose 
services could not be dispensed with, received a subordi- 
nate command, and, in 1541, sailed^ with five ships al- 
ready prepared. The Indian king had in the mean time 
died in France ; and on the arrival of Cartier in the St. 
Lawrence, he was received by the natives with jealousy 
and distrust, which soon broke out into open hostilities. 
^The French then built for their defence, near the pres- 
ent site of Quebec,! ^ ^^^^ which they named Charles- 
bourg, where they passed the winter. 

4. "Roberval arrived at Newfoundland in June of the 
^'hiisaiSn£ following year, with three ships, and emigrants for found- 



3. Designs 

and titled of 
Roberval. 

1540. 

e. Jan. 



4. Acco^mt of 
the third voy- 
age of 
Cartier. 

1541. 

f. June 2. 



5. Fort 
erected. 

1542. 

6. Arrival of 
Roberval, and 



MONTRE.\L AND VIC. 




* Montreal, the largest town in Canada, is situated on the S. E. side 
of a fertile island of the same name about 30 miles long and 10 broad, 
inclosed by the divided channel of the St. Lawrence. The city is about 
140 miles S. W. from Quebec, but farther by the course of the riven 

t Quebec, a strongly fortified city of Canada, is situated on the N. W. 
side of the St. La\vrence, on a promontory formed by that river and 
the St. Charles. The city consists of tlie Upper and the Lower Town, — 
the latter on a narrow strip of land near the water's edge ; and the for- 
mer on a plain difficult of access, more than 200 feet higher. Cape 
Diamond, the most elevated point of the Upper Town, is 345 feet above 
the level of the river, and commands a grand view of an extensive tract 
of country. (See Map, p. 280.) 



Part L] 



RIBAULT, LAUDONNIERE, MELENDEZ. 



129 



ing a colony ; but a misunderstanding having arisen be- 
tween him and Cartier, the latter secretly set sail for 
France. Roberval proceeded up the St. Lawrence to the 
place which Cartier had abandoned, where he erected 
two forts and passed a tedious winter.'^ After some un- 
successful attempts to discover a passage to the East 



1542. 



a 1542 3. 



Ind 



les," he 



his 



brought 
design of forming a settlement was abandoned. In 1549 



I. Auaniptsof 
Coligni to 

form a settle- 
'meiit in 
America. 

1562. 

c. Feb. 28. 
(1. Note, p. 113 
2. Discove- 
ries made. 



colony back to France, and the ^- Note, p. ii8 

1549. 
Roberval again sailed on a voyage of discovery, but he 
was never again heard of 

VI. RiBAULT, LaUDONNIERE, AND MeLENDEZ. 1. 'Co- 

ligni, admiral of France, having long desired to establish 
in America a refuge for French Protestants, at length ob- 
tained a commission fi"om the king for that purpose, and, 
in 1562, despatched'^ a squadron to Florida,"* under the 
command of John Ribault. "Arrivino; on the coast in 
May, he discovered the St. Johns River, which he named 
the river of May ; but the squadron continued north until 
it arrived at Port Royal* entrance, near the southern 
boundary of Carolina, where it was determined to estab- 
lish the colony. 

2. ^Here a fort was erected, and named Fort Charles, 
and twenty-six men were left to keep possession of the 
country, while Ribault returned' to France for farther 
emigrants and supplies. *The promised reinforcement *„^nf ab'Jn^' 
not arriving, the colony began to despair of assistance ; 
and, in the following spring, having constructed a rude 
brigantine, they embarked for home, but had nearly per- 
ished by famine, at sea, when they fell in with and were 
taken on board of an English vessel. 

3. *In 1564, through the influence of Coligni, another 
expedition was planned, and in July a colony was estab- 
lished on the river St. Johns,"]" and left under the com- 
mand of Laudonniere. "Many of the emigrants, however, 
being dissolute and improvident, the supplies of food were 
wasted ; and a party, under the pretence of desiring to 
escape from famine, were permitted to embark^ for France ; 
but no sooner had they departed than they com- 
menced a cai'eer of piracy against the Spanish. 
The remnant were on the point of embarking 
for France, when Ribault arrived and assumed 



* Port Royal is an island 12 miles in length, on the coast of 
South Carolina, on the ea.st side of which is situated the town 
of lieaufort, f)0 miles S. \V^ from ('harleston. Between the island 
and the mainland i,5 an excellent harbor. 

t The .S'(. JnhiVs, the principal river of Florida, rises in the 
eastern part of the territory, about 25 miles from the coast, and 
runs north, expanding into frequent lakes, until witliin 20 miles 
of its mouth, when it turns to the east, and falls into the Atlantic, 
35 miles north from St. Augustine. (See Map next page.) 

17 



3. Fori 
erected in 
Carolina. 

e. July. 



donded, 

1563. 



1564. 

5. Second 

colony estab' 

lished. 

6. Character 

and conduct 

of the 

colonists. 

{. Dec. 

1565. 



viciNirr OP PORT royal. 




130 



VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. 



[Book II. 



tine. 
c. Sept. 18. 



3. T/ie. French 
Jleet. 



ANALYSIS, the command, bringing supplies, and additional emigrants 

with their families. 

a. Note, p. 113. 4. ^Meanwhile news arrived in Spain that a company 

^' occurrLi"' of French Protestants had settled in Florida,'' within the 
»pank'nis Spanish territory, and Melendez, who had obtained the 

''sSiiemeiu. appointment of governor of the country, upon the condi- 
tion of completing its conquest within three years, depart- 
ed on his expedition, with the determination of speedily 
extirpating the heretics, 
b. Sept. 7. 5. ^Early in September,'' 1.565, he came insight of 

"• iUiendeS! Florida, and soon discovering a part of the French fleet, 

fovmiin^ of g^vc them chasc, but was unable to overtake them. On 
St. Angus- i\^Q seventeenth of September Melendez entered a beauti- 
ful harbor, and the next day,' after taking formal possess- 
ion of the country, and proclaiming the king of Spain 
monarch of all North America, laid the foundations of St. 
Augustine.* 

6. ^Soon after, the French fleet having put to sea with 
the design of attacking the Spaniards in tlie harbor of St. 
Augustine, and being overtaken by a furious storm, every 
ship was wrecked on the coast, and the French settlement 

4. Destruction was left in a defenceless state. *The Spaniards now 
OTtoii/.'"'" made their way through the forests, and, surprising"^ the 
d. Oct. 1. French fort, put to death all its inmates, save a fev/ who 
fled into the woods, and who subsequently escaped on 
board two French ships which had remained in the har- 
bor. Over the mangled remains of the French was 
placed the inscription, " We do this not as unto French- 
men, but as unto heretics." The helpless shipwrecked 
men being soon discovered, although invited to rely on 
the clemency of Melendez, were all massacred, except a 

s Manner in few Catholics and a few mechanics, who were reserved 

xchicii the , 

Fieniiiu-ere aS SlaVCS. 

avcnget. ^^ ^Although the French court heard of this outrage 

with apathy, it did not long remain unavenged. 
De Gourgues, a soldier of Gascony.'j" having 
fitted^ out three ships at his own expense, sur- 

u.^nBOi! OF ST. AUGUSTKE. * St. Aii§r^istinr is a tovra on 
the eastern coast of Ylorida. S50 
miles iiortli ft-oni the southern 
point of FloriJa, and So miles 
south from the mouth of the St. 
Johns Hirer. It is situated on 
tlie S. side of a peninsula, hav- 
iiic: on the east l\Iatanzas Sound, 
which sejiarates it from Anas- 
tatia island. The city is low, but 
*^^'^\^'-i healthy and pleasant. 

t (insconi/ was an ancient province in the southwest of France, 
lying chietiy between the Oaronne and the Pyrenees. " The 
Gascons are a spirited and a fitry race, but their habit of exag- 
geration, in relating their exploits, has made the term gasconadt 
proverbial." 



e. 156T. 

VICIXITT OF ST. iVUGUSTINE, 
AND ST. JOUl'i'S RIVER. 





Part I.] 



GILBERT, RALEIGH, GRENVILLE. 



131 



prised two of the Spanish forts on the St. Johns river, 
early in 1568, and hung their garrisons on the trees, 
placing over them the inscription, " I do this not as unto 
Spaniards or mariners, but as unto traitors, robbers, and 
murderers." De Gouro-ues not beino; strong enough to 
maintain his position, hastily retreated,* and the Spaniards 
retained possession of the country. 

VII. Gilbert, Raleigh, Grenville, &c. — 1. 4n 1583 
Sir Humphrey Gilbert, under a charter from Queen Eliz- 
abeth, sailed'' with several vessels, Avith the design of 
forming a settlement in America ; but a succession of 
disasters defeated the project, and, on the homeward voy- 
age, the vessel in which Gilbert sailed was wrecked, <= and 
all on board perished. 

2. 'His brother-in-law, Sir Walter Raleigh, not dis- 
heartened by the fate of his relative, soon after obtained'' 
for himself an ample patent, vesting him with almost un- 
limited powers, as lord proprietor, over all the lands which 
he should discover between the 33d and 40th degrees of 
north latitude. ^Under this patent, in 1584, he despatched, 
for the American coast, two vessels under the command 
of Philip Amidas and Arthur Barlow. 

3. Arriving on the coast of Carolina in the month of 
July, they visited the islands in Pamlico,* and Albemarlej 
Sound, took possession of the country in the name of the 
queen of England, and, after spending several weeks in 
trafficking with the natives, returned without attempting a 
settlement. *The glowing description which they gave of 
the beauty and fertility of the country, induced Elizabeth, 
who esteemed her reign signalized by the discovery of 
these regions, to bestow upon them the name of Virginia, 
as a memorial that they had been discovered during the 
reign of a maiden queen. 

4. ^Encouraged by their report, Raleigh made active 
preparations to form a settlement ; and, in the following 
year, 1585, despatched « a fleet of seven vessels under the 
command of Sir Richard Grenville, with Ralph Lane as 
governor of the intended colony. After some disasters 
on the coast, the fleet arrived at Roanoke,:!^ an island 



156S. 



a. May. 

1.583. 

1. Account of 
the voyage 
of Gilbert. 

b. June. 



c. Sept. 



1.584. 

2 Patent of 
Raleigh 
(1. April 4. 



3. Voyage of 

Amidas and 

Barlmo. 



4. Najnf. tfua 

loas given to 

the country— 

and ivhy. 



1585. 

e. April 19. 

5. Account oj 
the first at- 
tempt to form 
a settlement 
at Roanoke. 



* Pamlico Sound Is a large bay on the coast of N. Carolina, 
nearly a hundi-ed miles long from N. E. to S. W., and from 1.5 to 
25 miles broad. It is separated from the ocean throughout its 
whole length by a beach of sand hardly a mile wide, near the mid- 
dle of which is the dangerous Cape Ilatteras. Ocracock Inlet, 
35 miles S. W. from Cape Ilatteras, is the only entrance which ad- 
mits ships of large burden. 

t Alhrmnrle Sound is north of and connecis with Pamlico Sound, 
and is Ukewise separated from the ocean by a narrow sand beach. It 
is about 60 miles long from east to west, and from 4 to 15 miles wide. 

+ Roanoke is an island on the coa.st of North Carolina, between 
Pamlico and Albemarle sounds. The north point of the island is 5 
miles west from the old Koanoke Inlet, which is now closed. The Eng- 
lish fort and colony were at the north end of the island. (See Map.) 



ROANOKE I. AND VICINITY. 







13-2 VOY.VGKS AND PISCOVKKIES. [Book II. 



A ^CPt 



ANALYSIS in Alboinarlo S<.nu\d. whence, leaving the emigrants un- 
der Lane to establisli the colony. Grenville returned* to 
England. 

loSti. 5. 'The impatience of the colonists to acquire sudden 
\S^.J^' wealth Slave a wrvMior dirtnnion to their industrv, and the 
oriomnt. cultivation ot' the earth was ueglectevl. in the idle search 
after mines of gv^ld tuid silver. Their treatment of tlie 
natives SiXMi prov^iked lu-»stilities : — their supplies of pro- 
visions, which they had hitherto received from the In- 
dians, were withdrawn : — famine starevl them in the face ; 
and they were on the p^^int of dis^vrsing in quest of food, 
b.juiK, when Sir Frjvncis Drake arriveib with a tleot from the 
t-Xi»K>.vvii4. West Indies.'" 
s in.ifr i>. 41e innnediately devised measures for furnisliing 
'^'SC the cv>lony with supplies : but a small vessel, laden with 
pnnisions, which was designe*.! to l>e lell for that purp^^vse, 
being destivyevl by a sudden storm, and the colonists be- 
coming discouraged, he yieldetl to their unanimous re- 
quest, and carricil them Iv^ck to England. Thus was the 
d.Juuesjk first English s^ntlement ab;vndoned.* after an existence of 

little less than a year. 
9.£MNa! "• *-^ it'w »^1»>"* sftt'r the depanurv ot the lleei, a ves- 
**'*mJ^«^ sel, desjvitchotl by Raleigh, arrived* with a supply of 



rf^iftr'rSrui* ^^^'^^ *^^*" '^*^ colony, but finding the settlement deserteil, 
«. J«ly, innntxliately retunuxl. Scarcely had this vessel de^^arted, 
when Sir Richarxl Grenville arrivcvl witli three ships, 
AtVer searvhing in vain for the colony whicli he had plant- 
eil. he likewise returncil. leaving fifteen men ou the Islaiul 
of Roivnoke to keep jVAssession of the cv^untxy. 
15ST, i^' 'Xotwithsianding the ill success ot the attempts of 
^.Jitmmmt^ Raleiijh to establish a cviKmvv in his new territory, neither 
r»»>r >»» his hojH"^s nor his resources were yet exhaustcil. Deier- 
mining to plant an agricultural state, early in the follow, 
ing year he sent out a company of en^ignuits with their 
wives ai\d families, — gnrnttxl a chaner of incvrjv>raiion 
for the ststlen\ent, and establisluxl a municij^l govern- 
ment for his intended "city of Raleigh." 
t.v»». 0. H.'Jn the arrival of the emigrants at Roanoke, where 

''JJJ^JfgJ*^*" they exixvttxl to find the men whom Grenville had lef:, 
*««J^J^^ they fbuml the lort which liad been built tliere iu ruins ; 
""''^ tlie Ivousi-'s were desenotl : and the bones of their tonner 
. «^-„ occuivxnts werv^ s^wttertxl over the pUiin. At the same 
*in2**** P^Atv. however, they detertniueil to establish the colony ; 
r. s»«kL«. **^*^ '^^''''^^ *^**T ^'"*^ ''^^^ toundations for their " city." 
T^i^iAr 10. *Svx-(n finding that they were destitute of many 
_^_ things which wen^ essiMUial to tlunr c^xmtort, tJieir gv.^T- 

rttn^m? emor. Captain John White, saikxl* ft>r Engljuid, to obtain 
'"*^S*** the necessary supplies. 'On his arriv;U he found the 



I5SS, 

1590. 

c. Aus. 



Part I.] LA UO'vHK. UOSNOLl). 133 

nation absorWd by tho throats ot'a Sininish invasion ; and 15§T. 

the patrons of the new sottloniont wore too nuich enjiaijed 

in public measures to attend to a le^js important and re- 
mote object. Raloiijh. however, in the ibUowing year. 
loSS, despatched* White with supplier, in two vessels ; laSS. 
but the latter, desirous of a gainl'ul voyaiie. rari in search *^ **''''■'• 
of Spmiish prizes ; until, at length, one of his vessels was 
overpowered, Ixiaixlod, and rilled, and Ivth ships wor* 
conipolled to ivturn to England. 

11. Soon after. Raleigh assigned'' his patent to a com- b March ir. 
pany of morohants in London ; and it w;vs not ntitil 1590 
that White was enabled to return' in searoh of the eolony ; 
and then the island of Roanoke wjis deserted. No traces 
of die emigrants could be found. The design of estab- 
lishing a colony w;\s abandoned, and the country was 
again lotV to the undisturlKxl jK^ssession of the natives. a sept. 
" Vill. Makquis de la Roche. — 1. 'In 15i)S, the Mar- 1593. 
quis do la Roche, a Fi"ench nobleman, ivceived from the i Attempt cf 
king of France a connnission lor founding a French coUv tof!,nnc'^- 
ny in America. Having equipj)ed several vessels, he "«"**>"■ 
sailed with a considerable nujnber of settlers, most of 
whom, however, he was obliged to draw fiw.u tlie pris- 
ons of Paris. On Sable* island, a barren spot near the 
coast of Nova Scotia, forty men were left to form a set- 
tlement. 

2. "La Roche dying soon after his return, the colonists ^ r>x.v </«« 
were neglected : and when, atler seven ycv^rs, a vessel <»""!'• 
was sent to inquire after them, only twelve of them wore 
livinjT. The duniieons from which thev had been libera- 
ted were preferable to the liardships which they had 
sufTored. Tho emaciated exiles wore carried back to 
France, whore they were kindly x'ecoivod by tho king, 
who pai"doned their crimes, and made them a liberal do- 
nation. 

IX. Bartholomew Gosnolp. — 1. ^In 1(U)C. BarthoKv l(M)'2. 

mew Ck)snold sailed' from Falmouthlf Euirland, and \ -<'^'"""ij; 

abandonmg t'le circuitous route by t!ie Canaries' and tlie (.v^ijm". 

West Indies,* made a direct voyage across the Atlantic, ,- ^^-^;^'^"p'.n< 

and in seven weeks reached'' the American continent, pivb- g xote. p ua 

ably near tlie northern extremity of Massachusetts Bay.t '' '^''^ 

*Not findin*; a jiood harbor, and sailinsi southward, he ■* DhrxipfHcs 
J. 1 " 1 1" 1 1 ,-11 <i 1 »'i<"^<' fey A"'i- 

aiscovored and landoa' upon a pn^montorv whicli ho ealled i. M;ii-a4. 



* S^Mf isUnd is iV miles S. E. from tl>.- oastorn vwint of Xovs Sootif*. 

t Fitir>t,>i4tJi is ;> st>a)v>rt town at the oi»:ranco of tlxo Kuylish Ohaunol, nosr th>> southwestern 
«xtivmity of KnitU^uil. it is 50 milos S. \V. fr\im rivmouth, has an oxocllont h;u-K>r, anvt a 
r»adsto.'»a oaiwblo of rweiviivit tho l&rsv^st tlivt.<. 

I 3fi,ts.i-\jf,<rfr< /ijy is a larsw K-»v on iho custom co;vst of Af.'w^u-husotts. hi-tm-on tho head- 
laKild o' C^jH? Anu oa Uio north, anii C«pc Oevt on tke soutJi. 



134 VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. [Book a 

ANALYSIS. Cape Cod.* Siiiling thence, and pursuing liis course along 
a. June 1-4. ^'^^ coast, he discovered" several islands, one of which he 

named Elizabeth.i" and another Martha's Vineyard.:}: 
1. Attempt to 2. 'Here it was determined to leave a portion of the 
inent.'"'' crew for the purpose of Ibrming a settlement, and a store- 
house and fort were accordingly erected ; but distrust of 
the Indians, who began to show hostile intentions, and the 
despair of obtaining seasonable supplies, defeated the de- 
fa. June as. sign, and the whole party embarked'' for England. ^The 
\iiiymjast. I'eturn occupied but five weeks, and the entire voyage 

only four months. 
3. Accoxintqf 3. 'Gosuold and his companions brought back so favor- 
aiid°iisaw able reports of the regions visited, that, in the following 
%i,i vri'i'g- y^^i"' ^ company of Bristol merchants despatched'* two 
1G03. «niall vessels, under the command of Martin Pring, for 
c Note, p. 125. the purpose of exploring the country, and opening a traf- 
(1. April -20. ^Q wii\\ the natives. Pring landed'' on the coast oi' 
Main(!, — discovered some of its principal rivers, — and 
examined the coast of Massachusetts as far as Martha's 
Vineyard. The whole voyage occupied but six months. 
In IGOG, Pring repeated the voyage, and made a more 
accurate survey of Maine. 
i. Grant of X. Dk Monts. — 1. ^In 1603, the king of France 
veMonts. gi'autcd' to Dc Monts, a gentleman of distinction, the 
f. Nov. 8. sovereignty of the country from the 40th to the 46th de- 
gree of north latitude ; that is, from one degree south of 
ff. Note, p. 220. New York city,^ to one north of Montreal." 'Sailing' 
' ifiOd ^^'^^ ^^^*^ vessels, in the spring of 1604, he arrived at 
i. MarchV Nova Scotia^ in May, and spent the summer in trafficking 
j. Note, p.m. with the natives, and examining the coasts preparatory to 
^■Z'T"","^ a settlement. 

De Munts. 

«. Jiisjirst 2. "Selecting an island near the mouth of the river St. 

"'"'"''■ Croix, § on the coast of New Brunswick, he there erected 

■ "''^"''' a fort and passed a rigorous winter,'' his men suflering 

1605. much from the want of suitable provisions. 'In the follow- 

IfpmRo'jal '"S ^l"'in!^? lOOf), De Monts removed to a place on the Bay 

of Fundy;|| and here was formed the first permanent 

* Cape Carl, thus named ft»m the number of co' fish taken there by its discoTorer, is 50 miles 
S. ID. from lioston. 

t Elizabfth Ulnn/h are a group of 13 islands south of Buzzard's Bay, and from 20 to 30 miles 
E. and S. E. from Newport, Khoil* Lslmid. Nashawn, the larpcst, is 7 aud a lialf miles long. 
("attahnnU, the one named by Gosnold Elizabetli Island, is two miles and a half louj; aud threo 
quarters oi' .a niile l]Vo:id. 

X Mnrtlin's Vineii'iril, throe or four miles S. E. from the Elizabeth Islands, is 19 miles in 
leuji'th from 10. to \\' .. ami from 3 to 10 miles in width. The island callfd by fiosnold Martha's 
Vineyard is now e.alli d No Man's Land, a small i.';land four or five miles south from Blartha's 
Vineyard. AVhen or why the name was ehnnf?ed is not known. 

§ The St. Croix river, called by the Indians ,Sr/inofiir, empties into Vassamaquoddy Bay at the 
e.astern extremity of Maine. It was the island of the same name, a few miles up the rirer, on 
which the French settled. By the treaty of 1783 tlie St. ('roix was n\ade tiie east<>rn boundary 
of tilie United States, but it was uncertain what river was tlie St. Croix until the reuuuus of the 
I'rench fort were discovered . 

U The Saij nf Fuwly, remarkable for its high tides, lies between Nova Scotia and New Bruns- 



Part I.] 



NORTH AND SOUTH VIRGINIA. 



135 



Frencli settlement in America. The settlement was 
named Port Royal,* and the whole country, embracing 
the present New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and the adja- 
cent islands, was called Acadia. 

3. 'In 1608, De Monts, although deprived of his former 
commission, having obtained from the king of France the 
grant of the monopoly of the fir trade on the river St. 
Lawrence, fitted out two vessels for the purpose of form- 
ing a settlement ; but not finding it convenient to com- 
mand in person, he placed them under Samuel Champlain, 
who had previously visited those regions. 

4. '■'The expedition sailed* in April, and in June arri- 
ved* at Tadoussac, a barren spot at the mouth of the Sa- 
guenayf river, hitherto the chief seat of the traflic in furs. 
Thence Champlain continued to ascend the river until he 
had passed the Isle of Orleans,:}: when he selected<= a 
commodious place for a settlement, on the site of the pres- 
ent city of Quebec,'* and near the place where Cartier 
had passed the winter, and erected a fort in 1541. From 
this time is dated the first permanent settlement of the 
French in New France or Canada. 

XI. North and South Virginia. — 1. *In 1606 James 
the 1st, of England, claiming all that portion of North 
America which lies between the 34th and the 45th degrees 
of north latitude, embracing the country from Ca{)e Fear§ 
to Halifax, IJ divided this territory into two nearly equal 
districts; the one, called North Virginia, extending 
from the 41st to the 45th degree ; and the other, called 
South Virginia, from the 34th to the 38th. 

2. 'The former he granted* to a company of " Knights, 
gentlemen, and merchants," of the west of England, 
called the Plymouth Company ; and the latter to a com- 
pany of " noblemen, gentlemen, and merchants," mostly 
resident in London, and called the London Company. 
The intermediate district, from the 38th to the 41st degree, 
was open to both companies ; but neither was to form a 
settlement within one hundred miles of the other. 



1605. 



1608. 

1. Farther 
account of 
De Monts. 



2. Account of 
the voyage of 
Cliamplain, 

and the 

settlement of 

Quebec. 

a. April 13. 

b. June 3. 

c. July 3. 

d. Note, p. 280, 



1606. 

3. \orth Vir- 
ginia and 
South Vir- 
ginia. 



c. April 20. 

4. To what 

companies 

these districts 

were 

granted. 



wick. It is nearly 200 miles In length from S, W. to N. E., and 75 miles across at its entrance, 
gradually narrowing towards the head of the bay. At the entran<« the tide is of the ordinary 
height, about eifjht feet, but at the head of the ba}' it rises 60 feet, and is so rapid as often to 
overtake and sweep off animals feeding on the shore. 

* Port Royal (now Annapolis), once th« capital of French Acadia, is situated on the«ast bank 
ef the river and bay of Annajjolis, in the western part of Nova Scotia, a short distance from the 
Bay of Fundy. It has an excellent harbor, in whicli a thousand vessels might anchor in security. 

t The Sagiienay river empties into the St Lawrence from tDe north, ISO miles N. K. from 
Quebec. 

t The Isle of Orleant is a fertile island in the St. Lawrence, five milea below Quel)ec. It i6 
about SJ5 miles long and 5 broad. (See Map, p. 280.) 

§ Cape Fear is the southern point of Smith's Island, at the mouth of Cape Fear River, OB 
the coast of N. CaroKna, 150 miles N. E. from Charleston. (See Map, p. 251.) 

II Halifax, the capital of Nova Scotia, is situattjd on the S. \V. side of the Bay of ChebuctO, 
which is on the S. E. coast of Nova Scotia. The town is 10 miles from the sea, and has an e»- 
oellent harbor of 10 square miles. It Is about 450 nules N. £. from Boston. 



136 



VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES: 



[Boox ir. 



ANALYSIS. 

1. T/ie gov- 

trnments of 

these 

Aiairicts. 



S. Effects of 
t.*t€se refuta- 
tions. 



a. Aug. 23. 

kK Nov. 22. 

'. attempts of 

' . Plyinoutfi 

Sompany ta 

I itamine the 

country. 



1607. 

3. Aug 21. 
Attempted 
ettlement at 
Kennebec. 

d. Doc. LS. 



6. Expedition 
sent out hij 
the London 
Company. 

e. Deo 30. 

f. Note, P 131. 

e Note, p. 118. 

h. Note.p 112. 

i. May 6. 



3. 'The supreme government of each district was to be 
vested in a council residing in England, the members of 
which were to be appointed by the king, and to be re- 
moved at his pleasure. The local administration of the 
affairs of each colony was to be committed to a council 
residing within its limits, likewise to be appointed by the 
king, and to act conformably to his instructions. *The 
effects of these regulations were, that all executive and 
legislative powers were placed wholly in the hands of the 
king, and the colonists were deprived of the rights of self- 
government, — and the connpanies received nothing but a 
simple charter of incorporation for commercial purposes. 

4. *Soon after the grant, the Plymouth Company des- 
patched" a vessel to examine the country ; but before the 
voyage was completed she was captured'' by the Span- 
iards. Another vessel was soon after sent out for the same 
purpose, which returned with so favorable an account of 
the country, that, in the following year, the company sent 
out a colony of a hundred planters under the command 
of George Popham. 

5. ''They landed<= at the mouth of the Kennebec,* 
where they erected a few rude cabins, a store-house, and 
some slight fortifications ; after w^hich, the vessels sailed* 
for England, leaving forty-five emigrants in the plantation, 
which was named St. George. The winter was intensely 
cold, and the sufferings of the colony, from famine and 
hardships, were extremely severe. They lost their store- 
house by fire, and their president by death ; and, in the 
following year, abandoned the settlement and returned ta 
England. 

6. ^Under the charter of the London Company, which 
alone succeeded, three small vessels, under the command 
of Captain Christopher Newport, sailed^ for the American! 
coast in December, 1606, designing to land and form a 
settlement at Roanoke.'' Pursuing the old route by the 
Canaries,^ and the West Indies,"* Newport did not arrive 
until April ; when a storm fortunately carried' him north 
of Roanoke into Chesapeake Bay.f 




OJ 

JAMESTOWN 

viaa 



* The Kennebec, a rirer of Maine, west of the 
Penobscot, falls into the ocean 120 miles N. E. from 
Boston. — The place where the Sagadahoc colonif 
(as it is usually called) passed the winter, is in the 
present town of Phippsburg, which is composed of 
a long narrow peninsula at the mouth of the Ken- 
nebec Kiver, having the river on th<! east. Hills 
Point, a mile above the S. E. corner of the penin- 
sula, was the site of the colouy. 

t The Che!.apeake Bay, partly in Virginia, ancl 
partly in Maryland, is from 7 to 20 miles in width, 
180 miles in length from N. to S., and 12 miles 
wide at its entrance, between Cape Charles oa tha 
N. and Cape Henry on the S 



Part I.] NORTH AND SOUTH VUIGINIA. 137 

7. 'Sailing along the southern shore, he soon entered a 1606. 
noble river which he named James River,* and, after 



passing about fifty miles above the mouth of the stream, \'hesem^ent 
through a delightful country, selected'"- a place for a settle- %m^' 
ment, which was named Jamestown.f Here was formed a Mayas. 
the first permanent settlement of the English in the New 
World, — one hundred and ten years after the discovery 
of the continent by Cabot, and forty one years from the 
settlement'' of St. Augustine in Florida. •>. See p. 130. 



* The James River rises in the Alleghany Mountains, passes through the Blue Kidge, and 
fells into the southern part of Chesapeake Bay. Its entrance into the bay is called Hampton 
Moads, having Point Comfort on the north, and Willoughby Point on the south. 

t Jamestown is on the north side of James River, 30 miles from its mouth, and 8 miles S. S. 
W. from WiUiamshurg. The village is entirely deserted, with the exception of one or two old 
buildings, and is not found on modem maps. (See Map.) 

18 



APPENDIX 



TO THE PERIOD OF VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. 



ANALYSIS. 

I. The pre- 
ceding part 
of our his- 
tory. 



8. Impor- 
tance qf ex- 

amining 
English his- 
tory in con- 
nection with 

our own. 



S. Henry the 

Seventh. 

4. Intelli- 
gence of the 
discovery of 

America. 



5. Columbus 

deprived of 

thevatronage 

of Henry. 



» Enfilish 
v^r America 



1. iln the preceding part of our history we have passed over a 
period of more than one hundred years, extending from the end of 
the fifteenth to the beginning of the seventeenth century. As this 
portion consists of voyages and discoveries merely, made by navi- 
gators of different nations, with no unity of action or design, we 
find here little or nothing that can throw light on the subsequent 
character of the American people. 

2. 2In the meantime, however, our fathers, mostly of one nation, 
were already on the stage of action in another land, and causes 
and influences were operating to plant them as colonists on this 
then wilderness coast, and to give them those types of individual 
and national character which they afterwards exhibited. To Eng- 
land therefore, the nation of our origin, we must look, if we would 
know who and what our fathers were, in what circumstances they 
had been placed, and what characters they had formed. We shall 
thus be enabled to enter upon our colonial history with a prepara- 
tory knowledge that will give it additional interest in our eyes, 
and give us more enlarged views of its importance. Let us then, 
for a while, go back to England our father-land ; lei us look at the 
social, the internal history of her people, and let us endeavor to 
catch the spirit of the age as we pass it in review before us. 

3. ^Henry the Seventh, the first king of the house of Tudor,* 
was on the throne of England at the time of the discovery of 
America. ^When intelligence of that important event reached 
England, it excited there, as throughout Europe, feelings of sur- 
prise and admiration ; but in England these feelings were mingled 
with the regret that accident alone had probably deprived that 
country of the honor which Spain had won. ^For while Columbus, 
with little prospect of success, was soliciting aid from the courts 
of Portugal and Spain, to enable him to test the wisdom of his 
schemes, he sent his brother Bartholomew to solicit the patronage 
of the king of England, who received his propositions with the 
greatest favor. But Bartholomew having been taken prisoner by 
pirates on his voyage, and long detained in captivity, it was ascei-- 
tained soon after his arrival that the plans of Columbus had al- 
ready been sanctioned and adopted by Ferdinand and Isabella, 
when the patronage of Henry was no longer needed. 

4. ^Although the English were thus deprived of the honor of 



* So called because he was a descendant from Edmund Tudor. Before his accession to the 
throne his title was Earl of Richmond. The five Tudor sovereigns were Henry VII., Henry 
VIII., Edward \l., Mary, and Elizabeth. On the death of the latter the throne came into the 
possession of the Stuarts in the following manner. Margaret, eldest daughter of Henry TIT., 
married James Stuart, King of Scotland, whose title was James V. They left one daughter, 
the unfortunate Mary, Queen of Scots. On the death of Elizabeth the Tudor race was ex- 
tinct, and James VI. of Scotland, son of Mary of Scots, was the nearest heir to the throne of 
England, to which he acceded with the title of James I. ; the first English sovereign of the 
house of Stuarts. 

As the Tudor princes were on the throne of England duiing the first period of our history, 
and as this Appendix frequently refers to them individually, it wUl be well for the reader 
to learn the order of their succession by referring to the Chart, page . This will also serv* 
to fis in the mind a comparative view w'" the two histories — English and American. 



Part I.] 



VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES, 



139 



discovering America, they were the second nation to visit its shores, 
and the first that reached the continent itself. Little immediate 
benefit was derived to England from the two voyages of Cabot, 
except the foundation of a claim to the right of territorial pro- 
perty in the newly discovered regions. 'Cabot would willingly 
have renewed his voyages under the patronage of Henry, but find- 
ing him so occupied with civil dissensions at home that he could 
not be interested in projects of colonial settlements abroad, he 
transferred his services to the Spaniards, by whom he was long re- 
verenced for his superior skill in navigation. 

5. 2From the reign of Henry the Seventh to that of Elizabeth, 
the English appear to have had no fixed views of establishing col- 
onies in America; and even the valuable fisheries which they had dis- 
covered on the coast of Newfoundland, were, for nearly a century, 
monopolized by the commercial rivalries of France, Spain, and Por- 
tugal, although under the acknowledged right of English juris- 
diction. 

6. 3Henry the Seventh was a prince of considerable talents for 
public affairs, but exceedingly avaricious, and by nature a despot, 
although his sagacity generally led him to prefer pacific counsels. 
His power was more absolute than that of any previous monarch 
since the establishment of the Great Charter,* and although his 
reign was, on the whole, fortunate for the nation, yet the services 
which he rendered it were dictated by his views of private advan- 
tage, rather than by motives of public spirit and generosity — a sig- 
nal instance in which the selfishness of a monarch has been made 
to contribute to the welfare of his subjects. ''The state of England 
at this period requires from us more than a passing notice, for here 
commenced those changes in the condition of her people, the influ- 
ences of which have affected all their subsequent history, and, con- 
sequently, essentially modified the character of our own. 

7. 'At the accession of Henry, which was at the close of the 
long and bloody wars between the houses of York and Lancaster, 
which had ruined many of the nobility of the kingdom, there was 
no overshadowing aristocracy, as under former kings, sufficiently 
united and powerful to resist the encroachments of royal authority ; 
and the great body of the people, so long the sport of contending 
factions, were willing to submit to usurpations, and even injuries, 
rather than plunge themselves anew into like miseries. ^In the 
zeal of the king however to increase his own power and give it ad- 
ditional security, he unconsciously contributed to the advancement 
of the cause of popular liberty. In proportion as the power of the 
nobility had been divided and weakened by the former civil wars, so 
had the power of the Feudal Si/stem-\ been diminished, — a far more 



ANALYSIS. 

and found 
their clahiiH 
to territorial 

property. 
J. Cabot. 



2. Early re- 
latimmof 
England 

■with Amer- 
ica. 



3. Character 

and power of 

Henry the 

Seventh. 



4. Importance 
of k-nowing 
the. state of 
England at 
this period. 



5 State of 
England at 
the lime, of tht 
accesHon of 
Henry thA 
Seventh. 



6. Policy of 
Henry the 

Seventh, and 
its effects. 



* The Great Charter, [Magna Charta,] was obtained from King John, by the barons, amis 
in hand, in the year 1215. It limited and mitigated the seTerities of the feudal system, dimin- 
ished the arbitrary powers of the monarch, and guarantied important liberties and privileges 
to all classes — the barons, clergy, and people. Yet it was not till after a long and bloody strug- 
•jle, during many succeeding reigns, that the peaceable enjoyment of these rights was ob- 
tained. The Great Charter was signed June 15th, 1215, at a place called Runnymede, on the 
ranks of the River Thames, between Staines and Windsor. 

^ Feudal f>ystem. At the time of the Norman conquest, in the year 1066, the people of 
England, then called Anglo- iSaxons, from their mixed English and Saxon origin, were divided 
into three classes : — the nobles or thanes ; the freemen ; and the villains, or slaves. The lat- 
ter, liowevcr, a very numerous class, were of several kinds, and reduced to different degrees 
of servitude. Those who cultivated the land were transfered with it from one proprietor to 
another, and could not be removed from it. Others, taken in war, were the absolute property 
of their masters. The power of a master however over his slaves, was not unlimited among 
the Anglo-Saxons, aa it was among their German ancestors. If a man maimed his slave the 
latter recovered his freedom ; if he killed him he paid a fine to the king ; but if the slave did 



140 APPENDIX TO THE PERIOD OF [Book II. 

ANALYSIS, odious instrument of tyranny than was ever wielded by a single 

despot. It was the selfish policy of Henry, as we shall learn, that 

did the world the valuable service of giving to this system its 
death-blow in England. 
I. Former 8. Ut had long been a practice among the nobles, or barons, for 
voiicy of the g^^^j^ ^^ engage as many men in his service as he was able, giving 
them badges or liveries, by which they were kept in readiness to as- 
sist him in all wars, insurrections, and riots, and even in bearing evi- 

2. Nature of dence for him in courts of justice. 2Xhe barons had thus estab- 
'*"'"^''**'"'- lished petty despotisms of the most obnoxious kind, hostile alike 

to the power of the sovereign, and to the administration of justice 

3. The course among the people, sjealous of the power thus exercised by the 
mkw^oeak- harons, and which, at times, had been the severest restraint upon 

en it. the royal prerogative, the king sought to weaken it by causing se- 
vere laws to be enacted against engaging retainers, and giving 
badges or liveries to any but the menial servants of the baron's 
household. An instance of the severity of the king in causing 
these laws to be rigidly enforced is thus related by Hume. 



not die within a day after the injury, the offence went unpunished. These ranks and condi- 
tions of society constituted the feudal system of England in its immature state. The conquest 
by William of Normandy, however, was the cause of establishing this system in its more perfect 
state as it then existed on the continent. 

William distributed large tracts of the lands of the kingdom among his Norman followers ; 
yet to all these grants a yariety of obligations was annexed. Those Saxon landholders also, 
who were permitted to retain their estates, were required first to surrender them to the crown, 
and then to receive them again on the same conditions that were exacted of the Normans. 
The most important of these conditions was the requirement of miUtary service ; together with 
certain payments, of various kinds, which constituted a considerable part of the royal revenue. 
Upon the non-fulfilment of the conditions on which the lands were granted, they reverted back 
to the sovereign. In consequence of this change in the tenures by which land was held, it 
became a fundamental maxim in English law, " that the king is the universal lord and origi- 
nal proprietor of all the lands in his kingdom." The word/ewrf signified " an estate in trust," 
hence the propriety of calhng this the " Feudal System." 

Nearly the same conditions which the sovereign exacted of the barons, the latter im- 
posed upon their vassals or tenants, who were a species of subordinate landholders ; so that 
a feudal baron was a king in miniature, and a barony was a little kingdom. These vassals or 
tenants w«re entitled to the services of the Anglo-Saxon serfs or villains, who were annexed to 
the land which they cultivated. These serfs, called also predial slaves, possessed an imperfect 
kind of property of their own, in their houses, furniture and gardens ; and could not be re- 
moved from the land ; but the household or domestic slaves^ the same as with the Saxons, 
were the personal property of their masters, who sold them at their pleasure, and even ex- 
ported them, as articles of commerce, into foreign countries. The niunbers of this latter class 
were greatly increased by the Norman conquest, as those who were taken prisoners at the bat- 
tle of Hastings, and in subsequent revolts, were reduced to slavery. 

During the fifteenth century the number, both of domestic and predial slaves, was greatly 
diminished, as the proprietors of land found that their work was performed to better purpose, 
and even at less expense, by hired servants. The numerous wars, also, in which the English 
were engaged during this period, contributed to the decline of slavery, by obliging the nobles 
to put arms into the hands of their serfs and domestics. Yet so late as the reign of Henry the 
Eighth, we read of English slaves, the absolute property of their masters, although at this time 
it was a prevailing opinion among people of all ranks, that slavery was inconsistent with the 
spirit of Christianity, and the rights of humanity. In the year 1514 Henry the Eighth granted 
an act of manumission to two of his slaves and their families, for which he assigned this reason 
in the preamble : " That God had at first created all men equally free by nature, but that 
many had been reduced to slavery by the laws of men. We believe it therefore to be a pious 
act, and meritorious in the sight of God, to set certain of our slaves at liberty from their bon- 
dage." It is asserted by one who wrote during the reign of Edward the Sixth., that neither 
predial nor domestic slaves were then found in England, although the laws still admitted both. 
The most obnoxious features of the Feudal System had then become extinct ; although the 
military tenures, with their troublesome appendages, were not abolished until 1672, in the 
reign of Charles the Second. Even now, some honorary services, required of the ancient 
barons, are retained at coronations, and on other public occasions. The effects of the feudal 
system are also still seen in the existence of some portions of that powerful landed aristocracy 
which it created ; and also in many peculiarities in the government and laws of England. The 
latter cannot be understood with any degree of accuracy without a general acquaintance with 
the system in which they originated. 

On this subject, see all the important Histories of England : also, Blackstone's Commenta- 
ries, Book II., chapters 4, 5, and 6. 



Part I.] VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. 141 

9. 1" The Ccarl of Oxford, the king's fiivorite general, in Tvliom lie analysis. 
always placed great and deserved confidence, having splendidly en- "~ ~ 
tertained him at his castle of Heningham, -was desirous of making the king's se- 
a parade of his magnificence at the departure of his royal guest, "/'l'--'^^"^' 
and ordered all his retainers, with their liveries and badges, to be favontt 
drawn up in two lines, that their appearance might be more gallant volicy- 
and splendid. ' My lord,' said the king, ' I have heard much of 
your hospitality ; but the truth far exceeds the report. These 
handsome gentlemen and yeomen, whom I see on both sides of me, 
are, no doubt, your menial servants.' The earl smiled, and con- 
fessed that his fortune was too narrow for such magnificence. 
' They are, most of them,' subjoined he, ' my retainers, who are 
come to do me service at this time, when they know I am honored 
with your majesty's presence.' The king started a little, and said, 
' By my faith, my lord, I thank you for your good cheer, but I 
must not allow my laws to be broken in my sight. My attorney 
must speak with you.' Oxford* is said to have paid no less than 
fifteen thousand marks, as a composition for his offence." 

10. 2Such severity was highly effectual in accomplishing its object, 2. Benefldal 
and the emulation of the barons, and their love of display and mag- ^^% "policy 
nificence gradually took a new direction. Instead of vieing with uvon the 
each other in the number and power of their dependents or retain- '^t^e'Enfush 
ers, they now endeavored to excel in the splendor and elegance of people. 
their equipage, houses, and tables. The very luxuries in which 
they indulged thus gave encouragement to the arts ; the manners 
of the nobility became more refined ; and the common people, no 
longer maintained in vicious idleness by their superiors, were ob- 
liged to learn some calling or industry, and became useful both to 
themselves and to others. Such were some of the beneficial effects 
of a law originating merely in the monarch's jealousy and distrust 
of the power of the nobility. 

11. sAnother severe but covert blow upon the power of the barons 3. Abolition 
was the passage of a law.t giving to them the privilege of selling l{^o/"ntaul 
or otherwise disposing of their landed estates, which before were —new policy. 
inalienable, and descended to the eldest son by the laws of primo- 
geniture. *This liberty, not disagreeable to the nobles themselves, 4. Effects of 
and highly pleasing to the commons, caused the vast fortunes of ^^oifcv"' 
the former to be gradually dissipated, and the property and influ- 
ence of the latter to be increased. The effects of this, and of the 

former law, gradually gave a new aspect to the condition of the 
common people, who began to rise, only with the waning power of 
the Feudal System. 

12. sWith the clergy, however, Henry was not so successful. At 5. The clergy. 
that time all convents, monasteries, and sanctified places of wor- sancluar^i ; 
ship, were general asylums, or places of refuge, to which criminals vain attempts 
might escape, and be safe from the vengeance of the law. This tohmeihem 
was little less than allowing an absolute toleration of all kinds of abolished. 
vice ; yet Henry, induced principally by a jealousy of the growing 

power and wealth of the monastic body, in vain exerted his influ- 
ence with the pope to get these sanctuaries abolished. All that 
he could accomplish, was, that if thieves, robbers, and murder- 
ers, who had fled for refuge to the sanctuaries, should sally out 



* Lingard, copying from Bacon, says, " The Earl of Eiiex." Lingard states the fine at 
10,000 pounds. 

t According to Hallam, this was merely the re-enactment of a law passed during the reign 
of Richard III. If so, the law had probably fallen into disuse, or doubts of its validity may 
have existed. 



142 



APPENDIX TO THE PERIOD OF 



[Book L 



ANALYSIS. 



1. " Benefit 
of Clergy :" 
ahridsxments 
of, and also of 
the privileges 

of the sanc- 
tuary. 



2. Lmi)s rela- 
tive to mur- 
der. 



3. State of 
morals, crim- 
nal statistics. 



4, Gradual 

diminution 

of capital 

offence's, 

5. Ascribed to 
ichat. 



6. The prin- 
ciple ilhistra- 
ted by these 
facts. 

1. Foreign 

convmerce : 

attempts to 

regulate the 

Sonne, 



and commit new offences, and escape a second time, they might 
then be taken and delivered up to justice. 

13. 'The benefit of clergy,* however, was somewhat abridged ; the 
criminal, for the first offence being burned in the hand, with a let- 
ter denoting his crime ; after which he was liable to be punished 
capitally if convicted a second time. But in the following reign, 
when the Reformation had extended over England, the benefit of 
clergy was denied to any under the degree of sub-deacon, and the 
privileges of the sanctuary, as places of refuge for crimimals, were 
abolished ; but it was long before all distinctions in the penal code 
were removed between the clergy and other subjects. 

14. 2The laws relative to murder, however, even at the commence- 
ment of the sixteenth century, exhibited a spirit little less enlight- 
ened than that found among some of the savage tribes of North 
America. Prosecutions for murder were then, as now, carried on 
in the name of the sovereign, yet a limited time was si^ecified 
within which the prosecution was to be commenced, and often, in 
the interval, satisfaction was made by the criminal, to the friends 
or relatives of the person murdered, and the crime was suffered to 
go unpunished. But now, in all civilized nations, public prosecu- 
tors are appointed, whose duty it is to bring to justice all offenders 
against the peace and safety of society. 

15. 30f the state of morals daring this period, we may form some 
idea from the few criminal statistics that have been handed down 
to us, although the numbers are jjrobably somewhat exaggerated. 
It is stated in an act of parliament passed in the third year of the 
I'cign of Henry the Eighth, that the number of prisoners in the 
kingdom, confined for debts and crimes, amounted to more than 
sixty thousand, an assertion which appears to us scarcely credible. 
One writer asserts that during the same reign, of thirty-eight 
years, seventy-two thousand persons were executed for theft and 
robbery — amounting to nearly two thousand a year. 

16. ^But we are told that during the latter part of the reign of 
Elizabeth the number punished capitally was less than four hundred 
in a year, and that, about the middle of the eighteenth century, this 
number had diminished to less than fifty. ^This diminution is 
ascribed by Hume to the great improvement in morals since the 
reign of Henry the Eighth, caused chiefly, ho asserts, by the in- 
crease of industry, and of the arts, which gave maintenance, and, 
what is of almost equal importance, occupation to the lower 
classes. ^If these be facts, they afford an illustration of the prin- 
ciple, that, in an ignorant population, idleness and vice almost in- 
sepai'ably accompany each other. 

17. '^During the time of Henry the Seventh, foreign commerce was 
carried on to little extent, although the king attempted to encou- 
rage it by laws regulating trade : yet so unwise were most of these 
laws that trade and industry were rather hurt than promoted by 



* By " benefit of clergy," is understood a provision of law by which clergymen and others 
set apart to perforin religious services were exempted from criminal process in the ordinary 
courts of law, and delivered over to the ecdesia.stical jnige ; so that the church alone took cog- 
nizance of the offence. Under this regulation, a corrupt priesthood niiglit be guilty of the 
greatest enormities, with no human power to bring the offemlers to justice. Originally the 
benefit of clergy was allowed to those only who were of the clerical order ; but in process of 
time it was extended to all wlio could read ; such persons being accounted in those days of 
ignorance, worthy of belonging to the clerical order. A large number of petty offences were 
then punishable with death to those who were not entitled to plead the "benefit of clergy. 
— (For the various modifications and changes which the laws relating to benefit of clergy have 
undergone, and their influences in forming the present penal code of England, see Blackstone^ 
Book IV., chap, xxviii.) 



Part I.] VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. I43 

the care and attention bestowed upon them. Laws were made analysis, 

against the exportation of gold and silver, and against the expor- " 

tation of horses : prices were aifixed to woollen cloth, to caps and 

hats ; and the wages of laborers were regulated by law. In the other impol- 

Ibllowing reign these unjust regulations were greatly extended, al- ^^'^ '""'*■ 

though in many instances it was impossible to enforce them. Laws 

"were made to prohibit luxury in apparel, but without much effect : 

a statute was enacted to fix the price of beef, pork, mutton, and 

veal : and laws Avere passed to prevent the people from abandoning 

tillage and throwing their lands into pasturage. 

IS. IT he apparent necessity for this latter law arose from the ef- i- Lmv to pre- 
fects of fonner partial and unjust enactments, which fbrbade the aonment"of 
exportation of grain and encouraged that of wool. So pernicious tillage, and 
to the great mass of the people was this system, although lucra- ''* *-^*'^ *' 
live to the large landholders, owing to the increasing demand for 
wool, that the beggary and diminished population of the poorer 
classes were its consequences. 2i3ui.ing the reign of Edward VI., 2. Lawrela- 
a law was made by which every one was prohibited from making manufacture 
cloth, unless he had served an apprenticeship of seven years. This of cloth. 
law, after having occasioned the decay of the woollen manufactures, 
and the ruin of several towns, was repealed in the first year of the 
reign of Mary, but it is surprising that it was renewed during the 
reign of Elizabeth. 

19. 3The loan of capital for commercial uses was virtually prohibit- 3. Lawsregu- 
ed by the severe laws which were enacted against taking interest fbr "'jlan 0/ 
money, which Avas then denominated usury ; all evasive contracts, money. 
by which profits could be made from the loan of money, were care- 
fully guarded against, and even the profits of exchange were pro- 
hibited as savoring of usury. It was not until 1545, during the 

reign of Henry the Eighth, that the first legal interest was known 

in England, but so strong were the prejudices of the people against 

the law that it was repealed in the following reign of Edward the 

Sixth,* and not firmly established until 1571, in the reign of 

Elizabeth, when the legal rate of interest was fixed at ten per cent. 

•'An evidence of the increasing advance of commercial prosperity 4. Reduction 

is exhibited in the fact that in 1624 the rate of interest was redu- of the rate of 

ced to eight per cent. ; in 1672 to six per cent. ; and finally, in 1714, 

the last year of the reign of queen Anne, it was reduced to five 

per cent. 

20. 50ne of the greatest checks to industry during most of the 5. injurious 
sixteenth century was the erection of numerous corporations, which fnonopoUea. 
enacted laws for their own benefit Avithout regard to the interests 

of the public, often confining particular manufactures, or branches 
of commerce, to particulnr towns or incorporated companies, and 
excluding the open country in general. ^As an example of the 6. Example 
powers which these monopolies had been allowed to exercise, it "■^/l^fj"'//!'/" 
may be mentioned that the company of merchant adventurers in were allowed 
London, had, by their own authority, debarred all other merchants '° exercise. 
from trading to certain foreign ports, without the payment, from 
each individual, of nearly seventy pounds sterling for the priv- 
ilege. 

21. TMany cities of England then imposed tolls at their gates; 7 Various 
and the cities of Gloucester and Worcester, situated on the river p^verfof 
Severn, had assumed and long exercised the authority of exacting ciiie-i. 

a tribute on the navigation of that stream. Some of these corpo- 



* Notwithstanding the laws against usury, money was secretly loaned at this time — the com 
men rate of interest during the reigu of Edward the Sixth being fourteen per cent. 



144 



APPENDIX TO THE PERIOD OF 



[Book II. 



ANALYSIS. 



1. Archery, 
national de- 
fence, fire- 
arms, <^c- 



2. The Eng- 
lish navy in 
early CiTnes. 



3. Greatly im- 
proved by 
Elizabeth. 



4. Its condi- 
tion at the 
death of 
Elizabeth. 

a- March 24, 

old style. 
5. Population 
of England. 



6. Frerora- 

Cives of the 

sovereigns nf 

England. 



rate powers were abrogated by Henry VII..^ and, as a partial check 
to farther abuses, a law was enacted by parliament that corpora- 
tions should not make any by-laws without the consent of three 
of the chief officers of state. But during the reign of Edward 
VI. the city corporations, which, by a former law, had been abol- 
ished so far as to admit the exercise of their peculiar trades be- 
yond the city limits, were again closed, and every one who was 
not a member of the corporation was thus prohibited from follow- 
ing the trade or profession of his choice. Such restrictions would 
now be deemed exceedingly tyrannical under any government, and 
totally at variance with sound principles of political economy. 

22. 'Several laws passed during the reigns of Henry VII. and 
Henry VIII. for the encouragement of archery, show on what the 
defence of the kingdom was then thought to depend. Every man 
was required to have a bow ; and targets, to exercise the skill of 
the archers, were ordered to be erected in every parish, on grounds 
set apart for shooting exercises. In the use of the bow the Eng- 
lish excelled all other European nations. Fire-arms, smaller than 
cannon, were then unknown in Europe, although gunpowder had 
been used during two centuries.* 

23. 2The beginning of the English navy dates back only to the 
time of Henry the Seventh. It is said that Henry himself ex- 
pended fourteen thousand pounds in building one ship, called the 
Great Harry. Before that time, when the sovereign wanted a fleet, 
he had no expedient but to hire or press the ships of the mer- 
chants. Even Henry the Eighth, in order to fit out a navy, was 
obliged to hire ships from some of the German cities and Italian 
states. 3But Elizabeth, early in her reign, put the navy upon a 
better footing, by building several ships of her own, and by en- 
couraging the merchants to build large trading vessels, which, on 
occasion, were converted into ships of war. So greatly did Eliza- 
beth increase the shipping of the kin2;dom, that she was styled 
by her subjects the "Restorer of naval glory, and Q.ueen of the 
northern seas." 

24. 4 Yet at the time of the death of Elizabeth, in 1603,=' only two 
and a half centuries ago, the entire navy of England consisted of 
only forty-two vessels, and the number of guns only seven hun- 
dred and fifty-four, sgut the population of England, and indeed 
of all European states at that period, was probably much less than 
at the present day. Although some writers assert that the popula- 
tion of England, in the reign of Elizabeth, amounted to two mil- 
lions, yet Sir Edward Coke stated, in the house of commons, in 
1621, that he had been employed, with chief-justice Popham, to 
take a survey of all the people of England, and that they found 
the entire population to amount to only nine hundred thousand. 
Two centuries later the entire population of England numbered 
more than twelve millions. 

2.5. 6The nature and extent of the prerogatives claimed and exer- 
cised by the sovereigns of England during the first period of our 
history, present an interesting subject of inquiry ; as, by compa- 



* It is believed that gunpowder was known in China at a very parl3' pericl, hut it wa* 
invented in Europe in the year 1.320 by Bartholomew Schwartz, a German monk. It is known, 
however, that the composition of gunpowder was described by Roger ]?:icon in a treatise writ. 
ten by him in 1280. — King Edward the Third made use of cannon at the battle of Crcssy in 
1-346, and at tlie siege of Calais in 1.347. The first use of shells thrown from mortars was in 
1495, when Naples was besieged by Charles the Eighth of France. JIuskets were first used at 
the siege of Rhege in 1521. At first muskets were very heavy — could not be used without a rest 
— and were fired by match-locks. Fire-locks were first used in Englanl during the civii wara 
in the reign of Charles the First. 



Part I.] VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. 145 

ring them -witli the powers of succeeding princes, we arc enabled analysis. 
to trace tlie gradual encroachments upon the kingly authority, and "~ 

the corresponding advancement of civil rights, and liberal prin- 
ciples of government. ^One of the most obnoxious instruments of i Court of 
tyranny daring the whole of the sixteenth century was the court cAomfer." 
of the Star Chamber^ an ancient court, founded on the principles 
of the common law, but the powers of which were increasod by 
act of parliament, in the reign of Henry the Seventh, to a degree 
wholly incompatible with the liberties of the people. 

26. 2This court, one of the highest in the realm, and entirely un- 2. Composi- 
der the influence of the monarch, consisted of the privy couilsoUors "^[fii'^'and''' 
of the king, together with two judges of the courts of common law, character of 
who decided cases without the intervention of a jury. Its charac- 
ter is well described by lord Clarendon, who says that '■ its power 
extended to the asserting of all proclamations and orders of state ; 

to the vindicating of illegal commissions, and grants of monopolies ; 
holding for honorable that which jjleased, and for just that which 
jjrofited ; being a court of law to determine civil rights, and a 
court of revenue to enrich the treasury ; enjoining obedience to 
arbitrary enactments, by fines and imprisonments ; so that by its 
numerous aggressions on the liberties of the i^eople, the very foun- 
dations of right were in danger of being destroyed." 

27. 3Yet notwithstanding the arbitrary jurisdiction of this court, ^^J^^'fn^^T 
and the immense power it gave to the royal prerogative, it was long long pertoi. 
deemed a necessary appendage of the government, and, at a later 

day, its utility was highly extolled by such men as Lord Bacon. 

^This court continued, with gradually increasing authority, for 4. Its aboU- 

more than a century after the reign of Henry the Seventh, when it '""'• 

was finally abolished in 1641, during the reign of Charles the First, 

to the general joy of the whole nation. 

2S. 'During the reign of Henry the Eighth, the royal prerogative 5. The royal 
was carried to its greatest excess, and its encroachments were legal- ^liff°,ff^"i^^ 
ized bj' an act of Parliament, which declared that the king's pro- reign of 
clamation should have all the force of the most positive law. ^Lin- ^^fJ/f^^/ 
gard, the Catholic historian of England, asserts, that, although at g. Assertion 
the time of the accession of Henry the Eighth there existed a spirit "'""^e ^'J ^'■"- 
of freedom, which, on several occasions, defeated the ArhiivnTj ° tion to this 
measures of the court^ yet before the death of Flenry, the king had subject. 
grown into a despot, and the people had sunk into a nation of 
slaves. 

29. ■'The causes of this change are ascribed to the obsequiousness 7. Tha causes 
of the parliaments ; the assumption, by the king, of ecclesiastical change. 
supremacy, as head of the church : and the servility of the two reli- 
gious parties which divided the nation, each of which, jealous of 
the othei', flattered the vanity of the king, submitted to his caprices, 
and became the obsequious slaves of his I'lcasure. ^Efi-waixl the e.Theprerog- 
Sixth, Mary, and Elizabeth, possessed nearly the same legal powei-s cuZfbyEd- 
as their father Henry the Eighth; but Elizabeth had the policy ward the 
not to exert all the authority vested in the crown, unless for impor- ^^and iifza-' 
tant purposes. All these sovei-cigns, however, exercised the most beUi. 
arbitrary power in religious matters, as will be seen when we come 
to the subject of the Reformation. 

30. 9lt should be remembered that Henry the Seventh, Henry the 9. The Tudor 
Eighth, Edward the Sixth, Mary, and Elizabeth, were the five sovereigns. 
sovereigns of the house of Tudor. '''A comparative view of the state lO- Compara 
of the English government during their reigns, embracing the whole Enff/ami'dli 
of the sixteenth century, the first period of Americtm history, may ring their 
be gathered from the following statement. retgns. 

19 



146 



APPENDIX TO THE PERIOD OF 



ANALYSIS. 31. 'All the Tudor princes possessed little less than ah.solute power 
over the lives, liberty, and property of their subjects, because all 
laws were inferior to the royal prerogative, which might at any 
time be exerted, in a thou.sand diti'creiit ways, to condemn the in- 
nocent or screen the guilty. 2Xhe sovereigns before the Tudor 
princes wei-e restrained by the power of the barons; those after 
them by the power of the people, exercised through the House of 
Conmious, a branch of the English Parliament. ^Yet under the 
baronial aristocracy of the leudal system, the|>eop/»; had less liberty 
than under the arbitrary rule of the Tudor princes. This may 
reconcile the apparently conflicting statements, that Henry the 
Seventh, and the succeeding Tudor princes, greatly extended the 
powers of the royal prerogative, and yet that their reigns were 
more favorable tlian those of former princes to the liberties of the 
people. ''An absolute aristocracy is even more dangerous to civil 
liberty than an absolute monarchy. The former is the aggregate 
power of many tyrants : the latter, the power of but one. 

32. 50f the plain, or rather rude way of living among the people 
of England during the first period of our history, we shall give a 
sketch from an historian* who wrote during the reign of Elizabeth. 
sThis writer, speaking of the increase of luxuries, and of the many 
good gifts Ibr which they were indebted to the blessings of Provi- 
dence, says : ' There are old men yet dwelling in the village where 
I remain, who have noted three things to be marvelously altered in 
England within their sound remembrance. ^One is the multitude 
of chimneys lately erected ; whereas, in their young days, there 
were not above two or three, if so many, in most country towns, — 
the fire being made against the wall, and the smoke escaping through 
an opening in the roof. 

33. 8- The second thing to be noticed is the great amendment of 
lodgings; for, said they, our fhthers, and we ourselves, have lain 
full oft upon straw pallets, with a light covering, and a good 
round log under our head, instead of a bolster. If the good man 
of the house had a mattrass, and a sack of chaff to rest his head 
upon, he thought himself as well lodged as the lord of the town. 
Pillows were thought meet only for sick women; and as ibr ser- 
vants, if they had any sheet above them it was well, for seldom had 
they any under their bodies to keep them from the pricking straws 
that oft ran through the canvass on which they rested. 

34. 9- The third thing of which our f;\thers tell us is the exchange 
of wooden platters for pewter, and wooden spoons for silver or tin. 
For so common Avere all sorts of wooden vessels in old time, that a 
man should hardly find four pieces of pewter in a good farmer's 
house.' i^Again we are told that ■' In times past men were con- 
tented to dwell in houses of willow, so that the use of the oak was, 
in a manner, dedicated wholly to churches, princes' palaces, navi- 
gation, &c. ; but now willow is rejected, and nothing but oak any 
where regarded: and yet, see the change: for when our houses 
were built of willow, then had we oaken men ; but now that our 
houses are come to be made of oak. our men are not only become 
willow, but a great many altogether of straw, Avhich is a sore alter- 
ation. 

35. '•' In former times the courage of the owner was a sufficient de- 
fence to keep the house in safety ; but now the assurance of the 
timber must defend the house from robbing. I'^Now have we many 
chimneys, and yet our tender bodies complain of rheums, colds and 



1. Arbitrary 
poiBcr of these 

sovcrci^im. 

2. Restraints 
■upon former 

and subse- 

quent 

princes. 

3. Compara- 
tive libi'rlies 

erijnyed by 
Vie jieoplc. 



4. Ahsolvie 
ar'stucracy, 
ami absolute 
Monarchy. 

5. ilocle of liv- 
ing among 
the common 
•people of 
England. 
6. " Increase 

of luxuries." 



7. " Chitn- 
net/s." 



8. " Mnend- 
ment of lodg- 
ings." 



S. Domestic 
utensils. 



10. " Oaken 

houses," and 

" joilloi'j 

men." 



11. Personal 
courage. 

12. Bodily 
health im- 
paired. 



■» Hollingshed. 



Part I.] VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. 147 

catarrhs: then our fires were made in recesses against the walls, analysis. 

and our heads did never ache. For as the smoke, in those day.s, • 

was supposed to be a sufficient hardening for the timber of the 
house, so it was reputed a fir better medicine to keep the good man 
and his family from rheumatisms and colds, wherewith, as then, 
very few were acquainted.' 

36. 'By another writer of the same period we are informed that i. City bum- 
'the greatest part of the cities and good towns of England then con- jioZesoffhe 
sisted only of timber, cast over with thick clay, to keep out the nobuuy. 
wind.' The same author adds that the new houses of the nobility 

were commonly built of brick or stone, and that glass windows 
were then beginning to be used in England. The floors of the best 
houses were of clay, strewed with rushes. 

37. iWe are informed that, '• in the time of Elizabeth, the nobility, 2. Uours of 
gentry, and students, ordinarily dined at eleven, before noon, and '^^^^iingf 
supped at five. The merchants dined, and supped, seldom before 

twelve, at noon, and six, at night, especially in London. The hus- 
bandmen dined also at high noon, as they called it, and supped at 
seven or eight." We are told by Hume, that Froissard mentions 
waiting on the Duke of Lancaster at five o'clock in the afternoon, 
when the latter had supped. , 

38. 3In reference to the growing lateness of the hours in his time, 3 Growing 
Hume has the following remarks : '■ It is hard to tell, why, all over ['J^'^rf 
the world, as the age becomes more luxuriou.s, the hours become 
later. Is it the crowd of amusements that push on the hours gradu- 
ally ? or are the people of fashion better pleased with the secrecy 
and silence of nocturnal hours, when the industrious vulgar are 
gone to rest 1 In rude ages men have but few amusements and 
occupations, but what daylight affords them." 

39. ■'It was not until near the end of the reign of Henry the Eighth < Apricots, 
that apricots, melons, and currants, were cultivated in England, ^^rmrus. 
when they were introduced from the island of Zante. ^Hume as- 5 Edibu 
serts that salads, carrots, turnips, and other edible roots, were first '""'"'• 
introduced about the same period ; but from other and older writers 
it appears that these fruits of the garden had been formerly known 
and cultivated, but afterwards neglected, ^xhe first turkeys seen 6. Turkeys. 
in Europe were imported from America by Cabot, on his return 
from his first voyage to the western world. 

■40. ■'Some of the early colonists sent to Virginia by Raleigh, having i- Tobacco in 
contracted a relish for tobacco, an herb which the Indians esteemed "^ " 
their principal medicine, they brought a quantity of it to England, 
and taught the use of it to their countrymen. The use of the 
•■ filthy weed" soon became almost universal, creating a new appe- 
tite in human nature, and forming, eventually, an important branch 
of commerce between England and her American colonies. It is 
said that dueen Elizabeth herself, in the close of her life, became 
one of Raleigh's pupils in the accomplishment of smoking.* ^xhe s.Tfte potato. 



* One flay, a.s she was partaldng thi.s indulgence, Raleigh betted with her that he eoiild 
ascertain the weight of the smoke that should issue in a given time from her majesty's mouth. 
For this purpose, he weighed first the tobacco, and afterwards the ashes left in the pipe, and 
iussigned the difference as the weight of the smoke. The queen acknowledged that he had 
gained his bet ; adding that she believed he was the only alchemist who had ever succeeded 
in turning smoke into gold.— Slith. 

It appears that the smoking of tobacco, a cu.stom first observed among the native.'? of Amer- 
ica, was at first called by the whites, '■ drinking tobacco." Thus in the account given by the 
Plymouth people of their first conference with Massasoit, it is saijl, " behind his back hung a 
little bag of tobacco, which he drank, and gave us to drink." Among the records of the Ply- 
mouth colony for the year 1646 is found an entry, that a committee was appointed " to draw 
up an order concerning the disorderly drinking of tobacco." 



148 



APPENDIX TO THE PERIOD OF 



[Book U. 



ANALYSIS, potato, one of the cheapest and most nourishing species of vegeta- 
ble food, was first trought from America into Ireland in the year 



1. Indebted- 
ness of Amer- 
ica to Eu- 
rope. 



2. Pocket 
watches. 

3. Coaches. 



4. Carrying 
of the mail. 



5. African 
slave trade. 



6. Early in- 
troduction of 
slaves into 
America by 
the Span- 
iards. 



7. Policy of 

Las Casas, 

and its effects. 



8. NohJe at- 
tempt of 
Charles the 
Fifth, hme 
defeated 

a. 1356. 



9. The. slave 
trade encour- 
aged in 
France. 



10. In Eng- 
land. 



1565 ; but it was fifty years later before this valuable root was 
much cultivated in England. 

41. 'Nor should we neglect to mention the indebtedness which 
America owes to Europe. Besides a race of civilized men, the former 
has received from the latter a breed of domestic animals. Oxen, 
horses, and sheep were unknown in America until they were intro- 
duced by the English, French, Dutch and Swedes, into their respec- 
tive settlements. Bees were imported by the English. The In- 
dians, who had never seen these insects before, gave them the name 
of English flies, and used to say to each other, when a swarm of 
bees appeared in the woods, " Brothers, it is time for us to depart, 
for the white people are coming." 

42. 2About the year 1577, during the reign of Elizabeth, pocket- 
watches were first brought into England from Germany. ^Soon 
after, the use of coaches was introduced by the Earl of Arundel. 
Before this time, the queen, on public occasions, rode on horseback, 
behind her chamberlain, ^xhe mail' began to be regularly carried 
on a few routes, during the reign of Elizabeth, although but few 
post offices were established until 1635, in the reign of Charles the 
First, — fifteen years after the founding of the Plymouth colony. 

43. 5lt was during the reign of Elizabeth that the African slave 
trade was first introduced into England ; and as that inhuman 
traffic afterwards entailed such evils upon our own countrj^, it may 
not be uninteresting to give in this place a brief account of its origin. 

^As early as 1503 a few African slaves were sent into the New 
World from the Portuguese settlements on the coast of Africa ; 
and eight yeai-s later Ferdinand of Spain permitted their importa- 
tion into the Spanish colonies in greater numbers, with the design 
of substituting their labor in the place of that of the less hardy 
natives of America. But on his death the regent, cardinal Ximenes, 
discarded this policy, and the timffic ceased. 

44. lA few years later, after the death of the cardinal, the worthy 
Las Casas, the friend and benefactor of the Indian race, in the 
warmth of his zeal to save the aboriginal Americans from the yoke 
of bondage which his countrymen had imposed upon them, but not 
perceiving the iniquity of reducing one race of men to .slavery, un 
der the plea of thereby restoring liberty to another, urged upon 
his monarch, Charles the Fifth, then king of Spain, the importa- 
tion of negroes into America, to supply the Spanish plantations. 
Unfortunately, the plan of Las Casas was adopted, and the trade 
in slaves between Africa and America was brought into a regular 
form by the royal sanction. 

45. ^Charles however lived long enough to repent of what he had 
thus inconsiderately done, and in his later years he put a stop to 
the slave trade, by an order that all slaves in his American domin- 
ions should be fVee. This order was subsequently defeated by his 
voluntary surrender^ of the crown to his son, and his retirement 
into a monastery ; and under his successors the trade was carried 
on with renewed vigor. ^Louis the Thirteenth of France, who at 

■ first opposed the slave trade from conscientious scruples, was 
finally induced to encourage it under the pei-suasion that the rea- 
diest way of converting the negroes was by transplanting them to 
the colonies ; a plea by which all the early apologists of the slave 
trade attempted to vindicate its practice.* "*ln England, also, the 



• It has since been urged in justification of this trade, tli.at those made slaves were generally 



Part I.] 



VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. 



149 



ANALYSIS. 



1. Comtiience- 

)ne.nt of tlie 

English 

branch of 

tim slave 

trade. 



2 Fint voy- 
age of Haw- 
kins. 



4 Night at- 
tack. 



iniquity of the traffic was at first concealed by similar pious pre- 
tences. 

46. 'The celebrated seaman, Sir John Hawkins, aftcfs'ards created 
admiral and treasurer of the Britisli navy, was llie first English- 
man who engaged in the slave trade. Having conceived the pro- 
ject of transplanting Africans to America, he comnmnicated his 
plan to several of his opulent countrymen, who, perceiving the vast 
■emoluiuent that might be derived from it. eagerly joined him in 
the enterprise. ^In 15G2 he sailed for Africa, and having reached 
Sierra Leone he began to traffic with the natives, in the usual articles 
of barter, taking occasion iu the meantime to give them glowing de- 
scriptions of the country to which he was bound, and to contrast its 
beauty and fertility with the poverty and barrenness of their own land. 

47. 3Finding that they listened to him with implicit belief, he as- s.Thenativei 
sured them that if any of them were willing to accompany him on "^^Ji^eft'y 
his voyage, they should partake of all the advantages of the beau- hi7n. 
tiful country to which he would conduct them, as a recompense ibr 
the moderate and easy labor which they should give in return. 
Three hundred of these unsuspecting negroes, ensnared by the ar- 
tifices of the white strangers, and captivated by the European or- 
naments and luxuries spread before them, were thus persuaded to 
consent to embark for Hispaniola. 

4S. ^On the night previous to their departure they were attacked 
by a hostile tribe, and Hawkins, hastening to their assistance, re- 
pulsed the assailants, and took a uirmber of them prisoners, whom 
he conveyed on board his vessels. ^The next day he sailed with 
Lis mixed cargo, and during the voyage, treated his voluntai-y cap- 
tives with much greater kindness than he exercised towards the 
others. ^In Hispaniola he disposed of the whole cargo to great 
advantage, and endeavored to inculcate on the purchasers of the 
negroes the same distinction in the treatment of them, which he 
himself had observed. But he had now placecv the Africans be- 
yond his own supervision, and the Spaniards, who had paid lor all 
at the same rate, treated all as slaves, without any distinction. 

49. "On the return'' of Hawkins to England, the wealth which he 
brought with him excited universal interest and curiosity re- 
specting the manner in which it had been obtained. ^When it 
was known that he had been transporting Africans to America, 
there to become servants or slaves to the Spaniards, the public 
feeling was excited against the barbarity of the traffic, and Haw- 
kins was summoned to give an account of his proceedings before 
the queen, who declared, that, '-'if any of the Africans had been 
carried away without their own consent, it would be detestable, 
and call down the vengeance of Heaven upon the undertakers." 
^Hawkins assured her that none of the natives had been can-icd 
away by him by compulsion, nor would be in future, except such 
as should be taken in war : and it appears that he was able to con- 
vince her of the justice of his policy ; declaring it an act of hu- 
manity to carry men from a worse condition to a better ; from a 



5. The voy- 
age. 



6 Disposition 
of t/ie cargo. 



7. Return of 

Hawkins to 
England. 
a In 1563. 

8 Public ex- 
citement 

against the 
traffic. 



9 HojiJ al- 
layed. 



•captives taken in battle by their countrymen, and that by purchasing them the lives of so 
many human creatures were saved, who would otherwise have been sacrificed to the implacable 
revenge of the victors. But this assertion- is refuted by the fact that it was not until long after 
the commencement of the African slave trade that we read of the different negro nations 
making war upon each other and selling their captives. .Mr. Erue, principal director of the 
early French African slave Company, says, ■• The Europeans were far from desiring to act as 
peacemakers among the negroes ; whicii would be acting contrary to their interests ; since, 
the greater the wars, the more slaves were procured."' Eozman, another writer, director of the 
Dutch Company, .s.ays, '■ One of the former directors gave large .<unis of n»oney to the negroea 
of one nation, to induce them to attack s.ome of the nei^liboriuir tribes.'' 



150 



APPENDIX TO THE PERIOD OF 



[Book II. 



ANALYSIS. 



1. Second 
voyage of 
Hawkins. 
a. Oct. 18, 
old style. 

2. Suspicion 
of tlic natives. 

3. Resort to 
violent meas- 

itres. 



4. The result. 



5. Remarks. 



6. Importance 
of the 

REFORM.iTION 



7. Religious 
aspect of KW 

rope at the 

beginning of 

the sixteenth 

cent-urij. 

8. Last exer- 
cise of the 
pope's su- 
preme tem- 
poral power. 



9 Universal 
stipremacy of 
papacy : by 
whomjirst 
interriipted. 



state of pagan barbarism, to tlie enjoyment of the blessings of 
Christianity and civilization. 

50. iJn 1564 Hawkins sailed* with two vessels on a second voyage 
to the coast of Africa, and during the passage an English ship of 
war joined the expedition. 20n their arrival at Sierra Leone, the 
negroes were found shy and reserved. As none of their compan- 
ions had returned from tlie fir.st voyage, they began to suspect 
that the English had killed and devoured them, and no persuasion 
could induce a second company to embark, ^xhe crew of the ship 
of war then proposed a resort to violent measures, and in this they 
were seconded by the sailors under the command of HaAvkins him- 
self, and notwithstanding the protestations of the latter, who cited 
the express commands of the queen, and appealed to the dictates 
of their own consciences against such lawless barbarity, they pro- 
ceeded to put their purpose in execution ; observing probably, no 
diiference between the moral guilt of calm treachery and undis- 
guised violence. 

51. ^After several attacks upon the natives, in which many lives 
were lost on both sides, the ships were at length freighted with car- 
goes of human beings, who wei-e borne away to the Spanish colonies, 
and there, for no crime but the misfortune of their weakness, and 
with no other motive, or plea of excuse, than the avarice of their 
captors, were consigned to endless slavery. — -'Such was the com- 
mencement of the English branch of the African slave trade. The 
infamy of its origin rests upon the Old World : the evils which it 
has entailed are at this day the shame and the disgrace of the New. 

52. 6The importance of the Reform.\tion, as connected not only 
with the history of England at this period, but with the advance of 
civilization, true religion, and republican principles, throughout all 
subsequent history, requires from us some account of its origin, 
nature, and progress. 

53. ?At the beginning of the sixteenth century, not only was the 
Catholic religion the only religion known in England, but also 
throughout all Europe ; and the Pope, as the head of that religion, 
had recently assumed to himself both spiritual and temporal power 
over all the kingdoms of the world, — granting the exti-eme regions 
of the earth to whomsoever he pleased. ^The last exercise of his 
supreme power in woi'ldly matters, was the granting to the king 
of Portugiil all the countries to the eastward of Cape Non in Afi-ica ; 
and to th« king of Spain, all the countries to the westward of that 
limit ; an act which, according to some, completed in his person the 
character of Antichrist, or " that man of sin, sitting in the temple 
of G od, and showing himself as God.'-* 

54. sAt this time there was no opposition to the papal power; all 
heresies had been suppressed — all heretics exterminated ; and all 
Christendom was quietly reposing in a unity of faith, rites, and 
ceremonies, and supinely acquiescing in the numerous absurdities 
inculcated by the "• head of the church," when, in 1517, a single in- 
dividual dared to raise his voice against the reigning empire of 
superstition, — the power of which has ever since been declining. 
This person was Maktin Luthek, a man of high reputation for 
sanctity and learning, and then professor of theology at Wittem- 
berg on the Elbe, in the electorate of Saxony, a province of Ger- 
many. 



* 2 Thcss. 2d, 3d, 4th. — At this period the popes feared no opposition to their authority in 
any respect ; .is the commotions of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, raised by the Albi- 
genses, Waldenses, &c., had been entirely suppressed. 



Part L] VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. 151 

55. ^The occasion that first enlisted Luther in opposition to the analysis. 

church of which he was a member, was the authorized sale of in- — ~ • 

dulgences, or, a remission of the punishment due to sins ; a scheme '^y„ tfLu- 
which the pope, Leo X.,* had adopted, as an expedient for replen- thcrsjirst 
ishing an exhausted treasury. 2j_,uther at first inveighed against 2^^u"J°ad. 
the doctrine of indulgences only ; still professing a high respect uai progress 
for the apostolic see. and implicit submission to its authority ; but ^//g d^lvr//^ 
as he enlarged his observation and reading, and discovered new and rites of 
abuses and errors, he began to doubt of the Pope's divine autho- p^p^''u- 
rity ; he rejected the doctrine of his infallibility ;t gradually abol- 
ished the use of mass,j: auricular confession,^ and the worship of 

images ;|| denied the doctrine of purgatory,ir and opposed the fast- 
ings in the Romish church, monastic vows, and the celibacy of the 
clergy. 

56. ^In 1520, Zuinglius, a man not inferior in understanding and 3. ZuingUm. 
knowledge to Luther himself, raised the standard of reform in 
Switzerland, aiming his doctrines at once to the overtkrow of the 

whole fabric of popery. ■'Notwithstanding the most strenuous ef- i. Spread of 
forts of the Pope and the Catholic clergy to resist the new faith, ^''''^^^"'" 
the minds of men were aroused from that lethargy in which they 
had so long slumbered, and Protestantism** spread rapidly into 
every kingdom of Europe. 

57. 5ln England the principles of the Reformation secretly gained 5 Causes 
many partisans, as there were still in that kingdom some remains ^ed'aleiniro- 
of the LoUai'ds.tt a sect whose doctrines resembled those of Luther, ductwn of the 
But another, and perhaps more important cause, which favored the f^^Eng^and. 
Reformation in England, was the increased attention which then 



* This pope was exceedingly profligate, and is known to have been a disbeliever in Cliris- 
tianity itself, which he called " A very profitable fable for him and his predecessors." 

t The doctrine of infallibiUty, is that of " entire exemption from liability to err." 

i Mass consists of the ceremonies and prayers used in the Uomish church at the celebration 
of the eucharist, or sacrament of the Lord's supper ; — embracing the supposed consecration of 
the bread and wine into the real body and blood of Christ, and offerin;.: them, so transubstan- 
tiated, as an expiatory sacrifice for the living and the dead. High viass is that sung by the 
choir, and celebrated with the assistance of the priests : low mass is that in which the prayers 
are barely rehearsed without singing. 

§ Auriculrxr confession, in the Romish church, is a private acknowledgment of sins to a 
priest, with a view to their absolution or pardon. 

II The worship of images crept into the Romish church very gradually. Its source origi- 
nated, about the latter end of the fourth century, in the custom of admitting pictures of saints 
and martyrs into the churches ; but, although then considered merely as ornaments, the prac- 
tice met with very considerable opposition. About the beginnixig of the fifth century images 
were introduced, also by way of ornament ; and it continued to be the doctrine of the church 
until the begiunrng of the seventh centiuy, that they were to be used only as helps to devotion, 
and not a.s objects of worship. Protestant writers as.sert that images were icorshiped, hy the 
monks and the populace, as early as the beginning of the eighth century. The second com- 
mandment forbids the worship of images. 

IT The doctrine of purgatory, which has often been misrepresented, is believed in by Catho- 
lics as follows : 1st. All sins, however slight, will be punished hereafter, if not cancelled by 
repentance here. 2d. Those having the stains of the smaller sins only upon them at death, 
will not receive eternal punishment. 3d. But as none can be admitted into heaven who are 
not purified from all sins, both groat and small, the Catholic believes that tliere must, of neces- 
sity, be some place or state, where souls, not irrecoverably lost, may be purified before their 
admittance into heaien. This state or place, though not professing to know what or where it 
is, the Catholic calls purgatory. 4th. He also believes that those that are in this place, being 
the living members of Jesus Christ, are relievetl by the prayers of their fellow members here on 
earth, as also by alms and masses, offered up to God, for their souls. 

** The name Protestants was first given in Germany to the adherents of Luther, because, in 
1529, a number of the German princes, and thirteen imperial towns, protested against a decreo 
of Charles V. and the diet of Spires. The term Protestants lias since bceu aiiplied to all who 
separate from the communion of the church of Rome. 

tt The Lollards were a religious sect which arose in Germany about the beginning of the 
fourteenth century. They rejected the sacrifice of the mass, extreme unction, and penances 
for sin,— and in other respects, differed from the church of Rome. The followers of the 
reformer Wickliffe, who also lived iin the fourteenth century, were sometimes termed Lollards. 



152 



APPENDIX TO THE PERIOD OF 



[Book U 



ANALYSIS. 

1. English 
literature at 

the time of 
the discovery 
of Aiiierica. 



2. Revival of 
learning 
about the 
eormnence- 
ment of the 
sixteenth 
century. 



3. The study 

of Greek op- 

fiosed by the 

Catholic 

Clergy. 



4. Probable 
tendency of 
the study of 
the Bible in 
the Greek 
language. 



5. Henry the 
Eighth writes 
against the 
doctrines of 
the Reform- 
ation. 



6. " Defender 
oftlie Faith." 



7. Progress of 
the contro- 
versy. 



8. Causes that 
operated to 
extend the 
principles of 
the Reform- 
ation. 



began to be paid to classical learning. 'At the time of the disco- 
very of America, English literature was at a very low ebb, although 
in almost every former age some distinguished men had arisen to 
dispel the gloom by which they were surrounded, and render their 
names illustrious. At the period of which we are now speaking, 
the art of printing had been but recently introduced into England : 
books were still scarce, instructors more so, and learning had not 
yet become the road to preferment. The nobility in general were 
illitei-ate, and despised rather than patronized learning and learned 
men. "It is enough,'' remarked one of them, '-for noblemen's sons 
to wind their horn, and carry their hawk fkir, and leave study 
and learning to the children of mean people." 

58. ^About the commencement of the sixteenth century, however, 
learning began to revive in England. The study of the Latin lan- 
guage lirst excited public attention, and so diligently was it culti- 
vated by the eminent men of the time, that the sixteenth century 
may very properly be called the Latin age Both Henry the 
Eighth, and his distinguished minister, cardinal Wolsey, were emi- 
nent patrons of classical learning. 3At first the study of Greek 
met with great opposition from the Catholic clergy, and when, in 
1515, the celebrated Erasmus published a copy of the New Testa- 
ment in the original, it was denounced with great bitterness as an 
impious and dangerous book, and as tending to make heretics of 
those who studied it. 

59. <And, indeed, it probably had that tendency ; for before this 
time very few of the English theologians had made the Bible their 
study ; and even the professors of divinity read lectures only on 
certain select sentences from the Sei'iptures, or on topics expounded 
by the ancient schoolmen. But the study of the Bible aroused a 
spirit of inquiry even among the few who were able to read it in 
the original; as its real doctrines began to be known, the reputa- 
tion of scholastic divinity diminished ; the desire of deducing re- 
ligious opinions from the word of God alone began to prevail ; and 
thus the minds of men were somewhat preparetl for the Reforma- 
tion, even before Luther began his career in Germany. 

60. sBut Henry the Eighth having been educated in a strict at- 
tachment to the church of Rome, and being informed that Luther 
spoke with contempt of the writings of Thomas Aquinas,* a teacher 
of theology, and the king's favorite author, he conceived so violent a 
prejudice against the reformei-, that he wrote a book in Latin against 
the doctrines which he inculcated. ^A copy of this work he sent 
to the pope, who, pleased with this token of Henry's religious zeal, 
conferred upon him the title of defender of the faith ; an appellation 
still retained by the kings of England. 'To Henry's book Luther 
replied with asperity, and the public were inclined to attribute to 
the latter the victory ; while the controversy was only rendered 
more important by the distinction given it by the royal disputant. 

61. ^But still, causes were operating in England to extend the prin- 
ciples of the Reformation, and Henry himself was soon induced to 
lend his aid to their influence. Complaints of long standing 
against the visurpations of the ecclesiastics had been greatly in- 
creased by the spirit of inquiry induced by the Lutheran tenets, 
and the house of commons, finding the occasion favorable, passed 



* Thoman Aqtiinas, styled the " Angelic.il dorfor " a teacher of schol.istic divinity in most of 
the univeisities of Italy, was born about the \ t ir 1225. He left an amazing number of writings^ 
and his .authority hii.s" always been of great in.portance in the si-hools of the Roman Catholics 
He was canonized as a saint by Pope John XXII. in the year 1323. 



Part I.] 



VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. 



153 



several bills for restraining the impositions of the clergy, and re- 
ducing their power and privileges ; while the king, although ab- 
horring all connection with the Lutherans, was gratified with an 
opportunity of humbling the papal power in his dominions, and 
showing its dependence on his authority. 

62. 'Laws more and more stringent continued to be enacted and 
enforced against the ecclesiastics ; long standing abuses, and oppres- 
sions of the ecclesiastical courts, were remedied ; the revenues 
"which the pope had received from England were greatly dimin- 
ished ; and a severe blow was struck against the papal power, by 
a confession," extorted by Henry from the clergy of the realm, 
that " the king was the protector and the supreme head of the 
church and clergy of England."' 

63. 2Henry had married his brother's widow, and, either really 
entertaining, as he pretended, conscientious scruples about the va- 
lidity of his marriage, or estranged from his consort by the charms 
of a new favorite, had appealed to the pope for a divorce ; which 
the latter not granting, Henry, in defiance of his holiness, put 
away his first wife Catharine, and married** another, the afterwards 
unfortunate Anne Boleyn. The result of this affair was a final 
breach with the court of Rome, and a sentence of excommunica- 
tion was passedc against the kin~. 

64. 3Soon after, Henry was declared'' by parliament the only 
supreme head on earth of the church of England ; the authority of 
the pope was formally abolished ; and all tributes paid to him were 
declared illegal. ''But although the king thus separated from the 
church of Rome, he professed to maintain the Catholic doctrine in 
its purity, and persecuted the reformers most violently ; so that, 
while many were burned as heretics for denying the doctrines of 
Catholicism, others were executed for maintaining the supremacy 
of the pope. sAs therefore the earnest adherents of both religions 
were equally persecuted and equally encouraged, both parties were 
induced to court the favor of the king, who was thus enabled to as- 
sume an absolute authority over the nation, and to impose upon it 
his own doctrines, as those of the only true church. 

65. ^Still the ambiguity of the king's conduct served to promote 
a spirit of inquiry and innovation favorable to the progress of the 
Reformation. Jealous of the influence of the monks, Henry abol- 
ished the monasteries, and confiscated their immense revenues to 
his own uses ; and the better to reconcile the people to the destruc- 
tion of what had long been to them objects of the most profound 
veneration, the secret enormities of many of these institutions were 
made public* 'i'The most that could be urged in favor of these 
establishments was that they were a support to the poor ; but, at 
the same time, they tended to encourage idleness and beggary. 

66. sWhen news of these proceedings reached Rome, the most ter- 
rible fulminations were hurled by the pope against the king of Eng- 
land, whose soul was delivered over to the devil, and his dominions 
to tlie first invader ; all leagues with Catholic princes were de- 
clared to be dissolved — his subjects were freed fVom tlieir oaths of 
allegiance, and the nobility were commanded to take up arms 
against him. ^But these missives, which, half a century before, 
would have hurled the monarch from his throne and made him a 
despised outcast among his people, were now utterly harmless. 
The papal supremacy was forever lost in England. 



ANALYSIS. 



1. Encroaeh; 
menta upon 
the ecclesiag- 
tical power. 



a. 1531. 



2. Henry's 
marriages oc- 
casion a 
breach with 
the court of 
Rome. 

b. Nov. 1532. 



c. March, 
1534. 
3. The king's 
supremacy in 
matters of re- 
ligion. 
d. Nov. 1534. 

4. His reli- 
gious prin- 
ciples and 
conduct. 



5. Effects pro- 
duced by the 
same. 



6. T?ie mon- 
asteries abol- 
ished. 



7. View of 
these estab- 
lishments. 

8. The pro- 
ceedings of 

the pope 

against the 

king. 



9. Effect qf 
these mis- 
sives. 



* The mea.sures of Henry in abolishing the monasteries were exceedingly arbitrary and 
oppressive. For a just view of these transactions the reader should compare the account given 



by Lingard, the able Catholic historian, with that by Hume. 

20 



154 APPENDIX TO THE PERIOD OF [Book II 

ANALYSIS. 67. iFew other events of importance connected with the Reforma- 

~ tion. occurred during the reign of Henry, who, disregarding the opin- 

courae pur- ions both of Catholics and Protestants, labored to make his own 

suedbyjhe ever-changing doctrines the religion of the nation, ^xhe Bible 

2 The "people '^'^^ ^^^^ scarcely known to the great mass of the people, and al- 

ignorant of though its general dissemination was strongly urged by the re- 

controvers!/ formers, it was as zealously opposed by the adherents of popery. 

respecting us The latter openly and strenuously maintained that the clergy 

'^^Tion'^"^' should have the exclusive spiritual direction of the people, Avho, 

they said, were totally unqualified to choose their own principles, 

and that the Scriptures involved so much obscurity, and gave rise 

to so many difficulties, that it was a mockery to place them before 

the ignorant, who could not possibly make any proper use of them. 

3. Decree of 68. 31n 1540, however, a copy of the Bible in English was ordered 
^^^"tfie^^e- ^^ ^^ suspended in every parish church for the use of the people, 
^repealed in but two years later the king and parliament retracted even this 

'542. concession, and prohibited all but gentlemen and merchants from 
perusing the Scriptures, and these persons were allowed to read 

4. Reason of them, only " so it be done quietly, and with good order." ^The 
the repeal, preamble to the act sets forth " that many seditious and ignorant 

persons had abused the liberty granted them of reading the Bible; 
and that great diversity of opinion, animosities, tumults, and 
schisms, had been occasioned by perverting the sense of the scrip- 
6. The clergy tures." ^Even the clergy themselves were at this time wofully ig- 
nwan""^ the °o^^°* of that against which they declaimed so violently, as many 
Bible. of them, particularly those of Scotland, imagined the New Testa- 
ment to have been composed by Luther, and asserted that the Old 
Testament alone was the word of God. 
1547. 69. sAfter the death of Henry the Eighth, which occurred in 1547, 

6. TV refor- the restraints which he had laid upon the Protestants were re- 
ried^war'd ^°'^^^j ^^^ they soon became the prevailing party. Edward the 

and com- Sixth, the successor of Henry, being in his minority, the earl of 

'^Edward the Hertford, afterwards duke of Somerset, long a secret partisan of 

Sixth. the reformers, was made protector of the realm; and under hig 

direction, and that of archbishop Cranmer, the Reformation wSs 

7. A liturgy, carried forward and completed. ^A liturgy was composed by a 
andreiigious counsel of bishops and divines, and the parliament ordained a uni- 
umjorm . f^^^^^j ^^ jjg observed in all the rites and ceremonies of the 

church. 

8. Intolerance 70. ^The refbrmers, however, now that they were in the ascendant, 
qfthe re- disgraced their principles by the severity which they exercised 

" towards those who differed from them. They thought themselves 

so certainly in the right, and the establishment of their religious 
views of such importance, that they would suffer no contradiction 
in regard to them ; and they procured a commission to search after 
and examine all anabaptists,* heretics, and contemners of the book 
of common prayer, with authority to reclaim them if possible, but, 
if they should prove obstinate, to excommunicate and imprison 
them, and deliver them over to the civil authorities for punish- 
ment. 

9. The fate nf 71. ^Among those fbund guilty under this commission was one Joan 
Joan of Kent. Boucher, commonly called Joan of Kent, who was condemned to be 

burned as a heretic for maintaining some metaphysical notions con- 
cerning the real nature of Christ. But the young king, who was 
of a mild and humane disposition, at first refused to sign the 

* The term Anabaptist has been indiscriminately applied to Christians of very different prin- 
ciples and practices, including, howeTer, aU who maintain that baptism ought to be performed 
py immersion, and not administered before the age of discretion. 



Part I.] VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. I55 

deatli-warrant : but at last being overcome by the importunities of analysis. 

Cranmer, he reluctantly complied, though with tears in his eyes, 

declaring that if any wrong were done, the guilt should be on the 

head of those who persuaded him to it. ^Some time after one i. Of Van 

Van Paris was condemned to death for Arianism* He suffered Parw. 

with so much satisfaction that he hugged and caressed the fagots 

that were consuming him. 

72. 2Edward VI., a priuce of many excellent qualities, dying in the 1553. 
sixteenth year of his age, and in the seventh of his reign, Mary, 2. Death of 
often called the Woody Mary, daughter of Henry the Eighth by Edtoard, and 
his first wife Catherine, ascended the throne. ^Mary was a pro- '^'^'^Mary'. 
fessed Catholic, yet befbre her accession she had agreed to main- 3. ReUgimis 
tain the reformed religion, and, even after, promised to tolerate ™o7raS'cOTd 
those who differed from her, but she no sooner saw herself conduct of 
firmly established on the throne, than she resolved to restore the ■M<"'y- 
Catholic worship. The Catholic bishops and clergy who had been 
deprived of their sees during the former reign, were reinstated, and 

now triumphed in their turn. 

73. ''On pretence of discouraging controversy, the queen, by her 4. Exercise of 
own arbitrary authority, forbade any to preach in public except "'^/^"S""' 
those who should obtain her license, and to none but Catholics was 

that license given, ^jvi^ny foreign Pl-otestants, who had fled to 5- Many Pro- 

England for protection during the former reign, and had even been 'the'tdngdom. 

invited by the government, being now threatened with persecution, 

took the first opportunity of leaving the kingdom, and many of 

the arts and manufactures, which they had successfully introduced, 

were thereby lost to the nation. ^Parliament showed itself ob- 6. Obsequi- 

sequious to the designs of the queen : all the statutes of the for- ^^"^^^, 

mer reign were repealed by one vote ; and the national religion was 

thus placed on the same footing in which it had been left at the 

death of Henry the Eighth. 

74. ^Soon after, the mass was restored, the pope's authority es- 7. Compiett 
tablished, the former sanguinary laws against heretics were revived, reestabiuh- 
and a bloody persecution followed, filling the land with scenes of p"ry,foiimp- 
horror, which long rendered the Catholic religion the object of gen- «<* byahioody 
eral detestation. ^The persecution began by th-e burning of John g'^^ " ^"^ 
Rogers at Smithfield, a man eminent for virtue as well as for learning. Hooper, ' 
This was quickly followed by the execution of Hooper, bishop of ^j^JJ^Tand 
Gloucester; archbishop Cranmer; Ridley, bishop of London; Lat- Latirner. 
imer, bishop of Worcester ; and large numbers of the laity. ^It 9. Number of 
was computed that during this persecution, two hundred and sev- victims. 
enty-seven persons were burned at the stake, of whom fifty-five 

were women, and four were children ; and large numbers, in addi- 
tion, were punished by confiscations, fines, and imprisonments.t 



* The Arians were followers of Anus, a presbyter or elder of the church of Alexandria about 
the year 315. He maintained that Jesus Christ was the noblest of those beings whom Qod 
had created, but inferior to the Father, both in nature and dignity ; and that the Holy Ghost 
was not God, but created by the power of the Son. In modern times the appellation Arinn 
has been indi-scriminately applied to all who reject the djoctrine of the Tiinity, and consider 
Jesus Christ as inferior and subordinate to the Father. The modern Unitarians are Arians. 

t Yet this cruelty is much inferior to what was practised in other countries. " A great 
author computes that, in the Netherlands alone, from the ti^pe that the edict of Charles V. was 
promulgated against the Reformers, there had been fifty thousand persons hanged, beheaded, 
buried alive, or burned, on account of religion ; and that in France the number had also been 
considerable. Yet in both countries, as the same author subjoins, the progress of the new 
opinions, instead of being checked, was rather forwarded by these persecutions." — Hume. 

During the horrid massacre of St. Bartholomew, which occurred in France at a later period, 
in August, 1572, the victims were probably far more numerous. Hume computes, that in Paris 
alone ten thousand Protestants were slain in one day. Dr. Lingard thus speaks of the number 
of victims who fell in this barbarous transaction. " Of the number of the victims ia all the 



156 



APPENDIX TO THE PERIOD OF 



[Book IL 



ANALYSIS. 

I. Conduct 
of the suf- 
ferers- 

2. Marriage 
€ifj\Iary. and 
establishment 

cf a" court 

cf mfpiisi- 

tion." 

3. Potrers of 
tttisantrt. 



i Srtpremacy 
qf the royal 
prero^atire 

et this period. 



1558. 

5. Deoth of 
Hilary, and ac- 
cession qf 
Elizabei/i. 

*. Change of 

Teligion. and 

toise policy qf 

Elizabeth. 



1. Refomia- 
tion establish- 
ed, buts^l 
pfogT€8sive^ 

8. Germs cf 
tieie parties 
and princi- 
ples seen in 
the new re- 
ligion. 

9. Antipathy 
against those 

relics qf Ca- 

tholicisin re- 

tainedby 

Episcopacy. 

10. Hooper's 
opposition to 

the Epis- 
copal habit 

11. Objections 
cf others. 

IS. Senwii- 

Urance of the 

Scottish 

clergy. 



•The sufferers generally bore their tortures witli the most inflexi- 
ble constaucy, singing liymns in the midst of the flames, and glory- 
ing that they were found vrorthy of suffering mai'tyrdom in the 
cause of Christ. 

75. 2Miu'y, having formed a marriage with Philip, a Catholic 
prince, son of the emperor of Spain, and heir to the Spanish 
throne, was next urged on by him nnd her own zeal to establish ii 
court similar to the Spanish Inquisition. ^ \jjjoug the arbitrary 
powers exercised by this court, it issued a proclamation against 
books of heresy, treason, and sedition ; declaring '■ that whosoever 
had any of these books, and did not presently burn them, without 
reading them, or showing them to any other person, should be es- 
teemed rebels, and without any farther delay, be executed by mar- 
tial law.*' ^All ideas of civil and religious liberty, expressed 
either in word or action, seemed, at this period, to be extinguished 
in Enghuid ; parliament made little or no opposition to the will of 
the queen, former statutes were disregarded by the royal preroga- 
tive, and the common law, deemed secoudarj' to ecclesiastical 
enactments, was saircely known to exist. 

76. 'Mary died in 155S,unregrettcd by the nation, after a reign of 
little more than five years, and the princess Elizabeth, daughter of 
Henry the Eighth and the unfortunate Aune Eoleyn. succeeded to 
the throne. ^She had been brought up in the principles of the 
Relbrmation. and a general change of religion, from popery to Pro- 
testantism, almost immedi.ately followed her accession. This was 
effected without any violence, tumult, or chuiior ; for the persecu- 
tions in the preceding reign had sei-ved only to give the whole na- 
tion an aversion to popery, and Elizabeth had the wisdom to adopt 
a course of moderation, and to restrain the zeal and acrimony of 
the most violent of her party. 

77. "Thus the Reformation was firmly and finally established in 
England : but as the spirit of change is ever progressive, it did not 
stop with mei'ely the overthivw of one religion and the substitution 
of another. ^Other important principles, arising out of the new 
religion itself, had already begun to be seriously agitated among 
its supporters ; and it is to this period, the age of Elizabeth, that 
we can trace the germs of those parties and principles which after- 
wards exerted an important influence on om* own history. 

7S. sSome among the e;ii-ly reformers, even during the reign of 
Edward VI, had conceived a violent antipathy to all the former 
pi-actiees of the Catholic church, many of which the early Refor- 
mation had retained. i^Even Hooper, who afterwards suffered for 
his religion, when promoted to the office of bishop at first refused 
to be consecrated in the Episcopal habit, which had formerly, he 
said, been abused by superstition, and which was thereby rendered 
unbecoming a true Christian. '^Objections of this nature were 
made by the most zealous to every fbrm and cei*emonial of Catholic 
worship that had been retained by the Church of England. '-The 
same spirit dictated the national remonstrance, made afterwards by 
the Scottish clergy, in which are found the following words. 
"What has Christ Jesus to do with Belial? What has darkness 
to do with light ? If surplices, corner caps, and tippets, have been 
badges of idolaters, in the very act of idolatry, why should the 



towns it is impossible to speak with certaintv. Among the Hupnenot writers Periflx reckoni 

100,000, Sully 70.000, Thuanus 30,000, Xa Popoliniore 20.000, the reformed martyrologist 15,000, 
and Mason 10,000." The estimate of Lingard himself, howeTer, notwithstanding these state 
ments, is less than 2,000. 



Fart I.J VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. 157 

preacher of Christian liberty, and the open rebuker of all super- analysis. 
stition, partake of the dregs of the Ilmuish beast V ~ 

79. 'Aller the accession of Elizabetli, tliis spirit rapidly increased, i- The two 
and the friends of the Reformation became radically divided among anvm^^ihe 
themselves, fnrming the two active parties of the country — the one rrfunni'muf- 
party, the advocates of the church system as already established ; «,„„ „/ ^.j^^^. 
and the other, then first called the Pu/iliia party, desiring to reform abetn. 
the established religion still more. 

80. '^The great points of agreement among the members of the 2. pointu of 
established church system, consisted in rejecting the doctrine of „^im^"mlm- 
papal supremacy, and iu asserting the paramount national autho- i«r«"«/ tna 
rity in matters both spiritual and temporal, and in recognizing the '^IhurciL'^ 
king or ({ucen as the liead of the church. ^This was, at its origin, z.Tlmsrjsum 
the liberal, or democratic system, and at first united, in its support, atitsoriain. 
:ill lovers of liberty in thought and action — all those to whom the 

rigid discipline of Catholic ceremonials and Catholic supervision 
was irksome. •'The members of this party, although differing 4. why the es- 
greatly on minor subjects, were generally disj)osed to rest satisfied ,, '".*,''*''"^'? 
with the changes already made iu faith and worship, thinking it a was'dlhi posed 
matter of justice and policy, not to separate more widely than ?",'^'*j?'il" 
was necessary fVom the ancient sytem ; while the bisliops and clergy changes ai- 
foresaw, in any farther attempts at innovation, a tendency to strip 'r'^'^'ixj made. 
them of all their professional authority and dignity. 

Si. sThe establishment of these medium principles between ^.Totohom 
popery on the one hand, and pnritanism on the other, is probably '''^i^^pi^* 
attributable to Elizabeth herself, for it is asserted by Hallam, that are aitrib- 
at the accession of that princess to the throne, all the most eminent "'*'*■ 
reformers, or Protestants, in the kingdom, were in favor of abolish- 
ing the use of the surplice, and what were called popish ceremonies, 
and that the queen alone was the cause of retaining those obser- 
vances, which finally led to a separation from the Church of England. 

82. 6The Puritan party, professing to derive their doctrines di- e. Profisnions 
rcctly from the Scriptures, were wholly dissatisfied with the old "A^^ 'purUatf 
church system, which they denounced as rotten, depraved, and de- pai-nj. 
filed by human inventions, and they wished it to undergo a thor- 
ough reform, to abandon everything of man's device, and to adopt 
nothing, either in doctrine or discipline, which was not directly 
authorized by the word of God. ''Exceedingly ardent in their feel- 7. Character 
ings, zealous in their principles, abhorring all formalism, as de- "f this party. 
structive of the very elements of piety, and rejecting the regal as 

well as papal supremacy, they demanded, in place of the liturgical 
service, an effective preaching of the gospel, more of the substance 
of religion, instead of what they denominated its shadow ; and so 
convinced were they of the justness of their views and the reason- 
ableness of their demands, that they would listen to no considera- 
tions which pleaded for compromise or for delay. 

83. ^Thc unsettled state of exterior religious observances contin- 1565. 
ued until 1.56.'5, when Elizabeth, or perhaps the archbishop by her 8 Attempts to 
sanction, took violent measures tbr putting a stop to all irregulari- '^formUyZl' 
ties in tlie church service. Those of the puritan clergy wlio would reiisiom 
not conform to the use of the clerical vestments, and other matters "'°™ '^' 
of discipline, were suspended from the ministry, and their livings, 

or salaries, taken from them. sThe puritans then began to form 9. Treatment 
separate conventicles in secret, for they were unable to obtain, apart "f '^g^"'^'" 
from the regular church, a peaceable toleration of their particular 
worship. Yet their separate assemblages were spied out and in- 
vaded" by the hirelings of government, and those who frequented a. iS67. 
them sent to prison. 



158 



APPENDIX TO THE PERIOD OF 



[Book 11. 



ANALYSIS. 

1. The Puri- 
tans take 

higher 
grounds. 



2. Political 
aspect of the 
controversy. 



3. Puritan- 
is7n in parlia- 
ment. 



i. Pretensions 
of the queen 
and powers 
of parlia- 
ment. 



5. The 
"Broionists," 

" Separa- 
tists," or'In- 
dependents." 



6. Their 
treatment. 



7. Severe 
taws ag^ain.it 
the Puritans, 

and their 
effects. 



84. ^Hitherto the retention of popish ceremonies in the church 
had been the only avowed cause of complaint with the puritans, but 
when they found themselves persecuted with the most unsparing 
rigor, instead of relaxing in their opposition, they began to take 
higher grounds — to claim au ecclesiastical independence of the 
English church — to question the authority that oppressed them — ■ 
and, with Cartwright, one of their most able leaders, to inculcate 
the unlawfuhtess of any form of churcli government, except what the 
apostles had instituted, namely, the presbyterian. 

S5. 2Thus a new feature in the controversy was developed, in the 
introduction of political principles; and, in the language of Hal- 
lam, " the battle was no longer to be fought for a tippet and a sur- 
plice, but for the whole ecclesiastical hierarchy, interwoven, as it 
was, with the temporal constitution of England." The principles 
of civil liberty that thus began to be promulgated, so totally incom- 
patible with the exorbitant prerogatives hitherto exercised by the 
English sovereigns, rendered the puritans, in a peculiar manner, 
the objects of the queen's aversion. 

86. ^Some of the puritan leaders in Parliament having taken oc- 
casion to allude, although in terms of great mildness, to the re- 
straints which the queen had imposed upon freedom of speech in 
the house, especially in ecclesiastical matters, they were imprisoned 
for their boldness, and told that it did not become them to speak 
upon subjects which the queen had prohibited from their consider- 
ation. And when a bill for the amendment of the liturgy was in- 
troduced into Parliament by a puritan member, it was declared to 
be an encroachment on the royal prerogative, and a temerity which 
was not to be tolerated. -"As head of the church, Elizabeth de- 
clared that she was fully empowered, by her prerogative alone, to 
decide all questions that might arise with regard to doctrine, disci- 
pline, or worship. And, in fact, the power of Parliament, at this 
time, extended little f;irther than to the regulation of the internal 
police of the kingdom : it did not presume to meddle with any of 
the great questions of government, peace ixnd war. or foreign nego- 
tiations. 

87. sThe most rigid of the early puritans were a sect called 
Brotvnists, from Robert Brown, a young clergyman of an impetuous 
and illiberal spirit, who, in 1586, was at the head of a party of 
zealots or "Separatists,'' who were vehement for a total separation 
from the established church. The Brownists were also known as 
'• Independents," because they renounced communion, not only with 
the church of England, but with every other Protestant church 
that was not constructed on the same model as their own. ^Against 
this sect the whole fury of the ecclesiastical law was directed. 
Brown himself exulted in the boast that he had been committed to 
thirty-two prisons, in some of which he could not see his hand at 
noon-day. Several of his followers perished by the hand of the 
executioner, great numbers were imprisoned, and numerous fami- 
lies were reduced to poverty by heavy fines. 

88. 7Yet these severities tended only to increase the numbers and 
tlie zeal of these sectaries, and although Elizabeth, even with tears, 
bewailed their misfortunes, yet she caused laws still more severe to 
be enacted against them, in the hope of tinallj' overcoming their 
obstinacy. In 1593 a law was passed, declaring that any person, 
over sixteen years of age, who obstinately refused during the space 
of a month, to attend public worship in the established church, 
should be committed to prison; that if he persisted three months 
in his refusal he should abjure the realm ; and if he either refused 



congrega- 
tion: 



Part I.] VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES, 159 

this condition^ or returned after banishment, he should suffer analysis. 

death. This act contributed as little as former laws to check the 

growth of Puritan principles, although it induced greater secrecy 
in their promulgation. 

89. 'On the accession of James the First to the throne, in 1603, i. Treatment 
the ecclesiastical policy of Elizabeth was adopted, and even in- "fanTunler 
creased in rigor ; so that, during the second year of the reign of James the 
James, three hundred Puritan ministers were deprived of their *"*'' 
livings, and imprisoned or banished. 2Thus harassed and op- 2. They re- 
pressed in England, an emigration to some foreign country seemed ™'^* °J\ ^"^^' 
the only means of safety to the Puritans, and they began to retire " 

in considerable numbers to the Protestant states of Europe. 

90. ^Among those who afterwards became prominent in our his- 3. Robinson's 
tory, as the founders of New England, were sevei'al members of a 
Puritan congregation in the north of England, which chose for its 
pastor John Robinson. The members of this congregation, ex- 
tremely harassed by a rigid enforcement of the laws against dis- 
senters, directed their views first to Holland, the only European 

state in which a free toleration of religious of)inions was then ad- 
mitted. But after leaving their homes at a sacrifice of much of Forbidden 
their property, they found the ports of their country closed against to emigrate. 
them, and they were absolutely forbidden to depart. 

91. ^ After numerous disappointments, being betrayed by those i. After nu- 
in whom they had trusted for concealment and protection, har- "'g^cto'S^ 
assed and plundered by the officers of the law, and often exposed sterdam. 
as a laughing spectacle to their enemies ; in small parties they 

finally succeeded in reaching'i Amsterdam, where they found a a. isos. 

Puritan congregation of their countrymen already established. 

5 After one year spent at Amsterdam, the members of the church of ^- Removes to 

Robinson removed to Leyden, where they continued eleven years, 

during which time their numbers had increased, by additions from 

England, to three hundred communicants. 

92. ^When Robinson first went to Holland he was one of the e. Character 
most rigid separatists from the church of England ; but altera few of Robinson. 
years farther experience he became more moderate and charitable 

in his sentiments, allowing pious members of the Episcopal church, 

and of other churches, to communicate with him ; declaring that 

he separated from no denomination of Christians, but from the 

corruptions of all others. 'His liberal views gave offence to the 7. The Inde- 

rigid Brownists of Amsterdam, so that the latter would scarcely ^/,g'^",''„^?'^ 

hold communion with the church at Leyden. The church at Am- gakonai 

sterdam here became known as the Independent, church, and that at Church. 

Lej'den, under the charge of Robinson, as the Congregational church. 

f^Most of the latter emigrated to America in 1620, where they laid ^.Members of 

the tdttcr TC' 
the foundation of the Plymouth colony. The church which they move to 

there planted has been the prevailing church in New England to America. 

the present day. 

93. 9But the Pui-itans brought with them, and established in the 9. roiuicai 
New World, important principles of civil liberty, which it would vpnciptes of 
be unjust here to pass unnoticed. '"Before they effected a landing _, ,, 

at Plymouth, they embodied these principles in a brief, simple, but emn con- 
comprehensive coffj/wrf, which was to form the basis of their futtire t^act" enter- 
government. In this instrument we have exhibited a perfect the pilgrims 
equality of rights and privileges. In the cabin of the Mayflower, ^^ Plymouth 
the pilgrims met together as equals and as freemen, and, in the 
name of the God whom they worshipped, subscribed the first char- 
ter of liberty established in the New World — declaring themselves 
the source of all the laws that were to be exercised over them — and 



160 



VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. 



[Book U. 



ANALYSIS. 



I. Indebted- 
ness of Eng- 
land to the 
Puritans 



2. Other Pu- 
ritan colonies 
of New Eng- 
land Intol- 
erance of the 
Puritans. 



3. Their ob- 
ject 171 emi- 
grating to 
America. 



4. The errors 
into lobieh 
they fell, 
fww cor- 
rected. 



5. Our duty 
in relation to 
the history of 
the Puritans. 



6. The Qua- 
kers of Penn- 
sylvania. 



7. Other 
American 
colonies. 

S.What forms 
the most in- 

structit'e por- 
tion of our 
history. 



9. What we 
should keep 

constantly in 
vieio in stu- 
dying our 

early history 



promising to the same due subjection and obedience. Here "was 
laid tbe foundation of American liberty. 

94. iThat England herself is greatly indebted to the Puritans 
for the present free government which she enjoys, "we have the 
voluntary admission of her most able historians. It is remarked by 
Hume, that " so absolute indeed was the authority of the crown 
during the reign of Elizabeth, that the precious spark of liberty 
had been kindled, and was preserved by the puritans alone ;" and 
that " it was to this sect that the English OAve the whole freedom 
of their constitution.'' Again Hume remarks, " It was only during 
the next generation that the noble principles of liberty took root, 
and spreading themselves under the shelter of puritanical absurdi- 
ties, became fashionable among the people." 

95. 2The other New England colonies, planted by puritans also, 
adopted principles of free government similar to those of the Ply- 
mouth colony ; and if they sometimes fell into the prevailing error 
of the times, of persecuting those who diiTered from them in reli- 
gious sentiments, it was because their entire government was but a 
sy.stem of ecclesia.stical polity, and they had not yet learned the ne- 
cessity of any government separate from that of tlie church. ^Xhey 
came to plant, on principles of equality to all of similar religious 
views with themselves, a free church in the wilderness ; and the 
toleration, in their midst, of those entertaining diiferent religious 
sentiments, was deemed by them but as the toleration of heresies 
in the church. ^It was reserved for the wisdom of a later day to 
complete the good work which the Puritans began, and by separa- 
ting " the church" from " the state," to extend toleration and protec- 
tion to all, without the imputation of inculcating, by the authority 
of law, what might be deemed heresies by any. 

96. sWhile therefore we concede to the Puritans of New Eng- 
land the adoption of principles of government greatly in advance 
of the age in which they lived, it is our duty to point out, also, the 
eri'ors into which they fell, and the sad consequences that resulted 
from them. ^A few years later, the Q,uakers of Pennsylvania, also 
a puritan sect, but persecuted even among their brethren, made 
a great advance in those republican principles which succeeding 
time has perfected, to the glory and happiness of our nation, and 
the admiration of the world. 'Other American colonies, and indi- 
viduals, at diiferent periods, by resisting arbitrary encroachments 
of power, lent their aid to the cause of freedom. 

97. 8To follow the advance of this cause thi-ough all the stages 
of its progress, — from its feeble beginnings, when the foot of the 
oppressor would have crushed it, had he not despised its weakness, 
— through long periods of darkness, enlivened by only an occa- 
sional glimmering of hope, until it shone fotth. triumphant in that 
redemption from foreign bondage, which our fathers of the Revolu- 
tion purchased for us, forms the most interesting and the most in- 
structive portion of our history. ^And while we are perusing our 
early annals, let us constantly bear in mind, that it is not merely 
with the details of casual events, of wars and sufferings, wrongs 
and retaliations, ineffective in their influences, that we are engaged ; 
but that we are studying a nation's progress from infancy to man- 
hood — and that we are tracing the growth of those principle? of 
civil and religious liberty, which have rendered us one of the hap- 
piest, most enlightened, and most powerful of the nations of the 
earth. 



Part I.] 



161 




POCAHONTAS SAVING THE UFE OF CAPTAIN SMITH. (See p. 164.) 



PART II. 

•EARLY SETTLEMENTS AND COLONIAL HISTORY: 



1606. 



1 Subject of 
Pare 11. 



EXTENDING FROM THE SETTLEMENT OF JAMESTOWN, IN 1607, TO 

THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE WAR OF THE REVOLUTION, 

IN 1775 ; EMBKACINO A PERIOD OF 168 YEARS. 



CHAPTER I. 



^HISTORY OF VIRGINIA.* 



3. Chap. I. 



DIVISIONS. 

I. ^Virginia under the first charter. — 11. T^irgijiia under the second 3. DivMoy 
charter. — III. Virginia t/nder the third charter. — IV. Virginia frorn 
the di.fsoliition of the London Compauij to the commencement of the 
French and Indian War. 

I. Virginia UNDER THE FirstCharter. — 1. "Tlie admin- mrnrnfthe 
istration of the jjovernment of the Virginia colony had 'i^'i^fl"?" 



* VIRGINIA, the most northern of the southern United States, and the largest in the Union, 
often called the Anrirnt Dominion, from its early settlement, contains an area of nearly 70,000 
S(iuare miles. The state has a throat variety of surface and soil. From the coast to the head 
of tide water on the rivers, inelinlin!^ a tract of jjenerally more than 1(X) miles in width, the 
country is low, sandy, covered with )nt(!h pine, and is unhealthy from Aus^ust to October. 
Between the iu^ad of tide water and tlie lilue I!idf;e, the soil is better, anil tiie surface of the 
country becomes uneven and hilly. The interior of the State, traversed by successive ridges 
of the Allei^hany, running N. K. and S. W. is a healthy region, and in the valleys are some of 
the best and most pleasant lands in the State. 'J'lie country west of the mountains, towards 
the Ohio, is rough aud wild, with occasional fertile tracts, but rich as a mineral reirion. 

21 



IQQ (lOhONIAl MltihlKV IKmim. II 

AiyAltVMIH liimtl IiiIIHmIiiI In II tttllllUiJI III' HOVOtI |lli|'4ll||H, wImhiI llio 
ti|||tii|'ilir Iill||l|li|l lit I'lll^lllllll lllltl liliiMI |lli|'||lill)>ll 1)1 llltliMi, 
»illl W |il'i'Mtilnii| In Itii nliU'ltnl |i| llin i'iilll|i>il tt'u||| jliitji- 

I i^iiii^idi llllli|lli<r Mlul llli'> UiillliiM lltlil l||iilri|i'll>>lti< mC iIih rniimll 

'*!''* Imviiiu Itnmi |iltti>i'il, li.v llu" liill.v "1 llm liiiiy. in ti mmlnil 

, .,/ \\\\\, M nil (lirtitijiHiiH iliiii II aliiiiijil Hill lii> ii|ii>iit;il iiiilil iliM 

liiih nMii|4riiiil^ jiml iiniutl in Aiiiiiiinii, ilinbuiiaiiiiiu iiinctii 
• Ihiiiiu ilin viivityiii iiiiil JhIiii Hiiiillii llii'ir Inmi mill iiMi'tii 

lllllll, Willi |illl ill t'nlililir.UMillI, ll|iii|| lliii iilmlllil iii'iMldiilliiii 
ttT III) llllt'llllHll In IIMHiImI iIiii t'ii|||l|i||, I|t3||l|i IIk i>>'^> mi 

iiiiMili mill iiiiiltM lili)iHt>ll' KliiH '*' VIruliilii' 

It II U. 'hliinti iilinr IJiKJr iirihiil, llin uiiiiiiuil t'>liiiai< liih^nnl 

^' W'lii^tliitlil iM'iihiilniil, nil iiiiiliiiitiiih mill iiii|iriiii''l|iliMl iiiiiii, 

mill lliiillii^i lliiil Hiiiiili liiiil liiiKii ii|i|iiiliili'il iiiiK III' llii'll 

iiMiiiliiiri lliny (tM>lMiltiil liiiii I'vum ilmli' limly, iiu, liy IlinJr 

liii^lriii'liiiiitii llitiy liMtl |iiitu<r in iIh, Imi nilmibiil liim IVniii 

t''nlillliniiit'lll< \ti hiMllll tiriiiiilliluil <i II till ll|inll llit> t'liiiimiti 

lirHl|(|ti| iiyiiillt)! lilMi, wliluli Wiil'it Kimwit In liti iilibuiiily 

liiJMii, lilii iir'|i|tt<ii|i:i llimi^^lil lii'cil, iilti'i II |uiiliiil liiMilliij^ nl' 

Ilin |t|ihii, In wllliiliiiw llin iitniimillnii i iiiitl lin wiiq bimii 

riiullit'oil III liN allilinii KH It iiiiiImUm' nf IIih «in|iii«iil, 

« i 11 MM' llin iiiit> liiitiilrMil mill livn |iiirtinii4 nii llin llt.| ul' 

"', - ti||||||0'mil'i, iliiillimil In iniiimii, llttMn \VK(i> lilt liinil vHlJt 

Imtiilinti, llttirn wiMit Iml Iwtilyti InlHtrtMb, itiitl vi<i<y |\iw 
hiiiii|imtiiit>. Tlin nitil yviirt< tniniintniil ttr^i'iilli'iimii nl I'ltr 
lltltti, Itlltl nl |iiirani|M nl lln ni>t>ti|iitliiiii, itintill) nl' |i||ii mtil 
ll|hi]|ilti|ii liiiltilti wlin lillil lini'it li iM|ilr'i| In |nill lliu rxjitt 
lIllltiH llirtt(|{j||| tilU'lniilh nl lllti t|n|lti ttl' ^uiU i — W «HiUh 
|imiy Itiil |innrly I'ttlniiliilt'il In iiliiiil mi ti^rliitlliiriil bliitu 
if*«|j'm III II w iMiriifhh * rim |>m})|io|i \\iMt> liiiiill.\ h'li'ImiI lt\ 
^imlltxS " lltii ui)llvi<*4 in lli«> liiiiiiiMliii|t< vlimilly til' Jmiit>u|n\vii, wlit), 
w litilt ililintiinil nl' llm w inlt nl llin blrmi^iii" In bnllln in llin 
t>tmttliv, ttlliut'il iliimt lib miittji Imitl itt* iltn\ wmili'tl. 
HNtiii*, tM« ^1, «H,nm „|\,„' (|,„jc univiil, Nny\|Mri, mitl hiuiilt. mtti 
«44il['|i^1i4l(* l\vi«i\ly tilltm'b, itbitimi||ii| iliu ,lmiirv> ri\tM, mitl Ubiit'tl ilit> 
nuli\tM»liit>llHiii, i»i' Itiny, l't>yy linlmi, nl Inn |nitmi|>nl ii *ii- 
tli<init) utnti' lltti |nt<tit«iil biui til' Kit'liiiiniiil '*' lli<i t.iiltimitM 
nttiriitmutl t\i ilit> iiiiiii4iitn til' llitt Hlmnprti inln lliti ttttnn 
try i Itiii I'nwtiiiliiit, tlibttuisiti^ lllti jniiTtmiiV mitl liib I'ltnr, 
ittmiil'nttlt>tl It I\intiill\ ilu~i|tiibiiiiiii 

ft, *AI»ntn llm itiiiliUn nl' ,ltnus Nt>\y|»nil sitiltnl liii' I'JntJ- 
Imtil i mill llin tmlmiliiis, wlnihu liniitiH lintt htitiit lth«lilv t>\- 
rin^il ti\ ilm lit>ittilv mill ItMiiliiy ttfilit^ fniiitlry, litj^imniiu 
In i(>t«l lllti wtuil til' tmiiitlitti |i<s«vitiittuii, mul lit>iiig nnw l«ih 



■■** 






« Mt«4«Hw««4, Vltv t>it(ilVitl u( YltMluU, U titt ntt« mivMt itUIti III ilMttttw IMvDV, 7(t iuUm \\m\ \Ui 
tttmitd >mt««*IUIt>l.v «*•"«»' Hn' tivwi iti« Urn |i»\l», M\^ iIIh^hHy nmumUvi t-i Mtw vll\rtij»i i>t Muu 
tilv 



WJIk'l 



Part II.] VIRGINIA. 163 

to their own resources, soon awoke to the reality of their 1607. 
situation. 'They were few in number, and without habits 



of industry ; — the Indians began to manifest hostile inten- l/fkfcoimy. 
tions, — and before autumn, the diseases of a damp and 
sultry climate had swept away fifty of their number, and 
among them, Bartholomew Gosnold, the projector of the 
settlement, and one of the ablest men in the council. 

6. 'To increase their misery, their avaricious president, aconspiraaj. 
Wingfield, was detected in a conspiracy to seize the pub- 
lic stores, abandon the colony, and escape in the com- 
pany's bark to the West Indies. 'He was therefore de- s- oovern- 
posed, and was succeeded by RatclifFe ; but the latter into the immii 
possessing little capacity for government, and being sub- 
sequently detected in an attempt to abandon the colony, 

the management of affairs, by common consent, fell into 
the hands of Smith, who alone seemed capable of diffusing 
light amidst the o;eneral a;loom. 

7. *Under the management of Smith, the condition of 4. Hisman- 
the colony rapidly improved. He quelled the spirit of '^""^ 
anarchy and rebellion, restored order, inspired the natives 

with awe, and collected supplies of provisions, by expedi- 
tions into the interior. As autumn approached, wild fowl Nov. 
and game became abundant ; the Indians, more friendly, 
from their abundant harvests made voluntary offerings ; 
and peace and plenty again revived the drooping spirits of 
the colony. 

8. *The active spirit of Smith next prompted him to f S7nm 

i . o T ^ taken prison- 

explore the surroundmg country. After ascendma; the erhytiiz 

Chickahominy* as far as he could advance in boats, with 
two Englishmen and two Indian guides he struck into the 
interior. The remainder of the party, disobeying his in- 
structions, and wandering from the boat, were surprised by 
the Indians and put to death. Smith was pursued, the 
two Englishmen were killed, and he himself, after dis- 
patching with his musket several of the most forward of 
his assailants, unfortunately sinking in a miry place, was 
forced to surrender. 

9. *His calmness and self-possession here saved his life. 6. iniPimt 
Showing a pocket compass, he explained its wonderful saved his 
properties, and, as he himself relates, "by the globe-like 

figure of that jewel he instructed them concerning the 

roundness of the earth, and how the sun did chase the 

night round about the earth continually." In admii'ation 

of his superior genius the Indians retained him as their 

prisoner. 

— — — — • ' — > 

* The Chickahominy River rises northwest from Richmond, and, during most of its course, 
runs nearly parallel to James KiTer, which it enters five or six miles above Jamestown 
ISee Map, p. 136.) 



164 COLONIAL HISTORY. [Book U 

160§. 10. 'Regarding him as a being of superior order, but 
uncertain whether he should be cherished as a friend, or 



indians'rc- dreaded as an enemy, they observed towards him the 
^an^irha"' utmost respcct as they conducted him in triumph fi'om 
theym^xoUh one village to another, and, at length, brought him to the 
residence of Opechancanough, where, for the space ot 
three days, their priests or sorcerers practiced incanta- 
tions and ceremonies, in order to learn from the invisible 
world the character and designs of their prisoner. 
2. Decision of 11. ''The decision of his fate was referred to Powhatan 
^■^'^^ and his council, and to the village of that chieftain Smith 
was conducted, Avhere he was received with great pomp 
1603. and ceremony. Here it was decided that he should die. 
3 His lift ^He was led fortli to execution, and his head was laid 
p^onms. upon a stone to receive the fatal blow, when Pocahontas, 
the young and favorite daughter of the king, rushed in 
between the victim and the uplifted arm of the executioner, 
and with tears and entreaties besought her father to save 
4. Sent to his life. ■'The savage chieftain relented ; Smith was set 
jamestouTH. ^^ liberty ; and, soon after, with a guard of twelve men, 
was conducted in safety to Jamestown, after a captivity 
of seven weeks. 
i. Ben^s 12. *The captivity of Smith was, on the whole, bene- 
Ms captivity, ficial to tlio colony ; for he thereby learned much of the 
Indians, — their character, customs, and language ; and 
was enabled to establish a peaceful intercourse between 
6. Condition the English and the Powhatan tribes. ^But on his return 
on'^Mum. io Jamestown he found disorder and misrule again pre- 
vailing ; the number of the English was reduced to forty 
men ; and most of these, anxious to leave a country where 
they had suftered so much, had determined to abandon the 
colony and escape with the pinnace. This was the third 
attempt at desertion. By persuasion and threats a ma- 
jority were induced to relinquish the design ; but the re- 
mainder, more resolute, embarked in spite of the threats 
of Smith, who instantly directed the guns of the fort upon 
them and compelled them to return. 
1. Arrival of 13. "Soou after, Newport arrived from England with 
emi^ants. Supplies, and one hundred and twenty enu'grants. The 
hopes of the colonists revived ; but as the new emigrants 
were composed of gentlemen, refiners of gold, goldsmiths, 
jewellers, &c., and but few laborers, a wrong direction 
8. Search for was givcu to the industry of the colony. ^'Believing that 
^'''^' they had discovered grains of gold in a stream of water 
near Jamestown, the entire industry of the colony was 
directed to digging, washing, refining and loading gold ; 
and notwithstanding the remonstrances of Smith, a ship 



Part H.] VIRGINIA. 165 

was actually freighted with the glittering earth and sent ie©8. 
to England. — ■ 



14. 'During the prevalence of this passion for gold, '-.^^i^r"" 
Smith, finding tliat he could not be useful in Jamestown, country ly 
employed himself in exploi'ing the Chesapeake Bay* and a.Note,p*i3«. 
its tributary rivere. In two voyages, occupying about 

three months of the summer, with a few companions, in 
an open boat, he performed a navigation of nearly three 
thousand miles, passing far up the Susquehanna* and the 
Potomac jf nor did he merely explore the numerous 
rivers and inlets, but penetrated the territories, and estab- 
lished friendly relations with the Indian tribes. The map 
which he prepared and sent to England is still extant, and 
delineates, with much accuracy, the general outlines of 
the country which he explored. 

15. "Soon after his return from this expedition, Smith 

was formally made president'' of the council. By his ^- s>;pt- m. 
energetic administration, order and industry again pre- minfin'sira- 
vailed, and Jamestown assumed the appearance ef a JovemmfM, 
thriving village. Yet at the expiration of two years from "[^'^/fhi 
the time of the first settlement, not more than forty acres coio»y after 

' •' an existence 

of land had been cultivated ; and the colonists, to prevent of two years. 
themselves from starving, were still obliged to obtain most 
of their food from the indolent Indians, Although about 
seventy new emigrants arrived, yet they were not suitable 
to the wants of the colony, and Smith was obliged to write 
earnestly to the council in England, that tliey should send 
more laborers, that the search for gold should be abandoned, 
and that "nothing should be expected except by labor." 

II. VmeiMA uxDER THE Second Charter. — 1. ^In 1G09. 
1609, a new charter was given'= to the London Company, c. June 2. 
by which the limits of the company were enlarged, and dtaner. 
the constitution of Virginia radically changed. The terri- 
tory of the colony was now extended by a grant of all the 
lands along the sea-coast, within the limits of two hundred 
miles north, and two hundred south of Old Point Comfort ;:}: 
that is, from the northern boundary of Maryland, to the 
southern limits of North Carolina, and extending westward 
from sea to sea. 

* The Susquehanna is one of the largest rivers east of the Allczhanies. Its eastern branch 
rises in Otsego Lake, New York, and running S. W. receives the Tioga near the Pennsylvania 
boundary. It passes through Pennsylvania, receiving the West Branch in the interior of the 
State, and enters the head of Chesapeake Bay, near the N. E. corner of Maryland. The navi- 
gation of the last 50 miles of it.? course is obstructed by numerous rapids. 

t The Potomac river ri.-;es in the Alleghany Mountains, makes a grand and magnificent pas- 
sage through the Blue Ridge, at Uarper's Ferry, and throughout its whole course is the boun- 
dary line between Virginia and Maryland. At its entrance into Ohe.sape;ike Bay it is seven 
and a half miles >vide. It is navigable for the largest vessels to AVashingtou City. 110 miles 
by the river — 70 in a direct line. Above Washington the navigation is obstructed by nu- 
merous falls. 

t Point Comfort U the northern point of the entrance of James River into Chesapeake Bay. 
I'fiee James hirer, Note, p. 137.) 



166 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[Book II 



ANALYSIS. 

1. Changes 
inade in the, 
govermiient 
of the colony. 



2 Neto ar- 
rangements 

made. 
a. June 12. 



3. litsasters 

Co the fleet. 

b. Aug. 3. 



c. Aug. 



4 Embarrass- 
ing situation 
of Smith. 



5 His man- 
agement. 



6. His return 
to England. 



2. 'The council in England, formerly appointed by the 
king, was now to have its vacancies filled by the votes of 
a majority of the corporation. This council was author- 
ized to appoint a governor, who was to reside in Virginia, 
and whose powers enabled him to rule the colonists with 
almost despotic sway. The council in England, it is true, 
could make laws for the colony, and give instructions to 
the governor; but the discretionary powers conferred 
upon the latter were so extensive, that the lives, liberty, 
and property of the colonists, were placed almost at his 
arbitrary disposal. 

3. ^Under the new charter, the excellent Lord Delaware 
was appointed governor for life. Nine ships, under the 
command of Newport, were soon despatched'^ for Virginia, 
with more than five hundred emigrants. Sir Thomas 
Gates, the deputy of tlie governor, assisted by Newport 
and Sir George Somers, was appointed to administer the 
government until the arrival of Lord Delaware. ^VVhen 
the fleet had arrived near the West Indies, a terrible storm'' 
dispersed it, and the vessel in which were Newport, Gates, 
and Somers, was stranded on the rocks of the Bermudas.* 
A small ketch perished,, and only seven vessels arrived'^ in 
Virginia. 

4. *0n the arrival of the new emigrants, most of whom 
were profligate and disorderly persons, who had been sent 
otF to escape a worse destiny at home. Smith found him- 
self placed in an embarrassing situation. As the first char- 
ter had been abrogated, many thought the original form of 
government was abolished ; and, as no legal authority ex- 
isted for establishing any other, every thing tended to the 
wildest anarchy. 

5. ^In this confusion. Smith soon determined what 
course to pursue. Declaring that his powers, as president, 
were not suspended until the arrival of the persons ap- 
pointed to supersede him, he resumed the reins of govern- 
ment, and resolutely maintained his authority. °At length, 
being disabled by an accidental explosion of gunpowder, 
and requiring surgical aid,, which the new settlement could 
not afford, he delegated his 9,uthority to George Percy, 
brother of the Earl of Northumberland, and embarked for 
England. 



* The Btrmudas are a group of about 400 small islands, nearly all but five mere rocks, con- 
taining a surface of about 20 square miles, and situated in the Atlantic Ocean, 580 miles E. 
from Cape Ilatteras, wliich is the nearest land to them. They were discovered in 1515, by a 
Spanish vessel commanded by Juan Bermudez, from whom they have derived their name. 
Soon after the shipwreck above mentioned, Somers formed .a .settlement there, .and from him 
they were long known as the " Summer Islands," but the original n;une, Bermuiias, has since 
prevailed. They are well fortified , belong to the English, and are valuable, principally, as a 
naval station. 



Part II.] VIRGINIA. 167 

6. 'On the departure of Smith subordination and in- 1610, 
dustry ceased ; the provisions of the colony were soon 



consumed ; the Indians became hostile, and withheld their ^fhl'^i^ 
customary supplies ; the horrors of famine ensued ,- and, '^^f/^^ving 
in six months, anarchy and vice had reduced the number ''"'«•" 
of the colony from four hundred and ninety to sixty ; and 
these were so feeble and dejected, that if relief had been 
delayed a few days longer, all must have perished. This 
period of suffering and gloom was long remembered with 
horror, and was distinguished by the name of the starving 
time. 

7, "In the meantime Sir Thomas Gates and his com- 2. Fate of sir 
panions, who had been wrecked on the Bermudas, had Vrff'/iScmi^ 
reached the shore without loss of life, — had remained nine vanwns. 
months on an uninhabited but fertile islancf, — and had 
found means to construct two vessels, in which they em- 
barked" for Virginia, where they antfcipated a happy a. May 20. 
welcome, and expected to find a prosperous colony. 

3. 'On their arrival"* at Jamestown, a far different b. June 2. 
scene presented itself; and the gloom was increased by ^^f„*ja"f* 
the prospect of continued scarcity. Death by famine feturn^oTthe 
awaited them if they remained where they were ; and, colony. 
as the only means of safety. Gates resolved to sail for 
Newfoundland, and disperse the company among the 
ships of English fishermen. With this intention they 
embarked, ■= but just as they drew near the mouth of the c. June 17. 
river, Lord Delaware fortunately appeared with emi- 
grants and supplies, and they were persuaded to return. "i' d. June is. 

9. *The return of the colony was celebrated by reli- 4. Account of 
gious exercises, immediately after which the commission "warl'^' 
of Lord Delaware was read, and the government organ- 
ized. Under the wise administration of this able and 
virtuous man, order and contentment were again restored ; 1611. 
but the health of the governor soon failing, he was obli- 
ged to return to England, having previously appointed 

Percy to administer the government until a successor 

should arrive. ^Before the return of Lord Delaware 5. of sir 

was known, the company had despatched Sir Thomas 

Dale with supplies. Arriving* in May, he assumed the e. May 20. 

government of the colony, which he administered with 

moderation, although upon the basis of martial law. 

10. °In May, Dale had written to the company, stating s. of the or- 
the small number and weakness of the colonists, and re- "'"''°/'^«'«^ 
questing new recmits ; and early in September Sir 
Thomas Gates arrived with six ships and three hundred 
emigrants, and assumed the government of the colony, 

which then numbered seven hundred men. 'New set- 7. New regu. 
tlements were now formed, and several wise regulations adopted. 



168 COLONIAL HISTORY. [Book U. 

ANALYSIS, adopted ; among which was that of assigning to each man 
a few acres of ground for his orchard and garden. 
1. Their 1 1 . 'Hitherto all the land had been worked in common, 

effect, (j-c. jjj^^j ^j^g produce deposited in the public stores. The 
good effects of the new regulation were apparent in the 
increased industry of the colonists, and soon after, during 
the administration of Sir Thomas Dale, larger assign- 
ments of land were made, and finally, the plan of working 
in a common field, to fill the public stores, was entirely 
abandoned. 

1612. III. Virginia under the Third Charter. — 1. "In 1612, 

2. Tiie third i\\q London Company obtained* from the king a new char- 

cJiarter. i J . r i 

a. March 22. ter, making important changes m the powers ot the corpo- 
ration, but not essentially afiecting the poUtical rights of 
the colonists themselves. 

3. Changes in 2. ^Hitherto the principal powers possessed by the 
mau^effeaed Company had been vested in the superior council, which, 

*^"' under the first charter, was appointed by the king; and 
although, under the second, it had its vacancies filled by 
the majority of the corporation, yet the corporation itself 
could act only through this medium. The superior coun- 
cil was now abolished, and its powers were transferred to 
the whole company, which, meeting as a democratic 
assembly, had the sole power of electing the officers and 
establishing the laws of the colony. 

1613. 3. ""In 1613 occurred the marriage of John Rolfe, a 

4. Account of young Englishman, with Pocahontas, the daughter of 

ntas. pQ^y}^j^tj^j-j . — an event which exerted a happy influence 
upon the relations of the colonists and Indians. The 
marriage received the approval of the father and friends 
of the maiden, and was hailed with great joy by the 
English. In 1616, the Indian wife accompanied her 
husband to England, and was received with much kind- 
ness and attention by the king and queen ; but as she 
was preparing to return, at the age of twenty-two she 
fell a victim to the English climate. Slie left one son, 
from whom are descended some of the most respectable 
families in Virginia. 
b. In 1613. 4. ^During the same year,'' Samuel Argall, a sea cap- 
expidfuons t^i"> sailing from Virginia in an armed ^■essel for the pur- 
pose of protecting the English fishermen off the coast of 
Maine, discovered that the French had just planted a 
colony near the Penobscot,* on Mount Desert Isle.f Con- 
sidering this an encroachment upon the limits of North 



* The Penobscot is a rirer of Maine, -whicli falls into Penobscot Bay, about 50 miles N. B. 
from the mouth of the Kennebec. 

t Mount Dest rt hlnn'l is ahout 20 miles S. E. ft-om the mouth of the Penobscot, — a i>eninsula 
Intervening. It is 15 miles long, anl 10 or 12 broad. 



Part II.] VIRGINIA. I69 

Virginia, he broke up the settlement, sending some of 1613. 

the colonists to France, and transporting others to Vir- 

ginia. 

5. Sailing again soon after, he easily reduced the feeble 
settlement at Port Royal,* and thus completed the con- a. Note. p. 135 
quest of Acadia. On his return to Virginia he entered 

the harbor of New York,^ and compelled the Dutch trad- b. Note and 
ing establishment, lately planted there, to acknowledge ^^''^' 
the sovereignty of England. 

6. 'Early in 1614, Sir Thomas Gates embarked for 1614. 
England, leaving the administration of the government ^'^aws'ad^ 
in the hands of Sir Thomas Dale, who ruled with vigor ministratum. 
and wisdom, and made sevei'al valuable changes in the 

land laws of the colony. After having remained five 

years in the country, he appointed George Yeardley 1616. 

deputy-governor, and returned to England. ''During the 2. Theeui- 

administration of Yeardley the culture of tobacco, a native maax. 

plant of the country, was introduced, which soon became, 

not only the principal export, but even the currency of 

the colony. 

7. ^In 1617, the office of deputy-governor was intrusted 1617. 
to Argall, who ruled with such tyranny as to excite %iinuimm^ 
universal discontent. He not only oppressed the colo- 
nists, but defrauded the company. After numerous com- 
plaints, and a strenuous contest among rival factions in the 
company, for the control of the colony, Argall was dis- 1619. 
placed, and Yeardley appointed governor. ^Under the ^c^inff^'' 
administration of Yeardley, the planters were fully tum. 
released from farther service to the colony, martial law 

was abolished, and the first colonial assembly ever held 

in Virginia was convened"^ at Jamestown. <=. June 29. 

8. ^The colony was divided into eleven boroughs ; and s. origin and 

.•' n 1 , ^ ° e- powers of the 

two representatives, called burgesses, were chosen irom Howie of 
each. These, constituting the house of burgesses, deba- ""***' 
ted all matters which were thought expedient for the good 
of the colony ; but their enactments, although sanctioned 
by the governor and council, were of no force until they 
were ratified by the company in England. °ln the month 1620. 
of August, 1620, a Dutch man-of-war entered James ^,%(^^Zm- 
river, and landed twenty negroes for sale. This was the , »""»««« 

"^i" •iTAi-ii- slavery toas 

commencement 01 negro slavery m the Engush colonies, introduced. 

9. 'It was now twelve years since the settlement of 7. state of the 
Jamestown, and after an expenditure of nearly four hun- ieia'^a^"d- 
dred thousand dollars by the company, there were in the em^mtPmi. 
colony only six hundred persons ; yet, during the year 

1620, through the influence of Sir Edwyn Sandys, the 
treasurer of the company, twelve hundred and sixty-one 
additional settlers were induced to emigrate. But as yet 

22 ' 



170 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[Book H. 



ANALYSIS. 



1. Measures 
that were 
taken to at- 
tach the emi- 
grants to the 
country. 



1621. 

a. Aug. 3. 

2. Account of 
the written 
constitution 
granted by, 

the company. 

Assembly, 
how consti- 
tuted. 

Powers of 
governor. 



Laws. 

Orders of the 
company. 

Trial by 
jury. 

Basis of con- 
stitution. 



b. Oct. 

3. Arrival of 

Sir Francis 

Wyatt; and 

the condition 

ef the colony. 



i. Account of 
the Indian 
conspiracy. 



1622. 



5. Massacre 

and Indian 

war which 

fallowed. 



there were few women in the colony ; and' most of the 
planters had hitherto cherished the design of ultimately 
returning to England. 

10. 'In order to attach them still more to the country, 
and to render the colony more permanent, ninety young 
women, of reputable character, were first sent over, and, 
in the following year, sixty more, to become wives to the 
planters. The expense of their transportation, and even 
more, was paid by the planters ; the price of a wife rising 
from one hundred and twenty, to one hundred and fifty 
pounds of tobacco. 

11. °In August, 1621, the London Company granted* 
to their colony a written constitution, ratifying, in the 
main, the form of government established by Yeardley. 
It decreed that a governor and council should be appointed 
by the company, and that a general assembly, consisting 
of the council, and two burgesses chosen by the people 
from each plantation, or borough, should be convened 
yearly. The governor had a negative voice upon the 
proceedings of the assembly, but no law was valid unless 
ratified by the company in England. 

12. With singular liberality it was farther ordained 
that no orders of the company in England should bind the 
colony until ratified by the assembly. The trial by jury 
was established, and courts of justice were required to 
conform to the English laws. This constitution, gi'anting 
privileges which were ever after claimed as rights, was 
the basis of civil freedom in Virginia. 

13. 'The new constitution was brought'' over by Sir 
Francis Wyatt, who had been appointed to succeed 
Governor Yeardley. He found the numbers of the colony 
greatly increased, their settlements widely extended, and 
every thing in the full tide of prosperity But this pleas- 
ant pi'ospect was doomed soon to experience a terrible 
reverse. 

14. ^Since the marriage of Pocahontas, Powhatan had 
remained the firm friend of the English. But he beine 
now dead, and his successor viewing with jealousy and 
alarm the rapidly increasing settlements of the English, 
the Indians concerted a plan of surprising and destroying 
the whole colony. Still preserving the language of 
friendship, they visited the settlements, bought the arms, 
and borrowed the boats of the English, and, even on the 
morning of the fatal day, came among them as freely as 
usual. 

15. ^On the first of April, 1622, at mid-day, the attack 
commenced ; and so sudden and unexpected was the on- 
set, that, in one hour, three hundred and forty-seven men, 



Part IL] VIRGINIA. 171 

women, and children, fell victims to savage treachery and 1622. 

cruelty. The massacre would have been far more cxten • 

sive had not a friendly Indian, on the previous evening, 
revealed the plot to an Englishman whom he wished to 
save ; by which means Jamestown and a few of the neigh- 
boring settlements were well prepared against the attack. 

16. 'Although the larger part of the colony was saved, i- Distress of 
yet great distress followed ; the more distant settlements 

were abandoned ; and the number of the plantations was 
reduced from eighty to eight. 'But the English soon 2. Tkerasuit. 
aroused to vengeance. An exterminating war against the 
Indians followed ; many of them were destroyed ; and 
the remainder were obliged to retire far into the wilder- 
ness. 

17. 'The settlement of Virginia by the London Com- 3. Thecaiwu 

L J 1 i?i i_i i • J ii which led to 

pany had been an unprontable enterprise, and as the thedissoiu- 
shares in the unproductive stock were now of little value, L^o'iCc^. 
and the holders very numerous, the meetings of the com- ^'^"^■ 
pany, in England, became the scenes of political debate, 
in which the advocates of liberty were arrayed against 
the upholders of royal prerogative. ''The king disliked i whatdu- 
the freedom of debate here exhibited, and, jealous of the king. 
prevalence of liberal sentiments, at first sought to control 
the elections of officers, by overawing the assemblies. 

18. Tailing in this, he determined to recover, by a dis- 5. wiwtM 
solution of the company, the influence of which he had **""' 
deprived himself by a charter of his own concession. 
"Commissioners in the interest of the king were therefore 6. How the 
appointed to examine the concerns of the corporation. As '^^piish^. 
was expected, they reported in favor of a change ; the 
judicial decision was soon after given ; the London Com- 
pany was dissolved ; the king took into his own hands the 1624. 
government of the colony ; and Virginia thus became a 

royal government. 

19. ''Durinor the existence of the London Company, the r Gradual 

^ ^ TT-. . . 1 1 J >i 1 ^ c changes that 

government 01 Virginia had gradually changed irom a had occurred 
royal government, under the first charter, in which the mtnt%f'vS'' 
king had all power, to a proprietary government under ^""^ 
the second and third charters, in which all executive and 
legislative powers were in the hands of the company. 

20. 'Although these changes had been made without s. Effect of 
consulting the wishes of the colonists, and notwithstand- ' both on nr-' 
ing the powers of the company were exceedingly arbi- ^"feoPher'^ 
trary, yet as the majority of its active members belonged <**'»"'«*■ 
to the patriot party in England, so they acted as the suc- 
cessful friends of liberty in America. They had conce- 
ded the right of trial by jury, and had given to Virginia 

a representative government. These privileges, thus early 



X72 COLONIAL HISTORY. [Book IL 

ANALYSIS, conceded, could never be wrested from the Virginians, 
■ and tliey exerted an influence favorable to liberty, through- 
out all the colonies subsequently planted. All claimed 
as extensive privileges as had been conceded to their elder 
sister colony, and future proprietaries could hope to win 
emigrants, only by bestowing franchises as large as those 
enjoyed by Virginia. 

IV. Virginia from the Dissolution of the Lon- 
don Company in 1624, to the commencement of the 
^'of'the^w^ French and Indian War in 1754. — 1. ^The dissolu- 
gooernment. tion of the London Company produced no immediate 
change in the domestic government and franchises of the 
colony. A governor and twelve counsellors, to be guided 
by the instructions of the king, were appointed to admin- 
ister the government ; but no attempts were made to sup- 
1625. press the colonial assemblies. "On the death* of James 
a. AprUs. the First, in 1625, his son, Charles the First, succeeded 
"omn^L him. The latter paid very little attention to the political 
^'^"'g^inu/^'^' condition, of Virginia, but aimed to promote the prosperity 
of the colonists, only with the selfish view of deriving 
profit from their industry. He imposed some restrictions 
on the commerce of the colony, but vainly endeavored to 
obtain for himself the monopoly of tlie trade in tobacco. 

1628. 2. °In 1628, John Harvey, who had for several years 
^' ^"vey^"'^ been a member of the council, and was exceedingly un- 
popular, was appointed governor ; but he did not arrive in 

1629. the colony until late in the following year. He has been 
charged, by most of the old historians, with arbitrary and 
tyrannical conduct ; but although he favored the court 
party, it does not appear that he deprived the colonists of 
any of their civil rights. 

4. uisad- 3. ^His administration, however, was disturbed by dis- 

rmnwtTotion. ^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^xiA titles under the royal grants ; and the 

colonists, being indignant that he should betray their in- 

1635. terests by opposing their claims, deprived him of the gov- 
ernment, and summoned an assembly to receive complaints 
against him. Harvey, in the mean time, had consented 
to go to England with commissioners appointed to manage 
his impeachment ; but the king would not even admit his 

1636. accusers to a hearing, and Harvey immediately returned' 
b. Jan. to occupy his former station. 

1642. 4. ^Duringthefirst administration of Sir William Berke- 
J'Be^e'i"J's ^^X' ^I'o™ 1642 to '52, the civil condition of the Virgi- 
admvwtra- nians was much improved ; the laws and customs of Eng- 
land were still farther introduced ; cruel punishments 
were abolished ; old controversies were adjusted ; a more 
equitable system of taxation was introduced ; the rights 
, of property and the freedom of industry were secured ; 



Part II.] 



VIRGINIA. 



173 



and Virginia enjoyed nearly all the civil liberties which 
the most free system of government could have conferred. 

5. 'A spirit of intolerance, however, in religious matters, 
in accordance with the spirit of the age, was manifested 
by the legislative assembly ; which ordered'^ that no min- 
ister should preach or teach except in conformity to the 
Church of England. "While puritanism and republican- 
ism were prevailing in England, leading the way to the 
downfall of monarchy, the Virginians showed the strongest 
attachment to the Episcopal Church and the cause of 
royalty. 

6. "In 1644 occurred another Indian massacre, followed 
by a border warfare until October, 1646, when peace was 
again established. During several years the Powhatan 
tribes had shown evidences of hostility ; but, in 1644, 
hearing of the dissensions in England, and thinking the 
opportunity favorable to their designs, they resolved on a 
general massacre, hoping to be able eventually to exter- 
minate the colony. 

7. On the 28th of April, the attack was commenced on 
the frontier settlements, and about three hundred persons 
were killed before the Indians were repulsed. ^A vigor- 
ous war against the savages was immediately commenced, 
and their king, the aged Opechancanoagh, the successor 
of Powhatan, was easily made prisoner, and died in cap- 
tivity. Submission to the English, and a cession of lands, 
were the terms on which peace was purchased by the 
original possessors of the soil. 

8. "^During the civil war* between Charles the First 
and his Parliament, the Virginians continued faithful to 
the royal cause, and even after the execution* of the king, 
his son, Charles the Second, although a fugitive from Eng- 
land, was still recognized as the sovereign of Virginia. 
*The Parliament, irritated by this conduct, in 1652 sent a 
naval force to reduce the Virginians to submission. Pre- 
vious to this (in 1650) foreign ships had been forbidden to 
trade with the rebellious colony, and in 1651 the cele- 
brated navigation act, securing to English ships the entire 



1642. 



1 Rell^ous 
intolerance. 

"1643. 



2. Singular 
contrast of 
principles. 



1644. 

3. The second 
Indian mas- 
sacre and ivar 
in ivhic/i tfis 
Yirsinians 

were 
involved. 



4. The result 
of the war. 



1646. 



5. State of 

Virginia 

during the 

civil war in 

England. 

b. Feb. 9. 



6. Hffto Vir- 
ginia was 
treated by the 
Parliament . 



* Note. — The tyrannical disposition, and arbitrary measures of Cliarles the First, of England, 
opposed as they were to the increasing spirit of liberty among the people, involved that king- 
dom in a civil war ; arraying, on the one side, Parliament and the Kepublicans ; and on the 
other, the Koyalists and the King. Between 1642 and 1649, several important battles were 
fought, when the king was finally taken prisoner, tried, condemned, and executed, Jan 30, 
(Old Style) 1649. The Parliament then ruled ; but Oliver Cromwell, who had been the prin- 
cipal general of the Kepublicans, finally dissolved it by force (April, 16.53.) and took into his 
own hands the reins of government, with the title of " Protector of the Commonwealth." He 
administered the government ^vith energy and abiUty until his death, in 1G&8. Kichard Crom- 
well succeeded his father, as Protector, but after two years he abdicated the government, and 
quietly retired to private life. Charles the Second, a highly accomplished prince, but arbitrary 
base, and unprincipled, was then restored (in 1660) to the throne of his ancestors, by the gene 
ral wish of the people. (See also the Appendix to the Colonial History.) 



174 COLONIAL fflSTORY. [Book 1L 

ANALYSIS, carrying trade with England, and seriously abridging the 
freedom of colonial commerce, was passed. 
1652. 9. 'On the arrival* of the naval force of Parliament in 
a. March. 1652, all thoughts of resistance were laid aside, and al- 
nMnner^iier though the Virginians refused to surrender to force, yet 
'parliament' they Voluntarily entered into a compact*" with their in- 
was effected, yaders, by which they acknowledged the supremacy of 
2. Nature of Parliament. ^By this compact, which was faithfully ob- 
''tnd'^w'' served till the restoration of monarchy, the liberties of 
observed. Virginia were preserved, the navigation act itself was not 
enforced within her borders, and regulated by her own 
laws, Virginia enjoyed freedom of commerce with all the 
world. 
3. state of 10. ^During the existence of the Commonwealth, Vir- 
(hlruig\te ginia enjoyed liberties as extensive as those of any Eng- 
^wS: lish colony, and from 1652 till 1660, she was left almost en- 
tirely to her own independent government. Cromwell 
never made any appointments for Virginia ; but her gov- 

c. Eennet, ernors,'= during the Commonwealth, were chosen by the 
Mauhews. burgcsscs, who Were the representatives of the people. 

1658. ^When the news of the death"* of Cromwell arrived, the 

d. Sept. 13. assembly reasserted their right of electing the officers of 
*' occw'red'"'' government, and required the governor, Matthews, to con- 
If'^he^ath ^'"*^ ^^ ; in order, as they said, " that what was their privi- 
of Cromwell Xqpq then, might be the privilege of their posterity." 

arrived. ^ ^ ^ r o r j 

1660 ^^' '^'^ ^'^^ death of governor Matthews, which hap- 

s.Attiietime pened just at the time of the resignation of Richard, the 
"^"tionof"^' successor of Cromwell, the house of burgesses, after enact- 
Kichard. [^„ ^h^t " the government of the country should be resi- 
dent in the assembly until there should arrive from Eng- 
land a commission which the assembly itself should adjudge 
to be lawful," elected Sir William Berkeley governor, who, 
by accepting the office, acknowledged the authority to 
e Theioishes which he owed his elevation. ^The Virginians hoped for 
ginians^with the restoration of monarchy in England, but they did not 
nwnarchy immediately proclaim Charles the Second king, although 
the statement of their hasty return to royal allegiance has 
been often made. 
7. Events that 12. 'When the news of the restoration of Charles the 
tii%nToffhe Second reached Virginia, Berkeley, who was then acting as 
^^Chari'ix"ii/^ governor elected by the people, immediately disclaimed 
the popular sovereignty, and issued writs for an assembly 
in the name of the king. The friends of royalty now 
came into power, and high hopes of royal favor were en- 
tertained. 
% Commercial 13. *But prospccts soon darkened. The commercial 
Imv^seTZ. policy of the Commonwealth was adopted, and restrictions 
the colonies, ^pon colonial commerce were greatly multiplied. The 



Part II.] VIRGINIA. 175 

new provisions of the navigation act enjoined that no com- 1661. 

modities should be imported to any British settlements, nor 

exported from them, except in English vessels, and that 
the principal product of the colonies should be shipped to 
no country except England. The trade between the 
colonies was likewise taxed for the benefit of England, and 
the entire aim of the colonial system was to make the colo- 
nies dependent upon the mother country, 

14. 'Remonstrances against this oppression were of no i Discontents 
avail, and the provisions of the navigation act were rigor- "/nd^rantVo 
ously enforced. The discontents of the people were farther '^^'p^pp^'^ 
increased by royal grants of large tracts of land which be- -iriinston. 
longed to the colony, and which included plantations that 

had long been cultivated ; and, in 1673, the lavish sover- 1673. 
eign of England, with his usual profligacy, gave away to 
Lord Culpepper and the earl of Arlington, two royal favor- 
ites, " all the dominion of land and water called Virginia," 
for the space of thirty-one years. 

15. ^In the mean time, under the influence of the 2. uiohat 

,. 11- • • -XT • • 1 1 • 1 manner the 

royalist and the aristocratic party in Virginia, the legisla- liberties of thu 
ture had seriously abridged the liberties of the people. '^^abrUsS^ 
The Episcopal Church had become the religion of the state, ^"^^/^'if * °^ 
— heavy fines were imposed upon Quakers and Baptists, Byjines. 
— the royal officers, obtaining their salaries by a perma- salaries. 
nent duty on exported tobacco, were removed from all de- 
pendence upon the people, — the taxes were unequal and op- Taxes. 
pressive, — and the members of the assembly, who had been Representa- 
chosen for a term of only two years, had assumed to them- 
selves an indefinite continuance of power, so that, in real- 
ity, the representative system was abolished. 

16. 'The pressure of increasing grievances at length ^f^g^/^l^{. 
produced open discontent ; and the common people, highfy o"^- 
exasperated against the aristocratic and royal party, began 

to manifest a mutinous disposition. '"An excuse for ap- i Indian war 
pearing in arms was presented in the sudden outbreak of curredattim 
Indian hostilities. The Susquehanna Indians, driven from 
their hunting grounds at the head of the Chesapeake, by 
the hostile Senecas, had come down upon the Potomac, 
and with their confederates, were then engaged in a war 
v/ith Maryland. Murders had been committed on the soil 1675. 
of Virginia, and when six of the hostile chieftains presented 
themselves to treat for peace, they were cruelly put to 
death. Tiie Indians aroused to vengeance, and a deso- 
lating warfare ravaged the frontier settlements. 

17. 'Dissatisfied with the measures of defence which gfif^^pg"^ 
Berkeley had adopted, the people, with Nathaniel Bacon for 
theirleader, demanded of the governor permission to rise and lt»7b. 
protect themselves. "Berkeley, jealous of the increasing ^- slrkeiel"'^ 



176 COLONIAL HISTORY. [Book II 

ANALYSIS, popularity of Bacon, refused permission. 'At lengtli, the 

1. Commence Indian aggressions increasing, and a party of Bacon's own 

Bac>,r{ '^^^^ having been slain on his plantation, he yielded to the 

rebellion, common voice, placed himself at the head of five hundred 

men, and commenced his march against the Indians. He 

a. May. was immediately proclaimed* traitor by Berkeley, and 

troops were levied to pursue him. Bacon continued his ex- 
pedition, which was successful, while Berkeley was obliged 
to recall his troops, to suppress an insurrection in the lower 
counties. 
•i. Success of IB. ^The great mass of the people having arisen, 
"^cauiT' Berkeley was compelled to yield ; the odious assembly, of 
long duration, was dissolved ; and an assembly, composed 
mostly of the popular party, was elected in their places. 
Numerous abuses were now corrected, and Bacon was ap- 
3. Vacillating pointed commander-in-chief. ^Berkeley, however, at first 
^B^keiey. I'efused to sign his commission, but Bacon having made 
his appearance in Jamestown, at the head of several hun- 
dred armed men, the commission was issued, and the gov- 
ernor united with the assembly in commending to the king 
the zeal, loyalty, and patriotism of the popular leader. 
But as the army was preparing to march again.st the 
enemy, Berkeley suddenly withdrew aci'oss tlie York* 
river to Gloucester,^ summoned a convention of loyalists, 
and, even against their advice, once more proclaimed 
Bacon a traitor. 
1. Events of 19. ^Bacon, however, proceeded against the Indians, 
which and Berkeley having crossed the Chesapeake to Accomac:}: 
county, his retreat was declared an abdication. Berkeley, 
in the mean time, with a few adherents, and the crews of 
some English ships, had returned to Jamestown, but, on 
the approach of Bacon and his forces, after some slight re- 
sistance the royalists were obliged to retreat, and Bacon 
took possession of the capital of Virginia. 

20. The rumor prevailing that a party of royalists was 
approaching, Jamestown was burned, and some of the 
patriots fired their own houses, lest they might afford shel- 
ter to the enemy. Several troops of the royalists soon 
after joined the insurgents, but, in the midst of his suc- 

b. Oct u. cesses, Bacon suddenly died.'' His party, now left with- 

out a leader, after a few petty insurrections, dispersed, and 
the authority of the governor was restored. 



* Yoric Eiver enters the Chesapeake about 18 miles N. from James River. It is navigable 
for the largest vessels, 2.o miles. It is formed of the Mattapony and the i'amunky. The former, 
which is on the north, is formed of the Mat, Ta, Po, and Ni/ rivers. 

t Gloucester county is on the N.E. side of York Kiver, and borders on the Chesapeake. The 
town is on a branch or bay of the Chesapeake, 

J Accnmac county is on the eastern shore of Chesapeake Bay. This county and Northamp- 
ton county, on the south, constitute what is called the Eastern shore of Virginia. 



Part II] VIRGINIA. 177 

21. ^The vengeful passions of Berkeley, however, were 1677, 
not allayed by the submission of his enemies. Fines and 



confiscations gratified his avarice, and executions were con- '• ^g^iS'/Jy""^ 
tinned till twenty-two had been hanged, when the assem- 
bly interfered, and prayed him to stop the work of death. 
The conduct of Berkeley was severely censured in Eng- 
land, and publicly by the king himself, who declared " the 
old fool has taken away more lives in that country than I 
for the murder of my father." 

22. ''Historians have not done justice to the principles 2. character 
and character of Bacon. He has been styled a reSeZ / and tyranny 
and has been described as ambitious and revengeful ; but 'vint''^'*' 
if his principles are to be gathered from the acts of tlie 
assembly of which lie was the head, they were those of 
justice, freedom, and humanity. At tlie time of the rebel- 
lion, " no printing press was allowed in Virginia ; to speak 

ill of Berkeley or liis friends was punished by fine or 
whipping ; to speak, or write, or publisli any thing in 1, 
favor of the rebels, or the rebellion, was made a high mis- 
demeanor, and, if thrice repeated, was evidence of treason. 
It is not strange then that posterity was for more than a 
hundred years defrauded of the truth." 

23. ^The grant of Virginia to Arlington and Culpepper 3. Aproprie- 
has already been mentioned. In 1677 the latter obtained "'^\lenr"' 
the appointment of governor for life, and thus Virginia be- **'" 
came a proprietary government, with the administration 

vested in one of the proprietors. In 1680 Culpepper 1680. 
arrived in the province, and assumed the duties of his 
office. ^The avaricious proprietor was more careful of iCuipepper'a 
his own interests than of those of the colony, and under his ""io«.''^'* 
administration Virginia was impoverished. *In 1684 the 5 Royai 
grant was recalled, — Culpepper was deprived of his office, ^'^MtoreT'' 
although he had been appointed for life, and Virginia again 
became a royal province. Arlington had previously sur- 
rendered his rights to Culpepper. *The remaining por- b. Remaining 

01 histOTt/ of 

tion of the history of Virginia, down to the period of the nrsinia. 
French and Indian war, is marked with few incidents of 
importance. 

23 



178 

ANALYSIS. 



[Book IL 



CHAPTER II, 



Subject of 
Chap. Jl. 



MASSACHUSETTS.* 
SECTION I. 



Of Section!. MASSACHUSETTS, FROM ITS EARLIEST HISTORY, TO THE UNION 
OF THE NEW ENGLAND COLONIES IN 1643. 

Divmpns of Divisions. — I. Early History. — II. Plymouth Colony. — III. Massci- 
Section. I. chusetts Bay Colony. — IV. Union of the New England Colonies. — 
V. Early Laws and Customs. 

1. Early History. — 1. 'An account of the first attempt 
of the Plymouth Company to form a settlement in Nortli 
Virginia has already been given.* Although vessels an- 
nually vi.sited the coast for the purpose of trade with the 
Indians, yet little was known of the interior until 1614, 
when Captain John Smith, who had already obtained dis- 
tinction in Virginia, sailed with two vessels to the territo- 
ries of the Plymouth Company, for the purposes of trade 
and discovery. 

2. *The expedition was a private adventure of Smith 
and four merchants of London, and was highly successful. 
After Smith had concluded his traffic with the natives, he 
travelled into the interior of the country, accompanied by 
only eight men, and, with great care, explored the coast 
from the Penobscot'^' to Cape Cod."^ ^He prepared a map 
of the coast, and called the country New England, — a 
name which Prince Charles confirmed, and which has ever 
since been retained. 

3. *After Smith's departure, Thomas Hunt, the master 
of the second ship, enticed a number of natives on board 
his vessel and carried them to Spain, where they were sold 

^1615. into slavery. ''In the following'' year. Smith, in the em- 

5 Siinlh's 

first at'empt 

to establish a 

colon;/. 



1607. 

a. See p. 136. 

1 First 
attempted set- 
tlement in 
North V* 
gin a, and 
ex plo I at ion of 
tlie country. 

1614. 



2. Expedition 

of Captain 

Smith. 



b. Note, p 168 

and 136, 

c. Note, p. 131. 

3 The inap 
which he pre- 
pared. 

4. Thomas 
Hunt. 



July 4, 

e. His second 
attempt. 



ploy of some members of the Plymouth Company, sailed 
with the design of establishing a colony in New England. 
In his first etfort a violent tempest forced him to return. 
"Again renewing' the enterprise, his crew became mutin- 
ous, and he was at last intercepted by French pirates, who 



* M.\SSAC1IUSETTS, one of the New England States, is about 120 miles long from east to 
•west, 9U miles broad in the eastern part, ami 50 in the western, and cont:iins an area of about 
7,500 square miles. Several ranges of mountains, extending from Vermont and New Hamp- 
shire, p.iss through the western part of this state into Connecticut. East of these mountains 
the country is hilly, except in the southern and south-east«rn portions, where it is low, and 
generally sandy. The northern and western portions of the state have generally a strong soil, 
■well adapted to grazing The valleys of the Connecticut and Ilousatonic are highly fertile. 
The marble quarries of West Stockbridge, in the western part of the state, and the granite 
quarries of Quincy, nine miles S. E. from Boston, are celebrated. 



Paet n.] ■ MASSACHUSETTS. I79 

seized his ship and conveyed him to France. He after- 1615. 

wards escaped alone, in an open boat, from the harbor of 

Rochelle,* and returned to England. 

4. 'By the representations of Smith, the attention of the 1 piaruof 
Plymouth Company was again excited ; they began to '%omvmf.^ 
form vast plans of colonization, appointed Smith admiral 

of the country for life, and, at length, after several years 1620. 
of entreaty, obtained^ a new charter for settling the coun- a. Nov. 13. 
try. * The original Plymouth Company was superseded 2. council of 
by the Council of Plymouth, to which was conveyed, in and'meir 
absolute property, all the territory lying between the 40th '^'""''*'"- 
and 48th degrees'' of north latitude, extending from the b see maps. 
Atlantic to the Pacific, and comprising more than a mil- 
lion of square miles. 

5. 'This charter was the basis of all the grants that 3. Thu char- 
were subsequently made of the country of New England, ^flthat.'^ 
*The exclusive privileges granted by it occasioned dis- 4. usexciu- 
putes among the proprietors, and prevented emigration u^es. 
under their auspices, while, in the mean time, a perma- 
nent colony was established without the aid or knowledge 

of the company or the king. 

II. Plymouth Colony. — 1. ^A band of Puritans, dis- 5. The 
senters from the established Church of England, perse- "" "*"' 
cuted for their religious opinions, and seeking in a foreign 
land that liberty of conscience which their own country 
denied them, became the first colonists of New England. 
•As early as 1608 they emigrated to Holland, and settled, «■ J^c^^f'" 
first, at Amsterdam,! and afterwards at Leyden,t where, Amsterdam. 

1 . ' , . 1 !• • 1 and Lei/den. 

during eleven years, they continued to live in great har- 
mony, under the charge of their excellent pastor, John 
Robinson. 

2. 'At the end of that period, the same religious zeal 7. cavsM 
that had made them exiles, combined with the desire of duced'ihemto 
improving their temporal welfare, induced them to under- ''^Ho«a{d°"' 
take a more distant migration. ®But, notwithstanding g Their 
they had been driven from their early homes by the rod "'England'" 
of persecution, they loved England still, and desired to re- 
tain their mother tongue, and to live under the government 

of their native land. 

3. °These, with other reasons, induced them to seek an 9. DerfgTt of 
asylum in the wilds of America. They obtained a grant ^^"'V'mni'^" 
of land from the London or Virginia Company, but in "'""^"^^ 

* Rorhelle is a strongly fortified town at the bottom of a small gulf on the coast of the Atlan- 
tic (or Bay of Biscay) in the west of France. 

t Amslerdam is on a branch of the Zuyder Z"e, a gulf or bay in the west of Holland. In 
the 17th century it was one of the first commercial cities of Europe. The soil being marshy, 
the city ia built mostly on oaken piles driven into the ground. Numerous canals run through 
the city in every direction. 

t Leyden, long famous for its University, is on one of the branches or mouths of the Ilhin«^ 
7 miles from the sea, and 25 miles S. W. from Amsterdam. 



180 COLONIAL fflSTORY. [Book U. 

ANALYSIS, vain sought the favor of the king. 'Destitute of sufficient 
1 Partner- Capital, they succeeded in forming a partnership with some 
shipformed. nfien of business in London, and, aUhough the terms were 
exceedingly severe to the poor emigrants, yet, as they did 
not interfere with civil or religious rights, the Pilgrims 
2. Prepara- Were contented. ^Two vessels having been obtained, 
'Swi^. the Mayflower and the Speedwell, the one hired, the 
other purchased, as many as could be accommodated 
prepared to take their final departure. Mr. Robinson and 
the main body were to remain at Leyden until a settlement 
should be formed, 
a. Aug. 1. 4. 'Assembled^ at Delft Haven,* and kneeling in pray- 
Deijt^Haven ^^ "^^ ^^^ sea-shore, their pious pastor commended them to 
the protection of Heaven, and gave them his parting bless- 
4. Events ing. ^A prosperous wind soon bore the Speedwell to 
^'Jromfhu'^ Southampton,! where it was joined by the Mayflower, 
^fi^i'^parT with the rest of the company from London. After several 
K?^^ delays, and finally being obliged to abandon the Speedwell 
^^Tnd'^' ^^ unseaworthy, part of the emigrants were dismissed, and 
the remainder were taken on board the Mayflower, which, 
with one hundred and one passengers, sailed from Ply- 
mouth:}: on the 16th of September. 
5 Th^ir voy- 5. ''After a long and dangerous voyage, on the 19th of 
destination. November they descried the bleak and dreary shores of 
Cape Cod, still far from the Hudson, § which they had 
selected as the place of their habitation. But the wintry 
storms had already commenced, and the dangers of navi- 
gation on that unknown coast, at that inclement season, 
induced them to seek a nearer resting-place. 
6 Froceei- g. bq^^ ^j^g 21st they anchored in Cape Cod harbor, but, 
landing, before landing, they formed themselves into a body politic, 
by a solemn contract, and chose John Carver their gover- 
1. Tiieiriead- nor for the first year. 'Their other leading men, distin- 
guished in the subsequent history of the colony, were 
8. Parties Bradford, Brewster, Standish, and Winslow. ^Exploring 
sen on s wre. pg^j-^jg^ were sent on shore to make discoveries, and select a 
9. HardsMvs place for settlement. 'Great hardships were endured from 
endured. ^|^g ^^jj ^.^^ storm, and from wandering through the deep 
snow which covered the country. 

* Delft Haven, the port or haven of Delft, is on the north side of the riyer Maese, in Hol- 
land, 18 miles south from Leyden, and about fifteen miles from the sea. 

t Sout/iampton, a town of England, is situated on an arm of the sea, or of the English 
Channel. It is 75 miles S. W. from London. 

t Plymouth, a large town of Devonshire, in England, about 200 miles S. AV. from London, 
and 130 from Southampton, stands between the rivers Plym and Tamar, near their entrance 
into the English Channel. Plymouth is an important naval station, and has one of the best 
harbors in England. 

§ The Hudson River, in New York, one of the best for navigation in America, rises in the 
mountainous regions west of Lake Champlain, and after an irregular course to Sandy Hill it.i 
direction is nearly south, 200 miles by the river, to New York IJay, which lies between Long 
Island and New Jersey. The tide flows to Troy, 151 mUes (by the river) from New York. 



Part II.] 



MASSACHUSETTS. 



181 



3. Anniver- 

aary of this 

event. 



1. Commence- 
vient of the 
settlement, 
and suffer- 
ings during 
the first 
winter. 



1621. 



7. ^A i^w Indians were seen, who fled upon the dis- 1630. 

charge of the muskets of the English ; a few graves were - — ; — 

discovered, and, from heaps of sand, a number of baskets vMdt^^ 
of corn were obtained, which furnished seed for a future 
harvest, and probably saved tlie infant colony from famine. 

''On the 21st of December the harbor of Plymouth* was 2 -Landing of 
sounded, and being found fit for shipping, a party landed, iTpiynmlTh. 
examined the soil, and finding good water, selected this as 
the place for a settlement. ^The 21st of December, cor- 
responding with the llth of December Old Style, is the 
day which should be celebrated in commemoration of this 
important event, as the anniversary of tlie landing of the 
Pilgnm Fathers. 

8. ''In a few days the Mayflower was safely moored in 
the harbor. The buildings of the settlers progressed 
slowly, through many difficulties and discouragements, 
for many of the men were sick with colds and consump- 
tions, and want and exposure rapidly reduced the num- 
bers of the colony. The governor lost a son at the first 
landing ; early in the spring his own health sunk under a 
sudden attack, and his wife soon followed him in death. 
The sick were often destitute of proper care and atten- 
tion ; the living were scarcely able to bury the dead ; 
and, at one time, there were only seven men capable of 
rendering any assistance. Before April forty-six had 

died. ^Yet, with the scanty remnant, hope and virtue sur- s how their 
vived ; — they repined not in all their sufferings, and their tvere borne. 
cheerful confidence in the mercies of Providence remain- 
ed unshaken. 

9. ^Although a few Indians had been seen at a distance «. Amount of 
hovering around the settlement, yet during several months 
none approached sufficiently near to hold any intercourse 
with the English. At length the latter were surprised by 
the appearance, among them, of an Indian named Samo- 
set, who boldly entered^ their settlement, exclaiming in 
broken English, Welcome Englishmen ! Welcome Eng- 
lishmen ! He had learned a little English among the 
fishermen who had visited the coast of Maine, and gave 
the colony inuch useful information. 

10. 'He cordially bade the strangers welcome to the 
soil, which, he informed them, had a few years 
before been deprived of its occupants by a dreadful 
pestilence that had desolated the whole eastern sea- 

* Plymouth, thus named from Plymouth in England, is now a vil- 
lage of about 5000 inhabitants. It is pleasantly situated on Plymouth 
harbor, 38 miles S. E. from Boston. The harbor is large, but shallow, 
and is formed by a sand beach extending three miles N. \V. from the 
mouth of Eel River. In 1774 a part of the Kock on which the Pilgrims 
landed was conveyed from the shore to a square in the centre of the 
village. 



Indian visit 
that the 
colony re- 
ceived. 



a. March 26. 



7 Informa- 
tion given by 
Samoset. 



PITMOUTH AND VIC. 




182 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[Book II. 



ANALYSIS. 



1. Sguanto. 



3. Massasoit. 



a. April 1. 

3-Treatytoith 

Massasoit- 



4. Other 
treaties. 



1622. 

5. Canonicus. 



e. Weston's 
colony. 



7. Character 
and conduct 
of the settlers. 



1623. 

8 Saved from 
destruction. 



a. Fate of tlie 
plantation. 



10. Conduct of 

the London 
adventurers. 



board of New England. 'Samoset soon after visited the 
colony, accompanied by Squanto, a native who had been 
carried away by Hunt, in 1614, and sold into slavery, but 
who had subsequently been liberated and restored to his 
country. 

11. ^By the influence of these friendly Indians, Mas- 
sasoit, the great Sachem of the Wampanoags, the princi- 
pal of the neighboring tribes, was induced to visit the col- 
ony, where he was received* with much formality and pa- 
rade. 'A treaty of friendship was soon concluded,' the 
parties promising to deliver up offenders, and to abstain 
from mutual injuries j the colony to receive assistance if 
attacked, and Massasoit, if attacked unjustly. This treaty 
was kept inviolate during a period of fifty years, until the 
breaking out of King Philip's War. 

12. ^Other treaties, of a similar character, soon after 
followed. A powerful chieftain within the dominions of 
Massasoit, who at first regarded the English as intruders, 
and threatened them with hostilities, was finally compel- 
led to sue for peace. '^Canonicus, the chief of the Nar- 
ragansetts, sent to Plymouth a bundle of arrows wrapped 
in a rattlesnake's skin, as a token of his hostility. The 
governor, Bradford, filled the skin with powder and shot 
and returned it ; but the chieftain's courage failed at the 
sight of this unequivocal symbol, which was rejected by 
every community to which it was carried, until at last it 
was returned to Plymouth, with all its contents. The 
Narragansetts were awed into submission. 

13. °In 1622, Thomas Weston, a merchant of London, 
sent out a colony of sixty adventurers, who spent most of 
the summer at Plymouth, enjoying the hospitality of the 
inhabitants, but afterwards removed to Weymouth,* where 
they began a plantation. 'Being soon reduced to neces- 
sity by indolence and disorder, and having provoked the 
Indians to hostilities by their injustice, the latter formed a 
plan for the destruction of the settlement. 

14. *But the grateful Massasoit having revealed the de- 
sign to the Plymouth colony, the governor sent Captain 
Standish with eight men to aid the inhabitants of- Wey- 
mouth. With his small party Standish intercepted and 
killed the hostile chief, and several of his men, and the 
conspiracy was defeated. *The Weymouth Plantation 
was soon after nearly deserted, most of the settlers return- 
ing to England. 

15. '"The London adventurers, who had furnished the 
Plymouth settlers with capital, soon becoming discouraged 



* 'Weymouth, calleJ by the Indians Wessagussett, is a small Tillage between two branches 
of the outer harbor of Boston, 12 miles S. E. from the city. (See Map, p. 184.) 



Part II.] MASSACHUSETTS. 183 

by the small returns from their investments, not only de- 1624. 

serted the interests of the colony, but did much to injure • 

its prosperity. They refused to furnish Robinson and his 
friends a passage to America, attempted to enforce on the 
colonists a clergyman more friendly to the established 
church, and even despatched a ship to injure their com- 
merce by rivalry. ^At last, the emigrants succeeded in 1626, 
purchasing" the rights of the London merchants ; they a. Nov. 
made an equitable division of their property, which was ^i^tnid'e 
before in common stock ; and although the progress of "•''"' "^'^'"■ 
population was slow, yet, after the first winter, no fears 
were entertained of the permanence of the colony. 

III. Massachusetts Bay Colony. — 1. ^In 1624, Mr. 2- Attempted 
White, a Puritan minister of Dorchester,* in England, cape Ann. 
having induced a number of persons to unite with him in 
the design of planting another colony in New England, a 
small company was sent over, who began a settlement at 
Cape Ann.-j- This settlement, however, was abandoned 
after an existence of less than two years. 

2. 'In 1628, a patent was obtained'' from the council of 1628. 
Plymouth, and a second company was sent over, under •>• March 29. 
the charge of John Endicott, which settled-^ at Salem,:}: to ^' ofSatllT 
which place a few of the settlers of Cape Ann had pre- <=■ ■'^ept- 
viously removed. *In the following year the proprietors 1629. 
received'' a charter from the king, and were incorporated \^^^^„]g' 
by the name of the " Governor and Company of the Mas- t/iat occurred 

_ ' *^ %ft thf folloiO' 

sachusetts Bay in New England." About 200 additional ingyear. 
settlers came' over, a part of whom removed to and e. July, 
founded Charlestown.§ 

3. 'During the year 1630, the Massachusetts Bay colony 1630. 
received a large accession to its numbers, by the arrival f %iiae1f'th& 
of about three hundred families, mostly pious and intelli- '^"jg"^ "' 
gent Puritans, under the charge of the excellent John f, juiy. 
Winthrop. °At the same time the whole government of «• other 
the colony was removed to New England, and Winthrop QccurreA at 

,.1 the same 

was chosen governor. ume. 

4. 'The new emigrants located themselves beyond the 7. Lncatimof 
limits of Salem, and settled at Dorchester,]] Roxbury,ir emfgrants. 

* Dorchegter, in England, is situated on the small river Froom, 20 miles from its entrance 
into the English Channel, six miles N. from Weymouth, and 120 S.W. from London. 

t Chpe Ann, the northern cape of Massachusetts Bay, is 30 miles N.B. from Boston. The 
cape and peninsula are now included in the town of Gloucester. Gloucester, the principal vil- 
lage, called also the Harbor, is finely located on the south side of the peninsula. 

t Srilem, called by the Indians Na-um-keug, is 14 miles N.E. from Boston. It is built on a 
sandy peninsula, formed by two inlets of the sea, called North and South Rivers. The liarbor, 
which is in Soutli River, is good for vessels drawing not more than 12 or 14 feet of water. (Sea 
Map, next page.) 

s^ See Note on page 187. Map, next page, and also on p. 349. 

II That part of Dorchester which was first settled, is Dorchester Neck, about four miles S.E. 
from Boston. (See Map, p. 349.) 

IT Roxbury village is two miles south from Boston. Its principal street may be considered 
a« the continuation of Washington Street, Boston, extending over Boston Neck. A great part 
of the town is rocky land : hence the name, Roc/c's-bitry. (See Map, next page.) 



184 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[Booxn. 



ANALYSIS. Cambridge,* and Watertown.'j" 'Tlie accidental ad van- 

1 Settlement ^'^o^ °* ^ spring of good watcr induced a few foniilies, and 

<if Boston, with them the governor, to settle on the peninsula of 

Shawmut ; and Boston:}: tiienceibrth became the metropolis 

of New England. 
i siifferinsrs 5. ^Many of the settlers were from illustrious and noble 
nnrfmu;«o/ families, and having been accustomed to a life of ease and 
'"'land. ° enjoyment, their sutle rings from exposure and the failure 

of provisions were great, and, before December, two hun- 

.dred had died. A few only, disheartened by the scenes 
,8. Character of woe, returned to England. 'Tiiose who remained were 

of those ip/io . , . , . ,,• • 1 !• • r • I i /~ii 

remained, sustauied ni their allhctions by rehgious laith and Lliris- 

tion fortitude ; — not a trace of repining appears in their 

records, and sickness never prevented their assembling at 

stated times tor religious worship. 

1G31. 6. *In 1631 the general court, or council of the people, 

4. Regulation ordained* that the governor, deputv-ijovernor, and assist- 

adopled in » i ,> > i i 

'6-!i- ants, sliould be chosen by the ireemen alone ; but at the 
a. May 23. g;^,,j£> jjjjjg jj^ ^.^g declared that those only should be ad- 
mitted to the full rights of citizenship, who Avere members 
^'^thlrima" of some church within the limits of the colony. § "This 
law has been severely censured for its intolerance, by 
those who have lived in more enlightened times, but it 
was in strict accordance with the policy and the spirit of 
the age, and with the professions of the Puritans them- 
selves, and originated in the purest motives. 

7. "In 1634 the pure democratic form of government, 
which liad hitherto prevailed, was clianged^" to a represen- 
tative democracy, by which the powers of legislation were 
intrusted to deputies chosen by the people. 'In the same 



1634. 

e. Change 
made in the 
government 
in 1634 

b Blay. 
7 Roger 
^^'i!!u^ms. 



=S^ 




boston/ 



5 NoTK. — BvU when Xow Ilainpshiie unite 
but on equal tonus, ucithcr the fivoiueu nor 
be church members. 



* Cambridge, formerly called NewtoNvn, is situ- 
nt^-d on the north side of Charles Kiver, three miles 
N.\V. from Boston. The conrthouso luid jail ai"e 
at East Cauihridse, formerly called Lechmere^s 
Point, within a n\ile of iJoston, and connected with 
it and Charlostown by brid,j^>s. Harvard eollege, 
the 1u-st ostjiWislied in the l^niu-d States, is at 
Cambridge. (Maii.) (See also Map, p. 349.) 

t Wnttrtoivn villafre is on the north side of 
Charles Kiver, west of Cambridge, luid sereu miles 
fi-om Hostou. (Map.) 

J B,>slon. the lai-gest towu In New England, 
and the capital of JIassachusetts, is situated 
on a peninsula of an uneven surface, two milesi 
loni; and about one mile wide, connected with 
the luainland on the south, by a narrow neck 
about forty rods aeixiss. Several bridges also now 
connect it with the mainland on the iiorth, west, 
and south. The harbor, on the east of the city, 
is very ext^-nsive, and is one of the best in the 
I'nited States. !<oiilli Boston, fonuerly a ptirt of 
Porchester, anil Eo'it Boston, formerly Noddles 
Island, aiv now indudea within the lunits of tlia 
city. (.\lso .<ee Map on p. 'Mi>.) 
X with Massachusetts in lli41, not as a prorince, 
the deputies of New Hampshire were required te 



Paet II.] MASSACHUSETTS. 185 

year the peculiar tenets of Roger Williams, minister of 1634. 

Salem, began to occasion much excitement in the colony. 

A puritan, and a fugitive from English persecution, Roger 
Williams had sought, in New England, an asylum among 
those of his own creed ; but finding there, in matters of 
religion, the same kind of intolerance that prevailed in 
England, he earnestly raised his voice against it. 

8. 'He maintained that it is the duty of the civil magis- i- Hiaprin- 
trate to give equal protection to all religious sects, and **^** 
that he has no right to restrain or direct the consciences 

of men, or, in any way, interfere with their modes of wor- 
ship, or the principles of their religious faith. "But with 2- other 
these doctrmes oi religious tolerance he united others that vmcedbt 
were deemed subversive of good government, and opposed 
to the fundamental principles of civil society. Such were 
those which declared it wrong to enforce an oath of alle- 
giance to the sovereign, or of obedience to the magistrate, 
and which asserted that the king had no right to usurp the 
power of disposing of the territory of the Indians, and 
hence that the colonial charter itself was invalid. 

9. ^Such doctrines, and particularly those which related '^^"^' 
to religious toleration, were received with alarm, and Roger wuiimm. 
Williams, after having been in vain remonstrated with by 

the ruling elders of the churches, was summoned before 

the general court, and, finally, banished* from the colony. *• •^^j^'*'** 

He soon after became the founder of Rhode Island.'' b. seep 215. 

10. ^During the same year, 1635, three thousand new 4. Additional 
settlers came over, among whom were Hugh Peters and i63i-^peter» 
Sir Henry Vane, two individuals who afterwards acted *"*** ^"'^' 
conspicuous parts in the history of England. Sir Henry 

Vane, then at the age of twenty-five, gained the affections 
of the people by his integrity, humility, and zeal in reli- 
gion ; and, in the following year, was chosen governor. 

11. ^Already the increasing numbers of the colonists ^j^^^^^ 
began to suggest the formation of new settlements still Connecticut. 
farther westward. The clustering villages around the 

Bay of Massachusetts had become too numerous and too 
populous for men who had few attachments to place, and 
who could choose their abodes from the vast world of 
wilderness that lay unoccupied before them ; and, only 
seven years from the planting of Salem, we find a 
little colony branching'^ off from the parent stock, and %^'^p^^ 
wending its way through the forests, nearly a hundred 
miles, to the banks of the Connecticut.* 

* Connecticut River, the largest river in New England, haa its source in the highlands on 
the northern border of New Hampshire. Its general course is S. by W., and after forming the 
boundary between Vermont and New Hampshire, and passing through Massachusetts and Con- 
necticut, it enters Long Island Sound, ICK) miles N.E. from New York. It is not navigable for 
the largest vessels. Uartford, fifty miles from its mouth, is at the head of sloop navigatiOB. 

24 



186 COLONIAL HISTORY. [Book IL 

ANALYSIS. 12. 'Severe were the sufferings of the emigrants during 
l^„^ the first winter. Some of them returned, through the 
. Sufferings suow, In a famishing state ; and those who remained sub- 
"'^sranis':''' sisted on acorns, malt, and grains ; but, during the sum- 
mer following, new emigrants came in larger companies, 
s. Remarks and several settlements were firmly established. ''The 
eZerprue. display of Puritan fortitude, enterprise, and resolution, ex- 
hibited in the planting of the Connecticut colony, are dis- 
tinguishing traits of New England character. From that 

DO " 

day to the present the hardy sons of New England have 
been foremost among the bold pioneers of western emi- 
gration. 
3.otherreii- 13. 'Soon after the banishment of Roger Williams, 
^°^iom^^ other religious dissensions arose, which again disturbed 
KonfftTrlhe the quiet of the colony. It was customary lor the mem- 
qfrnmarm. '^^^^ °^ ®^^^ congregation to assemble in weekly meetings, 
and there debate the doctrines they had heard the previous 
Sunday, for the purpose of extending their sacred influ- 
ence through the week. As women were debarred the 
privilege of taking part in these debates, a Mrs. Hutchin- 
son, a woman of eloquence and ability, established meet- 
ings for those of her own sex, in which her zeal and talent 
soon procured her a numerous and admiring audience. 
4. Course 14. *This woman, from being an expounder of the doc- 
'^Jdwniw*' trines of others, soon began to teach new ones ; she as- 
sumed the right of deciding upon the religious faith of the 
clergy and the people, and, finally, of censuring and con- 
demning those who rejected, or professed themselves un- 

5. By whom able to understand her peculiar tenets. ^She was supported 
^wted. by Sir Henry Vane the governor, by several of the magis- 
trates, and men of learning, and by a majority of the people 

1637. o^ Boston. ''She was opposed by most of the clergy, and by 

6. By whom the sedatc and more judicious men of the colony. 'At 

7. Her°banish- length. In a general synod* of the churches, the new 

'^'*'- opinions were condemned as erroneous and heretical, and 
*■ ^^^' the general court soon after issued a decree of banishment 

against Mrs. Hutchinson and several of her followers. 
8. pequod 15. ^During the same year occurred an Indian war<> in 
b seT'^ 209 Connecticut, with the Pequods, the most warlike of the 

8. T/ieNoT-ra- New England tribes. ^The Narragansetts of Rhode 
gametta. jgi^nd, hereditary enemies of the Pequods, were invited to 

unite with them in exterminating the invaders of their 
country ; but, through the influence of Roger Williams, 
they rejected the proposals, and, lured by the hope of 
gratifying their revenge for former injuries, they deter- 
mined to assist the English in the prosecution of the war. 
10. Restiit of "The result'' of the brief contest was the total destruction 
e'^r? 211. 0^ ^^ Pequod nation. The impression made upon the 



Part II.] 



MASSACHUSETTS. 



187 



other tribes secured a long tranquillity to the English 
settlements. 

16. 'The persecutions which the Puritans in England 
suffered, during this period, induced large numbers of 
them to remove to New England. But the jealousy of 
the English monarch, and of the English bishop, was at 
length aroused by the rapid growth of a Puritan colony, 
in which sentiments adverse to the claims of the established 
church and the prerogatives of royalty were ardently 
cherished ; and repeated attempts were made to put a stop 
to farther emigration. As early as 1633, a proclamation 
to that effect was issued, but the vacillating policy of the 
kinor neglected to enforce it. 

17. *In 1638 a fleet of eight ships, on board of which 
were some of the most eminent Puritan leaders and 
patriots, was forbidden to sail, by order of the king's coun- 
cil ; but the restraint was finally removed, and the ships 
proceeded on their intended voyage. 'It has been asserted, 
and generally believed, that the distinguished patriots John 
Hampden and Oliver Cromwell were on board of this 
fleet, but were detained by special order or the king. ''If 
the assertion be correct, this assumption of arbitrary power 
by the king was a fatal error ; for the exertions of Hamp- 
den and Cromwell, in opposing the encroachments of 
kingly authority, afterwards contributed greatly to the 
furtherance of those measures which deprived Charles I. 
of his crown, and finally brought him to the scaffold. 

18. ^The settlers of Massachusetts had early turned 
their attention to the subject of education, wisely judging 
that learning and religion would be the best safeguards of 
the commonwealth. In 1636 the general court appro- 
priated about a thousand dollars for the purpose of found- 
ing a public school or college, and, in the following year, 
directed that it should be established at Newtown. In 
1638, John Harvard, a worthy minister, dying at Charles- 
town,* left to the institution upwards of three thousand 
dollars. In honor of this pious benefactor the general 
court gave to the school the name of Harvard College ; 
and, in memory of the place where many of the settlers 
of New England had received their education, that part 
of Newtown in which the college was located, received 
the name of Cambridge.* 

IV. Union of the New England Colonies. — 1. °In 



1637. 



1. Attempts 
in England 
to prevent 
emlsration. 



1638. 

2 Events that 

occurred in 

1638. 



3. Assertions 

viade in 

relation ta 

Hampden 

and Vrom- 

loell- 

4. What is 
said of this 
assertion. 



5. Education 
in Sew Eng- 
land; found- 
ing qf Har- 
vard College, 
4-C. 



a. Note and 
Map, p. 184. 

1643. 

6 Union of 
the New Eng- 
land colonies. 



* Charlestown is situated on a peninsula, north of and about half as large as that of Boston, 
formed by Mystic River on the N., and an inlet from Charles River on the S. The channel 
between Charlestown and Boston is less than half a mile across, over which bridges have been 
thrown. The United States Navy Yard, located at Charlestown, covers about 60 acres of land. 
It is one of the best naval depots in the Union. (See Map, p. 184. and also Map, p. 349-) 



188 COLONIAL HISTORY. [Book n 

ANALYSIS. 1643 the colonies of Massachusetts, Connecticut, Ply 
mouth, and New Haven, formed' themselves into one con- 
federacy, by the name of The United Colonies of New 

a. May 29* ENGLAND. 'The reasons assigned for this union were, 

^'^or^/C" ^^^ dispersed state of the colonies ; the dangers appre- 

union. hended from the Dutch, the French, and the Indians ; the 

commencement of civil contests in the parent country ; 

and the difficulty of obtaining aid from that quarter, in any 

e.whyRhode emergency. *Afew years later Rhode Island petitioned'' 

not adrnuud. to be admitted into the confederacy, out was refused, be- 
b. 1648. cause she was unwilling to consent to what was required 
of her, an incorporation with the Plymouth colony, 

z Terms of 2. ^By the terms of the confederacy, which existed 
racy. more than forty years, each colony was to retain its sepa- 
rate existence, but was to contribute its proportion of men 
and money for the common defence ; which, with all mat- 
ters relating to the common interest, was to be decided in 
an annual assembly composed of two commissioners from 

\ Nature of each colouy. ''This transaction of the colonies was an as- 
tion. sumption 01 the powers ot sovereignty, and doubtless con- 
tributed to the formation of that public sentiment which 
prepared the way for American Independence. 

s- Early laios V. Early Law^s AND CusTOMS. — 1. *As the laws and 

andcustorm- . 

customs 01 a people denote the prevailing sentiments and 
opinions, the peculiarities of early New England legisla- 
6. Afmda- tioii should iiot be wholly overlooked. *By a fundamental 
ofMassa- law of Massachusetts it was enacted that all strangers 
"* professing the Christian religion, and fleeing to the coun- 

try, from the tyranny of their persecutors, should be sup- 
ported at the public charge till other provisions could be 
7. How made for them. 'Yet this toleration did not extend to 
Jesuits and popish priests, who were subjected to banish- 
ment ; and, in case of their return, to death. 
8. "War," 2. 'Defensive war only was considered justifiable; 
"hiasphemyr blasphemy, idolatry, and witchcraft were punishable with 
death ; all gaming was prohibited ; intemperance, and all 
"^"rS'^""" immoralities, were severely punished ; persons were for- 
" Money bidden to receive interest for money lent, and to wear ex- 
pensive apparel unsuitable to their estates ; parents were 
"ofchiidren" Commanded to instruct and catechise their children and 
servants ; and, in all cases in which the laws were found 
"The Bible." defective, the Bible was made the ultimate tribunal of 

appeal. 
a.Cqmparison 3. °Like the tribes of Israel, the colonists of New Eng- 
here. land had forsaken their native land after a long and severe 



* Note. — The Plymouth commissioneriS, for want of authority from their general court, did 
not sign the articles until Sept. 17th. 



PAitT n.] MASSACHUSETTS. 189 

bondage, and journeyed into the wilderness for the sake 1643. 
of religion. 'They endeavored to cherish a resemblance 



1. What the 



of condition so honorable, and so fraught with incitements colonists en- 
to piety, by cultivating a conformity between their laws cheruh^and 
and-customs, and those which had distinguished the people '''^■ 
of God. ''Hence arose some of the peculiarities which 2. whatpecu- 
have been observed in their legislative code ; and hence hence arose. 
arose also the practice of commencing their sabbatical ob- 
servances on Saturday evening, and of counting every 
evening the commencement of the ensuing day. 

4. " The same predilection for Jewish customs begat, or 3. Names qf 
at least promoted, among them, the habit of bestowing sig- 
nificant names on children ; of whom, the first three that 
were baptized in Boston church, received the names of 
Joy, Recompense, and Pity.' This custom prevailed to a 
great extent, and such names as Faith, Hope, Charity, 
Patience, &c., and others of a similar character, were 
long prevalent throughout New England. 



SECTION II. 

THE UNION C 

COLONIES IN 1643, TO THE CLOSE OF KING WILLIAm's WAR 
IN 1697. 



Suiject of 
Section II. 



Divisions. — I. Events from the " Union'' to King Philip's War. — Divisions of 
II. King Philips War.— III. Controversies and Royal Tyrunny.— '^'*"""' "' 
IV. Massachusetts during King William's War. 

1. Events from the '' Union " to King Philip's 4. change in 
War. — 1. "In 1644 an important change took place in iniea. 
the government of Massachusetts. When representatives 

were first chosen, they sat and voted in the same room 
with the governor's council ; but it was now ordained that 
the governor and his council should sit apart ; and thence 
commenced the separate existence of the democratic 
branch of the legislature, or house of representatives. 
'During the same year the disputes which had long \2jmtSr 
existed between the inhabitants of New England and the 
French settlers in Acadia were adjusted by treaty.* »• o^t. is. 

2. "During the civil war" which occurred in England, ''5 ^°^;^^'^!' 
the New England colonies were ardently attached to the setisdvHns 
cause of the Parliament, but yet they had so far forgotten tnEngiand. 
their own wrongs, as sincerely to lament the tragical fate 

of the king. T^fter the abolition of royalty, a requisition'' c issi. 
was made upon Massachusetts for the return of her char- l.bifiiMm^^ 



ter, that a new one might be taken out under the au- '"''^"'' 



'V 



thorities which then held the reins of government. 
Probably through the influence of Cromwell the requisi- 



190 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[Book U. 



ANALYSIS. 

1. During the 
Common- 

wealth. 

1652. 

2. Early his- 
tory of Maine. 



a. April 13. 

3. Gorges, 

and his 

ac/ieme of 

government- 



b. 1652. 

1656. 

4. First ar- 
rival of 
Quakers in 
Massachu- 
setts. 

5. Laios 
against them. 

c. 1657. 



1658. 



6. Avowed 
object of the 
law of 1658. 

7. Its effect. 



tion was not enforced. 'When the supreme authority 
devolved upon Cromwell, as Protector of the Common, 
wealth of England, the New England colonies found in 
him an ardent friend, and a protector of their liberties. 

3. ^In 1652 the province of Maine* was taken under 
the jurisdiction of Massachusetts. As early as 1626 a 
few feeble settlements were commenced along the coast 
of Maine, but hardly had they gained a permanent exist- 
ence, before the whole territory, from the Piscataquaf to 
the Penobscot, was granted away by the Plymouth Com- 
pany, by a succession of conflicting patents, which were 
afterwards the occasion of long-continued and bitter con- 
troversies. 

4. ^In 1639 Ferdinand Gorges, a member of the 
Plymouth Company, obtained* a royal charter, constitu- 
ting him Lord Proprietor of the country. The stately 
scheme of government which he attempted to establish 
was poorly suited to the circumstances of the people ; and 
they finally sought a refuge from anarchy, and the con- 
tentions of opposing claimants to their territory, by taking 
into their own hands the powers of government, and 
placing'' themselves under the protection of a sister colony. 

5. ^In 1656 occurred the first arrival of Quakers in 
Massachusetts, a sect which had recently arisen in Eng- 
land. The report of their peculiar sentiments and actions 
had preceded them, and they were sent back by the ves- 
sels in which they came. ''The four united colonies then 
concurred in a law"^ prohibiting the introduction of Qua- 
kers, but still they continued to arrive in increasing num- 
bers, although the rigor of the law was increased against 
them. At length, in 1658, by the advice of the commis- 
sioners of the four colonies, the legislature of Massachu- 
setts, after a long discussion, and by a majority of a single 
vote, denounced the punishment of death upon all Quakers 
returning from banishment. 

6. "^The avowed object of the law was not to persecute 
the Quakers, but to exclude them ; and it was thought 
that its severity would be effectual. 'But the fear of 
death had no influence over men who believed they were 



* MAINE, the northeastern of the United States, is supposed to contain an area of nearly 
35,000 square miles. In the north and northwest the country is mountainous, and has a poor 
soil. Throughout tlie interior it is generally hilly, and the land rises so rapidly from the sea- 
coast, that the tide in the numerous rivers flows but a short distance inland. The best land in 
tlie state is between the Penobscot and Kennebec rivers, where it is excellent. The coast is lined 
with islands, and indented with numerous bays and inlets, which furnish more good harbors 
than are found in any other state in the Union. 

t The Pi.srata(/ua rises between Maine and New Hampshire, and throughout its whole course, 
of forty miles, constitutes the boundary between the two states. That part of the stream above 
Berwick Falls is called Sahnon Falls River. Great Bay, \nth its tributaries, Lamprey, Exe- 
ter, Ovster Kiver, and other streams, unites with it on the south, five miles above Portsmouth. 
(See Map, p. 206.) 



Part H.] 



MASSACHUSETTS. 



191 



divinely commissioned to proclaim the sinfulness of a 
dying people ; and four of those who had been banished, ■ 
were executed according to the law, — rejoicing in their 
death, and refusing to accept a pardon, which was vainly 
urged upon them, on condition of their abandoning the 
colony forever. 

7. 'During the trial of the last who suffered, another, 
who had been banished, entered the court, and reproached 
the magistrates for shedding innocent blood. ^The pris- 
ons were soon filled with new victims, who eagerly 
crowded forward to the ranks of martyrdom ; but, as a 
natural result of the severity of the law, public sympathy 
was turned in favor of the accused, and the law was 
repealed." The other laws were relaxed, as the Quakers 
gradually became less ardent in the promulgation of their 
sentiments, and more moderate in their opposition to the 
usages of tlie people. 

8. ^Tidings of the restoration of monarchy in England 
were brought by the arrival, *> at Boston, of two of the 
judges who had condemned Charles I. to death, and who 
now fled from the vengeance of his son. These judges, 
whose names were Edward Whalley and William Goffe, 
were kindly received by the people ; and when orders 
were sent, and messengers arrived'' for their arrest, they 
were concealed from the officers of the law, and were 
enabled to end their days in New England. 

9. *The commerci-al restrictions from which the New 
England colonies were exempt during the time of the 
Commonwealth, were renewed after the restoration. The 
harbors of the colonies were closed against all but Eng- 
lish vessels ; such articles of American produce as were 
in demand in England were forbidden to be shipped to 
foreign markets ; even the liberty of free trade among the 
colonies themselves was taken away, and they were 
finally forbidden to manufacture, for their own use, or for 
foreign markets, those articles which would come in com- 
petition with English manufactures, sfhese restrictions 
were the subject of frequent complaints, and could seldom 
be strictly enforced ; but England would never repeal 
them, and they became a prominent link in the chain of 
causes which led to the revolution. 

10. »In 1664 a royal fleet, destined for the reduction of 
the Dutch colonies on the Hudson, arrived'' at Boston, 
bringincr commissioners who were instructed to hear and 
determine all complaints that might exist in New England, 
and take such measures as they might deem expedient 
for settling the peace and security of the country on a 
solid foundation. ''Most of the New England colonies, 



1659. 



1660. 

1 Trial of 

tlte last who 

suffered 

2. Final re- 
sult of these 
proceedings. 



4661. 



3. Jiidg-es of 
Charles I. 

b. Aug. 6, 
1660. 



4661. 



4 Restric- 
tions vpon 
New Eng- 
land com- 
inerce. 



5. Not strictls 
enforced. 



1664. 

d Aug. 2. 

6. Arrival of 

royal cmn- 

missioners 

in New 
Englatid. 



7. Ho7i> thi.1 

measure jcat 

viewed. 



192 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[Book II. 



ANALYSIS. 



1. In Maine 
andN H. 
In Conn , 
Plymouth, 
and R. I. 



2. Conduct of 
Massachu- 
setts. 



3. Theresult. 



4. Treaty 
with. Massa- 

soit. 

a. See p. 182. 

b. 1662. 

5. The two 
sons of 

MassanoU. 

C. 1662. 



6. What has 

been said of 

Philip by the 

early New 

Englaml 

historians. 



7. By later 
writers. 



8. Commence- 
ment of King 

Philip's war. 

d. 1674. 



1675. 

e. July 4. 



ever jealous of their liberties, viewed this measure with 
alarm, and considered it a violation of their chartei's. 

11. 4n Maine and New Hampshire the commissioners 
occasioned much disturbance ; in Connecticut they were 
received with coldness ; in Plymouth with secret opposi- 
tion ; but, in Rhode Island, with every mark of deference 
and attention. 'Massachusetts alone, although professing 
the most sincere loyalty to the king, asserted with bold- 
ness her chartered rights, and declining to acknowledge 
the authority of the commissioners, protested against its 
exercise within her limits. ^In general, but little atten- 
tion was paid to the acts of the commissioners, and they 
were at length recalled. After their departure. New 
England enjoyed a season of prosperity and tranquillity, 
until the breaking out of King Philip's war, in 1675. 

II. King Philip's War. — 1. ''The treaty of friendship 
which the Plymouth colony made* with Massasoit, the 
great sachem of the Wampanoags, was kept unbroken 
during his lifetime, ^^ftei- his death,'' his two sons, 
Alexander and Philip, were regarded with much jealousy 
by the English, and were suspected of plotting against 
them. The elder brother, Alexander, soon dying, "^ Philip 
succeeded him. 

2. *It is said by the early New England historians, 
that this chief, jealous of the growing power of the whites, 
and perceiving, in it, the eventual destruction of his own 
race, during several years secretly carried on his designs 
of uniting all the neighboring tribes in a warlike confede- 
racy against the English. ''By later, and more impartial 
writers, it is asserted that Philip received the news of the 
death of the first Englishmen who were killed, with so 
much sorrow as to cause him to weep ; and that he was 
forced into the war by the ardor of his young men, against 
his own judgment and that of his chief counsellors. 

3. 'A friendly Indian missionary, who had detected 
the supposed plot, and revealed it to the Plymouth people, 
was, soon after, found murdered.'* Three Indians were 
arrested, tried, and convicted of the murder, — one of 
whom, at the execution, confessed they had been instigated 
by Philip to commit the deed. Philip, now encouraged 
by the general voice of his tribe, and seeing no possibility 
of avoiding the war, sent his women and children to the 
Narragansetts for protection, and, early in July, 1675, 
made an attack' upon Swanzey,* and killed several 
people. 



* Swanzey ia a small village of Ma-ssachusetts, on a northern branch of Mount Hope Bay, 
(part of Narragansett Bay.) It is twelve miles S.E. from Providence, and about thirty-five 
S.W. from Plymouth. (See Map, p. 215.) 



Part H.] MASSACHUSETTS. 193 

4. 'The country was immediately alarmed, and the ICYS. 

troops of Plymouth, with several companies from Boston, — 

marched in pursuit of the enemy. A few Indians were of'theenmy. 
killed, the troops penetrated to Mount Hope,* the resi- July. 
dence of Philip, but he and his warriors fled at their ap- 
proach. ^It being known that the Narragansetts favored ^- ga^^Z'^' 
the cause of Philip, and it being feared that they would 
join him in the war, the forces proceeded into the Narra- 
gansett country, where they concluded a treaty* of peace *■ •'"'*' '^■ 
with that tribe. 

5. 'During the same month the forces of Philip were b. juiyss. 
attacked^ in a swamp at Pocasset, now Tiverton, f but the ^f^ertin!' 
whites, after losing sixteen of their number, were obliged ""^pfj^p^ "^ 
to withdraw. They then attempted to guard the avenues 
leading from the swamp, in the hope of reducing the In- 
dians by starvation ; but, after a siege of thirteen days, 

the enemy contrived to escape in the night across an arm 
of the bay, and most of them, with Philip, fled westward 
to the Connecticut River, where they had previously in- 
duced the Nipmucks,:}: a tribe in the interior of Massachu- 
setts, to join them. 

6. *The English, in the hope of reclaiming the Nip- i-Evemstnat 
mucks, had sent Captains Wheeler and Hutchinson, with hrookjieid. 
a party of twenty men, into their country, to treat with 

them. The Indians had agreed to meet them near Brook- 
field j§ but, lurking in ambush, they fell upon them as 
they approached, and killed most of the party. "= =• ^us i2- 

7. ^The remainder fled to Brookfield, and alarmed the ^.v.^/^f"' 

' that place- 

inhabitants, who hastily fortified a house for their protec- 
tion. Here they were besieged during two days, and 
every expedient which savage ingenuity could devise was 
adopted for their destruction. At one time the savages 
had succeeded in setting the building on fire, when the 
rain suddenly descended and extinguished the kindling 

flames. On the arrival of a party to the relief of the ^ „ 

1 T 1- 11111 ^ s^p'- 5- 

garrison the Indians abandoned the place. e Events 

7. *A few days later, 180 men attacked<» the Indians 'afoTerMid'^ 

* Mount Hope, or Pokanoket, Is a hill of a conical form, nearly 300 feet high, in the present 
town of Bristol, Hhode Island, and on the west shore of Mount Hope Bay. The hill is two 
miles N.K. from Bristol Court-house. The view from its summit is highly beautiful. (See 
Map, p. 215.) 

t Tiverton, is in the State of Rhode Island, south from Mount Ho^ Bay, and having on the 
west the Ea^t Passfige of Narragansett Bay. A stone bridge 1000 feet long connects the village, 
on the south, ^vith the island of Rhode Island. The village is thirteen miles N.K. from New- 
port, and sixteen in a direct line S.E. from Providence. The Swainp on Pocasset Neck is seven 
miles long. (See Map, p. 215.) 

J The Nipmucks occupied the country in the central and southern parts of Worcester 
county. 

§ Brookfield is in Worcester county, Massachusetts, sixty miles W. from Boston, and twenty- 
five E. from Connecticut River. This town was long a solitary settlement, being about half 
way between the old towns on (Connecticut River, and those on the east towards the Atlantic 
coa.st. The place of ambusciuh wa.s two or three niik^s west from the village, at a narrow pas- 
sage between a steep hill and a thick swamp, at the head of Wickaboag I'ond. 

25 



194 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[Book IL 



a. See p. 191. 



2. At Bloody 
Brook. 



ANALYSIS in the southern part of the town of Deerfield,* killing 
twenty-six of the enemy, and losing ten of their own num- 
ber. On the eleventh of September Deerfield was burned 

I. AtEadiey. by the Indians. 'On the same day Hadleyf was alarmed 
in time of public worship, and the people thrown into the 
utmost confusion. Suddenly there appeared a man of 
venerable aspect in the midst of the affrighted inhabitants, 
who put himself at their head, led them to the onset, and, 
after the dispersion of the enemy, instantly disappeared. 
The deliverer of Hadley, then imagined to be an angel, 
was General Goffe,^ one of the judges of Charles I., who 
was at that time concealed in the town. 

9. "On the 28th of the same month, as Captain Lathrop 
and eighty young men, with several teams, were transport- 
ing a quantity of grain from Deerfield to Hadley, nearly 
a thousand Indians suddenly surrounded them at a place 
since called Bloody Brook,:}: and killed nearly their whole 
number. The noise of the firing being heard at Deerfield, 
Captain Mosely, with seventy men, hastened to the scene 
of action. After a contest of several hours he found him- 
self obliged to retreat, when a reinforcement of one hun- 
dred English and sixty friendly Mohegan Indians, came 
to his assistance, and the enemy were at length repulsed 
with a heavy loss. 

10. 'The Springfield§ Indians, who had, until this pe- 
riod, remained friendly, now united with the ^ 
enemy, with whom they formed a plot for the 
destruction of the town. The people, how- 
ever, escaped to their garrisons, although 
nearly all their dwellings were burned.'^' 
*With seven or eight hundred of his men, 
Philip next made an attack* upon Hatfield, 1| 
the head-quarters of the whites in that re- 



3 At F^pring- 
field. 



b. Oct. 15 

. At Hatfield. 

c. Oct. 29. 



gion. 



but he met with a brave resistance and 



was compelled to retreat. 



* The towD of DeerfielrJ is in Franklin county, Massachusetts, on the we.st 
hank of Connecticut Kiver. Deerfield River runs through the town, and at 
its N.E. extremity enters the Connecticut. The village is pleasantly situated 
on a plain, bordering on Deerfield River, separated from the Connecticut by 
aran'j;e of hills. (See Map.) 

t Hri'llr.ii is on the east side of Connecticut River, three miles N.E. from 
Nortl'.ampton, mth which it is connected by a bridge 1080 feet long. (See 
Map.) 

X B'onchj Brnok is a small stream in the southern part of the town of 
Deerfield. The place where Lathrop was surprised is now the small village 
of Mii'liiy Brook, four or five miles from the village of Deerfield. ( See Map. ) 

§ S'/irins^fieliJ is in the southern part of Massachusetts, on the east side of 
the Connecticut River, twenty-four miles N. from Hartford, and ninety S.W. 
from Boston. The main street extends along the river two miles. Here is 
the most extensive public armory in the U. States. The Chickapee River, 
passing through the town, enters the Connecticut at Cabotsville, four miles 
north from Springfield. (See Map.) 

II Hatfirld is on the west side of the Connecticut, four or five miles N. 
from Northampton. (Sec Map.) 



Part U.] 



MASSACHUSETTS. 



11. 'Having accomplished all that could be done on the 
western frontier of Massachusetts, Philip returned to the 
Narragansetts, most of whom he induced to unite with 
him, in violation of their recent treaty with the English. 
*An army of 1500 men from Massachusetts, Plymouth, 
and Connecticut, with a number of friendly Indians, was 
therefore sent into the Narragansett country, to crush 
the power of Philip in that quarter. 

12. 'In the centre of an immense swamp,* in the 
southern part of Rhode Island, Philip had strongly forti- 
fied himself, by encompassing an island of several acres 
with high palisades, and a hedge of fallen trees ; and here 
3000 Indians, well supplied with provisions, had collected, 
with the intention of passing the winter. ''Before this 
fortress the New England forces arrived* on a cold stormy 
day in the month of December. Between the fort and the 
mainland was a body of water, over which a tree had been 
felled, and upon this, as many of the English as could pass 
rushed with ardor ; but they were quickly swept off by 
the fire of Philip's men. Others supplied the places of 
the slain, but again they were swept from the fatal 
avenue, and a partial, but momentary recoil took place. 

13. 'Meanwhile a part of the army, wading through 
the swamp, found a place destitute of palisades, and al- 
though many were killed at the entrance, the rest forced 
their way through, and, after a desperate conflict, achieved 
a complete victory. Five hundred wigwams were now 
set on fire, although contrary to the advice of the officers ; 
and hundreds of women and children, — the aged, the 
wounded, and the infirm, perished in the conflagration. 
A thousand Indian warriors were killed, or mortally 



195 



1675. 



1. Next move- 
ment of 
thilip. 

2 Efforts cf 
the English. 



3. Account of 
the Narra- 
gansett for- 
tress. 



4. Of the 

attack by the 

English. 

a Dec. 29. 



5. Destruc- 
tion of the. 
Narragan- 
setts. 



NARRAGANSETT FORT AND SWAMP. 



* Explanation of the Map. — The Sivamp, 
mentioned above, is a short distance S. W. 
from the village of Kingston, in the to^vn of 
South Kingston, Washington county, Rhode 
Island. 

The Fort was on an island containing four 
or five acre.s, in the N.W. part of the swamp. 

a. The place where the English formed, 
whence they marched upon the fort. 

b. A place at wliich resided an English 
family, of the name of Babcock, at tlie time 
of the fight. Descendants of that family have 
resided on or near the spot ever since. 

c. The present residence (1845) of J. G. 
Clarke, Esq., whose father pxirchased the 
island on which the fort stood, in the year 
1775, one hundred years after the battle. On 
ploughing the land soon after, besides bul- 
lets, bones, and various Indian utensils, seve- 
ral bushels of burnt com were found, — the reliques of the conflagration. It is said the Indians 
had 500 bushels of corn in the stack. 

tl. A piece of upland of about 200 acres. 

e The depot of the Stonington and Providence Rail Road. The Rail Road crosses the swamp 
in a S. W. direction. 







196 COLONIAL HISTORY. [Book n, 

ANALYSIS, wounded ; and several hundred were taken prisoners. 

1. The Ens- *0f the English, eighty were killed in the fight, and one 
iwhioss. hundred and fifty were wounded. °The power of the 

2. Remnant ^^ i i i i /• i 

oftheNarra- J\ arragausetts was broken, but the remnant oi the nation 
eanseus. j-gp^ired, with Philip, to the country of the Nipmucks, 

and still continued the war. 
1676. 14. ^It is said that Philip soon after repaired to the 
mrmigfhe Country of the Mohawks, whom he solicited to aid him 
Mohawks, agaiust the English, but without success. *His influence 
*■ ^^ was felt, however, among the tribes of Maine and New 
Hampshire, and a general Indian war opened upon all the 
\ncTofthe. ^^'^ England settlements. ^The unequal contest con- 
eontest. tinned, with the ordinary details of savage warfare, and 
with increasing losses to the Indians, until August of the 
following year, when the finishing stroke was given to it 
in the United Colonies by the death of Philip. 
6. PMiip's 15. ° After the absence of a year from the home of his 
close of the tribe, during which time nearly all his warriors had fallen, 
'^'"^' and his wife and only son had been taken prisoners, the 
heart-broken chief, with a few followers, returned to 
Pokanoket. Tidings of his arrival were brought to Cap- 
tain Church, who, with a small party, surrounded the 
place where Philip was concealed. The savage warrior 

a. Aug. 22. attempted to escape, but was shot" by a faithless Indian, 

an ally of the English, one of his own tribe, whom he had 
previously offended. The southern and western Indians 
now came in, and sued for peace, but the tribes in Maine 
and New Hampshire continued hostile until 1678, when 

b. April 22, & treaty was concluded'' with them. 

,'"% in. Controversies, and Royal Tyranny. — 1. 'In 

7 Claims' of ^^^''^j ^ Controversy which had long subsisted between 
Massachusetts Massachusetts and the heirs of Gorges, relative to the 

to M.(i'iti& -w— • 

province of Maine, was decided in England, in favor of 

c. May 16. *^he former ; and Massachusetts then purchased'' the claims 

of the heirs, both as to soil and jurisdiction. *In 1680, 

1680. the claims of Massachusetts to New Hampshire were de- 

UcmvpMre cided against the former, and the two provinces were 

separated, much against the wishes of the people of both. 

New Hampshire then became a royal province, over 

which was established the first royal government in New 

England. 
s. Opposition »2. Massachusetts had ever resisted, as unjust and 

tocommer- .,, , , . , . . i • i i i i 

ciai restric- illegal, the Commercial restrictions which had been im- 

tiOTlS 

d. Randolph i poscd upou the colonics ; and when a custom-house officer 



ill 1681. 



1682 ^^^^ sent"* over for the collection of duties, he was defeated 
10 Favorite in his attempts, and finally returned' to England without 
"''^"^klng. "^ accomplishing his object. "The king seized the occasion 



Part II.] 



MASSACHUSETTS. 



197 



for carrying out a project which he had long entertained, 16§2. 

that of taking into his own hands the governments of all — 

the New England colonies. 'Massachusetts was accused i. Howhu 
of disobedience to the laws of England, and English judges, accumpSd. 
who held their offices at the pleasure of the crown, de- 
clared* that she had forfeited her charter. ^The kinc; 
died'' before he had completed his scheme of subverting 
the charter governments of the colonies, but his plans 
were prosecuted with ardor by his brother and successor, 
James II. 

3. 'In 1686 the charter government of Massachusetts 
was taken away, and a President,^ appointed by the king, 
was placed over the country from Narragansett to Nova 
Scotia. ■'In December of the same year Sir Edmund 
Andros arrived** at Boston, with a commission as royal 
governor of all New England. Tlymouth, Massachu- 
setts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island, immediately 
submitted ; and, in a few months, Connecticut was added 
to his jurisdiction. 

4. 'The hatred of the people was violently excited 
against Andros, who, on account of his arbitrary proceed- 
ings, was styled the tyrant of New England ; and when, 
early in 1689, tidings reached' Boston that the tyranny 
of James II. had caused a revolution in England, and that 
the king had been driven from his throne, and succeeded 
by William of Orange, the people arose in arms, seized"" 
and imprisoned Andros and his officers and sent them to 
England, and established their former mode of govern- 
ment. 

IV. Massachusetts during King William's War. — 
* 1. 'When James II. fled from England, he repaired to 
France, where his cause was espoused by the French 
monarch. This occasioned a war between France and 
England, which extended to their colonial possessions in 
America, and continued from 1689 to the peace of Rys- 
wick* in 1697. 

2. 'The opening of this war was signalized by several 
successful expeditions of the French and Indians against and Indians. 
the northern colonies. In July," 1689, a party of Indians e-iu\yr. 
surprised and killed Major Waldron and twenty of the 
garrison at Dover,j" and carried twenty-nine of the inhab- 
itants captives to Canada. In the followins; month an In- 
dian war party, starting 



a June 28, 

16S4. 
b. Feb. 2J, 

1685. 
2 Death of 
t>ie king- 



1686. 

c Joseph 
Dudley- 

3. Change of 
government 

in 1686. 

4. Arrival of 
Andros. 

d Dec. 30. 
5. His juris- 
diction. 



6. His tT/ran- 

ny, impriitoni- 

merit, and 

return to 

England. 

e. April 14. 



f. AprU 28. 



7. Cause of 
King Wil- 
liam's war. 



8. Inroads of 
the French 



from the French settlernqnt on 



* Rysivick is a small town in the west of Holland, two miles S. E. from Hague, and thirty- 
five S. \V. from Amsterdam, 
t (Seepage 206.) 



198 



COLONIAL HISTORY, 



[Book H 



ANALYSIS 
a. Aug. Vi 

1690. 

b Fob 18, 
see p. 230. 
c. March -28 
d. May 'JT. 

1. SttccesifiU 

expe'lilivii 

against l/ie 

e. May. 



t. Expedllion 
against 
Canada. 



f. See p. 230. 



3. Debts in- 
curred by this 
expedition. 



i, Phipps sent 
to England 



the Penobscot, fell upon the English fort at Pemaquid,* 
which they compelled to surrender." 

3. Early in the following year, 1690, Schenectady]" 
was burned ;'' tiie settlement at Salmon Falls,:}: on the Pis- 
cataqua, was destroyed ;■= and a successful attack was 
made"* on the fort and settlement at Casco Bay.§ 'In an- 
ticipation of the inroads of the French, Massachusetts had 
hastily fitted out an expedition, under Sir William Phipps, 
against Nova Scotia, which resulted in the easy conquest* 
of Port Royal. 

4. ^Late in the same year a more important enterprise, 
the conquest of Canada, was undertaken by the people of 
New England and New York acting in concert. An ar- 
mament, designed for the reduction of Quebec, was equip- 
ped by Massachusetts, and the command of it given to 
Sir William Phipps ; while a land expedition was to pro- 
ceed from New York against Montreal. The fleet pro- 
ceeded up the St. Lawrence, and appeared before Quebec 
about the middle of October ; but the land troops of New 
York having returned, f Quebec had been strengthened by 
all tlie French forces, and now bade defiance to the fleet, 
which soon returned to Boston. ^This expedition impos- 
ed a heavy debt upon Massachusetts, and, for the payment 
of troops, bills of credit were issued • — the first emission 
of the kind in the American colonies. 

5. ■'Soon after the return of Sir William Phipps from 
this expedition, he was sent to England to request assist- 
ance in the farther prosecution of the war, and likewise 



VIC. OF rEM.VQUin FORT 




VICINITY OF PORTL.tNP. 




* The fort at Pemaquid. the most noted place in the early his- 
tory of JIaine, was iu tlie present town of Bremen, on the east 
side of, and near the mouth of Pemaquid Kiver, which separates 
tlie towns of Bremen and Bristol. It is about eighteen miles N. E. 
from the mouth of Kennebec Kiver, and forty N.E. from Portland. 
The fort was at first called Fort George. In lt)92 it was rebuilt 
of stone, by Sir William Phipps, and named Fort William Henri/. 
In 1730 it wius repaired, and called Fort Freilerir. Three miles 
and a quarter south from the old fort is Pemaquid Point. (See 
Map.) 

t Srhenectad}/, an e.arly Dutch settlement, is on the S. bank 
of Mohawk Kiver, sixteen miles N. W. from Albany. The bviild- 
iiif!;s of Union Collejre are pleasantly situated on an eminence 
half a mile east from the city. (See Map, p. 221.) 

t The .^r-ttlement formerly called Salmon Falls, is in the town 
of South Berwick, Maine, on the east side of the Piscataqua or Salmon 
Falls River, seventeen miles X. \V. from Portsmouth. The Indian n;une 
by which it is often mentioned in history, is Newic/uiwannoc. (See 
Map, p. 206.) 

^ Caseo Bay is on the coast of Maine, S. W. from the mouth of the 
Kennebec Kiver. It sets up between Cape Elizabeth on the S. W. and 
Cape Small point on the N. E., twenty miles apart, and contains 300 
islands, mostly small, but generally very productive. In liliX) the 
settlements extended aniund the western ."hore of the bay, and were 
embraced in what was then called the town of Falmouth. The fort and 
setdement mentioned above, were on a peninsula called Cav.o \erk, the 
site (if the present city of Portland. The fort, called Fort Loyal, was on 
the southwesterly shore of the Peninsula, at Uie end of the present 
King Street. (See Map.) 



Part II.] MASSACHUSETTS. I99 

to aid other deputies of Massachusetts in applying for the 1691. 

restoration of tlie colonial charter. 'But in neither of 



these objects was he successful. Eiii!,land was too much mccemifui. 
engaged at home to expend her treasures in the defence 
of her colonies ; and the king and his counsellors were 
secretly averse to the liberality of the former ciiartcr. 

6. "Early in 1692 Sir William Pliipps returned" with a 1692. 
new charter, which vested the appointment of governor in a. Muyzi. 
the king, and united Plymouth, Massachusetts, Maine, and mem of royal 
Nova Scotia, in one royal govermnent. Plymouth lost ^'TvwmmT 
her separate government contrary to her wishes; while "-^ '^[anl''^^' 
New Hampshire, which had recently'' placed herself un- b. Seep. ao7. 
der the protection of Massachusetts, was now forcibly 
severed from her. 

7. ^While Massachusetts was called to mourn the deso- 3 oenerai 

1 ■ /• 1 /• • c • belief in 

lation of her frontiers by savage warfare, and to grieve witchcraft. 
the abridgment of her charter privileges, a new and still 
more formidable calamity fell upon her. The belief in 
witchcraft was then almost universal in Christian coun- 
tries, nor did the Puritans of New England escape the 
delusion. The laws of England, which admitted the ex- 
istence of witchcraft, and punished it witli death, had been 
adopted in Massachusetts, and in less than twenty years 
from the founding of the colony, one individual was tried 
and executed*^ for the supposed crime. chuHeslowD. 

8. ■'In 1692 the delusion broke out'* with new violence d. Feb. 
and frenzy in Danvers,* then a part of Salem. The p^/rance'Sr 
daughter and niece of the minister, Mr. Parris, were at ''^ so'em 

„ » , , 1 I • • 1 wttclicraft. , 

first moved by strange caprices, and their singular con- 
duct was readily ascribed to the influence of witchcraft. 
The ministers of the neighborhood held a day of fasting March, 
and prayer, and the notoriety which the cliildrcn soon 
acquired, with perhaps their own bcli(;f in some mysteri- 
ous influence, led them to accuse individuals as the au- 
thors of their sufferings. An old Indian servant in the 
family was whipped until she confessed liorself a witch ; 
and the truth of the confession, although obtained in such 
a manner, was not doubted. 

9. *AIarm and terror spread rapidly; evil spirits were 5. spread nf 
thought to overshadow the land ; and every case of ner- anJ.'its ' 
vous derangement, aggravated by fear ; and every unu- "«'"'"«• 
sual symptom of disease, was ascribed to the influence of 
wicked demons, who were supposed to have entered the 

bodies of those who had sold themselves into the power 
of Satan. 



* Danvers is two miles N. W. from Salem. The principal village is a, continuation of the 
streets of ISalem, of which it is, virtually, a suburb. 



200 COLONIAL HISTORY. [Book 1L 

ANALYSIS 10. 'Those supposed to be bewitched were mostly chil- 

1 Who were dreii, and persons in the lowest ranks of life ; and the 

first supposed accused Were at first old women, whose ill-favored looks 

to be bcioitch- , „ . /. , , 

ei. and lo/w seemed to mark them the nt mstrumen'.s oi unearthly 

2. w/foTere wickediiess. 'But, finally, neither age, nor sex, nor 
accMi%. station, afforded any safeguard against a charge of witch- 

a Burroughs. Graft. Magistrates were condemned, and a clergyman' 
b Aug 29. of ^\]Q highest respectability was executed.'' 

3. Extent of \\^ ^The alarminsT extent of the delusion at length 

the delusion. ^ . *^ 

opened the eyes of the people. Already twenty persons 
had suffered death ; fifty-five had been tortured or terrified 
into confessions of witchcraft ; a hundred and fifty were 
in prison ; and two hundred more had been accused. 
i. Its ending. ''When the legislature assembled, in October, remonstran- 
ces were urged against the recent proceedings ; the spell 
whicli had pervaded the land was suddenly dissolved ; 
and although many were subsequently tried, and a few 

1693. convicted, yet no more were executed. The prominent 
actors in tl)e late tragedy lamented and condemned the 
delusion to which they had yielded, and one of the judges, 
who had presided at the trials, made a frank and full con- 
fession of his error. 

1694. 12. 'The war with the French and Indians still con- 
c July 28. tinned. In 1694, Oyster River,* in New Hampshire, 

5 Events m ,. -i ^ \ '■ n i • n i 

the war loith. was attacked, '= and nniety-tour persons were killed, or 
and Indians carried away captive. Two years later, the English fort 

1696. at Pemaquid'^ was surrendered* to a large force of French 
d. Note, p 198. and Indians commanded by the Baron Castine, but the 

e. Juy25. garrison were sent to Boston, where they were exchanged 

for prisoners in the hands of the English. 

1697. 13. "In March, 1697, Haverhill,-j- in Massachusetts, 

f. March 25. yvas attacked, f and forty persons were killed, or carried 

6. At Haver- away captive. 'Among the captives were Mrs. Duston 

7. Account of ^"^ her nurse, who, with a boy previously taken, fell to 
Mrs. Duston. ^he lot of an Indian family, twelve in number. The 

three prisoners planned an escape from captivity, and in 
one night, killed ten of the twelve Indians, while they 
were asleep, and returned in safety to their friends — fill- 

8 The. war ing the land with wonder at their successful daring. 

g"slpt.'2o ^During the same year King William's war was termina- 

h. Seep. IS7. ted by the treaty^ of Ryswick.'' 

* Oyster River i.s a small stream, of only twelve or fifteen miles in length, which flows from 
the west into Great Bay, a southern arm, or branch, of the Piscataqua. The settlement men- 
tioned in history as Oyster River, was in the present town of Durham, ten miles N. W. from 
Portsmouth. (See Map, p. 206.) 

t Haverhill, in Massachusetts, is on the N. side of the Merrimac, at the head of navigation,— 
thirty miles north from Boston. The village of Bradford is on the opposite side of the river. 



Part IL] 201 

1697. 



SECTION III, 



MASSACHUSETTS, FROM THE CLOSE OF KING WILLIAM's WAR, £ctimm. 
IN 1697, TO THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE FRENCH AND 
INDIAN WAR, IN 1754. (57 YEARS.) 

Divisions — 1. Massachusetts during Queen Anne's War. — II. King its Divisions. 
George's War. 

1. Massachusetts during Queen Anne's War. — 1701. 
1. ^After the death of James II., who died* in France, in ,° ^awe* 
1701, the French government acknowledged his son, then ^^^'2^\ 
an exile, as king of England ; which was deemed an un- war. 
pardonable insult to the latter kingdom, which had settled 

the crown on Anne, the second daughter of James. In 
addition to this, the French monarch was charged with 
attempting to destroy the proper balance of power in 
Europe, by placing his grandson, Philip of Anjou,* on the 
throne of Spain. These causes led to a war between 
England, on the one side, and France and Spain on the 
other, which is commonly known in America as " Queen 
Anne's War," but, in Europe, as the " War of the Spanish 
Succession." 

2. ^The Five Nations had recently concluded a treaty'' b. Aue.4, 

1701- 

of neutrality with the French of Canada, by which New j. where the 
York was screened from danger ; so that the whole weight ''^affiifana 
of Queen Anne's war, in the north, fell upon the New «'%■ 
England colonies. 'The tribes from the Merrimacf to a.jndtan 
the Penobscot had assented to a treaty of peace with th^ Merrmao 
New England; but, through the influence of the French, '""^sm"^"' 
seven weeks after, it was treacherously broken;* and, on '^^^f^^' 
one and the same day, the whole frontier, from Casco:]: to d. Aug. so. 
Wells,§ was devoted to the tomahawk and the scalping, 
knife. 

3. "In the following year, 1704, four hundred and fifty 1704. 
French and Indians attacked Deerfield, burned'^ the vil- e- March ii. 
lage, killed more than forty of the inhabitants, and took 'veerjiM^ 
one hundred and twelve captives, among whom were the 
minister, Mr. Williams, and his wife ; all of whom were 
immediately ordered to prepare for a long march through 

the snow to Canada. ^Those who were unable to keep ^■^i^^/j!*' 

* Anjou was an ancient province in the west of France, on the river Loire. 

t The Merrimac River, in New Hampshire, is formed by the union of the Pemigewasset and 
the Winnipiseogee. The former rises near the Notch, in the White Mountains, and at San- 
bomton, seventy miles below its source, receives the Winnipiseogee from Winnipiseogee Lake. 
The course of the Merrimac is then S. E. to the vicinity of Lowell, Massachusetts, when, turn- 
ing to the N. E., after a winding course of fifty miles, it falls into the Atlantic, at Newburyport. 

t Casco. See Casco Bay, p. 198. 

j Wells is a town in Maine, thirty miles S.W. from Portland, and twenty N. E. from Porto- 
mouth. 26 



202 COLONIAL HISTORY. [Book a 

ANALYSIS, up with the party were slain by the wayside, but most of 
" the survivors were afterwards redeemed, and allowed to 

return to their homes. A little ijjirl, a (laughter of the 
minister, after a long residence with the Indians, became 
attached to them, adopted their dress and customs, and 
afterwards married a Mohawk chief. 
1. Qmerai 4. 'During the remainder of the war, similar scenes 
(hetvaroru/ie were enacted throughout Maine and New Hampshire, and 
ron icis. pj.Qyyjijjg bands of savages penetrated even to the interior 
settlements of Massachusetts. The frontier settlers aban- 
doned the cultivation of their fields, and collected in build- 
ings which they fortified ; and if a garrison, or a family, 
ceased its vigilance, it was ever liable to be cut off by an 
enemy who disappeared the moment a blow wiis struck. 
The French often accompanied the savages in their expe- 
ditions, and made no eflbrt to restrain their cruelties. 
1707. 5. ^In 1707 Massachusetts attempted the reduction of 
June. "PoYi Roval : and a fleet conveying one thousand soldiers 

2. Expedition 1 • , ^1 1 u .. xi -i ^ . • 

against fnrt was Sent agamst the place ; but the assailants were twice 

fina^cmqmsc obliged to raise the siege with considerable loss. Not 

qf Acadia, disheartened by the repulse, Massachusetts spent two 

years more in preparation, and aided by a fleet from Eng- 

1710. land, in 1710 again demanded* the surrender of Port 
a^ Oct. 12. Royal. The garrison, weak and dispirited, capitulated"* 
b. Oct. 13. jifter a brief resistance ; the name of the place was 

changed to Annapolis, in honor of Queen Aiine ; and 
Acadia, or Nova Scotia, was permanently annexed to the 
British crown. 

1711. 6. 'In July of the next year, a large armament under 
c July 6. Sir Hovenden Walker arrived^ at Boston, and taking in 

3 Mumpud additional forces, sailed,'' near the middle of August, for 
ctwuettof the conquest of Canada. The fleet reached" the mouth 

Canada. * ^ . /» 

e. Aug. 25. of the St. Lawrence in safety, but here the obstinacy of 
Walker, who disregarded the advice of his pilots, caused 
the loss of eight of his ships, and nearly nine hundred 
fjSept. 9, 3. jjien^ ifi i\^Q nighf the ships were driven upon the roel%s 
on the northern shore and dashed to pieces. Weakened 
by this disaster, the fleet returned to England, and the 
g. See p. 233. ]>jew England troops to Boston. 

^aSilfiSon- 7. "A land expedition,^ under General Nicholson, 

h r'^rli u '^'"ch had marched against Montreal, returned after 

1713. ' learning the failure of the fleet. ^Two years later the 

*• '^^^arf'^ treaty"" of Utrecht* terminated the war between Framce 



* Utneht is a rich and handsome city of Holland, situated on one of the mouths of the 
JUiino, twenty miles S. E. from Amsterdam. From the top of its lofty cathedral, three hundred 
and eighty feet high, fifteen or .sixteen cities may be seen in a clear day. The place is cele- 
brated for the " Onion of Utrecht," formed there in 1579, by which the United Frovinus 
declared their independence of Spain j — and likewise for the treaty of 1713. 



aUT II.] 



MASSACHUSETTS. 



203 



and England ; and, soon after, peace was concluded* 
between the northern colonies and the Indians. 

8. 'During the next thirty years after the close of 
Queen Anne's war, but few events of general interest 
occurred in Massachusetts. Throughout most of this 
period a violent controversy was carried on between the 
representatives of the people and three successive royal 
governors,'' the latter insisting upon receiving a permanent 
salary, and the former refusing to comply with the de- 
mariil ; preferring to graduate the salary of the governor 
according to their views of the justice and utility of his 
administration. ''A compromi.se was at length eiFected, 
and, instead of a permanent salary, a particular sum was 
annually voted. 

II. King George's War. — 1. ^In 1744, during the 
reign of George II., war again broke ouf^ between France 
and England, originating in European disputes, relating 
principally to the kingdom of Austria, and again involving 
the French and English possessions in America. This 
war is generally known in America as " King George's 
War," but, in Europe, as the " War of the Austrian Suc- 
cession." 

2. ''The most important event of the war in America, 
was the siege and capture of Louisburg.* This place, 
situated on the island oi' Cape Breton, f had been fortified 
by France at great expense, and was regarded by her as 
the key to her American possessions. ^ William Shirley, 



1713. 



a At Ports- 

moulh. July 

^4, 1713. 

I Only events 

of interest 

that occurred 

in Mcuisachu- 

aettn during 

the next 
thirty years. 

\). Shutc, 

Burnett, and 

Btilchei. 



2. How the 
controversy 
was settled. 



1744. 

3. Origin of 

King 
George's war. 

c. Wur de- 

cliirud by 

Franco 15th 

Muroli, by 

O. Urituin 

AprU 9lh. 



4. Louiabv/rg. 



5 Proposal to 
caplun it. 



* Louishurg is on the S. E. side of the Island of Cape Breton. Id has an excellent harbor, of 
Tery deep water, nearly six miles in length, but frozen during the winter. After the capture of 
Louisburg in 1758, (see p. 278,) its walls were demolished, and the materials .of its buildings 
were carried away for the construction of Halifax, and other towns on th(! coast. Only a few 
fishermen's huts are now found within the environs of the city, and so completi^ is the ruin 
that it is with difficulty that the outlines of the fortificatiouB, and of the principal buildings, 
van bo traced. (See Map.) 



LOUISBUJIG 

VICINITY 
1745. 



_2_ 







t dipt Breton, called by the French hie Roijale, is a very irregularly shaped island, on th* 
S. E. border of the Oulf of St. Ijawrence, and separated from Nova Scotia by the narrow chan- 
nel of Canseau. It is settled mostly by Scotch Ilighlanduru, toguthvr witU a few of the ancient 
French Acadians. (See Map.; 



204 COLONIAL HISTORY. [Book U 

ANALYSIS, the governor of Massachusetts, perceiving the importance 

of the place, and the danger to which its possession by the 

1745. French subjected the British province of Nova Scotia, 

a. Jan. laid'' before the legislature of the colony a plan for its 

capture. 

I. Prepara- 3, 'Although strong objections were urged, the gover- 

lions JOT the o j o ^' ~ 

expedition, nor's proposals were assented to ; Connecticut, Rhode 
Island, and New Hampshire, furnished their quotas of 
men ; New York sent a supply of artillery, and Penn- 

s- Commode sylvania of provisions. ^Commodore Warren, then in the 
West Indies with an English fleet, was invited to co- 
operate in the enterprise, but he declined doing so without 

3. Sailing qf orders from England. ^This unexpected intelligence was 

kept a secret, and in April, 1745, the New England forces 

alone, under William Pepperell, commander-in-chief, and 

b. April 4. Roger Wolcott, second in command, sailed^ for Louisburg. 

*'cameai^^ 4. ^At Canseau'^* they were unexpectedly met by the 

c. Pronounced fleet of Commodorc Warren, who had recently received 
orders to repair to Boston, and concert measures with 
Governor Shirley for his majesty's service in North 

5. Landing America. 'On the 11th of May the combined forces, 
numbering more than 4000 land troops, came in sight of 
Louisburg, and effected a landing at Gabarus Bay,! which 
was the first intimation the French had of their danger. 

\}J^J^geimi ^' °^'i the day after the landing a detachment of four 
amgueatof hundi'cd men marched by the city and approached the 

Louisburg. J • r- 1 1 1 1 

i. See Map royal battery, ° settmg nre to the houses and stores on the 
page 203. way. The French, imagining that the whole army was 
coming upon them, spiked the guns and abandoned 
the battery, which was immediately seized by the New 
England troops. Its guns were then turned upon the 
town, and against the island battery at the entrance of the 
harbor. 

6. As it was necessary to transport the guns over a 
morass, where oxen and horses could not be used, they 
were placed on sledges constructed for the purpose, and 
the men with ropes, sinking to their knees in the mud, drew 
them safely over. Trenches were then thrown up within 
two hundred yards of the city, — a battery was erected on 
the opposite side of the harbor, at the Light House Point, 
«. May 89. — and the fleet of Warren captured* a French 74 gun- 
ship, with five hundred and sixty men, and a great quan- 
tity of military stores designed for the supply of the gar- 
rison. 



* Canseau is a Bmall island and cape, on which is a small Tillage, at the eastern extremity of 
Noya Scotia, seyenty-flye miles S. W. from Louisburg. (See Map preceding page.) 

t Gabarus Bay Is a deep bay on the eastern coast of Cape Breton, a short distance S.W. from 
Louisburg. (See Map preceding page.)s 



PartU.] new HAMPSHIRE. 205 

7. A combined attack by sea and land was planned for 1745. 

the 29th of June, but, on the day previous, the city, fort, 

and batteries, and the whole island, were surrendered. 

'This was the most important acquisition which England i importance 
made during the war, and, for its recovery, and the deso- ntum.and 
lation of the English colonies, a powerful naval armament thTp^enchto 
under the Duke d'Anville was sent out by France in the ^^pf^e"^ 
following year. But storms, shipwrecks, and disease, dis- 1746. 
persed and enfeebled the fleet, and blasted the hopes of the 
enemy. 

8. ''In 1748 the war was terminated by the treaty" of 1748. 
Aix la Chapelle.* The result proved that neither party 2- ^^f^^f^l* 
had gained any thing by the contest ; for all acquisitions temisofthe 
made by either were mutually restored. ^Bui the causes a. oct. is. 
of a future and more important war still remained in the 3 causes of a 
disputes about boundaries, which were left unsettled ; and 

the " French and Indian War" soon followed,'' which b. see p. 267. 
was the last struggle of the French for dominion in 
America. 



CHAPTER III. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE. t Suhjectof 

Chapter III. 

1. '•During the greater portion of its colonial existence 4. xvmioMt 
New Hampshire was united with Massachusetts, and its seto'mmp- 
history is therefore necessarily blended with that of the bler^. 
parent of the New England colonies. ^But in order to 5. whyttu 
preserve the subject entire, a brief sketch of its separate slpamfiy. 
history will here be given. 

2. "Two of the most active members of the council of 1622. 
Plymouth were Sir Ferdinand Gorges and Captain John '• ^Malm^^^ 
Mason. In 1622 they obtained of their associates agranf^ c. Aug. 20. 
of land lying partly in Maine and partly in New Hamp- 

* Aix la Chapelh, (pronounced A lah sha-pfll,) is in the western part of Germany, near the 
line of Belgium, in the province of the Rhine, wtiich belongs to Prussia. It is a very ancient 
city, and was long in possession of the Romans, who called it Aqusegrtinii. Its present name 
■was given it by the French, on account of a chapel built there by Charlemagne, who for some 
time made it the capital of his empire. It is celebrated for its hot springs, its baths, and for 
several important treaties concluded there. It is seventy-five miles E. from Brussels, and 125 
S.E. from Amsterdam. 

t NEW HAMPSHIRE, one of the Eastern or New England States, lying north of Massachu- 
setts, and west of Maine, is 180 miles long from north to south, and ninety broad in the south- 
ern part, and contains an area of about 95fX) square mUes. It has only eighteen miles of sea- 
coast, and Portsmouth is its only harbor. The country twenty or thirty miles from the sea 
becomes uneven and hilly, and, toward the northern part, is mountainous. Mount Washing- 
ton, a peak of the White Mountains, and, next to Black Mountain in N. Carolina, the highest 
point east of the Rocky Mountains, is 6428 feet above the level of the sea. The elevated parts 
of the state are a flue grazing country, and the valleys on the margins of the rivers are highly 
productive. 



206 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[Book U. 



ANALYSIS, shire, which they called Laconia. 'In the spring of the 

-tonn following year they sent over two small parties of emi- 

I. First settle- grants, one of which landed at the mouth of the Piscataqua, 

^amvsmt"! ^"'^ settled at Little Harbor,* a short distance below 

Portsmouth ;f the other, proceeding farther up, formed a 

settlement at Dover.:}: 

3. 'In 1629 the Rev. John fWheelright and others 
purchased* of the Indians all the country between the 
Merrimac and the Piscataqua. 'A few months later, this 
tract of country, which was a part of the grant to Gorges and 
Mason, was given'' to Mason alone, and it then first re- 
ceived the name of New Hampshire. ''The country was 
divided among numerous proprietors, and the various 
settlements during several years were governed sepa- 
rately, by agents of the different proprietors, or by magis- 
trates elected by the people. 

4. 'In 1641 the people of New Hampshire placed them- 
under the protection of Massachusetts, in which 

situation they remained until 1680, when, after a long 
controversy with the heirs of Mason, relative to the owner- 
ship of the soil, New Hampshii*e was separated'^ from 
Massachusetts by a royal commission, and made a royal 
province. "The new government was to consist of a 
president and council, to be appointed by the king, and a 
house of representatives to be chosen by the people. ''No 
dissatisfaction with the government of Massachusetts had 
been expressed, and the change to a separate province 
was received with reluctance by all. 

5. 'The first legislature, which assembled'' at Ports- 
mouth in 1680, adopted a code of laws, the first of which 
declared " That no act, imposition, law, or ordinance, 
should be made, or imposed upon them, but such as should 
be made by the assembly and approved by the president 
and council." "This declaration, so worthy of freemen, 

ands'piritof was received with marked displeasure bv the kinjr ; but 
iNew Hampshire, ever after, was as forward as any of her 
sister colonies in resisting every encroachment upon her 
just rights. 



1629. 

a. Muy. 

2. Purchase 
made by Mr. 
Wheelright. 
b. Nov. 17. 

3. Separate 
grant made 

to Mason. 

4. How the 

country was 

governed. 



1641 

5. Union %oith selvCS 
Massachu- 
setts. 

Separation. 

1680. 

c. Royal 
oommission, 
Sept. 28, 1679. 
Actual sepa- 
ration, Jan. 
1680 

6. Nature of 
the neio 

govermnent. 

7. The 
change. 



d. March 26. 
8. Assembling 
of ttie first 
Legislature, 
and its pro- 
ceedings. 



9. The king', 
displeasure. 



VICIMTY OF PORTSMOUTH 




* Little Harbor, the place first settled, is at the southern en- 
trance to the harbor of Portsmouth, two miles below the city, 
and opposite the town and island of Newcastle. (Sec L.II. in Map.) 

t Portsmouth, in New Hampshire, is situated on a peninsula, 
on the south side of the Piscataqua, three miles from the ocean. 
It has an excellent harbor, which, owing to the rapidity of the 
current, is never frozen. It is fifty-four miles N. from Boston, 
and the same distance S. W. from Portland. (See Map.) 

% Dover village, in N. H., formerly called Cocheco, is situated 
on Ooeheco River, four miles above its junction with the Pisca- 
taqua, and twelve N.W. from Portsmouth. The first settlement 
in the town was on a beautiful peninsula between Black and 
Piscataqua Kivers. (See Map.) 



Part II.] NEW HAMPSHIRE. 207 

6. 'Early in the following year Robert Mason arrived, 16§1. 
— asserted his right to the province, on the ground of the - 



early grants made to his ancestor, and assumed the title '^aywUhth^ 
of lord proprietor. But his claims to the soil, and his de- ^I'ZlanL. 
mands for rent, were resisted by the people. A long con- 
troversy ensued ; lawsuits were numerous ; and judg- 
ments for rent were obtained against many of the leading 
men in the province ; but, so general was the hostility to 
the proprietor, that he could not enfoi'ce them. 

7. °ln 1686 the government of Dudley, and afterwards 1686. 
that of Andros, was extended over New Hampshire. \ndfm^ani 
When the latter was seized* and imprisoned, on the arrival the second 

1 ' tlTlZO'Yl Xiyttfi 

of the news of the revolution in England, the people of Masmchu- 
New Hampshire took the government into their own ^ ggg p' 199. 
hands, and, in 1690, placed*" themselves under the protec- 1690. 
tion of Massachusetts. ^Two years later, they were sepa- b March. 
rated from Massachusetts, contrary to their wishes, and a ^f^ag"^^' 
separate royal government was established"^ over them ; but -united. 
in 1699 the two provinces were again united, and the '^' "^' '^ 
Earl of Bellamont was appointed governor over both. 

8. "In 1691 the heirs of Mason sold their title to the 4. continu- 
lands in New Hampshire to Samuel Allen, between whom jinai'settie- 
and the people contentions and lawsuits continued until ^'msmian 
1715, when the heirs of Allen relinquished their claims in '^'^°^^^^- 
despair. A descendant of Mason, however, subsequently 
renewed the original claim, on the ground of a defect in 

the conveyance to Allen. The Masonian controversy 
was finally terminated by a relinquishment, on the part of 
the claimants, of all except the unoccupied portions of the 
territory. 

9. ^In 1741, on the removal of Governor Belcher, the 1741. 
provinces of Massachusetts and New Hampshire were ^scpflraS' 
separated, never to be united again, and a separate gover- /'■'»" Massa- 

■* c) ' I CD chusctts. 

nor was appointed over each. ^During the hrty -two e. The nature 
years previous to the separation, New Hampshire had a "/Jl^hM^^- 
separate legislative assembly, and the two provinces were, ckusetu- 
in reality, distinct, with the exception of their being under 
the administration of the same royal governor. 

10. 'New Hampshire suffered greatly, and perhaps 7, tab sMjf«r- 
more than any other New England colony, by the several '^^uan%mrl 
Frencli and Indian wars, whose general history has been itMan"wars. 
already given. A particular recital of the plundering 

and burning of her towns, of her frontiers laid waste, 
and her children inhumanly murdered, or led into a 
wretched captivity, would only exhibit scenes similar to 
those which have been already described, and we will- 
ingly pass by this portion of her local history. 



208 

ANALYSIS. 



[Book U. 



CHAPTER IV, 



Subject of 
Chapter IV. 



CONNECTICUT.* 



Its Divisions. Divisions. — I. Early Settlements. — II. Pequod War. — III. New Haven 
Colony. — IV. Connecticut under her orvn Constitution. — V. Connec- 
ticut under the Royal C/uirter. 



1630. 

1. Accounts qf 

the early 

grants of 

Connecticut. 

1631. 

a. March 29. 



2. Vistt to the 

country b'j 

the Plyntouth 

people. 



S. Vutch fort 
at Hartford. 



4. English 

trading-house 

at Windsor. 



1634. 

6. Events that 

occurred in 

the folloioing 

year. 

6 Emigration 
from Massa- 
chusetts. 



1. Early Settlements. — 1. 'In 1630 the soil of Con- 
necticut was granted by the council of Plymouth to the 
Earl of Warwick ; and, in the following year, the Earl 
of Warwick transferred'' the same to Lord Say-and-Seal, 
Lord Brooke and others. Like all the early colonial 
grants, that of Connecticut was to extend westward from 
the Atlantic Ocean to the South Sea, or the Pacific. 
'During the same year some of the people of Plymouth, 
with their governor, Mr. Winslow, visited the valley of 
the Connecticut, by invitation of an Indian chief, who 
wished the English to make a settlement in that quarter. 

2. ^The Dutch at New York, apprized of the object of 
the Plymouth people, determined to anticipate them, and, 
early in 1633, despatched a party who erected a fort at 
Hartford. f '"In October of the same year, a company 
from Plymouth sailed up the Connecticut River, and pass- 
ing the Dutch fort, erected a trading-house at Windsor.:}: 
The Dutch ordered Captain Holmes, the commander of 
the Plymouth sloop, to strike his colors, and, in case of 
refusal, threatened to fire upon him ; but he declared that 
he would execute the orders of the governor of Plymouth, 
and, in spite of their threats, proceeded resolutely on- 
ward. ^In the following year the Dutch sent a company 
to expel the English from the country, but finding them 
well fortified, they came to a parley, and finally returned 
in peace. 

3. °In the summer of 1635, exploring parties from 



* CONNECTICUT, the southernmost of the New England States, i.s from 
ninety to 10() miles long from E. to W., and from fifty to seventy broail, and 
contains an area of about 47(X) square mUes. The country is, generallj-, 
uneven and hilly, and somewhat mountainous in the northwest. The val- 
ley of the Connecticut is very fertile, but in most parts of the st;ite the 
soil is better adapted to grazing than to tillage. An excellent freestone, 
much used in building, is found in (Chatham and Iladdam ; iron ore of a 
superior quality in Salisbury and Kent ; and fine marble in Milford. 

t Hartford, one of the capitiils of Connecticut, is on the W. side of tho 
Connecticut River, fifty miles from its mouth, by the river's course. Mill, 
or Little River, passes through the southern part of the city. The old 
Butch fort was on the S. side of Mill River, at its entrance into the (Connec- 
ticut. The Dutch maintained their po.iition until lti54. (See M.np.) 

t Windsor is on the M'. side of the Connecticut, seven miles N. from 
Hartford. The village is on the N. side of Farmington River. The trading 
house erected by the Plymouth people, was below the mouth of Farmington River. Tlie mea- 
dow in the vicinity is still called Plymouth Meadow. (See Map.) 



VIC. OP HARTFORD. 


karhliniHon 


ft n 


\^1^ 


JpyW ^ 


Mna»'^ 


aa 




Wj 


Kt, ,. 


1^" 


Sii. ^ 


■rj* tn 


%^ 






i^ 


'Wetlicrsfifia 



Part II.] CONNECTICUT. 209 

Massachusetts Bay colony visited the valley of the Con- 1635. 

necticut, and, in the autumn of the same year, a com- 

pany of about sixty men, women, and ciiildren, made a 
toilsome journey through the wilderness, and settled* at a. see piss- 
Windsor, Hartford, and Wethcrsfield.* 'in October, the 'offa'S' 
younger Winthrop, son of the governor of Massachusetts, 
arrived at Boston, with a commission from the proprietors 
of Connecticut, authorizing him to erect a fort at the 
mouth of the river of that name, and make the requisite 
'preparations for planting a colony. Scarcely vvas.the fort 
erected when a Dutch vessel appeared at the mouth of 
the river, but was not permitted to enter. In honor of 
Lord Say-and-Seal, and Lord Brooke, tiie new settlement 
was named Saybrook,"j" which continued a separate colony 
until 1644. 

IL Pequod War.— 1. ''During the year 163G the Pc- 1636. 
quods, a powerful tribe of Indians residing mostly within yJmds 
the limits of Connecticut, began to annoy the infant col- 
ony. 'In .Tuly, tlie Indians of Block Island,:}: who were 3. rtord«- 
.supposed to be in alliance with the Pequods, surprised and ^upoTthe 
plundered a trading vessel and killed the captain. An J^ngiinh. 
expedition'' from Massachusetts was sent against them, b Sepi and 
which invaded the territory of the Pequods, but as nothing 
important was accomplished, it served only to excite the 
Indians to greater outrages. During the winter, a num- 
ber of whites were killed in the vicinity of Saybrook fort. 
In April following, nine persons were killed at Wethers- 1637. 
field, and the alarm became general throughout the plan- 
tations on the Connecticut. 

2. ""The Pequods, who had lonii; been at enmity with * ''''«i''?/; 

* ~ •/ teTi}pt€.d alii' 

the Narragansetts, now sought their alliance in a general ana- zvUh the 
war upon the English ; but the exertions' of Roger Wil- setts. 
liams not only defeated their designs, but induced the cseep. i3s. 
Narragansetts again to renew the war against their an- 
cient enemy. ^Early in May, the magistrates of the three I'^^^f^f,'^^ 
infant towns of Connecticut formally declared war against 
the Pequod nat'on, and, in ten days, a little army of eighty 
Englisii, and seventy friendly Mohegan Indians, was on 
its way against the enemy, whose warriors were said to 
number more than two thousand men. 6 Principal 

3. "The principal seat of the Pequods was near the "''pequud!f. 



* Wethersfielil is on tlie W. side of the Connecticut, four milus S. from Hartford. Tho river 
here is continuiilly clianging its cour.se, by tUe wearing away of the l:ind on oue side, and its 
gradual deposit on tlie other. (See Miip.) 

t Saybrook is on the west .side of Coiinectieut River, at its entrance into Long T.sland Sound 
X Block hkiii'l, discovered in 1614 by Adri:in Hlok, a IJutch captain, is twenty-four miles 
S.W. from Newport. It is attached to Newport (!o,, 11. 1., and constitutes the township of 
Newshoruhrim. »It has no harbor. It is eight miles long from N. to S., and from two to four 
broad. „_ 

27 



210 COLONIAL HISTORY. [Book IL 

ANALYSIS, mouth of Pequod River, now called the Thames,* in the 
~~Z, eastern part of Connecticut. ^Captain Mason sailed down 

1. The mure, ,„'^. ■ , , ■ n ■ i ii. 

i^c.ofMa- tlie Connecticut with his forces, whence he proceeded to 

a Note, p. 215. Narragansett Bay," where several hundred of the Narra- 

gansetts joined him. He then commenced his march 

across the country, towards the principal Pequod fort, 

which stood on an eminence on the west side of Mystic'|* 

2. ^vhat the River, in the present town of Groton.:}: ^The Pcquods 
vmifiTrfthe were ignorant of his approach, for they had seen the 

English, ijoats of the English pass the mouth of their river a few 
days before, and they believed that their enemies had fled 
through fear. 

3. Attack on 4. ^Earlv in the mornina; of the 5th of June, the sol- 

fort. diers of Connecticut advanced against the fort, while their 
Indian allies stood aloof, astonished at tlie boldness of the 
enterprise. The barking of a dog betrayed their ap- 
proach, and an Indian, rushing into the fort, gave the 
alarm ; but scarcely were the enemy aroused from their 
slumbers, when Mason and his little band, having forced 
an entrance, commenced the work of destruction. The 
Indians fought bravely, but bows and arrows availed little 
against weapons of steel. Yet the vast superiority of 
numbers on the side of the enemy, for a time rendered 
the victory doubtful. " We must burn them !" shouted 
Mason, and applying a firebrand, the frail Indian cabins 
Avere soon enveloped in flame. 
I. Destruction 5. ''The English now hastily withdrew and surrounded 

of the 

Pcquods. the place, while the savages, driven from their inclosure, 
became, by the light of the burning pile, a sure prey to 
the English muskets ; or, if they attempted a sally, they 
were cut down by the broadsword, or they fell under the 
weapons of the Narragansetts, who now rushed forward 
to the slaughter. As the sun rose upon the scene of de- 
struction it showed that the victory was complete. -About 
six hundred Indians, — men, women, and children, had 
perished ; most of them in the hideous conflagration. Of 
the whole number within the fort, only seven escaped, 
5 Loss of tlie and seven were made prisoners. ^Two of the whites 

English. .yygj.g killed, and nearly twenty were wounded. 
6 Farther Q. ^Tho loss of their principal fort, and the destruction 

PeriuoJ^. of the main body of their warriors, so disheartened the 

* The Pequod, or Thames Kiver, rieos in Mass.achiisetts, and, passing south through the 
eastern part of Connecticut, enters Long Islaml Sound, below New London. It is generally 
called Qiiiiiebaiig from its source to Norwich. On the west it receives Shetucket, Yantic, and 
other small streams. It is navigable fourteen miles, to Norwich. 

t Myotic Hiver is a small river which enters L. I. Sound, si.x miles E. from the Thames. 

+ The town of Gnilnn lies between the Thames and the Mystic, bordering on the Sound. 
The Pequod fort, above mentioned, was on l>ei;aod Hill, in the N.E. part of the town, about 
half a mile west from llystie Kiver, and eight miles N.E. from New London. A public road 
now crosses Uio hill, and a dwelhng-house occupies its suminit. 



Part II.] 



CONNECTICUT. 



211 



Pequods, that they no longer made a stand against the 
English. They scattered in every direction ; straggling 
parties were hunted and sliot down like deer in the woods ; 
their Sachem, Sassacus, was murdered by the Mohawks, 
to whom he fled for protection ; their territory was laid 
waste ; their settlements were burned, and about two 
hundred survivors, the sole remnant of the Pequod nation, 
surrendering in despair, were enslaved by the English, 
or incorporated among their Indian allies. 'The vigor 
with which the war had been prosecuted, struck terror 
into the other tribes of New England, and secured to the 
settlements a succession of many years of peace. 

III. New Haven Colony. — 1. 'The pursuit of the 
Pequods westward of the Connecticut, made the English 
acquainted with the coast from Saybrook'^ to Fairfield ;* 
and late in the year, a few men from Boston explored the 
country, and, erecting a Imt at New Ilavcn.f there passed 
the winter. 

2. In the spring of the following year, a Puritan colony, 
under the guidance of Theophilus Eaton, and the Rev. 
John Davenport, who had recently arrived from Europe, 
left** Boston for the new settlement at New Haven. ^They 
passed their first Sabbath"' under a spreading oak,:}: and 
Mr. Davenport explained to the people, with much coun- 
sel adapted to their situation, how the Son of Man was led 
into the wilderness to be tempted. 

3 
ment upon strictly religious principles, making the Bible 
their law-book, and church-members the only freemen. 
Mr. Eaton, who was a merchant of great wealth, and 
who had been deputy -governor of the British East India 
Company, was annually cho.sen governor of New Haven 
colony during twenty years, until his death. ""The colo- 
ny quickly assumed a flourishing condition. The settle- 
ments extended rapidly along the Sound, and, in all cases, 
the lands were honorably purchased of the natives. 

IV. Connecticut under her own Constitution. — 
1. "In 1639 the inhabitants of the three towns on the Con- 



1637. 



The settlers of New Haven established a govern- 



1. Effect of 
the war on 
other tritei. 



2. Discovery 

and settle- 

7nent of Sew 

Haven. 

a. Note, 

page 209. 



1638. 



b. April 9. 
3. First Sab- 
bath at New 

Haven. 

c. April 28. 



4 The govern- 
ment of the 
colony. 



5 Itsprot- 
perity. 



1639. 

6. Important 
event* in 1639. 



* Fairfield borders on the Sound, fifty miles S. W. from the month 
of the Connecticut. Some of the Pecjuods were pursued to a great 
swamp in this town. Some were slain, and about 2(i» surrendered. The 
town was first settled by a Mr. Ludlow and otlvrs in 1639. 

t New Ilaien, now on<- of the capit-als of Coriiiceticut, called by the 
Indians (luinipiac, lies at the heati of a harbor wtiich sets up four miles 
from lyonj; Island Sound. It is about seventy-five miles N.E. from New 
York, and thirty-four S. W. from Hartford. The city is on a beautiful 
plain, I)Ounded on the west by West River, and on the east by Walling- 
ford, or Quinipiac River. Yale College is located at New Haven. (See 
Map.) 

t This tree stood near the comer of Oeorge and College streets. 



HEW HAVES. 




212 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[Book II. 



ANALYSIS. 

a. Jan. 24. 

1. Firs? con- 
stitution of 
Connecticut- 



8. Separate 

colonies in 

Connecticut- 



3. Disputes 
with the 
Dutch- 



1644. 

4. Purchase of 
Saybrook- 



5. Treaty 
with the 
Dutch- 



1651. 

6 War be- 
txeeen Eng- 
land and 
Holland 



7. What pre- 
vented a war 
in America 

»>1653. 



8. What colo- 
nies applied 
to Cromwell, 
and the 
result- 

•=1654. 



1660. 

S Loyaltij of 

Connecticut. 

d May. 

10. The royal 

Charter—Us 

Character- 

1662. 



necticut, who had hitherto acknowledged the authority 
of Massachusetts, assembled^- at Hartford, and formed a 
separate government for themselves. 'The constitution 
was one of unexampled liberality, guarding with jealous 
care against every encroachment on the rights of the 
people. The governor and legislature were to be chosen 
annually by the freemen, who were required to take an 
oath of allegiance to the commonwealth, instead of the 
English monarch ; and in the general court alone was 
vested the power of making and repealing laws. *At 
this time three separate colonies existed within the limhs 
of the present state of Connecticut. 

2. ^The Connecticut colonies were early involved in 
disputes with the Dutch of New Netherlands, who claim- 
ed the soil as far eastward as the Connecticut River. 
The fear of an attack from that quarter, was one of the 
causes which, in 1643, led to the confederation of the 
New England colonies for mutual defence. *In 1644 
Saybrook was purchased of George Fenwick, one of the 
proprietors, and permanently annexed to the Connecticut 
colony. ^In 1650 Governor Stuyvesant visited Hartford, 
where a treaty was concluded, determining the line of 
partition l>etween New Netherlands and Connecticut. 

3. *In 1651 war broke out between England and Hol- 
land, and although their colonies in America had agreed 
to remain at peace, the governor of New Netherlands 
was accused of uniting with the Indians, in plotting the 
destruction of the English. 'The commissioners of the 
United Colonies decided*" in favor of commencing hostili- 
ties against the Dutch and Indians, but Massachusetts 
refused to furnish her quota of men, and thus prevented 
the war. ^Connecticut and New Haven then applied to 
Cromwell for assistance, who promptly despatched'^ a fleet 
for the reduction of New Netherlands ; but while the 
colonies were making preparations to co-operate with the 
naval force, the news of peace in Europe arrested the 
expedition. 

V. Connecticut under the Royal Charter. — 1. 
"When Charles II. was restored'^ to the throne of his an- 
cestors, Connecticut declared her loyalty, and submission 
to the king, and applied for a royal charter. '*The aged 
Lord Say-and-Seal, the early friend of the emigrants, 
now exerted his influence in their favor ; while the 
younger Winthrop, then governor of the colony, went to 
England as its agent. When he appeared before the 
king with his petition, he presented him a favorite ring 
which Charles I. had given to Winthrop's grandfather. 
This trifling token, recalling to the king the memory of 



Part II.] 



CONNECTICUT. 



213 



nis own unfortunate father, readily won his favor, and 
Connecticut thereby obtained a charter,* the most liberal 
that had yet been granted, and confirming, in every par- 
ticular, the constitution which the people themselves had 
adopted. 

2. 'The royal charter, embracing the territory from the 
Narragansett Bay and River westward to the Pacific 
Ocean, included, within its limits, the New Haven colony, 
and most of the present state of Rhode Island. '^New 
Haven reluctantly united with Connecticut in 1665. 
'The year after the grant of the Connecticut chaiter, 
Rhode Island received" one which extended her western 
limits to the Pawcatuck* River, thus including a portion 
of the territory granted to Connecticut, and causing a con- 
troversy between the two colonies, which continued more 
than sixty years. 

S. ■'During King Philip's war, which began in 1675, 
Connecticut suffered less, in her own territory, than any 
of her sister colonies, but she furnished her proportion of 
troops for the common defence. ^At th(' same time, 
however, she was threatened with a greater calamity, in 
the loss of her liberties, by the usurpations of Andros, 
then governor of New York, who attempted to extend his 
arbitrary authority over the country as far east as the 
Connecticut River. 

4. "In July, Andros, with a small naval force, proceed- 
ed to the mouth of the Connecticut, and hoisting the 
king's flag, demanded<= the surrender of the fort ; but 
Captain Bull, the commander, likewise showing his ma- 
jesty's colors, expressed his determination to defend it. 
Being permitted to land, Andros attempted to read his 
commission to the people, but, i^ the king's name, he 
was sternly commanded to desist. He finally returned 
to New York v/ithout accomplishing his object. 

5. 'Twelve years later, Andros again appeared in 
Connecticut, with a commission from King James, ap- 
pointing him royal governor of all New England. Pro- 
ceeding to Hartford, he found the assembly in session, 
and demanded'' the surrender of the charter. A discus- 
sion arose, which was prolonged until evening. The 
charter was then brouo-ht in and laid on the table. While 
the discussion was proceeding, and the house was thronged 
with citizens, suddenly the lights were extinguished. 
The utmost decorum prevailed, but when the candles 



1G63. 



a May 30. 



1. Terrltorrj 
embraced by 
the charier. 



2 New 
Haven. 

1665. 

3. The Rhodt 

Island 

charter. 

b. July 18, 

1663. 



1675. 

4. Connecti- 
cut during 
King Pliil- 
ip's ivar. 

5. Usurpa- 
tions of 
Andros. 



6. Expedition 
to Connecti- 
cut, and itt 

result- 
c. July 21. 



1687. 

7. Second 
visit of An- 
dros to Con- 
necticut. 



d Nov. ro. 



* Tho Paivcaturlc, formed by the junction of Wood and Charles River.'! in Washington 
Oennty, Rhode Island, i.s still, "in the lower part of it.s course, the dividing Hue between Uon- 
aectjeut and Rhode Island. 



214 COLONIAL HISTORY. [Book II 

ANALYSIS, were re-lighted, the charter was missing, and could no 

where be found. 

i.The charter 6. 'A Captain Wadswoith had secreted it in a hollow 

preserved. ^^.^^^ which is Still Standing, and which retains the ven- 

2. ivha! then Crated name of the Cliarter Oak. ^Andros, however, 

^'jtidnfs!'" assumed the government, which was administered in his 

IQS9. name until the revolution" in England deprived James of 

a See p. 197. his throne, and restored tlie liberties of the people. 

3 Events 7. ^During King William's war,'' which immediately 

^^wmiam"/ followed the English revolution, the people of Connecticut 

war. ^ were again called to resist an encroachment on their 

4 Fletcher's rights. "Coloncl Flctchcr, goveraor of New York, had 

cwimission. received a commission vesting in him the command of the 

5. What militia of Connecticut. ^This was a power which the 

course vjas . r -ia 

taken by the charter of Connecticut had reserved to the colony its&li, 

and what by and the legislature refused to comply with the requisition. 

^p'qo' Fletcher then repaired to Hartford, and ordered the mili- 

Nov. 6.' tia under arms. 

6. Fieicfievs 8- 'The Hartford companies, under Captain Wads- 
Hariford. Worth, appeared, and Fletcher ordered his commission and 

instructions to be read to them.. Upon this, Captain 
Wadsworth commanded the drums to be beaten. Colonel 
Fletcher commanded silence, but no sooner was the read- 
ing commenced a second time, than the drums, at the 
command of Wadsworth, were again beaten with more 
spirit than ever. But silence was again commanded, 
when Wadsworth, with great earnestnes, ordered the 
drums to be beaten, and turning to Fletcher said, with 
spirit and meaning in his looks, " If I am interrupted 
again I will make the sun shine through you in a mo- 
ment." Governor Fletcher made no farther attempts to 
read his commission, and soon judged it expedient to re- 
turn to New York. 
1709. 9- 'In the year 1700, several clergymen assembled at 

7. Establish- Branford,* and each, producing a few books, laid them on 
College, the table, with these words : " I give these books for the 

founding of a college in this colony." Such was the be- 
ginning of Yale College, now one of the most honored 
institutions of learning in the land. It was first estab- 
c 1702. lished"^ at Saybrook, and was afterwards removed'^ to New 
Haven. It derived its name from Elihu Yale, one of its 
most liberal patrons. 
% Remaining jQ. 'The remainino; portion of the colonial histoi-y of 

history of . . '^i i , i- n- ■ ■ 

Connecticut. Lonuecticut Ls. not marked by events ot suihcicnt mtcrest 
to require any farther notice than they may gain in the 



* Branford is a town ia Connecticut, bordering on the Sound, seven miles E. firom Nen 
naven. 



Part II.] 



RHODE ISLAND, 



215 



more general history of the colonies. 'The laws, customs, 
manners, and religious notions of" the people, were similar 
to those which prevailed in the neighhoring colony of 
Massachusetts, and, generally, throughout New England. 



1717. 

1. Laws, cus' 
t<yma, man- 
ners, ^c. 



CHAPTER V. 

RHODE ISLAND* 



Subject of 
Chapter V- 



1. 'After Roger Williams had been banished from 
Massachusetts, he repaired* to the country of the Narra- 
gansetts, who inhabited nearly all the territory which now 
forms the state of Rhode Island. 'By the sachems of 
that tribe he was kindly received, and during fourteen 
weeks he found a shelter in their wigwams from the 
severity of winter. ''On the opening of spring he pro- 
ceeded to Seekonk,"]" on the north of Narragansett Bay,:}: 
and having been joined by a few faithful friends from 
Massachusetts, he obtained a grant of land from an In- 
dian chief, and made preparations for a settlement. 

2. *Soon after, finding that he was within the limits of 
the Plymouth colony, and being advised by Mr. Winslow, 
the governor, to remove to the other side of the water, 
where he might live unmolested, he resolved to comply 
with the friendly advice. ^Embarking'' with five com- 
panions in a frail Indian canoe, he passed down the Narra- 
gansett River§ to Moshassuck, which he selected as the 
place of settlement, purchased the land of the chiefs of the 
Narragansetts, and, with unshaken confidence in the 
mercies of Heaven, named the place Providence. || 'The 
settlement was called Providence Plantation. 



2 Roger Wil- 
liams after 
Ma banish- 
merit frMJi 
Massachu- 
setts. 

a. Jan 1636. 

3 Iloto re- 
ceived by the 
Narragan- 
setts. 
4. What he 
did in the 
spring. 



5 WTiither 
he was ad- 
imed to re- 
move, and 
why. 



6. Settlement 
of Provi- 
dence. 
b. June. 



7 Name of 

the settle- 

ment. 



* RHODE ISLAND, the smallest state in the Union, contains an area, separate from the 
■waters of Narragansett Bay, of about 1225 square miles. In the northwestern ])art of the state 
the surface of the country is hilly, and the .soil poor. In the south and west the country ig 
generally level, and in the vicinity of Narragansett Bay, and on the islands which it contains, 
the soil is very fertile. 

I The town of iSeeknnk, the western part of the early Rehoboth, 
lies east of, and adjoining the northern part of Narragansett Bay. 
The village is on Ten Mile Itiver, three or four miles east from 
Providence. (See Map ) 

t Narragansett Bay is in the eastern part of the state of Rhode 
Island, and is twenty-eight miles long from N. to S., and from 
eight to twelve broad. The N.K. arm of the bay is called Blount 
Hope Bay ; the northern, Providence Boy; and the N. Western, 
Greenwich Bay. It contains a number of beautiful and fertile 
islands, the principal of which are Rhode Island, Conanicut, and 
Prudence. (See Map.) 

^ The northern part of Narragansett Bay was often called Nar- 
taga?i!iett River. 

II Providence, one of the capitals of Rhode Island, is in the 
northern part of the state, ut the head of Narragansett Bay, and 
on both sides of Providence lUver, which is, properly, a small 




'-'t'l.Juitilh. 



216 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[Book XL 



ANALYSIS. 

1. Effects pro- 
duced by 
religion.-i lole- 
raliun. 



2 Novel 
experiment. 



3 The gov- 
ernment of 
the colony. 



4. Liberality 
of Mr Wil- 
liams. 



5. Vlot of the 
Pegtiods. 



6. Mr. Wil- 
liam.s' media- 
tion solicited. 



7. His con- 
duct- 



3. His em- 
bassy to the 
Harragan- 
selts. 



3. *As Roger Williams brought with him the same 
principles of religious toleration, for avowing and main- 
taining which he had suffered banishment, Providence be- 
came the asylum for the persecuted of the neighboring 
colonies ; but the peace of the settlement was never 
seriously disturbed by the various and discordant opinions 
v/hich gained admission. ^It was found that the numer- 
ous and conflicting sects of the day could dwell together 
in harmony, and the world beheld, with surprise, the novel 
experiment of a government in which the magistrates were 
allowed to rule " only in civil matters," and in which 
" God alone was respected as the ruler of conscience." 

4. ^The political principles of Roger Williams were as 
liberal as his religious opinions. For the purpose of pre- 
serving peace, all the settlers were required to subscribe 
to an agreement that they would submit to such rules, 
" not affectino; the conscience," as should be made for the 
public good, by a majority of the inhabitants ; and under 
this simple form of pure democracy, with all the powers 
of government in the hands of the people, the free institu- 
tions of Rhode Island had their origin. ''The modest and 
liberal founder of the state reserved no political power to 
himself, and the territory which he had purchased of the 
natives he freely granted to all the inhabitants in common, 
reserving to himself only two small fields, which, on his 
first arrival, he had planted with his own hands. 

5. *Soon after the removal of Mr. Williams to Prov- 
idence, he gave to the people of Massachusetts, who had re- 
cently expelled him from their colony, the first intimation of 
the plot which the Pequods were forming for their destruc- 
tion. HVhen the Pequods attempted to form an alliance 
with the Narragansetts, the magistrates of Massachusetts 
solicited the mediation of Mr. Williams, whose influence 
was great with the chiefs ot the latter tribe. 'Forgetting the 
injuries which he had received from those who now needed 
his fixvor, on a stormy day, alone, and in a poor canoe, he set 
out upon the Narragansett, and through many dangers re- 
paired to the cabin of Canonicus. 

6. *There the Pequod ambassadors and Narragansett 
chiefs had already assembled in council, and three days 
and nights Roger Williams remained with them, in con- 
stant danger from the Pequods^ whose hands, he says, 
seemed to be still reeking with the blood of his country- 
men, and whose knives he expected nightly at his throat. 
But, as Mr. Williams himself writes, " God wonderfully 



bay, setting up N.W. from the Narragansett. The Pawtucket or Blackstone River falls into 
the head of Narragansett Kay, from the N.E., a little below Provideuce. Brown University ifl 
tocated at Providence, on the east side of the Kiver. (See Map ) 



Part II.] RHODE ISLAND. 21T 

preserved him, and helped him to break in pieces the 1636. 

negotiation and designs of the enemy, and to finish, by • 

many travels and charges, the English league with the 
Narragansetts and Mohegans against the Pequods." 

7. ^The settlers at Providence remained unmolested grp^o^J^^ 
during the Pequod war, as the powerful tribe of the Nar- during the- 

° ^1111 J 1 n , Pequod war. 

ragansetts completely sneltered them irom the enemy. 

'Such, however, was the aid which Mr. Williams afforded, ^2. ■^><{ren- 

, . . , p . . dered by Mr. 

m bnngmg that war to a lavorable termmation, that some wuuams. 

of the leading men in Massachusetts felt that he deserved 

to be honored with some mark of favor for his services. 

^The subject of recalling him from banishment was de- 3. ivhijhe 

bated, but his principles were still viewed with distrust, caueT/rmn 

and the fear of their influence overcame the sentiment of *"""'"^'*'- 

gratitude. 

8. ^In 1638 a settlement was made* at Portsmouth,* in 1638. 
the northern part of the island of Aquetneck, or Rhode *• ^f'p^^^^ 
Island, f by William Coddington and eighteen others, who mouth. 
had been driven from Massachusetts by persecution for "' ''"' 
their religious opinions. 'In imitation of the form of gov- g p^^^ ^j, 
ernment which once prevailed among the Jews, Mr. Cod- sovernmenu 
dington was chosen'' judge, and three elders were elected b. Nov 

to assist him, but in the following year the chief magis- 1639.- 
trate received the title of governor. "Portsmouth received 6. settlement 
considerable accessions during the first year, and in the ^^'^^"po^^- 
spring of 1639 a number of the inhabitants removed to 
the southwestern part of the island, where they laid the 
foundation of Newport.:]: 'The settlements on the island ' Name 
rapidly extended, and the whole received the name of the new settie- 
Rhode Island Plantation. 

9. *Under the pretence that the Providence and Rhode 1643. 
Island Plantations had no charter, and that their territory f^^'^'^^ ^xcui- 
was claimed by Plymouth and Massachusetts, they were dedjimnthe 

jj »/ f J iiTiton of 

excluded from the confederacy which was formed between 1643. 

the other New England colonies in 1643. ^Roger Wil- t%Jr^^Xr 

liams therefore proceeded to England, and, in the follow- nament. 

ing year, obtained'^ from Parliament, which was then 1644. 

waging a civil war with the king, a free charter of incor- '^ March 24. 
poration, by which the two plantations were united under 
the same government. 

* The town of Portsmouth is in the northern part of the island of Rhode Island, and em- 
braces about half of the island. The island of Prudence, on the west, is attached to this town. 
(.See Map, p. 215.) 

t Rliode Island, so called from a fancied resemblance to the island of Rhodes in the Medi- 
terranean, is in the southeastern part of Narragansett Bay. It is fifteen miles long, and has 
an average width of two and a half miles. The town of Portsmouth occupies the northera 
part of the Island, Middletown the central portion, and Newport the southern. (See Map, 
p. 215.) 

t Neu^ort is on the S.W. side of Rhode Island, five miles from the sea, and twenty -five 
miles S. from Providence. The town is on a beautiful declivity, and has an excellent harbor. 
(See Map, p. 215.) 

28 



218 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[Book IL 



ANALYSIS. 

a. May 29. 

1. Organiza- 
tion of the 

government, 
and early 

laws of Rlwde 
Island. 



b. 1660. 

2. Charter 

frmn the 

king, and its 

principles. 

c. July 18, 
1663. 



3 Catholics 
atid (Quakers. 



4. Rhode 
Island du- 
ring and 
after the 
usurpation 
of Andros. 

d. Jan 1687. 

e. See p. 197. 

f. May II, 

1689. 



g. See the 
seal, p. 99. 



10. 'In 1647 the General Assembly of the several 
towns met'' at Portsmouth, and organized the government, 
by the choice of a president and other officers. A code 
of laws was also adopted, which declared the government 
to be a democracy, and which closed with the declaration, 
that " all men might walk as their consciences persuaded 
them, without molestation, every one in the name of his 
God." 

11. "After the restoration'' of monarchy, and the acces- 
sion of Charles II. to the throne of England, Rhode Island 
applied for and obtained"^ a charter from the king, in which 
the principles of the former parliamentary charter, and 
those on which the colony was founded, were embodied. 
The greatest toleration in matters of religion was enjoined 
by the charter, and the legislature again reasserted the 
principle. ^It has been said that Roman Catholics were 
excluded from the right of voting, but no such regulation 
has ever been found in the laws of the colony ; and the 
assertion that Quakers were persecuted and outlawed, is 
wholly erroneous. 

12. ■'When Andros assumed the government of the New 
England colonies, Rhode Island quietly submitted"* to his 
authority ; but when he was imprisoned^ at Boston, and 
sent to England, the people assembledf at Newport, and 
resuming their former charter privileges, re-elected the 
officers whom Andros had displaced. Once more the free 
government of the colony was organized, and its seal was 
restored, with its symbol an anchor, and its motto Hope,^ 
— fit emblems of the steadfast zeal with which Rhode 
Island has ever cherished all her early religious freedom, 
and her civil rights. 



Subject tif 
Chapter VI. 



CHAPTER VI. 

NEW YORK.* 
SECTION I. 



O/Sectionl. NEW NETHERLANDS PREVIOUS TO ITS CONQUEST BY THE 

ENGLISH IN 1664. 



5. S^fst two 
voyages of 
Benry Hud- 
son. 



1. "^During the years 1607 and 1608, Henry Hudson, 
an English mariner of some celebrity, and then in the 



* NEW YORK, the most northern of the Middle States, and now the most populous in the 
Union, has an area of nearly 47,000 square miles This state has a great variety of surface. 



Part II.] NEW YORK. 219 

employ of a company of London merchants, made two 1607. 

voyages to the northern coasts of America, with the hope • 

of finding a passage through those icy seas, to the genial 

climes of southern Asia. 'His employers being disheart- i. Third voy- 

ened by his failure, he next entered the service of the 

Dutch East India Company, and, in April, 1609, sailed* 1609. 

on his third voyage. »■ April u. 

2. 'Failing to discover a northern passage to India, he 2 Account of 
turned to the south, and explored the eastern coast, in the '^^'"°^'*^^- 
hope of finding an opening to the Pacific, through the con- 
tinent. After proceeding south as far as the capes* of 
Virginia, he again turned north, examined the waters of 
Delaware Bay,"|" and, following the eastern coast of New 
Jersey, on the 13th of September he anchored his vessel 

withm Sandy Hook.:}: 

3. 'After a week's delay, Hudson passed** through the 3. Discovery 
Narrows,^ and, during ten days, continued to ascend the jtioer"^ 
noble river which bears his name ; nor was it until his i>. Sept. at. 
vessel had passed beyond the city of Hudson, [j and a boat 

had advanced probably beyond Albany, that he appears 
to have relinquished all hopes of being able to reach the 
Pacific by this inland passage. ^Having completed his 4. Hudson's 
discovery, he slowly descended the stream, and sailing'' his iredtmmt 
for Europe, reached England in the November'' following. ^ oct/iT 
The king, James the First, jealous of the advantages a. Nov. 17. 
which the Dutch might seek to derive from the discovery, 
forbade his return to Holland. 1610. 

4. *In the following year, 1610, the Dutch East India 5 n-hatwae 
Company fitted out a ship with merchandize, to trafiick Dufc/! £a« 
with the natives of the country which Hudson had ex- ^ ^ny^ 

Two ehains of the AUeghanies pass through the eastern part of the state. The Highlands, 
coming from New Jersey, cross the Hudson near West Point, and soon after pass into Connec- 
ticut. The Catskill mountains, farther west, and more irregular in their outlines, cross the 
Mohawk, and continue under different names, along the western border of Lake Champlain. 
The western part of the state has generally a level surface, except in the southern tier of coun- 
ties, where the western ranges of the AUeghanies terminate. The soil throughout the state is, 
generally, good ; and along the valley of the Mohawk, and in the western part of the state, it 
is highly fertile. 

* Capes Charles and Henry, at the entrance of Chesapeake Bay. 

t Delaware Bay is a large arm ©f the sea, setting up into the land between New Jersey and 
Delaware ; and having, at its entrance. Cape May on the north, and Cape Henlopen on the 
sooth, eighteen miles apart. Some distance within the capes the bay is thirty miles across. 
This bay lias no safe natural harbor, but a good artificial harbor has been constructed by the 
general government within Cape Henlopen. It is formed by two massive stone piers, called the 
Delaware Breakwater. 

t Sandy Hook is a low sandy island, on the eastern coast of New Jersey, extending north 
from the N. Eastern extremity of Monmouth County, and separated from it by Shrewsbury 
Inlet. It is five miles in length, and seventeen miles S. from New York. At the northern ex- 
tremity of the island is a light-house, but the accumulating sand is gradually extending the 
point farther north. Sandy Hook was a peninsula until 1778, when the waters of the ocean 
forced a passage, and cut it off from the mainland. In 1800 the inlet waa closed, but it was 
opened again in 1830, and now admits vessels through its channel 

§ The entrance to New York harbor, between Long Island on the east and Staten Island on 
the west, is called the Narrows. It is about one mile wide, and is nine miles below the city. 
(See Map next page.) 

II The city of Hu/Json is on the east side of Hudson River, 116 miles N. from New York, and 
twenty -nine miles S. from Albany. 



-iTJ 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[Book IT. 



ANALYSIS. 

1. Condiiion 
of the Dutch 

settlement at 

luc time of 

ArgalVs visit. 

a. tfee p. 163. 

2. Result of 
ArgalCs visit. 



1614. 

3. Neto settle- 
tnent soon, 
after inade. 



4. Govern- 
ment of the 

countri/, 
when acta- 
ally coloni- 
zed,— and 
when the 
first governor 
was appoint- 
ed. 

1621. 

5. Dutch 

•W€st India, 

Company. 



1623. 

6. Attempted 
tettlement 
iK the south- 
em part of 
Neio Jersey. 



plored. 'The voyage being prosperous, the traffic wag 
continued; and when Argall, in 1613, was returning 
from his excursion'^ against the French settlement of Port 
Royal, he found on the island of Manhattan* a few rude 
hovels, which the Dutch had erected there as a summer 
station for those enarawed in the trade with the natives. 

5. ^The Dutch, unable to make any resistance against 
the force of Argall, quietly submitted to the English claim 
of sovereignty over the country ; but, on his departure, 
they continued their traffic, — passed the winter there, and, 
in the following year, erected a rude fort on the southern 
part of the island. 'In 161.5 they began a settlement at 
Albany,! which had been previously visited, and erected 
a fort which was called Fort Orange. The country in 
their possession was called New Netherlands.:}: 

6. ^During several years. Directors, sent out by the 
East India Company, exercised authority over the little 
settlement of New Amsterdam on the island of Man- 
hattan, but it was not until 1623 that the actual coloniz- 
ing of the country took place, nor until 1625 that an 
actual governor was formally appointed. 'In 1621 the 
Dutch West India Company was formed, and, in the same 
year, the States-General of Holland granted to it the ex- 
clusive privilege to traffick and plant colonies on the 
American coast, from the Straits of Magellan to the re- 
motest north. 

7. °In 1623 a number of settlers, duly provided with 
the means of subsistence, trade, and defence, were sent 
out under the command of Cornelius Mey, who not only 
visited Manhattan, but, entering Delaware Bay, and 



NEW YORK AND VIOrNITT. 




* Manhattan, or New York island, lies on tho 
east side of Hudson River, at the head of New 
York harbor. It is about fourteen miles in 
length, and has an average width of one mile 
and three-fifths. It is separated from Long Is • 
land on the east, by a strait called the East 
River, which connects the harbor and Long Is- 
land Sound ; and from the mainland on the east 
by Harlem River, a strait which connects the 
Ea-st Uiver and the Hudson. The Dutch settle- 
ment on the southern part of the island, w.is 
called New Ammerdam. Here now stands the 
city of A'e w York, the largest in America, and 
second only to London in the amount of its com- 
merce. Tlie city is rapidly increasing in size, 
although its compact parts already have a cir- 
cumference of about nine miles. (See Map ) 

t Albany, now the capital of the state of Ne\f 
York, is situated on the west bank of the Hud- 
son River, 145 miles N. from New York by the 
river's course. It was first called by the Dutch 
Beaverwyck, and afterwards WUhamstadt. (See 
Map, next page.) 



t The country from Cape Cod to the banks of the Delaware was claimed by the Dutch, 



Part II.] 



NEW YORK. 



221 



ascending the river,* took possession of the country, and, 
a few miles below Camden,-}- in the present New Jersey, 
built Fort Nassau.:]: The fort, however, was soon after 
abandoned, and the worthy Captain Mey carried away 
with him the affectionate regrets of the natives, who long 
cherished his memory. 'Probably a few years before 
this, the Dutch settled at Bergen,§ and other places west 
of the Hudson, in New Jersey. 

8. "In 1625 Peter Minuits arrived at Manhattan, as 
governor of New Netherlands, and in the same year the 
settlement of Brooklyn, || on Long Island,1I was com- 
menced. 'The Dutch colony at this time showed a dis- 
position to cultivate friendly relations with the English 
settlements in New England, and mutual courtesies were 
exchanged, — the Dutch cordially inviting'' the Plymouth 
settlers to remove to the more fertile soil of the Connecti- 
cut, and the English advising the Dutch to secure their 
claim to the banks of the Hudson by a treaty with England. 

9. "Although Holland claimed the country, on the 
ground of its discovery by Hudson, yet it was likewise 
claimed by England, on the ground of the first discovery 
of the continent by Cabot. ^The pilgrims expressed the 
kindest wishes for the prosperity of the Dutch, but, at the 
same time, requested them not to send their skiffs into 
Narragansett Bay for beaver skins. 'The Dutch at Man- 
hattan were at that time little more than a company of 
hunters and traders, employed in the traffic of the furs of 
the otter and the beaver. 

10. ''In 1629 the West India Company, in the hope of 
exciting individual enterprise to colonize the country, 
promised, by "a charter of liberties," the grant of an ex- 
tensive tract of land to each individual who should, within 
four years, form a settlement of fifty persons. Those who 



1623. 



1. Settlement 
in the north 

of Nr.io 
Jersey- 

1625. 

2. Events in 

1625. 



3. Feelings 

entertained 

by the Dutch 

and tlie, 
English colo- 
nists towards 
each other. 
a. Oct. 



4. Opposing 

claims to the 

country. 



5. What the 
Pilgrims re- 
quested of 
tlie Dutch 

6 Condition 
of the Dutch 
at Manhat- 
tan. 



1629. 

7. Account of 
the "charter 
of liberties." 



* The Delaware River rises in the S. Eastern part of the state Albany and vicinity. 
of New York, west of the Catskill mountains. It forms sixty miles 
of the boundary line between New York and Pennsylvania, and 
during the remainder of its course is the bonndary between New 
Jersey, on the one side, and Pennsylvania and Delaware on the 
other. It is navigable for vessels of the largest class to Phila- 
delphia. 

t Camden, no* a city, is situated on the east side of Delaware 
Kiver, opposite Philadelphia. (See Map, p. 248.) 

i This fort was on Big Timber Creek, in the present Glouces- 
ter County, about five miles S. from Camden. 

§ The village of Bergen is on the summit of Bergen Ridge, 
three miles \V. from Jersey City, and four from New York. (See Map, p. 220.) 

II Brooklyn., now a city, is situated on elevated land at the west end of Long Island, opposite 
the lower part of the city of New York, from which it is separated by East River, three-fourths 
of a mile mde. (See Map, p. 220.) 

IT Long Island, forming a part of the state of New York, lies south of Connecticut, from 
which it is separated by Long Island Sound. It is 120 miles in length, and iias an average 
width of about twelve miles. It contains an area of about 1450 square miles, and is, therefore, 
larger than the entire state of Rhode Island. The north side of the island is rough and UUy, 
-the south low and sandy. (See Map, p. 220.) « 




222 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[Book n. 



ANALYSIS. 



1. Appropria- 
tions of land. 



a. Godyn. 

b June. 

2 Attempt to 
form a settle- 
ment in 
Delaware. 

3. Extent of 

the Dutcti 

claims. 

c Note, p 134. 

1632. 

4. Fate of the 

Delaware 

colony 



d. Dec. 



5. Escape of 
De Vriez. 



1633. 

6. Places 
visited. 
6. April. 



7 First settle- 
Tnent of the 
Dutch, and of 
the English, 
in Connecti- 
cut, 
f. N. p, 208. 
g. Jan. 



h. Oct. See 

page 203 

8. Fate of the 

Dutch tra- 
ding station- 



9 Settle- 

7mnts on 

Long Island. 



should plant colonies were to purchase the land of the In 
dians, and it was likewise enjoined upon them that they 
should, at an early period, provide for the support of a 
minister and a schoolmaster, that the service of God, and 
zeal for religion, might not be neglected. 

11. 'Under this charter, four directors of the company, 
distinguished by the title of patrons or patroons, appropri- 
ated to themselves some of the most valuable portions of 
the territory. ''One' of the patroons having purchased'' 
from the natives the southern half of the present state of 
Delaware, a colony under De Vriez was sent out, and ear- 
ly in 1631 a small settlement was formed near the present 
Lewistown.* 'The Dutch now occupied Delaware, and 
the claims of New Netherlands extended over the whole 
country from Cape Henlopenf to Cape Cod."^ 

12. ■'After more than a year's residence in America, 
De Vriez returned to Holland, leaving his infant colony 
to the care of one Osset. The folly of the new command- 
ant, in his treatment of the natives, soon provoked their 
jealousy, and on the return<^ of De Vriez, at the end of 
the year, he found the fort deserted. Indian vengeance 
had prepared an ambush, and every white man had been 
murdered. ^De Vriez himself narrowly escaped the per- 
fidy of the natives, being saved by the kind interposition 
of an Indian woman, who warned him of the designs of 
her countrymen. 'After proceeding to Virginia for the 
purpose of obtaining provisions, De Vriez saHed to New 
Amsterdam, where he found' Wouter Van Twiller, the 
second governor, who had just been sent out to supersede 
the discontented Minuits. 

13. ''A few months before the arrival of Van Twiller as 
governor, the Dutch had purchased of the natives the soil 
around Hartford,'' and had erected^ and fortified a trading- 
house on land within the limits of the present city. The 
English, however, claimed the country ; and in the same 
year a number of the Plymouth colonists proceeded up 
the river, and in defiance of the threats of the Dutch 
commenced'' a settlement at Windsor. ^Although for 
many years the Dutch West India Company retained 
possession of their feeble trading station, yet it was finally 
overwhelmed by the numerous settlements of the more 
enterprising New Englanders. ^The English likewise 
formed settlements on the eastern end of Long Island, al- 
though they were for a season resisted by the Dutch, who 
claimed the whole island as a part of New Netherlands. 



* Lewistown is on liewis Creek, in Sussex County, Delaware; five or six miles from Capt 
Henlcu)en. In front of the village is the Delaware Breakwater, 
t Cape Henlopen is the southern cape of the entrance into Delaware Bay. 



Part U.] 



NEW YORK. 



223 



14. 'While the English were thus encroaching upon 
the Dutch on the east, the southern portion of the territory 
claimed by the latter was seized by a new competitor. 
Gustavus Adolphus, king of Sweden, the hero of his age, 
and the renowned champion of the Protestant religion in 
Europe, had early conceived the design of planting 
colonies in America. Under the auspices of the Swedish 
monarch a commercial company was formed for this pur- 
pose as early as 1626, but the German war, in which 
Gustavus was soon after engaged, delayed for a time the 
execution of the project. ^After the death" of Gustavus, 
which happened at the battle of Lutzen,* in 1633, his 
worthy minister renewed the plan of an American settle- 
ment, the execution of which he intrusted to Peter Minuits, 
the fii'st governor of New Netherlands. 

15. ^Early in the year 1638, about the same time that 
Sir William Kieft succeeded Van Twiller, in the govern- 
ment of New Netherlands, the Swedish colony under 
Minuits arrived, erected a fort, and formed a settlement on 
Christiana Creek,f near Wilmington,:]: within the present 
state of Delaware. ^Kieft, considering this an intrusion 
upon his territories, sent'' an unavailing remonstrance to 
the Swedes, and, as a check to their aggressions, rebuilt 
Fort Nassau on the eastern bank of the Delaware. ^The 
Swedes gradually extended their settlements, and, to pre- 
serve their ascendency over the Dutch, their governor 
established"^ his residence and built a fort on the island of 
Tinicum,§ a few miles below Philadelphia. °The terri- 
tory occupied by the Swedes, extending from Cape Hen- 
lopen to the falls in the Delaware, opposite Trenton, || was 
called New Sweden. 

16. 'In 1640 the Long Island and New Jersey Indians 
began to show symptoms of hostility towards the Dutch. 
Provoked by dishonest traders, and maddened by rum, 
they attacked the settlements on Staten Island,1I and threat- 



1633. 



1. Design of 

Gvstavvs 

Adulphiis 

fur planting 

colonies in 

America. 



2. Minister of 
Gustavus. 

a. Nov. 26, 
1633. 



1638. 

3. Settlement 
of Delaware. 



4. Opposition 
made by the 

Dutch. 
b. May. 

5. Progress of 
Ihe Steedish 
settlements. 



"1643. 

6 Extent and 

name of the 

Sivedish 

territory. 



7 Indian hos- 
tilities in 
which the 
Dutcli loere 
engaged. 



* Lutzen is a town in Prussian Saxony, on one of the ^•ORTHERN part op delaw.^rk. 
branches of the Elbe. Here the French, under Bonaparte, 
defeated the combined forces of I'rus.sia and Uu.ssia, in 1813. 

t Christiana Creek is in the northern part of the state of 
Delaware, and has its head branches in Pennsylvania and 
Maryland. It enters the Brandywine River at Wilmingon. 
(See Map.) 

t Wlwington, in the northern part of the state of Dela- 
ware, is situated between Brandy wine and Christiana Creeks, 
one mile above their junction, and two miles west from Dela- 
ware River. (See Map.) 

§ Tinicum is a long narrow island in Delaware River, be- 
longing to Pennsylvania, twelve miles, bv the river's courfe, 
S.W. from Philadelphia. (See Map, p. 248.) 

II Trenton, now the capital of New Jersey, is sitiiated on 
the E. siile of Delaware River, thirty miles N.E. from Philadelphia, and fifty-five S.W. from 
New York. (See Map, p. ,"63, and also p. 364.) 

IT Staten Island, belonging to the state of New York, is about six miles S. W. from New 




224 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[Book U 



ANALYSIS 
a. 1641. 

1643. 

1. A truce 

obtained, 

goon followed 

by %oar. 

h. April. 
c. Sept. 



2. Exploits of 

Captain 

Under kUl. 



d Probably 
in 1643 



3. The war 
teifninaied. 



e 1645 

4. Cruelty 

and death of 

Kieft. 



1647. 



S. Stuyve- 
sant's treat- 
ment of the 
Indians. 

t. June. 



e. His treaty 
with the 
English. 

1650. 

g. Sept. 



7. Erection 

and lo-is of 

Port Casimir. 



ened New Amsterdam. A fruitless expedition^ against 
tiie Delawares of New Jersey was the consequence. 'The 
war continued, with various success, until 1643, when 
the Dutch solicited peace ; and by the mediation of the 
wise and good Roger Williams, a brief truce was ob- 
tained.'' But confidence could not easily be restored, for 
revenge still rankled in the hearts of the Indians, and in 
a few months they again began' the work of blood and 
desolation. 

17. ^The Dutch now engaged in their service Captain 
John Underbill, an Englishman who had settled on Long 
Island, and who had previously distinguished himself in 
the Indian wars of New England. Having raised a con- 
siderable number of men under Kieft's authority, he de- 
feated'' the Indians on Long Island, and also at Strick- 
land's Plain,* or Horseneck, on the mainland. 

18. ^The war was finally terminated by the mediation 
of the Iroquois, who, claiming a sovereignty over the 
Algonquin tribes around Manhattan, proposed terms of 
peace, which were gladly accepted" by both parties. 
^The fame of Kieft is tarnished by the exceeding cruelty 
which he practiced towards the Indians. The colonists 
requesting his recall, and the West India Company dis- 
claiming his barbarous policy, in 1647 he embarked for 
Europe in a richly laden vessel, but the ship was wrecked 
on the coast of Wales, and the unhappy governor perished. 

19. ^William Kieft was succcededf by Peter Stuy- 
vesant, the most noted of the governors of New Nether- 
lands. By his judicious treatment of the Indians he con- 
ciliated their favor, and such a change did he produce in 
their feelings towards the Dutch, that he was accused of 
endeavoring to enlist them in a general war against the 
English. 

20. "After long continued boundary disputes with the 
colonies of New England, Stuyvesant relinquished a poi'- 
tion of his claims, and concluded a provisional treaty,^ 
which allowed New Netherlands to extend on Long Island 
as far as Oyster Bay,-(- and on the mainland as far as 
Greenwich,:}: near the present boundary between New 
York and Connecticut. 'For the pui'pose of placing a 



York city. It is about thirty-five miles in circumference. It has Newark Bay on the north, 
Karitan Bay on the south, and a narrow channel, called Staten Island Sound, on the west! 
(See Map, p. 220 and p. S63.) 

* SlrkklaniCii Plain is at the western extremity of the state of Connecticut, in the present 
town of Greenwich. The peninsula on which the plain is situated was called Horseneck., be- 
cause it was early used as a pasture for horses. 

t Oyster Buy is on the north side of Long Island, at the N.E. extremity of Queens County, 
thirty miles N.E. from New York city. 

J Greenwich is the S. ^Vestern town of Connecticut. Byram River enters the Sound on th6 
boundary between Connecticut and New York. 



Part II.] NEW YORK. 225 

barrier to the encroachments of the Swedes on the south, 1651. 

in 1651 Stuyvesant built Fort Casimir on the site of the 

present town of Newcastle,* within five miles of the 
Swedish fort at Christiana. The Swedes, however, soon 
after obtained possession* of the fort by stratagem, and ^ '*5'- 
overpowered the garrison. 

21. 'The home government, indignant at the outrage i. comju^st 
of the Swedes, ordered Stuyvesant to reduce them to sub- Sweden. 
mission. With six hundred men the governor sailed for 

this purpose in 1655, and soon compelled the surrender'' 1655. 
of all the Swedish fortresses. Honorable terms were b. sept. and 
granted to the inhabitants. Those who quietly submitted 
to the authority of the Dutch retained the possession of 
their estates ; the governor, Rising, was conveyed to Eu- 
rope ; a few of the colonists removed to Maryland and 
Virginia, and the country was placed under the govern- 
ment of deputies of New Netherlands. 

22. -Such was the end of the little Protestant colony of 2. <^^«™"«' 
New Sweden. It was a religious and intelligent comma- sweau/i 
nity, — presei'ving peace with the natives, ever cherishing 

a fond attachment to the mother country, and loyalty 
towards its sovereign ; and long after their conquest by 
the Dutch, and the subsequent transfer to England, the 
Swedes of the Delaware remained the objects of generous 
and disinterested regard at the court of Stockholm. 

23. 'While the forces of the Dutch were withdrawn ^J^^fi^ 
from New Amsterdam, in the expedition against the 
Swedes, the neighboring Indians appeared in force before 

the city, and ravaged the surrounding country. The re- 
turn of the expedition restored confidence ; — peace was 
concluded, and the captives were ransomed. 

24. "In 1663 the village of Esopus, now Kingston,! 1663. 
was suddenly attacked-^ by tJie Indians, and sixty-five of ^..^^Zlfnd 
the inhabitants were either killed or carried away captive. Tesuu^g tu 
A force from New Amsterdam being sent to their assist- c.Tune. 
ance, the Indians were pursued to their villages ; their 

fields were laid waste ; many of their warriors were kill- 
ed, and a number of the captives were released. These 
vio-orous measures were followed by a truce in Decem- 
ber, and a treaty of peace in the May following.'' 'i '^^^ 

25. ^Although the Dutch retained possession of the nf^eZ 
cou itry as far south as Cape Henlopen, yet their claims ^am/'wo* 
were resisted, both by Lord Baltimore, the proprietor of ^uiSi'ciavlL 



♦ Nciecastle is on the west side of Delaware River, in the state of Delaware, thirty-two miles 
S.W. from Philadelphia. The northern boundary of the st-ite is part of the circumference of a 
circle drawn twelve miles distant from Newcastle. (See Map, p. 223.) 

t Kingston, formerly called Esopu.s, is on the V/. side of Hudson UiVer, in Ulster Cou&ty, 
about ninety miles N. from New York citv. 

29 



226 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[Book H 



ANALYSIS 



Maryland, and by the governor of Virginia. The southern 
boundary of New Netherlands was never definitely set- 
tled. At the north, the subject of boundary was still 
more troublesome ; Massachusetts claimed an indefinite 
extent of territory westward, Connecticut had increased 
her pretensions on Lonij Island, and her settlements were 
steadily advancing towards the Hudson. 

26. 'Added to these dittieulties from without, discontents 
had arisen among tlie Dutch themselves. The New 
England notions of popular rights began to prevail ; — ^the 
people, hitherto accustomed to implicit deference to the 
will of their rulers, began to demand greater privileges 
as citizens, and a share in the government. ^Stuyvesant 
resisted the demands of the people, and was sustained by 

3 Totohat the home government. ^The prevalence of liberal prin- 
/Kthnil^'tf^ ciples, and the unjust exactions of an arbitrary govern- 
ment, had alienated the affections of the people, and when 
rumors of an English invasion reached them, they were 
already prepared to submit to English authority, in the 
hope of obtaining English rights. 

27. ^Early in 1664, during a period of peace between 
England and Holland, the king of England, inditferent to 
the claims of the Dutch, granted" to his brother James, the 
Duke of York, the whole territory from the Connecticut 
River to the shores of the Delaware. ^The duke soon 

5 ExpedUion fitted out a squadron under Colonel Nichols, with orders 
and't'S'sur- to take posscssion of the Dutch province. The arrival of 
"^efhtrfan^" the fleet found New Amsterdam in a defenceless state. 
The governor, Stuyvesant, faithful to his employers, as- 
sembled his council and proposed a defence of the place ; 
but it was in vain that he endeavored to infuse his own 
spirit into his people, and it was not until after the capitu- 
lation had been agreed'' to by the magistrates, that he re- 
luctantly signed' it. 

28. *The fall of the capital, which now received the 
name of New York, was followed by the surrender'^ of the 
settlement at Fort Orange, which rec\?ived the name of 
Albany, and by the general submission of the province, 
with its subordinate settlements on the Delaware.* The 
government of England was acknowledged over the whole, 
early in October, 1664. 

8 injuxriceqf 29. 'Thus, while England and Holland were at peace, 
thisconjut^t Y^y jj,^ ^^^ Q^ ^Y\e ma^t flagrant injustice, tlie Dutch do- 
minion in America was overthrown after an existence of 
iCrantmade little more than half a century. 'Previous to the surren- 
u'yai'dcar- del", the Duke of York had conveyed'" to Lord Berkeley 
and Sir George Carteret all that portion of New Nether- 
lands which now forms the state of New Jersey, ovei 



1. Discon- 
tents among 
the Dutch. 



» Their de 

tnaruis re- 

siSied 



people had be 

come alien 

died. 



1664. 

4 Grant to 
the Duke vf 

York. 

a. March 'il 



b. Sept. S. 

c. Sept. S. 

6. P/(ic«v in- 

eluded in the 

surrender. 

d Oe- 4 



e. Oct. II. 

T Oore-rn- 
ment of E'J?- 
lan-t ac'^-noip- 



tere! 
f. July 3, 4. 



Part II.] 



NEW YORK. 



227 



which a separate government was established under its 1664. 
proprietors. 'The settlements on the Delaware, subse 
quently called " The Territories," were 
the province of New York until their purchase" by Wil 
liam Penn in 1682, when they were joined to the govern- 
ment of Pennsylvania. 



connected with Territories' 



a. See p. 247. 



SECTION II. 



NEW YORK, FROM THE CONQUEST OF NEW NETHERLANDS IN Subject of 
1664, UNTIL THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE FRENCH AND IN- S'""^"' 
DIAN WAR IN 1754. (deLAAVARE* INCLUDED UNTIL 1682.) 



1. ^On the surrender of New Netherlands, the new 
name of its capital was extended to the wliole territory 
embraced under the government of the Duke of York. 
Long Island, which had been previously granted*" to the 
Earl of Sterling, was now, in total disregard of the claims 
of Connecticut, purchased by the duke, and has since re- 
mained a part of New Yoi'k. " The Territories," com- 
prising the present Delaware, remained under the juris- 
diction of New York, and were ruled by deputies ap- 
pointed by the governors of the latter. 

2. 'Colonel Nichols, the first English governor of the 
province, exercised both executive and legislative powers, 
but no rights of representation Avere conceded to the 
people. The Dutch titles to land were held to be invalid, 
and the fees exacted for their renewal were a source of 
much profit to the new governor. The people were dis- 
appointed in not obtaining a representative government, 
yet it must be admitted that the governor, considering his 
arbitrary powers, ruled with much moderation. 

3. ^Under Lovelace, the successor of Nichols, the ar- 
bitrary system of the new government was more fully de- 
veloped. The people protested against being taxed for 
the support of a government in which they had no voice, 
and when their proceedings were transmitted to the gov- 
ernor, they were declared " scandalous, illegal, and sedi- 
tious," and were ordered to be burned by the common 
hangman. Lovelace declared that, to keep the people in 
order, such taxes must be laid upon them as should give 
them time to think of nothinij but how to discharge them. 

4. 'A war having broken out between England and 



2 Changes 

thai look 

place after 

the surrender 

of New Seth- 

ertands. 

b. 16S3. 



3. Adminia- 
tration </ 
Goverfwr 
Nichols 



1667. 
1670. 

4 Adminis- 
tratvm of 
Lovelace- 



5 Reconquest 
of the cmintry 
by the. Dutch, 
and Us resto- 
ration to 
England. 



* DELAWARE, one of the Middle States, and, next to Rhode Island, the smallest state in 
the Union, contiiins an area of but little more than 2000 ■•square miles. The southern part of 
the state is level and sandy ; the northern moderately hilly and rough ; while the western bor- 
der contains an elevated table land, dividing the waters which fall into the Chesapeake from 
thos« which flow into Delaware Bay. 



228 COLONLVL HISTORY. [Book U. 

ANALYSIS. Holland in 1672, in the following year the latter des- 
patched a small squadron to destroy the commerce of the 
Enijlish colonies. Arrivins at New York durins; the ab- 

a. Aug. 9. sence of the governor, the city was surrendered* by the 

traitorous and cowardly INIanning, without any attempt at 
defence. New Jersey made no resistance, and the settle- 
ments on the Delaware followed the example. The name 
New Netherlands was again revived, but it was of short 
1674. continuance. In February of the following year peace 

b. Feb. 19. .^^.jjg concluded'' between tlie contending powers, and early 

in November New Netherlands was again surrendered to 

the English. 

i.sm patent o. 'Doubts being raised as to the validity of the Duke 

°tMDu\i''iif of York's title, because it had been granted while the 

York. Dutch were in full and peaceful possession of the country, 

and because the country had since been reconquered by 

c July 9. them, the duke thought it prudent to obtain*^ from his brotli 

•J Androf er, the king, a new patent contirming the former grant. 

gocerlior. ^Thc otlice of govcmor was conferred"' on Edmund Andros, 

d. July 11. who afterwards became distinguished as the tyrant of 

New England, 
s. Character 6. ^His government was arbitrary ; no representation 
a^v^nt'qf '^^'^'^ allowed die people, and taxes were levied without 
■^'*f^ their consent. ^As the Duke of York claimed tlie country 
lb /o. fig fjii. pjist as the Connecticut River, in the following sum- 
tempno'/n- mov Audros proceeded to Saybrook, and attempted' to en- 
diik^sciaim force the claim ; but the spirited resistance of the people 
•'" *'c[Ii|'"*" compelled him to return without accomplishing his object. 

e. Jub-.^see 7. 'Audros likewise attempted'' to extend his jurisdic- 
3. To Sew tion over New Jersey, claiming it as a dependency of 

, ,'il?'^^-. New York, althoucrh it had previouslv been reixranted^ bv 
16S'2. *'^^ Duke to Berkeley and Carteret. *In 16S'2 the " Ter- 
g. See p. sae. ritories." now forming the state of Delaware, were granted*- 
Tf^r^r ^y t'l^ Duke o( York to William Penn. from wliicli time 
nl'a^in. ""^^^ '^^^ Revolution they were united with Pennsylvania, 
n. Seep. 347. or remained under the jurisdiction of her governors. 
7. Successor S. 'Aiidros having returned to England. Colonel 
'"■ Thomas Dongan. a Catholic, was appointed governor, and 
16S3. arrived in the province in 10S3. ^Through the advice of 
^ u^lfl' ^^ illi^^'ii Penn the duke had instructed Dongan to call lui 
«.<:*ijsAid. assembly of representatives. The assembly, with the ap- 
1 Nov 9 proval of the governor, established' a *• Charter of Lib- 
erties." which conceded to the people many important 
rights which they had not previously enjoyed. 
» Provisions 9. *The charter declared that ' supreme legislative 
ouu-ter. power should forever reside in the governor, council, and 
people, met in general assembly ; — that every Ireeholder 
and freeman might vote tor representatives without re- 



Part II.] NEW YORK. 229 

straiiit, — that no freeman should suiror, but by juilg- 1683. 

mcnt of his peers, and that all trials should be by a jury 

of twelve men, — that no tax should be assessed, on any 
pretence whatever, but by the consent of the assembly, — 
that no seaman or soldier should be c^uartcrcd on the in- 
habitants against their will, — that no martial law should 
exist, — and that no person professing failli in God, by 
Jesus Christ, sliould at any time, be in any way dis- 
quieted or questioned for any difference of opinion in mat- 
ters of religion.' 'In 1084 the governors of New York and ^ ."^''''^"'y 

XT- • • 1 1 ■ f 1 IT TVT • » II made in t6bi 

Virguua met the deputies oi the i'lve JNations at Albany, 

and renewed* with them a treaty of peace. " ^^^- '*■ 

10. "On the accession'^ of the Duke of York to the 1685. 
throne of England, with tlie title of James II., the hopes ^ Arbitrary 
which the people entertained, of a permanent re{)resenta- ^l'/l"^,''0. 
tive government, were in a measure defeated. A direct loioui tiie ac- 
tax was decreed, printing presses, tlio dread of tyrants, jumcs ii. 
were forbidden in the province ; and many arbitrary ex- 
actions were imposed on the people. 

11. 'It was the evident intention of the king to intro- ^;if",''^f,''' 
duce the Catholic religion into the pro\ince, and most of <-'o'to//c re- 
the officers appointed by him were of that faith. *Among iinitrucHont 
other modes of introducing popery, .lames instructed Gov- Dmi%an; kis 
ernor Dongan to favor the introduction of Catholic priests, [hetneamle. 
by the French, among the Iroquois; but Dongan, al- 
though a Catholic, clearly seeing the ambitious designs of 

the French for extending their influence over the Indian 

tribes, resisted the measure. ''Tlie Irocjuois remained at- ^Jd^ar^ 

tached to the English, and long carried on a violent war- "^(^ ^-<^fc/i. 

fare against the French. Durintc the administration of 

Dongan the French made two invasions'^ of the territory >^- '"'5^^"'"' 

of the Iroquois, neither of which was successful. see p 512. 

12. ^Dongan was succeeded by Francis Nicholson, the 1(588. 
lieutenant-general of Andros. Andros had been pre- thorfn/^Qf An- 
xiously* appointed governor of New England, and his '''"y™,/^"' 
authority was now extended over the province of New a sec p. ist. 
York. 'The discontents of the people had boon o-radually 7 Ncwsrf 

, J- 1 1 \ 1 1 1 ''"■- accession 

increasmg smce the conquest trom llic JJuteli, and wlion, of wiiua',,,. 
in 1689, news arrived of the accession of William and "I'fuq^ 
Mary to the throne of England, the people joyfully re- 
ceived the intelligence, and rose in open rebellion to the 
existing government. 

13. *One Jacob Leisler, a captain of llie nnlitia, aided «■ rrneeed 

Zlf "'^' (if LciSiHT 

by several hundred men in arms, with the general appro- amio/Mcii- 
bation of the citizens took possession" of the fort at New e^juug 
York, in the name of William and Mary ; while Nichol- 
son, after having vainly endeavored to counteract the 
movements of the people, secretly went on board a ship 



230 COLONIAL HISTORY. [Book IL 

ANALYSIS, and sailed for England. 'The magistrates of the city, 
rrr ~ however, being opposed to the assumption of Leisler, re- 

1. The magis- . t i ^^ ^ i i •<>t.i ■, 

traiesofthe paired to Albany, where the authority of Leisler was de- 
nied, although, in both places, the government was ad- 
ministered in the name of William and Mary. 
2 Miiborne'3 14. "Milbome, the son-in-law of Leisler, was sent to 

^"Aibani/. Albany to demand the surrender of the fort ; but, meet- 
ing with opposition, he returned without accomplishing 

3 instruc- his object. 'In December, letters arrived from the king, 

tlOfiS TCC€iV6(L 

froniKng- empowering Nicholson, or whoever administered the gov- 
regarded'by emmeut in his absence, to take the chief command of 
Leisiei. ^j^g province. Leisler regarded the letter as addressed to 
himself, and assumed the title and authoi'ity of lieutenant- 
governor. 

1690. 15- ■'King William's war having at this period broken 
tionof'scht- °"^' ^" February, » 1690, a party of about three hundred 

■nectady. French and Indians fell upon Schenectady, a village on 

a. Feb. 18. j-j^g Mohawk, killed sixty persons, took thirty prisoners, 

n. subTuission. and burned the place. ^Soon after this event, the north- 

to J pislpi* 

ern portion of the province, terrified by the recent calam- 
ity, and troubled by domestic factions, yielded to the 
authority of Leisler. 
G Enterprise 16. ''The northern colonies, roused by the atrocities of 
Monrreai the French and their savage allies at the commencement 
and Quebec, ^f j^j^^g William's war, resolved to attack the enemy in 
b. Mar See tuHi. After the successful expedition^' of Sir William 

vyAPQ 198 

Phipps against Port Royal ; New York, Massachusetts, 
and Connecticut, united for the reduction of Montreal and 
Quebec. The naval armament sent against Quebec was 
-.. See p. 198. wholly unsuccessful.' The land expedhion, planned by 
Leisler, and placed under the command of General Win- 
throp of Connecticut, proceeded as far as Wood Creek,* 
near the head of Lake Champlain,f when sickness, the 
want of provisions, and dissensions among the officers, 
compelled a return. 

1691. 17. 'Early in 1691 Richard Ingoldsby arrived at New 
"^'msoidsby^ York, and announced the appointment of Colonel Slough- 

ter, as governor of the province. He bore a commission 

as captain, and without producing any order from the 

d Feb. 9. king, or from Sloughter, haughtily demanded'' o? Leisler 



* Wood Creek, in Washington County, New York, flows north, and falls into the south end 
of Lake Champlaln, at the village of Whitehall. The narrow body of water, however, between 
Whitehall and Ticonderoga, is often called South River. Through a considerable portion of 
its course Wood Creek is now used as a part of the Champlain Canal. There is another Wood 
tjreek in Oneida County, New York. (See Map, p. 273 and Map, p. 376.) 

t Lake Champlain lies between the states of New York and Vermont, and extends four or 
five miles into Canada. It is about 120 miles in length, and varies from half a mile to fifteen 
miles in width, its southern portion being the narrowest. Its outlet is the Sorel or Richelieu, 
through which it discharges its waters into the St. Lawrence. This lake was discovered in 
1609 by Samuel Champlain, the founder of Quebec. (See Canadian Histoiy, p. 505.) 



Part H.] 



NEW YORK. 



231 



the surrender of the fort. With this demand Leisler re- 
fused to comply. He protested against the lawless pro- 
ceedings of Ingoldsby, but declared his readiness to yield 
the government to Sloughter on his arrival. 

18. 'At length, in March, Sloughter himself arrived,^ 
and Leisler immediately sent messengers to receive his 
orders. The messengers were detained, and Ingoldsby 
was twice sent to the fort wiih a verbal commission to de- 
mand its surrender. "Leisler at first hesitated to yield to 
his inveterate enemy, preferring to deliver the fort into 
the hands of Sloughter himself; but, as his messengers 
and his letters to Sloughter were unheeded, the next day 
he personally surrendered the fort, and with Milborne and 
others, was immediately thrown into prison. 

19. ^Leisler and Milborne were soon after tried on the 
charge of being rebels and traitors, and were condemned 
to death, but Sloughter hesitated to put the sentence in ex- 
ecution. At length the enemies of the condemned, when 
no other measures could prevail with the governor, invited 
him to a feast, and, when his reason was drowned in wine, 
persuaded him to sign the death warrant. Before he re- 
covered from his intoxication the prisoners were exe- 
cuted.'' ■'Their estates were confiscated, but were after- 
wards, on application to the king, restored to their heirs. 

20. *In June, Sloughter met a council of the Iroquois, 
or Five Nations, at Albany, and renewed the treaties 
which had formerly been in force. Soon after, having 
returned to New York, he ended, by a sudden death,<= a 
short, weak, and turbulent administration. *In the mean 
time the English, with their Indian allies, the Iroquois, 
carried on the war against the French, and, under Major 
Schuyler, made a successful attack on the French settle- 
ments beyond Lake Champlain. 

21. ''Benjamin Fletcher, the next governor of the prov- 
ince, was a man of strong passions, and of moderate abili- 
ties ; but he had the prudence to follow the counsels of 
Schuyler, in his intercourse with the Indians. *The Iro- 
quois remained the active allies of the English, and their 
situation in a great measure screened the province of New 
York from the attacks of the French. 

22. *Fletcher having been authorized by the crown to 
take the command of the militia of Connecticut, he pro- 
ceeded to Hartford to execute his commission ; but the 
people resisted,'' and he was forced to return without ac- 
complishing his object. '"He labored with great zeal, in 
endeavoring to establish the English Church ; but the 
people demanded toleration, and the assembly resolutely 
opposed the pretensions of the governor. "In 1696 the 



1691. 



a March 29. 

1. Arrival of 

Sloughter, 

and events 

t/iat fotloioed. 



2. HesHa'ion 

of Leisler, 
and, the re- 
sult- 



3. Trial and 

exec anon of 

Leisler aria 

Milborne. 



b. May. 26. 

4 Their 
estates. 

5. Other 
events in 
Sloughter's 
administra- 
tion. 

c. Aug. 2. 

6 War car- 
ried on in tht 
mean time. 

1692. 



7. Character 

of Governor 

Fletcher. 



8. yew York 
screened front 
Die attacks of 

the French. 

1693. 



9. Fletcher's 

errand to 

Connecticut. 

d. Nov. 6. 
See p 214. 

10. His at- 
tempts to es- 
tablish the 
English 
Church. 

11. Events in 
169S. 



b. Sept. so 

1. 



030 COLOXI.YL HISTORY. [Book H 

ANALYSIS. French, under Frontenac. with a large force, made an 
unsuccessful invasion* of the territory of tlie Iroquois. — 
1 da^nf "In the following year King William's war Wivs termi- 
nated by the peace of Ryswick.'' 

'23. *In 169S, tlie Earl of Bellamont, aai Irish |x^r. a 
kbMSdic^ nian of energy and integrity, succeedeii^" Fletclier in tlie 
Z**^ ,. administration of the ijovernment of New York. anil, in 
the following year. New Hampshire aiid Massjichusetts 
s. cffpirmeg. were addeii to his jurist! ietion. -'Piracy had at this time 
incre;iseti to an alarming extent, infesting every sea fiv>m 
America to China ; and Belhunont had been particularly 
instructed to put an end to this evil on the American coast. 
4 Beam- 24. *For tliis puriwse, before his deivirture for Ameri- 
ttnipprtasix. ca, m connection with several persons ot distmction he had 
equipped a vessel, the command of which was given to 
1 w-JHoM William Kidd. 'Kidd. hitnself. however, soon after turn- 
ed pirate, and became the teriv>r of tlie seas ; but. at 
d. Juir. 1699. lengtli, appearing publicly at Boston^ he was arrested."* 
e. Mvii, and sent to England, where he was tried and executed.* 
6. cllirct 'Bellamont and his partners were charged widi abetting 
**"ii'"'' ^''' Kidd in his Piracies, and sharing the plunder, but after 
an examination in the House of Commons, notliing could 
be found to criminate them. 
1701. 25. 'On the death =" of Bellanwnt, the vicious, haughty, 
^inSSri^ and intolerant Lord Cornbury was aptx>inted governor of 
*«»«fV,*'* New York, and New Jei^sev Wi\s soon afterwarvis added 
I Mirchis. t*-"» his jurisdiction. — the prv>pnetors ot the latter province 
170"J. having surrendered their rights to the crown in 170-.^ — 
£Se<-j> £S9 *0n the arrival*" of Cornbury. tlie province was divided 
tv trfr':Hx between two violent factions, the friends and the enemies 
°* (Mi^'" of the late unfortunate Leisler ; and the new governor, by 
h. M«r espousing the cause of the latter, and by persecuting with 
unrelenting hate all denominations except that of the 
Church of England, soon rendered himself odious to the 
great mass tf the people. 
i-HbrteuJi '26. -He likewise embezzled the public money. — con- 
tracted debts which he was unable to pay. — repeatedly 
dissolved the assembly for opposition to his wishes. — ivnd, 
by his pett}" tyranny, and dissolute habits, soon weakened 
his induenee with all pi\rties. w1k> repetUedly requested his 
A«MM?Aif ''^^^l- "Being deprived' of his otfice, his creditors threw 
nmamifim* him into the same prison where he had unjustly contined 
t tTts. iwaiiy worthier men. and where he remained a prisoner, 
for debt, until the death of his father, by elevating him to 
the peerage, entitletl him to his liberation. 
H .«.;>«»- 27. "As the history of the successive administrations of 
'^:s?rJZ^'* the govexnors of Xew York, from this period until the 
time of the French and Indian war. would jxjssess Uttle 



Taut II.] NEW YOllK. 233 

interest for the j:^onoral roailor, a few of the more import- 1<J'0§. 
nnt events only will be mentioned. 



ara- 
'or in- 



"28. 'Queen Anne's war havinif broken out in 1702, the /,„,^%j 
northern colonies, in 1709, made extensive preparations ''"f""? can- 

.-. , .1 1 11-.., 1 TVT 11 I 1 1 ada; enter- 

tor an attaek on Canada. W line the JNew hnijland oolo- prise aban 

, , ' . , dolled. 

nies were prepanng a naval armament to co-operate witii 
one expected from England, New York and New Jersey- 
raised a force of eighteen lumdred men to march against 
JMontreal by way of Lake Champlain. This force pro- 
ceeded as far as Wood Creek/- when, learning that the a Noto, p. sao. 
armament j)romised from England had been sent to Por- 
tugal, the expedition was abandoned. 

2!). *Soon after, the project was renewed, and a large 1711. 
fleet under the command of Sir Hovenden Walker being a- Thexecond 
sent from England to co-operate with the colonial forces, '^'"^ ' 
an expedition of tour thousand men from New York, New 
Jersey and Connecticut, commenced its march towards 
Canada. The ileet being sliattered*' by a storm, and re- iv .eiem. a, s. 
turning to England, the land expedition, after proceeding ""'i'" 
as far as Lake George,* was likewise compelled to return. 

;H). ^The debt incurred by New York in these expe- 3. The debt 
ditions, remained a heavy burden upon her resources for *"b?/7t^^ 
many years. *In 1713 the Tu.scaroras, having been de- 1713. 
feated in a war with the Carolinians, mi<irated to the * }fJfranon 
north, and joined the confederacy of the Five Nations, caronu. 
— afterwards known as the '* Six Nations." 

31. 'The treaty of Utrecht in 1713<^ put an end to s.Trcatyqf 
Queen Anne's war, and. if we except the brief interval ^''^^1'^- 
of King George's war,*^ relieved the English colonies, a. 1744-1748. 
during a period of forty years, from the depredations of 
the French and their Indian allies. "In 17'22 the govern- 11-22. 
ors of New York, Virginia, and Pennsylvania, met the « Meeting 

J . i> 1 T • . 11 f 1 ■ 1' held at Alba- 

deputies ot tlie Iroquois at Albany, tor tlie purpose 01 con- nym itss. 

firming treaties, and transacting other business. 'During 7. Anestab- 

the same year Governor Burnett established a trading- nmZ'^ 

liouse at Oswego.f on the southeastern shore of Lake On- Osir^yo. 
tario ; and in 1727 a fort was completed at the same 

place. 'The primary object of this frontier establishment ^Fm-what 

was to secure the favor of the Indians, by a direct trade "^^"^^ 
with them, which had before been engrossed by the 
French. 



* Lake Genrnf. calloil by the Fn>n(>h Lne Snernment, on account of the purity of its wators, 
and now fivquently ciilleii the llitricoii. lies mostly between Wn.shin^on and Warren Coun- 
ties, near the southern extremity of Lake Cliamplain, with which its outlet comnuinicates. It 
is a beautiful shwt of water, 230 feet above the Hudson, and .surrounded by UiRli hills ; it is 
thirty-three miles in length, and from two to three in width, and is intt^rspersed with numer- 
ous islands. Lake Oeorjte was loiij; conspicuous in the early wars of the country, and several 
memorable battles were fought on its borders. (Suo Map, p. 273.) 

1 (See page 276.) 

30 



234 COLONIAL HISTORY. [Book IL 

ANALYSIS 32. 'The French, at tliis time, had evidently formed 
~~T~ the scheme of contining the English to the territory east 
ftrrndbyoie of the Aileghaiiies, bv erecting a line of forts and traduig- 
houses on the western waters, and by securing the intiu- 
*^.?^~PiiC'? ot' the western tribes. 'With this view, in 1726 
they renewed the fortress at Niagara.* which gave them 
control over the commerce of Uie remote interior. Five 
1731. years later they established a garrison on the tastem 
shore oi Lake Champlain, but soon after removed it to 
Crown Point. f on the western shore. The latter defend- 
ed the usual route to Canada, and gave security to Mon- 
3.Po»s«s»»i»n» treal. 'With the exception of the English fortress at 
timFrmehiu Uswego. the r rencu had possession ot the entire country 
watered by the St. Lawrence and its tributaries, while 
their claims to Louisiana, on the west, embraced the 
whole valley of the Mississippi. 
A-Omiuim 33. *During the adnunistration of Governor Cosby, 
itetwmier who came out in 1732, the province was divided between 
^^" two violent parties, the liberal or democratic, and the aris- 
i. Pnjtecu:ion locratic party. °A journal of the popular pany having 
MitM- attacked the measures of the governor and council with 
*"'ger**°' some virulence, the editor* was thrown into prison,'* and 
b. Not 1734. prosecuted for a libel against the government. Great ex- 
1735. citement prevailed ; the editor was zealously defended by 
able counsel ; and an independent jury gave a verdict of 
c- July, acquittal.' 

r^^mtd ^^- 'The people applauded their conduct, and. to An- 
"ggj^ drew Hamilton of Philadelphia, one of the defenders of 
cMMiiMUH/' the accused, the magistrates of the city of New York pre- 
sented an elegant gold box, for his learned and generous 
defence of the rights of mankind and the liberty of the 
L2** **£ pr^^- ''This important trial shows the prevailing liberal 
rtgmriu. Sentiments of the people at that period, and may be re- 
garded as one of the early germs o( American freedom. 
1741. 35. *In 1741 a supposed negro plot occasioned great 

^«Vmi. excitement in the city of New York. There were then 
many slaves in the province, against whom suspicion was 
first directed by the robbery of a dwelling house, and by 
the frequent occurrence of fires evidently caused by de- 
sign. The magistrates of the city having otfered rewards, 



* This ?!»<.•* w»s in th« state c>f New York, on a point ot" land at the mooth of Niagan 
KiTer. As earlv as lo79 a French offii-tr. M. dt» Salle. iacIoseU a small spot here with palisatkis. 
The fortifications once inclosed a space of ei^t acres, and it was long the ^rrvate^ place simtii 
of Mcma«al and west of Albany. The Amorican ftiK Niagara now occupies the site of the oU 
Freneh fort. ^See Map, p. 4^-l."> 

t Omhi .Mai is a town in Ess«x Ootrntr, New York, on the western shore of LeJce Chaan 
plain. The fort, called by the French Fcrrt'fVt/t-Tc, and afterwards repaired and called OoMat 
Am/, was situated on a point of land projecting into the lake at the N-E. extivmity of the 
tewn, ninety -fi-w miles, in a direct Uae. N J^ ftvm Albany. Its site is now marked bv a heap 
of ruins. 



Part H.] NEW YORK- 235 

pardon, mid freedom, to any slave that would testily 1741. 

against incendiaries and conspirators, some abandoned . 

females wei^e induced to declare tliat the negroes liad 
combined to burn the city and make oue of their number 
governor. 

3(5. 'There was soon no want of witnesses ; the num- i Rtsfuii <if 
ber of the accused increased rapidly ; and even white »M««t. 
men were designated as concerned in the plot. Before 
the excitement was over more thiui thirty penjons were 
executed ; — several of these were burned at the stake ; 
and many were transported to foreign parts. 

37. 'VV'hen all apprehensions of danger had subsided, -^ umcthe 

1 1-1 • affair traa 

and men began to reflect upon the madness ot the project tf^arded 

itself, and the base character of most of the witnesses, the hensions 

reality of tlie plot began to be doubted ; and the people subfuud. 
looked back with horror upon tiie numerous and cruel 
punishments that had been inflicted. 

38. 'Boston and Salem have had their delusions of Jf^jf,^ 
witchcraft, and New York its Nesro Plot, in each of 'earn from 
which many innocent persons sutiered death. Ihese ceseifpubue 

,,,-,, \ . J. J. escitetneni. 

mourntul results show the necessity 01 exceeding cau- 
tion and calm investigation in times of great public ex- 
citement, lest terror or deluded enthusiasm get the pre- 
dominance of reason, and " make madmen of us all." 

39. *The subsequent history of New York, previous to 4 tm nibse- 

. .- 1 T-i " 1 1 T 1- (ftunt history 

the commencement ot the rrench and Indian war, con- (/>>tr vorft. 
tains few events of importance. In 1745, during King 1745. 
George's war, the savages in alliance with France made 
some incursions into the territory north of Albany, and a 
few villages were deserted*^ on their approach. The «. Nov. 
province made some preparations to join the eastern colo- 
nies in an expedition against Canada, but in 174S a treaty 1748. 
of peace was concluded'^' between the contending powers, b. oct is. 
and New York again enjoyed a short interval of repose, 
soon to be disturbed by a conflict more sanguinary than 
any which had preceded. A connected history of that 
contest, in which all the colonies acted in concert, is giv- 
en in the " French and Indian War."« e. seep-ssi 



236 



[Book U. 



ANALYSIS. 



Subject of 
Chapter VII 



1, In lohat 
New Jersey 
was at Jirst 

included. 



2. Early set- 
tlements. 



1664. 

3 Portion of 
the territory 

conveyed 

away by the 

Duke of 

York. 

a. July 3, i. 



4. Name 

given to this 

tract 

b. Note, p. 173. 

1665. 

5 The consti- 
tutionformed 
by the propri- 
etors. 

c. Feb. 20. 

6. The first 

governor, atid 

the capital of 

the province. 

d. Aug. 



7. The early 
settlers. 



8 Causes of 

the security 

which tliey 

enjoyed. 



CHAPTER VII. 

NEW JERSEY.* 

1. 'The territory embraced in the present state of 
New Jersey was included in the Dutch province of New 
Netherlands ; and the few events connected with its his- 
tory, previous to the conquest by the English in 1664, 
belong to that province. 'In 1623 Fort Nassau was built 
on the eastern bank of the Delaware, but was soon after 
deserted. Probably a few years before this the Dutch 
began to form settlements at Bergen, and other places 
west of the Hudson, in the vicinity of New York ; but 
the first colonizing of the province dates, more properly, 
from the settlement of Elizabethtown| in 1664. 

2. ^Soon after the grant of New Netherlands to the 
Duke of York, and previous to the surrender, the duke 
conveyed* that portion of the territory which is bounded 
on the east, south, and west, respectively, by the Hudson, 
the sea, and the Delaware, and north by the 41st degree 
and 40th minute of latitude, to Lord Berkeley and Sir 
George Carteret, who were already proprietors of Carolina. 
*This tract was called New Jersey, in compliment to Car- 
teret, who had been governor of the island of Jersey,;}: 
and had defended it for the kina: during the civil war.** 

3. ^To invite settlers to the country, the proprietors 
soon published'^ a liberal constitution for the colony, 
promising freedom from taxation, except by the act of 
the colonial assembly, and securing equal privileges, and 
liberty of conscience to all. 'In 1665 Philip Carteret, the 
first governor, arrived, <i and established himself at Eliza- 
bethtown, recently settled by emigrants from Long Island, 
and which became the first capital of the infant colony. 

4. ■'New York and New England furnished most of 
the early settlers, who were attracted by the salubrity of 
the climate, and the liberal institutions which the inhab- 
itants were to enjoy. 'Fearing little from the neighboring 
Indians, whose strength had been broken by long hostili- 



* NEW JERSEY, one of the Middle States, bordering on the Atlantic, and lying south of 
New York, and east of Pennsylvania and Delaware, contains an area of about 8(X)0 square 
miles. The northern part of the state is mountainous, the middle is diversified by hills and 
valleys, and is well adapted to grazing and to most kinds of grain, while the southern part is 
level and sandy, and, to a great extent, barren ; the natural growth of the soil being chiefly 
shrub oaks and yellow pines. 

t Elizabethtown is situated on Elizabethtown Creek, two and a half miles from its entrance 
into Staten Island Sound, and twelve miles S.W. from New York city. It was named from 
Lady Elizabeth Carteret, wife of Sir George Carteret. (See Map, p. 220, and p. 363.; 

» The island of Jersey is a strongly fortified island in the English Channel, seventeen miles 
from the French coast. It is twelve miles long, and has an average width of about five milea. 



Part II.] NEW JERSEY. 237 

ties with the Dutch, and guarded by the Five Nations and 1665. 

New York against the approaches of the French and their ■ 

savage allies, the colonists of New Jersey, enjoying a 
happy security, escaped the dangers and privations which 
had afflicted the inhabitants of most of the other provinces. 

5. 'After a few years of quiet, domestic disputes began i. Repose of 
to disturb the repose of the colony. The proprietors, by altiurbed. 
their constitution, had required the payment, after 167(<>, 1670. 
of a penny or half penny an acre for the use of land ; 

but when the day of payment arrived, the demand of the 
tribute met with general opposition. Those who had pur- 
chased land of the Indians refused to acknowledge the 
claims of the proprietors, asserting that a deed from the 
former was paramount to any other title. '^A weak and 2. Troubles 
dissolute son of Sir George Carteret was induced to assume* ' 1" 1670" 
the government, and after two years of disputes and con- 
fusion, the established authority was set at defiance by 
open insurrection, and the governor was compelled to re- 
turn'' to England. b 1672. 

6. 'In the following year, during a war with Holland, 1673. 
the Dutch regained'^ all their former possessions, including ^^^imiin 
New Jersey, but restored them to the English in 1674. the.Soiioiomg 
♦After this event, the Duke of York obtained<^ a second c. see p 228. 
charter, confirming the former grant ; and, in disregard ^rluStinga 
of the rights of Berkeley and Carteret, appointed' Andros "■^J/y^^^ 
governor over the whole re-united province. On the ap- d Julys, 
plication of Carteret, however, the duke consented to re- ^ •'"'^ n- 
store New Jersey ; but he afterwards endeavored'' to avoid ^ '^'^^■ 
the full performance of his engagement, by pretending 

that he had reserved certain rights of sovereignty over 
the country, which Andros seized every opportunity of as- 
serting. 

7. ^In 1674 Lord Berkeley sold*^ his share of New 1674. 
Jersey to John FenAvick, in trust for Edward Byllinge s Berkeley 
and his assignees. °In the following year Philip Carteret territory. 
returned to New Jersey, and resumed the government ; ^^ ^'^'^"^'^ ^■ 
but the arbitrary proceedings of Andros long continued to ■'■.^'^^•. 
disquiet the colony. Carteret, attempting to establish a lefwi^Tca^- 
direct trade between England and New Jersey, was ^^"'dnt ^"' 
warmly opposed by Andros, who claimed, for the duke 

his master, the right of rendering New Jersey tributary 
to New York, and even went so far as to arrest Governor 
Carteret and convey him prisoner to New York. 

8. 'Byllinge, having; become embarrassed in his for- 7 yts»<g-Mm«re{ 
tunes, made an assignment 01 his share m the provmce to $-c 
William Penn and two others, all Quakers, whose first 

care was to effect a division of the territory between 
themselves and Sir George Carteret, that they might es- 



238 COLONIAL HISTORY. [Book H. 

ANALYSIS, tablish a separate government in accordance with their 

1. Division peculiar religious principles. ^The division* was accom- 

"^vinc/"' plished* without difficulty ; Carteret receiving the eastern 

a July 11. portion of the province, which was called East Jersey ; 

and the assignees of Byllinge the western portion, which 

1677. they named West Jersey. ^The western proprietors then 

%n^'prom- E^^^^ the settlers a' free constitution, under the title of 

etors u Concessions," similar to that given by Berkeley and 

Carteret, granting all the important privileges of civil and 

religious liberty. 

3. Settlers in- 9. ^The authors of the *' Constitution" accompanied its 

colony ; with publication with a special recommendation of the province 

what result. ^^ ^^^ members of their own religious fraternity, and in 

1677 upwards of four hundred Quakers came over and 

A Subject of settled in West New Jersey. ^The settlers beins unex- 

taxatwnand ,, ,i i i a i i i i i 

sovereignty, pectedly Called upon by Andros to acknowledge the sov- 
ereignty of the Duke of York, and submit to taxation, 
they remonstrated earnestly with the duke, and the ques- 
tion was finally referred to the eminent jurist, Sir Wil- 
liam Jones, for his decision. 

1680. 10. 'The result was a decision against the pretensions 
%?r%-ma'm, ^^ ^^ duke, who immediately relinquished all claims to 

Jones, and the territory and the government. Soon after, he made 

conduct of the ..,•', • P /. , ■ ^ /-, 

duke. a smiilar release m lavor ot the representatives oi Car- 
teret, in East Jersey, and the whole province thus be- 
came independent of foreign jurisdiction. 

1681. 11. ^In 1681 the governor of West Jersey convoked the 
i'ngsoffhe ^'"^^ representative assembly, which enacted'' several im- 

'^inwe.suer- po^'t3,nt laws for protecting property, punishing crimes, es- 
sey tablishing the rights of the people, and defining the powers 

TRemarka- ^^ rulers. 'The most remarkable feature in the new laws 

''m-Mwiaws ^^'^^ ^ provision, that in all criminal cases except treason, 
murder, and theft, the person aggrieved should have pow- 
er to pardon the offender. 

%.saieofEast 12. 8 After the death"* of Sir George Carteret, the trus- 

Jersey, and o ^ • rr- i i • • r> i • 

Barclay's ad- tees 01 his estates orlered his portion oi the province tor 

d.Dec 1679 salc ; and in 1682 William Penn and eleven others, mem- 

e. Feb. 11,12. bers of the Society of Friends, purchased* East Jersey, 

over which Robert Barclay, a Scotch gentleman, the au- 

f. July 27, thor of the " Apology for Quakers," was appointed^ gov- 

g Hefdiedin ^mor for life. During his brief administration^ the col- 

1690 ony received a large accession of emigrants, chiefly from 

Barclay's native county of Aberdeen, in Scotland. 

* According to the terms of the deed, the dividing line was to run from the most southerly 
point of the east side of Little Egg Harbor, to the N. Western extremity of New Jersey ; which 
was declared to be a point on the Delaware River in latitude 41° 40', which is 18' 23" farther 
uorth than the present N. Western extremity of the state. Several partial attempts were made, 
at different times, to run the line, and much controversy arose from the disputes which these 
attempts occasioned. 



Part U.] NEW JERSEY. 239 

13. 'On the accession of the Duke of York to the throne, 16§5. 

with the title of James 11., — disregarding his previous en- 

gagements, and having formed the design of annulling all mf^?eT^ 
the charters of the American colonies, he caused writs to Yorkwhtnhe 
be issued against both the Jerseys, and in 1688 the whole ''ecamekinc^. 
province was placed under the jurisdiction of Andros, 1"88. 
who had already" become the king's governor of New a. see p 197, 
York and New England. ""'*'' ^'■ 

14. -The revolution in England terminated the author- 1688-9. 
ity of Andros, and from June, 1689, to August, 1692, no ^j-^Z'^'/aTJ 
regular orovernment existed in New Jersey, and during revolution jn 
the following ten years the whole province remained in 

an unsettled condition. 'For a time New York attempted 3 Evtisthat 
to exert her authority over New Jersey, and at length the the. disputes 
disagreements between the various proprietors and their "prleiors' 
respective adherents occasioned so much confusion, that 
the people found it difficult to ascertain in whom the gov- 
ernment was legally vested. *At length the proprietors, i. Disposal oj 
finding that their conflicting claims tended only to disturb 'fheprc^l 
the peace of their territories, and lessen their profits as *"^*" 
owners of the soil, made a surrender*" of their powers of 
government to the crown; and in 1702 New Jersey be- 1702. 
came a royal province, and was united' to New York, ^ April 25. 
under the government of Lord Cornbury . '^' ^** '' ^^^' 

15. 'From this period until 1738 the province remained 5. Govern- 
under the governors of New York, but with a distinct ^^\ney. '" 
legislative assembly. "The administration'' of Lord Corn- e Lord Corn- 
bury, consisting of little more than a history of his conten- nMsiration. 
tions with the assemblies of the province, fully developed \'^^l~2zT' 
the partiality, frauds and tyranny of the governor, and 

served to awaken in the people a vigorous and vigilant 

siprit of liberty. 'The commission and instructions of ^ comtmi- 

t'lOTt ot Tssio 

Cornbury formed the constitution of New Jersey until the Jersey- 
period when it ceased to be a British province. 

16. *In 1728 the assembly petitioned the king to separate s. separation 
the province from New York ; but the petition was disre- "frmnNno^ 
gai-ded until 1738, when through the influence of Lewis 7'^^^a 
Morris, the application was granted, and Mr. Morris him- 
self received the first commission as royal governor over 

the separate province of New Jersey. 'After this period 9. subsequent 
we meet with no events of importance in the history of tiew jersey 
New Jersey until the Revolution. 



240 



[Book U. 



ANALYSIS. 



Subject of 
Chapter VUI. 



1609. 

). Maryland. 
a. June 2 
See p. 165. 

2. By lohom 
the country 

xoas explored. 
b. 1627, 8, 9. 

3. License to 
Clayborne. 



c. May 26. 



1632. 

4. Settlements 
formed by 

him 
d. March 18. 



5. Claims of 
Virginia. 



6. Her claims 
defeated. 



7. Lord Balti- 
more's colony 
in New- 
foundland. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

MARYLAND.* 

1. 'The second charter given" to the London Company 
embraced within the limits of Virginia all the territory 
which now forms the state of Maryland. ^The country 
near the head of the Chesapeake was early explored'' by 
the Virginians, and a profitable trade in furs was estab- 
lished with the Indians. 4n 1631 William Clayborne, a 
man of resolute and enterprising spirit, who had first been 
sent out as a surveyor, by the London Company, and who 
subsequently was appointed a member of the council, and 
secretary of the colony, obtained'^ a royal license to traffick 
with the Indians. 

2. ''Under this license, which Avas confirmed'' by a 
commission from the governor of Virginia, Clayborne per- 
fected several trading establishments which he had pre- 
viously formed ; one on the island of Kent,f nearly oppo- 
site Annapolis,:^ in the very heart of Maryland ; and one 
near the mouth of the Susquehanna. ^Clayborne had ob- 
tained a monopoly of the fur trade, and Virginia aimed at 
extending her jurisdiction over the large ti'act of unoccu- 
pied territory lying between her borders and those of the 
Dutch in New Netherlands. ^But before the settlements 
of Clayborne could be completed, and the claim of Virginia 
confirmed, a new province was formed within her limits, and 
a government established on a plan as extraordinary as 
its results were benevolent. 

3. ''As early as 1621, Sir George Calvert, whose title 
was Lord Baltimore, a Roman Catholic nobleman, influ- 
enced by a desire of opening in America a refuge for 



.\NN.\PnLIS. 



* MARYLAND, the most southern of the Middle States, is very irregular in its outline, and 
contains an area of about 11,000 square miles. The Chesapeake Bay runs nearly through the 
state from N. to S., dividing it into two parts, called the Eastern Shore and the Western Shore 
The land on the eastern shore is generally level and low, and, in many places, is covered with 
stagnant waters; yet the soil possesses considerable fertility. The country on the western 
shore, below the falls of the rivers, is similar to that on the eastern, but above the falls the 
country becomes gradually uneven and hilly, and in the western part of the state is moun- 
tainous. Iron ore is found in various parts of the state, and ex- 
tensive beds of coal between the mountains in the western part. 

t Kent, the largest island in Chesapeake Bay, lies opposite Annap- 
olis, near the eastern shore, and belongs to Queen Anne's County. 
It is nearly in the form of a triangle, and contains an area of about 
forty-five square miles. (See Map.) 

4 Annapolis., (formerly called Providence,) now the capital of 
Maryland, is situated on the S.W. side of the River Severn, two 
miles from its entraiK^e into Chesapeake Bay. It is twenty-five miles 
S. from Baltimore, and tliirty-three N.E. from Washington. The ori- 
ginal plan of the city was designed in the form of a circle, with 
tlu' State-house on an eminence in the centre, and the street.s, like 
s^^ radii, diverging from it. (See Map.) 




Part H. 



MARYLAND, 



241 



Catholics, who were then persecuted in England, had es- 1621. 

tablished* a Catholic colony in Newfoundland, and had 

freely expended his estate in advancing its interests, ^-^^^p-sse. 
^But the rugged soil, the unfavorable climate, and the fre- i wsbopesof 
quent annoyances from the hostile French, soon destroyed defeated. 
all hopes of a flourishing colony, ^He next visited" Vir- 2. his visit to 
ginia, in whose mild and fertile regions he hoped to find ^i^^^'^' 
for his followers a peaceful and quiet asylum. The Vir- 
ginians, hov/ever, received him with marked intolerance, 
and he soon found that, even here, he could not enjoy his 
religious opinions in peace. 

4. "'He next turned his attention to the unoccupied 
country beyond the Potomac ; and as the dissolution of 
the London Company had restored to the monarch his pre- 
rogative over the soil, Calvert, a favorite with the royal 
family, found no difficulty in obtaining a charter for do- 
mains in that happy clime. "The charter was probably 
drawn by the hand of Lord Baltimore himself, but as he died' 
before it received the royal seal, the same was made out to 
his s(>n Cecil. ^The territory thus granted,'' extending 5. £2;«j7;an<j 
north to the 40th degree, the latitude of Philadelphia, 
was now erected into a separate province, and in honor of 
Henrietta Maria, daughter of Henry IV. king of France, 
and wife of the English monarch, was named Maryland. 

5. "The charter granted to Lord Baltimore, unlike any e. provisions 
which had hitherto passed the royal seal, secured to the charur. 
emigrants equality in religious rights and civil freedom, 

and an independent share in the legislation of the prov- 
ince. 'The laws of the colony were to be established 7. how the 
A'ith the advice and approbation of a majority of the free- bfestatimed. 
men, or their deputies ; and although Christianity was 
made the law of the land, yet no preferences were given 
to any sect or party. 

6. ^Maryland was also most carefully removed from s Farther nb- 
all dependence upon the crown ; the proprietor was left ^omfpe^u 
free and uncontrolled in his appointments to office ; and it '^'^prlaor^^ 
was farther expressly stipulated, that no tax whatsoever 

should ever be imposed by the crown upon the inhabitants 
of the province. 

7. 'Under this liberal charter, Cecil Calvert, the son, : 
who had succeeded to the honors and fortunes of his fa- 
ther, found no difficulty in enlisting a sufficient number of 
emigrants to form a respectable colony ; nor was it long 
before gentlemen of birth and fortune were found ready 
to join in the enterprise. '"Lord Baltimore himself, having 
abandoned his original purpose of conducting the emi- 
grants in person, appointed his brother, Leonard Calvert, 

to ;ict as his lieutenant. ♦ 

31 



3. To the 

country 
beyond the 
Potomac. 

1632. 



4. The 

charter. 

c. April 25. 



na7ne of the 
territory 
granted. 

d. June 30. 



I. Favorable 

'.ginning of 

the enter- 

prise. 



1633. 

Leonard 
Calvert. 



10 



242 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[Book II. 



ANALYSIS. 

1. Departure 
of llie culii- 
nisls, and 
their recep- 
tion at Vir- 
ginia. 

a. Dec. 2. 

1634. 

b. March G. 



2. Calvert's 
interview 
icil/i the In- 
dians. 



3. The first 
settlemanc. 



c. April 6. 



4. The friend- 
ship of the 
Indians se 

cured- 
5. Happy 

situation of 
the colony. 



1G35. 

6. First legis- 
lative ojisem- 

hly. 
(3 March 8. 
e In tho re- 
bellion of 
1S45 See 
next page. 
7. Troubles 
caused hy 
Clai/borne. 



. May. 



8. 'In December, 1633, the latter, with about two 
Imndred emigrants, mostly Roman Catholics, sailed"^ for 
the Potomac, where tliey arrived^ in March of the follow- 
ing year. In obedience to the express command of the 
king, tiie emigrants were welcomed with courtes}'^ by 
Ilarvey, the governor of Virginia, although Virginia had 
remonstrated against the grant to .Lord Baltimore, as an 
invasion of her rights of trade with the Indians, and an 
encroachment on her territorial limits. 

9. ^Calvert, having proceeded about one hundred and 
fifty miles up the Potomac, found on its eastern bank the 
Indian village of Piscataway,* the chieftain of which 
would not bid him either go or stay, but told him "He 
might use his own discretion." 'Deeming it unsafe, 
however, to settle so high up the river, he descended the 
stream, entered the river now called St. Mary's,-]- and, 
about ten miles from its junction with the Potomac, pur- 
chased of the Indians a village, where he commenced'' a 
settlement, to which was given the name St. Mary's. 

10. 'The wise policy of Calvert, in paying the Indians 
for their lands, and in treating them with liberality and 
kindness, secured their confidence and friendship. ^The 
English obtained from the forests abundance of game, and 
as they had come into possession of lands already culti- 
vated, they looked forward with confidence to abundant 
harvests. No sulferings were endured, — no fears of want 
were excited, — and under the fostering care of its liberal 
proprietor the colony rapidly advanced in wealth and 
population. 

11. "Early in 1635 the first legislative assembly of the 
province was convened'' at St. Mary's, but as the records 
have been lost,' little is known of its proceedings. 'Not- 
withstanding the pleasant auspices under which the col- 
ony commenced, it did not long remain wholly exempt 
from intestine troubles. Clayborne had, from the first, 
refused to submit to the authority of Lord Baltimore, and, 
acquiring confidence in his increasing strength, he re- 
.solved to maintain liis possessions by force of arms. A 
bloody skirmish occurred"" on one of the rivers:}: of Mary- 
land, and several lives were lost, but Clayborne's men 
were defeated and taken prisoners. 



♦ This Indian village was fifteen miles S. from AVashington, on the east side of the Potomac, 
at the mouth of I'iscataway Creelc, opposite Mount Vernon, and near the site of the present 
I'ort \\'a.«hing;ti>n. 

t The St. Mary's Kivcr, called by Calvert S>. Gears:e''s River, enters the Potomac from the 
north, about lifteen miles from tho entrance of the latter into the Chesapeake. It a properly 
a small arm or estuary of the Chesapeake. 

X Note. — This sUirmish occurred cither on the River Wicomico, or the Focomoke, on the 
eastern shor^ot Maryland ; the former fifty-live miles, and the latter eighty miles S.E. from 
the Isle of l^t. 



Part n.] MARYLAND. 243 

12. 'Clayborne himself had previously fled to Virginia, I635, 
and, when reclaimed by Maryland, he was sent by the 



1638. 



ulaUona. 



governor of Virginia to England for trial. The Mary- in^fandl^r- 
land assembly declared* him guilty of treason, seized his 'llon%^^l^i. 
estates, and declared them forfeited. In England, Clay- a. March, 
borne applied to the i^ing to gain redress for his alleged 
wrongs ; but after a full hearing it was decided that the 
charter of Lord Baltimore was valid against the earlier 
license of Clayborne, and thus the claims of the proprie- 
tor were fully confirmed. 

13. ''At first the people of Maryland convened in gen- 1639. 
eral assembly for passinj^ laws, — each freeman beinsr en- 2 aoto the 

• 1 1 I • -. .r.^ 1 • n f 10,103 wereat 

titled to a vote ; but m 1039 the more convenient form of first enacted, 
a representative government was established, — the people change waa 
being allowed to send as many delegates to the general maaT''^ 
assembly as they should think proper. ^At the same time 3. other reg- 

1 n 111 /»» tiffttinvia 

a declaration of rights was adopted ; the powers of the 
proprietor were defined ; and all the liberties enjoyed by 
English subjects at home, were confirmed to the people 
of Maryland. 

14. *About the same time some petty hostilities were 4, Indian 
carried on against the Indians, which, in 1642, broke out 

into a general Indian war, that was not terminated until 

1644. 1644. 

15. 'Early in 1645 Clayborne returned to Maryland, 1645. 
and, having succeeded in creating a rebellion, compelled %usc'aused 
the governor to withdraw into Virginia for protection, ''^i^na.' 
"The vacant government was immediately seized by the 6. Tke^ov- 
insurgents, who distinguished the period of their domin- "thTimur- 
ion by disorder and misrule ; and notwithstanding the most ^*'*'*" 
vigorous exertions of the governor, the revolt was not 
suppressed until August of the following year. 1646. 

16. 'Although religious toleration had been declared, ''tofef^m' 
by the proprietor, one of the fundamental principles of 

the social union over which he presided, yet the assembly, 
in order to give the principle the sanction of their author- 
ity, proceeded to incorporate it in the laws of the pro- 1649. 
vince. It was enacted'' that no person, professing to be- b. May 1. 
lieve in Jesus Christ, should be molested in respect of 
his religion, or the free exercise thereof; and that any 
one, who should repi'oach his neighbor with opprobrious 
names of religious distinction, should pay a fine to the 
person insulted. 

17. ^Maryland was the first American state in which a. iiomrai- 
religious toleration was established by law. ^VVhile at Maryland. 
this very period the Puritans were persecuting their Pro- \„nbetvMn 
testant brethren in New England, and the Episcopalians Maryland 

f^ ' • f . and ot/ier 

were retorting the same severity on the Puritans in Vir- colonies. 



a. April 16. 



244 COLONIAL HISTORY. [Book IL 

ANALYSIS, ginia, there was forming, in Maryland, a sanctuary 
whore all might worship, and none might oppress ; and 
where even Protestants sought refuge from Protestant 
intolerance.* 

1650. 18. 4n 1650 an important law was passed,* confirm- 
1. Important ing the divisiou of the legislative body into two branches, 

law passed m o » •' ..„,' 

1650. an upper and a lower house ; the former consistmg ot the 
governor and council, appointed by the proprietor, and 
the latter of the burgesses or representatives, chosen by 
a. Rights of the people. °At the same session, the rights of Lord Bal- 
fnore.-taxa- timore, as proprietor, were admitted, but all taxes were 
prohibited unless they were levied with the consent of the 
freemen. 

1651. 19. *ln the mean time the parliament had established 
ferlniS^of ^^^ supremacy in England, and had appointed'' certain 
Fariiament commissioners, of whom Claybome was one, to reduce 

xolth the gov- , 1 1 • 1 1 • 11 /• 1 /-^i 

ernment. and govem the colonies bordering on the bay oi the Uhes- 

^. Events ^P^ake. *The commissioners appearing in Maryland, 

th^^iime'and ^^one, the lieutenant of Lord Baltimore, was at first re- 

the second re- moved'' from his office, but was soon after restored.'' In 

Stone 1654, upon the dissolution of the Long Parliament, from 

c. April 8. which the commissioners had received their authority, 

1 fiV/ Stone restored the full powers of the proprietor ; but the 

commissioners, then in Virginia, again entered the pro- 

vince, and compelled Stone to surrender his commission 

e. Aug. 1. and the government into their hands.' 

5. Protestant 20. 'Parties had now become identified with religious 
ascendency, gg^j^g^ 'pjjg Protestants, who had now the power in their 

own hands, acknowledging the authority of Cromwell, 
were hostile to monarchy and to an hereditary proprie- 
tor ; and while they contended earnestly for every civil 
liberty, they proceeded to disfranchise those who differed 
Oct.— Nov. from them in matters of religion. Catholics were ex- 
cluded from the assembly which was then called ; and 
an act of the assembly declared that Catholics were not 
entitled to the protection of the laws of Maryland. 
1655. 21. °In January of the following year, Stone, the lieu- 

6. Measurfts tenant of Lord Baltimore, reassumed his office of gover- 

taken by the . , /. i • i i_ 

lieutenant of nor, — organized an armed force, — and seized the pro- 

Lord Haiti' ' o ' ^ r 

nwre viucial records. 'Civil war followed. Several skirmishes 
"''^umald"" occurred between the contending parties, and at length a 

f. April 4. decisive battlef was fought,'' which resulted in the defeat 

of the Catholics, with the loss of about fifty men in killed 

* Note. — Bozman, in his History of Maryland, ii. 350 — 366, dwells at considerable lengfth 
npon these laws ; but he maintains that a majority of the members of the Assembly of 1649 
were Protestants. 

t Note. — The place where this battle was fought was on the south side of the small creek 
which forms the southern boundary of the peninsula on which Annapolis, the capital of Mary 
land, now stands. (See Map, p. 240.) 



Part II.] MARYLAND, 245 

cind wounded. Stone himself was taken prisoner, and 1655. 
four of the principal men of the province were executed. 



22. 'In 1656 Josiah Fendall was commissioned* gover- i. Farther 
nor by the proprietor, hut he was soon after arrested^' ^''hmv^'cm^' 
by the Protestant party. After a divided rule of nearly ^"^^Z^- 
two years, between the contending parties, Fendall was b. Aug. 
at length acknowledged' governor, and the proprietor was ig.^S 
restored to the full enjoyment of his rights. "Soon after c April 3. 
the death** of Cromwell, the Protector of England, the 'i pissoiution 
Assembly of Maryland, fearing a renewal of the dissen- iwtme. 
sions which had long distracted the province, and seeing '^- ^®p' '*''• 
no security but in asserting the power of the people, dis- 
solved the upper house, consisting of the governor and 1660. 
his council, and assumed' to itself the whole legislative e. March 24. 
power of the state. 

23. ^Fendall, having surrendered the trust which Lord Ig^^j^ ^gj^' 
Baltimore had confided to him, accepted from the assem- «*«"■ 
bly a new commission as governor. ''But on the restora- a. Events that 
tionf of monarchy in England, the proprietor was re-es- '"thf^relfom- 
tablished in his rights, — Philip Calvert was appointed go- '"'"^{hy'^' 
vernor, — and the ancient order of things was restored, f. June, leso. 
Tendall was tried for treason and found guilty ; but the 5. Pouncai 
proprietor wisely proclaimed a general pardon to polit- "ff^"^'"- 
ical ofTenders, and Maryland once more experienced the 
blessings of a mild government, and internal tranquillity. 

24. 'On the death^ of Lord Baltimore, in 1675, his son 1675. 
Charles, who inherited his father's reputation for virtue gf^j^^XsZ- 
and ability, succeeded him as proprietor. He confirmed unwre. 
the law which established an absolute political equality ^' 
among all denominations of Christians, — caused a diligent 
revision of the laws of the province to be made, and, in 
general, administered the government with great satisfac- 
tion to the people. 

25. 'At the time of the revolution in England, the re- 1689. 
pose of Maryland was again disturbed. The deputies of yof/of"/J'^' 
the proprietor having hesitated to proclaim the new sove- revoiunonjn 
reigns, and a rumor havmg gamed prevalence that the 
magistrates and the Catholics had formed a league with 

the Indians for the massacre of all the Protestants in the 
province, an armed association was formed for asserting sept. 
the right of King William, and for the defence of the 
Protestant faith. 

26. 'The Catholics at first endeavored to oppose, by a. The cath- 
force, the designs of the association ; but they at length 
surrendered the powers of government by capitulation. 

*A convention of the associates then assumed the govern- 9. changes a, 
Tnent, which they administered until 1691, when the ^'"'"■""""'' 
king, by an arbitrary enactment, '' deprived Lord Balti- h. June 11, 



246 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[Book IL 



ANALYSIS. 



1692. 

I. Adminis- 
tration qf 
Sir Lionel 
Copley. 



8. Remaining 
hixtury of 
Maryland 
previous to 
tlie revolu- 
tion. 

a 1715, 1716. 



more of his political rights as proprietor, and constituted 
Maryland a royal government. 

27. 'In tiie ibllowing year Sir Lionel Copley arrived 
as royal governor, — ^the principles of the proprietary ad- 
ministration were subverted, — religious toleration was 
abolished, — and th,e Church of England was established 
as the religion of the state, and was supported by taxation. 

28. =^After an interval of more than twenty years, the 
legal proprietor, in the person of the infant heir of Lord 
Baltimore, was restored" to his rights, and Maryland 
again became a proprietary government, under which it 
remained until the Revolution. Few events of interest 
mark its subsequent history, until, as an independent 
state, it adopted a constitution, when the claims of the 
proprietor to jurisdiction and property were finally re- 
jected. 



CHAPTER IX. 



Subject of 
Chapter IX. 

3. Early 

Swedish 

settlements 

inl'eitnuylva- 

nia. 

b. See p. 223. 



1681. 

4. Grant to 
William 
Penn. 
c. March 14. 
5. Considera- 
tion of this 
grant. 



PENNSYLVANIA.* 

1.' As early as 1G43 the Swedes, who had previously 
settled'* near Wilmington, in Delaware, erected a fort on 
the island of Tinicum, a few miles below Philadelphia ; 
and here the Swedish governor, Jolm Printz, established 
his residence. Settlements clustered along the western 
bank of the Delaware, and Pennsylvania was thus colo- 
nized by Swedes, nearly forty years before the grant of 
the territory to William Penn. 

2. ^In 1681, William Penn, son of Admiral Penn, a 
member of the society of Friends, obtained'^ of Cliarles 
IL a grant of all the lands embraced in the present state 
of Pennsylvania. ''This grant was given, as expressed 
in the charter, in consideration of the desire of Penn to 
enlarge the boundaries of the British empire, and reduce 
the natives, by just and gentle treatment, to the love of 
civil society and the Christian religion ; and, in addition, 
as a recompense for unrequited services rendered by his 
father to the British nation. 



* PENNSYLVANIA contains an area of about 46,0W (square miles. The central part of the 
gtate is eovereil by tlii' uiunoiou.s riclge.s of the AUeghanies, running N.K. and S.^V., l>ut on 
both sides of the mountains the oountrv is either level or moderately liill.v, and the soil is gen- 
erally e.xcellent. Iron ore is widely disseminated iu I'onnsylvania, and the coal regions are 
Tery e.xtensive. The bituminous, or soft eoal, is found in inexhaustible ([uantities west of the 
AUef^hanies, and antliracite, or hard eoal, on the east, particularly between the Rlue l!idj;t and 
the N. bnineh of the Susquehanna. The principal coal-field is sixty -five miles iu length witli 
an arerage breadth of about fire miles. 



Part II.] PENNSYLVANIA. 247 

3. 'The enlarged and liberal views of Penn, however, 16§1. 
embraced objects of even more extended benevolence than — — — — : 
those expressed in the royal charter. His noble aim was Penn,andnis 
to open, in the New World, an asylum where civil and 
religious liberty should bo enjoyed ; and where, under the 

benign influence of the principles of Peace, those of every 

sect, color, and clime, might dwell together in unity and 

love. ^As Pennsylvania included the i)rincipal settlements 2 pnciama- 

of the Swedes, Penn issued"' a proclamation to the inhab- '"^Ve'/iwf' *^ 

itants, in which he assured them of his ardent desire for a. April. 

their welfare, and promised that they should live a free 

people, and be governed by laws of their own making. 

4. 'Penn now published a flattering account of the 3 invitation 
province, and an invitation to purchasers, and during the an/fimlmi- 
same year three ships, with emigrants, mostly Quakers, K^Af^'^'j 
sailed'' for Pennsylvania. ''In the first came William o'ct. 
Markham, agent of the proprietor, and deputy-governor, tion^''ive.nt(t 
who was instructed to govern in iiarmony with law, — to •'Wcf/i^teffi. 
confer with the Indians respecting their lands, and to con- 
clude with them a league of peace. "In the same year 5. ?«««'» ut- 
Penn addressed'^ a letter to the natives, declaring himself "^^fi^es,'^' 
and them responsible to the same God, who had written c. oct. as. 
his law in the hearts of all, and assuring them of his 

" great love and regard for them," and his " resolution to 
live justly, peaceably, and friendly" with them. 

5. "Early in the following year Penn published'' a 1682. 
" frame of government," and a code of laws, which were e. Frame of 
to be submitted to the people of his province for their ap- ^°'^^^^^ • 
proval. 'He soon after obtained' from the duke of York J May 15. 
a release of all his claims to the territory of Pennsylvania, andl'raM 
and likewise a granf of the present state of Delaware, DuJcTo/Yorie. 
then called The Territories, or, " The Three Lower e. Aug. 31. 
Counties on the Delaware." ^In September Penn him- ^ ^^^^ f' 
self, with a large number of emigrants of his own religious visit to 
persuasion, sailed for America, and on the sixth of Novem- 
ber following landed at Newcastle. 

6. *0n the day after his arrival he received in public, 9. Events 
from the agent of the Dake of York, a surrender" of imvifdlialiy 
" The Territories ;" — made a kind address to the people, *"/,rivaL 
and renewed the commissions of the former magistrates, e Nov. 7. 
"In accordance with his directions a friendly correspond- 10 netatiom 
ence had been opened with the neighboring tribes of In- '^ilshedwu'ft 
dians, by the deputy-governor Markham ; they had as- 
sented to the form of a treaty, and they were now invited 
to a conference tor the purpose ol givmg it their ratinca- cmi/erenee 
tion. "At a spot which is now the site of Kensington,* '^' t^m'"^' 

* Kensington constitutes a suburb of PhVadelphia, in the N.E. part of the city, bordering 



the Indians. 
!1. Indian 



248 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[Book II. 



1. Penn's 

address to the 

Indians. 



ANALYSIS, one of the suburbs of Philadelphia, the Indian chiefs as- 
sembled at the head of their armed warriors ; and here 
they were met by William Penn, at the head of an un 
armed train of his religious associates, all clad in the 
simple Quaker garb, which the Indians long after vener- 
ated as the habiliments of peace. 

7. 'Taking his station beneath a spreading elm, Penn 
addressed the Indians through the medium of an interpre- 
ter. He told them that the Great Spirit knew with what 
sincerity he and his people desired to live in friendship 
with them. " We meet," such were his words, " on the 
broad pathway of good faith and good will ; no advan- 
tage shall be taken on either side ; disputes shall be set- 
tled by arbitrators mutually chosen ; and all shall be 
openness and love." ^Flaving paid the chiefs the stipu- 
lated price for their lands, he delivered to tliem a parch- 
ment record of the treaty, which he desired that they 
would carefully preserve, for the information of their pos- 
terity, for three generations. 

8. ^The children of the forest cordially acceded to the 
terms of friendship offered them, and pledged themselves 
to live in love with William Penn and his children, as 
long as the sun and moon should endure. ^The friend- 
ship thus created between the province and the Indians 
continued more than seventy years, and was never inter- 
rupted while the Quakers retained the control of the go- 
vernment. Of all the American colonies, the early his- 
tory of Pennsylvania alone is wholly exempt from scenes 
of savage warfare. The Quakers came without arms, 
and with no message but peace, and not a drop of their 
blood was ever shed by an Indian. 

9. ^A few months after Penn's arrival, he selected a 
place between the rivers Schuylkill* and Delaware, for 
the capital of his province, — purchased the land of the 

Swedes, who had already erected a 
church there, and having regulated 
the model of the future city by a map, 
named it Philadelphia,! or the city of 



S. Record of 
the treat!/. 



5. PromUes 
oft/ielndians. 



1. Happy 
effects of 
Penn's pol- 
icy. 



1683. 

5. Founding 
qf Philadel- 
phia. 



PHILADELPHIA AND VICINITY. 




on the Delaware ; and, though it has a separate gov- 
ernment of its own, it should be regarded as a part 
of the city. (See Map.) 

* The Schuylkill River, in the eastern part of Penn- 
sylvania, rises by three principal branches in Schuyl- 
kill County, and pursuing a S.E course, enters Del- 
aware River five miles below Philadelphia. Vessels 
of from 300 to 400 tons ascend it to the western 
wharves of Philadelphia. (See Map.) 

t Philaihlpltia City, now the second in size and 
population in the United States, is situated between 
the Delaware and the Schuylkill Rivers, five miles 
above their junction, and 120 miles, by the Delaware 
River, from the ocean. It is about eighty miles, in 



Part U.] PENNSYLVANIA. 249 

"Brotherly Love." 'The groves of chestnut, walnut, 16S4. 
and pine, which marked the site, were commemorated by 



the names given to the principal streets. ''At the end of ihes^u. 
a year the city numbered eighty dwellings, and at the 2- ^"^/^/'^ 
end of two years it contained a population of two thou- 
sand five hundred inhabitants. 

10. ^The second assembly of the province was held in ^^^|f°^ 
the infant city in March, 1683. The " frame of govern- 
ment," and the laws previously agreed upon, were 
amended at the suggestion of Penn ; and, in their place, 

a charter of liberties, signed by him, was adopted,^ which a. April 12. 
rendered Pennsylvania, nearly all but in name, a repre- 
sentative democracy. "While in the other colonies the 4 penn'i 
proprietors reserved to themselves the appointment of the \ht^^i^ 
judicial and executive officers, William Penn freely sur- 
rendered these powers to the people. His highest ambi- 
tion, so different from that of the founders of most colo- 
nies, was to do good to the people of his care ; and to his 
dying day he declared that if they needed any thing 
more to make them happier, he would readily grant it. 

11. 'In August, 1684, Penn sailed for England, having 1684. 
first appointed five commissioners of the provincial coun- ^^^nfafter 
cil, with Thomas Lloyd as president, to administer the ?««"'»';«- 
government durmg his absence. 'Little occurred to dis- lan^- 
turb the quiet of the province until 1691, when the 1691. 

" three lower counties on the Delaware," dissatisfied with « witMraw- 

1 • 1 J at of uela- 

some proceedings of a majority of the council, withdrew'' waTtfrmntm 
from the Union, and, with the reluctant consent of the b. April n. 
proprietor, a separate deputy-governor was then ap- 
pointed over them. 

12. 'In the mean time James II. had been driven from i.Ttnrcsim^ 
his throne, and William Penn was several times imprison- %n ^gianA. 
ed in England, in consequence of his supposed adherence 1692. 
to the cause of the fallen monarch. *In 1692 Penn's s. The gov- 
provincial government was taken from him, by a royal the province 
commission ■= to Governor Fletcher, of New York ; who, •^''Tesf * '" 
the following year, reunited'' Delaware to Pennsylvania, <= 0"=' ^^■ 
and extended the royal authority over both. Soon after, e. Aug. 30. 
the suspicions against Penn were removed, and in Au- 
gust, 1694, he was restored' to his proprietary rights. 9. Condition 

13. ^In the latter part of the year 1699 Penn again inceinma. 
visitedf his colony, but instead of the quiet and repose f(,°p^,j^, 
which he expected, he found the people dissatisfied, and ^"*.^*'°^'"' 
demanding still farther concessions and privileges. "He peopu. 
therefore presented^ them another charter, or frame of noi. 



a direct line, S.W. from New York, and 125 N.E. from Washington. The compact part of 
the city is now more than eight miles in circumference. (See Map, p. 248.) 

32 



250 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[Book II. 



ANALYSIS. 



a. Oct. 20. 



1702. 

1. Final sepa- 
ratum (jf Del- 
aioarefrom 
Peniuxjlva- 
nia- 



2. Penn's 
presence re- 
quired in 
England- 
b. Dec. 1701. 



1718. 

3. Death of 

Penn, and 

subsequent 

history ctf the 

colony. 



government, more liberal than the former, and conferring 
greater powers on the people ; but all his efforts could not 
remove the objections of the delegates of the lower coun- 
ties, who had already withdrawn" from the assembly, and 
who now refused to receive the charter continuing their 
union with Pennsylvania. 'In the following year the leg- 
islature of Pennsylvania was convened apart, and in 
1703 the two colonies agreed to the separation. They 
were never again united in legislation, although the same 
governor still continued to preside over both. 

14. "Immediately after the grant of the last charter, 
Penn returned'' to England, where his presence was ne- 
cessary to resist a project which the English ministers 
had formed, of abolishing all the proprietary governments 
in America. ^He died in England in 1718, leaving his 
interest in Pennsylvania and Delaware to his sons John, 
Thomas, and Richard Penn, who continued to adminis- 
ter the government, most of the time by deputies, until 
the American revolution, when the commonwealth pur- 
chased all their claims in the province for about 580,000 
dollars. 

(For a more full accotmt of the Quakers or Friends, see Appendix, p. 311 
to p. 319.) 



CHAPTER X. 



Subject of 
Chapter X. 

4. Early at- 
tempts to 

settle North 
Carolina. 

c. 1585, 6, 7. 
Seep 131. 

5. Grant to 
Sir Robert 

Heath. 

d. 1630. 

6. IVhy de- 
clared void. 

7. When and 

by whom 

Carolina tnas 

first explored 

and settled. 



NORTH CAROLINA.* 

1. ^The early attempts*^ of the English, under Sir 
Walter Raleigh, to form a settlement on the coast of North 
Carolina, have already been mentioned.' ^About forty 
years later, the king of England granted'^ to Sir Robert 
Heath a large tract of country lying between the 30th 
and 36th degrees of north latitude, which was erected in- 
to a province by the name of Carolina. °No settlements, 
however, were made under the grant, which, on that ac- 
count, was afterwards declared void. 

2. 'Between 1640 and 1650 exploring parties from 
Virginia penetrated into Carolina, and from the same 



* NORTH OAROMNA, one of the Southern States, lying next south of Virginia, contains 
an area of nearly 50,000 square miles. Along the whole coast is a narrow ridge of sand, sepa- 
rated from the mainland in some places hy narrow, and in other places hy hroad sounds and 
bays. The country for more than sixty miles from the coast is a low sandy plain, with many 
swamps and marshes, and inlets from the sea. The natural growth of this region is almost 
universally pitch pine. Ahore the fiills of the rivers the country becomes uneven, and the 
SOU more fertile. In the western part of the state is an elevated table land, and some high 
ranges of the AUeghanies. Black Mountain, the highest point in the United States east of the 
Rocky Mountains, is 6476 feet high. The gold region of North Carolina hes on both sides of 
the Blue Ridge, in the S. Western part of the state. 



Part II.] 



NORTH CAROLINA. 



251 



source came the first emigrants, who soon after settled* 
near the mouth of the Chowan,* on the northern shore of 
Albemarle Sound. 'In 1663 the province of Carolina 
was granted'' to Lord Clarendon and seven others, and in 
the same year a government under William Drummond 
was established over the little settlement on the Chowan, 
which, in honor of the Duke of Albemarle, one of the 
proprietors, was called the Albemarle County Colony. 

3. 'Two years later, the proprietors having learned that 
the settlement was not within the limits of their cliarter, 
the grant was extended,' so as to embrace the half of 
Florida on the south, and, on the north, all within the 
present limits of North Carolina, and westward to the 
Pacific Ocean. ^The charter secured religious freedom 
to the people, and a voice in the legislation of the colony ; 
but granted to the corporation of eight, an extent of pow- 
ers and privileges, that made it evident that the formation 
of an empire was contemplated. 

4. ■'During the same year that the grant to Clarendon 
was extended, another colony was firmly established 
within the present limits of North Carolina. In 1660 or 
1661, a band of adventurers from New England entered 
Cape Fear River,-]- purchased a tract of land from the 
Indians, and, a few miles below Wilmington,:}; on Old 
Town Creek,§ formed a settlement. The colony did not 
prosper. The Indians became hostile, and before the au- 
tumn of 1665, the settlement was abandoned. Two years 
later a number of planters from Barbadoes|| formed a per- 
manent settlement near the neglected site of the New 
England colony, and a county named Clarendon was es- 
tablished, with the same constitution and powers that had 

been granted to Albemarle. ^Sir John Yeamans, the s. Governor. 
choice of the people, ruled the colony with prudence and 
affection. 



1650. 



a. The par- 
ticular year 
is not known. 

1. When and 
to mhnm the 
second grant 

was made, 

and what 

government 

was estab- 

lialied. 

b. April 3. 

1665. 

2. Extension 
given to the 

grant. 

c. July 10. 

3. Rights and 
powers secu- 
red by the 

charter. 



4. Establish- 

ment of the 

Clarendon 

colony. 



1665. 



* The Chowan River, formed by the union of Nottaway, Meherrin, and Blackwater Rivers, 
which rise and run chiefly in Virginia, flows into Albermarle Sound, a little north of the mouth 
of the Roanoke. The first settlements were on the N.E. side of the Chowan, near the present 
Tillage of Edenton. 

t Cape Fenr River, in North Carolina, is formed by the union vie. of Wilmington, n. c. 
of Haw and Deep Rivers, about 125 miles N.W. from Wilmington. 
It enters the Atlantic by two channels, one on each side of Smith's 
Island, twenty and twenty-five miles below Wilmington. (See the 
Map.) 

X Wilmington, the principal seaport in North Carolina, is situ- 
ated on the east side of Cape Fear River, twenty-five miles from 
the ocean, by way of Cape Fear, and 150 miles N.E. from Charles- 
ton. (See Map.) 

§ Old Town Creek is a small stream that enters Cape Fear River 
from the W. eight miles below Wilmington. (Map.) 

II Barhadoes is one of the Caribbce or Windward Islands, and 
the most eastern of the West Indies. It is twenty miles long, and 
contains an area of about 150 square miles. The island was grant- 
td by James I. to the Earl of Marlborough in 1624. 




253 COLONIAL HISTORY. [Book H. 

ANALYSIS. 5. 'As the proprietors of Carolina anticipated the rapid 

1. Anrienui- gfowth of a great and powerful people within the limits 

^j'-^'^"/;^ of their extensive and fertile territory, they thought proper 

proprietors (^^ establish a permanent form of government, coinmensu- 

rate. in dignity, with the vastness of their expectations. 

2 Fmnters of "The task oi framing the constitution was assigned to the 

um Earl of Shat\esbury, one of the number, who chose the 

celebrated philosopher, John Locke, as his friend and ad- 

viser in the work oi legislation. 
%.(»jeetQf 6. 'The object of the proprietors, as expressed" bv 

the propne- . , •> ^ , • , f ,>/-.,■" 

tors themselves, was " to make the government ot L/arolma 

tionnSlned '^gree, as nearly as possible, to the monarchy of which it 

Mareii 11. ^y^ig (^ p.jj.( . j^uj (^^ avoid erecting a numerous democ- 

tiJwIt^/S^ racy." <A constitution of one hundred and twenty arti- 

timmiapted. eles, called the '* Fundamental Constitutions," was adopted, 

establishing a government to be administered bv lords 

and noblenien ; connecting political power with heredi- 

tarv wealth ; and plaeinsj nearlv everv office in the so- 

vernment beyond tlie reach of the people. 

1670. 7. "The attempt to establish the new form of govern- 
'wmdpf'/i'" •"<'"t proved ineffectual. The former plain and simple 

'^lid'tlu* laws were suited to the circumstances of the people, and 
retuu. the magnificent model of government, with its appenda- 
ges of royalty, contrasted too ludicrously with the sparse 
population, and rude cabins of Carolina. AtWr a con- 
test of little more than twenty years, the constitution, 
which was never in effectual operation, aiid which had 

b. 16S3. proved to be a source of perpetual discord, was abrogated*" 

by the proprietors themselves. 

1671. 8. *The Clarendon county colony had never been 
MowaiSai ^^'"^ ""•"^'"'^us, and the barrenness of the soil in its vi- 
rtua-Mand cinitv Offered little promise of rewaixl to new adventu- 

finalUjdffeat- ' i ■,■,-.-. cy t t i- , 

(dthe^ttif- rers. In lb«l 6ir John leamans, the governor, was 
endon.' transferred' from the colony to the charge of another 

c. Dec. which had recently been established* in St^uth Carolina. 

"* ^ Numerous removals to the southward greatly reduced 
the numbers of the inhabitants, and nearly the whole 
country en\braced within the limits of the Clarendon col- 
ony was a second time surrendered to the aborigines be- 
fore the year 1690. 
j.jMmtmiota 0. 'Domestic dissensions long retarded the prosperity 
Mortoeotony. of the Albemarle, or northern colony. Disorder arose 
from the attempts of the governors to administer the go- 
vernment according to the constitution oi the proprietors ; 
1676. excessive taxation, and restrictions upon the commerce of 
the colony, oce;xsioned much discontent ; while numerous 
refugees from Virginia, the actors in Bacon's rebellion, 
frieJids of popular liberty, being kindly sheltered in 



Part II.] NORTH CAROLINA. 253 

Carolina, gave encouragement to the people to resist op- leTT, 
pression. — 

10. 'The very year* after the suppression of Bacon's iRevojtin 
rebellion in Virginia, a revolt occurred in Carolina, occa- ^"r"''"" 

' . a. 1677. Dec 

sioned by an attempt to entorce tlio revenue laws agamst 
a vessel from New England. Tiie people took arms in 
support of a snmggler, and imprisoned the president of 
the colony and six members of liis council. John Cul- 
pepper, who had recently fled from South Carolina, was 
the leader in the insurrection. "During several years, 2. Tranqunii- 
oilicers chosen by the people administered the govern- '^ restored. 
ment, and tranquillity was for a time restored. The in- 
habitants were restless and turbulent under a government 
imposed on them from abroad, but firm and tranquil when 
lefi to take care of themselves. 

11. ^In 1(563 Seth Sothcl, one of the proprietors, ar- 1683. 
rived as governor of the province. Being exceedingly 3. sooieigw- 
avaricious, he not only plundered the colonists, but cheat- charmer. 
ed his proprietary associates. He valued his office only 

as the means of gaining wealth, and in the pursuit of his 

favorite object, whether as judge, or executive, he was 

ever open to bribery and corruption. ''An historian of 4. \vhatisTe- 

North Carolina remarks, that " the dark shades of his '""««,. 

character were not relieved by a single ray of virtue." 

^The patience of the inhabitants being exhausted after 5 iiw arrest 

, ' . I. . . .^ 1 .1 • onii trial. 

nearly six years 01 oppression, they seized their governor 
with the design of sending him to England ; but, at his 1688. 
own request, he was tried by the assembly, which ban- 
ished him from the colony. 

12. *Ludwell, the next governor, redressed the frauds, 1689. 
public and private, which Sothel had committed, and re- %,^flgn"of' 
stored order to the colony. ''In 1695 Sir John Archdale, Ludweii. 
another of the proprietors, a man of much sagacity and ex- ^ A^%ai 
emplary conduct, arrived as governor of both the Caroli- ""A'^^'"'"^'"^/*'" 
nas. *In 1698 the first settlements were made on Pamlico s. First. tettie- 
or Tar* River. The Pamlico Indians in that vicinity "^amuco 
had been nearly destroyed, two years previous by a pes- ^''""■• 
tilential fever ; while another numerous tribe had been 
greatly reduced by the arms of a more powerful nation. 

13. 'The want of harmonv, which generally prevailed 9 increase of 

. -,' 1 1- , • I 1 , population. 

between tiie proprietors and the people, did not check the 

increa.sc of population. "In 1707 a company of French 10 Arrival of 

r» ^ 1,1 • 1 1 1 • -tr- ■ • emigrants. 

rrotestants, who had previously settled in Virginia, re- 
moved to Carolina. Two years later, they were followed 1709. 

* Tar Rlrer, in the eastern part of North Carolina, flows S.E., and enters Pamlico Souncl. 
It is the principal river next .south of the Roanoke. It expands into a wide e.ituary a short 
distance below the villajte of Washington, from which place to I'auilico Sound, a distance of 
forty miles, it ia called Famlico lliTcr. 



254 COLONIAL HISTORY. [Book TL 

ANALYSIS, by a hundred German families from the Rhine,* who 
" had been driven in poverty from their homes, by the de- 
1. Provisions vastations of war, and religious persecution. 'The propri- 
"^lUsranU" etors assigned to each family two hundred and fifty acres 
of land ; and generous contributions in England furnished 
them with provisions and implements of husbandry, suffi. 
cient for their immediate wants. 
2. Changes 14. '^A great change had fallen upon the numerous 
fallen upon Indian tribes on the sea-coast, since the time of Sir Walter 
tribes's'ince Raleigh's attempted settlements. One tribe, which could 
'g^f. 'i^i"{r then bring three thousand bowmen into the field, was now 
FMieigh. reduced to fifteen men; another had entirely disappeared ; 
and, of the whole, but a remnant remained. After hav- 
ing sold most of their lands, their reservations had been 
encroached upon ; — strong drink had degraded the Indians, 
and crafty traders had impoverished them ; and they had 
passed away before the march of civilization, like snow 
beneath a vertical sun. 

3. Tuscaroras 15. ^The Tuscaroras and the Corees, being farther in- 
'^Coree!'. land, had held little intercourse with the whites ; but they 

had observed, with jealousy and fear, their growing pow- 
er, and the rapid advance of their settlements, and with 
Indian secrecy they now plotted the extermination of the 
1711. strangers. *A surveyor, who was found upon their lands 

4. Commence- \v{i\i ]ils chain and compass, was the first victim. » Leav- 

mentofhos- . . , ' , ... 

mines, ing their fire-arms, to avoid suspicion, in small parties, 
a. Sept. acting in concert, they approached the scattered settle- 
ments along Roanokef River and Pamlico Sound ; and in 
b. Oct. 2. o'i6 night, '^' one hundred and thirty persons fell by the 
hatchet. 

5. Services of 16. ^Colonel Barnwell, with a considerable body of 
roSiagairist friendly Cherokees, Creeks, and Catawbas, was sent from 
the Indians, g^^j^ Carolina to the relief of the settlers, and having 

defeated the enemy in different actions, he pursued them 

to their fortified town,:j: which capitulated, and the Indians 

6 Farther Were allowed to escape. "But in a few days tlie treaty 

''^^thefiid of'^ ^^'^^ broken on both sides, and the Indians renewed hostil- 

theioar. ities. At length Colonel Moore, of South Carolina, ar- 

c Dec. rived,' with forty white men and eight hundred friendly 

1713. Indians ; and in 1713 the Tuscaroras were besieged in 

d Aprils, their fort,§ and eight hundred taken prisoners. "^ At last 

* The Rliine, one of the most important rivers in Europe, rises in Switzerland, passes 
through Lake Constance, and after flomng N. and N.W. through Germany, it turns to the 
■west, and, through several channels, enters the North Sea or German Ocean, between Holland 
and Belgium. 

t Roanoke River, formed by the junction of Staunton and Dan Rivers, near the south 
boundary of Virginia, flows S.E. through the northeastern part of North Carolina, and enters 
the head of Albemarle Sound. 

t This place was near the River Neuse, a sliort distance above Edenton, in Craven County. 

\ This place was in Greene County, on Cotentnea (or Cotechney) Creels, a short distance 
nbove its entrance into the River Neuse 



Part II.] SOUTH CAROLINA. 



255 



the hostile part of the tribe migrated north, and, joining 1713. 

their kindred in New York, became the sixth nation of 

the Iroquois confederacy. In 1715 peace was concluded^ 1715 
with the Corees. a. Feb. 

17. 'In 1729, the two Carolinas, which had hitherto 1729. 
been under the superintendence of the same board of i Events that 

/■ 11 , 1 V 1 1 occurred in 

proprietors, were linally sepai'ated j'' and royal govern- 1729. 
ments, entirely unconnected, were established'= over them. ''■ •'"'^■ 
'From this time, until the period immediately preceding 2 condition 
the Revolution, few events occurred to disturb the peace "fhim^hcar- 
and increasing prosperity of North Carolina. In 1744 "'"'". -^^"V^,, 
public attention was turned to the defence ol the sea-coast, therevoiu- 
on account of the commencement of hostilities between 
England and Spain. About the time of the commence- 
ment of the French and Indian war, the colony received 
large accessions to its numbers, by emigrants from Ireland 1754, 
and Scotland, and thus the settlements were extended into 
the interior, where the soil was far more fertile than the 
lands previously occupied. 



CHAPTER XI. 

SOUTH CAROLINA.* subject of 

Chapter XL 

1. ^The charter granted to Lord Clarendon and others, 3. charter to 
in 1663, embraced, as has been stated, "^ a large extent of j^g^g^p'^^i. 
territory, reaching from Virginia to Florida. ^After the , n^r, 
establishment of a colony in the northern part of their 4 2-;,^ j,iant- 
province, the proprietors, early in 1670, fitted out several '"^olomffn^^ 
ships, with emigrants, for planting a southern colony, un- ^""/j^^""' 
der the direction of William Sayle, who had previously 
explored the coast. The ships which bore the emigrants 
entered the harbor of Port Royal, near Beaufort, f whence, 
after a short delay, they sailed into Ashley:}: River, on the 

' SOUTH CAROLINA, one of the Southern States, contains an area of nearly 33,000 square 
>niles. The sea-coast is bordered with a chain of fertile islands. The Low Country, extending 
from eighty to 100 miles from the coast, is covered with forests of pitch pine, called pine bar- 
rens, intersper.-ed with marshes and swamps, which form excellent rice plantations. Beyond 
this, extending fifty or sixty miles in width, is the Middle Covntry, composed of numerous 
ridges of sand liills, presenting an appearance which has been compared to the waves of the 
sea suddenly arrested in their course. Beyond these sand hills commences the Ujrpcr Country, 
which is a beautiful and healthy, and generally fertile region, about 800 feet above the level of 
the sea. The Blue liidge, a branch of the AUeghanies, passes along the N 'Western boundary 
of the state. 

t Brnufort, in South Carolina, is situated on Port Royal Island, on the ^V. b.nnk of Port 
Royal Kiver, a n.arrow branch of the ocean. It is sixteen miles from the sea, and about thirty- 
six miles, in a direct line, N.t. from Savannah, (See Map, p. 129.) 

t Ashley River ri.ies about thirty miles N.W. from Charleston, and, passing along the wea^ 
side of the city, enters Charleston Harbor seven miles from the ocean. (See Map, next pag«.) 



256 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[Book II. 



ANALYSIS. 



1671. 

1. Events that 

occurred in 

1671. 



a. Dec. 

2. The colon]/ 

tuppiied Willi 

laborers. 



S. The gov- 
ernment of 
the colony. 

b. 1761—2. 

4. Circum- 
stances that 
favored the 
settlement 
and groiBth 
of South 
Carolina. 



e. 1671. 



d. 1679. 

S. Settlement 
and progress 
of Char lesion. 



1680. 



south side of which the settlement of Old Charleston was 
commenced. The colony, in honor of Sir George Carte- 
ret, one of the proprietors, was called the (Jarteret 
County Colony. 

2. 'Early in 1671 Governor Sayle sunk under the dis- 
eases of a sickly climate, and the council appointed Joseph 
West to succeed him, until they should learn the will of 
the proprietors. In a few months. Sir John Yeamans, 
then governor of Clarendon, was appointed* governor of 
the southern colony. '■'From Barbadoes he brought a 
number of African slaves, and South Carolina was, from 
the first, essentially, a planting state, with .slave labor. 
^Representative government was early established'' by the 
people, but the attempt to carry out the plan of govern- 
ment formed by the proprietors proved ineffectual. 

3. ^Several circumstances contributed to promote the 
early settlement of South Carolina. A long and bloody 
war between two neighboring Indian tribes, and a fatal 
epidemic which had recently prevailed, had opened the 
way for the more peaceful occupation of the country by 
the English. The recent conquest of New Netherlands 
induced many of the Dutch to emigrate, and several ship 
loads of them were conveyed'^ to Carolina, by the proprie- 
tors, free of'expense. Lands were assigned them west of 
the Ashley River, where they formed a settlement, which 
was called Jamestown. The inhabitants soon spread 
themselves through the country, and in process of time 
the town was deserted. Their prosperity induced many 
of their countrymen from Holland to follow them. A few 
years later a company of French Protestants, refugees from 
their own country, were sent"* over by the king of England. 

4. ^The pleasant location of " Oyster Point," between 
the rivers Ashley and Cooper,* had early attracted the at- 
tention of the settlers, and had gained a few inhabitants ; 
and in 1680 the foundation of a new town was laid there, 
which was called Charleston. f It was immediately de- 

* Cooper River rises about thirty-five miles N.E. 
from Charleston, and passing along the east side of the 
city, unites with Ashley River, to form Charleston 
Harbor. Wando River, a short but broad stream, en- 
ters the Cooper from the east, four miles above the 
city. (See Map.) 

t Charleston, a city and seaport of S. Carolina, is 
situated on a peninsula formed by the union of Ashley 
and Cooper Rivers, seven miles from the ocean. It is 
only about seven feet above high tide ; and parts of 
the city have been overflowed when the wind and tide 
have combined to raise the waters. The harbor, be- 
low the city, is about two miles in mdth, and seven in 
length, across the mouth of which is a sand bar, having 
four passages, the deepest of which, near SulUvan'a 
Island, has seventeen feet of water, at high tide. Dur- 
ing the summer months the city is more healthy than 
the surrounding country. 



VICINITY OF CHABIESTON. 




Part II.] SOUTH CAROLINA. 257 

clared the capital of the province, and duiing the first 16§0. 

year thirty dwellings were erected. 'In the same year — 

the colony was involved in difficulties with the Indians. wmtf>e''in- 
Straggling parties of the Westoes began to plunder the '^i^,!Zinatfo" 
plantations, and several Indians were shot by the planters. 
War immediately broke out ; a price was fixed on In- 
dian prisoners ; and many of them were sent to the West 
Indies, and sold for slaves. The following year" peace was a. lesi. 
concluded, and commissioners were appointed to decide 
all complaints between the contending parties. 

5. "In 1684 a few families of Scotch emigrants settled 1684. 
at Port Royal ; but two years later, tlie Spaniards of St. po^c^'Jyai. 
Augustine, claiming the territory, invaded the settlement, 1686. 
and laid it waste. ^About this time the revocation'^ of the 3. Removal qf 
edict of Nantes* induced a large number of French Pro- America. 
testants, generally called Huguenots, to leave their coun- Ijisss. 
try and seeli an asylum ni America. A few settled in 

New England ; others in New York ; but South Carolina 
became their chief resort. ■'Althou";h they had been in- i- now my 
duced, by the proprietors, to believe that the full rights of regarded, mi 
citizenship would be extended to them here, yet they tyihe Eng- 
were long viewed with jealousy and distrust by the Eng- 
lish settlers, who were desii'ous of driving them from the 
country, by enforcing against them the laws of England 
respecting aliens. 

6. "^The administration'' of Governor Colleton was sig- s. Events t/tat 

,. , , . , . « ,. • 1 ii 1 occurred du- 

nalized by a contmued series ot disputes with the people, ring gov. 
who, like the settlers in North Carolina, refused to sub- adminiifra- 
mit to the form of government established by the proprie- ^ le'J^^'ugo 
tors. An attempt of the governor to collect the rents 
claimed by the proprietors, finally drove the people to open 
rebellion. They forcibly took possession of the public rec- 
ords, held assemblies in opposition to the governor, and the 
autliority of the proprietors, and imprisoned the secretary of 
the province. At length Colleton, pretending danger from 
Indians or Spaniards, called out the militia, and pro- 
claimed the province under martial law. This only ex- 
asperated the people the more, and Colleton was finally 
impeached by the assembly, and banished from the pro- 
vince. 

7. "During these commotions, Seth Sothel, who had 1690. 
previously been banished"* from North Carolina, arrived ^j^^g^^a,*^ 
in the province, and assumed the government, with the d. see p. 253. 



* Nantes is a large commercial city in the west of France, on the N. side of the River Loire, 
thirty miles from its mouth. It was in this place that Henry IV. promulgated the famous 
edict in 1598, in favor of tlie Protestant.";, granting them the free exercise of their religion. In 
168.5 this edict was revoked by Louis XIV'. ; — a violent persecution of the Protestants followedi 
and thousands of them fled from the kingdom. 

00 



258 COLONIAL HISTORY. [Book II 

ANALYSIS, consent of the people. But his avarice led him to tram- 
pie upon every restraint of justice and equity ; and after 
two years of tyranny and misrule, ho likewise was de- 
1. Ludxpeivs posed and banished by the people. 'Philip Ludwell, for 
'^'^"tion""'' some time governor of North Carolina, was then sent to the 
1692. southern province, to re-establish the authority of the pro- 
prietors. But the old disputes revived, and after a brief, 
but turbulent administration, he gladly withdrew into 
Virginia. 
1G93. 8. ^In 1693, one cause of discontent with the people 
8- ^['(f^" *" was removed by the proprietors ; who abolished the " Fun- 
damental Constitution," and returned to a more simple 
3. Arch- and more republican form of government. 'But conten- 
ministmtim. tions and disputes still continuing, John Archdale, who 
was a Quaker, and proprietor, came over in 1695 ; and 
by a wise and equitable administration, did much to allay 
private animosities, and remove the causes of civil dis- 
4. French cord. ^Matters of general moment were settled to the 
refuses, gfifigfaction of all, excepting the French refugees ; and 
such was the antipathy of the English settlers against 
these peaceable, but unfortunate people, that Governor 
Archdale found it necessary to exclude the latter from all 
concern in the legislature. 

1696. 9. fortunately for the peace of the colony, soon after 
^'ifmofiTe ^'^^ return of Archdale, all difficulties with the Huguenots 

difflc'uuies wei'e amicably settled. Their quiet and inoffensive beha- 
vior, and their zeal for the success of the colony, had 
gradually removed the national antipathies ; and the gen- 

1697. eral assembly at length admitted'' them to all the rights 
a. March, of citizens and freemen. The French and English Pro- 
testants of Carolina have ever since lived together in har- 

170'3. mony and peace. "In 1702,'immediately after the decla- 
6. warOke ration*" of war, by England, against France and Spain. 
^pShr/tfie. Governor Moore proposed to the assembly of Carolina an 
governor m g^pedition against the Spanish settlement of St. Augus- 
b May. imc, in Florida. 'Tiie more considerate opposed the pro- 
°ve"'^''^ ject, but a majority being in favor of it, a sum of about 
nine thousand dollars was voted for the war, and 1200 
men were raised, of whom half were Indians. 
s. Expedition 10. ^ While Colonel Daniel marched again.st St. Augus- 
^ugTcin^'. tine by land, the governor proceeded with the main body 
by sea, and blocked up the harbor. The Spaniards, tak- 
ng with them all their most valuable cfTects, and a large 
supply of provisions, retired to their castle. As nothing 
could be efTected against it, for the want of heavy artil- 
lery, Daniel was despatched to Jamaica,* for cannon, mor- 

* Jamaica, one of the AVest India Islands, is "100 miles S. from Cuba, and 800 S J!, from St 
Augustine. It is of an oval form, and is about 150 miles long. 



Part II.] SOUTH CAROLINA. ^59 

tars, &c. During his absence, two Spanisli ships appear. 1703. 

ed ofi' the harbor ; when Governor Moore, abandoning his 

ships, made a hasty retreat into Carolina. Colonel Dan- 
iel, on his return, standing in for the harbor, made a nar- 
row escape from the enemy. 

11. 'The hasty retreat of the governor was severely 1. cei/incMr- 
censured by the people of Carolina. This enterprise '^^def"ayld^° 
loaded the colony with a debt of more than 26,000 dollars, 

for the payment of which bills of credit were issued ; the 
first paper money used in Carolina. ^An expedition which 1703. 
was soon after undertaken* against the Apalachian In- %^'Apaia'^ 
dians, who were in alliance with the Spaniards, proved ciuana. 
more successful. The Indian towns between the rivers 
Altamaha* and Savannahf were laid in ashes ; several 
hundred Indians were taken prisoners ; and the whole 1704. 
province of Apalachia was obliged to submit to the Eng- 
lish government. 

12. ^The establishment of the Chui'ch of England, in 3. Establish- 
Carolina, had long been a favorite object with several of '"chlrchcf 
the proprietors, and during the administration of Sir Na- ^^siand. 
thaniel Johnson, who succeeded" Governor Moore, their b. 1704. 
designs were fully carried out ; and not only was the 
Episcopal form of worship established, as the religion of 

the province, but all dissenters were excluded from the 
colonial legislature. ''The dissenters then carried their 4. Decision of 
cause before the English parliament, which declared that ^"InthS"'^ 
the acts complained of were repugnant to the laws of »»«"«'■• 
England, and contrary to the charter of the proprietors. 
^Soon after, the colonial assembly of Carolina repealed' 1706. 
the laws which disfranchised a portion of the people ; but Jsf^anch^e- 
the Church of England remained the established religion nientre- 

/• 1 • -1 1 r. 1 • pealed. 

01 the provmce until the Kevolution. c. Nov. 

13. Trom these domestic troubles, a thrccitened inva- e. Threatened 
sion of the province turned the attention of the people *""°*"^"- 
towards their common defence against foreign enemies. 
'Queen Anne's war still continued ; and Spain, consider- ''■^fg^an''^ 
ing Carolina as a part of Florida, determined to assert her '«'*• 
right by force of arms. ^In 1706, a French and Spanish s. Events 
squadron from Havanna appeared before Charleston ; but redin i706. 
the inhabitants, headed by the governor and Colonel Rhett, 
assembled in great numbers for the defence of the city. 



* The Altamaha, a large and navigable river of Georgia, is formed by the wnion of the Oconee 
and the Ocmuls».>, after which it flows S.E., upwards of 100 miles, and enters the Atlantic by 
several outlets, sixty miles S.W. from Savannah. Milledgeville, the capital of the state, is on 
the Oconee, the northern branch. (See Map, 2(11.) 

t 'I'he Sa.vnnn.ah Kiver has its head branches in N. Carolina, and, running a S. Eastern 
cour.ie, forms the boundary between S. Carolina and Georgia. The largest vessels pass up the 
river fourteen miles, and steamboats to Augusta, 120 miles, in a direct line, from the mouth of 
the river, and more than 300 by the river's course. 



260 COLONIAL HISTORY. [Book IL 

ANALYSIS. The enemy landed in several places, but were repulsed 
with loss. One of the French ships was taken, and the 
invasion, at first so alarming, was repelled with little loss, 
and little expense to the colony. 
171.5. 14. 4n 1715 a general Indian war broke out, headed 



e> 



■^oAms"'"^ by the Yamassees, and involving all the Indian tribes from 
Cape Fear River to the Alabama. The Yamassees had 
previously shown great friendship to the English ; and 
the war commenced* before the latter were aware of their 

a. April 26. danger. The frontier settlements were desolated; Port 
Royal was abandoned ; Charleston itself was in dan- 

2. Services ger ; and the colony seemed near its ruin. ^But Gov- 
ven.akd'ciose ernor Craven, with nearly the entire force of the colony, 

of the war. advanced against the enemy, drove their straggling parties 
before him, and on the banks of the Salkehatchie* encoun- 
b.May. tered*" their main body in camp, and after a bloody battle 
gained a complete victory. At length the Yamassees, be- 
ing driven from their territory, retired to Florida, where 
they were kindly received by the Spaniards. 

3 Domestic 15. ^The War with the Yamassees was followed, in 

revolution 1719 {^y ^ domestic revolution in Carolina. *As the pro- 

4. Causes of , ^ J . /.ii,- Ji 

d.i3content. pnetors refused to pay any portion oi the debt incurred by 
the war, and likewise enforced their land claims with se- 
verity, the colonists began to look towards the crown for 

5. Remit of assistance and protection. ^After much controversy and 
^'^%lr%^°' difficulty with the proprietors, the assembly and the people 

openly rebelled against their authority, and in the name 

c. Dec. of the king proclaimed'^ James Moore governor of the 
1720. province. The agent of Carolina obtained, in England, a 

hearing from the lords of the regency, who decided that 
the proprietors had forfeited their charter. 
s. Nicholson. 16. "While measures were taken for its abrogation, 
Francis Nicholson, who had previously exercised the of- 
fice of governor in New York, in Maryland, in Virginia, 

d. Sept. and in Nova Scotia, now received'' a royal commission as 

e. 1721. governor of Carolina ; and, early in the following year,« 

7. Arrange- arrived in the province. ''The controversy with the pro- 
*rt?pr^Tfe-'' prietors was finally adjusted in 1729, when seven, out of 

^"'"jS.nV"^ the eight, sold to the king, for less than 80,000 dollars, 
their claims to the soil and rents in both Carolinas ; and 
all assigned to him the powers of government granted 

8. Situation them by their charter. ^Both Carolinas then became 
"^'itnas"'" royal governments, under which they remained until the 

Revolution. 



* Salkehatchie is the name giyen to the upper portion of the Cambahee River, (which see 
Map, p. 129.) Its course is S.E., and it is from twenty to thirty miles E. from the Sayannah 
Bayer. 



Part II.] 



261 



CHAPTER XII. 



GEORGIA.* 

1. 'At the time of the surrender* of the Carolina char- 
ter to the crown, the country southwest of the Savannah 
was a wilderness, occupied by savage tribes, and claimed 
by Spain as a part of Florida, and by England as a part 
of Carolina. "Happily for the claims of the latter, and 
the security of Carolina, in 1732 a number of persons in 
England, influenced by motives of patriotism and human- 
ity, formed the project of planting a colony in the disputed 
territory. 

2. ^James Oglethorpe, a member of the British parlia- 
ment, a soldier and a loyalist, but a friend of the unfor- 
tunate, first conceived the idea of opening, for the poor 
of his own country, and for persecuted Protestants of all 
nations, an asylum in America, where former poverty 
would be no reproach, and where all might Avorship with- 
out fear of persecution. ''The benevolent enterprise met 
with favor from the king, who granted,'' for twenty-one 
years, to a corporation, " in trust for the poor," the coun- 
try between the Savannah and tlie Altamaha, and west- 
ward to the Pacific Ocean. The new province was named 
Georgia. 

3. sin November of the same year, Oglethorpe, with 
nearly one hundred and twenty emigrants, embarked'^ for 
America, and after touching'^ at Charleston and Port 
Royal, on the twelfth of February landed at Savannah. •[■ 
On Yamacraw bluff, a settlement was immediately com- 
menced, and the town, after the Indian name of the river, 
was called Savannah. ''After completing a slight fortifi- 



Subject of 
Chapter XII. 



1. Situation 
of Georgia 
at the time 

of the surren- 
der of the 
Carolina 
charter. 

3. 172S. 

2. Project 

formed in 

1732. 



3. Oglethorpe, 
and his be- 
nevolent de- 



4. First grant, 
or chca ter, 
of Georgia. 
b June 20. 



5. Settlement 
of Savannah. 

c. Nov. 28 

1733. 

d. Jan. 24 



S. Indians 
invited to a 
conference. 



* GEORGIA, one of the Southern States, contains an area of about 60,000 square miles. 
The entire coast, to the distance of seven or eight miles, is intersected by numerous inlets, com- 
municating with each other, and navigable for small vessels. Tlie islands thus formed consist 
mostly of salt marshes, which produce sea island cotton of a superior quality. The coast ou 
the mainland, to the distance of several miles, is mostly a salt marsh ; beyond which are th» 
pine barrens, and the ridges of sand hills, similar to vicinity of sav.i>x.\h. 

those of South Carolina. The Upper Country is a.xi ex- 
tensive table !and, with a black and fertile soil. N<;ar 
the boundary of Tennessee and Carolina, on the north, 
the country becomes mountainous. 

t Savnnnait^ now the largest city, and the principal 
Beaport of Georgia, is situated on the S.W. bank of the 
Savannah Kiver, on a sandy plain forty feet above the 
level of the tide, and seventeen miles from the sea. 
The city is regularly laid out in the form of a par- 
allelogram, with streets crossing each other at right 
angles. Vessels requiring fourteen feet of water come 
up to the wharves of the city, and larger vessels to 
Five Fathom Hole, three miles below the city. (See 
Map.; 



IIutchinsoTi9^ 




•OvOJ*'''' V.I 



Ossm 






262 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[Book H 



ANALYSIS. 



1. First meet- 
ing with the 
Indiana. 



•2. Character 

of the earlij 

settlers. 



3. Arrival nf 
other emi- 
grants. 



4. Regula- 
tions of the 
trustees. 



1736. 

5. Addition 
made to the 

colony 

in 1736. 

a Feb. is. 

6. Prepara- 
tions for war. 



cation for the defence of the settlers, Oglethorpe invited 
the neighboring Indian chiefs to meet him at Savannah, 
in order to treat with them for their lands, and establish 
relatione of friendship. 

4. 'In June the chiefs of the Creek nation assembled ; 
— kind feelings prevailed ; and the English were cordially- 
welcomed to the country. An aged warrior presented 
several bundles of skins, saying that, although the Indians 
were poor, they gave, with a good heart, such things as 
they possessed. Another chief presented the skin of a 
buffalo, painted, on the inside, with the head and feathers 
of an eagle. He said the English were as swift as the 
eagle, and as strong as the buffalo ; for they flew over vast 
seas ; and were so powerful, that nothing could withstand 
them. He reminded them that the feathers of the eajrle were 
soft, and signified love ; that tlie skin of the buffalo was warm, 
and signified protection ; and therefore he hoped the Eng- 
lish would love and protect the little families of the Indians. 

5. "The settlers rapidly increased in numbers, but as 
most of those who first came over, were not only poor, but 
unaccustomed to habits of industry, they were poorly 
qualified to encounter the toil and hardships to which their 
situation exposed them. ^The liberality of the trustees 
then invited emigrants of more enterprising habits ; and 
large numbers of Swiss, Germans, and Scotch, accepted 
their proposals. ''The regulations of the trustees at first 
forbade the use of negroes, — prohibited the importation 
of rum, — and interdicted all trade with the Indians, with- 
out a special license. Slavery was declared to be not 
only immoral, but contrary to the laws of England. 

6. ^Early in 1736, Oglethorpe, who had previously 
visited England, returned'^ to Georgia, with a new com- 
pany of three hundred emigrants. °In anticipation of 
war between England and Spain, he fortified his colony, 
by erecting forts at Augusta,* Darien,-j- Frederica,:]: on 
Cumberland Island§ near the mouth of the St. Mary's,|| 



VICINITY OF FREDERICA. 



* Augusta City is situated on the S.W. side of the Savannah River, 120 miles N.W. from 
Savannah City. It is at the head of steamboat navigation on the Savannah, is surrounded by 
a ricli country, and has an active trafle. 

t Darifii is situated on a high sandy bluff, on the north and principal channel of the Alta- 
m.aha, twelve miles from the bar near its mouth. (See Map.) 

t Freihricn is situated on the west side of St. Simon"s Island, 
below the principal mouth of the Altamaha, and on one of its 
navigable channels. The fort, mentioned above, was constructed 
of tabby, a mixture of water and lime, with shells or gravel, 
forming a hard rocky mass when dry. The ruins of the fort 
may still be soeu. (!^ee Map.) 

S Ciimbrrlriiitl Island lies opposite the coast, at the southeastern 
extremity of Cieorgia. It is fifteen miles in length, and from one 
to four in width. The fort was on the southern point, and 
commanded the entrance to St. Mary's River. 

II St. Mar!/''i Rii-fr, forming part of the boundary between 
Georgia and Florida, enters the Atlantic, between Cumberland 
Island on tUe north, and Amelia Island on the south. 



maiiif.'/', ■ 




Part II.] 



GEORGIA. 



263 



and even as far as the St. John's, claiming for the Eng- 
lish, all the territory north of that river. 'But the Span- 
ish authorities of St. Augustine complained of the near 
approach of the English ; and their commissioners, sent 
to confer with Oglethorpe, demanded the evacuation of 
the country, as far north as St. Helena Sound ;* and, in 
case of refusal, threatened hostilities. ^The fortress at 
the mouth of the St. John's was abandoned ; but that near 
the mouth of the St. Mary's was retained ; and this river 
afterwards became the southern boundary of Georgia. 

7. ^The celebrated John Wesley, founder of the Metho- 
dist church, had returned with Oglethorpe, with the cha- 
ritable design of rendering Georgia a religious colony, 
and of converting the Indians. ''Having become unpopu- 
lar by his zeal and imprudence, he was indicted for exer- 
cising unwarranted ecclesiastical authority ; and, after a 
residence of two years in the colony, he returned to Eng- 
land, whei'e he was long distinguished for his piety and 
usefulness. ^Soon after his return the Rev. George 
Whitefield, another and more distinguished Methodist, 
visited* Georgia, with the design of establishing an orphan 
asylum on lands obtained from the trustees for that pur- 
pose. The plan but partially succeeded during his life- 
time, and was abandoned after his death.'' 

8. ^To hasten the preparations for the impending con- 
test with Spain, Oglethorpe again visited'= England, where 
he received'' a commission as brigadiei'-general, with a 
command extending over South Carolina, and, after an 
absence of more than a year and a half, returned' to 
Georgia, bringing with him a regiment of 600 men, for 
the defence of the southern frontiers. 'In the latter part 
of 1739, England declared^ war against Spain ; and 
Oglethorpe immediately planned an expedition against St. 
Augustine. In May of the following year,^ he entered 
Florida with a select force of four hundred men from his ^ 1740 
regiment, some Carolina troops, and a large body of 
friendly Indians. 

9. A Spanish fort, twenty-five miles from St. Augus- 
tine, surrendered after a short resistance ; — another, within 
two miles, was abandoned ; but a summons for the sur- 
render of the town was answered by a bold defiance. For 
a time the Spaniards were cut off from all supplies, by 
ships stationed at the entrance of the harbor ; but at length 
several Spanish galleys eluded the vigilance of the block- 
ading squadron, and brought a reenforcement and supplies 



1736. 

1. Claims ur 
ged by the 
Spanish au- 
thorities. 



2. How far 
their claims 
were admit- 
ted. 



3. Wesley's 
visit, and, 
its object. 



4. What ren- 
dered him 
unpopular, 
and caused 
his return. 



5. Visit of 
Whitefield. 

a. May, 1738. 



b. In 1770. 

6. Prepara- 
tions for waf. 

c. Winter of 
1736-37. 

1737. 

d. Sept. 7. 
e. Oct. 



7. Declara- 
tion of war, 

and first 
measures of 
Oglethorpe. 

f. Nov. 3. 

e 



8 Circum- 
stances at- 
tending the 
expedition 
against St. 
Augustine. 



* St, Helena Sound is the entrance to the Cambahee River. It is north of St. Helena Island 
and about fifty miles N.E. from Savannah. (See Map, p. 129.) 



264 COLONIAL HISTORY. [Book IL 

ANALYSIS, to the garrison. All hopes of speedily reducing the place 

were now lost ; — sickness began to prevail among the 

a. July, troops ; and Oglethorpe, with sorrow and regret, returned' 

to Georgia. 

1742. 10. 'Two years later, the Spaniards, in return, made 

invJman'of pi'pparations for an invasion of Georgia. In July, a fleet 

Georgia, of thirty-six sail from Havanna and St. Augustine, bearing 

more than three thousand troops, entered the harbor of 

b. July 16. St. Simon's;* landed'' on the west side of the island, a 

little above the town of tlie same name ; and erected a 

1. Movimtnts battery of twenty guns. "General Oglethorpe, who was 

thfpefand tlien on the island with a force of less than eight hundred 

against^ie men, exclusive of Indians, withdrew to Frederica ; 

enemy. anxiously awaiting an expected reenforcement from 

Carolina. A party of the enemy, having advanced within 

two miles of the town, was driven back with loss ; another 

party of three hundred, coming to their assistance, was 

C.July 18. ambuscaded, •= and two-thirds of the number were slain or 

taken prisoners. 

3- Attack on 11. ^Oglethorpe next resolved to attack, by night, one 

'camp°'pre-'' of the Spanish camps ; but a French soldier deserted, 

To"ie- ^""^ gave the alarm, and the design was defeated. *Ap- 

tjiorpe's plan preheiisive that the enemy would now discover his weak- 

for deceiving * i i • i ^■ n ^ ■ i i- /» 

the enemy, ness, he devised an expedient tor destroying the credit ot 
any information that might be given. He wrote a letter 
to the deserter, requesting that he would urge the Span- 
iards to an immediate attack, or, if he should not succeed 
in this, that he would induce them to remain on the island 
three days longer, for in that time several British ships, 
and a reenforcement, were expected from Carolina. He 
also dropped some hints of an expected attack on St. Au- 
gustine by a British fleet. This letter he bribed a Spanish 
prisoner to deliver to the deserter, but, as was expected, 
it was given to the Spanish commander. 
I. Therc'iuu 12. ^The deserter was immediately arrested as a spy, 
'«?"»»■ [jy^ |.]-,g \q\iqx sorely perplexed the Spanish officers, some 
of whom believed it was intended as a deception, while 
others, regarding the circumstances mentioned in it as 
highly probable, and fearing for the safety of St. Augus- 
tine, advised an immediate return of the expedition. 

6. ciTcum- «Fortunately, while thev were consulting, there appeared, 

stance that i • i 1 1 i i ■ i 

greaiiyfa- at some distance on the coast, three small vessels, which 
success, were regarded as a part of the British fleet mentioned in 



* St. Simon's Island lies south of the principal channel of the Altamaha. It is twelve miles 
in length, and from two to five in width. The harbor of St. Simon's is at the southern point 
of the island, before the town of the same name, and eight miles below Frederica. At St. 
Simon's there was also a small fort. The northern part of the island is sepai-ated from th« 
mainland by a small creek, and is called Little St. Simon's. (See Map, p. 262.) 



Part II.] GEORGIA. 265 

the letter. 'It was now determined to attacK Oglethorpe 1742. 
at Frederica, before the expected reenforcement should —r ; 

' '^ 1. Determtna- 

arrive. tvm to attaOe 

13. ^ While advancing for this purpose, they fell into ^^ Result of 
an ambuscade,* at a place since called " Bloody Marsh," "^^attacff^ 
where they were so wai'mly received that thej- retreated a. July 25. 
with precipitation — abandoned their works, and hastily 

retired to their shipping ; leaving a quantity of guns and 
ammunition behind them. ^On their way south they 3. other de- 
made an attack'' on Fort William,* but were repulsed ; ^ "^'uiy 29 
and two galleys were disabled and abandoned. *The 4. Treatment 
Spaniards were deeply mortified at the result of the expe- "-^i^kS"' 
dition ; and the commander of the troops, on his return to ^nanoer. 
Havanna, was tried by a court-martial, and, in disgrace, 
dismissed from the service. 

14. ^Soon after these events, Oglethorpe returned to 1743. 
England, never to revisit the colony which, after ten years -A'^/J^'^. 
of disinterested toil, he had planted, defended, and now turn. 
left in tranquillity. "Hitherto, the people had been under 6. change in 
a kind of military rule ; but now a civil government was ^S^" 
established, and committed to the charge of a president 

and council, who were required to govern according to 
the instructions of the trustees. 

15. 'Yet the colony did not prosper, and most of the 7. cmdUwn 
settlers still remained in poverty, with scarcely the hope "■' "^ (^oiony. 
of better days. Under the restrictions of the trustees, 
agi'iculture had not flourished ; and commerce had 
scarcely been thought of. *The people complained that, s. complaints 
as they were poor, the want of a free title to their lands "-^"^li^' 
almost wholly deprived them of credit ; they wished that 

the unjust rule of descent, which gave their property to 
the eldest son, to the exclusion of the younger children, 
should be changed for one more equitable ; bjut, more 
than all, they complained that they were prohibited the 
use of slave labor, and requested that the same encourage- 
ments should be given to them as were given to their more 
fortunate neighbors in Carolina. 

16. ^The regulations of the trustees began to be evaded, 9. Lawi 
and the laws against slavery were not rigidly enforced, ^eryem^' 
At first, slaves from Carolina were hired for short periods ; 
then for a hundred years, or during life ; and a sum equal 
to the value of the negro paid in advance ; and, finally, 
slavers from Africa sailed directly to Savannah ; and 
Georgia, like Carolina, became a planting state, with slave 
labor. 



* Fort William was the name of the fort at the southern extremity of Cumherland Island. 
There was also a fort, called Fort Andrew, at the northern extremity of the island. 

34 



ded. 



266 COLONIAL HISTORY. [Book U. 

ANALYSIS. 17. 'In 1752, the trustees of Georgia, wearied with 

_~ complaints against the system of government which they 

1 Form of ^^^^ established, and finding that the province languished 

government under their care, resigned* their charter to the king : 

changed, ' & & > 

and tohy. and the province was formed'' into a royal government. 

^b^oV "The people were then favored with the same liberties 

i. What gave and privileges that were enjoyed by the provinces of Ca- 

^itie^coiony° TOlina ; but it was not until the close of the French and 

Indian war, and the surrender of the Floridas to England, 

by which security was given to the frontiers, that the 

colony began to assume a flourishing condition. 



Part n.] 



267 




DEATH OF GENERAL WOLFE. (See page 282,) 



CHAPTER XIII. 



1756. 



THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR, 

EXTENDING FROM 1754 TO THE PEACE OF 1763- 



Subject Of 
Chapter 
XIII. 



DIVISIONS. 

/. Causes of the War, and events o/1754. — II. 1755: Expeditions of Divisions of 
Monckton, Braddock, Shirleij, and Johnson.— lU. 11 ^G: Belays; the Chapter. 
Loss of Oswego ; Indian Incnrsions. — IV. 1757: Designs against 
Louisbnrg, and Loss of Fort Wm. Henry. — V. 1758 : Reduction of 
Lovishurg ; Abercronibie's Defeat ; The taking of Forts Frontermc 
and Du Quesne. — VI. 1759 to 1763 : Ticonderoga and Cro?vn Point 
Abandoned; Niagara Taken; Conquest of Quebec, — Of all Can- 
ada; War tvith the Cherokees ; Peace of 1763. 



1. Causes of the War, and Events of 1754, — 
'Thus far separate accounts of the early American col- 
onies have been given, for the purpose of preserving that 
unity of narration which seemed best adapted to render 
prominent the distinctive features which marked the set- 
tlement and progress of each. *But as we have arrived 
at a period when the several colonies have become firmly 
established, and when their individual histories become 
less eventful, and less interesting, their general history 
will now be taken up, and continued in those more im- 
portant events which subsequently affected all the colonies. 
*This period is distinguished by the final struggle for do- 



First Divis- 
ion. 

1. Why sepa- 
rate accounts 
of the colonies 
have been 
thus far 
given. 

2. Changes 

now made, 

and for what 

reason. 



3. By what 
this period ii 
distin- 
guished. 



268 COLONIAL HISTORY. [Book IL 

ANALYSIS, minion in America, between the rival powers of France 

and England. 

i.Previojts 2. 'Those previous wars between the two countries, 
rtpeere Ivance whicli had SO often embroiled their transatlantic colonies, 
"te/S""" bad chiefly arisen from disputes of European origin; 
and the events which occurred in America, were regarded 
as of secondary importance to those which, in a greater 
measure, affected the influence of tlie rival powers in tlie 
^.ivhatied affairs of Europe. ''But the growing importance of the 
'I'^indi^n'' American possessions of tlie two countries, occasioning 
'"'"■• disputes about territories tenfold more extensive than either 
possessed in Europe, at length became the sole cause of 
involving them in another contest, more important to 
America tlian tiny preceding one, and which is commonly 
known as the French and Indian war. 
3.\natwas 3. ''The English, by virtue of the early discovery by 
"^ndZ'/'taf' the Cabots, claimed the whole scacoast from Newfound- 
'ih/in^iif ^'^"tl to Florida ; and by numerous grants of territory, be- 
ciaim. fore the French had established any settlements in the 
Valley of the Mississippi, they had extended their claims 
4. Upon westward to the Paciflc Ocean. "Tlie French, on the 
^p'i^ench contrary, founded their claims upon the actual occupation 
^""ctotww'**'^ and exploration of the country. 'Besides their settlements 
6. How far in Ncw Fraucc, or Canada, and Acadia, they had long 
'iwntfeT occupied Detroit,* had explored the Valley of the Missis- 
toruied. sippi, and formed settlements at Kaskaskiaf and Vin- 
cennes,:}:, and along the northern border of the Gulf of 
Mexico. 
9. Extent of 4. "According to the French claims, their northern pos- 
""cSif".'^ sessions of New France and Acadia embraced, within their 
southern limits, the half of New York, and the greater 
portion of New England ; while their western possessions, 
of Upper and Lower Louisiana, were held to embrace the 
entire valley of the Mississippi and its tributary streams. 
T.prepara- 'For the purpose of vindicating their claims to these ex- 
'^ndu^ tensive territories, and confining the English to the coun- 
try east of the Alleghanies, the French were busily en- 
gaged in erecting a chain of forts, by way of the Gi'eat 
Lakes and the Mississippi, from Nova Scotia to the Gulf 

8, immediat, of MexicO. 

tause qfcoii- 5 8 A royal grant' of an extensive tract of land on the 
a 1749 01uo§ River, to a company of merchants, called the Ohio 



♦ Detroit. (See Map, p. 449.) 

t Kaskasl-ia, in the soutliwestern part of the state of IlUnois, is situated on the W. side of 
KaskHskia liiver, seven miles above its junction with the Jlississippi. 

% Vinceiines is in the southwestern part of Indiana, and is situated on the E. bank of the 
Wabash Kivcr, 10() miles, by the river's course, above its entrance into the Ohio. 

§ The Ohio River is formed by tlie contlueuco of the Allet;hany from the N., and the 
Monougahela from the S., at Pittsburg, in the western part of i'enusylvauia. I'rom Pittsburg 



Part II.] 



THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. 



269 



company, gave the French the first apprcliension that the 
Englisli 'Were designing to deprive them of tlieir western 
trade with the Indians, and cut oil" their communication 
between Canada and Louisiana. 'While the company 
were surveying these lands, with tlie view of settlement, 
three British traders were seized'^- by a party of French 
and Indians, and conveyed to a French fort at Presque 
Isle.* The Twightwees, a tribe of Indians friendly to 
the English, resenting the violence done to their allies, 
seized several French traders, and sent them to Pennsyl- 
vania. 

6. ^The French soon after began the erection of forts 
south of Lake Erie, which called forth serious complaints 
from the Ohio Company. As the territory in dispute was 
within the original charter limits of Virginia, Robert Din- 

of the colony, deemed it his 



1753. 



1 Violent 

measuren that 

fotlmved. 

a. 1753. 



lieutenant-governor 



widdie, 

duty to remonstrate with 

western posts, 



agamst 



2. Ketrum- 

sirance of 

Governor 

Dinwiddie- 



the French commandant of the 
his proceedings, and demand a 
withdrawal of his troops. 'The person employed to con- 
vey a letter to the French commandant was George 
Washington, an enterprising and public-spirited young 
man, then in his twenty-second year, who thus early en- 
gaged in the public service, and who afterwards became 
illustrious in the annals of his country. 

7. ■'The service to which Washington was thus called, 
was botli difficult and dangerous ; as half of his I'oute, of 
four hundred miles, lay through a trackless wilderness, 
inhabited by Indian tribes, whose feelings were hostile to 
the English. ^Departing, on the 31st of October, from 
Williamsburg,'|- then the seat of government of the province, 
on the 4th of December he reached a French fort at the 
mouth of French Creek, ij: from which he was conducted 
to another fort higher up the stream, where he found the 
French commandant, M. De St. Pierre,'' who entertained 
him with great politeness, and gave him a written answer 
to Governor Dinwiddle's letter. 



3. George 
WaahingKm. 



4. The ser- 
vice to which 

Wanldngton 
ivaa called. 



5 1 1 is 
journey- 



b Pronoun- 
ced Po-are. 



the general course of the river is S.W. to tlie Mississippi, a distance of 950 miles by tho 
river, but only aliout 520 in a direct line. It separates the states of Virginia and Kentucky on 
the S., from ()hio, Indiana, and Illinois on the N., and drains a valley containing more than 
200,000 square miles. The only considerable falls in the river are at Louisville, where the 
water descends twenty-two and a half feet in two miles, around which has been completed a 
canal that admits the passage of the largest steamboats. 

* Presi/ue Isle (almost an island as its name implies,) is a small peninsula on the southern 
shore of Laki; Krie, at the northwc'Stern extremity of Pennsylvania. The place referred to in 
history as I'resque Isle is the present village of Erie, whicli is situated on the S.W. side of tho 
bay formed between Presque Isle and the mainland. 

t Williamshurf; is situated on elevated ground between .lames and York Rivers, a few miles 
N.K. from Jamestown. It is the seat of William and Mary College, founded in 1093. (See 
Map, p. 130.) 

t. Frenrh Creek, called by the French Aiix Brr.vfx, (0 BufT,) enters Alleghany River from the 
■west, in the present county of Venango, sixty-five miles N. from Pittsburg. The Fnrnch fort, 
called Venango, was ou the site of the present village of Franklin, tlie capital of Veuaugo 
County. 



270 COLONIAL HISTORY. [Book U. 

ANALYSIS. 8. 1 Having secretly taken the dimensions of the fort, 

1 Darfers ^^^ madc all possiblc observations, he set out'' on his return. 

tnamimmi At onc time he providentially escaped being murdered by 

return a party of hostile Indians ; one of whom, at a short dis- 

a. Dec. 16. tm^ice, fired upon him, but fortunately missed him. At 

another time, while crossing a river on a raft, he was 

thrown from it by the floating ice ; and, after a narrow 

1754. escape from drowning, he suifered greatly from the intense 

\feFn^nch ^^^^^^^Y of the cold. *0n his arrival'' at Williamsburg, 

commander, the letter of St. Pierre was found to contain a refusal to 

b. Jan. 16. withdraw his troops ; with the assurance that he was act- 

ing in obedience to the commands of the governor-general 

of Canada, whose orders alone he should obey. 

3 Measures 9. 'The hostile designs of the French being apparent 

taken in from the reply of St. Pierre, tiie governor of Virginia 

consequence, ^j^^jg immediate preparations to resist their encroachments. 

The Ohio Company sent out a party of thirty men to erect 

a fort at the confluence of the Alleghany* and Mononga- 

hela •,^\ and a body of provincial troops, placed under the 

command of Washington, inarched into the disputed terri- 

i.The Ohio tory. *The men sent out by the Ohio Company had 

men. Scarcely commenced their fort, when they were driven^ 

c April 18. from the ground by the French, who completed the works, 

(lu Kane, and named the place Fort du Quesne.'' 

5. vatc of 10. ^An advance party under Jumonville, which had 

Jmnonvdtcs . • i i p -iir 

pari;/. been sent out to intercept the approach oi Washington, 
e. May 28. was surprised' in the night ; and all but one were either 
,*;^™;'^,;;j;'^^' killed or taken prisoners. "After erecting a small fort, 
wti^hiniiion. vvlucli lie named Fort Necessity,:}: and being joined by 
some additional troops from New York and Carolina, 
Washington proceeded witli four hundred men towards 
Fort du Quesne, when, hearing of the advance of a large 
body of French and Indians, under the command of M. 
f. ville-are. de ViUiers,'' he returned to Fort Necessity, where he was 
g. July 3. soon after attacked" by nearly fifteen hundred of the ene- 
my. After an obstinate resistance of ten hours, Wash- 
h. July 4. ingtou agreed to a capitulation,'' which allowed him the 

lioaorablo terms of retiring unmolested to Virginia. 

7. Plan of 11. 'It having been seen by England, that war with 

vised. France would be inevitable, the colonies had been advised 

to unite upon some plan of union for the general defence. 

'at Albany."' ^A Convention had likewise been proposed to be held at 



* The AUegliany River rises in the northern part of Pennsylvania, and runs, first N.W. 
into New York, and then, turning to the S.W., again enters Pennsylvania, and at Pittsburg 
unites with the Moiions^ahela to form the Ohio. 

t The MoHonifalielii rises by numerous branehes in the nortliwestern part of Virginia, and 
running north enters Pennsylvania, and unites with the Alleghany at Pittsburg. 

X The remains of Fort Necessity are still to be seen near the national road from Cumberland 
io Wheeling, in the southeastern part of Kayette County, Pennsylvania. 



Part II.] TIIE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. 271 

Albany, in June, for the purpose of conferring with the 1754^, 
Six Nations, and securing their friendship. 'After a 



treaty had been made with tlie Indians, the convention ^dmeUi^e^ 
took up the subject of the proposed union ; and, on the 
fourth of July, the very day of the surrender of Fort 
Necessity, adopted a plan which liad been drawn up by 
Dr. Franklin, a delegate from Pennsylvania. 

12. ^This plan proposed the establishment of a general 2. Jf^f^^ 
government in the colonies, to be administered by a proposed. 
governor-general appointed by the crown, and a council 
chosen . by the several colonial legislatures ; having the 
power to levy troops, declare war, raise money, make 
peace, regulate the Indian trade, and concert all other 
measures necessary for the general safety. The governor- 
general was to have a negative on the proceedings of the 
council, and all laws were to be submitted to the king for 
ratification. 

Vi. ^This plan, although approved by all the delegates 3. wkijitwaa 
present, excej)t those from Connecticut, who objected to ''*^*"* • 
the negative voice of the governor-general, shared the 
singular fate of being rejected, both by the colonial as- 
senjblies, and by the British government : by the former, 
because it was supposed to give too much power to the re- 
presentative of the king ; and by the latter, because it 
was supposed to give too much power to the representatives 
of the people. ''As no plan of union could be devised, *i/^feur^ 
acceptable to both parties, it was determined to carry on mined. 
the war with British troops, aided by such forces as the 
colonial assemblies might voluntarily furnish. 

II. 1755: Expeditions OF MoNCKTON, Braddock, Shir- 1755. 
LEY, AND Sir William Johnson. — 1. M3arly in 1755, Gen- seconddi- 

1 T-> 1 1 1 • 1 ,. r 1 1 -1 • vi^onoftlie 

era! Braddock arrived" irom Ireland, with two regiments chapter. 
of British troops, and with the authority of commander-in- ^,Socfe 
chief of the British and colonial forces. "At a convention a. Feb. 
of the colonial governors, assembled at his request in Vir- ?„gji'll^f^g. 
ginia, three expeditions were resolved upon ; one against solved upon. 
the French at Fort du Quesne, to be led by General Brad- 
dock himself; a .second againsc Niagara, and a third against 
Crown Point, a French post on the western shore of Lake 
Champlain. 

2 'While preparations were makinjj for these expedi- t.KxpedUinn 
tions, an enterprise, that had been previously determined undertaken. 
upon, was prosecuted with success in another quarter. 
About the last of May, Colonel Monckton sailed'' from i>. May 20. 
Boston, with three thousand troops, against the French 
settlements at the head of the Bay of Fundy, which were 
considered as encroachments upon the English province 
of Nova Scotia. 



272 



COLONIAL fflSTORY. 



[Book II. 



ANALYSIS. 3. '^Landing at Fort Lawrence,* on the eastern shore 
1. luprogresi of Chignecto,f a branch of the Bay of Fundy, a French 



and terjni- 
Tiaticn. 
a. June 4. 
o. Pronoun- 
ced, Bo-sa- 
zhoor. 

c. June 16, 

i Pronounced 

Gas-pe-ro. 



block-house was carried* by assauU, and Fort Beausejour'' 
surrendered, "= after an investment of four days. The name 
of the fort was then changed to Cumberland. Fort Gas- 
pereau,"* on Bay Verte,' or Green Bay,± was next taken ; 
and the forts on the New Brunswick coast were abandon- 
ed. In accordance with the views of the governor of 
^'^vS^t""*'^ Nova Scotia, the plantations of the French settlers were 
laid waste ; and several thousands of the hapless fugitives, 
ardently attached to their mother country, and refusing to 
take the oath of allegiance to Great Britain, were driven 
on board the British shipping, at the point of the bayonet, 
and dispersed, in poverty, through the English colonies.'', 

4. ''The expedition against the French on the Ohio was 
considerably delayed by the ditficulty of obtaining sup- 
plies of wagons and provisions ; but, on the tenth of June, 
General Braddock set out from Fort Cumberland,^ with a 
force of little more than two thousand men, composed of 

3, Bis march British regulars and provincials. ^\pprehending that 
Fort du Quesne might be reenforced, he hastened his 
march with a select corps of 1200 men ; leaving Col. 
Dunbar to follow in the rear with the other troops and the 
heavy baggage. 

5. *Neglecting the proper measures necessary for 
*»uraj^ed° guarding against a surprise, and too confident in his o\vn 

views to receive the advice of Washington, who acted as 
his aid, and who requested to lead the provincials in ad- 
vance, Bi'addock continued to press forward, heedless of 
danser, until he had arrived within nine or ten miles of 
Fort du Quesne. ^While marching in apparent security, 
his advanced guard of regulars, commanded by Lieuten- 
ant-colonel Gage, was fired upon^ by an unseen enemy ; 
and, unused to Indian warfare, was thrown into disorder ; 
and falling back on the main body, a general confusion 
ensued. 
'maMKk, 6. ^General Braddock, vainly endeavoring to rally his 
"^"me battle troops on the spot where they were first attacked, after 



f. See p. 5-19. 

2. The expe- 
dition of 
Braddock. 



hastened, and 
why. 



4. The cause 



5. PoTtieu- 
lars qfthi 
surprise. 

g. July 9. 




* For localities see Map. 

1 Chignecto Bay is the northern, or northwestern arm 
of the Bay of Fundy. (Map.) 

t Bay Vfrte. or Green Bay, is a western arm of Nor- 
thumberland Strait ; a strait which separates Prince Ed- 
ward's Island from New Brunswick and Nova Scocia. 
(See Map.) 

5 Fort Cumberland was on the site of the present 
Tillage of Cumberland, which is situated on the N. side 
of the Potomac River, in Maryland, at the mouth of 
Will's Creek. The Cumberland, or National Road, 
which proceeds W. to Ohio, &c., commences here. 



Part II.] 



THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. 



273 



3. The re- 
treat. 



having had three horses killed umler him, and after seeing 1755. 

every mounted officer fall, exeept Washington, was him- 

self mortally wounded, when his troops fled in dismay and 
confusion. ^The cool bravery of the Virginia provincials, i. whaisaved 
who formed under the connnand of Washington, covered frumYuiai 
the retreat of the regulars, and saved the army Irom total '^«''" ""''■'»• 
destruction. ^In this disastrous defeat more than two- a- Nvmier 
thirds of all the officers, antl nearly half the privates, were wounded. 
either killed or wounded. 

7. 'No pursuit was made bj'^ the enemy, to whom the 
success Avus wholly unexpected ; yet so great was the 
panic communicated to Colonel Dunbar's troops, that they 
likewise lied with precipitation, and made no pause until 
they found themselves sheltered by the walls of Fort Cum- 
berland. ■'Soon after, Colonel Dunbar, leaving at Cumber- 4 Disposition 
land a few provincial troops, but insullicient to j)rotect the 
frontiers, retired* with the rest of the army to Philadelphia. 

8. ^The expedition against Niagara was intrusted to 5. Expedmon 
Governor Shirley of Massacimsctts ; on whom the com- '^^agarit^' 
mand in chief of the British forces had devolved, after the 

death of General Braddock. The forces desicjned for this 
enterprise were to assemble at Oswego,'' whence they were b. n. p. 275. 
to pi'oceed by water to the mouth of the Niagara River.* 
The main body of the troops, however, did not arrive until 
the last of August ; and then a succession of western 
winds and rain, the prevalence of sickness in the camp, 
and the desertion of tli,e Indian allies, rendered it unad- 
visable to proceed ; and most of the forces were with- 
drawn.' The erection of two new forts had been com- 



t)iat tilts 

made of the 

umii/. 

a. Aug. 2. 



c. Oct. 24. 



menced on the east side of the river ; and suitable garri- 



sons were left to defend them. 

9. "The expedition against Crown Point was intrusted 
to General Johnson, afterwards Sir William Johnson, a 



6 Particu- 
lars of tite ex- 
pedilion 

member of the council of New York. In June and July, crowfiFuint, 
about 6000 troops, under General Lyman, were assembled th/'arrh-ai'of 
at the carrying place between Hudson River and Lake 6,^'ti"p,%3. 



George,"* where they constructed a fort which 
they named Fort Lyman, but which was after- 
wards called Fort Edward. f ^\\\ the latter 



* Niagara River is the ohannc! which connt'ots Lake Krie 
with Ijuke Oiitjirio. It is abnut thirty -six miles lonp, .'iiid flows 
fro \ S. to N. In this stream, twenty-two miles nortli from Lake 
Krie, are the celebrated Falls of Niagara, the greatest uatui-aJ 
curiosity in the world. (See Map. p.loland 462.) 

t Fort Rttoaril was on the site of the present villaRO of Fort 
Edward, in Washington County, on the E. side of Hudson Kiver, 
and about forty-five miles N. from Albany. This spot was also 
calUuW/if rarnjiiig plare ; beins; the point whore, in the expedi- 
tions ajiainst Canada, the troops, stores, &c., were landed, and 
thence carried to >\ood Creek, a distance of twelve miles, wliere 
they were again embarked. (See Map.) 

35 



VICINITY OP L.\KE GEORO£. 
riLtii= •- 



% 










274 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[Book IL 



ANALYSIS 

I. Arrival and 
proceedings 
(jf Jahrison. 

a. Sept 7. 

b. N p. 234. 



S. Movtnicnts 
of the enemy 

c Pronoun- 
ced, Deesko. 

d. N. p. a30. 



3. Detach- 

ini nt sent 

against them, 

and lohy. 



4. Fate of 
this detach- 

vient. 
0. Sept. 8. 



5 Prepara- 
tions Jur re- 
ceiving the 
enemy- 



6 Attack or* 
the camp. 



7. Fate of 
Dieskau. 



8. What cum- 
jtleted the de- 
feat of Hie 
enemy 
9. Far/her 
jirocee-dings 
qf Johnsoli. 



part of August General Johnson arrived ; and, taking 
the command, moved forward with the main body of his 
forces to the liead of Lake George ; wliere he learned, '=^ 
by his scouts, that nearly two tliousand French and In- 
dians were on their march from Crown Point,'' with the 
intention of attacking Fort Fidward. 

10. ''The enemy, under tlie command of the Baron 
Dieskau,'= approacliing by the way of Wood Creek, "^ had 
arrived within two miles of Fort Edward ; when the com- 
mander, at the request of his Indian allies, who stood in 
great dread of the English cannon, suddenly changed his 
route, with the design of attacking the camp of Johnson. 
'In the meantime, Johnson had sent out a party of a thou- 
sand provincials under the connnand of Colonel Williams ; 
and two hundred Indians under the command of Hend- 
ricks, a Mohawk sachem ; for the purpose of intercepting 
the return of the enemy, whether they succeeded, or 
failed, in their designs against Fort Edward. 

11. ■'Unfortunately, the English, being drawn into an 
ambuscade,' were overpowered by superior numbers, and 
driven back with a severe loss. Among the killed were 
Colonel Williams and the chieftain Hendricks. The loss 
of tile enemy was also considerable ; and among the slain 
was St. Pierre, who commanded the Indians. ^Tiie liring 
being heard in the camp of Johnson, and its near approaclj 
convincing him of tlie repulse of Williams, he rapidly 
constructed a breastwork of fallen trees, and mounted 
several cannon, which, two days before, he had fortu- 
nately received from Fort Edward. 

12. 'The fugitives had scarcely arrived at the camp, 
when the enemy appeared and commenced a spirited 
attack ; but the unexpected reception which the English 
cannon gave them, considerably cooled their ardor. The 
Canadian militia and the Indians soon fled ; and the 
French troops, after continuing the contest several hours, 
retired in disorder. '^Dieskau was found wounded and 
alone, leaning against the stump of a tree. While feel- 
ing for his watch, in order to surrender it, an English 
soldier, thinking he was searching for a pistol, fired upon 
him, and inllicted a wound which caused his death. 
^ After the repulse of tlie French, a detachment from Fort 
Edward fell upon their rear, and completed their defeat. 

VS. ^For the purpose of securing the country from the 
incursions of the enemy. General Johnson erected a fort 
at his place of encampment, which he named Fort Wil- 
liam Henry.* Learning that the French were strength- 



* Fort Wm, Henry was situated at the head of Lake George, a little E. from the village o' 



Part II.] THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. 275 

ening their works at Crown Point, and likewise that a 1755. 

large party had taken possession of, and were fortifying 

Ticonderoga ;* he deemed it advisable to make no farther 
advance ; and, late in the season — after leaving sufficient 
garri.sons at Forts William Henry and Edward, he retired* a. Dec 
to Albany, whence he dispersed the remainder of his army 
to their re.spective provinces. 

III. 1756; Delays; Loss of Oswego : Indian Inctxr- I'Mrdvivu- 
siONs. — I. 'The plan for the campaign of 1756, which 1756. 
had been agreed upon in a council of the colonial gover- 1 pianof 
nors held at Albany, early in the season, was similar to ^Jf^^nss. 
that of the preceding year ; having for its object the 
reduction of Crown Point, Niagara, and Fort du Qucsne. 
^Lord Loudon was appointed by the king commander-in- 2. command- 

T ■ n n 1 • {> • « • 11 /» -IT- era appointed. 

chiei 01 his lorces m America, and also governor ot Vir- 
ginia ; but, being unable to depart immediately. General 
Abercrombie was ordered to precede him, and take the 
command of the troops until his arrival. ^Thus far, hos- 3 oeciara- 
tilities had been carried on without any formal declaration ''""■ "J '"""'■ 
of war ; but, in May of this year, war was declared^ by b. May. 17. 
Great Britain against France, and, soon after,' by the c. June 9. 
latter power against Great Britain. 

2. *In June, General Abercrombie arrived, with several *■ Measures 

1 11.11 1 I • • 1 o/AbercMi- 

rcgiments, and proceeded to Albany, where the provincial HeanuCord 
troops were assembled ; but deeming the forces under his 
command inadequate to carry out the plan of the cam- 
paign, he thought it prudent to await the arrival of the 
Earl of Loudon. This occasioned a delay until the latter 
part of July ; and even after the arrival of the earl, no 
measures of importance were taken. ''The French, in s.Htnotke 
the mean time, profiting by the delays of the English, ed by these 
seized the opportunity to make an attack upon Oswego. f delays. 

3. "Early in August, the Marquis Montcalm, who had %f^^if,^^'' 
succeeded the Baron Dieskau in the chief command of tlie against os- 
French forces in Canada, crossed Lake Ontario with more 

than five thousand men, French, Canadians, and Indians ; 

and, with more than thirty pieces of cannon, commenced'' d Aug. 11. 

the siege of Fort Ontario, on the east side of Oswego 

Caldwell, in Warren County. After the fort was levelled by Montcalm, in 1757, (see page 277.) 
Fort George was built as a substitute for it, on a more commanding site ; yet it was never th8 
scene of any imporbint batile. (See Map, page 273.) fot^ts at nswEGO. 

* TiconrJeroga is situated at the mouth of the outlet of Lake 
George, in Essex County, on tlie western shore of Lake ('ham- 
plain, about eiglity-five n jles iu a direct line N. from Albany. 
(See Map and Note, p .374.) The village of Ticonderoga i.-' 
two miles above the ruins of the fort. 

t The village of O.UDtgn, iu Oswego County, is situated on 
both sides of Oswego Kiver. at its entrance into Lake Ontaiio. 
Old Fort Oswego, built in 1727, was on the west side of the riv- 
er. In 1755 Fort Ontario was built on an eminence on the E. side 
of the river ; a short distance N. of which stands the present 
Fort Oswego. 



276 COLONIAL ffiSTORY. [Book H 

ixALYsis River.* After an obstinate, but short defence, this fort 
; ~ was abandoned.' — the garrison safelv retiring to the old 

a. Aug. 12- .. , .,,?,. • ® 

tort on the west sade oi the river. 
i.^urrendir 4. 'On the fourteenth, the English, numbering only 
c/idSI'«<:^ 1400 men. found themselves reduced to the necessity of a 
^ £/u-;i.Y ^ capitulation ; by which they surrendereii themselves pri- 
souei-s of war. Several vessels in the harbor, together 
with a large amount of military stores, consisting of sniiill 
arms, ammunition, provisions, and 134 pieces of cannon, 
fell into the hands of the enemy. Montcalm, after demol- 
ishing the forts, returned to Canada. 
iiMimA3>- 5. *Atter the defeat of Braddock, the Indians on the 
'SetMMm \»'estern frontiers, inciteil by the French, renewed their 
•'**''*"* depreilations, and killed, or carrietl into captivity, more than 
iOoLArm- a thousand of the inhabitants. 'In August of this year, 
^otftte^' Colonel Armstrong, with a pany of neai-ly 300 men, 
marched against Kittaning.f their principal town, on the 
b. Septs. Alleghany River. The Indians, although surprised,'' de- 
fended themselves with great bniver%- ; refusing quaner 
when it was otiered them. Their principal chiefs were 
killed, their town was destroyed, and eleven prisoners 
were recovered. The English suffered but little in this 
expedition. Among their wounded was Captain Mercer, 
atterwards distinguished in the war of the Revolution. 
*,Ktnut^ '•These were the principal events of this year ; and not 
S^H^^ one of the important objects of the campaign was either 

accomplished or attempteil. 

1757. I^ • 1757 : Designs AGArN"ST LotriSBtTKG, axd Loss of 

■ne fourA FoKT WiLLiAM Hexkt. — 1. *The plan of the campaign 

i o^-scf of of 1757. was limited, by the commander-in-chief, to an 

**|?J!|?*ST» attempt upon the important fonress of Louisburg. *With 

s Prtpare- the reduction of this post in view. Lord Loudon sailed'^ 

M^mtHfe. from Xew York, in June, with 6000 regular troops, and 

c June ax. Qu ^j^p thirteenth of the same month arrived at Halifax, 

where he was reenforced by a powerful naval armament 

commanded by Admiral Holbourn, and a latid force of 

liiinfl jm S" ^'''^^^ i^i^Ji from England. 'Soon after, information was 

d.Ai«. 4. received.-^ that a French fleet, lai^r than that of the 

English, had already arrived in the harbor of Louisbui^, 

and that the city was garrisoned by more than 0000 men. 

The expedition was, therefore, necessarily abandoned. 

The admiral prooeeiled to cruise off Louisburg, and Lord 

e- Aus- 31. Loudon returned' to Now York. 

* OSiPi^ Ric^r is tbrmed by she junctica of S^necs and Oneula Rirers. The farmer is 
the outl«c of Oui^nn'.Ui^, Orix>lievl. Senev-ak Caru^, Ovra^v. aaj Skeoeawles l.ak^e« ; and tlM 
Istwr of Oiteida Lake. 

t Ki^oMuig, the county seat of Armstroajr Countr, PennsTlrani*. is bmit on the site of Um 
ol>.l In^Usui Town. It is on the K. side (rf AlleshauiT Rirt-r, sboat ftactj- miles X.E &«n 
Pittsbunc. 



PartH.] the FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. 077 

2. 'Whilo these events were transpiring, the Frencli 1757. 

conunander, the Marquis ]\Ioutcahu, having coUoctcd his 

forces at Ticonderoga, advanced with an army of 0000 ul'J'^^Mont- 
men, "2000 of wliom were Siivages, and hud siege* to Fort i',"jan'timf. 
^\"illiam Henry.'' ^The garrison of the fort consisted of a Aug. s. 
between two and three thousand men, commanded by p^^t^^"'"^" 
Colonel Monro; and, for the farther security of the place, •^rr'^^f"'^ 
Colonel Webb was stationed at Fort Edward, only fitleen hw^numr. 

• 1 !• • 1 .' . ^ ^ ^ i\ ■ • • Henry. 

mues distant, with an army ot 4000 men. Durmg six 
days, the garrison maintained an obstinate defence ; 
anxiously awaiting a reenforcement from Fort Edward ; 
until, receiving positive information that no relief would 
be attempted, and their anmiunition beginning to fail them, 
they surrendered'^ the place by capitulation. c. Aug. 9. 

y. ^Honorable terms were granted the garrison '' on 3. Terms 
account of their honoralile defence," as the capitulation ^^^j^l?* 
itself expressed ; and they were to march out with their 
arms, and retire in safety under an escort to Fort Edward. 
••The capitulation, however, was shamet'ully broken by the t Theeapi- 
Indians attached to Montcalm's party ; who tell upon the ?JWh" 
English as they were leavuig the fort; plundered them of 
tlieir baggage, and butchered many of them in cold blood. 
'The otherwise lair tame of 3Iontcalm has been tarnished s conduct of 

1 1 • ^ 1, • , • • 1 !• Ill 3 Montcalm 

by this unfortunate afiair ; but it is believed that he and onthisocca- 
his officers used their utmost endeavors, except firing upon 
the Indians, to stop the butchery. 

V. IToS : Redvctiox of Lofisbitrg ; Aberckombie's 1758. 
Defeat: the taking of Forts Frontenac and Dr Fifth dm- 

- 11* ^ton, 

QuESXE. — 1. *The result ot ihe two precedmjr campaigns e. Rf^uit qf 

!• 1 1 •]• ^- . i-< 11- -^ I'll »• t.'ie tiro precc- 

was exceedingly humiliating to hngu^nd, in view ot the tor- dinsrcam- 
midable preparations that had been made for eanying on the ?"'§"'"" 
war ; and so strong was the feeling against t!ie ministry 
and their measures, that a change was found necessary. 
'A new administration was formed, at the head of w hich v. changes 
was placed Mr. Pitt, af\erwards Lord Chatham : Lord "•«ff<""^''"^- 
Loudon was recalled ; additional forces were raised in 
America ; and a large naval armament, and twelve thou- 
sand additional troops, were promised from England. 
®Three expeditions were planned : one against Louisburg, s Expedi- 
another against the French on Lake Champlain, and a ''""ned"" 
third against Fort du Quesne. 

'2. 'Early in the season. Admiral Boscawen arrived at 9. Exprdi- 
Halifax, wlienc^e he sailed, on the xJ^th of May, with a LoLi'shirrs- 
fleet of nearly forty armed vessels, together with twelve 
tliousand men under the command of General Amherst, 
for the reduction of Louisburg.'' On the second of June, j. see Xots 
the fleet anchored in Gabariis Bay ; and on the 8th the *";;' ^'^'• 
troops effected a landing, with little loss ; when tlie 



278 COLONIAL HISTORY. [Book U. 

ANALYSIS. French called in their outposts, and dismantled the x'oyal 

battery. 
\. Progress of 3. 'Soon after, General Wolfe, passings around the 
'mrrtfidirof Northeast Harbor, erected a battery at the North Cape, 
.''junfiz ^^^^' ^'^® light-house, from which the island battery was 
b. June 25. silenced -.^ three French ships were burned" in the harbor; 
C.July 21. and the fortifications of the town were greatly injured. 
At length, all the shipping being destroyed, and the batte- 
ries from the land side havincr made several breaches in 
the walls, near the last of July the city and island, toge- 
(1. July 26. tlicr with St. John's,* were surrendered'^ by capitulation. 
2. Abercrom- 4. ^During these events, General Abercrombie,on whom 
^\ton^ ' the command in chief had devolved on the recall of Lord 
e See Note Loudon, was advancing against Ticonderoga.'' ^On the 
"p. 31^4!''' 5th of July, he embarked on Lake George, with more 
3-^^-['g'"o|'-^«.''/than L'J.OOO men, and a formidable train of artillery. On 
tion o-nATc- tJic followiug morning, the troops landed near the northern 
first attacic extremity of the lake, and commenced their march through 
a thick wood towards the fort, then defended by about four 
thousand men under the command of the Marquis Mont- 
calm. Ignorant of the nature of the ground, and without 
proper guides, the troops became bewildered ; and the 
centre column, commanded by Lord Howe, falling in 
with an advanced guard of the French, Lord Howe him- 
self was killed ; but after a warm contest, the enemy 
f. July. 6. were repulsed.'' 
i. The effect 5. ^After the death of Lord Howe, who was a highly 
HowJfdeath. valuable officer, and the soul of the expedition, the ardor 
of the troops greatly abated ; and disorder and confusion 
5. Particulars prevailed. ^Most of the army fell back to the landing- 
attt^"' place, but early on the morning of the 8th, again advanced 
in full force to attack the fort ; the general being assured, 
by his chief engineer, that the intrenchments were unfin- 
ished, and might be attempted witli good prospects of suc- 
cess. Unexpectedly, the breastwork was found to be of 
great strength, and covered with felled trees, with their 
branches pointing outwards ; and notwithstanding the in- 
trepidity of the troops, after a contest of nearly four hours, 
g July 8. they were repulsed^ with great slaughter ; leaving nearly 
two thousand of their number killed or wounded on the 
field of battle. 
e. Expedition 6. *After this repulse, the army retired to the head of 

against Fort t i /i ^ i i • • • p ^ i i t-> i 

Froiitcnac. bake (jrcorge, whence at the solicitation ot Colonel Brad- 
street, an expedition of three thousand men, under the 

* St. John's, or Prince EdwarrVs Island, is an island of very irregular shape, about 130 
miles long ; lying west of Cape Breton, and north of Nova Scotia, from which it is separated 
by Northumberland Strait. The Freuch called the island St. Jo/urs ; but in 1799 the English 
changed its name to Prince Edward. (See Hist, of I'rinee Edwiird, p. 553.) 



Part II.] 



THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. 



279 



command of that officer, was sent against Fort Frontenac,* 
on the western shore of" tlie outlet of Lake Ontario, a place 
which had long been the chief resort for the traders of 
the Indian nations who were in alliance with the French. 
Proceeding by the way of Oswego, Bradstreet crossed the 
lake, landed^ within a mile of the fori without opposition, 
and, in two days, compelled that important fortress to sur- 
render. '' The Fort was destroyed, and nine armed vessels, 
sixty cannon, and a large quantity of military stores and 
goods, designed for the Indian trade, fell into the hands of 
the English. 

7. 'The expedition against Fort du Quesne was in- 
trusted to Genei'al Forbes, who set out from Philadelphia 
early in July, at the head of 9000 men. An advanced 
party under Major Grant was attacked near the fort, and 
defeated with the loss of three hundred men ; but, as the 
main body of the army advanced, the French, being de- 
serted by their Indian allies, abandoned'^ the place, and es- 
caped in boats down the Ohio. Quiet posession was then 
taken'^ of the fort, when it was repaired and garrisoned, 
and, in honor of Mr. P»itt, named Fittsbiirg.-f ^The west- 
ern Indians soon after came in and concluded a treaty of 
neutrality with the English. ^Notwithstanding the defeat 
of Abercrombie, the events of the year had weakened 
the French power in America ; and the campaign closed 
with honor to England and her colonies. 

VI. 1759 TO 1763 : Ticondekoga and Crown Point 

ABANDONED ; NiAGARA TAKEN ; CoNQUEST OF QuRnEC, 

OF ALL Canada ; War with the Cherokees ; Peace of 
1763. — 1. ■'The high reputation vvliich General Amherst 
had acquired in the siege of Louisburg, had gained him a 
vote of thanks from parliament, and had procured for him 
the appointment of commander-in-chief of the army in 
North America, with the responsibility of carrying out the 
vast and daring project of Mr. Pitt, which was no less 
than the entire conquest of Canada in a single campaign. 
2. Tor the purpose of dividing and weakening the 
power of the French, General Wolfe, a young officer of 
uncommon merit, who had distinguished himself at the 
siege of Louisburg, was to ascend the St. Lawrence and 
lay siege to Quebec : General Amherst was to carry Ti- 
conderoga and Crown Point ; and then, by way of Lake 
Champlain and the St. Lawrence, was to unite with the 
forces of General Wolfe ; while a third army, after the 



175§. 



a. Aug. 25. 



b. Aug. 27. 



1. Expedition 
ai^ainsi Fo)'t 
du iiueane. 



c. N»v. 24. 



d. Nov. 25. 

2. Treaty 
fornied. 

3 Result of 

t/i£ cam- 
paigii of 1758. 



1759. 

Subjects of 
t/ic sixth di- 
vision. 



4. Honors be- 

stovyed on 

General 

Amherst- 



5 Plan of the 

campaign of 

1759. 



» The village of Kingston, in Canada, now occupies the site of Old Fort Frontenac. 

t Pittsburg, now a tlouri.shing city, is situat>Ml on a beautiful plain, at the junction of th» 
Alleghany and the Monongahela, in the western part of I'ennaylvaiiii. Tliere are several 
thriving villages in the vicinity, whicli should be regarded as suburbs of I'ittsburg, the prin- 
tjpal of which is Alleghany City, ou the N.\V. side of the Alleghany Kiver. 



280 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[Book IL 



b. See Note 
aiid -Map. 

p. 374. 
O. Julj- 23 
d. July as. 

e N p 23t. 
S ParL>ier 



return of the 
army. 

f. Aus. 1. 

e N. p. 230. 

h. OcL 11. 



ANALYSIS, reduction of Niagara, was to proceed oowii the lake and 

river against Montreal. 

I SHcet^of 3. 'In the prosecution of the enterprise which had been 

aiT.coHder- uitrusted to hull, (jeneral Aniliei-si arrived* belore licon- 

a jui^22. deroga" in the latter part of July, with an army of little 

more than 11.000 men. While preparing for a general 

attack, the French abandoned"^ their lines, and withdrew 

to the fort ; but, in a kw days, abandoned'^ this also, after 

having partially demolished it. and retired to Crown Point.' 

4. ^Pui'suiuCT his successes. General Amherst advanced 

furstiU of the 1 1 • 1 "" I 1 ■ 11 

entmy. and towards uus hitter post ; but on his approacli. tJie garrison 

retired f to the Isle of Aux Noix* in the river Sorel.° After 

having constructed several small vessels, and acquired a 

naval superiority on the lake, the whole army embarked'' 

in pursuit of the enemy ; but a succession of storms, and 

the advanced season of the year, linally compelled a re- 

i. Oct 2. turn' to Crown Point, where the troops went into winter 

quarters. 

3. Events qf 5, ^General Prideaux,Mo whom was given the com- 

ri<m^«>Mf niand of the expedition against Niagara, proceeded by the 

s:a^ara. ^^.^.^. ^^ Schencctadv and Oswego : and on the sixth of 

ced, Pre^kj. July landed near the fort whhout opposition. Soon after 

the commencement of tlie siege, the general was killed 

through the carelessness of a gunner, by the bursting of a 

c^horn, when the command devolved on Sir William 

Johnson. As twelve hundred French and Indians, from 

the southern French forts, were advancing to tlie relief of 

the plaoo, they were met and routed^ with great loss ; 

when the garrison, despairing of assistance, submitted' to 

terms of capitulation. The surrender of this important 

post effectually cut otf the communication between Canada 

and Louisiana. 

0. *While these events were 
transpiring. General Wolle Mas 
prosecuting the more important 
part of the campaign, the siege 
of Quebec. f Having embarked 

* Auj- Xoi.r yO Xoo-ah'> is a smiUl isliuid in 
the ivivor Sore!, or Hiohelioii, a .*hort di-:::inM 
aboTe tlxe northern extremity of Lake Cham- 
plain. 

t Qiifbff. a strongly fortified city of Canada, 
is situated ou the X.W. side of the Rirer St. 
I^sxwTiMii-e, on a lofiy promontory formed by 
that river and the St. Charles. Tlie city con- 
sists of the Tpper and the Lower Town ; tie 
lattor on .a n;»rrv>vy strip of laud, wholly tho 
work of art. nesr the water's e^lgf : and tha 
former on a plain, difficult of access, mora 
tlian 2lX) feet hijiher. Cape Diamond, the most 
elevateil part of the Vpper Town, on whicb 
stiinds the citadel, i.^ 345 fe«t alxive the levet 
of the riTcr, and commands a grand vievr of 



k. Jaly 94 
1 July 2S. 




Part II.] THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. 281 

about 8000 men at Louisburg, under convoy of a fleet of 1759. 

22 ships of the Ime, and an equal number of frigates and 

small armed vessels, connnanded by Admirals Saunders inpofoen. 
and Holmes ; he safely landed* the army, near the end of "J^^ "i„'^ 
June, on the Isle of Orleans a few miles below Quebec, a. June 27. 
'The French forces, to the number of thirteen thousand lOisposiiion 

, , .' , of t>ie Prencit 

men, occupied the city, and a strong camp on the northern forces. 
shore of the St. Lawrence, between the rivers St. Charles 
and Montmorenci.* 

7. ^General Wolfe took possession'-- of Point Levi,'= ^fjj*'/^^' 
where he erected batteries which destroyed the Lower woifeadop- 
Town, but did little injury to the defences of the city. He b. June 30. 
soon after crossed the north channel of the St. Lawrence, =• ^^^JJ^P' 
and eucamped<* his army near the enemy's left, the river a July 10. 
Montmorenci lying between them. ^Convinced, however, 3 Daring 
of the impossibility of reducing the place unless he could »i«j;r resolved 
erect batteries nearer the city than Point Levi, he soon de- "^'"^ 
cided on more daring measures. He resolved to cross the 

St. Lawrence and the Montmorenci, with ditferent divisions, 
at the same time, and storm the mtrenchments of the 
French camp. 

8. *For this purpose, on the last day of July, the boats ^^j;^^^, 
of tlie fleet, tilled with grenadiers, and with troops from 

Point Levi, under the command of General Monckton, 
crossed the St. Lawrence, and, after considerable delay 
by grounding on the ledge of rocks, etfected a landing a July 31. 
little above the Montmorenci ; while Generals Townslipnd 
and l\furray, fordmg that stream at low water, near its 
mouth, hastened to the assistance of the troops already 
landed. ^JBut as the sranadiers rushed impetuously for- 5. Repuiie of 
ward without waiting for the troops that were to support cuers. 
them, they were driven back with loss, and obliged to 
seek shelter behind a redoubt which the enemy had aban- 
doned. "Here they were detained a while by a thunder s. htjoj eom- 
storm, still exposed to a galling fire ; when night ap- ^f/i^f, ^d 
proaching, and the tide setting in, a retreat was ordered. ^"^/^^ 
This unfortunate attempt was attended with the loss of 
nearly 500 men. 

9. "The bodily fatigues which General Wolfe had en- 7. sidcnessof 
dured, together with his recent disappointment, acting 

upon a frame naturally delicate, threw him into a violent 
fever ; and, for a time, rendered him incapable of taking 



an extensive tract of country. The fortifications of the tipper Town, extending nearly across 
the peninsula, inclose a circuit of about two miles and tliree-quarters. The Plains 0/ Abraham, 
immediately westward, and in front of the fortifications, rise to the height of more than 300 
feet, and are exceedingly difficult of access from the river. (Map.) 

* The Kiver Montmorenci enters the St. Lawrence from the N., about seven luiles below 
Quebec. The falls in this river, ne.ir its mouth, are justly celebrated for their beauty. The 
(rater descends 3iO feet in one unbroken sheet of foam. (Map, p. 280.) 

36 



282 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[Book II. 



ANALYSIS. 

1. Plan next 
proposed. 



2. Account cif 

the execution 

Oftlieplan 

adopted. 



3. Proceed- 
ings of Mont- 
calm. 



*. Theattack. 
a. Sept. 13. 



5. Circum- 
stances of the. 
deaths of the 
ttoo com- 
manders. 



6. The rela- 
tion contin- 
ued. 



the field in person. *He therefore called a council of his 
officers, and, requesting their advice, proposed a second 
attack on the French lines. They were of opinion, how- 
ever, that this was inexpedient, but proposed that the 
army should attempt a point above Quebec, where they 
might gain the heights which overlooked the city. The 
plan being approved, preparations were immediately made 
to cany it into execution. 

10. ''The camp at Montmorenci being broken up, the 
troops and artillery were conveyed to Point Levi ; and, 
soon after, to some distance above the city ; while Mont- 
calm's attention was still engaged with the apparent de- 
sign of a second attack upon his camp. All things being 
in readiness, during the night of the 12th of September, 
the troops in boats silently fell down the stream ; and, 
landing within a mile and a half of the city, ascended the 
precipice, — dispersed a few Canadians and Indians; and, 
when morning dawned, were drawn up in battle array on 
the plains of Abraham. 

11 ^Montcalm, surprised at this unexpected event, and 
perceiving that, unless the English could be driven from 
their position, Quebec was lost, immediately crossed the 
St. Charles with his whole army, and advanced to the 
attack. ''About nine in the morning fifteen hundred 
Indians and Canadians, advancing in front, and screened 
by surrounding thickets, began the battle ;^ but the Eng- 
lish reserved their fire for the main body of the French, 
then rapidly advancing ; and, when at the distance of 
forty yards, opened upon them with such effect as to com. 
pel them to recoil with confusion. 

12. ^Early in the battle General Wolfe received two 
wounds in quick succession, which he concealed, but, 
while pressing forward at the head of his grenadiers, with 
fixed bayonets, a third ball pierced his breast. Colonel 
Monckton, the second officer in rank, was dangerously 
wounded by his side, when the command devolved on 
Genei'al Townshend. The French general, Montcalm, 
likewise fell ; and his second in command was mortally 
wounded. General Wolfe died on the field of battle, but 
he lived long enough to be informed that he had gained 
the victory. 

13. ^Conveyed to the rear, and supported by a few at- 
tendants, while the agonies of death were upon him he 
heard the distant cry, " They run, they run." Raising 
his drooping head, the dying hero anxiously asked, " Who 
run ?" Being informed that it was the French, " Then," 
said he, " I die contented," and immediately expired. 
Montcalm lived to be carried into the city. When in- 



Part II.] THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. 283 

formed that his wound was mortal, " So much the better,' ITSO. 
he replied, "I shall not then live to witness the surrender ■ 

of Quebec." 

14. 'Five days after the battle the city surrendered,* i- surrender 
and received an English garrison, thus leaving Montreal a. sept. is. 
the only place of importance to the French, in Canada. 

"Yet in the following spring the French attempted tiie 1760. 
recovery of Quebec : and, after a bloody battle fought'' 2. Attempt to 

, ., , 1 • 1 1 T-< 1- 1 ^ • P • recover Qua- 

three miles above the city, drove the bnghsh to their lorti- bee. 
fications, from which they were relieved only by the arri- '' Apnias. 
val" of an English squadron with reenforcements. c. May le. 

15. ^During the season, General Amherst, tlie com- 3. capture of 
mander-in-chief, made extensive preparations for reducing ^^"ntrcai. 
Montreal. Three powerful armies assembled'' there by a. Sept. 6,7. 
different routes, early in September ; when the comman- 
der of the place, perceiving that resistance would be inef- 
fectual, surrendered,' not only Montreal, but all the other e. Sept. s. 
French posts in Canada, to his Britannic majesty. 

16. ^Early in the same year a war broke out with the i. Events cf 
powerful nation of the Cherokees, who had but recently, ^"fhlcnen-'* 
as allies of the French, concluded^ a peace with the Eng- }}fll}far''iTm. 
lish. General Amherst sent Colonel Montgomery against f. Sept. as, 
them, who, assisted by the Carolinians, burned^ many of g May'Aug. 
their towns ; but the Cherokees, in turn, besieged Fort 
Loudon,* and having compelled the garrison to capitu- 
late,'' afterward fell upon them, and either killed,' or car- h. Aug. 7. 
ried away prisoners, the whole party. ^In the following '■ Aug. s. 
year Colonel Grant marched into their country, — over- ^'ye^?uii. 
came them in battle,^ — destroyed their villages, — and J June 10. , 
drove the savages to the mountains ; when peace was 
concluded with them. 

17. "The war between France and England continued progr%'s'!^and 
on the ocean, and among the islands of the West Indies, «"<*,'i(''^« 

■11 n T-\i.i .i», war between 

with almost uniform success to the English, until 1763 ; Fmwceand 
when, on the 10th of February of that year, a definite 1753 
treaty was signed at Paris. 'France thereby surrendered ^_ wmp'os- 
to Great Britain all her possessions in North America, ^^^clTedl^' 
eastward of the Mississippi River, from its source to the ^''f",,^{^y^ 
river Iberville ;f and thence, through Lakes Maurepasij: Spain. 



wers 



* Fort Loudon was in the northeastern part of Tennessee, on the Watauga River, a stream 
which, rising in N. Carolina, flows westward into Tennessee, and unites with Holston Rirer. 
Fort Loudon was built in 1757, and was the first settlement in Tennessee, which was then in- 
cluded in the territory claimed by N. Carolina. 

t Iberville, an outlet of the Mississippi, leaves that river fourteen miles below Baton Rouge, 
and flowing E. enters Amite River, which falls into Lake Maurepas. It now receives water 
from the Mississippi only at high flood. In 1699 the French naval officer, Iberville, sailed up 
the Mississippi to this stream, which he entered, and thence passed through Lakes Maurepas 
and Pontchartrain to Mobile Bay. (See Uist. of Louisiana, p. 521.) 

t Maurepas is a lake about twenty miles in circumference, communicating with Lake Pont- 
chartrain on the E. by an outlet seven miles long. 



*. 



284 COLONIAL HISTORY. [Book H 

ANALYSIS, and Pontchartrain,* to the Gulf of Mexico. At the same 

time Spain, with whom England had been at war during 

the previous year, ceded to Great Britain her possessions 

of East and West Florida. f 

1. Peace of 18. 'The peace of 1763 was destined to close the se- 

we iiiay view rics of wars in which the American colonies were invol- 

^'t^^pc^t ved by their connection with the British empire. We 

may now view them as grown up to manhood, about to 

renounce the authority of the mother country — to adopt 

councils of their own — and to assume a new name and 

% Of the station among the nations of the earth. ''Some of the 

'"So i/i'if' causes which led to this change might be gathered from 
change. ^^^ foregoing historical sketches, but they will be devel- 
oped more fully in the following Appendix, and in the 
Chapter on the causes which led to the American Revo- 
lution. 



* Pontchartrain is a lake more than a hundred miles in circumference, the southern shore 
of which is about five miles N. from New Orleans. The passage by which it communicates 
with Lake Borgne on the E. is called T/ie Rigolets. (See Map, p. 438.) 

t That part of the country ced«d by Spain was divided, by the English monarch, into the 
governments of East and West Florida. East Florida included all embraced in the present 
I'lorida, as far W, as the Apalachicola River. West Florida extended from the Apalachicola 
to the Mississippi, and was bounded on the N. by the 31st degree of latitude, and on the S. by 
the Gulf of Mexico, and a line drawn through Lakes Pontchartrain and Maurepas, and the 
Kivers Amite and Iberville, to the Mississippi. Thus those parts of the states of Alabama and 
Mississippi which extend from the Slst degree down to the Gulf of Mexico, were included ia 
West Florida. 



I 



APPENDIX 

TO THE COLONIAL HISTORY. 

1. ifiefore we proceed to a relation of the immediate causes james i. 
which led to the American Revolution, and the exciting incidents 1603—1625. 
of that struggle, we request the reader's attention, in accordance j Qenerai 
with the design previously explained, to a farther consideration of character and 
such portions of European history as are intimately connected with ^Appemiix!^ 
our own dui'ing the period we have passed over in the preceding 

pages ; — in connection with which we purpose to examine farther 
more of the internal relations, character, condition, and social 
progress of the American people during their colonial existence. 

2. ^At the close of the " Appendix to the period of Voyages and 2. Pr&viom 
"Discoveries" we gave an account of the origin, early history, and ""'^puritafj^'* 
character of the puritan party in England,, some of whose members 

became the first settlers of several of the M)rth American colonies. 

^We now go back to England for the purpose of following out in s. Continua- 

their results the liberal principles of the puritan sects, as they tiopof tiieir 

afterwards atfected the character and destiny both of the English 

nnd the American people. 

3. 40n the accession of James the First to the throne of Eng- james i. 
land, in the year 1603, the church party and the puritan party 1603—1625. 
began to assume more of a political character than they had ex- 4- Character 
hibited during the reign of Elizabeth. The reign of that princess "{/^""^o/ 
had been favorable to intellectual advancement ; the Reformation t/i^ accessian 
had infused new ideas of liberty into the minds of the people ; "■f-'"'"'^ ^• 
and as they had escaped, in part, from the slavery of spiritual 
despotism, a general eagerness was manifested to carry their prin- 
ciples farther, as well in politics as in religion. 

4. 5The operation of these principles had been in part restrained 5. political 
by the general respect for the government of Elizabeth, which, aspect of the 
however, the people did not accord to that of her successor ; and troversies. 
the spell being once broken, the spirit of party soon began to 

rage with threatening violence. That which, in the time of Eliza- 
beth, was a controversy of divines about religious faith and wor- 
ship, now became a political contest between the crown and the 
people. 

5. sThe puritans rapidly increased in numbers, nor was it long e. increase of 
before they became the ruling party in the House of Commons, the puritans 
where, although they did not always act in concert, and although and injiu- 
their immediate objects were various, yet their influence constantly ^"■'^^• 
tended to abridge the prerogatives of the king, and to increase the 

power of the people.* '^Some, whose minds were absorbed with the 7. Their vaH- 
desire of carrying out the Reformation to the farthest possible ""* "jiJects,^ 
extent, exerted themselves for a reform in the church: others at- dency of their 
tacked arbitrary courts of justice, like that of the Star-chamber, fl'orts. 
and the power of arbitrary imprisonment exercised by officers of 

* The appellation " puritan" now stood for three parties, which though commonly united, 
tvere yet actuated Iiy very different views and motives. " There were the political puritans, 
•who maintained the highest prim'iples of civil liberty ; the puritans in discipline, who were 
averse to the ceremonies .and episcopal government of the church ; and the doctrinal puritans, 
who rigidly defended the speculative system of the first reformers." — Hume. 



28b APPENDIX TO THE COLONIAL IDSTORY. [Book H, 

ANALYSIS, the crown, — but yet the efforts of all had a common tendency ; — 

the principles of democracy were contending against the powers 

of despotism. 

1. The policy 6. ^The arbitrary principles of government which James had 
qf James, adopted, rather than his natural disposition, disposed him to exert 

all the influence which his power and station gave him, in favor of 
the established church system, and in opposition to the puritan 
party * Educated in Scotland, where presbyterianism prevailed, 
he had observed among the Scoth reformers a strong tendency 
towards republican principles, and a zealous attachment to civil 
liberty, and on his accession to the throne of England he was re- 
solved to prevent, if possible, the growth of the sect of puritans in 

2. HoK' par- that country. 2Yet his want of enterprise, his pacific disposition, 
'^we^^' ^^^ ^^^ ^°^^ of personal ease, rendered him incapable of stemming 

the torrent of liberal principles that was so strongly setting against 
the arbitrary powei's of royalty. 

3. The anom- 7- ^The anomalies of the character of James present a curious 
aUesofhis compound of contradictions. Hume says: "His generosity bor- 
dered on profusion, his Jearning on pedantry, his pacific dispo- 
sition on pusillanimity, his wisdom on cunning, his friendship 
on light fancy and boyish fondness." " All his qualities were 
sullied with weakness, and embellished by humanity." Lingard 
says of him ; •• His discourse teemed with maxims of political wis- 
dom ; his conduct frequently bore the impress of political folly. 
Posterity has agreed to consider him a weak and prodigal king, a 
vain and loquacious pedant.'' His English flatterers called him 
'the British Solomon;" the Duke of Sully says of him, '-He was 
the wisest fool in Europe." 

4. The reign S. *The reign of this prince is chiefly memorable as being the 
of James period in which the first English colonies were permanently 

for ivhat. planted in America. ^Hume. speaking of the eastern American 
6. Hume's re- coast in reference to the colonies planted there during the reign of 
"mTtofhe J'l'ioes, says : " Peopled gradually from England by the necessitous 
American and indigent, who at home increased neither wealth nor populous- 
co omes. jiggg^ tjjg colonies which were planted along that tract have pro- 
moted the navigation, encouraged the industry^ and even perhaps 
multiplied the inhabitants of their mother country. The spirit of 
independence, which was revived in England, here shone forth in 
its full lustre, and received new accessions from the aspiring 

* An extract from Hallam showing the different tenets and practices of the opposing religious 
parties at this time, and the disposition of James needlessly to harass the puritans may he in- 
teresting to the reader The puritans, as is well known, practiced a very strict ohservance of 
the Sabbath, a term which, instead of iSunday. became a distinctive mark of the puritan party. 
We quote, as a matter of historical interest, the following : — 

" Those who opposed them (the puritans) on tlie high church side, not only derided the ex- 
travagance of the Sabbatiirians, as the others were called, but pretended that the command- 
ment having been confined to the Hebrews, the modern observance of the lirsfc day of the week 
as a season of rest and devotion was an ecclesiastical institution, and in no degree more vene- 
rable than that of the other festivals or the season of Lent, which the puritans stubbornly 
despised. Such a controversy might well have been left to the usual weapons. But James, or 
some of the bishops to whom lie listened, bethought themselves that this might serve as a test 
of puritan ministers. He published accordingly a declaration to be read in the churches, per- 
mitting all la\vful recreations on Sunday after divine service, such as dancing, archery, 31a}- 
games, and morrice-dances, and other usual sports ; but with a prohibition of bear-baiting, 
and other unlawful games. No recusant, or any one who had not attended the church .service, 
was entitled to this privilege ; which might consequently he regarded as a bounty on devotion. 
The severe puritan saw it in no such point of view. To his cynical temper, May-games and 
morrice-dances were hardly tolerable on six days of the week ; they were now recouniiended 
for the seventh. And this impious license wiis to be promulgated in the church itself. It ia 
indeed difficult to explain so unnecessary an insult on the precise clergy, but by supposing an 
intention to harass those who should refuse compliance." The declaration, however, was not 
enforced till the following reign. The puritan clergy, who then refused to read this declara- 
tion in their churches, were punished by suspension or deprivation. 



Part 11.] APPEXDIX TO THE COLOXL\L HISTORY. 287 

character of those who. being discontented with the established james i. 

church and monarchy, had sought for freedom amidst those savage 160S— 1^5- 
deserts." 

9. L\n account of the planting of several of the American colo- i. Theking 
nies during the reign of James has elsewhere been given. The {mer&ancoi- 
king, being from the first fovorable to the project of American col- onization. 
onization. readily acceded to the wishes of the projectors of the 

first plans of settlement ; but in all the charters which he granted, 
his arbitrary maxims of government are discernible. -By the first a. jjis arln- 
charter of Virginia, the emigrants were subjected to a corporation """^ poUc;/, 
in England, called the London Company, over whose deliberations thsfirn"vir- 
they had no influence ; and even this corporation possessed merely sinia char- 
administrative, rather than legislative powers, as all supreme legis- 
lative authority was expressly reserved to the king. The most 
valuable political privilege of Englishmen was thus denied to the 
early colonists of Virginia. 

10. 3By the second charter, granted in 1609, the authority of the 3. charaeter 
corporation was increased by the surrender of those powers which of the second^ 
the king had previously reserved to himself, yet no additional "'" charier. "^'* 
privileges were conceded to the people. The same indifference to 

the political rights of the latter are observable in the third charter, 
granted in 1612. although by it the enlarged corporation assumed 
ft more democratic form, and. numbering among its members many 
of the English patriots, was the cause of finally giving to the Vir- 4. connection 
ginia colonists those civil liberties which the king would still have betweinEns- 
denied them. ■tHere is the first connection that we observe be- 'dime, "and 
tween the spirit of English independence and the cause of freedom /^««^«t" »'" 
in the New World. ivori^ 

11. sAfter the grant of the third charter of Virginia, the meet- 5. The ton- 
ings of the London Company were frequent, and numerously at- ''°? Company 
tended. Some of the patriot leaders in parliament were among cause of 
the members, and in proportion as their principles were opposed freedom. 
by the high church and monarchy party at home, they engaged 

with the more earnestness in schemes for advancing the liberties of 
Vii-ginia. In 1621 the Company, after a violent struggle among its 
own members, and a successful resistance of royal interference, pro- 
ceeded to establish a liberal written constitution for the colony, by 
which the system of representative government and trial by jury 
were established — the supreme powers of legislation were conceded 
to a colonial legislature, with the reserve of a negative voice to the 
governor appointed by the company — and the courts of justice 
were requiretl to conform to the laws of England. 

12. *• Thus early,"' says Grahame, -was planted in America that 6. Remarks qf 
representative system which forms the soundest political frame ^a>^>ne- 
wherein the spirit of liberty was ever imbodied. and at once the 

safest and most efficient organ by which its energies are exercised 
and developed. So strongly imbued were the minds of English- 
men in this age with those generous principles which were rapidly 
advancing to a first manhood in their native country, that wherever 
they settled, the institutions of freedom took root and grew up 
along with them."' "Although the government of the Virginia 7. Perma- 
colony was soon after taken into the hands of the king, yet the "^"'^/■^'q.'' 
representative system established there could never after be sub- tiresyftemin 
verted, nor the colonial assemblies suppressed. Whenever the V'''^"^- 
rights of the people were encroached upon by arbitrary enact- 
ments, their representatives were ready to reassert them ; and thus 
a channel was ever kept open for the expression of the public eriev- 
ances. The colonial legislature, in all the trials throusrh which it 



288 



APPENDIX TO THE COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[Book IL 



ANALYSIS. 

1. Failure, of 
the schemes qf 
the Plymuuth 
Conipmiij at 
colonization. 



2 Remarks of 
Grahame on 
this subject. 



3. Applica- 
tion of tlie 
puritans for 
the favor of 
king James. 



4. Their par- 
tial success. 



5 The pro- 
gress thus far 
made 
6, Death of 
.lames the 

First 

a. March 27, 

old style. 

CHARLES 1 

1628—1649. 

f. Succession 
vf Charles J. 
H's charac- 
ter, policy, 
andfall. 



afterwards passed, ever proved itself a watchful guardian of the 
cause of liberty. 

13. iThe charters granted by king James, in 160C, to the Lon- 
don and Plymouth companies, were embraced in one and the same 
instrument, and the forms of government designed for the projected 
colonies were the same. After various attempts at colonization, 
the Plymouth company, disheartened by so many disappointments, 
abandoned the enterprise, limiting their own efforts to an insigniii- 
cant traffic with the natives, and exercising no farther dominion 
over the territory than the disposition of small portions of it to pri- 
vate adventurers, who, for many years, succeeded no better in at- 
tempts at settlement than the Company had done before them. In 
reference to the seemingly providential failure of all these schemes 
for planting colonies in New England, we subjoin the following ap- 
propriate remarks from Grahame. 

14. 2" We have suificient assurance that the course of this world 
is not governed by chance ; and that the series of events which it 
exhibits is regulated by divine ordinance, and adapted to purposes 
which, from their transcendent wisdom and infinite range, often 
elude the grasp of created capacity. As it could not, then, be with- 
out design, so it seems to have been for no common object that dis- 
comfiture was thus entailed on the counsels of princes, the schemes 
of the wise, and the efforts of the brave. It was for no oidinai-y 
people that the land was reserved, and of no common qualities or 
vulgar superiority that it was ordained to be the prize. New 
England was the destined asylum of oppressed piety and virtue ; 
and its colonization, denied to the pretensions of greatness and the 
efforts of might, was reserved for men whom the great and mighty 
despised for their insignificance, and persecuted for their in- 
tegrity." 

15. 3After the puritans had determined to remove to America, 
they sent agents to king James, and endeavored to obtain his ap- 
proval of their enterprise. With characteristic simplicity and 
honesty of purpose they represented to him "that they were well 
weaned from the delicate milk of their mother country, and inured 
to the difliculties of a strange land; that they were knit together 
in a strict and sacred bond, by virtue of which they held themselves 
bound to take care of the good of each othei', and of the whole ; that 
it was not with them as with other men, whom small things could 
discourage, or small discontent cause to wish themselves at home 
again." ■'All, however, that could be obtained from the king, who 
refused to grant them a charter for the full enjoyment of their re- 
ligious privileges, was the vague promise that the English govern- 
mont should refrain from molesting them, 

16. "We have thus passed rapidly in review the more prominent 
events in English history connected with the planting of the first 
American colonies during the reign of James the First. ^He died 
in lG25,a "the first sovereign of an established empire in America," 
just as he was on the point of composing a code of laws for the do- 
mestic administration of the Virginia colony. 

17. ■'James was succeeded by his only son, Charles the First, then 
in the 2.5th year of his age. Inheriting the arbitrary principles 
of his father ; coming to the throne when a revolution in public opin- 
ion in relation to the royal prerogative, the powers of parliament, 
and the liberty of the subject was rapidly progressing: and desti- 
tute of the prudence and foresight which the critical emergencies 
of the times required in him, he persisted in arrogantly opposing 
the many needed reforms demanded by the voice of the nation. 



Part II.] APPENDIX TO THE COLONIAL HISTORY. 289 

until, finally, he was brought to expiate his folly, patlier than his chahi.es i. 
crimes, on the scaffold. 1625—1649. 

18. 'The accession of Charles to the throne was immediately fol- , j^^ g^j-iy 
lowed by difficulties with his parliament, which refused to grant amtroversies 
him the rceiuisite supplies for carrying on a war* in which the for- ^"uanteeu!"' 
mer king and parliament had involved the nation. Irritated by 

the opposition which he encountered, he committed many indiscre- 
tions, and engaged in numerous controversies with the parliament, 
in which he was certain of being finally defeated. He caused a 
peer of the realm, who had become obnoxious to him, to be accused 
of high treason, because he insisted on his inalienable right to a 
seat in iiarliament: the commons, in return, proceeded to impeach 
the Idng's favorite minister, the duke of Buckingham. — Tlie king 
retaliated by imprisoning two members of the house, whom, how- 
ever, the exasperation of the commons soon compelled him to release. 

19. ^Seemingly unaware of the great influence which the com- ^Hitcoru- 
mons exerted in the nation, he embraced every o,jportunity of ex- ^"^''^^;^%'g 
pressing his contempt for them, and, at length, ventured to use to- against tiie 
war<ls them the irritating threat, that, if they did not furnish him cormnons. 
M'ith sujiplies to carry on the wars in which he was engaged, he 

should be obliged to try ncAV councils; meaning, thereby, that he 
would rule without their assistance. ^ The commons, however, con- 3. Ob?tinaci/ 
tinned obstinate in their purposes, and the king proceeded to put ofthsmnr 
his threat in execution. He dissolved'^ the parliament, and. in re- arbitrary 
venge for the unkind treatment which he had received from it, '^i^^l^lJ^J 
thought himself justified in making an invasion of the rights and j^ j^^^ j^js. 
liberties of the whole nation. A general loan or tax was levied on 
the people, and the king employed the whole power of his preroga- 
tive, in fines and imprisonments, to enforce the payment. 

20. ■^Unsuccessful in his foreign wars, in great want of supplies, 4. Kingobii- 
and beginning to apprehend danger from the discontents which his f,^na"new 
arbitrary loans had occasioned, he found himself under the necessity parliament. 
of agiin summoning a parliament. An answer to his demand for 1629. 
supplies was delayed until some important concessions were obtained 

from him. s^\ftet. the commons had unanimously declared, by vote, 5 Conces- 
against the legality of arbitrary imprisonments and forced loans, ^^"frmnlfiT^ 
they prepared a •■ Petition of Right,'' setting forth the rights of the king. 
English people, as guarantied to them by the Great Charter,*' and b. See p. 139. 
by various laws and statutes of the realm; for the continuance of 
which they required of the king a ratification of their petition. 
After frequent evasions and delays, the king finally gave his assent 
to the petition, which thus became law, and the commons then 
granted the requisite supplies, ^gut in a few months the obliga- e. Violated by 
tions imposed on the king by his sanction of the petition were reck- '"'"■ 
lessly violated by him. 

21. 'In 1G29, some arbitrary measures of taxation occasioned a ">■ Dissolution 
gre<\t ferme It in parliament, and led to its abrupt dissolution. *The mtnt"' 
king then gave the nation to understand that, during his reign, he 1629 
intended to summon no more parliament.s. Monopolies were now g KinH's in- 
revived to a ruinous extent : duties of tonnage and poundage were te.nti/jn>t~ 
rigorously extorted ; former oppressive statutes for obtaining money arUa-ar'ytZ- 
were enforced ; and various illegal expedients were devised for tiM- oppress- 
levying taxes and giving them the' color of law ; and numbers of fi^'"^ 



* A war undertaken originally against .\u.stria, in aij of a German prince, Frederick, the 
elector palatine, who had married a sister of (Jharle.s. This war afterwards involved Spain and 
France against England. 



37 



290 APPENDIX TO THE COLONIAL HISTORY. [Book IL 

ANALYSIS, the most distinguished patriots, "who refused to pay, Trere subjected 
— ~ to fines and imprisonment* 

1. The. ca»e of 22. In the year 1G37. the distinguished patriot, John Hampden, 
John Hump- rendered his name illustrious by the bold stand which he made 

against the tyranny of the government. Denying the legality of 
the tax called ship-money, and refusing to pay his portion, ho wil- 
lingly submitted to a legal pi-osecution, and to the indignation 
of his monarch, in defence of the laws and liberty of his country. 
The case was argued before all the supreme judges of England, 
twelve in number, and although a majority of tv/o decided against 
Hampden, yet the people were aroused from their lethargy, and 
became sensible of the danger to which their liberties were exposed. 

2. Ecde'iiastf- 23. ^The ecclesiastical branch of Charles's government was n» 
cat policy of Jess arbitrary than the civil. Seemingly to annoy the puritans. 

he revised and enforced his father's edict for allowing sports and 
recreations on Sunday ; and those divines who refused to read, ir 
their pulpits, his proclamation for that purpose, were punished bj 
suspension or deprivation. The penalties against Catholics werf 
relaxed ; many new ceremonies and observances, preludes, as tlie^ 
wei'e termed; to popish idolatries, were introduced into the church 
and that too, at a tinae when the sentiments of the nation were de- 
cidedly of a puritan character. The most strict conformity iii 
religious worship was required, and such of the clergy as neg 
lected to observe every ceremony, were excluded from the minis- 
try. Severe punishments were inflicted upon those who inveighed 
against the established cliui-ch ; and the ecclesiastical courts wer^ 
exalted above the civil, and above all law but that of their ow?". 
creation.! 
1637. 24. 3Charles next attempted to introduce the liturgy of the Eng 

z Cormmiiions lish church into Scotland ; a measure which immediately produced 
""'^Scotiand^'^ a most violent commotion. This liturgy was regarded by th'i 
Scotch Presbyterians as a species of mass — a preparative that wa'i 
soon to introduce, as was thought, all the abominations of poperj 
The populace and the higher classes at once united in the common 
cause: the clergy loudly declaimed against popery and the liturgj , 

* Immediately after the di.ssolution of parliament, Richard Chambers, au alderman of Lon- 
don, and an eminent merchant, refused to p.ay a tax illegally imposed upon him, and appealed 
to the public justice of his country. Being svmimoned before the kind's council, and remark- 
ing there that " tlie merchants of England were as much screwed up as in Turkey,'" he wa.-; 
fined two thousand pounds, and doomed to imprisonment till he made a submission. Uefusing 
to degrade himself in this way, and thus become an instrument fiir destroying the vitiil prin- 
ciples of the constitution, he was thrown into prison, where he remained ujjwards of twelve 
years. — Brodie. 

t As an instance of " cruel and unusual punishments," sometimes inflicted during this reign, 
we notice the following. One Leighton, a fanatical puritan, having written an inflammatory 
book against prelacy, was condemned to be degraded from the ministry ; to be publicly whipped 
in the palace yard ; to be placed two hours in the pilloi-y ; to have an ear cut off, a nostril slit 
open, and a cheek branded with the letters SS., to denote a sower of sedition. At the expira- 
tion of a week he lost the remaining I'ar, ha I the other nostril slit, and the other cheek branded, 
after which he was condemned to bo immured in prison for life. At the end of ten years he 
obtained his liberty, from pjirliaraent, then in arms against the king. — IJn^nrd. Such cases, 
occurring in Old England, remind us of the tortures inflicted by American savages on theii 
prisoners. 

The following is mentioned by Hume. One Prynn, a zealot, who had written a book of in- 
vectives against all plays, games, &c., and those who countenance! them, was indicted a-s a 
libeller of the king and queen, who frequented plays, and condemned by the arbitrary court 
of the star-chamber to lose both his ears, pay five thousand pounds, and be imprisoned for life. 
For another similar libel he was condemned to pay au additional five thousand pounds, and 
lose the remainder of his ears. As he presented the mutilated stumps to the hangu)an"s knife, 
he called out to the crowd, " Christians stand fast ; be faithful to (iod and jour country ; of 
you bring on yourselves and your children perpetvial slavery.'' '' The dungeon, the pillory, 
nnd the scaffold," says Bancroft, " were but stages in the progress of civil liberty towards its 
triumph." 



Part U.] APPENDIX TO THE COLONIAL HISTORY. 291 

^hich they represented as the same : a bond, termed a National charles i. 
Covenant, containing an oath of resistance to all religious innova- 1625—1649. 
tions, was subscribed by all classes ; and a national assembly for- . 
mally abolished Episcopacy, and declared the English canons and -lotJo. 
liturgy to be unlawful. Un support of these measures the Scotch i War. 
covenanters took up arms, and, after a brief truce, marched into 1639, 
England. 

25. 2After an intermission of above eleven years, an English a Parliament 
parliament was again summoned. ^Charles made some conccs- "i^ain sum- 
sions, but failing to obtain supplies as readily as he desired, the ifj^n 
parliament was abruptly dissolved, to the general discontent of the ?, 
nation.* ^New elections were held, and another parliament was dmn/uaon of 
assembled.a but this proved even more obstinate than the former, parliament. 
sStrafford, the kings favorite general, and late lieutenant of Ire- ■^anianmu 
land, and Laud, archbishop of Canterbury, the two most powerful „ -^^^ 3 
and most favored ministers of the Idng, were impeached by the com- "''i styie.' 
mons for the crime of high treason. Strafford was brought to trial ?• Proceed- 
immediately, was declared guilty by the House of Peers, and by the purUament 
unusual expedient of a bill of attaindert was sentenced to execu- 1641. 
lion.'' Laud was brought to trial and executed four years later. 1,. Executed 
6The eloquence and ability with which Stratford defended himself, May '2, 
have given to his fall, in the eyes of many, the appearance of a tri- ^ p^fl ^^d. 
umph, and have rendered him somewhat illustrious as a supposed character of 
martyr to his country ; and yet true history shows him to have ^'rafford. 
been the adviser and willing instrument of much of that tyran- 
nical usurpation which finally destroyed the monarch whom he 
designed to serve.J 

26. Trom this period, parliament having once gained the ascen- 7. Encroach- 
dency, and conscious of the suppoi't of the people, continued to »"«"'« 0/ par- 
encroach on the prerogatives of the king, until scarcely the shadow t)ie preros^a- 
of his former power was left him. Already the character of the ticesofine 
British constitution had been changed from a despotic government 

to a limited monarchy, and it would probably have been well if 
here the spirit of reform had firmly established it. ^Yet one con- g continued 
cession was immediately followed by the demand of another, until demands of 
parliament finally required the entire conti'ol of the military force and .final re- 
of the nation, when Charles, conscious that if he yielded this point, *'^'""?*°-^ 
there would be left him "only the picture — the mere sign of a °' 

king," ventured to put a stop to his concessions, and to remove 
from London with most of the nobilitj'. ^It was now evident that 9. Prepara 
the sword alone must decide the contest: both parties made the ''"ns/orioar. 
most active preparations for the coming struggle, Avhilc each en- 
deavored to thi'ow upon the other the odium of commencing it.§ 

* During the short recess that followed, the Convocation, an ecclesiastical assembly of arch- 
bishops, bisliops, and inferior clergy, continued in session. Of their many imprudent measures 
during this period, when Puritanism was already in the ascendant in the parliament, we quote 
the following from Lingard. " It was ordered, (among other canons,) that every clergyman, 
once in each quarter of the year, should instruct his parishioners in the divine right of kings, 
and the damnable sin of resistance to authority."' 

t A hill of attainder was a special act of parliament, inflicting capital punishment, without 
any conviction in the ordinary course of judicial proceedings. By the third clause of Section 
IX. Article I. of the Constitution of the United States, it is declared that " No bill of attain- 
der, or ex post facto law, (a law declaring a past act crimin.al that was not criminal when done,) 
shall be passed." 

} Hume's account of the trial of Strafford, has been shown to be, in many particulars, erro- 
neous, and prejudiced in his favor ; and his opinion of the Earl's innocence has been dissented 
from by some very able subsequent writers. See Brodie's extended and circumstantial account 
of this important trial. 

^ The follomng remarks of Lingard present an impartial view of the real objects for which 
this war wa.s undertaken, and answer the question, ' Who were the authors of it V 

" The controversy between the king and his opponents no longer regarded the real liberties 



292 



APPEXDIX TO THE COLOXUL HISTORY. 



[Book II. 



A\ALYSJ3. 

1. Point a: 
teMcA irtf 
MtK note 
mrrictii. 
3. 3tanMc:s- 
msiffmraa- 



eranr.- teArn 



». CtrHwcr. 
mtiesecm- 



3.0U3tHe. 



^pmriim- 



Urngmri. 



iLQfBritan. 



Gtaraencrsf 
Ohvl«s. 



'2T. ^Here then vre have arrived at the f-ri^wjti/i^ of that crisis in 
English historv. to which all the civil, religious, and political c^n- 
troversies of the nation had been tending since the c>.">nimeni:ement 
of the Reformation. *The various contiicting sects and parties, 
for a while overlooking their minor differences, now arrangel them- 
selves in two grand divisions, having on the one side the Presbvte- 
rian dissenters, then a numerous p^wtv. and all ultra religious :uid 
political reformers, headed by the parliament : and on the other 
the high church :\nd monarchy partv. embracing the Catholics and 
most of the nobility, headed by the king. ^This appeal to arms, we 
have sud, w:vs the c-fifutvig of the crisis : the conclusion was fifty 
years later, when, at the close of the revolution of 16SS, the pres- 
ent principles of the British constitution were permanently estab- 
lished, by the declaration of rights which w;is luinexed to the set- 
tlement of the crown on tie prince and princess of Orange. 

■2S. *From 1642 to 1647 civil war continued, and many impor- 
tant kittles were fought : after which the nation continued to be 
distracted by C-^'ntending factions until the close of 164S, when the 
king, having fallen into the hands of the parliament;kry forces. 
THIS tried for the crime of "levying war against the parliament and 
kingdom of England." and being convicted on this novel charge of 
treason, was executed on the 30th^ of January. 164^. ^parliament 
had. ere this, fallen entirely under the influence of the army, then 
commanded by Oliver Cromwell, the principal general of the re- 
publictui. or puritanical party. 

•39. *For the death of the king no justification can be made, for 
no consideration of public necessity required it. Xor ctin this act 
be attributed to the venge;uice of the people, 'Lingt\rd says that 
' the people, for the most port were even willing to replace Charles 
oa the throne, under those limitations which they deemed necessary 
for the preservation of their rights. The men who hurrie-i him to 
the sc:\ffold were a small faction of bold and ambitious spirits, who 
had the address to guide the ptissions and fanaticism of their fol- 
lowers, and were enabled, through them, to control the real senti- 
ments of the nation." ^HivTIam asserts that the most powerful mo- 
tive that influenced the regicides was a " fierce fanatic?J hatred of 
the king, the natural frtiit of long civil dissensions, inflamed by 
preachers more d:\rk and sanguinary than those they addresed. 
and by a perverted study of the Jewish scriptures," 

30. 'Hume, whose political prejudices have induced him to speak 



«f Sie mtioD, wfakh had alrMdv been e$»blidi«d br g a t wiatJn? acts cf die legisljkcare. bat was 
coofined to cotun eonces^iori:; which M<rii demanded as essential tti the pRSnratiOQ of tfacee 
mieities. and which ie refused, as subversiTe of the roj-ai authoriiy. That some securities 
were iei;aisite no one doiied ; bat while manv contended that the codctcI of the poblic monev, 
die power of impeacbnent. and dte ri^t of meeting everr third year, ail which w«ie new 
vested in the P aiBm qit. iunaed a snfi^eot barrier against aacxoaehinents on the part of the 
so^en^gn. otbns in.sy»>1 that tbe command of the annr, and dte ap twiuU nent of the jad$e$. 
nwsht also to be transferred to the two hotges. ^''"---^— of ofaion prodooed a$chtsm amoos 
die patriots : the more moderate alently wi:. .e royal standard. — cbe moi« violent, 

or more distmstfal, resotied to driend their 0-. .:. „ ^ the svord. It has of:en been asked, 
TTho were uie authors of the civil war .' The answer seems to depend on the sotntion of thi? 
other qQe>t2on. Were additional secanoes necessary &^r the pie9»Tation of die natioaal r^rhts ' 
If they were, the blame will bdong to Charles : if cot, it ntt^t rest with his adTiersaries," 
w«it«ni ha^ the tbllowin;; remarks on the character of the twv parties after the war com- 
neaeed. — " If it were diScnlt <br an npri^t man to emlst vidi entire vulingnss under etthtr 
Oe roya&t or parfiamentary banner, at^tfae conmeseeneBt of hostilities in K&. it became 
ftr less easy fbr torn to de^re the complete aaecess of one or die other eanse. tts adtaneiag 
time (fisptayed the faults of bodi in darker ctdots than they had prerioasly worn. — Of the Par^ 
fiuaent it may be said, with not ^renter severity than tradi. that ftarcety two or three pubtie 
ac6s of justice, horaanity or g c tiguijtf . and lery few cf ptrisieal w is d om or coarse are le- 
Mtded of tfa^B fom their qwrnl -nth the kin; to Omar eqMlaon by Oooavi^" 



Part II.] 



APPENDIX TO THE COLONIAL HISTORY. 



293 



more favorably, than other •writers, of the princes of the Stuart 
family, attributes to Charles a much greater predominance of vir- 
tues than of vices, and palliates his errors by what he calls his 
fi'ailties and weaknesses, and the malevolence of his fortunes, 
iplad Charles lived a hundred years earlier, when the claims of the 
I'oyal prerogative were undisputed and unquestioned, his govern- 
ment, although arbitrary, might have been a happy one for his 
people ; but he was illy adapted to the time^ in which he lived. 

31. -During the reign of Charles, the English government, mostly 
absorbed with the internal affairs of the kingdom, paid little atten- 
tion to the American colonies. During the war with France, in 
the Ciirly part of this reign, the French possessions in Nova Scotia 
and Canada were easily reduced by the English, yet by the treaty 
of St. Germains, in iGJ2, Charles, with little consideration of the 
value of these conquests, agreed to restore them, ^j-j.jj not the 
earnest counsels of Champlain. the founder of Quebec, prevailed 
with his monarch. Louis XIII.. France would then have abandoned 
these distant possessions, whose restoration was not thought worth 
insisting upon.* 

32. ^In his colonial policy towards Virginia, Charles adopted the 
maxims that had regulated the conduct of his father. Declaring 
that the misfortunes of Virginia were owing, in a great measure, to 
the democratical frame of the civil constitution which the London 
Company had given it. he expressed his intention of taking the gov- 
ernment of that colony into his own han^ls ; but although he ap- 
pointed the governors and their council of advisers, the colonial 
assembly was apparently overlooked as of little consequence, and 
allowed to remain, ^xhe great aim of the king seemed to be, to 
monopolize the profits of the industry of the colonists; and while 
absorbed with this object, which he could never fully accomplish, 
and overwhelmed with a multiplicity of cares at home, the political 
rights of the Virginians became established by his neglect. 

33. ^The relations of Charles with the Puritan colonies of New 
England, tbrm one of the most interesting portions of our colonial 
history, both on account of the subsequent importance of thos-? col- 
onies, and the exceeding liberality of conduct manifested towards 
them by the king. — so utterly irreconcilable with all his well known 
maxims of arbicrarj- authority. — and directly opposed to the whole 
policy of his government in England, and to the disposition which 
he exhibited in his relations with the Virginia colonists. "The 
reader will, perhaps, be surprised to learn that Charles the First 
acted, indirectly at least, as the early friend of the liberties of New 
England, and the patron of the Puritan settlements. 

34. *In the last year of the reign of James, the project of another 
Puritan settlement on the shore of iNLissachusetts Bay hid been 
formed by Mr. White, a non-conforniisc minister of Dorchester ; 
and, although the first attempt was in part frustrated, it led, a few 
years later, to the founding of the Massachusetts Bay colony. By 
the zeal and activity of "White, an association of Puritans was 
formed ; a tract of territory was purchased of the Plymouth Com- 
pany, and. in 16'28. a small body of planters was despatched to 
Massachusetts, under the charge of John Endicott, one of the lead- 



CHARLES L 

1625—1649. 



I. True state 
of the case. 



2. Relations 
of England 
witli her 
American 
colonies du- 
ring his 
leign. 



3. Little 

value which 

France, at 

this time, 

attached to 

her American 

possessions. 

4. Colonial 
policy of 
Charles 
towards Vir- 
ginia. 



5 Great aim 

of the king : 

results. 



6 The rela- 
tions nf 
Charles 
with the 
Puritancolo- 
we.s of yew 
England 



7 Surprising 
fact. 



8. Circum- 
."tances at- 
tending the 
founding of 
the .Massachu- 
aefti Bay 
Colony. 



* " It is remarkable that the French were doubtful whether they should reclaim Canada 
from the Engliiih, or leave it to them. Many were of opinion that it wag better to keep the peo- 
ple in France, and employ them in all sorts of manufactures, which would oblige the othei 
European powers who had colonies in America to bring their raw goods to French ports, and 
take French manufactures in return." — KaUn's Travels in N'orth .\merica 



294 APPENDIX TO THE COLONXU. mSTOR\ . [Book IL 

ANALYSIS, ing projectors. Some opulent commercial men of London, who 
■ openly professed or secretly favored the tenets of the Puritans, Trere 

induced to join in the enterprise: and they pei"suaded their asso- 
ciates to unite with them in an application to the king for a charter 
of incorpon\tion. 
uanrptitvi^ 35. 1 rhe readiness with which the king yielded to their appli- 
'S«i-»^'^ csition, and the liberal tenor of the charter thus obtmned. are per- 
fectly unaccountable, except upon the supposition that the king 
was iinsious, at this time, to relieve his kingdom of the religious 
and p(..litic:\l agitators of the Puritan party, by opening for them 
2 tnetmsist- *ui asylum in a foreign land. -While attempting to divest the Vir- 
Meietiniiis ginians of m:uiy of their rights, he made a free gift of the same to 
the "Governor and Compjiuy of Massachusetts Bay." although he 
had but i-ecently declareil. in the c;tse of Virgini.i. that a chartered 
incorpoi-ation w;is totally unfit to manage the afftiirs of a remote 
colony, yet he did not hesitate to establish one for Xew EngLmd. 
3. Ea^eHasu- ^Although awar^ of the hostility of the Puritans to the established 
f^^/ll'^p'' English Church, he abstained from imposing up-on them a single 
rUnl coio* ordin;ince respecting religious tenets, or the forms and ceremonies 
■js.-i. of worship. The charter made no mention of the ecclesiastical 
rights of the colonists, thus showing a silent act.]uiescence of the 
king in the well known designs of the former, of establishing a 
church government on puritaniciil principles* 
4. Their po- 3G. -lYet the great Kxly of the emigintnts did not obtain, directly. 
tUieai rig/ifs. any ijirthei' political rights, than the incorporated - Company." in 
which w:is vested aU k^islative juid executive authority, thought 
ci. The hiwr- proper to give them, ^tint the Compiiny itself w;ts large, some of 

pxated coui- jtg uioml>ers were amon? the first emisrants. and a hirse proportion 
vnHu.aniiUs ... 3 . • t-i ■ ^ 

reiatioHs ot the patentees soon removed to Americ;v Botweenthe Comp;\ny 

Kt:h !he j^j^j (jjg emicrants there was a uniformitv of views, principles, :\nd 

mteivsts ; and the poutical rights given to the tormer. by their 

6 CJuzrter charter, were soon sharCvi by the latter. ^In ItjCi). the Company, 

cn^ m^wMi^ by its own vote, and by general consent, transferred its ch;irter. its 

jlwiy tms- meetings, and the contixd of the government of the colony from 

firredto England to America. Thus an English corporation, established in 

miTtci.. L^mj^>y i-esolvcd itself, with all its jH">wers and privileges, into .in 

Americiii corpoi-ation to be establishevl in Mas&ichusetts : and that 

too without any opposition from the English monaivh. who. in all 

other cases, had shown himself exceeilingly jealous of the preroga- 

• Yet Robertson (.History of Amerk-a, b. x. ) charges the Puritans ■with laving the founda- 
tions of their church government in frauJ : bevause the charter rvijuired that • none of their 
acts or ordinances should be inconsistent with the laws of tngland," a provision undorstCKvl by 
the PnritHns to ri^quire of them nothing farther than a gener;»l conforuxity to the ciimmon law 
of Englsud. It woulii be preposterous to suppose that ic was designeil to require of rheni an 
adherence to the ch.inging forms and ceremonies of Episcopacy. Yet notwithst;uidiug the 
well known sentimeuts of the Massachusetts Bay colonists, and their avoweil objects in euii- 
gratiniT. Robertson accounts lor the silence of the charter on ecclesiastkal subjects, by the sup- 
position that "the kiug seems not to liave ft>ivseen. nor to have suspectevl the seeret intentions 
of those who orojectevl the measure." But this suppvx<evl ignorance of tlie kiug ap^H.-irs quite 
increilible. Bancroft (i. 343.) appears to give a partial sanction to the opinion eipresseU by 
Robertson, in saying that " the patentees could not foresee, nor the Knglish goveruuient anti- 
cipate, how wide a Jep;u<ure from English usagx>s would grow out of the emigration of Puri- 
t;uis to .\merica." And farther : " The charter, accorviing to the strict rules im" legal interpre- 
tation, was far from conce<iing to the jviteuteos the freevlom of religious worship." Bancroft 
s,«ys nothing of the probable design and ucdorstanJiug of the kiug and his couacillors in this 
matter. Grah.-tnie ib ii.i s.ays. " By the Ihiriraiu. and the Puritan writers of that age. it was 
^ince^ely believetl. and contidentiy maintaiucil. that tlie intendment of the charter was; to 
bestow on the colonists unrestricted Uberty to re^Uate their ecclesi.istical consatution by the 
dictates of their own judgments and consciences." .-uid that the king was fully aware that it 
\ras the object of ihc colonists to establish an ecclesiastical ccustitutiou similar to thai essib- 
lished at Plymouth. 



Part U.] APPENDIX TO THE COLONJAL HISTORY. 295 

tivos of the crown. 'Two years lutt-r, when a complaint was pro- ohari.es i. 

ferroii against the colony by a Roman Catliolic, who had been ban- 1025— 1(H9. 

ished from it, the king took occ;»j>ioa to disprove the repoi-ts that , prirndiy 

he "had no good opinion of that pi intation,' and to assure the in- conduct (if 

habit^ints that ho would m liutain their privileges, and supply what- ' " '"*' 

ever else might contribute to their comfort and prosperity.* 

37. -Thetrausfer, to which we have alhukxl, did not of itself s Xar «« ojkJ 

center any new tbuichiscs on the colonists, unless they were al- tram.fer 

ready members of tlie Company; yet it was, iu re^ility, the estab- ir/'icn>'(i/ 
, . , • , . , ,'•.'., • , ... been alluaCil 

lishment oi au mdependent proviucial government, to be adminis- to. 

tered. inJeed, in acconiance with the laws of England, but while 
so administered, not subject to any interference from the king. Hn 3. EnUirge- 
lii.k), the corporation, in which still remaine^l all the powers of ^^r'porati'mt, 
gover.umeut, enlarge*.! its numbers by the admission into its body amire^uia- 
of more than one hundred persons, many of them members of no "*"'j/*|^'" 
church ; but in the following year it was agreed and ordained -that, 
for the time to come, no man shoivld be admitted to the freedom of 
this body politic, who was not a member of some church within the 
limits of the colony.' 'Under this limitation, the full rights of 4 Graduai 
citizenship were gradually extended beyond the limits of the orig- 'f^%Ysf"s^ 
iual corporation, so as to embrace all church-members in good cuizenn/iip. 
st;mding: but at a later period this law was amended so as to in- 
clude among the freemen those inhabit^mts also who should procure 
a certilicate from some minister of the established church that they 
were persons of orthodox principles, and of honest life and con- 
versation. 

3S. aSuch is a brief history of the early relations that existed * J''^]^^*"'* 
between Charles the First and the Mass;ichusetts Bay colonists; 
showing how the civil and religious liberties ot' these people were 
tolerateil and encouraged by the unaccountable liberality of a des- 
jx)tic monarch, who showe^i himself, in his own kingdom, most bit- 
terly hostile to tlie religious views, political principles, and general 
ch.inicter of the Puritans. We close our remarks on this subject 
by quoting the following iVom Grahame. 
' 3'J. S"Thc colonists themselves, notwithstanding all the facilities s. Remarks of 
which the king preseutovl to them, and the unwonted liberality and ^ft^^^f^^ 
consideration with which he showed himself willing to grace their 
departure from Britivin, were so fully aware of his rooted enmity 
to their principles, and so little able to veconcile his present de- 
meanor with his favorite policy, that they openly declareti they 
had been conducted by Providence to a land of rest, through ways 
which they were contented to admire without comprehending ; and 
that they could a.scribe the blessings they obtained to nothing else 
than the special interposition of that Being who orders all the 
steps of his people, and holds the hearts of kings, as of all men, in 
his hands. It is indeeil a strange coincidence, that this arbitrary 
prince, at the very time when he was oppressing the royalists iu 
Virginia, should have been cherishing the principles of liberty 
among the Puritans in New England."" 

40. 'But notwitlistanding the favor with which the English gov- 7. Jt-aloufy 
eminent appe;u-s to have regarded the designs of the Puritans in p"5-"-Xt( '^d 
removing to America, no sooner were they tirmly established there icnr^n/is- 
than a jealousy of their success was observable in the counsels of ^"/l/'ki'iij: 
archbishop Laud and the high-church party : and the king began to 
waver between his original wish to remove the seeds of discontent 
far from him. !\nd his apprehensions of the dangerous and increas- 

* Grahame, Book II, chap. ii. Xeal. 



296 APPENDIX TO THE COLONIAL HISTORY. [Book 11 

ANALYSIS, ing influence which the Puritan colonies already began to exert in 
■ ; the atfairs of Englar.d. 'America began to be regarded by the 

hoto>%'nrded English patriots as the asyhim of liberty : the home of the op 
by difffrent pressed ; and as opening a ready escape from the civil and ecclesi- 
*""' ' astical rigors of English tyranny ; while the clamors of the malig- 
nant represented it as a nursery of religious heresies, and of repub- 
lican dogmas utterly siibversive of the principles of royalty. 
iRepresenta- 41 sThe emissaries of Laud, sent to snv out the practices of 
emisscrifs of the Puritan.', intormed hnn how widely their proceedings were at 
La>*<^ variance with the laws of England; that marriages were celebrated 
by the civil magistrate instead of the parish priest ; that a new 
system of church discipline had been established ; and. moreover, 
that the colonists aimed at sovereignty : and •• that it was accounted 
treason in their general court to speak of appeals to the king.*' 

3. Emigra- 3.. Owinsr to the persecutions in England, and the favoi-able reports 
turn to Amcr- „, ^ .*„,, , . ■ ii- j 

tea. of the prosperity of Massachusetts, emigration had increasea so 

rapidly as to become a subject of serious considei-ation in the 
king's council."' 
4. Atttmptsto -J-- 'So early as 1033 the king issued a proclamation reprobating 
prevnuemi- the designs that prompted the emigration of the Puritans. In 1634 
bitrary'mifi- several ships bound for New England were detained in the 
*^^f"''S!'' Thames by order of the council; and during the sjime year an 
lis.'iop Laud, arbitrary commission was grant cil to archbishop Laud and others. 
i"'^- authorizing them to make laws for the American plantations, to 
regulate the church, and to examine all existing colonial patents 
and charters, -and if they found that any had been unduly ob- 
tained, or that the liberties they conferred were hurtful to the 
i. Objects cif royal prerogative, to cause them to be revoked." 'Owing, how- 
thecoinmis- ever, to the fluctuatins motives and policv of the kins, and the 
ed:inten- critical state ot atfairs in England, the purposes ot this commis 
S'^JL^^ '^t sion were not fuUv carried out ; the colonists expressed their in- 
tention -to deiend their lawiul possessions, n they were able; ir 
not, to avoid, and protract." — and emigration continued to increase 
their nuinbei's and influence. 
6 Aecesfions 43. sin 163-3 a fleet of twenty vessels conveyed three thous;\nd 
""in iMs"'^ new settlers to the colony, among whom were Hugh Peters, after- 
wards the celebrated chaplain and counsellor of Oliver Cromwell, 
and Sir Henry Vane the younger, who Avas elected governor of the 
colony, and who afterwards became one of the prominent leadera 
of the Independent party in parliament, during the civil war be- 
T. Ordinance tween that body and the king. 'In 1G3S an ordinance of council 
cfisss. ^_^^ issued for the detention of another large fleet about to sail for 
Massachusetts, and it has been asserted and generally believeil 
that among those thus prevented from emigrating were the dis- 
tinguished Puritan leaders, Hazlerig. Hampden, Pym, and Oliver 
Cromwell. 
8. Defncnd -14. ^About the same time a requisition was made to the general 
^"fl/^^Z"'^" court of Massachusetts for the return of the charter of the colony, 
chusfjts cfTa"r- that it might abide the result of the judicial proceedings already 
"^ commenced in England for its subversion. ^The colonists, however, 
^„y^^"^^y in cautions but ener£:etic lan^uase, ursred their rights against such 
a proceeding, and, deprecating the kings displeasure, returned tor 
answer an humble petition that they might be heard before they 
10 The linsr were condemned. i^^Happily for their liberties, before their petition 
n^pfnd Ms <'i''"lil find its way to the throne, the monarch was himself involved 
Miurary in difticultios in his own dominions, which renderwl it prudent for 
^a/ml'the ^'"" *" suspend his arbitrary measures against the colonies. He 
colonies was never allowed an opportunity to resume them. 



Part II. 



APPENDIX TO THE COLONIAL HISTORY. 



297 



45. Althouji;li settlements were coiuinonced in Maine, New 
Hampshire, Connecticut, and Rhode Island during this reign, tliey 
Were considered rather as branches of the more prominent colony 
of JVlassachusetts Bay, and had not yet acquired sufficient impor- 
tance to attract the royal notice. ^In Hi 1 1 llhode Island and 
Providence obtained from the parliament, through the efforts of 
Roger Williams, a charter of incorporation "witii full power and 
authority' to govern themselves." •^Tho Plymouth colony remain- 
ed without a charter, and umuolested, in the quiet enjoyment 
of its civil and i-eligious privileges. For more than eighteen years 
this little colony was a strict democracy. All the male inhabitants 
were convened to frame the laws, and often to decide both on ex- 
ecutive and judicial (luestions. The governor was elected annually 
by general suffrage, anil the i)0wers that ho exercised were derived 
directly from the people. 'IMie inconveniences arising from the 
purely democratic form led to the adoption of the representative 
system in 1G39. 

46. fl We now turn to Maryland, the only additional English col- 
ony established during the reign of Charles the First, to whose 
history we have not alluded in this Appendix. "The charter 
granted to Lord Baltimore, the general tenor of which has already 
been described, contained a more distinct recognition of the rights 
of the colonists than any instrument which had hitherto passed the 
royal seal. The merit of its liberal provisions is attributable to tho 
provident foresight and generosity of Lord Baltimore himself, who 
penned the instrument, and whose great favor and influence with 
the king obtained from him concessions, which would never have 
been yielded to the claims of justice alone. The charter of Mary- 
land was sought for and obtained from nobler and holier purposes 
than the grantor could appreciate. 

47. T Unlike the charters of New England and Virginia, that of 
Maryland acknowledged the emigrant settlers themselves as free- 
men, and conceded to them rights, which, in other instances, had 
been restricted to privileged companies, or left to their discretionary 
extension. ^'The laws of Maryland were to be established with tho 
advice and approbation of a majority of the freemen ; neither were 
their enactments, nor the appointments of tho proprietary, subject 
to any required concurrence of the king : the colony received a per- 
petual exemption ft-om royal taxation; and, while Christianity was 
declared to be the law of the land, no preference was given to any 
religious sect or party. 

48. sMaryland was settled by Catholics, who, like the Puritans, 
sought a refuge in the wilds of America from the persecutions to 
which they were subjected in England ; and they are entitleil to 
the praise of having founded the first American colony in which 
religious toleration was established by law. i"-' Calvert deserves to 
be I'anked," says Bancroft, "among the mo.st wise and benevolent 
lawgivers of all ages. He was the first in the history of the Chris- 
tian worhl to seek for religious security and peace by the practice 
of justice, and not by the exercise of power ; to plan the establish- 
ment of popular institutions with the enjoyment of liberty of con- 
sciei/ce ; to advance the career of civilization by recognizing the 
rightful equality of all religious sects. The asylum of Papists was 
the spot, whore, in a remote corner of the world, on the banks of 
rivers which, as yet, had hardly been explored, the mild forbear- 
ance of a proprietary adopted religious freedom as the basis of the 
state." 



CHARLES I. 

1625—1549. 

1. Other set- 
thuiicnts in 
New Eng- 
land, 
•i R/iode 
Island and 
t'roeidence. 

3 The riy 
mouth col- 
ony. 

4. Its demo- 
cratic char- 
acter. 



5. Maryland. 



6. General 
character of 

the Mary- 
land charter. 



7. Rights of 
the settlers. 



R. The laws 
of Maryland : 
Exemption 
from taxa- 
tion : relig- 
ious tolera- 
tion, ^-c. 



9. Tfie vraise 
that !.■< due to 
the Catholics 
of Maryland. 

10. Remarks 
of Bancroft. 



38 



APPEM>IX TO THE COLONIAL HISTCHtr. :Book D. 





AXM.YSts. 49. >A ftvda^alkcr tkft dtAtk of Cbul«s. t^ Wise of ohm. 

' ■«■& daduru^ thaA ^b« Wee «f lards was n^te^ aad diagwnf!^ 

^^'^ ilwli hfiri ifcit hraiif fc nf pnirliB»»i»t AttkesanetUBekvasTowd 
*=*'^'^^'^~ tkfittke«fie»«if kij^vae wMeesu7,tankB9MM.»l 
J^^^?: otts to tW lilwitT and siielj of tW fcofite : ud aa ais «;»$ i 

«4«^Sh tbn took iaco tkdr Wids all tk« powr^ of gOTWUMM, aad tka 
Amk^^mm- IbnMT litl» of 4w "^Ei^isk McauviLTr ^t« plaee t» tibat of tka 

Jl^***^ ;>0>. ^A pwf« MMlm'jtiiBiK^g of <k> chartcwas of tkaso wko awr 
^ i«led «W dflstiake of Et^Jand. r«q«ir«$ s«aae aeeovAt of tke ekar- 
"^ actor of tko i<di^ikMgD$ puti^ io tli« Baddn. $At th« tine of tW 
rwtinririiiiiT 01' tke civil ir»r. ^i ^retits BKi^'>iirr of tk« patofid of 
E^pla»d.dissatisiedvitk tk« £{tt»i>iiAey. w«r?dinaek«di»a;^^sMai 
of groatw pluHMS aad so^ilkitjrs witkk tr^ts ikaMuaMcd Pms- 
kjtonauaia. *Ye« tk» iNtiM^les vkkk a«t«a!ted tk«e o f»>sw g 
diTisieitts. ir«x« aot, at fins, so diSweat as ni^t 1»e qye c ted . 
'^TW EiHseafttl dkax«ii.~ s»t^ G«dnii. -kad akatnd of s««ts : A« 
Pr«^Tt«riaas did no* •;«»»«' bekind k«r in tk«t pankvlar. TW 
E^piseofMd dkari^ vas ia«dfiiaBt : so v«« tke PKs«))Tt«naB& Boik 
of tkoK TCgaidad vitk iMMcmr tk« id«a of a £r«« press, aad tkat 
vnsj oao shooM bo penutted to paldisk and siqifMY br kb 
vritiB^s ii^at«T«r poatiaas kis eayriea or kis eoaTkcioas >Ht^ 
dktat« to koa:" «Tk«PTCi^7tanaaskM«keMe«ssi^ofas3rsiaa 
wT-ii T Tii^ of p»«^(yt«ri«s. nki^ Aey re^atded as of difiao lasiitatMa. aal 
">iiiiu l^T labored as eanMsdj as tke E^piscofaliaiis to <i sta bl»s> a wai- 

finaity iA relKioas ^tk aad voiskip. 
«. n|Ai*> >1- «UBit«d Titk tke Pre^jtma^ at ar<< ia tk«ir i^ppasitMata 
tke abase of tk» loyal prwo^tiTC. ww» tko i ai ifmi l ntiK tkoMWlt 
ladkal of tk» Paxitaa rtilbna«& ^^Like tke Presbjtmaas drtjf 
eordiaify dsaffroTodoftke pta^ aad kioaicky of Aft Ckarek of 
Si^aad. Bat tker veat ftxtker. Tkey eqwOfy dea^proTcd af 
tke ^Teod& iwvTiainal and fvaeraL tke «)ass«s aad lacorporafeMBS 
ef PrtsbTtery, a sr-sdai scarwix lossvvcipiWsted. tkoa^ iaiaitety 
tesibzEiiB^ikaa'tkat ofdM<<:su Epbeii^kMT. Tkey kekitkat a 
AarAwasabot^yofCkrisriaasa saa abledia oae pbee appropri- 
ated iter tkeir vorsUp. aad tkat ^t^tt sa«^ bodr v^ «.-v>aq4ete m 
ks«)f ; tkat tkey kad a li^t to d»w up Ae r«l<es br vkkk tkej 
dMMi^tpvwtr to be i«5«ilait«d. aad tikat ao aaa aot a M«aab<r of 
tdMirassvBiN?-. aad aobot^ of nea. was«ac^led to latvi^tere vitk 
a T»9 i»- t^Mir r:n.x>:xviin^ ^Dwamiiing toleridoa oa A«s« fT««B«b. tk<f jr 
«"""*f5i f^ tkat tker Vare eqaaUy boaad to eooKiede aad assert it *» 
aatak otkws: aad tkey pre flo nw d to see a a—bcr of tkawkg^ witk dtf> 
l^r»t seatiaeats aad iaetikat^;. vitkia tke sane j^olilKal eoanm- 
aitT> to tke idea of waae^yiag Ae wfl aad exwramariajf wtor ly 
■MBS of exdaaTe i«falal>iMi& aad tke m e aae e g and s>f T«ritT si* 
paaiskneet.'^ ^«m» sa^^ of tke lade p e ad e at s. - Of all Ckn»> 
tiaa swts tliis wsis ik* &rst vkidi. daiin^ its prvv pertir as *vli as 
its adrcrsitT.alw^ars adopted tke ntae^il«s of tok^ Tkela- 

de p e ad e a ts d«Baai<d ato ««k«- Sbo:^ Itea tkejr were vitKag ta 
ri^i to ail others 

cv:2. "As tke ^-iTil war b« wwa tke kiag aad parfeaaeal pro gju i aa d. 
iayoitaat poUtieal diffnteens arose bw latea tke l ad e p e ad aai s aad 
A» Presbytertaas. erteadjag tk r w sb o a * par li-Maen t. tke arny. aad 
tke peopki. ^'-Tk^ PresJt>TT«naas vwld kave bMn satisSed witk 



* «3V>£«^ 





PaetD-j appendix TO THE COLONIAL lUSTOKY. ^399 

roraltT \indcr jMv^^vr rt^Jrii-tions apiinst its Ahujvs:: not dt>sinug * comvox- 

titMapliHo viosarr. liiov fcanxi tk-it the king misrht bo nt\iuc\\i tvx> wkai.th. 

low; juid being ured of tho trar. they wojv auiious ftur st v\unpr»- Idid— l^X 

BU$e. 'But tie lndet>endeots. ovnisidojvd as: s jvili;ic^l party, bar- " , ^v 4*- ' 

iujC gradually ealisied under tbeir Kmuers the radieal!: of all the ■.^.v. .w^fdta 

liberal stvtsi, denw«di\l, first, tbe aK>litii\u of i\\v:aijy it^vlf, as a ^'*'%]^' 

coMKVSsiv^u to their }x>li5ii^ princij^lots. aiid arterxnirds. the est*b- 

lislimeuJ of uniTnars*! toleration in matters of religion, ilt vra* -- ry it«»A'wii»- 

this iaJJOJ l^irTT. or this »mion of many jvu-tie*. that nnally gaiue^i •^'" ^^"^ 

the *svVJivienoy/ caused ilie dv\atli of the king, and subverted the * !*•<'- >••*• 

monarvhy- 

5S. -HJn the OTerthiv»w of monarchy, ihejnrfv^re, the Independent .<;, SiMatiM 

" i the reiixs of gv>vemment, sup^vrttvi by .an .army of litly mmS^lr%t 

. ■-ueu, under the vwmroriiug inriuenoe of Oliwr Crvnuvrell, &»ii u wSi iiw» 

cue 01 the niv^s: extx:*oriiiu.ary oharaoters th,at Eugland ever pro- "^ Mtii«f«*» 

duocvl. <CriinixreU wjis; first soiit^ to Ireland to reduvV the rebellit^u *- Or w y w rt r* 

there ; and being <xvmple»*lT suv\.vsst'\il. he ue^t maivhtAi into Scot- .*"'****^ 

lajivl. where Charles, the son of the hue king, had t;ike.n refuge, **" 

•*Here CrvMuweti viefeAJ*\i the n^yalist cviTonauters in the battle 5. BuAmif 

of Dunbar." and in th; c year, pursuing the SvVJoh sriny '^iTJI^S^^r? 

into Eivgland. at the ":.i rty thvnis.«ivi men he fell uix>n it at ^ s*$>». is, 

Wortx^sior. and eov . .; . ...... ..iteii it in one despor^ite bsttle."* »^*- 

»~The young prinoc 1. _u .;< ^^^; .y i^scaped with his life, .and dying ^- ^J- *'« 

in disguise through the middle vxf England, alter p.assing through f £Mai» ^ 

ukany adreutures. «.Ai\ea e.x{v\sod to the gresatest perils^ he suvvoesievi. ,5!i£S 

*v«atuallr. in rMchiui:' Frsjioo in saietv. *^?V^ 

■ fi Oct 3r 

04. ^ome di^cutties having oecurre*i with the states of Hv>Uand. , j.^ ^^ 

the English jv.^rli.ament, in order to punish their arrc^pMioe and Jraaui .Vart- 
prcimvXe British Ol^mme^ee, jvassevi the vvlebratod Navigation Act, ****•• •** 
by whioh all colonial pn.viuc*, whether of Asia. AiVica, or America. 
was J^^ohibited frc«n being iiniv>rti\i into Eivgland in ;uiy but 
British built ships, of which. toi\ the nwster .and throo-iburths of 
the mariners shoulvi be Englishmen. Eveai Eur\^{vai\ prv>luoe .and 
maiv.. < were prevented from being imjvorteJ but in British 

T«S; . -. they wore the grvwth or fabric of the p.artioular state 

wb.;cQ earned them. *The*e unjust regulations struck sewr^jly at <; EKswfij^^- 
the Dutch, a oommercial yeople, wha prvxluoing few c>omm«\iities 'A ''^''^^^^ 
i>t' their own. had bevvme the goiieral carriers .and fketors of Eurv^pe. 
*W.ar therefore fol;ow<\i ; the glory of both nations was pnjudly si hm.- •.-!,•* 
sustjiinevi on the ixvan : Blake, the Elnglish naval comra.ander, ami H'^-^'wi 
Von Tromp and De Ruyter. the Dutch .-uimirAls, acquirtxi imper- 
ishable renown : but tho vvnunerce of the Dutch was destroyed, 
anvi the states werse oVJgovl to sue for peace.^ »■ Coociirfed. 

00. '"While this war was ]>rv>srr«ssing. a contrv>versv had arisen be- ,/t^ .'^ 
tween (. romwell and the army on the one hanvi. and parii.ament on ^i 



the other. The parliiunent. h.aving ivnquered all its enemies in fartitmtmt 



Engl.iBvl. Sc<.nland, and Irelanvi. and having no longer any nee\l of 
the services of the .army, and being jealous of its power, began to 
make pre]\arations fcvr its re^iuctiou. with the ostensible obkvt of 
dir,\iaishing the exwnses of the government. But by this time the 
p.4r".i.^ueii; had lost the ccnfidenc* of the people, ''Since its first n,rv?T . 
.asssembling. in Xoviember. 1640. it had been gr«wly roduc<?d in *^^^!?* 
numbers by succes&iT\f desertions and prvtscriptions, but, still grasp- wmtu.^i 
ing after all the powers of gv^vernment, it appeared determinoii to "^'SImS- 
perperuale its existence, and claimed that, if anothi» parli;unent 
were called, the present meniWrs should retain their pUoes without 
a Twle.-uon. The contest between this p.arliament anvl the army 
became, therefore, one, not for individual rule onlv. btit for eiist- 



300 APPENDIX TO THE COLONIAL HISTORY. [Book IL 

ANALYSIS, ence also. 'This state of affairs was terminated by the decision 
T of Cromwell, who could count on a faithful and well disciplined 

sy temiJnaZd "I'my to second his purposes. Entering the parliament house at 
bythedecis- the head of a body of soldiei-s on the 30th of April, 1653, he pro- 
weu. claimed the dissolution of parliament,* removed the members, seized 
the records, and commanded the doors to be locked. 
2 History of 56. ^Soon after this event, Cromwell summoned a parliament 
Parnamfnt. composed wholly of members of his own selection, called, indeed, 
representatives, but representing only Cromwell and his council of 
officers. The members of this parliament, commonly called Bare- 
bone'sf parliament, from the name of one of its leading mem- 
bers, after thirteen months' sitting, were to name their successors, 
and these again were to decide upon the next representation, and 
so on for all future time. Such was the reptblican system which 
Cromwell designed for the nation. But this body,t too much under 
the influence of Cromwell to gain the public confidence, and too 
independent to subserve Cromwell's ambition, after continuing \in 

a. Dec. 1853. session little more than six months, was disbanded'^ by its own act. 
3. New 3Four days later a new scheme of government, proposed in a mill 

glTermtKnt ^^^^ council, and sanctioned by the chief ofiicers of state, was adopt> 
ed, by which the supreme powers of government were vested in a lord 
proprietor, a council, and a parliament ; and Cromwell was solemnly 
installed for life in the office of "Lord Protector of the Common- 
wealth of England." 
1654. 57. * A parliament was summoned to meet on the thirteenth oJf 

4. Parliament September of the following year, the anniversary of Cromwell's 
summoned. ^^^ .^^^^ victories of Dunbar and Worcester. sThe parliament 
ence of par- thus assembled was a very fair representation of the people, but 
lianient, and the great liberty with which it arraigned the authority of the Pro- 

its QitSSOltii' c */ O %/ 

tion. tector, and even his personal character and conduct, showed hin\ 
that he had not gained the confidence of the nation ; and an angr^f 

b. Feb. 1655. dissolution'' increased the general discontent. ^Soon after, a con 
6. Conspiracy spiracy of the royalists broke out,"^ but was easily suppressed. 
utsTat^xoar During the same year, a war was commenced with Spain : th^ 
vjith Spain, island of Jamaica was conquered, and has since remained in th'» 

c. March, hands of the English ; and some naval victories were obtained. 



* This parliament had been in existence more than twelve years, and was called the Long 
Parliament. 

t This man's name was Praise-God Barebone. Hume says, " It was usual for the pretended 
saints at that time to change their names from Henry, Edward, William, &c., which they re- 
garded as heathenish, into others more sanctified and godly : even the New Testament names", 
James, Andrew, John, Peter, were not held in such regard as those which were borrowed from 
the Old Testament — Hezekiah, Habakkuk, Joshua, Zerobabel. Sometimes a whole sentence 
was adopted as a name." Of this Hume gives the following instance. He says, " The brother 
of this Prai.se-God Barebone had for name, If Christ had not died for you, you tvoiild have 
been damned Barebone. But the people, tired of this long name, retained only the last words, 
and commonly gave him the appellation of Damned Barebone." Brodie, referring to Hume's 
Statement above, says, the individuals did not change their own names, but these names were 
given them by the parents at the time of christening. Hume gives the names of a jury sum- 
moned in the county of Essex, of which the first six are as follows Accepted Trevor ; Ke 
deemed Compton ; Faint-not Hewitt ; Make-Peace Heaton ; God Reivard Smart ; Stand Fast 
on High Stringer. Cleaveland says that the muster master in one of Cromwell's regiments had 
no other list than the first chapter of Matthew. Godwin gives the following as the names of 
the newspapers published at this time in London. Perfect Diurnal ; Moderate Intelligencer ; 
Several Proceedings in ParUament j Faithful Post ; Perfect Account ; Several Proceedings in 
State Affairs ; &c. 

t What Hume says of the character and acts of this parliament, is declared hy later writers, 
Brodie, Scobell, and others, to be almost wholly erroneous. The compilers of the " Variorum 
Edition of the History of England" say, " We have been compelled to abandon Hrnne's accoujit 
during the latter part of Charles's reign, and during the predominance of the repubhcan partj. " 
" His want of diligence in research is as notorious as his partial advocacy of the Stuarts." 



Part II.] 



APPENDIX TO THE COLONIAL HISTORY. 



301 



58. 'In his civil and domestic administration, which was conducted 
with ability, but without any regulai- plan, Cromwell displayed a 
general regard for justice and clemency ; and irregularities were 
never sanctioned, unless the necessity of thus sustaining his usurped 
authority seemed to require it. ^guch indeed were the order and 
tranquillity which he preserved — such his skilful management of 
persons and parties, and such, moreover, the change in the feelings 
of many of the Independents themselves, since the death of the late 
monarch, that in the parliament of 1G56 a motion was made, and 
carried by a considerable majority, for investing the Protector with 
the dignity of king. 3 \ithough exceedingly desirous of accepting 
the proifered honor, yet he saw that the army, composed mostly of 
stern and inflexible republicans, could never be reconciled to a 
measure which implied an open contradiction of all their past pro- 
fessions, and an abandonment of their principles, and he was at 
last obliged to i-efuse that crown which had been solemnly proffered 
to him by the representatives of the nation. 

59. ■'After this event, the situation of the domestic affairs of the 
country kept Cromwell in perpetual uneasiness and inquietude. 
The royalists renewed their conspiracies against him ; a majority 
in parliament now opposed all his favorite measures ; a mutiny of 
the army was apprehended ; and even the daughters of the Protector 
became estranged from him. Overwhelmed with difficulties, pos- 
sessing the confidence of no party, having lost all composure of 
mind, and in constant dread of assassination, his health gradually 
declined, and he expired on the 13th of September, 165S, the anni- 
versary of his great victories, and a day which he had always con- 
sidered the most fortunate for him. 

CO. 50n the death of Cromwell, his eldest son, Richard, succeeded 
him in the protectorate, in accordance, as was supposed, with the 
dying wish of his father, and with the approbation of the council. 
But Richard, being of a quiet, unambitious temper, and alarmed at 
the dangers by which he was surrounded, soon signed* his own ab- 
dication, and i-etired into private life. ^A state of anarchy followed, 
and contending factions, in the army and the parliament, for a while 
filled the country with bloody dissensions, when General Monk, 
who commanded the army in Scotland, marched into England and 
declared in favor of the restoration of royalty. This declaration, 
freeing the nation from the state of suspense in which it had long 
been held, was received with almost universal joy : the house of 
lords hastened to reinstate itself in its ancient authority ; and on 
the 18th of May, 1G60, Charles the Second, son of the late king, 
was proclaimed sovereign of England, by the united acclamations 
of the army, the people, and the two houses of parliament. 

61. ■'The relations that existed between England and her Ameri- 
can colonies, during the period of the Commonwealth, were of but 
little importance, and we shall therefore give only a brief notice of 
them. ^D uring the civil war which resulted in the subversion of mon- 
archy, the Puritan colonies of New England, as might have been 
expected from their well known republican principles, were attached 
to the cause of parliament, but they generally maintained a strict 
neutrality towards the contending factions : and Massachusetts, in 
particular, rejecting the claims of supremacy advanced both by 
king and parliament, boasted herself a perfect republic. ^Virginia 
adhered to royalty ; Maryland was divided ; and the restless Clay- 
borne, espousing the party of the republicans, was able to promote 
a rebellion, and the government of the proprietary was for a while 
oyerthrown. 



COMMON- 
WEALTH. 
1649—1660. 

1 Civil and 
dotnestic ad- 
ministration 
of Cromwell. 

2 The crown 

offered to 

hiin. 

1656. 

April. 

3 Cromwell 

coiistrained 

by policy to 

refuse it. 



4. Troubles, 

difficulties, 

and death of 

Cro-inioell- 



1658. 



5. Succession, 

and speedy 

abdication of 

Richard. 



a. May 2, 1659. 

6 State of 
anarchy,— 
followed by 
the restora- 
tion of roy- 
alty. 



1660. 



7. Relations 
betrceen Eng- 
land and 
America 
during the 
Common- 
wealth. 

8. Course 
pursued by 

the New 
England col- 
onies during 
the cii'il war, 
9. Virsrinia 
and Mary- 
land. 



302 



APPENDIX TO THE COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[Book II. 



ANALYSIS. 

1. Assertion 
<lf the su- 
premacy c/ 
parliaiiitnt 

ever the colo- 
nies. 

2, Virginia 
adheres to 

prince. 
Charles. 

3. Siihviits to 
parliament. 

4. The char- 
ter nf Massa- 
chusetts ile- 
inandecl, but 
the tiemand 

not enforced. 

5. The most 
important 

fneasiire of 
the Comtntm- 

irealth, by 
rchicii the 

inieres/s of 

the colonies 
teere effected. 

6 Germs of 
the commer- 
cial policy of 
EttglamL 



7. Therari- 
gation act 
not enforced 
against :he 
colonies du- 
ring the Com- 
monwealth. 

S. Commer- 
cial sys!eni 
lifS/mi/i. 



CHARLES II. 

1660—1(385. 

9. Chr.rles 

restored in 

16S0. 

10. Ills perso- 
nal appear 
ance and 
character. 



11 Rr-gicides 
execniet! : the 
dead deri- 
ded, ^-c. 

n. Sept I860 



li Surprising 
cliange in 
the sent! 
nicnts and 
feelins-s of 
the nation. 



6'3. 'After the execution of Charles the First, parliament asserted 
its power over the colonies, and in 1G50 issued an ordinance, aimed 
particularly at Virginia, prohibiting all commercial intercourse 
with those colonies that adhered to the royal cause. ^Qiij^rles 
the Second, son of the late king, and heir to the throne, was then a 
fugitive in France, and was acknowledged by the Virginians as 
their lawful sovereign. "'Iq !(>;'> 1 parliament sent out a squadron 
under Sir George Aj'scue to reduce the rebellious colonies to obe- 
dience. The English West India Islands were easily subdued, and 
Virginia submitted without open resistance. ^The charter of 
Alassachusetts was required to be given up, with the promise of ii 
new one, to be granted in the name of parliament. But the genei-al 
court of the colony remonstrated against the obnoxious mandate, 
and the requisition was not enforced. 

63. ^But the most important measure of the English government 
during this period, by which the prospective interests of the 
American colonies were put in serious jeopardy, by ensuring their 
entire dependence on the mother country, was the celebrated 
Navigation Act of 1651. to which we have already alluded, and 
which, though unjust towanls other nations, is supposed by many 
to have laid the foundation of the commercial greatness of England. 
*The germs of this system of policy are found in English legisla- 
tion so early as 13^*^l, during the reign of Richard II. when it was 
enacted " that, to increase the navy of England, no goods or mer- 
chandize should be either exported or imported, but in ships be- 
longing to the king's subjects."' But this enactment, and subse- 
quent ones of a similar nature, had fallen into disuse long before 
the time of the Commonwealth. "Even the navigation act of 16.51. 
owing to the favoring iiiHuence of Cromwell, was not strictly en- 
forced against the American colonies until alter the restoration of 
rojalty, but it was the commencement of an unjust system of com- 
mercial oppression, which finally drove the colonies to resistance, 
and terminated in their independence. ^'A somewhat similar 
system, but one far more oppressive, was maintained by Spain 
towards her American colonies during the whole period of their 
colonial existence. 

61. 'On the Sth of June. 1660, Charles the Second entered Lon- 
don, and by the general wish of the people, without bloodshed and 
without opposition, and without any express terms which might 
secure the nation against his abuse of their confidence, was restored 
to the throne of his ancestors. '"As he possessed a handsome person, 
and was open and attable in his manners, and engaging in his con- 
versation, the first impressions produced by him were favorable ; 
but he was soon found to be excessively indolont, protligate, and 
worthless, and to entertain notions as arbitrary as those which had 
distinguished the reign of his father. "One of the first acts of his 
reign was the trial and execution'^ of a number of the regicides or 
judges who had condemned the late king to death. Even the dead 
were not spared, and the bodies of Cromwell. Bnulshaw, and 
Ireton, were taken from their graves, and exposed on the gallows 
to the derision of the populace. 

65. i-A sudden and surprising change in the sentiments and feel- 
ings of the nation was now witnessed. The same people, who, so 
recently, jealous of everything that might be construed into an 
encroachment on their liberties, had declared violently against 
monarchy itself, and the forms and ceremonials of Episcopacy, now 
sunk into the slavish doctrines of passive obedience to royalty, and 
permitted the high church principles to be established, by submit- 



Part II] APPENDIX TO THE COLONIAL HISTORY. 303 

ting to an act of uniformity, by whicli two thousand Presbyterian ciiarlesii. 
ministers were deprived of their livings. Those clei-gymen who lOUO— 1685- 
should officiate without being properly qualified, wei-e liable to tine {7^7^ 
and imprisonment. 

G(i. 'In l(i(il, some difficulties, originating in commercial jealous- i. The Dutch 
ies, haviuii; occurred between England and the republican states of fj',a'i"iu!y 
Holland, tlie king, desirous of provoking a war, sent out a squadron Ennlarui. 
under Admiral Holmes, which seized the Dutch settlements on the 
coast of Africa, and the Ca()e Verde Islands. Another fleet, pro- 
ceeding to America, demanded and obtained the surrender of the soop 226. 
Dutch colony of New Netherlands. '-^Thc Dutch retaliated by 2. Tiie Dutch 
recovering their African possessions, and ecjuipped a Heet able to intaHatB- 
cope with that of luigland. ^f; lyrics then declared war'' against a. March 1665. 
the States, and parliament liberally voted s\i|)plies to carry it on ^ n'arde- 
■with vigor. 'But Denmark and France, jealous of the growing ^ Denmark 
power of England, formed an alliance with the States and prevented ami France 
their rain. ^After hostilities had continued two years, they were ^putch' 
terminated by the treaty'' of llreda, by which the acquisition of ^. Tre-attj of 
JMew Netherlands was contirnied to England, the chief advantage Ure.da. 
which she reaped from the war ; while, on the other hand, Acadia ^ ^f,}^ ^' 
or Nova Scotia, which had been conquered by Cromwell in l(i54, 
was restored to the French. 

G7. ^In 1(572 the French monarch, Louis XIV, persuaded Charles 1072. 

to unite with him in a war against the Dutch. The latter in the 6. FraTJcr.and 

following year regained possession of their American colony of ff'agedina 

New Netherlands ; but the combined armies of the two kingdoms """' ""'''» 

soon reduced the republic to the brink of destruction, ^ln fijij, "'■',' ■ 

i.r.ii- • ,. ^ ,.. ■.■.,■,■ , 7- William of 

extrenuty, William, prince of Orange, after uniting the discordant orangt:— 

factions of his countrymen, and being promoted to the chief com- ^'vn^iand^ 
mand of the forces of the republic, gained some successes over the 
French, and Charles was compelled by the discontents of his peo- 
ple and the parliament, who were opposed to the war, to conclude 
a separate peacC^ with Holland. All possessions were to be re- c. Feb. 19, 
stored to the same conditions as before the war, and New Nether- 'fi^'- 
lands was, consequently, surrendered to England. ^France con- 8 Francccon- 
tinned the war against Holland, which country was now aided by "»ue^ ''*« 
Spain and Sweden; but the marriage, in 1677, of the prince of riageof Wil- 
Orange with the lady Mary, daughter of the duke of York, the ''«'». 16J7; 
brother of Charles, induced England to espouse the cause of the simeguen 
States, wliich led to the treaty' of Nimeguen in 1078. il- Aug 11, 

6S. 9The domestic administration of the government of England ."''^'*' . 
during this reign, was neither honorable to the king nor the par- admuuntra- 
liament. i^Destitutc of any settled religious principles, Charles was }.f"'j^. 
easily made the tool of others, and, during many years, received ,„ ;;,;, ^,g. 
from the king of France a pension of 200, ()()() pounds per annum, naiity. 
for the purpose of establishing popery and despotic power in Eng- 
land. "The court of Charles was a school of vice, in which the i\. Projiigacy 
restraints of decency were laughed to scorn; and at no other of his court. 
period of English history were the immoralities of licentiousness 
practiced with more ostentation, or with less di.sgrace. 

(J9. i-The ]irinciplcs of religious toleration which had prevailed 12 Change (if 
with the Independents <lurin'g their supremacy under the Com- r?//y™«j!5^- 
monweilth, had now given place in jiarliameiit to the demand for furmirj/.and 
a rigid unifm-mity to the church of England, and a violent preju- ofthe'^caaM. 
dice against and persecution of the Catholics, who were repeatedly Hc^- 
accused of plotting the sanguinary overthrow of the Protestant re- 
ligion. '3In IGSO, the distinguishing epithets, WJ/ig and Toaj, were th'eJ-WMg" 
introduced, the former from Scotland, where it was applied to the and " Tory" 



304 



ANALYSIS. 



APPENDIX TO THE COLONIAL IHSTORY. 






[Book II 



\. Attempts to 

exclude the 

Uuke of York 

from the 

throne. 



a. Nov. 16S0. 

2. Substitute 

proposed by 

the king. 



3. Rejected, 
and partia- 
vient dissol 

ved. 

4. Arbitrary 
government 

of Cltarlcs. 



5. Charla 
dies, and 

is succeeded 

by the Duke 

of York. 

6. Commer- 
cial princi- 
ples qf the 
Cmnmon- 

loealth, 
continued 
after the res- 
toration. 

7. Parlia- 
ment beg-ins 
to claim Ju- 
risdiction 
over the col- 
onies. 

8. Effects of 
this change- 

9 The Navi- 
gation Act. 



fonatical Scotch Conventiclers, and, generally, to the opponents of 
royalty : the latter, said to be an Irish word signifying a robber, 
was introduced from Ireland, where it was applied to the popish 
banditti of that country. The court party of England reproached 
their antagonists with an affinity to the Scotch Conventiclers ; and 
the republican or country party retaliated by comparing the former 
to the Irish banditti ; and thus these terms of reproach came into 
general use, and have remained to the present time the character- 
istic appellations of the two prominent parties in England. 

70. 'The whigs, having gained the ascendency, and being gen- 
erally attached to Episcopacy, now the religion of the state, brought 
forward in parliament a bill to exclude from the throne the Duke 
of York, the king's brother, who had long been secretly attached 
to the Catholic religion, and had recently made a public avowal of 
it. This bill passed'Mhe House of Commons by a large majority, 
but was defeated in the House of Lords. "^In the following year it 
was revived again, and urged with such vehemence, that the king, 
through one of his ministers, proposed as a substitute, that the 
duke should only have the title of king, and be banished from the 
kingdom, while the Princess of Orange should administer the gov- 
ernment as regent. ^But this " expedient.'" being indignantly re- 
jected, led to an abrupt dissolution of the parliament, which was 
the last that the present king assembled. 

71. ^ Charles was now enabled to extend his authority without 
any open resistance, although several conspiracies were charged 
upon the whigs, and some of the best men* in the nation were 
brought to the scaffold. From this time until his death the king 
continued to rule with almost absolute power, guided by the coun- 
sels of his brother, the duke of York, who had formerly been re- 
moved by parliament from the office of high admiral, but was now 
restored bj- Charles, and tacitly acknowledged as the successor to 
the throne, sd^^rles died in 16S5, in the 55th year of his age, and 
the ^Sth of his reign : and the duke of York immediatelj' acceded 
to the throne, with the title of James II. 

12. 6The same general principles of government which had 
guided the commercial policy of England during the Common- 
wealth, were revived at the time of the restoration, and their influ- 
ence was extended anew to the American colonies. "The latter, no 
longer deemed, as at first, the mere property of the king, began now 
to be regarded as portions of the British empire, and subject to 
parliamentary' legislation.! syiewed in one light, as abridging the 
pretensions of the crown, and limiting arbitrary abuses, this change 
was favorable to the colonies; but, on the other hand, it subjected 
them, by statutory enactments, to the most arbitrary commercial 
restrictions which the selfish policy of parliament might think 
proper to impose upon them. 

73. ^Scarcely was Charles the Second seated upon the throne, 
when the Nangntion Act was remodelled and pertfected, so as to be- 



I 



* Lord Russel and Algernon Sidney. H.illam savs Sidney had proposed " one only object 
for his political conduct, — the establishment of a republic in England."' 

t It was at first the maxim of the court that the king alone, and not the king and parlia- 
ment, possessed jurisdiction over the colonics. It was in accordance with this view tliat when, 
in the reign of James the First, a bill for regulating the American fisheries was introduced into 
the house of commons. Sir George Calvert, then Secretary of State, conveyed to the house the 
following intimation from the king : ■' America is not annexed to the realm, nor witbi'a th« 
jurisdiction of parliament: you have therefore no right to interfere." The charter of Penn- 
sylvania was the first American charter that recognized any legislative authority of parliament 
over the colonies. 



Part II.] APPENDIX TO THE COLONIAL HISTORY. 395 

come the most important branch of the commercial code of England, ch.^ules ii, 
•By this statute, the natural rights of foreign nations and of the 1660—1085. 
American colonies were sacrificed to British inti^rcsts. ^j^^sides , j,, general 
many other important provisions, it was enacted tliat no nierchan- effects. 
dize should be imported into any of the British settlements, or ex- 2. Swrteo/iw 
ported from them, but in vessels built in England or her planta- prov'Liuns. 
tions, and navigated by Englishmen : and that none but native or 
naturalized subjects should exercise the occupation of merchant or 
factor in any English settlement, under the penalty of forfeiture of 
goods and chattels. 

74. ^The most important articles of American industry, such as 3. itsresiric- 
sugar, tobacco, cotton, wool, indigo, ginger, &c.. — articles which ''?'" "P""' 
Would not compete in tiie English market with English productions, commerce 
— were prohibited from being exported to any other country than "'"' ""'"»" 
England ; and such commodities only as the English merchant 

might not find convenient to buy, were allowed to be shipped to 

other countries of Euroi:)e. ■'As some compensation for these re- 4 certain 

strictions, a seeming monopoly of the tobacco trade with England vrioUeges 

was conferred on tlie American colonies, by prohibiting the culti- tue'cotoniet. 

vation of that plant in England, Ireland, Guernsey, or Jersey, — 

countries, however, not naturally adapted to its growth, and which 

could be little injured by the deprivation. 

75. ^In IGGiJ the provisions of the Navigation Acts were extended 5. Extension 
so as to prohibit the importation of European commodities into the "^I'l^fi"',"^',, 
colonies, except in English ships laden in England, by which the ° lesa. 
colonies were compelled to buy in England all foreign articles 

which they needed, and which they might often have obtained more 
advantageously from other countries. ^At the same time the de- 6. Avoxced 
sign of this commercial policy was declared to be to retain the col- '^cmnmefc'iai 
onies in firm depandence upon the mother country, and oblige them policy. 
to contribute to her advantage by the employment of English ship- 
ping, and the conversion of England into a mart or emporium for 
all such commodities as the colonies might require to be supplied 
with. 7j>fiue years latera the liberty of free trade between the col- 7. Farther en- 

onies themselves was taken away, by the imposition of a tax on eroaciiments 
... , ^ Jj J r on culonial 

commodities exported from one colony to another. trade. 

76. ^ As the provisions of these celebrated Navigation Acts, which a. in le??. 
have been so vaunted by English writers as to be called the palla- ^ oTuitder-'^^ 
(liumj or tutelar deity of the commerce of E/nilaiid, continued to be standimr the 
more or less strictly enforced against the American colonies until andeffec'rof 
the acquisition of their independence, their importiince requires a the nai-ii,'a- 
farther examination of their principles, and of the eti'ects naturally '"*" '"^'*' 
resulting from them. 

77. ^These acts were evidently based upon the principle that the 9. Theie acta 
colonies were established at the cost of the mother country, and for '"^^'''^^ "■'''■"'■ 
her benefit; and on this ground the system of restricted trade was ciptes. 
defended bj' Montesquieu, who says:* '"''It has been established m. Defended 
that the mother country alone shall trale in the colonies, and that ''2/ Monies- 
from very good reasons, because the design of the settlements was upoa'pr^n- 
the extension of commerce, and not the foundation of a city, or of a <^vj<^^ nntap- 
new empire.'' But this principle was not, clearly, applicable to the ^American * 
American colonies, for none of them were founded by the English colonies. 
government ; and the design which led to their establishment was 

either private adventure on the part of companies or individuals, 
or a desire to escape from the oppressions of the mother country. 



* Spirit of Laws, Book XXI, ch. xvii. 



806 



APPENDIX TO THE COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[Book II. 



ANALYSIS. 

1. In what 
way the iiav- 

igatiun acis 
taere directly 

injurious to 

tfie colonies 



2. The latter 

injured 

ioth in titeir 

•purcliases 

and llteir 

sales 

3. TA« sys- 
tem not so 

lencjicial to 

England us 

might at first 

be expected. 

4. Practical 
operation of 

the system, 

tending to 

make the 

rich, richer, 

and the pom-, 

poorer. 



5. Tendency 
of the coin- 
vtercial -pol- 
icy of Eng- 
land 10 alien- 
ate the affec- 
tions of her 

colonies 

6. The Eng- 
lish colonial 
system sup 
ported both 

by ivhigs and 
titries De- 
nounced by 
Adam Smith 
7. Nations 
slow to 
change those 
systems fa- 
vored by the 
great and 
wealthy. 
8 The colo- 
nial policy of 
England con- 
trasted ivitli 
that of other 
nations of 
Europe. 



9. Indigna- 
tion of the 



78. iThe Navigation Acts, by making England the mart of the 
principal products of the ri.sing states, and by prohibiting the latter 
from purchasing European commodities from any other source, 
shackled their commercial liberties, and confei-red upon British 
merchants a monopoly of the most odious charactei* — except only 
as it extended to all Eno;lishmen, instead of being restricted to a 
single individual or company. The system was positively injurious 
to the colonies,* the natural and obvious eifects of any monopoly of 
their trade ; while England alone, or English merchants, I'eaped 
the exclusive benefit of it. ^Deprived of the advantages of an open 
market, the colonists were obliged to sell for a little less than thej' 
otherwise might have done, and to buy at a somewhat dearer nate, 
and thus were wronged, both in their purchases and sales. 

79. 3But the practical operation of the system was not, in its 
results, so beneficial to the people of England, as might, at iirst, be 
expected ; as what little they gained, if any at all, by the additional 
cheapness of colonial products, was overbalanced by the effects of 
the prohibitory restrictions to which this system gave rise. ^As 
merchants were secured by law against foreign competition, the 
landholders demanded a similar protection to secure the profits 
of their capital ; and English corn-laws began to be enacted, secur- 
ing to the home producer a monopoly against the wheat and rye 
of other countries ; and the English poor — the great mass of con- 
sumers and laborers, were made to suffer by the increasing price 
of bread. While the navigation acts, and the prohibitory system 
of which they formed a part, increased the naval power of England, 
extended her cjirrying trade, and multiplied the wealth of her mer- 
chants, manufacturei-s, landholders, and capitalists generally, they 
irrevocably fastened the chains of slavery upon a numerous pauper 
population. 

80. ^But the commercial policy of England tended, farthei*. to 
alienate from her the affections of the colonies, who naturally 
aspired after independence, as the only means of developing their 
industry and resources, by securing those commercial rights of 
which England had deprived them. ^It should not be concealed 
that the commercial part of the colonial system of England, re- 
ceived at all times the ardent support of the two prominent par- 
ties of the kingdom, both Whigs and Tories; nor yet, on the other 
hand, that the greatest British economist, Adam Smith, clearly 
demonstrated its impolicy, and declared it to be "a manifest viola- 
tion of the rights of mankind." 'Yet nations are ever slow to aban- 
don any system of policy which the great and wealthy, the '• aris- 
tocratic few," are interested in upholding. ^Moreover, the com- 
mercial sy.stem which England adopted towards her colonies, was 
mucli less oppressive than the colonial policy of any other nation 
of Europe; and this circumstance, together with the general igno- 
rance that then prevailed of the fundamental principles of political 
economy, constitutes its best apology. While France. Spain, 
Portugal, and Denmark, usually conferred the monopoly of the 
trade of their colonies upon exclusive companies, or restricted it to 
a particular port, that of the British settlements was open to the 
competition of all British traders, and admitted to all the harbors 
of England. 

81. sin none of the Americm colonies did this oppressive system 
excite greater indignation than in Virginia, where the loyalty of 



* Say, Book I, cU. xix. Note. 



Part U.J 



APPENDIX TO THE COLONIAL HISTORY. 



307 



the people anticipated a more generous requital of royal favor. 
Remonstrances were urged against, the navigation acts as a griev- 
ance, and petitions were presented for relief, but to no effect ; and 
when it was found that the provincial authoi'ities connived with 
the colonists in evading the exactions of a system so destructive of 
their interests, and repugnant to their principles, a royal mandate 
was issued, reprimanding them for their conduct ; and forts were 
erected at the mouths of the principal rivers, and vessels sent to 
cruise on the coast to aid in enforcing a strict execution of the law. 
^Still the Virginians contrived to carry on a clandestine trade 
with the Dutch at Manhattan, and retaliating, in some degree, the 
injustice with which they were treated, they enacted a law. that, 
in the payment of debts, Virginia claimants should be preferred to 
English creditors. 2lt was thus that the commercial regulations 
between England and her colonies, instead of being a bond of peace 
and harmony, based on mutual interests, became a source of rank- 
ling jealousies, and vindictive retaliations. 

8:2. ^Virginia had promptly acknowledged Charles II. as her 
lawful sovereign, on the first news of the restoration of royalty : 
but Massachusetts was more slow and guarded in returning to her 
allegiance. ^The loose character, and supposed arbitrary notions of 
Charles, had filled the Puritan and republican colonists of Massa- 
chusetts with alarm, both for their religion and their liberties, and 
their anxiety was increased by a knowledge of the complaints 
against the colony, which the enemies of its policy or institutions 
had presented to the English government. sThe general court of 
the colony immediately convened and voted addresses to the king 
and parliament, in which the colonists justified their whole con- 
duct, and solicited protection for their civil and ecclesiastical 
institutions. *A gracious answer was returned by the king, but 
the apprehensions of the colonists were excited anew by intelli- 
gence that parliament designed to enforce the navigation acts 
against them, to cut off their commercial intercourse with Virginia 
and the West Indies, and that it was in contemplation to send out 
a governor-general, whose jurisdiction should extend over all the 
North American plantations. 

83. ■'Although fearing the worst, and dreading a collision with 
the crown, the colonists were not dismayed, but boldly meeting the 
crisis which they apprehended, they proceeded to set forth, in a 
series of resolutions, a declaration of their rights, and the limits of 
their obedience. ^They declared that their liberties, under God 
and their charter, were, to choose their own officers .and regulate 
their duties ; to exercise, without appeal, except against laws re- 
pugnant to those of England, all legislative, executive, and judicial 
power for the government of all persons within the limits of their 
territory ; to defend themselves, by force of arms, if necessary, 
against every aggression ; and to reject, as an infringement of the 
fundamental rights of the people, any imposition or tax injurious 
to the provincial community, and contrary to its just laws. 

84. 9They avowed their allegiance; their duty to defend the 
king's person and dominions ; to maintain good government, and to 
preserve their colony as a dependency of the English crown ; but 
by denying the right of appeal to the king, and by declaring the 
navigation acts an infringement of their chartered rights, they 
contravened the most important prerogatives which the king and 
parliament claimed the right of exercising over them. i^It was not 
until after all these proceedings, prescribing, as it were, the terms 
of voluntary allegiance, when more than a year had elapsed since 



CHARLES II. 

1660—1685. 

Virginians, 
and ineffec- 
tual remon- 
strances 
against the 
navigation 
acts- 



1. Evasions 

of the naviga- 
tion laws, 
and retalia- 
tions upon 
England. 

2. Jealous 

and vindie- 

tivefeelings 

occasioned. 



3. Compara- 
tive loyalty 
of Virginia 
and Massa- 
chusetts. 

4. Alarm and 
anxielij oft/ie 
Puritans, oc- 
casioned by 
t/ie Icing's 
profligate 
and arbitrary 
ciiaracter. 

5 Proceed- 
ings of the 

general court 
of Massachu- 
setts. 

Feb. 1661. 

6 New ap- 
prehensions 
of the colo- 
nists. 



7. Their bold 
conduct. 



8 Noble dec- 
laration of 
their rights. 



9. Contraven- 
tion of im- 
portant pre- 
rogatives 
claimed by 
king and 
parliament. 



10. Tardy 

acknowledg 

inent of 

Charles U. 



308 



APPENDIX TO THE COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[Book II 



anew char- 
ter. 



ANALYSIS, the restoration, that Charles II. was formally acknowledged in 

. Massachusetts by public proclamation.^ 

*" 16^1.'' *^<'- 'Rhode Island appears to have exhibited a more time-serving 

1. Rhode policy, and less je^ilousy of her rights, or, perhaps, greater political 

Uiand ptr- prudence, '-in 1644 she had applied for and obtiiined a charter 
sues a diner- f. ,. ^ ^i ^, ,. "^ . i- i j i i j 

ent policy, trom parliament, as the then ruling power in England, and had ac- 

2. Her subscr knowledgeil the supremacy of parliament, during the comuion- 
Vuiiiii'pow- wealth ; and now, with eager haste, and with much real or apparent 
«<• s;itisfaction, she proclaimed'' the restoi-ation of monarchical govern- 
b. Oct, 1660. ment, expressing her faith that "the gracious hand of Providence 
3^Sft«^o*wjVis -would preserve her people in their just rights and privileges." ^Axi 
agent was sent to England to solicit the royal favor, and a new 
charter was obtained, although, owing to boundai-y dispxites with 
c July 18. Connecticut, it did not i>ass the royal seal until the summer of 1603.0 
*. Character 86. ^This charter granted and enjoined univei"sal religious tol- 
lers qf'^Ehode eration ; gave to the inhabitants the rights of self-government, and 
Island and so respected their scruples as to omit the requirement from them 
of the usual oath of allegiance to the crown, but which was re- 
quired of the people of Connecticut by the charter given them 
about the same time. The Connecticut charter, equally democratic 
with that of Rhode Island, farther differed from it by the omission 
s.Singrilar of any express allusion to matters of religion. s^wJiiie iu both a 
'"the'cfown conformity to the laws of England was required, as the tenure bj- 
latrversof which the privileges of the people were to be enjoyed, yet no method 
"*' "" ' was provided for ascertaining or enforcing this observance ; and the 
English monarch was thereby excluded from every constitiitional 
means of interposition or control : an oversight of which the crown 
lawyers of England were afterwards sensible, but which they were 
then unable to remedy. 
6. UnyieJd- S7. sprom none other of the American colonies dill the arbitrary 
tu>tf(if.^sia- exactions of the English government receive such constant and un- 
chuseitsto yielding opposition as from Massiichusetts ; and it was doubtless 
for this reason that, of all the colonies, Massachusetts was ever 
made the most prominent object of royal vengeance. "Although 
Chaides the Second had consented that Massachusetts should rettun 
inandsmade her charter, yet at the same time he demanded the most unlimited 
acknowledgment of the royal supremacy. He required that all the 
laws and oiiiinanccs of the colony passed during the period of the 
commonwealth should be declared invalid, and that such as were 
repugnant to the royal authority should be repealed ; that the oath 
of allegiance shoidd be taken by every person; that justice should 
be administered in the king's name; that the Episcopal worship 
should be tolerated ; and that the elective franchise should be ex- 
tended to all freeholders of competent estates, without reference to 
peculiarities of religious faith. 

SS. *The nature of these requisitions was not so objectionable as 
"',i'^hl^.'^."f/'^ the principle of the rijrht of roval interference, which their conces- 
mands.and sion would seem to establish. The question ot liberty which they 
involved was alone suthcicnt to aAvaken the active jealousy and op- 
position of the colonists, and they eventually complied with only 
one of the royal demands — that which directed judicial proceed- 
ings to be conducted in the king's name. 

SO. 9When. in 1664, commissioners were sent out to regulate the 

affairs of New England, the people of Massachusetts disregardetl 

x7ansjp'ered their axithoi'ity, and answered their demands by a petition to the 

^fJ"^^'%'* king, expressing their willingness to testify their allegiance in any 

righteous way, but deprecating the discretionary authority and 

arbitniry measures of the commissioners, as tending to the utter 



the arbitrary 

the Engtixh 
Sovernhunt. 



upon Massa- 
chuselts by 
Charles II. 

1662. 



8. tfature qf 



partial com- 
pliance with 
them. 



3. Demands 
of Commis- 
sioners in 



Part II.] APPENDIX TO THE COLONIAL HISTORY. 309 

subversion of the liberties of the colonists. ^Thcy declared that ch.vkles ir. 
if they were to bi> deprived of the institutions to wliich they were 16 60— 1G85. 
80 much attached, and ibr which they had encountered so great , pi„i,nig. 
ditSculties and dangers, they would seek to re-establish them in ciarai/unam- 
some more distant territory ; and they concluded their petition ^".paUiuii'"^ 
with the following earnest entreaty. 2-' Let our government live, 2. Vundusion 
our charter live, our magistrates live, our laws and liberties live, <ifthepeti- 
our religious enjoyments live : so shall we all yet have farther cause 
to say from our hearts, let the king live forever." 

90. 31t. is interesting to observe how ingeniously, throughout 3. Character, 
this controversy, the people evaded, I'ather than opposed the de- '^"!"il""l'l.f,l' 
mands of the commissioners. When at length the latter, provoked 'sion'fthe 
by these evasions, demanded from the general court of the colony an i^l^i^'^thecom- 
explicit answer to the question, if they acknowledged the authority missloners. 
of his tnajosty's commi-ssion ] the court desired to be excused from 

giving any other answer than that they acknowledged the authority 
of his majesty's charter, with wliich they declared themselves much 
better accjuainted. But when :it length the connnissioners at- 
tempted a practical assertion of their pretensions by authorizing 
appeals to themselves in civil suits that had already been decided 
by the provincial tribunals, the general court promptly interfered, 
and in the name of the king, and by the authority of their charter, 
arrested the proceedings. 

91. <The forwardness of Massachusetts in resisting the roj'al i Massacim- 
commissioners was severely reproved bv the king, who took occasion sejta reproved 

*.' I • o JOT iXf-)' COii' 

at the same time to express his .satisfaction of the conduct of all the duct- 
other colonies. ^A royal mandate was next issued, commanding April, less 
the general court of Massachusetts to send deputies to England to b Required 
answer the charges preferred against it. ^But even this command '" "gj^f^""^/''" 
was disobeyed, the court declaring, in reply to the requisition, that a^ai/Ji her. 
'they had already furnished their views in writing, so that the 6. Declines to 
ablest persons among them could not declare their case more fully.' "'"""^Jiand^"^ 
'i'At the same time, however, the colonists made earnest protestations 7. pmtesta- 
of their loyalty, and as a demonstration of their pi'ofessions, they tionsandde- 
gratuitously furnished supplies for the English fleet miha^ est of her loyalty. 
Indies, and purchased a ship load of masts which they sent to the 
king ; a present then particularly valuable to him, and to which 
he condescended to give a gracious acceptance. ''The V>\\tc\\vf ay s. Causes t)Mt 
in which the king was involved at this, time — the rising (\\9,q,o\\- compelled the 
tents of his own subjects — the dreadful affliction of the plague* and '^pend hi?' 
the great fire of London, caused him to suspend for a while the /*"="*. 
execution of his designs against the institutions of New England. ^'England!'' 
9The king's council often discussed" the atl'airs of Massachusetts, a. i67i. 
and various propositions were made for menacing or conciliating the 9 Discussions 
'• stubborn people of that colony" into a more dutiful allegiance ; but ''n^'"f""?J''f 
even at that early day there were not wanting those wdio enter- open reooi'i. 

* The plague occurred in the summer and autumn of 1665, and was confined to London. 
Hume makes no mention of It : Lingard gives a thrillinji account of it.s horrors. The disease 
penerally manifested itself by the usual febrile symptoms of sliivering, nausea, headache, and 
delirium — then a sudden f^untness — the victim became spotted on the breast, and within an 
liour life was extinct But few recovered from the disease, and death followed within two or 
three days from the lirst symptoms. During; one week, in .September, more than ten thousand 
died. The whole number of victims was more than one hundred thou.sand. 

In September of the following year, 1666, occurred the great fire of lyondon, by which thir- 
teen thousand two hundred dwellings were consumed, and two hundreil tlious:ni(l people left 
destitute. Two-thirds of the metropolis were reduced to aslies. Londou became much more 
healthy after the fire, and the plagu(^ which formerly broke out twice or thrice every century, 
and indeed was always lurking in some corner of the city, has scarcely ever appeared since 
tha( calamity. 




r.^ Mi ^ftm terilr the 

;,^gg^;^ TifiihiBiw. IkvaisimlnMriftMdhitihift tk»En»«r^»4 

O ii ijj fcit °«mM Btvcr ski*«- tkoKetv^ M awwufc y «f Bfc ut * ¥r ■iitinL » 
au»«>K^ «fc ... ,. ^ ^ ,, .. .i I . .. rf it; aesew^. ^tkw « m» Wttar »» g> »r 

'—Tie 
viA vhick MassMhascos 4MteielA« g»-*«» «f ^ 




~ ^ «K ifc* tin* «f Ae caa^Mst «h» ftfMlMiM «f the 

' ■■ '^ ■ * "hi fiTlini^ iiMii, 11 iTi iiiimi iitiiiii^ ti 

f ifrtn iiTji . ^wr» Owe ^vcei »» <k» ■vsetaM^ «r<ke d^ 

^■■*- ~ja~&i <x««it. TW ijfeM«rib«nMait «f X*» Xi 

iVj^-v-.^r^ -«:is 9Mih aAcr ctvcs «• Bma saii i^ |ma::. 

.Mte^A^ <«d(as«& Mr JUL Aej- «asr s* |r«»e6C : 



TO IBS CXXX^XLU. KSIQKr. SH 



jg««p^p M B i . pMpiK i^ seK^ nnm^ T'BKs. 




* is* a^nOar ommmImim due , mss sw 
skK ^^ v-^artcrai rii^is fif i^ N^v T>glii»i oahsMs vow 9ii^ ^~ 

ckiek MEwtmi jtan^ Ike Kj^ «f ChMrtes iU j 

Wii »h* fJMfc aai n»i,ri|ii . <f Ifceg- 
dtta «»kata« rl^t^ rn dw itttxaniv pan «f tlis "vw^ 

sen of Af i— inr hot M c aai cnS Wl^okML*»lkft9■b- 
^« wieiigastwaJ aRaasnaote vkkik 

' k«fB ii-irnTJi-^iri ~ 

S&. »|-»TMg tke» sif^SL £< \%iTRw Pc«» 3Mt<a> »ife Biaef At>- 
lV9&fi«B the ts^ia(C3is»e6 «f 

ike MM «f fidMOS. IVf 

Christ's AJHfcig Ag har ftr ^ « * feekiajy. fucaM 

V 3- :t«t. -vkk^ Watoe. it «^ a sa •» ««■■«: dbe dkcisk 

3^ btuic ^&k:c& «if. £Bi iH i^^s iltM sua £1 fcciBS gwd. 

> M^|jhi «y AeQ»ks«s— Bkrf^e l iT i i ifaat 

WSJ :: vladk ke te taa g ei. <TW ftiaaiu «^ dv a^awalB^ei 
^xk£eR,«rFn(ais.^ei^GFMnEfrF«s.»MaB«fbBHliifekk€k.vh* * 

lte2MTasr«f^wer sWeviB 







TWc rHasBii»yai«ff xh«-kais.«r •» fcaKSBK av af 

i^oras waibwEM. iMiui Ae 
. i^ staroiB cf as Mik. ■ >^^ Ta M - i p -i ia « 
tchisaRxi-: -w^ 




312 



APPENDIX TO THE COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[Book IL 



.. Character, 

and earlij 

preaching qf 

Fox. 



2 Perm's ac- 
count of him. 



3. Farther 

account qf 

Fox. by 

Godwin. 



4. Early ex- 
cesses of Fox. 



ANALYSIS. They wore a garb of peculiar plainness, and were the determined 
enemies of the institution of priesthood. 

101. '"Fox himself was a man of a fervent mind, and. though 
little indebted to the arts of education, had a copious flow of words, 
and great energy in enforcing what he taught. His first discoui-ses 
were addressed to a small number of jjcrsons, who were probably 
prepared to receive his instructions with deference. But, having 
passed through this ordeal, he, in the year 1647, declaimed before 
numerous meetings of religious persons, and people came from far 
and near to hear him. ^penn says, that the most awful, living, 
reverent frame of mind he ever s;iw in a human being, was that of 
Fox in prayer ; and Fox, speaking of a prayer he poured forth in 
the year 1648, informs us, that to all the persons present the house 
seemed to be shaken, even as it happened to the apostles in their 
meetings immediately after the ascension of Christ. 

102. 3-' The course he pursued was such as came to him by im- 
pulse at the moment, without premeditation ; and he felt impelled 
to resort to courts of justice, crying for an impartial administration, 
and exhorting the judges to a conscientious discharge of their 
duty ; to inns, urging the keepers to discountenance intemperance ; 
and to wakes and fairs, declaiming against profligacy. He came into 
markets, and exhorted those who sold to deal justly ; he testified 
against mountebanks ; and, when the bell rang for church, he felt 
it striking on his heart, believing that it called men to market for 
that precious gospel, which Avas ordained to be dispensed without 
money and without price." 

103. ■^During the early period of his ministry. Fox committed 
many excesses against good order, by interrupting religious meet- 
ings, and denouncing a hireling ministry, for which he was many 
times beaten and imprisoned, all which he bore with patient and 
humble fortitude. At one time, when the officiating clergyman 
had finished preaching from the words, "Ho, every one that thirst- 
eth, come buy without money," Fox was moved to cry against him, 
"Come doMu thou deceiver! Dost thou bid people come to the 
waters of life freely, and yet thou takest three hundred pounds a 
year of them ?" At another time, as he relates of himself, he was 
moved to pull his shoes from olf his feet, and traverse the city of 
Litchfield in every direction, crying in ecstacy as he went along, 
" Woe, woe, to the bloody city of Litchfield !"' 

104. 5ln the progress of hi