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Copyright 1908 by 


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In the preparation of these volumes the aim has been to 
make the list of musicians include a selection of those that will 
be most useful in a book of reference for the general reader or 
student as well as for the musician. To this end the following 
classes have been particularly emphasized: Great composers; 
noted artists and performers; successful teachers; musicians who 
have made inventions or improvements in the instruments they 
represent; musical critics and writers; all musicians who are im- 
portant in the history of music; and representatives of special 
schools or epochs of music. An especial effort has been made 
to include as many contemporary musicians as possible, and 
American musicians have been given proportionately more space 
than those of foreign countries. Names of musicians from whom 
personal information has been obtained, either directly or from 
members of their families, are marked with a star. 

The publisher of these volumes wishes to express thanks to 
the following libraries for their generous aid and for the courtesy 
and helpfulness of the members of the various staffs: The 
Lenox Library at New York; The Boston Public Library; The 
Congressional Library of Washington; The Chicago Public 
Library; The Newberry Library of Chicago; The Toledo Public 

Indebtedness is acknowledged to Grove's Dictionary of 
Music and Musicians; Champlin and Apthorp's Cyclopedia of 
Music and Musicians; Riemann's Dictionary of Music; Moore's 
Encyclopedia of Music; Baker's Biographical Dictionary of 
Musicians; Elson's Modern Composers of Europe, and Rupert 
Hughes' Musical Guide and Famous American Composers, all 
of which have been freely consulted. 




Alexander Theatre ------- Frontispiece 

Franz Apt ------.-...16 

Hector Berlioz •.----..... 90 

Gustave Charpentier - - - - -- - - - 154 

Frederick Francois Chopin ------- 2I8 

Antonin Dvorak ---------- 272 

Robert Franz --•--•-•.. 336 

Niels Wilhelm Gade ---------400 

Michael Ivanovitch Glinka - - - - . - • - 464 


a as in ah 

a as in mate 

a as in cat 

b as in bat 

c used only in ch as in churlish. The 
Scotch and German gutteral, as 
loch and ich, is represented by kh. 

d as in deem 

dh as in thine 

dj as in adjure 

e as in be 

e as in get 

f as in file 

g as in go 

h as in hail 

i as in light 

i as in tin 

j as in joke 

k as in kite 

1 as in lump 

m as in mine 

n as m nme 

n represents the French nasal n or m. 

6 as in mote 

6 as in on 

6 as in song 

oo as in loon 

ow as in bow 

p as in post 

r as in roll 

s as in sent 

t as in tap 

th as in thank 

th as these is represented by dh 

u as in blue 

ti as in utter 

The French u and the German long 

u are represented by u 
V as in survive 
w as in well 
y as in yet 
z as in zone 


A BBOTT, Emma. 1850-1888. 
/-\ Dramatic soprano. Born in 
Chicago. Her father was a mu- 
sic teacher. She showed great love 
of music in childhood. Her family 
moved to Peoria, 111., in 1854, where 
her father had difficulty in earning a 
living. To help with the finances, he 
gave concerts in Peoria and many 
other towns in which Emma, then nine 
years old, and her brother George 
appeared. At the age of ten, Emma 
was given lessons on the guitar and 
George on the violin, their mother 
partly paying for the lessons by 
boarding the teacher. After three 
years of instruction, Emma was able 
to teach the guitar and had several 
pupils. She attended school in Peoria, 
until, at the age of sixteen, she was 
obliged to teach district school to help 
support the family. She also sang in 
the synagogue in that town. About 
this time, she joined the Lombard 
Concert Company and toured with 
them through Iowa, Illinois and Wis- 
consin, but they soon disbanded and 
Emma, determined to study music, 
undertook to work her way to New 
York by giving concerts. This she 
accomplished, but was unable to make 
any headway in that city. Soon after 
this, she met Clara Louise Kellogg in 
Toledo, Ohio. Miss Kellogg was so 
pleased with her voice that she paid 
her expenses and gave her a letter to 
Erani, a celebrated teacher. While 
studying with Erani, she sang in a 
church choir at a good salary and was 
helped by the congregation to go to 

Europe. She went to Milan and 
worked for some time under San Gio- 
vanni and later, for several years in 
Paris, with Delle Sedie and Wartel 
Her first appearance in Paris was a 
great success and she remained for 
several years in Europe. In 1878 she 
returned to the United States where 
she had great success. She mar- 
ried Mr. Eugene Wetherell, a New 
York business man, the year she 
returned from abroad and he managed 
all her tours until her death, in 1888. 
Miss Abbott was also very sucessful 
financially and is said to have been a 
very wealthy woman. 

Abel (a'-bel), Karl Friedrich. 1725- 


Very noted performer on the viol da 
gamba. He was a pupil of Sebastian 
Bach, at the Thomasschule, Leipsic, 
and afterward belonged to the Court 
band at Dresden. He went to Lon- 
don in 1759, where he gave concerts 
composed entirely of his own music, 
and was appointed chamber-musician 
to Queen Charlotte, with a salary of 
two hundred pounds. For many years 
he conducted Mrs. Cornely's Subscrip- 
tion concerts with Johann Christian 
Bach. These concerts were also 
known as "Bach and Abel's Concerts," 
and were continued until Bach's death 
in 1782. During the next year they 
were conducted by Abel alone but 
were unsuccessful. He returned to 
Germany in 1783, but did not stay, 
going back to London in 1785. He 
was the greatest and last performer 
upon his instrument, which after his 




death fell into disuse. His composi- 
tions consist of overtures, concertos, 
quartets, sonatas and symphonies. 
Among his best known works are A 
Fifth Set of Six Overtures and A Set 
of Six Sonatas. His instrumental 
pieces are in seventeen works. He 
also wrote two operas, Love in a Vil- 
lage, in 1760, and Bernice, in 1764. 
His works excel particularly in har- 
mony. Abel played usually on a six- 
stringed English viol da gamba, in- 
stead of on the seven-stringed one 
generally used on the continent. A 
very fine three-quarter length portrait 
of Abel with his instrument was 
painted by his friend Gainsborough. 
Among his pupils was the noted 
pianist, T. B. Cramer. 

Abell, John. About 1660-after 1716. 

Famous alto singer and lute player. 
Began his musical education in the 
choir of the Chapel Royal and was 
later sent by Charles II. to study in 
Italy. Returned to England in 1683. 
He was dismissed from the choir of 
the Chapel Royal in 1688, and after 
traveling on the Continent for a num- 
ber of years, during which time he 
supported himself by his voice and 
lute, he returned and settled at Cam- 
bridge in 1700. He published a col- 
lection of songs in several languages 
in 1701, dedicated to WilHam III. and 
a collection of songs in English, also 
in 1701. 

Abert (a'bert), Johann Joseph. 1832- 

Bohemian orchestral and operatic 
composer. Received his first musical 
instruction in the choir of the church 
at Gastdorf. At the age of eight, he 
entered the Augustine convent at 
Leipa, where he stayed until he was 
fifteen, when he ran away to Prague 
and became a pupil in the Conserva- 
tory there, studying with Tomaczek 
and Kittl. He studied doublebass 
first, and the works which he wrote 
for this instrument are very fine. In 
1852 he became contrabassist in the 
Court Orchestra at Stuttgart and the 
next year produced his first symphony 
in C minor. His first opera, Anna von 
Landskron, was written in 1859, after 
which he lived in Paris and London 
for several years. In 1865 he was 
appointed Royal Music director at 
Stuttgart and in 1867 Royal Orchestra 
conductor at the Court Theatre. Is 


best known by his orchestral tran- 
scriptions of Bach's organ fugues. 
He also wrote overtures and operas. 
In 1877 he was appointed music direc- 
tor and conductor at the Stuttgart 
Court Theatre. His best known work 
is a five act opera, Ekkehard. 

Abt, Franz. 1819-1885. 

Born at Eilenburg, Prussia. His 
father was a clergyman, and the son 
was intended for the same profession. 
He was sent to the Thomasschule 
and the University of Leipsic, to 
study theology, but was allowed to 
take up music at the same time and 
received a thorough musical educa- 
tion. After his father's death he gave 
up theology entirely. He was ap- 
pointed musical director of the Court 
Theatre at Bernburg in 1841 and later 
on held the same position at the 
Aktien Theatre at Zurich. In 1852, 
he went to the Hof-Theatre, Bruns- 
wick, as Court conductor, where he 
stayed until his retirement in 1882, after 
which he lived at Wiesbaden. He vis- 
ited the United States in 1872, as the 
guest of several singing societies and 
conducted at the Gilmore Jubilee the 
same year. Abt's piano pieces, which 
were of a light character, are almost 
forgotten, but he was a most prolific 
song-writer, his compositions consist- 
ing of between four and five hundred 
works, almost entirely songs. These 
consist of solos, duets, trios and 
choruses and of part-songs for men's 
voices, which were particularly popu- 
lar and successful. Some of these 
pieces . have become really German 
folk-songs, among them, Gute Nacht 
du Mein Herziges Kind, and his popu- 
lar and familiar, When the Swallows 
Homeward Fly. He also wrote a 
number of successful cantatas for 
female voices, the most popular being 
Red Riding Hood; Little Snowdrop; 
and Cinderella. 

Acton, John. 1863- 

English composer and vocal teacher. 
Studied first at Manchester and 
later at Milan under Lamperti. From 
1882-1893 was organist in various 
churches. He has been professor of 
singing at the Royal College of Music, 
Manchester, since its opening m 1893. 
Became conductor of the St. -Cecilia 
Choral Society of Manchester in 1894. 
His compositions consist of two can- 



tatas for female voices, Forest Bells, 
and The Rose and the Nightingale; a 
chorus for male voices, For Home and 
Liberty, which was awarded a prize, 
offered by the South London Musical 
Club in 1888; also duets; many songs; 
and piano pieces, 

Adam (ad-an), Adolphe Charles. 


Born in Paris. His father was 
Louis Adam, a French operatic com- 
poser, who was also a musician of 
note but objected to the same ten- 
dency in his son. The boy was al- 
lowed no musical instruction and his 
talents along this line were strongly 
discouraged. His perseverance finally 
prevailed, however, and he was al- 
lowed to enter the Conservatory in 
1817, but only on condition of his 
promising never to write for the 
stage, a promise which, it is needless 
to say, was broken later on. He first 
studied the organ under Benoist, later 
taking up the harmonium, upon which 
he became a clever improviser. He 
also studied counterpoint with Eler 
and Reicha, but seems to have made 
little progress until he became a 
pupil of Boieldieu, at that time pro- 
fessor of composition at the Con- 
servatory. Adam's first work was 
piano-music of all kinds, including 
transcriptions and songs In 1829, he 
published his first opera, Pierre and 
Catherine, in one act. This was pro- 
duced at the Opera Comique and was 
successful. In 1830 his three act 
opera Danilow was brought out and 
was also a success. This was followed 
by a large number of works, among 
them the operas, Le Chalet, Le Postil- 
ion de Longjumeau, Le Brasseur de 
Preston, Le Roi d'Yvetot, Cagliostro, 
and Richard en Palestine; and the 
ballets, Faust, La Jolie Fille de Gand, 
and Giselle. Of his operas, Le Postil- 
ion de Longjumeau, produced in 1836, 
was the best and the one which made 
him famous. This popular opera is 
often produced in Germany, France 
and other countries of Europe. In 
1847, after a quarrel with the director 
of the Opera Comique, he started an 
opera house of his own, but this was 
not a financial success and after 1848 
he again devoted himself to composi- 
tion, becoming professor of composi- 
tion at the Conservatory in 1849. 
Besides operas and ballets and can- 


tatas, Adam composed two masses. 
Adam's work may be divided into 
three classes, his grand operas, 
which were failures; his ballets, 
which were melodious and beautiful; 
and his comic operas, in which his 
talent really lay and which were truly 
successful. He may, perhaps, be con- 
sidered the successor and imitator of 
Boieldieu and Auber. His works 
were written in a flowing and rhythm- 
ical style and contain much humor 
and melody. 

Adam (ad-aii), Louis. 1758-1848. 

Celebrated pianist and teacher and 
father of the preceding. He was born 
in Alsace but went to Paris early in 
his life and began composing when 
very young, as two of his symphonies 
for the harp, piano and violin, were 
performed at the Concerts Spirituels, 
when he was only seventeen. He was 
a close student of Bach, Handel, Scar- 
latti and Mozart and was a very thor- 
ough teacher. Adam was professor 
of piano at the Paris Conservatory 
from 1797 to 1843. He trained many 
famous pupils, among whom were 
Herold, Henri Lemoine, Kalkbrenncr 
and Adolphe Charles Adam, his cele- 
brated son. He published, beside 
many piano compositions, a new 
method for the piano which was 
translated by Czerny in 1826. Adam's 
work was remarkable, on account of 
his being almost entirely self-trained. 

Adam de la Hale (ad-ah du la-al), 

About 1240-1287. 

The best known of the French 
Troubadours, called The Hunchback 
of Arras. He was a gifted poet and 
a composer of high importance. His 
works are said to be of the greatest 
value for the musical history of the 
times in which he lived. Many of 
these, which have been preserved, 
were published in 1872, by Cousse- 
maker. He wrote the text as well as 
the music of his compositions. He is 
the author of the earliest known 
comic opera, which is, Le Jeu de 
Robin et de Marion. This piece has 
eleven characters. It is written in 
dialogue, is divided into scenes and is 
interspersed with airs and a kind of 
duet, in which two voices sing alter- 
nately but never together. A per- 
formance of this first comic opera 
was given at Arras, in 1896, at fetes 


in honor of the composer. He also 
wrote thirty-four chansons, seventeen 
rondeaux, seventeen motets, and six- 
teen part-songs. 

Adam von Fulda (at'-am fon fool'- 
da). About 1450-after 1537. 
A Franconian monk, who was a 
musical theorist, a composer of sacred 
songs and the author of a famous 
treatise. The Theory of Music. He 
was one of the oldest of German mu- 
sicians and his compositions were very 
highly considered in their day. 

Adamberger (at'-am-berkh-er), Valen- 

tm. 1743-1804. 

Famous tenor singer and vocal 
teacher. Born at Munich. He was a 
pupil of Valesi and on his advice went 
to Italy, where he was very successful 
under the Italian name Adamonti. 
In 1777 he visited London and sang 
at the King's Theatre, in Sacchini's 
Creso. At the command of Emperor 
Joseph, he returned to Vienna, where 
he made his first appearance in Ger- 
man opera in 1780 at the Hof-und- 
National-Theatre. Was an intimate 
friend of Mozart and was said by 
him to have been a man of whom 
Germany might well be proud. Mozart 
composed for him the part of Bel- 
monte in the Seraglio, as well as a 
number of his fine airs. 

Adamowski (ad-a-mof-shki), Timo- 
thee. 1858- 

A Polish violin-player of much dis- 
tinction. He has made his home in 
the United States since 1879. Ada- 
mowski was born at Warsaw, studied 
under Kontchi at the Warsaw Con- 
servatory and later under Massart at 
the Paris Conservatory. On coming 
to America, he traveled as soloist 
with Moritz Strakosch, also with 
Clara Louise Kellogg; and with a 
company of his own played in various 
of the large cities here The Adamow- 
ski String-Quartet was organized in 
1888 with Fidler, Kunz and Campa- 
nari as the other members. In 1890 it 
was reorganized, the members in addi- 
tion to Timothee Adamowski being 
his brother Joseph, a very fine violon- 
cellist, and Zach and Moldauer. 
Adamowski is known in this country 
not only as an eminent violin-player 
but also as a conductor. From 1890 
to 1894 he was conductor of the sum- 


mer concerts of the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra. Several of his songs have 
been published. He taught at the 
New England Conservatory from 1885 
to 1886, the following year appeared 
in London, visited both Paris and 
London in 1895, and three years later 
was heard in Warsaw, where he 
appeared with the Philharmonic Or- 
chestra and Musical Society For 
some years he has been heard annual- 
ly in London and Paris during the 
summer season. His Quartet gives 
annual concerts in the principal towns 
of the United States. 

* Adams, Suzanne. 1873- 

Distinguished American operatic and 
concert singer. She was born in Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts, is a daughter of 
Mr. John Gedney Adams, and inherits 
a taste for music from both sides of 
the family. On the maternal side of 
Irish and Spanish ancestry, Suzanne 
Adams' appearance and personality 
bespeak the rich Celtic and Latin 
strains. She is instinctively dramatic, 
infusing into her roles her own per- 
sonality. She early showed musical 
talent, went abroad for study and was 
a pupil of Jacques Bouhy in Paris. 
Her career has been, on the whole, an 
easy one. When she made her debut, 
as Juliet, at the Grand Opera, Paris, 
in 1895, she was yielded appreciation 
by both critics and public. She 
remained at the Grand Opera, Paris, 
for three years, where she sang the 
roles of Juliet, Marguerite, Gilda, and 
appeared in The Huguenots. Then 
followed a season at Nice, where she 
sang all her repertory. In 1898 she 
was engaged by Maurice Grau at 
Covent Garden, London. Suzanne 
Adams was very successful her first 
season in London, singing at the first 
state concert, at Buckingham Palace 
and before the Queen at Windsor 
Castle, In November, 1898, she made 
her debut in America, as Juliet, at 
the Auditorium, Chicago, and for suc- 
cessive seasons in America and Eng- 
land was one of the chief stars of the 
Grau Grand Opera Company. Both in 
America and England she has sung in 
concert tours. She sang every season 
at Buckingham Palace, was a great 
favorite with Queen Victoria, and 
sang Marguerite in Faust in the last 
performance ever given before the 


late Queen. She possesses several 
gifts presented her by Victoria, among 
them an autographed photograph and 
a diamond and sapphire bracelet. 
Suzanne Adams was married to Leo 
Stern, the celebrated English violon- 
cellist in 1898, toured with him in this 
country in 1902 and 1903, and the lat- 
ter year settled in London, where she 
has a house and now makes her home. 
On his death, which occurred in 1904, 
she retired from the stage for a year. 
In 1905 she returned to public life. 
She sings in opera, concerts, and ora- 
torios, and appears regularly at 
Covent Garden. In November, 1907, 
at the Auditorium, Chicago, she made 
her first appearance on the vaudeville 
stage Suzanne Adams has won 
eminent success as Juliet, Marguerite, 
Gilda, Micaela, Zerline, and Donna 
Elvira, and is especially fond of 
Mozart roles. 

Adams, Thomas. 1785-1858, 

English organist and composer. He 
was a pupil of Busby and was organ- 
ist for several large English churches 
in succession. He obtained a posi- 
tion at St. Paul's Church by competi- 
tion, playing with twenty-eight other 
organists. He also superintended the 
performances on the Apollicon, an 
organ of peculiar construction. He 
excelled in extemporizing and did a 
great deal of work for organ builders 
in testing new organs. Adams wrote 
many pieces for the organ, including 
fugues, interludes, voluntaries and vari- 
ations. He also published piano-pieces 
and many vocal selections, anthems, 
hymns and sacred songs. He was 
known as "the Thalberg of the organ." 

Addison, John. 1765-1844. 

English composer of operettas much 
admired in their day, and doublebass 
player. The son of an ingenious 
mechanic, he early evinced a taste for 
music, and as a child learned to play 
on the flute, flageolet, bassoon and 
violin. His marriage to a singer. Miss 
Williams, niece of the bass singer, 
Reinhold, led him to adopt music as 
a profession. His wife obtaining an 
engagement at Liverpool, he accepted 
a place in the orchestra there, playing 
first violoncello and then doublebass, 
from now on in his orchestra work, 
confining himself to the latter instru- 
ment. He continued his musical career 


in Dublin, here having opportunity to 
improve in composition. At Man- 
chester, Addison was persuaded to 
enter into the business of cotton 
manufacture, but this proving unsuc- 
cessful he returned to the musical 
profession. He composed several 
operas for Covent Garden and the 
Lyceum, the most successful being 
The Sleeping Beauty, and The Rus- 
sian Impostor. He had considerable 
vogue as a teacher of singing, and for 
many years played doublebass at the 
opera and at concerts. Mrs. Addison 
sang successfully at Vauxhall Gardens, 
and at Covent Garden Theatre, ap- 
pearing as Rosetta in Love in a Vil- 
lage and in other roles. She was 
highly esteemed as an opera singer. 

Adler, Guido. 1855- 

Famous German writer and theorist 
on music. He was born in Moravia 
and was educated at Vienna at the 
Gymnasium, the Conservatory and the 
University. In 1874, with Mottl and 
Wolf, he founded the academic Wag- 
ner Society, which later became an 
important organization. In 1878 he 
took the degree of Doctor of Laws 
and in 1880 of Doctor of Philosophy, 
while in 1881 he became teacher of 
musical science at the University. In 
1882 he was sent as delegate to the 
International Liturgical Congress at 
Arezzo, of which meeting he wrote a 
detailed report. With Spitta and 
Chrysander, he founded in 1884 the 
Vierteljahrsschrift fiir Musikwissen- 
schaft, of which he was editor for a 
year. In 1885 he was made professor 
of the science of music at the Uni- 
versity of Prague and in 1898 was 
appointed to the same position at the 
University of Vienna, where he suc- 
ceeded Hanslick. Since 1894 he has 
been editor-in-chief of the Series of 
Denkmaler der Tonkunst in Oester- 
reich. He has also written important 
treatises on counterpoint and harmony. 

Adler, Vincent. 1826-1871. 

A young composer who lived in 
Paris and belonged to the school of 
Stephen Heller. He was born in 
Hungary, studied at Pesth, Vienna, 
and Paris, and was professor at the 
Geneva Conservatory in 1865. Author 
of many interesting piano pieces, and 
some vocal music. His compositions 
are light in character. 


Agnelli (an-yel-le), Salvatore. 1817- 
An Italian composer. He was born 
at Palermo, studied at the Naples 
Conservatory, under Furno, Zingarelli, 
and Donizetti. Agnelli is the author 
of several operas. He began his pro- 
fessional career in Naples, and there 
produced, in 1839, II Lazzarone Napol- 
itano, and La Locanderia di Spirito. 
He went to Marseilles in 1846, and in 
this city brought out the operas La 
Jacquerie, Leonore de Medicis, and 
Les Deux Avares. He has written sev- 
eral operas in addition to those men- 
tioned; a Stabat Mater; a Miserere; 
several ballets; and the cantata, 
Apotheose de Napoleon I. 

Agnesi, (an-ya'-se) Louis Ferdinand 

Leopold. 1833-1875. 

Belgian opera and concert singer, 
whose real name was Agniez. Agnesi 
was a famous bass. He was born at 
Erpent, in the province of Namur, 
Belgium, studied at the Brussels Con- 
servatory, for a time was choirmaster 
at the Church of Saint Catherine, and 
in Brussels conducted several singing 
societies. He did some work as a 
composer, but the limited success of 
his opera, Harold le Normand, in- 
fluenced him to devote most of his 
attention to smging, though he has 
several compositions in addition to 
the opera, principally songs and 
motets. He studied under Duprez, 
and as a member of Merelli's Italian 
Opera Company made a tour of Ger- 
many, Holland and Belgium. He sang 
for several seasons in Paris and Lon- 
don, in the latter city as oratorio and 
concert singer, adding greatly to his 
fame. His success in opera roles was 
distinguished, and he was justly 
famed both as actor and musician. 

Agramonte (ag-ra-mon'-ta), E m i li o. 


Born in Cuba. Composer, teacher, 
pianist, and singer. He studied com- 
position in Spain under Botessini and 
Balart and later in Paris, under David 
and Maiden. His masters in piano 
were Biscani and Jovell in Spain, and 
Marmontel in Paris. He studied sing- 
ing with Selva, Roger and Delle 
Sedie. Received the degree of LL.D. 
from the University of Madrid, in 
1865. He began his work as a teacher, 
in Barcelona in 1865, taught in Cuba 
from 1866 to 1868 and, since 1868, he has 


lived in New York, conducting and 
teaching. He has conducted the 
Gounod Society of New Haven, Conn., 
since 1886, and has conducted many 
other well-known choral societies. Is 
the author of many songs and sacred 
compositions and of a Stabat Mater in 
manuscript and has also delivered 
musical lectures. 

Agricola, Alexander. About 1470- 

about 1506. 

A great celebrity of the Fifteenth 
Century. He was in the service of 
Lorenzo de Medici at Florence and 
afterward at Milan. In 1505, he fol- 
lowed Philip I. to Castile, where he 
remained till he died, probably about 
1506. He wrote many masses and 
motets, also sacred and secular songs. 
He was particularly noted for a grand 
and heavy style of music but lacked 
lightness and humor. A volume of 
five of his masses was published at 
Venice in 1503. 

Agricola, Johann Friedrich. 1720- 


German musician, who was said to 
be the best organist in Berlin in his 
day, but whose compositions had no 
permanent value. He was educated 
at the University of Leipsic and 
studied music for three years with 
the great Johann Sebastian Bach. 
Later he lived and studied at Berlin 
and Dresden. Under the name Oli- 
brio, he published pamphlets on 
French and Italian music, in 1749. 
On account of the success of a can- 
tata, performed in 1750, Agricola was 
made Court composer by Frederick 
the Great, and after 1759 was ap- 
pointed director of the Royal Chapel. 
Agricola translated Tosi's Method of 
Singing and was himself considered a 
very good singing teacher. He com- 
posed eight operas and much church 

Agricola, Martin. About 1500-1556. 

An important German musical 
writer of the Sixteenth Century, 
whose real name was Sohr or Soro. 
He was one of the principal authori- 
ties on the history of musical instru- 
ments of his time, and a factor in the 
reform of musical notation. He was 
born about 1500, at Sorau, Branden- 
burg, and died at Magdeburg. He 
was private teacher in Magdeburg, 



later teacher and cantor of the first 
Protestant School there. While en- 
gaged in the duties of schoolmaster 
he carried on the study of music by 
himself, and made such advance as 
to take rank as an authority. His 
most important work is his Musica 
instrumentalis deudsch. Mention 
should be made of his Musica fig- 
uralis deudsch; Rudimenta Musices; 
and Von den Proportionibus. Agricola 
also published the collections Ein 
kurtz deudsch Musica; Deudsch 
Musica und Gesangbiichlein; Ein 
Sangbtichlien aller Sonntags-Evan- 

Agujari (a-goo-ha're), Lucrezia. 


A very remarkable Italian singer. 
Mozart records that she possessed a 
" lovely voice, a flexible throat and an 
incredibly high range." She was born 
at Ferrara, Italy, the natural daughter 
of a man of high degree, and was 
generally referred to as La Bastar- 
della. She received her training under 
Abbe Lambertini, made her debut in 
Florence, and sang with brilliant suc- 
cess in London and various towns of 
Italy. The prices she received were 
phenomenal for the times, five hun- 
dred dollars a night being paid her at 
one period of her career. She was 
married in 1780 to Colla, Court direc- 
tor to the Duke of Parma and a cele- 
brated composer, who wrote most of 
her songs, and was the author of the 
opera II Tolomeo, in which she 
created a great sensation at Milan. 

Aib linger (i-bling-er), Johann Kaspar 

German composer, director and 
music collector, esteemed as a writer 
of church music. Wasserburg, Ba- 
varia, was his native place and he 
died in Munich. He began the study 
of music in Munich, pursued the sub- 
ject at Vicenza, Italy, for a number of 
years and settling in Vienna, founded 
in conjunction with the Abbe Tren- 
tino, the Odeon, its aim being the cul- 
tivation of classical vocal music. In 
1819 he was called back to his own 

I country, and for a period was director 
of Italian Opera in Munich, in 1823 
becoming Court director. He re- 
turned to Italy in 1833 and resided at 
Bergamo, giving his attention to col- 
lecting ancient classical music. This 
collection is now in the Staatsbiblio- 


thek at Munich. Aiblinger was the 
author of ballets; an opera, Rodrigo e 
Chimene; and of much church music, 
masses, litanies, psalms, requiems 
and offertories. Riemann records that 
his church music was famous but his 
stage work much less successful. 

Alard (al-ar), Jean Delphin. 1815- 

Famous French violinist and teacher 
of Sarasate. Showed a wonderful tal- 
ent for music very early. At the age 
of twelve, was sent to Paris, where he 
was allowed to enter the Conservatory 
as a listener only, not being accepted as 
a regular pupil. He made great prog- 
ress, however, soon taking a second 
prize and shortly afterward a first, and 
after 1831 he began to be considered a 
great violinist. From 1843 to 1875 he 
was professor of the violin at the 
Paris Conservatory and was also 
leader of the Royal Orchestra, author 
of a Method for the Violin and also 
many fine violin compositions. His 
compositions are very popular and 
consist of concertos, etudes and fan- 
tasias for the violin, and duets for 
the violin and piano. He also wrote 
on musical subjects. His Method for 
the Violin has been translated into 
German, Spanish and Italian. 

Albani (al-ba'-ni), Marie Emma. 

The stage name of Marie Louise 
Cecil Emma Lajeunesse, a distin- 
guished prima donna. She was born 
near Montreal, of French Canadian 
parents. Her father was a teacher of 
the organ and harp. She received her 
first musical instruction in a convent 
in Montreal and in 1864 went with her 
family to Albany, New York, where 
she sang in the choir of the Catholic 
Cathedral, and attracted the attention 
of the bishop, who advised that she be 
sent to Europe to develop her voice. 
A concert for her benefit was given in 
Albany, and she went abroad with her 
father, studying first in Paris for two 
years and afterward in Milan with 
Lamperti. She made her debut in 
1870, in La Sonnambula, at Messina, 
and has since sung in all the principal 
European countries with great success, 
and also in America. In 1878 she 
married Mr. Ernest Gye, the lessee of 
the Covent Garden Theatre. Madame 
Albani, besides singing in Italian, 
French and German opera, has been 



very successful in concert and oratorio 
work. Among her most successful 
parts were Elizabeth in Tannhauser, 
Elsa in Lohengrin, and Senta in the 
Flying Dutchman. Perhaps her great- 
est operatic triumph, was when she 
sang Isolde to the Tristan of Jean de 
Reszke, in 1896. She has also created 
parts in many important new works, 
among them the Specter's Bride, the 
Redemption, The Martyr of Antioch, 
St. Ursula, The Golden Legend, and 
St. Ludmila. Madame Albani is also 
an excellent pianist. 

Albeniz (al-ba'-neth), Isaac. 1861- 

Spanish pianist and composer, who 
has been markedly successful. He was 
born at Comproden, Spain. Albeniz 
was an infant prodigy, beginning to 
play on the piano when but three 
years old. He was sent to Paris to 
study under the famous Marmontel, 
and in Barcelona, at the age of seven, 
made a public appearance. In Madrid, 
the child pianist gave many successful 
concerts. When only ten years old he 
left home, feeling able to care for 
himself, and, the following year, he 
visited North and South America, 
where he traveled and gave concerts 
in various places. In Cuba he and his 
father, from whom he had been es- 
tranged, became reconciled, and the 
latter persuaded him to enter upon a 
serious course of study. His Ameri- 
can tour defrayed expenses for a 
period of instruction at Leipzic, where 
he was under Reinecke and Jadassohn. 
For further study he was granted a 
pension by the Queen, and at Brussels 
studied the piano under Brassin, har- 
mony with Dupont, and composition 
with Gevaert. Under Liszt he com- 
pleted his studies. In 1881 Albeniz 
again toured the United States, and on 
this tour was very successful. In 
London and other European capitals 
he has won many triumphs as a con- 
cert pianist. While occupying the 
position of Court Pianist at Madrid, 
permission was obtained of Queen 
Christina for a ten years' leave of 
absence from Spain, and he took up 
his residence in London. Albeniz has 
published numerous compositions for 
the piano, is the author of the very 
successful comic operas. The Magic 
Opal, Enrico Clifford, and Pepita 
Jimenez; and of San Antonio de la 
Florida, a zarzuela. 

Albeniz (al-ba'-neth), Pedro. 17 9 5- 

Spanish organist and teacher. He 
was born at Logrono, Spain, was the 
son of a musician and died at Madrid. 
When only ten years old he became an 
organist, and played in various towns 
in Spain. After a period of study 
abroad under Henri Herz and Kalk- 
brenner, Albeniz returned to his native 
country. In Logrono he succeeded his 
father as organist of the Church of 
Santa Maria, and on a visit to Madrid 
was honored with royal favor. He 
was appointed professor of the piano 
at the newly instituted Madrid Con- 
servatory, and organist of the Royal 
Chapel. Later he became maestro to 
the Infanta and the Queen, and was 
presented with several decorations. Of 
special interest is the fact that he 
introduced into his country modern 
methods of piano-playing, the most 
eminent pianists of Spain and South 
America having studied under him. 
His Methode de Piano was adopted by 
the Conservatory of Madrid. He is 
the author of songs and about seventy 
pieces for the piano. 

♦Albert (dal-bar), Eugen d'. 1864- 
One of the most famous of living 
pianists. His father, in spite of his 
French name, was of German nation- 
ality and was a composer of dance 
music. Eugen was born at Glasgow, 
where his parents were temporarily 
residing, and until the age of twelve 
was practically self-taught in music. 
In 1876, the National Training School 
for Music was inaugurated and the 
boy was elected Queen Victoria 
scholar for that institution, which 
shows that he possessed remarkable 
musical gifts. While here his teachers 
were Professor Prout, Ernst Pauer, 
Sir John Stainer and Sir Arthur Sul- 
livan. After playing at several stu- 
dents' concerts, D'Albert, at the age 
of sixteen, appeared at the Monday 
Popular concert and the following 
spring at the Crystal Palace and Phil- 
harmonic concerts. In the fall of the 
same year, 1881, he was invited by the 
great conductor, Richter, to play at 
the Richter concerts. In this year he 
also won the Mendelssohn prize entit- 
ling him to a year abroad and went to 
Vienna, where he studied with Rich- 
ter, who called him the " Young Tau- 
sig " on account of his wonderful 
technical ability. In the spring of 



1882 he played his own Piano Con- 
certo at the Vienna Philharmonic 
Society, being the youngest pianist 
that had ever appeared for that im- 
portant organization. In the spring of 
1882 he visited England, appearing 
several times with ever increasing suc- 
cess. After this, with one exception 
in 1885, D'Albert was not heard again 
in England until 1896, a period of 
fourteen years. D'Albert decided to 
make his home in Germany, largely on 
account of Liszt, with whom he stud- 
ied and whose favorite pupil he was. 
In 1883, he gave his first concert in 
Berlin and for the next ten years 
lived the life of a virtuoso, making 
tours through Germany, Italy, France, 
Spain, Russia, and twice to America. 
In 1893, he appeared at the Gewand- 
haus, Leipsic, performing one of von 
Biilow's famous feats, by playing at 
one sitting five of Beethoven's piano 
sonatas. Besides many important 
pieces for the piano and orchestral 
works, D'Albert has composed nine 
operas. Among the best known of 
these are The Ruby, Ghismonda, Ger- 
not, Kain, and the Improvisor. His 
later operas, Tiefland, produced in 
Prague in 1903, and Flauto Solo, per- 
formed in the same city in 1905, have 
been very successful, having been per- 
formed in all the principal cities of 
Germany. He has one opera in manu- 
script which has not yet been per- 
formed. His piano compositions 
consist of concertos, overtures, a 
symphony in F, a suite for the piano 
in five movements, and a large num- 
ber of short piano pieces. He has also 
written two string quartets, a violon- 
cello concerto and songs. D'Albert 
in his playing is said to have " stupen- 
pendous mechanism, beautiful and ex- 
pressive touch and original taste and 
to show all the fulness of masterly 
technique and intellectual insight." 
In 1892 D'Albert married Teresa Car- 
reno, also a famous pianist, but was 
divorced from her in 1895. His pres- 
ent wife is the singer, Hermine Fink. 
He lives in Berlin in the winter and 
spends his summers in his charming 
country home on Lake Maggiore, his 
recreations being cycling and lawn- 
tennis. He also takes great interest 
in medical science. 

Albert (al-bert), Heinrich. 1604-1651. 

Is called the " Father of German 
Lied." Composer, organist and poet. 
At the age of eighteen he went to 


Dresden to study music, under his 
uncle, Heinrich Schiitz, a famous com- 
poser, but was soon sent to Leipsic 
by his parents, who wished him to 
study law. In 1626 he started for 
Konigsberg, where Stobaus was chapel 
master, but he was taken prisoner on 
the way and did not reach that city 
until 1628. Here he studied with 
Stobaus and became organist of the 
Cathedral and here he died, in 1651. 
He wrote and published many collec- 
tions of sacred and secular songs. In 
1644, he composed a musical comedy, 
which was never published and which 
has been lost. He was one of the 
forerunners of German Opera. He 
wrote the words as well as the music 
for most of his songs. Beside eight 
books of arias, he wrote chorals, songs 
and part-songs and a great many 
hymns, some of which are still sung. 
His hymns and songs were published 
in eight collections, some of them 
running into several editions. The 
prefaces of these collections were very 
valuable, as they contained a state- 
ment of the principles of the art of 
music, which was at that time passing 
through a reformation. 

Albertazzi (al-ber-tad'-ze), Emma. 


An English opera singer, whose 
maiden name was Howson. She was 
the daughter of a music-master, and 
first studied the piano. Later she 
studied singing under Andrea Costa. 
At the age of fifteen she appeared at 
a concert in London, the following 
year was engaged at the King's Thea- 
tre, and shortly went to Italy, where 
she was engaged at Piacenza. In this 
city, in 1831, she married Signor 
Albertazzi. After a period of study 
with Celli, she sang successfully in 
Italy, Madrid and London, and in 
Paris, in 1835, reached the height of 
her career. She was considered a 
good singer but an indififerent actress. 

Albert! (al-ber'-te), Domenico. About 


Italian composer and pianist, also 
singer and performer on the harpsi- 
chord. He was a pupil of Lotti and 
Bifii. He set to music the Endymion 
of Metastasio, in 1737 and a little later 
the Galatea of the same author. He 
is supposed to have invented a style 
of broken bass, called Alberti bass. 
He at least brought it into notice and 
used it very largely in his works, 




which consist of three operas, thirty- 
six sonatas and other simple piano 

Albinoni, Tomasso. 1674-1745. 

Italian composer and violinist who 
flourished in the latter part of the 
Seventeenth and early part of the 
Eighteenth Century. Little is known 
of his early life, save that he was born 
at Venice. He was an excellent 
violinist and a prolific composer, pro- 
ducing over forty operas. These were 
considered less worthy than his songs, 
concertos and sonatas. Grove says: 
" Albinoni's sole interest for modern 
times resides in the fact that the great 
Bach selected themes from his works, 
as he did from those of Corelli and 
Legrenzi," and quotes from Spitta: 
"Bach must have had an especial 
liking for Albinoni's compositions. 
. . . Two harpsichord fugues of the 
great masters are known to be founded 
on themes of Albinoni's." 

Alboni, Marietta. 1823-1894. 

One of the most celebrated con- 
traltos of the Nineteenth Century. 
She was born in Cesena, one of the 
very old cities of Italy and showing 
great talent at an early age, had here 
her first instruction, later studying 
with Madame Bertolotti at Bologna. 
While at Bologna she attracted the 
attention of Rossini and became his 
pupil. She is said to have been the 
only one he ever had. She made her 
debut at La Scala, in Milan, in 1843, in 
Donizetti's Lucrezia Borgia and after- 
wards sang all over Europe with the 
greatest success. In the spring of 
1847, she went to London and ap- 
peared at Covent Garden as a rival of 
Jenny Lind, then in the height of her 
fame. Here she was must successful, 
especially in Semiramide, Lucrezia 
Borgia and as Pippo in the Gazza 
Ladra. She also appeared with 
the greatest success in Brussels, 
Paris and Geneva, and in 1850 
made a tour of France, singing in 
French in La Fille du Regiment, La 
Favorite and La Reine de Chypre and 
in Paris in the part of Fides in Le 
Prophete. In 1853, Alboni visited 
North and South America, meeting 
with a most cordial reception. The 
same year she married the Count of 
Pepoli and retired soon after. She 
appeared in public only once again, in 
1871, when she sang the contralto part 
in Rossini's mass, which the composer 

had requested her to do. She sang a 
duet with Patti at Rossini's funeral in 
1868. In 1877 she married her second 
husband. Major Zieger. She died in 
Paris in 1894. 

Albrecht, Eugen Maria. 1842-1894. 

German violinist. Born in St. 
Petersburg, where his father was 
conductor at the Imperial Russian 
Opera. Studied for three years with 
David at the Leipsic Conservatory and 
was leader, from 1860 to 1877, of the 
orchestra at the St. Petersburg Italian 
Opera. Albrecht was director of 
music and singing at the Military 
Schools from 1867 to 1872 and from 
1877 was musical inspector of the 
Imperial Theatres at St. Petersburg. 
In 1872 he founded and was president 
of the Union for Chamber-music. 

Albrechtsberger (al-brekhts-berkh-er), 
Johann Georg. 1736-1809. 

Born near Vienna. He was a dis- 
tinguished organist and composer and 
a very important musical theorist. 
After being organist in a number of 
different places, he was appointed 
Court organist at Vienna in 1772, and 
in 1792 music-director at St. Stephen's 
Cathedral. He was also a successful 
teacher and had a large number of 
pupils. He was one of the teachers 
of Beethoven. His compositions are 
said to have been two hundred and 
sixty-one in number, of which only 
twenty-seven are printed. These 
include pieces for the piano and organ 
and stringed instruments, also masses, 
oratorios and hymns. His theoretical 
writings include Clavierschule fiir 
Anfanger, Kurzgefasste Methode den 
General-bass zu erlernen and the well 
known Modulations from C major and 
C minor. His organ music is noted 
for its massive and sometimes heavy 
character and is well known among 
English organists. 

Alcock, John. 1715-1806. 

English organist and composer. At 
the age of fourteen he was a pupil of 
Stanley, the blind organist. After 
being organist of several English 
churches, he was, in 1749, appointed 
choirmaster and organist of Lichfield 
Cathedral, and here lived until his 
death at the age of ninety-one. He 
published many anthems, glees, songs 
and hymns and also lessons for the 
piano. He received the degree of 
Doctor of Music from Oxford in 1761. 




Aldrich, Henry Lord. 1647-1710. 

Dean of Christ Church, Oxford. He 
was a learned theologian and historian 
and also an architect and musician. 
Wrote sacred music-services and 
anthems that are still used, also glees 
and catches, which were in great favor 
at that time. He composed a Catch 
on Tobacco, which is so arranged that 
each singer has time for his puff. He 
wrote largely and learnedly on 
musical subjects, among his most im- 
portant works being, On the Com- 
mencement of Greek Music, Theory of 
Organ-Building, and Theory of Mod- 
ern Instruments. He collected a very 
large musical library, especially strong 
in the works of the Italian composers, 
notably Palestrina and Carissimi. 

Alkan (al-kah), Charles Henri Val- 
entin. 1813-1888. 

French pianist and composer. 
Entered the Conservatory of Paris in 
his sixth year and remained there 
eleven years, during which time he 
was a pupil of Zimmermann. He was 
successful in several competitions and 
took the first prize for piano work, 
while at the Conservatory. After 
visiting London, he settled in Paris, 
in 1833, as a teacher of the piano. He 
published seventy-two works, includ- 
ing etudes, preludes, concertos, sonatas 
and also songs and transcriptions. His 
piano music is very difficult, especially 
his etudes, which are remarkable and 
which, on account of their technical 
construction, are very valuable for 

AUegri (al-la'-gre), Gregorio. 1584- 

An Italian priest, who came from 
the same family as Correggio, the 
great painter. He was born in Rome 
and was a pupil of Nanini. He was 
for several years composer and choir- 
master of the Cathedral at Fermo and 
while there, his music attracted the 
notice of Pope Urban VIII. who 
appointed him chorister in the 
Apostolic Chapel. He wrote a great 
quantity of sacred music, much of 
which was never published. His most 
famous composition is his Miserere 
for two choirs, which is still sung in 
the Sistine Chapel on every Good 
Friday. The music of this Miserere is 
very simple, its beauty depending 
entirely upon embellishments, which 
give it a peculiarly pathetic quality 
and it can be sung with this effect 

only by the one choir to which the 
directions of the author have been 
handed down. At one time it was a 
crime punishable by excommunication 
to copy this music. The printed works 
of Allegri were two volumes of 
Motetti and two of Concertini. 

Allen, George Benjamine. 1822-1897. 

English composer and vocalist. 
Born in London. He was organist 
and chorister at several different 
churches and cathedrals, finally going 
as organist to Melbourne, Australia, 
where he was also conductor of 
Lyster's Opera Company. He later 
organized an opera company of his 
own, with which he traveled through 
Australia, New Zealand and India 
with great success. On returning to 
England, he established a comedy 
opera company, which produced sev- 
eral of Sullivan's operas. Allen, him- 
self, wrote five operas, three of which, 
The Viking, Castle Grim and The 
Wicklow Rose were performed. He 
also composed cantatas, many anthems 
and a great number of songs, some 
of which are very popular, as The 
Bridge, The Arrow and the Song, and 
Beware. He set many of Longfellow's 
poems to music. He wrote in all about 
three hundred songs. 

Allen, Henry Robinson. 1809-1876. 

Celebrated Irish dramatic singer, in 
later life a teacher and composer. He 
was the author of the two popular 
ballads. The Maid of Athens and 
When We Two Parted. Allen was 
born in Cork, studied at the Royal 
Academy of Music, London, and made 
his debut in London, in 1831, but did 
not attract general attention until 
1842, when he appeared at the Drury 
Lane Theatre as Damon in Acis and 
Galatea. He was engaged several 
years at the Princess Theatre, sang 
in Don Giovanni, Otello, La Barcarole 
and other operas, and was highly 
esteemed both as a singer and an 
actor. After his retirement, which 
took place early, he turned his atten- 
tion to teaching and composing. 

Allen, Nathan H. 1848- 

American composer and organist. 
Born in Marion, Mass., went to Berlin 
in 1867, where he studied with Haupt 
for three years. Returned to America 
in 1870 and went to Hartford, Conn., 
as organist of the Centre Church and 
also taught music. He wrote church 




music, consisting of hymns, anthems, 
quartets, etc., a cantata. The Apotheo- 
sis of St. Dorothy; compositions for 
the organ and for piano and organ, 
and also piano pieces and songs. 

Allitsen, Frances. 

Contemporary English composer 
and a teacher of singing. Was born 
in London, but passed her childhood 
in a little English village, where she 
amused herself by composing ballads. 
She expected to study singing but lost 
her voice. Was discouraged by her 
family in her idea of a musical career, 
but finally went to London to the 
Guidhall School of Music. She taught 
by day to earn money to study even- 
ings, and after great difficulty was 
finally successful. She has set to 
music many poems by Browning, 
Shelley, Tennyson, Heine and other 
great poets and is best known by 
these songs, but she has composed 
several orchestral works as well; 
notably, the overtures Slavonique and 

* Allum, Charles E. 1854- 

Contemporary English organist and 
choirmaster, who has resided in 
America since 1901, and at present 
occupies the post of organist and 
choirmaster at St. Chrysostom's 
Church, Chicago. He was born near 
Windsor, England, and after a course 
of cathedral studies and instruction 
under Sir Michael Costa, became 
organist and choirmaster in 1874, at 
Trinity Church, Stirling, and con- 
ductor of the Stirling Choral Society. 
In 1885, he took the degree of Bache- 
lor of Music at Trinity College, Dublin 
University, and in 1886 the diploma of 
Licentiate of Music was conferred 
upon him by Trinity College, London, 
and that of Fellow of the Council of 
Guild of Organists. The degree of 
Doctor of Music was received from 
Dublin University in 1887. Dr. Allum 
has acted as conductor of the Kirk- 
caldy Musical Society, the Leven 
Musical Association, and St. Andre\y's 
Choral Society, and served as organist 
at Albert's Halls and to the Town 
Hall of Alloa. In 1894 he was made 
an examiner of the London College. 
He is now Professor of Oratorio, 
Harmony, Fugue and Composition in 
the Bush Temple Conservatory, Chi- 
cago. Dr. Allum is the author of 
numerous compositions, mostly in 
church form; anthems, complete ser- 


vices for marriage and burial offices, 
a Communion Office in E flat, a Te 
Deum in B flat, and the oratorio of 
the Deliverance of Israel. 

Alsleben (als' -la-ben), Julius. 1832- 

German writer, teacher, concert 
pianist and composer. He was born 
at Berlin, took the degree of Doctor 
of Philosophy at the University of 
Kiel, and then turned his attention 
wholly to music. His teachers in 
piano were L-^uchtenberg and Zech, 
and theory he studied of Siegfried 
Dehn. He met with success as a 
concert pianist and was very success- 
ful as a teacher of piano. In 1865, he 
became president of the Berlin 
Tonkijnstlerverein, was one of the 
founders of the Musiklehrerverein, 
which also he served as president. In 
1872, he was given the title of Pro- 
fessor, from 1874 for a number of 
years edited the musical paper 
Harmonic, and published Zwolf Vorle- 
sungen iiber Musikgeschichte, and 
Licht und Wendepunkte in der 
Entwickelung der Musik. His com- 
positions included songs, pieces for 
the piano, overtures and march for 
orchestra, and some church music. 

Altenburg (al'-ten-boorkh), Johann 

Ernst. 1734-1796. 

German trumpet-virtuoso, son of a 
father who was a noted player of the 
trumpet. The father, Johann Caspar, 
died in 1761. He served in several 
campaigns, and at the close of his 
connection with the army, traveled 
about Europe, meeting with great suc- 
cess. Johann Ernst was born at Weis- 
senfels, and during the Seven Years' 
War served as field-trumpeter in the 
army. As a player he became more 
celebrated than his father. On leav- 
ing the army he accepted the position 
of organist at Bitterfeld. He was 
author of an instruction book for 
trumpets and drums, and wrote some 
compositions for those instruments. 
Biographers do not agree as to the 
dates of his birth and death. 

Alt^s, Ernst Eugene. 1830-1899. 

French violinist and conductor. He 
was born at Paris, where his father 
was a soldier. He early learned to 
play the violin and fife, and when only 
twelve, wrote music that gained him 
entrance to the Conservatory. Here 
he won various prizes, and studied 




the violin under Habeneck, and har- 
mony and composition with Bazin and 
Carafa. In 1845, he became a mem- 
ber of the Opera band, in 1871, was 
appointed deputy-conductor of the 
Opera, and from 1879 to 1887 held the 
post of conductor. Among his com- 
positions are a string-quartet, a sonata 
for piano and violin, and a symphony. 
In 1881 he received the decoration of 
the Legion of Honor. 

Altes, Joseph Henri. 1826-1895. 

French flute-player, brother of the 
preceding. He was born at Rouen, 
and studied under his father, be- 
ginning music at a very early age. 
Became a pupil at the Paris Conser- 
vatory, and from 1868 to 1894, was a 
professor there. He was an excellent 
flute-player, played at the Grand 
Opera, Paris, and wrote considerable 
music for the flute. 

Alvarez (al-va-ra), Albert Raymond. 

French operatic tenor. A man of 
splendid physique and a very fine 
actor. Born at Bordeaux. Began his 
musical studies when very young. At 
the age of eighteen he entered the 
army as musical conductor, but after 
five years gave up his military career 
and went to Paris to study music. 
Made great progress at the Conserva- 
tory, shortly making his debut at the 
Royal Opera in Ghent and his first 
appearance in Paris in 1892, at the 
Grand Opera, as Faust. He _ made 
successful tours in Spain, Russia and 
England, and in 1898-1899 visited 
the United States. His repertory in- 
cludes forty-five operas, in eleven of 
which he created the principal parts. 
He has been most successful in Romeo 
and Juliet, Aida, and Le Prophete. 

Alvary (al-va-re), Max. 1858-1898. 

German dramatic tenor. His real 
name was Achenbach, his father being 
the celebrated painter, Andreas 
Achenbach. He was born at Diissel- 
dorf, and made his debut at Weimar. 
He won great fame as a Wagnerian 
singer, and was most successful in the 
role of Siegfried. While the pos- 
sessor of a very good voice, he was 
especially remarkable for his hand- 
some presence. He visited the United 
States many times, enjoying a great 
success here in 1884-1889. Alvery 
died in 1898 at his country-seat in 

Amati (a-ma'-te) family. 

Italian family of celebrated violin- 
makers, who lived and worked at Cre- 
mona in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth 
Centuries. Andrea, born about 1520, 
was the first celebrated member of the 
family. He was, perhaps, a pupil of 
one of the great violin-makers of 
Brescia, but his violins differed greatly 
from those made before his time. Very 
few of his instruments are to be found, 
those preserved being of a small pat- 
tern, with beautiful wood and amber 
colored varnish and of a very graceful 
outline. Nicolo, his younger brother, 
made excellent bass viols and his two 
sons, Antonio and Geronimo, produced 
violins larger than their father's and 
greatly improved upon his model. The 
work of these brothers was very im- 
portant in the development of the 
violin. The most noted of the six 
famous Amati was Geronimo's son, 
Nicolo, who lived from 1596 to 1684. 
In the main, he kept to the Amati 
model in making his violins, but he 
made many improvements, his propor- 
tions being better, his outlines more 
graceful and the thickness of the wood 
being better calculated, his instru- 
ments thus gaining greatly in power 
and intensity of tone. Most of his 
instruments were small, but he made 
some large violins, called Grand 
Amatis. These are very high priced. 
Andrea Guarnieri and Antonio Stradi- 
vari were his pupils. Geronimo, his 
son, the last of the Amatis, was an 
inferior maker and did nothing to in- 
crease the fame of the family. 

Ambros, August Wilhelm. 1816-1876. 

Noted writer on musical history and 
criticism, also composer and pianist. 
Born near Prague, Bohemia, and edu- 
cated at the University of Prague. 
Ambros studied law and until his 
fiftieth year was in the Austrian Civil 
Service, but he devoted all his leisure 
time to music, learned to play the 
piano alone and studied composition 
and counterpoint without a teacher. 
After 1850 he published a series of 
essays on musical topics, and in 1860 
he was engaged by the publisher, 
Leuckart, to write a History of Music. 
This was his life work and he all but 
accomplished it, in the most brilliant 
manner. Unfortunately, he died be- 
fore completing the fourth volume. 
After his death, the fourth volume 
was finished from notes and a fifth 




was published from the material he 
had left behind. Ambros had a very 
brilliant style as a writer and is said 
to have been "the greatest German 
authority, on European musical his- 
tory from ancient Greece to modern 
times." In 1869 he was appointed 
professor of musical history at the 
University of Prague and in 1872 was 
made a professor in the Conservatory 
of Vienna. Ambros was also a very 
good composer, his works being an 
opera, Bretislaw a Jitka; overtures to 
Othello and to Calderon's, Magico 
Prodigioso; a Stabat Mater and two 
masses; beside piano pieces and many 

Ambrose, St. Bishop of Milan. 333- 


He is called the " Father of Christian 
Hymnology" and was canonized after 
his death. He regulated the church 
chants by a code of his own and 
founded the Ambrosian chant, a par- 
ticular method of saying and singing 
the church service, which was used 
until the year 600 and was succeeded 
by the Gregorian chant. He also in- 
troduced antiphonal and congrega- 
tional singing. 

Amicis, Anna Lucia de. 

A celebrated Italian singer, who 
won success both in comic and seri- 
ous opera. She was the possessor of 
a very sweet voice and a polished 
manner of singing. She was born at 
Naples, about 1740, winning her first 
laurels in comic opera. She sang in 
London in 1763 and was so highly 
esteemed by Johann Christian Bach 
that he wrote serious opera for her, to 
which she was ever afterward devoted. 
She retired from the stage in 1771 
and married BuonsoUazzi, a secretary 
of the King of Naples, but made re- 
appearances in public. In 1773, she 
sang at Milan, in one of Mozart's 
early operas, Lucio Silla, taking the 
part of Giunia. The year of her 
death is unknown. She sang, and 
still sang well in 1789. 

Ander (an'-der), Aloys. 1817-1864. 

One of the most famous tenors of 
recent times. Born in Bohemia. 
Appeared for the first time in 1845 in 
Stradella and made a great success. 
Five years later, he was still more 
successful in Le Prophete, when it 
was given in Vienna for the first tirne. 
Meyerbeer became interested in him 
and aided him greatly in his work. 


Ander was a fine actor and his voice, 
though not of great strength, was re- 
markably sweet and sympathetic. His 
greatest success was as Lohengrin 
and his last appearance was in Wil- 
liam Tell in 1864, shortly after which 
he died in Vienna. 

Anderson, Mrs. Lucy B. 1790-1878. 

English pianist and teacher. Was 
the pupil of her father and of James 
Windsor. She was the first woman 
to play before the Philharmonic So- 
ciety and was considered the best 
pianist in England in her day. She 
was the teacher of Queen Victoria 
and several others of the royal family. 

Andre (an-dra), Johann. 1741-1799. 

First of an extensive German musi- 
cal family. His father was at the head 
of a large silk factory at Offenbach, 
which he expected his son to carry on 
but the son taught himself music and, 
in 1765, his first comic opera, Der 
Topfer (The Potter), was produced. 
In 1777, Andre went to Berlin as direc- 
tor of music for the Dobbelin 
Theatre, but as he could not give 
enough attention to his factory, to 
which he had added a music printing 
office, he returned to Offenbach, 
where he resided until his death in 
1799. Beside composing thirty operas, 
many instrumental pieces and a great 
number of songs, Andre published 
over twelve hundred musical works in 
his famous music-publishing house, 
which was carried on after his death 
by his third son, Johann Anton Andre. 

Andre, Johann Anton. 1775-1842. 

Third son of the preceding. Showed 
great talent for music as a small child 
and became a fine pianist and violinist, 
as well as- a composer. He entered 
the University of Jena, where he com- 
pleted the course of study and upon 
the death of his father, in 1799, he 
took entire control of the music- 
publishing business. He visited Vienna 
and acquired the right to the entire 
musical remains of Mozart, afterwards 
publishing a thematic catalog of that 
master's works. Andre cultivated 
every branch of composition, including 
songs, operas and symphonies, and 
was as well, a distinguished teacher. 
He also wrote largely on harmony, 
counterpoint and composition. His 
principal works were Lehrbuch der 
Tonsetzkunst, planned to consist of 
six volumes, only two of which were 




finished, and his Introduction to the 
Violin. Four of his sons and two 
grandsons also turned their attention 
to music; the grandsons, Carl and 
Adolph, taking charge of the music- 
publishing business in 1880 and becom- 
ing sole proprietors in 1887 on the 
death of their father, Johann August 

Andree, Elfrida. 1841- 

A talented Swedish composer and 
organist, who stands first among the 
women composers of Sweden. She 
was born at Wisby, studied the organ, 
and became cathedral organist at 
Gothenburg. She has won notable 
prizes for her compositions. In the 
International Musical Competition, at 
Brussels, several years ago, she won 
over seventy-seven competitors, ob- 
taining the highest prize. She also 
received a prize for a string-quartet 
and one for work for the organ and 
military band. She is the author of a 
quintet for piano, two violins, viola, 
and violoncello; of the cantata, Sno- 
fried, written for solos, chorus and 
orchestra; and of various works for 
orchestra, organ and voice, all of 
which, says Otto Ebel in his book on 
Woman Composers, show decided 

Andreozzi (an-dra-6d'-ze), Gaetano. 


Italian dramatic composer. Born in 
Naples and was a pupil at the Con- 
servatory, of that city, under his rela- 
tive Jommelli. When only sixteen, he 
composed his first opera, La Morte di 
Cesare. He was made director of the 
Royal Chapel at Naples and traveled 
through Italy, bringing out his operas. 
He also visited Russia and Spain suc- 
cessfully but returned to Italy and 
settled in Naples as a teacher and in 
1790 became conductor at the Opera 
in Naples. Becoming very much re- 
duced in fortune, he went to Paris in 
1825, where he was befriended by the 
Duchess of Berry, who had formerly 
been his pupil. He wrote thirty-four 
operas and three oratorios. 

Andrevi (an-dra'-ve), Francesco. 


Distinguished composer. Born of 
Italian parents in Catalonia. Andrevi 
was a priest and was mvisic-director in 
the cathedrals of various Spanish 
towns, finally becoming conductor of 
the Royal band. His last post was 


music-director in the Church of Our 
Lady of Mercy at Barcelona. His best 
works were an oratorio. Last Judg- 
ment; a Requiem for Ferdinand VII.; 
and a Stabat Mater. His theoretical 
work on harmony and composition 
was important and was translated into 

Andrews, George Whitfield. 1861- 

Organist, composer, teacher and 
conductor. Resides at Oberlin, Ohio. 
Born January 19, 1861, at Wayne, 
Ohio. Went to Oberlin in 1867. 
Graduated from the Oberlin Conserva- 
tory of Music in 1879. Taught music 
privately at Meadville, Pa., 1879-1881 
and began there his career as church 
and concert organist. Was organist 
at the Westminster Presbyterian 
Church, Toledo, Ohio, 1881-1882. In 
the fall of 1882 he became a member 
of the faculty of the Oberlin Conserva- 
tory of Music. Studied organ, coun- 
terpoint and composition in Germany 
and France 1884-1886, with Papperitz 
and Jadassohn in Leipsic, Rhein- 
berger at Munich and Guilmant at 
Paris. Went to Paris again in 1898 
and studied a year with Guilmant on 
the organ and D'Indy in orchestration. 
He was made Hon. A.M. in 1900 and 
Doctor of Music in 1903 by Oberlin 
College. Professor Andrews is at 
present teacher of composition and 
organ playing in the * Oberlin Con- 
servatory of Music. He has composed 
valuable works for the organ, for 
other instruments and for the voice. 
He is also organist at the Second Con- 
gregational Church of Oberlin. He is 
a concert organist of a national repu- 
tation, his repertory covering the en- 
tire range of organ composition. He 
has made many successful concert 
tours in all parts of the United 
States. Since 1900 he has been con- 
ductor of the Oberlin Musical Union 
and under his leadership the per- 
formances by this society of the great- 
est choral works are attracting wide 

Anerio (a-na're-6), Felice. 15 6 0- 

about 1630? 

Italian composer, who succeeded 
Palestrina as composer to the Papal 
Chapel. He was born in Rome about 
1560, sang in the Papal choir from 
1575 to 1579, and studied under Gio- 
vanni Maria Nanini. He was ap- 
pointed conductor in the English col- 
lege, and later was for a time in the 




service of Cardinal Aldobrandini. In 
1594, Anerio succeeded to the place 
left vacant by the death of Palestrina, 
a post he occupied eight years. His 
unpublished work is scattered in vari- 
ous Roman libraries, some being in 
the Royal Library at Berlin, and some 
of his MS. music in the Hofbibliothek 
at Vienna. Of his published composi- 
tions, there are, among other works, 
several books of madrigals, two books 
of hymns, canticles and motets. 

Anerio, Giovanni Francesca. 15 6 7- 
about 1620. 

Italian composer and chapelmaster, 
brother of the preceding. He was 
born at Rome about 1567, served as 
chapelmaster to the King of Poland 
about 1609, and in 1611 was appointed 
to a like post in the cathedral at 
Verona. After a period as instructor 
at the Jesuit College of St. Ignace he 
became chapelmaster, in 1613, at St. 
Maria di Monti, at Rome. He took 
holy orders in 1616, and died about 
1620. He was the author of a great 
deal of church music, and also ar- 
ranged Palestrina's Mass Papae Mar- 
celli for four voices. Grove states 
that he was one of the first Italians 
who made use of the quaver and its 

Anfossi (an-fos'-se), Pasquale. About 

Italian operatic composer, very pro- 
lific but wanting in true creative 
power. The author of over forty 
operas, four masses, seven oratorios, 
and other church music. He was 
born near Naples, about 1736. After 
beginning the study of the violin he 
turned his attention to composition, 
studying harmony with Piccinni, who 
at this time was enjoying his greatest 
fame. Anfossi's first operas met with 
indifferent success, but the opera 
L'Incognita Perseguitata, produced in 
Rome in 1773, brought him both fame 
and fortune. The success was due, 
not altogether to its merits, but 
rather to the plottings and support 
of a group arrayed against Piccinni, 
to whom Anfossi had now turned 
traitor. His day in Rome, however, 
was not a long one. He left Italy, 
and brought out his operas in Lon- 
don, Paris, Berlin, Dresden and 
Prague. In later life he returned to 
Rome, and from 1792 to the time of 
his death, held the post of chapel- 


master at the Lateran. During this 
period, he turned his attention to 
sacred compositions. 

Animuccia (an-e-moot'-cha), GiovannL 

An Italian composer who was called 
"Father of Oratorio." The exact date 
of his birth is unknown, but it was 
near the end of the Fifteenth Cen- 
tury or in the first years of the Six- 
teenth Century, probably about 1505. 
He was a pupil of Claude Goudimel 
and in 1555 he was appointed musical 
director at the Vatican, where he re- 
mained until his death in 1571. He 
was the predecessor of Palestrina and 
his music shows the same religious 
spirit and was undoubtedly a great 
advance upon that written before his 
time. Animuccia composed the fa- 
mous Laudi, which were sung at the 
conclusion of the regular service of 
the Oratorio at St. Filipo and these 
are said to have been the foundation 
of the oratorios of the present time. 
He also composed many masses, 
motets and madrigals. 

Anshiitz (an'-shuts), Karl. 1815-1870. 

Noted opera and orchestra con- 
ductor. Born in Coblentz, Germany, 
where his father was a well-known 
musician and had founded a musical 
school. His first studies were with 
his father. Later, he went to Dessau 
and studied under Friedrich Schneider. 
When he returned to Coblentz, in 
1844, he took charge of his father's 
Musical Institute, but four years later 
he went to London and became 
leader of the orchestra at Drury Lane 
Theatre. At one of his concerts in 
London he gave Beethoven's Ninth 
Symphony, with an orchestra of two 
hundred and fifty musicians and a 
chorus of five hundred singers. After 
conducting opera in Dublin, Edin- 
burgh, Glasgow and all over Great 
Britain, he came to the United States, 
in 1857, with Ullmann's Italian Opera 
Company, which he conducted for 
three years. In 1862, he founded in 
New York the German Opera, which, 
unfortunately, was unsuccessful. He 
also helped to establish the New 
York Conservatory of Music and from 
1860 to 1862 was conductor of the 
Arion Singing Society. He was a 
composer of some ability, his works 
being piano pieces and songs. He 
also wrote for brass instruments the 
Nine Symphonies of Beethoven. 

Apthcrp, William Foster. 1848- 

I't -natic and mii-'cal critic. Born 


)n. Was 

1 from Har- 


He sttidied 

w,u piano, 1: 


from 1863 t 


M Gilt hi 

the Be 
other ] 
net's C^ 

al sub- 
ari ■.! a 



band of an "^ regiment. Aii-^t 

serving in C India, he came 

back to Engidnti ai'd devoted much 

time to study. Arbuckle then went to 

the United States, and for a number 

of years was leading cornet soloist of 

nilinore's band. He won honors at 

ce Jubilee of 1869, the Jubilee 

and was conspicuous at the 

Mtion of 1876. From 

>f his death he occu- 

ndmaster of the 

.oJD. Aooat 1514-betir«m 

Celebrated compoi5er, who was bom 
in the Netherlands, about the end of 
the Fifteenth Century. He was one 
of the most popular composers of his 
time. He went to Rome and became 

FRANZ ABT. 1819-1885. About 15SS he 

■D ^ T-M 1 ^ ' Guise to Parts, 

Born at Eilenburg, Prussia. Abt's reputation waa '"» 

built upon his songs, some of which became German '"^ 

folk-songs, among them the familiar and popular 
"When the Swallows Homeward Fly." He also 
wrote a number of successful cantatas for the female 
fa^Ti^e.^^^"^^' ^"^°"g^ them being " Red Riding Hood," " Little 
speciallSnow Drop," and " Cinderella." ,s who 

^'=^' "en f '/i"''\'^'.y"''^ ^'"'^^ ^"^'^'' wher^. h?i,, Sl^^e^ 
at conducted at the Gilmore Jubike Concerts. lions written in 

i'«-r;s v;cfa published. 

under Tvlon: 












. in 

!0 New 

ted the 

'i tiic . weekly. The Key Note, in 

id has h. i 18S7 he became conductor of 

•r atthe Hamburg aiiu 2iiadnu ll;e iluston Oratorio Society. He also 

atories. conducted the Pittsburg Orchestra 

* , . . -, . «t .^« .^^ ' '"•-•!-- '^•>^ and Liter was made 

Arbuckle, Matthew. About 1826-1883. the Carnegie Insti- 

Ceicbratcd • "^•< '--•' - ' i - • - .-. His compositions 

in?.Kt'>r. a tia for the organ and 

a 7 ' t King Witlaf's Drink- 

w.i ngs and songs. He 

of i-book on the organ. 

sIjjLI '* ''.booH §n'tbi>I h.>>i " i^t'bJ nrorlJ ^aoin^ ,o;)iov 
'" .s-?I^i9bfu'>" b/rxf ".qolG won2 

.r'Ji9Dno3 39-iidu[ aiGfnIiO sdJ liii b^J3iifanO0 



Apthorp, William Foster. 1848- 

Dramatic and musical critic. Born 
in Boston. Was graduated from Har- 
vard University in 1869. He studied 
the piano, harmony and counterpoint 
from 1863 to 1867, and the piano for 
seven years longer, his teachers being 
J. K. Paine and B. J. Lang. Taught 
the piano and harmony at the National 
College at Boston, from 1872 to 1873, 
and from 1873 to 1886 he taught in 
the New England Conservatory. Was 
afterward music-critic on the Atlantic 
Monthly, the Boston Sunday Courier, 
the Boston Evening Transcript and 
other periodicals, and edited Scrib- 
ner's Cyclopedia of Music and Musi- 
cians. He has also lectured on music, 
written many articles on musical sub- 
jects for leading periodicals and a 
number of books on music and musi- 
cans, including a sketch of Hector 

Arbos (ar-v6s), E. Fernandez. 1863- 
Eminent contemporary Spanish vio- 
linist and teacher, professor of violin 
at the Royal College of Music, Lon- 
don. He is also a composer; the 
author of songs; several trios for 
piano and strings; effective violin 
pieces; the comic opera. El Centro de 
la Tierra; and other works. He is 
specially distinguished as a teacher, of 
very wide experience and much power. 
Senor Arbos was born in Madrid, and 
at an early age became a pupil at the 
Madrid Conservatory. Here he studied 
under Monasterio, the noted violinist, 
proving a pupil of unusual ability. 
Monasterio interested the royal fam- 
ily in his behalf, and he was enabled 
by them to go to the Conservatory at 
Brussels for four years' further study, 
where Vieuxtemps and Gevaert were 
his teachers. Then followed three 
years with Joachim, in Berlin, after 
which he toured in Germany, France, 
Belgium, Holland and Poland, and in 
1891, played in London. During his 
residence in Berlin, he was for a time 
leader of the Philharmonic Society 
there, and has held the post of violin 
professor at the Hamburg and Madrid 

Arbuckle, Matthew. About 1826-1883. 

Celebrated cornet-player and band- 
master, a native of Scotland, but long 
a resident of the United States. He 
was born in Glasgow, and at the age 
of thirteen, became a member of the 

band of an English regiment. After 
serving in China and India, he came 
back to England and devoted much 
time to study. Arbuckle then went to 
the United States, and for a number 
of years was leading cornet soloist of 
Gilmore's band. He won honors at 
the Peace Jubilee of 1869, the Jubilee 
of 1872, and was conspicuous at the 
Centennial Exhibition of 1876. From 
1880 to the time of his death he occu- 
pied the post of bandmaster of the 
Ninth Regiment band. 

Arcadelt, Jacob. About 1514-between 


Celebrated composer, who was born 
in the Netherlands, about the end of 
the Fifteenth Century. He was one 
of the most popular composers of his 
time. He went to Rome and became 
teacher of singing for the boys' choir 
of the Papal Chapel. About 1555 he 
went with th-; Duke of Guise to Paris, 
where he probably lived until his 
death. Nearly '1 of his sacred com- 
positions written in Rome, comprising 
masses and motets, remained unpub- 
lished and are in manuscript in the 
Vatican, but his secular writings, 
principally madrigals and chansons, 
were published, and his fame rests on 
these. He was one of a distinguished 
group of Netherland musicians who 
went to Italy and helped to found the 
Italian school of music. His masses 
and religious compositions written in 
Paris were published. 

Archer, Frederic 1838-1901. 

A fine organist, who was well 
known in England and America. Born 
at Oxford, England. He studied at 
London and Leipsic, and later was 
organist, orchestra conductor and 
opera director in London. In 1881 he 
visited America and became organist 
of Henry Ward Beecher's Church in 
Brooklyn and afterward went to New 
York. He founded and edited the 
musical weekly. The Key Note, in 
1885. In 1887 he became conductor of 
the Boston Oratorio Society. He also 
conducted the Pittsburg Orchestra 
from 1895 to 1898 and later was made 
music-director of the Carnegie Insti- 
tute of Pittsburg. His compositions 
consist of works for the organ and 
piano; a cantata, King Witlaf's Drink- 
ing-horn; part-songs and songs. He 
also wrote a text-book on the organ. 



Arditi (ar-de'-te), LuigL 1822-1903. 

Italian composer and fine opera 
conductor. He began his musical 
career as a violinist. Studied music 
at the Conservatory of Milan. He 
made his debut as a director at Ver- 
celli, in 1843 and was made an hon- 
orary member of the Philharmonic 
Academy there. Conducted opera 
throughout Italy and in Havana in 
1846. Visited America, where he re- 
mained conducting opera in New 
York, Philadelphia and other cities, 
until 1856. After a visit to Constanti- 
nople, he settled in London, but made 
several trips later to America with the 
Royal Italian Opera Company. He 
also conducted in Germany, in St. 
Petersburg, in Vienna and Madrid. 
After 1885, he was in England, con- 
ducting at Covent Garden and other 
theatres. His best operas are I Bri- 
ganti; II Corsaro; and La Spia. He 
also wrote numerous songs and vocal 
waltzes, the most popular of which 
are, II Bacio; L' Arditi; and Le Tor- 
torelle. He died at Brighton, Eng- 
land, in 1903. 

Arens (a'-rens), Franz Xavier. 1856- 

Conductor and vocal teacher. Born 
in Germany, but came to America 
when very young. When fifteen years 
old, he became organist and choir- 
master in a small town near Cleveland, 
Ohio. Studied with his father and 
with Professor Singenberger of Mil- 
waukee. He went to Europe and 
studied in Munich and at the Royal 
Conservatory, Dresden, taking up the 
organ, the piano, counterpoint, con- 
ducting and composition. He also 
studied vocal music with Julius Hey 
at Berlin. After returning to America 
he was professor of music at St. 
Canisius College at Buffalo and con- 
ducted the Cleveland Gesangverein 
and The Cleveland Philharmonic Or- 
chestra, and was also organist in 
Cleveland. From 1884 to 1888, he was 
conductor of the orchestral concerts 
devoted to Arnerican composers in 
Dresden, Leipsic, Hamburg, Berlin, 
Weimar and Vienna. From 1893 to 
1897, he was president of the Metro- 
politan School of Music of Indian- 
apolis, Indiana, and head of the vocal 
department. In 1897 he removed to 
New York and was conductor of the 
New York Manuscript Society con- 
certs in 1898. Since 1900, he has been 
conductor of the New York Sym- 
phony concerts, which he founded. 


He has composed some works for the 
organ; a string quartet; also songs 
and choruses. , 

Arensky (a-ren'-shki), Anton Stepano- 
vitch. 1862- 

One of the best known of the 
younger Russian composers. He in- 
herited his musical ability from both 
parents, his mother being a fine pian- 
ist and his father a violonceUist. His 
talent developed early, as he tried to 
write a string quartet at the age of 
nine, before having any instruction. 
He first studied composition and har- 
mony with Zikke, afterward entering 
the St. Petersburg Conservatory, 
where he was a pupil of Rimskykorsa- 
koff. Having graduated from the Con- 
servatory, with honors, in 1882, he 
was appointed professor of harmony 
and counterpoint at the Moscow Con- 
servatory. For several years, Arensky 
conducted the concerts of the Russian 
Choral Society, and from 1889 to 1893, 
was a member of the Council of the 
Synodal School of Church-music at 
Moscow. From 1894 to 1901 he was 
director of the Imperial Chapel at St. 
Petersburg. His first opera, A Dream 
of the Volga, was a great success and 
established his reputation as a musi- 
cian. The Russian folk-songs are 
used most effectively by him in this 
composition. Raphael, a one-act 
work, and a ballet, A Night in Egypt, 
followed, but Arensky's best known 
opera is Nal and Damajanti, the story 
taken from an East Indian legend. 
Besides operas, he has composed many 
works for the orchestra and piano, 
among them a Fantasie on Russian 
Epic Chants; the music to Pushkin's 
poem, The Fountain of Bachtschis- 
sarai; and a Memorial March. These 
works are said to show the influence 
of Tschaikowsky and Schumann. 
Arensky also composed a considerable 
amount of sacred music. 

Arienzo (dar-i-en-ts5), Nicolll d'. 
About 1842- 

An Italian composer and writer. 
He was born at Naples, studied piano 
under Labriola, counterpoint of Mo- 
retti and Fioravanti, composition 
with Mercadante. He is the author of 
several operas; an oratorio; a Pen- 
siero sinfonia; of overtures; pieces for 
the piano; some vocal music; and 
of the theoretical work, Introduction 
of the Tetrachordal System into Mod- 
ern Music. His opera, La Figha del 




Diavolo, produced at Naples in 1879, 
was denounced by the critics as 
straining after realism and originality. 

Ariosti (ar-i-6s'-te), Attilio. 

An operatic composer of the latten 
part of tlie Seventeenth and the early 
Eighteenth Century. Facts regarding 
his first and last days are wanting. 
Biographers do not know the exact 
date of his birth or death, but it is 
thought he was born about 1660, at 
Bologna. A Dominican friar, he Avas 
allowed by papal dispensation to give 
up his ecclesiastical profession to de- 
vote himself to music, of which he 
had ever been an ardent student. In 
1686 his opera, Dafne, was produced 
at Venice, and was so successful that 
he. was encouraged to write thence- 
forth for the stage, though there are 
also cantatas and two oratorios of his 
authorship. In 1690, he was appointed 
to an important musical post in the 
service of the Electress of Branden- 
burg, and from 1690 to 1705 was com- 
poser and conductor at the Court 
Theatre in Berlin. In 1715 he relin- 
quished his place, under the Electress, 
to accept an offer from London, the 
post of manager of the Italian Opera. 
Meantime, he had brought out works 
in various Italian towns and in 
Vienna. His opera, Nabucodonosor, 
was produced in Vienna in 1706, and 
his Passion Oratorio given there in 
1709. At his first London appearance 
Ariosti played a solo on the viola 
d'amore at the presentation of Han- 
del's Amadis. He was associated with 
Handel and Bononcini in the writing 
of an opera, Muzzio Scevola, each 
composer writing one act. The three 
composers also entered into a con- 
tract with the directors to write a 
series of operas, each writing one in 
turn, an arrangement that was amica- 
bly carried out for several years, but 
was finally terminated in 1727, by the 
overshadowing genius of Handel. The 
following year Ariosti left England, 
and of his subsequent history nothing 
is known. He was the author of four- 
teen operas. 

Armbruster (arm'-broo-ster), Karl. 


Contemporary conductor and lec- 
turer, and ardent disciple and expo- 
nent of Wagner. He was born at 
Andernach-on-Rhine, and studied 
music under Fliigel at Neuwied and 
Vind^r Hompesch at Cologne. He set- 

tied in London, in 1863. From 1886 to 
1894 he was conductor of the stage- 
band and the chorus at the Bayreuth 
Wagner Festival. In 1881, was con- 
ductor of the Court Theatre, London; 
the Haymarket in 1889; and the Ly- 
ceum in 1895. Conducted many per- 
formances of opera, at Drury Lane and 
Covent Garden, from 1892 to 1893. As 
a lecturer, he has been very active 
and is widely known. He appeared 
before Queen Victoria in 1899; in 
America he gave the Lowell lectures 
at Boston, on the life and works of 
Wagner, and lectures at various of 
the larger universities of the United 
States. He holds the post of musical 
adviser to the London County Council. 

Armes, Philip. 1836- 

Contemporary English organist, lec- 
turer and composer. He was born 
at Norwich, began his musical career 
as chorister in the cathedral there, a 
pupil of Dr. Zechariah Buck, and 
later was solo singer in the Cathedral 
choir at Rochester, where he also 
studied the organ. He has held the 
post of organist at Trinity Church, 
Milton, Gravesend, at St. Andrew's, 
London, and at Chichester Cathedral. 
Since 1862, has been organist of Dur- 
ham Cathedral and since 1897 has 
held the office of Professor of Music 
at the University of Durham. He has 
written considerable church music, 
and is author of the madrigal, Vic- 
toria, that gained the Madrigal So- 
ciety's first prize in 1897. He took 
the degree of Doctor of Music at 
Oxford, and from Durham has the 
honorary degree of Doctor of Music, 
instituted in the University of Dur- 
ham examinations for musical degrees. 
Dr. Armes has been very successful 
as a lecturer. 

Armingaud (ar-mafi-go), Jules. 1820- 


A noted French violinist, reputed 
to have been the first to introduce 
Beethoven's Quartets to the music- 
world of Paris. He was born at 
Bayonne, and received his training 
there. When he presented himself at 
the Paris Conservatory, it is said, he 
was refused admission on the ground 
of being advanced beyond that need. 
He played violin in the orchestra of 
the Grand Opera, and with Leon Jac- 
quard, Mas, and Edouard Lalo formed 
a string quartet that became famous. 
Later wind-instruments were added 



and the name became the Societe 
Classique. Armingaud was the author 
of some music for the violin. 

Ame (arn), Michael. 1741-1786. 

Son of Doctor Thomas Arne. Very- 
early showed musical ability and was 
taught singing by his father. He was 
able to play Handel and Scarlatti at 
ten years of age and a year or two 
later began composing, his first work 
along this line consisting of a collec- 
tion of songs. In 1763, The Fairy 
Tale, his first music-drama, appeared, 
and in 1764, he wrote, with Battishill, 
the music for the opera, Almena, 
which was not a success. In 1766, 
Arne married Elizabeth Wright, a 
well-known vocalist, and in 1767 wrote 
the music for Garrick's romance, 
Cymon. This was his best work and 
was very successful. Soon after, he 
gave up his music and devoted himself 
to the study of chemistry, hoping to 
discover the philosopher's stone. In 
this way he ruined himself financially 
and was obliged to turn again to com- 
position and conducting for the Lon- 
don Theatres. In 1771 he conducted 
for the production of Handel's Alex- 
ander's Feast, at Hamburg, and in 
1772 for the first performance of the 
Messiah, in Germany. Beside operas 
and dramatic music for plays, Arne 
wrote many songs, some of which 
were very melodious and popular. 
Among his musical dramas were The 
Fairy Tale; Hymen; The Bell's 
Stratagem; A Choice of Harlequin; 
The Fathers; The Positive Man; and 
Tristram Shandy. 

Ame, Thomas Augustine. 1710-1778. 
One of the most noted of English 
composers, who has been called " the 
greatest English composer of the 
Eighteenth Century." Born in Lon- 
don. He was educated at Eton and 
was intended by his father for the 
legal profession, but his love for music 
proved too strong. He managed to 
get a spinet, which he concealed in his 
bedroom and by muffling the strings 
was able to practise secretly at night. 
He also took lessons on the violin 
and made such progress that he was 
soon able to lead an amateur band. 
While thus engaged at the house of a 
friend, he was discovered by his 
father, who, seeing his strength of 
purpose, gave up his opposition and 
allowed his son to follow his bent. 
Being now free to practise at home 


he developed rapidly and trained the 
voice of his sister, Susanna Maria, so 
that she was able to appear inLampe's 
opera, Amelia, in 1732. This sister 
afterward became Mrs. Cibber, the 
noted tragic actress. Arne's first at- 
tempt at composition was a resetting 
of Addison's opera Rosamund, in 
which his sister took the leading pare 
and a younger brother the part of a 
page. Soon after this he set to music 
Fielding's Tragedy of Tragedies, call- 
ing it the Opera of Operas, and in 1733 
he produced a masque, called Dido 
and ^neas. In 1763 he married 
Cecilia Young, a brilliant singer, who 
often sang in performances of 
Handel's works. In 1738, Arne's 
reputation was made by the music he 
composed for Milton's Comus, and in 
1740 he reset Congreve's masque. The 
Judgment of Paris; and Thomson 
and Mallet's masque, Alfred; and the 
same year he produced the beautiful 
music for the songs. Blow, Blow thou 
Winter Wind; When Daisies Died; 
and Under the Greenwood Tree, for 
the production of As You Like It, at 
Drury Lane Theatre. From 1842 to 
1844, Arne and his wife were in Dub- 
lin, where he produced his oratorio, 
Abel, one of his most noted works, 
and also his operas, Eliza, and Britan- 
nia. On his return to England he 
was engaged as composer to the 
Drury Lane Theatre, and in 1745 was 
appointed composer for the Vauxhall 
Gardens, which position he held for 
many years, composing as well for 
Marylebone and Ranelagh Gardens. 
In 1759, the University of Oxford 
gave him the degree of Doctor of 
Music. Going to Covent Garden 
Theatre in 1760, Arne, in 1762, trans- 
lated the Artaxerxes of Metastasio 
and set it to music in the Italian 
style, with recitative instead of spoken 
dialogue. This was a great success 
and was produced in England for 
many years. Arne's second oratorio, 
Judith, was produced in 1764 and the 
same year he set to music Metas- 
tasio's opera, Olimpiade, in the Italian 
language. Among Arne's productions 
were a version of Purcell's King 
Arthur and of Alason's Caractacus. 
He died in 1778 and was buried at St. 
Paul's, Covent Garden. Beside his 
operas, Arne wrote the music for a 
large number of masques and plays. 
He also wrote sonatas for the violin 
and the piano; organ concertos; many 
songs, glees and catches and the ora- 




torios, Abel, and Judith. His masque 
of Alfred contains among other fine 
songs the well known Rule Britannia. 
His settings of Where the Bee Sucks, 
in The Tempest, and of the songs in 
As You Like It and. other Shake- 
spearian plays are considered very 
beautiful. Doctor Arne was the first 
to introduce female voices into ora- 
torio choruses. 

Arnold, Johann Gottfried. 1773-1806. 

German violoncellist and composer, 
who wrote for the violoncello, piano, 
flute and other instruments. He was 
a native of Wiirtemberg, and son of 
the schoolmaster of Niedernhall. 
Showed such devotion to music and so 
much ability that he was apprenticed 
by his father, to the music-director, in 
the town of Kiinzelsau. He came 
under this rigorous master at the age 
of eleven and remained with him until 
he_ was sixteen. He entered into a 
brief engagement at Wertheim, and 
later made concert tours in Germany 
and Switzerland, the while devoting 
himself to study with untiring zeal. 
He enjoyed the instruction of Will- 
mann and Bernard Romberg. He 
became first violinist of the theatre in 
Frankfort in 1798, and in that city 
won an enviable reputation, both as 
player and teacher. He was able to 
give considerable time to composition. 
But his career came to an untimely 
close. He died when he was only 
thirty-three years old, his health un- 
dermined, it is thought, by too ardu- 
ous work in his youth. 

Arnold, Maurice Strothotte. 1865- 

American composer. Born in St. 
Louis. Studied first with his mother, 
who was a good pianist and from 
whom he probably inherited his musi- 
cal ability. When fifteen years old 
he went to Cincinnati, where he 
studied at the College of Music for 
two years. In 1883 he went to Berlin 
and studied counterpoint and composi- 
tion with Vierling and Urban. Later 
he entered the Cologne Conservatory, 
where he studied with G. Jensen, 
Wuellner and Neitzel and finally went 
to Breslau and worked under Max 
Bruch. While at Breslau he wrote 
his cantata, The Wild Chase. He now 
returned to St. Louis, where he taught 
and also traveled as an opera-con- 
ductor and violinist. Later, Arnold 
was instructor of harmony at the 
National Conservatory under Dvorak. 

In a number of his compositions, 
especially his Plantation Dances, 
Arnold has made use of the negro 
plantation idea, not by introducing 
negro melodies but by embodying the 
African spirit in his own work. Arnold 
has also written two comic operas; a 
Dramatic Overture; a Valse Elegante, 
for eight hands for the piano; a 
Danse de la Midway Plaisance and 
a Tarantelle for the orchestra; also a 
fugue for eight hands; a Minstrel 
Serenade for violin and piano; part- 
songs and some solos. His violin 
sonata, which has not been published, 
is also in the African style. He is at 
work upon a symphony and a book 
on Some Points in Modern Orches- 
tration. Arnold is at present musical 
director of the Progressive Stage 
Society of New York. 

Arnold, Samuel. 1740-1802. 

English composer and vocalist. 
Born in London. His musical talent 
developed very early. He was edu- 
cated in the Chapel Royal and by his 
twenty-third year he had made such 
progress that he was engaged as com- 
poser for the Covent Garden Theatre, 
where he brought out his first opera, 
The Maid of the Mill, in 1765. In 
1769, he purchased Marylebone Gar- 
dens, where he gave dramatic and 
musical entertainments. Though at 
first successful, he finally lost money 
in this enterprise. In 1763 he received 
the degree of Doctor of Music from 
Oxford University. In 1783 he suc- 
ceeded Doctor Nares, as organist and 
composer to the Chapel Royal, and 
became organist at Westminster 
Abbey in 1793. In 1786 he proposed 
bringing out a complete edition of 
Handel's works, but was unable to 
complete it. Arnold wrote forty-three 
operas, musical after-pieces and pan- 
tomimes. He also produced a number 
of oratorios, the best of which was 
The Prodigal Son, others being The 
Resurrection, Abimelech, The Cure of 
Saul, and Elisha. His most important 
work was his Cathedral Music, which 
is a collection in score of the most 
valuable and useful cathedral services 
by the English composers of the 
Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. 
Arnold died, in 1802, from injuries 
received in a fall. 

Arnoldson, Sigrid. 1864- 

Celebrated Swedish soprano, daugh- 
ter of Oscar Arnoldson, the noted 




tenor. She was born at Stockholm, 
Sweden, studied first under her father, 
and later under Alberg and Madame 
Desiree Artot de Padilla. She made 
her opera debut in Prague, and sang 
with brilliant success in Moscow, St. 
Petersburg and London. For several 
seasons in Paris she sang at the 
Opera Comique, and was engaged, in 
1888, at Covent Garden Theatre, Lon- 
don, as successor to Patti. The fol- 
lowing year, Sigrid Arnoldson was 
acclaimed with unbounded enthusiasm 
in Moscow and Zurich, and became a 
prime favorite in various capitals of 
Europe. A visit to America was made 
in 1894, with a tour of the United 
States under the management of 
Abbey and Grau. Her principal roles 
are Rosine, Sonnambula, Dinorah, 
Mignon, Cherubin, Traviata and Zer- 
lina. She is famed particularly for 
dramatic power and a graceful per- 
sonality. After Jenny Lind and Chris- 
tine Nilsson probably no Swedish 
singer has enjoyed more popularity 
abroad than Sigrid Arnoldson. In 
1889 she was married to Alfred 
Fischoff of Vienna, an impresario. 

Arriaga y Balzzola (dar-ri-a'-ga e 
bal'-tho-la), Juan Crisostomo Jacobo 
Antonio d'. 1806-1825. 
A remarkably gifted Spanish violin- 
ist and composer, who, dying at the 
age of nineteen, left behind works of 
great promise. He was born at Bil- 
bao, wrote a Spanish opera when but 
a child, and at the age of fifteen was 
sent to the Paris Conservatory to 
study violin and harmony. There he 
was a pupil of Baillot and Fetis. 
Grove states that in two years he 
became a learned contrapuntist. He 
was the author of an overture, a 
symphony, three string quartets, and 
much other unpublished work. He 
died at Marseilles of a decline in the 
winter of 1825. 

Arrieta (ar-ri-a'-ta), Don Juan Emilio. 


Spanish composer, best known as a 
writer of comic opera. Ildegonda was 
his first opera; his most ambitious 
work being Isabel la Catolica 6 sea la 
Conquista de Granada. He was born 
at Puente la Reina, in the Spanish 
province of Navarre, went to Italy for 
study, and was a pupil at the Milan 
Conservatory from 1842 to 1845. His 
first opera was produced in that city 
the latter year. In 1848 he returned 


to his native country, and there wrote 
a large number of zarzuelas and 
numerous operas. At the Madrid 
Conservatory he held the position of 
professor of composition, rising finally 
to the post of director of the Con- 
servatory, a post that he occupied for 
many years. His most marked suc- 
cess was as a writer of the zarzuela, 
the distinctively Spanish type of 

Arthur, Alfred. 1844- 

Born near Pittsburg, Pa. Studied 
in Boston at the Music School, under 
Howard, B. F. Baker, Arbuckle and 
Bowen and later was a pupil of Julius 
Eichberg at the Boston Conservatory 
of Music. In 1871, he settled in 
Cleveland, Ohio, as leader of the Ger- 
mania Orchestra and chorister of 
Trinity Church. Since 1878, he has 
been leader of the Bach choir at the 
Woodland Avenue Presbyterian church, 
which is considered one of the best 
chorus choirs in the United States, 
and he is also conductor of the Cleve- 
land Vocal Society and director of the 
Cleveland School of Music. Arthur 
has composed three operas, The Wa- 
ter-carrier, The Roundheads and Cava- 
liers, and Adeline; church music; 
pieces for the piano and songs. His 
best known songs are Memory's 
Dream; Song of the Opal; and Tell it, 
Silverthroat. He also published Pro- 
gressive Vocal Studies, Album of 
Vocal Studies, Seventy Lessons in 
Voice Training, and Vocal Technique. 

Artot ( ar-to), Alexandre Joseph Mon- 
tagney. 1815-1845. 

A distinguished Belgian violinist. 
Most noted of a large family of musi- 
cians. Studied first with his father, 
who was a violinist as well as a band- 
master and conductor. Studied later 
in Brussels and at the Paris Conserva- 
tory, where he won prizes two years 
in succession. After leaving the Con- 
servatory he made successful tours 
through nearly all the European coun- 
tries and in 1843 through the United 
States and Cuba. At this time he 
showed symptoms of lung trouble and 
returned to France, where he re- 
mained, until his death in 1845. Artot 
wrote a considerable number of com- 
positions for the violin, including a 
concerto; fantasies; rondeaus, etc., and 
also some string quartets, but was 
greater as a violinist than as a com- 




Artot, Marguerite Josephine Desiree 

Montagney. 1835- 

Famous French opera singer and 
teacher, daughter of Jean Desiree 
Montagney, horn professor at the 
Brussels Conservatory. She was born 
in Paris, enjoyed the instruction of 
Madame Viardot-Garcia, and began 
her musical career by singing in con- 
certs in England, Holland and Bel- 
gium. At the Paris Opera, she made 
a very successful debut, in 1858, as 
Fides, but though enthusiastically 
praised by the critics, she shortly re- 
linquished French Opera for Italian. 
She sang in Italy, and in Berlin, cre- 
ating a furore in II Barbiere, Cene- 
rentola, and II Trovatore. She was a 
great favorite in Germany, where she 
sang several years, appearing both in 
German and Italian Opera, reaching 
the height of her career. She made 
her London debut, in opera, in 1863, 
visited England again the following 
year and in 1866, and was also very 
highly esteemed by the English. In 

1869 she married the Spanish barytone 
singer, Padilla y Ramois, and toured 
with him in Austria, Russia, Germany 
and elsewhere. She was settled in 
Berlin, for a while, as teacher of sing- 
ing, but in 1889 returned to Paris, and 
in this center has been very successful 
as a teacher. She has formed several 
celebrated pupils from the north, 
among them the Swedish dramatic 
soprano Sigrid Arnoldson. 

Asantschewsky (a-sant-she£'-shki) 

Michel von. 1838-1881. 

Russian book-collector and com- 
poser. His library of works on music 
was one of the finest private libraries 
of its kind in Europe. He was born 
at Moscow, studied at Leipzic under 
Hauptmann and Richter, and from 

1870 to 1876 was director of the St. 
Petersburg Conservatory. He was 
the author of a sonata for piano and 
violoncello, trio for piano and strings, 
various pieces for the piano, and other 

Ascher, Joseph. 1829-1869. 

Born in Groningen, Holland. Pianist 
and composer. He was a pupil of 
Moscheles and followed his master to 
the Leipsic Conservatory. In 1849 he 
went to Paris and became Court 
Pianist to the Empress Eugenie. He 
became very dissipated in later life, 
thus ruining both his health and his 
music. Ascher wrote over one hun- 


dred pieces for the piano, besides 
many songs. Alice, Where Art Thou? 
one of his best known songs, is still a 
favorite. Ascher was a very brilliant 
pianist but has been severely con- 
demned as a composer. That he had 
talent _ was undoubted, but that he 
spent it in a light and superficial style 
of music was also true. 

Ashe, Andrew. About 1759-1838. 

A celebrated Irish flute-player, for 
several years conductor of the con- 
certs at Bath, England. He was born 
at Lisburn, Ireland, about 1759. Be- 
came a protege of Count Bentinck, 
with whom he traveled extensively, 
his education being completed in Hol- 
land. Showing considerable musical 
talent and having a passion for music, 
he studied the violin and obtained a 
general knowledge of wind instru- 
ments. In time he became a very 
proficient flute-player, and was prin- 
cipal flute at the opera house in Brus- 
sels. He appeared successfully in 
Dublin and London, and for a period 
held the post of principal flute at the 
Italian Opera, London. He was mar- 
ried, in 1799, to Miss Comer, who as 
Mrs. Ashe became the chief singer at 
the Bath concerts, which Ashe con- 
ducted from 1810 to 1822. After his 
retirement he settled in Dublin, and 
died in that city. 

Ashton, Algernon Bennet Langton. 

English composer. A son of Charles 
Ashton, who was the principal tenor 
singer of the Cathedrals of Lincoln 
and Durham. The boy showed musi- 
cal talent early and began studying at 
the age of seven under Franz Heinig, 
later working with Iwan Knorr. 
Went to Leipsic in 1863 and remained 
there seventeen years, studying in the 
Conservatory, under Reinecke, Rich- 
ter, Jadassohn and others. In 1879, 
when leaving the Conservatory, he 
won the prize for composition. From 
1880 to 1881, he studied with Joachim 
Raff at Frankfort. Settled in London 
in 1882, where he has since lived. In 
1885 he was appointed professor of 
the piano at the Royal College of 
Music. Ashton has published about 
one hundred and forty-five works, in- 
cluding three trios; two quartets and 
two quintets; ten sonatas for various 
instruments; a great many single 
piano pieces and songs; also pieces for 
the organ, violin and violoncello. Mr. 



Ashton is rather unique in his recre- 
ations, which comprise among other 
things, writing letters to the press, 
over five hundred of these having been 
published, and restoring and repairing 
the graves of distinguished persons. 

Ashton, Joseph N. 

Musical educator, who was born in 
Salem, Massachusetts. He received 
the degree of A.B. from Brown Uni- 
versity in 1891, and that of A. M. 
from Harvard University two years 
later. From 1895 to 1898 he was in- 
structor of musical history and theory 
at Brown University, associate pro- 
fessor from 1898 to 1904 and faculty 
editor of the Brown Alumni Monthly 
from 1900 to 1904. From 1896 to 

1904 he was organist at North Church, 
Salem, and the following year organ- 
ist at the First Baptist Church of 
Newton Centre, Massachusetts. Since 

1905 he has been organist at the First 
Parish Church of Brookline, Massa- 
chusetts, and during 1907-1908 was 
acting professor of music at Wellesley 
College. He taught privately in Bos- 
ton from 1895 to 1899, and since 1904. 
He is a member of the American 
Guild of Organists and the Harvard 
Musical Association and also of the 
Phi Beta Kappa. 

Asioli (as-e-6'-le), Bonifacio. 1769- 

Italian dramatic composer and 
writer on musical subjects. A very 
precocious musician. Began to study 
at five and at eight had written three 
masses; a series of twenty sacred 
works; a concerto for the piano and 
for the violin; and several sonatas. 
When he had completed his studies at 
Parma he was made conductor at his 
native town, Correggio. From 1787 to 
1796 he lived in Turin and in 1799 
settled in Milan, where in 1808 he was 
appointed censor and professor of 
composition and singing at the new 
Conservatory at Milan. He visited 
Paris in 1810 and in 1813 returned to 
Correggio where he remained until 
his death, composing, and directing a 
school of music whicn he had estab- 
lished. Asioli's works consist of seven 
operas, one of which is comic; an ora- 
torio, Jacob; a very large number of 
masses, cantatas, motets and songs; 
also chamber-music; a symphony; an 
overture; sonatas, concertos and organ 
pieces. He also wrote several very 
fine text-books on music. 

Astorga (das-tor'-ga) , Emanuel e, 
Baron d'. 1681-1736. 

Son of a Sicilian nobleman, who was 
beheaded for political reasons. His 
mother died at the same time from the 
shock of her husband's execution, and 
the boy was placed in the Convent of 
Astorga in Spain, by the Princess 
Orsini, maid of honor to the wife of 
Philip V. Here he completed his 
musical education which had been 
begun, probably under Scarlatti. 
\yhen he left the convent he was 
given the title of Baron d'Astorga, 
through his patroness, and was sent 
on a diplomatic mission to the Court 
of Parma in 1704. Here he became 
involved in a love affair with the niece 
of the Duke of Parma and to break it 
off was sent by the Duke to Vienna in 
1705. After this for years he led a 
life of travel and adventure, visiting 
England, Italy, Spain and Portugal 
and finally going to Bohemia where 
he died. Astorga's most important 
compositions are his great Stabat 
Mater for four voices; an opera, 
Dafni; and nearly one hundred beau- 
tiful cantatas. 

Attwood, Thomas. 1765 or 1767-1838. 
Distinguished composer and organ- 
ist. He entered the Chapel Royal as 
chorister at the age of nine and re- 
mained there five years. At sixteen 
he attracted the attention of the 
Prince of Wales, afterwards George 
IV., and was sent by him to Italy for 
study. After working at Naples for 
two years he went to Vienna, and 
studied with Mozart, who considered 
him very talented. In 1787 he re- 
turned to England where he became 
organist of a large London church, 
was a member of the Prince of Wales' 
band and teacher of several members 
of the royal family. In 1796 he was 
made organist of St. Paul's Cathedral 
and in the same year was appointed 
composer to the Chapel Royal. In 
1821 he became organist of George 
IV.'s private chapel and in 1836 of the 
Chapel Royal. Attwood was a charter 
member of the Philharmonic Society 
and was made a professor at the 
Royal Academy of Music when it was 
founded in 1823. When he died he 
was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral, 
under the organ. Attwood enjoyed 
the friendship of both Mozart and 
Mendelssohn. His work as a com- 
poser seems to have been done in two 




divisions, the opera occupying his 
earlier Hfe and sacred music his later 
years. His operas, nineteen in num- 
ber, are almost forgotten and his fame 
rests on his church music, which con- 
sists of many services and anthems, 
the best known of which are I was 
Glad, written for the coronation of 
George IV.; and O Lord, Grant the 
King a Long Life, written for Wil- 
liam IV. He also wrote a great num- 
ber of songs and glees. The Soldier's 
Dream, a song, became very popular 
and two of his glees, In Peace Love 
Tunes the Shepherd's Reed; and To 
All that Breathe the Air of Heaven, 
are still known and admired. 

Auber (6-bar), Daniel Fransois Esprit. 


Celebrated French dramatic com- 
poser and the chief representative of 
comic opera. He was born in Caen, 
Normandy, while his parents were on 
a journey to that city, their home 
being in Paris. Although his father 
intended him for a mercantile career, 
the family was artistic, rather than 
commercial, Auber's grandfather being 
painter to the King, while his father, 
who was master of the King's hunt, 
was a singer, an amateur composer, 
a violinist and an art dealer in Paris. 
With this heredity, it is not strange 
that Auber absolutely refused to fol- 
low the business life planned for him 
and resolutely devoted himself to 
music. He first studied the piano, but 
at the age of eleven his bent for com- 
position began to develop, and he 
wrote some romances and ballads. 
A few years later he was sent to Eng- 
land to go into business, but while 
there devoted himself to producing 
vocal compositions, and soon returned 
to Paris to give all of his time to 
music. About this time, he became a 
friend of Lamarre, a violoncellist of 
ability, and was persuaded by him to 
write a number of concertos, for that 
instrument. These came out under 
Lamarre's name, but the real author 
soon became known. Auber at this 
time also wrote a violin concerto 
which was very successful. His first 
dramatic work was a new setting of 
an old comic opera, Julie. This was 
produced at Paris, in 1812, by a society 
of amateurs. Cherubini, who hap- 
pened to be among the audience, 
recognized Auber's talent and took 
him for a pupil in composition and to 
this great master he owed much of 


his future success. Auber's talent 
now developed very rapidly. The same 
year, 1812, he produced another opera, 
Jean de Couvin, which was privately 
performed and was much applauded, 
and a mass from which the prayer in 
Masaniello is taken. These were fol- 
lowed, in 1813, by Le Sejour Militaire, 
his first opera to be publicly per- 
formed. This was unsuccessful and 
its author was so discouraged, that 
six years elapsed before the produc- 
tion of Le Testament le Billet Doux, 
which was also not a success. The 
next year, however, brought La Ber- 
gere Chatelaine, with which his fame 
began to increase and there followed 
a series of operas, for the most of 
which his friend, Scribe, wrote the 
librettos. These were all very suc- 
cessful, among them being La Neige; 
Leicester; Le Concert a la Cour; Leo- 
cadie; and Le Magon, which estab- 
lished Auber's position as a comic 
opera composer. In 1828, Auber pro- 
duced his first grand opera, La 
Muette di Portici, known in Eng- 
land as Masaniello. This work 
brought him to the height of his 
fame and is classed as one of the 
three productions that worked a 
revolution in Grand Opera, the other 
two being Rossini's William Tell and 
Meyerbeer's Robert le Diable. It is 
also said to be a historical fact that 
this opera produced the real revolu- 
tion in 1830, which resulted in the 
separation of Holland and Belgium. 
From this time until his death, Auber 
composed most industriously, pro- 
ducing in all, nearly fifty operas. 
Some of his best work was done after 
he was sixty and his last opera, Reves 
d'Amour, was written at the age of 
eighty-five. Beside those already 
mentioned some of his best known 
operas are Le Domino Noir; Les 
Diamants de la Couronne; Le Cheval 
de Bronze; La Part du Diable; Man- 
on Lescaut; and Fra Diavolo. In 1842, 
Auber was made director of the Con- 
servatory of Paris, to succeed Cheru- 
bini and, in 1857, Napoleon III. ap- 
pointed him conductor of the Imperial 
Chapel. He was a Knight of the 
Legion of Honor and a member of 
the Academy of Fine Arts. Auber 
was a devoted Parisian and never left 
the city during the latter part of his 
life. His death occurred during the 
scenes of the Commune of 1871. He 
was the chief and last great master of 
comic opera and his work was dis- 




tinctively French in character, being 
very smooth and melodious and com- 
bining grace and ease. 

Audran (6-drah), Edmond. 1842-1901. 

French dramatic composer. Son of 
Marius Pierre Audran, who was a 
well-known tenor singer and vocal 
teacher. Studied at the Ecole Nieder- 
meyer, Paris, where he gained the 
prize for composition in 1859. Settled 
with his father at Marseilles m 1861 
and became organist and musical di- 
rector at St. Joseph's Church. Audran 
is best known as a comic opera com- 
poser, producing in all nearly thirty 
operas and operettas, the most suc- 
cessful of which are Olivette; The 
Mascot; The Grand Mogul; Madam 
Suzette and La Poupee, among the 
others being La Chercheuse d'Esprit; 
Gillette de Narbonne; L'Ours et la 
Pache; La Cigale et le Fourmi; 
L'Oncle Celestin; Monsieur Lohen- 
grin; and Les Petites Femmes. 

* Auer (ow'er), Leopold. 1845- 

Brilliant Hungarian violinist. He 
showed great talent for music very 
early, and during the Revolution of 
1849 as a four-year-old boy excited 
great enthusiasm, by marching as a 
drummer before the troops. Studied 
first at the Prague Conservatory and 
then at the Vienna Conservatory with 
Dont from 1857 to 1858 and afterwards 
with Joachim. Went to Dijsseldorf, 
in 1863, as leader of the orchestra, and 
in 1866 to Hamburg in the same 
capacity. In 1868 he went to St. 
Petersburg, where he still liveS; as 
solo violinist to the Czar and in the 
Imperial Orchestra. On the death of 
Henri Wieniawski, in 1880, Auer suc- 
ceeded him as professor of violin at 
the Conservatory of St Petersburg, 
and there, while acting as conductor 
of the Symphony concerts of the Im- 
perial Musical Association he has 
introduced to the Russian people 
many important works, notably Ber- 
lioz's Requiem and Schumann's Man- 
fred. Auer founded a quartet at St. 
Petersburg which became one of the 
leading musical organizations of the 
city, until it was broken by the death 
of Davidoff, the violoncellist. 

Auguez, Numa. 1847-1903. 

Admirable French barytone singer 
and teacher. He was born at Saleux, 
and became a pupil of the Paris Con- 
servatory in 1867. For ten years, 


from 1871 to 1881, he sang at the 
Grand Opera, Paris, and then went for 
a season to Italy, When Lamoureux 
gave the famous production of Lohen- 
grin to the Parisians, May 3, 1887. 
Auguez made a marked impression in 
the part of the Herald. Throughout 
France he was greatly esteemed as a 
concert singer. In Paris, his name 
became associated with Beethoven's 
Ninth Symphony and Berlioz's Dam- 
nation of Faust. In 1899 he was ap- 
pointed a professor of singing at the 
Paris Conservatory. 

Aus der Ohe (ows'-der-6-e), Adele. 


German pianist. Daughter of a 
professor at Hanover University. 
When but seven years of age she was 
placed, by the advice of von Biilow, 
under Kullak, in his conservatory at 
Berlin, She was only ten when she 
played with orchestra at a concert in 
Berlin, and but twelve when she be- 
came a pupil of Liszt. She remained 
with Liszt seven years, and was a 
favorite pupil, her playing of his con- 
certos and rhapsodies being regarded 
as marvelous. She made her debut in 
America in 1886. She is the author of 
several songs and pieces for the piano. 

Aylward, Theodore. 1730-1801, 

English composer and organist. 
Very little is known of his early life. 
He is said to have been a good scholar 
and was already known as a composer 
in 1755. After 1760 he was organist of 
several London churches successively 
and in 1771 was appointed professor 
of music in Gresham College. He was 
assistant director of the Handel Com- 
memoration in 1784, and in 1788 was 
organist and director of the choristers 
of St. George's Chapel, Windsor. He 
received the degrees of Bachelor and 
Doctor of Music from Oxford Uni- 
versity in 1791. His works consist of 
music for the dramas. Harlequin's In- 
vasion, Midsummer Night's Dream, 
Cymbeline and others; six lessons for 
the organ, elegies and glees; eight 
canzonets for soprano voices; songs 
and church-music in manuscript. 

Ayrton, Edmund. 1734-1808. 

English organist and director, for 
many years master of the children at 
the Chapel Royal, London, and author 
of some music. He was born at 
Ripon, studied the organ under Dr. 
Nares, organist at York Minster, and 




in 1754 was elected organist and to 
other posts at the college and church 
of Southwell. He was vicar-choral of 
St. Paul's, lay-clerk of Westminster, 
and in 1780 began service as master 
of the children, which post he occu- 
pied till 1805. The tjniversity of 
Cambridge conferred upon him the 
degree of Doctor of Music in 1784. 
The anthem he wrote for this de- 
gree was given at St. Paul's Cathe- 
dral in the celebration of Thanksgiv- 
ing over the conclusion of war with 

Ayrton, William. 1777-1858. 

Prominent English musical critic, 
editor, and director; son of the pre- 
ceding. He was born in London, was 
carefully educated both in letters and 
music, became a successful teacher 


and for many years wrote literary and 
musical criticism for the Morning 
Chronicle. He also wrote Philhar- 
monic Society reviews for the Ex- 
aminer. He was one of the founders 
of the Philharmonic Society, and 
later a director. While serving as 
music-director at the King's Theatre, 
he introduced, in 1817, Don Giovanni 
to the London public, and during his 
connection with this theatre brought 
out various Mozart operas. With Mr. 
Clowes, he was associated in the pub- 
lication of the valuable musical jour- 
nal. The Harmonicon. He edited an 
extensive collection of songs and in- 
strumental music and a collection of 
Sacred Minstrelsy, and wrote articles 
on musical subjects for the Penny 
Cyclopedia and Knight's Pictorial 
History of England. 


Bach (bakh), Johann Christoph. 


The uncle of Johann Sebastian Bach 
and, next to him, the greatest of all 
the Bachs. He was not only one of 
the finest organists but was also one 
of the greatest composers of the 
Seventeenth Century. His genius was 
not recognized, however, during his 
lifetime and after his death his fame 
was entirely overshadowed by his 
great nephew. He was born at 
Arnstadt and studied there with his 
father, Heinrich Bach. In 1665 he 
went to Eisenach as town organist 
and in 1678 he succeeded Pachelbel 
as Court organist. He remained at 
Eisenach until his death, living the 
simplest of lives. In spite of his im- 
portance as a musician none of his 
works was published, and many of 
them were lost. Like all of the Bachs, 
his music was thoroughly German in 
spirit and style and without a trace 
of Italian influence. His most im- 
portant works were vocal, among the 
best being his motets and a cantata 
for double chorus and orchestra, Es 
erhub sich ein Streit. His instru- 
mental works consisted of forty-four 
chorale preludes and a saraband with 
twelve variations for the clavier. 

Bach, Johann Sebastian. March 21, 

1685- July 28, 1750. 

The greatest representative of a 
wonderful family of musicians, who 
were prominent in Germany for over 
two hundred years. Bach not only 
had a long line of musical ancestors 
himself but he is also said to have 
been the direct ancestor of about 
sixty well-known organists and com- 
posers of Germany. The musical 
branch of the family begins, as far 
as our knowledge of them is con- 
cerned, with Hans Bach, who was a 
trustee of the parish of Wechmar in 
Thuringia in 1561 and who is said to 
have been born there. Veit Bach, 
probably a son of Hans, was a miller 
and baker in Wechmar, and was the 
first musician of the family. He 
loved and studied music and played 
on the zither. Veit Bach had at least 
two sons, one Hans, called " Der 
Spielmann " (the player), and another 
whose name is unknown. These two 
brothers were the heads of the two 
main branches of the Bach family, 
which flourished in Thuringia. In 
time the towns of Armstadt, Erfurt, 
Eisenach, Gotha, and Miihlhausen be- 
came their centers. Here they lived 
and were the town musicians and in 




these towns they held their family 
meetings, when they all gathered and 
exchanged musical knowledge and 
gave musical performances. Their 
thorough musical training was handed 
down from one to another, the older 
members teaching the younger and 
the younger taking up the musical 
positions as they became vacant, until 
finally, the town musicians were 
called, "The Bachs," even if they be- 
longed to an entirely different family. 
Their most notable characteristics as 
a family were their great devotion to 
each other, their intense patriotism 
and their profound and absorbing love 
of music. The Bach family became 
extinct, in 1846, when Wilhelm F. E. 
Bach died. Hans Bach, " the player," 
the son of Veit Bach, was the great 
grandfather of Johann Sebastian, his 
grandfather being Christoph, town- 
musician of Erfurt and of Arnstadt, 
and his father Johann Ambrosius, was 
also town musican and a violinist of 

Johann Sebastian Bach was born at 
Eisenach, probably March 21, as he 
was baptized on March 23. His life 
as a child was very simple, but from 
his infancy he was surrounded by a 
strong musical atmosphere and the 
most intense German Protestant 
religious influence, and both of these 
things had a great effect upon his 
development and upon his music. He 
received his first musical instruction, 
which was on the violin, from his 
father. When he was ten years old 
both of his parents died and left him 
to the care of Johann Christoph, his 
older brother, who was organist at 
Ohrdruf and a pupil of Pachelbel. 
This brother now became Sebastian's 
teacher, but it was not long until the 
pupil had absorbed all of the teacher's 
knowledge and still longed for more, 
but the brother seems to have dis- 
couraged rather than have encouraged 
this talent. Beside the organ, Sebas- 
tian worked upon the clavichord and 
harpsichord and made most rapid 
progress, so rapid, in fact, that his 
brother Christoph has been accused 
of jealousy, even to the extent of 
keeping from the boy the fine collec- 
tion of manuscript organ music, 
which he owned and which Sebastian 
longed most ardently to study. So 
great was the boy's eagerness to 
possess this music, that he got hold 
of it by stealth at night and copied it 
all by moonlight, but only to have it 


destroyed by his stern elder brother, 
when discovered. This copying took 
six months and the strain on his eyes, 
thus caused, is said to have resulted 
in the blindness, which came upon 
him later in life. The amount of good 
music which he absorbed while doing 
this work must, however, have had 
great influence on his musical develop- 
ment. At the age of fifteen, Sebastian, 
who had a fine voice, obtained a posi- 
tion in the choir of St. Michael's 
School at Liineburg, and from this 
time on depended upon himself and 
worked out his own salvation in his 
musical career During the three 
years spent here he had opportunity 
to study, beside vocal music, the 
organ, the clavichord and the violin 
and also to hear much good music. 
While at Liineburg, he made several 
journeys on foot to Hamburg to hear 
the famous organists, Reinken and 
Vincenz Lubeck, who were playing 
there. He also frequently visited 
Celle and became familiar with the 
French music of that place. 

In 1703, Bach was appointed violin- 
ist in the Court Orchestra of Prince 
Johann Ernst of Weimar, but could 
have remained only a few months, for, 
when visiting Arnstadt in the summer 
of the same year, he was appointed 
organist of the new church of that 
place. Bach remained at Arnstadt 
three years and during that time, hav- 
ing a good organ to play and a choir 
for which to compose, he produced 
some works of importance, but had 
rnuch trouble with the church authori- 
ties, who wanted an organist and not 
a composer. He began at this time 
some of his church cantatas, which 
later grew into a long series and also 
wrote his odd Capriccio on the De- 
parture of a Beloved Brother, when 
his elder brother, Johann Jakob, left 
to join the Swedish Guard as oboe- 
player. Each movement of this piece 
has a descriptive title and it is 
the only one of all of Bach's works 
that can be called program music. 
From Arnstadt, he made his famous 
journey on foot to Liibeck to hear 
the organist, Dietrich Buxtehude. He 
had leave of absence for four weeks, 
but was so fascinated by the music 
which he heard that he stayed four 
months. This, together with the 
liberties which he took with the ser- 
vice in the way of improvising, 
brought upon him the severe criticism 
of the Arnstadt church authorities, 






but he was not dismissed, which 
shows that his genius was already 
appreciated. In 1706, a position as 
organist at the Church of St. Blasias 
in Mijhlhausen became vacant and 
Bach obtained it at a salary of about 
seven pounds or thirty-five dollars a 
year together with certain quantities 
of corn, wood and fish, to be delivered 
without charge at his door. Upon 
this salary he was able to marry his 
cousin, Maria Barbara Bach, by whom 
he had a family of seven children. 
Bach's stay at Miihlhausen was very 
short, for about a year after accepting 
the position he resigned, to become 
Court organist to the Grand Duke at 
Weimar. Here he remained for nine 
years, from his twenty-third to his 
thirty-second j'ear, arid was made con- 
ductor of the Court Orchestra in 1714. 

While at Weimar, Bach became not 
only the finest organist of his time, 
but the greatest composer for the 
organ that the world has ever known. 
While here many of his greatest 
organ compositions were produced 
and also a series of church cantatas, 
which were written as part of the 
duties of his office. These cantatas 
hold much the same position in the 
German church services that anthems 
do in the service of English churches 
and they were a very important form 
of composition. In 1717, Bach was 
appointed to a position entirely differ- 
ent from those he had occupied be- 
fore. He was called to Cothen by 
Prince Leopold of Anhalt, as con- 
ductor and director of his chamber- 
music, at a salary of three hundred 
dollars a year. Here he had nothing 
to do with church music or organ 
playing and he gave his attention, 
chiefly, to writing orchestral music 
for stringed instruments and com- 
posing for the clavichord, and to 
teaching and traveling with his 
patron. The life at Cothen was very 
narrow and uninteresting, compared 
with that of Weimar and some 
biographers have thought it necessary 
to apologize for Bach, because he 
accepted this position, others, how- 
ever, have considered it a kind of 
breathing space or pause in his busy 
life, without which, he might not have 
accomplished the great amount of 
important work that he did later on. 

Trips to Halle, Leipsic and Dresden 
varied the monotony of his life at 
Cothen and he also made a journey to 
Hamburg, to compete for the position 

of organist for the Jacobi Kirche, 
whose magnificent new organ at- 
tracted him. Things seem to have 
been very much the same then, as 
they are today, however, as in spite 
of the fact that Bach was recognized 
as the man for the place and the 
greatest organist of his time, the posi- 
tion was given to an insignificant 
young man, who could pay four hun- 
dred marks for iti 

While at Cothen, Bach wrote the 
first part of his collection of forty- 
eight preludes and fugues known in 
German as The Well-tempered 
Clavier. As Bach's life at Weimar is 
representative of his work as an 
organist and a composer for the 
organ, so the time at Cothen stands 
for his production for the clavichord 
and orchestra. While at Carlsbad on 
one of his many trips with Leopold, 
Bach's wife died very suddenly. No 
news could be gotten to him and on 
his return he found her buried. He 
was left with four children, and about 
eighteen months after his wife's death, 
he married Anna Magdalena Wulkin, 
a young woman of twenty-one, who 
was a very fine soprano singer. 
Thirteen children were the result of 
this marriage, making a family of 
twenty in all. These children ranged 
all the way from idiocy to genius, 
those who were the most musically 
gifted belonging to the first family. 
In 1723, Bach was appointed cantor 
and musical director of the famous 
Thomas School at Leipsic, which posi- 
tion he held until his death, at the 
same time retaining his title as 
" Kapelmeister of Cothen." From 
Court conductor to cantor might be 
considered a step backward, did we 
not know that Bach was devoted heart 
and soul to the organ and the com- 
position of church music, and that the 
position at Liepsic gave him special 
opportunity for these things. This 
particular position as cantor, too, had 
been always held by distinguished 
men and was differently considered 
from the ordinary post of the kind. 
Another very strong reason for Bach's 
going to Leipsic was that he wished 
to live in a place where he could have 
the best of educational advantages for 
his children, his oldest son, Wilhelm 
Friedman, being at once entered as a 
student in the University. As cantor 
at the Thomas School, Bach was sup- 
posed to teach the boys vocal and 
instrumental music and Latin. The 




latter work, however, he turned over 
to an assistant. He was also organist 
and director of music at the two chief 
churches of Leipsic, St. Thomas and 
St. Nicholas, as well as overseer for 
several lesser churches. He was at 
the same time, director of music for 
the city of Leipsic. 

The first years of Bach's life in 
Leipsic were very hard and unsatis- 
factory, on account of musical con- 
ditions at the Thomas School, and it 
was not until after the death of the 
rector, who opposed Bach in every 
way, that he was able to make much 
progress with the work. His rela- 
tions with the Municipal Council, by 
whom he was elected and under whose 
direction he was supposed to work, 
were also very unpleasant. This body, 
which had charge of the city's musi- 
cal affairs, as well as the Consistory, 
which looked after music matters for 
the church, utterly failed to under- 
stand Bach and caused him much an- 
noyance in many petty ways. Things 
became so bad, in 1830, that Bach 
appealed to Erdmann, an old friend, 
to find him a more congenial posi- 
tion. But just at this time a new 
rector, named Gesner, came to the 
Thomas School and affairs immedi- 
ately began to mend. Gesner became 
the firm friend of Bach and aided him 
in every possible way and, fortu- 
nately for the city of Leipsic and the 
development of music, the great mas- 
ter remained in the town and in his 
position until his death. Gesner re- 
mained at the Thomas School four 
years, which were the most peaceful, 
the busiest and most productive of 
Bach's life. But after these four good 
years, the old troubles and annoyances 
with school and church authorities be- 
gan again and lasted, ever increasing, 
until his death. The most pathetic 
thing about all of these unpleasant 
affairs is that Bach seems to have 
been always in the right, but seems 
also to have had always to deal with 
the most unreasonable and dis- 
agreeable people. His one solace dur- 
ing his busy and troubled days in 
Leipsic was his home life, which was 
the most delightful imaginable, his 
wife and children all being musicians 
and keenly interested in all musical 
matters and his house being filled at 
all times by pupils, who adored him. 
Grove says: "His art and his fam- 
ily, these were the two poles around 


which Bach's life moved; outwardly 
simple, modest, insignificant; inwardly 
great, rich, and luxurious in growth 
and production." 

During the years at Leipsic, Bach 
developed his full creative powers and 
produced his greatest works. For the 
services of the Leipsic churches he 
was supposed to compose music, and 
for them he wrote his great series of 
cantatas, comprising not less than 
three hundred and eighty, providing 
one for every Sunday and festival for 
five years. Many of these were lost, 
but about two hundred and twenty-six 
were saved and published. During 
these years he also wrote his greatest 
work. The Passion-Music. According 
to some biographers, there were five 
of these, but we have left only three, 
the St. John, the St. Matthew and the 
St. Mark. There is also a St. Luke 
Passion, but much doubt exists as to 
whether Bach wrote it. Soon after 
going to Leipsic, Bach was made hon- 
orary conductor to the Duke of Weis- 
senfels, receiving the salary without 
being obliged to attend the court. In 
1736 he was made Royal Court com- 
poser to the King of Poland and 
Elector of Saxony. In 1747, after re- 
peated invitations, Bach visited King 
Frederick the Great at Potsdam. He 
was received by the King with the 
greatest courtesy, was taken through 
the Palace, where he played on 
Frederick's collection of pianos, about 
fifteen in number; was invited to play 
on all the principal organs of the city 
and shown all the sights. After re- 
turning home, Bach composed and 
sent to the King The Musical Offer- 
ing, worked out on a theme written by 
the King himself. About a year be- 
fore his death, Bach's eyesight began 
to fail and after two operations he 
became totally blind, but even after 
this he composed and dictated to his 
son-in-law one of his most beautiful 
chorales. When We in Sorest Trouble 
Are. About ten days before his death 
his sight returned. He died, July 25, 
1750, at the age of sixty-five, of 
apoplexy. Bach was buried in St. 
John's churchyard in Leipsic. His 
grave was not marked, and when 
sometime afterward a road was made 
through the churchyard it was lost 
entirely. Professor Wilhelm His of 
Leipsic, in 1894, discovered a grave 
containing remains, which corre- 
sponded exactly to Bach's measure- 




ments. By covering the skull with 
wax, a portrait of the head was ob- 
tained, which agreed so closely with 
authentic portraits of the great musi- 
cian that all doubts were set at rest 
and the remains were reinterred in a 
crypt, specially prepared, under the 
altar of the church. The reinterment 
took place, July 28, 1900, on the one 
hundred and fiftieth anniversary of 
Bach's death. 

Bach was said, by Schumann, to 
hold the same position in regard to 
music that a founder does to a re- 
ligion. He is called "The musician 
for musicians." Bach left behind him 
an immense number of works, of 
which only a small part were pub- 
lished during his life. For over fifty 
years his works were much neglected, 
after that some attention were paid to 
them, some were printed and some re- 
printed, but not until Mendelssohn 
brought out the Passion-Music, in 
1829 at Berlin, was the full greatness 
of the man realized. It is said, that 
as an organist, no one has been his 
equal, with the possible exception of 
Handel, and that his organ composi- 
tions, written at Weimar, were " un- 
surpassed and unsurpassable." He 
was also an able performer on 
stringed instruments and wrote much 
orchestral music. For instruments no 
longer in use he wrote three sonatas 
for the viola da gamba; three partitas 
(or variations) for the lute; and_ a 
suite for the viola pomposa, an in- 
strument between the viola and the 
violoncello, which he himself invented. 
Among such a great mass of composi- 
tions, only a few of the most im- 
portant can be mentioned: The 
Passion-Music; the Mass in B Minor; 
the series of three hundred cantatas; 
and the oratorios for Christmas, 
Ascension and Easter are among the 
best of his vocal works. For the 
piano are The Well-tempered Clavier; 
French Suites; English Suites; and a 
great mass of preludes, sonatas and 
inventions. For the organ are his 
Art of Fugue; an enormous number 
of preludes, fantasias, toccatas, fugues 
and chorals. There are also sonatas 
for the violin and violoncello, a con- 
certo for several different instruments; 
also many motets, secular cantatas, 
solos and trios for different instru- 
rnents in different combinations, be- 
side an immense number of single 
pieces for various instruments. Be- 
side his great Art of Fugue and other 


compositions for the organ, Bach's 
three most important works were 
probably his Well-tempered Clavier, 
the Passion-Music, and his High Mass 
in B Minor, which has been described 
as a " Gothic cathedral in music." The 
Well-tempered Clavier is in two vol- 
umes, each containing twenty-four 
preludes and fugues in all major and 
minor keys. The first volume was 
written during his five years' residence 
at Cothen, the second was composed 
at Leipsic in 1740. Forkel, a noted 
musical authority, says of his work, 
" The second part consists, from the 
beginning to the end entirely of mas- 
terpieces. In the first part, on the 
other hand, there are still some pre- 
ludes and fugues, which bear marks 
of the immaturity of early youth and 
have been retained by the author only 
to have the number of four-and- 
twenty complete. But even here the 
author corrected, in course of time, 
whatever was capable of amendment. 
Even the second part received great 
improvements. In general both parts 
of this work contain a treasure of art,, 
which cannot be found anywhere but 
in Germany." Another authority says 
of this work, that no musician or 
pianist can ignore it with impunity, 
and Schumann commended it to 
young musicians as their "daily 
bread." Of Bach's St. John and St. 
Matthew Passions, which are the 
gospel stories presented in musical 
form, R. L. Poole says: "The biblical 
narrative is followed with entire 
fidelity and the master has proceeded 
with such independent judgment that 
his work stands quite remote from 
the strange medley, with which his 
immediate predecessors had to be 
contented. The music they wrote to 
it was indeed of great individual 
beauty, but in their hands it never 
gained the symmetry of an organic 
whole. It is Bach's peculiar glory to 
have succeeded in this endeavor 
where everyone else had failed. He 
adopted, not the forms of the Italian 
oratorio, but he absorbed its spirit. He 
blended it in a manner of which no 
previous composer had ever suspected 
the possibility, with the profound re- 
ligiousness of the national chorale. 
Above all, he created a recitative of 
his own, stripped of all that was 
theatrical and entirely appropriate to 
the setting forth of the divine narra- 
tive. In his Passion-Music, he brings 
to absolute completeness the form for 




which his conception of the church 
cantata had been through long years 
the preparation. The Passions accord- 
ing to St. John and St. Matthew He 
before us as the noblest monuments 
of Bach's spirit. Each is in truth in- 
comparable, whether in relation to the 
other, or to the rest of sacred music. 
The St. John Passion is the perfec- 
tion of church-music; the St. Matthew 
reaches the goal of all sacred art, 
while its colossal dimensions take it, 
almost, happily not quite, out of the 
range of church performance." The 
Mass in B Minor was written prob- 
ably for production in the Leipsic 
churches. On it, it is said. Bach put 
all his strength and consecrated every 
resource of inspiration and art, every 
possibility of voice and instrument. 
To quote again from Poole, "Words, 
however, can give but a very faint 
impression of this masterpiece of uni- 
versal Christendom; and daring with 
forced fingers rude, to touch its per- 
fect outline, I leave inviolate the 
lyrical tenderness of the Agnus Dei 
and the yearning desire of the Dona 
nobis pacem, the restful consumrna- 
tion of the whole, nor can I describe 
the infinite fertility of the design, the 
happy frequency with which, in the 
arias, a single instrument, violin, flute, 
hautboy or horn, is made to enhance 
the delicacy of the human voice; or 
the splendor of the grouping of the 
orchestra, equally noble in sonorous 
magnificence and in chastened soft- 
ness. Whether in its art or in its 
religion, the High Mass stands amorig 
the creations of Bach's master-spirit, 
first and alone, and for its sole equal 
the Passion according to Saint Mat- 

One writer has said, "It is not too 
much to assert, that without Sebastian 
Bach and his matchless studies for the 
piano, organ and orchestra, we could 
not have had the varied musical 
development, in sonata and symphony 
from such masters as Haydn, Mozart 
and Beethoven." Apthorp, a musical 
critic of ability, has said of Bach, "No 
one man has left so deep a mark on 
the history of music, nor has exerted 
so strong and far-reaching an in- 
fluence upon the subsequent develop- 
ment of the art as he. In a word, 
Sebastian Bach is the great source and 
fountain-head from whom well nigh 
all that is best and most enduring in 
modern music has been derived." 



Bach, Emanuel and Agricola, J. F. — 
Necrology, published in the Musi- 
kalische Bibliothek in 1754. 

Bitter, C. H.— Life of Bach. 

Forkel, J. N.— Life of Bach. 

Poole, R. L. — Sebastian Bach. 

Shuttleworth, Kay — Life of Bach. * 

Spitta, J. A. P. — Biography of Johann 
Sebastian Bach, 2 vols. (Standard 
and exhaustive work.) 

Thorne, E. H. — Bach. 

Williams, C. F. A.— Bach. 

Bach, Karl Philipp Emanuel. 1714- 

The third son of Johann Sebastian 
Bach, and although the least gifted 
musically, he became, on account of 
his capacity for work, the most fa- 
mous. His father intended that he 
should study philosophy and he was 
educated at the Thomas School, Leip- 
sic, and later studied law at Frankfort, 
but his inherited love of music was too 
strong and the musical training he 
had received from his father too 
thorough, to allow him to become 
anything but a musician. While at 
Frankfort he composed some music 
for a singing society, which he con- 
ducted there._ In 1738 he went to 
Berlin and in 1746 was appointed 
chamber-musician to Frederick the 
Great. This position he held until 
1767, when he went to Hamburg, 
where he remained until his death as 
music-director of the principal church. 
Emanuel Bach was great as a com- 
poser, a teacher and a director and 
was also a man of much culture and 
refinement. He is considered the real 
founder of the modern school of piano 
playing and is said to be the link 
between his father and Handel on the 
one hand and Haydn and Mozart on 
the other His most pronounced char- 
acteristic was, perhaps, his great 
attention to form and finish, which, in 
his day, were considered the chief 
requisites of music. He was a most 
voluminous composer, his instrumen- 
tal works being the most valuable. 
He wrote two hundred and ten solo 
pieces for the piano; two beautiful 
sonatas for the violin and piano; 
eighteen orchestral works; fifty-two 
concertos with orchestral accompani- 
ments; thirty-four compositions for 
wind instruments; beside pieces for 
the flute, oboe and violoncello. His 
vocal works consisted of two ora- 




torios; twenty-two Passions; many 
cantatas, motets, hymns and songs; 
and also choruses and secular songs. 

Bach, Wilhelm Friedmann. 1710-1784. 
Oldest son of Johann Sebastian 
Bach. Born at Weimar. Studied with 
his father and at twelve years of age 
was an excellent pianist. When fif- 
teen, he began to study the violin 
under Graun. In 1723 he attended the 
Thomas School at Leipsic and, in 
1729, entered the University where he 
excelled as a mathematician. He went 
in 1733 to Dresden as church organist 
and in 1747 in the same capacity to 
Halle. From his residence in this 
place, he became known as "The Halle 
Bach." Always wild and reckless, he 
became, while at Halle, very dissi- 
pated and in 1764 lost his position. 
After this he lived at Brunswick and 
at Gottingen, occasionally giving con- 
certs but without any regular line of 
work and always sinking lower and 
lower, until in 1784, he died at Berlin 
in misery and want. The wretched 
failure he made of his life was all the 
sadder because of the fact that he was 
the most gifted musically of all Bach's 
children and could have done won- 
derful things if it had not been for 
his unfortunate weakness of character. 
As it was, he was the greatest or- 
ganist of his time; a master of the 
fugue and a wonderful improviser; 
and, on account of his thorough 
knowledge of mathematics, a remark- 
able musical theorist. He wrote 
twenty-two cantatas, the best of which 
are a Peace Cantata; a Pentecost 
Cantata; and cantatas for Christmas 
and Advent. He also wrote seventeen 
sets of instrumental compositions, 
consisting of many works for the 
piano and organ as well as for the 
flute, violin and horn. Many of his 
works were never printed, because of 
his indifference in writing them down. 

Bache (bach), Francis Edward. 1833- 

English composer and pianist. 
Bache was a very highly talented 
musician, who died in the midst of a 
most promising career. He showed 
musical talent very early. Studied 
with the best teachers in London, 
Dresden and Leipsic, on the piano, 
organ and violin. His ability for 
work was far beyond his physical 
strength and his health broke down 
in 1855 to such an extent that he 


went to Algiers and later to Rome, 
but returned to England in 1857 and 
died of consumption in 1858. His 
compositions, all written before his 
twenty-fifth year, proved that had he 
lived he would have undoubtedly 
been one of England's greatest musi- 
cal artists. He wrote, beside two 
operas which have never been pub- 
lished, many compositions for the 
piano; several orchestral works; some 
pieces for violin and piano; and many 
songs, some of which are worthy to 
stand with those of Schubert and 

Bache, Walter. 1842-1888. 

Fine English pianist. Brother of 
the preceding. Began studying music 
at sixteen. Worked under the best 
teachers at the Leipsic Conservatory. 
After a short stay in Milan and 
Florence he went to Rome, where he 
studied for three years with Liszt. 
In 1865 Mr. Bache returned to Lon- 
don, where he lived as a conductor, 
pianist and teacher until his death. 
He was a professor of the piano at 
the Royal Academy of Music. Bache 
was an ardent admirer of Liszt and 
was untiring in his effort to introduce 
that master's works in London by 
bringing out his compositions con- 
stantly at the concerts which he gave. 
Bache was instrumental in founding 
the Liszt scholarship at the Royal 
Academy of Music. 

Backer-Grondahl (bak'-er gron'-dal), 
Agathe Ursula. 1847- 

Norwegian woman composer of re- 
markable achievement, and a famous 
pianist. In a discussion of the three 
Scandinavian schools of music, A. E. 
Keeton gives her this high praise: "It 
is to the credit of Norway to possess 
a very remarkable woman composer, 
Agathe Backer Grondahl, whose 
merits are, with the general consent 
of her countrymen, placed upon a 
level with those of Grieg. Without 
being in any way an imitator, she has 
much the same quiet humor and 
drollery as Grieg. But the highest 
praise that one can bestow upon 
Agathe Backer-Grondahl is, perhaps, 
that her music is undoubtedly written 
by a woman. In this respect, her 
genius may be justly compared with 
that of Mrs. Browning or Madame 
Lebrun." She was born at Holme- 
strand, Norway, studied in her own 
country under Kjerulf and Lindemann, 




in Berlin took a protracted course at 
the celebrated KuUak academy and 
studied composition under Richard 
Wuerst. She then settled quietly in 
Christiania, devoting her time to 
teaching and composing with occa- 
sional appearances in local concerts. 
In 1871 she played at the Gewand- 
haus in Leipzic, went to Florence and 
there won von Billow's recognition of 
her exceptional talent; at Weimar 
delighted Liszt with her playing and 
for some time was under the influence 
of this master. In 1875 she was mar- 
ried to the celebrated singing teacher, 
Herr Grondahl of Christiania. Since 
her marriage she has made various 
successful tours through Scandinavia 
and played with very great success in 
London and Paris. As a teacher she 
is markedly successful and of wide 
influence. Her children have studied 
under her and are counted with her 
gifted pupils. She is the author of 
many songs and a great deal of music 
for the piano, and both as pianist and 
composer stands at the head of 
modern music in Norway. 

Baermann (bar'-man), Heinrich 
Joseph. 1784-1847. 

The Baermanns (Barmanns) were a 
remarkable family of musicians, Hein- 
rich, his brother, son, and grandson 
all attaining eminence in the world 
of music. Heinrich Joseph was a 
famous clarinet player, and his coin- 
positions for the clarinet are much 
esteemed by the players of today. He 
was on terms of intimacy with Meyer- 
beer and was a contemporary and 
friend of Karl Maria von Weber and 
Mendelssohn. Weber wrote for him 
several clarinet-concertos, and it was 
for Baermann that Mendelssohn 
wrote the duets for clarinet and 
basset-horn known as opus 113. Baer- 
mann was born at Potsdam, and 
attended the oboe school there. As a 
clarinettist he was given a place in the 
band of the Royal Guard, where his 
skill won the patronage of Prince 
Louis Ferdinand of Prussia. He 
appeared at the Prince's private con- 
certs, and received instruction from 
the royal chamber-musician. After 
the defeat of Jena, Baermann was one 
of the prisoners-of-war. On his 
release he returned to Berlin, and 
presently was given the appointment 
of clarinettist in the Court band at 
Munich. A series of concert tours, 
beg^n in 1808, made his name known 


throughout Europe. Also as a com- 
poser Baermann won many triumphs. 
On his death, which occurred at 
Munich, he left behind numerous com- 
positions, which are favorites with 
clarinet players of today. His brother 
Karl, 1782-1842, was a bassoon-player 
of renown. 

Baermann, Karl. 1820-1885. 

Son of the preceding, a clarinettist 
of note, and the author of excellent 
compositions for the clarinet and an 
excellent Clarinet Method. He was a 
pupil of liis father, accompanied him 
on his later concert tours, shared in 
his triumphs, and eventually succeeded 
to his father's place in the Munich 
Court Orchestra. From the time he 
was fourteen years old, he played in 
the Court band, and he was but 
eighteen when his father presented 
him to the world as a virtuoso of 
highest excellence. Karl Baermann 
gained enviable fame as a clarinettist. 
Grove speaks of him as a true scholar 
and successor of his father. 

Baermann, Karl jr. 1839- 

Son of preceding, contemporary 
pianist and teacher, has resided in the 
United States since 1881. He was 
born at Munich, into the fair in- 
heritance of his father and grand- 
father, early evinced marked musical 
ability and became a pupil of Liszt. 
He studied composition under Lach- 
ner, taught for a while in the music- 
school at Munich, and in 1881 came to 
Boston. Karl Baermann has been 
very successful in this country, where 
he is highly esteemed both as a player 
and teacher. He is also a composer, 
having written various pieces for the 

Baillot (bi-yo), Pierre Marie Francois 

de Sales. 1771-1842. 

Great French violin-player. He was 
the last representative of the great 
classical school of violin-playing in 
Paris. He showed great talent early. 
Studied first with an Italian, named 
Polidori, and afterwards with Sante- 
Marie at Paris. From this very 
thorough teacher he gained the solid 
foundation, which made him the great 
artist he afterward became. After the 
death of his father, in 1783, he was 
sent to Rome, to study the violin, by 
a wealthy Frenchman who had adopted 
him. At Rome he was a pupil of 
Pollani, who had studied with Nar- 
dini, and he made rapid progress, but 




for five years remained with his 
foster-father as secretary. In 1791 he 
made up his mind to put his musical 
knowledge to practical use and went 
to Paris, where he played first violin 
at the Theatre Feydeau, but resigned 
to accept a position in the Ministry 
of Finance, giving only his leisure 
time to the violin. In 1795, after a 
compulsory service for twenty months 
in the army, Baillot decided to be- 
come a professional musician. He 
worked diligently under Catel, Reicha 
and Cherubini and studied thoroughly 
the works of the great violin-masters. 
He soon became a musician of such 
a reputation that he was appointed 
professor of the violin in the Paris 
Conservatory. From 1805 until his 
death, he made many successful con- 
cert tours through the different Euro- 
pean countries. In 1821 he was made 
leader of the Grand Opera and, in 
1825, also violinist and leader of the 
Royal band. He produced a large 
number of compositions for the violin 
which are valuable for violin practice 
rather than as music. His Art for the 
Violin still ranks as a standard work. 
After the death of Baillot, the style of 
Paganini became the ruling influence 
in France and, since then the fol- 
lowers of the classic school of violin- 
playing are to be found only among 
the disciples of the German School. 

Baini (ba-e'-ne), Giuseppe. 1775-1844. 
Italian writer, composer and critic, 
who was born in a modern day, but 
who lived in the music of the past. 
Riemann says of him: "Baini was a 
strange phenomenon in our century; 
he lived and moved completely in the 
music of the Sixteenth Century, and 
understood nothing of the powerful 
development of the art which had 
since taken place. In his opinion, 
music had been going down hill since 
the death of Palestrina." Baini's life- 
work, and labor of love, is his famous 
monograph on the great Palestrina. 
He planned to publish the complete 
works of the Catholic Church's _ chief 
composer, whom he named II Principe 
della Musica, but lived only long 
enough to publish two volumes. Baini 
was born at Rome, entered into holy 
orders, and is commonly known as the 
Abbe Baini. He was the nephew and 
pupil of Lorenzo Baini, composer and 
maestro at the Church of the Twelve 
Apostles, Rome. His studies were 
completed under Jannaconi, the dis- 


tinguished composer of church music. 
As Baini possessed a beautiful voice, 
Jannaconi saw to his appointment in 
the pontifical choir. In 1817 Baini 
succeeded Jannaconi as maestro of St. 
Peter's ,and retained this post up to 
the time of his death. He wrote 
masses, motets, church - concertos, 
psalms, hymns and a Te Deum. His 
most important composition, and a 
famous one, is a Miserere, given in 
his time at the Sistine Chapel regu- 
larly during Holy Week. But little 
of his music has been published. 

Baker, Benjamin Franklin. 1811- 

American vocalist and music teacher. 
Born in Wenham, Mass. When he 
was eleven years old, his parents 
moved to Salem and at fourteen, he 
entered the choir of a Presbyterian 
Church in that city. After living in 
Boston from 1828 to 1833 he went to 
Bangor, Maine, where he went into 
business, but he still kept up his inter- 
est in music and in 1836 returned to 
Boston and studied with John Paddon, 
singing at the same time in a church 
choir. The next year he took charge 
of the music in Dr. Channing's church. 
In 1841 he succeeded Lowell Mason, 
as teacher of music, in the PubHc 
Schools of Boston and was chosen 
vice-president of the Handel and 
Haydn Society. During the six years 
that he held this position he appeared 
as soloist at many of the concerts. In 
1847 Mr. Baker began the work of 
establishing a school of music in Bos- 
ton. This work was finished in 1851, 
when the Boston Music School was 
founded, with Mr. Baker as principal 
and head of the vocal department. 
This school was an important factor 
in the development of music in the 
United States. It was closed in 1868 
and Mr. Baker retired from active 
work. Baker's compositions are en- 
tirely vocal. The best of them are 
two quartets, Stars of the Summer 
Night, and Death of Osceola; an Ave 
Maria; the three cantatas, The Storm 
King; The Burning Ship; and Camil- 
lus, the Roman Conqueror. He also 
wrote many other quartets, anthems 
and songs and a book on Thorough 
Bass and Harmony. 

Balakirev (ba-la-ke'-ref), Mily Alexe- 

jevitch. 1836- 

Modern Russian composer and 
pianist. He was born at Nijni- 
Novgorod and learned the first princi- 



pies of music from his mother. He 
received his education at the Uni- 
versity of Kazan, afterward returning 
to his native town, where he enjoyed 
the friendship of Alexander Ouli- 
bicheff, a retired diplomat, whose wide 
musical knowledge and fine musical 
library had much influence on Bala- 
kirev. He learned considerable about 
instrumentation from his practice with 
Oulibicheff's band and, better than 
this, became thoroughly filled with the 
spirit of the Russian folk-music. He 
settled in St. Petersburg, when about 
eighteen, pursuing his music study 
with great zeal and making his debut 
as a pianist there. Balakirev was at 
this time, completely enthused with 
the idea of the national spirit in 
music, which idea was greatly encour- 
aged and strengthened by his friend- 
ship with Glinka, whose national 
melodies were just becoming known 
and who hailed Balakirev as his dis- 
ciple and successor. Balakirev's fervor 
and intelligence soon drew about 
him a group of congenial spirits, of 
whom he was the leader and inspirer. 
This group, consisting of Cui, Mous- 
sorgsky, Rimsky-Korsakov and Boro- 
din, with Balakirev, founded prac- 
tically the new Russian school of 
national music, of which the Russian 
national spirit and Russian charac- 
teristics was the main idea. To this 
group of talented men, Balakirev was 
teacher and inspirer and he led them 
through a thorough course of musical 
study, taking up first the older masters 
and following with the more modern 
and, finally, the contemporary com- 
posers. In 1862, Balakirev, with the 
noted conductor Lomakin, founded 
the Free School of Music, in St. 
Petersburg, which did much for the 
advancement of musical education in 
Russia. At the concerts of this organ- 
ization, the works of his four asso- 
ciates, as well as those of other 
contemporary Russian composers, 
were given their first performance. In 
1866 and 1867, Balakirev conducted 
Glinka's operas at Prague and in 1869 
was appointed director of the Imperial 
Chapel and conductor of the Imperial 
Musical Society. 

In 1872 he retired entirely from 
public life and has become in his later 
years a religious fanatic, being ab- 
sorbed in some sort of mysticism. Bala- 
kirev's compositions are small in num- 
ber, but are very beautiful. They 
include a symphony; overtures on 


Russian, Czechish and Spanish themes; 
the symphonic poems, Russia and 
Tamara; music to King Lear; the 
Oriental fantasia, Islamey; beside 
about sixty exquisite and highly 
original songs. He also published 
four collections of songs, a series of 
twenty songs published between 1858 
and 1860, a book of ten songs printed 
a few years later, a collection of Rus- 
sian folk-songs in 1866 and thirty 
national songs. Balakirev's charac- 
teristics as a musician are summed up 
by his friend Cui, in these words: "A 
musician of the first rank, an in- 
exorable critic of his own works, 
thoroughly familiar with all music, 
ancient as well as modern, Balakirev 
is above all a symphonist. In vocal 
music he has written only twenty 
romances, but they are distinguished 
by broad and limpid melody, elegance 
of accompaniment, often also by pas- 
sion and abandon. Lyric beauty is 
everywhere in evidence. They are im- 
pulses of the heart, expressed by 
delicious music." 

Balatka (bal-at'-ka), Hans. 1872-1899. 

Born in Moravia. Began his musical 
studies as a choir boy. Studied har- 
mony, composition and singing in 
Vienna. On account of the Revolu- 
tion of 1848, he came to America and 
settled in Milwaukee, where in 1851 
he founded the Milwaukee Musik- 
verein (Musical Society) of which he 
was conductor for nine years. In 
1860, he was called to Chicago, as con- 
ductor of the Philharmonic Society. 
After the great fire of 1871 he went 
back to Milwaukee and was afterward 
for a time in St. Louis, but returned 
to Chicago and remained there until 
his death. During the latter part of 
his life he organized the Liederkranz 
Society and the Mozart Club and was 
also conductor of the Chicago Sym- 
phony Society. Mr. Balatka was a 
fine performer on the doublebass, 
violoncello, violin, guitar and piano 
and was also an excellent composer. 
Beside about twenty orchestral works, 
quartets and choruses and many songs, 
he wrote a Festival Cantata, and a 
double chorus for male voices, The 
Power of Song, which received first 
prize at the Cincinnati Saengerfest in 
1856. Mr. Balatka did much to pro- 
mote a taste for good music in Chi- 
cago and vicinity. He also conducted 
numerous musical festivals in dif- 
ferent parts of the United States. 



Balfe (balf), Michael William. 1808- 

Irish dramatic composer, barytone 
singer and violinist. He was born at 
Dublin. Showed great talent for 
music at a very early age, beginning 
to take lessons on the violin before 
he was three. At the age of seven he 
was able to score a polka composed 
by himself for a band. At the age of 
nine he composed a ballad, Young 
Fanny, which is even now remarkable 
for its melody. It was afterwards 
sung in the comedy, Paul Pry. After 
the death of his father, in 1832, he 
went to London, where he became a 
pupil of C. E. Horn and played in the 
orchestra of Drury Lane Theatre. He 
also appeared on the stage in a version 
of Der Freischiitz, but was unsuc- 
cessful. At the age of seventeen, 
Balfe went with a wealthy patron to 
Italy, where he studied composition 
at Rome with Paer and later on sing- 
ing in Milan under Galli and Federici. 
At this time he did his first work as a 
dramatic composer, producing a ballet 
called La Perouse, which was very 
favorably received. In 1821, after he 
had studied for a time with Bordogni, 
he sang under Rossini, as first bary- 
tone, at the Italian Opera, Paris, 
where he made a successful debut as 
Figaro in the Barber of Seville. Re- 
turning to Italy in 1829 he produced 
his first opera, I Rivali di se stessi. 
This is said to have been written in 
twenty days, and was quickly followed 
by two other Italian operas. He mar- 
ried Lina Rosen, the Hungarian vo- 
calist, and sang in Italy and Paris until 
1835, when he went to London and 
produced the Siege of Rochelle. This 
opera was a great success, running 
continuously for three months. Fol- 
lowing this came The Maid of 
Artois, with its beautiful and popular 
song. The Light of Other Days. Be- 
tween 1837 and 1841 he produced his 
Joan of Arc; Catherine Grey; Falstaff; 
and Diadeste; also singing in opera at 
Drury Lane and in Ireland. About 
1840, Balfe became manager of the 
Lyceum Theatre, producing his Keo- 
lanthe as the opening piece. This 
venture proving unsuccessful, Balfe 
visited Paris, where he was most 
favorably received and where he pro- 
duced in French the operas known in 
English as Geraldine, and The Castle 
of Aymon. Returning to England, he 
brought out, in 1843, The Bohemian 

Girl, the most successful of all his 
operas. This opera was translated into 
Italian, French and German. From 
1845 to 1852 he was conductor of Her 
Majesty's Theatre. During this time 
he made visits to Vienna, Berlin, 
Trieste and St. Petersburg, bringing 
out operas and making large amounts 
of money. From 1852 until his death 
he was occupied with composition. 
Balfe was a most prolific composer, 
producing over thirty operas beside 
cantatas, glees, ballads and part-songs. 
Among his best known operas are 
The Siege of Rochelle; Maid of 
Artois; Satanella; Bianca; The Puri- 
tan's Daughter; Sicilian Bride; Rose 
of Castile; and the most popular of 
all, The Bohemian Girl, which has 
been sung all over the world. Balfe 
was made Chevalier of the Legion of 
Honor by the French Emperor and 
Commander of the Order of Carlos 
Third by the Regent of Spain and 
was offered the decoration of the 
Prussian Eagle, by the King of Prus- 
sia, but being a British subject was 
not able to accept it. After his death, 
a tablet with his portrait in medallion, 
was unveiled in Westminster Abbey 
and in 1874 a statue to his memory 
was placed in the vestibule of Drury 
Lane Theatre. 

Baltzar (balt-tsar), Thomas. About 
Famous German violinist, whose 

name sometimes appears as Balsart. 
He won his reputation in England, and 
is buried in the cloisters of West- 
minster Abbey. Baltzar was born at 
Liibeck about 1630, and came to Eng- 
land in 1656. He enjoys the distinc- 
tion of being the first great performer 
on the violin heard in England. To 
the people of the country his art 
seemed touched with magic. Speaking 
of Baltzar's celerity of execution, 
Anthony Wood wrote: "... 
nor any in England saw the like 
before . . . Wilson, thereupon, 
the greatest judge of music that ever 
was, did . . . stoop down to Balt- 
zar's feet to see whether he had a 
hufif on; that is to say, to see whether 
he was a devil or not, because he 
acted beyond the parts of man." Wil- 
son also bears witness that the vio- 
linist was so popular and that so many 
people delighted in drinking with him 
and making him drink, that he was 
"by drinking brought to his grave." 
Baltzar early made a reputation in 




England, and at the restoration of the 
Stuarts was placed at the head of 
Charles II.'s band of twenty-four vio- 
lins. He appears in the Westminster 
register as "Mr. Thomas Balsart, one 
of the violins in the King's service." 
He was the best violinist of his day, 
and one of the founders of classical 
violin-playing. The works he left 
consist largely of suites for strings. 

*Baltzell, Winton James. 1864- 

Contemporary American composer, 
teacher and editor. He was born near 
Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, attended 
school in Harrisburg, and continued 
his education at Lebanon Valley Col- 
lege, Annsville, Pennsylvania. He 
holds the degree of Bachelor of Music 
from the University of Pennsylvania. 
His musical training was received at 
the New England Conservatory, Bos- 
ton; under Dr. H. A. Clarke, in Phila- 
delphia; and in London he studied 
with Dr. T. F. Bridge and William 
Shakespeare. He taught singing and 
theory in Reading, Pennsylvania, had 
charge of the Department of Music at 
Lebanon Valley College, The Albright 
Collegiate Institute, Myerstown, Penn- 
sylvania, and the Ohio Wesleyan Uni- 
versity. Mr. Baltzell has served as 
musical critic with the publishing 
house of Theodore Presser and as 
editor of The Etude. At present he 
is editor of The Musician and musical 
critic with the Oliver Ditson Com- 
pany. He is the author of a number 
of songs and other works. In 1906 he 
published the text-book, A Complete 
History of Music. Rupert Hughes, in 
his Contemporary American Compos- 
ers, speaks in high praise of the pub- 
lished and unpublished music of 
Baltzell, mentioning, among other 
pieces, the part-song. Life is a 
Flower; the song, Desire; the setting 
to E. C. Stedman's Thou Art Mine; 
and a series of songs to words by 
Richard Watson Gilder. 

Banchieri (ban-ki-a'-re), A d r i a n o. 
About 1567-1634. 

Italian composer, theorist, organist 
and poet. He was born at Bologna, 
and died in the convent of San Ber- 
nardo at Bologna. Concerning the 
year of his birth, biographers are in 
doubt, but it was about 1567. He 
wrote music for both church and 
theatre, masses, sacred concertos, 
madrigals, and canzonets. He was 
great also in the department of theory, 


and has left behind several theoretical 
pamphlets, L'Organo Suonarino being 
perhaps the most important. In his 
Cartella Musicale is put forth a proj- 
ect for the founding of an academy 
of science and art in his monastery at 
Bologna. He was organist of S. 
Michele in Bosca, near Bologna, was 
organist of Santa Maria in Regolo, 
and at Monte Oliveto became abbot. 
This man of varied distingniished at- 
tainments wrote comedies. These 
were written under the name of Ca- 
millo Scaligeri della Fratta. 

Banister, Henry Charles. 1831-1897. 

English, composer, pianist and writer 
on musical subjects. Son and pupil 
of Henry Joshua Banister, a London 
violoncellist. Studied in the Royal 
Academy of Music and won the King's 
Scholarship in 1846 and 1848. In 1851 
he became assistant professor, and in 
1853 full professor of harmony and 
composition at the Royal Academy of 
Music. From 1880 until his death, he 
was professor at the Guildhall School 
of Music and professor of harmony at 
the Royal Normal College for the 
Blind. He was also a member of the 
Philharmonic Society. Banister was 
for many years a familiar figure in the 
musical life of London. During the 
latter part of his life he devoted him- 
self chiefly to musical literature. His 
compositions consist of symphonies; 
overtures; piano pieces; and cantatas, 
the most important of which are. The 
Sea Fairies, and The Maiden's Holi- 
day; also many songs; part-songs; 
chants and anthems. His lectures on 
musical subjects, delivered from 1891 
to 1897, have been published under 
the title of Interludes. His most im- 
portant work was in theory, as shown 
by the fact that his Text-book of 
Music, published in London in 1872, 
went through eleven editions. He also 
wrote Musical Art and Study; The 
Harmonizing of Melodies; and A Life 
of Sir George Macfarren. 

Banister, John. 1630-1679. 

English violinist and composer. 
Banister's father was one of the 
"waits," and he himself followed that 
profession in his early days. Under 
the instruction of his father, he at- 
tained such proficiency on the violin 
as to attract the attention of the King, 
Charles II., who sent him to France 
to advance his education, and, on his 
return, appointed him leader of the 




royal band. In 1672 Banister started 
a series of concerts at his own house, 
and established the first lucrative con- 
certs given in London. These con- 
certs were continued up to a short 
time before his death. Banister wrote 
a number of short pieces for the 
violin and wrote also for the lute; 
some vocal compositions; and in con- 
nection with the great lute-player, Pel- 
ham Humphrey, wrote music to The 
Tempest. His music to the tragedy 
of Circe is his most important com- 
position. Banister was buried in the 
cloisters of Westminster Abbey. 

Banister, John. About 1663-1735. 

Son of preceding. An English vio- 
linist, born about 1663. He received 
his instruction from his father, at- 
tained to considerable eminence as a 
player, under the monarchs, Charles 
n., James II., and Anne, and was a 
member of the royal band. When 
operas were first performed at Drury 
Lane, he played first violin. His name 
stands forth as contributor to the 
earliest printed book for the violin 
gotten out in England, and there_ was 
published a small collection of pieces 
composed by him for the theatre in 
association with the Austrian violinist 
and composer, Godfrey Finger. 

Banti (ban-te j6r-je), Brigitta Giorgi. 


Noted Italian singer. In her youth 
she was a street-singer in Crema, her 
native town and was said to be the 
daughter of a Venetian gondolier. At 
the age of nineteen she went to Paris, 
earning her way by singing at the 
inns and cafes that she passed. At 
Paris she was discovered by the man- 
ager of the Opera, was engaged and 
appeared at once, making a great sen- 
sation. She made her debut in a song, 
between the acts of an opera. After 
singing in Paris for some time she was 
engaged by the managers of the 
Pantheon, London, for three seasons, 
on condition that a certain sum from 
her salary should be retained, to pro- 
vide lessons for her in vocal culture. 
She proved a very poor pupil, however, 
being careless and indifferent and 
never learning to read by sight, but, 
in spite of her lack of training, she 
was very successful and was received 
with great enthusiasm in Italy, Ger- 
many and England, her magnificent 
voice and ability as an actress, making 
her a great favorite wherever she ap- 

peared. Two of her most striking 
successes were in Gluck's opera, Al- 
ceste, and in Bianchi's Inez de Castro. 
She also appeared in comic opera, 
being particularly successful in Pai- 
siello's Serva Padrona. Her voice, 
which had a wonderful compass was 
even throughout and very rich. It 
could almost be called a voice without 
a flaw. 

*Bantock, Granville. 1868- 

One of the leading of the younger 
English composers, who belongs to 
a group that stands for originality in 
idea and expression, as opposed to 
the conservatism and formality of the 
older musicians. He was born in Lon- 
don and was intended for the Indian 
Civil Service and for scientific work. 
He did not begin the study of music 
until his twenty-first year, when he 
entered Trinity College, London. The 
same year he became a student at the 
Royal Academy of Music and was 
the first winner of the Macfarrcn 
scholarship for composition. He 
composed a great deal while at the 
academy and a number of his works 
were given at the concerts there. 
From 1893 to 1896 he was editor of 
the New Quarterly Musical Review. 
During 1894 and 1895 he was con- 
ductor for the Gaiety Company on a 
tour around the world, including 
America and Australia. In 1896, Mi*. 
Bantock gave a concert at Queen's 
Hall, London, the program of which 
consisted entirely, of compositions 
by the younger and more radical 
English musicians. These composi- 
tions were all in manuscript and were 
all performed for the first time. The 
composers represented were the late 
Erskine AUon, Reginald Steggall, 
Arthur Hinton, William Wallace, 
Stanley Hawley and Granville Ban- 
tock himself. From 1897 to 1900, Mr. 
Bantock was musical director at The 
Tower, New Brighton. In 1900 he 
became principal of the Birmingham 
and Midland Institute School of 
Music, which position, with that of 
conductor of the Liverpool Orches- 
tral Society, to which he was ap- 
pointed in 1903, he still holds. In 
1898 he founded the New Brighton 
Choral Society and was made con- 
ductor of the Runcorn Philharmonic 
Society. He conducted a concert of 
British music at Antwerp, in 1900, at 
which a number of his own works 
were given their first performance. 




Among these was a symphonic poem, 
Jaga-Naut. This was from a pro- 
jected series of twenty-four sym- 
phonic poems founded on Southey's 
Curse of Kehama. A number of this 
series were completed and published, 
but with increase of work the idea 
was finally given up and Two Orien- 
tal Scenes, are all that was allowed 
to remain of the work. Among Ban- 
tock's choral and vocal works are: 
The Fire Worshippers, a dramatic 
cantata; the one-act operas Caedmar, 
and The Pearl of Iran; Omar Kha3'- 
yam, in three parts; Ferishtah's Fan- 
cies; and Five Ghazals of Hafiz. 
These are all Oriental in spirit and 
show much richness of melody. Other 
vocal works are: Thorvenda's Dream; 
The Time Spirit; Christ in the Wild- 
erness; Sea Wanderers; Sappho; Jes- 
ter Songs; and Rameses II., a five-act 
drama, both drama and incidental 
music being by Bantock. The most 
important of his orchestral works 
are: Tone Poem, No. 1, Thalaba the 
Destroyer; Symphonic Overture Saul; 
variations Helena; Two Suites, 
Russian Scenes and English Scenes; 
and an overture to Eugene Aram, an 
unfinished opera. Mr. Bantock has 
also written a quartet in C minor 
for strings; a serenade in F for four 
horns; fourteen piano pieces; .(Egypt, 
a ballet in three acts; and many 
songs. In 1907, Mr. Bantock pub- 
lished, God Save the King, for chorus 
and orchestra. Many of his works 
have been produced at the festivals 
of the principal English cities. Mr. 
Bantock's musical settings are always 
worthy of the great literary produc- 
tions which he uses and he is noted 
for his depth of idea and his mental 
energy. His favorite recreations are 
chess and the collecting of Japanese 

Barbaja (bar-ba'-ya), Domenico. 


A famous Italian impresario. Un- 
der his direction many of Rossini's 
operas and several of Bellini's and 
Donizetti's were presented. He wa^ 
opera manager in the cities of Vienna, 
Milan and Naples. Barbaja rose to a 
place of much importance in the world 
of music, and to great popularity, from 
a very humble beginning. Hecame of 
a poor family in Milan, in his youth 
serving as a waiter in a coffee-house 
in that city. Later he is heard of as 


manager of a riding-circus in England, 
and then as lessee and director of 
theatres in Naples. From 1821 to 1828 
he had direction of two theatres at the 
Austrian capital, and while impresario 
in Vienna there appeared under his 
management the very best talent uf 
the time. He introduced Rossini to 
the Viennese; Bellini's first opera was 
brought out by Barbaja in Naples, 
and his second opera produced in 
Milan under Barbaja's management. 
In Milan, the city where once he 
served as waiter in a coffee-house, he 
found himself manager of the well- 
known theatre. La Scala, He was 
also manager of the famous San Carlo 
at Naples. His association with the 
brilliant composer, Rossini, is thus 
spoken of by Emil Naumann in his 
History of Music: "In the year 1815 
Rossini had entered into an agreement 
with Barbaja, an enterprising impre- 
sario at Naples, who had perceived 
what a source of wealth would be 
open to him through the talent of the 
gifted composer. By this contract, 
Barbaja had the sole right of pro- 
ducing the master's operas, supplying 
him with libretti and performers, an 
agreement which suited the taste of 
the indolent maestro." The famous 
impresario died at Posilipo, Oct. 16, 

Barbi (bar-be), Alice. 1860- 

Italian vocalist and also poet. Born 
at Bologna. She inherited her musical 
talent, which developed very early. 
She studied the violin first, but later 
took up vocal work under several 
teachers, Vannuccini being the last. 
She made her debut at Milan, in 1882, 
and shortly afterwards appeared most 
successfully at Rome. She is one of 
the very few Italian singers who have 
devoted themselves exclusively to 
concert work. She has been very 
favorably received in Germany and 
Russia, and especially in England, 
where she has given many recitals. 
She revived, in her concerts, many 
melodies by the old Italian masters, 
also including those of the best song- 
writers of all nationalities. She is 
also a very fine linguist and a poet 
of more than ordinary ability, a num- 
ber of her poems having been set to 
music. After her marriage, Barbi 
retired permanently from the concert 
stage and has not since appeared in 



Barbiere (bar-bi-a'-re), Francisco 
Asenjo. 1823-1894. 

Spanish opera composer. Born in 
Madrid and studied tlie piano, singing 
and composition in the Conservatory 
there. After traveling as a member of 
an Italian opera company, through 
northern Spain, -he began composing in 
1847, and became secretary of a society 
for the promotion of Spanish Opera, 
as opposed to Italian Opera and was 
for the rest of his life a zealous woiker 
for the development of a national 
opera. In 1850 he produced an 
operetta, Gloria y Peluca, and in 1851, 
Jugar con Fuego, the first of his 
Spanish w^ork. Both of these were 
wonderfully successful and established 
Barbiere as the most popular com- 
poser of Spain. He wrote in all about 
seventy-five operas and was beside a 
fine teacher and a musical critic of 

Bargiel (bar'-gel), Woldemar. 1828- 


German composer and teacher. 
Born in Berlin, where his father was 
a music teacher, his mother being the 
divorced wife of Friedrich Weick, thus 
making him the step-brother of Clara 
Schumann. He studied the piano, 
organ and violin with his father, and 
in 1846 went to Leipsic, where he 
spent two years in the Conservatory, 
at that time under the direction of 
Mendelssohn. While at Leipsic he 
composed an octet for strings, which 
brought him into notice. In 1850 he 
returned to Berlin, where he remained 
for nine years, becoming well known 
as a teacher and composer. He was 
appointed professor in the Conserva- 
tory of Cologne in 1859 and in 1865 
was made director of the music school 
at Rotterdam. In 1874 he became 
professor at the Hochschule fiir 
Musik in Berlin; in 1875, a member 
of the senate of the Academy of Arts; 
and in 1882, President of the Meister- 
schule fur Musikalische Komposition. 
Bargiel, as a composer, was a follower 
of Schumann and his compositions 
entitle him to a high place among 
modern German musicians. His best 
known works are his overtures, 
Medea; Romeo and Juliet; and 
Prometheus; his Symphony in C; 
three Danses brillantes for orchestra; 
an Intermezzo for the orchestra; sev- 
eral songs for chorus; also works for 
the piano, for piano and violin, and 

Barker, Charles Spackman. 1806-1879. 

A farnous English organ-builder. 
He was intended for the medical pro- 
fession, but became interested in 
watching the erection of an organ 
under the direction of Bishop, the 
celebrated London builder, and de- 
cided to become an organ-builder 
himself. After a period of instruction 
under Bishop, he established himself 
in the town of Bath, his birthplace. 
Pondering on the difficulties experi- 
enced by players in overcoming the 
resistance of the keys. Barker thought 
out a way by which the resistance 
might be lessened, and brought forth 
the invention of the pneumatic lever. 
This invention received little consid- 
eration from English builders to 
whom it was offered, and in 1837 
Baker journeyed to Paris, and pre- 
sented himself to the celebrated organ- 
builder, Cavaille-Col. The worth of 
the invention was immediately recog- 
nized, and it was at once adopted. In 
France it was soon put to use in vari- 
ous large organs, but came into use 
in England very gradually. Barker, 
in 1839, took out a patent for the 
pneurnatic lever, and later a patent for 
electric action. In France, where he 
remained till 1870, he repaired and 
built many organs. At the Paris Ex- 
hibition of 1855 a gold medal was 
bestowed upon him and the Cross of 
the Legion of Honor. The war caus- 
ing him to leave France, he went to 
Dublin, and in this period built organs 
for cathedrals at Cork and Dublin. 
Barker's invention of the pneumatic 
lever brought about a revolution in 
the whole art of organ building. 

Barnard, Mrs. Charles (pen name, 

Claribel). 1830-1869. 

English song-writer. Her maiden 
name was Charlotte Alington. In 
1854 she married Mr. C. C. Barnard. 
After 1858 she published many popu- 
lar ballads under the name of Clairbel, 
among the best known being Come 
Back to Erin; and We'd Better Bide 
a Wee. She also wrote quartets, trios, 
duets and some light piano music and 
published some volumes of poems. 

Barnby, Sir Joseph. 1831-1896. 

English organist, conductor and 
composer. Showed great talent for 
music early. Sang in the choir of 
York Minster when seven, began 
teaching at ten, was an organist at 
twelve and musicmaster at a school 




at fourteen. At sixteen he entered 
the Royal Academy of Music, where 
he studied for two years, after which 
he was organist, successively, of a 
number of different churches. In 1867, 
Barnby's Choir was estabHshed. This 
choir gave oratorio concerts from 
1869 to 1872, when it was united with 
Gounod's Choir, under the name of 
the Royal Albert Hall Choral Society. 
It is now known as the Royal Choral 
Society. From 1875 to 1892 Barnby 
was precentor of Eton, in which posi- 
tion he had great influence on the 
musical education and taste of the 
upper classes. He conducted the Lon- 
don Musical Society from 1878 to 
1886, and the Royal Academy of Music 
concerts from 1886 to 1888. In 1892 
he was elected principal of the Guild- 
hall School of Music. For fifteen 
years, from 1861 to 1876, Barnby was 
musical adviser to the music-pubhsh- 
ing firm of Novello. In 1892, he was 
knighted and in the same year he con- 
ducted the Cardiff Festival. Barnby's 
compositions consist of an oratorio, 
Rebekah; a psalm. The Lord is King; 
a large number of services, anthems, 
part-songs, pieces for the organ, many 
songs and two hundred and fifty 
hymns. Barnby's beautiful arrange- 
ment of Sweet and Low is well known 
and is a great favorite. He intro- 
duced more new and great musical 
works to the English people than any 
other musician, 

Bamett, John. 1802-1890. 

Noted English dramatic composer, 
vocal teacher and song-writer. Al- 
though he was born in England, his 
mother was a Hungarian and his 
father a Prussian, belonging to the 
same family as Meyerbeer, whose 
name Bernhard Beer was changed to 
Barnett Barnett, when he settled in 
England. The son showed unusual 
musical abilty very early and on ac- 
count of his fine voice, was placed, at 
the age of eleven, under the care of 
F. J. Arnold, proprietor of the Lyceum, 
who provided him musical instruction 
in return for his services as a singer. 
While under Arnold he composed a 
mass and some light pieces, one of 
which. The Groves of Pomona, was 
published and favorably spoken of. 
After finishing with Arnold, he studied 
the piano and harmony with Perez 
Ries. His first dramatic composition 
was the musical farce, Before Break- 
fast, produced at the Lyceum, in 1825, 


and which was highly successful. In 
1832, Barnett became music-director 
of the Olympic Theatre, for which he 
wrote a large number of musical 
dramas. In 1834 he published a fine 
collection of beautiful songs, called 
Lyrical Illustrations of the Poets, and 
a little later. Songs of the Minstrels 
and Amusement for Leisure Hours. 
In this same year, one of his best 
works, an opera. The Mountain Sylph, 
was produced at the Lyceum with the 
greatest success. After spending some 
time in Paris, Barnett returned to 
London and brought out his opera, 
Fair Rosamond, which was not suc- 
cessful, though containing much beau- 
tiful music. He was married in 1837 
and went with his wife to Frankfort, 
to study harmony and composition. 
A symphony and two quartets, which 
have never been published, were writ- 
ten while in Frankfort. In 1838 he 
returned to London, where, in 1839, 
he produced his opera, Farinelli, 
which is probably his best work. At 
this time he joined Morris Barnett in 
an attempt to found an English Opera 
House but the venture was not a suc- 
cess. Barnett settled at Cheltenham, 
in 1841, as a vocal teacher and built 
up a large business. In the latter 
part of his life he spent some years 
in Germany and Italy for the purpose 
of educating his children, but he died 
in England in 1890. Beside the works 
already mentioned Barnett wrote 
about twenty dramatic musical pieces; 
five operas; an oratorio, The Omni- 
presence of the Deity; also two un- 
finished oratorios; a symphony; two 
string quartets; and about four thou- 
sand songs. While at Cheltenham, he 
pubhshed a pamphlet called, Systems 
and Singing Masters, and also a 
School for the Voice. The production 
of his opera. The Mountain Sylph, is 
said to have been the commencement 
of an English dramatic school of 

* Barnett, John Francis. 1837- 

A gifted English composer and 
pianist. Son of the late Joseph Alfred 
Barnett, professor of singing. His 
first teacher on the piano was his 
mother, who had been a pupil oi 
Sterndale Bennett, and with her he 
studied until he was placed under Dr. 
Wylde. When fourteen years old he 
won the King's Scholarship at the 
Royal Academy of Music, and two 
years later he won the same scholar- 




ship again. He appeared in public for 
the first time at the New Philhar- 
monic concert, in 1853, when he 
played Mendelssohn's Concerto in D 
minor, the celebrated Spohr being 
the conductor. In 1856 he went to 
Germany and, after studying privately 
with Hauptmann for several months, 
entered the Leipsic Conservatory, 
where he continued his contrapuntal 
work with Hauptmann, studied com- 
position with Julius Rietz and the 
piano with Moscheles and Plaidy. 
After two years at Leipsic he was 
engaged to play a piano concerto at 
the Gewandhaus concerts. After re- 
turnmg to London he taught the 
piano in the London Academy of 
Music and in 1883, was appointed 
professor in the Royal Academy of 
Music. He began composing in 1864 
with a symphony and a little later, at 
the request of the committee for the 
Birmingham Festival, he produced a 
cantata. The Ancient Mariner. This, 
with Paradise and the Peri, which 
he wrote for the same committee in 
1870, were very successful and have 
been performed many times. His 
orchestral suite. The Lay of the Last 
Minstrel was produced at the Liver- 
pool Festival in 1874. His oratorio. 
The Raising of Lazarus, which he 
composed in 1873, was perhaps his 
most important work. Other suc- 
cessful productions were his overture 
to Shakespeare's Winter's Tale; his 
oratorio, The Good Shepherd; the can- 
tatas, The Building of the Ship, and 
the Wishing Bell. Since 1880, Mr. Bar- 
nett was written the following works 
for the piano; Musical Landscapes; 
Home Scenes; Sonata in E Minor; 
The Flowing Tide; The Dream 
Maiden; and Valse Brillante. Be- 
side these he wrote the pastoral 
suite. The Harvest Festival; and sev- 
eral other orchestral pieces; other 
part-songs and many songs. Mr. 
Barnett is at present a professor at 
the Royal College of Music and the 
Guildhall School of Music. In the 
auturnn of 1906 he brought out his 
autobiography, on which he had been 
employed for nearly three years. It 
is entitled Musical Reminiscences and 

Barry, Charles Ainslie. 1830- 

_ English writer and composer, con- 
sidered of advanced views. Charles 
Barry was born in London, and edu- 


cated at Rugby and Cambridge. He 
studied music under Walmisley, and 
later worked at the Cologne Conserv- 
atory and also at Leipsic and 
Dresden. His writings on the com- 
positions of the advanced school of 
music are authoritative. For several 
years he was editor of the Monthly 
Musical Record, and in 1886 was 
secretary of the Liszt Scholarship 
Fund. He is the author of several 
songs and pieces for the piano; a 
Festival March; a symphony; and 
other orchestral pieces. 

Barth (bart), Karl Heinrich. 1847- 

A German pianist. He is noted for 
his interpretation of classical music 
and holds a high place as an ensemble 
player. He was born at Pilau, Prus- 
sia, the son of a teacher, and re- 
ceived his first instruction from his 
father, beginning the piano when he 
was only four years old. He studied 
under Steinmann, in Potsdam, and in 
Berlin was a pupil of von Biilow. 
Bronsart, also, was one of his 
teachers, and for a short time he re- 
ceived instruction from Tausig. At 
the age of twenty-one, he was 
appointed a teacher in the Stern Con- 
servatory at Berlin, and three years 
later became professor at the Berlin 
Hochschule. In England and Ger- 
many he has enjoyed great success on 
concert tours. The Trio-Concerts 
given by Barth, the celebrated vio- 
linist De Ahna, and the celebrated 
violoncellist Hausmann, won well- 
deserved renown. Herr Barth held 
the position of pianist to the Emperor 

Barth, Richard. 1850- 

German violinist and director. In 
his youth he suffered an accident to 
his left hand that made it difficult for 
him to continue the career of violin- 
ist on which he was started, but with 
an adapted violin he learned to finger 
with the right hand and bow with the 
left, and in spite of disadvantages he 
became a violin virtuoso. He was 
born at Grosswanzleben in Saxonj', 
studied at Magdeburg, and for four 
years was under Joachim. He held 
the post of University Music Director 
at Marburg, and later became con- 
ductor of the Philharmonic concerts 
at Hamburg and the Singakademie 
in that city. He is the author of 
songs and several quartets for strmgs. 



Barth€lemon (bar-ta-lu-mon), Fran- 
gois Hippolyte. 1741-1808. 

Violinist and composer, of French 
and Irish parentage. He was born 
at Bordeaux, his father being a 
French officer and his mother an 
Irish lady. While serving as an 
officer in the Irish Brigade, Barthele- 
mon came under the influence of the 
Earl of Kelly, who persuaded him to 
change the career of soldier for that 
of musician; a fortunate change, for 
he became one of the most noted 
violinists of his time and a very suc- 
cessful composer. Called to be leader 
of the opera in London, he settled in 
England in 1765 and most of his 
professional life was spent in that 
country. In 1776 he married a 
singer. Miss Mary Young, who 
accompanied him on his professional 
tours. They made a tour through 
Germany, Italy and France, in 1766 
and 1777, and in 1784 visited Dublin. 
Barthelemon is the author of songs, 
duos and concertos for the violin, 
various quartets for stringed instru- 
ments, organ preludes, and studies for 
the piano. He wrote the music for 
the oratorio Jefte in Masfa; the 
operas Pelopida, and Le Fleuve 
Scamandre; and the music for several 
dramatic pieces. He set to music the 
well-known hymn, Awake, My Soul. 

Bartholomew, Mrs. Ann Shepard 
(Mounsey). 1811-1891. 

An English composer, organist and 
pianist. Born in London and studied 
there under J. B. Logier. Attracted 
the attention of the musician Spohr, 
when he visited London and is men- 
tioned in his autobiography. After 
1828 she was organist at several Lon- 
don churches, at the last of which, 
St. Vedast's, Foster Lane, she re- 
mained nearly fifty years. In 1834 
she became an associate of the Phil- 
harmonic Society and in 1839 a mem- 
ber of the Royal Society of Musicians. 
From 1843 until 1848 she gave a 
series of classical sacred concerts, at 
one of which, Mendelssohn's Hear 
My Prayer, was given for the first 
time. In 1853, Miss Mounsey was 
married to William Bartholomew, a 
musical writer and critic, well known 
by his adaptations of Mendelssohn's 
works. After her marriage Mrs. 
Bartholomew was in London, teach- 
ing the organ, piano and harmony, 
and engaged in composition. Her 
works are an oratorio. The Nativity; 


a sacred cantata. Supplication and 
Thanksgiving; Sacred Harmony, con- 
sisting of a large number of sacred 
compositions and hymns; also many 
part-songs and songs and pieces for 
the organ and piano. 

Bartlett, Homer Newton. 1845- 

American organist, pianist and 
composer. His musical talent de- 
veloped very early. At the age of 
five he played on the violin and 
appeared in concerts at nine. Began 
studying music in earnest at sixteen 
and worked for over seven years. 
Has been organist in several churches 
in New York and vicinity. Is now 
organist of the Madison Avenue 
Baptist Church of New York. His 
compositions and arrangements, which 
are over two hundred in number con- 
sist of orchestral works, pieces for 
the organ, piano and violin, cantatas, 
an unpublished opera and oratorio, 
and quartets, anthems and songs. His 
best known works are probably his 
Grande Polka de Concert and the 
cantatas. The Last Chieftain, and 
Autumn Violets. 

Basili (ba-ze'-le), Francesco. 1766- 

Italian composer and chapelmas- 
ter. His father was chapelmaster 
at Loreto, and he also was a com- 
poser. Francesco was born at Lor- 
eto, and on the death of his father 
went to Rome to continue the 
study of music. In Rome he was a 
pupil of the famous church composer 
and papal chapelmaster, Jannaconi. 
While still very young, Basili became 
chapelmaster at Foligno, and later 
was conductor at Macerata and 
Loreto. In 1827, he was appointed 
director of the Milan Conservatory, 
and in 1837 was called to St. Peter's, 
Rome, as chapelmaster, a post he 
held thirteen years, the remainder of 
his life. Basili wrote many and 
various compositions; much church 
music, psalms, motets, masses, a 
Miserere, an oratorio, and a Requiem 
for Jannaconi, and other works; sym- 
phonies; songs; and music for the 
piano; and was the author of many 
operas. Biographers are given to 
dwelling on the fact that Basili, while 
director of the Milan Conservatory, 
refused admission to Verdi, on the 
ground that the latter lacked the 
special aptitude requisite for the gift 
of a scholarship. 





Bateson, Thomas. 

English musician and organist. 
Noted for his madrigals. The dates 
of his birth and death are unknown 
and nothing can be found of his early- 
history. He became organist of 
Chester Cathedral probably, in 1599, 
and sometime between 1608 and 1611 
went to Ireland, where he was made 
organist to Christ's Church Cathedral, 
DubHn. He received the degree of 
Bachelor of Music from Dublin Uni- 
versity and is supposed to have been 
its first musical graduate. Bateson 
is known entirely by his madrigals, 
though he also wrote sacred music. 
His First Set of English Madrigals 
for three, four, five and six voices was 
published in 1604 and the Second 
Set of Madrigals in 1618. He also 
published a Set of Madrigals in praise 
of Queen Elizabeth. These madrigals 
gave Bateson a high place among 
composers of his time. 

Batiste (ba-test), Antoine Edouard. 

French organist and composer. Son 
of Batiste, the well-known comedian. 
Studied at the Paris Conservatory 
and while there gained eight prizes. 
Before he finished his course at the 
Conservatory he was appointed 
deputy professor of the Solfeggio 
Class, afterward being professor of 
the Male Choral Class and of the 
Joint Singing Class. From 1842 until 
his death he was organist in Paris 
churches. His compositions for the 
organ consist of offertories, sonatas, 
fugues, fantasias and voluntaries. He 
also wrote piano music and songs. 
Batiste was considered one of the 
best of modern performers on the 
organ. His compositions, although 
somewhat showy, are considered very 
good. He was very clever in pro- 
ducing orchestral effects on the organ. 
His most substantial work, however, 
was as a teacher and writer. His 
works on harmony and method and 
his diagrams for reading music are 
especially good. 

Battishill, Jonathan. 1738-1801. 

English composer and organist. At 
the age of nine he became a chorister 
in St. Paul's Cathedral, under Wil- 
liam Savage, and was later his pupil. 
He became one of the best performers 
on the organ in the country and in 
1764 became organist of several 
united London parishes. Battishill 

composed with Michael Arne the 
music for the opera of Almena and 
in the same year, 1764, produced 
alone the music for a pantomime. The 
Rites of Hecate. He also wrote much 
church music, many glees, catches 
and songs and many hymns and 
psalm tunes. Battishill's church music 
was considered among the best of his 
time and is especially marked for its 
strength and vigor. One of Battis- 
hill's popular songs was Kate of 
Aberdeen, written for Ranelagh Gar- 

Bazin (ba-zan), Frangois Immanuel 

Joseph. 1816-1878. 

French dramatic composer. Born 
at Marseilles. Studied the organ, 
harmony and composition at the Con- 
servatory of Paris, taking six prizes 
between 1836 and 1840. After the 
performance of his cantata, Louise de 
Montfort, in 1840, Bazin went to 
Rome, where he remained three 
years, composing while there a 
Solemn Mass; the oratorio La Pente- 
cote; and the psalm. Super Flumina 
Babylonis. These works were per- 
formed in 1843 by the Philharmonic 
Society of Rome. Bazin returned to 
Paris and was professor of harmony 
at the Conservatory, under Auber, 
then director. Later he was professor 
of singing and when Ambroise 
Thomas became director of the Con- 
servatory in 1871, Bazin took his place 
as professor of composition. In 1872 
he was made a member of the 
Academy. Beside the works already 
mentioned, Bazin composed nine 
operas, most of them comic, among 
which are Le Trompette de M. Le 
Prince; La Nuit de la Saint Sylvestre; 
Madelon and Le Voyage en Chine. 
He also wrote a number of part- 
songs and a Course in Harmony, 
Theory and Practise for the students 
of the Conservatory. 

Bazzini (bad-ze'-ne), Antonio. 1818- 

Noted Italian violinist and com- 
poser. Studied at Milan and at 
seventeen was director of music at 
the Church of St. Filippo, Brescia, for 
which he wrote masses and vespers. 
In 4836 he played for Paganini, who 
advised him to travel. This he did, 
from 1840 to 1845, visiting most of 
the European countries with great 
success. When he visited Leipsic he 
staid some time, becoming very 




enthusiastic over German music. 
From 1852 to 1864 Bazzini lived in 
Paris, where he gave many concerts, 
also visiting England during this 
time. In 1864 he returned to Brescia 
and gave his entire time to composi- 
tion. He was appointed professor of 
composition at the Conservatory of 
Milan in 1873, and was made director 
of that school in 1883. Bazzini's com- 
positions are rather unique, in com- 
bining the grace and melody of 
Italian music with the thoroughness 
and harmony of the German. He 
wrote an opera, Turandot, which was 
unsuccessful; two cantatas, The 
Resurrection of Christ, and Senacher- 
ibo; made beautiful settings of a 
number of songs; wrote overtures to 
Saul and King Lear; composed a 
symphonic poem, Francesco da 
Rimini; and also much music for the 
violin and stringed instruments. 
Among these last are probably his 
best work, his three quartets and z 
quintet for strings. 

Beach, Mrs. H. H. A. 1867- 

American composer and pianist. 
Born in Henniker, New Hampshire, of 
colonial ancestry. Her maiden name 
was Amy Marcy Cheney. Her musi- 
cal ability, which she inherited from 
her mother's family, showed itself at 
a very early age. At the age of two 
she was able to sing Handel's See the 
Conquering Hero Comes, and at four 
began composing little pieces, which 
she was able to play correctly. When 
six years old she began studying 
with her mother and was soon able 
to play difficult music, including 
Beethoven and Bach. At seven she 
played in public several times in New 
Hampshire. When she was eight, 
her parents took her to Boston to 
begin her musical studies in earnest. 
She first attended Mr. W. L. Whitte- 
more's private school, where she 
made great progress, and afterward 
studied under Mr. Ernest Perabo; 
Junius W. Hill, of Wellesley College; 
and Carl Baermann. Almost all of 
her work in harmony, composition, 
counterpoint and orchestration was 
done alone. In 1883, at the age of 
sixteen, she made her debut in Bos- 
ton as a pianist. Her success was 
such, that the same year she gave 
several recitals and the next year she 
played with the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra and the Thomas Orchestra. 
Since then, she has appeared in all 


the large cities of the country, often 
giving entire programs of her own 
works. In 1885 she married Dr. 
Beach and has since lived in Boston. 
Mrs. Beach's large works are her 
Gaelic Symphony, first given in Bos- 
ton in 1896; a Mass in E flat, sung 
at the Handel and Haydn Society of 
Boston in 1892; a Festival Jubilate, 
composed for the dedication of the 
Woman[s Building at the Columbian 
Exposition in 1893; also three can- 
tatas. The Rose of Avontown; The 
Minstrel and the King; and Sylvania. 
Her piano works are many, some of 
the most important being a Cadenza 
to Beethoven's C minor concerto; a 
Valse Caprice; Danse des Fleurs; 
Menuet Italien, and Barcarolle; six 
duets, called Summer Dreams; a con- 
certo in C sharp minor; a Bal Masque 
Waltz; and a Children's Carnival and 
Children's Album. For violin and 
piano she has composed a Romance; 
a sonata; Berceuse; Miazurka; and 
La Captive. Of songs she has not 
been sparing, having written over 
sixty, many of them very beautiful. 
Some of the best known are Dark is 
the Night; Across the World; My 
Star; Fairy Lullaby; Hymn of Trust; 
Spring; A Secret; Empress of the 
Night; and Wilt Thou Be My 
Dearie. She also wrote a cantata. 
The Sea Fairies; and an aria, 
Jephtha's Daughter. 

Beard, John. 1716-1791. 

A distingn^ished English tenor 
singer, for whom Handel composed 
the great tenor parts m Judas, Jeph- 
thah, Samson, The Messiah, and Israel 
in Egypt. He began life as a 
chorister, and made his first appear- 
ance as a tenor singer, also as a 
Handelian singer, at Covent Garden 
Theatre, London, in 1736. The fol- 
lowing year he sang at Drury Lane 
in the opera. The Devil to Pay. 
Beard retired from the stage for a 
season, after his marriage to Lady 
Henrietta Herbert, daughter of the 
Earl of Waldegrave. He was en- 
gaged regularly at Drury Lane a 
number of years, and several seasons 
at Covent Garden, was very popular 
with Londoners, and first became a 
favorite by his style of singing Gail- 
lard's hunting song, With Early 
Horn._ Lady Henrietta died in 1753, 
and six years later he married the 
daughter of John Rich, proprietor of 
Covent Garden. From 1761 to 1767 




Beard was proprietor and manager of 
Covent Garden. In the latter year 
he retired from public life, his retire- 
ment caused by an increasing deaf- 
ness. He made his last appearance 
in public in the opera, Love in a 
Village. The exact date of Beard's 
birth is not known, but he lived to 
be considerably over seventy. In 
private life he was very highly 

Beaulieu (b51-yu), Marie Desire. 

_ French composer and writer on mu- 
sical subjects. His real name was 
Martin, his father being an army 
ofificer of Niort. Beauheu was born in 
Paris and studied at the Conservatory 
there under Kreutzer, Mehul and 
others. In 1810 he won the Grand 
Prize, but he did not take the five 
years of travel which it gave him but 
settled instead at Niort. In this place 
he founded^ quartet meetings and a 
Philharmonic Society in 1829, which 
became the Association Musicale de 
rOuest. This Society became one of 
the most successful musical organiza- 
tions in France and through the 
energy and ability of its founder did 
much for musical culture in that coun- 
try. Festivals were held each year, 
in different French cities, where the 
best musical compositions were per- 
formed. Beaulieu also founded, in 
1866, a vocal society in Paris, called 
La Societe de Chant Classique. At 
his death he left his fortune to endow 
both of these organizations. Beside 
his critical writings on musical sub- 
jects, Beaulieu composed a large 
number of works, some of the most 
important of which are the operas, 
Anacreon, and Philadelphie; the lyric 
pieces, Jeanne d'Arc, and Psyche et 
I'Amour; the oratorios, I'Hymne du 
Matin, I'Hymne de la Nuit and 
L'Immortalite de I'Ame. He also 
wrote orchestral works, hymns, masses 
and songs. His best work was, prob- 
ably, a Requiem, composed in 1819, 
for the death of Mehul. 

Becher (bekh'-er), AHred Julius. 


Teacher, editor and composer. He 
was born, of German parentage, at 
Manchester, England, and met his 
death at Vienna, in which city he was 
tried by court-martial for political 
offenses and condemned to death. He 
left England in his childhood and 


went to live in Germany. Was trained 
for the profession of law, and prac- 
tised for awhile at Elberfeld. He 
studied music at Heidelberg, Berlin, 
and elsewhere, and in 1840, was ap- 
pointed teacher of harmony at the 
London Royal Academy of Music. 
The following year Becher moved to 
Vienna, where he served as musical 
critic of the Wiener Musik-Zeitung 
and the Sontagsblatter. Of extreme 
revolutionary views, as editor of Der 
Radikale, he came under the ban of 
the Government, and was shot by 
order of the court-martial. He is the 
author of many songs and pieces for 
the piano, and of the two pamphlets, 
Jenny Lind: eine Skizze ihres Leben; 
Das niederrheinische Musikfest, 
aesthetish u historisch betrachtet. 

Beck, Johann Heinrich. 1856- 

Born in Cleveland, Ohio. His 
parents were Germans. Began study- 
ing, when very young, on the violin. 
Went to Leipsic in 1879, and studied 
the piano, violin and viola, also theory 
and composition under Reinecke, Ja- 
dassohn, Richter and others. When 
he returned to America, in 1882, he 
settled in Cleveland where he has 
since lived as a teacher and violinist. 
He organized the Schubert Quartet 
of Cleveland. His works consist of a 
cantata on Bayard Taylor's Deu- 
kalion; overtures to Byron's Lara and 
to Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet; 
an unfinished music-drama, Salammbo; 
several compositions for strings, vio- 
lin music and songs. He has been 
called by some, " the greatest of 
American composers." His music is 
all in manuscript. Although much of 
it has been performed, none of it has 
yet been printed. Several of his works, 
which were given in Germany, won 
great favor. 

Becker, Albert Ernst Anton. 1834- 


Talented German composer. Studied 
first at Quedlinburg, where he was 
born, and later at Berlin. Became 
teacher in Scharwenka's Conservatory 
in Berlin in 1881, and in 1891 became 
conductor of the Cathedral choir of 
Berlin. His first success as a com- 
poser was gained in 1861, when his 
Symphony in G minor was awarded a 
prize by a musical society in Vienna. 
His other compositions of note are a 
Mass in B minor; Reformations can- 
tata; an oratorio; some orchestral and 




music; many songs and an 
Loreley, which is in manu- 


Becker, Carl Ferdinand. 1804-1877. 

German writer, organist and com- 
poser. In Germany was esteemed 
most for his writings. Of these men- 
tion should be made of the following: 
Systematisch-chronologische Darstel- 
lung der Musiklitteratur; Die Haus- 
musik in Deutschland im 16, 17, and 
18 Jahrhundert; and Die Tonwercke 
des 16 and 17 Jahrhunderts. His 
work is valued for its accuracy. He 
was a skilled bibliographer. Becker's 
extensive collection of music, which 
contained many rarities, he bequeathed 
to the city of Leipsic. He was born 
and died in Leipsic, and was organist 
and professor at the Leipsic Conserv- 
atory. He studied the piano under 
Schicht and Schneider, and at an early 
age played the piano in public. Later 
Becker devoted more attention to the 
organ, and became organist of the 
Church of St. Peter, and afterward of 
St. Nicholas Church in Leipsic. 

Becker, Hugo. 1864- 

Celebrated contemporary German 
violoncellist, son of Jean Becker, the 
violinist. He was born at Strasburg, 
and after some study under his father, 
had the benefit of the instruction of 
various distinguished teachers, Fried- 
rich Griitzmacher, Piatti and others. 
His first public appearance was at the 
Leipsic Gewandhaus; this was fol- 
lowed by successful concert tours with 
his father." In 1882 he was appointed 
violoncellist in the opera orchestra at 
Frankfort, and here became a member 
of the well-known Frankfort Quartet, 
led by Hugo Heermann. He makes 
extensive tours, is a renowned soloist 
and chamber-music player and one of 
the foremost violoncellists of the day. 
Though most of his time is occupied 
with his career as player, he teaches 
part of the year at the Conservatory 
in Frankfort. 

Becker, Jean. 1833-1884. 

An eminent German violinist and 
founder of the famous Florentine 
Quartet. He also composed some 
music for the violin. He was born at 
Mannheim, Germany, received his 
early instruction from the leader of 
the Mannheim Orchestra, and studied 
later in Paris. Becker was very 
young when he began to play 


Beer # 

in public, and was made lead^ 
of the Mannheim band while still ^ 
lad. At the age of sixteen he wa^ 
playing with great success in Parish 
and shortly afterward appeared in 
London as a virtuoso. Following 
brilliant concert tours through Et 
rope, he settled in Florence in IJ 
and here founded the Quartet- 
became famed throughout the world. 
The members were Becker; y^Italian 
musicians, Masi, second AflKi, and 
Chiostri, viola; and the German vio- 
loncellist Hilpert, ^ho in 1875 was 
replaced by SfWtzer-Hegyesi. After 
the Quartet was dissolved in 1880, 
Becker made very successful tours 
with his children, his daughter Jean, 
an excellent pianist; and his sons 
Hans and Hugo, the former a fine 
viola player, the 

* Becker, Ludwig. 

who now resides 

latter a talented 


German violinist, 
in America. He 
plays first violin in the Thomas Or- 
chestra, Chicago, aj«l is head of the 
violin department of the Bush 
Temple Conservatory, Chicago. He 
was born at Kronenberg, Germany, 
and at the age of six showed a great 
love for the violin and under a local 
teacher made rapid progress in the 
study of this instrument. At the age 
of fourteen he was awarded a five- 
years' scholarship at Dr. Hoch's Con- 
servatory in Frankfort, and here was 
a pupil of Professor Hugo Heermann. 
At the age of sixteen he played first 
violin at the Museum concerts in 
Frankfort under the direction of 
Brahms, Richard Strauss, Motl, Wein- 
gartner and Kogel, and later held the 
post of concertmaster at Kroll's 
Theatre, Berlin. In 1896 he left Ber- 
lin for America, having accepted 
Theodore Thomas' invitation to fill 
the position of first violinist with the 
Thomas Orchestra. He was ap- 
pointed second concertmaster of this 
organization in 1904, and for several 
seasons has appeared as soloist with 
the famous orchestra. 

Beer (bar), Joseph. 1744-1811. 

Remarkable clarinettist and writer 
of music for that instrument. At the 
time of his death, which occurred at 
Potsdam, Joseph Beer held the post 
of Royal Prussian chamber-musician. 
He was born at Griinwald, Bohemia. 
During the Seven Years' War, he 


4 Beer 

^served as a field-trumpeter, in both 

- the French and Austrian Armies. In 

W Paris, in 1771, he took up the clarinet, 

became the best player of his day, 

and was greeted everywhere he went 

with the greatest enthusiasm. He 

iveled in various countries of Eu- 

^Russia, Italy, Hungary and Hol- 

land. Among his compositions are 
conc^^fts, duets and variations. 
JoseiUHPeer greatly improved the 
clarinet by the addition of a fifth key. 
As a player h^was noted for his 
power of expressic* as well as his 
mastery of the instrument. 

Beethoven (bat'-ho-fen), Ludwig van. 


Beethoven, born in the year 1770, 
came into the world in the beginning 
of a new era, a period of change and 
overthrow. During his boyhood, 
America established* her freedom, in 
his manhood, in France were uttered 
the three words that vibrated round 
the world. In his art and in his life 
Beethoven sto^ for freedom, with 
no hampering of conventions. 

Ludwig van Beethoven was born at 
Bonn, on the Rhine, December 16 or 
17, 1770, on his father's side being of 
Flemish blood. The grandfather, 
also Ludwig, a native of Antwerp 
and descendant of an old Flemish 
family, had come to Bonn to take the 
position of Court musician in the 
service of the Elector of Cologne, and 
from 1761 to 1763 was music-director 
at the Court. A French writer, M. 
Theodor de Wyzewa, in a study of 
Beethoven's heredity describes the 
grandfather thus: "Great energy and 
a high sense of duty were combined 
in him with a practical good sense 
and a dignity of demeanor that 
earned for him, in the city he had 
entered poor and unknown, universal 
respect. His musical knowledge and 
ability were considerable; and al- 
though he was not an original com- 
poser, he had frequently to make 
arrangements of music for perform- 
ance by his choir." His wife, whose 
maiden name was Maria Josepha 
Poll, having developed a passion for 
drink soon after her marriage, was 
finally confined in a convent and kept 
there the remainder of her life. Their 
son Johann, Beethoven's father, the 
very _ opposite of good old Ludwig, 
is^ dismissed by M. de Wyzewa 
with these words — "a perfect nullity. 




. idle, common, foolish." 
Beethoven's mother, to whom he was 
very much attached, was a woman of 
tender nature and strong affection. 
Daniel Gregory Mason, in his book 
on Beethoven, gives this summary 
"If, to begin with, we eliminate the 
father, who, as M. de Wyzewa re- 
marks, was an 'absolute nullity and 
merely an intermediary between his 
son and his father, the Flemish music- 
directoF,' we shall find that from the 
latter, his grandfather, Beethoven de- 
rived the foundation of his sturdy, 
self-respecting and independent moral 
character, that from his mother he 
got the emotional sensibility that was 
so oddly mingled with it, and that 
from his afflicted grandmother, Maria 
Josepha Poll, he inherited a weakness 
of the nervous system, an irritability 
and morbid sensitiveness, that gave to 
his intense individualism a tinge of 
the eccentric and the pathological." 

Ludwig was the second of Johann's 
seven children. The father, indulgent 
to himself, was a stern taskmaster to 
others. Early recognizing that little 
Ludwig possessed unusual musical 
ability, with shrewd intent of develop- 
ing a musical prodigy he kept him, 
often weeping, to his practise. Ludwig 
was made to begin the study of music 
when not yet four years old, the father 
giving him lessons on violin and 
clavier. When the boy was nine years 
old, he was turned over to Pfeitfer, a 
tenor singer, and received instruction 
from him, more or less regularly, for 
a year. He also studied the organ, 
under the Court organist, Van den 
Eeden, an old friend of the grand- 
father's, and at the age of eleven came 
under the influence of Christian 
Neefe, who succeeded Van den Eeden 
as organist at the Court. Neefe im- 
mediately noticed the promise of his 
pupil, and prophesied that if he kept 
on as started he would bee: me a 
second Mozart. When only twlve, 
Beethoven could play the greater art 
of Bach's Well-tempered Clavier, a 
performance none but the initiated 
can rightly appreciate. When he was 
not yet twelve years old Ludwig acted 
as chapel organist during Neefe's 
absences, an important though unpaid 
post. When Neefe was given charge 
of secular music also at the Court, 
Beethoven, then only a little over 
twelve, was appointed cembalist of the 
orchestra; as he was always obliged 




to attend rehearsals and performances, 
he gained valuable practise and ex- 
perience. When he was fourteen, he 
was given the appointment of second 
Court organist with a salary of 150 
florins (about $63), and every morning 
played the organ at six o'clock mass. 
During the year he studied violin with 
Franz Ries, and continued trying his 
hand at composition. While the 
compositions of this period were not 
of much value, the improvisations 
were, and he began to be spoken of 
as one of the best piano-players of 
his day. In 1787 he made his first 
journey to Vienna, where he met 
Mozart and played before that master 
so effectively, extemporizing on a sub- 
ject given by Mozart, that the latter 
remarked to a companion: "Pay at- 
tention to him. He will make a noise 
in the world some day." 

Beethoven was recalled from 
Vienna by the serious illness of his 
mother, who died of consumption, 
July 17, 1787, when Ludwig was in 
his eighteenth year. The following 
were dark days; death visited the 
Beethoven home again and the bur- 
den of the family, the harsh, dissolute 
father, weighed heavily upon Ludwig. 
The father's pittance was small, and 
the son had to give lessons to help 
in the general support, though teach- 
ing was ever distasteful to him. But 
this gloom and depression were 
brightened by the coming into his life 
of new friends, the family of Stephen 
von Breuning, a fellow-pupil under 
Franz Ries. This cultivated, hospi- 
table family, in welcoming young 
Beethoven to their circle, opened up 
a new world for him. Madame von 
Breuning was a woman of much tact 
and intelligence, intimacy with whom 
awakened in the boy an interest in the 
classics and in German and English 
literature. On their side, they de- 
lighted in his playing, especially in 
the improvisations and the friendship 
was of mutual pleasure and benefit. 
He gave lessons to the daughter 
Eleanore, to whom some of his later 
compositions were dedicated and with 
whom he kept in touch after leaving 
Bonn. Another important friendship 
of this time was that with a young 
noble, Count Waldstein, an enthusias- 
tic amateur musician. They were on 
terms of close intimacy, Waldstein in 
as delicate a manner as possible assist- 
ing Beethoven not only pecuniarily, 


but in every way in his power. It is 
thought Count Waldstein's influence 
was what induced the Elector of 
Cologne to awaken at last to recogni- 
tion of Beethoven's rare ability, which 
recognition resulted in his finally 
being sent to Vienna. 

When only nineteen Beethoven had 
to take the place — he had long borne 
the burden — of head of the family; his 
drunken father being now so irrespon- 
sible that the decree was issued that 
part of his salary be paid over to Lud- 
wig. Beethoven was at this time work- 
ing hard on his studies and making 
great progress as Court musician, his 
chief recreation being long walks in the 
country, of which he was passionately 
fond. In 1788, the Elector established 
at Bonn a national theatre modeled 
after the one maintained at Vienna by 
his brother, the Emperor Joseph, and 
here both opera and drama were pro- 
duced. The orchestra, in which 
Beethoven played second viola for four 
years, included a number of illustrious 
musicians, among these Franz Ries, 
Andreas and Bernhard Romberg, and 
Christian Neefe, who was pianist and 
stage manager. Association with 
these artists was of greatest value, 
and inspiration, the listening to 
noteworthy opera and play represent- 
ing the best in literature. In 1792, 
Haydn, passing through Bonn, heard 
a cantata of Beethoven's, which he 
warmly praised and added to the 
praise the suggestion that the author 
be allowed opportunity for further 
study. The Elector shortly arranged 
that Beethoven depart for Vienna on 
this mission and in November, of 
1792, he left Bonn, not to return again. 
The Bonn days end with Beethoven 
twenty-two years old. 

The compositions of these days are, 
relativelj% of inconsiderable impor- 
tance; a few songs a rondo; a minuet; 
three preludes; a trio and three quar- 
tets for piano; a string trio; four sets 
of piano variations; a rondino for wind 
instruments; the Ritter ballet with 
orchestra; and a few other works. 
Beethoven's creative powers developed 
slowly. Grove says, " If we compare 
them (his composition up to . this 
time) with those of other composers 
of the first rank, such as Mozart, 
Schubert, or Mendelssohn, it must be 
admitted that they are comparatively 

few and unimportant 

Against Mozart's twenty-eight operas, 


cantatas, and masses for voices and 


full orchestra, composed before he 
was twenty-three, Beethoven has abso- 
lutely nothing to show." 

In Vienna, musical center of the 
world, Beethoven was to spend the 
remainder, and the greater part of his 
life. He arrived late in the autumn 
of 1792, and as soon as he was estab- 
lished began lessons under Haydn, 
with whom he remained until January, 
1794, though not satisfied with the 
progress made or the cursory atten- 
tion given him by the very busy 
Haydn. On the departure of the lat- 
ter for England, Beethoven, under 
Albrechtsberger, continued the study 
of counterpoint, and under other 
teachers studied violin and vocal com- 
position. It is interesting to note that 
neither Haydn nor Albrechtsberger 
regarded their pupil as one from whom 
much was to be expected; the latter 
making the unfortunate prophecy that 
he would never do anything in decent 
style; while conservative Haydn, hold- 
ing to due respect for superiors and 
for established rules, looked with dis- 
approval on the young man's inde- 
pendence of thought and manner, and 
in ridicule nicknamed him " The Grand 
Mogul." Appreciation of his playing 
was quickly yielded by the Viennese. 
He had brought letters from the 
Elector and Count Waldstein which 
gave him introduction to the aris- 
tocracy, by whom his extraordinary 
ability was soon recognized, the doors 
of many great houses were open to 
him and his playing, especially his 
improvisations, created a remarkable 
sensation among the many cultivated 
musicians of Vienna society. Rough, 
blunt, eccentric, Beethoven found him- 
self in the midst of a society made up 
of people of fashion and culture. 
Prince and Princess Lichnowsky, 
both excellent amateur musicians, 
were among his first friends. They 
treated him with the greatest kind- 
ness and consideration; set aside for 
him a pension of 600 florins a year, he 
became a member of their household 
and in their home his prejudices were 
respected and his eccentricities con- 
doned. Prince Lobkowitz was a dis- 
ciple and friend, as was Baron von 
Swieton, also Count Brunswick, at 
whose home he was a frequent visitor 
and on terms of intimacy with the 
Count's sisters. 

The patron, in the day immediately 
preceding Beethoven, was not an inci- 


dent in a musician's career but a 
necessity, and in his day the public 
concert was uncommon in Austria, 
musical entertainments being given in 
the great private houses and at court 
functions. Vienna, at this time the 
gayest capital in Europe, was cele- 
brated less perhaps for luxury than as 
a musical center. The rich Vienna 
nobleman was par excellence a patron 
of music. Thayer tells of twenty-one 
great houses open to Beethoven, nine 
of these belonging to princes. He 
numbered among his friends and inti- 
mates not only several princely pa- 
trons but also not a few court ladies; 
of these mention should be made of 
the Princess Odescalchi, the Baron- 
ess Ertmann, and the Countess Gal- 
lenberg. That he did not adapt himself 
to the conventions of the polite world 
about him there is no lack of proof; 
the adapting and conciliating had to 
come from the other side. 

Of his relations with the fair 
Viennese, G. A. Fischer remarks: 
" Beginning with hero-worship on the 
part of these devotees, the sentiment 
usually developed into the more inti- 
mate relation of friendship or love. 
The ' Ewig Weibliche ' appears con- 
stantly in his music and was always 
in his life. He formed many romantic 
attachments which may not always 
have been Platonic, but they were 
always pure. Beethoven had as 
chivalrous a regard for women as had 
any knight of the middle ages." He 
never married, but evidence would go 
to show he at one time was engaged 
to be married to the Countess Therese, 
sister of the Count of Brunswick. It 
was during this period that he pro- 
duced the Fourth Symphony, a work 
that bespeaks its creator inspired by 
the "very genius of happiness;" the 
period, the symphony, in tragic con- 
trast with the later, sad, sordid bachel- 
orhood, the harried household, the 
uncared-for, lonely state in which his 
last days were passed. It is looked 
upon as probable that Beethoven him- 
self broke oflf the engagement with the 
Countess, his irritable pride chafing 
against the secrecy enjoined for fear 
of the disapproval of the lady's 
mother. The Countess Therese, too, 
never married, but interested herself 
in charitable works, founded in Vienna 
a home for little children, the first of 
its kind in Austria and lived to the 
age of eighty-three. 




Beethoven ever begrudged the time 
he had to spend in teaching; and as 
soon as he was able to get along 
without it, gave up lessons, except to 
a favored few here and there. One of 
these was the Archduke Rudolph, 
brother of the Emperor. He began 
taking lessons in 1804 and a lasting 
friendship grew up between the two, 
some of Beethoven's best work being 
written for Rudolph. The young 
Archduke was passionately fond of 
music, and was an excellent performer. 
Another pupil, Ferdinand Ries, son of 
the old friend at Bonn, was a protege 
over whom the master labored with 
rare patience and gentleness, and was 
rewarded by seeing his pupil become 
one of the most distinguished pianists 
of the day. Ries also was a faithful 
friend, and a long-suffering one. He 
put up with the master's eccentricities, 
suspicions and rages, and loved him 
and served him well. Another pupil 
was Czerny, who began lessons with 
him at the age of ten, made very 
rapid progress, and was a favorite 
pupil. Lessons also were given to a 
few ladies, the Brunswick sisters, 
Madame Ertmann and others; but 
these were given irregularly and not 
continued as were the lessons to 
Rudolph, Ries, and Czerny. During 
the period of his social successes 
Beethoven was by no means idle. In 
addition to his playing and some 
teaching he was much engrossed in 
study and composition. Three years 
after his coming to Vienna, appeared 
his opus 1, consisting of three trios 
for piano and strings; and shortly 
after, opus 2, which consisted of three 
sonatas, dedicated to Haydn, vari- 
ations and smaller pieces. In this and 
ensuing work — piano pieces, songs, 
trios, and quartets — the influence of 
Haydn and Mozart is markedly shown. 
But from 1800 on, from his thirtieth 
year, there is noticeable a change. 
The beginning of the new century is 
the beginning of a new era with 
Beethoven. These days are empha- 
sized by the First Symphony; the 
oratorio, The Mount of Olives, 
" reminiscent of Handel and prophetic 
of Wagner;" and the Prometheus 
Ballet Music; as well as the Piano 
Concerto in C minor; the descriptive 
septet; six string quartets; a string 
quintet; and four piano sonatas; two 
grand sonatas, opus 26 and opus 28; 
and the two sonatas constituting opus 
27, one of these the famous one nick- 


named by Rellstab the " Moonlight 
Sonata." The year 1802 saw the com- 
pletion of the Second Symphony. The 
following year appeared the wonderful 
scena for soprano and orchestra. Ah ! 
Perfido, and 1804 saw the completion 
of the Third Symphony. This heroic 
symphony, inspired by the republican 
spirit of the day, was dedicated to 
Napoleon and was written for him; 
Napoleon at the time looming as 
liberator, not as tyrant. Beethoven, 
living in imperial Austria, was the 
avowed enemy of imperialism; in 
Austria, where the name of Napoleon 
was most odious, he dedicated to him 
the wonderful Third Symphony. It 
lay on the master's table all ready to 
be transmitted to Paris, when the 
news reached Vienna that the " liber- 
ator " had had himself made Emperor. 
Beethoven in a rage tore from the 
music the title page with its mistaken 
tribute, and ever afterward showed 
strong antipathy for the name of 
Bonaparte. The symphony was given 
the title Sinfonia Eroica and dedi- 
cated to Prince Lobkowitz, at whose 
house it was first produced. 

Beethoven's work as a whole is 
divided into three periods, the division 
not altogether chronological, but made 
with special reference to style. The 
second period, Grove designates a 
" time of extraordinary greatness, full 
of individuality, character, and humor, 
but still more full of power and 
mastery and common sense." To this 
great period belong, in addition to 
the works before mentioned, the opera 
Leonora-Fidelio; the Mass in C; six 
symphonies, Third, Fourth, Fifth, 
Sixth, Seventh, and Eighth; overture 
to Coriolan; Music to Egmont; Piano 
Concertos in G and E flat; Violin 
Concerto; The Rasoumowsky Quar- 
tets; the quartet for strings in E flat 
and quartet for strings in F minor; 
piano trios; twelve piano sonatas, 
among them the one dedicated to 
Count Brunswick, the wonderful Ap- 
passionata; and the Liederkreis. In 
this period Beethoven reaches the 
zenith of his fame and prosperity. 

It was in 1813, with the production 
of his Battle Symphony, that he was 
acclaimed patriot as well as musician; 
at the moment the Austrians and Ger- 
mans were looking for fit expression 
of their joy over the defeat of the 
French. This work was suggested to 
Beethoven by an inventor named 
Maelzel, who had made him an ear- 




trumpet and with whom he was on 
intimate terms. Maelzel was a man 
who understood the public taste, and 
it is evident Maelzel's influence was 
responsible for the Battle Symphony, 
which Grove rates as conceived on a 
"vulgar plan" and containing "few 
traces of Beethoven's genius." The 
Battle Symphony, first produced at a 
benefit concert for the soldiers dis- 
abled at the battle of Hanau, made a 
great sensation; the most distinguished 
musicians played in the orchestra, de- 
siring to do their part in the patriotic 
demonstration, and the orchestra was 
conducted by Beethoven himself. 
The concert was a tremendous suc- 
cess and was repeated several times, 
the Battle-Piece always winning great 
applause. As " Wellington's Victory " 
it became very popular in England. 
The work is not placed among the 
notable Nine Symphonies. 

To Beethoven's third period belong 
the Ninth Symphony; the Mass in D; 
the last five piano sonatas; and the 
last five string quartets. This is 
analyzed by Ernest Walker as the 
period of " new birth with its strange 
and sometimes painful struggles, and 
its steady, persisting reaching up to a 
supreme, dim ideal; but he (Bee- 
thoven) died too soon, and then that 
particular door in music was shut, 
and not even Brahms found the key." 

Beethoven, the symphonist, is not 
at his best in the writing of opera. 
His one opera, Fidelio, which was 
written to Bouilly's libretto, Leonore, 
shows a lack of harmony between 
music and libretto, though the music 
itself is of marvelous beauty and 
grandeur. His temperament inclined 
him to symphonies and masses, the 
freedom of purely orchestral com- 
positions invited him. Haydn and 
Bach put their best thought into their 
sacred compositions; not by prefer- 
ence did Mozart write operas; Wag- 
ner, poet as well as musician, was the 
one with " temperament for opera." 

Fidelio, produced at a most un- 
fortunate time, 1805, during the French 
occupancy of Vienna, was withdrawn 
after three nights. At any suggestion 
of revision, Beethoven was enraged, 
but the diplomacy of friends prevailed 
in the end and the world was enriched 
by the third Leonore Overture, which 
Wagner declares so much more than 
an overture, " mightiest of dramas in 
itself." The revised Fidelio-Leonore 


was brought out in 1806, and met with 
some success; again much revision 
was given and in 1814 it was pro- 
duced with great success. 

Beethoven's first mass, the Mass in 
C, is one of the best known of all 
masses. Its appeal is universal, its 
aim being to stir the soul rather than 
merely to please with melody. In this 
composition the ascendency of the 
orchestra is marked, Beethoven being 
the first musician to emphasize its 
importance over the voice in musical 
expression. The Mass in D, the Missa 
Solemnis, is, Bach's Mass in B minor 
excepted, the most colossal work ever 
written for the Catholic Church. The 
occasion for which the Grand Mass 
was originally designed, was the in- 
stallation of Archduke Rudolph as 
Archbishop of Olmiitz, but the work 
took years for its completion. Bee- 
thoven labored on it from the autumn 
of 1818 till the spring of 1823. 

In 1809, there had come to Bee- 
thoven the offer of the post of music- 
director to the King of Westphalia, 
Napoleon's brother, acceptance of 
which meant an assured income of 
over $1,400 and leisure for composing. 
Beethoven hesitated about refusing 
the offer, although it would have been 
very hard for him to leave Vienna, 
and very distasteful to accept favors 
of a Bonaparte. Fearing in the end 
he might be tempted to accept, three 
of his friends. The Archduke Rudolph, 
Prince Lobkowitz and Prince Kinsky, 
put together an annuity for him of 
4,000 florins, nominally $2,000, but in 
paper money of fluctuating value. 
This sum became so lessened by the 
depreciation of paper and loss fol- 
lowing the death of a donor, that in 
his later life Beethoven felt the 
harassment of poverty and the urgent 
need of writing for money. To better 
his financial condition in the days that 
proved to be the last ones, Ferdinand 
Ries, in London, labored zealously to 
awaken interest in the master, with 
the result, that an invitation came for 
Beethoven to visit London, with a 
concerto and symphony for the Phil- 
harmonic Society, a large sum being 
offered as inducement. This project, 
though not definitely abandoned, was 
destined never to be carried out. 

It may be of interest, to Americans, 
to read that the Haydn and Handel 
Society of Boston wrote to Beethoven 
in 1823, oflEering him a commission to 



write an oratorio especially for its 
use. Elson relates that Beethoven 
was pleased with the commission from 
across the ocean, but adds: " For- 
tunately, it remained only a project; 
one shudders to think of the fate of 
a work of perhaps the caliber of 
Beethoven's great Mass, or the finale 
of the Ninth Symphony, handed over 
to the tender mercies of an American 
orchestra and chorus in 1823." 

Beethoven's choral and solo vocal 
compositions are comparatively few. 
The oratorio, the masses, some can- 
tatas, written in his younger days, the 
setting of Goethe's Meeresstille und 
gliickliche Fahrt, an Opferhed and a 
Bundeslied, make up the list of his 
choral works. Of the eighty-three 
songs with piano accompaniment, 
there are not many that are to be 
considered as adding to his fame, 
although as Walker phrases it, it is 
" impossible to take up any collection 
of Beethoven's music without dis- 
covering pearls of great price." There 
is the wonderful song cycle, An die 
feme Geliebte; the splendid die Ehre 
Gottes aus der Natur; the great scena, 
Ah! Perfido; and the noble Elegischer 

The larger part of Beethoven's in- 
strumental compositions is in the 
sonata form. Not counting immature 
work, the sum of the piano sonatas is 
thirty-two, many of them belonging 
with his very greatest work and of 
the pianist's best treasures. Bee- 
thoven's symphonies are nine in num- 
ber; a small number, yet, as Herr von 
Eltenheim says, "each represents a 
world in itself, with an ideal center of 
its own. Thus, in his first symphony, 
we are introduced to a little idyll of 
the heart; the second presents to us 
a picture of the joyous vigor and 
amorous strivings of youth; the third 
suggests a world of daring heroism; 
in the fourth the wonders of a ro- 
mantic world are revealed to us; 
tragical conflict with fate, and even- 
tual victory is the theme of the fifth; 
while in the sixth we commune with 
ever-kindly nature; the seventh is a 
manifestation of joy in human ex- 
istence; in the eighth the humorous 
element predominates; and finally, in 
the ninth, both an inferno and a 
paradiso of the inmost soul are un- 
rolled before our eyes." 

Beethoven's music sounds the height 
and depth of emotion; beauty and 


peace of life — intensity of pain; pas- 
sionate revolt, tenderness and calm of 
resignation. He gives strongest con- 
trasts; this is brought out powerfully 
in the Mass in D. He was the first 
musician to bring to the fore an en- 
thusiastic appreciation of nature, as 
he was the first to feel and express 
the modern social spirit. 

It is the popular belief that Bee- 
thoven was the originator of program 
music; Grove calls attention to pred- 
ecessors in this field, but adds that 
though Beethoven did not invent it, 
he raised it at once to a higher level 
than before, his program pieces hav- 
ing had a great effect on the art. 
Chief among these are the Pastoral 
Symphony, the Eroica Sinfonia, the 
Sonata pathetique, and his Liederkreis 
An die feme Geliebte. " The Pastoral 
Symphony," declares Mason, " of all 
Beethoven's works ventures farthest 
into the domain of program music; 
contains actual imitation of sounds 
and sights in nature, as the rippling 
of the brook (strings); the muttering 
of thunder (contrabasses in their low 
register) ; flashes of lightning (violins) ; 
the bassoon of an old peasant sitting 
on a barrel and able to play but three 
tones; and the song of the nightingale 
(flute), quail (oboe), and cuckoo 
(clarinet)." Each movement has a 
descriptive heading, as Merry gather- 
ing of the peasants; Scene by the 
brook; Rejoicing and thankfulness 
after the storm, etc. 

Of keenest interest to the student 
of Beethoven is the tracing of the 
influence upon the master of his 
forerunners Haydn and Mozart, as of 
deepest interest the debt owed Bee- 
thoven by Schumann, Liszt, Berlio:c 
and Wagner. Hero-worship reached 
its climax in the feeling Wagner held 
for Beethoven, to whom he con- 
tinually pays tribute. At the laying 
of the foundation stone of the Bay- 
reuth Play House, Wagner spoke thus 
of what he had received from the 
master: "I wish to see the Ninth 
Symphony regarded as the foundation 
stone of my own artistic structure." 

Edward Dannreuther, distinguished 
musician and critic, calls attention to 
the fact that though Beethoven was 
most industrious and enjoyed nearly 
double the years to work in that 
Mozart did, he left behind less than 
one-fourth as much work as either 
Mozart or Haydn. That Beethoven 




was a tremendous, tireless worker is 
shown in his Sketch-books, several of 
which have been preserved in their 
original form, in a notable collection 
in the British Museum. When he 
went on his long walks, he always 
carried a note-book with him, and at 
night kept one beside his bed. The 
pages of the books, including margins, 
are covered close with notes, first im- 
pressions being later worked over and 
over with infinite care and painstaking. 
He would keep a composition for 
years before sending it out, destroy- 
ing much and continually re-writing. 
The apparent spontaneity of his work 
really had back of it the most labori- 
ous effort and painstaking care. 

Joyousness is the characteristic of 
Beethoven's second period, that 
Heiterkeit Wagner uses so often in 
his rhapsody on Beethoven. In the 
third period this quality is less 
marked, but still existent. 

Beethoven's later life was greatly 
disturbed by grave family responsi- 
bilities, by litigations, financial wor- 
ries and failing health. His deafness 
had now become much worse. The 
last five years of Jiis life all com- 
munication with him was carried on 
by written word. There seems no 
tragedy of history greater than 
Beethoven's deafness. He was about 
twenty-eight years old when the first 
symptoms asserted themselves, grad- 
ually became morbidly sensitive over 
the threatening infirmity; in that 
pathetic letter to his brother known 
as " The Will," written in 1802, one 
gets a realization of the depth of 
melancholy into which he was 
plunged. Wagner gave in seven 
words an idea of what deafness meant 
to Beethoven, when he said: "Is a 
blind painter to be imagined?" With 
increase of the infirmity he retired 
more and more into himself. Shut 
out from the world, he lived the life 
of the spirit and brought forth works 
whose dominant note is spiritual ex- 
altation The world profited by his 
deafness, but the world cannot forget 
the tragedy of it, Beethoven at the 
piano his head close to the wooden 
shell of a resonator, ear-trumpet at 
ear; Beethoven making failure in the 
conducting of his opera (1822); Bee- 
thoven standing with his back to the 
thunder of applause greeting his 
Choral Symphony, turned round by a 
kindly hand that he may " see " the 
plaudits he cannot hear. 


Irritable, impatient of restraint or 
intrusion, Beethoven was always 
harassed by those about him, always 
moving from one lodging to another. 
Even in the early days of residence 
with the Lichnowskies he was not able 
to endure what few restraints were 
put upon him by the close association 
and left their great house for the 
freedom of a humble lodging outside. 
After his mother's death he seems 
never really to have had a home, 
though a pitiable attempt at one was 
made late in life. No matter how his 
work absorbed him, and though he 
sacrificed everything else to music, 
throughout his life duty to his family 
would draw him away from seclusion 
and absorption. When, in 1812, ru- 
mors reached him that gossips were 
talking about his brother Johann's 
relations to a woman he had taken for 
housekeeper, Ludwig hastened to 
Linz, where Johann lived, used argu- 
ment and, it is said, physical violence, 
to enforce the point that the family 
good name was at stake, and that the 
young woman must be got rid of. In 
the end Johann married her. The 
brother, Caspar Carl, had married a 
woman of uncertain character, to 
whom Beethoven always referred as 
" Queen of Night," and when Carl 
died he left his son to Ludwig, in a 
belated feeling of responsibility mak- 
ing provision for a fit guardian for 
the youth. The mother, very much 
averse to giving the control of her 
son to his uncle, began legal pro- 
ceedings to obtain full control herself. 
And then followed years of liti- 
gation that were very distressing and 
disturbing to Beethoven. The suit 
would now be favorable to one side, 
now to the other, the nephew mean- 
while residing with the party winning 
the temporary success. Beethoven 
had a passionate sense of responsi- 
bility to his dead brother's wish, and 
made most strenuous effort to keep 
the boy Carl from his mother's in- 
fluence. He even went so far as to 
set up housekeeping. The result, for 
this m.ost impracticable and impatient 
of householders, was a cheerless, deso- 
late abode, the master harried by petty 
trials and details. 

The nephew for whom all the sacri- 
fice was being made, ill repaid it all; 
an undisciplined, wayward lad, he 
went from bad to worse, causing Bee- 
thoven great anxiety and pain. His 
uncle, noting that he had talent, tried 




to make a musician of him, having 
Czerny give him lessons. He desired 
also that Carl be a scholar, and care- 
fully watched over his education. But 
Carl disappointed him ever; when he 
entered the University and tried for 
his degree, he failed; at the examina- 
tions of the Polytechnic School, where 
effort was made for him after the 
University course proved impossible, 
he again failed. The young man now 
tried to end his career by shooting 
himself, and failed here. But through 
all the trouble and disgrace Beethoven 
clung to the nephew, his influence 
mitigated the severity of the police 
vigilance kept over Carl after the 
attempted suicide, and he was instru- 
mental in getting him placed as fa- 
vorably as possible in the army. 

Beethoven, themdefatigable worker, 
died in harness and did not live to 
enjoy the ease he dreamed some day 
was to follow after the strain and 
stress. It was in 1826 that Beethoven's 
nephew was put in his charge by the 
authorities, on condition that he be 
removed from Vienna immediately. 
Johann Beethoven offered uncle and 
nephew the hospitality of his country 
place, and for Carl's sake the offer 
was accepted. The visit proved a 
most unfortunate one; Johann's ar- 
rogance and pretensions grated hard 
on Ludwig's sincerity and simplicity 
and the latter's eccentricities un- 
doubtedly must have been disturb- 
ing to Johann's household. The 
visit terminated abruptly and dis- 
astrously, and, on the return journey 
to Vienna in the inclement December 
weather, Beethoven suffered from 
exposure, contracted a violent cold 
and arrived at his quarters in the city 
very ill indeed. Difficulty was ex- 
perienced in getting a physician for 
him — he had quarreled with the two 
who formerly attended him — and his 
condition grew more and more seri- 
ous. His nephew cared for him at 
the first, and his friends, as soon as 
they heard of the illness, hastened 
to give their services. He lingered 
on until toward the end of March. 
During the long illness, Schindler 
and Stephen von Breuning came 
daily and the eleven-year-old Gerhard 
Breuning, Stephen's son, was his con- 
stant attendant, while Carl Holz, 
whose companionship he had been 
wont to find of much cheer, was a 
frequent visitor. He tried to work, 
but weakness forced him to desist. 


his last finished work being the B 
flat Quartet completed in November, 
1826. Anxiety about money proved a 
worry, for he was very loth to draw 
on his savings. In 1815 he had made 
his one investment, buying shares to 
the value of 10,000 florins in the Bank 
of Austria, and this was carefully 
guarded for Carl. It was of great 
help when there arrived at this 
juncture the sum of $500, sent by the 
London Philharmonic Society as ad- 
vance on a benefit concert they were 
to give. 

Carl presently received his army 
appointment and uncle and nephew 
parted, not to meet again. Beethoven 
for years had suffered from trouble 
with the liver, which now became 
much aggravated, and several oper- 
ations were necessary to remove the 
dropsical accumulations. He grew 
very weak. On the 23d of IMarch, 
aware that the end was near, he added 
a codicil to his will, which provided 
that Carl be allowed only the income 
from his estate. On the 24th he re- 
ceived the sacraments of the church, 
and then began the long death-strug- 
gle. Late in the afternoon of the 
26th there came a strange storm of 
hail and snow accompanied by light- 
ning and thunder; the outburst 
seemed to reach even his dull senses 
and long-deafened ears, he opened his 
eyes, threw out his arm as though 
in defiance, and died. He was but 
fifty-six years old. The funeral, 
which took place on the 29th, was at- 
tended by a multitude; twenty 
thousand people, it is estimated. 
Eight musicians carried the coffin, 
among the torch-bearers surrounding 
the body being Czerny and Schubert. 
A choir of sixteen male singers and 
four trombones alternately sang and 
played; the music having been orig- 
inally written by Beethoven for 
trombones, and arranged for the choir 
by Seyfried. On April 3 Mozart's 
Requiem was sung for him, and on 
April 5 Cherubini's Requiem. 

Beethoven the man is most difficult 
to present, his surface, of almost in- 
sane irritability and eccentricity, ob- 
scuring the nobility and purity deep 
down in his character and finding 
lofty expression in his music. This 
great genius often appeared a pitiable, 
ludicrous figure, there being story 
upon story to illustrate his extreme 
irritability and absent-mindedness; 
the books thrown at the servant girl. 




the stew over the waiter's head, 
standing in his night-clothes by the 
open window in the morning to the 
enjoyment of the passers-by and per- 
plexed when a friend suggests that he 
awaken to the peculiarity of this act. 
He was by turns joyous and morbid, 
affectionate and distrustful. Witness 
his love of nature; he ever sought 
the country at the approach of sum- 
mer, his best work being done under 
the inspiration of out-of-doors. In 
his childlike pleasure in field and 
wood, he exclaims, "No man on earth 
can love the country as I do." In 
sharp contrast to this is his quarrel- 
someness and unjust suspicions of 
friend, as well as foe. He accuses 
faithful Ries of treachery; parts 
with Prince Lichnowsky in anger; 
grossly assails the patient friends, 
Schuppanzigh and Schindler, when 
they are making tactful efforts in his 
behalf; breaks off the precious friend- 
ship with Stephen von Breuning and 
continually insults and rebuffs the 
tireless Schindler, Beethoven's " Bos- 
well." He was fond of horse-play, a 
great joker, yet had no relish for the 
joke turned on himself. To every 
thing and everybody he gave a nick- 
name — his brother is Asinus; his 
cook, Frau Schnapps; Prince Lob- 
kowitz, Fitzli Putzli. The oft-told 
story of the card returned to his 
arrogant brother is as follows: 
Johann sends in to Beethoven a card 
bearing the inscription, Johann van 
Beethoven, Landed Proprietor; it is 
returned with this writing on the 
back, Ludwig van Beethoven, Brain 
Proprietor. Also a grim humor char- 
acterized him, which one writer sug- 
gests was a device deliberately 
assumed to escape mental suffering. 

Grove calls attention to how 
strongly the humorous trait of his 
character is paralleled in his music; 
" In the finales of the Seventh and 
Eighth Symphonies there are passages 
which are the exact counterparts of 
the rough jokes and horse-play. . . . 
The Scherzo of Symphony Number 
Two, where the F sharp chord is so 
suddenly taken and so forcibly held, 
might almost be a picture of the 
unfortunate Kellner forced to stand 
still while the dish of stew was 
poured over his head. The bassoons 
in the opening and closing movements 
of Number Eight are inimitably 
humorous; and so in many other in- 


In appearance, Beethoven was short 
and broad of shoulder, his head large 
and covered with a great shock of 
very black hair, snow-white in later 
life, his face is universally described 
as ugly but expressive, his complexion 
was ruddy, and his eyes his best 
feature. The expression of his face 
was generally one of intentness and 
abstraction, often of gloom. Bee- 
thoven, while careless of speech, his 
education being obtained at a com- 
mon public institution and carried 
on only to his thirteenth year, was a 
man of considerable culture. He was 
very fond of the Greek classics, could 
quote passage after passage at length, 
and was familiar with Goethe, Schiller 
and other German poets. The Eng- 
lish poet Thomson was his favorite, 
and of Shakespeare he was a loving 

The strongest characteristic in his 
life was the sturdy independence, 
which made it impossible for him to 
live dependent on a patron. To be 
sure, the maintenance of this inde- 
pendence was made possible, by the 
development, in his day, of the art of 
printing music, making him able, as 
his predecessors had not been, to de- 
pend on the public rather than a 
patron. He would come and go at 
the bidding of no prince or sovereign. 
The incident is often told of his atti- 
tude toward royalty as demonstrated 
in his behavior the day he and Goethe, 
in company together at Toplitz, met 
the imperial family — Goethe bowing 
with all reverence, Beethoven keep- 
ing the middle of the road, passing 
royalty unheeding, head in air. No 
fear of losing an income kept him 
from a rupture with Prince Lich- 
nowsky, and after leaving that noble- 
man he did not again accept a post. 
He was always falling in love, now 
with a tailor's daughter, now with 
Countess or Baroness, but no breath 
of scandal ever touched his name. 
Krehbiel dwells on the nobility of 
his character, the chastity of his mind, 
the purity of his life. Beethoven was 
baptized and brought up a Catholic, 
but in mature life affiliated with no 
church. Though not a churchman, 
he was essentially religious. Dann- 
reuther declares that the spirit of 
Beethoven is as humanizing as the 
spirit of Sophocles and that Bee- 
thoven is an ethical, a religious 
teacher. A work showing any sensual 
tendency, such as is noticeable in 



Mozart's Don Giovanni was very 
repugnant to him, and he refused with 
scorn to set to music anything that 
came below his ideal. Quoting 
Dannreuther directly, it is " the 
austere intensity of his nature which 
distinguishes Beethoven from Haydn 
and Mozart on the one hand, and 
constitutes a sort of elective affinity 
between him and such men as 
Sebastian Bach and Michelangelo on 
the other." 

Of his influence as a musician 
it is said: "By virtue of Beethoven 
music has become the modern art." 
" In his hands it has become one of 
the main elements of esthetical cul- 
ture, and the reigning art of our day." 
"There is no sculptor to set beside 
the Greek, no painting to set beside 
that of Florence and Venice; no poet 
has equaled Shakespeare, no musician 
has rivaled Beethoven." 

From the great mass of literature 
on Beethoven, man and musician, 
mention should be made of a few of 
the best works. The authoritative 
biography is the work of an American, 
Alexander Wheelock Thayer. Thayer 
chose to have the biography appear 
first in German, and as yet there is 
no English translation. This work at- 
tempts no analysis of his music. The 
article on Beethoven in Grove's 
Dictionary is analytic, as well as histor- 
ically accurate. One of the first sym- 
pathetic appreciations of Beethoven 
is found in Berlioz's Voyage Musical 
and in his A Travers Chants. The life 
of Beethoven written by his close 
friend, Schindler, is of very great in- 
terest but not entirely reliable; and 
Beethoven's own letters have intense 
interest. For the student of the 
master's method of composition, 
Nottebohm's contribution is of ines- 
timable value. Attention should be 
called to Daniel Gregory Mason's, 
Beethoven and His Forerunners, and 
to Ernest Walker's, Beethoven, in the 
Music of the Masters series. Wag- 
ner's treatise on Beethoven is of 
peculiar value, though, as defined by 
Walker, it is rhapsodical almost to 
the point of incoherence. 


Alexander Wheelock Thayer — Ludwig 

van Beethoven's Leben. 
Anton F. Schindler — Life of Beethoven. 
Beethoven's Letters. 
Beethoven, in Grove's Dictionary of 

of Music and Musicians. 


Gustav Nottebohm — Beethoveniana, 
Zweite Beethoveniana, Ein Skizzen- 
buch von Beethoven aus dem Jahre, 

Hector Berlioz — Voyage Musical and 
A Travers Chants. 

Daniel Gregory Mason — Beethoven 
and His Forerunners. 

Ernest Walker — Beethoven. 

Wilhelm Richard Wagner — Beetho- 

Belcke (bel'-ke), Friedrich August. 


Famous trombone player and highly 
esteemed composer of music for that 
instrument. As a virtuoso, he intro- 
duced the trombone into the concert 
room. He was born at Lucka, Saxony, 
his father being an able oboe and flute 
player, from whom he received his 
early instruction. From the first 
Belcke's playing on the trombone was 
remarkable, and eventually his fame 
spread far and wide. He became a 
member of the Gewandhaus Orchestra 
in Leipsic, and from 1816 to 1858 was 
chamber-musician at Berlin. Belcke 
made many tours, traveling exten- 
sively on the Continent. The Paris 
Conservatory presented him with a 
medal of honor. A brother. Christian 
Gottlieb, 1796-1875, was a celebrated 

Beliczay (ba'-li-cha-e), Julius von. 


An Hungarian composer, whose 
work is not markedly national in 
character. He is the author of songs, 
pieces for the piano, and the follow- 
ing works: a Mass in F, frequently 
performed; three string quartets; an 
andante for stringed orchestra; a sere- 
nade for strings; a trio; two sym- 
phonies; an Ave Maria for solos, choir 
and orchestra. In 1891 he published 
Part I of a Method for Composition. 
His death occurred, at Pesth, in 1893. 
He was born at Komorn, Hungary, 
and trained for the profession of civil 
engineer. Studied music under 
Joachim, Hoffmann and Franz Krenn. 
In 1888 he was appointed professor of 
theory in the National Music Acad- 
emy in Pesth. 

Belletti, Giovanni. 1813- 

Great Italian barytone, whose career 
was closely connected with that of 
Jenny Lind, with whom he toured the 
United States. He was born at Sar- 
zana, a town in the small Italian 



territory of Lunigiana. His musical 
talent was early evinced, and his father 
sent the gifted child to the school at 
Bologna, directed by Pilotti. Belletti 
studied counterpoint and singing at 
Bologna, and remained at the famous 
school until he received his diploma. 
Although possessing a remarkable 
voice, Belletti hesitated to go on the 
stage; but his indecision came to an 
end when the Swedish sculptor, Bry- 
strom, offered to make all preparation 
for his debut in Stockholm, and in 
1838, Belletti appeared at the Swedish 
capital, in Rossini's II Barbiere. It 
was just at this time that Jenny 
Lind's victorious course was begin- 
ning, and she and Belletti started 
together on the road to fame and 
riches. JuHan Marshall, in Grove, 
says: "To the influence of Jenny 
Lind, and to the critical taste of his 
first audience, as well as to the fine 
old school of singing in which he had 
been brought up, he owed the pure 
style and freedom from vulgarity 
which, more even than his noble voice, 
made him the greatest barytone of 
the century." In Stockholm and Lon- 
don, Belletti sang with Jenny Lind in 
the operas of Verdi, Rossini, Doni- 
zetti and Meyerbeer. Paris applauded 
him, and he was markedly successful 
in his own land. When Jenny Lind 
was engaged by Barnum to tour in 
the United States, at her request 
Belletti was engaged to accompany 
her. He was most enthusiastically re- 
ceived in America, and had full share 
in the homage paid the Swedish 
nightingale and her company. After 
the tour in America, Belletti sang in 
London until 1863, then, in the height 
of his career, retired from public life, 
went back to Sarzana, to a quiet life 
in the town of his birth. 

■ Oury (bel-ve-yu 66'-re), 


Accomplished German pianist. Born 
in Munich. Studied with Czerny and 
afterward made many and successful 
concert tours, on one of which she 
married the violinist Oury in London 
and lived there for some time, some 
biographers say for years. She re- 
turned eventually to Munich, however, 
and died there. Schumann has com- 
pared her work very favorably with 
that of Clara Schumann. She com- 
posed some piano music and made 
many transcriptions and arrangements. 

Bellini (bel-le'-ne), Vincenzo. 1801- 

Celebrated Italian dramatic com- 
poser. Born in Sicily. His father, 
who was an organist, was his first 
teacher. Later he was sent to the 
Conservatory at Naples, by a Sicilian 
nobleman, who was impressed by his 
talent. Bellini's instruction at Naples 
was not at all thorough, the Conserv- 
atory, under the direction of Zin- 
garelli, being very poorly managed. 
It is probable that he got his best 
training from his study alone of the 
great masters. Bellini began com- 
posing very early, his first work being 
instrumental and sacred productions. 
Among them was a symphony for full 
orchestra, two masses, a cantata and 
several songs. At the age of twenty- 
four his first opera, Adelson e Salvina, 
was produced at the theatre of the 
Conservatory. Babbaja, the manager 
of the San Carlo Theatre at Naples 
and La Scala at Milan, was present at 
this performance and immediately 
commissioned Bellini to write an 
opera for the former house. The re- 
sult was Bianca e Fernando, which 
was so successful that Bellini re- 
ceived another commission, this time 
for Milan, and, in 1827, II Pirata was 
produced at La Scala and was a 
brilliant success. These operas of 
Bellini's, with their simple melodies, 
were a great contrast to the florid 
music at that time the fashion in 
Italy, and they became very popular. 
In 1833 Bellini went to England, 
where he remained for a short time, 
afterward going to Paris, where he 
settled and was gaining popularity, 
when his early death, in 1835, cut 
short his career. The other works of 
Bellini, besides the operas already 
mentioned, are La Straniera, which 
was very successful; Zarra, said to 
have been a failure; Beatrice _di 
Tenda, also unsuccessful; Montechi e 
Capuleti, a great favorite in Italy; La 
Sonnambula, considered his master- 
piece; Norma, considered by Bellini 
his best work and a great favorite 
with musicians; and I Puritani, his 
last opera. Bellini's operas are espe- 
cially noted for their lovely melodies, 
whose chief characteristics are sim- 
plicity, grace and tunefulness. In 
harmony, orchestration and dramatic 
effect Bellini's operas are weak, but 
for the ordinary hearer this is more 
than balanced by their beauty of 




melody. Bellini was buried in Paris, 
but his remains were afterward re- 
moved to Catania, Sicily, his native 
place, on the forty-first anniversary of 
his death. 

Bemberg (bah-berg), Herman, 1861- 
Contemporary composer, whose 
style is formed after the modern 
French School. He was born in 
Buenos Aires, of French parentage, 
and studied at the Paris Conservatory 
under Theodore Dubois and Jules 
Massenet. He is the author of nu- 
merous songs; a cantata; La Mort de 
Jeanne d'Arc; a comic opera, Le 
Baiser Suzon; the opera Elaine, which 
was produced in New York in 1894. 
The last work was very successful in 
London, with a cast which included 
Melba, Jean and Edouard de Reszke 
and Plangon. 

Benda, Georg. 1722-1795. 

The most celebrated member of a 
Bohemian musical family, consisting 
of the father, Hans Georg Benda, who 
was a traveling musician and per- 
former on several instruments; Franz, 
his eldest son, who was a violinist and 
composer; Johann, the second son, 
who was a violinist and chamber- 
musician; Joseph, the youngest son, 
who was also a violinist and was con- 
certmaster to Friedrich Wilhelm II. 
at Berlin; and Georg, the third son, 
who was a composer and pianist of 
considerable ability. From 1742 to 
1748 he was chamber-musician at 
Berlin and afterward was Court con- 
ductor at Gotha. Georg Benda's chief 
claim to notice lies in his melodramas, 
Ariadne auf Naxos, Medea, Almansor, 
and Nadine. These were music- 
dramas in which the words were 
spoken and the music was left to the 
orchestra. He also wrote sacred can- 
tatas, masses and many instrumental 
works, beside a number of operettas. 

Bendel, Franz. 1833-1874. 

Brilliant Bohemian pianist and com- 
poser. Studied in Prague and later 
with Liszt at Weimar. After finishing 
his studies he made successful concert 
tours through Germany and after 
1863 taught in Kullak's Academy, 
Berlin. Wrote concertos, sonatas, 
etudes, and fantasias for the piano, in 
all about one hundred and eighteen 
works, the best of which are the 
fantasias on Bohemian folk-songs; 
also on the themes from Gounod's 


Faust and Meyerbeer's L'Africaine. 
He also produced works for the piano, 
and violin, four masses and a large 
number of songs. 

*Bendix, Max. 1866- 

Great contemporary American vio- 
linist, of broad musicianship and 
wonderful technique. He was born at 
Detroit, Michigan, and at the age of 
eight made his first public appearance 
as a soloist, being considered a won- 
derful child. In 1878 he played violin 
in an orchestra under th( direction of 
Theodore Thomas at the Cincinnati 
May Musical Festival, and in 1879 be- 
came one of the first violinists in the 
Thomas Orchestra. In 1880 he was 
appointed concertmaster with Marat- 
zek at Cincinnati, later serving as 
concertmaster with the McCall Opera 
Company of Philadelphia, and also 
with the Germania Symphony Orches- 
tra of that city. The season of 1885- 
1886 he was with Anton Seidl in 
German Opera in New York and this 
same year was soloist and concert- 
master with the Van der Stucken 
Orchestra in New York. Following 
a tour as concertmaster and soloist 
with the Thomas Orchestra, he ac- 
cepted the appointment, in 1888, of 
first professor in the violin depart- 
ment of the Cincinnati College of 
Music. After a year spent abroad in 
travel and study, he officiated as con- 
certmaster with the Thomas Orches- 
tra at the Cincinnati Festival of 1890, 
and the following year accompanied 
the orchestra on its farewell tour. 
When the famous organization was 
transferred to Chicago he received 
the appointment as concertmaster 
soloist and assistant conductor, and 
occupied this post from 1891 to 1896, 
winning a very large circle of friends 
and admirers. Max Bendix, on Theo- 
dore Thomas' resignation, was unani- 
mously elected conductor of the 
Theodore Thomas World's Fair 
Orchestra and President of the 
World's Fair Orchestral Association. 
In 1897-1898, the famous ensemble, 
Ysaye, Marteau, Bendix, Gerardy and 
Lachaume made a transcontinental 
tour. On Bendix's return, he organ- 
ized the Bendix String Quartet, which 
gave subscription concerts in New 
York, and later throughout the East. 
Max Bendix was conductor of the 
St. Louis World's Fair Orchestra, in 
1904, was engaged in 1905 for the 




Wagner operas at the New York 
Metropolitan Opera House, in 1907 
was concertmaster and assistant con- 
ductor of the Manhattan Opera Com- 
pany and conducted the Sunday night 
concerts and opera at the Manhattan 
Opera House. As a teacher, quartet 
player, soloist and conductor he is 

Bendl (bent'-'l), Karl. 1838-1897. 

Bohemian dramatic composer. Born 
at Prague. His musical talent de- 
veloped very early and he studied first 
with his grandfather. Later he entered 
the Organ School of Prague, where he 
studied under Blazek and Pitsch and 
took the first prize. In 1864, wishing 
to broaden his musical horizon, he 
went to Brussels and became second 
conductor of the opera, but made only 
a short stay, going on to Amsterdam, 
where for a brief time he was chorus- 
master to the German Opera, then to 
Paris, but returned to Prague, in 1865, 
and became director of the male sing- 
ing society, Hlahol. This position he 
held until 1879, when he became con- 
ductor of the private band of the 
Baron Dervies in Italy. Bendl aided 
Dvorak and Smetana in bringing about 
a general knowledge of Bohemian 
music. Bendl's most important works 
are his operas, among the best of 
which are Lejla; Bretislay a Jitka; 
Stary Zenich, a comic opera; Cerno- 
horci and Dite Tabora, both prize 
operas; and Karel Skreta. He also 
wrote a number of orchestral works; 
an operetta, Indicka Princezna; a D 
minor mass for male voices; a ballad, 
Smanda dudak; and about two hun- 
dred Bohemian songs and choruses. 

Benedict, Sir Julius. 1804-1885. 

Born at Stuttgart, where his father 
was a Jewish banker, but settled in 
England and became to all intents 
English, so that but few knew that 
he was of German birth. Began 
studying early, working with Hummel 
at Weimar and later at Dresden with 
the distinguished pianist, Weber, who 
not only received Benedict as a pupil, 
but took him into his home and 
treated him as a son. In 1823, Bene- 
dict, on the recommendation of 
Weber, was appointed conductor of 
the Karnthnerthor Theatre, Vienna, 
where he stayed for two years, after 
which, he went to Italy as conductor 
for the San Carlo Theatre, Naples. 
Here he produced his first opera, 


Giacinta ed Ernesto, in 1829, this was 
followed by I Portoghesi, which was 
produced at Stuttgart, in 1830, but 
both of these operas were unsuc- 
cessful. Benedict went to Paris, in 
1834, and to England, in 1835, where 
he remained until his death, becoming 
essentially English and soon being the 
most famous and fashionable teacher 
in London. In 1836, Benedict was 
appointed musical director of the 
Opera Buffa and produced a work, 
already given in Naples, called, Un 
Anno ed un Giorno. In 1837, he was 
appointed conductor at the Drury 
Lane Theatre and the next year 
brought out his first English opera, 
The Gypsy's Warning. After con- 
ducting for Jenny Lind, in 1848, at 
her first appearance in oratorio in 
Elijah, he came with her, in 1850, to 
the United States, directing most of 
her concerts. Returned to England, 
in 1852, and accepted a position as 
conductor at Her Majesty's Theatre 
and afterward at Drury Lane Theatre. 
The same year he was appointed con- 
ductor of the Harmonic Union. In 
1859, Benedict became conductor of 
the Monday Popular concerts. He 
also conducted several Norwich Fes- 
tivals and, from 1876 to 1880, the 
Philharmonic Society at Liverpool. 
He was knighted by Queen Victoria 
and also received a number of foreign 
orders. Was professor of piano at 
Trinity College, London, and pro- 
fessor at the Royal Academy of 
Music. Beside the operas mentioned, 
his best known works are the operas, 
The Brides of Venice, The Crusaders, 
The Lily of Killarney, and the Bride 
of Song; the oratorios, The Legend of 
St. Cecilia, and St. Peter; the can- 
tatas, Undine, Richard Coeur de Lion, 
and Graziella; also piano music; part- 
songs and many songs. The Lily of 
Killarney, St. Peter, and St. Cecilia 
are Benedict's finest and most popu- 
lar works. 

Benelli (ben-el'-le), Antonio Pere- 
grine. 1771-1830. 

Italian singer, writer and composer 
He is the author of considerable 
church music and some chamber 
music, but his most worthy work is 
his Vocal Method, published in 1819, 
and his Solfeggi. As a dramatic tenor 
he was very well considered, and 
later as a teacher. Benelli was born 
at Forli, studied under Martini's suc- 
cessor, Mattel, and, it is thought, had 




for a time the benefit of the instruc- 
tion of Padre Martini himself. Benelli 
made his first appearance at the San 
Carlo Theatre, Naples, where he 
created a very good impression, and 
in London was well received. He 
then went to Germany, and for 
twenty-one years was established at 
Dresden. In 1822, his voice failing, 
he was retired with a pension. On his 
retirement, the distinguished Italian 
composer, Spontini, secured for him 
a position as teacher of singing at the 
Royal Theatre School, Berlin, from 
which position he was dismissed in 
1829, the dismissal following a violent 
attack made by him on Spontini in the 
Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung, to 
which organ he was a contributor. 
Benelli's last days were spent in 

Benevoli (ba-na'-v6-le), Orazio. 1602- 

A distinguished Italian contrapunt- 
ist, highly esteemed as choirmaster 
at the Vatican. Said to be the natural 
son of Duke Albert of Lorraine. His 
life was spent in labor and study, and 
he became a teacher and a composer 
of high repute. Much of his work is 
extant, and many of his composi- 
tions in manuscript form are to be 
found in the Vatican library. The 
works are noted less for their artistic 
value than for the skill shown by the 
composer in writing for many voices, 
and the handling of many separate 
parts. Mention should be made of a 
mass for forty-eight voices in twelve 
choirs, and a festival mass and hymn, 
vocal and instrumental, in fifty-six 
parts. Benevoli was born at Rome, 
studied under Vincenzo Ugolini, and 
became chapelmaster in the Church of 
Saint Luigi de' Francesi, at Rome. 
Then for a time he was in the service 
of the Archduke of Austria in Vienna, 
but presently returned to his former 
post in Rome, at the Church Luigi de* 
Francesi; and was shortly afterward 
transferred to Santa Maria Maggiore. 
Following a brief tenure here, he was 
appointed choirmaster at the Vatican, 
a post which he retained till his death. 
He died in Rome, and was buried in 
the Church del Santo Spiritu in Sassia. 
Benincori (ben-in-c6'-re), A n g e I o 

Maria. 1779-1821. 

Italian dramatic composer. Author 
of several operas, his quartets are 
considered his best work. He was an 


excellent musician but with difficulty 
earned enough to pay for bare sub- 
sistence, and when positive success 
seemed near, died before its fulfil- 
ment. Just six weeks after his death 
the opera, Aladin, left unfinished by 
Isouard and completed by Benincori, 
met with a very enthusiastic recep- 
tion. The story of Benincori's life 
from his youth on is a record of 
need and disheartening struggle. He 
was born in Brescia, and after a course 
of musical training went with his 
brother, also a musician, to Spain. 
The brother died there, and Benincori, 
left without resources, returned to 
Italy. In Italy he brought out the 
opera Nitteti, which was later pro- 
duced in Vienna. In this city, meet- 
ing with Haydn, Benincori became so 
enthusiastic over Haydn's quartets 
that for a considerable period he 
wrote quartets exclusively. In Paris, 
whither he went in 1803, Benincori 
had two operas accepted, but these 
were never performed; and three 
operas that were brought out proved 
unsuccessful. He died at Paris, De- 
cember 30, 1821, and the opera Aladin 
met its enthusiastic reception Febru- 
ary 6, 1882. Benincori left behind 
considerable music in manuscript 

Bennett, George John. 1863- 

Contemporary English organist and 
composer, since 1895 organist and 
choirmaster at Lincoln Cathedral. He 
was born at Andover, Hampshire, 
England. From 1872 to 1878 was 
chorister in Winchester College 
Choir, won a scholarship at the Royal 
College of Music, London, studied 
there under Sir George Macfarren and 
Dr. Steggall, and then went to Ger- 
many to continue his work. At the 
Berlin Hochschule of Music he 
studied piano under Kiel and Barth 
and in Munich was a pupil of Rhein- 
berger in organ and composition and 
of Bussmeyer in piano. On his re- 
turn to London he was elected Fel- 
low of the Royal Academy of Music 
and later was appointed professor of 
harmony and composition at the Acad- 
emy. For a while he held the post 
of organist of St. John's Church, 
Wilton Road, London, and served as 
organist in various places prior to his 
appointment to the post at Lincoln 
Cathedral. For several years he has 
been conductor of the Lincoln Musi- 




cal Festival and he has conducted the 
Lincoln Musical Society and the Lin- 
coln Orchestral Society. In 1888 he 
received the degree of Bachelor of 
Music from the University of Cam- 
bridge and in 1893 the degree of Doc- 
tor of Music. He is Examiner of the 
Associated Board of the Royal Acad- 
emy of Music and the Royal College 
of Music and has acted as Examiner 
for musical degrees at the universities 
of Cambridge, Durham and London. 
Dr. Bennett is the author of church 
music, songs, part-songs, pieces for 
the piano, organ transcriptions, and 
orchestral compositions. 

Bennet, John. About 1570-about-1614. 

English madrigal writer who flour- 
ished at the close of the Sixteenth 
and beginning of the Seventeenth 
Century. Details of his biography are 
very meager, but Ravenscroft, in his 
Briefe Discourse, 1614, records John 
Bennet as a " Gentleman admirable 
for all kinds of Composures, either in 
Art, or Ayre, Simple or Mixt, of what 
Nature soeuer." In 1599 was pub- 
lished Bennet's Madrigalls to Foure 
Voyces, and on the title page they 
are declared as " being his first 
Works." He contributed five Madri- 
gals to the Briefe Discourse above- 
mentioned, and to The Triumphs of 
Oriana, the madrigal, a perennial 
favorite, All Creatures now are 
merry minded. Full of melody is his, 
Come, shepherds, follow me, and his, 
Thyrsis, sleepest thou? Few compo- 
sers in this field of musical expression 
have equaled him in long-con- 
tinued popularity. As is cited in 
Grove, Ravenscroft's judgment of the 
merits of John Bennet has been en- 
dorsed by posterity. 

Bennett, Joseph. 1831- 

An English musical critic and 
writer. He has served as musical 
critic of the Sunday Times, the Pall 
Mall Gazette, the London Graphic, and 
later as a member of the staff of the 
Musical Times and the Daily Tele- 
graph. He has written librettos for 
several of the well-known English 
composers of the day; writing the 
words to Sullivan's Golden Legend, 
Mackenzie's Rose of Sharon, and 
Bethlehem, Cowen's Ruth, and num- 
erous other compositions. For sev- 
eral years, 1885 to 1903, Mr. Bennett 
wrote the analytical programs for the 
London Philharmonic Society and the 


Monday and Saturday Popular con- 
certs. Among his published work are 
Letters from Bayreuth; a History of 
the Leeds Musical Festivals, written 
in collaboration with Mr. F. R. Spark; 
and Primers of Musical, Biography. 
Mr. Bennett is himself a musician. 
Before adopting his present profession 
he held the post of precentor at 
Weigh House Chapel, and was organ- 
ist at Westminster Chapel. He was 
born at Berkeley, Gloucestershire. 

Bennett, Sir William Steradale. 1816- 


English composer and pianist of 
great ability. He came from a musical 
family, his father being a musician 
and his father an organist and a song 
composer. When he was three years 
old, his father died and his education 
was carried on by his grandfather. At 
the age of eight he entered the choir 
of King's College Chapel. Cambridge, 
where he showed so much musical 
ability, that after two years he was 
sent to study at the Royal Academy of 
Music. Here he showed great talent, 
playing a concerto at a concert at the 
age of twelve and composing a con- 
certo of his own at the age of sixteen. 
In 1834, at the age of eighteen, he 
was elected organist of St. Anne's 
Chapel, Wandsworth. In 1836 the 
firm of Broadwood, piano-makers, 
were so much impressed by Bennett's 
ability as a composer, that they 
offered to pay his expenses for a year 
in Leipsic, so that he might have the 
advantage of study and the musical 
environment. Beside the year of study 
he had the great benefit of the friend- 
ship of Mendelssohn and Schumann. 
In 1840 he returned to Leipsic for an- 
other year's study. In 1843 he was 
unsuccessful as a candidate for the 
post of professor of music at Edin- 
burgh University. From 1843 to 1856 
he was giving concerts in London and 
in 1849 he founded the London Bach 
Society. He conducted the Philhar- 
monic concerts from 1856 to 1866 and 
the Leeds Musical Festival in 1858. 
In 1856 he was made permanent con- 
ductor of the Philharmonic Society 
and was also elected professor of 
music at the University of Cambridge, 
from which he received the degree of 
Doctor of Music, and in 1867 the de- 
gree of M.A. In 1866 he resigned as 
conductor of the Philharmonic Society 
to become principal of the Royal Acad- 
emy of Music. The honorary degree 



of D.C.L. was conferred upon him in 
1870 by the University of Oxford, and 
in 1871 he was knighted. He died 
after a very short illness, in 1865, and 
is buried in Westminster Abbey. 
Bennett has been called the first Eng- 
lish composer of great genius since 
Purcell. His best known works are 
the Concerto in F minor; the piano 
sextette; the overture. The Naiads; 
the sonata, The Maid of Orleans; the 
oratorio, The Woman of Samaria; 
and the cantata, The May Queen. 
Beside these he wrote a large number 
of piano pieces, orchestral music, part- 
songs, anthems, and songs. While 
Bennett cannot be called a great 
genius he is entitled to a high rank on 
account of the artistic finish and in- 
dividuality of his work, which is 
always refined and delicate. His 
piano music, which is very difficult 
from a technical standpoint, while not 
popular, is considered of great value 
for study and appeals strongly to in- 
dividuals. Bennett may be said to be 
a musician's composer. He was, be- 
side, a brilliant pianist and a thorough 
and popular teacher. 

Benoit (bun-wa), Pierre Leonard Leo- 
pold. 1834-1901. 

Belgian composer, opera conductor 
and writer on musical subjects. Born 
in Flanders. First studied music with 
his father and at seventeen entered 
the Conservatory of Brussels, where 
he studied counterpoint, fugue, and 
composition with Fetis and won two 
prizes. In 1856 he became conductor 
of the Pare Theatre of Brussels, 
where several of his musical plays 
and an opera, The Village in the 
Mountains, were successfully pro- 
duced. In 1857 he won the Grand 
Prize, with his Le Meurtre d'Abel and 
received a grant from the government, 
with which he made an extensive 
journey for study, visiting Leipsic, 
Dresden, Munich and Berlin. During 
this ^ period he composed an Ave 
Maria, which was performed in the 
Cathedral at Berlin; also six songs; 
twelve Pensees Naives; twelve motets; 
a number of piano pieces and a little 
cantata for Christmas, which he sent 
home. Upon returning to Brussels he 
produced his _ Solemn Mass, which 
made a great impression. In 1861 he 
went to Paris, where the Theatre 
Lyrique had accepted from him an 
opera. While waiting for its produc- 
tion, he conducted at the Bouffes 


Parisiens but his own opera was 
never put on. Returning to Brussels, 
he bent his energies to building up a 
Flemish musical movement, that 
ended in the establishment of a 
Flemish School of Music in Antwerp, 
of which Benoit was appointed direc- 
tor. Benoit's great ambition was a 
national school of music, as distinct 
from French and German music and 
he did everything possible in this 
direction, both by his compositions 
and by his writings on musical sub- 
jects, his pet idea being the use of 
Flemish traditions and the Flemish 
language in musical compositions. 
Benoit's most important works are a 
sacred quadrilogie; a piano concerto; 
the oratorios, Lucifer, and De Schelde; 
the opera, Isa; the cantata, War; the 
choral symphony. The Reapers; and 
the music to the dramas, Charlotte 
Corday and Willem de Zwijger. 

♦Benson, Harry. 1848- 

Contemporary teacher, organist and 
choirmaster. An Englishman by birth, 
but his professional life has been 
spent in America. He was born in 
Birmingham, and studied music in 
that city under Andrew Deakin. Came 
to Boston in 1869, and was graduated 
from the New England Conservatory 
in 1874. For eight years he was a 
member of the Conservatory faculty, 
and for the same length of time prin- 
cipal of the vocal department of the 
Boston Training School of Music. 
Mr Benson has held the post of 
organist and choirmaster in several 
Boston churches, and is actively en- 
gaged in that city as teacher of voice 
and piano. 

Berger, Francesco. 1834- 

Pianist and composer. His father 
was an Australian and his mother a 
Bavarian. He played in public at the 
age of eight. Received his musical 
education at Munich, Trieste and 
Leipsic, studying with Plaidy, Thal- 
berg and Hauptmann. He married 
Miss Lascelles, well known as a 
vocalist. _ In 1868 he established the 
Apres-midi instrumentales for the 
study of concerted piano music. 
Berger was a personal friend of 
Charles Dickens, and composed the 
overtures and the music to the plays. 
The Lighthouse, and The Frozen 
Deep, which were written by Wilkie 
Collins and in which Dickens and his 
friends appeared. Berger is professor 




of piano at the Royal Academy of 
Music and at the Guildhall School of 
Music, IS a director and secretary 
of the Philharmonic Society and a 
member of the Incorporated Society 
of Musicians. 

Berger, Ludwig. 1777-1839. 

German composer, pianist and 
teacher. Born in Berlin, where his 
father was an architect. Began 
studying there very early, and made 
great progress under Clementi, in 
1804, and went with him to St. Peters- 
burg, also to Stockholm and London, 
becoming famous as a pianist and 
teacher. From 1815 until his death he 
taught in Berlin, where he had many 
famous pupils, among them, Mendels- 
sohn, Henselt, Taubert and Fanny 
Hensel, Mendelssohn's sister. On 
account of his melancholy tempera- 
ment, he lived a very retired life, 
which interfered with his musical 
career. His compositions are mainly 
works for the piano, including studies, 
concertos, a toccata and a rondo. He 
also wrote the opera, Oreste; some 
cantatas; male quartets and songs. 

* Berger, Wilhelm. 1861- 

Composer and piano teacher. Born 
in Boston of German parents, but was 
taken to Germany when only a year 
old. From 1878 to 1882 he studied in 
the Hochschule of Berlin, under Kiel. 
Berger has lived in Berlin for many 
years as a composer and a successful 
teacher. His principal compositions 
are his settings of Goethe's Meine 
Gottin, which won a prize of two 
thousand marks in 1898; his Gesang 
der Geister; Todtentanz, which was 
performed by the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra; many piano pieces, part- 
songs and over eighty songs. Berger 
is the conductor of the Meiningen 
Orchestra of Berlin. 

Berggreen (berkh'-gran), Andreas 

Peter. 1801-1880. 

Danish organist, teacher and com- 
poser. His parents intended that he 
follow _ law as a profession, but he 
maintained an early fondness for 
music and devoted himself to this art. 
He was born at Copenhagen, and 
began composing, when very young. 
His opera, The Picture and the Bust, 
was produced in 1832. Berggreen's 
most valued works are his volumes 
of national songs, songs for use in 
school, and his church music. A col- 


lection of Psalm Tunes was published 
in 1853, which subsequently was 
adopted by the churches throughout 
Denmark. In 1838 he was appointed 
organist of Trinity Church, in 1843 
professor of vocal music at the Metro- 
politan School, and in 1859 inspector 
of public schools. Previous to the 
last appointment he had established 
a musical association for working 

Bergmann (berkh'-man), Carl. 1821- 


Eminent conductor who held an im- 
portant place in the progress of music 
in America. Carl Bergmann was born 
in Ebcrsbach, Saxony, studied in Zit- 
tau under Zimmermann, and in Breslau 
was a pupil of Hesse. Bergmann 
came to America in 1850, and as vio- 
loncellist toured the eastern cities 
with the Germania Orchestra, an 
organization of German musicians, of 
which he became conductor. He en- 
tered the New York Philharmonic 
Orchestra in 1855, and with Eisfeld, 
conducted alternately till 1862, at 
which date he became sole conductor, 
and so remained until his death in 
New York in 1876. His successor 
was Leopold Damrosch. To music 
lovers in America, Carl Bergmann 
rendered great service in introducing 
here the works of Liszt and Wagner. 
Theodore Thomas was the first to 
make Americans well acquainted with 
Wagner, but, as Upton says, the credit 
for giving the first performance, in 
this country, of a Wagner composi- 
tion, the overture to Tannhauser, 
belongs to Carl Bergmann. In Theo- 
dore Thomas' Autobiography there is 
given this view of that great conduc- 
tor's association with Bergmann and 
a personal estimate of the man: "It 
has been said by those who are un- 
familiar with the history of that time, 
that Bergmann was my model in con- 
ducting. This is incorrect. Eckert 
. . . was the one who influenced 
me, and from whom I learned. He, 
(Bergmann) lacked most of the quali- 
ties of a first-rank conductor, but he 
had one great redeeming quality for 
those days, which soon brought him 
into prominence, he possessed an 
artistic nature, and was in sympathy 
with the so-called ' Zukunft Musik ' 
(music of the future)." 

Previous to his occupancy of the 
post of conductor of the New York 
Philharmonic Society, Bergmann con- 



ducted the concerts of the Handel 
and Haydn Society of Boston; and 
in New York for several years con- 
ducted the German male chorus 
"Arion." In 1854 Bergmann went to 
Chicago, and here was engaged to 
take charge of the Philharmonic So- 
ciety, but dissensions arising, he left 
early in 1855 and returned to New 
York. This same year a series of 
chamber concerts under the name of 
Mason and Bergmann was instituted, 
at which concerts Bergmann played 
violoncello, Theodore Thomas first 
violin, and Mason was pianist. Long 
afterward Thomas declared that the 
first programs of Mason and Berg- 
mann sounded the war-cry of death, 
to stale and meaningless music, and 
proclaimed progress. Krehbiel, writ- 
mg in Grove, pays this tribute to 
Carl Bergmann: " Bergmann was the 
pioneer in America of the new school 
of conductors, as distinguished from 
the old class of mere time-beaters. 
He was strongly individual and asser- 
tive in his interpretations, a radical, 
and an enthusiastic and devoted 
champion of Liszt and Wagner." 

♦Beringer, Oscar. 1844- 

Distinguished contemporary pianist 
and eminent teacher, active in musical 
afifairs in London. He was born in 
Baden, Germany, but was taken to 
London at the age of five, his father 
being a political refugee. Up to the 
age of nineteen, he received his tuition 
from an elder sister. At the age of 
sixteen he commenced giving a series 
of recitals at the Crystal Palace, and 
when he was seventeen made his first 
appearance at the world-renowned 
Saturday concerts of the Crystal 
Palace. From 1864 to 1866 he 
studied at Leipsic under Moscheles, 
Reinecke, Richter and Plaidy, and 
later on continued his studies at Ber- 
lin under Tausig, at whose school, in 
1869, he was appointed professor. He 
returned to England, in 1871, where 
he met with great success at the 
Saturday concerts, the Philharmonic 
Musical Union, and various other 
well-known societies. In January, 
1872, he went back to Leipsic to play 
at the Gewandhaus, returned again to 
England the following year and set- 
tled there permanently. In 1872 he 
founded, in London, the Academy for 
the Higher Development of Piano 
Playing, an institution highly success- 
ful until its close in 1897. In 1882 he 


played the solo part in Brahms' 
second Piano Concerto on the occa- 
sion of its first performance in Eng- 
land. In 1885 he was invited by the 
Royal Academy of Music to join their 
professorial staff, being elected to the 
Committee of Management in 1898. 
He has been a director of the Phil- 
harmonic Society for many years and, 
since 1900, has served on the Com- 
mittee of Management of the Asso- 
ciated Board of the Royal Academy 
of Music and Royal' College of Music. 
His published works include an An- 
dante and Allegro for piano and 
orchestra, sonatinas for the piano, sev- 
eral songs, a largely used Tutor, and 
a book of Daily Technical Studies 
which has enjoyed continued success. 
In 1907 he gave a course of lectures 
at the Royal Academy of Music, em- 
bodying his experiences of fifty years' 
playing and teaching, which lecture 
he has recently enlarged and published 
in book form under that same title. 
His venture in founding a school for 
the higher development of piano-play- 
ing met with the highest and well 
deserved success, marking, as it did, 
the commencement in England of the 
modern school of piano-playing. 

Beriot (dil-bar-yo), Charles Auguste 

de. 1802-1870. 

Famous violinist. Born in Belgium 
of French parents. At nine years of 
age, he was left an orphan, without 
means, the noble family from which 
he came having lost everything 
through the French Revolution. He 
was, however, well cared for by his 
guardian, Tiby, who also gave him the 
thorough foundation in music which 
made him the great master that he 
was. His talent developed so rapidly 
that, at the age of nine, he was able 
to play one of Viotti's concertos. 
From this time on the influence of 
his friend Jacotot, the scholar and 
philosopher, had a great effect upon 
his life and work, giving him that 
perseverance and energy that over- 
came all obstacles. At the age of 
nineteen he left his native place and 
went to Brussels, where, for a short 
time, he worked with Robrecht, a 
pupil of Viotti's, who was especially 
noted for his fine style. Going to 
Paris, De Beriot played before the 
celebrated violinist Viotti, who told 
him that he had already a fine style 
and should give all his time to per- 
fecting it, hearing all men of talent 





and profiting by everything, but imi- 
tating no one. Viotti also advised him 
to enter the Conservatory, which he 
did, becoming a pupil of Baillot, then 
at the head of the violin department. 
He remained here only a few months, 
however, as he preferred to do his 
studying and work alone. He soon 
began to appear publicly in concerts 
and was brilliantly successful from 
the beginning. In 1826 he visited 
England, appearing with the greatest 
success at the Philharmonic Society. 
On returning to Belgium he was 
appointed solo violinist to William T., 
King of the Netherlands, and this 
position he held until he lost it 
through the Revolution of 1830. He 
now formed a concert company with 
Malibran, the famous contralto and 
Lablache, the celebrated and magnifi- 
cent basso, and for the next five years 
they traveled and gave concerts in 
France, Italy, Belgium and England, 
meeting with great success. In 1836, 
when Madam Malibran secured her 
divorce from her former husband, she 
married De Beriot, who was devotedly 
attached to her. This marriage, which 
was a very happy and congenial one, 
ended in a few months, when Mali- 
bran died of injuries, received from a 
fall from her horse. De Beriot re- 
tired to Brussels and did not appear 
for more than a year. In 1840 he 
made a concert tour through Ger- 
many, where he married Marie Huber. 
In this year he also became identified 
with the Royal Conservatory of Music 
at Brussels and, in 1843, was appointed 
professor of violin-playing, which 
position he held until 1852, when his 
eyesight failed. In 1858 he became 
totally blind. Many of his pupils 
became distinguished players, Vieux- 
temps being the most noted. De 
Beriot's works consist of seven violin 
concertos; eleven sets of variations; 
several books of studies; some sonatas; 
and four trios for the piano, violin 
and cello. His book of instruction 
for the violin is one of the best ever 
written. De Beriot is considered the 
founder of the Franco-Belgium School 
of violinists, as distinguished from the 
Classical French School founded by 
Viotti. He was noted for his deft 
and easy bowing and his playing was 
remarkable for grace and elegance and 
for accuracy of tone. 

Berlioz (bar-li-os), Hector. 1803-1869. 

Indomitable is the word which 
should be emphasized in any review of 
the life of Hector Berlioz. In the 
adoption of music, as a profession, 
Berlioz had to go against the dearest 
wish of his father, and deep-rooted 
prejudices of his mother, and give up 
a life of comfort and ease for a 
Bohemian existence, whose freedom 
was rather dearly bought at times. 
And as leader in a new movement, 
Berlioz followed during his entire life 
the rock-strewn path of the reformer. 
Hector Berlioz was born Dec. 11, 
1803, at Cote-Saint-Andre, France, a 
little town near Grenoble. His father 
was a country doctor of very con- 
siderable reputation and a well-estab- 
lished practice, and what more natural 
than that the son should be expected 
to follow where the father had been 
so successful? "Never, perhaps, was 
there a more unfortunate milieu for a 
man of genius. Handel, who was also 
a doctor's son, found one staunch sup- 
porter at home; Schiller, after a long 
struggle succeeded in conciliating his 
mother's antagonism, but Berlioz had 
both battles to fight at the same time. 
No opportune ally came to carry him 
oflf, as Frankh carried off Haydn; no 
Crown Prince surrounded his early 
efforts with the splendors of imperial 
patronage; alone and unaided he had 
to scale an immovable earthwork of 
argument under a galling fire of 
appeal and invective." 

But there was a pleasant, sunny 
childhood, though mention might be 
made of the precocious sad love affair; 
the lad of eleven enamored with the 
maid of eighteen, Estelle of the 
" shining eyes " and " pink shoes." 
And mention might be made of the 
fact that a half-century later, Estelle, 
a half-century older, still had power 
to move the heart of Hector Berlioz. 
Some little instruction in music Ber- 
lioz received as a boy, learning to 
play on the flageolet, flute and guitar, 
his father believing in music as an 
accomplishment if not as an vocation. 
By himself, he made some study of 
harmony, and certain fragments of 
composition mark this period. En- 
thusiasm for the great world of music 
was fired by the reading of the 
biographies of musicians, and the dis- 
covery in his father's library of some 
bits of Gluck's Orfeo. It was with 
anxiety that the father noticed this 




enthusiasm, and with all haste sent off 
young Hector to the Medical School 
m Paris, 

But the Academy saw more of him 
than the Medical School. And at- 
tendance at the opera bringing back 
remembrances of Orfeo, Berlioz took 
to haunting the Conservatory library, 
spending his days in the study of 
Gluck's scores. He now wrote his 
father that he had fully made up his 
mind to become a musician. The 
heated argument that came in reply 
did not change this decision; neitlaer 
did the cutting-off of his allowance 
that finally resulted. He lived in a 
garret, on a fare of bread and dates, 
taught what pupils he could get, and 
when in extremity hired out as 
chorus-singer at the Theatre de Nou- 

Berlioz, who had applied for les- 
sons of Lesueur, after some prelimi- 
nary training had become his pupil. 
This inspiring teacher first treated 
Berlioz with consideration, and he 
made rapid progress, at the end of a 
few months of study being able to 
compose a mass for the Church of St. 
Roch, In 1823, through Lesueur, he 
was admitted as a regular pupil at the 
Conservatory; here, impatient of aca- 
demic method, he came into friction 
with various professors, and between 
him and Cherubini, the director, 
there arose an active hostility. A 
pioneer in the Romantic movement, 
Berlioz was looked upon as a rebel, 
but amid all the opposition of con- 
servative leaders he very seldom fal- 
tered; he believed in himself and held 
to his ideals with unfaltering courage. 

The Mass of St. Roch, which on the 
day of full rehearsal proved impossi- 
ble of performance, Berlioz rewrote; 
then borrowed money of a friend to 
pay concert expenses, and with it 
scored a well-deserved success. The 
mass was succeeded by the following 
compositions: Eight scenes from 
Faust, the overtures Les Franc-Juges 
and Waverley, Symphonic Fantastique 
and Fantasie on Shakespeare's Tem- 
pest. But it was not until the appear- 
ance of his cantata, La Mort de 
Sardanapale, that the judges of the day 
were ready to give him the stamp of 
their approval. Once and again he 
had tried for the Prize of Rome, the 
winning of which meant several years 
of freedom from the harassment of 
poverty; the third time of trial, he 
won the second prize, consisting of a 


laurel wreath, a gold medal, and a 
free pass to the opera; a fourth time, 
and kept out by conservatism and 
hostility, Berlioz was now in actual 
want; a fifth time, and at last the 
prize was gained, with the cantata 
Sardanapalus. At the presentation of 
La Mort de Sardanapale, Franz Liszt 
was present and applauded with most 
generous enthusiasm. 

By the terms of the Prize of Rome, 
three years were to be spent in travel, 
the first two in Italy. But Berlioz 
remained only a year and a half, by 
the expiration of that time being so 
homesick for France, and so dis- 
dainful of the musical Italy of the 
day, that he petitioned to be allowed 
to go back to Paris, which petition 
was granted. With the exception of 
La Captive, the finest of his songs, the 
work done by Berlioz in Italy was not 
of much importance. On his return 
home he was greeted with the news 
that Miss Henrietta Smithson was 
again in Paris. Before his departure 
he had experienced a violent fancy for 
this lady, a celebrated Irish actress, 
appearing before the Paris public in 
interpretations of Shakespearian roles. 
To Berlioz's advances the actress had 
not responded very encouragingly, 
but had shown herself rather fearful 
of his demonstrations. Though Ber- 
lioz in the meantime had let his 
fancy wander, the return of Miss 
Smithson brought back the feeling 
aroused in him when first he saw her 
at the Odeon impersonating Ophelia 
and Juliet. After a more or less 
tempestuous courtship, Berlioz and 
Miss Smithson embarked on matri- 
mony, the wedding-day hastened by 
reason of the retirement of the actress 
from the stage, caused by a fractured 
ankle and promise of permanent lame- 
ness. Berlioz thus tells what consti- 
tuted her dowry and his prospects: 
" On the day of our marriage she had 
nothing in the world but debts and 
the fear of never again being able to 
appear to advantage on the stage. 
My property consisted of 300 francs, 
borrowed from a friend, and a fresh 
quarrel with my parents." 

Their early married life moved on 
bravely in spite of their poverty. If 
subsistence was pretty bare, life was 
enriched by the friendship of Liszt, 
and by the birth of a son, Louis. Of 
this son Berlioz was passionately fond 
to the end. In the course of time the 
husband and wife became estranged, 




and finally separated, in 1840; though 
a certain friendship continued between 
them to the death of Henrietta, four- 
teen years after the separation. Ber- 
lioz's infatuation for Henrietta Smith- 
son was characteristic of his ardent, 
impetuous nature, as was also charac- 
teristic his generous insistence on 
their marriage when she was ill and 
penniless, and, after the estrangement, 
the support of Henrietta out of his 
very limited income. Perhaps char- 
acteristic, also, was his entanglement 
with that mediocre person. Mademoi- 
selle Martin Recio, whom, after the 
death of his wife he married. Ma- 
demoiselle Recio was a singer, with 
ambitions considerably greater than 
her ability. 

The years immediately succeeding 
his marriage to Henrietta Smithson 
were years of strain and stress but 
make up a period of his life rich in 
results. Although forced to turn to 
journalism as a means of adding to 
his exceedingly uncertain income, Ber- 
lioz, amid all the difficulties and 
drudgery, produced the following com- 
positions: The cantata on the death 
of Napoleon; the symphonies, Harold 
en Italie, Symphonic Funebre et 
Triomphale, Romeo et Juliette; the 
three-act opera, Benvenuto Cellini; 
various songs; the ballad, Sara la 
Baigneuse; and the wonderful Re- 
quiem. The money obtained from 
The Requiem and the symphonies 
made it possible for him to give up 
journalism, to indulge in a little 
travel, and to devote much more time 
to the art he adored. Travel abroad 
had been a long-cherished wish, and 
he now set out to try his fortune, 
and to seek inspiration away from 
home. In Germany, the French corn- 
poser was received most enthusiasti- 
cally, by the public as well as by the 
great masters, and the appreciation 
and plaudits there bestowed must 
have been balm to his spirit, at this 
time much disturbed by domestic 
upheaval and the grudgingly yielded 
approval of his countrymen. Visits 
made later to Austria and Russia 
added to the laurels now thick upon 
his brow, but Paris still remained cold 
to the son who so eagerly desired her 
favor. A new composition brought 
back from Austria, La Damnation de 
Faust, was produced in Paris, in 1846, 
before an audience small in numbers 
and lukewarm in appreciation. This 
work was most typical of Berlioz. 


and in this cantata his genius, and his 
defects, were most emphasized. 

To understand the attitude of the 
French toward Berlioz, one must 
remember, that in his day, he was 
looked upon as a rebel. Year after 
year of Berlioz's life was marked by 
what Hadow so well phrases as " con- 
tinued failure of high aims." The 
greatest French composer of his day 
was " left to starve because he wrote 
his best." Reyer, the distinguished 
composer and writer, declares that 
probably no musician has ever been 
more ridiculously criticized, more 
scoffed at, more insulted than Berlioz 
during the greater part of his career. 
The critic of the Revue des Deux 
Mondes condemned the work of Ber- 
lioz after this fashion: "The Chinese 
who amuse their leisure moments by 
the sound of the tom-tom; the savage 
who is roused into fury by the rubbing 
together of two stones, make music of 
the kind composed by M. Hector Ber- 

Not until after his death did Berlioz 
meet with justice in his own country. 
His genius was widely recognized 
abroad, but at home full appreciation 
came very late. It was his Te Deum, 
written for the Paris Exhibition in 
1855, that won for him partial recogni- 
tion; but the history of his life in the 
city he so loved is a record of hard- 
won success followed by heart-break- 
ing failure. His last work, the opera 
of Les Troyens a Carthage, which he 
hoped to have rank as his masterpiece, 
after a very short run was driven from 
the boards. But at this time apprecia- 
tion from without continued to be 
shown him. His little opera, Beatrice 
et Benedict, produced at Baden, en- 
joyed great success. An invitation, 
which was not accepted, came from 
America, an offer of 100,000 francs, 
if Berlioz would go to New York. An 
Imperial invitation from Russia he did 
accept, and in Russia again met with 
cordial welcome. 

Berlioz's last days were somber and 
lonely. His wife died in 1862. His 
son Louis, serving in the French 
navy, came to an untimely death at 
Havana in 1867. Private sorrow, and 
public indifference, mark the end of 
his career. Though Berlioz was in a 
sense without honor in his own coun- 
try, yet the highest honors the 
country could bestow were yielded 
him. He had a seat in the Academy, 
and wore the ribbon of the Legion of 




Honor. In 1852 he received appoint- 
ment to the post of Librarian of the 
Conservatory, a post that he occupied 
till his death. At the end, which 
occurred in Paris, March 9, 1867, he 
asked to be carried back to Paris to 
die. He was laid to rest with stately 
pomp and ceremony. A decade later, 
a Berlioz commemorative concert was 
given, with the Hippodrome filled to 
the roof. Bust and statue the awak- 
ened French people have put in place 
in honor of Berlioz. In 1903 the cen- 
tenary of Berlioz's birth was duly 
celebrated in Paris, the " proud, dis- 
dainful city" whose meed he so bit- 
terly craved. 

The following are the most impor- 
tant of Berlioz's compositions: The 
Requiem, composed in memory of the 
fall of General Damremont and the 
French loss in Algiers; the Te Deum; 
the dramatic legend, La Damnation de 
Faust; the trilogie, L'Enfance du 
Christ; the opera Benvenuto CelHni; 
the comic opera Beatrice et Benedict; 
the grand opera Les Troyens; and his 
orchestral compositions, the chief of 
which are the overture Le Carnaval 
Romain, and the symphonies Harold 
en Italic and Romeo et Juliette. It 
is as master of the orchestra that 
Berlioz holds unquestioned rank, 
taking place beside Beethoven, ^/yag- 
ner and Dvorak. The dramatic vivid- 
ness of his music may at times 
startle, but it must be understood that 
Berlioz perceived a not altogether 
fanciful connection between emotion 
and musical expression. Today he 
stands as one of the great masters in 
the field of descriptive music and 
also program music. Hadow, writing 
in Grove, says " Berlioz knew the ca- 
pacities of the diflferent instruments 
better than the virtuosi who played 
them. His work . . . marks a 
new era in Instrumentation, and has 
been directly or indirectly the guide 
of every composer since his day." 
Berlioz's criticisms of the musicians of 
his day were unequaled, but it should 
be noted that he was the first musician 
in Europe who truly appreciated 
Beethoven. His criticisms, like his 
compositions, are, first of all, original, 
fearless opinions fearlessly expressed, 
and the expression, marked by charm 
and force, makes his writings on music 
of unusual literary value. The list of 
his literary and critical works is as 
follows: Voyage Musical, etudes sur 
Beethoven, Gluck et Weber; Les 

Soirees de I'Orchestre; Les Grotesques 
de la Musique; A Travers Chants; 
Memoires de Berlioz; Correspondance 
inedite; Lettres Intimes, and Les Mu- 
siciens et la Musique. In spite of 
whatever is bizarre and erratic, in 
Berlioz's work, no one can deny to 
him great imaginative faculty. An 
artist of rare creative power, Berlioz 
is compared to that other most 
original Frenchman, Victor Hugo. 

Bernard (ber-nar), fimile. 1845-1902. 

Distinguished French organist and 
composer of the new school. He was 
born at Marseilles and studied under 
Reber, Benoist, and Marmontel at the 
Paris Conservatory, where he won 
prizes for organ, piano and counter- 
point, and was considered a remark- 
able pupil. In 1877 an organ fantasie 
and fugue written by Bernard, gained 
the prize offered by the Societe des 
Compositeurs de Paris. Until 1895, 
he held the position of organist at 
Notre-Dame-des-Champs, Paris. His 
compositions include two cantatas, 
Guillaume le Conquerant and La Cap- 
tivite de Babylone; a sonata for piano 
and violin; sonata for piano and vio- 
loncello; trio for piano; quartet for 
piano; two orchestra suites; a violin 
concerto; and many works for the 

Bertin (ber-tan), Louise Angelique. 


French composer, pianist and con- 
tralto singer, also an artist and poet. 
Studied composition with Fetis and 
was so impatient for results, that she 
began composing at once. This im- 
patience was, perhaps, the cause of 
the defects in her work, for in spite 
of her great talent, she was not will- 
ing to give the time and work neces- 
sary to a thorough foundation. Her 
compositions were however successful 
in the main. She wrote the operas 
Guy Mannering, Le Loup Garou, 
Faust, Notre Dame de Paris, and 
Esmeralda; also string quartets and 
trios; choral pieces and songs. Al- 
though Victor Hugo himself arranged 
the libretto of Notre Dame de Paris, 
it was unsuccessful. 

Bertini (ber-te'-ne), Henri. 1796-1876. 
Brilliant pianist and talented com- 
poser, who belonged to a very musical 
Italian family, his father and older 
brother being also musicians. Born 
in London, he studied first under his 




father and afterward under his older 
brother Auguste, who was a pupil of 
dementi. Henri began playing in 
public very early and at twelve was 
taken on a concert tour through the 
Netherlands and Germany by his 
father. After studying some time 
longer in Paris, he made visits to 
England and Scotland, but returned 
to Paris, in 1821, and remained there 
until 1856, when he retired to his villa 
at Meylan near Grenoble, where he 
lived in seclusion until his death. His 
best known works are his etudes for 
the piano, which are noted for their 
technical construction, their fine har- 
mony and beautiful melody and which 
are very valuable for study. He also 
wrote many other piano compositions, 
a number of pieces for piano and 
strings and piano and wind-instru- 
ments, also three symphonies for 
piano and orchestra. 

Bertinotti (ber-tin-not'-te), Teresa. 

A very successful Italian soprano. 
She was born at Savigliano in north- 
ern Italy and died at Bologna. Her 
parents moved to Naples when Teresa 
was two years old and in this city at 
the age of four she began receiving 
instruction in music. She was gifted 
with remarkable beauty as well as 
musical talent, and having had the 
benefit of excellent training, her ap- 
pearance in various Italian cities, 
Florence, Milan, Venice and Turin, 
was attended with the greatest suc- 
cess. In Venice she married Felice 
Radicati, a violinist and composer, 
but on the stage retained the name of 
Bertinotti. She was immensely popu- 
lar in Vienna, sang before the court 
at Munich and was invited by the 
King of Holland to visit The Hague. 
In London she was very well liked in 
Mozart's opera Cosi fan tutte and the 
Flauto Magico, and through Madame 
Bertinotti's influence various Mozart 
operas were produced in London at 
this time, about 1810 to 1812. Follow- 
ing her visit to England she returned 
to Italy. In 1823 her husband, who was 
settled at Bologna, met with an acci- 
dent that resulted in his death, at 
which time she retired from the stage. 
After _ her retirement, Madame Ber- 
tinotti became esteemed as a teacher 
of singing. 

Berton (ber-ton), Henri Montan. 


French opera composer who was 
very popular in his day. He was the 
son of a distinguished father, Pierre 
Montan Berton, musical composer and 
conductor; and father of Frangois 
Berton, a composer and teacher of 
some note. Henri was born in Paris 
and at a very early age evinced de- 
cided musical talent; when only six 
years old he could read music readily, 
and at fifteen was violinist in an opera 
orchestra. He studied under Rey and 
Sacchini, but his works suggest want 
of a systematic education. A great 
deal of Berton's knowledge of music 
was obtained from the operas he at- 
tended, wherefore in his compositions 
there is much that is reminiscent. 
Arnong the first to give Berton recog- 
nition as a writer, was the dramatic 
composer Sacchini, at the time resid- 
ing in Paris, who saw no little prom- 
ise in a work of Berton's brought to 
his notice, it is said, by the celebrated 
singer. Mile. Mailard, mother of Ber- 
ton's illegitimate son, the Frangois 
referred to above. After winning 
some success as a writer of oratorios, 
Berton turned his attention to the 
field of light opera. In 1787 a favor- 
able reception was given two operas 
of his, Les promesses de mariage and 
La Dame invisible; the latter opera 
written during the early days of his 
passion for Mile. Mailard, who, it 
would seem, both inspired the work 
and was successful in bringing it into 

Berton has rank among the masters 
of French comic opera, but not a 
pre-eminent place. While bits of his 
operas keep their popularity, the 
works themselves have fallen into 
obscurity. He was the author of 
more than forty operas, also of ora- 
torios and cantatas. Special mention 
may be made of the operas Le Delire, 
Aline, ou la Reine de Golconde, and 
Frangoise de Foix. Montano et Ste- 
panie is his most ambitious work. 
Henri Berton held various posts of 
honor in Paris, was professor of har- 
mony at the Conservatory, later of 
composition; in 1807 was conductor of 
Italian Opera; in 1815 was made mem- 
ber of the Institute of France. He 
was esteemed both at home and 
abroad, but his last days were shad- 
owed by waning popularity and finan- 
cial loss. 




Besozzi (ba-s6d'-ze). 

An Italian family, that for several 
generations contained members, who 
were distinguished players of wind- 
instruments. Alessandro, 1700-1775, 
was an oboe-player of remarkable 
skill, and also a composer. He wrote 
music for the violin, flute and oboe. 
He was born at Parma and died at 
Turin, at the time of his death being 
in the service of the King of Sardinia. 
Three of his brothers were celebrated 
players. The brother Antonio, 1707- 
1781, was an oboist of note and on 
Alessandro's death succeeded him at 
Turin. Hieronimo, born in 1713, died 
shortly after Antonio. He was a 
famous bassoon-player and the favor- 
ite and associate of Alessandro, giv- 
ing with him some noteworthy duet 
performances. Gaetano, the youngest 
of the four brothers, was a renowned 
oboe-player, much admired in Paris 
and London as well as Naples. An- 
tonio's son, Carlo, played the oboe in 
the Court band at Dresden. Gaetano's 
son, Hieronimo, who died in Paris, 
also played the oboe, and his son 
Henri was flute-player at the Opera 
Comique, Paris. Louis Desire Besozzi, 
1814-1879, the son of Henri, and the 
fourth generation of Besozzi musi- 
cians, was a distinguished pupil of the 
Paris Conservatory, where he studied 
under Lesueur. He was born at Ver- 
sailles, in 1825 entered the Paris Con- 
servatory and was here several times 
a prize-winner, in 1837 winning the 
Grand Prize of Rome. He was a 
teacher and composer. He made his 
home in Paris, and died in that city 
Nov. 11, 1879. 

Besson (bus-soA), Gustav Auguste. 


French manufacturer of musical in- 
struments, who made notable im- 
provements in the mechanism of 
wind-instruments. He was born in 
Paris, the son of a colonel in the 
French army, and early showed both 
a fondness for music and an interest 
in mechanics. He was barely eighteen 
when he produced an improved cor- 
net, the Besson Model, the name by 
which it is still called. He has place 
among the best makers of wind-in- 
struments, his numerous inventions 
and improvements being of the high- 
est value. His most noteworthy con- 
tribution was the Prototype System, 


which made possible the manufacture 
of any number of instruments exactly 

Bianchi (be-an'-ke), Francesco. 1752- 

Italian opera composer and teacher. 
Born at Cremona. Little seems to be 
known of his life up to his twenty- 
third year, when he was appointed 
orchestra conductor to the Italian 
Opera in Paris, in 1775. Here he 
composed his first operas, La Reduc- 
tion de Paris and Le Mort Marie. In 
1783 he went to Milan as assistant 
conductor at St. Ambrogio, and in 
1785 to Venice as second organist at 
St. Mark's. About 1793, Bianchi was 
called to London, where he was con- 
nected for seven years with the King's 
Theatre. He was engaged in teaching 
during the last ten years of his life 
and died by suicide at Hammersmith 
in 1810. Sir Henry Bishop was one 
of his famous pupils. Bianchi wrote 
the opera, Castore e Polluce for the 
debut of Storace, the English singer, 
and Inez de Castro for the first ap- 
pearance of Mrs. Billington. His 
opera Semiramide was also chosen, 
by the famous singer Banti, for her 
debut in England. Merope is con- 
sidered Bianchi's best work, though 
the Disertore Francese was perhaps 
the most popular. He wrote in all 
nearly fifty operas, beside oratorios 
and instrumental music. 

Biber (be'-ber), Heinrich Johann 

Franz von. 1644-1704. 

Eminent German composer and vio- 
linist. He did much to raise the art 
of violin-playing in Germany above a 
mere display of technique and his 
compositions are of true artistic 
value. Previous to him, German vio- 
lin-players and composers were domi- 
nated by the Italians. Biber is one 
of the founders of the German School, 
probably the foremost founder. A 
reformer, he was, as is rarely the case, 
with honor in his own country, en- 
joying the favor of prince and em- 
peror. Leopold I. raised him to the 
rank of nobleman and gave him the 
gift of a golden chain and money 
presents. The Bavarian princes, 
Ferdinand Marie and Maximilian 
Emanuel, were liberal patrons of 
Biber's and in later life he served as 
high steward and music-director to 
the Prince Archbishop of Salzburg. 
He was born at Wartenberg, Bo- 





hernia and died at Salzburg. In the 
collection of the Salzburg Museum 
are manuscript works of Biber's, con- 
siderable church music and a Drama 
Musicale. His published compositions 
include six sonatas for the violin, a 
set of twelve sonatas in four and five 
parts and a collection of suites for 
three instruments. Biber was re- 
nowned both as a performer and com- 
*Biedermann (be'-der-man), August 

Julius. 1825- 

Contemporary German - American 
composer. He was born in Thurin- 
gia, Germany, and studied harmony 
under Andreas Zoellner of Meiningen. 
He came to America, in 1848, and set- 
tled in Milwaukee. After a residence 
there of ten years he removed to New 
York City, where he now lives. He 
is the author of numerous composi- 
tions for the piano and of several 
choruses with German text. 
♦Biedermann, Edward Julius. 1849- 

Contemporary German - American 
organist, teacher and composer, son 
of the preceding. He was born in 
Milwaukee, received his first training 
under his father, and studied in Ger- 
many from 1858 to 1864. Later he 
studied in New York City, and for a 
number of years was active as a 
pianist on the concert stage. He has 
held the post of organist in various 
New York churches, at present being 
organist of St. Mary's. Mr. Bieder- 
mann is the author of considerable 
church music, songs both sacred and 
secular, and has compiled, edited and 
revised several collections of organ 
music and numerous pieces for the 
piano. He has taught piano and theory 
in New York for a number of years, 
and served as musical editor for sev- 
eral publishing houses. 

Billings, William. 1746-1800. 

One of the pioneers of American 
music. Is said to be the first man 
who can claim the title of "American 
composer," as before his time all the 
music in the colonies was of English 
origin. Born in Boston. He had very 
little opportunity for education in his 
early life and his knowledge of music 
was entirely self-acquired, but though 
not constructed according to the rules 
of harmony and counterpoint, his 
compositions showed considerable 
musical genius, being much more 
pleasing in their vigor and melody 


than the old English tunes then in 
use. Later in life he wrote much 
more correctly and his music became 
so popular that it was used by the 
churches almost exclusively. Billings 
may really be considered as the 
founder of American church music. 
He wrote and published, between 1770 
and 1794, six collections of music, as 
follows: The New England Psalm 
Singer; The Singing Master's Assist- 
ant; Music in Miniature; The Psalm 
Singer's Amusement; The Suffolk 
Harmony; and The Continental Har- 
mony. These with his anthems were 
all of his music that was published. 
He is said to have introduced the 
cello into church choirs, to have first 
used the pitch-pipe and to have 
originated concerts in New England. 

Billington, Elizabeth. About 1768- 

Celebrated singer and pianist. She 
came of a musical family, her father, 
Carl Weichsel, a native of Saxony, 
being an oboist and her mother a 
well-known singer. She also had a 
brother who became an excellent vio- 
linist. Her musical training, carried 
on under her father's supervision, was 
very thorough and severe. At six she 
played the piano at her mother's bene- 
fit, at eleven she had composed two 
sets of sonatas for the piano, and at 
fourteen she appeared in public as a 
singer. At about sixteen she married 
James Billington and went to Dublin, 
where she began her career as an 
opera singer. On returning to Lon- 
don, in 1786, she appeared at Covent 
Garden with great success and was 
engaged for the season there and at 
the Concert of Ancient Music. She 
sang in England until 1794, when she 
went with her husband and brother 
to Italy to travel. While there she 
sang at Naples and Venice with the 
greatest success. Her husband died 
on this trip and, in 1799, she married 
again. Upon returning to England, 
in 1801, she appeared constantly and 
most successfully at Drury Lane, 
Covent Garden and many other places 
until 1811, when she retired from 
public life. In 1817 she became recon- 
ciled to her husband, from whom she 
had separated, and went with him to 
her country-place near Venice, where 
she died within a year. It is said 
that her voice was marvelous and her 
range wonderful but that she was a 
poor actress. 



* Bird, Arthur. 1856- 

American composer, who lives in 
Germany. Born in Cambridge, Mass. 
Went to Berlin at the age of nineteen 
and for two years studied the piano 
and theory with Laschhorn, Haupt and 
Rohde. In 1877 he returned to 
America and was organist at Halifax, 
Nova Scotia, where he also taught in 
several schools and organized a male 
chorus, the first in that province. He 
returned to Berlin in 1881, studying 
composition and orchestration with 
Heinrich Urban, and afterward spend- 
ing two years at Weimar with Liszt. 
Mr. Bird's first concert in BerUn, 
given in 1886, was very successful. 
After a visit to America the same 
year, he returned to Germany where 
he has lived ever since in Berlin. He 
won the Paderewski prize for cham- 
ber-music in 1901 with his serenade 
for wind-instruments. His other 
compositions are a comic opera 
Daphne, a ballet Rubezahl, a Sym- 
phony in A and three suites for the 
orchestra, beside many pieces for the 
piano and for piano and violin. 

Bird, Henry Richard. 1842- 

Contemporary English organist, who 
has won special distinction as an 
accompanist and who for several years 
was official accompanist of the Popu- 
lar concerts. At an early age, he 
appeared as an organist, having en- 
joyed a period of study under Thurle, 
with whom he made progress in 
various branches. He came to Lon- 
don, in 1859, served as organist at St. 
Mark's, Pentonville and Holy Trinity 
and also filled the post of organist at 
Chelsea and at St. Gabriel's, Pimlico. 
In 1872 he assumed the duties of his 
long service at St. Mary Abbotts in 
Kensington. In Chelsea, his rare 
skill as accompanist came to the fore, 
and in Kensington he began associa- 
tion with the distinguished singer, Mr. 
Plunket Greene, whose regular accom- 
panist he became. Mr. Bird was en- 
gaged, in 1891, as regular accompanist 
for the Popular concerts and held this 
unusual post until reorganization 
made its various changes. In 1896 
he became a member of the staff of 
the Royal College of Music. London. 

Bischo£F (be-sh'-6f), D. Ludwig Fried- 
rich Christian. 1794-1867. 
A German editor and writer, in his 
day of much influence and activity in 
musical matters. Son of a musician, 

from his earliest days breathing the 
atmosphere of music, he always 
showed a great interest in this art. 
He was born at Dessau, where his 
father was a court musician. He was 
entered at the University of Berlin, 
served as a volunteer in the war and 
was captured by the French. On his 
release he returned to the University 
and took his degree. He was a pro- 
fessor at Berlin for a while, and from 
1823 to 1849 was director of the 
Gymnasium at Wesel. During his long 
residence here, he took an active part 
in musical affairs. Following an in- 
terval of residence at Bonn, he settled 
in Cologne, and here spent the rest 
of his years. In this city he founded 
the Rheinische Musikzeitung, and 
was the founder of its successor, 
the Nieder-Rheinische Musikzeitung, 
which he edited until his death. Grove 
records that the tendency of his 
papers "was dead against that of the 
Neue Zeitschrift of Schumann and 
Brendel in regard to Wagner and 
Liszt." Bischoff's worship for Haydn, 
Mozart, and Beethoven, to whom he 
afterward added Mendelssohn, was so 
exclusive as to exclude his appre- 
ciating even Schumann, essential as 
he is in the development of modern 
music. On the other hand, his influ- 
ence on the music of the Lower 
Rhine was both good and great. He 
was the musical center of the energy 
and devotion which kept up the 
festivals of Cologne, Aix-la-Chapelle, 
and Diisseldorf, and through them 
acted so beneficially on the whole of 
Germany. Bischofif translated Ulibi- 
scheff's Beethoven into German. 

Bishop, Sir Henry Rowley. 1786- 

English dramatic composer. Born 
in London. He began composing at 
a very early age and studied under 
the noted Francesco Bianchi. At the 
age of eighteen 'he wrote the music 
to Angelina and a little later the 
music for the ballet Tamerlan et 
Bajazet, but was first brought into 
notice by his opera. The Circassian 
Bride, produced at the Drury Lane 
Theatre in 1809. The night after the 
performance, the theatre burned and 
with it the score of the opera, but it 
had been so well received that, in 
1810, the position of musical director 
at Covent Garden Theatre was offered 
to Bishop. The position was accepted 
and the engagement was twice re- 




newed, lasting until 1823. In 1813 
Bishop helped to found the Philhar- 
monic Society, and took his turn as 
conductor, and in 1819, with Mr. 
Harris, he undertook the direction of 
the oratorios. The second season, in 
1820, he carried them on alone, but 
gave them up the next year and re- 
turned to opera in 1825, by becoming 
conductor at the Drury Lane Theatre. 
In 1830 he became musical director at 
Vauxhall Gardens and in 1840 to 1841 
was again musical director at Covent 
Garden. At this time he composed 
The Fortunate Isles, to celebrate 
Queen Victoria's wedding. From 
1841 to 1843 he was professor of 
music in Edinburgh University; in 1842 
he was knighted, and, in 1848, was 
made professor of music in Oxford 
University, from which he had re- 
ceived the degree of Bachelor of 
Music, in 1839, and which gave him 
the degree of Doctor of Music in 1853. 
Bishop produced in all over one hun- 
dred and twenty-five operas, operettas, 
burlettas, ballets and other musical 
pieces. More than two-thirds of these 
were entirely his own, the others be- 
ing adaptations from other composers 
and works written in collaboration 
with other musicians. Beside the 
operas already mentioned some of his 
best known works are The Virgin of 
the Sun; The Knight of Snowdoun; 
The Miller and his Men; The Law of 
Java; Clari; Maid Marian; Cortez; 
Guy Mannering; and The Slave. He 
also wrote an oratorio. The Fallen 
Angel; a cantata. The Seventh Day; 
and music for three tragedies, The 
Apostate, Retribution, and Mirandola; 
beside arranging the first volume of 
Melodies of various nations and 
arranging and writing accompani- 
ments for three volumes of National 
melodies. He also edited The Mes- 
siah; a large collection of Handel's 
songs, and many other important 

Bispham (bisp'-ham), David S. 1857- 

Born in Philadelphia. Was educated 
at Haverford College, Pennsylvania. 
The possession of a fine barytone voice 
and a strong musical inclination, 
proved disastrous to the business 
career, for which he was intended, 
and after singing as an amateur in 
concert and oratorios and in the choir 
of a Philadelphia church, for several 
years, he went to Italy and studied 
at Milan under Vannuccini and Lam- 


perti. In 1899 he went to London, 
where he studied with Shakespeare. 
He made his debut at the Due de 
Longueville in the Basoche in 1891. 
Since then he has sung with the 
Royal Opera Company at Covent Gar- 
den and with the Metropolitan Opera 
Company in New York, singing the 
principle roles in French, German and 
Italian Opera. Bispham has appeared 
in all the leading barytone parts of 
the Wagner operas, also in Don 
Giovanni, Fidelio, Carmen, Hansel und 
Gretel and Otello. He also took 
part in the first production of the fol- 
lowing operas: Mascagni's Rantzau, 
Kienzl's Evangelimann, Paderewski's 
Manru, Cowen's Harold, Stanford's 
Much Ado About Nothing, and Miss 
Smyth's Der Wald. He was the 
original Chillingworth, when Walter 
Damrosch produced the Scarlet Letter 
in America. Bispham has also had 
great success as a concert singer and 
has done much for musical education 
in London, by the works which he 
gave in his series of recitals in that 
city. Since 1898 he has been a mem- 
ber of the Grand Opera Company 
both in London and New York. 

Bizet (be-za), Georges (Alexandre 
Cesar Leopold). 1838-1875. 
A brilliant and richly endowed com- 
poser, whose career, which promised 
so much, was cut short by death at 
the age of thirty-six, and whose mas- 
terpiece, Carmen, is the most popular 
and intensely dramatic, perhaps, of all 
the operas in the modern French 

Bizet, whose real given names were 
Alexandre Cesar Leopold, but whose 
uncle gave him the name of Georges, 
by which he was ever afterward 
known, was born in Paris and was 
the son of poor but talented parents, 
his father being a singing teacher and 
his mother an excellent pianist, who 
had taken prizes at the Conservatory. 
She was a sister of Mme. Delsarte, 
also a noted pianist, and Bizet's uncle, 
a musician, was the founder of the 
famous Delsarte system. His mother 
taught him the rudiments of music 
when he was four years of age and at 
nine he was sent to the Conservatory. 
He is said to have not cared par- 
ticularly for music in those days, but 
to have been exceedingly fond of 
books, with aspirations to become a 
writer. However, he learned to love 
his studies and made remarkable prog- 




ress under his teachers. They were 
Marraontel, who instructed him on the 
piano; Benoist, who taught him to 
play the organ; Zimmermann, from 
whom he learned harmony, and 
Halevy, who taught him composition 
and whose opera, Noah, he completed 
in after years, and whose daughter he 

When Bizet was fourteen he was 
a master of the piano, and delighted 
his teachers with the progress he 
made. He carried off prize after prize 
at the Conservatory and, in 1857, won 
the Offenbach first prize, jointly with 
Lecocq, for an opera buffa, entitled 
Le Docteur Miracle, which was pro- 
duced in Paris at the Bouffes Par- 
isiens with striking success six years 
later. He shortly afterward won the 
Grand Prize of Rome, and while 
studying in Italy, sent back to Paris, 
instead of the mass prescribed by the 
rules, an opera, Don Procopio, which 
was highly praised by Ambroise 
Thomas for its brilliancy and the 
freshness and boldness of its style. 
Bizet's next compositions were the 
two movements of a symphony; an 
overture, La Chasse d'Ossian; and a 
light opera, La Guzzla de I'Emir. 

After his return to Paris from 
Rome, in 1861, he taught music for a 
living and spent his spare time mak- 
ing piano arrangements of airs from 
other operas. Bizet did not at once 
gain the recognition through his com- 
positions that he had hoped for, al- 
though he wrote constantly. His 
operas were rather conventional and 
reminiscent of other works and it was 
only after the world had succumbed 
to the charm of Carmen, that they 
received any attention from musi- 
cians. His next works were the over- 
ture, Patrie, and his interludes to 
Daudet's L'Arlesienne (The Woman 
of Aries), afterwards published as two 
orchestral suites. His two operas. 
The Pearl Fishers (Les Pecheurs de 
Perles) and The Fair Maid of Perth, 
were produced at the Theatre Lyrique, 
Paris, the former in 1863, the latter in 
1867, but with only a fair amount of 
success. While composing the music 
to the last-named opera, Bizet often 
worked fifteen and sixteen hours a 
day, and supported himself by giving 
lessons, arranging dance music for or- 
chestras, correcting proofs and writing 
songs. It was his incessant industry 
and long hours of ceaseless activity 
that undoubtedly hastened his death 


When The Pearl Fishers was 
brought out it was applauded by 
some, while others criticized it in the 
harshest terms, attributing Wagnerian 
tendencies to the composer, and accus- 
ing him of copying Verdi and others. 
Berlioz alone praised it, and in later 
years musicians have agreed that it is 
a remarkable work to have been 
written by a man of only twenty-five. 
Bizet, shortly after its production set 
to work on the score of Noah, the 
biblical opera left unfinished by his 
former teacher, Halevy, and also 
wrote other music, most of which he 
destroyed. In 1869 he married 
Genevieve Halevy, the daughter of the 
operatic composer and teacher. After 
the invasion of France, he served in 
the national guard. 

Bizet's first success came with the 
overture to Sardou's Patrie, which 
was played at one of the Popular con- 
certs in Paris, shortly after their 
inauguration by Pasdeloup. His inci- 
dental music to Daudet's play, L'Ar- 
lesienne, given first in 1872, was most 
successful, and later, when arranged 
as two orchestral suites, was ex- 
tremely popular. The suite, Roma, 
was given under Pasdeloup's direc- 
tion, in 1869, at the Crystal Palace, 
London, and another suite, Jeux 
d'Enfants, also attracted a good deal 
of attention from musical critics. 
Carmen, the composer's masterpiece, 
an opera in four acts, with a libretto 
written by Meilhac and Halevy, after 
the famous novel of Prosper Merimee, 
was produced for the first time at the 
Opera Comique, Paris, in 1875, with 
Mme. Galli-Marie in the title role. 
Before the opera was brought out, it 
was eagerly awaited and its composer 
was looked upon as one of the most 
interesting personalities of the mod- 
ern French School. It was not, how- 
ever, an immediate success and its 
real vogue did not begin until it was 
sung in London three years later, 
with Mme. Minnie Hauck in the part 
of the cigarette girl. The picturesque- 
ness and beauty of the score failed 
to arouse any interest at the time of 
its first production. It was called by 
some, commonplace, by others, radi- 
cal and daring and the character of 
Carmen brutal and coarse. The critics 
and public alike were agreed that it 
was not a great work, or one destined 
to live. Tine night of its production, 
Bizet walked the streets of Paris till 
morning, because of his distress and 




disappointment at what he believed to 
have been a failure. He had, however, 
the greatest belief in the future fame 
of the work, and felt certain that it 
was worthy of success and bound to 
triumph eventually. He had always 
been a prodigious worker, and finally 
his overtaxed strength gave way. He 
was stricken with an attack of heart 
disease and died three months after 
the production of Carmen. Overwork 
and grief over the failure of the opera, 
upon which he had built such high 
hopes and which was destined to one 
day attain the utmost fame and popu- 
larity, were too much for him and he 
never lived to know of his success. 
Great hopes had been entertained of 
Bizet's future and his sudden death 
was universally regretted and la- 
mented. He died in the arms of his 
young wife, and left, besides his 
widow, a five-year-old son. 

Shortly after the composer's death, 
Carmen, once considered a failure, was 
acclaimed a success and now holds 
the stage for all time, in all prob- 
ability. L'Arlesienne has been heard 
and admired the world over and his 
earlier operas have been revived and 
sung in many lands and in many lan- 
guages. Although Bizet did not meet 
with any popular success during his 
lifetime, he was not exactly neglected 
by the public of his day as so many 
composers have been. L'Arlesienne 
and others of his works had given 
him an enviable reputation and he 
was decorated by his country with 
the red ribbon of the Legion of 

Carmen achieved a veritable triumph 
after it had been heard in London and 
its popularity is still undiminished. It 
is the greatest of all the composer's 
works and has a universal appeal and 
an eternal interest for all lovers of 

Bizet always loved to infuse into his 
works plenty of local color. The 
music of Carmen is peculiarly Spanish 
and the dance forms of the Spaniards, 
which they had borrowed from the 
Moors with their Oriental rhythm and 
grace, are freely used in it and un- 
doubtedly add much to its interest. 
The opera is a vital and brilliant work, 
apd its story is dramatic and impres- 
sive. With its thoroughly character- 
istic music and spirited action, it 
remains one of the greatest operatic 
works of the century and one that is 
destined to live. 


Bizet's fame and renown must rest 
upon L'Arlesienne and upon Carmen 
and his rank as an operatic composer 
must be decided by Carmen alone, as 
it placed him in the front rank of 
modern French composers. By some, 
L'Arlesienne is considered his great- 
est work. Its motive is a song of 
Provence, attributed by some to Lully 
and by others to King Rene. This 
orchestral suite, made from the inci- 
dental music to Daudet's tragedy, 
shows all the composer's rare drama- 
tic power and remains one of the best 
and most popular of concert pieces. 
It was first played at a Popular con- 
cert in Paris in 1872 and was first 
introduced to America by the late 
Theodore Thomas. 

Bizet's work throughout shows sin- 
cerity, a quality that most French 
composers lack, his instrumentation is 
skilful and scholarly and his melodies 
are marked by grace, originality and 
great beauty. In France the composer 
was known as one of the most fero- 
cious of the French Wagnerian school, 
as it was called, although he hated 
the phrase, despite his admiration for 
Wagner. He acknowledged a love for 
the works of Mozart, Beethoven, 
Rossini and Meyerbeer and his prefer- 
ence for and his indebtedness to the 
German composers, Wagner among 
the others. Although he never ap- 
peared in public as a pianist, Bizet 
used to delight his hearers in private 
salons with his exquisite playing. He 
was especially noted for his wonder- 
ful sight-reading of orchestral scores 
and was distinguished in a great many 
different ways. It was often said by 
his friends that if Bizet had not been 
a great musician he would undoubt- 
edly have been a man of letters, for 
he wrote as brilliantly as he com- 

His other works besides those men- 
tioned are the operas, Numa and 
Djamileh, produced at the Opera 
Comique in 1875; Ivan the Terrible, 
an opera never performed; a sym- 
phonic ode, Vasco da Gama; a sym- 
phony; a suite, Jeux d'Enfants; much 
piano music, including Venice, a song 
without words, Marine Nocturne, and 
transcriptions for both two and four 
hands; and twenty-six songs, among 
the most popular of which is Les 
Adieux de I'Hotesse Arabe. 

Bizet left few compositions and 
those that he did not destroy prior to 
his death were in such an unfinished 




state as to be practically illegible. 
Very few biographies of the composer 
have ever been written. The only 
important one was published by 
Charles Pigot in 1886 and is entitled 
Bizet and his Work. Mile. Cecile 
Chaminade, the famous composer and 
a pupil and friend of Bizet, contributed 
a brief but valuable article to the Cen- 
tury Library of Music, in which she 
praises him highly as man and musi- 

Black, Andrew. 1860- 

Accomplished contemporary Scotch 
barytone singer. He was born at 
Glasgow. After a period of service 
as an organist he made the discovery 
of the possession of a fine barytone 
voice. Following a course of study in 
London and Milan, he met with suc- 
cess in Scotland, and when he made 
his debut as a singer at the Crystal 
Palace, in 1887, was at once appre- 
ciated. He visited America, sang here 
occasionally in opera, and on his re- 
turn to England was shortly given 
place in the foremost rank of concert 
barytones. He has won notable suc- 
cess in the barytone part of Dvorak's 
Spectre Bride, and with his dramatic 
interpretation of Elijah. In 1893 he 
was appointed professor of singing at 
the Royal College of Music at Man- 

Blagrove, Henry Gamble. 1811-1872. 

A distinguished English violinist 
He was born in Nottingham, where 
his father, a professor of music, was 
his first teacher. He appeared in 
public when only five years old, and 
at the age of six played in a per- 
formance at Drury Lane Theatre. 
Before he was ten, he appeared daily 
in public at the Exhibition Rooms, 
Spring Gardens, London. In 1821 he 
became a pupil of Spagnoletti. When 
the Royal Academy of Music was 
opened, in 1823, he was enrolled 
among its first pupils, and the follow- 
ing year won a prize for proficiency. 
From 1832 to 1834 he studied under 
Spohr, in Germany. For several years 
he was solo violinist in Queen Ade- 
laide's private band, and at the corona- 
tion of Queen Victoria he held the 
place of leader of the State band. 
Grove states that for upwards of 
thirty years he occupied the position 
of concerto player and leader in all 
the best orchestras. He died in Lon- 

Blahetka, Marie Leopoldine. 1811- 

Brilliant Austrian pianist and a good 
composer. She showed musical ability 
very early and as a child of five was 
placed under Czerny, on the advice of 
Beethoven, who had heard her play. 
Later she studied the piano with 
Kalkbrenner and Moscheles and com- 
position with Sechter. After making 
a number of successful concert tours, 
she settled in Boulogne in 1840, where 
she devoted herself to teaching and 
composition. Her best works are an 
opera, Die Rauber und die Sanger, 
which was produced in Vienna in 
1830, and a concert piece for piano 
and orchestra. She wrote beside these 
many concertos, sonatas, polonaises, 
and rondos, for the piano, and the 
piano and violin and also many songs. 

Blake, Charles Dupee. 1847- 

American organist and song writer. 
Born in Walpole, Mass. Began 
studying music at the age of seven 
and composing at ten. Studied with 
J. D. C. Parker, J. K. Paine, T. P. 
Ryder and Handel Pond. After being 
organist at Wrentham and at Hollis- 
ton, Mass., he went to Boston as 
organist of the Bloomfield Street M. 
E. Church and later to the Union 
Church. His compositions which are 
very popular in character, number 
about three thousand, and consist of 
songs and piano pieces. He also 
wrote several large works, one of 
which. The Lightkeeper's Daughter, 
was produced in Boston in 1883. He 
has been connected with the music- 
house of White, Smith & Co., of 

Blangini (blan-je'-ne), Giuseppe 
Marco Maria Felice. 1781-1841. 

Italian composer, singer and teacher, 
who was very much the fashion in the 
Paris of his day. He was born at 
Turin, Italy, and died in Paris. 
Blangini was an indefatigable com- 
poser, possessed an exquisite tenor 
voice and was a much-sought teacher 
of singing, holding the post of music- 
director at various courts. At an 
early age he displayed a decided talent 
for music and at nine years old was 
studying in the chorister's school of 
the Turin Cathedral. At the age of 
twelve he wrote some sacred music, 
a vocal composition and an anthem. 
War drove his family from Italy in 
1797, and they found refuge in France, 



Blangini immediately going to the 
French capital, where he very soon 
won success as a teacher and a com- 
poser of songs, and later as an opera 
composer. In 1802 he was given 
commission to complete Delia Maria's 
unfinished opera, La fausse Duegne; 
the following year his own opera Chi- 
mere et Realite was produced, and, in 
1806, he wrote Nephtali ou les Am- 
monites. He was appointed Court 
conductor at Munich in 1805, in 1806 
was Court conductor to Napoleon's 
sister, the Princess Borghese, and in 
1809 held a similar position at Cassel 
under King Jerome. After his return 
to Paris in 1814 he became composer 
to the court, and professor of singing 
at the Conservatory. Grove says: 
" The whole fashionable world, par- 
ticularly the Faubourg St Germain, 
thronged to him for lessons. He drew 
up a list of his pupils which reads like 
Leporello's catalogue in Don Gio- 
vanni, as it included three Queens, 
twelve Princesses, twenty-five Coun- 
tesses, etc." Blangini was the author 
of thirty operas, four orchestral 
masses, a great many romances, and 
many other compositions. Of this 
work the romances enjoyed a long- 
continued popularity. 

Blaramberg (bla'-ram-berkh), Paul. 

A Russian composer, Paul Blaram- 
berg was born at Orenburg, received 
his education at the Alexandrovsky 
School in St. Petersburg and served in 
the Statistical Bureau central service 
until 1870, when he withdrew to go 
into journalistic work. For a time he 
was editor of the Moskow Russische 
Zeitung. Coming under the influence 
of Balakirev, the inspiring teacher and 
leader in the new school of Russian 
music, Blaramberg, who previously 
had written music, entered seriously 
upon his musical career, after a brief 
season of study with Balakirev, he 
produced the opera, Mary of Bur- 
gundy. He is the author of a national 
comic opera, The Mummers; a one-act 
opera, The Roussalka Maiden; music 
to a national opera, the subject of 
which is taken from a play by 
Ostrovsky; several folk-songs and 
songs; and other compositions. Of 
Blaramberg's earlier work mention 
should be made of the cantata. The 
Demon, the Tartar dances, which 
compositions were very much ad- 
mired, and very popular. 


Blauvelt (blou'-felt), Lillian Evans. 

American soprano, who has been 
very successful as a concert and 
operatic singer. She was born at 
Brooklyn, New York, and is of old 
Dutch and Welsh stock. She dis- 
played musical talent at an early age, 
but until her fifteenth year devoted 
herself exclusively to the violin. She 
began her vocal education at the 
National Conservatory of Music, New 
York, studying under Mr. Jacques 
Buohy both in New York and Paris. 
She has sung with the leading musical 
societies of Europe, under the direc- 
tion of numerous famous conductors 
and in England and on the Continent 
has won many triumphs. She re- 
ceived special recognition from Queen 
Margherita of Italy and Queen Vic- 
toria of England. Lillian Blauvelt is 
the only woman and the only English- 
speaking person to whom has been 
awarded the Decoration of the Order 
of St. Cecilia, conferred by the Royal 
Academy of St. Cecilia, the oldest 
musical society in the world, founded 
in 1585. In the United States she has 
sung under Walter Damrosch, Theo- 
dore Thomas, and Anton Seidl, and is 
a great favorite in this country. She 
made her debut in opera at Brussels 
in 1891 in Mireille and in 1903 sang at 
Covent Garden, London, the roles of 
Marguerite, Micaela, Juliette, and Zer- 
line. In 1899 she married Mr. William 
F. Pendleton of New York. 

Blauwaert (blow'-vart), Emil. 1845- 

Famous Belgian singer, who reached 
the climax of his career at Bayreuth. 
He was successful also as a teacher. 
Taught in Burges, Antwerp and 
Mons. He was born at St. Nikolas, 
Belgium, and studied at the Brussels 
Conservatory, under Goossens and 
Warnots, made his debut in Benoit's 
oratorio, Lucifer, and for a number of 
years was identified with the principal 
part in this oratorio. In 1889 his sing- 
ing of Gurnemanz in Parsifal was a 
memorable event. 

Blaze (blaz), Franjois Henri Joseph. 

He is sometimes called Castil-Blaze, 
French musical critic and writer on 
musical subjects. Received his first 
instructions from his father, who al- 
though a lawyer was a good musician. 
In 1799, Blaze went to Paris to study 




law, but became a student at the Con- 
servatory and also took private les- 
sons in harmony. In 1820 he gave 
up the law and went to Paris, where 
he soon became famous as a musical 
critic and as the author of a two- 
volume work, The Opera in France, 
which appeared in 1820. From 1822 
to 1832 Blaze was musical critic of 
the Journal des Debats, and he also 
wrote numerous articles for other 
periodicals. He also published a Dic- 
tionary of Modern Music and Theatres 
Lyriques de Paris, in three volumes 
and beside translated into French a 
large number of Italian and German 
operas. His compositions, which are 
forgotten, consist of two comic operas 
and a serious one, several romances 
and some chamber-music. He made 
a valuable collection of the songs of 
southern France called Chants de 

Blewitt, Jonathan. About 1780-1853. 
English organist, composer and di- 
rector, son of Jonas Blewitt, a well- 
known organist of the latter part of 
the Eighteenth Century. He was 
born in London about 1780, studied 
under his father and under Battishill, 
and for awhile served as his father's 
assistant. He held several London 
appointments, was organist at Brecon, 
later at Sheffield, and in 1811 went to 
Ireland as private organist to Lord 
Cahir. He remained in Ireland a 
number of years, held the post of 
organist at St. Andrew's, Dublin, and 
was composer and music-director to 
the Theatre Royal in Dublin. He was 
a popular teacher and conductor in 
that city. In 1813 the Duke of 
Leinster appointed him grand organ- 
ist to the Masonic body of Ireland. 
In 1825, Blewitt returned to London, 
became music-director at Sadler's 
Wells Theatre, brought out several 
stage pieces, and wrote music for 
pantomimes, operas and Irish ballads, 
the latter of which were quite popular. 
He was a very good singer in addition 
to his other talents, and also a pianist. 

Blockx (blox), Jan. 1851- 

Distinguished contemporary Bel- 
gian composer and teacher, who has 
won his chief renown in opera. He 
was born at Antwerp, the son of an 
upholsterer, and as a lad was set to 
learn his father's trade. His employer 
noticing he possessed an unusual 
talent for music, aided him to set out 
on a musical career. He studied in 


Antwerp and Brussels, and completed 

his education at the Leipsic Conserv- 
atory. At an early age he composed 
considerable music, his Flemish songs 
winning for him much popularity in 
his native city, and in this period he 
also wrote cantatas and some cham- 
ber-music. In 1877 his one-act opera 
lets Vergeten was brought out, and 
with a cantata for the Rubens Festival, 
0ns Vaterland, he won a prize over 
twenty-one other competitors. In 
1886 he became a teacher at the 
Antwerp Conservatory, was musical 
director of the Cercle Artistique of 
Antwerp, and in 1902 succeeded 
Benoit as director of the Conserv- 
atory. His ballet Milenka, produced 
at Brussels in 1886, made his name 
widely known. This was followed by 
the four-act opera comique, Maitre 
Martin, and then came the lyric 
drama, De Herbegprinses, produced 
at Antwerp in 1896 and proving a very 
great success. An equal success was 
the opera, Thyl Uylenspiegel, pro- 
duced at Brussels, in 1900; and a still 
greater success. La Fiancee de la Mer, 
brought out in 1903. Grove gives this 
estimate of the Belgian composer's 
work: "In his various compositions 
Blockx manifests a very interesting 
personality, which, while carrying out 
the newer tendencies in harmony and 
orchestration, succeeds in avoiding all 
imitation of Wagner." 

Bloomfield-Zeisler. See Zeisler. 

Blow, John. 1648-1708. 

Noted English organist and com- 
poser. Was the teacher of Henry 
Purcell. Sang in the choir of the 
Chapel Royal in 1660, under Henry 
Cook, and studied, after leaving the 
choir, with John Hingeston and Chris- 
topher Gibbons. He began com- 
posing while a chorister, and also 
became so fine an organist that, in 
1669, he was appointed organist of 
Westminster Abbey. This position he 
held until 1680 when he was replaced 
by Henry Purcell, but on the latter's 
death in 1695 he was again appointed. 
He was appointed one of the King's 
private musicians and honorary com- 
poser to the King, in 1685. In 1699 
he was appointed composer to the 
Chapel Royal, which office he was the 
first to fill. Although not a graduate 
of any university the degree of Doctor 
of Music was conferred on Blow, by 
the Archbishop of Canterbury. Upon 




his death, at the age of sixty, Blow 
was buried in Westminster Abbey. He 
was a most voluminous composer, his 
works consisting of about one hun- 
dred anthems, fourteen church serv- 
ices, many sacred songs and duets, 
odes, and catches and also organ 
pieces Unfortunately only a small 
number of these have been printed. 

* Blumenthal (bloo'-men-tal), Jacques. 

German pianist and composer. Born 
at Hamburg, where he studied. Later 
went to Vienna, where he studied in 
the Conservatory and afterward at the 
Conservatory of Paris with Halevy. 
He went to London in 1848, and set- 
tled there as a fashionable teacher 
and pianist to Queen Victoria. He is 
a naturalized British subject. Beside 
piano pieces and compositions for the 
violin and violoncello, he has written 
many songs, some of the most popular 
of which are. My Queen; The Mes- 
sage; The Bend of the River; and The 
Requital. In later years his songs 
have been published in album form. 

Boccherini (bok-ke-re'-ne), L u i g i. 

Famous Italian composer and vio- 
loncellist. Born at Lucca. He showed 
great genius for music at a very early 
age and his first teacher was his 
father, who was himself a good musi- 
cian. Very soon he was placed under 
the Abbe Vannucci and made such 
rapid progress that, in 1757, he was 
sent to Rome. Here he soon 
equaled his teachers and he heard 
much good music, notably Pales- 
trina's, which influenced him greatly. 
After finishing his studies, he re- 
turned to Lucca, where he formed a 
strong friendship for the violinist 
Manfredi and joined him in a concert 
tour through Italy and southern 
France, to Paris, where they met a 
brilliant reception and were wonder- 
fully successful. In the latter part 
of 1768_ Boccherini and Manfredi, on 
the advice of the Spanish Ambassador, 
went to Madrid. Accounts differ as 
to their reception, but they were at 
least successful in obtaining court 
positions, Manfredi becoming first 
violinist in the Chapel of Don Luis, 
brother of the King, and Boccherini, 
his chamber-composer. The death of 
Manfredi, in 1780. and of Don Luis, 
in 1785, left Boccherini entirely alone, 
and his worldy wisdom being very 


small in comparison with his ability 
as a composer, his affairs became 
involved and his reputation began to 
decline. In 1878 he dedicated some 
music to Friedrich Wilhelm II. of 
Prussia and received from him the 
title of chamber-composer with a 
comfortable salary, but this stopped at 
the death of Friedrich, in 1797, and at 
the same time Boccherini's pension 
from the Spanish government was 
withdrawn; after this his affairs went 
from bad to worse and with the 
exception of a short time when Lu- 
cien Bonaparte was Ambassador to 
Spain and aided him, he lived in 
extreme poverty and died in want at 
Madrid in 1805. 

Boccherini's ability as a composer is 
unquestionable and his productive- 
ness was amazing. The entire num- 
ber of his instrumental work is said 
to have been four hundred and sixty- 
seven, of which only seventy-four 
remained unpublished. His work had 
great originality and his music is full 
of beautiful and unexpected harmony. 
His style was simple and natural and 
his melodies excelled in freshness and 
grace. Although his music was never 
popular in Germany, his best works 
are still played in Italy, France and 
England. Boccherini and Haydn are 
supposed to have known each other's 
work and to have corresponded and 
their chamber-music is often com- 
pared. Boccherini's most famous 
works are his quintets, which are so 
arranged as to give the first violon- 
cello the important and difficult part. 
Some of his instrumental works were 
twenty-one sonatas for piano and vio- 
lin; twenty-eight trios for two violins 
and violoncello, one hundred and two 
string quartets; one hundred and thir- 
teen quintets for two violins, viola 
and violoncellos; twenty symphonies 
and an orchestral suite. Among his 
vocal works were a Stabat Mater, A 
Christmas cantata; an opera. La 
Clementina; an oratorio; a mass for 
four voices; and motets and duets. 

Bochsa (bokh'-sa), Robert Nicolas 
Charles. 1789-1856. 

Celebrated harpist and dramatic 
composer. He was born in France, 
where his father, Karl Bochsa, a Bo- 
hemian musician, was a flute and 
clarinet player. His musical talent 
developed very early, so that at the 
age of seven he played a piano con- 
certo in public. At nine he composed 




a duet and a symphony for the flute 
and at sixteen he wrote an opera, 
Trajan. His family having moved to 
Bordeaux, he studied composition for 
a year with the celebrated Franz 
Beck. During this time he wrote an 
oratorio, Le Deluge Universal; and a 
ballet. In 1806, having already become 
very proficient on the harp, piano, 
the violin and flute, Bochsa entered 
the Conservatory of Paris where he 
took up composition and harmony 
under Catel and Mehul. Later he 
studied the harp under Nadermann 
and Marin, but formed an entirely new 
style of his own and completely 
revolutionized harp-playing. In 1813, 
he became first harpist to the Em- 
peror Napoleon and, in 1816, was 
appointed to the same position for 
Louis XVIII. In 1817, being detected 
in large forgeries, he fled to London 
and never returned to France. Bochsa 
popularized the harp in London and 
became a much sought for and fash- 
ionable teacher. In 1822, when the 
Academy of Music was established, he 
was made professor of the harp, but 
charges of misconduct were brought 
against him and in 1827, he was dis- 
missed. From 1826 to 1832 he con- 
ducted the Italian Opera at the King's 
Theatre. In 1839, he eloped with Sir 
Henry Bishop's wife, with whom he 
made concert tours through Europe, 
America and Australia, where he died 
in Sidney, of dropsy. 

Bochsa composed nine operas; four 
ballets; an oratorio, already men- 
tioned; a Requiem Mass and several 
orchestral works; beside about one 
hundred and fifty works for the harp, 
consisting of concertos, symphonies, 
fantasias, sonatas and capriccios. He 
also wrote a Method for the Harp, 
which is still a standard. Bochsa is 
said to have been too prolific for his 
own fame as a musician and as a man 
he was very unreliable and dissipated. 

Boehm (bam), Joseph. 1795-1876. 

Well-known violinist and teacher. 
He was born at Pesth and studied first 
with his father and later with Rode. 
Began his career in 1815, at Vienna, 
after which he spent several years 
making concert tours in Italy. After 
returning to Vienna, in 1819, he was 
appointed professor of the violin in 
the Conservatory of Vienna. And in 
1821 he became a member of the Im- 
perial band. From 1823 to 1825 he 
again made successful concert tours. 

It was a teacher, however, that he 
was best known and among his many 
famous pupils were Ernst, Joachim, 
Hellmesberger, Singer and Straus. 
He published about twenty composi- 
tions for the violin which are of no 
special importance. 

Boekelmann (ba'-kel-man), Bemardus. 


Excellent pianist. Born in Holland. 
Studied first with his father, who was 
a musical director. Went to Leipsic 
in 1857, where he studied m the Con- 
servatory under Moscheles, Richter, 
and Hauptmann. During 1861 and 
1862 he was in Berlin, as a private 
pupil of Kiel, Von Biilow and Weitz- 
mann. Boekelmann made a trip to 
Mexico, in 1864, where he played on 
several occasions before the Court. 
In 1866, he settled in New York, 
where he has since lived as a teacher 
and pianist and where he founded and 
conducted the New York Trio Club. 
He has composed orchestral music, 
and many etudes for the piano; as 
well as four and eight-hand pieces and 
solos, also pieces for the violin and 
piano, and songs. He has published 
an edition of Bach's Well-tempered 
Clavichord, in colors, which is very 

Boellmann (bwel'-man), Leon. 1862- 

French organist and composer, 
whose work is marked by grace and 
clearness. He was an excellent organ- 
player, and wrote much music for the 
organ; many short pieces; two suites; 
and a fantastic dialogue for organ 
and orchestra. He left sixty-eight 
published works, among them a sym- 
phony; famous variations sympho- 
niques for violoncello and orchestra; a 
sonata for piano and violoncello; 
songs; pieces for the piano; much 
church music; a trio; and his quartet 
for piano and strings which gained 
the prize, in 1877, of the Societe 
des Compositeurs. Leon Boellmann 
was born at Ensisheim, Alsace, and at 
an early age went to Paris for study. 
He was a pupil at the school founded 
by Niedermeyer, where his teacher 
was Gigout, the celebrated organist. 
Boellmann taught for a period in 
Gigout's Organ School; for awhile 
was sub-organist, and later became 
chief organist at the Church of St. 
Vincent de Paul, Paris. He died in 
Paris in the autumn of 1897. 



Bohm (bam), Theobald. 1794-1881. 

Celebrated German flute-player. He 
made great improvements in the 
construction of the flute, as an instru- 
ment, and through it of all wood-wind 
instruments. Bohm's construction 
gave the flute a much fuller and 
rounder tone, which is generally con- 
sidered an improvement, but some 
authorities declare it detracts from 
the purity and sweetness of quality. 
In making these changes Bohm origi- 
nated an entirely new system of 
fingering, which bears his name. This 
method has been largely adopted by 
flute-players. His system, while it 
gave an added ease in playing and a 
more even tone, had the disadvantage 
of making the instrument heavier and 
increased the possibilities of leakage. 
Bohm was a member of the Royal 
band of Munich for years. He com- 
posed many brilliant works for the 
flute, consisting of fantasias, etudes^ 
polonaises and variations. 

Boieldieu (bo-eld-yu'), Frangois 

Adrian. 1775-1843. 

A voluminous and highly talented 
French operatic composer. He was 
born at Rouen, his father being secre- 
tary there, to the archbishop. On 
account of domestic troubles between 
his parents, which finally resulted in 
divorce, Boieldieu while still a small 
boy, went to live with Broche, the 
organist of the cathedral at Rouen, an 
excellent musician, who so far as is 
known was his only teacher. At the 
age of eighteen, the boy composed a 
small opera, La Fille Coupable, for 
which his father had written the 
libretto. This being successful, was 
followed two years later by a second, 
Rosalie and Myrza, and at this time, 
he also wrote some beautiful ballads 
and chansons. Encouraged by these 
attempts, Boieldieu went to Paris, 
where he soon became acquainted with 
the foremost musicians, Mehul and 
Cherubini among the number. He 
brought out, in 1776, a one-act comic 
opera, Les deux Lettres; in 1797, a 
second. La Famille Suisse and, in 
1798, Zoraime et Zulnare. These 
years were all highly successful and 
Boieldieu's reputation as a composer 
was firmly established, in 1800, by, 
The Calif of Bagdad, the last and best 
work of the first period of his musical 
career. At this time, he also wrote 
some piano and chamber-music, and, 


in 1800, was appointed professor of 
the piano at the Paris Conservatory. 
It is said, but is also denied, that after 
writing The Calif of Bagdad, Boiel- 
dieu took a thorough course in counter- 
point, and harmony under Cherubini. 
At any rate, his next opera, Ma tante 
Aurore, was not produced until three 
years later, and showed an immense 
amount of progress and improve- 

In 1803, suddenly and supposedly on 
account of domestic difficulties with 
his wife, who was a dancer, and with 
whom he was not happy, Boieldieu 
left Paris for Russia. Here he was 
appointed conductor of the Imperial 
Opera. His stay in Russia may be 
considered his second musical period 
and the works of this time, although 
numerous, added nothing to his fame. 
Only three of these were considered 
worth being produced in Paris. They 
were Rien de Trop, La Jeune Femme 
colere and Les voitures versees. When 
Boieldieu returned to Paris, in 1811, 
he found very little competition, 
Dalayrac being dead and Mehul and 
Cherubini both having retired. His 
first work of this third period was 
Jean de Paris, produced in 1812, one 
of his most beautiful operas and a 
brilliant success. After this for nearly 
fourteen years, he was engaged largely 
in collaboration with Cherubini, 
Isouard and Catel, producing only two 
works entirely alone. These were Le 
Nouveau Seigneur de village and Le 
petit Chaperon rouge. In 1817 he 
succeeded Mehul as professor of com- 
position at the Conservatory of Paris, 
and, in 1825, he produced his master- 
piece La Dame Blanche. Grove says: 
" The Dame Blanche is the finest 
work of Boieldieu, and Boieldieu the 
greatest master of the French school 
of comic opera." The plot of this 
opera is a combination of Scott's 
novels, The Monastery and Guy Man- 
nering. In 1829, Boieldieu produced 
his last opera, Les Deux Nuits, which, 
principally on account of the poor 
libretto, was a failure. This failure, 
together with failing health due to 
lung trouble, caused Boieldieu to re- 
tire to southern France. His last 
days were also saddened by financial 
difficulties, his pensions both being 
stopped in 1830. One of them was, 
however, renewed shortly before his 
death, and he was tenderly cared for 
by his second wife who had been a 



singer, and by whom he had a son, 
Adrien Louis Victor, who was a more 
than fair musician. Boieldieu died at 
Jarcy, his country seat, in 1834. 

His work abounds in beautiful 
melodies and although he had very 
little training, his style, while simple, 
was finished and perfect. With the 
possible exception of Auber, he was 
the greatest composer in the field of 
comic opera. Among his distinguished 
pupils were Fetis, Zimmermann and 

Boise (bois), Otis Bardwell. 1845- 

American organist and composer. 
Born at Oberlin, Ohio, where his 
father was a physician. He shovved 
musical talent very early, becoming 
organist of St. Paul's Church, Cleve- 
land, Ohio, at the age of fourteen. 
He went to Leipsic in 1861, where he 
stayed three years, studying with 
Hauptmann, Richter, Moscheles, and 
others, and then went to Berlin and 
worked under KuUak. In 1864, after 
a serious illness, brought on by over- 
work, he returned to America and 
was an organist in Cleveland until 
1870, when he went to New York, 
where he was organist of the Fifth 
Avenue Presbyterian Church and 
taught composition in the New York 
Conservatory. On account of ill health 
he went again to Europe in 1876, 
visited Leipsic, where he had a motet 
performed, spent a year at Weisbaden, 
where he met Raff and, in 1878, re- 
turned to New York, where he taught 
until 1881. From 1881 to 1888 he was 
in business in New York and since 
that time has been teaching in Berlin. 
His works consist of a psalm for 
chorus and orchestra; symphonies; 
concertos; overtures; songs and part- 
songs. In 1879 he gave a concert at 
Chickering Hall, New York, with a 
program made up entirely of his 
own works. He has published Har- 
mony made Practical and Music and 
its Masters, and has written numer- 
ous articles on musical subjects. 

Boito (bo-e'-to), Arrigo. 1842- 

A well-known poet, librettist, and 
composer of the modern Italian 
school, born at Padua, in whose works 
is seen a blending of the tempera- 
ments of his Italian artist father and 
Polish mother, the Countess Josephine 
Radolinska. Arrigo was encouraged 
in his poetic taste by his elder brother, 
Camillo, an author and distinguished 


professor of architecture of the 
Brera, but when he reached the age 
of fourteen, he showed sufficient 
musical ability to bring the family to 
Milan, so that he might enter the 
Conservatory. Yet at first he seemed 
so unpromising a pupil that the 
authorities would have turned him 
out had it not been for the interven- 
tion of his teacher, Alberto Mazzu- 
cato. Boito's first musical work was 
the cantata II 4 Giugno (The Fourth 
of June), written in 1860. In 1862 Le 
Sorelle d'ltalia (the manuscript of 
which unfortunately is lost) was per- 
formed at the Conservatory. Boito 
wrote the poem and the music for 
the second part, and his friend Faccio. 
the music for part first, and it proved 
such a triumphant success that the 
two young composers were presented 
by the government with money 
enough to spend two years in other 
countries studying foreign music. 
Boito passed the time in Paris and 
Germany, but returned to Italy with 
his musical ideas practically unaltered, 
Beethoven, Marcello, Meyerbeer and 
Verdi remaining his ideals, yet these 
ideas were greatly in advance of the 
progress of Italian music at that time. 
Though he had been working on 
Faust, even while at the Conservatory, 
nothing definite had found shape, and 
the success of Gounod's Faust caused 
him to turn his attention wholly to 
literature, in which he has always 
been interested, equally, if not more 
than in music. Much of his time dur- 
ing his student days was spent in the 
library of the Brera, where he gained 
a thorough knowledge of the classics 
and a perfect command of Italian and 
French. In 1861 he began writing 
poems, which were published in 1877 
as II libro dei Versi, under the name 
Tobia Gorrio, an anagram which he 
frequently used. He also produced 
his only novel, L'Alfier Meno, in this 
period, and contributed to Italian and 
French Reviews, notably the Giornale 
della Societa del Quartetto di Milano, 
which Mazzucata established, hoping 
to stimulate an interest in instrumental 
music. By championing Mendelssohn, 
Boito was compelled to fight a duel 
in which he was wounded. During 
the war with Austria, in 1866, he, 
together with his friends Faccio, 
Emilio Praga, and others, fought with 
the volunteers under Garibaldi, but 
early in 1867 he went to Paris, 
determined to settle there as a jour- 




nalist. Despite the help of Victor 
Hugo, he could not find an opening, 
so he went on to visit his sister at 
her quiet country home in Poland 
and there turned his attention again 
to Faust or Mefistofele, as he now 
called it. He intended to return to 
Paris in the fall but did not carry out 
this plan, however, for the managers, 
Bonola and Brunello, hearing that his 
opera was now nearing completion, 
offered to produce it at La Scala. 
Boito finished the work hastily and 
returned to Milan, which has since 
been his home. Mefistofele was very 
long and entirely different from the 
conventional Italian Opera, so the 
ardor of the immense audience, which 
had cheered lustily after the Prologue 
in the Heavens, cooled, until, before 
the end of the five acts, feeling had 
been completely reversed and pande- 
monium broke loose among the en- 
raged listeners. But he did not give up 
on account of this failure. He changed 
Faust's part from barytone to tenor, 
greatly revised the opening scene and 
the Sabba Romantico in the second 
act, and omitted some scenes entirely. 
In this new form it was given with 
great success at Bologna, in 1875. 
The original score has not yet been 
printed, so that it is impossible to 
follow, in that way, the change of his 
ideals. It was grandly conceived, but 
the orchestration was weak and there 
were some impractical scenes, yet 
some critics think the origmal more 
artistic than the present form. Unlike 
Gounod, Boito has used Goethe's 
entire poem, thus subjecting himself 
to lack of unity of interest which is 
thought to be the reason that Mefisto- 
fele is being seen less and less fre- 
quently since the retirement of 
Christine Nilsson, whose principal 
piece it was and who introduced it at 
London in 1880. 

Boito is on admirer but not an imi- 
tator of Wagner, though his principles 
won him the name of the Italian 
Wagner, but latterly Bach has held 
the highest place in his esteem. He 
has written three other operas, Ero 
e Leandro, Nerone, and Orestiade, but 
none of them has been produced, for, 
as he is a critic, he seems dissatisfied 
with his own works. The libretto of 
Ero e Leandro, he gave to his friend 
Bottesini, who set it and it was later 
used, also successfully, by Mancinelli, 
but Boito himself used part of the 
music in his Ode to Art for the open- 


ing of the National Exhibition at 
Turin in 1882, and another theme was 
published as a barcarola for four 
voices. Boito is the author ot the 
librettos of Faccio's Amleto, Pon- 
chielli's La Gioconda, Palumbo's Ales- 
sandro Farnese, Dominiceto's Tram, 
and Verdi's Otello and Falstaff, and 
he also wrote the volume on Marcello 
in the Great Musicians' Series, edited 
by Hueffer. He has received the titles 
of Cavliere, Ufficiale and Commenda- 
tore from the Italian Government, as 
well as the cross of the Legion of 
Honor from France, but he is too 
modest to use them. In 1892 he was 
appointed Inspector General of Tech- 
nical Instruction in the Conservatories 
and Lyceums of Italy. Also a degree 
was conferred upon him by Cambridge 
University in 1893. He has translated 
a number of works by Wagner, Schu- 
mann, and Rubinstein, and in 1901 
published a tragedy, Nerone, possibly 
the libretto of his opera. 

Bomtempo (bom-tam'-po), Joao 
Domingo. About 1775-1842. 
Portuguese composer, pianist, and 
director. He was born at Lisbon, 
about 1775. In 1795 he settled in 
Paris, and with a period of absence in 
London, remained at the French capi- 
tal until 1820, in which year he 
returned to Lisbon. In his native city 
he founded a Philharmonic Society, 
was made head of the Conservatory, 
held the post of instructor of the 
Royal family and director of the 
Court band. He was the author of 
operas, church music, compositions 
for the piano, and of a Method for 

♦Bond, Mrs. Carrie Jacobs. 1863- 

Contemporary American song-writer 
whose work is marked by simplicity 
and sympathy. On the title page of 
certain volumes of her songs is in- 
scribed this phrase, " as unpreten- 
tious as the wild-rose." She publishes 
her own work, at the Bond Shop, 
Chicago, which has sent out numerous 
musical compositions of hers as well 
as some verse. Carrie M. Jacobs was 
born in Janesville, Wisconsin. She 
cannot remember the time when she 
could not sing; at the age of four she 
could pick out airs on the piano and 
at seven could play anything she 
heard. She was married to Dr. Frank 
Bond, in 1888, and removed to North- 
ern Michigan. On his death, in 1895, 





she came to Chicago with the inten- 
tion of starting a new home there. 
The new establishment was to be 
shared with Amber, the well-known 
Chicago newspaper writer, but the 
plan was frustrated by the death of 
this friend. Mrs. Bond now went 
abroad for a season, and there re- 
ceived encouragement to devote her 
attention to music. On her return 
she settled in Chicago. Her work 
was introduced to the public by means 
of recitals, at which she sang her 
own songs solely. She made exten- 
sive tours in this country, and in 1905, 
sang in various European capitals. 
For a number of years she has pub- 
lished her compositions herself, con- 
sisting of a large number of songs 
and various pieces for the piano. Of 
the songs mention should be made of 
His Lullaby; Where to Build Your 
Castles; Three Ages of Man; I Love 
You Truly; Just A Wearyin' For 
You; Des Hold My Hand; His But- 
tons are Marked U. S.; Movin' In De 
Bes' Soci'ty; The Dear Auf Wieder- 
sehn; and The Naughty Little Girl. 

Bononcini (bo-non-che'-ne), Giovanni 
Battista. About 1660-about 1750. 
The most famous member of a 
noted family of Italian musicians. He 
was educated by his father and later 
studied at Bologna. About 1691 he 
went to Vienna, where he was ap- 
pointed violoncellist, in the band of 
the Emperor Leopold, and where, at 
the age of eighteen, he brought out 
an opera, Camilla, which was very 
successful, but which is said to have 
been the work of his brother. In 
1694, Bononcini went to Rome, where 
he produced his first operas, Tullo 
Ostilio and Serse. From 1699 to 1711, 
he was Court composer at Vienna, 
with the exception of two years, 1703 
to 1705, that he spent in Berlin, as 
composer to Queen Sophie Charlotte. 
From this time up to 1720 his time 
was divided between Vienna and 
Italy. In 1720 he went to London, 
as one of the composers for the 
Royal Academy of Music, which had 
just been founded, with Handel as 
director. A great rivalry grew up 
between Bononcini and Handel, which 
resulted in two factions, almost poli- 
tical in character, the King support- 
ing Handel, and the Duke of 
Marborough and other nobles favor- 
ing Bononcini. Bononcini was finally 
taken into the Marlborough family 

and given a pension of five hundred 
pounds a year. This rivalry was 
brought to a crisis by the perform- 
ance of the opera, Muzio Scevola, of 
which Handel, Bononcini, and prob- 
ably Ariosti, composed, each an act. 
The public decided overwhelmingly in 
favor of Handel. This decision, to- 
gether with the discovery that Bonon- 
cini had published a madrigal of 
Lotti's as his own, completed his de- 
feat and broke off his connection with 
the Marlborough family, and, his 
reputation beginning to suffer, he lost 
his friends and position. In 1733, a 
swindler going under the name of 
Count Ughi, persuaded Bononcini to 
go to Paris, where he cheated him 
out of the remains of his fortune, on 
the pretense of being able to make 
gold. Bononcini was now compelled 
to take up his profession again and 
composed for the Chapel Royal a 
motet, playing the violoncello him- 
self for Louis XV. In 1848, the Em- 
peror of Germany sent for him to 
come to Vienna, to compose the 
music for the Peace of Aix-la- 
Chapelle. Soon after this he went to 
Venice as composer to the opera and 
here, at the age of ninety, we lose 
trace of him. While composer for 
the Royal Academy in London, 
Bononcini produced the operas* 
Astarto; Crispo; Griselda; Pharnaces; 
Erminia; Calphurnia; and Astyanax. 
These with other operas, in all thirty- 
two; oratorios; masses; madrigals and 
motets, are his most important works. 
He also published some piano and 

♦Bonvin (bon-van), Ludwig. 1850- 

Contemporary Swiss composer, 
organist and chorister, at present 
orchestra-director at Canisus College, 
Buffalo, New York. He was born at 
Siders, Switzerland. Was the son of 
a physician, studied in the college at 
Sitten, and later began medical studies 
in Vienna. As a musician he is chiefly 
self-taught, with the exception of 
piano lessons during the college days 
in Sitten. In 1874 he entered the 
order of Jesuits in Holland, and in 
England, in 1885, was ordained priest. 
For about six years he served as 
organist, in various houses of the 
order in Holland and England. Father 
Bonvin came to America in 1887, and 
from that year to 1905 held the post 
of choir-director at Canisius College, 
and then became director of the 




orchestra. He is the author of vocal 
and instrumental compositions. His 
works for voice include choruses, both 
sacred and secular, songs, and duets 
with orchestra. Among the instru- 
mental compositions are three tone- 
poems for organ, a symphony, and 
several orchestral pieces. 

Borghi (bor'-ge), Adelaide. 1829- 


A celebrated Italian singer once 
very widely known as Borghi-Mamo. 
She was born at Bologna, and at a 
very early age showed a decided talent 
for singing. She made a successful 
debut in Urbino when only seventeen, 
was engaged to remain there, but later 
went to Malta, and in this city was 
married to Signor Mamo. After 
appearing in various cities of Italy, 
she was very successful in Italian 
Opera at Paris and Vienna. At Paris 
she sang also in a French production 
of II Trovatore, remaining there sev- 
eral seasons. She made her London 
debut, in 1860, in London. Among 
other roles she sang Leonora, Des- 
demona, Rosine, and Zerlina and was 
highly regarded both as an actress 
and a singer. She returned again to 
Paris, but not to London, sang in 
Italy and Lisbon, and on her retire- 
ment from the stage took up her 
residence in Florence. A daughter, 
Ermina, a soprano singer, has met 
with success in Italian Opera. 

Borodin (bo'ro-den), Alexander Por- 

phyrjevitch. 1834-1887. 

An excellent Russian composer of 
the National School, born at St. 
Petersburg, the illegitimate son of a 
Prince of Imeretia. By profession he 
was a scientist, having studied at the 
Academy of Medicine in St. Peters- 
burg, where after two years of service 
as an army surgeon and three years of 
study abroad, he became professor of 
chemistry. The same year, 1862, he 
met Balakirev, founder of the New 
School of Russian Music, who fanned 
into a blaze the spark of musical 
genius which had been smoldering in 
Borodin from boyhood. In 1863 he 
married Catherine Protopopova, an 
amateur pianist of considerable talent. 
He played the flute, cello, and piano 
and wrote a flute and piano concerto 
at the age of thirteen which was fol- 
lowed soon after by a scherzo for 
piano and string sextet, and a trio for 
two violins and cello. But it was 


not until he joined the Nationalists, 
that he took up the study of harmony 
and composition in earnest, during his 
leisure hours. After five years' work 
his First Symphony, in E flat, was 
completed in 1867 and played at 
Wiesbaden in 1880, and his Second 
Symphony, in B minor, occupied his 
spare time from 1871 to 1877. In the 
latter year he traveled in Germany, 
visiting Liszt at Weimar, from 
whence, according to Grove, he sent 
letters to his wife, which form an 
interesting picture of the noted mas- 
ter. His prominence in science must 
have interfered greatly with his work 
as a composer, for, aside from his 
duties at the Medical Academy, he 
helped establish the School of Medi- 
cine for Women, in 1872, where he 
lectured until his sudden death, at a 
party at his home, in 1877. He also 
wrote a number of valuable treatises 
on chemistry, and was a knight and 
Councilor of State. Probably his 
most popular musical work, and the 
one by which he became known in 
this country is the symphonic sketch, 
In the Steppes of Central Asia, pro- 
duced in 1880, a remarkable descrip- 
tion of the great desert, representing 
the passing of a native caravan, 
attended by Russian soldiers. This 
gives him room for splendid coloring, 
in presenting the songs of the Rus- 
sians and Asiatics and the silence of 
the monotonous steppes, and allows 
him to indulge, not only his national 
feeling, but his natural Oriental tend- 
ency. This sketch was intended for 
living tableaux to celebrate the 
twenty-fifth anniversary of the reign 
of Alexander II. Borodin's other 
works include two string quartets, 
one in A major on a theme of 
Beethoven's, and one in B major; 
romances; a suite; and a Spanish Sere- 
nade, for piano; a number of songs 
of peculiar harmony, one Chez Ceux- 
la et Chez Nous with orchestra; a 
Third Symphony in A minor, finished 
by Glazounov; and the opera. Prince 
Igor, his finest work. It is a melodic 
opera, and unusually optomistic for 
a Russian play. The libretto, by 
Pushkin, is based on an old Russian 
epic describing Prince Igor's war 
against the Polovtsi. He left it unfin- 
ished but Rimsky-Korsakoff com- 
pleted it, Glazounov supplying the 
third act, and the overture from mem- 
ory, having Borodin's piano sketch of 



it. The opera was successfully pro- 
duced at St. Petersburg in 1890, and at 
Kiev in 1891. He also started two other 
operas, one on Mei's the Betrothed 
of the Tsar, which was never finished, 
and Mlada, which Rimsky-KorsakoflE 
completed and presented in 1892. 
With Rimsky-Korsakoff, Leadov, and 
Glazounov he wrote a quartet on the 
tones B-la-f, in honor of their pub- 
lisher Belaieff, and Grove mentions 
his contribution of the Polka, Marche 
Funebre, and Requiem to the twenty- 
four variations and fourteen pieces 
for piano on the Chopsticks Waltz, 
called the Paraphrases, in which he 
was joined by Liszt as well as the 
other members of his own school. 

Bortniansky (bort-nyan'-shki), Dimitri 
Stepanovich. 1752-1825. 

A Russian composer and choirmas- 
ter, to whom belongs the credit of 
reducing Russian church music to a 
system. He was born at Gloukoff, a 
village of Russian-Poland, studied 
music under Galuppi in St. Peters- 
burg and Venice, and continued his 
musical education at Rome, Naples, 
and Bologna. An opera, Quinto 
Fabio, was produced at Modena in 
1778, his Creonte having been given 
in Venice two years earlier. In 1779 
he returned to Russia and was ap- 
pointed director of the Empress' 
Church choir; in which he instituted 
many reforms, writing for the choir 
a mass and over forty concertos. 
Bortniansky was the author of much 
church music, and his compositions 
rank high. Tschaikowsky edited a 
complete edition of his works in ten 

Berwick, Leonard. 1868- 

Celebrated English concert pianist, 
a distinguished pupil of Clara Schu- 
mann. He was born in Essex, Eng- 
land, his father being a lover of music 
and an amateur violoncellist. Leon- 
ard Borwick began piano lessons at 
five, at the age of eleven was a pupil 
of Henry Bird, and four years later 
was sent to Germany, where he 
studied at Frankfort under Marie 
Schumann and later with Clara Schu- 
mann. After completing his studies 
with Clara Schumann, he made his 
debut in Frankfort, playing Beetho- 
ven's E flat concerto. His London 
debut took place at a Philharmonic 
concert, and here he played Schu- 


mann's concerto. Before the Phil- 
harmonic Society of Vienna he gave 
Brahm's D minor concerto. He has 
often played with the famous Joachim 
Quartet, and has had a very success- 
ful career, touring in Germany, Nor- 
way, and Sweden, and appearing 
frequently in London and Paris. He 
is very fond of the classics and is an 
excellent interpreter of Saint-Saens 
and Liszt. 

Boschi (bos'-ke), Giuseppe. 

A noted bass singer of the Eight- 
eenth Century. Of his early and 
later life nothing is known; he is 
thought to have been a native of 
Viterbo, Italy, but of the date of his 
birth, under whom he received his 
training, and where he first appeared, 
there is no knowledge. In 1711 he 
was engaged by Handel to sing in his 
operas in London, and though at that 
time bass-parts were proportionally 
small, Boschi succeeded in making a 
name for himself. He sang in 
Handel's Argante, Radamisto, Flori- 
dante, Ottone, Flavio, Giulio Cesare, 
and Tamerlane; in Bononcini's Astar- 
tus, Crispo, Farnace, and Calfurnia; 
and his powerful voice was heard in 
the works of several other composers. 
He made his last London appearance 
in 1828. Boschi's wife, Francesca 
Vanini, was a celebrated contralto 

Bosio (bo'zi-o), Angiolina. 1830- 

An Italian singer, whose short 
career was most brilliant. She was 
immensely popular in St. Petersburg. 
While singing there she came to her 
death, falling a victim to the uncon- 
genial climate, and dying very sud- 
denly, at the height of her career. She 
was born at Turin, a member of 
a family of musicians and actors, and 
became famous as a mezzosoprano 
and operatic actress. She studied at 
Milan, and in that city made her first 
appearance, at the age of sixteen. 
She met with pronounced success at 
Verona, appeared at Copenhagen and 
was urged to remain. In Madrid she 
was most enthusiastically received but 
not in Paris. She visited America, 
singing in New York, Philadelphia, 
and Boston, where she was very well 
liked. In 1851, soon after her return 
to Europe, she married a Greek gen- 
tleman named Xindavelonis. She 




made her London debut in 1852, be- 
came a great favorite there, and in 
Moscow and St. Petersburg was 
extraordinarily successful. She sang, 
among other operas, in Rigoletto, 
Jessonda, II Barbiere, Ernani, La 
Traviata, Fra Diavolo, and made a 
great hit in I Puritano, as Elvira, 
ranking next to Grisi. Her untimely 
death was mourned by a very large 
* Bossi (bos'-se), Marco Enrico. 


One of the most prominent of the 
younger Italian composers, whose 
music is distinctively German in 
style. He was born at Salo, Italy, his 
father being an Italian organist. At 
the age of ten he entered the Liceo 
Musicale, at Bologna, where he 
studied for three years. From 1873 
to 1881 he was at the Conservatory 
of Milan, where he studied composi- 
tion under Ponchielli and organ with 
Fumagalli, also taking up the piano 
and violin. In 1881 he became organ- 
ist and conductor at the Como 
Cathedral, where he remained ten 
years. From 1891 to 1895 he was 
professor of the organ and harmony 
at the Conservatory of Naples, after 
which he was director of the Liceo 
Benedetto Marcello at Venice. In 
1902 he was appointed director of 
the Liceo Musicale at Bologna. Bossi 
is, perhaps, the best of modern Itahan 
organists and has written many 
works for that instrument, the best of 
which, is probably his organ con- 
certo, which was given at the World's 
Fair in Chicago. He has written 
three operas, Paquita, in one act; 
L'Angelo della Notte and II Veg- 
gento. He has also composed a sym- 
phonic poem, II Cieco. In sacred 
work, he has produced the oratorio, 
Christus, beside a large number of 
mzisses, cantatas and motets, and he 
has also written several orchestral 
numbers; some chamber-music and 
piano pieces and songs. One of his 
latest, and perhaps his best work, is 
a setting of Milton's Paradise Lost. 
His Method of Study for the Organ, 
written with Tebaldini, is considered 
a standard work. 
Bottesini (bot-te-se'-ne), Giovanni. 


A distinguished Italian doublebass- 
player, also highly esteemed as a 
conductor and composer. Grove says 


that his marvelous command of his 
unwieldy instrument excited the ad- 
miration of the whole musical world 
of Europe. Bottesini was born at 
Crema, in Lombardy, and died at 
Parma, He inherited his musical 
talent, his father being an excellent 
musician. Giovanni early showed that 
his talent was of unusual degree. 
When only eleven years old he was 
admitted to the Milan Conservatory, 
where he studied doublebass under 
Rossi, and harmony and composition 
with Basili and Vaccai. As double- 
bass virtuoso he traveled and gave 
concerts in Italy from 1840 to 1846, 
and then went to America. He spent 
several years in Havana, where he 
played chief doublebass in the orches- 
tra, and in that city, in 1874, was pro- 
duced his first opera, Christophe 
Colombe. In 1849 he made his first 
appearance in London, meeting with 
a most enthusiastic reception. From 
1855 to 1857 he was in Paris and held 
the post of orchestra conductor of 
the Italian Opera. Next he went to 
Palermo, where he was director at 
the Bellini Theatre in 1861. In 1863, 
he was director at Barcelona, and for 
a period was director of the Italian 
Opera at Cairo. Bottesini conducted 
Italian Opera in London during the 
season of 1871, but presently returned 
to Italy and became director of the 
Parma Conservatory. He was the 
author of several compositions for 
his instrument; of several operas, 
L'Assedio di Firenze; II Diavolo della 
Notte; Marion Delorme; Vinciguerra; 
Ali Baba; Ero e Leandro; and wrote 
the music of the oratorio. The Gar- 
den of Olivet, produced at the Nor- 
wich Festival of 1887. 

Boucher (boo-sha), Alexander Jean. 


A French violin-player, with a good 
deal of technical skill, but a charlatan 
in his methods. He resorted to vari- 
ous tricks to attract the attention of 
the public; emphasized by all man- 
ner of means his noticeable likeness 
to Napoleon; added startling addi- 
tions of his own when interpreting a 
composer's work; and in his playing 
made use of exaggerated expression. 
He succeeded in his aim of arousing 
public notice, and became very well 
known throughout Europe. Boucher 
was born in Paris. He was one of 
the youthful prodigies, and it is said 
played at court, when only six years 




old, and at the age of eight appeared 
at the Concert Spirituel. He went to 
Spain in 1787, in Madrid held the 
post of solo violinist to the King; and 
returned to Paris in 1806. From 
1820 to 1844 he traveled everywhere 
about Europe, attracting much atten- 
tion, and calling himself " L' Alex- 
andre des Violins; " at the conclusion 
of his travels he came back to 
France, and his death occurred in 
Paris. As a vioHnist Boucher's 
execution was remarkable, but he was 
more of a trickster than an artist. 

Bourgault -Ducoudray (boor-go 
dii-koo-dre), Louis Albert. 1840- 

A French composer, professor, and 
writer, who, while not widely known, 
holds a high place in the world of 
music. He has not produced much 
original work, but rather, has turned 
his attention to the study of musical 
antiquities, and has shown great in- 
terest in the folk-songs of many 
countries. Since 1878 he has lec- 
tured on musical history at the Paris 
Conservatory. He was born at 
Nantes, and after finishing a classical 
course and being admitted to the 
legal profession, took up the study 
of music at the Paris Conservatory 
under Ambroise Thomas. In 1862 
he won first prize for composition. A 
student of the music of the past, he 
founded in Paris, in 1869, an amateur 
choral society that, under his direc- 
tion, gave choruses from Palestrina, 
and Orlando Lasso, Bach cantatas, 
and other works by the older mas- 
ters. A sojourn in Greece brought 
forth, in 1876, the pamphlet Souvenirs 
d'une mission musicale en Grece et en 
Orient, and a collection of songs 
called Trente Melodies populaires de 
la Grece et de I'Orient. He made re- 
searches in Brittany, and published, 
with French translations, Trente 
Melodies populaires de la Basse 
Bretagne. Among original works of 
Bourgault-Ducoudray ^ are a choral 
symphony, a fantasie, a Carnaval 
d'Athenes, several cantatas, the 
operas Bretagne and Thamara. 

Bourgeois (boor'-zhwa), Louis. 

A French musician, teacher, and 
composer of the Sixteenth Century, 
his chief claim to distinction being 
that he had an important part in the 
selection and arranging of tunes in 
the Genevan Psalter. Recent investi- 
gation has shown that he also wrote 


many of the melodies. He received 
an invitation to Geneva in 1541, left 
there in 1557, and it is thought had 
no connection with the Genevan 
Psalter after the latter year. Little 
is known of his life. He was born in 
Paris, early in the Sixteenth Century, 
and about the time of Calvin's return 
from Strasburg, was called to Geneva. 
In 1545 took the place, in association 
with another, vacated by Guillaume 
Franc, as Master of the Children. In 
Geneva, Bourgeois seems to have 
fared rather ill at the hands of the 
Council, who reduced his pittance, 
and though Calvin himself made in- 
tercession in his behalf it was of no 
avail. Once he was thrown into 
prison for the offense of altering 
psalm tunes without permission, but 
this time Calvin was successful in his 
effort for him, obtained his release 
and the alterations were adopted. 
Bourgeois was one of the first to 
harmonize the melodies of the French 
version of the psalms. In 1547 he 
published three collections of psalms, 
and these were printed at Lyons, in- 
stead of Geneva, probably because of 
Calvin's opposition to the use of har- 
mony. A treatise of his, published at 
Geneva in 1550, proposed a reform 
in the naming of sounds, the first 
proposal, according to Grove, to 
abandon the method of the Guidonian 
Hand and to teach music by the ern- 
ployment of the solfeggio. Bourgeois 
returned to Paris in 1557, and it is 
believed spent the remainder of his 
days there. He published a collection 
of psalms in Paris, in 1561. 

* Bowman, Edward Morris. 1848- 

Eminent American organist. Born 
in Vermont. Has studied music since 
his childhood, having his first instruc- 
tion at Canton, New York. His 
family moved to Minneapolis, Minn., 
in 1862, where he became organist of 
Holy Trinity Church and also gave 
music lessons. In 1866 he went to 
New York where he studied the piano 
with Mason and the organ and theory 
with John P. Morgan, and was organ- 
ist of Old Trinity Church. From 
1867 to 1872 he was in St. Louis, Mo., 
as teacher, conductor and organist. 
In 1872 he went to Europe, with his 
wife who was an artist of some 
ability. He remained three ^ years, 
most of which time he spent in Ber- 
lin, where he studied the piano with 
Franz Bendel, the organ with Haupt 



BowwMn Bnbasn 

eory and composition vnth Greene, and was taken up e 

:" ' -dying registration death, at his request, by Boj 

r in Paris, with a collection in score of t! 

'>: ■ >• ' •>-■ v>.i'i'Kie English sacred corapc — ^ . 
ent musicians of the last two 

dbary, William Bacbclder. 1816- 

HECTOR BERLIOZ. 1803-1869. 

Not until after his death did Berlioz receive recog- 
nition in his own country. His genius was widely- 
recognized abroad but at home appreciation came -.J*^ 
very late. Bust and statue have been put in placecbyiposer. From 
the awakened French people in honor of Berlioz, and'''' ''"^ ''af'""^^' 
in 1903 his Centenary was duly celebrated in Paris. 

His most important works are The Requiem, in 
memory of General Damremont and the French loss 
in Algiers, the Te Deum and the operas, Benvenuto, 
Cellini and Les Troyens. 

It was as a master of the orchestra that Berlioz 
takes unquestioned rank beside Beethoven, Wagner 
and Dvorak. 

An artist of rare creative power, he is compared Loveii 

to that other most original Frenchman, Victor Hugo. •'^^! 


. ible musical 
m. About 1774-1856. 

orphan. He 

-•§00-31 ^vi-jD-di xoflroM hib di/iah ^fd -f . 

nr ,rn9iMp9>l orl T 

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i9r»^;r'/7 .ri-:**'^ -4 /fr!i;;i honor ??>';r-i>r:''t ?0"/[r.? 

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.oipijll lotoiV Jtfi! . oi 




and theory and composition with 
Weitzmann, also studying registration 
for part of the year in Paris, with 
Batiste. Returning to St. Louis, in 
1874, he remained in that city until 
1887, with a trip to Europe in 1881, 
when he was the first American to 
pass the examination of the London 
Royal College of Organists. Since 
1887 he has been in Brooklyn, where 
he is organist of the Baptist Temple. 
From 1891 to 1895 he was professor 
of music at Vassar College. In 1895 
he organized in Brooklyn the Temple 
choir, of two hundred voices, which 
he still conducts. Bowman has 
served three terms as president of the 
Music Teachers' National Association. 
In 1884 he helped to found the 
American College of Music, for which 
he served as president for eight 
terms, being now honorary president 
and trustee. He is also one of the 
founders of the^ American Guild of 
Organists. He is beside a very suc- 
cessful teacher and has published 
Bowman's Weitzmann's Manual of 
Musical Theory, 

Boyce (bois), William. 1710-1779. 

English organist and dramatic com- 
poser. He was in the choir of St. 
Paul's Church under Charles King 
and later studied with Maurice Greene. 
He became organist of St. Michael's, 
Cornhill, in 1736, and the same year 
was appointed composer to the 
Chapel Royal and the King. In 1737, 
Boyce was chosen conductor of the 
musical festival held by the Three 
Choirs (Gloucester, Worcester and 
Hereford) and, in 1749, became organ- 
ist of All Hallows Church. These 
positions he resigned in 1758 to be- 
come organist of the Chapel Royal. 
He was given the degree of Doctor of 
Music in 1749 by Cambridge. Boyce's 
compositions consisted of anthems 
and services; twelve sonatas for vio- 
lin and a violin concerto; and eight 
symphonies; beside an oratorio, 
Noah; a masque for The Tempest; 
dirges for Romeo and Juliet and 
Cymbeline; a masque, Pellus and 
Thetis, a trio for The Winter's Tale, 
and Harlequin's Invasion, and also a 
large number of songs, duets and 
cantatas. Boyce's most important 
work was the collecting and editing 
of the Cathedral Music, which was 
published in three volumes, the first 
appearing in 1760 and the last in 1778. 
This work, which was begun by Dr. 


Greene, and was taken up after his 
death, at his request, by Boyce, was 
a collection in score of the most 
valuable English sacred compositions 
by eminent musicians of the last two 

Bradbury, William Bachelder. 1816- 

One of the pioneers of American 
music. He was a composer and 
teacher. Was born in Maine. Both 
his father and mother were musical, 
his father being a choir-leader and 
singing-teacher. In 1830 his parents 
moved to Boston, where the son took 
lessons on the organ and in four 
years time had become known as a 
fine organist. In 1840 he went to 
New York, where he lived until 1847 
as a teacher and composer. From 
1847 to 1849 Bradbury and his family 
were in Europe, where he studied in 
Leipsic, with Hauptmann, Moscheles 
and Bohme. After returning home 
he devoted his time from 1849 to 
1854 to teaching, composing and con- 
ducting Musical Festivals, which were 
then very popular and were being 
held all over the country. In 1854, 
with his brother, he began manufac- 
turing pianos. This business was 
carried on until 1869, by which time 
the Bradbury pianos had become 
quite popular. Bradbury was one of 
three men, the others being Lowell 
Mason and George F. Root, who did 
a great^ deal for church and vocal 
music in this country, Bradbury 
edited over fifty collections of music 
from 1841 to 1867, in all of which were 
many of his own compositions. Some 
of the best known of these collections, 
which had an immense sale, were 
The Jubilee, Fresh Laurels, and the 
Golden Series. He also wrote the 
cantatas Esther, the beautiful Queen, 
and Daniel. Bradbury was the editor 
of the New York Musical Review and 
collected a large and valuable musical 

Braham, John. About 1774-1856. 

Renowned Jewish tenor singer, 
whose real name was Abraham. He 
was born in London, about 1774, and 
at an early age left an orphan. He 
made his living, it is said, by selling 
pencils about the streets. Opportunity 
came to study under Leoni, a cele- 
brated singer of his own race, and in 
the year 1787 he made his first public 
appearance, at the Covent Garden 



Theatre, singing The Soldier Tired of 
War's Alarms. When his boyish 
voice failed he found a patron, under 
whom he secured training, to fit him 
to become teacher of the piano, but 
returned to the stage, when his voice 
allowed of singing in public again, 
and in time became a great favorite, 
especially in London. He appeared 
in opera at Drury Lane, in 1796, then 
sang in Italian Opera, and oratorio, 
following which he went to Italy for 
a course of study, and sang in opera 
in various Italian towns. He re- 
mained two years at Milan, and 
reappeared in England, in 1801, at 
Covent Garden, London. Now began 
his great success. He attained im- 
mense popularity in roles, for which 
he wrote the music himself, as well 
as in songs and ballads of his own 
composition. Mention should be 
made of his Death of Nelson, the 
national song that has delighted gen- 
erations of Englishmen. He created 
the role of Sir Huon in Weber's 
Oberon. Grove says that Braham 
had scarcely a rival in the theatre, 
concert room or church. " His com- 
pass extended to about nineteen 
notes; and his falsetto from D to A, 
was so entirely within his control, 
that it was hardly possible to dis- 
tinguish where his natural voice began 
and ended. After his voice had lost 
its natural power, he was successively 
engaged at several theatres on the 
mere strength of a reputation that 
seemed immortal." He accumulated 
a large fortune, which he lost in un- 
fortunate business enterprises, and an 
American tour, made late in his ca- 
reer, was not successful. In private 
life he was much respected and very 
popular, and he had a good social 
standing in London. 

Brahms (brams), Johannes. 18 3 3- 


When Johannes Brahms died, in 
1897, there passed the last of the great 
masters in German music, and one of 
their greatest. Johannes Brahms came 
of the people. As Josef Wiess says: 
" He sprang from the people, and 
everywhere one meets the mighty 
lineaments and forms of his race in 
his compositions." 

His great-grandfather was Peter 
Brahms, of sturdy Lower Saxony 
stock, and a joiner by trade. The 
grandfather was a retail dealer and 
innkeeper at Heide, Holstein. A son 

of the latter, by name Johann Jacob, 
twice ran away from home because 
of his love for music and remained 
so faithful to this passion that finally 
he was permitted by his father to 
follow the profession of musician, 
eventually becoming contrabassist in 
theatre orchestras at Hamburg. In 
this city, in 1830, he married Johanna 
Henrika Christiane Nissen, a lady sev- 
enteen years older than himself. She 
bore him three children, the second 
of whom was Johannes, born in Ham- 
burg, May 7, 1833. 

Johann Jacob was a musician of 
considerable versatility. He played 
several instruments and accepted em- 
ployment where it was to be ob- 
tained — summer garden, dance hall, 
or theatre. The family, living in cir- 
cumstances anything but affluent, 
seems to have been on the whole a 
happy as well as a kindly one, the 
home life during Johannes' boyhood 
being cheerful and agreeable. Brahms 
was ever passionately devoted to his 
old mother, and was very fond of his 
father. He never was ashamed of his 
youthful deprivations and struggles 
and took honest pleasure, when he 
came across any bit of his early work 
that he had always written as well as 
he knew at the time. Dr. Widman 
records: "He even did not consider 
it a useless discipline of life that he 
had sometimes had to accompany the 
singers at a cafe chantant, or play 
dance music, whilst all the time long- 
ing for the quiet morning hour when 
he could put his own thoughts on 
paper." Brahms hiinself said, " The 
best songs came into my head whilst 
brushing my boots before dawn." 

At an early age Brahms showed 
ability of an unusual order, eagerly 
getting from his father what the lat- 
ter could teach him. He read what- 
ever he could come upon and practised 
with a will. He delighted to dwell on 
the days, when a little boy of barely 
six, he for the first time discovered 
the possibility of making a melody 
visible to the eye by placing black 
dots on lines at different intervals 
and of his invention of a system of 
notation before he knew one had 
already long been in existence. 
While still very young he became a 
pupil of a chapelmaster named Kos- 
sel and later was so fortunate as to 
have for instructor Edouard Marxsen 
of Altona, a celebrated composer, 
under whom he was to make close 



acquaintance with Bach and Bee- 
thoven. Hadow in his Studies in 
Modern Music, remarks: "It is 
. . . a matter of no small moment 
that Brahms in his early studies 
should have followed the historical 
development of the art, first the 
volkslieder and dances which repre- 
sent its simplest and most unsophisti- 
cated utterance; then the choral 
writing, in which polyphony is 
brought to its highest perfection; 
lastly, the culminating majesty of 
structure which Beethoven has raised 
as an imperishable monument." 

Brahms made his debut at the age 
of fourteen, before a Hamburg audi- 
ence, playing amongst other things a 
set of original variations on a volks- 
lied. He appeared again in public in 
1848; the following year made two 
public appearances, and in April of 
1849, gave a concert, at which he 
played Beethoven's Waldstein Sonata 
and a Phantasie of his own. In the 
meantime he was working hard at 
composition and in this period pro- 
duced three piano sonatas, the 
Scherzo in E flat minor, and a num- 
ber of songs, the Liebestreu notable 
among these. 

Early in the fifties there came to 
Hamburg the eccentric Plungarian 
violinist, Remenyi, who found himself 
much impressed by Brahms' playing, 
he accompanying the violinist in some 
of the Hungarian dances. Remenj'i 
suggested that they travel together, 
and, in 1853, they set out on a pro- 
fessional tour of North Germany. At 
a concert, where they were to play 
the Kreutzer Sonata, at the last 
moment they found that the piano 
was half a tone too low. It would 
have spoiled the effect to tune down 
the violin, so Brahms oft'ered to 
transpose the piano part half a tone 
higher and playing without notes he 
accurately made the transposition, and 
in addition gave a spirited rendering. 
At Hanover, Brahms was introduced 
by Remenyi to an old school fellow 
of his, none other than the famous 
young Joachim, who gave them a let- 
ter to Liszt at Weimar, exerted his 
influence for them in Hanover, and 
suggested a letter to Schumann at 
Diisseldorf. Joachim at this time 
pronounced Brahms, both as player 
and composer, " the most considerable 
musician of his age I have ever met." 

A successful concert was given in 
Weimar, and the great Liszt showed 

himself much pleased by one num- 
ber on the program, Brahms' E flat 
minor Scherzo. The next day a meet- 
ing was arranged at Liszt's house in 
the Altenburg, when the master to 
Brahms' delight played the Scherzo. 
For a while Liszt was to express much 
enthusiasm over the young composer, 
and, strange as it may seem now in 
the light of Brahms' completed work, 
count him as belonging to the new 
order, an ally of Berlioz and Wagner. 

At Weimar, Remenyi and Brahms 
brought their tour to a close, the 
latter going to Gottingen for the 
promised letter to Schumann, and 
also in response to the cordial invi- 
tation extended him, to make Joachim 
a visit. Brahms remained some time 
in Gottingen before starting on to 
Diisseldorf, this being the beginning 
of the beautiful friendship with 
Joachim, a friendship that lasted until 
Brahms' death, forty-four years later. 

Schumann received him with open 
mind, then with warmest interest and 
finally regarded him with unbounded 
enthusiasm as their acquaintance pro- 
gressed. In the Neue Zeitschrift ftir 
Musik, Oct. 28, 1853, Schumann 
printed the now famous article Neue 
Bahnen (New Paths), filled with such 
praise of Brahms as to attract to the 
young composer the attention of the 
whole music world of Germany. 

Shortly an invitation arrived from 
Leipsic that he come there and pla}' 
some of his compositions at the 
Gewandhaus, and in December he 
appeared, giving the Scherzo in E flat 
minor and the Sonata in C. To his 
surprise there now arose a heated 
controversy about his work; he was 
assailed by both classes; one side did 
not hesitate to affirm that never would 
he become a star of the first magni- 
tude, the other expressed the wish 
that he might speedily be dehvered 
from over-enthusiastic patrons. Mean- 
while progress with the publishers 
advanced, and eight of his important 
works were published during the 

The friendship with Joachim and 
the Schumanns grew apace, and when 
Schumann's mental trouble asserted 
itself so tragically, both Joachim 
and Brahms were untiring in their 
devotion to him and his family, 
Brahms spending much time at Dus- 
seldorf. During these days he gave 
concerts with Julius Stockhausen, the 
distinguished singer, with whom he 




formed a warm friendship; and played 
in public with Joachim and Mme. 
Schumann. An opening at the Court 
of Lippe-Detmold presently ofifering, 
he was installed there as Court- 
Director. The Court of Lippe-Det- 
mold being a quiet one, he had the 
best of opportunity for study and 
composition and season after season 
lived here in contented retirement, 
seemingly forgetful of the furore he 
had started and that he was but 
beginning his career. This period 
was marked by only one published 
work and few public appearances as a 
player. But this retirement was only 
temporary, he was preparing by a 
long and severe course of study to 
again present himself to the world; 
in which he was finally to take his 
place, not as leader of a new school, 
not as overthrower and destroyer, 
but as Hadow suggests, " as artist 
contemplative rather than artist mili- 
tant." Brahms, whose early work was 
so highly praised by the romanticists, 
in the end proved to them a dis- 
appointment. Daniel Gregory Mason, 
in his book From Grieg to Brahms, 
remarks: "If he had followed out 
the path he was on, as any contem- 
porary observer would have expected, 
he would have become the most 
radical of romanticists. At thirty he 
would have been a bright star in the 
musical firmament, at forty he would 
have been one of several bright stars, 
at fifty he would have been clever and 
disappointed. It required rare insight 
in so young a man, suddenly suc- 
cessful, to realize the danger, rare 
courage to avert it." 

His Piano Concerto in D minor, 
produced at the Leipsic Gewandhaus, 
Jan. 27, 1859, was received unfavor- 
ably and aroused much opposition, 
but it should be noted that it 
eventually met here with a very dif- 
ferent reception. The next work was 
the Serenade in D, which was given 
its first public appearance in Ham- 
burg. When not engaged at Detmold, 
Brahms was accustomed to spend 
considerable time in Hamburg with his 
parents, as well as to make long visits 
to Gottingen and Switzerland. Now 
was brought forth a rich number of 
works and some of his masterpieces. 
In 1861 appeared the _ exquisite Ave 
Marie for female voices, orchestra 
and organ; the Funeral Hymn for 
chorus and wind-instruments; the D 
minor Concerto; the first two sets of 

piano variations; and two volumes of 
songs and duets. In 1862, were pub- 
lished four part-songs for female 
chorus, with accompaniment of horn 
and harp; two books of Marienlieder; 
a volume of songs; two sets of vari- 
ations for piano; and the String Sex- 
tet in B fiat, which has been 
pronounced the most magnificent 
piece of chamber-music appearing 
since Beethoven. 

And to these days might be added 
the Piano Quartets in G minor and A 
major, though not published till 1863, 
after Brahms was established in 
Vienna. There were strong attrac- 
tions drawing him to the Austrian 
capital, not the least his growing 
interest in Hungarian music, an in- 
terest doubtless awakened by the 
association with Remenyi. Brahms 
found the musical circles of Vienna 
ready to welcome him, for while his 
compositions were little known by 
the public, the musicians were all 
aware of him. His scholarly playing 
was approved and his work as com- 
poser began to be appreciated. He 
found the atmosphere congenial and 
from now on dwelt in Vienna; though 
with frequent intervals of roaming, 
for he was excessively fond of travel. 
In the summer of 1863, he was 
appointed conductor of the Sing- 
akademie. During the year he occu- 
pied the post — he refused re-elec- 
tion — he devoted himself to it with 
much zeal, and the experience as 
choral conductor proved of great 

It is of interest to note that Brahms 
and Wagner came to Vienna the 
same year. They were occasionally 
thrown together, but neither appears 
to have courted any intimacy, the two 
being not at all in sympathy. Wag- 
ner's attitude toward Brahms was dis- 
dainful. Brahms did not profess 
enthusiasm for the theatre, and 
frankly confessed that he did not un- 
derstand Wagner. Brahms bound 
himself to no school; and living in 
the strife stirred up by Wagner, he 
calmly kept to his way, holding to the 
best of the old, bending with listening 
ear to the message of the new. 

Brahms was the author of no opera; 
but as Josef Weiss says, "dramas, 
dramatic scenes, comedies, epics and 
tales in music he poured forth in 
profusion." In 1863 he published two 
piano quartets, the following year a 
number of vocal compositions, among 



them two volumes of songs, the won- 
derful Wie bist du, Meine Konigen 
appearing this year. To 1865 belong 
the Piano Quintet in F minor and the 
first two books of Romances from 
Tieck's Magelone. Late in the year 
Brahm engaged in a concert tour 
in Germany that added to his renown. 
In October of 1866 he made a short 
tour with Joachim in German Switzer- 
land. In January of 1867, in Vienna, 
the G major Sextet was given its first 
production, this work being followed 
by the Paganini Variations, a set of 
waltzes, and the Soldatenlieder. And 
then came the great German Requiern, 
which at first met with much criti- 
cism from the theologians, a funeral 
ode rather than a requiem mass. 
Performed at Bremen Cathedral, on 
Good Friday, 1868, it drew musicians 
from far and near, among the most 
famous Joachim and Madam Schu- 
mann. Today the German Requiem 
is regarded as Brahms' best monu- 

Following the publication of five 
volumes of songs and the last three 
books of Romances from Tieck's 
Magelone, came a period of rest; then 
the first two books of Hungarian 
dances. In 1871 appeared the splen- 
did Triumphlied, written in celebra- 
tion of the German victory in the 
Franco-Prussian struggle; and the 
marvelous Schicksalslied. These two 
works with the Requiem and the 
Rhapsodie for alto solo and male 
chorus, observes Grove, " mark the 
culmination of Brahms' art as a 
choral writer. In one and all he 
touches a point of sublimity that had 
not been reached since Beethoven." 

From 1872 to 1875 Brahms held 
the important post of conductor to 
the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde. 
In this period he produced a quantity 
of work; numerous songs, duets and 
choruses; the Piano Quartet in C 
minor; and a set of orchestral vari- 
ations. In 1876 appeared the Sym- 
phony in C minor; the ensuing year 
the D major Symphony; this fol- 
lowed by the magnificent Violin Con- 
certo, which played by Joachim on 
its first presentation met with a re- 
markable demonstration. Brahms' 
Third Symphony, considered the finest 
of his instrumental works for or- 
chestra, was produced at Vienna in 
1883, then came the Symphony in E 
minor. Of his other work mention 
should be made of the Quartet in B 


flat; additional series of songs and 
pieces for the piano; the Violin 
Sonata in G; a second set of Hun- 
garian dances; the Academic Festival 
Overture written for the Breslau 
degree; the Tragic Overture; the 
Piano Concerto in B flat; the String 
Quartet in F; the Violoncello Sonata 
in F; the Violin Sonata in A; two 
concerted compositions for clarinet; 
the Double Concerto; the C minor 
Piano Trio; the Violin Sonata in D 
minor; a second String Quartet; and 
two volumes of motets. 

No little of Brahms' work is cen- 
sured for its over-intellectuality and 
the author's lack of appreciation of 
the purely sensuous side of music. 
But these faults sink into the back- 
ground in a wide survey of his con- 
tribution. Of Brahms' scope Hadow 
writes: "Do we want breadth? 
There is the Sextet in B flat, the 
Second Symphony, the Piano Quartet 
in A. Do we want tenderness? There 
is the Minnelied, there is Wie bist du, 
Meine Konigen, there is the first 
Violin Sonata. Is it simplicity? We 
may turn to Erinnerung, to Sonntag, 
to the later pianoforte pieces. Is it 
complexity? We have the Symphony 
in E minor, the four Concertos, the 
great masterpieces of vocal counter- 
point." And continuing the thought 
of Brahms' moods of beautiful sim- 
plicity,_ Hadow adds: "In Shakes- 
peare it often happens that we come 
across a line where there is nothing 
unusual in the thought, nothing 
recondite in the language, nothing but 
the simplest idea expressed in the 
simplest words, and yet when we 
read it we feel at once that it could 
have been said in no other way, and 
that it can never be said again. And, 
in his own art, Brahms too has this 
gift of making simplicity memorable." 

Brahms as a song-writer demands 
special attention. Grove says: "As 
with all the greatest lyrical writers, 
love-songs form by far the largest 
and most important section of 
Brahms' vocal works, and here his 
finest qualities come constantly into 
view. The set of fifteen romances 
from Tieck's Magelone exhaust every 
mood of the lover's emotion, and no 
one has ever given more sincere, sus- 
tained, or truly passionate expression 
to the rapture of crowned love than 
is to be found in these songs." The 
number of solo songs with piano 
accompaniment is about two hundred, 



sixty or more being in folk-song 
style. Of his range as a song-writer, 
Weiss enumerates songs of fate; the 
love-songs; hero songs; a Requiem, a 
Funeral Song; the Twenty-third 
Psalm; the Marienlieder, German 
songs relating to the worship of the 
Virgin; motets; spiritual songs; trios; 
duos; quartets; a drinking glee; waltz 
for quartet and piano; gipsy songs; 
and grave songs. 

There is little to write of Brahms 
save the record of his work, the 
adventures of his life being all in 
association with his work. The early 
successful concert tour was followed 
by years of poverty and struggle, 
crowned at last by serene triumph. 
Late in life came the financial success, 
the unquestioned recognition, though 
it cannot be said full appreciation has 
yet been yielded him. The King of 
Bavaria conferred upon him the order 
of Arts and Sciences; the Emperor 
of Austria made him a member of the 
Order of Leopold; in company with 
Verdi he was created a Knight of the 
Prussian Order, and the same year he 
received this honor he was elected a 
member of the Berlin Academy of 
Arts. Late in his career he was 
elected foreign member of the French 
Academy. He received the degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy from the Uni- 
versity of Breslau, in 1881, previously 
having declined the degree of Doctor 
of Music offered by the University of 
Cambridge. An honor that touched 
him deeply was the conferring upon 
him, in 1889, by his native place, Ham- 
burg, the freedom of the city. 

Though he met with wide appreci- 
ation he also encountered severest 
criticism. Says Dickenson, " The 
gravity and complexity of his music 
have always stood in the way of what 
is called popularity." From another 
point of view, Wagner said of him, 
with characteristic sarcasm: "Brahms 
is a composer whose importance lies 
in not wishing to create any striking 
effect." And yet Brahms was not 
antagonistic to the great reformer 
and later in their careers frequently 
expressed admiration for Wagner. It 
is not recorded that Wagner ever 
awakened to appreciation of Brahms' 

Simplicity and catholicity were 
prominent traits of Brahms' character. 
Mason calls attention to the fact that 
in music, he prized equally the 
simplest elements, like the old German 


folk-songs and the Hungarian dances, 
and the most complex artistic forms. 
His intellectuality was great; of his 
learning Spitta declares, " No musi- 
cian was more well read in his art or 
more constantly disposed to appropri- 
ate all that was new, especially all 
newly discovered treasures of the 
past. His passion for learning wan- 
dered, indeed, into every field, and 
resulted in a rich and most original 
culture of mind." He was untiring in 
effort and to the end kept up the 
habit of writing a contrapuntal exer- 
cise daily. He worked for ten years 
at his first symphony. 

His genuineness was remarkable, 
and he was a man of deep feeling, 
scornful of bombast and sham. He 
was extremely modest, seldom speak- 
ing of his own work. He once said 
to Josef Weiss, " I would go on foot 
twenty German miles to hear some- 
thing by Bach, but I would not 
willingly go as far to direct one of 
my own works." Weiss avows that 
no more modest man than Brahms 
ever, in his lifetime, occupied such a 
place in the realm of tone, the most 
irnportant musicians and musical in- 
stitutions vying with one another in 
showering honors upon him. 

Brahms loved Nature passionately 
and like Beethoven was very fond of 
long walks. Grove calls attention to 
how strongly the musical portrayal 
of a landscape appealed to him; the 
early Mondnacht, Die Mainacht, An 
die Nachtigall, O komme Holde Som- 
mernacht, and Feldeinsamkeit, " typi- 
cal specimens of this mental attitude 
towards Nature, which tempts one to 
call Brahms the Wordsworth of 
rnusic, were there not a warmer pas- 
sion, a higher ecstacy and a deeper 
insight, than Wordsworth ever could 

He was not infrequently blunt to a 
degree, but was as ready with apology 
as with the rough phrase. Sometimes 
described as a shaggy bear — he could 
never play the part of a celebrity ex- 
panding on adulation — in reality he 
was of a most cheerful and amiable 
disposition, charming in company con- 
genial to him, a great lover of chil- 
dren, always tempted to stop in the 
streets and make friends with the 
little ones, and very kind to servants 
and dependents. Frugal and modest 
in manner of life, he gave away 
freely, provided generously for his 
family and gave to others generously. 



He had a great fondness for travel 
and a wholesome liking for vacations, 
made many journeys to Italy and was 
a frequent visitor at the German 
watering places. He was essentially 
healthy and normal. One biographer 
says, " It is not a little refreshing to 
contemplate a genius who, with all 
the astonishing amount that he 
accomplished, yet found time to enjoy 
his dinner, to bear his part in the 
company of his friends, and to be- 
come the sworn ally of all the chil- 
dren in the neighborhood." 

Brahms never married and his re- 
marks in reference to his single state 
have been oft repeated. Late in life 
he makes the facetious observation, 
" It is my misfortune still to be un- 
married, thank God." Writing to a 
friend, he said: "Have I never 
spoken to you of my beautiful prin- 
ciples? Among them is never more 
to seek an opera or a marriage." 

For over forty years he was an 
intimate and valued friend of Clara 
Schumann, who gave rare interpre- 
tations of his works, of whom and 
her children, he was extremely fond, 
one of his first publications being a 
set of Volkskinderlieder arranged for 
the Schumann children. Brahms held 
Madame Schumann in highest regard, 
his attitude that of filial devotion — 
she being thirteen years his senior. 
They called each other by their first 
names and he was wont to spend the 
summer months near her. She died 
on May 20, 1896, and was not long 
survived by Brahms, who seems never 
to have recovered from the shock of 
her loss. A chill, caught at the time 
of her funeral, aggravated an affection 
of the liver, which was eventually the 
cause of his death. He died at 
Vienna, April 3, 1897, his last words, 
spoken to the nurse who brought him 
a drink, were, " I thank you." He 
was buried in a cemetery near 
Vienna, near to Mozart, Beethoven, 
and Schubert. 

Daniel Gregory Mason writes: "Of 
all the figures of modern music, bril- 
liant and varied as they are, im- 
pressing one with the many-sidedness 
and wide scope of the art, there is 
perhaps only one, that of Johannes 
Brahms, which conveys the sense of 
satisfying poise, self-control and 
sanity.- Others excel him in par- 
ticular qualities. Grieg is more deli- 
cate and intimate, Dvorak warmer 
and clearer in color; Saint-Saens is 


more meteoric, Franck more recon- 
dite and subtle, and Tschaikowsky 
more impassioned; but Brahms alone 
has Homeric simplicity, the primeval 
health of the well-balanced man. He 
excels all his contemporaries in 
soundness and universality. In an age 
when many people are uncertain of 
themselves and the world, victims of 
a pervasive unrest and disappoint- 
ment, it is solacing to find so heroic 
and simple a soul, who finds life 
acceptable, meets it genially, and 
utters his joy and his sorrow with 
the old classic sincerity. He is not 
blighted by any of the myriad forms 
of egotism, by sentimentality, by the 
itch to be effective at all costs, or to 
be * original,' or Byronic or romantic 
or unfathomable. He has no ' mes- 
sage ' for an errant world; no anath- 
ema, either profoundly gloomy or 
insolently clever, to hurl at God. He 
has rather a deep and broad imper- 
sonal love of life; and universal joy 
is the sum and substance of his ex- 


Deiters, Hermann — Biography of Dr. 

Johannes Brahms. 
Deitrich, Albert, and Widman, J. V. — 

Recollections of Brahms. 
Hadow, W. H. — Johannes Brahms 
(In Studies in Modern Music. Vol. 

Mason, D. G. — From Grieg to 

May, Florence — Life of Johannes 

Riemann, Hermann — Johannes 

Spitta, J. A. P. — Studies in Music 

(Essay on Brahms). 

Brambach (bram'-bakh), Casper 
Joseph. 1833- 

German composer and teacher. 
Was born at Bonn. From 1851 to 
1854 he studied at the Cologne Con- 
servatory, where he won the Mozart 
Scholarship. Later, he studied as a 
private pupil with Ferdinand Hiller. 
In 1858 he became professor at the 
Cologne Conservatory. This position 
he held until 1861, when he became 
music-director at Bonn. In 1869 he 
gave up this work and has since lived 
at Bonn as a composer and teacher. 
Brambach has become especially 
known as a composer of choral 
works, the most important of which 
are Trost in Tonen; Das eleusische 
Fest; Gesanges; Velleda; Columbus; 



and Prometheus the last receiving a 
prize. He also wrote a number of 
smaller choral works; many part- 
songs; duets and songs; beside an 
opera, Ariadne; Tasso, a concert over- 
ture; two piano quartets; a piano 
sextet and concerto and a string 

Brandeis (bran'-dis), Federic. 1835- 


A German pianist and composer, 
whose professional life was spent in 
the United States. He was born at 
Vienna, and came to America at the 
age of fourteen, after studying with 
Fischoff, Karl Czerny, Rufinatscha, 
and Wilhelm Meyerhofer. He made 
his debut as a pianist in New York, 
in 1851, and as solo-pianist and as 
conductor toured throughout this 
country. He held the position of 
organist in various New York 
churches. Brandeis was the author 
of much vocal music, both sacred 
and secular. He also wrote a great 
many compositions for the piano, and 
orchestral and other music. 

Brandes (bran-des), Emma. 1854- 

A German pianist. She was born 
near Schwerin, studied under the court 
music-director at Schwerin, Aloys 
Schmitt, and later was a pupil of 
Goltermann, the court-pianist. Emma 
Brandes made her first public appear- 
ance in Schwerin, in 1866; visited 
England, 1871-1872, where she was re- 
garded as a player of much ability 
and promise, and played with Joachim 
and Madame Schumann. In Austria 
and Germany her playing met with 
great success, but she retired from 
public life on her marriage to Pro- 
fessor Engelmann of Utrecht. 

Brandt (brant), Marianne. 1842- 

A brilliant Austrian operatic-singer 
of both soprano and mezzosoprano 
parts. Her real name is Marie 
Bischof. She was born in Vienna, 
and studied in that city under Frau 
Marschner, later being a pupil of 
Madame Viardot. She made her debut 
at Gratz, in 1867, as Rachel in La 
Juive. She appeared in Hamburg 
and in Berlin, was immediately suc- 
cessful and was engaged for a num- 
ber of years at the Court Opera. In 
1882 she sang in German Opera in 
London, her singing of the part of 
Brangiine in Tristan und Isolde, being 
very enthusiastically received, as well 


as her interpretation of Fidelio. At 
the second performance at Bayreuth, 
of Parsifal, July, 1882, Marianne 
Brandt sang the role of Kundry, 
alternating with Materna, creator of 
the part. She visited New York in 
1886, appeared several seasons here in 
German Opera, and in 1890 settled 
in Vienna as a teacher of singing. 

Brassin (bras-san), Louis. 1840-1884. 

Most distinguished member of a 
Belgium musical family, his father 
being a singer of note and his brothers 
well-known musicians. He was a 
composer and pianist. He studied at 
the Conservatory of Leipsic for five 
years, being a pupil of Moscheles, 
during which time he gained a num- 
ber of prizes. After finishing his 
studies he made several concert tours 
with his brothers, one of whom, Leo- 
pold, was also a fine pianist, while 
the other, Gerhard, was a violinist. In 
1866 he became first professor of the 
piano in the Stern Conservatory at 
Berlin. Later he was professor in 
the Conservatory at Brussels, and from 
1878 until his death held the same 
position in the St. Petersburg Con- 
servatory. He wrote two operettas, 
Der Thronfolger and Der Missionar, 
beside many piano-pieces, the best of 
which were his etudes, and also songs. 

Brema (bra'-ma), Marie. 1856- 

Brilliant dramatic soprano. Her 
real name was Minny Fehrman, and 
although she was born in Liverpool, 
her father was a German and her 
mother an American, a native of 
Richmond, Virginia. At the age of 
eighteen she was married to Mr. 
Arthur Braun of Liverpool, and did 
not consider a musical career seri- 
ously until 1890, when she began 
studying with Henschel. Later she 
studied with Mr. Blume and Madame 
Bessie Cox. Since making her debut 
in 1891, in Schubert's Ganymede, she 
has appeared most successfully in 
many roles, in London, Paris and 
Brussels, beside singing twice at 
Bayreuth in Wagnerian opera and 
making a tour through America in 
1894 with the Damrosch Company. 
She sang the part of Beatrice at the 
first production of Stanford's Much 
Ado About Nothing in 1901. She has 
also been heard at all the most im- 
portant English festivals of the last 
ten years, notably at the Birmingham 
Festival of 1900, when she sang The 





Angel, in Elgar's Dream of Geron- 
tius. Among Madame Brema's cele- 
brated roles are Orpheus in Gluck's 
opera of that name, Ortrude in Lohen- 
grin and Brangane in Tristan and 

Breslaur (bras'-lowr), EmiL 18 3 6- 

German pianist, musical writer and 
critic. Studied at the Stern Conserv- 
atory, Berlin, for four years and after- 
ward, in 1868, became a teacher at 
Kullak's Academy, where he remained 
nine years. In 1883 he became choir- 
master for a Berlin Synagogue. The 
Deutscher Musiklehrer Verband was 
founded by him as a music-teachers* 
union in 1879 and he also founded 
and was director of a college for the 
training of piano teachers. He wrote 
a number of works on musical sub- 
jects, was editor of the Klavierlehrer, 
a musical periodical, and also wrote 
several choral pieces, some piano- 
pieces and songs. 

Breville, Pierre Onfroy de. 1861- 

A French composer of the modern 
school, a pupil and disciple of Cesar 
Franck. He was born at Bar-le-Duc. 
His interest in music turned him from 
following a diplomatic career to devo- 
tion to art. He entered the Paris 
Conservatory, where he studied under 
Theodore Dubois and then under 
Franck. The opera, Ghiselle, left un- 
finished by Franck, was completed by 
de Breville, Coquard, Rousseau, 
d'lndy and Chausson. His composi- 
tions include much church music, 
works for the organ, and vocal and 
instrumental pieces. Grove says of 
him: " If he cannot yet be numbered 
among the most illustrious of Franck's 
pupils, de Breville has shown such 
constant sincerity and artistic earnest- 
ness, that his compositions are highly 
esteemed by all who appreciate the 
modern French school." 

Brewer, Alfred Herbert. 1865- 

An eminent contemporary English 
organist, conductor and composer 
who occupies the post of organist 
and master of choristers at Gloucester 
Cathedral. He was born at Glouces- 
ter and was educated at the Ca- 
thedral School in that city and at 
Exeter College, Oxford, From 1877 
to 1880 he was chorister at Gloucester 
Cathedral, and in 1881 filled the post 
of organist at St. Catharine's Church. 


Later he was organist at St. Mary de 
Crypt, and from 1882 to 1885 was 
organist at St. Giles' Church, Oxford. 
At Exeter College, Oxford, he pro- 
cured the post of organ scholar and 
was also organ scholar at the Royal 
College of Music. He was elected 
organist of Bristol Cathedral in 1885 
and for awhile served as organist at 
St. Michael's Church, Coventry. 
From 1892 to 1897 he was organist 
and master of music at Tonbridge 
School, and since 1897 has held the 
post at Gloucester Cathedral. His 
influence on the music life of his city 
is marked. He conducted the Glouces- 
ter Festivals in 1898, 1901 and 1904 
and is conductor of the Gloucester- 
shire Orchestral Society, the Glouces- 
ter Choral Union, the Gloucester 
Orpheus Society and the Gloucester 
Diocesan Choral Unin, He is Ex- 
aminer of the Associated Board of 
the Royal Academy of Music and the 
Royal College of Music. From Dub- 
lin University, he holds the degree of 
Bachelor of Music, while the degree 
of Doctor of Music was conferred 
upon him by the Archbishop of Can- 
terbury in 1905. Dr. Brewer is the 
author of pieces for the violin and 
the piano; songs and part-songs; 
works for the organ, and various 
compositions for the church. His 
compositions include an Orchestral 
Service in C; music to the Ninety- 
eighth Psalm; the sacred cantatas 
Emmaus and The Holy Innocents; 
Love's Philosophy; a Song of Eden, 
setting to Milton's words; and In 
Springtime, the latter given at the 
Leeds Festival of 1907. 

Brewer, John Hyatt. 1856- 

Amepican composer, teacher and 
organist. Born in Brooklyn and has 
lived there all his life. Began his 
career as a choir boy at the age of 
six and sang until he was fourteen. 
At the age of fifteen he was organist 
of a Brooklyn church. He studied 
vocal music with Cutler and Wilder, 
piano and harmony under Rafael 
Navarro, organ with Diller, Caulfield 
and Whitely, and later organ, coun- 
terpoint and composition for ten 
years with Dudley Buck. He has 
been organist successively of a num- 
ber of Brooklyn churches, and has 
conducted numerous glee clubs and 
orchestras, among them the Boylston, 
Orpheus, Brooklyn Hill and Dam- 
rosch Glee Clubs, the Cecilia Ladies* 




Vocal Society and the Hoadley Ama- 
teur Orchestra. He was a charter 
member as well as second tenor and 
accompanist of the Brooklyn Anollo 
Club, founded in 1878, and in 1903 he 
became its conductor. He was one 
of the founders of the American 
Guild of Organists and has been an 
active member of the New York State 
Music Teachers' Association. Since 
1899, he has been professor of music 
at Adelphi College. Brewer's com- 
positions number over one hundred, 
including the cantatas, Holy Night, 
The Birth of Love, Hesperus, Sea and 
the Moon, Herald of Spring, and Fire- 
light Pictures; a suite, The Lady of 
the Lake, for orchestra; about thirty 
songs, sacred and secular; pieces for 
the piano, organ and strings; and also 
duets for organ and piano. Some of 
his best works are his cantatas Hes- 
perus and The Birth of Love; the 
part-songs for men, Fisher's Song. 
May Song and the Katydid; and for 
women's voices, Sea Shine and 
Treachery; and among his songs his 
Meadowsweet and Heart's Rest. 

Bridge, Sir John Frederick. 1844- 

Noted English organist and com- 
poser. He entered the Rochester 
Cathedral as a choir boy, at the age 
of six, where he remained until he 
was fifteen. In 1865 he studied with 
John Hopkins and was assistant 
organist at the Rochester Cathedral. 
From 1865 to 1869 he was organist 
at Trinity Church, Windsor, studying 
with Sir John Goss, and taking the 
degree of Bachelor of Music at Oxford, 
in 1868. Bridge became organist of 
Manchester Cathedral in 1869. This 
position he held for six years and 
was at the same time professor of 
harmony at Owens' College, also 
taking the degree of Doctor of Music 
at Oxford in 1874. In 1875 he was 
appointed organist at Westminster 
Abbey, in which capacity he arranged 
all the music and composed an anthem 
for Queen Victoria's jubilee service in 
1887, and for the coronation of King 
Edward _ VII. in 1902. At the jubilee 
service in 1887 he received a medal 
from the Queen and at the diamond 
jubilee in 1897 he was knighted and 
received the clasp to the medal. At 
the coronation of Edward VII. he was 
made a member of the Victorian 
order. In 1890 he was elected Gres- 
ham professor of music in the Royal 
Academy of Musio He succeeded 


Barnby, in 1896, as conductor of the 
Royal Choral Society, and since 1902 
he has been King Edward professor 
of music at London University. 
Among his compositions are the can- 
tatas, Boadicea and Callirrhoe; the 
oratorios. Mount Moriah and Repen- 
tence of Ninevah; the motet. Hymn to 
the Creator; the concert overture for 
orchestra, Morte d'Arthur; Rock of 
Ages for barytone solo, chorus and 
orchestra; settings for Kipling's 
poems. The Flag of England and The 
Ballad of Camperdown; a dramatic 
piece. The Forging of the Anchor; 
and two choral ballads, The Festival 
and Inchcape Rock; besides anthems, 
church services, hymns, part-songs 
and organ music. 

Bridge has also edited a number of 
hymn-books and has published prim- 
ers on counterpoint, double-counter- 
point, canon and organ accompani- 

Bridge, Joseph Cox. 1853- 

Brother of the above and also a 
celebrated organist and a composer 
of some merit. He studied under 
Hopkins, was his brother's assistant 
at Manchester Cathedral and was 
afterwards organist at Exeter Col- 
lege, Oxford, and from 1877 at Ches- 
ter Cathedral. He has the degrees of 
Bachelor of Music and Doctor of 
Music from Oxford. He has written 
the oratorios, Daniel and Rudel; a 
string quartet in G minor, anthems, 
songs, part-songs and piano-music. 

Bright, Dora. 1863- 

An English pianist and composer. 
Born in Sheffield. Studied first with 
her father, who was an excellent 
amateur violinist. At his death, in 
1881, she entered the Royal Academy 
of Music, where she studied com- 
position under Prout, and the piano 
under Walter Macfarren. In 1884 
she gained the Potter prize and in 
1888, the Lucas medal for composi- 
tion, being the first woman to have 
that honor. She remained at the 
Academy until 1888 and during that 
time produced several important com- 
positions. In 1882 she appeared at 
the Promenade concerts, Covent Gar- 
den, and in 1891, at the Crystal Pal- 
ace concerts, playing her own piano 
concerto in A minor. In 1892, she 
played her Fantasia in G for piano 
and orchestra at the Philharmonic 
concerts. This was the first time that 




a composition by a woman was 
allowed to go on the program of that 
society. In 1889, she began piano 
recitals, making a tour of the Con- 
tinent with great success. In 1892, 
Miss Bright married Capt. Knatchbill, 
of Bath. From 1892 to 1895 she gave 
recitals from the works of English 
composers. Her compositions include 
a concerto for piano; a concerto in 
A minor for piano and orchestra; a 
Fantasia in G; quartet for piano and 
strings; suite for violin and piano; 
duet for two pianos; solo pieces for 
piano and flute and twelve songs. 

Bristow, George Frederick. 18 2 5- 

One of America's most representa- 
tive composers. His father was an 
Englishman, who came to America 
and became a well-known conductor 
in New York. Bristow, the younger, 
was born in Brooklyn and began the 
study of music at the early age of 
five, becoming second leader of vio- 
lins in an orchestra at thirteen and 
publishing his first composition at 
fourteen. When the New York Phil- 
harmonic Society was organized, in 
1842, he entered the orchestra as vio- 
linist, and remained in that position 
until 1883. This society performed 
several of his compositions, his_ first 
overture being given when Bristow 
was only seventeen. During the bril- 
liant concert tour of Jenny Lind in 
America, under the management of 
Sir Jules Benedict, Bristow was her 
conductor, and afterwards held the 
some position in Julien's orchestra. 
He was also leader of the New York 
Harmonic Society and was for three 
years director of the Mendelssohn 
Union. Besides being a talented 
composer, Mr. Bristow was a fine 
organist, a good violinist, an excellent 
orchestra conductor and choral leader 
and a teacher of broad experience. 
For a large part of his life he had 
charge of the music in the New York 
public schools. In private life he was 
simple and unassuming, caring noth- 
ing for society but devoting himself 
with much energy and industry to 
work. His works, between seventy 
and eighty in number, include or- 
chestral, piano and organ music, 
operas, oratorios and cantatas. Many 
of these have never been published. 
Among his larger and more im- 
portant compositions are the operas. 
Rip Van Winkle and Columbus; his 


oratorios, Praise To God, and Daniel; 
his cantatas. The Pioneer, and The 
Great Republic with orchestral ac- 
companiment; The Arcadian Sym- 
phony; a Symphony in F sharp-minor; 
and Niagara, a descriptive piece for 
chorus and orchestra given in New 
York in 1898. 

Brockway, Howard A. 1870- 

American pianist and composer. 
He was born in Brooklyn and received 
his education at the Brooklyn Poly- 
technic Institute. From 1881 to 1889 
he studied the piano in Brooklyn with 
H. O. C. Kortheuer. In 1890 he went 
to Berlin, where for five years he 
studied composition with O. B. Boise, 
also an American, and piano with 
Barth. In 1895 he gave a concert of 
his own works in Berlin, with the 
Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, at 
which his Symphony in D major was 
produced. The same year he returned 
to America and lived in New York as 
pianist and teacher until 1903, when 
he became a member of the faculty of 
Peabody Institute, Baltimore, which 
position he still holds. In spite of 
the fact that his symphony was 
received with great favor in Berlin, 
Brockway did not obtain a hearing in 
this country until 1901, when his 
Sylvan Suite was performed by the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra. Other 
compositions of Rockaway's are a 
Nocturne, a Characterstiick, a Ballade, 
a Fantasiostiick, a set of variations, a 
sonata for piano and violin,_ a Cava- 
tina and a Romanza for violin and 
orchestra, a Movement Musicale for 
violin and piano, a Scherzo for 
orchestra, two part-songs and songs. 
Hughes says that Brockway may be 
counted as one of the most fluent, 
brilliant, and thoroughly equipped of 
American composers. 

♦Brodsky (brod'-shki), Adolph. 1851- 

Celebrated contemporary Russian 
violinist and teacher. He was born 
at Taganrog, Russia, and early dis- 
played exceptional musical talent. He 
began taking lessons at the age of 
five, and at the age of nine gave a 
concert. At this concert he enlisted 
the sympathy of a wealthy citizen, 
who sent him to study at Vienna. In 
the year 1860, he entered the Vienna 
Conservatory and became a pupil of 
the famous Joseph Hellmesberger. 
This great teacher took much delight 
in his gifted pupil and allowed the 




"wonder child" to play at many con- 
certs in Vienna, and finally admitted 
him into his own quartet, then in the 
height of its popularity, the personnel 
being Hellmesberger, Brodsky, Bod- 
erich and Popper. After a residence 
of ten years in Vienna, Brodsky 
made a tour in his native land, 1870 
to 1874, and with two other artists 
gave concerts all over Russia, the 
itinerary extending as far as Tiflis in 
the Caucasus and Baku on the Cas- 
pian. He subsequently settled in 
Moscow, that he might come under 
the influence of Ferdinand Laub; but 
he was never a pupil of Laub, as Is 
stated in some biographies, though 
Dr. Brodsky considers that Laub had 
a greater influence on the formation 
of his style than even Hellmesberger. 
In 1874, Brodsky was appointed pro- 
fessor in the Munich Conservatory. 
He remained there four years, then 
for two years conducted the sym- 
phony concerts at Kiev, and toured 
Austria, Germany and England from 
1881 to 1883. The latter year, he 
accepted the post of violin professor 
at Liepsic Conservatory, where he 
remained eight years, there forming 
the well-known Brodsky Quartet. 
From 1891 to 1894 he toured the 
United States and Canada, making his 
headquarters in New York. On his 
return to Europe he settled at Man- 
chester, England, assuming the duties 
of chief professor of violin at the 
Royal College of Music, and leader 
of the Halle Orchestra. On the death 
of Sir Charles Halle, October, 1895, 
he became principal of the College. 
Victoria University, in 1902, con- 
ferred upon him the honorary degree 
of Doctor of Music, and he is the 
possessor of the Olaf Order of Nor- 

Bronsart (bron'-zart), Hans von. 

German pianist and composer, 
whose full name is Hans Bronsart 
von Schellendorff. He was born at 
Berlin and received his education at 
Danzig and at the University of Ber- 
lin. Studied composition under Dehn 
and his first work in piano was with 
Kullak. From 1854 to 1857 he 
studied with Liszt at Weimar. After 
a number of successful European 
concert tours, Bronsart conducted 
the Euterpe concerts at Leipsic from 
1860 to 1862, and the Gesellschaft der 
Musikfreunde concerts at Berlin in 


1865 to 1866, and in 1867, became 
Intendant of the Court Theatre at 
Hamburg. In 1887 he was appointed 
superintendent of the court music at 
Berlin. He retired from public life 
in 1895. Bronsart's wife, Ingeborg 
Starck, whom he married in 1862, was 
a famous pianist. His two best known 
works are a trio in G minor and a 
concerto in F sharp minor. Other 
compositions are a cantata, Christ- 
nacht; an opera, Der Corsar; Friihl- 
ings-Fantasie for orchestra; a Polo- 
naise in C minor and a string sextet 
and solo pieces for the piano. 

Bronsart, Ingeborg von. 1840- 

Wife of the preceding. Noted con- 
temporary composer and pianist. She 
was born in St. Petersburg, of Swed- 
ish parentage, her maiden name being 
Starck. She came of a musical fam- 
ily, and had the benefit of good in- 
struction from the first, studying 
under Martinoff, Decker and Henselt. 
When only twelve years old she gave 
a concert, at which was presented a 
composition of her own. After this 
success she made other public appear- 
ance while still very young. Applica- 
tion for lessons was made to Liszt, 
and on proving her ability she was 
accepted as a pupil, and became a 
great favorite with that great teacher. 
After a series of concert tours 
throughout Germany, appearing also 
in St. Petersburg and Paris, she was 
married in 1861, to Hans von Bron- 
sart, and settling in Hanover, retired 
from concert work, hereafter devoting 
her time to composition. She is the 
author of songs, several male 
choruses, works for violoncello and 
piano, a fantasie for violin and piano, 
numerous compositions for the piano, 
and three dramatic works. Die 
Gottin von Sais was her first opera. 
Her setting to Goethe's Jery und 
Bately has been very successful, as 
has also her third opera, Konig 

* Bruch (brookh), Max. 1838- 

An eminent German composer and 
conductor, specially distinguished in 
the field of the epic cantata. He was 
born at Cologne, his mother being a 
singer and teacher, and a member of 
a family of marked musical talent. 
From her. Max received his first in- 
struction in music, and his further 
training progressed under her guid- 
ance. While studying with Breiden- 




stein at Bonn he was considered a 
remarkably promising pupil. Gaining 
the scholarship of the Mozart Founda- 
tion, which assured him an income 
for four years, he was enabled to 
continue his musical education under 
Hiller, Reinecke, and Breuning, the 
while producing some work and mak- 
ing his name known. Then for three 
years, from 1858 to 1861, he was en- 
gaged in teaching in his native town, 
and here, at the age of twenty, he 
set Goethe's Scherz, List und Rache, 
this operetta being his first dramatic 
composition. Bruch's first composi- 
tion, produced at the age of fourteen, 
was a symphony. Visits to various 
musical centers, Vienna, Berlin, Dres- 
den, Leipsic, and Munich, aided in his 
development. In the city of Mann- 
heim, in 1863, his opera The Lorelei 
was produced, written to the libretto 
prepared by the poet Geibel for Men- 

The Lorelei was followed by the 
great male chorus-cantata Frithjof, 
still considered one of his best works. 
His most successful work is the 
heroic cantata Odysseus; another 
great work, Arminius, Bruch likes 
best of all his compositions. Achil- 
leus and Lied von der Glocke, works 
for solos, choir and orchestra, should 
be included in a mention of Bruch's 
most important creations. Of the 
composer's accomplishment in this 
field. Grove gives this estimate: 
" Bruch's real field is concert music 
for chorus and orchestra; he is above 
all a master of melody, and of the 
effective treatment of masses of 
sound. Bruch's melody is not drawn 
from hidden depths of innermost feel- 
ing, but rather from the upper sur- 
face of his nature; yet it is true, un- 
constrained, natural, and excellent in 
structure, broad, impressive, and 
vocal." In addition to the composi- 
tions mentioned, Bruch has written 
many songs, three symphonies, 
choruses, pieces for the piano, violin 
concertos, the oratorio Moses, and 
the opera Hermione, based on The 
Winter's Tale. His first violin con- 
certo is very well known. 

Bruch was musical director at Cob- 
lenz from 1865 to 1867, and from 
1867 to 1870 court-conductor at Son- 
dershausen. On resigning the latter 
post, he resided for a while at Ber- 
lin, and then went to Bonn, where he 
remained for five years, devoting all 
his time to composition. In 1878 he 


succeeded Stockhausen as director of 
the Stern Singing Society in Berlin. 
In 1880 he was invited to Liverpool, 
as director of the Philharmonic So- 
ciety, and for three years occupied 
this post; resigning to become direc- 
tor of the Orchestral Society at Bres- 
lau. Later he was appointed director 
in the branch of composition at the 
Royal Hochschule in Berlin, in which 
city he now resides and which post 
he still occupies. In 1881 he mar- 
ried the singer Emma Tuczek, of 
Berlin. Max Bruch holds honorary 
degrees from Breslau University and 
Cambridge University and is corre- 
sponding member of the French 
Academy of Fine Arts. 

Bruckner (brook' -ner), Anton. 1824- 

Austrian composer and organist. 
He received his first musical instruc- 
tion from his father, after whose 
death he entered the Church of St. 
Florian as chorister and later be- 
came organist. Bruckner, although 
almost entirely self-taught, in 1855 
obtained the position of cathedral 
organist at Linz, in a competition, 
and while here he studied counter- 
part with Sechter and composition 
with Otto Kitzler. When Sechter 
died, in 1867, Bruckner was appointed 
his successor as organist of the Im- 
perial Chapel at Vienna and also be- 
came professor of counterpoint, com- 
position and organ playing in the 
Vienna Conservatory. In 1875 he 
was made lecturer on music at the 
University of Vienna. Bruckner is 
known chiefly by his symphonies, of 
which there are eight complete and 
one unfinished. Other works are a 
Grande Te Deum; three grand 
masses; a psalm; a quartet for 
strings; a male chorus, Germanenzug; 
beside motets and choruses 

Briill (bril), Ignaz. 1846-1907. 

Talented pianist and composer. 
Born in Moravia. Studied composi- 
tion with Dessoflf and Rufinatscha 
and the piano with Epstein. After 
finishing his studies, he made a num- 
ber of very successful concert tours, 
playing many of his own composi- 
tions. From 1872 to 1878 he was 
professor of piano at the Horak In- 
stitute, Vienna, and in 1881 he be- 
came one of the directors of this 
institute. In 1875 his opera. Das 
Goldene Kreuz, was produced and 




was so successful in Germany that 
he turned his attention almost en- 
tirely to composition. Other works 
are Die Bettler von Samarkand, his 
first opera, produced in 1864; Grin- 
goire; Der Landfriede; Konigin Mari- 
ette; Das Steinerne Herz; Schachdem 
Konig and Der Husar. Beside these 
Brull wrote many orchestra works, 
among which are a symphony in E 
minor; overture to Macbeth; Tanz 
suite and three serenades. He pro- 
duced much chamber-music, many 
beautiful songs and solo pieces for 
the piano and violin. 

*Bruneau (brii-no), Alfred. 1857- 

One of the most noted of contem- 
porary French composers and the 
leader of the realistic school of mod- 
ern French Opera. He was born in 
Paris and inherited his musical ability 
from both father and mother, both 
of whom were musicians. He studied 
at the Conservatory of Paris, first 
taking up the violoncello with Franc- 
homme. Later he studied composi- 
tion with Massenet, winning the 
JPrize of Rome, in 1881, with his can- 
tata, Genevieve de Paris. His first 
opera, Kerim, attracted but little at- 
tention, but in 1891 a four-act opera, 
Le Reve, based upon Zolo's story of 
the same name, was produced at the 
Opera Comique with the greatest suc- 
cess. From this on his operas were 
all prepared from Zolo's stories and 
there followed, L'Attaque du Moulin; 
Messidor; L'Ouragan; L'Enfante Roi 
and La Faute de I'Abbe Mouret. 
Bruneau has also composed a num- 
ber of works besides his operas. The 
most important of these, his Requiem, 
a highly original and powerful work, 
was produced in 1896. In 1884, his 
overture heroique and Leda, a choral 
symphony, were performed and in 
1886, La Belle au Bois dormant and 
the symphonic poem Penthesilee 
were given. He has also written many 
beautiful songs, notably his Lieds de 
France, written to words by Catulle 
Mendes and Chasons a danser, six 
songs arranged from suggestions 
from the old French dances. Bruneau 
received the decoration of the Legion 
of Honor in 1895. He has published 
three volumes of musical criticism 
and has been music critic for a num- 
ber of Paris papers. Bruneau's 
music has caused a great amount of 
discussion, resulting in decided differ- 
ences of opinions among musicians, 


the more conservative element, who 
believe that the opera must neces- 
sarily be melodic throughout, criticis- 
ing him severely; while many of the 
newer composers, who advocate indi- 
viduality and realism in music, admire 
him most enthusiastically. All opin- 
ions seem to agree that he is sincere 
and original and that he has de- 
veloped a line of music peculiarly his 
own and peculiarly French. 

Buck, Dudley. 1839- 

Dudley Buck, the widely-known 
American composer, organist, and 
teacher, was one of the first musicians 
of this country to win general recog- 
nition. He has written in all forms, 
but his fame as a composer rests 
largely upon his church music and 
cantatas. He is a native of New Eng- 
land, was born at Hartford, Conn., 
in 1839, the son of a prosperous 
shipping merchant. It was intended 
that he enter business life, and up 
to his sixteenth year he received no 
formal instruction in music. But he 
early showed a passion for music and 
set to work to teach himself. Rupert 
Hughes in his Contemporary Ameri- 
can Composers, gives a suggestive 
picture of Dudley's youthful en- 
deavors to learn something of the art 
of music — "Buck, though intended for 
a commercial life, borrowed a work 
on thorough-bass and a flute and pro- 
ceeded to try the wings of his muse. 
A melodeon supplanted the flute, and 
when he was sixteen he attained the 
glory of a piano, a rare possession 
in those times. He took a few les- 
sons and played a church organ for 
a salary — a small thing but his own. 
After reaching the Junior year in 
Trinity College, Hartford, he pre- 
vailed upon his parents to surrender 
him to music, an almost scandalous 
career in the New England mind of 
that day, still unbleached of its blue 

His father now concluded to send 
him abroad for study, and in 1858 he 
went to Germany, remaining there 
three years. In Leipsic he studied 
theory and composition with Richter 
and Hauptmann, the piano with 
Plaidy and Moscheles, and orches- 
tration under Rietz, and when the 
latter removed to Dresden continued 
his work with him there. In Dresden 
he also studied organ under Fried- 
rich Schneider. Then followed a 
year of work in Paris, which in- 




eluded study of organ construction. 
On his return to America he as- 
sumed, in 1862, the duties of organist 
at the Park Church, Hartford, and 
also engaged in teaching. It was in 
this period he published his first 
Motette Collection, which Mathews, 
A Hundred Years of Music in Amer- 
ica, says marks an epoch in American 
church music, the book " notable be- 
cause it was the first collection pub- 
lished in America in which modern 
styles of German musical composi- 
tion were freely used, with unlimited 
freedom of modulation and addition 
of an independent organ accompani- 
ment. In the latter respect the book 
had a vast influence, for to many 
organists it was the first authentic 
information they had received con- 
cerning the proper manner of using 
the organ effectively for accompany- 
ing and heightening the effect of the 
choir singing." 

As a concert organist, Dudley Buck 
now made numerous and extensive 
tours, and with these concerts and 
various series of sacred compositions 
did notable pioneer work toward 
elevating the popular taste of the 
time. In 1869 he went to Chicago to 
fill the post of organist at St. James' 
Church, and here added very consid- 
erably to his reputation both as 
organist and composer. Many of the 
compositions written for his choir 
were included in the second Motette 
Collection. He built a home in Chi- 
cago, and close to his house erected 
a small music hall, where organ re- 
citals were given, that proved of 
much inspiration to students and 
music-lovers generally. When the 
great fire swept the city, in 1871, all 
his early compositions were burned, 
and his house and library destroyed. 
On leaving Chicago he went to Bos- 
ton; in this city he remained two 
years, holding the post of organist at 
St. Paul's and later being given 
charge of the organ at Music Hall. 
While in Boston he taught at the 
New England Conservatory. In 1875 
he was invited to be organist of the 
Cincinnati Music Festival. For a 
while Buck filled the post of assistant 
conductor of the Thomas Orchestra 
in New York, and then became organ- 
ist of Holy Trinity Church, Brooklyn, 
and director of the Apollo Club. He 
served as organist at Trinity for 
twenty-five years, until his retirement 
from church work, in 1903. The ser- 


vice of Dudley Buck as organist and 
choirmaster has been long and mem- 
orable. As a teacher he ranks with 
the famous instructors, among his 
noted pupils being George Chadwick, 
Frederick Grant Gleason, W. H. 
Niedlinger, Harry Rowe Shelley, C. 
B. Hawley and John Hyatt Brewer. 

In 1874 appeared his cantata, Don 
Munio, from Irving's Alhambra, the 
music written for mixed chorus and 
orchestra. This became very popu- 
lar. The same year the Boston 
Handel and Haydn Society gave the 
first production of his setting of the 
Forty-sixth Psalm, God is Our 
Refuge. For the Philadelphia Cen- 
tennial Celebration, in 1876, he wrote 
the music to the Centennial Medita- 
■•tion of Columbus with words by Sid- 
ney Lanier, which work was per- 
formed by a chorus of one thousand 
voices and an orchestra of two hun- 
dred under the direction of Theodore 
Thomas. His largest cantatas, or 
oratorios, are the Golden Legend, 
from Longfellow, and the Light of 
Asia, founded upon the poem by Sir 
Edwin Arnold. From the American 
poets, Lanier, Longfellow and Sted- 
man, hs has taken many of his texts. 
In Irving's Life of Columbus, he 
found the libretto for his cantata. The 
Voyage of Columbus. He has written 
a great deal for male choruses. Of 
works in this class are the Chorus of 
Spirits and Hours from Shelley's 
Prometheus Unbound, King Olaf's 
Christmas, the Nun of Nidaros, Voy- 
age of Columbus, and Paul Revere's 
Ride. He has several pieces for the 
piano; composed the opera Deseret, 
in which use is made of a Mormon 
theme; and is the author of the sym- 
phonic overture Marmion. 

In religious compositions he very 
frequently makes use of dramatic 
effect, but it is so employed as to in 
no way lessen the grace and dignity 
of these works. A series of sacred 
cantatas, the fruit of his later years, 
are designed for the various church 
festivals and called the Christian 
Year. His large mass of sacred com- 
positions include anthems, hymns, 
offertories, and Te Deums. He is the 
author of a wide variety of organ 
mitsic; has made various transcrip- 
tions for the organ; published Studies 
for Pedal Phrasing, the Influence of 
the Organ in History, and an excel- 
lent handbook for organists and 
students called Illustrations in Choir 




Accompaniment. His compositions 
for the organ belong in the list of 
his most important works. Musicians 
generally are familiar with his two 
organ sonatas and the Triumphal 
March, which Elson prophesies are 
sure to remain in the standard reper- 

Bull, John. 1563-1628. 

Noted English organist and com- 
poser, of the time of Queen Eliza- 
beth. He received his training at the 
Queen's Chapel. In 1582 he became 
organist at Hereford Cathedral and 
later master of the children. He 
was made a member of the Chapel 
Royal in 1585 and was appointed 
organist in 1591. He received the 
degree of Bachelor of Music from Ox- 
ford in 1586 and that of Doctor of 
Music from the same institution in 
1592. From 1596 to 1607 he was 
professor of music at Gresham Col- 
lege. In 1617, having left England 
some years before, he became organ- 
ist of the Cathedral of Notre Dame at 
Antwerp, where he remained until his 
death. Bull's compositions, vocal and 
instrumental, numbered about two 
hundred and consisted of anthems, 
canons and pieces for the organ and 
virginals. Bull has been spoken of 
as the " first performer in the world " 
of his time and as the " Liszt of his 
age." And he is said to have done 
a great deal to develop harpsichord 

Bull (bool), Ole. 1810-1880. 

A famous Norwegian violinist of 
strong individuality and originality. 
Riemann defines him as " a famous 
though somewhat eccentric violin-vir- 
tuoso, whose capricious playing often 
brought on him the reproach of char- 
latanism." But though Ole Bull's 
playing was capricious, though he 
resorted to tricks with his violin, he 
was saved by the poetry of his inter- 
pretations from meriting the term 

Though largely self-taught, he at- 
tained to a very rare technical pro- 
ficiency. He was a much better in- 
terpreter of his own work than of any 
other and seldom played any but his 
own compositions, being noted for his 
improvisations. He used a bow of 
unusual length and heaviness, which 
a smaller man could not have em- 
ployed; and played with an almost 
flat bridge which, although there were 


disadvantages in its use, allowed the 
production of very beautiful effects. 
Some critics characterized his playing 
as wanting in taste, but it was uni- 
versal!}' conceded that he performed 
with much skill and feeling. George 
William Curtis said of him: "Ole 
Bull is precisely an irrefragable fact, 
against which criticism may dash its 
head at leisure. The public heart 
will follow him and applaud, because 
he plays upon its strings as deftly as 
upon those of a violin." 

In America, Ole Bull enjoyed the 
greatest popularity. He was im- 
mensely successful here, being so 
popular that the concert halls often 
proved inadequate for the crowds that 
thronged to hear him. He came to 
America first in 1843, and made his 
last visit in 1879. He amassed a large 
fortune in this country. His second 
wife, whom he married in 1870, was 
an American. His last winter, the 
winter of 1879, he spent at Cambridge. 
He lived at Elmwood, in Lowell's 
house and mingled with the literary 
society of Cambridge and Boston. He 
was on intimate terms with Long- 
fellow, and is the tall musician, " the 
blue-eyed Norseman," described in the 
Wayside Tales. ]\Iany of his compo- 
sitions are on American themes — To 
the memory of Washington, Niagara, 
The Solitude of the Prairies. He 
dreamed of founding in America a 
Norwegian colony, and with this ob- 
ject in view purchased 125,000 acres of 
land in Pennsylvania; a store and 
church were built and many colonists 
had taken up residence, when the dis- 
covery was made that the title to the 
land was not clear, and that Ole Bull 
was the victim of a gigantic swindle. 
Now for long tedious years he was 
involved in litigation, lost a very 
large sum of money, and found him- 
self practically ruined. Financial loss 
and the misunderstanding of his coun- 
trymen at home were the rewards 
attending his eflforts to establish the 
Norwegian colony. 

In appearance and character Ole 
Bull was a typical Norseman. He 
was of giant build, fair-haired and 
blue-eyed, original, independent, and 
courageous. After his loss at the 
hands of the unscrupulous agent in 
the Pennsylvania c9lony scheme, he 
at once set to work to rebuild his 
fortunes and accomplished this in a 
comparatively short time. He loved 
with a deep and abiding passion the 





Northland and the North folk, and 
was always planning and working for 
them. He labored zealously, but un- 
successfully, to found " a Norse thea- 
tre with a Norse orchestra," but not 
until years after his death was this 
effort fully appreciated. Herr Paul 
David, writing in Grove, declares that 
the ruling passion of Ole Bull's life 
was the love he bore to his native 
land. " The glorious scenery of the 
mountains and fjords of his home, 
the weird poetry of the Sagas of the 
North, took hold of his sensitive 
mind from early childhood and filled 
his imagination. They were re- 
flected in his style of playing, and 
gave to it that originality and poetic 
charm by which he never failed to 
captivate his audience." 

Ole Bull was born at Bergen, Nor- 
way, in 1810, and was the son of a 
physician. Several of his kinsfolk 
were musical, and during his boyhood 
he dwelt in an environment that gave 
him inspiration for the career in 
which he was to become world- 
famed. That he might play at the 
family gatherings, he studied the vio- 
lin by himself, and presently became 
so proficient as to be able to play 
first violin in a public orchestra. He 
received some instruction from 
teachers in Bergen, but not much, his 
father not approving of Ole following 
the profession of a musician. Hov>'- 
ever, the music interest was always 
strong with him, and at the Univer- 
sity of Christiania, where he had been 
sent to study theology, he failed in 
his Latin but won the post of music- 
director of the Philharmonic and 
Dramatic Society. That he might 
hear Spohr, whose compositions he 
ardently admired, and that he might 
get the renowned teacher's judgment 
of his own work, he left Christiania 
and journeyed to Cassel. Spohr gave 
him but a cold reception, and Ole 
Bull, after tarrying awhile at Gottin- 
gen, where his playing was well ap- 
plauded, returned to Norway. In 
Christiania the people welcomed him 
back warmly. He gave successful 
concerts at Trondhjem and Bergen, 
and thought himself now in a posi- 
tion to make his way in Paris. But 
the early Paris days were days of 
disheartening struggle and gloom; un- 
known and unappreciated he walked 
the streets of the gay city; he lost his 
money, he met with no success in his 
search for a hearing, and his case 

grew so desperate that the waters of 
the Seine seemed to invite him to 
end it all. Fortunately at the darkest 
hour a friend appeared, Madame 
Villeminot, a wealthy lady who took 
him into her home, and from this on 
his fortunes mended. In 1836 he 
married Felicie Villeminot, grand- 
daughter of his benefactress, and the 
union proved a very happy one. 

In was in 1831 that Ole Bull first 
heard Paganini play, hearing whom 
inspired him to renewed hope and 
vigor. In 1832 he made his first 
public appearance in Paris, played 
with Chopin and other great artists, 
and then went to Italy, where he en- 
tered into his own. At Bologna, the 
most musical city in Italy, Ole Bull 
may be said to have experienced the 
beginning of his great celebrity. He 
conquered even Naples, a city more 
fond of singer than of player. Pres- 
ently his fame spread throughout 
Europe, and ere long both in Europe 
and North America the name of Ole 
Bull became a household word. 

Ole Bull counted among his friends 
Liszt and Chopin, and through his 
friendship with the latter figures in 
George Sand's Malgretout. He was 
on terms of intimacy with Mendels- 
sohn, Rossini showed him favors, 
Hans Christian Andersen was a close 
friend, and he was admired by the 
great Malibran, and appreciated by 
Paganini. To the end of his long 
life he traveled and gave concerts. 
He celebrated his seventieth birthday 
in America, and the same year died at 
his country place near Bergen. Ole 
Bull played with his whole soul, 
played he to peasant or played he to 
prince, and on his death was mourned 
by prince and peasant alike. Upon 
his coffin, his friend Edward Grieg, 
laid a laurel wreath; saying, as he 
placed it, " in the name of our Norse 
memorial art." 

Bullard, Frederick Field, 1864-1904. 

An American composer and teacher, 
particularly distinguished as a song- 
writer. He did notable work in the 
field of the dramatic ballad. Bullard 
was born in Boston. He entered the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technol- 
ogy, as a special student of chemistry, 
but was led by his love of music to 
forsake this beginning and devote his 
attention to art. In 1888 he went to 
Munich, entered the Conservatory, 
and studied under Josef Rheinberger, 




the teacher of such strong influence 
on American composition. He re- 
mained abroad four years; then re- 
turned to Boston, and made a name 
for himself as a teacher, composer, 
and song-writer, by no means least in 
what has come to be called the " Bos- 
ton Colony." Mention should be 
made of the songs, In The Green- 
wood; A June Lullaby; From Dreams 
of Thee; The Lass of Norwich Town; 
At Daybreak; On The Way; The 
Sworti of Ferrara; The Indifferent 
Mariner; The Best of All Good Com- 
pany; The Singer; and The Hermit. 
He edited various collections of 
songs, was the author of a series of 
cantatas and of other music, and had 
more ambitious work under way 
when death brought his career to an 
untimely close. 

In his Contemporary American 
Composers, Rupert Hughes says: 
" Bullard's setting of Tennyson's 
almost lurid melodrama in six stanzas, 
The Sisters, has caught the bitter 
mixture of love and hate, and avoided 
claptrap climaxes most impressively. 

Bullard has found the 

right occasion for wild dissonances, 
and has dared to use them. The effect 
is one of terrific power. His war song 
of Gamelbar, for male voices, the 
Song of Pan and The Sisters give 
him a place apart from the rest of 
native song-writers." And in further 
survey of the work of this composer, 
the writer calls attention to the 
virility of his settings to Richard 
Hovey's songs. Here's a Health to 
Thee, Roberts; Barney McGee; and 
the Stein Song, and declares: 
" These songs have an exuberance of 
the roistering spirit, along with a 
competence of musicianship, that lifts 
them above any comparison with the 
average balladry." 

Biilow (fon bii-lo), Hans Guido von. 


Musician of rare skill and intel- 
lectuality, chief pianist of the ad- 
vanced school of piano playing, a 
renowned teacher, and a conductor of 
world-wide reputation. He was born 
at Dresden in 1830, and died at Cairo, 
in 1894. 

When a career was being planned 
for young Hans von Biilow, it was 
intended that he study law. Though 
there was no thought of a great 
future in music for him, at an early 
age he was given instruction m that 


line and was most fortunate in one 
of his early teachers, Friedrick Wieck, 
father of Clara Schumann and a 
noted teacher of the piano. Under 
him von Biilow received excellent 
technical instruction and doubtless 
Wieck laid the foundation of von 
Biilow's marvelous technical ability. 
Further musical study progressed 
under Herr Eberwein, with whom he 
studied harmony and thorough-bass. 
In 1848 he entered Leipsic Univer- 
sity, and here, while engaged in the 
study of law, found time to continue 
his musical education, now having 
Hauptmann for a teacher. Law and 
music did not, however, wholly 
absorb him, for shortly he is heard 
of at the University of Berlin, taking 
an active interest in political affairs, 
which interest led to his becoming a 
contributor to the democratic journal. 
Die Abendpost. At this period von 
Biilow made acquaintance with those 
advanced spirits, Liszt and Wagner, 
and with much enthusiasm and ardor 
he set to work to champion Wagner's 
radical views in Die Abendpost. At 
Weimar, hearing a performance of 
Lohengrin, he decided to give up the 
law and ally himself unreservedly 
with Wagner, then in exile at Zurich. 
At Zurich and St. Gall he gained 
some knowledge of the art of con- 
ducting and then, his piano playing 
giving promise of a brilliant future, 
he was enrolled as a pupil of Liszt, 
and under this master perfected his 
studies. In 1857 he married Liszt's 
daughter, Cosima. In 1853, von 
Billow made his first concert tour, 
playing at Vienna, Pesth, Carlsruhe, 
Bremen, Hamburg and Berhn. In 
1855 he was given the post of prin- 
cipal master of piano playing at the 
Stern and Marx Conservatory in Ber- 
lin, and for nine years occupied this 
post. In the programs organized by 
him during this period, a marked 
preference is shown for music of the 
modern German school. 

His activities at this time were 
varied; he still contributed to the 
papers, writing on political and musi- 
cal subjects, and he made a tour 
through Germany, Holland and 
Russia, adding to his fame as player 
and conductor. In 1864, King Lud- 
wig II., of Bavaria appointed him 
conductor of the Royal Opera and 
director of the Conservatory at 
Munich, and he remained in this city 
till 1869. Then followed a series of 




concerts in Germany, Italy, Russia, 
Poland, England and America. 

On his first tour in America, von 
Billow gave one hundred and thirty- 
nine concerts. He visited this coun- 
try again some thirteen years later, 
and was paid homage as " one of the 
most able of living pianists, the most 
magnetic and inspired of living con- 
ductors." Von Bulow became the 
greatest living authority on Beetho- 
ven, and published a most valuable 
edition of his works for the piano. 
On some of his concert tours, he 
gave programs made up entirely of 
the most difficult of Beethoven's 
sonatas. Von Biilow had a marvelous 
musical memory, playing and con- 
ducting without a book. His repertory 
as pianist. Grove says, " embraced the 
master works of all styles and schools 
from the early Italian to the present 
day; it would in fact be difficult to 
mention a work of any importance 
by any composer for the piano 
which he did not play in public and 
by heart." His rank as composer 
does not equal the exalted place he 
holds in the fields spoken of. He is 
the author of songs, compositions for 
the piano, and some orchestral work. 
Mention should be made of his tran- 
scriptions for the piano from Wagner, 
Liszt and Berlioz. In 1878, Biilow 
was appointed music-director of the 
Court Theatre at Hanover, but dis- 
putes soon caused his surrender of 
this post. From 1880 to 1885 he held 
the post of Hofmusikintendant to 
the Duke of Meiningen, and under 
him the Meiningen Orchestra attained 
the widest celebrity. He served as 
director of the Philharmonic Socie- 
ties of Berlin and Hamburg, and both 
in Berlin and Frankfort continued his 
work as teacher, for which work he 
had very exceptional ability. 

Hans von Billow was a most 
eccentric genius. A sufferer from ill- 
health the greater part of his life, he 
was of an extremely nervous, high- 
strung temperament; hasty of speech, 
given to saying without modification 
what he thought, he made many 
enemies, and was looked upon gen- 
erally as an artist of exceedingly 
irritable nature. But " The Early 
Correspondence of Hans von Biilow," 
edited by his widow, and published 
shortly after his death, gives quite 
another side of his character. And 
one biographer, Nohl, speaks of von 
Bulow as "incomparably unselfish and 


self-sacrificing," these superlative 
words are used in reference to von 
Biilow's attitude toward Wagner, who 
caused the separation between him- 
self and his wife, and to whom 
Cosima was eventually married. After 
the separation von Biilow retired to 
Florence, and lived here, save when 
absent on concert tours, from 1869 to 
1872, becoming a power in the music 
life of Florence. In 1882 he mar- 
ried again, his second wife being 
Marie Schlanzer, court actress at 

Bufifen in his " Musical Celebrities " 
speaks thus of Hans von Biilow's 
work as a pianist: "With the excep- 
tion of the famous Moldavian, Anton 
Rubinstein, Hans von Biilow may 
be regarded as the first of piano- 
players, and in the interpretation of 
the severely classical masters, such 
as Bach and Beethoven, he is ac- 
knowledged by musicians to be unap- 
proachable by any living artist. With 
him everything is emphatically 
learned and profound. His piano 
playing exhibits great subtlety and 
power of analysis, and his intellectual 
grasp is so great that it has been 
more than once observed of him that 
he thinks music, but does not feel it." 

Bungert (boong-ert), August. 1846- 

High talented German composer. 
Born at Miihlheim and had his first 
musical instruction there under Ferd- 
inand Kufiferath. From 1860 to 1862 
he studied at the Cologne Conserv- 
atory and later for four years at the 
Paris Conservatory. He became 
musical director at Kreuznach in 1869 
and later at Carlsruhe. From 1873 to 
1881 he lived at Berlin and studied 
counterpoint and fugue diligently 
under Kiel. Since 1882 he has lived 
at Pegli near Genoa and has devoted 
himself to composition. In 1878 he 
won a prize offered by the Florentine 
Quartet, with his piano quartet. 
Among Bungert's orchestral works 
are his overture, Tasso; his sym- 
phonic poem, Auf der Wartburg; and 
his, Hohes Lied der Liebe. He also 
wrote a comic opera. Die Studenten 
von Salamanka; many piano pieces 
and many songs, among which are 
numerous settings to Carmen Sylva's 
words. The later years of his life, 
have been occupied with his series of 
six operas, dealing with the Homeric 
legends, as Wagner dealt with the 
Norse. The work as planned is di- 



vided into two groups, the first taken 
from the Iliad and the second from 
the Odyssey. The four operas based 
on the Odyssey are Kirke, Nausikaa, 
Odysseus Heimkehr and Odysseus 
Tod, and they have been completed 
and produced. The group founded 
on the Iliad comprises Achilles and 
Klytemnestra, and is partly finished. 
The entire work has the title Homer- 
ische Welt, and what has been pro- 
duced, is said by competent critics, to 
have great beauty and power and to 
be exceedingly melodic, and, in spite 
of the apparent influence of Wagner, 
to be characteristic and original. 

Bunning, Herbert. 1863. 

English contemporary composer 
and music-director of distinction. He 
was born in London, educated at Har- 
row, matriculated at Brasenose Col- 
lege, Oxford, entered the army, and 
from 1884 to 1886 was Lieutenant in 
the Fourth Queen's Own Hussars. 
The latter year he resigned his corn- 
mission that he ^ might indulge his 
fondness for music. He studied first 
in London with Bruno Schurig, later 
at Hanover under Engel and at Har- 
row under John Farmer. He made 
a sojourn in France and Italy, study- 
ing composition, with Dominicetti 
and Ferroni at Milan. He returned 
to London in 1892, was appointed 
music-director of the Lyric Theatre, 
occupied this post one year, and from 
1895 to 1896 was music-director at 
the Prince of Wales Theatre. He is 
the author of numerous composi- 
tions, and is highly regarded both as 
a composer and conductor. An 
eminent critic speaks thus of his work: 
" That this Englishman will one day 
make a big mark in the world of 
music I instinctively feel. His is a 
singularly graceful talent, and of 
orchestral effects he is a consummate 
master." His first successful work 
was an Italian scena, Lodovico il 
Moro, produced in London in 1892. 
His most important work, the opera 
La Princess Osra, appeared ten years 
later. He has written much vocal 
and instrumental music, is the author 
of a rhapsody, two symphonic poems, 
overtures, and suites for orchestra. 

Bunting, Edward. 1773-1843. 

Distinguished for his zeal and 
accomplishment in the preservation 
of the music of Ireland. He was 
born at Armagh, of Irish descent on 

his mother's side, his father being an 
English engineer. He studied both 
organ and piano, and from 1806 to 1817 
served as organist in a church in Bel- 
fast. Attending a meeting of the old 
harpers, held at Belfast in 1792, he 
was roused to enthusiasm for the 
native airs; and this enthusiasm did 
not abate. He made a life-study of 
the music of Ireland, and preserved 
for posterity the songs of the Irish 
bards. In 1796 he brought out his 
General Collection of the Ancient 
Irish Music, an enlarged edition in 
1809, and a third collection in 1840. 
His life-work was a labor of love. 

Buonamici (boo-o-na-me'-che), Giu- 
seppe. 1846- 

Distinguished contemporary Italian 
pianist and writer. He was born at 
Florence, and studied the piano under 
his uncle Giuseppe Ceccherini. In 
1868 he entered the Munich Conserv- 
atory, where he had for teachers von 
Billow and Rheinberger. After two 
years of study, he was appointed pro- 
fessor of advanced piano-playing at 
the Conservatory. In 1873 he went 
back to Florence, and here carried on 
his work as piano-professor. He was 
conductor of the " Cherubini," the 
Florentine choral society, and in 
Florence founded a distinguished 
trio-party. He is the author of some 
chamber-music, but has won special 
distinction with his editions of selec- 
tions from great composers. He has 
published a set of studies on special 
difficulties in Beethoven; an edition 
of Beethoven's sonatas; fifty etudes 
from Bertini, this work being pre- 
paratory to Bulow's edition of 
Cramer's studies; has edited Bach's 
lesser preludes and fugues; and is the 
author of The Art of Scale Study. 
The playing of Buonamici is highly 
artistic, and his interpretations of 
Beethoven of rare beauty. 

Buongiomo (bo o-6n - j e - 5r'-n6), 

Crescenzo. 1864- 

Contemporary Italian composer, 
whose work is representative of the 
later Italian school. He was born at 
Bonito, near Naples, and studied at 
the Naples Conservatory. After 
graduation he became a member of 
an operetta company and wrote for 
this company a number of works, 
some of which have enjoyed much 
popularity. After changing his resi- 
dence to Dresden, Buongiomo de- 



voted his time to more ambitious 
work, in this period producing among 
other compositions the lyric opera 
Das Madchenherz. Elson, in his 
Modern Composers of Europe, speaks 
appreciatively of the tender sentiment 
of Das Madchenherz, and likewise 
appreciatively of the " decided emo- 
tional beauty of the musical setting." 

Biirde-Ney (biir'-de-ni'), Jenny. 1826- 


A German dramatic soprano. She 
was born at Gratz, the daughter of a 
singer, from whom she received her 
early training. In 1842 she made her 
debut at Olmiitz, appeared later in 
Prague and Lemberg, in 1850 sang in 
Vienna, and in 1853 in Dresden. She 
visited London the season of 1855 and 
1856, and was heard in Berlin and 
Hanover and other cities of Germany. 
She was married, in 1855, to E. Burde, 
an actor, and retired from the stage 
in 1867. 
Burgmiiller (boorkh'-miil-ler), Nor- 

bert. 1810-1836. 

A gifted German pianist and com- 
poser, whose brilliant promise was 
cut short by death. He was born at 
Diisseldorf, and came of a musical 
family. His father, who at the time 
of his birth was music-director at 
Diisseldorf, was his first instructor. 
He studied at Cassel under Spohr 
and Hauptmann, showed remarkable 
originality and ability in his work, 
but died at Aix-la-Chapelle at the 
age of twenty-six. Among his pub- 
lished compositions are an overture 
and two symphonies. An elder 
brother, Johann Friedrich Franz, 
1806 to 1874, was the author of nu- 
merous pieces for the piano. 

Burmeister (boor'-mi-shter), Richard. 


German pianist and composer. 
Born at Hamburg. Educated in the 
public schools and at the Academy 
at Hamburg. From 1881 to 1884 he 
studied with Liszt at Rome, Buda- 
pest and Weimar, following him in 
his travels. From 1883 to 1885 he 
made concert tours in Europe and in 
1885 came to America as head of the 
piano department of Peabody Insti- 
tute, Baltimore, where he stayed for 
twelve years. During the winter of 
1893 he made a concert tour through 
Europe and in 1897 settled in New 
York and became director of the 
Scharwenka Conservatory. In 190.3 


he was appointed head of the piano 
department of the Royal Conserv- 
atory of Dresden and this position he 
still holds. Burmeister has also made 
concert tours all over the United 
States. His compositions consist of 
a Concerto in D minor for piano and 
orchestra; The Chase After Fortune, 
a symphonic fantasy for orchestra; 
two Capriccios for piano; a Romance 
for violin and orchestra; a Ballade for 
the piano; and The Sisters, a dramatic 
tone poem for contralto and or- 
chestra. He has also rescored Chopin's 
F minor concerto and has arranged 
for piano and orchestra, Liszt's Con- 
certo Bathetique and Mephisto Waltz, 
and Chopin's Rondo. 

Burney, Charles. 1726-1814. 

English organist, composer and mu- 
sical historian, who first studied music 
under Baker, the organist of the 
Chester Cathedral, later with his older 
brother, James Burney, organist at 
Shrewsbury, and finally for three 
years with Dr. Thomas Arne of Lon- 
don. In 1749 he become organist of 
a large London Church. Later, hav- 
ing left London on account of his 
health, from 1751 to 1760 he was 
organist at Norfolk. In 1750 he wrote 
for Drury Lane Theatre the music 
for three dramas, Alfred, Robin Hood 
and Queen Mab. Upon his return to 
London, in 1760, he again devoted 
himself to composition, publishing 
several concertos for the piano, and 
for the stage the musical piece, The 
Coming Man. In 1769, the degrees of 
Bachelor and Doctor of Music were 
given him by Oxford University. 
From 1760 on he was always con- 
stantly busy planning and arranging 
for a History of Music, and after 
1770 he made tours, first to France 
and Italy and later to Germany and 
the Netherlands, gathering large quan- 
tities of material for this work. Very 
interesting accounts of these journeys 
were published in diary form after his 
return under the^ titles: The Present 
State of Music in France and Italy 
and The Present State of Music in 
Germany and the Netherlands. In 
1776, the first volume of his General 
History of Music appeared and in 
1789 the fourth and last was pub- 
lished. This was an elaborate and 
most interesting work, well arranged 
and written in an amusing and gos- 
sipy style. In comparison with Sir 
John Hawkins* work along the same 




line, which came out the same year 
that Burney's first volume appeared, 
it is said, that while Burney's literary 
style and arrangement are better, 
Hawkins' work is more accurate and 
thorough. The first volume of 
Burney's History takes up the music 
and poetry of the Hebrews, Greeks 
and Egyptians, the second and third 
volumes contain the biographies of 
the great musicians of the Fifteenth, 
Sixteenth, and Seventeenth Centuries, 
while the fourth volume discusses the 
music of the times in which it was 
written, and this volume is particularly 
open to criticism on the score of 
including many worthless and for- 
gotten composers and compositions, 
while such masters as Bach and 
Handel are almost ignored. Burney 
also wrote many musical essays and 
articles. In 1783 he was appointed 
organist at Chelsea College; here he 
lived in comfort and independence 
until his death. Dr. Burney had a 
family of eight children, four of whom 
became famous. Mme. D'Arblay, the 
novelist, was his second daughter. 
Besides the compositions already 
mentioned, Dr. Burney's works in- 
clude six concertos for violin, two 
sonatas for violin and bass, six con- 
cert pieces for the organ, two sonatas 
for piano, violin and violoncello, six 
flute duets, six harpsichord lessons 
and an anthem with overture, solos 
and choruses. 

♦Burton, Frederick Russell. 1861- 

American composer. Born in Mich- 
igan. Was graduate at Harvard Col- 
lege in 1882, with high honors both in 
college work and in music. In 1895 
he settled in Yonkers, N. Y., where 
he has since lived as a teacher and 
composer. In 1896 he organized the 
Yonkers Choral Society, of which he 
is conductor. One of the best known 
of Burton's compositions is Hia- 
watha, a dramatic cantata, in which 
he has used a real Indian theme. 
Striking numbers in the cantata are 
a contralto aria and a beautiful set- 
ting of the death song of Minnehaha. 
Other works by Burton are The 
Legend of Sleepy Hollow, also a 
dramatic cantata; an Inauguration 
Ode, composed for McKinley's second 
inauguration; Songs of the Ojibway 
Indians; anthems, and many songs. 
Burton is an author as well as a com- 
poser, having written poems, musical 
essays and short stories. 

Busby, Thomas. 1755-1838. 

English organist, composer and mu- 
sical writer. He was a pupil of 
Battishill and was organist success- 
ively of a number of London churches^ 
He was given the degree of Doctor of 
Music by Cambridge in 1801. He 
was a very industrious composer of 
dramatic and other music, but his 
works had no amount of originality. 
Some of his best compositions were 
The Prophecy, an oratorio; dramatic 
music to Joanna, to A Tale of Mys- 
tery, to Rugantino and to The Fair 
Fugitive; also odes, anthems and 
glees. He was also the author of a 
Dictionary of Music, a Grammar of 
Music, and a General History of 
Music, which was largely compiled 
from Burney and Hawkins. 

Busch, Carl. 1862. 

Contemporary composer and con- 
ductor. A Dane by birth, but a 
naturalized citizen of the United 
States. He has attracted wide atten- 
tion in the world of music as a com- 
poser who has drawn inspiration from 
the music of the native Indians, hav- 
ing developed from their melodies 
compositions of much interest, songs, 
dances, choruses, orchestral suites and 
a cantata. A recent work is the can- 
tata, The Four Winds. Another work 
in this line is the Indian suite. Echoes 
of the Indians, which consists of five 
movements: Greeting of Hiawatha, 
Chibiabos, Funeral Procession of the 
Omahas, Indian Love-Song, fantasia, 
variations and fugUe over an original 
Indian air. 

Carl Busch was born at Bjerre, Jut- 
land, Denmark, studied law at the 
University of Copenhagen and spent 
three years at the Copenhagen Con- 
servatory, studying violin under Tofte 
and theory and composition with 
Hartmann and Niels Gade. He then 
came to the United States and be- 
came a member of the Philharmonic 
Orchestra. Later returning to Europe 
he studied under Godard in Paris. 
When he came back to America he 
settled in Kansas City, Missouri, and 
has continued to make that place his 
residence. He organized the great 
festivals held in Convention Hall 
there and is actively engaged in con- 
ducting orchestras and choral socie- 
ties. He has conducted orchestral 
concerts of his own works in Leipsic, 
Dresden and Copenhagen, has con- 
ducted his own works with the Anton 




SeidI Orchestra, Cincinnati Symphony 
Orchestra, Theodore Thomas Orches- 
tra, and St. Louis World's Fair Or- 
chestra. In addition to the works 
spoken of, his compositions include a 
number of songs and choruses; the 
cantatas. The League of the Alps, 
The Lady of Shalott, The Voice of 
Spring and King Olaf's War Horns; 
Elegy for stringed orchestra; and 
Orchestral Prologue to Tennyson's 
Passing of Arthur. 

Busoni (boo-s6'-ne), Ferruccio Ben- 

venuto. 1766- 

Gifted Italian pianist and composer. 
He received his first instruction in 
music from his parents, both of whom 
were musicians, his father being a 
clarinettist and his mother a pianist. 
He appeared in public at the age of 
nine at Vienna and studied there 
under Hans Schmidt and later under 
Dr. Wilhelm Mayer at Gratz. After 
making a concert tour in Italy, 
Busoni at the age of eighteen, was 
elected a member of the Accademia 
Filarmonica of Bologna and received 
a gold medal from the city of Flor- 
ence. From 1886 to 1888 Busoni 
lived at Leipsic and gave his time to 
composition. After a year as pro- 
fessor of piano, at Helsingfors, he 
became professor at the Moscow Im- 
perial Conservatory, in 1890. In 
1891, Busoni came to America as pro- 
fessor of piano at the New England 
Conservatory at Boston, but remained 
only a short time, returning to Europe 
in 1893 and has since lived in Berlin, 
making successful concert tours and 
composing. In 1890 Busoni took the 
Rubinstein prize for composition and 
piano-playing. Among his composi- 
tions are an orchestral sviite; a 
Synphonisches Tongedicht for an 
orchestra; a Concertstiick for piano 
and orchestra; a set of variations and 
fugue on Chopin's C minor prelude; 
a violin concerto in D; four ballet 
scenes; seven etudes and twenty-four 
preludes for the piano; beside many 
solo piano pieces and songs. He has 
also made an arrangement, of Bach's 
organ works, for the piano, which is 
most remarkable and in the execution 
of which he excels. As a pianist he 
is very accomplished. 

Bussler (boos'-ler), Ludwig. 1838- 


Noted musical writer and critic. 
Born in Berlin, where his father was 


a diplomat, painter and author. Buss- 
ler received his first musical training 
as a choir boy from Von Hertzberg, 
and later studied theory and instru- 
mentation with Wieprecht, Dehn and 
Grell. In 1865 he was appointed 
teacher of theory in the Ganz School 
of Music, at Berlin, and in 1879 he 
took the same position at the Stern 
Conservatory. He also acted for a 
time as conductor at the Memel 
Theatre. In 1883, Bussler became 
musical critic of the National Zeitung. 
His writings are very practical and 
very popular, and he was most inde- 
pendent in work, studying all authori- 
ties and methods and taking the best 
from all, but following none. He 
published in all about twelve works, 
among them Musikalische Elemen- 
tarlehre; Praktische Harmonielehre; 
Harmonische Ubungenam Klavier; 
Praktische Musikalische Komposi- 
tionslehre; Instrumentation und Or- 
chestersatz and Lexikon der Har- 

Butt, Clara. 1873- 

Celebrated English contemporary 
singer. She possesses a rich con- 
tralto voice, an unusually fine stage 
presence, and in her later work has 
given admirable interpretations. She 
was born at Southwick, Sussex, and 
studied at Bristol with Daniel 
Rootham. When she was sixteen she 
gained a scholarship at the Royal 
College of Music, London, and here 
was a pupil of J. H. Blower. She 
made her formal debut at Albert 
Hall, London, singing the part of 
Ursula in The Golden Legend, and 
very shortly afterward sang the part 
of Orpheus in a pupil's performance 
at the Lyceum Theatre. She was very 
warmly received, immediately found 
herself a success, and received proffers 
of engagements from all sides. Pres- 
ently realizing the need of further 
training she went to Paris, placed her- 
self under Jacques Bouhy, and had 
some lessons of Madame Gerster. 
She has enjoyed eminent success in 
Elgar's Sea Pictures, written espe- 
cially for her. Other special music 
written for her are the compositions, 
Triumph of Alcestis by Frederick 
CHffe and Juliet by Herbert Bedford. 
In 1900 she married Mr. Kennerley 
Rumford, with whom she has been 
associated professionally. 




Buxtehude (boox'-te-hoo-de), D i e - 

trich. 1637-1707. 

Very famous Danish organist, who 
was born at Elsinore, where his father 
was an organist before liim, and prob- 
ably trained his son in music though 
this is not certain. At any rate the 
son, in 1668, was enough of a musician 
to -become organist at the Marien- 
kirche at Liibeck, one of the best 
positions in Germany. Here Buxte- 
hude built up a great reputation and 
became the magnet in musical affairs 
for northern Europe, drawing musi- 
cians from all quarters to hear him. 
Beside his regular duties as organist, 
Buxtehude inaugurated the popular 
"Abendmusiken," which became fa- 
mous all over Germany. These were 
concerts given every year on the five 
Sundays before Christmas. The pro- 
grams consisted of sacred music for 
orchestra and chorus and organ num- 
bers. It was to hear these concerts 
that Johann Sebastian Bach walked 
fifty miles, in 1705. As a composer, 
Buxtehude's very greatest strength lay 
in pure instrumental organ music, 
although he also produced some fine 
vocal works. Among his composi- 
tions were seven sonatas for violin, 
gamba and cemballo; five wedding 
arias; a number of cantatas; and 
works for the organ and the harpsi- 

Byrd, William. About 1538-1623. 

Famous English composer, who 
was undoubtedly one of the greatest 
musicians of his time, as well as the 


finest organist of the day. Authori- 
ties differ in regard to the year of his 
birth and the details of his early his- 
tory, and indeed the first really au- 
thentic fact of his life is his going as 
organist to Lincoln Cathedral in 1563. 
It is said that before this he studied 
under Tallis and was senior chorister 
at St. Paul's. In 1569 he was made 
a member of the Chapel Royal and 
in 1575 received the honorary title 
of organist thereof. In the same 
year Byrd and Tallis applied for and 
received from Queen Elizabeth an 
exclusive patent for printing and 
selling music and music paper, and 
on the death of Tallis, in 1585, this 
patent passed entirely into Byrd's 
hands. During the next few years 
Byrd composed a great deal. In 
1588 he published Psalms, Sonets 
and Songs of Sadness and Pietie. In 
1589, Songs of Sundrie Natures, some 
of Gravitie and Others of Mirth, and 
also a number of madrigals appeared. 
He is said to have been probably the 
first Englishman who wrote madri- 
gals. In 1693 Byrd and the elder 
Ferrabosco, who were friendly rivals, 
published the results of a contest, in 
which each set a plain-song forty 
different ways. Unfortunately no 
copy of this has been preserved. In 
1607 Byrd published the first and 
second books of the Gradualia, a col- 
lection of church motets, for the 
Catholic Ecclesiastical Year, and m 
1611, Psalms, Songs and Sonnets. In 
addition to these works he wrote three 
masses and anthems. 

Cabel (ka-bel), Marie Josephe. 1827- 

A Belgian soprano, who was born 
at Liege. As a child she showed great 
talent tor the piano and at the sug- 
gestion of Meyerbeer studied at the 
Paris Conservatory She appeared in 
Paris as a vocalist in 1847, but her 
regular debut was not made until 
1849, when she appeared at the Opera 
Comique. She also sang for three 
years in Brussels, also at Lyons, 
Strasburg, St. Petersburg and various 
points in Germany. In 1854 she came 
to England with a company and ap- 
peared with success in Le Bijou, The 

Promise, Fille du Regiment and 
Sirene. In 1856 she made her appear- 
ance in Auber's Manon Lescaut at the 
Opera Comique and remained there 
until 1861. In 1856 she created the 
part of Dinorah, which had been 
written for her, and played in the 
French provinces until 1877, but in 
the following year was taken ill and 
never sang again. 

Caccmi (kat-che'-ne), Giulio. 1588 or 

Italian composer, singer and lute- 
player Considerable difference exists 



between musical biographies in regard 
to his dates, which are evidently not 
known accurately. The exact year of 
his birth and death are, however, of 
minor importance compared with his 
work, for he was really a reformer in 
music and laid the foundations for 
modern opera by breaking away from 
the old style composition for many 
voices and writing for one voice, first 
in recitative form, followed by set- 
tings of detached dramatic scenes and 
finally leading up to the opera. His 
first works were madrigals in the old 
style, but influenced by his friends, 
Galilei and Peri, and inspired by the 
musical discussions held in Florence, 
he soon began writing in the new 
dramatic style, composing for a single 
voice, with instrumental accompani- 
ment. These compositions he sang to 
his own accompaniment on the 
theorbo, with great success. His first 
large work, in this new style, was the 
opera, II Combattimento d'Apolline 
Col Serpente; next appeared Dafne, 
Eurydice in 1600 and the same year 
II rapimento di Cefalo, the first opera 
ever produced in a public theatre. 
Eurydice and Dafne, written in col- 
laboration with Peri, an Italian poet 
of considerable ability and a friend of 
Caccini's, are considered the begin- 
ning of modern operas — and the reci- 
tatives composed and sung by Caccini, 
were of the greatest importance in 
musical development, this form being 
originated and first used by him. 
Another important work of Caccini's 
was his New Music, a series of 
madrigals for single voice. Caccini 
was also one of the greatest vocal 
teachers that Italy has produced, and 
to him was no doubt due, in great 
part, the vocal method which has 
made Italy famous. 

Caffarelli (kaf-fa-rel'-li), G a e t a n o. 
Majoriano. 1703-1783. 

Celebrated Italian vocalist, who 
was born at Bari, near Naples, of 
poor and ignorant parents. He early 
attracted the attention of Cafaro, or 
Caffarelli, director of the Conserv- 
atory of Naples, who had him edu- 
cated. After studying with Porpora, 
he made his debut at Rome, in 1724, 
and appeared in various Italian cities, 
among them Milan, Florence, Venice, 
Turin, Genoa and Naples. He appeared 
in London in Handel's Faraniondo, in 
1738, and at Paris also. He figured 

largely in his^ day as a rival of 
Farinelli and is said to have pos- 
sessed such vocal qualifications that 
old Porpora, his teacher, dismissed 
him, after several years' instruction 
with the words: "Go my son, I have 
nothing more to teach you. You are 
the greatest singer in Europe," He 
was courted by the highest society of 
Rome, and was also received with 
every honor in London, when he 
appeared there. He seems, however, 
not to have fulfilled the expectation 
of the Londoners and returned to 
Italy, where his appearances in every 
town he visited were veritable 
triumphs. At the invitation of the 
Dauphin of France, he went to Paris, 
in 1750, and sang at several concerts. 
He was still singing at the age of 
sixty-five, but shortly afterward pur- 
chased a dukedom, and retired to a 
palace, which he had built in Santo 
Dorato. He died in 1783, leaving his 
wealth and dukedom to a nephew. 
He was at his best in the bravura 
style of singing and was a master of 
pathetic song. 

Cahen (ka-an).. Albert. 1846-1903. 

A French composer and pupil of 
Mme. Szarvady, and of Cesar Franck, 
having studied the piano under the 
former and composition under the lat- 
ter. He produced several works of 
importance, including Jean le pre- 
curseur, a biblical drama, which was 
given at the Concert National in 
1874, and Endymion, a mythical poem, 
in 1875. He made his debut on the 
stage with Le Bois, a one-act play, 
at the Opera Comique in 1888. In 
1886 he produced another play, La 
Femme de Claude, a three-act lyric 
drama, which was not a success. 
Cahen also wrote a set of songs en- 
titled Marines. He died at Cap d'Ail 
in March, 1903. 

Caldicott, Alfred James. 1842-1897. 

English composer and organist. 
Inherited his musical ability from his 
father. His first musical education 
consisted of a course of training in 
the choir of Worcester Cathedral. At 
the age of fourteen he became as- 
sistant to William Done, the organist. 
Later studied at the Conservatory of 
Leipsic, with Moscheles, Hauptmann, 
Richter and others. Returned to 
Worcester, his native place, in 1864 
and became organist of St. Stephen's 
Church and to the corporation of 



^yo^cester, also conductor of the mu- 
sical and instrumental societies of that 
city. In 1878 he took the degree of 
Bachelor of Music at Cambridge. 
Went to London in 1883 and was ap- 
pointed professor of harmony at the 
Royal College of Music. In 1885, 
Caldicott became musical director at 
the Albert Palace, Battersea. During 
1890 and 1891 he made a tour in 
America, as conductor of the Agnes 
Huntington Opera Company. In 
1892 he was made principal of the 
Educational Department in the Lon- 
don College of Music and musical 
director at the Comedy Theatre in 
1893. His best known works are the 
sacred cantata, The Widow of Nain; 
two cantatas for women's voices, A 
Rhine Legend and Queen of May; 
and the operettas, Treasure Trove, A 
Moss Rose Rent, Old Knockles, and A 
Fishy Case. He also wrote many 
glees, of which Winter Days won a 
prize for a serious glee and Humpty 
Dumpty for a humorous glee; and 
beside these, numerous songs, includ- 
ing a Dickens series of songs. 

Calkin, John Baptiste. 1827- 

English composer, pianist and or- 
ganist. He studied with his father. 
From 1846 to 1853 was organist, pre- 
centor and choirmaster at St. Co- 
lumba's College, Ireland, and afterward 
at several churches. Is a member of 
the Philharmonic Society and pro- 
fessor at the Guildhall School of 
Music. His works consist of sacred 
compositions, comprising services, an- 
thems and introits, also many part- 
songs, glees and songs, beside pieces 
for strings, organ and piano. 

Callcott, John Wall. 1766-1821. 

Born at Kensington, London, and 
became one of the most noted of the 
English glee writers. He learned the 
rudiments of music when quite young 
by frequenting the Kensington 
Church, and by attending the Chapel 
Royal at Westminster Abbey. He 
studied without a teacher for many 
years. From 1783 until 1785 he was 
assistant organist at the Church of 
St. George the Martyr, under Rein- 
hold, and the latter year was intro- 
duced to the leader of the orchestra 
of the Academy of Ancient Music and 
won several medals for glees and 
canons, and also took active part in 
the formation of the Glee Club in 
1787. He was joint organist at St. 


Paul's Church, Covent Garden, and, 
in 1790, took lessons from Haydn in 
instrumental composition, in order to 
perfect himself in orchestral writing. 
In 1793, having studied the works of 
the best musical theorists, he proj- 
ected _ a musical dictionary. While 
studying with Haydn he composed a 
song, These as They Change, which 
won much praise for him. Oxford 
conferred upon him the degree of 
Doctor of Music in 1800 and in 1806 
he published his dictionary. In 1795, 
upon the formation of a volunteer 
corps at Kensington, Calcott had ac- 
cepted a commission in it and aided 
by a subscription, he formed a band 
for the corps, for which he purchased 
instruments, composed and arranged 
the music and instructed the per- 
formers. In 1806 he published a musi- 
cal grammar and also wrote a scena 
upon the death of Lord Nelson. In 
that year he was appointed lecturer 
on German music, at the Royal Insti- 
tution, to succeed Dr. Grotch, but 
under his heavy work his mind gave 
way and for five years it was a blank. 
He recovered for a time, but elapsed 
into the same condition again and 
died at Bristol in 1821. His works 
consist mainly of glees, catches and 
canons, and were edited after his 
death by W. Horsley. He showed but 
little skill in orchestral writing. He 
left in manuscript many anthems, 
odes and songs and other pieces of 
music. His daughter Sophia became 
eminent as a teacher of the piano 
and his son, William Hutchins Call- 
cott, attained considerable distinction 
as a composer and adapted many of 
the elder Callcott's glees for male 

Calve (kal-va), Emma. 1866- 

The greatest interpreter of the role 
of Carmen. A famous singer, who was 
born at Decazeville, near Aveyron, 
France, according to most authorities, 
although Grove's dictionary gives her 
birthplace as Madrid and the year of 
her birth as 1864. 

Her name was originally, Emma 
Roquer, her father being a Spaniard, 
and a civil engineer. Emma attended 
a convent school and while there her 
singing attracted the attention of a 
Parisian gentleman, who urged her 
mother to send her to Paris to study. 
There she was instructed by a tenor, 
Puget, and another teacher named 
Laborde, and made her debut at the 




Brussels Theatre, as Marguerite in 
Faust in 1881. After appearing at 
another theatre in the same city, she 
became a pupil of Mme. Marchesi 
and then made a tour of Italy. Here 
she saw Eleanora Duse, the Italian 
tragedienne, whose impersonations 
made a deep impression on the young 
singer. According to Calve herself, 
her first public appearance was made 
at Nice, at a charity concert. Later 
she sang at La Scala, in Milan, with 
great success and also at the principal 
theatres of Naples, Rome, and Flor- 
ence. Returning to Paris, in 1891, she 
created the part of Suzel in L'Amigo 
Fritz, by Mascagni, playing and sing- 
ing the role later at Rome and, be- 
cause of her great success in it, she 
was chosen to originate the role of 
Santuzza in Cavalleria Rusticana, 
which has been ever since one of her 
greatest parts. She repeated her suc- 
cess in it in London. Her next 
triumph was Carmen, and before be- 
ginning the study of this part, she 
went to Spain, learned the Spanish 
dances, mingled with the people and 
patterned her characterization after 
the cigarette girls whom she watched 
at their work and at play. In 1894 
she made her appearance in the role 
at the Opera Comique, Paris, and her 
triumphs followed. She was immedi- 
ately hailed as the greatest Carmen 
that had ever appeared and other cities 
all over the world have since agreed 
with the Parisian verdict. She had 
had many famous predecessors in the 
role, Patti, Minnie Hauk and Mme. 
Galli-Marie, but critics and musicians 
were agreed, that in Calve they had 
found their ideal of Bizet's cigarette 
girl of Seville, and her man^"- charms 
of voice, figure, and personality com- 
bined to make it one of the most 
brilliant impersonations ever given in 
opera. Calve first appeared in America 
in the season of 1893-1894, as Mignon 
and her reception then and ever after- 
ward was flattering. She has made 
regular visits to this country ever 
since, both in grand opera and in con- 
cert tours. She created the part of 
Anita, which was written for her, in 
Massenet's Navarraise in London, in 
1894, and sang Sappho, in an opera 
written by the same composer, in 
1897. She also sang Ophelie in Am- 
broise Thomas' Hamlet in Paris in 
1899, but the part was not suited to 
her and she dropped it. She has 
appeared with success in many roles, 


among them, as the Countess in The 
Marriage of Figaro, the title role in 
Lalla Rookh, and Pamina in The 
Magic Flute, but she is best known as 
Carmen, and best liked in it. Her 
voice is a soprano, rich, and sympa- 
thetic and well-trained, and her sing- 
ing has great charm. Her phrasing 
and vocalization show perfect art and 
natural musical instinct, combining to 
make her a star of the first magnitude. 
Mme. Calve is singularly philan- 
thropic and among other things has 
built an orphanage near her mountain 
home at Aveyron, France, where forty 
girls are received and cared for, taught 
to cook, sew and knit and trained in 
useful professions, the singer taking 
a great deal of interest in the home. 
She is a great believer in the occult 
and all things mystic appeal to her, 
so it is said. She resides most of 
the year, except when on tour at her 
castle, near Aveyron, which was built 
in the Eleventh Century and which 
she acquired a few years ago. 

Cambert (kan-bar), Robert. 16 2 8- 


Originator of French opera and a 
great composer and organist. Was 
born in Paris, and was the first 
Frenchman to write operas in the 
French vernacular, in imitation of 
Peri and Caccini, who wrote Eurydice. 
He was regarded as the best of the 
French composers until the intrigues 
of Lully destroyed his position at the 
French court. He was a pupil of 
Chambonnieres, with whom he studied 
the clavichord, and later he became 
the organist at the Church of St. 
Honore, Paris. His work in imitation 
of Peri's opera was La Pastorale, 
written at the suggestion of Abbe 
Perrin, and performed for the first 
time, in 1659, at the Chateau D'Issy 
and afterwards repeated by command 
of Louis XIV. at the palace. In 1666 
he was appointed superintendent of 
the music of Queen Anne of Austria, 
the mother of Louis XIV. He be- 
came associated with Abbe Perrin, 
who had secured a patent giving him 
the right to perform opera, and for 
thirty-two years they were associated 
in the enterprise. After being driven 
from France by Lully, he settled in 
London, but his residence there was 
not wholly pleasant or satisfactory 
and the failure of his works there is 
believed to have hastened his death. 
While in England he became master 




of music to Charles II. Among his 
works are the operas La Pastorale; 
Adonis, which was written in 1662; 
Ariane, produced in 1667; and Po- 
mona, a pastoral. The score of 
Adonis was lost, and was never per- 
formed. " Lully's jealousy of Cam- 
bert," says Grove, " Implies that he 
(Cambert) was a formidable rival." 
Cambert died in London. 

Campagnoli (kam-pan-y5'-le), Barto- 
lomeo. 1751-1827. 

A violinist of great renown, of the 
school of Pugnani and Giardini, who 
aided in forming the more modern one 
of Viotti, Kreutzer and Spohr. He 
was born at Centon, near Bologna, and 
studied violin under Dall 'Ocha, a 
pupil of Lolli's. He was violinist at 
the Pergola Theatre, Florence, where 
he met Cherubini, and was later a 
leader at Rome, and in 1776, chapel- 
master to the bishop of Freysing. 
Two years later he was violinist to 
the Duke of Courtland at Dresden. 
He traveled through Europe as a vio- 
linist and resided in Leipsic from 1797 
until 1818, where he was conductor of 
the Gewandhaus concerts, and he also 
lived in Paris. Among his works are 
a number of exercises, which are 
widely used among professors of 
music for the young violinist who 
has achieved a moderate mastery over 
his instrument. He also wrote duets 
for flute and violin; three concertos 
for flute and orchestra; polonaises; 
suites; divertissements, and other 

Campana (kam-pa'-na), Fabio. 181 9- 

Italian opera composer, song-writer 
and vocal teacher. Born at Bologna 
and studied there at the Conservatory. 
His Italian operas, composed in early 
life and given in Italy, were unsuc- 
cessful. These were Caterina di 
Guise; Guilio d'Este; Vannina d' 
Ornano; and Luisa di Francia. In 
1850, Campana settled in London and 
remained there as a teacher and com- 
poser until his death. He produced 
two operas in England, Almira, and 
Esmeralda, in the last of which Patti 
appeared as the heroine. He also 
composed a large number of suc- 
cessful songs. 

Campanari (kam-pa-na'-re), Giuseppe. 

Eminent dramatic barytone, who is 
a native of Venice, and extremely 

popular as a singer, in America as 
well as in Europe. He began his mu- 
sical career by becoming a cello- 
player at La Scala, Milan, and while 
there he began studying, with a view 
to cultivating his voice. He made his 
appearance as a singer in various 
opera houses of Italy and, in 1884, 
came to America at the request of his 
brother Leandro, the violinist, and 
became a member of the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra. While in New 
York, he appeared as a singer with 
the Handel and Haydn Society and in 
opera. In 1893 he joined Hinrich's 
Opera Company, traveling with it for 
two years. He next became a mem- 
ber of the Abbey and Grau Company, 
appearing in II Trovatore and other 
operas with success. He has sung of 
late years with the Metropolitan 
Opera Company, under Maurice Grau 
and later under Heinrich Conried. 
His most recent appearances were 
with the San Carlos Opera Company, 
under the management of Henry Rus- 
sell, when he sang Figaro in The 
Barber of Seville; Tonio in I'Pa- 
gliacci; and other roles. He also 
appeared in recital with Mme. Melba 
in the spring of 1907. Sig. Campanari's 
voice is a rich and flexible barytone, 
full of dramatic feeling. 

Campanari, Leandro. 1857- 

Italian violinist. Studied at Con- 
servatory of Milan. Made successful 
European concert tours. In 1789, 
came to America and made his first 
appearance with The Boston Sym- 
phony Orchestra. Remained in Bos- 
ton and in 1883 became music-director 
of the choir of the Jesuit Church, also 
first professor of violin at New Eng- 
land Conservatory of Music. Went 
to Europe in 1887, where he remained 
until 1900, when he returned to 
America and went to Cincinnati as 
professor of violin and head of the 
orchestral department of the Cincin- 
nati Conservatory. In 1897, returned 
to Europe and since then has been 
conductor of the orchestral concerts 
given in La Scala Theatre, Milan. He 
has written many songs and also text- 
books for violinists. He is a brother 
of Giuseppe Campanari the well- 
known grand opera singer. 

Campanini (kam-pa-ne'-ne), 1 1 a I o . 


Noted Italian operatic tenor, who 
was hailed on his first appearance as 



a worthy successor to Mario. He 
was born in Parma, Italy, was the son 
of a blacksmith, and was brought up 
to follow a trade, but joined the army 
and went to war with Garibaldi. After 
he returned, a musician, who took an 
interest in him, secured for him a 
course of instruction at Parma Con- 
servatory and at the age of twenty- 
one he began his career as a singer. 
After a period of study with Lam- 
perti, at Milan, he made his debut at 
Odessa, in 1869, in II Trovatore and 
sang for several years with success. 
He made his London debut, in 1872, 
as Gennaro in Lucrezia Borgia. He 
toured the United States several 
times, in 1873, in 1879 with Abbey's 
company, and in 1892 with Mme. 
Patti and again in 1894. He sang the 
leading roles in Lohengrin, Mephistof- 
eles, Faust, Carmen, Don Juan and 
Lucia. He was said at ouc time to 
have had a repertory of one hundred 
operas. He never fulfilled the early 
promise which he showed, but was a 
hard worker and zealous. He pos- 
sessed a voice of great flexibility and 
brilliancy, but it decayed rapidly. He 
is said to have received as high as 
$1,000 a night, yet he died, as have so 
many of his kind, poor, and at the last 
voiceless. He made his greatest suc- 
cesses as Rhadames in Aida; Faust in 
Boito's Mefistofeles; Kenneth in 
Balfe's Talismano, a posthumous opera 
produced at Drury Lane in 1874; as 
Raoul in Les Huguenots and in the 
tenor role of La Favorita. 

Campenhout (kam'-pen-oot), Franjois 

van. 1779-1848. 

Born at Brussels, and began his 
career in the orchestra of the Theatre 
de la Monnaie, later appearing on the 
stage as a tenor singer. For thirty 
years he sang in the chief towns of 
Holland, Belgium, and France, mak- 
ing his farewell appearance at Ghent, 
in 1872. He composed several operas, 
among them, Grotius, produced at 
Amsterdam in 1808. He also wrote 
songs, choruses, and much church 
music. His name is chiefly associated 
with La Brabangonne, which he com- 
posed at the time of the Revolution 
of 1830 and which has since become 
the national air of Belgium. Cam- 
penhout was a pupil in singing of 
Plantade at The Hague, in 1807, and 
in harmony and composition under 
Navoigille, the elder, and of Saint- 
Amand, at Amsterdam in 1808. He 

received his first instruction on the 
violin from Pauwels at Brussels. 

Camporese (kam-p6-ra'-ze), Violante. 


Born at Rome, and was a member 
of a good family. Cultivated music 
from her earliest years because she 
loved it. After her marriage to a 
nobleman named Giustiniani, she 
found herself compelled by circum- 
stances to support herself, and soon 
afterward began to appear at concerts. 
She was destined to become one of 
the most brilliant and popular singers 
of her time. She was engaged for the 
private concerts of Napoleon in Paris, 
and under instruction from Crescen- 
tini her pure soprano voice developed 
great flexibility and sweetness. Both 
as a singer and as a woman she 
fascinated everyone with whom she 
came in contact, and there are many 
stories of her goodness and gener- 
osity. Ebers, while in Paris, in 1816, 
met the singer at the house of Paer, 
the composer, and described her 
voice as fine-toned and pure, and thus 
described her personal appearance: 
" She was a handsome, elegant woman 
of one and thirty, with dark hair, 
eyes, and complexion, tall, slender 
figure, fine Roman countenance, full 
of tragic dignity, and a manner of 
stately grace and irresistible sweet- 
ness." From Paris she went to Milan, 
where she crowded La Scala nightly 
during the engagement. In 1817 she 
was engaged for the King's Theatre, 
London, making her debut in Cima- 
rosa's Penelope. She gained a great 
reputation as a vocalist when singing 
Suzanna in The Marriage of Figaro, 
in spite of the fact that she succeeded 
Vestris in the part. This success was 
followed by another when she sang 
Donna Anna in Don Giovanni. She 
appeared in other operas and also at 
the Ancient Music and Philharmonic 
concerts. She went back to Milan, 
singing there until 1821, when she re- 
turned to London, being received in 
the highest artistic and social circles. 
Believing she could sing comic as 
well as tragic roles, Camporese under- 
took to sing Zerlina in Don Giovanni, 
but was not a success and wisely, never 
again repeated the experiment. She 
won fresh laurels by her performance 
of Desdemona in Rossini's Othello 
and by the purity and force of her 
singing and her gentle dignity and 
bearing elicited universal admiration. 




She appeared at the King's Theatre 
again in 1823, bringing out at her 
benefit, Rossini's Riccardo e Zoraide. 
In 1824 she again returned, but her 
voice had by this time begun to show 
signs of wear and she could not bear 
comparison with Malibran, Sontag and 
Pasta, who had the musical world at 
their feet Camporese shortly after- 
ward retired to Rome. In 1827 she 
was singing Rossini's operas in 
Ancona and two years later came to 
London to sing in concert, but her 
voice was practically gone and the 
performance was not a success. She 
died in Rome. 

Campra (kan-pra), Andre. 1660-1744. 
Was born at Aix, Provence. His 
operas are the only ones, besides those 
of Lully, which kept their place on 
the stage during the first half of the 
Eighteenth Century. He was also the 
first composer, who obtained per- 
mission to use other instruments than 
the organ in church music. He studied 
music under G. Poitevin, but gave 
little promise of distinguishing himself 
as a musician until his sixteenth year, 
when he composed a motet that 
caused his teacher to predict a great 
future for him. His first position in 
Paris was the directorship of the 
choir of the College of Jesuits and 
from there he was promoted to the 
directorship of Notre Dame. At the 
great church festivals, immense 
crowds flocked to hear his composi- 
tions, but while thus employed he was 
spending all of his leisure moments 
in studying the operatic masters and, 
in 1697, his first opera, L'Europe 
Galante, was produced. This was fol- 
lowed, in 1699, by an operatic ballet 
Le Carnaval de Venise, but both were 
published in his brother's name, as he 
feared losing his appointment in the 
church if it became known that he 
wrote anything but sacred music. In 
1700 he abandoned the church for 
the stage and brought out Hesione, 
the first opera produced under his 
own name. From that time until 
1740, when his last opera was pro- 
duced, his works enjoyed a great 
popularity. He received many honors 
at the hands of his countrymen. Was 
made teacher and director of the 
pages at the Chapel Royal, an ap- 
pointment he held until his death, and 
was granted a pension by the King, in 
1718, in recognition of his services as 
a dramatic composer, and was also 

made master of the Chapel to the 
King. Besides his operatic works he 
wrote three books of cantatas, a mass 
and five books of motets. He was too 
deferential to the tastes and fancies 
of the time to have contributed much 
to the development of French opera. 
Instead of improving the music, he 
helped to popularize what were known 
as the spectacles coupes, or per- 
formances of fragmentary plays, and 
this gave him only an ephemeral 

Candeille (kan-de'-yu), Amelie Julie 

Simon. 177-1834. 

Dramatic soprano and actress, also 
a composer of considerable talent, 
who was born in Paris and made her 
debut in 1782 as Iphigenie in Gluck's 
opera, Iphigenie en Aulide. She was 
engaged from 1783 to 1796 as an 
actress at the Theatre Frangaise in 
Paris. In 1798 she married Simon, a 
carriage manufacturer of Brussels, 
but separated from him and, in 1821, 
married a painter named Pierie. Mme. 
Simon, as she was known, resided in 
Paris for a number of years as a 
teacher, and was highly esteemed. 
She composed the music and wrote 
the libretto of a successful opera, La 
Belle Fermiere, which was produced 
in 1792. In it Mme. Simon took the 
leading part, singing to her own 
accompaniment on the piano and 
harp. Another opera, Ida, produced 
in 1807, was not a success. Besides 
the operatic works mentioned she 
also composed three piano trios, four 
piano sonatas, fantasias, romances, 
and songs. She was the daughter of 
Pierre Joseph Candeille, an operatic 
composer of some repute in his day. 

Cannabich (kan'-na-bikh). Christian. 


A violin-player, composer and or- 
chestral conductor, who earned the 
esteem and admiration of Mozart, 
Burney and other musicians and 
critics for his remarkable execution. 
He was born at Mannheim, Germany, 
and studied under his father, a flute- 
player, and Stamitz, who was the 
head of the Mannheim Orchestra. He 
was sent by the Elector to Italy, 
where he studied for a time imder 
Jommelli, in composition. About 
1765, he was the leader of the Mann- 
heim Orchestra and was conductor of 
the same ten years later. He was 
conductor at Munich in 1778. He 





died at Frankfort. Cannabich was a 
good composer and was one of the 
best conductors of his day. He was 
highly praised by Mozart for the per- 
fect ensemble in his orchestral 
performances at Mannheim. He was 
also a fine teacher, and many of his 
pupils afterwards became distinguished 
musicians. He composed six quartets 
for strings; three symphonies for or- 
chestra; six trios for strings; six duets 
for flute and violin; concertos; a 
symphony for flutes; an opera, Aza- 
caja, produced in 1778, and ballets. A 
son, Carl, inherited a good deal of his 
father's musical ability and followed 
him as composer and conductor, 
writing chiefly vocal works. 

Capocci (ka-p6t'-che), Gaetano. 1811- 


The Capoccis were two highly dis- 
tinguished organists of the Church of 
St. John Lateran, Rome, Gaetano, the 
father having been born and reared 
in the Eternal City. He pursued his 
musical studies under Sante Pascoli, 
the organist at St. Peter's, studying 
counterpoint afterward with Valentino 
Fioravanti and composition with 
Francesco Cianciarelli. He received 
the diploma of organist in 1831 and 
in 1833 that of composer from the 
Academy of St. Cecilia. He held 
various posts of importance and 
finally was made organist at the Lat- 
eran, which position he held until his 
death. His sacred compositions were 
used frequently at that church up to 
his death and include forty-two pieces, 
mostly masses, motets, and psalms, 
all adhering closely to the ecclesi- 
astical style of the Italian School. 

Capocci, Filippo. 1840- 

Born in Rome and succeeded his 
father as master-director of the choir 
in 1898. He began the study of music 
when only nine years of age, his 
father teaching him the organ and 
harmony. Alexandre Guilmant, whom 
he visited in 1880, induced him to 
devote himself to the organ, and he 
afterward became famous for his 
arrangements of stops and his musi- 
cianly playing. He has published a 
number of compositions for the 
organ, among them five sonatas, and 
eleven books of original pieces. 

Capoul (ka-pool), Joseph Victor 

Amedee. 1839- 

French tenor, who was born at 
Toulouse. France, and studied sing- 

ing at the Paris Conservatory under 
Revial and comic opera under 
Mocker, gaining the prize, in 1861, 
in the latter class. In that year he 
made his debut as Daniel in Le 
Chalet by Adam, and for many years 
was considered one of the best tenors 
on the French stage. He next played 
in The Daughter of the Regiment. 
He visited America first, in 1873, as 
a member of the Strakosch Company, 
which included Annie Louise Cary, 
Christine Nilsson, Campanini and 
Maurel. He was also the chief tenor 
of the French Opera Bouffe Company 
which visited the United States in 
1879. He was engaged by the man- 
agers of the Opera Comique, where 
he remained for several years, being 
considered by the Parisians as the 
successor of Roger, although he never 
equaled him. He sang with success 
in English in Faust and Rigoletto, 
and won much praise for his imper- 
sonations of Lionel in Martha and 
Wilhelm Meister in Mignon. He was 
extremely handsome in face and 
physique, had a pleasing voice and 
was also an excellent actor. His last 
appearance was in Godard's opera, 
Jocelyn, when he sang the title role in 
Paris in 1888. He was for some time 
engaged in a business capacity at the 
Paris Opera. During the last few 
years he has resided in New York, 
where he is a teacher of singing. 

Caradori-Allan, Maria Caterina Rosal- 

bina. 1800-1865. 

French soprano. Born in the 
Palatina, Milan, daughter of the 
Baron de Munck, an Alsatian officer, 
who had served with the French 
army. Her education in music was 
completed by her mother entirely 
unassisted, and when, at her father's 
death, she was compelled to support 
herself she went on the stage, taking 
her mother's name of Caradori. She 
made her debut at the King's Thea- 
tre, London, in 1822, as Cherubino in 
The Marriage of Figaro. Her charm- 
ing manner of performing the role 
laid the cornerstone of her later suc- 
cess. In 1824 she sang the second 
role in II Fanatico with Catalani, and 
later appeared in La Clemenza di 
Tito, Elisa e Claudio, and in Corra- 
dino, as the prima donna. In 1825 
she sang the second part in L'Adeliiia 
by Generali, and the same year she 
sang in Beethoven's Ninth Symphony 
on its production by the Philhar- 




monic Society. She next sang in The 
Barber of Seville, Romeo and Juliet 
and in The Marriage of Figaro again, 
and her salary rose from three hun- 
dred pounds, in 1822, to one thou- 
sand two hundred pounds in 1827. 
But it was in concerts that she was 
most successful and did her best 
work. She took part in the festival 
in Westminster Abbey, singing. With 
Verdure Clad, brilliantly, and in 1846 
sang the soprano part in the first per- 
formance of Elijah. She died at 
Surbiton, Surrey in 1865. 

Carafa (ka-ra'-fa), Michele Enrico. 

Italian composer and teacher, the 
son of Prince Colobrano, Duke of 
Alvito. He was born in Naples, and 
wrote many operas. He studied under 
Cherubini, Fazzi and other teachers, 
then entered the army and became an 
officer in the body-guard of Murat, 
King of Naples. He made the cam- 
paign in Russia, was decorated by 
Napoleon, and occupied many impor- 
tant positions. He settled in Paris 
after the battle of Waterloo and 
adopted music at his profession. In 
1828 he was appointed professor of 
composition at the Paris Conserv- 
atory, at the suggestion of his former 
teacher, Cherubini. Became a mem- 
ber of the Institut, in 1837, and was 
made a Chevalier of the Legion of 
Honor. Was also a director of the 
Military School. His first opera was 
II Fantasma, and this, as well as his 
later ones, achieved a great amount of 
popularity despite the vogue of Auber 
and Rossini. His compositions for 
the piano were also very much liked. 
He produced his operas, Gabriele, 
Ifigenia; and Bernice in Italy, and 
a number in Vienna, which city saw 
the first production of Le Solitaire in 
1822. Five years later he became a 
resident of Paris and there brought 
out La Violette. His best operas 
were Masaniello, which is not to be 
confounded with Auber's opera of 
the same name, and La Prison d'Edim- 
bourg. He wrote in all about thirty- 
five operatic pieces; masses and a 
Stabet Mater; orchestral and piano- 
forte music; ballets and several 
smaller pieces. He died in Paris. 
Says one writer: " Carafa's music is 
rather shallow and more clever than 
learned. His works are all of them 
pleasing and he had a decided comic 

Carestini (ka-ras-te-ne), Giovanni. 


A male soprano, whose voice was 
at first a powerful and clear soprano, 
and afterwards changed to the fullest, 
deepest contralto that has perhaps 
ever been heard. He became one of 
the most renowned of Italian singers. 
Carestini was born at Monte Fila- 
trano, near Ancona, Italy, and when 
twelve years of age he went to 
Milan, where he was taken under the 
protection of the Cusani family. He 
made his debut as a singer when six- 
teen in Bononcini's Griselda, taking 
the female character in it, and assum- 
ing the stage name Cusanino, from 
the family of his protectors. Two 
years later he appeared at Prague at 
the coronation of Charles VI. as 
King of Bohemia, taking part in the 
great musical congress in that city. 
He returned to Italy and next sang 
at Mantua and for many years ap- 
peared successfully in various Italian 
cities, in rivalry with Farinelli. He 
was next engaged by Handel to sing 
in place of Senesino, who had de- 
serted Handel to enlist with Porpora. 
Carestini sang in Berlin, St. Peters- 
burg and in other cities on the con- 
tinent, being received with great 
applause everywhere. He became also 
a great favorite in London. He 
earned the friendship and esteem of 
Handel, although it is related of him 
that he once very much displeased 
the composer by sending back to him 
a song which he considered unfit for 
his voice, and which called forth upon 
his head the severest anathemas in 
the composer's best broken English. 
Carestini was tall, of excellent phy- 
sique and decidedly handsome. 

Carey, Henry. 1690-1743. 

An English composer and minor 
poet, supposed to be the natural son 
of George Savile, Marquis of Halifax. 
He received a little instruction in 
music from Roseingrave and Gemin- 
iani, but was otherwise self-taught. 
He taught music for a time, but spent 
most of his life writing for the thea- 
tres. He died by his own hand at 
London. Carey is chiefly remem- 
bered for his ballad, Sally In Our 
Alley, which has always enjoyed a 
wide popularity, being almost as 
popular today as it was in his day. 
By some he was credited with being 
the author of God Save the Queen, 
but this is one of the knotty points 




in musical controversy and has never 
been decided with any degree of 
authority. His opera, The Dragon of 
Wantley, was an attack on ItaHan 
opera, and the success of it, although 
its music was sparkHng and dainty, 
was due entirely to Carey's clever 
satire. It ran sixty-seven nights at 
Covent Garden. In 1715 he wrote a 
farce and the music to it, called The 
Contrivances, which was produced at 
Drury Lane with great success. In 
1737 he published one hundred ballads 
under the title, The Musical Century. 
Among his other works are about 
nine music dramas or ballad operas 
which had considerable success; can- 
tatas; ballads and interludes. His 
posthumous son, George Savile Carey, 
inherited his father's talent to a con- 
siderable extent, but finally became an 
actor. The last years of his life he 
sought to secure recognition of his 
father's claim to having written God 
Save the Queen. His daughter Anne 
was the mother of Edmund Kean, the 

Carissimi (ka-ris'-se-me), Giacomo. 


By some, this composer is called 
the true father of the modern ora- 
torio, and is credited as one of the 
most excellent of Italian musicians, 
who did more than any other man 
of his epoch to perfect recitative. His 
biography is obscure. Carissimi was 
born at Marino, near Rome, and 
served as chapelmaster at Assisi and 
of the Church of St. Apollinare at 
Rome. He educated and had a great 
influence on several noted composers, 
among them Scarlatti, Bononcini 
and Marc Antonio Cesti. Carissimi 
is the reputed inventor of the can- 
tata, which is borrowed from the 
opera, but according to most authori- 
ties it was not invented by him but 
first applied, by Carissimi, to religi- 
ous subjects and by him introduced 
into the church. He was among the 
first that introduced the accompani- 
ment of violins and other instruments 
with the voices into the service of 
the churches. Carissimi is reckoned 
more influential in an educational 
than in an artistic sense and the in- 
novations which he made in the realm 
of sacred music and his own develop- 
ment of the recitative, which Peri 
and Caccini invented, place him among 
the great reformers of melody and 
rhythm. Of his works, Jeptha, an 


oratorio, is considered his master- 
piece. It is one of the most finished 
of his compositions and is adapted to 
the church service. It consists of 
recitatives, airs and choruses. Among 
his other works are the oratorios, 
Jonah, which is probably the most 
popular of all; The Last Judgment; 
Solomon; Job; and Hezekiah; 
motets; cantatas; and much other 
sacred music. He left a vast amount 
of music in manuscript. " Carissimi's 
cantatas," says one writer, "are re- 
markable works of the period which 
produced them and must be regarded 
as the forerunners of the more mag- 
nificent efifusions of Handel." Caris- 
simi lived to a ripe old age and died 
exceedingly rich. Many of his works 
were lost, for when the order of the 
Jesuits was abolished the library of 
the German College was sold. The 
Paris Library possesses a manuscript 
with ten oratorios by Carissimi and 
the library of the Paris Conservatory 
and the British Museum also possess 
copies. Some of his works have been 
reprinted in England, and a collec- 
tion, almost complete, was made by 
Dr. Aldrich and is in the library of 
Christ's Church, Oxford. Specimens 
of his music are to be found in 
Stevens' Sacred Music and in Dr. 
Crotch's selections. By some, Caris- 
simi has been called the greatest of 
Italian composers between Palestrina 
and Scarlatti and he is entitled to 
consideration, at least, as a most 
gifted and voluminous composer. His 
oratorio, Jonah, was given in Rome, 
in 1876, under the direction of Ferd- 
inand Hiller. Jeptha has been given 
several times in Germany, and in- 
England has appeared upon the pro- 
grams of concerts of several singing 
societies. According to some authori- 
ties Purcell, partly formed his style 
on the productions of Carissimi, who 
also had an influence upon many 
other composers of greater and lesser 
talents. Some curious specimens of 
this composer's works are in Dr. 
Burney's History of Music. 

*Carl, Willam Crane. 1865- 

Concert organist, who was born at 
Bloomfield, N. J., the son of Samuel 
Randolph and Mary Prudence 
(Crane) Carl. Mr. Carl was a pupil 
of Alexandre Guilmant in Paris, and 
since his return to his native country 
has held many posts of importance in 
various parts of the United States. 





He was organist and choirmaster of 
the First Presbyterian Church of New 
York City, conductor of the Baton 
Club, with its mixed chorus of 
seventy-five voices, which was later 
merged into the Gamut Club, has 
inaugurated many of the large organs 
of the country, and has appeared with 
all the well-known orchestras and at 
music festivals. Mr. Carl has also 
given one hundred and twenty-five 
free organ concerts in the First 
Presbyterian Church of New York 
City. He is one of the founders of 
the Council of the American Guild of 
Organists and has conducted numer- 
ous vocal societies. At present he is 
a director of the Guilmant Organ 
School, of New York City, of which 
Alexandre Guilmant is president. Mr. 
Carl has toured Japan and made a 
successful study of the music of the 
Orient. He is the author of thirty 
postludes for the organ; novelties for 
the organ in two volumes; Master 
Studies for the organ; songs; and 
many articles on musical subjects. He 
is a director of the Manuscript So- 
ciety of New York, beside holding 
other important offices. 

Carmichael, Mary Grant. 

Was born at Birkenhead, England. 
An accomplished musican who has 
written several compositions and 
accompanied many of the principal 
singers and violinists. She received 
her musical education at Aix-la- 
Chapelle, Bonn, Lausanne, Munich 
and London. Among her composi- 
tions are the music for the operetta, 
The Snow Queen; The Stream, a 
song-cycle; a suite; minor pianoforte 
pieces; sacred compositions and 
songs. She published editions of old 
English songs with new accompani- 
ments and also translated H. Ehrlich's 
Celebrated Pianists of the Past and 
Present. Her most important work 
is a Mass in E flat for men's and 
boys* voices. 

Carnicer (kar'-ne-thar), Ramon. 1789- 

Spanish operatic composer and 
teacher, who was born at Lerida, 
according to some historians and ac- 
cording to others at Tarregge, Cata- 
lonia. He pursued his early studies 
at the Madrid Conservatory, and after 
graduating from that institution oc- 
cupied several important posts. From 
1818 to 1820, he was professor of 

composition at the Madrid Conserv- 
atory, from 1830 to 1854, conductor 
of the Italian Opera at Barcelona, and 
from 1828 to 1830 of the Royal 
Opera, Madrid. He is credited with 
being one of the creators of Spanish 
national opera, the zarzuela. While 
conducting the opera at Barcelona he 
produced his first operatic work, 
Adela de Lusignano, and for the 
Theatre Royal at Madrid he wrote 
Elena e Malvino, in 1829, and Co- 
lombo, in 1831, which last was con- 
sidered by many to be his best. His 
music is thoroughly saturated with 
the national airs of Spain. In all, 
Carnicer composed nine operas; wrote 
much church music; several sym- 
phonies; Spanish songs; and national 

Caron (ka-ron), Rose Lucile. 1857- 

A famous French soprano who was 
heard in opera and in concert and 
whose maiden name was Meuniez. 
She was born at Monerville, in France, 
and was a pupil at the Paris Con- 
servatory from 1880 until 1882, when 
she obtained second prize for singing 
and accessit for opera. She made her 
debut at the Theatre de la Monnaie, 
Brussels, in 1882, creating the part of 
Brunhilde in Reyer's Sigurd. She 
remained at this theatre until 188.^, 
when she sang at the Paris Opera 
in the Reyer piece. She also sang 
the principal roles in La Juive, Frey- 
schiitz, Henry VIII. and in Mas- 
senet's Cid. She returned to Brussels, 
in 1887, and created the soprano part 
in Godard's Jocelyn in 1888 and 
Reyer's Salammbo, in 1890. In that 
year she went to Paris again, appear- 
ing in Sigurd, Lohengrin and Sal- 
ammbo and, in 1893, she sang at 
the French performance of Die 
Walkiire the part of Sieglindc, 
and the following year appeared in 
Verdi's Otello. Elizabeth in Tann- 
hauser and Donna Anna are con- 
sidered her best roles. She was also 
successful in Fidelio and in Gluck's 
Iphigenie en Tauride. She appeared 
in the latter, in 1900, and since then 
has been heard chiefly in concerts. In 
1902 she was appointed one of the 
professors of singing at the Paris 
Conservatory. At the height of her 
career, Mme. Caron was admired 
quite as much for the great beauty 
of her face and figure as for her won- 
derful voice. 



Carpani (kar-pa'ne), Giuseppe. 1752- 


Poet and writer on musical sub- 
jects, who was born at Villalbese, m 
the district of Brianza, Italy, and 
studied at Milan. He composed ora- 
torios and church music and was the 
author of several opera librettos and 
translated others from the French 
and German. He greatly loved and 
esteemed Haydn and wrote an eulogy 
on his compositions, which was pub- 
lished at Milan in 1812 and was trans- 
lated into French in 1837. He also 
translated The Creation into Italian 
and wrote a sonnet on the perform- 
ance of that work, at which Haydn 
was present, the year before his 

Carrefio (kar-ran'-yo), Teresa. 1853- 

One of the most eminent of women 
pianists, who was born in Caracas, 
Venezuela, and whose musical career 
was most successful. Her father was 
at one time Minister of Finance and 
a musician, who at fourteen years of 
age, composed a mass that was given 
in the Cathedral. He was a talented 
violinist, as well as a pianist, and be- 
gan giving his little daughter lessons 
in music when she was only seven. 
Driven from his country by the civil 
war, he caused her to turn her ex- 
traordinary talents to account, and 
in New York she was hailed as a 
prodigy. At eight years of age she 
became the pupil of Louis Gottschalk, 
and at twelve was sent to Paris, where 
she became a pupil of George Ma- 
thias, who had been a pupil of Chopin. 
Here she attracted the attention of 
Liszt who would have liked to in- 
structed her, had her father's means 
permitted. He encouraged and ad- 
vised her, and early in her career she 
took front rank among the world's 
pianists, but for a time studied sing- 
ing and appeared with Tietjens on 
the stage. Eventually she went back 
to the piano. In 1885 she conducted 
the orchestra of her own opera com- 
pany which she had organized and 
taken to Caracas. The leader en- 
gaged left the company because of 
threats from the revolutionists and 
Carrefio took up the baton and fin- 
ished the season, as leader, with great 
success. She traveled through Ger- 
many and other countries and made 
an especially successful tour of the 
United States with her husband, Emil 
Sauret. This was in 1874. In 1875 


she made her first appearance on the 
stage, when she sang the role of the 
Queen in Les Huguenots, a part she 
had learned at three days' notice. Her 
compositions all rank high and she 
has published a number of works, 
among them a serenade; a hymn for 
the Bolivar Centennial, which has be- 
come the national song of Venezuela; 
a set of waltzes; fantasies; ballads; 
and songs without words. Her best 
work was a string quartet in B, which 
met with a warm reception in Leipsic. 
Carreiio was married three times and 
each time to a musician. Her first 
husband was Emil Sauret, the emi- 
nent composer and violinist, whom she 
divorced. She then married a singer 
named Tagliapietra, with whom she 
appeared under the management of 
Maurice Strakosch. She was divorced 
from him, and, in 1892, she married 
Eugen D'Albert, the well-known com- 
poser, from whom she parted three 
years later. Prior to her separation 
from D'Albert she played his compo- 
sitions on all her tours, doing much 
to further their success. It is from 
J889, when she reappeared as a pian- 
ist, that her fame developed. Best 
known because of her great skill as a 
performer on the piano, her work as 
a composer has placed her on a high 
plane as well. 

Caruso (ka-ro6-z6), Enrico. 1874- 

The greatest of living tenors was 
born in Naples, his parents belonging 
to the peasant class. It is said that 
he is one of a family of twenty-four 
children. When he was a child he 
sang in the streets of Naples and his 
mother relates, that when he was not 
more than seven or eight years of 
age, she used to stop her work to 
listen to him sing. He has never had 
any vocal instruction to speak of. 
When he was barely fifteen he began 
singing in various churches in Naples, 
where his voice attracted much atten- 
tion. He was obliged to go to work 
at something to help support the 
family, so went into a factory and re- 
mained there for three years. He 
one day met a distinguished barytone 
singer, who was so impressed by the 
great range and natural beauty of 
Caruso's voice, that he took him to 
M. Vergine, a teacher of singing, who 
offered to teach him and take twenty- 
five per cent of his earnings for the 
first five years after he made his 
debut. Caruso consented to this, but 




after a short period of study he had 
some disagreements with his instruc- 
tor and left, enlisting in the Italian 
army. His colonel became interested 
in him and procured him a teacher. 
A year and a half later a brother 
became his substitute and Enrico was 
exempted from further service, to go 
back to Vergine. Six months later he 
made his debut at the New Theatre, 
Naples, in L'Amico Francesco. It 
was a brilliant success. In 1897 he 
sang the role of Alfredo in La Tra- 
viata and next appeared in La Favor- 
ita and in La Gioconda. His real 
debut was made at Milan, in 1898, 
where he appeared in La Boheme, 
La Navarraise and in Cilea's opera 
founded on Daudet's La Arlesienne. 
He next went to Genoa, but returned 
to Milan to sing at La Scala as Jean 
in the first Italian performance of 
Sappho. He created there, also, the 
role of Loris in Fedora. Then fol- 
lowed a successful season in Russia 
and a season in the principal cities of 
South America. Caruso was first 
heard, in America, in January, 1904, 
and his singing created a veritable 
furore in New York, Chicago and the 
half-dozen other cities where he ap- 
peared. He sang the role of the duke 
in Rigoletto, on the opening night at 
the Metropolitan Opera House, New 
York, and was declared by musical 
critics to be the finest tenor heard in 
a generation. Since then he has been 
heard every season in this country 
and is one of the most popular singers 
and also one of the biggest drawing 
cards of the Conried aggregation of 
operatic stars. One of his vocal feats 
is to reach the high C in Donna e 
Mobile in Rigoletto without apparent 
effort, and musicians have declared 
that he has never been equaled in 
quality and range of voice, even by 
Jean De Reszke in his palmiest days. 
His voice is a pure tenor of the great- 
est sweetness and mellowness and of 
magnificent range. When he first 
began singing he was content with 
forty francs a month. His salary at 
the present time as one of the stars 
of the Metropolitan Opera Company 
is $1,200 a night. Vocally perfect, 
Caruso is also an actor of consid- 
erable ability and has won much 
praise for his impersonation of 
Rodolpho, in La Boheme, as the 
clown Canio in I'Pagliacci, as 
Rhadames in Aida and as Faust. He 
has also been heard as Edgardo in 


Lucia de Lammermoor, as Des 
Grieux in Manon Lescaut, in Lohen- 
grin, L'Africaine and La Gioconda. 
His first attempt to sing in any other 
language than Italian was when he 
essayed a few years ago the title role 
of Faust in French. Caruso is 
talented as a caricaturist and delights 
in making humorous drawings of his 
friends and of himself. He is mar- 
ried, and when not on tours occupies a 
country home, the Villa alle Panche, 
near Florence, Italy. In 1907, Signor 
Caruso was honored by Emperor Wil- 
liam of Germany, who conferred upon 
him the Order of the Crown of Prus- 
sia, the Emperor personally remitting 
to the singer the insignia of the order. 

Carvalho (kar-val'-6), Marie Caroline 
Felix. 1827-1895. 

Famous singer, who appeared on 
the operatic stage simultaneously with 
Mile. Tietjens, about 1849, and be- 
came the foremost lyric artist on the 
French stage. She was born at Mar- 
seilles and was the daughter of Felix 
Miolan, an oboe-player, who gave 
her a good musical education. She 
entered the Paris Conservatory, where 
she gained the first prize for singing 
in 1843. She remained there until 
1847. Her first appearance was made 
at a performance for the benefit of 
her teacher, Duprez. She sang in the 
first act of Lucia and in the trio in 
the second act of La Juive. In 1853 
she married Leon Carvaille, gen- 
erally known as Carvalho, who be- 
came director of the Opera Comique. 
She was destined to sing for many 
years at that theatre and also at the 
Grand Opera, Paris. She is said to 
have made her reputation as Isabella 
in Le Pre aux Clercs, although Mar- 
guerite in Faust was considered one 
of her great impersonations. She 
made her first appearance at the 
Lyrique in the new opera La Fan- 
chonnette, and also appeared as 
Cherubino, as Zerlina in Don Gio- 
vanni, in Romeo and Juliette and other 
operas. Her voice was high and thin, 
but she handled it with the greatest 
skill and delicacy. Chorley gave her 
the most extravagant praise for her 
impersonation of Marguerite, and 
called her " an exquisitely-finished 
artist, with sensibility combined with 
rare execution." Her first appear- 
ance in England was made as Din- 
orah in Pardon de Ploermel and was 
a great success. She also sang fre- 




quently in Berlin, St. Petersburg and 
other cities. Her last appearance 
took place in 1887, two years after her 
retirement from the stage, and was 
also a benefit, to aid the sufiferers in 
the fire at the Opera Comique. On 
this occasion she sang with Faure. 
Her husband was imprisoned and 
fined at the time of the fire, as the 
accident was a result of managerial 
carelessness. Two brothers of Mme. 
Carvalho were also musicians. Ame- 
dee Felix, was an orchestral conduc- 
tor, and Alexandre, a professor of 
organ and harmonium, was attached 
to the Lyrique for several years. 

Gary, Annie Louise. 1848- 

One of the most distinguished and 
popular American contraltos, who had 
a long and successful career as a 
singer in opera, oratorio and concert. 
She was born in Wayne, Maine, and 
studied first at Boston and later at 
Milan, to which musical center she 
went, in 1866, to prepare for an 
operatic career. Her teacher was 
Giovanni Corsi, and after fifteen 
months' study she secured an opera- 
tic engagement at Copenhagen. For 
two seasons she sang there with great 
success, then went to Baden-Baden 
as a pupil of Mme. Viardot-Garcia, 
and in 1869 sang in Brussels. She 
then went to Paris, to pursue her 
studies with Maurice Strakosch and 
Bottesini. She made successful tours 
in London, St. Petersburg, and other 
European cities. She returned to the 
United States, in 1870, and from then 
on until her retirement in 1882 was 
most popular, her voice being of great 
range and remarkable sweetness. She 
married Charles Mensen Raymond in 
1882 and has since resided in New 
York City. 

Castil-Blaze. See Blaze. 

Castro, Ricardo. 1907. 

Mexico's foremost composer and 
pianist, although not forty years of 
age, when he died, had a remarkable 
musical career. At the age of seven- 
teen, having completed his course of 
study in the Conservatory, he was 
sent by the Government on a concert 
tour through the United States, where 
he received an ovation in all the mu- 
sical centers of the country. On his 
return to Mexico he was appointed 
professor of composition in the Con- 
servatory, which position he held for 
two years, when he was sent to 


Europe to perfect his studies. Dur- 
ing his sojourn of four years in the 
principal capitals of Europe, he was 
often heard in concert and was the 
recipient of the most favorable criti- 
cisms. But it was in Italian music 
that he found the most favorable and 
best accomplishments in operatic 
endeavor, and while in Rome he wrote 
what promises to become one of the 
most popular modern operas. La 
Leyenda de Rudal (The Legend of 
Rudel), a lyric poem in three acts, 
founded on a French provincial legend 
of the Twelfth Century. On the 
completion of the opera he was of- 
fered flattering propositions to put 
it on in Paris, but he wished to 
reserve his maiden eflfort for his own 
country, and it was performed in his 
native city on his return from the Old 
World. Soon after the performance 
of his opera he was appointed director 
of the Mexican Conservatory of 
Music. Castro was regarded in his 
country as a musician with a great 

Catalani (kat-a-la'-ne), Angelica. 

Talented singer, who was born in 
Sinigaglia, Italy, about forty miles 
from Rome. Her father was a local 
magistrate. When twelve years of 
age she was sent to the convent of 
Santa Lucia at Gubbio to become a 
nun. She soon showed such talent 
for music, that the abbess gave her 
every opportunity to cultivate her 
gift, had her instructed in the rudi- 
ments and allowed her to sing short 
solos in the chapel on Sundays. The 
villagers flocked to the church, and 
the fame of her wonderful voice soon 
spread. Later she studied at Flor- 
ence, under Marchesi, a master of 
singing, and at sixteen secured her 
first engagement, singing the title 
role of Lodoiska by Mayr at Venice. 
In 1798 she sang at Leghorn, a year 
later at La Pergola in Florence and, 
in 1801, in Milan. Crescentini took 
an interest in her and gave her much 
valuable advice. In 1899, the Prince 
Regent of Portugal invited her to 
Lisbon to sing at the Chapel Royal. 
She received an offer from the direc- 
tor of the opera, shortly after, which 
the Prince permitted her to accept 
and immediately she became the idol 
of the music lovers of the city. Here 
she married Valabregue, a captain of 
hussars, who was connected with the 




French embassy, the wedding taking 
place in the Chapel Royal at Lisbon 
in the presence of the Prince Regent 
and the French ambassador. Accept- 
ing an offer from the London Italian 
Opera, Catalani sang there, in 1806, 
at a salary of 200 guineas. She also 
gave concerts in Paris, where Napo- 
leon made her many costly gifts in 
recognition of her talents, gave her a 
pension and allowed her the use of 
the opera house free. For many 
years she reigned in London, where 
her generosity and good humor made 
her greatly beloved. One writer in 
speaking of her voice says it had a 
prodigious volume and an exquisite 
quality and that she bewildered the 
ear with the power and richness of 
it, but the feelings remained un- 
touched. Catalani introduced The 
Marriage of Figaro to the English 
stage, singing the role of Suzanna. 
She made large sums of money and 
retired in 1831 from the operatic 
stage, residing on a beautiful estate 
she had purchased near Florence. 
She died in Paris of cholera. One of 
her sons became an equerry to Napo- 
leon III. Prior to her retirement 
Catalani founded a school of singing 
for young girls near Florence. 

Catel, Charles Simon. 1773-1830. 

French composer and writer, who 
was born at L'Aigle (Orne), France, 
and is known best as the author of a 
first-rate book on harmony, which 
was the text-book used for many 
years at the Paris Conservatory, and 
which has not been wholly sup- 
planted in France or elsewhere. He 
began studying under Sacchini, Go- 
bert and Gossec at the Royal School 
of Singing and Declamation, and, in 
1787, was made accompanist and 
assistant professor of the institution, 
and, in 1790, accompanist at the 
Opera. His first work to attract no- 
tice was a De Profundus for the 
funeral of Gouvion, in 1792. Upon 
the formation of the Conservatory in 
1795 he was made professor of har- 
mony and began immediately to com- 
pile his work on the subject. This 
was published in 1802. In 1810 he 
became one of the inspectors of the 
Conservatory and remained there 
until 1814. In 1817 he was elected 
a member of the Institut and, in 1824, 
was made a Chevalier of the Legion 
of Honor. His operas are few in 
number, but of high quality. Wallace 


was long regarded as his best work, 
although he won high praise for his 
Semiramis and Des Bayaderes, which 
Napoleon upon one occasion had per- 
formed with instruments muted and 
every mark of expression suppressed, 
a severe test for any work. He also 
wrote symphonies for wind-instru- 
ments; hymns; choral pieces; quin- 
tets; and quartets for strings and 
wind-instruments; overtures; songs; 
and solfeggi. His treatise on har- 
mony has been translated into Ger- 
man, Italian and^ English. 

Catley, Anne. 1745-1789. 

English soprano, who was born in 
London of poor parents and articled 
at an early age to Bates the com- 
poser, appearing at Vauxhall Gardens 
and at Covent Garden, London, in 
1762. When only ten years of age she 
is said to have supported her parents 
by singing in public houses in and 
about London. She became involved 
in a scandalous criminal case, in 1763, 
in connection with which her father 
caused the arrest and conviction of 
three men, one of whom was a baro- 
net. Sir Francis Delavel. She was 
very beautful in person and was 
possessed of a charming voice, and 
was one of the few vocalists who 
successfully made use of the stac- 
cato. For several years she appeared 
in London and in Ireland and was a 
great social favorite, much feted and 
courted, some of the London women 
of fashion even copying her style of 
hair-dressing. She became a pupil 
of Macklin, the actor, and through 
him secured an engagement in Dub- 
lin, where she made a great success. 
Returning to London, in 1770, she 
appeared at Covent Garden, as Ros- 
etta, in Love in a Village, and was 
often seen afterward in the most 
popular burlettas, comic operas and 
plays of the day. She was especially 
well received as Juno in The Golden 
Pippin. She made enough money to 
enable her to retire from the stage 
in 1784. Five years later she died at 
the home of Gen. Lascalles, to whom 
she was supposed to have been mar- 
ried. At the time of her death she 
was eulogized as a good wife and 
mother and a talented woman. 

Cavalli (ka-val'le), Pietro Francesco. 

1599 or 1600-1676. 

One of the most famous of Mon- 
teverde's pupils and followers and 




among the first to employ airs and 
recitative in opera in a dramatic man- 
ner. He is an important figure in the 
history of music and was born at 
Crema, near Venice. His real name 
was Caletti-Bruni, but he took that 
of his patron, a Venetian gentleman, 
named Cavalli. He began his musical 
career by singing in the choir of St. 
Mark's, Venice, under Monteverde, 
about 1617. He became organist of 
the second organ at that church, in 
1639, and organist of the first organ 
in 1665. Three years later he was 
chapelmaster there. Of his church 
music nothing was published except a 
mass, psalms and antiphons for two 
to twelve voices and vespers for eight 
voices. He went to Paris by invita- 
tion of Cardinal Mazarine, in 1660, 
and there he produced his opera of 
Xerse, in the grand gallery of the 
Louvre. Returning to Paris, in 1662, 
after a sojourn in Venice, he wrote 
Ercole Amante. Cavalli began to 
write for the theatre in 1639, and his 
operas were very numerous and 
achieved a certain amount of popu- 
larity. His first work was Le Nozze 
di Teti, produced in 1639, and Eitner 
gives a list of twenty-seven operas 
still extant in manuscript. An air by 
Cavalli and some fragments of his 
music are to be found in Burney's His- 
tory. " He had," says Streatfield, 
" the true Venetian love of color and 
he tried to make his orchestra give 
musical significance to the sights 
and sounds of nature, such as the 
murmuring of rivers and the sighing 
of the winds and in his works, as in 
those of Monteverde, over whom he 
showed a decided advance in the 
matter of form, we begin to pass 
from the merely experimental stage 
to opera proper." One biographer 
goes so far as to say, " He was cer- 
tainly the greatest dramatic composer 
of his day and one of the greatest of 
all time." Cavalli grew very rich and 
was highly esteemed both as a man 
and musician. He died in Venice. 

Cavallini (ka-vaWe'-ne), Ernesto. 


Great clarinet-player and composer, 
■who was born at Milan, and studied 
at the Conservatory of that city. He 
became a player in the orchestra of 
La Scala and later occupied the post 
of professor at the Conservatory. He 
was called " The Paganini of the 
clarinet." He traveled extensively 


and for fifteen years was a resident 
of St. Petersburg, but he returned to 
his native city three years before his 
death. The Paris Academy of Fine 
Arts elected him a member in 1842. 
He composed a concerto, which he 
played at a Philharmonic concert in 
1845, and also many duets and studies 
for his instrument. These works are 
considered very difficult. 

Cecilia, St. 200-230. 

Descended from a noble Roman 
familj'-, she suffered martyrdom for the 
Christian faith, which she espoused 
when a very young woman. Is 
credited with the invention of the 
organ, which many famous painters, 
notably Raphael and Carlo Dolci, 
have pictured her as playing. There 
are numerous traditions in regard to 
her skill in music, but early writers 
make no mention of it. She is gen- 
erally regarded as the patron saint 
of sacred music. Odes for St. 
Cecilia's Day, which is celebrated by 
the church, November 22, were written 
by Dryden and Pope and have been 
set to music by a large number of the 
older composers. The custom of 
holding festivals in honor of St. 
Cecilia obtained for many years in 
many countries. 

Cellier (sel'-yer), Alfred. 1844-1891. 

He was best known as a composer 
of light opera or opera bouffe and 
was born in Hackney, England, of 
French extraction. He was a choris- 
ter at the Chapel Royal, St. James, 
from 1855 until 1860, and organist of 
All Saints, Blackheath, in 1862. He 
succeeded Dr. Chipp as organist of 
the Ulster Hall, Belfast, and became 
conductor of the Classical Harmon- 
ists. Two years later he was ap- 
pointed organist of St. Albans, Hol- 
born. He next turned his attention 
to composing and conducting and 
acted in the latter capacity at Prince's 
Theatre, Manchester, at the Opera 
Comique, London and with Sir Ar- 
thur Sullivan as joint conductor of 
the Promenade concerts at Covent 
Garden in 1878, and the following 
year. Cellier lived after that much 
abroad, spending a good deal of time 
in Australia. He died in London 
while giving the finishing touches to 
an opera, The Mountebanks. He was 
a brilliant cellist, and a man of high 
literary tastes. Among his works are 
about fourteen operas, including Nell 




Gwynne; The Sultan of Mocha; inci- 
dental music to As You Like It; a 
suite symphonique for the orchestra; 
barcarolle; songs and piano pieces. 
He also set Gray's Elegy as a can- 
tata and it was given at the Leeds 
Festival in 1883. 

Cesti (chas'-te), Marcantonio. 1620- 


Was a famous operatic composer 
and an ecclesiastic, a native of Arezzo, 
according to Baini, but of Florence, 
according to Adami. He became a 
pupil of Carissimi and was one of 
Monteverde's most faithful followers. 
He is credited with being the origina- 
tor of the cantata and is best, known 
by his cantatas, of which he com- 
posed a large number. He was chapel- 
master to Ferdinand IL of Medici at 
Florence in 1646 and a tenor sin'ger 
in the Vatican chapel in 1660. From 
1666 to 1669 he was assistant chapel- 
master to the Emperor Leopold I. at 
Vienna, then returned to Venice. He 
wrote several operas, among them II 
Pomo d'Oro, which was produced in 
Vienna, in 1667; La Dori; and 
L'Orontea, his first opera, which was 
produced first in Venice, in 1649. With 
the exception of II Pomo and La 
Dori his operas are now known only 
by name. The manuscripts of many 
of his cantatas are in the music school 
of Oxford, in the British Museum and 
in libraries on the Continent. 

Chabrier (shab-ri-a), Alexis Em- 
manuel. 1842-1894. 
He was born in Ambert, France, 
studied law in Paris and entered the 
oflice of the Minister of the Interior. 
In 1879 he resigned from this admin- 
istrative appointment to devote him- 
self to the study of music. He was 
almost wholly self-taught. At the 
Lycee St. Louis, he had been taught 
piano by Edouard Wolff, and had 
studied harmony and counterpoint 
with Aristide Hignard. Two years 
before he had written an opera bouffe, 
entitled L'fitoile, which was. produced 
at the Bouffes Parisiens, and which 
attracted considerable attention. An- 
other operetta,_L'Education Manquee, 
was produced in 1879 and was a suc- 
cess also. From 1884 to 1886 Chab- 
rier was choirmaster at Chateau 
d'Eau, and there he helped Lam- 
oureux to produce the first two acts 
of Tristan and Isolde. While there 
he also produced a scena for mezzo 


and female chorus. La Sulamite, and 
selections from Gwendolin, afterward 
given in its entirety at Brussels, in 
1886, and since then given with suc- 
cess under Mottl in Carlsruhe and 
Munich. In Le Roi Malgre Lui, he 
attempted an entirely different style 
from Gwendolin, and it is a charming 
example of a modernized form of 
opera comique. His orchestral rhap- 
sody, Espana, which is built upon 
Spanish melodies, has done much to 
popularize Chabrier's name. His best 
work is said by musicians to have 
been done in Le Roi Malgre Lui, 
which was a brilliant success at the 
Opera Comique, Paris, but its run 
was brought to an end by the fire at 
that theatre. Chabrier's work is in- 
tensely poetical and in spite of his 
great admiration for Wagner, is also 
marked by much individuality and 
originality. In order to train himself 
in orchestration, at the beginning of 
his musical career it is said he copied 
the entire score of Tristan and Isolde. 
He has produced many important 
works beside those mentioned, among 
them, his Pieces Pittoresques for the 
piano which have much beauty and 
originality; Suite Pastorale; March 
Joyeuse; a number of piano pieces; 
and many humorous songs. His un- 
finished opera, Briseis, only one-act 
of which was completed, was pro- 
duced at the Opera, Paris, in 1899. 
" The libretto of his first work, 
L'fitoile," says Grove, " was used as 
the basis of The Lucky Star by Ivan 
Caryll and a number of adapters, pro- 
duced at the Savoy Theatre, London, 
January, 1899, a single number from 
Chabrier's original music being intro- 
duced. This is the only example of 
the composer's work which has been 
heard on the English stage." 

* Chadwick, George Whitefield. 1854- 
Composer and conductor; was born 
in Lowell, Massachusetts. His an- 
cestors for many generations were of 
New England stock, his great grand- 
father having fought in the battle of 
Bunker Hill. His father and mother 
were both musical, the father being 
an amateur performer on several 
orchestral instruments as well as the 
teacher of a country singing school, 
and the mother gifted with a fine 
voice. In 1860, the family removed 
to Lawrence, Mass., where the boy 
was instructed in music during his 
youth by an elder brother, eventually 



becoming, at the age of sixteen, the 
organist of a local church. Between 
the ages of seventeen and twenty-one 
his time was passed, much against 
his will, in an insurance office, but at 
the same time he was attending the 
New England Conservatory of Music 
in Boston, where he received instruc- 
tion in piano and organ playing and 
in harmony from such teachers as 
Dudley Buck and Steven Emery. 
Later he studied with Eugene Thayer, 
an excellent organist and an enthus- 
iastic teacher, who recognized the 
young man's talent and did much to 
encourage and stimulate him. In 
1876 he took charge of the musical 
department of Olivet College, Michi- 
gan, resigning after a year's service 
in order to devote himself to further 
study in Europe. The years 1877 and 
1879 were spent in Leipsic, at the 
Conservatory, where his teachers 
were Richter, Reinicke, and Jadas- 
sohn. The latter showed from the 
first a particular interest in the young 
American and gave him much of his 
private time in addition to his Con- 
servatory lessons. At this time Chad- 
wick produced two string quartets; an 
overture. Rip Van Winkle; and many 
small pieces. The overture was per- 
formed at the Grosse Prufung of the 
year 1879, and was conceded by the 
critics to be the best student's work 
of the year. 

After a short residence in Dresden, 
where he worked mostly by himself, 
he went to Munich, where he placed 
himself under the instruction of 
Rheinberger, both in composition and 
in organ playing. From this eminent 
pedagogue he received severe con- 
trapuntal training, but not much 
stimulus for his imagination or en- 
couragement toward poetic expres- 
sion. In the meantime his Rip Van 
Winkle overture had been perforrned 
at a concert of the Harvard Musical 
Association in Boston and received 
with such approval that it was imme- 
diately repeated at a subsequent con- 
cert of the Association — a very un- 
usual proceeding for this conservative 
organization. In 1880, Chadwick re- 
turn to Boston and his Rip Van 
Winkle was once more performed, 
under his own direction, at the Musi- 
cal Festival of the Handel and Haydn 
Society in May of that year, when his 
ability as a conductor was at once 
recognized. He was appointed organ- 
ist of St. John's Church and joined 


the staff of the New England Con- 
servatory of which, seventeen years 
afterward, he became director. From 
this time his career has been one of 
ever increasing activity as composer, 
conductor, organist and teacher, and 
in the latter capacity he has num- 
bered among his pupils such well- 
known musicians as Horatio Parker, 
Arthur Whiting, Wallace Goodrich, 
Frederick S. Converse and Henry 

As a composer he shows much 
originality and distinction of style 
combined with great knowledge of 
the resources of the modern orches- 
tra. He is regarded by foreign critics 
and by many of his countrymen as 
the leader of the American School, 
and his Third Symphony in F major; 
his Melpomene and Adonais over- 
tures; and his string quartet in D 
minor, are probably the best works 
of their class yet produced in Amer- 
ica. As a conductor he has many 
times led the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra, in his own works, beside 
serving as leader of the Arlington 
and Boston Orchestral Clubs, the 
Springfield Festivals (for ten years) 
and the Worcester Festivals. At the 
latter he gave the first performance 
of Cesar Franck's, Beatitudes, in the 
English language, and he has often 
been invited to conduct his own 
works in the prominent choral and 
orchestral concerts of the United 
States. As a conductor of chorus and 
orchestra he possesses both magnet- 
ism and authority and he probably 
has no superior in America in this 
difficult art. 

In 1897 he was appointed director 
of the New England Conservatory of 
Music in Boston, and this he has de- 
veloped from a relatively unimpor- 
tant school into an institution which 
ranks in equipment and discipline 
with the best Conservatories of 
Europe. In the same year he re- 
ceived the honorary degree of M.A 
from Yale University and in 1905 that 
of LL.D. from Tufts College. He is 
also a corresponding member of the 
Royal Institute of Music in Florence. 
He spent the winter of 1905 in 
Europe, during which time a concert 
of his compositions was ^iven by the 
Concordia Verein in Leipsic, which 
caused much favorable comment. His 
symphonic poem, Cleopatra, was also 
performed at the Philharmonic con- 
certs in London. 


Chaminade (sham'-i-nad), C e c i 1 e 

Louise Stephanie. 1861- 

A notable woman composer and 
piano virtuoso, of whom Ambroise 
Thomas, the composer of Mignon, is 
said to have remarked: "This is not 
a woman who composes, but a com- 
poser who happens to be a woman." 
Chaminade was born in Paris and 
came of a musical family, her father 
having been an excellent violin-player 
and her mother a remarkable singer 
and pianist. She lived in a musical 
atmosphere and had many musicians 
of prominence for friends. The piano 
was her favorite companion from 
earliest childhood and she devoted 
herself to its study. She says her 
mother was her only teacher until 
she was fifteen. At eight she was 
composing so well as to attract the 
attention of Bizet, who advised her 
parents to give her a complete musi- 
cal education. After her fifteenth 
year she pursued her studies in fugue 
and counterpoint under Savard, who 
had taught Massenet and Saint-Saens, 
and she also studied with Le Coup- 
pey, Marsick and Benjamin Godard, 
and made such rapid progress that 
she was soon in the front rank of 
composers. She gave her first con- 
cert when she was eighteen, and that 
was really the beginning of her 
career. In her early twenties she 
wrote The Amazons, a dramatic sym- 
phony for solo voices, chorus and 
orchestra, and it was produced at 
Marseilles in 1888. About the same 
time her other compositions began to 
attract attention and were heard in 
Paris at concerts. Many of these 
were orchestral. She also wrote La 
Sevillane, a one-act ballet; Callirhoe, 
a symphonic poem; concertos for the 
piano and orchestra; many orchestral 
works and short piano pieces. Al- 
though a composer of rare ability for 
the piano, it is her songs that have 
made Chaminade famous. She has 
published over sixty and all are of 
the greatest beauty. Of her piano 
pieces the best known are etudes; 
sonatas; waltzes and five airs de 
ballet, among them the well-known 
Scarf Dance. For the orchestra her 
more ambitious compositions are Par- 
don Breton; Noel des Marius; Ange- 
lus and Angelique. As a pianist she 
has been heard in many cities, notably 
London, Berlin, Leipsic and Paris, 
her native city. Chaminade has re- 
ceived many honors and decorations 



from her own country and from others. 
In 1888 she received the purple rib- 
bon from the French Academy and, in 
1892, was made an officer of public 
instructions. She received the laurel 
wreath from the students of the Con- 
servatory of Athens, after giving a 
concert there, and was decorated by 
the Sultan of Turkey with the order 
of Chefakat, one of the highest honors 
it is in his power to bestow and only 
given to people of the highest genius. 
Moszkowski said, in his opinion, her 
orchestration was magnificent, and 
the Colonne and Lamoureux orches- 
tras have played her ballet music at 
their concerts. Her ballet Callirhoe 
was given, in 1902, in Bordeaux, with 
great success, and many of her songs 
have been sung by the famous singers 
of the operatic stage, among them 
Nordica and Plangon. Among the 
most popular of her many songs are 
the following: Ritournelle; a Madri- 
gal; Rosamunde; The Silver Ring; and 
Berceuse. Most of her well-known 
works have been written at her 
father's estate Perigorre, in the Midi, 
but she resides at present at Le Vise- 
net, near Paris, a beautiful estate, 
where Bizet, who was a neighbor in 
her childhood, often used to visit. 

Charpentier (shar-pant-ya), Gustave. 

One of the youngest and not the 
least gifted of the modern French 
composers was born at Dieuze, in 
Lorraine, and first studied at a school 
in Tourcoing, where his parents 
moved after the Franco-German war. 
He also studied at Lille and, in 1881, 
entered the Paris Conservatory, where 
he became a pupil of Massenet on 
the violin and studied harmony under 
Pessard. While at the Conservatory 
he won the Prize of Rome and dur- 
ing his residence in the Eternal City, 
wrote the orchestral suite, Impres- 
sions de Italie, consisting of five tone- 
pictures, entitled At the Fountain, 
Serenade, Naples, On Mule-Back, and 
On the Summits. He lived at Mont- 
martre_ for some time after his return 
to Paris, and did daily labor, and the 
scenes of the life of the artisan enter 
much into his music and tend to give 
it much of its individuality. His first 
work on the life of the people was 
La Vie du Poete, or the Life of a 
Poet, which was a symphonic drama 
set to words of his own. About this 
time he also wrote another symphony. 




which was performed at the Mont- 
martre Festival in 1897, and reached 
the operatic stage the next year. 
Louise, his chief work, brought him 
fame and fortune, and shows great 
dramatic skill. In it he depicts the 
modest home of the French working 
man, and deals with episodes in the 
life of a young working girl. It was 
first produced at the Opera Comique, 
in 1900, and the Parisians becarne 
most enthusiastic over it. It is 
among the operatic novelties which 
Oscar Hammerstein brought to 
America, for the season of 1907, at the 
Manhattan Opera House, New York. 
Didon, a scene lyrique, with which 
Charpentier won the Prize of Rome, 
in 1887, was first performed at the 
Institut and afterwards at a Colonne 
concert at Brussels, and since then 
has been heard in many cities on the 
Continent. Charpentier wrote the 
libretto as well as the music for it. 
His other works are Fleurs du Mai, 
set to the poems of Baudelaire; an 
orchestral suite; a Serenade a Wat- 
teau, performed at the Luxenbourg 
Gardens; Ophee; Tete rouge; La 
Couronnement de la Muse; Impres- 
sions fausses, for voices and orches- 
tra, and many others. 

Charpentier, Marc Antoine. 1634- 

A dramatic composer, who was 
born in Paris and became a pupil of 
Carissimi at Rome. He had gone to 
Italy to study painting, but was 
drawn to music by Carissimi's com- 
positions, and from then on devoted 
himself entirely to the study of 
music. He was master of the chapel 
to the Dauphin, under Louis XIV., 
but was displaced by Lully, whose 
rival he became. He next became 
master of the chapel to Marie Guise, 
the betrothed of the Duke of Orleans. 
After composing much for the thea- 
tre, he began composing for churches 
and became professor of music in the 
Jesuit College. Among his works 
were fifteen operas, pastorals, drink- 
ing songs, cantatas, preludes and 
symphonies, while in sacred music he 
wrote a number of masses and 
motets, and several cantatas. He was 
superior in training and knowledge to 
Lully, but lacked the latter's genius. 
In spite of the fact that he lived at a 
time when Lully dominated the scene 
he was recognized as a greater musi- 
cian, and won much renown for his 


opera, Medee, a lyric tragedy in five 
acts and a prologue, the words by 
Thomas Corneille. It was first per- 
formed in Paris, in 1693, and despite 
its success was never repeated. _ A 
number of Charpentier's compositions 
are in the library of the Paris Con- 
servatory and in the Bibliotheque 

Chausson (sho-son), Ernest. 18 5 5- 


He was born in Paris and was 
trained by his parents for the law, but 
when twenty-five years old turned to 
music and studied at the Paris Con- 
servatory with Massenet, then for 
two years with Cesar Franck. He 
might have become one of France's 
greatest composers had he lived, but 
his career was brought to an end by 
a bicycle accident on his estate at 
Limay. He was thrown from the 
machine against a stone wall, being 
killed almost instantly. Chausson 
left a large number of works, includ- 
ing a symphony; a symphonic poem, 
Viviane; the orchestral pictures. Soli- 
tude In the Wood; a poeme for violin 
and orchestra; several pieces of cham- 
ber-music; a number of choruses and 
several songs His best work in opera 
was Le Roi Artlius, in three acts, 
written to a libretto of his own, and 
which was produced at the Theatre 
de la Monnaie, in Brussels^ in 1903. 
He also wrote a three-act lyrical 
drama, Helene; La Legende de Sainte 
Cecile, a drama for soprano a^id 
female chorus; the incidental music 
for Shakespeare's The Tempest; and 
much church music. 

Chelard (shu-lar), Hippolyte Andre 

Jean Baptiste. 1789-1861. 

A composer, who, in spite of many 
failures and vicissitudes, produced 
three successful operas, and had a 
considerable influence upon the music 
of his time. Born in Paris. He was 
the son of a clarinettist in the Grand 
Opera and began his career as an 
instructor of music and a violinist. 
Was a pupil of Fetis, then of Gossec, 
and Dourleu, in the Conservatory of 
Paris, taking the Grand Prize of 
Rome in 1811. He was court chapel- 
master at Weimar, from 1836 to 1850. 
His first opera was brought out at 
Naples, in 1815, but it was not a suc- 
cess and its author returned to Paris, 
where he entered the orchestra as a 
violinist and gave music lessons. He 




wrote a second opera, which failed, 
and then opened a music shop which 
was destroyed during the Revolution. 
Conducted the German opera in Lon- 
don, which also failed, and revisited 
Munich, where his opera, Die Her- 
mannschlacht, was given, in 1835, and 
was well received. He subsequently 
wrote the music for Macbeth, the 
libretto of which was written by 
Rouget de Lisle, who is credited with 
having written the French national 
hymn, La Marseillaise, Macbeth, Der 
Student and Mitternacht, were all 
great successes. A posthumous opera 
was given in Milan in 1864, but his 
works are no longer performed, 
although the overture to Macbeth is 
heard sometimes in concerts. 

Cherubini (ka-roo-be'-ne), L u i g i . 

One of the great modern masters of 
counterpoint and the earhest of the 
modern Italian composers, who has 
justly been styled " The last and 
noblest Roman in the purely classical 
style of music." Was at an early age 
instructed in music by his father, who 
was cymbalist at the Pergola Theatre 
at Florence, in which city Cherubini 
was born. He began to study har- 
mony when he was only nine and his 
progress was rapid, and after study- 
ing under various teachers he was 
sent to Bologna and Milan by Duke 
Leopold IL, of Tuscany (the future 
Emperor Leopold IIL), who defrayed 
the expenses of his education and 
enabled him to become the pupil of 
the great Sarti. At thirteen he wrote 
a mass and a stage intermezzo for a 
theatre in Florence. Under Sarti's 
direction he confined himself to 
church music, but, in 1780, began to 
compose dramatic works and his first 
opera, Quinto Fabio, was produced in 
that year. After the production of 
this opera he brought out seven others 
in various cities in Italy. In 1784, he 
went to London, where he brought 
out two operas, but they were not 
successful. In Turin he wrote and 
produced his successful opera, Ifigenia 
in Aulide, and returning to Paris, in 
1787, he was made composer to the 
King, and the next year his first 
French opera, Demophon, was pro- 
duced. This was Cherubini's initial 
step in the work of founding a grand 
style of French opera and it was not 
a success, because it was written 
above the heads of the public of that 


time. Dramatic music was an un- 
known quantity when Cherubini 
appeared, and his efforts to improve 
the music of his time were so dis- 
couraging that he shortly after re- 
turned to the light style made popular 
by Cimarosa and Paisiello. In 1791 
he wrote Lodoiska, in which he re- 
turned to his old ideals as expressed 
in Demophon, and this work caused a 
thorough revolution in the style of 
the French dramatic school. Other 
composers soon followed the lead of 
Cherubini, and he seems to have had 
an influence for good on the music of 
his time. He followed Lodoiska, 
with Elisa and Medee, but their poor 
librettos made them anything but 
popular. In Les Deux Journees, he 
found, however, a text worthy of his 
music and this opera is generally con- 
sidered his masterpiece. In it, he is 
declared by musicians to have struck 
the first blow in the system for 
annihilating the tyranny of the leading 
singers in opera, an accepted Wag- 
nerian theory. In 1805, Cherubini 
accepted an engagement at Vienna, 
where he wrote Faniska. This opera 
had an almost unprecedented success, 
Haydn and Beethoven both declaring 
that its author was the first dramatic 
composer of his time, and for some 
years it was considered the greatest 
opera since Mozart. Cherubini ulti- 
mately became very friendly with 

When the French took Vienna, 
Cherubini left the scene of his 
triumphs and returned to Paris, but 
Napoleon had never liked the com- 
poser, whose musical opinions he did 
not agree with, and for this reason, 
Cherubini, humiliated and embittered, 
retired to the country, and at the 
house of the Prince de Chimay de- 
voted himself to the study of botany. 
One day a mass was needed for the 
consecration of a church and he was 
urged by his friends to write it. 
After much thought upon the subject 
he complied and set to work on his 
Mass in F for three voices and or- 
chestra. With this successful work 
a new field was opened to him and a 
new era began. Although he wrote 
many operas, he devoted himself 
almost entirely from then on to the 
composition of sacred music, and in 
this field he probably did his greatest 
work. Upon the restoration of the 
House of Bourbon he returned to 
Paris, and, in 1816, he succeeded 




Martini as superintendent of the 
King's music and wrote many masses 
for the Royal Chapel. In the same 
year he was appointed professor of 
composition at the Conservatory, and 
in 1822 director. As chief of his 
famous school he influenced his pupils 
to a great extent, but for some reason 
or other, he took no lasting hold on 
the French people. In Germany he 
was much more popular and his music 
was appreciated there as it never was 
in France. His adopted country, how- 
ever, made him a Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honor, afterwards an 
officer, and honored him in many other 
ways. As a man and a musician there 
was much that was noteworthy in his 
career, and musicians at the time 
generally regretted that he had no 
copyists. His influence consisted in 
the lofty light in which he always 
regarded music, but he seems to have 
just missed being a great musician. 

He wrote altogether fifteen Italian 
operas and fourteen French operas, 
and beside those already mentioned 
the following rank among his best 
work, Pimmaglione; Les Abencerages; 
La Finta; Principessa (opera buffa) 
and Giulio Sabine. Cherubini's last 
work, like Mozart's, was a Requiem 
which was first performed at his own 
funeral. His portrait by Ingres is in 
the gallery of the Louvre, Paris. The 
most exhaustive work on Cherubini 
is his life by Edward Bellasis, the title 
being, Cherubini: Memorials illustra- 
tive of his life. The article on 
Cherubini in the Biographic uni- 
verselle by Fetis is also very com- 
plete, as is also an article by Ferdi- 
nand Hiller, which was published in 
Macmillan's Magazine for July, 1875. 

Chickering, Jonas. 1798-1853. 

The pioneer in American piano- 
building and founder of the house that 
has done so much to make the 
American piano famous. He was born 
at Ipswich, New Hampshire, was 
apprenticed to a cabinetmaker there, 
and early displayed an interest in 
music and musical instruments. When 
the one piano in his native town got 
out of order he offered to tune it and 
put it in repair, his success in this 
attempt encouraging him to turn to 
piano construction. He went to Bos- 
ton and secured employment under 
Mr. John Osborn, at that time the 
only piano manufacturer there, learned 
the details of the work and showed 


rnuch interest in the development of 
piano-making. P'or awhile he was 
associated in this development with a 
Scotchman named James Stewart, but 
in 1823 he set up in business for him- 
self, and from this time dates the 
founding of the house of Chickering 
and Sons. In 1837 he patented an 
important improvement, added others 
in 1843 and 1845; which inventions, 
says Elson, made the American piano 
the most durable in the world. On 
Jonas' death, which occurred at Bos- 
ton, he was succeeded by his son. 
Colonel Thomas E. Chickering, born 
in Boston in 1823, died in that city in 
1871. Numerous important develop- 
ments in piano-building were intro- 
duced by the Chickerings. Of the 
many notable prizes earned, mention 
may be made of first award won at 
the Paris Exposition of 1867, at which 
time Colonel Chickering was created 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. 

Child, William. 1606-1697. 

An English composer and organist, 
who was born at Bristol, and studied 
the rudiments of music under Elway 
Bevin, as a chorister in the Bristol 
Cathedral. He entered Oxford, and, 
in 1631, received the degree of Bach- 
elor of Music from that institution. He 
was organist at St. George's Chapel, 
Windsor, in 1632, and one of the 
organists of the Chapel Royal, Lon- 
don, and later a chanter in the Chapel 
Royal. He also served as a member 
of the King's private band and was 
composer to the King in 1661. He 
died at Windsor and is buried in St. 
George's Chapel. Among his works 
are anthems, catches, canons and 
psalms. His compositions are ex- 
tremely simple, but his harmony is 
rich and glowing. He is said to have 
paved, at his own expense, the body 
of Windsor Chapel. 

Chipp, Edmund Thomas. 1832-1886. 

Was a noted English organist, 
who began his career in London as a 
chorister in the Chapel Royal, St. 
James, and was from 1843 to 1845 in 
the Queen's royal band. Took the 
degree of Bachelor of Music at Cam- 
bridge in 1859 and was organist at St. 
Paul's, Edinburgh, in 1886. He com- 
posed Job, an oratorio; Naomi, a 
sacred idyll; and many works for 
the church, both for the voice and 



Chladni (khlat'-ne), Ernst Florens 

Friedrich. 1756-1827. 

Born at Wittenberg. He was a 
noted lecturer and the originator of 
many inventions for musicians and 
has been called " The father of modern 
acoustics." He was at first a student 
and professor of law at Wittenberg 
and Leipsic, but turned to physics, for 
which he had a natural aptitude. He 
did not begin the study of music until 
he was nineteen. The domain of 
acoustics appealed particularly to him 
and he rnade highly important re- 
searches in that field, and among 
other inventions, the Clavicylinder 
(steel rod keyboard harmonica) and 
glass reed harmonica are ascribed to 
him. He wrote voluminously on the 
subject of acoustics and delivered 
many scientific lectures. In 1802 he 
published a treatise on his favorite 
subject, which attracted the attention 
of scientists and musicians in all 
parts of the world. Upon his intro- 
duction to Napoleon, in 1808, the 
Emperor presented him with six thou- 
sand francs, to defray the expenses of 
having his work translated into 
French. It was published in 1809. 
After that its author resumed his 
travels and lectures. He died at 
Breslau, and left behind him at least 
fourteen books on the subject of 

Chollet (shol-la), Jean Baptiste Marie. 

A great singer, who was born in 
Paris and studied singing and the 
violin at the Paris Conservatory from 
1804 until 1816, gaining in 1814 the 
solfeggio prize. He became a chorus 
singer and later sang in the provinces 
with great success, despite many de- 
fects in his mezzo voice. He sang in 
many of Auber's and Herold's operas, 
notably Fra Diavolo, Zampa and 
others, at the Opera Comique, where 
he was engaged from 1826 until 1832. 
Later he appeared at The Hag^e, as 
director of the opera, and reappeared 
at Paris as a singer with Mitchell's 
company. He made his farewell 
appearance at a benefit at the Opera 
Comique in 1872. He died at Ne- 
mours in 1892. 

Chopin, Frederic Frangois. 1809-1849. 

He was the greatest genius of the 
piano who has ever lived, one of the 
most lovable, interesting and romantic 
figures in the history of music, and a 


great lyric composer, who was aptly 
called by Robert Schumann, " The 
boldest and proudest poetic spirit of 
the age." His life was brief, but full 
of incident and replete with energy 
and his service to the art of music 
cannot be too highly estimated. 
Chopin was a composer for the piano 
and for the piano alone, and his style 
is suited to no other instrument. In 
this he is unique. He was not only 
a great composer for the piano, but 
he made most important modifications 
in that instrument, and realized its 
possibilities as no one else ever did. 
He did for the piano what Paganini 
did for the violin and what Schubert 
did for song. He stands absolutely 
alone, and cannot be classified with 
any other composer. 

His music is tinctured through and 
through with his personality. In it 
there is an echo of what he felt, loved 
and suffered. His compositions have 
been well-called his memoirs and his 
autobiography. No other poet, for 
Chopin was as much a poet as he was 
a musician, has like him embodied in 
art the romance of the land and the 
people of Poland, and no other has 
like him embodied in art the romance 
of his own life. James Huneker has 
written of him: "Never so long as 
the piano remains the piano will 
Chopin be forgotten. He is as Ru- 
binstein, said, its soul." 

Perhaps no musical genius ever 
lived over whom there has been so 
much controversy, and about whom 
so many erroneous statements have 
been made. " Since 1888," says one 
biographer, " Much has been written 
of Chopin and much surmised." His 
biographers disagree as to dates and 
important incidents in the life of the 
composer, and as Chopin wrote few 
letters and was most reticent even to 
those nearest and dearest to him. 
many events said to have transpired 
in his life cannot be verified. The 
date of his birth is, to begin with, a 
matter of dispute. Some authorities 
declare it took place in 1809, others 
are equally positive it was 1810. The 
latter date is inscribed upon the com- 
poser's tombstone at Pere le Chaise 
cemetery in Paris, but Prof. Frederick 
Niecks, whose biography of Chopin is 
generally conceded to be the best and 
most authoritative, favors the year 
1809 as being the year of the com- 
poser's birth. Authorities also differ 
as to the circumstances of his family, 




some saying that they were far from 
comfortable in his early youth and 
that Chopin was educated by a Polish 
prince who befriended him for many 
years, others that his parents were in 
easy circumstances and that his father 
gave him a good education, until he 
was well along in manhood, and sup- 
plied him quite liberally with money. 

The most widely-discussed event in 
his life was his aflfair with George 
Sand and a literature has grown out 
of the controversies regarding their 
friendship and the woman's influence 
upon the career of the composer. 
Various constructions have been put 
upon their relations, but all the biog- 
raphers agree as to the disastrous 
results of this friendship, the severing 
of which undoubtedly hastened 
Chopin's death, and very few regard 
Sand's participation in it as wholly 
blameless. Half a dozen versions have 
been given of the scenes which 
attended Chopin's death, and, to cap 
the climax of inaccuracies, a false date 
was placed upon his tombstone. The 
sadness of the composer's life and his 
melancholy disposition have been 
dwelt upon by every biographer, per- 
haps to an undue extent. That Chopin 
was of a melancholy nature and that 
he let his pensive outlook upon life 
color his music through and through, 
there is no doubt, for he was a Pole, 
and his countrymen even dance to 
music written in a minor key and take 
all their pleasures sadly. Besides, he 
was harassed all his life long by ill- 
health, and he took deeply to heart 
little troubles and ills and was bruised 
by trifling vexations and irritations 
that would not have aflfected a 
healthier person. He himself said that 
his life was an episode without a 
beginning and with a sad end. But 
he was not always melancholy and his 
music is not all sad. It is a mixture 
of gayety and sadness, for his days 
were not all gray days and when he 
was happy he was deliriously so. 

Frederic Frangois Chopin was born 
at Zelazowawola, Poland (sometimes 
spelled Zela Zowa Wola), a village 
belonging to the Countess Skarbek, 
near Warsaw. His father, Nicholas 
Chopin, was a French refugee, the 
natural son of a Polish nobleman who 
accompanied King Stanislaus to 
France, taking there the name of 
Chopin. Nicholas Chopin was born in 
Nancy, Lorraine, in 1770, and went to 
Warsaw at the time of the political 


disturbances, in 1787. He there be- 
came a bookkeeper in a tobacco fac- 
tory, was afterwards tutor to the son 
of a Polish nobleman, and took part 
in the revolution under Kosciusko, 
fighting for Poland. He finally settled 
in Zelazowawola and became tutor to 
the son of the Countess Skarbek, later 
being professor of French in the 
Warsaw Lyceum, and finally setting up 
a private school of his own, which 
was patronized by the wealthiest 
families in Warsaw. He also taught 
French at the School of Artillery and 
Engineering, and at the Military 
Elementary School. Nicholas Chopin 
appears to have been a man of refine- 
ment and education, to whom the 
composer was indebted for many of 
his lovable traits of character and for 
much of the aristocratic bearing that 
always distinguished him. It was 
while he was in the service of the 
Countess Skarbek, that Nicholas 
Chopin met and married, in 1806, 
Justina Kryzanowska, a Polish woman 
of poor but noble family, who was 
possessed of all the womanly virtues. 
She bore her husband four children, 
three girls and the boy, Frederic. 
Frederic grew up in an atmosphere of 
love and refinement, petted and made 
much of by his sisters, and tenderly 
cared for and loved by his parents. 
He was always delicate and, from his 
earliest years, his health gave his 
family much concern. Auber, in later 
years, remarked that Chopin was 
dying all his life. But in spite of his 
physical weakness he was, at least in 
his youth, full of animal spirits and 
has been described as a mischievous 
lad, fond of playing pranks on his sis- 
ters and companions, and also of a 
particularly gentle and affectionate 
disposition. He was naturally bright 
and quick to learn and a favorite with 
all his teachers. Some writers have 
pictured his youth as almost poverty- 
stricken, but this is disclaimed by 
those who have looked into the sub- 
ject, among others, Professor Niecks, 
who declares that Chopin's childhood 
was passed in comfort if not in afflu- 
ence, as befitted the son of a professor 
enjoying a comfortable income. In all 
his life Chopin never underwent such 
privations as fell to the lot of Mozart, 
Schubert and other musical geniuses. 
His fondness for music early as- 
serted itself and his parents wisely let 
him have his way in this respect. He 
showed such proficiency that his 




father procured for him the best in- 
struction possible in the town, and 
sent him to study with Adalbert 
Zywny, a Bohemian musician of the 
old school, who thoroughly grounded 
him in the rudiments of music. At 
nine years of age, Chopin played in 
public at a concert, and from then on 
was made much of by the Polish 
nobility, who looked upon him, if not 
as a second Mozart, at least as an 
exceptionally talented boy, worthy of 
being encouraged. After this he fre- 
quently appeared at the houses of the 
nobility in Warsaw. When he was 
ten, Chopin composed his first piece 
of music, a march, which he dedicated 
to the Russian Grand Duke Con- 
stantine, who had it scored for the 
military band. ' At twelve he finished 
his studies with Zywny and entered 
the Lyceum, where his father was a 
professor, and there he was taught 
Latin, French, mathematics and other 
branches. His father then sent him to 
the Warsaw Conservatory, where he 
studied harmony and counterpoint 
with Joseph Eisner, a rigid disciplin- 
arian, who recognized Chopin's genius 
and gave him the help and encour- 
agement he needed. Through him the 
young musician learned to study and 
to love Bach, playing the composi- 
tions of that master with wonderful 
precision, and profiting so much by 
the instruction he received that he 
carried off several prizes while at the 
Conservatory. Eisner in those days 
encouraged Chopin to write an opera, 
not realizing that his talents lay in an 
entirely different direction. Chopin, in 
later years, declared that he could 
have done nothing without Eisner's 
instruction and encouragement, and 
was fond of remarking that the veriest 
idiot could not help but learn some- 
thing from such men as Zywny and 
Eisner. In Warsaw, Chopin appeared 
in public twice, and when he was 
fifteen wrote, with his sister, a one-act 
comedy, which was produced by a 
juvenile company. He found his 
greatest delight in playing and com- 
posing and was happiest when he was 
studying the works of the great mas- 
ters, preferably Mozart and Bach. He 
used to spend half the night practicing 
and trying out his compositions on 
the piano which he had in his bed- 

After finishing his studies at War- 
saw, Chopin's father decided it would 
be well for his son to see a bit of the 


world, and therefore, in 1828, he was 
sent with a friend of the family to 
Berlin. There he met Mendelssohn, 
Spontini and Zelter, among other 
musicians. His letters, some of 
which are preserved in Karasowski's 
book. The Life and Letters of Chopin, 
give interesting glimpses of the life 
he led in the German capital, the 
music he heard and the people whom 
he met. He _ next visited Vienna, 
where he was induced to give a con- 
cert in 1829, at which he improvised 
and made a great impression upon the 
musical critics and the nobility. From 
Vienna he journeyed to Prague and 
then on to Dresden and to Posen, 
where he was entertained by Prince 
Radziwill, a patron of the arts and a 
warm friend of the Chopin family, 
then he returned to Warsaw, but for 
only a short time. Chopin had grown 
restless and wished to see more of the 
world. He set out again from War- 
saw in 1830 and was never to return. 
It is related that just before his de- 
parture, Eisner, his old teacher, and 
the pupils of the Conservatory sang a 
cantata, composed for the occasion, 
and presented him with a silver cup 
filled with Polish earth, which was 
destined to be sprinkled upon the 
coffin of the composer eighteen years 
later as he was laid to rest in a Paris 

Chopin went to Vienna from War- 
saw, but his former successes had by 
this time been forgotten (" there were 
no newspaper articles or press agents 
to keep him before the public," says 
one biographer), and he was so dis- 
couraged and disheartened by the cold 
reception he received and the fact 
that the music publishers would have 
none of his music, that he thought 
seriously of going to Italy and friends 
even gave him letters of introduction 
which he was fated never to use. In 
Vienna he played at two concerts, but 
his reception was not warranted to 
encourage him, so he wrote to his 
father for the necessary funds, and 
started for Paris, stop^jing off at 
Munich, where he made his first and 
last appearance before a German 
audience. In 1831, Chopin reached 
the French capital, at a time when 
opera was in its glory, when literature 
as well as art was at full flower and 
also at a time of revolution. In Paris, 
Chopin's artistic career may be said 
to have begun, and there he spent his 
happiest as well as his most miserable 



days. One of the first things he did 
was to seek out Kalkbrenner, who 
was then the most famous pianist in 
Paris. He found fault with Chopin's 
playing and would consent to become 
his teacher only on condition that 
Chopin would remain with him three 
years. The young musician hesitated, 
feeling that this was too long a time 
to give to his studies and finally wrote 
to Eisner, who urged him not to 
become a pupil of Kalkbrenner's lest 
he destroy his individuality, in which 
Eisner, at least, had the greatest 
faith. Chopin gave his first concert, 
in Paris, in 1832, but it was a failure 
financially, although many of the 
prominent musicians, including Men- 
delssohn, were present and praised 
him. The following May he gave his 
second concert, but it was not suc- 
cessful, and as Chopin was deplorably 
in need of money, he grew greatly 
discouraged. In letters to friends he 
confessed that he was deeply dejected, 
because he felt himself to be a burden 
to his father. He talked about emi- 
grating to America and was prevented 
from so doing only by a chance meet- 
ing with Prince Radziwill who took 
him to the house of the wealthy 
Rothschilds in Paris, where his play- 
ing captivated his auditors, and 
secured for him several paying pupils. 
From that time on it was to be plain 
sailing so far as recognition of his 
talents was concerned. Pupils flocked 
,o him, among them many noble 
ladies and gentlemen; he was besieged 
with offers from managers of con- 
certs and invitations without number 
found their way to him from his 
wealthy patrons. He was heard much 
in public and at private houses. In 
ohort, Chopin was the vogue, and 
threatened to dislodge even Liszt, 
who was then the idol of Parisian 
society. He took part that year with 
Hiller and Liszt in a performance of 
Bach's concerto for three harpsi- 
chords, played on piano, and his ap- 
pearances were frequent and success- 
ful. He was gradually winning his 
way with his compositions and by 
i835 was teaching, making many 
friends, and enjoying life in his quiet 
way. During the summer of 1835 he 
visited his parents, who were staying 
at Carlsbad, and then went to Dresden 
and to Leipsic with Hiller, where he 
renewed his acquaintance with Men- 
delssohn, and through him met Robert 
Schumann, and Clara Wieck, who was 


later to become Schumann's wife. 
Schumann was the first of the Ger- 
mans to estimate Chopin at his true 
worth. He called attention to the 
compositions of the Pole, and to their 
excellence in the since oft-quoted 
words: "Hats ofif, gentlemen; a 
genius." In that year Chopin made 
the acquaintance of John, usually 
known as " Russian " Field, whose in- 
vention, the nocturne, Chopin so 
elaborated and improved upon as to 
make his own. Field disliked Chopin 
and belittled his talents. In later 
years the latter was often asked if he 
had been a pupil of Field, because of 
their similarity of style. 

On his return to Paris, the com- 
poser became the center of an artistic 
circle, which included Cherubini, 
Bellini, Berlioz, Meyerbeer, Liszt, who 
became one of the most ardent and 
loyal of his admirers, and in later 
years his devoted friend; the painter, 
Delacroix; Heine, the poet; Balzac 
and others. The following year 
(1837) Chopin visited Marienbad and 
went to London where he stayed 
incognito and neither received nor 
paid visits because of the condition 
of his health, which was gradually 
growing worse. There the first symp- 
toms of the disease, which finally 
carried him off, asserted themselves. 
He played at the house of James 
Broadwood, in London, but appeared 
nowhere else, and it is probable that 
his visit to London was for the pur- 
pose of seeking a physician's advice. 
Chopin's public appearances were now 
becoming fewer and fewer. He loved 
the intimacy of the private salon; 
among the friends he was fond of but 
disliked playing in public, saying the 
audiences "stifled and suffocated" 
him, and that he could never do his 
best under those conditions. 

On his return to Paris from Lon- 
don, Chopin met George Sand (Mme. 
Aurore Dudevant), then at the height 
of her fame and the leading literary 
woman in Paris, who shared with 
Victor Hugo the honor of pre- 
eminence in French letters. She was 
a woman who challenged the atten- 
tion of the world, as much by the 
irregularities of her private life as by 
her literary genius. She dominated 
Chopin's life after they became 
friends, and her influence upon his 
career was most marked. The story 
of this attachment has been told by 
Taine, Henry Janes, W. H. Hadow, 




James Huneker and numerous others 
and has been touched upon in all the 
biographies of the composer and the 
writer. Chopin seems to have had 
other love affairs, it being said of him 
that he was in the habit of falling in 
and out of love all the time. In his 
early days in Warsaw the composer 
had met and loved Constantia Glad- 
kowska, or Gladowska, a pupil of the 
Warsaw Conservatory, but he is said 
never to have let her know of his 
affection, although she inspired him to 
write the adagio of the concerto in F 
minor and the valse in D flat. She 
sang at one of his concerts in Warsaw 
and later went on the operatic stage. 
Later she married and Chopin appears 
to have dropped her from his mind. 
His second affair of the heart took 
place in 1836, when he visited Dres- 
den and there met Marie Wodzinski, 
whose brothers had been pupils at his 
father's school in Warsaw. Marie is 
said by Karasowski to have recipro- 
cated Chopin's love and desired to 
marry him, but was debarred from 
doing so by her parents, who wished 
her to wed a man richer in the world's 
goods. The following year she mar- 
ried the son of Chopin's godfather, 
the man for whom Chopin had been 
named, Count Frederic Skarbek, and 
after a time she vanished into ob- 
scurity. George Sand was the third and 
last of Chopin's love affairs. She has 
been variously described. Professor 
Niecks pictured her as a female Don 
Juan, and as a pen painter of fallen 
and defiled natures. Hadden calls her 
a cormorant, even while admitting 
that she nursed and cared for Chopin 
in his illness as his mother might; 
while on the other hand, Elizabeth 
Barrett Browning, George Eliot and 
W. H. Hadow, (apparently her only 
apologist among the opposite sex), 
called her good and great and de- 
scribed her affection for Chopin as 
maternal and nothing more. Mme. 
Sand had had many lovers before 
Chopin came into her life; Alfred de 
Musset, Delacroix the painter, Jules 
Sandeau, (in conjunction with whom 
she had written her first book. Rose 
et Blanche), Franz Liszt and others, 
nnd on account of most of these 
" affairs," after their termination, 
sooner or later found their way into 
her novels. Chopin was destined, if 
the gossps of the time were to be 
believed, to go the way of all the 
rest. According to Liszt and Mme. 


Sand herself, the meeting took place 
at the apartment of Chopin, through 
Liszt, who brought tlie novelist to 
call. Chopin is said to have disliked 
her at first and even wrote to his 
parents of meeting the great novelist 
and of not being attracted to her. 
Sand was unconventional, eccentric in 
dress and brusque in manner. She 
was fond of smoking cigars and had 
none of the social graces, preferring 
to lapse into absolute silence if not 
particularly interested in the person 
who was talking to her. She was 
many years older than Chopin, a di- 
vorced woman with two children, a 
son and daughter. She overcome all 
of Chopin's prejudices, however, as she 
had those of others, and there is every 
reason to believe that he grew to love 
her as he never loved anyone else. 
Shortly after the meeting, about 1837, 
Chopin being in feeble health, visited 
the novelist at her country home at 
Nohant, where she was in the habit 
of passing several months each year. 
Here she nursed and cared for him 
until he grew better. Bronchitis hav- 
ing developed the following year, 
Mme. Sand arranged for him to ac- 
company her and her son and daughter 
to the island of Majorca in Spain to 
pass the winter. Sand is said to have 
decided upon the trip, " Chopin dread- 
ing to leave Paris, as every change 
was a terrible event in his life." Mme. 
Sand gives an account of the sojourn 
in her little book, A Winter in Ma- 
jorca, which has been translated into 
English. For a time life ran smoothly 
enough and Chopin apparently showed 
signs of improvement, but after the 
wet season had set in his health grew 
worse, he suffered from hemorrhages, 
and the climate and the strange people 
fretted him continually. The natives 
drove " that consumptive person," as 
they called him, from the villa, which 
the party had rented and they were 
obliged to take up their abode in a 
disused Carthusian monastery on the 
outskirts of the town. Here the dis- 
comforts were so many that life 
became unbearable. Chopin made a 
" detestible invalid," said Sand; but 
here he wrote some of his most beau- 
tiful compositions, among others the 
preludes, which Rubinstein called " the 
very pearls of Chopin's work," in 
which is to be found such a combina- 
tion of sweetness and strength, that 
Robert Schumann described them as 
" canons buried in flowers." The 




party finally left the island, making 
short stops at Barcelona and at 
Genoa, and then returning to Paris. 
For several years the friendship be- 
tween the two continued, Chopin 
passing a part of every summer at 
Nohant with Mme. Sand and her 
family, and the winters in Paris with 
her. He was prosperous and happy, 
was teaching music and his compo- 
sitions were beginning to meet with 
the appreciation that they deserved. 
In 1846, the rupture of the friendship, 
which Professor Niecks calls the catas- 
trophe of Chopin's life, occurred and 
he was never the same afterward. 
No one appears to have been taken 
into the confidence of either as to the 
cause, although many conjectures 
were made. By some, Chopin is said 
to have displeased Sand by receiving 
her daughter and the husband she had 
married against her mother's wishes. 
Others declare Sand was tired of 
playing nurse to an irritable invalid, 
and that she gave that as an excuse to 
rid herself of Chopin. Still others see 
in Sand's book, Lucrezia Floriani, 
published that year, and in which she 
is said to have caricatured Chopin in 
the role of Prince Karol, the cause of 
the severence of the friendship. But 
whatever the cause, it was final. They 
met but once afterward, and then 
Chopin coldly repulsed Sand's at- 
tempts at a reconciliation. While the 
novelist has been criticized for her 
heartless treatment of Chopin, all are 
agreed that by the care and affection 
that she brought him at a time when 
he was sadly in need of both, she 
probably prolonged his life for several 
years. His was a nature that was 
dependent upon sympathy and affec- 
tion, and for a time at least as a 
member of Mme. Sand's household, 
he received both. The novelist denied 
that the separation had come about 
through her, and she likewise denied 
that she had had the composer in 
mind when she described the char- 
acter of Prince Karol in her book. 
The sympathies of mutual friends 
were wholly with the composer, how- 
ever, because it was not Sand's first 
offense at "making copy" out of her 
love affairs, when she was through 
with the victim. 

After the quarrel, Chopin's health 
grew rapidly worse, and although he 
continued to give lessons and appear 
occasionally in public, his friends all 
realized that the end was not far off. 

He grew more and more irritable and 
had frequent quarrels with those 
whom he loved the best^ the most 
serious one of all with Liszt, which 
was never made up. 

In 1847 his last composition was 
published, the sonata for piano and 
cello in G minor and his last concert 
in Paris took place, when he played 
with Alard and Franchomme, the 
cellist, in 1848. In that year the revo- 
lution drove him along with others 
from the French capital and he went 
to England. The condition of the 
composer's health was at this time 
most pitiable. He was suffering not 
only bodily pain, but was in the 
deepest dejection of spirit. Those last 
days in London, while he was in the 
throes of consumption, were a torture 
to him. The climate irritated his 
complaint and the people wearied him 
by their unremitting attentions and 
the hospitality they fairly forced upon 
him, when he longed only for rest 
and quiet. He was dragged about to 
receptions and musicales and asked 
to play, when he was often so weak 
that he had to be carried into the 
concert-room. He was presented to 
the Queen, appeared at many of the 
fashionable houses in London, Man- 
chester and Edinburgh, and stayed 
for a time at the castle of friends in 
Scotland, giving concerts in several 
English and Scotch cities. The last 
concert he ever gave was in aid of the 
Polish refugees in London. He was 
in the last stages of decline when he 
left that city early in October, 1849, 
for Paris. He was now no longer 
able to teach, and as he had never 
saved any money in his days of 
plenty, was sadly in need of funds. 
Friends railed to his aid and his 
" good Scots ladies," who had so 
wearied him with their attentions, saw 
to it that his last days were made 
comfortable. A Miss Sterling, whose 
family he had visited in Scotland and 
who was one of his pupils, sent him 
a large gift of money, more than 
enough for his needs. It was she 
who bought all of the composer's be- 
longings, including his piano, at a 
public auction after his death. These 
were burned along with many of his 
letters during the sacking of Warsaw, 
in 1863, when the soldiers made a 
bonfire of the collection. 

As death approached Chopin was 
not alone. His sister and her family 
had come from Poland to be with 




him, his friend and pupil, Gutmann, 
Solange, the daughter of George 
Sand, and the Countess Delphine 
Potocka, to whom he had dedicated 
one of the lovehest of his waltzes, 
were near him in his last hours. 
George Sand called to see him, but 
was denied admission, his friends 
fearing the excitement of seeing her 
might add to his distress. As the end 
approached, Chopin received the sac- 
raments and, according to Liszt, the 
Countess Potocka sang at his death- 
bed the famous canticle to the Virgin, 
which had once saved the life of Stra- 
della. Professor Niecks declares it was 
a psalm by Marcello, while _ Franc- 
homme insisted it was an air from 
one of Bellini's operas, of which the 
composer was especially fond. Chopin 
expired in the arms of his pupil, Gut- 
mann, Oct. 17, 1849, "dying," said 
Liszt " as he had lived — loving." 

He was buried from the Church of 
the Madeleine, in Paris, with pomp 
and ceremony. Mozart's requiem was 
sung at his funeral by Lablache, the 
famous tenor, and after his body had 
been assigned to the grave, the cup 
of Polish earth which had been given 
him so many years before was 
sprinkled upon the casket. He was 
laid to rest, at his own request, 
between the graves of Cherubini and 
Bellini at Pere le Chaise. His heart 
was taken back to Warsaw, where it 
is preserved in the Church of the 
Holy Cross. His tomb in Paris is 
marked by a monument, raised by 
popular subscription, and designed by 
George Sand's son-in-law, M. Cle- 
singer. Chopin's mother and two of 
his sisters survived him many years. 
The woman to whom Chopin was in- 
debted for much of his happiness and 
who was responsible for a great deal 
of his misery has summed up his 
worth as a composer thus: 

" His genius has never been sur- 
passed in the depth and fulness of 
sentiment and emotion. He has made 
an instrument speak the language of 
the infinite. He preserved an indi- 
viduality even more powerful than 
that of Sebastian Bach, more exquisite 
than that of Beethoven, more dramatic 
than that of Weber ... He com- 
bines the three and is himself. Mozart 
alone is superior, because Mozart had 
the calm of health and consequently 
the fulness of life." 

No music is better known to both 
musician and amateur, than Chopin's 


music, and yet it baffles analysis. He 
was not governed by the ordinary 
conventions of harmony and counter- 
point and yet his works have beauty 
and finish, are fanciful, tender, imag- 
inative to the border of the fantastic, 
and abound in poetry and sentiment. 
Chopin is essentially a musician of 
the moderns, and no compositions 
except the sonatas of Beethoven, can 
equal in interest his etudes, nocturnes, 
impromptus, mazurkas and polonaises. 
In his own sphere of music he is 
quite as original, revolutionary and 
epoch-making as Wagner himself, 
although it is only in recent years 
that Chopin has been placed where 
he belongs, in the front rank of com- 
posers, side by side with Bach, Bee- 
thoven and Wagner. He was a musi- 
cian of sound training, who gave of 
the .best that was in him to the work 
that he did in the field that he had 
chosen, and he was content to leave 
the larger forms of composition to 
other hands. Chopin loved the Polish 
melodies, and was much influenced by 
them. The popular music of his 
country is founded on dance forms 
and dance rhythms, as one writer had 
pointed out, and more than a quarter 
of Chopin's compositions are made up 
of dance forms. Into his music he 
often introduced these national airs, 
which are of a wild, plaintive char- 
acter, and which have led people to 
describe hs music as a mingling of 
the gay and the sad, the tender and 
the debonair. Chopin revived the old 
Polish dance, the Polonaise, which is 
the court dance of his countrymen, and 
gave in it a glowng picture of Poland, 
her past glory and her long-hoped- 
for regeneration. His music is some- 
times morbidly intense and passionate, 
full of pain and desolation, " with a 
taint of the tomb about it," at other 
times vivacious and gay. In short, his 
whole emotional life is mirrored in 
his music. He wrote a good deal of 
his music in clusters, which included 
nocturnes, concert studies, mazurkas, 
polonaises, waltzes, sonatas, ballades, 
fantasies, Polish songs and variations 
on Polish airs, rondos, trios, scherzos, 
and many other works, all of which 
as one writer has expressed it "are 
for stronger hands than his." 

During the composer's life his pub- 
lished works were sixty-eight in num- 
ber, four being without opus numbers. 
After his death, ten more works were 
added that had no opus numbers, in- 



eluding seventeen Polish songs, six 
mazurkas and several other pieces, 
making in all nearly one hundred 
compositions. The earliest w^ork of 
which there is any mention is the 
march, before referred to, which he 
composed when he was ten and dedi- 
cated to the Grand Duke Constantine. 
The next was a rondo for piano, 
written in 1825, when the composer 
was sixteen. In 1828 was published 
his B Flat Minor sonata, called by 
Liszt, his greatest work, and in which 
occurs the funeral march which has 
since become one of the most popular 
of his compositions. In 1830 appeared 
his famous variations for the piano 
with orchestral accompaniment, and 
among his earlier works were two 
concertos and the berceuse, a cradle 
song of wonderful beauty, called by 
Dumas, the younger, " muted music." 

Chopin's nocturnes are more gen- 
erally admired than any of his works, 
and with them his name is indis- 
solubly linked. From John Field, the 
inventor of the form, he undoubtedly 
obtained some of his ideas, but 
Chopin's nocturnes are far more beau- 
tiful and more elaborate, with a mys- 
terious poetic beauty all their own. 
The polonaise and the mazurka, the 
principal Polish dances, became in Cho- 
pin's hands, expressions of the national 
spirit and character of the country 
which he loved, and these two forms 
are the most characteristically Polish 
of any of his works. Huneker calls 
the mazurkas the dances of the soul, 
and next to the nocturnes they are 
the best known of Chopin's works. 
The framework of the form the com- 
poser appropriated from the national 
dance. The preludes, most of which 
were written during the composer's 
sojourn on the island of Majorca, 
have won for him more praise, per- 
haps, than any of his works, and all 
musicians are of the one opinion, that 
had Chopin written nothing else he 
still would have been entitled to rank 
as a genius. To the waltz, which had 
been raised from the level of a com- 
mon dance tune by Weber and Schu- 
bert, Chopin gave the dignity of an 
art-form, and in all his works the com- 
poser kept away from the ordinary 
and the hackneyed, giving forth com- 
positions only of beauty, originality, 
grace and nobility, expressions of his 
inner life. 

As a pianist Chopin was noted for 
an exquisite grace, a delicate touch 

and a wonderful depth of sentiment 
and expression. He had no fiery 
brilliancy or powerfulness of touch, 
because his physical condition de- 
barred him from every bodily exer- 
tion. He was never a virtuoso in the 
ordinary sense, and was seriously 
restricted always by a lack of 
strength, yet at times he electrified his 
hearers by the volume of sound his 
feeble fingers could evoke from the 
instrument. He was a student of 
Bach and when practicing for his 
recitals, he played, said his friends, 
not Chopin, but Bach over and over 
and over again. 

He never played his compositions 
twice alike and his execution was said 
to be the despair and the delight of 
his hearers. His playing was dis- 
tinguished by many embellishments 
and refinements, and he discarded the 
rigidity of the hand in favor of abso- 
lute elasticity. 

Chopin had several pupils, but none 
of them ever attained to any great 
degree of prominence as performers. 
The career of Filtsch, the brightest 
and most promising of all, was cut 
short by death, when he was thirteen. 
Of him, Liszt once remarked that 
when Filtsch made his debut he would 
retire, because he could never com- 
pete with the lad. Chopin's other 
pupils were Gutmann, Lysberg, 
Mikuli, Telefsen, George Mathias, 
and Princess Radziwill, who became 
under his instruction, an expert 
pianist, and often appeared in recitals 
with Liszt and other musicians. His 
English pupils were Lindsey Sloper 
and Brinley Richards. Chopin started 
a method for the piano, but he never 
lived to finish it. 

Chopin has been compared by some 
writers to Heine, the German poet. 
James Huneker compares him with 
Edgar Allen Poe, because " both were 
morbid, neurotic wraiths of genius," 
who were " foredoomed to unhappi- 
ness and supped their fill of misery." 
Henry F. Chorley described him as 
" pale, thin and profoundly melan- 
choly" in appearance and said his 
touch had in it all the delicacy of a 
woman's. According to Nieck's biog- 
raphy, Chopin was slender of build, 
not above medium height, with deli- 
cately formed hands, long silky hair, 
intelligent brown eyes, and a curved 
aquiline nose, while the melancholy 
aspect of his face was often relieved 
by a sweet and gracious smile. He 





was a man of refined sensibilities and 
detested vulgarity in every form. He 
liked fine clothes, was immaculate 
about his personal appearance, was 
fond of flowers and loved to have his 
apartments dainty and furnished in a 
tasteful and artistic manner. He was 
devotedly attached to his family, was 
an ardent patriot always, and while 
he loved Paris and his friends there, 
Poland and her wrongs were never 
long out of his mind. He worked 
hard at his compositions, laboring 
long and painstaking over them 
and literally burning away his slight 
frame for his art. He was good 
hearted and liberal and was always 
assisting his needy countrymen, mak- 
ing many gifts to his friends and often 
giving lessons free. Poetic distinc- 
tion, exquisite refinement and a noble 
bearing are the characteristics appar- 
ent in all the portraits of Chopin. 
Charles K. Salaman in speaking of 
the composer as " great and lovable 
in disposition, an inspired composer 
and an enchanting pianist," only 
echoed what was said by all who knew 
him, for his great genius was equaled 
only by his lovable, unselfish dispo- 
sition, his remarkable modesty of 
speech and bearing, and his gentle 
and gracious manner. 


Hadden, J. C. — Chopin. 

Hadow, W. H. — Studies in Modem 

Music. Second Ser. (Article on 

Huneker, James — Chopin; The Man 

and his Music. 

Mezzotints in Modern Music (The 
Greater Chopin). 
Karasowski, Moritz — Frederic Cho- 
pin; His Life, Letters and Works. 

2 vols. 
Liszt, Franz — Life of Chopin. 
Niecks, Frederick — Frederic Chopin 

as a Man and Musician. 2 vols. 
Oldmeadow, E. J. — Chopin. 

Chorley, Henry Fothergill. 18 8- 


Born at Blackley Hurst, Lancashire, 
England. He was intended by his 
parents for a mercantile career, but 
throughout a long life was success- 
fully a dramatist, translator, art critic, 
novelist and journalist and wrote 
much that is authoritative and valua- 
ble on music and its history. From 
1833 to 1871 he was the musical critic 
of the London Athenaeum, was al- 

ways a great traveler and intimate 
with most of the musical celebrities 
of his day. He was distinguished for 
being absolutely honest in his criti- 
cisms. He was opposed strenuously 
to recent and " advanced " composers 
and to the day of his death could see 
no merit or beauty in the works of 
Schumann. In the letters of Mendels- 
sohn he is mentioned in terms of 
admiration more than once, and he 
won the esteem and affection of many 
othermen and women in literary and 
artistic circles. Among his most 
celebrated works are National Music 
of the World, Modern German Music, 
Handel Studies, and others. He also 
translated several opefas, notably 
Gounod's Faust, Herold's Zampa, and 
Mendelssohn's Son and Stranger. A 
many-sided man, who did too many 
things well to attain any great fame 
in one particular field; his musical 
writings have great literary value. 

Choron (sho-ron), Alexander, fitienne. 

Born at Caen, France. He was the 
founder of a famous school of music 
in Paris which was supported by the 
government from 1824 to 1830, was a 
composer of ability and exerted a 
good influence on the music of his 
country. He was a scholar before 
taking up music and received instruc- 
tion from Roze, Bonesi, and other 
Italian professors. He became, in 
1805, a music publisher and pubhshed 
the works of famous Italian and Ger- 
man masters and also a work of his 
own, at great expense, which con- 
tained among other things a new 
system of harmony of his own. He 
also published a Dictionary of Musi- 
cians, in Paris in 1810. Was ap- 
pointed director of the Academic 
royale de musique in 1816. His sub- 
sidy was so reduced by the Revolu- 
tion of 1830, that he could not carry 
out his plans and his premature death 
is ascribed by Grove to disappoint- 
ment and the difficulties encountered 
after the death of Charles X. Among 
his compositions are a mass for three 
voices; Stabet Mater for three voices; 
hymns, psalms, and vocal pieces for 
church; and his song La Sentinelle 
is still popular and often introduced 
in French plays. He also left nu- 
merous translations, treatises on 
music, besides his manuels and ency- 
clopedias and essays. 



Chry Sander (kre-zant-er), Friedrich. 


Eminent German writer on music, 
who devoted his life to the study of 
Handel, edited the complete works of 
that master and wrote a memorable 
biography of the great composer. He 
was born at Liibthee, Mecklemburg, 
Germany, studied philosophy at the 
University of Rostock and after a 
long period spent in England settled 
at Bergedorf, near Hamburg. His 
zealous study of the life and works 
of Handel was carried on at the cost 
of infinite labor. The biography is a 
monument to the author's exhaustive 
research and exactitude. On the 
critical side the work is not so highly 
valued, the biographer carried away 
by enthusiasm for his subject, show- 
ing prejudice for masters of the mod- 
ern school and underrating those pre- 
ceding Handel. From 1865 to 1871, 
and from 1875 to 1882, Dr. Chrysander 
was editor of the Allgemeine Musi- 
kalische Zeitung of Leipsic. Of his 
other work mention should be made 
of the two treatises, tjber die Moll- 
tonart in Volksgesangen and t)ber 
das Oratorium; and excellent editions 
of Bach's Klavierwerke. He also pub- 
lished a collection called Denkmaler 
der Tonkunst. Of Dr. Chrysander's 
service as editor of the complete 
works of Bach, Grove says: "His 
laborious collations of the original 
manuscripts and editions, his aston- 
ishing familiarity with the most mi- 
nute details, and his indefatigable 
industry, combine to make this edi- 
tion of the highest importance, at 
once worthy of the genius of Handel 
and honorable to the author." 

Cimarosa (che-ma-ro'-sa), Domenico. 


One of the most celebrated of 
Italian composers. He was born at 
Aversa, near Naples, was a son of 
parents in humble circumstances and 
orphaned at an early age. He re- 
ceived his first musical instruction 
from Polcano, the organist of the 
monastery where he was a charity 
pupil. His talent early manifested 
itself and, in 1761, he obtained a free 
scholarship in the Conservatory of 
Naples, which school he attended 
eleven years, acquiring a thorough 
knowledge of the Italian masters. In 
1772 he produced his first opera in 
Naples and it immediately gave him 
an important place among the com- 


posers. For eight years he lived 
alternately at Rome and Naples, com- 
posing in that time about twenty 
operas, which were performed in vari- 
ous cities in Italy. Cimarosa was in- 
vited by Catherine II. of Russia to St. 
Petersburg, as chamber composer, 
where he made great progress in his 
musical studies. The rigors of the 
Russian climate, however, forced him 
to leave the court of the Empress, and 
some years later at the invitation of 
Leopold II. he succeeded Salieri as 
court chapelmaster at Vienna. It 
was here that he composed his most 
celebrated work, II Matrimonio 
Segreto, which is the only work by 
which he is known at present. In 
1793, after the death of Leopold, he 
returned to Naples, where he was 
appointed chapelmaster to the King 
and teacher to the Princesses. Here 
he was received with every kindness, 
but his last days were anything but 
tranquil. Because of taking part 
openly in the Neopolitan revolution- 
ary demonstration, on the entrance of 
the French army into the city he 
was imprisoned and sentenced to 
death, but King Ferdinand was pre- 
vailed upon to commute it to banish- 
ment. Cimarosa set out for St. 
Petersburg, but before he could reach 
his destination he died at Venice. At 
the time of his death he was at work 
on an opera, Artemesia. Opera seems 
to have been his forte, although he 
wrote other music. In twenty-nine 
years he wrote eighty operas, and 
excelled in representing a merry 
vivacity which distinguishes the gen- 
uine Italian opera bufifa. Beside his 
operas, he composed oratorios, can- 
tatas, psalms, motets, and much 
church music, principally masses, 
which were much admired and often 
sung. A bust of Cimarosa by Canova 
was placed in the Pantheon at Rome. 

* Claassen (klas-sen), Arthur. 1859- 

He stands pre-eminent in the United 
States among conductors of male- 
chorus singing societies, being at 
present the conductor of the Arion 
Singing Society of Brooklyn, N. Y. 
He was born at Stargard, Prussia, 
and studied at Weimar under Miiller- 
Hartung and other well-known 
teachers. He came to America upon 
the recommendation of Dr. Leopold 
Damrosch in 1884, to become con- 
ductor of the Eichenkranz Society, 
holding this post for a number of 



years. In 1890 he was made con- 
ductor of the Arion Singing Society 
of Brooklyn, one of the leading or- 
ganizations of its kind in this country. 
Claassen also became conductor of 
the Liederkranz Society of New York, 
as successor to Heinrich Zoellner, and 
he has also acted as conductor at 
various theatres in Germany The 
Arion Society under Mr. Claassen 
won first prize at the Newark, New 
York, and Baltimore Saengerfests 
and at the World's Fairs at Chicago 
and at St. Louis. It is to tour Ger- 
many the summer of 1908. Mr. 
Claassen has also been festival con- 
ductor, in addition to his other 
duties, of the New York, Brooklyn 
and Philadelphia Saengerfests. His 
compositions attracted the attention 
of Liszt while Claassen was a stu- 
dent at Weimar and the great master 
gave him every encouragement. He 
has written much for the male- 
chorus; made many beautiful adapta- 
tions; composed a number of sym- 
phonic poems for orchestra; a mass 
and many songs and piano pieces. 
Under his baton have been given such 
important works as Wagner's Love- 
feast of the Apostles; music to 
Mendelssohn's Midsummer Night's 
Dream; CEdipus in Colonos; Antigone; 
and Bruch's Frithjof, also a number 
of noted German operas. Mr. Claas- 
sen was accorded a special audience 
with the Emperor of Germany, in 
1900, in recognition of his services on 
behalf of the German Maennergesang 
in America. He is an honorary mem- 
ber of many of the societies of Ger- 
many and other cities in Europe as 
well as being highly regarded as a 
conductor in the United States. 

♦Clark, Charles W. 1865- 

Contemporary American singer, who 
has won distinction in oratorio and 
concert fields. He was born at Van 
Wert, Ohio. In 1887 he studied in 
Chicago under Mr. Frederick Root, 
and afterward made extended tours 
throughout the United States, sing- 
ing in concert and oratorio. Annual 
visits abroad were indulged in during 
this period, some instruction being 
received of George Henschel in Lon- 
don and Gura in Munich. He made 
his first public appearance in London, 
with the London Philharmonic So- 
ciety, in 1897. He has toured several 
seasons in Italy, France, Germany 
and England, the latter country hav- 


ing proven his broadest field. Under 
Richter, he sings frequently in Wag- 
nerian roles In 1902 he took up his 
residence in Paris, and in 1903 ap- 
peared at the Paris Conservatory 
concerts — the first American soloist 
in the seventy years' history of these 
concerts. Since his first appearance, 
he has sung at the Conservatory con- 
certs each succeeding season, in Paris 
appearing also with the Philharmonic 
Society and the Cologne Orchestra. 
He returned to America for the sea- 
sons of 1905-1906 and 1907-1908. Mr. 
Clark possesses a barytone voice of 
wide range, his work is individual, 
and the enviable success met with 
abroad has been won by unaided 
effort. He is also very successful as 
a teacher. 

Clark, Rev. Frederick Scotson. 1840- 

Born in London and received his 
earliest musical education from his 
mother, who had been a pupil of 
Chopin. He studied piano and har- 
mony under Sargant, the organist at 
Notre Dame, in Paris, was the 
founder of the London Organ School 
and, in 1878 was the representative 
English organist at the Paris Expo- 
sition. He composed numerous pieces 
for the organ, many sacred songs and 
is the author as well of many works 
for the piano. He works have al- 
ways enjoyed a wide popularity. 

Clarke, Hugh Archibald. 1839- 

He was born of Scottish parents in 
Toronto, Canada, but having lived 
most of his life in Philadelphia, he 
is generally classed with American 
composers. He gained great fame as 
a teacher and was considered one of 
the most learned harmonists in 
America. He studied the organ with 
his father, J. C. Clarke, who was a 
graduate of the Oxford Musical 
School and a professor in the Upper 
Canada University. In 1859, young 
Clarke went to Philadelphia, where 
he taught and composed and where 
for fifteen years he held the position 
of professor of the theory of music 
in the University of Pennsylvania, 
from which, in 1886, he received the 
degree of Doctor of Music. While 
there he taught a number of pupils 
who became eminent, among them 
William W. Gilchrist. For several 
years Dr. Clarke was the leader of 
the Abt Male Singing Society of 




Philadelphia, which was disbanded in 
1876. He has written the overture 
and choruses to Aristophenes' Achar- 
inaus, produced, in 1886, by students 
of the University of Pennsylvania, 
one of the few times when a revival 
of Greek comedy was attempted in 
this country. Dr. Clarke received 
praise not only from musicians for 
this work, but from Greek scholars, as 
well, for the perfect adaptation of the 
music to the metres of Aristophenes. 
His oratorio, Jerusalem, was given in 
Philadelphia by the Philadelphia 
Chorus, under the leadership of Dr. 
Gilchrist, in 1891, with great success. 
He also wrote much music for the 
piano and many songs. In manuscript 
are several cantatas, with orchestral 
accompaniments; choruses for male 
voices; and two sonatas for piano and 
violin; also some church music. Dr. 
Clarke is the author of a treatise on 
harmony and instruction books for 
piano and organ, and has also trans- 
lated German poetry into English 
verse, including a rendering into 
blank verse of the well-known Ger- 
man drama, Harold, by Ernst von 
Wildenbruch. He has also lectured 
in the University Extension courses 
on the art of music. 

Clarke, James Hamilton Smee. 1840- 

He was born in Birmingham, Eng- 
land. Is a dramatic composer, chiefly 
self-taught. Has been organist suc- 
cessively at Birmingham, Dublin, Bel- 
fast, Oxford, London and other cities. 
Traveled as conductor of the Car- 
lotta Patti concert troupe, in 1873, 
and with a company performing The 
Sorcerer. In 1878, was leader of the 
Opera Cimique in London and musi- 
cal director of the Lyceum Theatre. 
Among his works are overtures to 
Hamlet, Rob Roy, Lady of Lyons, 
and Corsican Brothers; several oper- 
ettas; a sacred cantata; symphonies; 
concertos; organ music; part-songs 
and much sacred music. While di- 
rector of the Lyceum, he wrote over- 
tures and incidental music, foi several 
plays revived by Sir Henry Irving, 
among them The Iron Chest; over- 
ture and masque music for the 
Merchant of Venice; and overture, 
and masque music, choruses, march 
dirge and incidental music for The 
Cup, a tragedy by Tennyson; and 
produced by Irving at the Lyceum 
in 1881. 

Clarke, Jeremiah. 1670-1707. 

A composer and organist, who was 
born in London and studied under 
Blow as a chorister in the Chapel 
Royal. From 1692 to 1695 he was 
organist at Winchester College, and 
was organist and vicar-choral of St. 
Paul's, also joint organist of the 
Chapel Royal with Croft, in 1704. He 
committed suicide by shooting him- 
self in St. Paul's churchyard, Lon- 
don. Clarke is best remembered for 
a few of his anthems and the psalm 
tune St. Magnus. His dramatic music 
has been almost entirely forgotten 
and none of his secular music is 
heard now. He wrote the music to 
several plays, a cantata. The Assump- 
tion; and ten songs, and is the author 
of a text book, Lessons on the 

Clay, Frederick. 1840-1889. 

A musician of refined and un- 
doubted talent, who was born of Eng- 
lish parents in Paris. His father was 
James Clay, a member of parliament 
for Hull and a famous whist player 
and author of a treatise on the game. 
Young Clay pursued his studies under 
Molique at Paris and later under 
Hauptmann at Leipsic. Later he held 
a post in the treasury department for 
a short time and also resided in Lon- 
don as a teacher and composer. As 
early as 1862 he had written a light 
musical work for the stage, entitled 
Love in a Cottage, which was re- 
ceived with marked favor. It was 
followed by a number of others, 
among them, Ages Ago and Happy 
Arcadia, with the libretto by William 
S. Gilbert, later the collaborator with 
Sir Arthur Sullivan in the Gilbert and 
Sullivan operettas. Clay wrote al- 
most exclusively for the stage and 
among his works are fourteen operas 
and operettas; the cantatas, Knights 
of the Cross and Lalla Rookh, in 
which appeared his best known com- 
position, I'll Sing Thee Songs of 
Araby, and which was produced, with 
great success, at the Brighton Festi- 
val in 1877. Among his operas are 
The Merry Duchess, produced at the 
Royalty Theatre, in 1883, and The 
Golden Ring, brought out at the Al- 
hambra Theatre in the same city the 
same year. In his later years. Clay 
built on the Sullivan models. He it 
was who introduced Gilbert and Sulli- 
van, and of him the latter said: " Clay 




shows a natural gift of graceful 
melody and a feeling for rich, har- 
monic coloring." He wrote many 
songs; and part-songs; and the music 
to Shakespeare's Twelfth Night. 
Among his best known songs are She 
Wandered Down the Mountain Side; 
The Sands o' Dee; and Long Ago. 
Clement, Franz. 1780-1842. 

A great violin-player and composer, 
who was born in Vienna, and who 
studied music under his father and 
Kurzweil. It is said he began to play 
the violin at the age of four years and 
his debut was made in 1789, when he 
was nine years old, at a concert in 
the Imperial Opera House, Vienna. 
He traveled through Europe, in con- 
cert and appeared with success, in 
1790, in London, where some of his 
concerts were conducted by Haydn 
and Salomon. He was solo violinist 
to the Emperor of Austria, in 1802, 
and was conductor of a theatre in 
Vienna from 1802 until 1811. The 
following year he began a series of 
concert tours through Germany and 
Russia and, from 1821, was on tour 
as conductor with Catalani, the 
famous singer. Clement wrote violin 
concertos and an opera, besides sev- 
eral minor pieces for violin. He was 
considered a violinist of great refine- 
ment and held a high position on the 
continent as a performer. For him 
Beethoven wrote his great violin con- 
certo, which is preserved in the Im- 
perial Library at Vienna, and Clement 
was the first to play it in public. He 
published twenty-five concertinos, six 
concertos, and twelve studies for the 
violin; three overtures for orchestra; 
an opera and the music for a melo- 
drama, besides numerous smaller 
pieces. His music is never heard 
Clementi (kla-men'-te), Muzio. 1752- 


He was the first of the great vir- 
tuosos, who were considered dis- 
tinctively composers for the players 
on the piano and he has been called, 
" the Columbus," in the domain of 
piano-playing and composition and 
was the father of the school of mod- 
ern piano technique. Has likewise 
been called, " the father of the 
sonata." Born at Rome, He was the 
son of a silversmith and early showed 
a taste for music, which highly 
pleased his father, who was himself 
an amateur musician of no mean 


ability. His father induced Buroni, 
the choirmaster of a Roman church, 
to instruct his son in music, and he 
taught the boy singing and thorough- 
bass. In 1759, Buroni procured les- 
sons for him from the organist Cor- 
dicelli and at this time he was being 
instructed in counterpoint by Carpain 
and in singing by Santarelli. At the 
age of nine the boy applied for and 
obtained the position of organist in 
a church. At fourteen he had com- 
posed several works, among them a 
mass for four voices and chorus, 
which was publicly performed and 
attracted much notice. The turning- 
point in his career came, in 1767, 
when an English gentleman of means, 
Peter Beckford, induced dementi's 
father to allow him to take charge of 
the boy's education. At the country 
home of Beckford in Dorsetshire, he 
studied not only music but the lan- 
guages and literature as well and soon 
became an adept at musical composi- 
tion and so distinguished himself for 
his other accomplishments that, when 
he made his appearance in London, 
he was made much of by the most 
eminent men and women in social and 
artistic circles. About 1773 he ob- 
tained the position of conductor of 
the Italian Opera, which he filled for 
three or four years. He also visited 
Strasburg, Munich and Vienna, where 
he met Haydn and Mozart, and his 
association with these musicians was 
of the greatest benefit to him. He 
took part with Mozart in a competi- 
tion of playing and improvising, 
which was instituted by the Emperor 
Joseph II., and on this occasion 
played his sonata in B flat, the open- 
ing of the first movement of which 
is said to have been made use of later 
by Mozart in The Magic Flute. 
Clementi greatly admired the com- 
poser, but Mozart was not so gen- 
erous and often spoke slightingly of 
Clementi and his work. From 1782 
until 1802, except for his concert tours, 
Clementi spent all of his time in Eng- 
land as conductor, virtuoso and 
teacher. Meyerbeer was his pupil at one 
time^ and he was also the instructor 
of John B. Cramer and John Field, 
who soon took rank among the first 
pianists in Europe. During dementi's 
tour of France he was cordially re- 
ceived by Marie Antoinette and the 
court and there made the acquaint- 
ance of Gluck, who admired him 
greatly. He also met Viotti. After 




returning to England, he became a 
member of a firm of piano makers, 
which for many years bore his name 
and is now known as Collard's, and 
ultimately, in spite of losses by fire, 
he made a large fortune. He spent a 
great deal of time and money on im- 
proving the piano, and after his for- 
tune was made, spent all his leisure 
moments composing. He wrote sym- 
phonies for the Philharmonic Society; 
many piano pieces; and completed a 
series of one hundred studies entitled 
Gradus ad Parnassum, upon which to 
this day the art of solid piano-play- 
ing rests. He likewise left upward of 
one hundred sonatas, fugues, varia- 
tions and waltzes. His works are 
declared by musicians to be indis- 
pensable to pianists and must always 
remain so, although they are noted 
more for their technical excellence 
than for their musical feeling. Bee- 
thoven is declared to have been 
deeply indebted to Clementi and to 
have esteemed his works as highly 
conducive to good piano-playing. 
Clementi was married three times. 
He lived to be eighty and was hon- 
ored at his death by a public funeral, 
when his remains were placed in 
Westminster Abbey. 

Cliffe, Frederick. 1857- 

Pianist and composer, who was 
born at Low Moor, Yorkshire, Eng- 
land, and as a child gained a local 
reputation as a pianist and organist. 
At eleven, he was organist at the 
Wyke Parish Church, and at sixteen 
appeared as organist to the Bradford 
Festival Choral Society. About this 
time he also began to attract atten- 
tion by his voice. In 1876 he was 
elected to a scholarship in the Na- 
tional Training School for Musicians, 
and after graduating became pianist 
and accompanist on various concert 
tours. He played at the Promenade 
concerts at Covent Garden, in 1882, 
and when the Royal College of Music 
was opened the next year he re- 
ceived the appointment of professor 
of piano at that institution. He was 
organist to the Bach choir from 1888 
until 1894 and of the Italian Opera at 
Drury Lane, Her Majesty's and 
Covent Garden about the same time. 
After about twenty years' service in 
various capacities he retired in 1889. 
Cliffe came into notice as a composer 
with a symphony in C minor pro- 
duced at Crystal Palace in 1889, and 


the next year composed an orches- 
tral picture, entitled Clouds and Sun- 
shine, which was produced by the 
Philharmonic Society and attracted 
considerable notice. The Triumph of 
Alcestis, a scena for contralto and 
orchestra written for the Norwich 
Festival, was also an ambitious com- 
position. For the Leeds Festival, of 
1892, he wrote a second symphony, 
A Summer Night, and a violin con- 
certo for the Norwich Festival of 1896, 
His compositions have won him the 
praise and esteem of musicians be- 
cause of their general excellence. He 
was appointed examiner for the Asso- 
ciation Board of the Royal Academy 
of Music and the Royal College of 
Music, London, and for them toured 
Australia in 1898 and in 1900. In 
1903 he visited South Africa. 

Coerne (ker'-ne), Louis Adolphe. 

A noted American composer, organ- 
ist and conductor, who was born in 
Newark, N. J., and studied from his 
sixth until his tenth year at Stuttgart 
and Paris. Returning to America, he 
devoted himself to the study of music 
under American teachers, and after 
entering Harvard was a pupil in 
harmony and composition of John 
Knowles Paine. He studied the vio- 
lin under Kneisel, in 1890, and shortly 
after went to Munich, where he de- 
voted his time to the organ and com- 
position at the Royal Academy under 
Rheinberger, and the violin under 
Hieber. He acted as organist at Bos- 
ton, in 1893, and a year later went to 
Buffalo, where he directed the Lied- 
ertafel. While at college he com- 
posed and produced a concerto for 
the violin and cello, with string 
orchestra accompaniment; a fantasy 
for full orchestra and a number of 
anthems, which were performed in the 
Unversity chapel. While in Germany 
he wrote and produced a string suite; 
a ballet, Evadne; and choral works 
and concertos. His symphonic poem 
on Longfellow's Hiawatha was also 
produced there with great success 
under his direction and was later 
given by the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra. He was invited by the 
late Theodore Thomas to give re- 
citals at Festival Hall, at the World's 
Fair, Chicago. Among other works 
from his pen beside these mentioned 
are organ pieces, waltzes and dance 



Coleridge-Taylor, Samuel. 1875- 

An original figure in music. He 
was born in London, and is a mu- 
latto, his mother having been an Eng- 
lish woman and his father a full- 
blooded African. The latter was an 
educated man and encouraged the 
boy at the age of six to begin the 
study of the violin, under Joseph 
Beckwith at the Croyden Conserv- 
atory. This instrument has remained 
ever since his favorite. At ten he 
was a chorister and five years later 
began to receive instruction at the 
Royal College of Music, in 1893, win- 
ning a scholarship, which enabled 
him to study for four years compo- 
sition under C. Villiers Stanford and 
the piano under Algernon Ashton. 
While studying at this institution he 
won a prize for a composition which 
he wrote for stringed instruments. 
His next efforts at composition were 
several anthems, and a symphony in 
A minor, which were performed at 
London and Liverpool. He also 
wrote much chamber-music, including 
a clarinet quintet, five fantasias for 
strings, and a string quartet. For the 
violin he composed the Southern Love 
Songs and the African Romances, the 
words of which were written by the 
late Paul Laurence Dunbar, and the 
Hiawatha sketches, which preceded 
his later triumphs in the same field. 
These were three characteristic 
pieces, lagoo, Chibiabos and Paupuk- 
keewis, founded on Longfellow's In- 
dian poem, and entitled, Scenes from 
Hiawatha. In 1898 he brought out 
his cantata, Hiawatha's Wedding 
Feast, and from then on his name 
was known throughout the musical 
world. Critics all agree that he is 
one of the best and most original 
composers that England has ever pro- 
duced. There is a strength, a rich in- 
strumentation and a glowing effect in 
his music in the Indian cantata, and 
its success encouraged Coleridge- 
Taylor to compose a year later the 
Hiawatha overture and a second part 
of the cantata called. The Death of 
Minnehaha, while in 1900 he pro- 
duced Hiawatha's Departure. Since 
then he has written The Atonement, 
a sacred cantata, produced for the 
first time at the Heresford Festival 
in England and the Blind Girl of 
Castel-Cuille for the Leeds Festival. 
These works are said by some critics 
to be very weak in comparison with 
his first compositions and it is 


claimed that he is not fulfilling the 
promise shown in his early produc- 
tions. He was commissioned to 
write for three musical festivals at 
Leeds and Birmingham. Other works 
that have contributed to his success 
as a composer are an orchestral bal- 
lade with violin; an Idyll; a prelude; 
the music to Herod, produced at His 
Majesty's Theatre, London; and four 
waltzes. Hiawatha was sung for the 
first time in America by the St. 
Cecilia Society of Boston, one of the 
best musical organizations in Amer- 
ica, and since then it has been given 
many times. The firm of Oliver Dit- 
son & Co. commissioned Cole- 
ridge-Taylor to write a book of 
negro melodies and he also wrote 
several choral ballads for chorus and 
orchestra. He is at present violin 
professor at Croyden Conservatory 
and professor of harmony and com- 
position at the Crystal Palace. He is 
married to an English woman and 
they have two children. 

* Combs, Gilbert Raynolds. 1863- 

He was born in Philadelphia and 
came of a musical family. He was 
originally intended for the career of 
a physician, but he very early in life 
showed a talent for music and re- 
ceived a careful training in it. He 
was educated at Eastburn Academy, 
in Philadelphia, and studied music 
first under his father, a pianist and 
composer, and then under several 
American and European masters. Mr. 
Combs is a pianist, organist, and 
player of stringed instruments and 
has also been an orchestral and 
chorus conductor with striking suc- 
cess. At present, he is the director, 
proprietor and head of the piano de- 
partment of the Broad Street Con- 
servatory of Music, Philadelphia, 
which he founded in 1885, and which 
from the outset was successful. He 
is also one of the founders, and 
ex-president of the Sinfonia. For 
several years he was organist and 
choirmaster in leading churches of 
Philadelphia. It was his success and 
popularity as a teacher that led Mr. 
Combs to found the Broad Street 
Conservatory, every department of 
which _ is under his direction and 
supervision. He has composed much 
for the orchestra, also for pianoforte, 
voice and violin. It is as a teacher, 
however, that he has been most suc- 



Concone (kon-ko'-ne), Giuseppe. 

Noted Italian singing and piano 
teacher and also an organist of ability. 
Born in Turin. He lived and taught 
in Paris from 1832 to 1848. During 
this time he published a number of 
piano pieces and a set of studies for 
that instrument. In 1848 he returned 
to Turin, where he was appointed or- 
ganist of the Royal Chapel. He is 
known chiefly by his Vocal Exercises, 
of which he published five books. 
These exercises are for soprano, 
mezzosoprano, barytone and bass. 
They have been republished a number 
of times and are highly thought of 
and largely used by singing teachers. 

* Conus, Georges. 1862- 

Contemporary Russian composer 
and teacher. He was born in Mos- 
cow, studied at the local Gymnasium 
and entered the Imperial Conserv- 
atory in Moscow in 1882, from which 
he was graduated in 1889, having com- 
pleted a special course in composition. 
His teachers were his father, Antoine 
Areusky, Paul Pabst, Serge Taniew, 
and Tschaikowsky, the latter being 
his critic during the last two years 
at the Conservatory. From 1891 to 
1899 he was professor of harmony 
and instrumentation at the Conserv- 
atory at Moscow, in 1902 was pro- 
fessor of composition at the Phil- 
harmonic School there, and two years 
later became director, relinquishing 
this post to devote his time to corn- 
position. All his orchestral composi- 
tions have been given in the syrnphony 
concerts at the Imperial Society of 
Music at AIoscow, St. Petersburg, 
Charkoff and Odessa, and also in the 
concerts of the Philharmonic Society, 
Moscow. His ballet, Daita, was 
given sixteen representations in 1896 
and 1897 at the Grand Theatre Im- 
perial of Moscow. The Emperor of 
Russia bestowed upon him an annual 
pension for his Scenes enfantines for 
orchestra and choir. 

Converse, Charles Crozat. (Pen-name 
Karl Redan). 1832- 

He was born at Warren, Mass., 
and after being taught English and 
the classics, he went to Germany in 
1855 and studied at the Leipsic Con- 
servatory. While there he was taught 
orchestration by Richter and the 
piano by Plaidy, and made the ac- 
quaintance of Liszt and Spohr. The 


latter took a deep interest in his 
musical career, and gave him every 
encouragement. He returned to 
America, and studied law, graduating 
from the law department of the Al- 
bany University in 1860, with the de- 
gree LL.B. Later he was given 
the degree of LL.D. He declined 
the professorship of music at the 
University of Cambridge, tendered 
him in recognition of the talents he 
showed in composing a five-voiced 
double fugue, that ends his psalm- 
cantata on the 126th Psalm. It was 
performed under the baton of Theo- 
dore Thomas in Chicago in 1888. 
Converse has published a large num- 
ber of compositions, under his pen- 
name, Karl Redan. One of his best 
known works is the American over- 
ture on Hail Columbia, written for 
the orchestra. He has also written 
oratorios and many chorals. In 
manuscript he has a large assortment 
including two symphonies; ten sona- 
tas; three symphonic poems and an 
oratorio, The Captivity. Of these 
manuscript works, three have been 
produced, the Christmas overture, at 
one of the public concerts of the 
Manuscript Society, under the direc- 
tion of Walter Damrosch, an over- 
ture, Im Fruhling, under the baton 
of Theodore Thomas, and the Ameri- 
can overture, under Gilmore and his 
band, and by Seidl and Thomas. The 
last is built on the air Hail Columbia 
and its instrumentation is brilliant. 

Converse, Frederick Shepherd. 1871- 

Young American composer, at 
present assistant professor of music 
at Harvard, who has produced a num- 
ber of highly interesting and original 
works, including an opera, and a fes- 
tival work, entitled Job. Mr. Con- 
verse was born at Newton, Mass., and 
was intended by his father for a com- 
mercial career, but decided after a 
few months in an office that he was 
not meant for business, and from then 
on devoted himself to the study of 
music. He entered Harvard College, 
graduating from it in 1893, taking 
the highest honors in music, under 
Prof. John K. Paine, and later con- 
tinuing his musical studies with Carl 
Baermann and George W. Chadwick. 
After two years under Rheinberger 
at the Royal School of Music at 
Munich, from which he graduated, in 
1898, with high honors. Converse re- 
turned to Boston and became a 



teacher. He taught harmony at the 
New England Conservatory of Music, 
until 1902, when he was appointed an 
instructor in the musical department 
of Harvard. In 1905 he was appointed 
assistant professor of music there, a 
position he still holds. Mr. Converse, 
soon after freeing himself from 
academic influences, began to show 
strong originality in composition and 
a feeling for highly modern effects. 
Of late he has devoted himself chiefly 
to program music. He has ample 
technique and his writing is fluent 
and easy. His first composition was 
a sonata for violin and piano, which 
was his thesis for honors at Harvard. 
He next wrote a string-quartet; a 
concert overture, entitled Youth, 
which was performed at Munich in 
1897; a symphony in D minor, given 
in the same city the following year 
and by the Boston Symphony Orches- 
tra and at the Worcester Festival in 

Mr. Converse has done his best 
work as a composer of symbolic 
poems. These include The Festival 
of Pan, a romance for orchestra, first 
performed at Boston, in 1900, then 
given at Cambridge, London, Cincin- 
nati and elsewhere; Endymion's Nar- 
rative, a romance for orchestra; and 
Night and Day, for piano and orches- 
tra, first performed by the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra, in 1905, all of 
which are settings of the poems of 
Walt Whitman. Converse's opera, 
The Pipe of Desire, was first pro- 
duced in Boston, in January, 1905. He 
is at work upon another opera, ac- 
cording to report, the libretto of 
which treats of an incident in the 
Mexican War, with the action taking 
place in a seaport close to the Cali- 
fornia frontier. Mr. Converse's most 
recent work is a dramatic poem for 
solo voices, chorus and orchestra, en- 
titled Job, which he composed for the 
Worcester Festival of 1907. It is 
declared to be a work in which the 
composer showed his purpose to free 
himself from the traditions which 
govern the oratorio and cantata. The 
music of Job is strongly descriptive, 
and follows the modern trend in or- 
chestral writing. Beside the works 
already mentioned Mr. Converse has 
written a ballade for barytone and 
orchestra, entitled La Belle dame 
sans merci; a violin concerto; a string 
quartet, first played by the Kneisel 
Quartet, in 1904; and an orchestral 


fantasy performed by the Philadel- 
phia Orchestra in 1905. Converse is 
rapidly forging to the front, and is 
generally regarded by musicians as a 
composer who has done admirable 
work in the past and from whom 
much may be expected in the future. 

Cooke, Thomas Simpson. 1782-1848. 

A vocalist and composer, who was 
born in Dublin, and studied music 
under his father, Bartlett Cooke, an 
oboe-player in a London theatre, and 
also under Giordani. In 1803 he 
was conductor of a theatre in Dublin, 
and made his debut as a singer in 
Storace's Siege of Belgrade. When 
he was only seven years of age he 
is said to have performed in public a 
violin concerto. In 1813 he was ap- 
pointed conductor and vocalist at 
Drury Lane, and became a member 
of the Royal Academy of Music and 
of the Philharmonic Society. The 
year before that, while leading an 
orchestra in Dublin, he also kept a 
music shop. He was familiarly known 
as Tom Cooke. He was the director 
of the Drury Lane and Covent Gar- 
den Theatres and from 1828 to 1830 
one of the musical managers of Vaux- 
hall Gardens, and the principal tenor 
singer at Drury Lane for nearly 
twenty years. He also taught a 
limited number of pupils, among 
whom was Sims Reeves. Cooke was 
most successful as a glee composer, 
although his works for the stage are 
full of merit. He won several prizes 
from the Catch and Glee clubs. 
Among his works are numerous 
farces; adaptations of several foreign 
operas; many glees; duets; solfeggi; 
exercises; and the music to about 
fifteen plays. He died in London. 

* Coombs, Charles Whitney. 1859- 

American composer, who was born 
in Bucksport, Maine, and passed his 
early years in Portland, where his 
fondness for music early manifested 
itself. He spent five years at Stutt- 
gart, becoming, at the age of nine- 
teen, a pupil in piano of Speidel and 
in theory and composition of Max 
Seifriz, then the director of the Royal 
Opera at Stuttgart. Coombs also 
spent some time in Italy and Switzer- 
land, six years in Dresden studying 
under several teachers and a year in 
England, giving special attention to 
the music and methods of the Eng- 
lish churches. At Dresden, Draeseke 




taught him counterpoint, and he 
studied the organ under Janssen and 
orchestration under Hermann John. 
He was organist of the American 
church at Dresden from 1887 to 1891, 
when he returned to the United States 
to take charge of the music of the 
Church of the Holy Communion in 
New York City, a position which he 
still holds. Among Mr. Coombs' 
works are the following: The Vision 
of St. John, a cantata with full orches- 
tra and organ; The Sorrows of Death, 
a Lenten motet; The First Christ- 
mas, a cantata for mixed voices and 
solos; A Hymn of Peace; Song of 
Judith; motets for soprano and bary- 
tone; a number of sacred songs; 
hymns; several anthems; and about 
thirty songs and choruses, among the 
best of which are I Arise from 
Dreams of Thee, an Indian serenade; 
Song of a Summer Night, and The 
Journey is Long, settings of two of 
Charles Sayle's poems; Alone and My 
Love. Mr. Coombs' most recently 
published works are the song, My 
Heart It Was a Cup of Gold, which 
is singularly beautiful and melodious, 
and The Ancient of Days, a church 
cantata, generally considered his 
ripest and best work, which is purely 
devotional in its spirit. 

Coquard (ko-kar), Arthur. 1846- 

French composer, who has written 
many lyric and dramatic scenes for 
voices and orchestra, and other music 
of much merit. He was born in 
Paris and was a private pupil, in har- 
mony, of Cesar Franck. Since 1892 
he has been a lecturer at the National 
Institute for the Blind, at Paris, and 
was for some time musical critic of 
Le Monde (The World), Paris. He 
received a prize from the Academy of 
Fine Arts in 1892 for a book on the 
music of France. Among his operas, 
Le Mari d'un Jour; L'Oiseau Bleu, 
produced in 1894 and La Jacquerie, 
porduced at Paris; and Monte Carlo, 
have met with a favorable reception. 
His other compositions are a two-act 
opera, L'fipee du Roi, produced in 
1884; a three-act comic opera, a 
sacred trilogy; an oratorio, Jeanne 
d'Arc; several cantatas; choruses to 
Racme's Esther; and several dramatic 
scenes, including Cassandre and Hero 
et Leandre. " His music," says Grove, 
" Is distinguished by clearness, charm 
and exact dramatic sentiment, and 
may be regarded as a continuation of 


the noble classic traditions, happily 
united to modern harmonic science." 

Corder, Frederick. 1852- 

Born in London. He was a dra- 
matic composer of considerable ability, 
and translated several of Wagner's 
music-dramas into English. He gave 
promise, while very young, of musical 
talent, but was intended by his parents 
for a business career. He became a 
pupil of the Royal Academy of Music, 
where he gained the Mendelssohn 
Scholarship, in 1875, and also studied 
at Cologne with Ferdinand Hiller. 
Returnmg to England, in 1879, he 
was appointed conductor of the or- 
chestra at the Brighton Aquarium, 
where he gave many important works 
and improved the character of the 
concerts. The next few years he 
devoted to musical compositions, and 
among his published works are Morte 
d'Arthur, an opera which was written 
in 1877; The Cyclops, a cantata; In 
the Black Forest, a suite for the 
orchestra; overtures, songs and part- 
songs. In 1890 he was appointed 
orchestral director at Trinity college, 
London, and curator of the Royal 
Academy of Music. He also was 
made editor of The Overture, a 
monthly paper published by the 
students of the Royal Academy, and 
in 1896 lectured at the Royal Insti- 
tution. Together with his wife and 
brother he translated Wagner's Die 
Meistersinger and Der Ring Des 
Nibelungen. He made many contri- 
butions to the English press includ- 
ing elaborate analyses of Wagner's 

Corelli (kor-el'-li), Archangclo. 1653- 


Was born at Fusignano, near 
Imola, Italy, and was a talented vio- 
linist and composer. He studied the 
violin with Bassani and. counterpoint 
with Simonelli. Very little is known 
of his life until 1681, when, after 
traveling in Germany and holding a 
position in Munich attached to the 
court of the Elector of Bavaria, he 
settled in Rome, where he enjoyed 
the patronage and friendship of Car- 
dinal Ottoboni, a lover of the arts in 
general and of music especially. In 
his house Corelli made his home. Of 
a winning personality and great musi- 
cal talent, he was soon a prime 
favorite in the highest circles of the 
city, and invitations to his concerts, 



in the palace of the Cardinal, were 
eagerly sought. He published his 
first work in 1683, a collection of 
twelve sonatas, and was most suc- 
cessful as a teacher as well as a com- 
poser. The King of Naples attempted 
several times to press him into his 
service and at length succeeded. 
Corelli gave a successful concert 
before the court, but his second 
attempt was a failure and he was so 
chagrined that he returned to Rome. 
During his absence a mediocre musi- 
cian and violinist, named Valentini, 
had become popular and, believing 
himself supplanted in the aflfections 
of the people, Corelli grieved himself 
into an early death. He was buried 
in the Pantheon at Rome, not far 
from the tomb of the painter Raphael, 
and Cardinal Ottoboni erected a 
handsome monument to his memory, 
and a statue of him was placed in the 
Vatican. Corelli undoubtedly laid the 
foundation for ^ood violin technique 
and his compositions are still regarded 
as classics. His greatest work was 
the Concerti-grossi which appeared 
only six weeks before his death. A 
great many works were published 
under his name that he never wrote. 
By Grove he is credited with having, 
in his chamber sonatas, and Concerti- 
grossi, been the founder of the style 
of orchestral writings on which the 
future development in this direction 
was based. To quote: "He was not 
so much an innovator as a reformer. 
He did not introduce new or striking 
effects but he did give to this branch 
of art, a sound and solid basis which 
his successors could and did build 
upon successfully," 

Cornelius (kor-na-li-oos), Peter. 


A dramatic composer and one of 
the principal members of the new 
German school of music. He was 
born at Mayence, and was a nephew 
of the painter Peter von Cornelius. 
He first took up the profession of an 
actor, but after an unsuccessful debut 
on the stage he turned to music, 
studying counterpoint with Dehn at 
Berlin, from 1845 to 1852, and then 
joined Liszt's following of young 
artists in Weimar, who were the 
champions of Wagner and his ideas. 
The failure of Cornelius' opera. The 
Barber of Bagdad, produced at Wei- 
mar in 1858, so disgusted Liszt with 
the public's judgment that he left 

Weimar, and so influenced other musi- 
cians that it ceased to be the center 
of the school. This opera of Cor- 
nelius' met with much success at 
Dresden about 1886, also later at 
Hamburg and other cities in Germany. 
Its composer went to Wagner, at 
Vienna, in 1859, and followed him to 
Munich in 1865, where he was ap- 
pointed reader to King Ludwg II. and 
professor of harmony and rhetoric at 
the Royal Music School. A second 
opera, The Cid, was produced at 
Weimar in 1865; a third, Gunlod, in 
which he took the subject from the 
legends of the Edda, remained un- 
finished and was completed long after 
the death oi Cornelius by Lassen and 
produced at Strasburg. Cornelius 
wrote and published numerous song 
cycles, and other pieces of music which 
had considerable vogue. He also 
wrote the librettos of his operas, 
translated many works, .and many of 
his pieces were settings for his own 
poems. He left three books con- 
sisting of eleven songs and four duets, 
which were published in 1898. 

Cossmann, Bernhard. 1822- 

A talented composer and violinist. 
Was born in Dessau, Germany, and 
studied under Espenhahn, Drechsler, 
Miiller and Kummer in Dresden. He 
was cellist at the Italian Opera, Paris, 
and appeared in London in 1841. Re- 
turning to Germany, he played in the 
Gewandhaus at Leipsic, and at other 
important concerts. From 1866 to 
1870 he was professor of the violon- 
cello at the Conservatory at Moscow. 
Later he embraced the opportunity to 
study composition under Hauptmann 
and was first violoncello under Liszt 
at Weimar in 1850. Cossmann's 
works include a concertstiick for vio- 
loncello, pieces de Salon and fan- 
tasias on operatic motives. He was 
an acknowledged master of his in- 
strument in Germany. In 1878 he 
was appointed professor at the Frank- 
fort Conservatory, a position he still 
held in 1904. Says Grove: "He was 
a virtuoso of the first rank, and was 
remarkable alike for science, polished 
execution and power of singing on 
the instrument. Furthermore, he was 
a great soloist and an excellent 
chamber musician. He brought for- 
ward many new concertos as well 
as some unworthily neglected com- 

' l^^GRAPT 


koO'-^fA-tih}, P r I 


Born in 1860, at Dieuze, in the Province of Lor- 
raine, France. When twenty-seven years old he won 
the Grand Prize of Rome. After his return to Paris 
he lived at Montemartre and worked at day labor. 
The scenes from the life of an artisan enter into much 
of his music and give it individuality. 

His greatest work, the opera " Louise," was pro- 
duced in 1900 at the Opera Comique and brought 
him fame and fortune. , Wpsl- 

Charpentier was a pupil of Massenet and is one 
of the most gifted of the modern French composers. 


il> IJK- I .'l.'V 

grrr/l ct mrjt^'* ■^rif ''^'yiM-. ' .on,. 

-oiq a J 





Costa, Sir Michael. 1808-1884. 

Dramatic composer and eminent 
conductor and a member of a musical 
family. He was born at Naples, and 
was the son and pupil of Pasquale 
Costa, then at the Conservatory of Si. 
Sebastian, Naples. He studied sing- 
ing with his grandfather, Giacomo 
Tritto, and composition with Zinga- 
relli. When only fifteen he composed 
a cantata, L'Immagine; and also a 
grand mass for four voices; three 
symphonies; and an oratorio. La 
Passione. He won a scholarship from 
Ferdinand, King of the two Sicilies, and 
in 1829 went to London. In that same 
year he wrote an opera, Malvina, for 
Barbaja, the impressario of San Carlo, 
Naples, and also went to Birmingham 
to direct a cantata of Zingarelli's. In 
1830 Costa was engaged by LaPorte, 
as master of the piano at the King's 
Theatre and in 1833 as director and 
conductor. The following year he 
wrote music for the grand ballet, 
Kenilworth, and in 1832 was engaged 
by Monck Mason, the impressario, as 
director of music. At this time he 
wrote a ballet and several other 
works, among them concert pieces. 
The Italian Orchestra was that year 
placed under his direction, and in 
1833, while director and conductor of 
the King's Theatre, he composed the 
ballet Sir Huon, for Taghoni. Costa 
was naturalized in 1839 and became 
conductor of the Philharmonic Society 
in 1846. Prior to that he composed 
the ballet music of Alma and an 
opera, Don Carlos. He wrote addi- 
tional accompaniments for Soloman, 
Judas and other of Handel's oratorios, 
for the Sacred Harmonic Society, also 
an opera, Malek Adhel, which is con- 
sidered by musicians as a thoroughly 
conscientious work, with much me- 
lodius music in it. With the season 
of 1854 he gave up the baton of the 
Philharmonic Society and was suc- 
ceeded for one year by Richard Wag- 
ner. Costa was knighted in 1868 by 
the Queen and was decorated by 
many countries. His fame rests 
chiefly upon his powers as a con- 
ductor and leader. His tact, firmness 
and ability as a conductor were gen- 
erally acknowledged and his success 
was, up to that time, unprecedented. 
His compositions are occasionally 
brought forward by musicians, but 
they never brought him the fame 
that his powers as a leader did. He 
died in London in 1884 and was 


buried in the catacombs of Kensel 


Couperin (koo-pu-rah), Frangois. 


Was a member of the family of 
Couperin, a brilliant race of musicians, 
distinguished as organists and com- 
posers. Was surnamed " Le grande " 
to distinguish him from other mem- 
bers of the family. He made a great 
name for himself. He was born in 
Paris, where his father, Charles Cou- 
perin, was organist at the Church of 
St. Gervais. Upon the death of the 
latter, in 1669, his father's friend and 
successor became the boy's tutor, and 
Francois eventually became organist 
at St. Gervais. Three years later he 
was a dulcimer-player and organist, 
at the Chapel Royal, to Louis XIV. 
As a composer and as author he 
opened a new era for piano-playing, 
and is one of the principal figures in 
the history of piano and clavecin- 
writing. Bach is said to have taken 
him as a model. His compositions are 
elegant and spirited in style and of 
decided originality. He published 
four books for the clavecin, upon 
which his reputation chiefly rests; an 
early set of pieces for the harpsichord, 
upon which he was a wonderful 
executant; and he reset the dances, 
played by the orchestra in LuUy's 
operas, on the clavecin. A careful 
reprint of his suites for the harpsi- 
chord was edited by Brahms. 

Coverley, Robert. 1863- 

He was born at Oporto, Portugal, 
of an aristocratic Portuguese mother 
and a Scotch father. He was grad- 
uated from Eastbourne College, Eng- 
land. He studied counterpoint, or- 
chestra and violin under Weist Hill, 
Ludwig and Jacquinot, in London. 
From 1876 to 1878 he was a chorister 
at St. Augustine's Church, London. In 
1884 he came to New York and be- 
came an American citizen. From a 
long list of his published works the 
following may be taken as repre- 
sentative: For the piano, tarentellas, 
berceuse (arranged from Gounod), 
impromptus, and marches; a concert- 
study for violin and pianoforte, and 
numerous songs, some of which have 
attained great popularity. He resides 
in New York City at the present time. 

* Cowen, Frederick Hymen. 1852- 

English composer of note, who was 
born in Kingston, Jamaica. At the 





age of four he accompanied his father 
to London, where the elder Cowen 
became treasurer of Her Majesty's 
Theatre, and later, about 1867, took up 
a similar position under Mapleson and 
Gye at Drury Lane. Cowen the 
younger, was surrounded by musi- 
cians, brought up in a musical atmos- 
phere, and encouraged in every way 
to pursue his studies in the art. One 
of his childhood friends was Giuglili, 
who created, in English, the part of 
Faust in Gounod's opera of that name. 
Cowen showed his talents early in 
life. At the age of six years he pub- 
lished the Minna waltz; when only 
eight he composed an operetta, called 
Garibaldi, with the libretto written by 
his sister, aged seventeen, and it was 
performed privately. When quite 
young he set to music a song entitled 
Mother's Love, and also composed 
two sets of quadrilles. Young Cowen 
was a pupil of Benedict and Goss 
from 1860 to 1865, having been placed 
under their instruction by the Earl of 
Dudley, to whom his father was 
private secretary and who recognized 
the boy's great gifts. Later he was 
a student at the Conservatory of 
Leipsic, under Hauptmann, Reinecke 
and Moscheles. He also was a violin 
pupil of Carrodus and studied awhile 
at Berlin under Professor Stern, and 
was instructed in counterpoint at the 
Stern Conservatory by Frederick 
Kiel, a distinguished master in coun- 
terpoint and fugue. Returning to Eng- 
land in 1868 he soon became known 
in the musical world, and gave his 
first concert in June of that year at 
Dudley House, introducing his Piano 
Trio in A minor. Shortly afterward he 
went on a tour, and appeared at vari- 
ous English and German cities as 
conductor of his own compositions. 
Cowen was appointed conductor of 
the London Philharmonic Society 
upon the retirement of Sir Arthur 
Sullivan, and held the post from 1888 
until 1892, resigning it to accept the 
direction of the music at the Cen- 
tennial Exhibition at Melbourne, Aus- 
tralia, from August, 1888, until Feb- 
ruary, 1889. He next visited Vienna, 
Budapest and Stuttgart. 

Dr. Cowen's first composition, a trio 
for piano, violin and violoncello, was 
performed by Joachim, Pezze and 
himself at a concert at Dudley House, 
London. While still a student he had 
composed a setting for the 130th 
Psalm, written for contralto and 

chorus; a fantasia for piano; and a trio 
for piano and strings. His first 
symphony and a concerto for piano 
and orchestra was performed at the 
St. James Hall in 1869. His first 
attempt at a large choral work was 
the cantata. The Rose Maiden, which 
still retains its popularity, the bridal 
chorus of. which is one of the 
most beautiful compositions of its 
kind ever written. This was followed 
by an overture and incidental music 
to Schiller's Maid of Orleans, written 
for the Brighton Festival in 1871. That 
same year Cowen was appointed 
pianist and accompanist for the Italian 
Opera by Mr. Mapleson and traveled 
with him for several years. He wrote 
during this time a symphony for the 
Liverpool Philharmonic Society, and 
an overture for the Norwich Festival 
committee. In 1876 he composed a 
cantata on Byron's Corsair for the 
Birmingham Festival, and his first 
opera, Pauline, after Lord Lytton's 
Lady of Lyons, was produced that 
year at the Lyceum Theatre, London, 
by the Carl Rosa Company. 

Two years later Dr. Cowen visited 
the United States, and on his return 
wrote his famous Scandinavian Sym- 
phony, which is generally considered 
one of the greatest English orchestral 
works written in recent years, and 
which immediately placed him in the 
front rank of English composers. Jt 
was first performed at a concert in 
1880, at St. James Hall, when Dr. 
Cowen inaugurated a series of Sat- 
urday Orchestral concerts. The next 
year the sacred cantata, St. Ursula, 
written for the Norwich Festival, and 
the overture, Niagara, were produced. 
Dr. Cowen's latest works are the 
overture. The Butterflies' Ball, com- 
posed in 1900; second rhapsody for 
orchestra, and the cantata John Gilpin 
in 1903 and a set of old English dances 
for orchestra, published in 1905. His 
other works are the operas, Thorgrim, 
founded on an Icelandic saga; and 
Harold, and Signa. He has written 
much chamber-music, many sym- 
phonies and songs, but is perhaps 
better known for his choral and or- 
chestral works. Among the former, 
beside those already mentioned, are 
The Deluge; A Song of Thanksgiving; 
and The Transfiguration. Among his 
cantatas, Rose of Life, and A Daugh- 
ter of the Sea are worthy of mention. 
Among the best known and most 
popular of his three hundred songs are 




The Better Land; It Was a Dream; 
and The Promise of Life. Dr. Cowen 
was re-appointed conductor of the 
London Philharmonic Society in 1900 
and still holds the post, and while 
occupying the office of conductor has 
done some of his best work, beside 
raising the society to a higher plane 
than it has ever occupied since the 
death of Sir Michael Costa. He has 
held many important positions as 
conductor in various parts of Eng- 
land. In 1896 he went to Manchester 
as successor to Sir Charles Halle, 
holding the post for three seasons, 
was made conductor of the Scottish 
Orchestra in 1900, of the Cardiff Fes- 
tival in 1902 and of the Handel Festival 
in 1903. In 1900 the University of 
Cambridge conferred upon him the 
degree of Doctor of Music, for his 
attainments and activity in his chosen 
field of labor. He has traveled a great 
deal, and is especially fond of moun- 
tain climbing, having a knowledge of 
nearly all the European heights. He 
is likewise an ardent lover of all forms 
of outdoor sport. 

Cramer, Johann Baptist. 1771-1858. 

Famous member of a family of re- 
nowned German musicians. His 
father, Wilhelm Cramer, was a cele- 
brated composer, conductor and vio- 
linist. Johann was the eldest of three 
sons, all of whom distinguished them- 
selves in music. Of the others Franz 
or Frangois was a good violinist and 
Carl was also a violinist and a teacher 
of repute. Johann was born at Mann- 
heim and was the best known of the 
family, an executant of eminence on 
the piano and one of the principal 
founders of the modern piano school. 
He was only one year old when his 
father settled in London, and he lived 
there almost continuously all of his 
life. He was instructed by his father 
on the violin and in the elements of 
the theory of music and piano-playing. 
He was a pupil of the celebrated 
Muzio Clementi for two years, and 
his musical taste was formed from a 
study of the works of Handel, Bach, 
Scarlatti, Haydn and Mozart. He 
took a course in thorough-bass, in 
1785, from C. F. Abel, but he was for 
the most part self-educated in theory 
and composition. His first appear- 
ance took place in 1781, and in 1788 
he made tours of the principal towns 
of the continent, gaining a reputation 
as pianist and instructor. In 1828 he 


founded the music publishing house 
of J. B. Cramer & Co. of London, 
which he conducted until 1842, and 
which still flourishes under his name. 
After a residence in Munich and 
Paris, he returned to London, in 1845, 
and passed the remainder of his life 
in retirement. He lived to play a duet 
with Liszt in London, and there are 
numerous references to him in Bee- 
thoven's letters, and in Moscheles' 
life. Indeed, Beethoven is declared 
to have said that Cramer was the 
only player of his time who amounted 
to anything. His most representative 
work is a book of eighty-four studies, 
which ranks with Clementi's Gradus 
ad Parnassum, and has been long and 
widely used by pianists with profit. 
He also published a selection of fifty 
etudes, useful to teachers, and which 
was edited by von Bulow. He pub- 
lished also numerous concertos for 
piano and orchestra, sonatas, marches, 
waltzes, suites, nocturnes and a 
method for the piano in five parts. 
His compositions were all distin- 
guished by a style so artistic as to 
make them liked by the few rather 
than the many. 

Crescentini (kra-shen-te'-ne), Giro- 

lamo. 1766-1846. 

A celebrated Italian male soprano 
and teacher, who was born near 
Urbino, Italy, and studied under Gi- 
belli, making his debut in Rome, in 
1783, and going to London three years 
later. He was considered the last great 
singer of his school, and was heard 
in all the chief cities of Europe from 
1786 until 1816. He was given the 
Iron Cross by Napoleon, because of 
his talents. Fetis says of him, " Noth- 
ing could exceed the suavity of his 
tones, the force of his expression, the 
perfect taste of his ornaments or the 
large style of his phrasing." For sev- 
eral years after his retirement he was 
a professor at the Royal College of 
Music, Naples, and numbered among 
his pupils Isabella Colbran, the opera 
singer, who afterwards became the 
wife of Rossini. He wrote several 
vocal exercises which are still in use. 
He died in Naples. 

Cristofori, Bartolommeo di Francesco. 

His name was also spelled Cristo- 
fani and Cristofali. He was the in- 
ventor of the piano or the Hammer- 
clavier as he called it. This has been 
a greatly disputed point, but Cristp- 




fori's claims have been so thoroughly 
investigated and the evidence in his 
favor is so overwhelming that it is 
considered established beyond a 
doubt. He was born in Padua and 
became the best harpsichord maker 
in his native town. About 1690 he 
was persuaded to go to Florence by 
Ferdinand di Medici to take charge 
of his collection of instruments. Here 
he continued his construction of harp- 
sichords and clavichords, his instru- 
ments being described in a number of 
Italian literary works of the day. 
Prince Ferdinand died in 1713, and in 
1716 his collection of eighty-four 
spinets and harpsichords was placed 
in charge of Cristofori. Seven of 
these were made by Cristofori him- 
self. Cristofori's hammer mechanism 
was introduced into his instruments 
in 1711, but his first real piano was 
not made until the year 1720. The dis- 
covery of this instrument set at rest 
all doubts as to its being his inven- 
tion, as it has a plate bearing his 
name with the date and the word 
"inventor" following. This inter- 
esting instrument is in the Metro- 
politan Museum of New York, having 
been given by Mrs. J. Crosby Brown, 
who obtained it from the daughter of 
Fabio Mocenni, who in turn had pro- 
cured it from a piano-tuner of Siena. 
Back of this its history is unknown. 
A grand piano made by Cristofori in 
1726 is in one of the museums of 
Florence. A harpsichord with three 
keyboards by the same maker be- 
longs to the University of Michigan, 
A grand festival was held at Florence, 
in 1876, in honor of Cristofori and at 
the same time a memorial tablet for 
him was placed in the cloisters of 
Sante Croce. 

Croft, William. 1677-1727. 

Born at Nether Eatington, Eng- 
land. He was educated at the Chapel 
Royal under Dr. Blow and became at 
an early age proficient in musical 
composition and an organist of ability. 
When he was thirty years of age he 
attained to the position of organist at 
Westminster Abbey, master of the 
children, and composer of the Chapel 
Royal. Nme years later he received 
from Oxford the degree of Doctor of 
Music. While composer to Queen 
Anne he wrote many hymns, anthems 
and songs to celebrate the victories 
of Marlborough at Blenheim. Several 
of these songs are still heard in Eng- 


lish cathedrals. In the early part of 
his career he composed for the theatre 
and wrote overtures and also sonatas 
for both violin and flute. He is noted 
for his sacred compositions. In 1724 
he published his choral works in two 
volumes. He was one of the original 
members of the Academy of Vocal 
Music founded in 1725. He is said to 
have died from his too-zealous appli- 
cation to his duties in connection with 
the coronation of George II. He is 
buried in Westminster Abbey, where 
a monument is erected to his memory. 

Crotch, William. 1775-1847. 

He was born at Norwich and gave 
evidence in his early youth of great 
musical talent. When only two and 
a half years old he played on a small 
organ built by his father, who was a 
master carpenter, and when eleven he 
was assistant organist at Cambridge. 
At fourteen he composed an oratorio. 
The Captivity of Judah, which showed 
great talent. He studied for the 
church at Oxford, where in later 
years he was a professor of music. 
He lectured in the Oxford Music 
School and also at the Royal Insti- 
tution, London, and was principal of 
the Royal Academy of Music. Among 
his works are two oratorios, Palestine, 
and The Captivty of Judah, which he 
elaborated and improved from an 
earlier work by the same name; 
anthems, glees, fugues and cantatas. 
He also wrote a treatise on the Ele- 
ments of Musical Composition, one 
on Practical Thorough-bass and the 
Theory of Tuning, and many other 
works along the same lines. In his 
early youth he excited great interest 
among English musicians by his ex- 
traordinary precocity, and Dr. Burney 
and other writers commented on his 
musical attainments. It is generally 
agreed that he did more toward the 
spread of a broad musical knowledge 
than any other man of his day. Of 
his oratorios, Palestine interested 
musicians because of its departure 
from the conventional style of Handel. 
His organ concertos are good speci- 
mens of the old-time school of instru- 
mental composition. 

Crouch, Frederick Nicholls. 18 8- 


Composer and musician who filled 
various offices during his life-time and 
is best known as the author of the 
familiar Kathleen Mavourneen. He 




was born in London and was the son 
of a violoncellist. At an early age he 
showed a talent for music. At nine 
he played in a band at the Royal 
Coburg Theatre, London, then traveled 
through Yorkshire and Scotland. For 
two years he was a seaman on coast- 
ing vessels plying between London 
and Leith. Through the influence of 
William Watts, he became a member 
of the orchestra of the Drury Lane 
Theatre, studied music and was in the 
choirs of Westminster Abbey and St. 
Paul's Cathedral. Then he entered the 
Royal Academy of Music for a period 
of study. While employed a few 
years later by a firm of metal brokers 
he invented an engraving process 
known as zincography. For years he 
was known as the Irish lecturer, and 
on one of his tours the song Kathleen 
Mavourneen, which was one of a 
series of songs called The Echoes of 
the Lakes, was given. It was pub- 
lished about 1838, and has always 
enjoyed a wide popularity. Crouch 
went to America, in 1849, joined the 
Confederate army, and served through 
the Civil War. His last years were 
passed in Baltimore. He wrote the 
music of two operas. Sir Roger de 
Coverley, and The Fifth of November. 
His published songs include The 
Songs of Erin; Songs of a Rambler; 
Wayside Melodies; and others, all 
popular in their day. 
Crowest, Frederick J. (Pen-name 

Arthur Vitten). 1850- 

Composer of music and writer on 
musical subjects, and for some years 
favorably known as a tenor singer 
under his non de guerre. He was 
born in London and held several 
appointments there and in other Eng- 
lish cities. In 1897 he was organist and 
precentor at Christ Church, Kilburn, 
and choi'-master at St. Mary's, 
Somers' Town. He composed mostly 
church music and songs. He is best 
known as the author of a short life 
of Cherubini, in the Great Musicians' 
Series; a Dictionary of British Musi- 
cians; the Story of British Music, 
vol. 1; The Great Tone Poets; Book 
of Musical Anecdotes; and Phases 
of Musical England, and has con- 
tributed much to the National Review 
and other papers. 
Cruvelli (kru-vel'-li), Jeanne Sophie 

Charlotte. 1826-1907. 

A German soprano, born in Biele- 
feld, Westphalia, who, in spite of a 


lack of proper vocal training, appeared 
successfully for many years on the 
operatic stage. She made her debut 
in Venice, in 1847, and created a veri- 
table triumph. Her voice was of re- 
markable beauty and in face and form 
she was strikingly handsome. With 
these natural endowments her success 
was almost assured from the begin- 
ning. Mme. Cruvelli sang in Verdi's 
Atilla, and when she went to Paris 
in 1851 created a furore by her singing 
in Ernani, The Marriage of Figaro, 
and other operas. It was then that 
she Italianized her name, which was 
originally Cruwell. In 1854 she was 
engaged for grand opera in Paris at a 
salary of 100,000 francs and appeared 
with success as Valentine in Les 
Huguenots and in Fidelio. In 1848 
she sang in The Marriage of Figaro 
with Jenny Lind, but comparison with 
the " Swedish Nightingale " did not 
strengthen her position as a singer. 
The last role she sang was Verdi's 
Vepres Siciliennes and she retired, in 
1855, when she married Viscount 
Vigier, an equerry to Napoleon III. 
Her sister, Fredericka Marie, two 
years older, was also a singer, who 
made her debut in London in 1851 
and created a furore, but failed even- 
tually because of lack of training. She 
is said to have died of a broken heart 
because of her failure. Sophie Cru- 
velli (Viscountess Vigier), died at 
Nice, Nov. 6, 1907, aged 81 years. 

Cui (kwe), Cesar Antonovitch. 1836- 

Distinguished Russian composer, 
who, beside composing operas, songs 
and pieces for the violin and piano, is 
also a musical critic and an authority 
on the subject of artillery, having 
begun life as a military engineer. His 
father, Antoine Cui, a French soldier 
who settled in Russia after Napol- 
eon's defeat at Moscow, was a man of 
great intellect and an excellent French 
teacher. Cui was born in Wilna, 
Poland, and received his early edu- 
cation at the high school at Wilna, 
where his father was the instructor in 
French. The boy from his earliest 
years showed great musical talent, 
and was given lessons on the piano. 
He was a pupil of Moniuszko and 
Balakirev, and has been called the first 
disciple of Balakirev, who afterwards 
became his friend and co-worker. He 
had also studied with Hermann and 
Dio, but it was Balakirev who first 
fired his enthusiasm for music. He 





studied at the Imperial Academy of 
Engineering at St. Petersburg, where 
he was afterward appointed an in- 
structor. He lectured on the subject 
of fortifications at the Artillery School 
and Staff College at St. Petersburg 
and numbered among his pupils at 
that time, the present Czar, Nicholas 
II. He later wrote a treatise and 
history on the subject of fortifications, 
which gave him a position of great 
importance in military circles. From 
1864 until 1868 he was the musical 
critic of the St. Petersburg Gazette, 
and in 1878 he published a series 
of articles on the music of Russia. 
His earliest operatic work was The 
Prisoner of the Caucasus, which was 
based on a poem of Pushkin's, but 
which was not given until 1883, after 
some of his other operas had been 
given. The first of his work to be 
produced was The Mandarin's Son, 
which was in the style of Auber and 
did not exhibit much originality. 
Among his other operas were William 
Ratcliffe, given at St. Petersburg in 
1869, which was based on Heine's 
tragedy; and Angelo, which was 
modeled atfer Victor Hugo's drama 
of the same name. He also wrote 
Le Filibustier, for the French stage, 
to a libretto by Jean Richepin; while 
another opera, The Saracen, is 
founded on Dumas' Charles VII. 
This opera was produced at St. Peters- 
burg in 1899 with great success. Be- 
side his operatic music, Cui has com- 
posed two scherzos, and a tarantelle 
for the orchestra; suites for the piano 
and violin; and many songs, in which 
he excels. He has not made a signal 
success of any of his operas, and has 
been accused by his countrymen with 
having lacked originality, but his com- 
positions are all of great excellence, 
although they show the influence of 
Chopin, Liszt and Schumann. He is 
at his best in solos and love-duets. 
He is one of the chief upholders of 
the national school of Russia, whose 
theories bear a strong resemblance to 
those of Wagner. Since 1864 Cui has 
been a contributor to many news- 
papers, and he has called attention to 
the activities of the new Russian 
school in numerous magazine articles. 
He is at present a major general and 
professor of fortifications in a mili- 
tary school at St. Petersburg and is 
also president of the Imperial Russian 
Musical Society, ranking high in musi- 
cal and military circles 

Curschmann (koorsh'-man), Karl 
Friedrich. 1804-1841. 

He was born and spent most of his 
hfe in Berlin, being well known and 
popular, chiefly because of his beau- 
tiful songs. He was originally a law 
student, but from 1824 devoted him- 
self to music, studying under Spohr 
and Hauptmann at Kassel, where his 
one-act opera, Abdul und Erinnieh, 
was produced in 1828. He made sev- 
eral tours in Germany, France and 
Italy, and his works are equally as 
popular in America and England as 
they are in his native land. His com- 
positions consist chiefly of books of 
songs, among which .are Wiegenlied, 
Die Stillen Wanderer, Der Abend 
Standchen, Der Fischer Altes Volks- 
lied, Jagerlied, Au Rose der Schiffer, 
and Der kleine Hans. Most of his 
songs are of great melodic beauty and 
well deserve their popularity. His 
other works are Romeo, scena and 
aria; and two canons. He wrote ''n 
all about eighty-three songs for single 
voice and nine duets. Curschmann 
died, in the prime of life, near Danzig. 
He is best known in America for his 
song. In Every Opening Flower, and 
his trios, Ti prego and Addio. 
Curschmann was the favorite song- 
writer of Germany before Schumann 
and Schubert became known. 

Curwen, Rev. John. 1816-1880. 

Born at Heckmondwike, Yorkshire, 
England. While he was pastor of a 
church in Essex he became interested 
in Miss S. A. Glover's " Tonic Sol-fa " 
system and for many years labored 
to improve it. In 1843 his Grammar 
of Vocal Music appeared, and he 
founded an Association in 1853 and the 
Tonic Sol-fa College in 1862, resign- 
ing his pastorate a few years later to 
devote his whole time to the systems. 
His numerous publications relate 
chiefly to it. He also wrote various 
hymn and tune books, collections of 
part-music and school-songs. 

Cusins, Sir William George. 1833- 


Born in London. A composer, 
pianist and conductor, who began his 
musical career as a choir-boy at the 
Chapel Royal in 1843. He was a pupil 
of Fetis in the Brussels Conservatory, 
in 1844, and of the Academy of Music, 
in 1847, under various teachers. Took 
the King's Scholarship in 1847, and 
again in 1849, and in the latter year 




was appointed organist of the Queen's 
private chapel, and also became vio- 
linist in the Italian Opera Orchestra. 
In 1851 he was assistant professor of 
piano at the Royal Academy and suc- 
ceeded Bennett as conductor of the 
Philharmonic Society and, in 1870, 
became conductor of the Royal band. 
He held many high offices and was 
knighted by the Queen in 1892. Among 
his works are a royal wedding sere- 
nade, two cantatas, an oratorio, Gid- 
eon, written for the Gloucester Fes- 
tival in 1871; two concert-overtures, 
piano-pieces, and songs and marches. 
He also contributed to Grove's Dic- 
tionary of Music. 

Cuzzoni (kood-z6'-ne), Francesca. 

Famous singer of the Eighteenth 
Century, and one of the heroines of 
one of the greatest feuds ever re- 
corded on the Italian stage. She was 
born, according to Burney, at Parma, 
and according to Hawkins at Modena, 
Italy, and received her first instruc- 
tion from Lanzi, a noted teacher. 
She made her debut at Venice, with 
Faustina, in 1719, in Gasparini's 
Lamano, and after singing in various 
Italian cities, she came to England 
and shortly afterward married San- 
doni, a harpsichord-player and com- 
poser of considerable prominence. 
Her first London appearance was in 
1722, as Teofane in Handel's Otho. 
For this part she was specially en- 
gaged by Handel himself, who was 
so delighted with her success in it 
that he composed a number of airs 
to suit the peculiarities of her voice 
and style. Success followed success, 
and at one time she is said to have 
received a salary of 24,000 francs for 
one season from a manager in Italy. 
She made herself so popular in Corio- 
lano, Flavio and Farnace that Dura- 
stanti and Anastasia Robinson were 
obliged to withdraw from the operatic 
stage before the superior attractions 
of the newly-arrived Cuzzoni. Her 
success might have continued for 
many years had it not been for her 
violent temper and arrogance. She 
took such liberties with Handel's 
music, which he had specially com- 
posed for her, that he never rested 
until he found a singer who could 
eclipse her. He finally succeeded in 
Faustina Bordoni, who was beautiful, 
talented and of agreeable manners, 
and who shortly afterward supplanted 


Cuzzoni in the hearts of the London 
opera-goers and eventually forced her 
out of England. Faustina had Handel 
on her side and had the good sense 
not to reject his music, as her rival 
had done. Shortly after her appear- 
ance on the scene the musical public 
becarne divided in its allegiance to the 
two singers and party feeling became 
so strong that when Cuzzoni's ad- 
mirers applauded her the adherents 
of Faustina hissed, and vice versa. In 
1728, at the close of the season, the 
managers became so provoked by the 
constant quarrels that they offered 
Faustina a larger salary than Cuzzoni, 
and the latter took her departure from 
England disappointed and humiliated. 
She next went to Vienna and sang at 
court, but her demands for her serv- 
ices were so enormous that she was 
prevented from securing engagements 
at the theatres. After a series of 
tours on the Continent she returned 
to London, in 1734, and appeared as 
Ariadne at the opera house in Lincoln 
Inn Fields established by Porpora in 
opposition to Handel. After a second 
tour abroad, she again returned to 
England, in 1750, but her voice had 
failed and she was now poor and 
friendless. She next went to Hol- 
land, where she was imprisoned for 
debt, and we hear of her next at 
Bologna, where she made a meager 
living by making buttons. She died 
there in the greatest poverty. In 1741 
there was a rumor that Cuzzoni was 
to be beheaded for poisoning her 
husband, but the sentence, if pro- 
nounced, never was put into execution, 
and nothing more was heard of it. 

Czernohorsky (cher-no-hor'-shki), Bo- 

huslav. 1690-1740. 

A Minorite monk, who was born at 
Nimburg in Bohemia, and is noted 
for having been the teacher of Gluck 
and Tartini. He was choirmaster at 
St. Antonio, Padua, and about 1715 
was organist at Assisi. After return- 
ing to Bohemia he became chapel- 
master at the Teinkirche, Prague, 
and in 1735 at St. Jacob's, Prague, and 
here it was that Gluck studied with 
him. Czernohorsky belonged to that 
school which cultivated and fostered 
the severe and pure only in musical 
composition. His compositions are 
now seldom heard except in the serv- 
ices of the churches in Bohemia. 
Many of his manuscripts were de- 
stroyed in a fire which burned the 




Minorite monastery to the ground in 
1754. A few of his works are owned 
by private individuals, while others 
are in the church archives at Prague. 
He died while traveling in Italy in 

Czemy (char-ne), Karl. 1791-1857. 

Very famous teacher of the piano. 
He was born in Vienna. Was a pupil 
of his father, Wencezlas Czerny, and 
also of Beethoven and Clementi, 
whose method of teaching he studied. 
Beethoven offered to teach him and 
became his warm friend, introducing 
him to his patron. Prince Lichnowsky, 
whose friendship later proved of the 
greatest benefit to Czerny. As a boy 
he showed great skill in music and at 
ten he could play by heart the works 
of all the celebrated masters. In 
1804 he made preparations for a tour, 
but abandoned it because of the un- 
settled state of the Continent and de- 
voted himself instead to teaching and 
composing. Among his pupils were 
Liszt, Thalberg, Belleville, Mme. Oury 
and other musicians who became fam- 
ous in later years. It was said of him 
that he would take no pupils except 
those who showed special talent. 
Liszt was only ten when he became 
his pupil. From 1816 until 1823 he 
had music performed by his best 
pupils at his house, where Beethoven 
loved to visit. Czerny was modest 
and simple in his manner and mode 
of life and helpful and encouraging to 
all young artists, if assured of their 


ability. About 1850 his health began 
to fail and he was forced to take a 
rest. Seven years later he died. He 
had neither brothers, sisters or near 
relatives and he never married. His 
printed works consist of nearly one 
thousand numbers, and at one time 
he had difficulty in supplying the de- 
mands of his publishers. He also left 
an immense collection of manuscripts 
now in the museum at Vienna, in- 
cluding twenty-four masses, four 
requiems, three hundred graduals and 
offertories, symphonies and songs. 
He also arranged, as a special com- 
mission, the overtures of Semiramide 
and William Tell for eight pianos 
(four hands each). 

Czibulka (che-bool'-ka), Alphons. 

A prolific composer, who was born 
at Szepes-Varallya, in Hungary; stud- 
ied at Pressburg and Vienna, and 
then went as pianist to Russia. In 
1865 he became choirmaster at the 
Carl Theatre, Vienna, and the next 
V^ear upon his own application served 
;n the 17th regiment of infantry, with 
which he made the campaign in Italy, 
ind was later bandmaster in Vienna. 
He composed much dance-music, 
wrote six operettas and an opera. Der 
Berjazze, which was brought out in 
Vienna in 1892. His best works are 
Gil Bias, an operetta, produced in 
Hamburg in 1889, and the opera, 
Signor Annibale, brought out the next 


Dalayrac (dal-e-rak), Nicolas. 1753- 

Famous French composer, whose 
works were among the most popular 
in Paris at the close of the Eighteenth 
Century, although they are now 
seldom heard. He was born at Muret, 
France, and was originally intended 
for the bar, but he_ went to Paris and 
became a commissioned officer in the 
guards of Count d'Artois, in 1774. His 
musical studies were pursued under 
Langle and Caffaro. His first effort 
in the operatic line was Le Petit 
Souper, produced in 1781 at the 
French Court, and which was such 

a success that the young composer 
wrote, shortly afterward, L'ficlipse 
Totale, for the Opera Comique. This 
did much to give him a definite place 
in the musical world. Other works 
that are worthy of note are Le 
Corsaire; Azemia; and Nina, which 
last was performed two years after 
his death. He was honored by his 
country with the appointment as a 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. 
Dalberg (dal'-barkh), Johann Fried- 
rich Hugo von. 1752-1812. 
Pianist, composer and writer, who 
was born at Aschaffenburg, Germany, 
and studied at Gottingen, and later 




held ecclesiastical appointments at 
Coblentz, Treves and Worms. He 
wrote a number of works on Oriental 
music, didactic works and composi- 
tions for the piano and also played on 
that instrument excellently. The most 
important of his works are the can- 
tatas, Jesus auf Golgotha; Eva's 
Klagen, a German version of Pope's 
poem, The Dying Christian to His 
Soul; a quartet for piano and wind- 
instruments; sonatas for the piano, 
with and without violin; also several 
books of songs. Dalberg was the 
author of a number of literary works 
and translated Sir William Jones' 
treatise on Indian Music, entitled 
The Musical Modes of the Hindus, 
published in 1802. Dalberg died in 
the town where he was born. 

D'Albert, Eugen. See Albert, Eugen d' 

Dalcroze, fimile Jaques. 1865- 

Swiss composer, who was born in 
Vienna, of Swiss parents, and who 
have lived in Geneva since 1873. He 
pursued his studies under Bruckner 
of Vienna, worked on orchestration 
under Delibes at Paris, and was also 
a pupil of R. Fuchs of Vienna. He 
has occupied the posts of lecturer, 
critic, professor of harmony and head 
of the solfeggia class at the Conserv- 
atory of Geneva and has composed 
all classes of music. His songs have 
been extremely popular in Switzer- 
land, Germany, and Holland and his 
string-quartets are well thought of by 
musicians. Among his more impor- 
tant works are La Veillee, for solos, 
chorus and orchestra; Jenie, a lyric 
comedy; Sancho Panza, also a lyric 
comedy; and a violin concerto, which 
was the cause of much discussion 
among musicians because of its de- 
parture from the usual rules of form. 

Damoreau (dam-6-ro), Laure Cinthie 
Montalant. 1801-1863. 

She was born in Paris and attained 
to much prominence as a singer. Her 
parents were moderately well-to-do, 
her father being a professor of lan- 
guages and her mother a wood- 
engraver. When a little girl she was 
taken to Catel and astonished him 
by singing with great feeling and 
accuracy the finale to The Marriage 
of Figaro. Her uncle, M. Plautade, 
taught her singing, and while study- 
ing she was also composing. She 
was admited to the Conservatory in 
1808 and became highly proficient as 


a performer on the piano. She made 
her debut in opera at the Paris Opera, 
in La Cosa Rara, in the part of Lilla. 
Her first really important part was 
that of Gherubino in The Marriage of 
Figaro. While appearing at the 
Theatre Italien she understudied all 
of the prime donne, and upon advice 
changed her name to Cinti. She was 
engaged by Ebers to sing in London 
and made her first appearance there 
in 1822 as Rosina in The Barber of 
Seville. She was not well received, 
so returned to Paris, and there ap- 
peared in many operas, among them 
Don Giovanni, and Romeo and Juliet. 
Rossini about this time heard her sing 
and taking an interest in her engaged 
her to sing in his Moses in Egypt, 
and this opera crowned her success. 
In Brussels she married M. Damo- 
reau, an actor, and from then on was 
frequently heard in London, Paris 
and many of the continental cities. 
In 1841 she made her farewell ap- 
pearance in France. As a concert 
singer she came to the United States 
in 1843, and on returning to Paris 
accepted the post of professor of 
singing in the Paris Conservatory. 
In 1849 she published her Methode 
de Chant, used by the Conservatory. 
She also published some charming 
compositions and taught many pupils 
who afterwards became distinguished. 

♦Damrosch (dam' - rosh), Frank 
Heino. 1859- 

The eldest son of the late Dr. 
Leopold Damrosch, and brother of 
Walter Damrosch. He was born in 
Breslau, Prussia, and when a mere 
youth began his studies in music, be- 
ing a pupil of Pruckner and Jean 
Vogt. After his parent's removal to 
New York, he continued his studies 
in piano under Von Inten, studying 
theory and composition with his 
father and Moszkowski. He went to 
Denver and entered business life 
there, but never lost his mterest in 
music. From 1882 to 1885 he was 
the conductor of the Denver Chorus 
Club. On his father's death he re- 
turned to New York, where his 
brother Walter was already recog- 
nized as a musician and conductor of 
great promise. 

Frank Damrosch chose the life of 
a teacher, and later that of conductor 
and trainer of large choral societies. 
During the regime of German music 
at the Metropolitan Opera House, 




from 1885 until 1891, he was chorus- 
master, and until 1891 conductor of 
the Newark Harmonic Society. Frank 
Damrosch has been called the great 
democrat among musical directors and 
has spent an unselfish life in develop- 
ing a taste for music in America, by 
training the children of the public 
schools and the people in the lower 
Walks of life. His first effort in this 
direction was in 1892, when he 
organized The People's Choral Union 
in New York, for the popularization 
of choral singing, which has borne 
good fruits and for which he pub- 
lished, in 1894, his Popular Method of 
Sight Singing. This chorus was com- 
posed almost wholly of wage-earners 
and had a membership of 1200. 

In 1897 he was induced to become 
the supervisor of music in the public 
schools of New York, and it is said 
made a large financial sacrifice in 
accepting this position. Under his 
direction the singing of the school 
children vastly improved. In 1905, 
Mr. Damrosch gave up the work in 
the schools, but his influence will be 
felt perhaps for generations. In 1898 
he succeeded his brother as conductor 
of the Oratorio Society of New York, 
and holds the position at the present 
time. He has also been conductor of 
the Musurgia Society of that city; 
the Oratorio Society of Bridgeport, 
Connecticut; the Orpheus and Eury- 
dice of Philadelphia; the Mendelssohn 
Glee Club, since 1905; Symphony 
concerts for young people, since 1898; 
and the Musical Art Society, since 
1892. Mr. Damrosch is at present the 
director of the new Institution of 
Musical Art of New York, for which 
he has worked unceasingly for years, 
and which is the realization of all his 
hopes. The new school is the first 
American Conservatory of Music or- 
ganized with the breadth of plan and 
aim of the best of European institu- 
tions. For a year Mr. Damrosch 
worked at organizing it. He sought 
and found, in James Loeb, a son of 
the banker, Soloman Loeb, a man of 
culture and means to endow the 
school. Mr. Loeb, subscribed $500,000 
for the institution. In October, 1905, 
its doors were opened and three hun- 
dred and fifty pupils were enrolled 
the first week. It provides the stu- 
dents the highest musical instruction 
in all branches, and is housed in a 
beautiful building on Fifth Avenue. A 
special course for the directors of 


music in the public schools is one of 
the features of the Institute. Mr. 
Damrosch received from Yale, in 1904, 
the degree of Doctor of Music. He 
has published only a few composi- 
tions, and these being mostly songs 
and choruses. 

Damrosch, Dr. Leopold. 1832-1885. 

Well-known as one of America's 
most able conductors, head of a 
highly musical and artistic family and 
the man who started the crusade that 
led to the establishment in New York 
of German Opera on a firm basis. He 
was born at Posen, Prussia, and from 
his father, a man of culture and means, 
he inherited a love of music. When 
nine years of age he commenced the 
study of the violin and later pursued 
a course of instruction in medicine at 
the University of Berlin, graduating 
with high honors after three years. 
During this time he devoted his spare 
moments to music and studied the 
violin under Ries, and theory and 
composition under Dehn and Bohmer. 
Shortly afterward he appeared as a 
solo violinist in various German 
cities and was so successful that his 
reputation soon became a national 
one. He went to Weimar, in 1855, 
where Liszt was much impressed with 
his playing, and gave him the post of 
solo violinist in the Grand Duke's 
orchestra. He held this position for 
eighteen months and through it he 
met many prominent musicians of the 
day, Liszt becoming one of his warm- 
est friends. At Weimar he also met 
Wagner, who took a deep interest in 
him. Here he met and married the 
singer, Helene von Heimburg. He 
went next to Breslau, where he be- 
came conductor of the Philharmonic 
concerts, continuing in that capacity 
for a year, resigning to go on a con- 
cert tour with von Biilow and Tausig. 
While conductor of the Philharmonic 
Society he gave a prominent place to 
the compositions of Wagner, Liszt, 
and Berlioz, the works of these musi- 
cians not being then as well-known 
as they are today. In 1862, Dr. 
Damrosch returned to Breslau and 
organized a symphony society with 
an orchestra of eighty players. Nearly 
all the celebrated artists of the day 
appeared at the concerts, among them 
Rubinstein, Joachim and Mme. Viar- 
dot-Garcia, while both Liszt and 
Wagner took up the baton on several 
occasions. In 1871, Dr. Damrosch 




accepted a call from the Arion So- 
ciety, a male chorus of New Yorkj to 
become its conductor. He made his 
debut in this country at Steinway 
Hall, New York, as conductor, com- 
poser and violinist, meeting with an 
enthusiastic reception. He almost 
immediately became a factor in the 
musical life of the metropolis, and 
two years later organized the Ora- 
torio Society. In 1878 a second so- 
ciety, the Symphony Society, was 
organized by Dr. Damrosch, the 
orchestra of which has become noted 
through his efforts and those of his 
son Walter, who is at present its 
conductor. Dr. Damrosch remained 
conductor of the society until his 
death. In 1880 he was given the de- 
gree of Doctor of Music by Columbia 
College, New York. In 1881 he con- 
ducted the first great musical festival 
held in New York, with an orchestra 
of two hundred and fifty and a chorus 
of twelve hundred. Two years later 
he made a tour of the western states 
with his orchestra, and from this time 
on until his death he conducted vari- 
ous festivals. 

Dr. Damrosch was instrumental in 
establishing German Opera at the 
Metropolitan Opera House, New 
York. He gathered a company of 
German vocalists and made of the 
venture a success, producing Tann- 
hauser, Lohengrin and Die Walkiire. 
The season opened November, 1884, 
and ended February, 1885, Dr. Dam- 
rosch conducting every performance 
with the exception of the last. He 
was taken ill with a cold, which 
rapidly developed into pneumonia, 
and died five days later. He had in 
those few months, however, placed 
German Opera on a firm footing in 
New York. This had been his one 
great ambition, and under the direc- 
tion of Anton Seidl it was continued 
for six years at the Metropolitan 
Opera House. The last years of his 
life were busy and fruitful ones, but 
so much of his time was taken up 
with his other duties that his com- 
positions are not numerous. They 
consist of a biblical idyll or cantata, 
Ruth and Naomi; a festival overture 
and other orchestral pieces; various 
pieces for the violin; a collection of 
church music, entitled St. Cecilia; 
Sulamith, a sacred cantata; and several 
songs. " The secret of his success 
as a conductor lay in the precision 
and surety with which he wielded the 


baton," says one writer, "the fine 
artistic feeling he brought to bear on 
the works he interpreted and the 
faculty he had of imparting that feel- 
ing to those under him." Dr. Dam_- 
rosch took a notable part in the de- 
velopment of music in America and 
because of his eflforts to raise the 
standard of musical taste, by giving 
the people the best productions of 
the art, his name ranks high in the 
history of music in this country. Two 
sons of Dr. Damrosch, Walter and 
Frank, are notable figures in the 
world of music today, and are ever 
active in furthering the art. 

Damrosch, Walter Johannes. 1862- 

Talented conductor, Wagnerian lec- 
turer and composer, a son of Dr. 
Leopold Damrosch. He was born in 
Breslau, Prussia. He showed a fond- 
ness for music at an early age and 
was instructed by his father in har- 
rnony and also studied under Risch- 
bieter and Draeseke at Dresden. He 
came to America with his parents in 
1871, and in 1884, when his father 
began his season of German Opera in 
New York, Walter was made the 
assistant conductor. After his father's 
death he held the same post under 
Seidl, and also became conductor of 
the Oratorio and Symphony Socie- 
ties. For his father's musical festi- 
val, in 1880, he trained the Newark 
Harmonic Society, of which he then 
became conductor. As an operatic 
impressario he showed good judg- 
ment and business sense. In 1895 he 
made an effort to re-establish German 
Opera in New York and gave a sea- 
son of it at the Metropolitan Opera 
House and in some of the larger 
cities, bringing over from Europe 
several noted singers, among them 
Alvary, Gadski and Sucher. During 
his second season he produced his 
own opera, The Scarlet Letter, 
founded on Hawthorne's novel of that 
name. German Opera having been 
crowded out of the Metropolitan 
Opera House a few seasons later he 
organized a company from such ma- 
terial as he could engage, turned 
Carnegie Hall into an opera house 
and gave several Wagnerian perform- 
ances, among them the first perform- 
ance of The Ring of the Nibelungen 
in New York. After another season, 
however, interest seemed to have de- 
clined and German Opera as an indi- 
vidual enterprise ended. 




As a concert conductor Damrosch 
has produced several important novel- 
ties in America. Among them were 
Tschaikowsky's Sixth Symphony, 
Liszt's Christus and Parsifal (in ora- 
torio form), which were first given in 
this country under his baton. As a 
composer he wrote beside The Scarlet 
Letter, another opera, Cyrano, with 
the text by W. J. Henderson after 
Rostand's play; the Manila Te Deurn, 
in honor of Dewey's victory; a violin 
sonata and several songs. He is best 
known as a composer through his 
setting of one of Kipling's Barrack 
Room Ballads, Danny Deever. He 
has also introduced many famous 
artists to the American public, includ- 
ing Milka Ternina, Brema, and Lili 
Lehmann, besides those mentioned 
before. He is at present the conduc- 
tor of the New York Symphony 
Orchestra, one of the ablest and best 
organizations of its kind in this 
country, numbering some fifty-five 
players, whose training has been long 
and thorough. Mr. Damrosch is a 
man of many winning personal traits 
and is well-liked by the musicians 
under him. He married in 1890, Miss 
Margaret Blaine, a daughter of the 
late James G. Blaine. Their home is 
in New York. 

Dana, William Henry. 1846- 

A musician and lecturer, and presi- 
dent of Dana's Musical Institute at 
Warren, Ohio, where he was born. 
His musical education was begun at 
Kullak's Conservatory, Berlin, and 
continued at the Royal Academy of 
Music, London. He served during the 
Civil War, was one of the founders of 
the Music Teachers' National Asso- 
ciation, and, in 1880, began a series 
of lecturing tours, traveling over 
Europe and in Scandinavia, Russia 
and the Arctic regions. He has writ- 
ten many text-books on music, in- 
cluding one on thorough-bass, pub- 
lished in 1874; one on harmony, 
published in 1880; and another on 
practical counterpoint, published in 
1885; also guides in orchestration and 
in military band arranging. He re- 
ceived the bronze medal and diploma 
of the exposition of Bologna, Italy, 
in 1888, for the excellence of his 
musical text-books. 

Danby, John. 1757-1798. 

Famous English glee composer, of 
whom very little is known. He was 


a pupil of Samuel Webbe, and for 
several years was organist of the 
chapel of the Spanish embassy, Lon- 
don. He gained ten prizes from the 
Catch Club for eight glees, two 
canons and an ode, written between 
1781 and 1794. In all he wrote about 
ninety-two glees, three books of them 
having been published in his life-time 
and a fourth after his death. Among 
his most popular glees are When 
Sappho Tun'd; Awake ^olian Lyre, 
which is considered his best; The 
Nightingale; and Let Gaiety Sparkle 
He belonged to the pastoral school 
of Atterbury, Paxton and Spofiforth 
rather than to that of Calcott and 
Webbe. His style is smooth and 
graceful and his glees are all charm- 
ing. He died in London and is buried 
in Old St. Pancras cemetery, a monu- 
ment having been raised to his 

Dancla (dan-kia), Jean Baptiste 

Charles. 1818- 

Violinist, composer and teacher and 
the last surviving representative of 
the old French School of violin-play- 
ing. He was born at Bagneres de 
Bigorre, France, and studied at the 
Conservatory, Paris, being a pupil in 
violin of Baillot. Halevy and Berton 
were also his teachers. In 1834 he 
entered the orchestra of the Paris 
Opera Comique as second solo-violin- 
ist, and in 1857 was appointed pro- 
fessor of the violin at the Conserv- 
atory. His quartet soirees enjoyed a 
high reputation and he was also suc- 
cessful as a soloist in the Societe des 
concerts. In his soirees he was 
assisted by his two brothers, Leopold, 
a violinist, and Arnaud, a violoncellist. 
Dancla composed, in all, about one 
hundred and fifty works, mostly for 
the violin, but including some cham- 
ber-music, violin concertos and quar- 
tets for strings, trios. He received 
the Chartier prize for his chamber- 
music in 1861, jointly with Mme. 
Farrenc. He wrote several educa- 
tional %yorks, among them, a method 
for violin and other studies which are 
of the greatest value to teachers. His 
minor compositions for the violin are 
widely popular. 

Dannreuther (dan'-roi-ter), Edward 
George. 1844-1905. 

German composer, writer and pian- 
ist, who was also a teacher, and a 
friend and champion of Wagner. He 




was born at Strasburg, and when five 
years of age was taken to Cincinnati, 
Ohio. He studied music at Leipsic, 
from 1859 to 1863, under Richter, 
Hauptmann and Moscheles. He fin- 
ally made London his home, settling 
there in 1863. Dannreuther is best 
known as a pianist and an advocate 
of Wagner. In 1872 he founded a 
Wagner Society and conducted its 
concerts, and his influence has been 
of the highest value to the cause of 
chamber-music in England. He was 
a masterly interpreter of Bach and 
Beethoven and an earnest apostle of 
the new school of music and no less 
zealous for the old. Among his works 
are songs and piano music; a book 
on Wagner and his theories and 
tendencies; articles contributed to 
Grove's Dictionary of Music and 
Musicians, articles on the opera, on 
Beethoven and on Wagner, which ap- 
peared in Macmillan's Magazine; and 
he also translated many of Wagner's 
works. Mr. Dannreuther's last liter- 
ary work was volume VI (The Ro- 
mantic Period) of the Oxford His- 
tory of Music, issued by the Clarendon 
Press. This volume appeared shortly 
after his death. A son, S. Dannreu- 
ther, survives him and resides in Lon- 

Danzi (dan'-tse), Franz. 1763-1826. 

Dramatic composer and violon- 
cellist, who was born at Mannheim, 
Germany. He studied music under 
his father who was first violoncellist 
to the Elector Palatine and later took 
a course in composition under Abbe 
Vogler. When only twelve, Danzi 
wrote music for the violoncello and 
at fifteen was admitted to the 
Elector's band. When the band was 
removed to Munich he went with it, 
and there produced, in 1798, his first 
opera, Azakia. He married Margar- 
ethe Marchand, the singer, and with 
her made a tour which lasted six 
years. Returning to Munich, he was 
successively vice-chapelmaster at the 
Electoral chapel, chapelmaster to the 
King of Wiirtemburg at Stuttgart, and 
chapelmaster at the court of Baden 
at Carlsruhe, where his death oc- 
curred. Danzi wrote many operas of 
more than usual merit and much 
chamber-music. Among the best 
known of his operatic works are the 
following: Cleopatra, given at Mann- 
heim in 1797; Die Sylphe; and Der 
Kuss. His other works include an 


oratorio; a cantata for four voices 
and orchestra; masses for four voices 
and orchestra; the 128th Psalm for 
four voices and orchestra; sym- 
phonies; quintets; concertos; sonatas; 
and many songs and choruses. He 
also excelled as a teacher of singing. 

Dargomyzsky (dar-go-mesh'-shke), 
Alexander Sergievitch. 1813-1869. 

This name is sometimes spelled 
Dargomijsky. He was a Russian 
composer and pianist of noble birth, 
born in the government of Toula, 
Russia, and early in life manifested a 
talent for composition. When he was 
four years of age, Dargomyzsky's 
parents removed to St. Petersburg 
and placed him in the hands of good 
teachers, for the serious study of 
music. At seven he wrote little 
sonatas for the piano, and a short 
time afterward entered the St. Peters- 
burg Conservatory of Music, where 
he studied violin, harmony and com- 
position under Schoberlechner, and 
became a brilliant pianist. When he 
was eighteen, Dargomyzsky appeared 
in recitals in St. Petersburg. From 
1831 until 1835 he held a government 
position, but afterward devoted him- 
self exclusively to the study of music 
upon the advice of Glinka, whom he 
had met and who had become inter- 
ested in his career. In 1845 the young 
Russian visited Germany, Brussels and 
Paris, as a pianist and in Brussels 
especially was received with the 
greatest enthusiasm. Two years later 
he visited Moscow and there, the 
same year, produced his opera, 
Esmeralda, a light work written in 
the style of Auber and Halevy, which 
he had composed for the Russian Im- 
perial Opera, but which was rejected 
by the managers. In Moscow it was 
well received, and later in St. Peters- 
burg made a success. Between 1850 
and 1855 Dargomyzsky published 
more than one hundred romances; 
airs; duos; fantasias and waltzes. In 
1856 he produced in St. Petersburg 
his most striking success, the opera, 
The Roussalka (The Water Sprite), 
which by many is considered his best 
work and which still keeps the stage. 
Its libretto is founded upon Pushkin's 
dramatic version of a national legend. 
The Feast of Bacchus, an opera-ballet 
founded on Pushkin's dramatic poem, 
a part of which was given in 1845, 
has never been heard in its entirety. 
Beside these works, Dargomyzsky' 



wrote ballads; vocal romances; a 
Finnish fantasy; Baba laza; the Cos- 
sack dance; a fairy opera, Rogdane; 
a duet for an unfinished opera, 
Mazeppa; Tarantelle Slave, for piano; 
a fantasia; and the Dance of the 
Mummers, all of which have received 
the highest praise from musicians. 

Dargomyzsky was elected president 
of the Russian Musical Society in 
1867, and his house became the 
gathering-place of the young Russian 
school of musicians who followed 
Schumann, Berlioz, Warner and 
Liszt. In his later years the com- 
poser was extremely popular in the 
highest circles of St. Petersburg So- 
ciety, and as a pianist and composer 
of many songs for the salon, was in 
great demand. His posthumous opera, 
The Marble Guest, or Don Juan, was 
scored by Rimsky-Korsakov, accord- 
ing to a request made by Dargo- 
myzsky on his death bed and with 
a postlude by Cesar Cui was brought 
out in St. Petersburg in 1872, with 
striking success. Dargomyzsky's 
music IS dramatic and realistic in the 
extreme, and shows the influence of 
Wagner to a decided degree. Says 
Riemann; "He adopted the principles 
of Wagner more and more freely 
until he finally went even further 
than the master of Bayreuth to carry 
out his ideas." Some of his songs 
have been compared to the ballads of 
Schubert and Schumann, and his 
Finnish fantasia and _ his Cossack 
dance for orchestra enjoy the widest 

D'Arville (dXr-vil), Camille. 1863- 

She was born in the village of Old- 
marck, Province of Overyseel, Hol- 
land, and belongs to the old guard in 
American comic opera, the others be- 
ing Lillian Russell, Pauline Hall, Fay 
Templeton and the late Jessie Bart- 
lett Davis. She received her training 
from French and Italian teachers, 
and when she was twelve years of 
age was sent to Amsterdam, where 
she studied music at the Conserv- 
atory. In that city she made her 
debut in concert in 1877. Later she 
went to Vienna, where she studied for 
a time, and she appeared in a one-act 
operetta, entitled Cymbria, _ at the 
Strand Theatre, London, with suc- 
cess. Her name was originally 
Neeltye Dykstra, but after her first 
appearance in opera, she changed it 
to Camille D'Arville. She toured the 


English provinces for a time in vari 
ous operas, followed by an engage- 
ment at the Gaity Theatre, London. 
She came to the United States in 
1888 under the management of J. C. 
Duff, making her first appearance 
here in a comic opera. The Queen's 
Mate. For the next few years she 
appeared in New York and London 
frequently, and made her reputation, 
as a comic opera star while singing 
in this country with The Bostonians. 
While prima donna of this organiza- 
tion she sang with great success in 
The Bohemian Girl, Robinhood, The 
Highwayman and The Mascotte. 

David (da-ved), Felicien Cesar. 1810- 

An eminent French composer, who 
was born at Cadene, in the south of 
France. His music is now seldom 
heard and his name is almost for- 
gotten, but his place in the history 
of music is marked. " He was rather 
a tone-painter than a symphonist," 
says Hervey. He was one of the 
musicians who rendered the reign of 
the Citizen King, Louis Philippe, 
memorable and his music, in his time, 
was immensely popular. He was the 
first to introduce a new element into 
French music, that Orientalism, 
which since his time has been made 
use of by so many other composers. 
He made a sensation with his can- 
tata, Le Desert, by reason of its 
exotic, Oriental dances. David was a 
chorister in the Aix Cathedral and 
was educated at the Jesuit College, 
of Aix, from 1825 until 1828. He 
received many honors from his coun- 
try. Was made a Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honor, and was pensioned 
by Napoleon III. in 1860, and nine 
years later was made a member of the 
Academy of Fine Arts. He wrote 
several operas, which were successful, 
among them La Perle du Bresil, Le 
Saphir, La Captive, Lalla Roukh, and 
Herculanum, performed in 1859 for 
the first time, the same year that saw 
the first production of Gounod's 
Faust. His Lalla Roukh had a tem- 
porary success, and his string quar- 
tets were also held in high esteem 
during his life-time, but none of them 
ever attained the success of Le 
Desert. It has been given in London 
and the provinces, and will probably 
outlive any of the composer's works. 
He also wrote a symphony, Chris- 
tophe Colomb; songs and piano-music. 




David (da-fet), Ferdinand. 1810-1873. 

One of the most celebrated violin- 
players and teachers of Germany, who 
numbered Joachim, Wilhelmj and 
other well-known violinists, among his 
pupils. He was born at Hamburg and 
lived there at the time of the French 
occupation. He is said to have played 
in a concert when only ten and at 
thirteen he became a pupil of Spohr 
at Cassel. He made a concert tour 
with his sister, Mme. Dulcken, and in 
1827 entered the orchestra of the 
Konigstadt Theatre at Berlin, where 
he met Mendelssohn, with whom he 
became intimate. While in Berlin he 
attracted the attention of a wealthy 
musical amateur named Liphart, who 
lived at Dorpat and who maintained a 
quartet at his own expense. He en- 
gaged David as leader and he even- 
tually married Liphart's daughter. 
When Mendelssohn was appointed 
conductor at the Gewandhaus con- 
certs at Leipsic he made David con- 
certmaster, and he held this post 
until 1836. Seven years later the Con- 
servatory of Leipsic was founded bj' 
Mendelssohn, and David became pro- 
fessor of the violin. In this position 
his influence became great and bene- 
ficial. In Leipsic he established a 
quartet, which was one of the best of 
the day. He died in 1873 and is 
remembered as one of the most 
admirable teachers of the century. 
Mendelssohn is said to have conferred 
with him as to his (Mendelssohn's) 
concerto during its composition, and 
to have given other evidences of his 
belief in his musical ability. 

Davide (da-ve'-de), Giacomo. 1750- 

He is better known as " David le 
pere," and was the most popular tenor 
of his day. He was born at Presezze, 
Italy, and studied long and carefully, 
one of his instructors in music being 
Sala, who taught him composition. 
Davide was called "The Paganini, 
the Moscheles of singing," by Car- 
pani, who explained the phrase by 
saying: "Like these two despots, he 
manages as he wishes, a voice, which 
is not perfect but of great extent." 
He appeared first in London, in 1791, 
and was popular there as well as in 
continental cities. He appeared with 
Mme. Colbran in Otello and other of 
Rossini's operas with much success. 
He made one of his greatest sensa- 
tions in Pergolesi's Stabet and sang 


frequently at La Scala, Milan. One 
of his last public appearances was at 
one of the Handel festivals at West- 
minster Abbey. He died at Bergamo, 
Italy. Davide taught his son, Gio- 
vanni, who became a noted singer, and 
Nozzari was also one of his pupils. 
Davide, Giovanni. 1789-1851. 

A son of Giacomo Davide. He 
became an operatic singer and a 
vocalist of renown, and was said," in 
spite of defects and the want of good 
taste in singing, to carry his hearers 
off their feet by the prodigious volume 
and great sweetness of his vocal 
organ. He made his debut at Brescia 
in 1810 and appeared later in the 
chief cities of Italy, singing in sev- 
eral of Rossini's operas. The com- 
poser is said to have written roles in 
Otello, La Donna del Lago and 
Ermione for him. He was engaged 
by Barbaja, director of opera in 
Naples, Milan, Bologna and Vienna, 
and sang in these cities from 1831 to 
1841 with great success. In 1829 he 
appeared in London for the first time. 
He founded a school of singing in 
Naples and this not being a success 
he accepted the position of manager 
of the St. Petersburg Opera, and died 
in that city in 1851. 

Davidov (da'-vi-dof), Charles. 1838- 

A famous violoncellist, who was 
born at Goldingen in Courtland, Rus- 
sia. After studying at the Moscow 
University and receiving a mathe- 
matical degree, in 1858, he took up his 
musical work, studying violoncello 
under Schmidt at Moscow, and Schu- 
berth at St. Petersburg. He later 
studied composition at Leipsic with 
Hauptmann. His first public appear- 
ance was made at the Gewandhaus, 
Leipsic, in 1859, and was so successftil 
that he was later appointed violon- 
cellist in the orchestra, and professor 
at the Conservatory. In 1862 he was 
appointed cellist to the Emperor of 
Russia and in the orchestra of the 
Russian Musical Society. He was 
made first violoncellist to the St. 
Petersburg Opera the same year and 
later became a professor in the Con- 
servatory there. He was a member 
of the St. Petersburg quartet, which 
was founded in 1868 and continued 
until Davidov's death in 1899. While 
director of the St. Petersburg Opera 
the number of free scholarships was 
increased through his influence and 




he did a great deal to aid poor 
students. He died in Moscow. Among 
his works are a symphonic sketch for 
orchestra, an orchestral suite, four 
concertos, Russian fantasia, and sev- 
eral smaller pieces, the best known of 
which are Adieu, Solitude, The Gifts 
of Terek, a symphonic poem, and 
songs, many of which attained great 

Davies (da-vis), Benjamin Grey 
(Known as Ben). 1858- 

A popular tenor, who was born 
near Swansea, Wales, and who has 
been heard in Europe and the United 
States in opera and in concert. His 
voice is an instance of a boyish con- 
tralto passing into a tenor. After 
gaining a local reputation as a singer 
he entered the Royal Academy of 
Music, at the age of nineteen, where 
he studied two years under Randegger 
and Signor Fiori. He was enabled to 
study at that institution through the 
winning of a prize at the Swansea 
Eisteddfod. He joined the Carl Rosa 
Company, making his debut at Her 
Majesty's Theatre, London, as Thad- 
deus in The Bohemian Girl. He sang 
next in Cellier's Dorothy and in the 
title role of Sullivan's Ivanhoe. He 
obtained an engagement to sing tenor 
solos in the oratorio, St. Paul, at 
Dublin, because of his success in the 
performance of the Hymn of Praise, 
given by the Academy students in 
1879. He made his first appearance 
in Cardiff in 1892 in the Stabet Mater 
of Dvorak, and sang at the Norwich 
Festivals in 1893 and 1896, and at 
Bristol the latter year. In 1894 he 
was heard in Berlin, and at Chicago 
during the World's Fair, in 1893. In 
1885 Davies married Miss Clara Perry, 
a soprano singer, who had been with 
the Carl Rosa Company. Davies has 
also been heard in Goring Thomas' 
Esmerelda, in Colomba, The Canter- 
bury Pilgrims and in other light 
operas, and for years his services have 
been in demand at all of the important 
music festivals and concerts. Since 
1893, when he made his first visit to 
the United States, he has been heard 
here almost every year. 

* Davies, David Thomas Ffrangcon-. 


Renowned barytone, v*rho was born 
at Bethesda, Carnarvonshire, North 
Wales. He received his early edu- 
cation at the Friars' School, Bangor, 


and studied music under his father, 
entering Jesus College, Oxford, later, 
where he gained degrees of Bachelor 
of Arts and Master of Arts. He also 
stood well in the athletic life of the 
university, taking part in many of the 
events. Ffrangcon-Davies' early mu- 
sical studies were carried on under 
the supervision of his father, a dis- 
tinguished amateur musician, and after 
leaving Oxford he entered the Guild- 
hall School of Music at Manchester. 
He also studied under Richard Latter 
and afterwards became a pupil of 
Shakespeare and of Randegger. After 
leaving college Ffrangcon-Davies was 
ordained a clergyman, but left the 
church not long afterwards, and from 
then on devoted himself exclusively 
to music, bringing his innate musical 
and histrionic ability and his broad 
education to bear on the art. His 
first public appearance was made in 
Manchester at a De Jong concert in 
1890. His stage debut was made as 
the Herald in Lohengrin at Drury 
Lane with the Carl Rosa Company, 
and in the same year he sang the title 
role of Elijah at Hovingham, York- 
shire. His festival debut was made at 
Hanley in 1893, and two years later 
he sang at the Cardiff Festival. In 
opera he has sung the title roles of 
Faust and Lohengrin, and created the 
part of Cedric in Sir Arthur Sulli- 
van's Ivanhoe. Ffrangcon-Davies' voice 
was declared by Sims Reeves to be 
the purest barytone he had ever heard. 
It is wonderfully clear and rich, and 
his enunciation is perfect. He is con- 
sidered one of the best concert and 
oratorio barytones of the day and has 
been heard in many cities in Europe 
and the United States. His American 
tour, in 1896, especially, was an artistic 
and financial success. Since then he 
has toured numerous times in America 
and has sung in many of the principal 
festivals of the world. Ffrangcon- 
Davies resided in Berlin from 1898 
until 1901 and sang in many German 
and Swiss cities. His greatest suc- 
cess was made in the oratorio, Elijah, 
whence sang at Queen's Hall, Lon- 
don, in 1901. He participated in the 
first performance of Elgar's Dream of 
Gerontius, in 1903, and sang The 
Apostles by the same composer, at 
the Birmingham Festival, and the 
same year took part in the Richard 
Strauss Festival. He also participated 
in the first performance of Elgar's 
Saga of King Olaf in 1896. His most 




recent engagements have been for the 
Royal Choral Society in Coleridge- 
Taylor's Hiawatha, The Richter con- 
certs and the Elgar Festival at Covent 
Garden in 1904. In 1903 he received 
the appointment of teacher of singing 
at the Royal Academy of Music, Lon- 
don, a position which he holds at the 
present time. He is the author of a 
work on vocal training, entitled The 
Singing of the Future, and of Per 
Aspera ad Astra. 

Davies, Fanny. 1863- 

Noted woman pianist, who belongs 
to a musical family, her grandfather, 
John Woodhill of Birmingham, hav- 
ing been well-known as a violoncello 
player, and her mother equally re- 
nowned as an amateur musician of 
talent. Miss Davies was born on the 
Island of Guernsey, one of the Chan- 
nel islands. Her earliest instruction 
in music was received from Miss 
Welchman and Charles Flavell of 
Birrningham, both of whom instructed 
her in the piano. She studied coun- 
terpoint and harmony, in Birmingham, 
with Dr. A. R. Gaul, and was a pupil 
of Paul in piano and of Jadassohn and 
Reinecke in fugue and counterpoint, 
at the Leipsic Conservatory, from 
1882 to 1883. From 1883 to 1885 Miss 
Davies was a pupil of Mme. Clara 
Schumann at the Hoch Conservatory 
at Frankfort and studied fugue and 
counterpoint with Dr. Scholz. She 
made her debut at the Crystal Palace, 
London, in 1885, playing the solo part 
in Beethoven's Concerto in G. Later 
she played at the Philharmonic con- 
certs and at the Monday Popular 
concerts, and made successful tours 
through England, Germany and Italy. 
She has appeared with the late 
Joachim and with Piatti in recital, 
and has played before most of the 
reigning sovereigns. As an inter- 
preter of the music of Schumann, Miss 
Davies is highly regarded by musi- 
cians. She has declared her indebt- 
edness to Mme. Schumann for her 
style and phrasing. She is also a 
splendid interpreter of Brahms, and 
has brought forward many new 
works, rendering them with skill and 

* Davies, Henry Walford. 1869- 

An English organist, who was born 
at Oswestry, and at twelve years of 
age became a chorister in St. George's 
Chapel, Windsor. He studied under 


Sir Walter Parratt, and was organist 
of the Park Chapel, Windsor. After 
holding many positions as organist in 
various churches he became, in 1894, 
an associate of the Royal College of 
Music for composition, and the next 
year succeeded Rockstro as professor 
of counterpoint there. He has written 
a piano quintet in E flat; a sym- 
phony in D, published in 1895; a can- 
tat, Herve Riel (after Browning's 
poem), performed at the Royal Col- 
lege in 1895, when it attracted much 
attention; and much chamber-music, 
in which he excelled. In 1894 he won 
the Bristol Orpheus Society's prize 
with his glee. The Sturdy Rock. He 
has also written madrigals; love 
songs; and a cantata, Everyman, a 
setting _ of the mystery play which 
was written for the Leeds Festival in 
1904; a cathedral service; anthems; 
and sonatas, besides other works. 

Davies, Mary. 1855- 

A well-known soprano, who was 
born in London, of Welsh parents. 
While singing at the Welsh concerts 
in London she attracted the attention 
of Edith Wynne, the singer, and 
Brinley Richards, both of whom in- 
structed her. She won the Welsh 
Choral Union Scholarship in 1873 and 
studied at the Royal Academy of 
Music, winning the Parepa-Rosa gold 
medal in 1876, and the Nilsson prize 
in 1877. She appeared with success, 
in 1878, at the Worcester Festival, 
and sang at the Gloucester Festival 
in 1883 and also at the Norwich and 
Chester Festivals. She sang in the 
first complete performance of Ber- 
lioz's Faust in England, under Halle, 
at Manchester in 1880 and the same 
year repeated the performance at St. 
James Hall. She also sang the pait 
of Elsie, in the cantata. The Fisher 
Maidens, and the part of Mary in the 
production of Berlioz's Childhood of 
Christ at the Crystal Palace in 1886. 
She has been heard often in oratorio, 
of which she appeared to be especially 
fond. She sang in The Messiah, St. 
Paul, and the Hymn of Praise with 
striking success, at Liverpool, Man- 
chester, Glasgow and Birmmgham. 
She was heard in the United States, 
at the World's Fair, in 1893 She is 
perhaps best known as a ballad-singer 
and has been heard in the many con- 
certs throughout England. Her voice 
is a mezzo, of limited power, but 
intensely sweet. She was elected first 




an associate, then a fellow of the 
Royal Academy of Music. In 1888 
she married W. Cadwalader Davies, 
and in 1900 retired from the concert 

Davis, Jessie Bartlett. 1860-1905. 

Comic opera singer, whose name 
and fame are linked with the history 
of the Bostonians, with which com- 
pany she was associated for ten years. 
She was born in Morris, Illinois, but 
came from New England stock, her 
parents having moved to the middle 
west from Keene, N. H. She began her 
musical career by singing in the 
church choir of the village when a 
young girl. At fifteen she joined a 
concert company that toured the small 
towns of the state, and a few years 
later secured a church position in 
Chicago. While thus engaged she 
studied music with Frederick Root of 
that city. John Haverley, who was 
making a tour of the churches for 
the purpose of engaging singers for 
his Pinafore Company, heard her sing 
and engaged her for the part of Little 
Buttercup, and in that role she made 
her debut. She married her manager, 
Will J. Davis, of Chicago. Mr. 
Davis took her to New York, where 
she was instructed by Signor Albites. 
Shortly after finishing her studies with 
him she was engaged by Mapleson to 
sing the part of Siebel in Faust, and 
sang this role several times with 
success. Soon after this Mrs. Davis 
went to Paris, where she studied 
under Mme. La Grange. On her 
return she sang for a time with W. T. 
Carleton's Company, and the next 
season became a member of the 
American Opera Company, with 
Theodore Thomas as director. Later 
she joined the Bostonians and sang in 
numerous operas, making her most 
striking success as Alan-a-Dale in 
Robin Hood in 1890. 

In this opera, Dekoven's song, O 
Promise Me, was an interpolated 
number, and the name of Jessie Bart- 
lett Davis has been identified with it 
ever since. For ten years she sang 
with the Bostonians, retiring from its 
ranks in 1899. In late years she fre- 
quently appeared in vaudeville, and in 
1904 appeared with Francis Wilson in 
a revival of his old comic opera suc- 
cess, Erminie, singing the role of 
Captain Delaney. Mrs. Davis died 
suddenly in 1905, after a brief 

Davison, James William. 1813-1885. 

Composer and writer, who was born 
in London. He studied the piano 
under W. H. Holmes and composition 
with Sir G. A. Macfarren. He com- 
posed much for the orchestra and 
voice and his settings to several of 
the poems of Keats and Shelley have 
been greatly admired. Davison lived 
in the period of Mendelssohn and 
belonged to a little group of musi- 
cians, the others being Sterndale 
Bennett and G. A. Macfarren, his for- 
mer teacher, who were the most en- 
thusiastic musicians of their time, 
working together with the same ambi- 
tions and entertaining the same great 
admiration for the music of Men- 
delssohn, and equally hating that of 
Wagner. Davison was musical critic 
for The Times and The Musical 
World, and also contributed to 
Grove's Dictionary of Music. Among 
his most important literary produc- 
tions was an essay on the works of 
Frederic Chopin, published in London 
in 1849. He wrote several songs and 
some piano music, including a sonata, 
a tarantella and a dramatic overture 
to the fairy tale of Fortunatus, which 
was a duet for the piano. During one 
of his visits to England he made the 
acquaintance of Mendelssohn, and 
was ever afterward his enthusiastic 
admirer and champion. In 1842 he 
started the Musical Examiner, a 
weekly, which lasted only two years. 
He then succeeded G. A. Macfarren 
as editor of the Musical World. 

Davy, John. 1763-1824. 

Composer; born at Upton-Helions, 
near Exeter, England, and resided 
there for many years as a teacher. 
He became violinist in the orchestra 
at Covent Garden and composed a 
great many pieces of music. Among 
his works are the music to plays; 
ballets; an overture to Shakespeare's 
Tempest; madrigals; quartets; songs; 
chants and anthems. One of his 
songs. Bay of Biscay, attained to 
great popularity, and his name is 
remembered in the present generation 
chiefly in connection with it. It was 
fresh, breezy and unrivaled in its 
way. Among his dramatic pieces 
were Rob Roy Macgregor, and Span- 
ish Dollars. He also collaborated 
with many composers in the produc- 
tion of operas. With the exception of 
the Bay of Biscay his works are never 



Day, Alfred. 1810-1849. 

Born in London. Was the author 
of an important theory of harmony 
in_ which he advocated many alter- 
ations. He also formulated a new 
sort of bass-figuring to supplant the 
ordinary thorough-bass, making many 
practical suggestions, which have 
been of the greates!" value to musi- 
cians. He studied medicine, in ac- 
cordance with his father's wishes, in 
London and Paris, and after taking a 
degree at Heidelberg, he practiced in 
London as a homeopathist, devoting 
his spare time to music. His work 
on harmony was finished and pub- 
lished in 1845, only three years before 
his death. 

Debussy (du-biis-se), Claude Achille. 

_ He is the most typical of the mu- 
sical impressionists of the present 
day, the most gifted representative of 
the new French School, and a de- 
cidedly interesting figure in the musi- 
cal world. Debussy was born at St. 
Germain-en-Laye, France, and was 
educated at the Paris Conservatory, 
where he studied harmony with 
Lavignac, piano with Marmontel, and 
composition with Guiraud. Edward 
Macdowell, then a boy of fifteen, was 
his fellow-student. He took prizes 
in solfeggio and piano-playing and, 
in 1884, won the Grand Prize of 
Rome, at the Institut, with his can- 
tata, L'Enfant Prodigue. Four years 
later he composed La Damoiselle 
filue, a setting of Rossetti's Blessed 
Damosel, for solo, female choir and 
orchestra. This was first performed 
in Paris by Ysaye's Quartet the same 
first attracted the attention of the 
musical world to Debussy's work, 
then came an orchestral prelude; two 
nocturnes and a string quartet, which 
was composed in 1893 and produced 
in Paris by Ysaye's quartet the same 
year. His Sirens, for orchestra and 
women's voices, has been much 
praised, and his Prelude a I'apres Midi 
d'un Faune, which is a setting for the 
orchestra of Mallarme's elaborate fan- 
tasy, The Afternoon of a Faun, has 
been perhaps the most admired and 
discussed of any of his works. It was 
first given at a concert at the Paris 
Conservatory, in 1906, and since then 
has been frequently given by well- 
known orchestras, notably by the 
Chicago Orchestra under Frederick 
Stock in 1907. Debussy's greatest 


work is his opera, Pelleas and Melis- 
ande, the libretto taken from Maeter- 
linck's drama of the same name, 
which it closely follows. It was first 
produced at the Opera Comique, 
Paris, in April, 1902, under the direc- 
tion of M. Carre, and with Mary 
Garden, an American singer, in the 
role of Melisande. The opera called 
forth much discussion and was one 
of the most important of the musical 
events in Paris of recent years. It 
was heard in New York the season 
of 1907 at Oscar Hammerstein's Man- 
hattan Opera House, with Miss Gar- 
den in the leading role. 

The opera from beginning to end is 
in_ recitative, yet according to the 
critics, is unforced and spontaneous 
to an unusual degree and contains 
some marvelous music. Lawrence 
Gilrnan, one of the most authoritative 
musical critics of the present day, 
calls it Debussy's undoubted master- 

Debussy shares with Vincent D'Indy 
the place of honor among the musical 
elect of Paris and he is fast becoming 
almost as well-known and honored in 
the United States. The first of his 
important works to be heard in New 
York were the two nocturnes, Nuages 
and Fetes, which the New York 
Symphony Orchestra, under Walter 
Damrosch, played at Carnegie Hall 
in January, 1905. The Kneisel Quar- 
tet had previously played the G Minor 
String Quartet and a few of his songs. 
During 1905 the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra, under the baton of Vincent 
D'Indy, played the first two nocturnes 
and the New York Symphony Or- 
chestra later played The Afternoon of 
a Faun. Debussy has written a great 
deal of music, including the following 
compositions: A danse Sacree; a 
danse Profane, for chromatic harp and 
orchestra; and three sketches, en- 
titled La Mer, all belonging to the 
period between 1889 and 1906. Of 
his numerous piano works, the fol- 
lowing are worthy of note: Suite 
Bergmasque, composed in 1890; 
Estampes Masques; L'Isle Joyeuse; 
and Images. Among the best of his 
many songs are six ariettes set to 
words by Paul Verlain; Sagasse and 
Fetes galantes; five songs to the words 
of Baudelaire; a fantasy for piano and 
orchestra; and a transcription of 
Schumann's four-hand piece, At the 
Fountain. His most recent work is 
an opera, based upon the Tristan 



legend, with the text by Gabriel 
Monray. This composition has not 
as yet been produced. Other works 
beside those mentioned are his sara- 
bande and toccata, published in 1901; 
March of the Counts of Ross; An 
Evening in Granada; and Gardens in 
the Rain, all for piano. A new or- 
chestral work. The Sea, includes 
three symphonic sketches. From 
Dawn to Noon on the Sea; Play of 
the Waves; and Dialogue of the 
Winds and the Sea. He has also writ- 
ten many songs and much chamber- 
music. Debussy's music has been de- 
scribed by his friend, Alfred Bruneau, 
as " mysterious, vague, fluid, haunting 
and impossible to grasp." He has 
been compared to Whistler and, in his 
eager thirst and search for beauty, to 
the Irish poet, William Butler Yeats, 
a " great harmonic inventor and an 
unsurpassed poet in mysticism." 
Debussy is a leader among the more 
progressive French composers, a 
product, as he is a leader of the modern 
French School. He is one of the few 
modern composers, who disclaims any 
influence of Wagner upon his work. 
The best summing up of the char- 
acteristics and beauties of this com- 
poser's style is to be found in Law- 
rence Gilman's recent book. The 
Music of Tomorrow. A chapter is 
devoted, by the writer to a charac- 
terization of Debussy, whom he has 
described as poet and dreamer, de- 
claring he is a blend of Verlaine, 
Mallarme, and Rosetti. 

Dehn (dan), Siegfried Wilhelm. 1799- 

A musical writer and practical mu- 
sician, who was born at Altona, Ger- 
many. After a period of study, under 
Bernard Klein, in counterpoint and 
harmony, he became a good contra- 
puntist. He was also a good violon- 
cellist and teacher, many of the 
leading composers having been at one 
time his pupils. Upon the recom- 
mendation of Meyerbeer, he was ap- 
pointed librarian of the musical 
department of the Royal Library at 
Berlin. He catalog^ued the library 
and added to it many works of great 
value. He studied at the Leipsic 
University, but had to leave to join 
the army against the French in 1813. 
He traveled extensively in Germany 
and Italy. He translated Delmotte's 
work on Orlandus Lassus and scored 
five hundred of Lassus' motets. He 

De Koven 

also copied a large number of the 
works of J. S. Bach for the press. He 
wrote many articles, on various mu- 
sical subjects, for Marx's Ber- 
liner Musikzeitung and in other 
periodicals. He was the first to pub- 
lish Bach's six concertos for different 
instruments; the concertos for one, 
two and three claviers and two comic 
cantatas. He also published a col- 
lection of vocal compositions in four, 
five, six, eight and ten parts, and was 
the author of many theoretical works. 
Among his pupils were Rubinstein, 
Kullak, Heinrich Hoffman and Glinka. 

De Koven, Reginald (Henry Louis). 

One of the best known and most 
prolific of American composers of 
light opera. He was born at Middle- 
town, Conn., of distinguished parents 
and enjoyed unusual opportunities 
for study, going abroad at an early 
age. He is the son of the Reverend 
Henry De Koven, a clergyman of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church, who 
took up his residence abroad in 1872 
and there prepared the boy, Reginald, 
for Oxford. He entered St. John's 
College, Oxford, and was graduated 
Avith the highest honors in 1879, being 
the youngest Bachelor of Arts of the 
year. His musical instruction had 
been begun when he was seven, and 
after his graduation, was continued 
under Speidel, Lebert and Pruckner 
at Stuttgart. Later he studied at 
Frankfort with Huff, who taught him 
counterpoint, and he studied singing 
with Vannucini at Florence. De Koven 
also made a special study of light 
opera with Von Suppe and Richard 
Genee of Vienna, both distinguished 
composers of comic opera. De 
Koven's first opera, The Begum, com- 
posed in 1887, was brought out by the 
McCaull Opera Company and was a 
success. He also wrote a light opera, 
entitled Cupid, Hymen & Co., which 
was rehearsed but never produced. 
While in Vienna he composed Don 
Quixote, which was produced in 1889 
by the Bostonians, and which gained 
him immediate recognition. He next 
wrote Robin Hood, (1890), which won 
instant success, and immediately took 
rank with the standard light operas, 
the first by an American composer 
to be admitted to that list. It had a 
long run in New York and other 
cities in this country and ran for 
three years in London under the title. 



De Koven 

Maid Marian, afterwards being taken 
through the English provinces, to 
South Africa and to Australia. After 
Robin Hood came The Knickerbock- 
ers, The Fencing Master and The 
Algerian, which were all successes. 
The Tzigane, written for and sung 
by Lillian Russell, was distinguished 
by much local color and great melodic 

De Koven lived in Chicago in 1882 
and, two years later, married Miss 
Anna Farwell, the oldest daughter of 
Ex-Senator Farwell. Mrs. De Koven 
has written a number of successful 
books, and their daughter, Ethel De 
Koven, now a young woman, has a 
number of poems to her credit. 
Shortly after his marriage Mr. De 
Koven moved to New York, where he 
became musical critic for the New 
York World. He has never, in any of 
his productions, carried American 
operetta beyond the mark set by that 
most successful opera, Robin Hood, 
although all have met with popular 
approval. The Highwayman is con- 
sidered by some his best work and it 
had a long and successful run. His 
latest operatic works are Happyland, 
written for De Wolf Hopper and 
sung by him and his company con- 
tinuously since 1905; The Student 
King; and The Snow Man. He has 
written besides, many ballads and 
songs of unusual merit, his settings 
of Eugene Field's Little Boy Blue, 
of Burns' My Love Is Like a Red, 
Red Rose, and of Marjorie Daw being 
of unusual beauty. The best known 
of his songs are O Promise Me, which 
was made famous by the late Jessie 
Bartlett Davis; The Indian Love Song 
and A Winter Lullaby. In all he has 
written about one hundred and thirty- 
five songs and incidental pieces, in- 
cluding an orchestral suite and a 
piano sonata. Other operas besides 
those mentioned are Rob Roy and 
The Mandarin, The Three Dragoons, 
Papa's Wife, The Paris Doll, Foxy 
Quiller, The Little Duchess, Red 
Feather, and Elysia, later re-named 

Deldevez (dul-du-ves), fidouard Marie 
Ernest. 1817-1897. 

Celebrated violinist and leader and 
also composer, who for several years 
was^ the chief conductor at the Paris 
Opera. He was born in Paris and 
became a pupil of Halevy, Habeneck 
and Berton in 1825 at the Conserv- 


atory, where he took second prize for 
solfeggio in 1829, and the first prize 
in 1831. In 1837 he won second prize 
for fugue and in 1838 the Grand Prize 
of Rome for a cantata, La Vendetta, 
which he later revised and printed. 
He published, in 1839, a collection of 
songs with piano accompaniment, 
and the following year appeared at a 
Conservatory concert, playing his 
own overture to Robert Bruce and 
his prize cantata. He was appointed 
second conductor of the Opera in 
1859 and held the same post at the 
concerts of the Conservatory. In 
1872 he became the chief conductor 
at the Opera, succeeding Hainl. He 
etired from that post in 1877 and from 
his position at the Conservatory in 
1885. Several of his ballets were per- 
formed at the Opera, among them 
Lady Henriette, Eucharis, Paquita and 
Vertvert. His works consist mainly 
of songs, sacred choruses, two trios, 
quartets, a quintet and symphonies. A 
requiem and some symphonies remain 
still unpublished. He also published 
an Anthology of Violinists in four vol- 
umes with a selection of pieces by 
various composers from Corelli to 
Viotti. He was made a Chevalier of 
the Legion of Honor. 

Delibes (du-leb), Clement Philibert 
Leo. 1836-1891. 

Was born at St. Germain du Val, 
Sarthe, and came to Paris in 1848, 
being admitted into the solfege class 
at the Conservatory, where Le Coup- 
pey, Bazin, Adam and Benoist were 
his chief teachers. He is said by 
Grove to have been one of the most 
meritorious composers of the modern 
French School. In 1853 he became the 
accompanist at the Theatre Lyrique 
and organist at the Church of St. Jean 
et St. Frangois. His first stage work 
was a one-act operetta, produced in 
1855, and followed by twelve more of 
the same class, up to 1865, when he 
was appointed second chorusmaster 
at the Grand Opera. -He next tried 
ballet-writing with great success. La 
Source, a ballet, was produced at the 
Opera in 1866 and another at the 
Grand Opera in 1870, which was a 
veritable triumph, and soon placed its 
composer in the front rank as a 
writer of light, sparkling music of the 
modern French School. He resigned 
his post as accompanist at the 
Lyrique to accept that of second 
chorusmaster at the Opera, where he 




gained great popularity as a composer 
of ballets. After assuming this posi- 
tion a new career for the composer 
began. He had showed such gifts as 
a ballet-composer in La Source that 
he was at once invited to write a 
divertissement for the ballet, Le Cor- 
saire, by his old master, Adolphe 
Adam, for its revival in 1867. Cop- 
pelia, written in 1870, is considered 
by many to be his best work. In 
1880 he became professor of ad- 
vanced composition at the Conserv- 
atory and in 1884 was made a member 
of the Institut, succeeding Masse. 
In spite of his success with ballet- 
music, he tried his hand at other kinds 
and wrote a series of dramatic works, 
produced at the Opera Comique, 
among them Jean de Nirvelle, pro- 
duced in 1880; Lakme (1883); a five- 
act opera, Kassya, completed after 
Delibes' death by E. Guiraud; and 
other dramatic works which remain 
in manuscript form. In addition he 
wrote incidental music for Le Roi 
s'amuse on its revival at the Comedie 
Franqaise, in 1882, and several songs, 
among them Ruy Bias and Barberine. 
He also wrote a collection of fifteen 
melodies with piano accompaniment, 
which were in the style of the Ger- 
man lieder; a ballet, Sylvia; also a 
cantata, Alger, performed in 1865. 
Delibes was made a Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honor and received other 
testimonials of esteem. A memoir of 
Delibes was published by E, Guiraud 
in 1892. 

Delle Sedie (del-le-sad-ye), Enrico. 

Barytone singer, who enjoyed a 
high reputation for many years and 
who was later an excellent teacher of 
singing. He was born at Leghorn 
and was a pupil of Galeffi, Persanola 
and Domeniconi and was deeply in- 
terested in music, but revolutionary 
troubles caused him to give it up for 
a time. He was imprisoned because 
of participation in some political 
intrigue in 1848 and after his release 
took up again his vocal studies, mak- 
ing his debut as a singer at Florence 
in 1851 in Verdi's Nabucco. Delle 
Sedie appeared in all the chief Italian 
cities and then was engaged at the 
Theatre Italien, at Paris, and was 
later appointed a teacher at the Paris 
Conservatory. He published a num- 
ber of works on the art of singing, 
two of which, Vocal Art and A Com- 


plete Method of Singing, were trans- 
lated into English and later combined 
into one complete Method of Singing. 

Demeur (du-miir), Anne Arsene. 

A celebrated soprano, who appeared 
with success in concert and opera. 
Her maiden name was Charton. She 
was born in France, and became a 
pupil of Bizet at Bordeaux, where she 
made her debut as Lucia in 1842. She 
sang at Toulouse and Brussels in 1846, 
then in London in a French comic 
opera, and in 1853 she made success- 
ful tours through Russia and North 
and South America. In 1847 she 
married M. Demeur, the flutist, and 
became shortly afterward the first 
female singer of Mitchell's French 
Company at the St. James Theatre, 
London, winning success in many of 
the light operatic roles. She made a 
deep impression in French comic 
opera, and after singing at the Opera 
Comique, Paris, from 1849 to 1853, she 
adopted the Italian stage. Afterwards 
she appeared at St. Petersburg, 
Vienna, and notably at Paris as Des- 
demona, in 1862. Later she sang at 
Madrid. She made successful appear- 
ances in Berlioz's Beatrice and Bene- 
dict, and her last appearance in opera 
was as Cassandra, in 1879, in Ber- 
lioz's Prise de Troie. Mme. Demeur 
lived in retirement for several years, 
only emerging to sing at a few con- 
certs and at the Berlioz Festival at the 
Paris Opera in 1870. 

De Munck, Ernest. 1840- 

He is a brilliant cellist, the son of 
Francois De Munck, cello virtuoso, 
and was born in Brussels. He studied 
under his father and Servais, and at 
ten years of age was a talented vio- 
linist. He lived for some time in 
London, where he married Carlotta 
Patti, in 1879. He traveled through 
Great Britain with Jullien's band, and 
in 1870 became first cellist at Weimar 
in the Court Orchestra. From 1879 
until 1893 he resided in Paris. In the 
latter year he was appointed professor 
of cello-playing at the Royal Academy 
of Music, London. He is also pro- 
fessor of music at the Guildhall 
School of Music. 

* Dennee (den-na), Charles. 1863- 

A talented and successful American 
composer; a concert pianist and 
teacher, who was born in Oswego, 




N. Y., and whose skill is due almost 
entirely to American training. He 
early showed exceptional talent at 
playing and composing, and studied 
chiefly in Boston, his teachers being 
Stephen A. Emery, who taught him 
harmony, and Alfred D. Turner, with 
whom he studied piano. It was the 
latter's guidance and friendship that 
made Dennee a musician. He was 
only sixteen when he went to Boston 
to study under Turner at the New 
England Conservatory, and his only 
instruction, up to that time, had been 
received from Frank Schilling, in his 
native town. Dennee also studied for 
a time under Mme. Schiller and en- 
joyed special advantages in the study 
of Beethoven's works, during the last 
visit of Hans von Biilow to America. 
He trained himself for _ a concert 
pianist and in this capacity made a 
number of highly successful appear- 
ances, playing over one thousand 
times in various cities in the United 
States, but an affection of the wrist 
caused him to give up concert work 
and he began to compose salon pieces 
for the piano. In 1885 he wrote a 
violin sonata which created a marked 
impression on the musical world. 
Since 1887 he has dropped his concert 
tours and has devoted himself ex- 
clusively to composing and teaching, 
giving only occasional recitals and 
chamber concerts in Boston. At the 
death of Turner, Mr. Dennee, who 
was his favorite pupil, succeeded him 
in the New England Conservatory of 
Music, and has ever since carried out 
Turner's ideas and kept to his system. 
He is a most prolific composer and 
all of his works show great skill and 
musicianly feeling. 

He has composed several light 
operas, among them The Merry Go- 
Round, with a libretto by R. A. Bar- 
nett, and produced at the Tremont 
Theatre, Boston, in 1896; The Royal 
Barber; Captain Nixie; The Fountain 
of Youth; and The Hindoo. He has 
composed a large number of songs 
and piano works of all grades; a suite 
moderne of much beauty, and works 
of lighter order. Among Mr. Dennee's 
most popular songs is the familiar 
lullaby. Sleep Little Baby of Mine, 
over one million copies of which have 
been sold in the last four years. 
Others that are frequently heard are 
In Dreamland; Memories; Ritour- 
nelle, and So Fair and Pure. His other 
important works include a March 


Mignonne; Danse Napolitaine; ma- 
zurka; minuet; valses and a descrip- 
tive piece, entitled Mountain Scenes. 
In manuscript is a violin and piano 
sonata which has been played all over 
the country. Beside his compositions 
Mr. Dennee has written a Progressive 
Technique and Octave Studies. 

Denza (den'-tsa), Luigi. 1846- 

Popular composer of songs, who 
was born at Castellamare di Stabia, 
Italy. He entered the Naples Con- 
servatory when only sixteen years of 
age and studied under Serrao, Mer- 
cadente and Carlo Costa, a brother 
of Sir Michael Costa, the eminent 
conductor. Denza won a scholarship 
in 1862 and shortly afterward was 
appointed a sub-professor in the in- 
stitution. His songs soon began to 
attract attention. In 1876 he wrote 
an opera, Wallenstein, which was 
brought out in Naples and which was 
successful; but it was with his songs 
that he won his greatest successes. 
He has written over six hundred^ 
many with a world-wide reputation. 
The most popular is Funiculi Funi- 
culi, which he composed in 1880, and 
which has had a most remarkable 
vogue. Half a million copies of this 
song, in various languages, are scat- 
tered over the world. When Richard 
Strauss, the eminent composer was pre- 
paring his orchestra suite, Aus Italien, 
he inserted Denza's Funiculi Funicula, 
believing it to be an Italian folk-song, 
and was much surprised when he 
learned it was the composition of a 
modern composer. Denza, although 
an Italian by birth and training, is 
fond of English life and English 
people and has resided in London for 
many years, settling there in 1883. 
In 1898 he was appointed a professor 
of singing at the Royal Academy of 
Music, a position which he still holds. 
He has traveled through Italy, Russia, 
France and England, giving recitals 
of his most popular song successes. 
He IS a Chevalier de I'Ordre de la 
Couronne, Italy, and has received 
many other honors. Denza has writ- 
ten songs to English, French and 
Italian texts, and many of the best- 
liked of these compositions are in the 
Neopolitan dialect. Among them 
may be mentioned II Telefono; Guar- 
daine sulo, Fuggimi and Giulia. 

Among his English songs are A 
May Morning; 'Tis June; Sea Days; 
Your Voice; Call Me Back, and many 




others. He has also written many 
part-songs and choruses for women. 
His Amorita; Merrily Row; and a can- 
tata, The Garden of Flowers, being 
the best known. To the latter, the 
composer added a string accompani- 
ment. Signor Denza's latest compo- 
sitions are Sleepy Eyes; a Sleighing 
Duet; and Vieni, especially composed 
for the famous tenor, Signor Caruso. 

Deppe (dep'-pe), Ludwig. 1828-1890. 

A distinguished pianoforte teacher, 
who did much to restore a pure style 
of playing on that instrument. He 
was born at Alverdissen, Lippe, Ger- 
many, and was a pupil of Marxsen's 
at Hamburg in 1849, and afterward 
studied at Leipsic under Lobe. In 
1857 he settled in Hamburg and there 
founded a musical society and con- 
ducted its concerts until 1868. While 
acting in that capacity he produced 
many compositions. From 1874 until 
1886 he lived in Berlin as court chapel- 
master, but soon resigned this post to 
devote himself to conducting the con- 
certs of the Court Orchestra. He also 
conducted the Silesian Musical Fes- 
tivals established by Count Hochberg 
in 1876. A description of Deppe's 
technique is given by his pupil. Amy 
Fay, in her book, Music Study In 
Germany. She designates him as a 
profound musical savant and describes 
his method, which was so widely dif- 
ferent from that of the followers of 
Liszt. Another pupil of his, Elisabeth 
Caland, in a book published in 1897, 
also explained his method of playing. 
Emil Sauer and Donald F. Tovey 
were the best known among the 
advocates of Deppe and his method. 
He died at Pyrmont, a German wa- 
tering place. 

Depres or Despres (dupre' or da-pra), 

He was a Flemish composer, and 
one of the great masters of the 
Netherlands School, which had so 
great an influence upon the develop- 
ment of music. He was born at 
Conde, near St. Quentin, about the 
middle of the Fifteenth Century, and 
was the first man who could properly 
be called a great composer in the 
modern acceptation of the term. He 
was also a good teacher. He was a 
chorister in the collegiate church of 
St. Quentin and for some time chapel- 
master there. About 1471 he was a 
pupil of Okeghem, and then went to 
the papal court of Sixtus IV., where 


he was held in the highest esteem 
as a musician. In 1486 he entered the 
papal choir under Innocent VIII. 
Adami, in a list of the singers of 
that time, mentions Josquin as one 
of the greatest supporters and cul- 
tivators of church music. Several 
masses in manuscript are preserved 
in the library of the Sistine chapel to 
show what he accomplished while in 
Rome. He seems to have enjoyed 
the patronage of Lorenzo of Flor- 
ence, of Louis XII. of France, and 
of the Emperor Maximilian I., and it 
may be inferred that he must have 
gained the public favor either by his 
works or performances before he 
could be noticed by a sovereign. 
Burney calls him the " father of mod- 
ern harmony." He deserves to be 
classed as one of the greatest musi- 
cal geniuses of any period. He was 
the first to employ counterpoint as 
the means to an end, and to blend 
popular and ecclesiastical music. He 
was the inventor of the part-songs 
and canzonets. He is the oldest writer 
whose works are preserved to us 
almost entire. While provost of the 
Cathedral chapel, he died at Conde in 
the year 1521. His compositions 
were as well-known and as much 
practised throughout Europe at the 
beginning of the Sixteenth Century as 
Handel's were in England a few years 
ago. In the music-book of Prince 
Henry, afterwards Henry VIII., 
which is preserved in Pepys' College 
at Cambridge, there are several of 
Depres' compositions, and we are 
told that Anne Boleyn during her 
residence in France had collected and 
learned a number of them. His fame 
was chiefly gained by his masses and 
motets, a large collection of which, 
perhaps the most valuable, is pre- 
served in the British Museum. His 
printed works include nineteen 
masses, fifty secular pieces and about 
one hundred and fifty motets. Sev- 
eral of the masses and many of the 
motets exist in manuscript scores at 
Brussels. Among his secular pieces 
is a dirge written on the death of 
Okeghem. Masses in manuscript are 
at Munich and Cambrai, which some 
historians claim was his birthplace. 
Fragments of his works are to be 
found in the histories of Kiesewetter, 
Burney, Busby and Hawkins. His 
pupils all had a share in the forma- 
tion of the great schools of the 
Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries. 



De Reszke 
De Reszke (du-resh'-ka), Edouard. 

Edouard, the younger of the two 
De Reszke brothers, has become, 
since his debut as a singer, almost 
as renowned as his brother Jean. His 
repertory of operas is said to include 
sixty. He was intended by his par- 
ents for an agriculturist, and it was 
due to his brother Jean that he was 
able to prosecute his musical studies 
in Milan for four years, where his 
teachers were Signori Steller and 
Alba and afterwards Coletti at Naples. 
Later, under the guidance of his 
brother, and after a period of study 
under his brother's teacher, Sbriglia, 
he made his debut in Ai'da at the 
Italian Opera, Paris, in 1876, when 
Verdi himself directed the first three 
performances. Edouard then sang in 
Le Roi de Lahore, by Massenet, at 
La Scala, Milan and soon began to 
be heard in other cities of Europe, 
where the fame of his brother and 
himself had spread. For six years 
he was first basso of the Opera, Paris, 
and he has been heard frequently in 
the United States. His career has 
been closely identified with that of 
his brother's from the beginning. 
Unlike most famous singers, the 
brothers were never heard at private 
musicales or entertainments and no 
money could ever tempt them. Once 
and only once Edouard broke the 
rule and was treated as a paid per- 
former, not as a guest, and was so 
chagrined that he never again could 
be induced to sing outside a theatre. 
He has not been heard in America 
for many years. Edouard De Reszke 
was given the same honor that his 
brother had, when in 1890 he was 
given the insignia of the Royal 
Victoria order by Her Majesty, 
the late Queen Victoria, after a per- 
formance of Faust at Windsor. 

De Reszke, Jean. 1852- 

The De Reszkes are two eminent 
Polish brothers, belonging to a musi- 
cal and artistic family, who have at- 
tained high honors on the operatic 
stage. They were born, according to 
some authorities, at Varsovie, Poland; 
according to others, at Warsaw. The 
elder, Jean, became the greatest tenor 
of his day, the younger, Edouard, the 
greatest basso perhaps ever heard. 
Jean began to sing when very young, 
and at thirteen was heard in the 
chapel of the college where he was 

De Reszke 

a student. His parents intended him 
to become a lawyer, but his love for 
music early manifested itself and he 
was allowed to study with Ciaflfei. 
The mother of the De Reszkes was 
the possessor of a fine soprano voice, 
which had been trained by Viardot 
and Garcia and a sister, Josephine, 
who died in 1892, had a soprano voice 
of great beauty and wonderful qual- 
ity. When Jean was nineteen, he 
went to Venice, where he heard 
Cotogini sing. This made so pro- 
found an impression upon him that 
he followed the celebrated barytone 
for some time. It was upon the ad- 
vice of this singer that Jean made 
his debut as a barytone singer in 
Donizetti's La Favorita, singing the 
role of the King. After that, he sang 
many of the barytone roles before it 
was discovered by his teacher, M. 
Sbriglia, that his voice was a tenor. 
He pursued his vocal studies under 
Sbriglia for two years and, at the 
end of that time, appeared at the 
Real de Madrid with such success 
that ever afterwards the doors of 
every European opera house were 
open to him. Jean and his brother, 
Edouard, appeared in the revival of 
Italian Opera in London at Drury 
Lane, and shortly afterward Jean was 
appointed first tenor at the Oper?, 
Paris. For him, Massenet composed 
Le Cid; and Gounod, from whom he 
had received instruction, revived his 
Romeo and Juliette. One of his 
finest performance was Don Jose in 
Carmen, critics all being agreed that 
it had never been sung with such dra- 
matic power and intensity. He 
studied Tristan und Isolde two years 
before he essayed his memorable first 
performance of the part, which be- 
came one of his best roles. Other 
roles in which he was heard with 
great success are Le Prophete; the 
tenor part in Les Huguenots; Otello, 
in Verdi's opera of that name; and 
the duke in Rigoletto. From Paris, 
De Reszke came to the United States 
in 1889, and appeared at the Metro- 
politan Opera House, New York, 
making a marked impression upon 
the critical musical audiences in many 
of the Wagnerian roles, including 
Lohengrin, Tristan and Siegfried. He 
also appeared frequently at Covent 
Garden, London. During the season 
at the latter place, in 1892, a serious 
throat affection interrupted his career 
and he was compelled to retire for a 



De Reszke 

time from the operatic stage. He 
reappeared at Covent Garden, in 
Faust, shortly afterward and broke 
down. In December, 1900, however, 
he returned to the United States with 
his voice unimpaired. For several 
years past Jean De Reszke has re- 
mained away from the operatic stage, 
living most of the time in Paris, 
where he accepts now and then a 
pupil who shows unusual ability as 
a vocalist and who is willing and 
able to pay the immense fee he asks 
for his services. At his home in the 
Rue de la Faisanderie he has built 
a little private theatre and there he 
receives his pupils from ten in the 
morning until six in the evening. In 
August of 1907, De Reszke was ap- 
pointed director of singing at the 
Paris Opera, with the title " chef de 
chant." He intimated, upon his ac- 
ceptance of the post that he would 
inaugurate a number of reforms, and 
it is said that he took the position 
more to assist some of his favorite 
pupils than for any other reason. De 
Reszke's earnings on the stage have 
made him a very rich man. Some 
years ago he acquired an immense 
estate in Poland, where he built a 
beautiful home and where he main- 
tains a racing stable well-known on 
the Russian turf. This estate is at 
Borowno, Poland, and the land sur- 
rounding it is said to be twenty times 
the size of Central Park, in New 
York. His nearest neighbor is his 
brother, Edouard, who also has a 
handsome home, surrounded by many 
acres of valuable land. Here the 
brothers pass their time while away 
from Paris. Jean De Reszke was the 
first musician, after Sir Arthur Sulli- 
van and Signor Tosti, to be honored 
with the insignia of the Royal Vic- 
toria order. He received the cross of 
the order after a performance of 
Lohengrin at Windsor Castle, on the 
Queen's eightieth birthday. May 24, 
1899. This was the last time Her 
Majesty, Queen Victoria, ever at- 
tended an operatic performance. 

De Swert (da-var), Jules. 1843-1891. 
A brilliant Belgian cellist and dra- 
matic composer, who was born in 
Louvain, and made his first public 
appearance when only nine years of 
age. He received his first musical 
instruction from his father, the 
chapelmaster at the Cathedral of 
Louvain, and afterwards was a pupil 


of Servais at the Brussels Conserv- 
atory in 1856, remaining at that insti- 
tution for two years. After gaining 
the first violoncello prize at the Con- 
servatory he went to Paris, where he 
made the acquaintance of Rossini. 
He next undertook a series of con- 
cert tours through Belgium, Holland, 
Denmark, Sweden, Germany and 
Switzerland, and afterward held vari- 
ous posts of importance. He became 
concertmaster at Diisseldorf in 1865, 
and three years later was first cello 
at Weimar and royal concertmaster, 
solo cellist and professor of the high 
school, Berlin, in 1869; resigning from 
that position four years later. In 
1881, after several years residence in 
Weisbaden and Leipsic, he was ap- 
pointed director of the Ostend Music 
School and professor at Ghent and 
Bruges Conservatory, and was also 
a solo player in the Theatre de la 
Monnaie at Brussels. De Swert also 
appeared at the Crystal Palace, Lon- 
don, in 1875. His works consist of 
two operas, Die Albigenser, produced 
at Weisbaden in 1878 with success; 
and Graf Hammerstein, produced at 
Mayence in 1884; a symphony; three 
cello concertos; romances; fantasies; 
duets and solo pieces for cello, with 
piano and orchestra. He also wrote 
a treatise on the violoncello, which 
was published in Novello's Music 
Primers in London, in 1882. He com- 
piled also numerous works for his 
favorite instrument, and is regarded 
as one of the foremost of the mod- 
ern violoncello virtuosi. His two 
brothers, Isadore and Jean, are both 

Devienne (diiv-yen), Frangois. 1759- 

A flutist, bassoonist and composer of 
considerable renown, who was born 
at Joinville, Haute-Marne, France. 
He occupied various positions during 
his hfetime. Was a member of the 
Swiss Guards band, a professor at the 
Paris Conservatory and also bassoon- 
player in the Theatre de Monsieur in 
1788. Among his works are about 
ten operas; many concerto pieces for 
wind-instruments; overtures for wind; 
concertos; quartets; trios; and sonatas 
for flute, piano and other instruments. 
He also wrote a Methode de Flute, 
published in 1795, which is considered 
valuable and which went through 
many editions. Devienne died in an 
insane asylum at Charenton. Says 



Baker: "He was an extraordinarily 
prolific composer of peculiar impor- 
tance from the impulse which he gave 
to perfecting the technique of wind- 

D'Hardelot. See Hardelot. 
Dibdin, Charles. 1745-1814. 

Composer and writer, who was 
born at Dibdin, near Southampton, 
England, and studied music at Win- 
chester College, under Kent and Fus- 
sell. He appeared at Richmond and 
Birmingham as an actor and went to 
London, where in 1765 he was em- 
ployed by Bickerstaff as composer 
and singer. He then renounced the 
stage and began giving medley mono- 
dramas in London in 1788. Dibdin, 
according to his son, who wrote his 
biography, was the composer of over 
1300 songs, and in addition wrote the 
music in his entertainments. Of 
these a few are heard now and then, 
including The Waterman, popularized 
by Sims Reeves, Poor Jack, and Tom 
Bowling. Among his most popular 
works are the music dramas, Shep- 
herd's Artifice; Love In the City; 
Damon and Phillida; Padlock; and 
numerous others. His literary works 
include Music Epitomized, a school- 
book in which the whole science of 
music is explained; a didactic poem in 
three parts, and a history of the stage 
in five volumes. Mr. Dibdin also 
wrote a history of his professional 
life in four volumes with the words 
of 600 songs selected from his works. 
It was published in 1803. His songs, 
in chronological order with notes and 
memoirs, were arranged by George 
Hogarth, in 1842, in two volumes. He 
was most successful in hitting ofif the 
lights and shadows of a sea-faring 
life and his songs rank with the best 

* Dickinson, Edward. 1853- 

Born in West Springfield, Mass. 
Removed to Northampton, Mass., in 
1867, Fitted for college in the North- 
ampton High School. Studied music 
in Boston, 1871 to 1872, Entered Am- 
herst College in 1872, and was gradu- 
ated in 1876. Received the degree of 
M.A. from Amherst College. During 
his college course he was organist in 
the First Congregational Church of 
Springfield, Mass. Took up the study 
of the organ with Eugene Thayer in 
Boston, 1878 to 1879. In 1879 he be- 
came organist at the Park Church in 


Elmira, N. Y., and- teacher of organ 
and piano in the city. Was director 
of music in the Elmira College 1883 
to 1892. Studied in Berlin, Germany, 
1885 to 1886, 1888 to 1889, and 1892 to 
1893, giving chief attention to the 
history of music, hearing lectures of 
Professor Spitta in the Berlin Uni- 
versity and taking private courses 
with Doctor Wilhelm Langhans. Was 
appointed to the chair of the History 
and Criticism of Music in Oberlin 
College and Conservatory in 1893. 
Author of Music in the History of 
the Western Church and The Study 
of the History of Music. These books 
have been very widely and fully rec- 
ognized as of unique value. Con- 
cerning Music in the History of the 
Western Church the following ap- 
peared in The Outlook of New York: 
" To his evidently wide knowledge of 
the causes of church music in its many 
stages, and acquaintance with its his- 
torical environment, Professor Dick- 
inson brings a broad and intelligent 
human sympathy. He shows critical 
fairness alike in his treatment of the 
Roman Catholic mass and the rise 
of Lutheran hymnody, of Anglican 
church music and Puritan psalmody 
in England and America." A review of 
The Study of the History of Music 
in The Nation of New York begins 
thus: "His book is certainly almost 
unique in its clearness of statement, 
and general usefulness; it is a marvel 
of condensed information." Mr. 
Ernst Newman, known as one of the 
very ablest of English musical critics, 
has this to say: " Mr. Dickinson has 
had the excellent idea of furnishing 
the musical student with a guide to 
the best literature in English upon 
the art. For Mr. Dickinson's general 
treatment of his subject one can have 
nothing but praise. His method is 
to take each stage in the development 
of music separately, characterize it in 
a short but highly concentrated chap- 
ter, and then give reference to the 
complete English literature upon the 
subject. His summaries are models 
of sound judgment and swift state- 
ment; not more than once or twice, 
perhaps, could one find fault with 
either their completeness in every 
essential point of their cool and 
catholic impartiality." 

Mr. Dickinson's work at Oberlin 
has been of the highest type in its 
full mastery of the subjects taught 
and in its successful appeal to all 




classes of students. Sound musician- 
ship, a wide and exact learning in 
fields of knowledge other than music, 
sensitiveness to the emotional mes- 
sage of music, together with a strong 
literary talent, and a genuine teaching 
gift, have combined to advance Mr. 
Dickinson to the very front rank of 
our present day musical scholars, 
critics and teachers. 

* Dickinson, Clarence. 1873- 

Contemporary American organist, 
conductor and composer. He was 
born in LaFayette, Ind., and belongs 
to the Massachusetts Dickinson fam- 
ily of which the poets Emily Dickin- 
son and Martha Gilbert Dickinson 
Bianchi are well-known members. 
Mr. Dickinson entered Northwestern 
University at Evanston, 111., in 1890, 
and during his four years' course 
there continued his work in piano, 
organ and composition under Wil 
Ham Cutler, Harrison M. Wild and 
Adolph Weidig of Chicago. His first 
important composition, a light opera. 
The Medicine Man, was performed, 
in 1895, in Chicago and later in Bos- 
ton. Mr. Dickinson's compositions 
are principally for the voice and 
organ. In 1898 he went abroad for 
three years' study, the first year be- 
ing spent in Berlin, working in theory 
with Otto Singer and in organ with 
Dr. Heinrich Reimann; and the fol- 
lowing two years in Paris, studying 
with Alexandre Guilmant in organ, 
and Moritz Moskowski and Louis 
Vierne in composition. While abroad 
he gave numerous recitals in France 
and England. Since his return he 
has played many recitals in the United 
States and Canada, including recitals 
at the St. Louis Exposition in 1904, in 
which year he played also in the lead- 
ing cities of Spain. Mr. Dickinson 
was one of the founders of the Chi- 
cago Manuscript Society and the 
American Guild of Organists. At 
present he is organist and choirmas- 
ter of St. James Episcopal Church and 
the Kehilath Anshe Mayriv Syna- 
gogue; director of the Cosmopolitan 
School of Music and head of the 
Organ and Theory Departments of 
that School; conductor of the Aurora, 
(Illinois) Musical Club; the Bach So- 
ciety of Dubuque, Iowa, and conduc- 
tor of the Chicago English Opera 
Company. Special mention should be 
made of his work as conductor of the 
Musical Art Society of Chicago, con- 


sisting of fifty of the leading profes- 
sional singers of the city organized 
for the purpose of presenting those 
works of the old and ultra-modern 
composers which are of so difficult 
and exacting a nature as to require 
the services of artists. 

Diemer (d'ya-ma), Louis. 1843- 

French pianist, who was born in 
Paris and studied at the Conservatory 
in that city, under Durand, Bazin and 
Ambroise Thomas. He has also com- 
posed much good music and has done 
a great deal to revive interest in 
ancient music, especially the works 
of the harpsichord masters of olden 
times, and the ancient musical in- 
struments. Diemer became proficient 
from his earliest years as a pianist. 
At thirteen he took the first piano 
prize at the Conservatory, three years 
later, first prize for fugue, and later, 
first prize for harmony, second prize 
for organ and first for counterpoint. 
In 1887 he was appointed first piano 
professor at the Conservatory, suc- 
ceeding Marmontel. Beside partici- 
pating in brilliant concerts of mod- 
ern music, he has organized concerts 
of ancient music, and played on old- 
time instruments. He has appeared 
with success at the Alard, Pasdeloup 
and Conservatory concerts, and 
Widor, Lalo and Saint-Saens have all 
written pieces for him, which he has 
given at the Lamoreaux and Colonne 
concerts in Paris. He came into 
prominent notice at the time of the 
Paris Exposition with the rendering 
of the compositions of harpsichord 
masters of olden days and the result 
of his revival of their music was the 
establishment of the Society of 
Ancient Instruments. Under his di- 
rection this society gave many con- 
certs in London. His works include 
a concertstiick; songs; characteristic 
pieces for piano and wind-instru- 
ments; and a collection of Clavecin- 
istes frangais, beside chamber-music. 
He has also edited collections of 
songs and other music. 

Dietrich (de'trikh), Albert Hermann. 

A talented musician and able com- 
poser, who was born at Golk, near 
Meissen, Germany, and received his 
education at the Gymnasium, Dres- 
den, which he entered in 1842. He 
studied under Otto Rietz, Moscheles 
and Hauptmann at Leipsic, and from 




1851 to 1854 was a pupil of Schumann 
at Dusseldorf. He was orchestral 
leader at Bonn, and later at Leipisc, 
and was choirmaster at Oldenburg in 
1871. Among his works are a sym- 
phony in D minor; overtures for or- 
chestra; concertos; six songs for the 
piano; and also an opera, Robinhood, 
which^was a success. Dietrich retired 
in 1890 and settled at BerHn. His 
incidental music to Cymbehne was 
played at the Lyceum Theatre revival 
in 1896. He published in 1899, in 
conjunction with J. V. Widmann, an 
interesting series of Recollections of 

D'Indy. See Indy d'. 

Diruta (de-roo'-ta), Girolamo. 

Author of a remarkable treatise on 
organ-playing, far in advance of any 
publication of that time, who was 
born between 1554 and 1564 at 
Perugia, Italy. His family came 
originally from the village of Diruta, 
near Perugia, hence his name. He 
entered the Franciscan monastery at 
Correggio in 1574 and is said to have 
received his first instruction from 
Batista Capuani. He was later organ- 
ist at Chioggia Cathedral and studied 
under Merulo. His work was the first 
treatise on the organ and clavier ever 
published and was issued about 1600. 
In the year 1622 he published another 
work in which he gave the rules of 
counterpoint and the method of com- 
posing fantasias, with several exam- 
ples. The third part treated of the 
ecclesiastical tones and the method of 
transposing them. 

Dittersdorf, Karl Ditters von. 1739- 

Eminent violinist and composer, 
whose original name was Ditters. He 
was born* in Vienna. He studied 
under Konig and Ziegler, and when 
only ten years of age attracted the 
attention of Prince Joseph of Hild- 
burghausen, who took him into his 
private orchestra and had him thor- 
oughly instructed in music, his 
teachers being Trani on the violin, 
and Bonno in composition. In 1759 
the Prince dismissed his band but pro- 
cured for Ditters a position at the 
Court Theatre in Vienna. From there 
he went with Gluck to Italy in 1761. 
In 1764 he became chapelmaster to 
the Bishop of Gross- Wardein, Hun- 
gary, and upon the dismissal of the 
bishop's orchestra in 1769 he entered 


the service of Count Schaflfgotsch, 
Prince Bishop of Breslau, at Johannis- 
berg, Silesia, where he established a 
little theatre and won much praise 
for his orchestra. He received in 
1770 the papal order of the Golden 
Spur, and three years later was 
ennobled by the Emperor. An opera, 
Der Doktor und Apotheker, which 
was produced in 1786, still holds the 
stage in Germany and his string quar- 
tets are heard too, but his other music 
has long since been forgotten. His 
music is light and pretty while the 
instrumentation and melody are above 
the ordinary. He wrote about twenty- 
five operas; twelve orchestral sym- 
phonies; several oratorios; cantatas; 
masses; quartets; nocturnes; and, con- 

Dohnanyi (do-nan'-ye), Ernst von. 


A modern European composer, 
whose works show decided individu- 
ality and give promise of still greater 
things to come. He is also a pianist 
of rare ability, ranking with the finest 
performers in Europe. Dohnanyi is 
a Hungarian by birth, having been 
born at Pressburg, but is almost 
wholly Teutonic in temperament. His 
father, who was professor of mathe- 
matics and physics at the Gymnasium 
of his native town, was a good cello- 
player and an all-around musician, 
who encouraged his son's fondness for 
music in every way. The younger 
Dohnanyi began when very young to 
compose, his first composition being 
written when he was only seven years 
of age, when he chose for a Christmas 
gift a sheet of music paper. After a 
period of study under Carl Forstner, 
organist of the cathedral at Press- 
burg, Dohnanyi decided to adopt a 
musical career. He studied composi- 
tion for a short time at the Royal 
Hungarian Academy of Music under 
Hans Koessler and later was a pupil 
of Stephen Thonian in piano. He com- 
pleted his piano study imder Eugen 
D'Albert. Von Dohnanyi won a 
royal prize with the overture, Zrinyi, 
and the King's prize at Budapest in 
1894, with a Symphony in F, which 
is a work of great value and which 
earned for him the respect and ad- 
miration of the entire musical world. 
In 1898 he won the prize offered by 
Herr Bosendorfer, the great piano- 
maker, in memory of Hans von Biilow 
for the best piano concerto. 




Dohnanyi visited the United States 
in 1899, and in a season when Ham- 
bourg, de Pachmann and other pian- 
ists noted for their technique, ap- 
peared here, he was heard several 
times and held his own with them. 
Of recent years he has devoted him- 
self almost wholly to composition, 
and as one writer has said, " Wants 
to be taken as a composer who plays 
the piano and not as a pianist who 
occasionally writes a piece of music." 
He has played the Beethoven G 
major concerto with the Vienna Phil- 
harmonic Orchestra, under Hans 
Richter and at one of Richter's Phil- 
harmonic concerts in London and at 
numerous recitals. While in Boston, 
Dohnanyi played his pianoforte con- 
certo at a Boston Symphony Orches- 
tra concert, and it was declared to be 
remarkable in conception as well as 
in workmanship. He was, in the 
early years of his career, a strong 
admirer of Schumann, but at the pres- 
ent time, is said to be a still more 
ardent devotee of Brahms and his 
music. Dohnanyi's works include, 
beside those already mentioned, four 
rhapsodies; five clavierstiick; a quin- 
tet; a serenade; piano concerto; varia- 
tions for the piano; and other works. 
His piano concerto and symphony in 
D minor have been especially praised. 
Of Dohnanyi's playing, one writer 
says: "It is vigorous and manly, 
although at times also tender, where 
that quality is required. In a word, 
he plays the piano as a sound and 
sane musician, with much dexterity 
and beauty." His compositions show 
great originality of idea, and a de- 
cided leaning toward classical forms. 

Dotes (do'-les), Johann Friedrich. 


Composer . and director, who was 
born at Steinbach in Saxe-Meiningen, 
Germany, and was educated for the 
most part at the Gymnasium there, 
where he was taught to play on the 
violin, clavier and organ. He was 
later a pupil of J. S. Bach, and in 1744 
was appointed cantor of the Thomas 
School at Leipsic, remaining thirty- 
three years in that position. He re- 
tired about 1789. He was highly 
popular in Leipsic and wrote chiefly 
cantatas; motets; psalms; sacred 
odes; songs; chorales; chorale-pre- 
ludes; a German magnificat; and some 
sonatas for the clavicembalo. Three 
settings of the Passion music accord- 


ing to St. Matthew, St. Mark and St. 
John, Te Deums and other sacred 
music is also attributed to him. Doles 
is said to have pleaded for the banish- 
ment of the fugue in church music, 
in spite of his association with that 
great composer of fugues, Johann 
Sebastian Bach. His compositions, 
too, seem to have been more affected 
by the Italian opera than by Bach. 

* Dolmetsch (dal'-metch) , Arnold. 

Conspicuous archseologist of music, 
who has been well-called an apostle 
of old music, and who is a decidedly 
interesting and unique personality, 
because of the work he has done in 
restoring old instruments and manu- 
facturing new ones on the old models, 
beside reviving an interest in the old 
tunes of the time of Queen Elizabeth. 
Mr. Dolmetsch was born at Le Mans, 
in the province of Maine, France, of 
a German-Swiss father and a French 
mother. His grandfather, Frederick 
Dolmetsch, born in Stuttgart, settled 
later in Zurich, was a prominent 
musician in that town and a close 
associate of Nageli, one of Beetho- 
ven's publishers. While a boy, Arn- 
old Dolmetsch became an apprentice 
in his father's piano factory at Le 
Mans, and at an early age became 
familiar with every detail of piano 
construction and manufacture. This 
knowledge in later years proved of 
inestimable value to him. He was 
brought up on the works of Bach, 
Scarlatti and other early masters, and 
was extremely fond of ^ the violin, 
taking up the study of it seriously, 
although playing it for his own 
amusement only. Finally deciding 
that his talents warranted further 
study he went to Brussels and worked 
at the Conservatory there under 
Vieuxtemps. A few years later he 
obtained a position as teacher of the 
violin at Dulwich College, in England. 
He remained there several years 
teaching, editing violin classics, and 
filling concert engagements. At the 
annual pupils' concerts, Dolmetsch 
made up the programs from the works 
of the early masters, and upon one 
occasion, made up a program entirely 
from the works of Henry Purcell, and 
immediately the attention of musical 
London was drawn to him. By 
chance about this time, he took up 
the study of the viola d'amore, an 
instrument, which was rapidly be- 



coming a rarity. His skill as a per- 
former upon it soon made him in 
great demand, to illustrate lectures on 
musical history. From this instru- 
ment he turned to others, among 
them, the treble and tenor viols and 
the viola da gamba, and in pursuit 
of more music for these instruments, 
unearthed treasures of almost un- 
known music by English composers, 
among others, Simon Ives, Matthew 
Locke, John Jenkins, John Cooper, 
Christopher Simpsong, Giles Farnaby 
and others and also discovered some 
ingenious and fanciful compositions 
of Henry VIII., who appears from 
these specimens to have been a com- 
poser of some skill. To properly in- 
terpret this old music, Dolmetsch 
soon found, would require consid- 
erable investigation of the virginal, 
spinet, harpsichord and clavichord, 
for which much of it was written, 
and he studied them as he had the 
instruments belonging to the viol 
family. He decided to lecture on the 
subject of old music and was so suc- 
cessful that he finally gave up his 
teaching to devote himself to his new 
work. He organized a series of con- 
certs in London, playing upon the an- 
cient instruments, in order to correctly 
interpret the music of their time. 

In this venture Dolmetsch was 
aided and encouraged by Edward 
Burne-Jones, George Bernard Shaw, 
George Moore and others, but ulti- 
mately his pre-eminence in the unusual 
field of work he had chosen was 
acknowledged everywhere. Five years 
ago Mr. Dolmetsch came to America 
and traveled through the country, giv- 
ing lectures and illustrated concerts. 
Assisted by Mrs. Dolmetsch and Miss 
Kathleen Salmon, he made a unique 
experiment at the time of the Ben 
Greet performances of Shakespearian 
plays in the Elizabethan manner. 
During the ent' acts, they played the 
original music of the time on old_ in- 
struments of the Elizabethan period, 
giving the settings of the songs, 
dances and incidental music written 
by Byrd, Giles Farnaby, and other 
musicians. Some of the tunes that 
were played were Dr. Bull's, Gilliard, 
written about 1595; Dr. Bull's Myself; 
a sigg. written by Giles Farnaby about 
1600; poynle for the organ, written 
about 1580, by John Sheppard; and a 
lively gigg by W. Byrd. Whenever 
Much Ado About Nothing was per- 
formed, Mr. Dolmetsch and his assist- 


ants gave the song, Light Us More, 
Laddies, which was set to music com- 
posed by Mrs. Dolmetsch, the original 
tune having been lost. In "discours- 
ing the sweet sounds of other days," 
Mr. and Mrs. Dolmetsch used a num- 
ber of old instruments, among them 
a lute made in Venice in 1550; a vir- 
ginal made in North Italy about 1550; 
a harpsichord made in Antwerp in 
1640; a viola de gamboys, (old Eng- 
lish); a five-stringed treble viol (old 
French), and a seven-stringed viol 
d'amore. Mr. Dolmetsch was so suc- 
cessful that he was engaged by 
Chickering & Sons, the piano manu- 
facturers of Boston, to superintend 
the manufacture of clavichords, harp- 
sichords and other instruments, such 
as a psaltery, and a viola da gamba, 
and to restore some Sixteenth Cen- 
tury instruments, one of which was 
a virginal, by Hans Riickers, dated 
1620. For this work of restoring old 
instruments, Mr. Dolmetsch is un- 
usually well-fitted because of his 
thorough and first-hand knowledge of 
the old keyboard instruments and be- 
cause of his practical apprenticeship 
in the past. He says musical instru- 
ments design themselves, and that he 
has no fixed mechanical rules for their 
construction. Some of the instru- 
ments which have been restored or 
manufactured by him have been 
elaborately decorated by hand. 

Mr. Dolmetsch has a keen and 
penetrating knowledge of the period 
with which he deals in designing, and 
is not only painstaking in his work, 
but faithful to the traditions and sen- 
timents of the epoch which he repre 
sents. Beside being a well-inforrned 
and delightful lecturer and artist- 
artisan, as some one has well called 
him, he is a brilliant performer on 
the clavichord and harpsichord. Mr. 
Dolmetsch's researches have led him 
into the field of collecting and he has 
in his home many rare treasures, in- 
cluding many first editions and manu- 
script copies of pieces of music of 
ancient times, numerous instruction 
books dating from the Fifteenth, Six- 
teenth and Seventeenth Centuries, as 
well as lutes and viols of diflferent 
sizes, a viola da gamba and a Couchet 
harpsichord dating from 1640. He 
also owns a large number of manu- 
script copies of music made from the 
originals and nearly four thousand 
songs printed and in manuscripts in 
different languages. 



Donati (do-na'-te), Baldassare. 1548- 


Italian contrapuntist of the Six- 
teenth Century, who was connected 
with the Church of St. Mark's at 
Venice all of his life. He was born 
in Venice, and was one of the most 
distinguished composers of madrigals 
and motets of his time. Of his works, 
several books of madrigals and a book 
of motets have been preserved. He 
was a good organist as well as a 
singer of some note. Was a member 
of the New Academy of Venice, was 
choirmaster of the so-called "small 
choir" of St. Mark's from 1562 until 
1565, when it disbanded, when he be- 
came a chorister. In 1590 he suc- 
ceeded Zarlino as master there. 

Donati, Ignatio. 1612-1638. 

A composer and organist, who was 
born at Castelmaggiore, near Cre- 
mona, Italy, and who belonged to the 
Lombard School of Composition. In 
1619 he was chapelmaster of the 
Academy of St. Spirito, Ferrara, and 
from 1633, master of the Milan 
Cathedral. He published ecclesiasti- 
cal concertos; motets; madrigals; and 
two volumes of masses. 

Donizetti (do-ne-tset'-te), 1797-1848. 
One of the brilliant trio of Italian 
operatic composers who flourished 
during the first half of the Nineteenth 
Century, the other two being Rossini 
and Bellini. Donizetti was born at 
Bergamo, Italy, and studied music at 
the Conservatory of Naples, under 
Simon Mayer, going later to Bologna 
for a course of study under Pilotti 
and Mattei, who had been Rossini's 
teacher in counterpoint. The elder 
Donizetti wished his son to study 
church music, but he early disap- 
pointed his father by declaring his 
intention of studying opera, and opera 
alone. Young Donizetti finally en- 
tered the army and while his regiment 
was at Naples he wrote his first 
opera, Enrico di Borgogna. This was 
in 1818, and shortly afterward 11 
Falegn^me made its appearance. The 
success of this was so great that 
Donizetti was exempted from further 
military service to devote himself ex- 
clusively to composition. He first 
gained the notice of the musical 
world by his opera, Anna Bolena, 
written for Pasta and Rubini, and 
produced at Milan in 1830. In this 
opera, which for several years was 


looked upon as Donizetti's master- 
piece, Lablache, the great singer, 
made his first great success at the 
King's Theatre, London, in 1831. It 
was also given with striking success 
at Paris. Two years after the pro- 
duction of Anna Bolena, L'Elisir 
d'Amore, a lively, tuneful piece and a 
good example of genuine Italian opera 
bufla, appeared, its first performance 
occuring at Naples. It was given in 
London in 1836. It has always been 
popular, and Donizetti is said to have 
written it in fifteen days. 

In 1835, Lucia di Lammermoor ap- 
peared and was hailed with enthus- 
iasm and delight by the music-loving 
public. It has remained ever since 
the most popular of the composer's 
operas. In it is some of the most 
beautiful music ever written, and 
through it the composer secured the 
post of professor of counterpoint at 
the Naples Conservatory. La Fav- 
orita was first produced in 1841 at the 
Grand Opera, Paris, and in it as well 
as in Lucia, Donizetti adapted him- 
self with great cleverness to French 
requirements. In La Favorita, which 
was composed in Paris, many opera- 
tic singers of renown have appeared 
with success. At first it failed to 
please, although it is the most dra- 
matic of all of Donizetti's works. It 
owed its success in England to the 
singers, Mme. Grisi and the tenor, 
Mario, who sang the principal parts 
in it. In Paris also, Donizetti wrote 
the merry little opera buffa, Don 
Pasquale, which has ever been popu- 
lar. In Donizetti's Daughter of the 
Regiment, tuneful and full of un- 
affected gaiety, Jenny Lind, Sontag, 
Patti and Albani all appeared with 
success and in more recent years 
Mme. Marcella Sembrich has been 
heard in it. Like La Favorita this 
opera was received at first with only 
moderate approval. 

After visiting Rome, Milan and 
Venice, the composer brought out 
Linda di Chamouni, and wrote a 
Miserere and an Ave Maria for the 
Court chapel. He shortly afterward 
received the title of Court composer 
and chapelmaster at Venice. His next 
opera was Lucrczia Borgia, which by 
some is considered his best work. 
Donizetti took it from Victor Hugo's 
tragedy of the same name. Lucrezia 
marks the distance half way between 
the style of Rossini, imitated by 
Donizetti for many years, and that of 




Verdi, which he in some measure 

In fact, Donizetti took Rossini for 
his model, and imitated his forms 
with great skill and success. In the 
course of twenty-six busy years he 
wrote sixty-two operas and a mass of 
other music. His last work, Catarina 
Cornaro, was produced at Naples in 
1844, but was a failure. In 1835, 
Donizetti's wife had died, after only 
two years of married life and his 
loss so preyed upon him that during 
the last years of his life his mind was 
clouded and his condition was very 
sad. Melancholy, dissipation and hard 
work induced madness and physical 
paralysis, which finally ended in 
death. In 1847, Donizetti was taken 
by friends to his native town, Ber- 
gamo, and the following year died 
there, being buried in the cathedral, 
next to the tomb of his former teacher, 
Simon Mayer, whom he had survived 
only two years. In 1855, seven years 
after Donizetti's death, a monument 
to his memory was erected over his 
grave by his fellow townsmen. In 
his life he received many honorary 
tributes from Pope Gregory XVI., 
and from the Sultan of Turkey. By 
his critics Donizetti is accused of 
having catered too much to the frivol- 
ous spirit of the time, and to have 
written only "melodic and harmoni- 
ous untruths," as one musician ex- 
pressed it. But his music, nevertheless, 
has many merits. The cosmopolitan 
nature of the man is seen in the 
themes which he chose, and it no 
doubt helped in his being generally 
appreciated. It was for a gay, pleas- 
ure-loving people that this composer 
wrote, and he became their idol and 
one of the brilliant lights of the 
Italian school of composition. In all 
his work, there is a graphicness and 
great individuality, and he did some 
things that were fine, as the last act 
of Favorita. In composing, Donizetti 
never used the piano and never made 
corrections. The melody of all his 
operas is highly Italian, and conse- 
quently pretty. 

Other operas beside those men- 
tioned are Dom Sebastien, which be- 
cause of its mournful music has been 
called "a funeral in five acts"; Olivo 
e Pasquale; II Borjomastro di Saar- 
dam; and L'Esule di Roma, which 
were written early in life and before 
his great successes had come to him. 
Donizetti also wrote many overtures; 


songs in various languages; ariettes; 
duets; canzonets; seven masses; can- 
tatas; string quartets; and much piano 
music. Fetis, the great French writer, 
says of him: "Donizetti had an ex- 
tensive knowledge of the art of sing- 
ing, was a great reader of music and 
a pianist of abihty." Of all his operas 
only three are now heard outside of 
Italy. These are Lucia, Lucrezia 
Borgia and La Favorita. 

Door, Anton. 1833- 

He was born in Vienna and became 
a celebrated pianist and teacher. He 
studied piano under Czerny and com- 
position under Sechter. He has been 
heard in concerts in many parts of 
Europe and has held many important 
posts. He gave a series of concerts 
in Baden-Baden and Wiesbaden in 
1850 and later with L. Strauss in 
Italy, made a Scandinavian tour in 
1856 and was appointed Court pianist 
at Stockholm and a member of the 
Royal Academy. In 1859 he suc- 
ceeded N. Rubinstein as teacher at 
the Imperial Institute at Moscow, and 
became a professor at the Conserv- 
atory of Moscow in 1864. He traveled 
through Eastern Hungary with Sar- 
sate in 1877, and also played in Leip- 
sic, Berlin and Amsterdam with 
striking success. Since 1869 he has 
held the post of professor of the 
highest piano class in the Vienna Con- 
servatory. Door is a progressive 
musician and has brought out many 
new works by Raff, Brahms and Saint- 
Saens. He has also edited several 
important works and was the instruc- 
tor of a number of well-known musi- 
cians, among them Felix Mottl, the 
great Wagnerian conductor, Sichel 
and others. 

Doppler, Albert Franz. 1821-1883. 

The elder of the Doppler brothers, 
who became proficient as flutists and 
conductors. Albert Franz was born 
at Lemberg and received his musical 
training from his father, who was 
afterwards oboist at a Warsaw thea- 
tre and later on at Vienna, where 
Albert made his debut as flutist. He 
undertook several concert tours with 
his brother Karl, afterward being ap- 
pointed principal flutist at the Pesth 
Theatre, for which his first opera was 
composed. It was entitled Benjowski 
and was produced in 1847. Ilka' ap- 
peared in 1849 and others shortly 
after, written jointly with his brother 




and Erkel. In 1858 he became first 
flutist and second ballet conductor at 
the Court Theatre, Vienna, and from 
1865 was teacher of the flute at the 
Conservatory of Vienna. He wrote 
a German opera, Judith, for Vienna, 
and a comic opera, entitled Margot, 
was produced at Berlin in 1891. Other 
works consist of overtures, ballet 
pieces and flute concertos. 

Doppler, Karl. 1826-1900. 

A brother of Albert Franz Doppler. 
He appeared at Paris, London, Brus- 
sels and other cities with Albert in 
concert with much success. He was 
born in Lemberg, and had an inter- 
esting musical career. He was the 
musical director at the Landes Thea- 
tre, Pesth, and became most proficient 
as a flutist. From 1865 until 1898 he 
was the Court chapelmaster at Stutt- 
gart, and also won considerable 
prominence as a composer. He wrote 
several pieces for the flute, also sev- 
eral Hungarian operas, including The 
Grenadier's Camp and The Son of the 

* Doting (da'-ring), Carl Heinrich. 

A distinguished German composer 
of piano works, male choruses and a 
large number of studies who is at 
present a teacher in the Royal Con- 
servatory of Music at Dresden. He 
has been active as a worker in the 
field of music for fifty years. Doring 
was born in Dresden and was a pupil 
at the Leipsic Conservatory from 
1852 to 1855, studying under Haupt- 
mann. Lobe, Plaidy and Richter, and 
also Moscheles. A gradually increas- 
ing lameness of his fingers, forced 
him to renounce the career of virtu- 
oso, which he had planned for himself 
and he has devoted himself almost 
exclusively to the profession of teach- 
ing. Doring taught for a time at 
Leipsic, and in 1858 the board of 
directors of the Conservatory of 
Dresden appointed him an instructor 
in that institution. Through the 
founding of a seminary for music- 
teachers, the first one of its kind, 
Doring rendered a great service to 
the Dresden Music School, to its 
pupils and to the profession at large. 
He occupies a high place among Ger- 
many's musicians. His klavierstiicken 
(piano pieces), have been introduced 
into all the prominent music schools 
of the worjd, because of the excel- 


lence of their technique, which is 
combined with melody and harmony. 
They include three hundred studies; 
sixty sonatines and a great number of 
technical pieces. He is also noted for 
his male choruses and ranks high 
among the composers of this kind of 

Among his works for choir are A 
German Ode; Song of the German 
Marines; Prayer on the Waters; 
Evening Song; In May; King: of the 
Forest; and others. Among his piano 
pieces the following may be men- 
tioned: Rose Among Thorns; Glad 
Tidings; When Spring is Coming; 
May's Greeting; Forget-Me-Not; Ga- 
votte; and his Pictures for the Piano. 
He has also composed some suites 
for string orchestra and several 
motets that have been highly praised. 

Upon the occasion of Doring's 
fortieth jubilee as a teacher, he was 
made Hofrath (Court Councilor), and 
has received many honors from those 
in authority. In 1864 Pope Leo XIII. 
conferred upon him, in appreciation 
of a great mass he had written, the 
Cross of the Knight of the Golden 
Spurs. The Duke Ernst von Sachsen- 
Coburg sent him a medal for science 
and art and Duke Alfred presented 
him with a cross of merit. Doring, 
in his seventy-third year, is still an 
indefatigable and enthusiastic worker 
in his chosen field. For the last 
twenty years he has devoted a great 
deal of his time to his male chorus 
work, composing the music for the 
choirs under his direction and train- 
ing the singers, and his efforts have 
met with much success in all parts 
of Germany and Austria. 

Dorn, Heinrich Ludwig Edmund. 


A modern musician of eminence, 
who has made his mark as composer, 
conductor and teacher. He was born 
in Konigsberg, Prussia, and pursued 
his studies in law at the Konigsberg 
University. After visiting Leipsic, 
Dresden, Prague and Vienna he sec- 
tied in Berlin, where he took up the 
study of music under Zelter, Bergen 
and Klein. Here he produced an 
opera, but it was not a s-uccess. He 
became conductor of a theatre at 
Konigsberg and also occupied a 
similar position at Leipsic, where he 
taught Schumann counterpoint. After 
a brief engagement at a theatre in 
Hamburg he went to Riga, succeed- 




ing Wagner as conductor of the 
theatre there. In 1845 he founded the 
Rheinische Musikschule in Cologne, 
and for five years remained at its 
head, directing festivals, in addition 
to teaching and composing. He next 
became conductor of the Berlin Royal 
Opera, succeeding O. Nicolai. He 
retired from this post in 1869. He 
was shortly afterward given the title 
of Koniglicher Professor and con- 
tinued to teach and compose until 
his death in 1892. Dorn was an in- 
defatigable worker and gained a great 
reputation in Berlin as a teacher and 
writer. He was a bitter opponent of 
Wagner and his ideas and wrote 
strongly against him. He has pub- 
lished a long list of works, including 
ten operas; many cantatas; a 
requiem; symphonies and other or- 
chestral compositions, among which 
the most important is Siegesfest- 
klange; also songs and piano-pieces. 
Of his operas, the most successful is 
Die Nibelungen, which was produced 
at Weimar in 1854. Dorn undoubtedly 
deserves a high place among musi- 
cians. He exerted a decided influence 
for good in the musical life of the 
various towns where he lived and 
worked. He published an autobiog- 
raphy, entitled Aus Meinem Leben in 
two volumes. He died in Berlin. 
Dotzauer (dot'-tsow-er), Justus Jo- 

hann Friedrich. 1783-1860. 

He was born at Hildburghausen, 
Germany, and was an accomplished 
player and teacher of the violoncello. 
He pursued his musical studies under 
Gleichmann, Henschkel and Ruttinger 
and at Meiningen under Kriegck. 
From 1801 to 1805 he was a member 
of the Court band there. He was 
engaged for Dresden's Court band, 
and, in 1821, became first cellist of 
that organization, working zealously 
there till 1852. He received a pen- 
sion and later taught a number of 
pupils, who afterwards distinguished 
themselves, among them, K._ Schu- 
berth, K. Drechsler and Ludwig Dot- 
zauer, his son. He composed con- 
certos; variations; and duets for the 
cello; also symphonies; overtures; 
masses; an opera, Graziosa; and a 
violoncello method which is highly 
esteemed by teachers. He also edited 
Bach's six sonatas for violoncello. 
Dowland, John. 1562-1626. 

A famous lute-player, who was 
born in Westminster, London, and 


who composed many fascinating com- 
positions for his instrument. The 
poetry and music in his works are of 
great excellence and he was classed 
with the best musicians of his time. 
His compositions all have that de- 
lightful, quaint flavor peculiar to the 
works of the composers who lived 
during the Sixteenth and Seventeenth 
Centuries. He resided on the Con- 
tinent from 1581 to 1584, but returning 
to England he was made a Bachelor 
of Music and was the lutenist to 
Charles IV. of Denmark about 1599. 
He returned to England in 1605, and 
after another period of residence in 
Denmark settled in London and con- 
tinued to maintain his home there. 
He became lutenist to the King in 
1625. He compiled three books of 
songs and airs for the lute, a Pil- 
grim's Solace, wherein is contained 
musical harmony of three, four and 
five parts to be sung and played with 
lute and viols, which was published in 
1612. He also wrote the harmonies 
in Estes' Psalms. 

Draeseke (dra'-ze-ke), Felix August 

Bernhard. 1835- 

Composer and writer upon musical 
subjects, who was born at Coburg, 
where his father, the son of a once 
famous bishop of Magdeburg, was 
Court chaplain. He was educated in 
the Gymnasium of his native town, 
and from 1852 until 1855 he studied 
at the Leipsic Conservatory under 
Richter, Hauptmann and Rietz. He 
became a devotee of Wagner in his 
early youth. He made the acquain- 
tance of Liszt and von Biilow, and, 
in 1857, he moved to Dresden, where 
he wrote Konig Sigurd, in which 
Liszt had so much faith that he caused 
it to be accepted at Weimar, and even 
rehearsed, but Liszt resigned his post 
there before the work was produced. 
Draeseke, however, had by this time 
begun to attract notice by his com- 
positions and his musical articles in 
magazines. In 1880 Draeseke was 
appointed teacher of theory in the 
Rollfus Academy, and in 1884 he suc- 
ceeded Wullner as teacher of com- 
position at the Dresden Conservatory, 
a post which he still holds. A sym- 
phony of his was given in Dresden 
and in Berlin, in 1888,_ under von 
Biilow, and was well received. Ainong 
his works are two symphonies; a 
pianoforte sonata; the operas, Herrat, 
produced in 1872, and Gudrun, given 




at Hanover in 1884; Columbus, a 
cantata for chorus and orchestra; two 
string quartets; and other music, be- 
sides a requiem, which was first 
given at Leipsic in 1883 with marked 
success, and afterwards by the best 
of the German choral societies. His 
latest work is a mass in F sharp 
minor still in manuscript, and given 
at Dresden and Leipsic in 1892. 

Draghi (dra'-ge), Antonio. 1642-1700. 

Italian composer, brother af Bap- 
tista. He was born at Ferrara, and 
was a musician in the service of the 
Court of Vienna, having been invited 
there as Court theatre musician to 
Emperor Leopold L and chapelmaster 
to the Empress Eleanore. He wrote 
several operas, among them, Aron- 
isba; Penelope; Tanasio, and Amor 
per virtu. In all he wrote about 
eighty-three operas, some of which 
have been several times revived. He 
also composed serenades; hymns; 
cantatas, and about thirty-seven ora- 

Draghi, Giovanni Baptista. 

A composer and musician of the 
Seventeenth Century, who was born 
in Italy, but adopted the English 
style of composition so entirely that 
he is generally regarded as an Eng- 
lish composer. He is believed to have 
been a brother of Antonio Draghi 
and was musicmaster to Queen Anne 
of England and probably to her sister. 
Queen Mary. He settled in England 
about the middle of the Seventeenth 
Century and was appointed organist 
to the Queen in 1677. He composed 
the music, with Locke, to Shadwell's 
Psyche; D'Urfey's Wonder of the 
Sun; the music to Dryden's ode, From 
Harmony; and songs without number, 
many of which were very tuneful. 
Draghi wrote much for the harpsi- 
chord and lived to witness the intro- 
duction into England of the Italian 
Opera at the beginning of the follow- 
ing century. 

Dragonetti, Domenico. 1763-1846. 

Renowned player of the double- 
bass, who was born in Venice, and 
who has been sometimes called " the 
Paganini of the contra-basso." He 
also composed and taught and played 
in the opera buffa at Venice and was 
choirmaster of St. Mark's for eighteen 
years. He made his first London 
appearance in 1794, and played with 
Lindley at the Ancient Concerts, the 


Philharmonic and others. He led the 
doublebasses at the Beethoven Fes- 
tival at Bonn in 1845. Says one 
writer: "Dragonetti is to the aspir- 
ing bass-player what Paganini is, or 
used to be, to the violinist." His tone 
and execution were of the rarest type 
and placed him far above any con- 
temporary performer. Many anec- 
dotes are related of his eccentricity 
and penuriousness. 

Drechsler (drekhs'-ler), Josef. 1782- 

A composer and teacher who was 
born at Vlachove Brezi in Bohemia, 
and received his first musical instruc- 
tion from his father. He was first 
chorusmaster at the Court Theatre, 
Vienna, then conductor of a theatre 
at Baden and at Pressburg, and or- 
ganist of the Servite Church at 
Vienna, and occupied many positions 
of a similar nature. He composed 
much for the stage and also wrote 
church music. In addition to six 
operas and twenty-five operettas; 
farces, etc; he wrote masses; offer- 
tories; a requiem; sonatas; quartets; 
airs; songs and fugues. He is also 
the author of a method for the organ 
and a treatise on harmony. He pre- 
pared a new edition of Pleyl's piano 
school and wrote a theoretico- 
practical guide to the art of preluding 
and several books of instruction for 
organ, harmony and thorough-bass. 

Dresel (dra'-zel), Otto. 1826-1890. 

The friend and co-worker of Robert 
Franz, who has been called " the high 
priest of the Franz cult in America," 
was born at Andernack-on-the-Rhine, 
and after being taught the rudiments 
of music, he was placed under the 
instruction of Ferdinand Hiller at 
Cologne and then studied under Men- 
delssohn at Leipsic. He did much to 
make German music, particularly the 
songs of Robert Franz, known in the 
United States. In 1852 he came to 
Boston, where he resided until his 
death, except for occasional visits to 
Germany. He was for many years 
the leading pianist of Boston, but 
withdrew from the concert room in 
1868 and gave up teaching a few years 
later. Dresel exercised a great in- 
fluence for good upon the musical 
taste of Boston and was a highly 
cultivated musician of much feeling. 
Only shortly before his death did he 
decide to publish anything, and when 




his compositions did appear it was 
generally regretted that he kept them 
from the public so long. Even when 
a young man he was a tireless worker, 
exacting to the smallest detail and 
severely criticising everything he did. 
He kept back for years numerous 
songs and other pieces, waiting until 
he could give the public what he be- 
lieved to be worthy and of value. His 
friend, Robert Franz, was his best 
critic and many claim to find in 
Dresel's songs music that is remi- 
niscent of Franz's best works. Among 
Dresel's compositions, which consist 
for the most part of songs, are O, 
Listen My Darling; Maud; Moon- 
light; and The Flowers All are Faded, 
all of which says one musician, " Even 
Franz himself might have been proud 
of." Among Dresel's other composi- 
tions are In Memoriam, a ballad for 
.soprano and orchestra, set to Long- 
fellow's verses; an army hymn to 
words of Oliver Wendell Holmes; 
trio for violin and violoncello; piano 
trio; quartets, and many other piano- 
pieces, all of which bear the impress 
of a finished musician. Among his 
works still in manuscript that have 
been performed in Boston, is a quartet 
for piano and strmgs. His piano 
score of Handel's Messiah, arranged 
from Franz's completed score, is in 
every respect a model. Dresel died 
at Beverley, near Boston. 

A beautiful tribute to Dresel and 
his life-long friend, Robert Franz, is 
given by W. F. Apthorp, in the 
chapter, entitled " Two Modern 
Classicists " in his Musicians and 
Music-Lovers, in which he says among 
other things: " Franz and Dresel 
were the last prominent figures in 
that goodly company of musical 
purists and with their death the old 
fineness of musical sense became vir- 
tually extinct ... In both of 
these men was to found, in the high- 
est perfection what I might call for 
lack of a better name, the sense of 
musical beauty, the keenest sense for 
beauty of expression, beauty of form, 
proportion and color . . . They 
were staunch, life-long friends, their 
agreement on musical subjects was as 
complete as their friendship; they 
both worked together toward the 
same end, though they lived long 
apart, neither gave anything to the 
world without the ordeal of its pass- 
ing through the other's criticism; they 
died within two years of each other. 


It is well to speak of them together 
. . . Their best work was to ex- 
clude trash and let what was genuine 
come into its rights. And of all men 
of their day they were the best fitted 
for the task . . . Franz alone was 
a creator. Dresel composed to a certain 
extent and what he wrote was often 
surpassingly fine, but in him the 
spirit of self-criticism was stronger 
than the creative impulse." 

Dreyschock (dri'-shok), Alexander. 


He was born at Zack, in Bohemia, 
studied with Tomaschek at Prague, 
and became a pianist of great attain- 
ments and a composer of much beau- 
tiful salon music. Beginning in 1838, 
he traveled through Europe for twenty 
years, giving concerts. In 1862 he was 
appointed professor of the piano at 
the Conservatory at St. Petersburg, 
and at the same time was chosen 
director of the Imperial School of 
Theatrical Music and appointed Court 
pianist. He also taught in Prague. 
Shortly after accepting the position at 
St. Petersburg his health began to 
fail and he went to Venice, where he 
died in 1869. Dreyschock's works 
consist of an opera, Florette; a 
scherzo; grand sonata; Saltarello; 
nocturne; premiere scene chapetre; 
overture for orchestra; rondo for or- 
chestra; string quartet; songs without 
words, and other music. His vari- 
ations on God Save the Queen have 
won much praise. "A pianist of great 
executive attainments," says Grove in 
describing him, " and a well-trained 
musician to boot, but he gave every- 
thing in a manner cold and essentially 
prosaic, though with faultless pre- 
cision." And the same critic says: 
" Dreyschock's salon music was of a 
correct but cold and sterile sort." 

Drouet (droo-a), Louis Frangois 
Philippe. 1792-1873. 

Eminent flute-player, who was born 
at Amsterdam, Holland, and is one of 
the founders of modern flute-playing. 
He was, from 1807 until 1810, teacher 
to King Louis of Holland and is sup- 
posed to have composed Partant pour 
la Syrie, the French national song, 
commonly attributed to Eugenie de 
Beauharnais (Queen Hortense of 
Holland), and long since superseded 
by the song of freedom. La Marseil- 
laise. Drouet settled in London, 
where he established a flute factory 




and appeared as a soloist at the Phil- 
harmonic concerts. In 1811 he was 
appointed solo flutist to Napoleon I., 
retaining this position until after the 
Restoration. From 1836 until 1854 he 
was Court chapelmaster at Coburg, 
and later visited America, living upon 
his return at Gotha and Frankfort. 
Drouet composed a number of works, 
among them three waltzes for flute; 
three trios for flute; fantasia for piano 
and flute; concertos; variations and 
duets. In all, his compositions for 
the flute number one hundred and 

Drysdale, F. Learmont. 1866- 

He was born in Edinburgh and edu- 
cated for the profession of architect, 
but his taste for music led him to 
enter the Royal Academy of Music, 
London, where he won the Lucas 
prize for composition in 1890. While 
a student he also wrote a ballad for 
orchestra, The Spirit of the Glen; an 
orchestral prelude, Thomas the 
Rhymer; and a scena, forming part of 
the cantata. The Kelpie, which was 
afterwards given at Edinburgh. He 
received a prize from the Glasgow 
Society of Musicians in 1891 for his 
overture, Tam O'Shanter, and it was 
performed with great success at 
Crystal Palace. His mystic musical 
play, The Plague, was produced at the 
Lyceum Theatre, Edinburgh, in Oc- 
tober, 1896. 

Dubois (du-bwa), Clement Frangois 
Theodore. 1837- 

He was born in Rosnay, France, 
became prominent as a teacher and 
composer and was, until 1905, when 
succeeded by Gabriel Urbain Faure, 
the head of the Paris Conservatory. 
He studied music at the Conservatory, 
gaining prizes for harmony and fugue 
and won the Prize of Rome, in 1861, 
under Ambroise Thomas, for his can- 
tata, Atala. At the Conservatory he 
studied piano under Marmontel, organ 
under Benoist, harmony under Bazin 
and fugue and composition under 
Ambroise Thomas. Returning to 
Paris from Rome, in 1866, he became 
leader of the chapel at the Church of 
Ste. Clotilde, then at the Madeleine, 
and finally organist at the Madeleine, 
succeeding Saint-Saens, in 1877. He 
became professor of harmony at the 
Conservatory, in 1871, succeeding Leo 
Delibes, and finally in 1896 was given 


the directorship, succeeding his for- 
mer teacher, Ambroise Thomas. 

Dubois' rise was gradual, and he 
worked hard and long before attaining 
his present position in the musical 
world. While at Ste. Clotilde he pro- 
duced an important sacred work, en- 
titled Les Sept Paroles du Christ, 
which was performed for the first 
time on a Good Friday, and was given 
at the Conservatory concerts. He 
also wrote a Messe Solennelle, which 
was given at the Madeleine, and while 
at Ste. Clotilde he wrote a piece, 
entitled La Guzla de I'fimir, which 
was given at the Athenee in 1873. In 
1878 he won the prize at the Concours 
Musicale, instituted by the city of 
Paris. Dubois is the author of a 
number of orchestral works; piano- 
music; and religious compositions, 
which denote great talent and have 
qualities that entitle him to a con- 
spicuous place among modern com- 
posers. Of his oratorios. Paradise 
Lost is best known in America. He 
has also produced four operas; and 
the ballet, La Farandole, given at the 
Paris Opera in 1883. Fritiof, written 
in 1881, ranks with his operas as his 
best work, together with a divertisse- 
ment; pieces d'orchestre; and scenes 
symphoniques. His dramatic works 
for the stage, beside those mentioned 
are Aben-Hamet, a grand opera; 
Xaviere, a dramatic idyll in three 
acts, produced at the Opera Comique 
in 1895; the symphonic poem, Adonis; 
another symphonic poem, Notre Dame 
de la Mer, produced in 1897; and he 
has set to music a Latin ode on the 
baptism of King Clovis for tenor and 
barytone solo, choir and orchestra, 
which was performed at Rheims in 
1899. He has also composed many 
suites; concertos; single songs; piano- 
pieces; and other chamber-music. 
Dubois was elected to the Academy 
in 1894 in place of Gounod and in 
1883 was decorated with the Legion of 

Dufay (dii-fe'), Guillaume.. Born 
about 1400-1474. 

One of the most important names 
in the history of music. " Until the 
last few years," says Grove's Dic- 
tionary of Music and Musicians, " the 
personal identity of the great leader 
of the first Flemish school was sur- 
rounded by doubts and the statement 
of Baini that Dufay sang in the Papal 




choir from 1380 to 1432 has misled 
many writers." 

The facts, according to Grove and 
the best authorities are, that he was 
born in Hainault and was a chorister 
in the Cathedral of Cambrai, and was 
transferred to the Papal choir at Rome 
in 1428, remaining there nine years. 
In 1437 he entered the service of 
Philippe le bon, Duke of Burgundy, 
as music tutor to his son, Charles. 
He took holy orders in Paris and 
lived in Savoy for seven years. Ac- 
cording to Adam of Fulda, Dufay 
made many changes in notation and 
is the reputed inventor of white or 
open notes. One writer, Fr. X. 
Haberl, gives a list of one hundred 
and fifty compositions of Dufay found 
in the libraries of Rome, Trieste and 
Bologna, including masses, (finished 
and fragmentary), motets, a magni- 
ficat, French chansons and church 
music. Haberl also identifies sixty- 
two manuscripts in the library at 
Bologna, twenty-five at the University 
at Bologna, and thirty more, in other 
collections, among them the libraries 
of Brussels, Paris, Cambrai and 
Munich. Dufay died at Cambrai. 
With Dufay the influence of popular 
taste upon ecclesiastical music first 
took definite shape. He wrote masses 
founded upon melodies associated 
with the songs of the people and gave 
to church music a definite rhythm 
such as could be produced only by 
the influence of the popular songs of 
the time. 

The best contribution and the most 
recent to the literature of Dufay and 
his time, is Dufay and His Con- 
temporaries, by Sir John Stainer, 
which was published in 1898 and 
which contains a summary of the 
events of his life and nineteen com- 
positions from a manuscript in the 
Bodleian Library. 

Dugazon (dii-ga-zoh), Mme. Rosalie. 

Vocalist, whose maiden name was 
Lefevre. She was born in Berlin and 
went to Paris when a child of eight 
years. She was not a trained singer, 
but had great charm and made a suc- 
cess with her impersonations in vari- 
ous comic operas and operettas. 
Together with a sister she began her 
career as a ballet-dancer at the 
Comedie Italienne, Paris, and her first 
appearance as a singer was made at 
that theatre in 1774, when she sang 


the role of Pauline in Gretry's Sylvain. 
Her best impersonation was Nina in 
Dalayrac's opera of that name, but 
she was obliged to retire from the 
stage during the Revolution. She re- 
turned to it m 1795 and played con- 
tinuously and with success until 1806. 
To this day the classes of roles in 
which she was seen are called jeunes 
Dugazon and meres Dugazon. In 
1806 she retired from the stage. A 
son, Gustave, was a pianist and com- 
poser who wrote several successful 
operas and ballets. 

Duggan, Joseph Francis. 1817- 

He was born in Dublin, and early 
in life removed to the United States, 
and became accompanist at the Italian 
Opera in New York. He was after- 
wards the musical conductor of an 
opera company under John Wilson 
and of a German opera company. He 
became a teacher in Philadelphia, 
Baltimore and Washington, and was 
principal of the' Philadelphia Musical 
Institute, in 1841. He also resided in 
Paris, as pianist and teacher, from 
1844 to 1845, and also lived in Edin- 
burgh. Settling in London a few 
years later he became musical director 
of the Marylebone Theatre (1854) 
and later professor of singing at the 
Guildhall School of Music. Among 
his works are the operas, Pierre, pro- 
duced in London in 1853, and Leonie, 
produced the next year. He com- 
posed several operas, which are in 
manuscript, and also wrote a number 
of piano-pieces; a set of thirteen 
songs; two symphonies in C and E 
flat; and six string quartets. He is 
the author of a musical text-book and 
translated Albrechtsberger's Science 
of Music and Fetis' Counterpoint and 

Dukas, Paul. 1865- 

Well-known composer of the mod- 
ern French School, who was born in 
Paris and became a pupil at the Con- 
servatory in 1882, and who has won 
much praise as a symphonist, and 
more recently as an operatic com- 
poser. He completed two overtures, 
Lear and Goetz von Berlichingen, 
before he obtained the second Prize 
of Rome with his cantata, Velleda. 
He has written beside these an over- 
ture; Polyeucte, a symphony; a sym- 
phonic poem; a sonata for the piano; 
and variations for the piano; beside a 
lyric drama; an opera, and several 




songs and choruses. The symphonic 
poem, L'Apprenti Sorcier, was given 
at the London Musical Festival in 
1899, and through it Dukas is best 
known to Americans. It is called an 
orchestral humoresque, and had its first 
American performance, January, 1899, 
in Chicago, under the baton of Theo- 
dore Thomas. The libretto was writ- 
ten by the well-known writer, Maurice 
Maeterlinck. The latest work of 
Dukas is Ariane et Barbe Bleue, with 
the libretto by Maeterlinck, and deal- 
ing with the old story of Bluebeard. 
It was sung for the first time at the 
Opera Comique, Paris, in 1907, and 
critics declared after the production 
that, while it is not a master work, it 
nevertheless is a highly interesting 
example of the modern French School 
of writing. 

Dulcken (dool'-ken), Luise. 1811-1850. 
A talented pianist, a sister of Ferdi- 
nand David, the violinist, with whom 
she appeared at the Gewandhaus, 
Leipsic. While a concert-player and 
teacher she numbered among her 
pupils the late Queen Victoria. She 
was born at Hamburg, became a pupil 
of Willy Grund and made her first 
appearance when only ten years of 
age at Hamburg. After her marriage, 
in 1828, she moved to London, where 
she attracted much notice as a pianist, 
appearing first at one of Ella's soirees. 
Mme. Dulcken was not only a brill- 
iant executant on the piano, but 
was versed in the literature of Eng- 
land, Germany, France and Italy, and 
was a linguist as well. She was re- 
markably successful as a teacher and 
while thus engaged overtaxed her 
strength, and her death was attributed 
to hard work. She left a son, Ferdi- 
nand Quentin Dulcken, who was a 
pianist and a professor of music in 
the Warsaw Conservatory, and who 
composed much noteworthy music. 

Dulcken, Ferdinand Quentin. 18 3 7- 


A son of Luise David Dulcken the 
singer, and nephew of Ferdinand 
David. He was born in London and 
attained a considerable renown as a 
pianist. He was a pupil of Mendels- 
sohn, Moscheles, Gade, Hauptmann, 
Richter, Plaidy and Joachim in theory, 
of Becker on the organ and after- 
wards of F, Hiller at the Leipsic Con- 
servatory. He was professor at the 
Warsaw Conservatory for five years 
and later toured Europe in concert 


with Vieuxtemps and other artists. 
He toured the United States, in 1876, 
with Remenyi and Joseffy, and lived 
for some time in New York. Dulcken 
wrote an opera, Wieslav; a solemn 
mass; cantatas; songs (about two 
hundred in all), and many pianoforte 
pieces. He died in Astoria, N. Y. 

Dulong (doo'-longk), Franz Henri 

von. 1861- 

A tenor singer, who was born in 
Hamm, in Westphalia, Germany, and 
who studied under Robert Emmerich 
at Stuttgart and with Vannucini in 
Florence. He passed the early years 
of life directing the aflfairs pertaining 
to his large estates in Germany. His 
debut was made in 1895, and he has 
toured in various parts of Europe as 
a concert-singer, having participated 
with his wife, Magda von Dulong, at 
the London Popular concerts and 
the Symphony concerts. He appeared 
by command before the late Queen 
Victoria at Windsor and the Empress 
Frederick of Germany and her son, 
the present Emperor. 

Dulong, Magda von. 1872- 

A concert contralto, the wife of 
Franz Henri von Dulong. She was 
born at Halle, Germany. She was 
the daughter of Prof. Zahn, a teacher 
of theology. She studied under 
Hromada, Frau Joachim, and Madame 
Etelka Gerster, making her debut 
under the name of Magda Lossen, 
Her voice is a rich mezzo, and both in 
England and on the Continent she 
and her husband are greatly esteemed. 

Dunham, Henry Morton. 1853- 

A prominent virtuoso and com- 
poser for the organ. He was born at 
Brockton, Mass., studied at the New 
England Conservatory of Music, 
under George E,^ Whiting, and later 
was instructed in counterpoint by 
John K. Paine. After graduating 
from that institution he entered the 
Boston University College of Music. 
He gave a series of recitals on the 
great organ in Boston, and has been 
heard in many of the Boston churches 
and also in other New England cities. 
On his return from Europe, in 1878, 
he was appointed a member of the 
faculty of the New England Conserv- 
atory and is teacher of organ there 
at the present time. He was also 
connected with the Boston University 
College of Music for a time. He has 
published many compositions and 



written many text-books. Among the 
former are two organ sonatas in F 
minor and G minor; marches; pre- 
hides; a capriccio brillante for piano; 
a Te Deum in D; and hymn 
music in three books. He is also the 
author of an Organ School^ in four 
books; a system of technique for 
the piano; exercises in pedal play- 
ing; and melodious studies for the 

Duni (doo'-ne), Egidio Romoaldo. 


An Italian composer, who was the 
real founder of the opera comique in 
France. He was born at Matera, near 
Naples, and was musician to the Duke 
of Parma's daughter in 1755 and set- 
tled in Paris two years later. While 
at Parma he composed many oper- 
ettas, all of which were well received. 
For a time he occupied the position 
of choirmaster at St. Nicolo di Ban, 
at Naples, and studied at the Uni- 
versity of Leyden, Holland. While 
returning from Holland to Naples he 
was attacked by brigands, and the 
injuries he sustained at their hands 
made him a permanent invalid. Says 
Grove: "Duni delighted the public 
with eighteen pieces, full of gayety 
and tunefulness. These are his only 
characteristics. His orchestration is 
poor, he is often weak in dramatic 
expression, but always charming and 
melodious." His music has now been 
completely forgotten and is never 
heard. Among his ^ operas were 
Nerone, which was his first, and a 
great success, and which he wrote in 
competition with Pergolesi; Artaserse, 
written for San Carlo at Naples; 
Bajazet; Giro; and others. His other 
works included Myra, a cantata for 
full chorus and orchestra; church 
services and anthems; glees; songs 
and arias. 

* Dunkley, Ferdinand Luis. 1869- 

Composer and organist, Avho was 
born in London and studied first 
under G. A. Higgs, from 1885 to 
1886, and then was a pupil ^in the 
practising schools of St. John's, Bat- 
tersea, under Edward Mills. He 
studied at Trinity College, London, 
under E. H. Turpin, in composition 
and gained, in 1886, a scholarship for 
composition in the Royal College of 
Music, where, for four years he was 
a pupil in composition of Dr. Hubert 
Parry, and studied organ under George 


Martin and piano under Barnett. Mr. 
Dunkley's first position was that of 
organist at St. Jude's, London, from 
1885 to 1887. From 1892 to 1893 he 
was director of music at Battersea 
Grammar School and was made a fel- 
low of the Royal College of Organists 
in 1886. His first composition was a 
suite for orchestra, which gained the 
prize of fifty guineas, offered by the 
directors of the Promenade concerts 
at Her Majesty's Theatre, in 1889. 
In 1893 Mr. Dunkley came to 
America and was appointed Master of 
Music in St. Agnes' School, Albany, 
N. Y.; then moved to Asheville, N. C, 
where he resided two years, from 
1899 to 1901. He then removed to 
New Orleans, where he now resides, 
as organist of St. Paul's Episcopal 
Church and of Touro Synagogue. 
Since 1902 he has conducted the New 
Orleans Choral-Symphony Society. 
Mr. Dunkley gave organ recitals at 
the World's Fair, St. Louis, and at 
the Buffalo Exposition. His compo- 
sitions include The Wreck of the 
Hesperus, a ballad for chorus and or- 
chestra, which was performed with 
success at the Crystal Palace, London, 
in 1894; The Elected Knight, for 
male chorus with piano accompani- 
ment; an elegie for piano; an anthem, 
O Come All Ye Faithful; numerous 
songs and smaller pieces. He has 
also written several works for the 
Jewish Synagogue, including an an- 
them. From Sinai's Crest; a Sabbath 
Eve service and a setting of the Adon 
Olom, which has been pronounced by 
some authorities as the finest ever 

Dunstable, John. 

Born early in the Fifteenth Cen- 
tury, according to most authorities. 
He was an English mathematician, 
astrologer and musician, and was 
born at Dunstable in Bedfordshire. 
Little is known of his biography, but 
it is believed that he died in 1453. 
He was erroneously credited by 
Tinctor with the invention of coun- 
terpoint, but is generally believed to 
have been a composer of great ability 
and a musician of world-wide in- 
fluence. He wrote many noteworthy 
compositions, which have almost en- 
tirely disappeared. Says Grove: "His 
fame was great, although short-lived." 
He was the author of De Mensurabilis 
Musica, a treatise on music. Until 
recent times it was not known that 




there existed anything but fragments 
of his works. A three-part song was 
discovered, in manuscript, in the 
Vatican in 1847 and another was 
found in a volume which formerly 
belonged to Henry VIII. Although 
only a few of his works have been 
deciphered and scored, enough has 
been learned to show him to have 
been a man of much talent. The Brit- 
ish Museum has a collection of his 
works; and the most valuable collec- 
tions were discovered at Trent, by Dr. 
Haberl, and are now the property of 
the Ministry for ReHgion and Educa- 
tion at Vienna, the Library at Mo- 
dena, and the Liceo Musicale at 

Duparc, Henri. 1848- 

French composer, whose songs are 
declared by Grove's Dictionary to be 
among the most perfect things of 
their kind produced by the modern 
French School. He was born in Paris 
and was educated at the Jesuit Col- 
lege of Vaugirard, studying music 
under Cesar Franck from 1872 to 
1875. His symphonic poem, Lenore, 
has been heard in America and was 
performed, with great success, at the 
Concerts Populaire. It is considered 
a most important work. It received 
its first production in 1877 and was 
arranged for two pianos and for four 
hands on one piano by Saint-Saens 
and Cesar Franck. Since 1889, on 
account of illness, Duparc has com- 
posed little. 

Dupont (dii-pofi), Auguste. 18 2 7- 

A Belgian composer and pianist, 
who was born at Ensival, near Liege, 
and studied principally at the Liege 
Conservatory. He was appointed 
piano professor of the Brussels Con- 
servatory in 1850. He has written 
some beautiful piano-music, showing 
a thorough knowledge of the instru- 
ment; his ballads, barcarolles and 
studies being graceful and poetical 
and equaled by few living composers. 
Among his more important works are 
La Pensee, an etude; serenade; con- 
certo; a set of songs, entitled Poeme 
d'amour; Reminiscences Pastorales; 
barcarolle. Reverie; ballads; string 
quartets; six Morceaux Caracteristi- 
ques, and a concertstuck. His set of 
songs have been much praised and 
are especially melodious and original. 
Dupont died at Brussels. His younger 


brother, Joseph, became famous as an 
operatic conductor, holding posts at 
various European theatres, and died 
at Brussels a year before Auguste's 
death occurred. 

Duport (dii-por), Jean Louis. 1749- 

The younger of the two eminent 
violoncellists, the brothers Dupont, 
was born in Paris. He appeared first in 
public at the Concerts Spirituels, and 
was musician to Charles IV., the ex- 
King of Spain, at Marseilles in 1806. 
Returning to Paris, in 1812, he was 
soon regarded as the foremost French 
cellist of his time. He joined the 
Imperial Orchestra and was made a 
professor in the Conservatory. He 
joined his brother, Jean Pierre, at the 
outbreak of the Revolution, and played 
in the King's band. He composed 
six cello concertos; sonatas; duos; 
airs; nine nocturnes for harp and cello 
and wrote an essay for the fingering 
of the violoncello and the guidance of 
the bow, with a suite of exercises for 
the student. His violoncello was 
bought by Franchomme, who paid the 
immense sum of 25,000 francs for it. 

Duport, Jean Pierre. 1741-1818. 

The elder of the brothers Duport, 
famous as violoncellists, was born at 
Paris and was considered Berthaut's 
best pupil. He was first cello of the 
Court Orchestra at Berlin by invita- 
tion of Frederick the Great in 1773, 
and afterwards from 1787 until 1806 
superintendent of the Court concerts. 
The post was abolished after the 
battle of Jena, but he lived at Berlin 
until his death. In 1811, seven years 
before his death, he was pensioned. 
His compositions, which were few 
and unimportant, consisted of three 
duos for two cellos, and six sonatas 
for cello and bass. 

Duprez (dii-pra), Gilbert Louis. 1806- 

A tenor singer and composer, 
famous as the instructor of many re- 
nowned vocalists. He was born in 
Paris and was the thirteenth in a 
family of twenty-two children. He 
had a good voice as a young boy and 
Choron became so much interested 
in him that he enrolled him in his 
musical institute. Here he studied 
theory and composition, and in 1825 
made his debut at the Odeon Theatre, 
Paris. He then went to Italy, where 




he was engaged by Donizetti to create 
the role of Edgardo in Lucia di Lam- 
mermoor, produced in Naples in 1835. 
His success in the part immediately 
placed him at the head of the drama- 
tic French singers of his time. He 
then became the leading tenor at the 
Grand Opera, Paris, making his first 
appearance there in April, 1837, in 
William Tell. He remained there 
eight years, singing the leading parts 
in La Favorita, Les Martyrs; Otello, 
Robert, La Juive and Les Huguenots. 
In 1855, having retired from the 
operatic stage, Duprez devoted him- 
self to composing music and prepar- 
ing methods of instruction for the 
voice. Among his more important 
works are an oratorio, The Last 
Judgment; a requiem; a mass; and 
other sacred compositions; eight 
operas; romances; and numerous 
songs. His vocal method, known in 
France as L'Art du chant and pub- 
lished in 1845, has been translated 
into English as, Treatise on Singing, 
with rules, examples and exercises 
for every species of voice. He also 
wrote another work entitled La 
Melodie. Of his operas, the best are 
Joianta; La lettre au bon Dieu; and 
Jeanne d'Arc. He died at Passy. 
Duprez's wife, formerly Mile. Duper- 
ron, was a celebrated vocalist in her 
day, and their daughter Caroline be- 
came under her father's training an 
excellent singer also. 

Durand (dii-rah), Auguste Frederic. 


His real name was Duranowksy. 
He was born at Warsaw, and eventu- 
ally became a brilliant executant on 
the violin. He first studied under his 
father who was Court musician at 
Warsaw and was later sent, by a 
nobleman who became interested in 
him to Paris, where he was placed 
under Viotti's instruction. He en- 
tered the French army and became 
an adjutant to one of the generals but 
was dismissed for some misconduct 
and then took up the study of the 
violin. He was first violin at the 
Brussels Opera and traveled through 
Italy and Germany until 1814. In that 
year he settled in Strasburg as a 
conductor and teacher and lived there 
till his death. He is said to have 
more or less influenced Paganini, and, 
according to Fetis, Paganini_ de- 
clared that many of his most brilliant 
effects and his style were to a cer- 


tain degree derived from . Durand, 
whom he heard play in his youth. It 
is related of him that frequently he 
was without any violin of his own 
and that he often played in public 
upon any instrument he could obtain. 
Says Grove: "There can be no doubt 
that Durand's skill was extraordinary 
and his treatment of the violin full 
of originality." He composed a few 
concertos; airs; and pieces for the 
violin and other music, all of indiffer- 
ent merit. It is wholly upon his 
ability as a violin player that his 
fame rests. 

Durante (doo-ran'-tc), Francesco. 

A renowned teacher and composer 
of the Neopolitan School, who was 
born at Frattamaggiore, near Naples, 
Italy. He studied under Alessandro 
Scarlatti at the Conservatory of San 
Onofrio, Naples. He later succeeded 
the great master, his teacher, as head 
of the Conservatory. He wrote a 
number of beautiful vocal exercises 
and duets which were until recent 
times highly prized in Italy. None 
of his music was printed in his life- 
time, however, except six harpsichord 
sonatas. Several European libraries 
contain a number of his manuscripts, 
which include masses; motets; psalms 
and other church music. After Scar- 
latti, he ranks as one of the founders 
and chief representatives of the Neo- 
politan School of composers. Besides 
his sacred music Durante also wrote 
several cantatas; madrigals; solfeggio; 
sonatas; and a grand magnificat, the 
additional accompaniments to which 
were composed in modern times by 
Robert Franz. Durante was the 
teacher of Pergolesi, Terradellas, 
Piccinni, Traetta, Jommelli and 
others. One critic has this to say of 
him: "The influence of Roman com- 
posers is to be traced in his fond- 
ness for sacred composition, and he 
seems to have combined the severe 
style of the Roman School with the 
melodic instinct of the Neopolitans."' 

Duschek (doo'-shek), Franz. 1736- 


His name is sometimes spelled 
Dussek. He was a member of the 
same family as the great pianist and 
composer, J. L. Duschek. He was 
born at Chotiebof, in Bohemia, and 
studied first with his father, and later 
under Habermann. His general edu-. 




cation was carried on at the Jesuit 
Seminary at Koniggratz, but after a 
fall, from the effects of which he 
became a cripple, Duschek turned to 
music. He was sent to Prague, and 
later to Vienna, and he became a 
great pianist, composer and teacher. 
Mozart highly esteemed and loved 
him, and it is said that in Duschek's 
villa, near Prague, Mozart put the 
finishing touches to his opera, Don 
Giovanni. Very seldom is any of 
Duschek's music heard nowadays, al- 
though he wrote a great deal of more 
than ordinary merit. Among his 
works are piano sonatas for four 
hands; chamber-music; symphonies; 
concertos; quartets; and many songs. 
Duschek, Josepha. 1756- 

A celebrated singer, the wife of 
Franz Duschek. Her maiden name 
was Hambacher. She received most 
of her vocal instruction from her hus- 
band, and became a singer of some 
repute, although musicians differed as 
to her voice. She sang with success 
in all of the continental cities, and 
her voice was rich and her singing 
expressive. Mozart, the friend of her 
husband, wrote for her at Prague the 
concert-aria, Bella mia fiamma. It 
is generally believed that Beethoven 
also wrote his Ah! Perfido for her, as 
she was the first to sing it. Mme, 
Duschek died at an advanced age. 
Dussek, Johann Ladislaus or Ludwig. 


His name is spelled Duschek, Dussik 
and Dussek. He was one of the 
greatest pianists and composers for 
the piano of the latter part of the 
Eighteenth Century. He was born 
in Czaslau, in Bohemia. His father 
was a musician of more than ordinary 
ability, and he began the study of 
the piano when very young, while 
attending the Jesuit College at Iglau. 
Later he was a student at a college 
in Kuttenberg and then he removed 
to Prague, where he took a course in 
philosophy and received the degree of 
master. He is said to have had a 
desire at one time to join the priest- 
hood, but later abandoned the idea. 
He found a friend and patron in Count 
Manner, of the Austrian army, who 
took Dussek to Belgium, where he 
became organist of the Church of St. 
Rombaut at Mechlin. He next went 
to Holland, and in Amsterdam and 
The Hague he won success as a 
pianist and laid the foundation of 


his brilliant reputation. Here he 
produced three concertos and twelve 
sonatas, and then undertook a course 
of study with Philipp Emmanuel 
Bach, a son of the great Sebastian, 
and we later hear of him in Berlin, 
in Russia, Italy and Paris where 
Marie Antoinette took an interest in 
him and showered many kindnesses 
upon him. He next went to Lon- 
don, where he met Haydn and Sophie 
Corri, a well-known singer, who after- 
ward became his wife, and with whose 
father Dussek went into business as 
a music-seller. He remained in Lon- 
don twelve years, but the business in 
which he had embarked failed, and 
to evade his creditors he left Lon- 
don and gave concerts at Hamburg 
and other cities. Prince Louis Fer- 
dinand of Prussia, a nephew of 
Frederick the Great and a talented 
amateur musician, became his friend 
and patron, and at the death of the 
Prince, Dussek composed his Elegie 
Harmonique, one of his best works. 
He next found a patron in Talleyrand, 
Prince of Benevento, and during his 
residence with him he reached the 
height of his fame. Living in the 
days of Beethoven and Mozart, he 
was conspicuous among such men as 
Moscheles, Meyerbeer and Cramer. 
He is noteworthy as the first com- 
poser to write, almost wholly, for the 
piano with or without accompani- 
ment. Some one has said of him: 
" He made the poetry of the piano 
into a life work." Dussek's music 
was exceedingly popular at the be- 
ginning of the Eighteenth Century, 
and his piano music belongs to the 
period of Mozart rather than Bee- 
thoven, and by some is said to be in 
advance of either Haydn or Mozart. 
Mendelssohn once said of him: 
" Dussek is a prodigal," because he 
wasted his talents, and might have 
occupied a much higher place than 
he did, had he only striven to make 
the most of them. He was never a 
hard worker and liked to wander from 
one place to another. As a man he 
was likable and jolly, remarkably 
free from jealousy, and ever ready to 
help another musician in any way 
possible. His last great composition 
was L'Invocation, and probably his 
most famous is the sonata Retour a 
Paris. He wrote many concertos; 
trios; sonatas; fugues; variations and 
waltzes. His concerted chamber- 
music possesses much merit. 



Duvemoy (dii-vern-wa), Victor Al- 

phonse. 1842-1907. 

A noted French pianist and com- 
poser, who was born in Paris and 
was a pupil at the Conservatory, 
studying under Marmontel, Bazin and 
Barbereau. He took the first prize 
for piano, and in 1892 produced at the 
Theatre Royal, Liege, his first opera, 
Sardanapale, which was a success. 
His opera, Helle, was given for the 
first time in 1896 at the Opera, Paris, 
and his symphonic poem, La Tempete, 
for chorus, orchestra and solos, won 
the City of Paris prize in 1900. His 
other works are a lyric scene, 
Cleopatra; a two-act ballet, Bacchus, 
produced at the Paris Opera in 1902; 
symphonic pieces; an overture, Her- 
nani; some chamber-music, which 
gained for him the Chartier prize; 
and many piano and orchestra pieces. 
Duvernoy was connected with the 
Paris Conservatory for many years as 
teacher of the piano class. 

Dvorak (dvor'-shak), Antonin. 1841- 


Born at Muhlhausen, Bohemia, and 
was one of the most celebrated of 
modern musical geniuses. His father 
was a butcher and intended his son to 
follow the same business, but his 
ambition to be a musician had been 
fired by the bands of strolling musi- 
cians who visited the village, so he 
persuaded the school-master to in- 
struct him in the rudiments of music. 
This man, Josef Spitz, instructed him 
on the violin and also taught him 
singing. When he was twelve, he 
was sent to Zlonitz to an uncle. Here 
he attended school and had wider 
opportunities for study. When he 
was sixteen he went to Prague and 
studied there at the organ school for 
three years as a pupil of Pitzsch. His 
father's allowance to him stopped 
about this time and he supported 
himself by playing the violin in vari- 
ous cafes. He was also composing, 
in his spare time, but of his com- 
positions, of this period of his life, 
few exist. He had no money to buy 
scores and had no piano, so his work 
along this line was done with diffi- 
culty. When a Bohemian Theatre 
was opened in Prague, in 1862, the 
band with which Dvorak played was 
chosen to provide the music. Later, 
when the institution was established 
on a firmer basis as the National 
Theatre, he with others was chosen 


to play in the orchestra. Soon he 
secured the state aid of Austria and 
gained the friendship of Herbeck, 
Hanslick and Brahms. In Karl 
Bendl, a native of Prague, Dvorak 
found a warm friend and instructor. 
Bendl was conductor of the Choral 
Society, and through him Dvorak had 
a chance to become acquainted with 
the musical masterpieces. In 1862 he 
wrote a quintet for strings and in 
1865 had finished two symphonies, 
written a grand opera and many 
songs. In 1873 he was appointed 
organist of St. Adelbert's Church, 
Prague, and that year was married. 
He was then thirty-two. Shortly 
afterward he attracted the attention 
of the public as a composer with a 
patriotic hymn or cantata. He was 
anxious to write an opera for the 
new National Theatre and produced 
Konig und Kohler (The King and the 
Collier). It was not a success, was 
withdrawn, destroyed and entirely re- 
written in 1875 and in this form was 
a success. The following year rumors 
of his talents and of his small re- 
sources had reached Vienna and he 
was granted a pension of fifty pounds 
per year from the Cultusministenum. 
This was increased the next year, and 
through it the composer met Brahms, 
who in 1877 was appointed on a com- 
mission, formed for the examination 
of the compositions of the recipients 
of the grant. A collection of duets 
came under Brahms' notice and he 
immediately perceived the talents of 
young Dvorak. The latter received- 
shortly after, a commission to write 
a series of Slavic dances for 
the piano, and they had almost as 
great a success as the _ Hungarian 
dances of Brahms and immediately 
became popular in all parts of Ger- 
many. Dvorak was recognized from 
this time as a composer to be 
reckoned with and he became prom- 
inent and justly celebrated. Public 
attention was directed to his work in 
1883, when the London Musical So- 
ciety gave his setting of the Stabat 
Mater, composed in 1876 but not pub- 
lished until 1881. It was so well re- 
ceived that its composer was invited 
to conduct a performance of the work 
at Albert Hall, London, in 1884. This 
was his first appearance in England. 
The following year he conducted his 
Husitska overture, which had been 
written for an opera at the new 
Bohemian Theatre in Prague. The 




cantata, The Spectre's Bride, written 
for the Birmingham Festival of 1885, 
was a still more marked success. This 
and an overture, on the subject of St. 
Ludmilla, written for the Leeds Fes- 
tival in 1886, were conducted by the 
composer himself. The latter was 
not the success he had hoped for 
and is said to have led him to go to 
New York in 1892 as head of the 
National Conservatory of Music. In 
1891 he again visited London and re- 
ceived the honorary degree of Doctor 
of Music from Cambridge University. 
During his sojourn in America, 
Dvorak gave further evidences of his 
belief in nationalism in music. In 
1893 his symphony. From the New 
World, was performed for the first 
time. It is still very popular. He 
went direct to the music of the 
southern plantations and drew from 
them themes for this composition 
that attracted the attention of the 
entire musical world. Other con- 
tributions to our national music are 
his American string quartet and his 
American Flag cantata. He held the 
post in New York until 1895, when 
he returned to Prague, where he was 
shortly afterward appointed head of 
the Conservatory. After his return 
to his own country he forsook the 
field of symphony and cantata and 
devoted himself almost wholly to 
opera. Rusalka, the Water Nixie, was 
produced at the National Theatre in 
1900, and won instant success, also 
Der Teufel und die Kathe. He had 
planned another opera, Armida, when 
he was stricken with apoplexy and 
died. Of the eight operas he wrote, 
only Der Bauer ein Schelm (The 
Peasant a Rogue), has been heard 
outside of Prague and that only at 
Dresden and Hamburg. Dvorak was 
influenced to a greater or lesser de- 
gree by the music of his own coun- 
try, which he deeply loved. The 
elegiac Dumka and the Furiant, two 
Bohemian forms, he used in sonata 
and symphony, thereby greatly en- 
riching the music of his time. His 
lighter mood is shown in his operas 
and songs, especially his gipsy 
songs. His national music as well 
as his operas won him but little fame 
or appreciation outside of his own 
country. In spite of the fact that 
his ideals were national, Dvorak's 
gifts earned for him the regard of 
the entire musical world. He showed 
a wonderful mastery of the orchestra. 


and his music had always great indi- 
viduality as well as great beauty. 

Of the other works of Dvorak, The 
Heirs of the White Mountains, is a 
cantata or hymn written to the words 
of Halek, which brought the com- 
poser great fame because of its beauty 
and vigor, and especially its local 
color. His other oneras, beside those 
mentioned, are Die Dickschadel, 
comic opera written in 1874 and pro- 
duced in 1882; Wanda, a great tragic 
opera; produced in 1874, and Dim- 
trije, produced in 1882. Beside these 
he wrote a vast number of songs, 
choruses, piano and violin music, 
symphonies, overtures, a Te Deum, 
concertos, and cantatas. The over- 
tures Mein Heim, In Der Natur, and 
the Carneval; his symphonies and the 
Slavic dances and rhapsodies; orches- 
tral ballades and much beautiful 
chamber and piano music had made 
Dvorak's name famous even before 
he came to New York. His symphony. 
From the New World, which was first 
performed in 1893, possesses great 
charm and beauty and in it the com- 
poser tried to show how the songs 
of America might be employed in 
building up an American School of 
Alusic. For this reason Dvorak and 
his music hold an unusual amount of 
interest for Americans. 

Dwight, John Sullivan. 1813-1893. 

One of the oldest and most widely- 
known writers on musical subjects in 
America. He was born in Boston, 
and having completed his elementary 
education in the public schools he 
was sent to Harvard, from which in- 
stitution he graduated in 1832. While 
attending the university he joined a 
musical society of students called the 
Pierian Sodality, which later de- 
veloped ^ into the Harvard Musical 
Association. He practised at this 
time on the clarinet and flute and 
familiarized himself with the works of 
Beethoven and Mozart. He next en- 
tered the school of divinity and 
studied for the ministry, and was or- 
dained as pastor of the Unitarian 
Church at Northampton, Mass. He 
left this field after a few years to 
devote himself to literature, and 
shortly after became widely known 
as a writer on musical subjects. He 
was one of the founders of the Brook 
Farm Community, teaching German 
music and the classics there, and after 
the failure of the community he 




played a conspicuous part in the 
formation and organization of the 
Harvard Musical Association in 1837. 
He founded Dwight's Journal of 
Music, which aimed to advance the 
art, and for fifteen years he was its 
editor-in-chief. It was one of the 
leading musical journals of America, 
and in 1881 its publication was 
assumed by the music firm of Oliver 
Ditson & Co. Mr. Dwight con- 
tributed to the Dial, The Christian 
Examiner and other periodicals, and 
beside his labors in the field of music 
he compiled a collection of excellent 
translations of the minor poems of 
Goethe and Schiller and wrote essays. 
A memoir of him was published by 
G. W. Cooke in 1899, who also, with 
G. W. Curtis, edited his correspond- 
ence in 1898. 

Dyer, Arthur Edwin. 1843- 

An English composer and organist, 
who was born at Frome, England. 
Was trained almost entirely by pri- 
vate tutors, and received the degrees 
of Bachelor of Music and Doctor of 
Music from Oxford. From 1865 to 
1875 he was the organist of the Parish 
Church at Weston-super-Mare, and in 
the later year became organist and 
director of the music of Cheltenham 
College. He was also the conductor 
of the Musical Society. He wrote an 
opera. The Lady of Bayonne, which 
was produced at Cheltenham in 1897, 
but his compositions consist mainly 
of cantatas and anthems. Among 
them are Salvator Mundi, a sacred 
cantata and chorus for the Gloucester 

Festival of 1883; I Wish to Tune My 
Quivering Lyre; and an anthem com- 
posed for the college jubilee in 1891. 
He also wrote the music to Sopho- 
cles' Electra, produced at Cheltenham 
College, June, 1888. His brother Wil- 
liam Chinnock Dyer, organist of St. 
Peter's, Norbiton, England, and con- 
ductor of the Norbiton Choral So- 
ciety, invented and patented an at- 
tachment of pedals to the piano. 

Dykes, Rev. John Bacchus. 1823- 


Composer of several beautiful 
hymns and anthems, which are very 
well known. He was born at Kings- 
ton-upon-Hull, England, and was the 
son of a bank manager at Hull. Was 
educated at Wakefield, entering St. 
Catherine's Hall, Cambridge, in 1843. 
While there he was a leading member 
of the University Musical School. 
Prior to entering college he studied 
music under Skelton, the organist of 
St. John's Church, Hull, which had 
been built by his grandfather. Rev. 
Thomas Dykes. He afterward studied 
under Dr. Walmisley and in 1847 
graduated from Cambridge, and the 
same year was appointed curate at 
Malton, Yorkshire. In 1849 he be- 
came minor canon and precentor of 
Dunham Cathedral. He is best known 
as the composer of church hymns, 
which are beautiful examples of mod- 
ern church music. His services and 
anthems are occasionally used, but do 
not rank with his hymns. A son, John 
St. Oswald Dykes, is a composer and 


Eames (amz), Emma. 1867- 

One of the most illustrious sopranos 
of the present day. The daughter of 
American parents, she was born at 
Shanghai, China, but was brought to 
this country when five years old. Her 
mother was a vocalist and taught at 
Portland, Maine. Emma lived with 
her grand-parents at Bath, Maine. 
She began lessons, under her mother, 
at the age of fifteen; and no doubt 
owed much of her after success to 
the care bestowed on her voice at 
this period. She was sent to Bos- 

ton m 1886, where for two years she 
studied singing under Miss Munger. 
She afterward studied in Paris under 
Mme. Marchesi, also stage deport- 
ment under Plugue. In this city she 
was expected to appear in La Traviata 
at the Opera Comique, but was un- 
necessarily delayed by intrigue on 
the part of her manager; and in the 
meantime secured a better engage- 
ment, and made her debut at the 
Grand Opera in a part which Patti 
had created, and for which Marchesi 
has presented Eames to Gounod who, 



on hearing her sing, was delighted 
with her and personally supervised 
her practice of this role, and later 
that of Mireille, Her first appearance, 
despite the inevitable comparison 
with Patti, was such a success as to 
be called the musical event of the sea- 
son. She was engaged at the Grand 
Opera for the next three years, creat- 
ing the part of Colombe in Saint- 
Saens' Ascanio, and of Zaire in De 
La Nux's opera of that name. In 
1891 she made her London debut at 
Covent Garden as Marguerite in 
Faust, where the dignity and true 
artistic refinement of her singing 
immediately won favor with the most 
cultured of her audience. The same 
year she sang Elsa in Lohengrin after 
but one rehearsal; also appearing as 
Desdemona in Verdi's Otello. In 
this year she married the painter, 
Julian Story, well-known in artistic 
circles. In October she returned to 
America, and was engaged by Abbey 
and Grau for a season of opera in a 
company, including Jean and Edouard 
De Reszke and other celebrities. They 
sang in Chicago for five weeks, and 
then began the New York season at 
the Metropolitan Opera House, where 
it is said thousands were turned away 
from the performances, especially 
that of Faust. In Boston, the place 
of her early study, she was given a 
reception unsurpassed by that of any 
previous artist. Fames' thorough 
musicianship and purity and dignity 
of style are in part due to her hav- 
ing illustrated, while a pupil, the 
soprano parts in Prof. Paine's lectures 
on old church music. Mme. Eames 
has sung almost constantly in Lon- 
don and New York, appearing in 
many different characters both in 
Italian and German Opera. In addi- 
tion to these languages and her native 
tongue, she sings in French, and has 
created the principal part in several 
operas, including L. E. Bach's Lady 
of Longford, and Hero in Mancinelli's 
Eroe e Leandro. Other parts in which 
she has sung with marked success are 
Michaela in Carmen, the Countess in 
Figaro, Valentine in The Huguenots, 
and Charlotte in Werther. ^ Three 
Wagnerian roles to which she is espe- 
cially well suited are Eva in Die 
Meistersinger, Sieglinde in Die Wal- 
kijre, and Elisabeth in Tannhauser, 
this last being considered by some 
critics her best. Among her mopt 
recent appearances are Marguerite, in 


1906; and La Tosca; and Aida in 
Verdi's operas of the same name, in 
the season of 1907. Her success, un- 
like that of many other operatic 
singers, is due less to dramatic ability 
than to the quality of her voice, which 
is flexible and remarkably clear and 
uniform throughout the middle as 
well as the upper register, and to her 
thorough artistic training. Subordin- 
ate only to the charm of her singing 
itself, her personal beauty and fault- 
less taste in stage attire are im- 
portant factors in her success as an 

Eberl (a'-berl), Anton. 1766-1807. 

Famous Austrian pianist and com- 
poser. Born at Vienna and lived there 
all of his life, except four years, from 
1796 to 1800, when he was Court 
conductor at St. Petersburg. He be- 
came a good pianist in his boyhood 
and began composing at the age of 
sixteen, when he produced the opera, 
Die Zigeuner, and a little later, La 
Marchande de Modes. These operas 
attracted the attention of Gluck and 
Mozart, who encouraged the young 
composer and became his staunch 
friends. He made many successful 
concert tours during his life, and for 
many years his compositions were 
popular, being several times pre- 
ferred even to Mozart's and Beetho- 
ven's. Beside the works already 
mentioned, Eberl wrote three other 
operas. Die Konigin der Schwarzen 
Inselm, Die Hexe Megara, and Graf 
Balduin von Flandern; a large num- 
ber of piano works, including sym- 
phonies, sonatas and concertos; also 
much chamber-music and many piano 
solos and songs. 

Eberlin (a'-ber-len), Johann Ernst. 

German organist and composer. He 
was Court organist to the Archbishop 
in Salzburg, but nothing is known of 
his early musical training or advan- 
tages. His numerous compositions, 
however, show a thorough knowledge 
of musical theory and an ease in con- 
trapuntal writing, that attracted the 
attention of Mozart, who used some 
of Ebcrlin's four-part church music 
as a guide in his own studies. A large 
number of his works were lost, and 
the principal ones now comprise nine 
fugues and cantatas, published in 
1747; two motets; two sonatas; and 
five pieces in Mozart's collection, Der 



Morgen und der Abend. Many of his 
church compositions in manuscript, 
masses, offertories, etc., are in the 
Hbraries of BerHn, Vienna, Munich, 
and other German cities. In Proske's 
hbrary are thirteen oratorios. The 
most noted of these, the Componi- 
mento Sacro, was performed in Salz- 
burg in 1847. 

Eccard (ek'kart), Johann. 1553-1611. 

Composer, chiefly of church music, 
was born in Miihlhausen, Thuringia, 
and when about eighteen went to 
Munich, where he studied under 
Orlando Lasso. He returned to Miihl- 
hausen in 1574, and soon afterward 
became director of the private orches- 
tra of Jacob Fugger, of Augsburg. 
Several years later he went to Konigs- 
berg with Margrave Georg Friedrich, 
and there, was first assistant musical 
director, later succeeding to the chief 
place. In 1608 he was called to a 
similar post in Berlin, at the Elector's 
Chapel under Joachim Friedrich, 
which he held until his death. He was 
distinguished m his time by the musi- 
cal value of his church compositions. 
The most noteworthy of these are the 
Geistliche Lieder, in which some 
familiar chorales were introduced 
with original and effective skill; 
twenty Odae Sacrae; twenty-four 
Neue Deutsche Lieder, published in 
1578; fourteen Neue Deutsche Lieder, 
published 1589; and the Preussische 
Festleider, 1598; with other songs, 
hymns, chorals, etc. A number of his 
best works have been reprinted within 
the last fifty years. 

Eck, Johann Friedrich. 1766-1809 or 


Distinguished violinist, born in 
Mannheim. He was the son of a 
horn-player and studied the violin 
under Danner. In 1778 he became 
Court musician, in 1788 bandmaster 
and afterwards dramatic director of 
the Court and National Theatres. In 
1801 he married a wealthy lady of 
rank and removed to France, where 
he died some nine or ten years later. 
He composed six violin concertos 
and a concerto-symphony for two 

Eck, Franz. 1774-1804. 

Was the best pupil of his brother 
Johann. He made a tour of Germany 
in 1802. Was selected as a teacher 
for Spohr by the Duke of Brunswick, 
patron of the latter, and soon after- 


ward Spohr accompanied his instruc- 
tor in a journey to Russia. In Spohr's 
autobiography he praises highly the 
playing of Franz Eck. Eck's wild 
and reckless habits prevented the suc- 
cess for which his talents brought 
him opportunities, causmg him to 
lose, first his position m the band at 
Munich, and later his appointment as 
soloist at Court in St. Petersburg. He 
died m a lunatic asylum at Strasburg. 

Eckert, Carl Anton Florian. 1820- 

Violinist, pianist and conductor. Was 
born in Potsdam and left an orphan 
when very young. He early showed 
remarkable talent, and was a protege 
of the poet Forster, of Berlin, who 
placed him under the best instructors 
of his time: Rechenberg and Greu- 
lich in piano; Hubert Ries and 
Botticher in violin; and Rungenhagen 
in composition. He composed an 
opera before he was ten and an ora- 
torio before he was thirteen. At 
nineteen he became, in Leipsic, a pupil 
of Mendelssohn, who took great in- 
terest in him. For the next twelve 
years he traveled, studied and com- 
posed, in 1851 accepting the position 
of accompanist at the Italian Theatre 
in Paris. The next year he accom- 
panied Sontag on her American tour, 
then returned to Paris to conduct the 
Italian Opera. In 1853 he became 
conductor, and later technical director 
of the Court Opera at Vienna. In 
1860 he resigned this place to suc- 
ceed Kucken as conductor at Stutt- 
gart. In 1867 he retired from active 
professional life to Baden-Baden, 
whence he was called two years later 
to Berlin as first Court Director of 
Music, Taubert and Don having been 
pensioned to leave the post open for 
Eckert. As a composer, his smaller 
works, especially several songs, have 
succeeded best, his more pretentious 
works not fulfilling the promise of 
his earlier years. His operas are 
Das Fischer Madchen, composed 
1830; and Wilhelm von Oranien, per- 
formed in Berlin, 1846, and at The 
Hague, 1848. He also produced a 
violoncello concerto; an oratorio, 
Judith, performed at the Singakad- 
emie in Berlin, 1841; a symphony and 
some church music. 

*Eddy, Hiram Clarence. 1851- 

Clarence Eddy, celebrated Ameri- 
can organist, was born at Greenfield, 




Mass. He early showed musical 
talent, and began to study at the age 
of eleven. In 1857 he became a pupil 
of Dudley Buck, and the next year 
organist of the Bethany Congrega- 
tional Church, Montpelier, Vermont. 
In 1871 he went to Berlin, where he 
studied organ under August Haupt 
and piano under Albert Loeschhorn, 
After a European concert tour, he 
returned to America, and was at once 
offered the post of organist in the 
First Congregational Church, Chi- 
cago. Two years later, in 1876, he 
became director of the Hershey 
School of Music in that city, after- 
ward marrying the founder of the 
school, Mrs. Sara Hershey. Here he 
gave a series of one hundred organ 
recitals, including about five hundred 
compositions, without repeating a 
single number, and covering an ex- 
tensive range of various schools, 
composers and styles of organ litera- 
ture. The closing recital of this series 
consisted largely of works written for 
the occasion by some of the most 
noted organ composers of that day. 
In 1879 he became organist and choir- 
director of the First Presbyterian 
Church, where he remained till about 
1896. He was also for a number of 
years conductor of the Philharmonic 
Society. Eddy has an international 
reputation such as no other Ameri- 
can-born organist can boast. Beside 
his numerous concert tours through 
this country and Europe, where his 
masterly playing has elicited the 
warmest praise from critics in the 
largest cities, he played by special 
invitation at the Paris Exposition in 
1889 as America's foremost organist. 
Previous to that time he had played 
at the Vienna Exposition in 1873, and 
the Philadelphia Centennial in 1876, 
and within the last two decades has 
played at all the large expositions 
held on this continent, including the 
Jamestown Exposition of 1907. The 
great Auditorium organ, Chicago, is 
a testimonial to his knowledge of 
what the instrument should be, as 
he examined a number of the larger 
organs in Europe before his advice 
was given as to this one. He has 
also won European tributes for 
American organ works, and Haupt, 
Guilmant, and Sgambati have all pro- 
nounced him a player of the first 

His influence in this country has 
been marked in elevating the stand- 


ard of organ-playing and in widening 
the range of repertory. At present, 
Mr. Eddy is organist and choirmaster 
of the Tompkins Avenue Congrega- 
tional Church, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Mr. Eddy is also well-known as a 
teacher, and has composed a number 
of classical works for his instrument, 
preludes, fugues, etc., although his 
work in these lines has ever been 
second to his concert playing. His 
published works are a translation of 
Haupt's Theory of Counterpoint and 
Fugue, in 1876, and four collections 
of organ music by various composers; 
The Church and Concert Organist, in 
two volumes; The Organ in Church; 
and Concert Pieces for the Organ. 

♦Edwards, Julian. 1855- 

Composer, who was born in Man- 
chester, England. Was a pupil of Sir 
Hubert Oakeley at the Edinburgh Uni- 
versity and of Sir George Macfarren in 
London. After some preliminary ex- 
perience in the Carl Rosa Opera Com- 
pany, at its best period, he became 
musical director of the Royal Eng- 
lish Opera Company, a position he 
held for several years, leaving it in 
1888 to assume the leadership of the 
J. C. Duff Opera Company in New 
York City. His first work of im- 
portance, Victorian, a grand opera in 
four acts, was produced in Sheffield, 
and by the Royal English Opera 
Company in Covent Garden, London, 
in 1883. The first work to be given 
in America was a comic opera, 
Jupiter, performed in 1893, with 
libretto by Harry B. Smith, This 
was followed by Friend Fritz, a musi- 
cal comedy; King Rene's Daughter, 
a lyrical drama, in 1893; Madeleine, 
or the Magic Kiss, a romantic comic 
opera, in Boston, 1894; The Goddess 
of Truth; and Brian Boru, in 1896, the 
latter given at the Broadway Theatre, 
New York. The Wedding Day was 
produced in 1897, and was very popu- 
lar. Other successes in light opera 
were The Jolly Musketeer, 1898; The 
Princess Chic, 1899; Dolly Varden, 
1901 ; When Johnny Comes Marching 
Home, which had a long summer run 
at McVicker's Theatre, 1902; Love's 
Lottery, in which Schumann-Heink 
sang in light opera for the first time, 
1904; and His Honor the Mayor, 
which had a run in Chicago in 1905, 
and afterward in New York. The 
Girl and the Governor was produced 
in 1907, and the same year The Re- 




deemer, a sacred cantata, was given 
at Ocean Grove and Chautauqua. The 
Mermaid was produced at Carnegie 
Hall in April, 1907, by the Musurgia 
Society. He also wrote the incidental 
music to Quo Vadis, The palace of 
the King, and Gringoire. The next 
light opera to be produced is The 
Motor Girl, while two grand operas, 
Corinne and Elfinella, are in negotia- 
tion. His latest work, a cantata, en- 
titled Lazarus, for chorus, solos and 
orchestra, was given at Chautauqua, 
N. Y., in July, 1907, and was very 
well received, not only by the large 
audience m general but by the pro- 
fessional musicians, who went to 
Chautauqua expressly to hear the 
first performance, and who consider 
it his best cantata so far. 

Eeden. See Van den Eeden. 

Ehlert (a'lert), Ludwig. 1825-1884. 

Born at Konigsberg. Was a pianist 
and composer, but his reputation rests 
more on his work as a critic and 
writer. He was a pupil of Mendels- 
sohn and Schumann in the Leipsic 
Conservatory in 1845, afterward 
studying in Vienna and Berlin, at 
which latter place he settled as a 
teacher in 1850. He visited Italy at 
length, and was there director of the 
Societa Cherubini in Florence; taught 
in Tausig's School, in Berlin, from 
1869 to 1871, then went to Meiningen 
to teach the princes, and from there 
to Wiesbaden, where he died of 
apoplexy. His musical works are 
overtures to Hafiz and Winter's Tale; 
a Spring Symphony, performed at 
Berlin and Leipsic; a Requiem for a 
Child; and songs and pieces for the 
piano. His literary works are Briefe 
Aus der Tonwelt, published at Berlin, 
and translated into English as Letters 
from the Tone-World, in New York; 
also Briefe uber Musik an eine Freun- 
din, Berlin, translated and published 
in London and Boston, as Letters on 
Music to a Lady, and containing in- 
teresting sketches of the greater 
European composers. 

Ehrlich (ar'-likh), Alfred Heinrich. 


Hungarian pianist and writer, who 
was born in Vienna. He studied piano 
with Henselt and Thalberg, and com- 
position with Sechter. Was Court 
pianist to King George V., at Han- 
over, for several years, and from 
1855 to 1857 lived for short periods 

at Wiesbaden, London and Frankfort. 
In 1862 he went to Berlin, and two 
years later became connected with 
the Stern Conservatory, where he 
taught piano until 1872, later resum- 
ing the work from 1886 to 1898. The 
well-known composer Dreyschock, 
was one of his pupils, and so was 
Emil Liebling, well-known in this 
country. Ehrlich composed a few 
works for the piano, comprising Con- 
certstiick in Ungarischer Weise; vari 
ations on an Original Theme; and 
some studies; but his reputation is 
greater as an author and critic. He 
was a man of versatile talents, and 
while in Hanover was political cor- 
respondent to the Allgemeine Zeitung 
and later musical critic for several 
Berlin periodicals. He wrote musi- 
cal novels, and a number of works 
on musical aesthetics. 

Eibenschutz (i'-ben-shiits), Albert. 


German pianist. He was born in 
Berlin and studied pianoforte under 
Reinecke and theory under Paul in 
the Leipsic Conservatory, winning the 
Diploma of Honor. He taught in the 
Music School at Charkoff, Russia, 
from 1876 to 1880 and then returned 
to the Leipsic Conservatory, where 
he taught four years. In 1893 he was 
appointed to the directorship of a 
choral society for male voices at 
Cologne, and in 1896 went to Berlin 
to take the head professorship of 
piano-music. He has written some 
sonatas, studies, and four-hand pieces 
for this instrument. 

Eibenschutz, Ilona. 1873- 

Cousin of the foregoing and a well- 
known concert pianist. Was born in 
Budapest, and played in public as 
a child prodigy, traveling through a 
number of European countries before 
she was ten years old, and also study- 
ing in the meantime under Hans 
Schmitt at the Vienna Conservatory. 
She afterward spent four years under 
Clara Schumann; played to many 
noted musicians of that time, and in 
1890 appeared in a concert at Cologne, 
in the Leipsic Gewandhaus, and the 
Richter concerts in Vienna. In 1891 
she scored her first London suc- 
cess, playing Schumann's Symphonic 
Studies and in a Beethoven sonata 
for piano and cello with Patti. From 
this time until her marriage in 1902, 
she appeared often before the Lon- 



don public and was regarded with 
high favor. During the last six years 
of Brahms' life, she was a close friend 
of this great composer, thus acquir- 
ing an intimate knowledge of his 
later compositions which, with her 
excellent musicianship and artistic 
powers, renders her especially capable 
of their interpretation. 

Eichberg (ikh'-berkh), Julius. 1824- 

German violinist and composer, 
born at Dtisseldorf, showed musical 
talent early and was taught the violin 
by his father. He began regular 
study with professors at the age of 
eight, Rietz being his teacher in har- 
mony. He studied in the Brussels 
Conservatory from 1843 to 1845, 
graduating with high honors in com- 
position and violin-playing, and the 
next year was appointed professor of 
these two subjects in the Conserv- 
atory at Geneva. Eleven years after- 
ward, he came to America, going first 
to New York; but in 1859 he removed 
to Boston, where he became director 
of the Museum concerts, and founded 
later the Boston Conservatory, for 
which he at once set the high stand- 
ard it has since maintained. As a 
teacher of violin, Eichberg had a 
national reputation, a number of his 
pupils being successful concert 
players. His influence on violin 
music has been strong, and among 
his compositions an American na- 
tional hymn attests his loyalty to the 
land of his adoption. He also pub- 
lished collections of studies and 
works on teaching which embody the 
principles of a distinct violin school; 
and also prepared exercises and 
studies for the voice, in connection 
w:ith his work as superintendent of 
public school music in Boston. He 
also produced several operettas in 
the English language; The Doctor of 
Alcantara being the one best known. 

Eisfeld (is'-feldt), Theodor. 1816- 

German conductor, who was born 
at Wolfenbiittel. Was a pupil of 
Karl Muller at Brunswick, in violin, 
and Reissiger at Dresden in composi- 
tion. He became director of the 
Theatre at Wiesbaden from 1839 to 
1843, and in the latter year, of the 
Concerts Viviennes, Paris. In this 
post he favored a high musical stand- 
ard, and studied at intervals with 

Rossini at Bologna. He was made an 
honorary member of the Academy of 
St. Cecilia. From 1848 to 1866 he 
lived in New York and conducted the 
concerts of the Philharmonic Socie- 
ties for several years, and also those 
of the Harmonic from its beginning. 
With Noll, Reyer, and Eichhorn as 
colleagues, he carried on a series of 
evening quartet musicales in 1851. 
In 1866, en route to visit Germany, 
the steamer Austria was destroyed by 
fire; and Eisfeld, though one of the 
few surviving passengers, suffered 
hardships and exposure that resulted 
iri a nervous disorder which ended 
his musical career. He died at Wies- 

Elgar, Edward William. 1857- 

Perhaps the most notable figure in 
the English-speaking musical world 
of today is Sir Edward Elgar. Since 
Purcell, England has produced no 
other composer of genius; and 
whether or not posterity concedes that 
rank to Elgar, he has attained at least 
one valid claim to distinction — the 
disagreement of the critics. He stands 
unique among English musicians of 
note in the fact that his musical edu- 
cation, theoretical as well as practical, 
was a matter of varied experience 
rather than instruction received of 
study along accepted lines. The fact 
that Elgar came of a Roman Catholic 
family, and breathed from his earliest 
years the atmosphere of that excep- 
tional form of worship in which music 
is so integral a part, isolated him 
from the musical traditions of Prot- 
estant England, and his early musical 
training, or lack of training, in the 
usual sense, was another factor in the 
development of his powers. He was 
born at Broadheath, near Worcester, 
June 2, 1857. His mother was well- 
read, and loved the best literature; 
and, in spite of the limited means and 
opportunities, the boy was brought 
up in an intellectual atmosphere; but 
the varied musical occupations of his 
father decided the bent of his mind. 
The elder Elgar was a partner in a 
music-selling firm, was the organist 
of St. George's Church in Worcester 
for thirty-seven years, and played the 
violin in the orchestra of the Three 
Choir Festivals. The young Elgar 
also played in this orchestra, and be- 
fore the age of fifteen assisted his 
father occasionally as organist, pick- 
ing up his knowledge of these instru- 




ments, also of the piano, the bassoon, 
and other instruments, in his father's 
warehouse, which gave him oppor- 
tunity to make many experiments 
along this line, and to acquaint hmi- 
self with a great variety of musical 
compositions. After leaving school 
he was placed, as so many embryo 
musicians have been, in a solicitor's 
office, where for a year he worked 
steadily at the study of law, and then 
returned home to become his father's 
assistant, no further effort being made 
to induce him to follow a distasteful 
profession. He read and studied 
alone numerous works, both ancient 
and modern, on harmony, counterpoint 
and other branches of musical theory. 
It was intended that he should study 
at Leipsic, but this proved imprac- 
ticable. Meanwhile, he occupied him- 
self with composition; among his 
earliest efforts were popular airs for 
minstrel performances, and music for 
a little family orchestra, in which his 
brothers and sisters joined in playing 
different instruments. In leading the 
orchestra at the instrumental meet- 
ings of the Worcester Glee Club, of 
which he was, in 1879, appointed 
pianist and conductor, and at which 
his early compositions received per- 
formance and encouragement, he be- 
came acquainted with the master- 
pieces among the English glees and 
the music of Corelli and Haydn. Two 
years before this he had gone to Lon- 
don, where he took a few lessons 
from PoUitzer in violin, which proved 
to be the end of regular instruction 
in music for him, although for some 
years he visited this teacher at inter- 
vals. In 1881 he passed with honors 
an examination in violin of the Royal 
Academy of Music, having been so- 
licited to become a candidate by 
Brinley Richards, the examiner for 
Worcester. From 1879 to 1884 he was 
leader of a unique band, the instru- 
ments being a first and second violin, 
first and second cornet, a flute, a 
clarinet, a euphonium, a bombardon, 
a doublebass, and a piano, played by 
attendants at the County Lunatic 
Asylum. For this combination, which 
might be said to be well suited to the 
nature of the institution, he wrote 
quadrilles and other kindred pieces, 
and in due time the authorities voted 
him a small recompense for such 
work. He also composed continually 
for the church service, and for a 
quintet in which he played the bas- 


soon. Thus he became known as a 
soloist and orchestral leader in 
Worcester and its vicinity, and these 
varied experiences were valuable in 
developing his sense of orchestral 
coloring. He was for a time a mem- 
ber of Stockley's Orchestra at Bir- 
mingham, where his intermezzo was 
successfully presented in 1883. The 
year previous he visited Leipsic for 
three weeks, and was appointed con- 
ductor of the Worcester Instrumental 
Society, writing analyses for its pro- 
grams. In 1885 he succeeded his 
father as organist, and continued to 
compose much music for the Catholic 
Church service. 

In 1889 he married a Miss Roberts, 
whose knowledge and appreciation of 
music and literature became a most 
beneficial stimulus to Elgar, and in 
the same year they removed to Lon- 
don. For two years he endeavored 
to bring his work before the public, 
but with no success or encourage- 
ment. He heard much good music, 
however, and once a week returned 
to his old home neighborhood to give 
lessons. In 1891 he retired to Mal- 
vern, where he spent his time largely 
in composing, doing whatever teach- 
ing or conducting came his way. His 
Froissart Overture had been produced 
the preceding year at the Worcester 
Festival, but owing to unfavorable 
acoustic conditions it made no par- 
ticular impression. 

In 1893 the Worcester Choral So- 
ciety gave The Black Knight, and in 

1896 Scenes from the Bavarian High- 
lands. The Light of Life, which had 
been first called Lux Christi, a short 
oratorio, was given at the Worcester 
Festival in 1896; and during the North 
Staffordshire Festival of the same 
year, the performance at Hanley of 
Scenes from the Saga of King Olaf, 
text adapted from Longfellow, met 
with such noteworthy success that 
Elgar was for the first time recog- 
nized as a candidate for the laurel 
wreath. This work and The Light 
of Life are spoken of as being espe- 
cially full of promise, strong and 
melodious. From this time until 1900 
the works mentioned were repeated at 
intervals, and other compositions, 
fresh from his pen, won the approval 
of musical contemporaries and raised 
his name to an enviable height in 
English musical annals. The , Dia- 
mond Jubilee of Queen Victoria in 

1897 impelled him to write an Imperial 



March, and The Banner of St. George, 
a cantata. In 1899 two of his best 
compositions were performed — the 
song-cyle for contralto, Sea Pictures, 
sung by Miss Clara Butt at the Nor- 
wich Festival; and the Theme and 
Variations for orchestra, of great 
originality and beauty, at a Richter 
concert; also Caractacus, written for 
the Leeds Festival. 

In 1900 the University of Cam- 
bridge conferred on him the honorary 
degree of Doctor of Music, and 
during that same year he was re- 
quested to compose a work suffi- 
ciently long for a whole morning's 
performance at the Birmingham 
Festival. The result was. The Dream 
of Gerontius, based on Cardinal New- 
man's poem of the same name, which 
describes the death of a man, the 
passing of his soul into the presence 
of God and then into purgatory. This 
poem had especially impressed the 
Catholic musician some years before 
as a fit subject for a great religious 
musical work; so it was not written 
in haste, merely for the occasion, but 
was completed from partly developed 
ideas. Whether or not too much was 
anticipated from its production and 
it thus fell short of the desired effect, 
it did not at that time create an im- 
pression proportionately greater than 
that of his former best works, al- 
though given high praise by some 

In the next year, 1901, for the cere- 
monies of King Edward's coronation, 
Elgar furnished the musical setting 
of Benson's Coronation Ode for 
Covent Garden Theatre, which incor- 
porated the two military marches, 
played first at a previous Promenade 
concert, and known by the title 
Pomp and Circumstance. These were 
so popular from the first, owing to 
the irresistible rhythm of the air, 
which forms the trio of the second 
march, that they were objected to by 
some of the more pedantic musicians; 
nevertheless, they were used, and 
Elgar's music stood first among the 
offerings for the occasion. They are 
probably more widely performed than 
any other work of this composer, and 
have become quite popular in the 
United States, the arrangement for 
organ bein^ frequently played as well 
as the origmal score. Elgar includes 
six marches altogether under this 
title, though the remaining four of the 
set are not so well known. 

In 1902 interest in The Dream of 
Gerontius was suddenly revived by 
the performance of a German transla- 
tion of the work at the Lower Rhine 
Musical Festival at Diisseldorf, where 
Richard Strauss delivered a speech, in 
which he proclaimed it a masterpiece, 
and eulogized Elgar to such an extent 
that " even the English musical public 
was moved by such an unheard of 
tribute from abroad," and accordingly 
hastened to honor the prophet in his 
own country by repeating Gerontius 
at both the Sheffield and Worcester 
Festivals of that year, drawing im- 
mense audiences. During the next 
two years it was performed several 
times in London, and in 1903 at 
Westminster Cathedral; while Covent 
Garden was devoted for three entire 
days in March, 1904, to an " Elgar 
Festival," where his most important 
compositions were given, and a new 
overture of remarkable beauty. In 
the South, as well as Gerontius and 
The Apostles. The latter, a still 
more ambitious work than those pre- 
ceding, had been first produced in 
1903 at the Birmingham Festival. 
According to the prefatory statement 
of the composer, this was the result 
of a long-cherished plan that origin- 
ated in a remark of the schoolmas- 
ter in his boyhood, and developed into 
" oratorio embodying The Calling of 
the Apostles, their Teaching and their 
Mission, culminating in the establish- 
ment of the Church among the Gen- 
tiles; " The Kingdom, which appeared 
later, is set forth as a continuation of 
the subject matter in the Apostles. 
The text of The Apostles is made up 
of different scriptural passages, skil- 
fully interwoven to form a harmoni- 
ous whole. It is said to be more 
complex, more intricately organized 
than the Dream of Gerontius, and 
has provoked more criticism. Elgar 
presupposes familiarity with the 
Scriptures in his hearers, bringing out 
in The Apostles only such points as 
are of salient interest or dramatic 
value; and this lack of minor details 
may have been confusing to some of 
his critics. The second performance 
of this work was in the United States, 
in 1904, by the Oratorio Society of 
New York, which also gave The 
Dream of Gerontius twice in 1903, 
under Mr. Frank Damrosch, and in 
1907 gave The Apostles and The 
Kingdom. The Apollo Club of Chi- 
cago performed The Dream of Ger- 




ontius in 1903, and again in 1906, and 
The Apostles in 1906. At the Cin- 
cinnati May Festival of 1906, Elgar 
himself conducted The Dream of 
Gerontius and The Apostles, and two 
orchestral works, the overture. In the 
South, and an introduction and alle- 
gro for strings. The year before he 
had come to America for the first 
time to receive the degree of Doctor 
of Music from Yale, and his third 
visit was made in the spring of 1907, 
when he conducted his overture, In 
the South, and the Enigma Varia- 
tions for orchestra at a Thomas con- 
cert in Chicago, and was received 
with enthusiasm. In October, 1907, 
The Dream of Gerontius was given 
at the Worcester (Massachusetts) 
Music Festival, under Mr. Wallace 
Goodrich, retiring conductor. Elgar's 
more recent oratorio, The Kingdom, 
was performed in England, in Octo- 
ber, 1906, at the Birmingham Festival, 
which has brought out all his large 
choral works so far. This was fol- 
lowed by performances at six differ- 
ent towns in England during March, 
1907. The work is a sequel to The 
Apostles, and resembles it in the 
choice of musical themes, but is 
naturally more meditative in char- 
acter, Pentecost being the central 
point of interest in the text. In 
December, 1907, The Kingdom was 
performed twice in Germany, at May- 
ence and Aachen, respectively, and in 
October, The Dream of Gerontius 
was given at Melbourne. Elgar's 
variations for orchestra was given at 
Monte Carlo during December, 1907, 
by the Lamoreux Orchestra, and re- 
ceived very favorable comment in 
French journals. The work most 
recently brought out in his Orches- 
tral Suite No. 1, which was originally 
written at the age of twelve for a 
small family orchestra, as music to a 
child's play, and entitled The Wand 
of Youth. This work was revised 
and re-orchestrated by the composer 
and produced at a Queen's Hall con- 
cert in London. It comprises seven 
movements; an Overture, Serenade, 
Minuet, Sun Dance, Fairy Pipers, 
Slumber Song, Fairies and Giants. 
This was composed for the entertain- 
ment of the family circle, Elgar's 
brothers and sisters taking the vari- 
ous parts. 

It has been the lot of every great 
composer to become at some time in 
his life the target for a fire of con- 

flicting opinions; and this point has 
now been reached by Elgar, who in 
his early thirties was unable to pro- 
cure a hearing in the metropolis of 
his own country. Those who know 
him best describe him as a man of 
conservative nature, yet definite and 
decided opinions, and sincere char- 
acter, free from the thirst for publicity 
for its own sake, composing because 
he has something to say in music, 
which he cannot leave unsaid. His 
style is individual, and is character- 
ized by a certain noble gravity and 
dignity, that is felt even in his lighter 
^vorks, such as the orchestral varia- 
tions, and the marches, Pomp and 
Circumstance. This seriousness is a 
natural outcome of the mind whose 
oratorio scores bear the dedicatory 
letters A. M. D. G. (To the greater 
glory of God). A certain writer, in 
emphasizing the religious inspiration 
of the oratorios, calls attention to the 
interesting fact that Malvern is the 
place where The Vision of Piers the 
Plowman was written, and declares 
that The Dream of Gerontius should 
stand in the same rank as Dante's 
Divine Comedy, and Michelangelo's 
Last Judgment. Theodore Thomas 
pronounced it the most important 
oratorio of recent times. Mr. Joffe, 
in the International Year Book for 
1902, quotes of it: "Scarcely since 
Wagner's death has there been any 
musical work so sincere, so fine or 
noble, so delicately graduated, so ex- 
quisitely poetical," and himself says, 
" it is a work full of striking individu- 
ality, though written by a deep stu- 
dent of Wagner, and technically even 
the score of Die Meistersinger does 
not overshadow this new score." 
Robert J. Buckley, in his excellent 
book, Sir Edward Elgar, says: "What 
Wagner did for opera, from the point 
at Avhich it was left by Mozart and 
Weber, Elgar is doing for oratorios 
from the point at which it was left by 
Handel and Mendelssohn, and as many 
believe, with equal inspiration." In the 
orchestral field, Elgar is ranked with 
the best of the modern European 
composers. Professor Edward Dick- 
inson, in his study of the History of 
Music, says that Elgar's compositions 
" indicate a technical knowledge of 
the highest order in counterpoint and 
orchestration, as well as a prolific 
vein of melody." As Elgar was 
almost entirely self-taught, his work 
exemplifies what may be called the 



inductive method in musical compo- 
sition, from forty years' handling of 
the instruments. The power to apply 
this method in music has been seen 
in some few of the German com- 
posers, but not in Elgar's English 

Personally, Elgar is described as a 
vigorous, active and enthusiastic man, 
fond of books and outdoor sports, 
modest and unassuming in manner; 
tall, with the stoop of the constant 
student in his shoulders, and strong, 
clear features, with an unaffected dig- 
nity that would become " a barrister 
or a member of Parliament." The com- 
poser was knighted in 1904 and received 
the degree of Doctor of Music from 
Dunelm, and of LL.D. from Leeds 
the same year, and since then has had 
conferred upon him the title. Pro- 
fessor of Music, Birmingham Univer- 
sity. Oxford also bestowed upon him 
the degree of Doctor of Music in 1905 
and the Western University of Penn- 
sylvania, at Pittsburg, conferred upon 
him the degree of LL.D. in 1907. Be- 
side the works already mentioned, 
there are the following: Romance 
for violin and orchestra; for violin 
and piano, an allegretto, a sonata, a 
serenade lyrique, and a gavotte; nu- 
merous pieces and a few exercises for 
violin with piano accompaniment; and 
etudes characteristiques for violin; 
sursum corda, for strings, brass, and 
organ; sonata and twelve voluntaries 
for organ; part-songs, two quartets 
for strings; and a quintet for wind-in- 
struments. For small orchestra, 
Dream Children, two sketches; a 
minuet; and salut d'amour; for string 
orchestra, a serenade. For full or- 
chestra, two concert overtures, Cock- 
aigne, and Falstaff; Sevillana and 
other pieces; also incidental music to 
Grania and Diarmid, and a Spanish 
serenade for chorus and orchestra. 
There is also a "pendant" to the 
Cockaigne overture, said to show the 
" reverse of the joyous picture" of 
the overture proper. Of Elgar's nu- 
merous songs, it will be sufficient to 
name the following: Weary Wind of 
the West, My Love Dwelt in a 
Northern Land, Like to a Damask 
Rose, A Song of Flight, The Pipes 
of Pan, Queen Mary's Song, and In 
the Dawn. 

Ella, John. 1802-1888. 

English violinist, musical director, 
critic and lecturer. Studied for the 

law; became violinist in the King's 
Theatre in 1822, and afterwards in the 
orchestras of the Concerts of Ancient 
Music and of the Philharmonic con- 
certs. Studied under Attwood and 
Fetis at Paris, 1826 to 1829. He 
established the Musical Union and 
Musical Winter Evenings, two series 
of concerts; was lecturer of music at 
London Institution, 1855, and directed 
the Musical Union from 1845 to 1880; 
he also contributed musical notices to 
several leading periodicals in London. 
He is the author of Lectures on Dra- 
matic Music; Musical Education 
Abroad and at Home; and Musical 
Sketches Abroad and at Home. From 
1845 to 1878 were published the 
Records of Musical Union, consisting 
of analytical program notes, biog- 
raphies, etc. The analytical pro- 
grams were made up of remarks 
on the structure of works performed 
and the periods and rank of the com- 
posers, resembling somewhat those of 
the modern musical club. 

Ellerton, John Lodge. 1801-1873. 

Amateur composer, who was born 
in Cheshire, of Irish descent. His 
father, Adam Lodge, came from 
Liverpool, and John assumed the 
name of Ellerton in middle life. He 
learned by his own efforts to play 
the piano, when a boy, his father 
being opposed to Ellerton acquiring a 
musical education, for which he early 
showed a strong desire. He was sent 
to school at Rugby, and later to Ox- 
ford, where he graduated with the 
degree of M. A. in 1828. While in 
the latter place he studied composi- 
tion, and even wrote an opera, and a 
song which was favorably reviewed. 
After leaving Oxford he studied under 
Pietro Terriani at Rome, and while 
there he is said to have composed 
seven Italian operas. For some time 
he lived in Germany, where his sym- 
phonies were composed, and in Lon- 
don, where he held quartet meetings 
with the best artists of his time. His 
works comprise an oratorio. Paradise 
Lost; the English opera, Domenica, 
produced at Drury Lane Theatre in 
1838; six anthems; six masses; seven- 
teen motets; six symphonies; seven 
Italian operas; two German operas; a 
number of glees, solos, and duets; 
quintets, quartets and trios for 
strings; eight trios _ and thirteen 
sonatas for concerted instruments. 



♦Ellicott, Rosalind Frances. 1857- 

English composer, who was born at 
Cambridge and lived principally at 
Gloucester, where her father, Charles 
John Ellicott, was Bishop from 1863 
to 1905. From her mother, an accom- 
plished musician and vocalist, she in- 
herited her musical talent, beginning 
to compose at the age of six. Among 
her early works were settings of 
Heine's poems, and other German 
songs, which she composed at seven- 
teen, the year she entered the Royal 
Academj^ of Music. She remained at 
the Academy for two years, and after- 
wards studied under Thomas Wing- 
ham for about seven years. She was 
several times invited to compose 
works for the Gloucester Triennial 
Musical Festivals, and her first 
marked success. To the Immortals, 
was sung at one of these festivals, in 
1883. Her dramatic overture, pro- 
duced in 1886, is spoken of as "vigor- 
ous, spontaneous, and a great deal 
fresher and more purposeful than 
most of the cantatas of her time 
. . . the themes are striking and 
well developed and the handling of 
the orchestra remarkably bold and 
effective." This was a triumph for 
Miss Ellicott, who had hitherto been 
considered an amateur, but was now 
ranked with professional composers. 
It is said of her industry and en- 
thusiasm, that with a delicate physique 
and in circumstances where there was 
no pressing necessity for work, she 
studied and worked as if the opposite 
had been true. Three other overtures 
and a fantasia for orchestra were all 
given at different English festivals. 
Other compositions include the suc- 
cessful contatas. The Birth of Song, 
Elysium, and Henry of Navarre; and 
part-songs, chamber-music, and son- 
atas for piano and strings, which 
have been often performed in Lon- 
don. She has appeared in concerts 
frequently, both as pianist and vo- 
calist. In 1901 she organized a series 
of successful chamber-concerts _ in 
Gloucester and Cheltenham, which 
continued till 1905. 

Ellis, Alexander John. 1814-1890. 

English writer on Phonetics and 
Acoustics. He was educated at 
Shrewsbury, Eton, and Trinity Col- 
lege, and was graduated from Cam- 
bridge, as B. A., in 1837. He became 
a fellow of the Royal Society in 1864, 
tnd was president of the Philological 


Society, 1872 to 1874 and 1880 to 1882; 
and was also a member of several 
other learned societies. He made a 
special study of the physical basis of 
musical sound, and also published 
some works on pronunciation in sing- 
ing. He contributed to the Royal 
Society a number of papers on musi- 
cal theory iri relation to tones and 
their production, and was awarded a 
silver medal for each of several papers 
of inquiry in regard to the history of 
Musical Pitch, into which subject he 
made both theoretical and experi- 
mental research. He also translated 
into English, with notes and ap- 
pendix, Helnholtz's work under the 
name of On the Sensations of Tone, 
as a Physiological Basis for the 
Theory of Music. 

Eisner, Joseph Xaver. 1769-1854. 

He was a director, a composer and 
the teacher of Chopin, Was born in 
Grottkau, Silesia; was the son of a 
maker of musical instruments, and 
was educated for the medical pro- 
fession; but as choir-boy and after- 
ward violinist and singer at the Bre!^- 
lau Theatre, he became active in 
music. Forster, the director at Bres- 
lau, gave him some instruction, and 
on visiting Vienna he became intimate 
with the best musicians there. In 
1791 he became first violinist in the 
Briinn Theatre, in 1792 director of the 
theatre in Lemberg, and in 1799 went 
to Warsaw in a similar capacrty. 
Here he founded a musical society 
(according to some authorities, a 
school for organists), which in 1821 
expanded into the Warsaw Con- 
servatory, of which he was the first 
director and professor of composition 
until 1830, when political disturbances 
closed the Conservatory. It was re- 
opened in 1834, with Soliva as direc- 
tor. Eisner was a fluent and prolific, 
though not a highly inspired com- 
poser, and his operas were popular in 
Poland. His works include all the 
various forms in church music; can- 
tatas; songs; concerts and chamber- 
music; and two essays on the adapt- 
ability of the Polish language to 
musical composition. 

Elson, Louis C. 1848- 

Lecturer and writer on musical 
subjects, and a successful teacher. 
He is an American of German 
descent, and was born in Boston. At 
six years of age he began the study 



of music, and was a piano pupil of 
August Hamann, while his teacher in 
voice, at a later period, was August 
Kreissmann, the friend of Franz, and 
a superior interpreter of his songs. 
Elson's especial interest in songs, 
many of which he has translated, is 
due, no doubt, to his association with 
Kreissmann. He later went to the 
Leipsic Conservatory for theoretical 

On his return to this country he 
began journalistic work on the Vox 
Humana, a paper published chiefly in 
the interests of organ music. When 
this was merged in the Musical 
Herald, in 1880, he became the editor, 
and was about the same time chosen 
musical editor of the Boston Courier. 
When in Europe he contributed 
occasional articles to several promi- 
nent periodicals in New York and 
Boston, and in 1888 became musical 
editor of the Boston Advertiser. His 
connection with the New England 
Conservatory of Music dates from 
1880, as vocal teacher, and lecturer on 
orchestra and orchestral instruments 
and on musical history. From 1881 
he also taught musical theory, suc- 
ceeding to the headship of this de- 
partment on the death of Stephen 
Emery. He has acted as choral di- 
rector on various occasions in Boston, 
notably a festival in 1886, the pro- 
grams including music selected all 
the way from the mediaeval begin- 
nings of the art up to the present 
time. As a composer, his work is 
mostly in the smaller forms, includ- 
ing several piano-pieces; three oper- 
ettas; a volume of songs for chil- 
dren; and other songs. He has also 
made translations and arrangements 
of a great number of French, English 
and Italian songs, and of operas. He 
is much in demand as a lecturer on 
musical subjects, and has^ lectured 
often at many colleges and institutes, 
including Vassar, Cornell, The Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, and other 
prominent educational institutions. 
As a vocalist, he has been connected 
with several of the leading choirs of 
Boston. As an author, his reputation 
is fully as wide, and his works in this 
line comprise The Curiosities on 
Music; History of German Song; 
Syllabus of Musical History; The 
Realm of Music; The Theory of 
Music; Great Composers and their 
Works; Our National Music and its 
Sources; European Reminiscences; 


German Song and Song- Writers; 
Shakespeare in Music; A History of 
American Music, published in 1904; 
and a Music Dictionary, in 1905; be- 
sides contributed articles to the lead- 
ing music journals of America. Mr. 
Elson's diction is concise, often hu- 
morous, and reveals in every line 
broad and genuine culture fused with 
the specialized knowledge of the 
trained and experienced musician. 
His distinguished contemporary, W. 
S. B. Mathews, speaks of it as a 
" ripe and finished literary style, 
rarely found outside the ranks of pro- 
fessional authors." 

His son, Arthur, is a well-known 
musical critic and writer. His books. 
Woman's Work in Music, Orchestral 
Instruments and Their Use, A Criti- 
cal History of Opera, Modern Com- 
posers of Europe, and frequent con- 
tributions to musical periodicals, have 
added to the lustre of the family 
name. The two, father and son, de- 
serve especial mention as represen- 
tative of the best modern thought 
concerning the future of the woman 
musician. They are truly American 
in their fair-minded recognition of 
her ability to do more than she 
has been permitted to do by the 

Elvey, Sir George Job. 1816-1893. 

English organist and composer. 
Was chorister of Canterbury Cathe- 
dral and pupil of the organist. High- 
more Skeats, also studying under his 
brother, Stephen Elvey, and later at 
the Royal Academy of Music under 
Cipriani Potter and Dr. Crotch. In 
1835 he succeeded Highmore Skeats, 
jr., as organist and chorister at St. 
George's Chapel, Windsor, continuing 
in this position until his retirement in 
1882. He was graduated from Oxford 
as Bachelor of Music in 1838 and 
Doctor of Music in 1840. Was con- 
ductor of the Glee and Madrigal So- 
ciety, and was knighted in 1871. He 
composed several oratorios; one. The 
Resurrection and Ascension, was per- 
formed at Exeter Hall by the Sacred 
Harmonic Society in 1840, and later 
given in Boston and Glasgow. He 
also composed several odes; anthems; 
a number of hymn-tunes and chants; 
glees and part-songs; and a Festal 
March for orchestra, composed for 
the wedding of the Princess Louise. 
The majority of his compositions are 
sacred music. 



Elvyn, Myrtle. 1886- 

Talented young American pianist, 
who after a number of years of study 
in Europe and several successful con- 
cert appearances there, returned in 
1907 to her native country, making 
her American debut with the Theo- 
dore Thomas Orchestra at Orchestral 
Hall, Chicago, in October. Miss 
Elvyn was born in Sherman, Texas, 
and when a child of two years was 
brought to Chicago by her parents 
and continued to reside there for sev- 
eral years. 

As a child she showed unusual 
talent and was brought to the atten- 
tion of the late Carl Wolfsohn, the 
teacher of Mme. Bloomfield-Zeisler 
and Augusta Cottlow. He was so 
much impressed by the young girl's 
precocity that after teaching her him- 
self for a number of years he sent 
her to study in Europe with Leopold 
Godowsky. Under that famous teach- 
er's instruction she made a fine record. 
She developed great power as a per- 
former, gained a most fluent technique 
and is already, at the age of twenty- 
two, considered an artist. Ten years 
ago Mr. Wolfsohn declared that Miss 
Elvyn was the most talented person 
he had ever met, and he predicted 
great triumphs for her in the near 
future. She remained a pupil of 
Godowsky five years and in 1904 made 
her debut as a pianist in Berlin. Mu- 
sical critics praised her in the highest 
terms, declared her possessed of great 
musical gifts and intelligence, and her 
first recital was all that she could 
wish. She then studied composition 
for a time with Hugo Kaun and her 
talent in this direction was such that 
he advised her to give up piano-play- 
ing and devote herself exclusively to 
developing her gift for composing. 

Since 1904 Miss Elvyn has made 
various tours through Europe and has 
played in most of the leading cities 
with many famous orchestras. She 
has been heard in London and is well 
liked there, and in Berlin is classed 
by musicians and music-lovers among 
the great pianists. She plays the 
difficult passages in the most pon- 
derous works with the greatest ease, 
has a soft tone, a splendid technique 
and wonderful understanding and in- 

In a set of eleven variations on an 
original theme which IMiss Elvyn 
composed and gave at several of her 
concerts, she showed herself to be 

the possessor of a good deal of in- 
ventive power, the work being highlv 
original and characteristic. Miss 
Elvyn appeared the past season before 
the Emperor and Empress of Ger- 
many and the royal family, and so 
pleased them that the Emperor pub- 
licly complimented her and presented 
her with a diamond pendant. She has 
also appeared before the Grand Duke 
and Duchess of Mecklenburg and the 
Imperial Crown Prince and Princess 
of Germany, all of whom were lavish 
in their praise of the young artist. 

Miss Elvyn is remarkably beautiful, 
being tall and graceful in appearance, 
with a lovely face, and a most attrac- 
tive and winning personality. 

Elwart (el'-vart), Antoine Aimable 

filie. 1808-1877. 

Was born in Paris, of Polish 
parentage, and was when a boy of ten, 
chorister in the Church of St. 
Eustache. Being apprenticed to a 
mechanic at thirteen, he ran away and 
joined the orchestra of a small theatre. 
He entered the Paris Conservatory in 
1852, where he started a series of 
competitive concerts among the 
students, which continued six years, 
and afforded excellent practice for 
both composition and solo work. In 
1831 he received first prize for com- 
position, and in 1834 the Grand Prize 
of Rome. From 1832 to 1834 he was 
assistant professor of composition, 
and on his return from Rome two 
years later, took up this work again, 
becoming professor of harmony in 
1840. He was also director of the St. 
Cecilia Society concerts. He resigned 
his post in the Conservatory in 1871 
and_ died six years later. His com- 
positions include the oratorios, Noah 
and La Naissance d'Eve; several 
operas, Les Catalans being the only 
one performed; the music for Eu- 
ripides' Alcestis; also some overtures, 
symphonies, chamber - music and 
church-music. But his reputation 
rests principally on his writings, the- 
oretical and literarv. including Theorie 
Musicale; Traits due contrepoint et 
de la fugue; and Le Chanteur ac- 
compagnateur; and Historic de la 
Societe des Concerts. He also con- 
tributed musical articles to Paris 

* Emerson, Luther Orlando. 1820- 

Was born in Parsonsfield, Mass., 
has conducted many musical conven- 



tions over the United States, and 
written some church music. He has 
compiled a number of collections of 
songs for Sunday-school and church 
use, which have been very popular 
The Romberg Collection was first 
published in 1853 and was followed by 
The Golden Wreath, The Sabbath 
Harmony, Jubilate, and others. 

Emery, Stephen Albert. 1841-1891. 

American composer, writer, and 
pianist. Was born in Paris, Maine, 
receiving his early musical education 
in his native state, and later going to 
Leipsic, where he studied the piano 
under Plaidy and Papperitz, and har- 
mony and counterpoint with Richter 
and Hauptmann, afterwards studying 
the piano under Spindler in Dres- 
den. Returning to America, he re- 
moved to Boston in 1866, where the 
following year he was engaged to 
teach in the New England Conserv- 
atory, just opened. When the Col- 
lege of Music of Boston University 
was founded he was appointed pro- 
fessor of harmony and counterpoint 
in that institution also, and became 
assistant editor of the Musical Her- 
ald. His works as composer, lec- 
turer and writer are of a high order, 
his text-book on Elements of Har- 
mony being the best-known and most 
widely used. He wrote also Founda- 
tion Studies in Piano Playing, string 
quartets, songs and piano-pieces. 

Encke (enk'-e), Heinrich. 1811-1859. 
Heinrich Encke, born in Neustadt, 
Bavaria, was a pianist, the pupil of 
Hummel, and a minor composer of 
etudes. He has also made excellent 
arrangements of classical composi- 
tions for four hands, but his instruc- 
tive works for the piano are con- 
sidered his best. He was highly 
regarded as a teacher of piano in Jena 
and Leipsic. He died at the latter 

Engel, Carl. 1818-1882. 

Writer on musical subjects and au- 
thority on musical history and musical 
incidents. He was a pupil of Enck- 
hausen, a Hanover organist, and of 
Hummel in piano; and was musician 
for some time in the family of Herr 
von Schlabendorf, a Pomeranian no- 
bleman. When about twenty-six 
years old he went to England, where 
he began piano teaching at Man- 
chester, but soon moved to London, 
where he became interested in rc- 

search work, collecting musical in- 
struments and books, reading, writing, 
and familiarizing himself with the 
scores of modern composers, and in 
time acquiring collections equaled by 
few, and surpassed only by some of 
the larger public libraries and mu- 
seums. His earlier works include a 
sonata and also some instructive 
works for the piano, and Reflections 
on Church Music. His researches 
soon enabled him to produce The 
Music of the Most Ancient Nations, 
and An Introduction to the Study of 
National Music. After these publica- 
tions he became connected with the 
South Kensington Museum, which 
profited by his wide knowledge. A 
number of valuable works were pub- 
lished during the rest of his life, 
among which were a Descriptive 
Catalog of the Musical Institute in 
South Kensington Museum, Musical 
Myths and Facts, and Researches into 
the Early History of the Violin 
Family. Two works, a collection of 
national airs, and an immense work, 
designed to comprise descriptions of 
all known musical instruments, remain 
in manuscript. His library was sold 
at public auction in 1881, after which 
he visited Germany, returning to Ken- 
sington the following year, in which 
he died. 

Engel, Gustav Edward. 1823-1895. 

Born at Konigsberg, he is known 
as a writer, teacher of singing, and 
critic for German periodicals. He 
first appears as a student of phil- 
osophy in Berlin, where he studied 
musical science and singing, and was 
a member of the Cathedral choir and 
of the singing society. His time was 
divided between teaching vocal music 
and writing articles on the scientific 
and philosophical aspects of ^ music. 
He was engaged at different times as 
critic for two Berlin periodicals; 
taught in Kullak's Academy, and in 
the Hochschule in Berlin. 

Enna, August. 1860- 

Composer and violinist; born in 
Denmark. He was of mixed parent- 
age, his grandfather, an Italian sol- 
dier in Napoleon's army, having 
married a German woman and settled 
in Denmark. When he was ten years 
old the family moved to Copenhagen, 
where the boy, August, attended the 
free schools and learned to play the 
piano without a teacher. At seven- 



teen he received a few lessons from 
rnediocre teachers in theory and vio- 
lin, but persisted in soHtary study of 
harmony and instrumentation. He 
desired to enter the Copenhagen Or- 
chestra, but not being competent to 
play in this joined a little traveling 
orchestra on a trip to Finland. At the 
end of a six months' tour he returned 
to Copenhagen, and composed an 
operetta, The Village Tale, which was 
given in several small theatres. Dur- 
ing this time he eked out his living 
by playing for dancing lessons, often 
improvising his own music, and teach- 
ing piano at about twelve cents a les- 
son. In 1883 he became conductor 
for a small troupe, writing the music 
for their performances and composing 
several overtures. His present in- 
come enabled him to publish some 
songs and piano-music, an orchestral 
suite, and a symphony. This latter 
attracted the attention of Gade, who 
aided Enna in securing the Ancker 
scholarship for composers, enabling 
him to study a year in Germany. 
Shortly after he wrote an opera. 
The Witch, which was produced at 
the Royal Opera House in Copen- 
hagen with a success unprecedented 
among Danish composers. His next 
opera, Cleopatra, was not so immedi- 
ately popular, but rose into high favor 
the succeeding year. Still greater was 
the success of Aucassin and Nicolette, 
given at Copenhagen in 1896 and in 
Hamburg in 1897. Besides these 
larger works, he has published a vio- 
lin concerto in D major and other 
smaller compositions. Of recent 
years he has given much attention to 
the fairy opera, drawing his material 
for librettos from the tales of the 
well-known Hans Christian Andersen. 
The Little Matchgirl, one of these, 
has been successful in the principal 
European countries, as well as Den- 
mark, Enna being the only Danish 
operatic composer known outside of 
his own country. Yet, in common 
with a number of greater composers, 
his life was for years a series of all 
but overwhelming struggles with 
poverty, it being said that one opera 
was lost through his having been 
forced to use the manuscript for fuel. 

* Epstein (ep'-shtin), Abraham I. 

Contemporary American teacher and 
organist, one of the two directors of 
the Beethoven Conservatory of Music 
at St. Louis, Missouri. He was born 

in Mobile, Alabama, studied in Berlin 
under Herman Lavitzky, and studied 
harmony and composition with Pre- 
vost in Paris. He is the author of 
pieces for the piano and compositions 
for the organ, and has met with suc- 
cess as organist and teacher. 

* Epstein, Marcus I. 

Brother of preceding, contemporary 
American teacher and pianist, one of 
the directors of the Beethoven Con- 
servatory of Music at St. Louis. He 
was born in Mobile, Alabama. Was 
for three years at the Leipsic Con- 
servatory, studying piano with Rein- 
ecke and Jadassohn, and harmony and 
composition under Richter. As a 
teacher and pianist he has met with 
success, and has written a number of 
compositions for the piano. 

Erben, Henry. 1801-1884. 

American organ-builder, who was 
the grandson of an early German 
settler in Pennsylvania, and son of 
Peter Erben, an organist. Born in 
Philadelphia, Peter Erben, about the 
close of the Eighteenth Century, 
moved to New York, where he went 
into the business of organ-building, 
also playing in Trinity Parish for over 
thirty years. Henry was apprenticed, 
when seventeen years old, to Thomas 
Hall, an organ-builder; rose into 
partnership with his employer in 
1822, and from 1835 carried on the 
business alone. Many of the best 
church organs over the United States 
bear his name. 

Erdmannsdorff er (ert'-mans-derf-f er) , 

Max. 1848- 

Conductor and composer, who was 
born in Nuremberg. He studied first 
with his father and August Raab, and 
in 1863 entered the Leipsic Conserv- 
atory, where for four years he studied 
piano under Moscheles and Reinecke, 
violin under David and Dreyschock, 
theory under Hauptmann, Richter and 
Reinecke, and later was a pupil of 
Rietz at Dresden. From 1871 to 1880 
he was conductor of the orchestra of 
the Prince of Schwarzburg, Sonders- 
hausen, where he caused the best 
modern works to be performed, rais- 
ing the already high standard of the 
orchestra. After resigning this posi- 
tion he lived in Vienna, Leipsic and 
Nuremberg, and in 1882 he was ap- 
pointed director of the Imperial Mu- 
sical Society and professor at the Con- 



servatory of Moscow, where in 1885 
he established an orchestral society 
for students. He later conducted the 
Bremen Philharmonic concerts in 
Germany, and in 1895 the Symphony 
concerts at St. Petersburg. The fol- 
lowing year he was appointed director 
of the Court Theatre in Munich. He 
married, in 1874, Pauline Fichtner, 
who was a pupil of Liszt and Court 
pianist at Weimar and Darmstadt. 
His works are as follows: Several 
compositions for solos, chorus and 
orchestra; Prinzessin Use; a Forest 
Legend; Schneewittchen; Traunkonig 
and sein Lieb; and Des Kaiserheeres 
Romfahrt, for male chorus and or- 
chestra; overture to Brachvogel's 
Narciss, for violin and piano; a son- 
ata; and Album-leaves; also songs, 
male choruses and compositions for 

Erk (erk), Ludwig Christian. 1807- 


Director and editor of collections, 
especially German folk-songs. He 
was the son and pupil of Adam Wil- 
helm Erk, cathedral organist at 
Wetzlar, and studied also with Andre 
and later with Spiess at Frankfort. 
In 1826 he began teaching in the 
Seminary of Meurs, and started musi- 
cal festivals in the surrounding small 
towns, cultivating a taste among the 
people for part-songs. In 1836 he 
went to Berlin as professor in the 
Royal Seminary and accepted also the 
leadership of the Cathedral choir, but 
resigned this in 1838 for lack of sup- 
port. In 1843 he founded a men's 
chorus for the study and singing of 
folk-songs, which still exists, and in 
1852 a similar choral society of mixed 
voices. In 1857 Erk became musical 
director in the Royal Seminary, retir- 
ing from this institution twenty years 
later. His own compositions are less 
important than his editions of Ger- 
man songs, which number over forty. 
His Deutscher Liederhort is a work 
considered authoritative on German 
folk-songs. He left a valuable library 
and a large number of manuscripts, 
many of which were published after 
his death. The bulk of these came 
into possession of the Konigliche 
fur Musik at Berlin. 

Erkel (er-kel), Franz. 1810-1893. 

Composer and conductor, called the 
creator of Hungarian national opera. 
He was born at Gyula, Hungary. He 


early showed musical talent, and 
worked at the piano with the assist- 
ance of his father, a good amateur 
musician. At the age of twenty-four 
he became director of an opera 
troupe which went to Budapest, 
where several «years later he became 
conductor of the National Theatre, 
just then opened. Here he produced 
his operas, which scored a popular 
success from the first, due as much to 
the fact that they embodied the na- 
tional airs of Hungary, as to their 
real musical value. He also founded 
and conducted the Philharmonic con- 
certs and was head professor of piano 
and orchestration at the National Mu- 
sical Academy. Erkel's musical ac- 
tivities continued nearly to his eight- 
ieth year, during which time he was 
most highly esteemed by the entire 
nation. Of the nine or ten operas 
produced by him, Hunyady Laszlo is 
the most popular and Bank-Ban is 
considered his best as a whole. He 
also left a number of songs, which, 
as well as his operas, are expressive 
of the national spirit. 

♦Erlanger (er-lafi-sha), Camille. 


French composer, who was born in 
Paris, and at seventeen entered the 
Paris Conservatory, where he studied 
and composed under Mathias, Delibes, 
and others. He won the Grand Prize 
of Rome in 1888, by his cantata, 
Velleda, and has since produced a 
number of operas given in different 
Paris opera houses. Among these the 
first notable success was made by 
Saint-Julien I'Hospitalier, at the Con- 
servatory in 1894; later were produced 
Le Juif Polonais, at the Opera 
Comique, 1900; and Le Fils de 
rfitoile, at the Grand Opera in 1904. 
He has also composed songs; some 
piano-pieces, and a serenade for or- 

Ernst, Heinrich Wilhelm. 1814-1965. 

Celebrated violinist. Was born at 
Briinn, Moravia. Studied violin at the 
Vienna Conservatory under Bohm, 
composition under Seyfried, and later 
under Mayseder, making his first con- 
cert tour at the age of sixteen. He 
greatly admired the playing of 
Paganini, who was at the same time 
givmg concerts through Germany, and 
is said to have followed that great 
virtuoso from place to place in order 
to familiarize himself with this par- 




ticular style. In 1832 he went to 
Paris, where he studied with de 
Beriot, after which, up to the year of 
1850, he traveled over the greater part 
of Europe, giving concerts with most 
brilliant success and receiving praise 
from Schumann on coming to Leipsic. 
He finally settled in London, where 
he played in the Philharmonic con- 
certs. His health gave way at last, 
cutting off his public career, and he 
died at Nice, aged fifty-one. His 
playing was characterized by brilliancy 
of execution and beauty of tone, with 
the capacity of both fire and delicacy 
in expression. He wrote a number 
of varied and effective compositions, 
chiefly for violin, but also for or- 
chestra, string quartets and, in col- 
laboration with Hellar, violin and piano 
duets Of his compositions, The Elegie, 
Carnaval de Venise and the Concerto 
in F sharp minor for solo, violin and 
orchestra, are examples, the latter 
being considered perhaps his best 
work musically, is full of the technical 
difficulties which are found in most 
of his works. 

Eslava (es-la'-va), Miguel Hilarion. 

This most eminent modern Spanish 
violinist and composer was born near 
Pampeluna, and at seventeen was a 
violinist and choir-singer in the ca- 
thedral of that place. In 1828 he was 
appointed chapelmaster of the Cathe- 
dral at Ossuna, and in 1832 of the 
Metropolitan Church at Seville, tak- 
ing priest's orders. In 1844 he be- 
came master of the royal chapel. His 
works include three operas written in 
Italian, but the larger number are 
masses, motets, and other church 
music. The most important of his 
works are two collections, Lira sacro- 
hispana, which comprises the best 
Spanish church music from the Six- 
teenth to the Nineteenth Centuries, 
and the IVIuseo organo espahol, which 
includes some of his own organ com- 
positions. He also edited a musical 
periodical in Madrid from 1855 to 

* Esposito, Michele. 1855- 

Italian pianist and composer, who 
was born at Castellammare, near 
Naples. When ten years old he ob- 
tained by competition a free scholar- 
ship in the Conservatory at Naples, 
where he studied the piano under 
Cesi, and composition under Serrao 

till 1875. Three years later he went 
to Paris, and remained there till his 
appointment as professor of the piano 
at the Royal Academy of Music in 
Dublin, Ireland, a position he has 
occupied since 1882. Here, in addi- 
tion to his teaching, he has given 
many piano recitals and chamber- 
music concerts under the auspices of 
the Royal Dublin Society, and has 
been conductor of the Dublin Orches- 
tral Society from its beginning in 
1898, the success of this organization 
being ascribed chiefly to his ability. 
In 1905 he inaugurated a series of 
Sunday afternoon orchestral con- 
certs, which are given throughout 
every winter. 

His works include Deirdre, a prize 
cantata for solos, chorus and orches- 
tra, first produced at an Irish musi- 
cal festival, and later in London and 
in Chicago; an operetta, The Postbag, 
produced in London in 1902; a 
symphony, known as the " Irish 
symphony," the themes of which are 
based on Irish airs, a Poeme for or- 
chestra and string quartet. In 1898 
his sonata for cello and piano won the 
prize offered by the Incorporated So- 
ciety of Musicians in England, and in 
July, 1907, another sonata for violin, 
that of the Societe Musicale of Paris. 
In 1905 he received from the Uni- 
versity of Dublin the honorary degree 
of Doctor of Music. Other compo- 
sitions are a second sonata for violin 
and piano, and a number of songs and 
piano-pieces. He has edited a volume 
of the compositions of early Italian 
harpsichord writers. 

Esposito is said to be a pianist of 
exceptional power, who has created a 
school of piano-playing in Dublin 
which compares favorably with any 
in England or abroad. He is an in- 
defatigable worker, and " the center 
of a circle of friends and musicians 
who are attracted to him by his great 
talents as a musician, by his extraor- 
dinary enthusiasm, and by the many 
kindly qualities of his character." 

* Esser, Franz. 1868- 

Eminent contemporary German vio- 
linist, who now resides in the United 
States. He was born at Crefeld, Ger- 
many, studied piano and violin under 
Julius Oertling in Crefeld and taught 
in that town. Later he was engaged 
in teaching in Vienna. Two years 
were spent in Switzerland, where he 
filled engagements as solo-violonist 



He then went to Berlin for further 
study, remaining there four years, 
studying in the Royal Hochschule 
under Joachim, Heinrich Jacobsen, 
Bargiel, Spitta and Schulz. After a 
tour in Germany as member of a 
quartet he assumed the duties of 
concertmaster at Basle, Switzerland. 
At the request of Theodore Thomas 
he left Basle to go to America, and 
since 1902 has been a member of the 
Theodore Thomas Orchestra. He 
plays principal viola in this famous 

Esser, Heinrich. 1818-1872. 

German composer and conductor. 
He was a pupil of Lachner and 
Sechter in Vienna, directed the band 
and afterward was conductor in the 
Theatre of Mannheim, his native city. 
From 1847 he was director at the 
Karntnerthor Theatre, Vienna, and ten 
years later of the Court Opera, also 
conducting the Philharmonic concerts 
in the latter city for some years. His 
health failing, he was liberally pen- 
sioned, and his later years were spent 
in retirement in Salzburg. His com- 
positions include the operas, Silas, 
The Two Princes, and Riquiqui; or- 
chestral and chamber compositions; 
and male quartets and songs, the vocal 
numbers surpassing his larger works 
in charm and popularity. He is said 
to have been a most refined and ad- 
mirable character, and an industrious 
composer, with much originality and 
beauty of idea. 

Essipoff (es-si-pd£'-a), Annette. 1850- 

Russian pianist, daughter of a Court 
councilor, and enthusiastic amateur 
musician; was born at St. Petersburg. 
Her father was her first teacher, and 
her next, Wielopolski. At fourteen 
she entered the Conservatory of St. 
Petersburg, where she became Lc- 
schetitzky's pupil. She was wilful as 
well as talented, playing much " by 
ear," but was subjected by the great 
teacher to strict discipline. During 
this period she was urged by Rubin- 
stein to devote herself to vocal study, 
but Leschetitzky won, and took a 
most unusual interest m her. In 1876 
to 1877 she took the prizes for piano- 
playing and sight-reading at the Con- 
servatory, but previous to this time, 
in 1874, had appeared in Vienna and 
London with remarkable success, 
playing at a Philharmonic concert in 
the latter city, and later at one of the 

Paris Concerts Populaires. After 
concert tours in Europe she came to 
America about 1877. 

At the time of Essipoff's marriage 
to her former teacher, Leschetitzky, 
in 1880, her reputation as a concert 
pianist was very great, and in the 
opinion of a number of critics shii 
ranked second only to Liszt. In 1885 
she received the appointment as Court 
pianist in Prussia. In 1893 she was 
separated from Leschetitzky, but they 
seemed to have continued friends, for 
that same year she became, through 
his influence, the successor of Stein 
as professor of piano at the St. Peters- 
burg Conservatory, from which posi- 
tion she retired in 1900. 

Madame Essipoff's teacher and hus- 
band took such an unparalleled inter- 
est in her that he gave up his own con- 
cert career to further her advance- 
ment, and even after their divorce and 
his remarriage, used his influence in 
her behalf. Madame Essipoff's play- 
ing was characterized by great tech- 
nical ability and strong poetic feeling. 
Tschaikowsky wrote a concerto for her. 

Esterhazy (esh'-ter-ha-ze), Nicholas 

von. 1765-1833. 

This patron of musical art and 
scion of a noble family was the grand- 
son of Nicholas Joseph von Ester- 
hazy, who before him was a patron 
of letters and arts, as well as a diplo- 
mat and a general, and who founded 
at Eisenstadt the private orchestra 
of which Haydn and Plcyel were mem- 
bers, the former later being its con- 
ductor for thirty years. Nicholas von 
Esterhazy spent much of his youth 
traveling through Europe, especially 
in Italy, France and England, culti- 
vating his taste for art. With prac- 
tically unlimited wealth, his fame rests 
on his wise and beneficient use of it. 
He maintained a private chapel at his 
residence, Eisenstadt. Here Haydn 
was buried with ceremony and a 
marble monument was erected in the 
composer's honor in 1820. Esterhazy's 
musical library at Eisenstadt is said 
to be, possibly, the richest in exist- 
ence, containing complete collections 
of the works of Haydn, Mozart, and 
others, and many compositions in 
manuscript. Authorities differ as to 
the date of his death, some giving it 
as 1833, others naming that year as 
the date of his retirement from public 
and diplomatic activities, and 1849 as 
the year in which he died. 



.....^.c (^o',v?r-^ Carl. 1819-1875. 

' and composer. Was 
.1 i i,ij..;^urg, and showed early 
jniich ability as a player, appearing in 
public at twelve and making concert 
tours before he was eighteen. His 
teacher at Hamburg was Schmitt, and 
he later studied composition with 
Karl Kreb"? Visiting Leipsic at 
t\s. ■ ■- . ■ ' ; ' ■ ■ '' " 

iic.\i year iic wcui to 

began "f = '' , ' • Mid not dmA'. 
1792 he bee i me cUoirmaster 
Carmelite Church, in 1794 
" Schotten " monastery in Vw 
1804 vice chapelmasti'- \o tl' 
in 1810 musicmaster 
children, and in 1824 
as '-'■--' —' .^Ko....- 

(.ujajj-jit-M a iiUiiiUcr of toaceft works 
that were popular in his time; and 


Store uFrederic Francois Chopin; born near Warsaw, the 

^'.^"^j'eHtesl efpnius on. the 'pianp that ever lived, was one 
his ^ealh lie*' lived m Vioniift. i^.i £^., _.. .^,. ^ .... . 

corrf^^^nBKjwirnkwable^ interestang al^4. TPRi'i^Ptrc figures 



^^^^4p ^tlie'-■l^ N'i^' oth^f :poet,- for Ghopin 

f'" was- as much a 'poet as he was 'a iiltisiciah, has like 
him embodied in art the romance of the land and the 
people of Poland. 

He was a composer for the piano and for the 
piano alone and his style is suited to no other instru- 
ment. His compositions have been well called his 
memoirs and his autobiography. 

The sadness of the composer's life and his melan- 
;' chblV"' disposition ha.Y^[.\>^ep^ dwel1^lJ.^ipon : 
ectW?@3Si4ih§r.;iiiHi6r> life ywadir^hrief buti'foill of • itorident, 
Art^ijiS. 1^^' T^eW^e^'io ,'^H'6\d'/tKbf mtisic' cannot be too --'^Wues! 

compositions were"' ^ ■ . - • »"s * 

nurfe€W56:^ii}-bat^d '«ts; a_ sonata for 

the composer's >- i : 
to complete 'he KCfjutem, ' 



ih intro- 
es; son-, 

to Lucifer, a 

Faccio (fat'-cho), Franco. 1840-1891 

Dramatic composer and conductv)r, 
who was born in Verona, Italy, and 
was, after Mariani's death, the best 
conductor in Italy. His first teacher 
was G. Bernasconi and he was a pupil 
of the Conservatory of Milan from 

"' to 1861 under Ronchetti and 

cato. He later obtained n pub- 

^: -V from the government, and was 

able to travel. Faccio was a friend 

the guv^ 
in Paris :r. . 
1 entered 
1 under 

d'itdiia, re: 

ment priz» % 

also in Germ^uy. » 

the Italian irmy a 

Garibaldi in 1866. i- 

professor of harmony 

r. - ■• ^^'^^ — ^ 

( ■' was made 

pi ....... ^ , iit a"d fugue 

there, was ehap<imasi«r at La Scala, 

jj^8i-Q()8i !Xi;4bHD ^pDidAHC^pii^aaaM 

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9>fil r-^firl ,aBi-jic-.r;rfi iz ^.i:// ail fes Jooq £ rfourn ac sew 
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<:tn9biortr l;o Tlui ti;tj lai-id r.r, ::n6 

ool ad JonriE' ■^'--'••^' < --^ ,i, bns 



Evers (a'-vers), Carl. 1819-1875. 

German pianist and composer. Was 
born at Hamburg, and showed early 
much ability as a player, appearing in 
public at twelve and making concert 
tours before he was eighteen. His 
teacher at Hamburg was Schmitt, and 
he later studied composition with 
Karl Krebs. Visiting Leipsic at 
twenty years of age, he received some 
lessons from Mendelssohn, who in- 
spired him to greater efforts in com- 
position. The next year he went to 
Paris, and was well received by Cho- 
pin and Auber. He finally settled 
in Gratz, where he established a music 
store in 1858, continuing his profes- 
sional activities beside. From 1872 to 
his death he lived in Vienna. His 
compositions number over one hun- 
dred works, including four piano 
sonatas; twelve songs without words 
for piano; fugues; fantasias; and vari- 
ous songs. 

Eybler (i'-bler), Joseph. 1765-1846. 

Was born at Schwechat, near Vi- 
enna; studied at the boys' seminary in 
Vienna with Albrechtsberger, who is 
said to have ranked him next to Mo- 
zart. He had expected to follow the 
law, but family reverses made it nec- 
essary for him to put into practice 
his musical knowledge instead. Here 
his friendship with Haydn and Mo- 
zart was of advantage to him, they 
recommending him to the publisher 
Artaria. Soon after this some of his 
compositions were brought out. He 
nursed Mozart in his last illness and 
the composer's widow requested him 
to complete the Requiem, which he 


began to do, but could not finish. In 
1792 he became choirmaster of the 
Carmelite Church, in 1794 of the 
" Schotten " monastery in Vienna, in 
1804 vice chapelmaster to the court, 
in 1810 musicmaster of the Emperor's 
children, and in 1824 succeeded Salieri 
as chief court chapelmaster. In 1834 
he was struck with paralysis while 
conducting the Requiem of Mozart, 
and the year afterward received from 
the Emperor a title of nobility. He 
composed a number of concert works 
that were popular in his time; and 
many of church compositions are still 
used on the Continent. They include 
a " Requiem " of high merit, masses, 
Te Deums, and offertories. 

Eyken (i'-ken), Johann Albert von. 


The son of an organist. Johann 
Albert von Eyken was born at Amers- 
foort, Holland; studied at the Leipsic 
Conservatory and afterward with 
Schneider m Dresden, and gave con- 
certs with remarkable success in his 
native country. He was for six years 
organist in Amsterdam, and also 
taught at the Rotterdam School of 
Music. From 1854 till his death he 
was organist of the Reformed Church 
of Elberfeld. His numerous and well- 
known organ works establish his rank 
as a composer. They include one 
hundred and fifty chorals with intro- 
ductions; twenty-five preludes; son- 
atas; transcriptions; and arrangements 
for organ of Bach's clavier fugues; 
also songs and quartets; a sonata for 
violin; and music to Lucifer, a 


Faccio (fat'-cho), Franco. 1840-1891. 

Dramatic composer and conductor, 
who was born in Verona, Italy, and 
was, after Mariani's death, the best 
conductor in Italy. His first teacher 
was G. Bernasconi and he was a pupil 
of the Conservatory of Milan from 
1855 to 1861 under Ronchetti and 
Alazzucato. He later obtained a sub- 
sidy from the government, and was 
able to travel. Faccio was a friend 

and co-worker with Arrigo Boito, and 
together they wrote Le Sorelle 
d'ltalia, receiving for it the govern- 
ment prize, and studying in Paris and 
also in Germany. They later entered 
the Italian army and served under 
Garibaldi in 1866. Faccio became 
professor of harmony at the Milan 
Conservatory in 1868, succeeding 
Croff, and subsequently was made 
professor of counterpoint and fugue 
there, was chapelmaster at La Scala, 




Milan, and finally succeeded Terziani 
as conductor there, which position he 
filled with distinction. He died at 
Biffi, near Monza, Italy. His works 
consist of an opera, I profughi Fiam- 
minghi, with the text by Praga, given 
at La Scala in 1863 with marked suc- 
cess; the opera, Amleto, with the text 
by Boito, given at Florence in 1865 
and at Milan six years later; a con- 
cert overture; a cantata written with 
Boito; a cantata for the inauguration 
of the Turin exhibition in 1884; a 
hymn; music for Giacometti's Maria 
Antoinette; a symphony in F; string 
quartet; and a vocal album. 

Faelton (fel'-ten), Carl. 1846- 

Noted pianist and teacher; born at 
Ilmenau, Thuringia; who has had a 
long and honorable career in his 
chosen profession and is the founder 
of the Faelton Piano School of Bos- 
ton and author of an original and 
widely known series of text-books. 
Faelton was educated at the Latin 
School at Weimar, and pursued his 
studies in music at Weimar with 
Montag and with Schoch at Frankfort 
till his nineteenth year. While in the 
latter city, he became a friend of 
Joachim Raff, whom he had met at 
Wiesbaden, and that composer had a 
decided influence upon his career. 
Later he studied further at Liibeck 
and at Arnstadt. At Liibeck he met 
and married Adele Schloesser in 1877. 
The German military law took Fael- 
ton away to serve during the Franco- 
Prussian War, and when he returned 
his fingers were so stiff that he had 
to begin his piano studies all over 
again. From 1868 he directed an 
orchestra at Frankfort, and in 1877 
when Raff organized his conservatory 
at Frankfort he chose Faelton as one 
of his staff. Faelton had charge of 
the training of teachers and gave lec- 
tures on the theory and practice of 
music. He also appeared throughout 
Europe in symphony concerts and re- 
citals. After Raff's death Faelton 
came to America, settling in Balti- 
more in 1882, and becoming a member 
of the teaching force at Peabody In- 
stitute in that city. From 1885 to 
1897 he was connected with the New 
England Conservatory of Music at 
Boston, and later succeeded Dr. Ebcn 
Tourjee as head of that institution. 
He resigned in 1897 in favor of 
George W. Chadwick, and then 
founded a piano school of his own, 

of which he has ever since been the 
director. He has compiled seventeen 
instruction books, including The 
Fundamental Training Series and a 
course for pianists, which includes 
sixteen numbers, the last being key- 
board harmony, published in 1898. He 
also has written a Technische t)bun- 
gen for piano. As a teacher Faelton 
is highly regarded. 

Fairlamb, James Remington. 1839- 

American composerj who was born 
in Philadelphia and who at fourteen 
was a church organist and at sixteen 
composed his first work. He received 
most of his early musical instruction 
from his mother, and subsequently 
was a pupil of Charles Boyer. He 
pursued his studies later in Italy and 
Germany, and at the Paris Conserv- 
atory, where he was a pupil of Prud- 
ent and Marmontel in piano and 
studied vocal music with Mme. Beck- 
holtz-Falcon and M. Masset. Fair- 
lamb was appointed Consul at Zurich 
by President Lincoln. While in Stutt- 
gart he was decorated by the King of 
Wiirtemburg with a gold medal for 
his Te Deum for double chorus and 
orchestra. Returning from Germany 
to the United States in 1865, he lo- 
cated temporarily at Washington and 
later moved to Philadelphia, where he 
afterwards held various church posi- 
tions. He was for a time identified 
with the direction of operatic affairs, 
producing with his own local com- 
pany in Washington, D. C, Faust and 
11 Trovatore. The same company 
brought out his grand opera in four 
acts, Valerie. Fairlamb was super- 
visor of music in the public schools 
of New York City from 1898 to 1899, 
was also organist in that city from 
1884 at the Church of St. Ignatius, 
and organist at churches in Elizabeth, 
N. J., and at Jersey City. Fairlamb 
was identified with the first produc- 
tion in America of Sullivan's operas, 
Pinafore and The Sorcerer. After- 
ward he succeeded the English com- 
poser, Alfred Collier in directing the 
Conley-Barton Company. Beside the 
opera mentioned above, Fairlamb 
wrote two others, Treasured Tokens, 
and Leonello. Besides he published 
two hundred compositions, including 
numerous songs; choral works; sev- 
eral piano pieces, and a mass in B 
flat. His sacred songs numbering 
nearly one hundred include his con- 
tributions to the St. Nicholas Song 



Book. As a teacher he was held in 
high esteem, and his works are gen- 
erally of a high order. He was 
elected a member of the Manuscript 
Society and of its board of directors, 
and was one of the founders of the 
American Guild of Organists and a 
member of its council. 

Faisst (fist), Immanuel Gottleb Fried- 
rich. 1823-1894. 

German organist, theorist and com- 
poser, who was born at Esslingen, 
Germany, and founded in 1847 a 
school for organists at Stuttgart and 
also a society for classical church 
music. In 1857 he established a con- 
servatory of music there and two 
years later became its director. Faisst 
composed a great deal of organ music 
and is the author of a number of use- 
ful theoretical works. As an organist 
and educator he was once very well- 
known in Germany, and highly, 
esteemed. He was principally self- 
taught and when, after a period of 
study at Tiibingen, he submitted some 
compositions to Mendelssohn, he was 
encouraged by that composer to con- 
tinue studying without a teacher. In 
1846 he toured Germany, giving con- 
certs in several towns. He became 
organist at the Stiftskirche at Stutt- 
gart, was made a Doctor of Philoso- 
phy by Tiibingen University and re- 
ceived the title of professor from the 
King of Wiirtemberg. Faisst's com- 
positions consist mainly of church 
music and choral works and include 
cantatas; motets; choruses for male 
voices and mixed chorus; songs; 
organ music; a double fugue for 
piano; and piano-pieces. His setting 
of Schiller's Macht des Gesanges re- 
ceived much praise. He also under- 
took the editing of the great edition 
of Beethoven's piano sonatas, with 
Lebert, for the firm of Gotta, for 
which edition von Biilow also edited 
some of the sonatas. 

Falcon (fal-koh), Marie Cornelie. 

Famous singer, the daughter of a 
storekeeper in Paris, where she was 
born. She very early in life showed 
a talent for music and was placed m 
the Conservatory under Pellegrini 
and Bordogni for a period of study. 
She succeeded in carrying off many 
prizes, and after her graduation she 
sang at several concerts, but not till 
she made her debut at the Academic, 


did she make any impression on the 
musical public. Her first operatic 
appearance was made in Robert le 
Diable in 1832. Mme. Falcon's voice 
was full and resonant, especially in 
the upper and middle register, and 
she was besides a most graceful and 
beautiful woman. She had a long and 
successful career as a vocalist. She 
originated the role of the Countess in 
Auber's Gustave, and was most suc- 
cessful in Don Giovanni. She had 
the honor of being chosen by Cheru- 
bini for the part of Morgiana in Ali 
Baba, but her greatest triumph was 
won in 1835 when she sang the part 
of Rachel in La Juive. Her reputation 
rests mainly upon her performance in 
Les Huguenots, of the role of Val- 
entine. While appearing in Stradella, 
Falcon's voice suddenly left her, but 
in a few weeks it returned apparently 
as beautiful as ever, except that it 
was changed from a soprano to con- 
tralto. In 1840, having returned to 
Italy, she attempted to sing at her 
own benefit, but again her voice failed 
her, and heart-broken she left the 
stage. A pension was granted her 
the same year. After her retirement 
she married M. Malanqon, and sang, 
according to some authorities, as late 
as 1891. 

♦Faltin (fal'-ten), Richard. 1835- 

The recognized successor of Pacius, 
called " the father of Finnish music," 
who died in 1891, and undoubtedly 
one of the most gifted and well- 
trained of the musicians of Finland. 
Faltin was born in Danzig, West 
Prussia, of Finnish parents, and 
studied music first in his native town 
with F. W. Markus, who instructed 
him in piano, in theory and in com- 
position. About 1852 he became a 
pupil of Markell and of Frederick 
Schneider, at Dessau, and also studied 
at the Leipsic Conservatory under 
such noted instructors as Moscheles, 
Plaidy, Hermann, Richter and Haupt- 
mann. In 1856 he accepted a position 
as music-teacher in the Bohm Edu- 
cational Institute at Wiborg, Finland, 
where he organized a singing and an 
orchestral society, and so successfully 
drilled these forces that, within a com- 
paratively short time, he could give 
a number of symphony concerts. He 
was called to Helsingfors in 1869, and 
has even since resided there, taking 
a prominent part in the musical life 
of that town. In that year Faltin 



became conductor of the Swedish 
Theatre there, and also of a standing 
orchestra, in 1870 he was appointed 
organist of the Nicolai Church, and 
in 1871, director of music at the Im- 
perial Alexander University and con- 
ductor of the Finnish Opera. The 
same year he organized the Helsing- 
fors Singing Society, which, under 
his leadership, has since distinguished 
itself by the excellence of its oratorio 
concerts. In 1893, when Faltin re- 
signed his position at the University 
of Helsingfors, the title of professor 
was conferred upon him. For fifty 
years he has been active as a teacher, 
principally for piano, but also for 
organ, violin, solo and choir-singing, 
and theory and composition as well. 
Faltin has written many songs, with 
piano accompaniment; choruses and 
cantatas which show many beauties; 
organ preludes and other music. His 
songs and choral number for both 
men's and women's voices have been 
especially praised by critics and musi- 
cians. He has also written a number 
of Finnish songs and a Finnish Song- 
Book, issued a few years ago is rich 
in contributions from his pen. In 
1904 his Choral-Finales with preludes 

Faning, Eaton. 1850- 

English composer and conductor, 
the son of a professor of music; born 
at Helston, Cornwall. He received 
his earliest instruction from his par- 
ents, and when very young performed 
at public concerts. In 1870 he en- 
tered the Royal Academy of Music, 
studying under Sterndale Bennett, C. 
Steggall and others. Two years later 
he won the silver medal for piano, 
and in 1873 the Mendelssohn Scholar- 
ship. In 1874 he gained the bronze 
xnedal for harmony, and the Lucas 
medal for composition in 1876. Two 
years later he became a professor of 
the Royal Academy of Music, and 
shortly afterward a fellow of that in- 
stitution. He took the degree of 
Bachelor of Music from Cambridge in 
1894, and of Doctor of Music in 1900, 
and held various positions at the Na- 
tional Training School, Guildhall 
School of Music, and the Royal Col- 
lege of Music until 1885, when he 
accepted the directorship of music at 
Harrow, which he held till 1901, when 
he retired. He has composed many 
charming pieces of music, notably a 
Magnificat and a Nunc Dimittis for 

voices and orchestra, performed at 
St. Paul's Cathedral in 1878; anthems; 
part-songs; a choral ballad. The Mil- 
ler's Wooing; three operettas; a dra- 
matic cantata; a symphony in C 
minor; overture; quartets; piano 
pieces; and his Song of the Vikings 
for four-part chorus with piano duet 
accompaniment, which has attained to 
great popularity. He has also written 
a dramatic cantata, Liberty; and an 
overture. The Holiday. In July, 1897, 
his operetta, The Two Majors, was 
performed at the Royal Academy of 
Music, which led to the establishment 
of the operatic class at that institu- 
tion. A comic operetta of Faning's, 
Mock Turtles, was produced at the 
Savoy Theatre, London, in 1881. From 
the opening of the Royal College of 
Music till July, 1885, Mr. Faning 
taught piano and harmony, and until 
1887 conducted the Choral class 

Farinelli, Carlo Broschi. 1705-1782. 

The greatest tenor of his age, per- 
haps the greatest that ever lived, was 
born in Naples. His real name was 
Broschi and he sprang from a noble 
family of that city. He studied under 
Porpora, and while very young made 
his debut in Italy under the name of 
II Ragazzo (the boy). In 1722 he 
made a triumphant success of Por- 
pora's opera, Eumene. Five years 
later he placed himself under Ber- 
nacchi's instruction in Bologna, after 
Bernacchi had beaten him in a com- 
petition. He sang frequently in 
Vienna, and in 1734 he was drawn to 
London upon the advice of Porpora 
and Handel's enemies, and his great 
success there is declared by Riemann 
to have caused Handel's retirement 
from the operatic field to devote him- 
self, from then on to oratorio. There 
was no branch of his art that Farinelli 
did not carry to the highest pitch of 
perfection. His career in London was 
a continous triumph for the three 
years he was there, and he is said 
to ha